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From the collection of the 

o Preiinger 



San Francisco, California 


APRIL, 1920 SEPTEMBER, 1920 




Volume XLIV 

APRIL, 1920 SEPTEMBER, 1920 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a few 
cases under titles, except verse and book reviews, which arc listed only under those 
headings. ius articles and paragraphs are entered under their subjects. 

The , .rding of titles has not been retained where abbreviation or para- 

phrase has seemed more desirable. 

Abbott, C.nte. 99. 

r suffrage citizenship. 655. 

-mU. 491. 

ilo salaries. 133. 
Acadia. ;>- 

I ... Does zoning pro- 
r>4, r . 

, 608. 

rds. 304. 

,,f Hi* N. A. 

Aje. tyranny or, 400. 

Alabama. ' 

i. disciplinary barracks. 470. 
Alcohol In the New Vork Assembly, 99. 
Prohibition causing exoaos, t>2. 

arrled to, ' 

All Fools' Day 1" Now York, 68. 
All-American Farmer labor Coopera- 

Allen. COT. II. } . 7. 

Questions to Oompers. 348. 
Alllnson, n !>., Easter In prison 


Almy. Frederic, City relief In Buf- 

Amalgamated Clothing Workera. 249. 
mlal Convention, 273. 

Injunction, 42S, 631. 


ig Europe (DaTl- 

on), 13T. 
Stauilaril (letter), 840. 

urg. Family Social 

i nlon. 701. 
rtH. 147. 

ration of Labor. 

.tins. 532. 
und, 434. 

. ntlon. 267. 

at Montreal. 434, 

Amer Inst. of Industry and Commerce, 

Library A 

Miiltlgrnph Co . 177. 

Illat.. 805. 

, bin. r.'n. 

nf tile law, 71. 
Prayer for workers. S3. 

Starting It ahrnn. 

l.nslnes (letter). 



:d ace pensions for 

Anltirarlt- Oomrolsalon, 305. 

Apartment". 412. 

Arbitration, compulaory, In Kansa*. 

Armstrong. " >'. """' * n 

ngslnst social Insurance 


Wh.r 't mnt no. 707. 

Army Tl.-.r? bill. 348. 
Art, Home. 147. 

turei, 200. 

N<.w Cennan ]"H.(,T, 177. 
Wttercolora of Iturchfleld. <2. 

Article X nf the Ilritlsh and Oana- 

Assu. fnr Imi'roviiiK the <'on<lition of 

|i.f.,-iii.' nutrition work, 405. 
n. M. I, 

inn atranpert, 297. 

Nesro. 381. 
n, H. W. 

Itlrhard. 147. 

"Hack to Afrlea" movement, 491. 
liaekni: ..'lal work. 3,1s. 

nils. 566. 

Ill II \V . 605. 
Bull (ana, 701. 

i ,I,-r,-.tliea. 729. 


Hall. Nellie F., Family care In mental 

1 17. 

Baltic states. 13!). 
I'.Hlilinor.-. rcstorinn an eichauge, 282. 

rick. 102. 
liar Mlir-Mil-. 

noon). 289. 
Knrk.T, K-i 

II., 738. 
Ilarth. I V.. 1'lnn for a national 

tlllaivit. Mile., inl 

. 642. 
r 4:, 
Heard, Mnrj. 

r, Ft. F.. Healtli nfllrer, 36. 


Jlehar. N.. Amerlcanliatlon teachera 


Krailuate students In America, 


> i welfare, 3 
Chil.lren's I 

Ijittor e-tiK-ii'lUK Itself, 667. 

I, 544. 

Rlrth <'Kiitnil, 492. 
Itlnh TJ.T. 

Hltiitn slon. 112. 

il W. It.. !!M. 
Rural houslns and the tenant farm- 

nialr. T. 8., r, in. 

law evafl' -151. 

if the 
<!ni<r ad'lb-i 

"rk aninnit. B36. 



kl. J. H.. 

:n for RUB- 
nlana In An 

i letter). 22. 
J.. and 
H \ 

Bond. A. P., Restoring an excbang, 

: (lii'Vlnc), 204. 
i.liing In run! dlatrlcti, 355. 

All RoaiH Lead to CaUary (Jerome). 


\V.-ir<r (Hollander), 323. 

I ho (Nathan and 
Amen Book, 5880 

Year Pook, The 

I Tri 

'n (Talbot and John- 
America's Position in Mule (Simp- 
son ' . 

:i and Associated Snmch 

H.-tl.T Wnrld. A i Dennett). 
Kiilslievlk Ainu iiml Iilvals, 54. 
nelll), 48. 

Book of Mr -I, 154. 

Brass c.,e,-k 'I'lie I Slm-lnlr i . 

Hrlef History A. of the Creat War 

(llny.-s). r.Ul. 
Bullltt Mission to Russia, Tht 

hM-hl, 54. 
Can Church and Industry TJnltel 

Kiel. 540. 
Can the Ohurcb. Surrlve? (Fitch), 

Character Training of Children (For- 

nT (llurts- 
liornei. c.i I. 

Christian ll.inie. The (Farlj,). 540. 
Christianity and Industry (Brown), 

and the Community. Th'.i New Taak, Tb 

1 (lilckersteth). : 
!. la \",'ti\ 

Oomnion Sense and I.-ilior (Cnnvlher), 

r, The Ulnnifan), 

Cowacka, The, .".2. 

irk. A I Stevens), 

,1 an,] Industrial Forces 

In America (Ctapek), 

Darkwiter (TluNils). 3S-(. 

' a Revolutionist 
.ient (Teter- 

nrake). 141. 
r the 

: World Wr ( Hot-art ). 3HB. 
Nutrition and Infant 

nt'i-rnry |[>oiiglas). 640. 

.-na Itefor* and 
OM nnd tli- '.Velfars 

on Inn' 

(Mackle), 153. 
Education In War and I'eai-n 




and Commerce In Africa 

Tiny) 40H. 
Fair Vnlue I Han i 

Fa mn i <{ In'luitry (Wild- 

man i 
FlBht : o, Tlie (Ooldrlnj). 

ihout a War (Albert- 

First Hook In F.ngllsh. A, for Non- 
li S|-itkliiK Adults 
. 591. 

First Hook atlona, 

A (Hayward), 4'.ir,. 
Flow of Value Tho (Mcl'l.. 

nnd Life (Lanalnc and Ou- 


Fooi! Facts f,.r the Home Makor 


From i ''lilni). 


lilllllM. IS. 
< lol.l. 


r th 

Inu- i 
History. A. of Hie (,r.t War 

IIlKlory of llie 'I ,.-nt In 

Hisloi nlsm, Th 

(Wei .In, : 

^ HIlll 111. 


War, The 
Us), 4W. 

i 'atlon 


! lustry 

I I': 





fiblllly (K 


lioiiHl Waterways (O. 

Introduction, An. to Social 

v I'll!? Ill 

Italian Emigration, The of Our 

tlaler rrnse 

I St.' 

IJlbor ' 31 S 

n ami 

vin and oth.-ral, 

l/il'or Year Bo<ik, Ttie (Cole nnd 

Idles of llrecoiif 

-I and 

Iw In the Modern State (Dugiilt). 

Lectures on Industrial Paycholoirr 

Lenin (Williams). T,l. 

n America (Stearns), 


e x 


I.llx'rty and the N>ws (Llppinann), 

M:in or Hi. S| i',-. "ill. 

I lull I, 530. 

| , The, etc. 

Bamp), 313. 

Industrial Movements 

:al Onler, A 


ninient of Moving 
i nd West). 

the Workingman (Day), 

l TII:- Problem, The 

Hi (Davles). 3 

A of Education 

ril. The (Raine), 

"(1, The (Pearl), 309. 
Hisiory The, of tin- Child 
lion During the War 

-chaff. Die (Rathenau), 

Unerioan Thrift, The, 310. 
iustrial Unrest The (liakcr) 

The (Cecil). 122. 
In Belgium, A. (Vascon- 


lie. of Analyzing 

rder, The i Ward), 121. 

lie, The (Gaston), 

\. The (McMillan), 

Trail of tiie Pioneers (Farls), 

lavis), rid. 
i he (Ij! Motte), 

iioalth Nurs- 

or in American History 
in), :u:;. 
i nir \V;ir With Germany (Bassett), 

t (Austin). . 

!'ury). 310. 

;tid Involution (Mac- 
1 17. 

lotion, etc.. 5.^9. 

the rrincljiles of Their 

cllvn and Jones), 

.ml Racial Better- 
lap), too. 
i' (Vuinict, The, and 

.Ills) 122. 

iby of Play, A (Gullck), 309. 
-ction and Ortho- 
IStewari I, 2.12. 

" Birth Control (Robin- 
k son), l."l. 

i-s of the Russian Revolution 

. The. In Modern 
ration i Feblen), 352. 

ivente), 351 

e to Bolshevism. The (Ker- 
I, 51. 

..' Sociology, The (Ross), 

.'rvoils Child, The, 

l.iihor (Bloornfleld), 638. 
II sharing f Tromtiert). (!3S. 
* foot" Johnson (McKenzie), 

Kadal Prospect. The (Humphrey), 
nd Robins' Own Story (Hard), 

; ruction in Louisiana after 
i I onn), 385. 

. 309. 
Red Heart of Russia. The (Beatty). 

: of ti\,. Fxecutive Power to 
<tion (Black) 307. 

Reilcion Among American Men, 539. 
ic of Liberia The (Maugham), 

s of a Homesteader (Lincoln) 
Tide of Color, The (Stod- 

A.i an American Problem 
urgo), 51. 

in !TM!l (Ransome), 53. 
i White or Red (Sayler). 53. 

i Pendulum, The (Bullard), 

D Theatre, The, Under the 
Revolution (Sayler 
Russian Revolution Aspects (Long) ' 

Russia's Agony (Wilton), 64. 

Sanitation for Public Health Nurses 
I, 732. 

tton of 
Immigration (plielpsl, 886, 

rs, Tin' (Wi 

e of Ixjve In War Time, A 
(Jones), 731. 
Sex Ailraction (Vaughan), 450. 

tlon of Children, The 
iForlmshl. 153. 
Shakespeare for Community Players 

S!:c!l shock and Neuropsychiatry 

(Southard!. 2.12. 
Short History. A, of the American 

Labor Movement (Beard), 313. 
Skilled Laborer, The (Hammond), 

il Worker, The (Atlee), 731. 
ism in Thought and Action 
Her), 592. 

-in versus Civilization (Bra- 

Social Prob- 
lems (Kllwood). 121. 

S< o and Aim uf Human Progress, 

The (Sidisl. 122 

StabilizliiK the Hollar (Fisher), 540. 
Stalisiios in Business (Secrisl), 2!)1. 
.iition of Divorce, The (Ches- 
terton I, 450. 
Swim; of the Pendulum, The (Spa- 

dolli I 

Taxation in the New State (Hob- 
son 1 , 2^7. 
Teachers' Pension Systems in th 

IV S. IStudcnsky). -1114. 
Ten ! Shook the Worhl 

(Rood). 50. 
Their Son. The Necklace (Zam- 

:t. r .2. 
ThniL's Shall Be (Lansbury). 

This Siminn World (Day). 450. 
Thoughts of a Psychiatrist, etc. 
i White), ::n7. 

ta of the Russian Revolu- 
tion (Vandcrvelde). 54. 
Touch and 'o> i La \\ rciice) , 592. 

Jplicity Campaigns (Rout- 
zahni. 7;;L'. 

Treatment of Svphilis The (Bake- 
tch, 2.12. 

rmimely [tapers (Ilonrne), 291. 

Wall. I, 121. 

War. The. and the Roll-ions Out- 
look I pamphlet pllhlie;l(iolis I , 53!t. 

Warti - of Ihe Churches 

1 1;. 
What the Workers Want (Oleason), 

Wlnifs WronL' with the Middle 

Stockon. 81 

Armor of Man, The (Saleeby), 

Wilson. W. T!. (B 

The-. and His Work 

(Center). 638. 

Working Life of Women in the 
Century (Clark). . ". I \ 
Working Woman's House. The (Fur- 
Mid riiiiiipsi. MS. 
Worklngmen'a Standard of Living in 
Philadelphia (Beyer auid others). 

Yours for Sleep (Walsh), 252. 


As medicine, 117. 
Child Welfare, reviews. 153. 

Economic^, lecent t'o,,ks on. 540. 
Health books reviewed, 252. 
Housing hooks reviewed. 253. 
Tal'or ;nid Industry, 687. 
Religious hooks with a social mftj- 

'. theory, reviews. 121. 

Koi si. II. W., Social Work in Arcadia. 


Colyer trial, 105. 182, 234, 489. 

Dietetic bureau, lit). 

Howard Liberal Club, 564. 

Jewish social workers. 257. 

Motion picture censorship, 108. 

Socialist party recovers damages, 199. 
Boston Trade Union College, 114. 
Bourquin. Judge, 143, 157. 

Roy SCOUtB. 620. 


Boy anil a caption. 492, 493. 
Thoughts of an Institution boy 

e). 2.11. 
Boy*' Week- 157. 
Bracket!, J. R., 418. 
Brandels, L. D., 642. 
Branson, E. 0., Can we afford what 
we need? 281. 
rikers, 589. 
Breshkovskaya, 701. 
British Amer. clubs. 689. 
British and Canadian Society of the 

r. S.. 71!). 

British dock labor report. 269. 
British labor, annual conf., 543. 

spy system, 386. 
Brooke E. W., Social work (letter), 


Brooklyn, work among the blind, S3*. 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 

Brown, Donald W.. 257. 

Brown. Klicn M., On being a "nigger," 


Americanization experience, 284. 
City relief 

Guild Committee, 115. 
Building Industry, British report. 625. 


IHirehlieM. Charles. 42. 
Burgess. Win.. Florence Nightingale 

(letter i. :)M1. 
Burke. ,1. P., 1 12. 
Burke. M. (.'.. Housing and land 

(letter). 155. 
Burns. A. T. 

Make your kicks count (letter), 386. 
liivMoii on I'nitini,' Na- 
tives and Forci,mi-Born, at New Or- 

Neu1\ elected president of Natl. Conf. 

(with portrait). 
Burritt, B. p... Attacking defective 

nulrltion 4".',. 
Why $975,000? 148. 
Burt. II. F., 7.'(S. 
Business, where It stands on certain 

employment issues, 682. 
Buttenheim, II. S., That $10,000 l 

year (letter). 544. 
Byers, Joseph, 418. 

Cabot, R. C., 492. 

Culdwell, R. J., on Industrial condi- 

California. Conf. of Social Agencies. 3S8. 

Criminal syiiilicalism. 296. 

Fresno County, ,l::(l 

Motion pictures, 200. 

Wliiltier imlnst.' school. 617. 
California Nature' Study League 145. 
calkins. M, f... Spring in the Ghetto. 5. 
("alleott. Frank. Mexican peon in Texas, 

Campbell, C. M., Mental hygiene dl- 

ii meetings at New Orleans. 21.1. 
. Miminer. 644. 

Community surveys. 14!). 

i crest, 410. 
Wonicii immigrants, SO. 

xation, 82. 
Ciniccr. 2 Hi 

an Science and (letter). 545. 
Capital punishment in Massachusetts, 

v. iv. r,7n. 

Carmody. J. M.. Belgium explained 
(letter). 640. 
nra. Vonustiano. 236. 

Clark, obituary, 388. 
work and kiddy cars, 534. 
el. II. H., 200. 

inlty center, 429. 
Social work survey, 280. 

I'recooin of the screen and, 181. 
Moving pictures. KIS. 

decline in rate of population 
increase, 412. 
Centralia, 472. 

e the court, 13. 

jury, 115. 

I situation in France, 73. 
ring in France, 607. 


rs ot Commerce, 
Junior, 413. 

Referendum on employment, 682. 
ter analysis. 341. 
ies In Kentucky 636. 
Charity Organization in Philadelphia, 


Chautauqua progress, 146. 
Cheerful elver, r,u:i. 
Cheniin des Dames, 171 
Chenery. W. I... 387, 

Ar-tnal employes' organization, 205. 
Railroad wage Increase, 586. 
"Rope of Sand" and Gompers, 434. 
Sunk without trace, 608. 
Technique for production, 688. 
Vanguard of Labor. 273. 
War and peace at Rochester, 185. 
Cheney. C. H., Removing social bar- 
riers by zoning, 275. 
Chester, Pa., community organization, 


Child marriages, 250. 
Council of Social Agencies, 348. 
Legal aid. 86. 
Negroes, 491. 
Race commission, 491. 
Russian women and children, 604. 
School of civics, 603. 686. 
Solid six and the schools 490. 
University of, 686. 
Chicago convention's Inaction about 

babies (letter). 452. 
Child Health Organization, 443. 
Child marriages. 250. 
Child welfare, 119, 382 447 824, 617, 

Books on, reviews, 153. 

Chicago convention's Inaction (let- 
ter). 452. 

licnt, 295. 
Coordinating health activities, 452. 

niri. 721. 

I'.bo,],. Island. 525. 

Division meetings at New Orleani, 

2 1C,. 

East Side childhood. 5. 
Fitness for labor 
French (Ills.), 171, 172, 175. 
Health in New York City, 380. 
Illegitimate, measures for. 723. 
Interuatl. cooperation for relief, 119. 
Massachusetts conditions, 119. 
Near F.ast, self-discipline, 024. 
New York laws, 101. 
Ohio's dependent, 514. 
On the stage, 524. 
Placing out, 724. 
Preventive hygiene in New Jersey. 


Southern, salvage, 72. 
Streets and, 620. 
Vienna, 610, 820. 
Westchester County, N. T., 619. 
Why let die? 401. 
Children's Pleasure House, 251. 

Impressions of a settlement worker, 


Recreation movement, 29 
Teaching civilization to, 576. 
Chinese poem, 73. 
Christian International, 733. 
Christian Science and cancer (letter) 


Christiiinia. Norway, 635. 
Christmas seals, 357. 

Federation secretary, 397. 
Indus!, reconstruction and, 681. 
,\..\v -ocial order anil, 517. 
Social ideals undi 

Arner. House (letter), 255. 
Block workers, 671 
Ciiizi nship. 

Black Hawk Co., Iowa, outline, 410. 
deeds of (letter), '' 
Irishman with parents abroad, 81. 
: led women, 655. 
-on, 530. 

Outlaw strikes and, 431. 
Play and, 523. 

South and a symposium, 35. 
City missioner, 40. 

planning-, social barrier* and 
zoning, 275 
Civic ritual, 716. 

. MI. 14.1. 283, 411, 521, 629, 713. 
Claghorn, K. U.. The letter of the 

law, i Hi. 
Claxton. P. P., 299. 


'America First" poster (111.), 82. 
Course for playground worken, 258. 
Educational revival, 382. 
Employment service, 247. 
Forum. 604. 
Garment Industry 24 
Teachers' salaries. 704. 
Cleveland East, 412 

Minnesota, 116. 
Closed shops, 532. 
Clothing industry, 268. 

art showing org., 849. 
Cleveland, 24. 
Education, 113. 
Rochester trial, 103. 
Rochester : war and peace, 185. 
Workers and production, 377. 
Clothing prices, 131. 
Clothing workers, convention In Bo- 

ton, 273. 
Club of women oversea war workers. 


Anthracite commission, 395. 
Anthracite report. 681. 
Illinois miners. 684. 
Production (cartoons), 684, 68S. 
Shortage (cartoon), 590. 
Strike settlement. 112 
Cole, G. D. H., 110. 
Collins, L. J., Departmental society, 


Colonization of immigrants 713. 
Colored Social Workers, 452. 
Columbus, Ohio, 88, 145. 

Training community organizers, 266 
O.lyor case. 105. 182. 234. 489. 
Comey, A. C., Mortgage loans, 630. 
Commons, J. E. , extracts from address 
on indust. relations. May 21, B32. 
Communique of 1920, 171. 
Communist deportations, 141. 
Communist Labor party, 142, 234. 
Communist party, 142. 

Boston case. 105. 182. 234, 489. 
Citizen, 200. 

Wilson, Sec. W. B., opinion on de- 
portations, 234. 

Conf. for org., New York, 238. 
Division meetings at New Orleans, 

Health effort in Montana, 442. 
Survey outlines, 149. 



Community centers. Catholic, 428. 

I Su.-liil Unit. 

Community drama, 521. 





r. I'll., 77. 
, 4(i:i. 

l. In Loulsrllle, 398. 
. ir.7. 

Maritime workers, 365. 


301, 303. 

nlty dlrl- 

..U t New Orleans, IMS. 
Conduct, 1M. 
?.. 73. 

4Mi. MI;. 
ration, New York, April 7. 

Natl. Tuberculosis Assn.. l!2, r >. 
I' r , , 156. 

glcal, 2:11. 
itlonalista, conf., B42. 

Children and. 401. 

Congressional Joint Commlwlon on Re- 

Vatlon of Salaries. 133. 
Connecticut, child welfare, 285. 

ticut College, 2T.1. 
- :mer. educating, 073. 

League. 115. 119. 803. 
Convictions, social worker's, 208. 20t. 
I'uoke Leli:irt.u, CbaUnC*l (verse), 

arm demomstrator, 40. 

roup thinking (letter), 


Growth nf idea. 700. 



ViKMfi'.ii-.. cooperative. 523. 

ilrinir. England, 701. 


Statistics. '-' 

Where high prices hurt most. 710. 

ilouora, Clinics in Minnesota. 

Oountry life. 

New England, 148. 

Rural housing and the tenant farmer, 

y schools, consolidated, 447. 

' rrform. IV.'. 
Kansas indust. ili-tter). 418. 

I districts. 510. 
Unions In. 37R. 

in (letters), 544, 545. 

hop, 71!<V 

W., 4R4. 

Crime, Soviets and, 21 
Crime and conduct, *7, 151. 2S5, 414, 
(121. 72tl. 
why young. *m. 
(periodical). 157. 
Criticism of public servants. 132. 
tation, 844. 


tier), fl40. 
>ard of Labor" (letter), 8.87. 

i-tln Mfr. Co., 4(1. 
Ournan. Michael, M. 

.rial gerrlc* In 
4 U. 

is (letter). 223. 
;iosloraki, 139. 

" nan," Stick and slap-stick. 481. 

Rvthmlc. 724. 


Davis. M. M . 781. 
Davlson. H. P.. 140. 

Shnll w turn onr backs on Europe? 

on. J. B. 

rving wartime interest, 410. 

sreal, 150. 
Dcardorrr. N. R. 

and social hygiene. 432. 
Proceeding* of the Natl. Conf. of 
Social Work at New Orleans, 212. 
Death penalty, - 
Debs 2B, 679. 

social, 720. 


Division meetings at New Orleans, 
',.m lctnre as a cause. 88. 


Democratic party platform, 811. 

. 102. 

nigh school system. 270. 
TVnrdson Mfk- O., 87S. 
Dentlstrr In Tennessee ambulance. 528. 
Denver. 452. 
Tramway strike. T02. 

Dependent children. 
Handicap, 614. 
Plan for treatment, 410. 

Dej.ortablllty. 105. 
Deportations. 234. 

Kline, X. F., on. 141. 
452, 498. 

rt reform, 152. 
lions,- numbers. 147. 
Municipal street car lines, 257. 

K. T. 
Bon 204. 

rtiele " To presl- 
,:il candidates, " 224. 
Republicans 401. 

. ernor Smlt/ 
To presl ienti:ii candidates, 106. 

prices hurt most, 710. 
;:. c 

_ia under the SIKjtllght. 718. 
Iiiti-r-racUil > <iperation, 411. 
Diet, central bureau, 116. 

John 187. 
Direct action in England, 682. 

.HIT battle asaiust, f.32. 

.Hies, 1134. 

District of Columbia, prison system, 

1121, 734. 

Dublin, Benjamin, Safeguard " Fed- 
eration ", 85. 

l)o,k labor report, British, 209. 
Dodge, William. 580. 
Dole. C I... What urges men to work 

(letter), 642. 
Dope doctor, 16. 

Marjery, 117. 

Community, 521. 
Licensing stage children. 524. 
Draper. H. F., Red Cross at Genera, 

Drier K. S., Posters and paring stones, 


Drinking cups and straws, 255. 
Drug addicts, care. 7'JH. 
Iiriij: liiw evasion (letter). 451. 

federal control. 348. 
ne, a closed town, 232. 


Fast. Far, 403. 

st Louis, 630. 

East si.le. spring In the Ghetto, B. 
Easter In prison (verse). 624. 
Eastman, It. S. fif ill.-ks, M. L., 
and R. S. Eastman, 
i Watermelon people." 57fi. 
0. D.. 73S. 

books on, 540. 
Edlln, Sara B., Jewish unmarried 


Edmonds T. J., lied Cross amid rer- 

oltitlon In Siberia, 4S4. 
i:.|ni':it:oi:. 110 2,-.(P, ::2, 447, 524, 

Books on. 4!i4. 

rj university, 444. 
Nat; "onf., 383. 

Natl. crisis. 

New Y'ork state dept.. 71. 
Republican party platform plank, 

Edwards, Glen. Solid ilz and Chicago 

schools, 490. 
Eight-hear day, 201, 533. 

Paper mill. 
Filers. IlertuHli. 

..rge. 157. 
Kkliind E G., A community effort for 

health. 442. 
Elliott. J L., 1 >ith British 

Ml In America (letter). 3S6. 
Ellis G. W., American standard (let- 
ter.. 640. 

Memphis and her new 

Emigration, prohibition as a cause, 82. 

* ment. 

Bureaus for handicapped civilians 

ier). 123. 

Cleveland bureau, 247. 
Policies of Babson's Statistical Org., 


Problem nf the unpliceable, 726. 
Production and, 444. 
Where business stands, 682. 
Employment agencies, TJ. 8. Gort. 

need. 138. 

Engineering, human, 232. 

of living. 701. 

Nat. Union of CUiieis (cartoon), 

Rent restrictions. 687. 

What the miners want (SmtlUe's 

English language. 81, 82. 120. 

Diplomas for study t Greenwich 

mi, 433. 
Pnrtlcal teaching to foreign-born. 


Espionage act, . 

Appeals to America. 2*7. 
Conditions and America's duty (Da- 

. 137 

F.rpert ndvire. 52.1. 
Eyre, Lincoln. 119. 

On sorlet Russia tnd crime. 2M. 


Southern Inspectors, St. 
Uslon-owned. 589. 

Vacations with pay for workers. 8J. 
Workers' racatlons, 446. 

university. 444. 
Fairbanks, Alfred, Publle health 

nurse, 30. 

Falrchlld, II. P., 842. 
Labor shortage, 512. 
Faith healer. 347. 

Families, broken famine* and sta- 
tistics (charts), 662. 

Division meetings at New Orleans, 


Iowa work 149. 
Family welfare. S3, 148, 280, 40, 


St, Paul community chest, 635. 
Fang. Wu Ting. 29. 

l'an-1'aclflc Day, 644. 
Fin-is. 11. r 

trillion in the South, 40. 
iibor. 2!I7. 
Farmer-Labor party, BJT. 

Cartoon, 587. 

Jewish, 284. 

Rural housing and the tenant 

farmer, 26. 

Farms, day's work on. 446. 
i note, 427. 

II of Churches, meuag* 
for Labor Sunday, 681. 
Federation. ,Sr, Community organiza- 

Federation secretary, 397. 
Feeblemindedness In Hawaii, 428. 
Feiron. Albert. 57!i. 
Fernandez, A. B., 44. 
Finnish Cooperative Trading Assn.. 80. 
l is, in r \v A.. T. B. migrant in 

Tcias. 722. 
Fisher, Katharine. District prlsoa 

system (letter), 734. 
FIsk philosophy, 101. 
Flsk University, 548. 
Fitch. J. A. 

Case against compulsory arbitration 

In Kansas, 301, 303. 
Indust. peace by law the Kansas 

way, 7. 

Flag Day. 233. 
Flood In Rio Grande valley, Red Cross 

work. 657. 

Florence. P. S.. 201. 
Folk Day, an American, 427. 
Folks. Homer, 443. 

Defective nutrition, 406. 
lanls, 711. 
. 124. 

Forelgu-born. uniting with natives, 
division meetings at New Or- 

. 217. 
Foreign Language Newspapers Assn.. 


Foreign missions. Bee Missions. 
Forty-Elghters, BS7. 
Fonnn dingbat (cartoon), 509. 
Forum in Cleveland, 604. 

. r, W. Z.. 11B. 

Foundation, plan for a national. 535. 
Four L nvUtHn, 165. 
Fourth of July. Italian cartoon, 493. 

Amer. games in. 482. 
General strike. 271. 
Tnd situntion, 73. 
Pront-shnring. <V>7. 

iilTsge. 171. 

Settlement appeal from. 104. 
Tul>orc. pamphlet cover, 397. 
Tnberc tester. 349. 

- Relief Unit, 257. 
Frnnkel, Bmll, 7s. 
Franklin, B. R., 157, 190. 
Free speech. 
Dnquepne, 282. 
Pafsaic. 43. 

Synagogue. 132. 

Amu. Ideas. 106. 
In industry. 371. 
Mississippi. 199. 
Freedom of the screen, 181, 
Fresno Connty, Cal.. 686. 
Frleillaender. Israel, 508. 
Friedland, L. S., 118. 
Friends, Society of, 784. 
Frontier, th new, 517. 
Fncbs, Helnt. 178. 

Gannett. L 5.. 124. 

French strike, 271. 
Garment workers. Btt Clothing in- 


Gary. E. H., on labor, 187. 
GaJt. N. A., 482. 

School for Social Study. 288. 

Women's conrentloa. 365. 

8*t nlso Red Cross. 
Georgia under the spot-light. 718. 
German revolution posters, 177. 


Conditions, 45. 
ilons. 396. 
Negro troops. 5S9, 734. 

il srrice today, 664. 
Ups and downs, 606. 
Welfare Org., 184. 
Gill, R. S., 474. 

The four L's In lumber, 165. 
Cill<'tt. L. II. 

1 dietetic bureau, 116. 
Gllmore, A. F.. Cancer and Christian 

nf (letter i. 
Girls' clubs In K: 
Girls' House Club (Jewish). K.2. 
Henjiimln, 200. 

Gleason, Arthur. 124. 

Intellectuals in British labor 
nwnt, 110. 

1 workers and gnu-play, 4,13. 
Whltleys to date. 336. 
Glneck, Bernard, 347. 

Delinquency division meetings it 

New Orleans, Ills. 
Goddard, H. H., 88. 
Godwin. R. K. The truant tribe In 

school, 447. 
Goethe, C. M. 

Luther Wong, coolie, 29. 
Nature guides, 145. 
Goldmark, Josephine, 201. 

in, Robert, 680. 
Gompers, Samuel, 
Lee and, 135. 
"Rope of sand" and, 434. 
Goat Houtekcffing (periodical). 71. 
Goodrich, Carter. 111. 
Goodwill Industry In Brooklyn. 728. 
f Tire mid Rubber Co.. 444. 
Gorgas, W. C., 492, 511. 
Gousha, J. H.. Child self-discipline In 

the Near East, 624. 
Government, U. S. 
As employer, 133. 
Employes, old age pensions, 271. 
Social hygiene and 432. 

. l.T.7. 

Women, 378. 

Gratz, Benjamin. Tariff and no Immi- 
gration (letter), 123. 
Great Britain. 

Building for service (r, 
Direct action by trade . 
Labor Intellectuals. 11" 
re, land reform. 297. 
Gr.i'ii. Elizabeth, 117. 
Greenwich House. 433. 
Grimm. W. O.. 115. 
Group thinking (letter), 254. 
Grove, J. K., Rural Immigrant colonies, 

Grnneatl. John, 100, 138. 

l. A. s.. Handicap of the de- 

Vnt child, 614. 
Guild theory. 371. 439. 
Gnllck. L. II., 350. 

Housing and land (letter). 
Gypsies In school. 447. 


Hackett. J. D., Vacation with py, 626 

Halnes, Lynn, 202. 

Halnes. T. H., 415. 

Hall, J. F., Cleveland employme' 

service, 247. 
Halsey, O. S.. Physicians and ties. 

Insurance. 722. 
Harding. W. G., 492. 
Harrison, S. M., Community surv 

outlines, 14fl. 
Hart. II. H., S7. 

i, Ilornell. 149. 
Harttnan. E. T. Housing and U 

(letter), 158. 

Harvard Engineering School. -.T2. 
Harvard Liberal Club. 
Harvard University, 492. 
Harvester Co.. 728. 
Hathaway, H. K.. 378. 
Hawaii, feeblemindedness. 42R. 
Hayler. Guy. 367. 
Haielwood Sanitarium, 4.12. 

Central Council, 431. 
Community effort for, 442. 
DlriKlon meetings at New Orleans. 


Federal teaching, pamphlets. 44S. 
Files and mosquitoes fcartoon). 429. 
losing battle against disease, R.12 
Practical and patriotic program, 443. 
Weekly Inrtei. 686 

Virginia. 488. 
fff alsn Public health. 
Health centers. 101. 
Health Insurance. 

Physicians and. 526, T22. 
f*t tstto Insurance. 
Health efflcer In tie South, 186. 
Henshaw. R. r,.. Critics of cell life 

(letter). '.. 

Herring, H. C., 737. 
Ilewes. Amy. Rent restrictions In 

England, 687. 
Hewes. Thomas. " Unions In the 

courts" (letter). (144. 
nibbing. Public Library. 304, 305. 
Hlchborn, Franklin. - 
nicks. M. L., and R. S. Eastman, 
Block workers, 671. 



High school. International. 270. 
Hillman, Sidney (with portrait), 273, 

274, 200. 

Hlne, I*. W., 492. 
Ilini's, W. D., 114. 
IIHchman case, 376. 
Hoan, Mayor. 184. 
Hmlder. Mrs. J. D., 537. 
Hodgson, Minnie 607. 
Hoibrook, D. H.', 719. 
Holt, A. K ., The new frontier, 817. 

>:iiies, conf., 543. 
Home Service. 

Dept. iu a Theolog. seminary, 546. 

better on use of the term and re- 
Ply, 123. 

work, 43. 

Homielile and newspaper headlines, 88. 
iinj.e (medallion), 45. 
Hopkins. M. D., 201. 

'ity In the South, 469. 

Ilellevue. 528. 

Boots for patients, 117. 

Kentucky. 452. 

Tulierc. patients, 268, 

" War Nerves ", 397. 
Hours of Work. 

Comparison of output In eight-hoar 
and ten-hour plant, 201. 

Employers on, 248. 

Production In eight-hour day, 377. 
House flies (cartoons). 429, 604. 
House numbers, 147. 

Absurd remedies, 700. 

Among the poor, 712. 

Apartments, 412. 

Bungalows, 147. 

KiiKlanil, 687. 

< i<>*'*rnment, 701. 
ae restated. 278. 

Kentucky, 43. 

Labor party on, 445, 

Land and (letters), 155. 

Milwaukee, 412. 

Municipal powers and (Phlla.), 509, 

N<-\v York Oity Club program, 699. 

New York city crisis, 659. 

Rural (letter), 254. 

Rural, and the tenant farmer, 26. 

St. Louis, 272. 

Shortage, 642, 644. 

Wilmington, Del. (letter), 155. 

Zoning system, 275. 411. 
Houston, Tex., departmental society, 


" Ilmv dry I am," 461. 
Howard, Sidney. 

Col.ver trial opens, 105. 

ID Judge Anderson's court, 182. 

Judge Anderson's decision, 489. 
Howe, H. H., Expert's profit-sharing 

plan, 445. 
Hoyem. Oliver. Prison system of the 

District of Columbia, 621. 
Hugging, W. L., Compulsory arbitra- 
tion in Kansas, 301, 303. 

Conditions. 139. 

White Terror, 567. 

"White Terror" boycott, 644. 
Hunter, J. D.. Legal aid In Chicago, 8. 
Hnszar, Karoly, 567. 
Hyde. D. W., Jr., 124. 

Ihlder, John, 509. 

On housing. 279. 
Illegitimacy, 723. 

Charity law, 84. 

Charity law principles, 150. 

Immigrants' Commission, 99. 

Miners, 684. 

Illinois. Univ. of. salaries, 133. 
Illiteracy In the South, 72. 

Mexican, 81. 

Rural colonies, 713. 

Naturalization experience, 283. 

Savings, 107. 

Women, 80. 

New York Conf. of April 7. 156. 

Tariff and no immigration (letter), 


Can it be modern?. 675. 

Maternity and Infant welfare exhibi- 
tion, 255. t 

Social hygiene, 380. 

Home Special train. 642. 

Marlon Coonty, 635. 
Indust. arbitration. 608. I 

Indnst. councils, 336. 

Belgium, 478. 

Indust. educ. experiment. 688. 
luclnst. hygiene, Japanese translation 

of an American work, 678. 
Indust. nurses, 530. 
Indust. problems. Division meetings at 

New Orleans, 217 
Irdust. relations. 378. 

Commons (J. R. ) on, 632. 

Kansas, 301, 303. 

Papcr-weiirht cartoons, 703. 
Indust. Relations Assn., convention 

Indust. rest, 231. 

Indust. unionism, lumber, 165. 
I. W. W., 185, 167, 472, 474. 

Centralia labor Jury, 115. 

Montesano report, 13. 

Outlaws (letter), 041. 

Suitv-EY and (letter), 640. 
Industry, 112, 247, 376, 444, 531. 625. 

Cause and effect (German cartoon), 

Freedom (letter), 640. 

Freedom In, 371. 

Negroes as workers, 605. 
Infant mortality. 

Belgium and France, 548. 

Negroes, 381. 

St. Paul. 620. 

Why babies die, 530. 
Institution of Industry and Commerce, 

Institutions, 209. 

Boy's thoughts (verse), 251. 

Health, and physicians, 526. 

Social, physicians and, 663. 
Interchureh work, 397. 
InterchurchV World Movement. 

On the steel industry report. 657. 

Social service in New York City, 257. 

Steel strike report handling, 265. 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society, 643. 
Internatl. cooperation for relief, 134. 
Internatl. high school, 270. 
Internatl. Ladles' Garment Workers 

Union, 589. 

Internatl. Longshoremen's Assn., 571. 
Inter-Racial Council, 156. 

Black Hawk Co. outline of citizen- 
ship, 410. 

Committee methods 149. 
Iowa Health Bulletin. 429. 
Ireland, M. W., William Crawford 

Gorgas, 511. 
Irwin, Payson, 205. 
Isaiah, Brother, 347. 

Jacobs, P. P., Tuberculosis conf., 225. 

County, passing, 414. 

Phoenix. Ariz., 88. 

South, 415. 

January, J. P., Homes, 272. 

Human conservation. 678. 

Labor unrest, 350. 

Our relations with, 365. 

Social service, 350. 
Japanese question, San Diego conf., 

Jenks, Tudor. Child speaks (verse), 

Jewish Consumptives' Relief Society, 


Jewish world relief conference, 733. 

Can non-Jews work with Jewish 
families? 717. 

Farmers. 284. 

Girls' Home Club, 152. 

New York Organizations, 85. 

Peddlers, 284. 

Unmarried mothers, 408. 

Zionist convention, 266. 
Johnson, J. W., 738. 
Johnston. G. W.. Amusement businest 

(letter), 123. 
Jones, E. K., Life-saving by Negroes, 


Jones, H. H.. Producers and con- 
sumers, conf., 156. 
Jones-Reavls bill, 413. 
Jordan, H. B., 205. 
Journalism. See Newspapers. 
Judge, M. H., 357. 
Justice. Dept. of. 578. 

Communist raids, etc., 141. 
Juvenile court, Incident. 286. 
Juvenile courts today, 285. 

Kahn. Alexander, Jewish world relief, 

Kane F. F., Communist deportation*, 


Compulsory arbitration, 301, 303. 
Indnst. court (letter), 418. 
Indnst. peace, 7. 
Karlsbad, 733. 
Kolley, Florence. 214. 
Inaction (letter), 452. 
Indust. problems, division meeting* 

at New Orleans, 217. 
Why let children die?, 401. 
Kelley, Mrs. T. F. 286. 
Kellogg, A. P., Swinging doors, 685. 
Kellor, F. H.. 642. 

Kelso, R. W.. Dlvlslen meetings en 
public agencies and institutions, at 
New Orleans, 218. 
Kennard, B. E., American games in 

France, 482. 

Charities. 636. 
Community newspaper, 625. 
Housing, 43. 
Schools, 448. 
Tuberc. hospital, 452. 
Kenyon bill. 120. 

Kickers, 386. 

KldOy cars, 534. 

King, Delcevarc Hold Congress in 
line (letter), 640. 

Kingsloy S. C., 348. 

Kirchner, Otto, 644. 

Kjelsberg, Betzy, 727. 

Klausner Alice, 724. 

Klein, Cesar, 178. 

Klein, Phillip, The teacher, 35. 

Knight, C. P., Child hygiene In Mis- 
souri, 721. 

Knott County, Ky.. 625. 

Kohs, S. C. , Licensing stage children, 

Krehbiel, Edward. Attack on Los 
Angeles Y. W. O. A., 611.. 

Kremlin, Mont.. 442. 


As labor sees Itself (cartoon), 588. 

Belgium, education, 667. 

Books on, reviewed, 416. 

British views of. an Oxford scholar, 

British Intellectuals, 110. 

Casual of the woods, 472. 

Education for workers, 114. 

English workers' desires, 239. 

Farm, 297. 

Gary's views. 187. 

Motion pictures for, 532. 

Next?, 99. 

Research work for, 627. 

Shortage, 512. 

Swallowing the Forty-Elghtere, 587. 

Vanguard, 273. 

Woman's program, 427. 
Labor, Dept. of, Communist deporta- 
tions, etc., 141. 
Labor Bureau, Inc., 627. 
Labor colleges, curricula, 114. 

Labor jury at Centralia, 115. 
Labor leaders, recent books on, re- 
views, 89. 
Labor party, New York state, on 

housing, 445. 

Labor Sunday message. 681. 
La Follette, Robert, 184. 

France, 73. 

Greece, reform, 297. 

Housing and (letters), 165. 

Nationalization in England, 240. 
Lane, R. P., 452. 
Lane, W. D., Alcatraz, 470. 

Education crisis, 299. 
Langeloth, Jacob, 357. 
language. See English language. 
Lapp, J. A. Catholic social work sur- 
vey, 280. 
Larkln, J. J., 644. 

Conviction, 200. 
Larkin, J. M., 642. 
Lasker. Bruno, 387. 

ie restated (housing), 278. 
no of Nations at work, 237. 

Wand of Mnnitou. 329. 
Lasker, Fiorina, Can non-Jews work 

with Jewish families? 717. 
Lasker L. D., America and her ''po- 
litical prisoners ", 578. 
Lflthrop, Julia, 491. 
League for Mutual Aid, 701. 
League of Free Nations' Assn., 343. 

Bulletin, 231. 
League of Nations, actual work and 

plans, 237. 

Leavcnworth prison, 624. 
Lee, F. S., 201. 
Lee, W. G., 135, 586. 
Leebron. Harvey, Democratic com- 
munity, 409. 
Lefflngwell, Elmore, "Home Service" 

(letter). 123. 
Igal aid. Chicago. 86. 
Legislation, North Dakota Nonpartisan, 

upheld, 364. 
Lehman, Mrs. Irving, A girl's home 

club, 152. 

Lenroot, K. F., For children of Illegiti- 
mate birth, 723. 
Leonard, Oscar, Foreign missions for 

social service, 705. 
Levallols-Perret, 104. 
Levy, Julius. Child hygiene In New 

Jersey, 245. 

Lewis, Reed, Review of books on Rus- 
sia, 47. 

Santa Barbara, 21. 

Traveling wagons. 304. 
Lindsay, N. V., query from, 365. 
"Little Theater" at Sing Sing, 415. 
Loans, remedial. 542. 
Logan, J. C. 

Preacher, Southern, 35. 

Red Cross volunteer In the South, 38. 
Loggers, 474, 640. 
lagging, 165. 
London, satellite for, 631. 

Coastwise, 348. 

Peace along shore, 569. 
Lonquet, Jean, 202. 
Los Angeles. 

Mexicans 715. 

Y. W. C. A., 611. 
Lothrop. Alice H.. 738. 
Louderhack, J. L., Visiting teachers 
(letters), 640. 


Board of Health and bablei (car- 
toon), 721. 

Red Cross work, 9. 
Louisville, 4211. 

iimnity Council work, 719. 

Housing, 43. 

Psychological laboratory, 398. 

Recreation hint, 6.'!1. 

Welfare League results, 150. 
Louse, 100. 
Love, J. W. 

Garment industry In Cleveland, 24. 

Wreck on the B. of R. T., 135. 
IVtvejoy, Esther, 388. 
Lovejoy, O. R., 213. 

Faith of a social worker, 208. 

Personal, 208. 

Salvage of childhood in the South, 72. 
Loyal Legion of Loggers and Lumber- 
men, 165, 474. 
Ludlow, Colo., claims, 102. 
Lumber, four L's in, 1G5. 
Lumber Workers' Indust. Union, 474. 
Lunacharsky, 119. 
Lusk, C. H., 71. 
Lusk bills, 132. 

Smith's veto, 298. 
" Luskers." 186. 
Lyons, 257. 


McAlister, A. W., 90. 

McCormlck, Elsie, "Eat Watermelon 

people ", 576. 
McCurcly, Allan, 587. 
Macdonald, Caroline, 103. 
McGuire, W. D., Jr., 254. 

Freedom of the screen vs. censor- 
ship, 181. 

Mnck Judge J. W.. 26. 
McKay, M. K., 738. 
McKenzle, L. A.. 101. 

Public officials, 39. 
McLean, L. H., 150, 719. 

Montreal survey, 84. 
McLeish. J. L., The American House 

(letter), 255. 
McLennan, W. E., 428. 
McMurray, Mrs. A., 738. 
McPeak, Ival. 

Minneapolis agencies, 527. 

Reorg. in Minneapolis, 83. 
Macy, V. E., 619. 
Madrid. 231. 
Man, Henry de. 

How Belgian labor Is educating It- 
self, 687. 

Indust. councils In Belgium, 478. 
Management, 533. 

Manchester, Eng.. Building Guild, 115. 
Manltou, 325. 329. 
Manning. V. H., 257. 
Manufacturers in the South, 36. 
Margold, C. W.. letter, 224. 
Maritime workers, 365. 
Marones, L. N.. 203. 
Marquis, Don, 81. 
Marshall, Alfred, 111. 
Marston, H. D., Mexican traits, 562. 
Mass vacations. 234. 

Capital punishment. 88. 

Central health council, 431. 

Children's health, 119. 

Family care In mental casea, 117. 

Housing and land (letter), 155. 

Motion picture censorship, 108. 

State Board of Health, 380. 

Jewish unmarried mothers, 408. 

Sheppard-Towner bill, 71. 
Matlnecock Neighborhood Assn., 147. 
May day red plots, 200. 
Mayors, what they want. 629. 
Medical practice, public and private. 3vSO. 
Medicine, social uses, 632, 663, 707. 
Meeker, Royal, 214. 

Appointment to Internatl. Labour 

office, 509. 

New judge. 285. 

Supt. of health, 443. 
Menken, Alice D., 738. 

Are the movies guilty? (letter), 887. 
Mental hygiene, division meetings at 

New Orleani, 215. 

Mental patients and social service. 441. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.. 248. 
Mexican Labor party, 202. 
Mexican peon In Texas. 437, 

Immigrants In the U. S., 81. 

Los Angeles, 715. 

Special schools for, 714. 

Traits, 562. 

Labor envoy, 295. 

New light (Friends' report), 238. 
Meyer. Wallace, Setting books in mo- 
tion, S04. 

Michigan Patriotic Fund, 636. 
Middle class unions (with cartoon), 


Militarism, German, 45. 
Military training, a dead Issue?. 131. 
Milk, drinking throufb straws, 265. 
Miller. O. R. 

Educational revival, 382. 

Teachers' salaries, 704. 
Miller, Kelly, Negro bualns man, 37. 


I nd ex 

Mltner r> r. Tourists teach Negroes 






.vice, 705. 


'nation or 

Mill r Ki ,.unlqu6 of 



> 12. 

llrst hand report. 13. 
A. I-' of L. convention resolution, 

Survey, st. 




(ruction of state 

ttvlf 74. 

M., s:.'. 


potion, 44. 
mills. -l7. 



I. 88. 

" r sMli. 1 s 1 . 
:mrc (letter from 

Uurphy, .1. I 1 .. Cl: Islon 

: M. II. it.. 124. 


Law ir.l. 

nt of 



I, 254. 

r . , 3S6. 

y" clause. 348. 


I, 240. 

I I,'.. 


' discipline, 24. 

Not: -try In an ambu- 

Needle trades, alliance of all unions. 

In Oprmany, .''Ml. 731. 

As imhiHt. workers. 605. 

.atlona with whit. 
n. 37. 
Chicago, 491. 


Colored Social Workers. 452. 


Kour way* with. 
Infant \V, 

i fr.'.-l.'Mi, 



Mm. Hum- 

nrsr. 427. 


,! off the billboards 

Wurklioine. 87. 


NVu li . 101. II s . 

Nt-u Jersey child h.vnieno, 2ir,. 

rork, nr.7. 

Now Orleans faitli healer. 317. 
New w,.rl.! 100. 

. 566. 

Week, ir>7. 
'.unity org. f., 233. 

Harl-T, 396. 

lle.-ilih inn: IT, 52S, r>29. 

Honshu: crisis and city club pro- 

uram, 699. 
Play streets. 044. 
I'uhilc an.l |.riv:ite medical work for 

survey fur the churches. 2. r j7. 
New Vi.rk (slatel. 
Board of regents, 71. 


Hriltli rein. it, 101. 

of I'.i-jn. course, l s n. 


:uillnK ehililri'ii'a laws, 101. 
S;ir:i;. and Conservation 

! and compensation law, 
Welfare Mils; Socialist A 


New York n- ' 'nthollc social 


New V,,rk Ml 418. 

l ruction Com- 
:i. 74. 
Sew York 

if citizenship 

Nu-i -ii:'.. 386. 

I'ri?.'- n'T* r f.r play. 41S. 

; Ion upheld, 364. 

i of I'Ulilic welfare. 67. 

reb -r.. '.HI. 
Nurtli : :m lecislatlon 

Norton, W. J., Social org. division 

t wnrk for wenieii, 7'J7. 

Nutrition, 116, 406. 

'.lirun, 620. 


"' 10. 

Oduni, II. W. 

Social worker. 37. 

(I'llare. K. U., l.M. 366. 579, 

Health law. 


r, .''7^. 
Diego conf., 

:,. Sflshin, 678. 

v, The (letter), 641. 
Outlaw strli. rikes. 

Oxford UnlTerslty. 

Painter. W. II.. l.M 

ii-an Jews. 266. 

r Amer. 


I'an.r.iciflc Day, 644. 
Paper mill creative workmanship In, 

Paper-weight (with cartoons), 703. 

Parenthood, youngster's shoes (car- 


rry. 147. 
Parker. \V. II., portrait. 

:, 43. 


iwur-Is Seltlcnient. 67. 

r!s f'.r Italians, Tlti. 

Str ; 139. 

Patrlctli- Fund, M 

s. N. p,ack.s;i<ling on social 
work , 
Patter.M.h. I 1 . !>.. 1S7. 

iy Congress, 118. 


:.lii, 177. 

h, on liillboanls, 364. 


A. K. of L. convention, 2117. 

Western !:!' 'able assembly, 429- 

In.liistrlal. 628. 

Municipal law for mothers, 635. 

/< pensions for federal em- 

. -~ ! - 

y luilutry. Ti; 1 *. 
ile, a prisoner of (verse), 538. 

Perkins, . W., 4!>:; 
Perhuan, Jess, Bainbow (verse), 272. 


.M work platform, 398. 

I for (in:. Charity, 14R. 
Phoenix. Ariz., Jail. 88. 

Health insurance anil, r>26, 722. 
Rewards and cli 

Social Insurance and, 032, 663, 707. 
Pierce, Clinton, OSO. 

Kanfmann Settlement fellow- 

v. 429430. 

. 724. 

nines in France, 482. 
Oltl/' '-''' 


New York. 566. 


PIrle, lili. 
Platz, Harry. 100. 

ede, 429. 
Poland, conil:. 

atlonal, 730. 

industry, 466. 

Political pn "78. 

Pom- S 7. 

'ecllnei In rate of growth, 
Port Pirte, iii4. 

ta Barbara, county 
-1 . 


Porto i fund, 452. 

I F., 111. 



y Industry. 
1" William. 

. 37. 

1 1:1. 

Presidentlnl candi. 

- on Mr. IVvinc's urti. " 
, 678. 

; Ic iramcs and (cartoon), 682. 

reform, medallion. 45. 

papers nd, 537. 
lical. 578. 
Wage*. 267. 

Alcatraz, 470. 

cell life. 1M. 


f Columhia, 621. 
Naval (letter). 640. 
Wllrn >'. 

Boners indentured. 
TMtrhrtt. H. S., 250. 

Suggestions asked, 364. 

I'roel. r,33. 



Prolill,iti..n. 4H|, 712. 

Work of I 


Piildic und char 




a rt IclCS 

Pill. lie helllth dir 

, 33. 

Pill'li lawful erlllelMn, 132. 


Nortli <':n 

' . 74. 


QulSg, M. .rts" 


Cooperation, 411. 
NegTO "inn, 241. 


for. Till. 

Ualli. "nl, 247. 

lUil roads. 

, 114. 

(cartoon), 608. 

Wa | 

Hahiv, 145. 

Rail. rdo. Who ii your God? (verse), 

linnd school. 114. 132. M33. 
1 I l. 


>llle. 631. 

.^Ko In war 
171 . 

i;uir i)i\is!on. : 

ilealih m:ip of V 


I^-aw . ; lea at 

a, 137. 140. 

Pans work 

Rumania, exi>erieoce in, 583. 

Siberia, -l 

Tornado r 

h, 38. 
a nerves" < 

i iri;ar,.T. In the waka of 
tln> flood, 657. 
Rehabilitation, 248. 


International cooperation, l 

. dial loans, .' 
Hem. t Ion, 687. 

.' orye, -1.V 

in New 
York slate (will. 88, 69. 

Mlcan parly. education plank 
wanted In plstr. 
Moan questionnaire. 43. 

labor iiureait. Inc., 627. 
Kesponslt.illty. strlk for (Paton). 43B. 

430, 724. 
Kn'eims, 12*. 171 



Rtiodo Island, child welfare. 525. 

uic dancing. 71M. 
H. II ! industry 

i letter). WO. 

I. F. (i., Who Is the public? 

\ I... 2i!i; 

ilooil. fir,7 

not for the Taciflc, 

O! Is (letlor ) , 3Sfl 
on! llcttcr), -223. 
ii. W. J.. Czarists and Bol- 

Inst Amalgamated 

abor Irial, lo:i. 


.iinn. -".!. 
. r.Tx. 

I'hllip, Russians In America 

'nee, 583. 

ec Country, eU. 

1 Sage Foundation 41)1!. 

<aturda>." I;L"V 
. paiK-rs of the acid test, S43. 
l books on, 47. 


crime, 286. 
Trading with. fi(>7. 

mis," 343. 

children In New York, 682. 
In America poolrooms or school- 

I Bill. 
Mnerica (letter), 735. 

'hools, f.OO 
Relief (letter), 121. 

i and children, Chicago, 604. 


Sm-riflco. 210. 

Scouts and, 620. 
sylranta congress, 118. 

Sage Foundation. 
*t. l,ouK -4K1. 
. 27Z. 

Modern Iridust. Idea, 46. 
" 452' 
St. i 

unity chest, il:(. r , 
Infant mortality. 820. 

raws, 255. 
Sal: : 

liovoriiuiont, 133. 
University, 183. 

, Salomon, .Mi,v. Social service la Ger- 
many today. 604. 
Salvation Army's term "Home Ser- 

Samufls. Margaret, The factory 1- 

spcetor. 3.S. 
Sn Dl,. go. 

on Oriental relatloni, 

Mi-iican traits, 562. 

inin. 147. 
Sn Francisco, dance halls, 622. 

J. P., 257. 
Rank,-)-, Justice. 110. 
Santa llarbara, county library aervle*, 

Saratoga Springs. 325, 328, 320. 

Siegfried. Her,.]], 'illation 

!, r.M>. 

Savings. Immigrant, 107. 
Scnndlnnvla, relief for children 184. 
Henj., 268. 

Chicago, 400. 

1 vival, 3S2. 

Co lolldnted rural, 447. 
Kentucky, 44H. 

-i for, 132. 
i IT. protest, 70. 
o for, 3S3. 
Seattle, gypalea, 619. 
Truant tribe liiypsles), 447. 
y lour hour school, 617 
8chu.vl.-r. Montgomery. Relief of Rn- 

idnns (letter) 124 

Schwoluiiz, Karl de, Philadelphia let- 
ter, 148. 
fVamvn's law, 187. 


Scars, Amelia, Family division meet- 
ings nt New Orleans, 215 
. .'"V. 

' In school, C19 
i, N It 642 
Settle. T. S., South for hospitality, 



American overseas. 103. 
Appeal from Franco. 104. 
Irene Kaufmann, Pittsburgh. 643 
Protest against licensing of school! 
In New York State, 70. 

Shanghai, 339. 

Shaw, S. A.. Steel-making, 66T. 
Sheet workers, 510. 
Shellaharger, Eloise. 

Creative workmanship. 112. 

Shawled women of Pa'ssalc, 46S. 

Sliepi lull, -Hi], 

Shlentag, n. L., Unlnsurance and com- 
pensation law. 7-. r , 
Shipping Hoard, 572, 60S 
Shoes, 527. 

Siberia. Red Cross, 484. 
Sing Sing, "Little Theatre", 415. 
Singer, Mrs. Maurice. 844 
Singing, 147. 

Slav women In Passalc 463. 
Sleraynskl, Thaddens. LT.T. 
Smallpox and infected money, 634. 
Smillle, Robert, 644. 

England the workers want, 239. 
Smith, Governor A. K. veio of Lusk 
bills, L'UM. 

Social administration, 492. 
Social agencies. 
Approved 69, TO 
California conf.. 388. 
Social barriers and zoning, 275. 
Social defectives. 729. 
Social-economic research fellowships. 


Social hygiene. 
Govt. and, 432. 
Novel propaganda, 3R1. 
Social order and the church. 517. 
Social organization, 148, 280. 

Division meetings at New Orleans, 

Social problem, prize for, suggestions. 

364, 544. 
Social service. 

Foreign missions for, 705. 

'any, 664. 
Mental cases. 441. 
Personnel work, 370. 
Social theory, books on, reviewed 121 
Social unit. 
lilock workers, 671. 
Community Council and, 409. 
Survey, 589. 
Social work. 

Backsliding. 338. 
Ilusiness principles, 534. 
Profession of (letter), 644. 
"Professional" (letter), 386 
Religion and, 399. 
Social workers 
Colored, 4. r ,2. 
Common platform, 308. 
Faith of a social worker 208 
Gun-play, 433. (letter), t; 1 1 . 
Southern. 37, 398. 
Social workers exchange, 603. 

' : sm, books on, reviewed 416 
,:ist party. 

, damages, 199. 
Platform adopted, 268 

Assemblymen, 68. 
Intercollegiate, 543. 
Sociological Congress, Southern, 291. 
Sociology, Southern state secretaries. 


Soldiers, bonus project (Devine), 204. 
Solvay institute, fourth, 667 
For hospitality, 469. 

. 415. 
New citizenship and a symposium, 


Salvage of childhood, 72. 
Southern Sociological Congress 291. 
Sovicls and crime, 286. 
Spain, home colonization (144 
Sparks. Malcolm, Building for service 


Spaulding, F. K., 382 
Spring suits, i:;l. 
Springs. Suraloga, 329. 
Sctnires. I!. M., Peace along shore 569 
Stadiums, 147. 
Stanley. G. C.. Special schools for 

ariH. 714. 
Stark. S. L. , Mothers' pensions In 

Christianin, 635, 
Siale boards of health. 380 

I Assn. of N. T., 

Statistics Joke. 3 or, 
St, -.-I industry, 1S7. 
Oomn development*, 510. 

i'lirch World report on. "i~>7. 
.New slriko prospect, 604. 
Steel strike report nnil the Inter- 
church World Movement. L'(i.". 493. 

-tribe. F,,sU>r's report. 11T. 
Stein. C. S.. II,, , i n N ew 

Vork, 650. 
Stein, ft, H, 

For handicapped civilians (letter), 

1 1.';;. 

I'robiem of the unplnceahle. 72(1. 
Subsidy and rehabilitation, 248. 

raph, 381. 

Stern. Fiances. 104. 
Slernheiin, Emmanuel, 738. 

-I slapstick. 461. 
Stopa, Anthony, 579. 

S. S. Co., 187. 

; inir children off 620 
Play streets, (114. 


Barbers' (cartoon). 269. workers, r,s:>, 
Coal ill!. 

Denver lr:ini\vay. 702 
During I ill II. $28 


Ludlow, Colo. 102 
Madrid, 231. 

New Vork harbor. 348, 396. 
Outlaw, progress, r,ns 
Outl:n. IM| <'itizens 431. 

Railway, Oil, 13.%. r,i,s 
Rail" ., 136. 

- I'-tliing workers, .":; I . 
elusions nt the Inter- 
church World Movement regarding 

Steel. Foster's report. 115. 
Strike for responsibility (Paton), 


Winnipeg. 190. 
Stuart. Robert, 2.~,7. 
Stnntz, 305. 

Subsidy and rehabilltntlon, 248. 
Sugar. T. I!. Walnut on, 368. 
Summer boarders (cartoon), 429. 
Supreme Court. 

Decisions. 3(13. 304, 365. 

Sweeping prohibition decision, 363. 


Covers (letter), 640. 
I. W. W. and (letter and reply), 640. 
letter of appreciation, 155. 
Polish paper's comment on an arti- 
cle, 82. 

Semi-monthly schedule, 549 

Bibliography of. 719. 
Montreal, 84. 
Sweet, Speaker T. C.. 132, 186. 

en's Union, 135. 

Symposium on the South and the new 
citizenship. :;o. 

Tachau, E. S., Results of federation 


Tainted money. 634. 
Tanneubamu, Frank, 151. 
Tariff and no immigration (letter) 


Taylor, P. R., 236. 
Teachers. ^.'M. 299. 

Cleveland salaries. 704. 

New status (Prilehett's report), 

Southern, 35. 

Underpaid ; Ascham quoted, 365. 
Visiting (letter). (540. 
her's Federation 133. 
liin.g. licenses for, 71. 
Telephone industry, conditions and 

Ten hour day, 201. 

ments, home work in 43. 
Tennessee, dentistry .">2i; 

Mexican peon in, 437. 
T. B. migrant in, 722 
Textile industry. 
I'assaic. 43. 463. 
Union guarantee, 233. 
Theatre. Kee Drama. 
Theological seminaries 546. 
Thomas. Evan. 151. 
Thomas, F. A., Their neighbors' lan- 
guage, 433. 
Thomas. W. K., Friends conference, 

Thomson, O. R. H.. Replies of Tirl- 

i verse) 44. 

worth, F. S.. A stake in the 
country. 80. 

Todd, A. J.. Educating the producer 
and the consumer 373. 

T ooka, Kosuke, 350. 

Tornado and lied PI-OSS 68 

Ito stadium, 147. ' 

Towns. i: . what mayors 

want, t'i'Jii. 
Kduealion. 113. 
Rochester trial, 103. 

'''-" I'niotis. 
Trai ain (144 

. big. 1C.7. Hill. 
Trexlor, II A. w'bat the mayors 

wani . 
Trowbridge, (;. S., Billboards (letter), 


Truss. Thomas. 144. 
Tsinaiifn. r>ll\. 

Oare Metier). ,is6. 

a l St. Ixiuis of Natl. Assn.. 

French pamphlet cover, 397. 
Hospitals and. 268. 
Kentucky hospital. 452. 

Migrant in Texas, 722. 
Missouri, 37'.i. 
New poster In France. 349. 
Tngw.^, R. (!., Casual of the woods, 

Outlaw, the (letter' fill 
Twos.-, c. c. u.. Abou Ben Adhem In 
the Balkans, 583. 



' Jj!> i- swallows the 



!, rondltloi,' 

:nittee 710 
I nderwood, A. !:., .K;:: 

Union Tljcologieal .Seminary 

guarantee of production 233 

In ii. ;7II 

\'t- 1 1 , 1 ; 1 ''"" MB. 

Middle classes, 234. 

Ties .-,S!) 

I nite.l Mine W,, 
Dnlted Xeighborh 

C. S Junior Chamber of Commerce, 

Ji li. 

U. S Public Health Service, findings 
study of th- lm jaif 

". S. steel Corporation. 1S7 557 561 
Lniver.slties, faculty salaries, 133 

Kpson I,. D., Michigan Patriotic Fund 

VzlioriKl, 701. 

Vacations, 446. 523. 

Pay for factory workers 620 
Valeria 11,, me Summer Ca'mp 3r,7 
Van Kleeck, Mary. Social s ,-rvi,',. per- 

I work, 370 

Vandervelde, Kinile, 667 
Vernlmomr, Raymond, Rural housing 

(letter), 254 

Achievement (R. U.) 76 

Big ri , 


Child speaks (Jenks), 619 
Eatr in prison (Allison), 624 
Lines from Win. Morris 616 
Institution boy's thoughts 251 

Open road, 41.-. 

Prisoner of IVntonvllle. 538 

Rainbow (Perlman), 272 

Illation is:i 
ltepli,, B of Tiridatcs (Thomson) 44 

vi ' 3 ' our Oo ' 1? (Kil11 '. 7 8 - 

Children. 610, 620. 

I!e, onstruetion. 014. 

Visithi- 1,-achers r,42 
. 640. 

of the 


Volstead act, 685. 

Wages. W 

Farm labor. 297. 
Government, ' 628. 
New York, women, 115. 

Postal employes 2!n; 

PrlsotHTK. 267, 270', 586 
Wainesses, etc.. District of Colum- 
Dia, iiii. 

^ie^'aJT" - KUn 

waitresses, u.-t^-.-s i-;i 

"a'di'on. (1. II.'. 

Waley, Arthur, 73. 

Wallas, Craham 111 

Waliis, F. A., 2r,7 

Walnut. T. If., on sugar. 368. 

Wand of Maniioii. ::L>.-, ;;L';I 

War Department 171 

War lii 

" \\";ir nrr\e^," :;<i~ 

War salvage in France. 171 

\\ar-lim,, agencii^ conserving 410 

Warburg. 1-'. M. 

Warburg, p. M ., immigrant savings. 

Ward. Mrs. Humphry (17 

Ware. 10. T., N,.^,,, ,.'i, iz ,, n 39, 

Warren, Whitney, 

Washburn, icssional" (let- 

1 1 !' t , .' 1 *s t i . 

Washington. Uulv. of 114 

"'"''"r. ' ...... ', 418. 

wo'ste, I'- i>., n of Tht 

HurvtH n, 

Weller, O. P., l . Illt _ 

organiiatlon (Chester). 77 
N''ll,.-' Keller Unit 257 

welwyn Garden ri 
West Virginia. 

us In the courts 

Co.. .V Y., child-caring, 

Wheat, 2!I7 

i .. run. 

While. J. p., J12 

White. W. A., l,|, p np ,, r , of 

acid test (Rosslan- American Ro- 

bin. , 
White, w. r., NVgr,, , roops ln c 

many (letler), 734. 




White Terror 567. 
Whltewrlgtat, J. S.. r.7. 
Whitloy councils, 33. 
Whttleyism. 371. 

i, J. r . The clubly duckling. 

Whitney, C. A., 296. 
Whittlcr, Cal., 617. 
Wilkinson. J. J. G., quoted on public 

Williams, C. M.. Kansas court (letter), 

1 V., 514. 

Wllloiv aient, 267. 

Wllmcrsdorf, 448. 
Wilmington, Del. 

!ig (Ic-tter), 
1'riscn program. ST. 

\v B., opinion on de- 
j..rt:itinn of Communists. 234. 

WlnlUky, Harry. 200. 

Winnipeg, 10. 
Window, O. K. A... 381. 
Winstead, Ralph. 641. 
Enter a logger, 474. 
WliiHton-Saleiu. r.l!7. 

Mat. Children of Vienna. 610. 
Wisconsin : 
I'.i^O 184. 

Statf Conf of Social Work. 231. 
1.. W., 408. 
s. s.. 1:1-'. 

Wolf. R. B., 112. 

Bavarian hurean, 642. 

OitirenHhlp of married, 655. 

Immigrants. 80. 

In government service, 378. 

Labor program, 427. 

Norway, nigbt work, 727. 

Opportunities, 446. 

Papsaic textile Industry, 46S. 

Wagei in New York, 115. 

Women prisoners indentured. DS7. 
World charter for, 366. 
Women's clubs, Des Molnes meeting, 


Woods, casual of the, 472. 
Wong, Luther, 29. 
Wcnni alcohol poisoning, 246. 

Boston and the movie censorship, 

Reply to Mr. Mi'Culre (letter), 254. 
Wooili. R. A. 

li-rriV f.T.".. 

I'.ast. Thf. Is rnllins. 
\v,,l industry, 463. 
Work, what urges men to (letter), 


Workmanship, creative, 112. 
Workmen's compensation. See Com- 
Works' council at Rock Island Navy 

Arsenal, 205. 
Wright, J. F., (letter), 224. 

Yellow fever, 492. 
Yonkers housing. 278. 
Yosemlte National Park, 145 
Y. W. O. A.. 446. 

las Angeles. 611. 

Under fire. COS. 

Youngstown Sheet A Tube Co., 42ft. 
Youth, uprising, 400. 

Zellmans, A. B., 124. 
Zionists. 642. 
Convention, 266. 


City regulations. 275. 

Does It protect? (letter), 387. 

Progress, 411. 
lucktr. Morris. 681. 

Spring in the Ghetto Marion Clinch Calkins 

Industrial Peace by, Law The Kansas Way . John A. Fitch 

Social Work in Acadia Homer w. Borst 

Gentralia before the Court E.M. 

The Dope Doctor Thomas S. Blair, M.D. 

Under the Orange Sign Rebecca N. Porter 

County Library Service in Santa Barbara 

Teamwork in Cleveland's Garment Industry John w. Love 

Rural Housing in the South w.B. Bizzell 

Luther Wong, Coolie G. M. Goethe 

The South and the New Citizenship A Symposium . 

The Teacher .... 

The Public Health Nurse 

The Health Officer 

The Manufacturer 

The Preacher 

The Negro Business Man 

The Social Worker 

The Red Cross Volunteer 

The Factory Inspector . 

The Public Official 

The Negro Citizen 

The Farm Demonstrator 

The City Missioner 

The University President 

Two Watercolors 

Paragraphs of the Common Welfare 
Recent Books on Russia 

Philip Klein 
Alfred Fairbank 
. R. F. Beasley 
Nellie K. Murdoch 
Joseph C. Logan 
Kelly Miller 
Howard W. Odum 
Joseph C. Logan 
Margaret Samuels 
F. A. McKenzie 
Edward T. Ware 
Rossa B. Cooley 
Margaret Prescott Montague 
. Howard W. Odum 

Charles Burchfield 

Reviewed by Reed Lewis 











April 3, 1920 

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The Acid Test of Americanism. 

Ill A Tower of "Babel" or United America 

IN ITS SYMBOLIC SENSE, A "TOWER OF BABEL" stands for that condition 
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New Masonic Temple, Washington, D. C. 

Vol. XLIV 

New York, April 3, 1920 

No. 1 









PUBLISHED weekly and COPYRIGHT 19tO by Survey Aitociatei, Inc., lit 

Bast 13 Street, New York. Robert W. de Forest, president; Arthur P; 

Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

PBICE, this issue: 25 cents a copy; H a year; foreign postage, tl.tS; 

Canadian, 65 cents. Changes of address should lie mailed us ten days in 

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a special rate of postage provided for to tiectiun 1103, Act of October 3, 

an, authorized on June U, 1918. 

SUBVEY ASSOCIATES, INC., is an adventure in cooperative journalism, in- 
corporated under the laws of the state of New York, November, 1912, at a 
membership organization without shares or stockholders, membership is 
open to readers who become contributors 0} $10 or more a year. 

Robert W. deForest, Chairman 

Jane Addams Chicago Morris Knowles Pittsburgh 

Ernest P. Blcknell Paris Albert D. Lasker Chicago 

Alexander M. Blng New York Joseph Lee Boston 

Richard C. Cabot Boston Julian W. Mack New York 

J. Llonberger Davis St. Louis V. Everit Macy New York 

Edward T. Devine New York Charles D. Norton New York 

Livingston Farrand. .. .Washington Simon N. Patten Philadelphia 

Samuel S. Fels Philadelphia Helen 8. Pratt New York 

Lee K. Frankel New York Julius Rosenwald Chicago 

John M. Glenn New York Alfred G. Scattergood.. Philadelphia 

C. M. Goethe Sacramento Graham Taylor Chicago 

William E. Harmon New York Lillian D. Wald New York 

Wm. Templeton Johnson.. San Diego Alfred T. White Brooklyn 

The GIST of IT 

NOT since the days of Myra Kelly's first stories have we 
come across such a delightful, intimate, vivid picture of 
East Side childhood as Miss Calkin's Spring in the Ghetto. 
The writer is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin; a 
resident at the Henry Street Settlement engaged in vocational 
work in one of the public schools. Page 5. 

THOSE who read William Allen White's The Martial 
Adventures of Henry and Me, will follow with a friendly, 
personal eye the industrial adventures of Henry. For the 
present governor of Kansas and the war-time crusader from 
Topeka are one and the same. We hear a great deal of the 
great third party to industrial disputes, meaning the public. 
In Kansas the public is the party of the first part the pre- 
dominant element in the population. Conceivably it can make 
such terms as it pleases with any employers or wage-earners 
who want to do business in Kansas but we would have to go 
back to about 1850 to get a corresponding ratio for the popu- 
lation of the United States as a whole. John A. Fitch in 
Industrial Peace by Law discusses the adventure in industrial 
laws of this old-style commonwealth under the lead of Henry 
J. Allen. Page 7. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD has well said: " After 
political excitement comes calm reason." And after much 
publicity and attempted analyses of the narcotic situation, 
comes the truth-seeking sanitarian who, a diagnostician at base, 
is endeavoring to put his finger on the diseased spot with the 

intent, first, of prevention and, second, rational treatment of 
existing conditions. Such a calm survey of the narcotic situa- 
tion from the public health point of view is made by the chief 
of the Bureau of Drug Control of the Pennsylvania Depart- 
ment of Health in The Dope Doctor. Page 16. 

JOHN W. LOVE who writes of the working arrangement 
between employers and employes in the garment industry 
of Cleveland, is industrial editor of the Cleveland Plain- 
Dealer. Page 24. 

SOON after the Armistice day shootings in Centralia last 
November the SURVEY presented an impartial review of 
the circumstances surrounding the occurrence, written by 
Theresa S. McMahon, professor of economics at the University 
of Washington [see the SURVEY for November 29, 1919]. 
Later a SURVEY representative attended the trial at Monta- 
sano.. His first letter dealing with the preliminaries of the 
trial appeared in the SURVEY for March 13. In this issue 
[page 13] he has summed up the testimony of both sides of 
the case and made a clear statement of the instructions to and 
findings of the jury. Back of Centralia, a paper dealing 
with the background of the situation which led to the shoot- 
ings, by Rexford G. Tugwell, will appear in a nearby issue. 

VISITORS to the National Conference of Social Work 
meeting in New Orleans this month will, many of them, 
visit the Acadian fishing villages within a stone's throw of 
the city. How the Red Cross Home Service worked with 
these primitive people is told by Homer W. Borst in Social 
Work in Acadia. Page 9. 

REBECCA N. PORTER is a California writer, a resident 
of Santa Barbara, and an active participant in many of the 
undertakings for the social betterment of the county. Page 21. 

IN Siberia a playground has been conducted for nearly a 
year under American leadership. In Czechoslovakia with 
the approval of the Czech government, two demonstration 
playgrounds will probably be in operation before this issue of 
the SURVEY reaches its readers, and a school to train some 600 
workers will be open. During the last three years the possi- 
bilities of exporting the American playground and recreation 
center have been set forth in the SURVEY in a series of articles 
by C. M. Goethe of Sacramento, who with Mrs. Goethe made 
a tour of the world to study the folkways of recreation. Luther 
Wong, Coolie, is the concluding sketch of this series, and it is 
published at a time when in China the China Continuation 
Committee, cooperating with the Interchurch World Move- 
ment, is including the possibilities of exporting American 
recreation in its survey of that country. An offer of $10,000 
has just been made to influence a program for model demon- 
stration playgrounds in the cafpital of every province in China 
an offer from the same source as a gift of $20,000 which 
provoked a subscription of $5,000,000 in another line of bet- 
terment work. Both the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. 
are featuring clean recreation in what is practically a world- 
wide program under American leadership, and some of the 
active members of the Playground and Recreation Association 
of America hope to see an international committee formed by it 
to serve as a clearing house. Page 29. 

WB. BIZZELL, president of Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College of Texas, in Rural Housing and the 
Tenant Farmer, tells of conditions as they exist among the 
farmers of the South. Page 26. 


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Spring in the Ghetto 

By Marion Clinch Calkins 

Oh, tlit la-la, la-la Spring, 
When the little sirdies bing. 
All the kiddies pade in -muddles 
Everybody's moves in luddles 
Oh, the la-la, la-la Spring 
Oh, the tee-dee, tee-dee Spring. 

OF course, there is some poetic license there. There 
are no trees for the sirdies to bing on. Aside from 
that, I defy you to add or detract one jot or one tittle. 
Spring fever in the ghetto, and nothing to do with it 
but to take it out and sit with it on a too slowly, but (thank 
God and Mayor Hylan) at last disappearing snow pile, and 
wink past the garbage at a star which will slip over the roof 
in a minute. 

Of course, again there is the army. At which point I will 
narrow my troubles and my tale down to Max. I had thought 
of giving Max another name for purposes of delicacy and lest he 
read this. But why, when my most genial approach to any 
mother of a brood, whose surname I may have forgotten, is 
"You're Max's mother, aren't you? I am so glad to know 
you." However, this one specific Max I call the amoeba. He 
is shapeless in mind and body. He has many chins which are 
traced by my unscientific mind to glands. He has a large area 
of rosy cheeks. Also, he would never pass a Binet Test. At 
which time I am diverted by the old and pleasing speculation, 
what would a social worker do without her defectives? 

Max never comes without some breath-taking piece of news, 
and he comes fairly often. He delivers it pantingly, after hav- 
ing rubbed off his dirty hand upon his fishy coat so that he may 
greet me with his dear queer handshake. He sits down, having 
been invited to do so, heavily, and rests his cap upon his 
stomach, far to the fore. For a long time, of course, and that 
was nearly a year ago, our joint efforts were over Max's 
working papers. Our efforts were, of course, in opposite direc- 
tions; his for, mine against. But we were friendly enemies, 
and put our heads together over our stratagems. The lay 
public cannot possibly know what a heckling thing a mere 
matter of date of birth can be. The society woman who would 
fain be younger has nothing over on the immigrant woman 
who must bring up a child among all these inimical laws made 
by childless men. If one only did not have to commit oneself 
for all time. When Max is brought over, he is very young; 

just born in fact, albeit it is embarrassing if Max, laid down 
inadvertently to make gesticulation easier, picks up his long 
swaddling clothes, and runs down the gang-plank. And when 
Max, according to all census record, is thirteen, it is suddenly 
most desirable to have him fifteen, for is he not in ?A, ach ja, 
and the jobs they aint for his pa, who is an old man and 
shouldn't woik longer, being foity-five. And then before you 
know it, Max is of draft age, oy, oy. 

Well, as I was saying, a year ago, I was trying to keep 
Max in school. I took him one fine morning to a prevocational 
school to see if he couldn't foresee his forte in electric coils, or 
a plumber's kit. But while I put on my best forward-looking 
face, and talked about the child-it, to a much harassed princi- 
pal, Max upset the kit, and did all the wrong things to the 
fuses. The principal was not ungracious, but I had the weight 
of his greater wisdom to add to mine, that what was the use. 
So with cheery defeat, I told Max that his age having at 
last been settled, as were all other matters, he could have his 
working papers. Max gave elephantine leaps, which landed 
him, to my surprise, at his mother's pickle-stand. A minute 
was allowed him to publish the good tidings, and beautiful 
were his feet under the mountain to them. We had all gone 
together through the agonies of his having been left back. 
After having received a mark of 98 in facts of the World War, 
procured by assiduous reading af the Examiner, being left back 
was too cruel. It had brought floods of (by his mother and 
me) unforgotten tears. "To be left back once, Miss Brown, 
but twice to every grade." I walked on slowly, was overtaken 
by this galloping joy with a large green tomato pickle, dripping 
a happy substitute for tears. I was offered the remainder of it. 

Since when between us we have found him a job at least 
fortnightly. Tuesday evening, when I am at home to all the 
Maxes, he arrives with his weekly jottings. Week before last, 
it was his father's papers. " I'm to be congratulated, Miss 
Brown, I'm to be congratulated," panted Max. " On what, 
Max," I answered cautiously, for I have discovered many new 



causes of congratulation, and these things must be done im- 
peccably. " My fader he's got his papers. He's got his papers. 
He's been trying for years, and he couldn't never get 'em, 
because he couldn't read, and dis time all the judge he ast him 
was did he believe in Bolshevism, an he said no, and now we've 
got 'em framed." 

" Ah ! " put in Nathan contemptuously, " my fader would 
have told him the troot." 

'"pHERE were intervals of Western Union, crockery ped- 
dling, errands for B. Borg on Worth street. Western 
Union had its prosperous days, which were shared with me, by 
sodas. I unhappily remembered the remark of a skeptical 
friend that it was not safe to eat lower down than the Grand 
Central, and I couldn't go out that night, for it rained, but 
Max, impervious to inclemencies in a Western Union souwester, 
brought me in a pineapple soda of a degree of sweetness not 
to be exceeded. That was the night that he told me of his 
puppies, " My dog, she's had puppies, Miss Brown, my dog 
she's had puppies. Usually she has four or five, but this time 
she only had two, and one of 'em came dead. A woman she 
kicked her the last time she was going to have puppies, 'n I 
spose that's why." Max cried here for a sniffling moment or 
so. " But," he said, bursting with an idea, " there's one good 
puppy. You have it, Miss Brown. You have it." 

I fought for time. My habitat was designed for maiden 
ladies, and bachelor men. Life en famille is impossible, but 
aside from Max's feelings, there were mine to consider. I 
want a dog. 

" Is it a male or a female, Max? " Delicacy is, after all, a 
matter of your assembly district. Max's naivete is frequently 
of incoherence, rather than unsophistication. " I don't know, 
Miss Brown, its eyes, they ain't open yet." 

Then there was the night, long looked forward to, with 
vacillating states of mind, upon which we were to go to the 
movies. I had picked Monday night. I had thought we could 
go to the Neighborhood Playhouse, " not for the movies but 
the air that's there." 

Max arrived. All of his face had been scrubbed to a bright 
red. He had on a red necktie, and a green shirt, plaid. " My," 
said I, " but you look nice, Max. You've got a new shirt, 

" I got off at three o'clock," (and I gathered, had been 
dressing ever since). " Feel my shoit, Miss Brown, it's silk." 

How pickles and Western Union do prosper one! 

Well, it's a rainy night, Max," said I. " It's good that 
the Neighborhood is so near." 

" It ain't open on Monday, Miss Brown, we can go up 
Clinton, or Grand street, or Loew's." 

Now Loew's oh, Loew's! when can I screw the cour- 

" Oh Max, closed ? Are you sure ? How about going 
Wednesday night." But no Who in the woild would refuse 
a bull-fight to a boy who had spent since three in the afternoon 
getting into a new silk shoit? So Grand street it was, and 
the title Are You Legally Married? We had the choicest 
standing room, although we could have sat down near the 
front, for by standing near the door we had several whiffs of 
air. Max was out for an evening, and no mistake. " Two 
Hoisheys," he shouted, in such a clamorous voice, to the sales- 
man who traveled up and down the aisle, that the usher nearly 

ejected him. We got them though, with almonds in 'em, 
and afterwards, some deadly poison drunk out of a bottle with 
a straw. 

I liked the Hersheys and the soda, but my mind was not 
easy. Are You Legally Married? Where was my social con- 
science? Where was my forward-looking responsibility? What 
should I do ? Max, nineteen by a doctor, ten by a psychologist, 
and in worldly wisdom as old as the hills, but nevertheless by 
the census records only fifteen and a half, at my elbow, 
with my consent and company, about to gaze upon Are You 
Legally Married? 

There were postponing distractions. The first chapter of 
the Black Secret with Foil White rescuing a drugged man 
from the East River at Front street. Was he a German Spy, 
or wasn't he? I never learned until yesterday. He wasn't. 
Abe Cohen told me so. (I am always busy Mondays, but I 
have felt about the Black Secret as I have about the story I 
read in the Youth's Companion when I was ten. The meteor 
fell in the poor boy's front yard. Was it diamonds, or wasn't 
it diamonds? The last page was torn off, and I never knew). 
But at last the reel of the evening came on. At the end of the 
first part, it was nine o'clock. I had been forehanded enough 
to have another engagement at nine fifteen, so, a steward for 
the Lord, with Max in my safe keeping, I went out tri- 
umphantly, bursting to know how it was going to end. 
Outside, said Max, " well, I'm sorry you gotta go, Miss 
Brown. It ends fine. I saw it last night." 

two weeks Max did not come. I learned through Mrs. 
Finkelstein that his mother had been searching the streets. 
Max hadn't come home for two days, and a night. Mrs. 
Rosenbloom was crazy. " Mine boy, ach mein boy, ach mein 
Gott! He ist mein treasure yet." She had been to all previous 
and anticipated employers. Nowhere Max. Mrs. Finkel- 
stein, an observer of spring in the city, suggested the army 
recruiting station, whither went, oy, oying Mrs. Rosenbloom. 
She ended in Fort Slocum, in time to rescue Max from the 
guard house. They oy oyed together no doubt, and were let 
out in gratefulness, and without formality by men of sense. 

Max made everybody promise not to tell me, so the news 
was as new to me. He came in answer to a letter asking how 
he was. " I got a shame on," he said. 

" What is it you got a shame on for?" 

" For what I wrote on the letter what you sent me. I 
wrote, ach, I can't tell you I got such a shame on. I wrote 
' I love everybody wot's in your office.' " 

After the tale was out, and I had had a few words as to 
whether it was right to lie to your dear government, he said, 
" Ah, mein Gott, but Miss Brown, everybody wot's at Fort 
Slocum is only fifteen years old." Well, it's springtime, and 
maybe the heads of the recruiting officers are also in luddles 
over the binging sirdies. 

As for Max, being eternally young, maybe his head will 
be in an eternal luddle He told me one time " My mother, 
she's got troubles. I tell her ' Stop a little bit your sorrow, 
ma, stop, a little bit your sorrow. This is God's way.' " And 
maybe it is those looking at Max are apt to wonder if God 
isn't wayless, for which Max himself has given me answer. 
And who am I, to doubt his word? 

"A fool hath no delight in understanding, but that his 
heart may discover itself." 

Industrial Peace by Law the Kansas 


By John A. Fitch 

GOVERNOR ALLEN of Kansas has been East on a 
speaking trip. He appeared before the legislatures 
of New Jersey and New York, addressed the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce, and at the Waldorf Astoria 
in New York spoke before five hundred diners under the 
auspices of the League for Industrial Rights, formerly known 
as the American Anti-Boycott Association. And the burden 
of his message was everywhere the same. It was something 
like this: We have found the way to industrial justice and 
hence to industrial peace in Kansas. We will establish in 
Kansas a Mecca of well ordered, contented, just relationships. 
Unless you pass similar legislation in your states your indus- 
tries will move to Kansas where operators can carry on their 
business in an atmosphere of well-regulated justice. 

Everywhere audiences have listened to Governor Allen 
with deep interest. They have been impressed. Newspapers 
have reported that we must have this Kansas law. Public 
speakers have indorsed it. Legislators have introduced bills 
patterned after the Kansas model. Three of these are now 
pending in the legislature of New York. There is one in New 
Jersey. There is a clamor for such legislation in other states. 

Never before in the history of the United States has there 
been so widespread a movement of this sort. There are no 
less than six proposals before the constitutional convention in 
Illinois involving a limitation on the right to strike or some 
form of compulsory arbitration. A constitutional amendment 
is proposed in Massachusetts, giving the legislature " the right 
to pass laws restricting the right of individuals to strike." 
There is a bill pending in Massachusetts for compulsory arbi- 
tration of street railway disputes, and there is one in New 
York covering food, fuel and transportation, in addition to the 
three patterned after the law of Kansas. 

The Kansas law is unique. It is the first and so far the 
only law in any American state compelling employes and em- 
ployers to submit their differences to a tribunal for adjudica- 
tion. It is the only law ever passed in America requiring the 
manager of an industry to get permission from anybody before 
he can close his plant. In Kansas, if his industry is " affected 
with a public interest " he has to give reasons for any desire 
he may have to suspend operations, and the court will examine 
those reasons. If it finds them " meritorious " it will let him 
off. Otherwise he will have to continue to run his shop or 
have it taken away from him. 

It would be about the same way with the workers if they 
had a similar right. They haven't. They can't show that 
their desire to quit is meritorious. It is just plain downright 
illegal to strike, whatever the reason. And the penalty for 
violation of the law is $1,000 fine or one year in jail or both, 
if the offender is a " person." If he is an officer of a corpora- 
tion or of a union the penalty is $5,000 fine, or two years in 
jail or both. 

It should be made clear that this law does not apply to all 
industries. It applies to industries which are " affected with a 
public interest." These industries are declared to be the man- 
ufacture or preparation of food, the manufacture of cloth- 
ing, the mining or production of fuel, the transportation of 
these commodities, and all public utilities. To these industries 

there are added, in the Knight bill in New York the manu- 
facture, production or handling of iron and wood products in- 
tended to be used in buildings or by public utilities. 

The law creates a " court of industrial relations," composed 
of three " judges " appointed by the governor to serve a term 
of three years. The court may intervene in any industrial 
controversy, either on its own initiative, at the request of 
either party to the dispute, or on the complaint of ten citizens 
or of the attorney general of the state. It may investigate the 
controversy, making a temporary award at the beginning and 
a final award when the investigation is completed. The award 
so far as wages are concerned is to be retroactive to the date 
on which the investigation was begun. If wages are increased 
in the final award the employes are entitled to back pay. If 
wages are reduced, the employer is entitled to recover the ex- 
cess paid in wages since the beginning of the investigation. 

The investigations are to be conducted in accordance with 
the rules of evidence as recognized by the supreme court of 
the state. 

There are certain principles laid down as guide to the court, 
and presumably for the protection of the parties involved. 
According to Section 9 labor is entitled to a " fair " wage and 
capital to a " fair return." This may or may not be modified by 
Section 8, which stipulates that while all conditions must be 
" just and reasonable," they must be such as to enable the 
industries in question " to continue with reasonable efficiency 
to produce or transport their products or continue their opera- 
tions and thus to promote the general welfare." Either party 
may appeal any decision to the supreme court. 

No worker may be discharged on account of any testimony 
he has given before the court, and no employer is to be subject 
to the boycott or any other discrimination on account of any act 
performed in accordance with the terms of the law. 

Section 14 of the law has some very peculiar provisions. It 
sets forth that any union that will incorporate shall be recog- 
nized by the court of industrial relations as a " legal entity," 
and may appear before the court " through and by its proper 
officers." Unions, whether incorporated or not, have the right 
to bargain collectively, but if the individual members of an 
unincorporated union wish to avail themselves of this right, 
they must, each one of them, designate in writing some person, 
officer of the union or otherwise, as their spokesman. 

This section is open to the inference that an unincorporated 
union would not have a right to appear before the court. It 
also raises the question of the right of such a union to engage 
in collective bargaining if every member did not sign a paper 
designating a spokesman. However, it appears from Section 9 
that the right of collective bargaining may after all be an unim- 
portant right. The court of industrial relations has final au- 
thority over agreements independently made, and may modify 
them I' it does not find them " fair, just and reasonable." 

One hesitates to criticise a project so joyously entered upon 
as this Kansas enterprise has been, or one in which there is 
so much confident trust, with respect to its power to remedy 
evil. But it is being offered as a cure for industrial ills. Com- 
munities a thousand miles away from Kansas, and with more 
at stake, are being told, with all the assurance of six weeks' ex- 



I () 2 

perience, that by such means not only industrial quiet, but in- 
dustrial justice is to be had. The hazards are too great not to 
examine the molars of this particular gift horse. 

The first noteworthy fact is that there are no particular 
qualifications mentioned in the law that the judges of the 
court of industrial relations must possess. That is a detail, but 
it is a rather important detail. Under one governor the judges 
might all be employers, under another they might be labor 
leaders, and under a third, men wholly ignorant of industry or 
its problems. 

Limited as the court is by rules of evidence, a common sense 
inquiry seems to be impossible. Under the rules of evidence 
a witness is not permitted to give hearsay testimony. While 
this is an important restriction for the protection of a man 
accused of crime, it will not assist, in understanding the de- 
tails of a complicated industrial situation. It is very difficult to 
see how the rules of evidence could be applied to such an in- 
vestigation as the court must carry on, but if they were so ap- 
plied it is obvious that the investigation would be restricted, 
legalistic and largely futile. 

The law sets no time within which the court is to make its 
rinding, nor is the period within which the award is to run lim- 
ited. The only way, therefore, by which a revision of the 
award within a reasonable length of time could be forced would 
apparently be through the staging of a new controversy in order 
that the court might again be brought into the situation and 
be obliged to make a new award. The law, therefore, may 
serve to make inevitable that very unrest that it is designed to 

The section requiring an award to be retroactive is absurd 
and impracticable so far as it relates to the employes paying 
back to their employer the excess of wages received in the case 
of an award depressing their wages. There is no likelihood 
that the previous wage paid would be in general high enough 
to allow the accumulation of the excess either in the form of 
savings or of property. In other words, the money would 
have been spent. The collection of these sums by the em- 
ployer would be highly improbable. However, the existence 
of this provision in the law will probably be the source of a 
great deal of trouble. It could undoubtedly be used in the 
form of persecution, whether its use for any other purpose 
would be impracticable or not. 

The protection the bill seems to throw about the workers 
is of very doubtful value. In asserting that the wage must be 
just and reasonable the bill does no more than reiterate what 
the most reactionary member of the community would admit. 
There are no standards as a basis for determining justice and 
reasonableness in the matter of wages. It is certain that the 
judgment of a court on this question would be an extremely 
conservative judgment. 

There is an assumed protection in the provision that a work- 
man cannot be discharged on account of his testimony before 
the court. It is well known that laws prohibiting the right 
to discharge because a man is a member of a union have been 
held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United 
States. There is no reason to believe that this provision would 
have any better standing in court. But even if it did, it is a 
protection that amounts to very little. The important thing 
is that the right to strike is taken away, and the correspond- 
ing right of the employer to discharge whom he will ith this 
one minor exception is left intact. The employer then could 
undermine an organization by discharging its leaders, by dis- 
charging ever}' independently minded employe and have the 
full protection of the court of industrial relations in so doing. 
He could by this action so intimidate his employes that they 

would not appeal to the court for protection against low wages 
and long hours, nor testify against their employer if someone 
else made the appeal for them. 

These are some of the defects of the Kansas law. To point 
them out, however, is not sufficient. It does not bring us to 
the heart of the matter. The law is at fault not in details, but 
as a whole. Its assumptions are unsound, and its purposes run 
counter to some of the most deeply significant purposes of mod- 
ern civilization. 

Compulsory arbitration is an attempt to forbid by law the 
continuance of a fundamental and, so long as the present eco- 
nomic order shall stand, an essential controversy. Divergent 
interests exist and will continue to exist, and neither courts 
nor laws can wipe them out any more than Canute could 
command the tides. To forbid a group the right to exercise its 
group strength in the matter of industrial relations is to fasten 
upon industry a species of servitude. The right of the individ- 
ual to quit, which is not taken away by the Kansas law, is 
of small significance if he is not permitted to quit in such a 
way as to make his act a matter of concern to the industry, 
and hence to make it a factor in the determination of working 
conditions. He is thereby denied the right to bring pressure 
to bear on industry to secure for the workers in it better con- 
ditions of employment. In his individual freedom to quit he 
can get such improved conditions only by stumbling on them, 
if he should be so fortunate. He may not, with his fellows, 
make such conditions for himself. 

Nor v/ill the court make them for him, in any degree not 
sanctioned by the general conception of the dominant group 
at the time. The court will give him " fairness and justice " 
as understood by the court. The judges will be spokesmen 
for things as they are. They will be appointed to their posi- 
tions by the powers that be. They will represent the accepted 
moralities; they will not be pioneers in the search for new 
conceptions of justice. 

This is a matter of very great importance when you con- 
sider the true nature of the labor movement. Taken as a whole 
it is a part of a profound and fundamental struggle, ages old 
the struggle upward of the masses of the people. There 
never has been a time in the entire history of that struggle that 
the vanguard of the movement was not challenging accepted 
ethical standards. There never has been a time when a court, 
its personnel made up of representative members of the dom- 
inant group, would not have ruled against these challengers. 
When the normal status for labor was slavery a court of in- 
dustrial relations, honestly dispensing justice according to its 
lights, would have ruled that slaves must be so fed and housed 
as to enable them to maintain their strength and their numbers. 
It would have frowned upon too severe beatings, but it would 
have ordered amputation of the ears, and branding, for those 
slaves who tried to stir their fellows to revolt. 

When serfdom was the natural state, the court would doubt- 
less have granted many reforms if they did not call in ques- 
tion the justice and fairness of the status of the serf. It was 
only one hundred and fourteen years ago that a judge in Phila- 
delphia, presiding at a trial of workmen who had combined 
to improve their conditions, instructed the jury as follows: " A 
combination of workmen to raise their wages may be consid- 
ered in a twofold point of view: one is to benefit themselves, 
. . . the other is to injure those who do not join the so- 
ciety. The rule of law condemns both." The jury found the 
defendants " guilty of a combination to raise waxes." 

Slavery, serfdom, conspiracy doctrines these are, in the 
main, things of the past. When they existed they were the 
(Continued on page 48) 

" Green Acadian meadows, with sylvan rivers among them " EVANGELINE. 

Social Work in Acadia 

By Homer W. Borst 

Drawings from photographs, by Abby E. Undenvood 

names of the South Louisiana parishes offer a 
good suggestion of the romantic quality that 
characterizes social work in them. Six have the 
of saints. Among them are St. Mary, 
It was in St. James that 
St. John the 


St. James, and St. John the Baptist. 
Old Perique made his famous tobacco twists. 
Baptist, quite in character, occupies both sides of the river. 
Ascension and Assumption are not far distant, while Evan- 
geline and Jefferson Davis suggest dreams of quite contrasting 

St. Martin, Iberia, St. Mary, Vermillion, St. Landry and 
Lafayette are called the Attakapas parishes, after the tribal 
name of the Indians that once held them, and it was into these 
parishes that the eighteenth century exiles from Nova Scotia 
filed group by group and occupied the rich lowlands from which 
the Atta Kapas had already been expelled. The descendants of 
these Acadians who are colloquially called " Cajans " and who 
are to be distinguished from the Creoles, the descendants of 
stock direct from Europe, constitute a large proportion of the 
French speaking people of South Louisiana. An old time con- 
temporary of the Acadians of Nova Scotia is reported as 
having said that in all of his experience he had not known 
more than one or two who could read or write. The reports 
of the census bureau are not reassuring on this point today. 

In 1910 the percentage of illiteracy among the white people 
over ten years of age in these parishes averaged twenty-nine 
and in some of them was as high as forty-two. The problems 
readily begin to mask the romance. In fact a climate devoid 
of stimulating rigor, although it is not without its hardships 
even including a certain sort of coldness, combined with the 
hereditary qualities of this French peasant stock, and intimate 
contact with another race in which the spirit of the tropics is 

personified, has conspired to produce a decidedly difficult 
cultural problem. Moreover, none of these parishes contains 
less than 12 per cent colored population, while some have as 
high as 67 per cent. 

Here, for example, is a story told by Ella Graham, one of 
the Red Cross field representatives, and herself of French 
descent. Aunt Trudeau was a rather celebrated teacher of 
the Acadians, and lived in Point Coupee garish. Directly 
across the bayou from her lived an Acadian family whose name 
was David; old man Cacain David, his two sons T'Lou and 
T'Bain, the mother, and the families of the two boys, both of 
whom were married. This was a genuine Acadian family 
without a doubt. So long as anyone could remember no 
member had ever entered a school house door. All worked in 
the fields, the women and girls in short skirts, and with three- 
cornered kerchiefs on their heads. For drinking water they 
pushed the scum back off the bayou and dipped in their 
buckets. Their savings were buried under the house. 

One day T'Lou, the older son, killed a man in a quarrel, 
whereupon father and son consulted a lawyer in the village, 
who set his fee at two thousand dollars. It was a severe 
strain, but the bank under the house was solvent. Perhaps 
the loss of the money suggested the advantage which education 
brings; perhaps something else did. Anyway, next year Aunt 
Trudeau from across the bayou saw T'Lou's little boy starting 
out picturesque as to clothes, but on his back, books and a new 
slate, the first fruits of modernity in that family. 

There are wealthy French farmers, of course, but the mass 
and it is in the mass that our interest lies are small farmers, 
in season, and hunters and fishers the rest of the year. They 
are likely to live back ten miles from the village, or twenty 
miles, and to find the bayous the best, and in wet winters the 
only, method of getting "out front," as they call coming to 





Ten acres, a Creole Tackie or two which is, being trans- 
lated, a diminutive sort of pony, almost a breed in itself 
wagons and primitive fanning implements to match, and in the 
center the unpainted cabin with two rooms, a " gallery " and 


a loft; this is home. Add a rod, gun, spinning wheel and 
loom, and furniture from our friend's own carpenter bench, 
and the equipment is nearing completion. In planting time, 
Pierre carries the hoe and opens the soil; Marie and the 
children cast in the seeds. Corn, cotton, potatoes, in they go. 
Is it a warm February? Pierre forgets that March is liable 
to freeze, and plants too early, for March does freeze. 

" Eh bien! " A shrug of the shoulders, and replanting is a 
matter of course. Farm work laid aside, fishing begins. 
Those who know these peasant folk intimately say that it is 
not entirely for the fish, but also because of an ineradicable 
second nature that fishpole and shoulder are such inseparable 

One can buy Mrs. Johnston's little volume, Acadia, bound 
in Acadian home-spun cloth. One may, in many a hidden 
village eat Gumbo Filet, a thick soup of oysters, cray-fish, and 
crabs, thickened with the powdered dry leaves of the sassafras 
tree, or drink cafe au lalt, concocted of parched sugar, boiling 
milk and black coffee. However, unless one is especially lucky 
he will not dance at a fete de dor, the all night dance of the 
far interior. There is an exclusiveness about this characteristic 
social event that few more complex societies can rival, and 
some of its conventions are still enforced, so report runs, at 
the point of knife or gun. 

It is a land whose quaint church steeples everywhere indi- 
cate that once church architecture was not sterile. Perhaps a 
story will illustrate the best type of the church's influence, 
which has by no means always been so socialized in character: 
False River lies, a stagnant pool cut off from its true course, 
in the parish of Point Coupee. Rumor has it that the French 
people drinking out of this " chenal " became of green com- 
plexion, and still more serious, ill of typhoid fever. The priest 
had been a physician in France, and his investigating eye fell 
with suspicion upon the tall water jars standing in some shady 
spot in every Acadian home. " Boil the water," he com- 
manded. When his order was not obeyed he went from house 
to house breaking water jars with his walking stick. 


OF course the war came to the Acadians as to all America. 
There is a genuine com- 
parison between the trials of 
many of these boys torn from 
home for the first time and the 
tragedy of exile suffered by 
their distant forebearers. Some 
of this may be glimpsed 
through the sympathetic eyes 
of the Home Service chairman 

of Jefferson Davis parish. That is the seat of the famous 
Jennings cavalry, who fought their way through the war on 
the western front with only one man lost; and they did fight 
at that. Many of these boys had fairly grown up in the house 
of the Home Service chairman, so open had it always been to 
young people. She is the wife of a physician, which of course, 
explains a great deal. From the training camp on this side of 
the water the letters came back puzzled and discouraged. 
Many of the young soldiers could not speak English. But 
from France the letters came back triumphant. The first vic- 
tory was over the English speaking Sammie in the romantic 
struggle for the favor of the French girl. French brides at 
the end of the war came into proud and quite completely under- 
standing new homes. The return of the Jennings cavalry was 
a procession of glory. People hung onto the outside of that 
railroad train from miles down the road, stayed with the boys 
through the day long celebration, and saw them carried home, 
one by one, behind the Creole Tackies to the cabins beside the 
bayous. But listen to the story of Raoul. 

Raoul had married Honore on the eve of his departure for 
camp. On his return the two stood proudly in the front room 
of the Home Service chairman's house. 

" I wish to thank you for caring for Honore while I am 
gone," said Raoul. " I am very glad that I go. As you see I 
am come back, and Honore says, a so much better man." It 
was a rather long speech, but he added, " Like President 

He was asked whether he found Honore just the same. 
" No," he said, " She is change, too. She is like you now." 
The names of those who served on the Red Cross committees 
while the boys were away, like the names of the parishes, tell 
their own story. Richard Melancon, Emma Pujos, Amet 
Guillot, Delphene Plauche, Louise Chaisson. Honore Savoie, 
Juanita Daye, Luben Laurent, Sim Parent. These are only a 
few of the hundreds. Sim Parent, himself of fine old Creole 
family, tells how at times his Home Service mail piled up until 
it filled a market basket. It was difficult to find assistants who 
could master it. One evening he did persuade a school teacher 
to carry the basket away, but the next morning teacher and 
basket returned. 

" Ha, eet is again ze basket of mail for Home Service Sec- 
tion. But eef no one else can answer to ze soldier boys, then 
must Mr. Sim Parent." 

When the war was over committees in these parishes took 
heartily to the scheme of making the Home Service work per- 
manent. Point Coupee, Avoyelles, Allen, St. Landry, Acadia, 
Vermillion, Terrebonne, and Ascension, in the very heart of 
the French district are all on the extended program of Home 
Service, beside East Baton Rouge, and many parishes to the 
north where the French people are numerous, but not so pre- 
dominant. Public health nursing has begun in St. Mary and 
in other districts on the border of the French parishes. 

Social work in South Louisiana would still present problems 
if the population were entirely Acadian. However, there are 
the Creoles as well (which presents at least a complication), 
and there are Indians, Italians, Malayans, Spanish Creoles, and 
various combinations of these elements, in addition to the 
Negro and his various racial admixtures. Below Houma, for 

example, Malayans migrating 
there for the oyster fishing 
have, it is reported, mixed 
their blood with the Indians 
and Negroes. The Red Bones 
of Calcasieu are said to be a 
mixture of Indian and Negro. 
A peculiar Spanish strain hides 
away in one of the middle west 



parishes, and an admixture of Germanic blood remains in the 
vicinity of Des Allemands in LaFourche, thanks to John Law 
and the Mississippi Bubble. 

Estelle Coale Alpha who organized the public health nursing 
in St. Mary parish has evolved a technique all her own in 
working with these varied groups as they are represented in 
her territory. Twelve miles from the nearest station, to illus- 
trate, lies a tract of woodland which a French woman of means 
has divided into small farms. She asked Mrs. Alpha to talk 
to the mothers. Mrs. Alpha, for the occasion, wore no uni- 
form as all uniforms are feared. She did wear a pretty dress 
and a bright colored tie, because colors are loved. When the 

As for statistics, they are, of course, inadequate and probably 
inaccurate to some degree. St. Mary Parish has a population 
of perhaps 43,000, of which presumably one-half is colored. 
The births in 1918 as recorded were 357 white and 353 
colored; the parish spent $21.14 for health purposes; 21 white 
babies and 30 Negro babies are said to have died before they 
were one month old. Deaths from specific diseases included: 
typhoid 22, malaria 15, measles 3, whooping-cough 6, dysen- 
tery 13, pellagra 6, tuberculosis (lungs) 63, other tuberculosis 
10, syphilis 6, cancers 20, pneumonia 107, death by violence 
27, influenza 165, all other causes 320; total 783; death 
rate 18.1. 


"IT/ILL social work be- 
come a permanent 
institution in these par- 

^^tfi&ff&L ishes? It is too 

early to tell. The 
Red Cross is far 
from being the only 
agency interested ; 
the State Board of 
Health is inter- 
ested, the Depart- 
ment of Education 
and the Depart- 

talk began in the tiny school house, 
only one woman could be per- 
suaded to come in, but no harm 
being offered her, others crept in 
one by one until the room was full. 
Of course the language spoken was 
French. However, the moment 
Mrs. Alpha had finished, silently 
and quickly they all stole out and 
into the forest. It was after 
just such humble beginnings, after 
months of most tentative sug- 
gestion, and inviolably regarded 

promises, that progress began to be made. The houseboat 
colony came to know and trust her; the seventy children in 
the one room school house, who drank from the stagnant 
bayou, came to look eagerly for her, and strangely and fatally 
insanitary ways began in some small measure to be mended. 
The work has begun. 

More than half of the expectant mothers in the parish of 
St. Mary are still attended by colored midwives, of whom 
there are one hundred and fourteen registered. A steaming 
kettle of corn husks indicates by the manner in which the steam 
rises whether the mother's pains will be difficult. Tea made 
from the earth nests of the " mud dauber " wasps, and a 
hundred concoctions of bitter herbs are fed to infant and adult 
by the Negro " voo doo " doctors, patronized by black and 
white alike. 


ment of Agriculture, to mention only three others. Visitors 
to the National Conference of Social Work at New Orleans 
will have an opportunity of visiting a genuine old plantation 
in the very center of this region. Perhaps they will be able 
to make some shrewd judgments for themselves. Those who 
may not be fortunate enough to make this trip into the Acadian 
country, will at least have opportunity to catch a glimpse of 
the old French life in the French quarter (the Vieux Carre), 
of New Orleans. The local Entertainment Committee of the 
National Conference of Social Work is making every prepara- 
tion to introduce visitors into the atmosphere of the ancient 
city of balconies, quaint eating houses and historic squares and 
churches in the center of which stands the St. Louis Cathedral, 
the Cabildo, or old Spanish State House, and the one-time 
home of the Ursuline nuns. 



S. C., AN ACADIAN, stranded in an Okla- 
homa town, and ill with lumbago. 

V. M., A CONSUMPTIVE, unable to work; 
with six children he has been unable to sup- 
port for the last three years. 

X. FAMILY; destitute; several members 
of the family were ill and needing not only 
food and clothing, but medical attention. __^_ 

B. CHILDREN ; found in the streets of N ; 
the mother in destitute circumstances, living under improper 
conditions and sending the children out to beg. 

A. G. BABY, reported by neighbors to be seriously burned ; 
the G. family living in a corn crib on an almost impassable 
road where the doctor could not reach them often. 

W. L., FATHER OF A LARGE FAMILY. The man had had 
two serious operations, has been ill for a long time, suffering 
from want of food and clothing. Died while the family was 
under care. 

M. B., SICK OF CREEPING PARALYSIS; his wife and three 
babies suffering from want of the necessities of life; while 
peculiar condition of his illness was that he had an ab- 
normal appetite. 

E. K., AN EPILEPTIC with but one arm, his wife a consump- 
tive, their six children of school age unable to attend school 
until provided with books, shoes and clothing. 

A. M., ABOUT SEVENTY-FIVE; his wife, ten years younger, 
ill, partly as a result of overtaxing her strength by trying to 
earn a little money by picking cotton. They are having a list 
passed around to collect money to provide food and clothing 
for the winter. 

A. B., A WIDOW, mother of seven children ; the 
eldest, a boy of eighteen, an idiot, with an ab- 
normal appetite; who when not fed every hour 
screams so violently that his mother was un- 
able to live in a village where she might find 
employment, because the neighbors would 
not endure the noise. All the mother's care 
and attention was required by this boy, and, 
as a result, the other children went un 
clothed and too often unfed. 


FIVK years of age, the 


from the 

circulator of a petition to collect money 
enough to go to New Orleans for hospital 
treatment. He was suffering from a dislo- 
cated shoulder. The " list " was stopped 
and investigation made. It was found that 
he had already collected enough money to fit 
him out entirely. The Red Cross helped 
him to purchase the necessary clothing, noti- 
fied the Home Service office in New Or- 
leans, bought his ticket and took him to the train in the Red 
Cross car. He was met by a Home Service worker in New 
Orleans and accompanied to the hospital, where he is still be- 
ing treated. Every week the Home Service worker visits him 
in the hospital. B. is old and infirm and it may be advisable 
to put him in a home for the infirm. On making inquiries in 
this direction it was learned that much can be done to make 
that institution more habitable. Through the efforts of the 
police jurors assisted by the Red Cross, an improvement is 
being brought about. 

MRS. D., EIGHTY YEARS OLD; living with a sickly son and 
daughter, who could not furnish her with warm clothes and 

L. J., A SOLDIER in the regular army; owning land and farm 
implements; anxious to get a furlough to the reserve in order 
to support his wife by working on the farm. 

MRS. P. D., A WOMAN OF SEVENTY-FIVE; cared for by her 
nephew, who had nine children to support; the extra person 
making just the difference between enough and too little for 
the family. 

MRS. G. B. G., A WIDOW of seventy-five, living with 
a son who is sickly; herself sick in bed when first 
i visited, without enough covers to keep her warm. 

A. P., A COLORED MAN and an ex-soldier, tuber- 
culous, requiring a long stay at the hospital. 
L. L., TWENTY-ONE years old; tuberculosis 
of the bones; his mother dead; his father too 
poor and ignorant to give him the proper care. 
MR. G. AND WIFE; both found 
ill with pneumonia; extremely 
destitute; no bedding and no one 
to nurse them. 


with three children he tries to 
support by fishing as he is not 
strong enough for any heavier 
work. During the preceding 
winter they had escaped star- 
vation by a narrow 


Behind the old church at ThiboJaux. LaFourche Parish 

Centralia before the Court 

A First Hand Report from Montesano 

ONE who has not tried fairly and honestly to sum- 
marize in brief space the testimony of three hun- 
dred witnesses in a murder trial hardly appreciates 
the difficulties involved. If all the testimony were 
concentrated on a few outstanding contentions it would still 
be difficult but, when the case involves a multitude of rami- 
fications all aimed to contribute directly or indirectly to the 
establishment or denial of motives and acts, the difficulties are 
increased. Add intense feeling and hatred on both sides and 
one faces the problem of making clear what happened in the 
drama enacted at Centralia on November n, 1919. Some of 
the evidence is conflicting on the main points at issue, a good 
deal of it is conflicting on details more or less closely involved, 
and these conflicts inevitably raise the question of the credi- 
bility of the witness. 

Let us consider the scene for a moment. 
A patriotic parade stops on the street. The attention of the 
paraders and spectators is directed to nothing in particular. 
In the twinkling of an eye doors are smashed, windows crash, 
shots are fired, men fall dead or wounded in the street and the 
crowd scatters in every direction. 

In relating briefly these occurrences it is not presumed they 
are stated in the order of occurrence but merely to indicate 
what happened in a brief period of time. Naturally those 
present differ as to what happened and as to the sequence of 
the events. When it was all over and an attempt was made to 
correlate events inferences might be drawn which are not 
noted at the time but which could and might have been the 
forerunners of the events actually seen or heard. These in- 
ferences might, and probably would, become more clearly 
fixed in the mind if reiterated and emphasized by either side 
in working up its case. Suggestion might supplement the 
events actually noted until the witness would be unable to 
separate what was seen or heard from what was not. Im- 
possibilities he had not contemplated confront him on the 
witness stand and apparent falsification is the result. Add to 
this intense feeling and one sees the reason for much that is 
conflicting and apparently false. Perhaps none but unbiassed 
minds trained to consider scientifically, weigh and segregate 
the probable from the improbable could separate the true from 
the false, and a jury as ordinarily drawn does not possess these 

The state's contentions as presented by Prosecuting-Attorney 
Allen at the trial of the Centralia men in the county court 
at Montesano may be summarized, as follows: 

The Armistice day parade marched north on Tower avenue to 
Third street and there turned and retraced its steps. In marching 
down Tower avenue the parade extended over approximately the 
entire street but when it began turning it became necessary to con- 
tract the ranks to one-half of the street in order to allow those who 
had turned an opportunity to pass. Some confusion resulted in 
making the turn and in order to close up the ranks it was necessary 
to halt the Centralia division whose front had reached Second street 
At the head of the division stood Warren O. Grimm for whose death 
the defendants are on trial. The I. W. W. hall was located on 
Tower avenue some 150 feet back of the front of the Centralia 
division and opposite a part of the division. While some of the 
men in the division were marking time and the others were closing 
up ranks shots were fired at the marchers. At first the men did 
not realize what was happening but as soon as they did realize they 
were being fired upon they broke ranks and scattered. These shots 
are estimated to number 150 to 200 and came from four places from 
the Arnold and Avalon hotels located across the street from the 
I. W. W. hall and a little to the north and south respectively, from 
Seminary Ridge, an elevation of ground 1,000 feet to the east of 

Tower avenue, and from the I. W. W. hall. The defendants are 
on trial for the murder of Grimm alone, but the facts of his murder 
are so closely blended with the killing of the others that the circum- 
stances covering the shooting of the others make the whole trans- 
action a unit. Grimm was killed by a bullet from a 38-55 calibre 
gun firing a split-nose bullet. When the marchers realized that 
shots were coming from the I. W. W. Hall they invaded and sur- 
rounded it and captured defendants Britt, Smith, Mclnerney, Becker. 
Sheehan and Faulkner, together with Wesley Everest, who was 
lynched that night. The prosecuting attorney further contended 
that after frequent discussions of plans, during which the shooting 
was premeditated, Bert Bland, Loren Roberts and Ole Hanson (a 
fugitive) stationed themselves on Seminary Ridge and began shoot- 
ing as soon as the shooting began on Tower avenue. Eugene Bar- 
rett and one Davis (a fugitive) stationed themselves in the Avalon 
hotel and from this position was fired the bullet that killed Grimm- 
and O. C. Bland and John Lamb fired from the Arnold hotel. The 
state did not contend that Faulkner did any shooting but he was in 
: hall when the plans were made and when the shooting occurred 
bheehan a so was present but unarmed although it was contended 
: was willing to shoot but was so awkward with a gun that it had 
leen taken from him. Elmer Smith, an attorney, was charged with 
:mg an accessory because it was alleged he had advised them that 
i raid was planned, what their legal rights were, and had gone over 
le plans ot defense with Britt Smith, the secretary of the I. W- W. 
In response to direct questions by Vanderveer, at the close 
of his statement, Prosecutor Allen said the state would contend 
that there was no raid upon the hall and that the marchers 
were fired upon while in the street under orders of their offi- 
cers and marking time. 

Attorney Vanderveer, for the defense, in his statement to 
the jury insisted that despite the state's contention to the 
contrary the issue was "capitalism against the new labor 
philosophy ' which found its expression in the I. W. W. 
This philosophy demanded that the industrial system be con- 
ducted for social service and not for profit. This philosophy 
was extremely distasteful to employers and that there de- 
veloped out of the Centralia branch of the Merchants and 
Manufacturers Association a plot to drive the I. W. W. out 
of existence in spite of the statements of the city officials that 
. W. W. were violating no law and had a right to main- 
tain headquarters there. He exonerated the members of the 
American Legion who, he said, were merely the catspaws of 
the employers. He charged that a secret committee of em- 
ployers was appointed to plan the elimination of the I. W. 
W.'s. On a previous occasion their hall had been raided and 
their property destroyed and it was widely known a similar 
raid was in contemplation. Protests had been made and pro- 
tection asked from the regularly constituted peace officers of 
the city and county, and failing to receive any assurances of 
protection from these officials the men determined to protect 
their lives and property. Referring to outrages against law 
and order in other places throughout the West, Vanderveer 
declared : 

All this had been given wide publicity. The I. W. W.'s had been 
chained, beaten, tarred and feathered, kidnapped and tortured, and 
having appealed in vain to the authorities he asked, "What would 
you have done ? " 

He would show that the parade was stopped in front of the 
I. W. W. hall as a part of the plan ; that a detachment of ex- 
service men had already passed the hall and an officer on 
horseback blew a whistle and galloping forward asked. 
" Aren't you fellows in on this?"; that the paraders raided the 
hall, and smashed in the doors and windows before a shot wa 
fired; that while most of the ex-service men knew nothing 
about the contemplated raid it was deliberately planned by the 
leaders who expected the men to act on the spur of the moment 
and wipe out the I. W. W. 




The sheriff and others who assisted in making arrests took 
the stand to identify a number of guns and revolvers and the 
defense admitted identification and ownership of all but two 
a revolver, and the 38.55 rifle a bullet from which, it was 
charged, killed Grimm. From the sheriff, Vanderveer tried to 
get the details of the lynching of Everest, but the attempt in 
this direction was ruled out by the court. Vanderveer's con- 
tention that he had a right to show what happened to Everest 
as an explanation of why some of the defendants made con- 
fessions was overruled. His repeated efforts later to the same 
end were unsuccessful. The state then introduced a large 
mass of testimony to show when and where the various de- 
fendants were captured, the guns found in their possession, 
the loaded and empty shells found, and the identification of 
articles of clothing found and belonging to defendants. The 
bullets that killed Grimm (38.55 calibre) and McElfresh (22 
calibre) were identified and offered in evidence. 

The state contended, and introduced a number of witnesses 
to show, that the 38.55 rifle belonged to Barnett and was 
fired from a window of the Avalon Hotel. The gun itself was 
later found hidden behind a signboard a half-mile or more 
from the scene of shooting. A number of witnesses testified 
that they saw a man shooting from the window of the Avalon, 
but some of those that went so far as to identify the man at 
the window as Barnett were badly shaken on cross-examina- 
tion. A boy who knew Barnett well saw the shooting from 
the window, but positively denied it was Barnett. Another 
witness claimed to positively identify Barnett with the rifle in 
his possession as he passed out of the alley back of the Avalon 
a few minutes after the shooting. Barnett swore he was in 
the Roderick hotel when the shooting began and the landlord 
and landlady corroborated him on this point. A number of 
witnesses testified to seeing him on his way home after the 
shooting, the general tendency of this evidence going to show 
that he did not have time to hide the gun where it was found. 
Another witness testified that he was sawing wood within a 
few feet of the signboard in question, on November II, and 
that it would be impossible to hide the gun there without his 
knowledge, Barnett denied ownership of the gun. The de- 
fense did not deny the shooting from the Avalon but denied 
that Barnett did it, the inference being that it was done by one 
Davis, a fugitive. 

ONE of the most sensational pieces of evidence introduced 
by the state was the confession of Loren Roberts, a de- 
fendant, who was stationed on Seminary Ridge in company 
with Bert Bland and Ole Hanson, a fugitive. Bland later 
took the stand and admitted shooting from the ridge. Roberts 
is " a youth of 2O with a character as pale as his skin, the 
natural prey of others, the weak accomplice of strong 
schemers." In his confession he told of the discussions of the 
expected raid in the I. W. W. hall, and of the suggestion 
made that the buildings opposite would be " good places to 
be " ; but on mature reflection he and his companions decided 
on the ridge as affording better chances of escape. He main- 
tained in his confession that they began shooting after the 
firing started at the hall, that the ex-soldiers rushed the hall 
after the shooting began and not before, that Attorney Smith 
had informed them that they had " a perfect right to defend 
the hall and that no mob could run us out of there." And 
that it was the expectation that the raiders would be armed. 
The defense objected to the introduction of the confession 
on the ground that Roberts was insane. The court after 
taking the matter under advisement over-ruled the objection 
holding that the offer of the defense to prove insanity was a 
matter that goes to " the weight to be attached to the evidence 
rather than its competency." The jury was instructed that 

the confession was not to be considered evidence against any of 
the defendants except Roberts himself, and the defense was 
allowed to offer proof of insanity later. This evidence the 
defense did offer through a number of witnesses, the most im- 
portant being Dr. A. P. Calhoun, a member of the American 
Legion, a fraternity brother of Grimm's, and for years in 
charge of one of the Washington state hospitals for the insane. 
Dr. Calhoun declared there was no doubt in his mind that at 
that time Roberts was insane but he declined to state specific- 
ally whether he was sane or insane at the time the confession 
was made. In rebuttal the state introduced Drs. William 
House and John F. Calbreath, alienists of Portland, three local 
physicians and other witnesses all of whom were of the opinion 
that Roberts was sane. 

Perhaps the star witness for the prosecution was Tom Mor- 
gan, a former I. W. W., who was arrested with defendants 
at the I. W. W. hall following the shooting. Morgan is a 
youth of nineteen who had worked at logging. Morgan was 
" broke " and made a number of visits to the I. W. W. hall to 
borrow money for meals and bed from Ray Becker, one of the 
defendants. He testified he was in the hall before and during 
the raid. Although he was a perfect stranger to all except 
Becker whom he had known only a few days, he heard more or 
less of a raid ; was present when guns were brought in and 
carried out to the places from which the shooting later came; 
saw Attorney Smith in the hall talking in subdued tones to 
Britt Smith, the secretary; saw Britt Smith point in the direc- 
tion of the Avalon and Arnold hotels, from which he con- 
cluded plans had been made to station men there; and heard 
Britt Smith say, in answer to a question from Attorney Smith, 
that he thought he had plenty of men. Morgan remained in 
the hall until driven out by the raiders and although offered 
a gun, which he refused, he took no part in the shooting and 
seems to have had no purpose there nor any appreciation of 
danger until the shooting began. He was positive firing began 
across the street before the raid was made on the hall, he saw 
the ex-soldiers scatter and then fled himself. On cross exami- 
nation, while sticking rigidly to his story, he admitted that he 
had been in jail since November n; that he did not know 
whether he was or had ever been charged with murder; he had 
never asked, nor been told, why he was in jail nor how long 
he was to be kept there ; that no promises of freedom had been 
made him and that he did not know nor inquire whether he 
would be released when the trial was over or not. The de- 
fense tried to show that Morgan's confession was the result 
of his having seen Everest beaten and abused before he was 
lynched but all questions to this end were ruled out. 

Another point from which shots were fired was, the state 
contended, the Arnold hotel. Evidence was introduced to 
show that O. C. Bland and John Lamb rented a room there 
and that shots were fired and a window broken out of this 
room. The defense admitted that the defendants rented the 
room and were there during the shooting but denied that any 
shots were fired from there. Bland testified that when he saw 
the paraders raid the hall he pushed his gun through the glass 
but in doing so cut a ligament in his hand and was unable to 
shoot. The proprietor of the hotel was standing on the side- 
walk below and when the glass fell he rushed up stairs to 
ascertain the cause. Bland was bleeding and both men left 
at once through the back way. The proprietor had heard no 
shots from the room, found no smoke nor empty shells there, 
and his wife corroborated his testimony in part. Lamb cor- 
roborated Eland's testimony and declared he himself was un- 

The central point of controversy was whether or not the 
I. W. W. hall was raided before the shooting began or 



whether the shooting began first and then the hall was raided. 
Scores of witnesses testified as to this particular point and the 
testimony was hopelessly in conflict. The opposing witnesses 
squarely and emphatically contradicted each other. Many on 
both sides of this question were ex-service men in the parade, 
others were spectators viewing the parade from various points 
of observation. Counting mere members the state probably had 
more witnesses than the defense but they were not more posi- 
tive nor clear-cut in their testimony on this point. 

AS soon as the state rested, Vanderveer argued for a di- 
rected verdict in the cases of Faulkner, Elmer Smith and 
Sheehan. Faulkner and Sheehan, like Morgan, were unarmed 
and no evidence was offered that either had fired a shot. The 
court after considering the citations presented released Faulk- 
ner but held Sheehan because the evidence showed he was 
given a gun to use and that later it was taken away from him 
because of his awkwardness with it. A strong plea was made 
for the release of Elmer Smith, on the ground that there was 
no evidence of complicity further than Morgan's testimony 
which related to a conversation which Morgan did not hear 
and that Britt Smith pointed across the street during this 
conversation. Attorney Smith's statement that the I. W. W. 
had a right to defend their property Vanderveer held was 
proper in law and morals. The court concluded to allow the 
evidence as to Sheehan and Elmer Smith to go to the jury. 

Shortly after the defense began the presentation of its case, 
a detachment of United States Troops were sent to Montesano 
from Camp Lewis in response to a request by the prosecution 
forwarded through Governor Hart. These troops were re- 
quested by the prosecution without consulting with the sheriff 
or the trial judge, both of whom denied the necessity for their 
presence. The defense strenuously objected declaring that they 
were intended to influence the jury and their presence was a 
most glaring form of propaganda intended to increase the 
prejudice already strong and make a fair trial impossible. 
Judge Wilson called upon the prosecution for the reasons that 
actuated them in the matter. These were given him in pri- 
vate and not made public. After mature consideration he de- 
cided that as he had nothing to do with bringing the troops, 
he would no nothing to have them removed though he saw no 
necessity for them and considered the whole affair a most un- 
usual procedure. The troops erected tents in a vacant lot 
adjoining the court house, though their main camp was some 
distance away, and the jury became cognizant of their pres- 
ence while taking their daily exercise. 

All through the trial Vanderveer attempted to show that 
the raid on the I. W. W. hall was a concerted plan on the 
part of certain business interests in Centralia aided and en- 
couraged by similar interests outside that city. He tried to 
show that the Citizens' Protective League grew out of the 
business organization and that a secret committee had been 
named to make plans to drive out the I. W. W.'s, and carry 
them through. He tried further to show that knowledge of 
the proposed raid was so generally known that it came up for 
discussion before the Lewis County Trades Council made up 
of about 25 delegates representing various labor unions. He 
contended that he should be allowed to show these things in 
order to get the frame of mind of the I. W. W. who de- 
fended and had a right to defend their property. Britt Smith 
lived in the back of the hall and technically it was his home. 
The rulings of the court blocked all these attempts. The 
judge insisted that in a trial over the killing of Grimm, it 
was incumbent upon the defense to show that an overt act 
had been committed by Grimm, or that he was definitely con- 
nected with a conspiracy to raid the hall and there was an 

overt act on the part of the conspirators before any evidence 
of a conspiracy among the business interests was competent. 
This overt act on the part of Grimm, Vanderveer could not 
show to the satisfaction of the court. The nearest approach 
to it was by three witnesses who saw a large man in uniform 
within a few feet of the door of the hall. They thought it 
was Grimm but would not positively swear it was Grimm and 
none of them satisfied the court of any overt act on Grimm's 
part. It is significant to note that two of these witnesses 
were arrested and charged with perjury immediately upon 
leaving the court room. The failure to connect Grimm with 
an overt act shut out a large mass of testimony and probably 
shortened the trial by a week. 

Judge Wilson instructed the jury that 

the collection of arms to be used in self-defense of person or prop- 
erty is of itself proper and lawful, but the law does not authorize 
the collection of arms and the placing of armed men at outside sta- 
tions in defense of persons, habitations, or property inside the habita- 
tion, and if you find that any two or more of the defendants, in the 
manner and form and at the time charged in the information, 
planned to defend the I. W. W. hall, or the property therein, or 
any of the persons therein, by the stationing of armed men in the 
Avalon hotel, the Arnold hotel and on Seminary hill for the purpose 
of shooting from those points, all persons actually or apparently 
engaged in a raid or attack upon the I. W. W. hall or the persons 
or property therein, the placing of such men and the shooting from 
said outside points, would not be lawful acts of defense of person 
or property, but would be unlawful, and if you find that any two 
or more of the defendants carried out said plan and as a natural, 
necessary or probable result thereof, Warren O. Grimm was shot 
and killed as charged in the information, then such killing would 
be unlawful and would be murder, and each and all of the defend- 
ants so planning or participating therein, would be guilty of murder. 
But I advise you that the mere collection and presence of arms is not 
sufficient whereon to base an inference of guilt of the defense or 
any of them, nor a proof of conspiracy. 

As to Elmer Smith the jury was told that if the only evidence 
was that he informed the I. W. W. that they had a legal right 
to protect their hall he should be acquitted. 

THE jury after deliberating all day, returned a verdict 
which the court refused to receive because Eugene Bar- 
nett and John Lamb were found guilty of murder in the third 
degree, which is manslaughter. Under the instructions of the 
court the jury was informed that the verdict must be mur- 
der in the first, or second degree, or acquittal. Two hours 
further consideration brought verdicts of guilty of murder in 
the second degree against the defendants Barnett, Lamb, Mc- 
Inerney, Backer, Bert Bland, O. C. Bland and Britt Smith. 
Elmer Smith and Sheehan were found not guilty and Loren 
Roberts was declared insane. Murder in the second degree 
is punishable by imprisonment of from 15 years to life. War- 
rants charging the defendants with murdering Arthur Mc- 
Elfresh had already been prepared and were promptly served. 
When the new warrants were served the defendants made 
the corridors of the jail ring with the echoes of an I. W. W. 

The attorneys on either side promptly expressed their dis- 
approval of the verdict but for opposite reasons. It is very 
probable that the cases will be appealed in order to get the 
Supreme Court's rulings on the necessity or sufficiency of the 
proof relating to an overt act committed by Grimm, and also 
on the court's ruling that the stationing of men outside the 
hall was not a lawful form of defense of life and property. 
The mass of exceptions taken and allowed during the trial 
may also contain grounds for appeal. Whether the trial of 
the defendants for the shooting of the other ex-service men 
will wait upon the Supreme Court's decisions in this case has 
not been announced. 

Montesano, Wash. E. M. 

The Dope Doctor 

And Other City Cousins of the Moonshiner 
By Thomas S. Blair, M. D. 

MOONSHINE, or illicit liquor, has long been a 
sporting-chance proposition full of joy to the 
gambler in human wits. Now that prohibition 
has blighted the erstwhile legitimate liquor trade, 
it is more illicit and halcyon than ever. " Mountain dew " 
moonshiners fit into backwoods environment, but they are out 
of drawing in the city. Moonshining is a community game 
requiring a certain morale and comradeship, and the moon- 
shiner runs with the pack and does not like the lone trail. 
Yet a form of moonshine without any " mountain dew " flavor 
is endemic in most large towns if one digs under the surface. 

The illicit dealer in what is commonly called " dope " is 
different in breed from the moonshiner; he is a city cousin to 
the moonshiner, but he is a commercialist, not an idealist smart- 
ing under the restrictions of the internal revenue laws. He 
does not carry a gun; he employs a lawyer of a kind, and a 
chemist, also of a kind. He may go under the guise of a patent 
medicine manufacturer, or he may make frank alcoholic con- 
coctions to be peddled or bootlegged. 

There are three kinds of illicit dealers in " dope," the term 
" dope " covering alcoholic substitutes for honestly made 
liquors first, the alcohol concocter; second, the illicit dealer 
in narcotic and other habit-inducing drugs; third, the fellow 
with too little courage to break the alcohol and narcotic laws, 
except in spirit, and who makes up concoctions that simply 
violate the Pure Food and Drugs act of the federal govern- 
ment, and he may not place his wares in interstate traffic, thus 
evading prosecution unless state laws intervene. 

From the point of view of the liquor trade it was a mistake 
to commercialize the barkeeper. Had he been quasi-profes- 
sionalized, he might now be in business, or practice, as one 
may view it. Mark the chiropractics, naprapractics, magnetic 
healers, and the whole fraternity of quasi-professional imitators 
of legitimate medicine who in many states are recognized as 
practicing " professions," are governed by legislature-created 
" boards of examiners," and are given certain privileges and 
immunities conferring the precious American prerogative of a 
profession to do about as it jolly well pleases. Just so a fellow- 
is called " doctor " and has a diploma, puts on a bold front, 
wears good clothing and has a professional card printed, be he 
what he may as a man and a scholar, he is accepted as one to 
whom special immunities may be given. 

According well-merited praise to the medical profession, 
made up, as it is, largely of a personnel that needs no praise 
except that earned by its many merits and graces, it must be 
conceded that certain of its members are no more high-grade 
practitioners than are the ignorant Negro " preachers " in the 
Southland distinguished theologians. 

Pharmacy started as a legitimate profession intended to aid 
the medical profession. But the commercial cut-rate medicine- 
store man is now called " doctor," much to the disgust of the 
educated pharmacist. The profession of pharmacy is now in 
a bad way because it has largely been commercialized; and 
half of the ills of the medical profession are due to this same 
gradually encroaching commercialism. 

Yes, what a sorry mistake the liquor men made! For if the 
liquor interests had regulated the ethics of the business, had 


established standards paralleling the pharmacopeias and offi- 
cial formularies used in the drug stores, had disciplined the 
recalcitrant and suppressed abuses, perhaps the saloon would 
not have had to face national prohibition. 

The Law and Narcotics 

STATE regulation, often weak at first, ultimately produces good 
conditions. It will do so ultimately in medicine and pharmacy, 
eliminating mere commercialism and putting the pretender out 
of practice. Commercialism and pretense have eliminated the 
saloon ; and the same things will eliminate mere " dope." 

There are tv"> kinds of prohibitory laws in force as regards 
this present discussion. There are the liquor laws, present and 
prospective, and there is the Harrison Narcotic law, largely par- 
alleled by several state enactments; but it is a fact that all of 
these laws carry certain exemptions for professional people 
physicians, dentists, pharmacists, veterinarians, trained nurses, 
and even for manufacturers of certain patent medicines. The 
latter enjoy a limited exemption compared to practitioners of 
medicine and dentistry. The professional exemptions are in 
the lump, applying to all legally registered practitioners; and 
the intention thereof was good. Unfortunately, " Hell is 
paved with good intentions" of the same kind that some rela- 
tively few professional people exercise when it comes to prac- 
ticing as the patient wants, not as professional judgment would 
dictate as necessary or advisable. And it is in this class 
of professionals that the " dope doctor " and the liquor pre- 
scriber is found. 

The phrase " medicinal purposes " covers a multitude of 
sins sins committed by the relatively few, not by the rank 
and file of the professional practitioners; for it is a fact that 
controlled exemptions for medicinal necessities are right and 
proper, and that the most capable and distinguished members 
of the medical profession find it necessary, in certain cases, 
to employ alcohol and narcotics in their ministrations to the 
sick and injured. 

The degree of exemption accorded to professionals depends 
much on public sentiment. A physician must take out a i-pc- 
cial permit to dispense alcohol from his office. He may pur- 
chase only in limited quantities, and he must account for every 
fluid ounce of liquor dispensed. If he prescribes these agents, 
he must write his prescriptions in duplicate, send them to 
some store designated on the prescription, keep records thereof, 
be actually in attendance on the person for whose use the 
prescription is written, state on the prescription the nature 
of the illness, open a sort of ledger with a separate page given 
to each patient for whom he prescribes, and he may prescribe 
only certain limited amounts. Public sentiment is such that 
the physician is strictly regulated when he prescribes alcohol 
in any form. Public sentiment has been aroused over the alco- 
hol problem. 

As regards the purchase, dispensing and prescribing of nar- 
cotics, the physician has a wider latitude. While he must pay 
a small tax annually and order on government blanks, he is not 
rigidly limited in the amount of his purchases, if at all. He 
must keep a simple record except when narcotics are person- 
ally administered, but is not required to give a separate page 



to each patient on the record. He need not keep duplicates 
of his prescriptions nor write the name of the druggist there- 
on. There is an effort made, not very successful in practice, 
to limit the amount designated in any given prescription, and 
if he writes Incurable Disease on the prescription the amount 
may be quite large. He is not required to keep any record 
of his prescriptions for narcotics sent to drug stores, and in 
the average case need not name the disease for which the 
drug is prescribed. Indeed, the physician and dentist have a 
very wide latitude in the purchase and prescribing of narcotic- 
drugs vastly wider than in the case of alcoholic liquors. Pub- 
lic sentiment has not been widely aroused over narcotic abuses. 

A few of the states have narcotic laws which are more 
stringent than is the national enactment known as the Harri- 
son act, although the latter law has been recently revised 
and court decisions and Treasury regulations have tended to 
make it more rigid. 

Aside from public sentiment the reason for this laxity is 
very apparent, for the use of narcotics has been professional- 
ized. There is no effort made by any enactment, federal or 
state, to legislate beyond the standard literature of the pro- 
fessions. If a reliable textbook on materia medica and thera- 
peutics directs the use of narcotic drugs in any given case, 
legislation goes no further than to demand that narcotics be 
administered only as set forth therein. 

This policy may be wise, or it may not be, according to the 
point of view; but the fact is that standard medical literature 
has not caught up to legislation regarding alcohol, while nar- 
cotic legislation has not quite caught up with standard medi- 
cal literature even in theory, and certainly not in practice. 

Narcotic legislation is not nearly so rigidly enforced as is 
the liquor law ; and this is due to the lack of public sentiment 
in support thereof and to deficient appropriations to support 
an adequate personnel of administrators, inspectors, detectives, 
etc. But over and above all is the fact that professionalism 
dominates in the narcotic situation but does not in the alcohol 

The Public Health Approach 

PREVENTIVE medicine is a composite development contribu- 
ted to by physicians, engineers, chemists, biologists, research 
men, sociologists and economists; and therefore it has de- 
veloped without sect or pathy, peculiar obsessions, traditions 
or narrow professionalism. Sanitarians view medical matters 
very differently from the clinician, and the narcotic proposition 
is an instance in point. 

The clinician, being interested in the immediate relief of 
the individual patient, has built up a certain set of approved 
uses of narcotic drugs, even as he did with alcohol ; and be- 
ing an individualist he has been swayed by the attitudes of 
his patients. The result is that standard textbooks written 
by clinicians recommend narcotic drugs rather freely, though 
less so than formerly. A few years ago opium was almost uni- 
versally recommended in the treatment of peritonitis and the 
first stage of appendicitis, for instance; but the surgeon, more 
iconoclastic and less readily swayed than the internist, now 
dominates the situation and opium is not recommended in 
either condition, and its use is passing out in many other con- 
ditions in which its employment was at one time all but uni- 
versal. The up-to-date dentist who follows advanced tech- 
nique rarely uses opium or morphine at all, and some have 
displaced cocaine in favor of procaine. Then, too, the chem- 
ist has elaborated many pain-relieving and sleep-producing sub- 
stances which are neither narcotic nor habit-inducing. 

All of this advance is taught to the newer generations of 
physicians and dentists ; but the older men who were taught 

under the old regime, when laudanum and even morphine 
were freely sold in the stores, seem slow to learn to do with- 
out very considerable quantities of narcotic drugs in their 

The sanitarian, on the other hand, who pays no heed to 
old traditions and who is daily in contact with men who are 
of professions other than medical, does assimilate at once the 
benefits of new technique and safer remedies; and he views 
the narcotic problem in the large and not as an individualist. 
His is the wider view, for he sees narcotics as a menace to 
public health if used other than as mere emergency remedies. 

The consequence of all this is that the control of narcotic 
abuses is becoming a public health problem, and the rational 
uses of these agents are being more and more limited. Pain 
must be relieved, in most instances, by the removal of its 
underlying cause; sleep must be induced by natural agencies 
or by comparatively safe remedies, and the " old chronic " 
must be taken in hand and something modern and adequate 
done for him. The sanitarian refuses to view the narcotics 
from the standpoint of mere symptomatic relief, and he in- 
sists that the narcotic habituate must be taken in hand, even as 
the alcohol inebriate has been. 

The sanitarian is demanding that the works on therapeutics 
must be rewritten, so far as narcotics are concerned, and the 
narcotic laws as well; they must be brought in line with the 
tenets of sanitation ar.d public hygiene. Furthermore, he de- 
mands that the form of professionalism that interferes with 
the public weal must be set aside for a better one, and that 
the older men must learn the newer ways if they contribute 
to the public good. 

To this end departments of health are insisting on rational 
care of the tuberculous; they are riding rough-shod over the 
messy and inadequate methods of treatment of the person in- 
fected with gonorrhoea or syphilis, two of the main social 
plagues; they are seeing to it that babies and children are given a 
chance to grow up with proper food and modern medical 
and nursing care, and some of them are now starting a strong 
propaganda and practical administration regulating narcotic 
abuses. In this latter work, in which Pennsylvania and New 
York are foremost, it is anticipated that there will be great 
inertia among a certain type of physicians, and even some active 
opposition. But the sanitarians are depending upon public 
support, a support that has not failed in other lines of public 
health work and will not in this one. 

Medical Dope Sellers 

CONTRARY to the commonly entertained view, the " dope doc- 
tor " is a widely-disseminated pest. The newspapers tell of 
the criminal " dope peddler ", of the under-world traffic in 
narcotics, and of the Negro arrested for catering in a small 
way to down-and-out " dopers " in the alleys; but they do 
not tell of the far wider activities of degenerate physicians who 
are, unfortunately, licensed to practice medicine and to buy 
and dispense narcotics, and who systematically evade the laws 
or openly break them. 

The medical dopeseller is, usually, a man or woman over 
fifty years of age. The writer knows the medical dope- 
seller intimately; it is his daily business to know him and his 
ways, as well as the lay peddler and the under-world traf- 
ficker in " dope." 

There are several classes of medical dope-sellers. The most 
troublesome and most hopeless one is the medical man or 
woman who is addicted to the personal use of large quantities 
of narcotics and who is gradually going down the slope. There 
are many, many such, and they are found among: the high 
and low in professional circles. Sad indeed is their position. 



Knowing, in Pennsylvania at least, that they and their rec- 
ords are being constantly watched and records kept of their 
every purchase and prescription of narcotic drugs, they are 
shifty and evasive, constantly lying out of it and making ex- 
cuse when caught. They resort to every subterfuge ; and they 
fairly shudder when they read from time to time that cer- 
tain physicians have had their licenses to practice medicine 
suspended or revoked on account of the awful habit. Most 
of these unfortunate medical people are, aside from the habit 
that makes them dangerous to their patients who need the 
steady hand and clear brain of the capable practitioner, estim- 
able people, and then are treated with every possible con- 
sideration, being sent to institutions for cure of the habit or 
the habit plus disease that has induced it. It is most gratifying 
to record the fact that many of these people " come back " 
and have their licenses to practice and prescribe narcotics re- 
stored to them. 

Some are so far gone that they become vicious, and they 
cater to addiction in other people, doing a vast amount of 
harm. These are the cases that are made public, whereas the 
reformable man or woman is always given a chance without 
publicity. The public does not know, and never will be 
told, the details of some of this rescu* work among physicians 
who have become addicted to drugs; it is too sad and inti- 
mate a story to record in print. 

Then there is the obsessed, ignorant, and often very sympa- 
thetic dope doctor who can't say no to the patients who want 
narcotics constantly prescribed. This old gentleman for he 
often is a thorough-going gentleman, correct in his own habits, 
very much respected, and often prominent in church activi- 
ties is, nevertheless, a mere routinist who is incapable of a 
modern diagnosis or the employment of modern technique. 
And he reports every case of addiction as one of disease other 
than addiction, accepting the statements of every addict, not 
believing the well-proved fact that most addicts lie. This 
man, or woman, for many are women, achieves the unenviable 
reputation of being obliging, and the drug addicts from far 
and near throng to his office, many of them aged people who 
learned the morphine habit years ago, and many more smooth 
rascals who " work " the old doctor for prescriptions for 
drugs they at once secure and peddle in the alleys and often 
supply to immoral resorts. These " good old doctors " are 
one source of supply for " dope peddlers." 

There lie on the table before me the records of three such 
physicians. One is a dear old man in a small community, 
who has dispensed or prescribed an average of eighteen pounds 
of morphine a year enough to keep several large hospitals 
going 829,240 average doses a year. Another, once a promi- 
nent and able physician, often dispensed from his office in one 
year twenty pounds of morphine. The third, a man about 
eighty years of age, wrote more narcotic prescriptions than all 
of the other hundred or so physicians in his city, and after be- 
ing sharply warned wrote 684 addict prescriptions in the 
course of six months, which were seized as evidence against 
him. Yet in other directions this old doctor is of good repu- 
tation, though of very inferior medical attainment. 

The last class of medical dope-seller, or commercial dope 
doctor, is frankly vicious. He is rarely a narcotic addict him- 
self and is in the game for the money he can make out of 
it. Fortunately, such medical men are not numerous. Out 
of about 11,000 physicians in practice in Pennsylvania, it is 
estimated that there were about 150 such men before a rigid 
state law went into effect. Federal and state officials have 
been, and are yet, active in prosecuting them, and the number 
has been materially reduced. Some have left the state to 
prey upon the residents of other districts. It is only a ques- 

tion of time, it is hoped, until all of these men will be out 
of the medical profession in Pennsylvania. 

Just how much morphine, heroin, cocaine, etc., these men 
handle in a year is hard to determine, for they procure a 
great deal illicitly and without leaving record thereof. They 
purchase all they can on federal order blanks, have low pro- 
fessional confederates who also purchase for them, buy sup- 
plies from thieves who raid drug stores and physicians' offices, 
have smugglers in their confidence or smuggle themselves, and 
in every possible way procure narcotic drugs. One of their 
common dodges is to have addicts in their employ who repre- 
sent themselves as ill and who procure prescriptions from 
reputable physicians who are not as discriminating as they 
ought to be. Some of these addicts have several aliases well 
known to those " in the know " and they get prescriptions 
filled under all of these names, procuring amounts far in ex- 
cess of their own consumption, the excess being sold to the 
dope doctor who employs them. 

There passed through my hands during the war a great 
many prescriptions seized in drug stores after being rilled, 
which have forged to them the names of physicians absent in 
the army and navy of the United States. Such dodges seem 
to be preferred by woman addicts who are collecting narcotics 
for the illicit trade; they are hard to apprehend, for they give 
fictitious names and addresses and the druggist can usually 
give a very meager description of them. These people have 
ready sale for all narcotics they collect, and they either peddle 
or sell to the vicious dope doctor. 

In Pennsylvania, where the matter is carefully followed up 
and all professional purchases and prescriptions of a narcotic 
character checked up in detail, there are about 500 physicians 
and dentists whose records are very carefully watched. By 
no means may it be said that most of these men are vicious, 
for they are not, at least not over one-fifth of them ; but they 
are careless or " easy " and many of them are exceedingly 
" hard to show." Most of them are physicians who were in 
practice before there were any narcotic laws, and they are 
openly or secretly opposed to these laws, feeling that they are 
unwarranted intrusions upon their professional prerogatives. 
Every reasonable consideration is given to these men, who 
often are far from reasonable themselves, and every effort is 
made to get them in line with modern views; yet they are a 
serious problem. 

A special report issued by the Bureau of Drug Control of 
the Pennsylvania Department of Health, August, 1919, cred- 
its as the average annual amount of morphine to be charged 
off to each medical practitioner as about two ounces troy; 
of opium, eight ounces; and of cocaine, four drachms and 
forty grains. Legitimate morphine prescriptions average two 
and one-half grains, and addict prescriptions thirty grains; 
but a large number of addict prescriptions call for one ounce 
of morphine each, and many thousands annually call for one 
drachm each. These figures are not mere estimates but are 
compiled from elaborate state-wide reports actually on file in 
the Department of Health bureau having charge. 

An estimate, based on the reports, charges off 90 per cent 
of the total of narcotics to one-third of the practitioners 
the men of inferior talent, most of them over fifty years of 
age. About one-fourth of the opium supplied through pro- 
fessional channels is for external use, and this is true of the 
larger proportion of the cocaine; it is not true of morphine 
or heroin. 

So, then, the figures show that the average man of the 
more capable two-thirds of the Pennsylvania profession must 
be credited, roughly, with only about two and one-third 
drachms of morphine in a year, which is a highly creditable 



record; but the average man of the less capable one-third 
of the profession must be charged with forty-three and two- 
third drachms, or nearly twenty times as much as the more 
capable physician. 

Mr. Estimable Citizen, which physician do you prefer to 
employ in your family? 

As a United States report shows that the per capita con- 
sumption of opium in the Union is thirty-six grains, and of 
Europe about two grains, and therefore the American per 
capita is eighteen times that of Europe; and as the figures 
above show that the more capable American physicians are 
on the European basis in prescribing opiates, the logic is inevi- 
table, viz., that the ignorant and incapable physician must 
bear the onus of practically all of the professional abuse of 
narcotics in this country, with the hundreds of thousands of 
drug addicts induced thereby. 

How long will the United States endure this sort of thing 
from low-grade doctors? And how long will our people 
stand for licensed quackery? 

After thirty years of medical practice it comes as a distinct 
shock to the writer to be obliged to admit that the narcotic 
evil must be largely laid at the feet of his own profession. 
But the honorable physician is accustomed to facing the facts; 
he must face them. 

The Drug Market 

IN 1915, the year the Harrison narcotic law actually went 
into effect, there were imported into the United States 484,- 
027 pounds of standard opium containing 9 per cent of mor- 
phine ; in 1916, 146,658 pounds; and in 1917, only 86,812 
pounds. This shows how effective the Harrison law has been, 
despite contention to the contrary. 

In 1915 the total import of morphine into Canada was 
only 59 ounces from the United States and 200 ounces from 
other sources, quite a drop from its previous record; but in 
1916, when Canada was actively maintaining a big army in 
Europe, she imported from the United States 12,393 ounces 
of morphine, and in 1917 16,496 ounces, and most of this 
she sent overseas. Importations into Canada have largely in- 
creased. In the official year of 1919, there were imported 
into Canada 12,333 ounces of cocaine, which is over one 
ounce for every physician, dentist and veterinarian registered 
in the Dominion. Of morphine there were importations of 
30,087 ounces, or over three ounces per professional person. 
Of crude opium there were importations of 34,263 pounds, 
or over three pounds per professional person. Importations 
into Canada have enormously increased since the war began. 
During the war these importations were largely justified by 
conditions, but the war did not end them. Therefore Canada 
is facing a problem which its House of Commons proposes to 
control by legislation. 

Alarmist reports that Canada sends back to the United 
States a large proportion of her increased importations from 
the United States are not justified. A United States Treas- 
ury Department report entitled Traffic in Narcotic Drugs at- 
tributes to smuggling from Canada the source of supply of 
much of the illicit traffic in the United States Mexico, 
Europe and the Orient being also named as sources of smug- 
gled-in supplies for peddlers and the underworld. This charge, 
as relates to Canada, does not appear very probable, and the 
writer has gone to the right places and to the proper persons, 
here and in Canada, to investigate the actual facts. Canada 
is using too much narcotics since the close of the war; this 
is the problem as involves Canada. 

Now turn to the figures for the United States. As was 
stated before, the opium importation into the United States 

in 1917 was only 86,812 pounds, the very year of our heaviest 
shipments to Canada. This war-promoted traffic with Canada 
nearly cleaned up our stocks of crude opium from which our 
manufacturing chemists made the large amounts of morphine 
shipped to Canada and Europe. In 1918, when we entered 
the war ourselves, Canada had a desperate time getting sup- 
plies of morphine, her importations from all sources being cut 
in half. She had none to spare for shipment to the United 
States, either to the legitimate trade or to peddlers through 
smuggled-out supplies. And we, also, were almost as badly 
handicapped, since despite the critical need of our fighting 
forces we imported only 157,834 pounds of crude opium, 
which was only one-third of what we imported in 1915. 
This was mainly made up into morphine, and all we could 
spare was sent to Canada for shipment to her army in Europe. 
At the time of the armistice our market was almost bare of 
crude opium; but since then immense supplies have been com- 
ing in, which will bring our 1919 importations up to high 
figures. Our factories are working hard on this for ship- 
ment, largely to Europe, of morphine and other alkaloids. 
Furthermore, the Oriental producers of crude opium, taking 
advantage of high prices, are flooding our market, and im- 
mense stocks are piling up in storage, chiefly crude opium, 
and very little opium alkaloids, which are going out as fast 
as produced to make up for market shortages. Crude opium 
prices are rapidly falling. 

Now the above statements are actual facts, as anyone can 
ascertain for himself if he visits the large manufacturing plants 
where morphine and other alkaloids are extracted from crude 
opium; and these facts do not justify the belief that the 
illicit traffic had been securing much morphine from Canada, 
but there are grounds for the belief that they may do so, now 
that the war is over. 

The writer has figured the matter up and down, across 
and back again; he has estimated available supplies and where 
they go in regular trade; he is in position to know with fair 
accuracy how much narcotic drugs are used in professional 
channels; he has investigated intimately the industrial situa- 
tion, and he has visited the large proprietary medicine plants 
throughout the Union. The result is that he is, with infinite 
regret, compelled to admit that the dope-selling professional 
man is the main narcotic menace in this country, though there 
are other traffickers in the illicit trade who procure part of 
their supplies from inveigled and stolen professional stocks 
and another portion from smuggling. No one knows how 
much smuggled narcotics is secured by peddlers. 

We do know this: There are peddlers of narcotics in all 
of our large cities and in some of the smaller ones; but there 
are dope-selling professional men in nearly every community, 
and in the aggregate they vastly outnumber the peddlers. It 
has been amazing to learn, in the work in Pennsylvania, that 
the per capita consumption of narcotics in small towns is much 
larger than it is in the big cities. 

The Small Town Problem 

THE large cities have been well regulated and federal inspec- 
tors visit them frequently; but in Pennsylvania the smaller 
places are just as carefully watched by the state inspectors 
as the large ones. Actual records show that small places are 
using per capita more morphine than large cities like Phila- 
delphia or Pittsburgh. To be specific, as regards Pennsyl- 
vania the heaviest per capita consumption has been in places 
of the following populations: 15,000 8,000 3,000 6,000 
4,000 8,000 15,000 1,000 1,500 20,000 3,- 
ooo 12,000 22,ooo. The places ranging from 30,000 to 
100,000 consume more per capita than do the two principal 



cities but less than the smaller municipalities. This is not to 
be taken as a dean bill of health for these two cities, which 
have the worst records as regards the under-world and peddler 
traffic but which have also an immense population of indus- 
trial workers not much given to drug addiction. Small towns 
and boroughs adjacent to the large cities and state lines have 
the worst records of all. The places whose approximate popu- 
lations are given above are all actual municipalities, the names 
not being given for obvious reasons. The data was collected 
very fully and is authentic; but remember these are per capita 
figures only. 

It would shock the good citizens in some of these small 
towns to find their narcotic records so bad; but the fact is 
that one to five " easy " doctors and one or two crooked drug 
stores are responsible for the conditions existing there. The 
further fact is to be noted that much of their local addiction 
is due to the " old chronic " who has never received the hos- 
pital care needed and who uses morphine as a resort to ease 
his many infirmities. 

Permit a quotation from a letter received from one of the 
small places with many aged and infirm addicts and which 
consumes twenty times as much morphine per capita as does 
the state at large. The place is a mountain hamlet, and the 
physician writes: 

I wonder if you can conceive of how hard the backwoods women 
work and how wholly devoid of amusement or pleasure their lives 
are? They do not even have comfortable beds or chairs; for the 
most part, no bathing facilities but the washtub. For the most part 
they live their lives as you might have expected pioneers of seventy- 
five years ago, but without the game to be had for the shooting. They 
are seven miles from a railroad station, although the log railway 
carries up a freight car now and then besides lumber cars . . . 
and the Lumber Company strongly forced down produc- 
tion costs regardless of the health of employes. 

So " there's a reason " for much narcotic addiction in the 
sections remote from the conveniences of life and devoid of 
hospital facilities. This must be said in fairness to these com- 
munities and the hard-worked physicians who are called there 
to practice under a terrible handicap. It is not fair to call 
the physician so placed a dope-seller. What is he to do? 

The Drug Addict and the Physician 

THE government bulletin before referred to says that the to- 
tal number of drug addicts in this country probably exceeds 
one million at the present time, only 237,000 of them being 
under the care of physicians and the balance being supplied 
from the under-world and other illicit channels. 

Accepting as correct, and such assumption is justified fully. 
that the per capita consumption of opium in the United States 
is 36 grains, as opium contains 9 per cent of morphine. 
the per capita of morphine would be three and one-fourth 
grains were all of the opium used to extract morphine. But 
probably not one-half of the opium is so used, making a per 
capita consumption of about one and one-half grains of mor- 
phine itself. Add smuggled morphine, and we will say the 
per capita consumption of morphine is two grains. 

There arc about eight million people in Pennsylvania, with 
eleven thousand physicians to administer to them, or one 
physician to 727 people. As the average Pennsylvania physi- 
cian uses in his practice two ounces of morphine a year, he 
must be giving to his patients an average of one and one- 
third grains a \ear, leaving two-thirds of a grain to be other- 
wise accounted for. Some of this is consumed in patent and 
proprietary remedies under the exemptions allowed by the fed- 
eral anil state laws probably one-third of a grain per capita ; 
thus leaving only another per capita of one-third of a grain 
supplied by the under-world and peddlers from supplies smug- 
gled in. 

Pennsylvania figures laboriously compiled show, however, a 
per capita consumption of opium in all forms of thirty-two 
grains a year, or four grains below the national average. This 
would make a per capita consumption of morphine in Pennsyl- 
vania of one and one-third grains plus one-half grain of smug- 
gled morphine, a total of one and five-sixth grains. This 
leaves one-half grain to be accounted for by other than the 
use by physicians. Subtract one-third grain used in proprietary 
medicines, and we have one-sixth grain per capita to be ac- 
counted for by the activities of the underworld in their use 
of smuggled morphine. These figures would give for Penn- 
sylvania about 232 pounds troy per year of morphine used by 
the under-world of smuggled supplies, which I believe is ap- 
proximately true. The average morphine addict uses no less 
than one ounce of morphine a year and most of them much 
more than that amount. Hut we will say only one ounce. The 
estimated smuggled supplies used in Pennsylvania would, as 
distributed by the under-world, supply only 2,784 morphine 

As Pennsylvania has one-twelfth of the population of the 
Union, if " there are over one million addicts in the United 
States," probably one-half of them morphine addicts, Penn- 
sylvania must have one-twelfth of. say, six hundred thousand 
morphine addicts, or about fifty thousand addicts to morphine 
alone, or one hundred thousand addicts of various kinds, in- 
clusive of diseased and aged persons. 

The Pennsylvania Department of Health, which registers 
all kinds of addicts as required by its own law, cannot begin 
to find one hundred thousand addicts within the state and 
does not believe there are nearly that number, even inclusive 
of addicts with disease more or less justifying the use of nar- 

Counted on an opium basis, the average narcotic addict 
uses not less than ten ounces troy of opium a year, and one 
million addicts would use ten million ounces troy (12 troy 
ounces to the pound), or approximately 650,000 pounds avoir- 
dupois in a year'. As we imported only 146,658 pounds in 
i'H<>, and only 86,812 pounds in 1917, the estimate of over 
one million drug addicts in the United States is preposterous, 
even granting that large additional supplies are smuggled into 
the country. No one knows how many addicts to narcotic 
drugs there are in the United States. There are far too many 
hut let us not exaggerate as most propaganda literature 


About one-half of the narcotic addicts reported to the De- 
partment of Health in Pennsylvania are diseased or aged per- 
ons, and the drag-net set hy inspectors who collect the names 
of under-world addicts adds enough peddler-trade addicts to 
bring the proportion of diseased and aged people down to 
one-third of the whole. Ignorant physicians report as dis- 
eased many addicts who present no pathology except that of 
addiction, and this factor reduce- the proportion of actually 
il and aged people to about one-fourth of the whole 
number of addicts. 

There is a tremendous incidence nt cancer, advanced tuber- 
culosis, inoperable surgical conditions, post-operative lesions, 
neglected cases of syphilis with aggravated tertiary symptoms, 
untreated bladder and prostatic cases, neglected dental lesions, 
old focal infections, aggravated cases of rheumatoid arthritis, 
cardiac dyspnea, chronic asthma, gall-stone disease, and pain- 
ful undiagnosed lesions largely neural or deeply visceral ; and 
often imperatively necessary that these persons be sup- 
plied narcotics, often in ascending dosage. Add to this the 
infirmities of age, often in persons who have taken narcotics 
(Continued on page 54) 


Under the Orange Sign 

The Spirited Story of the County Library Service in Santa Barbara 

By Rebecca N. Porter 

" A library as near every home in the country as the 
public school." 


is the slogan of the California county service, 
and in two instances in Santa Barbara county the 
library arrived first. The county library is not a new 
organization. Single counties scattered here and 
there over the country, such as Washington county, Maryland, 
with its wagon- (or is it now auto- ?) load of books, have done 
splendid work. But, entering this field of service in 1909, 
California has the distinction of making a state-wide use of 
the county as a library unit. 

The obstacles conspiring against such a record are chiefly 
those which may be termed " natural barriers," of which mere 
distance is reckoned the least. An obstacle far more difficult 
to surmount is the matter of topography. Some of California's 
counties are divided by precipitous mountain ranges which 
necessitate literally hundreds of miles of extra transportation, 
innumerable extra hours and an ever alert resourcefulness. A 
scattered and highly diversified population, largely intermingled 
with foreign and migratory elements, has contributed to make 
the problems of California's county librarians difficult, but 
intensely interesting. 

Santa Barbara county alone, with a population of 35,000, 
an area twice the size of Rhode Island and with only three in- 
corporated towns, circulated during the month of January of 
this year, 21,885 volumes. 

The process of starting a county library is almost wholly 
devoid of red tape ceremonial. Its technique, reduced to the 
simplest terms, may be expressed thus: First, some dweller in 

a region remote from a library feels the desire for books in 
his life; then he enlarges this desire to include his neighbors. 
The next step is a letter to (or when possible a call upon) the 
librarian in the nearest town. Here he presents his informal 
petition, describes the personnel and industrial environment 
of his community, guarantees a custodian and proper housing 
for the books, with at least seven hours of library service, and 
has someone, usually one of his supervisors, vouch for his re- 
liability. Here his responsibilities end and those of the county 
librarian begin. She selects the books, arranges for and pays 
their transportation and a small wage to the custodian, makes 
exchanges whenever requested, replies to " special requests," 
and sends fresh volumes as often as possible. Books are 
returned not by collections but by volumes whenever 
they have served the community. A book may live out 
its life in one branch of the service or it may serve its 
limited special use in branch after branch and before it 
is discarded have gone the rounds. Very cut-and-dried 
and professional all this. There is no better way of making 
the wheels of the big machine go 'round and its various cogs 
and bolts'" come alive " than by applying the spark of a true 
story. The tale of how the people at the X settlement secured 
their library shows both ends of the line at its best and busiest. 
Mrs. X is sixty-seven miles from the railroad in her county 
and forty-seven from the one in the next county. On her 
annual shopping trip to her nearest town she visited the library 
and heard for the first time of its extension service. In re- 
sponse to her eager petition she was given the name and 
address of her county librarian. To her she immediately 
wrote, ending her appeal with the Macedonian cry: 




Please help us. Nobody needs books more than us. We want 
books of stories, books for children (for we have no movies or 
schools) and books on dry farming. 

When the librarian requested some more detailed informa- 
tion upon the personnel and environment of the community in 
order to make the first shipment of books as helpful as possible, 
she received what she has termed " the most illuminating 
letter I ever had." Mrs. X, eager and efficient, supplied her 
appeal for data with full measure running over. Not a 
member of the approximately forty of her settlement, covering 
a radius of five miles, escaped her census. The summary in 
each case was something like this : 

Mr. and Mrs. George Smith; look about 26. She use'd to be a 
trained nurse; he came from Ohio. They have a ranch and two 

Her communication read like an excerpt from the great 
register. The first collection of books, shipped in a box which 
could serve later as a case, was for- 
warded in the early part of February. 
If packages could only be sent " as the 
crow flies " the distance, in this in- 
stance, would have been about seventy 
miles. But nothing in the way of 
" crow " service has yet been devised 
for librarians' use, and the shipment 
had to go by parcel post, east and 
south and north and then southwest 
via Ventura, Los Angeles and Kern 
counties two hundred miles in order 
to reach Maricopa, from which point 
it still had more than forty miles 
of stage journey. 

Other obstacles besides distance 
contributed to the transportation dif- 
ficulties of the X " homestead " 
library. During the heavy winter 
rains the bottom fell out of the roads 
and it was impossible for anything on 
wheels to make the trip to the post 
office. By means of a horseback 
carrier a frantic entreaty was sent to 
the county librarian : 

Please tell the post office people that the things in that package 
are books, and that they won't spoil and we'll send for them just 
as soon as we can travel. It would break our hearts to have them 
sent back. 

They were not sent back, but it was April before they arrived 
at the little cabin of the X family, which was to be the library. 
Their appearance was a dramatic event, and the county 
librarian, being a person of imagination, recognized its signifi- 
cance in the annals of county library service and asked Mrs. X 
to send her a picture of a representative group in the home- 
stead library together with the antiquated stage which had 
brought up the books. 

To receive an idea and to act upon it are almost simultan- 
eous processes with Mrs. X, a veritable Mrs. Wiggs type, of 
that stern stuff which obstacles stimulate rather than depress. 
The county librarian was puzzled when weeks passed and 
there was no response to her request. But at last it came, the 
photograph reproduced on page 21, accompanied by one of those 
refreshing letters in which the writer explained that as soon as 
the heavy storms abated she had driven into town, a distance 
of twenty-seven miles, for the photographer. By the time 
they had reached home there was heavy snowing and it was 
impossible to take a picture even if the subjects had been able 


*' I ^HE enlarged program of the Amer- 
* ican Library Association points to a 
time when books will be fully accessible to 
every man, woman and child in America." 

This platform, quoted from the cover of 
one of the recent circulars of the A. L. A., 
outlines in a nutshell their splendid pro- 
gram in which, as nation-wide crusaders, 
they will endeavor to break down the 
barriers of distance, mountains, rivers, 
language and whatever other obstacles are 
depriving isolated citizens of America of 
their right to read. According to statistics 
compiled by this organization, whole sec- 
tions of the country are now without 

The libraries of the nation receive an in- 
come of only $16,500,000 while an adequate 
income would be six or seven times that 
amount. Thirty states serve less than 50 per 
cent of their populations, six serve less than 
10 per cent and one less than 2 per cent. 

In antithesis to these dismally inadequate 
figures it is a pleasure to report for Cali- 
fornia that of her fifty-eight counties, forty- 
four have established a library service 
which means books " for every man, woman 
and child " in the county. 

to come out for it. So the photographer had stayed all night 
at her home, and the following morning (which was Sunday 
and the library's busy day) those who lived nearest had had 
their pictures taken in company with the first shipment of 
volumes. " But," Mrs. X ended her letter with her character- 
istically charming human touch, " we didn't put the stage-coach 
in because we have an auto now and the people wouldn't like to 
have that old wagon represent us." 

A few months later she wrote again apologizing for not 
returning some of the volumes earlier because " We found a 
new reader who lives fifteen miles away and we knew you'd 
want her to have a chance at the books too." 

For resourcefulness, adaptability and the zeal of the true 
missionary Mrs. X deserves' to rank among the nation's 
spiritual leaders, and the story of her Homestead library has 
been given here in some detail because it so well epitomizes the 
technique, the problems and needs of 
the county service and makes it more 
concrete than any table of statistics 
could possibly do. 

Just as interesting as this library 
group in a remote mountainous dis- 
trict, but presenting slightly different 
problems, are the readers on the oil 
leases. The zealous custodian on one 
of these discovered that the usual two- 
week circulation period would have 
to be stretched beyond all traditional 
bounds to meet the needs of part of 
her community because it took the 
oil tankers' crew forty days to make 
their run to the islands and back. 
" And so," she wrote to the county 
librarian, " I just changed my rubber 
stamp to read forty days, because I 
thought I got your idea that what you 
really want is for the people to have 
the books." She had caught exactly 
the library spirit of adaptability to 
local conditions. 

Then there are the desert-dwellers, 
oil workers too, whose homes are tran- 
sient so that they cannot acquire their 

own books. One woman out here sent in an appeal which 
would have emboldened the librarian to requisition the gov- 
ernment aviation corps if no other means of transportation had 
been available. 

We haven't anything beautiful out here, and not enough of any- 
thing, but stars. Send us books, especially books on astronomy. 

The services of the aviation corps were not necessary in this 
case, but in one instance a county librarian has resorted to air 
conveyance, for at the tunnel workers' library, when the water 
gets too high to ford, the patrons receive their books by air 
trolley. Thus the county library service keeps pace with the 
most modern transportation facilities. This group of tunnel 
workers requested books on engineering, nature-study and 
fiction. A good professional library is maintained here by 
borrowing from the state library at Sacramento. The fiction 
most universally popular in such sections is naturally the 
western story. But this must be genuine, a cross-section of 
life cut from such experiences as are typical, not exceptional. 
Authors of such literature, who receive the approbation of this 
audience, are practically assured of success. For with a never 
erring accuracy they are able to detect at once the " real 



stuff " from those western stories which they refer to con- 
temptuously as having been " written east." 

The task of supplying books to the types of readers so far 
described is a more or less homogeneous one. It is the pros- 
perous agricultural communities with their wide range of 
readers that tax the resources of the library service from tip to 
tip. For these include every kind of book-lover from the ranch 
hand, who may be just acquiring the reading habit, to the 
college graduate (in one case an Oxford university man) who 
demands super-intellectual menus. It is catering to the needs 
of the people in such districts that furnishes a study of the 
city library desk in miniature. 

One woman on an isolated ranch wrote : 

I used to be a teacher, and I can't raise my children without books. 
I've tried ordering from the publishers, but the magazine reviews 
are so disappointing. I think I've discovered just what I want in one 
of them, and then after I've ordered and waited and traveled to get 
them from the express office, the books are so often not what I would 
have the children read for anything. 

It is the aim of the county library to make its service as 
highly individual, either for the specific book requested or the 
special subject of interest, as though the patron could person- 
ally apply at the desk. 

A treatise on any form of social service is hardly complete 
now without some mention of Americanization. This is 
rapidly becoming one of the vital functions of the county 
library. In one of the southern counties of the state where a 
group of miners are at work, the library custodian discovered 
that out of the 400 men employed, 70 per cent were Spanish. 
So she established a night school in connection with the library. 
There are other similar ones in the state, and one expert 
teacher, who has a class of adult Portuguese, wrote : 

The first tool of Americanization work is the colored picture book. 
For here the age and sex of the student need not be considered. 
Notices which I send home in market baskets and milk bottles are 
wasted so far as the Portuguese are concerned unless they are 
written on gay-colored paper. Color is our only common language. 

And so the county library has specialized in these colored pic- 
ture books. 

Concerning the work in rural schools we confront here, of 
course, a vital part of the service. No school can afford to 
own all the reference books needed. With free access to the 
county library and through it to the state, supplemental texts 
and other material are available. The latter include maps and 
stereographs. If there is no county branch that can serve 
adults, the schools establish a service for them. One little girl 
with a pony supplies books to eight families. 

So far this article has been concerned merely with the his- 
tory, technique and scope of county library service. But all 
these are as the loose threads of a fabric until woven into the 
spiritual warp and woof of community life. In the psychologi- 
cal aspect of the subject lies its deeper significance. 

Without exception the first impulse toward books in all 
these groups was prompted by the craving for relaxation the 
primitive cry, as old as humanity itself, for something to 
relieve the monotony and grind of existence. And then later 
came the hunger for something deeper, for a world not only of 
physical but of intellectual adventure. The county library 
readers wanted to know. Here again dead assertions must be 
quickened into life by the true story. 

It was the custodian on one of the oil leases who, in con- 
versation with a county librarian assistant, took up a volume 
of Tower's Story of Oil and asked in tones of deep-dyed dis- 
gust, " Why did she send us this thing? Doesn't she know 
that we get enough of that greasy stuff all day without readin' 
about it too? " And then, after an anxious pause: " You see, 
the fellers resent its taking up the room on the shelf that a rip- 
ping western story might have. Do you think it would hurt 
her feelings if we sent it back? " 

Assured that it wouldn't Towers was dishonorably dis- 
charged from the service. But in three months he was re- 
called by insistent and unanimous vote. And in six months 
there appeared at the oil lease, in response to the eager appeal 
for " the best thing out on oil," a fifteen dollar copy of Red- 
wood's three-volume work on petroleum. It was one of the 




county library's favorite jokes. No doubt the oil workers saw 
the humor of it too, but while they laughed they read. 

Most beautiful of all the achievements of this service is the 
pass-it-along spirit which it engenders in every community 
that it reaches. A supervisor, a rancher, an oil worker 
on a visit to a neighboring county discovers that there 
is not anywhere in that district a county library 
sign. No cabin or tank house or stationary 
freight car shows in its window the orange 
colored card with the words County Free 
Library California encircling a shelf of 
books. Inquiries may reveal the fact that 
these neighbors have never heard of such an 
institution; that they have no knowledge 
of what might be theirs for the mere asking. 
But they are speedily and enthusiastically 
informed. The news of county library ser- 
vice is too good to keep, and the patrons of 
one county become the ardent missionaries 
in another. In this way five other county libraries of the 
state have been started. The county work has now grown 

One school girl car 
families up 

from an enterprise in which the librarian gave out everything, 
both inspirational and material, to the stage where the county 
people themselves take the initiative, express their desires and 
suggest plans for fulfilling them. The librarian now acts al- 
most entirely on the supply end of the line. The 
problem of creating a demand for her wares is 
managed by eager agents working unoffici- 
ally throughout the counties. 

Thus the county service of California 
is already realizing the ambition of 
the American Library Association. No 
mountain settlement, no oil lease, no 
mining community, no desert-dwellers of 
the state are so remote that they need 
starve for books. Wherever a man can 
go, a book can go. Wherever there are 
voices crying in the wilderness for " some- 
thing to read," the orange-colored sign 
is hoisted, and for countless rural Ameri- 
cans this has become the modern symbol for the lamp in the 

ries books to eight 
the canon 

Teamwork in Cleveland's Garment 


By John ff^. Love 

LABOR union and management in the women's gar- 
ment industry of Cleveland have set out together to 
make over their whole scheme of production. The 
union leadership, endorsing " scientific management," 
has deliberately announced an ambition to increase output. 
Week work with an incentive for performance will be substi- 
tuted for piece work. A bureau of time studies will be estab- 
lished by the employers and the union, who will cooperate in 
both the expense and the control. 

The employers on their part are undertaking as far as 
possible to spread the work period uniformly throughout the 
year and to eliminate the slack seasons that aggravate the 
labor problem in the garment industry. They even hope to 
stabilize the styles of cloaks and suits, through conferences 
with retailers and through advertising appeals to the women 
who buy the "readymades." 

Frankly casting overboard their old hatred of "efficiency," 
the six Cleveland locals of the International Ladies' Gar- 
ment Workers' Union have assumed half, or $10,000, of the 
expense of a study of the industry in Cleveland by a New 
York firm of industrial engineers. The engineers are in- 
structed to rearrange the wage scale on a basis of a protected 
minimum yearly income, to introduce economical methods of 
operation in place of traditional wastes, and to devise a plan 
for joint managerial and union control of standards of pro- 

The other half the cost of the renovation will be paid by 
the Cleveland Garment Manufacturers' Association. This 
includes 35 concerns, the largest among the 120 in the city. 
The trade employs about 6,000 men and women, about 75 
per cent of whom are on piecework. Jews, Italians and 
Czechoslovaks predominate, though some descendants of the 
old Western Reserve v ankees remain. 

These new and ambitious projects compose an effort to 
carry out the terms of an agreement signed by the association 
and the union December 18 last, by which the principle of 
week work was approved, leaving definite arrangements to be 
worked out jointly under the direction of the referees. The 
three referees, sometimes looked upon as representing the 
public in the industry, are Judge Julian W. Mack, Chicago, 
chairman ; Samuel J. Rosensohn, New York, and John R. 
McLane, Manchester, N. H. The arrangements, the agree- 
ment read, " shall have due regard to the productive value of 
the individual worker, based on fair and accurate standards." 

The findings of the engineers will be submitted to the 
manufacturers and the union representatives in occasional re- 
ports during the study and as fast as they are approved by 
both interests, the new methods will be set in motion. Where 
union and manufacturers cannot agree, the dispute will be 
left to the referees. The referees are represented in Cleve- 
land by F. H. Doolittle, resident impartial chairman, who 
came from Detroit March i, 1920. 

In three months how complete a revolution in the affairs of 
the Cleveland industry! The union entered December with 
plans matured for a general strike on December 24, the date 
of the expiration of the agreement signed in August, 1918, 
under pressure from the war department. The union had 
never had recognition and the strike of the summer of 1918 
had not obtained it. Wages had been advanced, but through 
a stoppage of work or threat of one. Not comprehending 
the industry nor the restless, cosmopolitan working forces, 
and wary of pitfalls laid by publicity men on both sides, city 
editors and reporters handled the news with rubber gloves, 
which meant that nobody in the city had a chance to under- 
stand. Suddenly the union's manager, Meyer Perlstein. 
stopped talking strike and made frequent trips to see the 
referees in New York. For the other side, Hugh Fullerton. 



executive secretary of the H. Black Company, largest of the 
companies which later signed the agreement, met Mr. Perl- 
stein in New York for the first time and in conversations at 
the New York Bar Association's rooms and in Cleveland, 
the outlines of a new rapprochement were sketched. 

The document finally signed is what both sides have called 
an open shop agreement. It says nothing about "recognition," 
continues the board of referees, provides for annual adjust- 
ment of the wage scales by the referees, authorizes the settle- 
ment of shop disputes through shop chairrrian or " shop stew- 
ards " as the British would call them, abolishes inside subcon- 
tracting, regulates outside contracting, and rules out strikes or 

Article 1 1 reads: 

This agreement shall be so administered that the position of 
neither of the parties to it shall be intentionally weakened. On the 
contrary, it is expressly understood that each party shall assist as 
far as possible in maintaining the integrity of the other. Any mem- 
ber of either group guilty of violating this agreement shall be dis- 
ciplined on order of the referees. 

This provision takes the place of the closed shop. The ref- 
erees have since interpreted the article as requiring all who 
were members of the union when the agreement was signed 
to continue to pay their union dues. The union has in- 
creased in membership somewhat since the agreement was 
signed and according to Mr. Perlstein the trade is 96 or 97 
per cent organized. Addressing the employes of the H. Black 
Company in the plant soon after the agreement was signed, 
Mr. Perlstein said he did not believe in the closed shop as a 
general principle, and he supported the statement in a news- 
paper interview later. 

Mr. Perlstein, as well as his union, is interested in the 
problems of management. As one employer said to me, his 
shop chairmen have so much to do with the discipline of the 
force and technical details of plant management that they 
have only half the time left for complaints. Dubiously at 
first but now confidently, the workers through their union 
are going forward in the expectation of enjoying a new dis- 
pensation in their industry. How long the era of good feel- 
ing will last of course may be doubted, but the start is pro- 
pitious and the foundation seems to be sound. Of course 
outsiders have suspected that the great calm following the 
rumbling of last fall meant the parties inside were getting 
together for cooperative profiteering, but the referees thus 
far have shown they keep their obligations to the wearer* 
of clothing in mind. The public's spokesmen in that vague 
trinity of alleged equal interest which catches the popular ear 
just now are not often so well informed on the technical side 
of the industry and the mind of the unionized worker. 

The hope of the union and the management, their common 
ground in the big experiment, is for an altered collective 
action, not necessarily involving a great individual exertion 
but reacting on production through increasing the satisfac- 
tion and confidence of the worker in his work. Discussing 
the plan Mr. Perlstein said: 

This is the first time in history a union has joined hands with 
employers to retain scientific engineers. We have come to a point 
where the old wooly words and phrases won't do. We can't get 
anywhere talking about rights and about fair day's pay and fair 
day's work. Nobody knew what a fair day's work was. So we 
started to find out. 

Joint control of production standards is what will make it pos- 
sible for the union to accept a graduated scale based on production. 
The marginal worker will earn a living wage and the well trained 
worker will be paid proportionately for his skill. Joint control 
within the plant and joint supervision of the time tests and the 
application of the engineers' findings will prevent speeding up. 

Mr. Perlstein, the executive board of the union, and the 
engineers recently went through the plant of the H. Black 
Company, where superintendents explained the reasons for 
everything in the production plan. His comment was: 

We don't think so badly of efficiency. Labor union leaders are 
going to have to become more familiar with industrial problems, 
including those of management and even of selling. Especially 
must they understand works management to know how it affects the 

Mr. Perlstein and Mr. Fullerton both contended with 
opposition and some opposition yet remains, though it has 
agreed to wait and see. Morris Black, president of the H. 
Black Company, which employs about 700 workers, was the 
strongest influence toward the acceptance of the agreement 
by the manufacturers. In his plant the methods collectively 
called "scientific management" have been brought to their 
most advanced stage in the city. In addressing his own em- 
ployes, soon after the signing of the agreement, he said : 

As members of a union organization, you owe a duty to that or- 
ganization to make it the best union in America. You can make it 
so by cooperating to the fullest in its legitimate activities. It needs 
your attendance at its meetings and your share in its proper finan- 
cial obligations. 

When Mr. Perlstein laid before his executive board mem- 
bers the proposal to join with the employers in retaining the 
engineers, he had difficulty in bringing them around to the 
plan. When the scheme was explained to meetings of the 
locals, no serious opposition arose, but some members had 
their doubts. Mr. Perlstein is vice-president of the inter- 
national, and the president is in Europe. 

Inquiring among the fault finders, I learned that members 
of the Communist Party here were deprecating any agree- 
ment on general principles of no pacts with capitalists. An- 
other group, which might be called the extreme "right," 
clings to the phrases of professional unionism and prefers to 
leave the problems of management to managers. They sim- 
ply are not interested. 

Cleveland unions are puzzled how to take the garment 
workers' innovations. One labor weekly congratulated the 
union, the other said nothing. The union has never been 
conspicuous in Cleveland Federation of Labor's affairs, dom- 
inated as they are by the building trades, and recently it was 
the cause of an uproar on the floor when one of its delegates 
said a kindly word for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America, the independent union. 

The management of the largest cloak and suit plant in the 
city, in fact the largest in the United States, a plant where 
John Leitch's federal plan has been working several years, 
did not sign the agreement of December 18 and does not 
recognize the union. But the two hereditary foes have agreed 
on an armistice for six months with the statement from 
the head of the concern that if the general scheme works out 
in other plants as well as it augurs, the " industrial democ- 
racy" will make way for the union. 


and the 


By W. B. Bizzell 

FORTUNATELY, the rural slum has one advantage 
over its city counterpart there is plenty of sunshine 
and fresh air. But aside from these, other character- 
istics exist, namely, unendurable filth, primitive sani- 
tary facilities and overcrowding. Each of you doubtless re- 
calls how many dwellings on the farms are well built and 
possess conveniences, such as light, running water, and sewer- 
age disposal, that are to be found in the city home. But at the 
other extreme single houses or small groups of houses with 
slum characteristics are to be found in almost every rural com- 

It is unfortunate that rural housing has not been included 
as a topic in the numerous farm management surveys that have 
been made. It has usually been regarded as a problem en- 
tirely dependent upon the economic situation. That better liv- 
ing conditions for our agricultural population is entirely de- 
pendent upon the labor income has been generally assumed. 
Of course, improvement in rural housing conditions is not 
independent of agricultural income, but from studies that have 
been made, it has been found that custom and habits of mind 
often determine the housing conditions and the general stand- 
ard of living when both capital investment and return for 
labor effort are sufficiently large to secure more adequate ac- 
commodations. For these reasons it is imperatively necessary 
that constructive agencies be devised to deal with the farm 
home as a factor in rural welfare. 

Every student of rural problems is .familiar with the fact 
that rural communities differ greatly in standards of living, 
morals, health and sanitation and general intelligence. It is 
not unusual to find communities only a few miles apart that 
differ as widely in these essentials as do some city neighbor- 
hoods separated only by one or two blocks. 

The contrast between the housing conditions of farm 
owners and farm tenants is 
very marked in every section 
of the country. In the In- 
troduction to Rural Sociology, 
Vogt analyzes the data on thi- 
subject contained in a survey 
of housing conditions in 
Ohio. This data was col- 
lected from two hundred 
rural homes located in 
twenty-one different counties 
of the state. As we would 
expect, in every case less 
adequate facilities resulting 
in a corresponding differ- 
ence in human comforts were 
found in the houses occu- 
pied by tenants than in the 



homes of farm owners. Vogt summarizes this situation as 
follows : 

Housing conditions are bad for country people generally, but they 
are very much worse for the tenant than for the owner. When one 
realizes the difficulties in the way of securing adequate housing for 
the tenant class he cannot see a very bright prospect for a healthful 
and attractive home environment for the future farming population 
if present tendencies toward increase of tenantry continue. 

England has given much more serious consideration to this 
question than we have in this country. Laws were passed as 
early as 1487, directing the landlords to improve the living 
conditions of farm tenants. Before the end of the fifteenth 
century laws were passed making it the duty of justices to 
administer the rural housing laws. A more comprehensive 
housing act was passed in 1589, which provided (i) that no 
one was to build a cottage or convert a building into a cot- 
tage for farm tenants without allotting to it four acres of 
land, and (2) that two families were not to occupy one cot- 

The Rural Housing and Sanitation Association was formed 
in England in 1900, for the purpose of improving rural hous- 
ing conditions. This organization made little headway for 
a time, but in 1909 it had gained sufficient influence in Par- 
liament to secure legislation based upon its program of re- 
form. This statute is known as the Housing and Town Plan- 
ning act, and by one of its provisions the rural council is given 
authority to apply for public loans with which to build rural 
cottages. In the beginning these rural councils were rather 
slow to act, but the number of cottages which have been built 
under their direction in recent years has increased rapidly. 

Assuming that there is a difference in the household con- 
veniences and facilities of rural housing of owners and farm 
tenants, it follows that in those sections of the country where 
farm tenantry is the prevailing type of agriculture, the hous- 
ing situation should become a 
serious problem. This is 
found to be the case especially 
in the South where there is 
a large number of Negro farm 
tenants. The conditions of 
tenant housing in the South 
have been discussed by men 
thoroughly familiar with fhe 
situation in the report made 
an the land question and the 
condition of agricultural la- 
bor in the Walsh reports on 
industrial relations. 

This report indicates that 
while there has been some im- 
provement in rural housing 
there is still room for greater 



improvements before reasonable standards of living are pro- 
vided. For example: Harry Hammond, Civil War veteran, 
a former professor of natural sciences in the University of 
Georgia, and for many years a cotton planter, stated in re- 
ply to an inquiry from the commission that log houses in re- 
cent years had given place to frame houses. The dirt floor 
has disappeared entirely, and glass windows instead of board 
windows are beginning to be generally used in the houses oc- 
cupied by Negro tenants. 

In a careful study made by Dr. F. D. Clark, professor of 
economics in the Agricultural and Mechanical College of 
Texas, these observations are made : 

The tenant houses are everywhere in bad repair. Almost no 
thought of sanitation, much less beauty, has entered the minds of 
these people. The landlord will usually say that it is useless to fix 
good quarters for the tenants, for they will not take care of them; 
and the tenant will say that it is useless to ask for good quarters, 
for the landlord will not listen. There is mutual distrust and neither 
gets what he thinks that he deserves. But the fact remains that the 
tenants as a class have not been given a chance. If one has not 
been provided with things worth taking care of you can hardly 
blame him for not taking care of the things with which he has been 

In the northern states it is often the custom to charge a 
rental for the tenant houses, but this policy does not prevail 
to an appreciable extent in the South. In some instances two 
days' work each month is required as a rental for the house oc- 
cupied by the tenant. On the plantations of the South it is the 
custom to supply the house free of rent, and from one-half to 
two acres of land go with the house for garden and chicken 
yard. The fact is that the houses are rarely of sufficient value 
to justify the charge of rent. If an element of rent enters at 
all into the assignment of a house, it is probably contemplated 
that the rent is included in the amount of produce for cash 
rental to be received by the landowner. 

Much has been said about the tenant's neglect of the house 
he occupies. This is often assigned as the reason why the land- 
owner cannot afford to supply the tenant with a better house. 
There is no doubt that many tenants and their families do 
not take reasonable care of the houses they occupy. But there 
is some evidence to support the opposite view. For example : 
J. H. Hale, a practical farmer of Ft. Valley, Georgia, testi- 
fied before the Industrial Relations Commission that his ten- 
ants did take fairly good care of his houses. He further com- 
mented as follows: 

Tenant houses have mostly been unpainted. Two years ago I 
told them (tenants) that if they would keep them painted we would 
furnish the material if they would do the work; and it was very 
much to their delight, and they are now keeping them painted, and 
we are furnishing material and the other expenses, and they rather 
take a pride in painting them. 


It has been observed that where the landlord provides houses 
of reasonable comfort as a rule the tenant takes some pride 
in keeping the house in good condition. Houses that are 
unattractive and do not offer reasonable comfort are usually 
neglected by the tenant. But this is to be expected. We find 
human nature exerting itself here exactly as we find it in 
many other directions. 

It is hard to realize that real overcrowding exists in the 
rural districts. But this is obvious to anyone who has 
studied the rural housing situation. The houses occupied by 
tenants are usually very small. In many cases they consist of 
two rooms with a back shed room that is used both for a 
kitchen and dining-room. The Negro tenant farm house 
often does not possess even glass windows. Light and ven- 
tilation are received through an opening that is protected 
from rain by a small door on hinges. It is not exceptional for 
from five to ten people to be housed in a building of this kind. 
Harvey B. Bashore gives the experience of a nurse from one 
of the state dispensaries in Pennsylvania who " came across a 
certain farm house where five people were accustomed to liv- 
ing in one not very large bedroom which had only one small 
window, and even that was nailed shut; one of these five had 
incipient tuberculosis." The same author calls' attention to a 
"mountain home" a typical one; the bedroom is the loft 
with a floor surface fifteen feet square, and habitually used by 
eight people ; three sleep in one bed, two in another, two more 
in still another, and the mother, who is tubercular, sleeps on 
the cot in the corner. One would hardly believe it possible 
that such overcrowding exists, yet there are many cases like 
this among these mountain people. These conditions are less 
common in Pennsylvania, however, than they are in the south- 
ern states where tenantry is so largely practiced. 

The time has come when we should follow the example of 






(Above) A tenant's and (below) the owner's home 

in McClain county, Oklahoma, made 
the following demand : 

a. We demand that the landlords of this 
state shall provide their tenants with a 
house in which to live which shall consist 
of not less than two rooms and a lean-to. 
The said two rooms shall not be less than 
14 feet square, with a ceiling not less than 
W/i feet high. The said rooms shall be 
plastered and have a lumber floor. 

The lean-to shall not be less than 8 by 20 
feet and built substantially to exclude the 
elements. It shall be partitioned, one-half 
into a kitchen and one-half into a porch, 
which said porch shall be screened in. 
There shall be at least four windows to 
said building and two to the lean-to, which 
>aid windows shall consist of two sashes to 
cacti window and so constructed that the 
sashes can be raised and lowered. The 
doors to said building and all of the win- 
dow- to said building shall be screened 
with wire and in a manner to exclude the 
flies and mosquitoes. There shall also be 
built to said building a front porch at 
least 16 by 6 feet, which may be roofed 
with boards and batten. 

England and other European countries and consider seriously 
the problem of rural housing for our tenant farmers. While 
most of our people, especially in the South, are more or less 
familiar with the needs for housing reform, few have felt the 
responsibility of assuming leadership in a campaign for the 
accomplishment of this purpose. Now and then a voice is 
raised urging appropriate legislation that will correct the evils 
of our inadequate and unsanitary housing situation. But it is 
not heard by those responsible for making and executing our 

There is a tendency on the part of tenant farmers them- 
selves to take the initiative in the matter of this housing reform. 
The Renters' Union that was organized in September, i<><x>. 

b. We further demand that 3 stable be 
provided for three horses, and also a shed 
of reasonable size in which to store implements- We also demand a 
chicken coop not less than 10 by 12 feet and 6 feet high. 

c. We also demand that the well on the premises shall be curbed 
and so fixed as to prevent the surface water from getting into it. 

There is much in the rural housing acts of England and 
other countries that would help us to formulate our rural 
house problem. But it should be frankly admitted that many 
departures from European practice would be necessary in for- 
mulating an adequate policy for our own country. There is 
a vast difference in rural conditions in this country and in a 
country like England. Anderson has pointed out that 
there is now a striking difference between America and Europe 
in rural life. In Europe the country people are more generally gath- 
ered in villages; in America more of them are scattered over the 
whole face of the country, dwelling on their farms. 

This in itself makes our rural housing problem different from 
that in England, and perhaps this fact also makes the for- 
mulation of a housing program more difficult. This is not 
the only difference. The character of agricultural production, 
the difference in systems of cultivation, the methods of rent- 
ing land and the shift of the agricultural population are all 
factors that need to be considered in the formulation of an 
adequate rural housing policy for tenant farmers. 

But the conditions demand that something be done. We 
cannot ignore the low standards of living and the social prob- 
lems created in many sections without serious consequences 
to our national welfare. It is inevitable that a rural housing 
program be formulated and adequate legislation secured to 
raise the standard of living of those who live on rented farms. 

Dr. Wu Ting Fang, former minister from China to the United States, pitching the first ball in 

baseball championships Manila Carnival 

Luther Wong, Coolie 

By C. M. Goethe 


RED silk was still used to build up thin boyish 
queues when Wong was born. He began life 
in one of those densely populated maritime provinces 
of the Flowery Kingdom which, year following year, 
had raised its prolific crops of pirates and coolies as well as 
of lichi nuts, mandarin oranges and bamboo. 

In Wong's village labor is cheap. For a half-dime's worth 
of copper cash you can buy a twelve-hour ride not in a Pull- 
man palace car, but in a squeaking wheelbarrow, whose motive 
power is a pig-tailed Celestial. During your twelve hours 
you traverse highways made crooked to confuse passing 
dragons. The so-called " farms," each scarcely larger than 
a city lot, teem with human life; even the rivers along the 
banks are densely populated. The forests of masts resemble 
leafless winter woods. Boat crowds against boat as house 
against house on the shore. Children, born on sampan or 
junk, live and die on shipboard. 

Here is a boat-baby still in the quadrupled stage. It hangs 
dangling by a rope long enough to permit it to fall overboard, 
not long enough to allow it to get wet. The mother is away, 
selling oranges. If you buy she delivers an orange, but retains 
the rind. Anything is salable, even orange-peel, which may 
flavor a monotonous diet of rice ten hundred and ninety-five 
times a year. In many of the overcrowded households even 
rice is too costly. The year's continuous labor, twelve, four- 
teen, fifteen hours a day, may yield only scanty rations of 
millet. It is a life of struggle that fascinates the student 
of human evolution. 

From a packed, almost wriggling China there has been for 
decades thrown off seaward, as if by centrifugal force, a stream 

of coolies and pirates. But piracy, as time went on, grew in- 
creasingly unhealthy; so, as the pirate crop decreased, the 
coolie output correspondingly grew. 

Wong's father pondered long over his son's future. To his 
Kwantung mind, kingfisher feather-working was attractive. 
The addition to the family income it promised seemed almost 
princely. But Wong's father knew that very many of these 
boy workers were destined to become blind. Wong was his 
first-born, his only son. Worship at the ancestral shrine is 
not best offered by one whose "home is the House of Night, 
its being empty voices." 

One day to Wong's hamlet came the "number one boy" of 
a coolie outfit in a far-away land. He was cousin to Wong's 
father, and had returned to venerate his aged mother. 
Through him Wong's father heard of the strange overseas 
land where green-eyed, red-haired men lived. Thus Wong 
was not destined to be either pirate or kingfisher feather- 
worker, nor was he to build railroads in the tiger-infested 
jungles of Java, nor to can salmon in Alaska. His course 
happened to be southward. 

One day the hatches were unlocked. Out of a stifling 
hold came a line of coolies. One was Wong. 

Ashore, Wong bunked in an Australian Chinatown. Even 
in the monotonous misery of his journey toward it he had 
gained a little knowledge of the new world ahead. He knew 
already that "walkee, walkee" meant anything from a pil- 
grimage on foot to a journey in a train. He could say "No 
have got," "top side," "long time no see," and a few other 
expressions in pidgin-English. It did not take him many 
weeks to discover what the immigrant to Australia as well a? 
to America learns that lack of English means lower wages 





Presbyterian Mission Playground at Hainan, an island 
south of Formosa 

He began to look about for a chance to learn English for 
exactly the same reasons that had set his piratical forebears to 
scanning the horizon for a sail. Wong's expedition to the 
southland was entirely mercenary. 

About this time Wong heard of the Mission School. Some- 
body there taught English to Chinese coolies without price. 
Wong could not puzzle out why they did. To his practical 
mind it seemed poor business. Yet both his friends, Chang 
and Fong, were drawing bigger pay because of the evenings 
they spent there. So Wong ventured across the threshold 
and made progress. He had the marvelous memory typical 
of the Oriental. 

It is a long story from the first lesson, with strange words 
and funny letters, so different from Chinese ideographs, to 
the day when Wong earned the right to use two of the former, 
an M and a D, after his name. The story is one of the 
awakening of a desire to do something more than the chop- 
ping of eucalyptus trees in Kangaroo Land. The day came 
when Luther Wong, M.D., sailed past the coral reefs of 
Queensland, homeward bound, to become a medical missionary 
to folks who would crowd Doctor of Medicine into one ideo- 


LUTHER WONG, M.D., knew his native land. Of its 
roads an American engineer has said, all the white man's 
skill could not devise for them a more nearly perfect vehicle 
than the wheelbarrow. Its narrow tread is best suited to 
flounder around in the muck while discovering a footing. Up 
and down the sticky roads tramped Luther Wong, giving 
away medicines and advice. Even the narrow, knife-blade 
paths between the rice paddies knew the print of his bare 
feet. Wong invented a medicine case that could be folded 
and carried on his back. It was also his dwelling. A reverse 
folding made it his bed. 

He found time to read and keep abreast of the things that 
stirred his profession. Soon after the demonstration on the 
malaria-infested lands near Rome of the part played by 
the mosquito in malaria, a disease once attributed to mias- 
matic vapors from the swamps, Wong's portable drugstore 
and house added to it a tent frame, made of sliding bamboo 
rods. Over it went a mosquito netting. 

"I must always teach my people the truth," he explained, a 
kindly smile spreading over his ivory countenance. "It is 
better to teach by doing than by words. My province, with 
its big population on the rivers, its damp rice paddies, has 
many breeding-places for mosquitoes." 

Wong's months of saving human life, of lessening human 
suffering, grew into years; the years became decades. Then, 
one day, news came from the organization that had given 
Wong the pittance which enabled him to live and to dispense 
Western medicines instead of such drugs as "powdered claws 
of a tiger killed on the night of the full moon." Wong 
was too old, they wrote; he was superannuated, retired. 

The black hairs had in truth become silvered. Yet the 
most remarkable part of Wong's life was still to come. 


WONG'S home had been on the island of Fu Ning. Some 
years before the government had leased a bit of nearby 
mainland, under pressure, to a foreign power hungry for a 
terminal for a railroad that was to reach even the jade mines 
of Yunnan. The leased land included a little walled city called 
Chin Chow. There was an uprising of the natives of Chin 


U. C. A. Playground, Zaukaida 

Chow when the terms of the lease became known, and the 
mob demolished the yarnen, all save one wall. This was 
spared, because it was decorated with an ancient ideograph 
that nobody thereabouts could read. Scholars with incased 
finger-nails had traveled from far Peking to gaze through 
horn spectacles upon the venerable character. 

It was several years after this uprising that Wong was re- 
tired. He chafed under inaction and begged for the use of 
the crumbling walls of the Chin Chow yamen. There were 
beggars on Fu Ning with a misery that can be known only in 
the overcrowded Far East. Crimes, too, were committed 
some perhaps from causes similar to the first of Jean Valjean's. 
Wong had never heard of Les Miserables of literature. But 
he knew les miserable* of Fu Ning and of his native Chin 
Chow. Wong would not have found it easy to locate a city 
filthier than Chin Chow. The gloomy yamen was surrounded 
by a maze of narrow streets. These were lanes of foulest 
green stagnant sewage. You picked your way from one 
stepping-stone to another, as you might ford a brook. Each 
stone was slippery with the muck from which it protruded. 
He commenced to create an oasis of spotlessness in the desert 
of filth. Then he literally went into the highways and by- 
ways. He welcomed to a new home the lame, the halt, the 

Fu Ning had been no wiser than the average American 
city which gives the undesirable tramp or pauper transporta- 
tion to her next neighbors. Fu Ning sent hers to Chin Chow 
because they were Cantonese. Chin Chow sent them back 
with the message that " being born upon the foreign soil of 
the island, they are foreign subjects." Wong asked no ques- 
tions. He gathered them in. 



From melancholy yarnen stones Wong constructed sleeping 
quarters, and in the center a combined chapel and art gallery. 
Its pictures are the work of Wong's hands and head and 
heart. Wong had thoroughly, reverently translated into 
Chinese terms the western conception of the Christ sending 
out messengers of good-will, as strange to our eyes as Wesley's 
hymns in the form of Celestial ideographs. One illustrates a 
familiar phrase about " fishers of men." The Christ has a 
queue and slant eyes; the fishers are using the balancing-net, 
the night fire in the sampan bow. There is even the trained 
cormorant, whose neck is not unringed until it has first caught 
its master's supper. 

Not everyone who came to Wong's settlement was a grown- 
up; there were large families of children. Wong found it 
necessary to expand his social settlement to include a school. 
As the years rolled on, even those who were in his lower 
classes when he began, reached graduation time. With keen 
foresight Wong had selected one boy and one girl to enter 
the competition for scholarships in America. Both were suc- 
cessful ; Sing, the lad, went under the Boxer Fund ; Ching, 
the girl, under a fund given by the governor of their province. 

Four years passed five, for both students remained for post- 
graduate work. When they returned it was to unite their 
newly gained knowledge with the wisdom of the wiry old man 
who had brought their parents to his settlement. 


THE Chin Chow settlement took on new life. Its influ- 
ence commenced to be felt far up the river. Men traveled 
miles afoot, also on crawling river sampans, and from even 
the lahassaries of far Tibet, eager to see the moving-picture 
machine, the phonograph, the other strange devices from a 
land across the seas. 

Of course a playground was started, a playground that 


Not unlike boy scouts anywhere 

fairly hummed with its activities; a playground that was 
epoch-making in Wong's province. Everybody wanted to help. 
There was a sand-box where strangely clad babies patted the 
sand into pagodas, into rice paddies, into the crooked roads that 
confused the devil and turned him away from his travel toward 
husbandmen's huts. Ling, the wheel-barrow coolie, had cheer- 
fully kept his promise to haul the sand from the beach, after he 
finished his day of fourteen hours of labor. 

Ling's spirit was characteristic of the neighborhood. Near- 
by was a village of blind fire-cracker makers. They were men 
whose fathers had put them at the task Wong had escaped as 
a lad ; and they had been "scrapped," as we would say, after the 
years of boyhood in the kingfisher feather works that brought 

the inevitable blindness. One of these, under the skilful guid- 
ance of Miss Ching, became what in the boys' language 
rendered into English, would be the " champion story-teller." 

The chief bully of the gang that terrorized the filthy 
streets nearby, and clipped the queues of white-haired men, 
became president of the Boys' Republic, and the gang was re- 
organized for good. The republic was especially popular, for 
it had been organized almost simultaneously with the over- 
throw of the Manchu dynasty. Boys and girls alike learned 
the fun of team play, of working together for a common object ; 
learned that, after all, the best fun was playing the game 
squarely, winning because of sheer merit in strength of muscle, 
in quickness of thought. 

Wong's advancing years had sapped some of his activity. 
He rested more now, sitting at the door of his little hut, 
watching the play, enjoying the music of the shouts of merry 
children. To his wrinkled ivory face would come a glow that 
made it radiant with a strange glory. 


T T TUNG'S story is one to give us pause in our Western ap- 
VV proach to the Orient and its nascent powers. As Arab, 
Chinese, Hindu, or Siamese, Luther Wong is an actuality 
throughout the Orient. His like is to be found from Bagdad 
to Shanghai, from Bokara to Singapore, from Mukden to 
Aden. America's responsibility lies in her ability, through 
internationalizing her social service activities, to make this raw 
human energy, the coolie, into a social force capable of the 
effective work of Wong's late life. We cannot escape from 
the results of discharging or neglecting to discharge this re- 

Even more, the manner in which the America of today 
conceives her mission to an Orient trustful in this generation, 
may affect the whole future of our country. We have had 
recent proof of the recurrent flare-ups of militarism. The 
Hohenzollern followed and imitated Napoleon. In another 
century are we to see the same thing from an awakened 
Russia? Two hundred years hence may come the war cries 
and tramplings of a new-born Yellow Empire. 

The mind of the Orient is today in a plastic state. Just 
as the child has only one childhood, so will the Orient 
have but one awakening. Opportunity, with a long forelock, 
is still bald as a billiard ball behind. 

This very minute two forces struggle for this privilege of 
molding the Orient. One is purely materialistic, the other 
purely idealistic. China, wise in her own peculiar watchful 
waiting, has been studying six decades of development in 
Japan. While we have been inclined to sneer a little per- 


Younger boys at the U. C. A. Playground, Zaukaida 



haps at her impotency, she has been slowly deciding whether 
she really wants to become as a child again, really wants to 
be born over again, really wants Occidentalism. 

What has troubled her in making her decision has been 
the two types of Occidentals that come to her shore. There 
are the men who make commerce their god. There are the 
idealists who hold other life views. These latter have included 
a group of American diplomats who placed honor above gold ; 
men who were impatiently asked by those Europeans raised in 
a radically different environment, how they could be so foolish 
as to return a part of the Boxer indemnity. These idealists 
also have included the few regiments of American missionaries 
who have transplanted to China our ideals of sanitation, edu- 
cation, social service, and, above all, our democracy. 

The wiry-haired Chinese has been studying these red-faced, 
quick-eyed " foreign devils." Here was one who would, just 
to expand the market for opium, bombard her ports with 
smoke-belching guns that a million times exceed anything 
that China has ever invented in the way of fire-crackers. 
The slit-eyed one wonderingly compared this Saxon with that 
other who could stand out from a group of his fellows and 
refuse to take the Boxer indemnity gold. 

Ivory-skinned Luther Wong was troubled as he tried to 
make a decision. You and I would be troubled if two natives 
much more powerful than we, and with radically different 
ideas, should drop in upon us some day from another 
planet. Our Chinese dipped his queue as he had reached 
the momentous decision. Only once in the history of his 
race was that decision to be made. Thus China decided 
to become again as a little child. The ancient educational 
system is being cleaned of its barnacles. No longer will 
its candidates go to the old examinations with powerful 
eyeglasses, with the classics engraved on their finger-nails. 
Today Luther Wong's folk, looking for Occidental leader- 
ship, turn particularly to America. They ask us to help find 
and utilize the tens of thousands of other potential Luther 

In six decades of watching, China has learned there is no 
place where lost time can be more rapidly regained than in 
the education of children. China has many students in Amer- 
ica supported by the returned Boxer indemnity, with the 



SSo-yard run, Far East 

funds her provinces have appropriated to double and treble the 
leverage of the returned Boxer gold. These students know 
their Darwin, their Herbert Spencer, in a way to make us 
ashamed. Imagine spending a day riding over murderously 
jolting roads in a wheelbarrow, where sail joins with man- 
power as a means of transportation, finding at a native inn, 
as the sun is setting, a young man in native costume, poring 
over an English book by the side of a well. When he sees 
your surprise he tells you, in remarkably good English, that 
he is reviewing a criticism of the educational methods of 
Pestalozzi ! 


IT is through these Chinese students in America that we 
have already made our first export of the American play- 
ground. Through their American-trained, big-hearted, broad- 
minded superintendent of Chinese students in America the 
literature of the American Playground and Recreation As- 
sociation has been sent to Peking for translation and distribu- 
tion through govern- 
ment channels to all cen- 
ters of education in 
China. Here the visit- 
ing students are being 
directed to observe the 
possibilities of education 
through play, of the use 
of the school as a social 
center. It is said about 
one out of every ten of 
these men is specializing 
in education. This is a 
Temendously significant 
fact when we under- 
stand how badly China 
needs such men in other 
ways; as, for example, 
trained engineers to pre- 
vent famines that kill 
their hundred thousands 




'onship games, Shanghai 

because transportation makes it impossible to move heavy crops 
a few hundred miles to crop-failure areas. 

These are but beginnings; for we are dealing with a race 
numbering over three hundred millions, almost one of every 
five of all mankind. Trained Orientalists, speaking out of 
the wisdom of long residence in the Far East, say that more 
vigorous measures are needed if this opportunity is not to pass. 
They see the quickest way of telling the story to the masses 
is the method by which it was told with lightning-like rapid- 
ity in America through demonstration playgrounds. 

Unfortunately this is the most expensive way. Each dem- 
onstration playground ought to be supported for about five 
years. This means an outlay of several thousand dollars. 
It means more. It means the ability to sift out American play 
workers with a wisdom equal to that which has characterized 
the selection of workers for the missionary field; to decide 
whether Mr. Smith or Miss Jones will stand transplanting; 
whether they can live through the envelopment of homesick- 
ness until with undoubt- 
ing ears they hear " the 
East a-callin'." It takes 
an inspiring faith to go 
to a foreign land ; to en- 
dure whatever comes, 
from lizards racing over 
the mosquito-net cover- 
ing your bed to a cholera 
epidemic; to battle all 
the while with a strange 
language; and to work 
knowing that at the end 
not enough will have 
accumulated to enable 
you to return and live in 
comfort in the homeland 
that your sole posses- 
sion is love for an alien 
land and the satisfaction 
of a work well done. 

So in this foreign playground work one needs the pioneer 
spirit. That is the very reason why Americans are so pecu- 
liarly adapted to it. Who are more fit for such a task than 
the descendants of the men who landed at Plymouth Rock, 
or upon the Virginia coast; who have ever hungered for 
new frontiers; who, in prairie schooners, crossed the plains; 
who made of "49"er California what Browning calls a "male 
land" ? Men of this blood are needed to take up smilingly 
the burden of teaching eager, hungry young Luther Wongs 
the story of education through play. 

Thanks to this pioneering spirit in those around John 
R. Mott, of the International Y. M. C. A., there has been 
begun some real demonstration playground work in China 
under American leadership. The groups of social service 
leaders in the different Chinese Y. M C. A. stations, and 
such teaching centers as St. John's University at Shanghai, 
have, almost to the man, the vision of playground possibilities. 
Small beginnings have been made, and their efforts are inten- 
sified in power because your Chinese has come to know that 
he has a true friend in America. Justice to him speaks louder 
than words. He knows America has never stolen one foot 
of his territory. He knows America was big enough, was 
just enough, to return to him such parts of the Boxer in- 
demnity as we considered extortion. 

The Chinese are, above all others, responding to the call 
of our play leadership voiced by the Far Eastern games, the 
Oriental Olympiads. These meets have been tremendously 
forceful object-lessons to all Orientals. The young athletes 
of Japan, the Philippines and China have awakened to a 
consciousness that at the start they are physically unable to 
compete with that race that they once knew as " foreign 
devils." It would be a discouraging thing to bring this 
knowledge home to the youth of the Pacific were it not for 
the fact that we know a way of bettering it. The realization 
of better things has come not only to the coolie but to the 
young Chinese aristocrat, who has come to see that there is 
no building of muscles save by physical exercise. At the Play 
Congress at the Panama-Pacific Exposition Mr. Owang 
epitomized them, saying, " When our well-to-do young men 
took up golf they wanted a coolie to do the work of striking 
the ball for them." It was beneath them to do anything 

Now, however, they are learning the glory of labor. They 
are commencing to understand what Robert Louis Stevenson. 





Chinese, five barred flag; Filipinos, old Spanish shield; Japanese, rising sun flag 

meant when he said that real joy was the consciousness of a 
day's work well done. 


WE have offered the countrymen of Luther Wong the 
Anglo-Saxon factory system. They are gulping it down 
with a relish that means more than acute indigestion. We have 
almost forgotten to tell them that an overdose may be poison. 
We have almost failed to warn them that we have found it 
imperative to use such antidotes as those offered by the National 
Child Labor Committee, the American Association for Labor 
Legislation and the union labor movement. 

Just to that degree in which the Far East receives these 
things now will it be able to use intelligently, with real profit 
to itself and all mankind, its other acquisitions from Western 
civilization, and to stave off some of the most glaring evils. 
At the close of the World War, a National Conciliation Society 
of China might assure the Flowery Kingdom that in spite of 
potential munition factories and armor- 
plate plants, her traditional policy 
toward militarism may be nearer the 
wisest course than some of her advisers 
dream. In organized recreation we have 
an alternative to offer to regimentation 

and a military drill as a means of developing racial physique and 
initiative. Under our Stars and Stripes we have, with die 
playground, evolved in the school social center a unique insti- 
tution. It is young. And yet, full of deficiencies, it contains 
much that is badly needed in China, where the play spirit is 
often so crushed out, and where it is a common saying that the 
Chinese child's lack of imagination is as remarkable as the 
power of his wonderful memory. 

There is need in America today of an organization to do 
this exporting work. Perhaps it might best be a committee 
under our national playground association. With a budget 
of, say, $5,000 a year, it could begin a response to the calls 
for guidance that are coming from all mankind. Such an 
annual expenditure would show the East how we are learning 
to neutralize the poisons of our factory methods, how to 
weave into its new school systems America's technique with 
the growing bodies and plastic minds of children. Such an 
agency would multiply manifold the sur- 
plus which came of transmuting a coolie, 
with an earning capacity of four cents 
gold a day, into Luther Wong, self-made 
social worker and missionary of a fuller, 
happier life. 


In contrast to the little children of the new playgrounds are 
the many Chinese children who start to work so young that the 
play spirit is crushed out of them 


TRUST the South to lend glamor to good works however 
much they may be cast in modern form. The G. A. M. 


and the D. A. S. do not stand for those jaw-breaking elee- 

mosynary titles that have been coined so laboriously in the cities 

the Teacher 

of the North ; but for the " Good Angel of the Mountains," as 

the hill people of an Arkansas district call a nurse who 
" sticks " when she could so readily " go outside ;" and for the 

the Public Health Nurse 

" Darling Attribute of the South " as old Mammy Rachel calls 
one new Red Cross secretary. 

the Health Officer 

THE National Conference of Social Work meets this month 

the Manufacturer 

in New Orleans and just in advance of it the SURVEY is 
bringing out this bit of a symposium on the South and the New 

the Preacher 

Citizenship. Here and throughout the country generally, are 
judges, preachers, physicians, educators, county agents, social 

the Negro Business Man 

workers men and women who are putting the old wine of 

public spirit into new bottles of constructive service to their 

the Social Worker 

towns and countrysides and states. So a handful of Southerners 

were asked each to take such a one as text and without using 
his name or giving the name of his city, to tell the story and 

the Red Cross Volunteer 

adventure of his part in the new citizenship. The list is not 
inclusive in any sense merely a very human amd promising 

the Factory Inspector 

sampling sort of personal letters of introduction which one 
might write to an old friend in another part of the country. 

the Public Official 

In each case the writer was asked to tell enough about the 

community to show the background against which the man or 

the Negro Citizen 

woman labored, as the case might be; the obstacles he had had 


to overcome; the public spirited backing given him; enough of 
his temper and purpose to show what he is driving at; enough 

the University President 

of his contemporaries to show that he was being interpreted 
as a type and not merely as an individual, but enough of inci- 

the Farm Demonstrator 

dent to give the reader the feel of knowing this particular 
citizen. THE EDITOR. 

the City Missioner 

A Symposium 

The Teacher 

SOMEONE said, " He has an affidavit face." As you look 
*^at him you think of cattle breeding associations and farm 
machinery, and if it were in the North or West you might 
think of silos and barns. With that, he is dean of a school of 
liberal arts in a southern university. He has been professor 
of sociology, he has investigated rural conditions, studied 
Negro problems, and organized classes in educational 
psychology among the men and women of the community. It 
takes you some time to adjust yourself to hearing occasional 
polysyllables roll out of that farmer's face, but they are just as 
natural to him as sizing up a prize bull. In fact, it is hard to 
determine whether his first choice would be raising a special 
breed of cattle, propaganda or soap-box work to create a social 
conscience in the community, a scientific and statistical study 
of the anthropological and industrial life of the small town, 
or terracing a garden in his back-yard. He builds men and 
women in the class room, in the office, and in chapel. Right- 
eous indignation at social evils and a boyish joy in the good- 
ness of man are in harmony in his jovial, almost happy-go- 
lucky smile and bulky, lumbering body. One never knows how 
it is that people love him, and that he makes men and women 
better as individuals and more productive as social units. One 
is reminded, though in a different way, of " Pippa Passes." 
With all that, he knows the technique of social publicity, of 
effective advertising and money raising, and the manipulation 
of human weaknesses for social good. He is one of the mak- 
ers of the South. PHILLIP KLEJN, 

[Director, Bureau of Educational Research, 
Atlanta, Ga. Southern Division, American Red Cross.] 

The Public Health Nurse 

IF all came about through the Presbyterian minister's asking 
that a nurse be sent to his little hill village. It was some- 
thing of a task to select the right person, for it is a real test to 
ask a young woman to go to a little village of twenty houses, 
fifty-five miles from the nearest railroad. The natives speak 
of this trip to the railroad a three-day trip in bad weather 
as " going outside." Finally we found just the right Red 
Cross public health nurse. She had been in social work among 
the Indians in Alaska, and she had also served with our armies 
in France and Germany. The story of the village interested 
her and she accepted the opportunity. She started with a 
health crusade for the children and her first step was to tell 
all the girls of the school that they must bathe once a week. 
The next morning one of the girls said to her, " My mamma 
says you don't know nothin' ; she says that if you wash all over 
in winter, you'll catch cold and die." But the idea took hold 
and she was soon able to carry through the whole health cru- 
sade. Finally she got courage to attack the chewing tobacco 
habit. Everybody chewed. Not only the men, but the women 
also, and many of the boys start chewing at four or five years 
of age. You can imagine what a joke her new campaign was 
in the eyes of the mountaineers. I think one of them hit it 
off just about right when he said: "We always been a-used 
to chewin' and spittin* where we like; it's the custom." In- 
cidentally, he correctly diagnosed the attitude of a good many 
other communities. 

I was looking over her report the other day, and she is 
rapidly developing her children's program, realizing that 
therein lies the hope of the whole community. She has two 




1 Q 2 O 

classes in hygiene each week and a class of mothers, and she 
has also found time to teach two classes in sewing. One day's 
report showed that she attended at the birth of a baby early in 
the morning, the doctor arriving six hours after the baby was 
born; assisted at the birth of another baby the same day; 
taught a girl's sewing class at the church, and rode horseback 
twehe miles out upon a mountain road to treat a woman with 
an abscess on her shoulder. I remember another case where she 
attended a boy who had fallen from a horse and fractured his 
shoulder. The doctor was twenty miles away and he came 
two days later. The doctor operated as soon as he arrived. 
It was dusk and this " Good Angel of the Mountains" (for 
so the natives have termed her) held a flash-light so the doctor 
could see. The poor boy died the next night. 

The " Good Angel" loves her work, and her quaint settle- 
ment ; and although she could " go outside " but sixty miles 
and find a college community, with water and sewer systems, 
bath tubs, telephones, electric lights, and all the other con- 
veniences, she prefers to stay where her people are being in- 
troduced to tooth brushes and baths all over once a week even 
in winter. 

There has been a tremendous awakening in public health 
nursing all through our Southwest, and hundreds of com- 
munities are now vitally interested in the kind of work this 
new kind of nurse is doing. You don't know where we can 
kidnap about two hundred all ready for service, do you? We 
can place them easily, but of course, not all of them will have 
the good fortune to be located in a community so interesting as 

[Manafc/r, Southwestern Division, 
St. Louis, Mo. American Red Cross] 

The Health Officer 

SOME years ago a good, gray-haired doctor served with 
faithful devotion as secretary of a more or less hypo- 
thetical state hoard of health. Tn time he went out and 
found for his successor a young man who measured up to 
his conception of the needs of the state which was beginning 
to conceive in a very limited way the idea of public health 
service. Two great men, the one governor and the other 
pioneer of higher public education for women in the state, 
had infected the commonwealth with a revolutionary idea 
of popular education. Upon this foundation, in a state typical 
of a section having no records of births and deaths and disease, 
no knowledge of public measures for the prevention of typhoid, 
malaria 1 , hookworm or what not, the young doctor began 
the building of a state and county structure for public health 
service which has been the most wonderfully successful fac- 
tor in the making over of a whole state. 

During the past eleven years, under the leadership of 
this one man, North Carolina has been admitted into the 
registration area; her death-rate from typhoid fever has been 
cut down more than 200 per cent; her sanitorium for tuber- 
culosis together with the extension service to outfield patients 
is one of the best. The state laboratory of hygiene, ranking 
in equipment and personnel second to none in America, 
makes and distributes free smallpox and typhoid vaccine and 
diphtheria antitoxin, saving hundreds of thousands of dollars 
and hundreds of lives each year. Twenty-three of the state's 
one hundred counties have organized health departments with 
whole-time health officers. Seventeen of these are on a co- 
operative basis with the State Board of Health. A score 
of public health nurses are at work in as many counties under 
the supervision of the board. The state through the medical 
inspection of schools department of the Board of Health wa> 
one of the first in the Union to institute free dental treat- 
ment for rural school children, commenced in July, 1918. 
From five to ten dentists are in the employ of the board all 
the time, treating from fifteen to twenty thousand school 
children a year. A half dozen special school nurses give 

all their time to the work. More than a thousand operations 
a year are held in clinics conducted solely by the board. A 
state law was enacted in 1919 requiring a sanitary privy in 
practically every home. This is only a small part of the 
record. The facts speak louder than words. Such is the 
achievement under one man having wisdom, understanding 
and a zeal for service. And the state stands solidly behind 
him. It is said that the legislature never turns down any 
measure for which he asks. R. F. BEASLEY 

Raleigh, N. C. [State Commissioner Public Welfare] 

The Manufacturer 

THE changing attitude of the manufacturer toward those 
who work for him and his feeling of desire to make his 
business contribute to the community in which he lives is no- 
where more evident than in the great cotton mill industry. 
Its pioneer days days when in order to make it permanent 
and earn even a small dividend for stockholders it seemed 
incumbent upon the management to exploit both the producer 
of the raw material and the laborer who made the goods 
are past. Today the planter has come into his own, and now 
we find in the new generation which is taking over the con- 
duct of the mills, men of vision men who see in the cotton 
mill hands human beings to be reckoned with. 

Mr. X is a fine type of the new manufacturer and has 
grown up in and through the hard pioneer days. Do you 
know the cotton mill type of laborer ignorant, without am- 
bition or desire for betterment and absolutely unrelated to 
other groups of labor or even to other communities of his 
own class? This was the material with which our manufac- 
turer was confronted, no obstacle to his work greater than 
the dense ignorance of the people themselves. The progress 
made by surrounding groups of workers and the pervading 
spirit of progress in the community has had almost no effect 
upon his people. He proposed to make the mill work for the 
workers who have come in from the hills to work for the mill. 
He takes the boys to his own home to teach them how to 
play. He said to me, " Did you know these people have no 
idea of what is fair in games? They never have grasped clean 
play." He goes on camping trips with them and makes him- 
self one of them in an endeavor to awaken in them a desire 
for the good things to which he introduces them. There has 
always been a stigma attached to being a cotton mill boy. 
Recently Mr. X was approached by some organization for a 
subscription for a boys' camp with the promise by the solicitor 
that his boys could have the privileges of the camp. They 
got the subscription. But none of his boys went. Why? He 
did not want them to. He knew the slights they would re- 
ceive at the hands of other boys. But he said : " What I 
am trying to do all I am working for is to make a cotton 
mill boy as good as any other boy. That day is coming 

" Do you know why Mr. X has all these people crazy 
about him ?" asked a member of the office force. " Well, 
I'll tell you. A man comes in here with a hard luck story 
down and out; we listen any of us we are sorry and we 
say so; we go on then and forget it. But when a man comes 
to Mi. X with such a story he does something; does not 
talk, he works." 

His work is bearing fruit; the people are becoming edu- 
cated. The visiting housekeeper goes on her rounds teaching 
them how to cook and to care for their homes; the visiting 
nurse how to keep their children well, and the simple rules of 
sanitation and health; the various clubs for adults as well as 
for the children function in their midst, and one sees a changed 
people and realizes that the next generation will show the 
effect of the work of this new type of manufacturer. His 
work has been, and still is, a great adventure thrilling, ex- 
hilarating, inspiring, making men of new stature. 

He caught a vision of what it would mean to his com- 



inanity if all who labored while at their work should be so 
directed, so taught and so stirred by newer ideals of life, that 
they would become valuable citizens, and day by day he is 
making real that vision. From all over the South come tales 
of similar work new ideals of service to one's country and 
it is believable that light is breaking through the cotton mill 
industry into the lives of the " poor white " of our hill country. 


[Chairman, Alabama Child Labor Committee.] 

The Preacher 

A/f Y preacher is not an ordained minister, but a preacher to 
* preachers. 'He is a Y. M. C. A. worker, has been so 
for years. Before the war thousands of boys in southern col- 
leges annually heard his call to Christian life and duty. He 
does not intellectually believe in the possibility of such life and 
duty without belief in Christian dogma, but, paradoxically, he 
is willing to leave the dogma to grow out of the life and the 
duty. Those he preaches, and Christ is his sufficient example. 
He feels keenly the need for combining the social worker's 
method with the religious motive and soul purpose. He built 
a great hall surrounded with family cottages, in the moun- 
tains of North Carolina, where each summer he brings to- 
gether college Y. M. C. A. girls and boys by the hundreds. 
Coming with them are parents and ministers, and all together 
they spend a week or two of recreation and inspiration, and 
study about society as it is and as it might be if they would 
exemplify Christ's life in the twentieth century. 

During the war his " summer school " was turned into an 
all year round training camp for Y. M. C. A. wqrkers. Since 
the war it has been turned into an all year round training 
camp for Christian reconstruction. Leading laymen and min- 
isters by the hundreds have come at his invitation to learn 
what the application of Christianity to industry and to com- 
munity problems and to race relations means. They have 
learned much, for he knows that better social methods are es- 
sential to better Christianity, and he has freely drawn upon 
the assistance of social experts in his educational enterprises. 
He believes the church has the surest foundation and the great- 
est potentialities for human welfare. His efforts have been 
directed fundamentally to rousing the ministry to realize and 
prepare for such a destiny. He has declared to priests that 
they must nurture the whole human personality if they expect 
to reap a perfected soul. He has helped many of them to in- 
terpret such nurture in terms of working programs. He has 
analyzed Christianity to them with respect to relationships with 
the Negro, and has brought many groups of white and col- 
ored leaders together to discuss that problem. 

Undoubtedly, he feels within himself a power in the com- 
bination of religion and social knowledge. His friends have 
seen its exhibition through years of unfaltering effort and 
growing leadership. I have chosen him for this sketch because 
his is not a voice in the wilderness. Many able and sym- 
pathetic helpers have shared purposes and leadership with him. 
Most of them have been preachers. From that fact I leave 
for inference the part which the ministry will play in the 
promised reconstruction of the South. 

Atlanta, Ga. 


[Assistant Manager, Southern Division, 
American Red Cross.] 

The Negro Business Man 

THE tendency of our civilization is citywards. The 
forthcoming census will certainly show an urban 
majority of the population of the United States. The Negro 
follows in its train. The tide of northern migration during 

the past five years has been the most significant factor affect- 
ing the Negro population. This movement has been directed 
wholly to the cities. The rural Negro population of the 
northern states is rapidly declining with the passing decades. 
The city Negro's function is limited essentially to menial 
service and manual labor. The emergence of a small profes- 
sional class is calculated to produce a wide chasm between 
the professional and laboring elements of the race. There 
is lacking the middle class of merchants and tradesmen 
connecting the two extremes. This gap is being bridged 
by the rapid development of business and practical enterprises 
in all the large centers. 

I have in mind an instance which perhaps had better be 
described as a type rather than a person. Every statement 
of fact, however, is based upon the actual case in mind. 
"John Smith" (were that his name) was born in Virginia 
fifty-one years ago and had three months' schooling the 
month of January for three successive years. At early man- 
hood he found his way to a large city and secured employ- 
ment as a hod carrier. He finally gained influence and stand- 
ing among his fellow-workmen and was made their walking 
delegate. Appreciating the value of united effort he or- 
ganized a building and loan association through which over 
fifty members have been able to secure their homes. He then 
organized an industrial savings bank which at present has 
over six thousand depositors with resources listed at nearly 
five hundred thousand dollars. He has also erected an apart- 
ment house and hotel for colored people at a cost of one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which is conceded to be 
the best equipped institution of its kind to be found 
anywhere in the United States. Mr. " Smith " has in 
mind still larger projects for the welfare of the race. He 
believes implicitly that the Negro laboring man possesses 
great potential industrial and economic power which can be 
developed and given practical expression by proper encourage- 
ment and efficient control. Though almost wholly without 
formal education he has good sense, sound judgment and 
enjoys the largest confidence of white men with whom his 
business connection brings him in contact. The laboring 
people upon whom he relies trust him implicitly and follow 
his leadership gladly. Not unlike Booker T. Washington, 
he has a clear vision of the things he sets out to do and is 
unswervable from his main purpose. May it not be that in 
this confused and tangled situation of the city Negro, " John 
Smith " points out the way, and points the way out? 


Dean, Junior College, Howard University. 

The Social Worker 

IF I were to label this sketch accurately, I should call it the 
short story of one worker, born in Geargia, trained in the 
arts and social sciences and in public law, devoted to the pur- 
poses, ideals and plans of social work, and known to every 
social worker of major experience in the National Conference. 
The narration of details would constitute a most human story, 
centering around a most human sort of dean of southern social 
workers, in the midst of human interests with many a keen 
analysis of social groups. 

Of late, I have been thinking much of the development of 
social work in the South, in its growing power, the increasing 
recognition of the trained worker, the stronger grasp and 
broader scope of public welfare work, and the overcoming of 
difficulties that have beset the pioneer and social worker of 
other days. It matters little whether we begin by evaluating 
the unusual record of social work during the war period just 
closed ; or whether we go back more than a decade and study 
the persistent, determined and unbroken efforts of able leader- 
ship; or whether in the interim between we compare the 
steady and faithful application of the true principles of scien- 



tific welfare work to social service and community problems 
the impression is the same. It is a record of substantial 
achievement wrought out gradually through difficulties. In 
the recent war work, with its tremendous task of organizing 
and interpreting new and difficult problems of personal and 
social service, and of community welfare, the record shows 
distinctive and gratifying results in the quality of work done, 
in the training of social workers, and in the degree to which 
the ideals of social work have permeated the entire territory 
involved. I have seen here growing up new principles and 
applications that are bound to affect the whole of social work 
and the methods of teaching the social sciences in college and 
university. If, on the other hand, we contemplate what we 
may call the beginnings of social work in the South, as typified 
by the early organization of the work in the Gate City, the 
record is striking in that, beginning with small groups, ex- 
tending to special circles and interests, persisting in time of 
acute difficulties, it has won out through larger applications 
and broader contacts. And the story, from the beginning, has 
been the same: now working out essential problems and appli- 
cations; now leavening the whole lump; now meeting disaster 
of fire or flood ; now promoting community organization and 
service with far-reaching effect; now contributing to the sum 
total of the knowledge and theory of social work. 

Here, then, is the excellent setting for this representative 
social worker: Studying facts, making them applicable to folks 
with human interests and social instincts, utilizing methods, 
principles, convictions, persistently and almost stubbornly, 
single-minded, he has achieved results, both small and large, in 
local, state and sectional applications. He has given himself 
heedlessly to the work, nevertheless with pride of personality, 
genius of foresight, a sort of subtle power and ability to " put 
across " his plans, and a fearless and insatiable ambition for 
the cause for which he labors. Among his many other char- 
acteristics is his ability to influence leadership in varied fields 
the men and women interested in civic endeavor, the capitalist 
interested in philanthropy, leaders in labor reform, the law 
makers of the land, college professors, university presidents. 
And with extensive knowledge of movements and men is also 
the love of quiet philosophy, typical of the just reward of the 
worker in social welfare who would also become a dreamer. 
Would that we might chronicle the work of all who have 
worked with him of their past, their present, their future 
for of such is the new story yet to be told. 

Atlanta, Ga. [Dean, Emory University] 

The Red Cross Volunteer 

SHE is a Red Cross institute graduate, twenty-two years 
old, pretty, bright, perhaps a little spoiled and stubborn, 
but the " Darling Attribute of the South " says old Mammy 
Rachel. Since early in 1918 she has been secretary of a 
chapter in a mountain county of North Georgia, a county 
from which a goodly number of people annually attend grand 
opera in Atlanta, and a smaller number the enclosure at the 
same place for the compulsory entertainment of illicit distil- 
lers. The county's politics are turbulent it has gone Re- 
publican and the most famous lynching in the history of 
America occured within its bounds. Government is rather 
incipient. The suppression of the social instinct is compar- 
able only to its violence when aroused. 

She first volunteered her services. Nobody recognized the 
need for any social work, even for soldiers' families. When 
the division supervisor who preceded her started to work, the 
chairman of the chapter felt so sorry for her idle and isolated 
position that he paid a little Negro boy a quarter to find a 
couple of Negro women whose allotments had not been re- 
ceived to give her something to do. In a month our secre- 
tary had seventy-nine active cases under her care. She found 
one of them suffering from typhoid fever in a neighborhood 
where it had thrived for years. She told her committee of 
it and brought about the inoculation of the entire neighbor- 

hood and the eradication of the source of infection. Not 
many months had passed before she persuaded the chapter to 
pay her a salary, not primarily for her remuneration but for 
" discipline and stability." Next, she raised the funds inde- 
pendently of the chapter treasury for the salary of a nurse. 
Then the two of them lobbied the state health law through 
the Grand Jury and secured a $5,000 appropriation from the 
county commissioners for the first year's work. The nurse 
is now on the public payroll and " stabilized." 

Then she got herself appointed attendance officer under 
the state law. She receives $3 a day when engaged in that 
work, and credits it on her salary. She has made good as 
attendance officer. Opposition to the law was centered in 
one conspicuous instance of a father who threatened to shoot 
anybody who " messed in his private affairs." When she 
drove up to the village store in the neighborhood where he 
lived, a group of citizens excitedly heard her mission, and 
refused for her own safety to direct her to where the man 
lived. But she found him, and the would-be murderer, after 
fiercely looking her over, burst out laughing: "Wai," he 
exclaimed, " I've said the President of the United States 
caint make me send my chilluns to school; the United States 
army nor the mayor nor the sheriff caint make me do it, 
but you aint nothing but a little old gal and caint make me 
do nothing and I dont care if I do send "em." Two days 
later he appeared at the office of the secretary and with her 
assistance purchased shoes and clothing and books for the 
prospective students. 

Now that more children are to attend school, she has in- 
spired the women to inaugurate organized recreation, and 
has secured the services of an expert playground director to 
inake a month's demonstration to the community. Rachel, 
who calls her the " Darling Attribute of the South," is an 
old Negro woman whom she recently coaxed to nurse a fam- 
ily of ten who were all down with the flu. Rachel didn't 
want to do it, and when told it would be a meritorious 
action replied, " Yes'm, but I'se already done so many good 
deeds." "I feel like that myself sometimes," says our sub- 
ject but there is no end to well-doing. 


[Assistant Manager, Southern Division, 
Atlanta, Ga. American Red Cross] 

The Factory Inspector 

IN 1905, among other modernities, the factory inspector was 
an unintroduced personality in southern industry. Child 
labor claimed the acceptance always accorded necessity. It was 
a habit of mind. The average working parent, having dis- 
posed of his child's spiritual welfare, considered that the par- 
ental duty next in line was that of seeing him settled in life, the 
sooner the better, with the result that, every day, children as 
young as eight years were thus disastrously " settled " for 
life, so far as joy and achievement went. 

Through her work for the " charity society," one southern 
woman saw these broken-down products of precocious in- 
dustrialism ; wondered why men and women who gave their 
ages as twenty-five or less should look forty. " Why don't you 
work, instead of piling into the charity office?" she asked 
them, not without a swiftly comprehensive glance for the ruin 
of sunken chests and teeth gone and pallor of unwholesome 
skin. And always the answer came, " I can't work any more; 
I've lost my speed. The mills won't keep me." Scrapped at 
twenty-five. " Charity " work was like locking the stable 
after Dobbin has frisked his tail in good-bye. Just one thing, 
aiming straight for the roots, could save the next generation 
the passage of a law prohibiting the employment of children 
under the age of 14. With one of the city clubs as medium, 
this woman succeeded in having passed in 1906 a child labor 
law. One serious omission invalidated all her work there 
was no provision for a working certificate. Since the state- 
ment of the parent or guardian was all the age-guarantee 



asked, the evaders of the law could disregard it entirely with 
a little amateur perjury. " I think all the boys and girls in 
town were born fourteen or over," said the inspector in de- 
spair. Before another legislature convened, the inspector 
learned thoroughly the economic conditions in her city. Dur- 
ing that summer, she went into more than five hundred work- 
ing-homes, and there discovered that peculiar habit of mind, 
that warped psychological twist that made parents send their 
young sons and daughters into a mortgaged life. In very few 
cases was the $1.25 earned by children necessary to the family 
weekly budget; such extreme cases were met by the estab- 
lishment of a scholarship fund which paid to the school-child 
every Saturday the amount formerly in his pay envelope. 

Manufacturers and so-called labor leaders fought bitterly; 
but in 1908 the legislature passed the child labor law at pres- 
ent active in the state. Figures from the last report of the 
factory inspector tell in brief the story of the movement this 
one woman started. In 1907, there were 2,355 boys employed 
in the city, and 2,473 girls. Today, there are only 639 boys, 
!>899 girls. Much still remains to be accomplished. Since 
1908, the work has not gone forward with the steady swing 
necessary to keep up with industry. There is still only one 
inspector, with three times the number of women to inspect; 
and the same small office staff carries on the work. A state child 
welfare department is needed ; and to bring the law up to the 
requirements of life in 1920 it must be amended to include 
stricter physical qualifications, and most significant of all for 
reducing illiteracy in the state there must be educational 
qualifications, such as Alabama has recently adopted. But the 
most difficult work of all, veering the attitude of parents right- 
about-face, work that meant years of slow establishment of 
confidence, has been accomplished ; nothing now can block the 
march of the new citizenship through the South. As one work- 
worn mother said to the inspector the other day, " I used to go 
on my knees to God to curse you for taking my Georgie out of 
the factory. And now, I goes on 'em to thank Him." 

The Public Official 

HP HAT man lacks perspective (and probably lacks informa- 
*- tion) who is not keenly alive to new and tremendous 
stirrings of the social conscience in many fields of endeavor 
in the South. In particular a new vision, a new statesman- 
ship, and a new leadership in the field of race relations give 
promise of many forward steps of great significance to the 
whole nation. This does not mean that the South has com- 
pletely attained. But who shall say that even the North or 
the Negro has attained to a just policy and a right spir^f ? In 
the resolution of the important problems of race and group 
relations it is much more important to know where we are 
heading than it is how far we have gone. If the eyes of the 
leaders are on better goals than in the past, if their ears are 
not stopped, and if their tongues are no longer silent, everyone 
everywhere ought to take courage, rejoice, and go forward. 
Social progress is always conditioned on the relatively slow 
changing of the minds of men, on the relatively slow adjust- 
ment of man with man and of group with group. Significant 
signs of such progress are found in all parts of the South. The 
South is proud of a new moral leadership in these fields, a 
leadership that can not fail to carry the whole nation a little 
nearer to the goal of right relations. 

There are scores of southern men who burn the English 
language with the vitriol of denunciation of the iniquity of 
lynching, and yet their voices are drowning in the louder 
chorus of southern citizenship that will shortly wipe this par- 
ticular form of mob violence out of existence. (In the first 
two months of this year we are told that only one lynching 
occurred in the whole country.) Governors, too, are found in 
these days able and willing to put the full power of the state 
between the criminal and the mob willing and able to put 
their own bodies across the path of the crowd. Educators are 
assuming their rightful leadership in social and racial ques- 

tions. The Southern University Race Commission has long led 
in the study of race relations, including in its membership 
veritable prophets of southern good-will, who in study, com- 
prehension, oratory and practical wisdom bid fair to represent 
the best of the South in its newly awakening determination to 
do the utmost for the Negro. But I take for my special sub- 
ject a public official a governor who has expressed and 
roused the social conscience of a state. Elected upon his pledge 
to stand for law and order, he has secured legislation, used 
executive power, and by his voice and personality in every 
part of the state, so educated its people that Tennessee today 
stands firmly committed against the possibility of mob violence. 
His position is not purely legal. He is interested in the for- 
mation of law and order leagues and Interracial committees in 
every part of the state. His liberality of views is attested by 
his trip to the North to speak in behalf of higher education 
for the Negro. His heart is so truly in this work that he has 
won the hearts of the colored people. He has denied some of 
their most earnest desires and yet has held their respect and 
good-will. New courage or the courage of new convictions is 
taking the helm at many points in the South. Courage and 
conscience are ever the truest signs of a better day. 

F. A. McKENziE 
Nashville, Tenn. [President, Fisk University] 

The Negro Citizen 

THE opportunities for education open to Negroes and the 
conditions and demands of the present day are develop- 
ing a type of Negro citizen little known a generation ago. 
He is intelligent, self-respecting, able and willing to assume 
his full share of civic responsibility, devoted to the welfare 
of his own people and cooperating with the white people 
for the common welfare, but unwilling to seek advantage by 
the old methods of white patronage and favoritism. The 
man of whom I write is of this type. He was born in a 
country town in Georgia and received his education at At- 
lanta University. His experience since graduation has been 
chiefly in banking and insurance. For some years he was 
cashier of a Negro bank. He later became secretary and 
treasurer of a successful life insurance company, a position 
which he held for about ten years and has only recently 
relinquished. He has helped to stimulate among the colored 
people of his city an earnest determination to improve their 
economic and social conditions. He believes that it is the 
duty of the city to provide for the colored people just as good 
opportunities as are provided for the white people in the 
matter of public schools, parks, sanitary living conditions, etc. 
The old method of obtaining public favor a method not 
altogether abandoned was for the colored petitioner, with 
proper humility, to seek the aid of an influential white man 
and retire from the scene. The new Negro citizen welcomes 
the aid of the white citizen but does not seek it as a sup- 
pliant. He believes in the use of the ballot as a method of 
gaining his reasonable share of public benefits. 

Within the past year there was a city election to decide 
on a bond issue to raise money for improving the public 
schools and for other needed purposes. White opinion was 
divided. A strong association of Negro voters was organized. 
As a member of its executive committee this man did much 
to direct the organization. He put the case lucidly before 
the colored voters and before the representatives of the city 
government. He said that the colored people would vote 
for the bond issue if they had adequate assurance that they 
would receive a reasonable amount of the benefits to be 
derived. The Negro voters held the balance of power. Un- 
fortunately, they felt that they did not have adequate assur- 
ance, and their votes killed the bond issue. It might be sup- 
posed that a man advocating such independent political action 
for the Negroes must be entirely out of sympathy with the 
whites. But this is not the case. In his conferences with 
the city authorities and with other white citizens, his manner 



is so straightforward and convincing and his sincerity and 
earnestness so evident that even those who disagree cannot be 
offended. When it comes to a definite task for social better- 
ment in which the white and colored people can work to- 
gether he is willing and glad to cooperate. His committee 
work for the Anti-Tuberculosis Association is a case in point. 
The secretary of the association has recently written of him, 
" He has not only given helpful advice and aided in carry- 
ing out programs which were arranged by himself and some of 
the other colored people, but devised methods and furnished 
inspiration for securing financial support from five leading 
colored insurance companies for the employment of an educa- 
tional agent to work among the colored people in this city. 
I can recommend him Very highly for good business sense, 
ability to inspire others and to make good impressions on both 
races in his presentation of his subjects." This testimonial 
from a southern white woman with whom he has worked 
in the fight against tuberculosis suggests the possible value 
of the Negro citizen to the South. 


Atlanta, Ga. 

[President, Atlanta University] 

The Farm Demonstrator 

YES, we were much like any other rural community, far- 
mers, land, crops, and all growing poorer, or just holding 
their own. The boys and girls never for a moment thought 
of farming as a career. " What are you doing since you 
left school?" would bring forth the answer, "Nothing," 
and the next question would show that the big boy was work- 
ing on the home farm, a work considered only as a necessary 
stepping stone to something else. The school in the com- 
munity had been like other rural schools, a school planned 
for city children, with little or no connection with the home 
farm, and so not a place where agricultural enthusiams could 
be manufactured. When agriculture was put into the school, 
we began with a school farm, a farmers' fair held every 
autumn, classes in agriculture, any number of agricultural 
pamphlets, talks, and any amount of enthusiasm. 

Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, the great organizer of demonstra- 
tion work in the United States, came to our county. When 
he saw the old corn stalks, planted four feet apart each way, 
said he, " Make your attack right there," and " right there " 
we started. The people listened gravely and well to our 
lessons and warnings. But they did not believe. The boll 
weevil surely could not cross the rivers to reach this sec- 
tion. After a few years they began to realize the importance 
of the " Bo ' Evil," proved by the fact that they began to 
think of him in terms of size. " I done yeady (hear) Mr. 
- has one of dem bo ' evils on de school farm, and I pray 
he ain't let him out to eat up my childern." 

Our experience is typical of many rural districts. When 
the demonstration agent has gone out, not only to preach 
corn, but to show how it can be raised at a profit, when 
his work has closely connected itself with the local schools, 
education has become a family affair, and the community has 
raised itself by its own boot straps. 

Our people were terribly afraid! Eight men thought they 
could risk one acre and try the new methods, but finally they 
begged off for a half acre, and only six of them were daring 
enough actually to " come through." When results were 
measured, some dark glasses came off, and there was no more 
trouble in securing men to take the acre. This particular 
region means for the demonstration agent a great deal of 
travel in deep sandy roads, rides across tide rivers in a 
bateau, where tides can leave you stranded for hours with 
great mud flats and marsh between you and home, unless 
you learn to calculate carefully; it means hours of travel 
under a very hot sun, for the corn loves the sun, whether the 
demonstrator does or not. South Carolina farmers raise 

an average yield of 17-19 bushels per acre, and one of the 
farmers in the demonstrator's big class has raised as much 
as 72 bushels and they have made an average of 30 bushels 
per acre. Instead of six men, sixty have been visited, and 
these located so that the influence of the work could be 
felt as far as possible. But do you know, you can't hope to 
have it extend much more than a mile, even when neighbor 
farmers see the crop with their own eyes ? There is alwa\ s 
a reason why James can do what John can't. 

Our farmer-teacher had been to Hampton and had taken 
the full agricultural course, so although he seemed like a 
" boy " to the gray-heads who had farmed here all their lives, 
he knew how to turn the trick and they soon realized that he 
had lessons to teach them. The young man who must now 
meet the situation is also a Hampton graduate. He came to 
the school when agriculture was first introduced, and faith- 
fully walked his eight miles a day from his home farm, and 
now as he goes out among his own people, he goes as one who 
has come through their own experiences, to pass on to them the 
gift that his larger education has given him. 

Demonstration agents work at night as well as during the 
day. Often the evening meetings, held in remote places 
after a long day's work, try his mettle and enthusiasm. He 
must get the farmer's ears as well as his eyes. The war served 
as a helpful agent, for many a cotton farmer wanted to re- 
spond to the patriotic call for more food. Hundreds of 
extra acres were planted in the South, and many of them 
were directly due to the demonstration agents. 

Last summer the boll weevil actually reached this region, 
and in one season took three-fourths of the crop, the cotton, 
our money crop since the memory of man. Even the mer- 
chants felt stunned. It was more of a clean sweep than the 
prophet demonstrator had predicted. Said one farmer, " We 
sure has a satisfying affliction." The sceptics had to believe; 
the demonstrator had proved his case. But there is no rest- 
ing of the case! The people may be afraid once more, but 
not of the plans proposed by the agent. Today you can 
see him working early and late as before, advising the farmers 
on their home acres so that each one on his list may plan his 
farm crops according to his own ability, and the land lie 
plants; meeting the farmers in large and small groups; often 
traveling with the merchants who are earnestly eager to help 
the people succeed in this crisis. In one sense the demon- 
stration agent has won out on the boll weevil! The young 
generation of farmers will not have the cotton handicap; the 
boll weevil has devoured his temptation to put all his best 
land, best fertilizer, best effort into cotton, and when the 
farmers learn to meet the situation they are bound to be 
better men. Poor land, poverty, illiteracy, abound in the 
cotton producing states. The demonstration agent, as a 
bridge between schools and home acres in all rural districts 
has tremendous obstacles to overcome and must be a rural 
missionary. His is a rare opportunity to convert to higher 
aims and accomplishment, and those who are inspired for their 
work are helping to make men for the country. 

Ross A B. Coo LEY 
[Principal, Penn Normal Industrial and Agricultural School.] 

St. Helena Island, South Carolina 

The City Missioner 

N my part of the world, we sometimes introduce our friends 
to each other by saying informally, " Mr. Smith, shake 
hands with my friend, Mr. Jones." In somewhat the same 
easy spirit I would request the readers of the SURVEY to shake 
hands with " Mr. Reverend." All his friends do not, it is 
true, know him by this name. Some of the other social work- 
ers, indeed, sometimes call him the Spoon, because they say 
wherever he goes he always stirs things up. Yet he may be 
galloping across the Capitol Square of the southern town in 
which he is one of the city missionaries (and I use the verb 
advisedly, because he is nearly always in a hurry) when from 



an open window will come distressful cries of " Aw Mister 
Reverend ! " emitted by some colored citizen in the clutch of 
the law, and crying out to him for aid and comfort. 

When did this city missionary first take up social work? 
Almost immediately, I should say, upon his arrival in the 
world. He was born with an amazing delight in the oppor- 
tunity of living, and with an abounding interest in and affec- 
tion for humanity, qualities which early generated the desire to 
help. He was, however, a school teacher for a time, and then 
a lawyer, before he took up institutional work as superintend- 
ent of one of the state schools for deaf and blind children. 
Always interested in children and educational problems, he 
was peculiarly drawn to these handicapped scholars, and flung 
himself whole-heartedly into the work for them. In this field, 
he rendered excellent service for several years, and then went 
into the ministry, for which he had always had a longing. 
Upon notifying his bishop of his intention to do so, the latter 
put him in immediate charge of a church, so that he found 
himself with a parish on his hands, and some half-dozen 
preaching appointments a week, before he had much more 
than opened his books on theology. All his life, however, he 
has been devouring information just one lap ahead, so to speak, 
of having to give it out (he early finished up a law course 
supposed to take two years, and was admitted to the bar inside 
of four months, though to do so he confessed that he went to 
sleep repeating the crimes against property, and woke up re- 
citing those against persons). He was duly ordained, and 
later made city missionary in one of the larger cities of the 
South. Here he finds wide scope for all his powers, and his 
reserve knowledge of education and of the law, to say nothing 
of his wide experience, stand him and the people he tries to 
help in good stead. 

What does he do as city missionary? Well, he is called 
upon for every activity in which either religion or social serv- 
ice plays a part, and there are few undertakings in which one 
or the other does not come in. He visits and preaches in al- 
most every public institution in the city and nearby country. 
The different courts, particularly the juvenile court, know him 
well. He is as much at home in the jail as he is in the various 
churches, or in any of the homes for old ladies. 

One of his chief aims is to introduce the people of the 
churches to some of the various institutions of their city. For 
instance, in his visits to the girls' reform school, where he goes 
regularly not only to preach and no other minister was giving 
a thought to the spiritual welfare of these girls but to bring 
them as well some form of entertainment, he makes it a 
point whenever possible to take with him two or three visitors 
from the city, that they may gain some knowledge of the very 
excellent work being done for their state's wayward girls. In 
the same way, with all the other institutions, it is his constant 
endeavor to bring them and the private citizen into sympathetic 
touch.. He has also a faculty for utilizing spare moments. 
There was a quarter of an hour at noon in the sheds of one of 
the large construction shops of the city, after the men had had 
their lunch and before they went back to work, which he 
seized upon for a series of services. " But here," he said, " you 
have to attend strictly to business. You chat with the men 
for about two minutes, pray for three, preach for ten, and 
then the whistle blows." 

It is impossible to touch on all his activities, but I cannot 
close without a short word as to his work in the jail. " What 
do you do there dp you pray with the men ? " an earnest 
brother inquired. " Well, yes, sometimes, but I usually play 
a game of checkers with them first," was his answer. 

It is this friendly and personal interest that probably makes 
for the city missionary's success in this field. Within reason, 
he is glad to enter into the point of view of those he helps, and 
was ready to welcome the suggestion of an ex-convict who 
said, " If you want to take 'em presents in jail, take 'em on- 
ions." For a time after that I had a mental picture of the 
city missionary hastening down to the jail, his Bible in one 
hand, a bunch of onions in the other, ready to give comfort 

with either. This was no doubt a grotesque vision. Never- 
theless, I wonder if it does not to some extent sum up what 
the city missionaries all over the country are doing; standing, 
that is, for a combination of body and soul. They are, I think, 
the go-betweens of the churches and the institutions, endeavor- 
ing to bring religion into social work, and social work into 

White Sulphur Springs Va. 

The University President 

'T'HERE is a story to tell in the very recent past and the 
J- very vivid present of one of the oldest and greatest of the 
southern state universities. In fact, in point of actual service 
it is the oldest state university in existence ; in point of extended 
service to its state, in the quality of its faculty, and in its pro- 
grams of culture and democracy, who shall find its superior? 
The story constituting perhaps the most distinctive chapter 
in educational administration in southern universities centers 
around two leaders, both of the new generation. In these 
leaders were common, to a remarkable degree, the qualities of 
young manhood, loyal service, simple living, genuine and sin- 
cere motives, and calm but resolute purpose. 

The one, the lamented and beloved university president of 
yesteryear, leaving a remarkable heritage and notable inspira- 
tion, finds his eulogy written by the President of the United 
States " as one by gift and character alike qualified to play a 
distinguished part and playing it to the admiration of all who 
knew him." The other, the president of today and tomorrow, 
confident, clear-eyed, passionately devoted to the ideals and 
service of a great state university, dreams dreams of a living 
democracy and plans for its realization through better educa- 
tion and the new citizenship. The one, the university's own 
son, " giving himself freely, wholly, joyously that she might 
be strong and large and abound in the noblest life," sought 
to make the state university " the instrument of democracy 
for realizing all the high and healthful aspirations of the state," 
and in so doing he interpreted to the people of the state " de- 
mocracy, culture, efficient citizenship " to be guided by a 
" confident and competent leadership." The other, a student 
of education, for a decade a teacher in the university itself and 
;i worker in the state, winning his way by simple, quiet worth 
and deserved merit, dreams of his state university as one which 
" typifies and serves and guides this new civilization " of the 
South, " an institution shot through with the spirit of service, 
broad and quick in its sympathies, practical in its training for 
the practical things of that life which in its astounding com- 
plexity confronts the new generation . . . resolutely keep- 
ing in the foreground those spiritual values by which alone 
a state can survive." The one, a southerner of national repu- 
tation, the planter of good seed which will " grow up and set 
in motion potential evolutionary processes that will go on and 
on working themselves out in the life of the university and 
the state," held democracy to be the " main and active manifes- 
tation " of culture and magnified " democracy and work " as 
the heart of American civilization, holding at the same time 
that " culture and work " are the basis of a sound democracy. 
1 he other, a son of the nation, reaping where another hath 
sown, loving the South, expresses the strong conviction that 
" the next great creative chapter in the history of the nation is 
to be written here in the South where is now the real center of 
that pioneering spirit which has made America possible," and 
sets himself to the task of aiding in the building of the greater 
South through an education which will add " to individual 
competency public-mindedness, and to public-mindedness an 
abiding sense of spiritual realities." 

Surely the story, but suggested here for fuller investigation 
and study, is typical of the South's best hopes and of its highest 
aspirations for the newer citizenship. And who can measure 
the influence of the university president in this new day? 

Atlanta, Ga. [Dean, Emory University] 


By Charles Burchfield 

THIS street with the red telephone poles, these 
strips of back-yards are unqualifiedly American. 
A horse-shoeing shop with a single coat of pea- 
green paint, a feed store, a ramshackle one-room 
office in the dusty sunshine of a Sunday afternoon; 
fruit trees blossoming behind kitchen windows, rail 
fences in need of mending, spring grass plots. The 
town may be Salem, Ohio, where Burchfield has spent 
most of his twenty-six years, a clerical worker in the 
steel mill, or it may be Troy or Carthage or Paris 
or any other old-world named town of the new 
world the town many of us were born in or the 
replicaed town telescoped for us by the train-window, 
flashing from coast to coast. 

THESE are Burchfield in his kindest, quietest mood. 
At the recent exhibition of his paintings in the 
Kevorkian Galleries, New York, there was other ma- 
terial to make the heart ache, conceived in bitterness 
and executed with glowering exactness. Slate-colored 
miners' huts, cheerless, with unadorned windows; the 
industrial plant, brick-red, with sleek chimneys and 
precise grass, defying artistic redemption; a signal 
station, the lone sign of life on the horizon, and two 
stretches of shining track things made by man, but 
capable of conquering his spirit. And the most curi- 
ous thing about the traditionless art of this young 
American is that he chooses to work in watercolors, 
the medium for pretty sunsets and neat landscapes. 


Vol. XLIV 

April 3, 1920 

No. i 


ONE of the novelties of the Presidential campaign is the 
industrial relations questionnaire which the advisory 
committee of policies and platform of the Republican 
National Committee has issued. Fifty-five leading questions 
concerning industrial relations and the problems of capital and 
labor are asked. In taking this unusual step the committee 

" It is generally recognized that the promotion of ' good 
will ' on the part of those engaged in industry, the reduction 
in the number and frequency of strikes and periods of un- 
employment, the improvement of working conditions, the pro- 
tection of the health and welfare of wage-earners and the in- 
crease of production, are aims which call for the thoughtful 
and patriotic consideration of all associates in industrial effort 
and of every citizen. The interest of the public is direct but 
there is a real division of opinion as to the extent of govern- 
ment participation in the solution of these problems as well 
as to the best means of reaching ends universally admitted 
to be desirable. This questionnaire is submitted in the hope 
that the answers will define a proper governmental policy and 
will suggest remedies which the government and those most 
directly interested may consider." 

Prof. Samuel McCune Lindsay of Columbia University 
is staff director of the investigation. Ogden L. Mills is 
chairman of the executive committee and John Callan 
O'Loughlin is secretary. 

The answers to the questions ought to be very useful in 
revealing the state of mind of those who make responses. The 
questionnaire calls for expression on many of the issues which 
occupy the attention of industrial leaders. Should unions in- 
corporate? Should the injunction writ be modified? Should 
collective cooperation be practiced with trade unions or shop 
committees? These are typical The Republican National 
Committee in this procedure seems to have taken a leaf from 
the notebook of the defunct Progressives who pioneered with 
the political research bureau. 


THE housing bill drawn up by the Housing and City 
Planning Committee of the Community Council of 
Louisville, Ky., (see the SURVEY for February 14) was 
passed and signed by the governor, March 17, but with an im- 
portant modification. The bill, as drafted, applied to cities of 
the first four classes and to one- and two- family houses and 
made more stringent requirements in regard to fire protection, 
improvements and sanitation. Owing to the fact that little 
educational work had been done in the smaller cities, much 
opposition from them arose after the bill had already been 
reported favorably by a joint meeting of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Municipalities and the House Committee on Public 
Health. To secure action, the original movers got the bill 
amended so as to apply to cities of the first class only, and in 
this form it was passed. 

R. A. Hoyer, executive secretary of the Community Council 
of Louisville, writes: 

It is interesting to note that the bill received no opposition from 
Louisville where a considerable amount of propaganda work had 
been done in its behalf, and that the Real Estate Association, the 
Board of Trade, the city administration and the Engineers' and 
Architects' Club all gave it their hearty endorsement. This support 
was largely due to the fact that each of the groups mentioned had a 
representative on the committee that drafted the bill. 

An educational campaign for the other cities of Kentucky 
is now planned in the hope of creating public opinion favorable 
to an amending act, extending to them the provisions of the 
bill just passed. Louisville itself is going ahead with a city 
planning program, the community council, which is represen- 
tative of almost all civic and social agencies in the city, again 
taking the lead. 


M4.KING dots in ladies' veils is a delicate bit of hand 
work. To fasten each scrap of chenille firmly, without 
creaking the frail mesh, and to put the dots at proper 
intervals, requires skill. Moreover, there is unusual strain on 
the eyes and back of the worker. Nevertheless, there are chil- 
dren in New York city who have learned to make dots, and 
who spend evening hours working with their mothers and 
sisters around the table in their tenement homes, helping to 
earn the family living. For putting in a hundred dots they 
get from 3 to 31/2 cents, so when they become proficient and 
can make four or five hundred dots an hour they earn from 
12 to 1 8 cents an hour. 

Other common home occupations of tenement children and 
their elders are working on night lights, snap fasteners and 
flowers. For night lights the tenement worker gets 65 cents a 
case. In a case there are 12,000 wax tapers, which the worker 
inserts in small discs and packs into 150 boxes, which must be 
folded and numbered. Snap fasteners have to be snapped into 
holes in the cardboard on which one buys them at the stores. 
For snapping 1,728 fasteners into place a worker gets 15 cents. 
For flowers the pay is as low as 3 cents a gross. 

These facts were obtained by the Women's City Club of 
New York, in the months of January to June, 1919. An 
investigator visited 500 families who were doing home work, 
in different sections of New York city. She found that in 
these families 75 per cent of the home workers put in from 
four to seven hours a day, and that 82 per cent of them earned 
less than 20 cents an hour. She was unable to ascertain 
definitely the number of children who helped with the home 
manufacturing, but she makes the confident assertion that 
whenever the children in the family were old enough to help 
they did so at some period, and that the night lights and snap 
fastentrs were essentially children's industries. The total 
amount of home work that is going on may be estimated from 
the fact that in April, 1919, there were 16,219 tenement 
houses licensed for home work, and that 2,861 manufacturers 
in the state have permits which give them the right to send 
work into homes to be finished or entirely manufactured. 

To end the exploitation of workers in home work a bill 
has been introduced in the New York legislature providing 
that no manufacturing or finishing shall be done in tene- 
ment living rooms, except by tailors, seamstresses or milliners 
working directly for the consumer, in cities of 50,000 or 
more population. 


IN Passaic, N. J., certain organizations have been unable to 
hold public meetings without a permit from the commis- 
sioner of public safety, one Abram Preiskel. Preiskel seems 
to be of the opinion of the wool interests, who apparently 
think law and order cam better be maintained and their own 




private interests best served by preventing excessive inter- 
change of ideas among workmen. Alice Barrow Fernandez, 
representing the Federal Department of Education, some 
weeks ago charged certain big interests in Passaic with main- 
taining an elaborate spy system, whereby the workers are kept 
in continual dread of an invisible power, so that it has been 
difficult to interest them in " adult education " (Americaniza- 
tion). Although the state constitution guarantees freedom of 
speech and of assemblage, and provides that that right shall not 
be abridged by law, the commissioner of public safety in 
Passaic considers it his duty to insist that the Amalgamated 
Textile Workers, at least, shall obtain a permit before attempt- 
ing to hold a public meeting. The Amalgamated is looked 
upon with disfavor by the employing elements because its con- 
stitution contains a clause which to them savors of control of 
industry by the workers. 

With intention of putting the issue of free speech to the 
test, representatives of the American Civil Liberties Union of 
New York city went to Passaic on the evening of March 23 to 
back up the Amalgamated Textile Workers, who had planned 
a large mass meeting there. But the police had got wind of 
the affair, and the hall which had been rented was, by order 
of the commissioner of public safety, closed to the Amal- 
gamated. Nothing daunted, the organization had quietly 
rented a second hall. 

Nevertheless when, at the new place of meeting, the first 
speaker arose and began to address the audience, several plain- 
clothes men stepped to the platform and announced that since 
no permit had been granted for the meeting, it could not 
proceed. The speaker was at that moment reading aloud sec- 
tions from the Constitution of the State of New Jersey which 
guaranteed freedom of speech. A few minutes later, as he 
took no heed of the warning, the lights of the hall flickered, 
went out for a moment, came on, and finally went out alto- 
gether. Uniformed policemen had come in meantime, and 
going to the front of the hall they urged the workers to leave. 
At first there was no response. At last, however, with the 
darkness and the threatening attitude of the police, who 
flourished though they did not actually use long night-sticks, 
the crowd began to melt toward the door. Some one called 
out to the audience to remain seated to come back. Never- 
theless it continued to melt. Someone addressed the men in 
Polish; and for a moment it looked as though there might be 
a riot. But all passed off in mere noise. In a few minutes 
the hall was practically cleared. There remained half a dozen 


THE Near East the Near East: 
Light and life and color and song! 

"Nay, but our people are stricken and weak; 
They are dumb who have suffered long." 

The Near East the Near East: 

Freed from the crown on a Moslem head! 

" Were it more grievous to bow to the Turk 

Than to die for the want of bread?" 

The Near East the Near East: 

Brown-eyed children on plateau and plain! 

" Nay, but the skin cracks over their ribs 
They whimper like dogs in their pain." 

The Near East the Near East: 

Pageant of shawls dipped in Tyrian dye! 

" Would ye have our women bare to the world 
Shrunken paps and breasts that are dry?" 

The Near East the Near East: 
First of the nations to sceptre Christ! 

"Yea, but was Mihir ever as deaf 

When the bullocks were sacrificed?" 


workers, besides the speakers, newspaper men, and a few visi- 
tors. No violence had occurred. The threats of the police had 
succeeded in making the men leave the hall. 

Intent on holding their meeting, the speakers produced 
candles, and in a dim religious light the " meeting " went for- 
ward. Free speech clauses from the state constitution were 
read again and again; the commissioner of public safety was 
blamed for illegal procedure, but the policemen who had done 
their duty in carrying out his orders were exonerated. These 
latter, once the crowd of workers was safely outside and 
danger of a clash over, had relented from the sternness attend- 
ing personal danger. They joked with the little band of " free 
speech cranks," and the affair passed off in smiles. 


WITH a federal bill for maternity legislation pending in 
the United States Senate and interested groups agitat- 
ing for similar legislation in a number of states an 
investigation at present being carried on by the Maternity 
Center Association of New York city is particularly timely. 
An analysis of some 20,000 cases recorded by the association 
indicates that the mortality rate among mothers and babies who 
receive the care and treatment afforded by the maternity 
center, is only one-third to one-half as high as for those in 
the country at large. 

" The real tragedy then is that the usual high mortality 
among mothers and infants is largely preventable," says Irene 
Osgood Andrews, secretary of the maternity center committee 
of the Women's City Club of New York. " Fully half will 
be abolished through a comprehensive plan for maternity pro- 

Mrs. Andrews would have the program of legislation 
mapped out by the First International Labor Conference under 
the League of Nations followed in this country. In an article 
soon to be published by the Association for Labor Legislation, 
of which Mrs. Andrews is assistant secretary, she describes the 
plan in part: 

Briefly, it aims not only to keep the mother from her employ- 
ment at this most critical period but also to secure for her 
medical care and financial assistance which will in a degree 
recompense her for loss of wages and prevent a lowering of 
the standard of living just at the time when needs are greatest. 
The conference agreed that the rest period should include the 
six weeks following childbirth with the additional right to leave 
work six weeks before childbirth upon presentation of a medical 
certificate stating that confinement will probably take place within 
that time. During this absence from work the mother must be 
paid "benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of 
herself and child," and free attendance by a doctor or certified 
midwife is to be provided. These benefits are to be paid cither 
out of public funds or through a system of insurance, and are 
to apply to mothers whether married or unmarried. 

For the protection of women who are unable to return to 
work because of illness arising out of pregnancy or confinement, 
the draft convention provides that the competent authority in 
each country shall fix a period within which the employer may 
not discharge them from their positions. 

But Mrs. Andrews goes farther and suggests that the 
mother in the average workingman's family whose hardships 
under similar circumstances are comparable to those of the 
woman employed in the factory, be included in any well 
thought out plan of maternity protective legislation. 

According to statistics compiled by the Federal Children's 
Bureau, " Motherhood is one of the most hazardous occupa- 
tions open to women "; at least 23,000 mothers die every year 
from causes due to childbirth, more mothers between the ages 
of fifteen and forty-four dying from this cause than from any 
other except tuberculosis and thousands of others becoming 
permanent invalids. The Bureau reports that 20 per cent of 
all the baby deaths within the registration area occur before 
the child is forty-eight hours old, and that 250,000 infants do 
not survive one year. 

Of fourteen countries in which there are comparable statis- 



tics of maternity mortality the United States stands second 
from the bottom. Thirteen foreign countries have provided 
some form of cash maternity benefit, and in seven countries a 
mother's place of employment must be kept open for her dur- 
ing the period of rest before and after childbirth. 


GEORGE RENWICK. Berlin correspondent of the 
New York Times, in his full account of the counter- 
revolution, makes three outstanding points: the death 
f Junkerism, the demonstration of the great political power 
of the general strike, and the demonstration of the " better 
mind of Germany." Mr. Renwick says: 

The whole country rose against the old order of things. The 
reactionaries were left stranded without the slightest support. 
. . . . The .decent Germany has been justified. 

Of other evidence that this is the case, a pamphlet may be 
cited which was published in Berlin only a few weeks ago. 
It is one of a series of Contributions to the Natural History 
of the War and is entitled simply: Lille. The author presents 
the whole story of the deportations from that ill-fated city, 
beginning with the protest of her scientists to the Academic 
de Medecine, through the whole documentary evidence of 
German brutality, omitting nothing, minimizing nothing. 
These facts, he says, and others which have made Germany 
;vn outcast from the society of nations, are still unknown in 
large circles of the German people. He does not pretend 
that the events at Lille were isolated and that only individual 
officers are to blame though these are mentioned by name, 
but lays the burden of guilt upon the military machine and 
system as a whole. He says: 

The German statesman who has to deal with the after-effects of 
acts such as these, the German woman who suffers from the effect 
of the blockade in the insufficient diet of her children, the scientist, 
the business man, who in vain look for the open hand of friendship, 
they should know why. And no matter whether sufferers them- 
selves or not. German hearts may protest against acts of senseless 
and shameless force which they have not willed and yet not pre- 
vented ; for this unconcern alone they will voluntarily submit to the 
duty of penitence and purgation. 

It is this nation that is asking, not for a place of equality 
with her former enemies, but for permission to live. A grave 
food crisis is expected to arise within the next two months. 
The American Friends Service Committee estimate that ap- 
proximately ten million German children are insufficiently fed. 
Herbert Hoover writes : 

Last year the American people spent literally billions of dollars 
in saving the whole of Europe from famine. The present cry is 
but an echo of that which then existed. We cannot allow our great- 
ness to be marred by a failure to meet this last remaining call 
upon our hearts. 

Here is a typical letter, received a few days ago from a 
German woman who has lived in America: 

Poverty shows everywhere in our faces, and we are looking toward 
darker times. People don't want to think any more of the future; 
we have absolutely no chance of getting on our feet as long as we 
live. At present the French commission is here (Heilbronn), taking 
away our last cows that we had left for our babies whom now we 
have to briag up on soup of some kind. Our feelings you can under- 
stand only when you see the young mothers fighting for a pint of 
milk for the little ones. Hardly any mother is able to nurse her child 
because there is only black bread to eat, and potatoes, and once a 
week a bite of meat. 

So far F. has sent me parcels from Switzerland, but the Swiss 
government does not permit food to leave the country any more. I 
shall soon have to go back there if I want to feed the baby the 
proper way. 

Besides the food question, the clothing is the worst problem. A 
cheap waist which I could easily buy for $5 in New York costs 
M. 135 to 200 here, shoes M. 160 to 180, a little dress I got last 
week, just the goods, was M. 308. But our servant girls still work 
for M. 25 the highest M. 35 a month. You can figure what it 
means for them to look decent. 

Our factories are standing still, partly on account of not having 
any raw material or coal. But it is no use telling you of the miser- 


THIS medallion has been presented by the National Com- 
mittee on Prisons and Prison Labor to five people for dis- 
tinguished service in the cause of prison reform. Those who 
have received it are: Woodrow Wilson, for his executive 
order of September 14, 1918, establishing the principle of pay- 
ment of wages to prisoners employed on work for the United 
States government on- the basis of the prevailing rate of wages, 
with deductions for maintenance; Samuel Gompers, president 
of the American Federation of Labor and chairman of the 
International Labor Commission of the Peace Conference 1918- 
1919, for establishing the prison labor problem as an inter- 
national labor problem; William Rappard, of Geneva, 
Switzerland, president of the International Red Cross, for the 
development of the principle of hospitalization of prisoners 
of war; Thomas Mott Osborne, Warden, Naval Prison, Ports- 
mouth, N. H., for the application of the principle of self- 
government; and Dwight W. Morrow, for the development 
of the " state use " principle of prison labor in New Jersey. 

The medallion is a reproduction of a design that Chester 
Beach, sculptor, presented to Adolph Lewisohn, chairman of 
the national committee, for the committee's use- " The pris- 
oner, seated but unfettered," says Mr. Beach in describing 
the design, " is about to grasp the extended brotherly hand of 
patriotic labor. The rising sun of hope is seen in the back- 
ground and the soaring eagle and flag, together with the 
pointing hand of labor, are expressive of the uplift and for- 
ward impulse of the nation and humanity." 

able conditions our newspapers predict even worse months to come 
this spring . . . Our money is worthless, and all the foreigners 
take advantage of it; soon Germany will be sold out. 

I do not know anything about our present political conditions. 
Our newspapers bring so little that we don't know what is going on. 
But most of the people fear another uprising. Some change musi 
come. We cannot live and work under present conditions. How 
it is going to be done nobody knows. 

One thing I admire our people for, the fact that they have no 
hatred against the Allied nations; and I think their enemies could 
learn from that. 

Arthur C. Jackson, secretary and treasurer of the Miller- 
Lock Company, Frankfort, Pa., who has just returned from 
Germany where he spent six weeks at the request of the Ameri- 
can Friends Service Committee, in the course of a statement 
on the conditions he found says: 

I find that very little was known in America as to actual condi- 
tions in Europe at the time I left. While I have no excuse to offer 
for the atrocities committed during the war, I feel that Americans 
should know what is going on for the benefit of the future. A 
prompt change of attitude will be the only way of keeping America 
out of trouble, for complete isolation from the disease that is develop- 
ing is impossible in these days of perfected means of communication 
and transportation. 

IB k_ * 



THE Crunden-Martin Manufacturing Company of St. Louis manu- 
factures and sells everything from cotton mops to kitchen ware, 
pretty much from one end of the country to the other; but at 
present they are engaged in an altogether novel sales campaign. 
They are selling the idea of a bang-up modern working establishment 
to a new generation of St. Louis girls. They are advertising a 
minimum wage of $12.50 a week for inexperienced girls to start on; 
with a graduated scale, the eight-hour day, the Saturday half-holiday 
and the like of that. They are not only carrying space in the news- 
papers, but they have carried their campaign to the motion picture 
houses and are telling the story in text and films one after another 
in' twenty-five theatres in every section of St. Louis. 

IT may be imagined that the Crunden-Martin Manufacturing Com- 
pany is about as popular among old-fashioned St. Louis employers 
who do not meet these standards as Henry Ford was in Detroit when 
he first started the $5 day. But the plan is giving them first choice 
at some of the most promising younger workers in the city; they 
believe for that reason it will turn out most economical ; and the 
spirit with which they have gone at it suggests that they are not 
going to stop at a stage which puts them ahead of some of their 
local competitors and on the way toward matching the best national 

THEIR latest innovation is to advertise that none of their employed 
do any piece work. " Our people are all paid by the hour or by the 
day," writes a representative of the company, " and our idea of get- 
ting production is like giving them a definite problem and enlisting 
their interests in the accomplishment of that problem. In some cases, 
where the production is particularly needed, that is, where increased 
production is very profitable, we apply a system of group bonus." 

IT'S not a dry wind that blows nobody good. While the company 
is going out to the leisure time centers of St. Louis for new employes, 
it is not forgetting that life and labor can go together in a farctory. 
Prohibition closed down all manner of saloons and cafes in St. Louis. 
Paraphernalia was to be had for a song and today in a big loft room 
opening off to the cafeteria of the Crunden-Martin Company a multi- 
plex music machine a cross between a jazz band and a church organ 
and a circus calliope, which used to operate in one of the worst joints 
in St. Louis, sets the feet going for the noon hour. 




Recent Books on Russia 

Reviewed by Reed Lewis 

ANY comprehensive and impartial history of the Rus- 
sian Revolution is, of course, impossible at this time. 
Events and conditions were too complex, the forces 
at work were too various and profound, the leaders 
are surrounded by too much feeling. The revolution itself, 
indeed, is still in progress. Much of the evidence and many 
of the sources of information are still unavailable. Particu- 
larly is this true of the later stages of the Bolshevik regime, in 
which current interest naturally centers. This latest period 
is not covered by the following books. Our current news- 
papers are only beginning to bring us information about it. 
But many of these books do describe the leaders and earlier 
stages of the revolution and Bolshevism, and will supply the 
reader a background for understanding and judging their 
further development. 

Impartiality will not, perhaps, be credited to one who re- 
views books about so controversial a subject as Russia. Con- 
sideration of such diverse points of view, however, as those 
represented in the following books might be expected to de- 
velop a certain detachment between the extremes of blind 
admiration and hysterical condemnation. At any rate, the 
reviewer does claim to have tried to indicate at least the scope 
of the following volumes, the qualifications of their authors, 
and something of their value. He has had the advantage of 
living during nearly three years in Russia, through many of 
the events described. 


By Arthur Bullard. Macmillan Co. 256 pp. Price $2.00 ; 

by mail of the SURVEY $2.15. 

This is unquestionably one of the ablest books yet written 
dealing with revolutionary Russia. Mr. Bullard has brought 
to his study of the present situation a rare sense of historical 
perspective, and a long intimacy with Russia and her people, 
having been in Russia and Siberia not only during 1917 and 
1918, but also in the years 1905 to 1908. A man of radical 
sympathies, Mr. Bullard has yet felt his first loyalty to be to an 
impartial presentation of fact. His book is not so much a 
detailed history of revolutionary events as an interpretation 
of them, a description of the broader aspects of the situation 
and the forces at work. 

The first and most considerable part of his book deals with 
European Russia. He describes the peculiar psychology of the 
peasants and workingmen which has made Bolshevism possi- 

ble, the war and the old regime, the bewilderment of the Pro- 
visional Government, the beginnings of democratic institutions, 
the zemstvos, duma, cooperatives and Soviets, the clash of 
political parties, the land problem, and the craving for peace, 
Kerensky's attempt to rule with democratic support, the Bol- 
shevist campaign for power, their success and methods of 
work, Allied diplomacy and " German gold," Lenin and his 
foreign policy. In the second part of his book, Mr. Bullard 
discusses Siberia and intervention, and in the closing chapters- 
he makes some suggestions as to what's to be done. 

Writing in the summer of 1919 about the civil war between 
the Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik parties, Mr. Bullard says: 
" Something in the nature of a democratic election is in pro- 
gress. Public opinion in the disputed territory on the relative 
merits of the two sides in the civil war controls the fluctuations 
of the ' front.' It is very largely a war of propaganda. If we 
read in the papers that the Siberian army has occupied or lost 
the province of Perm, it means that the peasant population 
immensely outnumbering the combined armies has taken an 
active preference for one side or the other." If this inter- 
pretation is correct and there is every reason to believe Mr. 
Bullard is right then the logic of events has shown him 
wrong in the measure of popular support he credited to the 
Bolshevist regime. Events have also proved mistaken his 
judgment that " there is no reason to believe that any one 
group is strong enough to conquer and dominate the rest." 

Mr. Bullard's error on these points would seem to come 
from the fact that while he has recognized that Bolshevism- 
was politically undemocratic, and economically probably un- 
workable, he has not so clearly seen the idealism of its purpose 
and theory, or that in the face of foreign intervention and 
internal division it has represented the national will of the 
Russian people, their determination to preserve the unity of the 
country and secure to themselves the achievements of the revo- 
lution. It seems doubtful, too, whether Mr. Bullard has pic- 
tured Lenin as adequately as the scope of his personality and 
achievement, whether for good or evil, merit. But Mr. 
Bullard has not attempted to pass any final judgment on Bol- 
shevism. The material for such a judgment is not at hand. 
' This difficulty," he says, " is at present insurmountable in 
any effort to evaluate the social and industrial innovations of 
the Bolshevist regime. . . . The Revolution in Russia 
has not completed its course perhaps it is barely started. It 
has already laid the hoary ghost of heredi-absolutism. It has 


OTHER social workers of long 
standing, nurses, probation officers, 
physicians, Red Cross workers, teachers, 
ministers, forward-looking people every- 
where write that they depend upon the 
SURVEY for fact and inspiration. 

It is not just another weekly. 

It is the only weekly with your problems 
in mind. 


S. 4-J-20 

The SURVEY, 112 East 19 Street, New York 

I enclose $4 for a year's subscription 52 

Will send $4 on (date) . 


Address. . 



To Understand 


Read these informing books 
by writers who know Russia 


1 1 


If you want FACTS, read 


Translated from the French of 

Professor Antonelli, distinguished French economist and so- 
ciologist, was in Russia during two Revolutions as French mili- 
tary attache. This study of Bolshevist theory at first hand 
tells " without passion or dissimulation what Bolshevik Russia 
is, what are its philosophy, doctrine, men and deeds." " The 
best and most illuminating book on the Bolshevik revolution 
and regime. A clear, convincing, unprejudiced statement of 
the actual facts by an intelligent eye-witness." 

The Knickerbocker Pregt 

$2.00 net at all book shops. 
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Socialism vs. Civilization 


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(Continued from page 8) 

expression of the conception of " justice and fairness " of the 
time. Those who led the fight for a different conception were 
enemies of the social order. 

Can anyone say that labor has now arrived at the state to 
which it is to be permanently assigned? There are still dis- 
senters as there always have been who propose new marches 
towards a better day. Some of these plans and proposals will 
find expression in new demands on employers. Whether they 
are justified by the facts of any given situation or not, is it not 
reasonably certain that an industrial court dispensing justice as 
it is currently and generally understood would find them unjust 
and unreasonable? And thus the court becomes of necessity 
a barrier to experiments in new standards of justice. 

If it is desirable for the state to intervene in the controversy 
between employer and employe let it do so by raising the level 
on which that controversy is to take place. Let there be a point 
below which there is to be no argument. Thus at once the 
bitterest forms of the controversy are made unnecessary. Above 
that point economic organization should be made freer, rather 
than less free. Voluntary arbitration should be encouraged, 
and the parties to the wage bargain should both be so strongly 
organized as to make such arbitration an agency that they may 
safely use. 

It may not be true in all respects that that government is 
best which governs least, but all history, ancient and modern, 
Hives evidence of the folly of attempts to maintain the status 
quo by force of law. 

freed the land. Leninism is only one episode in the momen- 
tous process." 

It is from this broad point of view that Mr. Bullard writes. 
Not only in his comment on events, but in his treatment of 
the more fundamental aspects of the situation, he has, with 
vigorous and imaginative word, written a highly illuminating 


* * * 


By William Hard. Harpers & Bros. 248 pp., illustrated. 

Price $2.00; by mail of the SURVEY $2.25. 

This is a popular book. It is also an important one. Until 
May, 1918, Mr. Robins was head of the American Red Cross 
in Russia and also acted as a sort of unofficial representative 
of the American ambassador in conversations and negotiations 
with the Bolshevik government. He was in regular and first 
hand contact with Lenin and Trotzky. His testimony in 
regard to them, therefore, is evidence of real significance. In 
a position to speak with authority on the history of American 
diplomacy in Russia during those six months, Mr. Robins 
shows its failure to understand the actual authority of the 
Soviets, even in the days before the Bolsheviks controlled them. 
He shows that Lenin and Trotzky were seeking American 
economic and military cooperation to fight Germany at the 
very time they were being labelled pro-German. He slums tin- 
disastrous effects of our blind policy of intervention. 

Mr. Robins' story, however, is no detailed history either of 
American diplomacy or of events. With his inclination to the 
dramatic, Mr. Robins hits the high lights. He takes no ac- 
count of the inherent complexities and conflicting forces of the 
situation. His book emphasizes several of the fundamentally 
significant aspects of the revolution. His picture of Lenin 
and report of their conversations are of especial interest. In 
writing the story, Mr. Hard is so carried away with dramatic 
fervor that he feels it necessary to interrupt himself every 
now and then to assure us that Mr. Robins is a good anti- 
Bolshevist. But these interludes need not divert the reader 
from the important parts of the book. Mr. Robins' admirable 
suggestions as to future American policy toward Russia de- 
serve to be widely read. 



By Etienne Antonelli. Alfred A. Knopf. 307 pp. Price 

$2.00; by mail of the SURVEY $2.20. 

Mr. Antonelli's book, written in the early summer of 1918 
and here translated from the French, discusses in sympathetic 
but critical fashion different aspects of Bolshevism. He de- 
scribes the conditions of life as they were in April, 1918, and 
the early decrees of the Bolsheviks as they affected individual 
rights and liberties, private property, land and industry. His 
treatment of the March revolution as the consummation of the 
liberal, Socialist and popular movements in Russia, and of 
Bolshevism as the inevitable reflex of Slav psychology, is es- 
pecially suggestive. 

Throughout there is a fruitful attempt to relate revolu- 
tionary developments to the especial conditions and character- 
istics of the Russian people. Naturally, much has happened 
in the past two years which must be taken into account in any 
current treatment of Bolshevism. Events have taken direc- 
tions which M. Antonelli could not foresee, but his book never- 
theless remains a sane, and helpful account of his subject. 


By Ariadna Tyrkova-Williams (Mrs. Harold Williams). 

\iacmillan Co. 526 pp. Price $6.00; by mail of the 

SURVEY $6.25. 

This is a narrative of events from the first uprisings of the 
revolution in March, 1917, to the ratification of the peace 
with Germany a year later. Herself a member of the Petro- 
grad Municipal Council and the Moscow Conference, M:-. 
Williams has described in detail the cabinet crises and political 
vicissitudes of the Provisional Government and the stea<ly 
(Continued nn page 50) 



The Eclipse of Ideals 

English publicists have recently professed to be concerned at the pos- 
sible withdrawal of America from participation in European affairs. 

They do not always realize that the ideals which animated the Allied 
powers during the war seem to have been clouded in the after-war scram- 
ble of peace. 

Instead of self determination for small nations and openness and fair 
dealing between countries, appear the parcelling out of areas without 
respect to nationality and the chicanery of secret treaties. 

Weeklv Edition 

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Today its independent attitude 
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The Weekly therefore will provide 
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(Continued from page 48) 
trend of the Socialist center toward Bol- 
shevism. Less complete is her account of 
the first months of the Bolshevist regime 
and its negotiations with Germany at 

Partisan and patriot Mrs. Williams is, and 
the reader will not find in her description of 
the storm-tossed waters of the revolution any 
clear perception of its deeper currents. To 
her the Bolsheviks are simply "criminals," 
the revolution an event rather than a pro- 
cess. The possibility that in that process the 
Bolsheviks may be the necessary inheritors 
and transmitters of the genius of the revolu- 
tion, she does not conceive. But the reader 
will find in her book a useful chronicle of 
events and an interesting and vivid repre- 
sentation of the political kaleidescope and of 
the opinion of no small part of the Russian 
intelligentsia during that momentous year. 


By John Reed. Boni & Liveright. 371 pp., 
illustrated. Price $2.00; by mail of the 
SURVEY $2.10. 

Partisan, too, is John Reed. But to him 
the Bolsheviki are the saviours of the revo- 
lution, the heroic builders of a new order. 
He describes what happened in Petrograd in 
those momentous days of November, 1917, 
when the Bolsheviks won to power. Hurry- 
ing between Smolny and the Winter Palace, 
the Duma and Tsarskoye Selo, he kept him- 
self always at the center of events. His book 
is an intimate account of the leaders, the 
spirit of the people, never-ending meetings, 
attempts to stem the Bolshevik tide, the be- 
wildering succession of proclamations, ap- 
peals and decrees, utter confusion, and heroic 
impulse. It is a photographic picture, fo- 
cussed through the author's sympathies, but 
rich in first hand impressions. The reader 
will find no careful weighing of event, no 
pathway through the maze, but something 
of the feel and fervor of one of the great 
climaxes of history. The book also includes, 
in text and appendices, translations of many 
original documents and has especially help- 
ful notes on the political parties, popular or- 
ganizations and Russian parliamentary pro- 


By Malcolm W. Davis. Harper & Bros. 
315 pp., illustrated. Price $2.00; by mail 
of the SURVEY $2.25. 

Mr. Davis has written a non-political 
book, one which looks beyond the revolution 
and civil war to the period of reconstruction 
which must shortly absorb the energies of 
the Russian people. As a result of several 
years' wide experience in Russia and Si- 
beria, he surveys Russia's most pressing eco- 
nomic needs. His discussion of the possibili- 
ties of trade and commercial development is 
full of concrete suggestions of practical value 
to the business man. He discusses how 
America can help Russia in such lines as 
education, public health and recreation. He 
points out the absorbing interest of Russia 
to the traveler. 

Mr. Davis is anxious to arouse America 
to her opportunity in the new Russia, an op- 
portunity, however, which he considers from 
no selfish nationalistic point of view, but 
from the standpoint of furthering interna- 
tional understanding and cooperation. Not 
only does he show how America can be of 
efficient service to Russia but he also creates 
a healthy respect for what Russia might con- 
tribute to America. The book contains many 
comments on current events and glimpses of 
Russian character and customs, which wi!l 
be of interest to the general reader. It 






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By A. F. Kerensky. Dodd, Mead & Co. 

312 pp. Price $2.50; by mail of the 

SURVEY $2.60. 

This will be an important source to the 
future historian. The reader who expects to 
find in it any general account of the Pro- 
visional Government or of Kercnsky's own 
part in those eight months, will be disap- 
pointed. The book consists of the steno- 
graphic report of Kerensky's testimony, 
given only a few days before the Bolshevik 
Revolution, before the Commission of In- 
quiry into the Kornilov Rising of September, 
1917, together with supplementary remarks 
which he has later interpolated. 

The book is hard reading. Yet to the 
student of the Russian Revolution it fur- 
nishes not only highly significant evidence 
respecting the Kornilov affair, but also much 
light on the character and personality of 
Kerensky himself. History must decide 
whether he is right in thinking that the 
Kornilov uprising so alarmed the masses as 
to the possibility of a counter revolution that 
the Bolshevist success became inevit-Sle, and 
that but for that uprising the Provisional 
Government could have sobered the popu- 
lace and spared Russia the tragedy of civil 


By Ralph Albertson. Harcourt, Brace & 

Howe. 138 pp., illustrated. Price $1.00; 

by mail of the SURVEY $1.20. 

To anyone still doubtful about the effects of 
military intervention in Russia, this little 
book will be illuminating. It describes, as 
seen from the inside, the British-American 
expedition into North Russia and the reaction 
of the Russian people during the yea_r it 
lasted. It is a tragic story of good intentions, 
stupidity, suffering and misunderstanding 
of utter failure. Yet Mr. Albertson's chief 
conclusions must be generally shared by his 
fellow members in that unfortunate venture. 
On reading it, a cynic might well smile at 
our wish to save civilization from Bol- 

* * 


By Albert Rhys Williams. Scott & 

Seltzer. 202 pp. Price $1.35; by mail of 

the SURVEY $1.55. 

Lenin is beyond cavil a remarkable man 
history will probably call a him a great one. 
We have as yet no adequate account of his 
personality, his achievement and limitations. 
Mr. Williams' Lenin is a thin book. The 
biographical material is meagre. There is 
practically no consideration of Lenin's be- 
liefs and program. It is written from the 
standpoint of sentimental, uncritical admira- 
tion. Yet it throws not a little light on 
Lenin, and until a more adequate volume ap- 
pears may help to offset some of the falsehood 
that has been printed about Russia's premier. 
The book also contains interesting extracts 
from Ransome's Russia in 1919, and Ray- 
mond Robins' Own Story. 


By John Spargo. Harper & Bros. 444 pp. 
Price $2.25; by mail of the SURVEY $2-50. 
Mr. Spargo's latest volume is intended as 
a challenge to America especially American 
capital to fulfill its responsibilities in the 
reconstruction of Russia. The book is, how- 
ever, less about Russia herself than her in- 
ternational situation. He shows how before 
the war Germany had come to dominate 

B NI and 

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permanent contribution to 
American letters. 



By Harold E. Stearns 

A study of the fragile struc- 
ture of American Liberalism 
as it existed before the war; 
the sudden disintegration of 
that liberalism under the 
stress of war hysteria ; Its 
present pitiful status. The 
book shows the urgency of a 
liberal attitude of mind In 
America during the coming 
twenty years. 



By Paul V. Kellogg 

(In collaboration with Arthur 
Gleason). The subtitle of 
this book Is " Reconstructors 
for a New World," and the 
authors give a full account of 
the war and the after the war 
alms of British labor. Mr. 
Kellogg Is the editor of " The 
Survey " and his collaborator 
is the author of " Within the 
British Isles." They know 
their subject. 



By Waldo Frank 

In The New York Times Gil- 
bert Cannan wrote about this 
book : " A modern miracle, a 
mystery of America, a drama 
and a spilling of revelation." 
Mr. Frank foresees a great 
spiritual victory for America 
as great as her material 
victory has ever been. 



By John Reed 

An intimate picture of those 
terrible and thrilling days in 
Petrograd when history was 
made. The New Republic 
says : " It is a book that can- 
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enemies of the present gov- 
ernment of Russia." 



By Mary Austin 

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Russian trade. The larger part of the book 
is devoted to an arresting analysis of what 
Mr. Spargo regards as the menace of Japan, 
her sinister diplomacy in China, and her 
machinations in eastern Siberia. He con- 
ceives of America as the steersman who can 
guide Russia between the Scylla and Cha- 
rvlidis of western and eastern imperialism. 
For us to secure a very large share of Rus- 
sia's trade is, he urges, not only in our own 
self-interest, but also a necessary means of 
safeguarding a democratic Russia and a 
world peace. The book gives a very summary 
account of Russia's needs and vast resources 
and statistics of her economic growth, com- 
piled from sources nlready easily available 
to the general reader. 

* * 


By W. P. Cresson. Brentano's. 239 pp., 
Illustrated. Price $2.50; by mail of the 

SURVEY $2.75- 

Mr. Cresson has written an interesting 
sketch of that military caste in Russia, who, 
originally frontiersmen and adventurers, 
mixed with their Tartar neighbors and, 
molded by the steppes and the free life of 
the border, developed certain distinct traitj 
and military traditions and acquired special 
rights and duties which have differentiated 
them from the rest of the Russian people. 
The complete story of their jrigin and de- 
velopment, so closely connected with Rus- 
sian history, lies still in obscure sources, but 
Mr. Cresson has done the English reader a 
service in sketching some of the principal 
events of that story and the deeds of the great 
Cossack heroes the legendary Yermak and 
Mazeppa, Bogdan, Pougatchev and Platov. 
The Cossack story also includes the first ef- 
forts for a free I'kraine, revived now after 
several centuries. Mr. Cresson has included 
several chapters describing the organization 
and government of the Cossacks and their 
territories at the beginning of the Revolution. 

* * * 

By Dr. Angelo S. Rappoport. Brentano's. 
281 pp., illustrated. Price $2.25; by mail 
of the SURVEY $2.35. 

This book gives the impression of having 
been made to order. Two opening chapters 
which compare and differentiate in a theo- 
retical but suggestive fashion the French and 
Russian revolutions furnish its only contact 
with current events. The bulk of the book is 
devoted to the story of revolutionary theory 
and effort in Russia from the Decembrists of 
1825 to the accession of Nicholas II. in 1894. 
As a background for understanding the Revo- 
lution of 1917 it has therefore a limited use- 
fulness. Concluding chapters on the Jews in 
Russia and in the Great War have little re- 
lation to the rest of the book. For the period 
covered, however, the author has summarized 
considerable material and amassed a useful 
array of fact showing how the natural demo- 
cratic instinct of the Slav, overridden by the 
autocracy, expressed itself in a steadily 
gatherng spirit of revolt. 


By John Spargo. Harper & Bros. 3S9 pp. 
Price $1.50; by mail of the SURVEY $1.60. 

The most serviceable part of Mr. Spargo's 
book is his summary of the revolutionary 
movement in Russia up to 1917. His treat- 
ment of the period from the March Revolu- 
tion to the Bolshevik coup d'etat is vitiated 
by the fact that he has wholly misconceived 
actual conditions during those months. The 
temper of a people cannot always be deduced 
from political resolutions. His analysis 
of Bolshevism also is wholly theoretical, 
and will not help the reader to a real under- 


standing. To Mr. Spargo Bolshevism is not 
part of a historical process, but a theory. 

Some of his criticisYns are pertinent enough. 
But why Bolshevism has succeeded for two 
and a half years, and what it has really been 
trying to do, the reader of Mr. Spargo's book 
will have no idea whatever. This is, perhaps, 
due to the fact that in writing he had the 
advantage neither of the perspective of time 
nor of a first hand acquaintance with condi- 
tions. The book, however, will do the par- 
tisan of Bolshevism no harm. 


By Arthur Ransome. B. W. Huebsch. 232 

pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the SURVEY 


This is Mr. Ransome's rather conversational 
account of his visit to Petrograd and Moscow 
in February and March, 1919. He describes 
with sympathetic objectiveness the outward 
appearances of the cities, and the intimate 
details of everyday life. There are thumb- 
nail sketches of prominent Bolshevik leaders, 
Soviet meetings, the theaters, the work of 
the departments of labor and education, etc. 
The book will help the reader to understand 
some of the Bolshevik governmental methods 
and machinery. It is to be hoped that some 
of our correspondents now there will give us 
as vivid and even more comprehensive a pic- 
ture of Russia in 1920. 

* * * 


By Bessie Beatty. Century Co. 4SO pp. 
Illustrated. Price $3.00; by mail of the SUR- 
VEY $3.25. 

Miss Beatty was in the midst of political 
crises in Petrograd from June, 1917, to March, 
1918. She lived at the War Hotel. She knew 
Lenin and Peters, Kerensky and Babushka. 
She talked with all sorts of people. Her 
book is a narrative of personal experience 
against the background of the revolution. 
She tells vividly many of the little picturesque 
things that history, as well as her contem- 
poraries, will want to know. The opinions 
of the different political groups and the at- 
titude of the people are interpreted. She 
describes sympathetically the sequence of 
events. It is an agreeable and useful book, 
not attempting historic completeness or final 
judgments, but a story freshly told and alive 
to the hopes and ideals of a " great moment." 


By Oliver M. Sayler. Little, Brown & Co. 
312 pp. Illustrated. Price $2.50; by mail 
of the SURVEY $2.75. 


By Oliver M. Sayler. Little, Brown & Co. 
273 pp. Illustrated. Price $2.50; by mail 
of the SURVEY $2.75. 

Mr. Sayler arrived in Moscow from Vladi- 
vostok during the Bolshevik Revolution. His 
book, Russia White or Red, is a pleasantly 
told account of his experiences during the 
next six months, with intelligent and un- 
biased comment on the Revolution. But it 
is neither a complete record nor an inter- 
pretation of events, and will appeal pri- 
marily to those who may still be interested 
in getting the background of revolutionary 
events and vivid glimpses of daily living dur- 
ing the first months of the Bolshevist regime. 
Of more importance is Mr. Sayler's The 
Russian Theater under the Revolution. This 
is the product of the special study which took 
him to Russia. It is a comprehensive and 
graphic account of the art of the Russian 
theater. There is no other place where the 
English student of contemporary drama can 
turn for so complete and interesting an ac- 
count of the personalities, ideals and influ- 

Keep your religious thinking abreast of your other 




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The most significant journalistic offering in the history of the 
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Mr. Francis Hackett 
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Prof. Harry F. Ward 

Dr. Shailer Mathews 
Dr. Burns Jenkins 
Dr. Edward Scribner Ames 
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ences that have given the Russian theater its 
artistic pre-eminence- 

By Emile Vandervelde. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 281 pp. Price $1.75; by mail of the 
SURVEY $1.90. 

Mr. Vandervelde was in Russia during 
May and June, 1917, as a member of the Bel- 
gian Socialist Mission. His book has been 
outdistanced by events, but is distinguished 
from others of that class by an interesting 
and detailed report of conditions as he saw 
them in the factories, and a picturesque ac- 
count of his visit to the soldiers on the Rus- 
sian front, both of which are filled with keen 
observations on Russian character. 


B. W. Huebsch. 151 pp. Paper bound. 

Price $.50; by mail of the SURVEY $.60. 

B. W. Huebsch here reprints those parts of 
William C. Bullitt's testimony relating to 
Russia before the Senate Committee on For- 

eign Relations last September. Except for the 
terms of peace which the Bolshevik govern- 
ment declared itself ready to accept in March, 
1919, Mr. Bullitt's testimony he was in Rus- 
sia only a week throws more light on the 
Peace Conference and its attitude toward 
Russia a year ago, than it does on Russia 


By E. P. Stebbing. John Lane Co. 322 pp. 

Illustrated. Price $3.50; by mail of the 

SURVEY $3.70. 

Mr. Stebbing reproduces here his some- 
what British, diffuse but not uninforming 
diary of July to October, 1917. During these 
months he was in Petrograd except for a brief 
trip to Archangel and the northern forests. 
The confusion of rumor and event, of the 
trivial and important, and a lack of concise- 
ness, perspective and helpful comment make 
the book unsuitable for the reader who seeks 
a general survey, but the student of this first 
period of the Revolution will find in it an 
excellent mirror of the kaleidoscope of life 

as it developed from day to day, and of the 
bewildering effect of the multiplicity of cab- 
inet and military crises, party conferences 
and political struggle on the mind of the aver- 
age Russian or foreigner. Mr. Stebbing has 
reported with especial fullness the Moscow 
Conference, the Soukhomlinoff trial, and the 
Kornilov affair. 


By Robert Crozier Long. E. P. Dutton & 

Co. 294 pp. Price $2.50; by mail of the 

SURVEY $2.65. 

Mr. Long was also present As correspond- 
ent of the Associated Press, he arrived in 
Petrograd shortly after the March Revolu- 
tion in 1917. His book is frankly journalistic 
a series of chapters dealing with his more 
striking experiences and the more impor- 
tant events up to November, 1917. It is far, 
however, from being a complete or careful 
history even of those early months, and shows 
no special insight into the forces at work. 
The record of many of his experiences and 
observations is not without interest, but will 
hardly repay the general reader who has ac- 
cess to abler books. 


By Thomas Whittemore- Houghton Mifflin 

Co. 48 pp. Price $.75; by mail of the 

SURVEY $.81. 

Mr. Whittemore has translated the sayings 
of Russian soldiers overheard and written 
down by a Russian nurse in a hospital in the 
earlier years of the war. How typical of the 
Russian soldier these simple direct reflexions 
on life and its significances are, it is hard 
to say, since Mr. Whittemore has translated 
only a small part of the material, and the 
nurse herself must have exercised a wide 
measure of selection. Certainly there are 
distinctive qualities of gentleness, sincerity, 
imagination and philosophic reflection which, 
according to Mr. Whittemore, reveal the mys- 
tery of Russian character. 


By Robert Wilton. E. P. Dutton & Co. 357 

pp. Illustrated. Price $4.80; by mail of the 

SURVEY $5.00. 

This is a negligible book even though its 
English author had lived in Russia since 
childhood and served as Petrograd corre- 
spondent of the London Times. He pur- 
ports to explain Russia and sketch the course 
of the Revolution until November, 1917. As 
a history of events it is startlingly incom- 
plete and inaccurate. As an interpretation 
it lacks any sense of perspective, any under- 
standing of social forces, any democratic 
sympathy. Mr. Wilton seeks to discredit the 
entire course of the Revolution from March 
on. In his mind Kerensky and Lenin belong 
apparently in much the same category. The 
author's chief interest in the Revolution was 
its effect on Russia's armies and the war with 


Macmillan Co. 89 pp. Price $1.00; by 

mail of the SURVEY $1.15. 

The Macmillan Co. have reprinted in book 
form two articles which appeared in The 
Round Table in 1919 on Bolshevik Aims and 
Ideals and Russia's Revolt Against Bol- 
shevism. Events are a sufficient comment 
on the second. The first is a statement of 
the principles and purposes of Bolshevism 
so brief and theoretical, and so utterly un- 
mindful of its relation to the conditions of 
Russian life and character as part of an 
actual historic process, that while the author 
tries to be fair, he is actually misleading. 




(Continued from page 20) 

for years, and we have a certain population whose addiction 
is incidental. 

The only way to reduce the clinical usage of narcotics in such 
cases is by giving to these unfortunates the advantages of all 
that is known in medicine and surgery, and so to advance 
these fields that narcotics become less necessary as a resort 
after other measures fail. At least two-thirds of the physicians 
are not at all open to criticism as regards their use of nar- 

What of the other third, among whose number the medical 
dope-seller is found? Properly educating the oncoming sup- 
ply of physicians is only a part of the answer. We must, 
first of all, give a square deal to the physicians now in prac- 
tice, including the more ignorant third of them. They are 
not getting it now. No wonder they retrograde. Every legis- 
lative session in every state shows ignorant assaults upon the 
medical profession; and quacks, commercial cults, fanciful 
isms, etc., are cutting the ground from under the feet of the 
professional rank and file. The country is full of physicians 
whose economic status is such that it is impossible for them 
to be otherwise than what they are. 

Hospital care must be supplied to the residents of the small 
places as well as to those in the cities'. If it is not done, we 
can expect to see every year hosts of drug addicts produced 
because the many ailments from which they suffer are allowed 
to go on and on, become hopeless, and the last resource, 
" dope," relied upon by them or by their sorely perplexed 
medical attendants. 

Present curable addicts must be taken in hand. Senator 
Joseph I. France, himself a physician, has introduced a measure 
in Congress providing hospitalization of the drug addicts and 
making an appropriation to aid the states and municipalities 
in taking care of these unfortunates. This bill was devised 
by the National Narcotic Committee of which the present 
writer is a member ; so he is vastly interested in seeing proper 
care given to the drug addicts by this bill becoming a law, 
or by other means if it fails. The responsibility rests upon 
the public. 

The narcotic laws must be enforced in the full recognition 
of the fact that professional people are responsible for a large 
proportion of drug addiction. The great body of ethical and 
capable professional people must join in the crusade against 
the physician, dentist or druggist who is catering to narcotic 
addiction. They owe it to the public to do so, and they owe 
it to the professions of which they are members to run to 
earth the degenerates therein who are trafficking in human 
weakness and vicious habits. 

" Last of all comes Satan " the dopeshiner pure and sim- 
ple. He has not the nerve to break liquor or narcotic laws 
openly; so he takes a chance with drug laws that are so de- 
fective as to allow him to make any sort of lying claim in 
newspapers and in low-grade magazines, some of them medi- 
cal journals, put a certain amount of narcotics in his concoc- 
tions, or use cannabis, hyoscine, hydrated chloral, or other 
potent agents, and even medicate alcohol in such manner as 
to make the legal classification of his product difficult and 
allow him a loophole to escape if brought to the bar of jus- 
tice. This dopeshiner has so often been exposed that the pres- 
ent writer will not attempt to do so. 

This whole sordid story has been a hard one for a physi- 
cian to tell, since it involves his own profession; but, as a 
sanitarian, he tells it in the hope that the public will support 
the various public health services in state and nation in their 
efforts to blot out the nefarious traffic in habit-inducing drugs 
and remove this blot from the medical escutcheon. 


220 W. 42d St. , New York 

Important New Books 

By Floyd Dell 

A study of education and a criticism of our outworn educational 
system. " To have written a book of this sort that is at once 
sound and captivating is no mean achievement." The flurcev. $1.75 


By Earl Loreburn 

A scathing denunciation of secret diplomacy by a veteran British 
statesman. " He has collected sufficient evidence to discountenance 
completely the diplomatic methods of the old school, on grounds 
both of morality and expediency." The Nation. $3.00 


By Etienne Antonelli 

The indispensable book on Russia. 
Bolshevist theory and practice, 


By L. J. de Bekker 

Exposes the propaganda of the foreign oil interests In Mexico to 
force this country into Intervention, and indicates the chief steps 
necessary for a peaceful solution of the problem. $2.00 


By Graham Wallas 

For years a source book of English political history, this story of 
the " father of the Labour Party " is as well an inspiring and 
workmanlike document. With portrait frontispiece. $3.50 


A Novel By Joseph Hergesheimer 

" Linda Condon has much of the mystic beauty of Dona Rita of 
' The Arrow of Gold,' the deathless charm of a few great women in 
literature." Chicago Tribune. $2.00 

An accurate, unbiased study of 

by a French economist and 


New Harper Books 


By E. J. Dillon 

The real story of what went on during those highly 
significant days In Paris, when the Big Five were 
gathered round the conference table in Paris. A book 
particularly valuable to the student of history. 
Post 8vo. J2.59. 


Set Down by William Hard 

Raymond Robins is the man whom Theodore Roose- 
velt chose for the difficult Red Cross mission to 
Russia. He fearlessly tells the truth as he learned 
It from observation on the ground In Russia. Crown 
Svo. Illus. KM. 


By Malcolm W. Davis 

Not a war book, but a thoroughly practical and au- 
thoritative book about the opportunities which Russia 
will offer in her coming period of reconstruction of 
the country. For the business man. the traveler, and 
the social worker. Crown Svo. tt.OO. 


By John Spargo 

This book lays bare the reasons back of the world 
phenomena of unrest. It also offers a. remedy a 
remedy that will appeal to every reasonable American 
because it Is based on common sense. Crotcn Svo. 


By John Spargo 

John Spargo sees Russia not merely as a vast prob- 
lem, but as a vast opportunity, too. He is not a 
Bolshevist ; but for the thinker be clears the haze of 
controversy about Bolshevism with his shrewd 
analysis. Crotcn SKO. Cloth, tS.SS. 


E.tablUhed 1817 


THE SU R }' EY FOR APRIL 3 . 1920 





a three-year course of training in all branches of 
nursing, including public health, for graduates of 
accredited high schools. Also a two-year course, 
with three months' preparatory, to graduates of 
colleges whose work has included courses in ele- 
mentary science. Classes admitted June i6th and 
September ist. 


in offering a five-year course leading to the degree 
of Bachelor of Science and to a diploma in nurs- 
ing. Students who have completed one or more 
years of college work are admitted to advanced 

Information concerning training for Diploma in Nursing 
obtained from Director, School of Nursing, Presbyterian 
Hospital, Seventieth Street and Madison Avenue. 

For particulars concerning requirements for the Bache- 
lor's Degree refer to Department of Nursing and Health, 
Teachers' College. 

The New School for Social Research 

offers courses for 

Business and Professional Men and Women, 
Trade Unionists, Students and Teachers 


Thomac S. Adams 
Leon Ardzrooni 
Harry E. Barnes 
Joseph P. Chamberlain 
Felix Frankfurter 
A. A. Goldenweiser 
Horace M. Kallen 
Harold J. Laski 
Guido H. Marx 

Henry C. Metcalf 
Wesley Clair Mitchell 
Roscoe Pound 
Emily James Putnam 
James Harvey Robinson 
Reginald Smith 
Thorstein Veblen 
Leo Wolman 
Robert Bruere 

Diraclw. Bwrtv of ladiuliUI Rnurrb 

Charles A. Beard 

Director, Bureau Municipal Research 


465 West 23rd Street 
Chelsea 1386 New York 

The Socialist Review 

for APRIL contains 

Allied Plots in Russia 

A hitherto unpublished document from the special 
Moscow informant of the French President, con- 
taining " inside " facts on the " sabotage " plotted 
against Soviet Russia by the Allies. How they 
planned to blow up bridges and starve the people 
of Petrograd, even while the German War was 

Labor and Sinn Fein 

A stirring story of Irish Labor, and of James Con- 
nolly _the Irish leader who " started things " while 
the Sinn Fein leaders looked on. 

Politics for Workers 

Duncan McDonald, of the Illinois Federation of 
Labor, states the case for united action at the polls 
this Fall by all workers of hand and brain. 

Socialist Party Tactics 

A vital symposium, by Socialist Party leaders of 
varied views, bearing on the coming Annual Con- 

Sedition Laws of the Past 
The Albany Trial A Digest 
Russian Government Documents 

70 Fifth Avenue New York, N. Y, 

25c. a Copy $2.50 a Year 

Train for Social Work 

under those who have a vital day-to-day 
contact with the problems of their specialty 
in social work or public health nursing. 

The Pennsylvania School 
for Social Service 

under a staff of thirty specialists of wide reputa- 
tion offers training in 

Community Organization 
Family Social Work 
Civic Research 
Child Welfare 
Public Health Nursing 
Social Research in Case Work 
Educational Guidance 
Psychiatric Social Work 
Social Work in Hospitals 

with supervised field work in 

one of the largest and most fully equipped 
social workshops in the country. 

Address: Frank D. Watson, Director 
1302 Pine Street, Philadelphia 



Summer Courses in Social Science at Smith College 

July 6th August 31st, 1920 

Child Psychology 
Community Analysis 
Community Health 
Community Service 
Mental Tests 

Industrial Problems 
Public Health 
Social Medicine 
Social Psychiatry 
Social Psychology 

Government as a factor in social work 
Problems in Government connected with social work 


Community Service 
Medical Social Work 
Psychiatric Social Work 

For information address The Director 


Northampton Massachusetts 


are needed in 
Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association 



Summer School 

Extension Courses 
National Training School 

For information, address 

Secretarial Department 

600 Lexington Avenue 
New York Citv 

A college is not a thing of stones and mortar, but a collection of 
men, educated and to be educated. Education is not a matter merely 
of instruction. Education depends upon comradeship and under- 
standing between pupil and instructor. This is especially true of 
undergraduate collegiate education. 

The great American university as a place for undergraduate train- 
ing has one great weakness. It has not solved the problem of pre- 
serving the necessary small and intimate groupings within the large 

The small college doing undergraduate work only with a group of 
not over 200 students was once the rule in this country. It has not 
been superseded successfully by a large university, as is well known 
to every educator of prominence in America, 

St. Stephens College is a small undergraduate college where inti- 
macy in education is possible, where scholarship is as high as any- 
where in this country, where mental breadth and spiritual depth are 
not considered incompatible, and where simplicity of living and in- 
expensive recreation, are possible even in 1920. The fees are $450 
a year for tuition, board, and room. 

Address the President 


St. Stephen's College, Annandale-on-Hudson, N. Y. 
Especially thorough instruction in History, Civics, Economics, and Sociology 



Home and Institutional Economics 



(Established 1835) 

Cutlery. China. Glassware 


Brushes. Brooms. Dusters. Polishes for Floors. 
Furniture and Metals. 






45th St. ami Sixtii Ave, New York 

_. awing Inks 
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n\F r\\\C"i ITaurlne Mucilage 

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sive and ill-smelling inks and adhe- 
sive! and adopt the biggins' Inks 
and Adhesires. They will be a 
revelation to you, they are'so 
sweet, clean, well 'put up. and 
withal so efficient. 


CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO., Manufacturers 

Branches: Chicago. London 
in His* Strut Brookln. N. T. 




Extra Strong 
heavy board 


"CADO" Clip File 

(No. 214) (With Binding; Clip InsM.) 
Simple, handy, and most practical wajr to f,|e all 
papers. Holds sheets firmly. Permits ol instant 
isuliuii or removal. Opens and closes earirr 

14~l tM Mr..l K. T.rk 

Essential to Health and 

Mattress Protectors are necessary for cleanliness of 
the Mattress, 

No good housekeeper considers her bed rightly 
equipped without Mattress Protectors. 

A sheet in itself cannot properly protect the Mattress. 

During sleeping hours the body in complete repose 
throws off waste tissues and gases, much of which 
penetrate the sheet and are absorbed by the Mattress 
if not properly protected. 

Our Quilted Mattress Protectors are made from pure 
white wadding incased in bleached white muslin 
easily washed whenever necessary. 

Dry out light and fluffy as 


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lengthen its life. 

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Insist on seeing our 
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each Protector. 

"None genuine without 
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Excelsior Quilted Mattress Co. 

1 5 Laight Street, New York, N. Y. 


Dry Good* 

484 Fulton Street. Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Hudson and North Moore Sts., New York 

Hardware, Tools and Supplies 
Fourth Ave., Thirteenth St., New York 

Electric Clock Systems 

601 Fifth Avenue, New York City 



, "* 

Building Better Men and Women 

Medart Playground Equipment and modern healthful playgrounds 
promote the development of clean, vigorous, right-thinking men and 

Builders for SO years of every kind of gymnasium apparatus for 
men, the Medart Company has naturally taken and held the leader- 
ship in the playground movement and the perfecting of playground 
equipment rightly fitted to train the growing childhood of today. 
Catalog " L " and suggestions for playground installations will be 
tent if requested on your letterhead. 


3526 DeKalb'St., St. Louis, U. S. A. 



We have just issued a special catalog of this line which 

we will send without charge to those interested. 

Please mention Catalog No. 190. 

Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co. 

Hardware, Tools and Factory Supplies 
New York, Since 1848 4th Avenue and 13th Street 


Cooking, Sewing, Diet, Nursing, etc. For teachers, 
social workers, institutional managers, dietitians, 
home-makers, etc. WTiJcb? Illustrated 100-psue book- 
sent on request. 
BULLBTIH8: Fire-Cent Meals. lOc; Food Values, 

lOc; Pree-Hand Cooking, lOc 


Annie Beitant, an 

Intensely interesting Brochure, 2Sc. The 
Scarlet Review No. 1, 2Sc each. Diana, a Psy- 
cho-Physiological Sex Eny, ZSc. The Cruci- 
ble (agnoatic), 4 different samples, lOc. 


1330 First Ave. - - Seattle, Wash. 

An intensive two weeks* course in 


Boston, April 5-17, 1920. Open to 
social workers, nurses and others in- 
terested in the care of underweight 
and malnourished children. Director 
William R. P. Emerson, M.D. Fee 
$50.00, including all materials. Lim- 
ited number partial scholarships. Ad- 
dress Mabel Skilton, Secretary Nutri- 
tion Clinics for Delicate Children, 44 
Dwight Street, Boston. 

The Graduate Housekeeper 

THE demand for expert assist- 
ance in private and public 
homes cannot be supplied. Sala- 
ries range from $75 to $100 a month, 
or more, with full living expenses, 
comfortable quarters, and an average 
of eight hours a day " on duty." This 
is equivalent to $125 to $150 per 
month. Trained professional house- 
keepers, placed by us, are given the 
social recognition due experts, such as 
is accorded the trained graduate nurse. 

Here is an excellent opportunity 
our new home-study course for pro- 
fessional housekeepers will teach you 
to become an expert in the selection 
and preparation of food, in healthful 
diet and food values, in marketing and 
household accounts, in the manage- 
ment of the cleaning, laundry work, 
mending, child care and training, in 
all the manifold activities of the home. 
When you graduate we place you in a 
satisfactory position without charge. 
Some positions are non-resident, 
others part-time. 

The training is based on our House- 
hold Engineering course, with much of 
our Home Economics and Lessons in 
Cooking courses required. Usually 
the work can be completed and di- 
ploma awarded in six months, though 
three years is allowed. The lessons 
are wonderfully interesting and just 
what every housekeeper ought to have 
for her own home. Why not be worth 
$150 per month as a home-maker? 

To those who enroll this month, we 
are allowing a very low introductory 
tuition, and are giving, free, our COM- 
beautifully bound in three-fourths 
leather style. This contains our full 
Home Economics, Lessons in Cooking 
and Household Engineering courses 
4,000 pages, 1,500 illustrations a 
complete professional library. 

This is only one of several profes- 
sional and home-making courses in- 
cluded in our special offer. Full de- 
tails on request. 



519 W. 69th Street, Chicago 

Please give Information about your Correspondence 
Course marked X 

. CompletoHomeEconomlcs 
.Special Food Course 
.Special Health Course 
.Special Motherhood 
.Household Engineering 
. Lessons In Cooking 
. Complete Reading 

. Graduate Housekeepers 1 
.Institution Management. 
.Lunch Room Management 
. Teaching Home Economies 
.Borne Demonstrators' 
.Practical Nurse's Course 
.Dietitian's Course 


(Miss or Mrs.) 



(Ate. scnoottng, experience purpose) 




FILMS Membership open. Address National 
Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 70 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. Varied informational 
service on entertainment and educational films 
adapted to needs of community organizations. 
churches, schools. Also service for city officials. 
a professional organization of four thousand 
members. Following Its war work it is enter- 
ing upon a peacetime program known as the 
" Books for Everybody " movement for which 
It Is making a appnal for a two million dollar 
fund. It IB readerlng library service to the 
Merchant Marine. Coast Guard and Lighthouses 
and plane te promote libraries for the sixty 
million people ow wholly or practically with- 
out libraries; te help business concerns and 
factories te Mtabllsh libraries In their plants: 
to promete the n*e ef good books on American 
Ideals and tr*tie. 

Pres., Social Service Department, Indiana Uni- 
versity, Indlaaapalls; Antoinette Cannon Ex. 
Sec., University Hospital. Philadelphia. Organi- 
zation to promote development of social work In 
hospitals and dispensaries. Annual Meeting 
with National Conference of Social Work. 
LEGISLATION Jehn B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 
K. 23rd St., New Tork. For public employment 
offices; Industrial safety and health; work- 
men's compensation, health Insurance; one 
day's rest in sevea; efficient law enforcement. 
Gertrude B. Kalpp, ex-c. sec'y; 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and 
Infant care; blrtfc registration; maternal nurs- 
ing; Infant welfare consultations; care of chil- 
dren of pre-sefceol age and school age. 
organizing and strengthening Chambers of 
Commerce. City Ciubs. and other civic and 
commercial organizations: and for training 
men In the profession of community leadership. 
Address our nearest office 
Tribune Building, New York. 
123 W. Madison Street. Chicago. 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 
TION Miss Cora 11. Wlnchell, sec'y. Teachers 
College, New Tork. Organized for betterment 
of conditions In home, school, Institution and 
community. Publishers Journal of Home Eco- 
nomics. 1211 Cathedral St.. Baltimore, Md. 
LEAGUE Wm. D. Fonlke, pres.; C. G. Hoag. 
sec'y; Franklla Baik Bldg., Phlla. Leaflets free. 
P. R. Review, quarterly, 80c. a year. Membership 
(entitles te Review and other publications) $1. 
CIATION 106 VT. 4ltk St., New York. For the 
conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the redaction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotlea ef so-ind sex education. In- 
formation and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Annual membership dues, $2.00. Mem- 
berships Include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dir. 
OF CANCER Prank J. Osborne, exec, sec'y: 
35 W. 46th St., Wev.- York. To disseminate 
knowledge ceneernlng symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications freo 
on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 
ICA 169 Fifth Avenue, New York. Dr. L. 
Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, 
Director. To arouse public interest in the 
health of school children; to encourage the 
systematic teaching of health In tho schools; 
to develop new methods of Interesting children 
In the forming af health habits; to publish and 
distribute pamphlets for teachers and public 
health workers aad health literature for chil- 
dren; to advice in organization of local child 
health programme. 

1 Madison Ave., New York. Organized in Feb- 
ruarv. 1919. to conserve the values of War Camp 
Community Service and to help people of alt 
communities employ their leisure time to their 
best advantage for recreation and good citizen- 
ship. While Community Service (Incorporated) 
helps in organizing the work. In planning the 
program and raising the funds, and will, If de- 
sired, serve in aa advisory capacity, the com- 
munity Itself, through the community commit- 
tee representative of community Interests, deter- 
mines policies and assumes complete control of 
the local work. Joseph Lee, pre*. ; H. 8. 
Braucher, sec'y. 

EUGENICS RBGISTRY Battle Creek. Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Pref. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human 
Inheritances, hereditary Inventory and eugenic 
possibilities. Literature free. 

CHRIST IN AMERICA Constituted by 31 
Protestant 4eambiatleBs. Rev. Charles 8. 

Macfarland, gen'l sec'y; 105 E. 22nd St. New 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv- 
ice: Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y; 
Miss Inez Cavert, ass't research sec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and 

Goodwill; Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; 
Rev. Edmund de S. Brunner, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. C. O. Gill, Held sec'y. 

Commission on Relations with France and 
Belgium, uniting American religious agen- 
cies for the relief and reconstruction of 
the Protestant forces of France and Bel- 
glum. Chairman, Rev. Arthur J. Brown, 
IOC East 22nd Street, New York. 
National Temperance Society and Commission 
on Temperance. Hon. Carl E. Milllken, 
chairman Commission. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE J. E. Gregg, princi- 
pal; G. P. Phenlx, vice-pres.; F. H. Rogers, 
treas.; W. H. Scovllle. sec'y; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a 
State nor a Government school. Free Illus- 
trated literature. 

WOMEN (NATIONAL) Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Wlnkler, ch'm. 
Greets girls 0t ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. International system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 
ABLED MEN John Culbert Faries, dir.. Fourth 
Ave. at 23rd St.. New York. Maintains Indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research In re-edu- 
cation for disabled soldiers and Industrial crip- 
ples. Publishes reports on reconstruction work 
here and abroad, and endeavors to establish an 
enlightened public attitude towards the physi- 
cally handicapped. 

Harry W. La'.dler, Secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object to promote an Intelli- 
gent Interest In Socialism among college men 
and women. Annual membership $3, $5, and 
$25; Includes monthly, "The Socialist Review." 
Special rates for students. 

field Storey, pres.; John R. Shillady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American cit- 
izenship. Furnishes Information regarding race 
problems, lynchlngs, etc. Membership 90,000 
with 314 branches. Membership. $1 upward. 
Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physi- 
cal, social. Intellectual, moral and spiritual In- 
terests of young women. Student, city, town 
and country centers; physical and social edu- 
cation; camps; restrooms. room registries, 
boarding houses, lunchrooms and cafeterias; 
educational classes; employment; Bible study; 
secretarial training school; foreign and over- 
seas work. 

Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 106 East 22d St., New 
York, 35 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural investigations; legislation; studies of 
admln'stratlon; education; delinquency, health: 
recreation: children's codes. Publishes quar- 
terly, " The American Child." Photographs, 
slides and exhibits. 

INC. Chas. F. Powllson. gen. nec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York. Originates and publishes ex- 
hibit material which visualizes the principles 
and conditions affecting the health, well being 
and education of children. Cooperates with 
educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups in community, city or state-wide 
service through exhibits, child welfare cam- 

HYGIENE Dr. Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. 
Thomas W. Salmon, med. dir.; Associate Medi- 
cal Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and 
Dr. V. V. Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, sac'y; 
50 Union Square, New York City. Pamphlets on 
mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, 
feeblemindedness, epilepsy. Inebriety, criminol- 
ogy, war neuroses and re-cducatlou. psychiatric 
social service, backward children, surveys, state 
societies. "Mental Hygiene"; quarterly; $2 a 

TION OF BLINDNESS Edward M. Van Cleve, 

managing director; , field sec'y; 

Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22nd 
St., New York. Objects: To furnish Informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement samples free, quantities 
at cost Includes New York State Committee. 
Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action In city, state and 
nation, for meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
hood life. 


Owen R. Lovejoy, pres., New York; W. H. 
Parker, gen. sec'y, 816 Plymouth Court, Chi- 
cago. General organization to discuss prin- 
ciples of humanitarian effort and increase effi- 
ciency of agencies. Publishes proceedings an- 
nual meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership 13. 47th 
annual meeting New Orleans, April 14-21, nil. 
Main Divisions and chairmen: 
Children Henry W. Thurston. New York. 
Delinquents and Correction Bernard Glueok. 

M. D., New York. 

Health George J. Nelbach, New York. 
Public Agencleg and Institutions Robert W. 

Kelso, Boston. 

The Family Amelia Sears, Chicago. 
Industrial and Economic Conditions Florence 

Kelley, New York. 

The Local Community H. S. Braucher, N. Y. 
Mental Hygiene C. Macfle Campbell. M. D.. 


Organization at Social Forces William J. Nor- 
ton, Detroit. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Born In America 

Allen T. Burns, New York. 

ICE Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'm, 267 Madison 
Ave.. New York. To mobilize and train the vol- 
unteer woman power of the country for specific 
service along social and economic lines; co- 
operating with government agencies. 
HEALTH NUB8ING Ella Phillips Crandall. 
R. N. exec, sec'y; 166 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of tech- 
nique; to maintain a central bureau of Infor- 
mation. Official organ, the " Public Health 
Nurse," subscription included In membership. 
Dues, 12.00 and upward. 

Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., 13* E. 22d St.. 
New York. A cooperative guild ef social work- 
ers organized to supply social organizations with 
trained personnel (no fees) and to work con- 
structively through members for professional 

bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, traas. ; Virgil 
V. Johnson, sec'y; 466 Lexington Ave.. New 
York. Composed of social agencies working to 
guide and protect travelers, especially women 
and girls. Non-sectarian. 


SSI Fourth Avenue. Charles J. Halfleld. 
M. D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education, Institutions, nursing 
problems and other phases of tuberculosis 
work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade. Publishers " Journal of the Outdoor 
Life," " American Review of Tuberculosis " and 
" Monthly Bulletin." 

vice among Negroes, L. Holllngsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Klnckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 127 
East 23d St., New York. Investigates conditions 
of city life as a basis for practical work; trains 
Negro social workers. 

LEAGUE Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 64 W. 
Randolph St (Room 1003), Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government in the work shop through 
organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation. Information given. Offi- 
cial organ, " Life and Labor." 
TION OF AMERICA H. S. Braucher, seo'y: 
1 Madison Ave.. N. Y. C. Playground, neighbor- 
hood and community center activities and ad- 

Battle Creek, Mich. For tho study of the cause* 
of race degeneracy and means of race Improve- 
ment Its chief activities are the Race Better- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. J. 
H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 
provement of Living Conditions John M. Glenn, 
dir.; 110 E. 23d St.. New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Educa- 
tion. Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loan*. 
Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Li- 
brary, Southern Highland Division. " The pub- 
lications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public in practical and inexpensive form 
some of the most important results of Us work. 
Catalogue sent upon request." 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Chllds, sec'y; 10 West 
th St, New York. Clearing bouse for Informa- 
tion on short ballot, city manager plan, county 
K<iv't. Pamphlets free. 

TUNKEGEE INSTITUTE An Institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment In 
race adjustment In the Black Belt of the South: 
furnishes information on all phases of the race 
problem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prln. ; Warren Logan, treas.; 
A. L. Holsey. acting sec'y: Tuskegee, Ala. 






METROPOLITAN representatives in many cities are 
co-operating with Mayors, City Councils, and Health 

They can obtain the co-operation of Policy Holders. 
They can supply you with CLEAN UP LITERA- 

We shall be glad to help you organize and conduct a 
CLEAN UP CAMPAIGN in your community. 








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WANTED: Case consultant for Urge 
Jewish family agency. Work under ideal 
conditions. Only experts and persons of 
unusual training and ability need apply. 
State education, training, experience and 
salary expected. Address 3390 SURVEY. 

WANTED: Matron for child-caring in- 
stitution in Maryland city of 30,000. Give 
full particulars of self in first letter. Ad- 
dress 3458 SURVEY. 

WANTED: Social workers, men and 
women, for positions in the South. Must 
be capable of organizing and promoting 
general social service and health programs 
Tn communities which, before the war, had 
practically no organized Social Work. The 
work is largely in rural communities and 
small cities. Worker must be executive 
and promoter as well as case worker. Ad- 
dress 3413 SURVEY. 

WANTED: Visiting Jewish housekeeper 
to assist in Case Department. Opportunity 
for constructive work. Preferably one 
trained in dietetics and competent to work 
with families. Good salary. Address with 
full particulars, including age, experience 
and reference to Superintendent, United 
Jewish Charities, No. 731 West Sixth 
Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

WANTED: Matron (Jewess) for Con- 
valescent Home, taking care of adults and 
specializing in treatment of anemic children. 
Must have experience in institutional ad- 
ministration. Good salary. Trained nurse 
with social experience ; or one trained in 
children's work preferred. Opportunity for 
creative work. Address with particulars, 
including age, experience and reference, to 
the Superintendent, United Jewish Chari- 
ties, No. 731 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, 

WANTED: A young woman, college 
graduate preferred, to assist in the Employ- 
ment and Welfare Department of an in- 
dustrial plant in southern Ohio. Must be 
woman of tact, pleasing personality, sound 
judgment who has a keen interest in the 
lives of others. Address 3473 SURVEY. 

WANTED: A man and wife to act as 
superintendent and matron in an orphan 
asylum in the West, housing forty children. 
Cottage plan. Write to Mr. Philip Heim- 
lich, Y. M. H. A., 3rd & King Sts, Wil- 
mington, Del 


in public health nursing open 

Applicants must have tact and 
executive ability. 


628 Pythian Bldg., Indianapolis, Imi. 

WANTED : Housekeeper-Assistant in 
Protestant Children's Home. Must be 
Christian and woman of refinement. Also 
small children's supervisor. Must be good 
disciplinarian and should be practical nurse. 
Address Supt, 605 Niagara St., Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

WANTED: A case worker to do child 
placing as Catholic Agent for a City Aid 
Society in New York State. State ex- 
perience, training, and salary expected. 
Letter of recommendation from pastor. 
Address 3472 SURVEY. 

WANTED : Man, intelligent, as informa- 
tion secretary for large Jewish Institution. 
Must be able to speak and write English 
and Yiddish well, and must have a knowl- 
edge of general conditions. Give qualifica- 
tions and salary expected. Address 3470 

AN EXPERIENCED housekeeper 
wanted at once at the Irene Kaufmann 
Settlement, Pittsburgh. Give full details 
in first letter as to experience, references, 
salary expected, etc. Address 3471 

Experienced or trained workers with boys 
or girls wanted at the Jewish Orphan 
Home, 5000 Woodland Ave., Cleveland, 
Ohio. State salary wanted. Home pro- 
vided if desired. Address 3475 Survey. 

YOUNG MAN wanted by large Jewish 
Institution as English correspondent. Must 
be able to speak and write several lan- 
guages, particularly Yiddish and Polish. 
Give qualifications and salary expected. 
Address 3469 SURVEY. 

WANTED Experienced matron and as- 
sistant at once for children's boarding home 
(60 children). Address, Children's Home 
Society of Florida, Jacksonville, Fla. 


demand for teachers practically all sub- 
jects, all sections of the United States- 
public and private schools, colleges and uni- 
versities. Fisk Teachers Agency, Steger 
Building, Chicago. 


YOUNG WOMAN : College graduate, 
experienced social worker, available for 
position in or near Philadelphia, September 
first Address 3457 SURVEY. 

WANTED by experienced handicraft 
and Social Service Worker, opening in, or 
near some of the large Eastern cities. 
Address 3450 SURVEY. 

YOUNG WOMAN, Protestant, experi- 
enced teacher, with Master of Arts degree 
in sociology and knowledge of Spanish, 
wishes educational or social work in South 
America. Address 3447 SURVEY. 

MAN, 36 years, wishes clerical or execu- 
tive position in institution experienced. 
A. Hoskins, 3400 N. 17th St., Phila., Pa. 

YOUNG MAN, Protestant, desires 
social service work for Community or 
Church. Experienced. Best of references 
from present position. Address 3474 

WANTED: Trained and experienced 
executive medico-social worker desires loca- 
tion in a Clinic or Hospital. Nothing under 
two thousand dollars considered. Address 
3476 SURVEY. 


Hospital (60 beds) and Out-Patient De- 
partment of Western Reserve University. 
Cleveland, Ohio. Four months.^ Nurses 
admitted as vacancies occur. Requirements: 
graduate of training school in good stand- 
ing. Training: experience in hospital and 
out-patient department; lectures, classes 
and demonstration, 60 hours. Allowance 
of $12 per month and maintenance. Af- 
filiated courses of three and four months 
in obstetrical nursing will be arranged witk 
recognized training schools regardless of 
state limitations. Superintendent, Miss Cal- 
vina MacDonald. 


EDUCATIONAL DIRECTOR (Male) for one of the largest and best 
known manufacturing concerns in the United States. Must meet the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

A-i personality. Age, preferably between 30 and 45. Experience in 
industrial education, such as developing apprenticeship courses, night 
study courses, training of new employees along commercial and mechan- 
ical lines. Must be able to digest and put into brief bulletin form, books, 
etc., for the guidance of employees and executives. Must be open minded 
and able to create and put into effect new educational ideas. All cor- 
rspondence will be held strictly confidential. Write fully to Box No. 3467 



New York School ol Medical U.i muutlr* 
and Maftsaire offer* it practical and theo- 
retical course In Swedish Exercises, MM- 
tmff, Baking, El. Vlhr., etc. Diploma. Po- 
sitions and patients secured. Apply Carl B. 
Hall, Director, Sydennanl Bldg.. 618 Uad.1- 
ran Ave. Tel.: Plaza U49 and Flaxa 1471, 
New fork City. 


DR. JOSEPH K. HART, of Seattle and 
Portland, will accept lecture engagements in 
Middle West and East between May 1 and 
September IS. For topics and terms ad- 
dress care SURVEY. 

make a limited number of lecture engage- 
ments. For rates, subjects, and open dates, 
address Rabbi Sternheim, Sioux City, Iowa. 

EDWARD T. DEVINE: Lectures and 
Consultation Service. Address Miss Brandt, 
Room 1202, 112 East Nineteenth Street, 
New York. 

M. E. RAVAGE, author of " An Ameri- 
can in the Making " : Lectures on the gen- 
eral subject of America and the Immigrant. 
Address E. C. Graham, Room 922, 22 East 
Seventeenth St., New York. 


Go to Europe at our Expense 

'. small parties. Write today for plan and program*. 

TOVXB, Bom B. v. , 


DIPLOMAS One or a thousand. Il- 
lustrated circular mailed on request. Ames 
ft Rollinson, Designers, Engrossers, 206 
Broadway, New York City. 


We will dispose of a completely new out- 
fit of one addressing machine (Elliott) 
with motor and counter attachment, 3 oak 
cabinets and 60 metal trays. This equip- 
ment has never been used and is in per- 
fect condition. Cash offers only. Imme- 
diate shipment Address 3419 SURVEY. 


Dorp, Staten Island. Situated on high land 
in center of island; 14 acres, 3 story stone 
house, completely furnished, 12 rooms, 2 
baths, 3 toilets, veranda enclosed with glass, 
telephone. Good barn, with cement cellar, 
and gardener's living quarters above. City 
water in house and barn. Good kitchen 
garden. Fine orchard. 10 minutes from 
trolley. Has been occupied as a Home for 
Girls. For further information, apply to 
Mrs. P. Mali, 8 Fifth Avenue. 


The 47th Annual Meeting of the National Conference of Social 
Work will be held in New Orleans, April I4th to the 2ist. New 
Orleans during that week will be the gathering place for social workers 
and socially minded citizens from all over the United States. 

Leaders in Social Reconstruction will present problems of National 
significance and universal interest. Opportunities for consultation will 
be provided and the entire session will be full of interest and helpful- 
ness to every one attending. In addition to this there will be New 
Orleans in April with all of the hospitable concern for the welfare of 
its guests for which New Orleans has been famous for over a century. 

Make your plans to attend this meeting, for it will be full of value 
to every one interested in social work. 

For particulars address W. H. Parker, General Secretary, 315 Ply- 
mouth Court, Chicago. 


Village. Women only. Quiet street, two 
minutes from Subway: steam heat, use of 
kitchen, maid. References required. Mrs. 
Kellogg, 10 Barrow Street, New York. 
Spring 9757. 



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The Arbitrator endeavors to spread the spirit 
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$1 a year ; 25 cents for 3 months. P. O. 
Box 42, Wall St. Station, New York City. 

Hospital Social Service Quarterly; $1.50 a 
year ; published by Hospital Social Service 
Association, 405 Lexington Ave., New York. 

Hcntul Hygiene ; quarterly ; $2 a year ; pub- 
lished by The National Committee for Mental 
Hygieae, 50 Union Square, New York. 

Public Health Nurse; monthly ; $2 a year ; 
published by the National Organization for 
Public Health Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New 

School and Home; 50 cents a year, 3 Issues : 
20 cents per copy ; published by Parents and 
Teachers Association of Ethical Culture 
School. 33 Central Park West, New York. 


Liitingi flftv cent! a Une, fovr weekly inser- 
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CIES, by A. E. Wood and Harry L. Lurie. 
96 pp. 50 cents. Detroit Community Union, 
100 Griswold St., Detroit. 

tional Liberal Immigration League, P. (). Box 
1281, New York. Arguments free on re- 


CHILD WELFARE HANDBOOK. Contains informa- 
tion of value to health officers, superlitend- 
ents of schools, teachers, librarians, visiting 
nurses and social workers. Illustrates an 
the educational panels published by the Na- 
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Fifth Ave., New York. 36 Pages 8x12. BO 
cents, postpaid. 

STATES ; a compilation, 10S pages ; paper 
covers ; fifty cents per copy. National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Colored Peo- 
ple, 70 Fifth Ave.. New York, N. Y. 

THI Six RIDE OP LITE, an explanation for 
young people, with an Important introduction 
for elders, by Mary Ware Dennett, An ex- 
planation which really explains. Published 
by the author, 360 West 65th St., New York 
(Sty, 26c. 

struction pamphlet No. 6, National Catholic 
War Council, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, 
N. W., Washington, D. C. 

CBEDIT UNIONS. Free on request to Mass. 
Credit Union Ass'n, 78 Devonshire St., 

RAILROADS. Based on statements by Glenn 
E. Plumb. Plumb Plan League, Machinists 
Building. Washington, D. C. 

lished by the Cooperative League of America. 
2 West 13th St., New York. 

PEOPLE WHO Go TO BEETS. By Theresa Wolf- 
son. Pp. 24. Illustrated. Price 16 cents. 
Published by National Child Labor Com- 

Gertrude Folks. Pp. 20. Price 10 cents. 
Published by National Child Labor Com- 


CHILD PROTECTION. By Josette Frank. Pp. 

8. Single copies free. Published by Na- 
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of Criminal Law, 36 pages, inc., from June 
P. Guild, North Toledo Settlement, Toledo, 

PORTUNITIES : The Ukrainian Co-operative 
Societies and Their Influence. 10 cents ; 
Friends of Ukraine, Munsey Bldg., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

UKRAINE AND RUSSIA, A Survey of Their 
Economic Relations, 10 cents ; Friends of 
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Ukraine, Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

and issued by the Friends of Ukraine, Mun- 
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IONAL ability sel- 
just happens. It is 
usually a result of exceptional 

It will never come with a 
summer harvest, unless you 
" will to have it so. Because 
it will not, the ninety and 
nine will go without it. 
And that is why you should 
have it. 

Five weeks (July 7th to August 14th) at 
the New York summer school will push 
your horizon of usefulness much further 
than you now suppose. It will make a de- 
cided difference in your personal efficiency. 

The New Yorfc School of Social Work 

107 East Twenty Second Street 
Neu; York 

Salvage of Childhood in the South 

Owen R. Lovejoy 

Reconstruction of 
State Welfare Agencies 

Robert Moses 

Democratic Community Organization 
Charles F. teller 

The Land Situation in France 
Charles Cestre 


All Fools' Day in New York 

April 10, 1920 

10 Cents a Copy 

$4.00 a Year 

66 THE SURV EY FOR APRIL to, 1920 





To some of us Spring means trout brooks and other 
things delectable. Those who stick at desks must 
fish as we may. We have been " whipping " the sub- 
scription lists of THE SURVEY; bent on new readers, 
or old, who might perchance wish to join the goodly 
fellowship of Survey Associates. 

There are reasons aplenty printing bills up 25% 
and paper 33^%, with a crowded calendar of mat- 
ters to be covered, investigated, interpreted. If we 
can but muster the 1500 members, set as the year's 
goal, they will keep us from having to whittle down 
the new standards in issues and staff-work which I 
hope have kindled your interest as they have en- 
grossed ours. 

Holding my thumbs, then, and breathing prayers 
to St. Peter and Izaak Walton and all patrons of fish- 
ery, I send you this invitation which is the more 
serious because lightly cast. May we have your 
check or pledge for $10 and add your name to the 
900 Cooperating Subscribers enrolled in our issue 
of March 27. 

Here's hoping, that, like Spring (or was it Sum- 
mer?) in the old verse you will be 

icumen in 


READY tor your REPLY 



The REPLY of one READER 

March 31, 1920 


Trout fishing is still an experience be- 
yond me, but Sir Izaak is not. Were you 
quite fair to play on our spring sensibilities 
and call to mind things " which I have heard 
formerly, but had quite forgot?" Besides, 
you must have known how the compass 
swung for 

" when the wind is South 

It blows your bait in the fish's mouth." 
I've wanted to send a cheque for a long 
time and today I shut my eyes to my bank 
balance (there still is one) and subtracted 
ten dollars. Good Fortune to the SURVEY, 
Mr. Piscator. You are a very ingenious 
and compleat angler. 

Yours in the Art, 



112 East 19th Street, New York City 

I { C "[ 1 1 Se nd }$10 as my contribution to this year's roster of Cooperating Subscriptions. 

Note- \ J10 Cooperating Subscription covers the regular {4 subscription, phis n contribution to the 
educational and field work of the magazine and National Council. It makes neb a subscriber eligible 
fur election as a Survey Associate for the current year, but creates no financial liability, nor promise 
of renewal. 

(The fiscal year ends September 30, 1920) 

by way of a 


Vol. XLIV 


No. 2 



Mrs. Humphry Ward 67 

North Carolina Training School 67 

The Tornado -------__ 68 

" All Fools' Day in New York " 68 

Approved Social Agencies ---... - 69 
National Information Bureau -----..70 
The Settlements' Protest ------..70 


The Salvage of Childhood in the South 

Oiuen R. Lovejoy 72 

The Land Situation in France ... Charles Cestre 73 

Reconstruction of State Welfare Agencies - Robert Moses 74 
Democratic Community Organization 

Charles Frederick Welter 77 
A Stake in the Country - - - - F , S. Titsiuorth 80 

Women Immigrants ----....go 

Starting Americanization Early ------ 80 

Mexican Immigrants -------- gi 

Their Sole Support - - - 81 

A SURVEY Article ----82 

Prohibtion .......... ^2 

Family Welfare: Social Organization 

Reorganization in Minneapolis ... Ival McPeak 83 

City Relief in Buffalo Frederic Almy 83 

The Montreal Survey F. H. McLean 84 

" Safeguard Federation " - - - - Benjamin Doblin 85 

Legal Aid in Chicago - - Joel D. Hunter 86 

Crime and Conduct 

Jesse Pomeroy's Writings -------87 

A Prison Program ---------87 

The Movies Guilty? 88 

Filth in Phoenix Jail 88 

Homicides and Headlines -------88 

Jottings --- . - gg 







PUBL.ISHCD weekly and COPIBIOHT I9t0 by ,surt. , Asmieiatet, Inc.. 11: 
East 19 Street, New York. Robert W. ae Forest, president; Arthur P. 
Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

PBICB : this issue, 10 cents a copy; tk a year; foreign postage, tl.tS; 
Canadian, on cents. Changes of addresn should be mailfd ua ten day* in 
advance. When payment is by check a receipt will be sent only upon 

ENTEKBD a second clout natter, March U, tuns, at the pott office, New 
York, N. >'., under the Act of March .!, inn. Acceptance for nailing at 
a specia' rate of postage provided for in .Section 1101, Act of October S, 
tan ntithnrizfit on .lunr ft. IHIH 

HAVE you a February 21 SURVEY? If you have this issue and do 
not bind or save your copies, the SURVEY would esteem its return to 
the office (112 E. 19 street) a great favor. We have run out of 
stock of this number and are unable to fill orders from libraries and 


IN Mrs. Humphry Ward, England has lost not only one of 
her foremost novelists but also a most original innovator of 
neighborhood work. Opened in 1897, Passmore Edwards 
Settlement, because of its situation in the heart of Bloomsbury, 
always has had an enviable attraction for settlement residents; 
but the number and quality of outside voluntary workers 
associated with it has largely been due to Mrs. Ward's brilliant 
leadership and to the enthusiasm with which she helped rx> 
work out ideas that originated with others. One of the most 
fruitful of these innovations was the vacation school, the first 
of us kind, established in the Duke of Bedford's garden in 
Bedford Square. Initiated by Mrs. Ward some twenty-five 
years ago, the play center movement received official recogni- 
tion in 1917 by being made eligible to receive grants from the 
national Board of Education. Many of the early " experi- 
mentees " of the play school, subjects of innumerable news- 
paper articles and imitators the country over, are now among 
the most energetic and successful club leaders of the settle- 
ment. During the war, the house on Tavistock Place helped 
to train many women for social service, while Mrs. Ward 
herself and some of the older residents were active in war 
service in France. 


AN important social and educational development in the 
South is the recent opening at the University of North 
Carolina of a School of Public Welfare. Thus the State 
of North Carolina, already in the front line in progressive so- 
cial legislation, plans to place more trained social leaders in the 
field. President Chase in his recommendation to the Board of 
Trustees of the University emphasized the importance of the 
school in its relation to universal educational policy. He said : 
Nothing is more clear than that, if the citizenship of state and 
nation is to grapple successfully with the ever more complex prob- 
lem of modern democracy, if popular government is to work effec- 
tively in these confusing times, our educational system as a whole 
must stress as never before the instruction of our youth in matters 
of the common weal. A knowledge of the fundamental laws of 
society, of what democracy really means and what its problems are, 
a spirit of social mindedness which leads the individual to look be- 
yond himself and to think of himself in relation to his community 
these things are more and more requisite for good citizenship. The 
social sciences, including economics, history, government, and sociol- 
ogy in its various aspects, must receive a new and more intense em- 
phasis in the higher education of the future. North Carolina, feeling 
her way toward the solution of new social problems consequent upon 
the growing complexity of her life, with a new program of social 
legislation, needs and will need leaders well-trained in the funda- 
menta:ls of their task. 

The school will emphasize special training in the social 
sciences ; vocational training for social work and public wel- 
fare; social engineering and university and research work, in 
which special efforts will be made to contribute to information 




From the Day and the Warheit, Neic 1'ort 


concerning social needs and possibilities in the state. The 
American Red Cross will conduct, during the summer, an in- 
stitute extending twelve weeks. Lecturers from Columbia, the 
New York and Pennsylvania schools of social work, and from 
North Carolina itself will make up the summer faculty. 


RED CROSS " disaster relief " in America, of the type 
that for years gripped the minds of the people, has 
scarcely been heard from since the large development of 
that organization on a war basis. But with the tornado of 
last week emergency relief funds have again been appropriated 
and trust funds for dependents of some of the victims may be 

From Red Cross headquarters in Chicago the SURVEY is 
informed that the tornado swept through the western and 
northern suburbs of that city, the adjacent rural territory west 
of the city, through the city of Elgin and affected parts of 
southern Michigan. The area was not densely populated, and 
while the property loss was great, the number of casualties on 
the whole was surprisingly small. 

About one hundred homes were destroyed in Melrose Park, 
Maywood, Bellwood, Dunning, Clearing and other suburbs of 
Chicago. At Elgin, twenty homes were demolished, and at 
Plainfield, Illinois, ten. So far as is known, there were four- 
teen deaths in and around Chicago, seven in Elgin, one at 
Hart, Michigan, and seven at Fenton, Genesee county, Michi- 
gan. The number of injured in and around Chicago was 
small; 20 cases are reported from Elgin and 17 in Plainfield. 
In Chicago none of the industrial plants in the area affected 
by the storm were damaged. In Elgin the storm struck the 
business district and damaged business houses. The loss in 
buildings there is estimated at over $1,000,000, and to this 
should be added the loss of stocks in one instance an entire 

department store was destroyed. Two churches in Elgin col- 
lapsed, and also the opera house. In and near Plainfield 
damage was done to twenty-five farm buildings. 

The Chicago chapter, American Red Cross, ordered the 
mobilization of nurses and disaster relief workers, and offered 
Red Cross aid to the mayor of Melrose Park. Local resources 
had covered all immediate requirements, but early the morning 
following the tornado the executive secretary of the Chicago 
chapter, five disaster relief workers and four Red Cross nurses 
reached Melrose Park and at once began taking care of all 
emergency calls for relief. Within twenty-four hours after 
the catastrophe all the affected districts in the jurisdiction of 
the chapter were visited by Red Cross representatives. 

Ten thousand dollars for emergency relief was voted by the 
Red Cross the day following the disaster. The West Subur- 
ban Tornado Relief Committee, organized by officials of the 
western suburbs of Chicago, and cooperating closely with 
the Red Cross, is collecting funds in those suburbs and has 
appealed to the towns of northern Illinois for financial assist- 
ance. A committee appointed by Mayor Thompson of Chicago 
is making a campaign in that city for funds, which will be 
turned over to the Red Cross for administration. 

As yet no plans for rehabilitation have been made, but as 
most of the people affected are of small means, they will prob- 
ably have to be aided in reestablishing their homes, and trust 
funds may be established for dependents. 


THE so-called New York State welfare bills (the eight- 
hour day, the minimum wage, and health insurance bills) 
have not been reported out of committee at Albany. It 
is now too late to have them brought before the representa- 
tives of the people of New York at this session. Assembly- 
man Brady, chairman of the Labor and Industries Committee, 
when asked by representatives of the League of Women Voters 
why he had not bolted the majority caucus, replied that had 
he done so, he " would have ruined his political career." 

On the other hand the same group of legislators who 
have held these bills in committee have been occupied with 
the expulsion April I, of the five Socialist assemblymen, 

Harding in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle 






the representatives of a minority party. By this action some 
100,000 voters have been disfranchised. The verdict, which 
condemns the men not as individuals but as the representatives 
of a party, means that for the future some 160,000 members 
of the Socialist Party in the state 130,000 of whom are in 
New York city alone will be denied the right to seat a 
representative of their party, and that the increasingly large 
number of non-Socialists who cast their ballots for Socialist 
candidates will be denied their rights as citizens. For the 
first time an entire party delegation has been ejected from 
a legislative body in the United States. In spite of the over- 
whelming vote against them in the Assembly it is significant 
that the Judiciary Committee, before whom they were tried, 
was divided in its recommendations. Three reports were 
presented. But seven out of the thirteen members signed the 
majority report, which recommended the expulsion of the 
entire group of Socialists, five members presented a minority 
report urging the reseating of the Socialists, while a single 
member went on record for the expulsion of three of the 
Socialists against whom specific charges had been made, and 
for the reseating of the other two. Adler, the majority leader, 
who introduced the suspension resolution, cast his vote in the 
Assembly in accord with the latter recommendation. 

Virtually the entire majority report is given over to the 
argument that the Socialist party is disloyal " perpetual 
traitors " its members are called. It recommends the enact- 
ment of legislation to bar the Socialist party from the polls, 
" until it purges itself of principles and practices which are 
held to be disloyal and treasonable to the government of the 
state and nation." 

The reports of the Judiciary Committee were not handed 
to the Assembly until March 30. A vote, therefore, could 
not be taken before March 31, after which date, according 
to the state law, a special election to fill vacancies cannot be 

The New York Times of April 2, editorially backs the 
action of the assemblymen: 

. . . The vote taken in the Assembly yesterday was as clearly and 
demonstrably a measure of national defense as the vote of Congress 
declaring war against Germany. . . . The Assembly finds and 
decides that the Socialist organization, by its very nature, is in- 
capable of sending men to Albany who can conscientiously take and 
keep the oath to support the Constitution of the State of New York. 
Kirby in the Netc York World 


Walker in the Hea> York Call 


" It seemed at times as if every man one met had a bottle 
of old-time whisky on his hip and was ready to share it. 
The cloakroom of the Assembly reeked of alcohol, and 
most of the breaths one encountered in the lobby were 
redolent of the still." NEW YORK GLOBE. 

These five men never were entitled to their seats, they failed in the 
first essential qualification of membership in the Assembly. . . . 

The New York World pledging its support for the re- 
election of the assemblymen says: 

. . . The political and economic beliefs of the five Socialists ex- 
pelled from the Assembly of the State of New York has become of no 
importance in relation to the vital issue that is raised by their ex- 
pulsion. . . . The action of the Assembly makes the reestablish- 
ment of representative government the vital concern of every man 
and woman in New York who believes in American institutions and 
is determined to maintain them. . . . 


ONE hundred and twenty-three national organizations 
which appeal to the general public for funds to support 
social, civic, or philanthropic work are listed by the 
National Information Bureau in its bulletin of approved agen- 
cies just issued. All these organizations, including 81 whose 
work is permanent and 42 whose concern is only with 
war relief or reconstruction, have filed full information with 
the bureau in regard to their work and have definitely accepted 
its standards of responsibility and efficiency. The aggregate 
budgets of these 123 organizations for the year 1920 amount 
to approximately $160,000,000. The bulletin also lists four 
organizations which have complied with all the requirements 
of the bureau but which, because of their distinctly religious 
nature, are not included within the field of formal endorse- 
ment. The 1920 budgets of these organizations amount to 
$176,463,473. The bulletin includes propagandist organiza- 
tions of various sorts, some of which are diametrically opposed 
to each other in purpose. As an impartial investigating 
agency, the bureau does not express a judgment concerning 
the purposes of organizations where the value of those aims is 
open to legitimate difference of opinion. It does, however, 
indicate by its approval that those who wish to further the 
work in question can have full confidence in the approved or- 

The publication of this bulletin marks the second stage of 
the bureau's effort to bring about a progressive improvement 
in the methods and relations of social welfare organizations 
of national and interstate scope. During the first few months 
of its work, under the name of the National Investigation 
Bureau, it confined its attention to war relief. It was able 



to exert a useful influence in this chaotic field not only through 
the suppression and exposure of fraudulent and improper ap- 
peals but through constructive suggestions to legitimate agen- 
aies. Some examples of service of this sort are given in the 
adjoining box. After its reorganization last summer, the 
bureau turned its attention to the task of uniting the responsi- 
ble, permanent social organizations of the country in support 
of its initial standards. In this task the bureau has made a 
number of recommendations for the improvement of their 
methods, recommendations readily accepted. The bureau has 
offered opportunity to every organization (within the field 
of its endorsement) which has come to its attention to 
meet its requirements. The almost unanimous approval 
which this effort has received is indicated by the bulletin. At 
the same time, the bureau has necessarily been investigating 
many organizations the purpose or methods of which have 
proved to be questionable and which have not received its 
endorsement. In many cases, as a result the bureau has 
checked the appeal of organizations it considers undesirable. 
Certain appeals will shortly be listed in a cautionary bulletin 
to be circulated exclusively among the members of the bureau 
for their confidential information. The SURVEY directs its 
readers' attention to the breadth of this work in view of an 
erroneous construction placed by some reader on a passage in 
the article entitled The Life Line, in the issue of February 7. 


NOW that there hafs been time for a clear analysis by 
interested persons of the scope of a bill " in relation to 
the licensing and supervision of schools and school 
courses," introduced into the New York legislature three 
weeks ago as one of the proposals of the Lusk committee [see 
the SURVEY for March 27, page 799], opposition to the 
measure has gathered headway. The United Neighborhood 
Houses of New York, which see in the bill a source of danger 
for all settlement clubs and classes, the New York School of 
Social Work, the City Club, the Civic Club, the Citizens' 
Union, a group of protestant churches, bodies of organized 
labor and other organizations and individuals have protested 
against its passage. 

The language of the bill is clear: 

No person, firm, corporation, association or society shall conduct, 
maintain or operate any school, institute, class or course of instruc- 
tion in any subjects whatever without making application for and 
being granted a license from the University of the State of New York 
to so conduct, maintain or operate such institute, school or class. 

The bill then provides that the application for such license 

shall be accompanied with a verified statement showing the pur- 
poses for which the school, institute or class is to be maintained and 
conducted, dnd the nature and extent and purpose of the instruction 
to be given. No license shall be granted for the conduct of any such 
school, institute or class unless the regents of the university of the 
state are satisfied that the instruction proposed to be given trill not 


/^ORGANIZATIONS are approved by the National 
>-/ Information Bureau on the basis of their conformity 
with the following standards. Typical examples of the 
application of each standard are given below. 

1. Active and responsible governing body holding regular 
meetings, or other satsfactory form of administrative control. 
" The trustees appointed three weeks ago a- committee of 
which I am chairman to draw up a plan of reorganiza- 
tion and report to them. On that committee are seven 
men (besides myself) all of them men of standing in 
the community and good business men. We have care- 
fully gone over the constitution and by-laws introducing 
those features that your bureau recommends. Four of 
these men are prepared to serve as trustees, and all of 
us are going to get behind them and help put the 

upon a sound financial basis." [A letter from a 

relief institution.]. 

2. A legitimate purpose with no avoidable duplication of 
the work of another efficiently managed organization. 

A $2,000,000 health project was not well integrated with 
existing plans. After a careful investigation, the bureau 
secured the agreement of those interested to cut the budget 
to $100,000 per year and to carry on the work in full 
cooperation with other agencies. Consolidation of dupli- 
cating activities has been secured in several instances. 

3. Reasonable efficiency in conduct of work, management 
of institutions, etc., and a reasonable adequacy of equipment 
for such work, both material and personal. 

A well-liked relief agency, which had been operating on 
a diffuse and somewhat ineffective plan, invited the 
bureau to suggest detailed changes. This was done, and 
a new program, involving a definite alteration of plan 
and greatly increased effectiveness, was adopted. 

4. No solicitors on commission or other commission methods 
of raising money. 

Five of the largest professional campaign promoters have 
agreed, at the suggestion of the bureau, to accept no com- 
mission contracts in this field. The bureau has been 
instrumental in preventing enterprises in which the com- 
missions to solicitors ran as high as 50 per cent. 

5. Non-use of the " remit or return " method of raising 
money by the sales of merchandise or tickets. 

One of the most active and enterprising relief agencies 
was arousing widespread suspicion among business men 

by a campaign of this sort. As a prerequisite to en- 
dorsement, it agreed to discontinue this method, and did so. 

6. No entertainments for money raising purposes, the ex- 
penses of which exceed 30 per cent of the gross proceeds. 

Many organizations have consulted with the bureau about 
proposed benefits and have so modified their plans that 
exorbitant expenses have been avoided. Several benefits 
on a 50-50 basis, including one planned for the Metro- 
politan Opera House, were abandoned on the advice of 
the bureau. 

7. Ethical methods of publicity, promotion and solicitation 
of funds. 

In three cases semi-commercial motion-picture schemes 
have been abandoned at the bureau's recommendation. 
Several undesirable schemes of street solicitation have 
been given up. 

8. Agreement to consult and cooperate with the proper 
social agencies in local communities with reference to local 
programs and budgets. 

On the basis of first-hand study and the collation of 
criticisms from many sources, the bureau h;rs brought 
this matter to a focus in the case of a large national 
organization and has secured definite assurances of 

9. Complete annual audited accounts prepared by a certified 
public accountant or trust company showing receipts and dis- 
bursements classified, and itemized in detail. 

More than fifty organizations have begun this practice 
at the suggestion of the bureau. Several which had never 
felt the need of such an audit secured the services of a 
certified public accountant for the first time and learned 
with surprise of certain flaws in their accounting systems 
which have been corrected. 

10. Itemized and classified annual budget estimate. 
Budget-making wa? rare among organizations in this 
field before the bureau's work began. " It has been very 
difficult to make a budget, as you know," writes the secre- 
tary of an agency of considerable importance, " but it has 
been very valuable to us that you insisted upon it." 

THE bureau's negative work in preventing and stop- 
ping unwarranted and fraudulent schemes is con- 
tinually going on. Some thirty have been stopped 
altogether, through cooperation with the public authori- 
ties. A crooked solicitor is now serving a federal term 
as a result of a recent investigation. 



be detrimental to public interests. There shall be paid at the time of 
the granting of such license a fee of five dollars. . . . [Italics ours.] 

It will thus be seen that the bill, in addition to requiring 
that the instruction shall not be "detrimental to public inter- 
ests," requires a fee of $5 for every school, institute, class or 
course of instruction licensed. Moreover, a license once 
granted can be revoked if the regents become satisfied that the 
school, institute or class is being conducted in such a way as 
to be detrimental to public interests, or in a fraudulent or 
improper manner. Public schools, schools maintained by re- 
ligious denominations or sects recognized as such at the time 
this law takes effect, incorporated educational institutions and 
institutions admitted to membership in the university of the 
state, are exempt from its provisions. Violation is a misde- 
meanor, punishable by a fine not exceeding $100 or imprison- 
ment not exceeding sixty days. 

In a memorandum submitted to the state senate through 
their counsel, Harold Riegelman, the United Neighborhood 
Houses of New York urge the defeat of the measure. This 
body is a federation of forty-five settlement and neighborhood 
houses in New York city. Its memorandum undertakes to 
acquaint the state legislature with the value of the settlements' 
work in teaching citizenship and in Americanizing the immi- 
grant sections of our cities. To quote those portions that 
discuss the effect of the measure upon settlements: 

This measure means that whenever any neighborhood Mouse in 
New York citv sees fit to undertake a class for instruction in English, 
civics or naturalization, it must pay a license fee of $5. It means 
that where groups of boys or girls come together for the purpose of 
debate, dramatics, literature or the study of biology, government or 
music, under the leadership of some volunteer worker, a license fee 
must be paid before they shall be permitted to do what they have 
been doing for many years. . . . Such clubs are being constantly 
formed and discontinued. Volunteer workers come and go. The 
term " class " as used in the bill is very evidently intended to include 
such clubs and their leaders, . . . and each such club must be 
treated as 3 separate unit under the bill, because the verified state- 
ment required by the measure to show the purpose for which the 
"class" is to be maintained. . .will differ in respect to each club, 
and in fact in respect to the same club during the year. . . . And 
no neighborhood house can tell in advance just what groups are to be 
formed in the course of the coming year. 

Under the provisions of the proposed law, the club activities of 
the neighborhood houses, which constitute their best contribution to 
the work of Americanization, will have to await the pleasure of 
bureaucratic supervision. . . . There are upwards of eighty settle- 
ment houses in New York city with an estimated average of fifty 
clubs or "classes" in each. This would result in a license tax of 
$20,000 in 1920 and, since new clubs are formed in each house on the 
average of about ten in each year, the annual expenditure on ac- 
count of license fee would amount to about $4,000. These funds 
must be considered as deliberately subtracted from the pitiably small 
total now available for practical education in the fundamental prin- 
ciples of citizenship. 

The bill is not limited, in the view of the settlement houses 
to such activities as these. Says the memorandum : 

By the provisions of this bill, every poverty stricken music teacher, 
every girl who ekes out a living by teaching language, mathematics 
or any study or who conducts a kindergarten, and every young man 
who would earn an education by tutoring, must pay $5 for every 
group of two or more which he or she may undertake to teach. The 
law means that or nothing. 

Moreover, the settlements take the broad ground that the 
bill " is as thoroughly out of accord with true democracy and 
American tradition as censorship of the press, of speech and of 
religious or political opinion." Says the memorandum : 

The effective enforcement of such a bill in the time of the Romans 
would have destroyed Christianity. A board of regents of those 
days would have undoubtedly thought those religious precepts 
" detrimental to public interests." The spirit of this law made the 
theory of a round earth and the teaching of printing, heresies. It 
made possible an Inquisition and the burning of witches. 

This is a young nation, experimenting with a young science, the 
science of self-government. It cannot safely place in the uncontrolled 
discretion of a small group of men the right to say that this or that 
idea is "detrimental to the public interests. ..." 

A conference of sixty labor, civic and educational organiza- 
tions called attention to the " fact that practically every for- 
ward step in the history of education has been initiated by 

Wipe out this disgrace! 

More women die in child-birth in the United States than in thirteen other 
principal countries. Thete are 23,000 of them every year. And 125,000 
babies die before they are six weeks old because of lack of proper can*. They 
die because the United States is the only important country in the world that 
ha* no legislation for mothers. 

Good Housekeeping is fighting for Federal and State aid so that a mother, 
whether she lives in New York or Montana or Virginia, will have the pro- 
tection and benefit that she deserves so that the lives of tomorrow's mothers 
and fathers tomorrow's citizens will be saved. 

There such a bill now before Congress a maternity and -infancy bill 
wot thy of every citizen's support. Will you men and women who read tha 
writ* to your Congressman and Senators to support this bin? Get up a petition 
and have your friends sign it. The SheDoard-Towner Bill tntat be passed. 


A Magazine devoted to the service of the American Woman 

A feature in Good Housekeeping's campaign for the pas- 
sage of the Sheppard-Towner maternity bill is this adver- 
tisement from the New York Times. 

individuals or groups, acting without license from the consti- 
tuted authorities and often in sharp opposition to them." " If 
the bill should become law," said the conference, " its effect 
will be to suppress private initiative in the teaching world, to 
subject every original idea to the deadening influence of bureau- 
cratic routine, and thus to cut off the chief source from which 
educational progress is to be expected." 

At a legislative hearing on the bill Senator Clayton R. 
Lusk, chairman of the committee sponsoring it and himself its 
introducer, cited the history of the Ferrer School and the 
teachings of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman as 
showing the need for such a measure. He told of a meeting 
hall in Rochester, N. Y., where agents of his committee heard 
instructors read to children Lenin's letter to American work- 
ingmen. He quoted from a valedictory address by a student 
at the Rand School of Social Science in which the student said 
that " men like Debs and Lenin inspire us." " Men like Jef- 
ferson, Washington and Lincoln are my ideals," said Senator 
Lusk, " and I don't understand why we should permit a con- 
victed felon to run our schools and teach our children." 

The board of regents, in whose hands the licensing power 
would be placed by this bill, is the governing body of the 
University of the State of New York, which is, under the law, 
the state Department of Education. The twelve members 
of the board are elected jointly by the two houses of the 
legislature ; the term of office is twelve years for each and one 
member is elected each year. It is compulsory that there shall 
always be at least one member residing in each of the nine 
judicial districts of the state. The board has supervision ovei 
the entire system of public elementary, secondary and higher 
education, together with exclusive power to incorporate educa- 
tional institutions and organizations, including libraries. 



The Salvage of Child- 
hood in the South 

IF some Sargent or Von Marcke could dip the brush of his 
imagination into the life of our people and paint across 
the face of the country some design outlining the bulk of 
salvage in health, education, moral training a(nd freedom that 
has been wrought by the constant agitation and enthusiasm 
of the past decade, it would present an inspiring picture. 

For a generation, when child labor or illiteracy was men- 
tioned the thoughts of many Americans turned instinctively 
toward the eleven states bounded by Virginia and Kentucky 
on the north and by the Mississippi river and Louisiana and 
Texas on the west. We were then not far enough from the 
days of the Civil War to have entirely outgrown the provincial 
spirit developed by its great issues and intensified by the 
atrocious scandals of the " reconstruction days." Many 
northerners, indifferent through familiarity to the crushing 
industrial burdens on little tenement workers in New York 
city, glass house boys in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio 
and Indiana, the slate pickers in the coal mines and the rigor- 
ous exactions of the New England textile mills, were horrified 
to read of the long hours and unhealthy conditions which 
featured the employment of children in southern cotton mills. 
And these same critics of distant sins were able to look with 
comparative indifference upon the bulky volume of illiteracy 
among the foreign-born and even the native population of New 
York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Illinois and other great 
industrial states, yet could discern with prophetic clearness the 
disaster awaiting our country unless " the South " proceeded 
at once to wipe out illiteracy. 

The change in legislative standards of protection and in ad- 
ministration have been so great within the past ten years that 
even a summary would be impossible within these limits. It 
is not extravagant to say, however, that had the world not 
been engrossed in the consideration of over-shadowing inter- 
national problems, we should realize that the past decade has 
wrought within our own borders the greatest revolution in 
the history of the world in respect to institutions and agencies 
to protect the industrial conditions, to safeguard the morals 
and promote the health and education of children. We should 
further discern that compared with the standards existing 
fifteen years ago the most radical changes in the right direction 
have been not in the North, but in the southern states. 

Unfortunately, the details for a quantitative statement as to 
the results of such advances would be difficult to produce. 
Statistical reports are slow to gather and tardy of publication. 
The latest statistics on illiteracy of children 10-14 years of 
age in the eleven southern states are the figures for 1910. The 
total is 312,674. But this is 1920 and ten years later. It 
would be a satisfaction to know how present figures compare 
with those of ten years ago. That was a gloomy showing in 
1910; but has anyone taken the trouble to look back and com- 
pare the number of illiterate children with those in the same 
states in 1900? A single example will show the direction in 
which the South was moving. In North Carolina in 1910 the 
illiterates of this age group numbered 26,955; in J 9OO the 
same group showed 51,190 illiterates in other words there 
had been a decrease during the ten-year period of 24,235, or 
approximately 48 per cent. The total illiterates of this age 
group in 1900 in the eleven states was 468,266, showing a 
total decrease in the ten years of 155,592, or approximately 
33 per cent. 

Has there been a similar decrease within the decade just 
closed? We should like to believe it. In 1910 there was no 
compulsory school attendance law in any of the eleven states, 
with the exception of Kentucky, which required that children 

under fourteen should attend school for five months each 
year, and in North Carolina, which required sixteen weeks 
yearly attendance to twelve years of age, but had no agency to 
enforce the law. At the present time every one of these states 
has some form of compulsory school attendance law Alabama 
compelling attendance up to sixteen for one hundred days each 
year or until the elementary course is completed; Florida re- 
quiring attendance to sixteen years, with some weakening ex- 
emptions, for the entire school term unless the eighth grade 
is completed; Georgia requiring attendance to the fourteenth 
year six months a year to the completion of the seventh grade; 
and so on. Can anyone doubt that such a rapid rallying of 
the awakened forces of the South will show a stimulating de- 
crease in the number of educational outcasts, at least before 
the close of another decade? A similar comparison might be 
presented of changes in health laws and child labor laws. We 
are presenting no argument for a cessation of effort. The 
tragic conditions of children in these, as well as other states, 
are sufficiently impressive when public attention is focused on 
them to justify the most active and unrelenting statesmanship 
until their rights are secured. Broad stretches of rural life 
are virtually barren of the most rudimentary provisions for 
combatting disease, or giving education to their children. 

What is especially needed in the South, as in other parts 
of the country is a new Columbus to discover America. A 
discovery of our needs and our possibilities will not divide, 
but will unite those interested in the future prosperity of 
America. When the National Child Labor Committee en- 
tered upon its recent study of child welfare conditions in Ala- 
bama, attempting to discover the conditions in which children 
lived as regards public health, education, rural school attend- 
ance, recreation and the agencies provided to care for depend- 
ent, defective and delinquent children, the very scope of the 
program won an immediate response. Advocates of child 
labor reform had been accustomed to meet a powerful lobby 
at one session after another until the most prominent figure 
they saw at the state capitol seemed to them to be the splendid 
motto of that state, Here We Rest. But when it was un- 
derstood that a campaign was on foot not merely to eliminate 
children from a given industry but to appraise their social 
assets and liabilities, most of those who had formerly consti- 
tuted the opposing lobby joined in. The striking contrast was 
too dramatic to be ignored. There were approximately 4,000 
children in the cotton mills of that state, but according to the 
latest statistics there were approximately 153,000 children 
out of school and at work. Where were the other 149,000? 
No one knew. It was to discover them and what means might 
be secured through legislation to guarantee their rights that 
this study was undertaken. 

The results are striking. At the recent session of the leg- 
islature four important laws were passed a child labor law 
with a 14 year minimum; an eight-hour day under 16, and 
other advanced features ; the creation of a department of child 
welfare with a child labor division; extensive improvements 
in the state-wide compulsory education law, and the re- 
organization of local health administration providing for full- 
time health officers throughout the state. This is a sample of 
the speed with which the South is moving toward securing a 
birthright for its children. 

When the 1920 census figures appear perhaps some in- 
genious mathematician will figure out the number of days of 
added liberty and added school life the average child in this 
group of states has secured, and multiply that by the total 
number of children in the group to show how many centuries 
of childhood the country has saved for itself. But mani- 
festly it will be impossible to reduce to figures what these 
strides toward a democracy of health, education and indus- 
trial opportunity will mean to the children themselves in those 
imponderable values which give the chief significance to 
human life. OWEN R. LOVEJOY. 



The Land Situation 
in France 

THE war has established some estrangement in France 
between the workmen and the rural population. 
While the former were kept in the factories as " in- 
dispensables," the latter, side by side with the intel- 
lectuals, fought in the trenches. It is the farmers' sons who 
paid the heavier toll of death, of all those who earn a living by 
the toil of their hands. They do not forget it, and their votes 
showed it at the late general elections. Even before the poll, 
the leaders of the city workmen felt the necessity of doing 
something to try to conciliate the village dwellers whose mass 
resistance, they feared, might frustrate their hopes of social 
transformation. This explains; why the two factions of work- 
ingmen's interests, the Socialist Party, and the Confederation 
Generale du Travail (C. G. T.), have both at their last na- 
tional conference brought forward plans of land reform. 

Before the war, scant attention had been given to the rural 
workers and their problems by either group. Yet, the Socialists 
had paid a sort of discursive regard to them, owing to the pres- 
ence in their ranks of an able agriculturist, at the same time 
sensible reformer and shrewd politician, M. Compere-Morel. 

There was the difficulty of conciliating the sweeping doc- 
trine of " expropriation," common ownership of the land, re- 
turn of all estates to the nation, with the strong attachment of 
the peasant to his plot, wrenched by his ancestors from the 
ancien regime landlord at the time of the Revolution, watered 
by the sweat of his brow, rounded up by means of his hard-won 
savings. Jaures hald already faced the problem and, in his 
wish to secure the peasants' votes, had declared for the " sacred- 
ness " of the small holding, included the peasant's cottage and 
field among those " personal belongings " that would be al- 
Ifewed to the individual under the Socialistic regime, and withal 
awakened the penurious husbandman's mind to the inequality 
of his lot compared to that of the rich bourgeois, owner of the 
manor and of the adjoining estate. The successor of Jaures, 
the deputy Lafargue, Karl Marx's grandson, tried to bring the 
compromise nearer to the Marxian doctrine by declaring that 
the peasant's field was actually his " tool " and therefore his 
rightful property. But the Socialist Party, except for a few 
(very intelligent) motions presented by Compere-Morel at 
some of the conferences, never took to heart the cause of the 
rural population. 

The C. G. T., it will be remembered, separated from the 
Socialist Party some twenty years ago, sick, as they said, of 
the politicians and the " intellectual " coterie, bent upon hav- 
ing the workers manage their own affairs and fight their own 
battles. This was the origin of the syndicalist movement that 
swerved away from political action and laid its hope in the 
" general strike." Today, both the Socialists and the Syndi- 
calists seem to be anxious to win over at least some of the rurals 
to their side. 

The C. G. T., true to its revolutionary dogma, but apparent- 
ly disdainful, or ignorant, of the differences that separate the 
rural from the city worker, puts forth a program, almost iden- 
tical to the program for industrial wage-earners. It advances 
claims for higher wages and the 8-hour day, and urges the pro- 
motion of " syndicates " to be eventually affiliated to the 
C. G. T. Finally they wave the red flag of " expropriation," 
abolition of private property and perfect happiness under the 
communistic regime. While doing this, they disregard the 
ineradicable passion of the peasant for his land and, besides, 
press for a mode of work (the 8-hour day) which cannot cope 
with the requirements of the weather, the seasons, and the 
necessities of harvest or fruit-picking. In fact, they only ap- 
peal (not even very reasonably) to the farm-hands, whose lot 

indeed is in need of amelioration but who form only a very 
small part of the rural population, as the French countryside is 
mostly inhabited by petty land-owners who think only of 
working hard and of saving enough to eke out their heirloom. 
The Socialists are impelled by other motives. They want to 
muster votes that may back the party at the next election. With 
this purpose in view, they keep in the dark, in their " agricul- 
tural program," the doctrine without which it would have 
seemed to the " pure " in the past that the cause was desecrated. 
They do not even speak any more of the peasant homestead as 
" personal belongings." They only mention, in a general way, 
their devotion to the " proletariat of the fields," and pass on 
immediately to a plan of concrete reform, well devised to strike 
the practical minds of the rural land owners. The plan must 
be of M. Compere-Morel's own making, for it is opportune, 
feasible and well adapted to remedy the present evils. It con- 
tains a number of interesting features : 

First, extension of the activity of the Agricultural Board. Com- 
pared to what has been done in America, the help offered, thus far, 
by the government to agriculturists wishing to improve their methods 
of cultivation or cattle breeding, has been so scanty that it may be 
considered as non-existent. There is a " station " in every " depart- 
ment," with an expert (generally well trained, often decidedly 
learned) and a laboratory (indifferently equipped), but no appro- 
priations to enable the knowledge stored in the expert's head to be 
communicated to the individual farmers. There ought to be "travel- 
ing agents," and funds to pay their expenses and cover the purchase 
of materials, experiments, etc. 

Second, encouragement to motor plowing, rendered necessary by 
the shortage of farm hand labor, after the great losses in men 
caused by the war. 

Third, a great scheme of irrigation (which might be coupled with 
the harnessing of water-power) permitting the reclaiming of waste 
land and the fertilizing of poor soil. 

Fourth, establishment of a state monopoly for the manufacture and 
sale of artificial fertilizers, that -would be sold to the farmers at cost 
price, etc. 

Such schemes are excellent in themselves only they arc 
not the exclusive property of the Socialist Party. In fact, they 
are part of the plan of reconstruction of almost every group in 
Parliament (i.e. almost all) that sets the economic restoration 
of the country to the fore. 

What are the chances of a syndicalist or socialist movement 
developing among the villagers ? In spite of the great boom on 
agricultural products, which has made almost every peasant a 
small capitalist, there is discontent in some provinces. In the 
southern wine-growing districts (Narbonnais) where there are 
mostly big land owners and many farm laborers, the latter have 
made a move to join the C. G. T. In the Champagne district, 
where property is extremely divided, the petty grape-growers 
are impatient of the economic sway of the all-powerful wine 
merchants. In the Central Plateau (Limousin), the rich pro- 
prietors rent their estates to metayers, who share the profits 
half and half with them. Since the prices have run so high, 
those metayers are unwilling to give away half the returns and 
discontent is brewing among them. 

Those conditions ought to be remedied. Farm laborers must 
be protected against greed, neglect of housing accommodation, 
etc. Cooperatives must be developed among producers and 
collective bargaining organized. The plan of agricultural en- 
gineering must be developed. The party which accomplishes 
these needed reforms, whether Socialist or not, will reap the 
benefits. CHARLES CESTRE. 


THAT so many of the poor should suffer from cold what 
can we do to prevent? 

'.To bring warmth to a single body is not much use. 
I wish I had a big rug ten thousand feet long, 
Which at one time could cover up every inch of the City. 

From 170 Chinese Poems, translated by ARTHUR WALEY 

Reconstruction of State Welfare 


By Robert Moses 


[/n the SURVEY for February 21, Joseph P. Chamberlain discussed sympathetically the radical rt organiza- 
tion of the government of New York state recommended by the Reconstruction Commission. The subject is 
of such importance and of such general interest that we make room this week for a fuller presentation of the 
arguments in favor of the commission's proposals. Editor.] 

PERHAPS the most difficult field in the state gov- 
ernment in which to bring about coordination is that 
of public welfare, and by public welfare is meant the 
fields of charity, correction, mental hygiene and re- 
lated subjects. It is particularly difficult to make progress 
here because the present organization is so complex and the 
present laws and constitutional provisions set up such decided 
limitations. In order to appreciate the complexity of organi- 
zation in New York state, it is only necessary to mention 
that there are over twenty departments exclusive of local boards 
of managers, charged with the inspection or administration of 
the 39 state institutions, and that besides the 53,000 defec- 
tives, dependents and delinquents in these institutions, there 
are over 700,000 inmates of private institutions subject to 
state inspection. The mass of conflicting or confusing statutes 
would not present such a serious obstacle if they were not 
predicated upon constitutional provisions which must be 
amended. In addition to these mechanical obstacles to prog- 
ress in the field of public welfare, there are human obstacles 
which arise because the many students and practitioners in 
this field have such decided opinions, differ so greatly and are 
so hard to bring together in agreement. 

In reaching its conclusions, the New York State Recon- 
struction Commission made a careful analysis of the organi- 
zation of welfare activities in other states. There is not 
space here to discuss all the variations in organization which 
ingenious citizens and legislators have devised to bring economy 
into or to keep politics out of state institutions and charities. 
From the point of view of overhead organization, there are 
five main types of state welfare administration. In the first 
group, are the states which have little or only partial coor- 
dination of welfare agencies either financial or administra- 
tive. In some of the smaller states, like New Hampshire, 
each institution is under a separate and independent board. 
New York is the best example of partial and illogical con- 
solidation. This type is universally unsatisfactory and from 
it nothing is to be learned except that it ought to be 
changed. In the second group are the states whose welfare 
activities are grouped along functional rather than merely 
administrative or fiscal lines, under a small number of coor- 
dinated departments. Massachusetts has recently consolidated 
its welfare agencies in the three departments of Charities, 
Mental Disease and Correction. The Charities Department 
is not, however, the usual inspectional department, but has 
the training and juvenile functions in the welfare field under 
its care. In Massachusetts it was felt that consolidation under 
a single department was unwise, and this point of view in 
the larger states is one which deserves the most careful con- 

In the third group are the numerous states in which all 

welfare activities or, at any rate, all institutions, including 
in some cases, even educational institutions, such as normal 
schools, are under a single board of control in almost all 
cases, a paid board which actually administers and does not 
merely delegate its authority to a commissioner, director, or 
secretary. Wisconsin, Arizona, Washington, Ohio, Iowa, 
Minnesota, and Rhode Island, are among the states which 
have adopted this kind of organization. Fundamentally, these 
are institutional departments and the control exercised by the 
board is one of lay and business rather than professional, man- 
agement. In few, if any, cases is there definite provision 
for professional representation on the boards. This type of 
organization has, on the whole, been very successful. Whether 
it is as effective in the largest states with the most complicated 
welfare problems, as it is to the smaller ones, is open to con- 
siderable doubt. 

In the fourth group, are the states whose welfare agencies 
are grouped under an unpaid board of Charities and Correc- 
tion, who employ a commissioner as administrator. New 
Jersey has recently adopted this type of organization. It haS 
been conspicuously successful there no doubt in a large 
measure, because of the particular commissioner who was ap- 
pointed. This type of organization, very familiar in the field 
of education, has the advantage of affording a long term to 
the administrator, if he has a good board and knows how to 
get along with the members. By making the governor a 
member of the board, New Jersey has avoided the disad- 
vantage of a complete divorce from the administration. Other 
states will probably imitate New Jersey. This type will 
probably work best when the board acts like the board of 
directors of any large corporation, that is, confines its atten- 
tion to determining policies and to general supervision, or 
when the board is inactive and lets the commissioner alone. 
In view of the fact that an ever-increasing proportion of the 
total state budget goes to welfare work, it remains to be seen 
whether in the long run institutions so administered, will get 
the attention and support which they would get if they were 
more closely associated with the governor, through his cabi- 
net. In the fifth group are the states whose welfare agencies 
are under a single director of public welfare, appointed by the 
governor and a member of his cabinet. Illinois, Idaho and 
Nebraska have this type of organization, which is now under 
consideration in several other states. Although it has some 
resemblances to the organization in the fourth group, the 
Vermont organization really belongs in the group with Illi- 
nois, Idaho and Nebraska. The governor and other ex-officio 
executives are the members of the board, but the governor 
appoints a director with the consent of the senate, who admin- 
isters the welfare agencies. 

After considering these types of organization in the several 
states and the peculiar conditions in New York, our com- 



mission came to the conclusion that it would present for gen- 
eral discussion a recommendation for a complete consolidation 
of the welfare activities in a single department so ingeniously 
constructed as to avoid constitutional amendment. For rea- 
sons obvious to those who know the present state service and 
the state constitution, we proposed to place a psychiatrist at 
the head of this department. Our first rough draft was 
simply a trial balloon. We felt that the movement in other 
states in the direction of consolidation justified our presenting 
a similar plan for discussion and that it was worth while 
demonstrating whether or not any progress could be made 
under present constitutional provisions. The discussion took 
place and there was a great deal of it. We came to the con- 
clusion that the State of New York is too big, and the prob- 
lems in the field of public welfare are too numerous to justify 
the recommendation for a single department and that it is 
useless to try to avoid constitutional amendments. We be- 
came convinced that the consolidation plan in this field pro- 
posed by the Constitutional Convention of 1915 did not have 
and does not now have any popular support. 

Assignment of Institutions 

WE CONCLUDED that there were three great fields, each call- 
ing for a single department the field of correction, the field 
of mental hygiene and the field of charities. We also con- 
cluded that state institutions should be allocated to the par- 
ticular departments to which they functionally belong and 
should not be arbitrarily placed under fiscal and other lay 
authorities simply because they all present some common prob- 
lems of finance and management. Most of the institutions 
fall naturally into the three great departments above men- 
tioned ; the others belong in the Department of Health and 
the Department of Education, excepting the two veterans' 
homes which we placed in the Department of Military and 
Naval Affairs. 

It is not necessary to describe at length, or to argue for 
the Department of Mental Hygiene. In this department, we 
have placed the entire problem of the insane, feebleminded 
and epileptics. The consolidation of these functions in a single 
department was recommended by all the experts with whom 
we discussed the question. We feel that we are simply ex- 
tending logically the functions of the State Hospital Com- 
mission, which has an excellent reputation and which we be- 
lieve is fully capable of assuming the additional burdens. In 
this way we shall at last develop a state-wide program and a 
responsible unified administration for mental hygiene. 

The Department of Charities, we think, should be con- 
tinued, under the present board with two important changes 
in its functions. In the first place, it should not inspect the 
state, local or private institutions assigned to other state de- 
partments because we do not want any conflict of authority 
between two state departments, and because it would be en- 
tirely illogical to have the State Department of Charities in- 
spect the additional institutions under the Departments of 
Mental Hygiene and Correction, and not the present insti- 
tutions which are exempt from such inspections under the 
constitution. In the second place, the Department of Chari- 
ties should have a much wider jurisdiction over private in- 
stitutions. We feel that the department should inspect and 
set standards for all private institutions, whether receiving 
public aid or not. The new powers and functions given to 
the board under this second head, of course, outweigh the 
functions of inspecting certain state institutions which we 
propose to take away. By continuing the present representa- 
tive board we were sure that a strong but sympathetic influ- 
ence would be brought to bear which would be welcomed by 

enlightened people of all denominations. There should be 
no serious objection to a board in this case because the powers 
entrusted to the department are in no sense administrative. 

In the case of the Department of Correctwnr we aimed to 
set up a modern correctional agency, whwh ** have juris- 
diction not only over the prisons state and' Idea! but also 
over the public reformatories, and probation and parole. 
Although we were fully aware of the political traditions and 
background of the present Prison Department, we felt after 
careful study and many conferences, that the time was ripe 
to provide a real correctional department. We feel that we 
have safe-guarded this department by the establishment of a 
council of correction. We have placed the probation and 
parole functions under the council. The great difficulty in the 
case of the commissioner of correction is that there are no pro- 
fessional standards to govern appointments such as govern ap- 
pointments to the professional positions in the hospitals for 
the insane. There is, as yet, no such thing as a class of recog- 
nized correctional administrators. There are, of course, a few 
people emerging as qualified leaders in this field. 

The problem of a governor in making an appointment as 
commissioner of correction is bound to be difficult. If he takes 
a business man with general administrative experience, he will 
be attacked on the ground that he should have appointed an 
expert. If he considers the appointment of an expert, he is 
besieged by the claims of the old type of prison warden, on 
the one hand, and the new type of prison reformer perhaps 
without administrative capacity, on the other. If he goes out 
of the state to select a successful, correctional administrator, 
the governor meets with the disapproval of thousands of citi- 
zens who feel that a large state must have citizens within it 
borders who can do the job. 

I have no solution to offer for these particular problems. 
Our commission considered them very carefully, as we did 
the related problem of whether the commissioner should be 
appointed by the governor, or by a council at the head of the 
department. We came to the conclusion that we should stick 
to our principle of recommending a single head of a depart- 
ment, appointed by the governor. Time alone and the scien- 
tific development of the field of correction will produce the 
types of persons needed to fill the various administrative posi- 
tions in the correctional field in this state. By placing the 
wardens under civil service the selections are at least in the 
hands of a competent and impartial body. 

A Clearing House 

IN ORDER that there might be some coordination in the field 
of public welfare as outlined above, we provided for a Council 
of Public Welfare to consist of the heads of the Departments 
of Charities, Correction and Mental Hygiene, and also the 
commissioner of health and the commissioner of education. 
This was to be a clearing house for all public welfare prob- 
lems and we provided that there should be a staff to work out 
the common problems in this field. 

The opportunities for this staff are limitless. It should 
present a coordinated child welfare program. The strength- 
ening and consolidation of county institutions under state 
supervision, should be studied. Coordination of labor and 
industries among institutions, the standardization of financial 
methods and salaries, the relation between delinquency ami 
mental defect, the best utilization of buildings, the development 
of a welfare program for employes, the simplification and 
coordination of reports these and many other problems should 
all be reported on by the staff. 

I ;tm glad to say that this plan of organization has met with. 



very general approval. It has been endorsed by most of the 
state agencies affected, and by a large number of other agencies 
and individuals. I do not mean to say that there have not been 
criticisms. These criticisms have been carefully considered 
and have resulted in a number of changes in detail, but 
we are convinced that our recommendations are sound in 
principle and will meet the test of further criticisms and dis- 
cussion. There has been some criticism directed against plac- 
ing reformatories in the same department as the prisons. This 
criticism, comes from those who emphasize the defects of 
prison administration and who fear that the reformatories may 
be dragged down. We believe that the suggested Department 
of Correction will completely safeguard the reformatories. As 
a matter of fact, we do not believe that the present supervision 
of the reformatories is in the best interests of the state or 
the inmates. The suggestion that the reformatories be trans- 
ferred to the Department of Education is one which is opposed 
by practically every one who understands the problems of the 
Department of Education. I know of no one connected with 
educational administration who is anxious, or even willing, to 
take up this particular burden. 

The suggestion that parole and probation are not properly 
correctional functions is one which is hard to understand under 
any proper definition of the word " correction." I believe 
that the people who urge this or the maintenance of proba- 
tion and parole as separate, independent functions, are actu- 
ated by the very best of motives, but not by motives which 
stand the test of logic. They are probably worried about the 
associations in the Department of Correction and feel that 
they would be in happier company in some other department 
or left to themselves. If we were to leave probation and parole 
by themselves, a hundred other agencies would claim the 
same exclusiveness. 

We are proposing to put the state's business in some twenty 
departments, each representing a logical concentration of re- 
lated activities and functions and we are appealing to the 
enlightened citizens of the state whether they are immediately 
associated with its administration or not to support our plan 
because it is an honest and logical plan prepared to meet an 
immediate and vital need. If compromises and readjustments 
are made to meet the tastes of individuals, no matter how 
powerful, we are going to whittle down our principles until 
nothing is left. One exception leads to another. When we 
got all through, we should probably have a patchwork plan 
which would take care of all existing officials and which would 
not be much if any improvement over the present organiza- 

It seems not unreasonable to ask that those who agree with 
us in principle and who approve of the general structure which 
we propose to erect will overlook small differences of opinion. 
In the field of public welfare, absolute unanimity of opinion 
as to every detail is impossible to attain, partly because of the 
variety of interests affected, partly because a good deal of 
the field has not yet been developed to the point where princi- 
ples of organization and procedure are definitely established 
and partly because of old antagonisms and personal differences, 
which are not yet thoroughly ironed out. 

We are not asking for the support of any hasty or ill- 
considered program of immediate action. There is almost 
nothing which can be done toward the reorganization of the 
public welfare agencies without constitutional amendment. It 
will take at least two years to make the constitutional amend- 
ments effective, if they are approved at this session of the 
legislature. During these two years there is plenty of time 
for all interested parties to help work out details and to pre- 
pare the present and proposed agencies for the reorganization. 

There is one important subject which has not been touched 
on, the subject of economy in the field of public welfare. 
We are absolutely convinced that economy in this field i& 
possible. This does not necessarily imply that the budget can 
be reduced. It does imply that under the proposed reorganiza- 
tion and under the proposed budget system we shall get before 
the people and the legislature a definite and comprehensive 
program presented and defended by the executive with the 
assistance of his department heads and that this program, as 
approved will be carried out with far greater economy and 
far less lost motion than is possible under the present chaotic 
organization and the present haphazard and unscientific budget 
methods. If we can render greater service, provide the neces- 
sary institutional, clinical and other facilities which are now 
lacking and still keep the budget close to its present figures, 
this will represent real economy and retrenchment. 

There is one other thought which I wish to emphasize in 
closing. The proposed plan of organization in the field of 
welfare, must meet the approval not only of social workers, 
but also of the man in the street. After all, it is the average 
citizen, " the forgotten man," who pays the bills. The " for- 
gotten man " is waking up. He is tired of wasteful govern- 
ment and heavy taxes. It will not do to forget him in the 
future. If you do not proceed with reference to his under- 
standing and approval, you are going to get nowhere. If the 
coming administrations in our various governments are not 
administrations of so-called practical men, then the signs of 
these times mean nothing and political prophecy is dead. 


THE ores men toil to dig are destinate, 
When brought to light, to find their instant doom 
In furnaces, that all their bulk consume, 
And seem the toilers' labour to frustrate. 
Not so ; for in their passing they create 

The power that drives to frenzied haste the loom, 
Weaving the fabric light as is the spume, 
To deck the maid in all her bridal state. 

So in the furnace fires of earth are tossed 

Our mortal lives that, ringed about with toil, 

Unheeded pass, as smoke wreaths that arc lost 
In the dim murk of air, amid the moil 

Of busy days; yet weave the while with tears 

One moment in the fabric of the years. 

R. N., in The Commonwealth. 

Democratic Community Organization 

An After-the-War Experiment in Chester 

By Charles Frederick Weller 


AUTOCRACY has always characterized charitable, 
religious, educational and social service undertak- 
ings. Trustees or governing boards have been 
composed of leading men and women, people of 
established recognized power. Unselfishly bearing the finan- 
cial and other reponsibilities, this small autocratic board has 
generously given the benefits of its labors to such community 
groups as it could understand and reach. Beneficent pur- 
poses have not altered the fact that this method is autocratic. 
Is it practicable, now, to democratize social service? May 
not democracy be the spring of living power which shall make 
philanthropy, education, recreation, and other forms of social 
service more constructive and more adequate? This sug- 
gestion I submit as a product of twenty-four years' endeavor 
in organized charity, settlement work, recreation and com- 
munity service. After-the-war experiences in community 
service have carried me farthest toward a conception of dem- 
ocratic community organization. 

In Pennsylvania's oldest town, Chester, thirteen miles 
southeast of Philadelphia, $28,000 have been pledged to make 
permanent, locally self-supporting and independent the work 
known as Community Service for Chester and Vicinity. From 
the national movement, Community Service (Incorporated), 
which initiated and developed the local organization, it will 
henceforth require only counsel and encouragement, the oc- 
casional recommendation of workers, the temporary loan of 
experts to help develop some particular local field, and the 
keeping of Chester's leaders in touch with the best applicable 
experiences of other communities. Participation has been the 
keynote of the work in Chester. The motive and method 
have been to bring previously unenlisted and supposedly un- 
important people into democratic fellowship in worthwhile 
civic undertakings to help these aliens (both native and 
foreign-born) to feel that they belong, that their contributions 
of "loyalty, art and labor" are appreciated and essential. 

Governor William C. Sproul as chairman of the local gov- 
erning board presented, in September, 1919, one of the most 
comprehensive programs of constructive service that has been 
formulated in any community. The governor, who is a 
wealthy, influential local resident, had recommended the first 
preliminary program adopted by the local board, in Novem- 
ber, 1918 [see the SURVEY for February, 1919], which really 
included, though without details, the whole field outlined in 
the later statement. Of the extended, idealistic yet entirely 
practicable program for 1919 and 1920, a large proportion 
were activities already underway including even the small 
beginnings of public baths in two sets of showers, one at the 
Pioneer Community Club or Dry Saloon in the heart of the 
business district and one at the Colored Community Club 
among Chester's seventeen to twenty thousand colored people. 
One important division of the program discussed Democracy 
through Leisure-time Activities. 

From the beginning, in November, 1918, the governing 
board of Community Service for Chester and Vicinity in- 
cluded four or five industrial workers, about the same num- 
ber of women, the school superintendent, the city's mayor 

and the leaders of local industrial and commercial life. To 
further democratize the governing board, representatives were 
added, in October, 1919, from all cooperating groups and 
from operating departments of the movement, including Ital- 
ian, Polish, Greek, Russian, French and Belgian, Welsh, 
Lithuanian and colored groups. 

Democracy in action through the spirit of neighborly par- 
ticipation, was manifest on Roosevelt day, October 27, 1919, 
when all varieties of Chester folk were drawn together in a 
"league of neighbors." Eighteen hundred Chester people, in 
thirty-three delegations most of whom had never before been 
brought into the same room; never, certainly, into one united 
peace-time undertaking were called in turn upon the en- 
larged platform before the official reception and review com- 
mittee of some thirty-five or forty representative citizens in- 
cluding the governing board of local Community Service and 
the chairmen of its nine outstanding departments. Each de- 
partmental chairman introduced the delegations which repre- 
sented the various activities of each department. 

In a community where deadly race rioting had flamed out 
a couple of years earlier, colored people, who constitute about 
one-fourth of the entire population, were represented by 
eight impressive delegations including approximately six 
hundred people who were received with notably encourag- 
ing friendly applause. The thirty-three delegations included 
seven school centers, ten outdoor recreation centers, the 
Pioneer Community Club, Italian Community Club and two 
colored community clubs, the community chorus, a separate 
choral society composed of colored women, and seven national 
groups of the foreign-born. Each delegation presented briefly, 
through banners, songs, and spoken phrases, the character and 
spirit of their groups' contributions to community life. 

Would it not be helpful to propose such a local league of 
neighbors, after a week or two of preliminary conferences, 
in any city or in a local section of a great metropolis 
where democratic community organization is to be under- 
taken? Such an outstanding inclusive event, with a definite 
date when such a public accounting must be rendered, will 
help to vitalize committees and groups. It should also help 
to divert, from blind palaver and jealous suspicions into 
cooperative pathfinding social experiments, those initial 
energies which are too often consumed in trying to state in 
advance, theoretically, what Community Service should become 
in its relations to existing agencies whose leaders may 
easily say that they are adequate to the whole situation "with- 
out interference from outside." 

When the question arises, How is the X-Y-Z Association 
related to the new community movemert? invite that associ- 
ation to present its contributions through delegations in the 
league of neighbors. Let the league represent community 
service without capital letters the community finding itself 
through a civic rally in which local forces (and some of 
the unfilled gaps between them) are discovered to them- 
selves, to each other and to the whole community. All this 
in the life-giving spirit of cooperative, neighborly service and 
good will. 




Chester's Advisory Council, Red Circle Rallies and Play- 
leaders' Training Class pioneered successfully in certain meth- 
ods of enlistment coordination and training which I should 
like to see tried in somewhat altered, combined forms in 
another difficult community. But mere " coordination " always 
seems to me to be of little value if it it be static; getting- 
together to go forward, seems the only kind worth while. 
Might not a weekly or frequent conference or training class 
or council of social servants be made the heart or nervous 
system for democratic community organization in a new city? 
Working representatives should be drawn together from ex- 
isting social service agencies such as city, school, park, and 
playground departments, the Y. M. and Y. W. C. A., em- 
ployment or service departments of local industries, churches, 
civic organizations and philanthropies. Responsive individuals 
and key people among foreign-born and other local groups 
should also be drawn into this cosmopolitan democratic train- 
ing center. 

A leader, informed and resourceful in social service or- 
ganization, should direct the conference and alertly realize 
the many leads which will spontaneously appear. One ex- 
isting organization may be led to extend its work to cover 
some special feature of the new community endeavor. An 
individual who asks a hopeful question may be assigned to 
find the facts from appropriate sources and to follow them 
out into new and better activities. Volunteers may be sent 
forth into various fields of service if the weekly conference 
will back them up with enthusiasm, counsel and cooperation. 
Part-time workers may be employed to supplement the avail- 
able volunteers and both may be helped to conduct community 
service centers in the schools, vacant lot play, church socials, 
musical activities, hikes, neighborhood organizations, house- 
hold parties and other undertakings. 

It is as a new kind of ways and means committee that I like 
to think of this experimenting group because it should not be 
that kind of general training class which tends toward 
academic discussions or toward the learning of facts or meth- 
ods without their immediate application. Instead, it should 
be a definite enlistment center through which socially minded 
peaple will train themselves and each other, will study local 
needs and possibilities, and will mobilize in practical detailed 
service all the forces which can be discovered or created for 
cooperative social advance. 

Municipal appropriations, school board and park board 
funds, financial help from existing agencies and special con- 
tributions raised by interested organizations and individuals 
all offer possibilities for financing selected portions of the 
growing program, or all of it. 

Action Rather than Method 

FR DEMOCRATIC community organization the great emphasis 
should be upon activities. What people are interested to do 
together will chiefly determine their type and field of or- 
ganization. Chester experiences made me feel that some 
prominent and useful suggestions for democratizing social 
service put too little emphasis upon activities, too much upon 
the scheme or method of organization. They seem to rely 
vipon a much greater readiness than I have experienced, 
im myself or in other ordinary folks, to meet and continue 
meeting for the serious discussion of dry topics of neighbor- 
hood and self-improvement. They overestimate, I think, a 
supposed popular eagerness or even willingness to vote. They 
do not value at its true worth or use adequately, recreation 
or leisure-time activities such as music, dramatics, games and 

Democracy is now to be furthered, I believe, not so much 
by expounding philosophic general purposes, nor by methodic 
schemes for permitting everyone to vote, but rather by lead- 
ing people to enjoy themselves together, to be joyously human 
and natural in democratic ways. It is active rather than 
academic democracy that is needed. By their doings their 
actual programs, by leisure-time interests achieved together 
in a democratic spirit of good neighborliness, shall communi- 
ties be democratized. 

Two Fundamentals 

COMPARING Community Service undertakings in Philadel- 
phia, St. Louis, Chicago and other cities with Chester's mod- 
est achievements, I believe there are two essentials for demo- 
cratic community organization: 

First, activities or program : Local groups must be enabled 
to adopt, or to recognize, as their very own, to take in- 
timately into their minds and hearts, a few features out 
of such an 'all-inclusive program as our Chester board had 
adopted. When I tried, for example, to have this en- 
tire program read in Italian to the patient members of the 
Italian Community Club, it was soon evident that for such 
groups some leader must first digest the overwhelming gen- 
eral city-wide scheme into a very few of the most interesting 
undertakings a very few features which the leader knows 
to be nearest to the group's present stage of social thought 
and in which they can achieve such practical progress as will 
maintain and deepen the interest of the group. They should 
discover these plans, or select them, out of the leader's ex- 
periences and resourcefulness in social organization. 

Second, methods or organization: A plan of local organi- 
zation is needed which must be so very simple that anyone can 
learn to operate it. The best progressive leadership should be 
used (as it is now being effectively employed in Community 
Service in several cities) to set up neighborhood organizations 
and also group organizations, and to help these to discover 
simple methods of carrying on their appropriate undertakings 
so that the employed leadership may be steadily reduced toward 
(but never completely over) the vanishing point. The plan of 
operation should be so convincing and attractive that an ordin- 
ary person from a new group or neighborhood can, by visiting 
an established center, take home the plan and set it to work 
upon the improvement of life around his own home. 

In line with these two fundamentals, the final paragraph 
of the Chester program proposed, under the heading Prac- 
tical Detailed Results Assured, that 

Each employed executive and each committee will adopt as their 
field and purpose some definite practical parts of the preceding pro- 
gram and, at least once every month, will check the results attained 
and correct their methods, if changes are needed, in order to make 
steady progress toward the full permanent realization of these Com- 
munity Service ideals. 

Even in those American cities which have the largest 
number and the most effective of philanthropies, there is one 
Sireat unmet need or opportunity which, in every city, waits 
to be discovered or realized. Local neighborhood life is 
everywhere inadequate. School centers, nurses' associa- 
tions, playgrounds and all the scores or even hundreds 
of social service agencies, need to have the great democratic 
masses of local people related to them vitally to use, shape 
and strengthen these agencies and to profit adequately from 
their leadership. 

Chester experiences helped to bring my previous years of 
social settlement and similar endeavor into fuller conscious- 
ness of the fact that America's future is really being deter- 
mined, not by the thin fringe of apparently superior auto- 


cratic individuals and organizations, but by the plain "com- 
mon people," whose uncommon great qualities of soul were 
partially revealed by the war. It is through mutually helpful 
fellowship with immigrants and their children, with industrial 
workers, with the modest, genuine, eagerly-developing common 
people, that the most joyous life-giving strength, vision, and 
good will are to be had. Fellowship in leisure-time activities 
or recreation is one of the best keys to that democratic com- 
munity organization which is the only means by which neigh- 
borliness America's most fundamental need and opportunity 
may be met. 

Three Fields of Organization 

IN THREE fields, as I see it, this local organization of the 
democratic masses is to be worked out. Chester was begin- 
ning, in the last quarter of our first path-finding year, to 
get a practicable vision of one of these three fields, namely, 
group organization. The other two are neighborhood and 
block organization. 

1 i ) Block organization, as practiced by Philadelphia Com- 
munity Service, means that in each block (the two sides of 
a residence street between two nearest cross streets) there 
is a block organizer and his assistant (sometimes husband 
and wife) and a block chairman for each of six committees 
on health and sanitation, education, recreation, block beauti- 
fication, information, cooperation. In the Cincinnati social 
unit the "block" comprises the four sides of one city square 
because it is thought that neighbors get together over their 
back-yard fences better than across the front street, in Cin- 

(2) Neighborhood organization, in Philadelphia, means 
that ten or more blocks are drawn together in a community 
council which includes the block organizers and the general 
chairman of each of the six general committees. These gen- 
eral committees are made up of the block chairmen in each 
field. Thus the general community committee on recreation 
includes the one recreation chairman for each block and a 
general chairman for the whole neighborhood. It is this gen- 
eral recreation chairman who attends the community coun- 
cil's monthly meetings, together with the block organizers. 

(3) Group organization is also essential, I believe, and 
one civic problem yet unsolved is the effective relationship 
of block and neighborhood committees to the organization of 
such groups as Italians, colored people, possibly industrial 
workers, and others. There are some community values 
such as natural fellow feeling, established relationships and 
institutions, group customs, traditions and ideals which can- 
not be conserved fully by block and neighborhood organiza- 
tion alone, unless their boundaries chance to coincide with the 
boundary lines of homogeneous groups. 

For each and all of these three fields, the first essential 
is that a competent leader adaptable, resourceful in initiating 
appropriate activities, and obviously inspired by a genuine 
spirit of democratic good will and unselfish service shall 
seek out the local leaders and help them to realize, with 
their neighbors, some of their strongest natural impulses 
toward recreation, comradeship and social usefulness. 

Some extreme radicals among the working people of Chester 
opposed our plan, last March, for Chester's "League of Na- 
tions." They urged their fellow workmen to beware of us 
because, they said, we were simply trying to " soft-soap " the 
industrial laborers, to offer them charity in place of justice, 
amusement instead of serious social advance. Later, in 
preparation for the reception and ball, Elizabeth Burchenal, 
who directed our Chester department of Americanization for 
both native- and foreign-born secured an opportunity for 


a thorough talk with several of these radicals. When she 
had fully explained what we were trying to do, the men re- 
plied : 

Why that is what we believe- We think that the worst thine 
about America is the way different peoples are crowded off into 
separate corners, the Russians in one neighborhood all by themselves 
the Italians in another. Then the American people look a long way 
off at us as strangers and then they imagine that we are bad people 
So what we believe in is kindness like you say, " bringing people to- 
gether so they will understand each other and then they will be 
fiends. And that Red Circle button of yours, that is our color, too- 
that is like what the Bible says that God made of one blood all the 
races of men. Yes, we will come to your party. 

Is it not profoundly true that a good many radicals, sub- 
scribing to various isms, are really seeking chiefly for that 
larger realization of democracy and brotherhood fr which 
the hearts of many men are hungering? Do not these peo- 
ple (not all radicals, perhaps, but many of them) respond 
to radicalism because it promises that improvement of living 
conditions, that advance of human freedom and fellowship, 
which nearly all open-minded people now recognize as de- 
sirable and indeed indispensable? If to such sincere people 
orderly effective means of progress can be shown, if their 
wholesome ideals of democratic fellowship and cooperation 
can be realized in some of the details of their daily living, 
shall we not save modern civilization from revolution and 
explosions, from darkness and disaster? Must there not be 
such progressive open-hearted social evolution if our country is 
to be safe from revolution? 

The Better Way 

DEMOCRATIC community organization such as Chester, Phil- 
adelphia and other cities have been seeking to develop through 
Community Service, may not claim to affect directly either 
the hours or wages of labor or the purchasing power of money. 
Radicals may declare that such community organization is 
superficial and unimportant because it stands for coopera- 
tion instead of " class warfare ;" because it does not follow 
that extreme interpretation of "economic determinism" which 
insists that men move only, as Napoleon said his armies 
moved, upon their bellies. 

The world war demonstrated that men are moved by 
ideals; that they sacrifice food, shelter, comfort, profit, life 
itself, for ethical motives, for democracy, for the welfare of 
unknown peoples. No one would belittle the importance of 
good wages, of wholesome living conditions or of other eco- 
nomic considerations. But reformers who are wholly and ex- 
clusively intent upon these matters commit a common blunder 
which is costly to the people. They forget that while men 
are striving toward the millennium they must live along the 
way. For, if human life can be satisfactory only by attain- 
ing the ideals of extreme radicals, millions of men must live 
and die unsatisfied. 

On the contrary, men should and can live joyfully and 
fraternally as they progress toward better economic condi- 
tions. Recreation, fellowship, satisfaction of human instincts, 
and a rich development of heart, mind and spirit are pos- 
sible now and they must be realized as men go along through 
life. It is these leisure-hour activities and relationships that 
chiefly determine the human values of present-day life; and 
present life is, obviously, the only life which individuals ever 
experience. Dealing with that actual present life stream as 
it flows through the hearts of humankind, Community Service 
is not superficial or unimportant but profoundly vital. It 
may determine whether living men, women and children 
shall be 80 or 90 per cent, instead of only 50 or 60 per cent, 


A Department of Practice 

CIVICS: Americanization 

Conducted by 


A Stake in the Country 

ECENTLY I had the inspiring experience of visiting an 
apartment house constructed about six years ago by a group 
of foreign-born tenants. The Finnish Cooperative Trading 
Association operates in the neighborhood of Fortieth street 
and Eighth avenue, Brooklyn, a district known as " Finn- 
town." The apartment house was built by sixteen families, 
each of which contributed $500 to the initial capital. After 
purchasing three lots at $1,200 each, they used the balance of 
$4,400 on foundations and as far as it would go on super- 
structure, borrowed $25,000 at 6 per cent and secured $5,000 
at 5 per cent from their own cooperative bank. They erected 
a very complete, substantial apartment house of sixteen apart- 
ments, each of five good-sized rooms and bath, at a cost of 
about $35,000. Each family had subsequently to pay $25 per 
month a sum sufficient to pay interest, taxes, water, janitor, 
coal, light and repairs, leaving about $1,000 to apply to sinking 
fund. The last installment on the $5,000 loan has just been 
paid off. Four- room apartments in the same neighborhood, 
not so well constructed, are now rented for $50 per month. 

A new building for a cooperative bakery of the same Fin- 
nish organization is nearly completed. I was impressed with 
the remarkably high character of workmanship that is going 
into this building; everything impressed me as exceedingly 
well done by artisans sufficiently interested in their work to 
put forth the most conscientious effort. All materials used 
were of the very best quality. The building is to be equipped 
with the most modern bakery machinery on the second floor, 
where is also the oven. It is unusual to place so heavy a struc- 
ture on the second floor, but this has been done in the interest 
of light and air for the workers and also of protection against 
dust from the street. On the third floor will be large recrea- 
tion rooms for use by the members of the cooperative society; 
on the ground floor store and restaurant. The building will 
cost about $100,000. 

This encouraging example makes one realize that many of 
our industrial problems will be solved when the workers 
receive something more than a mere monetary interest in the 
product of their toil. While the workmen engaged on this 
building were not all cooperators nor all Finns, they appar- 
ently all felt that they were working in a new spirit of brother- 
hood and not solely to enable someone to acquire private profit 
from his investment. F. S. TITSWORTH. 

Women Immigrants 

THE announcement, some months ago, that the British gov- 
ernment intended to give free passage to ex-service men 
and women who wished to emigrate to other parts of the em- 
pire, immediately gave rise to much speculation and uneasiness 
in some of the colonies. In Canada, the minister of immigra- 
tion and colonization, J. A. Calder, started preparations to 
meet a possible considerable influx. Among other steps taken, 
he summoned representatives of the most important women's 
organizations for a three days' conference at Ottawa to con- 
sider, more particularly, the immigration of women for house- 

hold service. From this conference a permanent council was 
formed, the Canadian Council of Immigration of Women for 
Household Service. It is representative of the national or- 
ganizations and of each province in which there is a hostel 
for the care of women immigrants. Such hostels, whether 
already in existence or to be created, the conference recom- 
mended, should, so far as possible, be under the uniform con- 
trol of the new council. 

The present bonus system under which private agents are 
enabled to profit from the importation of large numbers of 
immigrants to Canada without too close a scrutiny of their 
fitness for Canadian conditions of life has frequently been con- 
demned. It still continues because Australia is competing for 
British immigrants, and the great reduction in the number of 
United States migrants (58,000 last year as against 70,000 the 
previous year), together with an alarming trend of migration 
from country to town within the dominion, apparently makes 
an influx of British newcomers desirable. Sir Andrew Mac- 
phail, in a recent address to the Canadian Club at Ottawa, 
drew attention to the bad results of making the selection of 
future citizens a matter of business speculation and mentioned 
that as a result of advertising 20,000 intending immigrants 
had last year to be turned back. 

The conference referred to agreed that the selection of 
women immigrants should for some time to come be limited 
to household workers, and that it should include health ex- 
aminations, physical and mental, by experienced medical offi- 
cers, both at the port of embarkation and at the port of ar- 
rival. Mr. Calder, while in support of such a measure in 
general, does not consider practicable insistence on medical 
inspection of British emigrants before leaving their home port. 

Starting Americanization Early 

\ PROMISING new departure in assimilation in this con- 
** nection was the training school established by the " Khaki 
College " in London the organization for teaching the expedi- 
tionary forces to prepare the brides of Canadian soldiers for 
the domestic and rural life awaiting them in their distant 
new homes. In fact, this course which included dairying, 
gardening, bee culture, dressmaking, embroidery, cobbling, re- 
pair of men's clothes, all kinds of needle work, care of in- 
fants, elementary carpentry and other practical subjects, was 
so popular that the London County Council decided to estab- 
lish " marriage schools " on similar lines in different parts of 
the city also for soldiers' brides who had no intention of em- 

The question suggests itself whether some such beginning 
in the educational process of assimilation before the alien has 
left his home might not be a practicable and advantageous ex- 
tension of Americanization work. American educational ef- 
fort abroad is no new thing; during the war it laid the foun- 
dations of a specific American educational campaign in Europe 
on child welfare, prevention of tuberculosis and other health 
matters; through the operations of the Committee on Public 
Information it included a vast campaign of political educa- 
tion in principles of democracy. Since the armistice, Ameri- 
cans abroad are teaching industries and handicrafts, modern 



methods of agriculture and of building, dietetics and social 
organization. Why could not such efforts be concentrated 
in the districts from which at any one time there is an expec- 
tation of a large flux of population to the United States? Not 
only would such an enterprise have the advantage of bringing 
to this country men and families prepared with some knowledge 
of American ideas (and, possibly also the rudiments of Ameri- 
can speech) but it would dispel illusions concerning American 
conditions of life and discourage those unwilling to accept 

Mexican Immigrants 

AMID wild gestures and mutual accusations between Mex- 
ico City and Washington, Mexican laborers are leaving 
their own country for the United States in ever increasing 
numbers. The Mexican Department of Labor has issued a 
warning that employers in the southern United States are 
hiring Mexican laborers by means of false promises and tricky 
contracts. " Advices received from Mexico City " the source 
of which is left to guess inform American newspapers (e.g. 
the Christian Science Monitor for March 5) that the Mexican 
government threatens to prevent by military force the exodus 
of workmen to the United States and that nevertheless hun- 
dreds leave daily " because of the unsettled conditions of the 
country." The facts of the situation are briefly reviewed in 
the March number of Juventud (Youth), organ of the Y. M. 
C. A. in El Paso, from which also the map below, showing 
so far as could be ascertained the distribution of immigrants 
from Mexico, is reproduced. 

In the year ending June 30, 1919, 28,844 Mexicans came 
to the United States, nearly twice as many as in any previous 
year. They do not come singly but en masse, not from adjoin- 
ing districts but often long distances. Whole villages emigrate 
together. About 80 per cent of the hard work in the south- 
ern states is now done by these men, though there is undoubt- 
e-Jy a great demand for their labor in their own country. 
Their attraction is due to the great decrease of overseas immi- 
gration which is compelling American employers to pay wages 
the Mexican laborers quite 
out of proportion to those 
which they can obtain in 
their own country. Most 
of these laborers stay for 
many years, as shown by 
the records of those who re- 
turned to their homes last 
year; 4614 had lived in the 
United States for periods of 
from 5 to IO years, 1278 
for IO to 15 years, 770 for 
15 to 20 years, 578 for 
more than 2O years. 

Realization of these facts 
has given considerable stim- 
ulus to the provision of 
welfare work on behalf of 
these Mexican laborers, es- 
pecially in the South West 
where before practically 
nothing was done to raise 
their standard of life. The 
Y. M. C. A. has branches 
at El Paso, Smelter, Tuc- 
son, Metcalf and Miami 
where a special effort is 
made to promote a bet- 
ter understanding between 
the people of the United 
States and Mexicans. The 


A JUDGE is reported to have said recently to an alien 
who wished to become a citizen: 

"I cannot admit you to be a citizen of the United States, 
because I do not believe a man can think Americanism in a 
foreign tongue." 

Far be it from us to get into any sort of argument that might 
give the slightest color of justification to an opinion that we 
are in contempt of court. 

But suppose we were running the entrance examinations to 
some Christian church or other, and a man came along who 
could speak nothing but English, should we say to him : 

"I don't think you can be a Christian. Christianity was 
first disseminated in the Hebrew, Greek and Latin languages, 
and I do not believe you can think Christianity unless you 
think it in Hebrew and Greek and Latin." 

It has always been our belief that an idea that is vital 
enough will kick its way through language and reach brain. 

And with regard to Americanism a lot of fellows that 
couldn't speak English went and got themselves shot for 
the American idea, which shows that something must have 
percolated to them in spite of the lingual difficulty. 

DON MARQUIS, in N. Y. Evening Sun. 

been formed among young Mexicans in business in the South 
West, including many men of good family. " Interpreting 
America " was the general subject of their first annual con- 
ference at El Paso, March 26 to 28. Many of these educated 
young Mexicans act as boy scout and club leaders and conduct 
Americanization classes among Mexican adults. Young Mexi- 
cans at Smelter and at El Paso recently organized successful 
" father and son " banquets to create a friendly atmosphere 
among the older immigrants. 

Their Sole Support 

NEW YORK Supreme Court Justice John M. Tierney, 
in the Bronx, recently denied the application for citizen- 
ship of Michael Curnan, an Irishman, thirty-one years of age, 
on the ground that during the war he had claimed and been 
granted exemption from the draft. Curnan declared himself 
an alien before the Draft Board and claimed that he was the 


Mexican Young Men's __ 




sole support of an aged mother living in Ireland whom he had 
not seen in ten years. He had lived in this country since 1900. 
" You are the first Irishman I've come across to show the 
white feather," said Justice Tierney. " Your application is 
denied, and you cannot become an American citizen." 

That the dependence of parents living abroad, even after 
long years of separation from their children in America, often 
is a serious reality was brought out dramatically in a case be- 
fore the State Industrial Commission of New York when, in 
support of a claim for compensation for death by industrial 
accident, the letters written by a Norwegian laborer in the 
United States to his parents in Norway were produced as evi- 
dence. In accepting these letters as sufficient proof of de- 
pendency and sustaining the award, Commissioner Lyons 

The literary value of these contributions is not very great, but 
they evince a spirit of self-sacrifice in the fulfillment of filial ^duty 
which is all too rare in our America of today. They comprise a 
leaf in the " short and simple annals of the poor," and to my mind 
are positive proof that this dutiful son was regularly contributing 
to the support of his family in the old country to the very limit of 
his ability. 

A SURVEY Article 

THE POLISH DAILY NEWS, Chicago, in an editorial 
on the article on " Leadership in Americanization," by 
Thaddeus and Amine Sleszynski in the SURVEY for August 23, 
1919, first remarks on the absence in the Polish language of 
an equivalent for the American term " social worker " in the 
sense of a person trained and specially qualified for social work. 
It then proceeds: 

We agree with Americans in their contention that the upholding 
and fostering of the spirit of alien separateness should not be per- 
mitted. The article does not advocate that foreigners should disown 
their nationality. Neither does it advocate that the extreme chauvin- 
ism which demands that only the English language be used in 
America be allowed. It would be well if the article had enlarged 
pon and developed this point, which is so seriously misunderstood 
by Americans. . . . 

The article discusses another important question, namely, that 
those whose task it is to try and make the immigrant groups an in- 
tegral part of American society should be people who have come 
from these very groups. These people should be professionally 
trained social workers. ... At present, the national traits of 
the various immigrant groups are being perpetuated. _It would be 
better if the social life and the institutions of the immigrants could 
be filled with the spirit of America, without sacrificing any of these 
national characteristics. Those who can best understand the im- 
migrants are our own young people, born of foreign parentage, but 
having the best American education- In other words, we need a 
larger cultured class in our foreign communities. This has been 
advocated by our Polish press, our schools, and our organi/a- 
tions. ... 

We agree with practically all the opinions expressed in the article 
and with the courses of action advised. We do not believe that the 
church should be expected to exert a pressure on its members except 
in religious matters. The Prussians used the church for the dena- 
tionalization of the Poles in Silesia and Pnscn with results familiar 
to u all- We protest against using all the institutions of our people 
for Americanization purposes. But we grant and firmly believe 
that tViose who make America their home should become decent 

Americans in every sense of the word. . . . This citizenship 
should be a matter of one's own conscience. It should be free from 
hypocrisy on the part of the individual, and free from external 
pressure on the part of the country that confers the rights of citizen- 


THAT the Eighteenth Amendment has had the effect of 
stimulating emigration can no longer be doubted, however 
incredulous prohibitionists may be. The statement is not made 
here as a sufficient argument against prohibition, but facts may 
as well be faced. Many talks with foreign-born and occasional 
glimpses of the foreign press in the United States make it 
appear that, though nearly always a secondary rather than a 
primary consideration, inability to obtain alcoholic drink does 
affect the plans of large numbers of immigrant men to return 
to their homeland. Congressman Isaac Siegel, of New York, 
who is in fairly intimate touch with various alien groups, 
believes that the great increase in recent emigration figures 
must in part be explained by the dissatisfaction, especially of 
Poles and Czechoslovaks in the mining areas, with prohibition. 
Geza D. Berko, editor of a Hungarian daily newspaper and 
weekly magazine, who knows his countrymen intimately, calls 
prohibition one of the principal reasons for the desire of so 
many of them to emigrate. Joseph Szebenyei, writing in the 
New York Times (March 21) on causes of the alien exodus, 
places prohibition second only to the desire to return by men 
who have saved money and who, at present exchange rates, 
believe they can buy out their home town. Inquiries among 
Italians indicate that the imposed " dry " celebration of holi- 
days and family festivities is resented by many hard-working 
and thrifty men who have never spent much on drink. Among 
Germans of the first generation, from ultra-conservative to 
extreme radical, there is only one voice on the subject, as may 
be seen almost any day of the week from their newspapers. 
Of course, the women may think differently; but it is the man 
who usually determines the movements of the family and, 
besides, most of those who crowd the passport offices are 

B. L. 

CANADIANIZATION is an ugly word. It is used 
by the Board of Trade of Toronto in a recent report to 
describe its educational work, both for foreign-born and for 
illiterate natives. A recent resolution of the board advocated 
the establishment by the Ontario government of a bureau 
of Canadianization in the Department of Education. 


Written by Alfrieda M. Mosher, 
Americanization Secretary, Y. W. C. A., Boston 

LORD of all nations, give us wisdom and understanding, 
as we undertake to guide people who come from other 
countries into adjustment with our own. Help us to sense the 
high calling of our task. Show us how to fulfil the hopes of 
those who seek in America an opportunity they could not find 
in their own birthlands. Let us riot through ignorance or con- 
ceit disappoint their expectations of America. Teach us to 
judge, as far as may be, not after the manner of men swayed 
by personal prejudices ami determined by selfish ambitions, 
but in the broad spirit of humanity, valuing men not by the 
place of their birth, but by the way of their life, seeing in na- 
linns not necessary rivals for the earth's goods, but potential col- 
laborators for the earth's good. Lead us to meet our foreign- 
born fellow-men as neighbors until they in reality become Mich. 
Help us to establish with them the relations that shall mnke 
for the larger life of all. Keep our ultimate vision not the 
glorification of America through other nations, but the ennoble- 
ment of all nations through America. Amen. 




Conducted by 

Reorganization in Minneapolis 

A THOROUGHGOING reorganization of the public 
welfare administration has been achieved in Minneapolis. 
Prior to July i, 1919, the city hospitals, the so-called Poor 
Department, and the correctional and penal activities were 
supervised by a Board of Charities and Corrections. The 
mayor was president ex-offido and appointed the other four 
members. The health and hospitals committee which did not 
have charge of the hospitals consisted of five aldermen chosen 
by the council, and with the health commissioner, also a council 
appointee, constituted the Department of Health. Thus the 
administration of two closely related activities, public health 
and the hospitals, was divided between two bodies, which were 
appointed by two different agencies, and which had no mem- 
bers in common. The most conscientious and individually 
efficient officials could not keep the system out of the game of 
municipal politics, with resulting inefficiency. 

Representatives of several educational and welfare organiza- 
tions of Minneapolis debated remedies and finally presented to 
the legislature the " Public Health Bill," so named, no doubt, 
because the discussion leading up to it had centered in large 
measure about the Health Department. The bill failed in 
1917, but was later redrafted and pushed to victory in spite 
of strong opposition, both open and insidious, on the part of 
the city council through the 1919 legislature, following in- 
tensive publicity efforts by the Hennepin County Tuberculosis 
Association, then a committee of the Associated Charities. 

This act created a Board of Public Welfare, to administer 
the health, charitable and correctional affairs of Minneapolis 
(all non-charter cities of Minnesota of over 50,000 inhabi- 
tants). The Board of Charities and Corrections was abol- 
ished; the health and hospitals committee of the city council 
ceased to exist. In place of them a board of seven members 
took charge of all divisions of public welfare. The mayor is 
ex-offido member of the board. Four other members are ap- 
pointed by him, one each year, to serve terms of four years. 
His appointments must be confirmed by the city council. The 
city council names two from its own body biennially. After the 
present terms have expired, there can never be less than a 
majority of experienced members composing the board, even if 
no re-appointments are made. If the mayor receives a second 
term, he and his appointees from July i of his third year will 
constitute a majority of the board. 

The present appointees of the mayor and council are repre- 
sentative of various interests and callings: Manley E. Fossen, 
attorney; Frank N. Gould, editor of a labor paper; W. F. 
Kunze, manufacturer, president of the local Joint Improve- 
ment Association, and formerly president of the Parent- 
Teacher Association; Dr. Mabel Ulrich, physician and 
recently appointed director of the medical service of the 
Northern Division of the Red Cross; W. H. Rendell, insur- 
ance; and Dr. J. M. Kistler, physician. Four advisory com- 
mittees devote special study to the problems of public health, 
hospitals, public relief, and penal and correctional institutions. 
The health commissioner and the superintendents of the other 
divisions are appointed by the board without confirmation by 
any other authority. All appointments made by these execu- 
tives, however, must be approved by the board. This system 
fixes responsibility and insures supervision of the work of the 
several departments. 

Power is given the board of public welfare to issue orders 
and adopt rules and regulations to promote the public well- 
being, subject, of course, to state laws and city ordinances. 
The authority to pass ordinances relating to public health and 
the suppression of disease remains in the city council. In 
general, the regulations of the board are intended to execute 

the intent of the city ordinances, as its primary function is, 
after all, law enforcement and not law-making. 

In the short period of eight months the team-work and 
efficiency of such an administration has already been made 
manifest. It is too early to hazard a general appraisal, and 
the recital of certain minor economies and re-arrangements 
would not be significant. It is significant, though, that the 
Board of Public Welfare is now doing a thing which would 
have been a labor of Hercules under the former regime: it is 
projecting a unified, aggressive and thoroughgoing program of 
community welfare which will take time to achieve, but which 
bears promise of surviving both fair and foul political weather. 

" Fitness first," is the rule of the board in making appoint- 
ments and entrusting responsibilities. It feels free to go out- 
side home talent to get the right man. Cincinnati was drawn 
upon in choosing Dr. Walter E. List, superintendent of the 
city hospitals. When the position of health commissioner be- 
came vacant, the United States Public Health Service was 
asked to detail one of its experts to take charge while making 
a survey of health conditions in Minneapolis and, if needful, 
reorganize the entire Division of Health. Dr. F. E. Harring- 
ton has been in the city on this mission since January. 

A centralized welfare administration recognizes the soli- 
darity of all activities that concern the public well-being. 
Disease and poverty and delinquency are both causes and 
effects, intricately related and demanding coordinated atten- 
tion. This a small appointive board can give, and, unhindered, 
it can call upon powerful allies, pre-eminently qualified physi- 
cians and welfare executives, wherever they are to be found. 


City Relief in Buffalo 

FORTY years ago there was a general movement to abolish 
city out-door relief as political, wasteful, and pauperizing. 
Since then civil service reform has come, not without effort, 
and city politics are less corrupt. There is now a general 
tendency toward improving city relief instead of abolishing it. 
Buffalo has now joined the list of cities Kansas City, Denver, 
St. Joseph, Dallas, Grand Rapids, Detroit, Philadelphia, and 
others where public relief is no longer old style and in- 

Commission government began in Buffalo in January, 1918. 
Soon after, the Charity Organization Society suggested to the 
commissioner who had charge of city relief that he might do 
well to adopt something like the plan of Grand Rapids under 
its new charter, which requires that city relief shall be admin- 
istered by specially trained people. Nothing came of it. A year 
later the society made the same suggestion to Commissioner 
Frederick H. Bagley, who became responsible for poor relief, 
and Mr. Bagley responded with great energy. He promptly 
procured a state law under which the name of the Poor De- 
partment was changed to Bureau of Public Welfare, and as 
soon as possible moved to a modern, dignified building, occu- 
pied entirely by the bureau. He also greatly increased the 
staff. Retaining as director the former city superintendent oi 
poor, Mr. Bagley engaged as supervising visitor Anna F. 
Austin, one of the most experienced and valuable visitors of 
the Charity Organization Society. Miss Austin was engaged 
after civil service examination, and so were fifteen women 
visitors. Only a few of these, however, have had special train- 
ing in family case work, or in the difficult problems of relief. 
In addition to more liberal relief by a more competent staff, 
Commissioner Bagley established an industrial aid bureau, 
with a competent secretary and assistants, to find employment 
without charge, and for the rehabilitation of cripples. He also 
procured the purchase of a neighborhood house in the Polish 
quarter, with a day nursery and two community clubs, as well 


THE SURREY FOR A PR] L 10, 1920 


"To provide humane and scientific treatment and care 
and the highest attainable degree of individual development 
for the dependent wards of the State ; 

" To provide for delinquents such wise conditions of 
modern education and training as will restore the largest 
possible portion of them to useful citizenship; 

" To promote the study of the causes of dependency and 
delinquency and mental, moral and physical defects, with a 
view to cure and ultimate prevention; 

" To secure the highest attainable degree of economy in 
the business administration of the State institutions consistent 
with the objects above enumerated, and this Act, which shall 
be known as the code of charities of the State of Illinois, 
shall be liberally construed to these ends." 

as a skating pond ; and appointed men whose special work it 
is to extend a helping hand to discharged inmates of reforma- 
tories and penitentiaries. 

The strongest argument against public out-door relief, how- 
ever well administered, is that, to the imagination of the poor 
the city treasury seems inexhaustible, and they turn to it with 
a sense of right, as a source of aid due them, and with a lack 
of thrift which they would not dare show in dealing with 
private charity. For more than six months now public relief 
in Buffalo has been far more liberal than formerly, but there 
has been no noticeable increase in the number of applicants. 
It will be interesting to see whether this continues, and also 
whether families of the better type will prefer the care of the 
Charity Organization Society and those of a lower type go 
more to the Bureau of Public Welfare, where thus far the 
supervision is less close. 

The principles of division between public and private charity 
by type of family have frequently been well stated. As a 
rule, private charity is preferred where service rather than 
relief is involved, or the relief is temporary ; and public charity 
is preferred where the relief is long-continued, as in the case 
of the aged, chronic sickness, and widows with young children, 
or where public control is involved, as in the case of non- 
support or desertion. Francis H. McLean visited Buffalo 
art the time when the change of method was instituted 
by Commissioner Bagley, and recommended principles of divi- 
sion similar to these, but they were never put into operation. 
As yet the division of work is tentative, depending to some 
extent upon priority of application, but more upon an amicable 
conference between the Bureau of Public Welfare and the 
Charity Organization Society as to which shall have the care 
of a family which has applied to both. The city uses the 
social service exchange of the society, but reserves the right to 
visit families in the care of the society at least once before 
deciding not to give. 

Until the summer of 1919 city out-door relief was admin- 
istered by Louis F. Kenngott, a man of long experience and 
good reputation, who had a forlorn office and six investiga- 
tors, all men, most of whom were detailed from the Police 
Department and paid by it. He followed the established 
custom of the office in limiting his relief to a maximum of two 
dollars a week, regardless of the size of the family. There 
was no attempt to reckon a family budget or to make a con- 
structive plan. In hundreds of families this relief was sup- 
plemented by the Charity Organization Society, contrary to 
elementary principles of division of work. City pensions now 
sometimes amount to seventy dollars a month, and as a rule 
the private societies stop visiting families for which the city 
has assumed responsibility. This enables the private societies 
to do more intensive and liberal work in fewer families. 

The change from the old building and the old methods to 
the new is great. As time goes on, the value of the new 
methods will increase, but at present there is danger of a con- 

siderable reduction in the budget and in the staff because of 
economies thought necessary by a new commissioner of finance 
and accounts. Much of the work is as yet crude, but it is a 
valuable beginning. Commissioner Bagley did not run for 
re-election last November, and it is still uncertain whether the 
work begun by him will grow, or even whether all of it will 
continue. FREDERIC ALMY. 

The Montreal Survey 

IN a city in which there are separate Protestant and Catholic 
public school systems it is not strange to find a Centra! 
Council composed of representatives from Protestant and non- 
sectarian social agencies only. A committee of the Central 
Council of Montreal recently formed, and so formed sug- 
gests, in the report of a survey of the social agencies of the city, 
that there really would have to be three councils, Protestant 
and non-sectarian, Jewish, and Catholic. It is proposed that 
simultaneous action on any social problem shall be obtained 
by a central standing committee on cooperation composed of 
five delegates from each council. It is urged that this com- 
mittee have only that one function and no further plan of 
cooperation between them is suggested. This is something 
new in the way of central councils, but the present conditions 
in Montreal are such that probably no closer rapprochement 
would be possible now. It is to be hoped, however, that in 
the better times to come, one central council instead of three 
will be one of the earliest evidences of a united community. 

One may recognize the necessity of this alignment and at 
the same time object to a suggestion in that part of the report 
entitled Social Aspects of the Survey that the Charity Organi- 
zation Society should discontinue its work with French Cana- 
dian families, leaving them in charge of parish priests. This, 
it may be said, does not imply a religious demarcation (for at 
the same time a closer union between a society for English 
speaking Catholics and the Charity Organization Society is 
suggested), but one along racial-language lines. Knowing the 
unhappy lines of separation in Montreal, it has always been 
the contention of the writer of these comments that whenever 
opportunity offered, a social agency should refuse to recognize 
them and thereby help in its very small way toward the growth 
of an all-around community spirit. The Charity Organiza- 
tion Society from the start has had French Canadians on its 
board, committees and staff. It must never lose its privilege 
to work with any families who desire it, no matter to what 
group they belong. The same kind of service should be avail- 
able to all, though this in no way suggests a refusal to transfer 
certain clients, but not all, to racial or other agencies. 

Another mooted point we believe is the suggestion, in this 
part of the survey, that a special organization be formed for 
dealing with widows' families rather than that the Charity 
Organization Society should develop more adequate planning 
and a more adequate system of allowances in the absence of 
any state provision. We may understand, though we may 
disagree with, the belief in strategic advantages of a public 
agency over a private in dealing with this group of problems; 
but we confess to no understanding of a point of view which 
distinguishes between different kinds of private social agencies. 
If a consideration of this question leads to urging that the 
name Charity Organization Society be changed so that it will 
be plainly tagged what it is, viz., a family social work society, 
we would have no fault to find. On that basis only is such 
separation of a group of family problems from the others 
logically sound, unless, as before indicated, it is a question of 
transfer to a public department. It is ur^cd that families come 
to the Charity Organization Society because of character 
weaknesses as well as because of misfortune and that some 
widows would be reluctant to come to its doors for this reason. 
Is there any social agency which has no character weaknesses 

among its clients? 

Having ventured these criticisms, we may turn to a general 



consideration of a valuable and interesting survey. It is 
divided into three parts: 

1. Report on Financial Aspects. 

2. Report on Social Aspects. 

3. Recommendations. 

The first and third parts were signed by the survey com- 
mittee of the Central Council, the second by J. H. T. Falk, 
its secretary, who requested that the committee do not sign 
it because it represented his own conclusions based on his own 
survey in which they were unable to participate, and he did 
not want them to obligate themselves to its support. 

The first part is a study of methods of raising money ; of the 
number of individual contributors giving to varying numbers 
of agencies, the aggregate amounts contributed by persons giv- 
ing $5> $ IO > etc -i ar >d the total number in each class, etc. 
Here are some of the significant facts: There were 5,082 
individual contributors to 34 agencies (others did not furnish 
lists), of whom 373 or 7.3 per cent gave $109,215.17 or 60 
per cent of the total amount contributed by this group. Out 
of a total of 1800 business firms or associations contributing 
there were 223, or 12.4 per cent, who gave $85,336.55, or 76 
per cent of the total given by this group. 

The tables and the discussion in this part are an interesting 
contribution to this subject. The stupidities of indirect 
methods of raising money (the bazar, etc.) are caustically 
discussed. The futile ways of raising money by boards, the 
part which the money-raising power plays in the selection of 
members, upon some boards at least, the full degree of ineffi- 
ciency connected with much money raising of today, are 
revealed. Evidently, in the mind of Mr. Falk and of the 
committee, there is only one solution, viz., financial federation. 
There are some who will affirm that there is more than one 
solution and some who will affirm that that particular solution 
may not be the one. One may acknowledge all the weaknesses 
of present-day methods in raising money and still be strongly 
of the mind that what is required is case treatment and con- 
sideration of a good many elements and that future develop- 
ment is not bound up in one kind of experiment. 

On the other hand, however, the committee and Mr. Falk 
are convinced that if financial federation is to come it will be 
after the agencies have learned to work together and to develop 
standards. That is, functional federation through a council 
must come first. 

Mr. Falk's summary of the " social aspects " is a searching 
one. He does not deal so much with individual agencies as 
with conditions in particular fields of activity. This has the 
disadvantage of not revealing sufficiently the good work of the 
really strong agencies in Montreal, of which there are not 
many, but one can see that if the agencies were treated individ- 
ually some of the indictments might react too seriously. 
Therefore the stronger agencies, knowing their position, have 
doubtless welcomed this method of presentation, even at some 
sacrifice to themselves, because of their keen interest in ad- 
vance. The evils common to indifferent board management 
and to cowardly board management are well described. Mr. 
Falk makes the assertion that very few executives and very 
few boards have done their full share in attacks upon social 
problems. Part of this is undoubtedly due to poor leadership 
on the part of the paid workers. The group of executives in 
Montreal, we imagine, is exceedingly uneven. It has been 
so in past days and though there are more competent ones than 
before, there are many make-shifts still. 

Here are two extracts from the general considerations: 

Of the agencies not specifically engaged in caring for the sick 
poor, less than a dozen are making careful social diagnoses, a 
imaller number careful physical diagnoses, and a still smaller num- 
ber careful mental diagnoses in the cases where it is necessary, 
while few of those engaged in caring for the sick poor make any 
attempt at adequate social diagnosis. 

Not a dozen agencies of the group (60) keep adequate records. 

We are informed that in the hospital field there are two 
outstanding features: 

(a) Refusal of governmental support of general hospitals 
for care of the sick poor. 

(b) Lack of cooperation in the hospital group in the way of 
development and definite planning on a community basis. 

Family case work is mistakenly treated under the heading 
of Outdoor Relief and we have already criticized the more 
important recommendations under that heading. 

In the care of the homeless there is an extensive and com- 
plicated problem to work out among five agencies. 

In the care of unmarried mothers and their children, there 
are five indifferent institutions involved, with bad confusion 
in the kinds of people received in each. 

One of the biggest needs in the city is a vastly enlarged 
recreation program. Montreal led off in the playground end 
of a recreation scheme but even in that has been out-distanced 
by other Canadian cities. 

In the children's field there is need for pre-natal work. On 
the institutional side there is the greatest confusion in classi- 
fication, no adequate case work surrounding admissions or 
discharges, no systematic placing-out or boarding-out work. 

These are some of the major criticisms made in the review 
of the social aspects, all of which leads up to the main recom- 
mendation of the committee for the development of a real 
central council, the present one being largely skeleton in form. 


"Safeguard Federation" 

THERE are ninety-one Jewish organizations of New York 
city (Manhattan and Bronx) united through " Federa- 
tion " to make a single appeal for funds. These societies have 
recently presented budgets showing their needs for 1920, 
which total $6,668,393.17. From revenue of their own and 
subventions from the city they can count upon only $2,818,789. 
In other words, the hospitals, the orphan asylums, the educa- 
tional institutions, the sisterhoods, the United Hebrew Chari- 
ties all these combined must receive from the Jews of this 
city for 1920, $3,849,604.17. The total dependable income 
from subscriptions now on the books of the federation is 
$2,136,178.15. On January 18 a two weeks' campaign was 
inaugurated to raise the required amount through increased 
support and new members; $1,700,000 was decided upon as 
an ideal objective. At the end of the two weeks Mr. and 
Mrs. Felix M. Warburg offered to give $100,000 to a pro- 
posed pension fund for employes of affiliated societies, on con- 
dition that the Jewish public subscribed $800,000 to Safe- 
guard Federation by February 29. 

The organization so successful in the Building Fund Cam- 
paign, which had just concluded a drive for $10,000,000, was 
taken over. This organization is made up of division heads, 
each division composed of allied trade auxiliaries. Each trade 
auxiliary is headed by a chairman who appoints an advisory 
trade council, upon whom devolves the work of actual canvass- 
ing. Supplementing this organization a women's organization 
was formed, to cover the smaller retail trades in addition to 
canvassing women prospects. 

Each industry was expected to raise a quota, determined by 
the financial rating of the firms in the industry and the amount 
already subscribed to " Federation." An immediate quota was 
set, to meet immediate budgetary requirements of the affiliated 
societies, to be raised during the drive; the final quota, to meet 
the year's needs, to be raised by an intensive campaign of indi- 
vidual trades. To the end of February the campaign had 
brought in approximately $450,000 most of this amount 
coming through the mail in response to an appeal from the 
president, Felix M. Warburg. 

Conditions beyond control, arising out of business distur- 



bances, bad weather, and particularly illness of many of our 
committeemen, necessitated the prolongation of the campaign. 
The women's wear industries, for example, could not carry 
their part of the campaign on account of strikes. Trade 
leaders have given confident assurance that as soon as normal 
conditions are reestablished, they will proceed to canvass their 
trade and secure the complete quota assigned to them. In 
many instances the leaders have practically underwritten their 
quota. All they ask is that they be permitted to conduct their 
canvass at a more propitious time. The cloak and suit trade, 
for example, opened its intensive campaign for its complete 
quota on March 17. 

My experience with drives leads me to conclude that this 
method has been exploited to the limit, that the enthusiasm of 
our corps of earnest workers has become exhausted. Some 
method equally effective and more economical will have to be 
devised. " Federation " is now working out new plans for 
raising needed funds. BENJAMIN DOBLIN. 

Legal Aid in Chicago 

" ^ v ? 1 ? re 'oca! political conditions permit, there is every reason for 
organizing legal aid work as a public affair under public control. 
On the other hand, in cities where private legal aid organizations 
are well established, there is every reason for them to remain as 
they are. They possess a freedom of action, a liberty in taking 
risks in making experiments, which will leave in their hands for 
several years to come the duty of leadership in the development 
of legal aid work. Nevertheless, there should be a clear conscious- 
ness on the part of all legal aid organizations that they are engaged 
in the performance of a public function, and that their ultimate goal 
is to become a part of the state's administration of justice." 

HEN the Legal Aid Society of Chicago became a de- 
partment of the United Charities, in the fall of 1919, 
political conditions in the city were such that no one suggested 
that the society should become a department of the city ad- 
ministration. Even though in many communities it is not 
advisable at present, the ideal of Reginald Heber Smith, 
quoted above, is correct and the time will undoubtedly come 
when practically all free legal aid will be a public function. 

The amalgamation of the United Charities and the Legal 
Aid Society was brought about on September i, 1919. The 
offices were combined on October i. Since that date the fol- 
lowing changes have been made in the hope of rendering 
quicker and more efficient service : 

1. The Legal Aid hars become a district organization instead 
of carrying on all its work from one central office. Social workers, 
specially trained in legal aid, are in five of the ten district offices 
of the United Charities. In the general offices are four attorneys, 
the director of the Legal Aid Bureau, and two social workers. In 
1918, 96.3 per cent of the cases of the Legal Aid Society were settled 
without litigation. These cases are now handled in the districts. 
When court action becomes necessary the cases are transferred to 
the attorneys in the general office. The district offices of the United 
Charities are more convenient to the homes of the clients than an 
office in the loop of Chicago and through the districting of the work 
it is hoped to make the services of the society more available to 
those who need them. When clients come to the general office, those 
whose cases seem to demand litigation and those who are already 
involved in court action are kept. The others are transferred to 
the districts. 

2. A new relationship has been established with kindred societies. 

(a) All Jewish cases are referred to the Jewish Bureau of Per- 
sonal Service. Before the amalgamation only cases on which the 
Jewish Bureau of Personal Service was already registered were so 

(b) All bastardy cases are referred to the complaint department 
of the Juvenile Court. An amendment to the Bastardy Law was 
passed in the 1919 session of the Illinois Legislature which gave 
the Juvenile Court concurrent jurisdiction with the Municipal Court 
in these cases. 

(c) All domestic cases are transferred to the social case work 
department of the United Charities. Domestic cases are social rather 
than legal and the general rule can safely be adopted that no divorce 
case nor any non-support nor annulment of marriage case should be 
taken by a Legal Aid Bureau unless social medicine has failed. 
There must of necessity be a few exceptions to any such general 
rule, as immediate legal action is necessary in some domestic cases, 
but the exceptions are few. 

3. A new relationship has been established with the Northwestern 

University School of Law and it is hoped that the same relationship 
will be extended to other schools. Senior students of the law school, 
under the direction of Professor Elmer M. Leesman, are required 
to give nine hours a week (three half days) to the Legal Aid Bureau 
(legal clinic). For this three hours a week credit is allowed. Each 
student spends part of his time in a district office and part in the gen- 
eral office assisting the attorneys in cases which are being litigated. 
4. Closer relationships with the Chicago Bar Association arc 
being sought. A committee of the directors of the Bar Association 
has already expressed itself as convinced that the Bar Association 
should be responsible for a certain proportion of the expenses of 
the Legal Aid Bureau- Just what proportion, just how the amount 
will be raised, and just what representation the Bar Association 
will have on the directorate of the I'nited Charities, are yet to be 

The main question which Mr. Smith 1 raises in discussing 
the type of legal aid which is a department of an organized 
charity, is that a certain number of people will not come to a 
charity office who would come either to the office of a private 
corporation or to a public office. That may be true. So far in 
Chicago no clients have been heard of who objected to the 
present organization. There may be some who object, how- 
ever, and do not express themselves to the workers, and there 
may be others who do not come. Mr. Smith points out that 
the work of the Legal Aid Department of the United Chari- 
ties of St. Paul nearly doubled after its removal from the 
Wilder Charity Building to a private office building. Some- 
thing should be added to this evidence, viz., that the work of 
any of the other societies in the Wilder Charity Building 
might have increased in the same way by moving out of the 
building. Some of the workers in that building in other so- 
cieties than the Legal Aid feel that their work is handicapped 
by being in a building which is so prominently labeled 
" charity." 

Probably the person who is in need of advice and counsel 
about his material welfare and in need of assistance to regain 
an independent position feels the same about advertising his 
condition as does the person in need of legal aid in order to 
obtain justice. There are, of course, exceptions in both 
classes. The professional beggars are still with us and will 
be found in both fields of service. The influences which kept 
some people away from the Legal Aid Department of the 
United Charities of St. Paul would also keep that same type 
of people away from the various other agencies in that build- 
ing, which is so conspicuously a " charity building." 

A study has been made of the cases handled by the Legal 
Aid Society during the month of January, 1919, and the 
Legal Aid Bureau in January, 1920. In January, 1920, 
the Legal Aid Bureau's case count of new cases was about 300 
less than that of the Legal Aid Society in January. 1919. It is 
not possible to make an exact comparison, because no count 
was kept this year of the domestic cases which were accepted as 
United Charities cases when the original request was for legal 
assistance nor of the Jewish cases referred to the Bureau of 
Personal Service. 

By taking an average of the number of such cases handled 
by the Legal Aid Society in any one month, and adding that 
number to the case count of the Legal Aid Bureau, the case 
count for January, 1920, becomes practically the same as the 
case count for January, 1919. It is, however, too soon to 
form a final opinion on the increase or decrease of the work. 
The problem is complicated by various other matters, such as 
the decrease in the work of a large majority of social service 
organizations during the past year, due to many different 
things, two of the main factors being plentiful employment 
and the enforcement of prohibition. 

It is hoped that as a result of districting the work of the 
Legal Aid Bureau, the quantity will ultimately increase. It 
is also hoped that the quality of the work will constantly im- 
prove, because the social part of it has been made an integral 
part of the district work of the United Charities. 


1 Justice and the Poor, by Reginald Heber Smith ; p. 176 f. 




Conducted by 

Jesse Pomeroy's Writings 

THE SURVEY is in receipt of a book of almost unique 
interest. Its title, Selections from the Writings of Jesse 
Harding Pomeroy, tells nothing of the drama that is responsi- 
ble for its existence. Jesse Pomeroy has been a life prisoner 
in the Massachusetts State Prison at Charlestown since 1874 
in other words, since he was fourteen years old. At that 
tender age he killed a schoolboy companion, and he has been 
paying the penalty ever since. For forty-three years and a half 
Pomeroy was confined in a single cell, mingling not with the 
other inmates ; it is only for the past two years and a half that 
he has known the " larger liberty " of the whole prison. Old 
friends of his boyhood days have steadfastly shown interest in 
him, and it is through their help that he is now able to publish 
this selection from his writings. The little paper-bound 
volume contains a picture of Pomeroy as he is today. The 
head is large and well shaped, the brow impressive; the hair, 
receding from the temples, has not yet all turned gray; but 
the eyes reflect the twilight of his physical and mental life, 
and the mouth and chin stand out in unattractive prominence. 
It is a picture of misdirected purpose and of years ill spent. 

Pomeroy's book reveals the manner in which he has spent 
his life of isolation. From some of the titles we can see him 
in his cell acquiring what he calls " a good education " for 
what purpose? Among the prose and poetical selections 
are: How I Learned Spanish, The Reading of Books, Some 
Momentous Events in History, A Boston Brew of Tea, Sir! 
and A La Miss Suffragette. His first view of a motion picture 
show, on January 10, 1916, recalls the magic lantern of his 
own unfinished boyhood, and gives him an occasion to tell his 
fellow prisoners, through the medium of The Mentor, the 
prison paper, something of what he has read about the zeo- 
trope, thaumatrope, stroboscope and other successive stages on 
the road to the modern motion picture machine. Unfortu- 
nately, Pomeroy could not acquire, even in the concentration 
of his cell, any real mental ability; there is nothing in his book 
of intrinsic merit. We do not know the facts about his per- 
sonality or his intellectual make-up; we question, however, 
whether it h'as tended much to enhance the reputation of our 
penal system for the intelligent treatment of offenders that 
no better way has been found to solve the problem presented 
by this man's childhood crime than to keep him shut up in a 
prison for nearly half a century, not only away from all re- 
sources and influences that might have made a more useful 
life possible, but in the same environment that was designed 
for offenders of totally different personalities, qualities and 
needs. Incarceration should be largely a means to an end ; for 
Jesse Pomeroy it has been his whole existence. 

A Prison Program 

BELIEVING that prison work "is a technical job for 
which people should receive special training", Hastings 
H. Hart, director of the department of child helping of the 
Russell Sage Foundation and also a specialist in penology, 
has recommended to the Board of Trustees of the New 
Castle County Workhouse at Wilmington, Del., that a school 
for the training of guards and officers be established at that 
institution, and that every effort be made to secure compe- 
tent and educated men for these positions. Such a plan, says 
Mr. Hart, has never been undertaken by any prison. The 
instruction, he thinks, should be simple and of "the most 
practical character." The school should be conducted by the 
warden, the deputy warden, the prison physician and one or 
two members of the board of trustees, first making sure that the 
warden himself is a competent man. Mr. Hart thinks that 
it would be possible to secure the assistance of able prison 

administrators in holding such a school, mentioning specifi- 
cally Burdette G. Lewis, Calvin Derrick, L. N. Rob- 
inson, chief probation officer of the Philadelphia municipal 
court, Warden McClellan of the Westchester County Peni- 
tentiary, N. Y., and Major Lawes, warden of Sing Sing. 
Such men as these, he thinks, would be willing to visit the 
New Castle County Workhouse and share their experience 
and ideas with those attending the school. He suggests 
further that the board try to secure as officers "young men 
who are high school graduates and, perhaps, some of a higher 
grade of education." He recalls the success of Mr. Derrick, 
when warden of the Westchester County Penitentiary, in 
enlisting as guards young men of this kind who brought to 
their work "enthusiasm and good will". Prison guards, says 
Mr. Hart, should be vitally interested in their work and 
should "believe in the possibility of developing character in 
prisoners." In talking to the present New Castle county 
guards, he says, he discovered that "nearly every one of them 
freely admitted that he was a prison officer, not because of 
any particular interest in the work, but because he was in 
need of a job". 

Mr. Hart, who was invited by the board to make a thor- 
ough study of the workhouse, found the women's department 
the most unsatisfactory part of the plant. For weeks at a 
time the women prisoners do not set foot out of doors. There 
is a small yard, intended for recreation, to which the women 
are sometimes allowed to go in pleasant weather. This yard 
is surrounded by buildings. It contains the whipping post, 
(Delaware's relic of barbarism,) the stocks, (so constructed 
as to hold a prisoner by the neck and both arms,) and the 
gallows, which is set up in this yard when prisoners 
are executed. It " can hardly be considered," says Mr. 
Hart, " a cheerful place of recreation." Moreover, the 
women's department has no kitchen, no dining room, no living 
room. The women sit and eat either in a small work room 
or in the narrow corridor in front of the cells. There is no 
classification of prisoners, the following classes being kept in 
" close association " : the white, the colored, girls arrested for 
the first time, girls awaiting trial, those serving short sen- 
tences for misdemeanors, those serving long sentences for fel- 
onies, including murder, prostitutes and drug addicts. Under 
these circumstances, Mr. Hart advises the board to establish 
a separate women's prison at once, without waiting for the 
legislative appropriation that it has asked for. This can be 
done, he thinks, by securing a farm of 50 or 100 acres, either 
by gift, lease or purchase, and putting up inexpensive wooden 
shacks by the use of the board's own lumber and the labor 
of male prisoners. 

Mr. Hart's other recommendations include the abolition of 
contract labor on pants and overalls, and conference with 
labor unions and manufacturers in finding suitable substitute 
labor; the payment of wages to prisoners as an incentive to 
industry and a means of preserving their self-respect; the 
development of indoor recreation ; the thorough medical 
examination of each incoming prisoner, and the introduction 
of self-government in a limited degree. In regard to wages, 
he suggests that these be fixed at the outset at about two- 
thirds of the current wages paid for free labor of like value, 
with the understanding that, as soon as the results of the 
labor system permit, full standard wages be paid. He fur- 
ther recommends that all wage-earning prisoners be charged 
with the actual estimated cost of their care and maintenance, 
the remainder to be credited to their account and to be used 
in the purchase of articles for their own consumption, for 
the maintenance of their families or in payment of fines where 
fines are a part of their sentences. Imprisonment for fine, 
Mr. Hart points out, is essentially imprisonment for debt, as 



i o , 1920 

is also the detention pending trial of those who are unable 
to furnish bail. These persons are prisoners simply for lack 
of credit. Ninety-five per cent of all inmates received at the 
workhouse during the past five years were either awaiting 
trial, and therefore not yet proved guilty, or were serving out 
fines and costs. 

Mr. Hart declares that no prison in the country has a more 
difficult task in establishing reformatory methods than the 
New Castle County Workhouse, largely because of the heter- 
ogeneous character of its population. He commends the ad- 
ministration of the prison farms and the education afforded 
prisoners. The unusual reception accorded his report, which 
is nearly 10,000 words in length, is indicated by the fact that 
two Wilmington newspapers printed it in full and a third 
paper portions of it. 

The Movies Guilty? 

DO motion pictures contribute to delinquency in young 
oeople? Do they tend to prevent the growth of young 
people into useful, normal citizens? These questions, says the 
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, are often 
answered affirmatively by social workers as well as other 
people. Therefore the board recently sought answers to them. 
With the aid of the National Probation Association, it sent 
letters to the chief probation officers in cities having juvenile 
courts and over 10,000 population, asking what they 
thought about motion pictures in relation to bad conduct. 
Forty-two officers replied. Twenty-seven of these gave as 
their opinions that the movies were not directly responsible for 
juvenile delinquency, the replies of ten were more or less non- 
committal and five expressed themselves as believing that the 
movies were an important factor in causing waywardness 
among young people. 

An analysis of the replies, which the board has published in a 
pamphlet [Motion Pictures Not Guilty, The National Board 
of Review of Motion Pictures, 70 Fifth avenue, New York 
city] shows that several of the officers did not have in mind a 
very accurate notion of the relation between cause and effect. 
Thus one officer reported that among forty-two delinquent 
boys, thirteen stole in order to get money to go to the movies. 
Obviously the movie is not to be held seriously responsible in 
such instances as these; the boys might quite as well have 
stolen for any purpose that attracted them. A more convinc- 
ing case is that of the youngster who shot his comrade after 
the latter had signed a note saying " I gave him permission 
to shoot me " ; the shooting took place in the rear of a movie 
theater directly after a similar scene had been shown upon the 
screen. Unfortunately, however, the officer who reported this 
incident did not give any facts about the history of either of 
these two boys. Most of the illustrations purporting to reveal 
the movies as a cause of delinquency have to do with imitations 
by children of what they have seen on the screen; there is 
almost no evidence showing whether these particular children 
were already delinquent when their specific acts were per- 
formed, or whether the movies accentuated a tendency to de- 
linquency already existing as distinguished from merely sug- 
gesting to them certain ways of being delinquent. The inquiry 
shows the need for a far more intimate and painstaking 
study of the whole mental and environmental life of children 
before such questions as those propounded by the board can be 
adequately answered. 

One interesting trend of opinion is exhibited in the answers 
of those officers who exonerated the movie from responsibility 
for youthful waywardness. This is the view that bad condi- 
tions in the home and parental neglect contribute more directly 
to delinquency than do motion pictures. Thus, the officer of 
Springfield, III., reports: 

In some cases where family discipline has been lax, the motion 
picture has been a contributing cause, but in most instances, upon 
investigation, we find bad heredity and environmental influences, 
and delinquency would assert itself regardless of the motion picture. 

Again, the officer at Hamilton, Ohio, says : 

We have had but one case where the boy was regarded as a 
motion picture fiend; he was brought in for theft and upon submit- 
ting to a medical examination proved to be feebleminded. 
If the motion picture is to be indicted beyond other elements 
' n the child's surroundings, it will have to be upon far more 
scientific data than the unprecise observations of persons who 
do not look further than the mere externals of acts committed. 

Filth in Phoenix Jail 

/\ FEDERAL Grand Jury in Phoenix, Arizona, has just 
* *- recommended that no Federal prisoners be confined in the 
county jail there until it is made " more safe and sanitary." 
The Grand Jury reports: 

We visited and inspected the Maricopa county jail where federal 
prisoners are kept and found it to be entirely too small and in a 
very unsanitary, filthy and unhealthy and unsafe condition, and 
found 54 prisoners confined in 16 cells. The juvenile cell a small, 
dark filthy room was occupied by two small boys with no hammock 
or cot upon which to sleep, the inmates being compelled to sleep 
upon the hard, filthy cement floor. Better ventilation should be 
provided in the jail by replacing the solid sheet iron ceiling over 
the cells or cages with iron bars or gratings. 

The use of county jails for the confinement of federal pris- 
oners may yet prove to be a helpful means of calling attention 
to the deficiencies of these jails. [See Uncle Sam Jailer in 
the SURVEY for September 6, 1919.] 

Homicides and Headlines 

A SSEMBLYMAN LORD, of New York, has introduced 
**-a bill making it unlawful for a newspaper or any other 
publication to tell the details of a homicide or a homicide trial 
in a story more than one column wide or having a headline in 
type larger than 36-point. However one may deprecate the 
sensational display of crime news, one may wonder whether 
the assassination of a president of the United States would not 
be an occasion justifying a departure from Mr. Lord's limits. 
Then, too, it is a fair question whether the legislative hall is 
the best place from which to control journalistic practice tend- 
ing to provoke an abnormal interest in the ways of offenders, 
or whether more would not be gained by centering efforts 
upon schools of journalism. 

HP HE Ohio Bureau of Juvenile Research is at home in its 
L new buildings on the State Hospital Grounds in Colum- 
bus. The bureau was organized on its present basis some- 
thing less than two years ago, with Henry H. Goddard as 
director. The intent of the law establishing it was to make 
it a research organization into the causes of juvenile delin- 
quency, and though that is still its primary purpose it is also 
a clearing-house for abnormal children of all types. Anyone 
having jurisdiction over a minor may bring his ward to the 
bureau for examination and advice, and this opportunity is 
being taken advantage of by an increasing number of parents, 
physicians, schools, and institutions. Children, especially those 
sent by courts, who cannot be diagnosed without a period of 
observation, are taken into the bureau's observation cottages 
for varying periods of time; there they can be studied more 
intensively. While the bureau was in temporary quarters the 
courts sent only their worst problems, recidivists and apparent 
incorrigibles, so that it has not been able to salvage as many 
cases as it hopes to be able to do with its increased facilities. 
So far the legislature has not been induced to appropriate 
money sorely needed for the institutions for the insane, epilep- 
tic, and feebleminded. The bureau is finding institutional 
cases by the score and hundred, yet with the existing institu- 
tions packed to the doors there is nothing to do but to let these 
children remain in the community, thereby making possible 
continued misery and crime. 

A bill to abolish capital punishment was voted down the 
other day in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by 
171 to 20. 



By Samuel Gompers. Compiled and edited 
by Hayes Robbing- E. P. D.utton & Co. 
306 pp. Price $3.00; by mail of the SURVEY 

By Roger W. Babson. Brentano's. 276 
pp. Price $2 ; by mail of the SURVEY $2.20- 

By David Karsner. Boni & Liveright. 
244 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the SUR- 
VEY $1.70. 

By Graham Wallars. Alfred A. Knopf. 
415 pp. Price $3.50; by mail of the SUR- 
VEY $3.75. 

An anthology, so to say, of what President 
Gompers has said personally or through the 
American Federation of Labor during the 
last thirty years, is this volume. The signi- 
ficant pronouncements of the head of the 
American labor movement are grouped in 
chapters beginning with "the philosophy of 
the labor movement" and continuing 
through " reconstruction." Of necessity the 
chapters are broken into small segments in 
order to include the excerpts from many 
documents. That, however, is a gain to 
those who would use the work as a volume 
of reference while it is no disadvantage to 

The book which Mr. Robbins has com- 
piled makes obviously no effort to appraise 
the work of the president of the American 
Federation of Labor. Rather it places at the 
convenience of some future biographer source 
material. This, too, is a service. In his in- 
troduction the compiler and editor does char- 
acterize Mr. Gompers as the pioneer of in- 
dustrial statesmanship. There are those, of 
course, who think that Mr. Gompers has not 
moved with the times and that his sympa- 
thies are needlessly narrow. It is not worth 
while to discuss the point here. It is sufficient 
to recall that the official career of this 
doughty fighter has been contemporaneous 
with labor's rise to power in this nation. 
For a generation now he has been the ac- 
credited spokesman of organized labor, and 
today none is able to challenge his title to 
that position. 

Mr. Gompers is an excellent exponent of 
the older tradition of political democracy. 
If he has seemed to cleave too religiously to 
laissez faireism, he has nonetheless been a 
valiant defender of free speech and of the 
other rights sanctioned by the American 
revolution. Such labors are not now to be 
forgotten. Moreover, as this book well 
shows, during the difficult days when the 
shadow of war fell on these shores, Samuel 
Gompers felt no uncertainty concerning the 
need to challenge the Hohenzollerns. For 
true leadership in that time he deserves 
much of his country. 

Mr- Gompers has been essentially a prac- 
tical man a very eloquent and forceful 
leader, it is true, but usually a man to base 
his decision on the facts which he observed 
rather than on more abstract principles. 
Some will count that gain and some loss. 
Labor, however, has prospered under his ad- 
ministration, and by that criterion of success 
which not even history scorns to adopt, his 
leadership has been statesmanship. His book 
also is for that reason important. 
* * * 

The career of William B. Wilson, sec- 
retary of labor, offers a rare opportunity for 
the biographer. The secretary of labor has 
in his own person lived through many of 

the characteristic and revealing experiences 
of our industrial age. He is the child of an 
immigrant. By the time he was nine years 
old poverty had driven him into the coal 
mines. At fourteen he was a labor official. 
Some of the worst influences, of the time af- 
fected him. He knows from childhood mem- 
ory what it means to be evicted from a house 
in winter as an incident in the course of a 
strike. He remembers the sense of injus- 
tice which forced dealing with extortionate 
company stores so long bred in workers. He 
has been unrighteously imprisoned. He has 
been an involuntary wanderer, blacklisted 
because he was faithful to the ideals of col- 
lective action. He has hungered and he has 
seen his family in want. He has come into 
conflict with that system of improvised in- 
dustrial law called the injunction. He has 
achieved personal and political success in 
spite of enormous handicaps and for seven 
years he has been the first representative 
which organized labor has had in an Ameri- 
can cabinet. In such a life surely there is 
drama of very great value. 

To its telling Roger W- Babson of Welles- 
ley Hills has addressed himself. Mr. Bab- 
son has both succeeded and failed. He has 
done effectively what he set out to do. He 
has failed to do the much greater thing, such 
for example, as that which Graham Wallas 
has accomplished in his Life of Francis 
Place. Mr. Babson has written an uncritical 
book. His knowledge of the material he 
treated is that of the ordinary newspaper 
interviewer. It wants background and dis- 
crimination. His style lacks force and dis- 
tinction. In a word, his book is not a biog- 
raphy insofar as biography is an art. But 
this is not to condemn it. For while the 
author himself admits the incoherence of his 
production he justifies it by his purpose. 
This is " to give manufacturers, merchants 
and other employers a correct view of the 
Department of Labor and its work." Tested 
by this standard of propaganda and not by 
that of scholarship or of literature, the ob- 
jective Mr. Babson had in mind, his book 
has its decided utility and its interest. His 
work is reportorial but he is an honest re- 
porter. It is something of an achievement 
for one so distinctly an adviser to business 
executives to reproduce accurately the point 
of view of a labor leader. Mr. Babson did 
that. His performance has furthermore 
" news value " and the running interest of a 
" feature story." It should win the audience 
for which it is designed. If it does it will 
have served its not unimportant end. 

Meantime, however, another and a larger 
life of Secretary Wilson should sometime be 
written. Perhaps in the days to come the 
secretary himself will find leisure for it. 
Whatever the result of the Presidential elec- 
tion, he is not likely to desire another four 
years of office. The human records of the 
industrial development of this country are 
so few that a frank and thoughtful autobiog- 
raphy, a narrative of memories in the Penn- 
sylvania mine, of the days when union labor 
was finding itself, of his own rigorous expe- 
riences as a miner and as a wanderer, of the 
means he utilized to eke out a subsistence 
during these sad years when hard toil in a 
basic industry did not yield to him a living 
wage, would be a great contribution to the 
understanding of America. 

David Karsner of the New York Call has 
written an interesting and moving book 
about Eugene V. Debs. The man who 

though in the penitentiary is still counted 
the most conspicuous Socialist in the United 
States, is an appealing figure. He has been 
able to touch the emotions of men to a degree 
not approached by many. After the Ameri- 
can Railway Union strike when Debs was 
about to be sent to jail charged with con- 
tempt of court he received the following 
message from Eugene Field, the poet: 

" Dear Gene: 

I hear you are to be arrested. When 
that time comes you will need a friend. I 
want to be that friend. EUGENE FIELD." 

That expression just as also James Whit- 
comb Riley's verses to Debs or Owen R. 
Loyejoy's letter of friendship to him in 
prison showed the peculiar quality of the 
man. Always during his career the great 
emotional orator of some part of the radical 
movement he has nonetheless continuously 
had the affection of many who cherished 
philosophies differing from his own. 

The years covered by Debs' career have 
been full of struggles. He quickly ran the 
gamut of trade unionism. He risked all that 
he had, his life, for his principles. With 
his rich gifts he might have won prosperity 
and acclaim. In one of the regular political 
parties he might have aspired to high office. 
Debs preferred the lonely mission of work- 
ing with a minority and consistently he has 
had the courage to pay whatever penalties 
his choice exacted. 

An old man now he is in the penitentiary 
because of a speech made during the war. 
This was construed to be in violation of the 
Espionage Act. The Supreme Court upheld 
the lower court and Mr. Justice Holmes an- 
nounced the decision of the high court. Of 
his legal guilt, therefore, there can be little 
question. But after that is admitted the 
contrast between our attitude toward the 
German Socialist, Dr. Liebknecht, and Eugene 
V. Debs is striking. When Liebknecht went 
to jail because his Socialist principles op- 
posed all wars America applauded an hon- 
orable man. Our toleration does not extend 
to Debs even though he is a much milder 
type of Socialist than Dr. Liebknecht turned 
out to be. History is full of such irony. 

Mr. Karsner tells a good story, apparently 
based on conversations he has had with 
Debs. His work is not critical, nor does he 
use the historical sources to the extent that 
he might under different circumstances. All 
this, however, is merely to say that a robin 
is not a lark. Of its own kind, the quickly 
written journalistic biography founded 
chiefly on the interview this life of Debs is 

The American edition of Graham Wallas' 
life of Francis Place is chiefly a reprint of 
the original edition printed in 1898. It is a 
tribute to Mr. Wallas' excellence as a critic 
as well as to the soundness of the first per- 
formance that after twenty-one years he 
found little to change. His account of this 
fascinating pioneer of the British labor move- 
ment is a classic in biographical research. 

The career of Francis Place spanned the 
beginnings and the early development of the 
industrial revolution. Born in 1771, he was 
a young man when the fires of the French 
Revolution illuminated the world. He was 
a trade unionist when unions were outlawed 
by Parliament as conspiracies. He engaged 
in bitter industrial struggles and paid those 
terrible penalties which are exacted only of 
working men who are loyal to their fellows- 
He became a liberal, and after he had made 




Keep your religious thinking abreast of your other 



A Journal of Religion 

and HERBERT L. WILLETT, Editors 

IN THESE days of great thinking on world themes, 
constructive leaders must think greatly on Christian 
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The most significant journalistic offering in the history of the 
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Dr. Robert E. Speer 
Mr. John Spargo 
Dr. Joseph Ernest McAfee 
Mr. Francis Hackett 
The Hon. Louis F. Post 
Dr. Graham Taylor 
Prof. Harry F. Ward 

Dr. Shailer Mathews 
Dr. Burris Jenkins 
Dr. Edward Scribner Ames 
Bishop Francis J. McConnell 
Dr. W. Douglas Mackenzie 
Mr. Max Eastman 
Mr. Carl Sandburg 
Dr. H. D. C. Maclachlan 
and others. 

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a fortune he was an influence in the politics 
of the kingdom. To his efforts are attribut- 
able some of the important beginnings of 
social legislation. 

A breeches maker by trade and later the 
master of a busy tailor shop, Francis Place 
was an avid seeker after knowledge. There 
is indeed the pathos of zeal in his desperate 
pursuit of Latin arfter commercial success 
had enabled him to retire from business. 
Place's friendships during all these years, 
his sojourn with James Mill and Bentham 
at Ford Abbey, his relations with William 
Godwin and Robert Owen, the personal de- 
tails which he recorded from his associa- 
tions, all these combine to give his life sr 
rare interest. 

In piecing together this record, Mr. Wal- 
las performed Herculean labors for, al- 
though the Place memoranda are vast, 
Francis Place had been practically forgotten 
when this book was published. Perhaps 
American scholars will take to heart the ex- 
ample. Our own industrial history offers 
rich opportunities. There were brave and 
wise men who sacrificed much that others 
might have a better chance at living. The 
lives of many of these pioneers are yet to 
be written. W. L. C. 

Acquaintance Subscription to Jan. 1, 1911, K. 



For the enclosed {2 please send me THI 
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DERHAPS the two most interesting states 
T in the union just now are North Da- 
kota and North Carolina. The economic ex- 
periments of the Nonpartisan League in 
North Dakota have attracted more attention 
and have naturally aroused more contro- 
versy than the social measures affecting 
health, education, and almost every other 
aspect of the public welfare, which have 
put North Carolina in the front rank of 
progressive states. For progress is to be 
judged not by the existing conditions but by 
the courage and thoroughness with which 
admittedly bad conditions are exposed and 
corrected. Governor Thomas W. Bickett, 
whose four-year term is about to expire, and 
who is not eligible for reelection; Dr. E. C- 
Branson, professor of rural social science in 
the state university; A. W. McAlister, of 
Greensboro, author of the law establishing 
the state and county welfare boards and 
chairman of the committee which presented 
the comprehensive and excellent resolutions 
adopted at the State Conference for Social 
Service on March 25 ; Roland F. Beasley, 
state commissioner of public welfare, and 
Dr. W. S. Rankin, secretary of the State 
Board of Health, are among those whose 
names are most frequently heard as re- 
sponsible for the awakening of the state. 
Dr. William Louis Poteat, president of Wake 
Forest College, and Mrs. Thomas W. Lingle, 
wife of the professor of French in Davidson 
College, were respectively president and 
secretary of the State Conference of Social 
Service. This conference has been in exist- 
ence for eight years and it is largely through 
its initiative that many of the progressive 
public measures have been enacted and that 
the public opinion on which their successful 
operation will depend has been created. 

Professor Branson has told the story at 
the National Conference of Social Work in 
Atlantic City and Mr- McAlister, more 
fully, at the state conference in Goldsboro; 
but it is so impressive that a partial re- 
capitulation will not be amiss. 

The state has been brought into the regis- 
tration area by the improvement of its vital 
statistics and a health law comparable to 
those of Ohio and New York has been en- 
acted. Medical and dental inspection of 
school children and free treatment of those 
who need it are provided. Some six hun- 



dred social workers, including public health 
nurses, probation officers and directors of 
welfare boards, are actually at work in the 
counties of the state. The common school 
fund has been nearly doubled by a special 
tax which will yield over three million dol- 
lars and permit a minimum six months 
term in every district. There is an increase 
of 50 per cent in the salaries of teachers. 
An illiteracy commission with an appropria- 
tion of $25,000 has been created. A stand- 
ard child labor law and compulsory school 
attendance law are in force. Bonds have 
been issued for nearly three and a half mil- 
lions for enlarging and equipping public in- 
stitutions. A cooperative credit union law, 
called the best in the United States, has led 
to the creation of more farm credit unions 
than in all of the rest of the states com- 
bined so at least Professor Branson testified 
a year ago. The law requires a juvenile 
court and a probation officer in every county, 
though the same person may act as attend- 
ance officer and as director of public welfare. 
In fact, an unusual feature of the county 
welfare system is that the director of public 
welfare is charged with the supervision of 
the attendance and probation service, with 
of course a special staff for each when the 
amount of work to be done requires it and 
public opinion is educated to the point of 
paying for it. The state has also a rural 
incorporation law and a state commission 
charged with rural organization and recrea- 

North Carolina, like Virginia, is dealing 
with the fundamental question of race re- 
lations in a new and open minded spirit 
which promises well for the future. There 
is a widespread readiness to face facts as 
they are; not merely the one fact of a de- 
mand for racial integrity but the numerous 
other facts which constitute the grievances 
of the Negro. There could be no plainer or 
more convincing statement of these griev- 
ances and of practicable methods for their 
alleviation than were made in this southern 
conference by Dr. A. M. Moore, of Dur- 
ham, who is at the head of a large insurance 
business among Negroes in southern states, 
and by Miss Clara Cox, of High Point, one 
of the three speakers from the State Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs. That the just 
grievances of the Negro should thus have 
voice from both races is not in itself excep- 
tional but that this cause should be regarded, 
without a dissenting voice, as demanding 
equal and equally sympathetic consideration, 
with other social questions of an urgent kind, 
is certainly reason for congratulation. 

Leaders of social service are well aware 
that they have made only a beginning in 
their long campaign. They realize also, 
however, that North Carolina is now a bil- 
lionaire state, no longer a poverty stricken 
state. Enough wealth is now produced to 
do whatever the social needs of the state re- 
quire to have done. E. T. D. 

it, 1912. of the Survey, published weekly at 
New York. N. Y.. for April 1, 1920. 

State of New York, County of New York, sa. 
Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds in and 
for the State and county aforesaid, personally 
appeared Paul U. Kellogg, who. having ben 
duly sworn according to law, deposes and says 
that he Is the Editor of the Survey, and that 
the following is, to the best of his knowledge 
and belief, a true statement -of the ownership, 
management (and if a daily paper, the circu- 
lation), etc., of the aforesaid publication for 
the date shown in the above caption, required 
by the Act of August 24, 1912. embodied In 
section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, 
printed on the reverse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the 
publisher, editor, managing editor, and busi- 
ness managers are: Publisher, Survey Asso- 
ciates, Inc., 112 East 19th Street, New York 
City; Editor, Paul U. Kellogg. 112 East 19th 
Street, New York City ; Managing Editor, Paul 
U. Kellogg, 112 Bast lth Street, New York 
City; Business Manager, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 
East 19th Street, New York City. 

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Triple Voile and Handkerchief Linen, breathing 
the very spirit of France and spring newness. Some 
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Fifth Avenue, 34th and 33d Sts., N. Y. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and 
addresses of Individual owners, or, if a corpora- 
lion, give its name and the names and addresses 
of stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent 
or more of the total amount of stock.) Survey 
Associates, Inc., 112 East 19th Street, a non- 
commercial corporation under the laws of the 
State of New York with over 1.600 members. 
It ha* no stocks or bonds. President, Robert 
W. deForest, 30 Broad Street, New York City: 
Vice-President, John M. Glenn, 130 East 22nd 
Street, New York City; Treasurer, Arthur P. 
Kellogg, 112 Bast 19th Street, New York City: 
Secretary, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19th 
Street, New York City. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 
1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities are: (If there 
are none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giv- 
ing the names of the owners, stockholders, and 
security holders, If any, contain not only the 
list of stockholders and security holders as they 

appear upon the books of the company but 
also, in cases where the stockholder or security 
holder appears upon the books of the company 
as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, 
the name of the person or corporation for 
whom such trustee is acting, is given; also 
that the said two paragraphs contain state- 
ments embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions 
under which stockholders and security holders 
who do not appear upon the books of the com- 
pany as trustees, hold stock and securities In a 
capacity other than that of a bona tide owner; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that 
any other person, association, or corporation 
has any Interest direct or Indirect In the said 
stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. [Signed] Paul U. Kellogg, 
Editor of the Survey. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 29th 
day of March. 1920. [Seal.] Martha Hoh- 
mann. Commissioner of Deeds. City of New York. 
Residing In New York County, register No. 
20052. My Commission expires April 28, 1920. 




FILMS Membership open. Address National 
Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 70 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. Varied Informational 
service on entertainment and educational films 
adapted to needs of community organizations, 
churches, schools. Also service for city officials. 
a professional organization of four thousand 
members. Following Its war work It Is enter- 
ing upon a peacetime program known as the 
" Books for Everybody " movement for which 
It Is making an appeal for a two million dollar 
fund. It is rendering library service to the 
Merchant Marine, Coast Guard and Lighthouses 
and plans to promote libraries for the sixty 
million people now wholly or practically with- 
out libraries; to help business concerns and 
factories to establish libraries In their plants; 
to promote the use of good books on American 
Ideals and tradition. 

Free., Social Service Department, Indiana Uni- 
versity, Indianapolis; Antoinette Cannon Ex. 
Sec., University Ho-pltal, Philadelphia. Organi- 
zation to promote development of social work in 
hospitals and dispensaries. Annual Meeting 
with National Conference of Social Work. 
LEGISLATION John B. Andrews, aec'y; 111 
E. 23rd St., New York. For public employment 
offices; Industrial safety and health; work- 
men's compensation, health insurance; one 
day's rest In seven; efficient law enforcement. 
Gertrude B. Knipp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and 
Infant care; birth registration; maternal nurs- 
ing; Infant welfare consultations; care of chil- 
dren of pre-school age and school age. 
organizing and strengthening Chambers of 
Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and 
commercial organizations; and for training 
men In the profession of community leadership. 
Address our nearest office 
Tribune Building, New York. 
12S W. Madison Street, Chicago. 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 
TION Miss Cora M. Wlnchell, sec'y, Teachers 
College, New York. Organized for betterment 
of conditions In home, school, Institution and 
community. Publishers Journal of Home Eco- 
nomics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 
LEAGUE Wm. D. Foulke, pres.; C. O. Hoag, 
sec'y; Franklin Bank Bldg., Pblla. Leaflets free. 
P. R. Review, quarterly, 80c. a year. Membership 
(entitles to Review and other publications) $1. 
CIATION 105 W. 40th St., New York. For the 
conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education. In- 
formation and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Annual membership dues, $2.00. Mem- 
berships Include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dlr. 
OF CANCEB Frank J. Osborne. exec, sec'y; 
SB W. 45th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free 
on request. Annual membership dues, $5. 
ICA 166 Fifth Avenue, New York. Dr. L. 
Emmet t Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, 
Director. To arouse public Interest In the 
health of school children; to encourage the 
systematic teaching of health In the schools; 
to develop new methods of Interesting children 
in the forming of health habits; to publish and 
distribute pamphlets for teachers and public 
health workers and health literature for chil- 
dren; to advise In organization of local child 
health programme. 

1 Madison Ave., New York. Organized In Feb- 
ruarv. Itli, to conserve the values of War Camp 
Community Service and to help people of all 
communities employ their leisure time to their 
best advantage for recreation and good citizen- 
ship. While CommjUnlty Service (Incorporated) 
helps In organizing the work. In planning the 
program and raising the funds, and will. If de- 
sired, serve In an advisory capacity, the com- 
munity Itself, through the community commit- 
tee representative of community Interests, deter- 
mines policies and assumes complete control of 
the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. B. 
Braucher, sec'y. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, prea. ; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human 
Inheritances, hereditary Inventory and eugenic 
possibilities. Literature tret. 

CHRIST EN AMERICA Constituted by tl 
Protestant denominations. Rev. Charles B. 

Macfarland. gen'l sec'y; Its E. 22nd St.. New 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv- 
ice; Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research sec'y; 
Miss Inez Cavert, aas't research sec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and 

Goodwill; Rev. Henry A. Atkinson, sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; 
Rev. Edmund de 3. Brunner, exec, seo'y; 
Rev. C. O. Gill, field sec'y. 

Commission on Relations with France and 
Belgium, uniting American religious agen- 
cies for the relief and reconstruction of 
the Protestant forces of France and Bel- 
glum. Chairman, Rev. Arthur J. Brown, 
105 East 22nd Street, New York. 
National Temperance Society and Commission 
on Temperance. Hon. Carl E. Mllllken, 
chairman Commission. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE J. E. Gregg, princi- 
pal; G. P. Phenlx, vice-pres. ; F. H. Rogers, 
treas.; W. H. Scoville, sec'y; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a 
State nor a Government school. Free Illus- 
trated literature. 

WOMEN (NATIONAL) Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Wlnkler, ch'm. 
Greets girls st ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. International system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 
ABLED MEN John Culbert Farles, dlr., Fourth 
Ave. at 2Ird St., New York. Maintains Indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research In re-edu- 
cation for disabled soldiers and Industrial crip- 
ples. Publishes reports on reconstruction work 
here and abroad, and endeavors to establish an 
enlightened public attitude towards the physi- 
cally handicapped. 


Harry W. La'.dler, Secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object to promote an intelli- 
gent Interest in Socialism among college men 
and women. Annual membership $2, $6, and 
f25: Includes monthly, "The Socialist Review." 
Special rates for students. 

field Storey, pres.; John R. Shlllady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American cit- 
izenship. Furnishes information regarding race 
problems, lynchlngs, etc. Membership 90,000 
with 214 branches. Membership. <1 upward. 
Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physi- 
cal, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual in- 
terests of young women. Student, city, town 
and country centers; physical and social edu- 
cation; camps; restrooms, room registries, 
boarding houses, lunchrooms and cafeterias; 
educational classes; employment; Bible study; 
secretarial training school; foreign and over- 


Owen R. Lovejoy, sec'y; 105 East 22d St., New 
York, 85 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural Investigations; legislation; studies of 
admln'stratlon; education; delinquency, health; 
recreation; children's codes. Publishes quar- 
terly, " The American Child." Photographs, 
slides and exhibits. 

INC. Chas. F. Powllson, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York. Originates and publishes ex- 
hibit material which visualizes the principles 
and conditions affecting the health, well being 
and education of children. Cooperates with 
educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups In community, city or state-wide 
service through exhibits, child welfare cam- 
paigns, etc. 

HYGIENE Dr. Walter B. James, pros.; Dr. 
Thomas W. Salmon, med. dlr.; Associate Medi- 
cal Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and 
Dr. V. V. Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 
60 Union Square, New York City. Pamphlets on 
mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, 
feeblemindedness, epilepsy, Inebriety, criminol- 
ogy, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric 
social service, backward children, surveys, state 
societies. "Mental Hygiene"; quarterly: |2 a 

TION OF BLINDNESS Edward M. Van Cleve, 

managing director; , field sec'y; 

Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; ISO East 22nd 
St., New York. Objects: To furnish Informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement samples free, quantities 
at coat. Includes New York State Committee. 
Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action In city, state and 
nation, for meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
hood Ufa. 


Owen R. Lovejoy, pros., New York; W. H. 
Parker, gen. sec'y, 115 Plymouth Court, Chi- 
cago. General organization to discuss prin- 
ciples of humanitarian effort and increase effi- 
ciency of agencies. Publishes proceedings an- 
nual meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership $1. 47th 
annual meeting New Orleans, April 14-21, 1920. 
Main Divisions and chairmen: 
Children Henry W. Thurston, New York. 
Delinquents and Correction Bernard Glneck. 

M. D., New York. 

Health George J. Nelbach, New York. 
Public Agencies and Institution* Robert W. 

Kelso, Boston. 

The Family Amelia Sears, Chicago. 
Industrial and Economic Conditions Florence 

Kelley, New York. 

The Local Community H. 8. Braucher, N. Y. 
Mental Hygiene C. Macfle Campbell. M. D.. 


Organization of Social Forces William J. Nor- 
ton, Detroit. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign -Born In America 

Allen T. Burns, New York. 

ICE Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'm, 267 Madison 
Ave., New York. To mobilize and train the vol- 
unteer woman power of the country for specific 
service along social and economic lines; co- 
operating with government agencies. 
HEALTH NURSING Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N. exec, sec'y: 1(6 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of tech- 
nique; to maintain a central bureau of Infor- 
mation. Official organ, the " Public Health 
Nurse," subscription Included In membership. 
Dues, J2.00 and upward. 

Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., ISO E. 22d St., 
New York. A cooperative guild of social work- 
ers organized to supply social organizations with 
trained personnel (no fees) and to work con- 
structively through members for professional 

bert Colgate, pres. ; Rush Taggart, treas. ; Virgil 
V. Johnson, sec'y; 465 Lexington Ave., New 
York. Composed of social agencies working to 
guide and protect travelers, especially women 
and girls. Non-sectarian. 

281 Fourth Avenue. Charles J. Hatfield. 
M. D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education, Institutions, nursing 
problems and other phases of tuberculosis 
work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade. Publishers " Journal of the Outdoor 
Life," " American Review of Tuberculosis " and 
"Monthly Bulletin." 

vice among Negroes, L. Holllngsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Klnckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 127 
East 2Sd St., New York. Investigates conditions 
of city life as a basis for practical work; trains 
Negro social workers. 

LEAGUE Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 64 W. 
Randolph St. (Room 1003), Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government In the work shop through 
organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation. Information given. Offi- 
cial organ, " Life and Labor." 
TION OF AMERICA H. S. Braucher, sec'y: 
1 Madison Ave., N. Y. C. Playground, neighbor- 
hood and community center activities and ad- 

Battle Creek, Mich. For the study of the causes 
of race degeneracy and means of race Improve- 
ment. Its chief activities are the Race Better- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. J. 
H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 
provement of Living Conditions John M. Glenn, 
dlr.; 130 E. 23d St., New York. Departments: 
Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Educa- 
tion. Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans, 
Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Li- 
brary, Southern Highland Division. " The pub- 
lications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public In practical and Inexpensive form 
some of the most Important results of Its work. 
Catalogue sent upon request." 


Wilson, pres.; Richard 8. Chllds, sec'y; 10 West 
fftb St., New York. Clearing house for informa- 
tion on short ballot, city manager plan, county 
gov't. Pamphlets free. 

TUSKEGEB INSTITUTE An institution for the 
training of Negro Youth; an experiment in 
race adjustment in the Black Belt of the South; 
furnishes information on all phases of the race 
problem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, treas.; 
A. Li. Holsey, acting sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 



The New School 
for Social Research 

wishes to award six fellowships of 
$2,000 each for the academic year 
1920-21, to put trained workers into 
the field of direct investigation. Busi- 
ness trends, trade unionism, labor 
statistics, production and distribution 
of goods, relation between production 
costs and selling costs, and the dis- 
tribution of incomes in the United 
States are typical of the fields of 
research in which the school desires 
to use these fellowships. To this end 
the school asks contributions of 
$5 and up, which may be sent to the 


The New School for Social Research 
465 West 23rd Street, New York 

Just a Hint 

Landlord and Tenant. Instead of playing the 
game of rent profiteering, Dr. George Woodward, one of 
the biggest landlords in Philadelphia, has a hobby all his 
own. He tells how he " decreases his profit and increases 
his happiness " by making tenants into " near house owners." 

Psychology and Social Work. A new tool for 
social workers is advocated by Katherine Murdock of the 
staff of the New York School of Social Work illustrated by 
a C. O. S. "case." 

The England the Workers Want. In a series 
of articles written in part by Arthur Gleason, our English 
correspondent, and in part by far-sighted young leaders of 
the British labor movement, the SURVEY gives its readers 
a chance to foresee the industrial trend abroad and to antici- 
pate developments at home. 

Red Cross in the After-War Zone. Cleaning 
up is part of the day's work. But no war achievement of 
. American Red Cross has been greater than its peace-time 
task of withdrawing from France without suddenly with- 
drawing aid. Knowlton Mixer, commissioner for the De- 
vastated Area of Northern France and Belgium, just 
returned from abroad, describes how the Red Cross quietly 
and helpfully has turned over its refugee work to French 

You Can Read These Articles and 
Many TimesThis Number. Simply - 

Sign your name. Send $4 to 

THE SURVEY, 112 East 19th Street, New York City. 



An intensive two weeks' course in 


Boston, April 5-17, 1920. Open to 
social workers, nurses and others in- 
terested in the care of underweight 
and malnourished children. Director 
William R. P. Emerson, M.D. Fee 
$50.00, including all materials. Lim- 
ited number partial scholarships. Ad- 
dress Mabel Skilton, Secretary Nutri- 
tion Clinics for Delicate Children, 44 
Dwight Street, Boston. 

The Summer Quarter 

Courses are equivalent in educational 
and credit value to those offered in 
other quarters of the year. 
The undergraduate colleges, the graduate 
schools and the professional schools pro- 
vide courses in Arts, Literature, Science, 
Commerce and Administration, Educa- 
tion, Law, Divinity and Medicine. 
Ideal place for recreation as well as 
study. Golf, tennis, rowing, etc. Two 
great parks and Lake Michigan within 
walking distance. 

Students may register for either term or 

1st T- .-m June 21 July 28 

Ziul Term July 29 Sept. 3 

Write lor complete announcement. 

OHf? Hnutmutu of Ctlnrauu 



Summer Courses in Social Science at 
Smith College 

July 6th August 31st 


Child Psychology 
Community Analysis 
Community Health 
Community Service 
Mental Tests 

Industrial Problems 
Public Health 
Social Medicine 
Social Psychiatry 
Social Psychology 

Government as a factor in social work 
Problems in Government connected with social work 


Community Service 
Medical Social Work 
Psychiatric Social Work 

For information address The Director 


Northampton Massachusetts 




" The replica to our advertisements came from many directions and from all over 
tlic country at well at /rotn tuck an itiltld^cn/, Ai0A-0rade group of social \mrkers. 
If 1 had not believed before thit you had such a wide circulation, 1 should 
know it from this concrete experience wilA your advertising columns." K. P. H. 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 5 cents per word or initial, including the address or 
box number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.00. 
Periodicals, Current Pamphlets, see elsewhere on this page. 

AddreM Advertis- 
ing Department 


112 Ea.t 19 Street 
New York City 


WANTED: Case consultant for large 
Jewish family agency. Work under ideal 
conditions. Only experts and persons of 
nuusual training and ability need apply. 
State education, training, experience and 
salary expected. Address 3390 SURVEY. 

WANTED: Social workers, men and 
women, for positions in the South. Must 
be capable of organizing and promoting 
general social service and health programs 
in communities which, before the war, had 
practically no organized Social Work. The 
work is largely in rural communities and 
small cities. Worker must be executive 
and promoter as well as case worker. Ad- 
dress 3413 SURVEY. 

WANTED: Visiting Jewish housekeeper 
to assist in Case Department. Opportunity 
for constructive work. Preferably one 
trained in dietetics and competent to work 
with families. Good salary. Address with 
full particulars, including age, experience 
and reference to Superintendent, United 
Jewish Charities, No. 731 West Sixth 
Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

WANTED: Matron (Jewess) for Con- 
valescent Home, taking care of adults and 
specializing in treatment of anemic children. 
Must have experience in institutional ad- 
ministration. Good salary. Trained nurse 
with social experience ; or one trained in 
children's work preferred. Opportunity for 
creative work. Address with particulars, 
including age, experience and reference, to 
the Superintendent, United Jewish Chari- 
ties, No. 731 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, 

WANTED a highly educated man to 
take charge of a Community Center in 
Dayton, Ohio. "Work far-reaching and ex- 
tensive plans for future. Apply to Mrs. 
G. Harrirs Gorman, Dayton, Ohio, First 
and Perry Streets. 

WANTED: Matron (Jewish) in a small 
institution on Staten Island. Knowledge of 
cooking and laundering essential. Apply 
1 West 93rd Street, Apartment 22. Tele- 
phone Riverside 3521. 

WANTED : By experienced social work- 
er, position in New York City, with child- 
placing agency as executive or staff worker. 
Address 3484 SURVEY. 

WANTED : Experienced woman. Ma- 
tron and managing housekeeper. Summer 
Outing House for Jewish mothers and chil- 
dren. May till September. Apply Mrs. 
Mnrtin Barbe, 4922 Blackstone Ave., 

summer (May to September). Also in Sep- 
tember for following year in home school 
for six backward children. Must be willing 
to share with other teachers in personal 
care of children, guiding play and occupa- 
tions outside school. Miss Charlotte Hos- 
kins Miner, South Orange, N. J. Tel. 
S. O. 774. 

WANTED : Woman to take charge of 
girls' department. Preferably one with in- 
stitution experience. Apply Hebrew Or- 
phans Home, 12th St. and Green Lane, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED: Supervisor for Boys. Apply 
to the Hebrew Orphans Home, 12th St. 
and Green Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED: Matron for Children's 
Emergency Home, Southerner preferred. 
State experience and salary expected. Ad- 
dress Robert H. Biggar, Augusta, Ga. 

wanted at once. One to inaugurate and 
direct nutrition work for children in 
Springfield. The other to conduct educa- 
tional milk campaign. Address full particu- 
lars and salary requirement to Roscoe C. 
Edlund, Hampden County, Improvement 
League, Springfield, Mass. 

WANTED: Resident Household Man- 
ager at the Young Women's Hebrew Asso- 
ciation. Apply in person at 31 West 110th 

WANTED : Young Jewish woman. Case 
work knowledge. Director of small neigh- 
borhood house. Eastern City. Addivss 
3482 SURVEY. 

Large manufacturer of men's clothing in 
middle west is in market for high grade 
man capable of organizing and supervising 
school for hand sewers and machine opera- 
tors and foremen training courses. Must 
possess knowledge of sectional operations 
in this industry, broad training in vestibule 
and training school work, and ability to 
work out a real training plan and to put 
across actual instruction. Address concise 
statement of your qualifications, age and 
present earning capacity to box 3481 SURVEY. 


WANTED : By secretary of southern 
school, position for four months after May 
thirtieth, as traveling or home companion. 
Equipped to take entire charge of nervous 
case or chronic invalid. College graduate. 

A MAN who has had long experience in 
Civic Organization Work in the East, 
particularly in connection with Improve- 
ment Associations, Good Government Clubs. 
Chambers of Commerce and Organized 
Labor, desires an opportunity for com- 
munity organization on the Pacific Coast. 
Address 3356 SURVEY. 

YOUNG WOMAN desires position. 
Executive and medical experience. Rural 
or city. Best reference. Address 3478 

EX-CLERGYMAN and wife to take 
charge of Settlement or Community Work 
in Eastern Town or City. Long experi- 
ence in Social Service Work. Address 
3479 SURVEY 

WOMAN PHYSICIAN will travel, tour, 
or camp for substantial remuneration. Ex- 
cellent social and professional references. 
A. M. A. Address 3479 SURVEY. 

COLORED LADY teacher missionary 
Central America, wishes to communicate 
with persons interested in foreign mission 
work. Address 3480 SUKVEY. 

WANTED by experienced handicraft 
and Social Service Worker, opening in, or 
near some of the large Eastern cities. 
Address 3450 SURVEY. 

Orphanage, seeks a field of greater useful- 
ness; experienced in Cottage and Congre- 
gate plan. Character building and modern 
methods predominate. Excellent Creden- 
tials. Address 3483 SURVEY. 


We will dispose of a completely new out- 
fit of one addressing machine (Elliott) 
with motor and counter attachment, 3 oak 
cabinets and 60 metal trays. This equip- 
ment has never been used and is in per- 
fect condition. Cash offers only. Imme- 
diate shipment. Address 3419 SURVEY. 

sublet artistically furnished 8-room apart- 
ment; 2 baths; in Columbia neighborhood, 
June-September inclusive. Large, cool, 
airy rooms facing park. Terms reasonable; 
references exchanged ; may be seen any 
evening or by appointment. 416 West 
122nd Street, Telephone 4475 Morningside. 


Go to Europe al our Expense 

if Koll partlw. Writ* t<xlj (or plin uid pnwrio 

Tr rones. BM e. r 4i 


DIPLOMAS One or a thousand. Il- 
lustrated circular mailed on request Ames 
A Rollinson, Designers, Engrossers, 206 

RrnaHwav Nrw YorV r*ifv 

DIPLOMAS artistically engrossed by 
Clarence C. French, Artist-Engrosser. 
Circular. Address: Box 607, Kalamazoo, 

Personnel Adviser 

Experienced in the handling of both 
men and women. I will submit de- 
tailed plans to meet your require- 
ments, based upon exhaustive in- 
vestigation of your plant, with or 
without provision for supervising 
operaiion of plan after its adoption. 
Address 3468 SURVEY. 




New fork Scnooi of Medical Grmnutln 
and MsuMiacc often a practical and tn*o- 
rctlcal course In BwUab Kxerctoe*, M 
, Baklui, El. Vllir., etc. Diploma. Po- 
ritions and patients secured. Apply Carl 8. 
Hall, Director, Bydennam Bld.. Sl M6I- 
joa Ave. Tel.: Plaza 1141 and Plaza 1471. 
New York City. 

The Fnnctlnnal Kelntlonshlps <if 

Fifteen Cut-e Working Agencies 

as Disclosed by a Stu&y of 421 Families and 

Th Report of The Philadelphia Intake 



Price 75c. 1432 Pine Street, Phlla., Pa. 

OF BOSTON. Maurice B. Hexter, Execu- 
tive Director. The Federated Jewish 
Charities of Boston, Mass., announces a 
series of seven intensive training courses of 
three weeks each for Jewish communal 
workers and volunteers from July 6 to 27. 
Institutes, covering basic principles and 
methods, visits to a selected group of social 
agencies of Boston, and concentrated field 
work, will be offered in the following fields: 
Child Welfare; Delinquency; Family Case 
Work ; Recreation ; Health and Medical 
Social Service ; Social Research and Sta- 
tistics; and Jewish Education. The Insti- 
tutes will be in general charge of social 
workers of the highest professional stand- 
ing. Special accommodations will be pro- 
vided for out-of-town students. For details 
as to dates, courses, fees, etc., address 
Maurice B. Hexter, 25 Tremont Street, 
Boston, Mass. 


make a limited number of lecture engage- 
ments. For rates, subjects, and open dates, 
address Rabbi Sternheim. Sioux City, Iowa. 

EDWARD T. DEVINE: Lectures and 
Consultation Service. Address Miss Brandt, 
Room 1202, 112 East Nineteenth Street, 
New York. 

icanization : Organization and Activities of 
the Immigrants themselves. Consultation 
service in methods of teaching foreign- 
born adults. John Daniels, lately of Ameri- 
canization Study, Carnegie Corporation. 
Address 576 Fifth Avenue, New York. 


Boys and Girls 7 to 12 years. 

Laura B. Garrett, 
529 West 138th Street, N. Y. C. 


Annie Besant, 

nnie esan, an 

Intensely interesting Brochure. 2Sc. The 
Scarlet Review No. 1, 25c each Diana, a Psy- 
cho-Physiological Sex Essay, 25c. The Cruci- 
ble (agnostic), 4 different samples, lOc. 


1330 Flrat AT*. - - Scott!., Waah. 


The 47th Annual Meeting of the National Conference of Social 
Work will be held in New Orleans, April I4th to the 2ist. New 
Orleans during that week will be the gathering place for social workers 
and socially minded citizens from all over the United States. 

Leaders in Social Reconstruction will present problems of National 
significance and universal interest. Opportunities for consultation will 
be provided and the entire session will be full of interest and helpful- 
ness to every one attending. In addition to this there will be New 
Orleans in April with all of the hospitable concern for the welfare of 
its guests for which New Orleans has been famous for over a century. 

Make your plans to attend this meeting, for it will be full of value 
to every one interested in social work. 

For particulars address W. H. Parker, General Secretary, 315 Ply- 
mouth Court, Chicago. 


Finn cents a line per month, four weekly inser- 
tions; copy unchanged throughout the month. 

The Arbitrator endeavors to spread the spirit 
of the true religion that will make unneces- 
sary the separation of Cnurcn and State. 
$1 a year; 25 cents for 3 months. P. O. 
Box 42, Wall St. Station, New York City. 


Hospital Social Service Quarterly; J1.50 a 
year ; published by Hospital Social Service 
Association, 405 Lexington Ave., New York. 

Mental Hygiene; quarterly ; $2 a year ; pub- 
lished IP.V The Natloual Committee for Mental 
Hygiene, 50 Union Square, New York. 

Public Health flurw; monthly ; $2 a year ; 
published by the National Organization for 
Public Health Nursing, 156 Fifth Ave., New 


Liitingi fifty centi a line, four weekly inser- 
tion!; copy unchanged throughout the month. 
Orler pamphlets from publishers. 

CIES, by A. B. Wood and Harry L. Lurle. 
06 pp. 50 cents. Detroit Community Union, 
100 Grlswold St., Detroit. 

tional Liberal Immigration League, P. O. Box 
1261, New York. Arguments free on re- 

tion of value to health officers, superintend- 
ents of schools, teachers, librarians, visiting 
nurses and social workers. Illustrates all 
the educational panels published by the Na- 
tional Child Welfare Association, Inc., 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. 38 Pages 9x12. 50 
cents, postpaid. 

STATES; a compilation, 105 pages: paper 
covers; fifty cents per copy. National Aswn 
Hatlon for the Advancement of Colored Peo- 
ple, 70 Fifth Ave.. New York. N. Y. 

THE SEX SIDE OF LIFE, an explanation for 
young people, with an Important Introduction 
for elders, by Mary Wurc Drunett. An ex- 
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Vol. XLIV 


No. 3 



Illinois Immigrants 

The Railway Strike - ... 

A Campaign against Typhus 

For a Children's Code - - - - 

Health Centers - 

Fisk Philosophy - 

" American Views " 

The Ludlow Claims - ... 

Schools for the Blind - - - - 

The Danish Crisis - 

A Significant Labor Trial - - - 

American Settlements Overseas 

Transplanting Our Ways 

An Appeal from France - 

To Presidential Candidates - 

The Colyer Trial Opens 

Immigrant Savings - 

Boston and the " Movie " Censorship 

Workers by Brain - 

The Coal Strike Settlement - 

Creative Workmanship - 

Trade Union Education - 

Labor College Curricula - - - 

A Distinguished Record - 

Women's Wages in New York 

Foster's Report 

The Labor Jury at Centralia - 

A Building Guild - - - - 

Public Health 

Clinics in Minnesota - 
A Central Dietetic Bureau - 
Books as Medicine ... 
Family Care of Mental Cases 
Pennsylvania Safety Congress - 
Public Health: a Definition - 

- Edward T. Define 

Sidney Howard 

- Paul M. Warburg 

Amy Woods 
Arthur Gleason 

- Eloise Shellabarger 

- W. L. C. 

Francis D. Patterson, M. D. 

Education and Child Welfare 

Soviets and Schools - 

"Physically Able" 

The Kenyon Bill 






Honora Costigan 116 
- L. H. Gillett 116 
- 117 






PUBLISHED weekly and COPYRIGHT 1920 by Survey Associates, Inc.. 112 
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Kellogg, secretary-treasurer. 

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THE industry department of the SURVEY had just 
answered fifteen letters from debaters, telling them in 
detail how to stabilize the coal industry and how to solve 
the industrial problem, when the 'phone rang. " Have you 
anything on labor ? " came to the surprised ear of the indus- 
trial editor. " Er could you be a trifle more specific? " he 
inquired with his usual politeness. " Well, I wondered if you 
could give me any material on labor, or the cost of living, 
or soap," came the hopeful reply. The industrial editor's 
head swam, but he rose manfully to the occasion. " Take 
three parts of the Monthly Review of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics and dilute with Procter & Gamble's employe rep- 
resentation plan," he gasped, and hung up. 


THE Immigrants' Commission of Illinois was appointed 
under a recent act by the state department of education 
to investigate the " distribution, conditions of employ- 
ment and standards of housing and living " of the immigrants, 
and " their social organization and their educational needs " ; 
also to keep " in friendly and sympathetic touch with alien 
groups " and to " cooperate with state and local officials and 
with immigrant and related authorities of other states and of 
the United States. Grace Abbott, for many years director of 
the Chicago Immigrants Protective League and recently of the 
Child Labor Division of the United States Children's Bureau, 
is the executive secretary. Miss Abbott writes: 

There is abundant evidence that great numbers of the foreign- 
born in our midst are planning to return to Europe some to remain 
permanently, some in search of relatives who have not been heard 
from since they were driven out of their homes by advancing or 
retreating armies, some to visit relatives and friends and to look 
after their peasant holdings. But there are also many who are 
planning to remain here and send for their old parents or a younger 
sister or brother, who are looking to America as a refuge from 
hunger, cold and disease. They will come bearing the impress of 
what they have suffered during the past five years; and we are 
sure to harve, as a result, new problems and new aspects of old 


SUPERFICIALLY at least the "outlaw" strike of the 
trainmen suggests the American Railway Union strike 
of 1894. Then as now a new federation of railroad men 
is seeking to displace the older brotherhoods. Once more the 
strike seems to be a spontaneous affair. Again it arises from 
a background of unsatisfactory wage conditions, conditions 
which from the point of view of the men have not yielded 
the sure promise of desired relief. 






HE was close beside me in the homego'ng crowd on 
upper Broadway, a young negro of thirty perhaps. 
His hair was curly rather than kinky or wooly. He 
was a light mulatto. Somewhere, maybe in the days of his 
grandmother's slavery, there had been a white ancestor. The 
cold autumn drizzle fell unheeded on his decent suit and on 
his good new felt hat Equally oblivious of the crowd, he 
walked swiftly along there beside me talking to himself. 
Over and over again he was saying the same thing in a 
voice heavy with some terrible and rending emotion. " And 

he told me I couldn't come in there, just because " " And 

he told me I couldn't go across there, just because " 

"There he was in uniform and I couldn't go in there. Oh, 
damn his soul ! " " And he told me I couldn't come in there. 
And why couldn't I?" 

Suddenly sweeping a wide, desperate arc with his arm he 
flung his good felt hat to the wet, mucky pavement. He 
stamped on it. Then he fell on his knees on the dirty 
street and his voice rose in a dreadful shuddering scream 
of rage and grief and despair. " A nigger ! A nigger ! Oh, 
my God, a nigger! " "A nigger! A nigger! Oh, my God 
a nigger.'" 

The crowd thronged about him, staring. A big policeman 
came and took him away. He was quiet then, just sobbing 
hoarsely and exhaustedly. 

A girl that had looked on drew her furs closer around her 
white throat and gave a little shrill laugh. "Poor coon! 
He's gone crazy. It's a good thing the policeman was so 

The crowd flowed on up the murky street. The rain and 
the hundreds of hurrying feet obliterated the marks of his 
knees from the muddy pavement. 

To THE EDITOR: This is an accurate account of an inci- 
dent witnessed by me. It has been written and rewritten a 
number of times in an effort not to overwrite it. While its 
significance may not reach down into the real heart of the 
Negro problem, it yet appears to me to be sufficiently stirring 
to lead people to a sympathy that will precede an intelligent 
interest and understanding of that problem. Having lived 
most of my life in the South I realize the need for such 
interest and understanding. 


Members of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen and 
of the Switchmen's Union of North America have been chiefly 
recruited to the new "yardmen's associations " and the " United 
Railroad Workers of America," through which the sporadic 
strikes appear to have been managed. The locomotive engi- 
neers and the conductors have been relatively aloof. In places 
in fact the members of these senior brotherhoods have actively 
assisted in breaking the strikes. The chief executive officers 
of all four of the larger brotherhoods have united in demand- 
ing that the members of their organization " do everything 
within their power to preserve existing contracts." President 
W. G. Lee, of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, has 
moreover protested to the Senate Interstate Commerce Com- 
mittee against according any recognition to the new body. 

The event which set in motion this strike apparently was 
as insignificant as the historic gesture of Mrs. O'Leary's cow. 
It was the mere reduction in rank of a yard conductor, John 
Gruneau, a switchman and yard master in the employ of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad at Chicago. Gru- 
neau, a member of the Illinois legislature on the Roosevelt 
ricki-t in 1912, has long been insurgent against the leadership 
of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, and, too, against 
the economic conditions surrounding railroad workers. His 
own personal grievance, however, appears so nearly to have 
been typical that following him an army estimated at one 
hundred thousand stopped work. 

It is not without significance that the men who have been 
leaders in this movement are less favorably situated than cer- 
tain other groups. The hazard of the occupation, the daily 
toll of killed and injured, falls most heavily on brakemen and 

switchmen. Theirs is the sacrifice in limb and life. Further- 
more, brakemen and switchmen still earn considerably less 
than the least sum the government has reckoned to be neces- 
sary to support a man and woman and three young children 
at any minimum of health and comfort. According to the 
estimate of the Bureau of Railway Economics, an organiza- 
tion long supported by the railroads, the annual compensation 
of yard brakemen last July was $1,698. Yard switch tenders 
were paid at the rate of $1,449. Both of these rates are from 
five to seven hundred dollars less than the cost of family life 
where the least comfort is considered. 

So far the tendency has been to permit the brotherhoods to 
handle the situation. No competent federal adjustment ma- 
chinery is yet in existence to deal with such an affair. The 
Railroad Labor Board provided under the Esch-Cummins bill 
has not been set up. The President in fact is said to be 
experiencing great difficulty in finding men both able and 
willing to represent the public interest on the board. The 
railroad companies broke off the direct wage conferences which 
they were holding with the brotherhood leaders because the 
public was not represented. Accordingly, there is an inter- 
regnum without the governmental machinery for orderly 
adjustment. A similar lack of adjustment machinery com- 
plicated affairs in 1894 at the time of the American Railway 
Union strike. Then the federal government sent troops to 
Chicago, obtained an injunction before a federal judge and 
sent Eugene V. Debs and others to jail, and President Cleve- 
land appointed an investigating commission headed by the late 
Carroll D. Wright. This commission on the \vhole supported 
the case of the railroad men but the strike already had been 


THE ravages of typhus in Poland [described in the SUR- 
VEY for March 13] have called forth determined action 
from more than one American social agency. Dr. Harry 
Plotz, a young New York physician, who has become a rec- 
ognized authority on this disease through his successful fight 
on the epidemic by extermination of the body louse in Serbia 
and other Balkan countries, and later with the rank of colonel 
in the A. E. F., left for Poland on April 3, to take charge of 
anti-typhus work on behalf of the Joint Distribution Com- 
mittee for Jewish War Relief. Interviewed just before sail- 
ing, he said : 

Typhus is a filth disease, and its only carrier is the louse. It 
sounds simple enough to say clean up things over there and kill off 
the cooties. But unless one is acquainted with the depressing con- 
ditions that obtain throughout Central and Eastern Europe today, 
it is impossible to realize the handicaps. There is nothing to do 
it with; the people are huddled together in squalid homes; they 
haven't food, they haven't changes of clothing, they haven't fuel, 
they haven't even water or soap. 

There is only one sure means of killing the body louse, and that 
is by steam, as practised in the American army de-lousing plants. 
But it takes coal and special machinery to operate tnese plants, and 
both are difficult to obtain. It cost the government $1,900,000 to 
operate the army de-lousing plants. I understand that the Joint Dis- 
tribution Committee, although not a medical board, is giving $100,000 
toward operating a de-lousing station in the heart of the typhus 

In Poland, Dr. Plotz intends to cooperate with the Min- 
istry of Health and with the League of Red Cross Societies 
which already have set going a thorough campaign against 
the disease. His interest, apart from laboratory work, is espe- 
cially in an educational movement. Instruction on the spread 
of the disease by body vermin will be introduced in the 
schools and churches; and probably moving pictures, similar 
to those used in the American army, will he- shown at the thea- 
ters of Warsaw and Vilna. Of the need for such education, 
Dr. Plotz says: 

Until the European peasant is convinced that the body louse is 
not a sign of health, as he now regards it, but a carrier of the 
typhus plague it will be impossible to keep the disease down. I 
found that the masses of people throughout Serbia, Albania, Bulgaria 



and those parts of Central Europe in which I worked when I was 
attached to the Red Cross Commission :n 1915, looked upon the 
cootie as a harmless little friend, indicative of their good health. 
When asked if they had vermin they would proudly bring forth sev- 
eral specimens. Having been reared with body lice from the day 
of their birth, they are somewhat immunized against the bite of the 
parasite and do not suffer the discomfort that a person unused to 
them feels. But they can be taught that the presence of vermin 
means the presence of the terrifying disease that carries away their 
people by the thousands. The Bulgarians were as friendly toward 
cooties as any of the others are, but during my work with the Bul- 
garian army I found that they could be taught to keep themselves 
free from them. 

Though working under the auspices of a Jewish commit- 
tee, Dr. Plotz does not intend to limit his activities to one 
race. In reply to a question he denied that the Mosaic code 
contained provisions sufficient, if followed, to protect the Jew 
against typhus. He said : 

The Jew is neither dirtier nor cleaner than his neighbors. In 
fact, his living conditions conform to those of the people about him. 
In Belgrade and some of the cities under Turkish rule where there 
are high standards of personal cleanliness I found the Jews con- 
formed to these standards. In Galicia and other territories where 
the peasants live in filth and ignorance and squalor, the Jews among 
them live in the same manner. It will take a great deal of money 
and personnel to raise their standards of living, and thereby exter- 
minate the louse and the diseases he carries. 


THE desirability of overhauling the laws of New York 
state relating to children, a proposal that is embodied 
in a bill recently introduced into the state legislature, 
is attested by many defects in the present statutes. As a whole, 
these statutes are merely patches upon other laws; they have 
been passed at different times, without relation to unity of 
purpose or adequate care ; they are indefinite and contradictory. 
For example, the only definition of a disorderly child is to be 
found in the charities law, the only definition of a truant 
child is to be found in the criminal code, the only place where 
the age of consent is defined is in a section of the Domestic 
Relations Law dealing with the annulment of marriage. Alto- 
gether, sections relating to child care are to be found in 
eighteen or twenty statutes. In studying the single point of 
the care and support of a child by the parent, it is necessary 
to consult five laws: the criminal code, the penal law, the 
education law, the poor law and the domestic relations law. 
There is almost no definition of terms and therefore the inter- 
pretation of laws by the various magistrates greatly lacks 

Five state departments have united to seek the appointment 
of a children's code commission to make a thorough study of 
existing laws and to recommend remedial legislation for bring- 
ing order out of the chaos. Senator Charles W. Walton, of 
Kingston, and Assemblyman Marguerite L. Smith, of New 
York city, have introduced the bill establishing such a commis- 
sion. It would be composed of two senators, three assembly- 
men, five persons representing the state departments and five 
citizens to be appointed by the governor. Similar studies by 
children's code commissions have already been made in Ohio, 
Missouri, Minnesota, Delaware, Oregon, Michigan and Wis- 
consin, and commissions are now at work in Connecticut, 
South Carolina, Indiana, Nebraska, New Hampshire and 


A HEALTH Center will be opened July i in a selected 
district of New Haven, Connecticut, under the com- 
bined leadership and financial support of the four chief 
health agencies of the city the Municipal Department of 
Health, the Visiting Nurse Association, the New Haven Chap- 
ter of the American Red Cross, and the New Haven Medical 

The Health Center will aim to build up the health as well 
as to detect the physical defects of the 20,000 inhabitants of 

Darling in New York Tribune 

*"* " Ci 5 o u 

C>0,(2 " <^SC*<=?a. > 

^ .k S"i ^.-^, C^> <r->- . . <_to , 


the district, who are largely of Italian stock. Free medical 
examinations, nursing care in the home, and intensive educa- 
tional work will constitute the main lines of activity. Medical 
treatment will not be given at the center, but individuals will 
be referred to the abundant medical facilities of the city. Pro- 
fessor C. E. A. Winslow is chairman of the board of control 
and Philip S. Platt is director of the center. 

The health center movement is also making headway in 
New York state where the Sage-Machold bill, formulated 
by the State Department of Health, is now pending in the 
legislature. It provides for the establishment of health centers 
in towns, villages and industrial districts, to make available 
throughout the state laboratory facilities, clinics and special- 
ists in attendance, public health nurses and requisites for 
diagnosis including opportunity for observation in hospitals. 
In backing this bill the State Charities Aid Association points 
out that such legislation would be a logical development of 
the establishment of tuberculosis clinics, child welfare stations, 
etc., and would tend to standardize and coordinate, as well 
as supplement, all such activities. 


THE South, according to a recent statement of Fayette 
Avery McKenzie, president of Fisk University, has be- 
come converted to Negro education. He says : 
The question today is no longer, " Shall we or shall we not have 
Negro colleges?" but has become, "Shall or shall not the Negro 
college be efficient? " 

The change has come in very recent years, President Mc- 
Kenzie says, " really the last few months. The change is 
so rapid we can scarcely believe our eyes." He does not offer 
a direct explanation. But it is not difficult to find it in the 
awakened realization of the southern business man as rep- 
resented, for instance, by the Commercial Club of Nashville 
that a large, uneducated Negro population without trained 
and efficient leadership is a danger rather than an asset to 
the prosperity of the South. 

So much in introduction to an interesting statement of the 



" Fisk philosophy " which, with slight variations, no doubt 
is also that of other educational institutions for the Negro 
given by President McKenzie in explanation of its objects. 
For the sake of clearness we arrange them here in diagramatic 


uuitb of : 



Moral Tnlnlng 



frugal Ity 



The emphasis is on character. 


A CITY ordinance was passed in Passaic, New Jersey, 
on April 6 requiring every group which desires to hold 
a " street parade, procession, street assembly or public 
meeting " to procure in advance a permit from the director of 
public safety, who shall issue such a permit " after being satis- 
fied that said meeting shall not be detrimental to the public 
welfare." It is patterned after a similar law of Duquesne, 
Pennsylvania, the town in the heart of the steel district which 
during the steel strike was perhaps more successfully "closed" to 
the workers than any other. According to the Amalgamated 
Textile Workers of America the ordinance of Passaic is di- 
rected specifically at their organization. 

In urging the passage of the law, Commissioner of Public 
Safety Abram Preiskel is quoted in the Passaic Daily News of 
April 3 as saying: 

This ordinance has been merely introduced to give the police 
power to check up organizations that are not in harmony with the 
principles of this government, and who are preaching its overthrow. 
It will not be used to interfere with any religious, educational, 
patriotic, fraternal or any other law abiding body. . . Should 
the time come when it is found there is no longer need of the 
ordinance, and that the organizations against whom it is directed 
conform with American views, I will take the necessary steps to 
have the ordinance removed from our law. 

A legal test of the ordinance is planned by the Amalgamated 
Textile Workers of America, in cooperation with the Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union. 


THE Italian government filed claims amounting to some 
$50,000 against the United States because of the 
loss of Italian life and property at Ludlow, Colorado, 
on April 20, 1914. The claims arose from the burning of 
the tent village at Ludlow as an incident of the coal strike 
of 1913 and 1914. Men and children were killed and the 
belongings of many strikers were destroyed. In due course 
of time the matter reached the state government of Colorado 
and a legislative committee was appointed to investigate the 
matter. In a report made to Governor Oliver H. Shoup, 
the committee has refused to allow' the claim of the Italian 
government because of its opinion that the battle was pre- 
cipitated by the strikers from the Ludlow colony. 

The committee found, it said, " that Guiseppc Petrucci, Lu- 
cia Petrucci and Frank Petrucci, three minor children, lost 
their lives as a result of the battle of Ludlow. But the facts are 
the mother of these children put them in a pit under one of 
the tents and sometime during the day she with her children 
entered another pit in which the three children were suffo- 
cated. Suffocation was doubtless due to the burning of the 
tent during the fire of the tent colony which occurred shortly 
after 6 o'clock in the evening." The committee, however, 
found relief in " the opinion that every member of the colony 

had ample opportunity to leave, had they so desired, any time 
before its destruction." Moreover, it continued : 

It is true that children of tender years lost their lives, but these 
children were wards of parents who elected to oppose the govern- 
ment and who were kept by them in the armed camp. While these 
children, themselves, were doubtless innocent, yet the loss of their 
lives was the unavoidable result of the general encounter between 
the armed inhabitants of the tent colony and constituted authorities 
of the state. . . . 

This committee believes that to encourage, by remuneration, any 
citizen of any country to take up arms against the state or to pay 
those who lost because they took up arms against constituted author- 
ity, would be to strike at the very foundation of our government and 
to undermine both the state and federal constitutions. 

In appraising this conclusion it is interesting to recall one 
of the earlier statements of the committee. Thus describing 
the progress of the strike it was said that 

After calling out its members the United Mine Workers of 
America provided shelter for its members and their families in 
localities near the mines. These shelters almost universally took the 
form of tent colonies. These colonies were usually erected on leased 
ground and were placed in a position to command the usual ap- 
proaches to the various mines. 

The children who were killed were in the only homes their 
parents possessed since they had been compelled to leave the 
houses they had rented from the mining corporations prior to 
the strike. 


THE British House of Commons last month passed al- 
most without opposition a bill drafted by the Labor 
Party and introduced by Ben Tillett to provide for the 
establishment and equipment of technical schools for the train- 
ing of blind persons and for their maintenance during training. 
Sir Frederick Banbury, who has a fine nose for " socialism " 
in every extension of public activity, was practically the only 
opponent in the debate on the second reading. There are 
some 30,000 blind persons in the British Isles, many of them 
very inadequately cared for. The government will, it is ex- 
pected, go the Labor Party one better by proposing an amend- 
ment of the old age pensions act to make blind people eligible 
at the age of fifty. 


BEHIND the political issue of the general strike con- 
cluded last week in Denmark is an economic conflict 
which keeps the social peace of the country charged with 
dynamite after the immediate dispute is compromised. Only 
recently, the employers' organizations and the trade unions 
arrived at an agreement that further wage demands should be 
postponed for one year during which certain adjustments were 
to be made to equalize wages as between different trades and 
bonus payments were to be made to meet any further rise in 
the cost of living. Owing, in part to the exchange situation, 
in part to the decreased buying power of other European 
countries, and in part to the fact that Danish wages, especially 
for unskilled labor, had during the war been brought to a 
level higher than that of neighboring countries, including 
Great Britain, employers had found themselves more and 
more unable to meet new demands. They contended that 
since the beginning of the war wages had risen by nearly 
250 per cent and the cost of living by only about too per 
cent. Labor, on the other hand, produced figures showing 
a much smaller discrepancy. Seeing opportunities for foreign 
trade, the employing groups and commercial and agricul- 
tural groups likewise chafed not only under the existing war- 
time restrictions but also under new ones imposed by recent 
legislation providing for the control of profits and participa- 
tion of employes in management. Labor, on the other hand, 
had fared comparatively well under the war-time regulations 
which, according also to such independent witnesses as Ameri- 
can consuls, had relieved unemployment and secured a fair 
distribution of food and fuel, and was unwilling to give them 


17, i g 2 o 

up. Thus the conflict between nationalist and internationalist 
principles which, owing to the postponement of the Slesvig 
plebiscite, had time to ripen into passionate antagonism, has 
its parallel of economic conflict. The compromise which ended 
the general strike on April 5 except for continuation by some 
irreconcilable groups of the extreme left was through the 
appointment of a new government, apparently consisting for 
the most part of heads of government departments irrespective 
of politics, to hold office until after the passage of a new elec- 
toral law and new elections under its provisions by which the 
two parties of the left expect to get back into office. Thus 
the matter now stands. 


fT^HE principle of trade unionism itself seems to be on 
trial at Rochester. There the Michaels-Sterns com- 
pany is suing the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of 
America for $100,000 damages alleged to have been suffered 
in the course of a strike begun on July 25, 1919. The strike 
is a by-product of the organization of the clothing markets 
of Chicago, Rochester, New York and Baltimore last summer 
by the employers and by the union. In the four cities joint 
government for the industry was set up. Through this agency 
questions which arise are settled by a board made up of equal 
numbers of representatives of employes and employers. 

The Michaels-Stern company refused to enter this arrange- 
ment with other clothing manufacturers of Rochester and the 
strike was started. A curious episode was the organization 
of the workers of the company by a rival union, the United 
Garment Workers. This union had in the time before the 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America was built up 
been the leading representative of clothing workers, but for 
some years it has been overshadowed. Singularly enough the 
Michaels-Stern company had opposed the United Garment 
Workers before it had trouble with the new union. Now 
Thomas T. Richert, president of the old union, is allied with 
the company in fighting Sidney Hillman, leader of the new 

The nature of the questions in issue whether unionism 
itself serves social welfare, whether such joint arrangements 
as the majority of the clothing manufacturers have made with 
Hillman's organization for the government of the industry 
should be encouraged, whether organization of workers should 
be fostered or opposed on broad considerations of public policy 
give the hearing its peculiar significance. A large array of 
counsel is embattled. Heading the battery for the Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers is Prof. Felix Frankfurter, of Har- 
vard University. The trial attorney is Emory R. Buckner, 
a partner of Elihu Root. Mr. Frankfurter argued the case 
for the Oregon shorter working day when Justice Brandeis 
had to relinquish it by reason of his appointment to the 
Supreme Court. 


A LITTLE gathering at the SURVEY office recently 
brought together the heads of some of our best known 
American social settlements and two women who, after 
having carried the American settlement idea overseas, have 
come back to the United States for a brief visit to claim the 
help and encouragement from home which they believe their 
efforts merit. One of them came from Tokyo, the other from 

Caroline Macdonald, after years of indefatigable neigh- 
borhood work, conducted from her own home in Tokyo, is 
seeking enough support to enable her to open a fully equipped 
settlement in Asakusa, the most congested ward in the heart 
of one of the largest centers of population in the world. Her 
story of single-handed work, first in prisons and through her 
interest in discharged prisoners later in the most neglected 
neighborhoods of the great city, recalled stories of pioneer 
social work in New York, London or Glasgow before a start 
was made in organized philanthropy. The east side of Tokyo 


Frrtm Kladdcrailattch, Frankfort 

Das Betriebsrad 


The industrial council and the industrial wheel 

is a physical and moral quagmire. Modern industry in and 
around the capital has produced a slum that spreads its filth, 
vice and suffering over six of the fifteen wards of the city. 
Miss Macdonald said : 

The Japanese, trained in the paternalism of the feudal system, do 
not yet adequately sense the needs of the new poor of the great cities, 
nor are they trained to remedy social evils. The social conscience 
has not kept pace with material expansion. The manj* students of 
social, industrial and economic problems lack the practical pioneer 
spirit for such a task, they lack experience, they lack the organization 
and the funds. 

In such an environment, the warm-hearted and practical 
effort of an American woman has created what a friend of 
Miss Macdonald described as " a social and moral lighthouse 
in the darkest spot of Japan." But so far her vision of a 
community center in the midst of this vast population of un- 
skilled laborers and near to the notorious Yoshiwara, the 
largest licensed prostitute quarter in the empire, has not mate- 
rialized partly because American social effort in Japan is 
nearly all carried on by religious organizations and Miss Mac- 
donald, though herself a devoted Christian missionary, pre- 
fers to carry on her work without any binding ties, and partly 
because settlement work, because of its novelty, is as yet little 
understood among the public-spirited Japanese of means and 
must be demonstrated for a number of years before they will 
see the value of it. A group of prominent Japanese business 
and professional men who have confidence in Miss Macdon- 
ald's leadership, have underwritten the enterprise with a 
pledge of about $75,000, but the capital expenditure for land, 
buildings and equipment will be nearer $300,000. Miss Mac- 
donald's plan is warmly endorsed by Prof. William Adams 
Brown, of Union Theological Seminary, who is convinced 
both of the need for it and of Miss Macdonald's ability to 
carry it out, and by J. Merle Davis, secretary of the cen- 
tral branch of the Y. M. C. A. in Tokyo, who is at present 
in the United States, and is doing what he can to help Miss 
Macdonald realize her ideas. The leading criminal lawyer 



of Japan wrote to Miss Macdonald just before she left the 

The psychological moment has come to do a conspicuous piece of 
social service work in Tokyo. Many Japanese are talking about 
the need of coping with our social problems in some practical way, 
but they have had no experience and do not know how to begin. 
You can render a great service by pioneering in this new type of 
work and by training Japanese to take part in it 

I am one of a committee appointed by the Department of Justice 
to draw up plans for juvenile courts, and we shall probably get 
them started within a year or two. But even if we get them going 
we shall not be able to do much for the children unless we have by 
that time such work begun as you suggest. 


FRANCES STERN, who came from Paris (in one of the 
few surviving Red Cross uniforms), had the advantage 
of being able to speak of past accomplishments in the 
field of foreign settlement work as well as of plans for the 
future. Her work started when the American Red Cross in 
France recognized that civilian work for the mothers, wives 
and children of French soldiers was about as important as work 
in the devastated regions, were the morale of the people to be 
maintained. Every available French doctor and nurse was car- 
ing for the wounded. Soon in the most densely populated 
arrandissement of Paris the Children's Bureau, under Dr. Wil- 
liam Lucas, was conducting children's welfare stations and the 
Rockefeller Foundation tuberculosis clinics. It was natural 
that these and other activities for civilians should become 
centralized to some extent, and that new services as they 
arose should be incorporated with those that had already won 
recognition in the neighborhood. Thus, almost before know- 
ing that it had happened, the American Red Cross found it- 
self running a regular American social settlement with activi- 
ties not unlike those of many neighborhood houses at home 
during the time of the war. French nurses and French social 
workers flocked to see how their American colleagues man- 
aged and noted their methods, first with surprise, then with 
ever growing approval. When the armistice came, a food 
clinic was in full swing; regular home visiting had become 
part of the daily routine. Classes were held for expectant 
and for actual mothers, a kindergarten and country work for 
children, classes in hygiene, singing, sewing, cooking, had 
sprung up. In short, the experience of growing activities was 
much the same as in an American environment. After provi- 
sion was made for organized play for boys and girls of school 
age, a demand for clubs for young men and young women 
had to be satisfied, and later for concerts and moving pic- 
tures to provide wholesome family recreation. What im- 
pressed the French was the association of so many activities 
in one general plan and in such a way that they were comple- 
mentary. As one girl said: The work is different from any 
other " because here everything is stitched together ;" or, as 
others have expressed it: 

Medico-social, au sens Americain, ne veut pas dire purement 
medical ou purement social, mais une forme nouvelle d'action ou le 
but est social, la partie midicale etant un moyen. 

In April, 1919, the American Red Cross withdrew its civil- 
ian activities but continued salaries for a few months in the 
expectation that a French organization would take hold of 
the work and continue it. Such an organization was formed, 
and Mme. Poincare, wife of the President of France, be- 
came honorary president of the Comite pour 1'Enfance et La 
Famille par 1'Aide Sociale. It was agreed that the personnel 
should gradually become French but that the director should 
be an American woman, so that French workers might grad- 
ually be trained to carry on the work along American lines. For 
some time Dr. Thomas Cooley of Detroit and some of his 
friends paid part of the cost. 

While Miss Stern felt sure of continued and growing in- 
terest on the part of her French associates in spite of re- 
ported luke-warmness to American social work elsewhere in 
France she did not consider it either feasible or just that the 

whole financial burden should be thrown upon the French 
who are interested in the continuation of this work and who, 
in this extremely difficult time, have many other burdens to 
carry. The settlement, which she desires to see financially 
assured for at least another year or two before she withdraws 
from it to take up work in the United States, is more dis- 
tinctly an American than a French enterprise. For instance, 
the food charts of the New York Association for Improving 
the Condition of the Poor, and of the federal Department of 
Agriculture, the literature of the one-time United States Food 
Administration and of the Public Health Service, form the 
basis for the educational activities. American methods of 
school feeding for under-nourished children have been intro- 
duced. American school and home nursing practices are fol- 
lowed. American organized play is taught as a specialized 
field of social service. Simple and inexpensive American 
menus and methods of food preparation have been introduced. 

Miss Stern does not minimize the temperamental differences 
between French and Americans and does not believe that 
American methods can supplant French ones. But the point 
about the Paris settlement is that it is a center from which 
knowledge is spread of fields of social service with which the 
native workers are less familiar or where they acknowledge 
the superiority of American methods and are glad to learn 
from them always, of course, with the possibility of improv- 
ing on them or of adaptin" ihem to different conditions. 

Both Miss Stern and Miss Macdonald, apart from their 
appeal for financial support, asked for the moral support of 
close connection with settlement work and workers in Amer- 
ica. The National Federation of Settlements at its 
convention in Philadelphia, last year, empowered its 
executive to take steps towards an international drawing to- 
gether and organization of settlement workers. As president 
of the association, John L. Elliott, therefore, was able to tell 
the two visitors that, so far as closer communication and ex- 
change of experiences perhaps even more direct services, 
such as interchange of workers was concerned, their wish 
had already been anticipated, and that everything possible 
would be done to help them in their effort to extend the set- 
tlement idea abroad. 


MLLE. BASSOT, of Levallois-Perret, the French set- 
tlement headvvorker whose work has been described 
by Dr. Esther Lovejoy in The House of the Good 
Neighbor, after a recent visit to the United States also comes 
to her American colleagues, and to other Americans interested 
in neighborhood work, with an appeal for help. In a letter 
dated February 1 1 she says : 

As soon as I arrived at Levallois, I wars informed of a difficult 
problem that we have to face presently. This attractive, though too 
small house, where for years we have been doing social work, this 
House of the Good Neighbor, as Dr. Lovejoy calls it, is going to be 
sold, with the surrounding houses, factory, gardens, an entire block. 
It is one of the last parcels of Levallois not yet transformed into 
industrial works, and it happens that all the buildings on it could 
be used at the end of the leases for a progressive enlargement of 
our social work. The price is one hundred thousand dollars, for 
about 10,000 meters of ground including 2,000 meters of buildings, 
which makes it a good bargain. 

This purchase would mike it possible at least to give in France a 
uinstration of those admirable settlements which America pos- 
sesses, and the training which would be given to the students of the 
Social College would make our ideas and spirit spread throughout 
the country. (Already we have had more than 200 students.) 

Before making a new appeal to my country-people, so much taxed 
by the war, I am speaking to my American friends. Will you help 
me either by gift or by a loan with a mortgage guarantee? The 
value of American money is actually trebled in France. 

This letter is accompanied by a detailed description of the 
property. If the concern for the welfare of France so vocifer- 
ously expressed on American platforms during the war was 
merely motivated by a selfish desire to strengthen her morale 
during the common war on Germany, we shall not heed it. 



The Colyer Trial Opens 

TWENTY-FIVE petitioners for writs of habeas cor- 
pus are being heard this week by Judge George W. 
Anderson in the United States District Court, sit- 
ting in Boston. The hearing is one involving the 
whole course of the Federal Government in the last six months 
in raiding and deporting Communist groups in this country. 
Against the persistent exceptions taken by the district attorney, 
Mr. Goldberg, Judge Anderson insists first upon making a 
record, fearlessly and completely, of the governmental practises 
in apprehending radicals and of the essential character of their 
radicalism. "This is an important case" I quote Judge Ander- 
son, " a test case. Some six hundred people have been arrested : 
four hundred of them are detained for a length of time which 
would be considered serious punishment for petty larceny, 
and against some warrants of banishment have been issued. 
It is a case affecting thousands of people. It is not a waste 
of time to make here an adequate record upon the supposition 
that some court, some time, may settle these issues consistently 
with the Constitution and laws of the United States, and, I 
hope, consistently with the principles of human liberty on 
which this country is supposed to be founded." 

An important case. This group of radicals here petitioning 
for habeas corpus, originally of eighteen, now increased, by 
the issuance of further deportation warrants, to twenty-five, 
has been residing on Deer Island (the Ellis Island of Boston 
Harbor) since the nation-wide raids of January 2 all that is, 
with the exception of those who have found bail. Most of 
them have not, for the government chose to set high figures. 
$10,000 is not always available even in hyper-respectable 
circles. It is no more so to an alleged " red." Judge Ander- 
son's determination to make " an adequate record " turns the 
case from a hearing of the petitioners to a trial of the official 
practise and policy which last January thrilled the country 
with its panic of Bolshevism. It would seem that Judge An- 
derson is one who believes a nation-wide witch hunt more dis- 
astrous for the nation than for the witches. However the 
case may result, a record is being made of the manner of 
arrest and of the nature of offense. This is the first aspect. 

A significant case. It abandons deportation drama and free 
speech oratory for direct and simple legality. Counsel for the 
petitioners argues, first, " that these raids were conceived in 
hysteria and consummated in illegality " ; second, " that the 
decision made by the secretary of labor upon the Communist 
Party is reviewable by the court." Or, in words less technical, 
that the arrests were made without due process of law, and 
that an alien may not be deportable upon the bare ground of 
his membership in the Communist Party, that, indeed, the 
Communist Party may not, itself, come within the class of 
organizations with which it is criminal to affiliate. An inter- 
esting case, because, whatever may have been written in maga- 
zines or reported for the press on our anti-radical campaign, 
the true facts of " government by awe " (see William Hard) 
now become part of the record and precedent of a federal 

Even before the case had opened, the district attorney's 
office presented word from Washington requesting delay in 
the hearing until Mr. A. Mitchell Palmer, elsewhere occupied, 
might supervise in person. At which time, it might be noted, 
Judge Anderson would have been unable to officiate. The 
case opened, however, according to schedule. The early wit- 
nesses were all officials connected with raids or hearings. Mr. 
Keliher, of the Department of Justice (local chieftain for this 
district), refused to state the number of agents employed by 
the Department for the execution of the raids. It was against 
the Department's policy to make public its secrets, but not 
against Judge Anderson's, and wrath descended upon the 
witness' head. 

Was ever case in this manner conducted ? Judge Anderson 

is himself the case. You will remember him as doubting the 
menace of revolution three months ago. Today, handling the 
very firebrands of the promised revolution, his presence is cor- 
rectly and impressively informal, his attitude alertly human. 
Always to the end of securing his record he hears evidence 
lavishly, adding questions of his own. As he rocks back and 
forth in his desk chair, he will often take the tedious process 
of examination even out of the hands of the attorneys petition- 
ing, driving on toward a full version of what actually hap- 
pened. He plays a chief part, too, in running comment 
thinking aloud, as he calls it, when he says: 

The government's contention in this case is that advocacy of the 
general strike is advocacy of the overthrow of the government by 
force. If Congress passed a law condemning aliens who may advo- 
cate a general strike, why hasn't it made it a crime for citizens to 
use the weapon ? All anti-strike legislation has been thrown out of 
the house. There isn't a scintilla of law by Congress condemning 
the use of the strike as an economic weapon. 

And, again: 

There is clearly ground to argue, from the evidence here, that 
these people could never have received a fair trial in the tribunal 
constituted by law. I don't say that it is so, but there is room for 
argument. The question is whether the Bureau of Immigration has 
disqualified itself for meting out justice. That is my tentative view. 

The trial regularly figures in the press as " The Colyer 
Case " because Mr. and Mrs. Colyer of Wellesley represent 
the second element in the argument as forecast in the peti- 
tioners' introduction. That is the issue of "deportability " 
that the decision of the secretary of labor upon the Communist 
Party is reviewable by the court. Mr. and Mrs. Colyer are 
an English couple who came here during the war and took 
up their residence in Wellesley and their connection with the 
Left Wing Socialists as their share in American affairs. They 
are self confessed Communists, there was no irregularity in 
their arrest or in their hearings ; bail has been set for them at 
$10,000 each ; they have been conspicuous since the first day of 
their imprisonment. 

In the courtroom, Mr. Colyer, a sort of pocket edition 
minor prophet of a man, in a vivid scarlet tie, his wife sitting 
beside him, represent definite redness quite as specifically as 
Mr. Colyer's taste in neckwear. It is perhaps fortunate for 
the legal seriousness of the case for theirs is really the test 
case of the whole affair that they do not cut a more sympa- 
thetically heroic figure. 

In their favor be it said, however, that Judge Anderson 
has generally expressed himself on Communism. He finds 
Communists to be chiefly people who want to work after 
their own fashion and, in that, not very different from the 
rest of the world. Again Secretary Wilson's sweeping ruling 
he has, however, declared himself in part: 

I don't think it follows that every person of less education (than 
the Colyers) and of less intelligence and less knowledge of English 
who floated into this maelstrom should be held responsible. It is a 
very harsh doctrine that he should be made to suffer for what he 
may not have understood. 

Mr. Goldberg, the district attorney, protests the petitions 
sportingly. Mr. Katzeff, the attorney retained by the Work- 
ers' Defense Union on behalf of the petitioners, is alive, foreign 
and clever. It is fascinating to watch the attention with which 
he follows the interpreter in the translation of an alien wit- 
ness' testimony. The associate counsel ^f Mr. Katzeff, Law- 
rence Brooks, Prof. Zachariah Chaffee and Felix Frankfurter, 
is able and decisive. Professor Chaffee sees resemblance be- 
tween the present interpretation of our deportation law and 
Bismark's law which made Socialism a crime. Mr. Sullivan, 
of the Immigration Bureau, feigns slumber at the slightest 
mention of mistreatment under his Deer Island administration. 
The Russians pick up their ears for every witness who speaks 
their tongue. Mr. Colyer's necktie glows through the drab 
court-room atmosphere. And above and dominating all, the 
liberal, wise, humorous and humane judge who believes " it 
is no light thing to deprive men of their liberty." 




To Presidential 

FREEDOM to have ideas and to express them in speech 
or print is a treasured American tradition. Some of 
the appointed guardians of that freedom are just now 
proving false to their trust. Freedom of speech, of 
press, and of assembly is denied to those to whom we do not 
wish to be just, and the denial comes not from revolutionists 
but from frightened conservatives. 

The defense of these constitutional, time-honored rights 
thus falls upon those who are opprobriously called radicals. 
It seems at first to be a curious paradox. A conservative press, 
bench, bar, and pulpit hound the officials who are sworn to 
uphold the laws not to be too squeamish about the legality of 
their acts; and subservient officials not unwillingly invade the 
home, club the defenceless, use evidence obtained illegally, 
flout the spirit of the constitution and even the letter of the 
law. Judges, generals, prosecuting officials, editors, candidates 
for high office, university officials, constabulary and detectives, 
vie with one another in their incitement to revolutionary and 
lawless acts. Some openly lament that the fundamental laws 
put limits to their zeal and others constantly invent new de- 
vices for reaching the objects of their unrestrained and un- 
reasonable hatred. The Tiysteria is passing, but the remorse 
appropriate to those who have been under its sway is not yet 
in evidence. 

There is really nothing new or remarkable about the phe- 
nomenon. The protection of human rights never has fallen 
to those who are satisfied with things as they are. From the 
ranks of conservative editors:, clergymen, lawyers and busi- 
ness men, a voice is already raised now and then in protest, 
but the effectiveness of such protests is much diminished by 
fear of contamination with radicals or their sympathizers and 
apologists. Let us recognize frankly that half-hearted es- 
pousal of the bill of rights by those who, in this crisis, are 
afraid to touch hands with radicals, pacifists, and heretics, is 
no very safe reliance for law and order, for the freedom which 
is endangered. The rights of free speech, free press, and free 
assembly will be maintained in this hour of their peril, if at 
all, by those who have unpopular ideas to express which will 
not be denied utterance; ideas which to the mass of men are 
unwelcome because they are unfamiliar or because they are 
believed to be dangerous. They will be maintained not by 
those who have a purely academic interest in legality 
although their cooperation may always be accepted for what 
it is worth but primarily by those eccentric people who have 
a concrete interest in the chance to say or write something 
which they believe to be important. 

A few rare souls may be willing to fight on principle for 
the rights of a thinker whose thoughts are personally obnox- 
ious, but new and unpopular ideas are generally best served 
by those who have more than this Platonic affection for them. 
It has always been true that the brunt of the struggle for 
freedom at any given time must be borne by those who at 
that time are in danger of suppression. Not magnanimity, but 
the consciousness of rights denied and powers restrained, has 
ever been the motive of progress. 

Liberals who are now concerned that radicals shall not be 
silenced by unequal laws and arbitrary acts may honestly hope 
that they would be just as indignant if the privileges of the 
second-class mail rates were to be denied to the Providence 
Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, or if Archibald 
Stevenson were to be deported, or Speaker Sweet or Senator 
Sherman were to be disqualified. They may think that a be- 
lief that the Pope should have temporal power in America, 
or that the United States should intervene in Mexico, or that 
free speech should be suppressed, is as much entitled to protec- 
tion assuming no overt illegal act as a belief in coopera- 
tive stores or collective bargaining or the Plumb plan. 

To be sure, this is the only common ground that all ideas 

are free and the light to express them entitled to impartial 
respect. But it does not follow that as against particular foes 
all are equally interested to maintain that right. At one time 
one particular interest and at another time another will be 
most closely identified with the public interest, with upholding 
the rules of the game, with the fundamental welfare of society. 

It is in this sense that just now the real conservators of 
the sound American tradition are the very radicals and the 
aliens whom the real law-breakers are trying to outlaw. It 
is they who are willing to go to the stake in defense of the 
right of free speech, not because they are necessarily of more 
heroic mould, but because they are in earnest and are in oppo- 
sition. The acid test of our law abidingness is in our treat- 
ment of the " undesirable," the Wobblie, the discontented. 

The ideas which are seeking expression, however, are not 
merely ebullitions of unrest. There are dynamic proposals 
which we must look squarely in the face. There are evidences 
of social break-down which we cannot afford to ignore. There 
are experiments to evaluate. There are poems to be trans- 
lated into prose. There are sermons to be secularized. There 
are familiar evolutionary concepts which are to be applied to 
industry and to government. There is dead festering tissue 
to be removed from the wounds of the body politic. 

The particular reason then why it is important to keep 
open and safe the channels of group thinking and of group 
emotion is not merely that it is bad form and dangerous pre- 
cedent to mine and choke them. At this very moment ideas 
are taking shape, in the minds of common men everywhere, 
which should freely be allowed to make their way, if they can, 
into laws and regulations. They will not be unchallenged, 
and they will not become dangerous if in free and open dis- 
cussion they cannot be successfully defended. The point is 
that many of them can be defended. They inspire fear not 
because they are false, but because they are true. Their cham- 
pions are pioneers, statesmen, sober builders, forerunners of 
a new and better social order. Old things will pass away and 
the foolish scared people who are trying to hold on to them 
are not true conservatives at all, but blind and reckless revo- 
lutionists, instinctively ready to tip over the table when they 
do not like the way the game is going, crying out for new 
laws not to meet a need, but to prevent reformers from point- 
ing out a need and from talking about remedies. 

We need no new anti-strike laws or anti-sedition laws or 
anti-alien laws. We need rather to repeal the exceptional 
laws enacted to meet war conditions and to restore the habit 
of vigorous individual initiative. New methods in industry, 
in agriculture, in transportation, are called for; but they do 
not begin or end with suppression or coercion. The province 
of the nation may be on the whole enlarged, but it will not be 
in the direction of interference with the individual or with 
voluntary cooperative undertakings. Railways and mines will 
perhaps be nationalized ; but if so, it will not be a one-sided 
nationalization which insures dividends to investors and does 
not insure either service to the public or income to workers. 

A leading candidate for the Presidency has intimated that 
this is " no time for new ideas." So said the Romans and 
the Jews when Christianity was born. So said the Inquisitors 
with Galileo before them. So thought George III when Jef- 
ferson was at work on the draft of the immortal Declaration. 
So felt the slave holders and northern conservators when the 
pestiferous abolitionists were struggling for the right to speak 
and write for the very sake of the ideas they wanted to express. 

New ideas always seem to indoor dull and prejudiced minds 
like signs of disaster, and the traditional childish defense is 
to shut the eyes, clap hands over the ears, and scream. To 
manlier shepherds in the open fields, the birth of a new idea 
would always most appropriately be heralded by the glad songs 
of angels and the appearance of a new star in the firmament. 
No attorney-general and no candidate, no political party and 
no political power, can set bounds and seasons for the coming 
of new ideas. Now if ever since the first Adam, or at any 
rate since the new Adam, the world travails in the birth throes 
of new ideas. Let us have faith. EDWARD T. DEVINE. 

Immigrant Savings 1 

By Paul M. Warburg 


THE question of federal legislation to protect the 
savings of the immigrant has frequently been venti- 
lated. It could probably only be attempted with any 
moderate degree of success by treating the handling 
of immigrants' deposits and kindred transactions as matters 
inter-related with interstate commerce. An approach on these 
lines is not free from objections. To begin with, a very large, 
if not the largest, proportion of such business does not properly 
or at least not necessarily, involve inter-state transactions. 
Insofar as it involves immigrants' deposits, made and with- 
drawn in the same locality, it is clearly intra-state. It would 
involve a very strained construction of the law to hold that 
remittances to Europe made from a state of the Union would 
constitute an interstate transaction. An interstate transaction 
could be held to exist only if to illustrate a local banker 
of one state sent money to a banker in another state (con- 
ceivably New York) in order to have the remittance to 
Europe made from there. But even then the question arises 
whether banking transactions could be considered as consti- 
tuting " commerce." 

In any case, by establishing direct relations with the immi- 
grants' old home country, it would be easy for any bank or 
banker to keep his transactions free from the character of in- 
terstate business. Moreover, it would be difficult to secure 
for such legislation a favorable consideration on the part of 
Congress. The objection would at once be raised with great 
force that this was clearly a matter of state regulation which 
should not be taken out of the hands of the states. 

Since their inception I have been closely affiliated with the 
National Child Labor Committee and the New York com- 
mittee. These committees were faced with a similar prob- 
lem, that of trying to secure federal legislation for a matter 
that is essentially an object of state supervision and control. 
In that case, we found it the most practicable way of approach 
to carry on consistent campaigns in the various states of the 
Union and to organize local committees for the purpose of 
promoting state legislation for the regulation of child labor. 
We formulated a model law and bent our efforts on having 
legislation enacted in the various states on lines approaching 
the ideal as closely as possible. When in the leading states 
we had won over public opinion, we ventured to embark 
upon a campaign for the enactment of federal legislation. 
Child labor, as affecting interstate commerce, in my opinion, 
offers a much stronger case for federal legislation than the 
handling of immigrants' savings; but even in that case we 
have encountered great difficulty in defending the constitu- 
tionality of statutes after they had been enacted. Moreover, 
a Supreme Court decision has very clearly ruled out banking 
transactions of this character from being considered as inter- 
state commerce, and for all these reasons, I believe that it is 
advisable instead of attempting federal legislation rather to 
direct efforts towards securing adequate and, if possible, uni- 
form state legislation wherever immigrant savings exist in 
sufficiently large amounts and where they are not yet suffi- 
ciently protected. 

The circumstances that make such legislation highly de- 

1 Substance of nn address delivered before a national conference on Im- 
migration under the auspices of the Inter-Racial Council, New York, 
April 7. 

sirable are well known. I need not review the danger of the 
immigrant becoming a prey of so-called " private bankers," 
some of whom are exploiters without conscience, free in 
many states to rob their victims without being subjected 
to any adequate banking supervision. In New York 
a law was enacted in 1910 and has since been perfected 
through several amendments. It seems to meet the require- 
ments completely. The most essential point of the law is 
that anybody using the name " private banker " and accept- 
ing deposits below five hundred dollars and permitting inter- 
est thereon is subject to the control and regulation of the state 
Banking Department with respect to the conduct of his busi- 
ness, such as segregation of assets, regulation of investments, 
maintenance of certain prescribed reserves and giving of cer- 
tain sureties. 

It might be well worth while to develop a model law on 
similar lines, or to adopt the New York law as the standard, 
and to have such legislation enacted in the various: states of 
the Union where adequate protection does not yet exist. It 
is hard to perceive how any strong opposition could be mustered 
against such an enterprise. Only the crooks indulging in these 
bad practices would have an interest in blocking such legisla- 
tion, and it is more than doubtful that they should be able 
to command a sufficient support successfully to oppose the en- 
actment of such protective measures. 

While carrying on this campaign, I believe it ought to be 
impressed strongly upon those in charge of our national and 
state banking institutions that it is part of their duty, and 
incidentally good business, to provide facilities that will ade- 
quately meet the requirements of the immigrants. The war 
has brought about a great change in the distribution of wealth 
in the United States and, as a matter of fact, all over the 
world, and a modern deposit and investment business must 
seek the patronage not only of the large but also the smaller 
customers. The future of the banks will, therefore, depend 
in an increasing measure on catering not only to individuals 
of importance but to the masses. The funds in the hands 
of the working classes amount to billions, and as increasing 
taxation decreases the importance of the one-time class of 
capitalists as the exclusive field to cultivate for the purpose 
of placing securities for investment, so the savings of the 
masses will become an element of growing importance in this 
regard if private enterprise is successfully to finance the future 
growth of our country. Banks in districts with a large for- 
eign population should, therefore, be encouraged to organize 
branches or departments in charge of men who speak the lan- 
guage of these foreign elements, who know their requirements, 
their hopes, ambitions, and cares. These departments should 
develop into centers where the immigrants could flock to get 
sympathy and honest advice rather than seek it from the crooks 
who under the guise of a fatherly care, commit cruel rob- 
bery on their helpless victims. There is sufficient evidence 
that where banks have adopted this policy their broad-minded- 
ness has been amply rewarded by material results. 

Proper state legislation would be a helpful factor in this 
development, because the more impossible it is for the crook 
to enrich himself by illegitimate means, the more practicable 




is it for decent banks to carry on this business on a moderate 
but adequate basis of compensation. 

It is on these lines that we must seek to solve the problem 
of protecting the deposits of the immigrant; of securing for 
him honest service when he requires such facilities as trans- 
portation tickets, purchase or sale of foreign currencies, bills 
of exchange or securities, and finally when it comes to invest- 
ing his money in American securities or other property. 

It has been suggested that special legislation ought to be 
sought to protect the immigrant from fake advertisements. 
That is a question which does not only touch the immigrant 
but the whole of the United States. It opens the question 
of proper publicity for public offerings of all kinds of securi- 
ties. It is a much mooted question which, at present, is the 
subject of serious study and debate in the state of New York. 
My own belief is that state legislation in this regard will 
probably not cure the evil, but that if voluntary self-discipline 

cannot combat it, federal legislation in this regard will have 
to be the ultimate outcome. It is, however, a question which 
is country-wide and rather too large and too intricate a task 
to be shortly di-v-c-d o f, or to be taken up as a part of the 
immigrant problem. 

Not only unscrupulous private banking firms but also agents 
of express companies or steamship lines insufficiently super- 
vised by their head offices often take undue advantage of 
the immigrants in his foreign exchange and kindred transac- 
tions. If the foreign press carried information, easily intel- 
ligible to even the simplest readers, as to the approximate rates 
of exchange ruling from time to time, transportation and other 
charges, and if it could be made to carry the name and ad- 
dress of some office that would give disinterested advice and 
direction, I am inclined to think that many acts of robbery 
could be prevented. 

Boston and the "Movie" Censorship 

By Amy Woods 



! HREE hundred forty-seven organizations in Mas- 
sachusetts are working for state supervision of mo- 
tion pictures. They, through their boards of direc- 
tors, or in general assembly, have considered the need 
and the remedy which is embodied in a bill that called for 
state control through a system of pre-viewing of every film 
before it is shown, and members of the House and Senate say 
they have never received so many letters in favor of a bill 
as in this instance. Certainly the two days crowded hearing 
in the large assembly hall bespoke a wide public interest and 
a rising vote on the first day showed proponents in the ma- 
jority three to one. 

These 347 organizations include 20 of state-wide interest 
besides local groups, ranging in size and variety from the 
Boston League of Women Voters and Chambers of Com- 
merce to little thread and needle clubs in small towns, and 
their interest has crystallized itself into the State Committee 
on Motion Pictures, which has for its purpose the perma- 
nent improvement of the standards of motion pictures and 
conditions under which they are presented in Massachusetts. 

The work of the committee started with no preconceived 
notions of what was needed, and after nine months of in- 
vestigation of films shown in Massachusetts and other states, 
study of various methods of control and conferences with rep- 
resentatives of the National Board of Review, the conclusion 
reached was that state control is the most effective method 
yet found to prevent the showing of many of the objection- 
able features which are now being produced in photo plays. 
It was not, however, until after the committee had heard 
the objections of the commercial interests to any form of legal- 
ized control as presented by the secretary of the National 
Association of the Motion Picture Industry and others and 
it became certain that no form of agreement could be reached, 
that a bill was filed with the present legislature asking for 
pre-vicw of every film by the state before exhibition. In fact, 
the committee delayed filing the bill for three weeks in order 
that members of the industry might submit a counter plan 
which they believed would be more effective for the welfare 
of the state. Negotiations were broken off when the commit- 
tee received a letter from the representative of the National 
Association saying that they could see no reason why they 
ihuuld offer such a proposition as they believe that the 
present laws in conjunction with the National Board of Re- 
view are the best that they could expect in Massachusetts. 

The bill was filed on January 12. Both sides agree that 
the standards are low; to raise the standards regulation is 
necessary, and to effectively regulate motion pictures it is 
necessary to have an examination of every film before release. 
The issue is on method of regulation. 

That regulation and pre-view is necessary has been acknowl- 
edged by a large majority of the commercial film interests by 
their voluntary submission of their films to an unofficial board 
of censors with the agreement to abide by its decisions. That 
the standards are low was also publicly acknowledged by five 
leading motion picture companies in a statement given to a 
Committee on Education of the United States House of Rep- 
resentatives, May, 1916, which said among other things: 

Unfortunately the vicious picture brings the largest return to the 
exhibitor and producer because it gets the money of the regular 
customers and the sensation seekers also. In fact the production 
of vicious pictures is constantly increasing just because they are 
more profitable. If the industry is to endure, if decent people are 
to stay in the business, this cancer must be cut out. 

The National Association of the Motion Picture Industry, 
August 5, 1919, adopted resolutions recognizing the National 
Board of Review as " the one existing organization for motion 
picture review of a democratic nature," and resolved " that 
each producer or distributor submitting its product to the Na- 
tional Board for review agrees to accept the decisions of the 
National Board as representative of public opinion." 

These resolutions were taken, according to the Annual Re- 
port of the Censorship Committee of the association, " to 
combat the ever growing agitation for the censorship of 
moving picture screens," and because " It is a question which 
should receive the closest attention of all interested to see 
this great and growing business reach the point where it will 
be classed as the first in all the industries of the world." 

In some states, as in Massachusetts, the mayor or selectmen 
have the right to withdraw or withhold a license, but this is 
done only when the police authorities ask to see before it is 
presented a film which they have heard is not good, or 
when there is a public protest against a film after it has been 
shown. In some cities of Massachusetts volunteer commit- 
tees have been appointed to visit theatres and pass upon films. 

The difficulty is that most theatres change programs twice 
a week, and some three times. The exhibition of films is so 
rapid and so constantly changing that it is impossible for vol- 
unteers to systematically see all the films presented at the first 




performance. Individuals cannot go around as spies and watch 
dogs. The film may have been advertised for two weeks and 
it is difficult to judge impartially and keep the good will of the 
manager, and it is unjust to the manager who should have 
means of knowing whether the film will be acceptable to the 
authorities before he engages it. 

In this local censorship, the police, the volunteer committee 
and the public are relying on the National Board of Review. 
But despite the fact that " 99 per cent of the national output 
in motion picture photo plays of an entertainment character 
comes under the reviewing eye of the National Board," accord- 
ing to Everett Dean Martin, chairman, and that " No film can 
be shown commercially in Boston until it has passed the Na- 
tional Board," according to the decision of John M. Casey, 
licensing officer of Boston, during the week of February 8, 
1920, 23 theatres in Boston were visited by trained workers 
from social and civic organizations, and out of 73 films viewed 
19 were reported as showing indecent, immoral or obscene 
conditions. Eliminating 4 news weeklies, I educational film 
and i reel of jokes from the Literary Digest, there remains 
28 per cent of the dramatic films such that, according to the 
investigators, they should not have been shown in some in- 
stances at all, in others only after objectionable parts had been 
deleted. None of these photo plays were allowed in Penn- 
sylvania under state censorship in the form in which they 
were shown in Boston. 

I venture to say that it would disgust any reader of the 
SURVEY to hear a description of these films, all of which 
should be deleted in part or rejected in entirety. One of 
them, for instance, shows a young girl who attempts to com- 
mit suicide in a Chinese dive in Paris, and is rescued by an 
old man who brings her to a house of ill fame, where she be- 
comes an inmate. She ruins an innocent American youth. 
His father sends a younger brother to rescue the young man. 
The girl falls in love with the second son, but does not wish 
him to sacrifice himself, and so in order to show just how bad 
she is, stages a performance of her life story. It turns out 
that the young man's father was the original betrayer of the 
girl. He had picked her up in a limousine and taken her to 
his apartments, and after ruining her, shipped her out of the 
country. The film ends by the girl committing suicide in 
order to save the man who loved her. 

This is but a sample of the films which continuously pass 
the reviewing committee of the National Board of Review. 
The National Board of Review is not a federal board as the 
name might imply, but is a self-appointed group of New York 
citizens who censor nationally " at the express request of the 
manufacturers," according to Everett Dean Martin. It re- 
ceives its support largely from film interests. Out of a budget 
of over $29,000, more than $28,000 was received from trade 
interests " either from actual film producers or from ether 
interests in the motion picture field" (Report of National 
Board, 1916-1917). It also opposes any attempt for legal- 
ized censorship in any state where representative citizens who 
are not part of the public opinion which the National Board 
claims to represent, assert that a state has the right to decide 
for itself what films shall be seen. 

A report of a survey purporting to have been made by the 
National Board of Review through a questionnaire sent to 
the probation officers of the country was submitted at the hear- 
ing as conclusive proof that probation officers had rendered 
a " verdict " that " motion pictures are not directly responsi- 
ble to any appreciable extent, if at all for juvenile delin- 
quency." In order to verify this statement Herbert C. Par- 
sons, deputy commissioner of probation of Massachusetts, sent 
a letter to the 155 probation officers in the state. 

Of 127 who replied, only a possible 6 were asked their 
opinion by the National Board of Review. Of these six, 

three did not reply, and of the remaining three, two answered 
that pictures displayed without restriction are a menace. One 
officer alone expressed an opinion that the movies were not 
injurious. Mr. Parsons' conclusions are that the opinion of 
the Massachusetts officers was not really sought by the Na- 
tional Board of Review, and that so far as any opinions were 
expressed they were either distorted or positively reversed in 
order to make out the " verdict of not guilty." While the 
opinion of the Massachusetts officers was not asked in a letter 
from the commissioner, 56 declared themselves outright for 
state censorship; 5 expressed themselves as not favoring it; 
and 66 expressed no opinion, or stated that they preferred not 
to commit themselves. The testimony from these officers of 
individual cases forms sufficient proof of the human basis 
from which they drew their conclusions. 

Dr. Clifford Gray Twombly says in The Churchman for 
January 24: 

A comparison of the work of the Pennsylvania State Board of 
Censors with that of the National Board of Review which does the 
censoring for the country at large, shows the true situation. In 
178 films examined not long ago the Pennsylvania Board made 1108 
eliminations of objectionable scenes of immorality and indecency and 
lust and crime of all kinds, while in the same 178 films the National 
Board made only 41 such eliminations. During the same period the 
Pennsylvania Board condemned in toto 41 films and refused to allow 
them to be shown at all in Pennsylvania, 16 of which films they 
had to examine in common with the National Board. In these 16 
films (which were condemned in toto by the Pennsylvania Board) 
the National Board in New York made only two minor eliminations. 
It is practica-IIy a whitewash of the whole output. 

Massachusetts has two statutes which the opposition claim 
are sufficient to remedy the condition. One provides that 

Whoever as owner, manager, director, agent or in any other ca- 
pacity prepares, advertises, gives, presents or participates in any 
lewd, obscene, indecent, immoral or impure show or entertainment, 
or in any show or entertainment suggestive of lewdness, obscenity, 
indecency, immorality or impurity, or in any show or entertainment 
manifestly tending to corrupt the morals of youth, shall be punished 
by imprisonment for not more than one year or by a fine of not 
more than five hundred dollars or by both such fine and imprison- 

The plan which the industry in conjunction with the Na- 
tional Board of Review is trying to superimpose upon the rest 
of the country under the name of " the Boston Plan " is that 
the mayor or selectmen of each city and town shall license 
all films approved by the National Board of Review, without 
seeing them before exhibition. If a film is sufficiently disap- 
proved by the public to become a controversial matter, then, 
the mayor, the police commissioner and chief justice of the 
Municipal Court by a majority vote may revoke or suspend 
any such license at their pleasure, according to the above law. 

It is evident that many people of Massachusetts do not agree 
to this plan, and " the ever-growing agitation for the censorship 
of moving picture screens " would indicate that citizens of 
other states do not either. 

The opposition claims that state censorship is unconstitu- 
tional, and is allied to censorship of the press, but the United 
States Supreme Court has held that the statutes creating 
censorship, both in Ohio and Kansas, are constitutional, they 
do not infringe upon the liberty of opinion, and the exhibition 
of motion pictures is not to be nor intended to be regarded as 
part of the press of the country as organs of public opinion. 

The Committee on Mercantile Affairs of the Massachusetts 
Legislature with a membership of 15, has reported a bill for 
state censorship with only 3 dissenting votes. It seems prob- 
able that their decision will be supported by the General Court. 

\W . S. McGuire, Jr., executive secretary, National Board of Review of Motion 
Pictures, ivill reply to this article in the SURVEY for April 24. EDITOR.] 

Workers by Brain 

The Intellectuals in Relation to the British 
Movement Toward Workers' Control 

By Arthur Gleason 

THE intellectuals in the British trade union move- 
ment are not numerous, but they are busy workers. 
So close is the harmony in which they and the in- 
dustrialists sing that it is difficult to tell which por- 
tion of a manifesto in time of crisis is written by an im- 
passioned labor leader locked in combat with the grim giants 
of capitalism, and which is the insidious philosophy of a cool 
young social scientist from the serene close of Oxford or Glas- 
gow. I have been moved by the pure proletarian accent of 
a broadside from a transport worker only to find that it had 
been germinated and polished off in the laboratory of a uni- 
versity thinker. I once asked a machinist shop steward whether 
his well-known idea of the state was the result of contact 
with a famous young university writer. " I'm converting 
him," he replied. And I asked the essayist how the matter 
stood. " I'm converting him," he answered. That is how 
close it is. It is an interwoven movement. Both groups are 
enjoying the experience. The scholars revel in the tough- 
minded reality of being at last a part of something with mass 
and motion. And the workers are pleased to find themselves 
provided with a vocabulary and a philosophy. 

To take one group of intellectuals, the guildsmen, who have 
powerfully affected the thinking of trade union members : In 
the last five years, the guildsmen have done a service akin to 
that done by Blatchford for a former generation. They don't 
write as simply or as vigorously as Blatchford did in Merrie 
England, but they, like him, are evangelists. They have car- 
ried on excellent Salvation Army work in popularizing the 
idea of a British brand of syndicalism. They have domesti- 
cated that immense dynamic. But for them, the Central 
Labor College, the Socialist Labor Party, the I. W. W., 
French ideas, the phrases of Tom Mann and the tracts of 
Daniel De Leon, would have perhaps been the only deposit 
of syndicalism and industrial unionism. The result would 
have been a small minority of workers over-stimulated with 
a. doctrine that omitted one-half the truth. But Orage, Cole, 
Mellor, Hobson, Bechhofer, Reckitt, and a few others ren- 
dered the alien vocabulary into a British blend which is as 
pleasing to the palate as Lipton's tea. 

This earnest, tiny group (a few hundred in all the king- 
dom) appear in various service uniforms and play many parts. 
As university graduates, they are at the heart of the University 
Socialist Federation. As Christians, they are Church Social- 
ists, sapping the established church. As guildsmen, they con- 
duct a league, honeycombing the trade unions. As investiga- 
tors, they are the Labor Research Department, affiliated with 
important members of the trade union movement. As Fa- 
bians, they buffet Sidney Webb. As journalists, they have 
entry to powerful newspapers and weeklies. As writers, such 
books as An Introduction to Trade Unionism, Sclf-Govern- 
ment in Industry, The Payment of Wages, Trade Union- 
ism in the Railways, are in some instances irreplaceable be- 
cause of the careful collection of facts and the understanding 
of currents of tendency. But their great service has been 
that of agitators with a smashing generalization. Perhaps 
no group of young, ardent men with a message ever had a 

more fortunate fate. Their influence on the industrial move- 
ment has been widespread. It is visible in such programs as 
that of the miners' bill for nationalization, the demands of 
the railwaymen, and the report of a committee of the Build- 
ing Trades Parliament. 

Having done their job manfully, their function is ending. 
What is wanted now is no longer agitation, but education. 
To illustrate: In the evidence of George Douglas Howard 
Cole, once the most indefatigable of the Guild Socialists, to 
the Coal Commission, May 2, 1919, he spoke of " The as- 
piration on the part of a great proportion of the people in 
industry, including many employers, managers and workers, 
which is an inspiration to serve the public . . . That motive 
of public service . . . Discipline by an organization in which 
you are conscious of your own citizenship in the commu- 
nity . . . Where the pit committee has taken other functions 
[in addition to control over absenteeism] into its hands it 
has for a time in certain districts been a very great success. I 
might mention certain Derbyshire collieries." 

Mr. Cole was then requested by Justice Sankey to return 
to the commission with the names of those Derbyshire com- 
mittees, which had a share in direction and had been a " very 
great success." In May and again in June he was recalled 
but failed to supply the information asked, saying that he had 
relied on the Miners' Federation to get it for him, without 

Justice Sankey said he did not understand. " You see, you 
made some very definite statements about conversations you 
had with regard to these pit committees. I want you to tell me 
about that." But " there lives no record of reply." Said 
Justice Sankey: "You are leaving it very late. I relied a 
great deal upon your promise to assist us. It leaves us in some 
difficulty. I am very anxious to hear about these committees 
which 1 regard as most important." 

Mr. Cole's inability to produce facts in substantiation of 
his statement on workers' control, (his evidence on the Derby- 
shire pit committees), was clearly not only a disappointment 
to Justice Sankey, but forced him to turn to the public ad- 
ministrator solution of Lord Haldane, rather than to a formu- 
lation of workers' control. Justice Sankey incorporated the 
suggestions of Lord Haldane because he was in easy mastery 
of his facts and because he dealt at length with the problem 
of motive in industry. Sankey was forced to reject the sug- 
gestions of the guild witness, because, promising facts, he gave 
none, and generalizing on " aspiration," and " inspiration," 
he did not reveal knowledge of instincts in industry. It is 
conceivable that a well-grounded statement of workers' con- 
trol might have won for the miners a recognition that will 
now be delayed through a transition period of several years. 

Justice Sankey had to consider these very questions in 
determining the constitution of the coal industry. And the 
evidence and the Sankey report show that Lord Haldane and 
Sidney Webb and the London School of Economics had at 
least one sort of answer, which had a basis of facts in col- 
lected experience but that the Guild Socialists had failed 
to establish their case in the mind of the judge. 




Mr. Lloyd George winged his arrows of doubt to the same 
mark when he talked with the miners. He wanted to " know 
exactly what you mean by a voice in control." Is it safety 
or commercial control? Is " voice " the same thing as " con- 

Prof. Alfred Marshall says in Industry and Trade (page 

Unless guild organization develops some notion, of which it at 
present seems to have made no forecast, it may probably drift into 
chaos, from which relief can be found only in military despotism. 
In this matter [discipline], as in some others, Mr. Cole seems to 
follow closely in the paths of St. Simon, Fourier, and other early 
Socialists of noble character and vivid poetic imagination. The last 
new version of the Golden Age is to bring out latent powers or 
goodness in human nature ; the task of regulation is to be as simple 
as it would be if all men were as unselfish and earnest as the writer 
himself the vast difficulties of modern business organization are so 
completely left out of account as to imply that they have never been 
seriously studied. 

But Professor Marshall also states: 

The state can now look to the main body of workers as the source 
of much of that higher administrative work, which used to belong 
almost exclusively to the well-to-do. This change was emphasized 
by the Whitley report, and it will be promoted by joint industrial 
councils, though their effort may not reach far towards a wide dis- 
semination of the supreme tasks of conceiving new ventures, weigh- 
ing their promises and their risks, and making a wise selection. 

It was not difficult to formulate the demands of the work- 
ers in former generations, because the instinctive reactions 
were simple to read. More money and less work that was 
as easy to hit right as to know what a drowning man wants. 
But when we enter the region of progressive self-government, 
the devolution of power to associated groups, we pass over 
from the psychology of the servile, suffering, rebellious, but 
collectively unified consciousness of a mass to the various re- 
actions of those groups. We shall have " a revolt of the tech- 
nician, the electrician, the chemist, the artist, the designer, the 
manager. We, too, want to have self-determination; we want 
to have control over our working life. The function of the 
draughtsman is to draw plans; he will draw plans as he likes, 
and will not be tyrannized over by the manual workers for 
whom he is drawing plans." 

No bridge is being built between their Day of Judgment 
which some guildsmen say is to come within a year or two 
" when the capitalistic system crumbles " and the day of 
workers' control. The system of workers' control presup- 
poses four things that 

1 . The workers wish control. 

2. The workers are capable of control. 

3. The technical, managerial and directive men will co- 

4. The consumer will acquiesce. 

I suggest that those four things are not obtainable within 
one or two years but are five to twenty-five years distant. I 
refer to the full program. The first steps have been taken. 
Increasing control is demanded by the rank and file. But what 
the percentage of control will finally be, no one knows. 

The young intellectuals of Britain who show interest in 
labor are singularly unaware of the nature of this material 
under examination. The great instinctive movement of the 
workers is pushing on. Theirs not to reason why. But it 
is emphatically the business of students of the labor move- 
ment to use the apparatus and technique which have been laid 
down by men like Graham Wallas. They are telling the work- 
ers what the workers want, without themselves possessing an 
equipment in modern psychology. They write rationalistic 
paragraphs about " service " and " motives " and " economic 
forces," without at all realizing that there are instincts in 
industry which break those Victorian Oxford ideas into fine 

splinters. There is much patient work to be done in the psy- 
chology of the skilled worker, the unskilled, the casual, the 
technician, the manager, before they can be at all jammed 
into facilely devised categories and marshalled, like two sets 
of chessmen, into neat opposing forces, to be moved by the 
Capablanca of the intellectuals. 

One of the distinguished English economists, himself a 
guildsman, writes me: 

I have thought over your criticisms, and on the whole I agree with 
them as to the method, though I am not sure they very much affect 
the substance of the guildsmen's conclusions. My only criticism on 
Graham Wallas's work (which I admire) is that it is sometimes a 
rearrangement under new categories of matter which is already 
familiar, and which, when rearranged, does not suggest very differ- 
ent conclusions. Granted that man is not " rational," what is the 
practical application thereof? Presumably that he should be as ra- 
tional as he can. No doubt political terms are likely to be strained 
when transferred to the sphere of economics, e. g., " self-govern- 
ment" in industry. But is it necessary to prove the psychological 
malaise which arises when men are unable to exercise any effective 
control over their social environment? Is it not legitimate to assume 
it, and to argue on that hypothesis? 

The only detailed full-length study of workers' control in 
Britain has been made by an American, Carter Goodrich, 
under the title of The Frontier of Control. His book is in- 
dispensable for one who would know the area of control 
(much of it negative, the control of restrictions and veto and 
legislative minima) which has already been obtained by the 
workers, and the direction in which they are pushing their 
frontier into new territory. His sharp analysis breaks up 
" discipline and management " into their functional fact- 
content, and their psychological hinterland. Mr. Goodrich's 
study is only a beginning, but it shows what is needed. 

The limitations of the group of guildsmen (with notable 
exceptions, including J. Paton and Frank Hodges) are in 
ignorance of the facts concerning workers' control, and an un- 
awareness of the need for a psychological approach to the mate- 
rial under investigation. Their brilliant and incomparable 
pioneering now needs to be supplemented by the massive and 
minute work of men like Sidney Webb, in one field, and of 
Graham Wallas and Harold Laski, Lord Haldane and Jus- 
tice Sankey in other fields. 

In dealing with a matter like workers' control, or nationali- 
zation, or a forty-eight hour week, the British way is to let 
trouble heap up through several years, denying there is any 
trouble, till it bursts into a crisis. Then a scratch committee 
of experts is appointed, who work at break-neck speed, pool 
their opinions and produce a report of recommendations on 
what to do to be saved. This is drafted as a parliamentary bill, 
and becomes an act, a law. By this good-natured optimistic 
postponing way of theirs, the British are able to enjoy life as a 
series of emergencies which sometimes approach disaster. But 
the actual legislation is often the result of long, stealthy, 
patient propaganda. Ideas blow up and down the countryside, 
like seeds on the wind, and at last find lodgment in the collec- 
tive mind. After many years they result in legislation. A law 
once passed cannot be killed. It takes root and becomes an 
institution, altering society. 

This is the British way to push on into the jungle without 
a map or a compass, but with an instinct for direction. They 
write good history of their journeying, a generation or a cen- 
tury later, but they keep no chronicle of the day as it falls. 
They chop away at the facts till vast heaps lie along their path. 
They attempt no collection, no classification, no analysis, no 
synthesis, till they near the end of what would have been an 
easier journey, if they had used a scientific imagination. But 
no one else had ever made the journey, nor perhaps would have 
made it but for the track they blasted. 


A Department of Practice 


Conducted by 

The Coal Strike Settlement 

NOT in a long time has any group of men responsible for 
dealing with a labor controversy talked more horse sense 
to their fellow countrymen than the Bituminous Coal Com- 
mission in the report which has just brought a settlement of 
the issues in the soft coal field. The constructive suggestions 
offered for the future reorganization of the coal industry go 
to the heart of the problem. Unless the fundamental evils 
pointed out are remedied there can be no permanent peace 
between operators and miners and there can be little economic 
health in the industry. 

The commission, or a majority, awarded an increase in 
wages to the miners of approximately 27 per cent. This 
means a total increased wage cost of $200,000,000, as com- 
pared with the cost on October 31, 1919. Under the new 
rate, which became effective April i, the tonnage workers will 
have received an average increase in wages since 1913 of 80 
per cent. This is a rough approximation of the advance in 
the cost of living. John P. White, the miners' representa- 
tive on the commission, protested against this award. His 
argument was that the average wage obtained by miners in 
1913 was less than the cost of living at that time. Conse- 
quently an advance which paralleled the rise in commodity 
prices would still leave the miners on the under side of a 
proper income. 

The commission recognized the industrial conditions which 
gave rise to the miners' demand for a six-hour day and a five- 
day week. It did not sanction this demand, but forceful argu- 
ments were made for the improvement of the conditions which 
had led men to seek such a radically shorter working period. 
In essence, as pointed out in the SURVEY of November 22, 
1919, this was the seasonal character of bituminous coal min- 
ing. Employment is irregular. On the average, for the 
past thirty years, it was reported, the number of possible work- 
ing days when the mines were not in operation was 93 V In 
other words, more than one-fourth of the time the miners 
were without the possibility of work. The commission sug- 
gested a number of remedies through which evenness of pro- 
duction and distribution of coal throughout the year may be 
obtained. In particular the cooperation of railroads, public 
utilities and steel companies as consumers on one side, and of 
the operators, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the banks 
and the federal reserve system on the other side, was sought. 
As long as coal is produced intermittently the costs must be 
higher than they would be if employment was regular. From 
every point of view this is a serious waste. The miners, the 
operators, and the general public alike are its victims. The 
commission has detailed suggestions for remedies. These 
ought to be put into effect. The practice of so many com- 
panies of carrying enough men on their rolls to meet emer- 
gencies of the rush season, with the full knowledge that dur- 
ing much of the year a large number of these must be idle, 
is indefensible alike from economic and human points of view. 

The Bituminous Coal Commission threw needed light on 
other essential circumstances in the coal industry. Among 
other things it called attention to petty practices which have 


survived from another industrial era. Among these are the 
practice of certain operators in exacting discounts upon ad- 
vances of pay made between pay days and the taking of profit 
by certain operators on articles sold to the miners for use in 
the industry. Such, for example, is the custom of making 
a profit on powder and on blacksmithing. 

From the public point of view a significant statement was 
made concerning the 14 per cent wage increase authorized by 
the fuel administrator, Harry A. Garfield. Although Dr. 
Garfield made this award on the assumption that the wage 
increase would not be passed on to the public the commis- 
sion found that in the neighborhood of 80 per cent of the 
total tonnage of coal moved since October 31 has been moved 
under contracts providing for automatic price increases equiva- 
lent to the increases resulting from changes in wage scales. 
The commission was of the opinion, however, that the allega- 
tions of very high profits made concerning some of the coal 
companies were not substantiated. 

On the whole the commission's investigation lays the basis 
for an important readjustment of the coal industry. Until 
obvious evils are remedied the menace of instability and of 
excessive costs for this basic commodity must continue. 

Creative Workmanship 

THE results of making work interesting in a paper mill 
were described recently to the Industrial Group of the 
Ethical Culture Society in New York by an industrial 
engineer and a trade union leader. Robert B. Wolf, 
the engineer, told in emphatic terms about the increase 
in production. " When I took charge of the sulphite 
pulp mill of the Burgess Company at Berlin, New Hamp- 
shire," he said, " the plant was putting out 42,000 tons per 
year of the poorest quality fiber produced on the Ameri- 
can continent, which was also the poorest in the world. It 
was so poor that our customers did not want their patrons to 
know that their paper contained Burgess pulp. At the end 
of six years, without adding one machine to the plant, the 
production was 111,000 tons of pulp yearly, and this pulp was 
of better quality than the best European importation, so good 
that our customers would advertise the fact that they were 
using Burgess pulp." 

John P. Burke, president of the International Brotherhood 
of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers, told the workers' 
side of the story. " Four years ago I worked in the mill," he 
said ; " I know what it is to go through the same deadening 
motions hour after hour and day after day. When that work 
was made interesting it was as much of a benefit to the 
workers as taking four hours off the workday. When Mr. 
Wolf explained to the local union what he proposed to do, 
and when we were satisfied that he had no ulterior motives, 
we cooperated with him, because the labor movement believes 
in progress, not in stagnation." Mr. Burke added, inciden- 
tally, in the course of his speech, " We wish that all the men 
in the mills were as good union men as Bob Wolf." 

Mr. Wolf's vivid personality and engaging frankness of 
manner must have contributed not x little to the results he 
has achieved, it may be said in passing, but the methods he has 



developed, as he described them briefly, are well worth con- 
sideration. His first step was the working out of scientific 
standards for the tasks. To begin with, for example, there 
were nine men engaged in the important process of cooking 
the pulp. Each man cooked by his own rule-of-thumb method, 
and the result was nine different kinds of pulp, of varying 
degrees of badness. There was on the staff of the plant a 
chemist, whose function was to make certain stereotyped tests. 
Mr. Wolf proceeded to make work interesting for the chem- 
ist by putting him at the job of improving the quality of the 
pulp. For a long time he studied the cooking process, and 
through the cooperation of the workmen who did the cooking 
he accumulated a large amount of technical data. At length, 
by the use of this data, and again with the help of the work- 
men, a combination of variables, temperature, pressure, 
cooking-time, etc., was worked out which produced good 
pulp. A chart was plotted which showed graphically the 
different factors in the " ideal " cooking process. The cookers 
readily grasped this chart, and they were then able to com- 
pare their own performance with the chart and gradually to 
make their efforts approximate the standard. To show how 
the chance to exercise intelligence added to the attractiveness 
of the work, Mr. Wolf told the story of a man who had been 
for a number of years a helper in filling the digesters. He 
should have been promoted to the cook's position, but he took 
no interest in the cooking operation, and men were constantly 
promoted over his head. Soon after the new plan of work 
had been adopted, however, he came to Mr. Wolf and told 
him that he would like to learn to cook. He said he had not 
much education, but that his wife, who used to be a school 
teacher, had helped him figure the cooking charts, and that 
he felt pretty sure he could do the work. Mr. Wolf gave him 
a chance at the cooking, and while his foreman was skeptical 
at first, in a year and a half he became one of the best cooks. 
The sharing with the workmen of technical knowledge seems 
to be the part of Mr. Wolf's system which distinguishes it 
sharply from the old " efficiency " systems. In both cases sci- 
entific accuracy is substituted for rule-of-thumb methods, but 
the result in one case is to stamp out what little initiative ex- 
isted, and in the other to increase initiative. 

Progress records, either for individuals or groups, were 
worked out to affect almost every one of the twelve or thir- 
teen hundred men in the mill. It is interesting to know that 
this scheme was first hit upon by accident. Mr. Wolf planned 
a bonus system, and when this was turned down by the own- 
ers of the plant he conceived the idea of posting the records 
from which the bonuses would have been paid. As an im- 
provement on purely quantity records quality records were 
evolved, and it was found that certain hard feelings en- 
gendered by quantity competition disappeared and that a spirit 
of intelligent cooperation among the men took its place. To 
improve their own work men made suggestions for improv- 
ing operating conditions, which eventually resulted in the re- 
designing of most of the apparatus. Then one day a work- 
man said, " We don't know what things cost; if we knew we 
could save materials." The result was that cost sheets, which 
had first been given only to heads of departments, were given 
to each foreman and through him to the men. Foremen got 
into the habit of figuring estimates on the cost of their work, 
and then trying to beat their own estimates. Some of the 
workmen would bring scales into the mill to weigh the material 
delivered to them, to make sure the storehouse was not beating 
them on the material charged against the job. The net re- 
sult was the cutting in two of the maintenance material cost, 
with a saving of $20,000 a month. 

Mr. Wolf emphasized the fact that no bonuses were ever 
paid. " Our men were well paid," he said, " better paid 
than those in any similar plant in the country, because they 
earned it. But the payment was entirely on a weekly and 
hourly basis." 

In showing the relation of unionism to Mr. Wolf's work, 
Mr. Burke told the story of how the eight-hour day was 
won in the Spanish River Paper Mills, where Mr. Wolf re- 

cently had charge. The mill was thoroughly organized and 
the eight-hour day had been put into operation except in one 
department where the men wanted to work longer hours to 
make more money. " Finally Mr. Wolf had a happy thought. 
He made the rate for the long shift 30 cents an hour, and 
the rate for the short shift 40 cents. The men went on the 
eight-hour basis." Mr. Burke told also of the organization 
of a shop committee at the Spanish River mills. The gen- 
eral manager first asked for a meeting with the union head 
and talked the matter over with him. The plan contains 
the provision that only employes who are in good standing 
in their union are eligible for nomination as representatives 
of the employes. The union is warmly supporting this shop 
committee, while at the same time it is fighting, at the Kim- 
berly Clark mills in Wisconsin, a shop committee patterned 
after that of the International Harvester Company. 

As a result of his industrial experience Mr. Wolf has a 
fervent belief in the creative capacities of the workers and 
their willingness to cooperate with intelligent management. 
' Man's desire to create and plan is his most fundamental in- 
stinct," he says. " All you have to do is to give the work- 
man a chance to use his brains and he will respond in fullest 

Trade Union Education 

/~\NE of the historic demands of the workers of this coun- 
^-'try has been for education and more education. Nearly 
a century ago the forerunners of the present trade union 
movement were among the most active of the citizens who 
were urging the creation of a true system of public educa- 
tion. Public schools have not brought sufficiently that full 
grasp on fact and philosophy for which the earlier trade 
unionists so tragically yearned. Consequently sundry exper- 
iments have been made in the effort to supply in adult life 
the lack of education which is entailed by premature labor. 
Among the most interesting of these experiments is the work 
conducted by the International Ladies' Garment Workers' 
Union. Louis S. Friedland, director of education for the 
international union, describes as follows the work of his or- 
ganization : 

" The educational activities of the international began as early 
as 1914. Since then the work lias developed in many directions, 
until today the educational system of the international is by 
far the most important, the most significant, the most practical 
of the experiments made in trade union education in our 
country. The large number of labor schools and colleges 
founded in the last two or three years bears testimony to the 
vision and forethought of those present at the international 
convention in 1914 which initiated trade union education. At 
present, the international supports a workers' university, which 
meets at the Washington Irving High School in New York 
city. There are classes for officers and for other active mem- 
bers of the trade union. The business agents and other officers 
of the local unions attend classes of an advanced or post- 
graduate character in the following required subjects: 
Economics of the Industrial System, Advanced English and 
Written Composition, Psychology, Public Speaking, Physical 
Training and Health, Education, Trade Union Problems and 
Labor and Management. 

" For the active members and other qualified university stu- 
dents there is a similar group of required subjects. Among the 
elective subjects are Present Tendencies in Literature, Ameri- 
can History and American Civics, Modern European History, 
Current Events and Reconstruction Problems, the Coopera- 
tive Movement, and Elementary Science. These courses were 
arranged by the executive educational committee of which 
Harry A. Wander is the chairman, and Fania M. Cohan the 

11 The students participate through discussion in the actual 
teaching. In this and in other ways the proper technique of 
teaching adults is being worked out. 



" But it is in the unity centers of the I. L. G. W. U. that the 
busy active pulse of the educational system beats most con- 
stantly and to best purpose. In cooperation with the Depart- 
ments of Education of New York city, Philadelphia, Newark, 
etc., suitable class rooms, gymnasiums, etc., are put at the dis- 
posal of the international. These school buildings, chosen for 
their location in residential sections, are called Unity Centers. 
In New York city there are six such centers. 

" The curriculum of these centers concerns itself largely with 
the study of the English language. There are classes in Eng- 
lish, of elementary, intermediate, advanced and high school 
grades. The teachers are assigned by the Evening School De- 
partment of the Board of Education. At each unity center 
there is a recreation worker assigned by the Department of 
Community and Recreation Centers. The international ar- 
ranges, in addition, series of lectures on the Labor Movement, 
Trade Unionism, and kindred topics in economics. The rest 
of the curriculum deals with the more cultural interests, such 
as literature, music, art, educational films, lectures on health, 
hygiene, and sex education, physical training and social recrea- 
tion. This gives each unity center a balanced program of 
educational activities, so that there is no over-emphasis on 
purely intellectual training. 

" Another phase of the educational work is the extension 
division which, combining art and education, arranges special 
lectures and concerts for local unions, giving a form of educa- 
tion that reaches the homes and the families of the members. 
So many have had to enter shops and factories before they 
gained knowledge and formed character, that now it is neces- 
sary to regain the lost ground." 

Labor College Curricula 

HOW other American labor colleges are attacking the 
problem of education for workers is indicated in some 
measure by their curricula. At the Seattle Workers' Col- 
lege the selection of subjects for study was determined partly 
by the votes of prospective students, taken through a coupon 
published in the workers' daily paper, the Seattle Union Rec- 
ord. Public Speaking was one of the subjects in greatest de- 
mand. The course is being given this year by the head of 
the debating department of the University of Washington. 
He is using as material for speeches the political platform of 
the Washington Triple Alliance, which is composed of the 
State Federation of Labor, the farmers and the railway work- 
ers. Cooperation was another subject which the Seattle work- 
ers were eager to learn about, naturally enough, in view of 
the strength of the local cooperative movement. In response 
to this demand the college is offering this term three courses 
dealing with cooperation, entitled, the Cooperative Move- 
ment, Cooperative Accounting, and Cooperative Business Ad- 
ministration. The other subjects for the term are Social 
Ethics, Economics, Elementary English, Local Government, 
and the Care of Children (a course for mothers). 

Fifteen unions of New York city, members of the United 
Labor Education Committee, have arranged to pay tuition 
for their members in the Rand School of Social Science. The 
courses for which these workers have registered in the largest 
numbers during this term are American Government, Evo- 
lution of the State, Elements of Economics, American Social 
History, Modern General History, Socialism, Natural Science, 
Labor Problems and Correction of Foreign Accent. 

The Boston Trade Union College offered the following 
subjects this year (the letters a, b, and c are used to designate 
the fall, winter and spring terms, respectively) : 

1. English Composition. 

(a) Sentence and paragraph planning and writing. 

(b) Writing of business letters. 

(c) Essay writing based on models from literature and from 

current periodicals. 

2. Practice in Discussion. 

(a) Good form in public speaking. 

(b) Analysis of discussion topics; preparation of outlines; short 


(c) Speaking on current problems in the labor movement. For 
topics see 8 c. 

3. Literature. 

(a) Masterpieces of the literatures of different nations. 

(b) Greek civilization: democracy and literature in 5th cen- 

tury Athens. 

(c) Landmarks of modern literature. 

4. Philosophy. 

(a) The philosophy of the state; the rights of property and 


(b) Ethics: moral problems involved in politics and industry. 

(c) Three American philosophers: Royce, James, Dewey. 

5. History and Government. 

(a) The American Revolution, the Constitution, and Jeffersonian 


(b) Theory and practice of democracy in the modern state. 

6. Law. 

(a) Constitutional Law. Structure of national and state gov- 

(b) How iaw courts work. 

(c) Labor legislation. 

7. Economics. 

(a) Production and exchange of wealth. 

(b) Distribution and consumption of wealth. 

(c) The cooperative movement. 

8. Labor. 

(a 1 ) Trade Unions: their origin, growth and present program. 

(b) History of the changes in status of laborers in America. 

(c) Collective bargaining through shop committees and joint in- 

dustrial councils. 

9. Physical Science. 

(a) The Principles of Mechanics. 

(b) Elementary Chemistry. 

(c) Food Chemistry (Elementary Chemistry prerequisite). 
Among the teachers at the Boston College are Dean Ros- 

coe Pound of the Harvard Law School, William Leavitt Stod- 
dard, H. W. L. Dana, John Graham Brooks, Harold J. 
Laski, Frank William Taussig, Felix Frankfurter and other 
members of the faculties of Harvard, Wellesley, and Sim- 
mons College. The Trade Union College is managed by the 
Boston Central Labor Union. 

A Distinguished Record 

THE Railroad Administration has passed into the realm 
of history. Governmental operation of railroads is 
now a memory. It is possible therefore to appreciate the 
distinguished service offered by this branch of the govern- 
ment in the cool mood of academic appraisal. The report 
of Walker D. Hines to the President summarizing the re- 
sults of the last fourteen months of the Railroad Admin- 
istration <:ivcs ample opportunity to those willing to regard 
the national transportation problem in this way. The record 
of the division of labor shows courageous and perspicacious 

Merely to list the wise things which have been done and 
the foolish ones which have been avoided would compose an 
impressive story. Some of the typical acts must suffice. Thus 
despite a time of unparalleled unrest the Railroad Admin- 
istration had not one authorized strike. Whatever stop- 
pages occurred were in violation of union rules and were 
quickly settled. A system of shop committees, informal in 
structure but potent in consequence, has created new incen- 
tives to productive labor. The intelligence of workers has 
been enlisted by advising with their leaders in advance con- 
cerning important changes to be made. A singularly effectual 
system of adjustment boards to harmonize industrial relations 
is now bequeathed to the private railroad managers. These 
illustrations hardly touch the surface of accomplishment. 

The hostile critic at once avers that the good was undone 
by surrendering to the domination of the railroad unions. No 
charge could be further from the truth. Wage increases 
have been less for example than those in the steel industry. 
The number of employes, measured by the hours of labor 
paid for, has decreased. The actual number of individuals 
on the payroll has of course increased because of the change 
from the ten-hour to the eight-hour day. The service has 
been kept immaculately free from politics. The production 
of railroad workers tested by the tons of freight hauled or 



by the passengers transported has increased under federal op- 
eration. But it is unnecessary to multiply particulars. His- 
tory has a way of taking care of itself and the Railroad Ad- 
ministration is history. For those citizens interested in un- 
derstanding the actualities of a singularly confused public 
problem, the short final report of Walker D. Hines affords 
refreshing reading. W. L. C. 

Women's Wages in New York 

/~\ NLY one industry, among fourteen in New York state 
^-^ which employed large numbers of women, paid the women 
a living wage in 1919. The data on which this assertion is 
based were compiled by the United States Bureau of Labor 
Statistics in a study covering 12,460 female employes, and 
are now published by the Consumers' League. The one in- 
dustry which paid a living wage was women's garments, in 
which the workers are strongly organized. The average here 
was $21.07 a week. The lowest earnings were in confection- 
ery, where the average was $9-75 a week. Cigar workers re- 
ceived an average of $10.58, while paper box workers got 
$n. 18. In contrast to these earnings $16.13 is declared by 
the Consumers' League to have been a living wage in New 
York state in 1919. The figure was arrived at by taking the 
official weekly budget for a working woman as fixed by the 
New York State Factory Investigating Commission in 1914, 
and allowing for the increase in the cost of living up to June, 
1919, as given by the United States Bureau of Labor Sta- 

A study just completed by the Consumer's League in New 
York state, covering 500 workers in a variety of industries, 
shows similar earnings. Nineteen per cent of the workers 
received less than $11 a week, 71 per cent received less than 
$14, and 88 per cent received less than $16. 

Foster's Report 

MORE than 25 per cent of the workers in the steel indus- 
try were directly enrolled by the National Committee 
for Organizing Iron and Steel Workers during the organiz- 
ing campaign associated with the steel strike of last fall, ac- 
cording to the report prepared by William Z. Foster, former 
secretary of the committee, for submission to the convention 
of the American Federation of Labor next June. The number 
of men from whom the committee collected deductions upon 
initiation fees is given at 156,702. However, the national 
committee ceased collecting these deductions early in 1919, and 
subsequently enrollment was carried on by local unions. For 
this reason the report does not give the total number of steel 
employes who joined the unions, but it presents the figure of 
250,000 as the committee's estimate. This would claim half 
the steel workers in the country. Of the number enrolled 
directly by the national committee the figures for the chief 
districts are approximately as follows: 

Pittsburgh 38,442 

Youngstown 19,000 

Cleveland 17,000 

Gary 16,000 

Chicago 11,000 

Buffalo 6,000 

Wheeling 5,000 

Pueblo 3,000 

Birmingham 1,500 

Nearly half of the men enrolled by the national committee 
were allotted to the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel 
and Tin Workers, which has jurisdiction over the unskilled 
workers in the industry. The skilled workers were allotted 
to such organizations as the machinists, the electrical workers, 

Mr. Foster has also prepared a report on the steel strike 
relief fund. The total contributions to this fund, as reported 
by Frank Morrison, secretary of the American Federation of 
Labor, amounted to $418,141. It is interesting to note that 

the largest single contribution came from a union outside of the 
A. F. of L., the Amalgamated Garment Workers. Nearly the 
entire fund was used to provide food for strikers. The sup- 
plies were sent out from the Tri-State Cooperative Wholesale 
Society in Pittsburgh. 

The Labor Jury at Centralia 

C IX men, delegated by organizations affiliated with the 
^ J A. F. of L. and by a railway brotherhood division to 
sit as a " labor jury " through the trial of I. W. W. mem- 
bers for the murder of Warren O. Grimm at Centralia, 
Washington, rendered unanimously a verdict of " not guilty." 
In their report they declare that there was a conspiracy of the 
business interests of Centralia to raid the I. W. W. hall ; that 
Warren O. Grimm was a party to this conspiracy; that the 
hall was unlawfully raided; and that the defendants had a 
right to defend their hall. They say that the evidence con- 
vinced them that an attack was made on the hall before a shot 
was fired. They also charge that the trial was unfair because 
the court refused to admit evidence vital to the defense, and 
because troops and American Legion members were brought 
to Montesano, the trial scene, to influence the jury. The or- 
ganizations represented by the labor jury are the central labor 
councils of Seattle, Everett, Tacoma and Portland, the Seattle 
Metal Trades Council, and the Centralia division of the 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen. 

A Building Guild 

' I A HE first practical demonstration of the guild plan of 
* industrial control is imminent, according to the Man- 
chester Guardian. A group known as the Building Guild 
Committee has made a tentative offer to the Manchester City 
Council to build 2,000 houses for artisans. There is a pressing 
demand in Manchester for houses, and the organized workers 
in the building industry claim that they can build quicker and 
better under their own democratic control than under con- 
ditions beset with profit taking. The Guild Committee has 
the especial backing of the local Operative Bricklayers' Society, 
and the Manchester branch of the National Federation of 
Building Trade Operatives has also pledged its cooperation 
and support in the building project. 

A question which has come up in the negotiations between 
the City Council and the Guild Committee is whether the 
committee would submit to the usual guarantees and sign the 
usual bonds, if it entered into a contract. This raises an 
issue that has been theoretically discussed in guild circles for 
two years the possibility of group credit based upon the 
power to produce, in contrast with bank credit based upon the 
purchasing power of gold. The Building Guild Committee 
argues that it is not in the same position as a contractor. His 
financial stability is the essential thing, because he cannot con- 
trol the supply of labor. On the other hand, the Building 
Guild Committee has an ample supply of labor, perhaps 
even a monopoly of it, whatever its financial condition may be. 
Therefore, a financial guarantee on its part would be beside 
the point; what is called for is a guarantee that the labor will 
be forthcoming and the houses built. The City Council has 
recognized, to some extent, the validity of this argument. 

While the immediate purpose of the Building Guild Com- 
mittee is to build houses and so to ease the acute housing 
situation, its ambition is to become the parent body for similar 
committees in other towns and districts. With this in view 
it hopes to build up an organization which can serve as a. 
model. Such an organization would include representatives 
from all the building trades and also from the architects and 
other technical men, for the guild idea entails the cooperation 
of non-manual as well as manual workers. The ultimate aim 
of the Manchester group is the formation of a National 




Conducted by 

Clinics in Minnesota 

HP WENTY-FOUR children's specialists, ten dentists, four- 
A teen tuberculosis sanatorium medical directors, many eye 
and ear experts, the Minnesota Obstetrical and Gynecologi- 
cal Society, and a trained dietitian, compose the staff of ined'.- 
cal advisers of the Minnesota Public Health Association, who 
have conducted health clinics in nearly every one of the eighty- 
six counties in the state, in less than one year's time. The 
idea of these clinics originated with Dr. Walter Ramsey, of 
St. Paul. He suggested that the children's specialists of the 
state organize and bring their advice to the people in the 
counties instead of restricting the advantages of expert diag- 
nosis of children's cases to the people living in the larger 
cities. His suggestion was acted upon, and the Northwestern 
Pediatric Society was formed. The officers of the society then 
met with the Minnesota Public Health Association and a 
plan of coordination was put into effect almost immediately. 

The baby clinics admit only children up to 5 years of 
age, and are intended for infants and children of pre-school 
age only. To provide for older children, the State Dental 
Association was therefore invited to conduct dental clinics for 
children up to 1 7 years of age. The dentists accepted the invi- 
tation with great cordiality, and there is now no more popu- 
lar form of clinic than this. Nutritional clinics are given 
also, for undernourished children from 5 to 17 years of age, 
under the supervision of the Pediatric Department of the 
University of Minnesota and Lucy Cordinier of the Uni- 
versity Extension Division. Arrangements have now been 
completed with the Minnesota Academy of Ophthalmology 
for the holding of eye and ear clinics. The services of the 
tuberculosis specialists who hold tuberculosis clinics at regu- 
lar intervals in their sanatorium districts were made available 
for holding clinics in counties outside the sanatorium dis- 
tricts by the State Advisory Commission on Tuberculosis. 
The State Obstetrical and Gynecological Society is now fully 
organized to hold maternal welfare clinics, but up to the 
present none has been held by the county public health 

From July, 1919, to February, 1920, 118 children's clinics 
(now called baby clinics), 13 nutritional clinics, 41 dental 
clinics, 8 tuberculosis clinics, 2 psychiatric clinics and one eye 
and ear clinic have been given. On an average 60 children 
under 5 years of age are examined at every children's clinic; 
35 children of school age at the nutritional clinics are exam- 
ined, primarily for malnutrition, but the physician as a rule, 
"sees" everything from club-feet to conjunctivitis; seldom 
less than 150 school children are examined at dental clinics; 
the usual number presenting themselves at the tuberculosis 
clinic is fifty more or less, according to the manner in which 
the clinic is advertised and worked up ; in two days 204 chil- 
dren were examined for diseases of the eye and ear. The 
total number of persons examined to date at clinics given by 
the Minnesota Public Association is nearly 12,000. The 
physicians conducting these clinics are the best the state 

The nature of the work is to diagnose and advise rather 
than to treat. Local physicians, dentists, etc., are invited to 
attend, and to bring their patients if they wish. Sometimes 
they bring their own families for examination. Complete 
records of every person examined are made at the time of the 
examination on approved blanks, copies of which are filed 
finally with the local county public health association; with 
the county nurse (if there is one) for follow-up work; with 
the attending physician of the examinee (if the patient has 
an attending physician), or the parents if there is no attend- 
ing physician. A lecture open to the public is given by the 

clinician on his special subject. As a rule, the talk is deliv- 
ered the evening of the day on which the clinic is held. 

The Minnesota Public Health Association plans to hold 
540 clinics this year, and expects to pay about $13,500 for 
salary in the form of fees. This would be equivalent per- 
haps to employing two medical experts on full time at $6,700 
each. In the 540 clinics which will be held this year 35,000 
people, on a rough estimate, will receive the personal atten- 
tion of these various specialists. It is hardly possible that two 
medical secretaries in one year could examine that number of 
people and give 540 lectures on health besides. Nor could 
two or three medical men have between them the equivalent 
of the specialized knowledge and expert skill available to the 
Minnesota Public Health Association under the present 

The clinics inspire the confidence of the local people. The 
word of the specialist agreeing with that of their own 
physician is usually sufficient to induce the patient to seek 
the necessary form of treatment. Another point is that many 
persons (especially children) who would never see a physician 
unless seriously ill, come to clinics, and often they have dis- 
eases or defects which demand attention. The clinician 
brings home that fact to the patient or his parents and " pre- 
vention " receives another high score. The clinics moreover 
are an aid to the local physician who has a baffling case. 

Since the clinics only diagnose and advise, the next effort 
of the Minnesota Public Health Association will be to influ- 
ence the local county medical and dental societies to organize 
local dispensaries for free treatment of those who cannot 
afford medical or dental services. HONORA COSTIGAN. 

A Central Dietetic Bureau 

FREQUENTLY the only thing that lies between self- 
support and dependency is the state of nutrition of the 
wage-earner of the family, but various agencies have proved 
that the health of the family may be improved and conse- 
quently the wage-earning capacity of the family may be in- 
creased, through the cooperation of a person trained in nu- 
trition. The success of this intensive work in families led 
some of the social agencies in Boston to say, " Let us have 
a central bureau to which any agency may refer its nutri- 
tion problems." In July, 1918, such a bureau was estab- 
lished as a branch of the League for Preventive Work. 

On the principle that preventive measures are more funda- 
mental and far-reaching than curative ones, special emphasis 
has been laid on the work with children who are in danger 
of becoming social burdens later in life because of present 
physical weaknesses due to improper food. These children 
are suffering sometimes because of an insufficient income in 
the family, sometimes because an adequate income is un- 
wisely spent, and all too frequently because of lack of dis- 
cipline. Instructions have been given showing how condi- 
tions must be changed to increase the strength and resistance 
of these children, whether through financial aid, wise plan- 
ning of food for the children, or discipline of them. The 
results have been so gratifying to all concerned that by the 
end of the first year the one field worker had to be mul- 
tiplied several times to meet the growing number of requests 
for help. 

In providing for extension of the work it seemed best to 
have a branch office in each section of the city, where the 
workers would be in a better position to cooperate with the 
other agencies in that district and where the people of the 
district would feel free to seek advice. Three such centers 
have already been established and several more are in pro- 
cess of development. 



From the attitude that it is natural that children should be 
mal-nourished in families of limited means, that we must ex- 
pect these children to be thin, pale, and hollow-eyed, and 
that they are destined to go through life handicapped in earn- 
ing a living, the point of view is rapidly changing to one of 
reflection reflection as to the measures which may be taken 
to give these boys and girls a chance. 

The dietetic centers have not only found their place among 
the social agencies but they are fast becoming a recognized 
source of valuable information in the community. They are 
arousing an interest in food as related to health among both 
the mothers and the children. The general propaganda put 
out by the federal and local governments or other sources has 
stimulated an interest in health which has prompted the peo- 
ple to seek advice. Those who have been unable to apply 
information gained in group conferences or through litera- 
ture appreciate this opportunity of learning what to eat so 
as to be healthy. They express their appreciation in terms 
that are sincere and unmistakable, such as: 

I am so glad to know these things. Why hasn't someone told 
me this before? 

The children are feeling so much better and are getting on so 

much better at school that I wouldn't take $50 for what Miss S 

has done for me. 

Fifty dollars means much to a woman trying to provide the 
essentials for health from a very small income, and while 
this is to be taken figuratively, the evident gratitude in the 
tone of her voice carries conviction. 

A boy stopped at one of the centers one day through curi- 
osity and returned again and again through interest, each 
day bringing from one to eight other boys with him, who 
were serious in their desire to know whether they were of 
average weight, and if not, how they might become so. In 
two months a group of 3 mal-nourished children grew to 45. 
This group came after school at least once a month and often 
once a week to be weighed and to get instructions as to how 
to re?.ch the goal of health which is being held before them. 
Of course, these children are sent to a doctor for a physical 
examination but almost invariably the doctor says that in- 
struction in food and other health habits is needed as much 
as medical attention. L. H. GILLETT. 

Books as Medicine 

T the request of Barnes Hospital, Margery Doud, of the 
t. Louis Public Library, has compiled a list of books for 
hospital patients. Five hundred titles are included. Vol- 
umes which are small, light in weight, and printed in large 
type, are starred ; and the classification is adapted to the pur- 
pose in view, as follows: 

Light and entertaining fiction. 
Fiction with more extended plots. 
Longer novels. 
Stories men like. 
Mystery and detective stories. 

Short stories; and also "short stories to read aloud." 
Books with religious significance. 
Stories for children, suitable for grown-ups. 

Satire and humor. 

Travel ; and " more exciting books of travel." 
Out-of-door books; and "more exciting out-of-door books." 

Books on the war: fiction; non-fiction. 

Miss Doud refers to the necessity for keeping in mind the 
great diversity of tastes to be found in a large hospital, al- 
though the books are selected for their entertaining quality 
rather than their educational value, and for providing for 
such interests as are represented by the young officer who 
asked for Pilgrim's Progress, because he had always wanted 
to read it and had never happened to have time. Elizabeth 

Green, librarian of the hospital which asked for the list, writes 
a brief introduction, in which she suggests the place which 
books may have in a hospital, and their value as a thera- 
peutic influence: 

Reading in a hospital is a matter of more than passing interest. 
Usually, we think of one aspect only, relief from the tedium of a 
hospital experience. This has its value and in itself more than 
justifies a hospital library. Another phase of interest, and one that 
is beginning to assume rather large proportions, is using reading 
as a therapeutic measure. Unless the hospital librarian knows the 
patient's condition as well as the contents of her books, she is not 
qualified to suggest the titles that will help the doctor in his treat- 

Many patients who are not allowed to read might have that 
privilege with proper selection. The patient who is very weak 
may read a light-weight book with large type, without much fatigue. 
The patient depressed over his condition, who has a rapid heart 
and is extremely nervous, can read, if he can find something that 
will amuse and not unduly excite him, and that will " take him out 
of himself," thus contributing to a frame of mind that helps his 

During the time when a patient is in the hospital, there is often 
leisure for reading that has never been experienced before. During 
this period of enforced inactivity it may be the privilege of the 
hospital library to ci 'tivate or renew the experience of the joy of Possibly when he leaves the hospital the patient may find 
that something has come out of a trying experience in the shape 
of the pleasure that a good book may hare in store, that will carry 
on into his normal life and have its place in his general well being. 

Eye-strain must be considered in the reading of a hospital, for a 
bed patient at best is in rather a poor position. Heavy books, small 
type and shiny paper are things to be avoided. The selection of a 
hospital library should be made with the thought of weight, size of 
type and finish of paper. 

Family Care of Mental Cases 

MASSACHUSETTS was the first state in this country 
to adopt the method of family care for the mentally 
sick. In 1885 the central board was authorized to place pa- 
tients of the quiet and chronic type at board in families. Dur- 
ing the first few years thereafter, the state board was reor- 
ganized, with changes in the executives in charge of the de- 
partment, and this tended to prevent continuity of policy. A 
further change occurred in 1898, when a state board of in- 
sanity was created. Benefiting by the experiences of previ- 
ous years, the policy of caring for certain types of the men- 
tally sick in families was firmly established. In 1905 the law 
was broadened to allow institutions, as well as the board, 
to place patients in families. 

The number of patients boarded out at the close of each 
year increased from 34 in 1886 to 175 in 1892; from that 
time there was a gradual decrease until 1896, after which 
the numbers remained about stationary. When the State 
Board of Insanity came into being in 1898 there were 112 
boarded in families. The provision of the law is that 

Any patient in an institution, public or private, used wholly or 
in part for the care of the insane, and who is quiet and not dan- 
gerous nor committed as a dipsomaniac or inebriate, nor addicted to 
the intemperate use of narcotics or stimulants, and who is under 
the supervision of the State Board of Insanity, may be placed by 
said board, if it considers it expedient, at board in a suitable family 
or place in the commonwealth or elsewhere. Any such patient in 
a public institution u>ed wholly or in part for the care of the insane 
may be so bo'.rded by the trustees thereof, and such boarder shall 
be deemed to be an inmate of the institution. The cost to the com- 
monwealth shall not exceed three dollars and seventy-five cents a 
week for each person. 

At first families were found by advertising through the 
press. Later applications for patients were made by fam- 
ilies direct. Experience has shown that patients should be 
carefully selected for boarding out and that there should be 
thorough supervision of both patients and families. It should 
be demonstrated that the patient does not require care in an 
institution but does need supervision, and that there is no 
danger to the public involved. Such characteristics as vul- 
garity, immoral tendencies, and objectionable peculiarities would 
of course, be sufficient to exclude a patient from considera- 



tion for family care. Those who require frequent medical 
attention, or who are uncleanly, unruly, or unstable, would 
also be excluded from consideration. As a precaution there 
should be frequent visitation at first, while the patient and 
family are becoming adjusted to each other. Afterwards vis- 
its may be at intervals of three months; oftener if occasion 
should arise. The supervision should be painstaking and in- 
telligent, with as little annoyance as possible, and should in- 
clude instruction which will enable the family to do all that 
is needed for the patient in its care. Family care presents 
fewer dangers for patients past middle life, and grows more 
attractive with advancing years. 

Prejudice against this method of care has disappeared with 
more complete knowledge of the type of cases for whom it is 
suitable and with practical demonstration of its usefulness. 
As a rule, the patients are not regarded as mentally sick but 
rather as merely peculiar. While the care-takers are actu- 
ated by a desire to add to their incomes, they almost invari- 
ably show a kindly personal interest. Some years ago a study 
of the cases placed out over a period of twenty years showed 
that one out of every five became self-supporting. By giv- 
ing patients an opportunity to demonstrate their ability to 
be useful, this method of care acts as an incentive in assist- 
ing many to self-support who otherwise would remain in in- 

The State Board of Insanity, created in 1898, appointed a 
physician as medical visitor to stimulate the work of placing 
patients in families and a woman agent to visit the patient 
at regular intervals. Later, with the increased number un- 
der care, two women visitors were employed. 

From 1901 on, patients were placed out in increasing num- 
bers. In 1910 there were 275 in families under the state 
board, and 10 under trustees of institutions, a total of 285. 
This increased to 341 in 1914. After a reorganization of 
the board, which occurred in 1914, institutions were requested 
to care for such boarded-out patients as were in each hos- 
pital district. The close of 1915 showed 403 patients in fam- 
ilies: 317 under institutions and 86 under the state board. 
The Commission on Mental Diseases (now the Department 
of Mental Diseases) succeeded the State Board of Insanity 
in 1916. At the end of that year there were 398 patients in 
families. During the abnormal period of the past few years, 
shortage of employes, higher wages paid in the community, 
increase in cost of living, and other causes have made the ad- 
ministration of the institutions themselves extremely trying; 
while on the other hand it has been difficult to find satis- 
factory boarding places because of the marked advance in cost 
of living and the small rate of board allowed. The last sta- 
tistical year ended with 255 patients boarded out. 

The story of thirty-four years of care in families has dem- 
onstrated conclusively its practicability. Under normal con- 
ditions and with proper supervision a definite standard should 
be maintained in this method of care, which is but one part 
of the entire plan of state care of the mentally ill. For such 
persons as are suitable for placing in families there would 
seem to be many of the benefits to be derived from institu- 
tional care and, in addition, a nearer approach to normal 
living. NELLIE F. BALL. 

Pennsylvania Safety Congress 

A SUCCESSION of inspiring meetings was offered by 
the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry in 
their safety congress held in Harrisburg, March 21-25. The 
whole series, beginning with a presentation of the safety 
problem in the churches of the city -on the first day of the 
congress, and ending with the Tenth Conference of Industrial 
Physicians and Surgeons held under the direction of the Di- 
vision of Industrial Hygiene and Engineering of this depart- 
ment, was an effort to place before the people of Pennsylvania, 
and the delegates from many other states, the necessity for 
the close cooperation of industry with labor if the maximum 

efficiency that is so necessary at the present time is to be assured^ 
The position of the foreman, both with respect to the men 
under him his opportunity for obtaining their loyalty, 
friendship, and with it increased output and his relations to 
the plant management, the safety and industrial relations de- 
partments, were emphasized by men who have had opportunity 
to view the problem from every angle. The necessity for 
increased compensation for loss of earning power incurred in 
industry and the extension of this principle to all workers was 
strongly emphasized. Americanization its necessity, its 
possibilities, and its opportunities was thoughtfully pre- 
sented. A strong plea was made to eliminate from industry 
the costly and wasteful strike by mediation of differences 
before the occurrence of a strike or lock-out. 

On the day devoted to industrial medicine, the questions 
considered were a general plan for health education for the 
worker and the fitting of the subnormal worker to a safe and 
profitable job; the reclaiming of the industrially injured by a 
process of rehabilitation, and the offering of compensation for 
disease contracted as a result of occupation, together with the 
elimination of the fakir applying for industrial compensation; 
standard equipment for and treatment in plant dispensaries; 
and heart disease and influenza and their effect on our indus- 
trial population. 

The proceedings of this congress will be issued in pamph- 
let form as soon as possible and may be obtained on applica- 
tion to the Department of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania. FRANCIS D. PATTERSON, M.D. 

Public Health: a Definition 

IN the middle of the nineteenth century, Dr. James John 
Garth Wilkinson, an English surgeon who came to Amer- 
ica and taught in one of the medical schools of Pennsylvania, 
published a book with the quaint title, The Human Body 
and Its Connexion with Man. The time may have passed 
for writing a book to establish that there is such a connection, 
but Dr. Wilkinson put on record many reflections which are 
by no means out of date. His conception of public health, 
for instance, and its relation to " private health," is worth 
pondering over to-day: 

The science of private health is of individual concern, and lies 
in making the best of our own circumstances, for the strength, im- 
provement, and enjoyment of the organism. It chooses a healthful 
place to live in; keeps clean the person and the house; superintends 
diet and clothing, and all that belong to cheer; and aims also to 
keep the mind easy. In short, it is the analysis and perfection of 
bodykeeping and housekeeping. But it stops for the most part with 
the front door. It gives you the best of everything, but without en- 
suring the goodness of the best. You can have excellent meat ancf 
wine on this principle, if the town supplies them; good air if the 
neighborhood be favorable; good drainage if there be natural outfall 
and the sei washes up conveniently to carry away your refuse. This 
private health is the property of the strong, the vigorous, the wealthy 
and the fortunate, who have the pick of circumstances, and are the 
favorites of the hour; but even with them it is casual and impure, 
not the maximum of the public health, but the minimum of the public 
inconvenience and disease. Nature has done what she can in pro- 
ducing the robust individuals who belong to this class but it is 
committed to ourselves to enlarge the class until it embraces every- 

The science of public health undertakes this task, and aims to do 
for everybody what it seems nobody's vocation to do for himself. 
Private weakness and impotence is its field of operations; the want 
of virtue in persons is what it has to compensate. It knows of houses 
only as little dots in streets, and streets only as fine lines in towns. 
In short, it looks from the community at individuals, and is necessar- 
ily tyrannous until its work is done, after which freedom of a new 
kind breathes everywhere. It washes the foulest faces first, strikes 
at the Stygian neighborhoods, keeps company with publicans and 
sinners, and always begins where it left off with the remaining 
dirtiest man. Soap and towels from the toes upward: "He who 
would be clean needs only to wash his feet." Yet the problem grows 
up street after street, until we find it is the whole metropolis that 
is stated. In good faith, there is no such thing as private health; 
healrt it the Saxon for wholeness, and wholeness is the public health. 




and Schools 

FN the dispatches that Lincoln Eyre has been cabling from 
'Soviet Russia to the New York World there is an interest- 
ing interview with Lunacharsky, the people's commissary for 
public instruction, in regard to the state of education in that 
communist society. In this interview one is brought face to 
face with the apparent determination of the present leaders 
of Russia to build their experiment in government upon a 
literate and self-conscious electorate. Many of their prob- 
lems, moreover, seem to be similar to those confronting our 
own schools. 

Lunacharsky began by commenting upon the increase in the 
number of schools and pupils since the days of the czar. In 
the Tver government, he said, the number of schools had 
grown from 2,800 in 1916 to 3,400 at the beginning of 1920. 
The pupils had increased during this same period from 
160,000 to 278,000; the teachers had tripled in number. 
Even in far off Turkestan the number of children receiving 
first grade instruction had mounted from 40,000 to 120,000, 
while the number of teachers rose from 2,000 to 5,000. The 
government, said Lunacharsky, despite the shortage of paper 
and of printing facilities, had supplied school books gratui- 
tously to 2,500,000 pupils in 1919. It had also distributed 
9,400,000 pairs of shoes to the wards of the Soviet state. Its 
educational budget last year reached what Mr. Eyre calls 
the " amazing figure " of 20,000,000,000 rubles. 

The people's commissary then referred Mr. Eyre to the 
celebrated anti-illiteracy decree issued by the Council of 
People's Commissaries, which read in part: 

The whole population of the Soviet republic must be able to read 
and write. All Russians between the ages of eight and fifty who 
are illiterate are bound thereby to learn to read and write in the 
Russian language or in their original tongue as they please. All 
literate persons may be called upon to assist in teaching the illiterate. 
The period in which illiteracy shall be abolished shall be fixed by 
the municipal or provincial soviet in each district. 

For adult citizens undergoing instruction in reading and writing 
the working day is abridged by two hours during the entire educa- 
tional period. Citizens evading duties specified by this decree or 
in any way interfering with its provisions are subject to trial by 
the revolutonary tribunal. 

" Before the revolution," Lunacharsky continued, " there 
were more than 100,000,000 illiterates in that part of Russia 
now controlled by the Soviets. How many of these have 
learned to read and write in the past two years I cannot say, 
for accurate statistics covering the whole country are lacking. 
This we know, however, that where there were originally 
scarcely 15 per cent of literate Red soldiers there are now 
nearly 60 per cent." In the navy, he said, there is virtually no 
illiteracy. In Petrograd illiteracy has decreased from 30 per 
cent of the population to 8 per cent. " I do not hesitate to 
predict," declared Lunacharsky, " that in three years there 
will be no more illiteracy throughout the whole length and 
breadth of the Soviet republic." 

The measures taken to enforce elementary education among 
adults are apparently far-reaching. Every school, both in city 
and country, is reserved during certain hours of the day or 
evening for classes of illiterate grown-ups. " It is a quaint 
sight," said Lunacharsky, " to see bearded peasants having 
the alphabet drummed into them at the same small desks at 
which their children, perhaps one hour before, were receiving 
instruction on far more erudite matter." If one fails to 
acquire the ability to read and write without a sufficient rea- 
son, " he or she is deprived of the right to vote in Soviet elec- 
tions, and receives only a third category food card. In the 
event of continued refusal to elevate one's self out of illiteracy 
still harsher penalties may be imposed." 

Conducted by 



Lunacharsky continued: 

f r , * e most part on 'y to S 
by the 


Through long centuries the priests 

belief that education was not for such and tha anv 


" T t at ! S ^hardest, problem we have to solve," answered 
Lunacharsky "In principle we have mobilized all persons 
sufficiently cultured and who are not needed for other pur- 
to serve as instructors, but obviously we can entrust 


schools the situation is still serious. Since high school 

D acJdV 1 thC ld r ,f gime ," enj yed P riVile e es -hich 
placed them almost in the professional class," they were 

stanch supporters of czarism" and "more than ready to 
sabotage our educational machinery." At first firm measures 
were used them, but lately their opposition has been 
passive. Lunacharsky continued: 

mnJ ? I" ' ! 3Sy t0 accustom conservative individuals to whom the 
cTr P e tn h^RT^T autocrati = auth "'y ver the children in their 
the Bolshevik theories of school administration. We feel that 
r snoula be not a dictator but an adviser anrl ^ 

his pupils, and that his discipline should be enforced moraT/mher 
than physically. Thus, each school is managed not only bv 
tc3cher alone but bv a **IT *!** ....__ i f . 

ive, yr h"u y . 3 Comraittec Composed of teachers, represents 
tives of the children's parents and delegates of the pupils them- 
selves over the age of twelve, to which is added an envoy' of the 
Commissariat of Public Instruction. Of course 

. course 

in the actual clarssroom the teacher's sway is unquestioned. Vigorous 
efforts have resulted in the establishment of a considerable, though 
still inadequate, number of training centres for teachers. 

Another noteworthy feature of our programme is the formation 

if pedagogic courses designed to prepare a teaching personnel for 

abnormal children. The curriculum includes the study of physical 

and psychological peculiarities of the child and of methods for 

overcoming such defects through tuition. 

As for lectures on particular subjects outside the ordinary educa- 
tional scope, there are so many I could not attempt to enumerate 
them. Here in Moscow our prospective teachers were offered in one 
week a popular lecture on the solar system by the distinguished 
Prof. Mikhaileleff, a report by Igor Grabar, a famous historian of 
Russian art, dealing with his recent archaeological researches in the 
Volga region, and a series of talks on the history of music. I sup- 
pose those of our enemies who still regard us as a gang of brutalized 
murderers would be rather surprised to hear that we go in for such 
abstract erudition. 

"Physically Able" 

T TNDER the title, What Is Happening to the Children 
*-^ of Massachusetts? the Consumers' League of that state 
publishes some startling facts. It appears that before a child 
can receive an employment certificate, under the law of 
Massachusetts, he must first have a certificate bearing the 
signature of a physician who declares that the child has been 
examined by him and " is in sufficiently sound health and 
physically able to perform the work indicated." Yet out of 
76,265 children who were granted employment certificates in 
fifty-four towns during the three years 1917-19, not one child 
icas rejected as being physically unfit for work. It is, of 
course, incredible, as the league points out, that all of these 
children should have been " in sufficiently sound health and 
physically able " to enter industry. When one considers that 
nearly one-half (47 per cent) of the men examined for the 



draft in Massachusetts were rejected, it is natural to wonder 
whether it is possible that the adolescent children of that state 
are so much sounder physically than her young men. Is the 
explanation that the standards for entering industry, with its 
eight hours of work a day and its strain upon young children, 
are so much lower than those for efficiency in the army? 

Of course, the real explanation is that the law is not 
enforced. In many places the physicians frankly admit, 
according to the league, that they have not the time and are 
not sufficiently paid to examine the children thoroughly. 
They simply sign the card, sometimes making no pretence at 
examination, sometimes looking in the child's mouth or ask- 
ing some perfunctory question. " It has been reported to us," 
says the league, " that in one city the children filed past a 
desk, gave their names and the nature of their job, and the 
card was signed by the physician. The card reads ' the under- 
signed hereby certifies that he has thoroughly examined the 
following named child.' " Of the 77 places reported upon, 
the average time given to the examination of each child was 
five minutes or upwards in 41 and from one to five minutes 
in 36. 

Even in towns where children were rejected, the percen- 
tage of rejections was so small as to indicate neglect. Only 
1,423 children were rejected out of 38,009 examined in the 
other 23 towns (exclusive of the 54 above mentioned) for 
which the State Board of Labor and Industries has statistics. 
Since 1,316 of these were from Boston (where the most 
efficient examining seems to be done), the remaining 22 
towns had but 107 rejections among them a record of less 
than i per cent for the majority. As " usually carried out," 
says the league, the present system " is a direct evasion of 
the law." 

The league further calls attention to the fact that child 
labor, which we are prone to regard as diminishing in this 
country, is rapidly increasing in Massachusetts. From 1915 
to 1918 there was an increase in the number of working 
children of about 125 per cent, as compared with an increase 
of 3 per cent in the population. Of the 60,000 children who 
each year become 14 years of age, 30,000 leave school for 
work during that year. The number between 14 and 16 
years of age who were at work in 1919 was 43,000. Among 
the trades which these children usually enter are: for the 
girls, candy factories and retail store work; for boys, machine 
shops and messenger service; for both, other manufacturing 
establishments. By far the greatest number enter the textile 

The league presents such records as these, showing what 
happens to children who enter work for which they are not 
physically fit: 

A girl with a weak spine operated a foot press with the re- 
sult that her spine became deformed ; a girl with tubercular 
throat trouble performed dusty work in a bag factory and 
aggravated her tubercular condition ; a nervous girl of fourteen 
clipped cloth in a garment factory all day long for an entire 
year until the constant use of the scissors, the constant use of 
the same set of muscles, brought on a severe case of chorea 
affecting chiefly the right arm, neck and face and she broke 
down completely. 

Another instance is that of a young girl about sixteen who 
applied to the Massachusetts General Industrial Clinic for 
treatment. She had worked for a year and a half in a shirt 
factory marking the place on the shirts where the buttons 
were to go. This involved standing and reaching over. The 
girl had tubercular hip disease when two years old and was 
supposed to be cured, but through the strain involved in her 
work she had developed acute foot trouble and had come 
near to bringing on the tubercular condition once more. If 
the physician who examined her for her employment certifi- 
cate had had a history of her case and any familiarity with 
the processes of htfr proposed occupation, he would not have 
allowed her to take that particular job. 

The league believes that the working age should be raised 
from fourteen to sixteen years, and that the thorough physi- 

cal examination should be enforced. With respect to the 
second of these, the league believes that a standard must be 
formulated in regard to the height, weight and development 
of the child. Even if children be found free from any specific 
trouble, such as weak heart, weak lungs, etc., they must not 
be given their certificates if they fall below this required 
standard of development. The certifying physician should no 
longer be a school, family or appointed physician, but should 
be a well paid, competent physician appointed by the school 
committee and responsible to it; women are especially well 
fitted for this class of work. Moreover, the physician should 
be required by law to have some knowledge of the industries 
in his district, because the certificate is for a specific job 
designated on the card that he signs. There should be a re- 
examination at certain intervals if the physician feels that the 
child ought to be watched, and there should always be re- 
examination when the child changes to an occupation of 
another nature. Finally, the physician should have access to 
such physical records as the school may have in regard to 
each child. If these regulations are properly enforced, the 
league believes that a large part of the ill-health and many 
of the physical defects of our young working population will 
be done away with. 

The Kenyon Bill 

COCIAL workers have taken a great interest in the Kenyon 
^Americanization bill (S. No. 3375) now pending before 
Congress. This bill appropriates federal money to the various 
states to be spent in the education of persons who are illiter- 
ate and others who are unable to speak, read or write the 
English language. The sum of $6,500,000 is appropriated for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921. The money is to be 
apportioned to the several states, through the Federal Bureau 
of Education, in the ratio which the number of resident 
illiterates and others unable to speak, read or write English 
bears to the number of such persons in the country at large. 
The state must appropriate an amount equal to the federal 
allotment and it must accept the provisions of the act be- 
fore it receives the money. The prescribed instruction must 
be required of all residents belonging to the classes above 
named who are between sixteen and twenty-one years of age, 
except those physically or mentally unfit. For persons be- 
tween twenty-one and fifty the instruction is optional. This 
instruction must be approved by the secretary of the interior, 
and must include the study of American history, of the funda- 
mentals of civil government and of the principles of the 
federal constitution. Compulsory instruction for alien adults 
and minors who could not speak, read or write English was 
stricken out of the bill. 

The special legislative committee of the United Neighbor- 
hood Houses of New York has gone on record as favoring 
the bill because, among other reasons, it is based upon the 
" sound theory that a common language is an invaluable 
channel through which alien residents may gain a common 
understanding of American institutions " ; and also because 
it recognizes an obligation by the state to provide an oppor- 
tunity for the learning of that language. The committee be- 
lieves however, that the legislation by no means completes the 
work of Americanization. Its comment is interesting in the 
light of other recent governmental activities: 

Ability to speak, read and write English is not the end of Ameri- 
canization. It is not even the essence thereof. It simply makes more 
accessible and more readily understandable the inherent fineness of 
our institutions. But this characteristic is most tellingly emphasized 
in the immigrant's actual contact with government officials and 
American citizens. These are in striking need of education with 
respect to their roles, in the process of Americanization. No bureau 
or department, however efficient and no ability to speak our tongue 
can win for our government the loyalty of the alien unless his con- 
tact with government agents, his relations with courts of law, the 
conditions under which he works and lives, the very process of 
naturalization itself demonstrate that he is a human being of pre- 
sumably good intentions, entitled to be treated and regarded as 
such with decent respect and consideration. 





By Harry F. Ward. Macmillan Company. 

384 pp. Price $2.50; by mail of the 

SURVEY $2.70. 

In this latest of his several volumes Pro- 
fessor Ward makes his most notable contri- 
bution to the religious interpretation of the 
changing social order. He has risen to his 
task from one point of insight and outlook 
to another while fulfilling his function as 
preacher and teacher. His pastorate in Chi- 
cago's great industrial districts gave him in- 
sights into very concrete situations. The 
specific scriptural teachings applicable there- 
to and interpreted thereby added material 
to the motive for publishing his early Bible 
class studies on Poverty and Wealth. His 
formulation of principles grew into his con- 
structively critical brief books on Social 
Evangelism and The Gospel for the Work- 
ing World. Meanwhile he did much toward 
crystallizing the articles of the declaration 
of industrial faith adopted by the Federal 
Council of Protestant Churches, a running 
commentary upon which he issued under the 
title of The Social Creed of the Churches. 

His authorship has now ripened into this 
far more thorough and comprehensive treat- 
ment of the principles and programs of the 
new social order. The programs garthered 
from different lands and distinct groups of 
their peoples suggested the principles which, 
however, are formulated and treated inde- 
pendently of them. The keywords of both 
which head several chapters are Equality, 
Universal Service, Efficiency, Supremacy of 
Personality and Solidarity. 

Growing out of the " conjunction of eco- 
nomic pressure and idealistic impulse," the 
new order is regarded as " fundamentally a 
task for religion as well as for economic and 
social science and practical organization," 
as it involves a spiritual transformation, or 
it cannot be." From this point of view the 
politico-economic aspects of each principle 
are both critically and constructively dis- 
cussed. A comparative study is made of the 
programs proclaimed by the British Labor 
party and other groups of workers, both 
American and foreign, by the Russian Soviet 
republic, by the Quaker employers of Eng- 
land and others abroad and at home, by the 
League of Nations covenant and other gov- 
ernmental provisions, and by the great 
church bodies of England, Canada and 
America. The collection of these historic 
documents in a single volume gives it a per- 
manent reference value. 

Professor Ward's discussion of the contro- 
verted points dealt with is frank and fear- 
less, notwithstanding, perhaps the more be- 
cause of, the criticism he has all along met 
from certain ecclesiastical and special inter- 
est groups. His generalizations are some- 
times more sweeping than comprehensive, as 
when " solidarity " is said to be prevented 
so much more by class cleavage and nation- 
alism than by anything else; that if it could 
pass these barriers " it would not halt long 
before race antagonism, which is simply 
nationalism writ large." His criticism like- 
wise becomes more incisive than constructive 
when the League of Nations covenant is re- 
jected for being born of " the spirit of the 
old order" and for not being the goal of the 
idealism prompted by the war, and when no 
credit is given it for being a possible point 
of departure from the old war-order of the 
world rulers toward a new peace order of 
the leagued democratic peoples. 

The trend of progress is traced in his con- 
clusions far more definitely to the abandon- 
ment of the present capitalistic order, 

"gradually and progressively," however, 
than to any other definite form of industrial 
and social organization. No encouragement 
to impatience and to the forces of destruction 
is given by this assurance. On the contrary, 
the volume closes with many warnings 
against reliance upon coercion and material- 
istic resources which can only defer and de- 
stroy the upbuilding of a democratic world 
order. The one hope is held to be that the 
multitudes will have capacity for self-mas- 
tery and social self-sacrifice, through which 
alone such a new order can be born, survive 
and triumph. 

Like the late Prof. Walter Rauschen- 
bush, whose interpretative leadership he 
worthily carries on and out, Professor Ward 
is hopeless of the existing order, as incom- 
patible with the ethics of Christianity and 
the mandatory hopes begotten by it in the 
masses of mankind. But unlike Professor 
Rauschenbush, whose Christianity and the 
Social Crisis ends with an avowal of so- 
cialism, Professor Ward avows belief in no 
one form of social order. His faith follows 
only what seems to him to be the direction 
of progress from competition to cooperation, 
from profiteering to service, from the mech- 
anism of materialistic organization to a spir- 
itual dynamic working through a sacrificial 
motive toward the Christian goal. This 
idealism so far from being considered apart 
from existing conditions and tendencies is 
squarely faced by them, while the distance 
to the realization of this hope is measured 
by obedience to present duty in the improve- 
ment of every possible opportunity. 

# * 


By G. E. Raine. Thornton Butterworth, 
London. 128 pp. Price 3s. 6d; by mail 
of the SURVEY $1.05. 
By Boris Brasol. Charles Scribner's Sons. 
289 pp. Price $2.00; by mail of the SUR- 
VEY $2.25. 

Mr. Raine's book deals with practical is- 
sues, Mr. Brasol's with policies and theories; 
both are directed against socialism. Mr. 
Raine likes to think of himself as the cham- 
pion of the consumer and, in fact, presents 
many of the arguments against state activity 
and its extension which are current in the 
circles of those who are nothing but con- 
sumers. But in the main his book consists 
of arguments against the nationalization of 
the coal mines and an analysis of the argu- 
ments in favor of it. This is about as in- 
telligent and readable a presentation of that 
case as has appeared; the ironic humor with 
which the theme is treated at times only 
makes the book the more entertaining. 

As Professor Carver points out in his in- 
troduction to Socialism versus Civilization, 
this book does not deal with all forms of 
socialism but with the doctrines of Karl 
Marx and their more recent development. 
It is a serious contribution, based on exten- 
sive knowledge of the literature and inten- 
sive study of recent events in Russia and 
elsewhere. The effort of the author is that 
of most present-day anti-socialist writers: to 
relate "socialistic" experiments and pro- 
posals to Marxian doctrines which can be 
disproved and thus to discredit them. He 
also follows the current fashion in repeated 
cheap sneers at " parlor " Bolshevik! as 
though the advancement of other economic 
or political causes never had proceeded from 
a like environment and in basing a whole 
structure of argument on unproved and 
sometimes erroneous assertions, such, for in- 

stance as the statement that the Plumb plan 
must fail because only private initiative can 
fulfill the vital task of developing the na- 
tional railway system. While it cannot be 
recommended to the opponent of socialism 
as an altogether reliable armory of argu- 
ments, the book, nevertheless, often hits the 
nail and should prove stimulating and useful 
to the convinced Socialist and to the impar- 
tial student. B. L. 


By Ralph Adams Cram. Marshall Jonea 

Co. 105 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the 

SURVEY $1.40. 

By Ralph Adams Cram. Marshall Jonei 

Co. Ill pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the 

SURVEY $1.40. 

Mr. Cram, one of the most renowned of 
living American architects, finds our mode 
of life so hopelessly at variance with the 
requirements of a worthy human existence 
that he scorns all efforts at half-hearted and 
timorous reform, in whatever field of activ- 
ity, and demands that we go back to more 
primitive beginnings and make a new start. 
Essentially individualistic in his outlook, he 
finds neither promise nor attraction in 
the ideals of socialism or milder forms of 
economically applied democracy. Nor does 
he believe in the possibility of a catastrophic 
revolution which will make an end of our 
present misshapen civilization and usher in 
a new era. Step by step, beginning with the 
religious re-orientation of the individual, 
and then of the small group or community, 
must a new community life be built up in 
which the five demands of poverty, chas- 
tity and obedience, brotherhood and work 
will be the basic principles. 

In Walled Towns, Mr. Cram develop* 
his vision of the new religious community 
as it may find practical embodiment in the 
midst of our American social life as it is 
today. The walled town of his vision re- 
sembles the mediaeval town but with thi 
difference that the interaction of motives 
and activities which makes up its organic 
community life is not developed through a 
slow adaptation of ancient traditions to 
economic and political needs but deliber- 
ately introduced through the conscious will 
of its citizenship. The spiritual bond which 
holds such a community together is that of 
the monastery rather than of the guild or- 

Here, then, we have a proposal running 
counter in fundamentals to nearly all reform 
programs of these days that boast large 
numbers of adherents, a proposal neverthe- 
less which touches upon unformulated de- 
sires among ever growing numbers of 
thoughtful and aspiring men and women. 
They are presented eloquently and with 
transcending sincerity. Even though the 
appeal may find full response only among 
a few, no one can read these books, and 
especially the one last mentioned, without 
finding his own hopes for humanity clari- 
fied and stimulated. B. L. 


Revised Edition. By Charles A. Ellwood. 

American Book Co. 416 pp. Price $1.50; 

by mail of the SURVEY $1.70. 

Professor Ellwood's volume is so well 
known to all students of sociology that it is 
unnecessary for the reviewer to give even 
the briefest outline of its contents. Since this 
is a new edition of such a standard work it 
is only necessary to indicate and estimate the 



new materials incorporated into it. The 
latest revision has not altered the original 
plan or organization of the book; and the 
new materials have been so neatly interpo- 
lated as not to destroy the flow of the orig- 
inal text. The main purpose of the revision 
has been to bring the text up to the level of 
new statistical material and also the new 
problems of social reconstruction. 

Not the least valuable part of the revi- 
sion, however, applies to the reference lists 
for supplementary reading which the author 
appends to each chapter. He has brought 
these references strictly up to date and has 
added many new titles to the original read- 
ing lists. 

The principal problems to which Professor 
Ellwood has attempted to bring sociological 
light from the standpoint of social recon- 
struction are revolutionary socialism, the 
family, immigration, and socialized educa- 
tion. His remarks on measures for Ameri- 
canization are sane and uncontaminated by 
the sentimentalism which is so rampant at 
present. His conclusions on the problem of 
reconstructing family life indicate not only 
thorough sociological understanding, but 
good common sense. 

Altogether, the value of Professor Ell- 
wood's book has been decidedly enhanced in 
its new form, and should continue to appeal 
to a large group of students who need an 
elementary text which very neatly combines 
some social theory and a very large amount 
of ordered information about concrete social 
problems. ARTHUR J. TODD. 


By Harvelock Ellis. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
299 pp. Price $2.50; by mail of the 
SURVEY $2.60. 

Outstandingly interesting in this latest col- 
lection of Ellis' war-time essays are his 
sympathetic biographical studies, notably 
those of Luther, Herbert Spencer and Cow- 
ley. The pieces which interpret the most 
recent events in politics and social life are 
full of wise reflection and penetrating an- 
alysis. It would be interesting to know ex- 
actly when the one entitled Vae Victoribus 
was written; it sketches the shift of the bur- 
den of war from the conquered to the con- 
quering nations which in recent months has 
become apparent to all eyes. 

In a chapter entitled The Drink Pro- 
gramme of the Future, the author betrays a 
weariness with a subject which, the striking 
difference in results notwithstanding, has 
been fought over longer and more bitterly 
in Great Britain than here; he is for pub- 
lic ownership, but apparently without 

Welcome to most readers will be Ellis' re- 
view of the Freudian theory as it has devel- 
oped in two decades and as it stands today. 
He does not, as is now the fashion, treat 
Freud as a creative artist with a vision in 
which ordinary mortals cannot be expected 
to follow him, but insists on the importance 
of his contribution to scientific knowledge. 


By Jerome K. Jerome. 348 pp. Dodd, 
Mead & Co. Price $1.75; by mail of the 
SURVEY $1.95- 

" I had always had the idea that it was up 
to the old people to put the world to rights," 
says a young man recently returned from 
China, when, back in London, he finds the 
most vital reform movements carried on by 
quite young people. " Yes," he is told. 
" We are founding the League of Youth. 
You've got to be in it We are going to 
establish branches all round the world." 
This latest novel of Mr. Jerome pictures the 
striving of young people for a new and bet- 

ter world, a striving so simple and genuine 
that it gets them into all sorts of trouble. 

Much of the haphazard groping of youth 
for a finer relationship to humanity, which 
entails so much suffering, could be directed 
into sarfer channels, we are shown, if prep- 
aration for the actual problems of life, espe- 
cially among the presumedly " educated " 
classes, were more adequate. " Ought there 
not," we are asked, " to be a school for re- 
formers, a training college where could be 
inculcated self-examination, patience, tem- 
perance, subordination to duty; with lectures 
on the fundamental laws, within which all 
progress must be accomplished, outside which 
lay confusion and explosions; with lectures 
on history, showing how improvements had 
been brought about and how failure had been 
invited, thus avoiding much waste of reform- 
ing zeal ; with lectures on the properties and 
tendencies of human nature, forbidding the 
attempt to treat it as a sum in rule of three?" 

As in his other novels, Mr. Jerome is in 
this book at times sentimental, and permits 
himself considerable latitude in inflicting 
long drawn-out harangues on readers intent 
upon entertainment. Nevertheless, he has 
produced a book of great beauty and appeal. 

By Henry Ba-iley Stevens. Four Seas 
Company. 88 pp. Price $1.25; by mail 
of the SURVEY $1.40. 

This little book of three one-act plays in- 
terprets the world war as seen by Christ 
proving it un-Christian; by the poet prov- 
ing it sordid, and by tie scientist proving 
it mad. The last play which has for its 
scene a lunatic asylum, presumably in 
France, centers on the thesis that the human 
race suffers from moral imbecility with an 
epileptic tendency. In fact, the case which 
he makes out from a review of history is 
almost sufficient to convince a court or com- 
mission. The psychiatrist who in the play 
hars struck upon this terrible discovery, while 
holding out no hope of a radical cure, be- 
lieves that the racial poison can be bred out 
in the course of generations to some extent, 
by guarding his patient from all access to 
deadly weapons and to drugs, including al- 
cohol and nicotine, and by regulating his 
sexual life. 

By Boris Sidis. Richard G. Badger. 63 
pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the SURVEY 

The theory of racial madness as the under- 
lying cause of " the uninterrupted chain ot 
European mental epidemics," including the 
crusade, dancing and speculative as well as 
war manias of the last thousand years, is 
sustained on scientific grounds in this bro- 
chure by a psychologist of national reputa- 
tion. He distinguishes between normal and 
abnormal suggestibility. The latter occurs 
in hypnotic and trance states. " Suggestibil- 
ity varies as the amount of disaggregation, 
and inversely as the unification of conscious- 
ness." Gregariousness increases, and at 
times to the point of abnormality, the fixa- 
tion of attention, monotony, limitation of 
voluntary activity and of the field of con- 
sciousness and the inhibition which are as- 
sociated with the trance state- Credulity, 
lack of morality, lack of personality a-nd in- 
dividuality, indetermination, brutality are 
the outward signs of that condition when it 
affects a society or social group. 

The basis of all social institutions is fear 
and the impulse of self-preservation. With 
every exaggeration of the associative process, 
brute force takes the place of reasoning; 
panics develop into orgies of hatred and 
bloodshed. " The prestige of the gregarious 
aggregate, the overwhelming awe and terroi 
of the herd, mob, community, the loss of in- 
dividuality in the mob and the crowd, along 

with the conditions favorable to a dissocia- 
tion of the upper, reflective self from the 
suggestible, automatic, reflex subconscious- 
ness go to form the main sources of all men- 
tal epidemics, scourges, plagues, panics, 
frenzies and manias, political, religious, and 

Dr. Sidis' findings, the result of wide an- 
thropological research and an astonishing 
range of historical knowledge which, by the 
way, makes this brochure most fascinating 
reading to the layman on every important 
point coincide with those who have ap- 
proached this problem from a purely path- 
ological point of view ; they coincide also 
with observations made of the behavior of 
troops under fire and other manifestations 
of crowd psychology. The conclusion is 
obvious. " If society is to progress on a 
truly humanistic basis, without being sub- 
ject to mental epidemics and virulent social 
diseases to which the subconscious falls an 
easy victim, the personal consciousness of 
every individual should be cultivated to the 
highest degree possible. Every phase of in- 
dividuality and originality, no matter how 
eccentric, should not only be tolerated but 
jealously guarded and protected from all as- 
saults and oppressions." 

The author does not hesitate to apply this 
principle to acute problems peculiar at this 
time to American life. By a wealth of illus- 
trations he shows that the persecuted minori- 
ties among us are accused of no more heinous 
crimes than minorities always hare been at 
times of mob rule, minorities which later 
proved the main conservators of human 
achievement and the main pioneers of hu- 
man progress. Whether opinions held are 
true or false, indeed, hardly matters in com- 
parison with the importance of freedom to 
hold any opinions whatever. 

A wide discussion of the principles laid 
down by Dr. Sidis should prove valuable 
not only in counteracting the present wave 
of intolerance toward non-conformity, but it 
may also give added power to those who 
hold that our present system of public edu- 
cation with its large schools and classes, 
unification of methods and subjects, emphasis 
on average attainments and subjection of in- 
dividuality both in teacher and pupil, is on 
dangerously wrong lines. 


By Lord Robert Cecil, M.P. George Allen 
& Unwin, Ltd., London. 43 pp., paper 
bound. Price 1 s. ; by mail of the 
SURVEY $.50. 

With Lord Haldane entering the British 
Labor party and Lord Robert Cecil having 
materially contributed, by a timely letter, to 
the reelection of Mr. Asquith, British politics 
certainly have got a little "mixed." In this 
pamphlet Cecil discusses the League of Na- 
tions (briefly), the problems of industry 
(more fully) and other outstanding national 
questions. His knowledge of industry is 
second hand, and he is not convincing when 
as an argument against increased state em- 
ployment he says without adducing any 
proof that "standardization is the enemy of 
progress;" large American employers have 
not found it so. As a remedy for strikes he 
proposes application of "the same regula- 
tions, in principle, that we are proposing to 
apply to war between nations" in other 
words which, however, he avoids using, 
compulsory arbitration. His ideas on na- 
tional finance and the rehabilitation of Par- 
liament (by cutting through some of the 
fictions with which its processes have be- 
come encrusted) are essentially sound. Here 
is a conservative leader, at any rate, who 
does not shun big issues by hiding them be- 
hind bogus issues and who honestly gives of 
his best thought to the solution of difficult 
social problems. B. L. 





To THE EDITOR: The Institute for Crip- 
pled and Disabled Men, 101 East 23 street, 
New York, is anxious to get in communica- 
tion with other employment bureaus for 
handicapped civilians. We would appre- 
ciate it very much if the readers of the 
SURVEY would send us the names of any such 
bureaus in their cities. 


[Employment secretary, Institute for Crip- 
pled and Disabled Men] 

New York 


To THE EDITOR: In your issue of Jan- 
uary 24 you have published an article en- 
titled Kentucky's Children [review of re- 
port National Child Labor Committee] which 
has been called to the attention of the carni- 
val fraternity; I am sorry that my flow of 
language is unequal to the task of replying to 
the many false statements made. Suffice to 
say that it is a disgrace to the intelligence of 
thousands of men and women engaged in a 
branch of the amusement business that is rec- 
ognized by our government as just as im- 
portant as the mercantile, manufacturing or 
newspaper industries; in fact this coming 
season it is estimated that the revenue from 
the different road attractions will total over 
six billions of dollars. 

Now_ I will ask the writer of the mislead- 
ing article referred to above, what his branch 
of industry will do for the United States 
government in the way of helping to meet 
the debts incurred in the late world war? 
The article has absolutely no foundations for 
the statements made, and is a gross prevari- 
cation from start to finish. 

If you have the regard for justice that you 
claim to have, you will look into such state- 
ments as were made and make a retraction 
at an early date. I can prove what I say 
and that is more than your fanatical writer 
can do. I have spent twenty years in the 
outside amusement business and always have 
my wife with me and it makes my blood boil 
to have some insignificant, misguided, would- 
be reformer make dirty insinuations about the 
best woman that God ever put the breath of 
life in. 


[Secretary W. J. Torrens' Peace Exposition 

Columbus, Ohio. 


To THE EDITOR: It seems to me that the 
people of Europe are obliged to work cheap 
enough to export the things they produce in 
order to get on their feet. The release from 
military service and the enormous influx of 
women into industry will give England, 
France, Germany, Belgium and Italy far 
more laboring people than they ever had be- 
fore the war. The present phenomenally 
low rates of foreign exchange will give them 
an immense advantage in selling their goods 
to America and the low rates at which for- 
eign exchange is selling will practically 
make it impossible for America to export 
manufactured goods and foodstuffs to those 
European countries. 

I am expecting at no distant day that 
America will be flooded with the manufac- 
tures of those countries I have named, be- 
cause of the conditions I hare stated. This 
will result in the closing down of manufac- 
turing establishments of many descriptions 
in this country and the throwing out of em- 
ployment of labor in this land, with the re- 

Religion Among American Men "^POSE 

The material for this book was gathered under direction of "the 
Committee on the War and the Religious Outlook" consisting of 
such men as: 



A questionnaire, which sought to obtain not only facts, but their meaning, was sent to chaplains, 
Y. M. C. A. secretaries, army officers and men. To the data secured were added the results of 
many interviews both in the A. . F. and at home, and of an extensive correspondence. This 
mass of carefully analyzed evidence is presented as a challenge to the Church, and to the in- 
dividual. Cloth, $1.50. 

Missionary Outlook in the Light of the War 

Also prepared by "the Committee on 
the War and the Religious Outlook" 

The increased significance and urgency of the missionary enterprise; the changed outlook in 
every mission field; the new light thrown on missionary policies and principles the discussion 
of these subjects by outstanding experts gives to this volume authority and inspiring power. 
Cloth. $2.00. 

The Army and Religion 

Edited by D. S. CAIRNS. D.D. 
Preface by the Bishop of Winchester 

"Perhaps, as never before, the British Army during the Great War represented a sort of crojsa- 
section of the nation's life. Here, then, was an exceptional opportunity for an enlightening 
analysis of an army that represented the life of the men of the nation itself. It would be difficult 
to represent the religious revelation and results of the war more skillfully and judiciously 
than they are presented in this report." Robert E. Speer. Cloth, $2.00. 


347 Madison Avenue, NEW YORK 

Ask your bookstore 
or write to us 

Your Baby's Food 

Feeding your baby is not enough the food must 
nourish! Babies demand not only certain kinds of 
foods, but these foods must be properly proportioned, 
properly prepared. Dr. Isaac A. Abt, the child specialist 
of Chicago, in his book 

The Baby's Food 

tells you just those things you should do to have your baby properly 
nourished. $1.25. 

At leading bookstores or 

W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY, Philadelphia 

sultant hard times and disruption of business 
that must occur- The only possible way for 
this country to avoid this condition, as far as 
I can see, is for the laboring man to insist 
that a tariff wall be put around the country 
and no immigration be permitted. Unless 
something of this kind is done, wages in this 
country must be enormously reduced, and 
this can only come after the collapse of the 
industrial situation in the United States. 


To THE EDITOR: In the February 14 edi- 
tion of your very valuable journal the 
SURVEY, the following statement appears at 
the top of page 582: 

"The term home service has been pre- 
empted by the Red Cross and there was 
probably some natural indignation when the 
Salvation Army in its recent financial cam- 
paign ignored their exclusive right to it." 

I assume, of course, that the editors of 
the SURVEY want to be entirely fair in their 
statements and I attribute the error that has 
crept into print in the above instance a a 
result of not having been in possession of 
the facts. 

The Salvation Army has maintained and 
published its Home Service Department in 
the United States of America for twenty- 
five years and by no stretch of the imagina- 
tion could it be truthfully charged that the 
Salvation Army has encroached upon the 
Red Cross by the use of this phrase. The 
permanent records of the Salvation Army in 
all parts of this country furnish indisputable 
proof of this fact. 

I remember attending a conference about 
a year ago when two gentlemen representing 
the Red Cross came here from Washington 
to make a protest against the Salvation Army 
using the phrase "home service." These 
gentlemen were given every opportunity at 
that time to acquaint themselves with the 
facts as they exist and at the close of the con- 
ference the Salvation Army agreed that it 
would make no protest against the Red 
Cross having copied the departmental words 
which had been so long in use here and 
which appeared in magazines published in 
this country twenty-four years ago upon the 
tubject of Salvation Army activities. 

We do not understand, of course, how the 
Red Cross could have preempted the 
term "home jervice," particularly where it 
had been conspicuously used by an inter- 








D= - 




All duplications disclosed automatically by the 
bringing together of all variations in spellings of 
names. Positive identification in every case on 
first reference made, fewer clerks required than on 
any other system. 

Write for full particulars 


national organization for nearly a quarter 
of a century beforehand. 

We would think it would be entirely fair 
if the SURVEY would correct the impression 
which has been given by its statement in the 
issue above mentioned and we have no 
doubt you will be glad at this time to learn 
of the facts as they exist in order to make 
such a correction. 


[Possibly the use of the word " preempted " 
in the article to which reference is made 
would be misleading as suggesting that the 
Red Cross had a claim to the use of the term 
"home lervice" based on priority in time. 
What the writer had in mind was merely 
the very extensive and unchallenged use of 
the word, amounting certainly very nearly 
to an exclusive uie of it, during the war. 
As is obvious from the language quoted, the 
Red Cross is in no way responsible for the 
opinion that some natural indignation was 
probably felt. EDITOR.] 


To THE EDITOR: The work of the Ameri- 
can Central Commission for Russian Relief 
is that of relief and has no political angle 
except the negative one that we are strongly 
anti-Bolshevik and will administer no relief 
in Bolshevik territory. It has so happened, 
however, that political conditions have 
changed since my letter to you of November 
20 and your inquiries of our subcommittees. 

Neither our subcommittees nor ourselves 
were organized or intend in general to con- 
fine themselves to refugees on the fringe of 
Russia, intellectuals in or out of Russia, or 
any other narrow groups- Owing to the 
advance of the Bolshevik forces in the last 
two months, the situation has narrowed itself 
for the moment because the refugees fleeing 

before the Bolsheviks are naturally largely 
of the educated classes whom, as you are 
well aware, the Bolsheviks and their sym- 
pathizers murder and torture whenever they 
find them. 

Our work is now largely among the Rus- 
sian refugees around the border of Soviet 
Russia. There are several hundred thou- 
sand men, women and children, mostly of 
the intelligent and educated classes of Rus- 
sia, who have been driven out of their homes 
rather than submit to Bolshevik rule. 
Therefore, although our administration of 
relief can, of course, make no distinction be- 
tween educated and uneducated refugees, it 
10 happens that the problem for the next few 
weeks will be largely concerned with so- 
called intelligent Russians- 

We also find that the problem of domestic 
relief for Russians in this country is becom- 
ing more acute owing to the gradual exhaus- 
tion of their funds by refugees here. All of 
this specialization, however, we look upon 
as purely temporary. 

You will do this committee only justice by 
correcting the impression given in your arti- 
cle in the SURVEY of February 7 [p. 522], in 
which you mentioned the work of our com- 
mittee in connection with other organizations 
doing work in Soviet Russia, although the 
next paragraph begins. . . "in areas over 
which anti-Bolshevik forces rule." 

As we are all engaged as individuals in 
doing our utmost in putting down and in 
destroying the rotten and tyrannical rule of 
the so-called Bolsheviks in Russia, a despot- 
ism which as you know is largely engineered 
by renegade Russians and owes its begin- 
ning to German money and treachery, it is 
extremely humiliating for us to be con- 
nected in any way with organizations such 
as the committee. If you will for 

a moment glance over the list of officers of 
most of the organizations now loudly pro- 
claiming their desire to help the women and 
children of Bolshevik Russia; those who are 
?o prominent in denouncing the Russian 
blockade and those who at all times and in 
all places desire freedom of speech and the 
careful examination of both sides of the 
question, you will find I believe a very large 
proportion of the same names as you might 
have observed had you been interested in the 
pro-German, anti-Ally, anti-draft, pacifist, 
and in a word, un-American activities of 
our wartime organizations. 

[Secretary, American Central Committee for 

Russian Relief, Inc.] 
New York. 


ARTHUR GLEASON, former London corre- 
spondent of the SURVEY, has joined the staff 
of the New York Nation but not without 
bringing up to date his story of the British 
labor movement in the reconstruction period 
in several articles to appear in early issues 
of the SURVEY. The Nation has been fortu- 
nate also in securing for its staff Lewis S. 
Gannett, SURVEY correspondent in Paris dur- 
ing the peace negotiations. On the other 
hand it loses to the Searchlight on Congress, 
of Washington, Henry R. Mussey who, in 
his pre-journalistic days taught political 
economy at Columbia University, and Mabel 
H. B. Mussey, both occasional contributors to 
the SURVEY. 

LOUIS BLOCK, general secretary of the V. 
M. H. A. of Scranton, Pa., has resigned his 
position to enter the commercial field. Be- 
fore becoming secretary of the Scranton in- 
stitution, he wai connected with the Irene 
Kaufman settlement in Pittsburgh. 

DORSEY W. HYDE, JR., has resigned as 
librarian of the New York Municipal Refer- 
ence Library to accept a position as chief of 
the Motor Truck Research Bureau of the 
Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, 
Mich. The bureau will be a new develop- 
ment of the company's service aiming at the 
collection and classification of all data per- 
taining to transportation problems and their 
solution. Mr. Hyde will be succeeded at the 
Municipal Reference Library by Rebecca B. 
Kankin, who has served as assistant libra- 
rian during the past year. 

ANNA 15. ZELLMAN, first assistant at Rich- 
mond Hill House settlement of New York, 
has gone to Europe to make an intensive 
study of the cooperative movement there. 
On her return she hopes to have erected in 
her district a new type of model tenement. 
There are to be facilities for meeting the 
needs which the tenants have in common 
a room for social functions, a play room 
for the children, possibly a gymnasium and 
a nursery where the children of busy mothers 
can be taken care of during the day. 

PLANS for the extension and improvement 
of Rheims, under a recent decision of the 
city council, have been entrusted to George 
B. Ford, American city planner, who has 
made preliminary studies of that city's needs 
under the auspices of the Renaissance des 
Cites. The effect of his proposals on general 
city expenditures is quoted as a special rea- 
son to influence the municipal authorities in 
favor of them. Similar scientific studies have 
been made by the same organization for a 
number of other towns and village* in the 
devastated area. 




FILMS Membership open. Address National 
Board of Review of Motion Pictures. 70 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. Varied Informational 
service on entertainment and educational films 
adapted to needs of community organizations, 
churches, schools. Also service for city officials. 
a professional organization of four thousand 
members. Following Its war work It Is enter- 
ing upon a peacetime program known as the 
" Books for Everybody " movement for which 
It Is making an appeal for a two million dollar 
fund. It Is rendering library service to the 
Merchant Marine, Coast Guard and Lighthouse* 
and plans to promote libraries for the sixty 
million people now wholly or practically with- 
out libraries; to help business concerns and 
factories to establish libraries in their plants; 
to promote the use of good books on American 
Ideals and tradition. 

Pros., Social Service Department. Indiana Uni- 
versity, Indianapolis; Antoinette Cannon Ex. 
Sec., University Ho-pital, Philadelphia. Organi- 
zation to promote development of social work in 
hospitals and dispensaries. Annual Meeting 
with National Conference of Social Work. 
LEGISLATION John B. Andrews, sec'y; 131 
E. 23rd St., New York. For public employment 
offices; Industrial safety and health; work- 
men's compensation, health Insurance; one 
day's rest In seven; efficient law enforcement. 
Gertrude B. Knlpp, exec, sec'y; 1211 Cathedral 
St., Baltimore. Urges prenatal, obstetrical and 
Infant care; birth registration; maternal nurs- 
ing; Infant welfare consultations; care of chil- 
dren of pre-school age and school age. 
organizing and strengthening Chambers of 
Commerce, City Clubs, and other civic and 
commercial organizations; and for training 
men In the profession of community leadership. 
Address our nearest office 
Tribune Building, New York. 
123 W. Madison Street, Chicago. 
716 Merchants' Exchange Bldg., San Francisco. 
TION Miss Cora M. Winchell, sec'y, Teachers 
College, New York. Organized for betterment 
of conditions In home, school, institution and 
community. Publishers Journal of Home Eco- 
nomics. 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 
LEAGUE Win. D. Foulke, pres.; C. G. Hoag, 
sec'y; Franklin Bank Bldg., Phlla. Leaflets free. 
P. R. Review, quarterly, 80c. a year. Membership 
(entitles to Review and other publications) SI. 
CIATION 106 W. 40th St., New York. For the 
conservation of the family, the repression of 
prostitution, the reduction of venereal diseases, 
and the promotion of sound sex education. In- 
formation and catalogue of pamphlets upon re- 
quest. Annual membership dues, (2.00. Mem- 
berships include quarterly magazine and month- 
ly bulletin. William F. Snow, M.D., gen. dlr. 
OF CANCER Frank J. Osborne, exec, sec'y; 
35 W. 46th St., New York. To disseminate 
knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free 
on request. Annual membership dues, |5. 
ICA 166 Fifth Avenue, New York. Dr. L, 
Emmett Holt, Chairman; Sally Lucas Jean, 
Director. To arouse public interest In the 
health of school children; to encour&ge tho 
systematic teaching of health In the schools; 
to develop new methods of Interesting children 
In the forming of health habits; to publish and 
distribute pamphlets for teachers and public 
health workers and health literature for chil- 
dren; to advise In organization of local child 
health programme. 

1 Madison Ave., New York. Organized In Feb- 
ruary, 1919, to conserve the values of War Camp 
Community Service and to help people of all 
communities employ their leisure time to their 
best advantage for recreation and good citizen- 
ship. While Community Service (Incorporated) 
helps In organizing the work, in planning tho 
program and raising the funds, and will, If da- 
sired, serve In an advl&ory capacity, the com- 
munity Itself, through the community commit- 
tee representative of community Interests, deter- 
mines policies and assumes complete control of 
the local work. Joseph Lee, pres.; H. 8. 
Braucher, sec'y. 

EUGENICS REGISTRY Battle Creek, Mich. 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, pres.; Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg, sec'y; Prof. O. C. Glaser, exec, sec'y. 
A public service for knowledge about human 
Inheritances, hereditary Inventory and eucenlc 
possibilities. Literature free. 

CHRIST IN AMERICA Cons'.ltutnd hv M 
Protestant denomination!. Rev. Charles 8. 

Macfarland. gen'l sec'y; 106 B. 22nd St., New 

Commission on the Church and Social Serv- 
ice; Rev. Worth M. Tippy, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. F. Ernest Johnaon, research sec'y: 
Miss Inez Cavert, ass't research sec'y. 
Commission on International Justice and 

Goodwill; Rev. Henry A. Atklns&n. sec'y. 
Commission on Church and Country Life; 
Rev. Edmund de S. Brunner, exec, sec'y; 
Rev. C. O. Gill, field sec'y. 

Commission on Relations with France and 
Belgium, uniting American religious agen- 
cies for the relief and reconstruction of 
the Protestant forces of France and Bel- 
glum. Chairman, Rev. Arthur J. Brown, 
106 East 22nd Street, New York. 
National Temperance Society and Commission 
on Temperance. Hon. Carl B. Mllllken, 
chairman Commission. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE J. E. Gregg, princi- 
pal; G. P. Phenlx, vtce-pres. ; F. H. Rogers, 
treas.; W. H. Scovllle, sec'y; Hampton, Va. 
Trains Indian and Negro youth. Neither a 
State nor a Government school. Free illus- 
trated literature. 

WOMEN (NATIONAL) Headquarters, 146 
Henry St., New York. Helen Wlnkler, ch'm. 
Greets girls at ports; protects, visits, advises, 
guides. International system of safeguarding. 
Conducts National Americanization program. 
ABLED MEN John Culbert Farics, dir., Fourth 
Ave. at 23rd St., New York. Maintains Indus- 
trial training classes and an employment bureau 
for crippled men. Conducts research In re-edu- 
cation for disabled soldiers and Industrial crip- 
ples. Publishes reports on reconstruction work 
here arid abroad, and endeavors to establish an 
enlightened public attitude towards the phyi-l- 
cally handicapped. 

Harry W. Laldler, Secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City. Object to promote an intelli- 
gent Interest In Socialism among college men 
and women. Annual membership S3, 35, and 
$26; Includes monthly, "The Socialist Review." 
Special rates for students. 

fleld Storey, pres.; John R. Shlllady, sec'y; 70 
Fifth Ave., New York. To secure to colored 
Americans the common rights of American cit- 
izenship. Furnishes information regarding race 
problems, lynchlngs, etc. Membership 90,000 
with 314 branches. Membership. SI upward. 
Lexington Ave., New York. To advance physi- 
cal, social, intellectual, moral and spiritual in- 
terests of young women. Student, city, town 
and country centers; physical and social edu- 
cation; camps; rest rooms, room registries, 
boarding houses, lunchrooms and cafeterias; 
educational classes; employment; Bible study; 
secretarial training school; foreign and over- 


Owen K. Lovejoy, sec'y; 106 East 22d St., New 
York, 36 State branches. Industrial and agri- 
cultural Investigations; legislation; studies of 
administration; education; delinquency, health; 
recreation; children's codes. Publishes quar- 
terly, " The American Child." Photographs, 
slides and exhibits. 

INC. Thas. F. Powllson, gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth 
Ave., NtfW York. Originates and publishes ex- 
hibit material which visualizes the principles 
and conditions affecting the health, well being 
and education of children. Cooperates with 
educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups In community, city or state-wide 
service through exhibits, child welfare cam- 
paigns, etc. 

HYGIENE Dr. Walter B. James, pres.; Dr. 
Thomas W. Salmon, med. dlr. ; Associate Medi- 
cal Directors, Dr. Frankwood E. Williams and 
Dr. V. V. Anderson; Clifford W. Beers, sec'y; 
SO Union Square, New York City. Pamphlets on 
mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, 
feeblemindedness, epilepsy, inebriety, criminol- 
ogy, war neuroses and re-education, psychiatric 
social service, backward children, surveys, state 
societies. "Mental Hygiene"; quarterly: S2 a 

TION OF BLINDNESS Edward M. Van Cleve, 

managing director; , field sec'y; 

Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, sec'y; 130 East 22nd 
St., New York. Objects: To furnish Informa- 
tion, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, publish 
literature of movement samples free, quantities 
at cost. Includes New York State Committee. 
Robert A. Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Bos- 
ton. Develops broad forms of comparative 
study and concerted action In city, state and 
nation, for meeting the fundamental problems 
disclosed by settlement work; seeks the higher 
and more democratic organization of neighbor- 
Hood life. 


Owen R. Lovejoy, pres.. New York; W. H. 
Parker, gen. sec'y, 316 Plymouth Court, Chi- 
cago. General organization to discuss prin- 
ciples of humanitarian effort and increase effi- 
ciency of agencies. Publishes proceedings an- 
nual meetings. Monthly bulletin, pamphlets, 
etc. Information bureau. Membership (3. 47th 
annual meeting New Orleans, April 14-21, 182*. 
Main Divisions and chairmen: 
Children Henry W. Thurston, New York. 
Delinquents and Correction Bernard Glneck. 

M. D., New York. 

Health George J. Nelbach, New York. 
Publto Agencies and Institutions- Robert W. 

Kelso. Boston. 

The Family Amelia Sears, Chicago. 
Industrial and Economic Conditions Florenc* 

Keliey, New York. 

The Local Community H. 8. Braucher, N. T. 
Mental Hygiene C. Macfle Campbell, M. D., 


Organization of Social Forces William J. Nor- 
ton, Detroit. 
Uniting of Native and Foreign-Horn In America 

Allen T. Burns, New York. 

ICE Miss Maude Wetmore, ch'm, 267 Madison 
Ave., New York. To mobilize and train the vol- 
unteer woman power of the country for specific 
service along social and economic lines; co- 
operating with government agencies. 
HEALTH NURSING Ella Phillips Crandall, 
R. N. exec, sec'y; 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
Objects: To stimulate the extension of public 
health nursing; to develop standards of tech- 
nique; to maintain a central bureau of infor- 
mation. Official organ, the " Public Health 
Nurse," subscription Included In membership. 
Duos, $2.00 and upward. 

Mrs. Edith Shatto King, mgr., ISO B. 22d St.. 
New York. A cooperative guild of social work- 
ers organized to supply social organizations with 
trained personnel (no fees) and to work con- 
tructively through members for professional 


bert Colgate, pres.; Rush Taggart, treat,; Virgil 
V. Johnson, sec'y; 466 Lexington Ave., New 
York. Composed of social agencies working to 
guide and protect travelers, especially women 
and girls. Non-sectarian. 


581 Fourth Avenue. Charles J. Hatfleld, 
M. D., Managing Director. Information about 
organization, education, Institutions, nuralng 
problems and other phases of tuberculosis 
work. Headquarters for the Modern Health 
Crusade. Publishers " Journal of the Outdoor 
Life," " American Review of Tuberculosis " and 
" Monthly Bulletin." 

vice among Negroes, L. Holllngsworth Wood, 
pres.; Eugene Klnckle Jones, exec, seo'y; 127 
East 23d St., New York. Investigates conditions 
of city life as a basis for practical work; trains 
Negro social workers. 

LEAGUE Mrs. Raymond Robins, pres.; 64 W. 
Randolph St. (Room 1003), Chicago, 111. Stands 
for self-government in the work shop through 
organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation. Information given. Offi- 
cial organ, " Life and Labor." 
TION OF AMERICA H. S. Braucher, seo'y; 
1 Madison Ave.. N. Y. C. Playground, neighbor- 
hood and community center activities and ad- 


Battle Creek, Mich. For tho study of the cauiei 
of race degeneracy and means of race Improve - 
tnent. Its chief activities are the Race Better- 
ment Conference, the Eugenics Registry, and 
lecture courses and various allied activities. J. 
H. Kellogg, pres.; B. N. Colver, sec'y. 
provement of Living Conditions John M. Glenn, 
dlr.; 130 B. 23d St., New York. Departments: 
Cbarlty Organization, Child-Helping, Educa- 
tion. Statistics, Recreation, Remedial Loans. 
Surveys and Exhibits, Industrial Studies, Li- 
brary, Southern Highland Division. " The pub- 
lications of the Russell Sage Foundation offur 
to the public in practical and Inexpensive form 
some of the most important results of its work 
Catalogue sent upon request." 
Wilson, pres.; Richard S. Chllds, seo'y; 10 West 
JUh St., New York. Clearing house for Informa- 
tion on short ballot, city manager plan, county 
gov't. Pamphlets free. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE An Institution for the 
training of Negro Youth: an experiment In 
race adjustment In the Black Belt of the South: 
furnishes Information on all phases of the race 
problem and on the Tuskegee Idea and methods. 
Robert R. Moton, prin. ; Warren Logan, treas.: 
A. L. Holsey, acting sec'y; Tuskegee, Ala. 




" The repliet to our advertisement came from many direction* and from all over 
the country as well at tram such an intelligent, high-grade grout of social workers. 
.-./// had not believed before thit you had such a wide circulation, I should 
know it from this concrete experience with your advertising columns." A". P. H. 

RATES: Display advertisements, 25 cents per agate line, 14 lines to the inch. 
Want advertisements, 5 cents per word or initial, including the address or 
box number, for each insertion, minimum charge, $1.00. 
Periodicals, Current Pamphlets, see elsewhere on this page. 

AddreM Advertis- 
ing Department 


112 Ea.t 19 Street 
New York City 


W ANTED: Case consultant for large 
Jewish family agency. Work under ideal 
conditions. Only experts and person* of 
unusual training and ability need apply. 
State education, training, experience and 
alary expected. Address 3390 SUBVEY. 

WANTED: Social workers, men and 
women, for positions in the South. Must 
be capable of organizing and promoting 
general social service and health programs 
in communities which, before the war, had 
practically no organized Social Work. The 
work is largely in rural communities and 
small cities. Worker must be executive 
and promoter as well as case worker. Ad- 
dress 3413 SUBVEY. 

WANTED: Visiting Jewish housekeeper 
to assist in Case Department. Opportunity 
for constructive work. Preferably one 
trained in dietetics and competent to work 
with families. Good salary. Address with 
full particulars, including age, experience 
and reference to Superintendent, United 
Jewish Charities, No. 731 West Sixth 
Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

WANTED: Matron (Jewess) for Con- 
valescent Home, taking care of adults and 
specializing in treatment of anemic children. 
Must have experience in institutional ad- 
ministration. Good salary. Trained nurse 
with social experience; or one trained in 
children's work preferred. Opportunity for 
creative work. Address with particulars, 
including age, experience and reference, to 
the Superintendent, United Jewish Chari- 
ties, No. 731 West Sixth Street, Cincinnati, 

health nursing open. Applicants must have 
tact and executive ability. National Tuber- 
culosis Association, 627 Pythian Building, 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 

WANTED : Jewish woman as parole 
officer for City Institution for girls. Answer 
by mail stating references. Saben, Room 
32, 356 Second Ave., New York. 

SUPERVISOR to direct and teach cook- 
ing, also plan meals in small institution for 
Jewish girls. Write Cedar Knolls School, 
Hawthorne, New York. 

WANTED: Cottage mother, must be 
Jewess; work largely supervision; good 
salary, congenial conditions. Superintend- 
ent, Orphanage, Fairview, Erie County, 

WANTED: Woman to take charge of 
girls' department. Preferably one with in- 
stitution experience. Apply Hebrew Or- 
phans Home, 12th St. and Green Lane, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED : Supervisor for Boys. Apply 
to the Hebrew Orphans Home, 12th St. 
and Green Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WANTED: Matron for Children's 
Emergency Home, Southerner preferred. 
State experience and salary expected. Ad- 
dress Robert H. Biggar, Augusta, Ga. 

WANTED : A woman of 25 to 40 years, 
experienced recreational leader, to organize 
and superintend playgrounds and other 
recreation in a Canadian town of 10,000 
population. Engagement May to October. 
Preferably a woman who can train choruses 
in addition to being capable of organizing. 
Salary the going rate. Address 3490 


WANTED : By experienced social work- 
er, position in New York City, with child- 
placing agency as executive or staff worker. 
Address 3484 SURVEY. 

young Jewish Woman, qualified by train- 
ing and wide experience in organizing and 
directing group activities, college graduate, 
desires permanent or summer work in edu- 
cational, recreational, or social fields. 
Eastern city preferred. Free May 25. Ad- 
dress 3485 SURVEY. 

YOUNG WOMAN desires position. 
Executive and medical experience. Rural 
or city. Best reference. Address 3478 


EX-CLERGYMAN and wife to take 
charge of Settlement or Community Work 
in Eastern Town or City. Long experi- 
ence in Social Service Work. Address 
3479 SURVEY. 

who has travelled extensively wants em- 
ployment beginning June first; tutoring of 
children, travelling companion or as social 
service worker. Address 3487 SURVEY. 

COLORED LADY teacher missionary 
Central America, wishes to communicate 
with persons interested in foreign mission 
work. Address 3480 SURVEY. 

WANTED by experienced handicraft 
and Social Service Worker, opening in, or 
near some of the large Eastern cities. 
Address 3450 SURVEY. 

Orphanage, seeks a field of greater useful- 
ness ; experienced in Cottage and Congre- 
gate plan. Character building and modern 
methods predominate. Excellent Creden- 
tials. Address 3483 SURVEY. 

WANTED by University Graduate, posi- 
tion as Boys' Work Director. Experienced, 
references, age twenty-eight. Address 3489 

WOMEN EXECUTIVES returned war 
workers, experienced social service workers 
and organizers, supplied by Placement Serv- 
ice, Central Branch, Y. W. C. A., Lexington 
Ave., corner 53d St. Plaza 10100. 

WOMAN, 29, case work supervisor, cap- 
able correspondent, familiar with problems 
on child hygiene, delinquent and dependent 
children, indigent adults, and domestic re- 
lations. Five years' experience. At liberty 
May 1st. Address 3488 SURVEY. 

WANTED: By secretary of southern 
school, position for four months after May 
thirtieth, as traveling or home companion. 
Equipped to take entire charge of nervous 
case or chronic invalid. College graduate. 
Address 3486 SURVEY. 

open for Institution. Prefer " Boys' Farm' 
School " or small Orphanage. Best refer- 
ences. Address 3491 SURVEY. 

The Survey may be kepi for 
permanent ready reference in 
a special loose leaf binder, 
made with board side*. It 
is covered with stout buck- 
ram, THE SURVEY stamped 
in gold letters both on the 
back and on the side. Put 
in each issue as received. It 
does not mutilate issue*, 
which may easily be re- 
moved and reinserted. At 
the end of each six months an index will be sent 
lo you and the volume will then be ready for a 
permanent place in your library. 

Prire $2.00 and postage. 




OF BOSTON. Maurice B. Hexter, Executive Director. The Federated Jew- 
ish Charities of Boston, Mass., announces a scries of seven intensive training 
courses of three weeks each for Jewish communal workers and volunteers from 
July 6 to 27. Institutes, covering basic principles and methods, visits to a selected 
group of social agencies of Boston, and concentrated field work, will be offered 
in the following fields: Child Welfare; Delinquency; Family Case Work; Rec- 
reation ; Health and Medical Social Service ; Social Research and Statistics ; and 
Jewish Education. The Institutes will be in general charge of social workers 
of the highest professional standing. Special accommodations will be provided 
for out-of-town students. For details as to dates, courses, fees, etc., address 
Maurice B. Hexter, 25 Tremont Street, Boston. Mass. 


make a limited number of lecture engage- 
ments. For rates, subjects, and open dates, 
address Rabbi Stemheim, Sioux City, Iowa. 

EDWARD T. DEVlNEi Lectures and 
Consultation Service. Address Miss Brandt, 
Room 1202, 112 East Nineteenth Street, 
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A Study of Commercial Recreation 

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The 47th Annual Meeting of the National Conference of Social 
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Leaders in Social Reconstruction will present problems of National 
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Make your plans to attend this meeting, for it will be full of value 
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charge is made by Senator Phelan and others 
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likely, you are under- 
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WE are going to find out that we can no 
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Henry P. Davison on 

Shall We Turn Our Backs on Europe? 

The WRECK on the 
B. of R. T. 

By John W. Love 

of the Cleveland Plain Dealer 


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former U. S. Attorney, Eastern Penna. 

April 24, 1920 

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Vol. XLIV 


No. 4 



Spring Suits ------. 

Waitresses' Wages - 

The Military Training Issue - 

Bar Mitzvah ------ 

Speaker Sweet Scores - 

Lawful Criticism of a Public Servant - 

The Government as Employer 

Re-Soling the Family Shoes - - - 

International Cooperation 

Scandinavia in the Lead - 

The Wreck on the B. of R 

Shall We Turn Our Backs on Europe? - 

Helen Fidelia Draper 
Francis Fisher Kane 

The Red Cross at Geneva- 

The Communist Deportations 

Nature Guides ... 

Community Organization 

Chautauqua Progress 

Rural New England 

Luminous House Numbers 

What Is a- Neighborhood? 

Art in the Home - - - 

Municipal Stadiums 

Bungalows - - - - 
Family Welfare: Social Organization 

"Why $975,000?" - 

A Letter from Philadelphia - 

Community Survey Outlines - 

Methods of an Iowa Committee 

A Foot-Note from Montreal - 

Results of Federation 
Crime and Conduct 

Critics of Cell Life - ... 

A Girls' Home Club 

Court Reform in Detroit - 




- John W. Loire 
Henry P. Davison 

Bailey B. Burritt 
Karl deSch-weinite 
Shelby M. Harrison 

John B. Dawson 
Emil S. Tachau 

Mrs. Irving Lehman 



- C. M. Goethe 








PUBLisHiD weekly and COPYRIGHT KtO by Survey Associates Inc in 
Beat W Street, Sew York. Robert W. de Forett, president; Arthur P 
Keltoou, secretary- treasurer. 

PBICB : this issue, 10 cent* a copy; S4 a year; foreign postage, tl.K; 
Canadian, 5 cents. Changes of address should be mailed us ten days in 
advance. When payment it by cAect a receipt vrill be sent only upon 

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Tort, 2f. T., under th Aet of Uarch I, tgn. Acceptance for mailing at 
a special rate of postage provided for in Section tUB, Act of October s, 
tin, authorized on June U, IK. 

THE reply of the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures 
to the article of Amy Woods on Boston and the " Movie " Cen- 
sorship [see the SURVEY for April 17] was unfortunately received 
too late for publication in this issue as announced. It will appear 
at an early date. 


WHETHER General Wood or Mr. Hoover will be 
the first to appear in public in overalls remains a 
matter for speculation at the time of going to press. 
The vote-getting power of the new fashion has not been 
lost sight of by lesser political luminaries; and in the South 
it is no longer possible to distinguish between mayor and 
navvy. With the addition of a $10 silk shirt, $2 silk hand- 
kerchief, $15 shoes and $i socks, the disguise is complete. 
Clothing manufacturers are reduced to advertising overcoats 
for which " you begin to have an affection about the third 
year " and spring suits guaranteed 30 per cent below their 
" regular value " whatever that may be. 


MINIMUM wages for the women employes of hotels, 
restaurants and allied industries are prescribed in 
order number 4 of the District of Columbia Minimum 
Wage Board released last week. The rate is fixed at 34j4 
cents an hour, $16.50 a week or $71.50 a month. When 
meals are supplied these may be counted at the rate of 30 cents 
each. Lodging may be reckoned at $2 a week. Tips, how- 
ever, may not be estimated by employers to be part of the 
wage paid. The order goes into effect on May 26 and it 
applies to lodging houses, apartment houses, clubs and cafe- 
terias and hospitals as well as to restaurants and hotels. Only 
nurses actually in hospital training are excluded from its 


IS compulsory military training dead or has it merely been 
shelved ? The United States Senate, by a vote of 46 to 9, 
has defeated the provision for such training in the army 
reorganization bill. The pending measure still sets up a 
military establishment, however, of 17,000 officers, as com- 
pared with 4,000 officers before the war, and opponents of 
compulsory training are pointing out that this may be used 
later on as a framework into which compulsory training might 
be poured. 

The action of the Senate was undoubtedly dictated by pres- 
ent sentiment throughout the nation. At the same time, oppo- 
nents of compulsory training declare that deep down in its 
heart the Senate wants universal military training, partly for 
defense against foreign foes and partly for defense against 
labor unrest at home. They argue, therefore, that if a man 
not opposed to such training should be elected president in 
November, the Congress convening in December the same 
Congress that is now in session would be in a stronger posi- 
tion to adopt such a proposal than it is now. Moreover, many 
of its own members will then either have been reelected or 





From the dissenting opinion recently rendered by Justice James F. Minturn of the Supreme Court of the State f 
Ne<w Jersey in the cote of Thomas J. Colgan vs. Leo S. Sullivan. The majority opinion sustained the verdict of 
the lower court against Colgan luht accused Sullivan, a draft officer, of being corrupt and of taking money for 
exemptions, on the ground that Golgan's language teas seditious because it tended to weaken the morale of the 
troops. The dissenting opinion occupies itself with the discussion of the " denial of the constitutional right of the 
citizen, whether in war or peace to lav/fully criticise a public servant." Chief Justice Gummere and Justices 

Parker and Bergen concurred in the dissenting opinion. 

IT is perfectly intelligible to assert 
that common law sedition, which is 
essentially criticism of constituted au- 
thority exerted over the people, was un- 
lawful . . . but in a constitution- 
ally ordained republic, where all po- 
litical power is vested in the people, and 
is imparted only as conceded by the 
people to their public servants, who are 
thus dressed in a little brief authority, 
the crime of sedition can find no place 
or excuse for recognition ; for sedition 
at common law rose to the dignity of a 
crime against sovereignty, and did not 
involve a mere charge of moral turpi- 
tude against a local administrative bu- 
reau, as is presented by the case at bar. 
The framers of the constitution ban- 
ished this conception of crime from the 
land when they defined treason in the 
constitution, as the only recognized crime 
against constitutional sovereignty. . . . 
The effect of the majority opinion, there- 

fore, is to read into the constitution a 
crime which cannot be found specified 
there in the face of the constitutional 
guarantee, securing the right of free 
speech to " every person " or " all sub- 
jects." Its further effect is to declare 
as pan of our constitutional inheritance, 
that when war intervenes the constitu- 
tional guarantees are ipso facto sus- 
pended. . . . 

The opinion proceeds upon the theory 
that there is in this land some super gov- 
ernment, made up of a superior office 
holding class, which has the legal right 
to prosecute its policies without constitu- 
tional or popular restraint, and without 
adverse criticism during time of war. It 
thereby inverts the constitutional concep- 
tion of Democratic-Republican govern- 
ment, and substitutes the servant in place 
of the master, creates a governing class 
out of a temporary office-holding class, 

and hedges it about with a dignity and 
immunity, which at common law only 
surrounded the exalted environment of a 

If the doctrine of the majority opin- 
ion be conceded as applied to the indi- 
vidual, one is inclined to inquire what 
are its limitations? Is it applicable to 
legitimate newspaper criticism? Shall 
the doctrine extend to stifling the criti- 
cism of opposing political parties when 
assembled in convention? Shall it also 
extend its policy of enforced silence to 
the grand juror who in performance 
of his sworn duty seeks to investigate 
and expose by indictment, or otherwise, 
the public malefactor? 

Indeed, it becomes manifest that 
once we unleash from the constitutional 
moorings we are afloat, not upon un- 
known seas, but upon seas fraught with 
danger to the ideals and cherished poli- 
cies of our democratic institutions. . 

will have been defeated, and in either case will be in a more 
care-free state of mind. Therefore, the opponents of the 
measure regard the fight against compulsory training as possi- 
bly only having been postponed. 

In place of the compulsory service proposition, the Senate 
adopted a substitute establishing facilities for the voluntary 
training of all youths between eighteen and twenty-one who 
may enlist for that purpose. If enough youths enlist, the 
present cantonments may be continued to supply this training. 


THE thirteenth birthday Bar Mitzvah is a waymark 
in Jewish childhood and Sunday, March 27, was the 
thirteenth anniversary of the founding of the Free Syna- 
gogue in New York. There were ambassadors and governors 
and judges and rabbis to hail the constructive service of Rabbi 
Stephen S. Wise. There was report of the organization of 
branch synagogues in the Bronx, Flushing and Washington 
Heights and an appeal from Newark to found one there. 
There was review of the social service work of the Free Syna- 
gogue, through which the endeavor has been made to relate 
its work to the life of a great city in ways similar to those of 
the synagogue in the primitive Jewish community ; its con- 
cern to combat incipient tuberculosis; its preventive work in 
the field of mental hygiene and its success in child adoption. 

But more especially this meeting was an acclaim of the 
freedom of the Free Synagogue; for the discussion brought 
out that in the course of the steel strike last fall, Rabbi Wise 
delivered a sermon which challenged absolutism in the steel 
industry. At that time nearly everybody depending upon the 
New York newspapers had one view of the steel strike and 
that vievr adverse to the strikers. This much was publicly 
known at the time. Now it develops that in speaking the truth 
as he saw it and in standing thereafter for the freedom of the 
pulpit, Rabbi Wise shattered his dream of erecting a synagogue 
building equipped to handle the large congregation which 
gathers every Sunday to hear him in Carnegie Hall. Certain 

members of the congregation including certain large donors 
to this fund withdrew. His board of trustees, however, stood 
by him not in his views, all of them, but in the view that 
the Free Synagogue should have a free rabbi. The brick and 
mortar to house a synagogue founded on this principle could 


TWO of the bills sponsored by the Lusk Committee were 
passed by the New York legislature last week and as 
the SURVEY goes to press are before the governor. The 
same week brought the passage of bills breaking down pro- 
tective legislation for women workers. Both houses passed 
the repeal of the law prohibiting night employment of women 
ticket-sellers and ticket-choppers and requiring one day of rest 
in seven, while the Assembly voted for the repeal of the 
" elevator " law making the same provisions for women 
elevator operators. The Betts bill now before the legislature 
would lift all restrictions now upon women's work, breaking 
down standards built up for a generation. 

One of the Lusk bills passed establishes a licensing censor- 
ship over private schools and courses of instruction by the state 
board of regents; it was passed by a vote of 30 to 1 8 in the 
Senate and 100 to 30 in the Assembly. [See Schools a la Lusk, 
in the SURVEY for March 27.] The other sets up in the office 
of the attorney-general a bureau for prosecuting violations of 
the criminal anarchy statute. The first measure is aimed pri- 
marily, it is believed, at the Rand School of Social Science, 
though it would apply to classes conducted by labor unions 
and by civic and social agencies as well. Before its passage, 
the requirement of a $5 license fee was stricken out as a re- 
sult of opposition by social settlements and neighborhood 
houses, which contended that this would have to be paid by 
each class and club conducted by them and would constitute 
a heavy burden. [See The Settlements' Protest, in the SUR- 
VEY for April 10.] 

Governor Smith has made no announcement of his position 
on these bills. They were opposed by the majority of mem- 



bers of his own party, the Democratic, in both houses. If he 
vetoes them, the two-thirds majority necessary to pass them 
over his veto can probably be secured in the Assembly but it 
is doubtful if it can be secured in the Senate. 

The majority leader of the Assembly, Simon L. Adler 
(Republican), declared during the debate, according to the 
New York Evening Post: 

This bill [requiring schools to be licensed], I must admit, comes 
pretty close to the border of unconstitutionally. ... It may 
also be ineffective, I greatly fear. But maybe it will hold up long 
enough to put the Rand School out of existence. 


THE largest employer in the country, the United States 
government, is without a central employment agency 
having adequate powers, and without an employment 
policy. To point out some of the results of this situation 
and to outline remedies has been the task of the Congres- 
sional Joint Commission on Reclassification of Salaries, 
which after a year's work has recently reported. The 
commission's investigation covered 100,000 civilian em- 
ployes of the government in the District of Columbia, only 
employes of the Navy Yard and the Postal Service being 
excluded. Some of the more striking findings are as fol- 

Rates of compensation in the government service as a whole 
have not increased as rapidly as has the cost of living. 

Marked inequalities in compensation exist for positions involving 
like duties and like responsibilities. 

Opportunities for advancement, either in salary or in rank, for 
those of marked efficiency, do not compare favorably with opportu- 
nities in the commercial world. 

The government falls far short of meeting the safety standards 
set by progressive states, cities and private employers, and is pay- 
ing heavily for this failure. 

Failure to adopt a retirement system for civilian employes has 
proved costly, inefficient and destructive to the morale of the force. 

There is serious discontent accompanied by an excessive turnover 
and loss among the best trained and most efficient employes. 

To meet these conditions the commission proposes the 
following important changes: 

Increases in pay involving an increased appropriation of approxi- 
mately 8.5 per cent. 

Enlargement of the powers of the Civil Service Commission. 
Its new duties would include setting up and enforcing efficiency 
standards in the various departments, and also acting as a permanent 
classification agency for the administration of classification and tor 
the recommendation of salary changes and the improvement and 
standardization of working conditions. 

Establishment of an advisory council to the Civil Service Com- 
mission composed of 12 members, 6 appointed by the President of the 
United States and 6 elected by the employes. The commission would 
be directed to refer to the council for its advice all proposed changes 
in rules and regulations affecting the employes. 

Congressional investigation of the work of the various depart- 
ments with a view to their reorganization. 

Immediate enactment of an actuarially sound retirement law. 
The report fills a thick volume, and the scope of the 
commission's labor may be judged casually from a glance 
at the index. Titles of services which jostle each other 
there are: dancing supervisor, deckhand, director of the 
Council of National Defense, dry cleaner, head finger-print 
classifier, head meat cutter, office boy, organist, ornithologist 
and orthopedic shoemaker. Variety at least was not lack- 
ing in the task of outlining the duties, qualifications, prin- 
cipal lines of promotion and compensation for these and 
some 1,690 other occupations. Throughout its work the 
commission has had the cooperation of the National Fed- 
eration of Federal Employes. The final report is endorsed 
in the large by the federation. The Federal Em- 
ploye, the magazine of the federation, calls the proposed 
civil service advisory council " an important opening wedge 
looking towards participation by the employes in the conduct 
of the civil service." The only outstanding feature to 
which the federation objects is the disregard of the Nolan 
minimum wage standard bill, which has twice passed the 
House of Representatives and is now before the Senate. 

Chapin in the St. Lout* Star 



MEMBERS of university faculties are speaking out on 
what the cost of living is doing to their professional 
usefulness. The teachers of the University of Illi- 
nois have responded to a questionnaire sent to them by the 
Teachers' Federation of their own institution with such flash- 
lights as these on the conditions of their home life: 

Staying home from scientific meetings; postponing the examination 
of eyes of members of my family, two dental bridges, a surgical op- 
eration and also an operation for removal of tonsils. Adoption of 
a vegetarian diet, with nut butter for substitute. Cutting hair of 
children; re-soling of shoes at home. Doing without all personal 
service in the home, for odd jobs as well as regular help. No laun- 
dry service since 1917. 

Staying at home in summer against advice of physician ; postponing 
dental or medical services; neglecting repairs to house; inferior 
grades of clothing. Don't care to state the subterfuges and expedients 
resorted to. Have had almost no hired help in family of four chil- 
dren. Entertaining of commonest kind impossible. 

Bought one suit of clothes for myself in nine years. Reduced 
expenses of my own person to zero. What to deprive a family of, 
with the least harm to them, is the ever present questioa. 

My deficit for 1918-19 was $175. Of this, $125 made up by rent- 
ing a room to students; still obliged to rent room to strangers. 
Postpone dental services, use butter substitutes (except for children), 
wear old or cheap clothing, cut down on magazines and music and 
professional expenditures; wife does all housework, sewing and 
ironing. Could not afford to keep up membership in University Club. 

Carry all my groceries in order to save and to buy cheaply. 

Have been able to do a little outside work. This has been done 
at night and early in the morning when I ought to have been resting 
or thinking about my teaching duties and investigations. I have not 
purchased an overcoat since 1915; same true of ray wife. We have 
been unable to purchase playthings which are essential to the nor- 
mal and happy development of children. We have decided to leave 
university work in order to have these things. 

I run a garden and sole the family's shoes. My wife makes all 
her own clothing. We use butter substitutes. 

Incur almost no expenses not absolutely necessary. No summer 
trips, although my wife's health requires a cooler climate; furniture 



wearing out, but not replaced ; almost nothing for recreation of any 

The efficiency of my work at the university has been far less than 
it should be because of lack of means for continued contact with 
other workers in my field, e. g., visits to other laboratories, travel, 
books, attendance at scientific meetings, etc.^ 

It is hardly necessary to say that the retreat from university 
life indicated by these replies has been taking place for some 
time. Of the married instructors giving data, over two-thirds 
declared that they could not live within their university sala- 
ries; the situation was no better for assistant and associate 
professors having children. More ominous perhaps than the 
picture of economies practiced is the oft-repeated story of the 
teacher's inability to keep in touch with his colleagues and 
with progressive movements in his chosen line of work. As 
one member of the faculty writes to the SURVEY: 

Nothing more stultifying of the thing we call academic dignity 
or more calculated to bring hopeless discouragement of professional 
usefulness can be conceived than to shut a man out from the coun- 
cils and contact of his fellow-workers. The university teacher and 
investigator who is isolated from his colleagues is on the down-hill 

At the institution where this data was collected no relief 
is in sight for over a year. Meanwhile, similar studies have 
shown similar conditions at other universities; the University 
of Washington and the University of Michigan are among 
those which have made such studies. All of this makes " good 
food for thought," writes one instructor, " on the part of par- 
ents who send their boys and girls away from home to have 
their minds molded by college instructors in matters of eco- 
nomics, social relations, political theory and religious values." 


A NEED for central organization of relief in Germany 
was recognized some months after the armistice, when 
American, English, Danish and Swedish commissions 
interested in the repatriation of German prisoners of war 
and German relief societies encouraged Count Brockdorff- 
Rantzau who, as German minister to Denmark, was in 
charge of the prison camp in Copenhagen to effect a na- 
tional organization. The Deutsche Wohlfahrtsstelle was 
the result. Intended as an emergency link between private 
and public, between local and national, and between German 
and foreign agencies, it has since proved so strongly the value 
of cooperation on an international scale that a permanent or- 
ganization is likely to remain. The original object was that 
of centralizing the relief work planned abroad for needy wom- 
en, children and sick patients in Germany, to promote further 
action of this kind, and to organize the distribution of gifts 
in such a way as to make them actually reach the neediest, 
with no opportunity for profiteering or partiality. 

The Welfare Organization has two divisions, a central re- 
ceiving and distributing station for gifts from abroad and a 
bureau for the transportation of children. The former receives 
applications for aid from charitable societies, children's courts, 
infant welfare societies, hospitals and other agencies all over 
the country and confers about them with local welfare com- 
mittees which are responsible for the distribution of such 
gifts as are decided upon. (A somewhat complicated system 
of receipts is necessary in these days to check the actual use of 
the gifts in accordance with plans.) The child transportation 
division receives applications from societies, institutions and 
individuals to have children sent abroad for recuperation. The 
selection in this case also is made with a view to meeting the 
need where it is most urgent rather than with a view to 
equitable distribution over the whole country. As a result 
the number of children chosen from the industrial districts of 
Saxo..y and from Hamburg (which is suffering because there 
h* as yet been no revival of its commercial and shipping activ- 
ities) is larger than that from South Germany. Passports 
have to be secured and arrangements made for sending the 
children in groups of from twenty to five hundred. Sometimes 
agents of foreign Red Cross societies take part in these arrange- 

ments. Where large numbers of children are sent, they are 
accompanied by representatives of the Welfare Organization, 
who visit them in their homes and remain to supervise them. 
Sometimes a child is placed out in an unsuitable home, and the 
agent, with the aid of some foreign organization, then has to 
find another one. 

The English and American Friends in Germany almost en- 
tirely rely upon this organization in the distribution of gifts 
collected from their home countries. In Denmark, the Red 
Cross has done a great deal to help, especially by sending food, 
clothing and cod liver oil; the English Society of Friends, how- 
ever, have sent similar supplies also rubber nipples in much 
larger quantities, while American supplies, so far, have con- 
sisted chiefly of condensed milk, sugar and bacon. Swedish 
school children and the Dutch Red Cross have sent food and 
vaseline for German school children. The Norwegian Red 
Cross has contributed cod liver oil. From all these countries 
there also have come delegations to study the needs of the 
people, especially of the children, and to come into personal 
contact with the officers of the Welfare Organization. 


DENMARK was the first to systematize the provision of 
homes for German children, through the action of Pas- 
tor Lindhart, who, with F. Siegmund Schultze, founded 
the Convalescent Home for German Children in Denmark. 
At the same time an office was established in Copenhagen for 
boarding out German children, not only in private families but 
in homes established in the country with Danish funds. This 
organization, the Danish Relief for German Children, has 
since been considerably extended, maintains its own office in 
Berlin, and cooperates directly with such bodies as the Order 
of the Good Templars in Hamburg and Bremen, the Vacation 
Union for Jewish Children, and the trade unions of Saxony, 
Berlin, Breslau and Halle. 

In Sweden, action resulted from an appeal issued in the fall 
of 1918 by Archbishop Soederblom of Upsula; about a thou- 
sand families each immediately offered to take a German child 
into their homes. Since then many more have done so, and a 
society named the Swedish Relief for German Children was 
formed. About 1,700 German children were received during 
the first summer, a number of whom stayed through the win- 
ter. Many of those sent home brought with them quantities 
of clothing and food. The Swedish Red Cross also organized 
a special branch for the relief of children suffering from the 
results of the war. 

Norwegian interest in suffering childhood resulted in the 
opening of special bureaus in Berlin and two of the Baltic 
states, bringing some 1,500 children to Norway, where pri- 
vate families undertook their care all last summer. Many 
stayed for the winter. A local committee in Christiania co- 
operates with the office in Berlin to keep track of them. Both 
the Swedish and Norwegian organizations, acting through the 
German Welfare Organization, also gave assistance to the 
Austrian Red Cross in the transportation of children to Scan- 

Mr. Schultze, director of the organization, writes with re- 
gard to its prospects for the future : 

The desire which the outer world has shown to help us in our 
time of need gives us hopes for the coming year. The Scandinavian 
countries have again offered to open the doors of their hospitable 
homes to our German children and to continue and, so far as pos- 
sible, to increase their shipments of food. Holland intends to send 
large quantities of food regularly, for use in homes for German 
children in Germany which have been founded to take care of them. 

The English Society of Friends will support two homes for poor 
German children, one in Holland and one in Denmark, and in addi- 
tion intend to continue their relief work for German women and 
children through shipment of food. But the greatest help will prob- 
ably come from America. New shipments are daily reported by 
American representatives. The German Welfare Organization, 
with the executive committee of the German Red Cross, will form 
a central committee for American relief which, in cooperation with 
the legal authorities, will take charge of the large German-American 



The Wreck on the 
B. of R. T. 

BACK in the eighties when brakemen had to set the 
brakes by hand, the Wabash had a man named W. G. 
Lee. When the engine whistled for a tank, Lee had to 
hurry out of the caboose and run down the tops of the 
cars, climb over gondolas full or empty, and get enough brakes 
set to bring the train to a stop. Trains were far lighter then, 
but sometimes Lee's train ran past its stop and had to back up. 
Later he was a conductor on the Missouri Pacific and the 
Union Pacific. Twenty-six years ago he climbed down from 
his caboose for the last time, became vice-president of the 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, and in 1909 grand 

Last January Mr. Lee went down to Washington to get a 
40 per cent raise for his 198,000 men. He was braking a 
far heavier train that he had ever handled in his youth. No 
one appreciated its momentum. Somebody in Washington, 
quite a group in fact, threw the signals on him. Lee turned 
on the air. 

But the train wouldn't stop and hasn't stopped yet. 
Though at the hour of writing its speed seems to be slacken- 
ing, the train is still crashing on. Lee is frantically pulling 
on the emergency, assisted by scores of brotherhood and union 
officials, managers, governors, senators, conciliators and 
federal agents. Somewhere in the debris is the all but ruined 
Switchmen's Union of North America. The valiant crossing 
watchman, A. Mitchell Palmer, is waving the red flag. 

But to drop the figure; by this time it should be apparent 
to all, even to the federal administration, that the yardmen's 
strike is a rank and file movement on a tremendous scale, a 
leaderless revolt against not only union officialdom but the 
whole lumbering, legalistic handling of the wage movement. 
Even though the strikers seem to be drifting back, the echoes 
of this astonishing rebellion will go down the months and 

Although the persons who kept putting off a settlement 
with the railwaymen until the government unloaded the 
roads should be held primarily responsible for this present 
disaster, most of the resentment and fury of the insurgents 
has centered upon W. G. Lee. He is the leader upon whom 
they have depended to get a 40 per cent increase ever since 
early last year, and all they see is the fact he didn't get it. 
Beyond his error in believing that the discipline of his organ- 
ization was stronger than it turned out to be, and his willing- 
ness to listen to moderate counsel when sterner action may 
have been in order, he can hardly be held to any blame. 

Mr. Lee and the chiefs of the other brotherhoods are 
muscular men, direct and positive. They have shouldered 
their way up through tens of thousands of hard living, hard 
hitting railroaders. Lee himself is more grizzled than the 
rest, with a scarred and weatherbeaten face. There is little 
of the idealist about Bill Lee. He will have none of the 
Plumb plan or the Labor party or cooperative production. 
Chewing the ends off cigars, he draws great letters " L " on 
telegrams and correspondence while he dictates in a voice 
heard down the elevator shaft. 

This is the labor leader who would have directed the 
greatest industrial struggle ever waged in this country had he 
not been flagged at the brink two months ago. Instead he is 
breaking his own biggest strike. 

It is not generally known that when Mr. Lee went down 
to present his demand to Director-General Hines last Jan- 
uary he had his decks cleared for action. His Committee of 
Sixteen had given him full power to call a strike. A strike 
vote among system chairmen was actually in progress, and 

was in fact later completed. The vote was overwhelmingly 
in favor of a suspension at the call of the grand president. 
The locals were notified that no strike benefits would be paid. 
Had the demands been rejected, Lee and the committee would 
have returned to Cleveland to canvass the vote, and the strike 
would have been called. 

Everybody knows what Lee came back with. The brother- 
hood membership pretty well understood beforehand what was 
to follow the rejection of his demands, but could not under- 
stand what happened in Washington. Probably only three 
men in the world do know exactly what took place Lee, 
Hines and Gompers. Lee had vainly tried to get the other 
brotherhoods to join with him in a showdown, but even the 
firemen's acting president, Timothy Shea, hesitated, then drew 
back, though the firemen were almost as restless as the brake- 
men. Finally Lee determined to take his men out alone, if 
necessary, relying upon the firemen, conductors and possibly 
the engineers to follow against the orders of their chiefs. 

After arranging a meeting with Lee, Hines summoned all 
the other railway organizations to the same conference. Such 
a council on the wage movement could have had. one of but 
two results either to precipitate united action by all the 
organizations, what Mr. Hines most wished to avoid, or to 
combine those who did not want to strike against those who 
were set to " pull the pin." Hines must have relied upon 
the jealousies between the unions, and he guessed right. 

About February 12 Lee and Samuel Gompers at Gompers' 
invitation lunched together. The conversation, reported by 
Lee, ran somewhat as follows: 

GOMPERS: You know the boys on the hill are likely to pass 
some anti-strike legislation. 

LEE: I know that as well as you, but I've been sitting on the 
lid too long. I can't stand the pressure any longer. 

GOMPERS: But such legislation would hamper all organized labor 
for a generation. Anyhow, as you have always said, you are strong- 
est right on the brink of a strike, stronger than after you have struck. 

LEE: I know all that, but I can't convince my committee and the 
other grand officers. 

So the next day for more than an hour Gompers addressed 
the committee members and officials of the railway unions. 
The result was that the brotherhoods decided not to strike. 
Instead the fourteen or fifteen unions drew up an agreement 
on joint offensive and defensive action, to the outsider a very 
formidable document, but in reality a combination which 
haltered the trainmen's brotherhood. 

The unions dispersed pledged to the President to await the 
slow decision of the labor board. Late Sunday afternoon, 
February 15, Mr. Lee was again in his office in Cleveland. 
He was asked whether in view of the mutterings he had been 
hearing the past three or four months he thought the four- 
and five-dollar-a-day membership would wait. He said he 
wasn't certain but he hoped so. A month later he said the 
letters and telegrams of complaint had almost ceased. It was 
the calm before the well known storm. 

Mr. Lee in many years of administration had maintained 
the discipline of the brotherhood without a break. He had 
but recently held his men in line against the steel strike, and 
had ended two unauthorized strikes on western lines. Re- 
garding one of these strikes, on a road in Illinois in January, 
he remarked that had it not been settled quickly, he feared 
it would have swept the country. He knew there was an 
ancient cleavage between the yard switchmen and the road 
brakemen, but he had no idea it was so deep as it turns out 
to be. 

This was the situation when, about the first of April, two 
clouds no bigger than hands arose in Chicago. One was a 
road service dispute over rules which the brotherhood in its 
businesslike way settled immediately. The other was John 
Grunau and his " band of outlaws " as Mr. Lee calls the 
Chicago Yardmen's Association. Neither dispute amounted 
to anything, he said at the time. 

A week later the reporters were back in Mr. Lee's office. 
" It's spreading like the prairie fire," Lee exclaimed. " It's 



the explosion I've warned you of so often. We are in for it 
now. I told them so when they threatened to use the Lever 
act on me." Daniel Cease, editor of the brotherhood's 
monthly journal, remarked : " It looks like '77 and "94." 

Next morning I was in Conway hall up three floors on the 
west side of Chicago. The " grand lodge " or Local No. i 
of the Chicago Yardmen's Association was listening to tele- 
grams announcing spreading strikes from Jersey City to 
Bakersfield. A few sat in the center of the hall, surrounded 
by standing hundreds packed tight. Men in army overcoats 
pressed shoulders with switchmen who knew their break with 
the brotherhood was costing them twenty-five years' insurance. 
They met there every day and all day long. Their president, 
John Grunau, was acknowledged head of twenty locals of the 
Chicago strikers, yet elected only by Local No. I and liable 
to recall at any time. 

Grunau was a yard conductor or " foreman," as they call 
them in Chicago and the West. He holds a card of honorary 
withdrawal from the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
effective February i. In 1912 he was elected to the Illinois 
legislature on the Bull Moose ticket. After a term or two 
he was back in the yards. They say he has no economic 
theories worth mentioning and he seems to lack the imagina- 
tion required in a Socialist. In a few moments' conversa- 
tion he makes hardly more impression than a building trades' 
business agent. His fault as an organizer was his willingness 
to load up with detail. 

Early in the strike he was charged with having made pro- 
German remarks in the war, but the accusation was dropped 
in a day or two. He has war bonds of every denomination, 
including one for $1,000. Next he was accused of having 
worked during two old strikes affecting the railroads, in other 
words with having carried out the timely orders of the B. 
of R. T. Then he is arrested, charged with violating the 
war-time Lever act. 

Grunau has some ambitious plans. He and his men have 
organized three new unions cutting squarely across the 
structure of the four old brotherhoods. The Chicago Yard- 
men's Association, the United Enginemen's Association and 
the United Roadmen's Association recruit from footboard, 

Kirtiy in the New fork World. 


cab and caboose. How long they will endure except as organ- 
izations of protest may be doubted, but something of the force 
behind the protest may be gathered from the fact that on 
April 14 the yardmen had twenty locals in the Chicago 
switching district and the enginemen nine. 

Now these organizations comprise men who cut away en- 
tirely from the brotherhoods, some of them four months ago. 
Many of the strikers, however, carried cards in both nevr 
yardmen's association and the old trainmen's brotherhood. 
- Inside the brotherhood itself a current of revolt is running. 
Thousands of yardmen over the country who struck refused to 
form separate organizations but remained within the brother- 
hood. They are the toughest problem the brotherhood will 
have to deal with. 

The yardmen's association in Chicago has been organized 
since early in January. It had been started for just such a 
purpose as that for which the strike was called to snatch the 
wage movement out of the hands of the brotherhoods and to 
force it through on its own account. The organization grew 
steadily from its start. Then about April i the railway man- 
agers walked out of the wage conference in Washington. 
Nothing but more weary months of the slow grind of negotia- 
tion lay ahead. The hour needed only a Sarajevo. 

Late in March, Grunau was removed as a yard foreman by 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul and a road conductor was 
given his place. The dismissal had been demanded by the 
B. of R. T. in accordance with its contract with the road on 
the ground that the type of train had been changed. But 
Grunau and his union held that his position was not governed 
by a contract between the B. of R. T. and the St. Paul road. 
His organization had no such contract. There began a juris- 
dictional dispute which touched off the deep restlessness of the 
yard brakemen and switch tenders all over the country. Car- 
ing nothing for Grunau but resenting the delay in their wage 
demands, the four and five dollar men climbed down from 
their engines everywhere. Some took strike votes but many 
didn't. They exemplified in a day or two what would 
have happened had Congress gone through with its original 
Cummins anti-strike bill. 

The yard switchtenders were getting a basic pay of $4 a day 
for eight hours and yard brakemen $5 a day. Thousands of 
them could only work eight hours. During the winter their 
ceaseless resignations from the service created a sort of chronic 
strike which greatly added to the weather difficulties. It has 
always been the poorest paid who strike first on the railroads. 
In 1894, the lowest paid switchmen followed out on strike the 
lowest paid Pullman employes. In 1877 the brakemen and 
firemen in Pittsburgh struck first. 

" The strike of the switchmen has developed into a nation- 
wide protest against the vicious Esch-Cummins bill," Grunau 
told me. " The spontaneous walkout could not have resulted 
except from grievances of long standing. The men realize the 
futility of depending further upon governmental agencies to 
get justice. The labor board is stacked against us. We left 
our jobs because we lost faith in the negotiations extending 
over two years, and we intend to stay out until our demands 
are granted." 

Grunau about tells the story. The attorney-general hasten- 
ing back from Georgia interjected some comedy by his night- 
mare over the I. W. W., followed the next morning by charges 
that the Communist party was backing the strike, at noon that 
Soviet Russia was behind it, and at 4 P. M. that it was all 
William Z. Foster's doing. 

Apparently the only way the switchmen can win their strike 
is by losing it by going back to work knowing that their exer- 
tions considerably accelerated the wage machinery. Neither the 
railroads nor the government nor the brotherhoods would 
admit that such a thing was true, but the brotherhoods will re- 
ceive the blessing from the sacrifice of Grunau and his band 
of reckless men. 

Cleveland, April 17. JOHN W. LOVE. 

Shall We Turn Our Backs on Europe? 

By Henry P. Davison 


[The commander of the American Expeditionary Force in France, its ranking surgeon, former 
Red Cross commissioners to France, Italy, Russia, Palestine, Serbia and a half-dozen other countries, 
ambassadors, leaders in finance and industry and in the domestic activities of the Red Cross, gathered 
at the Waldorf-Astoria April l^ to welcome Henry P. Davison, chairman of the War Council, whose 
vision was the first to grasp the war-time call to the American Red Cross in terms of hundreds of 
millions and who has just returned from the first conference of the new League of Red Cross Societies 
in Geneva. The meeting was turned from a congratulatory, laudatory occasion by the guest of honor 
himself, who at ten-thirty in the evening, and for well nigh two hours succeeding read to those present 
bulletins of typhus, starvation and misery from coun try after country in central and eastern Europe in a 
ringing call for fresh action by the American people and government. The following article is drawn 
from Mr. Davison s hitherto unpublished address. EDITOR.] 

The following is taken from a communication from Sir 
William Goode, British director of relief: 


HERE is appalling misery in the broad belt lying 
between the Baltic and the Black Seas. In this 
great area, including the new Baltic states, Poland, 
Czechoslovakia, Ukraine, Austria, Hungary, Rou- 
mania, Montenegro, Albania, Serbia, to say nothing of Russia 
to the east and Armenia to the south, there is generally an 
absolute lack of medicines and sanitary appliances. Doctors, 
nurses and hospital equipment are practically non-existent, 
food and clothing are insufficient to make life tolerable, and 
disease, bereavement and suffering are present in practically 
every household. 

It may, therefore, be said that central and eastern Europe 
are ravaged in part by destitution and disease and are crippled 
to a point threatening paralysis economically and politically. 

I think I hear some people say: "Well, this is all very 
unfortunate. It is a very serious situation. I am exceedingly 
sorry about it. But, after all, it is not our affair." We heard 
the same people saying that same thing in the years 1914, 
1915 and 1916. People were distressed then at the European 
war, but they said it was not our war; that a lot of foolish 
people in Europe had started it and that we were not involved 
in the issues. 

We are going to find out that we can no more escape the 
influence of the European situation of today than we were 
able to escape the war itself. You cannot have one half of 
the world starving and the other half eating. We must help 
put Europe on its feet or we must participate in Europe's 
misery. Let it be admitted, if you will, that neither Wilson 
nor Roosevelt have had the right to speak for the idealism of 
America [in pledging our sustained friendship and help] ; it 
still remains true that a man is lying wounded by the roadside. 
He is stripped of his raiment, he is half dead, and America 
(rich and prosperous) is passing by on the other side. 

A communication was received at the Red Cross confer- 
ence at Geneva from Mr. Balfour, chairman of the Council 
of the League of Nations, in which he said : 

The ravages inflicted by disease upon the war-worn and under- 
fed population of central Europe (to say nothing of regions further 
east) have reached appalling proportions. Men, women and chil- 
dren are dying by thousands, and over vast and civilized areas there 
are neither medical appliances nor medical skill sufficient to cope 
with the horrors by which we are faced. The catastrophe is of 
such unexampled magnitude that no organization less powerful than 
the League of Red Cross Societies seems adequate to cope with it. 
To this great body I therefore make appeal. The members of 
the League of Nations have agreed to encourage Red Cross organi- 
zations whose purposes are " the improvement of health, the preven- 
tion of disease, and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world." 
There can surely never be an occasion calling more insistently for 
action, and I venture to urge the League of Red Cross Societies to 
organize an effort worthy of its unique position for dealing with 
a calamity which, following hard on war, seems almost worse than 
war itself. 

All official and other reports which reach me give no hope of 
improvement in the situation in central and eastern Europe. The 
misery of the outlook in many parts, particularly in Austria, Poland 
and Armenia, is worse than ever. I earnestly trust that before the 
date of your meeting the American Congress will have decided to 
approve the European food credits which they are now discussing 
and on which further credits by the British government are con- 
tingent. I also have reason to hope that several other nations will 
combine their efforts with the governments of the United States and 
Great Britain. Agreements between governments to furnish on 
credit so many tons of food and so many tons of raw materials do 
not in themselves, however, bind up the wounds of Europe. There 
are phases of suffering which governments are powerless to relieve. 
Unofficial effort on relatively small expenditure can achieve results 
beyond the grasp of governments. ... It is, of courje, only too 
obvious that the marshalled charity of the world, governmental and 
unofficial, will not alone heal the disease from which Europe is suffer- 
ing. Increased production and the restoration of economic order 
out of political and economic chaps are the only solutions of the 
problem that now almost defies the ingenuity of those who face it. 

So far I have spoken of the countries of central and east- 
ern Europe. It is important to distinguish between those 
countries and our principal allies in western Europe, who, 
whatever their distress, are doing their best to pull all Europe 
out of the slough of despond. 

The French government has many serious problems to 


Adopted by the League of Red Cross Societies at 

WE, the delegates forming the General Council of the 
League, assembled in conference, fully conscious of 
the unparalleled distress in the stricken districts of the 
world and of the imperative need of immediate and com- 
prehensive action, declare ourselves in full sympathy and 
arccord with the suggestion made by Mr. Balfour. From 
our own study and survey within part of the districts af- 
fected, we must, however, declare our conviction that any 
voluntary aid, to become effective, can only follow the pro- 
vision of such essentials as food, clothing and transportation, 
which must be given if the peoples are to live and be re- 
stored to a condition of self-support, a-nd the need of which 
is so vast that it cannot be given by voluntary organizations 
but must be supplied by governments. 

Therefore, Be It Resolved that, upon assurance from the 
League of Nations that food, clothing and transportation 
will be supplied by governments, the League of Red Cross 
Societies shall at once formulate plans for the immediate 
extension of voluntary relief within the affected districts, in 
accordance with the ascertained requirements, and shall ap- 
peal to the peoples of the world, through the Red Cross 
organizations, members of the League of Red Cross Societies, 
for doctors, nurses and other necessary personnel, medical 
supplies, diet foodstuffs and such money as may in their 
judgment be required in the operation, calling upon various 
countries, tnrough the Red Cross organizations, for such 
quota of personnel, materials and money as seems appropri- 
ate to the resources and conditions obtaining in each country. 




The BROAD BELT of MISERY lying between the BALTIC and BLACK SEAS 


ABOUT March 1, 1920, the Americans in 
Warsaw, in an address to the American 
government, stated in substance that whole- 
sale starvation is threatened in Poland dur- 
ing the months of May, June and July unless 
a very large importation of food from Amer- 
ica is secured before May. 

" Conditions in Poland have become worse 
since October, 1919. There are now approx- 
imately 250,000 cases of typhus in Poland 
and in the area occupied by the Polish troops. 
The principal centers of this epidemic are 
in southeastern and eastern Poland. There 
is lack of food, clothing, fuel, hospital equip- 
ment, doctors and nurses. Many thousands 
of typhus patients cannot be hospitalized be- 
cause of lack of food. The greatest need of 
all is for food. The essential consideration 
is the control of refugees who are returning 
to Poland from Russia and the Ukraine 
bringing the disease with them. The feed- 
ing and clothing of the destitute and the 
hospitalization of the sick must later be un- 
dertaken over the entire area of Poland 
where such needs now exist. From the pres- 
ent indications the population is threatened 
with one of the worst typhus fever epidemics 
in the history of the world, which unless 
checked will prove a danger that will 
threaten the whole of Europe. In Galicia 
whole towns are crippled, schools are closed 
and business practically suspended because 
of the disease. In some districts there is but 
one doctor to each 150,000 people." 


TT^HERE is a great shortage of doctors in 
A Serbia. It is said that there are only 
200 for the entire country, and that 80 per 
cent of the doctors of Serbia lost their lives 
during the war. There are large areas with 
50,000 to 60,000 people with practically no 
medical care. Transportation of all sorts is 
very inadequate. Food, medical assistance, 
nursing and shelter for a large number of 
orphan children is urgently required. Ty- 
phus has again broken out. The infection 
is being spread with alarming rapidity by 
Russian refugees seeking safety in Serbia 
from the menace of the advancing Bolshevik 
forces on the South Russia front. The Rus- 
sian refugee problem in Serbia is of far- 
reaching importance. 


THE general conditions in Montenegro 
may be said to be slightly better than 
they were six months ago. Food is running 
short and there are 5,000 to 8,000 children 
to be fed daily. A report under date of 
March 1 stated that a small epidemic of ty- 
phus had broken out in Podgoritza, and that 
it was rumored that a similar epidemic had 
broken out near Budua. There are not over 
four or five doctors for an estimated popu- 
lation of 450,000. One area where 70,000 
people live has one doctor, but he has no 
facilities for getting about 


GKNERALLY speaking, the conditions in 
the Ukraine are as bad as can be im- 

"During the winter of 1918-19 typhus and 
influenza had a most terrible effect upon the 
Ukrainian population. Nearly everybody 
was affected. In villages of 2,000 or 3,000 
people, half of the people would be ill of 
typhus at the same time. There was al- 
most no medical care. There were physi- 
cians who attended a territory forty miles 
in diameter. Doctors who had to treat dis- 
ease in areas in which there were 20,000 to 
30,000 typhus patients could get no medical 
supplies and had to give only moral encour- 
agement to their sick. This was the condi- 
tion last year, but this year it is even worse. 
The situation is getting worse daily. Pau- 
perism becomes more and more intense, the 
prices are growing steadily so that most of 
the necessities of life, which are now about 
five hundred times more than at the begin- 
ning of the war, are quite out of reach for 
most of the population. The physicians get 
the same nourishment as the patients and the 
nurses, but they receive for their other needs 
and for supporting their families 1,000 kar- 
bovantzys a month, which is about 30 francs 
nowadays. The nurses receive 720 karbo- 
vantzys. A simple worker can earn from 
6,000 to 7,600 karbovantzys a month. Last 
year there were few medical supplies; now 
there are practically none at all." 

solve, but the French peasant is working and the French 
artisan, while still sadly in need of raw materials, has not 
lost his habit of industry and thrift. The most encouraging 
fact about France today is that her people are alive to the 
seriousness of France's problem and they are going forward 
bravely to solve that problem. 

Italy, despite her great shortage of raw material, is looking 
forward and not backward. She is led at the present time by 
one of the great men whom the war has produced, Mr. Nitti, 
the prime minister. Under the leadership of this wise states- 
man Italy can be relied upon to do her part. 

England is meeting the problems of reconstruction just 
as those who know her past should have expected her to meet 
them. With head erect, a quiet courage and a sturdy 
common sense she is doing her own day's work and at the 
same time rendering all the assistance that her resources per- 
mit to the countries on the continent. 

Neither Belgium nor France nor Italy nor England is ask- 
ing charity of the United States. The peoples of these 
countries are as proud as we are. They are as eager to work 
out their own national destiny as we are to work out ours. 
They want to carry their own burdens. In the face of an 
almost overwhelming catastrophe they seek only the oppor- 
tunity to regain their own economic strength. 

Europe has today a tremendous number of idle people. 
Many of them want to go to work, but there is a great short- 
age of raw materials with which to work. Such has been the 
output of paper money and so much greater is the need of 
imports than the possibility of exports under existing condi- 
tions that these countries have simply neither the money nor 
the goods with which to purchase from us that which they 
need to sustain life itself. 

If the various people were to buy materials in this country 

at the present market value of their currencies, they would 
have to pay as follows : 

Austria approximately 40 times the normal cost 

Hungary approximately 40 times the normal cost 

Germany approximately 13 times the normal cos 

Greece approximately 2 times the normal cost 

RoumaniM approximately 12 times the normal cost 

Poland (Cracow) approximately 50 times the normal cost 

Czechoslovakia approximately 14 times the normal cost 

I have read these figures because they are official and are 
the only index which can briefly give any comprehension of 
the economic conditions within these countries. Their cur- 
rencies are depreciated because they have neither gold nor 
sufficient production with which to maintain their normal 
position either with the United States or with their own 
immediate neighbors. It must be obvious to anyone that until 
each one of the countries named is in a position to produce 
sufficient to maintain itself, either from within or by import- 
ing from without, by exchange for gold or goods, it cannot 
hope for normal conditions if indeed it can hope to survive. 
There is nothing magic in this picture nor is the situation 
difficult of comprehension. Somewhere, somehow, sometime 
it must become possessed of food, of clothing, of raw materials 
and of means for transporting them. 

I have been many times asked the question, What do the 
people of Europe think of us in America? They say that we 
entered the war more than two and a half years after it began ; 
we entered not upon their demand, request or invitation. 
They recognize and with deep gratitude the fact that it was 
the great resources of the American people, both of man 
power and materials, under the directing genius of General 
Pershing, Admiral Sims and others of our leaders, which 
resulted in the turning of the tide and finally the triumphant 
armistice in November, 1918. Then what happened? Did 
we say to them that we were gratified if we had contributed 



WE gave them EVERY REASON to BELIEVE we were THERE; and THERE to STICK" 


/CONDITIONS in Budapest are similar to 
VJ those in Vienna, although not quite as 
severe. Quoting from a recent report: 

" In Budapest, the population of which has 
increased from 900,000 to 1,500,000, inde- 
scribable misery is the lot of those least able 
to stand it, namely, the children. All large 
cities have their slums in normal times. To- 
day the whole of Budapest is one vast city 
of misery and suffering. In 1913 there were 
23,300 births and 17,300 deaths; in 1918 
there were 14,700 births and 29,900 deaths. 
The number of deaths double that of births. 
In November, 1916, scarcity of milk was se- 
riously felt. In November, 1919, the supply 
was just one-fourth as great. The effect 
upon child life can be well understood. Of 
160,000 children enrolled in the schools in 
Budapest, 100,000 are dependent on public 
charity. The children lack not only food and 
clothing, but their mentality often is men- 
aced. There are 150,000 workers idle today 
in Budapest. There are 50,000 widows and 
war invalids, and there are 30,000 sick and 
disabled old people who are a charge upon 
the state." 


/CONDITIONS in Albania have not im- 
v^proved during the past six months owing 
largely to the political situation and conse- 
quent general unrest. The condition of the 
children is deplorable in many respects. 


A REPORT from Vienna, dated Febru- 
ary 12, says: "There are rations for 
three weeks. People are apathetic, fatal- 
istic and tired. There is an epidemic of 
dancing. I visited a dance attended by 4,000 
people, one-half of whom had had no dinner. 
They danced until exhausted, refusing to 
go home. At least 25,000 hospital beds have 
become useless owing to shortage of hospital 
supplies. One hundred thousand school chil- 
dren in Vienna are underfed and diseased 
as a result of the food shortage, lack of fuel 
and inadequate hospital facilities. Crime 
among the child population is on the in- 
crease, hunger sometimes driving little boys 
to ghastly attempts at murder. The juve- 
nile court is being overwhelmed with the 
daily addition of child cases of criminality. 
No words can describe the appalling misery 
of the famished population of Vienna. Death 
stalks through the streets of Vienna in broad 
midday and takes unhindered toll. The gen- 
eral death-rate has risen 46 per cent since 
1913. The mortality from tuberculosis has 
risen 250 per cent in the same period. Many 
children of one year have not surpassed 
their weight at birth. The middle class liv- 
ing on salaries are selling their belongings 
to buy even the government ration. A pro- 
fessor gets 700 kr. a month. One meal for 
one person at the municipal kitchens costs 
6 kr. Today an overcoat costs three months' 
salary of a court justice. A second-hand 
Renault automobile sold for an amount equal 
to 17 years' salary of the chancellor." 


THE shelves of the pharmacies throughout 
Czechoslovakia are bare and the supply 
is not being replenished because of the low 
value of the national currency. It is esti- 
mated that a loan of $500,000 would enable 
the government to buy a six months' supply 
of drugs. In 1919 typhus appeared in all 
the four countries composing this republic. 
The regions most menaced were Moravia 
and Silesia, bordering on the Polish frontier, 
and Bohemia. In Slovakia, typhus and small- 
pox were prevalent throughout the country. 
Czechoslovakia has neither linen nor suffi- 
cient medicines nor soap. There is also seri- 
ous lack of physicians. 


TUBERCULOSIS is spreading in an 
alarming and unprecedented manner. 
It is making its appearance everywhere, in 
the cities and in the country districts. The 
Roumanians have met the refugee situation 
by establishing a military line along the 
Dniester River and refusing to let anyone 
cross it. It is thought there may be 20,000 
refugees on the other side and no one knows 
what the Bolshevik! are doing to them. 


THERE are reports of an epidemic of ty- 
phus in Esthonia with about 15,000 re- 
ported cases of the disease. There is also an 
acute lack of food, clothing and transpor- 

to the final victory of the Allies, that we were going to take 
our men and go home, that we did not wish to become in- 
volved in European politics and would, therefore, sue for a 
separate peace with Germany? No, on the contrary, we said 
that we had fought this war to make the world 
safe for democracy, and now that the war was won we 
proposed to see that the peace would be of a character which 
would insure its permanence, that people should for the first 
time enjoy self-determination as to where and under what 
conditions they would live^ that we regarded ourselves com- 
mitted to stand for those purposes in the treaty of peace. 

Whatever the developments were later and whatever the 
merits or the reasons, do not forget that to Europe we are all- 
important and gave them every reason to believe that we were 
there and there to stick and that now we seem to have turned 
our backs. 

It is perhaps not strange that people are indifferent and in 
fact numb to the cries of despair. On every hand people are 
saying: "Well, we have heard these tales of woe before and 
these dire predictions, but these shocking things which are 
predicted do not seem to happen." The facts are that they 
have already happened in a large part of the world and the 
area is hourly increasing. 

I ask you, are the American people content to rest under 
such a condition? If this picture I have given is one which 
conveys any sense of the situation it must raise in the mind of 
every one of you: Well, what is the solution? 

I know that if our people had a full realization of the 
situation we would at once say to our government : 

Quite irrespective of any obligation, quite irrespective of the fact 
that we find ourselves the only country possessed of many of the sup- 
plies which Europe needs and which cannot be purchased or given in 
sufficient volume on credit; quite irrespective of our own problems 
at home (and put it all, if you please, upon a commercial basis), we 

ask you to arrange at once to place within the reach of those peoples 
that which they need to save them and start them on their way to 
recovery. We ask you to do this under conditions and upon terms 
which will best insure the success of the undertaking. But we ask 
you to do it. One of the conditions we would impose would be 
that politics should be eliminated from the handling of this task 
both in this country and in Europe, and that the financial terms 
should be such as not to work a hardship which would defeat its 
own purpose. 

I believe that any conditions dictated by justice and com- 
mon sense would be unanimously accepted, and I also believe 
that such a step taken by our government would not only be 
hailed with joyous hope on the part of the nations of the 
world, but that most cordial and immediate cooperation would 
be forthcoming from Great Britain, Holland, the Scandi- 
navian countries, Spain, Japan and France, Italy and Belgium, 
to the best of their ability, and perhaps other countries as well. 

It is not only from the statement of Sir William Goode 
but from conferences had with close observers, public and 
private, that I finally became convinced that the situation had 
developed so far and so seriously that there was no possibility 
of its being met other than by and through the various gov- 
ernments. As soon as the necessary elementals are furnished, 
the peoples of the world through their Red Cross societies will 
rush in with their doctors, their nurses, their medicines, their 
diet foodstuffs, and those things which can be administered 
to the peoples, many of whom at present see nothing for which 
to live. 

I think I may fairly lay claim to knowledge of the spirit 
and the purpose of the American people, and it is that know- 
ledge which inspires within me the confidence that as soon as 
we realize the truth and effect of these statements, we will in 
our own interest lose no time again to take steps worthy of 
the traditions of the American people. Therefore, the respon- 
sibility upon every one of us is to do whatever may be in our 

The Red Cross at Geneva 

By Helen Fidelia Draper 


TWENTY-SEVEN national organizations were 
represented at the meeting of the League of Red 
Cross Societies at Geneva in March from which 
our American delegation is only now returned. The 
conference was significant not only in showing the mutual 
strength which comes of cooperation in facing epidemic and 
famine in central and eastern Europe, but also because it 
registered a marked development on the part of Red Cross 
activities in many of the older and more established coun- 
tries. Under pressure of needs growing out of the war and 
under the inspiration of American leadership (for the Ameri- 
can body has increasingly emphasized its civilian work) Red 
Cross societies the world over are initiating peace programs. 

The countries represented were the United States, France, 
Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Belgium, China, Norway, Portu- 
gal, Brazil, Peru, Australia, Canada, Argentina, South 
Africa, Greece, Sweden, New Zealand, Denmark, Roumania, 
Venezuela, Cuba, India, Holland, Serbia, Spain, Poland, 
Switzerland, Czechoslovakia and Uruguay. Of these coun- 
tries, it is significant that seven had women among their dele- 
gates and so had the League of Nations Dame Rachel 
Crowdy of England. The American delegates were there for 
the opening meeting, in spite of the fact that the railroads 
of France were on strike and the trip to Geneva had to be 
made by automobile and part of the way by sledge through 
the snow of one of the Alpine passes. The delegation con- 
sisted of Willoughby Walling of Chicago, vice-chairman of 
the American Red Cross, Eliot Wadsworth of Boston, for- 
mer vice-chairman, Otis H. Cutler of New York, Robert 
Olds of St. Paul and the writer. 

At the stirring opening meeting, the chairman of the board 
of governors, Henry P. Davison, presented the report of this 
body going back to the inception of the League of Red Cross 
Societies a year ago, when at Cannes experts in public health 
from various countries assembled to talk over the responsi- 
bility upon the Red Cross in the period of reconstruction. 
Throughout the proceedings in Geneva, the importance of the 
Cannes conference never ceased to come to the front. Rep- 
resentatives from all countries constantly referred to the pro- 
ceedings which had apparently challenged the interest of pub- 
lic health people throughout the world. 

The proceedings of the conference were divided into two 
sections: the medical section on general questions of public 
health and the organization section. It was necessary to read 
all papers and have all discussions in two languages French 
and English. One of the chief objects of the league is the 
development of Red Cross Societies everywhere and a large 
membership including junior membership was the dominant 
note of the latter section. Public health and all that implies 
was the fundamental starting point in the discussion of types 
of activities, but inasmuch as these conform to a country's 
needs, it is easily understood that'it was difficult in a great 
international gathering to more than suggest the various under- 
takings which a Red Cross society can wisely develop. It is 
amazing how few countries as yet have trained public health 
workers and there was a very keen and real enthusiasm on the 
part of all delegates to learn the methods for developing them 
now in use in the United States. 

Among the resolutions approved at the closing meeting of 

the General Council, when the reports of both sections were 
presented, are the following: 

That widespread and popular membership in a National Red 
Cross Society is the necessary condition of success in its peace-time 

That a National Red Cross Society should endeavor to cover the 
expenses of administration and of its normal activities by member- 
ship dues and the income of permanent investment. 

That the members of the National Red Cross Society should be 
afforded suitable opportunities to render definite service for public 
welfare in their respective localities. 

That a National Red Cross Society should organize the youth of 
its country for Red Cross service. 

That a National Red Cross should assist in relief operations in 
the event of national disaster and should always be prepared to 
take prompt and effective action. 

That the League of Red Cross Societies should maintain for the 
member societies a rapid service of information regarding calamities 
and disasters in order to insure the immediate mobilization of every 
possible form of assistance. 

That the three principal duties of the National Red Cross Society 
in the field of health service should be: (a) To stimulate and 
maintain interest in public health work, (b) To support and if 
need be supplement the work of government agencies, (c) To dis- 
seminate useful knowledge concerning health through demonstration, 
education and otherwise. 

From the medical department came some thirty resolutions 
embracing the care and welfare of mothers and children, the 
treatment and control of tuberculosis and other infectious and 
contagious diseases, and the improvement of sanitation, the 
standardization of vital statistics, the encouragement of sci- 
entific study along practical lines affecting the public health, 
the extension of nursing services in all its branches covering 
the community, the home and the school as well as more 
firmly established lines. 

It will of course be understood that a very large part of 
the time was given over to the consideration of the present 
situation in central Europe, as reported by delegates from 
those regions. The picture of what seemed to be an appalling 
situation was put before us. At present the league's largest 
operation is in Poland, where typhus is raging and where the 
league is coordinating the work of the American Red Cross, 
the British Red Cross, the Quaker units, etc. 

Provided that through the League of Nations the govern- 
ments can supply transportation, coal, food and clothing, the 
League of Red Cross Societies at Geneva pledged itself to 
undertake as its responsibilities hospitalization, medical and 
surgical supplies, doctors and nurses. 

It remains for the American Red Cross to decide what, if 
any, action can be taken to arouse American public interest 
to the need for prompt and generous action by the United 
States government. 

Henry P. Davison was reelected chairman of the board of 
governors consisting of representatives of five national socie- 
ties. Ten more nations were invited to join its membership. 

The conference strove for nothing less than the improve- 
ment of the health and physical welfare of mankind. Immense 
labors are before us, but if they are undertaken the path is 
now clearly defined. We found in Geneva a true unity of 
purpose ; we thought and felt in larger terms than those of 
national egoism. We felt something of that universal kinship 
which can not find content in the well-being of a particular 
people alone. We saw more clearly than ever before that the 
health of one people is related to the health of all. 

The Communist Deportations 

Mr. Post's Handling of the Cases as Acting Secretary of Labor 

By Francis Fisher Kane 



resolution introduced in the House of Repre- 
sentatives last week calling for the impeachment of 
Louis F. Post, assistant secretary of the Depart- 
ment of Labor, is the most recent development in 
the Communist deportation cases which had their origin in the 
wholesale raids by the United States Department of Justice 
last January. It seemingly expresses the exasperation of those 
who looked for wholesale deportations to follow on the heels 
of the raids. 

As the reports of the immigration inspectors have come in 
to the Department of Labor in more than eighteen hundred 
cases, the question of public policy involved need be no longer 
matter of hearsay and assertion, but can be based on a consid- 
eration of the facts. Mr. Post as acting secretary put the 
records of the department at the disposal of the congressional 
committee investigating the procedure of the immigration 
service ; and they are also open to responsible bodies of citizens. 
The total number of arrests made in the January raids 
may never be known. The records in every local office of the 
Department of Justice would have to be examined, for persons 
were taken into custody for whom no warrants were obtained, 
either before arrest or afterwards. There were 3,289 war- 
rants issued, and 2,709 served. Over 900 cases have been 
dismissed, the warrants being cancelled by the Department of 
Labor for lack of sufficient evidence in the immigration inspec- 
tor's report. In 390 cases deportations have been ordered, but 
many of these cases may be reconsidered before the order is 
carried out. That the department, acting through Mr. Post, 
has not been without reasonable grounds for caution in its 
responsible task of review and decision is illustrated by the 
fact that among the aliens arrested were soldiers who served 
our country in the war. One of these, named J. Volkov, is 
thirty-three years old and married. He wants to go to Russia, 
but he does not wish to^be sent there. When asked by the 
inspector why he had not applied for citizenship papers, he 
replied : 

When I was fighting in the United States array in France I 
believed that the United States government was helping and aiding 
Russia, but now I find out it is just the opposite. They blockaded 
Russia and I have not received a single letter in about two years. 

Tell us what battles you were in in France? 

A number of places marked in my discharge. 
And the discharge shows: St. Mihiel, 9-12-18, 9-13-18; 
Meuse Argonne, 9-26-18, 9-31-18; Second Battle also; Vayor, 
10-18-18, 10-26-18; Grand Montagne, 10-28-18 to 11-14-18. 
Notation of war service ; chevrons authorized. No unauthor- 
ized absence. 

A pretty good record for a man now thought to be liable 
to deportation! 

The Law 

LET us stop for a moment to consider briefly the background 
of law in these cases : Under Section 6 of the federal criminal 
code, it is made a felony to conspire to overthrow the govern- 
ment of the United States by force, and the section applies to 
aliens as well as citizens. Both may be proceeded against by 
indictment and trial in the courts, and both are then given 
all the safeguards of the Constitution. So far as I know, no 

proceedings have been started under this section of the crimi- 
nal law in these Communist cases. 

The act of October 16, 1918, under which the government 
has proceeded, is a different matter. It is a deportation 
statute. It covers those who advocate the overthrow of this 
government by force or violence, but it applies only to aliens 
and makes them liable to deportation. It makes them liable 
if they even believe in the forbidden thing the words are: 
" believe in or advocate the overthrow by force or violence of 
the government of the United States." And the act also 
makes membership in or affiliation with " any organization 
that entertains a belief in, teaches, or advocates " this thing 
enough to send a man back " to the country whence he came." 
The procedure under the law is through a departmental pro- 
ceeding before an inspector of the Department of Labor, with 
the decision resting in the secretary's hands, and in this pro- 
ceeding the alien has practically only one, or possibly two, of 
the constitutional rights which he, like the citizen, would have 
if the government chose to proceed against him in the courts 
for a violation of the criminal code. He does not have the 
rights mentioned in the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution. 
He does not have the right " to a speedy and public trial by 
an impartial jury," the rights " to be informed of the nature 
and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the wit- 
nesses against him;" to have compulsory process for obtaining 
witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel 
in his favor. He may be compelled " to be a witness against 
himself," and he may be tried with an utter disregard of the 
rules of evidence. The courts have said that it is entirely 
for Congress and the Department of Labor to say whether 
these rights shall be accorded aliens in deportation cases. 

The Drag-Net Raids 

NOT the Department of Labor but the attorney-general took 
the initiative in the January raids, planning them from Wash- 
ington, so that the meeting-places of the party, and the homes 
of particular defendants where known in advance might be 
raided simultaneously everywhere. The raids in each place 
were handled by the local representatives of the Bureau of 
Investigation of the United States Department of Justice with 
the cooperation of the police. Upon being arrested the aliens 
were taken to police stations, or directly to the office of the 
bureau, where they were examined by the department's agents, 
the examinations being reduced to writing. If a warrant had 
already issued from the Department of Labor, the alien was 
turned over to it. If not, he was held by the Department of 
Justice until the warrant issued, provided he was not in the 
meantime discharged for lack of evidence. Such people were 
released, but not until hours, in some cases days, had elapsed. 
The orders of the Department of Labor were to hold all 
under $10,000 bail, although in ordinary deportation cases 
the regulations called for not more than $500 after the first 
few days' excitement the $10,000 was found impracticable and 
$1,000 was the figure substituted. Now even a less amount 
is demanded by the department, which found that even $1,000 
was more than could usually be obtained by the families or 
friends of the aliens. Of course as the weeks and months 
passed by, it was the poorest and most ignorant who failed to 




make bail, and when they did get out of prison they found 
their jobs gone, and, in many cases, their families either in 
destitution or dependent upon charity. They were objects of 
suspicion to their old employers and it was difficult to get 
work. It is not easy to get a job if you have a deportation 
proceeding pending over you, and it is not pleasant to be sent 
to prison and lose all your savings in lawyers' expenses, even if 
the government afterwards decides that you were needlessly 

It was the duty of the secretary of labor to issue a warrant 
of arrest in each case upon " probable cause," and " probable 
cause " was set forth in an affidavit of a Department of Jus- 
tice agent, who charged that the alien believed in and advo- 
cated, and was a member of and affiliated with an organiza- 
tion that believed in and advocated the overthrow of this 
government by force; that the Communist party was such an 
organization, and that the alien was a member of it, and 
consequently liable to deportation. Extracts from the mani- 
festo, program, and constitution of the Communist party, the 
manifesto of the Third Communist Internationale at Moscow, 
and other documents were attached in each case to the affidavit 
to prove the character of the party. That was the procedure 
adopted all over the country. The local hearings before the 
inspectors of the Department of Labor in some few cases are 
still going on, there having been delays for one reason or 
another. Sooner or later the reports of the inspectors will 
all be returned to the secretary of labor in Washington for 
him to pass upon; and therefore it is that the theater of dis- 
cussion has now shifted to the national capital and interest to 
the apparent cleavage between the two federal departments 

The Deportation Act 

I AM not here concerned with the wisdom of the act of Octo- 
ber 16, 1918, or with the justice of our immigration legisla- 
tion generally. The act places certain duties on the secretary, 
and he is bound to deport aliens when duly proved to be 
within its provisions. It is his responsibility and not that of 
the attorney-general, who might well have contented himself 
with acting when called upon by the secretary of labor to 
assist him in making arrests, or later, as might be necessary, in 
the courts, should writs of habeas corpus be applied for. The 
original writ in deportation cases is a departmental warrant 
issued by the secretary of labor, and the hearings under the 
warrant are departmental hearings, at which the Department 
of Justice representatives are not present, unless called as 
witnesses, and the final decision in each case is the decision of 
the secretary of labor, not the decision of a court. Had the 
attorney-general allowed the Department of Labor to take 
the initiative in these Communist party cases, it is hardly likely 
that 3,000 people would have been arrested without more 
careful preparation in advance such preparation as would 
have made it possible to handle the job effectively and with- 
out injustice to the individual. The Department of Labor 
would undoubtedly have hesitated, for instance, before order- 
ing the arrest of some five or six hundred people at one time 
in the city of Detroit alone, where there was no immigration 
station to receive them, it being necessary to herd the unfortu- 
nate aliens into the municipal building and keep them there 
for several days. The raids covered many cities Boston, 
Hartford, New York, Philadelphia, Rochester, Detroit, 
Cleveland, Chicago, Pittsburgh, Seattle, Portland, San Fran- 
cisco, St. Louis, El Paso and several other places. Surely, the 
Department of Labor ought to have been given the oppor- 
tunity to determine whether it could properly handle so many 
cases simultaneously, and whether the suffering and injustice, 

to say nothing of the delays that would inevitably occur in 
disposing of so many cases at one time, would not more than 
counterbalance the good that might be done. We have spoken 
of the conditions created at Detroit. The confinement of the 
aliens there became a scandal. Charitable societies and even 
public bodies protested, and finally the mayor and city council 
presented a formal remonstrance to the Department of Jus- 
tice, with the result that the aliens were taken away and 
huddled into the county jail. Later, those who were unable 
to secure bail were transferred to the Fort Wayne barracks, 
where a few are still confined. Similar conditions existed for 
a time at Hartford and in neighboring towns, and in a less 
degree at other places. These abuses were the inevitable 
result of one department " butting in " and trying to do the 
work of another. 

To return to the act. It provides for no time limit no 
term of years from the date of entrance into this country during 
which the immigrant must be arrested and proceeded against 
if he is to be deported. He may have been here twenty years 
or more; he may have taken root here; he may have married 
an American woman and reared a family of children, and yet 
he may at any time be deported and separated from them for 
life. And the law makes no provision for their going with 
him. One man arrested in Philadelphia had come here when 
he was a boy nine years of age. He had been educated in the 
public and night schools of the city. To send him to Russia 
was to exile him to a foreign country. No one knows the 
exact number of married men roughly speaking, probably 
25 per cent had women and children in this country dependent 
on them. In such cases the family was thrown upon charity 
when the bread-winner was arrested and taken from his home. 
The fact alone that the law contained no time limit within 
which a man must be deported, ought to have been enough to 
make the Department of Justice very careful how it went 
ahead ordering arrests by the wholesale. The act makes it a 
felony for a man even to attempt to return to this country 
after he has once been deported. 

The Communist party is composed mostly of Russians. It 
is the foreign group of " left-wing Socialists," which shot off 
from the Socialist party after the convention of the Socialist 
party in Chicago in September, 1919. It should be distin- 
guished from the Communist Labor party, which attracted the 
English-speaking extremists of the Socialist party. Many 
members of the Communist party, however, are naturalized 
citizens. Alongside of the alien in the same hall where he 
was arrested were other persons, equally members of the Com- 
munist party, equally criminal, if any were criminals, whom 
the department could not deport because they were natural- 
ized American citizens. Indeed, if criminal, they were 
more so, for in being naturalized they had taken an 
oath of allegiance to this country. If arrested, such 
persons were discharged. One naturally asks wherein was 
the justice of arresting the alien communists and letting 
the citizen communists go free. If there was a conspiracy 
to overthrow the government by force, why could not the 
citizen be prosecuted under Section 6 of the Penal Code? 
Section 6 contains, as we have said, almost the self-same 
words indeed the very words " overthrow with force . . . 
the government of the United States." Or, why could he 
not be prosecuted under the Espionage act as amended in 
1918? There were provisions in the act that surely covered 
him. Of course, the answer is very simple. The government 
did not have the evidence. The government could not have 
proved its case in court, for the defendant would then have 
been able to fall back on his constitutional rights, and insist 
upon a jury trial with all the safeguards of the criminal law. 
On the other hand, the Department of Justice assumed that 



it could secure the deportation of these aliens through the 
administrative procedure of the Department of Labor, under 
which, as already indicated, the alien does not have the ordi- 
nary constitutional rights to fall back upon. Some courts have 
held in effect that only one provision of the Bill of Rights is 
his in deportation cases the " due process " clause of the 
Fifth Amendment. All that he can ask for is that a case be 
made out against him to the satisfaction of the Department 
of Labor under the law and the department's regulations. 

The Preis Case 

VERY soon after the raids had been made, Secretary Wilson 
was called upon to decide whether the Communist party was 
under the ban of the law, and in line with the position of 
Attorney-General Palmer he decided that it was. In the case 
of an Austrian named Preis, the secretary filed a carefully 
written opinion, basing his conclusion on the documents sub- 
mitted with the case. 

His ruling was published in full in the SURVEY for January 
31. Quoting from the manifesto, program and constitution 
of the Communist party of America, and the manifesto of the 
Communist Internationale, the secretary held that 

It is apparent that the Communist party does not seek to obtain 
its objective through parliamentary machinery, but that it seeks to 
overthrow the government by force and violence. 

He could see nothing else in its disparagement of " participa- 
tion in parliamentary campaigns," and its reliance on indus- 
trial mass action to "conquer the power of the state"; this 
coupled with its " acceptance " of the manifesto of the Third 
Communist Internationale at Moscow, which declared for 
" direct conflict with the government machinery in open 

I have the greatest respect for Secretary Wilson, but I beg 
leave to differ with him in his conclusion. The industrial 
strike even the general strike is not force or violence; it is 
simply the laying down of tools by a body of men, be they 
numerous or otherwise. Therefore, to conquer the state by 
such means is not to overthrow the government by force or 
violence unless you read into the word " conquer " something 
not necessarily there. Such a purpose or undertaking may be 
illegal that is another question; the act does not cover all 
illegal undertakings. Even if it did, the courts have, I be- 
lieve, not as yet held tha* the general strike, let alone the 
ordinary strike, is illegal. And we are dealing with an act 
which is at least semi-penal in its nature. It must be con- 
strued strictly and not broadened by a doubtful implication. 
It must be construed with due regard to the liberty of the 

But let us assume that the secretary is right in his deduc- 
tion. It is at most an opinion based upon an argument. The 
words force and violence are nowhere in the documents, and 
many conscientious persons have held that the forbidden thing 
is not implied anywhere in the pronouncements of the party. 
It is conceivable that thousands of people joined without the 
slightest idea that they stood committed to anything except the 
threat of a general strike or strikes as an effective means for 
securing governmental change; and that many more became 
" members " of the party without any definite idea of what it 
stands for except that it is for Russia and new ideas that may 
help the workingman. 

What then is the situation under the secretary's decision? 
We have a severe law, and a ruling applying to many thou- 
sands of persons and susceptible of working grave injustice 
unless the particular facts in each case the evidence of mem- 
bership is carefully sifted and examined. In view of the in- 
dications that there are thousands of persons in the party who 
have no thought whatever of joining in a violent revolution 

to overthrow the Anferican government by force, the depart- 
ment is bound to be exceedingly careful in each individual 
case to ascertain whether the alien knew what he was doing 
when he joined the party. The party being proscribed by the 
law, the man who is a member of it in a real sense must be 
deported. As the final arbiter the secretary has great power 
it is for him to say whether a case has been made out against 
an alien, whether the alien is to stay here or be sent away for 
life. If the alien were honestly mistaken as to the character 
of the party that he joined, or if he had thought that the party 
which he had joined did not stand for force and violence, he 
ought not to be deported. " Mistake of fact " is a recognized 
defence in courts of equity. It should be recognized in 
deportation cases. 

Therefore, Assistant Secretary Post has held that there 
must be full proof of knowledge in every case knowledge on 
the man's part of what he was doing when he joined the 
party. And further, the department should assure itself that 
the provisions of the Constitution were enforced and the rules 
of evidence obeyed by the inspector. Mr. Post is not one of 
those who would treat the Bill of Rights as a naughty boy 
would treat his teacher's rules only to be obeyed while the 
teacher is looking and to be disregarded as soon as his back 
is turned. The courts unfortunately have taken the position 
that it is wholly out of their province to review a deportation 
decision on its merits. All the courts can do, they have said, 
is to see that the law and regulations are duly complied with, 
and if there was any evidence at all on which the secretary 
could act, it is enough for them the courts will not review 
cases on their merits. Once in a long while a judge orders a 
discharge, as Judge Bourquin did lately in the case of a man 
named Jackson, arising in Montana. But, generally speak- 
ing, our federal judges have held that the only constitutional 
provision to which the alien is entitled is the " due process of 
law " clause in the Fifth Amendment, and they have said 
that this is complied with if the hearings have been had in 
accordance with the law and regulations of the department. 
Congress, they say, has provided that a department of the gov- 
ernment, by administrative procedure, shall decide whether an 
alien has the right to stay here, and it is not for the courts to 
interfere with the conclusion reached in any individual case, 
unless the Department of Labor has clearly transcended its 
authority. Hence, it is utterly misleading to say that if in- 
justice is done in the particular case, the alien has a right to 
test the matter by a writ of habeas corpus. The right is 
generally quite valueless, for if there is any evidence at all 
the department may deport. 

The Procedure at Washington 

AFTER these Communist party raids were made, Secretary 

Wilson realized that something should be done to safeguard 

innocent persons arrested, and he ordered the following 
changes in the rules: 

(1) That the amendment to paragraph b, sub-division 5, of 
Rule 22, approved December 30, 1919, is hereby cancelled and the 
rule restored to read as follows: 

b. At the beginning of the hearing under the warrant of arrest 
the alien shall be allowed to inspect the warrant of arrest and 
all the evidence on which it was issued, and shall be apprised 
that he may be represented by counsel, etc. 

(2) Whenever an attorney advises the immigration officer in 
charge that he has been retained by some third person or associa- 
tion as counsel for the alien, the alien shall forthwith be informed 
of the fact and allowed to accept the couniel if he so desires. 

(3) Any attorney who presents himself upon his own initiative 
as counsel for any alien shall be denied the privilege of acting as 
counsel unless and until the alien expresses a desire for such counsel. 

(4) In every case where a hearing cannot be had immediately, 
the alien will be admitted to bail pending hearing. 



(5) The fact that an alien refuses to testify in his own case 
shall not be held as ground for refusing bail. 

A Typical Case 

THE record of the case of Daniel Rebkowitz, as returned to 
the department, shows that he is a Russian, 28 years old, and 
that he came to Baltimore in 1913. He was given two hear- 
ings by the inspector, and the principal evidence against him 
was a membership list showing dues paid as a member of the 
Socialist party up to August, 1919. The secretary of the 
Communist party stated that this list contained the members 
of his organization and the places where the members lived, 
but the alien denied membership in the Communist party. 
Attached as exhibits to the inspector's report are a blank ap- 
plication for membership in the Communist party, a blank 
membership card, and mimeographed copies of the call issued 
in Chicago in July, 1919, for a convention to organize the 
Communist party ; the program, manifesto and constitution of 
the party; the report of the party to the Communist Interna- 
tionale party ; the report of Louis C. Fraina, international sec- 
retary of the party, to the executive committee of the Com- 
munist Internationale party, seeking admission into the Inter- 
nationale party ; extracts from the manifesto of the Communist 
Internationale at Moscow, March 6, 1919, and extracts from 
other documents issued by the Communist party of America. 
There follows the report of the examination by the Depart- 
ment of Justice agent. Among other things he asked : 

Is it true that the first Russian branch of the Socialist party of 
which you were a member adopted the principles of the Communist 
party of which Louis C. Fraina of Chicago is the international sec- 
To which the alien, through an interpreter, answered : 

I do not know anything about it. ... 

Did not the Russian branch of the Socialist party adopt and ap- 
prove the manifesto of the Communist Internationale held at Moscow, 
March 10? 

No, I never read it; I cannot read or write. 

What are the papers you read? 
I don't know what that means. 
Are you an anarchist Communist? 
I don't know what that means. . . . 

Were you attached to the principles of the Communist party be- 
fore you entered the United States? 

No, I never belonged to any Russian party nowhere; was a 
peasant in my own country. . . . 

By what methods does the party propose to act? 
I don't know. 

And finally, when asked the all-embracing question, he denies 
that he believes in the overthrow of the government by force. 

So much for the preliminary examination by the Department 
of Justice agent. There follow the notes of the two hearings 
before the Department of Labor inspector. When the alien 
is told that he is entitled to a lawyer, he answers naively : 
" What for is a lawyer if you are innocent ? . . . I would 
pay $50 for to get a bond, but otherwise I don't want anybody." 

An answer not so reflecting on the capacity of the average 
attorney as showing that the man really wanted his liberty, 
his release on bail, so that he might see his people and keep 
his job at least until the case against him were decided, even 
if he had to go to Russia. Before the inspector the man denied 
his membership in the party, although the inspector tried his 
best to catch him with the exhibits already referred to, and the 
notes of the preliminary examination conducted by the agent 
of the Department of Justice To one now reading the report, 
the inspector seemed to have met with poor success. The man 
may have been lying, but who can say that he was? One 
thing is plain: The government did not make out its case, and 
positive proof of conscious, willing membership was not fur- 

nished ; obviously the Department of Justice did not have it 
to produce, and so Acting Secretary Post, after reading the 
inspector's report, " cancelled " the warrant, and the man was 

Many of the aliens wished to go to Russia and had already 
applied for passports which had been refused. The State De- 
partment would not let the men go. Now the Department 
of Justice proposed to deport them. They, naturally, have 
objected to spending months in jail, and to being branded as 
criminals. In many cases they have wives and families in this 
country, from whom they do not wish to be separated. 

The Truss Case 

LET us close with a case that has figured in the newspapers. 
It was that of Thomas Truss, a Pole by birth, who was last 
January a " coat presser " in Baltimore making $30 a week. 
He came to America in 1907, was married in 1912, and has 
three children. He is an elder in St. Paul's Church (Polish 
Presbyterian), and his character, as testified to by responsible 
citizens, is of the best. He was arrested on January 7, by 
policemen, who took him to the station-house and reported 
that he was wanted by the Department of Justice. He was 
locked in a cell, and it was not until sometime next day that 
his wife and friends knew where he was. On January 8, 
while in confinement, he was examined by an agent of the 
Department of Justice, and his examination reduced to writ- 
ing. The warrant in the case was not issued until January 9, 
so that at the time of his examination by the Department of 
Justice agent there was no legal justification for his arrest. 
No warning, moreover, was given to the man that what he 
might say would be used against him, nor was he told that he 
might employ counsel. Cards and other documents were 
seized by the agent, although no search warrant had been 
issued. Secretary Post under the authority of Judge Bour- 
quin's decision holds that neither the man's oral statement, 
nor the documentary evidence submitted, may properly be con- 
sidered to the man's detriment. It was charged by the De- 
partment of Justice agent that the man was a member of the 
Union of Russian Workers as well as a member of the Com- 
munist party, but the evidence shows the file is at the depart- 
ment for the public to examine that the " Russian Workers' " 
organization to which he belonged was an educational and 
mutual benefit organization, having nothing to do with gov- 
ernmental problems. Later this organization was merged into 
the Union of Russian Workers, which had anarchistic tenets, 
and then the alien dropped out of it. He was a member of 
the Socialist party. 

Mr. Post says in his " memorandum ": 

I shall assume in this case, as I have in a large number of similar 
cases, that Congress intended the act of October 16, 1918, to be 
considered reasonably with reference to the individual knowledge 
and intent of persons drawn innocently into an unlawful membership. 

If the act be so construed, this alien is not within the spirit of 
the act even if he were within its letter. In fact, however, he does 
not appear to be within the letter. Under the circumstances dis- 
closed by the record he was never so much as a technical member 
of the proscribed Communist party; and insofar as his conduct might 
be supposed to confirm his ante-organization application or to bring 
him within the affiliation clause of the act, the circumstances of his 
withdrawal are conclusive. 

Mr. Post further states that this Truss case " is typical 
of a larpe proportion of fully I,OOO cases" he has decided. 
After speaking of the procedure that was followed in many of 
these cases, he continues: 

In a large proportion of the large number of cases I have exam- 
ined there is no better reason for deportation than is disclosed in 
the present case. In some cases the membership is " automatic," 
the arrested alien having been transferred from a lawful organiza- 
tion to the unlawful one by vote of a group or branch of the former 
(Continued on page 157) 


A Department of Practice 


Conducted by 

Nature Guides 

THE federal government cooperating with the state govern- 
ment will extend the nature guide system to Yosemite 
National Park during the 1920 vacation season. This an- 
nouncement is made by the California Nature Study League, 
on authority from the director of national parks, Stephen T. 
Mather. The nature guide plan is designed to meet a human 
hunger for a wider knowledge of outdoor life. Its extension 
to Yosemite is based upon tests made in 1918 and on a much 
wider scale at Tahoe in 1919. When motoring along moun- 
tain roads or hiking along trails, color flashes of strange birds 
are frequently seen. Again, lowland folk, vacationing in the 
mountains, continually find strange wild flowers and trees. 
Sometimes the novel finds are brightly colored butterflies or 
beetles. Again, attention is arrested by mammals peculiar to 
the high Sierras. One of these is the pika, the haymaker of 
the piles of talus which Jack Frost accumulates at the foot oi 
cliffs. Questions regarding these flash continually in the 
minds of those who flock to the mountains for recreation. In 
most cases the questions go unanswered. The ability to obtain 
correct replies marks the real beginning of that kind of enjoy- 
ment of the Sierras which so colored the life of John Muir. 
The government this year intends giving practical answers 
to such inquiries. In doing so interest in national parks and 
national forests will be increased. 

The nature study guide movement had its beginnings in an 
international survey of the world's recreation culture. In 
American high-powered cities, for example, we had developed 
the playground under direction and the use of the public 
school as a social center. On the other hand, Nordic, or 
blonde Europe had the* highly organized nature study field 
excursion. Europe, with a culture much older than ours, 
grasped the value of making scientific knowledge available even 
to young children. The nature study hike by school children 
under the direction of trained scientists has become an institu- 
tion overseas. In Denmark even children in the schools for 
the blind, unable to appreciate the color of the forest birds, 
are led to enjoy their music. 

As an experiment in internationalizing such recreational cul- 
ture, the California Nature Study League undertook to offer 
Californians the results of these investigations from Nordic 
Europe. The work commenced with a series of bulletins, 
utilizing the California county library system. Out of their 
circulation came several concepts. One was to have a high 
powered scientist act as nature guide at a string of adjacent 
summer resorts. The first test was in 1918 at three widely 
scattered California resort areas. These were made by the 
State Fish and Game Commission as a part of their conserva- 
tion work. As these proved satisfactory, the commission, 
cooperating with the league decided on a wide experiment at 
Lake Tahoe. During 1919, Dr. H. C. Bryant of the Univer- 
sity of California acted as nature leader. There was nature 
play for children, including such games as the " bark feeling " 
and "herb smelling" blindfold games. There were nature 
study hikes for adolescents and adults. Business men left their 
trout fishing to accompany the nature guide. At the evening 
campfire there were nature study talks, movies and lantern 

slide lectures of wild life. The success was beyond all ex- 
pectations. The attendance at Fallen Leaf auditorium was 
so heavy that late-coming listeners stood outside doors and 

In the extension of this work into Yosemite this season, 
Dr. H. C. Bryant will again be in charge of the work but over 
a much longer season than last year. Dr. Loye H. Miller, the 
Los Angeles biologist, has accepted for one month's work. Dr. 
Miller has an almost unique ability to imitate the calls of wild 
birds. During his field trips at a recent Berkeley summer 
school session he frequently called during the bird study hikes 
various wild birds out of the brush. Other scientists will 
participate in the program for occasional lectures. The offer- 
ing is entirely free. It has been made possible through the 
generosity of Director Mather, who has given other large 
sums for the wider enjoyment of our national parks. 


Community Organization 

THE educational effect of war-time community service is 
evident in the number and value of new developments in 
that field since the return of the army. The periodical litera- 
ture alone, as listed in a recent pamphlet of War Camp Com- 
munity Service, provides strong evidence. The year book 
of the Playground and Recreation Association of America, just 
published, shows a 100 per cent increase in attendance at 
municipal community buildings in 1919 as compared with the 
previous year. 

Two new periodicals to aid in guiding this movement have 
made their appearance: Community Progress, published twice 
monthly by the North Carolina College for Women (Greens- 
boro, N. C.), concerns itself with a wide range of community 
interests, both local and general, but emphasizes the need of 
knowing the ascertainable facts concerning the life of the 
community and of widening and democratizing its educa- 
tional program. Community Development is the organ of a 
southern and middle-western group, Community Develop- 
ment Service, Inc., of which Carl J. Baer is president and 
which has its seat in Chicago. Apparently its main object is 
that of giving professional advice for the solution of com- 
munity problems, but the monthly organ should be of interest 
co all who are interested in promoting the better social organ- 
ization of the county and the small town. 

A similar service to that of this corporation is offered by 
the Cities Industrial Development Bureau, Inc., of Columbus, 
Ohio, of which Mark Plotnick is managing director, Though 
primarily equipped to advise towns on industrial extension, this 
bureau also offers to make social surveys in connection with 
economic and commercial ones. Whether the agencies of this 
type will materially contribute to the improvement and develop- 
ment of social community organization remains to be seen. 
They certainly cannot supersede the need for agencies that act 
primarily from a wide social view-point for a social purpose, 
and especially for participation of state educational institu- 

An admirable illustration of scientific exploration of the 
subject is given by Prof. Clarence E. Rainwater, of the Uni- 




versity of Southern California, in a monograph on Com- 
munity Organization in which he lays down concisely the 
principles of community organization, the occasion for it and 
its method the last with a sufficiently detailed description 
of a concrete example. His outline for the study of the subject 
shows the importance, in relation to other aspects, of adequate 
consideration for the characteristics of each neighborhood or 
community before a proper technique for its social organization 
or reconstruction can be applied. Of method he says: 

The mere federation of existing neighborhood agencies and move- 
ments would not constitute an organization of the community. Surti 
an enterprise would be an inadequate instrument for the expression 
of collective interests; it would be conciliatory and advisory instead 
of authoritative and dominant An organization of the whole is 
necessary. And this organization must correlate with both local in- 
stitutions and individuals not members of organizations. 

Chautauqua Progress 

\\T HILE many people still associate chautauquas with an 
* ^ old-fashioned evangelism and a somewhat florid type of 
oratory, there has in recent years been a considerable change 
and expansion in their scope and methods. Some of this has 
been distinctly for the worse, cheap entertainment taking the 
form of the former earnestness. But H. S. Braucher, secretary 
of Community Service, who has cooperated with chautauquas 
in different parts of the country, says some of them are doing 
a great work for democracy and for the education of the com- 
munities where they operate. Several new chautauqua 
" systems " have developed which go into the smaller towns 
and there furnish a form of education which is in every way 
beneficial and stimulating. 

There are about fourteen large " systems " and several 
smaller ones conducting chautauquas in the United States, 
Canada and even reaching into Australia, New Zealand and 
Alaska, About ten thousand towns and small cities hold 
these assemblies annually. In addition, from ten to fifteen 
thousand towns, cities and villages have a lyceum or lecture 
course each winter. These chautauquas are not summer 
schools such as are held at Chautauqua Lake but cooperative 
community undertakings, usually conducted for from five to 
eight consecutive days. A chautauqua bureau supplies not 
only lecturers but organizers, demonstrators and the necessary 
equipment, including the tent in which the principal meetings 
are held. 

A western chautauqua organizer of long experience writes : 

The greatest possible reason for the rapid development of the 
chautauqua is found in the fact that it has secured a degree of com- 
munity cooperation which, I think, has not been attained by any 
other movement. Contracts are made for the most part with a group 
of representative citizens in a given community who guarantee a 
certain attendance represented by a sale of season tickets. Very few 
of the smaller cities have adequate places in which to hold gather- 
ings of this kind, and they have been very eager to accept the chau- 
tauqua because such meetings can be held in tents. 

Concerning the nature of the entertainment he says : 

It would not be truthful if I were to say that these chautauquas 
are strictly educational. Instead they are inspirational in the type 
of lecturers furnished. The music has been fairly good, and always 
clean and wholesome. No one who is familiar with the rapid 
development of the rural chautauqua can doubt the great moral 
influence it is exerting. It has caused a great moral awakening in 
America the last few years. That is the reason why a desire for 
prohibition swept the country so rapidly. The chautauqua has not 
been alone responsible for it, but it has had much to do with this 

He asserts that, largely due to the influence of the chau- 
tauqua, any typical rural community that has undergone its in- 
fluence would vote almost unanimously on any moral issue. 
While admitting that the chautauqua has in a degree been com- 
mercialized, he believes that its influence has been everywhere 
to arouse public spirit and cities the recognition given it by 
President Wilson and the great government war agencies for 

services rendered to the national defense, the Red Cross, the 
Liberty Loan issues and other war time activities. 
Another chautauqua organizer, in the East, writes: 

The word " chautauqua " and much of what it once signified hai 
been misapplied so frequently in recent years that we feel the time 
warrants a reminder of the original intent and meaning. So many 
near-chautauquas (but nearer variety shows) which have been 
neither this nor that have been exploited or masked as chautauquas 
that a correction of the falsity surely is in order. 

Only two chautauqua systems, he says, have been recognized 
by the U. S. Treasury Department specifically as educational 
institutions. One of these, with which the writer is connected, 
was founded six years ago and has grown from conducting 
chautauquas in seventy-seven communities in 1914 to going 
into 1,1 1 8 last year, with a probable increase to over 1,700 this 
year. Of its purposes and methods (vouched for by others) 
he says : 

It exemplifies the ideals and best traditions of the chautauqua in 
its truest sense. Hence it does not dally with freaks and sensationi. 
It does not exploit jazz bands or celebrities to swell box office 
receipts. . . . There is no room for compromise. No attraction, 
however alluring it might be merely as a box-office winner, but 
doubtful otherwise, may impair the character of the program. 

In this particular case, and possibly in others, the chau- 
tauqua week is used for connected series of lectures, as for in- 
stance in a program in which the afternoons were devoted to