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Full text of "Survey for Botrychium paradoxum in the vicinity of Storm Lake, Deerlodge National Forest"

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Vanderhorstt janes 
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Survey for 
Bo trych iurc 
paraddum in the 

vicinity of Storm 
Laket Deerlodge 



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 




3 08 



09 9635 8 



SURVEY FOR BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM 

IN THE VICINITY OF STORM LAKE, 

DEERLODGE NATIONAL FOREST 



Prepared by: 

Jim Vanderhorst 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State Library 

P.O. Box 201800 

1515 East Sixth Avenue 

Helena, Montana 59620-1800 



Prepared for: 



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P. 0. Box 25486 

Denver Federal Center 

Denver, Colorado 80225 



December 1993 



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SURVEY FOR BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM 

IN THE VICINITY OF STORM LAKE, 

DEERLODGE NATIONAL FOREST 



Prepared by: 



Jim Vanderhorst 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

State Library 

P.O. Box 201800 

1515 East Sixth Avenue 

Helena, Montana 59620-1800 



Prepared for: 



ST-";? documents coll:ct;cn 



JUL 1 



1337 



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

tic. Af} 5 E - 6th AV E- 
HELENA, MONTANA 59620 



U. 



. Fish and Wildlife Service 
P. O. Box 25486 
Denver Federal Center 
Denver, Colorado 80225 



December 1993 




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NOV 7 1S97 






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19 9 3 Montana Natural Heritage Program 



This document should be cited as follows: Vanderhorst, Jim. 
1993. Survey for Botrychium paradoxum in the vicinity of 
Storm Lake, Deer Lodge National Forest. Montana Natural 
Heritage Program, Helena. 45 pp. + slides. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

METHODS 2 

RESULTS 3 

1. Geographic distribution 4 

2 . Environment and habitat . 6 

3 . Population biology 8 

4. Evidence of threats to survival 9 

DISCUSSION 10 

LITERATURE CITED 12 

APPENDIX A. Maps showing travel routes and search areas . . 14 

APPENDIX B. Maps showing populations of B. paradoxum ... 18 

APPENDIX C. Element Occurrence Record printouts 21 

APPENDIX D. List of vascular plant taxa associated with B. 

paradoxum 24 

APPENDIX E. Photocopies of Botrychium specimens 26 

APPENDIX F. Photographic slides 45 



li 



INTRODUCTION 

Botrychium paradoxum Wagner was first described based on 
nine plants collected from a meadow on the shore of Storm Lake 
on the Deerlodge National Forest, in Deerlodge County, Montana 
(Wagner and Wagner 1981) . Plants could not be found at the 
type locality in searches conducted in 1985 by Peter Lesica, 
but were rediscovered and surveyed by the Deerlodge National 
Forest botanist, Susan Rinehart, and others (Dana Field, John 
Harmann, Sherry Vogel) in 1992. 

B. paradoxum, commonly called peculiar or leafless 
moonwort, is in the Ophioglossaceae, a family of primitive 
ferns (sometimes considered fern allies) . Moonworts have 
their center of diversity in the mountains of western North 
America (Wagner and Wagner 1983). They are usually 
characterized morphologically by a single sterile frond 
(trophophore) and a single fertile frond (sporophore) , 
however, B. paradoxum possesses two sporophores but no 
trophophore. Moonworts are minute plants which are easily 
overlooked by botanists and other field workers. 

Prior to 1993, four very small populations of this 
species were known from Montana and included in the Biological 
Conservation Database maintained by the Montana Natural 
Heritage Program: 1) Storm Lake with 2 0+ plants counted 2) 
Swiftcurrent Lake in Glacier National Park with 2, 3) East of 
Marias Pass near the Glacier-Pondera County line with 45, and 
4) Our Lake in the Front Range in Teton County with 30. The 
current status of the Swiftcurrent site is unknown, the Marias 
Pass population has been unsuccessfully sought, and the Our 
Lake population is being studied by the Lewis and Clark 
National Forest. In addition, verification is pending of a 
reported 1993 collection made of this species in Kootenai 
National Forest (Leavell pers. commun.). Outside of Montana, 
the species is known from southern Utah (Wagner et al. 1984) , 
northeastern Oregon (W. Wagner, pers. commun.) and Alberta, 
British Columbia, and Saskatchewan, Canada (Argus and Pryor 
1990) . 

The Montana Natural Heritage Program (MTHP) maintains a 
list of Montana Plant Species of Special Concern (Heidel and 
Poole 1993) in which B. paradoxum is categorized as Gl and SI, 
meaning that the species is "critically imperiled due to 
extreme rarity," both globally and within the state. The 
U.S. D.I. Fish and Wildlife Service (1993) designates the 
species as C2 , indicating that more information is needed to 
justify either listing as endangered or threatened, or removal 
from consideration. The U.S. Forest Service lists the species 
as "sensitive" (USDA Forest Service 1989) . 



In the summer of 1993, the Storm Lake area was surveyed 
to learn more about the population and to attempt to discover 
new occurrences of B. paradoxum. This paper describes the 
methods and results of this project and incorporates 
information from previous reports to serve as a summary of the 
species' known status on the Deerlodge National Forest. It 
also serves as a prototype for expanded survey and species 
status summary. 



METHODS 

Field surveys for Botrychium paradoxum were conducted on 
the Deerlodge National Forest and adjacent lands in the 
immediate and general vicinity of Storm Lake on July 30 
through August 5, 1993. On July 30, Sherry Vogel showed me 
where the species had been relocated the previous summer and 
we tried to estimate the size of the population and 
characterize the habitat where it occurs. A method for 
surveying these extremely inconspicuous plants began to 
evolve. The searcher stoops, sits, or kneels (usually the 
latter) in putative moonwort habitat and closely scans a swath 
of ground, crawling along and moving "overstory" graminoids 
and forbs aside with her/his hands until a Botrychium (of any 
species) is found or the search is abandoned. If a single 
plant is found, then further, more intensive search is 
warranted. Plants of each Botrychium species encountered are 
counted separately and search continues for a certain amount 
of time, then the searcher moves on. No attempt is made to 
count every plant in a given area; this would require a huge 
amount of time, and would result in excessive trampling of the 
population. Crude and relative estimates of population 
density, numbers, and boundaries, and community composition 
can be based on the numbers of moonworts counted per unit time 
across a certain area. Different adjacent habitats (wet 
meadows, dry rocky meadows, and coniferous forests) were 
searched in this manner to determine the ecological amplitude 
of the species. Subsequent surveys concentrated on mesic 
openings and meadows, the only habitat where B. paradoxum was 
found around Storm Lake. 

During the following week, searches were conducted in the 
Storm Lake basin and around other sub-alpine lakes within a 
few miles, according to Susan Rinehart's (1992) 
recommendations, and other locations in the vicinity were 
explored. A ridgetop meadow ("Windy Ridge") was surveyed 
based on the appearance of "potential" habitat in the distance 
while driving. On August 3, Steve Shelly and John Joy helped 
survey a population of B. paradoxum which was discovered there 
the previous evening. One Hundred Acre Meadow was searched at 



the suggestion of Steve Shelly. Due to success in finding new 
populations, and the time dedicated to surveying them, only a 
small proportion of the Forest was explored, all within a six 
mile radius of Storm Lake. Figures 1-4 in Appendix A are maps 
showing travel routes and the areas which were intensely 
searched. 

Whenever B. paradoxum was found, the population was 
surveyed, mapped, and photographed. Notes were taken on 
population biology (numbers, boundaries, phenology) and 
habitat (associated vegetation, slope, soil, etc..) and 
standard field survey forms were filled out. Photographs were 
taken of the plants and habitat with an Olympus OM-1 camera 
with a standard 50 mm lens (with or without screw on close up 
lenses) on Kodachrome 64 ASA slide film. Usually a 
translucent plastic bag was draped over the overstory 
vegetation to eliminate shadows. Additional slides were 
contributed by John Joy. A limited number of specimens of B. 
paradoxum and other Botrychium species were collected, 
pressed, and dried as population size reasonably allowed. 
Collections were also made of associated flowering plants when 
positive field identification was difficult or impossible or 
when surveying poorly botanized areas (e.g. One Hundred Acre 
Meadow) . All specimens will be identified, labeled, and 
deposited in herbaria (MONT in Bozeman will receive the first 
set) . The Botrychium specimens were taken to Mike Windham, a 
fern specialist at the University of Utah, who offered 
tentative determinations. Dr. W. H. Wagner Jr., the world's 
foremost "botrychiologist , " was asked to verify determinations 
but was reluctant to accept specimens due to a large backlog, 
however, he was able to make comments based on slides of 
living plants and photocopies of the specimens. 



RESULTS 

This project significantly expands the populations and 
numbers of Botrychium paradoxum known to exist. The main 
Storm Lake population was found to consist of more individuals 
and to cover more ground than previously reported and two 
subpopulations within the same basin were located for the 
first time. In addition, new populations at "Windy Ridge" 
(called so by locals, but not on maps) and One Hundred Acre 
Meadow were found. The population on Windy Ridge represents 
by far the largest population of this species reported to 
date. 

There is a tendency for species of Botrychium to grow in 
mixed populations which have been called "genus communities" 
(Wagner and Wagner 1983). At all three B. paradoxum sites on 



the Deerlodge, other species of moonworts were also found. At 
Storm Lake, Rinehart (1992) , referring to Hitchcock and 
Cronquist's (1973) key, recognized four species: B. lunaria 
var. lunaria, B. lunaria var. onadandagense , B. boreale , and 
an undetermined species. Although the identification of B. 
paradoxum is quite straight forward, distinctions between some 
of the other species are often subtle, and taxonomic 
treatments vary greatly between floras. The most recent 
treatment of the genus by the Wagners (1993) is the system 
adopted here. 

Tentative determinations (after consultation with Wagner 
and Windham) of my own collections and photographs indicate 
co-occurences of B. paradoxum with B. lunaria , B. pinnatum 
(probably the same plant Rinehart called B. boreale), B. 
minganense , and B. crenulatum; these last two are Montana 
Plant Species of Special Concern and either could be the 
plants Rinehart called B. lunaria var. onadandagense. In 
addition, a strange undescribed plant was collected on Windy 
Ridge; this is a one fronded Botrychium with very small, but 
regular spores, which lacks both a trophophore and a second 
sporophore (slide # 19, Appendix F) . Also at Windy Ridge, 
Steve Shelly collected B. lunaria and a probable sterile 
hybrid, morphologically distinguished by the development of 
sporangia on the margins of the "sterile" lamina, and deformed 
spores. A similar hybrid (B. X watertonense) between B. 
paradoxum and B. hesperium , has been described from Alberta 
(Wagner et al. 1984). Photocopies of all our Botrychium 
collections with label data are included in this report as 
Appendix E. Close-up slides of the plants are included in 
Appendix F. 

To facilitate incorporation of this paper into a future 
status report on B. paradoxum for the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, further information on the Deerlodge National Forest 
populations is presented here under the standard topic 
headings of geographic distribution, environment and habitat, 
population biology, and evidence of threats to survival. The 
standard format within those headings, however, is not 
strictly followed. Appropriate information from previous 
reports on the Storm Lake population, species biology, and 
other background is presented and cited in these sections 
along with the results of the current study. 

1. Geographic distribution 

As summarized above, three populations of B. paradoxum 
are now known from the Deerlodge National Forest. They are 
located in the northern part of the Anaconda Range, south of 
Georgetown Lake in Deerlodge and Granite Counties. The 
population at One Hundred Acre Meadow is mostly within the 
boundaries of the Anaconda-Pintlar Wilderness Area, and the 



Storm Lake population lies just outside the Wilderness. All 
three sites were surveyed by this project and no others are 
historically known from the Forest. Areas which were 
intensely searched but where no B. paradoxum was found include 
meadows in the Storm Lake, Twin Lakes, and Upper Seymour Lake 
basins, and habitat adjacent to the One Hundred Acre Meadow 
and Storm Lake populations; these search locations are mapped 
in Figures 1-4 in Appendix A. The locations of the three 
known populations are mapped in Figures 5-7 in Appendix B. 
Their precise locations are as follows: 

Site name: Storm Lake 

County: Deer lodge 

Legal description: T4N R13W S30 NW1/4 and NE 1/4, S29 SW1/4 

Elevation: 8,200-8,500 ft. 

Directions: About 12 miles west of Anaconda on State Highway 
1, turn south on Forest Service Road 893. Travel 
about 4 miles to Road 675 and follow to Storm Lake 
(road may or may not be open to vehicles the last 
mile). The main population (i.e. type locality) is 
in meadows on the northern shore on both sides of 
the dirt "jeep trail." Two subpopulations are 
located in meadows on hills east of Storm Lake along 
the trail to Twin Lakes. 

Site name: Windy Ridge 

County: Granite 

Legal description: T4N R14W S3 SW1/4, S4 SE 1/4 

Elevation: about 7,400 ft. 

Directions: From the junction of Forest Service Roads 893 and 
675 (see directions to Storm Lake above) , continue 
on 893 approximately 5 miles. The population is in 
meadows on the ridge which can be seen to the west 
above the road. These can be reached by walking 
about 1/2 mile uphill through the woods. 

Site Name: One Hundred Acre Meadow 

County: Granite 

Legal Description: T4N R14W SW1/4, S15 SE1/4, S22 NW1/4 

Elevation: 8,200-8,400 ft. 

Directions: From the junction of Forest Service Roads 893 and 
675 (see directions to Storm Lake above) , continue 
on 893 approximately 2 miles. Just past Dry Creek 
turn south on Road 8683 and follow to gate. Follow 
trail (compass and topographic map are recommended 
due to many forks) about 3 miles to One Hundred Acre 
Meadow. Plants are widely scattered across the 
meadow. 



2 . Environment and Habitat 

On the Deer lodge National Forest, B. paradoxum is found 
in "genus communities" in the understories of mesic grasslands 
on well developed soils in the montane and sub-alpine zones. 
The species was not found in forests or in rockier or wetter 
meadows which were surveyed. The populations occur on several 
geologic formations in both upland and basin topographic 
positions. The largest and healthiest population occurs in 
near pristine native montane rough fescue grassland. Slides 
of the habitats are included in Appendix F. 

Lidke and Wallace (1993) recently mapped the geology of 
the north-central part of the Anaconda Range which includes 
two of the population sites. This area lies near the 
southernmost known extent of the Sapphire thrust plate and is 
characterized by thrust faults. The underlaying geology of 
One Hundred Acre Meadow is mapped as four units of Paleozoic 
sedimentary rocks including limestones, dolomites, and shales 
of the Jefferson, Maywood, Hazmark, and Red Lion formations. 
Windy Ridge lies on the Helena formation which is composed of 
Middle Proterozoic limy siltstones and limestones of the Belt 
Supergroup. The Storm Lake area is not included in the 
mapping area, but similar valleys and lake basins nearby are 
mapped as Pleistocene Glacial till. 

The populations occur on gentle to moderate slopes of all 
aspects at elevations ranging from 7,400 to 8,500 feet (2,250- 
2,590 meters). The One Hundred Acre Meadow and Windy Ridge 
sites are large meadows on exposed ridges, while the Storm 
Lake population occurs in smaller openings in forest within a 
steep walled basin. The soils in the area are mapped on a 
broad scale as Inceptisols with Ustic to Udic moisture regimes 
and Frigid to Cryic temperature regimes (U.S.D.A. Soil 
Conservation Service 1978) , however, grassland soils are 
usually classified as Mollisols. The soils of some Festuca 
scabrella/F . idahoensis habitats (the habitat type at Windy 
Ridge and perhaps at One Hundred Acre Meadow) have been 
classified as Cryoborolls (Mueggler and Stewart 1980) . Field 
observations characterize the soils of the population sites as 
moderately dry to moist loams with few rocks or stones, and 
with well developed organic horizons (0 and A). B. paradoxum 
was not found in wetter or rockier soils. 

Lellinger (1985) indicates that species of Botrychium may 
be favored by a "little disturbance." Lesica and Ahlenslager 
(1993) suggest that B. paradoxum, in particular, may be 
adapted to "ephemeral habitats." Some preference for slightly 
disturbed microsites was also noted during this project, 
however, by far the largest, most dense, and healthiest 
population was found at the least disturbed site (Windy 
Ridge) . In contrast, One Hundred Acre Meadow, a site highly 



disturbed by rodents and game, hosts few, widely scattered, 
small, chlorotic plants. 

On the Deer lodge National Forest, B. paradoxum occurs in 
meadows in small and large openings, from a few to hundreds of 
acres, in the dominant montane and subalpine forests of the 
area. Tree species in these zones include Abies lasiocarpa, 
Larix lyallii, Picea engelmannii, Pinus albicaulis, and Pinus 
contorta. The meadows are dominated by grasses and sedges and 
have a conspicuous forb element. These habitats are normally 
considered "open" and "exposed," however, the tiny moonworts 
are in fact understory species, growing underneath, and 
sheltered by the much taller graminoids and f orbs . In all 
three populations B. paradoxum is the most common member of 
the Botrychium genus community. In spite of the diversity of 
these communities, moonworts are nowhere common. Even at 
Windy Ridge, the canopy cover they contribute (the degree of 
dominance) is insignificant and plants are very difficult to 
find. 

The grasslands of Windy Ridge closely resemble the 
Festuca scabrella/F . idahoensis habitat type described by 
Mueggler and Stewart (1980). The near pristine habitat at 
this site is indicated by the clear dominance of Festuca 
scabrella and an abundance of Carex raynoldsii , both species 
highly sensitive to grazing. One Hundred Acre Meadow may be a 
degraded version of this habitat type; rough fescue is 
present, but other fescues (F. idahoensis and F. rubra) and 
other native grasses are more common. The smaller openings at 
Storm Lake are dominated by Festuca idahoensis and sedges 
(including Carex geyeri , a species usually associated with 
forests) . At all three sites, Carex raynoldsii is 
subdominant . 

A complete list of vascular plants found associated with 
B. paradoxum is presented in Appendix D. In the field, there 
seemed to be an especially close association with species in 
the Rosaceae (i.e. Fragaria virginiana and Potentilla spp.). 
This may be a coincidence, or a mutual preference for slightly 
disturbed microsites (decreased competition from graminoids) , 
but, a similar association has been noted between species of 
Botrychium subgenus Sceptridium and wild cherries, apples, and 
strawberries in the eastern U.S. (Lellinger 1985), suggesting 
a possible mycorrhizal link. 

Members of the Ophioglossaceae, including species of 
Botrychium, have no root hairs and are considered to be 
dependent upon associated endophytic fungi for mineral 
absorption as well as, presumably, carbohydrate nutrition 
(Gifford and Foster 1989, Lellinger 1985, Wagner and Wagner 
1981) . This mycorrhizal relationship, found in both the 
subterranean gametophyte and the terrestrial sporophyte, is 



apparently responsible for allowing the evolution of partially 
achlorophyllus species such as B. paradoxum and the 
undescribed single fronded form mentioned above (Wagner and 
Wagner 1981, Wagner, pers. commun.). The species of symbiotic 
fungi are not known. Because of this obligatory symbiosis, 
which is poorly understood, species of Botrychium cannot be 
propagated and studied apart from the wild. 

3. Population biology 

The three known occurrences of B . paradoxum on the 
Deerlodge range in area covered from approximately five to one 
hundred acres and in estimated population numbers from one 
hundred to thousands of plants. Plants were larger and more 
mature at the lower elevation Windy Ridge site and smallest 
and immature at the exposed, higher elevation One Hundred Acre 
Meadow site. Later phenology may be partially responsible for 
the small number of plants which were found at One Hundred 
Acre Meadow. Population trends cannot be determined at this 
point; the One Hundred Acre Meadow and Windy Ridge populations 
were discovered during this project, and although the tallies 
of the Storm Lake population have increased since it was first 
discovered, this is believed to be an artifact of search 
intensity and scope. The populations are mapped in Figures 5- 
7 in Appendix B and Element Occurence Record printouts are 
included as Appendix C to this report. Demographic details 
are as follows: 

Site name: Storm Lake 

Area occupied by population: ca . 5 acres in 3 subpopulations 

Number of individuals counted: 

Main population (type locality) : 50 counted by 2 people 

in 4 hours in 1993; 20 counted in 1992 (Rinehart) ; 9 
counted, date unknown, prior to 1981 (Wagner and 
Wagner) 
Other subpopulations: 23 counted by 1 person in 2 hours 
Estimated number of individuals: total 350+ 

Population summary: This is a fairly dense population which 
covers a small area. Plants were of medium size and 
vigor at the date of the survey with most spores immature 
but a few dehiscent. The population is threatened by 
recreational traffic. 



Site name: Windy Ridge 

Area occupied by population: ca. 4 acres 

Number of individuals counted: 194 by 3 people in 5 hours 

Estimated number of individuals: 1,000-10,000 

Population summary: The largest known, this is a dense 

population which covers a large area. Plants were the 
largest and most vigorous seen, many with mature 



dehiscent spores at the survey date. Putative hybrids 
between B. paradoxum and another species were found here. 



Site Name: One Hundred Acre Meadow 

Area occupied by population: subpopulations widely scattered 
over 100 acres 

Number of individuals counted: 10 by 1 person in 4 hours 

Estimated number of individuals: total 100+ ? 

Population summary: This consists of a few minute, chlorotic 
plants widely scattered over a large area. Plants were 
immature at the survey date. The population is 
potentially threatened by heavy rodent disturbance and 
browsing by game. 

4. Evidence of threats to survival 

As alluded to in the population summaries above, two of 
three populations of B. paradoxum known on the Deerlodge are 
potentially threatened. Since the species was not described 
until 1981, the size of the Storm Lake population before that 
time is not known. Storm Lake is a natural basin with its 
water level elevated by man made impoundment. The location of 
B. paradoxum in meadows along the shore with eroded banks 
suggests that there was more potential habitat prior to the 
building of the dam . In addition, the main population is 
dissected by a dirt road ("pack trail") , evidence of further 
historical habitat depletion. Many old firepits and campsites 
attest to a long history of outdoor recreation around the 
lake. Recently, the population has faced a new threat. In 
1992, a private logging road through section 19 north of the 
lake was opened to the public, allowing access to two wheel 
drive vehicles and resulting in intensified recreational use 
of the site (Rinehart 1992) . Prior to this, the lake could be 
reached only by a rough jeep trail, and most recreationists 
walked in. In 1993, vehicles parked and turned around and 
people camped and picnicked within the Botrychium habitat. 
Although there are travel restrictions published (U.S.D.A, 
Forest Service 1991), these were not enforced in 1993. The 
Deer Lodge District is apprised of the situation (Gilman, 
pers. comm.). An additional question requiring consultation 
is the presence of a patented mining claim and private surface 
right inholdings associated with the impoundment which may 
include part of the population area (Rinehart 1992) . 

The threat to the One Hundred Acre Meadow is entirely 
different. This site is heavily disturbed by rodent activity 
and browsing by game (no evidence of livestock grazing was 
seen) . This may be a result of human impacts on game range, 
or it may be entirely natural. The occurrence of the 
extremely large population at Windy Ridge in near pristine 
grassland suggests that B. paradoxum is favored by a minimal 



level of disturbance. Its rarity may be a result of the 
paucity of suitable native habitat. 



DISCUSSION 

Until recently, many botanists (but not fern specialists) 
doubted the legitimacy of B. paradoxum as a species. Since it 
was known by only a few individuals scattered over a wide 
range, they argued that it was probably just an aberrant form 
of another species. The Wagners (1993) state that 
teratological forms of Botrychium species with transformed 
trophophores do occur but are very rare. The morphological 
stability of individual plants of B. paradoxum, B. hesperium 
and their putative hybrid, B. X watertonense has been 
documented over several years by monitoring in Alberta (Lesica 
and Ahlenslager 1993) . The discovery of the extremely large 
population of B. paradoxum on Windy Ridge also supports the 
validity of the species. Although a previously undocumented 
level of variation is apparent in the Windy Ridge population, 
evidenced by individuals with more than usual branching (see 
photocopy of my collection # 5077 in Appendix E) , B. paradoxum 
appears to be relatively uniform throughout its range and is 
probably the easiest of all moonworts to identify. 

Further work is needed before recommendations can be made 
on the conservation status of B. paradoxum. This survey was 
confined to a relatively small area in the vicinity of Storm 
Lake; the remainder of the Deerlodge National Forest is as yet 
unsurveyed. If recent reports of the species in northwest 
Montana are verified then surveys are also needed in that part 
of the state. Other populations have been "lost." Population 
trends and fluctuations have not been determined for any sites 
in the state. In light of these considerations, the Montana 
Natural Heritage Program has identified a need to pursue B. 
paradoxum survey work throughout its range in Montana, on the 
Deerlodge, Flathead, and Kootenai National Forests. 

A phenomenon apparent to those working with Botrychium is 
the occurrence of "genus communities" (Wagner and Wagner 
1983) , where species of the same genus tend to grow together 
in the same apparent habitat. The presence of these 
communities has resulted in much taxonomic confusion, but, has 
also been suggested by the Wagners as a means for solving 
taxonomic problems. If taxa maintain consistent morphological 
distinctions without forming fertile hybrids (i.e. plants with 
intermediate morphology) , even in mixed populations, then they 
are species. The level of sympatry in genus communities 
appears to run counter to the competetive exclusion principle, 
such that the presence of one Botrychium species increases the 

10 



probability of finding more species. Because of this 
phenomenon, future work should survey entire moonwort 
communities rather than focusing on individual species. Sites 
are likely to host more than one species of concern, and may 
harbour undescribed species. 

The feasability of broad range, species (or genus) 
specific, surveys for such inconspicuous plants may be 
questioned. However, the success of this project, resulting 
in tripling the known populations of B. paradoxum on the 
Deer lodge National Forest, speaks highly for this approach. 
If these plants are not deliberately sought, then populations 
and even new species are likely to go undetected. The 
required intensity of searching is not easily integrated with 
more general botanical surveys, where moonworts, if 
encountered at all, are usually found only on lunch break. 

Windy Ridge is a superlative site which deserves to be 
preserved. It has significant scientific, aesthetic, and 
conservation values, both as Botrychium habitat and as a rare 
example of a pristine, montane grassland. The large and 
diverse moonwort community provides research opportunities 
which were not available before. Genetic studies of 
Botrychium have been hampered in the past because of a 
shortage of plant material (Lesica and Ahlenslager 1993) . The 
gametophytes of these species have rarely been seen, and the 
assumed mycorrhizal relationships remain for the most part 
undocumented. Windy Ridge could serve as an outdoor 
laboratory for future Botrychium research, and for ecological 
studies of native grassland ecosystems in general. 



11 



LITERATURE CITED 

Argus G. W. and K. M. Pryer. 1990. Rare vascular plants in 

Canada, our natural heritage. Rare and Endangered Plants 
Project, Ottawa, Ontario. 

Dorn, R. D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Mountain West 
Publishing, Cheyenne, Wyoming. iv + 276 pp. 

Gifford, E. M. and A. S. Foster. 1989. Morphology and 
evolution of vascular plants, third edition. W. H. 
Freeman and Company, New York. ix + 62 6 pp. 

Heidel, B. L. and J. M. Poole. 1993. Montana Plant Species 
of Special Concern. Unpublished list. Montana Natural 
Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 21 pp. 

Hitchcock, C. L. and A. Cronguist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific 
Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 
Washington. xix + 730 pp. 

Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A field manual of the ferns & fern- 
allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian 
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.. ix + 389 pp. 

Lesica, P. and K. Ahlenslager. 1993. Demographic monitoring 
of three species of Botrychium in Waterton Lakes Park, 
Alberta. University of Montana, Missoula. 

Lidke, D. J. and C. A. Wallace. 1992. Rocks and structure of 
the north-central part of the Anaconda Range, Deerlodge 
and Granite Counties, Montana. U. S. Geological Survey 
Bulletin 1993. iv + 31 pp. plus 2 maps. 

Mueggler, W. F. and W. L. Stewart. 1980. Grassland and 

shrubland habitat types of western Montana. USDA Forest 
Service General Technical Report INT-66. Intermountain 
Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah. 154 pp. 

Rinehart, S. 1992. Plant Species of Special Concern survey 

form and attached notes and maps, unpublished. On file at 
Deerlodge National Forest, Whitehall, Montana. 12 pp. 

U. S. D. A. Forest Service, Region 1. 1989. Sensitive plant 
field guide for Montana. Missoula, Montana. 

U. S. D. A. Forest Service. 1990. Deerlodge National Forest, 
forest visitor/travel map, 1990 revision. 

U. S. D. A. Soil Conservation Service. 1978. General Soil 
Map, Montana. Extension Miscellaneous Publication no. 
16. Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana. 

12 



U. S. D. I. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Plant taxa for 
listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; Notice of 
Review. Federal Register 58: 51144-51190. 

Wagner, W. H. Jr. and F. S. Wagner. 1981. New species of 

moonworts, Botrychium subg. Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae) , 
from North America. American Fern Journal 71: 20-30. 



1983 



Genus communities 



as a systematic tool in the study of new world Botrychium 
(Ophioglossaceae). Taxon 32: 51-63. 

. 1993. Ophioglossaceae, 



in Flora of North America north of Mexico, Volume 2, 
Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, 
New York. 



Wagner W. H. Jr., F. S. Wagner, C. Haufler, and J. K. Emerson. 
1984. A new nothospecies of moonwort (Ophioglossaceae, 
Botrychium). Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 629-634. 



13 



APPENDIX A. Maps showing travel routes and survey areas 




Figure 1. USGS Storm Lake USGS quadrangle (7.5'), showing 
Storm Lake Basin. 



14 




Figure 2. USGS Mount Evans quadrangle (7.5'), showing Twin 
Lakes Basin. 



15 




Figure 3 . USGS Storm Lake and Georgetown Lake quadrangles 
(7.5'), showing "Windy Ridge." 



16 




Figure 4. USGS Storm Lake quadrangle (7.5'), showing One 
Hundred Acre Meadow. 



17 



APPENDIX B. Maps showing populations of Botrychium paradoxum. 




Figure 5. USGS Storm Lake quadrangle (7.5'), showing the three 
subpopulations in the Storm Lake basin. 



18 




Figure 6. USGS Storm Lake and Georgetown Lake quadrangles 
(7.5'), showing the Windy Ridge population. 



19 




Figure 7. USGS Storm Lake quadrangle (7.5'), showing scattered 
occurrences in One Hundred Acre Meadow. 



20 



APPENDIX C. Element Occurrence Record printouts, 



21 



MONTANA NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 
Element Occurrence Record 



'Scientific Name: BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM 
Common Name: PECULIAR MOONWORT 



Global rank: Gl 
State rank: SI 



Forest Service status: 
Federal Status: 



SENSITIVE 
C2 



Element occurrence code: 
Element occurrence type: 



PPOPH010J0.005 



Survey site name: 

EO rank: 

EO rank comments : 



County: GRANITE 
USGS quadrangle: 



CUB RIDGE 

A 

MAY BE LARGEST POPULATION KNOWN GLOBALLY, 

OUTSTANDING PRISTINE GRASSLAND. 



STORM LAKE 
GEORGETOWN LAKE 



Township: 
04N 



Range: 
014W 



Section: 
03 



TRS comments: 
W2; 04 E2 



Precision: 

Survey date: 

First observation: 

i Last observation: 



1993-08-03 
1993-08-02 
1993-08-03 



Elevation: 7360 - 7480 
Slope/aspect: 20% / NW-SE, MOSTLY E 
Size (acres) : 40 



Location: 

CA. 12 MILES WEST OF ANACONDA ON STATE HWY 1, TURN SOUTH ON STORM LAKE 
ROAD (FS RD 893). KEEP ON ROAD PAST STORM LAKE TURNOFF CA. 5 MILES; 
MEADOWS ARE VISIBLE FROM ROAD ABOVE TIMBER. 

Element occurrence data: 

1000+ ESTIMATED, 100% WITH SPORES, SOME DEHISCENT. 

General site description: 

FESTUCA SCABRELLA GRASSLAND, MESIC MIDSLOPE, LOAM SOIL WITH ORGANIC 
LAYER. ADDITIONAL SPECIES: FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, CAREX SP., FRAGARIA 
VIRGINIANA, POTENTILLA GRACILIS, GEUM TRIFLORUM, ARENARIA CONGESTA, 
PENSTEMON PROCERA, DANTHONIA UNISPICATA, GENTIANELLA AMARELLA, 
GENTIANA CALYCOSA, BOTRYCHIUM LUNARIA, BOTRYCHIUM SPP., CAREX 
FILIFOLIA. 

Land owner/manager: 

DEERLODGE NATIONAL FOREST, PHILIPSBURG RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments: 

SURVEYED BY J. VANDERHORST, S. SHELLY AND J. JOY. ESTIMATE OF NUMBERS 
DIFFICULT; SPECIES REQUIRES VERY DELIBERATE SEARCHING. 

Information source: VANDERHORST, J. 1993. [MTNHP FIELD SURVEYS FOR 
" BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM ON THE DEERLODGE NATIONAL 

FOREST. ] 



Specimens: VANDERHORST, J. (5077) . 1993 



MONTANA NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 
Element Occurrence Record 



^Scientific Name: BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM 
Common Name: PECULIAR MOONWORT 



Global rank: Gl 
State rank: SI 



Forest Service status: 
Federal Status: 



SENSITIVE 
C2 



Element occurrence code: 
Element occurrence type: 



PPOPH010J0.006 



Survey site name: 

EO rank: 

EO rank comments: 



ONE HUNDRED ACRE MEADOW 

BC 

MARGINAL POPULATION AND HABITAT. 



County: GRANITE 

USGS quadrangle: STORM LAKE 

Township: Range: Section: TRS comments: 

004N 014W 14 SW4 



Precision: 

Survey date: 

First observation: 

Last observation: 



1993-08-04 
1993-08-04 
1993-08-04 



Elevation: 8200 - 8400 
Slope/aspect: 0-20% / WEST, EAST 
Size (acres) : 



> 



ocation: 

CA. 12 MILES WEST OF ANACONDA ON STATE HWY 1, TRAVEL SOUTH ON FS RD 
893 PAST TURNOFF TO STORM LAKE TO FS RD 8 683. GO SOUTH TO GATE AND 
FOLLOW TRAIL CA. 3 MILES TO ONE HUNDRED ACRE MEADOW. 

Element occurrence data: 

ESTIMATED 100+ INDIVIDUALS IN 5 SUBPOPULATIONS , PLANTS SMALLL AND 
WIDELY SCATTERED. IMMATURE SPORE STAGE. 

General site description: 

FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS GRASSLAND, MESIC MIDSLOPE, LOAM SOIL, WITH FESTUCA 
SCABRELLA, LUPINUS WYETHII, POTENTILLA DIVERSIFOLIA, PHLEUM ALPINUM, 
KOELERIA CRISTATA, FRASERA SPECIOSA, POLYGONUM BISTORTOIDES, 
BOTRYCHIUM LUNARIA, CERASTIUM ARVENSE, SOLIDAGO SP., SEDUM 
LANCEOLATUM. 

Land owner /manager : 

ANACONDA-PINTLER WILDERNESS 

DEERLODGE NATIONAL FOREST, PHILIPSBURG RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments: 

MARGINAL POPULATION AND HABITAT SEEMS DUE TO EDAPHIC AND BIOLOGICAL 
FACTORS OTHER THAN DIRECT HUMAN DISTURBANCE. POPULATIONS SHOULD BE 
VISITED LATER IN SEASON TO DETERMINE IF PHENOLOGY IS A FACTOR IN LOW 
NUMBERS FOUND. 



Information source: 



VANDERHORST, J. 1993. [MTNHP FIELD SURVEYS FOR 
BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM ON THE DEERLODGE NATIONAL 
FOREST. ] 



Specimens: VANDERHORST, J. (5081) . 1993 



MONTANA NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 
Element Occurrence Record 

^Scientific Name: BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM 
Common Name: PECULIAR MOONWORT 

Global rank: Gl Forest Service status: SENSITIVE 
State rank: SI Federal Status: C2 

Element occurrence code: PPOPH010J0 . 007 
Element occurrence type: 

Survey site name: STORM LAKE 

EO rank: C 
EO rank comments: AREA HEAVILY-USED FOR RECREATION; USE INCREASING 

AND HABITAT DECLINING. 

County: DEER LODGE 

USGS quadrangle: STORM LAKE 

Township: Range: Section: TRS comments: 

004N 013W 30 NE4NW4, E2 ; 29 NW4SW4 

Precision: S 

Survey date: 1993-08-05 Elevation: 8200 - 8480 

First observation: 1993-07-30 Slope/aspect: 0-20% / S, SW 

Last observation: 1993-08-05 Size (acres) : 5 

'Location: 

CA. 12 MILES WEST OF ANACONDA ON STATE HWY 1, TRAVEL SOUTH ON STORM 
LAKE ROAD TO STORM LAKE. MAIN POPULATION IS ON NORTH LAKESHORE ON BOTH 
SIDES OF DIRT ROAD; SUBPOPULATIONS ARE IN MEADOWS ON HILLS WEST OF THE 
LAKE. 

Element occurrence data: 

TYPE LOCALITY. MAIN POPULATION ESTIMATED TO HAVE 2 00+ INDIVIDUALS; 
SUBPOPULATIONS ESTIMATED AT 150+ INDIVIDUALS. 100% IN IMMATURE SPORE 
STAGE. 

General site description: 

MESIC MIDSLOPE AND BOTTOM AND ROLLING UPLANDS, ORGANIC MATERIAL OVER 
LOAM SOIL, WITH FESTUCA IDAHOENSIS, CAREX SPP. , FRASERA SPECIOSA, 
ACHILLIA MILLEFOLIUM, PENSTEMON PROCERUS, PEDICULARIS CONTORTA, 
BOTRYCHIUM LUNARIA, JUNCUS DRUMMONDII, POTENTILLA DIVERSIFOLIA, 
BOTRYCHIUM SPP. 

Land owner /manager : 

DEERLODGE NATIONAL FOREST, DEER LODGE RANGER DISTRICT 

Comments : 

DRIVING, CAMPING AND TRAMPLING INTENSE AT MAIN POPULATION SITE, WHICH 
IS BISECTED BY A TWO-TRACK ROAD. 

information source: VANDERHORST, J. 1993. [MTNHP FIELD SURVEYS FOR 

BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM ON THE DEERLODGE NATIONAL 
FOREST. ] 

Specimens: VANDERHORST, J. (5057, 5095, 5098). 1993. MONT. 



APPENDIX D. Plant taxa associated with Botrychium paradoxum on 
the Deerlodge National Forest. Locations where 
these taxa were seen is indicated by the 
abbreviations following the scientific name: OHAM = 
One Hundred Acre Meadow, SL = Storm Lake, WR = Windy 
Ridge. Citations are included only when the taxon 
was not identified by this project. Nomenclature 
follows Dorn (1984), except for Botrychium which 
follows Wagner and Wagner (1993). 



Achillea millefolium 
Agoseris aurantiaca 
Agoseris glauca 
Androsace septentrional 
Anemone lithophila 
Antennaria microphylla 
Antennaria sp. 
Arabis holboelii 
Arenaria congesta 
Aster alpigenus 
Astragalus miser 
Botrychium crenulatum 
Botrychium pinnatum 
Botrychium lunaria 
Botrychium minganense 
Bromus carinatus 
Calamagrostis rubescens 
Campanula rotundifolia 
Car ex at rat a 
Car ex filifolia 
Carex geyeri 
Carex raynoldsii 
Cerastium arvense 
Cirsium scariosum 
Danthonia intermedia 
Danthonia unispicata 
Elymus spicatus 
Elymus tr achy caul is 
Erigeron simplex 
Eriogonum umbellatum 
Festuca scabrella 
Festuca idahoensis 
Festuca rubra 
Frag aria virginiana 
Frasera speciosa 
Gaillardia aristata 
Galium boreale WR 

Gentiana calycina 
Gentianella amarella 
Geranium viscosissimum 
Geum triflorum 



OHAM, SL, WR 
SL 

SL (Rinehart 1992), WR 
es SL, WR 
SL 
WR 

SL (Rinehart 1992) 
WR 

SL (Rinehart 1992) , WR 
OHAM 

SL (Wagner and Wagner 1981) 
WR, SL 
SL 

OHAM, SL, WR 
WR 

OHAM 

SL (Rinehart 1992) 
WR 

SL (Wagner and Wagner 1981) 
WR 
SL 

OHAM, SL, WR 
OHAM 

SL (Rinehart 1992) 
SL (Rinehart 1992) 
WR 

OHAM, WR 

OHAM, SL (Rinehart 1992) 
OHAM, SL (Wagner and Wagner 1981) 
SL, WR 
OHAM, WR 
OHAM, SL, WR 
OHAM 
SL, WR 

OHAM, SL, WR 
WR 



WR 
WR 
WR 
WR 



24 



Hedysarum sp. 
Hieracium gracile 
Hieracium sp. 
Juncus drummondii 
Koeleria macrantha 
Ligusticum tenuifolium 
Linum lewisii 
Lithospermum ruderale 
Lupinus wyethii 
Melica spectabilis 
Pedicularis contorta 
Penstemon procerus 
Phleum alpinum 
Phlox sp. 
Poa sp . 

Polygonum bistortoides 
Potentilla diversifolia 
Potentilla fruticosa 
Potentilla gracilis 
Sedum lanceolatum 
Selaginella densa 
Solidago multiradiata 
Stipa occidentalis 
Stipa viridis 
Stipa sp. 

Vaccinium scoparium 
Valeriana sitchensis 
Veronica wormskoldjii 
Viola adunca 



SL (Rinehart 1992) 

OHAM 

WR 

SL 

OHAM, WR 

SL (Wagner and Wagner 1981) 

WR 

WR 

OHAM, SL, WR 

OHAM 

SL, WR 

SL, WR 

OHAM, SL (Rinehart 1992) 

SL (Rinehart 1992) 

SL 

OHAM 

OHAM, SL 

WR 

SL, WR 

OHAM, SL 

SL 

OHAM, SL 

SL 

SL 

WR 

SL 

SL 

SL 

SL 



(Rinehart) 

(Wagner and Wagner 1981) 
(Rinehart 1992) 
(Rinehart 1992) 

(Rinehart 1992) 



25 



APPENDIX E. Photocopies of Botrychium specimens with labels. 

All determinations are those of the collectors. These 
are tentative rather than authoritative, except for B. 
paradoxum, which is easily distinguished from all other 
species. Originally, all plants with trophophores were 
considered to be B. lunaria. However, after consultation with 
M. Windham and W. Wagner, this position was reconsidered. 
Wagner and Wagner (1993) state that B. lunaria is extremely 
uniform morphologically, with overlapping pinnae, unlike most 
of our specimens. Windham identified my collection # 5078a as 
B. minganense , but was puzzled by other specimens with 
morphology seemingly intermediate between B. minganense and B. 
lunaria. These "intermediate" forms key out to B. crenulatum 
in Wagner and Wagner (1993) , however, I have not seen pictures 
or verified specimens of this species; W. Wagner (pers. 
commun.) did, however, suggest that slide 20 (Appendix F) 
might be B. crenulatum. Windham observed spores of some of 
our collections, including the oddities. He found that the 
spores of my collection # 5078b were unusually small, but 
regular, indicating that these are probably viable spores with 
a low number of chromosomes. The spores of Shelly' s 
collection # 1822, in contrast, were larger; the plant on the 
left has regular spores, but the plant on the right has 
misshapen spores, indicating that it is probably a sterile 
hybrid. I welcome comments on any of these determinations. 
The first set of specimens will be deposited at MONT. 



26 



* 



Ophioglossaceae 



MONTANA, U.S.A. 



Botrychium paradoxum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S30 NW1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: Storm Lake, ca. 15 

air miles WSW of Anaconda. 
Meadows around lake with Idaho fescue, 

sedges, forbs, and moonworts. 
Type locality. 50 plants counted by 

two people in 4 hrs. 



30 July 1993 



Elev. ca. 8,200 ft. 



Jim Vanderhorst # 5057 
with Sherry Vogel 



> 



) 



f 





Ophioglossaceae 



MONTANA, U.S.A. 



Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S30 NW1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: Storm Lake, ca. 15 

air miles WSW of Anaconda. 
Meadows around lake with Idaho fescue, 

sedges, forbs, and moonworts, 

including B. paradoxus (coll. # 

5057) 



30 July 1993 



Elev. ca. 8,200 ft 



Jim Vanderhorst tf 5056 
with Sherry Vogel 



Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium lunaria (L.) Swartz 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S 30 
Anaconda Mountains: Storm Lake, ca. 15 

air miles WSW of Anaconda, just 

be 1 owe dam. 
Meadows with Idaho fescue, sedges, 

forbs and moonworts. Growing with B. 

crenulatum (coll. # 5058b.). 

31 July 1993 Elev. ca. 8,200 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5058a. 






Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY' TAN R13W S 30 
Anaconda Mountains: Storm Lake, ca. 15 

air miles WSW of Anaconda, just 

be 1 owe dam. 
Meadows with Idaho fescue, sedges, 

forbs and moonworts. Growing with B. 

lunaria (coll. # 5058a.). 

31 July 1993 Elev. ca. 8,200 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5058b. 




Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S. A, 

Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S30 
Anaconda Mountains: Storm Lake, ca. 15 

air miles WSW of Anaconda. 
Meadows above lake with Idaho fescue, 

sedges, forbs, and moonworts. 

31 July 1993 Elev. ca. 8,200 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst j? 5059 





Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY TAN R13W S30 SE1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: between Storm Lake 

and Storm Lake Pass, ca 15 air miles 

WSW of Anaconda. 
Subalpine meadows with moonworts. 

1 August 1993 Elev. ca. 8,400 ft. 

Jim Vanderhorst ?• 5067 



1 





Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium paradoxum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY TAN R13W S30 NE1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: hills west of Storm 

Lake, ca. 15 air miles WSW of 

Anaconda. 
Sedge/fescue meadow with moonworts. 
Estimated 100 plants. 

6 August 1993 Elev. ca. 8,300 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5095 



9 




Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S30 NE1/A 
Anaconda Mountains: hills west of Storm 

Lake, ca. 15 air miles WSW of 

Anaconda. 
Sedge/fescue meadow with moonworts 

including B. paradoxum (coll. # 

5095). 

6 August 1993 Elev. ca. 8,300 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst // 5096 





Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S30 NE1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: hills west of Storm 

Lake, ca. 15 air miles WSW of 

Anaconda. 
Sedge/fescue meadow with moonworts 

including B. paradoxum (coll. # 

5095). 

6 August 1993 Elev. ca. 8,300 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5097 



r 



Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium paradoxum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S29 SW1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: between Storm Lake 

and Storm Lake/Twin Lakes divide, 

ca. 15 air miles WSW of Anaconda. 
Sedge/fescue meadow with moonworts in 

understory including coll.// 5099. 
Ten individuals counted in ca. 1/2 

hour, est. population = 100. 

6 August 1993 Elev. ca. 8,450 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5098 







Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 
Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY TAN R13W S29 SW1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: between Storm Lake 

and Storm Lake/Twin Lakes divide 

ca -15 air miles WSW of Anaconda.' 
^edge/fescue meadow with moonworts in 

understory including B. paradoxus, 

(coll.j? 5098). 

6 August 1993 Elev. ca. 8,450 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5099 




T4N R14W S3 SW1/4 and 
S4 SE1/4 
Anaconda Mountains: "Windy Ridge" above 

East Fork Reservoir, ca. 19 air 

miles W of Anaconda. 
Pristine montane grasslands dominated 

by rough and Idaho fescues with 

moonworts in understory of grasses. 
Population consists of thousands of 

individuals and covers over 40 

acres. 



2 August 1993 Elev. ca. 7,450 ft 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5077 





Ophioglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 
Botrychium minganense Viet. 

GRANITE COUNTY T4N R14W S3 SW1/4 and 

S4 SE1/4 

Anaconda Mountains: "Windy Ridge" above 
East Fork Reservoir, ca. 19 air 
miles W of Anaconda. 

Pristine montane grasslands dominated 
by rough and Idaho fescues with 
moonworts, including B. paradoxum 
(coll. # 5077) in understory. 



3 August 1993 



Elev. ca. 7,450 ft. 



Jim Vanderhorst it 5078a 

with J. Stephen Shelly and John Joy 



I 



Ophioglossaceae 



MONTANA, U.S.A. 



Botrychium sp. 



GRANITE COUNTY TAN R14W S3 SW1/4 and 

S4 SE1/4 

Anaconda Mountains: "Windy Ridge" above 
East Fork Reservoir, ca. 19 air 
miles W of Anaconda. 

Pristine montane grasslands dominated 
by rough and Idaho fescues with 
moonworts, including B. paradoxum 
(coll. # 5077) in understory. 

This form was uncommon but seen more 
than once. One fertile lamina, no 
sterile lamina, small spores. 



3 August 1993 



Elev. ca. 7,450 ft 



Jim Vanderhorst i\ 5078b 

with J. Stephen Shelly and John Joy 




FLORA OF MONTANA 
MONTANA NATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 

BOTRYCHRJM LUNARIA (L.) Sw. 

GRANITE CO. 

Anaeooda-Pirtiar Range, "Wintfy Ridge,' ca. 2 air miles east of East 
Fork Reservoir, adjacent to the head of Biodgea Gutch; ca. 18 air miles 
west of Anaconda. 



T4N, R14W 



SECTION 4, east 1/2 



ELEVATION: 7,400' 



Uncommon; in near-pristine montane grassland, with FESTUCA 
SCABRELLA, F. IDAHOENSIS, FRAGARIA VIRGINIANA, 
BOTRYCHIUM PARADOXUM. 



3 August 1993 

J. Stephen Sheffy, Jim Vanderhorst, and John Joy 

1»22 



! 



Ophioglossaceae 
Botrychium sp. 



MONTANA, U.S.A. 



GRANITE COUNTY T4N R14W SU, 15,22,23 
Anaconda Mountains: One Hundred Acre 

Meadow, ca. 17 air miles W of 

Anaconda. 
Montane grasslands with heavy rodent 

activity and game browsig, growing 

with B lunaria and B. paradoxum 

(coll. # 5081). 
Minute, chlorotic plants. 

4 August 1993 Elev. 8,200-8,400 ft. 

Jim Vanderhorst # 5082 




Ophipglossaceae MONTANA, U.S.A. 

Botrychium crenulatum Wagner 

DEER LODGE COUNTY T4N R13W S21 
Anaconda Mountains: Upper Twin Lake, 

ca. 13 air miles WSW of Anaconda. 
Opening in woods with sedges, grasses, 

and moonworts. 

6 August 1993 Elev. ca. 7,700 ft. 
Jim Vanderhorst # 5101 



APPENDIX F. Photographic slides. Slides 1-14 taken by Jim 
Vanderhorst, slides 15-20 taken by John Joy. 

Slide 1. Storm Lake, B. paradoxum type locality from across 
the bay, dam visible at far left. 

Slide 2. Storm Lake type locality, Botrychium habitat on both 
sides of dirt road ("pack trail") . 

Slide 3. B. paradoxum from site shown in slide 2. 

Slide 4. B. paradoxum from site shown in slide 2. 

Slide 5. Group of B. paradoxum from site shown in slide 2. 

Slide 6. B. pinnatum (W. Wagner, pers. commun.) from site 
shown in slide 2. 

Slide 7. B. lunaria f. incisum (W. Wagner, pers. commun.) 
from site shown in slide 2. 

Slide 8. Botrychium sp. (minganense ?) from site shown in 
slide 2. 

Slide 9. Hills just east of Storm Lake. B. paradoxum 
habitat. 

Slide 10. B. paradoxum from site in slide 9. 

Slide 11. B. paradoxum habitat above trail between Storm Lake 
and Storm Lake/Twin Lakes Divide. 

Slide 12. One Hundred Acre Meadow, Botrychium habitat. 

Slide 13. One Hundred Acre Meadow, Botrychium habitat. 

Slide 14. B. paradoxum from One Hundred Acre Meadow. 

Slide 15. Windy Ridge Botrychium habitat. 

Slide 16. Shelly and Vanderhorst searching for moonworts on 
Windy Ridge, posterior shot 

Slide 17. B. paradoxum from Windy Ridge. 

Slide 18. B. paradoxum from Windy Ridge. 

Slide 19. Single fronded Botrychium from Windy Ridge. 

Slide 20. Probably B. minganense or B. crenulatum (W. Wagner, 
pers. commun.) from Windy Ridge. 



45 






o