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Full text of "The Survey"

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Division 
Section 



LEOPOLD-LOBE TRIAL 



reviewed by the 
former warden of 



SING SIN( 




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GRAPHIC NUMBER Oc . / 3 2- 




AMERICA B. C. 

The Days of Our Ancients 

By Mary Austin 



Herrin 

By McAlister Coleman 



After Twenty Years 

By James Harvey Robinson 

YEN MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PEAC 

ings done and left undone by Andrew Carnegie's endowmei 

By Arthur Ruhl 



in 

IP.C! on 
salet 
(twelve 
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en>- 
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'enney 
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. This 
of ad- 



usinca 

Tin- bivt recoil 
givo himselt to OUT con 
modestly, save his .niunuy t*iul 
In the chain ot stores. 



WHAT ONE KW. CAN DO. 



This item from the 
New York Times sug- 
gests how easily elec- 
tricity can do any 
task. 



French Compute the Power of Elec- 
tric Energy. 

The French Government, after exhaus- 
tive research and experiment, has drawn 
up a list of tasks that can be done by 
one kilowatt hour of electrical energy. 
The unit of energy will perform the fol- 
i lowing duties: Drive a sewing machine 
for twenty hours, save 1.05 gallons of 
kerosene, clean 13 steel table knives for 
a year, clip 5 horses or 26 sheep, heat 
water for shaving for one month, light 
three cigars a day for, five years, heat 
a flatiron for three hours, boll 2.37 gal- 
lons of water, fry !"> chops in Ifl min- 
utes heat a curling Iron for 20 mornings, 
incubate 250 eggs, milk 20 cows, sepa- 
rate 350 gallons of milk, churn 440 
pounds of butter, chop one-half ton of 



moiio| 
CASP 

i>rc-s 

spates 
dinphran 
up withq 

"C the 
" '1'hC 

case Anl 
tlie vil)i! 

corinc'cclr 
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server 
with consi? 
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tion. 

" The d 
strument 
however, 
more senj 
nickel dig 
Is perha/ 
dlaphrai 
ability 
to prev 
" T/ 
nass , 



before acceptance 



York 



Multiply by sixteen million 



The steam turbine generators 
designed and built by the General 
Electric Company in the past 
22 years have a total capacity 
of sixteen million kilowatts con- 
tinuously. 

Considering how much the kilo- 
watts can do, don't you think it 
would be a good scheme to put 
more of them to work in your 
home? 




Not only does the Gen- 
eral Electric Company 
produce apparatus by 
which electricity is 
made; it also produces 
the little motors by 
which electricity makes 
house-work easy. Look 
for the letters G-E on 
such devices ; they are 
a symbol of service, the 
initials of a friend. 



GENERAL ELECTRIC 



TIIK SI'RVEY. piilili.slunl semi -monthly and copyright 1924 by SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., 112 Eaat 19 Street, New York. Pricv: tliis cosiy (Oct. 1, 1924; Vol. I.III. No. 

i :J cts. ; $5 a .ve:ir: foreign l>nstage, $1 extra. C''an-es of address should be mailed us two weeks in advance. When payment is bv check a receipt will be sent only 

upon request. Entered as fecond-class matter. March 25. 1909. at the post office. New York. N. Y., under "the Act of March 3, 1879. Acceptance for mail/UK at a special rale 

of postase provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1H17, authiirizcd June 20. 1918. Frn.. Robert \V. deforest. Sec'y, Ann Reed Brenner. Trcas., Arthur Kelloss. 



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2 



SEP au m 




Talks 

from 

my 

Outlook 

Tower 



Ry PATRICK GEDDES 

THE editors of The Survey first heard snatches of them 
under the big oak in Gramercy Park. That was the sum- 
mer Professor Geddes slipped in and out of New York, on 
hi* way from India to Edinburgh, a slight, spare figure, long- 
bearded, with the look of a savant and the whimsical speech 
of tfce Scot, giving his lecture at the New School for Social 
Research. You would have to roll up your ideas of Marco 
Pol*,, and Darwin and Archimedes, of the Encyclopedia 
Britannica and of Peter Pan, to get a clearer notion of the 
Measure of this man. 

Who took an old romantic building on the High Street 
of Edinburgh, and turned its castellated roofs and outlook 
tower into such an observation post of the civic life about 
him, such as can only be compared to the astronomer's dome. 

Who, building on LePlay and Comte, carried the idea 
f the "regional survey" into British thought from thence 
it is spreading around the world. 

Who directed town planning exhibits at London, Edin- 
burgh, Dublin, Belfast, Ghent, Paris. 

Who has made city plans for Bombay, Lahore, Madras, 
Calcutta. 

Who has planned universities for Indore, Jerusalem, 
Bengal, Hyderabad. 

Who has fashioned everything from mosques and tem- 
ple* to zoological gardens. 

Under whose touch the stones and squares and build- 
ings, the life and labor of the modern town, east or west, 
unfolds with romance, with history, with colorful human 
significance, with philosophy and prophecy, such as the man 
in the street little dreams of. 



ON his American visit Professor Geddes touched, as was 
his wont, a handful of people kindling them stretch- 
ing their imaginations city planners, economists, sociolo- 
gists, artists, journalists, architects, young university men, 
veterans in civic enterprise. How to spread the infection 
of the man was the quandary confronting us. For the 
most part it has been communicated only by word of mouth. 
Even his best friends said that more could not be done. 
The conspiracy to contrive it has taken over a year. But 
this summer, back again from India, Professor Geddes has 
been at his old Outlook Tower on the High Street of Edin- 
burgh, revising a sheaf of informal papers which will appear 
throughout the year in Survey Graphic. 



Sick at Heart 

TUBERCULOSIS has been pushed from its place as 
arch-executioner. In some favored cities and states it 
now stands sixth on the mortality tables. And in its place, 
in most parts of the country, is heart disease, now the chief 
cause of death in these United States. 

Last year organic heart disease killed nearly three times 
as many people in New York City as did tuberculosis; 
more than twice as many as cancer; more than half 
again as many as pneumonia. Moreover it usually kills by 
inches. A death from heart disease has typically back of 
it a story of infection in childhood or early adult life, of 
loss of working power in the most productive years, of a 
decade or more of slowly waning strength, leading to in- 
validism, dependency, and finally to death. 

FORTUNATELY heart disease, like the "white plague," 
often is curable. It is preventable. But the organization 
which should be brought to bear on this most costly of 
human ills must run the whole gamut of the seven ages 
from childhood when it is to be prevented, through the 
middle years when it may be arrested and cured, to old 
age when its disabilities may be alleviated. We of the 
United States are on the threshold of an organized onslaught 
upon it which promises rewards as rich and as startling as 
those of which the tuberculosis campaigners dreamed daring- 
ly twenty years ago. 

SURVEY GRAPHIC for November will bring out a notable 
group of articles on the need and methods of this cam- 
paign, which has come almost heralded and unrecognized 
into the arena of challenging social effort. 

HAVEN EMERSON, M.D., president of the New York 
Heart Association, and associate editor of the Survey, will 
outline the battle to be waged and tell of the skirmishes al- 
ready won. 

WILLIAM H. ROBEY, M.D., of Boston will bring the 
national program for prevention and treatment of heart 
disease down to scale, so that every reader may see where he 
can take hold in his own community. 

ELIZABETH PORTER WYCKOFF, Samuel McCoy, Hannah 
Mitchell, Lewis Hine (with a new series of work portraits) 
will interpret this adventurous crusade in terms of the 
men, women and children in hospital, clinic, school or at 
home, to whom it brings the chance for usefulness, hap- 
piness, life itself. 

The Long Look Ahead 

If you know anybody whose view is shut off by the gates of 
a city, the valves of a heart, or a closed door in his mind, make 
him a present of SURVEY GRAPHIC. It opens up wide vistas 
and at the same time gives the solid, intimate details of the 
foreground. A guide for a sight-seeing trip called "Seeing Life 
Whole." 

SURVEY GRAPHIC 

112 East 19 Street, New York City 

For the $3 enclosed send your illustrated monthly issues for one year 
(4 months' trial $1) to: 



Name 

Street, No 

City, State SG 10-24 



THE AMERICAN INDIAN DEFENSE ASSOCIATION, INC. 

NON-PARTISAN NON-SECTARIAN 

OBJECTS: To secure to the American Indian just treatment from the 
Government and People of the United States and to promote his welfare. 

Room 1525 
33 WEST 42ND STREET 

AEOLIAN HALL NEW YORK 



Telephone, Longacre 0506 



OFFICERS 

President, IRVING BACHELLER 
Treasurer, MRS. WILLARD D. STRAIGHT 
Assistant Treasurer, ROBERT INGERSOLL BROWN 
Executive Secretary, JOHN COLLIER 
Associate Executive, CASH ASHER 



September 25, 1924. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

MRS. H. A. ATWOOD 

Chairman, Indian Welfare Committee, 
General Federation of Women's Clubs 

MRS. MARY AUSTIN 

ROBERT INGEUSOLL BROWN 

MARGARET BROWN 

A. A. BERLB, JR. 

JOHN COLLIER 

Research Agent, Indian Welfare 
Committee, General Federation of 
Women's Clubs 

ROBERT E- ELY 

HAVEN EMERSON 

JAMES FORD 

JOHN R. HAYNES 

MRS. A. BARTON HEPBURN 

S. L. HOFFMAN 

Secretary, American Indian Defense 
Association of Santa Barbara 

L. R. E. PAULIN 

JOSEPH M. PRICE 

ELIZABETH SHIPLEY SERGEANT 

FRED M. STEIN 

HERBERT K. STOCKTON 

MRS. KATE VOSBERG 

WILLIAM ALLEN WHITE 



NATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD 

DANIEL C. BEARD 
MRS. GERTRUDE BONNIN 
LUTHER BURBANK 

THE RT. REV. MONSIGNOR JOHN P. CHIDWICK 
MABEL CHOATE 
DR. JOSEPH KOSSUTH DIXON 
PRESIDENT-EMERITUS CHARLES W. ELIOT 
JOHN H. FINLEY 
HAMLIN GARLAND 
VIRGINIA C- GILDERSLEEVE 
CARTER HARRISON 
MURRAY HULBERT 
MRS. JAMES LEES LAIDLAW 
ADOLPH LEWISOHN 
CHARLES F. LUMMIS 
THE R'r. REV. WILLIAM C. MANNING 
JUDGE GEORGE W. MAXEY 
GENERAL NELSON A. MILES 
ALTON B. PARKER 
GEORGE FOSTER PEABODY 
MRS. HENRY PHTPPS 
GEORGE HAVEN PUTNA.M, _ 
'THE REV. JOHN A. RYAN, D.D. 
MRS. THOMAS WOOD STEVENS 
HENRY W. TAFT 
HODMAN WANAMAKEE 
LILLIAN D. WALD 
WALTER V. WOEHLKE 
J. P. WARBASSE 



Dear Friend: 

This number of the Survey contains an article by Mary 
Austin about the ancient Indian country of the Southwest. 
Other writers for the Survey have described the present day 
Indians their ceremonial dances, their arts, their tribal life 
their problem. 

Should these people be maimed by a policy that proscribes 
their religion, enforces sectarian training on their children, 
denies them equal rights in the courts, pauperizes them by 
land allotment, destroys them by disease, and ignores their 
race contribution? 

We have virtually enslaved a whole race. Leading scientists, 
writers, artists and business men are working for a more 
enlightened policy. 

The Pueblo Indians need help at this moment. Through 
our efforts a law was passed by the last Congress creating a 
land board to clear titles within the Pueblo land grants. 
Thousands of acres, lost to them through encroachment, are 
recoverable. They have petitioned us to supply attorneys 
to present their case. They have no funds. 

We invite your co-operation in rectifying an atrocious 
system. It is a NATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY. 

For further information write to 

THE AMERICAN INDIAN DEFENSE 
ASSOCIATION, INC., 

33 West 42nd Street, 
New York City. 



(/;; answering this advertisement please mention THE SURVEY. // helps us, it identifies you.) 



Graphic Number 



Vol. LIII, No. 1 



October 1, 1924 



CONTENTS 

FRONTISPIECE . . Hendrik Wittem Van Loon 
OLD LAW AND NEW UNDERSTANDING . . 

George W '. Kirchwey 7 

SEVEN MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PEACE 

Arthur Ruhl 9 

WHAT HAS SHE DONE WITH IT? .... 

Martha Bensley Bruere 15 

AFTER TWENTY YEARS . James Harvey Robinson 18 

THE HUNGRY CLUB . . . John D. Kenderdine 21 

SWEETNESS IS DEATH . . Haven Emerson, M.D. 23 

SEVEN P.M. . . . Elean.or Roioland Wembridge 26 

ZUNI . From the Sketch Book of Willard C. Metcalf 29 

THE DAYS OF OUR ANCIENTS . Mary Austin 33 

HOW THEY MAKE GOOD . Miriam Van Waters 39 

HEALTH, UN-LTD Geddes Smith 43 

HERRIN McAlister Coleman 46 

EDITORIALS 49 

SOCIAL STUDIES Joseph K. Hart 51 



The Qist of It 

"PROM Rockford, Illinois, to the Ends of the Earth," 
is how Arthur Ruhl's commutation ticket would prob- 
ably rei'd if he had one. His itinerary for the last ten 
years during which he has "covered" Europe for Collier's 
has ranged from the Caspian to the Baltic, ending with 
two years with the American Relief Administration in 
Russia. It is from this ten years' scrutiny of war-scarred 
Europe that his eyes come to rest on peace-seeking in 
America, (p. 9) 

WHEN Oberlin, Ohio, is troubled over its penal system 
it goes to George W. Kirchwey; as does Chicago 
when she would make a survey of her jails. And who 
could better point to the varied aspects of the Leopold- 
Loeb case than the one-time dean of Columbia Law School, 
warden of Sing Sing, and present head of the Department 
of Criminology of the New York School of Social Work? 
(P- 7) 

T-IlSTORY lA the college catalogs for these last twenty 
* years have been labelling the course based on Professor 
Robinson's Introduction to the History of Western Europe. 
And this twenty years' alumni all over the country must 
make up quite an appreciable quota of those enthusiasts 
who have followed him in his voyages of discovery since 
then. The Mind in the Making in 1921, The Humanizing 
of Knowledge in 1923, and now a new edition of the History 
of Western Europe, seasoned with the experience of that 
twenty years, will be published this fall. (p. 18) 

A TRIANGLE from the Survey's own editorial confer- 
ence table are Geddes Smith, managing editor (p 43), 
Haven Emerson, health editor (p. 23), and Martha Bensley 
Bruere who brings a pungent wit to industrial and social 
discussion. 

'W7 HAT has she done with it?" the vote? Yes. And 
* more beside. With the higher education her mother 
broke into. With the bent for organization which has 
found play in the women's clubs. With the stress and 
self-dependence which has come with the throwing open 
of work with wages, outside the home, as part of the 
new industrialism. With the broadened housekeeping of 
our municipal life and her part in it. With her age-long 




concerns as commissary and nurse, teacher and mother, 
her new audacities in an era of unfolding opportunity. These 
are some of the things Mrs. Bruere will take up in our 
Survey Graphics this winter pages which, if the reader will 
glance at the first (p. 15), will be found at once as racy 
and revealing as the paper doll cut-outs with which she 
breaks the text. 

"VV7HEN Mrs. Wembridge's play, "The First of May," 
" took the prize offered by the Committee on Publicity 
Methods in Social Work of the American Association oif 
Social Workers last May, the editors of The Survey beamed 
with self-congratulatory pride. They had discovered Mrs. 
Wembridge's gift for story-telling long before. Those 
readers who have grinned with Estelle and Sam and Irene 
and Nicholas will need no introduction to "Seven P. M." 
The author is clinical psychologist for the Women's Pro- 
tective League of Cleveland, (p. 26) 

"K/f IRIAM VAN WATERS continues her discussion of 
** Your Town and the Delinquent Girl, begun in the 
September Midmonthly, with pictures of the actual pro- 
cesses of making good. She bases her stories on her own 
work as referee of the Juvenile Court of Los Angeles 
and superintendent of El Retire, a Los Angeles county 
correctional school for young girl wards of the Juvenile 
Court. These articles are from her book, "Youth in 
Conflict," soon to be brought out by the Republic Pub- 
lishing Company, (p. 39.) 

R. COLEMAN brings to his appraisal of Herrin the 
fresh view of an outlander for he is a native of 
New York and a thorough knowledge of his subject 
gained as correspondent for the New York World and 
other papers during the Herrin trials in 1922 and 1923. 
He is a graduate of Columbia and was a sergeant in the 
United States Engineers during the war. For four years 
he was a reporter on the old New York Sun. And later 
became assistant editor of the Illinois Miner, the official 
organ of District 12, United Mine Workers of America. 
(D. 46) 

AT a dinner given at the National Arts Club in her 
** honor last year, Carl Van Doren suggested that a new 
degree M.A.E., Master of the American Environment, 
ought to be invented for Mary Austin, because she has 
become so saturated with the Southwest and its people. 
Although Mrs. Austin has produced a number of books and 
magazine articles on a great variety of topics, taken to- 
gether, her product shows a certain unity of design. Prac- 
tically every one is a single facet of a remarkably rich 
contact with the American environment, and all of them 
are subordinated to the purpose of showing how that en- 
vironment works to produce a unified type out of the 
var'ed American material. Here, however, she deals not 
with the social process of the Southwest in our own day 
but with its dim beginning, and the American contem- 
poraries of Rameses (p. 33). "The Land of Journeys' 
Ending," from which Mrs. Austin's article in this issue 
is drawn, will be published by The Century Company this 
fall. 




teachers are experts in dealing with materials 
organized into textbooks or laboratory manuals. But 
there are areas of interest and information which are in- 
capable of being so organized: they must be taken as 
they come, or not at all. To meet the needs of teachers 
of civics, social and labor problems, sociology and cur- 
rent events, Professor Joseph K. Hart, Educational Editor, 
will present in every issue throughout the school year, an 
index (p. 51) classified under categories which should 
make The Survey a really usable educational tool. Our 
hope is that it will be of service as well to classes and 
study groups in settlements, churches, clubs and civic or- 
ganizations. Last year The Survey was used by over 
3,000 students in colleges, normal and high schools. 

TIMOTHY NICHOLSON, pioneer, Quaker and re- 
former, the oldest former president of what is now the 
National Conference of Social Work, leader in prison re- 
fo--m, puH'c charities, and other humanitarian activities, 
died on September 15 at Richmond, Indiana, at the 
of ninety-five. 





By Herufri/c Willem Van Loon 



SEEING IS BELIEVING 




swum 



GRAPHIC NUMBER 



OCTOBER 1, 
1924 




Volume LIII 
No. 1 



Old Law and New Understanding 

The Leopold -Loeb Case: a Fingerpost in Criminology 



By GEORGE W. KIRCHWEY 



GHE cause celebre of the century thus far has 
passed into history. There will be many to 
wish that, the case being done, we were done 
with it. But that is not the way of events in 
this \vorld-in-the-making, in which we find 
ourselves. There will be consequences. In- 
deed there already have been consequences. There is no 
little evidence that many minds, not too well balanced at 
their best, have been seriously unbalanced by the sensational 
public disclosure of the horrible circumstances of the crime 
and by the skilfully dramatized incidents of the trial. And 
lawyers did not wait to learn the results of the hearing be- 
fore they were discussing the possibly far-reaching results 
of the action of the court in admitting as evidence in miti- 
gation of the crime the testimony of the defense relating 
to the inner history of the boy-murderers. 

The decision of Judge Caverly to spare the lives was 
flashed to the world as a triumph of humane settlement 
over the stern justice of the law. In resting his decision 
solely on the youth of the offenders and in shifting upon the 
legislature the burden of dealing with the new aspect of 
the problem of criminal responsibility raised by the evi- 
dence, Judge Caverly declined the role of legal innovator. 
He has chosen the ftlder (and easier) way. Perhaps it was 
unreasonable to expect anything else. The courts habitually 
choose that. 

The Leopold-Loeb murder case, which has for five 
months been unfolding its slow length in the Chicago 
Criminal Court, has many facets of interest. As a 
public spectacle it has provided innumerable thrills. 
To the student of criminology it has revived the 
memory of a type of criminalism, not uncommon in the 



middle ages, which he had come to regard as extinct. 
To the lawyer it has presented a novel procedure, one that 
finds no place in the older tradition of our criminal justice. 
To the social worker it has been a revelation of the essential 
flexibility of an ancient legal system and of its capacity to 
adapt itself to changing conceptions of moral responsibility. 
If you ask what moral responsibility has to do with legal 
liability, I must ask you to read through to the end. 

It is not the lawyers only who have been puzzled by the 
unfamiliar procedure. Probably most readers in the part 
of the country in which The Survey is published have been 
baffled by the conundrum: When is a trial not a trial? 
But it is no mystery to those who are familiar with Illinois 
law. The hard and fast rule that makes deliberate murder 
a crime punishable with death has in a majority of our states 
been mitigated by leaving to the jury or the court the dis- 
cretion whether the sentence shall be to death or to a term 
of imprisonment. As a matter of fact, even in the eight 
states which retain the absolute death penalty, a squeamish 
jury, which shrinks from the responsibility of condemning 
a fellow human being to death, often evades it by bringing 
in a verdict of second degree murder, which carries with it 
the lesser penalty. 

The Illinois statute is explicit on the point. It provides 
that whoever is guilty of murder shall suffer the punish- 
ment of death or of imprisonment for his natural life or for 
a term of not less than fourteen years. If the accused is 
found guilty by a jury, they shall fix the punishment by their 
verdict; upon a plea of guilty, the punishment shall be fixed 
by the court. 

That settles one of the questions that have puzzled us. 
A trial, in legal parlance, is the investigation and deter- 



8 



OLD LAW AND NEW UNDERSTANDING 



mination in a court of law and by prescribed legal forms, 
of an issue of law or of fact, and in a criminal case under 
our inherited procedure, an issue of fact can be 
tried only by a jury. But in the Leopold-Loeb case 
both defendants pleaded guilty and so there was no issue of 
fact to be tried and, therefore, no trial. But an insane 
person, if the fact of insanity at the time of committing the 
crime be established, cannot be convicted. A sound mind 
is an essential element of the criminal act. A plea of guilty 
to an indictment for murder admits every factor that enters 
into the guilt. The conclusion follows that when Leopold 
and Loeb pleaded guilty to the murder of the boy Franks, 
they conclusively admitted their sanity at the time of com- 
mitting it. The question of their mental capacity was 
closed. It is this fact that explains, though it is far from 
justifying, the frantic efforts of the state's attorney, Crowe, 
in the subsequent hearing before Judge Caverly, to suppress 
the testimony of the defense as to the mental condition of 
the self-convicted murderers. (It is hard to understand 
the action of the defendants' chief counsel, Clarence Darrow, 
in raising formal objection to the use of the term murderers 
by the- state's attorney in characterizing the defendants. They 
were murderers by virtue of their own admission of guilt.) 

THE guilt of the defendants being admitted, it now be- 
comes the duty of the judge under the law to exercise 
his awful discretion and fix the penalty death or imprison- 
ment. What are the considerations that may properly in- 
fluence him and how shall he proceed? 

The Illinois law recognizes the fact that all murderers are 
not equally culpable. It is here that the question of moral 
responsibility comes in. In many cases there are mitigating 
circumstances which may properly excite a measure of sym- 
pathy for the offender. It is on this principle that our 
juries, under a more rigorous legal dispensation, invoke and 
apply "the unwritten law." Under the heading, "Hungry 
Youth Set Free," a newspaper recently reported the action 
of a judge of the Criminal Court of General Sessions of 
New York county in suspending sentence in the case of a 
young man of nineteen who had committed burglary by 
breaking into a grocery store to get something to eat. As 
in the Leopold-Loeb case the defendant pleaded guilty. His 
offense was burglary, third degree, punishable by imprison- 
ment in Sing Sing prison for not more than five years. 'But 
the judge exercised his discretion by setting the culprit free, 
with the statement that "any man who steals merely to 
satisfy his hunger is not a criminal." 

In many cases the youth of the offender is dealt with as 
a mitigating circumstance entitling him on conviction of 
murder to a sentence of life imprisonment instead of the 
death penalty. A former governor of New York, a few 
years ago, commuted the death sentence of a man of thirtj'- 
six, who had been convicted on his own confession of an 
atrocious murder, on the ground that the culprit, upon 
examination, appeared to be of the mental age of seven only. 

In England, where after a verdict of deliberate murder 
the courts have no discretion, the pardon power of the crown 
is regularly invoked to mitigate the rigors of the penal law. 
Judge Fitz- James Stephen, perhaps the most eminent, as he 
was certainly the most learned, member of the English bench 
during the last half of the Victorian era, in his History of 
the Criminal Law of England, refers to ten cases in which, 



having no discretion, he was compelled to impose the death 
penalty. In four of these cases the convicts were duly 
executed. The other six had their sentences commuted for 
various reasons to life imprisonment. In one of these it 
appeared that the murder had been committed under cir- 
cumstances of great provocation. In another the convict, a 
woman who had strangled her bastard child with a garter, 
had her sentence commuted on the ground that she was sub- 
ject to epileptic fits which had permanently impaired her 
mental powers, though she was not insane at the moment 
of committing the crime. Judge Stephen approves of these 
exercises of executive clemency and adds the following 
striking commentary: "Though no one is more strongly 
opposed than I am to the abolition of capital punishment, 
I am convinced that, in capital cases, the judge should have 
a discretion analogous to that which he has in cases not 
capital." "The fact that the punishment of death is not 
inflicted in every case in which sentence of death is passed 
proves nothing more than that murder, as well as other 
crimes, has its degrees and that the extreme punishment 
which the law awards ought not to be carried out in all 
cases." 

The judge in Illinois has this discretion. How is he to 
exercise it? The procedure in cases not capital is well 
known to social workers. He hears the statement of the con- 
victed offender, remands the case for investigation and report 
by the probation officer, gathers information from any ac- 
cessible source and in the light of all the circumstances thus 
developed makes up his mind as to the punishment deserved. 
The facts disclosed may aggravate the offense, in which case 
the culprit may "get the limit." Or they may mitigate it, 
in which case the punishment awarded may be the minimum 
penalty fixed by law or even a suspended sentence and pro- 
bation. 

But here, as in the other case, the Illinois law is per- 
fectly definite. In all cases where a person pleads guilty 
it is the duty of the court to examine witnesses concerning 
the aggravation or the mitigation of the offense. This is the 
procedure that has occupied Judge Caverly's court since the 
plea of guilty in the Leopold-Ix)eb case put upon him the 
burden of deciding what the punishment should be. The 
long rehearsal of the circumstances of the crime, its prep- 
aration and its detection, which seemed to many of us a 
travesty on justice, was justified in Judge Caverly's estima- 
tion by the duty imposed on him to hear evidence of ag- 
gravation. The long-drawn-out and contradictory testimony 
of the alienists with respect to the mental condition of the 
murderers was admitted by the court, over the state's attor- 
ney's objection, as relevant evidence of mitigation, such as 
if might properly consider in estimating the degree of moral 
responsibility and, therefore, of legal responsibility, of the 
offenders. The state's attorney argued that only the cir- 
cumstances of the crime could be taken into account in this 
assessment of the culpability of the offender. But the court 
held in effect that any facts tending to show a lack or im- 
pairment of the mental powers of the guilty party, though 
falling short of insanity in the legal sense, should be taken 
into account, and the cases cited above, though arising under 
a different procedure, show that the court was right. 

That this evidence failed to satisfy Judge Caverly of 
the existence of mental defect or constitutional emotional 
instability essentially differentiating (Continued on page 64) 



Shrouded in prestige and decorum the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace has never 
undergone the healthy process of disinterested scrutiny. Here, for the first time, is such an appraisal 
by a journalist, informed on European developments, who brought no preconceptions to his task. 



Seven Million Dollars Worth of 



Peace 



By ARTHUR RUHL 
Cartoons by Hendrik Willem Van Loon 



fi 



OURTEEN years have passed since Andrew 
Carnegie turned over to the trustees of his 
Peace Endowment $10,000,000 in 5 per 
cent bonds, the income of which, $500,000 
annually, they were directed to devote 
"toward hastening the abolition of interna- 
tional war." About seven million dollars have thus far been 
spent. Ways and means were left to the trustees, but that 
Mr. Carnegie believed that peace could be bought, so to 
speak, and in a reasonable time, was implied in his further 
suggestion that when war had been discarded, "the trustees 
will please then consider what is the next most degrading 
evil whose banishment or what new elevating element or 
elements, if introduced or fostered, or both combined, would 
most advance the progress, elevation and happiness of man." 
The Great War which followed four years after the 
Endowment began its work is now six years away. The 
conditions which then checked the Endowment's original 
program closed frontiers, strict censorships, the more in- 
tolerant manifestations of nationalism are also largely 
things of the past, and so far as the special work of the 
Endowment is concerned, the world might almost be said 
to be "normal" again. It seems, therefore, appropriate as 
well as a legitimate matter of public interest, to make some 
survey of the trustees' use of the funds en- 
trusted to them and some measure of their 
progress in fulfilling the aims of the En- 
dowment. 



THE spirit of hopefulness and high 
endeavor with which the Endowment 
took up its task was expressed by Pro- 
fessor Clark in his report on the work of 
the Economics Division for the first year: 
"With the munificent sum which has 
been made available . . . any result short 
of a large and valuable one may well be 
disappointing. . . . We are dealing, not 
with a small issue for a part of the world, but with a vast 
issue for the whole world ; and whatever affects the outcome 
at all is of enormous importance. It is a greater thing to 
move the entire earth a microscopic fraction of an inch 
than to carry a shipload of soil across the widest sea. It 
will be strange if, as the outcome of what is now initiated 
there should not be some perceptible deflection of human 




affairs. Whatever change there is, will be in the direction 
of peace." 

The World War broke out only three years later, but at 
the time Professor Clark wrote, any such tragedy, let alone 
any such social upheaval as the Bolshevik revolution in Rus- 
sia, was far from most men's minds, particularly American 
minds. Those were the days when liberalism and science 
seemed leading willing nations steadily onward toward a 
better world. Millions of middle-class Europeans were 
living comfortably and with what seemed an increasing 
good-will toward neighbors on an accumulated capital so 
apparently solid that it seemed unthinkable it could be swept 
away in a night. Such concrete beginnings as the Hague 
Tribunal and various arbitration treaties; supplemented by 
peace congresses, the exchange of professors and students, 
and the constant wearing down of national barriers by better 
communication suggested an approaching universal neigh- 
borliness. The word "pacifist" had not yet acquired a 
derogatory connotation. Tolstoi, despite his doctrine of 
non-resistance, was almost a sort of saint. No great moral 
courage was required to fight against war. Peace was 
respectable, even fashionable, in a way. 

This state of mind was reflected in the choice of men to 
head the Endowment the same distinguished, eminently 
respectable names which would have added 
weight to the founding of a new university, 
or even a bank. Echoes of that far-off 
world come down from some of the Endow- 
ment's earlier activities the distribution, 
for instance, of Professor William James' 
"Moral Equivalent of War" (written in 
1910) ; of Lord Haldane's conciliatory ad- 
dress on the spirits of England and Ger- 
many; the translation into seven languages 
and the wide distribution in cheap editions 
of Norman Angell's "The Great Illu- 



sion. 



WHAT the Endowment might have done had no war 
come, is scarcely worth bothering about now. What 
it might have done, the war notwithstanding, is worth at 
least a moment's consideration, inasmuch as the course the 
Endowment actually pursued did not meet the approval of 
many whose position and previous service in the cause of 
peace entitles them to respect. 



10 



SEVEN MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PEACE 




Briefly, the Endowment 
took the stand that the 
best thing it could do for 
peace was to help defeat 
Germany and win the war 
for the Allies. Dr. But- 
ler, in answering one of 
the frequent questions as 
to what the Endowment 
was doing toward stop- 
ping the War, said : "The 
answer is obvious. The 
Endowment has taken no 
steps to stop the European 
War." He added that 
nobody in Europe would 

listen to such suggestions and that in any case it was not 
the part of private organizations to compete with govern- 
ments. The year book of the Endowment for 1919 said: 

The entrance of the United States into the European War 
made it evident that a large part of the earlier activities 'of 
the Endowment must be ineffective until the restoration of 
peace. The hope of the world for permanent international 
peace was concentrated first upon the prevention of German 
domination. It became evident to the point of demonstration 
that German domination could only be prevented by force of 
arms. The Endowment has endeavored to contribute what 
it could by taking a clear and definite position in favor 
of the active and relentless prosecution of the war to final 
victory. 

This is unequivocal, and probably reflects the point of 
view of the majority of Americans at the time it was written. 
It is only fair to the not inconsiderable number of dissenters 
and necessary, indeed, in measuring the Endowment's 
work for peace to say that it was not a point of view 
universally shared. There was a time, for example, in the 
early part of the War, when men and women of consequence 
in neutral countries believed that a conference, properly made 
up and conducted, stood a reasonable chance of exerting ef- 
fective pressure on the belligerents. The Endowment was 
looked to for leadership in this endeavor but the leadership 
was not forthcoming. 



THE conference held at Long Beach, in this country, in 
the summer of 1917, brought together an unusually live 
and representative group of American journalists, students 
of politics and public men. Statesmen like Mr. Choate 
and Mr. Root joined with historians and economists, editors 
and the active heads of news associations, and it was felt 
that a continuance of such gatherings might be of real 
service in clarifying public opinion both here and abroad 
as to war aims and future readjustments. The conference, 
initiated by private individuals, was held under the auspices 
of the New York Academy of Political Science with funds 
contributed by the Endowment, but the suggestion that it 
be made an annual meeting or that regional conferences 
be held, the Endowment did not follow up. It remained 
for the Williamstown Institute of Politics, years later, to 
take up independently the lead the Endowment had dropped 
in war time. 

Even after the United States entered the War, there were 
those who believed that no "relentless prosecution of the war 
to final victory" (involving, as modern war does, an entire 
people and their economic life) could assist in bringing 



The Working Scheme of the Endowment 

The president of the Endowment, from 
1911 until the present time, has been Mr. 
Elihu Root. Mr. James Brown Scott has 
similarly served as secretary. The execu- 
tive committee, consisting of Mr. Root, Mr. 
Scott, Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, Mr. 
Austen G. Fox, Mr. Andrew Montague, 
Mr. Henry S. Pritchett, and Mr. James R. 
Sheffield, has also, with one exception, re- 
mained unchanged, Mr. Sheffield joining 
the committee in 1923 on the death of Mr. 
Charlemagne Tower. 

The Endowment, on its organization, 
was divided into three divisions: Inter- 
course and Education, under the direction 
of President Butler of Columbia; Econo- 
mics and History, under John Bates Clark, 
Professor of Political Economy at Colum- 
bia; International Law, under James 
Brown Scott, Professor of Law and at one 
time solicitor for the Department of State. 

The aim of Dr. Butler's division the 
one closest to the general public was to 
"educate public opinion regarding the 
causes, nature, and effects of war, and means 
for its prevention; to cultivate friendly in- 
ternational relations, and to assist agencies 
useful in accomplishing these purposes." 
The Division of Economics and History 
set out to make a scientific investigation of 
the causes of war and of practical methods 
for preventing it. The Division of Inter- 
national Law, aiming to "aid the develop- 
ment of international law and its acceptance 
among nations," began to compile and pub- 
lish international conventions, treatises on 
the general subject, ancient and modern 
to lay a basis, in short, for the settlement of 
international disputes by courts and laws 
instead of by war. 



about satisfactory relations with the people "crushed." They 
felt that the function of an endowment for international 
peace was to act as the representative of civilization at large, 
so to speak, in searching and encouraging all resonable means 
of conciliation, rather than to throw itself quite simply into 
the belligerent tide. (The Endowment's International Law 
Division, situated in Washington, was turned over bodily 
to the Government for the time being and Professor Scott 
became an advisor to the State Department.) It is scarcely 
within the province of this brief survey to discuss these two 
points of view at length. It seems necessary, however, in 
any characterization of the Endowment, at least to state 
them, and having done so, we may return to the considera- 
tion of the Endowment's concrete accomplishment in the 
three fields into which it divided its work. 



SEVEN MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PEACE 



11 



L Things Done 




I HE original program 
of the Division of 
Economics and History, 
an elaborate examination 
into the causes and effects 
of war, outlined after a 
conference at Berne in 
1911 between economists 
and publicists of various 
nations, was made prac- 
tically obsolete by the 
Great War itself. The- 
orizing or retrospective 
delving became so idle in 
the face of the staggering 

actualities which each day brought forth, that in spite of 
the scientific zeal and humanitarian enthusiasm which Pro- 
fessor Clark threw into the initiation of the work, the 
greater part of the program had simply to be scrapped. In 
its place, and under the direction of Professor James T. 
Shot well, now that Professor Clark has retired from active 
university work, the Endowment is preparing an economic 
history of the war, to consist of 150 volumes, comprising 
some 200 separate monographs. 

The various studies composing this gigantic record are to 
be written by experts in the various countries directly touched 
by the War, including Japan, and to be published in com- 
plete editions in the languages of their countries of origin. 
An abridged and more popular edition is to be published 
in English and sold commercially as well as distributed 
freely to various libraries. A large part of the studies, 
many of them written by the only men who could ever have 
handled the subjects from first-hand knowledge, have already 
been finished, and the entire 150 volumes are expected within 
a year or two more. Later, some time within the next ten 
years, perhaps, Professor Shotwell intends to publish some 
ten volumes of general conclusions. 

It is difficult enough in this country, with our clumsy 
methods of distribution, for the so-called "serious" book to 
reach any considerable audience, even with a commercial 
publisher to push it, and a critic of the Endowment once 
remarked that its aim appeared to be to "pay large sums of 
money to publish books and then to transport them to 
places of concealment." 

The Secretary of the Endowment, responding to such com- 
ment, points out that the Endowment's publications are now 
deposited in some 800 libraries in various parts of the 
world, and that of the "837,568 volumes (or pamphlets?) 
published by the Endowment, 639,668 have been disposed 
of either gratuitously or by sale through publishers." The 
percentage sold is small about one in fifty of the total. Of 
794,068 copies published between 1911 and 1922, for in- 
stance, 15,453 were sold. 

Professor Shotwell, in a recent report on the war history, 
remarks: 

It has sometimes been stated that the size of the edition is 
too great to permit of the purchase of the whole history by any 
but public institutions : and the facile criticism which has been 
made, that no one would ever read so many volumes when com- 
pleted, has a certain apparent justification. As a matter of 



fact, the collection as a whole was never intended to be read 
in this way. It is neither a narrative history nor an encyclo- 
pedia. It has been prepared by students for students; or 
rather, to speak more accurately, by masters for students. 

The working of food, shipping, railway, coal mining and 
other controls; the effect of the war on farmers, business, 
and the various industries; the attitude of labor unions: 
methods used to finance the war in various countries these 
and similar matters are handled in the series. The Austrian 
series, it is said, gives a unique picture of the practical 
liquidation of an empire. 

To combine a moral aim with the objectivity of a scien- 
tific investigation is always difficult, and the criticism has 
been made that some of these studies would be more useful 
to general staffs in some future war than to the cause of 
peace. That fact in itself is scarcely a sound basis for 
complaint it would merely prove that the information 
collected was' authoritative, "inside" and illuminating. That 
the moral aim of the Endowment can be combined with 
thorough-going scientific detachment may be suggested by 
an illustration. The studies thus far contributed show that 
there came a point in all the belligerent countries when fear, 
the will-to-win and the various other forces combined to 
bring about what was practically a levee en masse 
and a general taking over of the control of private busi- 
ness by the government. Such a control is not relished 
by business and the results were not, as a rule, very 
satisfactory. If then, by the distribution of such studies, 
the certainty of such socialization is got into the heads of 
those in control of big business, the effect ought to be to 
postpone in so far as the influence of these men counts 
the coming of another war. This illustration is taken at 
random and it may not be the best one possible, but it will 
suggest the possible peace contributions of such a series. 

Professor Shotwell's honesty and scientific thoroughness, 
his wide information and liberal spirit insure the value of 
the series, from a historical point of view. Whether the 
spending of a third of the Endowment's income on this 
monumental work is the best use that could have been 
made of the funds is scarcely a question to be decided here. 
It was Professor Shotwell's knowledge and contacts which 
largely made possible the submitting, to the Council of the 
League of Nations, last June, of a draft treaty on security 

and limitation of arm- 
aments prepared by him- 
self and other American 
private citizens, which so 
impressed the Council 
that the latter decided to 
distribute it as an official 
document to all the gov- 
ernments represented in 
the League. 

THE Division of In- 
ternational Law, as 
its name would imply, 
approaches peace by the 
legalistic road. Actuali- 




12 



SEVEN MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PEACE 



ties, in the merely humanistic and emotional sense, do not 
enter here. The division has its offices in Washington, 
looking out on the trees of Jackson Square (the other two 
divisions are close to Columbia University in New York) 
and Professor James Brown Scott has acted since the begin- 
ning as both head of the Division an<> Secretary of the 
Endowment. 

The Division began its work after consulting with the 
Institut de Droit International, which selected eleven dis- 
tinguished European jurists and statesmen to act as its ad- 
visors. The main part of its work has consisted in the pub- 
lication of international conventions, treatises, judicial de- 
cisions and other matter the circulation of which might 
help to pave the way toward the settlement of international 
disputes by courts and law. In the searching out of such 
material and its publication, prefaced by erudite introduc- 
tions signed by the director himself, the latter has been 
indefatiguable. Nothing is too remote, and Professor Scott 
burrows into Roman law, into Grotius, Pufendorf, Bynker- 
shoek and Balthazar Ayala, with the serene enthusiasm of 
an astronomer plotting the parallax of some new star. 

The library of volumes and pamphlets, if not quite so 
numerous as those planned by the Division of Economics and 
History, is almost as impressive to the layman, and includes 
material varying from the Declaration of Independence and 
the documentary history of the emancipation of the Spanish 
American republics to such classics as Hispanicae Advoca- 
tionis Libri Duo and De Jure Belli ac Pads Libri Tres. 

Among the more important publications might be men- 
tioned the two-volume Treatise and Agreements With and 
Concerning China, much used by the Washington Arms 
Conference; the five-volume translation of the proceedings 
of the First and Second Hague Conferences, a starting point 
for almost any discussion of international organization ; and 
the various publications such as the debates during the 
Federal Convention of 1787, the analysis of the decisions 
of the U. S. Supreme Court on questions arising between 
the states designed to emphasize points in which the organ- 
ization of the United States might serve as a prototype for 
international organization. 

In addition to this work of editing and publication, the 
Division has given annual subventions to various inter- 
national organizations, such as the Soriele de Legislation 
Comparee and the Grotius Society of London ; has assisted 
several European journals of international law and several 
authors whose works on international law did not present 
themselves to publishers as attractive commercial ventures. 
It initiated and has supported the American Institute of 
International Law, a central body representing international 
law societies in the various American republics, and pro- 
moted the establishment of an Academy of International 
Law at the Hague, which, after many postponements due 
to the war, finally opened for the summer course of 1923 
with some 300 students from all parts of the world. During 
the past eight years it has devoted $10,000 yearly toward 
fellowships in International Law and some ninety fellows 
have thus had from one to two years training with the 
aim of preparing them as teachers of this subject. 

In April, 1917, the Trustees of the Endowment offered 
to the Department of State the services of the Division of 
International Law, and the Division thereupon became en- 
gaged, in the words of the director, "on projects of so con- 
fidential a nature that they cannot be reported in detail." 



The director himself prepared material for the use of the 
American delegation to the Peace Conference at Paris. The 
Division edited and saw through the press various con- 
fidential public documents which were printed at the expense 
of the Department of State, and prepared material for the 
Conference of Limitation of Armaments in 1921-22 ; $30,000 
of the Endowment's own funds having been set aside for 
that purpose. 

Directly, or indirectly through trustees of the Endow- 
ment, the Division has contributed to the establishment of 
the World Court. The proposal to establish a Permanent 
Court of International Justice made by Mr. Root in 1907 
(Secretary of State at that time and later President of the 
Endowment), laid before the Hague Conference by Mr. 
Choate (later vice-president of the Endowment) and ex- 
plained to the delegates at that time by Professor Scott, 
closely resembled the project to which the League of Nations 
gave assent in 1920. Professor Scott also took part in the 
negotiations at Paris in 1910 leading to an agreement be- 
tween Great Britain, Germany, France and the United 
States to take the necessary measures to secure a Court of 

Arbitral Justice a pro- 
ject proposed by Robert 
Bacon, also later a trustee 
of the Endowment, when 
he was Secretary of State 
in 1909. The failure of 
the Endowment to take 
any part in the public 
hearing on the World 
Court held last spring in 
Washington, a hearing at 
which practically every 
other group in the country 
working for peace was rep- 
resented, was due, there- 
fore, it would appear, to 
the Endowment's policy 
of keeping out of political 

controversy or to a feeling, perhaps, that it had already 
done its part, rather than to indifference or opposition to the 
Court itself. Professor Scott says in a recent report: 

The director feels that the results of the efforts in behalf 
of the Permanent Court of International Justice and of the 
service rendered the Department of State in connection with 
the Peace Conference at Paris and the Conference on the 
Limitation of Armaments at Washington, would alone justify 
the establishment of the Carnegie Endowment and its activi- 
ties in this thirteen years of its existence. 

The sense of satisfaction expressed here is felt by all who 
enter the fine old mansion at No. 2 Jackson Place, where 
the Division of International Law has its seat. Centuries 
of slow struggle and growth must elapse before the world 
at large can hope to attain anything like that perfect peace. 
The great table in the Board Room shines solidly, the por- 
traits of Mr. Root and Mr. Choate and other worthies 
gaze calmly down, and the trolley-cars and motors of an 
age of hurry, although only the other side of a wall, seem 
far away. Washington may roar and bustle and imagine 
vain things. A gathering such as the Women's League for 
International Peace and Freedom, which was in session 
while I chatted with Professor Scott, may condemn arma- 
ments and ask for brotherhood in a dozen different lan- 
guages, but the Division takes no part and maintains its 




SEVEN MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PEACE 



13 



detachment and calm. In conversation with Professor Scott, 
one feels that he has arrived at a philosophy in which such 
emotional manifestations are promptly pigeon-holed in their 
proper places and seen in their proper perspective and the 
mind left free to dwell on work that is building for the 
ages, and the slow, upward climb of man. 



THE Division of Intercourse and Education, directed 
by the active and many-branched Nicholas Murray 
Butler, is more secular in its nature and closer to the actual 
world. Dr. Butler is first of all the efficient administrator, 
including the politician, with an ear to the ground. He has 
chosen to administer the affairs of a great university, but 
his very considerable abilities might just as well have been 
turned into other channels to international finance, for 
instance, or some kindred field, with things done the "big" 
way, one's fingers on a hundred strings at once and catching 
the pulse-beats of half a world. 

With his large and varied activities, the pursuit of peace 
must inevitably be an avocation with the President of 
Columbia, but being called to organize a portion of that 
pursuit, Dr. Butler has thrown himself into the congenial 
task with characteristic energy. In those far-off days when 
The Great Illusion was being translated into seven lan- 
guages, Dr. Eliot, President Emeritus of Harvard, was 
sent to Asia and wrote, as a result, Some Paths to Peace, 
of which the Division distributed 25,000 copies. Similarly 
Mr. Robert Bacon visited South America and wrote For 
Better Relations with Our South American Neighbors. 

A very interesting experiment, which the Division has 
not attempted a second time, was the sending of an inter- 
national commission to report on the causes and conduct 
of the Balkan wars. This report of some 400 pages was 
soon crowded out of sight by the Great War following 
close on its publication, but in thus examining into, and in- 
forming the rest of the world about, the conduct of the 
belligerents while their behavior was still "news" the En- 
dowment acted as the "representative of humanity at large" 
in a manner that many would like to have seen continued. 
In all, the Division has published eighteen reports of varying 
interest and value. 

Through the American Association for International Con- 
ciliation, a branch of the European association of similar 
name founded in 1905 by the late Baron d'Estourelles (the 
American branch was taken over by the Endowment in 1910 
and,has lately been merged with the Division of Intercourse 
and Education), some 2OO different pamphlets have been 
distributed either gratis or at a nominal price. It was this 
branch which distributed Professor James' Moral Equiva- 
lent of War in 1920. Treaties of arbitration, documents 
regarding the war, plans for a permanent court of interna- 
tional justice, essays and addresses in a word, all sorts of 
matter touching on the subject of peace and having a cer- 
tain readability have been distributed through this agency. 
The Division has maintained from the beginning a Euro- 
pean bureau in Paris and it has been assisted by a group 
of European advisers which meets annually. This latter 
position is an honorary one but the travelling expenses of 
the advisers to and from the annual meeting are paid by the 
Endowment. European correspondents keep the director 
informed on conditions in their various countries. Dr. 
Butler has said that he knows no Foreign Office better in- 



formed than the Endowment. This information does not 
reach the public, except in so far as it may suggest action 
to be taken, but is sent confidentially to the Trustees. 

Until recently, the division worked in the academic field 
through the Institute of International Education. This 
latter, headed by Professor Stephen A. Duggan, acted as 
a sort of clearing-house for professors and students all over 
the world. It supplied information, gave grants to pro- 
fessors on sabbatical leave, assisted in getting lecturers and 
audiences together, selected students for fellowships and 
scholarships, established international relations clubs in 
colleges and sent them reading matter and lecturers. Ow- 
ing, it was explained, to lack of funds, this interesting branch 
was dropped by the Division in 1923. For a time it seemed 
that the Rockefeller Foundation might take it over, but the 
Carnegie Corporation, which acts as a holding-company for 
various of Mr. Carnegie's bequests, came to the rescue, and 
the Institute is carrying on, at present, under the wing of 
the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 
The Division has sent out libraries of American books to 
various South American capitals some 9,000 books, pamph- 
lets and maps, for example, went to the Museo Social 
Argentino at Buenos Aires and small libraries intended 
to present the main facts of American history and politics 
in convenient form to various European capitals. Inter- 
national Mind Libraries, collections of books designed to 
interest the less sophisticated sort of readers in foreign af- 
fairs, have been given to public libraries in many of the 
smaller American towns. 

The Division has given subventions to various foreign and 
home organizations the Interparliamentary Union, for in- 
stance, which "may be likened to a debating club of high 
order on international questions"; the International Arbi- 
tration League; the Bureau International de la Paix at 
Berne, and so on but the present policy of the Endowment 
is to discontinue such subventions and apply all its funds 
to work under its own immediate direction. The only 
American peace organization which it assists at present is 
the American Peace Society, which has its headquarters at 
Washington and publishes a magazine called The Advocate 
of Peace. The latter, since the war, has advocated noth- 
ing which might be interpreted as deviating from the state 
of grace commonly described as "100 percent", and its 
editor and the society's director seems less preoccupied with 
the subject in hand he bitterly attacked Mr. Bok's peace 
plan contest than in keeping on good terms with the vari- 
ous factions "on the hill." 

To encourage better relations with Latin America, the 
Division maintains an Intra-America Division under the 
directorship of Dr. Peter H. Goldsmith. This branch pub- 
lishes a little magazine called Inter-America in English, 
on South American subjects one month, and in Spanish, on 
North American subjects, the next. The matter published 
is literary rather than controversial, and consists largely of 
translations of more or less pleasing articles and stories. 
Everything contentious is avoided, and if little or nothing 
is said of the rumblings of social and economic unrest which 
are beginning so interestingly and significantly to be heard 
in the other continent, still less, that is to say nothing at all, 
is said on subjects such as our policy in Mexico or in some 
of the Caribbean countries, on which there is a definite mis- 



14 



SEVEN MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF PEACE 



understanding or difference of opinion. The director of 
the Intra-America Division has visited South America and 
lectured there. The Division has assisted the Pan Amer- 
ican conferences by inviting and paying the expenses of 



delegates from the South American republics, and the Intra- 
American section sometimes assists South American visitors 
to the United States and acts as a clearing-house, to a cer- 
tain extent, for information between the two continents. 



11. Things Undone and the Spirit of Doing 



IT will be apparent, even from this brief and incomplete 
survey, that the Endowment's activities, during these 
past thirteen years, have been 
considerable. A vast amount 
of printed matter has been 
distributed. There have 
been congresses, lectures, cor- 
respondence, and a great 
number and variety of dis- 
tinguished individuals in vari- 
ous lands have been drawn 
into the circle of the Endow- 
ment's influence, have added 
something to their own lives 
through that association and 
contributed something to the 
common fund of good will. 
The monumental economic 
history of the war and the 
various international law 
publications have added to 
the world's fund of knowl- 
edge and assisted in build- 
ing the foundations for inter- 
national peace. There has 
been no difficulty in spending 
the half million dollars year- 
ly; indeed, of late, as the 
purchasing value of the dol- 
lar grew less, there has not 
been enough money to go 
round. And no one ques- 
tions that this money has 
been honestly, and on the 
whole, economically, spent. 

Notwithstanding these facts, and the eminent character 
of the trustees, the attitude toward the Endowment of that 
small part of the public familiar with its work (the En- 
dowment's "press" is not as good as that of some of the 
other large funds) is rather generally that of dissatisfaction. 
In saying this, I speak as an outsider, who knew practically 
nothing about the Endowment's work before starting this in- 
vestigation, and here reports an impression gained from 
browsing in and round the subject over a period of several 
months. Criticism varies from the shallow and gossipy 
sarcasm of those who habitually nag at whatever is 
socially solid and well-placed to the more serious dis- 
appointrrtent and disillusion of those who have them- 
selves worked for peace, but it may fairly be said, I 
think, that in one form or another, it is pretty general. 

There must be a reason for such a state of things, and 
having given some notion of the concrete accomplishments 
of the Endowment, it now seems in order to point out 



"~lN a world still largely controlled by in- 
L stincts inherited from savage ancestors, 
peace has rarely been popular or even safe. 
Its advocates inevitably fight their way up- 
stream and against the tide. The admini- 
strators of a permanent peace fund, chosen 
in quiet times because they are held in pub- 
lic esteem, find themselves engaged in acti- 
vities, which, at the first threat of war, the 
majority are likely to condemn. 

A laboratory of scientific research can be 
endowed with every hope of good results, 
because patience and industry and intelli- 
gence are things that can be bought and 
men will even give these things for nothing 
in order to be free to pursue truth. But 
imagination, moral courage, constructive 
idealism and the leadership which will 
carry the world nearer the goal of interna- 
tional peace are harder to come by and 
harder to keep at work, year in and year 
out, on any path of consistent advance. Yet 
these qualities moral leadership, in a 
word are demanded in the administration 
of such a fund, and to supply them is the 
responsibility of those who consecrate them- 
selves to such a work." 



what that reason is. It comes down in the end, to the 
make-up and personality of the Board of Trustees, and 

the dissatisfaction, while 

partly with things done, is 
more with things undone, 
and what is felt to be a lack 
of leadership which the pub- 
lic has a right to expect. 



I 



HAVE already spoken of 
two points of view which 
might be held toward the 
Endowment's policy during 
the War. The "relentless" 
prosecution of the Avar on 
the part of all concerned, in- 
cluding peace societies, may 
have been the most expedient 
policy in 1917, however the 
die-hard pacifists disagreed 
with it. But the war is 
now six years away, and as 
one of the Endowment's for- 
eign advisors wrote in 1918: 
"when the world once more 
returns to normal conditions, 
that the Endowment shall 
bestow its attention to direct 
work for peace is a matter so 
obvious that it need not be 
discussed." 

This, so many actively in- 
terested in the peace move- 
ment feel, the Endowment 
has not done. In general, the 
alleged shortcoming lies in the failure to realize, or at any 
rate to act on the fact, that we are living in a different w,orld 
since the war and that policies must be modified in conse- 
quence. 

If the "100 percent" attitude was expedient in 1917, 
then all the more reason for attempting now to bridge 
the chasm made by the war. If the Endowment emphasized 
one side during the War, it ought now, it would seem, to 
print pertinent facts on the other side which have only been 
turned up since the war. Such documents as "Falsifications 
of the Russian Orange Book," while they may not shift 
the main burden of war guilt, certainly modify its weight 
and show the inaccuracy and disingenuousness of portions 
of the Allied propaganda, and the discovery and distribution 
of such matter should not be left to our late enemy or a 
few courageous college professors, willing, in the cause of 
truth, to run the risk of being called "pro-German." 
(Continued on page 52) 




What Has She Done With It? 



By MARTHA BENSLEY BRUERE 



I HAD an aunt who used to live in a remote 
farming village. She went once to Chicago 
and bought a feather fan. The sticks were 
mother of pearl and each plume was a prize 
product of the supercilious ostrich. It cost 
more than much clothing suitable to the 
station to which God had called her, for the only social 
function she ever attended was church. The fan lay, care- 
fully protected by camphor, in a box on her shelf. She 
would unwrap it and show it to us young fry on request, 
the proud light of possession on her face, as she waved it 
gently back and forth before laying it away again. 

"Why did you buy it ?" I once asked her with the tactless- 
ness of youth. 

"There's more to having a thing than just using it, my 
dear," she answered as one clinching an argument. 

Is the vote no more than a fan to us? Did we want it 
just to have it? Or \vas it a sort of super-tool to help us 
remodel life into something we liked better? I seem to 
see myself addressing hurrying throngs from automobiles 
drawn up at crowded curbs and to hear my own strained 
voice emitting phrases like: 

''Give the government its spring house cleaning": 
"No child shall grow up without its chance at health 
and play and education and a good job": 

"Work for every body but exploitation for nobody!" 
But these phrases are as faint as worn records on a Vic- 
trola. Is that because they stand for ideals that we have 
abandoned? Or that have, perhaps, been filched from us? 




DURING the Democratic Convention I trailed a mother 
and daughter down Fifth Avenue. They came from 
some wheat growing state. The mother was either a dele- 
gate or an alternate. She was a square rigged woman 
whose hat rose rectangularly above her fine square face. I 
know Mother could chair a meeting, she was a born club 
president. Even Daughter hadn't got her completely on 
the leash. And Daughter was a sylph ! Her figure was one 
long sinuous line and she was dressed exactly as the fashion 



papers said she should be. Mother had been through the 
fight for suffrage and was still at the place where she be- 
lieved the firing line to be. Daughter had been through the 
state university and saw Mother as remotely tagging after 
the rear guard. In the crowd on Fifth Avenue surrounded 
by mere strangers they talked as though they were alone in 
the world. 

"That convention don't register joy with me, mother." 

"But we've put a good many women onto the floor and 
some onto the committees, Blanche." 

"You're so easy, mother! Where do you think that gets 
you?" 

"We've argued it out before, Blanche. We ought to have 
as much chance as the men to say what we want done and 
the first thing is to establish our right to recognition." 

"O mother] As though there was any more taste to 
rights than there is to calories!" 

I followed them through a department store and as we 
three drifted down the Avenue again, Daughter took up the 
controversy. 

"Just having women on every committee, or in Congress, 
or even having a woman for president wouldn't satisfy me 
at all. I can't get excited over rights. I want to get some- 
thing done!" 

"Of course there are lots of things to do as soon as we 
are in a position to do them." 

"But why not do them now?" 

We three foregathered again at a tea shop further down 
the Avenue. When I seated myself unobtrusively at their 
table, Daughter was back at the old stand. 

"It's exactly the way it is at home talk, talk, nothing 
practical. I can't stand it being so uninterested! If I'm 
going to care about politics, they've got to get something 
done!" 

Oh, she was a hard young woman Blanche was! 



fHHttHt 



JUST what is it that the likes of Blanche want done now? 
People say that our political interests are the Welfare 
Bills. It is true that without the backing of such groups 



15 



16 



WHAT HAS SHE DONE WITH IT? 



as the League of Women Voters, the Y. W. C. A., the 
Women's Trade Union League, the Federation of Women's 
Clubs, no measure to control the hours of labor, or establish 
a minimum wage for women or anything of that sort has a 
chance of getting through. We do take more interest in 
those things than anybody else does. When the Women's 
City Club of New York established the eight-hour day and 
vacations with pay for its employes, and the rapidly rising 
group of Women's City Clubs in other cities took notice of 
the fact, they began to have a better chance of putting such 
regulations into law. Are these the practical immediate 
things that Daughter's generation wants done? If so, there 
is the Child Labor Amendment ready to their hands. 

It has passed Congress and now must be ratified by the 
legislatures of thirty-six states. To stop child labor is one 
of the things we said we wanted the vote for are we going 
to help fight this amendment through as we did the last 
two ? Arkansas, a fine progressive state, but as little affected 
by this bill as any in the country, has already ratified it 
bless her!' And Georgia has turned it down. But there are 
thirty-five more, some of them industrial states where the 
labor of children is an important economic factor, to be 
brought into line. 

It must be remembered that though we have more power 
to apply to the passage of the Twentieth Amendment than 
to the 1 8th or igth we have a less personal interest. While 
Prohibition and the Right to Vote had a potential relation 
to every home in the country, there are comparatively few 
whose young are wage workers. If this fight is to be won it 
will be on altruistic grounds over the politically dead bodies 
of those who employ children and those who send them to 
work. A working child can bring in somewhere between 
two and three hundred dollars a year. A poor woman must 
be both unselfish and intelligent to be willing to do without 
such a sum. 

A while bark I was going about with a truant officer 
in the crowded districts south of Washington Square, 
through Minnetta Street, Minnetta Lane and Minnetta 
Court and in the remotest corner of the remotest house 
we found the child we were looking for, "finishing" men's 
coats. The mother was an Italian with that look of sud- 
den age which comes from a long unsatisfied hunger for all 
that makes life beautiful. The truant officer's translation 
of what she said ran something like this: 

"Yes it is Carmina you see, yes she works. No I do 
not send her to the school. How shall she eat if she does 
not work? What a country is this where you take the 
child away from the work! I will have no one coming 
to take Carmina to the school if she goes, we are hungry! 
I will not bear it! I am Italian! I have still my knife!" 

And she curved her strong brown fingers about the han- 
dle. It was a good effective bread knife and the point was 
toward the truant officer and toward me. Would it be 
possible to convince the mother of Carmina that the Child 
Labor Amendment should pass? 

With a young Jewish girl I dodged through a black door- 
way in the New York ghetto and found a dim room with 
old clothes piled high upon the floor. Two white-bearded 
men ran old foot-power sewing machines, two others bent 
over their needles. They were mending old clothes for the 
second-hand dealers to sell again. 

"They are men without children," Yetta told me. "Of 
course, they did not come to America without children, no 



man would be so foolish as to do that. He would know 
he could not live when he is old. But these men have no 
children and they are' too old to work by new clothes. 
What became of their children? How should I know? 
Perhaps they are dead. Perhaps they have been taken for 
the school. But this I know these men have no children !" 

How shall we convince a worn-out machine operator 
who sees nothing ahead but mending old clothes that the 
Child Labor Amendment should pass? 

Just outside Nashville I went through the district where 
the white mill hands' live. In the desolate streets and in 
the bare houses I saw only babies and very little children 
and their fathers and mothers! Limp, listless, washed-out 
human beings coughing and dipping snuff, incapable even 
of the wish to move. 

"How do they live?" I asked my guide. 

"Oh, the young ones work in the mills. That is," hastily 
correcting himself, "they just sort of help around with their 
friends." 

How shall we prove to the po* white that the Child 
Labor Amendment should pass? 

Of course we know that it must pass you and I and 
everybody who may chance to read this article you and I 
and everybody who worked for suffrage you and I and 
everybody who has been through high school and perhaps 
through college. We know that relatively it is unimportant 
if the mother of Carmina goes hungry while her child is in 
school; that it doesn't matter much in the long run if 
many more old men spend their last years making over old 
clothes so long as their sons and daughters are preparing 
for better work ; that in comparison with the future of the 
children threading stitches in the stocking factories, the lives 
of their disease-ridden parents have no value at all but it 
isn't so easy to convince the parents! And terribly ham- 
pered by the fact that it is not ourselves who will suffer 
by the most drastic enforcement of the laws which the 
Child Labor Amendment will make possible, we have got 
to make those who will suffer, and who have the vote as 
much as we have, willing to make the sacrifice. 

It's a good stiff job for Blanche and those like her who 
want to see something done now, to set their hands to 
getting the people of thirty-five more states to instruct their 
representatives in favor of the Amendment and then lobby- 
ing it through the legislatures. A good stiff job ! 




And now we are approaching another presidential election 
and the women are launching a campaign to get out the 
vote, so that the greatest possible number of us will actually 
exercise the franchise we worked so hard to win. 

This is a particularly thankless job, for like Blanche, most 
women arc essentially realists, and just the act of voting 
doesn't in itself intrigue us to any perceptible extent. One 
party platform framed with painstaking ambiguity set against 
another assembled by the same interesting method leaves us 
peculiarly chill. Collier's for August thirtieth, in an article 
by Boyden Sparkes publishes a digest of an inquiry made by 
the Local Community Research Committee of the University 
of Chicago on Non-voting! Causes and Methods of Con- 
trol from which I quote. 



WHAT HAS SHE DONE WITH IT? 



17 



One third of the males as compared with one half of the 
women, abstained from voting because they were not inter- 
ested. . . . But the most discouraging revelation was the large 
amount of disgust with politics that was found to exist. Poor 
people expressed the view that the government was taking 
away all the liberties of the poor and benefiting only the rich; 
some insisted that one vote counted for nothing; others that 
the candidates were equally bad; others that the ballot box 
was corrupted and the whole election system a fraud. . . . Some 
tax payers were despairing of any cohesive power in the well 
meaning and had committed themselves to the idea of 'what's 
the use?" 

What is true of Chicago appears to be true of other 
places. The Woman Voter's Bulletin, for May, published 
by the Connecticut League of Women Voters suggests that 
the apathy of the non-voter is largely due to his feeling 
that there is nothing very important at stake so far as his 
life interests are concerned, in a political election and in- 
sisting that if people were given something to vote for 
they would vote. 

The task of getting out the vote where there isn't a 
clear cut issue to get it out for, is so big that the winning 
of the Child Labor Amendment seems small beside it. It's 
a job for Mother rather than Daughter. Mother's used 
to kicking against the pricks and this part of the campaign 
has got to be carried on by means which training and not 
nature have made women able to use. There's the work 
of lining up the country in rival leagues to see which can 
get out the most voters, there's the organizing of pagents 
and processions and the frantic effort to dramatize the 
undramatic the whole business of creating a sporting event 
out of what is only a matter of duty, and for a sex that 
cares little about sport ! Just to get out the vote for the 
vote's sake ! It is one of the things that has to be done but it 
better be put on the shoulders of Mother who has training 
in the suffrage fight to help her through. 




BUT give us a real issue to vote about and see what 
we will do! Turn your eyes on Texas! 
I approach this, the most dramatic thing that has hap- 
pened in recent politics with the mixedest of feelings. To 
me it is one of the most significant and discouraging things 
that has happened since women were elegible to office. 
I say this after hearing the pleasantest reports of Mrs. 
Ferguson's personal qualities, and remembering also that 
while our first woman in Congress filled me with deep pride, 
we permitted another to get into that body who believed 
in having women neither vote, nor do much else for the 
general good but fall upon their knees at appropriate in- 
tervals ; that we remained in a state of coma while a woman 
past eighty was appointed to fill out a Senate term as 
though it were a felicitation on her birthday ; that we helped 
another to an office on which she had no stronger claim 
than that her husband had died suddenly; and have pushed 
into various positions several who had no better equipment 
for the job than that we wanted to prove that we could put 
a woman into it. There is no question that Mrs. Ferguson 
has courage, but rumor insists that she is simply a woman 
of good average intelligence hitherto devoted to her home, 



her husband, children and grandchildren. These are laud- 
able interests but every little while something is liable to 
come up in the office of the chief executive of a state quite 
unconnected with domesticity or family affection just as 
things may be brought to the attention of an occupant of 
the White House infinitely remote from the experience of 
a "dirt farmer." Is it possible that we look upon public 
office as either a bouquet or a consolation prize? 

The significant thing is that, given a clear cut issue, 
women get out and vote without any special campaign 
to lure them into it. Mrs. Ferguson was nominated on two 
clear-cut issues. The first was to vindicate her husband, 
a former governor of Texas who had been impeached for 
misuse of public funds. This issue is said to have given 
her a hundred and sixty thousand votes. But can a man's 
honesty be proved by honoring his wife? Can rectitude 
be established by a majority vote? The second issue is 
Mrs. Ferguson's open opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, 
which is said to have given her some two hundred and 
fifty thousand votes more. The two issues together nomin- 
ated her. 

Whatever we may think of the first issue, the second 
s exactly the sort of public question to be decided by the 
vote, and Mrs. Ferguson's statements on the subject are 
far from ambiguous. 

I am in favor of a law that will punish by a term in the 
county jail any person over the age of twenty-one found in a 
public place with a mask on or in disguise and where three or 
more persons over the age of twenty-one are found together 
in a private place with a mask or other disguise on, then I 
would give them one year in the pen. Furthermore I am in 
favor of putting any church property on the tax rolls at full 
value that is permitted to be used by parties in mask or dis- 
I am in favor of a strict law requiring all secret or 
fraternal organizations to file the names of their membership 
in the County Clerk's office to be kept in a bound volume open 
to public inspection; failure to file such names and the proper 
certificate therewith to be a misdemeanor with a heavy fine 
and a revocation of charter ... No klansmen or klanswomen 
will be appointed to office by me. As I go in the klan will 
go out. 

A vote for Mrs. Ferguson was a vote against the K.K.K. 
for the women of Texas. 

Oh we are realists, we women! 



I AM writing this in the woods with a very young grey 
squirrel chattering at me from the second crotch of a 
walnut tree. He discovered me a few moments ago with 
a great spluttering of surprise and sits there now throwing 
out every insulting defiance he can think of I am in too 
close proximity to his food supply! Walnuts are the reali- 
ties of life to him. A glance at me assures him that I could 
eat a great many of them if I would. If I were nearer 
his size he would fight me for the possession of that tree, 
not knowing how I dislike walnuts. 

Would not a race of squirrels having the franchise, vote 
to control walnut trees rather than to put a grey or red 
or a black squirrel in office? If they were all like this 
one I believe that they would, for he is a very young 
squirrel only to be satisfied with the attainment of concrete 
realities. 



After Twenty Years 



IT happened that 
some twenty 
years ago I com- 
pleted a brief re- 
view of the His- 
tory of Western 
Europe, from the break-up of 
the Roman Empire onwards. To- 
day I am called upon to revise it. 
The editor of The Survey has 
asked me to put together some 
of my impressions as I tried to 

jump back over the wide gulf 

that has opened between us and 

the solid land on which we stood a score of years ago. But 
I find it almost as hard to reconstruct the bland assumptions 
of 1904 as those of the time of St. Louis or Augustus. 

These twenty years have witnessed a more startling ac- 
cumulation of human information, more astounding appli- 
cations of ingenuity and, at the same time, a more tragic 
indictment of approved human institutions, than any of the 
stately eras into which we are wont to divide history. We 
have eaten of the tree of knowledge so freely that we are 
bewildered as no previous generation has ever been. For 
when good and evil tend to become matters of intelligence 
rather than of habit and routine, our old moorings are lost 
and we are tossed about on the waves of illimitable doubt. 
Former assurances turn into questions; and solutions into 
problems. Democracy, for instance, seemed twenty years 
ago an herb destined to heal the nations a safe and gentle 
purgative of ancient impurities in the body politic. Now it 
is seen to have physiological effects of an incalculable nature 
when applied to Russia or China. Even in* our own country, 
which might be imagined by this time to be fully inured to 
the drug, strange and perturbing symptoms are appearing. 
We see now that we had really been taking it only in small 
doses. The prognosis of what Professor McDougall has 
ventured to call "unmitigated" democracy is a matter of 
rrere conjecture to the very wisest today. 

Twenty years ago the Liberals were marching along, con- 
fident that they knew the secret of a beneficent future. 
Their cohorts still shone against the subdued background of 
conservatism. We could not foresee that they were destined 
so very soon to be outflanked and driven back by groups 
hitherto negligible in the conduct of the State. When in 
1906 the Laborites won fifty seats in the House of Com- 
mons it was deemed a notable achievement. The rashest of 
prophets could not have hazarded the guess that Great 
Britain, France, Germany and Russia would be under social- 
istic ministries in 1924. 

One might be forgiven if in 1904 he was under the im- 
pression that the trend of governmental reform was fixed 
for a long time to come. The French Declaration of the 
Rights of Man had taken the teeth out of ancient monarchy, 
and the British constiution, with its bi-cameral system and 



By JAMES HARVEY ROBINSON 

Here the author of The Mind in the 
Making gives us a glimpse into his own 
mind in the making. What in twenty 
years has happened to our ideas of gov- 
ernment, of progress, of history itself? 
Can iv e still use the shifting past to help 
us in understanding the kaleidoscopic 
present? Professor Robinson gives his 
own answer one that has been shaping 
and mellowing during these twenty years 
of reflection. 



its responsible ministry, furnished 
a model toward which other na- 
tions might strive. Belgium, 
France, Italy and various lesser 
states had caught up with the 
procession. Germany might any 
day get a chancellor responsible 
to the Reichstag, and the prero- 
gatives of the Bundesrath be re- 
duced. Russia had a long way 
to go, but very soon a beginning 
was made by the creation of the 

Duma. The gross anachronism 

of an aristocratic upper house, the 

significance of proportional representation, and of func- 
tional representation, and above all, the dangers of an un- 
controlled foreign office were not conspicuous twenty years 
ago. France seemed to have become a republic for good 
and all, but it had taken her a long time to become so ; 
and no one could foresee the incredible increase of Euro- 
pean republics which were soon to appear on the map. The 
boundary lines between European states appeared twenty 
years ago to be fairly fixed, subject to some possible muta- 
tions in the Balkan region. The idea of "nationality" was, 
it is true, flagrantly violated in the Austro-Hungarian com- 
plex, but the good old Hapsburg realms had withstood many 
a severe shock and might continue to do so. Racial minor- 
ities kept on raising their protests here and there, but it 
looked as if Poland was partitioned for good and all, and 
that Alsace-Lorraine was likely to remain a part of the 
German Empire. The sore spot represented by the remains 
of the Ottoman Empire in Europe appeared to be healing, 
in spite of periods of acute inflammation. 

In short twenty years ago as one completed a manual 
going back to the days of Alaric and Augustine, as a ter- 
minus a quo he might be excused for thinking that the 
unification of Germany and Italy and the Franco-Prussian 
war represented a natural terminus ad quern, as the Scholas- 
tics would have put it. The tale seemed to be nicely 
rounded out and the historian could lay down has pen, or 
stop pattering his typewriter, with a sense of provisional 
finality. He might, if he was fortunate, have mentioned 
the Congress of Berlin, which would seem to be rather 
dragged in. The Triple Alliance was a rumor in 1904 and 
the secret counter-understanding between France and Rus- 
sia too well hidden to be reckoned with. Who could fore- 
see that these and similar dark hints forecast a thorough- 
going revision of the whole perspective of modern history? 
History does not seem to stop any more. All the. historian 
can do nowadays is to leave off, with a full conviction 
that he may have played up merely specious occurrences and 
have overlooked vital ones. In 1904 he would hardly have 
mentioned the cession by the Congress of Vienna of the 
Ruhr valley to Prussia ; now he has reason to emphasize this. 
The "bloodless" Turkish revolution of 1908 seems to take 



18 



AFTER TWENTY YEARS 



19 



on a new aspect since Kemal and the Angora government ing reminiscences. It is proper however to demand that 
have come on the stage. Not only does the past make the such reminiscences be authentic, that is, based upon the best 
future but, when we get wise enough, we see that the fu- and most critical information we can get. This raises the 



ture is constantly remaking the past. 



troublesome point of how we are to view the past at once 



In writing history it is also becoming harder and harder with cold scientific aloofness and at the same time apply 

to justify any particular point of departure. It is as diffi- it to our particular needs. 

cult to tell where to start as where to stop. One has some- "Objective" history is supposed to be a search for facts 

how to scotch the eternal snake without killing it. The regardless of any preferences or aims, except the dis- 

Middle Ages, after the works of Harnack, Dill, Taylor, covery of the raw truth. It is history without an objective. 

Glover, Cumont and many others, appear, from a cultural I have come to think that no such thing as objective his- 

standpoint, to be a sort of attenuated later Roman Empire, tory is possible. One has always to make some kind of a 

And the later Roman Empire witnessed the lapsing of bor- selection in saying anything about the past. All writers 

rowed Greek culture; and the Greeks, we now know, were consciously or unconsciously have to pick and choose from 

pretty depedent on all the wonders that were achieved by the inchoate mass of information at their disposal. They 

Egyptians and Western Asiatics, who built on the funda- have moreover many unrecognized assumptions underly- 

mental discoveries of neolithic mankind, whom we must ing their procedure. It cannot be otherwise. But if a his- 

recognize incredible progressives compared with their pre- torian does not appear to see any particular significance for 

decessors. It took the race, with its humble origins, so long himself or the reader in what he is putting down and 



to make a hatchet to be held in the hand, then so long to 
set it in a handle, then so long and so recently to set the 
handle in the hatchet! Since that achievement all things 



the reader sees no other import than the bare authen- 
ticity of the facts recorded I suppose that a work on 
this basis can properly be called "objective." His- 
appear to have been going with extraordinary rapidity, tories of this kind are known only to the profession for 
Twenty years ago I had little "feel" for this, and few the most part. Then there are the makers of historical 
others had. Now it seems to me that the history of the tools, like Potthast, DuCange, Giry, Wattenbach, who an- 
race since Menes I of Egypt (the first recorded human swer highly technical questions and help the expert to find 
name in history) is a very brief period, and that we are at his way around. Their names are scarcely household words 
the beginning of the beginning, as Mr. Wells conjee- even among fairly assiduous students of the past. All this 
tures rather than in a somewhat advanced and ultimate kind of business is fine and fundamental and it makes no 
phase of human achievement. The human experiment difference how dull it may be, since those who know how 
seems to me now about to start. The curtain is up and to use it clearly perceive its value. All such books form 
the play is on. The tempo of the overture has increased the scientific basis of history. I plead however for a sharp 
from largo to presto and pretty soon, the nimblest fingers distinction between meeting the needs of the pro- 
will not be able to keep up with the score, unless we acquire fessional historian and those of the public. And the 
unprecedented dexterity and we may. two are often confused, as may be seen in innumerable his- 

torical works which fail to suit either class very well. 
As I write this I have a vision of the Anaconda Copper 

Mills, where a selected variety of dirt 

is hauled over in cars from Butte and 
are at the beginning of the beginning dlim P ed into the most intricate series of 



HISTORY I am now inclined to describe as an ef- 
fort to recall ^ 

those reminiscen- 
ces of .the past which 
cast most light on the 
present. It is an exten- 
sion of our personal 
memories. 



_^ Mf w e]h ' CQn j ectures _ rat h er tnan sorters and meltefs until a good many 



Sf)mewhat ajvnnced and u l timate useful *** emerge in excessively small 



r 
Memory' 



achievement. The hu- 



are 



with the tons which 
into the discriminating devices 



memories. . im 

alone renders us sane man experiment seems to me now about vvhich coyer the hillside 



and able to make judi- to start. 

cious terms with things. 

History properly con- 
ceived should vastly augment our insight by widening our 
memories. It should contribute to precisely the same end 



bottom comes a vivid stream of salmon- 

colored molten copper; but even this is 

not quite ready for human needs until it 
is sent up to Great Falls to be still further freed from 
extraneous matter. Even so with the raw materials of 



finements to meet the various needs of the ultimate con- 
sumers. 



as personal recollection, namely, that of orienting us in a history, which have to undergo successive sortings and re- 
world we never made, where we are strangers and afraid 
to paraphrase the delightful lines of Mr. Housman. 

From this standpoint most history books are poor, dull The problem of smelting history has preoccupied me 
things, writen by unimaginative people with the tempera- for years. How is human experience to be presented so 
ment of faithful clerks. Conscientiousness and Insight seem as to do the most good in the case of school children, col- 
suspicious of one another, and yet they might be friends. lege students and the public? The past is a mine full of 
Careless talk about the past is just as bad as reckless state- precious ore and as yet there is not any machinery ade- 
ments about the present. An indefinite amount of slavish quate to save much of it. The mind of Mr. H. G. Wells 
work is necessary to mine out the raw materials essential is the best device which has yet appeared in the matter 
to forming any just estimates of the past and there seem to of varied efficiency. As I go over his Outline of History 
be a good many willing to undertake this laborious kind of I am astonished anew at the incredible results of restor- 
work. It is far more difficult to find those who can reduce ins:, as Ruskin would have said, "the innocency of the eye." 
crude information to \visdom and supply us with enlighten- Mr. -Wells sees the obvious, which is the greatest human 



20 



AFTER TWENTY YEARS 



achievement. I continue to wrestle with the problem and 
feel that I make a little progress in wriggling out of the 



is such a strange case as Henry VIII's reverence for a cer- 
tain verse in Leviticus and his affliction with a certain dis- 



old net that has entrapped the writers of historical hand- reputable disease which can hardly be left out of the origins 



books. I am quite sure however that even the best of our 
historical manuals are still full of irrelevancies and fatuities 
which happen to have got sanctioned. I am sure that much 
of value has so far failed to be captured. Then teachers 
have an idea of what history should be, derived from an 
unintelligent past; and the,re are innu- 
merable popular prejudices, patriotic, re- 
ligious, political, economic and virtuous, 
which prevent one's telling what is best 
worth while. The possibilities have grown 
in my view during the past twenty years 
and at the same time the obstacles in the 
way of realizing them have rather in- 
creased. 

At the last meeting of the American 

Historical Association Professor Cheyney 
read as his presidential address a paper on the laws of his- 
tory. This attracted much attention. There is no one 
among our professional historians whose opinions are bet- 
ter worth considering than those of Professor Cheyney. 
All that he had to say was admirably tentative and there 
is no doubt that a case can be made out for certain drifts, 
tendencies and currents in the past. And I infer that 
Professor Cheyney really meant scarcely more than these 
by what he apologetically called "laws." History is cer- 
tainly a strange record of dogged survivals and of the 
abrupt and seemingly inconsequential- injection of novelties 
and the perturbing effects of various altogether exceptional 
personalities, like Alexander the Great, Jenghiz Khan and 
Napoleon Bonaparte. How could it be otherwise? The 
foundation of my own historical philosophy is the stmple 
proposition that the overwhelming part of our beliefs and 
institutions and habits in general are as they are because 
they have been as they have been. And if we are to see 
things now and then as they are the easiest way is to see 
them as they have been. This so-called genetic or histori- 
cal approach is the discovery, I conjecture, not of the his- 
torians but rather of the natural history people, who taught 
the historian this most important of lessons. So history, 
when rightly understood, is but the most efficient way of 
seeing why we do as we do. 

When it comes to be thus interpreted it will be the most 
vital and indispensable of preoccupations. It will show 
why we shut up shop on Sunday, which is the fault of the 
Babylonian anxiety to dedicate a day in turn to each of 
the heavenly bodies which aroused their respect, and why 
we elect a president in early November and install him in 
March. It will also make plain why the British use "d." 
for pence and "" for pounds. In some minds antiquity 
stirs veneration : in others distrust. But it gets in its 
work just the same. 

Among the seeming accidents of history which had wide- 
spread and lasting effects were the conquests of the youth 
Alexander of Macedon, in his burning desire to put his 
hated father in the shade. Likewise the coronation of 
Charlemagne as Roman Emperor, which implanted the 
longing in German kings from Otto the Great onward to 
keep a hold on Italy and exercise a peculiar control over 
the head of the Christian church, thus deflecting German 
history into unexpected channels foi centuries. Then there 



We have eaten of the. tree of knowledge 
so freely that we are bewildered as no 
previous generation has ever been. . . . 
If is almost as hard to reconstruct the 
bland assumptions of 1904 as those of 
the time of St. I^ouis or Augustus. 



of the Anglican establishment; and the restless Corsican's 
consolidation of a disrupted Germany, which cannot be left 
out of the history of the World War. But in our own 
private lives we are familiar enough with what seem to be 
the most chance determinants in our fate. That distinguished 

logician Charles 
Peirce found himself 
turning his thoughts 
before he got through 
from logic to "chance" 
and "love." They can- 
not be left out of the 
game. 

There can be no 
doubt that future his- 
torians will be deeply 

affected in their interpretation of the past by the growing 
insight into the workings of human desires, as these are 
now coming to be understood. To most students of the 
past, men of old seem to be historical personages, rather than 
human beings. It requires some unusual exercise of the 
imagination to realize that the young Louis XVI was not 
merely or mainly a French monarch but a self-conscious, awk- 
ward youngster, seriously embarrassed by the lively Austrian 
girl foisted upon him. No one can say what intimate dis- 
cussions were connected with the abrupt dismissal of his wise 
minister Turgot, who himself was cursed with bashfulness 
disguised as brusquerie. We take care now to establish 
beyond any peradventure the common humanity which we 
share with our chief executive by exhibiting his father buy- 
ing a can of tomatoes at the country store. This is one of 
the by-products of democracy and rotary presses. 

HISTORICAL writers have usually fuller accounts of 
kings and princes, their courts and wars, than of other 
people and happenings, so almost all our manuals make po- 
litical history the main issue. It is readily assumed that 
a history of England or France or Germany is first and 
foremost an account of rulers and their conflicts with other 
rulers. It is well known that the English historian, Free- 
man, defined history as "past politics." The res publlca or 
State would indeed appear to be the most indisputable object 
of common interest as over against merely private experi- 
ences of individuals. Like the Church it can be nobly de- 
fined. Professor Woolsey describes it in its modern sense 
as "a community of persons living within certain limits of 
territory, under a permanent organization, which aims to 
secure the prevalence of justice, by self-imposed law." 
Twenty years ago this definition would not have fallen so 
oddly on one's ears as it now does. The solemn academic 
treatises on government, the works of Stubbs and Hal lam 
and Bluntschli and Professor Burgess were accepted at their 
face value and assumed to have some rather close relation 
to the facts of public life and to its history. Now we are 
becoming disillusioned both in respect to government as now 
practiced and the general history of the State. 

As I reviewed the atrocities of the Roman imperial gov- 
ernment, the conduct of kings and vassals in the Middle 
Ages, the Hundred Years' War, the times of Charles V and 
his son ; the comings and goings of the armies of Louis XIV 



AFTER TWENTY YEARS 



21 



and of Frederick the Great, it happened that Veblen's re- 
cent book on Absentee Ownership came to hand and I found 
fresh definitions for the historic state which suited the ob- 
servable facts rather than the current talk about the State. 
To Mr. Veblen the State has been a "princely corporation" 
most of whose attention has been devoted to the interests of 
its members, and to attacks on other princely corporations. 
As one rereads history in the light of recent events, foreign 
and domestic, I cannot but feel that he will agree that Mr. 
Veblen has given a marvellously suggestive statement of the 
general trend of things in the past: 

State-making was a competitive enterprise of war and poli- 
tics, in which the rival princely or dynastic establishments, all 
and several, each sought its own advantage at the cost of any 
whom it might concern. Being essentially a predatory enter- 
prise, its ways and means were fraud and force. The several 
princely and dynastic establishments took on a corporate exist- 
ence, with a corporate interest, policy and organization; and 
each of them worked consistently at cross purposes with all 
other similar corporations engaged in the same line of ad- 
venture. Among them were also principalities of the Faith, 
including the Holy See. The aim of all centered in princely 
dominion and prestige, and in unearned incomes for the civil, 
military and ecclesiastical personnel by whose concerted efforts 
the traffic in state-making was carried on. Any one of these 
dynastic corporations could gain further dominion and prestige 
only at the expense of others of their kind, and only at the cost 
of their underlying population. It is a matter of course that 
the loss, damage, decay or dis/omfort of any one counted as 
gain for the rest; all gains being differential gains. 

The traffic was carried on then as now by warfare and 
warlike diplomacy: which always resolves itself into an ex- 
penditure of life and substance on the part of the underlying 
population of all contending parties. It was always, as it has 
always continued to be, an enterprise of intimidation which 
counted on an eventual recourse to arms ultima ratio prin- 
cipam and the business was always, then as now, worked 
out in terms of mutual damage and discomfort, the outcome 
being decided by the balance of dajnage and loss ; the cost in 
life and substance falling then as now, on the underlying 
population, and the gains in dominion, prestige and goods go- 
ing to the princely establishment and the kept classes. 

Can any student of history when once his eyes are opened 
disagree with Mr. Veblen in suspecting that the fine talk 
about securing order and justice and the alleged divine at- 
tributes of sovereignty were essentially an unconscious ex- 



pedient for keeping the underlying population on the job? 
The people at large were "a perpetual and inalienable asset 
of the dynastic establishment, by the Grace of God" and by 
force and teaching the underlying population soon came tt, 
see that the arrangement was not only unavoidable, but a 
most just and holy one. So that to traduce government, 
were any one tempted to do so, brought any daring member 
of the underlying population to the halter; and any mur- 
murer among the great to the block. 

There can be no doubt that our governments of today 
are derived from kings and their courts. The very word 
sovereignty which so many ardent defenders of our institu- 
tions are wont to recall, smacks of the sovereign and his 
entourage. But how far our modern politicians and office 
holders are able and inclined to carry on the traditions of 
the "princely corporation" is hard to say. There seems to 
be a certain difference between Henry VIII or Louis XIV, 
on the one hand, and Calvin Coolidge on the other. All 
of them have enjoyed, it is true, a curious "transferred" 
dignity which quite outran their personal distinction. As 
head of a state they all had to be heavily overrated and 
assigned a species of divine exceptionality. They are all 
symbols, in short and a symbol enjoys, so to speak, the cour- 
tesies of the port. It is exempt from vulgar examination. I 
suspect that we have made some little progress toward con- 
ceiving government as a method of efficiently transacting our 
common affairs, but the hold-overs of tradition are still 
stronger than most of us suspect. History, if properly 
written, would put us on our guard, and show us what we 
are up against. 

History the illuminating reminiscences of times gone by, 
as I conceive it should work for sophistication. And sophis- 
tication means understanding and insight and wisdom. It 
is no trivial and supercilious affectation, but something most 
fundamental. We cannot attack our political, religious, 
economic, educational and social standards directly, although 
we may well suspect that they must per force 'be anachro- 
nisms. They may all, however, issue into a clearer light 
when we think how everything that now goes on has come 
about. So history might be the great illuminator. As yet 
it is highly imperfect ; but some day it may well become 
the most potent instrument for human regeneration. 



The Hungry Club 

A Pittsburgh Invention 

By JOHN D. KENDERDINE 



IF you are a male and have a dollar, you are 
welcome at the Hungry Club luncheon in 
the English Room of the Fort Pitt Hotel, 
Pittsburgh. For your dollar you will receive 
a plate of food a mere culinary gesture; 
for your hunger, you will share in offerings 
of perhaps the most unusual open forum in America. 

Sit down at this table at your right and meet an inveter- 
ate Hungry Club luncher. He is one of Andrew Carnegie's 
old partners, well past three score and ten. He may tell you 
how young "Andy" threatened to break an early Pittsbugh 
steel combination if they didn't take him in (the upstart 
bluffed them into it). Next comes a preacher, who has 
a penchant for saying things that make not only his congre- 



gation but the whole community sit up. Then, following 
round the table come a banker ; a zealous single taxer ; a 
scientist from the University of Pittsburgh; a junior officer 
of a steel company ; a social worker. 

Whether you are a conservative or a radical, a Protestant, 
Catholic, Jew, or what not, whether you believe in public 
or private ownership, if you have a passion for understanding, 
the Hungry Club wants you. There are few opportunities 
such as this for getting at a cross-section of the thinking 
of a great , city a cross section with the slice a bit thicker 
on the side of the young, progressive men. 

Although the Hungry Club is distinctly a Pittsburgh 
institution, it could exist in much the same form in any 
other city. The only thing it might lack elsewhere is a 



22 



THE HUNGRY CLUB 



certain mettle which comes through hardship. The life 
of the club has not been easy. Certain gentlemen have hurled 
brickbats at it whenever its head appeared. For Pittsburgh's 
industrial struggles have accentuated cleavages which other 
cities are sometimes all hut unconscious of. As a Pittsburgh- 
er, in years past, you were likely either to accept or reject a 
ready-made code of human relations, and be labeled accord- 
ingly. Free speech was permitted, provided it was the right 
kind of free speech ; none of this radical, bolshevist nonsense. 
Weren't there plenty of safe subjects to speak freely about? 

It was with this background that a group of social workers 
some fourteen years ago formed the habit of lunching to- 
gether informally on Monday. They talked about Pitts- 
burgh; not about its real estate or its trade or its output, 
but about its poor people and its working and its rich people 
and the chances of each group understanding the other. 
They saw that industrial friction is aggravated by people 
going their ways apart. 

But the industrial struggle was only typical. The great 
need of the city, as it is of most cities, was to recapture 
some of the neighborliness and cross-fire of talk of the old- 
time town; to get people together who wanted to get to- 
gether but didn't know how. 

The first step was to get some opposition around the 
table; it was too like-minded at the start. Each week men 
were invited to join the group. The new-comers were 
caught by the idea and brought their friends. A one-table 
luncheon grew to be three tables, then to occupy a small 
room, and finally to fill a large oak-paneled banquet-hall. 

The club had to have a name, of course. Somebody 
called it the Hungry Club and the name stuck. Coming 
to the Hungry Club didn't commit any one to anything but 
an appetite. That afforded the simplest of all common meet- 
ing-eating grounds nothing doctrinaire or creedal about it, 
no signing on the dotted line ; but something universal and 
democratic. Every man is hungry. There is an old Latin 
phrase, sapient^ cum dbo wisdom with food. Not only 
hungry for food, but hungry for wisdom too. Here should 
be a place, where with a single effort, man might satisfy 
two primitive instincts hunger for food and hunger for 
knowledge, the least common denominators of the brother- 
hood of man. The Hungry Club should appease his hunger 
by giving him omething to chew on with his intelligence 
as well as with his teeth. 

From the beginning the club has been completely in- 
formal. Except for a steering committee which meets at 
those infrequent intervals when a bit of steering is needed, 
there is no organization. The only officer, a volunteer with- 
out pay, is the secretary who holds the mailing list. He 
holds it tight. Nobody sees it; nobodv knows v*-hose names 
are on it. There is no membership committee, no qualifica- 
tion for admission, no studying of pedigree, business rating 
or political convictions. Membership consists merely in re- 
questing entry on the mailing list and paying two dollars a 
year to cover cost of weekly notices. Membership commits 
you to nothing. There are no constitution and by-laws, no 
declaration of principles. The club never endorses any- 
thing. There is nothing to incriminate the most sensitive. 
The club is made safe for young business executives. 

Yet with all this informality there is a clubby feeling, a 
sense of solidarity and of fellowship among people of widely 
varying backgrounds, codes and prejudices. Therein lies 
the secret of its success. As the seats are not assigned, you 
never know who your table, companions will be, this week 
a lawyer, a clerk and a labor organizer and a teacher: next 



week, a teacher, a politician, an undertaker, a social worker 
and a journalist. That is what makes it interesting. The 
most unexpected people turn out to be human beings. 

The meetings start promptly at 12:15. Luncheon itself 
takes a very few minutes. Then come announcements by 
the secretary, a very brief introduction by the chairman (a 
different member is selected each week as chairman) and 
by 12:45 an address by a speaker who is a specialist on his 
subject. Following the address is an open forum discus- 
sion, no member being allowed more than three minutes. 
The gathering usually breaks up by i :3O, but a vigorous 
speaker with a hotly controversial subject may hold a knot 
of discussers together until well into the afternoon. 

Open forums usually suffer from one of two faults. They 
are usually so wide open that they fail to hold their audi- 
ences, or they are shut so tight that only those of like belief 
are attracted. The latter fault is the more common ; people 
have a weakness for listening to speakers with whom they 
agree. But the yes-yes habit never stiffened anybody's in- 
tellectual backbone. The Hungry Club's backbone is in 
excellent condition. Could it be otherwise when a typical 
year's program included Raymond Robins and Everett Colby, 
Norman Thomas and Noel Sargent? On successive weeks 
in October, 1914, one address was on "Why Germany Is 
Fighting," and another on "Why the Allies Are Fighting." 
And when in April, 1916, Margaret Sanger spoke on "A 
New Social Service Birth Control," she was answered a 
few weeks later by Dr. W. J. H. Boetcker on "The Other 
Side and the Inside of Birth Control." 

You are not always sure of a good fight in the discussion 
which follows the speaker, but the chances are in favor of 
one. The Hungry Club does not dodge the controversial. 
On the contrary, during times of bitter public feeling, the 
club rises to its chance. It tries to schedule speakers to 
present both sides. Sometimes one side declines the honor. 
During the steel strike, Pittsburgh's battle royal, no one 
competent could be found who desired to answer Bishop 
McConnell, chairman of the Commission of Inquiry of the 
Inter-Church World Movement. Some of the employers 
declined the honor; some insisted that the tradition of the 
club meant both sides or no sides; some wanted the subject 
cancelled. The fact that the program went through with 
Bishop McConnell speaking and the other side defaulting, and 
that the club still lives, tells much for the intellectual in- 
tegrity of the members. Again, when the fight against the 
12-hour day was intense and the Pittsburgh newspapers 
gave the subject a wide berth, it was the Hungry Club 
which opened its door to S. Adele Shaw, herself a Pitts- 
burgher and then a member of the staff of The Survey, to 
present those findings of the Cabot Fund investigation which 
set the ball rolling that ended in an a'bout-face of the steel 
trade. When the fundamentalist-modernist discussion was 
at its height, Glenn Frank, editor of The Century, addressed 
the Hungry Club on "A Liberal Fundamentalist Move- 
ment." Later in the day he was scheduled to speak before 
another Pittsburgh group on a non-controversial subject. In 
the discussion which followed his second address, many re- 
quests were made that he repeat what he had said at the 
Hungry Club. 

The member of the Hungry Club who gets most fun out 
of it is Charles C. Cooper, director of Kingsley House which 
used to overlook Pittsburgh from the top of the "Hill" but 
now carries on its neigborhhood work in its new plant in 
the East End. He has served as the perennial secretary of the 
Hungry Club. If you look through (Continued on page 61 ) 



Sweetness is Death 

By HAVEN EMERSON, M.D. 



GHE animal man is the most wonderfully 
adaptable of living things. His triumphs 
over great variations of temperature and 
climate, of dark and light, over artificial 
shelter and clothing, faulty hours and condi- 
tions of labor, prove his success. But there 
are limits to the range of his various functions, and one of 
the most recent of the trials which he has set himself- a diet- 
ary which has little relation to the seasons, his own needs, 
or any controlling factor other than the satisfaction of his 
caprice, has strained to the breaking point his ability to 
make safe use of food. He is sugar coating his meal-times 
(and between-times) at such a rate that his luxury in living 
has brought into shocking prominence one of the oldest, but 
formerly one of the least of the causes of death diabetes. 
Just after the Civil War when the earliest accurate rec- 
ords of death were collected in a few cities and states there 
was in New York City one death each year from diabetes 
mellitus, the sugar sickness, for every 2,400 deaths from all 
causes, an incidence so small as to be interesting chiefly be- 
cause of its pathological rarity, whereas in 1923 there was 
one death from diabetes for every fifty-one deaths from all 
causes. 



v 



/ 



Am 

TOM 



___ [i Dint B ten D 

IJMM4! 



.1 HSiFH RATE; 




slf _?' Jit'-pF, ;, 



V?! 




ino ins IMO IBIS ino ins isoo 1105 1910 191: nu> is 

This is the more remarkable and significant because during 
that same period of time the deaths from all causes have 
fallen from about thirty out of every thousand of the pop- 
ulation each year to less than twelve, accompanied by a 
tremendous shift in the relative importance of the leading 
causes of death. 

Until within the past five years tuberculosis has led the 
list of all causes of death in this country and now we find 
it generally in fourth place, and in some favored regions 
only sixth numerically, while with the advancing security 
and duration of life those misfortunes of the later decades, 
heart diseases and cancer, head the list, with pneumonias, 
apoplexy and kidney disease following in order. In 1923 
for the first time in the history of New York City there 
appears among the first ten causes of death, the formerly 
unusual or relatively uncommon disease diabetes mellitus. 
And yet it is common knowledge with us today that there 
is hardly an illness that can be more delicately, more prompt- 



ly, more accurately diagnosed and for which we have such 
reliable resources for prevention, relief and often cure as 
we have for diabetes. 



CHIEF CAUSES OF DEATH., CITY OF 

NEW YORK, 1923 

Organic Heart Diseases I4>3 21 

Pneumonia and Broncho-pneumonia 8,231 

Cancer 6,287 

Tuberculosis, all forms 5,673 
Violent Deaths (Excluding suicide, 

including homicide) 4,5O2 

Bright's Disease and Nephritis 4,367 

Congenital debility and malformations 3,723 

Diseases of Arteries 3,250 

Diarrhea under 5 years 1,534 

Diabetes 1,360 



Let not the scoffers at statistics deceive you by the easy 
claim that the rise in diabetes death rates is fictitious and 
has merely parallelled the increased certainty and frequency 
of its recognition during life. With the widespread use of 
medical examinations of apparently healthy persons for 
life insurance, for employment, and in the civil services 
many more cases of diabetes have been detected in the early 
stages than formerly, and with the increasing skill and cer- 
tainty of successful treatment many of these incidentally 
discovered patients have been saved from early and unneces- 
sary invalidism and death. Few causes of death are as 
accurately recognized as is diabetes, and for this we have 
no less an authority than the truth-testing Dr. Richard 
Cabot, who found among three thousand autopsied deaths at 
the Massachusetts General Hospital over a long period of 
years an error of only 5 per cent by omission or commis- 
sion in recording deaths from diabetes. If there has been 
an error in reporting deaths from diabetes in the past sixty 
years, it is that of underestimation, and it has not varied to 
any appreciable degree from decade to decade. 

Yet in spite of the better and earlier d ! agnosis and treat- 
ment of the disease, the deathrate from diabetes has in- 
creased, very rapidly, within the past half century in this 
country, while the deathrates of the other preventable 
diseases with which education and organized health protec- 
tion have made us acquainted, show an almost uniform de- 
crease. Some very striking change has occurred in our 
manner of life, which destroyed fifteen times as many of us 
last year as it did two generations ago ; for the annual toll 
of diabetes, which bears a direct relationship to the judg- 
ment we use in eating and physical exertions, has increased 
from 1.4 for each IOO,OOO of population in 1866 to 22.9 
in 1923. 

Look about at your associates, young and old, and 
tell me what have been the dominant features of their 
shifting picture of lira. Do we work more and eat les ? 



23 



24 



SWEETNESS IS DEATH 



Have we found ways to pass spare time in doing or "heing 






done for?" Has our ever rising "standard of living" meant 


DEATH RATE FROM DIABETES PER 100,000 POPULATION 


more lazy comforts as well as ease in shelter, clothing and 


BY SEX AND AGE GROUPS IN THE REGISTRATION 


the luxury of time to ourselves? Do we eat for the f>;r.d's 


STATES AND NKW YORK 


CITY 1920. 


sake and as an occupation or because we need it, and when 


U. S. REGISTRATION 


AREA 


we need it, according to age, climate and the work we do? 


Deaths from 
Age Diabetes 


Death Rates from 
Diabetes per 100,000 


Is it not true that in our motorized and mechanistic exist- 


Male Female 


Male Female 


ence we have so spared ourselves exertion that we need but 


All ages 6301 7597 


14.83 18.09 




Under 5 years 107 79 


2.32 1 75 


a portion of what our grandfathers ate and yet have added 


S 9 126 124 


2'.81 2!si 


generously to the range in variety and amount of food we 


1014 159 196 
1519 203 137 


3.81 4.76 
5.53 3.67 


eat? Nowadays we use more than a hundred pounds of 


2024 .?01 176 
2529 209 161 


5.57 4.62 
5.64 4.34 


sugar a year for each living American, at least three times 


3034 226 202 
35 39 252 186 


6.62 6.19 
7.51 6.09 


what was sufficient to satisfy our grandparents, and very 


40 44 265 273 


9.68 10.7 


nearly a hundred per cent more than the supply that sufficed 


45 49 392 433 
5054 510 695 


15.3 19.5 
24.2 37.1 


in the time of Columbus. Cane sugar as an almost chemi- 


5559 662 978 
6064 628 1161 


41.8 68.3 
63.0 97.2 


cally pure food is hardly more than five hundred years old 


6569 783 1077 
7074 616 354 


67.4 127.7 
104.5 145.0 


and yet in this time it has radically changed our food habits, 


7579 459 521 
80 84 210 242 


129.3 138.7 
133.9 129.5 


and not, on the whole, for the better in late years, in spite 


8589 71 81 


122!3 108.2 


of its value as the cheapest fuel readily available for human 


90 94 18 15 
9599 3 3 


134.6 75.6 
1 00.8 66.5 


energy. 


100 and -ver 





Health departments and registrars of records have had 


NEW YORK CITY 




the story of this great luxury disease hidden away in columns 


Deaths from 
Age Diabetes 


Death Rates from 
Diabetes per 100,000 


of figures, of age, sex, race, occupation and the place of 


Male Female 


Male Female 


residence of those who have died of diabetes. A study of 


All age* 411 664 


14.7 23.6 


the 23,000 diabetes deaths in New York City since 1866 


Under 5 years 3 3 
59 12 5 


1.06 1.08 
4.46 1.87 


gives many a useful clue for prevention, and points the 


1014 5 9 
1519 9 5 


2.01 3.65 
4.11 2.13 


lessons which must be learned if we would escape the oppro- 


2024 3 18 
25 29 10 14 


1.20 6.08 
3.57 4 74 


brium of being the grossest feeders among the nations, for 


3034 12 It 


4.57 4.39 


we Americans are bulging with the money bags of the world, 


35 39 .14 12 
40 44 19 31 


5.67 5.28 
9.71 16.88 


fairly oozing with wealth, eating every day much more than 


4549 38 50 
50 54 47 82 


22.7 32.9 
34.6 62.7 




5559 69 98 


76.6 110.04 




6064 4R 102 


70.8 147.9 


DEATHS FROn DIABETES 


65 69 56 99 


146.2 233.7 


P -M )* BsSn * 3 Age Gr** Fr 


7074 31 66 


133.5 239.5 


* _ ^ 1U, Vte. TVr,e4, . n^VU*CA 


7579 25 37 


209.0 240.5 


' V ->f i 


80 84 7 16 


146.1 280.0 


"" ^ MALES MM 


85 and over 3 6 


143.3 162.2 


rl= -"" rnmrai 1 






,. g ".-' 

'" BU^^M Then comes the rjeriod of middle aged comfort which ex- 


~^^~^^~~~^^~~~^~ presses itself in more mileage on w 


heels and less on foot, 


iv. ->,-* more pounds around the waist line, 


cream instead of milk 


. ^^^^^^^^_ 1 .. -.,_.. 


and the general superabundance which goes with 

1 ***!.-* cpK-inrliilaprirp anrl fhpn thp Hpath rafp frnm 


P 11 ^ 



any of our allies or opponents of the war, provided with 
every latest device and power to save the least movement 
of hand or foot, and as it were, dying of overeating. 

According to Dr. Alonzo E. Taylor, that conjurer with 
calories on an international basis, we of the United States use 
food daily representing 3,600 of these heat units; Germany 
3,200: England 2,869; France 3,160; Italy 2,560. Some 
idea of the steadily growing use of foods even in the thrifty 
and often war-ridden France is related by one of her own 
economists, Legendre, who calculates that the average per 
capita consumption of food in France amounted to only 
1,645 calories in 1832-, a hunger ration, to 2,255 in 1862, 
and was 3,160 in 1912, or probably ample and more than 
enough for all needs of growth and work as now organized 
in that land of varied occupations and mild climate. 

It is not among our children that diabetes deaths have 
increased nor to any great extent among men or women up 
to the age of twenty, but in the fair fat forties when many 
a fortune has been made, when the children are reared, the 
household established, and the income permits steady savings. 



diabetes leaps upward, and much more rapidly 
for women than for men. In Germany where the death 
rate from diabetes fell during the war to one-third its 1913 
level it was among the women that the rate dropped first 
and farthest, and when the favorable years of 1920 and '21 
came, with work and food reasonably abundant, it was 
among the men that the rate rose first. 

The contrast between tuberculosis, a disease always foster- 
ed by poverty, low standards of living and food shortage, 
and diabetes, a disease of wealth and feeding and fatness, 
is nowhere better shown than in the story of the races. 
The Jews show the lowest tuberculosis death rate of all 
the human families whom we have assembled in the United 
States from the four corners of the world, and the Negro 
the highest rate (except perhaps for the Chinese and Eski- 
mo). In diabetes, however, it is the Negro, whether in south- 
ern states or in northern cities, who gives the lowest diabetes 
death rates, thanks to his occupations, for the most part 
heavy bodily labor which justifies at least as liberal a diet 
as his relatively low wages can buy. Diabetes, com- 
monly known in Europe as the "Judenkrankheit," kills at 



SWEETNESS IS DEATH 



25 



a higher rate among the Jews than in any other race; these 
merchants, storekeepers, needle workers, sedentary workers, 
always abundantly though cheaply fed, suffer from lack 
of exercise and the very success of their financial resources. 
As we scan the states, wide variations in death rates appear 
and out of these a few further arguments develop. New 
Hampshire leads the country with twenty-eight deaths from 
diabetes per 100,000 per annum, chiefly because her popula- 
tion, selected by emigration of her youth, represents a high 
proportion of persons in the later decades of life. In general 
the states which have either great per capita wealth, an old 
grouping of the population (a combination particularly no- 
ticeable in California) manufactures and power driven indus- 
tries instead of agriculture, lumbering and the like, show 
the higher death rates from diabetes. The southern agri- 
cultural states with much Negro labor give the lowest rates ; 
the wealthy industrial cities of the north and particularly 
those with a high proportion of Jews (29.1 per cent in 
New York City) present the highest local rates of death 
from this disease. 



DEATH RATE FROM DIABETES BY STATES, RELATED TO 
AGE AND ECONOMIC FACTORS 






Percent 










Death Rates 


of Popu- 


Per 


Expectancy 


of Life 


State 


from Diabetes 


lation 45 


Capita 


in 1st ye 


r 1920 




Average 


yrs. & 


Income 
<1919 


Male 


Female 




1920 1920-21 


over 








New Hampshire 


23.4 20.2 


28.5 


$597 








New York 


23.3 18.4 


22.5 


874 


57.13 


59.16 


Maine 


21.8 18 4 


28.1 


583 






Connecticut 


21.1 18.4 


22!2 


717 


58.45 


60.33 


Massachusetts 


20.9 18.1 


24.2 


788 


58.93 


60.32 


Nebraska 


20.7 20.1 


20.5 


702 






Rhode Island 


20.2 18 7 


23 : 


720 






Vermont 


19.6 2o!fl 


28.5 


529 






Wisconsin 


18.7 15.4 


22.1 


557 


62.77 


63.55 


New Jersey 


18.6 14.8 


21.1 


758 


58.02 


59.83 


Illinois 


17.9 17.1 


21.6 


765 


59.19 


60.81 


Ohio 


17.6 15.8 


23.2 


689 


60.11 


61.39 


Oregon 


17.5 19.2 


24.4 


711 


60.73 


62.30 


Minnesota 


17.3 14.8 


20.7 


581 


61.86 


62.97 


California 


17.1 16.6 


26.1 


820 


57.75 


61.12 


Maryland 


17.0 13.6 


22.3 


689 


58.42 


59.77 


Kansas 


16.6 16.2 


22.4 


602 


63.14 


63.48 


Indiana 


16.5 13.4 


24.8 


581 


60.90 


60.51 


Michigan 


16.3 14.2 


21.7 


704 


59.76 


59.48 


Pennsylvania 


16.3 13.9 


20.9 


683 


57.93 


59.68 


Colorado 


14.5 11.1 


21.9 


629 






Washington 


13.9 13.2 


22.7 


786 


60.70 


62.60 


Utah 


13.2 12.7 


16.6 


517 


58.77 


61.18 


Missouri 


12.1 13.8 


23.1 


535 


60.32 


61.56 


Montana 


10.8 11.4 


18.4 


512 





MMM 


Delaware 


10.7 12.2 


23.7 


792 








Virginia 


9.3 8.9 


18.5 


429 


60.75 


61.22 


Florida 


8.8 8.8 


19.4 


420 








So. Dakota 


7.8 


18.0 


685 








Louisiana 


7.8 7.5 


16.1 


429 








No. Carolina 


7.7 7.5 


16.1 


383 


61.25 


60.72 


Kentucky 


7.5 8.1 


19.9 


392 


60.97 


60.05 


Tennessee 


6.2 6.5 


18.6 


365 


61.54 


60.77 


So. Carolina 


6.2 6.1 


14.4 


437 


59.54 


60.40 


Mississippi 


5.8 5.5 


16.3 


351 








United States 


16.1** 14.29"* 20.8 


* 627 


59.38*** 


60.63*" 


* Continental 


United States 










** Registration 


States 










'* Aggregate of states listed 78 per 


cent of 


total population 



It is not money in the bank, nor being a Jew, nor a woman 
in the roaring forties, that determines the excess of diabetes 
deaths, nor yet the job of clerk, salesman or merchant, but 
it would appear quite clearly that when people who have 
the means to grow fat indulge in their privilege, they de- 
velop diabetes more commonly, or at least die of it in larger 
numbers than do those who keep a due proportion between 
work and fuel, regardless of their power to underwork and 
overeat. Nor is it excess of sugar alone or perhaps mainly 
which has brought this eminence to Americans, but the over- 
indulgence in all kinds of food. Sugar merely happens to 
be the element in our diet which has shown the greatest 



increase in per capita consumption in the last half century 
and the one most susceptible of reasonably exact expression. 
Many will recall the voluntary self denial of sweets, wheat 
flour, and the like during the war years 1917-18 and a 
glance at the charts shows how quickly this partly altruistic 
and emotional and partly necessitous food restriction cut 
down the diabetes death rates. This same event, though 
chiefly from force of law and blockades, had the same effect 
in England and France where it was more marked and 
extended over a longer period. We can indulge in modera- 
tion, in a little self-denial as a war measure, while in the 

DISTRIBUTION OF DEATH RATES FROM DIABETES BY STATES 




or HatM 1900-1921 mr IS fr 100,000 

* " * ' 10 to 15 " 

twlor 10- * 

Ha Hworl 



prosperity of peace, with money in our pockets and food on 
the grocery shelves, we buy and eat out of all need or reason. 

Waves of teaching have swept over nursery, school and 
household throughout the land advising us what quality and 
quantity of foods are required to provide for growing child- 
hood, and particularly for protection against tuberculosis 
in youth and early maturity. It would seem that middle- 
aged adults, especially women, are applying the lessons of 
childhood to their own detriment, and are overeating them- 
selves into fatness, and as a result into their graves, as cer- 
tainly as children who are not provided with vitamine foods 
as well as fuel and repair foods in their early years are 
starved into rickets or scurvy. 

The furore of interest which followed the public an- 
nouncement of the discovery of insulin reflected popular 
hope of an easy way out of the consequences of dietary 
sins. But while insulin can work miracles within its own 
sphere, that sphere is limited chiefly to crises of the disease, 
and it has a less important use in the chronic course of dia- 
betes, or in its actual cure, and no use at all in its prevention. 
Diabetes is a disease essentially of the idle rich, in which 
definition idleness and riches are not the opposites of occupa- 
tion and poverty, but terms applicable to anyone whose en- 
vironment and self-support does not require of him some 
sustained vigorous bodily exertion every day, and whose 
earnings or income permit him, and whose inclination tempts 
him, to eat regularly more than he needs. Diabetes is 
preventable: as it is fostered by self-indulgence, so it can 
be prevented by individual education and self-control. 



Seven R M. 

By ELEANOR ROWLAND WEMBRIDGE 
Sketches by Sara Merrill 




'RS. NYACK stood be- 
side the stove on a hot 
May evening poking the 
pork chops doubtfully 
with a fork and holding 
on to her cheek. It was 
the end of a particularly wearing week. 
The kitchen was hot, the other three 
rooms were hot, and everyone was late. 
Mrs. Nyack had been waiting for the 
whole family for over an hour, alter- 
nately heating up the chops as she 
thought that she heard her husband's 
step upon the stairs, then turning out 
the gas again, and applying the oil of 




Waiting over an hour 



cloves to her tooth. The later Mr. Nyack and Joe arrived, 
the more likely were they to demand their dinner the instant 
they opened the door. Both men did hard manual labor 
and were furiously hungry when they came home. They 
could hardly be blamed for wanting their dinner and want- 
ing it at once. On the other hand, if their arrival varied 
by an hour, how could they expect .their meals to be ready 
on the dot? Both the appetke of the men, and the in- 
ability of Mrs. Nyack to appease it instantly at an un- 
certain hour, were reasonable. But the Nyacks were seldom 
reasonable at six p. m. and never at seven. 

The first to arrive was May. She worked at a box 



that children, before their marriage, 
owed all their earnings to their parents. 
The generation now coining on dis- 
agreed with this precedent, and insisted 
upon doing as they chose. So although 
the children and their parents loved each 
other, relations were somewhat strained. 

NOW, as it turned out, May had 
had her Saturday afternoon, but 
it had not been successful. 'Bud Wyckle, 
who for three successive Saturdays had 
waited for her on the drug store corner, 
in order to accompany her to Dreamland 
Park, had not kept his tryst today. May 
had gone to the park with a crowd of girls, and on the 
dance floor, there was Bud, dancing with the girl who took 
the tickets at the movie theatre. This was a severe blow. 
To see her 'steady' dancing with an over-dressed blonde in 
red shoes took the sunshine out of life. In fact it robbed 
life itself of any reason for being. All that May could do, 
she had done. 

She left the park in a rage, and spent five dollars for 
some green King Tut sandals, with green silk stockings to 
match. She would show Bud whether she or the theatrical 
blonde was the "classier" dresser. But when May entered 
the kitchen where Mrs. Nvack's flushed face shone over the 



factory, and had her Saturday afternoons off. This year frying pan, she braced herself for the storm. Useless to ex- 

for the first time she had spent her Saturdays as she saw plain to her mother why green sandals were necessary. 

fit. Until she was sixteen she had given up her holiday 

to the weekly cleaning of the four rooms of the Nyack 

apartment. This spring she had announced that since she 

gave $7 of her weekly $13 toward the family budget, she 

would not give her Saturday afternoons. "You take that 

or nothing," was her ultimatum, "and if you crab, I'll leave 

like Louisa." This was a serious threat. Louisa was the 

eldest child and she had worked for three years in a 



"You take them things off," ordered her mother, the mo- 
ment her impatient eyes fell on May's feet. "You spend- 
ing money on fancy truck, and me with my teeth, and all," 
she shouted. "You take them off, I say." 

<! If I take them off, I take irryself off," May shouted back. 

"You crook !" screamed her mother in exasperation. 

"Shut your face," answered May, in the same key. 

The argument continued at this pitch until the door 



printer's office. Her mother had always insisted on taking opened and Louisa stepped in. 



her entire pay envelope, although Louisa had protested 
bitterly, but in vain. So she bided her time. On her 
eighteenth birthday had occurred the great emancipation 
proclamation in the Nyack family. Louisa had removed 
herself and her belongings to a rooming house, and it 
developed that in this strange country no law could force 
her to come home again. An occasional bill she gave her 
mother for old times' sake, and she often paid visits at meal- 
times meals for which she scrupulously paid. But to come 
back and live with her family, she refused. Since May still 
lived at home she knew that she owed her family some- 
thing, but she did not propose to have her mother issue 
back to her at her own discretion the money which she had 
herself earned. Nor would she allow her mother to spend 
it for her. The Nyack tradition for generations had been 




"Any eats tonight?" she inquired, laying a 
dollar bill ostentatiously upon the table. 

She listened to the last reverberations of 
Mays "shut-ups." 

"Still quarreling. I see," she observed with 
a shrug, and then, "You can stop your mouths, 
right now, or me and my dollar takes a walk," 
she added, and her hand started toward the 
bill. Her mother's hand, however, reached 
it first. 

"Well, look at them green legs," cried Mrs. 
Nyack, "and ask why I'm jawing, and me 
with my face aching all the week." 

She was almost in tears, but she knew al- 
ready that her case was lost. She saw May 



26 



SEVEN P. M. 



27 




glance at Louisa and heard her sneer, "Better take your 
dollar and ramble, old thing; same old hole." 

Their mother knew that if she said another word Louisa, 
and probably May, would both be off. Her hand tightened 
on the dollar. She needed it toward the new teeth, and be- 
sides that, Louisa was her daughter and she wanted to see 
her. So she gulped down her sobs and the 
wrath which the wanton green slippers aroused 
in her, and turned on the gas again. 

By this time Mr. Nyack was on the threshold 
with his dinner pail. He had wielded a pick in 
the hot sun for nine hours, the perspiration had 
made paths through the dirt on his face, hunger 
clawed at his vitals like a gnawing fox- and 
here were his three women having words 
with each other, and the meat not on the 
table. 

"Dry up, you damned women," he roared. 
And because of some remnants of fatherly 
authority, or because they thought his advice 
was sound, they did stop their clamor, and drew 
\\p their chairs. 

"You sit down, Ma," said May, ready to ] oe 

make amends, "I'll dish it up," and she placed 
the plates of chops and potatoes, again reheated over the gas, 
before the family. 

"Leave some for Joe," sighed her mother, "and give me 
my coffee. I can't chew." 

She was glad to sit down, even though the meals were 
only an aggravation to her at this stage of her dentistry. 

Mrs. Nyack had put off getting her false teeth as long 
as she could, both on account of the expense, and because 
she had refused to consider her teeth all her life, and she 
hated to begin. When her first child had come home from 
school, with a small card on which was printed "I promise 
to brush my teeth every day," and had pinned it over the 
sink, she was mystified. And when the young enthusiast 
proceeded to fly at the inside of her mouth with a small 
brush, the mother was horrified. She tolerated any such 
ceremony in her kitchen only because she was more in awe 
of the public school teacher than she was of the Pope. In 
every previous encounter with the school system she had 
been worsted, and she knew that she would be in this. So 
she kept silence, but she was utterly unconvinced. As her 
successive children came home with ridiculous little brushes, 
she accepted the mania only as one more feature of an un- 
accountable country. 

"They'll be taking a broom to their stummicks next," she 
confided to her husband who was as much bewildered by 
the performance as she. Although the parents could not stop 
their children, both of them resolutely declined to join in 
the obscene rite themselves. Now at forty, Mrs. Nyack was 
parting with her last teeth after weeks of torture. Every- 
one lost teeth at forty, as a matter of course. That she 
accepted as part of life. But $25 for an American set 
was indeed an expense which demanded all the help which 
the children could give. And here were green shoes, and 
Louisa ready to walk off with her dollar unless her mother 
kept quiet. She sighed heavily over her coffee. All the 
family contrary, and she with only the strength of a week 
of "spoon-food" to help her keep the peace. 

"I've got a new job," announcer! Louisa, amid the silence 



of the dinner table. "The printing trade is too dirty and 
no raise in sight. I heard about a swell job from a fella 
who got his printing done at our place. Its pressed- 
aluminum-household-utensils," she rattled off all in one 
word, as incomprehensible to the rest of them as if she 
spoke in Arabic. "I start in next Monday with the firm 
canvassing," she went on. "He says you make a lot of 
money on it too salary and commission on the raffles." 

"On the raffles?" asked May. "What raffles?" 

"The raffles of the pressed-aluminum-household-utensils," 
said I/ouisa. "You go to the house and get the lady to 
give you her kitchen. Then you give her a meal cooked 
in the never-burn kettles, and then you raffle off the kettles 
to her after she's eat the dinner. The fella says you make 
a lotta money if you work it right." 

"Sounds good," said May. "Any chance for me? I've 
got a place to hash at a hot-dog booth myself, but this 
sounds better. I'm tired of the factory," and she thought 
of the faithless Bud. It seemed to her that never again 
could she face the girls in her section, who had witnessed 
her discomforture on the Dreamland dance floor. 

Mr. and Mrs. Nyack had not the slightest idea of what 
this talk was about. Aluminum-raffles in other peoples 
kitchens it meant nothing to them. But money was an 
idea which they could grasp. 

"How much more do you make?" asked Mr. Nyack. 

"What's the commission?" demanded Joe, who had just 
come in. 

"Who pays for the dinner?" inquired May. 

"Who cooks the dinner?" murmured Mrs. Nyack faintly. 
"You ain't much of a cook, Louisa." 

And then too late she saw her mistake. Louisa arose 
from the table in wrath. 

"I didn't come home to answer questions," she said 
angrily. "You don't understand what I tell you, so what's 
the use of telling? I pay my own bills, don't I? I ask 
you for nothing, do I ? Do ya think this dinner was worth 
the dollar I gave you? Can't I cook as well as this if I 
have to? Couldn't I have got the same for thirty-five cents 
downtown, and gone to a show beside?" she asked, her voice 
rising. 

As a matter of fact, she was rather hazy on the details 
of her pressed-aluminum venture herself, but she had no 
idea of letting them guess it. She was very proud of her 
independence and her cleverness. She intended to dazzle 
them with her new job, but she had no idea of having it 
questioned. 

May; glad to have attention diverted from her green shoes, 
made no effort to quell the rising storm, but Joe, who had 
been quietly eating his dinner, with a mysterious package 
by his side, felt that the time had now come to produce 
it. Joe was an odd combination of a working man and a 
small boy. He was a heavy goodlooking fellow of nineteen, 
but heedless as a child. He was his mother's favorite. He 
did hauling for a greenhouse which for the last two weeks 
had been plastered with the sign "Say it with flowers to 
Mother on Mothers' Day." This sign had been the subject 
of considerable discussion among the men during their lunch 
hour, and Joe, who was really fond of his mother, had had 
his chivalry stirred. He would make his mother a present. 
He had however no idea of saying it with flowers. To pay 
good money for flowers, is something no Nyack would do 



28 



SEVEN P. M. 



except for a burial. Hut there was something else he decided 
to say it with, and unable in his eagerness to wait until 
the morrow, he shoved a large package on to the table, to- 
ward his mother. Louisa might as well see that she was 
not the only one with big ideas. And as for May and her 
green slippers his chest swelled to think how much more 
generous he was than she. 

"Two bucks," he murmured in an aside to May, but his 
father heard it. 

"Two bucks?" he echoed with a puzzled frown. 

As for Mrs. Nyack, she stared at the bundle without 
speaking. It was too large to be teeth, and what else 
would her children be wasting "two bucks" on, with that 
dentist bill to pay ? As for Mothers' Day she had never 
heard of it. She was entirely unaccustomed to any senti- 
mental attitude toward motherhood, and the gallant desire 
in Joe's breast to "say it with something" in emulation of 
the well-dressed American men who came to the greenhouse, 
was something she was incapable of understanding. She was 
so tired and worried by the vagaries of Louisa and May that 
she felt that she could stand nothing more, but she undid the 
strings doubtfully, and opened with caution the two boxes 
which lay within. She raised the lid of one box and then 
of the other and gazed at the contents with stupefaction 

Caramels. Not one box, but two. 

Two bucks for two boxes of tough chewing candy which 
made her jaws ache to look at, and which made her heart 
sick when she thought of the wasted money Then instead 
of her heart sinking, her anger rose. Selfish children, all 
of them. Or were they teasing her? Or were they going 
crazy? She rose from the table and thrust out her fore- 
finger at Joe. 

"So you spend your money on muck I can't eat, and call 
it a present, do you?" she cried, her color rising with her 
voice. "Where is the money you owe me ? Did them boxes 
cost you two bucks, you young liar? You know they didn't. 
You gambled away your money and stole the boxes, you 
crook. The police will be here next, and me always an 
honest woman," she screamed, too worn out and hysterical 



A Loose Leaf from a 

PSYCHOLOGIST'S 
DICTIONARY 

Fatigue (/. fatiffo + tire). Exhaustion of strength 
caused by excessive exertion. If fatigue is abnormally 
continued, the nervous system goes through a stage of 
heightened sensitivity, or hyper-esthesia, when it is affect- 
ed by stimuli which would be relatively unimportant at 
other times. People who are in a continual state of over- 
fatigue, and who are unable to recuperate by the usual 
means of change of scene, quiet, privacy, become 
chronically irritable. 

May: "You take that or nothing, and if you crab I'll 
leave like Louisa." 

Mrs. Nyrtct: "Well, lonk at them green legs, and 
ask me why I'm jawing, and me with my face aching 
all week." 

Mr. Nyack: "Dry up, you damned women." 




Enter Mr. Nyack 



to notice the utterly crestfallen look on her son's face. 
For a moment he looked as if he would cry with dis- 
appointment, and Louisa, who had always babied Joe more 
or less, hastily interposed "Oh, Ma, shut up," she said. 
"That's on the straight. They cost that much. Its a swell 
present. That's right, tomorrow is Mothers' Day," she 
added soothingly. 

But Mothers' Day meant noth- 
ing to Mrs. Nyack, or to Mr. 
Nyack either. He turned on his 
son in enraged astonishment. 

"So you're lifting boxes and 
gambling away your money, are 
you?" he shouted, and then he 
added from sheer nervousness and 
from long habit, the most opprobri- 
ous epithet that one man can give 
another. Joe rose to his feet like a 
cat and picked up his chair by the 
back. The others rose with him. 

Obviously, if Joe was what his 
father called him, it was his mother 
who was demeaned by the epithet. 
Such an accusation was more than 
speech. It was violence. And from a husband to his son, 
before his wife it was almost murder. Of course Mr. 
Nyack had meant nothing of the kind. He and his wife 
had had their daily quarrels to be sure. But he knew well 
enough that she had been entirely faithful to him and to 
his interests. His epithet to his son had been merely a 
manner of speaking. It had slipped out, with no reference 
to its meaning, because Mr. Nyack was tired and cross, and 
his children seemed to be smothering him with their out- 
landish whims. But when he saw his two daughters rising 
from the table against him, backed by a hysterical wife, and 
a son ready to throw a chair at him, it entirely destroyed 
what self-restraint he had left after so wearing a day. He 
grasped his own chair aloft and threw it blindly. It hit 
the stove pipe, knocking it clear from the wall, and dis- 
tributing the soot over the table and over the heads of the 
three screaming women. 

Joe, his feelings a blind mixture of hurt pride, chagrin 
over his ill-chosen present, his realization that his mother 
could not be made to understand his motive, and wild wrath 
over his father's unjust epithet, flew at his father and pinned 
him to the floor by his throat. He began choking him so 
successfully that Mrs. Nyack, unable to bear more, gave a 
wild shriek and fell unconscious over the table. Louisa and 
May gave one horrified and disgusted glance at each other. 
Then Louisa clawed at Joe's throat, as 'the only available 
spot of attack where she could hope to weaken his grip on 
his father, and May, catching a pail of water from the 
kitchen sink, threw it impartially over all of them. By this 
time the clamor had risen to such a height that the neighbors 
were collecting outside the door. 

"Help! Help!" screamed May, ready to fly into hysterics 
herself, as she saw that the soot and water between them 
had effectually devastated the green sandals for all time. 

A crowd of neighbors pushed the door open at this cry, 
and Joe, his ardor somewhat cooled by the water and by 
the presence of the newcomers, rose sulkily to his feet. His 
father, after some preliminary grunts and snorts, did the 
same. In the shamefaced silence ((Continued on page 64) 







Pueblo of Oraibi deep in snow 

r "7 ~~ 

Zuni 

Leaves from a Sketch Book 

By WILLARD L. METCALF 



FORTY-ODD years ago, before travel was an easy thing in those regions, two young men went down 
into the ancient cities ot New Mexico. They carried on their backs all their possessions ; among the 
most important of these being, aside from blankets and such gear, a small brown sketch book. This book 
was the travelling companion of W. L. Metcalf. In the sketch book are recorded places and people 
as they were before the ethnologists, anthropologists, and the attendant train of white people ot varying 
occupations and interests found their way into the land of the Zuni Indians. This was the expedition, 
from which, in a way, time is reckoned, for the man with Mr. Metcalf was Frank Hamilton Gushing, to 
whom all succeeding scientists and investigators pay tribute as pioneer, explorer and discoverer of this 
pre-historic people. 

Each year the ancient landmarks crumble a little more, and the white civilization reaches out 
encroaching hands toward the lands of the Indian reservations. The Graphic is pleased to reproduce 
these earlier records of the pueblos as illuminating Mrs. Austin's article. 




In the winter of 1882, when Mr. Metcalf and Mr. Gushing left the friendly pueblo of Zuni and travelled to a neighboring] 
community at Oraibi they found a different language spoken and a decidedly unfriendly reception for strangers. While 
this sketch was being made on the housetops, the council was debating in the court below whether it were not best to 
exterminate the foreign strangers and have no more bother about them. The children were watching their elders intently 
while the artist busied himself in making an exceedingly careful drawing 




An old doorway 





Zunt boys 







. -. 




Old archway at Zuni 



The Days of Our Ancients 




By MARY AUSTIN 



T Halona, the Middle Ant Hill of the 
World, which is Zuni, when the snow lies 
on the terraced houses like a summer cloud, 
when clear flame runs up the cedar logs in 
the three cornered fire-places and no one 
looks out of doors for fear of what may be 
roaming about there, under dim breasts of Thunder; 
"Come," say the Elders, "let us abide with Our Ancients 
a while." Then you may hear, if you are so privileged, 
and have the wit to disentangle it from the skein of tribal 
symbolism; the only account of early man in America that 
has the color of veracity. For, if they came, these dark 
Ancients of ours, as our own shamans are fairly agreed, re- 
treating, from some unidentified cradle of the Mongol peo- 
ples, before, or between the great ice epochs, the memory 
of that passage might well have survived in the creation 
myths of the Zuni and Town pueblos. 

Man, as the Zuni understand him, came to knowledge of 
himself in the lowest of the four womb worlds, in Sipapu, 
the Mist-encompassed Place, and in a state unfinished, 
tailed, in fact, and web-fingered, "mudheads" as you can 
still see them, learning to be men in the dance of the 
Ko'yemishi. Thence he climbed by the roots of the great 
pine, by the Douglas spruce say the Tewa to the world of 
water-moss, cold, sunless ; faint tribal memory perhaps, of 
the arctic tundras crossed 
on the way to the Middle 
Place. So world by world, 
sticky with undried slime, 
fearful with receding flood 
and earthquake trembling, 
they climbed, having as 
helpers the Great Twin 
Brethren, right and left 
hands of the Sun Father, 
pulling the dust up 
through the corn to be 
man, pulling man down to 
the dust again. In some 
such fashion the Zunis, 
who speak a language hav- 
ing no relation to nny 
known tongue, prefigure 
their passage from the 
racial homeland to the 
Place of Emergence, local- 
ized for every tribe in 
some volcanic crevice or 
bottomless crater lake. But 
of their Mongol origin 
there is little left unless 




you will accept the 
discovery of a Chinese 
visitor that at Taos 
the word for hair, 
and for a certain way 
of wearing the hair, 
are the same in Chin- 
ese and Tanoan. Also 
when Amerind blood 
is passed through 
alien strains of the 
second or third dilu- 
tion, especially when Qut of ^ roundish , stone . heaped 

den rose the sharp-cornered watch 
tower of an organized society 



Photograph from the Smithsonian 
Institution 



Our First American Communities 

HAT Mrs. Austin has set down here 
is the earliest chapter of collective liv- 
ing on the North American continent a chapter 
we should be cognizant of in our civic history. 
We look back to the tide water settlements of 
the Atlantic seaboard, to the English village, to 
the Hansa towns, to the dawn of our institutions 
in the fertile crescent. Not in that way was this 
primitive village life of the great South West 
handed down to us. We did not derive from it. 
But it's part after all of the same process; an 
ancient chapter in a new world setting. Here no 
less than in the valley of the Nile and in the 
Euphrates, in Swiss lake and Cornish chalk pit, 
are vestiges of it we should cherish; vestiges 
which are not bones and shards but living com- 
munities such as that at Zuni. Their culture we 
should not wipe off the slate of the American 
continent, as the officials at Washington seem 
bent upon doing. 

33 



it goes through the 
Spanish speaking stock 
of this region, very 
young children will look gravely at you out of doll-like, 
round heads with the slant, enigmatic eyes of the Japanese. 
For the rest, we have to accept the conclusion of the 
ethnologists that the Dawn period of the Amerind people 
was long lived through before our Southwestern tribes ap- 
peared on the plateau of Southern Utah and Colorado any- 
where from three to five thousand years ago to build there 
out of their instinctive adaptations to the environment the 
most perfect type of cooperative communal life of which 

we have any knowledge. 
Somewhere in their jour- 
neying the unripe tribes had 
learned to dig round holes 
in the ground, roofed over 
with reeds and grass, later, 
as they came to the crum- 
bling soils of the south land, 
shored up from within by 
tree trunks that, projecting 
a foot or two above the 
level of the ground became 
the support of flat roofs, 
entered through hatch- 
ways from the top, by lad- 
ders of notched pines. 
Scattered over the vast 
abras of the Southwest as 
far south as the Mimbres, 
faint markings of these 
pit houses can still be 
found, or in fertile valleys, 
village clusters traced by 
the greener plats of vege- 
tation where the tamped 
floors and ruined walls 



34 



THE DAYS OF OUR ANCIENTS 




IT was while they were in the Pit House period 
- that Our Ancients passed from the use of 
pinched coiled ware, to surfaced pottery, painted 
black on white, and from the hole-in-the-floor hearth 
to the baked day fireplace with its rude chimney 
staggering up the wall. Toward the end of that 
period they ceased from being gatherers of wild 
sown seeds, and became, as among the still wander- 
ing and predatory tribes we find corn planters re- 
ferred to, "people of the seed." 

But before the corn culture, moving 'northward 
by successive contacts, had reached our own Ancients 
it had become a triad "tied by the lightening," corn 
and the great white bean, and the calabasa, mother 
of all the squash and pumpkin kind, brown bean 
and pinto, dent corn, pop corn, round and pointed 
grain, melons and two or three varieties of the 
thin shelled squashes that are to be seen drying in 
strings and quarters from the twigs of a dry tree 
beside the Pueblo door. With the corn came rites 
and ceremonies, festivals of seed time and harvest; 
also new sorts of pots for cooking it, new methods 
of storage. So that the adoption of the corn com- 
plex may well have been the intensive turn by which 
what we know as the Pit House culture became 
the culture of the Small House period. 



MAN is an animal of only moderate suscepti- 
bility to new tricks. Who knows how many 
centuries he wandered looking for his Middle Place 
of the World before the hot sun instructed him to 
abandon his Pit Houses, heritage of the Mist En- 
compassed Place, for walls of woven boughs stand- 
ing upright on the earth ? Against the hot wind 
heavy witli biting dust, he daubed the wattle with 



Drawings by courtesy of The Century Co. from Mary Austins' forthcoming mud, and in that fashion houses are Still built in 



book, The Land of Journey's Ending 

Cliff dwellings, Pueblo Bonita. What these^Dead Cities died of 
unless it were the pride of cities, there is not even a tradition 



Papagueria. The need of protecting his corn led 
him to thicken the mud walls until, hardened by 
the sun, no burrowing thief could find the six 
gather and hold the evanescent rains. Ai Luna near one of colored ears, and no changes of temperature affect their food 

values. Further north, where heavier snows and longer 
cold rendered the Jacale impracticable, Pit Houses were 



these ancient village sites there is an oval dancing ring whose 
bowl would seat an audience of several hundred, and at the 
burial places the archeologist's spade turns up the little 
three cornered fireplaces of baked clay, having supports for 



walled round with cobbles plastered with clay. Having con- 
tinued the line of clay-firmed stone a little above the level 



cooking pots, and the food bowls set for the comforting of of the ground, the Pit House Builder laid his beams flat 



souls still lingering about the unfinished paths of our lives. 
Not much else is known of the Pit House people except 
that they lived chiefly on seeds and small game, their bow 
being light, so that more than likely, as Papago boys are still 
taught to do, they ran down the deer and caught it with 
their naked hands. Beyond that, stands out, against all we 
traditionally believe about primitive peoples, the fact that 
nowhere in the vast undefended abras which they chose for 
their village sites, or in the flat roofed houses, and the open 
sided ramadas which the southland taught them to build 
between the pits, is there the hint of a human enemy. As 
naked, as unalarmed as flocks of migrating birds, as un- 
plunderable, they moved or settled, following their food, 
and that delicately registering feeling for themselves as a 
part of the conscious life of the universe, which informs 
all the Amerind's ways. 



across it, and evolved the bonded and cemented wall. 

For all these processes the corn was a great quickener. 

Tribes multiplied on the polreros of the San Juan and the 
Rio Grande and in the valleys of the Mimbres, the Gila 
and the Salada. 

Walking there, one of these wide open summer days, 
when there comes a sudden silence, and in the midst of the 
silence a stir, look where you walk. If your feet stumble 
in a round depression to the north of which you discover 
squarish, low mounds of reddish rock, if beyond the margin 
of shallow basins you observe windrows of loose stones 
pitched out from between the hills of corn long before the 
place was taken by three hundred year old pines, know that 
you are in the country of the Small House people. 

Look first for the house mound, which was roughly 
rectangular, of from one to three rooms, facing south, with 



THE DAYS OF OUR ANCIENTS 



35 



wing shelters extended from the- end walls some- 
times wholly enclosing the plarita where most of 
the domestic life went on; the doorless, flat topped 
rooms being used chiefly for refuge and for storage. 
South of the small house, but connected with it 
by a subterranean passage, lay the kiva, the ancient 
Pit House, preserved for all sacred and ceremonial 
use. In the oldest Southwestern tongue, ki meant 
simply house, and our dark skinned Ancients dung 
as tenaciously as we do ourselves to the form of 
whatever connected them with the Allness and the 
occasions by which they kept> themselves in touch 
with it. As if they should lose the precious essence 
if the shape of the cup were changed. In any of 
the Rio Grande pueblos you may still discover this 
round, sunken, ceremonial chamber. At Taos there 
are seven of them sunk probably to the original 
level of Pit Houses. Further south as at Santo 
Domingo and Cochiti they stand almost on the 
top of the ground. At Picuris they are so com- 
pletely subterranean that it is only by the ladder 
protruding from the hatchway that they can be 
located. Everywhere, by the symbolic Sipapu, 
Doorway of the Underworld, by the niche for the 
sacred meal bowl and the stepped altar they are 
connected in an unbroken chain with the ruined 
ceremonial pits of the Small House people. 



BY the great water gaps that lead from the San 
Juan country to the Rio Grande, the tribes 
came through. 

The great game animals came that way also, of 
whose movements in determining the flow of hu- 
man cultures we do not make enough. The elk, 
of which there is scarcely a trace in the Pit House 
period, in the Small House era made the pastures 
black with moving herds. Mule deer and white- 
tail, within our present memory, kept their ancient 
trails by Wolf Creek pass, from the summer 
pasture of the Rockies down the San Juan plateau. 




5>i meuhere in their wanderings, Our Ancients found a full-eared 
grain from which corn afterward developed 



The 



tribes followed the herds, the herds followed the pastures, 
and the pastures were under the protection of Awanyu, the 
plumed serpent, guardian of the water sources. According 
to the Tewa, the Small House people, except for a few 
fragmentary clans that were absorbed into later cultures, 
vanished from the earth because they lost the favor of 
Awanyu, who in disdain flung himself high across the 
heavens and made the Milky Way. Thus the Tewa ac- 
count for the gradual narrowing of the zone of frequent 
rains under the great Wind River of the Rio Grande. 

And if the guardian of the six great springs of the world 
was not more favorable to the tribes in the Small House 
era, how account at all for the thousands of ruins that on 
the Paharitan Plateau, the remnant of that blanket of 



castled tops, a hundred villages clustered under the Mesita 
de la Tapia, where now the sheep herder seeks, and does 
not always find, one solitary spring. 

Along the ancient highways, such as the Chama, leading 
from the Mesa Verde and San Juan levels to the Rio 
Grande, the Small House people left their most interest- 
ing remains. Here at the entrada of the Gallinas into the 
Chama, what was once sea bottom is thrust up, sea gray, 
and with a green scum of one-leaved pines, wind sculptured 
and worn down to a pale, fertile dust in which the sage, 
the coral penstemon and the blue lupin usurp the long aban- 
doned fields. The ruins are clustered on the terraced tops 
of the mesas between the rivers, and look south to the blue 
wall of Jemez and the great World Shrine, southern 
boundary of the Tewa world. Here because the material 



volcanic tuff that once covered the country between Pena easiest to the builder's hand was flat broken rock, it is still 



Blanca and the shattered bulk of Abiqui, made a distant 
culture, distingiushed for an irridescent pottery glaze, long 
lost to the remaining tribes. Over in the Rio Puerco dis- 
trict, where the light refracted from red and purple earths, 
strikes sleepily on the sense with the effect of perpetual 
afternoon, and the rim rock gathers into domed heads and 



possible to trace the movement of the tribesman's mind, as 
he built up his house from a grass thatched hole in the 
ground to three-storied stone towers. Curious and reveal- 
ing motions! The Pit House, to judge from the best pre- 
served examples, with a thousand year's experience behind it 
was as beautifully perfected as a bee's cell, but the first 



36 



THE DAYS OF OUR ANCIENTS 



upright stone wall was a child's heap, having nothing but and sacred prayer plumes. Coming up out of their kivas, 



its heap to keep it standing. 



for the ceremony of the Swift-Coming Rain, their young 



Slowly the wall thinned, as the feel of the stone taught men blew down of eagle's feathers skyward, or tied it in 
the builder balance and precision, until, long before it was their hair to make themselves light for the races. Over 
firmed by clay or surfaced by the stone adze, it was prac- all their pottery, black on gray, or black on red, prevailed 

tically wind proof, throughout the Small House period, patterns of the plumed 
Building clumsily serpent, the earth altar and the two-turned whorl of. Being. 
Whether or not the Small House Period began with 
corn, its economic and social and religious life revolved 



around the axis of 
his body, as all 




around it, for any people that lives by corn 
becomes land-servant of all its ways. Corn 
is a town builder, a maker of policies, 
mother of inventions. 

Once the Small House clans began to 
coalesce, the determining factor in the 
fashion of town building was the clan sys- 
tem, by which descent is reckoned from 
the mother's side. Not only was she the 
food divider, but the house holder. 
Whether it was so from the first that 
the women were the builders, it is not 
now possible to say, or whether women 
ever worked in stone there is no evidence. 
But as far back as the plastic adobe clay 
became the medium of construction, ex- 
cavators are perpetually turning up fine, 
feminine finger marks, and the modulation 
of small shallow palms. You can see to- 
day, in any Pueblo before the fiesta, the 



Nowhere in the vast undefended abras which they chose for their village 
sites, or in the flat-roofed houses, and the open-sided ramadas which the south- 
land taught them to build between the pits, is there the hint of a human enemy 

house mothers patting new plaster on the 
walls, and painting them with yeso until, between blue 
man finally squared his house to his cedar beams, so that shadow and refracted sun, they take on the pure luster of 
on these same Small House sites in unbroken progressions, pearl. Probably then as now, the husbands of one house 
arose, out of the roundish, stone heaped den, the sharp cluster went together to cut the beams, days distant, carry- 



wild things build, but not with their beautiful perfection, 



cornered watch tower of an organized society. 



ing them home on their shoulders and lifting them into place, 



Along the Chama, round and squarish towers seem to but the house, however fashioned, was the housemother's, 

have been used for communication by smoke signals and Seldom her daughters left her, but brought husbands home, 

beacon fires. They rise in sight of one another, from point and built on another room and another, until the clustered 

to vantage point, here thrust up on a detached boulder, or house heap took on that pyramidal form you may observe 

set on some dizzy ledge from which the waving flag of at Zuni or Taos, or was strung roof to roof in windrows 



smoke could be descried, calling to council or advising of 
the movement of the wild herds. If they were used for 
defense it would have been only toward the end of the 
Small House period: Nowhere on the Pajaritan Plateau, 
where the ruins indicate a settlement almost as populous 
as the present valley of the Rio Grande is there any trace 



as at Santa Domingo, or joined in a continuous square as 
at San Felipe or San Juan. So much more in the days of 
our Ancients, was the house the woman's domain, that the 
persistance of the kiva, its size and the numbers of them 
noted in relation to the house-heaps, was partly owed to the 
inborn necessity of husbands to have some place they could 



their huts, it was not the fear of human kind. 



B 



of fortification or defensive preparation. Whatever fear ca ll their own. If men left women out of politics and the 
walked in the trails of the Small House people or slept in church, when they invented them, it was very largely be- 
cause the women shortsightedly failed to provide any place 
in the home where such instinctive male activities could go 
on, for women in the stone age had as poor an opinion as 

EFORE he built his dwelling the Small House clans- we have ' of the thin e s men do when the V S et together alone, 
man dug himself a safe secret pit from which his A village in the time of Our Ancients, was a group of 
thoughts could revert to the Unseen and mingle with it. unit houses, more or less scattered, having usually, but not 
Or walking apart, in dark canons, or on such high and necessarily, one speech, and a common esoteric or defensive 
lonely places as the Powers have immemorially visited, he function. The unit was the mother hive, which might in- 
brooded inwardly and built out patterns with the stones, elude several married pairs, with their children, with its 
altar heaps and enclosures as children do with bright kiva called by the name of its chief man. 
pebbles and fragments of a broken dish, wherein he laid Toward the latter end of the Small House period popula- 
some lovely, valued thing in thanks or propitiation. All tions multiplied and villages grew into towns. Clan house 
about the Sma'l House country you find such shrines, touched clan house until the rows of conjoined dwell- 
miniature Stonehenges, Jacob's pillars, white shell beads ings having their kivas to the south, took on the forms 



THE DAYS OF OUR ANCIENTS 



37 



that characterize the present pueblos of Hopi and Acoma unstinted reach of vision, the sense of cuddling safety 

Of the influences that determined the local type of town against the mother rock. How far from these eyries, when 

building there were two that were fairly constant. One the snow lay lightly as cloud on the junipers, they could 

was the gradual withdrawal of the rains over all the mesa trace the movement of the herds of elk and antelope. How 

country, and the other was the appearance, in successive comfortably they must have snuggled together around the 

waves of migration, of that notable stirrer up of man's three cornered fireplaces, when the torrent of the rain 

activities, the enemy. came falling like a silver curtain between them and the 

It seems likely that the migration that came to rest in world, or the wolfish wind howled and scraped against 

the Great House and PueHo cultures were peace loving the retaining wall! 

and sedentary by nature. By the time they had bins and It is more than likely that the same people moved in 
treasuries of corn, great jars of pounded meal sunk in their and out of their cave homes, as need or wishing drove them, 
floors, stone cisterns full of beans and melons kept sweet At the Rita de los Firjoles, which is to say Bean Creek, 
under heaps of sand, they became plunderable. In due the Keres who came into that shut valley with a well de- 
course there appeared for the plundering, nomadic and veloped craft of stone working, preferred the cavate lodges, 

which at a later period they abandoned for the round, ter- 
raced pueblo, built up out of whole earth. And just as 
the Small House people clung to the sacred pits, so the town 

T was the nature of the country to which Our Ancients builders reverted to cave and crevice for their ceremonial 

had come, in migrations not far separated in point of chambers, 

time, speaking at least four languages, but having a common That was after the towns grew too large for the caves 

origin legend and a common recognition of this Southwest to hold, or after the enemy who might have driven them 

as their Middle Place, that there was no easy way out of it. there had been vanquished or absorbed. Squeezed into the 

Within their natural boundaries the Pueblo tribes settled great cave of the Mesa Verde country there are towns that 

or shifted, following their food, and from successive tarry- were able to afford streets, little plazas set about with 

ings they swarmed. But by the end of the Small House public ovens, space between the cave and the house walls 

period the trails of the various linguistic groups had be- for the turkeys, rooms for milling and for meditation. 

come inextricably confused, issuing at intervals clear and But it is difficult to write this period into any scheme 

well defined, and lost again like the track of desert creatures of tribal evolution, there is such magic thrown over it by 



predatory tribes, Ute, Apache, Navajo. 



I 



in the sand. 



the wild splendor of the many colored cliffs from which 



"UTiere it issues at its most engaging is in the cliffs and the squared tops and ruined towers of the cliff villages 

caves of the San Juan drainage, and the Little Colorado. peer down, eagles mewing about the perilous footholds, 

Not, however, as a phase of cultural evolution, but as a great trees rooting where once the slender ladders clung, 

mere matter of convenience. There was no Cliff-Dwelling You walk in one of the winding canyons of Southern Utah 

age, but an easy adaptation to local advantages. Why dig or Colorado, threaded by a bright stream, half smothered 

a hole when there is a hole in a wall alredy dug for you? in choke-cherry and cottonwood, where suddenly high and 

But because there is no important cliff dwelling without inaccessible, the sun picks out the little windows in the 

traces of corn culture, I am disposed to think it was the canon walls, amid the smoke blue shadows, and you brush 

superiority of the inaccessible, solid-smooth rooms as storage your eyes once or twice to make sure you do not see half 

vaults that led to their long continued use as homes. Every naked men, deer and antelope laden, climbing up the 

now and then the archeologist uncovers a wall cache of banded cliffs, and sleek haired women, bright with such 

shelled corn, forgotten as long ago as the time an English colors as they knew how to wring out of herbs and berries, 



kintr tended cakes in a cow-herd's hut. 

In the north there seems to have been a Small House 
period of cave dwelling, and a Tower House period after 



and out of the T-shaped openings like 



an interval in which 
the squash and beans 
a cliff house in 
Utah, seed was 
taken of a distinct 
species, true Ancient 
of our tropical vari- 
ety, and named abor- 
igeneum, but how 
far it was from its 
native home there is 
no discovering. 

Besides conveni- 
ence there must 
have been an im- 
mense appeal of the 



cotton was added to 
.and corn. 



popping in 
paroqueets. 

Clear October afternoons when the fleets of aspen gold 
at the bottoms of the canons set sail for the ruined bal- 
Out of conies and the gobble of the wild turkey sounds between 

the driving gusts, how can you be sure it 
does not come from the penned space be- 
hind the b r ok e n 
walls, how distin- 
guish between the 
beat of your horse's 
hooves and the 
plump, plump of the 
mealing stones, or 
the roll of the medi- 
cine drums from the 
kivasl 

Even m o r r 
charged with the 




cliff dwellings for Midway of the Cliff, or bent about the blind, rain'blackened head of the enchantment of 
their highness, the canon, the ruined towers beckon out of cavernous blueness mystery seem the 



38 



THE DAYS OF OUR ANCIENTS 



cliff dwellings when you come upon them from above, the Small House peoples sheltered his outlook with a round 
Walking the level mesas between scant pines and silver of heaped stone. But it was not for the enemy that he 



dusted sage, you observe scarcely any human trace rec- 
ognizable to the unpracticed eye. Here a low, squarish 
mound of surface stones shows where the Watchers of the 
Corn set up their towers, there a painted potshard kicked 
up from some stone rimmed area of wind sifted ash, mute 
evidence of a tender concern, marks for the knowing the 
place of incineration. Insensibly your feet stumble into the 
shallows of some ancient trail, and then suddenly the ground 
opens before you into a deep, many colored rift, murmurous 
with the ripple of a sunken stream, and the wind ruffled 
aspens. Midway of the cliff, or bent about the blind, rain 
blackened head of the canon, the ruined towers beckon 
out of cavernous blueness. There must have been always 
this quality of enticement about these nested villages, even 
for the builders of them, so that you can well understand 
how, long after they were- pulled by tribal necessities up 
over the cliff top to the building of walled towns, they 
returned to their sacred ceremonial cave as obstinately as 
the English return to Gothic for their religious architecture. 
Put for all their color of romance they remained simple 
and not over populous agricultural villages, so that if I 
wanted a marker for the age that built them I would not 
take it from the caves, but from a feature of their archi- 
tecture that arose toward the end of the Small House 
period, out of the inner necessity of a tribal mind that was, 
at its profoundest, Oriental. All over the well timbered 
mesas of the McElmo, Pagose-Piedra and the upper Chama 
there arose a series of singular structures whose architectural 
evolution can still be traced, defining the period that 
produced them as the time of Towered Towns. They 
began before Our Ancients were fairly out of the cobble- 
stone pits, and they do not disappear until the towns them- 
selves have absorbed them, stretching up into seven-storied 
heights from whose tops the voice of the Cacique could be 
heard waking the village to its morning life. 



FROM Hovenweep and Surouaro and Holly Canon 
they spring. Round towers and square towers, towers 
squared on the sides and rounded on the corners, towers 
like Stronghold House thrust up on pinacles of native rock, 
round towers at the outer corners of Great Houses as at 
Hovenweep, twin towers, set up over a cliff house, towers 



watched oftenest, if at all. He watched the game, antelope 
flashing their white rumps or scudding in great bands like 
cloud shadows across the grass mesas, blacktail trooping the 
shallow draws; but chiefly he watched the corn. He 
watched the crows settling over the young shoots, and be- 
tween the glint of their wings he sent the glint of arrows 
and the twang of the bowstring, deeper than their quarrel- 
ling caws. Many a mid-morning from his tower the voice 
of the watcher scattered the young men for turning aside 
the hooves of the mule deer, moving stealthily between the 
unfenced rows, ruining with selective bites the finest milky 
ears. No doubt he watched the sun and the stars, with 
whose orientation the times of his feasts were determined, 
and the lines of his ceremonial chambers set. But of all 
the necessities served by the Tower Houses, the keenest 
was the need of communication. From the the tops of the 
towers went up smoke signals to the fartest confederated 
villages, but chiefly morning and evening Cacique or Prego- 
nero cried prayers and the day's directions for a community 
that was always more communistic than anything of which 
we moderns have experience. 

The line at which our ancients crossed over from 
snuggling themselves into the environment as the wild hive 
into a hollow tree, and began to control it, is the line of 
the acequia madre. When a crop can flourish handsomely 
on the run-off of natural watersheds, a family may subsist 
satisfactorily by itself. But when a river is to be diverted 
in its course to irrigate the fields, then by the same tie that 
they bind the river to the service of the corn, men bind 
themselves to the indivisible utility. Rain falls on radical 
and conservative alike, but the mother ditch makes commun- 
its of them all. That is, it makes for cooperative effort 
with psychological implications to which the term commun- 
ism, is a clumsy, crablike approach. 

At the end of the Towered Town period, the homes of 
our Ancients in the land of their journey's ending, were 
mere clusters of more or less related, farmer groups, as 
slightly coordinated in respect to their civic functions as 
any pioneer crossroads, a state of things that we do as 
much as possible to disguise by calling their remains cliff 
cities, cliff palaces, Montezuma's castle and the like mean- 
ingless, falsely romantic terms. 

Near where the chief man lived was kept the seed corn, 



on the Mancos above cavate lodges, towers in the cliff near the chief priest the repository of the tribal fetishes, 



villages at Far View 
and Spruce Tree 
Houses. The towers, I 
insist, grew ovit of an 
inner necessity of the 
tribes, that strange 
necessity of man to be 
responsible for his fel- 
low man, of which the 
dawn impulse lies in the 
mind of the herd and 
"the flock. Still in that 
region the leader of the 
browsing goats climbs 
up the boulder, on 
which the cacique of 




Courtesy of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation 

The modern pueblo as it is today a miniature reproduction modelled 
for the museum by William C. Orchard 



and to these resorted 
the priest of the frater- 
nal orders, rain makers, 
priests of the bow, 
priests of the society of 
the smutless corn, who- 
ever had a rite potent 
for any of the exigencies 
of Amerind life. 

Where the chief men 
lived there was a tower 
of communication and a 
council chamber. When 
to these things pressure 
from alien tribes had 
(Continued on 



How They Make Good 



By MIRIAM VAN WATERS 



DELINQUENCY is a way of responding to 
the human situation. It involves the whole 
being heredity, physical make-up, intelli- 
gence, habits of emotional response, life his- 
tory, interaction with other human beings 
and with nature. We no longer "explain" 
delinquency by reference to any one part of the child's be- 
ing or environment. It is the total situation, the entire 
stream which must be studied. That a boy who stole 
oranges, went to court and was "punished" by having his 
adenoids removed, is a joke frequently heard ; modern court 
workers believe in restoring the child to the best possible 
health condition, to remove or alleviate physical handicaps, 
but they do not believe that bodily defects are a cause of 
delinquency; or that feeblemindedness, or psychopathic per- 
sonality are causes. These conditions frequently accompany 
delinquency, but they explain nothing until the entire in- 
dividual is understood as a living being in process of adjust- 
ing itself to the outside world. What we term delinquency 
is in reality maladjustment, or conflict. (But use of these 
terms also is a mere matter of convenience; the description 
of results which have obscurely taken place.) 

As we studv juvenile delinquency more, we are inclined 
to believe that success is in inverse ratio to age. The longjer 
these processes of conflict in the child -with parents, school 
and community have gone on, the deeper the hurt, the 
more tenacious the habits of defense. What we learn of 
capacity for suffering in very young children teaches us that 
they are injured far more than perhaps we understand in 
homes, schools and neighborhoods that neglect, misuse, or 
fail to love or to discipline adequately. Damage may be; 
irreparable. As we grow wiser in treatment, perhaps the 
best service social workers can render will be to insist, Do 
not permit delinquency to occur: prevent at all costs the 
young child from entering 
this conflict. The cost is too 
great! 

This would mean a radi- 
cal readjustment of public 
opinion. Certain homes we 
now break up would be sub- 
sidized by the state ; certain 
very respectable homes, un- 
doubtedly, would have to be 
smashed for the good of chil- 
dren. Some parents would 
be locked up for life, many 
schools put out of commis- 
sion, innumerable new insti- 



* This article is based on a 
chapter in Dr. Van Water's 
book, Youth in Conflict, an- 
nounced for early publication by 
the New Republic Publishing 
Co. 



HOW are folks made over? How are child 
delinquents, in puzzled or angry conflict 
with their world, won back to normal relation- 
ships? There is no more fascinating question in 
the field of human progress, and none, perhaps, 
which is harder to answer exactly. Some of 
the "making good" is due to the spontaneous 
effort of the personality to right itself, we say 
a boy grows out of his badness. Some of it 
seems to be due to such processes as those de- 
scribed here processes of incredible delicacy 
which we use as yet with fumbling uncertainty, 
and which nevertheless produce, in the hands 
of workers like Dr. Van Waters on her referee's 
bench in the Los Angeles Juvenile Court, re- 
sults which may fairly be called miraculous* 

39 



tutions built to house trouble-makers, and many present in- 
mates of institutions taken out. 

Failing this, it is doubtful if any method of treatment has 
yet been evolved for delinquents that will make any in- 
dividual at all times industrious, respectful, unselfish, punc- 
tual, scrupulously honest and chaste, grateful and obedient 
to those in charge of him. The test of success is whether 
the individual is normally adjusted. Can he carry on work, 
play and human relationships so that the community will 
not be injured by him? Can he approximate the average 
level of neighborhood conduct? On this basis we need hesi- 
tate no longer to affirm that tht young delinquent can fre- 
quently attain, under favorable conditions, satisfactory ad- 
justment in the community. 

How does this adjustment come about? It is convenient 
to name four stages in the process of "making good": in- 
sight, transference, development of personality (growth of 
skill, clear ideas of new behavior-goals, and the wish for 
social esteem), development of new relationships. 

I. 

THE terms insight and transference are borrowed from 
psychiatry. The social worker uses them in no technical 
sense. They express what takes place after successful case- 
analysis. Insight is used by psychiatrists to denote the stage 
when the patient understands the significant causes of his 
emotional and mental disturbance, and faces himself con- 
sciously as a problem. The social worker must aid the de- 
linquent to face himself. To assist the delinquent to gain 
insight, the social worker does not proceed on any special 
theory, or use any special technique. The child's condition, 
physical and mental, will be diagonised by expert medical 
and psychological service. If possible study by a psychiatrist 

should be made: even in 
"normal" individuals, delin- 
quency involves emotional 
conflict. The case-study, as 
understood by social workers, 
should be thorough. No stone 
should be left unturned to 
find out all there is to be 
known about that child's 
companions, love - objects, 
home, school, work, church, 
and neighborhood experi- 
ences. When the child runs 
away, for example, it should 
be known in advance to 
whom he is most likely to 
turn for aid and comfort, 
what personalities or obsta- 
cles he is seeking to evade. 
In case-study the emphasis 



40 



HOW THEY MAKE GOOD 



should be on the child as experiencing. The social worker 
must study the case until it is clear; that is to say, until 
motives for the young delinquent's conduct have touched 
the social worker's imagination, and he can personally com- 
prehend the delinquency. True understanding, or insight, 
must come to adult before it can come to child. 

There are children whose mentality, or emotional make- 
up, is such that they cannot take an objective view of con- 
duct, hence cannot see themselves as problems, or arrive at 
insight. But the process is at work when a child begins to 
ask himself: "Why did I do that? Why did I wish to do 
it? Exactly what did I want to get by it? Am I sorry? 
Would I rather have peaoe and security, the good opinion 
of 'good' people, or would I do this forbidden thing over 
again ?" 

These questions will be put by the social worker into the 
mind of the delinquent, at first without reference to moral 
good or evil. Gradually the nature of the child's cravings 
will be discovered. In girls and boys these cravings are not 
usually so complex, or so foreign to average humanity, that 
they cannot readily be understood. Where embarrassment, 
shame or rebellion exist, or where the child shows the 
danger-signal of the shut-in personality, it will be necessary 
to turn again to psychologist or psychiatrist. To the normal 
child, under guidance of the experienced social worker, in- 
sight into motives comes gradually, almost without effort. 

VIVIAN was thirteen years old. She was an attractive 
girl with average intelligence. When brought before 
the Juvenile Court she had been riding in automobiles with 
men late at night, and occasionally drinking liquor. Her 
real difficulty, however, was ungovernable temper. She had 
been a child prodigy, dancing on the professional stage for 
seven or eight years previous. Although attractive to men 
and prematurely exposed to masculine attention, she had 
never yielded to a lover. Once before going on with her 
act she had fancied that some older girl was to be preferred 
in the scene; she attacked this girl, and set fire to the wings 
of the theatre. On being placed in a private school by her 
mother, she tried to burn it down. When expelled, she 
went to live in a hotel with her mother; so frequent were 
tantrums, screaming, tearing of clothes, smashing furniture, 
that her mother was asked by landlords and police to move 
from place to place. Her parents were divorced. Her 
father was a cruel, domineering man, her mother of cold 
temperament, devoted to finery, to pleasures of living in 
comfortable surroundings. Vivian had never known family 
affection, or normal play. Her possession of physical charm 
had been used by her mother, first to gain admiration and 
pleasure for herself in "owning such an attractive daughter," 
later to earn a living for both on the professional stage. 

After two years of treatment in a private school where 
the routine is simple and the muscular outlets vigorous, the 
tantrums have almost disappeared, and with them all desire 
for excitements of the theatre, which, to tell the truth, never 
appealed to her. She is content to romp and study like any 
youngster of fifteen. 

Vivian did not know why she had temper tantrums and 
impulses to burn buildings. When she saw that these dis- 
plays were an attempt to gain notice and affection from her 
mother, and realized that her mother could not be induced 
to change her life for her child, she cooperated in a plan 
of schoolwork which resulted in normal conduct. 



TNS1GHT is known by behavior. There is no embarrass- 
JL ment; the child talks freely. There is no obstacle in 
flow of confidence from child to social worker. There is 
relief in this attitude. The child usually shows enthusiasm 
for "beginning over again," for "taking another chance," 
and is more vital in responses, as if some new source of 
energy had been tapped. For sensitive children this is the 
golden period for reconstructive treatment. 

Social workers recognize the danger of entering upon a 
program of treatment before cooperation is secured. Co- 
operation depends, not only on "confidence" but upon the 
degree of insight which the child has reached. Emergency 
care, such as court hearings, detention home, temporary 
boarding home placement, hospital treatment, or "probation," 
of a sort which aims at mere suppression of another out- 
break, may be necessary pending social diagnosis. No final 
plan of social treatment of delinquency should be undertaken 
until insight has arrived. 

The social worker need not enter the field of scientific 
discussion as to what has taken place. One school will ex- 
plain that what has previously been unconsciously motivated 
has now been raised from the unconscious to the conscious. 
The fact that the child feels relief, is ready to cooperate, 
or as in cases cited by Freud, is cured of disease, is ex- 
plained as due to the so-called therapeutic function of con- 
sciousness. W 7 hat concerns the social worker is that some- 
thing has happened which adds to capacity and appreciation 
for social values. This sharing of his difficulties, without 
condemnation by another personality who appears to the 
child wise, simple and good, is apparently the force which 
robs the experience of its power to isolate and to damage the 
child's spirit. The delinquency expresses conflict: there is 
no loneliness more isolating than that of the delinquent child 
whose cravings and whose wish for adult approval and sup- 
port are at war. Whether this takes the form of feeling 
inferiority, or appears as rebellion, or depredation, makes 
no essential difference: the result is isolation. The social 
worker who. in comprehending the child's motives, makes 
him realize their universal human values, has "cured" 
isolation. 

When a boy steals a bicycle and runs away, he may tell 
his probation officer where he put it, what make it was, how 
he took it apart and hid the pieces beneath the porch ; how 
he lied to his parents, how he outwitted its owner. All this 
is a mere '"confession" and reveals nothing except that the 
probation officer has secured his "confidence." When this 
boy can tell his probation officer that he thinks his parents 
do not love him, that he is jealous of his older brother who 
succeeds in school, that in some mysterious way he felt a 
thrill of relief in stealing and running away, the basis for 
insight has been secured. If, then, he becomes aware that 
jealousy and yearning are not uncommon, that the objects of 
his affection will treat him better if he gives up the struggle 
and seeks supremacy in athletics, or some field where he can 
excel, his energy has been set free. 



II. 



TRANSFERENCE is another stage in process of making 
good. The case-study has revealed the persons and 
things which arouse the child's warm interest and affection. 
The love-object may be harmful, unattainable, or anti-social. 



HOW THEY MAKE GOOD 



41 



It is the social worker's function to assist the child in fixing 
attention to some love-object that will not destroy him. 
This transference may be to a parent, relative, teacher or 
companion; to some animal pet, or hobby; to the social 
worker. 

There is nothing esoteric about this process. It is nat- 
ural that the child's warmth and glow of new self-confi- 
dence, his discovery of an understanding personality, will 
express itself in affection. This is the explanation of those 
"crushes" and sentimental attachments that are seen in all 
schools and institutions. If the social worker does not ab- 
sorb this 'energy, or permit the child to become emotionally 
dependent, transference to himself may be beneficial. The 
social worker then becomes the wise counsellor, one who pro- 
vides vivid contacts with reality, who points out healthy 
channels of energy and expression. If the social worker 
is selfish, or unenlightened, if his personality is not, in reality, 
beyond that of the child, there will be waste, or even moral 
collapse. The adult who ignorantly appropriates the child's 
affection, and interprets this access of courage, gaiety, en- 
thusiasm and vigor, as something caused personally by him- 
self, is committing a serious mistake, if not something worse. 
Often the transference will be assisted by the social worker 
to attach itself to some member of the home-circle. 



THIS occurred in the case of Elizabeth. She was a girl 
of fourteen with an intelligence quotient of 108. Her 
father was a migratory cook, rancher and loafer. When 
the girl was six her parents were divorced, Elizabeth going 
with her mother who worked as waitress and chamber-maid 
in lumber towns. Elizabeth became troublesome and was 
placed by her mother, at the age of eight, in a state correc- 
tional school where she was "forgotten" for four years. The 
father had moved to another state and married a woman on 
parole from a hospital for the insane ; Elizabeth's mother had 
disappeared. In sorting out inmates of the state school 
Elizabeth was "discovered" by the authorities and shipped 
to her father. 

She was now twelve. For two years she lived in her 
father's home with her aged grand-mother and insane step- 
mother. She became delinquent with boys: aided by her 
grandmother's religious ideas and her own contact with mem- 
bers of a new cult, she developed a psychosis. She had 
alternating periods of depression in which she fancied herself 
the worst of sinners, and periods of grandeur in which she 
claimed to be the wife of a famous moving picture hero. 
Placed by the court in an opportunity school for girls her 
conduct was so bad that she was expelled. She reverted 
to the habits of a child of three. In matters of personal 
hygiene she became a nuisance, soiling and wetting her 
clothing, and refusing to bathe. 

Elizabeth was placed under observation in the detention 
home and a thorough study was made. She improved, gained 
the wish to do better; her intelligence facilitated the process 
of insight. After three months her father's sister arrived. 
This aunt was a simple, kindly, maternal woman who re- 
fused to believe her niece "abnormal." She maintained that 
Elizabeth was a normal girl who had never been "given a 
chance." She insisted on taking her home. Elizabeth de- 
veloped affection for her aunt, and has remained for over 
a year without delinquency or lapses of personal hvgiene. 



III. 

A NOTHER stage in restoring the delinquent is develop- 
j_~\_ ment of personality through acquisition of new skill 
and activities. The story of Mildred under supervision of 
the Bureau of Child Guidance (see The Survey, February 
15, 1924) sets forth the process which parallels that of many 
successful cases in juvenile court experience. Here the child 
in her own home is aided to discover skill, new ways of meet- 
ing responsibility, unexpected resources within herself. Suc- 
ceeding in home tasks, school work, learning gardening, 
sports, arts, crafts, nature, books, music, caring for younger 
children and animals, earning money, doing well in employ- 
ment, all tend to enrich personality by giving it power to 
expand and to control new fields. There need be no special 
talent or ability discovered ; all that is essential is for the 
child to feel satisfaction in doing some new thing well. He 
derives fresh mastery, courage and tokens of adult approval. 

IV. 

WITH increased confidence born of new activities the 
young delinquent is in a better social position. He 
possesses the coin that wins his way. He is ready to enter 
new social relationships. When these are satisfactorily 
cemented, the adjustment is complete; the delinquent and 
the community can get along together. 

The delinquent now fits into home or foster-home; he 
enters into social affairs and neighborhood groups, or if his 
temperament does not require social intercourse, it is suffi- 
cient that he is no longer rejected; he is reconciled to his 
human family. 

It has been remarked by Orfa Jean Shontz (first woman 
referee of the Los Angeles Juvenile Court) that there is no 
parable of return of the prodigal daughter, yet modern work 
among delinquent girls shows a number of successes, all the 
more astonishing in face of hostile public opinion and harsh- 
ness of judgment. 

When the lives of these girls are studied, they must be 
taken whole. It is our custom to view cases in cross-sections ; 
we over-emphasize success, and failure. In successful lives 
a certain amount of failure is permissible; in the lives of 
delinquent girls the slump is swiftly penalized. As we learn 
more of human conduct we will take a longer view of these 
apparent failures, and will not permit them to blind the 
community to the gradual reconstruction that is taking place. 

SALLY is a girl of sixteen. She is married, has a healthy, 
well-cared-for baby, a ranch with chickens, pigs and 
goats, a pretty bungalow, an automobile, a husband with fine 
mustachios. When she was first brought to Juvenile Court 
she was twelve, a frail child with spinal curvature, twitch- 
ing movements and weak heart. Her intelligence was dull 
average. She had temper tantrums, beat and scratched her 
mother who was an invalid, swore at her step-father who was 
blind, refused to go to school, was cruel to animals, even 
putting them to death, was incorrigible in three homes. 

Study of this case revealed a girl with craving for dress- 
ing up and showing off ; there were other symptoms of self- 
love and infantile desires which her mother's illness and 
stepfather's harshness had fostered. Placed in a twenty-four 
hour school, her behavior was a source of anxiety to her 
teachers, her profanity, temper and running away seemed to 
yield to no one save the superintendent, and in periods of 



42 



HOW THEY MAKE GOOD 



jealousy this woman could not control her. She was not a 
success at the school,' yet gained there a true picture of her 
home situation and herself (for several weeks she was under 
daily observation by the psychologist), physical restoration, 
knowledge of gardening and home-making, and a genuine 
basis for self-confidence. 

Suddenly she ran away with a young man, a chance "pick- 
up." He kept her overnight, then took her to her parents 
who literally threw her out. She was again brought before 
the Court. Obsessed with the idea that she was to have 
a child, she pleaded to be allowed to go to her sister, a mar- 
ried girl of twenty. 

In this home Sally saw happy married love for the first 
time in her life. She became devoted to her sister's baby, and 
gave up her fancies of being pregnant. There were some 
backslidings, but nothing catastrophic until Sally, with a 
final gesture of independence, ran away with a rancher whom 
she captivated in a single visit, as is the short-cut custom of 
the delinquent girl. They were married immediately. 

Over fourteen months have passed. Sally is a patient, 
hard-working mother and wife ; every trace of wayward- 
ness has vanished as if it had never been. Her devotion to 
child and husband and gentleness with animals can be ob- 
served daily, together with her pride in her worldly pos- 
sessions. She is a normal member of her community ; her 
past history could not be guessed by the most experienced. 

In this case, in spite of the fact that the young sister could 
offer little supervision or wisdom of treatment, and that 
Sally's conduct amply justified a correctional school commit- 
ment, the Court placed her in the one situation where it was 
possible for her to enter normal, constructive human relation- 
ships. Her career in the average institution would probably 
have resulted in rioting, further delinquency, and a fixed 
psychopathic personality. 

Girls who "make good" do not always marry. Some- 
times they are quietly assimilated into their own 
homes; this requires the greatest skill of which the social 
worker is capable. Other girls form social relationships 
outside domestic life and appear to thrive. An increasing 
proportion of delinquent girls succeed in industry. 

ISABEL was a tubercular girl who became delinquent with 
boys and on several occasions forged checks. She always 
dressed in the latest style and showed taste, not to win 
attention from men, but as necessary self-expression. 

A year's study developed the fact that she was struggling 
for a motor and esthetic success. Three years trial and error 
in the community have resulted in securing a successful pro- 
gram. Isabel learned to operate a power machine, and be- 
came the fastest piece-work operator in the factory. She 
demanded higher wages, and walked out. She secured a new 
job at better pay. She went to night school, studied design, 
and perfected a new mechanical short-cut in her machine. 
Again she demanded more money. She was dressed in a slim 
tailored frock with faultless lines, a fur coat, slender satin 
shoes and chiffon hose. 

"What do you want more money for?" asked the ex- 
asperated manufacturer. "You're getting more now than 
any girl I ever had." 

"Do you think I can look the way I do on your old eighteen 
dollars and a half a week? You bet not, and go straight." 

Isabel reached for her becoming hat. She was given 
twenty dollars. She attended two public dances a week, 



dancing until exhausted. The other nights were occupied 
with night school and home piece work for private customers. 
Strange to say her health, which had been poor, improved. 
There was a restless flame at work in her, but she showed 
no sign of biological decay. She never repeated her de- 
linquencies with men ; though on two occasions she ran up 
big bills in clothing stores, she ultimately paid these herself. 
Isabel changed her job six times until she finally went into 
partnership in a silk underwear factory. She is contented. 
For a year she was president of a business girls' club. She 
has a quiet scorn of anything she considers "low" or "com- 
mon ;" she still goes to night school, and has as goal owner- 
ship of her own shop. To other court girls, Isabel is a con- 
stant incentive. 

ONE group of girls rarely make good: those who are 
permanently self-satisfied, suspicious of others, will- 
ing to make trouble by carrying unpleasant remarks; girls 
who are unable to be frank or candid, who risk little, but use 
every chance opening to their own advantage; girls who 
flatter and imitate their probation officers and attendants, 
but secretly undermine authority; girls who are selfish, cool, 
cautious, sarcastic, and immoveably self-righteous. They 
make remarkable inmates of correctional schools, for they 
always "snitch," and are usually neat and industrious. 

Too close supervision is an obstacle to permanent adjust- 
ment of delinquent girls. Constant watchfulness, ready- 
made plans, excessive advice, free help in time of trouble, a 
kind of fussy, brooding anxiety tends to make a girl on 
probation either helpless or rebellious. She cannot cast off 
her crutches. To those who know the dearth of good pro- 
bation work throughout the country, this may cause a smile ; 
but there is vast difference between slackness, ignorance, 
indifferent neglect, which one sees constantly among proba- 
tion officers and social workers, and an intelligent, sturdy 
policy of faith and non-interference with natural processes 
of growth. 

Young people must be given a chance to make decisions 
and to reap the natural (not arbitrarily imposed) conse- 
quences of their mistakes. After the process of adjustment 
has been soundly rooted in good case-work, the best service 
that can be rendered the young delinquent is to give him an 
opportunity for trial and error, the chance to make minor 
failures without being crushed . . . 

Adjustments are possible, under favorable conditions, for 
cases previously dismissed as hopeless. With extended 
knowledge and real work, the number who make good can 
be multiplied beyond anything now demonstrated. 

It must not be understood that these stages in adjust- 
ment insight, transference, development of personality, in- 
creased social relationships have any arbitrary sequence. 
They may occur almost simultaneously. In this field there 
are "miracles," that is, swift transformations of personality 
which we are too ignorant to understand, but which Christ 
understood very well. Mere provision of "good conditions," 
routine, better economic and social measures, good health, 
opportunities for companionship and recreation, "respectabil- 
ity" in the environment, are of little avail unless the central 
springs of the living spirit have somehow been tapped. The 
process is usually that of slow, natural growth; to build 
"moral muscle" takes time. Impatience for results may lead 
to disaster. Faith, tolerance, belief in life, are the chief 
requisites in helping young delinquents to make good. 



Health, Un-Ltd 

By GEDDES SMITH 



OOES money spent for public health actually 
bring returns? If you raise the health of- 
ficer's budget can you thereby lower the 
death rate? Given an honest and efficient 
health officer, most of us would agree un- 
hesitatingly especially if the question re- 
lates to someone else's money. When it is a matter of 
taxes in our own town, the answer is sometimes less prompt 
and decisive. When a city is so sure of the answer that it 
multiplies its health budget more than ten times in a dozen 
years, the evidence that health work pays must have been 
pretty strong. That is what Toronto has done, and as a 
result its general mortality rate and its infant deaths arc 
among the lowest. In certain recent years it has held the 
record for the American continent on both counts. 

Most of us would agree, too, that the way to build up 
a city's health is to have a plan and follow it, to get to- 
gether and stay together in following it. That too is a 
proposition more honored in discussion than in the doing. 
When a city has actually centered its health efforts in a 
single-headed campaign, when a single agency organizes and 
directs the efforts to make and keep folks healthy from 
before birth till death, when public officials and private 
hospitals, nurses and social workers gear into each other's 
jobs smoothly and continuously, that city has somehow 
learned the lesson of coordination "for keeps." That again 
is what Toronto has done. 

Toronto has snowballed its public health effort in the 
last fourteen years. The snowball has grown amazingly 
in bulk and momentum. It has picked up a rich variety 
of accretions. I hope the metaphor will stand the strain 
if I add that its core is an enthusiastic and warm-hearted 
health officer. 



N 1910, Dr. Charles J. Hastings, fifty-two years old, 
after twenty-odd years of practice in Toronto, 



cents per capita on a department of health which had 
some seventy or seventy-five workers, including one public 
health nurse. The infant mortality rate of 139.2 per I,OOO 
live births, and the tuberculosis death rate of 130 per IOO,- 
OOO inhabitants were none too good ; the typhoid mortality 
rate of 44.2 per 100,000 inhabitants was much too high. 
There was a vacancy at the desk of the medical officer of 
health. Dr. Hastings was asked to suggest a suitable ap- 
pointee. He did so, and went on with his plans for the 
fruit ranch. Nothing came of his suggestion at once, and 
presently his friends turned to him and said: "Here, you 
are ready to retire from private practice. You owe it to 
Toronto to take this job yourself." 

Dr. Hastings considered. He had been interested for 
some years in the problems of milk supply, and had indeed 
organized the first milk commission in Canada. He knew 
Toronto needed better milk and more aggressive health 
leadership. He is a man with a passion for accomplish- 
ment ; his keen gray eyes under bushy white brows are those 
of a shrewd and determined fighter. He made his terms: 
the department of health was to be utterly free from politics 
and all varieties of political influence; on that basis he 
would take the office. 



T: 



dickering for a fruit ranch 
in British Columbia. He 
had had a distinguished 
professional career, based 
on education at Toronto, 
L o n d o n , Dublin and 
Edinburgh, and he was 
ready to retire to that 
agreeable stage of medical 
service which consists in 
giving one's attention to 
another man's patients 
when called in consulta- 
tion and to one's own hob- 
bies the rest of ,the time. 

In that year Toronto 
was spending $79,000 27 



was 



I^ 
* 



Laying Hold of Health 

is the story of how one man with vision 
and a knack of getting things done, a phy- 
sician turned health officer, jacked up a muni- 
cipal budget and lowered the death rates in a 
way that carried the whole community with 
him. It is a story with a gleam in it, a story 
with meaning for any man or woman who also 
has a vision and a knack of getting things done, 
who would like to help carry conviction in his 
own city that these things can be done, and 
how. It is a story of Toronto and Dr. Charles 
J . Hastings. 

43 



(HE foundation of Dr. Hastings' political creed is that 
the politicians will do. in the long run, what they think 
the voters want, and no more. Without any effort to "get 
right" with the city councils, therefore, he began his work 
by going directly to the taxpayers and telling them what a 
department of health ought to do, what it could do, and 
what he was going to do if he had the money. He talked 
to club women, to business men, to the churches. He talked 
vigorously and simply, and he won their interest. He talked, 
too, with the editors of all Toronto's newspapers, and they 
put themselves squarely back of him. With one exception, 
they have never failed in the fourteen years since to give 

generous, full and accurate 
publication to the public 
announcements of the de- 
partment, and you can 
hardly thumb through any 
half a dozen issues of 
Toronto newspapers today 
without finding at least a 
scrap of health information 
or advice which comes 
from the city department. 
Given a friendly audi- 
ence, the way was clear for 
Dr. Hastings to drive 
home by unescapable evi- 
dence the fact that health 
work pays. The most press- 



44 



HEALTH UN-LTD. 



reading and fight it to the last ditch. He prompt- 
ly invited the whole group to his office to talk the 
matter over. They came, a little reluctantly. 

They were pretty cool to me when they came in, 
[he says]. Only two or three out of the roomful 
would even shake hands with me. But I began to 
cover the regulations point by point. Leaving aside 
the fact that milk at ordinary household temperatures 
is an unusually good medium for the cultivation of 
bacteria, I put it to them frankly that I would 
withdraw any section if they were honestly convinced 
that it involved anything more than the decent care 
they would give without thinking to any other article 
of diet that came to their own tables. I gave them 
all the time they wanted to ask questions and talk 
the thing out. When they really understood what 
it meant they came around all except two or three 
who complained that the time allowed for getting 
the new apparatus was too short. They wanted 
three or four months. I said, "Gentlemen, I under- 
stand that you will make an honest effort to comply 
with the law. There will be no prosecutions for 
six months." That was the end of it; they all shook 
hands as they went out and they never put in an 
appearance when the council met to pass the 
regulations. 

That is the way Dr. Hastings worked. But it 
was not only the dealers who needed education. 

It wasn't unusual, [he adds] for me to be called 
up on the telephone by citizens who had spent their 
holidays in the country and wanted to know why 
the city milk had a different taste and even a dif- 
ferent color from the country milk. We used to 
explain by telling the story of Nathan Straus's ex- 
periment when he first introduced certified milk at 
his milk depot in New York. He was told that 
the owner of a large dairy herd was indignant over 
what he had read in the papers about certified milk 
and was coming in to see what it was and give Mr. 
Straus a piece of his mind. Mr. S'traus was ready 
ing needs of the city were pure water and milk. Fortunate- for him. When he asked to taste some of that stuff they 
ly these needs also offered the best opportunity for prompt called certified milk a bottle and tumbler were placed in front 

of him He drank part of the sample, and said, 'Do you call 
that milk? It hasn't the least taste of milk. It's some arti- 
ficial preparation just as I expected. Is that all the kind of 
milk you handle here?' 'No,' the attendant answered, 'we 




Dr. CHARLES J. HASTINGS 

Who at 52 set his hand to the municipal health work of Toronto 
and at 60 had achieved the lowest death rate and lowest infant 
mortality rate in any city over 300,000 on the American continent. 
He did not do it alone. He had a plan and he got the people 
together and they stood together in following it through. 



and visible returns, in falling typoid and infant mortality 
rates. 

It was not difficult to persuade the city to provide filtra- 
tion and light chlorination to purify the water supply. That 



have another kind.' He stepped out of sight, put three or 



was a matter entirely within city control. But it was four drops of liquid manure into another bottle, shook it well, 

and brought it out. The dairyman tried it, smacked his lips, 
and said, 'Now, that's real milk! Any fool knows the flavor 
of that.' 



different with milk: there were vested rights to deal with. 
The local dairy farmers and the distributors, it was an- 
ticipated, would resist legislation in the first place and en- 
forcement afterward, unless they could be brought to see 



It was almost as spectacular a bit of publicity that 



the need and value of regulation. Toronto's milk supply clinched popular support for the pure milk campaign in 
came then and still comes from a wide area as far west, 
today, as Windsor and Sarnia, as far east as Kingston 

and bevond, as far north as the Muskoka Lakes-and the When we began testing milk Dr Hastings says, we found 

'i^u i n. L -ii that about 40 per cent of the milk sold in 1 oronto was 

producers were not organized. The distribution of mill watered and on an average t hi s watered milk had 20 per cent 

in the city was split between approximately 125 different O f water . Some samples were found in restaurants that were 

concerns. almost half water. We made a very careful estimate of the 

Dr. Hastings drew up his ordinance, calling for the in- total amount of water in the milk supply of the city and found 

, i i u ii- -ii, that in one vear Toronto citizens had paid $275,000 for water 

spect.on of herds and dairies, sanitary handling of milk, 



thought 



huying milk This was more 



sterilization of utensils and pasteurization. It passed its than the w j, j e expenditure of the health department, and the 

first and second reading in the city councils. Then he pap ers gave plenty of space to this evidence of what a health 

learned that a large delegation of producers and dealers department could save in dollars and cents. 

representing solid business interests and not a few votes 

were preparing to appear before the council at its third Meanwhile the department s inspectors were winning the 



HEALTH UN-LTD. 



45 



good will and confidence of the dairy farmers. 
The city sent out competent veterinarians to in- 
spect dairy herds, and quietly advised them not 
to attend too exclusively to that particular task. 
If a farmer had horses and pigs as well as cows 
the inspector would look them all over and give 
him what help he could with them. Many of the 
producers knew little about the actual productivity 
of their cows. The inspectors suggested simple 
records which would enable them to weed out the 
unprofitable ones. In such ways the farmer was 
won as an ally of the health officer. Violations 
of the regulations by milk distributors became 
rare, and the newspapers helped to make careless- 
ness unprofitable by reporting them fully. And 
the typhoid rate was cut from 44.2 in 1910 to 
2.5 in 1923. Of these deaths more than half were 
non-residents. Meanwhile Toronto, having good 
milk to drink and hearing constantly of its value, 
drank more and more of it; the per capita con- 
sumption has risen to 0.81 pts. (Imperial) in 
1923. 

THIS was only the opening salvo of what the 
newsmen came to call the Battle of Hastings. 
Year after year the doctor carried his balance 
sheet to the people and a little larger budget to 
the councils. It was not his way to roll up big 
delegations of citizens to storm the council cham- 
ber. "I wanted to fight that fight single-handed," 
he says. But he made sure the people knew what 
they were getting for their money. The one pub- 
lic health nurse was multiplied by forty. In 1911 
a housing inspection service was begun ; in its first 
year it had 5,000 of 18,000 existing privies re- 
placed by sanitary plumbing. There are barely 
^OO left now those in outlying unsewered sections of the 
city. In 1915 Toronto led the way with a division of in- 
dustrial hygiene, which stressed ventilation and sanitation 
in workshops and tackled the problem of trade dusts and 



175 
150 
125 
100 
75 
50 
25 
0, 




175 
ISO 
125 
100 
75 
50 
25 


90 






















PUBLIC HEALTH 
EXPENDITURE 

A. NO 

CONTROL^ DISEASE 














































1 
















II 














III 


WEBAOE <f YEARS : YEAR 
905-09 19IO-I4I9IS-K 1920 1921 1322 1923 

EXPENDITURE 

CENTS PER CAPITA 


AVERASE^YtWWl YEAR 

MMMMfMHt! IMP IMI 22 1923 
TYPHOID FEUER. SCARLET FEUEt 

and DIPHTHERIA 
Combined MorMitg Rtrtepr/00i& 



, LIFE AND DEATH AND COSTS AT A GLANCE 

Does money spent for the public health actually bring returns? That 
depends on how it is spent. When a city is so sure of the answer 
that it multiplies its health budget over ten times in a dozen years, the 
evidence before it that health work pays must have been pretty 
strong. That is what Toronto has done. 



gases. The general mortality rate had been hammered 
down more than ten points in the first two years of the 
new regime, while the per capita appropriation was in- 
creased more than half. But for (Continued on page 58) 



THE TORONTO PROGRAM 



CAUSES OF DEATH 
TORONTO I92E 




The problem 



158 






13/0 1912 
DlPOIUTURC 



Ccn/s per Cjpfti 



/rsmuLTS 

ISO 



Hi. 



1910 I3& 1910 13% 

TUBERCULOSIS 



13/Q Iffi 



RATl PH 1000 I 'OlATHS PCK 100.006 PfOPLf 

Liac BIRTHS I HI nmonro isiO'mz 



The process 



MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE 

TORONTO 1922 




The proportion 




Herrin 



By McALISTER COLEMAN 



L 



The big shovel at 
the Lester strip- 
mine midway be- 
tween Herrin and 
Marion, blown 
up during the so- 
called Herrin riots 
of 1922 



ON the twenty-ninth of August last, Rotar- 
ians from the eighth district of Illinois jour- 
neyed out to the pretty little country club of 
Herrin in Williamson County to participate 
in a golf tournament. The neighboring town 
of Harrisburg's team won with a low score 
of 459. Following this, dinner was served by the ladies 
of the Herrin churches and the Rotarians listened to a solo 
sung by Mrs. George Otey of Herrin, called "Rotarianne." 
On the following day, George Galligan, sheriff of Wil- 
liamson County, accompanied by deputies Bud Allison 
and Ora Thomas drove over from Marion, the county seat 
of Williamson and stopped at the garage of J. H. Smith, 
a klan sympathizer. Smith's garage is on a quiet side 
street, flanked by substantial bungalows, not far from where 
Mrs. Otey sang "Rotarianne." 
The sheriff had been sent by 
State's Attorney Duty to re- 
cover a stolen automobile be- 
lieved to be stored in the 
klansman's garage. Duty had 
heard that this machine had 
been used by Joe Skelcher, an 
anti-kjansman of Herrin who 
was commonly supposed to have 
attacked Glenn Young, the 
klan's hired gunman, last May, 
on the Kaw River flats up by 
Belleville. Young was wound- 
ed and his wife was blinded 
by shots fired on him at that 
time. The story runs that 
Young's assailants left him and 
his wife bleeding by the road- 
side and turned back their ma- 
chine towards Herrin in a wild 
night ride of many hours. On 
the outskirts of Herrin they 
were met by an armed band, 



VISITING aeroplanes and indigenous 
impassable roads; covered wagons on 
the streets alongside the latest model auto- 
mobiles; moving picture theatres costing 
$100,000 with hitch-racks behind them 
where the farmers' mules snap querul- 
ously at flies all day; golf links a few 
short blocks from wide-open gambling 
joints where gun-play is a common affair 
this southern delta of Illinois called 
Egypt, is a. place of startling contrasts. 

While newspapers like the Chicago 
Tribune and the St. Louis Post-Despatch 
inform their readers that Williamson 
County is "doomed" and outlaw it as 
having passed beyond the pale of civili- 
zation, it isn't really as simple as that. It 
is the first job of those who are not will- 
ing to blot off a fairly large part of the 
state of Illinois to come to an understand- 
ing of its inhabitants. 

46 



popularly supposed to be klansmen, who fired on then;, 
killing Skelcher. The machine in which Skelcher was rid- 
ing had disappeared but Duty heard that Smith and his 
fellow-klansmen had it in hiding and he sent the more or 
less reluctant sheriff over to fetch it back to Marion. 

Galligan has had his fill of fighting since he was elected 
sheriff. He has been barricaded in the Herrin hospital 
by gun-toting klansmen, kidnapped in a machine and taken 
to jail in Champagne, forced into hiding in Chicago. He 
evidently figured there was trouble coming on this last 
mission so he took two of his fastest shooting deputies with 
him. The writer did not know Bud Allison, one of the 
deputies, but he does know Ora Thomas, the other, very 
well indeed and he heartily approves the sheriff's choice. 
Ora used to work in a mine in Williamson and he has the 
slow, quiet speech of the Southern Illinois coal-digger. He 
is in his early thirties, a tall, easy-to-look-at, curly-haired 
man with the long white fingers of an artist and an eye 
for a target that is unrivalled even in Williamson. Ever 
since the Herrin mine riot trials when he worked as legal 
investigator for his fellow miners, he has been engaged 
in what at times has seemed to be a one-man fight against 
the Williamson klan. Rumor makes him head of the 
"Knights of the Flaming Circle," an organization com- 
posed for the most part of miners, which wages unceasing 
war upon the hooded brethren. Ora has been shot at many 
times, indicted for all sorts of crimes and finally deputized 
by his friend George Galligan, who himself carries a union 
card. It must be understood that my admiration for Ora 

does not extend to all his acts. 
But I just can't help liking the 
devil-may-care light in his eye 
and the way he walks the 
streets of Herrin with baleful 
glances following his straight 
back. 

The garage proprietor wasn't 
around when Galligan's party 
drew up, but sitting in the back 
of the garage was a man with 
four guns strapped on him. 
Galligan says this was a klans- 
man and that he immediately 
opened fire upon the official in- 
truders. 

Then, as the Marion Daily 
Republican describes the affair 
in the same issue in which the 
account of the Rotarian golf 
tournament appears, "hell broke 
loose." Galligan says that 
klansmen drove up in automo- 
biles and opened fire with small 



H E R R I N 



47 



arms and rifles. From behind a grape-arbor across the 
street from the garage someone fired shots that killed Bud 
Allison and wounded Ora Thomas. The sheriff's sixteen- 
year-old son came along and took active part in the affray. 
When it was all over, six men were dead ; Allison, a by- 
stander, and four of the party who had attacked Galligan. 

The sheriff withdrew to the hospital where he barricaded 
himself and put in a long distance telephone call to Spring- 
field asking Adjutant General Black to send militia down 
to Herrin, a request familiar enough at the Springfield 
headquarters. 

So the troops were sent and Herrin once more arrived 
on the front page of the papers of the country, a position 
which it has occupied with marked consistency since the 
Herrin mine riots of 1922. 

WHAT sort of a community is this where Rotarians 
revolve peacefully around well-kept golf-links, where 
homes of real beauty stand back from smiling lawns on 
wide streets, where the high school debating team shares 
its victories with a bang-up basket-ball team and where 
klan and anti-klan ride about "gun-ganging" one on the 
other? 

For you mustn't think of Herrin as a wild mining-camp 
with muddy streets and crazy shacks falling into them. 
Herrin has been out of the mud for at least twenty years. 
It has the aspects of a standardized mid-west town, a paved 
Main Street crowded with shiny machines, a grandiose Elks 
Club, a Fire Department and some truly magnificent filliiii:- 
stations all the appurtenances in fact of our twentieth 
century civilization, including radios and commodious boot- 
legging parlors. Salesmen tell you Herrin is a good town 
when the militia aren't there and that its hotel is the 
best in "Egypt," as Southern Illinois coal-fields are called. 

What has happened recently in Herrin is what has hap- 
pened in many parts of the Southwest, not so conspicuously 
in the lime-light as Herrin. The Ku Klux Klan is seeking 
to dominate the religious, political and economic life of the 
community and parts of the community are fighting back 
by use of the methods they inherited from an ancestry of 
Kentucky and Tennessee feudalists who came across the 
Ohio River and settled Williamson County soon after the 
Civil War. 

For, first of all, it must be recognized that Williamson 
County is a southern community. Geographically, it is. 



. 




The jail is the pride of the county seat. It is also the residence 
of the sheriff and the center of hospitality for visiting basket- 
ball teams etc. 

farther south than Louisville, Kentucky. Spring comes 
here nearly a month ahead of Chicago. To ride down from 
Lake Michigan in the early part of April is to pass from 
a place of cold winds that nip early buds to a smiling coun- 
try-side with the brief beauty of a Southern spring already 
upon it. 

And Williamson is southern too, historically and spirit- 
ually. During the Civil War there was a constant guerilla 
warfare here between bands of northern troops and south- 
ern sympathizers. The strong personality of General John 
Logan, a native of Williamson, who led a regiment against 
the Confederates, had much to do with finally keeping 





A Williamson Ccunty Main Street New Style. Machines 

parked on Saturday afternoon in. the totcn square of the 

.county seat 



Old Style. Behind the town square are the hitch-racks fcr 
folk who still travel by horse power. Marion, Illinois 



at in the union. The feuds that this sharp division 
of sympathies engendered smouldered on long after the war. 
Mountaineers hailing originally from Kentucky and Ala- 
bama fought out their grudges with rifles, knives and shot- 
guns all across the county. The only available history of 
Williamson is called "The Bloody Vendetta" and it details, 
in bombastic style the commission of almost incredible deeds^ 
of violence, extending over twenty years. 

Inadequate transportation service cut off the farmers of 

Egypt from their energetic Northern neighbors who were 

finding fortunes in the rich black loam that ends abruptly 

at Egypt's boundaries. 

.The Williamson fanners grew their corn and wheat and 1 



48 



HERRIN 



took what they could get for it. They dozed in the sun 
or rode into town to hear the G.A.R. veterans recounting 
their stories of Shiloh and Antietam. 




A*JD then with the suddenness of a summer shower, came 
the discovery that changed the face of the country-side 

almost overnight. Under this lean land was a fat wealth 

of bituminous coal. The farmer who had been listlessly 

scratching in his corn-rows was in realiy treading on the 

roof of a treasure-trove. Operators in Chicago, reading 

the reports of their geologists, sent their agents everywhere 

through Williamson, Franklin, Saline and Jackson Coun- 

ties buying mineral rights from the astounded natives. A 

new type of worker appeared the 

miner with his pit-clothes and safety- 

lamp, his devil-may-care attitude 

towards life and most significant of 

all, his symbol of an organizing 

m j nc l the union card. The older 

farmers, passionately individualistic, 

.abhorring the idea of rooting about 

in dark places away from the fam- 

iliar sun and winds, drew back from 

this intruder. Their sons, learning 
of the money to be made in this 

new and adventurous enterprise, 

lined up in front of the mine com- 

panies' employment offices. 

There followed a brief and bloody 

contest between the union and the 

Chicago operators over the right to organize the new fields. 

It culminated in the Carterville riots of 1898. Colored 
strike-breakers walked about the streets of Carterville. 
A running fight started in which strike-breakers were killed 
and many union men wounded. Carterville was unionized 
and all Egypt followed suit. 

There were no further attempts to break the union's hold 
until Joseph Leiter of Chicago, the "wheat Leiter," at- 
tempted to operate non-union at Zeigler not far from Her- 
rin in 1910. They show you today the spot from which his 
search-lights swept the tents of evicted miners and his ma- 
chine gun bullets droned across the corn-fields near the 
mine. There were more killings and Leiter capitulated. 
It was in the face of such a history that during the coal 
strike, W. J. Lester, of Cleveland, tried his luck in working 
a non-union mine with machine-guns and armed guards. 

It was sons (and daughters) of the fighters of the old 
Williamson vendetta days who reverted to gun and knife 
in the rioting at the Lester strip mine five miles from Herrin 
on that bloody day in June, 1922. They killed some score 
of detectives and non-union workers who had come armed 
into their county from Chicago. The two trials that fol- 
lowed failed to convict anyone for participation in the 
rioting. 

Yet unlike the history of the county, the record of the 
union in Williamson is not given over entirely to chronicles 
of war-fare. The sub-district with headquarters at Herrin 
is one of the strongest of the units that go to make up the 
Illinois Mine Workers' Union (technically Sub-District No. 
12, United Mine Workers of America), and the Illinois 
Mine Workers' Union has been called "the most powerful 
unit of organized labor in the country." 

Under the business-like leadership of Frank Farrington, 
.president of the Illinois Mine Workers, the union has 



won concessions from the operators enjoyed by few 
other organized districts. The rates of pay for Illinois 
miners are fixed by national agreements, $7.50 for day men, 
piece-work pay for the diggers and machine men that runs 
from $8 to as high as $10 or $12 according to conditions. 
It is in the amount of compensation collected, the laws gov- 
erning working conditions and the assurance of complete 
solidarity that the Illinois coal-digger enjoys exceptional ad- 
vantages. In most instances he owns his home, a bungalow 
with a small garden in back and a bit of green in front. 
He owns a Ford or a Chevrolet or shares one with his neigh- 
bors. If this statement smacks of the "silk-shirts and auto- 
mobile" propaganda (of the operators), it must be remem- 
bered that the roads in Williamson are so atrocious and the 
rail service so poor that the small automobile takes the place 
of work-car, trolley and bicycle. 

For the coal-digger the local union meeting-place is at 
once sanctuary, social center, club and church. His life is 
the life of the organization that has kept him from the serf- 
dom of his non-union West Virginia and Pennsylvania fel- 
low-workers and when you attack that organization you are 
attacking the thing that he prizes most dearly. Because of 
the union and the solid front it presents to every attempt to 
disrupt it, he can send his children to grade-school, even per- 
haps to high-school, buy decent clothes for his wife and him- 
self and hold a position of respect in his community. He can 
and does run for mayor or sheriff on the Labor ticket and 
receive the sort of backing from the union that assures elec- 
tion. He and his followers can break the largest local store 
or most prosperous hostile newspaper by the quiet use of 
boycott. He saw red when he watched the habitue of Chi- 
cago flop-houses patrolling public highways in his county, 
armed with high-powered rifles to protect men, who were 
working to break his organization. 

Beyond this unshakeable faith in organization however, the 
vision of the rank and file of union men and their leaders 
in Williamson has not thus far progressed. Such enterprises 
of the new unionism as co-operation, adult educational work 
and health conservation have made little headway. The 
12,000 miners of Williamson have no central labor hall, no 
common meeting-place. Their only contact with the world of 
labor outside of Egypt comes through their weekly paper, The 
Illinois Miner. While The Miner is generally conceded to 
be one of the most progressive and catholic papers in the 
labor field it cannot perform the functions of social worker, 
health lecturer and labor educator. 

IT is this isolation, physical and mental, that dwarfs the 
growth of Williamson through all sections of soceity. It 
growth of Williamson through all sections of society. It 
makes for a brooding, neurotic, clannish people suspicious 
of outsiders, inhospitable in the extreme. The spokesmen for 
the so-called "upper classes" (by which is indicated the 
doctors, dentists, druggists, bankers, lawyers and their pursy- 
mouthed, bespectacled wives) are insufferably snobbish and 
unbelievably self-satisfied. Descendants of feudists and the 
rag-tag and bob-tail of poor white camp-followers they 
throw coal-diggers, radicals, niggers, wops, Catholics, high- 
brows, pro-Germans and Darwinites into a common dust- 
heap of hate. Nordics "100 per centers to a man," they 
offer a happy hunting-ground for Ku Klux Klan kleagles. 
They are shrewd enough, however, to keep their member- 
ship a secret from their union (Continued on page 56) 




EDITORIALS 






HOWEVER we may regard the Independent-Pro- 
gressive candidatures as a political innovation 
and apart from personalities and particular pro- 
posals \ve may all find ourselves indebted to this 
new movement for bringing economic and social considera- 
tions, which lie close to the life and labor of the common 
lot of Americans, clear through into the arena of searching 
public discussion. These, the older parties with their mixed 
memberships tended, otherwise, to elide for the sake of 
party unity. 

And whatever the outcome of the November elections, 
we may hope that the campaign will at least demonstrate 
the call for a thorough overhauling of our present govern- 
mental machinery to meet the stress of the industrial changes 
which have swept in in the last fifty years: a survey if you 
will of our present "state of the nation" ; competent analyses 
of immediate needs linked with forecasts of those of longer 
range, all as a basis for an honest, intelligent and just effort 
to meet those needs either with our present machinery or 
with new tools and new methods. Our utter failure to 
cash in the results of the coal inquiry of two years ago and 
to meet the situation confronting miners, consumers, in- 
vestors, with a constructive fuel program turned to action, 
does not, to be sure, raise hope too high as to the consequences 
to be expected from such a canvass. But that failure at 
least illuminates causes which are at the bottom of wide- 
spread social unrest; it is at least a charge upon each of us 
in our individual capacity to do serious stock taking. 

We face new situations daily. We crave adequate read- 
justments in our changing environment. Some of us may 
feel that surer and in the long run swifter progress in 
setting our house in order may be made if we make haste 
slowly. Some of us are chiefly concerned with routing out 
what's worn-out, obsolete, unjust and parasitic; some with 
building afresh. But we can all hail the clash of sincere 
opinion ; can hold with Tennyson that there is truth in 
honest doubt, can welcome innovation if it helps to clarify 
men's thinking and clear the ground for common action. 
That is the process of democracy. What is to be dreaded 
more than anything else is the closed mind, the complacency 
which comes from satisfaction with things as they are. If 
life means anything more to man than the lower animals 
it means aspiration, growth, pioneering. 




' A BOVE all else," once said Joseph Lee, "the Ameri- 
^ y_ can people like open plumbing." Political move- 
ments, as such, fall outside what has been the traditional 
subject field of the Survey. But when social or civic or 



economic factors with which we are concerned enter into 
legislation or politics, we do not abandon their consideration. 
We hold our ground : disentangle them as best we may, and 
appraise them according to our lights. So doing, any bias in 
these pages may be the better discounted if the editor of The 
Survey puts down, for the information of his readers, that 
he will vote for LaFollette and Wheeler in November. He 
will do so for reasons he feels to be implicit in the foregoing. 
Yet that appraisal of our situation is drawn from the 
letter of a midwestern business man, long a member of 
Survey Associates, whose vote in November will be for 
Davis ; under whose leadership, and with the prick of a strong 
minority, he feels that the Democratic party may "start 
from the point to which it came under Woodrow Wilson 
and progress surely but courageously forward into the 
future." Next week we shall carry a review of the study 
of the Preparation of Calvin Coolidge, now in press, on 
which his college mate, Robert A. Woods, of South End 
House, Boston, has been at work these last six months. 
He approaches the career of the Republican nominee as may- 
or, governor, and president from the angle of the social 
worker in a way to bring out, in the author's words, "how 
the same traits and the same human point of view appear 
throughout." 

We may differ, the three of us, as to ways ahead; but 
we share long objectives. These we hold in common as, 
against some of our various political bed-fellows. And 
that is true of many who will go their varying roads in the 
November balloting; prophetic, mayhap, of re-alignments in 
the years to come. Two passages from our mid-western cor- 
respondent follow verbatim. They are offered as the picture- 
of an American voter off his job and out in the woods with, 
his sons where he has been "brushing away the cobwebs of 
every-day living." It is a picture to conjure with, hopefully. 

You who deal with ideas, who come in contact with living, 
thinking men and women, cannot imagine the poverty of one 
who, by force of circumstances not choice is dealing with 
things: real estate, bonds, people whose thinking is largely 
materialistic. And yet, as I wrote an artist friend last year, 
one can fashion and create, dream and build, if not castles, 
other things of beauty and utility. One can have the spirit of 
the artist even if his media be prosaic bricks and mortar, city 
streets and playgrounds. I deny that the days of the pioneer 
have passed away, that this is an age without adventure. I 
know that there are wildernesses still to be explored, big- 
game yet to be hunted; daring and courage are needed if one 
is to live largely and work greatly even in the typical Ameri- 
can city. 

What we need and need badly is a stirring of our imagina- 
tion, a revived spirit and a will and passion for justice and 
beauty. I cannot become pessimistic. When I hear that a 
book like So Big is a large seller, when I see that the effect of 
men like MacDonald and Herriot, I know that latent in us 
there is much of good. 

If each of us can make some contribution toward that larger,, 
freer, fuller life when all men everywhere may have oppor- 



49 



5C 



EDITORIALS 



tunity, both material and spiritual, to grow and develop, we 
may feel that we have been among the Givers. The sun is 
high and bright; my boy calls me. I look out over a lake 
sparkling in the sunlight. It all seems prophetic. Heaven 
above, a goodly earth beneath, man struggling ever onward and 
upward. Another young life touched with the mystery of the 
universe, inspired by beauty and learning that the mountains 
can be reached only by a long, long trail. 



demonstrations, which seek to lift the levels for an entire 
area for a period of years, for what might be termed organ- 
ized self-health. 




TOO-EAGER uplifters could find a moral in the story 
of an enterprising young book agent who set about 
selling an encyclopedia of farming. One of his first pros- 
pects was a seedy person, whose leaky shanty was surrounded 
by a waste strewn with weeds and broken farm implements, 
among which three hens and two stray pigs were picking 
a desultory living. As the salesman stopped for breath 
after setting forth the riches of the book, which surely would 
re-double profits in a year, the farmer shifted the last ounce 
of his weight to the tree at which he had paused to listen ; 
and remarked, "Young man, I ain't farmin' now as well 
as I know how." 

Such, barring its pleasant honesty, is the attitude which 
blocks progress in many social fields in which the scien- 
tific knowledge, painstakingly collected and verified, lies 
unused merely because there is not sufficient popular inter- 
est to sow its teachings and reap their rewards. In the 
domain of public health, as the professional health workers 
themselves have pointed out, we know enough to add five 
years to the average American expectancy of life whenever, 
as communities and individuals, we care enough to take the 
trouble and to incur the expense. The startling successes 
in the struggle against illness and death are those which 
involve the conquest of communicable diseases smallpox, 
typhoid, tuberculosis, cholera, yellow fever and the ail- 
ments of infancy, in which the bulk of the trouble and re- 
sponsibility can be taken by an able and energetic health 
officer or a solicitous parent. Discouraging by contrast is 
the line, level or slanting upward, which pictures the static 
or growing incidence of the diseases of middle and later 
life heart disease, cancer, kidney disease, diabetes. Here 
gain can be made only through the desire of people to culti- 
vate the habits and practices which will conserve and build 
up their own health ; here the stake is that priceless personal 
endowment in which so many otherwise intelligent persons 
are little interested as long as they have it. 

Tens of thousands of men and women will die this year 
because they do not care enough for their lives. 

Caught in a corner, they will fight for their lives: 
their emotional centers will take care of that. Injured or 
fevered on a hospital bed, they will fight for them: every 
nerve ganglion will see to that. But when the issue hangs 
not on a crisis but on applying the science of living to their 
mode of life, the encounter shifts to the seat of their 
intelligence, their habits, their wills and we are most of us 
shown up as bunglers. The agitation for periodic health 
examinations is aimed at that individual indifference and 
irresponsibility which make us such. And quite as signi- 
ficant, in contrast to the clean-up weeks, the swift sanitary 
strokes and the other features of our early fights against 
the epidemics, is the mounting concern of our newer health 




IN bringing out this month its extensive report for 1923, 
the Milbank Fund announces the Bellevue-Yorkville dis- 
trict of New York City as the metropolitan area in its series 
of such health demonstrations. The selection of the middle 
East side of Manhattan is significant in the light of the 
trend we have indicated. Nothing is more noteworthy in 
this report than the insistence that this great organized 
undertaking will not achieve success unless it is "conducted 
by and not on the people in the demonstration centers," and 
to the end set by one member of its advisory council, that 
public health "be made a part of our annual personal budgets 
and not be left entirely to the makers of municipal, county, 
and state budgets." The series of demonstations Cattar- 
augus County as the rural area, Syracuse as the urban, and 
the New York district as the metropolitan, give scope not 
only for testing the agencies and devices of organization 
available in the different types of communities, but also 
for working out the psychological approaches necessary to 
meet and influence different kinds of habits of mind, on 
which the achievement must rest if it is real. 




THE demonstration program itself summarizes the heart- 
ening experience of the past five years in making human 
life surer, and to that extent, happier. It designates the out- 
standing factors of preventive medicine and hygiene as: 
tuberculosis, communicable disease, school hygiene, matern- 
ity, infancy and child hygiene, social hygiene, mental hygiene, 
industrial hygiene, sanitation and food inspection, health 
conservation and life extension. Because communities have 
had a longer experience in the prevention and control of 
tuberculosis than in others of these fields, an effective cam- 
paign against tuberculosis is the keystone of the arch, but 
there is clear recognition that it will drop to the ground 
without the other stones. The report summarizes the eager 
search for knowledge and the unstinted efforts put forward 
in the past two generations in these chosen fields ; it analyzes 
the communities studied in the course of the choice of the 
demonstration areas ; and it estimates that the whole program 
can be put into effect by any community at a cost of $3 per 
capita per annum. In accordance with its policy of work- 
ing through existing agencies and supplementing them only 
where such aid is necessary to an effective result, the fund 
will bear not more than $i per capita per annum. On the 
whole project the fund probably will spend between $1,500,- 
OOO and $2,OOO,OOO during five years ; and this is carefully 
plotted on a descending scale so that the communities will 
not be confronted with a sudden break at the close of the 
allotted period. 

The riches, material and otherwise, which would accrue to 
a community able to comprehend and practise individually and 
collectively the wisdom thus brought to the service of three 
fortunate groups, could hardly be pictured too glowingly. 



Social Studies 




Conducted by 

Joseph K. Hart 



Current Trends and Inclusions 



IN this issue we sweep from the "days of the ancients" to 
the most modern industrial and social developments in 
cities like Pittsburgh and Toronto; and from the Rotary 
Club and golf course life of Herrin back to the days of 
primitive vendetta. We see scientific research hard at work 
trying to learn how to control the ravages of disease and, near 
by, primitive passions, sometimes highly organized, trying to 
continue the ravages of hate. We find the scientific student of 
history raising grave doubts as to the validity of most of our 
social institutions and assumptions, and even questioning the 
capacity of men to carry the burden of civilization. We see 
families being wrecked by the very efforts their members are 
making to support these families and make them secure. We 
see children being destroyed by certain of our community dere- 



lictions, while we are busy with efforts to save the rest by 
means of laws having far-reaching legal and social implica- 
tions. We see local wars in one part of America and, not 
far away, lagging efforts to understand and control the making 
of international wars. Here are pictures of moments and 
events and special areas of contemporary civilization. Here are 
problems and aspirations and programs. Here is little room 
for idle complacency large room for imagination, intelligence, 
courage, faith. Here are the current trends, the striking ten- 
dencies, the challenging problems which have come to the at- 
tention of the editors of this magazine, and which they pass 
on, as subjects of inquiry, as problems and as evidence, to 
the students who are its readers. The world is full of subjects 
of inquiry. The problems are not all solved. The evidence 
is not all in. Of these things the future is being made: 



ANALYTIC INDEX OF THIS ISSUE 



1. Child Welfare: 

The Child Labor amendment, p. 16 
What is delinquency? p. 39 
Behavior problems in children, p. 40 

2. Family Welfare: 

What comes of being late to supper, p. 26 

3. Law and Lawbreakers: 

The Leopold-Loeb case, p. 7 ff 

The K. K. K. as law enforcers, p. 46 ff 

The law and the Klan in Herrin, p. 46 ff 

4. Conquest of Disease: 

The fight against Diabetes, p. 23 ff 
Conquering disease, Why not? p. 50 

5. Promotion of Health: 

Toronto's health program, p. 43 ff 
Milbank Health Demonstrations, p. 50 

6. Mental Hygiene: 

Fatigue, p. 28 

The uses of psychiatry in social work, p. 39 

Psychiatry in criminal cases, p. 7 ff 

7. Organizing Social Forces: 

Politics in Texas, p. 17 
Toronto's health program, p. 43 ff 
Understanding war, p. n 
The Klan in Herrin, p. 46 f 
Getting things done, p. 15, 17 
Conferences for peace, p. 10 ff 
The Hungry Club of Pittsburgh, p. 21 
The Progressive's program, p. 49 

8. Town Planning: 

Old Zuhi cities, pp. 29-32, 35, 36 



9. City Communities: 

End of the day's work p. 26 
A small city community, p. 56 
Fundamentalism in Pittsburgh, p. 22 

10. Country Communities: 

Feeding the city, p. 44 f 
Community life in Herrin, p. 47 
A small town church, p. 56 
Cattaraugus County experiment, p. 50 

11. Immigration and Race Relations: 

The Pueblos and the government, p. 33 ff 

12. School and Community: 

What is history? p. 18 ff 

13- Education Outside the School: 
Uses of leisure, p. 56 

Educating the Toronto community, p. 43 ff 
Education in Herrin, p. 56 
Education by the K. K. K., p. 17 
Community controls in Pittsburgh, p. 22 
International education, p. 12 
The government fears ideas, p. 59 

14. Industrial Conditions: 

Union and non-union miners, p. 46 ff 

15. Industrial Relations: 

Recovering from the war in Herrin, p. 46 ff 

16. Social Invention in Industry: 

Lack of progress in Southern Illinois, p. 53 

17. Peace and International Relations: 

Work for the World Court, p. u 
Can we buy peace? p. 9 ff 



51 



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vvvvvtvvvtvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvivvvvvvvvv\vvvvvvvvvvvvvv* 

Children 

Like 
Mary Gay 

Grownups like unusual exhibits 

We can send Mary Gay to 
you in a suitcase theatre, make 
an exhibit to catch the eye or 
help you plan your county 
fair booth or tent. 

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141 East 17th Street, New York City 




A LARGE number of Americans feel as, for example, the 
responses to the Bok peace prize contest showed that 
America should do something real to improve international re- 
lationships and to prevent "the next war." The Carnegie En- 
dowment, with its wealth, prestige and years of experience, is 
naturally looked to for leadership in this endeavor. 

The World Court is regarded by these Americans as a 
significant, concrete step in the direction of peace. When this 
survey began some months ago, Senator Pepper's committee 
was holding a public hearing in Washington on the subject of 
the Court. The response was impressive. Men and women 
representing all sides of American life flocked to the capital. 
The Federation of Churches, Federated Women's Clubs, the 
American Federation of Labor ; lawyers and college presidents ; 
various peace societies, including the World Peace Founda- 
tion of Boston (endowed by the late Mr. Ginn after the man- 
ner of the Carnegie fund, but more modestly) were all repre- 
sented by spokesmen who followed one another for two days, 
arguing for participation in the Court and protesting against 
the Senate's inactivity in failing to report the matter out of 
committee. 

The Endowment, and its child, the American Peace Society, 
both of which have offices in Washington, were conspicuous 
by their absence. This failure was explained as due to the 
Endowment's policy of avoiding contentious questions, but it 
was not understood by most of the private individuals who 
had come at considerable trouble and expense to perform what 
they believed to be a public duty. In 1917, the trustees had 
passed a resolution pledging the Endowment to "make a special 
effort to overcome the remaining obstacles to the establish- 
ment of an international court of justice." It seemed logical 
to look to the Endowment and the American Peace Society 
for visible support if not active leadership and they looked 
in vain. 

At the same time, in Washington, the Women's Interna- 
tional League of Peace and Freedom was holding its fourth 
convention. Women from all over the world had come 
Europe, South America, the Far East. Some of them held 
political theories more radical than most of ours. It might 
be objected that conferences of this sort merely result in a 
whipping-up of emotional enthusiasm without concrete results. 
Nevertheless, women of the type of Miss Jane Addams, who 
acted as chairman, cannot be dismissed as negligible; nor such 
a coming together of women from the ends of the earth as 
insignificant. It represented at least a certain potentiality, a 
reservoir of good-will. 

Washington did not receive these visitors, however, with 
any marked hospitality. The fire-breathing Daughters of 1812 
endeavored to get the management of the hotel in which the 
sessions were held to throw them out altogether. One en- 
lightened Congressman asked the Department of Justice to 
proceed against the ladies on the ground that they were in the 
pay of the Russian Bolsheviks. Senator Borah was one of the 
four or five American males, who had the grace to take part 
in the sessions and add theirs to the general voice. Neither 
the Endowment nor the American Peace Society were repre- 
sented in any way, nor ventured a word in the women's de- 
fense. 

WHILE it is possible to overstress the connection between 
economic rivalries and the war and to assume too lightly 
that if raw materials were equitably distributed international 
conflicts would cease, certainly this aspect of international 
friction is receiving more and more attention, and the economic 
as well as the political development of the international idea, 
is becoming increasingly important. The application to the 
economic causes of war of the political forms which may tend 
to check them is one of the tasks now facing statesmanship. 
In studying the economic results of the Great War, the En- 
dowment will cast a retrospective light on this subject, but 



52 



iln attacking the prevention of future disagreements for which 
economic activities are now preparing, it has yet to be heard 
irom. 

IT was inevitable, as the Endowment shook itself together, 
that its work should become standardized, and its funds 
more and more applied under its own direction. The vague 
connotation of unlimited wealth in the mere word "Carnegie," 
naturally attracts all sorts of visionary or self-seeking sug- 
gestions, and in the course of a dozen year's experience the 
administrators of such a fund necessarily acquire a pretty 
expeditious technique in dealing with applicants. 

Necessary as this protective coloring is, it seems doubtful 
if the Endowment is as open as it should be to new sugges- 
tions. It was Mr. Root himself who said in 1920: "We are 
beating around on the mere surface of things and by 'we* 
I do not mean this organization, I mean governments. What 
has been done hitherto is mere attempt to bind the giant with 
silk ribbons. Money will not do it. The only advantage in hav- 
ing money is that it may help some personality to become effect- 
ive." And yet Mr. Root is one of the first to distrust any 
unorthodox straying from precedent or what he would regard 
as interference with the statesmanship which should be left 
to Foreign Offices and accredited diplomats. 

It would be easy to fill this paper with suggestions, of vary- 
ing value, which have been declined by the Endowment. Here, 
to take one at random, is a professor trying to make a com- 
parative study of the history text-books of various nations, 
with the aim of pointing out the nationalistic bias of each (the 
different accent put, for example, on the story of Waterloo 
in France, in England and in Germany) and arriving at some- 
thing approaching "absolute" truth. 

Interesting and useful pioneering this, in a direction that 
ought, eventually, to have something to do with lessening na- 
tionalistic vanity and prejudice. But the work called for certain 
expenses which the professor was trying to meet from his own 
pocket and the Endowment was asked to help. It declined. 
That in itself means nothing, of course. The available funds 
may all have been assigned and scores of such suggestions 
must be turned down. And yet it seems not improper to 
measure the probable fruitfulness of such work with some of 
the minor enterprises actually undertaken by the Endowment 
the translation into Spanish, for instance, in a library of 
American of which, thus far, only five volumes have been 
published, of two of the trustee's books, one by Dr. Butler 
and one by Professor James Brown Scott. 

In view of the fact that such important work as that of 
the Institute of International Education had to be cut off be- 
cause of lack of funds the public may also not unreasonably 
ask for a pretty clear explanation of the expenditure, at the 
same time, of certain sums on reconstruction in countries with 
which we are supposed to be the best of international friends. 
Thus 10,000 was given towards the repair of Westminster 
Abbey; $107,000 towards the repair of the library at Lou- 
vain; a new library was built at Rheims and another at Bel- 
grade, Servia; $150,000 to construct a model public square 
in the Commune of Fargniers, Department of the Aisne. 

To bracket these gifts with decorations or other honoraria, 
bestowed on certain of the trustees by the countries bene- 
fitted, as some hostile critics have done, is uncalled for, but 
the public are entitled to a satisfactory statement as to the 
contribution made by these amiable gifts toward the cause of 
international peace. One of the trustees explained to me 
that people little realized how much irritation toward the 
United States there was after the war and how necessary 
it was for the Endowment to make itself solid, so to 'speak, 
before beginning post-war work. 

The explanation scarcely explains. The Endowment took 
no daring or unpopular stand during the War which necessi- 
tated buying itself back into favor. And after thus bowing 
its head to the war wind, let alone after the American service 
in France of which this seems scarcely the moment or place 
to speak, if the Endowment must needs build model squares, 
including shower baths and bowling alleys, in order to con- 
tinue its altruistic work, the chances of getting anything per- 
manent done for international peace seem small, indeed. 



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UPPOSE," said one of the trustees, with whom I was. 
discussing the Endowment's disinclination for the more 
vocal sorts of peace advocacy, "you wanted to get the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor to do something. Well, of course 
you might write a lot of articles and editorials and hold meet- 
ings and stir up public opinion to exert a certain amount of 
pressure. But the real way would be to get to Sam Gompers 
himself. Then you might see something accomplished." 

This is canny doctrine and in many of life's affairs, effective. 
But peace is a state of mind still in the making. It is not 
something carried round in the pockets of individuals, however 
eminent. The objection to dealing exclusively with these wor- 
thies is simply that they cannot deliver the goods. Put in this, 
bold fashion, probably none of the trustees, even the gentle- 
man just quoted, would maintain that peace could be so 
wrapped up and delivered. They would say, as they many 
times have said, that international peace meant nothing less 
than a slow change and education of a whole world. But in- 
actual practice a group of eminent, self-perpetuating gentle- 
men, like the trustees of the Endowment, tend more and more 
to work with their kind and unconsciously to eliminate 11' 
that does not fall in with the habitual point of view of those 
more or less like themselves. And while peace undoubtedly 
means "the gradual and patient extension of the rule of law," 
there is a danger of digging in on some such comfortable bit 
of "rationalizing" and leaving the work to time and evolution. 
As one faces the tragic facts of Europe today, and the be- 
wilderment of the more serious side of the younger generation, 
in this country, there is an unconscious humor in the tone 
in which, in its Year Book for 1923, Dr. Butler describes the 
Endowment's new home in Paris. Two pages of photographs 
and two of urbane descriptions are given to this "dignified 
old XVIII Century hotel at 173 Boulevard St. Germain. It 
stands at the widest point of the famous boulevard, near the- 
foreign embassies and not far from the Senate, the Chamber 
of Deputies, the Institut de France. Its fine XVIII Century 
facade rises to a height of seventy feet. A large court gives- 
light and air to the spacious rooms decorated in the style of 
Louis XV. . . . The building contains fifty-five rooms, large 
and small . . . there is a terrace on the roof with sanded 
paths and shrubs from which a superb view of Paris and the- 
Seine may be obtained. . . . 

Very attractive, certainly, and no sensible person would be- 
grudge the Endowment suitable working quarters, nor sug- 
gest that the money spent on this palatial home was improper- 
ly spent, although it did, as a matter of fact, cost the En- 
dowment more than was originally intended. What we are 
concerned with here are merely matters of accent and mood, 
with what is symptomatic rather than open to direct criticism. 
And in the face of the tragedy of Europe today, of the tre- 
mendous human facts which the Endowment is engaged to- 
affect, this unctious preoccupation with the charms of what is, 
after all, a working headquarters rather than a pleasant club r 
does suggest a certain slackening of emotional intensity, the 
danger, which such a fund always runs, of becoming static 
and standardized and making self-perpetuation an end in itself. 
The little Filipino lady who spoke at one of the sessions of 
the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom 
last spring, showing her dimples and white teeth as she said 
that "we must do away with this economic imperialism" was- 
doubtless as incongruous a figure in comparison with the gigan- 
tic forces of which she spoke as a talking doll standing in. 
front of the Twentieth Century Express. Miss Jane Addams, 
who presided at those meetings, may seem to ignore, at times, 
the brutal realities of trade and politics. Mrs. Anna Garlin 
Spencer, that intrepid little old Joan of Arc, who went from 
the conference hall up to the Senate hearing on the World 
Court, and for sheer eloquence, and dynamic conviction ran 
circles round most of the men who spoke there, may be ab- 
sorbed in the purely ethical aspects of peace to the exclusion 
of the slow, practical steps needed to approach it. 

There is a rather general belief that such congresses are- 
weak in concrete results. I do not wish to over-emphasize 
the importance of this particular one, nor to seem to be using- 
it as a comprehensive measuring stick against the whole work 

54 



of the Endowment. I mention it because it represented some- 
thing also necessary in any work toward peace which the 
Endowment seems to lack; a passion for peace, an emotional 
head of steam, which, in whatever field it is exerted, is what 
makes the world go round. These women had been lonely 
warriors in many an unpopular fight. They had said the 
things they were saying now, when saying them meant the 
likelihood of going to jail, and they would say them again, 
under similar circumstances, if need be. The will toward 
peace and international neighborliness, so often trampled un- 
der since the wa_r, became alive again in that hall. The air 
was the old free air and the spirit lifted and expressed itself. 
Theirs was not the psychology of opportunists and pussy- 
footers, but of fighting Christians and crusaders. 

It is this crusading spirit which the Endowment, in what 
might be described as its comfortable middle age, seems con- 
spicuously to lack. It would be unreasonable, perhaps, to 
expect it. All these gentlemen are useful and distinguished 
Americans in their various ways, and the ways of most of 
them are not those of the crusader. Even were some spurt 
or recurrence of that spirit to overtake them, they are too pre- 
occupied with other affairs to give it much chance. 

President Butler, for example, runs a great university, and 
assists in running the Republican Party. He sits at a long 
table, piled with letters and telegrams duly sorted out and 
arranged by obedient secretaries the sort of executive into 
and out of whose presence the visitor, even on an errand of 
peace, is shot with the speed and precision of a change-box in 
a pneumatic tube. Mr. Root is an eminent lawyer, our most 
distinguished elder statesman. But even were Mr. Root less 
habitually legalistic than he is, his generation was that which 
preceded rather than that which follows the Great War. He 
was completing his three score years and ten when war came. 

A very different world faces the Endowment from that which 
faced it in 1910. The kings are gone. All Eastern Europe 
has undergone or is undergoing a peasant revolution, in one 
sort or another, and the continent called Russia is ruled, in 
the name, at least, of the proletariat and communism. The 
Labor government in England, the social and industrial stir- 
ring all over South America, the recent swing to the left in 
France, the splitting of our traditional political parties all 
these things are different aspects of something new in the 
world, something like a general social overturn which makes 
the 1910 type of eminent man a good deal less representative 
now than then. The political position of women has corres- 
pondingly changed. If someone were to give ten millions of 
dollars now for a peace fund, it is difficult to believe that the 
Board of Trustees would not include representatives of women, 
the traditional conservators of human life, and of "labor", 
which, when war comes, furnishes most of the cannon fodder. 

And it is also difficult to believe that the policies of these 
more contemporaneous trustees would not differ a good deal 
from those of the present Endowment. The crusading spirit, 
in the sense at least of an active and pioneering spirit, is by no 
means limited to the more emotional type of peace advocated. 
Such work as the Foreign Policy Association and the Williams- 
town Institute of Politics have done in providing open forums 
for the intelligent discussion of international affairs; as the 
former's timely reports on various international disputes and 
its efforts to educate public opinion, to present briefs to the 
State Department and to bring important information to the 
attention of Congress; the prompt action which the Federa- 
tion of Churches recently took in the clash between the Senate 
and Japan; the work of the League of Women Voters and 
other organizations in forcing some action on the World Court 
all these are but examples of attempts to meet issues as they 
arise and get something done before it is too late, which seem 
suitable tasks for a peace endowment. 

A certain incongruity and clash of aims is almost inseparable, 
perhaps, from the administration of a permanent peace fund. 
The conservatism necessary to win public confidence in the first 
place, and more or less associated with the task of guarding 
any such vast sum of money, calls for one set of qualities : ag- 
gressive, pioneering work for the end in view, calls for others. 
In a world still largely controlled by instincts inherited from 
savage ancestors, peace has rarely been popular or even safe. 



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Its advocates inevitably fight their way upstream and against 
the tide. The administrators of a permanent peace fund, 
chosen in quiet times because they are held in public esteem, 
find themselves engaged in activities, which, at the first threat 
of war, the majority are likely to condemn. 

A laboratory of scientific research can be endowed with every 
hope of good results, because patience and industry and intelli- 
gence are things that can be bought and men will even give 
these things for nothing in order to be free to pursue truth. 



But imagination, moral courage, constructive idealism and the 
leadership which will carry the world nearer the goal of inter- 
national peace are harder to come by and harder to keep t 
work, year in and year out, on any path of consistent ad- 
vance. 

Yet these qualities moral leadership, in a word, are de- 
manded in the administration of such a fund, and to supply 
them is the responsibility of those who consecrate themselves 
to such a work. 



HERRIN 

(Continued from page 48) 



Most of them have homes in Marion, the oldest town in 
the county, and it is to Marion that one finally turns for a 
cross-section of the life of Williamson. There are fifteen 
churches in Marion which has a population of 10,000. Prac- 
tically every month throughout the year there is a revival of 
some sort in either the Baptist or the Methodist churches. 
Anaemic, middle-aged men with high-standing collars and white 
bow-ties groan their exhortations to a revengeful deity in 
the early manner of Billy Sunday. A Babbit-like touch is 
given to these grotesqueries by announcements in the local 
papers to the effect that "Tonight there will be the peppiest 
pep meeting of the whole pepful series when the Rev. Will 
Clem will deliver his inspiring address to young men and 
women entitled 'How Andy Gump Lost His Chin.' A jazzer- 
ino-talk boys, by a he-man." 

Sex harasses these people. They brood over it and it makes 
them restless. They will climb into Ford sedans and ride 
hours round and round the court-house or crowd into the 
really handsome moving picture house lured by the sensual 
"stills" in the lobbies. And the only solution suggested for 
bringing the larger life to Williamson that has thus far 
presented itself to the Chicago Tribune is the "need for home 
missionaries!" 



THERE are two daily newspapers in Marion and both print 
Bible verses at the head of their editorial columns. There 
are one or two stories of births and deaths in town on the 
front pages "Grim Reaper Calls Mrs. Swett" "Its Twins 
at Hudgens's" accounts of the dances at the Elks or L.O.O.M. 
or I.O.O.F.'s or K.P.'s or Mason's and the rest is boiler-plate 
and advertising. Neither paper while the Herrin mine-rioting 
was on printed one word of editorial comment for Marion 
the outstanding news feature of generations. During the 
trials held within a stone's throw of the newspaper offices, 
there were editorials on etiquette (a subject that fascinates 
Marion society judging from the number of guide books to 
meticulous public behavior sold there that winter), the pre- 
serving of fruits, the liquor question, anything but the one 
subject that shrieked for comment. A recent survey conducted 
by a St. Louis newspaperman developed the fact that William- 
son takes newspapers for two reasons the continued fiction 
stories and the comic strips. 

It is a comic strip world at that, this Marion "society," 
where nagging wives and hen-pecked and palely unfaithful 
husbands step out of the paper into reality every day, where 
arguments are settled Everett True fashion by the verbal or 
physical clubbing of your opponent, where the chinless Gump 
and his demagogic appeal as the wearer of "no man's collar" 
may be observed at every election, where Barney Google and 
the temperamental Spark Plug lend color to the county fair 
every September. And if by chance the names and deeds of 
Gump, Google and True are unfamiliar to Survey readers, be 
sure they are better known in Williamson than those of the 
foremost statesmen, poets and painters of our day. There 
was far more real interest shown by Marion two years ago 
this fall in the election of Andy Gump as portrayed in Car- 
toonist Sidney Smith's comic strips than in the congressional 
elections. Large sums of money were wagered between Andy 
and anti-Gumps. 



FOLLOWING the mine-riot trials there was comparative 
peace in the county. Labor tickets were easily elected in 
both Marion and Herrin. Of course there were occasional 
boot-legging wars and some desultory shooting but violence 
did not become organized on a large scale until the kleagles 
arrived with their hoods and hog Latin and their ostentatious 
contributions to the local Baptist and Christian and Method- 
ist churches. The strength of the klan in Marion was first 
realized by the general public when at a meeting held in the 
square outside the court-house a fire-eating minister assured 
a gaping crowd that the "blood that flowed at the mine riots 
would be but a drop in the bucket compared with what would 
happen if the county did not promptly reform." 

Just what shape this reformation was to take is not clear. 
In answer to an article of mine on klan activities in William- 
son I have recently received an anonymous letter purporting 
to come from that organization and informing me that it is 
the purpose of the klan to put an end to parochial schools. 
To the lay mind, gun-ganging on the sheriff seems to be a 
rather unusual method of separating church from state. But 
as I am told in the same letter that The New York World 
and New York Times are "Rome-controlled" the klan evi- 
dently possesses data inaccessible to me. 

Soon after enough ten-dollar bills had flowed kleagleward, 
the klan hired Glenn Young, a sharp-shooting upholder of 
law and order who proudly displayed twenty-one notches on 
his gun as evidence of his prowess. Young commenced a 
series of raids on the homes of Italian miners, ostensibly in 
a search for contraband liquor. It is stated by opponents of 
the klan that Young and his klan following beat up men, 
women and children, desecrated shrines and so conducted them- 
selves as to cause a hurried exodus of foreign born miners 
to St. Louis and points north. Young was indicted on some 
two hundred counts but never brought to trial. He was 
repudiated by the federal prohibition forces whom he claimed 
to represent and was on his way to Belleville in the northern 
part of the state when he was shot. Since then his only public 
appearance has been at the police station in Atlanta, Georgia, 
where he sought protection, saying that he was being pursued 
by "Herrin gangsters." 

It isn't enough to say that the klan in Williamson is anti- 
union. It is an open secret that a number of American-born 
miners belong to it, despite the fact that membership makes 
them liable to expulsion from the union. Undoubtedly the 
klan receives its chief support from those who hate the union 
despite the fact that they make their living from its members, 
the lawyers, doctors, ministers and small businessmen, the pro- 
verbial "better element." The klan's chief appeal, of course, 
is to religious bigotry and in Williamson it finds a happy 
hunting-ground. The economic and political factors, while 
they are present, are not emphasized. 

TGNORANCE, superstition, suspicion, hatred of the new, 
JL sex harassment, passions unchecked by reason that find 
their outlet in gun-play, boot-legging and rioting these stalk 
the tree-lined streets of Herrin. Apparently the true spirit 
of civilization requires something deeper and richer than the 
radios, the Rotaries, the movies, the filling-stations, yes and 
even the high schools and labor unions and churches, are giving 
it them in 1924. A. D. 



56 




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57 



five or six years every annual 
health budget was approved 
only after the stiffest kind of 
opposition from councilmen 
who raised the flag of econ- 
omy. It was give and take fighting; the doctor gave no quarter 
when his work was attacked, and two or three city fathers lost 
their seats after a round of it. 

By 1916 the tide had turned. Toronto had already a good 
working system of school health examinations and nursing 
under the Board of Education. Not because it was at all in- 
effective, but because the city was catching Dr. Hastings' 
philosophy of consecutive, concentrated responsibility for the 
citizen's health from before birth to what he calls "the 
threshold of the next cycle of existence," the mayor and council 
took the initiative in petitioning the provincial legislature to 
transfer the school health program to the municipal health 
officer. The Board of Education, opposing the change, was 
able to carry the legislature, but the mayor was persistent. 
He put the question on the city ballots at the next election. 
Toronto voted by 22,000 to 6.oco to give the Medical Officer 
of Health control. The legislature could not do less than 
acquiesce. Since that decisive public endorsement the shoe, 
politically, has been on the other foot. Now a candidate for 
the council is pretty sure to boast of his past support of the 
health budget, or to pledge his future support, as evidence of 
his claim on the electors. 

There was a City Welfare Commission, whose business was 
to inspect the institutions to which the city made relief allow- 
ances and advise the city generally in public relief problems. 
It had not made much of a success at teamwork. Three years 
ago, largely on the initiative of the Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search, this commission was dissolved and its duties given to 
a new division in the department of health and welfare. Dr. 
Hastings believes that social diagnosis demands trained work- 
ers no less than medical, and will have none but graduates of 
social casework schools or institutes on the staff of this social 
service division, which is headed by an able caseworker. 

The one large piece of public health machinery still quite 
separate from the health department is the Victorian Order 
of Nurses. This is a dominion-wide organization formed by 
Lady Aberdeen when her husband was governor-general, at 
the time of Queen Victoria's jubilee. It is surrounded by the 
prestige of official patronage and a long tradition of service. 
In Toronto the Victorian nurses, confining themselves chiefly 
to bedside nursing, exchange reports twice a week with the 
public health nurses and work in close harmony with them. 
Even the Victorian Order is beginning to ask whether it 
would not be better to use the available funds in further 
extension in pioneer areas, leaving Toronto's sick poor to the 
competent care of the city. 

THIS city nursing service is the pioneer, and, with Detroit, 
the outstanding example of generalized public health nurs- 
ing that is, the use of a single corps of nurses for all sorts 
of nursing duties (except the bedside care of those ill with 
non-communicable diseases), instead of the assignment of 
particular nurses to school inspection, prenatal clinics, or other 
snecial duties. There are now 114 nurses on the city payroll. 
There would be more, Dr. Hastings says, if the war had not 
somewhat slowed up the snowball. Aside from a group of 
supervisors, one for tuberculosis, one for mental cases, one for 
veneral disease, and so on, the nurses are assigned either to 
hospitals or to one of eight district offices. Those assigned 
to hospitals (who also take their turn at district nursing) do 
the work that is ordinarily known as hospital social service 
at all but one of Toronto's general hospitals. Each of the 
district nurses has a section of the district for her own. In 
one of the downtown districts, for example, 12 nurses divide 
a population of 69,000 between them. Each nurse carries an 
average of perhaps 90 families, and she is likely to know as 
many more. Some of the nurses have worked in one section 
for four years: in general a nurse stays put as long as she 
keeps herself out of a rut, and thus comes to know her clientele 
intimately. In the morning practically the whole force is 



HEALTH UN-LTD. 

(Continued from page 45) 



thrown into the schools. 
When he enters school, each 
child is given a complete phys- 

ical examination, at which 

every effort is made to have 

one or both of his parents present, so that a foundation can be 
laid for wise home care and continuing cooperation. Another 
examination is given each child in the fourth grade, so that 
even those who leave school early go out with some advice as 
to the kinds of work they are physically fit to do. The ail- 
ments that turn up day by day are cared for as need arises; 
children needing treatment (other than dental care) are sent 
to their own physicians or to the Hospital for Sick Children. 
The nurse also talks health in the classroom. 

At noon the nurses report at district headquarters, which, 
as it happens, are nearly all in police stations! These district 
offices are shared by the Neighborhood Workers' Association, 
the city-wide private caseworking agency. There is constant 
interchange between the nurses and the social workers; in one 
district I was told that about 35 per cent of the Neighborhood 
Workers' cases were first reported by the nurses, and there 
is a steady, if somewhat smaller, stream of health cases brought 
in by the family welfare visitors. 

The afternoons the nurses give to the work assigned by 
the district superintendent prenatal visiting; the care of 
tubercular patients ; examining babies and advising mothers, 
under the direction of the city physicians, at the child health 
centers (to which mothers are urged to bring both babies and 
pre-school children) ; following up the many clues that come 
from clinics, birth registrations, schools and the social agen- 
cies. Only the venereal disease cases are handled bv a special 
staff. 

This generalized nursing plan was one of Dr. Hastings' 
early hobbies. It had its inception in a clear case of duplica- 
tion: a survey made in 1915 showed that 8$ per cent of 
the families in which public health nursing was being done 
were being served simultaneously by school nurses and those 
of the health department. It has worked out, to the satis- 
faction of Toronto at least, in lengthening the reach and 
broadening the contacts of public health work, and in strength- 
ening the hold of the nurse on the families she is capable of 
serving. 

Only less interesting than this nursing organization is the 
way in which the health department, the hospitals and the 
university cooperate. The city maintains no hospital f its 
own (except for acute communicable diseases) nor does it have 
any clinics for treatment (except the dental clinics in the 
schools). But it subsidizes free clinics of every sort at the 
private hospitals, paying 32 cents per patient. This enables 
the city to avoid all duplication, and still to maintain a stake 
in the handling of the sick poor. This arrangement, more- 
over, tends to concentrate the teaching material at the most 
available centers. The University of Toronto, which has eiven 
courses in public health nursing for four years, sends its stu- 
dents into the city health department for their supervised 
field work. 



THE accompanying charts outline the story of the growing 
expenditure for public health in Toronto and the corre- 
sponding fall in the death rate. The budget for 1924 is 
$858,700; $1.56 per capita, and the staff of the depart- 
ment has topped soo. But figures alone do not convey Dr. 
Hastings' robust theory of the business of a public health de- 
partment. Like ^ost progressive health officers, he has lost 
interest in the range of activities which mean mere surface 
cleanliness. 

It is obvious, he says, that the activities of a modern department 
of health are vastly different from what they were a few years 
ago, when they were bending all their energies to the abating of 
nuisances, the collection and disposal of garbage, the cleaning of 
the streets, back-yards and lanes. These activities are clearly 
essential in any self-respecting city, but it would be difficult to 
demonstrate that their neglect would be responsible for one single 
death. 



THE DAYS OF 

(Continued 



added a defensive note, and 
all of them had been loosely 
coordinated, there arose a 
Great House, civic center and 
citadel, to which the clans re- 
paired on occasion, though passing most of their lives at their 
scattered clan house clusters. 

The apex of the Great House culture was on the tawny 
white sloping plain of the Gila and the Salado, in Arizona, 
falling toward their junction, which is to say Salt River. 

The state road which leads through this country from Casa 
Grande to Phoenix, cuts the line of innumerable Great House 
canals. Where it crosses the Salado, opposite the reef of 
reddish trap called Hole-in-the-Rock, the intake of ditches on 
both sides of the river can still be traced. 

These aceqnia madres, down which the virgin poplars ran, 
ruffling their white-lined petticoats to the wind, extended for 
a total distance of two hundred miles across the river plain, 
bringing under cultivation a quarter of a million acres. At 
Mesa it is reported that the present Mormon colony saved 
itself a matter of twenty thousand dollars by utilizing the 
gradients of an ancient water way, pecked out of the tuff by 
picks of stone, heaped up with wooden shovels and carried 
away in skins. Even where their banks have been utterly level- 
ed by the wind, the lines of these meandering canals can still 
be traced by the "water tamers," placed along their banks 
by the builders. For this is the way the minds of Our An- 
cients worked ; "Along stream beds and borders," said they, 
"there are rounded and oddly shaped rocks, and where these 
are the water flows faster with a contented sound ; therefore 
let us place along our mains, familiar shapes of stone so that 
the river may be the more easily induced to flow there and 
feel at home." 

But there were more fields than Mesa boasts, gathered 
around the six Great House heaps, corn and the fragrant bean 
fields, cotton between musky golden melons and little green- 
white squashes, and the silvery sinuous acequias. Twelve to 
thirteen thousand farmer citizens worked their allotments of 
irrigated land about Los Muertos, living from seed time to 
harvest in the dark wattled-and-daub "temporales" and under 
the open-sided ramadas where the dripping water jar swung 
and the grinding stone lay on the metate. But from harvest 
to seed time they returned to their town houses. 

Distributed along both sides of the main canal, the Great 
Houses rose from four squared foundations, terraced inward 
to a height of four or five stories, of which the last one was 
little more than a tower, from the top of which a smoke signal 
would call the furthest farmer to the citadel. 

In its lower, doorless chambers would be stored the seed 
corn, and the tithing of the Cacique, and probably in the 
central cell of all the Sun Priest prayerfully awaited the 
moments when the beam of the Sun Father, turning in his 
course, would shine through the pierced walls, as the cus- 
todian will show you at Casa Grande. Probably no private 
house was without some marker of its own, as you will find 
at Zuhi, some spot on the wall or the doorsil where the sun 
shone at solstice or equinox and at those times only, by which 
seed time and harvest and feast days were calculated. But 
it was the Cacique who cried the time from the housetops 
when the waters should be unloosed or the tithing brought in, 
or the rally of young men for the communal hunt. And per- 
haps when the hunt was on, or the salt-train about due from 
the south, the women went up to the tower story to look 
for the faint smokes in the appointed quarters of the horizon 
which advised them when to set the fires going in the great 
communal baking pits. These were in open plazas between 
the Great Houses, and when they were packed close with 
haunches of venison with savory herbs between, flanked with 
green corn and rows of round bodied bean pots, and cakes 
of pounded meal flavored with wild seeds or sweetened with 
sahauro and wrapped in clean husks, the steam of them would 
have surely hastened the feet threading the silver network of 
the acequias. 

It is likely that the families of all who had to do with the 
administration of the Great House affairs lived rather con- 
tinuously at the community houses, and that the smaller dwell- 
ings clustered about them were the winter homes of such of 



OUR ANCIENTS 

from page 38) 



the farmers as felt themselves 
drawn to the winter life of 
cities. At San Juan and San- 
ta Clara one hears young 
Pueblenos talk at their sum- 
mer temporales of "week-ending at the Pueblo." 

Whether certain of the buildings uncovered at Los Muertos 
were halls of the Masons and the Elks, I mean of the fraterni- 
ties of the Antelope and the Snake and the Rain, or were tem- 
ples of the Holders and Finishers of the Paths of Our Lives, 
is one of the unsolved problems of the Great House era. 
Gushing, who uncovered them thought them temples any 
building wholly set aside from secular use is surely a temple 
and dividing the horizon according to the system pre- 
vailing at Zuni, he found his way to the ancient shrines and 
sacred places of the purple mountain wall. 

Tremendous activities went on in these Cities That Died. 
Between the times when they served the Corn and the Cotton 
there were shrines to be visited, ditches to be dug and mended 
between the summer and winter floods, loads of arrow stone 
and water-worn boulders suitable for winter working to be 
poled in from the river beds along the acequia madres, on rafts 
of bundled reeds and cane from the river-borders. Between 
the winter solstice and the vernal equinox traders came in, 
fierce, shy, outliers with the summer's plunder of dried meat 
and medicine herbs, turquoises and chalcedony for ceremonial 
arrows, bundles of yucca fibre and yucca root for washing 
blankets and for purification, vendors of parrot and macaw 
feathers and sellers of strange shells from the Gulf and the 
Pacific Ocean. After the corn planting and before the first 
hoeing there was the annual expedition for salt to the head 
of the California Gulf, attended by protective ritual, frag- 
ments of which still linger among the tribes who have inherited 
the lands but fallen far short of the culture of the Hohokum. 
Between tribal occasions the women coiled and smoothed 
and painted their cooking pots and tended the great communal 
ovens. In June they flocked to the mesquite thickets, where, 
between the scarlet tipped thryses of the ocotilla, the sahauros 
ripened their fruit, to make syrup for the winter's sweetening, 
and young lovers walking apart to find the nightblooming 
cereus uncurling in the dusk from its dry rat-tailed stems, 
lingered to hear the mocking bird, pouring its music like 
round dropped molten substance of the moon. 

After the corn was harvested the women braided it by the 
husks in long festoons, hung drying under the jacales . on whose 
roofs presently the piled cotton pods burst into white drifts 
for miles and miles. And always between these and their 
house-tending, child-bearing activities, they were a-building and 
a-building. They mixed ashes of brush and grass with the 
dry earth and puddled it, piling it course by course, as much 
as would dry well in the shape in which it was laid, into the 
great pyramidal houses. 

THE Great-house culture disappeared about the twelfth 
century, three or four hundred years before its ruins were 
discovered by the Spanish explorers. But what it died of, 
unless it were the pride of cities, there is not even a tradition. 
When the culture was at its best the chiefs waxed boastful; 
Great-house fought against Great-house, destroying one an- 
other as did the free cities of the Middle Ages. The communal- 
mindedness which grew out of their economic organization, 
put them too much at the mercy of the more individualistic, 
militaristic, nomadic tribes. Once their resistence was broken, 
they reverted instantly to an earlier tribal-mindedness, and 
fled in broken clans and fragments of clans to the fastness 
of the present Hopi and Zuhi pueblos. 

Here they assimilated themselves to a less centralized type 
of cooperative commonwealth, which is making its last stand 
against our invasive modern Americanism. At Hopi and Zuni 
and in the Rio Grande Pueblos may be studied what are prob- 
ably the last, and certainly the best types of aboriginal com- 
munism accessible to the student of social organization. One 
wonders sometimes, if the sustained quality of their economic 
and social arrangements on a communistic basis is not one of 
the reasons, half-realized, which furnishes a part of the 
animus for the steady destruction wrought against them by 
the department of our Government which has them in charge. 



59 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGU E President, Margaret 
Sanger, 104 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Objects: To educate 
American peo'ple in the various aspects of the dangers of un- 
controlled procreation; to establish centers where married persons 
may receive contraceptive advice from duly licensed physicians. 
Life membership $1.00; Birth Control Review (monthly magazine) 
$2.00 per year. 

AMERICAN CHILD HEALTH ASSOCIATION Headquarters, 532 
17th St., N'.W., Washington, D. C.; Administrative Offices, 370 
7th Avenue, New York. Herbert Hoover, President; L. Emmett 
Holt, MJ).; Livingston Farrand, M.D.; Thomas D. Wood, M.D.; 
Mrs. Maud Wood Park, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th VIce-Presidents respect- 
ively; Corcoran Thorn, Treasurer; Philip Van Ingen, M.D., Secre- 
tary; Edward M. Flesh, Comptroller. To promote health among 
children from conception to maturity this to be accomplished 
througn cooperation with parents, doctors, nurses, teachers, and 
other health workers; by dissemination of scientific information 
and teaching methods in schools, through conferences, addresses, 
pamphlets, publicity material, and a monthly magazine, "Child 
Health Magazine." 

Deceased. 

A r M ^ RIC , AN w COUN , TRY , LIFE ASSOCIATION-K. L. Butterfield, 



NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATIONS Mrs. Robert E. Speer, president; Miss Mabel 
Cratty, general secretary, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
This organization maintains a staff of executive and traveling 
secretaries to cover work in the United States in 1,034 local I. W. 
C. A.'s on behalf of the industrial, business, student, foreign born, 
Indian, Colored and younger girls. It has 159 American secretaries 
at work in 49 centers in the Orient, Latin America and Europe. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE Owen R. Lovejoy, 
general secretary, 215 Fourth Avenue, New York. Industrial, 
agricultural investigations. Works for improved laws and admin- 
istration, children's codes. Studies child labor, health, schools, 
recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. Annual membership, $2, 
$5, $10. $25 and $100 includes monthly publication, "The American 
Child.'' 



NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, INC. Charles *. 
Powlison, general secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York. Originates 
and publishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and 
conditions affecting the health, well-being and education of chil- 
dren. Cooperates with educators, public health agencies, and all 
child welfare groups in community, city or state-wide service 
through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

Israel, executive' secretary" Room' {xw"rrZ', THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HYGIENE Dr. 

Bldg, New York City Em P haszs the hum William H. Welch, president; Dr. Frankwood E. Williams, med. dir.; 

Lspect of country life. Annual membership $3 00 deludes "The Dr " ? Iarenc , e J o D>Alton - executive assistant; Clifford W Beers. 

Country Life Bulletin." secretary; 370 Seventh Avenue, New York City. Pamphlets on 

AMCBI^AIO mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble-mlndeJnese, 

( BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE President, Margaret epilepsy, inebriety, criminology, psychiatric social service, back- 

ecutive secretary, Grace Dodge Hotel, Washington, D. C. Organ- ward children, surveys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene/' quar- 

betterment of conditions In home, school, Institution and terly, $3.00 a year; "Mental Hygiene Bulletin," monthly, $ .25 a 

community Publishes monthly Journal of Home Economics: office year. 

man^germrCath^fraTsf^ltimole'Td "' D ' &: ' bUS ' neS8 NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENT.ON OF BLIND- 

NESS Lewis H. Carris, managing director; Mrs. Winifred Hath- 
away, secretary; 130 East 22nd Street, New York. Objects: To fur- 
nish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, personal servlo* 
for local organizations and legislation, publish literature of move- 
ment samples free, quantities at cost. Includes N'ew York State 
Committee. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK Wm. J. Norton. 

-_ _ .,.,,., u.asn^o.s,, LKjttiincui. president, Detroit, Michigan; W. H. Parker, Secretary, 25 East 

P t V /fn on ' Publication free on request. Annual membership Ninth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. The Conference is an organization 

to discuss the principles of humanitarian effort and to increase the 
efficiency of social service agencies. Each year it holds an annual 
meeting, publishes in permanent form the Proceedings of the meet- 
ing, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The fifty-second annual meet- 
ing of the Conference will be held In Denver, Colorado, June 10th 
to 17th, 1925. Proceedings are sent free of charge to all members 
upon payment of a membership fee of five dollars. 

NATIONAL CONGRESS OF MOTHERS AND PARENT-TEACHER 
ASSOCIATIONS Executive office: Mrs. A. H. Reeve, president, 
Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa.; national headquarters: Mrs. 



PEACE SOCIETY Founded 1828, labors for an Inter- 
peace of justice. Its official organ Is the Advocate of 
,', 2f? a year - Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, 
812-614 Colorado Building. Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL OF CANCER Frank 

J. Osborne, executive secretary; 370 Seventh Ave., New York. To 

tate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment 



$5.00. 

AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION 370 Seventh Ave 
York. To promote a better understanding of the 
ovement; to advance sound sex education; to 

and sex delinquency; to aid public authorities in the 
- against the venereal diseases; to advise In organization 
i. s .,, and l ca l social-hygiene programs. Annual membership 
dues $2.00 Including monthly journal. 



COMMUNITY RFRVIPF IIK 
^ 



-vr -o- . 
Ave., New York City. A 



nntinn-ii M!,, ,.. 7 , *TT ,. \r"* *"" crnestnut mil, f miadeipma, fa. national neaaquariers: Mrs. 

SsVof lLl,rl Tt Lm Promoting citizenship through right Arthur C. Watkins, executive secretary, 1201 Sixteenth Street, 

lellurp t ml nJ ' on > q a Ue a *- neI P Iocal communities work out N.W., Washington, D. C. An organization interested in the pro- 

time programs. H. S. Braucher, secretary. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 305 W. 98th Street, New York. 
Rose Brenner, president; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, executive 
secretary. Promotes civic cooperation, education, religion and social 
welfare In the United States, Canada, Cuba. Europe. 
Department of Immigrant Aid 799 Broadway. Mrs. S. J. Kosen- 
sonn, chairman. For the protection and education of Immigrant 
women and girls. 



motion of child welfare, adequate legislation for women and 
children, closer relation between home and school. 

NATIONAL CONSUMERS' LEAGUE 156 Fifth Avenue, New York. 
Mrs. Florence Kelley, general secretary. Promotes legislation for 
enlightened standards for women and minors In Industry and for 
honest products: minimum wage commissions, eight hoar day, no 
night work, federal regulation food and packing industries; "honest 
cloth" legislation. Publications available. 

N?w N v ? l'l. ^ WOME ^ N , FO ,^ o ME MISSIONS 156 Fifth Avenue, NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS Albert J. Ken- 
J, . , B ", ^ ln ! 08: 20 constituent Protestant national ne dy, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms of 
P!L w " b f rd , s - Florence E. Quinlan, exec, sec'y. Com- comparative study and concerted action in city, state and nation, 

Sii ,?5 ^? S ai \" er , y M'Srants. Summer Service for Col- for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed by settlement 

its, Laura H. Parker, exec, supervisor. work , see k the higher and more democratic organization of 

neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 
Member, National Health Council Anne A. Stevens, R.N., direc- 
tor, 370 Seventh Avenue. New York. For development and stand- 
ardization of public health nursing. Maintains library and edu- 
cational service. Official Magazine, "Public Health Nurse." 
NATIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION SERVICE 315 Fourth Ave., 
New York, N. Y. To obtain progressive legislation for physical 
education. Established at the request of a committee created by 
the United States Bureau ef Education; 35 national organizations 
cooperating. Maintained by the Playground and Recreation Asso- 
ciation of America. 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres. ; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 
127 E. 23rd St. u N'ew York. Establishes committees of white and 
colored people to work out community problems. Trains Negro 
social workers. Publishes "Opportunity" a "Journal of Negro life." 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 
Anna A. Gordon, president; Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, 
Bvanston, Illinois. To secure effective enforcement of the 
Eighteenth Amendment, to advance the welfare of the Americam 
people through the departments of Child Welfare, Women in In- 
dustry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance Instruction, Ameri- 
canization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication 
"The Union Signal" published at Headquarters. 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, honorary president: Mrs. Maud Swartz president 311 
South Ashland Blvd.. Chicago. Til. Stands for self-government In 
the work shop through organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation. Information given. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMER- 
ICA 315 Fourth Avenue. New York City. Joseph Lee. president; 
H. S. Braucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization 
of year-round municipal recreation systems. Information available 
on nlaygrourtd and community renter activities and administration. 



*MB COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN 

AMERICA Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. 
3a ?- S. Macfarland, Rev - s - M - Cavert, general secretaries; 105 
Ifest 23nd Street, New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service Rev. Worth M. 
Tippy, executive secretary; Rev. F. Ernest Johnson, research 
secretary: Agnes H. Campbell, research assistant; Inez M. 
Cavert, librarian. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE Trains Negro and Indian youth for com- 
munity service. Advanced courses: agriculture, builders, business, 
home-economics, normal. Publishes "Southern Workman" and free 
material on Negro problems. J. E. Gregg, principal. 

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATIONS First appointed 1854, located New York City 1866, 
Incorporated 18S3. Headquarters office, 347 Madison Avenue New 
York City, N. Y. Tel., Vanderbilt 1200. Branch offices, Chicago, 
Atlanta, Denver. Chairman, James M. Speers; treasurer, B. H. 
Fancher: general secretary, John R, Mott. The Committee main- 
tains a staff of executive and traveling secretaries for service in 
the interests of the Young Men's Christian Associations at home 
and abroad. 

JOINT COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF PREVENTING DE- 
LINQUENCY Graham Romeyn Taylor, executive director, 50 East 
*2nd Street, New York. To promote the adoption of sound methods 
In this field, with particular reference to psychiatric clinics, 
Tlslting teacher work, and training for these and similar services; 
t conduct related studies, education and publication; and to 
Interpret the work of the Commonwealth Fund Program for the 
Prevention of Delinquency. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CIVIC SECRETARIES Walter T. 

Arnrtt. president Kew York: Robert E. Tracy, secretary, 313 South 
Broad Street, Philadelphia. Purpose To provide contact and In- 
terchange of ideas and Information among professional secretaries 
of civic organizations. Annual meeting held with National Mu- 
nicipal League. ' 



(In answering these advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. // helps us, It identifies you.) 

60 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY 



PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION LEAGUE To secure rep- 
resentation for all.' C. G. Hoag, sec'y, 1417 Locust St., Philadel- 
phia. Membership, $2.00. entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions John M. Glenn, dir. ; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. De- 
partments: Charity Organization, Child -Helping, Industrial Studle*, 
Library, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Statistics, Surveys and 
Exhibits. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public In practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
Important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE An Institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment In the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
of the Tuskegee Idea and methods; Robert R. Moton, prin.; War- 
ren Logan, treas. ; A. L. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 

VOLUNTARY PARENTHOOD LEAGUE, INC. 19 West 44th 
Street, New York City. Mary Ware Dennett, Director. Aims to 
correct laws regarding birth control Information, and to promote 
better parenthood. Actively working for passage of Ctommlns- 
Valle Bill now before Congress. 

WORKERS' EDUCATION BUREAU OF AM ERICA Spencer Mil- 
ler, Jr., sec'y; 476 West 24th St. A clearing-house for Workers' 
Education. 



THE HUNGRY CLUB 

(Continued from page 22) 



his scrap book, in which are pasted meeting notices for most 
of the fourteen years of its existence, you marvel that any man 
could still carry on in a steel city after scheduling some of 
the speakers who have addressed the club. 

But Cooper has been saved by two virtues his honesty 
in balancing his programs and his sense of humor. In a con- 
troversial matter he sees to it that each side has its innings, if 
it wants to go to bat. Only two requirements are made of 
the speaker: he must know his subject, thoroughly, so that 
he can stand up under a fire of questions; and he must present 
it in its intellectual aspects; no ranting and roaring, no mud 
slinging. It is the intellectual problem which counts. 

The Club has its enemies. There have been attempts to 
kill it and there have been attacks on its secretary by "those 
who are the last to lay the old aside." There have been 
seasons when some business organizations of the city have 
scheduled meetings to conflict with the Hungry Club. Their 
meetings were important and safe; the meetings of the Hungry 
Club were interesting and scrappy. There is enough variety 
of membership to start a fight if the speaker makes the oppor- 
tunity. One speaker who did so was Margaret Sanger. The 
fight did not stop with the meeting. It was carried on to the 
president of Kingsley House. Cooper's scalp was demanded. 
But Cooper is still head worker of Kingsley House and secre- 
tary of the Hungry Club. A level-headed settlement house 
president and the tradition of the club that it endorses 
nothing cleared the air. Only last spring the University of 
Pittsburgh conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Science for his public service to Pittsburgh. 

"How do you get your speakers?" I asked Cooper. 

"In various ways. We keep in touch with the schedules 
of many national speakers and the club members are always 
on the lookout for them. The decision and the arrangements 
rest with me, although I consult with the steering committee. 
If I select a speaker who is stupid or who does not present 
his subject as an intellectual problem the two requirements 
I am sure to hear about it. We do not pay a fee or expenses 
to any speaker. We offer him a fair hearing by a unique 
group of people. That is usually worth more to him than 
any fee we could offer. 

It was a distinguished foreigner, Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, who 
last year drew the largest meeting in the history of the Club. 

The Hungry Club is the town crier of Pittsburgh. Local 
candidates for office and officials in office come before it to 
explain their platforms, because they get fair hearing here by 
a group it is difficul*' to reach otherwise, and a discussion 
which discloses what they stand for. 

The subjects discussed are not always controversial. Cooper 
has adopted the tactics which have solved many industrial 



wrangles: namely, discuss first the points on which there is 
agreement. With a meeting of minds on some points, agree- 
ment on others is less difficult; or if not agreement, under- 
standing and clearing the decks for the main issues. A con- 
servative and a radical, sitting at the same table, nod to each 
other in agreement on something, they discover that, after 
all, their mental processes are much alike. . . . Then, when 
a red hot subject comes up for discussion, each realizes that, 
after all, he may have been wrong. "There is Bill Jones," he 
says. "Good old Bill is nobody's fool. If he can make out 
a case for the other side on this proposition, there may be some- 
thing in it." Right there the Hungry Club scores a point for 
intellectual honesty. 

If you have grown rather fond of your pet little ideas and 
don't like to have them kicked about, the Hungry Club is a 
terrible shock. 



HEALTH UN-LTD. 

(Continued from page 45) 



Nor is he interested merely in the control of communicable 
diseases. He points out, indeed, that any control which is 
based merely on the segregation and care of those showing 
active symptoms of disease, or those known to have been ex- 
posed to infection, is incomplete. Though the disease may 
appear to be checked, the micro-organism remains in weak- 
ened form in the human body. It may be passed from one 
person to another in so mild a form that it produces no 
clinical symptoms, or none sufficiently definite to assure that 
it will be recognized. But sooner or later these micro-organ- 
isms reach a body which for one reason or another is not 
sufficiently strong to defend itself against them, and under 
such favorable circumstances they quickly regain their virulent 
activity. Without constant effort, therefore, to build up 
healthy, resistant bodies even the most careful control of in- 
fection will occasionally break down. 

But Dr. Hastings does not stop with urging better health 
merely as a defense against communicable disease. He wants 
a fitter race. 

We can't control the germ-plasmi, [he complains though he is 
working today on plans for giving sound advice as to the value 
of limited families] but we can include in our activities the pre- 
natal care of the child; the care of the mother and child at birth- 
the care of the new-born infant; the care of the child in the pre- 
school age; complete physical examination of the child on entering 
school; medical, dental and nursing service for the child while in 
schoo ; another complete physical examination before leaving 
school; and a well-organized division of industrial hygiene, by 
which we can make sure that our industries are fit and proper 
places for our boys and girls to work in. 

If we are going to develop a fitter race, we must get back to 
the social conditions that are responsible for so much of the sick- 
ness and have these conditions remedied. It must be apparent that 
soon! welfare is essentially a part of preventive medicine. To 
meet these requirements, all public health nurses should have an 
intelligent understanding of social service work in order that they 
may be able to diagnose, at least, the simple social problems and 
see that they are referred to the proper social agencies. 

This it not a paper platform: it is a fair outline of what 
Toronto, as a municipality, is doing through its health de- 
partment, linked as it is with both public and private case- 
working organizations. This health program is saving the 
city 2,500 lives a year. Count off the ten cases of sickness 
which would ordinarily accompany each of these prevented 
denths. add up the savins: in doctors', nurses', undertakers' 
bills, compute the wages which are being earned because these 
men and women are alive and well and the saving to Toronto 
may reasonably be estimated at $2,500,000 a year. No wonder 
Dr. Hastings objects when the money used for public health 
work is referred to as an expenditure. "It is an investment, 
which yields larger dividends many times over than any other 
investment of the municipality." And no wonder that the 
citizens of Toronto, taken into Dr. Hastings' confidence every 
few days for fourteen years, keep rolling up the snowball. 



61 



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WORKERS WANTED 



WANTED: A teacher in institution for 
delinquent women. Apply to Helen Hazard, 
Niantic, Conn. 



WANTED by Jewish center in Phila- 
delphia, director of recreational and edu- 
cational activities. 4915 SURVEY. 

WANTED: Civic Secretary for large 
woman's organization. Civic experience 
essential; Jewish preferred. Chicago 
Woman's Aid, 717 Kimball Building, 
Chicago. 



RESIDENT WORKER to take charge 
of Play School activities with young chil- 
dren in New York Settlement. Thorough 
training and good cultural background 
essential. 4946 SURVEY. 



WANTED, by Norfolk Section, Council 
of Jewish Women, Trained Family Case 
Worker with ability to speak Yiddish. 
State qualifications and experience. Com- 
municate with Mrs. D. E. Levy, Raleigh 
Court, Norfolk, Virginia. 



GRADUATE NURSE DIRECTRESS 
wanted for Health Center Dept. of Settle- 
ment House in large city near New York. 
Must have experience in organizing and 
carrying on Health Center work in Rus- 
sian and Polish neighborhood. State age, 
experience and education. 4948 SURVEY. 



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A YOUNG WOMAN who 
has training in social 
work, who is convinced 
that The Survey is indis- 
pensable to those interested 
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likes to sell to join the 
Survey field staff on sal- 
ary. Residence in Chicago 
or suburbs, traveling 
through the middle west. 
Address, Extension Man- 
ager, The Survey, 112 
East 19th' Street, New 
York, N. Y. 



WORKERS WANTED 



WANTED, a young woman (Jewish) 
for Resident Director of Working Girls' 
Home and Trade School in New York 
City. The applicant must be a cultured 
woman with executive ability and tact. 
She must have thorough theoretical train- 
ing and wide practical experience. Kindly 
write full details as to age, training, ex- 
perience and salary expected. 4951 SURVEY. 



WANTED: A dietitian in institution for 
delinquent women. Apply to Helen Hazard, 
Niantic, Connecticut. 



GRADUATE NURSES, dietitians, labor- 
atory technicians for excellent hospital 
positions everywhere. Write for free book 
now. Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 
30 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 



COOPERATIVE PLACEMENT SERV- 
ICE. Social workers, secretaries, super- 
intendents, matrons, housekeepers, dieti- 
tians, cafeteria managers. The Richards 
Bureau, 68 Barnes Street, Providence, R. I. 



CALIFORNIA teacher-mother offers 
home (room and board) to one desirous of 
wintering in California in exchange for 
care of three year old boy and assistance 
with household duties in small home. 4952 
SURVEY. 



TEACHERS WANTED 



TEACHERS wanted for public and pri- 
vate schools, colleges and universities. 
Education Service, Steger Building, Chi- 
cago; Southern Building, Washington; 
1254 Amsterdam Ave., New York. 



FOR THE HOME 



Tea Room Management 

In our new home-study course, "COOK- 
ING FOB PROFIT." Booklet on request. 
Am. School of Home Economic*. 849 E. 58th St., Chicago 



"Home-Making as a Profession" 

Is a 100 -pp. ill. handbook it's FKEE. Home study 
Domestic Science courses, fitting for man? well-paid 
positions or for home-making efficiency. 
m. School of Horn* Economics. 849 E. 58th St.. Chicago 

6* 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

FINANCIAL AND PUBLICITY DI- 
RECTOR: available for year-round or 
temporary travelling or resident connec- 
tion, on full or part time. University and 
School Social Work graduate. Ten years 
experience in money raising, publicity and 
community organization in New York, 
Mass., Penn., Illinois and California. 
4904 SURVEY. 

WOMAN with eight years experience in 
settlement work available after October 
first. Executive ability and broad under- 
standing of children's work. 4940 SURVEY. 

GRADUATE NURSE desires position 
as Matron in children's home, or charge 
of the infirmery. 4937 SURVEY. 

YOUNG WOMAN, college graduate, 
intelligent, well-bred, two years teaching 
experience, desires an opportunity in social 
or educational work. 4945 SURVEY. 

YOUNG WOMAN, college graduate, 
desires social service position in hospital 
in Middle West. Three years experience 
in case work in large city organization. 
4947 SURVEY. 

EXPERIENCED, refined, middle-aged 
woman would care for elderly couple's or 
business woman's home. Protestant. 4949 
SURVEY. 

YOUNG WOMAN (Jewish), wide ex- 
perience institutional care of children and 
settlement work, desires executive position. 
Highest credentials. Available October ist. 
4950 SURVEY. 

PSYCHOLOGIST, A.M. degree, three 
years experience with children and adults, 
desires position. Address box 4952 SURVEY. 



LAND FOR SALE 



FOR SALE: On Monhegan Island, ten 
miles off Maine, lot 75 by 150 with rocks 
and trailing yew. Edison knows spot well. 
Arctic Flora, deep sea fishing, romantic 
history. 4930 SURVEY. 



Looking for a position? 
Want to make a change? 
Instead of worrying about it 
and getting discouraged adopt 
the policy of this advertiser 
and insert a want ad in the 
Survey. 

The Survey 

112 East 19 Street 

New York City, N. Y. 

Gentlemen: 

"Again I am resolved to try the 
advertising columns of The Survey. 
There has never been a time that 1 
have advertised in your journal that 
brought no results so I am enclosing 
copy which please insert in the next 
issue." 

Very truly yours, 



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CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



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to remain unchanged. 

CHILDREN IN NEED OF SPECIAL CARE, by 
Lucile Eaves. Study of children of 
broken families, based on records of 
Boston social agencies. Order from the 
W. E. & I. U., 264 Boylston Street, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Price $1.25, postpaid, cloth. 

COOKING FOR PROFIT, by Alice Bradley, 
describes home-study course, which in- 
cludes catering, tea room, cafeteria and 
lunch room management. "51 Ways to 
Make Money" free. Am. School of Home 
Economics, 5778 Drexel Ave., Chicago. 

COMMUNITY FORCES: A Study of Non-Par- 
tisan Municipal Elections, by R. D. Mc- 
Kenzie ; 24 double column pages, and 
one of the best studies that has ap- 
peared. Price 300. Address: JOURNAL 
OP SOCIAL FORCES, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

JIWISH COMMUNITY LIFE. A Study in 
Social Adaptation. Philip L. Seman, 
Jewish People's Institute, 1258 Taylor 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. Single copy $.50. 

WORLB OPPORTUNITIES SOCIETY. Message 
and program of that International 
Fraternal Ordier, it system of world 
peace and mutual opportunities distri- 
bution. Price 25 cents. The W. O. S. 
P. O. Box 1224, Chicago, III. 

THE UNPRINTABLE TEXT BOOK. A handy 
pamphlet reprint of an article by Prof. 
Joseph K. Hart, Editor of The Survey's 
Education Department. Free to teachers 
on request. To others, 10 cents. The 
Survey, 112 East 19th St., New York, 
N. Y. 




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THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING shows 
the part which trained nurses are taking 
in the betterment of the world. Put it 
in your library. $3.00 a year. 19 W. 
Main St., Rochester, N. Y. 

MENTAL HYGIENE: quarterly: $3.00 a year: 
published by the National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene, 370 Seventh Avenue, 
New York. 

THE SUNNIGLOW TRUMPETER. An illustrat- 
ed Quarterly, in the interest of The 
Outlook to Nature and Wholesome, 
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The Ad. 

Wanted, for October ist, home for 
little girl of four. Business mother 
travels part time. Desires complete 
care for child during absence from 
city. Child attends play school 9 to 
12. Vicinity thirteenth street, west. 
4890 Survey. 

The Result 

"I want you to know how effective 
the 'ad' proved which I placed in 
The Survey. I received only three 
answers but each one was from ex- 
actly the right sort of person. At the 
same time I advertised in the New 
York Times on Sunday. I received 
five times as many replies as from 
The Survey ad but not one of these 
answers was even worth looking in- 
to. These people entirely disre- 
garded the points I made. 
"4890 Survey." 



TcdchcYS ^ Sociology, Social Problems 
Civics and Current Events 



MOST teachers are experts in dealing with materials organized into 
textbooks or laboratory manuals. But there are areas of interest 
and information which are incapable of being so organized. They 
must be taken as they come, or not at all. Such an area is that 
commonly called "current events." Although intensely interesting and im- 
portant, most teachers find themselves very much at a loss to know just how 
to deal with this area. 

It is easy to say to a class: "Find something interesting and tell about it in 
class tomorrow,'' or "Read The Survey for September 15 and tell what you 
found there that was interesting." But in both cases, your teacherly soul 
rebels against the smattering quality of the results. You feel you are wasting 
time and the students often achieve a fine degree of boredom. You want some- 
thing better. 

Well, here it is. We have published a handy little pamphlet which givrs 
an analysis of social problems, a program for applying that analysis to class- 
room work and ways in which The Survey fits into such a program. It shows 
how The Survey can be used as a dependable current textbook of the world's 
happenings in the fields of social progress and general welfare. 

A copy of the pamphlet will be sent gladly to any teacher who will take 
the trouble to send us a post card giving his or her name and address, name 
of the school and the subject taught. 

The Survey 

112 East 19 Street, New York City 



63 



SEVEN P. M. 

(Continued from page 28) 



which followed, May elbowed her way through the crowd 
and into the street. 

"It's the last night I spend with those devils," she called 
back to Louisa. 

She marched out holding her head very high, conscious that 
the bystanders were tittering slightly over the mixture of soot 
and green dye with which she was plastered. STie knew 
a place where she could go and fix herself up, and a fellow 
who would give her some swell shoes. She had been shy 
about taking favors from him before, especially since she pre- 
ferred Bud. But any place but home was the way she now 
felt, and any source for shoes since her new ones had been 
ruined. What did anything matter after such humiliation? 

"I'm through with the damned hole myself," muttered Joe, 
as he slouched out of the door in the wake of his sister. 

Once in the street he turned in a different direction, toward 
the freight yards. He too knew where he could go. 

Louisa, being the eldest, felt some slight responsibility toward 
her mother, until she at least recovered speech, and toward 
her father until she was sure that he would not be arrested. 
As for May or Joe, she knew from her own experience that 
they would take no advice from her, so she let them alone. 
When her parents had both recovered themselves enough to 
sit up and explain matters volubly to the neighbors, Louisa gave 
a slight shrug of disgust at the unclean room suddenly become 
abhorrent to her, and slipped quietly out of the back door. 

The aluminum-kettle raffles did not turn out very well. 
One thing led to another until Louisa and the man- 
ager of the enterprise were obliged to flee from the state 
together to escape the law. They did not come back. Neither 
did Joe. He sends out-of-the-way post cards to his mother 
from time to time. He seems to be in the navy, but his 
mother is not sure. She has not seen him since that night. 

As for May she calls on her mother now and then with very 
handsome shoes and stockings, and she gives her parents a 
substantial present every Christmas. 

They cannot understand where she gets the money and they 
shake their heads over the vague accounts which she gives of 
herself. But what can they do? They are glad to get the 
presents for they need the money, and they are much too 
humbled by their children to dare to ask any inconvenient 
questions. The Battle of Bosworth Field was lost to King 
Richard, they tell us, all for the want of a horseshoe nail. 
The Battle of the Nyacks was lost by all parties to the con- 
flict. None came out victorious. And why? Because all 
the combatants were too tired to be reasonable at seven p. m. 



OLD LAW AND NEW UNDERSTANDING 

(Continued from page 8) 



the malefactors before him from other criminals does not in- 
validate the conclusion that his ruling, admitting the testimony 
in question, marks the dawn of a new era in the evolution of 
the legal concept of criminal responsibility. May we not see 
a recognition of this fact in the court's statement that "the 
careful analysis made of the life history of the defendants 
and of their present mental, emotional and ethical condition 
... is a valuable contribution to criminology?" What at least 
may be taken as settled is this: Heretofore the alienist, deal- 
ling with the question of responsibility solely from the legal 
point of view, has furnished the only point of contact of mental 
science with the procedure of criminal justice. Henceforth, 
the psychiatrist, with the new knowledge of morbid psychology 
at his command, will have his day in court. The former was 
concerned with a single problem: was the defendant at the 
time of committing the criminal act aware of the nature and 
consequences of the act, capable of distinguishing between right 
and wrong ? The issue was simple and clear cut: innocent 
or guilty. The psychiatrist, concerning himself with the whole 
miin, will see in the crime tor which the culprit is being triea, 
only an episode in a life history, the latest of a long series of 

64 



significant acts and experiences and one that cannot be properly 
assessed otherwise than in the light of all that has gone before. 
The social worker will think at once of the juvenile court, 
where this is the recognized procedure, and may be tempted 
to look for a speedy transformation of the procedure of our 
ordinary criminal justice on the same model. But let us not 
be deceived. Judge Caverly, with all his enlightenment the 
enlightenment which he brought to his task as well as that 
which he must have gained from the hearing (not every one 
can get such schooling in the mysteries of human nature as he 
got from Doctors White and Healey and Glueck) would be 
the first to smile at the suggestion. The toughness of our 
criminal law is at its toughest in its procedure. No sudden 
or radical change can be looked for in that direction. It was 
humanitarian feeling, the sentiment of tenderness for the child, 
that made it possible to convert juvenile crime into juvenile 
delinquency and to invest the juvenile court with a protective, 
in place of the usual punitive function. 

So we must be content probably for a long time to come to 
see the question of guilt or innocence of the person accused 
of crime dealt with in very much the same rigorous way in 
which it now is, and the psychiatrist employed, as in the Leopold- 
Loeb case, to aid the court in the exercise of its discretion as to 
the punishment that should be imposed. We may expect that, 
under this salutary influence, the education of the judges, as 
well as of the bar and the public, will go on apace and that there 
will be an increasing recognition of the part that a defective 
heredity and the disintegrating experience of life have had to do 
with the production of criminalistic tendencies which have found 
their sinister expression in the present act. There will probably 
be no less talk of responsibility complete and partial but there 
will certainly be more undertanding and, by that token, more 
compassion. And we shall not regard imprisonment in a peni- 
tentiary as the proper alternative to the death penalty. Justice 
will not be tempered with mercy though that is the best that 
Clarence Darrow could make his appeal for but will express 
itself in a commitment of the Loebs and Leopolds of the future 
to an indefinite term of confinement in a speciali/ed institution 
where, under supervision of psychiatrists, they may be studied. 
In order to reap more completely the abundant harvest whose 
seeds were planted in the tragic case under review, one more 
step, of more far-reaching promise, will be taken. In the 
process above outlined we find nothing that is not implicit in 
the procedure employed by the Chicago court. The legislation 
that may be required to put it fully into effect the power of 
commitment under an indeterminate sentence to an institution 
for psychopathic personalities is strictly analogous to existing 
legislation providing for the commitment of the criminal insane. 
The further step which we may confidently anticipate has 
already been taken, in a tentative and halting fashion, it is 
true, in several of our states. It is the enactment of a law 
providing for the mental examination and study of all persons 
held for trial on a criminal charge, such examination to be 
made under the auspices of the state in advance of trial, 
possibly and preferably prior to the submission of the case 
to the grand jury for indictment. The best type of such a law 
up to the present time is the Massachusetts statute which 
provides a routine examination by the state department of 
mental diseases of all persons indicted for a capital offense 
or of any person known to have been indicted for any other 
offense more than once or to have been previously convicted of 
a felony. The report of such investigation, filed with the clerk 
of the court having jurisdiction of the case, is then to be avail- 
able for the! information of the court, of the district attorney 
and of the attorney for the accused and, in case a trial follows, 
shall be admissible as evidence of the condition of the accused.* 
From all of which arises the startling conclusion that the 
world does move even in the field of our traditional criminal 
procedure. There is nothing in all this that does violence to 
that tradition. The ministers of criminal justice still walk in the 
old, time-worn way. But what a difference it will make if the 
straight and narrow path becomes illumined by the new light 
which will beat upon it from the effulgence of the new psychology. 



These facts fire taken from Dr. S. Sheldon Glueok's excellent 
article on the Mental TCtamlnntion of Criminals, in Mental 
Hygiene for January, 1924. 



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65 




DBS! 



IQ 



Talks 

from 

my 

Outlook 

Tower 



By PATRICK GEDDES 

THE editors of The Survey first heard snatches of them 
under the big oak in Gramercy Park. That was the sum- 
mer Professor Geddes slipped in and out of New York, on 
his way from India to Edinburgh, a slight, spare figure, long- 
bearded, with the look of a savant and the whimsical speech 
of the Scot, giving his lecture at the New School for Social 
Research. You would have to roll up your ideas of Marco 
Polo, and Darwin and Archimedes, of the Encyclopedia 
Britannica and of Peter Pan, to get a clearer notion of the 
measure of this man. 

Who took an old romantic building on the High Street 
of Edinburgh, and turned its castellated roofs and outlook 
tower into such an observation post of the civic life about 
him, such as can only be compared to the astronomer's dome. 

Who, building on LePlay and Comte, carried the idea 
of the "regional survey" into British thought from thence 
it is spreading around the world. 

Who directed town planning exhibits at London, Edin- 
burgh, Dublin, Belfast, Ghent, Paris. 

Who has made city plans for Bombay, Lahore, Madras, 
Calcutta. 

Who has planned universities for Indore, Jerusalem, 
Bengal, Hyderabad. 

Who has fashioned everything from mosques and tem- 
ples to zoological gardens. 

Under whose touch the stones and squares and build- 
ings, the life and labor of the modern town, east or west, 
unfolds with romance, with history, with colorful human 
significance, with philosophy and prophecy, such as the man 
in the street little dreams of. 



ON his American visit Professor Geddes touched, as was 
his wont, a handful of people kindling them stretch- 
ing their imaginations city planners, economists, sociolo- 
gists, artists, journalists, architects, young university men, 
veterans in civic enterprise. How to spread the infection 
of the man was the quandary confronting us. For the 
most part it has been communicated only by word of mouth. 
Even his best friends said that more could not be done. 
The conspiracy to contrive it has taken over a year. But 
this summer, back again from India, Professor Geddes has 
been at his old Outlook Tower on the High Street of Edin- 
burgh, revising a sheaf of informal papers which will appear 
throughout the year in Survey Graphic. 

66 



Sick 'at Heart 

TUBERCULOSIS has been pushed from its place as 
arch-executioner. In some favored cities and states it 
now stands sixth on the mortality tables. And in its place, 
in most parts of the country, is heart disease, now the chief 
cause of death in these United States. 

Last year organic heart disease killed nearly three times 
as many people in New York City as did tuberculosis; 
more than twice as many as cancer; more than half 
again as many as pneumonia. Moreover it usually kills by 
inches. A death from heart disease has typically back of 
it a story of infection in childhood or early adult life, of 
loss of working power in the most productive years, of a 
decade or more of slowly waning strength, leading to in- 
validism, dependency, and finally to death. 

FORTUNATELY heart disease, like the "white plague," 
often is curable. It is preventable. But the organization 
which should be brought to bear on this most costly of 
auman ills must run the whole gamut of the seven ages 
from childhood when it is to be prevented, through the 
middle years when it may be arrested and cured, to old 
age when its disabilities may be alleviated. We of the 
United States are on the threshold of an organized onslaught 
upon it which promises rewards as rich and as startling as 
those of which the tuberculosis campaigners dreamed daring- 
ly twenty years ago. 

SURVEY GRAPHIC for November will bring out a notable 
group of articles on the need and methods of this cam- 
paign, which has come almost heralded and unrecognized 
into the arena of challenging social effort. 

HAVEN EMERSOV, M.D., president of the New York 
Heart Association, and associate editor of the Survey, will 
outline the battle to be waged and tell of the skirmishes al- 
ready won. 

WILLIAM H. ROBEY, M.D., of Boston will bring the 
national program for prevention and treatment of heart 
disease down to scale, so that every reader may see where he 
can take hold in his own community. 

ELIZABETH PORTER WYCKOFF, Samuel McCoy, Hannah 
Mitchell, Lewis Hine (with a new series of work portraits) 
will interpret this adventurous crusade in terms of the 
men, women and children in hospital, clinic, school or at 
home, to whom it brings the chance for usefulness, hap- 
piness, life itself. 

The Long Look Ahead 

If you know anybody whose view is shut off by the gates of 
a city, the valves of a heart, or a closed door in his mind, make 
him a present of SURVEY GRAPHIC. It opens up wide vistas 
and at the same time gives the solid, intimate details of the 
foreground. A guide for a sight-seeing trip called "Seeing Life 
Whole." 



SURVEY GRAPHIC 

112 East 19 Street, New York City 

For the $3 enclosed send your illustrated monthly issues for one year 
(4 months* trial $1) to: 



Name 

Street, No 

City, State SM. 10-24 



GOT 17 1924 





Midmonthly Number 



Vol. LIII, No. 2 



October 15, 1924 



CONTENTS 

Unconstitutional and Void - Ruben W. Bruere 

Home Life for the Aged - - Homer Folks 

There Were Giants in Those Days 

- - - - - - - - - Alexander Johnson 

The Psychiatrist's Day in Court ------ 

- - - - - - Thomas W. Salmon 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

The Child Labor Amendment: Ten Answers to 
Ten Questions - - - - Florence Kelley 

INDUSTRY - - 

Cotton and the Eight-Hour Day, iPimco, 
Eleanor Bushnell Cooke Giant Power. 
K. W. B. 

HEALTH 

A Penny a Pound for Health, S. R. Lamb 
The Boston Health League, Mary Beard, 
R. A'. Mother's Milk! Sarah Blackwcl! Gober 
Open the Windows 

EDUCATION - - - 

Education and Community Life in Smith- 
dale, Esther Watson Tipple A New Com- 
munity School What's An Adjustment Room? 
Thinking About Education 

SOCIAL PRACTICE - - - - 

Is Your Town Fit for a Child? Miriam 
fan Waters 

BOOKS IN OUR ALCOVE 

SURVEY READING LIST: First Aid for 
Voters, Leon Whipple 

SOCIAL STUDIES J. K. H. 

SOCIAL WORK SHOP TALK ------ 

COMMUNICATIONS - 



69 



78 

79 



90 



94 



97 

98 
101 



G 




The Gist of It 

IVE us, please, a book department that 
will serve the expert and interest the 
layman." Books in Our Alcove (p. 97) is 
the answer to this invitation made by 
Leon Whipple who, this month, with the opening 
of our new publishing year, becomes literary editor 
of The Survey. On the shelves in our alcove will 
be found of course the books brought out in those 
fields of social concern which the Survey has made 
its own. Here the student (and browser) may hope 
to find not only reviews and appraisals of books on 
social work and practice, health, education, industrial 
relations, civics, race problems and the like, but also 
discussions of ways for making the most of books 
as tools of social interpretation. The editor and his 
contributors will go beyond reviews (though these 
will be the back-bone) to take up questions of re- 
search and writing, editing and publishing. The 
alcove will be a seminar without being dull. 

DOCTOR of humane letters would be a better 
degree for Mr. Whipple than a mere Master 
of Arts. For he loves people and books. He has 
led a double life in the hurly-burly of newspaper 
editing in Richmond and Washington, in the acade- 
mic shades of the University of Virginia and in his 
present^ tenure as professor of journalism in New- 
York University. This humania may explain why he 
will handle a companion department in the Graphics 
where he will still love books, but love them in 
:ociety. Here he will point out how the printing 



press can be a greater servant how authors and 
publishers and artists and libraries and critics can 
carry their message farthest. Here he will seek 
the human note in our novels and plays and poetry 
their social significance if you will and try to test 
letters by life. 

PENNSYLVANIA was the last great industrial 
state to adopt a workmen's compensation law ; 
it was the first great industrial state to adopt what 
amounts to an old-age pension law. After the Pennsyl- 
vania custom, the law met its first set-back in the 
lower courts. The situation is reviewed by Mr. 
Bruere, industrial editor of The Survey, (p. 69) 

HOMER FOLKS, secretary of the New York 
State Charities Aid Association, takes up the care 
of the aged in a way which challenges not only public 
action but the traditional trend in private philanthropy. 

(P- 7') 

THOSE who read Alexander Jo|hnson's Adven- 
tures in Social Welfare need no explanation of 
why we turned to him for an appreciation of the 
career of that patriarch of social work, Timothy 
Nicholson. Indiana was the adopted state of both of 
them. (p. 72) 

WHEN all America was waiting for the sen- 
tence passed by Judge Caverly in the Leopold- 
Loeb case, there were many who looked beyond the 
fate of two self-vaunted youthful murderers, to the 
aftermath of social credit or debit which would follow 
so startling a case. In Survey Graphic for October, 
(Old Law and New Understanding) Dr. Kirchwey 
discussed the trial as "a fingerpost in criminology," 
pointing toward a more understanding treatment of 
the criminal, prophesying "Henceforth, the psychiatrist, 
with the new knowledge of morbid psychology at his 
command, will have his day in court." But the Leopold- 
Loeb case gave to the psychiatrist at least the dawn of 
this new dav. How did he use it? What did psychiatry- 
give to the cause of justice and humanity, and what 
did it gain or lose in its spectacular encounter with 
the legal machine? How can it best be used to illumin- 
ate and broaden the older, formal conceptions of 
responsibility and righteousness? In this issue Dr. 
Salmon, professor of psychiatry at Columbia Uni- 
versity. long medical director of the National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene, discusses this "cause celebre 
of the century thus far" from the standpoint of a 
profession whose members spend their lives in dealing 
with the consequences of abnormal behaviour, (p. 74) 

E are told that President Masaryk of Czecho- 
Slovakia is writing his reminiscences. That 
should prove to be one of the most interesting hu- 
man documents of these decades. That his new republic 
is facing the future in constructive ways was illustrated 
when the Y. M. C. A. was called into Prague (soon 
after the war) to carry out a survey of the city. The 
results were brought out in a series of volumes, later 
interpreted in a special number of this magazine (June 
1921). This summer the same spirit lay back of the con- 
ference in Prague which took up industrial engineering 
and efficiency and drew over seas some of our leading 
American engineers, among them Morris L, Cooke, 
chairman of the Giant Power Commission of Pennsyl- 
vania. Mrs. Cooke, who accompanied him, writes de- 
lightfully of the sessions, (p. 82)^ 

C R. LAMB, secretary of the Sheffield Joint Hos- 
pitals' Council of Sheffield, England, describes 
(p. 85) an experiment that disproves the cynic's obser- 
vation that "the Sheffielder's heart is as hard as the 
steel he makes." 




BEARD, general director of the Com- 
munity Health Association of Boston, brings to the 
interpretation of the work of the Boston Health League 
(p. 86) the same wealth of experience which disti 
guishes her recent book The Nurse in Public Health. 








Drawn from photograph 

by Abby E. Underwood 



The Oldest Social Worker of Them All 
TIMOTHY NICHOLSON 

1829 1924 



See page 72 




SOTOGW 



MIDMONTHLY 



October 15 
1924 




Volume LIII 
No. 2 



Unconstitutional and Void 

By Robert W. Bruere 



BY the Court: "This Act manifests a desire to 
do good ; it indicates a love toward mankind ; 
an effort to promote happiness ; in fact, it comes 
within all the definitions of benevolence. . . . 
We are left in no doubt that this statute offends against 
Section 18, Article III, of the Constitution and must there- 
fore he declared void." 

The act at bar was that of the Commonwealth of Penn- 
sylvania passed on May 10, 1923, creating an Old Age 
Assistance Commission, an Old Age Assistance Super- 
intendent, and requiring each county to establish an Old 
Age Assistance Board. Subject to its provisions, every 
person, while residing in the commonwealth, was entitled 
to assistance in old age. The amount was limited to a 
sum which, when added to the income of the applicant 
from all other sources, would not 
exceed $T.OO a day. Applicants must 
have attained the age of 70 years, 
must have been citizens of the United 
States for 15 years, and residents of 
the commonwealth for 15 years im- 
mediately preceding application ; or 
if they could show 40 years of dis- 
continuous residence, at least 5 con- 
secutive years must have immediately 
preceded. Inmates of prisons, work- 
houses, insane asylums, reformatory 
or correctional institutions were ex- 
cluded ; so also were wife- or hus- 
band-deserters ; those who had failed 
to support their children ; tramps, 
beggars; and all who might have a 
child or other person responsible 



// the Pennsylvania Old Age 
Pennon Act is unconstitu- 
tional, the acts of 1923 passed 
by Montana and Nevada, and 
such other old age pension 
acts as may hereafter be 
passed by state legislatures, 
might, by the same process of 
reasoning, be declared an of- 
fense against the limitations 
on the general police powers 
as expressed in the "due proc- 
ess" clauses of state consti- 
tutions. 



under the law and able to support them. Assistance might 
not be granted either to an individual or a married pair 
having property exceeding $3,000 in value. The Act further 
safeguarded the interests of the commonwealth by providing 
that upon the death of the beneficiary, the total amount 
paid for assistance together with interest at 3 per cent was 
to be deducted from his estate and paid into the state 
treasury. Moreover, the assistance commission might as a 
condition of granting aid, require that all or any part of 
the applicant's property be transferred to it for control and 
defense or prosecution of suits concerning it. For putting 
the Act into operation, the legislature appropriated the sum 
of $25,000. 

The spirit of the act was expressive of the modern atti- 
tude toward the valiant poor who are making a last stand 
against pauperism. There are few 
tragedies so poignant as that of the 
aged who, having lived useful lives 
for seventy years, find their homes 
and their dearest associations in 
jeopardy because their strength 
is not sufficient for the final effort 
to face death in honorable independ- 
ence. In a joint resolution passed in 
1910, the New Jersey legislature 
declared that "the so-called civilized 
industrialism of our day can be sub- 
ject to no stronger criticism than the 
charge fortified by universal experi- 
ence that the men and women whose 
productive energy has contributed so 
much to our wealth, progress and 
development, leading simple, inex- 

69 



70 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1924 



pensive lives, become in their declining years powerless, 
principally because they are penniless." Military nations 
have traditionally recognized that security against this mo^t 
bitter indignity was due their soldiers. Always we ourselves 
pension our men of war and their dependents out of the 
public treasury. The Act of Pennsylvania creating an Old 
Age Assistance Commission may be construed as an effort 
on the part of the citizens of our foremost industrial state 
to apply this principle to the honorably discharged sol- 
diers of industry. But the Court of Common Pleas de- 
clares the Act an offense against the section of the State 
Constitution of 1874 which provides that "No appropria- 
tion, except for pensions or gratuities for military services, 
shall be made for charitable, educational or benevolent pur- 
poses, to any person or community, nor to any denomina- 
tional or sectarian institution, corporation or association." 
The Court finds that the Act comes within all the defi- 
nitions of benevolence, and that it is therefore unconstitu- 
tional and void. 

The verdict of the lower court is not final ; the case will 
be carried to a higher tribunal for final disposition. Never- 
theless the reasoning upon which it is based is of very great 
importance in its bearing upon other attempts to give state 
aid to the aged. For the Pennsylvania reasoning may be ap- 
plicable to the old age pension acts of other states 
even if their constitutions do not carry such specific pro- 
vision. The Montana state constitution similarly prohibits 
appropriations for charitable, industrial, educational or 
benevolent purposes to any person, corporation or com- 
munity not under the absolute control of the state. If the 
Pennsylvania Old Age Pension Act is unconstitutional, the 
acts of 1923 passed by Montana and Nevada, and such 
other old age pension acts as may hereafter be passed by state 
legislatures, might, by the same process of reasoning, be 
declared an offense against the limitations on the general 
police powers as expressed in the "due process" clauses of 
state constitutions. 

The action to enjoin the enforcement of the Pennsylvania 
statute was brought by "plaintiffs, forty in number, being 
both persons and corporations, averring that they are citi- 
zens, residents and taxpayers of the commonwealth." The 
attorneys for the commonwealth argued that recourse to 
the constitutional debates would show that the section in the 
constitution prohibiting appropriations for benevolent pur- 
poses was designed to prevent the enactment of so-called 
"calamity acts" for the emergent relief of persons or com- 
munities fallen victim to fire, flood, or other calamity. But 
the Court held that in ascertaining what the constitution 
means we must not look beyond the letter of the constitu- 
tion itself "unless the language is so ambiguous that we 
need to ascertain what mischief is to be remedied." It could 
detect no such ambiguity here. The attorneys for the 
commonwealth argued "that the Act did not offend against 
the constitution because the appropriation is made to a com- 
mission which is an agency of the state, for the purpose of 
the proper distribution to the persons for whom the appro- 
priation is intended, and is not made directly to any per- 
son." But this the Court found to be evasive an attempt 
to accomplish by indirection what might not be accomplished 
directly. Said the Court: "Our single inquiry must be 
whether this legislation is prohibited by the constitution 
itself." The constitution prohibits appropriations for 



benevolent purposes to any person. The assistance contem- 
plated by the Act is "certainly a kindness to persons in 
old age." The state has for many years made appropria- 
tions to institutions for the care of the aged, some of which 
charge fees and require applicants for admission to turn 
over their property to their custody. A number of such 
appropriations are listed among the Appropriation Acts for 
1923. The Court could apparently discover no similarity 
between the boards of directors of these institutions and 
the Old Age Assistance Commission ; neither could it see 
the validity of the argument that if it is constitutional to 
make appropriations to maintain old age homes it should 
also be constitutional to make appropriations to enable peo- 
ple to keep up their own homes. 

Those who struggled for years to win public opinion and 
the law-makers to adopt toward the aged the principle em- 
bodied in the Act and who now see their victory nullified, 
are disposed to charge the Court with a strained interpreta- 
tion of the Constitution. Officers of the State Federation of 
Labor who led the campaign for the law are particularly 
resentful. 

The logic of our courts in interpreting social and labor 
legislation is indeed mysterious, [says the president of the Fed- 
eration, James Maurer, who was also Chairman of the Penn- 
sylvania Commission on Old Age Pensions]. For years, our 
judges who receive salaries ranging from $8,000 to $18,000 
a year, have been drawing pensions for life amounting to half 
their salaries. . . . Our teachers receive pensions from the 
state. Our state employes now receive half their pensions 
from the state .... But when the legislature, by overwhelm- 
ing majorities, declared the state in debt to the worthy aged 
persons who have given their lives to the welfare of the 
state . . . the Dauphin County Court is unable to find "a 
syllable in the constitution which authorizes a system of benev- 
olence for the care and maintenance of aged indigent residents 
of the state." 

It might be assumed that since the pensioners to whom 
Mr. Maurer refers are employes of the state, some subtle 
distinction marks the two cases. No such distinction is 
indicated in the present decision. If nil appropriations for 
benevolent purposes are unconstitutional it is difficult to 
understand why the law providing pensions for teachers 
and judges, for example, should not he held unconstitutional. 
An act passed in 1901 provided 

for the removal of judges of the supreme, superior, common 
pleas, and orphan's court, permanently disqualified by reason 
of physical or mental disability to perform their judicial func- 
tions and duties with half pay for unexpired terms. 

This was not challenged as unconstitutional. Indeed, 
in 1911, it was so amended "as to allow them full pay 
during the balance of their terms of office and under certain 
conditions, half pay during the remainder of their lives." 
Certainly at least in the case of judges in office when this 
amendment was passed the allowance could hardly have 
been other than a "benevolence." The wording of the 
teachers pension act makes it clear that in their case, too, 
the state's assistance is purely a gratuity to persons. Cer- 
tainly at least in the case of teachers \vhere the deficiency 
in the pension fund is covered out of the state treasury 
the appropriation is a pure gratuity. 

It will be interesting to see how the court of appeals 
will resolve this seeming inconsistency of which the Court 
of Common Plea?, in its strictly literal interpretation of the 
constitution, takes no account. 



Home Life for the Aged 

By Homer Folks 



A LARGE portion of the present actual social and 
relief activities in the older communities of this 
country represents the first instinctive reaction of 
humane, public-spirited people of means to particular in- 
stances of distress and suffering which have come to their 
notice. There was little experience to draw upon, and 
almost no opportunity for critical analysis of methods or 
results. For children, orphanages; for the aged, homes for 
the aged ; for the sick, hospitals. 

The advent of the full-time social worker, and especially 
of the trained social worker, has meant a new thinking 
through of all phases of social welfare, a more searching 
examination of the principles or beliefs on which they rest, 
and a more critical appraisal of their results. Among the 
last of the subjects to undergo this revaluation is that of 
the care of the aged. 

All of us are dependent upon others for actual physical 
care during one period of our lives, childhood ; and most 
of us. during another period, old age. Few of us have the 
good fortune to be able to take care of ourselves, much 
less give a helping hand to others, all the way along until 
the end comes. Ordinarily, during the helplessness of child- 
hood the necessary care is provided by the parents, and dur- 
ing the helplessness of old age it is given by the children, now 
grown up, and in both cases ordinarily in the home environ- 
ment. These established social habits, or ways of living, 
represent the results of a winnowing and sifting of human 
experience. They may not necessarily be the best ways for 
all time to come, but they are the best which the human 
race has yet devised. It is because these ways of living are 
the outcome of long periods of experience and of trial and 
error, that modern social work adopts as one of its principles 
that its activities should require as little departure as may 
be from normal and usual ways of living. 

If we apply this test to the care of the aged, it would 
imply, first, in the absence of special reasons to the contrary 
and in case relief is needed, an allowance sufficient to se- 
cure care in the normal home environment ; second, a sal- 
vaging of such capacity for useful work as may remain, 
though it would obviously be insufficient to provide sup- 
port in the ordinary channels of competition ; and third, 
institutional care for those who are isolated and have no 
vestiges of normal home environment, and also for the 
much larger group of the disabled and helpless. 

WHAT do the aged want? We are apt to. think of 
them as desiring a serene, uneventful life, such as 
would result from the orderly management of an in;titMtion- 
al home. As a matter of observation and fact, is this not 
contrary to all experience? My observation of the aged 
would lead me to believe that their chief desires are: first, 
not to be set apart in any way as being aged ; second, to be 
let alone, and allowed to manage their own affairs; third, 
to stay where they have been living, if possibl ; in the same 



home circle, certainly in the same neighborhood and physical 
environment; and fourth, to continue occupying themselves 
as nearly as may be in the kind of work to which they have 
been accustomed, or in something resembling that as nearly 
as possible, having in mind their increasing infirmity. 

These so-to-speak fixed ideas of old people often seem on 
first thought to many social workers to be utterly foolish, 
extraordinarily unreasonable, short-sighted, and indicating 
obstinacy. As a matter of fact, they are the very qualities 
which civilization has slowly and painfully elaborated as 
the foundation of organized society. Attachment to locality 
and to individual liberty, and useful occupation, are not 
these the very traits of character without which any high 
degree of social achievement would be impossible? After 
having painfully cultivated these virtues over long periods 
of time, we cannot expect them suddenly to be put into the 
discard. Rather, we should treat them with the utmost 
respect and consideration, even though at the moment they 
may make the task of assisting the aged somewhat more 
difficult, certainly more individual. As a matter of fact, 
these old people may be very much wiser and may under- 
stand their own needs very much more clearly than we do. 
A continuance of established habits, occupations and ad- 
justments may in a great majority of cases mean a much 
greater probability of health and of a comfortable and 
agreeable old age than a sharp break with the habits of a 
life time. 

Furthermore, if the modern development of social work 
means anything, it means increased respect for the person- 
ality of every individual whom we would aid. It means 
persuasion rather than coercion, gradual change rather than 
abrupt change. 

SEVERAL decades ago those concerned with the assistance 
of needy children, who were doing any considerable 
amount of thinking about their work, reached the conclusion 
that as a matter of principle, and as rapidly as possible as a 
matter of practice, needy children should be kept in their 
own homes, except when the occasion for their removal was 
other than poverty; that if the moving consideration was 
simply lack of resources, the resources should be provided 
in the home environment and not elsewhere. This prin- 
ciple was unanimously and formally adopted by the White 
House Conference on Dependent Children in 1909, was 
reaffirmed by a similar conference called by the federal 
Children's Bureau in 1919, and is approached more and 
more closely in actual practice. The factor which chiefly 
stands in the way of its universal practice is that so large 
a part of the funds which have been made available by 
bequests, gifts and organized forms of relief for children, 
is available only in the institutional form. The orphan- 
age has its endowment and its open door. It is readily 
available. Comparable resources for home relief have been 
difficult to secure. 



71 



THE SURREY 



October 15, 1924 



Have we not reached a time when the same principle, 
and as rapidly as may be the same practice, should apply 
to the second period of dependency as to the first, namely, 
that the aged should not be removed from their normal 
home environment for reasons of poverty alone? They 
may be removed because the home environment is unsuit- 
able, or non-existent, or because their physical infirmities 
are such as cannot be adequately cared for in ordinary 
homes. The principle, I think, would command general 
acceptance. To its practice we would find the same sort 
of an obstacle. The first reaction of the generous-minded 
to the problem of the aged has been Homes for the Aged. 
They have seemed to present elements of stability and perma- 
nence which appeal strongly to the business instinct. 
They are so much more obvious and easily understood. 
They seem simple and easily managed, while any system 
of home allowances involves complicated questions of dis- 
crimination and personal attention. Is it not clear that our 
whole system of provision for the aged would be enormous- 
ly more useful if all the funds which have been tied to 
Homes for the Aged and similar institutions were available 
for the support of the aged either in Homes or in homes, 
according to individual need ? 

Probably for a long time to come we will not be able to 
change the terms of these existing gifts and endowments, 
though we may have to come to it in the long run. When 
the matter is gone at, however, in a larger way, such as 
providing for clergymen or teachers or other groups, in 
their later age periods, nobody has suggested that they 
should be brought together into groups of Homes for Aged 
Clergymen, or Homes for Aged Teachers. Funds have 
been established whereby supplementary allowances and pen- 
sions have been provided. There is no particular reason, 
however, why the considerations which call for Funds, 
rather than Homes, for ministers and teachers, should not 
equally apply to all other classes and groups of people. 
People generally are attached to their homes, their families, 
their occupations, and their localities, quite as much as are 



teachers and clergymen. 

The plain lesson to be drawn from all these considera- 
tions is that, although we may not be able for a long time 
to come to change the terms of bequests and gifts hereto- 
fore made to Homes for the Aged, there should be, from 
now on, a concerted effort on the part of social workers and 
of all students of these subjects, to prevent the tying up of 
substantial funds intended to benefit the aged to any one 
particular method of care. Let us have Funds for the Aged, 
plenty of them, and big ones, but let the application of the 
income of these funds be unrestricted as to its method ; 
let it be available for care in homes or in Homes. 

The rigidity of established voluntary agencies for the 
care of needy children in the institutional form, and the lack 
of substantial resources for home assistance, led to the wide- 
spread adoption of the governmental widows' pension. 
Meanwhile, however, the non-elastic institutional endow- 
ments continue. How much better it would have been 
if both private and public resources were applicable for the 
benefit of children by such methods as their individual cir- 
cumstances indicate rather than by one fixed plan. 

ARE we to undergo a similar process in regard to pen- 
sions for the aged? Will the State prove itself more 
progressive and adaptable to changing social conditions, and 
to the development of modern thought, than voluntary 
agencies as a whole, or rather than the terms under which 
gifts and bequests are made ? Whether or not we ultimate- 
ly arrive at a system of public pensions for the aged (-which 
is by no means a closed question), it is perfectly clear that 
unless bequests and gifts are as applicable for the assistance 
of the aged in their own homes or in other homes, as in 
Homes, we shall find ourselves inevitably pushed toward 
the adoption of a public system more nearly in accord not 
only with the development of modern social work, but 
with the instinctive judgment of all who will devote a 
little thought and observation to the question of what the 
aged themselves really wish. 



"There Were Giants in Those Days 

A Tribute to Timothy Nicholson 
By Alexander Johnson 



WITH the death of Timothy Nicholson at 95, ends 
a life of longer and greater usefulness than is often 
vouchsafed to a man. Since the year 1861, when 
he came to Indiana, from North Carolina, he 
had been helpful in every effort for human social better- 
ment in his adopted state; and had been a leader in most 
of them. Although taking part in almost every reform 
movement, he was preeminent in three, prison reform, edu- 
cational reform and prohibition. 

The writer's acquaintance with Mr. Nicholson began in 
April 1889. He was a charter member of the Board of 
State Charities of Indiana, and for nineteen years, until 
failing health caused him to retire, was chairman pf its 
committee on prisons. In that capacity his wonderful sym- 



pathy with the unfortunate, all the more unfortunate be- 
cause their misfortunes were self-caused, his clear head, his 
moderation and patience with people who, with whatever 
errors, were trying, in a difficult position, to do their best; 
made the duty of inspection in his company deeply interest- 
ing. When he had to give a reproof he did it with such 
kindness as well as justice, that he made friends out of oc- 
casions in which most men would have made enemies. In one 
instance when he had given a faithful but gentle rebuke to 
the superintendent of one of the great state institutions, the 
man said, in telling me of it later, "I would rather be called 
down by Timothy Nicholson than praised by most men." 
The quality which made Mr. Nicholson so preeminently 
useful was that of leadership. When he settled in Rich- 



October 15, 1924 



THE S> U R V E Y 



73 



mond, in 1861, he at once took a prominent position in the 
Society of Friends. He soon became clerk (which really 
means chairman) of the Richmond meeting, and later for 
many years, was clerk of the Indiana Yearly Meeting. A 
few years later he was elected a member of the governing 
board of Earlham College which under his influence be- 
came one of the best and most liberal of the small colleges 
of the Mid-West. 

It was natural for the religious body which had given 
John Howard and Elizabeth Fry to the world, to be in- 
terested in prison reform. In 1867, the representative 
body of the Indiana Yearly Meeting of Friends, appointed 
a committee "to organize a system for the reform of juven- 
ile offenders and the improvement of prison discipline." 
Mr. Nicholson was one of its first members and was soon 
made chairman. His annual reports, made to the represen- 
tative body, now called the permanent board, form a 
comprehensive history of prison and other reform in Indi- 
ana, during nearly fifty years of wise, patient and patriotic 
effort. 

The method of work adopted under Mr. Nicholson's 
influence by the Friends' committee was, by visits and per- 
sonal observation, to learn the actual conditions in the 
various state and county institutions prisons ; jails ; poor- 
houses; orphan's homes; etc. Each "meeting" was asked to 
appoint a committee "of discreet Friends," men and women, 
who should visit the public institutions in their neighbor- 
hoods and report the facts disclosed to the meeting. Then 
the members, by petition, by influence on the state and 
county officials and then on the legislature, and especially 
by informing the general public, endeavored to redress the 
evils that were found, never merely criticising but always 
presenting a plan of betterment. 

Among the notable results obtained by these wise and 
practical means, results which were largely and in some 
cases almost wholly due to the work of the Friends, may 
be mentioned the establishment of the boy's reformatory; 
the woman's prison and girl's reformatory ; the correction 
of many abuses in the prisons, insane hospitals, and poor 
asylums; the beginning of the county orphan's homes by 
which children were taken out of the poorhouses; the crea- 
tion of the Board of State Charities and many minor 
reforms. The influence of the Friends in all these matters 
was in much larger proportion than their numbers. In 
all this effort Timothy Nicholson was the leader. When 
other people became discouraged or tired, his faith, hope 
and patience, like his charity, never failed. He had the 
great satisfaction of seeing one after another of the causes 
he had championed, come to success. 

Mr. Nicholson had the rare quality of moderation which 
reformers so often lack. He said to the writer, alluding 
to the rather slow progress of some prison reforms which 
the Board of State Charities was promoting: "We must 
not expect complete success at a jump. Real reforms come 
slowly. If we only gain a little, keep at it and we shall 
win." But with all his patience in merely administrative 
matters, when it came to a question of principle he was 
inflexible. On the occasion of the first report of the state 
board, I had written the section on the Prison North and 
had given a severe statement of the iniquitous "slop con- 
tract" which then prevailed. When I had read the report, 
one member raised the question of the probable conse- 
quences of publishing the unpleasant facts and asked me 



what I- thought was likely to ensue. I told the board that 
as the warden was supposed to be the most influential poli- 
tician of his party in the state, and his party was in power, 
it would arouse his animosity and his friends in the legis- 
lature might either wipe out the board or reduce its appro- 
priation to an extent to make it useless. Then Timothy 
Nicholson said, "Alexander Johnson, does thee think we 
ought to make the report as thee has written it?" And on 
my reply that we could do no other if we were to preserve 
our own self-respect, he said "Mr. Chairman, I move that 
we publish the report as the secretary has written it." And, 
of course, the board voted unanimously for his motion. 

Mr. Nicholson and Oscar McCulloch were easily the 
commanding figures in the board. They each attended 
the National Conference of Social Work, then called "of 
Charities and Corrections." Each of them was president 
of the conference. When the conference met in Washing- 
ton, in 1901, Jeffrey Brackett was chairman of the com- 
mittee on nominations. He came to me with the question, 
"We are going, next year, to Detroit. For the Mid-West 
we want one of your good Indiana men for president. Who 
is the best?" I at once namted Mr. Nicholson. Now 
Timothy Nicholson, though often attending had seldom been 
heard. His theory of participating in a discussion was to 
keep silent unless the thing that needed saying was not 
being said by any one else, and my inquirer questioned his 
ability. But I knew the man ; what sterling qualities, what 
knowledge, wisdom, balanced judgment, fairness, insight, 
sympathy and absolute integrity of thought were his; what 
ability of leadership he had shown for fifty years among 
his own people. In choosing him they gave the conference 
one of the worthiest in its long line of worthy presidents. 
An interesting sidelight on Mr. Nicholson's character was 
seen when it came to choosing the preacher of the confer- 
ence sermon, a duty always incumbent on the president. 
He came to me and asked if I knew a Catholic priest of 
liberal mind and ability and on my recommendation he, an 
orthodox Quaker who was as much in earnest in his religion 
as in everything else, invited Rt. Rev. John Lancaster 
Spaulding, Catholic Bishop of Peoria, who gave us one 
of the great conference sermons. 

I must quote a passage from his presidential address be- 
cause it expresses so well his method and his hopes. 

Progress comes as the result of an ideal. Reformers see the 
mountain top before them, a distant reality; and though they 
may not attain the summit, their striving carries them some 
distance upward and their successors may realize the ideal 
which they only saw distantly. The universal reign of peace, 
the prosperity of every fellow man are ideals. Each man, in 
his own immediate circle, can translate, in a measure, his ideal 
into the practical and as this is done the world becomes that 
much better and nearer the ultimate goal of good. "One sow- 
eth and another reapeth." "Others have labored and ye are 
entered into their labor." 

It is a moderate estimate of Mr. Nicholson's work and 
influence in Indiana, to say that for fifty years he has been 
in all matters of charities and correction the wisest, strong- 
est and most useful citizen of the state. To those who 
have worked with him, especially those employed in an 
official capacity by the State Board of Charities, he was a 
wise, gentle, considerate and unfailing friend and adviser. 
No one ever reproved a subordinate more gently. No one 
was ever so unfailing in giving the word of praise when it 
was due. No one could give such comfort to and inspire 
such patience in one suffering under unjust aspersion. 



The Psychiatrist's Day in Court 

By Thomas W. Salmon, M. D. 



IN passing sentence upon the youthful murderers of Bob- 
by Franks, Judge Caverly said that the value of such 
tests as those used by the psychiatrists to determine 
the deeper motives for the crime "seems to lie in their ap- 
plicability to crime and criminals in general" and that they 
"concern the broad questions of human responsibility and 
legal punishment." As if to justify his opinion, discussion 
of this case turned abruptly from the terrible details of the 
crime and the amazing characteristics of its perpetrators to 
those larger issues which the type of defense rather than the 
crime itself forced upon the attention of the public. 

Which of these larger issues especially concern those of 
us whose interest in abnormal behavior lies chiefly in the fact 
that we spend our lives in dealing with its consequences? 
What effect will their "day in court" have upon some of 
the new viewpoints from which psychiatrists have been 
studying disorders of conduct? What value is the public 
inclined to place upon the tendency to go far behind an anti- 
social act to discover and evaluate its causes? Was the op- 
portunity so dramatically afforded to exhibit to the public 
the methods by which the psychiatrist studies the behavior 
of human beings a favorable or an unfavorable one? Al- 
though for reasons that it clearly indicated, the Court did 
not take the exhaustive psychiatric study of the defendants 
into consideration in passing judgment, it is evident that it 
formed the basis for the statement, "They have been shown 
in essential respects to be abnormal ; had they been normal 
they could not have committed this crime." If it is the 
general public belief that it is fruitful to go as far behind 
anti-social acts as is necessary in order to determine the 
causes of crime, if people generally believe with the Court 
that the study made by White, Healy and Glueck and 
their associates was "of extreme interest" and "a valuable 
contribution to criminology" and if they share the opinion 
of the Court that this study showed these youths to be "in 
essential respects abnormal," then the public must also be 
convinced that there have indeed been raised "broad ques- 
tions of human responsibility and legal punishment" that 
must sooner or later be answered. 

IN its editorial comment upon Judge Caverly's opinion, 
the New York World said "to the question of whether 
Judge Caverly should impose life-imprisonment or death, 
the alienist as such had nothing to contribute. That was 
a question not of abnormal psychology but of public policy." 
Some might not be so certain that scientists "as such" have 
nothing to contribute to questions of public policy and there 
might also be a question in some minds as to whether public- 
policies may not sometimes be illuminated by abnormal psy- 
chology' the policy toward alleged witches pursued by our 
forefathers in Salem for example but, in the broad sense 
in which it was intended, the statement of the World is 
doubtless correct. Public policy in England, after Queen 
Victoria was born, approved of the legal execution by ju- 
dicial sentence of a little child nine years old. Not only 



who shall be put to death but, to an increasing extent, whc 
shall be permitted to be born are questions of public policj 
that, in the end, will be determined by the people them 
selves rather than by the scientists (or even courts) anc 
will accurately represent their enlightenment, self-contro 
and attitude toward their fellow-men. It is for this reasor 
that the opinion of the public on the questions that th< 
Chicago trial has raised is of such great importance. 

It is difficult for an individual to ascertain public senti 
ment. Although a psychiatrist is sure to be asked for hi: 
opinion by a good many acquaintances (and given the op 
portunity of listening to their views by a much larger num 
her) those with whom I have exchanged opinions concern 
ing the psychiatric aspects of the Leopold-Loeb trial probabli 
do not number altogether more than a hundred. Colleague 
with whom I have discussed the case have had equal oppor 
tunities, however, and I have learned in this way the franl 
personal opinions of several hundreds more. Most news 
papers commented editorially upon this subject. These edi 
torial views and the large number of letters from reader 
that were printed in the newspapers make available a ver 
considerable amount of individual public opinion. A stud; 
of the views thus presented shows that only a relatively 
small number of persons share the opinions of the Cour 
that have been quoted above. Fortunately it indicates alsi 
the chief reasons for the surprisingly large amount of dis 
sent. Such reasons are worth careful examination. To con 
sider them candidly will aid in finding answers that \ver 
asked at the beginning of this article. 

THE outstanding reason for public disagreement wit! 
the opinions of Judge Caverly regarding the value o 
the defense's psychiatric study of Leopold and Loeb wa 
frank disbelief in its fairness and honesty. This disbelief wa 
expressed by all kinds of people lawyers, editorial writers 
correspondents of the newspapers, physicians and socia 
workers. In its crudest form it consisted simply in th 
scornful statement that this new kind of expert testimon 
showed on its face that it had been bought and paid fo 
and would hereafter be available to anyone who could pa 
the price. Other persons, a little more charitable, expresse 
the opinion that the psychiatrists were evidently sincere ii 
their desire to make correct observations and frank state 
ments but quite obviously were misled by the intensely pai 
tisan character of the whole proceeding. Everyone wh 
knows White, Healy and Glueck and is familiar with th 
high standards of their scientific work and the indefatigabl 
search for truth that has characterized all of it realizes tha 
this distrust must have been created by factors entire! 
apart from the personality of those men. Some responsi 
bility can be attached to the partisan way in which th 
ne\vs of the testimony was very often presented to news 
paper readers. One great daily referred to Dr. Healy, upo 
his first appearance in the court room, as "the defense 
$250 a day expert." The implication thus conveyed is n 



74 



October 15, 1924 



THE S U R V E Y 



75 



more significant than the confidence of the writer of the 
dispatch in the attitude of those \vho would read it. When 
one thinks of the enduring contributions that Dr. Healy 
has made to the understanding of childhood and the prac- 
tical management of the conduct disorders of children, many 
other ways in which he might have been identified come to 
mind. 

This public attitude of distrust, however, had nothing 
to do with the personal reputations and scientific positions 
of the men involved. Neither was the partisan way in 
which their testimony was often treated by the press, wholly 
responsible. Its reasons lay deeper. They are inherent in 
the wholly impossible position in which a scientific man is 
placed in such a trial. With the main facts of the crime 
admitted, there was no information required by the Court 
which approached in importance that relating to the patho- 
logical seeds of the crime and the way in which they grew 
into criminal impulses in the minds of the defendants. Yet, 
through the most absurd procedure that could be devised, 
the only way in which the Court was permitted to secure 
this information was by the testimony of experts pitted 
against each other whose opinions were discounted before 
they were uttered by the very fact that they represent a 
special point of view. In the future, research in psycho- 
pathology and doubtless in many related fields will throw 
much greater light than does our present knowledge upon 
the causes of crime. If, however, expert testimony has 
i then to be given under the same conditions that now pre- 
vail in criminal courts, it is certain that no practical use 
will be made of such new knowledge, no matter how im- 
portant it nxiy be. In the public mind, if not in those of 
judges and juries, the testimony of experts employed by 
different sides will continue to exactly counterbalance. There 
is only one way to end such a situation and that is to take 
a lesson from the wise procedure growing up in juvenile 
courts and have all such studies conducted by experts em- 
ployed by the court and reporting directly to it. It has 
been said that this cannot be done under the present form 
of law. If this is so, it would seem to the layman that such 
a form of law is no longer a useful mechanism for dealing 
effectively with human problems, but merely a barrier to 
progress and a smoke-screen for the concealment of truth. 

IT is useless to go very much farther into that phase of 
public opinion that expresses itself most vigorously by 
disbelief in the integrity of all psychiatric experts. Every- 
thing that they say in court must be entirely without weight 
in the mind of any person who believes that it merely repre- 
sents "bought-and-paid-for" opinion. There are, however, 
a good many people, including all those who know the men 
who have been named, who fully believe in their honesty 
and sincerity. It is to this minority that we must turn to 
gage public opinion as to any practical value that the new 
psychiatric approaches to the study of crime may have de- 
monstrated in this case. In this minority is to be found a 
considerable number of persons who are already familiar 
with the work of Healy in Chicago and Boston, and Glueck 
at Sing Sing Prison and the Bureau of Children's Guidance. 
To them there is nothing new in a kind of study that takes 
account of the whole individual all the mind and all the 
body, as well as the environment in which he grows and lives 
in determining what factors are responsible for conduct. 
In this case, the Court said "It is beyond the province of 
this court as it is beyond the capacity of human science in 



its present state of development to predict the ultimate re- 
sponsibiliy for human acts." Ultimate explanations lie be- 
yond the present (and probably the future) frontiers of 
every science, but well within the province of psycho- 
pathology today are the data for understanding many human 
thoughts, feelings and acts that, within our own time, have 
seemed inexplicable. It should be widely instead of little 
known that the study made of the lives and characteristics 
of Leopold and Loeb was not a fantastic procedure, con- 
ducted only for its effect in a particular case, but the kind 
employed in all serious studies of abnormal conduct. The 
psychiatrist of the present is continually seeking, often suc- 
cessfully, to find out why men, women and children have 
disorders of thinking, feeling or behaving. In many thou- 
sands of instances, where there is no question whatever of 
criminal responsibility, the same kind of inquiry is being 
made to find out why fear exists when there is nothing to 
be afraid of, disability when the body is intact, distaste for 
life when a powerful instinct demands its protection, in- 
ability to act when there is urgent need for action, of over- 
activity when the organism cries out for rest. 

Psychiatrists opening their morning papers during this 
trial must have been startled to find, in place of the cus- 
tomary news, columns of clinical material in no wise differ- 
ent from that which they heard the preceding day as part 
of a "case history" presented at the staff conference of a 
psychiatric clinic. Perhaps one such heavy dose of psychia- 
tric clinical material in the newspapers will be considered 
sufficient for quite a period of time, yet, those who remem- 
ber the accounts twenty years ago of the evidence in the 
Thaw case will prefer the new type of clinical evidence to 
the old. There can be no doubt that those persons whose 
minds are not closed by disbelief in the honesty of the ex- 
aminers have gained new points of view toward the ultimate 
sources of crime that may some day be reflected in public 
opinion and later in public policy. 

THE' Chicago trial supplied without cost the kind of 
popular education that for some time has been earnestly 
desired by students of crime and criminology. Discussions 
have been provoked which cannot fail to throw light upon 
subjects thus far abandoned to prejudice. The indifference 
of parents and teachers to certain phases of child life has 
received a jolt and the need for applying preventive measures 
in abnormal developments of behavior patterns is far more 
generally appreciated than it was before the new psychology 
in an atmosphere of distrust and ridicule exhibited its 
methods of study in a Chicago court room. Columns of 
newspapers are open for discussions which before this trial 
were not considered worthy of space that might have been 
devoted to details of crime. A shocking murder and an 
extraordinary "close-up" of two abnormal personalities has 
set several thousand persons thinking along novel lines and, 
in consequence, we are now hearing from entirely new 
quarters demands for more adequate facilities for the scien- 
tific study of crime and criminals. If the utterly useless 
methods by which alone psychiatric expert testimony can 
now be heard in court are reformed, and one-tenth of the 
space devoted by newspapers to other phases of crime is 
devoted to some of its real origins, the unjust and merciless 
denounciation of honest scientific men who tried to present 
the psychological bearings of an abnormal crime may be 
forgiven. 




The Common Welfare 




IN announcing the forthcoming publication of its five- 
year study of unemployment, the Russell Sage Found- 
ation again reminds the public that averaging good 
years and bad, 10 to 12 per cent of all American wage- 
workers millions of men and women are always looking 
for jobs. The investigation covered more than seventy cities 
in thirty-one states and Canada. Special studies were made 
in Ohio, Wisconsin, Massachusetts and New York where 
public employment bureaus have had the greatest develop- 
ment. The investigators reach the conclusion that "we must 
have public employment bureaus to take the place of private 
fee-charging agency bureaus." They recognize that the pri- 
vate agencies are performing a useful function in the absence 
of an adequate public system of employment exchanges. 
But the temptation to place the fee above the best interests 
of the seekers after work is so great that the private 
agencies taken as a whole do more harm than good. Their 
mere abolition, however, would be no guarantee of an effi- 
cient public service. The report advocates a positive pro- 
gram for improving the public employment service. "If we 
get a good public service the fee-charging agencies and 
their abuses will become a minor question; they will be 
eliminated because they will be useless." 

Happily the report does not stop at the periphery of the 
problem of unemployment. It goes extensively into the 
question of public works as possible regulators of employ- 
ment; compares the experience of the United States with 
that of other countries in the planning, organization and ad- 
ministration of public employment agencies; and analyses 
this phase of the problem from local, state and federal points 
of view with special emphasis upon the peculiar difficulties 
presented by immigrants, and Negroes, juniors and casual 
workers. 




THE mounting tide of unemployment during the spring 
and early summer, now somewhat eased off, has em- 
phasized the seasonal and cyclical factors in the problem. Yet 
it is an encouraging sign of the times that even under these 
conditions industrial executives themselves are taking the 
initiative in bringing to the fore the relation of private man- 
agement to the human and financial costs of unemployment 
and related social evils. In The Survey for September 15, 
we reviewed the report of the Committee on Seasonal Oper- 
ation in the Construction Industries of the President's Con- 
ference on Unemployment in which a number of leading 
construction companies joined with representatives of the 
building trade unions in diagnosing unemployment and ir- 
regularity of employment in their industries as a problem 
of planning, organization and administrative control. Now 
comes an announcement that the Association of Railway 
Executives has presented a plan to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission the object of which is to give year-round em- 
ployment to the more than 2,OOO,OOO railway employes. 

76 



Some day it will be borne in upon the conscience of the 
nation that in good times and bad, millions of men and 
women in these prosperous United States are deprived of 
the opportunity of making a living. The public will come 
to realize that while a considerable portion of this unem- 
ployed army are the victims of inefficient management in 
private and public enterprise, an equally considerable por- 
tion constitute the reserve upon which industrial expansion 
and mobility depend. This reserve may reach exaggerated 
proportions and is often outrageously exploited. But with- 
out such a reserve at all, industrial development would be 
impeded. When managements have done their utmost to 
stabilize production and employment through planning and 
budgetry control, there will still remain the problem of 
making adequate provision for the distribution of the mem- 
bers of this reserve to the points where new developments 
call them ; and for their protection against economic hard- 
ship and destitution while they are waiting to be called. It 
is for this reason that an adequate system of employment 
bureaus and an adequate system of out-of-work insurance 
are not counsels of philanthropy, but essential elements in 
a sound program of economic and industrial organization. 




~*HE Manufacturers' Record, published in Baltimore, 
1 modestly presents itself on its cover with a screeching 
eagle, wings spread to the uttermost, and the words "Ex- 
ponent of America." The Exponent knows its readers; it 
was established in 1882 and this September fourth issue was 
Vol. 86, No. 10. It showed what it thinks of them by 
devoting its front cover to scaring them with threats of Hell 
(capital H) and the devil (small d) about the federal Child 
Labor Amendment. 

The Exponent certainly "was seein' things at night." In 
thirty blackface lines it tells "What the Child Labor Amend- 
ment means," prophesying among other terrors thus: 

This proposed amendment is fathered by Socialists, Com- 
munists and Bolshevists. ... If adopted, this amendment 
would be the greatest thing ever done in America in behalf of 
the activities of Hell. It would make millions of young people 
under 18 years of age idlers in brain and body, and thus make 
them the devil's best workshop. . . . The only thing that can 
prevent its adoption will be active, untiring work on the part 
of every man and woman who appreciates its destructive power 
and who wants to save the young people of all future gen- 
erations from moral and physical decay under the domination 
of the devil himself. 

This is the language of fright because of vanishing power. 
Naturally! If not the mill and factory, then Hell and the 
devil ! What matter schools, playgrounds and ample sleep 
for little girls in Georgia who can now legally work all 
night before they are fifteen? 

In saner moments, when not besotted with fear, the 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURVEY 



77 



Exponent knows that Congress passes bills to please, not 
'the Socialists, but the "folks back home." From them Con- 
gress has heard for ten years how our states as a whole have 
failed to give to the children the equal protection of the law. 

Among leaders of public opinion who induced Congress 
to submit the amendment, are the Federal Council of 
Churches, the American Federation of Labor, and the Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's Clubs. If these and the nation- 
wide organizations which are behind the amendment are 
Socialists, Communists and Bolshevists, how have they so 
successfully concealed their convictions? 

Too long the Manufacturers' Association and its Expo- 
nent have mistaken themselves for America, enslaving the 
eagle and using him for their private scarecrow, making him 
screech and claw at will. At last a happier day is dawning 
when Congress and the states will cooperate to protect the 
children instead of their exploiters. 




THE Armenian who has started out for America and 
who cannot be admitted to the United States because 
of the American quota regulations nor yet return whence 
he came because of the Turkish regulations, and the man 
who is denied American citizenship because his family is 
abroad and who cannot bring in that family on the ground 
that he is not an American citizen present two among 
many of the complicated problems now being handled by 
the American bureau of the International Migration Serv- 
ice. A refugee eager to go to the Argentine, a Greek 
anxious to locate relatives in Egypt, a Russian family sent 
from Constantinople to Belgium under the League of Na- 
tions, all these and others are among the difficulties met 
by other branches of the Service. The organization is 
international in plan and scope, having headquarters in 
London, where Viscountess Gladstone is chairman and Pro- 
fessor Gilbert Murray is treasurer of the international 
committee. It maintains offices in Warsaw, Prague, Athens, 
Piraeus, Constantinople, Copenhagen, Paris, Havre, Cher- 
bourg, Marseilles and New York. 

The increasingly complex emigration and immigration 
laws of various countries have increased the volume of work 
so that the American branch alone has a total of over 5,000 
cases. It calls for an organization working on non-political, 
non-sectarian lines, for men and boys as well as women and 
girls. 

So the work, which from 1921 until the present time 
has been an integral part of the program of the World's 
Y. W. C. A., became entirely independent on October first. 
On that date the American bureau moved to new head- 
quarters on the thirtieth floor of the Metropolitan Life 
Building in New York. There it will continue under the 
directorship of Mary E. Hurlbutt and a committee consist- 
ing of Dr. Robert L. Dickinson, Mrs. Harry M. Bremer, 
Joseph P. Chamberlain, Elizabeth W. Clark, Judge John 
C. Clark, Margaret Curtis, Stephen P. Duggan, Homer 
Folks, Mrs. John M. Glenn, Francis Fisher Kane, Henry 
Noble MacCracken, Ruth Crawford Mitchell and Mrs. 
Edgerton Parsons. 

An appropriation for the work was made by the Laura 
Spelmnn Rockerfeller Memorial, but after January I, 1925, 



the work will be dependent on individual contributions. 
In order adequately to carry out its program, the Inter- 
national Migration Service will cooperate closely with exist- 
ing local and national organizations, such as the Travelers 
Aid, the Council of Jewish Women, community agencies, 
Red Cross chapters and welfare societies. Conversely, the 
international affiliations of the Migration Service will re- 
inforce the work of such agencies. 




HERE is civic significance in the fact that the new 
* "home" which the Boston Chamber of Commerce 
threw open this month is one of the three great office build- 
ings which can pass the time of day with the capstone of 
the Bunker Hill monument. This significance is due more 
especially to the fact that the new structure will be a 
center for a variety of related organizations and activities. 
It is a piece of vertical city planning. Spread out one story 
deep its fourteen stories would be a small town in them- 
selves. Five thousand people will pass through the build- 
ing daily, and in their contacts will reach throughout New 
England. 

When the directors of the Chamber considered the ques- 
tion of a new building there were two alternatives to de- 
cide between. One was to have a building solely for their 
own use such as most banks have, perhaps of ornamental 
design, and the other was to erect a modern office build- 
ing of which the Chamber would use but a part. The 
second plan was chosen as one which would bring the 
Chamber into closer contact with the life of the city. 

The result is the largest and best equipped commercial 
organization building in the United States a central clear- 
ing house for information for all New England as well as 
the workshop of the Chamber. The National Association 
of Cotton Manufacturers, the National Association of 
Woolen Manufacturers, the Boston Typothetae Board of 
Trade, the New England Hardware Dealers Association 
and the Anthracite Bureau of Information are among the 
first tenants. Nine railroads have already established their 
Boston freight and passenger offices in the new six million 
dollar building. In addition to the advantage of being 
housed together these organizations can hold their own 
meetings in the Chamber's fifteen dining rooms and use 
the services of its various departments. The two top floors 
have been retained by the Chamber for offices and semi- 
club use of its eight thousand members. They are of 
early colonial architecture or of the corresponding English 
period. The aim, we are told, was to make the lounge 
as "comfortable and informal as are the old homes of 
our grandfathers and in keeping with New England hos- 
pitality of those early days." The Boston Chamber is how- 
ever by no means a quiescent or reminiscent institution. 
Under its progressive line of fourteen presidents, from 
James J. Storrow to Howard Coonley, it has become per- 
haps not only the largest organization of its kind in the 
country, and a leaven in modernizing the national body, 
but also a force locally along civic and industrial lines. It 
is just now, for example, completing a study as to whether 
or not Boston should adopt the financial federation plan 
in the organization of its social agencies. 



The Federal Child Labor Amendment 

Ten Answers to Ten Questions 
By Mrs. Florence Kelley 

Secretary, National Consumers' League 



What is the text of the Amendment ? 

* Section 1. The Congress shall have power to 
limit, regulate and prohibit the labor of persons under 
the age of 18 years. 

Section 2. The power of the several states is unim- 
paired by this Article except that the operation of 
state laws shall be suspended to the extent neces- 
sary to give effect to legislation enacted by the 
Congress. 

2 What does the amendment do ? 
It confers a power which Congress was sup- 
posed to possess, before the U. S. Supreme Court 
declared unconstitutional the two child labor laws 
passed by Congress in 1917 and 1919. It is not a 
child labor law. It is an enabling act. It will enable 
Congress to pass a child labor law. 

3 Why need there be such an amendment? 
After eighty years of effort children do not 
receive through the states, that protection of the law 
which fundamentally the Constitution guarantees. 
Congress, therefore, passed two bills. None the less 
the Supreme Court held both unconstitutional on 
technical, legalistic grounds having nothing to do 
with the good or ill of child labor. Nothing remains 
but to amend the Constitution, if children are to re- 
ceive equal protection the country over. 

4 How do states fail to protect their children ? 
For instance, in North Carolina, boys may 
legally work at the age of 12 years, and boys and 
girls between 14 and 16 may be employed II hours 
a day. 

In South Carolina, children 14 to 16 may legal- 
ly work 10 hours a day and 55 hours a week, and 
in Louisiana 10 hours a day and 60 hours a week. 
In Georgia, orphan children and those with widowed 
mothers dependent upon them, may legally work at 
12 years of age; and children under 16 may work 60 
hours a week, any number of hours a day, and after 
they are 14^-2 years old, they may work all night. 

5 "Do you mean to keep boys of 18 idle on 
the streets ? 

No sane person wishes to keep either boys or 
girls of 18 years or less idle on the streets, or expects 
Congress to do so. The amendment is intended to 
give to Congress the same power that the states have 
always had, and the enlightened ones have increas- 
ingly used, to forbid boys and girls under 18 to run 
elevators, freight or passenger; to be exposed to ex- 
plosives and poisonous dusts and fumes ; to clean mov- 
ing machinery; to deliver telegrams and messages 
between 10 P. M. and 6 A. M. Such prohibitions and 
regulations are recognized as necessary wherever in- 
dustry is highly developed.* 

The amendment must be comprehensive to enable 
Congress to meet the rapid and unforseeable changes 
in industry. 



* See Children's Bureau pamphlet Legal Regulation of 
the Employment of Minors 16 Years of Age and Over. 
September 1924. 



6 "Should not a farmer's boy be free to drive 
the cows to pasture, and pick berries on his 

father's farm ?" 

Is it reasonable to suppose that (merely because in 
the amendment, "agriculture" is not specifically ex- 
empted) Congress will rush in where state legisla- 
tures have not trodden, to harry farmers about their 
sons and daughters on their own acres? 
In only three branches of agriculture have consider- 
able numbers of children been shown to suffer hard- 
ship^ i.e., cotton picking, work in beet fields, and truck 
gardening. Only one state, Ohio, has enacted a 
statute, the Bing law, to save children overworked 
(and at excessively early ages) in truck farming not- 
ably in large-scale onion fields. But if hardships 
continue in other states unchecked, why should Con- 
gress not have power to protect children oppressed in 
agriculture ? 

7 Why rob the states of power to safeguard 
their children ? 

The amendment does not rob the states of power 
to safeguard children. It enables Congress to set for 
all children standards which any state may equal but 
none can undermine. Enlightened states will not be 
hurt by having Congress enact, for the whole country, 
standards which they already enforce. Progressive 
states will be free to go ahead of any federal law. 

8 Will not the amendment entail multitudes 
. of "bureaucrats from Washington, prying 
into homes, battening on the taxpayers, 
nagging parents and employers with provi- 
sions enacted by Congress thousands of 
miles away" ? 

An ounce of experience is worth a ton of foreboding. 
Under the first federal child labor law, the present 
chief of the Children's Bureau was the enforcing 
official. She enlisted state factory 'inspectors and 
labor bureaus as deputies of the federal agency. No 
state refused cooperation. This kept the federal staff 
down to a flying squadron, issuing to children federal 
employment certificates wherever state provision was 
inadequate and inspecting children at work in states 
whose standards were below the federal ones. Dur- 
ing the brief time the federal laws were in force, ten 
states improved their child labor measures. 

9 Where states have good laws and enforce 
them, why fear that Uncle Sam will intrude? 
The number and activities of federal inspectors will 
clearly depend on the way the states do their own 
work under their own laws. The comprehensive 
answer to these questions is that, for a hundred years, 
Congress was believed to have the power to do the 
things now feared. Yet it never did any of them. 
Advocates of the amendment expect Congress to have 
as much sense in enacting future laws as it has shown 
in the past, being still dependent upon the votes of 
parents and employers for reelection. 

1 C\ Whentheamendmentisratified,whatthen? 
' ^ ' Congress will for the third time pass a fed- 
eral child labor law. This time it will stand. 



I N D L7STR T 



Cotton and the Eight-Hour Day 



FOR months there have been rumblings of unrest 
in the cotton mills of New England. Investiga- 
tors for the New York Evening World report 
that 200,000 of New England's normal force of 
315,000 textile workers are idle. In many quarters this 
unhappy situation is charged against the successful advocates 
of the eight-hour day who, it is alleged, have placed the 
New England industry at a competitive disadvantage with 
the South, where longer hours prevail. The question thus 
raised has become a political issue in New England. It is 
to be anticipated that the eight-hour day will become the 
object of organized and systematic attack. The facts in 
the case have a great and timely importance to all those 
who contend that in an age of machinery and scientific 
invention a first charge upon industry must be to increase 
productive efficiency while raising humane standards. The 
Labor Bureau, Inc. has made a study of the eight-hour factor 
in the cotton industry and its findings are here summarized. 

The contention that the South is gaining at the expense 
of the North is usually based on broad statistics as to the 
number of spindles or as to the quantity of raw cotton 
consumed. Such statistics are nearly valueless for this pur- 
pose, because they take no account of the varying quality 
of the product, its price, the profits involved, or the wage- 
earners employed. It takes more raw cotton to make a 
given amount of cheap goods than to make fine goods. The 
cotton used is of a different quality. The result is that 
an expansion of spindles or of cotton consumed in making 
the cheaper grades does not mean that finer grades are 
suffering. It does not really tell us much about the dis- 
tribution of the industry. 

There are three principal ways to measure the extent 
of an industry. Each has its special meaning. They are: 

a. Average number of wage-earners employed. This is a 
fairly good measure, but has the fault that the introduction 
of labor saving machinery, or variations in the quality and price 
of goods manufactured, may alter the number of wage-earners 
more or less than the change in actual output or profits to the 
manufacturer. 

b. Value of the product. This is the total net sales of the 
mills. It is open to much the same objections as apply to the 
number of wage-earners. 

c. Value added by manufacture. This - the difference be- 
tween the cost of materials and the total net sales. It there- 
fore shows the amount which can be devoted to wages and 
salaries, overhead and miscellaneous expenses, rent, interest 
and profits. It is in many ways the best measure of the three. 

These three items are available for three of the principal 
New England States Massachusetts, New Hampshire and 
Rhode Island, and for the three principal southern states 
-North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia for each 
of the years when the census of manufactures was taken 
since 1909 1909, 1914, 1919 and 1921. By comparing the 



total for a given state with that for the United States, it 
is possible to see what proportion of the whole each state 
contributed in each census year, and to rank the states 
according to such proportion. 

They show that in every census year, by each of the three 
measures, Massachusetts ranks first, North Carolina second, 
South Carolina third and New Hamphsire sixth. As among 
the other two states, certain changes in ranking have oc- 
curred as follows: 

Rhode Island was fourth in number of wage earners in 
1909, and fell to fifth in 1914, where it has stood ever 
since. Georgia, which was fifth in number of wage earn- 
ers in 1909, rose to fourth place in 1914, taking Rhode 
Island's place. 

Rhode Island also fell from fourth to fifth place in 1914 
in value of products, Georgia replacing it. It regained 
fourth place, however, in 1921, Georgia falling behind 
again. 

Rhode Island rose from fifth to fourth place in value 
added by manufacture in 1914, holding its advantage ever 
since. This advantage was gained at the expense of 
Georgia. 

In the matter of respective ranking, therefore, the net 
results of the only changes which occurred from 1909 to 
1921 favored a northern state Rhode Island as against 
Georgia. 

In actual percentage of total U. S. manufacture the 
movement has been somewhat irregular. Let us take each 
measure separately. 

Percentage of total wage-earners employed: In this per- 
centage each of the southern states has shown a slight gain 
for the period. Massachusetts gained slightly from 1909 to 
1914, and then fell slightly to 1921. New Hampshire fell from 
1909 to 1914, and then gained in 1921. Rhode Island, after 
slight ups and downs, finished in 1921 where she began in 
1914. These figures are therefore inconclusive in comparisons. 

Value of the product: In this percentage the only consistent 
gainer is North Carolina; Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
falling steadily, and Rhode Island, Georgia and South Carolina 
wavering at about the same figure. Rhode Island was in 
1921 higher than in any previous year. Georgia was in 1921 
lower than in 1914 and 1919, but slightly above 1909. South 
Carolina was in 1921 lower than in 1914, but slightly above 
1909 and 1919. 

Percentage of total value added by manufacture: In this 
percentage the only consistent gainer is a northern state 
Rhode Island which rose from 7.6 per cent of the U. S. in 
1909 to 9.5 per cent in 1921. The next best record is by 
North Carolina, which rose from 1 1.6 per cent of the total 
in 1909 to 14.9 per cent in 1919, and then fell back again to 
12.8 per cent in 1921. The other four states two northern 
and two southern all showed slight losses. Thus, by this 
best measure of all, the record is entirely inconclusive, and the 
southern states have no advantage over the northern. Ap- 
parently the industry is being built up in new states, not in- 
cluded in the six most prominent ones, whether in the North 
or in the South. 



79 



8o 



THE SURREY 



October 15, 1924 



Hours of Work in Cotton Industry 

THERE is little evidence in official census figures to 
the effect that Massachusetts or other New England 
States had been, up to 1921, consistently losing the cotton 
industry to the principal southern states, either relatively 
or absolutely. What is the situation with regard to hours 
of labor? 

The Census has gathered figures as to the average num- 
ber of persons working in cotton plants having various 
normal hours of work in 1909, 1914, and 1919. 

The figures for the United States as a whole show a 
marked trend toward a shortening of hours. In 1909 only 
i per cent worked 54 hours or less ; 50 per cent worked 
between 54 and 60 hours, 32 per cent worked 60 hours, 
and 17 per cent worked over 60 hours. In 1914 i per 
cent worked less than 54. hours, but 40 per cent worked 
54, 1 8 per cent between 54 and 60, 39 per cent 60, and 
a very small portion over 60. In 1919, 39 per cent worked 
48 hours or less, 4 per cent between 48 and 54, 14 per cent 
54, 32 per cent between 54 and 60, and only 10 per cent 60. 

Figures for the six principal states are available separately 
for the years 1914 and 1919 thus covering the period when 
the 48-hour week came into general effect in Massachusetts. 
These figures show some interesting facts, as follow: 

Longer hours were worked in the South than in the 
North in 1914, before the 48-hour week was introduced 
in the North. During this year 97 per cent of the Massa- 
chusetts operatives, and 92 per cent of those in Rhode 



Island, worked 54 hours, while in the southern states 98 
or 99 per cent worked 60 hours. 

The northern state which gained least in manufacture be- 
tween 1909 and 1914 was New Hampshire. This state 
had longer hours in 1914 than either of the other two. 

The southern state which fared worst of all during the 
entire period was Georgia. This state, both in 1914 and 
1919, had longer hours than either North Carolina or 
South Carolina. 

From these facts we may infer : 

1. That the tendency to shorter hours is a general one 
and is not confined either to the North or to Massachusetts. 

2. That if a competitive advantage is conferred by longer 
hours in the South, this advantage did not arise with the 
installation of the 48-hour week in the North, but has existed 
for many years, during which northern industry has shown 
little sign of suffering. 

3. That the state making the poorest showing in each group 
North and South is the one which has had the longest 
hours. 

Nature of Product North and South 

IT is impossible to talk intelligently of the effect of hours, 
wages, or other labor conditions on northern cotton 
factories unless we know in more detail how far there is 
actual competition between northern and southern manufac- 
turers. The Census also gives us valuable information on 
this matter, by its figures on the quality and prices of 
goods produced. 

A classification of the principal woven products of the 
New England and southern cotton mills reveals, (i) that 



COTTON MANUFACTURING (INCLUDING SMALL 


WARES) HOURS WORKED 




44 and 44-48 48 % 48 8-54 % 


54 


% 54-60 % 60 % Over % 


Totai 




under and 




60 






under 








Mass. 










1914 


1,051 i- 935 i- 


110,434 


97 i, '39 i 


"3,559 


1919 


388 24 111,303 90 3,284 2- 


7,808 


6 i,343 i- 


124,150 


N. H. 










1914 




30 


i 21,639 99 


21,669 


1919 


ii 15,508 73 79 i 


5,696 


26 


21,294 


R. I. 










1914 


335 i 


27.248 


92 1,892 7- 8 i- 


29,483 


1919 


67 10,486 29 1,004 i 


24,631 


S 97 5i 


36,336 


Ga. 










1914 






117 i- 30,602 99 


30,719 


1919 


142 260 


1,520 


5- 18,871 49 I7,-)90 46 


38,283 


X. C. 










1914 






53,491 99 212 -i 


53.703 


1919 


75 484 i T ,4 21 2 


1,823 


3 49,804 74 13.690 20 


67,297 


s. c. 










1914 






1,044 2 45,404 OS 


46,448 


1919 


899 i 


1,463 


4 89,555 82 6,162 13 


48,079 


V. S. 










1909 


304 2,879 * 


571 


190,998 50 119,226 32 64,902 17 


378,880 


T 9 X 4 


i,i45 3,149 i 


158,287 


40 72,025 18 157,112 30 1,686 


393404 


1919 


1,697 4'3 173.366 39 I9>28 4 


63,455 


14 141,218 32 47,208 10 467 


446,852 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURREY 



the cotton states produce more of the cheaper products such 
as sheetings, duck and print cloths, while New England 
produces more of the finer ones such as ginghams, lawns, 
twills and sateens, and (2) that in each class of product, 
the value of the New England cloth per pound is mate- 
rially higher, thus showing that the South makes the cheaper 
grades of each class. 

Taking New England and Cotton States as groups, we 
see that the New England states in 1919 produced 40 per 
cent of the country's woven goods by pounds and 47 per 
cent by value, 34 per cent of yarns for sale by pounds and 
42 per cent by value, and 71 per cent of thread by pounds 
and 79 per cent by value. 

In 1919, Massachusetts ranked first in lawns, ginghams, 
shirtings, twills and sateens ; second in print cloth and cot- 
ton fabrics; fourth in sheetings. South Carolina ranked 
first in sheetings, print cloth and drills, and third in lawns, 
ginghams and shirtings. North Carolina was first in cot- 
ton flannel, second in ginghams and shirtings, and third in 
sheetings, print cloth and drills. Georgia was second in 
sheetings and drills, third in twills and sateens, and fourth 
in cotton flannel. Rhode Island was second in lawns and 
twills and sateens, fourth in print cloth and shirtings, fifth 
in sheetings. New Hampshire is third in cotton flannel, 
and fourth in twills and sateens. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the development of the 
cotton industry in the South has taken certain well defined 
lines which do not bring it in very direct competition with 
the more important branches of northern industry. It uses 
the shorter staple cottons, makes more of the coarser yarns, 
and sells the cheaper kinds and grades of fabrics. These 
facts should be remembered when comparison of North 
and South is made on the basis of amount of raw cotton 
consumed. The South does not specialize in the products 
where the training and skill of northern operatives are an 
essential feature. 

Results From Census Information 

WHILE the census material is not available more re- 
cently than 1921, it does lead to certain important 
conclusions having a bearing on the whole matter. These 
are: 

There has been no net loss of cotton manufacture in any 
of the New England states, if we look at the absolute 
growth. There is very little evidence of relative loss in 
proportion to total U. S. manufacture, if we consider im- 
portant measures such as number of wage earners or value 
added to manufacture rather than misleading statistics of 
spindles or raw cotton consumed. The most that can be 
said is that in certain cheaper grades and classes of spinning 
and weaving, cotton manufacture has grown faster in the 
cotton-growing states than in the New England states. 
This growth, as would be expected, seems to have occurred 
in those products where closeness to the supply of short- 
staple raw cotton counts most, and where the skill of oper- 
atives, favorable climatic conditions, and other factors neces- 
sary for the finer products count least. 

During the entire period covered, hours in the South 
were longer than in the North, even before the adoption 
of the eight-hour day in Massachusetts. As among in- 
dividual states, there seems to be little or no correspondence 
between rapidity of growth of the industry and length of 
hours of work. Taken all in all, therefore, the effect of 



COTTON GOODS MANUFACTURING: PER CENT DISTRIBUTION 
WAGE EARNERS VALUE OF VALUE ADDED 
PRODUCTS 

% Rank % Rank % Rank 


Mass. 














1909 


28.7 


i 


29.7 


i 


29.7 


i 


1914 


28.9 


i 


28.1 


i 


28.1 


i 


1919 


27.8 


i 


27.6 


i 


27.3 


i 


1921 


25.2 


i 


23-9 


i 


27.0 


i 


N. H. 














1909 


5-9 


6 


5-3 


6 


5-6 


6 


1914 


5-5 


6 


5.1 


6 


5.0 


6 


1919 


4.8 


6 


3-9 


6* 


4-4 


6 


1921 


5-4 


6 


3-9 


6 


4.2 


6* 


R. I. 














1909 


7.6 


4 


8.0 


4 


7.6 


5 


1914 


7-5 


5 


7.0 


5 


8.6 


4 


1919 


8.1 


5 


8.1 


5 


8.8 


4 


1921 


7-6 


5 


8.6 


4 


9-5 


4 


Ga. 














1909 


7-3 


5 


7-6 


5 


8.0 


4 


1914 


7-9 


4 


8.6 


4 


7.1 


5 


1919 


8.6 


4 


8.8 


4 


7.8 


5 


1921 


8.3 


4 


7-9 


5 


6-4 


5* 


N. C. 














1909 


12.5 


2 


ii. 6 


2 


1 1.6 


2 


1914 


13.6 


2 


12.9 


2 


12.9 


2 


1919 


15.1 


2 


14-5 


2 


14.9 


2 


1921 


15.6 


2 


14.4 


2 


12.8 


2 


S. C. 














1909 


II. 9 


3 


10.5 


3 


10.5 


3 


1914 


1 1.8 


3 


II. 2 


3 


1 1.2 


3 


1919 


10.8 


3 


IO.4 


3 


10.4 


3 


1021 


I2.I 


3 


1 1.0 


3 


IO.I 


3 


*Rank 


as among 


states 


listed. 


Outranked 


by Pennsyl- 


vania or 


Connecticut 


for U 


S. 









hours seems negligible, and relative growth must be ac- 
counted for by other causes. 

Imports of Cotton Goods 

DURING the fall of 1923 and spring of 1924 a de- 
pression developed in the fine cotton goods industry of 
Massachusetts. Was this due to longer hours worked by 
southern cotton competitors? Hardly. Insofar as com- 
petition played a part in this depression, we find that the 
competitive goods came from foreign imports, which of 
course originate principally in England. Yet in England 
the eight-hour day is universal in the cotton industry and 
virtually all the employes belong to trade unions. What- 
ever the cause of successful foreign competition, it certainly 
cannot be attributed to longer working hours. 

Square yards of cotton cloth imported grew from 45,498,- 
ooo in 1912 to 140,788,000 in 1920 and 219,010,000 in 
1923. The value of such imports increased even more, due 
to rising prices. Out of the total square yards imported in 
1923 England contributed 173,064,000 or 79 per cent. By 
value, England contributed $36,113,000 out of $47,188,000 
worth of cotton goods imported, or 76.5 per cent. 

Finance of Massachusetts Cotton Mills 

IF the 48-hour week and southern competition have been 
ruining the Massachusetts cotton industry, there would 
be no place where it would show more quickly than in the 
profits of the employers and the new investments in the 
industry. The Labor Bureau analyzed the published finan- 
cial records of all the mills in the two chief cotton centers 
of Massachusetts Fall River and New Bedford, and of 
probably the largest single corporation manufacturing cot- 
ton outside of these centers the Pacific Mills. 

The figures on the Fall River mills are furnished by 



82 



THE SU R V EY 



October 15, 1924. 



G. M. Haffards & Co., stock brokers. They show that 
the total capital stock of the mills covered increased from 
$28,605,000 in 1910 to $43,515,000 in 1923 the increase 
being fairly continuous, but occuring most markedly in the 
post-war period, 1920-23, when the 48-hour week was in 
effect. The total amount of cash dividends paid averaged 
$1,600,700 per year in the seven pre-war years, 1910-16. 
It averaged $6,273,800 in the four years 1917-20, during 
the war and post-war inflation. Though these inflated divi- 
dends could not continue, the average amount for the sub- 
sequent three years, including the depression, was $3,231,- 
700, or more than twice the pre-war average. The rate of 
dividend averaged 5.72 per cent for the seven pre-war years. 
For the inflation years it averaged 18.8 per cent. For the 
last three years, even on the greatly enlarged capitalization, 
and including the depression, it averaged 8.07 per cent. The 
lowest dividend rate of these three years was 7-99 in 1922, 
which was larger than the rate for any of the seven pre- 
war years except 1916, when the rate was 8.01. 

New Bedford cotton mill figures, from Sanford and Kel- 
ley, stock brokers, extend back only to 1917. They show 
an increase in capital stock of the New Bedford mills 
from $49,012,000 in 1917 to $72,252,000. During the 
inflation period cash dividends paid were naturally high, 
ranging from $6,411,000 or 12.66 per cent in 1918 to 
$13,337,000 or 26.17 Per cent in 1920. In the post-war 
period they ranged between $5,031,000, or 6.96 per cent 
on the enlarged capitalization in 1923, and $5,998,000, or 
9.72 per cent in 1922. Though we have not the pre-war 
figures, this profit is undoubtedly larger than the pre-war 
average, and seems ample. 

The Pacific Mills include some of the largest cotton 
plants in the North. These cover more than 300,000 cot- 
ton spindles and nearly 6,OOO looms, divided fairly evenly 
between Lawrence, Massachusetts, and Dover, New Hamp- 
shire, besides a print works in Lawrence with 50 printing 
machines and 80 kiers. Their other properties are a worsted 
mill in Lawrence with 130,272 spindles and 3,791 looms, 
and a cotton mill in Columbus, S. C., with 202,048 spindles 
and 4,800 looms. It is impossible to make a separation be- 
tween the financial records of these various plants, but ob- 
viously if the cotton plants in New England were unprofit- 
able the company would be hard hit. 

Published financial records of this firm show that the 
capital stock (there being no bond issues) was increased 
from $3,000,000 in 1912 to $12,000,000 in 1913, again to 
$15,000,000 in 1917, to $20,000,000 in 1920, and, by a 
IOO per cent stock dividend, to $40,000,000 in 1923. The 
capital stock has thus increased more than thirteen-fold in 
twelve years. Cash dividends paid in the pre-war period 
ranged between 6 and 8 per cent. In the inflation period 
they ranged between 9 and 2O per cent, on a greatly en- 
larged capital. They remained fairly high in 1921-1923. 
The growth in profitableness of this concern may easily be 
seen by comparing the dividends of the three years 1913- 
1915 with those of 1921-23. In the first period 6 per cent 
was paid annually on a capital of $12,000,000, or $720,000. 
In the first two years of the latter period 12 per cent was 
paid annually on a capital of $20,000,000, and in the last 
year 6 per cent on $40,000,000, the amount of cash divi- 
dends thus being $2,400,000 in each of the three years, 
1921-1923. This is a growth of over three-fold since the 
pre-war period. 



No such record as this is conceivable if the 48-hour week 
were a cause of losses in the northern cotton industry. 

Figures of New Bedford, Fall River, and the Pacific 
mills are of course not all-inclusive of the Massachusetts 
cotton industry. But they cover large and important sec- 
tions of it, and are sufficient to prove that with good admin- 
istration the 48-hour week does not provide an unmanageable 
handicap to the profitableness and growth of cotton manu- 
facture. 

Pimco 

~^HE term "Scientific Management" was born in Phila- 
* delphia, the result of years of research on the part of 
the late Frederick W. Taylor, engineer. It remained for 
the new Republic of Czecho-Slovakia to organize at Prague, 
during July of this year, The First International Scientific 
Management Conference. There were eight hundred re- 
gistered attendants representing seventeen different nations. 

President Masaryk had prepared himself for his respon- 
sible work in moulding the new republic, by research work 
in various countries. In America he had found what he 
considered the best model for governmental and industrial 
organization. Hence the idea of inviting American en- 
gineers, specializing in the science of management, to take 
a leading part in the First International Scientific Manage- 
ment Conference at Prague. 

P.I.M.C.O. (Prague International Management Con- 
ference) became a familiar sign on the winged badges 
of the visiting delegates, on the automobiles generously 
provided to whisk them through the mediaeval arches and 
the narrow old streets or the broad newer ones, on the 
doorways of the halls set aside for conferences, for after- 
noon receptions, or for evening banquets. 

The meetings were held in the city hall of Prague. The 
audience was an intensely interestinging study. The pre- 
siding officers agreed that they had never conducted meetings 
at which the faces of the listeners recorded such respectful 
attention in spite of the barriers of language. Rarely did 
anyone leave the room though the sessions lasted from nine 
to twelve-thirty and from two to five. Several nations al- 
ternated in the presiding officer's chair, though the Ameri- 
cans, as especially, invited guests, were accorded the lion's 
share of this honor. Local papers gave a great deal of 
space to the conference, reporting in detail even the ap- 
pearance and conduct of the American engineers. 

Among many interesting types were a keen Japanese, 
sporting a large single eye glass; a fierce Barbarossa with 
beetling red eyebrows and a terrifying moustache; and an 
elderly professional person, pad and pencil in hand, who 
followed each speaker from the platform, lest he should 
have missed a single drop of the precious wisdom dispensed. 
He suggested the Tolstoi type of Russian, but he was in 
reality a Czech professor. The presence of eleven Soviet 
Russians was obviously the cause of considerable apprehen- 
sion in various quarters, though welcomed by others as a 
token of good faith and fair play on the part of the con- 
ference. The one unsmiling woman, who spoke nothing 
but Russian, seemed to be the real leader of the group. In a 
separate room, they exhibited and explained elaborate charts 
of their intensive experiments in motion study, largely fol- 
lowing the lines of the late Frank B. Gilbreth. In reply 
to a question they admitted that as yet they have not made 
much practical application of their scientific management 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURREY 



studies. A Russian paper on railroads, however, claimed 
definite achievements as a result of scientific management. 

The presence of the Russians was doubtless the cause of 
a sudden and enthusiastic face-about in the attitude of one 
of the local communist papers, which had heralded the con- 
ference as another effort of the capitalistic system to intrench 
itself through the advocacy of progressive methods of work. 
As had been the case in America, scientific management was 
bound to pass through a period of suspicion on the part of 
European workers, whose knowledge of its principles and 
technique has been based on hearsay or superficial study. 

There were Frenchmen who came from Paris, and 
Frenchmen straight from their work on the League of Na- 
tions at Geneva. The latter were especially enthusiastic 
over the contributions made by the conference to the de- 
velopment of friendly relations among nations. There were 
exceedingly zealous delegates from Poland, almost amus- 
ingly eager to lose no advantage that their patriotic devo- 
tion might secure for their recently enfranchised country. 

But of the many who participated in this remarkable 
gathering, none were so effective as our splendid hosts, the 
Czechs, through whose initiative the conference was con- 
ceived, organized and brilliantly accomplished. 

The program included the reading of sixty-four papers 
of which only about a fifth were presented by Americans, 
showing the active interest of Europeans in the subject. 
All addresses were printed in the original for free distri- 
bution and many were translated into several languages. 
The complete list of the titles is of itself so significant and 
so comprehensive that it is difficult to choose among them. 
Five papers were devoted to the general subject, scientific 
management, seven to the application of scientific manage- 
ment to special fields, ten to certain factors of scientific man- 
agement technique. Others stressed such important phases 
of the general problems involved, as the social factor in 
scientific management, industrial research, the individuality 
of the worker, industrial psychology, salaries and wages, 
strikes and lock-outs and losses caused thereby, uniform cur- 
rency, national standardization, uniform organization of 
knowledge and education, participation of workers in profit 
and ownership, regard for family in fixing wages. Num- 
erous papers on the definite application of the science in 
Czecho-Slovakia, evidenced the fact that America was in 
Prague to learn quite as well as to teach. The Masaryk 
Academy- Institute for Industrial Management might 
well serve as a model for any nation. 

Whatever the subject or language, there emerged out of 
the whole a sense that the underlying idea was one of a 
comprehensive principle held in common and based on scien- 
tific enquiries and scientific answers to those enquiries. The 
words "production," "standards," "science," "cooperation," 
"justice," "ethics," "honesty," "reliability," appeared again 
and again as did such phrases as the "raising of the standard 
of living for all men," "the adjustment of labor troubles," 
"anticipative planning," "continuous processes," "large orien- 
tations," "fundamental principles." One thing we learned 
from the group gathered at Prague. Their Europe is not 
looking to us for any of our short cuts to production, to 
success or to happiness. She is not asking us what compe- 
tition has done for us but what we can teach her of coopera- 
tion. She wants a scientific solution following a scientific 
analysis of the problem. She is studying economic forces 
and laws in order to utilize them with intelligent accuracy. 

The direct value of the conference beyond the import- 



The American Engineer Speaks 

The following inimitable description is translated 
by a Czecho-Slovak from one of the Prague dailies: 

They (the Americans) are hard, manly in their phy- 
siognomies, which are far from the smiling simplicity 
habitually reigning in an American face. Some gentle- 
men's physiognomies look European-like, concentrated 
fatigued. Their elocutions run as a realistic pro- 
gram, never filled with brightness in speaking, but 
full of inward rhythm of thoughts. They speak by 
designs. On such occasions an European thinks al- 
ways of humanity, nation or a certain doctrine and also 
of himself. But they only keep in mind the matter 
laid before them for discussion or work. America 
makes theory a matter of fact. . . . The Americans 
are accustomed to represent very ceremonially, but 
when the orator takes the word, the president behaves 
against him pretty rigidly. The last minute approach- 
ing, the president tinkles, it does not matter whether 
the famous orator just now has said some most im- 
portant things. The speaker makes a reverence all 
right and leaves the pulpit. It is necessary to learn 
such a regular and gentleman-like subordination. 



ance of the technical information and the exchange of views 
by men of varied experience, lay in the evidence that men 
of widely different nationalities and training can meet on 
the common ground of the science of management and apply 
the general principles of that science to any and all forms 
of activity. The American delegation was the recipient of 
such unexpected and unexampled hospitality that it may not 
be amiss to speak of the gift of 250 books on scientific man- 
agement and of charts and files which it was their pleasure 
to present to the Masaryk Academy. This constitutes at 
the moment the most complete library on the subject of 
scientific management assembled in any one place. Due to 
the interest it evoked, similar libraries will be established 
in other European centers. Who knows? Perhaps in time 
as complete a library may be in demand in America, the 
homeland of scientific management. 

The relationships established outside of the conference 
room were no small part of the interest and delight of the 
conference. At first the natural reluctance of some of our 
European brothers to make contact with each other was 
noticeable, as was the equally natural zeal of each to glean 
for his own country all the information possible. 'But after 
days of friendly intercourse, there developed an increasing 
unity of spirit throughout the conference. Belgian and Pole, 
American and Russian, Serb and Englishman, French and 
Austrian, met repeatedly in these and other combinations, 
at luncheon and at dinner. In fact the general comraderie 
that developed is one of the happy remembrances of the 
experience. 

As the interesting days drew to a close, and the inevitable 
after dinner speeches began to reflect the reactions of all 
to the opportunities we had enjoyed of learning more inti- 
mately the minds of our European neighbors, the important 
contribution that the Americans were credited with making 
was their apparent ability to be detached from any one 
foreign viewpoint and to make contact with all. This, the 



8 4 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1924 



others were good enough to say, furnished a suggestion to 
them for their future contacts with each other. 

For in the minds of many, there seemed to lurk not mere- 
ly a hope but an increasingly settled conviction that such 
conferences might be precursors of a better understanding 
of the pathway to peace. Surely Frederick W. Taylor's 
many years of strenuous labor to demonstrate the necessity 
of finding not some way, but the scientific way to the ac- 
complishment of a desired end are bearing rich fruit. The 
finest testimony to the fundamental nature of the principles 
which he was the first to define is the fact that they have 
become the very fabric of the thinking of men in many lands 
who see in them clues to prosperity, international under- 
standing and peace. ELEANOR BUSHNELL COOKE 

Giant Power 

THE Right Hon. D. Lloyd George, O.M., M.P., is 
no longer Prime Minister, but the habit of presiding 
over committees of inquiry has not deserted him. In March 
of this year, when another serious stoppage threatened Great 
Britain's coal industry, he invited a number of people, repre- 
sentative of the various elements in the industry and of the 
public life of the country, to form a committee to endeavor 
for the hundredth time to find out what was really wrong 
with coal, and to formulate proposals for reform. Of his 
proposals we shall give a fuller account at another time. 
His analysis of the problem reads like a review of The Sur- 
vey's Giant Power number, published in March. His point 
of departure is precisely that from which the editors of the 
Giant Power number began. 

His conclusion is also the conclusion at which the editors 
of the Giant Power number arrived. 

. . . . Today we find ourselves in the early stages of a 
second industrial revolution, which, like its predecessor, con- 
sists in the application of a new form of power electricity. 
The second industrial revolution can give us a clean, in place 
of a dirty, civilization; and because of the elasticity of the new 
communication and the way in which power can be made 
everywhere accessible, it can render possible a healthier dis- 
tribution of our peopl over the face of the country. Whether 
we make the right use of this heaven-sent opportunity for 
redeeming the mistakes of the past depends upon whether we 
use, from the outset, wise methods of regulation and control. 

TN spite of the skepticism of a few of our readers with 
* respect to the question as to whether a far-flung giant 
power system is actually in process of development in Am- 
erica, and especially as to whether the location of great 
generating stations at the mines themselves was economically 
feasible, the promoters of electrical utilities have been quiet- 
ly carrying forward the interconnection of hydroelectric 
systems with systems having their base in the coal fields. 
Last spring, the president of the American Water Works 
and Electric Compnay announced the completion of a series 
of cooperative agreements for the mutual exchange of elec- 
trical power by nine power companies whose generating 
plants are located in the heart of the bituminous coal fields 
(Survey, April 15, p. 73). Last week, the Niagara Lock- 
port & Ontario Power Company, distributor of a large 
portion of the power generated at Niagara Falls, and the 
Pennsylvania Electric Corporation, operator of great steam 
electric stations in the coal fields of western Pennsylvania 
and Maryland, announced their purpose to interconnect 
their systems which together, like the interconnected system 



of the American Water Works and Electric Company, have 
a capacity of 2,000,000 horsepower. 

The development is on; it is progressing rapidly. Un- 
fortunately, there is no available evidence that it is pro- 
ceeding under "wise methods of regulation and control." 
Rather there is evidence that in the case of the new elec- 
tric revolution, as in that of the earlier steam revolution, 
much of the progress is haphazard. There is danger not 
only of further congestion of population in coagulated 
urban areas, but also of wasteful duplication of investment 
and equipment for which the consumer must ultimately 
pay. 

These are considerations, no less than the proposal of 
large scale governmental exploration and operation of un- 
developed water powers entering into the bill which was 
introduced into Congress by Senator Norris on March 10 
(Survey, April i, 1924, p. 49), but which has since re- 
ceived all too little attention from Congress, the federal 
administration or the public. 

NE of the most serious elements in the problem is 
that large scale electrical development seems to be 
proceeding without due reference to the inevitable electri- 
fication of the railroads in the reasonably near future. The 
economic feasibility of railroad electrification is still flouted 
by many railroad executives. In the Giant Power number 
of The Survey, Philip Cabot said that the waste of coal 
by the railroads "would have been stopped by electrification 
long ago had not the financial collapse of our railroad sys- 
tem made the expenditure impossible . . . Over-regulation 
has ruined the railroads." Henry Ford has a different ex- 
planation. In an interview published on September 14, 
commenting upon the inefficiency of the steam locomotive, 
he said that in two years most of his Detroit, Toledo and 
Ironton Railroad would be electrified; in four years all of 
it. When asked about the electrification of other railroads, 
he made this aggressive comment: 

That depends upon their managements. Because of the sys- 
tem of stockholding by which the railroads are financed, their 
management is practically taken out of the hands of railroad 
men and put in the hands of men who think of dividends and 
do not give a rap for future service. Of course, electrification 
requires a large initial expenditure which cuts down dividends, 
and that is why it is going to be slow. 

"^HE importance of railroad electrification reaches far 
* beyond the transportation companies themselves. There 
are hundreds of farms and small communities on either 
side of the railroad rights-of-way that can never hope to 
have cheap and abundant electricity until they get it as a 
part of the service which the railroads themselves will re- 
quire. Moreover, the economic feasibility of railroad elec- 
trification will largely depend upon the incidental revenues 
to be gathered from domestic, commercial and industrial 
users of electricity on the farms, in the villages and towns 
through or near which railroads run. The success of the 
telephone business is largely due to the wide spread use of 
the telephone service. The same thing is true of successful 
electrical utilities. The small consumer, while small, is 
legion. His demand for electric current is not so seriously 
affected by the ups and downs of the business cycle as the 
demand of the large consumers. When factories shut down 
and railroad traffic declines, the domestic consumer still 
uses lights, still for the most part cooks three meals a day. 

R. W. B. 



HEALTH 



A Penny A Pound for Health 









I HREE years ago the Voluntary Hospitals of 
Sheffield, England, were faced with a debt due 
their bankers, and worse still, an annual deficit 

of more than 30,000 in their ordinary revenue, 

which was driving them into financial chaos and bankruptcy. 
Today there are 185,000 individuals who consent cheerfully 
and loyally that a voluntary levy of one penny be deducted 
from each pound of their earnings for the benefit of Volun- 
tary Hospital Service in Sheffield. Under the old system 
whereby each of the hospitals competed with the others in 
asking employers and employees to subscribe to their re- 
spective organizations, they obtained in all about 25,000 
a year from that source. By this new cooperative appeal 
100,000 is obtained each year in regular contributions 
and a sense of responsibility for hospitals and for health has 
been created in every group in the city employers and work- 
people, medical staffs and lay boards of management. 

The Joint Hospitals' Council was established in 1921 
representing every phase of Sheffield life, including the lord 
mayor, the master cutler, the vice chancellor of the univer- 
sity, chairman of the chamber of commerce, chairman of the 
Engineering Employers' Association, the town clerk, the 
leading medical consultants, three lay representatives of each 
hospital, the Boards of Guardians and the Trades and Labor 
Council, and ten representatives elected by the contributors. 
A definite scheme of regular contributions to hospitals was 
agreed upon to ask each employe to allow one penny in 
each pound of income to be deducted from his wages and 
to ask the employer to add not less than one-third of the 
amount of his employes' contributions, to be placed in a 
common pool for the benefit of all the hospitals. 

Employers' associations and trades' unions were ap- 
proached. Workpeople were addressed in warehouses, fac- 
tories and collieries. Publicity was obtained by cinema films, 
lantern slides, posters, and leaflets. In all this the basic 
principle of hospital service was emphasized: that the only 
persons who should receive preferential treatment and un- 
qualified free service were the unemployed, old age pen- 
sioners, war widows, children under twelve years of age, 
and the necessitous poor generally. All other classes in the 
city, especially those who were fortunate enough to be in 
health and regular employment, were informed that payment 
would be expected of them either by the regular weekly con- 
tributions of one penny for each pound of income, when 
they were well and outside a hospital, or by a weekly main- 
tenance charge when they were in the hospital. 

A cynic who does not know the Sheffielder has said that 
his heart is as hard as the steel he makes, but our experi- 
ment proved otherwise. The workingman of Steelopolis 
gladly suffers this voluntary deduction from his weekly 
wages because he hopes that he never will need the hospitals, 



and because it may benefit some other poor fellow in dis- 
tress. He pays because he wishes to have a part in this big 
scheme of cooperative help; because he dislikes receiving 
"charity" in its modern sense, and knows that if the day 
should arrive when he or his family needs institutional treat- 
ment without being able to afford the high fees of a private 
nursing home, he may obtain a letter of admission and enter 
a hospital feeling that he has earned a moral claim to the 
best it can give him without further cost. He pays because 
he prizes good health and realizes that the best benefit he 
can get out of his hospital contribution is never to enter a 
hospital at all. He likes the penny in the pound plan be- 
cause it is a voluntary scheme of direct taxation proportion- 
ate to a man's earnings, and because any contribution made 
by him as a workman automatically earns a handsome addi- 
tion to the hospital funds from his employer. 

Each plant, under the penny in the pound scheme, 
is registered and receives an unlimited number of hospital 
letters of introduction, any of which provides free treatment 
and . free maintenance for contributors and their families 
at any of the five hospitals in Sheffield. No guarantee of 
treatment is given. Each contributor understands that medi- 
cal urgency and humanity alone govern the order of admis- 
sion, and that any priority or preference is given to the poor- 
est patients whether they are contributors to the scheme 
or not. A contributor who can afford to pay for his own 
treatment, or to consult his own specialist, or to pay the fees 
of a private nursing home is not expected to avail himself 
of the free facilities under the plan. Non-contributors in 
regular employment are expected to pay not less than five 
shillings a day towards the cost of their maintenance when 
they become hospital patients. 

The contributors have their own organization, the "Shef- 
field and District Hospitals' Contributors' Association," and 
send their delegates to a quarterly meeting at the Cutlers' 
Hall, the center of the greatest commercial, social and 
political gatherings in the district when resolutions for the 
improvement of hospital service are debated and sent for- 
ward. The association democratically elects its own exec- 
utive council, two members of which serve on each of the 
five boards of management of the Sheffield Voluntary Hos- 
pitals. Each place of employment in the district has its own 
hospital committee, chairman, treasurer, secretary and dele- 
gates. Sheffield is a university center and receives patients 
from an area of twenty miles radius about the city, within 
which there is a county hospital and many cottage and 
district hospitals, which have benefitted financially to the 
extent of more than 3,000 each year from the Sheffield 
contributory scheme. 

The hospitals themselves are the center of a medical or- 
ganization assisted by the contributory scheme. Ten per 

85 



86 



THE SURREY 



October 15, 



cent of the income is set aside for convalescent and after- 
care service. About two thousand patients receive con- 
valescent care each year, at a cost of 8,OOO, in approved 
homes in other parts of the country, where beds have been 
reserved to avoid long periods of waiting for admission. 
Arrangements have been made with many nursing asso- 
ciations, so that on the recommendation of a physician, a 
qualified nurse will visit a family to offer first aid, dressings 
and elementary medical attention. Orthopedic treatment is 
provided at the Edgar Allen Institute, and during the op- 
eration of the scheme our contributors have made 162,025 
visits to this unique institution for every type of electrical 
massage and bath treatment. By arrangement with Boards 
of Guardians, beds may be obtained in Union Hospitals for 
urgent cases when none are available immediately in a 
Voluntary Hospital. An ambulance service provided by the 
Joint Hospitals' Council, is available without cost to con- 
tributors in the wide area served by the hospital two thou- 
sands patients have been transported during the past three 
months and travelling costs are remitted to contributors 
and their families who require hospital or out-patient treat- 
ment and are unable to meet that extra expense. Special 
grants are available for ex-service men, and for the purchase 
of surgical appliances, and a library service has been estab- 
lished in cooperation with the Red Cross. 

The resident population of the hospitals physicians, 
nurses and patients is more than 1,300. Each month more 
than 1,000 new in-patients are admitted. Last year the 
hospitals cared for 3,586 needy persons too poor to join any 
contributory scheme or to pay anything toward their main- 
tenance, at a cost of 30,000 which is a fair and right 
charge on the contributory scheme. The total of new out- 
patients last year was well over IOO,OOO. New individual 
casualties amounted to 3,247 a month, and the attendance 
of patients total 1,235 a day. During the operation of the 
scheme the debt has been reduced, three wards with sixty- 
six additional beds have been reopened, a nurses' hotel ac- 
quired, a modern X-ray plant erected, a new wing, housing 
an ear, nose and throat department and thirty additional 
beds is almost complete, while twenty-five more beds are 
being added to the balconies at the Royal Infirmary. A 
plan now is under way to obtain the consent of the Boards 
of Management to transfer the hospitals, one by one, as 
funds and opprotunities permit, to a private park of 120 
acres, twelve minutes by motor ambulance from the center 
of the city, which has been pronounced suitable for hos- 
pital extension. 

Yet Sheffield knows that it is a waste of skill and money 
to continue forever to cure diseases which are preventable, 
and that prevention is better than cure. We are endeavor- 
ing to arouse a health conscience, and a health habit, to les- 
sen the sickness and incapacity which steals nineteen and a 
half million weeks of work from our insured population, 
a loss equal to the whole year's work of 375,000 citizens. 
Many lines of preventive health work are carried on in 
Sheffield by the various authorities, municipal, educational, 
social. During the past winter the Joint Hospitals' Council 
arranged twenty lectures which were attended by fully 
20,000 people. Nine of the lectures were given by the 
most eminent health authorities in the country, whose audi- 
ences averaged 1,700 in the city's largest hall. It is better 
to erect a sound fence at the top of the cliff than to pro- 
vide even the most modern ambulance at the bottom. 

S. R. LAMB 



The Boston Health League 

IN THE SURVEY of February 4, 1922, Curtis Lake- 
man told of Three City Health Federations; Cleveland, 
Cincinnati and Boston. The outgrowth of a conference 
of health agencies held in 1919, the Boston Health League 
at that time included twenty-five well-established health 
organizations, which had pooled their working resources 
of nurses and field service for the development of a com- 
mon program, at first localized in a trial area in East 
Boston. 

Inductive method is written all over the beginnings of the 
Boston Health League [Mr. Lakeman declared] and its feet 
are on the ground. . . . Turning, with that eagerness that it 
pleases us to think of as typically American, to the nearest job 
to be done, filling in the first gaps that show up when the spy 
glass is focussed on the field, . . . attacking the possible first 
. . . the Boston League starts from the particular and moves 
toward the ideal and the general, without waiting to set up 
a complete and logically perfect plan, that might or might 
not get anywhere. 

Where, after almost three years, has the inductive method 
carried the league? What are the actual steps taken by 
this one city in pulling together its health resources to work 
toward a common end? 

Briefly, quoting from the last report of the League's exec- 
utive secretary, Horace Morison, the development of the 
Boston Health League has taken the following lines: 

First, a period of voluntary activity sounding the sentiment 
of the various public health agencies towards a federation and 
leading to the signing of articles of agreement by sixteen agen- 
cies. Second, a period which covers the greater part of the 
Red Cross appropriation and in which the league with a staff 
and officers enters the field of public health and in a representa- 
tive district makes a thorough study of the work of the exist- 
ing agencies, to determine what the public health needs are, 
how they are being met, and to assist the agencies in adjusting 
their work to meet the needs. In this period the Boston Health 
League has not confined its work to East Boston, but has 
stood ready at all times to promote coordination of sound 
public health activities in every part of the city. The league 
has advocated consistently an intelligent and sincere support of 
the public agencies. Third, a more difficult period which is 
marked by a desire on the part of the member agencies to 
make the meetings of the league serve as a forum for the 
discussion of plans and policies in relation to a joint health 
program the intention being not to discuss agencies but the 
various phases of public health and the relation of the agencies 
thereto. In this phase the health league has gone on record 

a. To promote extension of the work of the Health Depart- 
ment along preventive lines. 

b. To secure coordination and development of program be- 
tween the agencies concerned. 

Mr. Morison emphasizes the value to the league of its 
"study district." This is the only one of the large city 
federations which has concentrated on a study district. It 
is of great advantage in discussing any part of a city-wide 
program to have exact knowledge of one section. 

HERE is a temptation to dwell upon particular phases 
* of the activities of the league, such as The Boston 
Health Show, remarkable chiefly in that true coordination of 
ideas was the motive on which it was conducted, no one agen- 
cy exhibiting by or for herself, but only as part of a compre- 
hensive plan having "prevention" as its central idea. But 
it is not so much by its specific and local accomplishments 
that the "natural history" of the league, as Dr. Emerson 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURREY 



calls it, has been written. Rather it is written through 
those progressive movements in the community which have 
come about because the spirit of the league is a strong, vital 
and sympathetic outgrowth of a coordination of agencies in 
deed and not only in name. To the writer the following 
are the truly significant developments of the Boston Health 
League : 

1. The health centre development. 

2. An important amalgamation of private health associations. 

3. The city assumes control of child hygiene work. 

4. The health league becomes the health section of the Coun- 
cil of Social Agencies. 

5. The unanimous election of an officer of the Department 
of Health as executive secretary of the health league. He 
is also director of the Boston health centers. 

Early in the year 1922 the trustees of the George Robert 
White Fund announced their intention of building two 
health units for the city of Boston. Others are to follow. 
It is the policy of the health commissioner to invite private 
health agencies to occupy quarters in these centers. Already 
at the Municipal Health Center on Blossom Street the 
closest inter-play of all local health activities is in oper- 
ation. Here is a local neighborhood conference of thirty-six 
agencies, a medical advisory committee of twelve doctors, and 
an advisory committee to the director of the health unit 
brings all the workers into a common health program. Dr. 
Charles F. Wilinsky has been director of the Blossom Street 
Health Center since its organization in 1915- 

In October, 1922, the Community Health Association 
was formed by uniting the Instructive District Nursing 
Association, which had, with Simmons College, joint con- 
trol of the School for Public Health Nursing, and which 
was at that time thirty-six years old, with the Baby Hygiene 
Association, which included the Dietetic Bureau, and was 
fifteen years old. It is impossible to give the details of the 
results of this amalgamation here, but its success may be 
measured in part by the fact that under its operation 2O 
per cent more persons were served by the same number of 
field workers than when the associations were under separate 
control. 

When a City Health Department budget is somewhat 
over $500,000 (exclusive of hospitals) and a voluntary 
health agency in the same city carries a budget of over 
$400,000, several pertinent questions insistently arise. There 
is irritation in the mind of the average man or woman who 
pays taxes to make up the one sum and is constantly solicited 
to give generously towards the other. Irritation is in- 
creased when the voluntary health agency is only one of 
some 250 social agencies, most of them essential to the 
success of both public and private health work in families. 

Some such thoughts as these have been occupying our 
minds since the Community Health Association has proved 
itself capable of carrying forward a family health program 
so much more extensive and effective than before the amal- 
gamation. On September I, 1924, therefore, the Depart- 
ment of Health assumed a large part of the educational 
work for the health of babies and will, at its convenience, 
take over the remainder of the child hygiene program. The 
new nursing personnel necessary to do this, so far as Civil 
Service requirements permit, is being made up by the Health 
Commission from the public health nurses released by the 
Community Health Association. 

Amalgamation went one step further when the health 



league became the health section of the Council of Social 
Agencies. This move assures the constituent agencies of 
an informed and experienced body to administer the funds 
from a community chest, should the chest be introduced 
into Boston. 

In any federation of organizations the true responsibility 
for success must rest with the executive secretary. In the 
person of this officer of the league, all the health agencies 
in Boston had an individual at their service, who was con- 
cerned equally with the interests of each and particularly 
with the welfare of the people for whose service each agency 
was created. 

In Horace Morison, Boston has had a secretary un- 
usually fitted to achieve the remarkable success that we 
believe has been his. With the end of the first two years 
of the league's existence, Mr. Morison was obliged by per- 
sonal considerations to assume a less active part in its oper- 
ations. He became chairman of the executive committee, 
an important but less exacting position. In his place it was 
unanimously voted to appoint Dr. Charles F. Wilinsky. 
Since his position as director of health centers in the De- 
partment of Health permitted him to give the requisite time 
to these new duties, the commissioner of health, who, it 
will be remembered, is president of the Boston Health 
League, gladly consented to his accepting the appointment, 
bringing official and non-official agencies into still closer 
working array. 

Our developments have been quite unexpected, by our- 
selves certainly. There has been nothing cut and dried 
about any of them, nor has it ever been a purpose of the 
league to make an ideal demonstration of existing services. 
We needed greatly to understand one another better, a 
result which has been achieved to a great degree. 

Has this effort been worth while? We think it has. 
When on January i, 1924, the $30,000 appropriated by 
the Red Cross was spent, we unanimously voted to "con- 
tinue as a separate body ready to finance the expenses of 
a small staff for the coming twelve months." At the time 
this vote was passed the health commissioner declared him- 
self unwilling to consider getting on without the league 
and emphasized his belief in its value by contributing then 
and there a very generous check towards the expenses of 
the coming year. 

So much for the "internal" evidence of its value. For 
external evidence we may turn to the opinion of Dr. Allan 
McLaughlin and Dr. Livingston Farrand, expressed at the 
annual meetings of the league in 1923 and 1924. 

Most complete and comprehensive in its organization is the 
Boston Health League [says Dr. McLaughlin.] It seems like 
the fulfillment of a dream which ten years ago did not seem 
possible. It is inspiring to see all the unofficial agencies in the 
area united in one common effort under the duly constituted 
official authority. It is no less inspiring to see a health com- 
missioner who is not a policeman but a statesman eager to 
utilize the help of the unofficial agencies and to furnish the 
necessary leadership for keeping them together. 

Dr. Farrand, pointing out that the aim of any private 
health organization ought to be "to put itself out of busi- 
ness, to make itself unnecessary," though "it is still neces- 
sary to have private health organization until finally health 
departments have the backing of educated public sentiment 
and have been given the means to carry through this whole 
effort," adds that "it is a great advance to make the effort 
consciously and gradually to associate official guidance, to 



88 



THE SURREY 



October 15, 1924. 



rely upon official responsibility for all community health 
activities." He concludes, "You here in this health league 
have demonstrated the true method of dealing with the 
complex and confused situation of an American municipal- 
ity ... coordinating, bringing together and then expressing 
in actual work . . . the true application of modern public 
health knowledge of preventive medicine." 

With the further development of the White Fund health 
centers, and with an executive secretary who also directs 
these centers, we hope for still further and fuller under- 
standing. MARY BEARD, R. N. 

Keep the Windows Open 

WITH the advent of sharp weather and furnace heat 
in early November there comes a sudden rise in the 
number of children kept home from school because of colds, 
according to a study of absenteeism in the third grades of 
certain public schools of Washington, D. C., conducted 
through the last school year by the District of Columbia 
Public School Association and summarized in a recent issue 
of Public Health Reports. A second wave of colds came 
with the severe weather in January. Nearly 40 per cent 
of all absences among the 500 children studied were due 
to colds and other respiratory affections; the common cold 
alone is far ahead in the causes of absence, itself responsible 
for 27.7 per cent. Weather, truancy, religious holidays, 
family mishaps, the lack of shoes, and all other causes 
lumped together accounted for 30 per cent. 

Comparison of the children in the one open-window 
school, selected because they were physically handicapped, 
undernourished, anemic, seems to point a clear moral. These 
children, physically below par, lost on an average only six- 
tenths of a day during the school year because of colds, 
while the rate for the regular schools varied from one to 
four and one-half days per child per year, averaging 3.2 
days. Despite the poor health which is their reason for 
being there and the large amount of time spent by the open- 
air children in craft work, they passed the regular school 
examinations better and more uniformly than the other 
children of their ages and grades. The committee in charge 
of the study, under the chairmanship of Louise Taylor- 



Colds 



Other 
Illnesses 



Other 
Causes 



4:2 



3B 



3.2 



3.0 



Open- other open Other Open other 
Air Schools -Air Schools Air Schools 
School School School 



Jones, M.D. concludes that medical problems, many of 
them arising from preventable causes, such as toothache, 
earache, eye-strain and resulting headache, digestive upsets, 
and the like, cause the overwhelming majority of absence 
of among these children, with the common cold as the 
chief offender, and declare: 

"The apparent benefit to children, both physically and 
mentally, from schools of the open-window plan would in- 
dicate the desirability of extending this system. It would 
involve some additional appropriations for cots and blankets 
for the rest period and for extra food." 

Mother's Milk 

Breast-feeding is a universal medical prescription. On this 
alone may depend baby's life. With the resources of a great 
city to draw upon, the Children's Welfare Federation of 
New York City, clearing house of two hundred and thirty- 
five children's organizations, evolved a dependable source of 
supply. 

WHEN the Children's Welfare Federation opened 
its first unit for the collection and distribution of 
mother's milk in October 1921, it was in response to a 
demand from individuals, hospitals and institutions for 
some agency to secure and distribute breast milk continu- 
ously for critical cases. Since the use of wet nurses is 
unsatisfactory in many cases, and the very lives of premature, 
motherless or very sick babies often depend upon this one 
food, there had long been a need for some organized supply. 

There was little precedent to work upon, and matters 
of technique and procedure had to be developed from the 
ground up. With Dr. Henry Dwight Chapin as chair- 
man, the committee of the Children's Welfare Federation 
responsible for developing a program, studied the experi- 
ment in the collection and distribution of mother's milk 
which was started in 1910 in Boston. In New York simi- 
lar work was begun about eleven years ago by Dr. B. 
Raymond Hoobler in cooperation with the social service de- 
partment of Bellevue Hospital. Dr. Hoobler demonstrated 
that mothers can be found who will be perfectly willing 
to sell their milk; that some mothers can spare a portion 
of their milk without detriment to their own babies; that 
human milk can thus be furnished at a reasonable price 
and that the collection can be made by existing agencies. 
The federation, then, opened its first unit in October 1921, 
in space given by the Bureau of Child Hygiene in one of 
the baby health stations on the upper East Side. In 1922, 
however, the unit was moved to a baby health station on 
the lower East Side where it was found possible to reach 
more mothers. 

The procedure which was worked out slowly and care- 
fully in that first station is being further developed and 
perfected today by the registered nurse in charge of the 
bureau for the collection and distribution of mother's milk 
at the central office of the federation, and by the members 
of the committee Dr. Chapin, Dr. Stafford McLean, Dr. 
Herman Schwarz, Dr. Jules Blumenthal, Dr. Carl Laws 
and Dr. Charles Herrman. Two new units have been 
opened this year, one in Brooklyn in May and one iq the 
Bronx in June. There is a matron in charge of each unit, 
and each matron is in turn responsible to the nurse in 
charge of the bureau at the federation. Under the original 
plan the mothers expressed the milk at home and brought 
it into the units, but this was soon found to be inadvisable 



October 15, 



THE SURVEY 



as the quality of the milk could not always be kept up to 
standard and as insanitary conditions frequently prevailed 
in the homes. No milk is now accepted unless it is ex- 
pressed under the supervision of the matrons in the units. 
Privacy is maintained for the mother but the supervision 
of the matron assures that every hygienic prec<tutrn is 
taken and that the mother herself employs the approved 
method of hand manipulation of the breast. 

Only mothers who have more milk than is needed by 
their own babies are accepted. Their babies must be under 
the care of a physician and a nurse in the health station 
and the mother must be recommended by the physician. 
One of the most interesting phases of the work is the 
educational work which is done with the mothers. It has 
been found often that when they first come to the units their 
own babies have not been thriving as a result of being 
overfed. The mother is not accepted at the unit if the 
nurse in the health station reports loss of weight, etc. on 
the part of her child. The matrons spend a part of each 
day visiting mothers who have not attended the unit regu- 
larly or in looking up new mothers whom they wish to 
interest. 

From October 1921 to the end of July 1924, 2050 quarts, 
2i l /2 ounces of milk were collected from 94 mothers. Of 
this 1981 quarts, 15% ounces were sold to institutions, 
hospitals and private patients; the remainder was given to 
patients unable to pay. Fifty-nine hospitals and institu- 
tions have been supplied with this milk. One hundred and 
sixty-nine babies were benefited exclusive of those in hospi- 
tals and institutions. It is not possible to obtain figures 
as to the number of children supplied in the latter. Mothers 
are paid ten cents an ounce for the first five ounces ex- 
pressed each day and fifteen cents an ounce for every ounce 
over that. Carfare is paid for any mother who can offer 
ten ounces or more at one time. The federation usually 
charges twenty-five cents an ounce for this milk except in 
the case of persons unable to pay, and people of every na- 
tionality and every social class come to buy this life-giving 
food for their sick or delicate babies. All milk is pooled 
at each unit and put in large bottles on the ice. It is then 
ready to be given out upon doctor's orders, which must 
be received first by the bureau at the federation. Anyone 
wishing to pasteurize the milk will receive full instructions 
at the units. A specimen of the milk is analysed once a 



month in order to make certain that it keeps up to standard. 
A short history of all babies to whom this milk is sup- 
plied is kept by the federation. In each case it is known 
why the baby is finally taken off of mother's milk, whether 
it has been put on formula, dismissed to a wet nurse, etc. 
One has only to glance over these little histories or to read 
the expressions of gratitude which come from parents whose 
babies have weathered severe illnesses with the help of this 
food, to realize that children's lives are daily being saved 
by the work of the mother's milk bureau. 

SARAH BLACKWELL GOBER 



MONTANA, following a survey of her school children, con- 
ducted by the United States Public Health Service, is among 
the most recent states to find evidence that simple goiter is a 
public health problem. Nearly a quarter of the 14,000 children 
studied were found to be suffering from enlargement of the 
thyroid gland. As usual, the condition was more prevalent 
among girls than boys, and found most often in isolated rural 
districts which relied upon wells and springs for their water 
supply and did not consume imported vegetables, sea food, etc. 
School children of Cincinnati, in a similar survey conducted 
by the United States Public Health Service, the Commissioner 
of Health and his associates, showed thyroid enlargements in 
the case of 32.2 per cent and a recommendation was made to 
the board of health that a constant and definite supply of 
iodine to each person be insured through the use of iodized 
table salt. 

THAT TUBERCULOSIS should receive treatment at an 
early state, is demonstrated once again in a study compiled by 
the Medical Research Council of England, analyzing the his- 
tories of 3,400 patients treated by the Frinley Sanitarium from 
1905 to 1914. Nearly 80 per cent of the men; and 90 per cent 
of the women diagnosed in the incipient stage were alive at 
the end of five years; after ten years the survivals were 65 
per cent and 85 per cent respectively. 

DIABETIC PATIENTS in Seattle, Washington, are the 
gainers by the recent opening of a cooperative store to sell 
the foods and instruments necessary to their regime. Space 
for the store and clerical supervision has been given without 
cost by the Virginia Mason Hospital, and through an endow- 
ment supplied by a group of interested citizens, it will be 
able to offer its wares at a graduated scale of prices according 
to the need of the patient: full price, discount, cost, part 
charity, full charity. The plan of the store was suggested by 
Dr. Elliott P. Joslin of Boston at a recent lecture in Seattle. 



The idea for this poster 
was taken from the Survey 
June 15, 1924, page 354. 

Made by Minnie Lee 
Rencher, Ocooe, Fla., a 
teacher student enrolled in 
the Health Education Class 
at the summer school of the 
University of Florida, at 
Gainesville. 






CARELESS 
SPREAD DIS 




ED L/C s. 


4TION 1 



Education and Community Life in Smithdale 



A a crossroads, in a valley worn by a rushing 
stream through high wooded hills, is the little 
white schoolhouse of Smithdale. Into this one- 
room school, shortly after the world war, I 
brought my ideals and experience of three years as a 
physical training director. Here I tried to discover how 
far those ideals were practical in this type of rural school, 
and how I could follow out in such a school, the 
law recently passed by the state requiring the teaching of 
indoor and outdoor games and athletic exercises, and at the 
same time incorporate some of my ideals of physical edu- 
cation in my teaching. 

Since education is closely related to the community in 
which it functions, and physical education is even more 
vitally concerned with community welfare, I have studied 
the backgrounds of Smithdale's school in considerable de- 
tail. . . . 

CHANGES in population and economic conditions have 
affected the educational situation and the health of the 
present day. (When the community was first incorporated, 
just before the Revolution} the inhabitants were independ- 
ent and strong, gravely concerned with matters of com- 
mfunity welfare and patriotic duty. Some of these men were 
descendants of the hardy colonial "planters" who had hewn 
the "cartway" "through an unbroken forest of fifty miles 
length" and who had valiantly fought in the last French 
and Indian Avars. The act of incorporation of their town 
invested it "with all the powers, privileges and immunities 
that towns in this province do and may enjoy." It pro- 
vided that the inhabitants "shall pay their proportion of 
all province, county and town charges." 

The principle of paying from public funds for things 
that would benefit the community and state was thus estab- 
lished by the early settlers. . . . History points to the pay- 
ment in 1775 from appropriations of town meeting for the 
following public affairs: military training, building the 
church, the home settlement of the doctor, and the settle- 
ment and early salary of the minister; and in 1791, "school- 
ing." 



f^HE pioneer planters found the valley lands sufficient 
* for the supply of their food' needs; the forests gave 
them fuel and building material, and there was plenty of 
fresh water. They were, moreover, on a main thoroughfare 
between the frontier settlements and Boston. So long as the 
period of "household economy" continued, when clothing 
was homespun and food home-grown, Smithdale maintained 
its population and its economic self-sufficiency, though the 
call to western lands took some of the adventurous blood. 
The invention of the steam engine at first stimulated Smith- 
dale's growth. But when the use of power was centralized 
in large factories, the death-knell of that economic inde- 

90 



pendence was sounded. The many little individual shops 
that once dotted the valley and supplied the community's 
needs are now but traditions. The factory system has taken 
much of the best blood of the town to the industrial cities, 
and the community must buy its merchandise from out- 
siders, and finds large appropriations from the state neces- 
sary to maintain its schools and highways. 

TN a psychological way the town is not so healthful a 
* place for the young as it was in former times. The indus- 
trial cities have drawn away from Smithdale much of the 
energy that developed its vital community institutions. To 
the adolescent boy and young man "the place is dead." 
Feeling the lack of inspiration they tend to drift city- 
ward. . . . (Once, here) were independent men, for in 1787 
they sent delegates to the convention at Boston, but voted 
to disapprove the federal constitution. Their fellowship 
had lost men and treasure in gaining the nation's liberty, 
and though they knew) "nothing but patriots in Smithdale," 
they felt the importance of their position and in several 
cases "decided to show their mind to the General 
Assembly." 

Discipline was stern in the early days, (a stocks was 
voted in 1779), yet music, inventive genius and professional 
talent developed from the rugged pioneer stock. "These 
hills have always re-echoed the sound of merry voices. In- 
ventive genius has had a share. . . . Patents of various in- 
ventions have been recorded. We raised a painter also 
of no little repute. Able divines have here dwelt and lab- 
ored. . . ." Two Smithdale boys have "graced the bench 
of New York" ; one boy "laid deep the foundations of lite- 
rary pursuits in raising the first $50,000 of the endowment 
of Amherst College"; and another "in the mayoralty of 
New York City and in the Congress of the United States 
alike, served his age and reflected glory on his native place." 

'But a subtle change has taken place since those da\s. 
The system which has made possible large and relatively 
cheap production of merchandise, so that, for example, 
thousands of families may own Ford cars and phonographs, 
has drained the vitality from such communities as Smith- 
dale. 

The rugged country people have fought a losing battle 
and an accumulation of pessimism has taken the place of 
the former gaiety of the groups that met in social barn rais- 
ings and husking bees. One writer has intimated that there 
is to be seen here serious degeneration caused by inter- 
marriage and intensification of family traits which is so 
marked in isolated communities. 

The outstanding characteristic of Smithdale is still indi- 
vidual strength born of the freedom of the hills and of the 
lone competition against economic forces that appear to be 
overwhelming. Many have a perception of the values of 
life which make their judgments unusually interesting and 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURREY 



canny. They are not influenced by thel mob psychology of 
the cities. They see things more nearly as they are, rather 
than as they are told to see them. As a result, they are 
often truer to human needs, since artificial civilization has 
not made them superficial. My own relations with many 
Stnithdale people have assured me of this insight into life. 
G. Stanley Hall recognizes the importance of this human 
outlook of rural people, and in his "autobiography" hints at 
the great part which they who live nearer to nature may 
play in the regeneration of a nation. 

Unfortunately, this native strength and individual wis- 
dom is not being incorporated into the general interests of 
state and nation. The interests of the "majority" have 
centered in cities and have appeared prejudicial to the in- 
terests of Smithdale. The civil and criminal laws, devel- 
oped in legislatures and courts, seem to many in Smithdale 
a little secondary to the individualistic laws of man to man. 
They are also kindred in spirit to their forefathers who 
could not live in a king-ridden country, and are therefore 
naturally antagonistic to the boss-ridden political machine, 
and to the clever hierarchies of organized selfish intelligence 
which appear to them to be the order of our boasted civili- 
zation. Indeed, they respect more those who are able to 
take the law into their own hands and do not have to run 
for a sheriff. Possibly the traditions of Smithdale may 
augment this attitude, since when laws were made against 
distilleries, which had always been carried on, one of the 
occupations of the hills became "moonshine." The position 
of the village in a corner between two counties made it at- 
tractive to that fearless type of man who does not see the 
reason for conforming to outside laws, yet, strangely enough, 
makes the product of his stills pure. In fact, the past 
record of no county court without its quota from Smith- 
dale is one of the community's jokes, as is also the remark 
of a neighboring villager to the judge when asked what 
crops were raised in the district: "Two crops, huckleberries 
in summer and hell in winter." 

It appears that the economic revolution, from "domestic 
occupations" to the "factory system" has caused a wider 
and wider gulf between city and rural interests, a "social 
cleavage" which, according to some, is the most serious fact 
in American life. Individual strength in rural society, being 
powerless against organized strength in cities and towns, 
has withdrawn into itself and become cynical and antagon- 
istic. 

The lack of ability to cooperate, both within the com- 
munity and in relation to the outside world, affects every 
aspect of life and acts as a severe handicap. Family feeling, 
though tempered with too much common sense to allow 
feuds, nevertheless was instrumental in breaking up an at- 
tempt to form a community club. The last meeting was as 
wild a free-for-all as the teacher had ever witnessed. The 
school children express the same feeling in their school 
quarrels and in their inability to work together. 

IN 1921, when I went to Smithdale, it was difficult to 
find any alleviating bright spots to offset the pessimism. 
The school superintendent expressed the situation well when 
she wrote: 

Isolated rural communities educate themselves slowly or 
rather adapt themselves slowly to changing conditions and 
needs. Not until some of our more progressive young people 
go out into the world and later return with a vision and re- 



main long enough to make the vision a reality are we likely 
to see our dreams come true. 

But I have learned some things and come to some con- 
clusions. The "social gulf" between country and city 
is due to an economic system that has not given proper 
recognition to the fact that the "social organism is based on 
agriculture and agricultural resources made available by 
industry." Time to play is an economic factor. The loyalty 
of children to their families which makes them wish to "get 
home to help mother with the chores" is a subtle and sacred 
thing. The stooped shoulders of the child-laborer need 
straightening and the fagged spirits of the rural child need 
joy and incentive to live more fully, but there is an economic 
factor behind these conditions. These are all matters for 
economists and research workers in general education and 
sociology to cope with. 

I believe that the economic interests of the parents should 
be taken into consideration, their cooperation secured, if 
possible, and a compromise between economic and educa- 
tional interests reached. I also believe that if the state 
is to require the attendance of boys and girls until they are 
fourteen, sixteen or eighteen years old it should view criti- 
cally the fitness of the school to be the environment of their 
lives during this socially critical period, and be careful lest 
it provide a prison for the innocent, or train them to idle 
dreaming or economically impossible careers. An education- 
al system which antagonizes local interests through lack of 
adaptation to real needs is apt to develop anti-social citizens 
who may cause the state great expense. Certain social work- 
ers and some residents of Smithdale alike think that there 
may be a correlation between the increase of adolescent in- 
sanity and an unwise educational system. 

If a community could save all it is now spending on un- 
necessary philanthropic work and all it is now losing through 
the cost of preventable disease, social ineptitude and acci- 
dents due to lack of knowledge of mechanical forces, it would 
have enough funds to build a community school which, 
properly managed in a democratic manner, would be a 
profitable investment for a happy healthful rural life. 

ESTHER WATSON TIPPLE 

A New Community School 

ON September 25, Manumit, a new community school 
"primarily for the children of workers" was opened 
at Pawling, Dutchess County, N. Y. Shortly before the 
opening of the school, a conference of about fifty progres- 
sive labor leaders and liberal educators was held at the 
school, ending in the formation of a permanent body of 
educators and labor leaders which will assume responsi- 
bility for the social and educational policies of the new 
enterprise. 

During the conference, a statement of the hopes and in- 
tentions of the faculty was read by one of their number. 
The following passages from that paper, which represented 
the "gist of many absorbing fireside discussions" will give 
some notion of the spirit in which the school begins: 

Of course, the heart and marrow of a school like ours is the 
community life. The community school is our way of affirm- 
ing our deep belief in Dewey's maxim that education comes 
through life. Community life itself is our definition of that 
freedom and responsibility in which every educational demo- 
crat believes. The community life of our school is the social- 
ized incarnation of our belief in industrial democracy. It is 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1924 



our act of faith in the labor movement and in that good life, 
that rich and noble life for all, which the labor movement is 
going to bring in. 

All self-governing schools of course, in themselves, constitute 
projects. But in such a community school as ours where the 
children live twenty-four hours a day, the school itself is 
supremely the durable and embracing project of which all other 
projects we may be able to carry out here will be natural parts. 

And in several ways we think a community school is certain 
to take a few of the usual anxieties of teaching off our hands. 
For instance, if in some of the work one of the children should 
pursue for a long time a purely individual interest such as 
making a box exclusively to hold his own clothes still the 
social need for him to cooperate with his group in the kitchen, 
in the field or the milking shed, will help immensely to right 
the balance and by so doing leave it safe for that absorbing, 
perhaps releasing, individual interest to take its own gait. 
Such work, which every one can see must be done promptly 
and regularly will steadily help him to grow responsible and 
reliable. Many such needs, which in a day school require 
ingenious devices by the teacher, will be met perfectly naturally 
in a school which is built around a community life. That 
it really has these results all of us who have lived in a com- 
munity school can say from experience as well as from theory. 

The children, who range from nine to fourteen years old, 
and who, in the public schools, would be graded from the 
fourth grade through the first year of high school, seem likely 
to fall into about five groups for most of their work. The 
teachers each expect to hold one or two conferences a week 
with these groups of children; each of us expects to collaborate 
with the children in mapping out the research and other 
projects they undertake. We expect each a sort of workshop 
where we can assemble our materials and meet the children 
and advise them whenever they want our assistance. Our 
curriculum presents itself as five fields for exploration and 
discovery. 

The library will be the English work-shop with two or 
three shelves in particular where the children can keep the 
books they choose and recommend to each other as specially 
good reading two or three portfolios lying on the library 
table in which the editors of our magazine can collect and 
sort the stories or poems the children submit for the paper; 
and the beginnings of an anthology of poems to be chosen 
entirely by children under eighteen, illustrated by them and 
edited by them, with a section, of course, of poems written 
entirely by persons under eighteen. . . . 

The workshop of history and other social sciences: a work- 
shop full of books and papers, but also full of models, in all 
sorts of materials, of architecture, Egyptian gates and halls 
of columns, Chinese pagodas and Greek temples, mediaeval 
churches and castles. . . . 

The arts and crafts workshop but how shall we teachers 
safeguard from neglecting other work to go there to feast 
our eyes and fingers upon the paints, the looms, the carpenter 
tools and the children satisfying their ardor for making. . . . 

In the mathematics shop there will be something to draw 
them away. ... I mean hints and glimpses of the unveiling 
of the spirit of mathematics, a thing that can greatly expand 
the power and clearness of the mind. This is something I 
know nothing of, except a glimpse of light shining on me late 
in life out of a scarcely opened door. . . . 

There are moods when it seems as if all our indoor things 
and customs are but toys and games ... at such times the 
huge workshop of the outdoors seems the only real the only 
grown-up thing. We are going to have a noble outdoor field 
at once for practical work and for natural science for the 
practice and knowledge with which we hope children are here 
to be equipped, for the body of arts called farming and for the 
sense of the vastness of natural science and especially of that 
inclusive biology of which history itself has been said to be 
only a branch. . . . 

You mustn't think we do not realize the truth of Dostoi- 
evsky's saying that the love of humanity in dreams is ideally 
calm and beautiful, while the love of humanity in action is 



full of audacity and blunders. All that we can do, of course, 
is to arrange our school affairs, with the advice and assistance 
of our partners, the children, as nearly as we can to resemble 
that rich and fruitful freedom in which and for which we 
want to labor, and to teach the children, and to let them 
teach each other, and be taught ourselves. 

What's an Adjustment Room? 

THE Los Angeles adjustment rooms constitute a device 
for the accomplishment of the following purposes: 

1. A searching examination of the real abilities of school 
pupils in the grades in academic lines. 

2. A mind building course of instruction in the academic 
abilities such that character qualities may be brought under 
control and become ideals in the pupils. 

3. A place for the training of teachers in the observation, 
study and correction of weak abilities and the strengthening 
of stronger abilities as shown in school materials. 

4. An intensive study of portions of the curriculum suitable 
for instruction, especially such as have been found of unusual 
difficulty to pupils. 

Arthur H. Sunderland writes of the adjustment rooms 
and their purpose in the Bulletin of the Southern California 
Society for Mental Hygiene. To quote in part: 

Examination of Pupils. How often does one hear from the 
parent that this particular child could have done much better 
on the test; that the questions are catch questions; that the 
test is a stunt, etc. And since the pupils are in school, are 
failing or do not seem to fit well in their present places, it 
appears that an observation room in which pupils may work 
under a carefully controlled set of conditons may perhaps 
obviate some criticisms, besides adding some advantages. The 
pupil may become accustomed to the idea of showing the best 
he can do. 

Twenty-one mental mechanisms operating on school subject 
matter, which is constantly changing, are under examination. 
They are the mechanisms which have been judged to be most 
nearly responsible for success or failure in studies. Each pupil is 
"placed" on work which he can do successfully in each of twenty- 
one types. He is rarely at the same level of development in them. 
Self test and self practice at easy work leads to harder tasks 
and during this increase in the abilities a careful record is 
kept of the progress and the types of difficulty which this pupil 
shows in each of the operations. The work has not been suc- 
cessful as yet with children definitely feeble-minded, but has 
proven that numbers of children who were believed to be feeble- 
minded were not actually so. The plan of work has also been 
successful with a number of psychopathic and delinquent types 
of children. 

The aim of the rooms on the instruction side has been to 
provide a sufficient content and subject matter to challenge 
the fullest exercise of the abilites which are necessary to suc- 
cess in these lines. The aim of education has been stated as 
"the development in the pupil of a control by himself of his 
own abilities proven by his exercise of those abilities in the 
control and solution of the problems he meets. This definition, 
however, leaves out of account that the pupil may acquire ideals 
and purposes which are undesirable from a social viewpoint. 
It is therefore highly important to give especial emphasis to 
the significance of what is learned, and the development of the 
"sense of values." Instead, then, of drill forced upon a pupil, 
or definite routine stunts which must be performed, it is clear 
that pupils must be "motivated" by increasing success and 
the guidance of a teacher to continue to prove themselves able 
to control their respective futures. 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURVEY 



93 



It is necessary also to note that this control occurs first in 
small matters and rises but gradually to things of larger import. 
Character undoubtedly is reflected and developed in the process. 
Stability, judgment, imagination, control, determination, per- 
sistence and joy in accomplishment find in these rooms unusual 
opportunity for full expression. 

Thinking About Education 

FOLLOW here some samples of the ways in which the 
so-called "thinking" about our educational problems is 
being carried on. Sample No. i : 

In a presumably democratic republic such as our country is, 
the importance of securing habits and attitudes of obedience 
to the social control of the community during the period of 
schooling can hardly be overestimated. The teacher, the prin- 
cipal and the superintendent of schools are the persons who 
embody mainly this social control so far as the children of 
school age are concerned. They are entitled, in order to carry 
out effectively the work they do, to insist upon the same degree 
of respect and obedience as the state police in the rural dis- 
tricts insist upon from the population as a whole. (Stephen G. 
Rich, in the Educational Review ) 

We stop only to ask why teachers, etc. should not re- 
ceive the same sort of respect and obedience which the city 
policeman receives from the populace of the city. May it 
be hecause city dwellers have got beyond the stage of "re- 
spect and obedience"? Sample No. 2: 

One of the greatest difficulties, today, of the employer is to 
secure men who know their trades. There are many young 
men who have a smattering of information regarding some 
line of work and still are not practical workmen in any line. 
These men in making application for work will state that they 
can do "anything." When closely questioned they usually have 
to admit that there is nothing that they can really do well. 
This is wholly due to the fact that they have left school and 
taken up the first job which offered itself without any view 
to preparation of fitness. (Poughkeepsie Star) 

The question might be asked, of course, as to how long 
a young man would have to stay in school in order to be- 
come proficient in some trade. But the question might 
prove embarassing. 

TN contrast with this sort of "thinking" the following 
* statement from the annual report of George B. Masslich, 
superintendent of the Chicago and Cook County School 
for Boys, is greatly reassuring: 

Military training has often been suggested as a means of 
governing the boys but it would seem that the disadvantages 
far outweigh the advantages, in that it seeks blind obedience 
rather than individual initiative. In his short stay here a 
boy's informal conduct toward employes and school mates 
brings to light the weak and strong traits of character and 
temperament that determine his chances of returning as a 
more law abiding individual to the society from which he came. 
To the boy who has smoked cigarettes for years their prohi- 
bition calls forth and demonstrates his will power. The bully 
thinks to continue his tactics, the shirker to escape work by 
doing it poorly, the mentally lazy to hang back in the class 
room; but the constant supervision of family instructors and 
teachers makes it less easy than formerly, with the result that 
practically every boy exerts an effort, greater or less, to con- 
form to a more social procedure. The extent of this effort 
shows whether or not he is profiting by his stay and whether 
or not he should be returned to home on parole. It can be 
truthfully said that these boys as a group are anti-social. Not 
a few have found their homes intolerable and have run away 
or staid away. Wanderlust, step-parents, poverty, laziness, 
inefficient parental care, misuse of leisure time, and the other 



well known elements have entered into the situation the simple 
fact standing out that these boys did not succeed at home. 
Some have made a failure of school, as evidenced by the fact 
that there is considerable retardation. Perhaps a fourth are 
mentally subnormal ', a few have come from communities that 
did not enforce the compulsory school attendance law; but the 
large remainder have disliked school and have been successful 
in escaping it. ... 

It is unfortunate that legitimate opportunities for ex- 
ploration and discovery seem so scarce. When the time 
shall come that the school budget of the nation shall ap- 
proach the war budget it may be possible to put into the 
elementary schools those opportunities for self-expression 
and development that many boys need and fail to find in 
their play and school environment. There is a measure 
of truth in the oft quoted statement that a boy needs to 
get into trouble before the school will give him its best. 



THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, Knights of the Ku 
Klux Klan, for the Realm of Texas, sent out in a recent 
"release" the following statement as "one of the many rea- 
sons" why the organization is needed in American life: "The 
prime purpose of this great Order is to develop character." 
We have never lived in a community where the character of 
its citizenship as a whole was what it should be. We believe 
that the development of real manly character is a vital need 
in every community. We know hundreds of men in the Klan 
whose characters have been materially and substantially im- 
proved through the influence, environment and teachings of 
the Klan. We also believe that all real Klansmen have a 
more profound sense of honor, higher ideals of morality, a 
keener appreciation of Christianity, a greater respect for law 
and constituted authority, and a broader vision of the duties 
of citizenship than they had before they became Klansmen. The 
Klan by its high ideals, noble sentiments and sacred principles 
inculcates and cultivates a manly desire to be better, cleaner 
men; morally, mentally, physically and spiritually. The citizens 
of every community, and especially the young men, need just 
such moral, spiritual and patriotic training, environments and 
influence as the Klan affords. It is a great character builder 
because of its high ideals, noble purposes and sacred senti- 
ments. Every Klansman, by the presence of the cross, is 
constantly reminded that he has accepted Christ as his cri- 
terion of character and the Twelfth Chapter of Romans as 
his Law and Life." For some reason, the public reputation of 
the Klan does not seem to have been developed out of these 
professions of their noble purposes. 

THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR CHILD DE- 
VELOPMENT, an association of labor men and women, 
educators and parents, has been organized in New York City. 
Its purpose is to develop, within the general field of interest 
of labor, groups of boys and girls, after the fashion of the 
Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts, but with programs that seem 
to the leaders more in keeping with the present social and 
industrial aspirations of humanity. A summer camp for 
children will be established at Pawling, N. Y., which will be 
open through July and August. Groups of boys and girls 
organized under the new plan are already being formed in 
connection with the Labor Temple, Walden School, Browns- 
ville Labor Lyceum, Harlem Educational Center, and at sev- 
eral other centers. The organization will eventually be na- 
tional in scope but experience will be sought in dealing with 
problems on a limited scale before branching out too widely 
into the country at large. The address of the organization 
is 70 Fifth Avenue. 



SOCIAL PRACTICE 



Is Your Town Fit for a Child? 

A robust program of community care to prevent delinquency 



r 



I 



HE most important 
work of the com- 
munity with refer- 
ence to juvenile delin- 
quency should be to prevent it. 
For the elements of a specific 
community program for preven- 
tion the following may be sug- 
gested : 

A school department bureau 
or conference for treatment of 
truancy, misconduct and be- 
havior maladjustments develop- 
ing in school life. This bu- 
reau should be in charge of a 
social worker who has had 
training and experience in treat- _ _ _ _ 

ing juvenile delinquency in light 

of modern methods. Truancy officers, compulsory education 
workers, and the administration of special schools should 
be controlled through this source, which should have access 
to expert medical, psychological and psychiatric services. 
The school should assume responsibility for a large part of 
the social conduct of its pupils; for example, vice-principals 
of girls in high schools of Rochester, New York, recently 
undertook to chaperone school girls who had been permitted 
by parents to attend public dance halls. The visiting teacher, 
the plastic curriculum, use of the project method, proper 
placement of children in school work, a growing respect for 
the child's personality, vocational guidance, are all needed 
factors in the social program of the school. 

Development in school of a sex hygiene program, is an 
educational problem that can no longer be denied. The 
modern child is in a blind fog of misinformation and super- 
stition. He is ignorant of fit names for the parts of the 
body, and the process of reproduction. He has no way of 
asking for clean information because he is not in possession 
of tools, the right words to ask. He does not hear the sex 
stories of the Bible. He must gain everything illicitly. He 
is without vocabulary, or clean knowledge. Certain facts 
may be taught him at home, but the task of acquiring a 
rational attitude toward sex must largely be fulfilled by the 
school. Much waste of energy could thus be avoided. As 
to what such a social hygiene program should include there 
is difference of opinion. 

The concept of family formation should be acquired in 
school. Sex instruction in the past has been based largely 
on requirements of individual virility, virtue and happiness. 
The youth is not taught the principles of forming a family; 
how much it costs, first and last, what are its social ad- 
vantages and disadvantages, what is expected of a family 



Here is no easy panacea for child delin- 
quency but a rounded statement of what 
a city or village can do to insure its child- 
ren an abundant and wholesome life, to 
protect them from obvious dangers, and 
to prepare them for a normal share in 
the common enterprise of living. It fol- 
lows Dr. Van Waters' program for the 
treatment of delinquency, published in 
the September Midmonthly; the more the 
purposes here set forth are realized, the 
less need there will be for "treatment." 
This too, is taken from Dr. Van Waters' 
book, Youth and Conflict, published 
this month. 



in modern civilization, what are 
the qualities of a good father, 
mother, brother, sister, or the 
indispensable attributes of a 
bachelor uncle; all these family 
matters could be profitably dis- 
cussed in the junior high schools, 
or wherever adolescents congre- 
gate. They are far more likely 
to be interested now than at some 
later time. This safety-valve of 
vigorous, critical discussion would 
ease some -of the tension and irri- 
tation of the average boy and girl 
toward his or her own family. 

A direct attack upon the prob- 
lem of training boys and girls of 

school age to understand infancy 

and childhood has been made by 

the Merrill-Palmer experiment in Detroit, under the leader- 
ship of Helen Thompson Wooley. Observing that behavior- 
patterns of the child are pretty well set by the time of school 
entrance, Dr. Wooley has organized a nursery school where 
actual training in handling problems of tiny children is given 
young students. Youth is the golden period for education in 
parenthood ; afterwards it is too late, and before that time the 
egotisms of childhood prevent. A plan whereby young girls 
and boys can see something beyond themselves, can be lifted 
to an objective level in study of human emotions is one of 
the surest and best ways, not only to prevent delinquency in 
the present generation, but to remove the soil of parental 
misunderstanding in which it flourishes. Dr. Wooley's ex- 
periment should be extended to other communities as rapidly 
as trained leadership can be secured. 

A S part of the public system (high schools, night classes 
^ -^ and state universities) there should be well rounded 
provision for training social workers. This should be a 
recognized vocation for which preparation may begin early 
in school life. Technical and professional schools for social 
workers would not be supplanted by these public school 
courses. The chief benefit derived would be an enlightened 
community understanding of problems of social work, which 
in turn would gain enormously from democratic infiltration. 
The larger program for community education for prob- 
lems of delinquency and social work would still have to be 
left to special groups. While all that increases knowledge 
of human nature and respect for personality will tend to 
prevent delinquency, there are specific areas of misinforma- 
tion that will have to be combatted. Delinquency as a com- 
munity product and a community responsibility must be 
faced squarely. Just as we are no longer indifferent if the 



94 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURl'EY 



child next do our own has diphtheria, so we must under- 
stand that to save any special class of children from delin- 
quency, all must be saved. 

Community control of public opinion through press, clubs, 
social agencies and business organizations should seek to re- 
strain profiteers in the faults of youth. Money making, or 
gaining personal advantage by the delinquency of juveniles 
should be under the ban of public disapproval. Only in this 
way can seemingly respectable lures for pleasure-loving 
young people be wiped out. 

Community education of well meaning adults who lack 
"common sense" is necessary. Those who "pick up" boys 
and girls at night, house them, give rides and shelter, money 
and meals, directly encourage delinquency. Their activity 
is usually sentimental ; they feel a glow of pride that they 
have "done a kid a good turn" : they listen uncritically to 
stories of abuse and misunderstanding, are too ready to be- 
lieve ill of parents, schools, public officials; after lavishing 
"sympathy" on the young adventurer, they turn him out of 
doors, or condemn him as a "fraud" in court. Quite other- 
wise is that searching spirit of responsibility which would 
accompany a child to his home, learn the facts, and apply 
skill and knowledge in solving the difficulty; if it exists. 

Adults who permit their houses or rooms to be used by 
unchaperoned boys and girls for rendezvous, or lend their 
automobiles promiscuously, or who are careless with valu- 
able personal property are undoubtedly not safeguarding the 
badly taught youth of today. Too great a strain should 
not be placed by the neighborhood on the discretion of chil- 
dren where parental control has already been weakened. 

The church as a guiding force in the life of youth should 
be the chief asset in a community program to prevent de- 
linquency. In many places it will form and direct a large 
part of the social life of the individual. If the church could 
forget its dissensions and concentrate on the spiritual wel- 
fare of the child, much that now passes for social work 
would be unnecessary. For the church to imitate economic 
or military groups in rivalry for membership, or to seek 
competition with amusements that enervate youth, is no 
substitute for its true function of supplying ethical and re- 
ligious guidance to youth. 

The community which is kindest to children goes on about 
its own affairs with vigor. A multitude of agencies for child 
welfare, playgrounds, day nurseries, protective societies, and 
censorships does not of itself indicate a happier or healthier 
childhood. Children thrive most where they are part of 
a busy community, interested in worth-while activities. They 
need to be let alone ; they love to observe and imitate skilled 
adults at their tasks. A neighborhood that loves children 
does not herd them all together on some public lot, but 
absorbs them into its life stream. The farm-life of early 
New England, the "conquest of the West" furnished chil- 
dren the vigorous participation in community affairs which 
they require. Whether Boy Scouts and Camp Fire Girls 
can succeed in creating artificial substitutes remains to be 
seen. Before adults can hope to reap a harvest of good chil- 
dren from such enterprises, they must devise natural ways 
of using their energy ; the essential thing is recognition of 
mutual dependence of child and adult, the necessity of 
living together. If old men group themselves exclusively 
together we have what Kempf attributes to arteriosclerosis ; 
war, secret diplomacy, economic tyranny ; if children con- 
gregate we have delinquency. No age-group can isolate 



itself without affectation or fanaticism. Organizations that 
leave the child out are useful for certain ends, but they tend 
to sterility. They are biologically unsound. 

The social worker ought to see the problem very clearly; 
of far more importance than social agencies and organiza- 
tions to care for special handicapped groups in the com- 
munity is the fostering of a healthy community spirit in 
which fathers, mothers and children share in work, recrea- 
tion and neighborhood projects. The modern phenomenon 
of groups of women playing bridge and mah jongg while 
groups of boys and girls have "petting parties," or expe- 
ditions to steal automobiles, and groups of men are organiz- 
ing a new club, secret society, or community drive, is defi- 
nitely related to the problem of juvenile delinquency. 

When it is time for the community to organize special 
protective societies for children, the disease is already pres- 
ent, and the social worker's task is to guide these enterprises 
into constructive channels. 

In every community there should be some specific organi- 
zation or committee to insure a clean press. A civic body 
composed of business men and women, the larger adver- 
tisers, newspaper publishers, a few socially minded parents, 
and social workers might meet together to form a program. 
The goal should be formation of public opinion and news- 
paper policy that would keep the press free of lurid stories 
of crime, sex delinquencies, divorce and personal scandal. 
There should be no attempt at censorship. Papers would 
print these same items of fact as news, but deliberate appeal 
to lust, blood, robbery and other anti-social impulses would 
not be so constantly stressed. 

Business men and women should be led to form groups 
for the moral safe-guarding of youth in industry. Com- 
mercial exploitation of youth's search for pleasure and ex- 
citement, unscrupulous hotels, places of amusement and the 
like, the habit of "kidding" young people employed in pub- 
lic service enterprises, lack of protecting the morals of 
adolescents as we now protect the safety of infants, all this 
can be controlled best by leaders of industry in the com- 
munity. Fraternal and economic organizations already show 
signs of awakened interest in boys and girls. Social work- 
ers should seize this opportunity for constructive protective 
measures for childhood. 

All clubs and social organizations should give a definite 
place in their programs to fostering social welfare. Upon 
them will fall, in communities where social work is pioneer- 
ing, the opportunity to create public opinion, and to foster 
enterprises already begun. While they do best when they 
devote their energies to some one movement, such as mental 
hygiene, travelers' aid, or Americanization, or deal with 
one group of clients, such as the wayward girl or boy, the 
special danger to be combatted is treatment of the handi- 
capped individual without reference to the family which 
produced him. If it be borne in mind that social work 
deals with creation and fostering of social relationship, and 
that the actual conduct of treatment should be directed by 
a well-trained, recognized social worker, clubs can be a 
vast constructive force in our American communities. 

In each community there should be a child-placing agency 
which controls the home finding and supervision of all young 
children who are in need of homes other than the parental 
one. Careless child placing is responsible for misery and 
delinquency to such a wide-spread extent, that no estimate 
is likely to tell the full tale. No community which places 



9 6 



THE S U R V E Y 



October 15, 



its children casually or adopts them indiscriminately can 
have a good conscience when its youth becomes delinquent. 

The mental hygiene movement should be established in 
the community that seeks to prevent delinquency, or to deal 
with disordered behavior. 

Protective groups should be organized to care for spe- 
cial types of handicapped persons, the travelers' aid socie- 
ties, juvenile protective associations, are of the greatest 
importance in a community program, and no constructive 
or preventive work on a comprehensive scale can be under- 
taken without them. 

No large community program can do effective work with- 
out a social service exchange, a non-political system of ad- 
ministering relief, and a loyal cooperative federation of 
social workers. The means of financing social work of 
the community must be worked out in each location. Of 
special value will be formation of qualified social workers 
into a professional group, such as the American Medical 
Association for physicians, or American Bar Association for 
lawyers. The American Association of Social Workers has 
local groups in a number of communities. 

Each community should formulate some plan for profes- 
sional training of social workers. Local persons could be 
sent to the great schools of social work in New York, Bos- 
ton, Chicago, Philadelphia and elsewhere. If necessary, 
several social agencies could combine and send one member 
for the purpose of learning adequate record keeping, or 
investigations, or social treatment, or whatever is most 
lacking in the social resource of the community. State uni- 
versities and colleges are gradually establishing schools or 
departments of social work. No community can afford to 
blunder along with make-shift social workers, any more than 
it can employ street sweepers to build the bridges on which 
lives depend. 

Training of social workers tends to develop stability of 
personnel. Changing personnel works hardships in treat- 
ment of juvenile delinquency where so much depends on 
establishing permanent social relationships. Continuity of 
treatment is desirable. Change, flux, drift, broken faith, 
unkept promises, situations that are unstable are agony to 
children whose own homes are so changing. When social 
workers can send their own roots deep into the soil of their 
chosen community, much can be accomplished. 

Any community which desires to prevent delinquency must 
provide recreation facilities for all the boys and girls. Camp, 
playgrounds, winter sports and club rooms, handcraft classes, 
drama leagues, fire-side industries, swimming pools, gym- 
nasia, nature clubs, all these and many more are needful in 
creating outlets for youth's leisure time. There should be 
no special trust in apparatus and organization ; the main 
thing is will to play on the part of the community as ex- 
pressed in a few vigorous personalities gifted in getting 
along with children. 

i 

THERE will be no serious blunders committed if in a 
community program a few clear, simple things are held 
constantly in view. There should be honesty and sim- 
plicity of approach. If a community lacks a given social 
device, it should not be content with any group of persons 
who apply some new label to their activities and proclaim: 
"Lo, here we have it!" Patient, enlightened construction 
is the only thing that counts. The child, at home, at 
school, in industry, on the streets, in olav. in court, police 



department, or social agency should stand out as the central 
theme of interest and love. 

No community program can run of itself. Nothing can 
endure, no institution, society or organization, unless the im- 
pulse that created it, builds up consciousness in other human 
beings that it must be cherished and developed, through 
days to come, against destructive forces of ignorance, malice, 
greed and indifference. 

Social achievement is not one act or a thousand ; it is a 
continued process. There should never come a time when 
a social worker points with pride and says: "See what I 
have built!" Even as he speaks walls are crumbling, and 
decay sets in. Self-complacency is not for social engi- 
neers, nor for artists who do social work. Nothing that 
matters will endure without constant human support. In 
social creations the only "safe" things are already . . . dead. 



ARE AMERICANS a nation of murderers? For the past 
few years there have been about nine thousand homicides a 
year in this country, according to the Metropolitan Life In- 
surance Bulletin, seventeen times the number which would 
have occurred if the homicide rate of England and Wales 
prevailed here. In Chicago alone in 1922 more homicides 
(228) were committed than in all of England and Wales (202) 
in that year. The company; which paid out nearly three- 
quarters of a million dollars in homicide claims alone in 1923, 
feels the need of a systematic study of the facts on police and 
judicial activity in such cases on the "epidemic" aspects of 
homicide, its seasonal and comparative geographic and racial 
characteristics, and has itself started a study of its own 
homicide cases. Satisfactory information could be obtained 
for only 146 of the 446 homicide cases in its records for the 
last six months of 1922. As a result of these 146 homicides, 
there were 35 sentences to the penitentiary, one parole, one 
fine, and one execution! Thirty-two cases were rated as 
"justifiable homicide," that is, death inflicted in self-defense 
or by an officer of the law in the line of duty. In only 69 
of the remaining 114 murder and manslaughter cases was an 
indictment brought; 58 came to trial, with a verdict of "not 
guilty" for 16 and one mis-trial. Of the 41 judged "guilty," 
35 are serving time with appeal pending in six cases, three 
are held for a new trial or pending appeal, one was paroled, 
one fined, one executed. 

CARRYING OUT Chapter 187 of the laws of 1924, New 
York state has organized a temporary commission "to inquire 
into and report upon the number, distribution, and condition 
of crippled children throughout the state, and the existing 
facilities and legal provisions for promoting the care, treat- 
ment, education and general welfare of such children, and to 
recommend means more adequate to meet their needs," report- 
ing to the legislature by February 15, 1925- 

In the meantime North Carolina has been completing 
a census of crippled children, carried out by the State Board 
of Charities and Public Welfare, and 400 of the 600 known 
crippled children in the state have already been examined dur- 
ing the course of eight clinics. Since January 1921 the state 
department of health of Illinois has conducted more than 350 
clinics for crippled children at forty-two points throughout 
the state. In all 8,228 patients were examined, and medical 
service was supplied for all who were unable to obtain it 
privately. Only 10 per cent of the children seen were placed 
in institutions. 



BOOKS 



IN OUR 
ALCOVE 



BY LEON WHIPPLE 



A DEPARTMENT EDITED 




Grace Before Meat 

WE hold that the human race can do some- 
thing about itself. Books can help. Hence, 
this Survey of Books. We have the ambi- 
tion to list all the books a student of society 
and a lover of men may want to know about, 
and we cherish the wilder notion of separating the good 
books from the bad. 

Now, books cannot help the race much unless the books 
are read, and as we breasted the flood of fall publications 
we felt there were enough books, but not enough readable 
ones. Here were amazing numbers and variety, erudition 
and wisdom, devotion and good intent, but here also was 
;an amazing neglect of the mere courtesy of being interest- 
ing. Too many of our authors on social progress seem to 
feel no real duty of being readable, they are concerned still 
less to make their books beautiful, and nothing at all to 
make them joyous. Our first idea of separating the books 
is into dull, or interesting. 

The lack of joy, of humour, of inner radiance is hard 
to understand. Here are messages about the loveliest hopes 
of humanity good health, finer children, domestic peace, 
the charm of fuller living and they are written with the 
graciousness noteworthy in the census reports . . . not, un- 
fortunately, with the clarity. 'All of these books have it in 
mind somehow to add to the world's happiness; yet lots 
of them go about the task like mutes at a funeral. They 
gibber statistics; they use words my mid-\vest youth called 
'"jaw-breakers" ; they are mazed in their own artificial cate- 
gories; they become pontifical, pompous and patronizing. 
The fine thought or the beneficent prescription is there : 
but the author dares you to find it ! 

We know that these books often deal with difficult tech- 
nical subjects, and that they are often written by men and 
women who, however devoted, were not trained for author- 
ship. Some, moreover, are interesting to the experts on 
their raw contents. But most of them would be more effi- 
cient if they were touched with the joy of living for after 
all technique is only a means to an end in more joyous living. 
We think joy means a sense of humility and humor, 
and we can't think the Englishman who calls his very useful 
book Reformatory Reform has even an English sense of 
humour. It is precise, precise as two scissor blades, but 
shades of Dickens, how foolish sounding, like "to tutor two 
tutors to toot." Do they send the reformatories to reforma- 
tories? Nearer home, our own Conference on the Christian 



Way of Life (not a very humble name itself!) issued a 
mad-sounding title A Cooperative Technique for Con- 
flict. This might be a treatise on international law, or the 
more widely-known codification of the rules of the game 
by the lamented Marquis of Queensberry, but it really .is a 
very practical guide-book to peaceable public discussion. But 
who'd guess it? 

Some authors for the common good do seek 'kick' in their 
titles. They put in either 'challenge' or 'creative,' (and 
often leave them out of the book;). Yet they have a sense 
of detonating intellectual TNT with these two words, and 
some folks would die happy if they could call a book The 
Challenge of Creative Behaviorism to the Envisaging Order. 
Yet people are trying to be simple and human in their books 
because they believe that social work must be simple and 
human in fact. Take Karl de Schweinitz's new book 
The Art of Helping People Out of Trouble. There is 
color and hopefulness, and, withal, precision for it tells 
what social workers really ought to be after. It is far more 
ambitious than a challenge. For it claims their task as an 
art, and sets up the impossible dream of helping people. It's 
a better book than had it been tabbed is if in a card-index 
The Technique of Case-Work in Family Welfare. 

So, if you ask us "How'll you have your books?" we 
respond heartily "Sunny side up, please!" 



Social Statesmanship and the 
Candidates 



A Close-up of Coolidge 

THE PREPARATION OF CAI.VTN COOLIDGE, bv Robert A. Woods. 
Houghton, MifHin & Co. 290 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of The Survey. 

ANY study of Calvin Coolidge published at this time 
will be looked upon as a campaign document. So it 
is not surprising that twenty thousand paper-bound copies 
of Mr. Wood's book are to be distributed in the Republican 
campaign. Yet, unlike many campaign documents, the book 
is unusual. It is a study in character, not in any sense a 
biography. The author, whose name is well known to 
social workers throughout the country, has endeavored to 
interpret the development of the President's character. 

As a college class-mate of Mr. Coolidge, I am impressed 
with the accuracy of the author in portraying the atmos- 



97 



9 8 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1924 



phere of New England and the Amherst background in 
which the President grew up, and which has had such a 
lasting influence upon his career. Mr. Woods evidently 
had access to material not hitherto available. Considerable 
attention is given to the President's early public life and acts 
in his home city of Northampton. We have the author's 
interpretation of the story of his progress as a public man, 
given at close range, with the people of Northampton as 
the true answer to the question as to wherein the present 
strength of the man lies. There follows the account of h : s 
activities as a state representative and senator, and finally 
as governor of Massachusetts- a record of slow but steady 
progress made as the result of painstaking hard work. 

New light is thrown upon the attitude and accomplish- 
ments of Mr. Coolidge in social betterment work. One 
who knows of the President only since he has become a 
national figure will be surprised at the long list of definitely 
accomplished acts to his credit in these earlier years. His 
early struggles to obtain anti-monopoly legislation, his fight 
for the bill restricting the powers of the courts to issue in- 
junctions, his sponsoring of the widows' pension bill, and 
of the bills for limiting the hours of labor for women and 
children and for reduced railroad fares for working people, 
all show a strong desire to improve the living conditions of 
the average man. The story of the ratification of the pro- 
hibition amendment, and Mr. Coolidge's part therein are 
especially interesting. 

One wonders that so much space is given to the story of 
the famous Boston police strike and the part that the then 
Governor Coolidge took in it. Perhaps the author felt that 
this was necessary in view of the amount of attention his 
intervention has received. To the reviewer, however, it 
seems to have 'been the only thing for a man of Mr. Cool- 
idge's previous record to have done under the conditions. 
On the other hand, the record of his part, as governor, in 
the reorganization of the state departments shows a side 
of the man that is not so well known. 

The chapters devoted to his life as mayor of Northamp- 
ton and as governor are in- 
structive also as studies in 
the development of executive 
ability. Here is depicted a 
strength of character that 
had been steadily mounting 
so that in these positions new 
and difficult problems ap- 
peared to be handled with 
increasing ease. 

The book is very readable 
and makes a definite appeal 
to thoughtful students. The 
author is evidently a great 
admirer of the President, but 
he writes with a spirit of 
open frankness and a mani- 
fest desire to be absolutely 
fair. So one who reads the 
book with care cannot help 
feeling that irrespective of 
any personal feeling, here is 
depicted a man who would 
leave any public office that 
I"- might occupy with a re- 



cord of strengthening all the better tendencies in govern- 
mental affairs, and of having destroyed or weakened the 
things evil. 

While this book shows some evidence of hasty prepara- 
tion, its inherently good qualities are likely to make it one 
that will outlive the present situation. 

Lucius EASTMAN 



In the Jeffersonian Manner 

THE LIFE OF TOHN W. DAVIS, by Theodore A. Huntley. Duffield. 
260 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of The Survey. 

STUDENTS of sociology must feel a special interest in 
a campaign biography of a candidate. But in the nature 
of the case such books, written by friends and admirers, are 
a presentation of those facts about the candidate that the 
authors believe will attract voters. 

Mr. Huntley was a "John W. Davis man" before the . 
Democratic convention met. So he is not only a historian 
carefully studying old files of the Congressional Record, of 
court calendars, and newspapers ; he also hopes to 'be a vote- 
getter. His book, therefore, is more than an account of 
the life of John W. Davis in this case a very readable ac- 
count for it is to some extent a revelation of what 
qualities in a presidential candidate, Mr. Huntley thinks 
the people want. 

Considerable space is given to the candidate's antecedents 
and childhood. A very good case is made for the legitimacy 
of his "Jeffersonian Democracy." The description of the 
candidate's father, "John J." is quite the most charming 
part of the book. The story of "John J's" fight against 
"monopoly" and his final defeat by "the moneyed interests" 
reads like a political romance of the insurgent days of 1910. 
The picture is vivid of the gallant old gentleman, fighting 
a losing fight for the preservation of the ideals of Jefferson, 
against the growing industrialism of northern West Vir- 
ginia. It was in the midst of this struggle that the candi- 
date grew up. He did not 
acquire his theories of gov- 
ernment at, or after college, 
he learned them at home. 

Mr. Huntley also gives 
considerable space to "the 
Debs incident." There is 
no court record to show that 
John W. Davis ever defend- 
ed either Eugene Debs or 
"Mother" Jones, but there is 
record that he was attorney 
for a group of miners im- 
prisoned on injunction pro- 
ceedings, at the time of "the 
Debs incident." There is an 
anecdote about the candidate 
in this connect'on, which, 
unfortunately, Mr. Huntley 
did not know. Shortly after 
his nomination, he was asked 
if he remembered these labor 



First Aid for Voters 

OUR CHIEF MAGISTRATE, HIS POWERS, by William H. 

Taft. Columbia University Press. 
THE PREPARATION OF CALVIN COOLIDGE, by R. A. 

Woods. Houghton Mifflin (Reviewed p. 97). 

THE LIFE OF CALVIN COOLIDGE, by Horace Green. Duffield. 
CAL COOLIDGE, by Whiting Edward Elivell. W. A. Wilde. 

THE LIFE OF JOHN W. DAVIS, by Theodore H. Huntley and 

Horace Green. Duffield. 

DAWES, by Carl Akerman, Bra Publications 
AUTOBIOGRAPHY, by Robert M. La Follette 
YOU TAKE YOUR CHOICE, by Clinton W. Gilbert. Putnam. 
MEN AND ISSUES, by George H'harton Pepper. Duffield. 
AMERICAN PROBLEMS, by William E. Borah. Duffield. 
WHAT LAFOLLETTE'S STATE IS DOING, by Chester C. 

Platt. Bataria Times Press, ff. Y. 
NATIONAL PARTY PLATFORMS, d" Kirk H. Porter. Mac- 

THE "POLITICAL PARTIES OF TODAY, by Arthur N. Hoi- 

combe. Harper. 
POLITICAL PARTIES AND ELECTORAL PROBLEMS, by 

Robert C. Brooks. Harper. 
THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES, by 

Edgar E. Robinson. Harcourt. Brace. 

A HISTORY OF POLITICAL IDEAS, by C. R. Morris. Putnam. 
NON-VOTING: CAUSES AND CONTROL, by Charles E. Mer- 

riam and Harold F. Gosnell. University of Chicago Prets. 
THE CITIZEN'S BUSINESS, by William Allen White. Mac- 

THE GREAT GAME OF POLITICS, by Frank R. Kent. Doublc- 

PERSONALITY IN POLITICS. REFORMERS. BOSSES AND 

LEADERS, by W. B. Murfo. Macmitlin 
THE PASSING OF POLITICS, by William Kay Wallace. Mac- 

miUan. 
A DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN POLITICS, bv EdyirJ C. 

Smith. A. L. Burt. 



cases. 



Yes, ["he said.] It was. as 
far as I know, the first t-'me 



October 15, 1924 



THE SURREY 



99 



my name was ever mentioned in a New York newspaper. I 
was young enough to get quite a thrill out of it. A number of 
New York newspaper men were down there covering the 
strike. One of them liked my plea for the miners so much 
that he telegraphed part of it to his paper. I'll never forget 
reading the account my name in a New York paper! I was 
so pleased that I looked up the reporter. It was the be- 
ginning of a friendship. I met him later in Congress. He was 
Henry George, Jr., son of the single-taxer, and, [he added, 
with an amused smile,] the paper was Hearst's. 

There is considerable humor in the thought that John 
\V. Davis \vas first introduced to New Yorkers as a de- 
fender of labor by Mr. Hearst. 

After Davis's election to Congress, the record becomes 
official and not so vivid as the stories of his family and youth 
in Clarksburg. Mr. Huntley has made a careful resume of 
the record, as congressman, solicitor general of the United 
States, and ambassador. This record, it is conceded by his 
opponents, even in the heat of a campaign, is one of brilliant 
public service. 

The second part of this volume is made up of extracts 
from the public utterances of Mr. Davis, before his nomina- 
tion. This has been compiled by Horace Green, the general 
editor of this series of volumes on contemporary statesmen. 
The selections confirm the characterization of the man in 
Mr. Huntley 's study. ARTHUR BULI.ARD 

LaFollette by Himself 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY, by Rjbert M. LnFotlctte. Published by the author. 
807 ff. Price $1.50 postpaid of The Surrey. 

I WISH that every voter were sufficiently open-minded 
to read LaFollette's autobiography before election. 
It is impossible not to be impressed with this Personal 
Narrative of Political Experience. Names, documents, con- 
firmations of every sort cover the pages. And these make 
revelations of which the average voter, man or woman, has 
little knowledge. It is an absorbing record, from the pic- 
ture of the Wisconsin log-cabin birthplace of LaFollette 
this is America's last chance to have a long-cabin birthplace 
for a president! on to the final paragraph of the book: 

I believe, with increasing depth of conviction, that we will 
one day . . . reclaim and preserve not only the forms but the 
spirit of our free institutions. 

'Both in its political philosophy, which is slowly being 
echoed round the world, and in its narrative, the book will 
be a storehouse of treasure to the future student of politics. 

For here are opened to the public two laboratories: One 
is in Wisconsin where was tried out much of the forward- 
looking legislation of the day- physical valuation of the rail- 
roads, railroad rate legislation, the preferential primary, the 
limiting and making public of campaign expenditures, the 
legislative reference library, the whole area of labor legisla- 
tion eventuating in the Industrial Commission, with its 
pou'er to enforce the law. And in all these victories for 
the public, Governor LaFollette was the "moving spirit"- 
an expression of peculiar richness and applicability in this 
instance. 

The other laboratory was Washington and the stories 
of attempts and successes at holding private control of na- 
tional resources and the necessities of life are stories to 
which constant students of these conditions are not always 
even yet alive. His part in the last session of Congress, 
with respect to oil and taxation is fresh in mind. But it was 
back in the go's that, as congressman, LaFollette succeeded 
in keeping from the railways grants of hundreds of acres 



of Dakota Indian Reservation land. And it was in 1903 
that as Senator he was crying for public control of Alaska 
mineral lands. 

His espousal of the cause of working children and work- 
ing women, of the men who follow the hazards of the sea 
and of the railroad is part of the legislative record of the 
last two decades. The 1924 chapter has yet to be added 
to his book ; but whatever it may be, the gallant record will 
stand. If one can detach oneself now, as will the student 
of the future from the sound and fury of the day, one 
will see this record as one of the important documents of 
the political history of the United States. And as one of 
its finest prophecies. ZONA GALE 

Chacun a Son Gout 

"YOU TAKE YOUU CHOICE." by Clinton W . Gilbert. Putnam's. 
255 pp. Price $2.;0 postpaid of The Surrey. 

MR. GILBERT had it in mind to be honest about our 
candidates. He is tired of myth-making journalism. 
He also had it in mind to astound the bourgeoisie which 
he does by the simple, but sure-fire, device of telling the 
truth. The result is a series of sketches of the presidential 
aspirants, filled out with some silhouettes of their satellites. 
The penetrant and reportorial Mr. Gilbert is as brilliant 
and amusing as he was in "The Mirrors of Washington," 
and he also cuts deeper into character and national psy- 
chology. He will shock some by his superficial cynicism of 
a journalist, and he will tickle the groundlings by his ap- 
parent indiscretions the seeming confidential gossip of one 
in the know. He will delight everyone who is aweary of 
campaign hokum and the manufacture of verbal haloes for 
these gentlemen who really have not become supermen just 
because they are seized with a passion to be President. In- 
deed, our author hints that because they want to, or have 
a chance to, become President is reason for suspecting they 
are not supermen. He says: "One never becomes President 
to whom you apply the word 'too'." 

The earnest seeker after a judgment as to which of these 
men will do the most for social betterment, if elected, will 
find little of records or programs. ( Mr. Gilbert does add 
the LaFollette platform as evidence of the kind of man 
he is describing.) We do get what is in the long run more 
useful an appraisal of the man's insides . . . not what he 
promises, but what he is. 

Mr. Coolidge, for example, is psycho-analyzed under the 
label given him by a fellow legislator in Massachusetts: 
"He is like a singed cat, better than he looks." This singed 
cat sense our omni-present friend, the inferiority complex 
has made Coolidge cautious, humble, and developed 
strength as does a weak heart from the effort to compensate. 
He is a conservative because he hasn't too much vitality. 
He is frugal of words, unlike Mr. Harding who "had gusto, 
very bad gusto, but still gusto" and "who loved words not 
wisely, but too well." He has faith in our institutions, 
in democracy, and an old-fashioned sense of morality. He 
is a "good man." But he takes us back to the Adamses, 
and "he has a hereditary instinct to stick close to what is, 
to distrust change and movement." The social worker gets 
an idea of what he may expect from Coolidge, whether of 
help to democratic decency, or resistance to innovating ideas. 

The study of Davis seems to me the best done, and in 
essence, most informative. Instead of telling what the man 
is, he puts him in his place. He describes the milieu and 



100 



THE SURREY 



October 1$, 1924 



success of this "sweetly reasonable, fair-haired boy" so that 
anybody who knows anything of American life can tell what 
he believes, and how he will react to new things. His pro- 
gress from congressman, through the Solicitor-General's of- 
fice (when the Supreme Court judges fairly hovered over 
him) to become Ambassador to England, and return with 
the pick of any legal affiliation he wanted to make and end 
up as senior partner in Mr. J. P. Morgan's law firm with 
a retainer rumored to be $350,000 a year well, implies Mr. 
Gilbert, he's that kind of a man. And adds the critic, "I 
think he won't find the economic or class issue at all to his 
liking." 

Mr. LaFollette has always "been at odds with the world. 
. . . He does not act in the accepted manner." This is a way 
of saying that LaFollette's key is individualism his own 
"dour, stand-offish, lonely individualism" and his "regressive 
Progressive" individualism as a philosophy against monopoly 
and interests. Gilbert declares that LaFollette is probably 
"of greater political ability than either of his rivals . . . 
and a man of purest personal and political character." But 
there is something of the actor about him, and he is obsti- 
nate and intractable. Here Mr. Gilbert has some illumin- 
ating ideas about what is a Progressive and the meaning 
of the new orientation of labor in the third party. 

The lesser lights are limned tellingly, if briefly. Charley 
Bryan is a "born shop-keeper"; Dawes a banker by nature 
and a player of the fiddle by taste who is so instinctively 
regular that he seems fresh and devilish ; Wheeler, a Mon- 
tana fighter, "rough," and acting on the gun-man's maxim 
"He'll get me if I don't get him first." Perhaps the epi- 
grams and labels are too facile and a bit o'er smart, but 
we think a voter may well get more light on his choices from 
these studies than from all the official biographies. Cer- 
tainly he will have a chuckling time, and a naughty sense 
of sophistication. W. 

Partners in Creation 

CREATIVE EXPERIENCE, by M. P. Follett. Longmans, Green & 
Co. 303 pp. Price $3.00 postpaid of The Survey. 

WHEN the review copy of Creative Experience reached 
the Survey, a distinguished philosopher advised the 
editors to assign it to a recognized expert. "That book," he 
said, "is either exceptionally important or it is glorious 
nonsense; in either case it calls for authoritative appraisal." 
While the other editors pursued the experts I read the 
book. Then I re-read it and read it again. I am far from 
possessing an expert's equipment for such a verdict as the 
distinguished philosopher had in mind. Yet I asked for 
the privilege of writing this review because, having shared 
the experience of social workers in family relief and re- 
habilitation, in hospitals and dispensaries, in rural com- 
munities, in mining camps and factories, I wanted to share 
with them the exhilaration, delight and rare illumination 
which I myself have derived from Miss Follett's essay. 
Her thinking has electrified my own. My relationship to 
the community, the relationship of the individual to society 
and of society to the individual, the nature of the conflict 
between racial and national groups, between capital and 
labor, between the expert and the people, between govern- 
ment and the governed, the possibility of converting conflict 
into an integrative force, she has charged with fresh sig- 
nificance. 

I call Creative Experience an essay because, while it is 



a 'volume of three hundred pages, it does not dogmatize; 
its declarative ardor is the incandescence of intense experi- 
mental thinking; latent in its most positive affirmations is 
the spirit of open-minded scientific enquiry the appeal to 
the reader to establish a "circular response" with the author 
and so consciously to share in the creative process. "We 
seek reality in experience. . . . All human intercourse 
should be the evocation by each from the other of new 
forms undreamed of before. . . . The test of the validity 
of any social process is whether this is taking place between 
one and another, between capital and labor, between nation 
and nation. . . . Release, evocation evocation by release, 
release by evocation this is the fundamental law of the 
universe." 

The object of Miss Follett's book is "to suggest that 
we seek a way by which desires may interweave, that we 
seek a method by which the full integrity of the individual 
shall be one with social progress." When she speaks of 
the individual she does not mean the elect and superior 
individual of the intelligence tests ; she means all individuals. 
When she speaks of social progress she does not mean the 
world domination of the Nordics, or Semites, or Mongols; 
she means the consciously controlled evolution of an inclusive 
world civilization. The method she seeks is one by which 
through the deliberate interrelating, interweaving, integra- 
tion of our diverse ideas, opinions, purposes, desires, we get 
"plus values," for "we are creating each other all the time." 
This is the continuing miracle of self-governing existence, 
that when mind freely meets mind a "circular response" 
is established through which ideas, purposes, desires neither 
cancel one another, nor prevail over one another, but through 
integration create new and freshly dynamic ideas, "forms 
undreamed of before." The bearing of this conception 
upon disputes between individuals, upon conflicts between 
groups, classes, nations, is tremendous. Not destruction, 
but interrelating and creative integration, is progress. "The 
confronting of diverse desires, the revealing of values; the 
consequent revaluation of values, a uniting of desires which 
we welcome because it means that the next diversity will 
emerge on a higher social level this is progress." 

The discovery of the method depends upon the preliminary 
discovery of the nature of the creative process itself. Miss 
Follett's initial illustration of the barriers that inhibit the 
circular response through which, when the channels of 
interrelation are free, "we create one another," strikes home 
to the core of social work. The warrant for the social 
worker's existence is that he is an expert in some field of 
human activity. It is his business to bring an expert knowl- 
edge of the facts and a scientific technique to bear upon 
the problems of the family, of community organization, of 
individual conduct and public policy as they affect the satis- 
faction of human needs. How often has it not been declared 
that the success or failure of democracy depends upon the 
capacity of the people to avail themselves of the skill of 
the expert, to learn the wisdom of obedience to expert 
guidance? Is that not the general tenor of the doctrine? 
Is it not this certain condescension in the expert that has 
evoked the popular josh: "I aint askin' you; I'm tellin' 
you"? Is this courtly arrogance not implicit in the doctrine 
known as the consent of the governed? Here is the crux 
of a paramount problem in our struggle toward democracy. 
"To divide society on the (Continued on page 102) 



Social Studies 




Conducted by 

Joseph K. Hart 



Trends of the Time 



PESSIMISTIC readers of the daily news are inclined 
to say that "the world is a dolt." Less pessimistic 
ones do not care to go quite that far; but they agree 
with Mr. Weller in his opinion that "the law is a ass." 
Evidence for both these opinions can be found in this issue 
of The Survey; especially for the second opinion. Certainly 
the law that can find "benevolence unconstitutional" has much 
to answer for; and the court that can make no use of the 
growing intelligence of the world along psychological and 
psychiatric lines is in need of help. 

But, on the other hand, there is much evidence that groups 
and individuals, all over the land, are not bound by the 
inertias, the stagnations and the reverence for ancient acci- 
dents that characterize some of our institutions and our 
institutionalized minds. Boston may be a state of mind, but 
Boston knows how to change an occasional corner of her mind, 
anyhow. Sheffield, England's great industrial center, has found 
out that not only can steel be bought by the pound, but that 
health, also, can be secured at an established rate per pound. 
The spirit of adventurous intellectual inquiry is making head- 
way, here and there, against the old inertias, the old stagna- 
tions and the old reverences for the merely accidental in habit 
and custom. Organization is turning new intelligence into 
new control. This is perfectly normal and natural. We are 
learning how to escape from the drifts of the past; we are 
learning how to build new ways nearer to our needs and to 
our hearts' desires. 

Here is evidence that the world is going backwards; that the 
world is going forward; that the wqrld is standing still. Here 
are programs to be fought; programs to be aided; programs 
to be ignored. Here is current history a cross-section of our 
times, with materials that will make us happy; that will make 
us sad; that will leave us cold. One great need of our 
times is that individuals, everywhere, should actually come 
to feel the pull and haul of these cross-currents of events. 

Here is some evidence, then, from the life of our times. 
In Alice in Wonderland, the queen suggested that the jury 
bring in its verdict and then examine the evidence. That's 
an interesting method. Here's a better. Here is the evidence. 
May it get to the reader and student in time to be of use 
before the verdict has been decided upon! 



ANALYTIC INDEX 

1. Child Welfare: 

Feeding infants, p. 88 

The Child Labor Amendment, pp. 76, 78 

Crippled children in New York, p. 96 

Child welfare in the courts, p. 71 

The child and the community, p. 91 

Juvenile delinquency and the community, p. 94 ff 

2. Family Welfare: 

Old age and state pensions, p. 70 f 
Homes for the aged, p. 71 

3. Law and Lawbreakers: 

Murder in America, p. 96 
Psychiatry in the court room, p. 74 ff 
The court and the aged poor, p. 69 
Prison reform, p. 72 f 



4. Conquest of Disease: 

The open window, p. 88 
Curing preventable diseases, p. 86 
Unfounded programs in medicine, p. 103 

5. Promotion of Health: 

Goiter and the public health, p. 89 
Boston's health league, p. 86 
Health by the pound, p. 85 

6. Mental Hygiene: 

Does psychiatry mean anything? p. 74 f 
Is religion normal? p. 1O2 

7. Organizing Social Forces: 

For the Child Labor Amendment, p. 78 
Unconstitutional benevolence, p. 69 
Stagnant social agencies, p. 72 
The national conference, p. 73 
Sheffield's efforts, p. 85 
Boston's health program, p. 86 

8. Town Planning: 

Giant power and the future city, p. 84 

9. City Communities: 

City and country antagonisms, p. 91 

What is religion? p. 102 

How Sheffield has organized, p. 85 

10. Cuontry Communities: 

Giant power and the American community, p. 84 
Life in "Smithdale," p. 90 f 

11. Immigration and Race Relations: 

The International Migration Service, p. 77 

12. School and Community: 

Adjustment rooms in Los Angeles, p. 93 
Need of vocational education, p. 94 
Catching cold in school, p. 88 
A new "community school," p. 91 f 
Reorganizing the school of a small village, p. 90 f 
Educational problems, p. 105 

13. Education outside the School: 

How courts educate the public, p. 75 
How disease educates the public, p. 85 
Pioneer life in Smithdale, p. 90 f 
The K. K. K. as educator, p. 93 
What people think about education, p. 93 
Community educational forces, p. 95 

14. Industrial Conditions: 

Industrial conditions north and south, p. 79 ff 
Wages, old age and the courts, p. 70 
Unemployment problems, p. 76 
The child labor problem, p. 78 

15. Industrial Relations: 

Scientific management, p. 82 

The extension of giant power, p. 84 

16. Social Invention in Industry: 

The technic of conflict and integration, p. 99 
What shall be done with giant power? p. 84 
A new Boston center of social contacts, p. 77 

17. Peace and International Relations: 

The International Management Conference, p. 82 f 
Immigration perplexities, p. 77 

101 



102 



THE SURVEY 



October 15, 1024 



New Works in_ Criminology 

THE CRIMINAL AS A 
HUMAN BEING 

By GEORGE S. DOUGHERTY 

Formerly Deputy Commissioner and Chief of Detectives 
in the New York 1'olice Department 

As an expert detective Mr. Dougherty has acquired an 
intimate knowledge of criminals, of how and why crimes 
are committed. In this fascinating volume, he discusses 
the various types and methods of criminals and the 
skilled detective's manner of working, and tells what 
he has found mast successful in combating crime, the 
knack of treating the criminal a? a human being, 

$2.00 

KEYS TO CROOKDOM 

By GEORGE C. HENDERSON 

The actual methods of professional criminals are revealed 
in presenting the problems of crime and its solution. The 
methods of yeggs, pickpockets, automobile bandits, forg- 
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their trades, are considered in the most intimate detail. 
This intensely interesting book cannot but have a sal- 
irtarv efect in giving the general public an exact under- 
standing of the problems of crime today. Illustrated. 

$3-oo 

At All Booksellers 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY 
35 West 32nd Street New York 



THE ART OF HELPING 

A course of lectures on Social Case Work, Intended for those who. as 
committee and board members and other volunteers of social agencies, are 
making Important decisions regarding the welfare of human beings. Given 
In 1923-4 under the auspices of the New York Charity Organization Society, 
and published by the Association of Volunteers in Social Service. I ntended 
for me b'y study groups of volunteers. 

Cloth. $1.00. 
Order from Mr*. E. W. Qeer. Room 300. 105 Eart 22nd St.. New York. 



RAND 
SCHOOL 



Courses beginning 

Nov. 10. 8:30 p. m. Marius Hansome 

"TMe World We Uve In" 
Nov. 13. 7:00 p. m. Scott Nearinj 

"Current Opinion" 
Nov. 15, 11 a. m. ajid 1:30 p. m. Scott Nearhu; 

"Sociology and Current History" 
7 East 15th Street NOT. 14, 8:30 p. m. Herman Epstein 

"With the Great Composers ' 

Saturday afternoon lectures, Morris Hillduit. John Langdon-Davies, J. p. 
Horrabln, Clarence Darrow, Vint Laughland 



"MODERN HOME EQUIPMENT" 

Our new booklet is a carefully selected lit 
of the practical equipment needed in an 
average-sized home. It is invaluable, alike to 
new and to experienced housekeepers already 
in its fourth edition. It considers in turn the 
kitchen, pantry, dining room, general cleaning 
equipment and the laundry, and gives the price 
of each article mentioned. 

Ask for Booklet S it will be sent postpaid. 

LEWIS & CONGER 

45th Street and Sixth Avenue, New York City 



Partners in Creation 

(Continued from page 100) 

one side into the expert and the governors basing their gov- 
ernment on their reports, and on the other the people consent- 
ing, is, 1 believe," says! Miss Follett, "a disaster-courting 
procedure." So long as the expert is regarded or regards 
himself as "someone who knows absolutely and can tell us 
what to do,'' the circular response between him and us is in- 
hibited and the process by which he might create us while we 
create him fails to operate as an electric current fails when 
the circuit is broken. Facts, expert knowledge, are immensely 
important. "When for lack of facts you and I are responding; 
to a different situation. if I think I am looking at a black 
snake and you think it is a fallen branch, our talk is merely 
chaotic." "Yet," as Justice Holmes says, "it is not the 
acquisition of facts that is important but learning how to 
make facts live . . . leap into an organic order, live and bear 
fruit." This leaping into organic order, this living and bear- 
ing fruit depends upon the use of facts, not to promulgate 
edicts, but to clear the ground of misconceptions, to make 
straight the way of the circular response through which the 
experience of all of us may integrate and so become creative. 
This is the nature of the creative process. 

I do not know whether this "most fundamental thought that 
reaction is always reaction to a relating," that the relating 
is the essence of the creative process, is original with Miss 
Follett or not. That is after all irrelevant. I recall that in 
the introduction to her earlier essay, The New State, she 
said that much of the book had come to her by wireless. I 
also recall that Haldane, Lord Chancellor of England, having 
asked her to let him write "a few pages introductory to the 
next issue of your book," declared that she had explored her 
subject "with a learning and grasp which it would be difficult 
to surpass." Such a tribute I am not qualified to bring to the 
author of Creative Experience. My desire has been to en- 
courage Survey readers to share in an exhilarating spiritual 
adventure, in which all of the problems that confront social 
workers and socially minded folk generally take on new sig- 
nificance. Here the individual, the group, the courts, the law, 
classes, nations, diverse desires, conflicting purposes cease to be 
discrete and irreconcilable entities and appear as living strands 
on the loom of time whose interweaving we can guide, whose 
pattern we can control. I wanted to write this review because 
for me the reading of Miss Pollen's book has in itself been 
a creative experience. ROBERT W. BRUERE 

Is Religion a Psychosis? 

THE MYSTERY OF RELIGION, fcv Everett Dean Martin. Harper & 
Brothers. 391 pp. Price $3.00 postpaid of The Survey. 

TV/F R- MARTIN is perhaps the first writer to place before 
^- the general public in readable form a compendium of 

the facts concerning religion which have heretofore been the 
exclusive property of the psychoanalyst. His general thesis is 
that religion, far from being super-ordained, or established in 
concepts of dogma or moral law, is an internal necessity of 
the religiously-minded individual. It is a quasi-normal form 
of release or resolution of those conflicts which in the true 
psychoneurotic take expression through the pathological be- 
havior of hysteria. Upon a mass scale it becomes a sort of 
benign social psychosis. Although this view removes all trans- 
cendental sanction from religion, it by no means lessens the 
value and significance of religion for life. Religious thinking, 
according to Martin, is a kind of special pleading or rational- 
isation to give logical support to the scheme whereby one lifts 
himself above infantile love fixations. Salvation means recon- 
ciliation with the perfection of the childhood father image, from 
which one has been estranged by jealousy (Oedipus motive) 
and repression. This estrangement produces a conviction of 
sin (the repressed material) which religious conversion allevi- 
ates through a kind of transference to the divine paternal being. 
One may object, at this point, that Mr. Martin does 
not adequately consider differences of sex in his treatment of 
the particular conflicts which are presupposed. As with most 
generated applications of psychoanalytic principles to social 
phenomena there is a real danger of a superficial use of stock 



October 15, 1924 



T H E S U R V E Y 



103 



conflicts as categories of explanation. We need a more em- 
pirical approach than can be gained from a few biographic 
and introspective studies of famous religious y-ealots. A set 
of observations at the ''mourner's bench," combined with de- 
tailed and first hand psychoanalyses of the converts, with 
genetic data, family history and the like, would be required 
for a thorough scientific approach. Little can be said concern- 
ing the social phases until we know more detail of the relation 
of religious expression to conflict in particular individuals. 
Mr. Martin's book, however, stands as a most creditable intro- 
duction to a genuine- empirical study. 

Among the more successful chapters are those dealing with 
the symbolic nature of religious expression; the elements of 
regression to possession of and identification with the mother 
(baptism) ; the use of religion as a relief from attitudes of 
inferiority; and the various crowd factors, such as absolutism, 
intolerance, collective egotism, compensation, and projection 
which were developed in the author's earlier work The Be- 
havior of Crowds. The close similarity between the com- 
pulsive acts of the neurotic and the over scrupulous and ritual- 
istic morality of religion is significantly revealed. The treat- 
ment of redemption and the crucifixion dogma is neither clear 
nor convincing. 

Penetrating as it does into the very foundations of the fictions 
by which men and women live, and give moral valuation to 
the world they live in, The Mystery of Religion may be ex- 
pected to evoke a storm of objection in certain quarters. In 
the reviewer's opinion, however, the book in its essential mes- 
sage will stand the test. It is not so convincing as The Be- 
havior of Crowds : but that is to be expected since it pene- 
trates to a far deeper and more obscure level of human nature 
than does the latter work. It has the virtue, however, of being 
less dogmatic in assertion. FLOYD H. ALLPORT 

What Not to Know About Cancer 

CANCER: HOW IT IS CAUSKD: HOW IT CAN BE PREVENTED, 
by J, Ellis Barker. E. P. Patten Co. 17S />/>. Price $3.00 postpaid of 
The Survey. 

J\ T last the complete and final story, giving the horror and 
** mystery of cancer, exposing the despairing inadequacy of 
the scientists, and best of all telling us in more or less plain 
language, perfectly obvious and strangely simple, the real 
causes and the formula for personal prevention of cancer! 
A book one is tempted to put into the hands of the laity be- 
cause almost anyone with a modicum of common sense will 
see through the appearance of reasonableness in the argument 
and confute it from his own experience. 

This is as futile and mischievous a piece of would-be "pop- 
ular science" as has been issued to befog the searcher for 
self-protection in health. It presents an amazing mixture of 
self-assurance and unrelated guesses. The preface is full of 
specious reasons why trust should be put in the wisdom of 
the author, and the chapters that follow full of reasons why 
he is untrustworthy. He mistakes repetition of error for 
accumulated evidence. He claims to be presenting new data 
while obviously straining to use all the names and quotations 
fanciful discussion will bear. 

is story is much like this: I believe that 90 per cent of 
cers are due to poisoning of the body. If that is so prob- 

y the other 10 per cent are due to the same cause. There- 
e gg per cent or more of cancer is due to poisoning. Cancer 
been shown to be due to poisoning by arsenic, tar products, 

i!ine dyes after 10-30 years exposure. Constipation is a 

ronic ailment of many years duration and women suffer 
from it more than men. Therefore, the poisons, those much 
abused auto-intoxications, of constipation cause cancer and of 
course more women have it than men. Lack of vitamines dis- 
turbs digestion. Disturbed digestion leads to auto-intoxication 
and constipation. Hence devitaminized foods cause cancer, 
q. e. d. 

Sugar is used too much. Sugar causes fermentative indi- 
gestion. So, of course, it is in a way responsible for cancer. 
Hot baths are not used by many aborigines. These people are 
reported to have less cancer than so-called civilized people, 
therefore we'd better not take hot baths lest we develop cancer. 

As he suggests quite naively, (Continued on page 105) 




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The Preparation of 
CALVIN COOLIDGE 

By Robert A. Woods 

An intimate and illuminating study, written 
by a man eminent in social service; and 
stressing the aspects of the President's 
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Survey readers. $1.50 

THE ART OF 
HELPING PEOPLE 
OUT OF TROUBLE 

Karl de Schweinitz, 

This practical book, written from long ex- 
perience, analyzes the causes of unhappiness 
and shows just how they may be over- 
come. $2.00 

SOCIAL POLITICS 

Fred E. Haynes 

Shows the part played by social and eco- 
nomic factors in our politics from the time 
of Jefferson. $3-5O 

WHOLESOME 
CHILDHOOD 

Ernest R. Groves and Gladys H. Groves 
This book is written from the point of view 
of the sociologist and the parent. The au- 
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with children. $ X -7S 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

RELIEF IN 
GREAT BRITAIN 

Felix M or ley 

An authoritative account of the British sys- 
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SOCIAL 

CONSEQUENCES OF 
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Maurice B. Hexter 

Births, deaths, marriages are compared with 
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COMMUNICATIONS 



Representative Government 

To THE EDITOR: In your number of August I appears an 
article by Orville A. Welsh entitled "American Rotten 
Boroughs." This article points out the gross inequalities in 
representation in the state legislatures of Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut and several other states. It seems impossible that 
any thoughtful student of government could justify a repre- 
sentative system which gives to the city of Providence, with a 
population of 250,000, the same representation one senator 
as the little town of West Greenwich with a population of 
367. _ 

It is unfortunate, however, that Mr. Welsh did not study 
the Massachusetts system of representation more carefully be- 
fore referring to it in this article. He is correct in saying 
that Massachusetts originally had equal representation for all 
cities and towns. His statement "that Massachusetts a few 
years ago put its legislature on a population basis" is incor- 
rect. The old method was abolished by constitutional amend- 
ment in 1857 ar) d representation, both in House and Senate, 
was based not upon municipalities, not upon population, but 
upon the number of "legal voters" in each community. A 
special enumeration of legal voters is taken once in ten years 
followed by a redistricting of the state. The senatorial dis- 
tricts are established by state law the representative districts 
by county officials. The Supreme Judicial Court has jurisdic- 
tion to disallow local redistricting which is manifestly unfair. 
(See Attorney General v. Apportionment Commissioners 224 
Mass. 598 and other cases.) 

It was formerly considered that the term "legal voters" 
included all persons possessing the qualifications for the fran- 
chise under the Constitution regardless of whether or not they 
were duly registered on the voting list. The census enumer- 
ators therefore made up a special list of such potential voters. 
The franchise in Massachusetts is limited to citizens twenty- 
one years of age and over, having a residence in the state one 
year, and in the town or district six months. Ability to read 
the Constitution in the English language and to write one's 
name unless prevented by physical disability is also required 
and persons under guardianship, paupers and others disqualified 
because of corrupt practices in elections are excluded. The 
information thus obtained by the census enumerators could not 
be verified, and it was felt that aliens and other persons not 
eligible to vote may have been by error included in the list 
of legal voters. Such errors, whether intentional or not, may 
have given some districts greater representation than they 
were rightfully entitled to. 

This question has now been settled by an opinion of the 
justices of the Supreme Judicial Court rendered to the House 
of Representatives in March 1924. The justices decided that 
the term "legal voters" means duly registered voters whose 
names are on the voting list and who may lawfully cast their 
votes on election day. 

Is not this Massachusetts system, thus interpreted, fair and 
just? Each town and ward will hereafter be represented in 
the Senate and House in accordance, not with population which 
may include many aliens and transient residents, but with the 
sworn list of registered voters. Those districts where the 
citizens accept the responsibility and exercise the privilege of 
citizenship will have more representation than those com- 
munities where the citizens, although legally entitled to vote, 
do not bother even to register as voters. 

The theory of representation based on population does not 
seem reasonable. Take the case of two communities with a 
population of 100.000. One of them has a foreign population 
of 50 per cent. Why should the citizens living in that com- 
munity receive twice the representation in the state govern- 
ment which is accorded to the voters who live in a community 



consisting entirely of American citizens. It is submitted that 
the Massachusetts method of representation, based on legal 
voters, is absolutely fair and strictly in accordance with funda- 
mental principles of American representative government. . . . 

I hesitate to discuss an entirely different problem of govern- 
ment in this same letter, namely, municipal home rule, but 
Mr. Welsh does so, and that is my justification. We may 
find complete home rule with very unfair legislative represen- 
tation or we may find the reverse of this situation. They 
are different problems. In Massachusetts the state government 
does perform some functions with regard to the city of Boston 
which in the case of other cities are delegated to the local 
authorities but Mr. Welsh cite., examples which are not wholly 
justified by the facts. 

The Department of Public Utilities supervises the rates 
and service of public utilities not merely in Boston but through- 
out the entire state, a principle which has been admitted as 
correct all over the country. The same public utilities which 
serve the city of Boston with electricity, gas and transporta- 
tion, serve many other surrounding cities and towns. It would 
be unreasonable and wasteful to have separate municipal regu- 
lation in every city and town. The Boston Elevated Railway 
was taken over by the state in 1918 under a lease which pro- 
vides for a guaranteed rental. This road serves many com- 
munities and is managed by a board of five trustees appointee 
by the governor. The Boston subways are owned by the citj 
which receives a rental for their use. The Police Commis- 
sioner of Boston and the Boston Licensing Board which dates 
back to pre-Volstead days are appointed by the governor. This 
method is opposed by many politicians in Boston, but seems 
to command public support throughout the state. It shoulc 
be remembered that Boston is not merely the state capitol bul 
also the financial and business center of Massachusetts to ar 
extent which gives the people of the state a greater interes 
in public order in Boston than in other cities and towns. 

All cities and towns, except Boston, are subject to a genera 
municipal finance act governing municipal indebtedness anc 
accounting. The Finance Commission of Boston, created b] 
state law, is unique, but it has no executive authority, it! 
powers being merely those of investigating and recommenda- 
tion. It has far less supervision over the finances of Bostor 
than, in the case of all other cities and towns, is exercised bj 
the State Division of Accounts. Notes of other municipal! 
ties are not valid unless certified by the state, and local ac 
counts are subject to a regular state audit. Boston alone hai 
a special tax limit which cannot be exceeded, but within tha 
limit the tax rate is fixed by the local authorities. The ta> 
limit law formerly applied to all cities. This system wa; 
changed in 1913, and it is significant that the representative 
from Boston were instrumental in having their city exempte< 
from the general act of 1913 and still kept under the old fa) 
limit statute. It is probably true that the Massachusetts legis 
lature is burdened with too much special legislation for citie: 
and towns but this does not apply alone in the case of Boston 
Mr. Welsh's suggestion that a partial reform has been accom 
plished through the "initiative and referendum" must be ques 
tioned. The "initiative and referendum" does not apply t< 
measures affecting only a particular city or district, and ha; 
not been invoked in any way with regard to the city of Bostor 
or its relations to the government of the state. 

The two questions discussed by Mr. Welsh are a long wa; 
from settlement. Scientific study and investigation, practica 
experiment, discussion and debate may eventually bring abou 
correct solutions. In the meantime, however, it is only fai 
to show that Massachusetts has, on the whole, a system tha 
is more democratic and which works in a more satisfactor 
manner than is the case in most of her sister states. 

BENJAMIN LORING YOUNG 

Speaker, House of Representatives, 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts 



IO4 



Odober 15, 1924 



THE SURREY 



105 



(Continued from page 103) 

after 394 pages of such nonsense, "If the cancer theory put for- 
ward is right, it should solve all the mysteries of that disease." 
Science will be busy with that "If" for some time. 

Is it not true that the author was once sick and considered 
himself in a precancerous stage, and did he not adjust his life 
to a hygienic diet and manner of life and become quite well? 
What more proof do you want that he prevented cancer in 
himself and his theory is right? HAVEN EMERSON, M. D. 



THE RUN OF THE SHELVES 

Books are listed here as received. Many of 
those mentioned by name only in the classi- 
fied sections below will be reviewed later. 



Education, Ethics and Sociology 

MENTAL TRAINING FOR THE PRESCHOOL-AGE CHILD, by 
Lillien J. Martin and Clare de Gruchy. Harr Wagner Publishing Co., 
San Francisco. 108 pp. 

SOME exceedingly important discussions of processes and 
"rules" in the education of children and parents. More than 
most writers in these fields, the authors understand that there 
can be little progress in an education that goes on wholly on 
the inside of the mind of the child, while neglecting consider- 
ation of the environmental world within which this educated 
child is to live. J. K. H. 

PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGY, by Burt B. Farnsworth. C. W. Clark 
Co., New York. 308 pp. Price $3.00 postpaid of The Survey. 

A DISCUSSION, mostly in the form of stenographer's notes 
of lectures, in the field of practical psychology "for men and 
women in the industries and professions and for the general 
reader." The author is an executive secretary in the Y. M. 
C. A. His purpose has been to present some generally accepted 
principles of psychology and to show how these may be applied 
to one's own development and to the better understanding of 
others. The psychology is fairly elementary. The treatment 
of Freudianism, e. g., is superficial and motivated by emotion. 
While the book has some good materials in it, it can scarcely 
be recommended because of its unsatisfactory handling of 
problems with which the author is but slightly or prejudicially 
acquainted. J. K. H. 

SOCIAL SCIENCES FOR TEACHERS, by Charles B. Marti and 
John A. Kinneman. Houghton MiMin Co. 340 pp. Price $1.90 post- 
paid of The Survey. 

A BOOK for teachers of the social sciences, not a class-book 
for pupils; but since, at present, teachers of the social sciences 
need educating more than the pupils do, this should prove to 
be a very useful book. J. K. H. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF EDUCATIONAL 
MEASUREMENTS, by Walter S. Monroe. Houghton MifRin Co. 
364 pp. Price $2.00 postpaid of The Survey. 

AN ADVANCED text book on tests and measurements, deal- 
ing with the fundamental theories that underlie the construc- 
tion, use and interpretation of educational tests. The author 
has done considerable work in this field and believes all that 
has been said in praise of the tests and very little that has 
appears for the first time in English in this edition. J. K. H. 

INTELLIGENCE TESTING, by Rudolph Pintner. Henry Holt and 
Company. 406 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of The Survey. 

AN ELEMENTARY text giving a simple account of intelli- 
gence testing and the results which have so far been achieved 
by the testing movement, designed for use as a college text. 
The author accepts the term "general intelligence" as having 
concrete meaning and as being capable of measurement. 

J. K. H. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION, by DuPont de Nemours. University of 
Delaware Press, Newark. Del. 161 pp. 

THIS IS a translation, by B. G. DuPont, fromi the second 
French edition (1812) of a work (Continued on page 107) 



The most serious problem 
confronting the nations to- 
day is that presented in J. H. 
OJdham's "Christianity and the Race Prob 



lent" which has attracted extraordinary 



attention in England. "A work of conspic- 



uous fairness and ability," says Dean Inge 



in the London Morning Post. "Singularly 



unprejudiced, ' ' is the verdict of the London 



Times. 



THE LABOR MOVEMENT IN A 



GOVERNMENT INDUSTRY 

Sterling Denhard Spero 

A study of employee organization in the U. S. Postal Service. 
In effect, an unprejudiced history of the Post Office of wide 
public interest and real public importance. $2.00 

THE AWAKENING OF ITALY; 



THE FASCISTA REGENERATION 



Luigi 

A singularly lucid and full account. Although the author is an 
admirer of Mussolini's achievement, he is not blind to^the 
difficulties in the path or the special problems Fascism must 
solve. $4.00 

HOW TO READ HISTORY 



W. Watkins Davies 

A new book in the "Doran's Modern Readers' Bookshelf" series. 
Concise accounts of the principal works on all periods with 
cautions for readers. A section on American history has been 
contributed by Professor Edwin H. Pahlow. $1.25 

REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN 



INDUSTRY 



James Myers 



An inside story of the actual workings of "industrial democ- 
racy" in many plants by a man who has watched the experi- 
ment grow from the beginning and has himself been connected 
with one of the most progressive and successful partnership 
plans in America. $2.00 

THE CONTROL OF WAGES 



Walton Hamilton and Stacy May 

'Though this is essentially a book of economic theory, its whole 
purpose is directly and eminently practical. Offering no pana- 
cea, it is yet full of suggestions, not only of what to do, but 
of how to do it." The Nation. $1.50 

ASPECTS OF THE STUDY OF SOCIETY 



R. T. Evans 

An adequate handbook of applied sociology. Free from all the 
cant phrases and the fascinating but useless formulas with 
which the subject has been so generally treated. With a bibli- 
ography and index. $1.25 

In Grant Overton's "Cargoes for Crusoes" 



you will find chapters on the new books of 



every kind. Readers of The Survey will 
probably be especially interested in the 



books discussed in Chapters 20 and 22. 



Separate Chapters are devoted to fifteen 



ixfiu/jiera ure uti/i/ct-u LU iiii\ 

authors. Ask your bookseller to 
show you a copy. Fifty cents. 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE President, Margaret 
Sanger, 104 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Objects: To educate 
American public in the various aspects of the dangers of un- 
controlled procreation; to establish centers where married persons 
may receive contraceptive advice from duly licensed physicians. 
Life membership $1.00; Birth Control Review (monthly magazine) 
$2.00 per year. 

AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION K. L. Butterfleld, 
president; Henry Israel, executive secretary. Room 1849, Grand 
Central Terminal Bldg., New York City. Emphasizes the human 
aspect of country life. Annual membership $3.00 Includes "The 
Country Life Bulletin." 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION LJta Bane, ex- 
ecutive secretary, Grace Dodge Hotel, Washington, D. C. Organ- 
ized for betterment of conditions in home, school, institution and 
community. Publishes monthly Journal of Home Economics: 
office of editor, Grace Dodge Hotel, Washington, D. C. ; of business 
manager, 1211 Cathedral St., Baltimore, Md. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY Founded 1828, labors for an Inter- 
national peace of justice. Its official organ is the Advocate of 
Peace, $2.00 a year. Arthur Deerln Call, secretary and editor. 
612-6H Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL OF CANCER Frank 
J. Osborne, exec, sec'y; 370 Seventh Ave. New York. To disse- 
minate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and 
prevention. Publication free on request. Annual membership 
dues, $5.00. 

AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION 370 Seventh Ave.. 
New York. To promote a better understanding of the social 
hygiene movement; to advance sound sex education; to combat 
prostitution and sex delinquency; to aid public authorities in the 
campaign against the venereal diseases; to advise in organization 
of state and local social -hygiene programs. Annual membership 
dues $2.00 including monthly Journal. 

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA C. a Carstens, 
director. 130 E. 22d Street, New York City. A league of chil- 
dren's agencies and institutions to secure improved standards 
and methods in their various fields of work. It also cooperates 
with other children's agencies, cities, states, churches, fraternal 
orders and other civic groups to work out worth-while results In 
phases of child welfare in which they are interested. 

COMMUNITY SERVICE 315 Fourth Avenue, New York City. A 
national civic movement for promoting citizenship through right 
use of leisure. It will, on request, help local communities work out 
leisure time programs. H. S. Braucher, secretary. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 305 W. 8th Street, New York. 
Miss Rose Brenner, pres.; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, ex. sec'y. Pro- 
motes civic cooperation, education, religion and social welfare In 
the United States, Canada, Cuba, Europe. 

Department of Immigrant Aid 799 Broadway. Mrs. S. J. Rosen- 

sohn, chairman. For the protection and education of Immigrant 

women and girls. 

COUNCIL OF WOMEN FOR HOME MISSIONS 166 Fifth Avenue 
New York. Organized in 1908; 20 constituent 'Protestant national 
women's mission boards. Florence E. Qulnlan, exec, sec'y Com- 
mittee on Farm and Cannery Migrants, Summer Service for 
College Students, Laura H. Parker, exec, supervisor. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN 
AMERICA Constituted by 30 Protestant denominations. Rev. 
Charles S. Macfarland, Rev. S. M. Cavert, gen'l sec'ys, 105 E. 
22nd Street, New York. 

Commission on the Church and Social Service Rev. Worth M. 
Tippy, exec, sec'y; Department of Research and Education 
Rev. F. lirnest Johnson, exec, sec'y. 

GIRLS FRIENDLY SOCIETY IN AMERICA 15 East 40th Street, 
New York. Girls and women working together to uphold Chris- 
tian standards of daily living in the home, in the business world, 
and in the community. Numbers nearly 60,000, with branches In 
44 states. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE Trains Negro and Indian youth for com- 
munity service. Advanced courses: agriculture, builders, business, 
home -economics, normal. Publishes "Southern Workman" and free 
material on Negro problems. J. E. Gregg, principal. 

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATIONS First appointed 1854, located New York City 1866, 
Incorporated 1883. Headquarters office, 347 Madison Ave., New 
York City, N. Y. Tel. Vanderbilt 1200. Branch offices, Chicago, 
Atlanta, Denver. Chairman, James M. Speers; Treasurer. B. H. 
Fancher; General Sec'y, John R. Mott. The Committee maintains 
a. staff of executive and traveling secretaries for service In the 
Interests of the Young Men's Christian Associations at home and 
abroad. 

JOINT COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF PREVENTING DE- 
LINQUENCY Graham Homeyn Taylor, executive director, 50 
East 42d Street, New York. To promote the adoption of sound 
methods in this field, with particular reference to psychiatric 
clinics, visiting teacher werk, and training for these and similar 
ervices; to conduct related studies, education and publication; 
and to interpret the work of the Commonwealth Fund Program for 
the Prevention of Delinquency. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CIVIC SECRETARI ES Walter 
T. Arndt, president, New York: Robert E. Tracy, secretary, 313 
South Broad Street, Philadelphia. Purpose To provide contact 
and Interchange of irTpfl^ nd information amont? professional 
secretaries of civic organizations. Meets Cambridge, Mass No- 
vember 10-12. K24. 



NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOMENS CHRISTIAN 

ASSOCIATIONS Mrs. Robert E. Speer, president; Miss Mabel 
Crafty, general secretary, 600 Lexington Avenue, New *ork City. 
This organization maintains a staff of executive and traveling 
secretaries to cover work in the United States in 1,034 local Y. W. 
C. A.' on behalf of the Industrial, business, student, foreign born. 
Indian, Colored and younger girls. It has 159 American secretariei 
at work in 49 centers in the Orient, Latin America and Europe. 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE Owen R. Lovejoy. 
sec'y: 215 Fourth Avenue, New York. Industrial, agricultural 
investigations. Works for improved laws and administration; 
children's codes. Studies health, schools, recreation, dependency, 
delinquency, etc. Annual membership, $2, $5, $10. $25 and $100; 
includes monthly bulletin, "The American Child." 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, INC. Chas. F. 
Powlison. gen. sec'y; 70 Fifth Ave., New York. Originates and 
publishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and con- 
ditions affecting the health, well being and education of children. 
Cooperates with educators, public health agencies, and all child 
welfare groups In community, city or state-wide service through 
exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL HYGIENE Dr. 
William H. Welch, pres.; Dr. Frankwood E. Williams, med. dir.; 
Dr. Clarence J. D'Alton, executive assistant; Clifford W. Beers, 
sec'y; 370 Seventh Avenue, N'ew York City. Pamphlets on mental 
hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble-mindedness, epil- 
epsy, inebriety, criminology, psychiatric social service, backward 
children, surveys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene." quarterlv 
$3.00 a year: "Mental Hygiene Bulletin. " monthly. $ .25 a year. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK Wm. J. Norton, 
president, Detroit, Michigan; W. H. Parker, Secretary, 25 East 
Ninth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. The Conference is an organization 
to discuss the principles of humanitarian effort and to increase the 
efficiency of social service agencies. Each year it holds an annual 
meeting, publishes in permanent form the Proceedings of the meet- 
ing, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The fifty-second annual meet- 
ing of the Conference will be held in Denver, Colorado, June 10th 
to 17th, 1925 Proceedings are sent free of charge to all members 
upon payment of a membership fee of five dollars. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLIND- 
NESS Lewis H. Carris, managing director; Mrs. Winifred Hatha- 
way, secretary; 130 East 22nd St., New York. Objects: To furnish 
information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, personal service for 
local organizations and legislation, publish literature of movement 
samples free, quantities at cost. Includes New York State Com- 
mittee. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS Robert A. 
Woods, sec'y; 20 Union Park. Boston. Develops broad forms of 
comparative study and concerted action In city, state and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed by settlement 
work, seek the higher and more democratic organization of 
neighborhood life. 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 
Member, National Health Council Anne A. Stevens. R.N., direc- 
tor, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. For development and stand- 
ardization of public health nursing. Maintains library and edu- 
cational service. Official Magazine. "Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION SERVICE 315 Fourth 
Avenue, New York, N. Y. To obtain progressive legislation for 
physical education. Established at the request of a committee 
created by the United States Bureau of Education; 35 national 
organizations cooperating. Maintained by the Playground and 
Recreation Association of America. 

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS ASSOC I ATION 370 Seventh Ave., 
New York. Dr. I/ivingston Farrand, president; Dr. Linsly R. Wil- 
liams, managing director. Pamphlets on methods and program* 
for the prevention of tuberculosis. Publications sold and distri- 
buted through state associations in every state. Journal of the 
Outdoor Life, popular monthly magazine, $2.00 a year; American 
Review of Tuberculosis, medical journal. $8.00 a year; and 
Monthly Bulletin, house organ, free. 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 
127 E. 23rd St., New York. Establishes committees of white and 
colored people to work out community problems. Trains Negro 
nodal workers. Publishes "Opportunity" a "journal of Negro life." 

NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, honorary president; Mrs. Maud Swartz, president; 311 
South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for self-government In 
the work shop through organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation. Information given. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMER- 
ICA 315 Fourth Avenue, New York City. Joseph Lee, president; 
H. S. Braucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization 
of year-round municipal recreation systems. Information available 
on playground and community center activities and administration. 

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION LEAGUE To secure rep- 
resentation for all. (?. G. Hoag, sec'y, 1417 Locust St., Philadel- 
phia. Membership, $2.00, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION (For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions John M. Glenn, dir.; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. De- 
partments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Industrial Studies, 
Library, Recreation. Remedial Loans, Statistics, Surveys and 
Exhibits. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public in practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
* important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 



(In onsiL'erino these advertisements please mention THE SURVFY. J' helps us. it identifies you.} 



October 15. 1924 



THE S U Rl'EY 



107 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY 

TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment in race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
of the Tuskegee idea and methods; Robert R. Moton, prln.; War- 
ren Logan, treas.; A. L. Holsey, acting sec'y. Tuskegee, Ala. 
WORKERS' EDUCATION BUREAU OF AMERICA Spencer Mil 
ler, Jr., sec'y; 476 West 24th St. A clearing-house for Workers 
Education. 



The DEBATE of the CENTURY! 

IS CAPITAL PUNISHMENT 

a wise public policy? 
Clarence S. DARROW says NO! 

Famous Chicago Attorney in the Leopold-Loeb Case 
VERSUS 

Judge Alfred J. TALLEY says YES! 
SUNDAY AFTERNOON, OCTOBER 26, 3 P. M. 




MANHATTAN OPERA HOUSE 



34th St., W. 
of 8th Ave. 
Tickets $1.65, $2.20, $2.75, $3.30, Inc. War Tax 

Box Seats $4.40. 

On sale at the offices or by mail from 
LEAGUE FOR PUBLIC DISCUSSION 



THE 



N. B. OUT-OP- TOWNERS desiring primal 
Delate send name and address. 



Longacre 10434-10435 
Stenographic Report of this 



DO YOU LOVE BOOKS? 

We will gladly fill your order, postpaid, for any book published; 
or, if you wish information only, we will help you get it. 

Write for the new Survey Book List. 

Survey Book Department 
112 East 19 Street New York, N. Y. 



abo 

443 
wit: 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT. CIRCULA- 
TION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF 
AUGUST 24, 1912, of the Survey published semi-monthly at New York, 
N. Y.. for October 1, 1924. 
State of New York, I ss 
County of New York, I 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, in and for the State and county 
aforesaid, personally appeared Arthur Kellogg, who, having been duly sworn 
according to law, deposes and says that he is the business manager of The 
SURVEY, and that the following is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, a 
true statement of the ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the 
circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication for theMate shown in the 
" u ive caption, required by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in section 
1, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form, to 
11 : 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor. 
and business managers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 
Street. New York City: Editor, Paul U. Kcllo?g, 112 East 19 Street, New 
York City; Managing Editor, Geddes Smith, 112 East 19 Street, New York 
City; Business Managers, Arthur Kellogg, John D. Kenderdine, 112 East 
19 Street. New York City. 

2. That the owner is: (If the publication is owned by an individual 
his name and address, or if owned by more than one individual the name 
and address of each, should be given below; if the publication is owned 
by a corporation the name of the corporation and the names and addresses 
of the stockholders owning or holding one per cent or more of the total 
amount of stock should be given.) Survey Associates, Inc., 112 F.ast 19 
Street. New York City, a non-commercial corporation under the laws of 
the State of New York with over 1,600 members. It has no stocks or 
bonds. President. Robert W. deKorest. 30 Rroad Street, New York, N. Y.: 
Vice Presidents. Julian W. Mack. P. O. Ilox 102, City Hall Station. New 
York, N. Y. : V. 1< "verit Macy, "Chijmark," Srarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y.; 

Secretary. Ann R. Brenner. 112 East 19 Street. New York. N. Y.; 
Treasurer, Arthur Kellofg, 112 East 19 Street, New York, N. Y. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders 
owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, 
or other securities are: (If there are none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above. Riving the names of the own- 
ers, stockholders, and security holders, if any. contain not only the list 
of stockholders and security holders as they appear upon the hooks of 
the company but also, in cases where the stockholder or security holder 
appears upon the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary 
relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is 
acting, is eiven: also that the said two paragraphs contain statements em- 
bracing affiant's full knowledge and belief, as to the circumstances and 
conditions nmler which stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities 
in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner: and this affiant has 
no reason to believe that any other person, association, or corporation has 
anv interest di-ect or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities 
than as so stated hy him. 

[Signed! ARTHUR KELLOr.fl. 

Business Manager. 



(Continued from page 105) 

that first appeared in 1800. The title of the original book was 
National Education in the United States of America. The 
book was written at the request of Thomas Jefferson, and 
was intended as a plan for a national system of education for 
this country. It seems probable, says the translator, that it 
contains the theories of both the author and Jefferson modified 
and harmonized to form one detailed plan. Students of the 
evolution of American culture and institutions will find it full 
of interest. The book appears for the first time in English 
in this edition. J. K. H. 

Community and Civic Affairs 

THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION AS IT PROTECTS PRIVATE 
RIGHTS, by Frederic Jesup Stimson. Charles Scribners's Sons. 
239 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of The Surrey. 

THERE ARE always two opposing schools of thought con- 
cerning governmental (and in this country especially federal) 
action: the one looking to the history and philosophy of our 
governmental system, the other looking to the accomplishment 
of an immediate end. More generally social workers find them- 
selves in the latter class. Here is a breezily (not to say loosely) 
written exposition of the former point of view, stressing the 
inhibitory provisions of the Constitution, and generally leaning 
toward the "less-government-the-better" position. G. S. 

POLITICAL PARTIES AND ELECTORAL PROBLEMS, by Robert 
C. Brooks. Harper and Bros. 638 pp. Price $3.50 postpaid of The 
Survey. 

THIS BOOK is intended "to interpret American political 
parties with a view primarily to the needs of the voters and 
those who are soon to become voters." Its bulk, unfortunately, 
will perhaps discourage those prospective voters who attack it 
single-handed, but it should be useful in college class-rooms, 
women's clubs, and other places where a certain mutual support 
is available to seekers after knowledge. The last chapter, on 
Active Participation in Politics, might well be reprinted as a 
separate unit in more convenient form. G. S. 

Industry and Economics 

THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT IN RUSSIA, by Elsie Terry 
Blanc. Macmillan Co. 324 pp. i'rice $2.50 postpaid of The Survey. 

IT IS AMAZING that among all the men and women who 
have written about Russia during the past six years, there have 
been only one or two to write about the powerful cooperative 
movement of that country. And yet a study of this movement 
under the three governments might throw a great deal of light 
upon so many of the problems that are vexing us economic, 
social, political. Mrs. Blanc does not pretend to answer for us 
all the bothersome questions that confront us. But she does 
give a very comprehensive picture of cooperation from its 
earliest beginnings through the Revolution and until early m 
1923. The facts are there for the theorist to use as best he can. 
Mrs. Blanc does not claim to be a deep student of the prin- 
ciples underlying the cooperative movements in other countries. 
On the other hand she is not a propagandist and for this we 
may be thankful. And she is a keen student and investigator 
ijf the subject in hand, for which even greater thanks are due. 
Cooperation is, for the Russians, more than a system of food 
distribution. The cooperatives have established thousands of 
elementary schools, hundreds of high schools, even complete 
universities. One provincial union alone established 170 
libraries, 300 reading circles, and purchased 42,000 books 
within six months. Mrs. Blanc's one book tells us more about 
the economic development of the Russian peasants and work- 
ers than doyen of the popular oropagandist publications of re- 
cent years. CEDRIC LONG 

Other Books Received 



nusineFs .\i anaye 
Sworn to ami subscribed before me this 18th dav of September. 1924. 

[Seal! MARTHA HOHMANN. 

Commissioner of Deeds. City of New York. 
New York County Clerk's No. 148: New 
York County Register's No. 26032. 
My Commission Expires May 20, 1926. 




THE JOURNAL OF ARTHUR STIRLING, by Upton 'Sinclair. New 
Edition. Upton Sinclair, Pasadena, Calif. 207 pp. Price $1 50 Post- 
paid of The Sitrvty- 

MANASSAS, hy Upton Sinclair. Ne-j.' Enitinn. Upton Sinclair Pasadena 
Calif. 412 /-/.. Price $1.50 postpaid of The Survey. 



SOCIAL JVORK SHOPTstLK 



P HE National Information Bureau cele- 
* brated its annual meeting October 10 
by presenting a fourteen months' study of 
the Salvation Army, made under the di- 
rection of the Bureau by Porter R. Lee and 
Walter W. Pettit, with the closest cooper- 
ation of the Army itself. The Salvation 
Army is a religious body which has an im- 
portant social work program', a program, 
however, which is fundamentally spiritual 
in its aims. It has developed a self-con- 
tained brotherhood with an enormous 
spiritual driving power, and a morale 
which could well furnish material for 
study to other social and religious organ- 
izations. The authors of the study, while 
they found that the relief work of the 
Army probably is "no less efficient than 
the majority of other American churches 
attempting general relief," urge the gen- 
eral adoption of certain standards and 
methods used in a few of its larger cen- 
ters, and make other administrative sug- 
gestions. The report will be discussed in 
an article in a forthcoming issue of The 
Survey. 

THE COMPANY of Americans who have 
been at Geneva attending the sessions of 
the League of Nations were shocked at 
the death there in mid-September, due to 
a heart lesion, of Charles Zueblin whose 
keen and stimulating leadership in the 
fields of civics, economics and sociology 
has been a force since the early nineties. 
Born in Indiana, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania with degrees from 
Northwestern, Yale and Leipzig, Professor 
Zueblin became an instructor in sociology 
at the University of Chicago in 1892, ris- 
ing in ten years to full professorship and 
continuing as such through 1908. Boston 
later became his headquarters and there 
for three years he edited The Twentieth 
Century Magazine. His books, "American 
Municipal Progress," 1902, revised in 
1915, "A Decade of Civic Development," 
1905, "The Religion of a Democrat," 1908, 
and "Democracy and the Overman," 1911, 
show the range and dynamic impulse of 
the man as an American facing the new 
century. But it was on the lecture plat- 
form, and especially in the developing 
years of the University extension move- 
ment in the Middle West, that he touched 
the imagination and challenged the social 
conceptions of a generation of young 
people. He was the first secretary of the 
Chicago Society for University Extension 
in 1892, and secretary that year of the 
class study division of the University Ex- 
tension Department of the University of 
Chicago. In the years succeeding, in a 
hundred towns and cities of the Great 
Lakes region, Professor Zueblin's lectures 
were a leaven the value of which could 
scarcely be over-estimated. He made his 
audiences see social institutions, their com- 
munities, their economic life with fresh 
eyes. He combined a searching courage 
with an appreciation of the spiritual val- 
ues of life and art and a robust faith in 
the processes of democracy. Nor was he 
merely a speaker. He will long be remem- 
bered in Chicago as the founder of the 
Northwestern University Settlement, he 

1 08 



was the president of the American 
League for Civic Improvement in 1901-2 
and member of the Chicago Special Park 
Commission in 1901-5. H. G. Wells was 
a visitor at the Zueblin home in Geneva 
the evening before he died. With Mr. 
Zueblin were Mrs. Zueblin and his daughter, 
who has been acting as secretary of the 
Filene peace prize contest and who has 
some of her father's rare qualities. 

THE cautious movement for betterment of 
the cooperative relations of social agencies 
in New York city has reached another 
milestone and a big one with the ac- 
ceptance by W. Frank Persons of the sec- 
retaryship of the committee organized last 
spring after the Better Times contest for 
a plan of coordination. The committee, 
which describes its purpose in its name 
"for the further coordination of charitable 
and social work in the city of New York" 
is headed by Robert W. de Forest. It 
was originally composed of the judges of 
the contest, but has been enlarged by the 
election of Cornelius N. Bliss, Jr., Ray- 
mond B. Fosdirk, J. Byron Deacon, Allen 
T. Burns, Shelby M. Harrison, Barry C. 
Smith, LeRoy E. Bowman and Harry F. 
Guggenheim. 

THESE pages have chronicled Sherman 
Conrad's successive migrations from Pitts- 
burgh to Cincinnati to Wilkes-Barre. He 
now goes to New Orleans to become exec- 
utive of the newly formed community 
chest. Other fall changes in federation 
personnel include the appointment of 
Titus C. Rohrbaugh, a Cleveland graduate, 
to head the staff at Roanoke, Va., the 
appointment of Robert B. Reed, fresh from 
the summer training course at Columbus, 
to be secretary of the council of social 
agencies of Augusta, Ga., and the mov- 
ing of Edwin C. Eklund from the Canton 
Welfare Federation to the new community 
chest in Springfield, O. 

THE APPOINTMENT of George Clarke 
to be general secretary of the Family 
Welfare Association of Montreal brings 
him into direct partnership with J. How- 
ard T. Falk, secretary of the council of 
social agencies an interesting sequel to 
the fact that Mr.' Clarke has served for 
several years as general secretary of the 
Social Welfare Commission in Winnipeg 
which Mr. Falk was instrumental in or- 
ganizing. 

A SOCIAL WORKER I KNOW. 

BY JESS PERLMAN 

He serves . . . and struts; he cannot give 
Himself and leave himself unsung . . . 

He'd gladly die that they might live 
Who less from life's rare stores had 
wrung; 

But of his dying hour, half 
He'd use to write his epitaph. 

There is no questioning his great 
Unflagging service to his neighbors; 

But like a child whose drawings wait 
For names, he labels all his labors . . . 

He serves and struts, as peacocks must, 
Trailing his glory in the dust. 



BULLETIN BOARD 



NATIONAL RECREATION CONGXESS: Atlantic City. 
October 16-21. Secretary, H. S. Braucher, 315 
Fourth Avenue, New York. 

NEBRASKA CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK: Lin- 
coln. October 19-21. Secretary, William R. 
Blumenthal, Lyne Building, Omaha. 
AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION: Detroit 
October 2023. Secretary, Homer N. Calver, 
370 Seventh Ave., New YorK, N. Y. 
NEW YORK STATE COUNTY CBILDUN'S Couaf 
JUDGES: Albany. October 24-25. Secretary, 
Frederick A. Moran, N. Y. State Probation 
Commission, Albany. 

ILLINOIS STATE COUNCIL OP RED CROSS CHAP- 
TERS: Peoria, October 24. Chairman, Ralph V. 
Field, Galesburg. 

MICHIGAN STATE COUNCIL of RED CROSS CHAP- 
TERS: Detroit. October 25. Chairman, F. A. 
Aldrich, Flint. 

TEXAS CONFERENCE of SOCIAL WELFARE: Austin. 
October 26-29. Secretary, W. E. Gettys, 
University of Texas, Austin. 
ILLINOIS TUBERCULOSIS ASSOCIATION: Decatur. 
October 27-28. Secretary, J. W. Becker, 51654 
East Monroe Street, Springfield. 
PENNSYLVANIA GRADUATE NURSES ASSOCIATION 
Reading. October 27-November 1. Secretary, 
'Gertrude Heatley, South Side Hospital, Pitts- 
burgh. 

NEW YORK STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION: Syra- 
cuse, October 28-30. Secretary, Helen Young, 
Prebysterian Hospital, New York City. 
WISCONSIN STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION: Milwau- 
kee, October 28-30. Secretary, Erna Kowalke, 
85 Oneida St., Milwaukee. 

ILLINOIS STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION: Champaign. 
October 29-31 Secretary, Anna Cole Smith, 
2342 S. Dearborn St., Chicago. 
NEW JERSEY STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION: M_or- 
ristown November 7. Secretary, Josephine 
Swenson, 12 Gordon Place, Rahway, New 
Jersey. 

MARYLAND STATE CONFERENCE of SOCIAL WORK: 
Frederick, November 7-8. President, Howard 
C. Hill, Social Service Club, Baltimore. 
MISSISSIPPI STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION: Hatties- 
burg. October 30-31. Secretary, Mrs. James A. 
Cameron, 511 Bay St., Hattiesburg. 
MINNESOTA STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION: Min- 
neapolis. November 5-8. Secretary, Dora Cor- 
nelisen, Old State Capitol, St. Paul. 
AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION: Colum- 
bus Ohio. November 7-11. Secretary. Henry 
Israel Room 1819, Grand Central Terminal 
Building New York N. Y. 
AMERICAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION: Dallas. Texas. 
November 10-14. Secretary, Otto U. King. 
5 N. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Nrw JERSEY STATE CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL 
WORK- New Brunswick. November 10-11. 
Secretary, Glover Dunseath, 21 Washington St., 
Newark. 

NEW YORK STATE PROBATION OFFICERS: Syra- 
cuse. November 10-11. Secretary. Frederick 
A. Moran, N. Y. State Probation Commission, 
Albany. 

NE\V YORK STATE CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES AND 
CORRECTION : Syracuse. November 
Secretary, Richard W. Wallace, Drawer 17, 
The Capitol. Albany. 

MASSACHUSETTS CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK: 
Swampscott. November 11-13. Secretary, Ri- 
chard K. Conant, 37 State House, Boston. 
Florida State Nurses Association: Pensacola. 
Nov. 18-19. Secretary, Elizabeth Steil, River- 
side Hospital, Jacksonville. 

GEORGIA STATE NURSES ASSOCIATION: Athens, 
November 17-19 Secretary, Jesie Candlisli, 
20 Ponce de Leon Ave., Atlanta. 
IOWA STATE NUKSES ASSOCIATION: Des Momes, 
November 18-20 Secretary, Blanche E. Ed- 
wards, 1103 Lafayette St., Waterloo. 
AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION: Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, November 19-22, Secretary, Ray 
Everett, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. 
Y. 

ILLINOIS CONFERENCE ON PUBLIC WELFARE: 
Moline. November 23-25. Secretary, Marr 
Polmeter, Waukegan. 



How to Prevent Diseases of the 
Heart, Bloodvessels and Kidneys 



TRACES of albumin, high blood 
pressure, and sometimes low 
blood pressure, and slight thickening of 
arteries, are signals that suggest the 
importance of taking preventive measures 
against the degenerative class of dis- 
eases which are now so heavily on the 
increase and which are responsible for 
the increasing mortality in the United 
States at middle life and later. 

Thickening of the arteries is very 
common in middle life and old age, but, 
strictly speaking, is not normal at any 
age. The examinations of the Institute 
show that in a remarkably large per- 
centage of cases, thickening of the arte- 
ries is present in very young people. As 
this process is a very slow one, it some- 
times does not cause trouble until mid- 
dle life is reached, but there is always a 
danger that such conditions will progress 
and impair the efficiency of the indivi- 
dual and lessen his resistance to disease 

The presence of a very slight thicken- 
ing of the arteries is not any occasion for 
alarm, but simply a warning that there 
ii greater need of observing the rules of 
personal hygiene. There is a mistaken 
impression that high blood pressure al- 
ways accompanies thickening of arteries. 
That is not so. Decided thickening is 
often found with normal blood pressure, 
yet high blood pressure is often a cause 
of thickening. 

The blood pressure varies between 
rather wide limits among healthy peo- 
ple, depending on their nervous condition. 
A blood pressure that is persistently 15 
mm. above the normal average for the 
age, or shows a tendency to greatly in- 
crease under slight provocation, should 
be kept under observation, and the in- 
dividual's mode of life so ordered with 
regard to diet, exercise, sleep, work, etc., 
that his circulation may be safeguarded 
and a normal poise attained and main- 
tained. 

In answer to the question, "How shall 
1 live in order to avoid these organic 
maladies?" we may say: Temperance 
all along the line in eating drinking, 
working, playing and even in resting. It 



is possible to "rust out" on the one hand, 
or to "wear out" on the other. 

But what is temperance for one man 
may be excess for another. Hence the 
most important step, in protecting against 
degenerative maladies, is to have a the- 
rough physical examination at regular 
intervals at least once a year so that 
life may be regulated according to one's 
physical equipment. 

Many of the chronic degenerative dis- 
eases of adult life are due to persistent 
insidious infection by various forms of 
bacteria. These bacteria find lodgment 
in diseased gums and tooth sockets, nasal 
cavities, tonsils and other localities fa- 
vorable for the development of germ life. 
From these localities they move out in- 
to the circulation and into the tissues, 
like submarines from a base of supply, 
attack various organs, and often cause 
troubles in the heart, kidneys, blood 
vessels, stomach, gall bladder, appendix 
and joints. Sluggish, dammed-up bowels 
are also often a source of chronic infec- 
tion and poisoning that gives rise to 
circulatory and kidney affections. 

The remedies are, after all, simple; 
namely, periodic examination, to deter- 
mine the physical condition, and any 
possible source of infection; removal of 
infection; and then regulation of living 
habits, so that the individual may, so 
far as possible, be adjusted to his life 
work, or his life work adjusted to his 
physical capacities. 

A yearly visit to the Life Extension 
Institute for a thorough physical exam- 
ination may save you much suffering and 
financial loss. If it is worth while to 
spend so much trying to cure disease, is 
it not worth while to spend a trifle to 
prevent it? 

Over 300,000 men and women have 
already taken the Health Services of the 
Institute more than 250 concerns have 
extended the service to their executives 
and employees. Forty life insurance com- 
panies offer a service of the Institute to 
over two million policyholders. 

The Health Services of the Institute 



include a thorough examination of the 
whole body; extensive detailed reports; 
suggestions as to needed medical treat- 
ment ; instructions in all phases of correct 
personal hygiene, including diet, exer- 
cise, work, rest, play and the proper 
care of the mind and trie body. 

The Institute renders no treatment, 
performs no operations, but makes a 
scientific survey of your life and body 
and submits a report which, if some 
form of medical attention is needed, as- 
sists your physician in making the final 
diagnosis and applying the necessary 
treatment for the correction of your 
physical defects. Get yourself examined 
every year either by your family physi- 
cian or by the Institute. 

The Institute has more than 8,000 
Medical Examiners throughout the 
United States and Canada and in a num- 
ber of the principal cities of Europe and 
the Far East. There are separate de- 
partments for women and children at 
the Head Office with both men and 
women examining physicians in attend- 
ance. 

All the reports and records with ref- 
erence to these examinations are matters 
of the strictest confidence between the 
Institute and the individual examined 
and are not in any way accessible to any 
other individual, to any insurance com- 
pany or other organization. 

Write, telephone or visit the Institute 
for further information about its differ- 
ent services and for free booklets on the 
prevention of disease and the prolonga- 
tion of human life. 



"HOW TO LIVE LONG" 

LIFE EXTENSION INSTITUTE: Send me free 
of charge the booklet "Ho<w to Live Long" 
describing the Institute's services together 
luith other reprints on health and hygiene. 



Name . . 
Address 



THE LIFE EXTENSION INSTITUTE, Inc. 

25 WEST 43RD STREET, NEW YORK CITY, Telephone: VANDERBILT 1494 

109 





Social Studies 

CONDUCTED BY JOSEPH K. HART 
On the Way to Health 

SOMETIMES we get the feeling that the world 
is not on the down-grade, after all, but on the 
up; on the way not to destruction, but to 
health. This is one of those times. Here 
wise physicians tell us that, just as tuberculosis 
has, in the last quarter century, been brought under 
almost complete social control, so may heart disease 
be brought under intelligent control in the not distant 
future; at least, in the cases of all individuals who 
have the mind and the courage to face the issues in 
the problem. Science may not be the ultimate hope 
of civilization, but it is certainly one of the inter- 
mediate hopes, the instrument by means of which what- 
ever hopes we may have will be largely realized. 
Proofs of this are written on many pages of this 
issue of The Survey. 

But what is the value of individual health, or 
physical health, in a world in which social and na- 
tional health is at a discount? Why worry about 
heart disease, when the souls of men are sick and weary 
of the world? Happily, we are able to place around 
this picture of radiant hope for larger individual and 
physical health a framework of actual accomplishment 
in the fields of social, national and international re- 
covery and progress. Here are hints, at least, of the 
larger wisdom that is coming into education and in- 
dustry. And here are recorded what may well turn 
out to be epoch-making accomplishments in the field 
of international health. "Movement is life," says a 
recent wise book ; "the attempt to oppose this, to 
change movement into a fixed state, causes the fixation 
which is characteristic of death. It is then easy to 
understand why the attempt to imprison human life in 
what are known as States (the name is literally and 
metaphorically exact) produces not life but death: 
this is the initial error of thought which disintegrated 
the Empires of the past." The conquest of disease 
is one of the great "victories of peace"; no less so is 
that ultimate conquest of war which may be definitely 
forecast in the protocol of the League of Nations, 
signed lately in Geneva, by forty-seven of the nations 
of the earth. For once, at any rate, ignoring the 
things that are behind, we have reason to look for- 
ward to the achievement of what may turn out to 
be the world's Day of Health. 

Analytic Index to This Number 

1. Child Welfare: 

The cardiac child, p. 131! 
The children's clinic, p. 137 
Prevention rather than cure, p. 139 

2. Family Welfare: 

Health and family welfare, p. H3ff 
The workers' clinic, p. I23f 
Women and heart disease, p. I2gf 

4. Conquest of Disease: 

The nature of heaft disease, p. 113(1 
Protecting the hearts of children, p. 131(1 



5. Promotion of Health: 

Organizing a community health program, p. 
Social control of obscure infections, p. 114)! 

6. Mental Hygiene: 

Knowledge that saves from fears, p. i$8f 

7. Organizing Social Forces: 

Social work for sick children, p. i34f 
Organizing a heart clinic, p. iO4f 

9. City Communities: 

Organizing the community for health, p. 

10. Country Communities: 

A local program for health, p. ijgf 

n. Immigration and Race Relations: 

Immigration and birth control, p. 152 

12. School and Community: 
Educating for health, p. 118 

The teacher and the sick child, p. 131 
Training schools for cardiacs, p. 132 

13. Education outside the School: 
The public and disease, p. ii4f 
Vocational guidance for cardiacs, p. 134 
Educating for peace, p. 151 

The vocational guidance movement, p. 1488 
Books and life, p. 158 

i' Industrial Conditions: 

Helping the sick to be self-supporting, p. 
Cure or care of the sick worker, p. I23ff 

15. Industrial Relations: 

Vocational guidance problems, p. 148(1 

17. Peace and International Relations: 
Where is the dove of peace? p. 151 
The peace protocol, pp. Hiff, 1458, J53f 
Control of the opium traffic, p. 156 




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THE SURVEY, published semi-monthly and copyright 1924 by 
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC., 112 Bast 19 Street, New York. 

Price: This issue 30 cents a copy; 5 a tear; Canadian postage 
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112 East 19 Street, New York 





Graphic Number 




Vol. LIII, No. 3 



November 1, 1924 



CONTENTS 

FRONTISPIECE . . . Hendrik ffillem Vpn Loon 112 

HEART DISEASE . . . Haven Emerson, M.D. 113 

HEART DISEASE AND THE JOB . Lewis W.Hint 119 
PUTTING THEIR HEARTS IN THEIR WORK 

Hannah Mitchell 123 

WOMAN'S WORK IS NEVER DONE 

Elizabeth Porter Wyckoff 129 

CHILD HEARTS Samuel McCoy 131 

PETER FLANDERS Mary Ross 136 

SAVING HEARTS IN YOUR TOWN 

William H. Robey, M.D. 138 

PEACE HATH HER VICTORIES 

Cornelia Stratton Parker 141 

A GREAT CHARTER FOR EUROPE 

James T. Shotiuell 145 

BLIND ALLEYS Ethel KavAn 148 

WHAT HAS SHE DONE WITH IT? The Lady 

and The Dove . . . Martha Bensley Bruere 151 

EDITORIALS 154 

LETTERS AND LIFE . Edited by Leon W hippie 158 



The gist of It 

HEART disease most destructive of the more im- 
portant causes of death, and least understood by 
most of us is the subject of a group of articles in this 
number by physicians and laymen. They are united in 
the conviction that heart disease is preventable and 
curable; that its prevention and cure make up one of 
the biggest jobs now before health workers; that the 
public can learn to reduce mortality from this cause 
as it has learned to deal with the white plague and is 
gradually learning to deal with cancer. 

HOW heart diseases are caused; to what extent 
they might be called communicable; and what, 
in broad terms, we can do about them Dr. Emerson 
tells in the leading article (p. 113). We might introduce 
Dr. Emerson every month with a different handle; this 
time it is enough to say that The Survey's health editor 
is president of the New York Heart Association and 
though he doesn't mention the fact one of the little 
group of devoted students of these diseases who 
/aunched the new crusade against them in 1915. 

HEART disease may rob workers of decades of 
wage-earning power. That creates all sorts 
of vocational problems which those who work with 
cardiacs are facing. How Hannah Mitchell, news- 
paper and magazine writer of a wide range of inter- 
ests, tells on p. 123. 

LEWIS HINE'S work portraits are hung on the 
memory of many Survey readers perhaps on their 
walls too. In the middle ground where the job and 
the handicap of a disordered heart meet, Mr. Hine has 
done some profitable exploring. Some of the fruits of 
it appear on pages 119, 126, 136. In finding his subjects 
he had the help of the Cardiac Clinic, Bellevue Hos- 



pital, the Children's Cardiac Clinic of St. Luke's 
pital, the Cardiac Training School, the Bureau for the 
Handicapped, and the Institute for Crippled and Dis- 
abled Men, all of New York. 

TJOUSEWORK is hard labor, and the cardiac 
-L JL housewife with small children and none too much 
money to feed and clothe them is harder to help than 
a truckman or coal miner. She just can't get away from 
the job. Elizabeth Porter Wyckoff tells what happens 
in such a case (p. 129). Mrs. Wyckoff is chairman 
of the committee on education of the New York Heart 
Association, and uses in that work her long experience 
in magazine editing and writing. 

YOU'VE got to catch them young, if you want to 
prevent the most readily preventable of the heart 
diseases. It's the "growing pains" and other infections 
of childhood that sap the strength of the grown-up in 
more cases than most of us dream of. Samuel Mc- 
Coy, lately of the New York World, shares with 
Survey readers the striking lessons he learned when 
he looked for us into heart disease among children and 
what is being done for it (p. 131). 

/^>HILDREN, housewives, wage-earners, old folks 
V_> what can your town do about the one in fifty 
who has a damaged heart? Dr. Robey sketches, point 
by point, a working program for the community that 
wants to tackle this newly-recognized job and do it 
well (p. 138). He is assistant professor of medicine 
at Harvard, visiting physician to the Boston City Hos- 
pital, vice-president of the Boston Association for the 
Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease, and author 
of a book on Causes of Heart Failure. 

PREVENTION is an old story in public health. It's 
a growing factor in social work. It's the next 
thing ahead in international relations. The prevention 
of war is the biggest problem of the nations today. 
The League of Nations has taken a long step. Mrs. 
Parker, at Geneva as The Survey's representative, saw 
the step taken and shared in the excitement of the 
event. She tells her story of it on p. 141, with the same 
deftness of touch which marked her story of Carlton 
Parker An American Idyl. 

THRILLING as it may have been, the action of 
the League was also hard-headed. Months of 
strenuous thought and negotiation lay behind it. Pro- 
fessor Shotwell, historian, teacher, unofficial diplomat, 
shared heavily in those tasks. He interprets the proto- 
col on p. 145. Readers who wish to refresh their 
memory as to the earlier stages of the "American plan" 
may turn back to Survey Graphic for August 1924 to 
Professor Shotwell's article on p. 483. 

IS it a service to the child to find him a niche in 
industry given industry as it is today or not? 
Ethel Kawin asks the question on p. 148, because she 
plugged away for years at the task, with growing 
doubts, as assistant director of the Chicago Vocational 
Bureau. 





Drawn by Hendrik Wiliem Van Loon 



HEARTS ARE PUMPS ! 





GRAPHIC NUMBER 



NOVEMBER 1, 
1924 




Volume LIU 
No. 3 



Heart Disease 



Communicable? Curable? Preventable? 

By HAVEN EMERSON, M.D. 



QO impersonal problem, this, of sanitary en- 
gineering, health administration, remote in- 
dustrial readjustments. It is the thumping 
of your own heart against your own ribs 
which is knocking its way into notice. Once 
the three questions at the head of this page 
are answered, you, reader, will need no urge from without 
to tackle the job that heart disease presents. 

Sickness inability to work poverty; poverty depriva- 
tion sickness: This is the vicious circle which threatens 
to close in on every self-supporting household in the land. 
It matters little at which point one starts the dreary round. 
Has sickness stopped the family income? Is the income too 
scanty to afford a safe margin for food, rest and recreation ? 
Has the lack of these essentials worn down resistance and 
opened the door to sickness? 

Those who would conquer misery, save families from dis- 
integration, and save society from the burden which follows 
disaster to the family, must 
search out every weak link in 

ring of trouble. 

A generation ago it was tu- 
berculosis which led all causes of 
th, sickness, poverty ; which 
imed the breadwinner in the 



- 

ben 



yeai 

I 



Tuberculosis has been pushed from its 
place as arch-executioner. In its place, 
in most parts of the country, is heart dis- 
ease, now the chief cause of death in these 

years when his support was most United States. Fortunately heart disease 
:essary ; which took the mother is often curable. It is preventable. But 

the effort to cope with it must run the 
gamut of the seven ages from childhood 



the family and left young 
ildren to the mercy of circum- 

stances and relatives ; which bent when if ^ /Q ^ prevented, through the 
the bones of these children or -jji i * i j j 

. , . ,.,,, , . , . middle years when it may be arrested and 
started in childhood an infection , J , , , / , , ,. 

that flared up later under the cured to old age when its disabilities may 
strain of the teens and the twen- be alleviated. We are on the threshold of 

an onslaught upon it which promises re- 
wards as rich and startling as those of 
which the tuberculosis campaigners 
dreamed daringly twenty years ago. 

113 



ties to kill by "galloping con- 
sumption" or "lung; fever." 

Few were the prophets then 
to speak out boldly their belief 



that tuberculosis was truly curable, and that, by cutting 
its lines of communication, it could be prevented and its 
tragedies avoided. But out of the faith of those few, strug- 
gling to meet the needs of the handicapped and the unem- 
ployed, grew that first Committee on Prevention of Tuber- 
culosis of the Charity Organization Society of New York. 
The movement spread throughout the country. Societies, 
cities, states, the nation itself, united to break the circle 
of misery at this point which proved vulnerable. Tubercu- 
losis has fallen from first to sixth in the list of causes of 
death; conservative physicians promise that within fifty 
years it will cease to be a serious factor in mortality. 

A great part of the bondage of sickness has been eased. 
Since our Civil War almost twenty years have been added 
to the measure of life we may reasonably promise to our 
children. An incalculable tax on the wealth and happiness 
of all of us has been abolished. But still hundreds of thou- 
sands of men, women and children are shackled by unne- 

necessary illness, disability, pov- 
erty. Each year in the United 
States more than 'half a mil- 
lion people die of preventable 
or postponable diseases. We seek 
a new freedom, the so-called 
modern public health, which has 
no narrow aim of particular ad- 
vantage to one organ or function 
of the body. We measure our 
success by the release of free and 
joyous lives and we grapple with 
this chain of misery where it 
binds hardest. Where next can 
it be broken through? 

Heart disease is now the great- 
est single cause of death in these 
United States. It reduces the 
life span of its victims by one- 
half. 



114 



HEART DISEASE 



Heart disease in a recognizable form interferes with the 
work, play or comfort of at least 2,000,000 people in this 
country today. 

At least fifteen of every thousand school children have 
already acquired some definite disorder of the heart. At 
least thirty of every thousand men and women of working 
age must reckon with heart disease as a disability in work 
or a handicap in their pleasures. 

Ten per cent of the total bed capacity of our general hos- 
pitals is used year in and year 
out for the care of patients with 
heart disease. 

Twenty-five per cent of all 
visits to our city dispensaries are 
made by heart patients. 

Of all serious and ultimately 
fatal diseases those of the heart 
are of the longest duration, and 
with the possible exception of 
certain diseases of the mind, they 
cause the most persistent chronic 
handicap to self-support. 

During the past fifty years 
deaths in New York from heart 
disease have increased 42 per 
cent in number while deaths 
from tuberculosis have fallen 44 
per cent. In persons under 

twenty-five there are more deaths from heart disease than 
from typhoid fever. Between twenty-five and thirty-four, 
heart disease kills more men and women than does pneu- 
monia. Nine-tenths of the deaths from heart disease are 
in persons over forty years of age, and for these later 
decades no other cause of death compares with it in fre- 
quency. 

To gage these sinister enemies of the public health you 
have only to trace the line which shows the downward 
course of tuberculosis in New York for the past half cen- 
tury and in the Registration Area for the past twenty years, 
and contrast it with the trend of heart disease and cancer, 
rising as the proportion of the population increases who reach 
those later stretches of life in which these diseases play their 
major roles. 

The ledger in which the Registration Area records its 
bookkeeping with death is plainly set forth for anyone with 
a head for simple arithmetic. 

DEATHS IN THE UNITED STATES REGISTRATION AREA 
DURING 1922 

At 40 Years of 
At All Ages Age and Over 



All death? 

Heart diseases 

Kidney diseases 

Cancer 

Cerebral hemorrhage 

and apoplexy 
Pulmonary tuberculosis 
Lobar pneumonia 

Comparing the deaths at forty years and over with the 
deaths at all ages (Registration Area, 1922), we find that. 
90.1 per cent of all deaths from heart diseases occurred in 



that age group. The corresponding figures for the other 
causes of death are as follows: 



All causes 



60.0 



Kidney diseases 
Cancer 



To prevent smallpox, vaccinate. To 
prevent typhoid, purify the milk and 
water supply. To prevent heart disease 

that is not so simple. One must guard 
against infections of childhood and 
youth that may not bare their consequen- 
ces for many years. One must live sound- 
ly. And one should be examined periodi- 
cally for signs of disorder imperceptible 
to the layman. As for cure', that rests 
chiefly on competent diagnosis plus 
character. Not what the health officer 
does for us, but what we do for ourselves, 
will check this mounting peril. 





Percentage 
of All 




Percentage 
of All 


Number 


Causes 


Number 


Causes 


1,047,402 
134,184 
78,412 
78,355 


100.00 

12.8 

7-5 
7-5 


628,947 
120,965 
69,698 
72,411 


IOO.CO 

19.2 
n. i 
n. 5 


76,538 
is 75,905 
45,i7i 


7-3 
7-2 
4-3 


74,"2 
29,112 
26,153 


ii. 8 
4.6 
4-2 



Cerebral hemorrhage 

and apoplexy 96.8 

88.9 Pulmonary tuberculosis 38.4 

92.4 Lobar pneumonia 57-9 

For every death from heart disease during a year there 
are seventeen patients still alive suffering from it, whereas 
the comparable ratio in tuberculosis is about seven cases for 

each death. In any community 

the number of persons who need 
expert medical guidance because 
of actual or threatened heart dis- 
ease and its complications now 
outruns the number with recog- 
nizable tuberculosis infection. 

These heart patients common- 
ly appear out of a teeming popu- 
lation full fledged in disease. Dis- 
appearing as suddenly as they 
come, when for the moment re- 
lieved in ward or clinic, they 
soon come back. After a few re- 
calls, however, they seldom re- 
turn; they are listed among the 
permanent sacrifices, while we go 
on, little wiser, to the next. 

Where do the multitudes of 

heart cripples come from? What work can they do? How 
long can they work? What years or months or barely 
weeks- can they survive at home, in hospitals, or as chronic 
invalids? Call in the doctors! Can they tell us the whole 
story of heart diseases? No! Not singly or as a group, 
for the matter has hardly gone beyond the realms of pathol- 
ogy and clinical medicine. Heart patients have oftenest 
been briefly interesting but discouraging persons, with mur- 
murs to entertain the curious ear and an endless series of 
progressing disabilities to prove our resources hardly more 
than futile. 

But with the pressure for relief from clinic and social 
agency, and despite the pretty comprehensive ignorance of 
the task ahead, there came to be in 1915 a recognized 
problem of heart disease, and with it a gathering of inquir- 
ing spirits, a little start in assembling facts, a spur to study. 
Suddenly we found ourselvefs asking for heart disease those 
three critical questions which our predecessors of 1900 
asked and so gallantly answered for tuberculosis: Is it 
preventable, communicable, curable? 

And already, after hardly more than a preliminary scout- 
ing, the challenging answers come back: 

The commonest causes of heart disease, rheumatism and 
syphilis, are properly considered communicable. 
Many heart diseases are entirely preventable. 
Some are u~ holly curable. 

How then to tell the story of these diseases of the heart, 
their causes and peculiarities, so plainly that we can enlist 
the easy understanding and eager help of housewives and 
wage-earners, children and elders, of all of us over whom 
the shadow of unnecessary disease is cast by our own ignor- 
ance and our indifference to prevention. Heart diseases 
will fall before determination built upon facts, just as 
tuberculosis did. And why should there be more merit 
in saving life from the tubercle bacillus than in salvaging 



HEART DISEASE 



115 



childhood from the virus of rheumatism, or the hearts of 
grown-ups from the errors of their own manner of life ? 

To begin with, the common infections of the heart and 
late results of rheumatic fever upon the heart were known 
to physicians in Greece and Rome many centuries before the 
observant William Harvey first proved, in 1628, the true 
functions and uses of the heart as the indispensable pump 
of the circulation. The four main causes of heart diseases 
are the general infections, chiefly rheumatic fever and syph- 
ilis ; poisonings by alcohol, tea, 
coffee and tobacco; poor bodily 



will show evidence of tuberculosis in an active or subacute 
stage.. This common experience is to our minds easily 
explained because we can see, trace and demonstrate the 
causative organism, the tubercle bacillus, in the sputum of 
the open case, usually, in the dust of his bedroom, and in the 
diseased tissues of the persons who have been in close asso- 
ciation with him in the home. 

If we repeat such a study in the families from which 
acute cases of rheumatic heart disease have been admitted 

to hospital care or to dispensary 
supervision, we shall find that 



habits, physical indolence, obesity, Last year organic heart disease killed near- here again 15 per cent of the 

occasional extreme exertion with- l y three times as many people in New York "contacts," those in the inti- 

out sufficient training; and con- City as did tuberculosis; more than twice mate circle of the families, will 

genital defects, those errors of as many as cancer; more than half again commonly give a defimte 



development in the 

months of the infant which leave 

the heart imperfect at birth. 



as many as pneumonia. Moreover it usual- 



or show physical evidence of at- 
tacks of acute rheumatic fever or 
of tonsilitis or of chorea with or 



ly kills by inches. A death from heart dis- 

Of all heart diseases which ease has typically back of it a story of w[thout accornpanyi ng affections 
come under systematic hospital infection in childhood or early adult of the heart- True, this is only 
or out-patient care either in pub- ltf e > f l 3s f working power in the most c i rcu mstantial evidence, and un- 
lic or private practice, from 70 productive years, of a decade or more of til some way is found of identify- 

slowly waning strength, leading to in- 

validism, dependency and finally to 

death. 



to 95 per cent are due to general 
infections. That total is made 
up of 50 to 60 per cent from 
rheumatic infections, 15 to 20 
per cent syphilitic, and 5 to 15 



ing with exactness the specific or- 
ganism of rheumatic fever and 
its many secondary injuries to 
heart and other tissues, we can- 
not speak with the same positive- 



per cent from focal infections, such as those of teeth, sinuses, ness that we do of the communicability of tuberculosis, 
and the like, or following acute general infections such as However, enough is known to justify us in thinking of and 



scarlet fever, pneumonia, typhoid fever, influenza or diph- 
theria. It will be seen that in this first and largest group 



dealing with the group of illnesses which we class as "acute 
rheumatic" as if we were dealing with an acute communi- 



of heart diseases due to infections, we are dealing with a cable infection. This calls for the simple and well estab- 



muhitude of primary causes, all of which are definitely 
preventable by applying our present knowledge of the cause 
and manner of transmission of bacterial infection. By these 
infections the cause of what are known as the organic 



lished precautions of so-called medical asceptic technique 
of the sick room. 

No longer will it be good form to make a social center and 
family gathering place of the bedroom of acute rheumatism. 



diseases of the heart the structure of the valves, the muscle This includes Tommy with his "growing pains" at five and 
wall or the covering membrane of the heart is so damaged Sally with "St. Vitus Dance" at seven and "dad" with sore 

throat, as well as Uncle Ned who has a rip-roaring inflam- 
matory rheumatism every couple of years and was told 



as to impair the effective working of this ceaselessly inter- 
mitting pump and reservoir. 



Up to the age of twenty rheumatism is a more frequent after the last attack that he must have his tonsils out and 



cause of heart disease than all other causes combined and it 
s only in the past decade that the relationship of acute 
tonsilitis, chorea (St. Vitus' dance), acute rheumatic fever 
and acute infections of the heart without rheumatic disease 



favor his heart a bit because the rheumatism had touched 
one of the valves before it left him weak and anemic. 

Yes! even though we know that one person cannot trans- 
mit to another the damaged heart valve or the diseased 



of the joints has been made sufficiently clear to convince muscle wall, the common cause of rheumatic heart and 
physicians that we are dealing with one and the same infec- joints can, we believe, be passed from the sick to the well 



tion expressing itself in widely separated tissues of the 
body. 

IP has only recently begun to dawn upon practitioners of 
medicine and research students in the field of heart dis- 
ease and its prevention that there is quite as much evidence 
for the communicability (probably direct) of v.'hat we must 
still call the unknown virus of rheumatism in the family 
or household as there has been for the same kind (5f dis- 
tribution of the tubercle bacillus. We do not know the ac- 
tual bacterial or other organism responsible tor acute rheu- 
matic fever, but that need not hold us l>ack from studies 
of its natural history. 

If all members of the households in which an open case 



in very much the same way that an acute sore throat may 
go the rounds of a family. 

Cleaner mouths, fewer diseased tonsils, fewer neglected 
decayed teeth, earlier recognition of sore throats, and quick 
care in their treatment as serious infections, the considered 
and skilled attention to the little child with aching muscles 
-ind joints "too young to have rheumatism," kept up and 
about with "growing pains" repeated examination of the 
heart after attacks of any acute infectious fever in child- 
hood, always separation of the sick from the well ; by such 
means will the number of acute rheumatic hearts be re- 
duced. 

As to the second factor of prime importance in infectious 
damage of the heart and great blood vessels, syphilis is so 



of pulmonary tuberculosis has been found are carefully ex- well known and so thoroughly recognized as communicable, 
amined, not less than 18 per cent of them, young and old, and the common means of distribution of the diseases are 



116 



HEART DISEASE 



The Honor Roll of Cardiac Clinics 



Arkansas 




New Jersey 




Hot Springs 


1 


Montclair 


1 


California 




Newark 


1 


Los Angeles 


1 


New York 




San Francisco 


4 


Albany 


2 


Canada 




New Roehelle 


1 


Montreal 


2 


New York 


48 


Toronto 


1 


Rochester 


3 


Winnipeg 


1 


Yonkers 


1 


Connecticut 




Ohio 




Hartford 


1 


Cleveland 


2 


New Haven 


3 


Youngstown 


1 


Illinois 




Oregon 




Chicago 


12 


Portland 


1 


Indiana 




Pennsylvania 




"Indianapolis 


1 


Johnstown 


1 


Iowa 




Philadelphia 


20 


Davenport 


1 


Pittsburgh 


4 


Des Moines 


1 


Rhode Island 




Louisiana 




Providence 


1 


New Orleans 


2 


Tennessee 




Maryland 




Knoxville 


1 


Baltimore 


1 


Memphis 


1 


Massachusetts 




Texas 




Boston 


1 


Dallas 


1 


Pall River 


2 


*San Antonio 


1 


New Bedford 


1 


Wisconsin 




Michigan 




Milwaukee 


1 


Detroit 


1 




_ 


Grand Raoide 


1 


Total 


142 


Minnesota 




These are cities in which 


asso- 


Minneapolis 


3 


ciations for the prevention and re- 


Missouri 




lief of heart disease have 


beea 


St. Louis 


2 


formed. 





nowadays so widely and intelligently taught, that we need 
only to refer to the steadily encouraging evidence of control 
and reduction of this Great Pox to remind our readers of 
the part social hygiene will play in reducing heart diseases. 

Few realize yet how long the years often are between 
the time of original syphilitic infection and the presence 
of the aneurysms, the diseased heart muscle, the degenerated 
arterial walls, which constitute the heart diseases of this 
source, one of the commonest of the late or tertiary mani- 
festations of this wide spread venereal disease. Unfortunate 
as it is that among rheumatic heart patients more than five 
years usually elapse between the date of infection and the 
first recognition of heart damage, the facts are truly aston- 
ishing where syphilis is the primary factor. On the average 
it is more than seventeen years after the primary syphilitic 
infection before the patient is aware of cardiac involvement. 
Often a severe uncontrollable damage has been done before 
the sufferer asks for a medical diagnosis or relief. What 
better reason for adopting the practice of a yearly health 
service examination? 

In heart diseases as in practically every other preventable 
or curable disorder, success in treatment and, in large 
measure, in prevention depends upon the earliness of correct 
diagnosis often while the patient is still quite unaware of 
evidences of disorder and incapable of detecting it unaided. 
There are stages of both the rheumatic and the syphilitic 
heart when healing without serious permanent damage can 
be secured, but it is as common now to see in the heart 
classes neglected and incurable invalids as it was twenty 
years ago to see that fast disappearing clinical curiosity, an 
advanced or third stage case of consumption in the tuber- 
culosis clinics. 

The rheumatic heart patients are developed in childhood 
and new cases reach their maximum in early maturity; it 
is not until the age of forty-five to fifty-five that the late 
syphilitics appear, their incompletely healed disease acquired 
in the reckless years of about thirty* to thirty-five express- 
ing itself with the handicap of pain and circulatory embar- 
rassment in late middle age. 




Cities in the United 
States and Canada 
having Clinics and 
Heart Associations 



WHEN we pass to the group of poisonings we come 
to many of the functional disturbances of the heart, 
in which, at least in the early stages, the structures are not 
altered appreciably, though the capacity for work, the rate, 
rhythm and perhaps force of the heart is continuously or ir- 
regularly disturbed because of the effect of the drug con- 
sumed. 

These functional disorders are preventable and curable 
by avoiding the use of the harmful substance, either alto- 
gether or in such amounts and under such conditions as are 
found to do damage. Alcohol, an irritant and depressant 
drug, is no longer used by well-informed physicians as a 
heart stimulant, but the laity will doubtless continue to 
medicate itself as of yore because it likes the taste and the 
dulling effect of liquor. Tea, coffee, and tobacco, when 
used in moderation, affect the heart harmfully only in per- 
sons with unusual intolerance to the particular alkaloid 
poisons ingested. The disorders of heart action readily 
recognized when brought on by these narcotic drugs often 
serve as a useful warning, and self-denial is the simple an- 
swer of prevention. 

Poor habits of life lead to heart disease almost exclu- 
sively in persons over forty-five years of age where indolenc 
or ease of circumstances, coupled with lack of oppor- 
tunity for physical fitness, allow the heart to loaf. No 
muscular tissue can safely be allowed to atrophy or degen- 
erate from disuse; the heart is no exception, becoming in- 
capable of meeting even moderate emergency exertions in 
middle life, unless practised by at least the regular habit 
of brisk outdoor walking. Among the deaths properly attri- 
butable to the automobile are those of persons who rely upon 
the gas engine and balloon tires to do what their own much 
more economical combustion system and a good pair of 
leather shoes should provide for them. Here again we are 
well within the terms preventable and curable if we fol- 
low the laws of right living and worship moderation more 
than luxury. 

The occasional patient with a congenital heart defect 
who survives the infections and other vicissitudes of child- 
hood has learned the limitations of his accidental defect 
of structure. We are alike ignorant of the reason for the 
error of development and helpless to alter the heart thus 
damaged. There is nothing preventable, curable or com- 
municable about the congenitally defective heart. 

Here then we have a serious cause of death and disease, 
much of which can be avoided, most of it mitigated, 
some of it cured. What has already been undertaken, and 



HEART DISEASE 



117 



whither the movement for prevention and relief is leading 
us, are worth a moment's attention. 

From the time when his brilliant imagination, supported 
by the resistless proof, of his experiments, drove Pasteur to 
the conviction that bacteria caused many diseases and that 
man had within his power the means of destroying these, 
the smallest of his living enemies, the ambition of all humani- 
tarians has been to throw off the burden and the blights of 
unnecessary sickness and let at least the body of man live 
through in joy and freedom the years of his natural life. 
Some such spirit brought together and held the pioneer 
group of physicians in New York who, largely inspired by 
the ideals and program of that veteran and much beloved 
fighter in the tuberculosis clinic work of the ctiy, Dr. John 
Huddleston, took up the challenge of preventable heart dis- 
ease and attempted to prevent it. 

Support was scanty, the workers few and the emergency 
of the war a serious handicap to so young a movement, 
but the plans of 1915 were so simple and the need of ser- 
vice so urgent that it was surprisingly easy in 1919 to resume 
the swing of the work. It was a great encouragement then 
to find how widely the three major objectives of the New 
York Heart Association had been recognized as indispensable 
a central office of information, a chain of special dispen- 
sary classes for diagnosis and home supervision of indigent 
or wage-earner patients, and a list of beds for convalescent 
care of heart patients at the Burke Foundation. These 
three specific accomplishments all clamored for expansion. 

Philadelphia soon followed (1921) with a vigorous local 
association taking responsibilities and a program similar to 
that of New York. Chicago, Boston and Indianapolis fol- 
lowed suit (1922 and 1923) and San Francisco in 1924. 

In May, 1922, a considerable group of internists, who felt 
the call in many parts of the country where separate societies 
were impracticable, met in St. Louis and authorized organ- 
ization on a continental basis. 

So it happened that in June of this year the American 
Heart Association was incorporated. There is now a con- 
venient medium for the expression of opinion in heart pre- 
vention, for common interest in study and report of results, 
a central agency for popular education, a force for coordin- 
ating the separate movements scattered all over this country 
and Canada. Not only the doctors interested, but nurses, 



social, relief, vocational guidance and school workers whose 
careers involve them in cardiac problems, now have the 
backing of rapidly growing authority. 

The accompanying map will show the present distribution 
of the 140 special cardiac clinics as at present operated in 
this country and Canada, forty-eight being in New York 
City. The attendance of active cases in New York has just 
touched the 7,000 mark, a larger total than is now attend- 
ing the thirty-one tuberculosis clinics of the city. 

The particular contributions of the Committee on Cardiac 
Clinics of the New York Heart Association in the direction 
of system, standard, accuracy or medical definition and 
terminology has been widely appreciated and generally imi- 
tated. The traffic service and organization plan of a typi- 
cal heart clinic is given in Dr. Robey's article on page 138. 

The efforts for discovery, relief, prevention, have been 
too brief, too narrowly confined to a few of the denser 
populations of our cities to warrant expectation of brilliant 
or even calculable reductions in incidence or deaths from 
the heart diseases. The duration of these diseases is com- 
monly so long that even if we had materially affected heart 
infections by a better protection and care of children, the 
certain result in terms of fewer cardiac deaths could hardly 
appear within twenty years. 

In New York city an analysis of the experience of about 
six million people since 1910 shows in the first three decades 
of life a slight but consistent improvement in the death rate 
of males and females from heart diseases in 1920 as com- 
pared with the records of 1910 and 1915, when rates based 
on exact enumeration of the population by age groups makes 
specific death rates possible. We must, however, anticipate 




In the United States Registration Area 



350 



300 




Death Rates from Heart Disease, Tuberculosis and Cancer per 100,000 population in New York City 



118 



HEART DISEASE 




O-4 5-3 
YEARS 



Death Rates from Heart Diseases by Sex and Age Groups up to Forty-five Years, per 100,000 Population 

in New York City 1910, 1915, 1920 



a rising death rate from heart diseases for perhaps another 
twenty years, partly because of the extending average dura- 
tion of life, and partly because the resources for prevention 
chiefly education and the habit of annual periodic medical 
examination will but gradually influence It. 

Long before the ponderous figures of the Census Bureau 
prove the success of the present efforts in terms of lower 
death rates, we shall see universally those benefits of un- 
derstanding and freedom from fear which are already un- 
shackling the imprisoned heart patients. It is the do's, not 
the don'ts, which count in the world for progress, and 
no more exhilarating experience awaits the parent of the 
cardiac cripple than the new message that in use, in func- 
tion, in play, in practice lies the strengthening of the heart. 
Not by refraining from all activity, but by sharing in the 
guided games and work of the world do the little heart 
patients win their way to an unexpected freedom. Not more 
than 8 per cent of the 20,000 heart cases found among 
the school children of New York needed to be denied any 
of the normal activities of childhood. Release from fear 
of sudden death which can be offered to the great majority 
of heart patients, is as much a boon, as the promise of heal- 
ing but recently given to tuberculosis patients. 

Since the first special out-patient clinic at Bellevue Hos- 
pital was established in 1911 there has been a steady growth 
in the understanding and use of expert facilities for diag- 
nosis of heart disease. Since the New York Conference on 
Hospital Social Service in 1912 evolved the plan by which 
a Trade School for Cardiac Convalescents was established, 
vocational training of school children whose hearts demand 
special consideration and occupational guidance for con- 
valescent and heart handicapped wage earners, have grown 
until research, practice and substantial improvement of 
method and resources have been secured with constant bene- 
fit to an ever widening circle. The natural history of heart 
disease, the life record, the intimate detailed story of patient, 
doctor, nurse, social worker, vocational guide, in many cases 



in widely scattered cities, is being built up in a volume of 
information upon which new and more helpful plans for 
prevention will be based. By combining information of 
laboratories with experience of the clinics such a weight of 
medical opinion has been created that a federal standard of 
uniformity in preparations of digitalis, the heart patient's 
most useful drug, has been established. 

Boards of education and health now look to heart clinics 
and heart associations for guidance in their dealings with 
the school child and the applicant for working papers whose 
heart has already been scarred or weakened by disease. No 
longer do summer camps or convalescent homes exclude 
the heart patient when certified to as a safe member of the 
work and play community. 

How similar the problem, how like the story of progress 
and procedure so far, to our successful experience with tuber- 
culosis- an affliction primarily acquired in childhood, en- 
during a life time, held under control or breaking bounds 
according to the wisdom with which the patient is guided ; 
prevention calling not for a specific or a vaccine, not for 
an edict of the health department or a masterful piece of 
engineering, but for a relearning of nature's lessons, a steady 
pressure against infections and the habitual poisons and 
physical unfitness; treatment requiring that exhibition of 
courage, patience, self-denial which goes to the building 
of character. 

No panacea can be found to prevent or cure heart dis- 
eases, though many a triumph of detection and treatment 
will be evolved. The enemy, heart disease, continues to kill 
from childhood to old age, because as yet he neither sees 
nor feels the weight of such universal enlistment of personal, 
private and individual interest in the attack as brought 
tuberculosis to bay and harried it out of nurseries, schools, 
shops and homes. Not what is done for us or to us for the 
public health, but what we ourselves do for our own sakes, 
will bring down heart diseases and set the span of life 
climbing again. 




This man's job has been adjusted to his strength 

Heart Disease and the Job 

Work Portraits by LEWIS W. HINE 

THE worker's clinic for cardiac patients at Bellevue Hospital is filled with men and 
women who are being helped to work out their own salvation. Some old, some 
pitifully young, tell their stories to the welfare worker and seek adjustment for their 
difficulties. Very often the solution lies in adjusting the present job of the cardiac 
patient so that he need not exceed his strength; sometimes a change of trade is necessary. 
Physicians and heart specialists now interpret the degree of heart trouble in terms of 
possible industrial effort and this is of great assistance to the layman in determining 
the kind of work the person should do. 

The man whose portrait appears on this page worked for seven years as a porter, lifting 
boxes and bales weighing from fifty to two hundred pounds. After an attack of rheu- 
matic fever he went to work at a much lighter job where his limitations were understood 
and respected. He has been there for five years. He attends the clinic regularly and has 
lost no time from his work because his employment is suited to his cardiac capacity. 




Hotel cooks and helpers handle heavy pans and kettles 

Among the patients in the cardiac clinic were 
night watchmen, and men employed in quiet 
"sitting" jobs in offices who wistfully said that 
if it were possible for them to go back to busy 
docks, noisy baggage rooms, the blacksmith's 
torge, or the activity of a great hotel kitchen, 
wherever there was cheerful bustle and fellow 
workers to talk to, they would be happy, even 
though the old job sometimes paid less than 
the new trade to which they had been trans- 
ferred. But strain and lifting heavy weights is 
not good for the man with heart disease ; he 
must take the job that is within the limits of 
his strength. Many have been transferred to 
lighter work from jobs like those shown on 
this page. 




The dock walloper often has a Keav> load 




The blacksmith must be a man of strength 



The baggage smasher needs good heart and muscle 




Classified as 2b in the cardiac clinic, this young man was told that his work as a stamper on paper patterns was 
unsuitable . He was persuaded to take training as an engraver at the Art Trade School and is doing well 




This man was taken from a glass cutter's job because of heart disease. He is now employed assembling radio parts 




An oldish man, witha bad heart, can still, under supervision, eaina living 
without risk. At sixty -two years of age this man, a cardiac patient, is 
working ttn hours a day as a waiter. He was formerly employed 
as a cook in a boys' camp, but the work combined with the responsibility 
proved too hard and at the advice of the clinic he obtained lighter work 



Putting their Hearts in their Work 




By HANNAH MITCHELL 

Diphtheria is a matter of Jays; typhoid 
of weeks; tuberculosis of years heart 
disease may run for decades. No other 
diseases (except perhaps some of the 
mind) handicap their victims for self- 
support so persistently and so long as 
those of the heart. The task before us 
is not merely to keep cardiacs alive, but 
to help them walk the narrow path be- 
tween dependence and over-exertion; to 
find work that will mean self-support and 
the meeting of family responsibilities 
without jeopardizing the wage-earner's 
dearly won hold on life. 



FTER describing 
the handicaps of 
a patient with 
heart disease, the 
doctor said, "But 
this man supports 
himself, a wife, and three chil- 
dren very happily. Their home 
is clean and comfortable, the chil- 
dren are well and in school, and 
his wife does not have to piece 
out the family income. So I 
believe \ve can say my patient is 
not a person for commiseration 
but rather a man worthy our 

deepest respect." 

Today with our increased at- 
tention to rehabilitation and occupational therapy, hundreds 
of men and women who are admittedly handicapped by 
heart disease have found gainful work whereby they can 
support themselves and, often, dependents. Only a few 
years ago they would have been dismissed as "sick" and 
permitted to struggle or flounder about with their dis- 
ability, themselves dependent upon relatives or the state 
until their handicap ended things for them. 

A close-up study of some of these persons who have found 
work and independence in spite of their handicaps may be 
made at any one of a number of clinics. What is called 
the "Workers' Clinic" for cardiac patients at Bellevue 
Hospital is literally packed with men and women who are 
being helped to work out their own salvation. This clinic 
meets on Friday nights at seven o'clock the time when 
most workers can come for their periodic going-over. 

Men and women, some very old and some pitifully young, 
line up before the doors open. Those who are coming for 
the first time take their places for examination; those who 
are regular attendants go to their benches to wait. The 
physicians and helpers in the clinic go about their quiet 
regime of checking up on the physical condition of the 
patients. But the busiest person of all, she who must be 
advisor and friend on every sort of human problem which 
may be presenting itself to the patients, is the welfare 
worker. She it is who gets the story of physical difficulties 
and family troubles, if any, business problems, and all the 
petty, so-important details of life which present themselves 
to us all and are so much alleviated by just talking them 
over with one of sense and sympathy. 

And who are these regular attendants at the clinic; where 
<lo they come from ; what are their histories and what their 
futures? They represent a cross section of life as typical 
as any that could be taken anywhere else. The quality 
they have in common is that their hearts have been injured 

iin one way or another, or show signs of making trouble at 
some time if attention is not given them. 



There is the complacent 
worker a man from an office 
who has been attending clinic for 
twelve years, more or less. He 
sits reading the evening news- 
paper until his turn with the 
doctor comes. There is the 
nervous mother with the big- 
eyed young daughter, who wants 
most of the welfare worker's 
evening for family recitals which 
have nothing to do with heart 
disease. There is the young and 
oh-so-pretty mother, late' because 
of the evening dishes and dressed 

in her much-laundered best, 

whose turn comes quickly because 

she is so late. There are the young men who wear apolo- 
getic expressions for this seeming submission to weakness. 
There is the old, very old couple husband and wife, who 
know that but for this clinic, they would have been 
separated years ago each to live in some institution for 
the old and infirm. The cardiac clinic is the only means 
by which they are permitted to go down the last years of 
life together and their attendance each Friday is a ritual 
such as going to church. There are the young girls girls 
who have to work so interested in good times, to some 
of whom the fun of life, dancing and going to movies 
seems far more important than clinic attendance. 
This is the Cardiac Clinic. 

ONE of the greatest boons to the cardiac patient who 
has to continue activity has been the development of 
the use of digitalis. About 25 per cent of all heart patients 
are suffering from a condition known as auricular fibrilla- 
tion. Patients having auricular fibrillation require daily 
medication with digitalis. Standardized digitalis is supplied 
at the clinic and the patients are taught to be on the look- 
out for symptoms indicating that they have had too much, 
and generally given an understanding of how to use this 
drug. Digitalis slows down the heart of the patient who 
is required to take it, and increases its ability to do work, 
if given in the proper amounts. Too much of the drug 
results in serious symptoms. Consequently the care and 
the education of patients is most necessary. Besides, each 
cardiac is required to report to the clinic frequently for 
observation while he is using it. The use of digitalis has 
greatly increased in the last ten years. It may be classed 
along with the human agencies which have been active 
in rehabilitating workers made inadequate by cardiac 
troubles. 

Just as the trouble with his or her heart, or the po- 
tentiality of trouble is individual, so the family condi- 
tions, the tastes and abilities of each patient are different. 



123 



124 



PUTTING THEIR HEARTS IN THEIR WORK 



Consequently placement of these people at the jobs they 
can do, once they are found able to work, is as individual 
as the treatment which precedes, and often continues with 
the ability to work. The generalities in regard to the 
persons who attend a Cardiac Clinic have been stated by 
Gertrude R. Stein, New York State Bureau of Rehabilita- 
tion, and Belle Baron, Committee on Cardiacs of the 
Public Education Association: 

Experience seems to show that most cardiacs are inert and 
lacking initiative. They seldom suggest what work they want 
to do themselves, but it must be suggested to them. It is un- 
usual to come across a cardiac who wants to do work which 
exceeds his strength. Cardiacs are apt to worry about them- 
selves and to become neurasthenic. The quicker a cardiac can 
be adjusted to work the less apt he is to become depressed. . . . 
A cardiac should remain at his old trade and do that part 
which does not aggravate his physical condition. The less 
adjustment he has to make the less likely he is to become 
despondent. Many cardiacs cannot remain at their old trades, 
but wherever it is possible it should be encouraged. . . . 

Placement work with the cardiac is more difficult than the 
placement of other disabled people because the disability is 
not evident. If a man has a leg injury he is not asked to 
stand all day. If a man has an arm injury he is not called 
upon to do heavy lifting; but a cardiac, often more disabled 
than either, is frequently required to do work far in excess 
of his strength. . . . Physicians and heart specialists now in- 
terpret the degree of heart trouble in terms of possible in- 
dustrial effort and this is of great assistance to the layman 
in determining the kind of work the person should do. 

There are certain physical limitations common to them 
all. Lifting is the outstanding work they must guard 
against and this automatically eliminates certain kinds of 
work, such as that of a longshoreman, a sailor, a driver, a 
shipping clerk or a porter. In most cases cardiacs cannot 
climb stairs often or continuously or run errands without 
bringing on attacks. The work of a salesman is unsuitable. 
Many persons interested in rehabilitation advise that the 
cardiac of necessity be placed in a seated job. If this were 
possible, it would, of course, do away with the danger from 
lifting and climbing, but restricting cardiacs' possible jobs 
to seated jobs limits the possibilities of placing them, for 
there are so few of these jobs. And most of the seated 
jobs are held by women. 

There is another factor which must be taken into con- 
sideration in placing cardiac patients their own desires and 
inclinations. In other words there is the ordinary amount 
of temperament which must be dealt with in all human 
beings. The job for an individual cannot be prescribed 
simply with a view to his physical ability to do it. Like 
all other workers the cardiac not only wants work but he 
wants work congenial to his taste. 

There is some variety in the jobs which are safe for 
cardiac patients to attempt. All processes of jewelry design 
are excellent, for the work is light and varied. Watch 
and clock repairing offers the advantage that the skilled 
man can work at it part of the time at home. The as- 
sembling of instruments and electrical appliances is usually 
done with the worker seated. Some of the other possible 
kinds of skilled work are listed in the box on the opposite 
page. 

The hoys and girls who are attendants at the cardiac 
clinics are being trained in the trade schools along these 
or similar lines. It is possible to start these young people 
in the kind of work they can do and less often is there 
trouble in readjustment such as is almost inevitable with 



the men and women who have worked for a number of 
years at some unsuitable occupation. 

The older patients sometimes can be fitted into skilled 
work, perhaps after a special course of training, but usually 
they have to try the unskilled. Such opportunities for men 
which are suited to heart disability are: cashier and checker 
in restaurants; checker in shipping houses; elevator operators 
and switchboard operators ; watchman ; news-stands, door- 
men at hotels, clubs and so forth; and ticket takers in 
theaters. Women are usually placed to card and sort and 
pack buttons; pack and wrap candy and dolls; pack and 
examine hair nets, hosiery and gloves; card and box jewelry; 
run ribbons into and examine knit goods ; color lantern 
slides; fold and wrap dress patterns; box and assemble 
pencils ; assemble piano action ; cut, block and finish ribbons ; 
fill, label and finish goods in drug supply houses; and to 
serve as matrons of clubs. In many cases, of course, it is 
impossible that the cardiopathic worker can remain at his 
old work or return to it. Many of the tragedies in cardiacs 
are due to the necessity for a change of occupation. 

IN the hope that I shall not inadvertently stumble on to 
their real names I shall designate some of the men and 
women whom I met at the Bellevue Cardiac Clinic with 
names of my own making. They gave me some slight 
glimpse of what it would mean to one who liked his work 
to have to change. Besides being sick and limited in his 
very life, the cardiac who has to earn his living gives up 
very often the pleasure of doing something he has learned 
to do well. He leaves associates who have become his 
friends in work. And works at something just because he 
has to earn his own and, sometimes, several other persons' 
bread. At the clinic I met Mack Murphy, slight and Irish, 
with sandy hair and golden brown eyes. Mr. Murphy is 
about forty years old, I should say. He has a wife and 
three children dependent upon him. He is now a night 
watchman for a construction company. 

"It's not hard work," he said in discussing his job, "but 
the hours are hard to get used to. With kids playing in 
the apartment it's hard to get a good day's sleep. Then 
again it's lonesome work. I go to work at six o'clock in 
the evening and come off at six o'clock in the morning. 
After the evening rush is over it begins to be lonesome. 
Another watchman walks our beat and we meet every half 
hour. Besides him there is no one to talk to, not even to 
speak to, most of the time. Nothing has ever happened to 
make me any trouble while I've been on this job. The 
main thing to watch is that kids don't climb around and 
hurt themselves where the men have been working in the 
daytime." 

"What was your work before?" was the natural question. 

"Why, I used to work on the docks," he smiled and 
expanded, "I pulled a hand truck. I'd like to be back on 
the docks. Sometimes the work was heavy and then again 
you wouldn't have more than one little bundle on your 
truck all depending on what was coming in. But I liked 
it and there were lots of other fellows about. I'd like to 
go back to the docks." 

Another man James Smith, let us say- -who was wait- 
ing for the doctor told me he had started life at heavy 
work for one of the subway companies. He was ill andj 
his illness left him a cardiac. The company for which h<4 

I 



PUTTING THEIR HEARTS IN THEIR WORK 



125 



had worked found him a job in one of its offices where he 
has been doing clerical work for twelve years. 

"Yes, I like the job I have now. It's a good job a 
better job than I had before. As a matter of fact I have 
worked at it longer than I did at the other one. But," and 
he paused and looked at me very directly, "but I'd go back 
to the old work if I had my health and strength back." 

"And what was your former work?" 

"Why, I lifted these heavy man holes," he smiled and 
there was the masculine pride in physical superiority in 
the smile, "Yes, I used to lift many of those heavy man 
holes without any help at all." 

Thomas Aikin has held a job as watchman for several 
months without losing a day. When first introduced to the 
Cardiac Clinic he was in a very serious condition, and instead 
of working out he stayed at home and cared for an invalid 
mother. His sister supported the family and when she lost 
her job the condition of the family was almost desperate. 
For twenty-five years Thomas had suffered from fatigue 
and in that time had had ten heart attacks. His occupation 
had been trucking, driving a team heavy work and wholly 
unsuited to his physical condition. 

Thomas is one of the patients at the workers' clinic who 
has received the full benefit which digitalis may bestow. 
His ten breakdowns were due to the lack of it. The clinic 
taught him the use of this drug and through it gave him 
new strength without the palling apprehension of the failure 
subsequent to his former attacks. Also, through the Bureau 
for the Handicapped' to which the cardiac clinic referred 
him he found a position suited to his heart capacity at 
; twenty-five dollars a week. 

A stolid, solid-looking person is James Rock, another of 
the personalities of the Cardiac Clinic. Mr. Rock is nearly 
fifty years old. He came to this country in 1898 from 
Ireland and in time became a citizen of the United States. 
For seven years he worked at heavy porter work at one of 
the best known grocery establishments in this city. In this 
work he was required to lift boxes and barrels weighing 
from fifty to two hundred pounds. As a result of over- 
work he went to another establishment where he did light 
porter work. Two years ago he went to Bellevue Hospital 
with an attack of rheumatic fever and after his recovery 
from this was referred to the cardiac clinic. Still lighter 
work was recommended. The company for which he had 
been working kept him, reducing the strain of his work. 

The most interesting person of all those I met at the 
clinic I have saved to the end of this story. This is Elbert 
Ross. He is sixty-two years old and was at one time chef 
! in one of the large establishments which cater to New York 
appetites. Like other cooks he made a splendid living. 
Several years ago he realized that his work was too strenuous 
and asked the Cardiac Clinic for assistance in obtaining 
lighter employment. Through the Bureau of the Handi- 
capped he found work as a cook but this time for a chil- 
dren's home in the country. Of course the pay was much 
less than that which he had received heretofore, but the 
life in the country and difference in working conditions as 
well as in the amount of work made up for this. 

Small as the money is, outside that one thing I think I am 
more comfortable and treated with more respect than ever I 
was in any place I have worked, I will enclose a few days 
work so you will have an idea about the food I am giving them 
(entirely my arrangement) the children, I mean, whose ages 



Skilled Jobs for Cardiacs 

FOR MEN 

Engraving, jigsaw and assembling in celluloid novelties 
Polishing diamonds 
Certain kinds of draughting 
Work as a barber, for cardiacs who can stand for long 

periods or work quickly 
Pocket-book pasting 

Operating and finishing garments and furs 
Bookkeeping, stenography, and accounting 
Retouching in photography 

Proof reading and copy-holding in the printing trades 
Photographing and certain other processes in lithography 
Steel engraving 

Painting dolls' faces in doll manufacture 
Grinding and rubber turning in fountain pen manufacture 
Glueing and assembling in piano actions 
Covering and machine work on buttons 

FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS 
Millinery processes 
Pasting and sewing lamp shades 
Finishing in clothing manufacture 
Mending laces, and fine embroidery 
Crochet beading on dresses 
Fashion design 

Bookkeeping, stenography and typing 
Painting and engraving celluloid 

Work as a seamstress or information clerk in institutions 
Sample mounting in wholesale houses 



run between 6 and 10 years [he writes the social worker]. 

Milk and eggs are plentiful, also fresh meat and ham and 
bacon. I have used nearly two barrels of apples since I have 
been here I give the children one between meals every day. 
I would be very glad of any suggestions you could make at any 
time regarding the feeding of children. I am absolutely feed- 
ing these children at my own discretion and all I give them 
goes on record. 

There has been a lot of sickness here since I came [in the 
neighborhood he specified]. Daisy Cottage escaped it all. 

[In a P. s. Mr. Ross mentioned himself.] My health 
[he said] has been splendid since I came here. I work hard 
from 6 A. M. to 6:30 P. M. with possibly rest from 2 P. M. to 
4 P. M. and at night I am tired but with a contented mind 
knowing that my work is appreciated. 

I could go on like this indefinitely, telling the story of 
men and women for whom the cardiac clinic is a link which 
holds them to self-support and independence. If the persons 
with whom one brushes elbows in the street, or factory, or 
movie, were to be examined, probably not less than one in 
fifty would be found to be suffering from some form of 
heart disease. With medical advice and supervision to tell 
him what job he may wisely do, perhaps to train him for it, 
to help him find it, and then to keep him fit for it and in 
touch with his own strength, that fiftieth may outdistance 
his sound-bodied neighbors and keep on busily and happily 
for years. Without it, he may drift even in a few months 
into long, perhaps life-long invalidism. Repeated studies 
have shown that cardiac patients are better and happier at 
work than idle, and when they are properly classified many 
of them can be placed in jobs which they can fill as effectively 
as the worker with no handicap. It is estimated by the New 
York Heart Association that it costs only $20 a year for 
each patient to provide meaical, nursing and social service 
through a large clinic, but the salvaging of cardiac workers 
would justify to the workers, to industry, and to the com- 
munity an investment many times greater. 




Photographs by Lewis W. Hine 



For several years this old lady supported herself and her husband (whose picture 
is across the may) by folding Bible leaves. Both are victims of heart disease 




This man and his wife (opposite} are kept from falling into a state o} invalidism by 
regular attendance at the cardiac clinic, Bellevue Hospital, digitalis and good sense 








Photograph by Lewis W. Hine 



At twenty-nine years o} age this mother of two small boys is a cardiac classified 

as 2b indicating a serious condition. In the New York State Bureau of 

Rehabilitation light factory work is proving satisfactory for her 



Woman's Work Is Never Done 



By ELIZABETH PORTER WYCKOFF 



IN the class of heavy work we have put occu- 
pations such as longshore work, shipbuilding, 
blacksmithing and carpentry for men, and 
housework with washing or pregnancy, and 
janitress work for women." 

This is not a paragraph from a feminist 
speech. It is a scientific classification from a clinic for 
workers with heart diseases where they made a study of the 
work and capacity of 105 patients for a year. Of the men 
26 per cent were doing "hard work." Of the women, 58 
per cent. All of these patients had organic heart disease 
with more or less diminished cardiac reserve. 

We believe, [goes on the report] that this very large pro- 
portion of women doing hard work is due to lack of choice. 
This belief is accentuated by the fact that the greatest number 
of women doing hard work is during the third, fourth and 
fifth decades, that is, when most of them are married. Most 
women do heavy work as heads of large families.' It is nearly 
impossible for them to give this up, and difficult to make the 
work more easy. They frequently go on, as every worker 
in a cardiac clinic knows, until they drop. Men, on the other 
hand, when they find difficulty in doing hard work, either look 
for and obtain lighter work, or simply give up, frequently send- 
ing their wives out to work. 

The graph that went with these figures was rather hor- 
rible. After the fifth decade (forty to fifty years) the num- 
ber of women fell to nearly none. On the chart they van- 
ished a good ten years before the men. 

It looked as if cardiac housewives all died before they 
got to be fifty. The doctor explained it, not so much more 
encouragingly at that. The younger ones, of course, who 
had developed bad cases when their babies were little, had 
probably been unwilling to recognize the chances they were 
taking; probably they had died. The older ones, who had 
developed heart disease of a different type a little later had 
"gone till they dropped" at home or in the hospital. 

It is hard, it seems, for the cardiac housewife even to 
get to the clinic of an evening. She is always late. There 
are the children to put to bed and the supper dishes to do. 
It is perhaps a matter of getting your digitalis, if you are 
to go through the week in comfort. But the dishes have to 
be done. There is no doubt in any woman's mind about 
that everlasting fact. And suppose you do have an attack 
or two before you get to the doctor again ? You have 
always got over them, so far; they are regrettable, unfor- 
tunate. You regard them very much as most people think 
of a cold. Your work has not suffered much. You are 
a good mother and wife. You do the best you can. 

Against this traditional, and very likely instinctive, sacri- 
ficial spirit of the mother of the species, it is cheering to 
find the cool, appraising eye of science sizing up the situa- 
tion in terms of dispassionate disapproval. Difficult as it 
often is to change the work of a man cardiac or of a single 
woman, it is simple, they say, compared to the problem of 
the mother of children. To change the working conditions 
of her life, you must often change the living conditions of 
the entire family, perhaps help the father to a more lucra- 



tive type of work, send some of the children away for a 
time to give the mother a partial rest, give her a vacation 
if you can, before she actually breaks down, see that she 
has fewer stairs to climb, get the washing sent out if possible 
in short, to keep the mother alive and comfortable you 
must have the cooperation of her entire family. When it 
works, it is wonderful. 

Take this family of seven children whose mother is a 
cardiac. The father was earning seventeen dollars a week, 
and they were living in a three-room flat in a very crowded 
part of the city. In order to get better living conditions 
for the mother they moved to an outlying part of the city, 
where they have a very nice flat on a second floor with six 
outside rooms. Here the father got work at $30 a week. 

The father understands the situation perfectly, and both 
husband and wife have followed advice in almost all par- 
ticulars. He does much of the heavy housework, such as 
the sweeping; the flat is modern, so the housework is as 
easy as possible; and the children all help, each child hav- 
ing certain daily duties. As many as possible of the chil- 
dren are sent to the country each summer to give the mother 
some extra rest. This year the oldest boy has begun to 
work. This woman is carrying on well, and no doubt will 
be able to live along comfortably for years. The husband, 
who has common sense and evidently loves his wife and 
children, has known enough to take good advice when of- 
fered. He is apparently the key to this situation. 

This is what a man and woman can do with a handicap 
when they work together and use their brains. But it is 
the exceptionally sensible and sympathetic husband who 
makes such histories as this one possible. At the other end 
are combinations of handicaps that are enough to make the 
most experienced angel weep. Stairs and washing as draw- 
backs are mild compared to having a husband who drinks 
or who disappears, leaving one with small children. The 
routine, every-day care of children is taxing enough when 
they do not present any particular extra problem. 

The very young mothers with heart disease are more 
baffling to treat than the older, more settled and experi- 
enced woman. Take a flightly, pretty girl, who has had 
rheumatic heart disease as a child, has apparently recovered 
and then after marriage and having a baby, develops heart 
failure. She has another handicap, poor child. "She loves 
a good time," say the doctors, and she can't believe that it 
is necessary for her to live within what they call her "car- 
diac reserve." She gets better from each attack for a while 
and enjoys life as she always has. "Just look at her," her 
husband proudly says until the final breakdown comes. 

People ask often about whether women with heart disease 
should have babies. It is not a matter merely of living 
through the actual labor. Almost all young cardiacs go 
through that fairly well. The doctor talks instead of the 
strain on this same cardiac reserve through the nine months 
of pregnancy, the care of the baby when it comes, the broken 
nights for a year or so after the baby is born, the strain of 



129 



130 



WOMAN'S WORK IS NEVER DONE 



lifting and carrying it about. The woman with no chance 
to have her baby cared for has definitely to plan to strain 
her heart for at least two years if she has a child. 

The older women, who develop heart disease when some 
of their children are nearly grown, manage with their added 
maturity and experience, to arrange their lives better. Their 
husbands and their older daughters see the necessity for 
helping, and the older children are beginning to help out 
the family income so the washing can go out and perhaps 
some of the heavy cleaning be done. Most of these women 
are of the most ambitious American type. 

There is Mrs. H., who is fifty years old, the mother of 
six children. The father makes $30 a week, and the oldest 
son works and pays board. The oldest daughter has a 
part time job and helps at home the rest of the day. They 
have a light apartment on a third floor, and Mrs. H. tries 
to take the stairs only once a day. Four of the children 
are in school. She never misses a clinic night, and says that 
she feels exactly 100 per cent better since coming to the 
clinic. She does no laundry work, and she is happy and as 
comfortable as possible. But she has not, of course, the dis- 
advantage of wanting to dance and go to the beach and have 
a good time, and all the midnight colic and two o'clock in 
the morning baby-bottles were over for her long ago. 

The center of the whole problem shows plainly when you 
ask the social service worker what is the very first step to 
take in trying to prolong the life of one of these useful 
mothers of families. "Why, you see the husband, of course," 



she says. "If he can and will help, the rest is easy." 

Next comes the abolition of outside work, that source 
of the precious extra money that mother goes out and earns 
herself, with the substitution of light home work if extra 
cash is absolutely necessary. Then very often a change of 
living quarters and regular clinic treatment, of course, with 
the removal of the source of infection. If a tonsillectomy 
is indicated, the children are "placed" while the mother is 
in the hospital. The housework is regulated, a matter that 
can always be managed with intelligent patients, and once a 
year the mother and children, often together, are given a 
vacation in the country, before the mother breaks down. 

Like every other part of the problem of heart disease, 
the great necessity for the cardiac housewife is education. 
It is hard to persuade a woman who feels fairly well most 
of the time that virtue for her consists in doing less actual 
work for her family, rather than more. But if she really 
believes that by changing her life she will live years longer, 
and if the facts as to the .prevention and relief of heart dis- 
eases were as much a matter of common knowledge among 
her family and friends as those of tuberculosis have come 
to be, the thing would be half done. 

The mother of a large family with a small income is as 
nearly indispensable as any mortal ever is. Keeping her 
well and out of the hospital means a great deal more 
in terms of family life and the health and training of chil- 
dren than can ever be shown on a clinic chart. But it's 
a hard job, for her work is never done. 




*?<* 

..- 



1 



_ 1 



Light home work helps to support this mother and her child 



Child Hearts 

By SAMUEL McCOY 

"Keep thy heart with all 'diligence: for 'out of 
it are the issues of life." 

Proverbs, Chapter IV, Verse 23 

Five hundred thousand children in America 
are suffering from heart trouble of some sort. 

Two hundred thousand of them have or- 
ganic heart trouble. 

Five thousand of these children will die of 
heart disease this year. They will die tor lack 
of proper treatment of their hearts. 

What are we going to do about it ? 



I FIND it very difficult to become alarmed 
when people tell me that the increasing prev- 
alence of heart disease ought to alarm every- 
one. I am too selfish. I haven't any heart 
trouble, myself so far as I know and 
therefore I can't realize what it means 
to other people. My heart is thumping along beautifully. 

I rather fancy that my indifference, my callousness, is 
pretty general. Not many people seem to be interested in 
discussing heart disease, although they will carry on about 
other illnesses for hours at a time. . . . Perhaps this is 
because there is so little that is "spectacular" or even visible, 
about heart disease. It is so horribly concealed. It seldom 
shows its presence, to the casual observer. It hides itself 
even from its victim, for hours and even years at a time, 
lulling him into a false sense of good health. Until its 
very final stages at least, it betrays itself by no such signs, 
alarming to all who behold them, as a burning fever, a 
delirium, a stertorous breathing, or a ghastly sore. 

No, it is content to remain hidden, this sickened heart of 
ours, hiding its secret agony. Not wise, perhaps, this stoic 
guardianship of suffering. Help comes more quickly to 
him who shouts loudest for it. But the heart alone "know- 
eth his own bitterness." 

If, to those few, the physicians of the world, who have 
insight to guess this suffering beneath its veil, the spec- 
tacle of men and women so stricken is a bitter one, what 
must be the hurt amazement of the child who feels death 
thus clutching silently and terribly at him from within ? He 
walks sedately, or he sits brooding, and all is well: he runs, 
and instantly the dreadful hand is there, within, to halt 
him mysteriously and bring the sweat of fear to his fore- 
head. Outwardly, all is well ; his elders, seeing nothing vis- 
ibly wrong, are as indifferent and impatient towards him 
as I myself; and he will die before the year is out, his hurt 
eyes to the end accusing no one. 

When the careful student of mortality, having care- 
fully examined the records of the deaths of a hun- 
dred thousand men and women and children and having 
noted the ages at which each died, points to the chart and 
shows you that, when heart disease is the cause of death, 




Photograph from New York Heart Association 



the rate of death suddenly shoots upwards from the age of 
thirty-five onward, there is only one conclusion to be drawn. 
His chart makes it plain to the dullest beholder: 

To reduce heart disease among children and young people 
is to reduce it among the older. 

The situation may be described broadly as this: Up to 
the age of 35, less than one person in a thousand whether 
ten years old, or thirty, or any other age under 35 dies 
from heart disease ; but from 45 upwards the rate of death 
from heart disease speeds faster than that from any other 
disease known. Obviously, the thing to do is to attack heart 
disease and its causes before it grows beyond alleviation, 
while the child is still of school age. 

There, then, among children, is the plain point of chief 
attack, by physician, parent, school teacher and social worker. 
Let us see what is already being done along this battle-front. 

THERE are four chief forms of heart disease. Of 
these, careful analysis shows that the so-called acute 
forms of organic heart disease, pericarditis, angina pectoris, 
and acute endocarditis, "play a relatively insignificant part 
in the total deaths from cardiac diseases at whatever age." 
Ninety-five out of every 100 deaths from heart disease are 
due to the chronic form, organic heart diseases. 

Heart disease in the child, therefore, is the enemy against 
whom the heaviest amount of fighting must be directed. 
And in ninety children out of a hundred the primary cause 
of organic heart trouble is rheumatism ; while tonsillitis and 
decayed teeth, diseased adenoids and sinus infections are the 
chief contributing causes of rheumatism. 

Tonsillar infection is so common in recent years that it seems 
to be almost the exception to find a pair of perfectly normal 
tonsils in a child. . . . Complete removal of the tonsils has 
been shown to prevent recurring attacks of rheumatism and is 
the most effective preventive measure now known. . . . The 
fact that the tonsils have been operated upon is not enough, 
unless they are completely removed. 



131 



132 



CHILD HEARTS 



In the treatment of rheumatic fever and acute tonsillitis, pro- 
longed rest in bed (for days and even weeks after the fever 
is past) is imperative. 

One first quotes such observations as these to illustrate 
the elementary nature of the battle which is to be waged. 

How many children, out of the 500,000 who have weak 
or diseased hearts, are being given proper care and attention 
in America today? 

It is doubtful if 40,000 of them are getting such care. . . . 
The great majority of them more than 400,000 children 
are left alone, to an enemy whom they cannot understand 
and who will show no mercy to a child. 

IT is perhaps all the more terrible because it is so much 
a commonplace, so often present and so often disre- 
garded, in so many homes: 

"Run down to the store and get me a spool of thread, 
Johnny. Hurry now! Hurry!" 

A perfectly natural command, isn't it? There isn't a 
mother in America who might not utter it, with perfect 
justice toward her little son. 

But the boy comes running back; and stops, breathless. 

"Gee, mother, I feel awful queer." 

"What's the matter?" 

"I don't know, mother. I just feel tired." 

"Nonsense!" 

"No, honest, mother, I feel awful tired." 

"You're just a lazy boy, that's all! Here, come here 
let me look at you. Yes, there isn't a thing the matter with 
you. Not one single thing! You haven't got any fever, 
or anything. Run on, now, and don't let me hear any more 
nonsense from you. Mother's tired, and you've got to help. 
Don't be a lazy boy !" 

Months go on. The same dialogue is repeated day after 
day. 

"I declare, I don't know what's got into that boy! He 
isn't sick a mite, not a bit, so far as I'm able to see. And 
yet he's always shirking. Won't do the least little thing 
without complaining. I declare it's enough to make a body 
wonder if he's your own flesh and bone! But he'll work, 
or I'll know the 
reason why. I'll 
whale him, and 

don't you forget A IL Learning a safe 

; t " mj trade at the Car- 

Well, there J'f Training 

, _^f ichooi; jewelry 

are lazy boys ^fiLl box making 




Photograph from New York Heart Association 



and they do jhirk work. But they can't pretend to have 
heart trouble and hide behind that excuse if they really 
haven't heart trouble. A trip to the doctor will show> soon 
enough. You can't fool that funny thing that the doctor 
listens to your heart with. No, sir! 

The tragedy is for the child who is not taken to the doc- 
tor; and whose heart, doing queer things that no one but 
the child knows of, drags him along the weary road of 
miserable life. Sometimes someone will say, negligently, 
"Oh, 'guess Johnny's got a weak heart." But weak hearts 
get scanty sympathy. Most people seem to regard theni in 
others as an imaginary affliction, a subterfuge like "tempera- 
ment," adopted as an excuse to get out of doing one's honest 
share of the day's work. 

They won't believe until, perhaps years later- the tired 
heart stops altogether. 

But and this was less than ten years ago a few people, 
physicians and educators, who do believe in the serious nature 
of heart troubles in children began to make a new sort of 
world for such children. 

Beginning in 1916 and again in 1919, after a lapse of 
time when the war had called the doctors away from the 
city, a group of specialists in charge of seven cardiac clinics 
in New York City studied the children in the regular 
public schools of their neighborhoods, and the children who 
had been found to have organic heart disease and had 
been brought together in special classes in nine public 
schools. In that school population of 130,000 they found 
organic heart disease less often than one in a hundred chil- 
dren; its rate, to be exact, was 0.7%. 

Two-thirds of these cardiac children had had tonsillitis; 
nearly half of them had had rheumatism ; one in six told 
a story of diptheria or St. Vitus' dance ; one in eight, of 
scarlet fever. These rates are very much higher than those 
found in a group of normally healthy children of the same 
age and grades in the same part of the city. Almost with- 
out exception the cardiac children had diseased tonsils and 
one or more carious teeth. 

This same committee of the New York Heart Association, 
with the cooperation of the cardiac committee of the Public 
Education Association, studied the special classes for cardiac 
children which had been opened in the public schools in 1917! 
and later. In these classes cardiopathic children had a special 
regime; their temperatures were taken when they arrived; 
they had a hot dinner and a rest in the middle of the day 
at school ; in most cases after the regular school hours there 
was an extra period of supervised games and quiet] 
play to keep them from too strenous an after- 
noon at home or on the streets. But, valuable as 
these segregated classes are in many cases, the com- 
/ mittee decided that they were not necessary foi 

^^ the greater number of cardiac children (92 per cent) 

who could carry on well in the regular grades 
under supervision; while many of the remaining 8 
per cent were too sick to learn, and should be in 
bed at home or in a hospital ; and those few for 
whom special school routine is essential could be 
cared for as well in the classes for the handicapped 
without the expense and elaboration of segregated 
cardiac classes. 

So, in communities where a child's heart has ; 
chance, the set-up must be something like this: 
There is the hospital (or the child's own horm 



CHILD HEARTS 



133 



with a skilled private physician in charge) where the child 
with the dark-circled eyes so characteristic of the cardiac must 
lie on his narrow white bed so long as he is burned by fever, 
showing that there is active infection somewhere. This 
may mean weeks, or even months. 

There is the convalescent home (again it may be his own, 
if fresh air, sunshine, nourishing food and adequate super- 
vision are at hand) in which he can win back his ability to 
work and to play, testing that tricky heart cautiously after 
each new effort, to make sure that one is not presuming on 
its powers. 

There is the cardiac clinic, that sheet anchor to windward, 
from which no cardiac can afford to cut loose. To it come 
the children released from the convalescent homes, and 
others sent in from the schools, the dispensaries and other 
institutions, to be told what they can and what they cannot 
do safely, to be watched patiently for month after month, 
perhaps year after year, so that skilled judgment can de- 
tect at once the warning signs of too great exertion and 
prevent breakdown. There are nearly fifty cardiac clinics 
in New York City ; forty are divided between Philadelphia, 
Chicago, Boston and San Francisco; and there is one each 
in some thirty or more other cities about one hundred and 
forty throughout the nation. Many of these examine adults 
as well as children. 

And for the children who must reckon with a lifelong 
handicap there are the vocational classes to train them to 
some means of self support within their physical powers. 

At the hub of the wheel is the cardiac clinic. Take, for 
example, the oldest cardiac clinic for children, that of St. 
Luke's Hospital in New York City. 

Perhaps the school doctor sent you there, after he listened 
to your heart with his "telephone." Perhaps they gave 
you a card in the regular children's clinic and told you to 
go to "Cardiac" when your mother got worried and took 
you to find out why you puffed so when you ran upstairs. 
Or perhaps you have graduated from, a long hard grind at 
home in bed, or from a pleasant visit to a convalescent 
home (more of these hereafter). When you come to the 
clinic on a Saturday morning, its chief, Dr. William St. 
Lawrence, seems to start right over again at the beginning, 
and listens carefully to your heart, to decide if it really 
has organic heart disease. And if it has? 

Two days in the hospital. 

It is no use to register and advise a child at the clinic 
unless his family will help out in all the rest of the time 
which is under their direction and control. The best the 
clinic can do is to educate a child and his parents to know 
and respect his limitations. 

"It's like water dropping on a stone again, again, again 
until it makes an impression," said E. Louise Adams, 
the social worker in charge of St. Luke's cardiac children. 

At each visit Dr. St. Lawrence talks with the child 
alone, man to man, and puts his own problems up to himself. 

The two days in the hospital serve not only to give the 
time necessary for a complete physical examination of the 
child all kinds of analyses, tests, X-rays, and that mar- 
velous heart-writing which draws the beat of the pulses 
and the rhythmic muscular squeeze of the heart itself, but 
as a test of the genuineness of the parents' interest. If they 
trust the doctors enough to give their child over to them for 
two days, if they believe that a child perhaps not visibly 
sick still needs treatment enough to go to the hospital, 



then the chances are that they will see that he keeps his 
clinic appointments regularly afterward ; that he goes to 
bed at the time the doctor sets ; that he eats his food prop- 
erly, and eats the proper food; and that he is not asked to 
run errands and climb stairs or allowed to play tag and 
prisoners' base, unless the doctor says he can. 

If tonsils or adenoids have to be removed, this is done, 
whenever possible, at the time of that first hospital stay, 
prolonging it for a day or two. 

Then the young patient, accompanied by many records 
of himself and his family (for the social worker, too, has 
been busy, getting her story of his home and its assets and 
liabilities) goes back to the clinic and the doctor can lay 
out his course of conduct. 

This may mean visits to the clinic every week, or every 
month, perhaps only every three months. Probably they 
must be continued for years. St. Luke's carries on its rolls 
children who were there when the clinic opened eight years 
ago. They are followed through the grades, through high 
school, perhaps through some special vocational courses. For 
even a bad heart, treated respectfully, can be made to be- 
have and to leave its owner in comparative peace and com- 
fort, and for those many children whose conditions can- 
not be actually cured, this kind of supervision and the 
avoidance of all possible infections (the clinic immunizes 
its patients against diphtheria and scarlet fever and vac- 
cinates for smal pox, whenever necessary, in addition 
to having the focal infections of teeth, tonsils, sinuses, etc., 
cared for) must be carried on, if all is to go well. 

AND if it doesn't? If heart failure develops (and by 
this the doctors mean not sudden death, but the in- 
ability of the heart to keep up with its task) back he must 
go to bed. 

"Heart failure cases," said Dr. Halsey, outlining a gen- 
eral program for cardiac children, "are not to be considered 
anywhere except in bed." 

And in the convalescence following a breakdown of this 
sort, and often as a 
preventive measure 
to avoid it, doctors 
and social workers 
turn to the con- 
valescent homes. 

About New 
York City, which 
is the fortunate 
possessor of half 
the opportunities 



Millinery 

making is one 
of the preferred 
trades for girls 





Photograph b 



at Cardiac Training School 



134 



CHILD HEARTS 





Photographs from New York Heart Association 

Supervised play and gardening at a convalescent home 

for institutional convalescence in the whole country, there 
are some three hundred beds for children with cardiac con- 
ditions, in a dozen or more country homes, such as the 
Burke Foundation, the Mineola Home, the Mary Zinn 
Home, Martine Farm, and the Pelham Home. Here there 
is fresh air and sunshine a-plenty; at first one lies on a 
porch and basks in it, and with time, and returning strength, 
one does raffia work, one gardens or snowballs, according 
to the season, and plays quiet, then noisier games, and goes 
to school and keeps up one's grade in the classes main- 
tained by the public school system in each home which cares 
for twenty-five or more children. In one home the children 
wear colored ribbons tied on their arms to show how much 
exercise their hearts can stand wisely. As they progress, 
the colors change; and the supervisor, watching a dozen or 
more children at play, can see at a glance when one goes 
beyond his restrictions. Trained nurses are in residence ; 
visiting specialists come at regular intervals to measure and 
interpret progress. Perhaps one gets back "normal exercise 
tolerance." (By this Dr. St. Lawrence means the ability 
to run up three flights of stairs without calling forth an in- 
dignant protest from one's heart.) And in time, after weeks, 
months, perhaps a year, one is pronounced well enough to 
go back to home, school and the clinic. Often children in 
school in New York are sent off for short rests at the con- 
valescent homes, with brilliant results in preventing break- 
downs. 

Most of these children get really well. At Burke Founda- 
tion, for example, there are records to show that 85 per 
cent of the 130 boys whom they have taken between the 
ages of ten and sixteen have gone back to remain steadily at 
work or school. 

BUT perhaps, even with every care, that maimed heart 
can never be made strong enough to stand the rough 
and tumble which is required of most of the world. Its 
young possessor must be guided, so that he may choose a 
career in keeping with its limitations. 

The Cardiac Vocational Guidance Committee of the Pub- 
lic Education Association has charge of all such work in the 
city, working with the classes in the schools, the State 
Bureau of Rehabilitation and the Institute for Crippled 
and Disabled Men. The work performed in the red. 



brick building at 127th Street and Lexington Avenue 
New York City, has shown what can be done in 
actually training young cardiacs to support them 
selves. This work, inaugurated by the vocational guid 
ance department of the New York Heart Association 
assisted by the cardiac clinics of the city has now beei 
taken over by the Cardiac Committee of the Publi 
Education Association which began its work in 1917 
There one sees, on entering a big pleasant room 
on the second floor, groups of young girls occupiet 
at various tables. They talk and laugh and whispe 
among themselves, their fingers busy all the while a 
some sort of work; now and then one gets up fron 
the table and "visits" with another group of girl 
at another table, or goes to ask the teacher a question 
they are all smiling, all happy, and it would be beyoni 
anyone's power of observation to see in them any 
thing but a group of normal girls, in normal health 
busy and happy in a pleasant school-room. "But/ 
I whispered to my escort as I looked at them, "these 
girls can't be sick! They're just as healthy looking as any 
children can be!" 

She smiled. "I'm glad to hear you say that," she said 
"because that's what we are trying to make them. We're 
giving them just the sort of treatment they need, and it has 
brought them along until they seem, as you say, perfectly 
normal; but they are all 'heart' patients and if this care 
were relaxed or discontinued they icould be sick very sick 
indeed." 

And that is really all there is to it. It's just as simple 
as that a big comfortable room where girls are taught 
dressmaking and millinery and the making of dress novelties 
and similar rooms where boys of the same age are taught 
draughtsmanship, elementary architectural design, wood- 
work, and jewelry box-making. Occupations which require 
no heavy physical exertion ; and a supervision which allows 
no child to excite his heart unduly. No different, outwardly 
from any first-class schoolroom. 

I wondered how it was that these children had been found 
how they had been hunted out of the million homes in the 
great city. How had they learned that such an opportunity 
for better health and longer life was open to them? 

That had been comparatively simple, too, it appeared. 
In New York no employer is allowed to hire children of 
this school age (14 to 16) unless he can show to the in- 
spector the child's "working papers," properly signed by 
the school authorities. To thousands of families the assist- 
ance of the child at work is of vital importance; and when 
the child with organic heart trouble was reported, through 
the medical examination which must be taken to obtain the 
"working papers," as being ineligible for employment any- 
where, it was a bitter blow to the family as well as to the 
child. 

The names of such children are, of course, on file in the 
records of the public schools ; the names of children who 
have filed with the Department of Education a physician's 
certificate excusing the patient from school for thirty days 
or more are also available. 

When, three years ago, the New York Heart Association 
began its work of giving vocational guidance to cardiac 
children, the problem of reaching these children was solved 
by the cooperation of the Board of Education, which supplied 



CHILD HEARTS 



135 



the association each week with these two lists, 
the "working-paper rejections" and the "suspense 
register." Letters requesting that the parent 
send the child to the offices of the Heart Asso- 
ciation were sent out, and, if no response was 
received within a reasonable length of time, a 
visit to the family was made. 

"Heart disease," says Sophie Boucher, who 
took charge of this work for the Association, "is 
so much more subtle than measles or pneumonia 
or any more assertive malady that parents are 
fearful of the consequences when the child is 
pronounced a cardiac, and are willing to co- 
operate to the fullest extent." 

The plan usually followed is to urge the 
child to attend one of the cardiac clinics in the 
city, at which his ailment is fully diagnosed; 
and a blue card on which his cardiac condition 
is described minutely is signed by the examining 
specialist and sent to the Vocational Depart- 
ment of the Heart Association. There, after further exam- 
ination and interviews with the child and his parents, a 
plan for the further education of the child is arranged. 

The girls' classes in dressmaking, millinery and novelty 
work were opened on January I, 1923. Since then more 
than one hundred girls have been enrolled in them. The clas- 
ses proved so successful that on February i, 1924, the classes 
for boys were opened. On August i of this year all the 
classes were taken over by the Public Education Association. 

It is planned that each child shall continue at the school 
for two years. So far, only a few girls have completed 
this training and have been pronounced physically fit to 
undertake work in shops where they will earn money of 
their own and be assured of work which will not overtax 
the strength of their hearts. But all those upon whom lies 
the necessity of contributing to their own support already 
see a brighter future before them. 

But there were some children to whom Dr. Burton 
attin, in medical charge of the classes, was com- 

lled reluctantly to refuse admission. These were chil- 

en whose heart affections were unusually severe, and 
hose parents, nevertheless, expected them to complete the 

jrses of study and to go to work just as normal persons 
light do. He also refused to accept children whose heart 
suble was functional, believing that such children could 

end the ordinary schools without harm. 

Again let us sum up the simple regime of the cardiac train- 
school in the words of Miss Boucher: 

No class room is more than two floors above street level; 
the use of the elevators, even to reach the second floor, 
is urged. After reaching the class room, the children do not 
go off the one floor all day. A hot luncheon is served, at a 
nominal cost. A trained nurse is in attendance each morning, 
who gives occasional talks on health and general hygiene; and 
special exercises are given by an expert. 

Constant cooperation with the cardiac clinics and with Dr. 
Lattin brought gratifying results along the line of rehabilitation 
of the children's health. The children are gaining in weight 
and show marked physical improvement. In some cases it has 
been found safe to cut the visits to the clinics down from 
once a week to once in six months. 

And yet the emphasis of this trade school is laid more par- 
ticularly upon the preparation for industry, rather than upon 
the physical disability of the students. . . . This very em- 
phasis has produced a marked mental benefit to the parents 
as well as to the children themselves. 




Photograph from New York Heart Association 

Sun and fresh air and quiet for tired hearts 

And all these precautions to teach children that their 
hearts are different, to tell them what they may dare and 
what is foolhardy will this make a lot of timid pessimists? 

Not at all, say the doctors who have watched them. 

On the contrary, it has made them cheerful. It is a philos- 
ophy anyone may understand. When illness whose nature 
you do not understand grips you and cries out, "There is 
no usefulness, none, left in life for you," then fear seizes 
you and you tremble, believing the liar; but when you have 
held a lamp to the face of this taunting illness and find 
that he cannot wholly check you, then you are elated. You 
rearrange your life. You make something new out of what 
you have. You mock the ghost who once frightened you. 

So much for the child whose heart has been battered and 
damaged, but who yet can be salvaged and helped to a use- 
ful and happy life. But, better still, spare the illness, avoid 
the handicap. The doctors who studied those hundreds 
of little patients from the New York public schools crys- 
tallized their experience in a few sentences which must be 
engraved in the memories of parents if villain heart disease 
is to be conquered. Observing that in almost every case 
these children's hearts had been damaged when they were 
still runabouts, before they reached school, the doctors warn 
insistently against the dangerous infections of childhood 
scarlet fever, diphtheria, rheumatism, sore throats, bad teeth 
and diseased tonsils and against fatigue, "one of the com- 
monest preliminaries to severe cardiac damage." They 
demand : "More careful supervision ; providing wholesome 
food ; protection of the child against exposure to wet and 
cold; longer convalescent periods for tonsillitis and other in- 
fections ; and frequent examinations of children by a phy- 
sician, particularly after acute illness, in order that defects 
may be avoided, and if developed, may be recognized and 
cared for at the earliest moment." 



T 



O sum up: Since heart disease "is the cause of the 
greatest number of deaths and disabilities in the United 
States" and since it first appears in the child : 

It is with the child that the greatest concern of the phy- 
sician and the social worker must rest. It is the heart of 
the child that must be guarded, "or ever the silver cord be 
loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be 
broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern." 




Photograph by Lewis W. Hine 



PETER FLANDERS 



Peter Flanders 



By MARY ROSS 



VEN a chance puff of city air was shut out 
from the room that July night. The win- 
dows were closed ; the lace curtains drawn. 
Gaslight and candles lit the dark figures 
sobbing beside the child in the bed. 

His head propped high on the pillows, 
Peter Flanders was fighting for breath with the last atom 
of strength left in his thin little body. Unless you looked 
carefully you might not have realized how thin that body 
was, for his flushed face was swollen beyond the natural 
chubbiness of four years, as he quivered with quick sharp 
gasps. Rheumatism had racked him mercilessly in joint 
and muscles ; then it had clutched his heart. You know 
that rheumatism means one must avoid cold and drafts, 
and so his mother dressed him in a suit of underwear 
beneath his pajamas, and piled the quilts over him, trying 
to guard that faint glimmer of life, to hold at bay that 
unseen enemy whose presence filled the stiffling room. 

She had met that enemy before when he took Peter's 
father, leaving her with the two children to feed by long 
days of scrubbing "out." And now, when Peter's life was 
flickering like the candles which the neighbors had brought 
i, she had thought back to those brighter days before she 
married, when she did housework in the fine home of a 
great doctor, and she sent word to him. 

He couldn't come; but he sent a friend skilled in the 
are of children who swept into that tenement room like 
sea breeze for which the whole city waited. Out with 
he weeping neighbors; up with the windows, off with the 
weight of blankets and clothing in which clumsy, tender 
ands had wrapped the hardly conscious child. 
Morphine, digitalis the sharp stab of a hypodermic 
le was there still enough strength left in that little 
ady to rally to meet the help they brought? 
"It was* like holding a little fluttering bird in your hand," 
aid the doctor who tells the story. "You hardly knew 
whether you had him or not. I certainly thought he was 
gone goose." 

But Peter didn't die that night, nor the next. That 
frantic little heart, beating twice to each second, slowed 
down a trifle, breath came without those terrifying sharp 
atches ; he could call up the shadow of a smile. 

"If we can pull him through," said the doctor cautiously, 
"you'll have to keep him in a glass case for the rest of his 
life." He wondered what a widow with two children 
auld do for such a child, the kind one used to see wheeled 
about in a baby carriage at ten or twelve, helpless. 

Peter's mother put her trust in the man who had done 
bis apparent miracle. Hard enough to manage when you 
have not much to do with, but an aunt helped when she 
had to be working away from home, and the doctor's every 
direction was followed. Country care for a time, in a 
onvalescent home, then good food, rest, avoiding cold and 
vet and other people who were sick, visits to the doctor 
vith a religious regularity, and Peter's heart pumped more 



slowly and more effectively as his legs got plumper and 
his cheeks pinker. He was enrolled in the children's clinic 
at St. Luke's Hospital in New York City, and then in 
that first-of-all cardiac clinic for children opened in 1916. 

ON the page opposite, meet Peter Flanders today, ten 
years after that July night, a regular boy. 
Peter still goes to the clinic. 

"Once a cardiac, always a patient," says the doctor. 

But that is merely a friendly sort of a call upon those 
who have directed his life for the past ten years. That 
scar with its murmur is still there in his heart, not to be 
neglected. A clinic visit does not mean that the doctors 
think you sick, but they aren't going to let you get sick. 
There are many other children with records as dramatic as 
Peter's who go to the clinic. In fact the best thing about 
this story, aside from its showing how near one little boy 
could come to death and still recover, is that it is merely 
one of the first of its kind. There are others like it when- 
ever one can bring together a doctor who understands chil- 
dren's hearts, a social worker to help him, and mothers 
willing to follow his advice. 

And between clinics: Peter is the pride of his mother, 
and the whole calendar of his saints the doctor, St. Luke's 
clinic, and the boys and teachers of St. Joseph's Academy 
where he graduated last June. The clinic records tell : 

In 1920 he spent three weeks in the hospital, not because 
of his heart but for some obscure condition which may 
have been typhoid. That same year, however, he was 
swimming, playing football and running races. 

April, 1922: Peter won a watch in a skating contest. 

June, 1922: Peter was second in the high jump. 

November, 1922: Scarlet fever, but heart condition same 
as before. (Scarlet fever, when it is not treated with 
scrupulous care, often cripples the hearts of children.) 

March, 1924: Peter is first in his class in scholarship. 
Plays basketball. 

August last he visited the clinic again, bringing his 
medals by request. There was the basketball medal, the 
high jump medal, the medal for scholarship. He is to 
enter high school and may play football. He ran around 
Morningside Park noth Street to I23rd Street, across 
two blocks and back in !2 T -i minutes. 

"Peter says he never has to think of his heart at all," 
writes the social worker, but that is a victory possible only 
because he has been taught to think until action becomes 
almost instinctive, and he stops at once when he begins to 
feel winded ; and because by gradually increasing exercise, 
painstakingly supervised, he has reached a power of safe 
accomplishment which well may make even a heart specialist 
gasp. 

The long road that Peter has traveled is summed up in 
one terse jubilant comment scrawled by the doctor himself: 

"Picked out of the coffin," it reads, "and in this case it 
was a helluva job." 



,37 



Saving Hearts In Your Town 



By WILLIAM H. ROBEY, M. D. 



DOT until physic- 
ians have shown 
a keen interest in 
the problem of 
cardiac disease, 
and have brought 
to the attention of the lay public 
by forceful words and active 
work its many causes and dan- 
gers, will the need for vigorous 
action be sufficiently felt in a 
community. 

If the writer may judge from 

the replies which he has received 

from medical colleagues in various parts of the country, very 
little is being done outside of the largest cities to arouse 
public interest. In New England at such places as Port- 
land, Springfield and New Haven heart disease is treated in 
the hospitals, but there is no publicity nor organized attack. 
In the far South rheumatic fever and its cardiac sequelae are 
not nearly so prevalent as in the North and therefore the 
spur has been lacking. It is, however, very clear that any 
disease, studied intensively, develops interests and sidelights 
before totally unsuspected. Even if the physicians of a com- 
munity believe that this incidence of heart disease in their 
section is negligible, they would probably be surprised at the 
results of a group study. In the great medical centers the 
work has grown tremendously in only a few years. 

In Boston, three years ago, the Association of Cardiac 
Clinics was formed by eight physicians, all interested in the 
study of heart disease and connected with the staffs of four 
hospitals. Four meetings a year were held in hospital amphi- 
theaters or public halls and were advertised in the medical 
journals and the public press. Technical and scientific as- 
pects of the question were avoided ; the papers dealt more 
with the school and community interests. 

The Massachusetts General Hospital was the first to or- 
ganize a public heart clinic, but now the Peter Bent Brig- 
ham, the Boston City Hospital and the Children's Hospital 
have their clinics. The Social Service Department of the 
Massachusetts General Hospital, under the able direction of 
Ida M. Cannon, has greatly aided the work of the clinic.* 
The thoroughness of this work, however, should not dis- 
courage others from more modest beginnings. The other 
hospitals in Boston are all developing careful systems of 
follow up through their social service departments. 

Any public hospital in a city or town or health center can 
do the same. It merely needs a nucleus to develop the pro- 
ject. Expensive instruments and finer methods of" diagnosis, 
while of great value, are not required in 90 per cent of the 



III this attack on the diseases of the 
heart the next major offensive against 
the preventable causes of death the in- 
dividual patient must fight stoutly on his 
own behalf. But he can not fight alone. 
Dr. Robey here gives a plan of cam- 
paign which puts the whole community 
back of the attack and holds out a lively 
hope of eventual success in the broader 
effort to reduce needless mortality and 
prolong the span of life. 



* A recent intensive study made by Mrs. B. S. Russell of that 
department, and the first part of which is published in the Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal for September 25, 1924, should be 
read by all persons who are giving any consideration to this 
subject. 



cases of declared heart disease 
and are quite unnecessary in a 
clinic where the detection of 
focal causes, potential and early 
heart disease is the primary ob- 
ject. 

Doctors, social workers and 
nurses cannot combat heart dis- 
ease alone; steps must be taken 
in every community to inter- 
est the public. Without the 
help of the people, their interest 

and financial support, the work 

cannot progress as it should. In 

any community association for the prevention and relief of 
heart disease, a large proportion of the membership should be 
drawn from the laity. How can this be brought about? 

A few persons should start a clinic in the free hospital or 
dispensary. The clinic should be held once or twice a week 
and should be devoted exclusively to the study of heart 
problems. Lectures can be given before church and club 
organizations, parent's associations, nurse's clubs, and mem- 
bers of the Y. W. C. A. and the Y. M. C. A. For several 
years lectures have been given in the halls of the Boston 
public schools to the parents of the school children. Talks 
have also been given to school physicians and lectures by 
qualified physicians and social workers have been broadcasted 
by radio. Editors of daily and weekly papers in coopera- 
tion with editors of medical journals are ready to print 
news items of an instructive nature and this summer the 
Associated Press decided to issue a biweekly letter including 
such medical information as would help the public to a more 
intelligent understanding of disease. 

A Local Program 

THE general outline of a program for a local heart asso- 
ciation, or the objects which any general volunteer or 
official health agency should attempt in order to make prog- 
ress in preventing heart disease has been stated in general 
terms by Dr. Haven Emerson, president of the New York 
Heart Association, as: 

1. Facilities for special diagnosis of suspected or established 
heart disease, for medical and nursing supervision of those un- 
able to pay for private care. 

2. Provision for convalescent and chronic cardiac cripples, 
and summer camps for cardiac children. Office of information 
and education. 

3. Vocational guidance for school children with heart de- 
fects and for cardiac wage earners. 

4. Research into the natural history of heart disease, its 
epidemiology, occupational causes, and the costs and results 
of preventive work. 

The opportunity for correct diagnosis not only of the 
presence of cardiac disease, but of its causes, is the first 
essential. This means that the physicians of the country 
must have greater knowledge of those factors which make 



138 



SAVING HEARTS IN YOUR TOWN 



139 



up the diagnosis of organic disease. Beyond this, some una- 
nimity of opinion must be reached so that the profession as 
a whole will be alive to the several advance agents in cardiac 
disease. 

It would be worth while for any community to make it 
possible for certain physicians who have shown a definite in- 
terest in heart disease to spend some time in the cardiac clinic 
of a large hospital for the purpose of studying prevention, 
relief, management and clinic methods. No small part of 
this work would be the keeping of careful records from 
which enlightening data could be subsequently published. 
One of the most helpful results of the combined attention 
of a group of devotees to the heart problem has been the 
classification of heart patients for the convenience of bring- 
ing each patient under appropriate care. That classification, 
now widely in use, is given in the box, page 140. 

While the recently organized national organization, the 
American Heart Association, will exert a universal influence, 
communities must largely follow the leadership of the local 
medical groups. State and county medical societies should 
have sections in heart disease where physicians may bring 
their heart problems and by evoking free discussion, clear up 
puzzling questions. Persons skilled in the various phases 
of etiology, diagnosis, convalescence, chronic care and social 
service could be invited to address section meetings. If it is 
not possible nor feasible to have a section devoted to the 
subject, at least one meeting a year could be given to a 
symposium. Small local medical societies are already invit- 
ing cardiologists to read papers and the discussions which 
follow are very stimulating. 

Prevention in Childhood 

EVERY child in the community should be regarded as a 
case of potential heart disease and a thorough search 
made for those centers of infection such as diseased tonsils 
or carious teeth which, if allowed to continue, may lead to 
heart involvement. The prevalence of rheumatic heart 
disease, especially in the northern part of the United States, 
is such that about half the deaths from organic heart disease 
are caused by the effect of diseases of the rheumatic group. 
There is also little doubt but that many of the cases of 
cardiac degeneration declaring themselves in middle life have 
their origin in childhood. While much can be done for or- 
ganic heart affections, all must realize that once the disease 
is established, its victim becomes limited in health and effi- 
ciency. Eradicate the causes of cardiac disability and you 
reduce the suffering and economic waste which in many cases 
precede the inevitable result. 

The Heart Clinic 

MANY of the large cities such as New York, Chicago 
and Philadelphia have followed the same course as 
that described above in the case of Boston. Clinics devoted 
solely to heart study have been established and the published 
reports of their observations have given more definite infor- 
mation on diagnosis, treatment and end results than have 
been obtained before. Smaller cities and towns can do like- 
wise wherever there is a hospital clinic. Community health 
centers can be established wherever the towns are too small 
to maintain individual clinics. The nucleus would be small, 
but it is surprising how the attendance increases as soon as 
the public learns that there are physicians particularly in- 
terested in a special subject. 



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AGE GROUPS 
From the Bulletin of the San Francisco Tuberculosis Association 



The Four Leading Causes of Death in San Francisco in 
1921 by Age Groups From U. S. Mortality Reports ; 

In one of a series of studies in which the New York Heart 
Association has blocked out the campaign against heart dis- 
ese, it gives the minimum requirements accepted for mem- 
bership in its committee on cardiac clinics: 

For chief of clinic, a physician of sufficient experience with 
patients having heart disease to meet the approval of the Asso- 
ciation's executive committee. 

At least one physician to every fifty active patients. 

At least an affiliation with a hospital ward service to which 
cardiac cases are admitted at need. 

At least one social service worker connected with the clinic. 
One social worker can care for not more than one hundred 
active cases. 

A waiting room and separate rooms or cubicles for the ex- 
amination of men and women patients in adult clinics. There 
should be an examining table in each, room, at least one pair 
of scales, and a sphygmomanometer in the clinic. 

Records, easy of access, of the patient's history, physical 
examination, treatment and follow-up notes, including social 
service activities. 

Only patients with organic or potential heart disease 
should be enrolled, and no patient should be carried on the 
active list of a clinic who has not reported in six months. 
On admission each patient should have a complete physical 
examination, with such later examinations as are necessary. 
The clinic should cooperate with the schools, social agencies, 
and day nurseries, etc., by the diagnosis and treatment of 
referred cases, and should maintain close cooperation with 
the agencies providing convalescent and country care. It is 
desirable in a large city that cases should be referred only 
from a specified district, by agreement, and that, so far as 
possible, cases should be referred by appointment in such 
numbers and at such hours as may be of the greatest benefit. 



140 



SAVING HEARTS IN YOUR TOWN 



A Working Classification of Heart Patients 

CLASS I 

Patients with organic heart disease who are able to carry 
on their habitual physical activity. 

CLASS II 

Patients with organic heart disease who are able to carry 
on diminished physical activity. 

A. Slightly decreased 

B. Greatly decreased 

CLASS III 

Patients with organic heart disease who are unable to 
carry on any physical activity. 

CLASS IV 

Patients with possible heart disease. Patients who have 
abnormal signs in the heart, but in whom the general 
picture, or character of the physical signs leads us to 
believe that they do not originate from cardiac disease. 

CLASS V 

Patients with potential heart disease. Patients who do 
not have any suggestion of cardiac disease, but who are 
suffering from an infectious condition which may be ac- 
companied by such disease ; e. g., rheumatic fever, ton- 
sillitis, chorea, syphilis, etc. 



Without the social worker it is impossible for the cardiol- 
ogist to keep in touch with patients. From her he learns 
under what conditions the cardiac lives and whether the 
instructions are being carried out. Patients who are dilatory 
in returning to the clinic are notified and if they fail to 
appear, they are visited and the reasons ascertained. In 
small communities a visiting nurse may supplement the social 
worker if she is trained in the care of cardiacs. A com- 
munity in which a cardiac clinic is to be established should 
send its social worker or nurse to a large cardiac clinic to 
study its methods. She should understand the directions 
which Tiave been given in a case and the possibility of en- 
forcing them. 



Attacking the Causes 

SCHOOL and visiting nurses should be familiar with the 
causes of heart disease and in an inspection of school 
children or other members of the cardiac's family, should 
search for enlarged or infected tonsils, defective teeth, a 
history of rheumatic pains, growing pains or chorea. All of 
these factors must be inquired about, since even intelligent 
parents, not understanding their significance, may allow 
them to pass unheeded. Many still think growing pains a 
natural accompaniment of childhood and chorea a nervous 
affection in no way related to heart disease. When the 
writer was a medical student, and for some time sub- 
sequently, chorea was regarded as a nervous disease and was 
treated as such and only in recent years has it ceased to be 
an entity. Now it is looked upon as a part of the symptom 
complex of rheumatic fever, the effect upon the nervous 
systems of the toxins of acute rheumatism. A child with 
even slight involuntary twitchings should be thoroughly in- 
spected for the foci of infection. 

Janeway, in his Shattuck lecture in 1916, expressed his 
doubt of the bacterial agents which have been acclaimed as 
the cause of rheumatic fever, but he did hold out hope of 
prophylaxis by a study q the portal of entry. He did not 
feel that removal of the tonsils was a preventive panacea, 
but he did not allow these doubts to prevent the patient from 
receiving what benefit the operation might give. Dr. Wil- 
liam St. Lawrence* studied the effect of tonsillectomy on 
the recurrence of acute rheumatic fever and chorea in a 
group of ninety-four children, and concluded that tonsil- 
lectomy seemed to be the most important measure at present 
available for the prevention of acute rheumatic fever and 
allied rheumatic affections. 

Such testimony is comforting, but I am satisfied from an 
experience of more than twenty years that tonsillectomy has 
much to recommend it. I make this statement not as my 
"opinion" or my "belief" but from cases which I have ac- 
tually followed. Tonsillectomy (Continued on page 165) 

* Journal of the American Medical Association, October 16, I9ZO. 



Plan of Organization for a Heart Clinic 






Diagnostic 


Facilities 


-^. 


Disposition 
for Treatment 


Disposition 
for Care 






Disposition 
for Training 




Dispostticn 
for Work 


*^r~^ 


^-<^-- 


1 1 1 \ 


C3IS ' 


Nose & 
Throat 
Dept 


Dental 
Dept. 




Labora- 
tory 
Path'l 
Sorol'l 


EC-Key 

Fluor o- 
scopic 
Polygraph 


Electro- 
Car dio- 
gtaph 




Occupa- 
tional 
Therapy 


Home Ad- 
justment 
1 Educa- 
tion 


Conva- 
lescent 
Care 


Perma- 
nent 
Care 


School 
Classes 


Voca- 
tional 
Guid- 
ance 


Special 
Exer- 
cise 


Regulated 
Occupation 



Peace Hath Her Victories 

The Nations at Geneva Champion a New World 

By CORNELIA STRATTON PARKER 




*E have arrived at the end of our labors. . . . 

Ladies and gentlemen, I declare closed the 

Fifth Session of the Assembly." 

The first and last sentences of President 

Motta's address delivered just one hour ago. 

The thunder of applause, begun seated, and 
kept up and up, and continued as the delegates, the press, 
the crowded galleries rose to their feet in tribute to the 
little Swiss who had presided with such skill over a month 
and two days of history. In tribute to a personality, yes. 
And in the depth of every heart in the Salle de la Reforma- 
tion there was something of ardor needing to find expres- 
sion. We clapped and clapped for Motta, and we clapped 
and clapped because this day had been passed unanimously 
that document of modern documents, The Protocol for the 
Pacific Settlement of International Disputes. We were 
blessed who had the privilege of actual presence in Geneva 
during these rare days of internationalism put to one of its 
highest tests to date, we who heard with our own ears the 
great nations and the small with a new faith and, pray 
heaven, a justified idealism, champion a new future a 
future only fools and God had dared to dream of a short 
month ago. We who had sat there in that Assembly Hall 
had heard the roll call this morning "Afrique du Sud" 
"Yes!". . . "Albanie" "Aye !". . . "Empire Britanique" 
"Aye!"... "Finland" "Oui!". .. "Inde,". . . "India" 
"Yes!". . . "Norvege" "Oui!". . . "Venezuela" 
"Oui!". . . Forty-seven ayes a solid vote for a new world. 
We who have spent this last September in Geneva 
pardon us if we see visions and dream dreams, for we have 
lived through Motta, Italian-Swiss that he is, so named it 
an hour ago "a collective effort of exceptional grandeur." 
The spell is still on us, and will last until little by little 
we mingle with people who have not lived this September 
in Geneva people perhaps who have merely skimmed gar- 
bled newspaper reports and who never caught a spark of 
the new hope which fired fires those of us who were 
here to see and hear and sense directly the struggles, the 
sacrifices, the passions, the determination that would not 
abate. Scoff, you skeptics; smile, you cynics; jeer, you who 
scorn to travel the struggling world's way our answer is 
that we are humbly grateful for the lump in our throat this 
second of October, 1924 (and great statesmen had lumps 
in theirs) grateful that we could forget for one day that 
our country had taken, was taking, no part in this collec- 
tive effort of exceptional grandeur, and that for this one day 
we were a throbbing atom of the trials and disappointments, 
the unflagging determination and the ultimate glorious suc- 
cess of this Fifth Assembly of the League of Nations. 

Ultimate ultimate as far as what Geneva can accomp- 
lish. The Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of Inter- 
national Disputes now goes out into a world which was not 
in Geneva this September, and that world will have the 



final judgment. I think every man and woman who has 
lived through these days in Geneva, will feel that, as far 
as in the power of each lies, prime ministers to doorkeepers, 
it is for us to see that the world at large catch something 
of the spark we all caught ; senses, if ever so slightly, some- 
thing of the atmosphere of Geneva this September, apparent 
to the most callous. 

You who were not here in Geneva this last month, day 
in, day out at assembly meetings, commission meetings, con- 
ferences, you may shrug your shoulders and say, "All very 
well for a month. In another month the world will be 
back where it was before. What is a protocol? A drop 
in a sea of post war animosity." 

BUT the cause for hope is just that it would have been 
impossible to pass such a protocol without a new spirit 
abroad in the world. The protocol is certainly not a perfect, 
final document. It is easily the best thing of its kind ever 
done. The new spirit enabling its creation will no doubt 
have its ebbs and flows. If it could be held indefinitely at 
the high mark of September, 1924, in Geneva, a protocol 
would scarcely be necessary, since with such a united de- 
termination for peace and such a desire for mutual under- 
standing and cooperation as here evidenced itself, wars 
would be rather unthinkable and anachronistic. Alas, a 
mere handful came under the direct spell of Geneva 
though a mighty important and influential handful, when 
you think of the prime ministers, and ex-prime ministers, 
and foreign ministers, and ministers plenipotentiary, and 
ambassadors, and members of parliament and all and all 
we had amongst us. In each country from whence they 
came there are thousands, if not millions, yearning for peace. 
To each country whither they return these league delegates 
will carry something of the heightened internationalism, the 
spirit of the sacrifices, aspirations, zealous endeavors, neces- 
sary compromises, which could eventuate in a Protocol for 
the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes at all 
acceptable in the year 1924. And if, even so, the protocol 
fail of sufficient support? We can still rejoice that even 
in 1924 the world part of the world was capable of 
reaches high enough to enable such a product of interna- 
tionalism to get on its way. 

(And, ah me, there will be the doughty Perfectionist to 
take the rostrum and thunder forth that since Article X, 
Paragraph n, has the word may instead of can it's a pretty 
poor new spirit around about and what we need is a new 
world altogether, fashioned after designs to be furnished 
on request or otherwise by the Perfectionist himself, without 
collaboration.) 

Yes, there are deeper roots to the new spirit than just 
one month of the League of Nations. Back in the highways 
and byways of two great countries that spirit was taking 
its own time, with the world at large scarcely cognizant 



141 



142 



PEACE HATH HER VICTORIES 



of its existence until two new leaders, not only new to their 
jobs, but new in type, stood out before us and the silly souls 
who will insist upon taking heart now and then said "It 
bodes well." The others said, "Nothing bodes anything," 

.and wrote editorials to show what idiots are folk who pos- 
sess a grain of cheerfulness. 

MACDONALD and Herriot and then the London 
Conference, and then came Monday, September i, in 

'Geneva. International conferences have become part and par- 

cel of the world's machinery of action. Whether they ac- 
complish little or much the very idea that they take place, 
that men and women of different nationalities come together 
in recognition of the internationalism of twentieth century 

civilization, is cause for deep congratulation. The yearly 
Assembly of the League of Nations is more than a passing 
show sufficient unto the days thereof. It met last year. 
It will meet again next year. In the meantime every day 

-of the year its work goes on investigations, conferences, 
meetings, council, secretariat, Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice, Permanent Advisory Commission on Arma- 
ments, International Labor Office, and various and sundry 

agencies whose duty it is to carry out the resolutions and 
recommendations of the assembly in such matters as opium, 
communications and transit, economics and finance, traffic 

:in women and children, intellectual cooperation, mandates, 




minorities, refugees, health. It is no sudden whim of a 
prime minister, no international jag of momentary emotion- 
alism. Someone, an American of importance, said pomp- 
ously to Manley Hudson, "Of course you know I'm not 
pro-league." "Are you pro-Mont Blanc?" he was asked. 

LVST year Corfu lent jagged color to the assembly and 
kept great and small anxious until the very end. This 
year there'll be no high lights this year, thank goodness. 
At the same time, nothing particularly interesting. We'll 
all stay until MacDonald and Herriot come (is it really 
true they're coming? Then we'll do Italy and sail on the 
fourteenth. 

MacDonald and Herriot did come. Motta, four days 
earlier, had said: "Now, at the opening of this assembly, 
I gladly welcome the impulse given by the recent London 
conference to the principle of compulsory arbitration. Upon 
this pregnant principle, closely bound up as it is with the 
vital question of military disarmament, depends the future 
of peace, based on right." 

On Thursday, September 4, Ramsay MacDonald mounted 
the platform of the assembly, greatest of the statesmen ever 
to speak before the league. The wonder of it that the Salle 
de la Reformation, built for no such throngs, for no such 
bursting enthusiasm, hung together for those two great days, 
for Macdonald and for Herriot. (And had we not stood 
two hours on the curbstone the night before to see 
Herriot arrive in an automobile from Lyons? Five 
thousand were waiting with us, said the papers. And 
how we all cheered when he came. "Herriot! 
Herriot! J'ive la Paix! Vive la Paix!" That 
was it, you see, all September. We cheered, we 
clapped for personalities and, ah, the strong men 
and true we were given the chance to cheer for! 
But always back of that, la Paix Peace give us 
peace. (We must have peace, and we can and will 
wait no longer!) 

And now there stood MacDonald, 
and we clapped, we thousands, till we 
could clap no more. How good the 
homely plain things he said sounded to 

/' our ears. ". . . If the future is to justi- 

f j fy our confidence and our happiness, it 

will be owing solely to the deliberations, 
the negotiations, and the work and the 
agreement of the League of Nations. . . . 
Why, my friends, none of us have 
inherited a tilled soil prepared for peace. 
I wish we had. Our position rather is 



the 



Cartoons from L'Europe Nouvelle 



Ramsay MacDonald 



* tne ear ' y P ioneers 
who went to Australia, to 
Africa, to the very remote parts 
of the world to find that within 
an inch of the landing place 
where they set foot they had to 
blaze the trail, they had to fell 
the forest, they had to dig the 
ground in front of them. They 
toiled and toiled and toiled, not 
for immediate harvest, but in 
order to make great prepara- 
tions ; as a result of that prepar- 
atory toil, you are shown, 



PEACE HATH HER VICTORIES 



143 



when you now go to these regions, their smiling and 
their peaceful fields. Such is our work. Such is the 
work of the League of Nations. . . . This League 
will remain inefficient unless it includes not only the threat- 
ened nations but the threatening or the so-called threatening 
nations . . . Germany cannot remain outside the League 
of Nations. . . ." And later, "I am in favor of arbitration. 




Edouard Heniot 



I see nothing else for the world. If we cannot devise a prop- 
er system of arbitration, then do not let us fool ourselves 
that we are going to have peace." 

We were indeed rich. Thursday we cheered for Mac- 
Donald, Friday for that other great man of the hour, Her- 
riot. And Herriot said, ". . . We earnestly hope, there- 
fore, that one of the acts of the Fifth Assembly will be to 
accept the principle of arbitration . . . henceforth the ag- 
gressor will be the party which refuses arbitration." (The 
lasting influence of the Shotwell plan already beginning to 
tell.) 

This year we had the prime minister habit. Friday after- 
noon it was Theunis of Belgium three in two days. After 
Theunis came Benes of Czechoslovakia, Benes, destined to 
play with Politis of Greece the great role in this Fifth As- 
sembly reconcilers, men head and shoulders above the aver- 
age in clear, keen constructive thinking. 

Came Saturday afternoon. President Motta read the 
joint resolutions of the French and British delegations: "The 
Assembly, noting the declaration of the governments repre- 
sented, observes with satisfaction that they contain the basis 
of an understanding tending to establish a secure peace 
"Decides as follows:" in a few words, to hand over to 
the First and Third Committees the problem of reduction 
of armaments, security and arbitration. 

There followed speeches by both MacDonald and Her- 
riot, two great prime ministers of the two most influential 
countries in the league speaking on the same afternoon to 
the delegates of half a hundred nations (and almost as many 
nationalities again in the packed galleries.) 

In the course of his speech MacDonald said: "I see in 
front of me an old master though a new friend, M. Leon 
Bourgeois. I was young and my hair was black when 
M. Leon Bourgeios, honoring his own name and the name 
of the nation to which he belonged, proposed, at an inter- 
national conference, that the question of arbitration should 
be scientifically discussed. 



"Here are we assembled today. The years have gone, 
disputes have accumulated, wars have been fought, millions 
of precious lives have been sacrificed, thousands of millions 
of treasure have been dissipated, and my friend, grown old 
and grey in the cause of international peace, still sits con- 
sidering this question in its very first stages. It is a dis- 
grace to us all. 

"Sir, if this meeting of the assembly could only be re- 
corded in the pages of history as the assembly which for 
the first time gave not only lip service to peace but brain 
service, it would be distinguished above all the assemblies 
of mankind that have met hitherto." 

And Herriot: "... For in order to achieve a task so 
great as that which now awaits its conclusion, the intellect, 
however it may strive, is not enough. You will agree, my 
dear colleagues, that we shall need a robust faith. Nothing 
can be done in any sphere without great faith. Without 
this belief and the will which is born of it, without the 
determination to triumph over all obstacles, to sweep aside 
objections. Without this ambition and this resolve we can 
never attain the goal." 

With that the First (legal and constitutional questions) 
and Third (disarmament) Committees got down to work. 
For four years now the Third Committee had busied itself 
with the problem of disarmament. The fact not to be 
lost sight of is that this year the discussions were on another 
plane. MacDonald, Herriot, Dawes Plan ? Something had 
made a difference. Those who know said "an enormous 
difference." The earlier attitude of obstruction, suspicion, 




Lord Parmoor 

was removed no Corfu this year, for one thing, and the 
Ruhr played no role. Discussions were freer, franker, and, 
for that, differences of opinion more marked. In earlier 
years each nation looked at the problem of security from its 
own limited horizon. In 1924 it did seem as if the idea 
of a community of nations was taking root, and that people 
dreamed earnestly enough of universal peace and security 
to have it affect their words and deeds. From the early 
goal of disarmament back in the first stages of the league, 
to a linking of disarmament with security, to, in 1924, the 
protocol, where the Great Three found their official em- 
bodiment, Arbitration, Security and Disarmament. 



144 



PEACE HATH HER VICTORIES 



The League at Work 

Committee I worked on the question of Legal Assist- 
ance for the Poor and the development of International 
Law. 

Committee II (technical organizations) busied itself 
with the reconstruction of Austria, and this year Hungary 
as well, the work of the Health Committee, and the 
Economic Committee (especially the equitable treatment 
of Commerce), intellectual cooperation, problems of com- 
munications and transit, the matter of a loan of 10,000,- 
ooo for refugees in Greece. 

Committee III (reduction of armaments) besides its 
momentous work on the protocol, had three sub-com- 
mittees working respectively on the subjects of control 
of traffic in arms and munitions, private manufacture of 
arms and munitions; chemical warfare, limitation of 
expenditure in armaments, military year book, regional 
agreements; and the third, limitation of naval armaments. 

Committee IV (budget and finance) dealt with con- 
tributions, the buliding of a new conference hall, pen- 
sions for the staff of the Permanent Court of Inter- 
national Justice, the reorganization of the Latin-Amer- 
ican Bureau. 

Committee V (social and general questions) had a 
full agenda: opium, refugees (Mrs. Swanwick, English 
delegate, in her speech before the assembly as rapporteur 
on the subject of refugees, referred to them as "our cor- 
porate failure to make the world liveable for its in- 
habitants." Too, she took up cudgels against those 
bristling souls who claim the League of Nations is 
"merely humanitarian." Suppose it was? In other words 
"merely" for the welfare of the human race.) The 
Fifth Committee discussed also closer municipal relations, 
an International Federation for Mutual Assistance in 
the Relief of Peoples overtaken by Disaster (a compre- 
hensive scheme of Signer Ciraola, President of the Italian 
Red Cross), the protection of women and children in 
the Near East, traffic in women and children, child wel- 
fare. Resolutions on all these social questions were 
adopted by the Fifth Assembly. 

Committee VI (political questions) discussed the highly 
important and far reaching problem of the mandated 
areas, slavery, the situation in Georgia (the French, 
British and Belgian delegations submitted a proposal 
to the effect that the council should follow attentively 
the course of events "in this part of the world" with a 
view toward helping restore normal conditions), and 
lastly the question of the admission of San Domingo 
to the League. San Domingo was admitted, making now 
fifty-five state members. 

In addition to all and sundry, France gave the league 
an institute in Paris as headquarters for the work of the 
Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, and one million 
francs a year (fireworks of oratory pro and con). Italy 
presented the league with a foundation in Rome and one 
million lire a year towards an international institute for 
the unification of private law (oratory all pro, the cons 
gave up in advance. Last year at this time one gasped 
lest Italy and Greece be plunged in war, and this year 
there stood M. Seferiades of Greece on the rostrum thank- 
ing the Italian delegation in his best French. "The Greek 
nation will never forget that from a legal point of 
view there has always been the closest cooperation be- 
tween Greece and Rome.") 



ASKED Motta in his closing speech, "Has our attempt 
been too ambitious? Have we presumed upon our 
strength?" And he answered his own questions. "The 
moral seed that is sown is never wholly lost." The protocol 
may go down to defeat. It represents almost a mutation, 
if one can thus use the term, in internationalism. Perhaps 
the jump was too far ahead; there are the millions and 
millions affected by this tremendous factor who are not 
adept at jumping. They crawl, collectively, and like their 
pace. Physical pliability, adaptability, are the heritage of 
the human race, else we were not here, but when it comes 
to collective, spiritual adjustments we are apt to be a cum- 
bersome lot. This idea of really doing away with war. . . . 

It is true we "fought a war to end war." Every one of 
us has seen the grim joke of that. Overnight something 
has happened and perhaps we did fight a war to end war, 
and have won! "We," some of the grim joke remains. 

Yet if the protocol does go down to defeat? For fifty 
thousand years at least no statesman has lived in a world 
evolved to the point where war was declared a crime and 
the aggressor a criminal, to be dealt with by a united world 
as such, and so firmly that no nation would lightly risk 
bringing upon itself such united punishment. Perhaps the 
Almighty means it will do us good to live in that old kind 
of world a few thousand years longer. If the protocol fails, 
our one small comfort will ever be that the representatives 
of forty-eight nations assembled together gave their consent 
to a new order, practical statesmen and politicians called 
"aye!" The dream was looked upon as a reality to strive 
for, not by a few isolated idealists, but by the assembled 
delegates, all of them men and women of much national 
responsibility, from the four corners and in between of 
the world. 

And if the protocol fail, it was the great work of the 
Fifth Assembly, but it was not all. It meant unflagging 
labor for the Third Committee day and night, and sub- 
committees and smaller conferences. It was the biggest 
item on the agenda of the First Committee. Yet there was 
other business for the First Committee, and there were the 
second, fourth, fifth and sixth committees, meeting almost 
daily, and the health committee, not to mention the council 
itself. All of it ultimate disarmament not a labor of the 
league which does not help toward spelling peace, but for 
the most part painstaking forming of the letters over years. 

IT is three days now since the protocol was passed. The 
headlines of the New York Herald, Paris edition, read:i 
"League Dealt Final Blow by Proceedings at Geneva." The 
New York Herald, Paris edition, and I do not seem to 
agree. Perhaps American papers are going to carry head- 
lines like that and Americans will read and believe. I can 
only answer that of the people who were in Geneva, attend- 
ing meetings, studying, listening, taking their information 
first hand, it was the consensus of opinion on all sides (ex- 
cept indeed of a certain type of American who thinks the 
league exists mainly to act in a way to please the United 
States of America) that this Fifth Assembly of the League 
of Nations marks a tremendous step forward, and that the 
protocol is the most courageous international document evei 
drawn up, and that it has been framed in all good faith, anc 
that, accepted by the nations, it will practically insure inter 
national peace. And then, to quote the clear-minded Politis 
the next great step is, by peaceful methods, to insure inter 
national justice. 



A Great Charter for Europe 



By JAMES T. SHOTWELL 



IN Survey Graphic for August, 1924, I de- 
scribed in a general way the work of the 
small American committee which had been 
concerned during the past winter with the 
problem of disarmament. That committee 
began originally with the idea of stating a 
program of disarmament which would embody primarily 
American principles and express American policies. As the 
work progressed, however, its program was changed. In 
view of the facts that America was not participating in any 
immediate effort at further disarmament, and that the 
League of Nations was concentrating upon this problem 
at the meeting of its Assembly in September, the commit- 
tee made the basis of its study the problem as it would 
come up before the League of Nations rather than the 
distinctively American standpoint. At the same time, it 
tried to find a formula which might ultimately be accept- 
able to the United States so that if it should prove also 
acceptable to the League, there might be hope of the ad- 
herence of this country at a later date. The result was 
the so-called American Plan for Disarmament and National 
Security which was taken up by the Council of the League 
of Nations and became one of the chief bases of discussion 
in the Geneva Assembly. 

Three members of the American committee attended 
the Assembly to explain the plan General Bliss, David 
Hunter Miller and myself, and in view of the fact that 
so much of our plan was embodied in the protocol, it may 
be of interest to indicate the relative bearing of the two 
schemes. First, however, a word should be said about the 
methods employed in Geneva and the new spirit in nego- 
tiation which made possible so large a measure of success. 

FROM the standpoint of procedure as well as of sub- 
stance, the Fifth Assembly of the League marked a 
revolutionary break with the old diplomacy and the old 
state-system of Europe. The new democracy of the old 
world which has found voice in the labor government of 
Great Britain and the liberalism of France which on the 
eleventh of May last found expression in the cabinet of 
M. Herriot, were given power at a time when the con- 
servative elements in both countries were rather relieved 
to be rid of the responsibility for a further continuance of 
their policies. The result was that Mr. MacDonald and 
M. Herriot were forced to win political success by an active 
instead of a passive policy. The negotiations at London 
showed this preoccupation with reference to the reparations 
problem; those at Geneva were the natural if not the in- 
evitable consequence of the economic settlement, dealing 
with the other major problem that of national security. 
The protocol of Geneva, unlike the Dawes plan, touches 
the very heart of continuing international relationships. It 
proclaims the revolutionary principle that war, aggressive 
war, is no longer permitted as a free prerogative of sovereign- 
ty and inaugurates a method of international cooperation to 
enforce peace. These things are fundamental ; the world 
is just waking to their importance. 



The success of the negotiations in Geneva and that 
they were at least successful will be admitted by foes and 
friends alike was largely due to the frank and open way 
in which they were carried on ; and this in turn was due to 
some extent at least to the extreme frankness of Mr. Mac- 
Donald's opening speech. In it he laid forth the attitude 
of the Labor Party, not only toward the question of dis- 
armament, but toward what he called certain failures of 
the league in the past, namely, the Upper Silesian settlement 
and other things. As one listened to his diplomatic faux pas 
: made deliberately one realized how far removed the dem- 
ocratic governments of Europe were from the old-fashioned 
diplomacy. For a moment it was doubtful whether the 
brutal frankness of MacDonald had not made international 
relations more difficult instead of furthering them. The 
French even thought that his reference to the difficulty of 
ascertaining the responsibility for any war was a thinly 
veiled reference to the responsibilities for the war of 1914. 
Knowing that Mr. MacDonald had not been quite clear 
upon that point ten years ago, they were inclined to take 
this remark as meaning that he held that Germany had not 
been responsible for the World War. As this was just 
the moment when the German government was putting 
forth this claim, the incident began to loom up rather seri- 
ously, particularly as the whole speech was an uncompromis- 
ing statement of the 'British point of view that sanctions 
were relatively unimportant compared with the agreement 
to arbitrate and disarm. 

M. Herriot's speech in reply was awaited with great 
anxiety, for it was felt that upon it depended the possibility 
of any further negotiations between the two points of view: 
the continental European, represented by France, and that 
of the outlying states of the world, represented to a certain 
degree by the British. M. Herriot's speech under these cir- 
cumstances was one of the most brilliant successes that his- 
tory can record. His reply to Mr. MacDonald was in 
fact a constructive presentation of the idealism of France. 
He denounced war in the most passionate terms and com- 
mitted his government to the principle of its outlawry. His 
personality as well is genial and winning, and as he pro- 
ceeded with his statement, the case of France seemed hardly 
more than a further development of MacDonald's point of 
view, simply rendered more precise owing to the greater 
imminence of the danger of war in the case of a continental 
state. Starting from a common acceptance of the definition 
of aggression as the refusal to arbitrate a definition based 
upon the American Plan M. Herriot insisted that com- 
pulsory arbitration could not be treated separately from 
the problem of security and that in fact the three pillars of 
the temple of peace were compulsory arbitration, security, 
and disarmament. His insistence that these three factors 
should not be treated separately but form an indissoluble 
whole was accepted by the Fifth Assembly and was never 
lost sight of in the preparation of the Protocol. 

It is impossible in a hurried survey of this kind to char- 
acterize in detail other leaders of national delegations at 
Geneva. Of the two rapporteurs of the technical commit- 



145 



146 



A GREAT CHARTER FOR EUROPE 



tees which drew up the protocol, M. Benes and M. Politis, 
the former is sufficiently known to Americans to call for 
no further comment here. M. Politis, the former Foreign 
Minister of Greece, however, has by his work at Geneva 
established himself as one of the foremost statesmen of 
Europe. His speech in the Assembly, answering the point 
of view of the British delegation, was admitted on all sides 
to be one of the greatest intellectual performances in recent 
political history. No description of the Fifth Assembly, 
however, would be complete without mention of M. Paul 
Boncour, the chairman of the French Committee of National 
Defense, whom M. Herriot left in charge of the French 
delegation. The future historian will find in the speech 
delivered by M. Boncour in the Third Committee on the 
tenth of September already an outline of the main points 
later embodied after much effort in the finished protocol. 
Observers at Geneva came to the conclusion that in M. 
Boncour not only France but Europe and the world have 
discovered a statesman of the first order. 

The experienced diplomatic representatives of Italy, per- 
haps with memories of the Corfu incident in mind, were 
at first inclined to oppose the current which they saw setting 
in toward compulsory arbitration. But after Mr. Schanger 
had tested out the strength of the peace sentiment in a care- 
fully prepared speech in the third committee, he and his 
colleagues were led to give their adherence to increasingly 
widespread opinion that a real turning point had come in 
European history, and that Italy should share in the glory 
of a great achievement. 

Of the smaller powers, the Scandinavians and Holland 
were in the forefront of the forces for peace and disarm- 
ament. But this had been their traditional policy at Geneva. 
Much more notable was the support which came from the 
southeastern Europe which had hitherto felt that their 
security must rest upon more real guarantees than those of 
the league's idealism. When M. Marinkovitch, foreign 
minister of Jugoslavia, definitely committed his country to 
compulsory arbitration, he stated that it was the study of 
the American plan which had revealed a way by which 
that step could at last be taken. In this he was anticipated 
in his own country by the Croatian delegation to the Jugo- 
slav parliament, which, under the leadership of M. Radich, 
had on August 31 unanimously declared their acceptance 
of the American plan. The result is that one may look to 
that very part of Europe where the World War began for 
a first sign of the adoption of a guarantee of peace. 

THE little American committee was thrown into close 
contact with the various national delegations, and as 
a result of suggestions from those anxious to see the im- 
mediate adoption of a large part of its program, it recast 
the text of the Plan of Disarmament and Security so it 
might be better adjusted to the procedure of the league. 
The burden of the text was substantially unchanged, but 
instead of making the fulfilment of its proposals depend 
so largely upon a subsequent conference to be called next 
year, the Fifth Assembly itself was called upon to proceed 
with the declaration of the outlawry of war. This was 
done by dividing the text into two main divisions: one 
dealing primarily with compulsory arbitration and the out- 
lawry of war, and the other with disarmament and separate 
treaties. 

Under the caption Declaration Outlawing Aggressive War 
the first eleven clauses of the American text were thrown 



together and one additional clause added to them. This 
clause was the one which called for acceptance of the com- 
pulsory jurisdiction of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice (Article 36 of the Statute of the Court). This 
furnished a short, clear statement of the outlawry of ag- 
gressive war accompanied by a permissive economic sanction 
which left the aggressor uncertain as to the value of its 
treaty rights in other countries, but did not impose any mili- 
tary obligations of enforcement. The test of aggression 
was as before a refusal to accept summons to the Court 
for an alleged overt act or menace by overt act. 

The Protocol of Geneva embodies the substance of this 
proposed declaration in detailed formulae. It develops the 
various methods by which arbitration or judicial settlement 
of disputes may be carried out and it leaves the council 
a large measure of activity as a mediating agent to prevent 
disputes reaching this far. All of this was implicit in the 
American proposals, but the details were omitted because 
of the fact that the United States was not a member of the 
league and, therefore, any mention of the other agencies 
which the league members might employ to prevent dis- 
putes would be out of place in any formal American docu- 
ment. At the same time, it was explained to the European 
statesmen that the American text was intended to be ad- 
justed to the needs of the league in this way. 

It was only in the matter of sanctions that the protocol 
distinctly departs from the plan finally embodied in the 
American Plan. This was to be expected, for members of 
the league have already taken an obligation in this regard. 
The enforcement of peace is implicit in the covenant : Ar- 
ticle 1 6 states that all members of the league make common 
cause with a victim of aggression and assist it with financial 
and economic measures to enable it to withstand the attack 
of the covenant-breaking state. It states as well that the 
agressor shall "be deemed to have committed an act of 
war against all other members of the league." So long as 
the league would have to determine by unanimous action 
which state was the aggressor, his obligation of Article 16 
could not be readily applied, since the presumed aggressor 
would most likely be among the judges of its own act. 
All of this was changed by the acceptance of the American 
definition of aggression, which automatically established 
who was the aggressor by the mere test of refusal to accept 
arbitration or judicial procedure. For then the obligations 
of Article 16 would also apply automatically. 

As this was carrying the league over further than many 
governments were prepared to go toward a common action 
against war any war the obligation to enforce peace had 
to be modified and rendered less rigidly uniform. This was 
done by stating that while each state would meet its obli- 
gations "loyally and effectively in support of the Covenant 
of the League," in resisting any act of aggression it could 
itself determine to what degree and in what ways it would 
cooperate in enforcing peace. Article 1 1 of the protocol, 
which deals with sanctions, distinctly says that "geographi- 
cal position and .the particular situation of the different 
states as regards armaments" furnish varying criteria by 
which the governments themselves shall interpret the de- 
gree of their obligations. This express qualification was 
inserted at the demand of the Scandinavian states, which 
have been throughout all the debates of the League of 
Nations uniformly insistent upon proceeding at once to dis- 
armament and pacific policies, but like most pacifists, fear 
that the enforcement of peace may itself develop into ag- 



A GREAT CHARTER FOR EUROPE 



147 



gression. Moreover they have been getting rid of their 
own armaments, without waiting for common action, and 
do not wish to be obliged to participate in any form of 
enforcement which would oblige them to retain instead of 
reduce their armies and navies. 

THIS brings us to the heart of the whole problem of 
America's attitude towards the protocol. If we admit 
that international peace cannot be established without na- 
tional security and this must be admitted by all thinking 
students of public affairs then how can that security be 
safeguarded without adequate means of defense? The an- 
swer of continental Europe is to make the problem of 
security which is at the same time the problem of peace 
a matter of common international interest. War is a 
plague which must be stamped out by a common action. 

The initiative of single states is not enough. The initia- 
tive in defense is almost as dangerous as the initiative of 
aggression. Indeed, the two are practically indistinguish- 
able in fact. Hence, all overt acts are declared forbidden 
and the preparations for them are declared to be equally 
a menace. So far, all states are agreed, but the question 
is whether the prohibition should be accompanied by an en- 
forcement to which all states would be morally bound to 
contribute. Those states which live most under the threat 
of war, to whom war is most real, naturally are most 
anxious that the police power shall be effective. This 
means continental Europe. Those states which have "by 
geographical position or peculiar circumstances" less to fear 
and who are, therefore, less conscious of their security from 
the very fact that they enjoy more of it than the continental 
states are naturally less ready to cooperate in the enforce- 
ment of peace, fearing that they may be involved in new 
entanglements and dangers which they might otherwise 
escape. This point of view, most familiar in the British 
and the American press, has seemed in the past to the con- 
tinental powers as blocking the only possible methods of 
suppressing war, and is responsible for much of the charge 
of hypocrisy in Anglo-Saxon idealism in this field. Obvi- 
>usly the argument does not all lie with either side and a 
[promise had to be found. The result is Article II, of 

e protocol which leaves to the different governments the 
freedom to determine what, if any, shall be their contribu- 
tion towards specific violations of peace. It definitely recog- 
izes the fact that the obligation is to be measured not only 
the common danger but by the special interests of the 

rious states. The obligation is universal but the.applica- 

>n is individual. This is a subtle point already misunder- 
in comments in the American press and is likely to be 

ore misunderstood as time goes on. 

SO far we have been dealing with the question of com- 
pulsory arbitration and the outlawry of war which form- 
ed the substance of the declaration of the revised American 
plan. The problem of disarmament was met by two reso- 
lutions in the American plan, neither of which are to be 
found expressed though one is implied in the protocol. 
But if one reads the minutes of the discussions of the com- 
mittee one finds that the reason for this is that details for 
the plans for disarmament were referred to the coming 
disarmament conference. 

The first American suggestion was that there should be 
a recurring periodic conference devoted to the problem of 
disarmament, meeting at least once every three years. This 



ousl 
the 




proposal met with objections upon the part of members of 
the secretariat who claimed that it was adding an unneces- 
sary additional body to the already complicated structure 
of the league. They insisted that the committees of the 
Assembly would be able to carry on the continuing disarm- 
ament program and that the secretariat itself would be 
able to handle the routine. Some opposition also was en- 
countered upon the part of those who were afraid that the 
recurring conference would open the door to floods of ora- 
tory and achieve very little. While these arguments are 
not without their strength, the fact remains that the prob- 
lem of disarmament is so complicated, and in view of the 
progress of inventions is so constantly changing, that any 
agency able to deal with so large a subject must be more 
carefully adjusted to its task than a miscellaneous assembly 
could ever be. However, this part of the proposition is not 
in the Geneva protocol and will be a matter for discussion' 
for the disarmament conference. 

The other American proposal with reference to disarm- 
ament was for an international committee of investigation 
concerning the state of armaments. This has been partly 
embodied in Article 7 of the protocol, which states that 
"should the council be of opinion that a complaint requires 
investigation, it shall if it deems expedient arrange for in- 
quiries and investigations in one or more of the countries 
concerned." The investigations called for in the protocol 
are: somewhat different from those intended in the Ameri- 
can plan, for in the protocol they simply supply evidence 
in a case of aggression. There is nothing said about a 
permanent organization, and in fact in the committee dis- 
cussion this was deprecated by at least one of the Great 
Powers. On the other hand, the Conference on Disarma- 
ment may easily insert in its agenda the creation of "an 
International Staff for Peace" of the kind indicated in trie- 
American plan. This suggestion has met with very favor- 
able reception upon the part of competent military au- 
thorities and is not at all beyond the limits of possibility. 
In the opinion of the American committee it is one of the 
most important of its proposals tending to prevent war 
rather than to conquer back peace after war has broken out- 

FINALLY, the American plan frankly recognizes the 
existence of separate defensive treaties between two or 
more states but only on condition that each of those treaties 
contain in it a clause of compulsory arbitration with the 
presumptive enemy. This completely changes the question 
which so divided opinion in Geneva in the past. Treaties 
of alliance of this character have no misunderstanding quali- 
ty. By their very nature they simply enhance the pacific 
agencies of the league. They mean no more than that cer- 
tain definite dangers are specifically met by mutual insurance 
policies, all of them within the general provision outlawing 
war. They are distinctly peace pacts henceforth. 

In addition to this, it is declared that th'ey are open ta 
any other states, members of the league, to join them. Con- 
sequently, the closed, secret, aggressive treaty is to be a thing 
of the past. 

Whatever reservations Americans may have concerning 
this or that element in the Protocol of Geneva, it is in- 
cumbent upon us in all humility to make our criticisms con- 
structive and helpful, not carping nor hostile. How much 
more than this is incumbent upon us, let our own con- 
sciences decide. 



Blind Alleys 

By ETHEL KAWIN 




'ELL, Sam, what kind of work would you 
like to do?" 

Everytime that I put that question to a 
fourteen or fifteen-year-old boy or girl, I 
felt deep within myself like an utter 
idiot! If the eyes that I was looking into 
across my desk were earnest and serious, I knew that what 
that young person really wanted to do was something for 
which he ought to have years more of schooling, probably 
college; if they were ardent and eager, there was little 
prospect that the jobs available for him or her would 
satisfy any of the keen anticipation that they expressed ; 
if the eyes before me were dull and lifeless, the chances 
were that the kind of work he did was a matter of relative 
indifference to their owner. 

And inevitably my mind would travel quickly to friends 
and acquaintances of my own generation, most of them still 
seeking to find themselves, floundering quite helplessly in 
this bewildering world of vocations businesses, arts, pro- 
fessions, jobs. Those who had had the advantage of a 
college education were, on the whole, little better off than 
those who hadn't, because no attempt at self-analysis, job- 
analysis and vocational guidance had been included in their 
college training. On up the scale my mind would travel 
to all the middle-aged misfits I knew, still trying to find 
their own particular aptitudes, and fit themselves into work 
where they "'belonged." And all the time I would be look- 
ing into Sam's or Mary's eyes, whether they were earnest 
or eager or dull, and thinking how absurd it was of me to 
expect that child to be able to answer my question honestly 
and intelligently. 

But it was my job as a vocational counselor to ask him 
and I always did. ... I had entered the field of voca- 
tional guidance as a worker almost as soon as interests 
along this line crystallized sufficiently to form an organized 
movement. The first National Conference of Vocational 
Guidance was held in 1910, and I began work as a voca- 
tional counselor only two years later. The pioneers in the 
movement approached both industry and education, for the 
most part, in a spirit of true research. Knowledge of facts 
was their immediate objective. What were the facts about 
industry? What were the facts about education? Were 
the two related? Could they be related? The vocational 
movement represented a revolt against the old education 
of classical tradition which many people had come to feel 
was a thing aloof from and unrelated to life. There was 
a growing conviction among many that, when all is said 
and done, the child must be prepared to earn his living in 
the world of reality, the world of industry as it is. One 
can escape spiritually from the drab routine of a mono- 
tonous existence into a more colorful world through art, 
through the theatre, through books, through play and 
recreation. Such excursions into happier lands may afford 
a great relief from the dull grind of existence in a world 
which is not as we would have it be. But the great major- 



ity of human beings must face the daily necessity of earn- 
ing a living. Therefore it seemed a logical conclusion that 
the schools should train children for industry, and that skill 
in some occupation which yields a livelihood should be one 
of the fundamental objectives of education. 

OUR first investigations of industry pointed definitely 
to one inescapable conviction. Industry as it existed 
offered nothing of value to boy and girl workers under 
sixteen years of age. The old apprenticeship systems were 
practically extinct. Very few boys and girls under sixteen 
were given any opportunity to learn a trade. They were 
usually employed at "blind-alley" occupations that in them- 
selves had no educational value, and, for the most part, 
led to nothing. As early as 1913, Professor George H. 
Mead of the University of Chicago, who took an active 
interest in the work of the Chicago Vocational Bureau, 
pointed out in a convention address the fact that "the chil- 
dren are worth much more than the occupations to which 
we dedicate very many of them." He urged the necessity 
of regarding and judging our whole, process of child-train- 
ing from the standpoint of the vocations into which we 
unconsciously drive the children. 

As vocational surveys of industry became more intensive 
and extensive, the deeper grew this realization that the 
"children are worth much more than the occupations." 
Convinced that the children must not be sacrificed, the 
pioneers of the vocational movement threw out a new chal- 
lenge "Shall the child be made fit for industry or shall 
industry be made fit for the child?" 

With this, it seems to me, the vocational movement al- 
most at its very beginning, struck the crux of the funda- 
mental problem in the industrial world today. "Shall the 
child be made fit for industry or shall industry be made 
fit for the child," translated into adult terms, is in reality 
the challenge of the progressive labor movements. Applied 
to the working "masses" in this era of machine production, 
it is "Are the machines to be the masters of the workers 
or are the workers to be masters of the machines?" 

It could not take any honest vocational worker long to 
know that industry was not fit for the child of fourteen 
or fifteen, and that, moreover, such a child did not belong 
there. Therefore, instead of trying even were it possible 
to make industry fit for him, efforts were concentrated 
on keeping the boys and girls under sixteen years of age 
in school whenever possible, and in securing legislation that 
would make it compulsory for them to stay there. But, of 
course, there were thousands of them whom we could not 
keep in school with all our efforts. For them we did the 
best we could with what industry offered. Consideration 
was given to their school-records, their interests, aptitudes, 
deficiencies. Usually there was a personal conference with 
one of the parents as well as the child himself. These 
boys and girls were placed in the most promising positions 
that could be secured for them. Vocational counselors 



148 



BLIND ALLEYS 



149 



maintained contact with them after they were working, to 
help insure the best possible progress for them. They were 
urged to continue their education in whatever ways they 
could, and were frequently helped to better jobs. 

It was in this personal contact with child after child that 
one came to know the steady, deadly disillusionment that 
comes to these young people in their contact with the world 
of industry as it is today. The best among them leave 
school with high hopes and great ambitions. They look 
forward to a career as a great adventure. And then one 
sees them day by day, month by month, year by year 
lose their eager zest for work, and settle down grimly to 
the grey routine of a work-a-day world that has little in 
common with the rosy-hued land of promise they thought 
they had glimpsed ahead. Most of the boys had to content 
themselves with work as errand-boys for their first jobs. 
Sometimes they were a bit more "lucky" and could secure 
an office position. Some of these had a "future"; others 
did not. There were occasional chances to learn good trades, 
such as printing, electrical work, "cutting" in a tailoring 
establishment and others. The girls might get office jobs, 
become cash girls >and messenger girls in department stores, 
or learn millinery, dressmaking or some other trade. But 
for most of the younger ones choice lay between one un- 
skilled factory job or another. 

I SHALL never forget my own first contacts with fac- 
tories. It was a hot July day, and I had come on as 
a new worker, fresh from college. I was given a list of 
some half-dozen factories where I was to investigate oppor- 
tunities of work for young people. The details of these 
first investigations have never been clear in my mind. I 
remember only heat and roar and din, huge machines that 
whirred dizzily, dust and greese, hot, tired, grimy workers 
whose blood-shot eyes shifted constantly toward the time- 
clock, counting the minutes until the six o'clock whistle 
blew. As I emerged from each factory, I conscientiously 
otted down all the facts 1 had been able to gather. Other- 
rise I would not have trusted my reports from the blurred 
npression that I carried away with me. I knew only 
hat I was sick at heart! So this was labor! This was 
he living reality in which one was to find the dignity of 
oil, the joy of honest work! This was the world of in- 
dustry into which I was to send the children! 

Of course, the acute distress of my first reaction did not 
st long. In the first place, my industrial investigations 
on led me to many better factories, where the conditions 
labor were not revolting and where work did not seem 
intolerable thing. And also there is the sad truth that 
time we become in some degree calloused to the things 
ve see. It is true that my first reactions to the factories that 
saw were those of an ardent young idealist quite inex- 
erienced in the world of industry, but its very freshness 
nade it a significant comment on much in the industrial 
arid. If more of us could retain the vigor of those first 
npressions, perhaps we might be roused to the point of 
oing something to alter the conditions which produce 
hem. Many years after my first experience, I went through 
he Ford factory in Detroit with a group of educators, 
we came out, a middle-aged teacher from the city of 
Jew York, who happened to have been walking next to 
ne, suddenly stood still, drew a deep breath and exclaimed, 
'My God ! Is that the ultimate destiny for which we are 



educating the children of America!" My sudden spon- 
taneous answer surprised even me. "I've been asking my- 
self that question for twelve years!" said I. 

BUT during a great part of that dozen years, this search- 
ing challenge was kept quite in the background of 
my mind. As vocational counselors we were, after all, con- 
centrating on decidedly constructive efforts on behalf of the 
individuals with whom we dealt. Vocational counselors are 
able to accomplish for many boys and girls what they can- 
not achieve without this help. It did certainly mean much 
to Arthur (a grammar-school graduate with an intellectual 
cast of mind and tremendous ambition, but no chance of 
going on to high-school) that we were able to take him 
out of the hat factory where he was restless and unhappy, 
and place him instead in a law office where a member of 
the firm took an interest in him and helped him on to a 
night-school education. Today Arthur is a practising law- 
yer. You may well ask, "Is he any better off because of 
that?" I have often asked myself. But I honestly believe 
that he probably is. At least he hasn't in his heart the 
bitter feeling of having been entirely thwarted, of never 
having had a chance at the thing he wanted most to do. 

I know what it meant to Miriam that we were able to 
release her from the tailor-shop where she was pulling bast- 
ings for $3.50 per week. The lameness and the crooked 
spine that infantile paralysis had left with Miriam would 
(the doctor told us), have been aggravated to serious di- 
sease had she stayed bent over this dull task at that critical 
adolescent period of her life. Back to school we sent her, 
long enough to acquire health and strength, the English 
language, and skill in a well-paid needle-trade of an entirely 
different sort. There was Gertrude, obliged to leave 
school for work just two months before graduation from the 
stenographic course in high-school, because of home factors 
too complex to be set forth in this discussion. A loan of 
$5.50 tided her over an acute emergency while her father 
got employment! Two months later, upon graduation, we 
placed her as a stenographer at a good initial salary. 

Thomas's future prospects brightened considerably be- 
cause, upon discovering his latent talent for mechanical 
drawing, we took him from telegraph messenger service 
and put him in a draughtsman's office with a chance to 
learn the trade. Just at the point where despair might 
have become desperation, George came to us. He had found 
that a high-school education availed one little in getting an 
office position if because of a childhood accident one hob- 
bled on a crutch, dangling an empty trouser leg. We were 
able to secure for him an artificial limb that bravely deceives 
the world, and after that we had no trouble in getting him 
a good job as bookkeeper, for which he had been trained. 
With a grammar-school education, tiny sixteen-year-old Sam, 
hunch-back and frail, had never been able to earn money. 
No one had found anything that he could do. His de- 
pressing handicap had given him an inferiority complex. 
He over-compensated by an arrogance of manner that made 
it very difficult to help him. One's job as a vocational 
counselor was to solve this double problem. Weeks of 
studying Sam's assets and liabilities helped him to face his 
problem squarely and brought a decision. He was sent 
to a trade-school where he learned to engrave jewelry and 
silverware. At the end of one year he began work as a 
skilled artisan in a trade where his physical disability was 



150 



BLIND ALLEYS 



no insurmountable barrier to success in self-support. 
In addition to the many children who constituted such 
special problems, there were scores of others who were 
helped to better jobs and occupations than they would have 
been able to secure for themselves. These frequent happy 
placements were the achievements that gave one the faith 
and courage, and therefore the energy and ambition, to carry 
on one's job through the many disheartening hours when 
one felt the utter futility of trying to "guide" in the grow- 
ing chaos of competitive society. 

THIS growing chaos seemed to me to challenge us on 
every side. In many cases we were helping individuals 
to make a fairly satisfactory adjustment to their industri.il 
environment. But the great majority were unable even 
with our help to make an adjustment that brought them 
satisfaction, and, of course, there were thousands of boys 
and girls whom vocational bureaus, with their limited 
staffs of workers, could not attempt to reach. Every year 
these poured by the thousands out of the schools into the 
factories, shops and offices, to make up the army of restless, 
discontented workers that are the important factor in our 
"labor problems" of today. As one watched and studied 
this stream of young humanity, the conviction forced itself 
upon one that the fault was not primarily theirs. Scientific 
psychology and psychiatry have made it quite clear that 
when the majority of common men find it impossible to 
adjust themselves with reasonable comfort and satisfaction 
to fcny system of living, the inadequacy lies in the system, 
not in the individuals. Either the industrial system into 
which these young people were being forced was not adapted 
to their inherent needs and capacities as human beings, or, 
if a harmonious adjustment was possible, they were not 
being adequately prepared to make it by the education 
they received in our schools, or by the vocational guidance 
that we were able to offer them. For a long time I tried 
to make myself believe that those for whom vocational 
guidance was available could "find themselves" satisfactorily 
somewhere in the work-a-day world. But the Johns and 
the Roberts and the Jennies and the Marys that we got 
"good jobs" for and kept in touch with, made it impossible 
for an honest counselor to fool herself. 

There were too many whose experiences were like John's. 
What John had really wanted to be at least when he 
was fourteen was a priest. But his family needed his 
earnings, so he renounced that desire, willing to accept as 
a substitute any "interesting work." He had no second 
preference, but decided to try a job with a small printing 
concern that had an opening in which they promised un- 
usual opportunities and a good "future." Month after 
month they kept him at errand work and odd jobs. When- 
ever John reminded them of their promises for a "future" 
in the trade itself or in the office of the concern they re- 
newed their promises. A year passed, and then two, with 
"opportunity" always seeming to lie just ahead. By the 
end of the third year, John was discouraged, his ambition 
and his zest for work were gone. We couldn't convince 
him that other jobs might prove different, or persuade him 
to go to night-school for further education to equip him- 
self for other work. His only answer was "It's too late, 
my apprenticeship years are gone." 

Girls had very similar experiences. Anna was eager 
to design dresses, and she seemed to be equipped with an' 



unusual knack for that sort of thing. A large and very 
reliable concern promised to give her an opportunity in 
their dress-making department "just as soon as there was 
an opening." Pending that, she took ordinary clerical work 
on their mail-order department so that she would be an 
employe of the concern, having merely to be "transferred" 
when the opening came. The same story of promise after 
promise which kept her at the office job in the constant 
hope of the desired opportunity. Again the years of appren- 
ticeship passed until Anna abandoned hope of learning 
her chosen trade, gave up her job, and set out to find some 
other office position (that being the only work in which she 
had any experience to offer), where there might be a chance 
to secure some advancement. 

It was rather a romantic gleam in Robert that made him 
want to be a farmer. But again there was the family's 
need of their boy's earnings, and farming had to be laid 
away in the vast land of unfulfilled desires. From farming 
to a job in the postal department of a big city is a far cry, 
and Robert found the confinement and monotony hard to 
endure. He manages to survive it by annually deserting his 
work for the summer months, during which he takes a job 
as "ice-man." 

Sometimes it seemed to me that Harry's answer epitom- 
ized the problem that many youngsters were up against. 
We had been urging him to complete his grammar-school 
education, and were painting the advantages of education in 
our most alluring colors opportunities for better jobs, in- 
creased earning power and the usual line of argument. 
"Hm," said Harry, "my brother graduated, and he's a 
window washer." 

There was obvious separation, even conflict, in the minds 
of these young workers between their functions as wage- 
earners and their functions (needs and desires) as normal, 
living persons. There was obvious antagonism between 
that growth in wealth which today dominates industry 
and that growth in individuals which we still cling to as 
our concept of education. And the trouble with the voca- 
tional movement, it seemed to me, was that it had failed 
to face the basic facts of this conflict. The movement 
for vocational guidance and vocational education was founded 
on the theory that young people must be trained educated 
for industry. The great need of skilled workers was 
argued. They were essential to the success of any people. In 
those days Germany was cited as the example of a nation 
whose system of vocational education was the foundation 
of national efficiency and prosperity. The arguments seem- 
ed logical, reasonable and thoroughly convincing. The 
demand for vocational education in this country grew and 
grew. And all the time the truth was that for at least 
a century the invention and introduction of automatic ma- 
chinery had been steadily destroying the need for skilled 
workers in one industry after another. Machine produc- 
tion had superseded craftsmanship, and for the vast majority 
of workers production was becoming more and more auto- 
matized. In the face of that, what a dramatic failure of 
a whole movement to deal with reality! What a contra- 
diction of fact and theory! In our vocational work in the 
early days we talked a great deal about blind alley jobs, 
dead-end occupations. Is the phrase one which, without 
our realizing it, has come to describe the vocational move- 
ment itself? Or is there a way out? Some answers to 
, these questions I shall take up in a succeeding article. 



What Has She Done With It? 



The Lady and the Dove 

By MARTHA BENSLEY BRUERE 




I ONCE saw a lady 
taming a dove. The 
dove was in a cage. 
This made it easier for 
the lady. 

EARLY in the year 
after the signing 
of the Armistice some 
seven hundred women 
got together in Wash- 
ington thinking to cage 
the Dove of Peace. 
They came from the 
Pacific Coast, the Mid- 
The Lady tamed the dove in a cage die West, the South, 

the North even from 

New England for a great Victory Dinner. There were 
no men present but those who spoke, chief of whom was 
the Secretary of War. He told us that the war had cost, 
directly and indirectly, the lives of nine million young men 
and that the human cost of the next would be so much be- 
yond this as to be unthinkable. When he had finished, 
nothing in the world seemed so real to us as those nine 
million dead men. We urged then that our country enter 
the League of Nations so that through an understanding 
with other peoples that next war could never happen. 

That was more than five years ago. We are still out of 
the League of Nations or any other great association of the 
Powers, and the Dove of Peace is still at large. No one 
can say that we have not made love to that dove, flattered 
it, cajoled it, but there is no certainty that it will come to 
our whistle, nor stay with us when caught. 

IT'S probably good business to begin the taming process 
with kindness rather than cruelty, especially if kindness 
is the only means you've got. At the time of the Victory 
Dinner only a few of us had actually used our votes in a 
national election. All of us have done it now. And yet we 
have not even got the establishment of international peace, 
and our entry into the League of Nations or some other 
body as a means to it, into the present political campaign as 
a clear cut issue. It would almost seem that the appropriate 
moment for soft speech was past. 

I mean speech to ourselves. There is no use trying to 
shift the blame. It is up to us. We are not even letting 
the light in on what the last war was, for the benefit of 
those boys who will have to fight the next one if interna- 
tional peace is not established. We are not even objecting 
to that flagrant attempt to soft pedal the effects of war 
the attack on What Price Glory, a play recently opened in 
New York City. This play is admittedly a work of art. 
It has also hit the popular taste. The objection to it is 



not on the ground of sex morality, but because of the lan- 
guage the soldiers and sailors use. They are extremely 
coarse! They are vulgar! They do not take the moral 
protestations of the contending parties at all seriously. Like 
Shakespeare's soldier they are full of strange oaths. They 
add a new profanity to that which the invading armies of 
the ages have brought to birth in Flanders. 

Now no one can deny that these objections are valid. 
The Mayor of New York City after receiving complaints 
from officers of the Navy and the Marine Corps, invited 
a Major General and a Rear Admiral to sit in judgment 
on the piece. The Nation says that the martial critics feared 
that the play would stop recruiting. 

"After seeing the performance" the Rear Admiral is re- 
ported to have said, "no mother would allow her son to 
enter army or marine life." 

The Nation therefore suggests the army and navy as ap- 
propriate careers for orphans a practical way to reduce arm- 
aments since modern medicine and hygiene can so reduce the 
maternity death rate as to cut down the number of male 
orphans almost indefinitely. 

But I haven't noticed any important bloc of women voters 
resenting this attack on What Price Glory? Of course it's 
a dangerous thing that this play should be allowed to go 
all over the United States. Dangerous for war I mean it's 
grand for the Dove! For when a work of art embodies a 
great truth, or even a great piece of propaganda, it's far 
more effective than many speeches or much publicity. Look 
what Uncle Tom's Cabin did to slavery! 

MUSIC may be allowed to be the food of love but it 
looks to me as though the Dove of Peace might 
grow fat on a diet of real information if available. Isn't 
it up to us women who have votes to stop the deliberate 
destruction of its food supply? 

Certainly it is up to us to discover and eliminate the causes 
of war. And one of the most certain and most easily con- 
trollable is too many 
people to the square 
mile a surplus popu- 
lation that must take 
somebody else's coun- 
try away in order to 
have a place to live. 

I was talking the 
other evening with 
Baroness Ishimoto, a 
lovely lady who is one 
of the outstanding fig- 
ures in modern Japan. 
It was not possible to 
escape entirely the 
question of our Jap- w/ e made l ove to t h e dove 




151 



152 



WHAT HAS SHE DONE WITH IT? 




Over-population scatters the dove's tail feathers 

anese Exclusion Act. I cannot quote her exactly but in 
effect she said that no nation has a right to expect another 
nation to make a place for its surplus people. That was 
a home problem and should be settled at home. Japan 
knew how many people she could support; let her keep her 
population within the limits of her own land. There was 
no need that so many children should be born. The women 
of Japan have no vote, but they can still speak in public 
without being molested and they are advocating the teaching 
of birth control as a peace measure. We in America have 
the vote but we speak on the subject of birth control under 
the constant menace of arrest. Why not use our votes as 
well as our tongues in this matter? The bill to make pos- 
sible the dissemination of information on birth control is 
expected to come up before the next session of Congress. 
It is one of the bars in the cage for the Dove of Peace! It 
was blocked in committee during the past session. If it is 
reported out there is a fair chance that it may pass and 
strangely enough that hangs on the action of the Missouri 
members of the judiciary committee. 

Here then is a definite job for the women of Missouri 
to see to it that their representatives vote for that bill. At 
this particular juncture they hold the balance of power. 
Of course there's no way of voting directly on the question 
in November oh no! Even if the Missouri members came 
up for re-election nothing so specific and simple as how 
they should vote on particular bills would have a chance 
of getting into their personal platforms unless an aroused 
constituency put it there. But it may not be inappropriate 
to mention that a vote has other uses than merely being 
inserted in the ballot box. It's a club and an inducement, 
a threat and a reward. There are plenty of reasons for the 



passage of that bill besides the menace which a surplus popu- 
lation offers to our permanent association with that Dove 
but there is no question that the noise of many people has 
frequently scared it off before. The open season for doves 
in Missouri is August. That's safely past. Can't this spe- 
cial bar for the Dove's cage be put in safely before then? 
It's up to you, Missouri for Heaven's sake put it over! 

COMING v up in the subway this morning I was con- 
fronted with a placard which read: 

Vote on November 4, 1924 

Nobody was interested in that placard. They sat and 
looked at each other and read the advertisements for candy 
and shoes and ways to shampoo your hair and news of the 
World Series everything except the placard which told 
them to vote. They hung on straps and talked to each other 
about their real interests about how hard they worked 
and how rotten business was, and whether the Iron Horse 
was as good as The Covered Wagon, and whether she 
really killed him or not, and the new large hats and never 
glanced at the admonition to vote on November 4. Now, 
of course, there is every reason why we should vote oa 
November 4 just as an abstract principle. It's good for 
us. It's like playing the scales or practicing the goose step 
or repeating the multiplication table it's the daily dozen 
of citizenship. But a real issue to vote on would put more 
emotion into it. Vote on November 4. Certainly what 
for? 

ONE Sunday morning I came out of a little white 
church in a town in western New York and seated 
myself on the broad steps leading down to the village green. 
An old, old man came and sat down beside me. His hair 
was thin and white ; his beard was long and heavy and 
white, he stooped upon his cane and he wore a black broad- 
cloth coat of ancestral cut. But his blue eye was bright. 
He took the skirt of my dress and felt it between his thumb 
and finger. 

"It's a pretty dress, where did you get it?" he asked. 

"In New York." I told him. 

"So you live in New York! Well, what are you inter- 
ested in there?" 

"Just now I'm interested in how people are going to 
vote." 

"That's good! That's good!" and he patted me on the 
arm. "If there's one thing I have no use for it's them that 
don't vote! You can get most anything you take a notion 
to so's you keep voting for it long enough ! I kep' a- 




We've wooed it long enough. Now for cave-man methods ! 



WHAT HAS SHE DONE WITH IT? 



153 



voting and avoting for temperance and here it is ! You 
can vote for a pretty dress or anything else you want. I've 
lived a long time now and I never seen no good yet in 
not saying what you're after." 

A brisk, red-cheeked young woman came toxvard us. 

"Now Uncle Henry, we're all ready to go," she said. 

"You leave me alone, Julia! I'm talking to this lady 
from Ne\v York. You go along. I'm talking to her about 
voting." 

Julia retired to the side lines and Uncle Henry continued. 

"If I was the president of the United States I'd make 
a law about voting. If a man was sick and didn't vote 
I'd say 'All right, you get another chance.' If a man was 
travelling and couldn't vote, I'd say to him, 'Well, next 
time you stay home and do your voting!' But if a man 
stayed home more than once I'd say to him, 'You can't 
never vote again. There ain't no laws in the country 
that's made to protect you, and I don't want to hear you 
opening your mouth objecting to anything I do!' That's 
what I'd say if I was the President of the United States." 



THE Woman Citizen quotes a Minneapolis woman as 
asking: 

"Wouldn't you rather vote for that little boy than roll 
Red Cross bandages for him?" 

Undoubtedly, but how? 

There's just one way by getting into the political arena 
the things we want to vote for. Peace or pretty dresses 
birth control or the tariff. It can be done but we haven't 
done it. It is a humiliating fact that although we settled 
upon the political conventions like a cloud of well doves 
and submitted perfectly good planks for the platforms, and 
behaved in the most ladylike and unobtrusive manner when 
they were thrown out, we have let these platforms go be- 
fore the country with an issue as vital to us as our member- 
ship in the League of Nations left out. We're working 
hard enough now to get out the vote, but we didn't do 
much to get out the issues. And there's no excuse we can 
make to ourselves for it. It's a well known fact that 
whatever the party machine thinks will get votes is put 
into the platform. There are more women voters than 
men, but we evidently haven't made the parties understand 
that we really want to cage that dove. 

But if we are not working through our votes to insure 
, the League of Nations of which we are not a member 

doing much to give us what we want. Nothing has 




As we would like it to be 



happened so important to 
the world since the end- 
ing of the Great War as 
these findings at Geneva. It 
is not only the council's un- 
animous approval of the com- 
pulsory arbitration protocol 
to be enforced between the 
nations, but that wider ideal 
developed in the closing days 
of the session, of eventual 
arbitration of disputes over 
raw materials, over indus- 
trial output, over immigra- 
tion, national expansion and 
racial aspirations that is, 
of all the fundamental causes of war! 

And we are not in on this great international dove- 
catching drive ! 

It is to be remembered, of course, that our Secretary 
of State, our Secretary of the Treasury, and an important 
American Commission have been in Europe recently wres- 
tling with the problems of the adjustment of international 
difficulties. More secret diplomacy ! More dodging of the 
duty of creating and keeping an informed electorate! But 
the point is that though our cabinet ministers and our 
commissions have been conferring in Europe on the prob- 
lems which are the greatest of realities to us, the United 
States is still seated in veiled unconsciousness this side of 
the Atlantic and we women, voters though we are, are not 
having anything to say as to whether she shall join the 
party or not! For the question is not being put up to us 
and we are not insisting that it shall be! 

THAT Dove of Peace as we women want it to be is 
fat, placid, trained to come at a call, brooding inces- 
antly and preferably caged. 

That caging is important because many things besides 
mere over-population scare it. The wonderful plans made 
in Geneva are not yet completely formulated much less 
put into execution. But a caged dove is helpless against 
the wildest alarms. 

We've wooed it long enough. Now for cave man 
methods! And when it's caged, though the soldiers of the 
world may encamp about it, it can do no more than squawk ! 




In the midst of war's alarms the caged dove can only squawk 




EDITORIALS 



A' 



MERICANS, because they are intensely practical, 
understand the social importance of heart dis- 
ease. With their keen understanding of finan- 
cial matters they see in man a machine with a 
working capacity and with a nicely calculated return in 
dollars," said an eminent Italian clinician, Professor Gio- 
vanni Galli of Pavia, addressing the Lombard Society of 
the Medical and Biological Sciences at Milan last spring. 
It is pleasant to read Professor Galli's extended tribute to 
the performance and promise of the group of American doc- 
tors who have shown heart disease to be a problem in public 
health and organized the warfare against it. 

But why limit our interest to the dollars and cents? 
That is not the power behind the devotion, the learning, 
and the hard work which have made possible the achieve- 
ments and plans which this issue chronicles. We shall send 
a copy of it to Professor Galli, and we shall mark Dr. 
Emerson's words: "We seek a new freedom, the so-called 
modern public health .... We measure our success by 
the release of free and joyous lives and we grapple with this 
chain of misery where it binds hardest." 




WAR is as old as civilization and our civilization is 
based very largely on war. The structure of the 
state, all the sanctions that have grown into law, have come 
largely out of the war process. Until the second day of 
October 1924, war was as legitimate for any state as any 
other of its activities. It was so far as international usage 
went right. Except where states had bound themselves by 
mutual treaty, any war that any one of them chose to wage 
was legally right, because no other power could question its 
sovereignty. 

So it was a revolutionary thing that happened on the sec- 
ond of October in Geneva. To say baldly that on that day 
the Assembly of the League of Nations adopted a protocol 
for the pacific settlement of international disputes quite 
fails to convey the thrill of excitement and hope that ran 
through the statesmen and commoners who shared or watch- 
ed the event. Mrs. Parker gives us the feel of it in her eye- 
witness story on p. 141. Professor Shotwell, whose leader- 
ship in the effort to devise a way of outlawing wars of 
aggression is well known to Survey readers, probes into the 
text of the protocol and traces its significance on page 145. 
What is our part ? America is not asked to sign the 
protocol. That should be clearly understood. For those 
signatories, members of the League, which ratify it, war 
between them becomes illegal. For the United States, 
Turkey and Russia and, for a few months longer, for 



Germany war remains legal. We will be asked to join 
in a conference on disarmament. No one expects that we 
shall take so radical a step as Denmark, for instance, which 
has already proposed, without waiting for world agreement 
or the guarantee of security, to scrap its army. The 
members of the League will come to that conference next 
year with clean consciences: they have already pledged 
each other not to go to war. We are not asked to do that. 
The issue is simply this: shall we meet the nations of the 
world as they met us at Washington to discuss frankly 
the possibilities of relief from a common burden? Or shall 
we hold aloof ? 




WILL this fall's elections leave us free to make such 
a choice and to make it on the right side? The 
Geneva proposal for a conference was drawn too la'e to 
become a partisan issue in this fall's campaign in the United 
States. The choice is open. The affirmative course can be 
taken with dignity by the new administration, whichever 
it may be, provided there is sufficient muster of public 
opinion within and without party lines. 

It is not incompatible with the position of those who 
share with Coolidge his belief that America is strong enough 
to go it alone, and that as a free agent we can help the 
world to its feet as strikingly exemplified by the part 
played by Hughes, Young and Dawes in cutting the rep- 
arations tangle. The nations bordering on the Pacific re- 
sponded to our call to a disarmament conference, and we 
can with grace sit in at a conference called by 55 nations 
of the world ; can bring an open mind to arrangements for 
composing disputes kindred to the Washington pact. 

The affirmative course is not incompatible with the posi- 
tion of those who believe with LaFollette that leagues and 
such like are vain things so long as they are between states 
which can declare war without going to the people. The 
arrangements proposed would at least delay hostilities, and 
to that extent give public opinion a chance to act ; and the 
progressives have hailed the leadership of MacDonald and 
Herriot, the men most responsible for the agreement at 
Geneva, as putting a new face on Europe and opening the 
way for getting at the economic and imperialist causes for 
war. 

The affirmative course would not only be not incompat- 
ible with the constructive foreign policy which distinguishes 
Davis from his rivals, but in line with it ; in line with that 
new frontage on international relations which dates back 
to the time when Woodrow Wilson voiced the aspirations 
of the common people of the world and when he, however 
succeeding developments may have muddied it, laid the 



154 



EDITORIALS 



155 



threshold for a House of Mankind. The world, if not 
his fellow countrymen, has shown itself disposed to cross 
that threshold and enter in. 




BY the quick shift at Westminister, the two great Eng- 
lish speaking peoples go to the polls within a week 
ot each other. The British campaign is pressed in less than 
a month : the American engrosses half a year. In Great 
Britain, a division in Parliament throws an issue over to 
the electorate for decision. With us, though the situation 
is modified this year, there is no such sharpening of choice 
and party behavior looms larger than platforms in the pre- 
election debate. These contrasts are marked enough but 
are altogether incidental to the drama which the student 
of social history finds in the swift developments in Great 
Britain. Let us have a look at it against the background of 
Europe. 

We know that with the break-up of feudalism, came the 
rise of great states under the monarchies. We know that 
with the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the 
middle classes came into power. They upset autocracy but 
they did not breed a litter of petty bourgeois states. Liber- 
alism shook the political structure, control settled into 
lower and broader reaches of society, but nationalism and 
parliamentary government went forward together. And we 
know that with the World War tendencies which the vast 
extension of the suffrage made inevitable have come to a 
head. With this further turn of the spiral, we watch the 
emergence of the wage earners as a power in the state. 
Not all at once ; not in any two nations by identical meth- 
ods; not without the backwash of old forces; but funda- 
mentally there is going on all over Europe a settling of 
control to still lower and broader reaches of society. 

What we are witnessing in England is the consecration 
of this new twentieth century force in British life to the 
principle of political democracy as wrought out in the 
nineteenth century to the method of government by 

ersuasion, discussion and consent." 




on those of property owners and profit-makers, but they 
hold unflinchingly to the political method of self-govern- 
ment as the great contribution to human affairs made by 
the genius of their race. They purpose to build upon and! 
through its structure. Their spirited commitment to con- 
stitutional democracy, to liberty and majority rule is of 
world-wide significance. And they have made their choice 
with a full knowledge of the pains, the setbacks, the hazards 
which the choice entails. That is what is luminous in the- 
willingness of the British Labor Party to take the gage 
of an adverse vote and go the country with the odds against 
them. 

Such a course and such a choice were not unanticipated 
by Ramsay MacDonald and his associates. Iconclast inter- 
preted their stand in the period before they took office in' 
these words: 

The only majority that is to be of any avail is a converted 
majority, not a merely acquiescent one ; a majority ready to 
support fundamental change, not merely a majority that is- 
ready to try a change of Government. 

MacDonald put it himself more colorfully back in 1923: 

The truly great constitutionalist will put the public in pos- 
session of his ideals and his principles of action in the case 
of Labor these are comprehended in Socialism, the community 
organized to secure good life for all and, at the same time, 
he will make it clear that a journey has to be undertaken to 
reach his goal. The pace may be slow or it may be fast, the 
journey may be a steady progress or an Israelitish wandering, 
hither and thither, long resting in camps, diversions, squabblings, 
Golden Calves but it cannot be taken on a broomstick or on 
a magic carpet. The road has to be trodden. 






OR nine months England has been under a labor gov- 
ernment, backed by what was no more than a parlia- 
mentary minority, but behind that in turn has been banked 
a following stronger in numbers than the Bolshevik group 
in Russia or the counter-revolutionary Fascists in Italy. 
True, their make-up and the situation confronting them is 
different. None the less the outstanding contrast of the 
day is not between our slow-moving election machinery and 
the swifter British machinery, but between the course pur- 
sued in London as against that pursued in Petrograd or 
Rome. Followers of the Red Flag in Russia, the black- 
shirted companies of the Italian cities, took the short cut. 
British labor has not so rejected democracy. To use strong- 
arm methods to gain power and have their way, is to its 
intellectual leaders a throw-back to the dark ages. They 
project a new economic program, grounded on the needs 
and aspirations of producers and wage earners rather than 




IN nine months MacDonald has done more to solidify 
the ground work of peace than his predecessors had done 
in six years. Conservatives and Liberals may have much 
to answer for at the bar of history for dislodging this 
master-salvager. His foreign policy may, to be sure, like- 
a best seller or a play that sweeps the crowds to a theater, 
result in what in this country we would call a landslide. 
He and his associates may have counted on that. Yet in 
the opinion of political observers, there is scarcely a chance 
of his immediate return to power. With France, England 
and the lesser states agreed on the Geneva protocol and the- 
disarmament conference just ahead, we can well imagine 
the temptation to hold onto the job to make compromises - 
at home which would have freed him to help shape the 
recovery of a war-racked continent. With such tremendous 
human values at stake the domestic issue on which the- 
cabinet fell, however trivial it may seem at first glance- 
against the European panorama, must have reached down 
to something basic in the labor movement. This on exam- 
ination proves to be the case. 

The dissolution of Parliament hinged on a prosecution- 
brought under the Incitement to Mutiny Act of 1797, 
against John Ross Campbell of the Workers Weekly. The 
general opinion is that the case was inspired by permanent 
under-officials, and that it was made possible by the; negli- 
gence of the attorney general, Sir Patrick Hastings. At 
all events the prosecution was dropped by the latter and 
the charge was brought that he was called off by his col- 
leagues. Certain it is that Labor opinion throughout the- 
country was a unit in repudiating it. The Conservatives. 



156 



EDITORIALS 



offered a vote of censure, the Liberals called for a Parliamen- 
tary inquiry in a resolution which Labor regarded as tanta- 
mount to an even more severe vote of censure and on this 
last the minority government was defeated and went to the 
country. The manifesto issued by the Communist news- 
paper included the following: 

Soldiers, sailors, airmen, flesh of our flesh and bone of our 
bone, the Communist Party calls upon you to begin the task 
of not only organizing passive resistance when war is declared, 
or when an industrial dispute involves you, but to definitely and 
categorically let it be known that neither in the class war nor 
a military war will you turn your guns on your fellow-work- 
ers, but instead will line up with your fellow-workers in an 
attack upon the exploiters and capitalists and will use your 
arms on the side of your own class. 

Form committees in every barracks, aerodrome and ship. 
Let this be the nucleus of an organization that will prepare the 
whole of the soldiers, sailors and airmen not merely to refuse 
to go to war, or to refuse to shoot strikers during industrial 
conflicts, but will make it possible for the workers, peasants 
and soldiers, sailors and airmen to go forward in a common 
attack upon the capitalists and smash capitalism forever and 
institute the reign of the whole working class. 

The tinder in such an incident is not hard to find, nor 
the implications that can set flint and steel to it in the 
course of a campaign. The legal mind is aroused to see 
it as tampering with the courts. If governments are to 
short-circuit prosecutions brought against favored groups, 
British justice is traduced. With an empire on their hands, 
and Europe in unrest, any such boring at the allegiance 
of the -army strikes close home to the British public. What- 
ho, are not the pillars of both law and order being sapped 
and undermined? On the other hand, the misuse of mili- 
tary forces in strikes lies near to one of the most active 
areas of protest in the mind of the organized worker. There 
is a long and bitter history behind this feeling. To ad- 
vocate insurrection is a different thing from advocating pas- 
sive resistance ; but to agitate, also, is a different thing from 
engaging in overt acts; and British tolerance has ruggedly 
distinguished between the two. The left wing of British 
labor would not be alone in resenting any lapse of the 
majority come to office, in guarding those rights of agita- 
tion which labor asserted when it was the underdog. The 
fact that the defendant singled out was a veteran of the 
world war, who won a D. S. O. and lost a leg for his 
country, makes for mixed feelings in other quarters. The 
New Statesman lays the blame for an election that "no one 
wants" on the Premier's own attitude and statements, yet 
says tersely: "The spectacle of a twentieth century labor 
government pursuing a prosecution under an eighteenth 
century mutiny act would have been incongruous beyond 
reasonable toleration." 




THESE implications and feelings aside, let us see what 
bearing the incident has on the general front of the 
Labor Party. The Communists renounce political democ- 
racy. Within the last month, the British Labor Party has 
again, as last year, refused to affiliate with the Communists. 
The Communists see government as the exercise of force 
by the other fellow. They aim at taking his big stick 
away from him and using it themselves. And they are 
not without precedent. They can cite the Ulster uprising . 



before the World War, when the military and men in high 
place were involved. At that time there were responsible 
liberals who believed that ancient strongholds of reaction, 
close pressed in Parliament, were trying out the ground 
before resorting to force if need be to hold their own in 
England itself. And today, if we are to credit newspaper 
reports, the Communist groups in England have been 
matched by the spread of counter organizations fired by the 
Fascist adventure in Italy. The two groups are inconse- 
quential numerically. 

With this strong arm policy in either camp, the Labour 
Party breaks. The issue is not of its choosing: it is 
raised and taken up by elements pitted against each other 
across its course, as across that of the older parties it must 
lock horns with in the political arena. Yet it is a chal- 
lenge distinctly leveled at the new working class formation 
which offers at once an economic answer to the social un- 
rest which is alternative to that of the older parties, and 
a political method alternative to revolution as the way to 
arrive at that answer. The Labor Party has met squarely 
this challenge to its faith in freedom of speech and dis- 
cussion ; its belief in persuasion and consent as the rock- 
bottom tenets of democracy. MacDonald put the issue with 
humor in 1921. He had a fight on his hands, then as now; 
and under his humor lay the same vigor with which to 
his left he had assailed the Marxian doctrine that you 
"must destroy in order to reconstruct," and, to his right, 
had sought to shatter the static conception of capitalist 
society. To quote him: 

The Communist is a politician in crinolines and corkscrew 
curls. The common people in history have been working 
through violence into politics, and now that they have got 
there I am in too great a hurry to go back. I know that 
ancient times had their attractions the Spartacus Revolt, Wat 
Tyler, John Ball, Oliver Cromwell. . . . The disfranchised 
revolted during the past two centuries in order that their off- 
spring might not have to revolt any more but govern. I, being 
a modern creature, believe in government rather than revolu- 
tion or dictatorships. . . . 

Americans, whatever their economic creed, can appre- 
ciate that there is something fine in the adherence by the 
rank and file of British labor to the political faith they 
inherit from a line of free-necked men which reaches back 
through liberalism to the nobles who wrested their Magna 
Carta from King John. They adhere to it when to do so 
is no longer an academic matter; but a matter of life and 
death for the first labor government. 




ON November 14, at the Hotel Astor, in New York, 
friends of Mrs. Florence Kelley are planning to 
hold an anniversary dinner in honor of her twenty-five years 
of leadership of the National Consumers' League. Mrs. 
Kelley is of the generation of women who with the break- 
ing down of the walls of the colleges entered into a "new 
freedom" for their sex. She was not content with explor- 
ing this new intellectual realm. She was conscious that 
the great body of women of her time were being inducted 
not into a new intellectual life but into a new industrial 
life. And the odds were against them. Hence her life 
work ; and its significance in relation to the great tidal 



EDITORIALS 



157 



forces operating in these decades. A wide response to the 
plan of holding this dinner has already been received; 150 
persons have accepted membership on a general committee. 
The toastmistress will be Julia C. Lathrop. 




ONE of the greatest movements to unite governments 
for a humanitarian purpose since the campaign 
against the slave traders comes to a focus in November at 
the opium conferences, called by the League of Nations. Their 
end is harder to accomplish than was that of the devoted 
men and women who a century ago were determined that 
white men should not make profits out of the sale of the 
bodies of black men. They aimed at prohibition, complete 
suppression of the trade. The trade in opium and cocaine, 
however, cannot be prohibited; it can only be regulated. 
For medical and scientific purposes, their use must be con- 
tinued, so means must be devised to secure a sufficient 
supply for the uses of these drugs and at the same time 
to cut off the supply which feeds their many abuses. As 
out of a total estimated world production of opium of ap- 
proximately 3,500 tons in 1922, only 350 tons are esti- 
mated to be necessary for medical and scientific purposes, 
the great extent of abuse is evident. 

The nations of the world have realized since 1919 that 
they must deal as a unit with opium and cocaine. A treaty 
is already in effect by which they undertake to limit the 
traffic in opium and the manufacture and trade in morphine, 
heroin and cocaine. The figures which I have just cited 
show the Convention has not been effective. It was a long 
first step, but the time has come to take a second step on 
the same path. The November conferences are a practical 
evidence that there is need for an advance. The United 
States took a leading part in the movement for the call 
of the conferences, and its delegation which met with the 
Committee on Opium of the League of Nations urged the 
limitation of the production of and traffic in opium to the 
amount necessary for medical and scientific purposes. The 
Assembly, on the recommendation of the committee, re- 
quested the calling of the conferences "as a means of giv- 
ing effect to the principles submitted by the representatives 
of the United States of America, and to the policy which 
the League . . . has adopted." 

Two conferences will be held; the first dealing with 
opium smoking in the Orient; the second with all habit- 
forming drugs. The first includes representatives of gov- 
ernments directly interested in the traffic in smoking opium 
and its mission is to agree on means "for the giving effective 
application" to the provisions of the existing treaty which 
pledge a gradual reduction, and ultimate stopping, of all 
international traffic in opium for the purposes of smok- 
ing. The increase in poppy growing in China to produce 
smoking opium is intimately related to the problem of in- 
ternational control, so that this conference will also study 
the situation in China. Opium smoking cannot be stopped 
abruptly. The habit is too deeply rooted in the life of 
masses of oriental peoples, and the traffic is too closely 
interwoven in the financial and economic fabric of the gov- 
ernments to make possible immediate , prohibition. What 
is desired, and anticipated, is an agreement to bring about 
complete suppression within a definite period of years. 



A harder problem faces the second, or general confer- 
ence, in which an official American delegation will par- 
ticipate. Its task is to prepare an agreement limiting the 
amounts of morphine, heroin or cocaine to be manufactured 
for medical and scientific requirements, and restricting the 
production of raw opium and coca leaves "for export, to 
the amount required for such medicinal and scientific 
purposes." 




A PREPARATORY committee, on which the United 
States was represented, has been unable to agree on a 
program for the control of opium production and export 
to be laid before the conference. Five separate plans were 
suggested by individual members of this committee, and 
ultimately referred, following failure to reach a compro- 
mise, to an advisory committee. At its last session the 
advisory^ committee, aided by a representative of the United 
States "in an advisory capacity," and Mrs. Hamilton 
Wright of Washington as an assessor, succeeded in drafting 
a single plan to be submitted as a basis for the deliber- 
ations of the conference. But owing to the opposition of 
several members of the committee, more especially the rep- 
resentative of France, the committee was obliged to in- 
clude a discussion of the original French plan on the agenda. 

The proposal of the advisory committee assumes that 
the annual needs of each state for narcotic drugs can be 
stated within a reasonable margin and provides for a limit- 
ation of imports to each state to this figure. The project 
provides a central board to watch over the distribution and 
to keep the governments informed as to one another's im- 
ports, so that exporting countries can carry out their agree- 
ment to stop shipments to countries whose reasonable 
requirements are met and to revise if need be the estimates 
of a country which clearly are too high, so as to make it 
probable that the opium imported is not going to be used 
for improper purposes. 

To prevent the possibility of its being advantageous to 
stay out of the International Union, the control board is 
to be directed to fix the legitimate requirements of non- 
members, and member states agree to keep their shipments 
to non-members within the limit so fixed. Trade among 
member states is to be subject to the system of export 
and import licenses which has been devised by the Opium 
Commission, so that no one can trade internationally in 
narcotics without a license, both from the government of a 
country into which the drugs are to be brought and from 
the government of the country of export. Thus full pub- 
licity of the trade is assured by reports to the central body 
and the responsibility of the governments of importing and 
exporting countries is fixed. 

The alternative scheme, to be submitted by the French 
representative, is not as far-reaching as the advisory com- 
mittee plan. It does away with the control board, on the 
ground that it is impractical, and provides for an elaborate 
''indirect" control, based on a system of international police 
and customs regulation. It is to be hoped that the plan of 
the advisory committee, which is supported by a majority 
of the states, will be adopted by the conference as a mini- 
mum of international control. 

The third situation in the opium problem, the local 
use of opium in countries (Continued on page 166) 



Letters & Life 

In which books, plays and people are discussed 

Edited by LEON WHIPPLE 




professor of Romance Languages com- 
plains because he is herded through life by 
sma ll bits f paper. He declares that this 
is not the Steel Age, or even the Radio 
Age, but the Paper Age. "I get a transfer 
on the trolley, a check for my hat, a certifi- 
cate with my cigar, a punched ticket for my lunch, a receipt 
for my registered manuscript, a check for my salary, a 
diploma for my education, a clipped coupon for my income, 
a license for my wife, and somebody gets a burial permit 
for me when I die. I celebrate by throwing paper confetti 
and I mourn by writing an epitaph. Everything is a printed 
paper symbol." In a sense he is right; from the halved 
hieroglyph of the Chinese laundry to the Treaty of Ver- 
sailles, our lives are in paper fetters. We expect St. Peter 
to be an impatient gentleman at a turnstile crying wearily 
"Tickets, please," who will shove us through with a torn- 
off stub in our hand, reading: "Elysian Field Bleachers . 

Q 13." 

There is a feeling we are a print-driven race so perhaps 
it would be a good thing for this department to begin by 
asking questions. What is the exact thing we hope books 
can do for society? Do we put our faith in books too 
much or too little? Shall our slogan be "Fewer books 
and better," or does Democracy demand (only a while, we 
hope) "More books and worse." In short, do we read not 
wisely, but too well? 

In our own social field, for example, is the best way to 
solve a problem always to write a book. It is very easy to 
write a book too soon. The very book crystallizes the mat- 
ter as a "problem," or sets a point of view. Then, it may 
take a lot of other books to change the false orientation. 
Take glands! Self-control here would surely have been 
the better part of valor. Is it kind to set old folks limping 
after the will-o-the-wisp that first danced over the swamps 
outside Eden? Do the publishers who jumped to satisfy 
this terrible desire to dull the edge of the scythe feel quite 
satisfied with their achievements? Saints forbid the race 
should not have its fairy-stories; That Black Oxen led 
the best sellers for steady months is not serious, just human. 
But putting the fairy-tale into tomes with convincing titles 
(like Rejuvenescence) that surely is not very wise. Such 
books were written too soon. There should be humility 
in writing a book. You always run the risk of giving 
immortality to your personal notions. Sometimes a better 
way to solve a problem is in the philosophy of a Southern 
fisherman. He "jest set an' watched the grass grow." 

Books in society the words ring pretty solemnly to one 
who has written some millions of ephemeral words. Books 
are so wonderful . . . and books are so pitiful. They can 
do so much, and so little. The three kinds those of knowl- 
edge, those of creation, those of recreation are great genii, 
and yet, sometimes, they can say, or do, so little about the 
simplest things kissing, say. . . . Yet, we need not doubt 



the service of the printed word. The one thing social and 
medical science can claim as their joint accomplishment is 
the adding of some years to the average human life. And 
that God-like gift was granted largely through the printed 
word. Poster and leaflet, tract and treatise they carried 
the message. "Sunshine, fresh air, good food, sound sleep," 
what would public health do if forbidden to print those 
seven words? 

Again, books assure us of keeping what we have won. 
Once, they say, the burning of the Alexandrian library set 
the race back several centuries ; mayhap, lost thoughts we 
shall never think again since we never can recapture the art 
of being an early Greek. No such chasm can crack under 
us again. What wisdom we have is garnered up to today; 
the libraries are full of many copies of all our books. Then 
you destroj'ed the books and crippled man. Now, you 
could destroy man, yet if the books were saved, the re- 
ascending monkeys, or colonizing Martians, coyld rebuild 
our civilization in every item if they wanted to. ... 

Books endure. They perpetuate man's wisdom as well 
as his folly. They do guide us, and today they seem almost 
the waiting trumpet to gather the races for some divine 
crusade. But, they are not sacrosanct. We are not bibli- 
olatrous. We shall ask three simple questions of books and 
plays that seem serious: 

Have you anything to say? 

Did you say it ? 

Will anybody listen ? 

A Little Knowledge 

"T_T M-M-M," said the doctor, non-commitally. "Well, 
we shall see. We shall see." With bright pro- 
fessional smile he sped the parting patient. 

But that, in enlightened medical circles, was a long time 
ago. Omniscience has gone out of style in the medical as 
in other professions. No longer is one's ailment, or lack 
of it, a mighty secret to be locked in the breast of the 
physician alone, and drawn forth only in mysterious edicts 
which the patient must follow blindly. Ignorance and fear 
are not attitudes ordinarily conducive to cure, and with 
the widening horizons of the mental hygiene movement, the 
attitude of the patient has come to be another of those 
essentials which the physician must observe, and, at need, 
treat. And for most minds no treatment is better than an 
understanding of the problem to be faced. 

To this realization by the medical profession itself of 
the need for popular education and information is to be 
attributed the flood of health books written by doctors for 
laymen. To the books must be added a score or more of 
popular magazines sponsored by one medical group or an- 
other, with Hygeia as official spokesman for the profession; 
the occasional articles in general magazines, the daily or 
less frequent health columns in the newspapers, the pam- 
.phlets and educational propaganda which is so important a. 



158 



LETTERS AND LIFE 



159 



part of the work of health organizations, the radio talks 
sponsored by health departments. All these face a common 
problem: How to provide sound information and advice at 
a cost and in a form effective for the average of us? 

Naturally there are many answers. Three volumes pub- 
lished recently in the field which is the central theme of 
this issue heart disease indicate three of them. 

In bright red covers, and only a little less in bulk and in 
cost than the ordinary novel are the first two, written by 
physicians for lay readers, Your Heart and How to Take 
Care of It, by Robert H. Babcock, and How Is Your Heart? 
by S. Calvin Smith, M. D. The very fact of the ap- 
pearance of two such books in a field which has been hedged 
about with a special degree of fear, superstition, and hopless- 
nes<, often on the part of doctor as well as patient, is im- 
portant. That both of them can stress preventive measures 
for those who have not contracted heart disease, and careful 
optimism, for those who have, is a reassuring gage of medical 
progress in the field, and justification, were justification 
needed, of the policy of laying the facts before any of the 
public interested enough to profit. 

To the reviewer it seems that any of the public thus 
interested probably would be interested enough to push 
ahead through a book without having their noses tickled 
on page after page by the half-apologttic humor and the 
lavish use of marginal notes and italics which Dr. Smith 
and his typographers have employed to josh the careless 
reader into a sense of his responsibility. Probably, however, 
time and the publisher can decide whether or not there is a 
sufficiently large group of readers who can be cajoled into 
reading material on a serious subject to warrant this type 
of treatment. It is, however, characteristic of much of the 
reading matter prepared by physicians for the uninitiated. 
Dr. Babcock gives an especially clear and readable account 
of the normal functioning of the circulatory system and 
the actual effect of infections and poisonings, and lays down 
general rules regarding symptoms, occupation, diet, and 
exercise. Either volume contains much information and 
sound, reassuring advice. 

In much briefer compass and a modest brown fabrikoid 
binding (on which, unfortunately the title is almost illegi- 
ble,) comes the little volume prepared by the chairman of 
the executive committee of the American Heart Association 
for the series edited by the National Health Council. Tak- 
ing Care of Your Heart, by T. Stuart Hart, M. D., as 
might be expected, carries an important emphasis on the 
public health aspect of heart disease. In accord with the 
general excellence of the series, it is short, straightforward, 
and simple, assuming sensibly that its readers are busy and 
ordinarily intelligent human beings who have been suf- 
ficiently interested in the subject for the sake of themselves, 
their families, or their communities to seek the advice of an 
expert. 

The twenty volumes of this National Health Series cover 
all of the seven ages of man and many of the pitfalls which 
threaten his progress through them. Their length, averaging 
about seventy small pages, is midway between the sketchy 
magazine treatment and the regular book size of a popular 
treatise or a text book for special students. They are 
intended to enable interested members of the common or 
garden variety of family, or persons working in their behalf, 
to cope with the overwhelming stream of bonafide educa- 



tional material, propaganda, advertisement and what not 
relating to private and public health. The combination of 
brevity, simplicity, cheapness, and an authoritativeness 
sponsored by the authorship of experts and editorship of 
the group of great national health organizations, gives them 
a position of great interest as an experiment in public health 
education. It is hoped that the busy public will buy them 
in drug stores or book stores and carry them about as 
pocket reading. 

Pay your money and take your choice. 

YOUR HB'ART AND HOW TO TAKE CARE OF IT, by Robert H. 

Babcock, M. D. D. Appleton & Co. 235 pp. Price $1.50 postpaid of 

The Survey. 
HOW IS YOUR HEART, by Calvin Smith, M. D. Boni and Upright. 

208 pp. Price $1.75 postpaid of The Surrey. 
TAKING CARE OF YOUR HKAKT, 63. T. Stuart Hart, M. D. F*nk 

and H'agnalls. 70 pp. Price 30c. postpaid of The Survey. 



Books a la Cart 



THE dictionary says that a library is "a collection of 
books, pamphlets, etc., kept for reading and consulta- 
tion." This defines the old, conventional idea of a library; 
but not the modern business library. That is a much more 
alert and active affair. 

For example, if a visitor steps into one sunny corner of 
the Dennison plant at Framingham, Mass., he will find 
shelves well filled with books and magazines, and files 
crowded with pamphlets, which on first glance might seem 
to answer this definition fairly well. But before long the 
'phone would ring, or callers drop in, with such questions as 
these : 

"What are the Seven Seas and when and why were they 
so called?" 

"What is the color tone in the land of the midnight sun?" 
"In engraving wedding cake boxes, should the name of 
the bride or the groom come first?" 

"What are three leading hotels in Pittsburgh?" 
"When is the Confederate Memorial Day?" 
"What is the correct title of the musicians' union?" 
These questions and others like them which pour in daily 
show that the Dennison library, at least, has an important 




Where books go visiting 



HOW IS YOUR 
HEART? 

By DR. S. CALVIN SMITH 

A REFRESHING book about the care 
-tx of the heart, valuable to ailing 
people and to the healthy who wish to 
keep well. Dr. Smith, the leading 
cardiac authority, provides a much 
needed manual for all those who 
wish to protect themselves against 
heart disease now at the head of the 
mortality columns. 



"Dr. Smith presents 
the subject in a whole- 
some, happy and sys- 
tematic manner. The 
author has clearly and 
concisely stated the 
case for the heart, 
brushed away many 
erroneous ideas and 
shown the need for a 
rational, method of 
living that heart di- 
sease may be robbed 



of its terrors." P. A. 
Kinsley in the Phila- 
delphia Record. 

"The book may well 
have a -wider audience 
than among heart pa- 
tients. The informa- 
tion that it contains 
should be a part of 
the education of every 
citizen." Dr. Lyman 
Fisk of The Life Exten- 
sion Institute. $1. 75. 



BONItLIVERIGHT 



GOOD 
BOOKS 



61 WEST 48'-" STREET 
NEW YORK, NY. 



Expert Advice on Heart Matters 

YOUR HEART AND HOW TO 
TAKE CARE OF IT 

By Robert H. Babcock, M.D, LL.D. 

The distinguished heart specialist gives informa- 
tion and instruction as to the care of the heart, 
written simply and sanely for the layman. $1.50. 

BLOOD PRESSURE 

By Lewellys F. Barker, M.D. and Norman B.Cole,M.D. 

The facts on the cause, effect and remedy of 
abnormal blood pressure. $1.25 

AT ALL BOOKSELLERS 

D. APPLETON & COMPANY 

35 West 32nd Street NEW YORK 



The Causes of Heart Failure 

By Dr. Wm. H. Robey 

A non-technical statement designed for lay readers. "The 
writer is to be congratulated on having expressed so lucidly 
in such a small space the main facts of the present-day con- 
ception of his subject." The Lancet. 

"This is a very excellent little book for the intelligent _ layman 
and may be read to advantage by the physician himself." 

Clinical Medicine. 

$1.00 a copy 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

13 Randall Hall Cambridge, Mass. 



function not mentioned in the definition, namely, that of a 
dispenser of miscellaneous information. 

It has other functions, all of which are rather outside 
of the definition. One of these is recreation. This is 
possibly not the most useful feature of a business library; 
but it is, a valuable and important one. Books of fiction 
are the staple; but travel, biography, history, and popular 
science are to some extent included. To stimulate more 
serious reading through the interest shown in recreational 
reading is one of the most interesting of the librarian. 

The company has a Suggestion Department. Someone 
suggested that the recreational books be put in traveling 
bookcases, which would circulate in every part of the 
factory. This suggestion may fairly claim to have antici- 
pated Christopher Morley's Parnassus on Wheels. How- 
ever this may be, both the Dennison man and Morley's hero 
had the same idea, namely, that the best way to make a 
library "circulate" is to put it on wheels. 

So two commodious and attractive bookcases, each holding 
about 300 volumes, are mounted on wheels. They are 
scheduled through each department of the factory. A notice 
posted the day before announces their coming. A reading 
notice on the end of each bookcase calls attention to books 
of special note. At the noon hour the cases are unlocked 
and the readers have their library right at hand. 

Drop into the factory on the visiting day of the library. 
You may find it beside some grim and mighty tag machine, 
or amidst towering piles of billowy crepe paper, or between 
long rows of sealing wax molds, or among the benches where 
cutters have been dicing out the gummed labek, or in 
familiar company with the printing presses, or with the 
desks and typewriters of the office. In any case it seems 
thoroughly at home, and readers are swarming around it 
like bees around a honeycomb. Rooks are sampled, dis- 
cussed, and drawn. Then the bookcase rolls on to the next 
department, where the notice of the advance agent has 
preceded it. The entire factory is thus covered every three 
weeks. Books are brought almost to the desk or bench of 
every Dennison worker. He cannot escape seeing them. 
Seeing awakens interest, and interest, active participation. 
The plan has been popular from the first ; 3,200 books were 
drawn the first year, 6,OOO the second, and the interest does 
not flag. 

A bookcase on wheels is the best possible "circulating 
medium" for a library, at least in a factory. The Dennison 
Manufacturing Company has demonstrated this by nearly 
four years of successful trial. The complaints have only 
supplied further proof of its success. More books, more 
time to examine and read them, and more frequent visits 
are the calls which come to the managers of the Dennison 
Parnassus on Wheels. D. M. C. 

A Novel by a Negro 

WALTER F. WHITE'S The Fire in the Flint is 
such a serious effort by a Negro to write about 
Negroes that it deserves to face three questions: Did he 
have anything to say? Did he say it? Will anybody read 
it? 

Did he have anything to say? He did. He had the 
tortuous clash of races, black on white. He had his own 
life as a Negro. He had stores of bitter truths learned as 
an investigator of race riots and lynchings. He knows 
what he is talking about. And to give power to all this 



160 



he had the baffled emotional urge that only a Negro ot 
culture can know in this white Nordic world. The fable 
for his revelations is almost too simple: an educated Negro 
surgeon comes back to his own little Georgia town to give 
his life to his profession among his fellow Negroes. Hooli- 
gan whites ravish his sister, and a younger brother who 
shoots a couple of them, is blood-hounded to a barn where 
he puts a bullet in his brain rather than surrender to 
lynching. The surgeon is lynched on a silly pretext, but 
really because he and his sweetheart are working to over- 
throw the Negro tenant peonage system. This sounds 
bloody and stark, and omits the lighter parts, but then 
what happens to Negroes is bloody and stark. 

Did he say it? He did not. As a novel, we can praise 
and damn with the word "workman-like." We shall not 
damn it further with the apology that it is a good first 
novel, or a "good novel for a Negro." It is an ordinary 
novel ; the plot a fortuitous contrivance, the characters 
self-conscious and talkative (save an old white judge), the 
style a mosaic of conventional phrases. It was learned in 
white schools and has no native Negro possession unless it 
be the underlying sense of dumb fury. What we would ex- 
pect in the great Negro novel we don't know. But we cherish 
the hope when it comes it will have something of the Blake- 
like lyric symbolism of the spirituals, something of that im- 
pudence of gayety with which the race bluffs an iron cosmos. 
The novel is a poor vehicle for this sort of propaganda. 
To make art of these matters takes almost genius though 
it can be done as you'll find if you'll trouble to search out 
Harris Merton Lyon's little set of Graphics and read the 
bleak story of the Texas lynching bee. You have to deal 
with too strong meat ; you can't be realistic enough to con- 
vince without becoming clinical. The agonizing details are 
cheapened by their veil of fiction. They demand the som- 
bre garments of truth. Mr. White himself can tell these 
tragedies with noble horror the real catharsis as he has 
done in his reports for the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People. I shall remember a few 
sentences of his about the slitting of a pregnant Negress with 
a corn-knife as long as I live. But I shall forget his novel. 
Will anybody read it? I hope so. Its truth is worth 
publishing. The sense of terror may surpass its medium. 
Negroes may read it but then they know it already. 
Northern whites may gasp, but they cannot do much. And 
Southern whites won't read it, or if they do, laugh at some 
of its identifiable exaggeration, and curse it, as by the 
thesis of the book, they must. It isn't a good enough novel 
to penetrate as literature ; and as Mr. White hasn't Upton 
Sinclair's uncanny flair for the sensational approach, he 
can't win a hearing as a propagandist. However, it will 
penetrate some places, and by that much is helpful. 

It is easily possible to make two mistakes about this book. 
One K to agree with a lot of critics that it is a wonderful 
thing for a Negro to write this book because he knoii's. 
Suppose he does, when did a victim write a good denun- 
ciation of his oppressor ? He must be an exhibit, not an 
apologist. The apologists are aliens. Uncle Tom's Cabin 
was written by a white lady Northerner who got her local 
color all wrong. The author of The Doll's House was a 
stolid Norwegian cynic. Upton Sinclair worked up the 
Jungle in a slaughter-house as a transient. However just 
the cause and flaming the passion, you can't help feeling 
that a victim writes from his grouch. He is bound to see 
things lop-sided what makes him write makes him lop- 



VOTE! VOTE! VOTE! 

FOR 
LA FOLLETTE AND WHEELER 

GIVE! GIVE! GIVE! 

TO LA FOLLETTE HEAD- 
QUARTERS, 25 WEST 43 rd ST., 
NEW YORK CITY 

SEND! SEND! SEND! 

TO 114 EAST 3ist ST. r NEW 
YORK CITY, FOR FREE COPY 
OF THE ARBITRATOR CON- 
TAINING THE PRINCIPLES 
OF THE SIX POLITICAL 
PARTIES 



The Servants of Relief for 
Incurable Cancer 

Have Received Magnificent Help 

for their plan of building a fireproof Home for IOO 
poor cancer patients at Hawthorne, Westchester Co., 
in the gift of $50,000.00 from a benefactor who, when 
St. Rose's Home in New York was needed, gave a 
great sum toward its property and building. We ask 
that at this auspicious time the friends of our can- 
cerous friends will add to the fund now amounting to 
$100,000.00, that a safe country Home may be built 
on this Westchester Hill. An Annex House is already 
finished, and working for 25 of the weakest among 
our men and women, which has been praised by Dr. 
W. B. Moodie, Dr. John L. Sheils, Dr. James J. 
Walsh (the noted lecturer) and Dr. Henry G. Mac- 
Adam of the Board of Health, for its ideas favorable 
for the comfort of the sick in air, light and commo- 
dious arrangements. Shall our Wooden Home be 
the chief reliance of those looking to us for a peaceful 
death? 

MOTHER M. ALPHONSA LATHROP, O.S.D. 
Rosary Hill Home, Hawthorne, N. Y. 



161 




The Winter Quarter begins January fifth. 
The four-quarter plan enables the student to 
matriculate for a diploma at the beginning of 
any one of four quarterly periods, and to 
graduate by satisfactorily completing six 
quarters of study. Major fields of service for 
which he can prepare while receiving train- 
~ ing in general social work practice include 
family case work ; child placing; institutional 
supervision; hospital and psychiatric social 
work; penal and parole work; social, rural 
and recreation organization; research and 
statistics; personnel administration and 
factory inspection. "8? "8? 1? Registra- 
tion for the Winter Quarter 
is now open. 



The New York School of Social Work 

107 Eos: Twenty -Second Street 
New York 



UNIVERSITY OF IOWA 

SCHOOL OF 
PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 

An integral part of the University with full use of 
its extensive facilities in graduate school, medical 
school, college of liberal arts, child welfare research 
station and other departments. Field experience in 
the small city and rural districts. 

WINTER SESSION 

(4 or 8 months course) 

September 18, 1924 January 31, 1925 

February 2, 1925 June 9, 1925 



For illustrated bulletin and further information 
address 

MISS HELEN F. BOYD, DIRECTOR 
SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 

IOWA CITY, IOWA 



sided. We had this sense of grouch in Laurence Stallings's 
Plumes a much better book we meant to review, too. The 
grouch may be supremely righteous (certainly none could 
be more so than a Negro's claim for justice and humanity), 
but the fact remains that a personal grouch is not a cosmic 
law, and a novel based thereon never as moving as the 
cold-blooded detachment of a curious spectator. 

The second mistake is that we unconsciously agree 
with the author's thesis that the Negro wants a chance to 
become as much like the white man as possible. All such 
books are paradoxes. They must paint the whites as large- 
ly mean and brutal, yet they set up a claim that the whites' 
privileges (including meanness and brutality) be extended 
to the Negro. Reading such books I can conceive of the 
consuming hatred a Negro must feel against being a 
Negro, but I would think he would have a much more con- 
suming hatred against being a white. 

Mr. White drops two hints of a practical sort. One, 
perhaps not new, that the Negro's economic situation may 
be relieved by farmers' co-operatives conducted by and for 
him; and the other, that the mumbo-jumbo of the Ku Klux 
Klan no longer frightens him, but makes him laugh. 



THE FIRE IN THK FLINT, by Walter F. White. Alfred 
300 pp. Price $2.50 postpaid of The Survey. 



Knopf. 



Have You a Minick? 



TIRED of both letters and life we went to the theater. 
We saw Minick an Edna Ferber story made into repor- 
torial comedy with George S. Kaufman's help. It will in- 
terest .social workers for three things. First, it deals with 
a problem in domestic relations what shall we do with our 
old folks who get on our nerves? The answer appears to 
be let old Mr. Minick go to a nice clubby old man's home 
so his son and the son's wife can go to the cabaret. This 
is unsentimental, but the curtain seems to believe it is a 
happy ending. Yet, after all, we have been preaching the 
gospel of "keeping the family together" and it seems a 
trifle drastic, not to say anti-social, to exile father just be- 
cause he keeps messing up their card-indexes and bridge 
parties. There is a side-light on the happiness of the in- 
mates of the Home maybe "institutionalism" is better 
than real homes if you can play pinochle ad lib. and close 
your door when you don't want to talk. 

Second, we get a hint of the housing-problem. The 
stage set reveals the nerve-wearing constriction of a five- 
room apartment at 5218 South Park Avenue, Chicago. Yes, 
the reporting is that close. You see the living-room, but 
you also realize the net cubic contents by a glimpse into 
the kitchen, foyer, and recognize the rush of the morning 
bath. Everybody is in everybody else's way. The young 
Minick's can't even have a baby until Father Minick gets 
out. The relation between apartments and birth control 
is neatly side-swiped by this play that always remains a 
pleasant and amusing story. 

Lastly, there is a devastating satire on a woman's club 
meeting. Every social worker should see that brilliant "bit 
where Mrs. Crackenwald (Mary Hubbard) reads her 
paper on how to bring parents and children closer together. 
The lines, the wording, the intonation we've all met them 
in real life. Even the black-rimmed spectacles are not cari- 
cature, and there is something of Swift and Voltaire in the 
lament that since "the school has failed in this, and the 
church has failed, we are forced to try the home. We 
must try to make every home a club, etc., etc." All this 



162 




Shop 



Here 



And 



Now 



WHAT ARE YOU QIVINQ FOR CHRISTMAS? 



THE ASCENDING LIFE RICHARD ROBERTS D.D. .75 

A breath from the hill tops for your busy friend, your pastor, the perplexed 
Student, the shut-in home maker. 

FOLK FESTIVALS DOROTHY GLADYS SPICER 1.50 

The theory and practice of festivals for your recreation leader, your entertainment 
committee, the busy teacher. 

WOMAN'S PHYSICAL FREEDOM CLELIA D. MOSHER, M.D. i.oo 

A glimpse of the possibility of radiant health, for mothers, club leaders, doctors, 
everyone interested in girls. 

CHRIST IN THE POETRY OF TODAY MARTHA FOOTE CROW 2.00 

A charming collection from our modern poets for the poetry lover, the president 
of your club, for every home. 

LITTLE ROBIN STAY-BEHIND KATHARINE LEE BATES 1.75 

Whimsical fanciful plays in verse for children, for every child from her devoted 
mother, aunt or uncle. 



THE 

600 Lexington Avenue 



WOMANS 



PRESS 

New York City, N. Y. 



How Foster Children Turn Out 

A Study and Critical Analysis of 910 Children Who Were Placed 

in Foster Homes by the State Charities Aid Association and 

Who Are Now Eighteen Years of Age or Over 

By the State Charities Aid Association 

Investigation and Report made 
under the direction of 

SOPHIE VAN SENDEN THEIS 



Foreword by HOMER FOLKS 



STATE 



Price One Dollar 

Published by 

CHARITIES AID ASSOCIATION 

105 East 22nd Street, New York 



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A course of lectures on Social Case Work, intended for those who, as 
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published by the Association of Volunteers in Social Service. Intended for 
use by study groups of volunteers. 

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Order from Mrs. E. W. Geer, Room 300. 105 East 22nd Street, New York. 



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A collection of poems, stories and pageants for the 
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163 



LECTURES AND DRAMA 



"It will interest social workers" 
said THE SURVEY of 

WINTHROP AMES' production of the 
comedy triumph by GEO. S. KAUFMAN 
and EDNA FERBER 



M1NICK 



with O.P. 

HEGGIE 



"We had a very amusing evening at 
'Minick' the best we have ever seen of 
this type. ... It doesn't depend for 
'getting across' on twin beds, but twin 
reflexes chuckle and choke." 

The Survey. 



THEATRE, West 4$th St. Eves. 8:30 
Mats. Wed. and Sat. 2:30. 



The DEBATE of the Season \ 



SHOULD LITERATURE BE CENSORED? 
JOHN S. SUMNER ^/s at ,w) 

Secretary, New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, 
versus 

ERNEST BOYD w.tM> 

Noted International Author and Critic 

Chairman CLIFFORD SMYTH 

Editor International Book Review 

SUBJECT 

Resolved, That limitations upon the contents of books and maga- 
zines as defined in proposed legislatisn would be detrimental to the 
advancement of American literature. 

SATURDAY, November 8, 8:30 P. M. 
TOWN HALL. 121 W. 43rd St. 

Tickets $1.10, $1.65, $2.20, $2.75, $3.30, on sale at Brentano's, 
Macy's, Wanamaker's, or at the offices of and by mail from 

The League for Public Discussion 

500 Fifth Avenue Longacre 10434-4447 

N. B. To OuT-oF-ToWNgRS: Send your name if you desire a printed 
stenographic report of this debate when published. 



... Announcing ... 
TRANSCONTINENTAL LECTURE TOUR 

(January 1st to March 15, 1925) 

UPTON SINCLAIR 

Clubs, unions, locals and other groups desiring to 
engage Mr. Sinclair for a lecture, write to us for 
dates, subjects, terms, etc. 

Mr. Sinclair it making a very liberal offer of his books -with each lecture, which 
- -^ will enable any group to cover the expenses of a Sinclair 

/ ^* If* 'iD v v mxagement through the sale of his books at his lecture 

THE LEAGUE FOR PUBLIC DISCUSSION 

(Exclusive Management) 
500 Fifth Avenue New York City 

N. B. Mr. Sinclair will lecture and debate in 
New York during February and March, 1925. Send us your 
name for announcements of these events. 




as the professional answer to the problem of children and 
parents! 

We had a very amusing evening at the Booth and we 
went home exceedingly irritated. Not at the satire. Salt 
is antiseptic even on your own wounds. Not at the acting 
which was in that ill-used phrase, "entirely adequate." 
Indeed, we don't know why we were irritated at this 
shrewdly observed, clean, charming, not o'er ambitious play. 
It was far more sincere than The Potters and less theatri- 
cal than The Show-Off. Perhaps the best we have ever 
seen of this type and the type can be cataloged as the 
reportorial bourgeois comedy of conflicting generations. 
. There was no frantic novelty ; it's old, old as the grass- 
hopper voiced elders on the walls of Troy Lear denatured 
of melodrama. There is no villain, no false martyrdoms. 
These authors are keenly aware that "life's like that." 
Everybody is trying to do the right thing, only different 
things and different rights. The play doesn't even worry 
about a plot, but has the continental dignity of some char- 
acters in a situation. 

As far as we know, we were furious because anything 
so true ought to be truer. And its main untruth we think 
was because producers demand that this sort of play have 
a pattern of humor and pathos streak of lean, streak of 
fat. It doesn't depend for "getting across" on twin beds, 
but twin reflexes chuckle and choke. Certainly, the chuckle 
and the choke are in real life, but not quite so often, so 
regularly, so patly, and so identifiably. Their rhythm is 
here made monotonous and untrue. Life is never "chuckle- 
choke, chuckle-choke." It is more likely "chuckle-chuckle- 
chuckle- CHOKE! chuckle-choke, chuckchokle." The 
playhouse artifice is so obvious that it kills the reality of 
the theme. Maybe they wouldn't come to see the social 
satire unless it is baited with the purgative sob and the 
restorative laugh, but we venture a prophecy. Someday 
a cynical recorder and a mad producer are going to put on 
one of these very American plays just as real as life, with 
only the chuckles and chokes that God permits and they'll 
"turn 'em away" for months. 

Books in the Air 

BOOKS in the running brooks have been rare, but the 
wild waves will soon be full of them. Our colleague, 
the Literary Editor of Sears-Roebuck, delivers this ulti- 
matum : 

On the first Wednesday evening in November will be in- 
augurated a news and book review service from the Sears- 
Roebuck Station, WLS. Twenty to thirty minutes once a 
week will be given over to news notes of books, authors and 
publishers, sprinkled through with brief reviews of currenj 
books and perhaps a talk by an author or the reading of 
some poetry by its creator. This is believed to be the first 
systematic book service attempted for radio listeners in 
America. 

The books will become current at 345 meter wave-lengths. 
With the aid of static in a fine frenzy rolling, Vachel 
Lindsey, or the Vorticists, ought to have the welkin cry- 
ing for mercy. One idea of heaven would be to know the 
exact minute at which a visiting English novelist-lecturer 
was going to do his stuff, from WLS and then tune in 
on WNYC for Mayor Hylan's bed-time story. 



A Fall Book Section will be published with The 
Survey Midmonhtly for November 15, 1924. 



164 



] 



SAVING HEARTS IN YOUR TOWN 

(Continued from page 140) 



means complete removal of the tonsils. Nothing short of 
this will do. 

Teeth, when infected, are another source of danger. Vis- 
iting nurses can do a great deal by instructing parents to 
watch for defects and to urge their removal after medical 
advice has been given. Young people must be taught the 
dangers of venereal disease. Rheumatic fever and syphilis 
are the two great sources of heart disease in the youth of 
our nation. Syphilis often cripples the heart and causes 
death in middle life. Greater protection against infectious 
diseases has already begun to show excellent results. The 
work which is being done now will be a great protection 
against heart disease in the next decade. They can also urge 
the ever-important periodic physical examination. 

What Will It Cost? 

MOST of the data on the important aspect of cost in so 
new a movement is to be drawn from New York City, 
where longer and wider experience has given greater oppor- 
tunities for observation and study than elsewhere. A survey 
of heart patients in ten general hospitals, and in convalescent 
homes, dispensaries, etc., indicates that the basic minimum 
cost of adequate care for persons with heart disease (it is 
commonly accepted that 2 per cent of the population will 
be found to suffer from heart disease) is at least fifty cents 
per year for each member of the whole community. This 
estimate does not take into account the losses in industry 
from intermittent, part-time, or what has been called "half- 
hearted" work which such handicapped persons may accom- 
plish, or the cost of relief for persons of families of the in- 
digent or dependent group, where the often prolonged course 
of chronic disability bulks large in the experience of relief 
agencies. 

In the New York study it was found that 10 per cent of 
the beds of general hospitals were occupied day in and out 
by heart patients. The cost of hospital care for the acute 
stage of heart disease is at least $70 per patient on each 
admission, and for convalescent or chronic care, not in gen- 
eral hospitals, each patient costs from $150 to $650 accord- 
ing to the length of stay permitted. Not less than six, and 
probably at least twelve beds are needed for the convalescent 

re of heart patients per 100,000 of population; for that 
100,000 of population there is needed at least 300 
rs a week of heart clinic service. 

In the years studied (1920, 1921 and 1922), patients 
with heart disease cost the city of New York $607,280.88 
for hospital bed care, and $159,704 for convalescent home 
care. This cost, of course, includes only the comparatively 
small number of persons who reach institutions, and meas- 
ures only the cost of the medical care. It is instructive to 
realize that the considerably more than half a million dol- 
lars was spent to care for some 4,500 patients in hospitals; 
while the cost of supervising nearly 6,000 ambulatory heart 
patients in clinics was thought to have been approximately 
$23,500, or less than one twenty-fifth of the hospital cost. 
What more convincing argument could be presented of the 
economy which can be effected when disorders of the heart 
are prevented, or at worst diagnosed and treated in their 
incipient stages! 




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To provide wholly adequate dispensary organization for 
heart patients, including the services of physician, visiting 
nurse and social worker, it is estimated that $20 per patient 
per year will be needed if there are at least 2OO patients on the 
active list. (A sum in simple arithmetic will show that a 
community of only 10,000 persons probably would provide 
that active list, if all the men, women and children who 
require medical supervision because of heart lesions were 
to be found and enlisted in it). By such an investment of 
$20 a year it often is possible to enable the head of a family 
to remain at work, supporting his dependents ; to enable the 
mother of a family to remain in the home, avoiding insti- 
tutional care for her and for the children, returning the 
investment many times over by savings in relief or in hos- 
pital care which otherwise would be unavoidable. 

Behind, of course, the immediate need of trained diag- 
nostic facilities and medical supervision of persons unable 
to pay for private care the immediate objectives in a com- 
munity campaign, there lies the more extended network of 
country homes for convalescent or preventive care, the voca- 
tional guidance of children and adults who must cope with 
a temporary or permanent disability of the heart, and the 
long-range campaign for education and research. The 
movement against heart disease is not a mere medical fad 
which will soon die out, but an effort which must be for- 
warded by the medical profession and laymen alike if dis- 
ability and mortality are to be reduced. That they can be re- 
duced is without doubt if many work to that end, and if those 
with special skill or financial means lend their aid. It will 
take persistence and money, but when the public once realizes 
the nature and extent of the need, neither will be lacking. 



165 



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SUCCESSORS TO 

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latest medical and social practice. 

Advice on plans and operating problems made 
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Courses beginning 

Nov. 13, 7:00 p. m. Scott Nearing 

"Current Opinion" 
Nov. 14, 8:30 p. in. Herman Epstein 

"With the Great Composers" 
Nov. 15, 11:00 a. m. and 1:30 p. m. Soctt Nearing 

"Dynamic Sociology' and "Current History" 
7 East 15th Street N T - 26 - 8:3 P- m - Johan Smertenko 

"Current Drama" 
Beginning Nov. 1st 

Saturday afternoon lectures J. F. Horrabin on "H. G. Wells" 

Carleton Seals "Latin America," Vint Laughland "Social Religion" 

Roberto Haberman "Mexico," Clarence Darrow "Crime" 

Debate November 30 Clarence Darrow vs. Scott Nearing 
"Is the Human Race Worth Working For?" 



T 



HE UNPRINTABLE TEXT BOO 

A handy pamphlet reprint of a stimulating 
article by Prof. Joseph K. Hart, Editor of The 
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K 



EDITORIALS 

(Continued from page 157) 



where it is grown, India, Persia, or Turkey, for example, 
is not affected by the measures suggested by the advisory 
committee except that a statement of the amount consumed 
in each country must be annually made to the central board. 
This undoubtedly distinguishes between producing and non- 
producing countries. Non-producing countries are not to be 
allowed to procure opium for other uses than medical or 
scientific, but producing countries may permit smoking and 
eating of home-grown opium. As the opium poppy may be 
grown in nearly every country, any people who wants to 
smoke or eat opium or chew coca leaves may do so if its 
moral sentiment will permit it "to grow its own." 

While the plan does not go as far in limiting produc- 
tion of the poppy and coca plant as many hoped, it is a 
great advance on the existing convention. If the produc- 
ing countries fail to prevent smuggling of the supplies kept 
for 'home use under the plan, then it will be evident that 
a further step must be taken and the amount of opium 
or coca leaves grown be limited to the amount necessary 
for medical and scientific needs. 




LAST Spring the Railroad Brotherhoods made a deter- 
mined effort to secure the enactment by Congress of 
the Howell-Barkley railroad labor bill designed to abolish 
the Labor Board created by the Esch-Cummins Transpor- 
tation Act. They failed. At that time, negotiations be- 
tween the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, apd 
the Western Association of Railway Managers had reached 
a deadlock. Thereupon the Railroad Labor Board, finding 
that "a dispute exists which is likely to substantially inter- 
rupt commerce," notified the executives of the two brother- 
hoods and of the association to appear before the board for 
a hearing of the dispute. The brotherhood executives con- 
tended that while gioup negotiations had been discontinued, 
conferences between them and the executives of individual 
roads had been resumed, that the situation did not threaten 
the interruption of commerce, that the board was therefore 
without jurisdiction, and that they would not appear be- 
fore it is requested. The board warned them that unless 
they modified their attitude, they would be subpoenaed. 
They held their ground. As a result, on September 29, 
Federal Judge James H. Wilkerson, (who became prom- 
inent during the strike of the railroad shop crafts in 1922) 
on motion of the Railroad Labor Board, subpoenaed David 
B. Robertson, president of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Enginemen to answer within twenty days and 
show cause why he should not 'be ordered to testify before 
the board- The action is being prosecuted by a United 
States Attorney and a special assistant to the Attorney 
General. Counsel for the brotherhoods contends that the 
facts as stated by the board are erroneous; that in calling 
the hearing in the first instance, the board interrupted nego- 
tiations, and that the requested enforcement of the empower- 
ing clause of the Transportation Act is "in violation of the 
Constitution." (Continued on page 169) 



166 



The Health Carriers 




OUR youngsters laugh when 
we tell them that old 
Mother Hubbard went to 
her cupboard and found it bare. 
For them the jingle is only a bit of 
humor, and they are quite sure the 
old dame promptly went to market 
and then food aplenty. 

But to folks of many lands,the bare 
cupboard is a nightmare bringing 
up instantly the specter of famine. 
India, with three times our popu- 
lation, has had nineteen famines in 
the last century and a half. In 
China, during 1876^79, more than 
eleven millions died from famine. 
In both countries there was food 
enough for every one but no way 
to carry it fast enough to the neigh' 
borhoods where it was scarce. 
India had less than 30,000 miles of 
railroad and the only railroad 
China had at that time was des' 
troyed during the famine's first year. 

If we are immune to famine, it is 
largely because we have 375,000 
miles of thoroughly efficient rail' 
roads. As long as their growth is 
encouraged and they are allowed 
to function freely, food scarcities 



will be relieved before they be- 
come acute. But our railroads have 
sometimes been hampered and in 
October of 1921 they were threat' 
ened with a complete stoppage. 

At that time, the authorities of 
the district of New York with 



morning sun gild the Statue of 
Liberty, the vigorous youngster 
who watches its parting rays 
streaming in through the Golden 
Gate and all the rest of us con- 
tinue to enjoy the balanced ration 
essential to health; fresh meats, 



Lilt- VJ lo L,l l^L- \~>1 A. ^ W W J. Wl. IV W L Li I /"I 11 /*l_^""^"l_ 

eight million people to care for, fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, fresh 

were at their wit's end. The flour e gg s > f] 

would be exhausted in a month; 

the fresh meat in a week. The fresh 

milk so essential for babies and in- 

valids would be gone in a day and 



So, when at night, we hear the 
panting of the ponderous freight 
train, heavy with health-giving 
products of farm and field, let us 

storage was out of the question, breathe a prayer of thanks that we 
The whole country was alarmed, live where brains, money, vision, 

brawn, pluck, and grit have made 
New York and San Francisco neigh' 
bors and have set the orange 



The farmer saw himself rich in 

grain, but poor in flour; robbed of 

his markets, and cut off from sup' 

plies, with his car and motor-truck groves of the South' 

powerless; his children sick, and ern states beside the 

medicines unobtainable. 



But the crisis passed, the motor' 
truck chugged over the hills, the 
grain went to the mill, shipments 
of flour and meal rolled into town 
and village, ice'cooled cars of meat 
and fruits sped across the contin' 
ent, the good old milk train con- 
tinued to deliver the morning milk. 
And the sturdy lad who sees the 



vast wheat fields of 
Canada. 

Our railroads fetch 
and carry from every 
corner of the land. 
Their efficiency is 
personal to every one 
of us. They are in- 
dispensable health 
carriers. 



With only 6% of the people of the 
world, we have 50% of the railroads 
and the most effective railroad service 
that has ever been known. 

The freight rates of Canada and the 
United States are the lowest in the 
world, and the railroads pay more 
than $1,000,000 a day in taxes. 

Our Government tells our railroads 
how much they may earn, how much 
they may charge us for their service, 
how much they should pay their men. 
It supervises their bookkeeping and it 



knows where every dollar comes from 
and where it goes. 

The railroads carry us from town to 
town and do it well, but they make 
their living in a service that is even 
more important, the carrying of 
freight. For every passenger coach, 
they have forty freight cars. And their 
great achievement is not even the tre- 
mendous number of freight cars 
2,500,000 but the ice-cooled cars, 
almost unknown in other lands, 
which carry our perishable foods 
thousands of miles and deliver them 



in perfect condition. So, whether you 
travel or stay at home, the railroads 
are serving you every minute of the 
day. 



The railroad question, 
an Lifi 



for the 

Metropolitan Life Insurance Com- 
pany, is more than a matter of poli- 
tics and economics. It includes the 
most vital question of all health at~d 
longevity, not only for the 21,OOC,000 
policyholders of the Metropolitan 
but for every man, woman, and child 
in the United States and Canada. 

HALEY FISKE, President. 




Published by 

METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY -NEW YORK 

Biggest in the World, More Assets, More Policyholders, More Insurance in force, More new Insurance eachyear 

167 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 



AMERICAN BIRTH CONTROL LEAGU E President, Margaret 
Sanger, 104 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Objects: To educate 
American people in the various aspects of the dangers of un- 
controlled procreation; to establish centers where married persons 
may receive contraceptive advice from duly licensed physicians. 
Life membership $1.00; Birth Control Review (monthly magazine) 
$2.00 per year. 

AMERICAN CHILD HEALTH ASSOCIATION Headquarters, 532 
17th St., N.W., Washington, D. C.; Administrative Offices, 370 
7th Avenue, New York. Herbert Hoover, President; L. Emmett 
Holt, M.D.; Livingston Farrand, M.D.; Thomas D. Wood, M.D.; 
Mrs. Maud Wood Park, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Vice-Presidents respect- 
ively; Corcoran Thorn, Treasurer; Philip Van Ingen, M.D., Secre- 
tary; Edward M. Flesh, Comptroller. To promote health among 
children from conception to maturity this to be accomplished 
through cooperation with parents, doctors, nurses, teachers, and 
other health workers; by dissemination of scientific information 
and teaching methods in schools, through conferences, addresses, 
pamphlets, publicity material, and a monthly magazine, "Child 
Health Magazine." 

Deceased. 

AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION K. L.. Butterfleld, 
president; Henry Israel, executive secretary. Room 1849, Grand 
Central Terminal Bldg., New York City. Emphasizes the human 
aspect of country life. Annual membership $3.00 Includes "The 
Country Life Bulletin." 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE 
HARD OF HEARING Promotes the cause of the hard of hearing; 
assists in forming organizations. Pres. Dr. Gordon Berry; Field 
Secretary, Miss Betty Wright, 1601 35th St. N.W., Washington, 

AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Dr. Lewis A. Connor, presi- 
mt. Miss M. L. Woughter, acting executive secretary, 370 
seventh Avenue, New York. Organized for the purpose of pro- 
moting the prevention of heart disease and the care of those with 
damaged hearts in the United States and Canada. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATIONS First appointed 1854, located New York City ISM, 
Incorporated 1883. Headquarters office, 347 Madison Avenue, New 
York City, N. Y. Tel., Vanderbilt 1200. Branch offices, Chicago, 
Atlanta, Denver. Chairman, James M. Speers; treasurer, B. H. 
Fancher; general secretary, John R. Mott. The Committee main- 
tains a staff of executive and traveling secretaries for service in 
the interests of the Young Men's Christian Associations at home 
and abroad. 

JOINT COMMITTEE ON METHODS OF PREVENTING DE- 
LINQUENCY Graham Romeyn Taylor, executive director, 50 East 
42nd Street, New York. To promote the adoption of sound methods 
in this field, with particular reference to psychiatric clinics, 
TlBiting teacher work, and training for these and similar services; 
to conduct related studies, education and publication; and to 
Interpret the work of the Commonwealth Fund Program for the 
Prevention of Delinquency. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN' 
ASSOCIATIONS Mrs. Robert E. Speer, president; Miss Mabel 
Cratty, general secretary, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. I 
This organization maintains a staff of executive and traveling 
secretaries to cover work in the United States in 1,034 local Y. W.f 
C. A.'s on behalf of the industrial, business, student, foreign born, 
Indian, Colored and younger girls. It has 159 American secretaries 
at work in 49 centers in the Orient, Latin America and Europe. 
NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE Owen R. Lovejoy, 
general secretary, 216 Fourth Avenue, New York. Industrial, 
agricultural investigations. Works for improved laws and admin- 
istration, children's codes. Studies child labor, health, school*, 
recreation, dependency, delinquency, etc. Annual membership, $2, 
$5, $10. $25 and $100 Includes monthly publication, "The American 
Child.'' 

NATIONAL CHILD WELFARE ASSOCIATION, INC. Charles F. 
Powlison, general secretary, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York. Originate! 
and publishes exhibit material which visualizes the principles and 
conditions affecting the health, well-being and education of chil- 
dren. Cooperates with educators, public health agencies, and alt 
child welfare groups in community, city or state-wide service 
through exhibits, child welfare campaigns, etc. 




communltv PuhiiVhsa 
of edltoi -Grace Dod 

'i Cath^drafs Balttaoe Md ' 
st., tfaitimore, Md. 



secretary; 370 Seventh Avenue, N'ew York City. Pamphlets on 

S non J ic s : lce mental hygiene, nervous and mental disorders, feeble-mindeanese. 

' busln<MJS epilepsy, Inebriety, criminology, psychiatric social service, back- 
ward chl i dren) surV eys, state societies. "Mental Hygiene," quar-. 

AMERICAN PEACE SOCIETY-Founded 1828, labors for an Inter- * e j'?' $3 ' 00 a year; " Mental Hyrfene Bulletin," monthly. $ .25 a 

national peace of Justice. Its official organ Is the Advocate of y 

f,^?', J?-, 00 a year ' Arthur Deerin Call, secretary and editor, NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE PREVENTION OF BLIND- 

tlt-S14 Colorado Building. Washington. D. C. NESS Lewis H. Carris, managing director; Mrs. Winifred Hath- 

AIUCBII-AKI on^.e away, secretary; 130 East 22nd Street, New York. Objects: To fur-. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE CONTROL OF CAN.CER Frank nish information, exhibits, lantern slides, lectures, personal service 

rfioo "?' xecu t>ve secretary; 370 Seventh Ave., New York. To for local organizations and legislation, publish literature of move- 

; knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment ment samples free, quantities at cost. Includes N'ew York State 

P l V A e n ' Publication free on request. Annual membership Committee. 

QII6S, ^5.00. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK Wm. J. N'orton,) 

AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION 370 Seventh Ave President, Detroit, Michigan; W. H. Parker, Secretary, 25 East 
New York. To promote a better understanding of the social Ninth Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. The Conference is an organization 
hygiene movement; to advance sound sex education- to rombat to d' 801153 the principles of humanitarian effort and to increase the 
prostitution and sex delinquency; to aid public authorities in the efficiency of social service agencies. Each year it holds an annual 



campaign against the venereal diseases; to advise in organization meeting, publishes in permanent form the Proceedings of the meet- 
"' "*-*- ~nd local social-hygiene programs Annual membership in S, and issues a quarterly Bulletin. The fifty-second annual meet- 
including monthly Journal ing of the Conference will be held in Denver. Colorado, June 10th 



COMMUNITY SERVICE 315 Fourth Ave., New York City A u P n Payment of a membership fee of five dollars. 

n ve . men t tor promoting citizenship through right NATIONAL CONGRESS OF MOTHERS AND PARENT-TEACHER 
It will, on request, help local communities work out ASSOCIATIONS Executive office: Mrs.. A. H. Reeve, president. 



Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa.; national headquarters: Mrs. 
Arthur C. Watkins, executive secretary, 1201 Sixteenth Street, 
N.W., Washington, D. C. An organization interested in the pro- 
motion of child welfare, adequate legislation for women and 



NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS Albert J. Ken- 
nedy, sec'y; 20 Union Park, Boston. Develops broad forms ol 
comparative study and concerted action in city, state and nation, 
for meeting the fundamental problems disclosed by settlement 
work, seek the higher and more democratic organization of 
" life. 



leisure time programs. H. S. Braucher, secretary. 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 305 W. 98th Street, New York. 

i Kose Brenner, president; Mrs. Harry Sternberger, executive .. -. . ... , --, .- - 

lecretary. Promotes civic cooperation, education, religion and social children, closer relation between home and school, 
welfare in the United States, Canada, Cuba, Europe. 
Department of Immigrant Aid 799 Broadway. Mrs. S. J. Kosen- 
sohn, chairman. For the protection and education of immigrant 
women and girls. 

COUNCIL OF WOMEN FOR HOME MISSIONS 156 Fifth Avenue, 
New York. Organized in 1908; 20 constituent Protestant national 
women s mission boards. Florence E. Quinlan, exec, sec'y. Com- 
mittee on Farm and Cannery Migrants, Summer Service for Col- 
lege Students, Laura H. Parker, exec, supervisor. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN 
AMERICA Constituted by 28 Protestant communions. Rev. C. S. 
Macfarland and Rev. S. M. Cavert, General Secretaries; 105 E. 22d 
St., N. Y. C. 

Dept. of Research and Education, Rev. F. E. Johnson, Sec'y 
C'ommissions: Church and Social Service, Rev. W. M. Tippy, Sec'y: 
International Justice and Goodwill: Rev. S. L. Gulick, Sec'y; 
Church and Race Relations: Dr. G. E. Haynes. Sec'y. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE Trains Negro and Indian youth for com- 
munity service. Advanced courses: agriculture, builders, business, 
home-economics, normal. Publishes "Southern Workman" anrt free 
material on Negro problems. J. E. Gregg, principal. 



INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION SERVICE To assemble data on 
international social problems and through work with individual 
cases to develop methods of international social service. Head- 
quarters, London. Viscountess Gladstone, chairman; Professor 
Gilbert Murray, treasurer; Ruth Lamed, executive. Address all 
inquiries to American bureau, 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. 
Director, Mary E. Hurlbutt. 

(In answering these advertisements please mention THE SURVEY. It helps us, it identifies you.) 

168 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 
Member, National Health Council Anne A. Stevens, R.N., direc- 
tor, 370 Seventh Avenue, New York. For development and stand- 
ardization of public health nursing. Maintains library and edu- 
cational service. Official Magazine, "Public Health Nurse." 

NATIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION SERVICE 315 Fourth Ave., 
New York, N. Y. To obtain progressive legislation for physical 
education. Established at the request of a committee created by 
the United States Bureau of Education; 35 national organizations 
cooperating. Maintained by the Playground and Recreation Asso- 
ciation of America. 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE For social service among Negroes. 
L. Hollingsworth Wood, pres.; Eugene Kinckle Jones, exec, sec'y; 
127 E. 23rd St. L N'ew York. Establishes committees of white and 
colored people to work out community problems. Trains Negro 
social workers. Publishes "Opportunity" a "Journal of Negro life." 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 
Anna A. Gordon, president; Headquarters, 1730 Chicago Avenue, 
Evanston, Illinois. To secure effective enforcement of the 
Eighteenth Amendment, to advance the welfare of the American 
people through the departments of Child Welfare, Women in In- 
dustry, Social Morality, Scientific Temperance Instruction, Ameri- 
canization and other allied fields of endeavor. Official publication 
'The Union Signal" published at Headquarters. 



THE SURVEY'S DIRECTORY 



NATIONAL WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE Mrs. Raymond 
Robins, honorary president; Mrs. Maud Swartz, president; 311 
'South Ashland Blvd., Chicago, 111. Stands for self-government In 
the work shop through organization and also for the enactment of 
protective legislation. Information given. 

PLAYGROUND AND RECREATION ASSOCIATION OF AMER- 
ICA 315 Fourth Avenue, New York City. Joseph Lee, president; 
H. S. Braucher, secretary. Special attention given to organization 
of year-round municipal recreation systems. Information available 
an playground and community center activities and administration. 

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION LEAGUE To secure rep- 
resentation for all. C. G. Hoag, sec'y, 1417 Locust St., Philadel- 
phia. Membership, J2.00, entitles to quarterly P. R. Review. 

RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION For the Improvement of Living 
Conditions John M. Glenn, dir. ; 130 E. 22nd St., New York. De- 
partments: Charity Organization, Child-Helping, Industrial -Studies, 
Library, Recreation, Remedial Loans, Statistics, Surveys and 
Exhibits. The publications of the Russell Sage Foundation offer 
to the public In practical and inexpensive form some of the most 
Important results of its work. Catalogue sent upon request. 

Tl/SKEGEE INSTITUTE An institution for the training of Negro 
Youth; an experiment In race adjustment in the Black Belt of the 
South; furnishes information on all phases of the race problem and 
of the Tuskegee Idea and methods; Robert R. Moton, prin.; War- 
ren Logan, treas.; A. L. Holsey, acting sec'y, Tuskegee, Ala. 

WORKERS' EDUCATION BUREAU OF AMERICA Spencer Mil- 
ler, Jr., sec'y; 476 West 24th St. A clearing-house for Worker*' 
Education. 

STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP. MANAGEMENT, CIRCULA- 
TION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF 

AUGUST 24, 1912, of SURVEY GRAPHIC, published monthly at New 
York, N. Y^ for October 1, 1924. 
State of New York, I 
County of New York, f ss - 

Before me, a Commissioner of Deeds, m and for the State and county 

aforesaid, porsonally appeared Arthur Kellogg, who, having been duly sworn, 

according to law, deposes and says that he is the business manager of 

SURVEY GRAPHIC, and that the following is, to the best of his knowledge 

: and belief, a true statement of the ownership, management (and if a daily 

paper, the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication, for the date shown 

in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in 

section 443. Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the reverse of this 

form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing 
editor, and business managers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19 Street, New York City; Editor, Paul U. Kellogg, 112 East 19 
Street, New York City; Managing Editor, Geddes Smith, 112 East 19 Street, 

i New York Chy; Business Managers, Arthur Kellogg, John D. Kenderdine, 
112 East 19 Street, New York City. 

2. That the owner is: (If the publication is owned by an individual his 
name and address, or if owned by more than one individual the name and 
address of each, should be given below; if the publication is owned by a cor- 
poration the name of the corporation and the names and addresses of the 

' stockholders owning or holding one per cent or more of the total amount of 
stock should be given.) Survey Associates, Inc., 112 East 19 Street, New 

1 York City, a non-commercial corporation under the laws of the State of 
New York with over 1,600 members. It has no stocks or bonds. President, 
Robert W. deForest, 30 Broad Street, New York, N. Y.; Vice-Presidents, 
Julian W. Mack, P. O. Box 102, City Hall Station, New York, N. Y.; 
V. Everit Macy "Chilmark," Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y.; Secretary, 
Ann R. Brenner. 112 East 19 Street, New York, N. Y.; Treasurer, Arthur 
Kellogg, 112 East 19 Street. New York, N. Y. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders 
owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, 
or other securities are: (If there are none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, 
stockholders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear under the books of the company 
but also, in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the 
books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name 
of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is given; also 
that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's full 
knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which 

' stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the 

I company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that 

of a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to believe that any 

other person, association, or corporation has any interest direct or indirect 

in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so stated by him. 

[Signed] ARTHUR KELLOGG, 

Business Manager. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 18th day of September 1924. 

[Seal] MARTHA HOHMANN, 
Commissioner of Deeds, City of New York. 
New York County Clerk's No. 148. 
New York County Register's No. 26032. 
My Commission Expires May 20, 1926. 



EDITORIALS 
(Continued from page 1 66) 



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From the point of view of the brotherhoods, the question 
at issue lies deeper than appears on the surface. They con- 
strue the action of the board as tantamount to compulsory 
arbitration to which they are passionately opposed. In an 
earlier case involving several railroad executives, the Su- 
preme Court upheld the jurisdiction of the board to compel 
appearance, although its decisions are not enforceable. What- 
ever the outcome of the present litigation, it seems certain 
to reenforce the determination of the brotherhoods and the 
allied shop crafts to have the board abolished. Their ex- 
perience with the board had much to do with the launch- 
ing of the third party movement in the current presidential 
campaign. Whatever the merits of their position, it is cer- 
tain to make the Transportation Act and the Railroad Labor 
Board leading subjects of debate at the next session of Con- 
gress. 

To the layman, the hearing before Judge Wilkerson 
will have its greatest significance in relation to the larger 
issues of public policy. 




IN his article on Herrin, in the October Survey Graphic, 
McAlister Coleman said that the labor unions, churches, 
schools, Rotary dubs and other social organizations must 
all accept their share of the responsibility for the "isola- 
tion, physical and mental, that dwarfs the growth" of all 
sections of society in that Illinois district. Writing of the 
churches he told of the revivalistic type of religion that 
seems to flourish there. "A Babbitt-like touch is given to 
these grotesqueries by announcements in the local papers 
to the effect that 'Tonight there will be the peppiest pep 
meeting of the whole pepful series when the Rev. Will 
Clem will deliver his inspiring address to young men and 
women entitled, How Andy Gump Lost His Chin. A 
jazzerino talk, boys, by a he-man." " 

Coincidently with the publishing of Mr. Coleman's 
article comes one from the pen of the Rev. James J. Coale 
in the Christian Century of October 2 under the caption, 
"Are Herrin's Churches Guilty?" Mr. Coale makes no 
bones in calling the churches to account for their lack of 
social vision. He points to the fact that sixty per cent 
of the population of Marion, the county seat, are church 
members. 

Here is a challenge to the easy-going assumption that a 
church-going communitv is ipso facto a law-abiding community. 
. . . The answer to that in Williamson County is that it is 
not so. The church people have neither discovered their social 
obligations nor discharged them. 

Mr. Coale goes on to describe, on the other hand, the 
practices which have consumed the energies of the religious 
forces of the county. At his hands Williamson County 
becomes a glaring example of the untoward consequences 
of that competitive denominatibnalism in small towns and 
rural districts which was dissected by Fred Eastman in 
his critique of home mission finance in the Survey Graphic 
for June. 



169 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

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Want advertisements, 8 cents per word or initial, including the address or box 
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Address Advertising 
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THE SURVEY 



New York City 
112 East 19th Street 



WORKERS WANTED 

WANTED, by Norfolk Section, Council 
of Jewish Women, Trained Family Case 
Worker with ability to speak Yiddish. 
State qualifications and experience. Com- 
municate with Mrs. D. E. Levy, Raleigh 
Court, Norfolk, Virginia. 

NATIONAL charitable Institution de- 
ires resident representative with some 
knowledge of Yiddish, capable of handling 
solicitors in the field and of personally ob- 
taining support from individuals anl com- 
munities. Only thoroughly experienced 
executive considered. 4953 SURVEY. 



WANTED: A dietitian in institution for 
delinquent women. Apply to Helen Hazard, 
Niantic, Connecticut. 

WANTED experienced executive to 
take charge of family service society in 
western city of one hundred thousand. 
Community Chest financing. Give full in- 
formation regarding education, experience, 
references, salary expected, etc. 4969 
SURVEY. 

NURSES, DOCTORS, TECHNICIANS of 
all kinds assisted in securing better places 
and better help. Hospitals, Schools and 
Industrial plants furnished with efficient 
nurses. We usually recommend only one 
applicant, never more than two or three. 
HUGHES PROFESSIONAL EXCHANGE, 
603 Scarritt Building, Kansas City, Mo. 

PSYCHOLOGIST and psychiatric work- 
er, trained observer with mature judg- 
ment; resident position. Apply Superin- 
tendent Jewish Children's Society, Station 
E, Baltimore, Md. 

COOPERATIVE PLACEMENT SERV- 
ICE. Social workers, secretaries, super- 
intendents, matrons, housekeepers, _ dieti- 
tians, cafeteria managers. The Richards 
Bureau, 68 Barnes Street, Providence, R. I. 



Bind Your Issues 

Our binder makes a book of The Sur- 
vey. Put in each issue as it comes. 
Take out any issue at any time with- 
out disturbing the others. So simple 
that even a social worker can do it! 
Index free at the end of the volume, 
running six months. By return mail 
anywhere in the U. S. A. $2.20. The 
Survey, 112 East 19 St., N. Y. City. 



WORKERS WANTED 



WANTED: Housemother for cottage 
which is to be devoted to the training of 
adolescent backward girls, between the 
ages of 13 and 18. Applicant must thor- 
oughly understand this type of work. Need 
not be college graduate. Jewish woman 
preferred. Apply to Box No. 4967 SURVEY 
stating age, qualifications, experience if 
any, and salary expected. 

TRAINED woman worker not under 
thirty years of age charge educational work 
for women and girls in Jewish woman's 
organization. State experience, education 
and references. 4963 SURVEY. 

WANTED for Settlement House Health 
Center near New York a Polish speaking 
visiting nurse who has had Public Health 
Training. State age, religion, experience. 
4975 SURVEY. 

YOUNG women of charm and educa- 
tion to sell clothes in a unique way. Those 
with out-of-town following preferred. No 
experience necessary. Liberal commission. 
Write giving full particulars as to quali- 
fications to 143 East 49th Street. Miss 
Winifred Warren. 



WORKER wanted to direct clubs in small 
Jewish Center. Opportunity for initiative 
and development of a neighborhood pro- 
gram. 4965 SURVEY. 

GRADUATE NURSES, dietitians, labor- 
atory technicians for excellent hospital 
positions everywhere. Write for free book 
now. Aznoe's Central Registry for Nurses, 
30 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

TEACHERS WANTED 

TEACHERS wanted for public and pri- 
vate schools, colleges and universities. 
Education Service, Steger Building, Chi- 
cago; Southern Building, Washington; 
1254 Amsterdam Ave., New York. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

CHILD CARING, AGED, AND HOS- 
PITAL EXECUTIVE, eleven years expe- 
rience in money raising and membership 
campaigns; management and training of 
inmates; Hebrew; available for position. 
Wife experienced social worker and book- 
keeper. Highest credentials. 4977 SURVEY. 

COLLEGE woman wishes executive po- 
sition or one giving scope for initiative. 
Thirteen years experience in social work, 
medical, psychiatric and other. Italian 
spoken. Highest references. 4964 SURVEY. 

170 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

YOUNG MAN, 28, Jewish, collegf 
graduate, with several years experience it 
boys' and settlement work, seeks positioi 
where organization work is required. 497: 
SURVEY. 

FINANCIAL AND PUBLICITY EX 
ECUTIVE ; ten years experience wit! 
relief, recreation, educational and genera 
welfare agencies. Available Decembei 
1 5th. 4970 SURVEY. 

PSYCHOLOGIST, A. M. degree, thre< 
years experience with adults and chil- 
dren, desires position. Hospital preferred 
Available after due notice. 4966 SURVEY 

EXECUTIVE position by Social Workei 
of proven ability; expert case work super- 
vision assured. 4968 SURVEY. 

YOUNG WOMAN with four years ex- 
perience in secretarial work for socia 
agencies desires similar position for full 
time during day or afternoon and evening 
Best references. 4974 SURVEY. 

EXECUTIVE in Child Welfare Work 
desires similar position. At present Super- 
intendent of large Institution in New York 
City. 4958 SURVEY. 

YOUNG woman, College graduate, 
Protestant, business and teaching expedi- 
ence, desires position as secretary or com-i 
panion. Will go abroad. 4971 SURVEY. 

EXECUTIVE position girl's work by 
young woman. Thorough experience man- 
agement adolescent and delinquent girls. 
4976 SURVEY. 

GRADUATE Student, Harvard, wants 
research work in Labor and Social Econ- 
omics. Experience in industries and field 
investigations. Highest credentials. 4978 
SURVEY. 

EXECUTIVE position desired by ex- 
perienced woman organizer; committee 
and financial secretary; 3 years Tribune 
Fresh Air Fund. Excellent testimonials. 
4979 SURVEY (Chelsea 3929). 



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CURRENT PAMPHLETS 



IHILDREN. Organize Children to aid com- 
munity. Teachers, etc., use and praise 
the "JUNIORS SELF-GOVERNMENT PROCE- 
DURE," a simplified, standardized club 
method. Price 12 cents. Herman J. 
Greenberg, 4005 Ave. K., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

HILDREN IN NEED OF SPECIAL CARE, by 
Lucile Eaves. Study of children of 
1 broken families, based on records of 
Boston social agencies. Order from the 
W. E. & I. U., 264 Boylston Street, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Price $1.25, postpaid, cloth. 

COKING FOR PROFIT, by Alice Bradley, 
describes home-study course, which in- 
cludes catering, tea room, cafeteria and 
lunch room management. "51 Ways to 
Make Money" free. Am. School of Home 
Economics, 5778 Drexel Ave., Chicago. 

OMMUNITY FORCES: A Study of Non-Par- 
tisan Municipal Elections, by R. D. Mc- 
Kenzie ; 24 double column pages, and 
one of the best studies that has ap- 
peared. Price 3oc. Address: JOURNAL 
OF SOCIAL FORCES, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

.EPORT OF PUBLIC DANCE HALL COMMITTEE 
on the San Francisco Center, by Maria 
Lambin. A study of the development of 
public dance halls in the U. S., together 
with an account of the system of super- 
vision in the dance halls of San Fran- 
cisco. 23 pp. $ .25. Order from San 
Francisco Center, Hotel St. Francis, San 

: Francisco. 



PERIODICALS 



HI AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING showi 
the part which trained nurses are taking 
in the betterment of the world. Put it 
in your library. $3.00 a year. 19 W. 
Main St., Rochester, N. Y. 

ENTAL HYGIENE: quarterly: $3.00 a year: 
published by the National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene, 370 Seventh Avenue, 
New York. 

HE SUNNICLOW TRUMPETER. An illustrat- 
ed Quarterly, in the interest of The 
Outlook to Nature and Wholesome, 
Creative Living. Delightful. A gem of 
publishing art. Unique! A sample copy 
gladly sent for a two-cent postage stamp. 
SUNNIGLOW GARDENS, Box 406, 
North Wales, Pa. 



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171 



Catch 'em young 

That's the gist of this special Heart number. 

Young in years, or young in disease, as the 
case may be. 

If you do catch them young, heart disease is 
preventable. Often it is curable. 

Right here and now we are taking the first 
steps in a big new public health movement that 
may in time reach out to every city and town, 
down through every group and class as the tuber' 
culosis movement nas done. 

It means the intelligent cooperation or physi- 
cians, nurses, laymen-clinics, newspapers, publicity 
agencies. 

How can you help? 

First off, by getting this Heart number of 
Survey Graphic into the hands of those who 
ought to read it -your friends who have leaky 
hearts or members of their families, school teach- 
ers, nurses, leaders of your community even 
physicians. 

Particularly physicians. They are busy men 
and need to know what laymen are doing or 
might be doing in the health game. Besides, the 
Graphic is just the thing for a doctor's waiting- 
room table. Takes a patient's mind off his aches 
and pains and that funny empty feeling just above 
and between the ears. 



CHECK 

ONE 
WANTED 



r | 



SCISSORS 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES 

112 East 19 Street, New York City 

I enclose check for $ for which you will please 

Q Enter a year's subscription to Survey Graphic, 
monthly, beginning with this Heart number, to 
the person named below $3. 
Ditto, The Survey, twice-a-month $5 
Send 4 copies of the Heart number $1 

Send copies of the Heart number (see 

above) $ 

Q] Send me the book by (name 

author) from the list above $ 

Name 

Street, No 

City, State 

S.G.I 1. 24 



Copies of this 

HEART 

issue for 
distribution 

TO put information 
on heart disease, the 
greatest cause of death, 
before people who will 
be interested or ought 
to be informed regard- 
ing it, we will send bun- 
dles, postpaid, at the 
following special rates : 

1 copy 30 cents 

4 copies $1.00 

12 copies 3.00 

25 copies 5.75 

50 copies 11.00 

100 copies 20.00 

Use the order form at the left 



Books on the 

HEART 

SOME books for lay- 
men are reviewed 
on page 158 of this issue. 
They may be ordered of 
the Survey Book De- 
partment for delivery 
by return mail by using 
the order form at the 
bottom of this page 
(vote in the last square!) 
The books : 

Your Heart and How to 
Take Care of It, by Ro- 
bert H. Babcock, M.D. 
D. Appleton &. Co. 235 
pp. Price $1.50 postpaid 
of The Survey. 

How Is Your Heart, by 
Calvin Smith, M.D. Boni 
and Liveright. 208 pp. 
Price $1.75 postpaid of 
The Survey. 

The Causes of Heart 
Failure, by William H. 
Robey, M.D. Harvard 
University Press. Price $1 
postpaid of The Survey. 

Taking Care of Your 
Heart, by T. Stuart Hart, 
Funk and Wagnalls. 70 
pp. Price 30c. postpaid 
of The Survey. 



172 



me stmm 

Midmonthly Number 



Vol. LIII, No. 4 



November 15, 1924 



[CONTENTS 

Labor's New Day in Court - - - J. M. l.andis 175 
Misinformed Massachusetts - - Wiley H. Swift 177 

Beer in the Balance Bruno Lasker 179 

THE COMMON 7 WELFARE 182 

COMMUNITIES 185 

A Community Newspaper? R. L. Burgess 

Paving for National Social Work, Grddes 

Smith For Families Nombreuses, Edith Elmer 

Waid, Sunnvside >An Experiment in C!ty 

Housing 

HEALTH - - - - - - 190 

For Mothers in Town and Country, Estelline 
Bennett and A/. R. Opium at Geneva, Ellen 
N. La Matte 

SOCIAL PRACTICE 195 

Salvation First, M. R. 

INDUSTRY 199 

Public or Private or Both? R. W. B. Joint 
Effort For British Housing, Arthur Green- 
wood Will Canada Find a Way? Mary Van 
Kleeck 

EDUCATION 205 

Should Public Schools Welcome Experiments? 
Henry R. Linville Who is Fit to Teach? 
David H. Pierre Has Truth Any Chance? 
Arthur Corning White 
SOCIAL WORK SHOPTALK - - - - 210 

COMMUNICATIONS 211 

ANNUAL STATEMENT 217 

FALL REVIEW OF BOOKS 227 

Wanted New Dreams, L. W.A. New Path 
Through History, Clarke F. Ansley Cherchez 
I'Enfant, Tarts and Comfits, L. W. Cooper- 
ative Movements, Leslie E. Woodcock Play- 
mates in Healthland, Grace T. Hallock A 
Classic in Preventive Medicine, R. Clyde 
White A Judgment on Judees, /. Maurice 
Wormser The Hazards of Work, Frederick 
B. Flinn The Run of the Shelves 



aganda, German style, which have such charm that 
we reprint them with his observations on p. 179. 



The Gist of It 

ON the eve of an "lection in which there was 
much talk of a labor party, the Supreme 
Court acted on a question in which labor 
has been vitally and vociferously interest- 
ed. Mr. Landis tells how and why on p. 175. He 
is research fellow in law at the Harvard Law School, 
a special student of the subject of contempt in the 
federal courts, and co-author with Felix Frankfurter 
of an article on that subject recently published in the 
Harvard Law Review and republished in the Amer- 
ican Law Review. 

WHEN Bruno Lasker visited Germany a 
month or two ago, he found a criss-cross 
division on prohibition wets against drys, of course, 
but also drys American style against drys German 
style. He brought hack some specimens of dry prop- 



H 



AVE faith in Massachusetts," says Mr. 
Coolidge. And most of us have had. But 
in the face of an overwhelming popular vote against 
the child labor amendment, faith begins to totter. 
Wiley H. Swift was in the thick of the fight on be- 
half of the National Child Labor Committee, and 
on p. 177 tells what happened. Burr Blackburn 
writes on p. 210 of Georgia's situation, too. 

IT'S easier to plan a community newspaper than 
to run one, as Mr. Burgess discovered in San 
Jose. He tells why on p. 185. 

TF you want to know how Europe is housing it- 
- self, ask Edith Elmer Wood. Her latest book, 
Housing Progress in Western Europe, was crushed 
into a Survey article in the Midmonthly just a year 
ago and reviewed at some length on July 15. On 
p. 188 she tells how the new houses built with gov- 
ernment aid near Paris have been tenanted. 

WHICH are better, buttons or bananas? The 
question is only a little more superficial than 
the much-repeated slogan "more business in govern- 
ment; less government in business." Mr. Bruere 
discusses the interplay of public and private initiative 
in employment agencies on p. 199, and calls Arthur 
Greenwood to the bar to testify as to the relevant 
situation in British 'housing. Mr. Greenwood was 
a member of Parliament and of the Labor ministry 
which initiated the present housing program. 

THE post-office strike in Toronto came close 
home to American social workers who were 
convening there while the mails were disorganized 
and when the men went back to work apparently 
with a moral victory. That victory, discussed in 
The Survey for July 15, 1924, seems now to have 
been a hollow one. Miss Van Kleeck, director of 
the division of industrial studies of the Russell Sage 
Foundation, brings the story down to date (p. 202). 

STUDENTS' of the problem of opium control 
will find it interesting to compare Miss La 
Motte's personal interpretation of the present prob- 
lem (p. 192) with the editorial paragraphs published 
in Survey Graphic for November I and those on 
p. 183 of the present issue. 

THE searching question as to the willingness 
of the public schools to accept experiment 
(p. 205) is asked by the president of the Teachers' 
Union of New York. The article is based on Mr. 
I.inville's address at the Netcong Conference of 
the Teachers' Union and the Teachers' Union 
Auxiliary, on October 4, 1924. , 

MISS HALLOCK, who writes about new child 
health books (p. 236) is herself author of a 
good bit of that clever and insinuating health stuff 
that has for years been flowing steadily from the 
office of the old Child Health Organization, now 
merged in the American Child Health Association. 





Hendrik Willem Van Loon 



THE HUNDRED PER CENTER 





MIDMONTHLY 



November 15 
1924 




Volume LIII 
No. 4 



Labor's New Day in Court 

'he Supreme Court Vindicates Jury Trial in Contempt Cases 

By J. M. Landis 



N the American system of judicial review, the validity 
of certain legislation is determined only as a neces- 
sary result of an actual controversy between parties 
in litigation. It has often happened, therefore, that 
the constitutionality of legislation is not determined until 
years after its enactment. The Missouri Compromise was 
declared unconstitutional thirty years after its passage. A 
federal income tax law was declared invalid after such leg- 
islation had been in intermittent operation over a period of 
ninety years. The Supreme _^________^_ 

Court on October 2O, 1924, 
in the case of Michaelson v. 
United States, was called 
upon for the first time to pass 
upon the validity of those 
provisions of the Clayton Act 
of 1914, whose constitution- 
ality was most hotly contested 
in Congress in the debates 
surrounding its enactment. 

The specific provisions deal 
with injunctions arising out 
of disputes between employers 
and employes relative to the 
terms and conditions of the 
employment. In the situation 
a very common one where 
the Act which is alleged to be 
a violation of the provisions 
of such an injunction, and 
consequently punishable as a 



In The Survey for August 15, Senator Pep- 
per discussed the (/rowing bitterness of organ- 
ized labor toward the federal courts. Labor 
has contended that the use of the injunction 
in industrial disputes constituted an abuse of 
judicial authority which, if continued, would 
destroy the organized labor movement^ Sen- 
ator Pepper pointed out that the problem 
was not primarily that of changing the view- 
point of federal judges, but of determining 
what the community attitude toward organ- 
ized labor was going to be. If a majority of 
the workers and of the community crystal- 
lized in favor of organization as most con- 
ducive to social progress, this public senti- 
ment would have a decisive influence on the 
law and the courts. The Supreme Court de- 
cision here interpreted may signalize such a 
crystallization. As Mr. Landis points out, it, 

contempt of court, is also a at least, "gives effect to the social ideals of 

crime under federal or state the time and place." 



law, the accused, when cited for contempt, may demand 
that the trial for contempt shall be by jury. The ordinary 
procedure in such cases permitted the judge to determine 
all issues of law and fact relative to the alleged contempt. 
The shop-crafts railway strike of 1922 afforded the op- 
portunity to test these provisions of the Clayton Act. In- 
junctions against picketing and intimidating fellow-employes 
who refused to join the strikers were issued by federal 
courts at the suit of the government. It was inevitable 
__^___________ that such injunctions, which 

embraced within their terms 
thousands of striking employes, 
should in occasional instances 
be violated ; that these viola- 
tions would be prosecuted by 
the United States; that in the 
trial that ensued the cited em- 
ployes should avail themselves 
of the provisions of this Act 
and demand a trial by jury; 
that the United States should 
contest this right on legal 
grounds and thus bring up for 
decision the validity of the 
legislation in question. A 
goodly number of these cases 
are to be found in the courts 
in the years 1922 and 1923 
slowly working their way up 
for review by the Supreme 
Court. 

Michaelson v. United States 
was just such a case, where 

175 



1 7 6 



THE SURREY 



Noveri-.ber 15, 1924 



the District Court denied the accused his demand for trial 
by jury. The decision was sustained by the Circuit Court 
of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit on the grounds that the 
strike being against an interstate railroad \vas illegal, and 
consequently the employes had terminated and forfeited 
their employment, ceasing to be "employes" within the mean- 
ing of the Act and thus no longer entitled to its benefits; 
that the Act properly construed was not mandatory in 
requiring the court to accede to the accused's demand for 
a trial by jury; that, in any event, the provision for jury 
trial was unconstitutional in that it exhibited a legislative 
encroachment upon the judicial power vested by the Con- 
stitution in the federal courts. All three of these grounds 
were denied by the Supreme Court in its reversal of the 
lower court's judgment. 

ANY consideration of these questions must be in the 
light of the factual situation which confronted Con- 
gress at that period, and the purposes which the Act sought 
to accomplish. Strikes of all kinds are too often, in this 
country where industrial espionage and agents provocateurs 
are not unknown, accompanied by acts of violence. These 
acts, such as assault, or wilful injury to property, are 
primarily criminal offenses, hut may also happen to come 
within the provisions of an injunction so as to constitute a 
violation of its terms. The determination of the necessary 
issues of fact the commission of the act complained of and 
the guilty intent of the alleged wrongdoerembody in both 
instances the same process. But in one instance thnt deter- 
mination is made by a jury of the vicinage; in the other 
by the judge who issued the injunction. 

Passions run high in industrial controversies. They have 
their repercussion in the minds of those far removed from 
the actual conflict. The success or failure of any strike 
depends more often upon the attitude of public opinion 
than upon the isolated economic power of the contending 
forces. This fact is recognized by both participants ; they 
endeavor to bring about a public attitude that will regard 
them and their contentions as morally and economically 
justifiable. And all these factors are accentuated where the 
industry, such as a railroad, is one in whose continuance 
and efficiency of operation the public have a vital concern. 

Thus law enforcement in this field requires peculiarly 
that characteristic, which, in the early days of justice, was 
its sanction the formal condemnation of the alleged wrong- 
doer's conduct by the society of which he is a constituent 
member. It was to such an end that in those early days 
the instrument of the jury was developed. Not only did 
it possess a high degree of efficiency as an instrument to 
determine disputed issues of fact, but also it added to the 
condemnatory provision of the law the formal approval of 
a representative body of fellowmen. The situation in the 
industrial conflict of today is very similar. The pressure 
which public opinion can exert is evidenced by the recent 
creation of the Railway Labor Board, a body whose decisions 
have no enforcing power beyond that which public opinion 
can give them. 

It was some such picture as this which Congress had 
before it when it enacted the Clayton Act. There was the 
obvious fact of injustice in allowing the same judge who 
issued the injunction to pass upon a violation of it. To- 
gether with this theoretical injustice came the realization 



that the injunction had been subject to abuse. Naturally 
enough it was deemed that a judge, being only human, was 
incompetent to pass upon, without prejudice and bias of 
some degree, the question of whether ha injunction, repre- 
sentative of the majesty and authority of his court, had been 
violated. The theoretical injustice of the proceeding found 
an underpinning in this psychological factor that experience 
had revealed. In the particular situation at which tile- 
provisions of the Act are aimed, there was an instrument 
of age-old worth and sanction customarily invoked to deal 
with such offenses, and to that instrument the enforcement 
of the law was entrusted. 

Wisely did the Supreme Court decide that the provisions 
of the Act were applicable to the case at bar. Were the 
strike legal, it could not be enjoined. To accept the narrow- 
ing interpretation given the Act by the court below would 
he to rob it of all vitality and efficacy. Further, the finding 
of the Railway Labor Board contrary to the demands of 
the strikers was deemed irrelevant to the issue of the legality 
of the strike. An earlier decision of the Supreme Court 
carefully points out that those findings are made not only 
without reference to the technical legal rights of the parties 
but also upon broader considerations of morality and econo- 
my in order to secure a fair adjustment of the interest in- 
volved; and, further that the findings have only the sanc- 
tion of public opinion. To hold now that the findings in 
these contempt cases determined the legality of the strike 
would, in substance, have been a reversal of the prior de- 
cision and a misconception of the function of the Railway 
Labor Board. 

Finally, the doubt as to the constitutionality of the 
provision for jury trial in this restricted class of contempts 
was put at rest. The legislative policy favoring this ex- 
pedient has already been expressed. It is gratifying to find 
that a constitution, framed at a time when the labor injunc- 
tion had not yet been born, offers no impassable barrier to 
an attempted solution of one of the most provoking prob- 
lems of modern industrial life. 

And why should it have been thought to oppose such a 
solution ? 

THE early records of the common law demonstrate be- 
yond a doubt that the uniform practice of courts was 
to punish all contempts of their authority by indictment 
followed by trial by jury. The first recorded instances of 
a contrary practice are found in the seventeenth century, 
but not until the eighteenth century was well advanced did 
this practice become a general one. Its growth is con- 
temporaneous with a growth in the jurisdiction of courts 
of equity, and, following the bold but ineffective challenge 
of Sir Edward Coke to kingly attempts to control the 
judiciary, a gradual subordination of that organ of govern- 
ment to the executive. Wilmot, subsequently Lord Chief 
Justice of England, writing in 1765. rationalizes without 
historical foundation upon the sources of the power to 
punish for contempt, and attributes it to the fact that the 
judges derive their authority and majesty from the king, 
and that an arraignment of them, closely synonymous to 
his mind with treason, is a defiance of authority so gross as 
to permit of summary punishment. This false concept of 
immemorial origin attributed by him to that power survived 
his time. It gave historical foundation to a claim which 



November J$, 1924. 



THE SURREY 



177 



honest but "regally-minded" judges felt essential to their 
function. Others, such as Lord Fitzgerald and Sir George 
Ji's.-.el, who felt rather that the criterion of justice was its 
social efficacy, realized the need of, at least, a philosophy 
of restraint in the exercise of such a power. In 1883, a 
period of growing realization of the problems of industrial- 
ism, the House of Commons had already sensed the possi- 
bility of its abuse and suggested its definition and limitation. 

But in America this false attribute attached itself to the 
constitutional conception of judicial power with which the 
courts are invested. Linked with this conception, but not 
definitely recognized as a separate and distinct element in 
it, was the natural realization that a court, in its function 
of adjusting a conflict, had to be able to operate efficiently 
by preventing interruptions to its business, and also to 
operate impartially by preventing the undue pressure of 
passion or prejudice on its component parts. This un- 
analyzed conception led to the repetition of idle phrases 
that the power "inheres" in all courts of record. Such a 
process could not fail to have its effect upon the content 
of the constitutional phrase "judicial power." State courts, 
almost without exception, in a series of decisions during the 
end of the nineteenth century held that legislatures were in 
this respect constitutionally forbidden from divesting courts 
of their "inherent" power to punish for contempt by sum- 
mary process. Only at this late period have the mists of 
this obfuscating logic been penetrated by an authoritative 
body. 

True, judicial power is a thing to be reserved to courts. 
Rut the term has no definite boundaries ; it comprehends 
the entire process of the administration of justice by courts. 
Its attributes can only be derived from the traditional, 
ethical and social conceptions that have clustered about this 
age-long process. A few, a very few, of these have actually 
crystallized by the process of judicial decision into definite 
precepts. Independence of judgment, the capability to deal 
with the subject-matter of judgment, the process of definitely 
announcing and enforcing the rights of the parties litigant, 
these can be said to be necessary qualities of the administra- 
tion of justice. A fourth is just now crystallizing the 
authority necessary to enable courts to go about their busi- 
ness. Such authority is represented in the power of all 
courts to punish summarily interruptions to the actual pro- 
cess of trial. 

But such a contempt is wholly different from those with 
which the Clayton Act deals. They are first and foremost 
criminal offenses and only incidentally violations of a court 
order. They occur far from the actual presence of the court, 
and affect neither judge nor jury in the disposition of any 
cause then on the court's calendar. As crimes they are 
punishable by the procedure applicable to such offenses. The 
substantive rights of the accused call for a jury trial; instead 
he finds himself a violator of a court order, whose terms 
may literally have embraced thousands of employes. The 
interest injured primarily has been a social one of the same 
type infringed by any crime ; only incidentally has the 
authority of the court been denied. The social end to be 
achieved by punishment in these cases is identical with that 
in any crime, and under the Clayton Act the same manner 
of punishment is prescribed. To deny summary power to 
the court in these cases is not to deny its authority or the 
power to enforce its decrees. Instead the method of en- 
forcement is regulated in the interest of the end to be 



achieved. The eventual result is that the authority of the 
court finds itself vindicated by the approbation of the com- 
munity as represented by the jury. No countervailing 
necessity demands that "judicial power" from the constitu- 
tional standpoint shall include the summary power to punish 
for contempt where the efficient functioning of the court 
is not imperilled. 

The agitation against the judiciary in 1912, following a 
period of the abuse of equity powers by courts in industrial 
disputes, brought forth the legislative response in the Clay- 
ton Act. A period of a much greater abuse of the same 
powers in the same fashion, culminating in the famed 
Wilkerson Injunction of 1922, brought forth another attack 
against the judiciary. The decision on the Clayton Act 
follows. The sequence of events is not accidental. Con- 
stitutional decisions involve more than mere technical ques- 
tions; they "expound" a constitution. If this process is more 
than the mere analytical dissection of a document, it must, 
like all judicial decision, give effect to the social ideals of 
the time and place. To ignore the formulation of these 
ideals, as represented in a vast popular movement, would 
be to attribute to the Supreme Court not judicial inde- 
pendence but judicial ignorance of the philosophy and end 
of law. 

Misinformed Massachusetts 

BY a vote of approximately 3 to I, the voters of 
Massachusetts instructed their representatives on 
Election Day against ratification of the children's 
amendment. This decisive vote is to be charged up in part 
at least to two causes : 

First, the friends of the amendment blundered in pre- 
suming that because President Coolidge, Speaker Gillette, 
Senators Lodge and Walsh, and all but three of the mem- 
bers of the last House of Representatives from Massachu- 
setts supported the amendment the people would support it. 
This presumption lulled them to sleep or at least into state 
of semi-slumber. 

Second, the campaign for the ratification of the amend- 
ment started weeks too late and never at any time had one- 
fifth as many workers as it needed. 

I was with an automobile caravan in the campaign for 
the amendment for ten days in Massachusetts. The mis- 
understanding and misconceptions about the scope and pur- 
pose of the amendment were absolutely astounding. We 
met scores of voters who actually believed it was drafted 
for the purpose of stopping all work by all persons under 
1 8 years of age. Of course, this is preposterous, but the 
voter believed it to be true. He had been told that it was 
true. Naturally he was against the amendment. 

When one got an opportunity to lay the matter clearly 
before the voter it was no difficult matter to get him to 
understand the truth. This was especially true of workers 
in mills and factories. We went to many mill gates. We 
were heard gladly and our literature was actually seized 
upon. The trouble was that our arms were too short. We 
could not reach enough of the voters in the short time. 

In all our travels with the caravan none of us so far as 
I know found a single person unwilling to consider the 
matter. I was particularly impressed with the very close 
attention given to our workers, whether they were speaking 
to a crowd or simply talking to one or two. The people 



178 



T II E SV R F E Y 



November 15, 1924. 



wanted the truth. They did not have it and the majority 
of them, I am sure, simply voted honestly according to the 
best light they had. 

There were those who spoke and taught selfishly rather 
than frankly. Down in North Carolina, cotton manufac- 
turers used to charge that I was being paid by cotton mill 
men of New England to fight the South for the benefit 
of New England manufacturers. Now the people know 
the truth. 

The cotton manufacturers of the South have joined with 
the National Manufacturers Association to defeat the 
amendment and so far they are succeeding. There is money 
behind this group, millions of it. We could feel its weight 
in every community. 

The pamphlet of James A. Emery, general counsel of 
the National Association of Manufacturers, seems to be the 
text-book of the opposition. Erom it the voters gathered 
that the amendment was conceived in Russia. President 
Coolidge's support of the amendment should have been 
answer to that, but it was not. 

From it they gathered that the education of the child 
was to be regulated under the amendment. Any lawyer 
who takes care to investigate knows better than that, but 
the people are not lawyers and. wonderful to say, there 
were lawyers who were teaching just that. 

From Mr. Emery the people gathered that in such a sim- 
ple, humane matter as giving protection to children, the 
Congress of the United States is not to be trusted and 
thev believed it. Believing it, they voted "no." 

Taking the case by and large the showing for the amend- 
ment in Massachusetts is not bad. Massachusetts has more 



states righters than any Southern state. A very substantial 
part of its voters are still upset over the eighteenth amend- 
ment. A smaller number are trying to get revenge for the 
ratification of the nineteenth. The National Manufacturers 
Association understood, better than the friends of the amend- 
ment, that Massachusetts was the first battlefield. They 
threw all their resources into it and as was to be expected, 
they won. 

It is just as well that they did, in this first struggle. This 
has put the churches, the. women's organizations, organized 
labor and all the other organizations supporting the amend- 
ment on notice. This is the first coming to grips between 
all these organizations interested in social development and 
the National Manufacturers Association and its camp fol- 
lowers. It is not bad to get the lines chalked off. 

Then too this vote in Massachusetts is going to lead to 
a careful scrutiny of the amendment by the people of other 
states. That within itself will be most valuable. The Con- 
stitution ought not to be amended except after very careful 
consideration. Before thi.s campaign is over the people are 
going to understand that the matter of ratifying the amend- 
ment is nothing more than an inquiry addressed by Con- 
gress to the people as to whether or not they wish Congress 
to have the power to protect hoys and girls from harmful 
employment if it is ever necessary. Just the mere facing 
and answering of that inquiry will lead us a long way 
in first thought and ultimately in sound legal principles. 

Speaking for myself only and in the knowledge of all 
that I know about the situation in Massachusetts T feel 
that we have no reason for being downcast. It is yet early 
in the dav. WII.KY H. SWIFT 



European Civilization Uplifts Algeria 



AT its meeting on June 4, 1924, the Advisory Labor 
Committee to the Government of Algeria approved a 
proposal made bv the government to lower from twelve 
to ten years the age for admission of native girls to em- 
ployment in the carpet industry. ... So long ago as 1912, 
the Advisory Labor Committee was asked, on behalf of 
the employers, to consider the amendment of Article 3 of 
the Decree of January S, 1909, which extended to Algeria 
the French metropolitan legislation concerning hours of 
labor, health and safety of workers. Under the terms of the 
decree, native boys and girls over twelve years of age might 
be admitted to industrial employment without an elementary 
school certificate on production of a certificate of physical 
fitness. The committee referred the matter to the health 
authorities for consideration, and these authorities reported 
in the following unmistakable terms: 

The existing laws concerning hygiene are, in the eyes of the 
health authorities, already too lenient, and any suggestion that 
they should be relaxed in a way which may prove detrimental 
to young children is to be deplored... . 

The carpet industry, owing to the creation and scattering 
of dust, certainly predisposes to pulmonary tuberculosis, 
which is already too prevalent amongst the native population. 

It will be impossible to find any health authority or doctor 
to approve an attempt to lower the age of admission and our 
opinion is shared by the whole medical faculty. 

In the light of this opinion, the Advisory Labor Com- 
mittee definitely rejected the proposal in June 1914. 

During a recent inquiry, which revealed that the supply 
of labor in the carpet industry was short, the employers 
again raised the question with the government. Among 



the arguments put forward in favor of lowering the mini- 
mum age was the contention that conditions in the factories 
were infinitely better, both turn the moral and physical 
point of view, than those in native homes, and that it must 
be borne in mind that only an infinitesimal proportion of 
native children attended the schools, since in their case 
education was not compulsory. It was further urged that 
the rise in the cost of living was severely felt in native 
families and that for such children the most important law 
of hygiene was to endeavor to earn their own livings in 
cases where their parents could not support them. 

During the discussion of the question by the committee 
in June last, representatives of the labor inspectorate and 
medical authorities expressed themselves in favor of lower- 
ing the age of admission to ten vears provided that the 
rules of hygiene were strictly observed and the factories 
subjected to rigid inspection. It was stated that the gov- 
ernment would draw up regulations in consultation with 
the health authorities which would provide that only those 
employers who were in a position to comply with the 
requirements would be authorized to employ the children. 

Notwithstanding the objections put forward by certain 
members of the committee, who expressed the opinion that 
the girls should be sent to school, and that if the number 
of schools was insufficient the administration should build 
more, the committee, by fifteen votes to six, approved the 
government proposal, on condition that suitable workshop 
regulations were drawn up. Bulletin of the International 
Labor Office Geneva. 




ONCE GERMANY S WE \KVFSS: TO-DAY A SIV: TO-MORROW DI'ATH 

Beer in the Balance in Germany 

By Bruno Laster 



I 



IHF. pictures on this page and the following 
pages are part of a new and spirited campaign 
to arouse the German people to a recognition of 
the tremendous toll taken from them by alcohol. 
By far the largest element in this campaign is the 
new wave of self-examination and social morality which 
set in with the youth movement before and during the 
war and has now permeated the more active groups 
of young men and women in all social strata. In so far as 
it is organized, the youth of the nation with the exception 
of very few groups which regard the traditional drinking 
customs as part of a folk inheritance that must be saved at 
all cost is either abstinent or at least hostile to excessive 
drinking. Practically all the Christian leagues of youth, 
both Catholic and Protestant, recognize the social ills of 
liquor consumption and work strenuously for its elimination 
from the national life. Pronouncements for and against alco- 
hol cross the party lines. The communists, in a manifesto, 
"recognize the damage done by alcohol but know that capi- 
talism has a double interest that of profit-making and that 
of keeping the \vorkers stupid in promoting the consumption 
of liquor, . . . therefore employ all their strength in chang- 



ing the capitalist economy for profit into a communist one 
for use." The young anarchists, on the other hand, ad- 
vise the young comrade: "Before j'ou shout, 'down with 
capitalism," remove the cigarette from your yellowing teeth 
and fight the enemy of youth, alcohol !" The socialist labor, 
the democratic and the independent organizations are to a 
large extent enrolled in the battle, though for the most part 
as yet in the movement for temperance rather than that for 
abstinence. The nationalist groups carry on a vigorous cam- 
paign for personal hygiene but so far have only in isolated 
instances allied themselves with others in the fight against 
the liquor traffic as a social menace. 

Another element in the situation and, perhaps, for the 
moment the more dramatic, is the influence of the American 
prohibition. It is a constant topic of conversation and rivals 
bolshevism as a theme with which to inspire ardor or horror, 
as the case may be. The misinformation about conditions 
in the United States is often fantastic. The liquor-sup- 
ported press paints an America thrown with the advent 
of prohibition into violent alcoholic excesses, streets filled 
with reeling men and women, hospitals and jails overflow- 
ing with drunkards. In vain are the corrections and pro- 



179 




IN THE RATHSKELLER IPLE TALK, SCANDAL AND FOOLISH GAIETY 



tests of men who have studied the subject at first hand. 

Within the anti-liquor movement itself, the American ex- 
ample has created a new discord. Until the war, three move- 
ments worked side by side and, to some extent, overlapped, 




without ever attracting to themselves any considerable num- 
bers. Those organized for total abstinence, recruited most 
frequently from the "lower middle class," were enthusiasts 
for a religion of clean living which also included vegetarian- 
ism and abstinence from nicotine. Much larger were the 
groups that worked quietly for reforms of the licensing sys- 
tem, for the gradual substitution of wholesome eating and 
amusement places for the kind of saloon that is primarily a 
bar, and for the elimination of harmful customs of treating 
and forced drinking. 

First the tragic experience of the war and with it the 
appalling demands of the distilleries and breweries on the 
food supplies of the country when millions went hungry 
forced the pace of these different groups. Then, the American 
example. At a national gathering of the anti-liquor forces 
in Buckeburg, a few weeks ago, practically all branches were 
represented and worked jointly at a common program for 
the conquest of drink. But a new split which had first 
appeared with the reports of the American achievement now 
threatens to divide the ranks. An aggressive minority de- 
mands the elimination of all sectional objectives and a com- 
mon stand for complete prohibition. "What has been pos- 
sible in America, that prosperous and liberty-loving country," 
say its spokesmen, "is possible here indeed is for us an 
essential of national recovery." This extreme group is com- 
posed for the most part of younger men, some of them close 
to the youth movement with its kindling enthusiasm for 
radical moral reform. Their belief that prohibition is prac- 
ticable in Germany without the preliminary stages through 




OR AT HOME HAPPINESS AND COMFORT 



WE WANT BREAD 



1 80 




WITH THE PLAGUE COMES MISERY AND DISGRACF 



which America has gone is looked upon as Utopian by the 
older and more experienced men. These desire to work 
now as before for a reform of the licensing laws and for a 
national law enabling the states to introduce local option. 

The first bill embodying the demand for local option 
or rather a preliminary enabling clause was introduced in 
the Reichstag in 1912; the last has just been buried with 
other pending legislation and will be reintroduced. Al- 
ready the brewers have shown their hands by forcing the 
adoption of clauses which would render void the major in- 
tentions of the bill ; and there is little prospect for local 
option in the immediate future. Nor are its sponsors san- 
guine of rapid progress even after the permissive act is passed. 
All they hope for at present is that in one or other of the 
more socialistic states the state government may permit the 
passage of a law enabling some of the settlements or new 
model villages of organized workers to prevent the licensing 
of public houses in their midst. In that way object lessons 
of communities living entirely free from the curse of liquor 
might be established. The prohibitionists, on the other hand, 
seem to believe that if a strong sentiment for prohibition 
could be created within a few years, a catastrophic change 
of government whether from the right or from the left 
might suddenly provide the opportunity to put it through. 
To this the moderates, especially those who have watched 
the American experiment without deceiving themselves about 
the difficulties of enforcement, reply that a general prohibi- 
tion law before a nation has been led up to it, at least by 
such gradual steps as those experienced in America, would 
do more harm than good. 

This difference of opinion should not, however, be exag- 



gerated in its influence on the essential unity of the absti- 
nence movement. Indeed, the opposition recognizes its 
growing strength. In addition to the usual forms of propa- 
ganda it employs methods which we have come to know but 
too well in America : the issue of fake statistics and of litera- 
ture which, though scientific in a narrow sense, is mislead- 
ing because it harps on one string ; and calls prohibition a 
new means for the enemy countries to mulct the German 
people of everything not essential to bare living. 

Whatever its more distant outcome, the fight for sobriety 
is on. It is significant that it has the support of such states- 
men as the former chancellor Michaelis; that here and 
there a public health officer may now confess his adherence 
to the abstinence movement without being chased from office ; 
that great labor leaders can preach it without being accused 
of playing the game of capitalism; that artists and poets 
place their gifts in its service. And it is to America 
that these fighters look for encouragement and help. 





NOT BEER 



WITHOUT THE PLAGUE WE CAN DE THE RICHEST NATION ON EARTH 



181 




The Common Welfare 




P PRINCETON UNIVERSITY has just com- 
pleted its ne\v psychological laboratory, which Is 
the only university building in the country built 
specifically for this purpose. On the back of the 
building is written the ancient Delphic maxim, "Know Thy- 
self." This satisfies the introspectionists, but seems to leave 
the behaviorists out in the cold. The latter, in no mood to be 
trifled with, now demand that the authorities shall inscribe 
on the front of the building: "Behave Thyself." 




THE two English speaking peoples have gone to the 
polls and they have spoken plain Anglo-Saxon. Here 
at home, some of us caught the gleam of broader international 
policies such as Mr. Davis stood for. Others of us were 
stirred by the hope of more adventurous domestic policies 
such as Mr. La Toilette voiced. But all of us can see in 
the Republican success at the polls a vigorous manifestation 
of the centripetal force in American life. An overwhelming 
number of us hailed in Coolidge the personification of our 
national institutions, of our half-recovered national pros- 
perity, of our national confidence in ourselves and our 
tested ways. 

The bad showing of those who talked most of a new 
world and a new century should not blind us into thinking 
that so far as the great mass of the people were concerned, 
this was a vote for reaction. It was a vote for self-reliance 
in the American way of progress as against foreign policies 
conceived to be entangling : as against domestic policies dis- 
torted into the similitude of Bolshevism. Just so the bad 
showing of those who talked most against corruption does 
not mean that this was a vote for Daugherty and Fall and 
the rape of Teapot Dome ; rather it was a vote of confidence 
in the homely integrity of the man at the White House 
as the best antidote to such things; a slow house-cleaner 
perhaps, but in the general mind a born house-keeper, a na- 
tional home-maker in an upset world. 

The Republicans had the resources and the resourcefulness 
to throw the campaign debate away from their past deeds and 
policies and onto the proposals of their adversaries. Now 
public judgment will settle back to performance tests. 




WE may discount, as an appeal to reason, the kerosene 
lamp beside which President Coolidge was sworn in 
by his father in a New England farmhouse fifteen months 
ago; we may have seen through its use in the campaign by 
those advertising psychologists who choose our garters and 
tobacco and tires ; we may set our faces against some of the 
forces that lined up behind this homely beacon in the torch 

182 



light procession of politics. Nevertheless it was an appeal 
to the hearts, the idealism of the American people. That 
idealism is an imaginative force in American life. It is not 
a negative thing. It is a precious, democratic thing. And 
the administration which has elicited it has a great trust; 
its place in history will be judged by its execution of that trust 
so that it will have meaning to the millions of households 
which responded to this symbol of earlier days. 

"I have no appeal except to the common sense of all 
the people," President Coolidge said the day after the 
election in a final phrasing of his slogan which will live. 
"I have no pledge except to serve them. I have no object 
except to promote their welfare." Common sense for the 
common welfare is a native pragmatic approach to common 
problems in a world beset with imported theories, old 
theories, new theories. The President's very reticence in 
the campaign, for which he was roundly and no doubt 
rightly berated although as a canny piece of tactics it 
worked has this clear advantage: it leaves him largely un- 
committed in facing issues as the} 7 come up. This may be 
the despair of those who want a cumulative program lit 
up by the flare of passionate espousal ; none the less it 
affords a footing and a hearing for those who have construc- 
tive proposals to advance on their merits. 

Social workers in Massachusetts generally subscribe to the 
verdict that as governor Calvin Coolidge's record was one 
of "slow but steady progress made as the result of painstak- 
ing hard work." In measures affecting the state's depend- 
ents, education, the public health, humanitarian reforms in 
industry, he showed an open mind and positive accomplish- 
ment. We have a right to expect as much from him at 
Washington, a majority president with both houses of Con- 
gress ; to expect less is to accept the view of him held by 
his opponents; a view which a good part of his fellow 
countrymen refused to admit or else we must write down 
the country itself as turning its back on the future. 




BUT that raises the question : How much common sense 
have we as a people? And as an exhibit, the campaign 
should make for humbleness. The most sinister outcome 
of the elections has been the sweeping victories of the 
Ku Klux Klan. William Allen White and his white hat 
went down in the sunflower state. Judge Ben Lindsey just 
escaped defeat, after his twenty-five years of pioneer work 
in the Juvenile Court of Denver, at the hands of these new 
recruits to the local interests that had always fought him. 
The success of the candidates endorsed by the masked organ- 
i/.ation in Indiana, Kansas, Colorado and Oklahoma, is 
thought by some observers to mark its "political come-back," 
and this despite its defeat in Texas and despite the tremendous 
personal endorsement of Smith in New York. The Klan is 
only the raw and exaggerated outcrop of those forces for in- 



November 15, 1924 



THE SURVEY 



tolerance, for hate and fear, which have manifested them- 
selves in some of our patrioteering organizations, and which 
found expression from high places more than once in the 
campaign. The language may have been different but the 
trepidation and the antagonisms were the same as those 
which before the riots last summer were to be heard on the 
street corners of Herrin. 

Here we have the high challenge to every man and 
woman who supported the Republican Party as the instru- 
ment of orderly progress. The American situation, in these 
post-war years, has its counterpart pretty much the world 
over. In England you have the "Die Hards" but also you 
have your Tory Democracy as represented by such men as 
Premier Baldwin and the Cecils. Except for the last three 
decades, much of the constructive social legislation of the 
last century in England is attributable to statesmen of 
their kind. They have cherished the growth of an en- 
lightened conservatism. 




WE need such an enlightened conservatism politically 
speaking in the United States. We need its transfer- 
ence from a hundred areas of science, the professions, busi- 
ness, to the prime task of government and to policy making. 
Here not only is the sharp challenge to liberal-minded Re- 
publicans to make their point of view felt in the responsible 
government at Washington, but to engage in a long program 
of education on the industrial and social problems which con- 
front us in these decades. The defeat in Massachusetts of 
the child labor amendment, supported though it was by 
President Coolidge and other outstanding personalities, is 
apt evidence of the need. 

There is need for a counterpart in this country to an 
enlightened conservatism. We need an enlightened radical- 
ism or if you prefer, progressivism. There was something 
fine, however distorted by a partisan press, in this last great 
public service of La Follette after a life-time given to meas- 
ures many of which are part of our national fabric today. 
He marched around the citadel, like a prophet of old, blow- 
ing his ram's horn. The four million Americans who 
responded stand for something organic in American life. 
They share in its common sense and will have to be 
reckoned with. They must also reckon with themselves, and 
with what is common in their sense. Four years from now 
they are not likely to have that colorful! personality to serve 
as a binder. Whether the block of Democratic states in the 
South, or the heterogeneous groups which used the cracked 
Liberty-bell as their emblem, will afford an enduring founda- 
tion for an alternative to the Republican party, is for the 
future to say. In England, the British Labor Party seems 
to have taken the position formerly occupied by the Liberals. 
Despite their defeat, they are numerically the opposition, 
with a popular vote over a million larger than at the last 
election. But back of that is thirty years of consecutive 
hard work- and hard thinking and hard teaching of the 
masses to stand not against Old England but for a new one. 

Again, with us, the challenge is not only to an insurgency in 
Congress that will curb and spur: in the dust of a political 
landslide, that will be needed as never before: but the chal- 
lenge is also for a long process of education and organization 



in the United States the shaping of an affirmative rather 
than a negative program, if American progressivism is to be 
anything other than a protest movement. 

An enlightened conservatism an enlightened radicalism 
these are two forces which will make not for disruption 
but for social progress in our American life. And in the 
spade work that makes for such enlightenment of all the 
electorate, every school and college, every civic body, every 
forum, every settlement and social movement has an obliga- 
tion and an opportunity. 




SO close is the relation between the health and the social 
integrity of the family, and so happy the relationship 
between official and voluntary agencies of New York 
City in maintaining health and family independence, that 
it seems entirely natural to see a social agency pleading be- 
fore the Board of Estimate for the adoption of the whok 
proposed budget of the municipal Department of Health. 
In the present case, advocacy by the Association for the 
Improvement of the Condition of the Poor carries a special 
weight because that organization is able to point to its own 
admirable sociological laboratories districts in which health 
measures have been tried and tested to prove Dr. Biggs' 
challenge to New York State, that public health is pur- 
chasable, and furthermore, that it is an investment socially 
profitable. In this case the additions to the former budget 
asked by the Health Comtmissioner include additional nurses 
to conduct a prenatal educational service for expectant 
mothers, striking at that unnecessarily high death rate of 
women in child bearing which is a black mark on the Amer- 
ican health record, and additional school medical inspectors, 
school nurses, and dental hygienists, whose effective efforts, 
the association submits, will help to lessen retardation and 
overcrowding in the schools, and eventually so prove a 
positive saving in the cost of education. So essential are 
these needs, and so striking has been the past record of the 
Health Department of New York City in saving lives and 
money, that the association concludes convincingly: 

We can safely predict a further decline in death rates and 
in sickness in the homes and hospitals of New York if this 
strengthening of the work of the Bureau is provided for. We 
hardly see room for choice between a possible decrease in death 
and sickness rates and a possible saving of not more than two- 
tenths of one per cent in the tax rate. . . . 




O chapter in the long and involved history of the 
world's effort to free itself from the tyranny of 
opium addiction is more tragic than the back-sliding of 
China. In 1917, after ten years of strenuous effort to live 
up to the opium agreement signed with India in 1907, China 
was declared "clear of opium" by a mixed commission of 
British and Chinese experts. The victory, however, was 
fleeting. The following year illicit cultivation of the poppy 
started on the fringes of the outlying provinces; despite 
severe legislation passed by the Pekin government, which 
punishes manufacturers or peddlers 6f morphine with life 
imprisonment, and customs officers who wink at the drug 



1 8 4 



THE SURVEY 



November 15, 11)24. 



traffic, with life imprisonment or death, for example, the 
abuse has grown steadily. Estimates now place the produc- 
tion of opium in China at about 2,200 tons a year, or two- 
thirds of that produced in the whole world. As very little 
Chinese opium is used for medicinal purposes (the superior 
grades suitable for such usage come chiefly from Persia and 
Turkey) and little is smuggled abroad, practically this whole 
output is smoked by the native population. 

This retrogression in China is due jointly to the weakness 
of the Pckin government, which has been able to enforce 
its regulations only in one of the twenty-one provinces; and 
to the lucrative return from the cultivation of opium, which 
has been made practically or actually compulsory by the 
taxation of the provincial military governors, or tuchuns, 
who have disregarded the authority of the central govern- 
ment and have raised large armies to further their own 
political aspirations. In Fukien, which is typical of several 
provinces, it is said that 70,000 troops under five principal 
generals are supported by opium taxation. The predecessors 
of these generals had collected the land taxes for three years 
in advance and the only method of raising more money 
was to advance the tax still another year or two or levy a 
special tax on the cultivation of opium, to which many acres 
of land have been diverted, as it is much more profitable 
than rice or other grain. Wherever troops were stationed 
opium growing was made compulsory. Magistrates issued 
the orders and soldiers enforced them. 

This compulsion has been not without a protest from 
certain classes in China. On the last Sunday of September 
of this year protest meetings and parades were held by Chin- 
ese anti-opium groups throughout the country. During 1923 
"opium riots," in part a protest against the heavy taxes 
and in part a censure of the abuse of opium, were common 
in agricultural districts. Student opposition to the situation 
in China is well known. Representatives of various classes 
in China are to testify before the International Conference 
called by the League of Nations, now in session at Geneva, 
whose alignment of interests Miss La Motte describes else- 
where in this issue. 




HAS our national Bureau of Education become a prop- 
agandist agency? If so, should not that fact be defi- 
nitely established so that people who want their propaganda 
somewhat diluted may be in a position to protect them- 
selves? If not, why should it offer us the sort of program 
that has been proposed for the so-called "Education Week," 
November 17 to 24, 1924? In that program, it is true, 
there are some excellent topics. For example: How our 
Constitution guarantees to everyone Life, Liberty, Justice, 
Security and Happiness; A playground for every child; 
Equality of opportunity in education for every American 
boy and girl. Even with reference to these topics some 
useful questions might be asked. For example: Do these 
Constitutional guarantees actually bring to everyone Liberty 
and Justice? What keeps some children from having play- 
grounds? 

Passing by such topics, however, we come to several of 
a different sort: 



"Revolutionists, communists and extreme pacifists are a 
menace to these [Constitutional] guarantees"; 

"An illiterate who obtains second-hand information is a 
tool of the radicals" ; 

"The red flag means death, destruction, poverty, starva- 
tion, disease, anarchy and dictatorship." 

These three statements seem to be definitely propagand- 
ist in intention. We may test this by suggesting the sub- 
stitution of "militarists" for "pacifists" in the first statement; 
"conservatives" for "radicals" in the second and "black" for 
"red" in the third. Anyone who cares to have a moment 
of excitement may have it by imagining what would have 
happened if the Bureau had published a program with those 
suggested changes in it. 

Hence, merely in order that this program prepared by the 
Bureau, in collaboration with the officials of the American 
Legion, may be properly balanced and, thereby, cease to be 
too obviously propagandist, we suggest three supplementary 
topics to the genial consideration of our readers during 
Education Week, as follow : 

(1) In the light of our war-time (and after) experi- 
ences, who is likely to prove the greater menace to our 
Constitutional guarantees, the extreme pacifist or the ex- 
treme militarist? 

(2) Did illiteracy first become a menace when the rad- 
ical began to exploit the illiterate, or was it always a 
menace ? 

(3) What hope is there for education in America as 
long as a supposedly responsible governmental agency for 
education can put as many mutually incompatible predicates 
into one proposition as the third statement, given above, 
attempts to carry? 




THE Pittsburgh Sun makes the article in the August 
Survey Graphic by Orville Welsh on the American 
system of "rotten boroughs" the occasion for an editorial. 
It cites his exhibit of Rhode Island conditions where small 
villages have as great a vote as Providence, of Michigan 
conditions where Wayne County with one third the state's 
population has less than one sixth the seats in the senate. 
But when it comes to Pennsylania, the Sun maintains that 
Mr. Welsh has not told the story by half. To quote: 

The complaint of Pittsburgh is not that the rural counties 
fare slightly better than does Allegheny. We might condone 
the robbing of this county of one seat in the state Senate to 
which we are in justice entitled. But Pittsburgh cannot for- 
give a legislative plunderbund that has gerrymandered the state 
senatorial and legislative districts of Allegheny county in such 
a way as to give "The Strip" two representatives for 72,000 
of population, and the residential East Liberty-Brushton-Home- 
wood-Squirrel Hill district only one representative for 76,000 
of population. And the city cannot forgive a political greed 
that has given the downtown and "Hill" wards two legislators 
for 68,000 of population, and the Shadyside-Highland wards 
with more than 56,000 only one. Nor can the city understand 
why 159,000 of Senator Leslie's constituents should have one 
vote in the Senate and 278,000 of S'enator Harris' only one vote: 
why 142,000 of Senator Einstein's constituents should have 
one vote while 266,000 of Senator Mansfield's have only one 
vote. 

Pittsburgh cannot forgive these things, nor can it understand 
them. Perhaps Mr. Welsh can explain them to us, or psycho- 
analyze our situation for us. 



COMMUNITIES 



A Community Newspaper? 



A editor of the San Jose (California) News, it 
seemed to me, I occupied a position repugnant to 
all my social and political theories. I was a 
chancellor responsible only to an .irresponsible 
monarch, the proprietor of the paper. He had 
come into the town, and, because he possessed a certain 
amount of money, he had suddenly become autocrat of this 
long established newspaper, this important piece of public 
property. What right had he to do this, or to follow his 
whim and make me an editor? Had he not been a liberal, 
he would not have made me editor. But what right had 
liberals, any more than conservatives, to be absolute mon- 
archs or chancellors chosen by absolute monarchs? 

My thinking was not quite so naive as this, of course. 
I knew that in reality my monarch was not absolute; he 
held office himself by the tacit suffrage of an oligarchy, the 
advertisers. But then, that was always true of seemingly 
absolute monarchs: they served the need of some powerful 
economic group. Besides, if there was such an oligarchy, 
all the more reason for introducing reform. We began 
an experiment, accordingly, which convinced me that while 
newspaper administration might never become an absolute 
democracy, it could with a little effort be changed into a 
constitutional monarchy. 

After consultation with H. L. Baggerly, the owner of 
the paper, we announced editorially what we called the 
Community Editorial Plan. Every important opinion-group 
in the community was invited to elect an associate editor 
of the paper. These associate editors were to represent their 
respective groups in the community editorial column, which 
was to be the leading feature of the editorial page, occupy- 
ing the position of honor previously assigned to our own 
editorials. The editor's column was to be shoved off to a 
less prominent position on the page, and was to be in smaller 
type. It was my theory that for a considerable time the 
. chief function of the editor's column would be to explain 
and perhaps defend the community editorial column, as I 
realized that there was much educational work to be done 
before the business management of the paper, the adver- 
tisers, the subscribers in general and the opinion-groups in 
particular, would grasp the plan fully. 

I went before organizations of farmers, labor men, polit- 
ical groups, and employers and civic workers. Many of 
these opinion-groups elected associate editors, and the com- 
munity editorial column was duly inaugurated, to the sound 
of much enthusiastic horn-blowing in the editor's column. 



were my troubles in administering this scheme? 
Well, in the first place there was the daily job of 
seeing to it that the associate editors turned in sufficient 
copy to fill the community editorial column. While grap- 
pling with the task of getting lethargic associate editors 
to write enough, and of preventing enthusiastic associate 



editors from writing too much, I was often amused to have 
friends say, "Pretty easy for you now that you've got out- 
siders to do all your work for nothing." But during the 
time that I was concentrating on this task, I did manage 
to keep a fairly continuous stream of fairly interesting copy 
coming in from the associate editors. 

At first I found the labor unions surprisingly apathetic, 
in view of all their criticism of the press. But when the 
prohibition problem came up in a state election the associate 
editor of one of the labor councils came suddenly to life, 
and commenced writing vehement denunciations of the drys. 
Then another labor associate editor was a communist, and 
commenced writing some very radical editorials. It was 
here that I lost my nerve, and acted far more like the 
chancellor of an irresponsible autocrat than the premier of 
a constitutional monarchy. I read one editorial which the 
communistic labor man had turned in, and I shuddered to 
think what some of our leading conservatives would think 
of it. I felt that they could be taught to stand for this 
free voicing of minority opinions in the press, but I felt 
that it was inadvisable to start a row until the plan was 
more a matter of course in the community. I begged the 
associate editor to cut out one paragraph, to forego com- 
plete freedom of expression now for the sake of the ulti- 
mate success of this plan which involved so much freedom 
of expression for minority groups. "Not a word goes out !" 
said the associate editor. "That's the way with you lib- 
erals. You never want freedom now, always it must be 
later, much later, at some vague time when you vainly hope 
that things will be straightened out in some miraculous 
way." I squirmed under this criticism, for I felt it to 
contain much truth. I was carrying water on too many 
shoulders, thinking of my responsibility to the proprietor- 
ship, to the advertisers, to my associate editors and to my 
subscribers. But it was just in this crisis that I realized 
how important and valuable my plan was. For the in- 
tensity of my longing to get rid of the obstreperous vigor 
of this red camel I myself had invited into the tent, the 
earnestness of my desire to do a little of that trimming which 
I as a "capitalist" editor knew so well how to do these 
things made me perceive the reality and vigor of the new 
forces I had introduced into the conduct of the paper. These 
forces would compel me to be more honest and thorough- 
going than I had ever intended to be. 

I did finally persuade the labor man to eliminate one 
paragraph, and, although he protested that the editorial was 
ruined, the fact remains that our subscribers were treated 
next day to a thousand-word advocacy of pure communism, 
in ten-point type, two columns wide. I never heard a word 
of complaint, and have later come to believe that I should 
not have heard any even had the offending paragraph been 
printed. 

Then an associate editor who was a Protestant pastor 
and an associate editor who was a Catholic priest com- 



i86 



THE SURT EY 



November 15, 1924 



menced pouring hot shot into one another on the issue of 
religious education. Things were printed about both protes- 
tantism and Catholicism that are certainly not customarily 
printed in the public press in the town of San Jose, where 
half the subscribers are Catholic, and half Protestant. Again 
I was in terror. I persuaded the Protestant to drop the 
discussion, appealing, rather basely, I fear, to him as a 
fellow Protestant. 

OUR circulation manager saw possibilities in the plan 
from the start. Very good, he reasoned, to have the 
editor going the rounds of all these organizations putting 
over publicity for the paper in a high-class non-commercial 
way. He began to ask me if I couldn't get hold of mailing 
lists of the membership of these organizations, so he could 
circularize them and make them realize that our paper was 
their paper. And he was right, too, in attaching practical 
circulation-winning value to the plan. A newspaper which 
once became established on such a basis would become the 
community newspaper, or would inevitably force a certain 
degree of democratization upon its rivals in the field. The 
community would be better served than formerly in either 

event. 

I became convinced as the result of practical grappling 
with the operation of this plan, that we newspaper folk are 
terrorized by iron-clad fixed phrases, the result of prema- 
ture rough and ready analyses we have made. "The Ad- 
vertisers!" we shriek, and are paralyzed with fear, for- 
getting that the average advertiser shrieks "The News- 
papers!" in the same terror-stricken fashion. Advertisers 
do not constitute a vicious highly organized group of 
marauders; they are not so class-conscious as we fall into 
the habit of believing they are. Mostly they are pretty 
good-natured fellows who pick up the paper to see whether 
their "ad" is placed in the position contracted for, and 
then turn to the comics and sports with only an occasional 
cheerful growl against that bolshevik editor who ought to 
be ridden out of town on a rail, he ought. An editor with 
principles, with a broad well-considered underlying policy 
coupled with a reasonable amount of aptitude for pragmatic 
moment-to-moment adjustment and compromise, can steer 
a courageously experimental course with very little attempted 
interference from his advertisers. They respect editors more 
than editors respect themselves, and are really quite willing 
to assume that the editor will want to run his own busi- 
ness in his own way. 

We finally let the community editorial column subside, 
but it was not because of any interference from advertisers, 
or because the plan had proved unpopular with our sub- 
scribers. We let it lapse for the very lazy but very human 
reason that we discovered it would take all of one skilled 
diplomat's time to keep after the associate editors for their 
copy and to adjust disputes arising between associate editors. 
And at the time there were so many routine problems press- 
ing on us that we lacked the vision to realize that it would 
have been well worth while to devote one skilled man's en- 
tire time to the nursing of the project. The associate edi- 
tors, left to themselves, gradually wrote less and less and 
finally nothing at all. 

But despite this somewhat pallid external conclusion, we 
had reaped great and deserved benefits from the plan. There 
had arisen in the community a very definite feeling that 
our paper stood for fair play and free speech and free press 
to an unusual degree. This feeling still persists. 



There is one part of the plan which was never car- 
ried out, but which must be included as an integral 
portion of it, as it indicates some of the wider implications 
of such an enterprise. This was the community press con- 
stitutional convention. At the end of a year's successful 
carrying out of the community editorial column plan, it 
was my intention to call the associate editors to a constitu- 
tional convention which was to draw up its own constitution 
or program for the further conduct of the enterprise. Of 
this convention I as the editor, appointed by the proprietor 
was to be not chairman ex-officio, but secretary ex-officio, 
reporting fully in the paper the debates of the convention. 

The mere holding of such a convention would have, I 
believed, great educational results. The community as a 
whole would learn the habit of assuming that it had a 
sovereign right to consider the problems of the press as 
public problems. Inevitably such a gathering would find 
itself largely occupied with the problem of credentials. 
What opinion-groups had a right to representation in the 
community editorial column and what h