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Full text of "Survey of London"

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r LONDON COUNTY COUNCILJ) 

SURVEY OF LONDON 

ISSUED BY THE JOINT PUBLISHING COMMITTEE 

REPRESENTING THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL 

AND THE LONDON SURVEY COMMITTEE 



UNDER THE GENERAL EDITORSHIP OF 



SIR HOWARD ROBERTS (for the Council) 
WALTER H. GODFREY (for the Survey Committee) 



VOLUME XXIII 

SOUTH BANK ^ VAUXHALL 

THE PARISH OF ST. MARY LAMBETH 

PART I 



5 32542 

75T/. ra. 



PUBLISHED BY THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL 

THE COUNTY HALL, LONDON, S.E.i 

1951 



PREVIOUS VOLUMES OF "THE SURVEY OF LONDON" 



I. PARISH OF BROMLEY-BY-BOW {Out of print) 
II. PARISH OF CHELSEA (PART I) {Out of print) 

III. PARISH OF ST. GILES-IN-THE-FIELDS (PART I, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS). 

21S. 

IV. PARISH OF CHELSEA (PART II). zis. 

V. PARISH OF ST. GILES-IN-THE-FIELDS (PART II). zis. 
VI. PARISH OF HAMMERSMITH, zu. 

VII. PARISH OF CHELSEA (PART III, THE OLD CHURCH). 21s. 
VIII. PARISH OF ST. LEONARD, SHOREDITCH. \zs. 
IX. PARISH OF ST. HELEN, BISHOPSGATE (PART I). 42/. 
X. PARISH OF ST. MARGARET, WESTMINSTER (PART I). 42/. 
XI. PARISH OF CHELSEA (PART IV, THE ROYAL HOSPITAL). 42/. 
XII. PARISH OF ALL HALLOWS, BARKING-BY-THE-TOWER (PART \, THE 
PARISH CHURCH). 31/. 6<z'. 

XIII. PARISH OF ST. MARGARET, WESTMINSTER (PART II, NEIGHBOUR- 

HOOD OF WHITEHALL, VOL. I). 52^. 6d. 

XIV. PARISH OF ST. MARGARET, WESTMINSTER (PART III, NEIGHBOUR- 

HOOD OF WHITEHALL, VOL. II). ^2S.6J. 
XV. PARISH OF ALL HALLOWS, BARKING-BY-THE-TOWER (PART II). 42/. 
XVI. PARISH OF ST. MARTIN-IN-THE-FIELDS (PART I, CHARING CROSS). 

c,2s. dd. 
XVII. PARISH OF ST. PANCRAS (PART I, THE VILLAGE OF HIGHGATE). 21/. 
XVIII. PARISH OF ST. MARTIN-IN-THE-FIELDS (PART II, THE STRAND). 21/. 
XIX. PARISH OF ST. PANCRAS (PART II, OLD ST. PANCRAS AND KENTISH 

TOWN). 2U. 
XX. PARISH OF ST. MARTIN-IN-THE-FIELDS (PART III, TRAFALGAR SQUARE 

AND NEIGHBOURHOOD). 2\s. 
XXI. PARISH OF ST. PANCRAS (PART III, TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD AND 

NEIGHBOURHOOD). 50/. 
XXII. PARISHES OF ST. SAVIOUR AND CHRISTCHURCH, SOUTHWARK (BANK- 
SIDE). 30J. 



(o75 

2, 



V . 



AVAIiAftlE 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL (THE 
PARISH OF ST. MARY, LAMBETH, 
PART I), BEING THE TWENTY- 
THIRD VOLUME OF THE SURVEY 
OF LONDON 



JOINT PUBLISHING COMMITTEE REPRESENTING THE LONDON 
COUNTY COUNCIL AND THE LONDON SURVEY COMMITTEE 



Chairman 
J. H. MacDONNELL 

Vice-Chairman 
WALTER H. GODFREY 



Members appointed by the Council 

MRS. I. M. BOLTON W. R. HORNBY STEER 

J. H. MacDONNELL DAVID A. WILKIE 



Members appointed by the London Survey Committee 

J. W. BLOE WALTER H. GODFREY 

EDWARD YATES 



MEMBERS OF THE LONDON SURVEY COMMITTEE 



The Society of Antiquaries 

OF London. 
The Royal Institute of 

British Architects. 

The Incorporated Associa- 
tion OF Architects and 
Surveyors. 

The Architectural Associ- 
ation. 

The Athenaeum. 

Miss Helen Barlow. 

Bedford College for 
Women. 

Gerald Bentley. 

The Birmingham Public 
Library. 

The Bishopsgate Institute. 

The Brentford and Chis- 
wiCK Public Library. 

The University of Cali- 
fornia. 

The Rev. P. T. B. Clayton, 
C.H., M.C, F.S.A. 

Captain E. E. Colquhoun, 
M.B.E. 

The Columbia University. 

The Conservative Club. 

The Constitutional Club. 

The Courtauld Institute 
of Art. 

Lieut.-Colonel Walter E. 
Cross, F.R.I.B.A. 

Croydon Public Library. 

Francis Edw.'Vrds. 

Mrs. J. D. Ellis. 

P. Ferrid-jvy. 



Honorary Members and Subscribers 
Sir Samuel Gluckstein. 
H. W. F. GoDLEY, M.V.O. 
The Guildhall Library, 
London. 

Richard Harriss, 
A.R.I.B.A. 

R. H. Herbert. 

The Institute of Histori- 
cal Research. 

W. T. Hugo. 

Constant Huntington. 

Walter T. Ison, F.S.A. 

The London Library. 

The London and Middle- 
sex Archaeological 
Society. 

The London Museum. 

The London School of 
Economics. 

The University of London. 

The Hon. Mr. Justice Lort- 
Williams, K.C. 

Gilbert H. Lovegrove. 

The M.-vnchester Society 
OF Architects. 

The Manchester Public 
Library. 

Cyril Moore. 

Colonel The Rt. Hon. The 
Lord Nathan of 
Churt, P.C, D.L. 

The National Buildings 
Record. 

The Newberry Library, 
Chicago. 

The New York Library. 



Comdr. W. C. Northcott, 

R.N. (Retd.), R.D., 

D.L., J.P. 
The Oxford and Cambridge 

Club. 
J. Foster Petree. 
The Carnegie Library, 

Pittsburgh. 
A. D. Power. 

The Public Record Office. 
The Quatuor Coronati 

Lodge. 
The Reform Club. 
H. H. Robinson. 
The John Rylands Library. 
Frederick Simms. 

Sir G. C. Simpson, K.C.B., 

C.B.E., F.R.S., D.Sc. 
SioN College. 
E. E. Smith. 

Society for the Protection 
OF Ancient Buildings. 

Southport Public Library. 

R. T. D. Stoneham. 

A. H. Thomas, LL.D., 
F.S.A. 

Toronto University. 

University College, 
London. 

The Victoria and Albert 
Museum. 

W.XSHINGTON LiBIC-VRY OF 

Congress. 

West Ham Public Library. 

Ministry of Works 
(Department of 
Ancient Monuments). 

vii 



W. W. Begley, F.R.Hist.S., 
L.R.I.B.A. 

J. W. Bloe, O.B.E., F.S.A. 

A. E. Bullock, F.R.I.B.A. 

G. H. Chettle, F.S.A. 

Miss Ida Darlington, 
M.A., A.L.A. 

J. J. Edmunds. 

Cecil Farthing, F.S.A. 

H. W. Fincham, F.S.A. 

Thomas F. Ford, F.R.I.B.A. 

Philip S. Hudson, 
A.R.I.B.A. 



Active Members 
W. McB. Marcham. 
A. R. Martin, F.S.A. 

E. C. NiSBET. 

G. Parsloe, B.A. 

Hugh Phillips, F.S.A. 

Major T. F. Reddaway, 
M.A., F.S.A. 

Alan Ridge, B.A. 

John Summerson, F.S.A., 
A.R.I.B.A. 

T. O. Thirtle, A.R.I.B.A. 



A. R. Wagner, M.A., F.S.A. 
(Richmond Herald). 

R. E. Mortimer Wheeler, 
M.C., CLE., D.Lit., 
Litt.D., F.B.A., F.S.A. 

Walter H. Godfrey, C.B.E., 
F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., 

Editor for the Committee. 

W. F. Grimes, M.A., F.S.A., 
Hon. Treasurer of the 
Committee. 

Edward Yates, F.S.A., 
Hon. Secretary of the 
Committee. 



viu 



CONTENTS 



FRONTISPIECE page 

GENERAL TITLE PAGE ------_-___ i 

PREVIOUS VOLUMES OF "THE SURVEY OF LONDON" - - - ii 
SPECIAL TITLE PAGE -----______ iii 

MEMBERS OF THE JOINT PUBLISHING COMMITTEE _ _ - v 
MEMBERS OF THE SURVEY COMMITTEE ------ vii 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES --------- xi 

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT --------- xix 

HERALDIC ILLUSTRATIONS ---------- xxi 

PREFACE ----_---_--___ xxiii 

INDEX MAP 



THE SURVEY OF SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

INTRODUCTION — — — — — _ — __ 



Chapter 


I. 


Chapter 


2. 


Chapter 


3- 


Chapter 


4- 


Chapter 


5- 


Chapter 


6. 


Chapter 


7- 


Chapter 


8. 


Chapter 


9- 


Chapter 


lO. 


Chapter 


1 1. 


Chapter 


12. 


Chapter 


13- 


Chapter 


14. 


Chapter 


I ?. 



Prince's Meadows ---------12 

Stamford Street — — — — — — — — — 1$ 

Waterloo Bridge — -_ — _____23 



Waterloo Road ---- — ____ 

Church of St. John the Evangelist, Waterloo Road - 
The Royal Victoria Hall — "The Old Vic" - _ _ 
York Road — — — _______ 

River Frontage between Waterloo and Westminster Bridges 
Shot Tower and Lead Works, No. 62 Belvedere Road - 47 
No. 59 Belvedere Road -_--_- — -48 
No. ^^ Belvedere Road --_--___ ^o 



25 
32 

37 
40 

45 



The Lambeth Waterworks and Lion Brewery - - - 

Hungerford or Charing Cross Bridge _ _ _ _ 

The Hopes, King's Arms Stairs and Jenkins (formerly 
College) Street —--__- — — — 

Coade's Artificial Stone Works —- — — - — 

ix 



51 
55 

56 

58 



PAGE 

Chapter i6. The County Hall --------- Si 

Chapter 17. Westminster Bridge ________ 66 

Chapter 18. Westminster Bridge Road - — - — - - — 69 

Chapter 19. Carlisle House and Carlisle Lane ----- 75 

Chapter 20. Stangate, Stangate Street and Lambeth Marsh — - 77 

Chapter 21. St. Thomas' Hospital ________ 79 

Chapter 22. Lambeth Palace _________8i 

Chapter 23. Church of St. Mary, Lambeth __- — __ 104 

Chapter 24. Lambeth Bridge and its Predecessor the Horseferry - 118 

Chapter 25. Lambeth Road - — - — — — — - - -122 

Chapter 26. The Walcot Estate - - - - - - - -125 

Chapter 27. Kennington Road — — - — - - - - -128 

Chapter 28. Norfolk House and Old Paradise Street - - - - 137 

Chapter 29. Pratt Walk ______ — --— 141 

Chapter 30. Water Lambeth _________ 142 

Chapter 31. Black Prince Road and Doris Street- _ _ _ _ 144 

Chapter 32. Vauxhall Walk _________ 14^ 

Chapter 33. Vauxhall Gardens and Kennington Lane - - - - 146 

Chapter 34. Albert Embankment - - - — — - — — 148 
Appendix — Pedigree of Clayton - — - — — - - — -150 

References- - - - - — - - - - — - - -151 

Index -_-__------ — --- 



156 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES* 

Frontispiece. "View of London from a Gentleman's seat in Lambeth Marsh, 1804." 
Key Plan 

PLATE 

1. Plan of the manor of Kennington, 1636 - From a plan in the possession of the 

Duchy of Cornwall. 

2. General plan of the manor of Kennington, 

1785 — — — — — — — From a survey in the possession of the 

Duchy of Cornwall. 

3. "Plan of the Princes Meadow in its present 

state and Design for Letting it . . . i 8 1 5 " From Manning and Bray's History of 

Surrey. 

4. Plan and elevation of Waterloo Bridge, circa 

1817 — - - - - - — From an engraving by M. Dubourg 

in the Council's collection. 

5. (a) Hungerford Bridge from Waterloo 

Bridge, 1850— - - - - - From a watercolour by Pyne in the 

Council's collection. 
{b) Waterloo Bridge, 1950 _ _ _ Photograph. 

6. (a) Cuper's Gardens, arctz 1 760 - - - From a watercolour in the possession 

of the Duchy of Cornwall. 
{b) The shot tower east of Waterloo Bridge, 

1827 - - - — - - - From a watercolour by J. Buckler in 

the Council's collection. 

7. {a) Beaufoy's Wine Manufactory, site of 

Cuper's Gardens - _ _ _ _ From an engraving published by 

R. Wilkinson in the Council's 
collection. 
{b) The Feathers Tavern, Cuper's Bridge From an engraving published by 

R. Wilkinson in the Council's 
collection. 

8. {a) Schools of the Benevolent Society of St. 

Patrick, Stamford Street, 1825 - - From a watercolour by G. Yates in 

the Guildhall Library. 
{b) London School of Printing, Stamford 

Street, 1950 ______ Photograph. 

9. St. Andrew's Church, Coin Street, 1945 - Photograph from the National Build- 

ings Record. 

10. Nos. 63-91 Stamford Street, 1950; (b) Nos. 

78-106 Stamford Street, 1935- ~ - Photographs. 

1 1 . Waterloo Road {a) The Royal Waterloo 

Hospital for Children - _ _ _ From a pencil drawing by R. B. 

Schnebbelie in the Council's 
collection. 

• Unless otherwise stated the photographs are the copyright of the London County Council. 

xi 



PLATE 

{b) Royal Swimming Bath, 1827 - - From a sepia watercolour by J. 

Buckler in the Council's collection. 

12. St. John's Church, Waterloo Road, south- 

west elevation ------ Measured drawing by R. A. F. 

Riding. 

13. St. John's Church, exterior, 1929 - - Photograph, copyright of Sunbeam 

Photo, Ltd. 

14. St. John's Church, interior, «>(-« 1930 - Photograph, copyright of Sunbeam 

Photo, Ltd. 

15. St. John's Church, plans of crypt and ground 

floor — — __ — — _ Measured drawings by R. A. F. 

Riding. 

16. St. John's Church, sections and elevation - Measured drawings by R. A. F. 

Riding. 

17. St. John's Church, south-east elevation with 

plan of site inset _ — — - - Measured drawing by R. A. F. 

Riding. 

18. The old watch house, Waterloo Road, circa 

1930 -_ — — - — _ From a lithograph by Joan Bloxam 

in the Council's collection. 

19. Royal Coburg Theatre {a) Exterior, 1826 - From an engraving by D. Havell in 

the Council's collection. 
(J?) Interior, 1 8 1 8 — — — — — From an engraving published by 

R. Wilkinson in the Council's 
collection. 

20. The looking-glass curtain at the Royal Coburg 

Theatre, 1822— — — - - — From an engraving published by G. 

Humphrey in the Council's col- 
lection. 

21. No. 86 Waterloo Road, details - - — Measured drawings by F. A. Evans. 

22. No. 86 Waterloo Road, ceiling in ground 

storey shop, 1949 —.— — — - Measured drawing by F. A. Evans. 

23. {a) Nos. 80— 86 Waterloo Road, 1826 - - From the elevation by L. N. Cotting- 

ham in the British Museum. 
(J?) The York Hotel and adjoining buildings 

in York and Waterloo Roads, 1 949 — Photograph. 

24. Waterloo Bridge approach, west side, 1949 

(a) Street frontage (b) Back - - — Sketches by F. A. Evans. 

25. York Road, 1949 {a) South side {b) North 

side -------- Sketches by F. A. Evans. 

26. (a) Old toll house. Griffin Street, 1949 - Sketch by F. A. Evans. 

(b) Turnpike in York Road, 1828 - - From a sepia drawing by J. Buckler 

in the Council's collection. 

27. (a) Lying-in Hospital, Westminster Bridge 

Road, circa 1 800 — — — — - From a watercolour in the British 

Museum. 
{h) General Lying-in Hospital, York Road, 

1950 _______ Photograph. 

xii 



PLATE 
28. 



29. 



30. 



31' 



(a) Manners Street from College Street, 
1930 {b) College Street from Belvedere 
Road, 1930 ____-- 

(a) Shot Tower and No. 61, Belvedere Road, 
1930 {b) No. 6 arch, in approach road to 
Hungerford Bridge, 1946 _ _ _ 

Shot Tower, Belvedere Road, plans, elevation 
and section, 1948 — — — 

The Lion Brewery, 1836 — - 



Photographs. 



- - Photographs. 



Measured drawings by F. A. Evans. 
From an aquatint by George Hunt 

after F. C. Turner in the Council's 

collection. 



32. Lion Brewery, north-west side of Belvedere 

Road, 1930 - - - - - - Photograph. 

2,2,- No. 55 Belvedere Road, elevations and plans Measured drawings by R. G. Absolon. 

34. Belvedere Road, 1946 {a) No. ^y, (b) No. 59 Photographs. 

35. (a) Nos. 55-59 Belvedere Road, 1949; (b) 

Nos. 1 16 and 1 18 Belvedere Road, 1948 - From watercolours by M. H. Leefe. 

36. Door knockers from Lambeth district - - Drawn by M. H. Leefe. 

37. (a) Belvedere, Lambeth circa 1720 - - From a pen and ink drawing in the 

Council's collection. 
(b) Coade's Artificial Stone Manufactory, 

circa 1800- __ — --- From a watercolour in the Guildhall 

Library. 

38. Coade's Artificial Stone Manufactory 

(<2) 1801 - — - - — — - From a watercolour by C. Tomkins 

in the Guildhall Library. 

(^)i827 - — - — - - - From a watercolour by Buckler in 

the possession of the Duchy of 

39. (a) The entrance to Coade and Sealy's 

Gallery of Sculpture, Westminster Bridge, 

1 802 _____ — — From an engraving by S. Rawle in 

the Council's collection. 
(b) Lambeth Waterworks, Belvedere Road, 

1826 - — — — - - - From a watercolour by G.Yates in the 

Guildhall Library. 

40. Boat of the Roman period uncovered on the 

site of County Hall, 1 9 10 _ - - Photograph. 

41. (a) Buildings on the site of County Hall, 1906 Photograph. 
(b) County Hall, 1948, from the roof of 

Charing Cross Station _ - - - From a drawing by Lawrence Wright 

in the Council's collection 

42. County Hall, interior of Council Chamber, 

1938 _______ The Times Photogtzph. 

43. Asylum for female orphans 

(a) 1824 _______ From a watercolour drawing in the 

Council's collection. 

(b) Dining hall, 1 808 _ _ _ - - From an aquatint after Pugin and 

Rowlandson in the Council's 
collection. 



xiu 



PLATE 

44. Christ Church, Westminster Bridge Road, 

1950 _______ Photograph. 

45. (a) Yorkshire Society's School, Westminster 

Bridge Road, 1885- - - - - From an engraving in the Guildhall 

Library. 
(b) Nos. 65-75 Westminster Bridge Road, 

1922 - - - — — - - Photograph. 

46. (a) Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, circa 1850 Engraving by J. Scury after W. H. 

Miller. 
(F) Arena of Astley's Amphitheatre, circa 

1810 - - - - — - - Engraving published by R. Wilkin- 
son. 

47. Canterbury Hall, Upper Marsh, 1947 {a) 

Amphi entrance (b) Entrance to main hall Drawings by F. A. Evans. 

48. A view of Westminster Bridge, 1791 - - From an engraving by J. W. Edy in 

the Council's collection. 

49. Westminster Bridge Approach, 1 900 - - Photograph. 

50. {a) St. Thomas' Hospital from Westminster 

Bridge, 1950; {b) Westminster Bridge 

from Albert Embankment, 1950 - — Photographs. 

51. Manor of Lambeth Enclosure Map, 1806 

(northern part) —___-- From the Council's collection. 

52. Statue of Edward VI, St. Thomas' Hospital - Photograph. 

53. Four figures at the main entrance to St. 

Thomas' Hospital, 1950- - - - Photographs. 

54. Statue of Sir Robert Clayton, St. Thomas' 

Hospital __-___- Photograph. 
^^. (a) The Mitre Public House at Stangate, 1801 Photograph of a drawing by Dan. 

Turner. 
(b) Roberts' Boat House, Stangate, circa 1 840 From a lithograph by C. W. Rad- 

clyfFe in the Council's collection. 

56. (a) Lambeth Reach, circa i860; (1^) West 

side of Stangate, site of St. Thomas' 

Hospital, aVc^ i860 _ _ _ _ Photographs by W. Strudwick. 

57. and 58. Prospect of London and Westminster 

(2 sheets) _ — _ — _ — — From an engraving by W. Hollar in 

the Council's collection. 

59. Nos. 2—46 Stangate Street, strip elevation and 

details of doors, 1949 _ _ _ _ Measured drawings by B. Shawcroft. 

60. Plan of Lambeth Palace, 1648 _ _ _ From a copy made in 1700 in the 

possession of the Church Com- 
missioners. 

6 1 . Lambeth Palace, Blore's plan of the ground 

floor, circa 1828 - — — — — From the original drawing at Lam- 
beth Palace. 

62. Lambeth Palace, First floor plan showing 

post-war alterations, 1949-50 - - - From a working drawing by Seely 

and Paget, 
xiv 



PLATE 

63. Lambeth House, 1647 _ _ _ _ Engraving by W. Hollar. 

64. Lambeth Palace in 1697 showing the horse 

ferry __-- — -- From an engraving by J. Kip after 

L. Knyff in the Council's collection. 

65. Lambeth Palace and Church, 1849 - - From a pen and ink drawing by 

J. Whittock in the British Museum. 

66. Lambeth Palace, 1950 (a) Morton's Tower; 

(F) Laud's Tower — - — — - Sketches by F. A. Evans. 

67. (a) Lambeth Palace from the garden, 1804 From an engraving by J. Greig in the 

Council's collection. 
(l>) The cloister with parts of the Guard Room 

and Chapel, 1 803 ----- From an engraving by J. Roffe in the 

Council's collection. 

68. Lambeth Palace, interior of Chapel (a) 1804 Pencil drawing by J. Whittock in the 

Guildhall Library. 
(i) After war damage, 1950 _ _ _ Pencil drawing by F. A. Evans. 

69. Lambeth Palace Chapel, 1924 (rt) West end 

(I?) Screen ------ Photographs by the Royal Com- 

mission on Historical Monuments. 

70. Lambeth Palace Chapel crypt, 1949 - - Photograph, copyright of Bedford 

Lemere & Co., Ltd. 

7 1 . Lambeth Palace Chapel crypt _ _ _ Measured drawing by F. A. Evans. 

72. (a) Water Tower; (/5) North view of 

Lambeth Palace from the Bishop's Walk, 

1828 — — — — ___ From watercolours by J. Buckler in 

the possession of J. H. Mac- 

Donnell. 

73. Lambeth Palace, doors _ _ _ _ Measured drawings by R.G.Absolon. 

74. Lambeth Palace, Laud's Tower, first floor 

doorway — — — — — — — Measured drawing by F. A. Evans. 

75. Lambeth Palace, Post Room, 1924 - - Photograph from Royal Commission 

on Historical Monuments. 

76. Lambeth Palace, Guard Room, 1940 - - Photograph by A. F. Kersting from 

the National Buildings Record. 

77. Lambeth Palace (a) Section of library circa 

1828 - - - - - - - Measured drawing by Blore in Lam- 
beth Palace Library. 
(l>) Great Hall, 1949 ----- Photograph, copyright of William 

Gordon Davis. 

78. Lambeth Palace, roof of Great Hall, 1949- Photograph, copyright of William 

Gordon Davis. 

79. Lambeth Palace, north-east door of Great Hall Measured drawing by A. J. North. 

80. Lambeth Palace, elevation of south front 

(a) 1829- - - - — — - Measured drawing by Blore from 

Lambeth Palace Library. 
(^) 1950 ------- Photograph. 

81. Lambeth Palace, main staircase of residential 



wmg. 



1950 ------ Photograph. 



XV 



PLATE 

82. Lambeth Palace, interior of oriel window 

above main staircase, 1 950 - 

83. Lambeth Palace, elevation of garden front 

{a) 1829 ----- 



- - Photograph. 



(b) 1949 ------- 

84. Church of St. Mary, Lambeth — — — 

85. Morton's Tower, 1869 {a) Elevations; (J>) 

Plans ------- 

86. (a) "Lambeth Palace from the Thames at 

high water," 1784 ----- 

(J?) Morton's Tower and Lambeth Church, 
1950 ------- 

87. St. Mary's Church tower, west and south 

elevations — — — — — — — 

88. St. Mary's Church tower, section and plans — 

89. St. Mary's Church, monument to John 

Mompesson — — __ — — 

90. St. Mary's Church, monument to Hugh 

Peyntwyn- -- — — — _ 

91. St. Mary's Church, 1950 {a) General view 

of interior looking east; (b) Font — — 

92. St. Mary's Church, detail of font rail - — 

93. St. Mary's Churchyard tombs (a) John 

Tradescant (J?) William Bligh (c) John 
Sealy — — - — — -_ 

94. Lambeth Rectory, 1828 - - - - 



95- 
96. 



97 
98 



99 



100 



lOI 



Lambeth Rectory, elevations and plans - 
Doorways {a) No. 6 Pratt Walk {b) No. 8 

Pratt Walk {c) Lambeth Rectory, No. 

214 Lambeth Road (d) No. i Doris Street 
Walnut Tree Walk, doorways, 1927 (a) No. 

57 {b) No. 2 {c) No. 8 {d) No. 5 - 
(a) Nos. 35-41 Carlisle Lane, 1950 (b) Nos. 

11-13 St. Mary's Walk, 1950 - - 

Walnut Tree Walk, 1927 {a) Nos. 64 and 

65 (^) No. 6 - - - - - - 

Kennington Road, strip elevations of Nos. 

121-143 and 128-104, 1949 - - - 
Doorways (a) No. 126 Kennington Road 

{b) No. 1 1 8 Kennington Road {c) Nos. 60 - 

6 1 Walnut Tree Walk - - 



Measured drawing by Blore from 

Lambeth Palace Library. 
Photograph by William Gordon 

Davis. 
From a watercolour by E. Dayes in the 

Council's collection. 

From original drawings in the posses- 
sion of Seely & Paget. 

From an engraving by Cary after 
Pouncy in the Council's collection. 

Photograph. 

Measured drawings by F. A. Evans. 
Measured drawings by F. A. Evans. 

Measured drawing by Evelyn Prior. 

Measured drawing by F. H. Healey. 

Photographs. 

Measured drawing by A. J. North. 



Pencil drawings by F. A. Evans. 
From a watercolour drawing by J. 

Buckler in the Guildhall Library. 
From the building lease of 1778. 



Measured drawings. 

Photographs. 

Photographs. 

Photographs. 

Measured drawings by R. G. Absolon. 



- - Measured drawings. 



XVI 



PLATE 

1 02. No. 139 Kennington Road, detail of entrance 

door — — — — — — — — Measured drawing by F. A. Evans. 

103. No. 139 Kennington Road, detail of ground 

floor living room _ — — _ — Measured drawing by F. A. Evans. 

104. Doorways in Kennington Road (a) No. 125 

(/^) No. 135 (c) No. 163 ((^ No. 133 - Measured drawings. 

105. Kennington Road (a) Nos. 114 and 116, 

1950 (^) No. 131, 1945 - - — — Photographs. 

106. (rt) Church of St. Anselm, Kennington Road, 

1950; (F) Church of St. Peter, Kennington 
Lane, interior looking towards chancel, 
1950 --_--__ Photographs. 

107. (a) No. 122 Kennington Road, 1927; (^) 

Walcot Square, north-east side, 1950 — Photographs. 

108. (a) Mill in Lambeth, circa 1780 — - - Watercolour by Paul Sandby in the 

Guildhall Library. 
(l)) The entrance to the distillery, circa 1780 Sepia watercolour by De Cort in the 

Council's collection. 

109. (a) Carlisle House School - — — - Watercolour by C. J. Richardson 

from a sketch by J. Whichelo. 
(l>) No. 20 Carlisle Lane, 1950 - - - Photograph. 

1 10. (a) Royal Street, north side, «r^£7 1 880 - — From a watercolour in the Council's 
(^) Church of Holy Trinity, Carlisle Lane, collection. 

1950 ------- Photograph. 

111. (a) Houses in Lambeth Road opposite the 

church, circa i860 - - - — — Photograph by William Strudwick. 
(i) Stiff's drain pipe manufactory — — Watercolour. 

112. («) Old houses on the east side of High Street, 

1885 — — — — - — — From a watercolour in the Council's 

collection. 
(F) Watch house in the High Street, 1828 - Sepia watercolour by J. C. Buckler. 

113. (a) No. 8 Bolwell Street, 1950; (l>) Church of 

St. Mary the Less, Black Prince Road, 

1950 - - - - - - - Photographs. 

114. (a) Old Swan Yard, Fore Street, circa i860; 

(F) Fore Street and the corner of Ferry 

Street, wrc^ i860 ----- Photographs by William Strudwick. 

115. (a) Lambeth Chapel, Lambeth Road - - From an aquatint by C. Rosenberg 

after T. D. W. Dearn in the 
Council's collection. 
(F) Lambeth Walk, 1886 - - - _ From a watercolour in the Council's 

collection. 

116. (a) Parochial school for boys, 18 15 - - From an ink and wash drawing by 

R. B. Schnebbelie in the Council's 
collection. 

xvii 

B 



PLATE 

{b) Ragged School, Newport Street, in 1851 From a watercolour in the Guildhall 

Library. 

117. {a) No. 14 Old Paradise Street, 1908; (F) 

Nos. 49-53 High Street, 1908 - - Photographs. 

118. (a) Old houses on the Albert Embankment 

near Vauxhall Bridge, 1886 — — — From a watercolour in the Council's 

collection. 
{b) No. 85 Albert Embankment, north front, 

1950 - - - — — - - Photograph. 

119. (a) Lambeth Bridge and toll house, 1896; 

(J?) River frontage of Fore Street, south of 

Lambeth Bridge, circa i860 - - - Photographs. 

120. (a) VauxhaU Manor House - _ _ _ From an engraving by W. Read after 

Nash in the Council's collection. 
{b) Nos 28-42 Vauxhall Walk, 1950 - - Photograph. 

121. (a) House on the north side of Broad Street, 

arc« 1828; (^) Houses in Fore Street, 1828 From sepia watercolours by J. C. 

Buckler in the Council's collection. 

122. Royal Doulton Potteries, Albert Embank- 

ment, 1940 ____-- Photograph copyright of Royal 

Doulton Potteries. 

123. Plan of Vauxhall Manor, 1681 - - - From the original in the possession 

of the Church Commissioners. 

124. Plan of Vauxhall Gardens, 1785 - - - From the survey belonging to the 

Duchy of Cornwall. 

125. Vauxhall Gardens (a) The Temple of Comus, 

1753 _______ Engraving by Muller after Canaletto. 

{b) Triumphal arches _____ Engraving by Muller after Wale. 

126. Vauxhall Gardens («) The Grand Walk - Engraving by Rooker after Canaletto. 
(b) Music room - — — ___ Engraving by Roberts after Wale. 

127. A general prospect of Vauxhall Gardens - Engraving by Muller after Wale. 



xvni 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT 

PAGE 

1. Part of plan of Prince's Meadows, 1636 -------- i^ 

2. No. 86 Waterloo Road. Detail of railings -------28 

3. No. 86 Waterloo Road. Detail of doors on first floor. Measured drawings - 29 

4. No. 86 Waterloo Road. Doorway to Boyce Street. Measured drawing by A. R. 

Hansen — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 30 

5. Nos. 96-100 Waterloo Road. First floor iron balustrade. Measured drawing by 

B. Shawcroft — — - — - — — — — - — -— 31 

6. No. 86 Waterloo Road from St. John's Church. Sketch by F. A. Evans, 1949 33 

7. St. John's, Waterloo Road. Doorway to crypt — — — — — — —35 

8. Ground floor plan of the General Lying-in Hospital, York Road, 1950 - - 43 

9. No. 59 Belvedere Road. Lead rainwater head -------48 

10. No. 59 Belvedere Road. Entrance gates, 1948. Measured drawing - - 48 

11. No. 59 Belvedere Road. Ground plan, 1948. Measured drawing - - - 49 

12. No. 59 Belvedere Road. Fireplace. Measured drawing ----- 49 

13. Plan of the Lion Brewery — — — — — — — — — — — ^i 

14. Lion Brewery. South-west elevation to entrance courtyard. Measured drawing 52 

15. Lion Brewery. North-west elevation to entrance courtyard. Measured drawing 53 

16. Delft plate. ------------- ^S 

17. India Stores, Belvedere Road, in course of demolition, 1949. Sketch by F. A. 

Evans -------------- ^j 

18. Plan of Jesus College property (the Hopes) in 1804. From a deed belonging 

to Jesus College, Oxford _ — — — — __ — -— 60 

19. Inscription on lion's paw, Lion Brewery, Lambeth. Pen and ink drawing by 

F. A. Evans --- — ---------61 

20. Plan of Coade 8z Sealy's Works, Belvedere Road, 1837. From a deed in the 

possession of Jesus College, Oxford - — — — — — — — 61 

21. Boundary stone of Pedlar's Acre -- — ____-- 63 

22. Lambeth Palace. Corbel with monk's head. Sketch by Blore — — — — 81 

23. Lambeth Palace. Entrance to Morton's Tower. Sketch by R. G. Absolon - 82 

24. Lambeth Palace. Staircase to Morton's Tower. Sketch by R. G. Absolon - 83 

25. Lambeth Palace. Morton's Tower. Linenfold panelling. Measured drawing - 84 

26. Lambeth Palace. South-east door to Great Hall. Measured drawing — — 87 

27. Lambeth Palace. Lollards' Tower stairs, 1950. Sketch by R. G. Absolon - 89 

28. Lambeth Palace. Laud's Tower. Detail of staircase. Measured drawing — - 92 

29. Lambeth Palace Chapel. Details of pew ends — ------93 

30. Lambeth Palace. Crypt, 1950. Sketch by R. G. Absolon - - - - 94 

31. Lambeth Palace. Door to Chapel. Measured drawing ----- 9^ 

xix 



PAGE 

32. Lambeth Palace. Cranmer's Tower. Landing at top of stairs. Sketch by R. G. 

Absolon — — — — — — — — — — — — — — (^6 

33. Lambeth Palace. Corbel with griffin. Sketch by Blore - - - - - 98 

34. Lambeth Palace. Corbel with king's head. Sketch by Blore _ - - - 99 
2iS- St. Mary's Church. Pedlar's window - - - - - - - -104 

36. St. Mary's Church. Plan, 1851. From the drawing by P. C. Hardwick- - iii 

37. St. Mary's Church. Doorway to vestry. Measured drawing - - - - 112 

38. St. Mary's Church. Tablet to Sir Peter Rich - - - - - - -115 

39. Nos. 214— 204 Lambeth Road. Measured drawing by Evelyn Prior - - 123 

40. No. 135 Kennington Road, 1950. Sketch by R. G. Absolon - - - - 128 

41. No. 121 Kennington Road. Staircase detail. Measured drawing - - - 129 

42. No. 125 Kennington Road. Fireplace. Measured drawing - -.- - - 129 

43. No. 139 Kennington Road. Detail of fireplace in first floor front room. 

Measured drawing _________ _ _ 130 

44. No. 125 Kennington Road. Folding doors on ground floor. Measured drawing 131 

45. Rear of Nos. 186-208 Kennington Road, 1950. Sketch by F. A. Evans- - 132 

46. Rear of No. 127 Kennington Road, 1950. Sketch by F. A. Evans - - - 133 

47. No. 8 Old Paradise Street, panelled room on first floor (front). Measured 

drawing --------------139 

48. Elevation of Nos. 14—2 Old Paradise Street. Measured drawing — - - 140 
49 Nos. 4-12 Pratt Walk, elevation. Measured drawing by Evelyn Prior - - 141 

50. Plan of Ragged Schools in Newport Street — - - — - — -143 

51. No. I Doris Street, door knocker. Ink drawing — — — — — — 144 

52. Nos. 38-28 Vauxhall Walk, 1950. Measured drawing by A. R. Hansen - - 145 

53. No. 85 Albert Embankment, fireplace. Measured drawing - - - — 149 



XX 



HERALDIC ILLUSTRATIONS 



ASHMOLE, ELIAS- 
CANTERBURY, SEE OF 



CHICHELE, HENRY 
CITY OF LONDON - 



CORNWALL, DUCHY OF - 
DOULTON, HENRY - - 



EDWARD, PRINCE OF WALES, 
'THE BLACK PRINCE' (Shield 
for Peace) --____ 



JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD 

JUXON, WILLIAM - _ - - 

MORTON, JOHN - - _ _ 

ROCHESTER, SEE OF - - - 

ST. THOMAS' HOSPITAL - - 



TUNSTALL, CUTHBERT - - 



Quarterly^ sable and or, in the first quarter a 
fleur-de-lys of the second, (p. 114) 

Azure, an archiepiscopal staff in pale argent en- 
signed with a cross-patee or, surmounted of a 
pall of the second, edged and fringed of the third, 
charged with four crosses formie-fitchee sable. 
(P-3) 

Or, a chevron between three cinquef oils pierced gules. 
(P- 89) 

Argent, a cross gules in the first quarter, with a 
sword of the second in pale point upwards. 
(P- 72) 

Sable, fifteen bezants, (p. 9) 

Azure, on a pale invected or between two goats' heads 
erased of the last a lion rampant sable between 
two escallops gules, (p. 142) 



Sable, three ostrich feathers quilled and passing 
through scrolls argent bearing the words ' Ich 
Diene\ (p. 5) 

Fert, three stags trippant argent attired, or. (p. 25) 

Or, a cross gules between four blackamoors' heads 
and shoulders affronte in their proper colours with 
wreaths, or. (p. 85) 

Quarterly, one and four gules, a goat's head erased 
armed or, two and three ermine, (p. 82) 

Argent, on a saltire gules an escallop, or. (p. 75) 

Argent, on a cross between, in the first quarter a 
sword erect gules, and in the second quarter a 
chough proper a roach haurient of the first; on a 
chief azure a rose of the field barbed and seeded 
proper between two fleur de lys, or. (p. 79) 

Sable, three wool combs argent, (p. 1 1 3) 



XXI 



PREFACE 



IN this year of the Festival of Britain, the "South Bank" has become 
the cynosure of all eyes. Accordingly this volume contains much 
that is of contemporaneous interest. Its value as a record of the 
topography and buildings of North Lambeth will, however, 
remain long after the South Bank Exhibition has become part of 
Lambeth history. At a cursory glance the area seems lacking in archi- 
tectural and historical interest, but a detailed survey has proved richly 
rewarding. 

The "South Bank" is somewhat of a misnomer. The Thames 
between Vauxhall Bridge and Waterloo Bridge does not run west to 
east as is commonly supposed, but south to north, so that in fact 
most of the riverside area of Lambeth is on the east side of the river. 
The term "South Bank" has, however, become so customary that 
its use is now inevitable though it complicates the topographical 
descriptions of particular places. A further difficulty which has arisen 
in elucidating the topography of the area prior to the 1820's is the 
vagueness of the term Lambeth Marsh which was applied generally 
to much of North Lambeth. It has, for instance, proved impossible 
to decide the exact viewpoint of Capon's drawing of the Marsh 
reproduced in the frontispiece. 

The records of the Archbishop's Manor and of Vauxhall Manor 
are exceptionally full, and by kind permission of the Church Com- 
missioners they have been freely used in preparing the volume. Thanks 
are due to His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury for allowing access 
to the records preserved at the Palace and for permission to make 
drawings and photographs there. 

Unfortunately, the majority of the Duchy of Cornwall records 
could not be brought back to London from their war-time depository 
in time to be of service, but in writing the history of the Manor of 
Kennington the manuscript history compiled some years ago by Mr. 
Rollo Clowes, a former member of the Duchy Office staff, has proved 
invaluable. As always in this series the resources of the Public 
Record Office, the British Museum and Somerset House have been 
widely used. 

The parish records of Lambeth are not so complete as those of 
Southwark, and in particular the set of Poor Rate books has been 
sadly depleted. Such records as remain either at the Town Hall or in 
the care of the Librarian have been readily produced, and the Church 
authorities have been most helpful both in allowing access to records 
and in giving facilities for drawing and measuring the buildings under 
their control. Mr. T. F. Garnish of the Lambeth Endowed Charities 
has helped in many ways, as have a number of local residents and firms 
among whom special mention must be made of Doulton & Co., Ltd. 

The historical parts of the volume and its compilation are the 
work of Miss Ida Darlington, M.A.,the Council's Librarian, who has been 

xxiii 



assisted by Miss M. P. G. Christie, B.A. The architectural descriptions 
and drawings have been prepared under the direction of the Architect by 
Mr. J. H. Farrar, A.R.C.A., who wishes to acknowledge the assistance 
he has received from Mr. Kenneth S. Mills, A.R.I.B.A., A.M.T.P.I. 
and Mr. F. R. Buggey and other officers in his department. 

HOWARD ROBERTS, 

Clerk of the London County Council. 
The County Hall, 

Westminster Bridge, S.E.i. 
1951. 



XXIV 



)()(\^ 







r J D E X MAP 

iUpnduied from the Ordnance Survey Map, with ihe sanction of the ConlrolUr of H.M. Slalionery Office 



FIGURES INDICATE CHAPTER NUMBERS 

Viirish bouiuiariei and buildm^i of %vhtih a Jetmkd description is ^izrn are sAtKvn in rf> 



INTRODUCTION 



THE name "Lambeth" occurs in many forms in early records. It 
is of Saxon origin and signifies either a harbour or quay from which 
lambs were shipped, or a loam or muddy harbour.^ Of the two the 
latter seems the more likely. 
It is probable that the Roman road from the Kent coast via Canter- 
bury and Rochester at one time crossed the Thames at Lambeth and linked 
up with the Edgware Road. Probably the river was easily fordable at this 
point, since in Roman times the ebb and flow of the tide did not extend 
above London Bridge and the river was considerably shallower than it is 
to-day. There was certainly an early river crossing at Lambeth, the precursor 
of the later Horseferry.^ 

Until the beginning of the 19th century most of the northern part of 
Lambeth was in fact as well as in name a "marsh" intersected with many 
ditches although, particularly after the completion of Westminster Bridge in 
1750, a fringe of houses and industrial buildings grew up along the river 
front on the remains of the old earth wall and on the enclosures of land 
reclaimed from the river and known as "hopes. "^ 

The laying out of Westminster Bridge Road and Kennington Road 
circa 1750 stimulated some building development in their neighbourhood, but 
there was no intensive development of Lambeth Marsh and Prince's Meadows 
until after the formation of Waterloo Bridge and its approaches, and the more 
effective drainage of the area as a result of the powers conferred on the 
Surrey and Kent Sewer Commission in 1809.^ 

A rapid deterioration followed the coming of the railways to Lambeth: 
streets were cut up and buildings torn down or dismembered, while the 
series of dark, damp arches under the lines encouraged the more disreputable 
element of the population to the district. 

The formation of the Albert Embankment in 1866-70 was the first 
move towards the improvement of North Lambeth, but there was little 
further tidying-up until the London County Council built County Hall on 
the wharves of Pedlar's Acre in 1906-22. The extension of the river wall 
from County Hall to Waterloo Bridge was planned in the 1930's, but the 
project was delayed owing to the war. Lambeth suffered severely from bomb 
damage and it was partly because there was a large expanse of damaged 
and derelict property on the river front that it was decided to utilise this 
area for the Festival of Britain and to push on the scheme for a new 
embankment wall and the erection of a new concert hall for London. In- 
evitably so large a project has resulted in changes in the locality to make 
more adequate approaches, but it has also meant the restoration of some 
old buildings and a general revival of interest in an area which, as the 
following pages will show, has many features of architectural and historical 
interest. 

* Bernard Davis, who carried out some excavations in the grounds of Lambeth Palace in 
1935, stated that he found what appeared to be the end of the Roman road there.- 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Lambeth Industries 

There are several traditional industries in Lambeth. From the 1 7th 
to the 19th centuries timber yards and boat builders' yards lined most of the 
river front. The potter has plied his craft there since at least the time of 
Elizabeth, clay and fuel being brought by barge as they are at the present 
day. It has even been suggested that delft pottery was made in Lambeth 
before it was made in Delft.* There were glassworks in Lambeth from the 
early 17th century until recent times, while candles and soap have been made 
in the neighbourhood for at least 200 years. 

Lambeth has been one of the centres of the printing trade since the 
beginning of the 19th century. Applegath and Cowper set up their first 
steam press in Duke Street (now Duchy Street), in i 8 19, and their successors, 
William Clowes & Sons Ltd., remained on the same site until their premises 
were burnt out in the recent war.^ 

The first shot tower in Lambeth was erected east of Waterloo Bridge 
circa 1789.^ Shot continued to be made by the old method in the shot tower 
on the west side until 1949. 

One of the most interesting industrial enterprises in Lambeth was 
the Coade Artificial Stoneworks, which functioned from 1769 until about 
1837, and whose products, still to be seen on many London buildings, have 
more than justified the claims of the proprietors that they would outlast 
natural stone. 

Lambeth Churches 

The whole of the present metropolitan borough of Lambeth, which 
extends south as far as the boundary of the County of London, formerly 
comprised the parish of St. Mary, Lambeth. It was not until the first quarter 
of the 1 9th century that the need was felt for more ecclesiastical provision, 
and in fairly quick succession the churches of St. John, Waterloo Road 
(1824), St. Mary the Less (1828), Holy Trinity, Carlisle Lane (1841), 
All Saints, York Street (1846), St. Andrew, Coin Street (1856), and St. 
Thomas's (1857), were erected in North Lambeth. St. Peter's, Vauxhall, was 
built in 1861, and St. Philip's, Kennington Road, in 1863, while in more 
recent years St. Anselm's, Kennington Road, was built on the Duchy of 
Cornwall estate. 

The most prominent of the non-conformist churches in the area 
covered by this volume is Christ Church, Westminster Bridge Road, built in 
1873-6 for the congregation from Rowland Hill's chapel in Blackfriars Road. 
The Wesleyan Chapel and schools in Vauxhall Walk date from 1841, but 
are so damaged as to be unusable. 

The Manors 

The northern part of Lambeth was divided into two manors, Lambeth 
and Kennington. Both of them date from before the Conquest and, largely 
because they were in corporate hands, manorial organisation continued to 



LAMBETH MANOR 



operate in both until the passing of the Law of Property Act, 1925. In both 
manors the copyholders held by Borough English, the youngest sons in- 
heriting or, if there were no sons, the daughters inheriting as co-heiresses. 

The greater part of the old manor of Vauxhall lies outside the area 
covered bv this volume, but it included some ground north of the site of 
Kennineton Lane and a short account of the manor is therefore included 
here. The name Vauxhall was from the 17th century onward applied to 
ground which had previously been part of the manor of Kennington (see 
p. 11). 

Lambeth Manor 

The first reference to Lambeth that has been found is in the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle, where, under date 1042, is the statement: "This year died 
King Hardacnute at Lambeth as he stood drinking; he fell suddenly to the 
earth with a tremendous struggle; but those who were nigh at hand took 
him up; and he spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the sixth day 
before the ides of June."^ Tradition says that he died at Kennington,'* 
but as this does not seem to have been a royal manor at the time, whereas 
Lambeth was, he is much more likely to have been at the latter. 

The Domesday Book entry reads* "St. Mary is a manor which is 
called LANCHEI. Countess Goda, sister of King Edward held it. It was 
then assessed for 10 hides; now for 2\ hides. The land is for i 2 ploughs. In 
demesne there are 2 ploughs; and [there are] 12 villeins and 27 bordars with 
4 ploughs. There is a church; and 19 burgesses in London who render 
36 shillings; and there are 3 serfs; and 16 acres of meadow. Wood worth 
3 hogs. In the time of king Edward, and afterwards, it was worth 10 pounds; 
now 1 1 pounds. The Bishop of Bayeux has i piece of arable land of this 
manor, which before and after the death of Goda lay in the land attached to 
this church."^ 

Goda is said to have given the manor of Lambeth to the church of 
St. Andrew, Rochester, before the Conquest. i'' In view of the Domesday 
Book entry this seems unlikely, but both church and manor were granted to 
the convent of St. Andrew, Rochester, by William Rufus, and the grant 
was confirmed by his successors. There was friction, however, between the 
bishop of Rochester and the convent of St. Andrew, Rochester, about the 
possession of Lambeth manor, but finally an agreement was reached in 1 197 
by which the prior and convent of Rochester granted the manor of Lambeth 
to Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, in exchange for the manor 
of Darenth. The story of the struggles of the Archbishops to escape from 
the control of the monks of Canterbury by building a house first of all outside 
Canterbury and then in Lambeth is part of the wider struggle which waxed 
and waned throughout the middle ages in England both between the secular 
clergy and the monastic orders and between the English hierarchy and the 
Holy See. 

The agreement granting the manor to the Archbishop provided that 
the bishop of Rochester and his successors should retain a house in the 

3 




See of Canterbury 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

manor for their own use and should receive an annual payment of 5 marks 
out of the dues of the rectory.^" Rochester House continued to be the London 
residence of the see of Rochester until 1 540/^ when by exchange it passed to 
the see of Carlisle (p. 75), but except during the Commonwealth period the 
manor as a whole remained in the possession of the see of Canterbury until 
its administration was taken over by the Ecclesiastical (now the Church) 
Commissioners. 

In August, 1648, Sir John Wollaston and others, trustees for the 
sale of episcopal property sold^^ the manor of Lambeth for £'J,oy2 os. 8d. 
to Thomas Scott of Marlow and Mathew Hardy of London, draper. The 
property included the Archbishop's palace with 4 acres of ground, and the 
park of 5 acres, containing 2 fishponds; Sowters lands next the park con- 
taining 14 acres; a close of pasture near Stangate "called the fourteen acres 
containing 13 acres"; 5 closes of marsh ground lying between the Thames 
and Lambeth Marsh containing 28 acres; 5 acres of meadow ground lying 
in Lott Mead and commonly called the Wild Marsh; 300 acres of woodland 
called Northwood, and three coppices there containing 1 30 acres. The grant 
stated that it was intended to pull down the mansion house, the materials 
of which were valued at £6,000. The grant also included the Archbishop's 
barge house and other buildings near the rectory. The plan on Plate 60 
was made at this time. 

The manor was given back to the Archbishop at the Restoration. 
Except for the group of buildings known as Water Lambeth it continued to 
be largely undeveloped until the erection of Westminster Bridge and its 
approaches, for which the Archbishop sold land to the Bridge Commissioners. 

In 1806 the Archbishop obtained an Enclosure Act^'^ for the manor 
(part of the enclosure map is reproduced on Plate 51). Six years later a 
detailed survey of the northern part of the manor was made by Driver. The 
map, of which the Church Commissioners have two copies, measures approxi- 
mately 9 feet by 10 feet, and on it every holding, garden and field is marked 
and the names of the tenants are given. It must have been invaluable during 
the next 20 years when rapid road and building development was taking 
place all over the manor. 

In 1820 the Archbishop obtained an Act of Parliament which, among 
other things, enabled him to let on long building leases his lands in Lambeth 
"whereof from the Increase of Trade and population and the consequent 
necessity or demand for Buildings and other Improvements are . . . par- 
ticularly convenient for the Scite of Houses, Warehouses and other Buildings 
to a very considerable extent. "i* 

The court rolls of the manor of Lambeth from 1280 until 1928 are 
(with some gaps) still preserved by the Church Commissioners as are copies of 
the leases granted in consequence of the above-mentioned Act. These 
records have been drawn on to a large extent in compiling the history of 
individual sites in the following chapters, though the lay-out was so com- 
pletely altered during the rapid development of the 1820's that it is not 
always easy to identify individual plots of ground. 



THE MANOR OF KENNINGTON 



The Manor of Kennington 

The manor of Kennington is divided into two main sections, Prince's 
Meadows on the north, which was demesne land, and the land between 
Black Prince Road and Vauxhall, which was partly demesne and partly 
copyhold. The manor of Lambeth was sandwiched in between these two 
sections, but scattered in it were a few detached portions of Kennington 
Manor. The lay-out can be seen on the plan on Plate 2 reproduced from 
Middleton's Survey of 1785. Some parts of the estate have been sold or 
ex'changed since that survey but, in the main, there has been little alteration 
in it up to the present day. The reason for the intermingling of the two 
manors can only be surmised, but it probably originated in Saxon times. 
Kennington has been interpreted as "royal manor" and it has been suggested 
that Saxon kings had a palace there,^^ but although the manor has been royal 
property since 1337 it was not so at the time of Domesday Book, when it 
was described as being in Brixton Hundred, and in the holding of Teodric 
the goldsmith, who also held it in the time of Edward the Confessor. "It 
was then assessed for 5 hides, now for i hide and 3 virgates. The land is for 
2i ploughs. In demesne there is one plough; and 4 villeins and 3 bordars 
with 2 ploughs. There is i serf; and 4 acres of meadow. It was, and is, worth 
3 pounds."^ 

At the time of his death in 1260, Kennington was held by William 
de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle. i" The reversion of it was probably included 
in his conveyance of land to Richard de Bolebec, for in 1276/7 a daughter of 
Richard's son, Hugh de Bolebec, and her husband, Hugh Delaval, sold it to 
John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey.^ The latter died at Kennington in 1 304 
and his grandson, John Plantagenet, Earl of Warenne and Surrey, in 13 16 
granted this and other manors to Edward 11.^^ During the upheavals of the 
next few years the manor changed hands several times. In 1322 it was 
granted to Hugh Le Despenser the elder, but in 1326, after the Despensers 
were apprehended and executed, it again reverted to the Crown. An inquisi- 
tion taken at this time shows that the issues of the manor were worth ;^20 
a year.i^ 

In 1327 the King granted the manor to Elizabeth de Burgh, his 
kinswoman, and it remained in her keeping until 1337, when she yielded it 
to the King in exchange for land in Suffolk. i*^ In the same year Edward III, 
by a charter dated from Woodstock, granted^® the manors of Kennington and 
Vauxhall and a meadow in Lambeth and Newington to Edward, Earl of 
Chester and Duke of Cornwall, commonly known as the Black Prince, 
"to be held by . . .[him] and his heirs, eldest sons of kings of England and 
dukes of Cornwall, and not to be granted to any other," so that it any such 
duke should die without a son to whom the duchy might descend, the manors 
and meadow should revert to the King until a son should be born who was 
heir apparent to the realm. With the exception of the sequestration during 
the Commonwealth period, this grant has remained operative ever since, 
and the manor of Kennington is administered with the other estates belonging 
to the Duchy of Cornwall. 




Edzvard, Prince of 

U'alis, 'the Black 

Prince' {Shield 

for Peace) 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

Edward, the Black Prince, took up residence in the manor house of 
Kennington and it remained a royal palace until the time of Henry VIII. 
Edward III frequently stayed there and dated letters there between 1338 and 

^343- 

In 1356, the year of the Battle of Poitiers, the Black Prince reserved 

to himself the right to purchase all victuals put up for sale in the manors of 

Kennington and Vauxhall for "the solace and succour" of the King's army 

in Gascony.^^ 

In 1362 the manor of Vauxhall was granted by Edward, Prince of 
Wales, to the Prior and Convent of Christ Church, Canterbury.!^ From this 
time Vauxhall and Kennington manors have a separate history (see p. 1 1). 

The Black Prince died at Westminster on 8th June, 1376, and was 
buried in Canterbury Cathedral. Stow^" relates how in 1377 the ten-year-old 
Prince Richard, then Duke of Cornwall in succession to his father, was 
entertained "on the Sunday before Candlemas, in the night, [by] one hundred 
and thirty Citizens, disguised and wellhorsed, in a Mummery, with sound of 
Trumpets, Sackbuts, Cornets, Shalmes, and other Minstrels, and innumer- 
able Torchlights of waxe; [who] rode from Newgate through Cheape over 
the Bridge through Southwarke, and so to Kennington besides Lambeth," 
where he was staying with his mother and his uncle, the Duke of Lancaster. 

Edward III died early in 1377, and on the 26th of June, King 
Richard, in the chief chamber of "his manor of Kenyngton," in the presence 
of the King of Castille, the Bishop of Worcester, John Bishop of Hereford, 
Robert de Assheton, the late King's Chamberlain, and others, delivered the 
great seal to the Chancellor, the Bishop of St. David's. ^^ 

On 3rd May, 1381, the King's clerk, Arnold Brocas, was appointed 
clerk of the works at the Manor of Kennington and other places, and William 
de Hannay was appointed to keep the accounts of the works there. ^^ 

The Patent Rolls for the next century contain many entries concerning 
the repairs and upkeep of Kennington Palace and the stewardship of the 
manor. One of the most notable clerks of the works there was Geoffrey 
Chaucer, who was appointed in 1389, with the wages of 2s. a day.^^ 

During the reign of Henry IV, his son Henry, Prince of Wales, 
frequently stayed at Kennington. The establishment was on a fairly lavish 
scale for on 13th November, 1400, provision was made for 400 quarters of 
oats to be taken for the use of the prince at Kennington, and a few days later 
100 quarters of oats and 100 quarters of wheat were also ordered for his use 
there.^^ In 1404 the manor was valued for the subsidy at (^xt, 6s. 8d.-i 

In 14 1 4 the King's esquire, John Waterton, constable of Windsor 
Castle, had a grant^^ for life of the office of keeper of the manor of Kennington 
in succession to John de Stanley, "chivaler," and in the same year John 
Straunge, clerk of the works there, had a writ of aid with power "to take 
stonecutters, carpenters and other workmen and labourers and stone, timber, 
tiles, shingles, glass, iron, lead and other necessaries," and to sell "boughs, 
bark and other residues of trees. "^^ 

By a patent of 1452, Henry VI committed to Ralph Legh the keeping 

6 



THE MANOR OF KENNINGTON 



of all the demesne lands and meadows of the manor, with a barn and other 
easements without "le pale," the rabbit warren and the rents and profits of 
the court, to hold for 30 years for the payment of 20 marks a year, on condition 
that he kept in repair the close of the warren, and the wall by the Thames and 
the barn, and met all expenses with the exception of those incurred on the 
manor house, so long as sufficient oak timber for the repair of "lez groun- 
cellez" of the barn and gutter (the ditch behind the river wall) was delivered 
to Ralph when he needed them.^^ Among later stewards of the manor were 
James and Robert Legh (1446), Thomas Facette (1460), John Davy (146 1), 
Thomas Saintleger (1465), Sir Robert Percy (1484), Richard Guldeford 
(1485) and Sir Richard Cholmeley and Sir John Dance (1516).^^ 

One of the last royal personages to use Kennington Palace was 
Catherine of Aragon, who stayed there when she first came to England in 
1 50 1, while her retinue were preparing for her ceremonial entry into London. ^^ 
In 1 51 6 a lease of the lordship of Kennington for 21 years was granted to 
Sir John Pulteney for a rent of ;^2 6 13s. 4d. a year,-^ and thenceforth the 
whole or the greater part of the manor was normally leased out to one or more 
lessees. 

In 1531, Henry VIII gave orders for the demolition of Kennington 
manor house and for its materials to be used in the erection of Whitehall 
Palace.-^ In the accounts of the works are items — for taking down the roof 
of the hall at Kennington Place; digging a dock near "Faulxe Halle" for 
loading barges; wages of workmen in pulling down the house and throwing 
down the walls; for the carriage of 16 loads of oaken timber and planks of 
elm from the same place to "Faulx Halle"; and for carriage of stone, flint, 
chalk and brickbats from the mill behind Westminster Abbey to the park 
wall, parcel of the stuff brought from Kennington Place and there landed.-^ 

In 1589 Queen Elizabeth granted a lease of Kennington to Richard 
Beamond and Miles Barker, gunners, in succession to David Vincent, under 
the description of the "demesne lands of our manor of Kennington. And all 
houses, buildmgs, structures, barns, stables, dovecotes, yards, orchards, 
gardens, land, meadow, feed, leasowes and pasture . . . containing by 
estimation, 122 acres . . . "-•* A reversionary lease to take effect from 1620 
was later granted to Thomas Webber. Edward Alleyn, founder of Dulwich 
College, bought both leases.'^ 

On 5th July, 1 61 7, in spite of the unexpired terms remaining on the 
old leases. Sir Noel Caron, the Dutch Ambassador, was granted a 2 i years 
lease of the manor, and undertook at his own costs to provide for the stewards 
and surveyors of the Prince of Wales sufficient meat, drink and lodging for 
themselves and their servants, and hay, litter and pasture for their horses 
for the space of two days and one night in every year.^^ Caron built himself a 
house in South Lambeth. He died in 1624 and was buried in St. Mary's 
Church. 

Francis, Lord Cottington, secretary to Prince Charles from 1622 to 
1625, succeeded Caron as lessee of the manor.^^ 

In 1629, the demesne lands were increased^^ by the addition of a 

7 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



piece of ground on the waterside near Vauxhall, which was surrendered to 
the King by the copyholder John Abrahall for /^ 1,400. It was known as 
Copped Hall, later as Vauxhall. 

When the royal estates were seized by parliament the manor was 
put into the hands of trustees among whom were Lord Fairfax, Sir William 
Waller, and Sir Henry Mildmay. In 1 650, William Scott bought the demesne 
lands of Kennington, which were valued at £2i'^1 7s. 6d. a year, and the 
Prince's Meadows, valued at ;^ii3 12s. 6d. a year.^'' In 1655 they were 
acquired by Thomas Scott of Marlow, who had also bought the manor of 
Lambeth. Richard Graves, who had acted as Scott's agent in the purchase, 
became the steward.-^ 

At the Restoration there was considerable competition for a lease of 
Kennington Manor. The successful applicant was Henry, Lord Moore, 
afterwards Earl of Drogheda, who on 22nd May, 1661, was granted a lease 
of Kennington for 31 years. ^^ A week later he sold his lease for ^^ 1,500 to 
John Morrice and Robert Clayton. Moore's lease gives the names of the 
undertenants as: Paul French, who held "the great barn (by Kennington 
Manor House) with a parcel of land adjoining, containing eight acres and 
the brickfield of four acres"; Anne Hinde, a plot of 14 acres and another 
plot of 20 acres and six cottages in the Butts (now Black Prince Road); — 
Dover, "forty acres near Kennington Common. "^^ These properties can 
be seen on the 1636 plan (Plate i). 

Vauxhall (or Copped Hall) and Prince's Meadows were omitted 
from Moore's lease. The former the King retained in his own hand, the 
latter was granted to John Arundell (see p. 14). 

In 1700 Sir Robert Clayton was granted a further lease for 30^ 
years at a rent of ;^i6 los. gd. a year. He died on i6th July, 1707, having 
been an M.P. for the City of London for a number of years. He was 
succeeded by his nephew, William, who was created a baronet in 1732, and 
who obtained a renewal of the Kennington lease. Reference to the pedigree of 
the Claytons in the appendix will help to clarify the somewhat complicated 
history of the connection of the family with Kennington Manor during the 
1 8th and early 19th centuries. 

In 1 76 1 a new lease of Kennington was granted to Sambrook Free- 
man in trust for William Clayton, second son of the first baronet, for 99 years 
from 1777, if William or George Clayton (sons of William Clayton) or 
James Medwin should live so long, at the old rent of ^16 los. 9d. and a fine 
of ;{:468.i^ 

In 1 775 an Act of Parliament was passed "to enable William Clayton 
Esquire, during his life, and the Guardians of his Infant Children after his 
decease to make building and Improving Leases of certain lands and premises 
part of the Manor of Kennington . . . held by Letters Patent . . . and to 
raise money for the payment of the Fines and expenses of renewing the said 
Letters Patent and . . . granting such Building and Improving Leases."-^ 
Relying on this Act, and on the fact that renewals of the leases to his 
family had been granted by the Duchy for a period of over a century, 

8 



PLATE I 







o 

H 

O 

W 

o 

X 

o 



H 

O 



PLATE 2 



Al:< 1\a\ 



i5U duo-?. ./ ,^^\cir 





Ihj^L 



i}/(i/i(tl/-(}// 




-.■ Ml 4 ir,,. 



L 



PLAN OF THE MANOR OF KENNINGTON, 1785 



llu- 



C 0\'S'VY >'j- ^ I'Kiur 




s, 



PLATE 3 




THE MANOR OF KENNINGTON 

Clayton and his agent granted a number of building leases of Kennington 
property for absolute periods of up to 99 years. His son William succeeded 
to the property in 1785 and became 4th baronet on the death of his cousin, 
Sir Robert Clayton, in 1799. 

It was obvious that the three lives for which the lease had been 
granted would not last out the 99 years, and in 1808 Sir William offered to 
surrender the original lease if the Duchy would grant him an annuity of 
£1,22^ for the remainder of the three lives. The Duchy refused on the 
ground that the sub-leases had been granted on terms which could not be 
justified. George Clayton died in 1828 and James Medwin soon after, and 
Sir William, having failed to get a renewal of his lease from the Duchy, filed 
a bill in the Court of Chancery. The arguments on both sides were long and 
intricate. The Clayton family had undoubtedly done well out of the estate, 
but the Duchy authorities had asked for trouble by granting a lease for 
99 years or three lives when it was normally assumed that three lives were 
about equal to 3 1 ) ears.^^ 

Sir William died in 1834 while his case was still pending and the 
estate reverted to the Duchy. 

The series of records preserved in the Duchy of Cornwall office 
include the rolls of the Courts Leet and Courts Baron, which were held until 
recent times, and a number of surveys and plans, which provide detailed 
information of the gradual development of Kennington Manor from the 
Tudor period to the present day. Copies of a number of these have also 
survived at the Public Record Office. 

The first survey is dated i8th April, 1554.^0 It lists only four free- 
holders: Mary Coo, widow, holding a tenement occupied by James Ambley, 
gentleman, and another tenement and cottage, at the yearly rent of a pound of Duc^y of Cornzvall 
cinnamon; Ralphe Ode, holding several tenements lately held by Roger 
Leigh; Richard Stoughton, gentleman, holding a tenement occupied by 
Mary Coo, with a curtilage and half an acre of ground, lately held by John 
Parker, valet to the King's Wardrobe; and Thomas Pouley, of London, 
fishmonger, holding ten scattered tenements in Lambeth Marsh. Most of 
the copyhold land is described as meadow, pasture or garden ground. In 
1 6 1 5 John Norden made a complete survey of the manor with the names of the 
tenants and the rents they paid.^^i The manor is stated to consist of two parts. 
The boundaries of the first part are described as beginning "at the Bridge 
called Masardes Bridge (over Vauxhall Creek, at the junction of Brixton Road 
and Camberwell New Road), from thence by a common water course runs along 
to a Bridge called Martins (Merton) Bridge, and from thence as far as a Stone 
Bridge called Fauxhall Bridge and from the said Bridge by the highway 
between Coptehall and Fauxehall to the River Thames; and by the shore of 
the said River to a Port called the Docke where the Manor of Lambeth 
belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and this Manor of Kennington, 
belonging to the Duchy of Cornwall are divided. And from the Docks 

* There is another, annotated, copy of the survey in the City of London Record Office 
which differs in various particulars from that in the office of the Duchy of Cornwall. 




SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



aforesaid towards the east by the Highway leading towards Kennington as 
far as another Common Water Course which divides the aforesaid Manor 
of Lambeth and a certain Parcel of the Demesne Land of this Manor extending 
itself in length northwards into the Highway leading from Newington to 
Croydon and by the said Highway south east as far as Kennington Common 
including as well the said Common as a Close of the Heir of John Hartop 
as far as the Highway leading from Croydon into and as far as the said 
Common, and so by the Water Course first mentioned." 

The bounds of the other part of the manor (later known as Prince's 
Meadows) begin "near the River Thames at the mouth of a certain Water 
Course which divided the Manor of Parres Garden and the Manor of 
Kennington and from the mouth of the said Water Course by a ditch of water 
under the Green Wall leading from Parres Garden against St. George's 
Fields to another ditch of Water, secondly from the said Field and by the 
said ditch towards the south to the Green Lane which leads from the Town 
of Lambeth marsh to the Marshes of Lambeth north west, and by that lane 
to the River Thames to a place called the Sluice and from thence by the 
shore of the River to the mouth of the Common Water Course which divides 
the Manor of Parres Garden and Kennington as before mentioned." In 
addition there were "many Tenements lying dispersed within the Town of 
Lambeth Marsh." 

In 1636 Sir Charles Harbord made a survey^^ of the demesne land 
of the manor. The accompanying plan, which is preserved in the Duchy of 
Cornwall Office, is reproduced on Plate i. It shows the Prince's Meads 
(or Meadows) inset in one corner. "Kennington Way" corresponds to the 
modern Black Prince Road, while "Kingston Rode" is on the line of 
Kennington Lane. The "great barn" of the Manor House was approxi- 
mately on the site of St. Anselm's Church at the junction of Sancroft Street 
with Kennington Road. 

A parliamentary survey was made of the manor in 1649 detailing 
both demesne and copyhold lands.^^ The value of the latter was estimated at 
;^772 I OS. The perquisities of the fines and amerciaments were estimated at 
;^ioo 14s. a year, but this was corrected to ^60 upon further enquiry being 
made in 1654 on behalf of the purchaser.^^ The purchaser seems also to 
have complained that too high a value had been set on the houses "being but 
very weake and slender buildings." 

There does not seem to have been a general survey made of the 
manor at the time of the Restoration, but Sir Charles Harbord made a 
report^* which is mainly of interest for the information it gives about Prince's 
Meadows (see p. 14) and Vauxhall (see p. 148). 

An account rendered by John Summersell, bailiff, for the years 17 14 
to 1724 sets out the names of the tenants and their payments. Among the 
tenants listed as having property in Lambeth Marsh is Nicholas Hawksmoor, 
the architect.i^ 

The most complete and detailed survey of the manor was that made 
by Messrs. Hodskinson and Middleton in 1785, the index map from which 

10 



VAUXHALL MANOR 



is reproduced on Plate 2. In this survey every parcel of land with its 
tenants is listed and described and there are plans of the whole estate. ^^ 

These surveys will be frequently referred to in the accounts of the 
roads and houses set out in subsequent chapters. 

Vauxhall Manor 

There is no mention in the Domesday Survey of the manor of Vauxhall. 
It seems to have been part of the manor of South Lambeth which was held 
in the reign of King John by William de Redvers, Earl of Devon, and it 
was part of the dower of Margaret, wife of Baldwin de Redvers. When, 
after Baldwin's death in 1 2 1 6, Margaret was forced to marry the notorious 
Falkes de Breaute, the latter lived on her land for a time and gave to it the 
name of Fawkes Hall or Vauxhall. ^ After the death of Falkes in 1226 the 
king granted to Earl Warenne "all the houses which were of Falkes de 
Breaute with appurtenances at Lambeth to inhabit until the son and heir of 
Baldwin, Earl of the Isle of Wight, should come of age."^^ Vauxhall remained 
in the hands of the Redvers family until 1293 when, at the death of Isabel de 
Fortibus, sister of Baldwin de Redvers, both it and the manor of South 
Lambeth passed into the hands of the Crown. From this time forward the 
two manors were amalgamated under the name of Vauxhall. In 1308 
Vauxhall was granted to Richard de Gerseroy, the King's butler, and in 
1317 to Roger Damory and Elizabeth his wife, the King's niece. Roger 
Damory joined the rebel forces of the Earl of Lancaster in 132 i and at his 
death his estates were forfeited.^ In 1324 Vauxhall, like Kennington, was 
granted to Hugh le Despenser, and their history is similar until 1362, when 
the Black Prince granted Vauxhall with 31 acres and i rood of land in 
Lambeth and four "hopes" and "delles . . . lying by the water of Thames, 
called Smythopes, Risshopes, Litlehopes and Halfhopes at the Walende" 
to the Prior and Convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, to found chantries 
tor the king and prince in that priory. ^^ This grant was a condition made by 
the Pope for a dispensation to the prince to marry his cousin, the Fair Maid 
of Kent. 

After the dissolution of the priory in 1539, Vauxhall Manor was 
granted to the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church-^ in whose hands it re- 
mained until it was taken over by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The 
house, later known as Vauxhall (Plate 120), stood on ground which was 
originally part of the manor of Kennington and had no connection with 
Vauxhall Manor proper. 



II 



CHAPTER I 
PRINCE'S MEADOWS 

Prince's Meadows was the name given to the detached portion of 
the demesne land of the manor of Kennington lying at the northern end of 
the parish between Broadwall and the site of Waterloo Road, inside the 
Narrow Wall. 

The river front, being reclaimed land, was not considered to be part 
of the Meadows but was known as "waste." It was, however, only the 
"waste" which is shown to have buildings on the 1636 survey of the manor 
(Plate i). There the river front is indicated as having been "campsheathed," 
i.e., protected by a wall of timber and the sloping ground of the foreshore 
inside it made level. Several houses and a crane are shown near the parish 
boundary, while the remainder of the "waste" is marked as timber yards or 
osier beds. The Meadows are divided into two. They appear to be entirely 
unbuilt on and are surrounded by watercourses. 

In the reign of Henry VIII, William Baseley, who owned the manor 
of Paris Garden (now roughly coincident with the parish of Christ Church) 
and ran a gaming house there,^® obtained a lease^^ of marshland being part of 
Kennington Manor. This was almost certainly Prince's Meadows, but the 
name does not seem to have come into use until later, the first documentary 
reference to it that has been found being in Norden's Survey of Kennington 
made in 1615.^^ 

In the Prince's Meadows area Norden listed a "meadow called 
Princes Mead" containing 25 acres and let to William Page, an osier ground 
adjoining the river next to Prince's Mead containing 4 acres and let to John 
Johnson, John Olife and Robert Robinson, and half an acre of ground with 
a wharf let to William Smythe. He also included a piece of copyhold land 
with buildings "formerly Cockerhams" containing ij acres, lying next to 
the Thames and called the Corner Meadow in the marsh known as Prince's 
Meadow, and added the note that though this was claimed by Ralph Hanmer, 
gentleman, de jure, he was not in possession, and the tenant was of the opinion 
that the land belonged to the manor of Paris Garden." 

Paris Garden was almost entirely surrounded by the Pudding Mill 
Stream, but it is obvious that by the beginning of the 17th century some 
doubt had arisen as to the exact boundary between it and Prince's Meadows 
near the river. The confusion probably arose over the King's (or Queen's) 
Barge House, which was, from the time of Queen Elizabeth, and perhaps 
earlier, near or over the sluice from Pudding Mill Stream into the river. In 
1636 Harbord^^ stated that the Earl of Arundel held 2 "lowe meadowes 
lyeing together called the Prince's Meades" containing nearly 23 acres, 
"a wharfe strongly built called the Cittie Wharfe" and another new wharf 
"lyeing between the Erie of Arundell his garden and the Thames adjoyning 
to the Sluce." Harbord was doubtful whether this last wharf should have 

^ The 1554 survey of Kennington states without reservation that li acres of land in the 
"corner meadow" in Lambeth Marsh was copyhold land held by John Hill. 

12 



PRINCE'S MEADOWS 



been included within the manor or not, and even more so about the wharf 
and timber yard in the tenancy of Jeremy Crewe, on which half the King's 
Barge House stood, and the wharf and timber yard in the tenancy of Katherine 
Strikeley, widow, on which a number of houses and cottages stood. Harbord 
noted that Norden had described the manor of Kennington as extending to 
the decayed common sewer, then "not used and partly filled up" on the 
mouth of which the King's Barge House was situated. A plan, a part of 

which is reproduced 
here, of the northern 
part of Paris Garden 
at about this date 
shows the King's 
Barge House and the 
land referred to by 
Norden as the Corner 
Meadow included 
within that manor. 
As at that time the 
Earl of Arundel was 
in possession of the 
land on both sides 
of the boundary the 
matter was perhaps 
not considered to 
be immediately im- 
portant. 

In 1660 Sir 
Charles Harbord re- 
ported that the site of 
the old Barge House 
erected by Queen 
Elizabeth "is con- 
fessed to be his 
Majestie's ground," 
but that the rest of the wharf was "detained from his Majesty" and the 
prospective lessee ought to try and recover the same "for his Majestie's use 
and benefit," at his own costs. ^* 

It seems probable that the Barge House was originally built on 
land belonging to Kennington Manor, being royal property, and that the 
boundary between the manors ran along the sewer or sluice under the barge 
house, but that subsequently the mouth of the sluice which had marked the 
boundary was filled up and the boundary line diverted. Certainly the sites 
of the King's Barge House and Corner Meadow are now included within 
Christ Church parish though the small strip of ground west of the sluice on 
which one part of the King's Barge House originally stood is still considered 
to be a detached portion of the Duchy of Cornwall property. 

13 




SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



In 1649 Daniel Goodersay was tenant of Prince's Meadows, and 
several wood yards are listed as lying along the river front, while Judah 
Walker held one little tenement in the north-east corner of the Prince's 
Meadows "consisting of three litle roomes wherein washing weomen live."^^ 
A further survey was made in the same year to decide whether the cranes and 
houses on two of the wood yards were tenants' fixtures which might be 
removed at the end of their lease. It was decided that the dwelling houses 
were "soe fixed to the freehould and soyle ... by strong sleepers of wood 
lying deepe within the ground and by other substantiall ground cills and 
foundacons, some of brick and others of wood" they ought not to be 
removed; but that the two cranes and a counting house stood on removable 
blocks and were the tenants' goods.^^ 

In 1660 Harbord had to report^* that during "the late usurped 
Authority" many houses and wharves had been erected along the river bank 
by Prince's Meadows. William Dover held one dwelling house and about 
1 1 acres of the meadows and ten small houses along the river bank; Boydell 
Cuper had 7 acres of the meadow and 13 small tenements; Fulke Morris 
had 6 acres of meadow; Henry White had 13 small cottages erected by him 
on part of the bank and a house and yard, part of the same wharf; Edward 
Smith had a house and yard on the same wharf and Thomas Shirley had a 
yard called City Wharf and some houses built there by Mr. Bassett, together 
with houses and yards held under him by one Sandon and Ralph Wilmot. 
Much of the ground was used for the washing and whitening of cloth. 

He further reported that three barge houses had been recently 
erected there, one for the Lord Mayor, a second with a small cottage for the 
Merchant Taylors' Company, and a third for the Woodmongers' Company. 
There was some difficulty at this time in adjusting the claims of tenants who 
had spent money during the Commonwealth period in improving properties 
which at the Restoration reverted to the Crown. Harbord recommended 
that these tenants should be given leases before any general grant of the 
whole demesne was made. Among others the Lord Mayor and Commonalty 
of the City and the Merchant Taylors' Company were granted leases^^ of 
their barge houses, and these remained in their tenancy until the beginning 
of the 19th century. The barge house of the Woodmongers was leased to 
them for 3 1 years, but the lease does not appear to have been renewed. ^^ 
A lease of Prince's Meadows was granted to John Arundell in 1661. 

In 1 67 1 and again in 1676 John Arundell was granted renewals of 
his lease. In the latter year he sublet the ground to Richard Rawe. It was 
described in the lease as "meadows, wharves and osier grounds bounded on 
the north by the land called Le Banke and extending to the place where 
there is built a certain ruinous house called the King's Old Barge House 
towards the north, up to a certain parcel of ground lately of Henrie Earl of 
Arundel towards the west near the Sluice. "^^ 

It was during Arundell's tenancy that some of the remaining frag- 
ments of the Arundel marbles from Arundel House in the Strand were 
dumped on the waste ground bordering Prince's Meadows. James Theobald 

14 



PRINCE'S MEADOWS 

has left it on record^'' that this ground was shortly afterwards let for a timber 
yard and that when the foundations for the new St. Paul's Cathedral were 
laid "great quantities of the rubbish were brought over thither to raise the 
ground, which used to be overflowed every spring tide; so that by degrees, 
those statues, and other marbles, were buried under the rubbish . . . and 
lay there for many years almost forgot and unnoticed." Theobald's father 
obtained a lease of this ground in 171 2 and in digging foundations for new 
buildings came upon some of the fragments. These were dug up and sub- 
sequently some of them were acquired by the Earl of Burlington and sent to 
Chiswick House and some by the Duke of Norfolk and sent to Worksop. 
Theobald himself used some blocks of marble to put in his house, the 
Belvedere, a little farther up the river (see p. 51). 

In March, 1699, Sir Francis Child was granted a lease of Prince's 
Meadows, excepting the barge houses, to commence from 1717, but in 1716 
he assigned his interest to Richard Rawe of St. Columb, Cornwall. Richard 
Rawe died shortly afterwards, and in 171 8 Frances his widow and Richard 
Agar of the Middle Temple were granted a lease of the site of the Wood- 
mongers' barge house; this land is described as "lately part of a yard called 
Collyar's Yard, bounded by the Gates and Pallisadoes on the Thames Wall 
south. "^' 

In 1734 Mrs. Rawe and Richard Agar obtained a lease in their own 
right of the whole of Prince's Meadows, with the exception of the two barge 
houses, and in 1765 this was renewed to Mrs. Frances Rawe. At Mrs. 
Rawe's death her estate went into Chancery and Thomas Duck, the receiver 
appointed by the court, was granted a lease in trust for such persons as the 
court should direct, to commence from April, 1780. It is noteworthy that 
the fine for this renewal was ^,"3,710 whereas at the previous renewal in 1765 
it had been only £goo.'^'' 

In the 1780 lease the King's Old Barge House site was stated to be 
in the tenure of Thomas Lowe & Co., glass bottle makers, and the Wood- 
mongers' barge house site in the tenure of Margaret Eeles and Thomas 
Bond, timber merchants.^^ 

In the Middleton survey of i 785^^ there were stated to be 70 dwelling 
houses on Prince's Meadows with warehouses, dyehouses, storehouses, 
accounting houses, brewhouses, coachhouses, carthouses, stables, sawhouses, 
cranes, sheds, wharves, yards, gardens, fields, ponds and canals, containing 
in all nearly 29 acres." 

The 1799 edition of Horwood's map shows a large woollen cloth 
manufactory stretching south of Narrow Wall east of Beaufoy's Distillery 
(the site of Cuper's Gardens), the Patent shot works and timber yards along 
the river frontage, and a line of small houses along the south side of Narrow 
Wall. 

a The north-eastern corner is shown on the plan as the freehold of Mr. Russell, but in 
the text of the survey it is entered as leasehold of the manor with a note to say that it was formerly 
in Lambeth parish but then stated to be in Christ Church. The King's Barge House site is also noted 
to be in the tenancy of G. Russell, soap-boiler. 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



In I 8 I o, in view of the building of Waterloo Bridge and its approaches, 
an Act of Parliament was passed to enable the Prince Regent to grant leases 
of Prince's Meadows for 99 years from October, 18 15, for the purpose of 
building a "town" to be called "Prince's Town."^^ The state of the property 
at this time with the projected roads is shown on the plan on Plate 3. The 
whole property was leased to Thomas Lett and John Lett of Narrow Wall, 
timber merchants, for a fine of ^^55,1 00.* They developed some parts of 
the estate themselves but let the greater part on building leases in small plots. 

Narrow Wall was widened to form Commercial Road, now Upper 
Ground, and Stamford Street was continued as Upper Stamford Street to 
Waterloo Road; while Duke Street, now Duchy Street, Princes Street, 
now Coin Street, and Cornwall Road, a continuation and widening of Green 
Lane, running north and south, were made across them. 

Most of the houses were small and of little architectural interest. 
One of the largest commercial enterprises was the printing works of William 
Clowes, which occupied a considerable area of ground between Duchy 
Street and Coin Street. Clowes took over Applegath's works in 1821,^^ 
and the firm remained on the same site until the premises were bombed in 

The river bank was entirely given over to commercial purposes, 
timber yards, wharves, and the like. Of recent years two of the Metropolitan 
Borough Councils had dust destructors there, while on Bowater's Wharf the 
brothers Gatti had a generating station to supply light to the Adelphi Theatre 
in the Strand. ^^ 

The square shot tower, which stood east of Waterloo Bridge until 
1937, had ceased to manufacture shot for a number of years, and was used 
as an advertising sign. It was built circa 1789 by Messrs. Watts. Samuel 
Ireland in 1791^° spoke of it as "a new structure . . . [which] cost near 
six thousand pounds, but cannot be considered as an object ornamental to the 
river Thames." (Plate 6b.) It was about 150 feet high. In 1826, when it 
was owned by Messrs. Walker and Parker, the top part was destroyed by 
fire, but it was soon repaired and in use again. This shot tower was not the 
first of its kind to be built along the south bank. In 1758 Henry Raminger, 
of Christ Church, Southwark, had taken out a patent for the manufacture of 
lead shot, and a tower was built in that parish some years before the one in 
Prince's Meadows.^ An account of the round shot tower south-west of 
Waterloo Bridge is given on p. 47. 

A more detailed account of the development of Stamford Street is 
given in the next chapter. 

The London Botanic Garden 

Waterloo Junction and the streets immediately surrounding it stand 
on the site of the botanic garden opened by William Curtis in January, 1779. 

* These were the sons of the Thomas Lett who died in 1 820 and was buried in St Mary, 
Lambeth." 

16 



THE LONDON BOTANIC GARDEN 



The garden lay between Green Lane (now Cornwall Road) on the west and 
Broadwall on the east, while its southern boundary was the footpath known 
as Curtis's Halfpenny Hatch. Curtis's prospectus stated that subscribers 
of one guinea a year would be entitled to walk in the garden, use the library, 
and introduce one person; "the situation being low, renders it peculiarly 
favourable to the growth of aquatic and bog plants."*^ Curtis continued 
his garden in Lambeth Marsh until 1789, and much of his Flora Londinensis 
was prepared during this period. The reasons for his removal of his plants 
to a new site in Brompton are best given in his own words: "I had long 
observed with . . . regret, that I had an enemy to contend with in Lambeth 
Marsh, which neither time, nor ingenuity, nor industry, could vanquish; 
and that was the smoke of London, which, except when the wind blew 
from the South, constantly enveloped my plants ... In addition to this 
grand obstacle, I had to contend with many smaller ones . . . such as 
the obscurity of the situation, the badness of the roads leading to it, with the 
effluvia of surrounding ditches, at times highly offensive. 

"Nevertheless, when I reflected on the sums I had expended, when 
I surveyed the trees, the shrubs, and the hedges which I had planted now 
become ornamental in themselves and affording shelter to my plants . . . 
I should have . . . continued my garden under all its inconveniences had 
not my landlord exacted terms for the renewal of my lease too extravagant to 
be complied with."^^ 

The Curtis family held leases of about \\ acres from the Duchy of 
CornwalPSa and \\ acres from Sir William East (fessee of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury).42 It is probable that one or both were holding out for higher 
rent in expectation of building development in the neighbourhood though in 
fact this did not materialise until more than 20 years later. 

* The lease was held in the name of George Curtis, William's brother, and his mother. 



17 



CHAPTER 2 

Nos. 59-171 AND 64-184 STAMFORD STREET, FORMERLY 
UPPER STAMFORD STREET 

The continuation of Stamford Street from Broadwall to Waterloo 
Road was laid across Prince's Meadows in 1 8 1 5 in connection with the forma- 
tion of the approaches to Waterloo Bridge {see Plate 3). This part of 
the street was known as Upper Stamford Street until 1868, when it was 
incorporated with Stamford Street, Southwark, and re-numbered.^^ 

The earliest houses in Upper Stamford Street were on the north side 
at the Broadwall end (originally Nos. 1—7, afterwards 64—76). These houses 
were built by Thomas Lett, who held the main lease of Prince's Meadows. 
The 1823 ratebook^^ lists 7 tenants only, but by 1829 over 90 houses in the 
street were occupied.*^ 

By the beginning of this century most of the houses were in a bad 
state. Some were drastically repaired and altered about 19 10— 12, but many 
were pulled down and replaced by large buildings. On the south side, 
between Waterloo and Cornwall Roads, W. H. Smith & Son erected a 
large printing works in 19 14— 16, designed by C. Stanley Peach. It was 
sold to the proprietors of the Daily Telegraph in 1939, but was not occupied by 
them owing to the outbreak of war, and since that time has been used for 
storage.^^ It was badly damaged by enemy action. 

On the north side, the houses at the Waterloo Road corner were 
pulled down when the Royal Hospital for Children and Women was rebuilt 
in 1903—5,^^ and the Cornwall Road end of the terrace was removed soon after 
to provide a site for Cornwall House. The latter was built for H.M. Station- 
ery Office, but being completed in the middle of the 1914-18 war was 
used for several years as an army hospital, known as King George's 
Hospital. Since 1920 it has been occupied as government offices.*^ Boots 
Chemists erected a large building at the east corner of Cornwall Road in 1936 
(designed by Messrs. Henry Tanner),^^ and the block between Duchy Street 
and Broadwall is occupied by a large refrigerating plant erected in 1925-26.*^ 

Nos. 59 AND 61, The London School of Printing 

The older part of this building (Plate 8, a and b) was erected about 
1820^" to house the schools of the Benevolent Society of St. Patrick, a charit- 
able organisation founded in 1784 with the object of "educating, clothing and 
apprenticing" poor children "born of Irish parents in or near London. "^^ 
The building, which was erected by J. & H. Lee to the design of James 
Mountague,^^ was intended to accommodate about 400 children. The 
schoolrooms were planned as wings each side of a centre block containing 
committee rooms and living quarters for the master and mistress. 

The schools received royal patronage, and in 1821 ;^38 17s. was 
paid for the Royal Arms in Coade stone^^ which were erected over the porch 
and remained in position until 1921, when the property was bought by the 



STAMFORD STREET 



London County Council for use as the Central Printing School, now called 
the London School of Printing and Graphic Arts.^^ 

In 1908—9 an additional storey was built over each of the schoolroom 
wings to the design of C. Harrison Townsend.*^ Since 1921 considerable 
alterations and extensions have been made to the premises, including the 
building in 1930 of a wing to the Broadwall frontage which incorporated 
the site of No. 59 Stamford Street. The changes have involved the re- 
modelling of the original interior. 

Architectural Description 

The whole building is in yellow stock brick and is three storeys high 
with a basement. The wings are slightly set back and their top storey is of 
mansard type with dormer window lighting. 

The central part is three windows wide, the windows on each side 
of the entrance and on the second floor having gauged arches, slightly 
cambered on the undersides. 

The first floor windows have stone architraves and reveals, and like 
the windows above, are linked by bands at cill level. The first floor cill 
band is stopped against the plain entablature of the porch to the main entrance. 
This porch is set forward slightly and has Greek Doric columns and antae 
at each side. The wall within the porch is stuccoed and the doorway has an 
architrave surround. 

The parapet of the central part has a cornice and blocking course in 
stone. The blocking course is inflected upwards slightly at the centre and 
incised "DETUR DIGNIORI." 

The original ground storey wings have windows set in recess. These 
have semicircular heads and, like the other windows, have glazing bars 
to their double hung sashes. At each wing the first floor, which is a later 
addition, has two windows with gauged flat arches set slightly in recess. 
The windows are linked by a stone band beneath the cills. This storey has 
swept ends in stone and is surmounted by a stone cornice and plain parapet. 
The detail to the Duchy Street elevation is similar. 

The first floor cill bands are incised "BENEVOLENT SOCIETY 
OF ST. PATRICK INSTITUTED A.D. 1784," but this lettering is now 
covered by wood fascias. 

At the edge of the kerb in front of the main entrance are two cast-iron 
bollards. They are ribbed and have an Irish harp surmounted by a crown in 
relief on three faces. They are tapered, being square at the base and octagonal 
at the top. 

Nos. 63-91 (odd) (formerly 102-116 Upper Stamford Street) 

Nos. 63-91, which were built about 1829-30,'*^ form a terrace in 
yellow stock brick with four storeys (except No. 89 — three storeys) and a 
basement. Nos. 63, 89 and 91 alone retain much of their original 
appearance. 

19 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Nos. 65-87, which now make a uniform group within the terrace, 
were formerly individual houses but have been converted laterally into flats. 
Each flat is two houses in width and alternate entrances have been replaced 
by windows. The group has a rusticated ground storey with a continuous 
iron balcony at first floor level. At the centre Nos. 73-79 project forward 
slightly and have stucco quoins at the returns. At Nos. 75 and 77 the rusti- 
cated treatment of the ground storey is extended through the first floor to 
form a stylobate to the Corinthian colonnade above. The colonnade is the 
central feature of the group and extends through the second and third floors. 
The entablature above the colonnade also extends over Nos. 73 and 79. The 
entablature and blocking course are broken forward above the end and 
central pairs of columns. The central portion of the group, which rises 
slightly above the wings, is surmounted by vases at each end. All the upper 
windows, which originally had gauged flat arches, now have stucco architrave 
surrounds. The first floor windows to the wings are in pairs with alternate 
triangular and segmental pedimented heads. The wings have plain moulded 
cornices at the parapets and a main cornice at third floor level. Triple 
keystones above the second floor windows cut into the frieze under the main 
cornice. 

All the entrances are round headed, some having frets to the sur- 
rounds and reveals, while others have Greek Doric columns at each side. 

The conversion of the houses into flats and the major alterations. 
Including the erection of the Corinthian colonnade at the centre of the group, 
were executed to the design of John Coleridge about 1912.*^ 

No. 63 has double-hung sashes with gauged flat arches to the win- 
dows above the ground floor shop. The shop-front, an alteration in Victorian 
times, has a fascia and cornice at first floor level carried on fluted columns 
with foliated caps. Bands at second and third floor levels are returned on the 
blank elevation to Duchy Street. 

No. 89, though of one storey less, is uniform In height with the rest 
of the terrace. It has semicircular heads to the windows at the ground floor 
and to the entrance, which has fluted surrounds and reveals. The upper 
windows have gauged flat arches, those to the first floor being in round- 
headed recesses linked by moulded impost bands. A coarsely detailed 
Victorian balcony extends across the front at first floor level slightly above the 
neighbouring balconies. 

No. 9 1 has a shop with display windows flanked by pilasters on the 
main elevation and on the return to Coin Street. The ground storey is rusti- 
cated except at the side entrance. The upper windows on both elevations 
have gauged flat arches and an original iron balcony extends across the front 
at first floor level. The entrance in Coin Street is round headed and similar 
In detail to that at No. 89. 

Nos. 93—123 (odd) (formerly 101-86 Upper Stamford Street) 

Nos 95-123 form a similar terrace to Nos. 65-87, pairs of houses 
having been converted laterally into flats by John Coleridge at about the 

20 



STAMFORD STREET 



same time. There is a similar central feature with Corinthian pilasters 
through the upper two floors supporting an entablature and balustraded 
parapet. The parapet sets up a little above the skyline of the rest of the 
terrace, and has vases over the returns and over the end pilasters. There are 
also slight breaks forward which relieve the flanks at each side of the centre 
portion. At each of these breaks there are also vases above the parapets. 

Above all the first floor windows are triangular and segmental 
pediments except at Nos. 95 and 97, which have plain stucco keys and 
architrave surrounds. A continuous balcony links the terrace at first floor 
level but does not extend over No. 123, which has a ground floor shop. 

No. 93, on the corner of Coin Street, was a public house (the Manor 
House). It was of similar character to the rest of the terrace but formed no 
part of the group. It was demolished at the end of 1933.*^ 

These houses were finished and occupied by 1829. In 1840 Nos. 1 1 1 to 123 (formerly 
86 to 92 Upper Stamford Street) were owned by John and Silas Galsworthy, grandfather and great- 
uncle respectively of John Galsworthy, novelist. Both of them had been resident in the street since 
1829, John in 1829-30 at No. i54(formerly 54) on the north side of the street, and in i84oatNo. 
121 (formerly 87) and Silas at No. 121 in 1829-30 and at No. in (formerly 92) in 1840-50.*^ 
Silas Galsworthy had been in business as a builder in London for some time when his brother John 
came to join him about 1 830^^ and it seems fairly certain that they were responsible for the erection 
of Nos. 1 1 1-123. Both were prototypes of characters in the Forsyte Saga. 

The Rev. J. Aitken Johnston, curate of St. John's, Waterloo Road in 1845-8 and vicar in 
1848-71 was living at No. 103 in 1845. 

David Laing, architect (;^f p. 27) was at No. 105 in 1829-35. 

Nos. 78-106 (even) (formerly 8-22 Upper Stamford Street) 

The whole of the terrace Nos. 78—106, which was built in 1829-30, 
was demolished during the recent war with the exception of the basement, 
ground and part of the first floor of No. 106. This building has a porch 
entrance, supported by two light columns, on the return elevation to Coin 
Street. The doorway has fluted quadrant reveals and a semicircular headed 
fanlight. There is a fig tree growing in the area, the only tree in Stamford 
Street. The terrace is illustrated on Plate lob. 

Charles Mollis, architect, lived at No. 10 (afterwards 82) in 1825-1828. 

Nos. 108-138 (even) (formerly 23-38 Upper Stamford Street) 

Of the long terrace Nos. 108-138, erected circa 1829, only Nos. 
108— 1 16 now remain. These are plain in detail with four storeys and base- 
ment below the parapets. They are in yellow stock brick and of two windows 
in width. There are gauged flat arches to all the windows; these are recessed 
and most possess glazing bars. Nos. i 10, 112, and 1 16 have original cast-iron 
balconies linking the first floor windows. Nos. 108 and 114 have parts of 
their balconies made Into first floor window guards. All, excepting No. io8, 
have round headed entrances with reeded door surrounds. No. 108 has a 
porch entrance in Coin Street, with a lunette over the doorway which is 
flanked by wing lights. 

21 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



The Church of St. Andrew, Coin Street 

During the 1 840s population swarmed into the network of mean 
streets and houses north and south of Upper Stamford Street and in 1846, 
in accordance with Peel's Act "to make better Provision for the Spiritual 
Care of populous Parishes,"^^ Prince's Town or Meadows was formed into 
a new church district by Order in Council.^* It had no permanent church for 
10 years,^* but in 1854 the Commissioners for Building New Churches, 
having failed in their attempts to purchase ground from the Duchy of Corn- 
wall, bought a plot between Prince's Street (now Coin Street) and Cornwall 
Road from Richard Palmer Roupell.^* This ground had formerly been part 
of Curtis's Botanical Garden (see p. 16). The Church of St. Andrew's was 
designed by Samuel Sanders Teulon in a style described at the time as 
"Geometric Decorated." It seated nearly 800 people and cost just over 
;/^ 1 0,000. One item in the bill was for extra digging and driving piles 
"consequent upon the tides." The church was consecrated in June, 1856. 
In 1874 the vicar, the Rev. Frederick Tugwell, bought additional land and 
rebuilt one of the aisles, inserting five windows in what had previously been 
a blank wall.^* 

During the war of 1939—45 St. Andrew's was so badly damaged as 
to be rendered unusable, though most of its fabric still remains (Plate 9). 

List of Incumbents and Vicars. 1846, Agmond C. Carr; 1850, 
Alfred S. Canney; 1858, Lewen Tugwell; 1865, Frederic Tugwell; 1883, 
Trevor Fielder; 1892, George Edward Asker; 1900, George R. Lees; 
1 9 15, Thomas Walton; 1926, Wilfrid G. B. Middleton; 1938, Arthur 
W. Burfield; 1949, Eric W. A. Dean. 

Architectural Description 

St. Andrew's Church, which is orientated approximately north and 
south, has at its north-east corner a bold tower and spire. The spire, which is 
octagonal, is slated and rises from the four gables over the belfry stage of the 
tower. The church is built in stock brick close banded with rough-dressed 
stone coursing. It has a clerestoried nave with aisles at each side. The 
light-coloured brickwork of the interior is relieved with red bricks in regular 
courses and in geometrical patterns. With the gabled end wall of the nave, 
the spire and tower close the vista at the southern end of Coin Street. The 
church shows strongly that Continental influence common in much of 
Teulon's work. 



22 



CHAPTER 3 
WATERLOO BRIDGE 

Until the beginning of the 1 9th century there was only one bridge, 
Blackfriars, between Westminster and London Bridges. The erection of 
Westminster Bridge had given a stimulus to building development in 
Lambeth and in 1809 prospects were sufficiently good to encourage a com- 
mercial company to obtain an Act of Parliaments^ for the erection of a new 
toll bridge, to be called the Strand Bridge, from Westminster to Lambeth. 
The position chosen was the point at which the river bends sharply eastward, 
and provision was made for an approach road on the south side from the 
Obelisk at the junction of Westminster Bridge Road and Blackfriars Road. 

Mr. John Rennie was appointed engineer and the first stone of the 
bridge was laid on nth October, 18 ii.^^ Although the enabling Act was 
exceptionallv long and detailed, two more Acts were obtained (in 18 13 and 
I 8 16)"" before the bridge was completed. The second of these enacted that 
the name should be changed to Waterloo Bridge as "a lasting Record of the 
brilliant and decisive Victory achieved by His Majesty's Forces in conjunction 
with those of His Allies, on the Eighteenth Day of June One thousand 
eight hundred and fifteen." The bridge was opened by the Prince Regent 
in I 8 I 7, on the second anniversary of the battle of Waterloo. The cost of 
the structure was /^6 18,000 and the total cost of the bridge and approaches 
was ;{^937,ooo.s^ As a commercial speculation the undertaking was far from 
being a success since, in order to avoid payment of tolls, many people who 
would otherwise have used the bridge made a detour to cross the river by 
Blackfriars or Westminster Bridges, which were free.^^ Under the provisions 
of the Metropolitan Toll Bridges Act, 1877, the bridge was acquired by the 
Metropolitan Board of Works at a cost of ^^474,200 and freed from toll. 

The bridge was of grey Cornish granite of nine elliptical arches of 
120 feet span, the total length between the abutments being 1,240 feet.^^ 
The width between the parapets was 42 feet. 

The approaches, built on brick arches, extended almost level as far 
as the Strand to the north and sloped down to the level of York Road on the 
south bank. 

The continuity of the balustrading and entablatures each side of the 
bridge was broken by projecting rectangular embrasures (Plate 5^). The 
embrasures had solid parapets and stood on coupled Greek Doric columns 
above the cutwaters. 

The simple austere style of the bridge harmonised with that of 
Somerset House and formed a fitting foreground tor the view of the dome of 
St. Paul's. The Italian sculptor, Canova, described it as "the finest bridge 
in all Europe." 

In 1882-4 works were undertaken to protect the foundations which 
were becoming exposed by the scour of the river. Waterloo Bridge had a 
longer life than most Thames bridges but in 1923 a settlement in the pier 
on the Lambeth side of the central arch and subsidences in the parapet and 

23 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



carriageway gave warning that the structure was in a dangerous condition. 
Remedial measures were taken but proved unsuccessful, and the bridge was 
closed to traffic on iith May, 1924. A temporary bridge was constructed 
and for the next ten years controversy raged as to the fate of the old bridge. 
There were three serious alternatives: (i) that the old bridge should be 
strengthened and repaired and a modern bridge built at Charing Cross; 
(2) that the bridge should be rebuilt to the old design but made wider to 
take a greater volume of traffic; or (3) that a modern bridge should be built 
in place of the old. Finally, in 1934, the London County Council decided 
to go ahead with the erection of a modern bridge, but it was not until 1936 
that Parliament at last gave the Council authority to borrow money for the 
purpose. The new bridge was partially opened to traffic in 1 942, but was not 
formally opened until December, 1945.^^ Its cost was approximately 
;^ 1, 000,000. 

The engineers responsible for the demolition of the old bridge and 
the design and construction of the new one were Messrs. Rendel, Palmer & 
Tritton in association with the Council's Chief Engineer, Sir Peirson Frank. 
The collaborating architect was Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. 

Architectural Description 

The new Waterloo Bridge is simple in outline and without ornamenta- 
tion. It is constructed of reinforced concrete with facings of Portland stone 
and grey Cornish granite, the granite being recut from the masonry of the 
old bridge. It has five shallow spans each of about 250 feet with a beamed 
deck supported by two lines of arches. Each line of arches is in effect a 
continuous beam of varying depth. Above the reeded cornice bands on each 
of the plain outer surfaces at road level are simple railings and lighting 
standards. The bridge has a 58 feet carriageway for six lines of traffic with 
footpaths of 1 1 feet each side. 

Of Rennie's work the foundations forming part of the embankment 
wall on the north side still remain, and there is a memorial to Rennie consisting 
of two Doric columns and balustrading from the old bridge at the southern 
abutment which can be seen from the river walk. The stone-faced elliptical 
arch spanning Belvedere Road is also still standing and forms part of the 
southern approach, the approaches being re-used when the new bridge was 
built. Both old and new bridges were designed with staircases at each end 
giving access to the river. 



24 




PLATE 4 



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PLATE 5 





(a) HUNGERFORD BRIDGE FROM WATERLOO BRIDGE, 1850 
\b) WATERLOO BRIDGE, 1950 



p'^ 



PLATE 6 





(.0 CUPER'S GARDENS, circa 1760 

{b) THE SHOT TOWER EAST OF WATERLOO BRIDGE, 1827 



PLATE 7 





{a) BEAUFOY'S WINE MANUFACTORY 

{b) THE FEATHERS TAVERN, CUPER'S BRIDGE 



7^ 



PLATE 8 





(.0 SCHOOLS OF THE BENEVOLENT SOCIEIY OF 

ST. PATRICK, STAMFORD STREET, 1825 
{b) LONDON SCHOOL OF PRINTING, 1950 



PLATE 9 




ST. ANDREW'S, COIN STREET, 1945 



7^ 



PLATE lo 





(a) Nos. 63-91, STAMFORD STREET, 1950 

(b) Nos. 78-106, STAMl-'ORD STRI'',I-:T, 1935 



PLATE II 





WATERLOO ROAD 

(a) THE ROYAL WATERLOO HOSPITAL FOR CHILDREN 

(/>) THE ROYAL SWIMMING BATH, 1827 



CHAPTER 4 



WATERLOO ROAD 
Cuper's Garden 

The immediate approach to Waterloo Bridge was formed on a piece 
of ground which had tor many years been part of a famous pleasure ground, 
known as Cuper's (or Cupid's) Garden. The site was originally part of 
Lambeth Marsh. In the later Middle Ages it had belonged to the Earls of 
Arundel and in 1559 it was sold by Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, with Norfolk 
House and other property in Lambeth (see p. 137) to Richard Garthe and 
John Dyster under the description of "three acres of medowe" in "the 
bishopp of Canterburyes marshe."^^ It changed hands several times during 
the following thirty years, and in 1589^" Thomas Cure, gentleman, who 
owned the demesne lands of Paris Garden Manor, sold it to Richard Hanburie, 
citizen and goldsmith of London. The ground was then described as three 
acres "used as a great garden nowe or late in the tenure ... of Richard 
Love." In 1634 Augustine Skinner, who had acquired the property by his 
marriage, sold it to Thomas, Earl of Arundel,^^ the owner of considerable 
property in Paris Garden Manor as well as of Arundel House on the opposite 
side of the river. Arundel leased it to Abraham Boydell Cuper, who was 
employed in his household, and either Abraham or his son opened it as a 
public pleasure garden." 

In 1680 Thomas Bedford bought the ground in trust for Sir Leoline 
Jenkins. The latter, who had been Principal of Jesus College, Oxford, from 
1 66 1 to 1673, died in 1685 and bequeathed both this ground and the 
Hopes farther west along Narrow Wall (see p. 56) to the College.^" 

In 1686 Bodwyn Cuper acquired a lease of the adjoining ground, 7 
acres in extent, from the Archbishop of Canterbury^^ ^nd extended the gardens. 
Hatton, in 1708, described the "pleasant Gardens and Walks with Bowling- 
greens . . . whither many of the Westerly part of the Town resort for 
Diversion in the Summer Season. "^^ In 1738 the gardens and the Feathers 
Tavern were taken over by Ephraim Evans, who did much to make them 
more attractive. Among other things he built an orchestra in which was 
installed an organ by Bridge.^* Evans died in 1 740,^^ but the gardens con- 
tinued to flourish under the management of his widow. 

"Cuper's Gardens. This is to acquaint all Gentlemen and Ladies, 
that this present Saturday, the 25th instant, will be perform'd several curious 
Pieces of Musick, compos'd by Mr. Handel, Sig. Hasse, Mr. Arne, Mr. 
Burgess, etc., in which will be introduced the celebrated Fire-Musick, as 
originally compos'd by Mr. Handel . . . the Fireworks consisting of Fire- 
Wheels, Fountains, large Sky-Rockets, with an Addition of the Fire-Pump, 
etc., made by the ingenious Mr. Worman . . . play'd ofl:" from the Top of 
the Orchestra by Mr. Worman himself . . . The Widow Evans hopes, 

* When Arundel House was pulled down Cuper had some of the Arundel marbles to 
decorate his gardens. Later the statues were sold to John Freeman of Fawley Court and Edmund 
Waller of Beaconsfield for ^^75.^' 

25 




Jesus College, 
Oxford 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



that as her Endeavours are to oblige the Town, they will favour her Gardens 
with their Company; and particular Care will be taken there shall be better 
Attendance, and more commodious Reception for the Company."^^ 

This advertisement from a newspaper of 1 74 1 is typical of many 
which appeared between 1740 and 1752. In the latter year the gardens, 
which had always attracted pickpockets and other undesirable clientele in 
spite of the shilling admission charge, fell under the ban of the Act "for the 
better preventing thefts and robberies, and for regulating places of publick 
entertainment."^^ For a few years Mrs. Evans continued to run the place as 
an unlicensed tea garden in connection with the Feathers Tavern, with 
occasional private evening concerts and firework entertainments open only 
to subscribers, but it finally closed in 1760. In 1761 it was in the hands of 
the Jesus College authorities, who sold the lead from the roof of the "Great 
House" and felled some of the trees. The house near the entrance and other 
outbuildings were let out in tenements and the skittle ground was let tem- 
porarily to a Mr. Pillford.^" In 1762 Mark Beaufoy, who is described as a 
vinegar merchant, was granted a 20 year lease of the premises with permission 
to pull down the house and to use the materials to erect others.^"* Beaufoy 
distilled both wine and vinegar; in the flowery words of Pennant — ^^ 

"The genial banks of the Thames opposite to our capital, 
yield almost every species of white wine; and, by a wondrous magic, 
Messrs. Beaufoy pour forth the materials for the rich Frontiniac, to 
the more elegant tables . . . There is a magnificence of business in 
this ocean of sweets and sours, that cannot fail exciting the greatest 
admiration: whether we consider the number of vessels, or their 
size . . . On first entering the yard, two rise before you, covered 
at the top with a thatched dome; between them is a circular turret, 
including a winding staircase, which brings you to their summits, 
which are above twenty-four feet in diameter. One of these con- 
servatories is full of sweet wine, and contains fifty-eight thousand 
one hundred and nine gallons ... Its superb associate is full of 
vinegar . . . 

Besides these, is an avenue of lesser vessels . . ."'' 

In 1 8 13 the Strand Bridge Company purchased the three acres 
belonging to Jesus College for the formation of the Waterloo Bridge 
approach. The plan on Plate 3 shows the line of Waterloo Road cutting 

^ Beaufoy had set up in business there** some years previously. Among the records of the 
firm is a letter from Mark Beaufoy dated "28th January, 1756, Vinegar Yard, Cuper's Gardens," 
and other documents suggest that he was there even earlier. 

^ There is a drawing in the Guildhall Library, attributed to Paul Sandby and reproduced 
on Plate loSa, which has been entitled "Near Cuper's Bridge." It shows a windmill in the fore- 
ground which may have been the windmill shown near the bend of the river on the map of north 
Lambeth in the 1755 edition of Strype's Slow. On the other hand, the topographical details, 
and in particular the rural aspect of the opposite bank of the river, suggest that the view has been 
wrongly titled. It may possibly represent a mill further upstream (see p. 143). 

26 



WATERLOO ROAD 



across the gardens. The remainder of Waterloo Road was formed on land 
belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury J" 

Waterloo Bridge Approach 

The southern approach to Waterloo Bridge was carried on a series 
of brick arches with a gradual descent to the York Road and Stamford Street 
level. The result was that the houses on the bridge approach had a very 
extensive cellarage, and the Feathers Tavern on the east side (built by the 
landlord of the old tavern of the same name on the foreshore, illustrated in 
Plate 7^) was really two public houses one above the other, the lower one 
being in Commercial Road, now Upper Ground, and the upper in Waterloo 
Road. Albert Smith"^ gave a lurid description of this street above a street in 
the 1840's — 

"It is well ventilated ... by the wind, which rushes up 
frightful chasms from unknown depths, and through the gratings 
in the pavement. Its atmosphere is as light and rarefied as the house- 
keeping of its inhabitants, by reason of its elevation. For its houses 
are all cellars — stories under stories of cellars — the lowest of which 
no eye may fathom, but which terminate in subterraneous regions 
inhabited only by dray-horses, and lumbering wains, and burly 
coal-heavers. The commerce of Waterloo Road is limited; judging 
from the shop windows, it appears chiefly confined to bonnet-shapes, 
playbills and pale dry cigars." 

Sketches of the front and back elevations of the houses on the west 
side just prior to their demolition in 1949—50 are given in Plate 24. This 
row was known as Southampton Terrace. The present generation will, 
perhaps, chiefly remember it for the tattooist's shop at No. 72 (1918-49). 

The Royal Hospital for Children and Women 

One of the earliest buildings in Waterloo Road was the Royal 
Universal Infirmary for Children. This institution was the successor of the 
Universal Dispensary for Sick and Indigent Children founded in 18 16 by 
Dr. J. Bunnell Davis in premises in St. Andrew's Hill, Doctors' Commons. 
A four-storey building, two storeys being below the level of the road, was 
erected in 1823 at the north-east corner of Waterloo Road and Stamford 
Street, and was opened as a dispensary in the following year.^- The design 
was made gratuitously by David Laing, architect of the Customs House. 
Although the institution enjoyed the patronage of various royal personages 
and of the Lord Mayor of London it was perpetually short of funds, and, 
until 1 85 1, treatment was given only to out-patients, part of the building 
being let as a school.*^ 

In 1 851 a surgical ward was opened, and in 1852 arrangements 
were made with the trustees of the Hayles Estate for the reception of a certain 
number of poor women from the parish of Lambeth.'''^ 

The infirmary was built on land which was part of the triangular 

27 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



slip of ground bought by the Waterloo Bridge Company from Jesus College, 
Oxford, and assigned to the Duchy of Cornwall in exchange for ground given 
up to form the bridge approaches. In 1876^'^ the Prince of Wales sold the 
freehold to the trustees of the infirmary — ^John Fisher Eastwood, Frederick 
Lincoln Bevan and the Rev. Frederic Tugwell — and a new storey was added 
to the building. Five years later they acquired the freehold of the adjoining 
properties in Waterloo Road and Stamford Street.^^ 

The hospital was entirely rebuilt in 1903-05, with the exception of 
the nurses' home, which was completed in 1927.'^ 

Architectural Description 

The present hospital has five storeys and basement. It is of red brick 
with brown terra-cotta dressings and has a corner turret over the glazed-ware 
porch which bears the Royal Arms. On the Waterloo Road elevation an 
arcaded balcony serves each of the first, second and third floor wards. 

The nurses' home adjoining is also of red brick with brown terra- 
cotta dressings. It has six storeys above the basement. 

The firm of Messrs. Waring and Nicholson designed the hospital 
and the nurses' home and also prepared the scheme of conversion after the 
recent war for the nurses' home annexe in York Road opposite the York 
Hotel. 

The present hospital was planned with the ground floor for adminis- 
tration purposes and the first, second and third floors as wards giving 
accommodation for two hundred beds. The entrance porch of glazed ware 
was the gift in 1905 of H. Lewis Doulton. 

Nos. 77-1 19 

Most of the original houses of Waterloo Road have been pulled down. 

Waterloo Station, the Union Jack Club (1907-09), and the offices at the 

corner of Stamford Street accounted for a large 
number, and others have been rebuilt piecemeal. A 
few houses of the 1830's survive in Alfred Place 
(Nos. 77 and 79) at the south-east corner of Exton 
Street and in Maude Place (Nos. 11 5-1 19) just 
north of The Cut, but they have been much altered. 

Nos. 80-86 (formerly Nos. 40-43) 

These houses date from the formation of the 
bridge approach. They were erected on part of a 
Railing in Courtyard of piece of ground at the corner of York Road and 
No. 86 Waterloo Road Waterloo Road which had been purchased by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury from the proprietors of 
Waterloo Bridge, and by him granted to John Field, wax chandler, and Agnes 
Bazing, spinster, by a building lease dated 25th March, i 824.''* These houses 
and those on the return front in Boyce Street (formerly Anne Street) were 
designed by L. N. Cottingham, who occupied No. 86 from its erection until 

28 




WATERLOO ROAD 



his death in 1847.*^ Cottingham's drawing (dated 1826) of the elevation of 
Nos. 80-86 is reproduced on Plate 23^7. 

Nos. 80-86 form an impressive terrace in stock brick. They have 
four storeys above pavement level with recessed round-headed windows at 



NO 86 WATERLOO 
ROAD LAMBETH 

DETAIL OF DOOR.5 
ON FIR5T FLOOB^ 




DETAIL 



ELEVATION 



_W4 



the first floor and gauged flat arches to the upper floors. There are shop 
fronts to Nos. 84 and 86. No. 86 has an enriched arched entrance on the 
Boyce Street return. 

The York Hotel has a simple pilaster treatment to its stuccoed ground 
storey. At first floor level to both frontages it has a continuous paterae band 
to the tascia. 

The parapets of the terrace have a cornice and blocking course 
surmounted by stfile heads on short pedestals at the corners and over the 
party walls. There are pseudo-triglyphs to the horizontal panels over the 
third floor windows, while the main cornice with its flat brackets is at this 
floor level. Both second and third storeys have panelled cills, those at the 
lower level being linked by a continuous band. 

Historical Notes 

No. 80 has been used as the York Hotel since the date of its erection. 

No. 86 (formerly No. 43) was built by Lewis Nockalls Cottingham, arcliitect and 

29 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



antiquary, for his own residence, and its rooms were specially designed to receive the library 
which he had formed and the many specimens of Gothic carving in stone and wood he had 
preserved from buildings that had been destroyed. A catalogue was published but the collection 
was dispersed a few years after his death.* 



IIHHHHHHHHHHHHHHR 



^ 




DOORWAY TO BOYCE. ST 



No. 86 Waterloo Road 



Cottingham actively supported the retention of the Lady Chapel at St. Saviour's, Southwark, 
and was employed on the restoration of the Temple Church and of St. Alban's Abbey. He was 
largely responsible for laying out the estate of John Field in the Waterloo district. At the time of 
his death on 13th October, 1847, he was engaged on the restoration of Hereford Cathedral, a 
task which was completed by his son, Nockalls Johnson Cottingham.'^ The latter lived at No. 86 
Waterloo Road until 1851. Since his departure the house has been used for commercial purposes. 



Nos. 88 AND 90. These houses date from the same period and are 
similar in character to Nos. 80-86, but have been much altered. 

The Royal Swimming Bath. This building (Plate iii^) stood on 
the west side of "Waterloo Road a little to the north of Lower Marsh. The 
site is now covered by Waterloo Station. 

* Cottingham published a useful book on the balcony railings of the Regency period, 
The Ornamental Metal Workers' Director. 

30 



WATERLOO ROAD 

The Cut (formerly the New Cut) 

The New Cut was developed as a roadway continuing Lower Marsh 
east of Waterloo Road circa 1820. The houses on the south side were built 
by Samuel Short, carpenter, between 1818 and 1821. Under the terms of 




Iron Balustrade to First Floor ofNos. 96, 98 and 100 Waterloo Road {Demolished) 

his lease they were "third-rate" houses with the front walls faced with stock 
bricks and having rubbed and gauged arches to the windows and stone coped 
parapets;''^ none of these houses now remains. Short had a lease of the 
ground bounded by the New Cut, Webber Street, and Short Street, and 
developed the whole property at this time. The ground was originally a 
meadow called Chalcroft which, in the i8th century, had been let out as 
garden ground.'^^ 

Prior to the 1 9th century the ground between The Cut and Prince's 
Meadows (Stamford Street) on the eastern boundary of Lambeth was known 
as Wild Marsh.'^s This area was developed in the 1820's by John Roupell, 
who is described in the deeds as a gold refiner.^^ From him Roupell Street 
derives its name. 



31 



CHAPTER 5 

THE CHURCH OF ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, 
WATERLOO ROAD 

In 1818, when the country was settling down into a period of peace 
after the Napoleonic Wars and the population was beginning to expand 
rapidly, Parliament decided to allocate a sum not exceeding a million pounds 
for the building of additional churches in populous parishes and "more 
particularly in the Metropolis and its Vicinity."^" Of this sum, the Com- 
missioners for Building New Churches appropriated ^^64,000 in 1822 for 
the needs of the parish of Lambeth. It was decided that a new church should 
be built on the Waterloo Bridge approach and a piece of ground on the east 
side of the road was purchased from the Archbishop of Canterbury and his 
lessee and the sublessee, Sir Gilbert East and Mr. Anderson. The ground 
was very swampy, consisting in part of a pond," and the advice of John 
Rennie was sought as to the most suitable type of foundation. His recom- 
mendation that piling should be used under all the walls was adopted with 
such success that, after the lapse of 125 years, heavy damage by bombing 
and ten years' exposure to the weather, the walls were still strong and sound 
enough to be used in the renovated church. In view of the fact that the 
church was, in the words of the vestry, "in the more immediate vicinity of the 
Metropolis," a more imposing design was selected than would otherwise 
have been chosen.*" The architect was Francis Bedford, who also designed 
the church of St. Mary the Less, Black Prince Road (see p. 144). 

St. John's was consecrated by the Bishop of Winchester on 3rd 
November, 1824. James Elmes described it in 1827 as having "some 
faults and many beauties; the columns of the portico are of the lightest style 
of the Doric order, and, though rather effeminate for that masculine order, 
are beautifully proportioned and systematically arranged. The portico is 
hexastyle and joined to the body of the church, with antique propriety, as a 
continuation of the lateral cornice and roof. But all this propriety of annexa- 
tion and real beauty of proportion is absolutely destroyed by the atrocity of a 
steeple, the ugliest perhaps in London, which is straddled a cock-horse 
across the pediment. "^^ 

The church was renovated by A. W. (later Sir Arthur) Blomfield in 
1885.^* In 1924 Sir Ninian Comper carried out a number of repairs and 
alterations to the building. Among other things, the baldachino, shown on 
Plate 14, was erected in front of the altar, and the space behind was made 
into a Lady Chapel. 

The building of a school for boys and girls of the parish was begun 
as soon as the church was completed. The school cost just over /^2,ooo, of 
which a quarter was contributed from the funds of Lambeth school. The 
present schools in Exton Street were built on the same site in 1902. 

* Described in a contemporary newspaper as having been long "the resort of a numerous 
flock of geese and ducks."^^ 

b The total cost of the church, including the purchase of the site, was about ;£2o,ooo.*2 

32 



PLATE 12 



3.2 



JOHN 
.TER,LOO 








SOUTH WEST ELEVATION 



lO 

-I— 



ao 30 



SCALE OF FEET 



— I — 



60 



PLATE 13 



■«Ws;-: 




ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, WATERLOO ROAD, 1929 



?2 



PLATE 14 




r-,-?i?tt»:enB!giffgarwMwayfg-.!:'vT'>'j^?jjMg»i 

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, WATKRl.OO ROAD, ana 1930 



PLATE 15 




ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, WATERLOO ROAD 



PLATE 1 6 








m ^ 



&u: _ kii 



1 





^^y////////W^///////^^ //M^^ 



CROSS SECTION, LOOKING N.E. 



} I I 1 ! I I I I 



to 20 30 40 50 60 



SCALE OF FEE" 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION 
ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, WATERLOO ROAD 



NORTH EAST ELEVATION 



PLATE 17 




O 

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LU 



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PLATE 1 8 



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PLATE 19 





ROYAL COBURG THEATRE 
(a) EXTERIOR, 1826 
(i?) INTERIOR, 18 18 



PLATE 20 




ROYAL COBURG THEATRE, LOOKING-GLASS CURTAIN, 1822 



PLATE 21 




2 
o 
o 

Q 



6 

a 



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PLATE 22 




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w 

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6 



PLATE 23 





00 Nos. 80-86 WATERLOO ROAD, 1826 

(^) THE YORK HOTEL AND ADJOINING BUILDINGS, 1949 



THE CHURCH OF ST. JOHN 



By the 1840's the district had become so crowded that extra church 
accommodation was found necessary. In 1844-6 the Church of All Saints 
was built in York Street" (now Leake Street) from the designs of William 

Rogers.^5 The new church was 
short-lived, for by the end of the 
century the site was required for 
the extension of Waterloo Station, 
and on All Saints' Day, 1899, it 
was closed by Act of Parliament 
and the parish was reunited with 
that of St. John's. ^^ An elaborately 
ornamented memorial altar piece 
from All Saints' was transferred to 
the chapel in York Road which was 
taken over as a church hall. This 
hall, known later as the White 
Horse Club, was taken down in 
1950. 

The Churchyard 

The churchyard on the 
south-east side of the church was 
made into a garden and opened to 
the public in June, 1878. The 
watch house at the south-west 
corner (Plate 18), erected in 1824, 
No. 86 Waterloo Road from St. John's Churchyard waS demolished in I 932. 

Three or four large tombs 
remain in the part of the churchyard fronting Waterloo Road. Of these 
the most prominent is that of the Peache family, erected at the expense of 
James Courthope Peache (see p. 48) in 1827.^^ On the front are his coat of 
arms and crest, and on the south side is the inscription — 

TO THE MEMORY OF CLEMENT PEACHE ESQ"^ 

DIED OCT 23 1 8 15 AGED 68 YEARS 

ALSO ELIZABETH PEACHE HIS WIFE 

DIED IAN 31 1830 IN HER 80" YEAR 

ALSO TO THE MEMORY OF I.1MES COURTHOPE PEACHE ESQ" 

DIED IAN 22 1858 IN HIS 77™ YEAR 

ALSO OF ALICE PEACHE HIS WIFE 
DIED IAN I 1859 IN HER '] f^ YEAR 

The north side of the tomb has a list of James Peache's ten children, 
all except two of whom died in infancy or childhood, and it also records the 
names of his two sisters and his niece, Mary Peache Larkin. 

a It was opened on ist March, 1846, the sermon being preached by the Rev. Charles 
Browne-Dalton, rector of St. Mary's, Lambeth. 




SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



List of Vicars. 1826, J. T. Barrett; 1830, R. Irvine; 1848, James 
Aitken Johnston ; i 8 7 1 , Hugh Wilson Bateman ; i 8 74, Arthur J. Robinson ; 
1881, Arthur J. Jephson; 1884, Arthur W. Jephson; 1894, Arthur H. 
Powell; 1895, Francis C. Bainbridge-Bell; 1902, Edward G. Gordon; 
1 92 1, John Walker Woodhouse; 1925, Charles W. Hutchinson; 1944, 
Edwin V. Rhys. 

Architectural Description 

St. John's Church has a plain rectangular body and is built in stone 
and grey brick. It is designed in the style of the Greek Revival and is simple 
in treatment with a tower rising behind the portico at the south-west end. 

This portico is raised on steps and has six fluted Greek Doric columns 
with an entablature and pediment. In the frieze of the entablature are 
cast-iron chaplets of myrtle instead of the usual triglyphs and mutules. The 
chaplets are spaced over and midway between each of the columns. There is 
a continuous band of guttae below the fillet separating architrave and frieze. 
The entablatures at the side and back elevations have the same detail. 

Within the portico are five openings all of uniform size with double 
doors and slightly tapering panelled stone architrave surrounds. The 
window above each doorway has a similar surround. A cill band links the 
windows, of which only that at the centre, lighting the bellringers' chamber, 
is real. The others are false, although all have glazed iron sashes. Of the 
doorways, that in the middle serves a lobby leading to the nave while those 
on each side of it were planned with access to narrow staircases leading to 
galleries for charity children. Each entrance for children has one door and 
another identical panel in order to give a uniform appearance. The lobbies, 
which are entered through the two doorways nearest the ends of the portico, 
serve the aisles and have staircases by which the main galleries were reached. 
The charity children's galleries were placed high above each of these lobbies 
so as to save space in internal planning. 

Each of the north-west and south-east elevations (orientation not 
being at the cardinal points) have twelve windows in two rows. Those 
above the galleries are rectangular on the exterior, though slightly arched 
inside. They reach up to the entablature and are longer than those below, 
which are squat in proportion. The lower windows have segmental heads 
and their cills are panelled. Both rows have the same kind of stone surrounds 
as the openings under the portico. The upper windows are linked by bands 
stopping at the corner antae and the antae near the portico which mark the 
extent of the entrance lobbies. 

The back or north-east elevation has a very austere character with 
antae dividing it into three bays. The centre bay contains the window over 
the altar which is deeper than the other upper windows and cuts into the 
cill band; beneath this window is a plain double-recessed rectangular 
panel in brick. Each outer bay has a lower segmental headed window 
lighting a vestry and an upper panel which is a blind recess. These are 
identical in detail with the windows at the sides. Above the entablature at 

34 



THE CHURCH OF ST. JOHN 

this end the pediment containing a small louvred lunette has recently been 
rebuilt. 

The tower rides above the ridge of the copper roof and is immediately 
behind the south-west portico. It is in stone and has three main stages with 

a short pedestal stage supporting a 



DOORWAY TO CRYPT 



square obelisk. 

Of the stages, each of which 
is diminishing, the lower is rusti- 
cated with clock faces to all four 
sides. It has a cornice which com- 
bines with the double plinth above 
to form a base for the middle stage. 
This middle or belfry stage, which 
contains a peal of eight bells, has 
on each elevation a louvred round- 
headed opening set in recess with 
Ionic columns at each side and antae 
at the four corners. The entablature 
and deep triple plinth or podium 
support the upper main stage which 
is similar to the belfry stage though 
open on all sides. It has gorged 
foliated caps of no definite order to 
the recesses set between corner antae. 
Above the entablature of this 
open stage the short pedestal stage, 
which has rectangles of carved 
honeysuckle ornament to its four 
surfaces, carries a square obelisk 
with sunk panels terminating in a 
ball and cross. 

Acroteria of different types 
with honeysuckle relief are placed at 
the four corners above the cornice 
of the pedestal stage and above the 
entablatures of the columned stages 
below. 

The church was heavily damaged by enemy action on the night of 
Sunday, 8th December, 1940, when a bomb struck the nave roof. Much of 
the roof was destroyed and most of the internal fittings and fabric, including 
the baldachino, were damaged beyond repair. Although some of the upper 
parts of the walls were demolished the tower and portico escaped virtually 
unscathed. 

The interior of St. John's was designed with the same simplicity of 
detail as the exterior. Galleries round three sides of the church were supported 
on short Doric columns, while the surfaces between the windows were 




INCHES 12. , O 



PLAN 

\ 2. 



4- FEET 



25 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



relieved by delicate antae of the Ionic order. The antae had honeysuckle 
ornament and ran the full height of the hall-like interior. Above them the 
same ornament was used as a continuous pattern to the frieze. The ceiling 
was flat and divided by beams into panels, each of which had a ceiling rose in 
plaster at its centre. 

The fittings which escaped destruction include the font which stood 
under the west gallery and is now again in use. Both font and cover 
are of white marble, the font being urn-shaped with handles in cherubim 
form. It probably dates from the early i8th century and is of Italian origin, 
having been presented to the church at the time of building. The organ, 
which dates from the erection of the church, was built by Bishop. It was 
in a plain wood case and stood in the west gallery. It was rebuilt by Hele in 
1883.'' After being seriously damaged during the war it is now being 
repaired and the case restored to the original design. The stained glass to 
the north-east window, designed by N. J. Cottingham, who lived almost 
opposite the church at No. 86 Waterloo Road, was totally destroyed when the 
church was bombed. 

Between the square stone piers, which bound the churchyard on 
Waterloo Road, are original iron railings and gates, parts of which were 
removed for metal salvage during the war. The piers have simple volute frets 
to each face and are capped by acroteria which have honeysuckle ornament. 
The railings and piers extend as far as the site of the parish watch house, 
which stood at the corner of Exton Street. The watch house was a plain 
building in brick and stone, and had the upper of its three storeys above a 
simple cornice. The cornice was supported by antae at the corners. 

For ten years the church stood open to the skies while religious 
services were continued in the vaulted crypt. In 1950 restoration work was 
commenced to the designs of Mr. Thomas F. Ford so that St. John's could 
be used as the Festival Church during 1951. 



36 



CHAPTER 6 
THE ROYAL VICTORIA HALL— "THE OLD VIC" 

The history of "The Old Vic" during the last fifty years and of the 
important part it has played in the development of the modern British 
theatre has often been told. The building dates back to 1816 and is one of 
the oldest theatre buildings in London, though it has been greatly altered 
both externally and internally. 

The original proprietors were Mr. Jones and Mr. Dunn who, having 
failed to renew their lease of the Surrey Theatre, near St. George's Circus, 
at a reasonable rent,^^ decided to build on their own account and obtained a 
sub-lease of a piece of copyhold ground of the manor of Lambeth on the east 
side of the newly laid out Waterloo Road. They secured the patronage of 
Princess Charlotte, who had married the Prince of Saxe-Coburg, and through 
her influence were granted a licence from the Surrey justices in 18 16. The 
theatre was named, in compliment to the princess, the Royal Coburg 
Theatre. 

The site was very swampy, "being immediately on the west side of 
one of the large and ancient ditches made for the drainage of Lambeth 
Marsh," and stone from the old Savoy Palace, which was being pulled down 
for the construction of the northern approach to Waterloo Bridge,^^ was used 
to make a firm foundation. The Waterloo Bridge Company, which hoped to 
gain custom from the patrons of the theatre, contributed to its cost.^^ The 
theatre opened in May, 1818, with a melodrama "Trial by Battle" and a 
pantomime, "Harlequin and Comus." Edmund Kean, Junius Brutus Booth, 
Sheridan Knowles Macready, Samuel Phelps, and Joseph Grimaldi, the 
clown, were among the early performers and in 1834 Paganini gave his 
farewell performance in England there. 

The theatre was designed by Rudolph Cabanel. Brayley described 
it in 1826 as "plain, though well built," the auditorium consisting of "a 
spacious pit, two tiers of boxes, and a remarkably large gallery." The marine 
or box saloon was designed and painted by John Thomas Serres, marine 
painter, who had a share in the theatre. In 1822 a special feature in the form 
of a looking-glass curtain was erected on the stage. It was 36 feet in height 
and 32 feet in breadth, and consisted of 62 divisions of glass set in a massive 
gilt frame (Plate 20). The weight of the curtain proved dangerous to the 
roof and it had to be dismantled. Parts of the glass were used to decorate 
the ceiling and the saloon. The house was originally lit by gas which was 
manufactured on the premises.^^ 

Princess Charlotte died in 18 17, and in 1833 the theatre*^ was renamed 
the Victoria in compliment to Princess Victoria. 

After 1834 the standard of entertainments given at the theatre 
declined, most of them consisting of the crudest melodramas, while much of 
the income was provided by the sale of drinks.^^ John Hollingshead, who 
later played a part in the regeneration of the theatre, has described how the 
gallery audience would tie handkerchiefs together to form a rope which was 

37 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

used to haul up large stone bottles of beer from the pit. Charles Kingsley, 
in Alton Locke, published in 1850, wrote of "the beggary and rascality of 
London . . . pouring in to their low amusement, from the neighbouring 
gin-palaces and thieves' cellars."^" 

The financial position of the theatre was precarious and it was put 
up to auction in 1 87 1 and again in 1 874. In 1 879 the Coffee Palace Associa- 
tion, urged on by John Hollingshead and Emma Cons, took over the theatre. 
A fund was raised by public subscription and the title deeds were handed to 
the Charity Commissioners. About ;/^3,ooo was spent on alterations and 
re-decoration, which were designed by Elijah Hoole, and in 1880 the house 
was opened as the Royal Victoria Coffee Music Hall.^^ At first, lectures 
and temperance meetings alternated with variety entertainments, but under 
the guidance of Miss Cons and her niece, Lilian Baylis, the theatre became a 
centre for opera and for Shakespearean and classical drama. During the last 
50 years many actors and actresses of the front rank have established their 
reputations there. 

Extensive alterations were made to the building in the 1920's to 
comply with the regulations of the London County Council. The theatre was 
severely damaged by enemy action in 1941, but it has been re-conditioned, 
and it re-opened its doors in November, 1950. The architect for the re- 
conditioning was Douglas Rowntree. 

Two important educational developments in connection with the 
theatre must be mentioned. In the days of Emma Cons, evening classes for 
boys of the neighbourhood were started in one of the disused dressing rooms. 
Attendances rapidly increased and in 1889 the back of the theatre was 
walled off and made into a college, named Morley College, in memory of 
Samuel Morley, an early benefactor of the theatre. The college moved to a 
site in Westminster Bridge Road in 1923.^^ 

The second development is of more recent growth. In 1947 the 
Joint Council of the National Theatre and the Governors of the Old Vic, in 
association with the Arts Council, established the Old Vic Theatre School. 
The school was opened by Ellen Wilkinson on the stage of the theatre on 
24th January, 1947.''^ 

Architectural Description 

The theatre is a plain building of brick construction with panel 
treatment at the sides linked by blind arcading. 

The front elevation to The Cut is partly stone faced and partly 
rendered. It is of three storeys with the entrance projecting slightly forward. 
Above the entrance, which has a canopy, the parapet is terminated each side 
by stunted obelisks. The first floor windows have quasi-pediments supported 
on consoles, while above the square second floor windows there is a cornice 
without blocking course. Prior to alteration the cornice was surmounted by 
a broken pediment and the side elevations had heightened parapets. 

The interior of the theatre has been much changed since it was 
opened. The gallery and balcony, which are supported on cast-iron columns, 

38 



THE OLD VIC 



have fronts which are bellied out and ornamented with detail. There is a 
large enriched ceiling rose above the auditorium from which an elaborate 
chandelier is suspended. 

A feature of the recent restoration is the new fore-stage giving a 
greater link between audience and actors; it is lower than the main stage, 
and its erection with splayed flanks involved the destruction of boxes at 
the sides. 



39 



CHAPTER 7 

YORK ROAD 

The first Waterloo Bridge Act contained a clause for the continuation 
of Stamford Street across Waterloo Road to Westminster Bridge Road. The 
new road, which was for several years called Stamford Street, but which 
ultimately became York Road, was made across demesne land of the Arch- 
bishop's manor of Lambeth. Except for a fringe of cottages along Narrow 
Wall and for Phelps' soap factory,^^ which stood east of Narrow Wall (i.e. 
on ground between Belvedere Road and York Road and adjoining north on 
Waterloo Road) the land was undeveloped. It was divided by open ditches 
into fields. Float Mead, The Twenty-one Acres, and The Seven Acres. In 
I 807 the Archbishop obtained an Act^^ authorizing the development of this 
ground for building. The road was cut in 1824, and between 1825 and 1 830 
practically the whole frontage on either side was let on building leases. The 
turnpike, which stood approximately opposite the present entrance to the 
tube station, was taken down about 1848.^^ 

West Side 
Nos. 2-16 (even) 

In 1824 Henry Warburton obtained from the Archbishop a building 
lease of ground described as being partly in Float Mead and partly in the 
"seven acres of Sowters Lands,"^^ and including the site of Phelps' soap 
factory; Tenison Street and Howley Terrace, named after Archbishops, were 
formed on the western part of the site. 

Nos. 2-16 (formerly 88-81) York Road were built circa 1830.*^ 
Nos. 6-16 form a uniform terrace with a rusticated stucco ground storey and 
a cornice to the continuous parapet. All the window arches are picked out in 
red brick. Nos. 2 and 4 have an additional storey and ground floor shops. 

Nos. 2 and 4 were for many years occupied by members of the medical profession. Nos. 
6-14 are now used as a nurses' home for the Royal Waterloo Hospital. 

Nos. 18-28 (even) 

These houses, which were similar to Nos. 6-16, were built on part 
of Float Mead leased to Alexander Tillett in 1825.^* They were demolished 
in 1 949 for road improvements in connection with the Festival of Britain. 

East Side 
Waterloo Station 

The whole of the ground east of York Road between Waterloo Road 
and Vine Street and extending east nearly to Lower Marsh was let on building 
lease to John Field, wax chandler, and Agnes Bazing (see p. 28) in 1824-29.'^* 
Part of this land was sold to the London and South Western Railway in i 848 
when the line was extended from Nine Elms. Waterloo Station, which was 
raised above the marshy ground on a series of arches, was designed by 

40 



^0 



PLATE 24 








Uti 



■fsvi; 




i4 



•I'l.Ani, 

• r TirlLLlM ! ilVst f/ nfi' -; -f.- ^ i"- . 



.Kir_'!i--j 



WATERLOO BRIDGE APPROACH, Wl.ST SIDE, 1949 
(a) STRl'.ET FROXTACI', 
(/;) BACK 



PLATE 25 







79 .i^ ,^ ■' -^O 







ItJMI-r^ml' 




YORK ROAD, 1949 

(a) SOUTH SIDE 

(i) NORTH SIDE, Nos. 16-2 



PLATE 26 



^j' 




fW'/t^V' 



I HI iUia. 




(^) OLD TOLL HOUSE, GRIFFIN STREET, 1949 
li) TURNPIKE IN YORK ROAD, 1828 



PLATE 27 





{a) LYING-IN HOSPITAL, WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD, 

circa 1 800 
{h) GENERAL LYING-IN HOSPITAL, YORK ROAD, 1950 



YORK ROAD 



William (afterwards Sir William) Tite.^^ It was opened on i ith July, i 848. 
In 1864 the South Eastern Railway extended their line from London Bridge 
to Waterloo and Charing Cross, Waterloo Junction being linked with the 
main station by a bridge across Waterloo Road. Substantial alterations and 
additions were made at various times during the 19th century, and in 1872 
the South Eastern Railway Company bought the eastern part of the ground 
originally leased to Field,"-* which had by then become a disreputable slum. 
Owing to its piecemeal construction the lay-out of the station was by 
the end of the century confused and unsatisfactory, and in 1 900 an extension 
and complete rebuilding of the old station was begun. It was finished by 
the erection of a building linking the new offices with those lining the 
approach from York Road, including the great arched entrance to the 
station which formed a staff war memorial. The Times, in describing the 
opening of the new buildings in 1922, remarked that "nothing of the original 
structure now remains except the arches upon which the new station has 
been built. "^^ 

Nos. 3—13 {formerly Nos. 91-96) 

These houses were erected on the York Road frontage of Field's 
property circa 1829. They form a simple terrace in stock brick having a 
continuous dentil cornice to the parapet above the second storey. The 
individual houses are, however, emphasized by the rectangular recesses in the 
parapet over each and by the narrow vertical inset panels separating them. 
Nos. 3—9 have balconies, those to the remaining houses having been removed 
when shop fronts were inserted. 

In the 19th century these houses were largely used by dramatic agents and as lodging 
houses for members of the theatrical profession who were in low water; they earned the sobriquet 
of Poverty Corner. 

Nos. 15-23 (formerly Nos. 97-101) 

These houses were similar in character to Nos. 3—13 though they 
were built a year or two later. They were demolished in 1950 for road 
improvements. 

Nos. 57—69 (formerly Nos. 1-5 Commercial Place and Nos. 132 and 133 2~ork 
Road) 

These houses, dating from 1843—5, were among the last to be erected 
in the road. 

The General Lying-in Hospital 

On 7th August, 1765, Dr. John Leake, known as the "man mid- 
wife,"^^ addressed a meeting at Appleby's Tavern In Parliament Street, 
Westminster, and propounded a scheme for a hospital "for the Relief of 
those Child-bearing Women who are the Wives of poor Industrious Trades- 
men or distressed House-keepers, and who either from unavoidable Mis- 
fortunes or the Expences of maintaining large Families are reduced to real 
Want. Also for the Reception and immediate Relief of indigent Soldiers and 

41 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Sailors Wives, the former in particular being very numerous in and about 
the City of Westminster."^'' 

Leake had already obtained a building lease of a piece of ground on 
the north side of Westminster Bridge Road. Richard Dixon, of Pimlico, 
was appointed surveyor of the building, and the first stone was laid on 1 5th 
August, 1765, by Brice Fisher, one of the vice-presidents of the charity, but 
subscriptions were slow in coming in and the centre building had to be 
mortgaged before it was finished. It was opened in April, 1767, as the 
Westminster New Lying-in Hospital, with Dr. Leake as its first physician.^' 

Dr. Leake had trained in England as a surgeon but had early become 
interested in midwifery and had practised it for a while in Lisbon. During 
the early years of the hospital he was living in Craven Street, Strand, where 
he gave an annual course of lectures on midwifery .^^ His ideas were not 
particularly advanced even for his time, but the institution he founded, one 
of the first of its kind, has proved of great permanent value. 

The two leases of the ground on which the hospital stood were due 
to expire in 1 82 1 and 1825 respectively, and early in the 1 820s the governors 
decided to move to new premises. From Lancelot Holland, who was, at 
this time, developing the land between Westminster and Waterloo Bridges 
for the Archbishop of Canterbury, the governors acquired a building lease 
of a plot of ground with 100 foot frontage on the east side of York Road.^^ 
The new building was designed by Henry Harrison and cost about ^^3,000. 
On 22nd September, 1828, the minutes record that "On Friday Morning 
a Patient was delivered of a Son in the New Hospital and the Committee 
met this day in the new Hospital for the first time."^'' The name "West- 
minster" was dropped from the title and the institution was incorporated by 
royal charter in 1830 as "The General Lying-in Hospital." 

Medical science made great advances during the middle years of the 
19th century, and in the 1870s it became apparent that modernization was 
urgently required, both in the building and the management of the hospital. 

In 1879 a thorough reconditioning was carried out. A new drainage 
system was installed, the laundry in the basement was converted into store- 
rooms, and a new ward was added. A training school for midwives and 
midwifery nurses was established, and in order to accommodate the students 
a new storey was added to each wing.'^ Florence Nightingale took a personal 
interest in this training school. 

It was in March, 1879, that Joseph, afterwards Lord Lister, 
accepted the office of consulting surgeon, and he continued to serve the 
hospital in this capacity and as President until 191 1. In 1880 Sir John 
Williams and Sir Francis Champneys were appointed Physicians Accoucheurs, 
and under their auspices the hospital was the first to practise antiseptic 
midwifery in this country.^^ 

In 1907 two houses adjacent to the hospital on the north side and 
known as the Albany Baths were taken over for a nurses' home.^^ After the 
1 9 14-18 war the shortage of accommodation at the hospital became acute, 
and in 1 930-33 a new nurses' home was built on the site of the Albany Baths. 

42 



THE GENERAL LYING-IN HOSPITAL 



The hospital was removed to St. Albans during the 1939-45 war 
and the old building received some damage. It was, however, re-opened in 
1946. Some further reconditioning and modernization have been carried out, 
but the structure remains substantially as it was built over 120 years ago 
(Plate 27^). Under the 1946 Act it is included in the St. Thomas' Hospital 
group. 

Architectural Description 

The hospital, of four storeys including a semi-basement, has a raised 
ground floor approached by a flight of steps. The entrance porch, recessed 



r^ 



I A 




z 
o 



Q 
Q 



YORK. R." 



30 «0 



General Lying-in Hospital, Ground Floor Plan, 1950 



43 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



in the main front, is stuccoed and its Ionic colonnade is flanked by slightly 
projecting wings with corner pilasters. The attic storey above the second 
floor entablature returns to the side elevation which also has end wings. 

The Nurses' Home is a modern red brick building with basement 
and four storeys beneath the dormers to the mansard roof. It was erected to 
the designs of Mr. E. Turner Powell. 

Tanswell's History of Lambeth, 1858, says the Hospital is "a neat 
square building of white brick, ornamented with stone." It would appear 
that the brickwork derives its present colour from the application of red 
paint at a later date. 

The York Road Chapel (the White Horse Club) was built in 1 847—8 
as a congregational chapel .^^ After the demolition of All Saints' it was for a 
time used as a hall for the congregation of St. John's, Waterloo Road (see 
p. 33). It was demolished in 1950 for road improvements. 



44 



CHAPTER 8 

THE RIVER FRONTAGE BETWEEN WATERLOO AND 
WESTMINSTER BRIDGES 

Narrow Wall (later renamed Belvedere Road), like its continuations 
Upper Ground and Bankside in Southwark, was by the Tudor period a road 
on the line of the old earth embankment of the river. Norden's map of 
Westminster, circa 1593, shows a wide border of marshy ground between 
Narrow Wall and the water on the sharp bend of the river between Stangate 
and Paris Garden, indicating that a considerable amount of silting up had 
occurred there during the mediaeval period. 

By the i6th century this foreshore was overgrown with rushes and 
willows but it was still subject to frequent submersions at high tide. No 
buildings were erected there, though some attempt had been made to drain 
it through a number of ditches to the river, and it had sufficient value to be 
claimed as "property." Most of it was considered to be "waste" of the 
manor of Lambeth and therefore belonged to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
but by 1 504 one portion of it near Stangate just over an acre in extent had 
been given to Lambeth Church and was known as the Church Osiers or 
Church Hope or Hoopys,^"" "hope" meaning a piece of enclosed ground in 
the midst of fens or marshes or waste ground. In the late 17th century the 
name was altered to Pedlar's Acre^^ (Jq^ ^ discussion of the traditional origin 
of this name see p. 62). Another 7 acres further north, known as the Hopes, 
had also been alienated at an early date, and after passing through the same 
hands as the 3 acres of Cuper's Gardens on the site of Waterloo Road (see 
p. 25) was bequeathed in 1685 by Sir Leoline Jenkins to Jesus College, 
Oxford.!"- 'phe ground between Stangate and Pedlar's Acre was sold to the 
Trustees for Westminster Bridge; that between Pedlar's Acre and the Hopes 
(known as Bishop's Acre and the Four Acres) and between the Hopes and 
Cuper's Bridge (part of Float Mead) was leased early in the i8th century to 
Sir William East. It was then described as a wall and bank leading from 
Stangate to the bank and wall called Prince's Wall with all the messuages on 
or near the wall in use as timber yards, wharves, etc., and sublet to a number 
of tenants — Thomas Jones, Mary and Edmund Birkhead, Edmund Lee, 
Sir John Shorter, Bernard Whalley, Thomas Lightfoot, and William Hill- 
yard.'' '' Some of these are named on Morden and Lea's map printed in 1682, 
which also shows very clearly that while the river frontage was in use the 
hinterland remained open marsh and pasture ground intersected with many 
drainage ditches. 

From I 760 onward, Thomas James, lessee of the Feathers Tavern 
near Cuper's Bridge, and others, were making application to the Sewer 
Commissioners for permission to "arch over" or pipe the sewers or ditches 
by their houses on Narrow WalU"^ and a number of industrial projects were 
started there, some of which are described in more detail below, but there 
was little change in the general appearance of the area until after the formation 

45 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



of Waterloo Bridge approach in 1 8 1 3— 1 6 and the widening and straightening 
of Narrow Wall to form Belvedere Road between 1824 and 1829. 

During the excavations for the Festival buildings and for the new 
river wall a watch has been kept on the ground for finds of archaeological 
interest, and from these and from record sources the detailed story of the 
development of this riverside strip of ground, which is set out in the following 
chapters, has been built up. 



46 



CHAPTER 9 

THE SHOT TOWER AND LEAD WORKS, No. 63 
BELVEDERE ROAD 

The shot tower stands on part of Float Mead, of which Henry 
Warburton, M.P., obtained a building lease commencing from i 824.^'''* The 
tower was built in 1826 to the design of David Riddal Roper for Thomas 
Maltby & Co. It was taken over in 1839*^ by Walkers, Parker & Co., the 
firm which was operating the square shot tower east of Waterloo Bridge, 
and it continued in their hands as a going concern until 1949. It is the only 
one of the old buildings to be left on the Festival site. 

Architectural Description 

The tower is built in stock brick. It tapers slightly, being 30 feet 
in diameter at the base, where the wall is 3 feet thick, and 20 feet in diameter 
at the gallery, where the wall is 1 8 inches thick. The gallery is 163 feet from 
the ground and is reached by a spiral staircase cantilevered from the inside 
face of the wall. There was a floor at half-way level where lead was formerly 
melted and dropped to make small shot. At gallery level was a chamber from 
which lead was dropped for large shot. The chamber was surmounted by a 
parapet and cornice. The continuity of the open parapet was broken by 
four solid piers on each of which was bedded a capping stone. 

The gallery has an iron balustrade supported by iron console brackets. 
Below these the tower is ringed by a stone band carried on small corbels, 
while at various stages there are small segmental headed windows. 

In 1950 the gallery chamber was demolished and a steel-framed 
superstructure erected to serve as a radio beacon for the Festival of Britain. 



47 



CHAPTER lo 




No. 59 BELVEDERE ROAD 

In 1799 Clement Peache and his son-in-law and partner, George 

Larkin, boat builders, who also occupied a boat building establishment near 

St. Mary's Church, obtained^^ a sub-lease of two messuages on Narrow Wall 

south of the shot tower and lead works. A few years later the partnership was 
dissolved and Clement Peache and his son, James 
Courthope Peache,'* set up in business there, having 
obtained a new lease from Charles Manners Sutton. 

Clement Peache died in 18 15 and in 1817 
James Courthope Peache and the Rev. William Mann, 
Chaplain of St. Saviour's, Southwark, obtained a build- 
ing lease of ground, with frontages of 157 feet to 
the river and 135 feet to Narrow Wall, on which 
Mann covenanted to erect a new dwelling house "of 
the first rate" and a new wharf and wall on the whole 
extent of the premises next the river.^''^ From the 

date on a rain-water head the house appears to have been completed in the 

following year, and it was occupied by Peache until his death in 1858.'*^^ 

Peache's surviving son, the Rev. Alfred Peache, of Heckfield,*^ leased 

the house and wharf in Belvedere Road to John Aird "of Emerson Street, 

Southwark, contractor." The premises then included brick furnaces, a pitch 

melting house and a sawpit. 

John Aird & Son remained 

the lessees until 1913,*^ but 

parts of the wharf and ground 

were sublet to various firms. 
In the 1930's the 

house was run as a shelter 

for "down and outs," later 

known as the Embankment 

Fellowship Centre.*^ It was 

demolished in 1949. 

Entrance Gates 

Architectural Description 

No. 59 was a house of somewhat severe detail. The front elevation 
had three windows to each of the first and second floors, while at the ground 
floor there was a central porch with round-headed windows in shallow arched 
recesses at each side. 

* James Courthope Peache was admitted to the freedom of the City of London in Septem- 
ber, 181 1, as the apprentice of Thomas Holland, citizen and shipwright.*' He was later, inter alia, 
one of the directors of the Lambeth Waterworks. 

•> He was buried in the churchyard of St. John's, Waterloo Road (see p. 33). 

<= In 1863 he and his sister, Kezia, founded The London College of Divinity for the 
training of Church of England clergy at St. John's Hall, Highbury, and gave ^^2 1,400 towards the 
cost.*' 

48 




^^ 



PLATE 28 





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{a) SHOT TOWER AND No. 63 BELVEDERE ROAD, 1930 
{b) No. 6 ARCH, IN APPROACH TO HUNGERFORD 
BRIDGE, 1946 



PLATE 30 




PLAN AT LEVEL 
D 




PLAN AT LEVEL 
C 




PLAN AT LEVEL 
B 




^ PLAN AT LEVEL 
A 



DIMtNilONS 

OVECALL HLICHT-1B6 fr 
INTERNAL DlAMETtlt 

24FI «T B*Sl 
t/fT AT TOP 
M 6 STEPS 10 TOP 
16? STEPS TO 1" FLOOt 




PIMLPINOS SE'CCOE'NDIWG 
TCWtH «1 BA^t HAVE iUK 
OMITTED. 



SECTION 



ELEVATION 



^^ 



r r r r r r 



SHOT rOWl-R, BELVKDERK ROAD, 1948 



PLATE 31 




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{a) Nos. 55-59 BELVEDERE ROAD, 1949 
(^) Nos. II 6-1 18 BELVEDERE ROAD, 1948 



BELVEDERE ROAD 



The porch, of Greek Doric order, constructed in wood, had an entablature and 
blocking course above; it was approached by a short flight of steps, and pro- 
tected the entrance, which had wing lights and a plain semicircular fanlight. 




iCAUE 

Ground Plan of No. 59 Behedere Road 

The house was in yellow stock brick and had a stone cornice to the 
parapet above the second floor. At each end of the road frontage there was 

a slight set-back in the fagade 
which was echoed in the break 
in the line of the cornice. 

The back elevation 
was simple with flat bowed 
windows to the rooms each 
side of the doorway into the 
garden. Its area was enclosed 
by contemporary cast-iron 
railings. 

The building had a 
low pitch "M" type roof 
drained by lead pipes and 
rainwater heads, one of which, 
on the blank south-west eleva- 
tion, was inscribed "J C P 
1818." 

The tront paved fore- 
court was enclosed by con- 
temporary iron spear-head 
railings and gates. The end 
and gate piers were of an open type ornamented with honeysuckle and 
fret patterns. 

49 




Jco/e t/ /eec 



Ji^aH. e/ tntAa 



Fireplace on Second Floor 



CHAPTER II 
No. ss BELVEDERE ROAD 

In 1813 the land south of Peache's Wharf was occupied by John 
Fowler, described variously as a tin plate worker and anchorsmith.^"® In 1 82 1 
he obtained a further lease of the property and erected the house known as 
No. ^^ Belvedere Road for his own occupation.^* 

A contemporary writer noted that Belvedere Road was undergoing 
great improvements "by taking down the old buildings and substituting new 
and elegant houses in their stead. "^ In 1839, to the annoyance of his neigh- 
bours, Fowler converted the factory between his house and the river into a 
white lead works. James Coding, proprietor of the newly erected Lion 
Brewery, complained to his landlord, the Archbishop of Canterbury, but was 
countered by a report from Andrew Ure, professor of chemistry, which 
stated that Mr. De La Rue Junior "a partner and conductor of the said 
patent factory has evinced equal judgment and ingenuity in the structure 
... to prevent waste of product, injury to the health of workmen and nuis- 
ance to the neighbourhood."^* The factory buildings included two chimneys 
60 feet high and two coke ovens. The surprising fact is not, however, that 
such a factory should be permitted in what was rapidly becoming an industrial 
neighbourhood, but that Peache and Fowler should have built such good- 
class houses there for their own occupation. Both Peache's Wharf and 
Fowler's lead works are shown in the view of the Lion Brewery on Plate 3 1 . 

No. 55, with Nos. ^2 ^^'^ 57> which were known as King's Arms 
Wharf and Darfield Wharf respectively, were occupied by the London 
Waste Paper Co. in the 1930's.^* They were demolished in 1949. 

Architectural Description 

No. 55 was a house of substantial character. Though detached, it 
was of terrace type without openings in the flank walls. It was in yellow stock 
brick and its front elevation was three windows wide to each of the ground, 
first and second floors. The windows had gauged flat arches and all had 
glazing bars to their double hung sashes. The ground storey was raised 
above a semi-basement and the entrance, which was reached by a short 
flight of steps, had an architrave surround with consoles each side designed to 
support a flat hood. The hood had been removed some time prior to de- 
molition. There was a moulded band at first floor level and a bold parapet 
cornice above the second floor. Behind the parapet dormer windows were 
set in a slated mansard roof. 



50 



CHAPTER 12 



THE LAMBETH WATERWORKS AND 
THE LION BREWERY 

The ground south of Fowler's lead works, which was also part of 
Float Mead, was that shown on Morden and Lea's map as in the occupation 

of Sir John Shorter. In 171 8 this 




ground and a house on it called 
Belvidere (Plate 37«) were opened to 
the public by Charles Bascom, who 
advertised that he sold "all sorts of 
wines of the prime growths, entirely 
neat; and accommodates his guests 
with eatables of every kind in 
season, after the best manner, 
especially with the choicest river fish, 
which they may have the diversion 
to see taken. "1°' This was the most 
ephemeral of the several public 
pleasure gardens that were open in 
the 1 8 th century along the South 
Bank, but its name has been per- 
petuated in that of Belvedere Road. 
After the closure of the 
gardens Peter Theobald occupied 
the house for a time and in 1785 
water works were established on the 
southern part of the garden. i"® Water 
was taken directly from the river 
and supplied to residents in the 
locality but, after complaints about the foulness of the water, permission 
was obtained to pump water from the middle of the river where it was 
thought it would be less polluted.^ The works were removed to Surbiton 
and Ditton in 1853.^"^ In 1836 John Kershaw of Walcot Terrace, who 
had for some years held a lease of the ground between the water works 
and John Fowler's property, obtained a building lease of it from the Arch- 
bishop, which he at once assigned to James Coding,!!" ^^^^^ {j^g Lion Brewery 
(sometimes called the Red Lion Brewery) was erected there in 1836-7 to 
the design of Francis Edwards." In 1837 Coding obtained a lease of ground 
on the south side of Belvedere Road, part of the Seven Acres, from Henry 
Warburton, on which he had erected stables, warehouses, etc.^^^ In 1853 
James Coding bought the lease of the water works site and incorporated it 
with the brewery .!!2 Qn more than one occasion members of the Coding 
family asked if they could purchase the freehold of the brewery site but they 

* Edwards also designed several other breweries and a number of public houses for 
Coding. 

51 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



were refused in each case. In 1866 the Codings made the brewery into a 
company under the name of the Lion Brewery Company Limited.*^ This con- 
tinued to operate until 1 924 when it was absorbed by Hoare and Co., brewers, 
of Wapping.^13 The main building was seriously damaged by fire in 1931.^^* 
For a few years it was used for storage of waste paper and then stood derelict 
until its demolition in 1949 for the Royal Festival Hall. 

LION BREWERY, BELVEDERE ROAD. 




SOUTH WEST ELEVATIOrj TO Er-JTRANCE COURTYARD 



It is interesting to note that the brewery was supplied with water 
from wells, the first of which was sunk in 1837 inside the main building and 
within a few feet of the river. It had to be deepened in 1868 owing to the 
lowering of the water level through the sinking of many new wells in the 
neighbourhood. ^^^ In all, five wells have been found on the brewery site. 

Architectural Description 

The main building facing the river was of five storeys built in stock 
brick, with stucco work on the river and back elevations. The river front had 
bold Roman Doric columns which extended through the upper floors and 
carried an entablature. The entablature had triglyphs to the frieze and a 
mutule cornice above. The order stood on a rusticated ground storey podium 
and was set forward at the three centre bays, while at each corner there were 
pilasters. The upper windows, excluding those in the frieze, had architrave 
surrounds, those at the first floor being pedimented. The podium, which 
extended below the wings at each side, had recessed semicircular headed 
windows and doorways. Above the entablature was a lion made of Coade 
stone (see p. 60) which stood on a substantial base incised "BREWERY." 
The rear elevation also had a rusticated podium with a slight projection at the 
centre. This projection had coupled Doric pilasters supporting a pediment. 
The roof of the main building was designed to act as a large shallow tank for 
the storage of water. It was formed of cast-iron plates, which extended up to 
form parapets. 

The street and courtyard elevations of the subsidiary buildings and 
the arched entrance from Belvedere Road were also stuccoed. The buildings, 

52 



LION BREWERY 



LION BREWERY BELVEDERE ROABo 




NORTH WEST fLEVATlON TO ENTRANCE COURTYARD 

10 5 O 



SCALE- OF 



PLAN THROUGH 
GROUND FLOOR LEVEL 



FRONT WALL AT 
FIRST FLOOR LEVEL 



53 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



all with cornices below the parapets, were of three storeys, the lower storeys 
at each side of the entrance being semi-basements. On the Belvedere Road 
front the windows to the raised ground floor were pedimented with antae 
surrounds and mullions. The other openings had architrave linings, those to 
the semi-basement being on recessed panels and having segmental heads. 
The entrance screen had one larger round-headed opening for vehicles at the 
centre flanked by smaller openings for pedestrians. The centre opening had 
pilasters at each side and carried an entablature which was surmounted by a 
lion of Coade stone (Plate 32). The lion had been missing for some years 
prior to demolition. 

The buildings fronting Sutton Walk and the south-east side of 
Belvedere Road were distinguished only by the round-headed entrance at the 
road junction. The entrance was stuccoed and similar in scale to that on the 
opposite side of the road. It also had a lion above the archway. The flanking 
elevations were in plain brickwork which was divided into rectangular panels. 



54 



CHAPTER 13 
HUNGERFORD OR CHARING CROSS BRIDGE 

The southern approach to Hungerford Bridge was formed across 
the ground immediately south of the site of Lambeth Waterworks which 
was purchased by the Hungerford and Lambeth Suspension Footbridge 
Company from the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1840.^^^ The ground had 
previously been occupied by George Smith, timber merchant. It was part of 
Float Mead, shown as in the occupation of Mr. Lee in 1682, and described 
in 1 7 1 7 as a messuage, wharf and timber yard.^^^ 

The construction of the bridge had been authorized by an Act of 
Parliament of 1836^^^ and an amending Act of 1843^^^ with the intention of 
bringing more custom to the newly rebuilt Hungerford Market. The bridge 
was not, however, opened until ist May, 1845."^^" 

It was designed by Sir Isambard K. Brunei. Four broad chains were 
carried on two brick piers. The piers, which were in the Italian style, were 
built in the river and formed a central and two side spans (Plate ^a). 

Its existence here was very brief. In 1859 the Charing Cross Railway 
^(-{121 authorized the making of a railway to cross the Thames by a bridge at 
or near the site of Charing Cross Bridge, and the removal of the suspension 
bridge. The chains and ironwork of the old bridge were sold for ,^5,000, to 
be used for the suspension bridge then in course of erection over the river 
Avon at Clifton, near Bristol. The new railway bridge was begun in i860 
and opened early in 1864, provision being made at the side for pedestrian 
traffic.122 

A toll of a halfpenny payable at both ends of the bridge was charged 
for foot passengers^"^" until 1877.^2^ 

8 It was an inauspicious beginning that the same number of the Illustrated London News 
which recorded the opening of Hungerford Suspension Bridge reported the collapse of the suspension 
bridge at Great Yarmouth. 



S5 



CHAPTER 14 

THE HOPES, KING'S ARMS STAIRS AND JENKINS 
(FORMERLY COLLEGE) STREET 

The ground between the site of Hungerford Bridge and of the old 
Tramways Building in Belvedere Road was formerly known as the Hopes 
and was granted to Jesus College, Oxford, in 1685 (for its previous history 
see pp. 25 and 137). At that time it was drained by a cut or dock on the 
north and south sides, known as Theobald's Dock and Chambers' Dock 
respectively, and by an open ditch on the east side.* The shape of the 
ground can be seen in the 1804 plan on p. 60. King's Arms Stairs, a public 
landing place (see Plate 48), lay halfway along the river side of the property 
and was connected by a path with Narrow Wall on the east. The path later 
became College Street or Jenkins Street. 

At first Jesus College leased the Hopes and the Three Acres by 
Cuper's Bridge to the same family, the Cupers or Coopers after whom Cuper's 
Bridge and Cuper's Gardens were named.^" In 1753, when Mrs. Evans took 
over the lease of Cuper's Gardens, the Hopes were leased to a John Brown, 
who is described as a merchant. A beautifully drawn plan in the possession 
of the college shows the uses to which the ground was then put. The site of 
the King's Arms Glasshouse is marked to the north of King's Arms Stairs. 

Brown's successors were Elizabeth Haines (1762), John Biggin 
(1769), Eleanor Biggin (1778) and Martineau's Brewery (1800).^^ A fine 

series of maps shows the steady 



development of the property, but the 
leases up to the beginning of the 
19th century usually repeat previous 
descriptions of the buildings, etc., 
without reference to the changes 
that were taking place. 

In 1828-29 Narrow Wall, 
later renamed Belvedere Road, was 
extended straight across the Jesus 
College property, cutting off the 
bend of the former Narrow Wall to 
the east. The older portion of road- 
way, which had become known as 
Ragged Row, probably from the 
tumbledown condition of the old 
cottages which bordered it, was re- 
named Belvedere Crescent. The 
whole of the houses in College Street, as well as those in Belvedere Crescent, 
were rebuilt at this time and new houses were erected along the new section 

"■ These are marked on Morden and Lea's map of 1682. On this map also the strip of 
ground south of Theobald's Dock is named " Sparagus Garden," while the river frontage is shown 
as in the occupation of three tenants — Mr. Miller, Mr. Eccleston and Mr. Finch. 

S6 




Delft Plate 



PLATE 36 



60* 




I 

^"5 





y 
^ 






J 



W 

o 
o 

O 

o 
p 



PLATE 37 




Lambeth. 






c 







JJ 

vol 






.-^ . 






■j^l/l/ 






. -MT 




(a) BELVEDERE, LAMBETH, circa 1720 

\b) COADE'S ARTIFICIAL STONE MANUFACTORY, circa 1800 



a 



PLATE 38 





COADE'S ARTIFICIAL STONE MANUFACTORY 

{a) 1 80 1 {b) 1827 



PLATE 39 




o 






Q 
< 
O 



K Q 










Q 

< 

Q 

<; 
o 
u 






J^ 'S 






O 






< 



< 

H 

< 
H 



P3 



CD tq 
H 

4. 



6'L 



PLATE 40 




o 

OS 
< 

>-l 
H 
4. 

D 
O 
u 

[-Li 

o 

H 
to 

W 

:i: 

H 

o 

Q 
O 

2 



< 
o 

rLJ 



o 



L' 



PLATE 41 




:fS(Wa« 



flT " 




5iiitii!iw*vji'iit\.,|L, , ,..„,,„.,,i|.i. 






0.- 



>,ti^( 






(a) BUILDINGS ON THE SITE OF COUNTY HALL, 1906 
(^) COUNTY HALL FROM THE ROOF OF CHARING 
CROSS STATION, 1948 




COUNTY HALL, INTERIOR OF COUNCIL CHAMBER, 1938 



PLATE 43 









ASYLUM FOR FEMALE ORPHANS 
(a) EXTERIOR, 1824 
(^) DINING HALL, 1808 



/6 



PLATE 44 




CHRIST CHURCH, WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD, 1950 



PLATE 45 




Y^KK-SFfllVE S""'" T''" S'-H""l-Wf'"'^"N«lliK,B'y'«iRRlJAr) IjINDON. i"Al"i.";,''."~'.- a^""a°S'^6' 



ill iisi " 



^/[IHflfllifB^flS'; 



'■"'S-ii^Jli'riU!;' .V 



I 

{a) YORKSHIRE SOCIETY'S SCHOOL, WESTMINSTER 

BRIDGE ROAD, 1885 
(i?) Nos. 65-75 WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD, 1922 



ii' 



PLATE 46 





^^m:r:m.^^^£!J^^ 



:i;M 




'4 



ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE 

(a) FRONT TO WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD, cina 1850 

(i) ARENA, circa 18 10 



PLATE 47 




KING'S ARMS STAIRS 



of Belvedere Road. Most of these buildings were put up by William, Bailey, 
and Newman Sherwood of Belvedere Road, builders.^" From this time on- 
wards the ground was let to individual tenants and not to one lessee. 

Martineau's Brewery stood on the ground later known as College 
Wharf, just north of King's Arms Stairs. It was founded by David Mar- 
tineau in 1784'*^ and remained in existence until 1842 though it had been 
taken over by Whitbread's thirty years previously.^^* 

In I 861'''* the authorities of Jesus College leased part of the ground 
south of College Street, with a river frontage of about 1 10 feet, to the Secre- 
tary of State for India, and there the building known first as the East India 
Military Stores, and later simply as 
the India Stores was erected in 
1 86 1-2, the architect being Sir 
Matthew Digby Wyatt.125 in 1873 
the stores were extended to include 
the remaining property of the college 
to the south, and in 1899 the Secre- 
tary of State for India purchased 
the freehold of both portions.!-^ 

In 1935 the London County 
Council promoted a bill in parliament 
to acquire the remainder of the col- 
lege property and some adjoining 
ground, for the improvement of the 
South Bank. The college petitioned 
against the bill and the matter was deferred until 1937 when the Council 
promoted a second bill. The college again petitioned against it and the Port 
of London Authority objected to the closing of the public landing place 
formerly known as King's Arms Stairs. In the end the Council came to terms 
with the petitioners and the land passed to the Council in March, 1940.^26 
The property was severely damaged by bombing during the war of 1939-45. 
When the site was cleared in 1 949-50 for the Festival of Britain many pieces 
of delft pottery, wasters and parts of saggars were found. They were 
probably waste materials from nearby potteries dumped to fill in the water 
channels. There do not seem to have been any pottery kilns on this property. 




The India Stores during Demolition, 1949 



57 



CHAPTER 15 
COADE'S ARTIFICIAL STONE WORKS 

It is beyond the normal scope of this survey to give a detailed account 
of an industry which has long since ceased to function and whose buildings 
have disappeared, but Coade stone was so extensively used on buildings 
and for statuary during the 70 years that the factory flourished, in the 
immediate neighbourhood, in London generally, and throughout the country, 
that it seems a pity not to put on record the information about Coade's 
Artificial Stone Manufactory which has come to light during the preparation 
of the volume. 

Coade's Stone Works were not the first of their kind in the area. 
In 1722 Richard Holt took out 2 patents,!^^ one, in conjunction with Thomas 
Ripley, for a "compound liquid metal, by which artificial stone and marble 
is made, by casting the same into moulds," and the other, in conjunction 
with Samuel London, for a composition (without clay) for making white- 
ware, "formed and moulded in a new method." In a pamphlet about his 
work, published in 1730I28 and dedicated to the Earl of Burlington, Holt 
advertised that his wares were on show in a building by the river stairs at 
Cuper's Bridge and warned intending customers against a "certain pretending 
Architect,''' who was trying to steal his secret. Holt seems to have gone out 
of business soon after. In 1770, Daniel Pincot, who described himself as an 
"Artificial Stone Manufacturer," published an essay on the "Origin, Nature, 
Uses, and Properties of Artificial Stone "1^9 ^nd stated that he had recently 
opened a factory "by King's Arms Stairs, Narrow Wall, Lambeth, opposite 
Whitehall Stairs." A plan of the Jesus College property made in 1770^" 
shows Daniel Pincot as tenant of a piece of ground north of College Street 
and fronting on Narrow Wall. Pincot did not claim to have invented the 
process and he took out no patent. He claimed superiority over Holt solely 
in the design of his products, and it would appear that he either sold his 
factory to Eleanor Coade within a year or two of its opening, though no 
record of such a transaction has come to light, or he was acting as her agent, 
for it was her name and not his which became attached both to the factory 
and its products.* 

Mrs. Eleanor Coade must have been a remarkable woman for her 
period, for she ran the factory for about 25 years. Her husband, George 
Coade, died in i 769,^^1 the year the factory was opened, and it seems improb- 
able that he had any hand in it. The couple came from Dorset, and it is 
possible that their families had been connected with the pottery industry 
there. When she took a partner it was her nephew, John Sealy.** 

The composition and method of manufacture of Coade stone are not 

^ The only definite fact that has come to light about Daniel Pincot is that he was buried 
in Bunhill Fields in 1797.1^" He was, therefore, a Baptist like the Coades, but the attempts to trace 
a family connection have proved fruitless. 

^ He was the son of James Sealy and his wife Mary, a daughter of Thomas Enchmarch, a 
merchant, of Tiverton.^^^ Mary was the sister of Eleanor Coade senior.^^^ 

58 



COADE'S ARTIFICIAL STONE WORKS 



fully known, but the finds on the site during excavations for the Festival of 
Britain show that the materials were finely ground and after mixing were 
either modelled or cast in moulds or cast and then finished by a modeller. 
They were fired in a muffle furnace. The grindstone, of granite, has been 
placed outside the Royal Festival Hall and a number of the moulds, casts and 
specimens of the finished product have been preserved. 

A descriptive catalogue of "Coade's Artificial Manufactory, At 
King's Arms Stairs, Narrow Wall," was published in 1784.^^* It refers to the 
"period of fifteen years, since this ^^r^/ Artificial Stone Manufactory" had 
been erected and to the "several other Manufactories passing under the 
same denomination" which had been extinct for some years and whose 
productions had been ascribed to the Coade Works, and gives as an example 
the gateway to Syon House, Isleworth. The picture on Plate 48 of old 
Westminster Bridge, shows King's Arms Stairs in the foreground with a sign 
advertising Coade's factory. 

In 1800 Mrs. Eleanor Coade, junior, opened an exhibition gallery for 
her wares at the north-east corner of Narrow Wall and Westminster Bridge 
Road (see p. 69).*^ A catalogue of ornamental stone in the " Gallery of Coade 
and Sealy" published about 1799 lists a large number of stock statues, 
busts and architectural ornaments designed by John Bacon, Benjamin West, 
James Wyatt and others which could be bought. The engraving facing the 
title page depicts "Fire defending Sculpture and Architecture against 
Time."^''^ 

Eleanor Coade, senior, died in 1796 at the age of 88 and was buried 
in Bunhill Fields. ^^^ Her daughter, also Eleanor, had taken her place in the 
business some years previously, and John Sealy continued in partnership until 
his death in i 8 i 3. He was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary's, Lambeth, 
and his tomb, of Coade stone, records also the names of his wife, Elizabeth, 
and his brother and sister-in-law, William and Harriet (see p. 117). John 
Sealy left no children and his estate of ^^7,500 passed to his spinster sister 
Maria Sealy.^^^ Eleanor Coade also remained unmarried and there was no 
one of the younger generation either in her branch of the family or Sealy's to 
learn the business. Eleanor therefore took as her successor a cousin by 
marriage, William Croggon,'' and from 18 14 onwards Croggon paid rates 
for the factory, though until 1823 it is entered in the directories as Coade 
& Co. 

In 181 1, Eleanor Coade was living in Great Surrey Street (later 
Blackfriars Road), Southwark,!^^ but at the time of her death in 1 82 i she was 
described as "of Camberwell Grove. "^^^ She was then in her 89th year.^^ She 
also was buried in Bunhill Fields and left legacies to a number of her relatives, 
the Sealys and Enchmarchs, and to charities both in London and at Lyme 
Regis, Dorset.i^^ 

In 1828 William Croggon obtained from the authorities of Jesus 
College a new lease of his premises in Belvedere Road for 9^ years at a rent 

* Frances Enchmarch, sister of Sarah and Eleanor Coade, married, and had a son, Walter 
Oke, who married William Croggon's sister.''" 

59 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



of ;{^ 1 40 a year. The ground is described as approximately 195 feet from east 
to west and 85 feet from north to south.^*^ The plan on this page shows the site 
in 1 804 before the formation of Belvedere Road, and on Plate 38<a is a view of 




Scale toio«UM«A4oi*(i50iflo 



Plan of Jesus College Property, 1804 



the Narrow Wall frontage at about the same date on which the curved line 
of Narrow Wall and of the path running towards the river by the side of the 
factory, can be clearly seen. Considerable alterations took place, just before 
Croggon got his lease, to improve the new frontage to Belvedere Road. At 
the Duchy of Cornwall office is a water colour drawing by Buckler made 
after the alteration. It shows that the old house was altered and adapted, but 
not entirely rebuilt. 

William Croggon was succeeded by his son Thomas John Croggon 
in 1836,*^ but the days of the artificial stone factory were numbered. The 
last dated pieces of Coade stone which have been found are the large lion 

60 



COADE STONE 




The Lion's Paw 



from the Lion Brewery which, as shown on the inset drawing, has the date 

May 24th, 1837, and the initials W. F. W. (the sculptor Woodington) on 

its paw," and the coat of arms of Queen Victoria 
outside No. 6 Suffolk Street, Westminster, the 
business premises of the Queen's tailors, which has the 
inscription "T. C[r]og[gon, Lam]beth" and which 
must have been made after June, 1837. The younger 
Croggon gave up the factory in Belvedere Road in 
1837,^" and although he was subsequently in busi- 
ness in the north of London, it was as a factor or 
agent for various materials, and not as an artificial 
stone manufacturer.*^ 
The premises in Belvedere Road were let in 1837 to Thomas Rout- 
ledge and John Danforth Greenwood.^*^ Routledge & Co. carried on a terra- 
cotta and scaglioli works there for a number of years, but Coade stone was 

made no more. 

It seems remarkable that a product with so many useful qualities as 

Coade stone should have gone out of use. The claim that it would resist the 

weathering of frost, rain, heat, and smoke has been 

amply proved. On many buildings, as for example 

the Royal Society of Arts building in the Adelphi, 

it has been subjected to more than 1 50 years of the 

London atmosphere without deterioration. It was 

cheaper than stone and in some cases cheaper than 

wood. 

The most probable explanation seems to be 

that the composition of the stone was a family 

secret which the last survivor did not fully share or 

which, perhaps, he had not sufficient nous to 

exploit. Perhaps in time modern chemists may re- 
discover the formula, but it seems likely that the 

original inventor will remain a mystery. One thing 

is certain and that is that the work of the Eleanor 

Coades, mother and daughter, will survive to 

intrigue many future generations. A few examples 

are illustrated in this volume. The large lion from 

the Lion Brewery (Plate 31) which is 13 feet long 

and 12 feet high was made in separate parts and 

cramped together. The charity school boy from the 

Lambeth Ragged Schools, which stands now in the 

hall of Archbishop Temple's School, Lambeth Road, is also of Coade stone. 

He was probably one of the stock patterns advertised in the 1784 catalogue 

as on sale for ^^ 16 los. the pair (boy and girl).^^* 

* When the lion was repaired, prior to being placed in position for the Festival of 
Britain, a bottle was found in a cavity in its back. The bottle contained a trade card of Routledge 
& Greenwood with the name of Woodington and the date on the reverse. 

61 




iffi 



UELVEDERE 



Property Leased to Thomas 
Routledge, 1837 



CHAPTER 1 6 
THE COUNTY HALL 

The main block of County Hall occupies the site of part of Float 
Mead and the whole of Pedlar's Acre, Bishop's Acre and the Four Acres 
(see p. 45). 

(f) Float Mead. In 1731 the Westminster Bridge Commissioners 
purchased from the Archbishop a detached part of Float Mead near Stangate, 
which, like ground between Jesus College estate and Cuper's Bridge, was on 
lease to Gilbert East. Having used as much as they needed to form the 
bridge approach, they in 1 747 sold the ground on the north side to Robert 
Andrews of St. George's, Hanover Square, for £i%loP'^ Andrews resold 
it a few days later to Roger Morris,'^* master carpenter of the Office of 
Ordnance, who was also a speculative builder. Seven houses were erected on 
the street frontage — Nos. 1—7 Bridge Street, later Nos. 268-280 (even) 
Westminster Bridge Road (Plate 49). Shop fronts were inserted at an early 
date and No. 280 was for many years known as the Coronet public house. 

The ground behind the Bridge Street houses was in 1 747 occupied by 
a wharf (later Burnham's wharf) and some sheds. Simmond's flour mills 
covered the greater part of the site during the latter part of the 19th century. 
John Whately Simmonds bought the whole of the site from the Morris 
family in i88i^'* for ;/^38,ooo and sold it to the London County Council in 
1906 for ;/^90,ooo.'^* 

(») Pedlar's Acre. The origin of the name Pedlar's Acre for this 
piece of ground is a matter for conjecture. It first occurs, without explanation, 
in a lease of 1690,^^^ previously having been entered in the Lambeth church- 
wardens' accounts as the Church or Osier Hope.^^" The name of the donor 
had been forgotten before 1639, for in that year a payment was made for 
searching the rolls "concerning the Church Hoopes."^"" The picture in 
painted glass of a Pedlar and his Dog which used to be in the parish church 
of St. Mary, Lambeth, has been connected by tradition with this ground and 
several mutually contradictory legends have grown up round it. From the 
churchwardens' accounts it is clear that a similar window existed as early as 
1607, when 2S. was paid "for a pannell of glase for the windo where the 
picture of the pedler standes"^'*^ (see p. 104). At the end of the 15th 
century and beginning of the i6th a family with the surname Palmer gave a 
number of donations to the church and it is probable that the window was a 
rebus on their name and that, the origin of the church ownership of the 
Osier Hopes having been lost, the window, and the benefactors it commemor- 
ated, and the acre of ground became linked together in the minds of the 
parishioners. 

The steady rise in the value of the land can be traced in the accounts, 
e.g. in 1504 it was let for 2s. 8d. a year, in 1557 for 5s., in 1623 for 26s. 8d., 
and in 1656 for ^^4. The increased value was partly due to the devaluation 
of money and partly to the increased usefulness of the land. 

In 1 8 10 the southern part of Pedlar's Acre was let to Henry Maudslay, 

62 



PEDLAR'S ACRE 







msmMmem 



M^m 



,j- <^ 



and the firm of Maudslay, Sons and Field, general engineers, remained there 
until the land reverted to the Lambeth Borough Council in 1900.^^'* Among 
many other things made there were a pumping engine for the Lambeth 
Waterworks (1831) and the "Lord William Bentinck," said to have been 
the first iron vessel built on the Thames (launched in 1832).^*'* 

Two wharves and houses, known as Nos. 7 and 9 Belvedere Road, 
were built on the northern 

portion of the land. As the p; "t -^- -*i!!===- ^^ ^-^ Jijs.^=^ -:U- "^ 
ground was not known to 
have been given for purely 
ecclesiastical uses its revenue 
was taken by Lambeth Vestry 
and subsequently by the 
Metropolitan Borough of 
Lambeth. It was sold to the 
County Council in 19 10 for 
/^8 1,342, having for the pre- 
vious few years been used as 
a depot by the borough 
council.^'* The boundary stone 
illustrated here was found 
during the excavations for the 
foundations of County Hall. 
It measures four feet five 
inches by one foot eleven 
inches by one toot seven 
inches. 

(m) Bishop' s Acre . 
This ground was presumably 
so named because it belonged 
to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. It was described in a 
lease of 171 8 as a "parcel of 
meadow or ozier ground lately 
made a wharf and in parts 
divided by a dock or docks, ' '^^^ 
a description which was re- 
peated in subsequent leases throughout the i8th century. When the ground 
was bought by the London County Council in 1908 it was occupied by 
Messrs. Crosse and Blackwell's factory.^'*^ 

{iv) The Four Acres. Until the erection of County Hall this ground 
was divided into two by a draw dock which extended back as far as Belvedere 
Road. The whole property was leased in 1802 to William Adam, architect, 
who used it for workshops and stables until he was declared a bankrupt, atter 
which the lease was assigned to Robert Forrest, timber merchant. ^■'^ The 
London County Council acquired the northern part of the tjround in 1894 

63 




SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



for its Works Department (subsequently used as a Tramways Office).''* 
Messrs. Holloway, who were in possession of the southern part, strongly 
opposed the Council's bill for compulsory purchase of their site in 1906, but 
were overruled. ^*^ 

The Erection of County Hall 

When the London County Council succeeded the Metropolitan 
Board of Works in 1889 the office accommodation comprised the principal 
office facing St. James's Park and Nos. 10, 12, and 14 Spring Gardens. It 
was even then inadequate and the increasing functions of the Council soon 
made the acquisition of more accommodation a necessity. Suggestions for 
acquiring sites in Parliament Street, Trafalgar Square, or the Adelphi were 
rejected. In 1905 the Council decided to acquire the riverside site north of 
Westminster Bridge and in the following year obtained parliamentary powers 
to do so.^*2 

The design of the new building was made the subject of a public 
competition for which 99 entries were submitted at the first stage. The 
design of Ralph Knott was finally accepted, though with some modifications. 

The Act^'*^ included permission to enclose 2^ acres from the foreshore 
and construct a new river wall. This work was begun in 1909 and finished 
in 1917. 

The Roman Boat. The Roman boat found in 1 910 during the excava- 
tions for the concrete raft on which County Hall is built, excited much 
interest. Parts of the timbers were destroyed before their presence was 
recognized, but what was left of the boat was carefully lifted, treated with pre- 
servative and deposited in the London Museum. At the time she was 
thought to have been a Roman galley, and from the evidence of three 
coins found in her was dated at about the year a.d. 300. One theory was 
that she went down in a fight between Allectus and Constantius in the year 
A.D. 296, and the large round stone embedded in her timbers, which might 
have been ammunition thrown from a Roman ballista, lent colour to this 
assumption.i*^ 

More recently experts in nautical research have considered that her 
timbers were too lightly jointed for a sea-going vessel and that it was unlikely 
that she ever possessed a mast. It seems probable that she was a ferry boat 
plying across the river and that she became derelict in her old age or was 
sunk by accident. There was a large hole in her bottom and she may have 
met her end by drifting on to her mooring post in a high tide. This type 
of vessel would have been much shallower in draft than a galley and much 
shorter in proportion to her width. She could have been propelled by one 
man rowing her standing as is still done on vessels of this type. If, as is 
suggested on p. i, a Roman road from Canterbury crossed the river to 
Westminster from a point between Westminster and Lambeth Bridges, then 
this may have been one of the boats employed at the crossing; this is, 
however, conjecture. Her timbers had been repaired in a number of places, 
showing that she was an old boat when she met her end. A varied collection 

64 



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^ c c I e of F e e i 




MANOR OF LAMBETH ENCLOSURE MAP (NORTHERN PART), 1806 



THE COUNTY HALL 



of pottery and other objects were found in and around her, most of which 
have been preserved. 

Work on the erection of County Hall ceased in 19 16 owing to the 
war, but was resumed in 191 9, and the building was opened on 17th July, 
1922, though the northern section was not completed until 1933.^*^ It 
soon became apparent that with the expansion of departments caused by the 
imposition of additional duties upon the Council the accommodation of the 
building had become inadequate. This need was met by the erection of two 
office blocks fronting York Road; they were built under the direction of 
the Architect to the Council, F. R. Hiorns, in association with his predecessor, 
E. P. Wheeler, while Sir Giles Gilbert Scott acted as consulting architect. 
Both blocks have yet to be completed. 

Architectural Description 

The accommodation of the County Hall is planned round a number 
of internal courtyards with the council chamber placed at the heart of the 
building. The enclosing blocks form an approximate rectangle whose slightly 
tapering long sides face westwards to the river and eastwards to Belvedere 
Road. The monotony of a continuous river facade is relieved by the broad 
sweep of the colonnaded crescent with its pavilion terminations and central 
fleche, while in the middle of the Belvedere Road front an imposing feature 
is made of the ceremonial entrance. 

Like the east and west elevations, the south front overlooking West- 
minster Bridge Road is flanked by pavilion terminations; it has a central 
arched entrance leading through a vaulted approach of Piranesian character 
to the members' courtyard south of the council chamber. The north front, 
with its servicing entrances, is of less interest and is without end pavilions. 

The County Hall is designed in a free Classic style and is faced with 
Portland stone except at the base where, like the river wall in front, it is 
finished in granite. 

There are two basement storeys below road level, and above the first 
or principal floor used chiefly by members of the council there are five floors 
of offices. The fifth and sixth floors are in the roof above a heavy overhanging 
cornice, and are lighted on the outer elevations by dormer windows set in 
the long roof slopes which are laid with rich red Italian tiles. 

The figure sculpture above the heads of the pavilion windows on the 
principal floor was carved by Ernest Cole and Alfred Hardiman, while the 
architectural carving was executed by C. H. Mabey. 

The office blocks fronting York Road are disposed on each side of 
the axial approach to the ceremonial entrance of the County Hall. Thev are 
linked by a bridge at first floor level and have the same number of storeys 
as the old building. The external finishes are similar, though the architectural 
detail is simpler. 



65 



CHAPTER 17 
WESTMINSTER BRIDGE 

Suggestions for a bridge across the river at Westminster were mooted 
soon after the Restoration but were vigorously resisted by the citizens of 
London, and it is significant that in granting a loan of ;^ 100,000 to King 
Charles II in 1664 they took the opportunity to express their thanks to him 
for preventing "the new bridge proposed to be built over the river of Thames 
betwixt Lambeth and Westminster, which, as is conceived, would have been 
of dangerous consequence to the state of this City."^^ The objections of the 
City were fully set out in a document of 1722, when the project was again 
under discussion, the main points being the loss of custom to the watermen 
and to the City markets and the danger of the navigation of the river being 
impeded.^^'' 

Westminster was growing rapidly at the beginning of the i8th 
century and the inconvenience of having to cross the river by boat or to make 
the long detour to the south side of the river by London Bridge was increas- 
ingly felt by its inhabitants. In 1735, when a Bill for a bridge at Westminster 
was introduced into Parliament, the City could no longer uphold its objections 
and the Bill became law in the following year.^** 

The Act appointed a number of influential persons as commissioners 
and provided for ;^625,ooo to be raised by a lottery by the sale of £^ tickets 
from which ;/^ 100,000 was to be paid to the commissioners. Three amending 
Acts were needed before the bridge was finished and three lotteries were held. 
;^i 97,500 was raised by this means and the remainder of the total cost of the 
bridge, ;/!3 80,500, was granted by Parliament so that the bridge was opened 
free of toll.^^ 

The bridge was designed by Charles Labelye, a naturalised Swiss 
engineer and architect. His employment provoked the anger of English 
architects, the most violent expression of which was in a pamphlet by Batty 
Langley entitled A survey of Westminster Bridge as 'tis now sinking into ruin, 
published in 1748, in which he referred to Labelye as Mr. Self-Sufficient, 
and depicted him hanging from a gibbet under one of the arches of the 
bridge.i*9'' 

Andrews Jelfe and Samuel Tufnell were employed as master masons 
and James King as master carpenter.^^" 

The original plan was to build a wooden superstructure on stone 
piers, but in 1739 the commissioners decided to have a bridge built entirely 
of stone. The foundations were laid in caissons, the first time this method of 
building had been employed on a large scale.^® Cavities were dug in the bed 
of the river for the reception of the caissons, but the piers were built directly 
on to the soil and not on piles.^^^ It was perhaps because of this that in 1747, 
when the bridge was almost complete, the sixth pier from the Westminster 

a Batty Langley had himself published A design for the bridge at New Palace Yard, 
Westminsterm 1736, and he contended that Labelye had stolen his ideas but failed to carry them out 
effectively. 

66 



WESTMINSTER BRIDGE 



end subsided 1 6 inches, causing the adjoining arches to crack, with the result 
that they had to be rebuih. 

Westminster Bridge was opened on i8th November, 1750. The 
Gentleman's Magazine described it as "a very great ornament to our metro- 
polis, and will be looked on with pleasure or envy by all foreigners. The 
surprising echo in the arches, brings much company with French horns to 
entertain themselves under it in summer; and with the upper part, for an 
agreeable airing, none of the publick walks or gardens can stand in com- 
petition." Other writers took a less cheerful view, suggesting that the recesses 
in the form of alcoves over each pier, designed for shelter in bad weather, 
might be used by robbers and cut-throats who, if it were not for the special 
guard of 12 watchmen and the high balustrades, might set on unwary 
travellers and push their bodies into the river.^^ 

The bridge was built of Portland stone. A contemporary manuscript 
description of it runs: "This magnificent structure is 1,223 ^^^^ in length, 
and above 300 feet longer than London Bridge. The Footway on each side; 
7 feet — Horse Road 30 feet wide. There are 13 large and two smaller 
arches, all semi-circular. The breadth of the two middle piers, is i 7 feet at 
the springing of the arches, and contain 3,000 cubic feet, or near 200 tons 
of solid stone, and the others on each side, regularly decrease, one foot in 
breadth. The Center arch is 76 feet wide, and the others decrease 4 feet in 
width, on each side. The caisson or wooden case, in which the first pier was 
built, contained 150 loads of timber. The last stone was laid in November, 
1747 — eleven years and nine months, from the beginning of the 
construction."^^" 

From 1 8 10 onwards, but more particularly after the removal of old 
London Bridge in 1831 increased the scour of the river, Westminster 
Bridge began to show signs of decay. Select Committees enquired into the 
matter in 1844, 1846, and 1850, and in 1851 a Commission was appointed 
by the Treasury to consider the most convenient site for a new bridge and the 
best mode of construction to be adopted.^^^ 

The new bridge was designed by Thomas Page in consultation with 
Sir Charles Barry.^^^ It was begun in 1854 and opened on 24th May, 1862. 
To save the erection of a temporary bridge the first half of the new bridge 
was built upstream of the old and put into use before the second halt was 
built on the site of the old bridge. The cost, ^^400,000, was defrayed partly 
by funds in the hands of the Westminster Bridge Commissioners and partly 
by parliamentary grant. ^^- 

Description 

The present bridge is of Gothic design, which accords with the Houses 
of Parliament. The elegance of its delicate proportions is enhanced by the 
gentle convexity of outline from bank to bank. The bridge is simple in detail 
and has seven spans of which the central is 130 feet wide. The subsidiary 
spans are of 1 25 and 1 1 5 feet with those adjacent to the abutments of 100 feet. 

The downstream parapet coincides on plan with the equivalent 

67 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

parapet on the old bridge, though with a 58 foot roadway and 13 foot foot- 
paths at each side, the present bridge is of almost twice the width. 

The spans are semi-elliptical in shape and spring from piers which 
are faced by cutwaters of graceful form. Standing upon the cutwaters are 
short semi-octagonal pillars with moulded plinths and caps. The pillars 
finish flush with the parapets and, like the facing stones of the piers, are 
built in grey Cornish granite. The traceried spandrels above the outer ribs, 
as well as the other ribs supporting each span, are of cast-iron, as are the 
parapets, which are pierced by trefoils, and the lamp standards above each 
pier. The abutments at each bank are faced with Portland stone which was 
reworked from materials salved when the old bridge was demolished.^' There 
are coats of arms in the arch spandrels, and panels on the roadway side of the 
four centre piers containing the arms of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. 

a The present bridge is of interest constructionally as it was one of the first in which the 
buckled plate invention patented by Robert Mallet in 1852 was used. Mallet's buckled plates were 
struck between two dies so that the centre portion was raised and formed a shallow dome. These 
plates were used as decking on the bridge and gave a maximum of strength for a minimum of thickness 
and weight. 



68 



CHAPTER 1 8 
WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD 

For the formation of the bridge approach on the Surrey side the 
Commissioners of Westminster Bridge, between 1740 and 1746, purchased 
a strip of land from the Archbishop of Canterbury and just over an acre of 
ground in Lambeth Marsh from the Lord Mayor and Commonalty of the 
City of London.^^* 

At the time of the purchase the ground near the river, part of Float 
Mead, was in lease to Gilbert East and sublet to a number of tenants, one of 
whom, Andrews Jelfe, was a contractor for the stonework of Westminster 
Bridge. 

After the formation of the road there was left surplus a strip of land 
on each side of the road west of Narrow Wall and a long strip on the north 
side east of Narrow Wall, which were sold or let on building leases. A plan 
made in 1785, by Thomas Hardwick, of the leasehold property of the 
Lawton family south of Westminster Bridge Road" shows that on neither 
side was the road fully built up at that date. 

There was a turnpike known as Marsh Gate at the junction of Lower 
Marsh with Westminster Bridge Road and tolls were collected for the upkeep 
of the road until 1844.^^ In 1847 the Illustrated London News recorded 
that "the materials of upwards of twenty houses, on the west side of West- 
minster Bridge Road, near the old Marshgate, were sold for the extension 
of the South Western Railway to the proposed new terminus in the York 
Road" (i.e. from Nine Elms to Waterloo). 

North Side 

The houses on the bridge approach, formerly Nos. 1—7 Bridge 
Street, including the Coronet Inn at the riverside, were pulled down in i 910- 
1 1 for the erection of County Hall (see p. 62). 

The ground between Pedlar's Acre (Belvedere Road) and the New 
Inn was in 1798 let on building lease to Eleanor Coade,^^^ and houses, known 
as Coade's Row, were built there, that at the corner of Belvedere Road, 
No. 102 (later No. 266) being used as a gallery or showrooms for products 
of Coade's Artificial Stone Factory. It bore a tablet inscribed "Coade's 
Row, 1798,"^^^ until 1908, when it was demolished for the widening of 
Belvedere Road. 

The ground east of Coade's Row, with a street frontage of "^do feet, 
was leased by the Commissioners in 1751 to John Lambert. ^^^ In 1785 the 
New Inn occupied most of this ground. ^^^ The entrance to York Road was 
cut through the eastern end of it circa 1824. Nos. 240—234 (even), formerly 
Nos. 89-86, were built in i 823. No. 234 bears a tablet inscribed "Tunbridge 
Place 1823." The freehold of these houses was sold by auction in 1855.^^^ 
They have probably had ground floor shops from the time of their erection. 

^ The Lawtons had refused to transfer their rights in this property to the Commissioners.^'* 

69 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



No. 240, with the house next to it at the corner of York Road, was in 1855 
used as a furnishing warehouse.^^^ 

The remaining 390 feet of frontage to Westminster Bridge Road 
was leased in 1766 to Mr. Wyatt and Mrs. Brent.^^^ This ground with the 
houses on it (Nos. 83-64 afterwards Nos. 228-184) was also sold by auction 
in 1855. 

The Westminster Lying-in Hospital, the predecessor of the General 
Lying-in Hospital, was established by Dr. John Leake in 1765 (see p. 
41) on the site of Nos. 214-218, while Nos. 212 and 214 (described in 
1855 as "newly erected "y^ and 2 16 formed the entrance to Gatti's Music Hall 
which occupied the space between the Westminster Bridge Road houses and 
Addington Street. Gatti's was badly damaged during the 1939-45 war and 
was demolished in 1 950 to form a new roadway through to Addington Street. 

St. Thomas's Church and Vicarage, at the corner of Pearman Street, 
were built in 1856, the designs like that of St. Andrew's, Coin Street, being 
prepared by Samuel Sanders Teulon. The church was demolished by enemy 
action during the 1939-45 war. From 1788 to 1798 this site was occupied 
by the Apollo Gardens and the "Great Room''^^" of Mr. Crispus Claggett, 
the proprietor of the Pantheon in Oxford Street. 

South Side 

The piece of ground on the south side of the bridge approach was 
let on building lease by the Commissioners of Westminster Bridge in 1741 
to James King,i^^ who had the contract for carpenter's work on the bridge. 
On this ground Nos. 7-13 Bridge Street were erected (No. 7 being dupli- 
cated on the north side of the road). These houses were pulled down in 
1860*^ to form part of the approach to the new Westminster Bridge. 

There were houses on the Westminster Bridge Road frontage east 
of Stangate in 1788. The present Nos. 217-223 date from the early 19th 
century. The entrance to Astley's Amphitheatre was on the site of the present 
No. 225 (see Plate 4.6a). 

Astley's Amphitheatre 

Philip Astley, the founder of Astley's Circus, was born at Newcastle 
under Lyme in 1742.^^^ He began his career as a showman after he left the 
army in 1768 by giving performances in an open field "near Glover's Half- 
penny Hatch, at Lambeth."^^ This lay behind the site of St. John's Church, 
Waterloo Road. Having amassed a little capital as a travelling showman, 
Astley in 1769 "took a large piece of ground, of a timber-merchant, near 
Westminster Bridge, on the Surrey side, . . . and, inclosing it circularly 
with boarding, erected seats for an audience, with a pent-house roof, covered 
with canvas,"^^ and started having regular performances there. By 1778 
the enterprise had prospered sufficiently for Astley to erect a partially roofed 
building which was opened in 1779 as the Amphitheatre Riding House.* 
The entertainments consisted chiefly of equestrian feats, conjuring and 
^ The roof was constructed with wood from the hustings in Covent Garden.** 
70 



WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD 

fireworks. At Michaelmas 1783, having obtained a licence from the Surrey 
Justices," he erected a stage and started stage performances in opposition to 
the Surrey Theatre. In 1794 the theatre (then known as the Royal Saloon) 
with all its properties was burnt down. It was rebuilt on the same site and 
was opened in the following year as the Amphitheatre of Arts, altered later 
to Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, under the direction of Philip Astley and 
his son John.i''^ On 2nd September, i 803, the theatre was again burnt down, 
the horses being saved, as they had been on the previous occasion, by Mr. 
Searle the boat builder of Stangate.^^ 

The theatre was rebuilt in 1804 from Astley's own designs, and 
circus and equestrian performances continued to be successful under Andrew 
Ducrow who succeeded the Astleys. Dickens described it in 1841 in Master 
Humphrey s Clock "with all the paint, gilding, and looking-glass, the vague 
smell of horses suggestive of coming wonders, the curtain that hid such 
gorgeous mysteries, the clean white sawdust down in the circus. . . ."^^^ 
It was in the summer of this year that Astley's was burnt down for the third 
time. The shock was too great for Andrew Ducrow who lost his reason 
and died a few months later.'^^ 

The site of Astley's was bought by William Batty, the owner of a 
travelling circus, and Astley's New Royal Amphitheatre of Arts was opened 
there in 1843. Ten years later it was let to William Cooke on condition that 
he kept open all the year round. By dint of novel attractions, of which 
Shakespeare on horseback, was one, Cooke kept his audiences, but after 
his departure Astley's rapidly lost its popularity. It was in very low water 
when in 1871 George Sanger bought it from Batty's widow for [^\ 1,000.1^1 

Sanger pulled down the greater part of the building and enlarged 
and modernized it, installing a ring, half before and half behind the curtain, 
with a stage to be lowered into position when the scenes in the circle were 
done. His showmanship restored prosperity to Astley's for the next twenty 
years. At the close of that time Sanger was under pressure both from the 
London County Council, who had tightened the licensing regulations and 
from the ground landlords, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and in March, 
1893, he gave up possession of the premises. 

Astley's Amphitheatre stood on the triangle of ground bounded by 
Westminster Bridge Road, Lambeth Palace Road and Stangate. It was 
almost entirely surrounded by houses but the entrance from Westminster 
Bridge Road had a portico extending to the verge of the pavement (Plate 
46a). In 1826 Brayley described it as follows — 

"The general form of the interior is that of an elongated 
lyre. . . . The prevailing decorations are white, lemon colour, and 
gold, and the private boxes have hangings of rich crimson. There 
is one full tier of boxes, and two half tiers at the sides, which range 
evenly with the front of the gallery: over the half tiers are the gallery 

a "Order to License John Conway Philip Astley of Lambeth . . . Riding Master for 
the Royal Grove and Amphitheatre near Westminster Bridge for public Music and Dancing."*'- 

71 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 




City of London 



slips. . . . The equestrian circle, or ride^ which is bounded by a 
boarded inclosure about four feet in height, painted as stone-work, 
is forty-four feet in diameter; the area is covered with pulverized 
saw-dust: the curve of the ride, next the stage, forms the outline 
of the orchestra, and the remainder that of the pit, which contains 
fourteen rows of seats, and has a spacious lobby, and a bar for refresh- 
ments. . . . The stage, which is probably the largest and most 
convenient in London, is provided with immense platforms, or 
floors, rising above each other, and extending entirely across. These 
are of great strength: the horsemen gallop and skirmish over them, 
and carriages equal in size and weight to a mail coach may be driven 
along them. They are so constructed as to be placed and removed, 
in a short space of time, by manual labour and mechanism. During 
exhibitions they are masked by romantic scenery, bridges, forts, 
mountains, and other objects. "^^ 

The amphitheatre was pulled down in 1893; P^^* °f ^^^ ^i*^^ ^^ "°^ 
covered by a block of flats. 

Hercules Hall and Hercules Road 

In 1550 Edward VI made a grant of land to the City of London 
which included a close of land in Lambeth Marsh purchased by Henry VIII 
from Charles, Duke of Suffolk.^^ In the i8th century this ground was 
known as Brick Close and was stated to contain six acres.^^* When Kenning- 
ton Road was made it divided the close into two triangles which were let in 
1 752 to Daniel Ponton."^ On the southern triangle, between Hercules Road 
and Westminster Bridge Road, Philip Astley built himself a house which he 
named Hercules Hall after the acrobatic feat called "La Force d'Hercule,""i 
and in which he lived from 1788*^ onward. He was still living there in 
December, i 804, when he dated a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth from 
"Hercules Hall, Hercules Buildings."i«s In 1831 the house was occupied 
by Thomas Barton Lawrence, a "malleable zinc manufacturer-''^^^ It was 
pulled down in 1841.^^^ 

The Ponton family built a number of houses in Hercules Row (now 
Hercules Road). No. 23 was from 1793 to 1800 the residence of William 
Blake ;i^8 there "Flaxman used to come and see him and sit drinking tea in 
the garden under the shadow of the grape vine.''^^^ The site is now covered 
by blocks of dwellings. 

The Female Orphan Asylum and Christ Church 

In 1758 a group of "Noblemen and Gentlemen" decided to carry 
out a project proposed by Sir John Fielding for making a home for orphan 
girls living within the Bills of Mortality whose settlement under the Poor 
Law could not be established. A house, probably one of those erected by 
Daniel Ponton, "near the second turnpike on the Surry side of Westminster 
Bridge"^^" was found suitable. Girls between the ages of 9 and 12 years 

72 



PLATE 52 



7:2 




STATUE OF EDWARD VI, ST. THOMAS' HOSPITAL, 1950 



PLATE S3 







FOUR FIGURES AT ST. THOMAS' HOSPITAL, 1950 



PLATE 54 



12 




STATUE OF SIR ROBER I" CLAYTON, ST. THOMAS' 
HOSPITAL, 1950 



PLATE 55 








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(tf) THE MITRE PUBLIC HOUSE, STANGATE, 1801 
{h) ROBERTS' BOAT HOUSE, STANGATE, circa 1840 



PLATE 56 





(a) LAMBETH REACH, circa i860 

(^) WEST SIDE OF STANGATE, circa i860 



PLATE 57 




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were taken and trained for domestic service; they were also taught to read 
and write and "understand the four first rules in arithmetic. "^^^ An aquatint 
showing the interior of the dining room in i 808 is reproduced on Plate 43^. 

The premises were rebuilt in 1824 from the designs of L. W. Lloyd. 
James Elmes enthusiastically proclaimed it "one of the prettiest productions" 
of his day with its "porch, of the Ionic order, selected from a choice example 
of the purest Grecian elegance" (Plate 43^). 

In 1866 the institution was moved to Beddington in Surrey and it 
is now at High Wycombe.^^^ 

Part of the site of the asylum was taken over in 1873 by J. Oakey & 
Sons, and the Wellington Mills for the manufacture of emery paper were 
established there and still remain. The remainder of the site was purchased 
in 1876 by the trustees of the Surrey Chapel Centenary Fund. This fund 
had been raised in 1849 to commemorate the centenary of the birth of 
Rowland Hill, the first pastor of the Surrey Chapel in Blackfriars Road. 
Hawkstone Hall in Waterloo Road, which had been bought out of the fund, 
for day and Sunday schools, was acquired by the London and South Western 
Railway Company in 1867 under compulsory powers, and a new lecture 
hall (also called Hawkstone Hall), chapel and other buildings were sub- 
sequently built on the Westminster Bridge Road site. The church was 
completed in i 876, the architects being H. J. Paull and Alfred Bickerdike.^^^ 

The Lincoln Tower and spire, named after the American president, 
were built out of funds collected by the Rev. Newman Hall in America. The 
buildings received extensive damage during an air raid in 1940 and the top 
of the steeple was subsequently removed. 

Architectural Description 

The church has an octagonal plan with four transept arms. Enclosed 
between the west and north arms, and standing almost detached, is a bold 
tower and spire, soaring to a height of over two hundred feet. 

The tower, like the body of the church, is built in Kentish ragstone 
with Portland stone dressings, and is designed in the Early English st)'le; 
it has two buttresses to each face and is capped by pinnacles at each corner. 
Above the pinnacles rises an octagonal spire whose masonry is relieved by 
two groups of inwrought red stone bands interspersed with rows of stars 
(symbolic of American Stars and Stripes). 

The church has galleries and is roofed with wood groined vaulting. 
The rooms for teaching and recreation are separated from the tower and 
church by an open cloister. The asymmetry of the whole is emphasized by 
the multiplicity of roofs and gable ends. 

Mead Place 

Nos. 65-75, illustrated on Plate 45^, formerly known as Mead Place, 
were built before 1788, when they were shown on a plan made by Thomas 
Hardwick of lands held by Thomas Griffiths and James I ledger on lease 
from the Archbishop.^^" They have been demolished. 

73 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



No. 6 1. The Yorkshire Society's School and Morley College 

This school, for the education and maintenance of boys born in 
Yorkshire or of Yorkshire parents, was founded in 1 8 1 2 in a house rented 
from the Magdalen Hospital^^* and standing on ground belonging to the 
City of London. It was substantially altered in 1885 {see Plate 45a). 

The school was closed in 1 9 1 7 and the premises were for a few years 
occupied by the Britannia Club for Soldiers and Sailors^'* until 1923 when 
Morley College for Working Men and Women was transferred there from 
the Old Vic Theatre (see p. 38).*^ The building adapted and extended to 
meet the new requirements stood until October, 1 940, when it was destroyed 
by enemy action. 



74 



CHAPTER 19 
CARLISLE HOUSE AND CARLISLE LANE 

In 1 197, when the Archbishop of Canterbury obtained Lambeth 
Manor from the bishop and monks of Rochester, the bishop reserved a 
piece of ground for his own residence which during the Middle Ages was 
known as La Place.^^ It was in this house that the horrid attempt was made 
in 1 53 I to kill Bishop Fisher by throwing poison into the "mess of gruel" 
which was being prepared for his dinner. The perpetrator was subsequently 
boiled alive in Smithfield. 

Nicolas Heath, Bishop of Rochester, was in residence there, July, 
1539,23 but a few months later meekly agreed to remove to the house of 
Lord John Russell in Chiswick to oblige the King in his expressed desire to 
have his nobles and councillors near his court, rather than dignitaries of the 
church. The exchange was a three-cornered one, Lord John Russell taking 
the Bishop of Carlisle's house near Temple Bar and the Bishop of Carlisle 
taking La Place in Lambeth.^^^ 

Carlisle House was sold in 1647, but reverted to the see in 1660.^"^ 
It does not appear to have been used as a bishop's residence after the Restora- 
tion, and about 1690 part of it was in use as a pottery. In 1720 it had "two 
very good white kilns," making white stoneware, and two stone kilns. ^'^^ It 
was closed about 1730 and subsequently became a tavern. ^"^ In 1763 it was 
leased to John Baptiste Le Maire Froment of Islington, a dancing master.^"^ 
In 1786 it was occupied as a private house, but was opened soon after as an 
academy for young gentlemen. R. Bennet, who was master in 1826, pub- 
lished several books for children.^ 

In 1827 the Bishop of Carlisle obtained an Act to enable him to 
grant building leases of his Lambeth property. ^^^ The house, then "very 
ancient and much out of repair," was pulled down, and the grounds, which 
lay between Hercules Road and Carlisle Lane, were cut up into streets and 
built up by Robert Armstrong of Hercules Buildings, and John Woodward 
of Crozier Street, Stangate, builders.^^^ 

Field's soap factory, on the west side of Carlisle Lane, was on copyhold 
land of Lambeth Manor. 

The Church of Holy Trinity, Carlisle Lane 

The church of Holy Trinity, consecrated on 27th June, 1839, was 
erected in Carlisle Street (now Carlisle Lane) on part of the kitchen garden of 
Lambeth Palace, the vicarage and schools being built on a further part of the 
garden at a later date.^^" The church was designed by Edward Blore, who 
had recently completed extensive alterations at the palace. 

The marble font, which was the one given by John Hart to St. 
Mary's Church in 161 5,® was presented to Holy Trinity in 1851 when St. 
Mary's was rebuilt. It originally had four lead hearts fixed in it in allusion 
to the name of the donor, but these have been removed and only the recesses 

75 




See of Rochester 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



remain. The stone font, now serving as a piscina in the altar recess, was 
probably used in Holy Trinity for baptisms from 1846 to 1851. 

In 1 91 5 Sir Charles A. Nicholson, Bart, carried out a restoration of 
Holy Trinity. He altered the interior by removing the galleries and intro- 
duced, inter alia, a high rood screen and the cast of the statue of the Madonna 
by Michelangelo from the Church of Notre Dame, Bruges. It was at this 
time that the large red cross, which is so conspicuous a feature of the exterior, 
especially from the railway, was placed on the east wall.^^^ 

The church, vicarage and schools were all seriously damaged by 
bombing during the 1939—45 war. They are in use again, but the church is 
still in bad condition and is scheduled for demolition. 

Architectural Description 

Holy Trinity is an unpretentious church showing Romanesque 
influence in design. It is built in SuflFolk grey brick and has stone dressings. 
There is a small tower at the south-east corner, the upper or bell stage of 
which is shouldered back slightly (Plate 1 10^). The side elevations are plain 
with recessed round-headed windows in each bay. The eaves have stone 
corbelling and the bays are separated by flat piers. The nave extends 
westwards slightly beyond the north and south aisles. 

List oj Vicars. John Pratt; 1840, Charles E. Wylde; 1845, John L. 
Spencer; 1847, James Gillman; 1859, William E. Green; 1873, George S. 
Drew; 1881, William J. H. Large; 1885, Edward W. Warren; 1887, 
Gilbert Weigall; 1904, Archibald O. Hayes; 191 9, Wilfrid S. Thomas; 
1923, Basil W. B. Matthews; 1939, Arthur Paul J. Gedge. 

No. 20 Carlisle Lane 

This house was built for the gardener of Lambeth Palace^^" after the 
new kitchen garden by Carlisle Lane was laid out in 1784. It is a small 
stucco-fronted house of simple character. The entrance has a patterned 
fanlight and fluted quadrant door linings (Plate 109^). 

Nos. 35-41 Carlisle Lane 

These houses were erected circa 1827 on part of the grounds of 
Carlisle House. They form a short terrace of neat appearance built in yellow 
stock brick. The doorways have stucco surrounds and flat hoods; that to 
No. 41 is on the return to Virgil Street and at pavement level. The fagades 
are finished with a stone-coped parapet resting on brick dentils (Plate 98^). 

The terrace, which was formerly seven houses long, was truncated 
late last century when the railway was widened. 



I 



76 



CHAPTER 20 
STANGATE, STANGATE STREET, AND LAMBETH MARSH 

Narrow Wall, the old earth river wall, originally extended south as 
far as the gateway to Lambeth Palace, and probably constituted the boundary 
between the grounds of the Archbishop's house and the river. In the course 
of centuries "hopes" of land were reclaimed from the river though they 
were not so extensive as those farther north. It was perhaps for this reason 
that the wall did not develop into a road except at its northern end, but 
remained a footway (known in the 19th century as Bishop's Walk), until 
the formation of the Albert Embankment and Lambeth Palace Road. 

In the 17th and i8th centuries this strip of foreshore was mainly 
occupied by bargehouses. The royal barge was kept there after the King's 
Barge House in Upper Ground fell into disuse (see p. 1 3), and so were the 
state barges of several of the City Companies including the Armourers, the 
Goldsmiths (with whom the Skinners afterwards joined forces) and the 
Barber Surgeons (who were succeeded by the Drapers).^^^ 'pj^g Dukes of 
Richmond and Montagu, who had houses across the river at Whitehall, 
also kept their barges on the Lambeth shore.^^- In the late i8th and early 
19th centuries Roberts' and Searle's Boathouses occupied most of the river 
frontage here, while at the northern end was the Mitre Public House* 
illustrated on Plate $^a. 

The name Stangate, attached to a wharf and river stairs just south 
of the site of Westminster Bridge, dates at least from the mediaeval period,'' 
and it is possibly of Roman origin but, as has been shown on p. i, such 
material evidence as exists for a Roman crossing of the river between 
Lambeth and Westminster suggests that it was farther south near the Horse- 
ferry. 

The name Stangate is now applied only to the short stretch of road- 
way extending from Westminster Bridge Road to Lambeth Palace Road, 
though in the 17th and i8th centuries it was sometimes given to the northern 
part of Bishop's Walk along the river front. 

Stangate Street follows the line of the old road linking Stangate 
with the road across Lambeth Marsh."-' It crossed the fields known as 
Sowters Lands which were part of the demesne land of the manor of 
Lambeth. On the 1761 edition of Rocque's map the road is shown without 
houses except at the north-west end, but before 1788*^ both sides were 
built up. 

Architectural Description 

Nos. 2—46 (even) on the south side of Stangate Street form a long 

* In 1804 it was tenanted by Edward Bent, publican. '^^ 

^ E.g., in the Lambeth Palace Accounts there is a reference in 1322-23 to "mending 
the wall along the Thames and at Stangate. "^^^ 

•^ In 1555 Thomas Kennester of Lambeth Marsh was presented before the Manor 
Court of Lambeth for having encroached on waste ground next "the King's highway going towards 
Stayngate."'** 

77 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



terrace of brick-built houses with an irregular skyline (Plate 59). Some have 
interesting doorways. 

Lambeth Marsh 

Until the 1 8th century the term Lambeth Marsh was applied to 
most of the parish of Lambeth north of the church and east of Narrow Wall, 
but gradually as the area began to be developed it came to be used more 
specifically for the road across the marsh to St. George's Fields, the road now 
known as Upper Marsh and Lower Marsh. On Rocque's map of 1745 
most of the road is shown as lined with houses, a piece of ribbon development 
in what was otherwise an area of fields and gardens. The frontispiece to this 
volume, a watercolour drawing by William Capon in the Council's collection, 
purports to be a view from "a gentleman's seat" in Lambeth Marsh made in 
I 804. The alignment of the City churches, the Monument, and the square 
shot tower suggests that the viewpoint was at or near Lambeth Palace and 
that the large house which forms the central feature was Carlisle House. It 
does not, however, seem possible to reconcile the view completely with the 
position as shown on maps and other views of the period, and it is probable 
that Capon was to some extent drawing on his imagination and memory of 
what he had seen in his earlier days. 

Brief mention must be made of the Canterbury Music Hall in Upper 
Marsh, opened by Charles Morton in 1849,^^^ which survived until the 
1939-45 war (Plate 47) and of the Bower Saloon near the junction of Upper 
Marsh and Stangate Street, which was used for crude melodrama and variety 
entertainments in the middle of the 19th century. 



78 



CHAPTER 2 1 



ST. THOMAS' HOSPITAL 

St. Thomas' Hospital had its origin in the infirmary of St. Mary 
Overy Priory by London Bridge, founded early in the I2th century and 
named St. Thomas' Spital after the canonization of Thomas a Becket in 1 173.^^^ 
A disastrous fire destroyed much of the priory early in the 1 3th century, and 
in 1 2 1 5 the hospital was refounded by Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, 
on a new site on the east side of Borough High Street. There it continued, 
except for the brief break between its dissolution by Henry VIII and its 
refounding in 1551 by Edward VI, until the middle of the 19th century. 

At the beginning of 1859 an Act was passed authorizing the forma- 
tion of the Charing Cross Railway from London Bridge to Waterloo and 
Hungerford Market. The line was to cross the garden of St. Thomas' 
Hospital within a few feet of its new north wing. The governors opposed 
the Bill, but finding opposition fruitless, decided to sell the whole site to 
the railway company and move elsewhere, rather than accept a small com- 
pensation and submit to the destruction of the hospital's amenities.^^^ A 
temporary asylum was found in the Surrey Gardens, but in 1863 negotia- 
tions were opened with the Metropolitan Board of Works for a site upon the 
proposed Albert Embankment near Stangate, which was finally purchased 
for ^T 1 00,000. It is interesting to note that Florence Nightingale was 
consulted both on the original move from Southwark and on the design of 
the new building. Its erection in separate blocks rather than in one large 
building is probably due to her influence.^^^" The foundation stone was laid 
by Queen Victoria in 1868, and she opened the new hospital in June, 1871. 
The building was designed by Henry Currey, architect to the hospital. 

Very little in the way of portraits or furniture was brought from the 
old hospital, but the four statues of cripples (Plate 53) which had been put 
up over the gate in the Borough in 1682 were re-erected, two on either side 
of the main entrance facing Lambeth Palace Road, and the stone statue of 
Edward VI, which dates from the same period, was set up between the first 
two blocks south of Westminster Bridge Road (Plate 52). The marble statue 
of Sir Robert Clayton, President of the hospital in 1 692-1 707, which was 
made by Grinling Gibbons in 1701— 2'', was also brought from Southwark 
and erected in the medical school triangle (Plate 54). The brass statue of 
Edward VI was made by Scheemakers and, as recorded on the stone pedestal, 

a She proved statistically that the majority of the patients came from outside the immediate 
locality of Southwark, and although, hkeall her contemporaries, she was ignorant ot bacteriology, she 
knew from her own observation that keeping patients isolated in small groups decreased the incidence 
of hospital diseases. 1" 

•> 20th June, 1701, "Mr. Treat Reported from the SubComittec to whom the setting-up 
of S'f Robert Clayton's Statue is referred That they had agreed with Mr. Grinling Gibbon to cutt 
the said Statue in the best Statue Marble and to set the same up in the Midle of the lower Quadrangle 
of this Hosp'll upon a Pedestall of the same Sort of Marble by Christmas next, For which he is to have 
£^0 in hand and £1 50 more as soon as the Work is finished."'*' 

79 




St. Thomas' 
Hospital 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



was erected in 1737 at the expense of Charles Joye, Treasurer of the hospital, 
who left money in his will for the purpose. 

St. Thomas' House for medical students, on the east side of Lambeth 
Palace Road, was designed by Harold Wynne Currey and built in 1925-27, 
and Riddell House, the nurses' home, next door, in 1936-37, Sir Edwin 
Cooper being the architect. 

The hospital was severely damaged by enemy action during the war 
of 1939-45, ^"^ the greater part of the most northerly block has had to be 
demolished, but the work of the hospital has continued without a break. 

Architectural Description 

Owing to the narrowness of the site, the hospital is planned with a 
long north-south communicating link giving access to the ward blocks at 
right angles to the river. The blocks are mostly placed 125 feet apart and 
accommodate 28 beds on each storey, the total number of beds originally 
being about 600. The most southerly block was designed to receive special 
or isolation cases, while the medical school was placed so as to be separate 
from the main group; it stands at the southern extremity of the site. At 
the northern end, the block fronting Westminster Bridge Road (now partly 
destroyed) was designed as committee rooms and administrative offices, 
and included the treasurer's house. The whole group of buildings was 
conceived in the Classic style and built in Fareham red bricks with stone 
dressings. 



80 



PLATE 60 




PLATE 6 1 




LAMBETH PALACE, BLORE'S PLAN OF THE 
GROUND FLOOR, circa 1828 



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LAMBETH PALACE 
{a) GARDEN, 1804 
{b) CLOISTER, 1803 




CHAPTER 2 2 

LAMBETH PALACE 

A brief account of the struggles of Archbishops Baldwin and Hubert 
Walter to found a college of secular clerks, with a house for an archiepiscopal 
residence, away from Canterbury and free from interference by the defenders 
of monkish privilege there, has been given in the 
account of Lambeth Manor (p. 3). In 1 190 Archbishop 
Baldwin, having acquired 24 acres of the demesne land 
of the manor of Lambeth from the bishop and monks 
of Rochester,!" caused a site to be marked out for a 
chapel and clerks' houses there, before departing for the 
First Crusade.^s^ Baldwin died in the Holy Land in 
1 1 90 and, after a prolonged dispute, Hubert Walter, 
Bishop of Salisbury, was elected in his stead. The monks 
of Canterbury renewed their opposition to the Lambeth project, but in 1 197 
Hubert Walter obtained a grant of the whole manor of Lambeth, with the 
exception of the Bishop of Rochester's residence,!" and proceeded with the 
building of a chapel. Two years later, as a result of papal intervention on 
the side of the monks he agreed to raze the chapel to the ground,^'" but 
in 1200 he finally got both Pope and monks to agree that he might build a 
house of Praemonstratensian canons at Lambeth with accommodation for his 
own residence. ^^^ 

During his later years Hubert Walter was much in France and it is 
impossible to say whether he lived at Lambeth,^^^ but Archbishop Stephen 
Langton issued letters from thence in 1 207, the year of his elevation to the 
See.!*^ It seems probable that part at least of the chapel crypt, the earliest of 
the buildings now remaining, dates from the time of Hubert Walter.* The 
house and its grounds were extra-parochial and have remained so until the 
present day. 

The palace has suffered many vicissitudes during its long history. 
The Survey of 1647 to which frequent reference will be made and the 1648 
plan reproduced on Plate 60 give some picture of the condition of the palace 
during the upheavals of the Commonwealth period. The drastic renovations 
carried out by Edward Blore after 1828 can be seen by a comparison of the 
1648 plan with his (Plate 61). The havoc wrought by bomb damage during 
the 1939-45 war is described by William Temple's biographer — "Part of 
the roof of Wren's*) library had been burnt away, 2,000 books were now 
ashes, and 3,000 more were jumbled together in a sodden heap on the floor. 
Piles of smashed furniture and pictures torn by the blast lay in a litter of 

* The chapel was in being in 1228 when, during the vacancy of the See after the death 
of Archbishop Langton, a stipend of five marks a year was granted to the chaplain "ministering in 
the chapel of Lambeth and keeping the houses of the archbishopric there."''-" 

^ The hall was, in accordance with the wishes of Archbishop Juxon, as nearly as possible 
a replica of the mediaeval structure. There is no evidence that Sir Christopher Wren had any 
part in designing it. 

81 

Q 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 




Archbishop Morton 



broken glass and rubble, the great drawing-room was a gaping hole, and the 
chapel was open to the sky."^^^ Now order and beauty are again being restored 
to the palace. The old buildings are being repaired and pieced together, 
and where complete destruction of the old work or the necessities of modern 
living require it, new buildings, as far as possible in keeping with the old, 
are being constructed. The architects for the restoration are Lord Mottistone 
and Paul Paget. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury was for several centuries often a high 
officer of state as well as of the church, and his London residence has played 
an important part in the history of these islands. An excellent chronological 
account of the personalities who have resided in, and visited the palace, and 
of the scenes which have been enacted there, is given in Mrs. Dorothy 
Gardiner's Story of Lambeth Palace^^^ and it has therefore been decided to 
arrange this survey of the palace topographically taking the buildings one 
by one and giving past history only so far as it throws light on existing 
conditions. In compiling this account two sources have been freely used 
to which little reference has been made either by Mrs. Gardiner or by 
the editors of the Victoria County History and the Royal Commission on 
Historical Monuments; these are the plans and records of the manor now 
in the custody of the Church Commissioners and the drawings and plans 
made by Edward Blore for his reconstruction of the palace circa 1828. 

The Gateway or Morton's Tower 

The gateway of red brick, the part of the palace most familiar to the 
general public, was built by John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury in 
1486-1501. It probably stood on the site and incorporated part of a previous 
"great gate" which was in existence in 1322 when Archbishop Reynolds 

was carrying out improvements to the 
palace. ^^^ There is evidence that 
under Archbishop Bourchier (1454- 
86) the archives had been kept in "a 
certain low chamber" of the gateway 
to the left of the entrance and that 
after the new gateway was completed 
they were transferred to a chamber on 
the right side, adjacent to the dwell- 
inghouse "in the new work of the 
gate, newly-built," which Morton had 
provided for his porter. The old 
Prerogative Registry remained in the 
right-hand tower until the passing of 
the Probate Act in 1 857.188 

Morton's tower is one of the 
few surviving examples of the early 
Tudor style of brick building. The 
only comparable building in the 







Entrance to Morton's Tower 



82 



LAMBETH PALACE 



neighbourhood of London is the old palace of Hatfield which was also built 
by Cardinal Morton. 

From time immemorial the "Lambeth Dole" was dispensed to 
beggars at the gate. Ducarel says that in his day it was regularized and con- 
sisted of a weekly allowance of 1 5 quartern loaves, 9 stone of beef and 5s., 
which were divided and distributed thrice weekly.^^^ The practice was 
discontinued after 1 842 when money grants to poor persons were substituted. 

Description 

The gateway has massive five-storey towers of stocky proportion set 
forward at either side of the entrance. It is built in fine red brick relieved 
in places by diaperwork formed of black header bricks. The window 
dressings and tracery, as well as the copings 
to the battlements, quoins and bands, are all 
in stone, much of which has been renewed 
in modern times. The plinth at the base of 
the building is of coursed ragstone. 

The entrance has a large opening 
for vehicles and another, far smaller, for 
pedestrians. Both have moulded jambs and 
their four-centred arches have label mould- 
ings. On the inner side there is only one 
arch for both vehicles and pedestrians. The 
room over the entrance has a four-light 
mullioned and transomed window on the 
south front, and a three-light window on the 
north. The other windows to the gateway, 
including those to the stair-turrets, which 
project forward at each side on the courtyard 
front, are of one or two lights. The stair- 
turrets rise above the parapets of the towers 
and, like them, are battlemented. 

Above the entrance there is stone 
vaulting with moulded ridge, wall and dia- 
gonal ribs which spring from attached angle 
shafts with moulded caps and bases. The 
vaulting has carved bosses at the tops of the four wall arches. On the west 
side there are two doorways with four-centred heads and simple chamfered 
jambs. On the east side there are two single-light windows and a door- 
way similar to those opposite. Near the pedestrians' entrance is a late 
1 6th century wood settle with an upright back, shaped arms and turned 

The gateway has lead rain-water heads bearing inscriptions "TH 
I 75 1," "TS 1758," "1897" and a tun device (Cardinal Morton's rebus). 

The large room over the entrance, which is at the same level as the 
second storeys in each tower, has moulded ceiling beams, joists and cornice. 

83 




Staircase to Morton^ s Tower 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Its chimney piece has stone jambs, a depressed head and carved spandrels. 
The stone jambed doorways have four-centred heads and both windows 
have hollow-moulded jambs and heads. The floor is paved with old red 
square tiles much worn and damaged. 

The rooms in each tower have moulded or chamfered ceiling beams 
and their doorways and chimney pieces are of stone and similar in detail to 





J" 



SCaLt foa CLEVATIOH 



Panelling in Morton's To-xer 



that in the large room. There is some linen-fold panelling and a number of 
1 6th and 17th century doors. 

On the ground floor the south room in the east tower (formerly a 
cell for prisoners) has a small square-headed cupboard with a perforated 
wood door. Two iron rings are fixed to the south wall. The north room has 
a cupboard with linen-fold panelled door and grotesque head above; there 
is a square-headed label moulding over the cupboard. 

The first floor room in the west tower has a late 1 7th century partition 
and its walls, including those of the small room leading off it, are lined with 
flush vertical boarding painted to represent panelling of coeval date. The 
boarding above the fireplace is painted to represent a marble overmantel. 
It bears a cartouche with the date " 1691." Above it is a shield of the arms 
of the See of Canterbury impaling Tillotson, supported by two winged 
cherubs. Like the cartouche, it is now mostly obscured. 

84 



LAMBETH PALACE 



The Great Hall 

It is probable that a Great Hall was one of the earliest parts of Lambeth 
House to be built. In the first extant set of accounts there is an entry- 
concerning the repair of its roof^^^ and thereafter references are frequent. 

Archbishop Robert de Winchelsey (1294-13 13) kept "prodigious" 
hospitality in the Great Hall on Sundays and Fridays, feeding "no fewer then 
four Thousand men when corn was cheap and five Thousand when it was 
dear.''^^-* The Great Hall was also the scene of the long series of banquets 
held to celebrate the consecration of new bishops in Lambeth chapel. Of 
these feasts the most famous was that of William of Wykeham in 1367, 
who, though consecrated at St. Paul's, kept his feast at Lambeth. In later 
years the feasts were held in the guard chamber. They were discontinued 
in 1845 at the consecration of Bishop Wilberforce.^^^ 

The Hall was repaired by Archbishop Chichele (1414-1443) who 
replaced the portico at the south end by an arched gateway leading into the 
inner court with a room above it.^^^ The Hall was re-roofed with shingles 
in 1570—71 by Archbishop Parker.^^^ 

The old Hall, as shown on the 1648 plan, had a buttery and pantry 
at the west end and the kitchen and offices jutting out at right angles on 
the north side. 

In 1660 William Juxon, who had ministered to Charles I on the 
scaffold, was appointed to the See of Canterbury. He found the archiepis- 
copal residence at Lambeth in a sorry state and the Great Hall demolished. ^^^ 
The latter he rebuilt on the old site and as far as possible in the "ancient 
Form."^^^ The walls appear from the plan to have been in the same positions 
as the old, and it is possible that some of the old foundations were re-used. 
The site of the buttery and pantry was covered by the gateway to the inner 
courtyard and the entry and staircase to the room over the gate. 

In 1829 Blore reported that the Great Hall was dirty, neglected and 
applied to no useful purpose.^^^ It was decided that it should be turned into 
a library, and elaborately carved book shelves (Plate "Jia) were designed by 
Blore and placed at right angles to the west and east sides of the Hall to 
form bays. The library had its origin in the collection of books left to his 
successors by Archbishop Bancroft in 16 10. His will contained the provision 
that if the books were in danger of dispersion they should be handed over 
to the University of Cambridge. This provision was invoked by John 
Selden after the execution of Laud and the collection was by this means 
preserved. It was restored to Lambeth Palace in the time of Archbishop 
Sheldon (1663-77) and was added to from time to time by succeeding 
archbishops. 

Both the library building and its contents suffered greatly from 
damage by fire and water during the 1939-45 war. The fabric of the Hall 
has been carefully restored, but in future though bookcases will line the 
walls the main bulk of the library will be housed elsewhere and the Hall left 
clear for conferences and assemblies. 

85 




Archbishop Juxon 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Description 

The Great Hall is built in red brick with stone quoins, entablatures, 
battlements, cappings, and window tracery. The roof, which is of timber 
construction, is carried by buttresses which stand forward from the east and 
west walls. 

At either end of the west elevation there are square bay projections, 
with Classic pediments. The entablature on this elevation is joined to each 
pediment and is, like them, modillioned. It breaks forward at each buttress 
and has an enriched frieze with carved swags and masks. Above the cornice 
the buttresses, which each have one moulded offset on the face, are stepped 
back below square pedestals, each with a ball finial. The main parapet wall 
is battlemented. 

The bay projections have rusticated quoins and pedestals at both 
ends and at the centre of their parapets. Above each central pedestal stands a 
finial of stumpy proportion. Both bays have a large Gothic three-light pointed 
window, each being two-centred with moulded reveals and transoms dividing 
it into three ranges of lights. All the lights are cinque-foil headed. Between 
the bay projections the windows are of similar design but of only two ranges, 
of which the lower lights are square-headed and without cinque-foils. There 
is a continuous moulded plinth at the base of the buttresses and to both bay 
projections. 

There are original lead rainwater heads and down-pipes in two of 
the buttress angles on this side, each inscribed "1663" and "WI," and 
bearing the arms of the See of Canterbury and of Juxon. The heads have 
cornices and pineapple pendants at each side. There is a similar rainwater 
head and down-pipe on the east elevation but it has no pendants. 

The east elevation is similar to the west but less ornate. There 
is a deep string course below the parapet, instead of an entablature. The 
parapet is straight and without battlements; it has a moulded coping and 
stops against the buttresses, which extend higher and have square cappings. 
The end buttresses are wide and rise from plinth to string course without 
offsets. The string course of the southernmost of these buttresses is incised 
"MDCLXXXV." 

Under the most southerly window on this front is a stone doorway 
with a semicircular arch and pediment above. It has a moulded architrave 
which is eared at the arch springing and returns round the arch keystone. 
The spandrels each side of the keystone are panelled. 

The gables of the north and south walls of the Hall are surmounted 
by finials with round-headed recesses to each of their four faces. The finials 
are topped by ball terminals. Each gable has a three-light window whose 
tracery is similar to that in the side windows but of wider proportion and 
without transoms. The labels to the south window rest on Renaissance type 
console brackets. 

The lantern, placed centrally on the ridge of the tiled roof, is of 
wood clothed in lead. It has lights to each of its two stages, the lower being 

86 



LAMBETH PALACE 



hexagonal and the upper circular. Above the upper stage there is an ogee- 
shaped cupola which carries a gilded weather-vane with ball and mitre 
terminal. The vane is pierced with the arms of the See impaling those of 
Juxon. 

The Hall has a fine oak hammer-beam roof of Gothic form, though 
much of its detail is of Classic derivation (Plate 78). It has seven bays. The 
main members are moulded and the main spandrels are filled with acanthus 
foliage. There are carved mitres in the parts of the spandrels above the 
brackets. The side post pendants below the brackets have acanthus enrich- 
ment and the longitudinal braces spring from carved head corbels with fruit 
branches below. The main wall-plates are masked by a frieze with a band 
above. The frieze is carved with swags and bears arms of the See and Juxon 
impaled and separately. Above the main purlins there are similar bands 
which have guilloche ornament with carved busts or mitres in the larger 
^,,^ ^ , ^ ^ . 5 , r, circles, while below, the longitudinal 

spandrels have pierced carving. Above 

3CALL ^ ^ .0 

the collar beams and main members 
there is open tracery with semi-Gothic 
cusped heads. The trusses rest on 
stone corbels cut to represent lion 
heads, masks, cherubs, and angels 
holding shields. Inside the lantern 
there are masks and pendant foliage 
carving, and an enriched ceiling rose. 

Each of the bay projections on 
the west side of the Hall has coft'ered 
arched reveals and soffits ornamented 
by large rosettes of differing pattern. 
The walls are plastered and dis- 
tempered. 

On the east side at the north 
end there is a semicircular headed 
doorway in stone which has a voluted 
keystone and moulded imposts and 
plinth (Plate 79). Its detail is enriched 
and it is flanked by Corinthian pilasters 
which support an entablature and 
broken segmental pediment. The 
raised panel above the keystone bears 
the inscription: "ANNO DOMINI 
M.DC.L.X.III" and above the pedi- 
ment is set, upon a panelled pedestal, 
a cartouche with the arms of the See 

impaling Juxon flanked by winged cherubs and with a larger winged cherub's 

head above. 

Much of the i6th and 17th century glass was destroyed during the 

87 




South-east Doorway to Great Hall 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



1939-45 war but what was saved has been reset in the lower lights of the 
northerly bay projection. Below the arms of Philip II of Spain with fully 
quartered shield within a garter (the crown above the shield being missing) 
there are fragments of glass set in a circle of the same size. There are also 
shields of the arms of the See of Canterbury impaling Grindal, Abbot, 
Sancroft, Laud, and Cranmer. 

The building to the south of the Great Hall has a vaulted way 
through at ground level and one storey above, which houses the Manuscript 
Room. It is in brick with stone dressings and its Gothic detail is of similar 
character to that of the residential wing. There are string bands below the 
battlemented parapet and at first floor level. The west elevation has an oriel 
window over the archway while there are two small two-light windows with 
square heads on the east side. 

The Cloisters 

In 1647 to the north of the Great Hall there was "a foure square 
Cloyster reachinge from the Chappell to the Hall beinge a walke On the 
grounde And over the Cloyster . . . the greate Library of the ArchBishop- 
pricke being foure square and covered with Lead. And in the midle of the 
said Cloyster ... a square Court with a greate well in the midst thereof 
covered with Lead."^^^ 

It was the intention of Archbishops Baldwin and Hubert Walter to 
build a small religious house or college at Lambeth as well as a residence for 
themselves and it is probable that the cloisters formed part of the earliest 
buildings, though they are not specifically mentioned in the first set of 
accounts. Archbishop Chichele (1414-43) seems to have built galleries over 
the cloisters one of which was to serve as a library.^^^ His successor. Arch- 
bishop Stafford, had to clear a quantity of rubble, probably left from Chichele's 
building work from the " freresgardyn "^^^ or cloister garth. 

Cardinal Pole may have repaired the galleries, though his chief 
alteration of the palace was the building of a long gallery east of the chapel. 
It is recorded that in 1573, when Queen Elizabeth visited Archbishop Parker 
at Lambeth, she listened in one of the galleries to a sermon preached from a 
pulpit set up near the pump in the middle of the cloisters, while the people 
who filled the quadrangle below "divided their attention between her 
Majesty and the preacher. "2'"' 

Archbishop Sheldon (1663-77) repaired the galleries for the recep- 
tion of Archbishop Bancroft's library which he had recovered from the 
University of Cambridge (see p. 85) and they continued to be used for 
this purpose until the 1830's, though readers complained of the arctic 
temperature in winter.^^^ 

Blore fitted up the Great Hall as a library. The old cloister galleries, 
which he pulled down and rebuilt, he described as frail buildings of timber 
and plaster.^®^ A kitchen was built at the south-west corner of the old site, 
but the cloister garth was left open. 

The book-cases were removed from the Great Hall in 1948 and the 
88 



PLATE 68 



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PLATE 69 





LAMBETH PALACE CHAPEL; 1924 
(a) WEST END (^) SCREEN 



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PLATE 70 




LAMBETH PALACE CHAPEL CRYPT 
LOOKLNG WESTWARD, 1949 



PLATE 71 






LAMBETH PALACE CHAPEL CRYPT, 1950 



LAMBETH PALACE 



cloisters are again being fitted up as a library with the rooms previously used 
as kitchens as reading rooms for students and a muniment room. 

Description 

The cloisters are of brick of two storeys and their detail is similar to 
that of the archway at the south end of the Great Hall. They have stone 
dressings to the square-headed windows and stone copings to their battle- 
ments. There are angle buttresses at each corner. 

On the upper storey the cloister gallery has a coved and ribbed flat 
ceiling with an embattled cornice. The doors have four-centred heads and 
some have carved spandrels and weakly designed buttress surrounds. At 
the right angle bend in the gallery there is a straight-headed archway with 
foliated caps and thin shafts at each side. 

Chichele's or the Water or Lollards' Tower 

In 1432 the tower, which had stood previously at the west end of 
the Chapel, was pulled down and a new tower five storeys high was erected 
there. The accounts^^^ record that 490 tons of ragstone, with lime, sand and 
other materials, were brought by boat from Maidstone for the building, 
while oak timber was brought from "le West wode" near Harrow. A mason 
worked 1 1 days on the tabernacle or 
niche on the west side of the tower, 
which still remains, though the image 
of St. Thomas the Martyr for which 
it was intended was removed at the 
Reformation. Chichele's tower was 
built nearer the Chapel than its pre- 
decessor and its erection involved the 
removal of a buttress and the blocking 
up of the lancet windows at the west 
end of the Chapel. The windows of 
the tower were glazed and the room 
at the entrance to the Chapel (now 
the Post Room) was ceiled with wood 
boarding. Payments for carving the 
angels' heads, etc., for the ceiling are 
included in the accounts. 

There has been some con- 
troversy as to the traditional connec- 
tion of this tower with the Lollards. 
The ill-famed Lollards' Tower in 
which John Hunne met his death 
and where many heretics were in- 
carcerated was the south-west tower 
of old St. Paul's which served as the 
Bishop of London's prison, but the 

89 





Archbishof Chichele 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

name was in use for part of the tower at Lambeth at least as early as 1647 
for the Survey of that date has the entry — "At the Northend of the said 
Courte is a greate Bricke Buildinge with Windowes opening towards the 
Thames foure Storeys high covered with Lead Behind which Buildinge 
alonge by the West end of the Chappell is a paire of Staires Leadinge 
upp into chambers five Storeys high over which is the Lollards Tower all 
covered with lead."^^^ 

It is possible that this turret was part of an older tower demolished 
in 1432, and that Chichele's predecessor, Archbishop Arundel, a fierce 
persecutor of Lollardry and advocate of the 1401 statute "De heretico 
comburendo," may have employed it as a prison, though the usual prison 
of the palace was part of the entrance gate.^^^ 

The Post Room has been described as a pleasant solar and the upstairs 
rooms were intended as sleeping apartments. In 1646 the tower was turned 
into a prison for "the faithful, but unhappy Royalists,"i^^ and it is possible 
that it was at this time that the name Lollards' Tower became attached to 
the whole tower. 

The post and panelling in the Post Room were added in the i 7th 
century. Blore described the tower as dilapidated and weatherworn but 
does not seem to have made any radical alterations there. The base of the 
tower has recently been turned into a boiler room to serve the whole of the 
palace buildings. 

Description 

The Water Tower (Plate 72) is faced with roughly coursed Kentish 
ragstone except to the east and south fronts which are of red brick. At the 
corner are stone quoins. It is of four storeys above a lower ground storey, 
but the tower at the north-east corner rises one storey higher. The parapets, 
which have been renewed in modern times, are battlemented. 

On the west side the square-headed windows, each of two-lights, 
are arranged symmetrically with a niche between those of the storey above 
the Post Room. The niche, whose stonework is much decayed, is vaulted 
and has moulded jambs. It has a two-centred cinque-foiled arch and a 
crocketed and finialled hood. There are small flanking buttresses with 
moulded bases at each side and the corbel shelf below has a demi-angel 
holding a shield, much effaced with age. There are moulded string bands 
round the tower at the cill levels of the Post Room and the room above. 

The turret at the north-east corner is capped by an ogee roof with 
moulded eaves and is faced partly in ragstone and partly in red brick, with 
stone quoins at the corners. It has a bell-cote on the south-east side with 
cusped and traceried barge-boards to its gable and a bell dated 1687. 

The lower ground floor or semi-basement room (now used as a boiler 
room) has a large fireplace recess in the north wall and a circular stone oven 
with a tiled arch and domed-top of brick. 

The Post Room has a stout central octagonal wood post with moulded 
capping and four curved braces supporting heavy moulded cross-beams. 

90 



LAMBETH PALACE 



The main divisions of the ceiling, which is boarded in wood, are divided into 
panels by moulded ribs with carved bosses at the intersections and ends. 
Some of the bosses have carvings of demi-angels holding scrolls, shields, 
crowns, and books, while others have conventional leaves or women's heads. 
Part of this ceiling was destroyed during the war. 

The south wall has two plain pointed door openings with moulded 
jambs; the smaller, leading to a staircase in the south-east corner, has been 
bricked up. Adjoining to the west is a restored square-headed two-light 
window with cinque-foil heads. The north wall has a filled doorway at the 
west end and at the north-east corner a doorway which leads to the spiral 
staircase and has hollow chamfered jambs and a four-centred head. Part 
of the I yth century dado, two panels high, with a moulded capping and dentils, 
which surrounds the Post Room, has escaped war damage. Some of the wood 
benches, which are of the same date and have small Tuscan column posts, are 
also intact. The doorway to the chapel in the west wall is described on p. 95. 

The rooms above the Post Room have exposed ceiling beams and 
some 1 7th century panelling. There are also doors of the same date and a 
chimney piece with bolection moulded architrave and moulded cornice to 
the north room on the second floor. The south room has an original stone 
chimney piece with hollow chamfered jambs and a flat four-centred arch. 

The two upper floors have been seriously damaged but their original 
chimney pieces and the heavy three inch thick riveted door to the prison 
have survived. 

The tower on the north-east has garde-robes on the west side. The 
spiral staircase has solid wood steps and to the openings at each landing 
there are hollow chamfered stone jambs and four-centred heads. Some of 
the openings have original doors. 

Laud's Tower 

This tower seems to have been erected by Archbishop Laud mainly 
in order to provide a more convenient staircase to the rooms in Chichele's 
Tower. 

Description 

On the river front Laud's Tower is faced with roughly coursed 
Kentish ragstone with some courses of flint while the south and east sides 
are mostly of red brick. The parapets are of brick with stone copings and 
there is a flush stone band below the parapet on the south side. There are 
stone quoins at the south-west corner, adjoining which a chimney stack 
projects forward. Parts of the brickwork have been restored. 

The tower is of four storeys and all the windows, which are small 
and of one or two lights, have stone dressings. On the east wall there is an 
original lead rain-water head and down-pipe bearing the arms of the See 
impaling Laud with the inscription "1635 WL." 

The ground storey room (formerly a kitchen) is entered through a 
stone doorway with chamfered jambs and a four-centred head. It has 

91 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



chamfered ceiling beams. On the north side there is a doorway with moulded 
jambs and two-centred head leading to the Lollards' Tower. Under the 
stairs to the first floor there is a small cellar which has in its south wall a little 
square-headed window with moulded stone jambs and a wrought-iron grate. 
The room at first floor level (now a living room) has a late 17th 
century doorway with enriched architrave and panelled surround. It has 

carved consoles supporting a richly detailed 
cornice. The wood cornice and cross-beam 
to the ceiling are moulded and the timber 
framing to the east wall is exposed. The 
chimney piece is of stone, painted with 
panelled pilasters; the lintel is dated 1680. 
The late 1 7th century staircase with 
moulded handrail and strings (one string 
being of tapered shape on the upper flight) 
has square newels with plain ball terminals. 
Its balusters are turned. The short staircase 
between the first and ground floors is similar 
but its newels have plain cappings. 

The first and second floors have 
moulded and chamfered ceiling beams and 
there are several original doors. The chimney 
piece in the second floor room overlooking 
the river has panelled surrounds and a plain 
tablet set forward beneath the shelf. 

There is early 1 8th-century panelling 
in both rooms on the top floor; one has a 
chimney piece with a simple moulded surround and delft tiles, while the 
other chimney piece has a moulded architrave, frieze and cornice with a 
plain panelled tablet to the frieze. 

The Chapel 

As has already been shown there was a Chapel in existence early in 
the 13th century. The present crypt appears to date from that period and 
its foundations are probably those of the earlier building of Hubert Walter.202 
The earliest of the Court or Account Rolls at Lambeth, that for 1234, 
records payments to a glazier for repairing the Chapel windows.^^^ 

In 1243 the King induced the Bishop of Hereford to repair the 
chapel at Lambeth in anticipation of the arrival of Boniface of Savoy, the 
Archbishop elect, and in the following year, Edward, son of Odo, a craftsman 
at the King's Court was instructed to provide for use at the services a gold 
chalice, two flagons, two basins and a silver thurible." What is left of the 
chapel proper dates from this time. 

Archbishop Laud, to his later undoing, spent much money and care 
on repairing and redecorating the Chapel. He put in a new pulpit and altar 
table which he railed in. He had the old stained glass repaired and new 
92 




Staircase in Laud's Tower 



LAMBETH PALACE 



glass was painted with what his accuser Prynne described as Popish subjects. 
Laud also put in a richly carved screen (Plate 69^), and pews including "a 
pew for the Lords "^^^ because "many of the Nobility, Judges, Clergy, and 
persons of all sorts, as well strangers as Natives, "^"^ were in the habit of 
attending there.^''^ 





Pe'd) Ends from Lambeth Palace Chapel 

In November, 1640, Laud was sent to the Tower. Two years later 
Lambeth House was taken over by Commonwealth soldiers. The Chapel 
windows were destroyed and Archbishop Parker's stately tomb was 
broken up. 

At the Restoration Archbishop Juxon repaired the fabric of the 
Chapel, and his successor, Archbishop Sancroft, put together so far as was 
possible the desecrated tomb of Matthew Parker. His successors made few 
alterations there until, in i 846, Archbishop Howley employed Edward Blore 
to carry out a complete renovation, in the spirit of the Gothic revival. The 
wall panelling was removed and a lofty groined roof was substituted for the 
old flat ceiling which was thought, probably mistakenly, to have been a 
Laudian innovation.* The whole of the vaulting was elaborately painted in 
bright colours during the time of Archbishop Tait.^^^ 

» There is a reference in the time of Henry VI to the cleansing of "le Selj-nge Capellae"^"* 
which suggests that the Chapel was ceiled and not vaulted at that date. 

93 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Description 

The crypt is divided centrally by a row of three Purbeclc marble 
circular columns with moulded caps and bases. They, and the moulded 
corbels at the walls, support the two lines of vaulting which date from the 
early 13th century. There are four bays in each line, and each bay has 
simple cross-vaulting with broadly chamfered ribs (Plates 70 and 71). 

The walls of the crypt are of stone, mostly covered by old plasterwork. 
In each bay of the north wall there are two small single-light windows each 
with a segmental head and splayed jambs. The westernmost window has 
been raised above the rest and altered. 

The south wall has doorways in the two westernmost bays leading 
to the cloisters, one with a rough square head and wooden lintel, the other 
with splayed and moulded jambs and a two-centred segmental head 
incised "lO". One doorway has recently been filled. 

The west wall has a two-light window in the north bay, each light 
having a segmental head. There is a window seat below. There is a similar 
window and window seat to the east wall and adjoining it in the southern 
bay there is a doorway with two-centred head and chamfered jambs. 

The crypt was partly filled with earth prior to 1907. Signs of the 
level of the former floor can be seen on the walls. 




The Crypt 

Most of the crypt windows have external wrought iron grilles and 
some have double grilles which are coeval with the building. These windows 
have a very unusual detail — their segmental heads are crowned externally 
by a blind round-lobed trefoiled arch.* 

Adjoining the westernmost door in the south wall there is a small 

a This unusual detail is also found in the doorway of the same date in the west wall of 
the north transept of Chipstead Church, Surrey; possibly the same masons were engaged in 
both works.208 

94 



LAMBETH PALACE 



niche. This was possibly used as a holy water stoup or it may have contained 
a lamp. At one time it probably had a door. 

The walls of the Chapel and crypt, which are of conglomerate and 
freestone partly faced with ashlar, are divided into four bays by buttresses. 
There are triple graduated lancets set in recess beneath two-centred curtain 
arches spanning between the buttresses. The buttresses terminate at the 





ELE\PTION 



SECTION 



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t 



"f„„.i T 



I yh Century Doonvay in Chapel 



moulded string bands under the parapets. The parapets are straight topped 
on both north and south sides, those to the north being in stone while to 
the south they are built of red brick. 

The east window is of five long graduated lancets with a flat gable 
above; the window, like the others, has stone dressings, and is set in a wall 
which has been rendered in modern times. The upper parts of the most 
easterly window on the south side are blocked while those opposite are 
turned to other use as they are masked by Cranmer's Tower. 

The doorway at the west end is of early 13th century date. It has 
three moulded orders of which the inner forms two trefoil-headed door 
openings and the outer two, which are semicircular, enclose a tympanum. 

95 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



The tympanum contains a sunk moulded quatrefoil with a 1 7th century 
cartouche of the arms of the See impaling Laud; there are three cherubs' 
heads in the carving of the cartouche and a mitre above. The jambs have 
two free shafts and two attached, and there are three attached shafts at the 
central dividing pier. The rear arch is segmental and moulded, and is 
supported by a detached shaft at each side. The shafts on both sides of the 
doorway have moulded caps and bases. 

The west window is similar to that at the east end but the cill is at 
a higher level and some of the lights are blocked. 

The chapel was burnt out during the 1 939—45 war and only the outer 
walls were left. Those fittings which were saved were removed for safe 
keeping. They include parts of the wood screen which stood between the 
third and the most westerly bays and formed an ante-chapel (Plate 69). A 
number of wooden benches and bench-ends have also been saved; these 
have heads of different cartouche-forms carved with winged cherubs' heads, 
swags, etc. 

All the lancet windows have deep splayed jambs and cills with 
moulded rear arches. The arches are borne by attached shafts of Purbeck 
marble which have moulded caps and bases. There is a moulded string 
band beneath the cills. In the middle of the west window is a semi-octagonal 
oriel window with three cinque-foil lights having rosette terminals to the 
lower cusps. The oriel is of mid- 17th century date and has a moulded 
cornice and ogee capping with a moulded cill below carried on a carved demi- 
angcl who holds a shield of the See impaling Juxon. 

The lower part of the most easterly window on the north side is 
filled and has a pointed doorway leading to a vestry in Cranmer's Tower. 
This work is much altered. The upper part of the window opens into the 
second floor of the tower and contains an organ loft; it is fronted by a stone 
gallery erected in modern times. 

On the south side of the Chapel, in what was the ante-chapel, stands 

the altar-tomb of Archbishop Matthew 
Parker (d. 1575). It has been cut 
down and altered, and has a moulded 
plinth at the north and east sides 
panelled with quatre-foils and a 
moulded Purbeck marble slab with 
an inscription recording the tomb's 
replacement by Archbishop Sancroft 
after the Restoration. 

Cranmer's Tower 

The 1647 survey has the 
entry — "On the East end of the 
Chappell is a passage leadinge into 
the Garden where is a Stone Staircase 

Landing at Top of Stairs in Cranmer's Tower leadinge upp tO a Brick buildinge five 
96 




PLATE 72 





(d) WAIER TOW IK 

{b) NORTH \TE\V OK LAMBETH PALAC 
WALK, 18:8 



1-, FROM niSHOP'S 



PLATE 73 

LAKiBETH PALACE 

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LAMBETH 



PALACE 



DOOR-WAY TO BLI)ROOM 1'1R6T FL^ 
LAUD6 TOWER. 



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PLATE 76 




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PLATE 77 





LAMBETH PALACE 

{a) SECTION OF LIBRARY, GREAT HALL, area 1828 

{b) GREAT HALL, 1949 



/ 



PLATE 78 





LAMBETH PALACl'., \UK)l Ol- (,kl-.Ar 11X1,1., 1949 



I & X x^ 



/:; 




LAMBETH PALACE, NORTH-EAST DOOR 
OF GREAT HALL 



LAMBETH PALACE 



Storyes high with a Chamber on each Story covered with lead.''^^^ This was 
what has come to be known as Cranmer's tower though there seems to be no 
written evidence either to connect the tower with his name or to substantiate 
the story that he wrote the Prayer Book in a room there. 

Description 

The style of this tower suggests that it may have been constructed 
during Cranmer's archiepiscopate and finished during that of Pole. It is 
built of red brick with stone dressings to the windows and stone quoins at 
the corners, and has a stair-tower projecting at the north-east corner. There 
is a moulded stone band below the parapets, which are in brick with stone 
coped battlements. On the west side there is a chimney stack resting on 
shaped stone corbels. The stack is embraced by the moulded band below 
the battlements. The entrance on this elevation has a square-headed label 
moulding; its stonework, like that to the small single-light windows in the 
stair-tower and the parapets, has been renewed in modern times. 

The first storey, used as the Chapel vestry, has an original oak 
ceiling with moulded cornice, cross-beam and joists, as well as late 1 7th or 
early i8th century bolection-moulded panelling. The chimney piece in the 
west wall has hollow chamfered jambs and a four-centred arch; it is now 
filled and surrounded by a later bolection-moulded architrave with moulded 
cornice above. The doors leading to the staircase and in the west wall are 
similarly panelled. 

The room on the second floor (used as an organ loft) has a ceiling 
similar to that below. The walls at third floor level have plain panelling and 
the ceiling, like that on the fourth floor, has a moulded beam. In the east 
wall there is a chimney piece similar to that in the vestry. 

The stair treads, of wood except between the first and second floors, 
are built round a heavy central square pier which has many names and dates 
carved upon it. The pier has stone quoins and all the arrises are chamfered. 
The landings are paved with old square red tiles. In the east well on each 
landing there is a window which has been blocked since the adjoining 
residential wing was rebuilt in 1829-30. The central pier stops at fourth 
floor level; the landing at this level is enclosed by a low panelled wood 
screen with moulded angle posts and top rail. The staircase leading from 
this floor to the roof has treads formed of solid balks of timber of triangular 
section. Leading ofl!" the landings are several i6th century doorways with 
oak doors of the same date, and across the stair itself there is a pointed 
opening complete with rebated reveals and two embedded hooks on which 
a door formerly swung. 

The Guard Room 

It is possible that the Guard Room was built during the archiepis- 
copate of William Courtenay (1381-96).^^^ It was certainly in existence a 
few years later for it is mentioned in the account roll of 1424-25-°^ as the 
"Camera Armigerorum." It was probably in this room that Sir Thomas 

97 
s 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



More faced the Lords of the Council and refused to take the oath acknow- 
ledging Henry VIII as supreme head of the Church in England. After the 
alterations made by Cardinal Pole to the Presence or Great Chamber the 
latter name was sometimes applied to the Guard Room. 

The 1 647 Survey describes the Guard or Great Chamber as a "lardge 
Roome . . . covered with lead" and approached from the north-east corner 
of the Great Hall by "a greate paire of Stone Staires."^^^ 

In the time of Laud it was said to contain armour sufficient for 200 
men, but, the troublous times of the Civil War once over, there was little 
more need for such provision and the collection was disposed of during the 
1 8th century.1^5 

After the demolition of the long gallery the series of Archbishops' 
portraits which had previously hung there were removed to the Guard 
Room, where many of them still remain. During the 1 8th and 1 9th centuries 
the room was used as a state dining room and for conferences. 

In 1829 Blore found the walls of the Guard Room to be of rubble 
and much decayed. He therefore shored up the roof and rebuilt the walls. 
It is often stated that he raised the floor of the room 3 feet in order to provide 
greater height to the storey below, but he himself denied having done so.^^^ 
The entrance lobby and stairs from the Great Hall were rebuilt by Blore. 

The Guard Room suffered only slight damage during the 1939-45 
war but restoration has been made more difficult owing to woodbeetle 
decay. 

Description 

The Guard Room is faced with Bath stone. Its east elevation 
has narrow two-light windows to the upper storey with buttresses between. 
There are two trefoil-headed lancets in each bay of the lower 
storey. There is a cill band under the upper windows and a 
moulded plinth at the base which continues round the but- 
tresses. The latter terminate below the moulded band of the 
straight parapet. The north and south ends are gabled, and 
the south end has a traceried window of triangular shape with 
pointed head and bowed cill. 

The most impressive feature of the interior of the 
room is its 14th century roof which was restored when the 
building was altered by Edward Blore in the 1830's. It has 
4 bays with two-centred moulded arched trusses borne on corbels carved 
with human figures, animals and foliations. There is pierced tracery to 
the spandrels above the main members and to the spandrels between the 
moulded purlins and the curved longitudinal wind-braces. There is similar 
pierced carving above the wall-braces which spring from the corbels and help 
to support the moulded wall-plates. 

At the centre of the west wall there was a heavy Gothic stone chimney 
piece designed by Blore (Plate 76); it had a moulded and crenellated shelf set 
forward between traceried circular end columns. These had gorged tops 
98 





LAMBETH PALACE 

terminated by battlements and rested on shaped corbels faced with carved 
demi-figures. It has been replaced recently by a chimneypiece of simpler 
design. The room is surrounded by a wooden dado two panels high with 
a moulded top rail and skirting. 

The entrance lobby to the south of the Guard Room is built in yellow 
stock brick with stone dressings to the windows and stone quoins at the 
corners; it has a moulded band below the parapet and battlements above. 
Its windows are square-headed and there is a stone porch 
extending in front of its east elevation. 

The porch is embattled and has two cinque-foil 
openings each side of the entrance whose hood is set for- 
ward slightly and carried on shaped corbels with carved 
head terminals. The spandrels to the hood have leaf orna- 
ment like the spandrels to the entrance under the porch. 

The staircase has a traceried wood balustrade and 
finial capped newels, some with foliated pendants. The 
ceiling is divided into square panels with moulded joists and beams in 
plasterwork. 

The Residential Wing 

In 1647 the residential wing was described as follows: "Eastwards 
from the . . . Chappell is the Dyninge Parlour with a Dyninge Chamber 
over it. And att the East end of the Dyninge Parlour is a faire long Wains- 
cotted Gallery with a tarras walke under it open towards the Garden. And 
on the backe of the said Gallery are three Chambers Wainscotted being the 
late Arch-Bishopps lodgings with a backe Staires Leading downe into three 
Roomes under those Chambers which Chambers and Gallery are covered 
with tyles. The said Chambers have Windowes openinge Southward into 
a kitchin Garden. In the Southside of the said Dyninge Roome is a little 
Chamber leadinge into the Presence Chamber which is a faire lardge Roome 
covered with lead. Under which is a greate paved Roome. "^^* 

The account rolls show that there was a Great or Presence Chamber 
and other rooms east of the Chapel early in the 14th century. It is probable 
that the new oratory built by Archbishop Arundel (1397-14 14) was in 
this block.189 

Of the many imposing ceremonies which have taken place at Lambeth 
perhaps the most elaborate was the creation by Henry VIII of two dukes 
and two earls in the Great Chamber on Candlemas Day, 15 14. The King, 
attended by many nobles, stood beneath a canopy; trumpeters in the 
musicians' gallery blew a fanfare and a long procession of nobles, officers, 
trumpeters, and minstrels richly apparelled filed before the King. After the 
creations, dinner was provided for all comers in Morton's Gatehouse.-"^ 

Cranmer carried out some alterations to the Great Chamber and his 
successor. Cardinal Pole, completely transformed this wing by building a 
Long Gallery on the north and a number of living rooms for himself and 
his servants. 1^^ The gallery, shown on the 1648 plan (Plate 60), was 90 feet 

99 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



long and 1 6 feet broad. An inventory^"^ compiled after Pole's death gives an 
interesting list of all the rooms in this part of the palace with their furnishings. 

Many minor additions and repairs to the residential wing were 
made during the 17th and i8th centuries but by the beginning of the 19th 
century it had become a thing of "shreds and patches." Blore reported in 
1829 that the walls were "decayed for want of proper repairs and further 
weakened by the injudicious insertion, at various periods, of new Doors and 
windows and by openings and alterations made for various other purposes."^^^ 
The basements were "dark, damp and filthy," the floors and staircases rotten. 
In this wing he decided, probably correctly, that nothing but a complete 
rebuilding would suffice. His drawings for the north and south elevations are 
reproduced on Plates 83^ and Soa. 

During the 1939—45 war one section of the north front to this wing 
which included the drawing room was completely destroyed. It has now 
been rebuilt in keeping with the rest of the facade (Plate 83^) and the whole 
wing has been restored and adapted to modern requirements. 

Description 

The residential wing was designed by Blore in Perpendicular Gothic 
style, some of the walls being on the lines of old foundations. It is faced 
with Bath stone. 

The main elevation faces southwards; the entrance is situated 
centrally and is emphasized by its position at the base of a powerful tower 
which stands four-square and rises above the assemblage of surrounding 
gables, turrets, chimneys and parapets. The tower has octagonal turrets at 
the front corners and square turrets at the back rising above the parapets 
and, like them, battlemented. The front turrets are divided into four stages 
by moulded string bands; their power is accentuated by the boldness of 
the plinth mouldings. 

The entrance has a four-centred head and label mouldings with 
square stops. The oriel window above the entrance has moulded mullions 
at the splayed angles and its tracery is divided into three heights by transoms; 
it is shouldered back above and has embattled eaves. Below the cill of the 
oriel there is a row of panels in which are carved the royal arms supported 
by the arms of several archbishops. Over the oriel there is a small two-light 
window with a square head. On this front the band below the tower battle- 
ments is elaborated by rosettes and demi-angels. 

To the west of the entrance there are three-light mullioned windows 
with square heads on each of the three floors, those on the first and second 
floors being also transomed. There is a moulded plinth and string bands at 
first floor level and below the battlemented parapet. This part of the elevation 
is joined to the Guard Room by a link of two storeys which is of similar detail. 

To the east of the entrance there is a large five-light window whose 
tracery is divided into three heights by transoms; it extends through the 
first and second floors and lights the staircase. There are five small ground- 
floor windows separated by mullions beneath it and also narrow windows 

100 



LAMBETH PALACE 



and a small doorway at each side. Beneath the cill of the large window there 
are quatre-foil panels with foliated centres. The elevation is terminated by a 
projecting gabled wing. The wing has an oriel window at the first floor, 
with plain rectangular windows above and below. 

There is a square stone mounting-block adjacent to the entrance; 
it has trefoiled panels at each of its faces. 

The north elevation, which overlooks the garden and abuts on 
Cranmer's Tower to the west, has similar detail but is without a central 
dominant feature. To the east of the recently rebuilt portion there is a first floor 
oriel window with a niche above and a bay window which extends through all 
three storeys. At the north-east corner there is a gabled wing of four storeys 
which has angle buttresses and a battlemented bay projection running 
through three storeys. 

The east elevation is divided by an octagonal turret and a gabled 
wing adjoining, which sets forward. The lower part of the turret is buttressed. 
It is approached by a staircase with traceried balustrade. At the south-east 
corner there is a stumpy battlemented tower and small gateway with a 
niche above. 

The finest interior feature is the entrance hall with its wide staircase 
(Plate 8i). The staircase, designed in Perpendicular Gothic style, has 
delicate traceried open balustrades and stone newels which are embattled 
and have foliated terminals. The upper newels are square and the lower 
octagonal; all are panelled with traceried heads. Where the landing meets 
the central first floor corridor there is a graceful arcade of three bays. The 
piers are faced by telescopic octagonal buttress shafts. The arches have finely 
carved solid spandrels. Above, there is a simple open traceried balustrade. 

The ceiling over the entrance hall has graceful lierne vaulting with 
moulded ribs and carved bosses; it is lit by light thrown upwards from the 
oriel window, also beautifully vaulted. The oriel opening has a depressed 
arch with a chaste hollow-chamfered moulded surround; it is enclosed by 
an open balustrade with an embattled top rail. 

The secondary staircase between first and second floors is less 
elaborate but has an elegant ribbed ceiling with cusped fillings and a foliated 
pendant at the centre. At the second floor landing there is a screen of three 
equal bays. Each arch has a depressed four-centred head with hollow- 
chamfered jambs. The mouldings rise from a simple plinth and are not 
relieved at the springings of the depressed arches. Each of the arch spandrels 
has lightly carved relief. 

The Stables and Service Buildings 

As can be seen on the 1648 plan (Plate 60), there were kitchens and 
other domestic buildings and "a Row of Lodginge Chambers called 
'Crooked Lane'" east of the Great Hall and Guard Chamber. A number 
of these still remained at the beginning of the 19th century but they were 
swept away by Blore who erected new stables and lodgings for stafl:' separate 
from the main palace buildings. They suffered considerable damage during 

lOI 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



the 1939—45 war but have been in part restored. The memorial to Arch- 
bishop Davidson in the centre of the courtyard was erected in 193 1. It 
replaced a lamp designed by Edward Blore. 

Description 

These buildings are grouped on three sides of an enclosure, and 
flank the courtyard of the residential wing; they are built in yellow stock 
brick and have entrances with simple pilaster surrounds and flat hoods. The 
west wall of the west wing and the screen walls to the north and west of it 
are buttressed and have battlemented parapets. 

The Gardens and Grounds 

The description of the garden in the 1647 Survey is as follows: 
it "is scituate on the north side of the House which Garden is foure square 
and Walled about on the West and North sides w"" Brickwalls. And on the 
North West corner is a little House for a Gardner with three Roomes one 
over the other. And on the West side is a longe tarras Walke paved with 
square Tyles opening with arches to the West side of the said Garden over 
which is a faire leaden Walke with a Bankquetting house at the North East 
Corner thereof, and at the South end is a Staircase covered with lead. On the 
East side of the said Garden is an Orchard sett with Apple trees, Paire trees, 
Plum trees and Moated round about." 

The gardens of the palace have been well cultivated and looked after 
from an early date. In 1234^^^ fruit from the garden was on sale, flax and 
hemp were sown, and a new herbarium was laid out. In 1319-20^^^ six 
perches of wall in the great garden were re-made and thatched with reeds and 
the wall along the Thames and at Stangate was repaired. Among the veget- 
ables sown were cabbage, cucumber, spinach and lettuce. 

By the 15th century there was a walk between the Archbishop's 
grounds and the river,206 and a ditch or sluice ran inward from the river 
near the entrance gate. The moat, which was still in existence on the north 
and east sides of the grounds in the i8th century, at this time surrounded 
the whole property and drained into this sluice. The 1648 plan (Plate 60) 
shows a considerable amount of water within the grounds, and a long pond 
is shown on the 1750 plan reproduced by Dr. Ducarel.^^^ This plan shows 
the extent of the grounds as just over 1 2 acres, a triangular area having been 
added at the north-west corner during the preceding century for a kitchen 
garden. Archbishop Cornwallis (1768-83) made a small garden on ground 
which he walled and embanked from the river on the west side of Bishop's 
Walk.209 Under Archbishop Moore (i 783-1 805) the grounds were con- 
siderably extended to take in about six acres of Sowters Lands to the north, 
and the whole of the gardens were replanned. The new area at the north-east 
corner near Carlisle House was laid out as a kitchen garden and melon 
ground ;2io subsequently Holy Trinity Church, vicarage and schools were 
built on part of this ground (see p. 75). 

In 1900 the eastern half of the palace grounds comprising over 9 

102 



LAMBETH PALACE 



acres was opened to the public as a pleasure ground to be maintained by the 
London County Council.^^^ 

Parts of the old boundary walls, dating from Tudor times and later, 
still remain. The old red brick wall between Morton's Tower and the Water 
or Lollards' Tower was re-faced on the Lambeth Palace Road frontage in 
the i86o's, diaperwork in black header bricks being introduced simitar to 
that in the walls of Morton's Tower. The new boundary wall from the 
Lollards' Tower northwards was two to three feet west of the old line. Recently 
an entrance has been found north of Morton's Tower during the restoration 
of part of the wall destroyed by bombing. 



103 



CHAPTER 23 

THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY, LAMBETH 

The Church of St. Mary, Lambeth, because of its proximity to the 
London residence of the Primate, has a unique interest among the parish 
churches of the London area. It was for many centuries almost an adjunct 
of the palace, and many of its rectors have been chaplains or household officers 
of the Archbishop and often men of considerable eminence. Its bells rang 
out whenever royal personages came, as they frequently did up to the Stuart 
period, to visit the Archbishop. At its door was the landing stage of the 
Horseferry to Westminster, and many others beside Mary of Modena and 
her baby must have taken shelter under its walls on their way to or from 
Westminster and Whitehall. 

From the entry in Domesday Book we know that there was a church 
dedicated to St. Mary in Lambeth before the Norman Conquest and that it 
belonged to the Countess Goda, sister to King Edward the Confessor.^ The 
church was granted or confirmed to the see or priory of Rochester by the 
early Norman Kings and included with the manor in the exchange made 
between the Prior, Convent and Bishop of Rochester and the Archbishop of 

Canterbury in 1197.212 Since that 
time it has been within the gift of 
the Archbishop, but close contact has 
always been maintained with the see 
of Rochester, to whom an annual 
payment of five marks was due out 
of the profits of the rectorate under 
the agreement. 

Of the mediaeval church, only 
the tower now survives. The body of 
the church was rebuilt in flint and 
stone between the years 1374 and 
1377213 and the tower soon after .21* 
The older tower, built in 1 243, was of 
wood.i® Lysons, writing in 1791, says 
that only the tower remained of the 
14th century church, "the other parts 
of the present structure appear to be 
about the age of Henry VII, and most 
probably were built at several times, in 
the latter end of the 15th and the 
beginning of the i6th centuries. In 
the list of benefactions to the church, we find some who contributed to the 
building of the north aisle in 1504, others to that of the south aisle in 1505.^ 

a Peter Palmer of South Lambeth, whose will was proved in 1499, left ;^5 for the repara- 
tion and new building of the south aisle of "Lamehith church," provided that it was built within two 
years of his decease.^^' 

104 




The Pedlar Window 



PLATE 80 












LAMBK'lIi PALACE, ELEVATION OF SOUIH l-RON I' 
(a) 1829 
(I?) 1950 



PLATE 8 1 




iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 




LAMBETH PALACE, MAIN STAIRCASE OF RESIDENTIAL WING, 1950 



10 



PLATE 8: 




LAMBP'.TH PAI.ACK, INTERIOR OF ORIEL WINDOW 
ABOVE MAIN STAIRCASE, 1950 



PLATE 83 



--'-■r 



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fipflrl „ ""^ 






1^ 



1(f^ '^^ i ^ . " !Uj=Tf=_=./=j 



M P 











-+- 







:n^O J-.-WiJJU 



te.' 



y l- lr ' -^ 



■ti t: u ' ■ ■ 




' * ^~^^.iJk *.'. .t..&*Li J 




LAMBETH PALACE, GARDEN FRONT 
{d) 1829. {¥) 1949 



THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY 



Archbishop Warham was a principal contributor to the building of the west 
end in 1522. The east end was probably rebuilt before the list of benefactors 
commenced. Howard's and Leigh's chapels were built in 1522."^^^ Lysons' 
remarks, combined with the many entries in the accounts of subsequent 
alterations, indicate that little of the 14th century church can have survived 
in 1 85 1, when the whole building, except the tower, was pulled down and 
the present church erected from the design of Philip Charles Hardwick. 

The High Altar of the pre-reformation church was dedicated to St. 
Mary the Virgin, and there were also altars dedicated to the Trinity and to 
St. John the Baptist and to St. Thomas." There are references in the 1 5th 
century to a parish fraternity of St. Christopher (alternatively called the 
fraternity of Our Lady, St. Christopher and St. George),*" and in 1519 
sixteen pence were paid for two boards for the gable end of St. Christopher's 
aisle.ioo 

Entries in the churchwardens' accounts reflect the doctrinal changes 
of the Tudor period. In the second and third year of Philip and Mary's 
reign £,6 1 3s. was paid for a rood with figures of Mary and St. John, probably 
to replace one destroyed in the previous reign, and 4d. "for a skyn of parch- 
ment to write mens names uppon ther pewes." In 1570 the rood loft was 
taken down and "certen Copes and vessmentes" were sold, "diverse of the 
worshipfull of the parishe" having a dinner at the King's Head at the parish 
expense to celebrate the occasion. In 1582 fourteen pence was paid for 
cutting down the partition between the church and the chancel and making 
new seats. In 1599 the pulpit was repaired and a board put over it, but in 
1 6 16 Archbishop Abbot presented a new pulpit to the parish, while John 
Hart, his solicitor, gave a new font and cover with an inclosure of joiner's 
work, and Roger Jesson of South Lambeth paid for the erection of a gallery.^""^ 

Daniel Featley, rector from 161 8 to 1643, was an enthusiastic con- 
troversialist against both the Protestant sectarians and the Roman Catholics. 
In 1643 hs ^^s arraigned before the committee for plundered ministers, one 
of the accusations against him being "that the communion table did stand 
in the middle of the chancell; but is now removed, and is set at the east end 
of the chancell, and threeways compassed about with railes, the said table 
standing divers steps high." Featley replied that he had never given any 
orders for removing the communion table but that it stood as it did when he 
first came to the parish, "only once, Mr. Woodward, when he was church- 
warden, about 20 yeares ago, brought it downe to the middle of the chancell, 
and compassed it about with a most decent and usefull frame, at his owne 
charge; but the parishioners (finding the standing of it there to be very 
inconvenient, partly because it stopt up the passage from Lee's isle to 

* Thomas Bartelot in his wil], proved 1490, desired his body to be buried in the parish 
church of "Our Lady of Lamehith before the Trinity altar or St. Thomas's altar" and left 63. 8d. 
to the brotherhood of St. Christopher. -i' 

^ John More, serjeant at arms, whose will was proved in 1473, left his lands and tene- 
ments in Lambeth to be sold to the use of the fraternity of "Our Lady, St. Christopher and St. 
George in the said church of Lamhith."-'^ 

105 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Howard's chappell, partly because it debarred 30 or 40 at least from hearing 
the preacher) with publike consent removed it to the place where it first 
stood time out of mind; and is the fittest place for it to stand in, that the 
communicants may best both heare and see the minister. . . ." 

"For the steps . . . the chancell had for above 60 yeares such an 
ascent . . . and that, by reason of store of corpses lately interred there, it 
could not be levelled without great wrong to the dead, and danger to the 
living, from the stench. 

"But for any new Popish ceremonies, I have mainly opposed them, 
and could never be brought to . . . turne the communion table altar-wise. "^^ 

The entries in the accounts confirm Featley's defence in the main, 
nevertheless he seems to have aroused considerable animosity among the 
puritans. In November his church at Acton was raided and damaged by 
rebel troops and his barns and stables fired. In February, 1643, ^^^ soldiers 
entered Lambeth Church during service with intent to kill him, but he had 
been warned in time and kept out of the way. He was deprived of the living 
in March, 1643." The national swing towards puritanism is reflected in the 
churchwardens' accounts, which record the "taking downe the Screenes*" 
betweene the Church and y" Chancell "^^'' and the removal of the Cross from 
the steeple and its sale as old iron. 

Few records of the church during the Commonwealth period have 
survived,'' but a long series of entries in the burial register give melancholy 
proof of the number of royalist prisoners who died during their incarceration 
in Lambeth Palace.^^^ 

In February, 1660, the vestry, always eager to keep abreast of 
political events, ordered the King's Arms to be set up in the church.^^ 

In 1668 the churchwardens were instructed to lay a new beam in the 
middle aisle but no extensive works were carried out until 168 1 when, 
subscriptions having been raised from the parishioners, the rector, Elias 
Ashmole, and Boydel Cuper, were appointed to treat with workmen for a 
general repair.^^ 

In 1698 Ralph Snowe, treasurer to the Archbishop, presented a 
new pulpit, reading desk and clerk's pew to be placed "against the pillar 
joining to the chancel on the South side," the seats there being moved to 
make room for it.^^ Snowe also presented a large chandelier, which remained 
suspended from the centre of the nave until the rebuilding in 1851.^"° 

A gallery was erected at the west end of the church in 1699 by sub- 
scription and the south gallery was built in 1708, Ralph Snowe contributing 

* The contemporary account reads "Foure or five Souldiers rushed into the Church 
with Pistols, and drawn swords, Affrighted the whole Congregation out, wounded one of the 
Inhabitants, (wherof he soon after dyed) shot another dead, as he hung by the hands on the Church- 
yard wall, looking over to the Palace Court, . . . these Murtherers were heard expressing their 
rancour against the Doctor, some said they would chop the rogue as small as hearbs to the pot."^** 

t" These had been carved in 1615.^'"' 

' The churchwardens' accounts, with a few exceptions, seem to have vanished for the 
period between 1645 and 1821, though G. Masters, writing in 1904., stated that there was then a 
complete series in existence. 

106 



THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY 



;^ioo towards the cost. In 1701 Renatus Harris was paid £^0 for an organ.^- 
Part of the old oak casing of this instrument still remains, though the organ 
itself has been repaired and renewed on several occasions." 

There is a full description of the church in John Aubrey's Natural 
history of Surrey, published in 1 7 1 9 : — 

"The Walls . . . are of Brick and Stone mixed, the Floor paved 
with Free-stone, and the Chancel raised two Steps; the Bases of the Pillars 
are Octagonal, the Arches, and most of the Windows modern Gothick, and 
the Roof covered with Lead. In this Church are three lies, or Chapels; that 
at the East End of the North He, is called HOWARD'S Chapel, from the 
Interment of some of the Norfolk Family, and one at the East End of the 
South He, called LEIGH'S Chapel, where lye buried Sir John Leigh, Son of 
Ralph Leigh, Esq. ; Lord of the Manour of Stockwell, and his Wife. The 
Inside of this Church is light and pleasant: . . . The Roof over the Nave 
of the Church is ceiled with Plaister, but the Side-lies with Timber; the 
Walls generally wainscoated about Seven Foot high, and above the Altar 
higher: The Pews are new fronted with Oak in the North and South lies, 
the Galleries have also Oak Bolection Fronts; and over the Entrance into 
the Chancel is the Decalogue, between the Lord's Prayer and Creed. . . . 
The Altar-Piece is of a light Cedar Colour, adorned with Pilasters with gilded 
Capitals, Entablature, and Compass Pediment of the Corinthian Order, 
under which is a Glory . . . the whole enclosed with Rails and Ballisters.''^^^ 

Dr. Ducarel tells us that "In 1769, it was discovered that the column 
next westward from the pulpit had been deprived of its foundation by digging 
graves too near, and that, instead of supporting the church walls, it was 
suspended, having no solid bearing. The removal of the old foundation, and 
establishing a new one without damage being done either to the church or 
the workmen, was greatly owing to the care and assiduity of the late Mr. 
Thomas Singleton."^ 

In 1778 "a handsome Gothic portal" was put up at the west end of 
the church "for the convenience of those parishioners who kept carriages." 
The organ was also improved at this time and a new gallery was built for 
the charity children.^^ Some repairs were carried out to the body of the 
church in 1844.^'^'' 

The restoration or rebuilding of the church took just over a year 
and the church was reopened by Dr. Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, in 
February, 1852.221 During the long rectorate of Dr. Lingham (1854-83), 
a number of additions and alterations were made to the interior of the church: 
inter alia, the galleries, which had been restored by Hardwick, were taken 
down and the present i 7th century communion rails, which had probably 
come originally from the church of All Saints, Maidstone, and had been for a 
time in the chapel of the Archbishop's palace at Addington, were installed. 
The next rector. Canon Pelham, put in the choir stalls. He also had the box 
pews removed and the sides used for wainscotting the aisles. The reredos of 

* The first mention of an organ in the church is in 15 17 when Sir William Argall was 
paid los. "for the organes."*"" 

107 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

terracotta with panels by George TInworth was presented by Messrs. Doulton 
in 1889.^^^ It was taken down after being damaged during the 1939-45 war. 

Dr. Walpole turned the old Leigh Chapel into a Pelham memorial 
chapel in 1905-06, but after the 19 14-18 war it was used as a war memorial 
chapel. The St. Nicholas Chapel was consecrated in 1923 as a gift to the 
rector. 

The present hexagonal wood pulpit, from St. James's Church, 
Kennington Park Road, was set up in 1 924, when St. James's was demolished. 

The Font 

The mediaeval font was painted and lined with lead.^" It was re- 
placed in 1615 by a marble font supported on an octagonal pillar with a 
cover and enclosure of wood, presented by John Hart, gentleman. In the 
time of Nichols (1786), the canopy was "handsomely painted with the text 
round the edge ' Suffer the little children to come unto me and forbid them 
not ; for of such is the Kingdom of God.' "^"^ This font was removed to Holy 
Trinity Church, Carlisle Lane, in 1851 (see p. 75); it was replaced by the 
present elaborate font, carved by G. P. White, when the church was rebuilt. 
This is wearing badly. Four panels are filled with the names and emblems 
of the four evangelists, while in the other four the subjects depicted are. 
The Deluge, the Israelites crossing the Red Sea, Christ blessing the 
children, and the Baptism of Christ. 

The font for total immersion is below the level of the church and is 
approached by two flights of marble steps. It was installed by John Andrewes 
Reeve (rector, 1894— 1903) in memory of Archbishop Benson. 

The Tower 

The tower was built circa 1378 (see p. 104). A considerable repair 
was carried out to the steeple and belfry in 1522 when the Leigh and Howard 
chapels were built, and there are frequent references in the churchwardens' 
accounts to the repair of the bells, ropes, etc. The tower was extensively 
repaired in 1834-35. 

In 1676 there were six bells. In 1723 they were recast by R. Phelps 
and made into eight, a considerable weight of metal being added, and the 
frames and appurtenances renewed.^ The sixth bell and the tenor were again 
recast in 1848 by C. and G. Mears.^^'* In 1922 six of the bells were recast and 
all eight were rehung. 

The Plate 

Mrs. Featley, wife*" of the rector, Daniel Featley, by her will dated 
20th April, 1630, bequeathed to the church "a faire communion-cup, to 
be raised from the sale of her principal jewels. "^^ In fulfilment of her wishes 

* An engraving of this font appears in Allen's History of Lambeth, p. 56. 

i" Prior to her marriage she was Mrs. Joyce Holloway and "resided in a commodious 
house in Kennington-lane." Dr. Featley subsequently lived there with her, there being then no 
rectory attached to the church. 

108 



LAMBETH RECTORS 



a silver paten and silver gilt chalice were bought.' A year or so later, the 
parishioners subscribed towards a second chalice of similar design*" and two 
silver flagons, at a total cost of £2>'^ 5s. 3d. These, with the exception of the 
flagons, are still in use. The flagons were sold in 1643, but three more were 
bought by the parish in 1664, and still form part of the church plate. 

RECTORS OF ST. MARY, LAMBETH 



Date of 


Appointment 


1 197 


1218 


128221 


1311 


1312 


1320 


1335 


1348 



1357 
1361?= 

I36I 

1376 



1388 
1388 
1395 

1399 

1408 

I4I3 
I4I4 

I4I6 
I4I6 
I4I9 
I44I 
1452 

I46I 
I46I 

I47I 



Name 

Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop of 
Rochester. 
.? John de Theobaldo. 

John de Exton. 

Andrew de Brugge. 

John de Aulton. 

William de Drax alias Draper. 

John de Colon. 

Thomas de Eltesle, Eltislee or 
Eltesley, Sen., Chaplain to 
Archbishop Stratford and first 
master of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge. 

Thomas de Eltesle, Jun. 

William of Lambeth. 

Richard Wodeland. 

Hugh de Buckenhall. 

Nicholas Slake, King's Clerk. In 
1388 he was confined in Not- 
tingham Castle for high treason. 

Philip Roggles. 

John Elme. 

John Launce, afterwards prebend- 
ary of Chichester Cathedral. 

Robert Rothbury. 

Robert Derby. 

Henry Winchestre. 

Thomas Clyff. (.'inducted) 

Thomas Benham. 

Roger Paternoster. 

John Bury. 

John Jerbert/Jerebert. 

Thomas Eggecombe. 

Thomas Mason. 

John Sugden/Sugdon. 

Henry, Bishop of Joppa. 



Date of 

Appointment 
1472 
1473 
1483 



1527 
1541 



1560 
1562 
1563 



1570 
1573 

1577 

1611 



Name 

Nicholas Bullfynch. 

Thomas Alleyn. 

Ambrose Payne, Chaplain to 
Cardinal Bourchier and Arch- 
bishop Morton. 

Robert Chalner or Chalener. 

John Whytwell, Chaplain and 
almoner to Archbishop Cranmer. 

Thomas Hall. 

John Byrch or Burchall. 

John Pory or Porie, Master of 
Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge. 

John Matchett, Chaplain to 
Archbishop Parker. 

John Bungey, Chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Parker and prebendary 
of Canterbury Cathedral. 

Thomas Blage or Blague, Chaplain 
to Archbishop Grindal and Dean 
of Rochester in 1 591. 

Francis Taylor, previously Master 
of the free school at Guild- 
ford. 

Daniel Featley or Fairclough, 
controversialist (see p. 105). 
Deprived 1643, but buried in 
the chancel of the church in 
1645. 

John White, known as the 
Patriarch of Dorchester and one 
of the founders of the Mas- 
sachusetts Company. 

John Rawlinson, puritan. Re- 
moved under the Act of Uni- 
formity in 1663. 

* The cup has engraved upon it the arms of Dr. Featley impaling those of his wife and 
the inscription — 

"Hunc calicem sacrum donavit 1 Obiit Oct. 29, 1637 

Joycea 1 Featley 

Donum sacravit Daniel, D.D. rector Lambethae''^^ 

•> The chalice is inscribed — 

"This belongeth to the church of Lambeth in Surrey, anno 1639. 
In which year there was a voluntary contribution towards furnishing the communion- 
table with this cup, and two silver flagons." 

109 



1618 
(deprived) 



1643 



1646 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Date of 

Appointment 
1660 



1663 



1669 



1675 



1703 



1717 



1731 



Name 

George Wyld, (instituted and 
inducted by presentation from 
the King, but did not receive 
the profits of the living). 

Robert Pory, Chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Juxon and Archdeacon 
of Middlesex. 

Thomas Tomkyns, Chaplain to 
Archbishop Sheldon and assistant 
licenser of books. 

George Hooper, Chaplain to 
Archbishop Sheldon, afterwards 
Bishop of Bath and Wells. 

Edmund Gibson, antiquary and 
controversialist; Chaplain and 
librarian to Archbishop Tenison; 
afterwards successively Bishop 
of Lincoln and London. 

Richard Ibbetson, Chaplain to 
Archbishops Tenison and Wake, 
Archdeacon of Exeter. 

John Denne, antiquary. He 
had previously been vicar of 
St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, and 
Archdeacon of Rochester. He 
was the father of Samuel Denne, 
who published a history of 
Lambeth parish and Palace in 

1795- 



Date of 

Appointment 
1767 



1777 



1816 



I»20 



1846 
1854 
1884 

1894 

1903 

I9IO 
I917 
I9I9 

1927 
1942 



Name 

Beilby Porteus, Chaplain to 
Archbishop Seeker, afterwards 
successively Bishop of Chester 
and London. 

William Vyse, Chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Cornwallis, Archdeacon 
of Coventry. 

Christopher Wordsworth, Chap- 
lain to Archbishop Manners 
Sutton, Master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and author 
of Ecclesiastical Biography. 

George D'Oyly, theologian and 
biographer, and Chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Manners Sutton. Founder 
of King's College, London. 

Charles Browne-Dalton. 

J. F. Lingham. 

Hon. F. G. Pelham, afterwards 
Earl of Chichester. 

J. Andrewes Reeve, Chaplain to 
Archbishop Temple. 

G. H. S. Walpole, afterwards 
Bishop of Edinburgh. 

T. G. Gardiner. 

G. H. Aitken. 

F. O. T. Hawkes, afterwards 
Bishop of Kingston. 

A. L. Jones. 

H. Hedley. 



Architectural Description 

The ground plan, prepared by Hardwick for his rebuilding of the 
body of the church in 1851, is reproduced here. It follows closely the lines 
of the old foundations and, although outwardly very little of the old masonry 
is apparent, it is probable that some of the old stones have been incorporated, 
and that part of the old core may still exist. Both the tower and the body of 
the church are in coursed Kentish ragstone with limestone dressings. Being 
in the Decorated style, Hardwick's rebuilding is sympathetic to the old work, 
although the window tracery has a somewhat mechanical appearance. 

The clerestoried nave and aisles and the vestries are all roofed in- 
dependently in slate, and each roof terminates in a gable end. The roofs are 
without eaves, all walls being topped by parapets. 

The Tower 

The tower is of four stages. It is battlemented and has at its south- 
east angle a semi-octagonal stair-turret which rises above the parapets; on 
the south-west and north-west corners the tower is strengthened by angle 
buttresses. The tower stages are defined by horizontal string courses which 
also embrace the stair-turret. The lowest stage, which stands on a moulded 



no 



THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY 



plinth, has at its west elevation a five-light traceried window. This has a 
middle transom beneath which, at the centre light, there is a canopied niche. 
The dripstone moulding over the window terminates each side against 
uncarved rectangular label stops. To the south and west faces of the second 



TZJ' 




GROVND PLAN 

Stage there is a small plain trefoil-headed, single-light window with a square- 
headed label moulding above (that to the east is similar, but is now blocked 
by the roof of the south aisle). The openings on the west and east elevations 
of the third stage have been filled and contain clock-faces, while that to the 
south has a window of two lights each with cinquefoil heads and enclosing 
a small quatrefoil. To the north elevation there is a small single-light 
window with a square-headed label moulding. At the top or belfry stage 
there are linked pairs of two-light louvred openings to each of the four faces. 
The tracery is similar in detail to that at the third stage. Although the tower 
is old its tracery has been renewed and the upper stage rebuilt. 

T/ie Interior 

The clerestoried nave is arcaded with plain pointed arches carried on 
simple octagonal piers. There are five bays on the north side and four on 
the south, the southern arcade stopping short against the wall of the tower. 
No pier is directly opposite the corresponding pier on the other side. 

The roof of the nave is of open timber construction, and the thrusts 
are borne through bracket wall-pieces on to stone corbels carved with demi- 
angels holding shields. The coats of arms on the latter commemorate 

1 1 1 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 




SCALE or FE£T, 



contributors to the old fabric. The corbels are placed between the three-light 
clerestory windows and mostly date from before the rebuilding. 

The chancel arch is elevated and has small shafts each side while, 

on the same line, the aisles are separated 
from the organ chamber and south chapel 
by single arches. The chancel has a boarded 
barrel vault ceiling and is well lighted by a 
traceried east window of five lights. Practi- 
cally all the stained glass in the church, in- 
cluding that of the Pedlar and his Dog in 
the south chapel, was destroyed by enemy 
action during the 1939-45 "^^^ ^""^ ^^s been 
replaced by clear glass. 

The tower walls are rendered, but 
all the other interior walls have been left bare 
with pointed joints to the dressed random 
stonework. 

The only internal structural features 
left from the old church are the heavy door 
frame and the studded door leading to the 
south-east vestry and the tower arch opening 

Doonoay to Vestry ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^j^ ^j^j^^ ^j^j^ j^ tWO-Centred with 

two moulded orders, the inner of which rests on attached shafts. These have 
moulded capitals and mutilated bases. 

The Fittings 

The old pews were re-used by Hardwick, though later, when the 
church was re-seated, the pew ends and doors were moved to form a con- 
tinuous dado round the walls. 

When the galleries were taken down soon after the rebuilding, the 
organ, which had stood in the west gallery, was removed to the east end and 
placed in the chapel on the north side of the chancel. Though altered and 
enlarged, it retains certain original features, including the enriched entwining 
motif to the frieze and the carved cherubs' heads beneath the larger pipes at 
the centre. 

The late 17th century communion rails have double gates at the 
centre and their square posts have panels carved with flowers, leaves, and 
ribboning to the front faces. Both upper and lower rails are moulded, the 
upper rail also being enriched. The balusters are turned and delicately 
carved with square blocking pieces at the rails. Parts of the communion 
rails are also used as an enclosure to the baptistry under the tower. (Plate 92.) 

Monuments, Tablets, etc., in the Church 

The finest of the monuments still remaining are the two Gothic 
altar-tombs on the north and south sides of the chancel. That on the north 
is in memory of Hugh Peyntwyn. The lower part of the tomb sets forward 

112 



Ill 



PLATE 84 




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PLATE 85 




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MORTON'S TOWER, 1869 



IM-AFF, 86 





MORTON'S TOWER AND I.AMBETII CHI 'la' 
(rt) 1784. {h) 1950 



PLATE 87 





WE5T ELEVATION 

ST. MARY'S CHURCH TOWER 



50UTH ELEVATION 



PLATE 88 



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6ECTION 




THIRD FLOOR PLAN 



FT 10 3 O 

I I 



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I 



GROUND FLOOR. PLAN 



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ST. MARY'S CHURCH TOWER 



PLATE 89 






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ELEVATION 



SECTION 




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iCAU 07 I ■ 1 I ■ I I I ■ I 1 ■ ] _ 



PLAN 



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ST. MARY'S CHURCH, MONUMENT TO JOHN MOMPESSON 



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SECTION 



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SCALE OP FEET 



II 



PLATE 90 




ELEVATION 
I 




PLAN 



ST. MARY'S CHURCH, MONUMENT TO HUGH PEYNTWYN 



PLATE 91 





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THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY 



slightly from the wall. Immediately under the slab there are three somewhat 
damaged sub-cusped quatrefoiled square panels, each of which has a shield 
with the Peyntwyn arms : — Gules; three thistles or, leaved and slipped vert. 
Below these panels there are three other square panels each having a quatrefoil 
with a blank shield in the centre. The lower range of panels and the slab are 
in Purbeck marble. Above the slab the monument is recessed. The recess 
has an architrave surround and is flanked at each side by semi-octagonal 
shafts. These stand on bases and support a foliated cornice with cresting of 
Tudor flowers. The cornice breaks forward for three shields bearing 
Peyntwyn arms. Above the four-centred arch enclosing the recess are 
traceried spandrels. The splayed reveals and the back of the recess are 
treated similarly, the back being divided into three panels in the centre of 
which are indents of two figures with scrolls between them. (Plate 90.) 

Hugh Peyntw^Ti, who died in 1504, describes himself in his will'^^^ as "Doctor of Laws 
and Archdeacon of Canterbury." He asked for his body to be buried in the chancel of St. Mary, 
Lambeth next to the right-hand corner of the altar. He bequeathed 5 marks for the altar and 5 for 
the fabric of the church and made other charitable bequests. 

The altar-tomb on the south side of the chancel, though recessed and 
of similar character, is slightly less rich in detail. Beneath the slab the panels, 
with shields in their quatrefoils, are less elaborate. The slab is in Purbeck 
marble, and above it to the centre panel of the recess is an indent of a kneeling 
man with two scrolls above his head. (Plate 89.) 

The inscription has been effaced but a notice states that it is the tomb of John Mompesson 
who died in 1 524. This information is derived from Ducarel's History of Lambeth^ where a Latin 
inscription purporting to be from this tomb is given in full. It says that John Mompesson Esquire, 
of Bathampton, Wilts., was of the household of Archbishop Warham, and married Isabel, 
daughter of Thomas Drewe. Nichols, however, in his annotations of Ducarel, says: "The tomb 
supposed to be Dr. Mompesson's is robbed of its inscription; yet on six several shields is carved a 
lion rampant impaled with Ermine, a lion passant guardant " (the Mompesson arms impaled with 
those of Drewe). Aubrey's Natural history of Surrey, 1719,1'^ makes no mention of Mompesson, 
but Vincent in the mid-seventeenth century^^* has a note of "a Monument erected in ye wall for 
Dr Mompesson Mr of ye Prerogative of ye Archbishop of Canterbury." Scratched on the matrix 
from which the old brass tablet has been removed are the following lines : 

"Heare ys the tome of docter 

Mompesson somtyme master 

of the prog .... off" the 

byshope of [Cantejrbury" 
Reference to their wills shows that John Mompesson, the elder, whose wife's name was 
.Ajine, died in 1 502, and desired to be buried in his "new chapel at Bathampton." His heir was 
John Mompesson, "son to my son Drew." His son, "Henry Mompesson doctor" was one of his 
executors.^2* John Mompesson junior married Alice, daughter of Sir John Leigh, and died in i 5 16. 
He asked to be buried in the parish church of Steeple Langford.--' From its general appearance and 
design the Lambeth tomb must date from about the beginning of the i6th century, and the only 
likely member of the Mompesson family to have been buried there seems to be Henry, who died in 
1 509, and who had been employed in Warham's household.--' 

Also in the chancel is a tablet to John Mason, King's Barge Master, 
who died in 1768, aged 67, as well as inscriptions, not of contemporary date, 
in memory of Cuthbert Tunstall (i 474-1 559), Bishop of London, and 
Richard Bancroft (1544-16 10), Archbishop of Canterbury. 

113 




Cuthbert Tunstall 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 




AihmoU 



Archbishop John Moore (i 730-1 805) was buried in the church, 
but apparently no tablet or floor slab remains. 

On the north wall of the organ chamber is a simple rectangular tablet 
to Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1783. 
Above it has arms and an Archbishop's mitre enclosed by scrolls, and below 
a plain shield with drapery in folds. Its brief inscription is in Latin. 

Other tablets on the north wall include one of sarcophagus type to 
James Morris, who died in 178 i. It is of marble and has weeping female 
figures below the sarcophagus at each side. The sculptor was Flaxman. 

The white marble tablet to Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who died in 1758, has consoles at each side of the inscription (In Latin) 
and an urn above. There is a shield on the pedestal of the urn bearing arms 
surmounted by an Archbishop's mitre. 

Below Archbishop Hutton's tablet is a brass inscribed to Margret 
Chute, who died in childhood in 1638. 

High above Archbishop Hutton's tablet is a plain marble tablet to 
"Raphe Snowe," who was registrar to four Archbishops, and who died in 
1707, aged 94. Directly beneath, on the same wall, is a simple tablet to 
Peter Dollond, optician, who died in 1820, aged 89. 

On the east wall of the organ chamber is a brass, not in its original 
position, in memory of Lady Katherine Howard, who died in 1535. She is 
depicted wearing pedimental head-dress and a long mantle which bears the 
arms of Howard with the Flodden augmentation. At her feet is a squirrel 
holding a nut. 

On the north wall, also moved from its original position, is a brass to 
Thomas Clere, who died in 1545. He is dressed in plate-armour and has 
above his head the quartered arms of Clere and Uvedale. 

In the chancel, floor slabs mark the resting places of Archbishops 
Tenison, Hutton, and Cornwallis, while under the east arch of the tower 
there is a floor slab In memory of Archbishop Seeker. In front of the south 
chapel altar is a slab to Ellas Ashmole, founder of the Ashmolean Museum 
who died in 1692. The slab was recut In 1853. 

At the east end of the north aisle adjoining the altar there is a marble 
pedestal surmounted by a bust In white marble to Thomas Lett, High Sheriff 
for the County of Surrey, who died in 1830. The monument was carved by 
Chantrey. 

On the east wall, obscured by the organ. Is a large tablet to Thomas 
Lett the elder, who died in 1820. Beneath this tablet is a floor slab to John 
Middleton, who died in 1833, aged 82. The Inscription, also partly obscured 
by the organ, refers to his "several literary works." 

The semi-circular panel at the west end of the north aisle is in Coade 
stone. It was taken from a decayed headstone in the churchyard in 1939. 

The tablets to Mercy Weller (d. i 887) and John Hernaman (d. 1899) 
on the south wall have panels carved by George Tinworth. 



114 



THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY 



Tablets in South Porch 

Of the tablets in the south porch, that to Sir Peter Rich, who died in 
1692, is of most interest. The inscription is on a convex surface surrounded 
by winged cherubs' heads, flowers and scrolls. At the foot of the tablet, 
which is of marble, there is a skull. 

Over the door into the church are the remains, a bust and an inscrip- 
tion, of the monument to Robert Scott, who died in 163 i, and was descended 

from the Barons of Bawerie in Scotland. 
Formerly the bust was placed in a 
circular surround, over which there 
were arms in a broken segmental pedi- 
ment. 

Other tablets include that to 
Mrs. Judith Ralegh, who died in 1 701 . 
It is in white marble, draped at the 
sides, with folds forming the inscription 
surface; above the inscription is a 
plain shield. She married Capt. George 
Ralegh, Deputy Governor of Jersey, 
and a nephew of Sir Walter Raleigh.^^ 
Adjoining is a plain tablet to 
"WILLIAM BACON, of the Salt 
Office, London, Gent, who was killed 
by thunder & lightning at his window 
July 12— 1787, aged 34 years." 

Another plain tablet records 
the death in action at Waterloo of 
Lieutenant Henry Buckley of the i 5th 
Hussars. He was only 18. 

Many monuments and tablets 
were destroyed in 1851 and a number 
have been resited since. 

Tombs, etc., in Churchyard 

In the churchyard, which is enclosed by ragstone walls and railings, 
there are five tombs of special interest. 

The Tradescant and Bligh tombs are to the east of the church; that 
to the Tradescant family is in natural stone and has carved panels depicting 
ruins of buildings on the north and south taces. The east end has a shield 
with crest and mantling which bears the Tradescant arms. To the west there 
is a boldly carved seven-headed bird with a skull beneath, and at the corners 
stunted trees with heavy foliation. The tomb is surrounded by iron posts and 
chains and has a moulded plinth and cornice. The flat slab above the cornice 
has an inscription stating that the tomb was originally erected in 1662, 
repaired in 1773, and entirely restored in 1853. The sculptor for the 1853 
restoration was G. P. White, who two years previously had carved the font. 

115 




SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

The Bligh tomb adjoins that of the Tradescants. It was erected in 
1 8 14 in Coade's artificial stone and is of Grecian form surmounted by an 
urn. The inscription to the west face reads — 

"SACRED 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

WILLIAM BLIGH, esquire, f.r.s. 

VICE ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE; 

THE CELEBRATED NAVIGATOR 

WHO FIRST TRANSPLANTED THE BREAD FRUIT TREE 

FROM OTAHEITE TO THE WEST INDIES, 

BRAVELY FOUGHT THE BATTLES OF HIS COUNTRY, 

AND DIED BELOVED, RESPECTED, AND LAMENTED, 

ON THE 7™ DAY OF DECEMBER, 1 8 1 7, 

AGED 64."* 

The tomb also commemorates Mrs. Elizabeth Bligh, who died in 
1 8 12, as well as William and Henry, their twin sons, who died in 1795, aged 
one day; also there is an inscription to William Bligh Barker, a grandson, 
who died in 1805. The tomb has consoles at each end and is pedimented at 
each face with scalloped acroteria at the corners. 

Immediately to the south of the tower is the tomb of the Sealy family, 
whose name was linked with those of the Coades in the manufacture of artificial 
stone (see pp. 58 and 59). The tomb, which is in this material, is marked 
'COADE & SEALY' in several places. It is surmounted by a flaming urn 
entwined by a snake, and is square on plan with pediments at each face. 
There are acroteria at each corner above inset Greek Doric columns. The 
tomb was erected in 1808. It is inscribed as follows — 

West panel — 

Sacred to the memory of 

M" JOHN SEALY who died in africa in 18 17 aged 28 years. 

M" CHARLES SEALLY died august 19™ 1832 aged 38 years 

M" OFFLEY SEALLY died august 19™ 1832 aged 2S years'* 

M" FRANCIS SEALY died at S^ Andrews 

Upper Canada Dec" 25™ 1843 aged 59 years. 

* This inscription was cut into the artificial stone after the tomb was erected as were parts 
of the inscriptions on the Sealy tomb. 

b The double L in'Charles and Offley "Seally" has been altered to "Sealy." 



116 



THE SEALY TOMB 

South panel — 

Within this Vault are Deposited the Remains of 

WILLIAM SEALY of this Parish, 

(Son of JAMES SEALT late of Exeter Merchant and Mart his Wife 

Daughter of Thomas Enchmarch Merchant, formerly of Tiverton Devon) 

He Died the 257 October 1800 Aged 48 Years. 

Also of HARRIETT SEALY, Daughter of the above William Sealy, 

and Harriett his Wife, Late Harriett IVilmot. 

She Died the 4^" March 1799, in the li'^f Year of her Age. 

Likewise of THOMAS SEALY, Son of Thomas Enchmarch Sealy, 

Of Tiverton aforesaid, and Sergeant in the Lambeth Volunteer Corps 

HE Died suddenly the 7™ January 1804 Aged 20 Years. 

(Verse) 

Also M".' HARRIET SEALY, Wife of the above 
WILLIAM SEALY, Died July 23«.'' 1842, Aged 82 Years. 

East panel — 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Mns. ELIZABETH SEALY 

Wife of Mr. Iohn Sealy of this Parish, and 

eldest daughter of Iohn Corlyn Esq" late of 

the Pump-House near Bromsgrove Worcestershire 

She died 24™ august 1807, aged 54. 

(Epitaph) 

also of Mr. iohn SEALY, h[usban]d of the above, 
who departed this life the [22"° day] of OCTOBER 1 8 1 [3] 

in THE 64™ YEAR OF HIS AGE 

(Verse) 
The north panel is without inscription. 

Near the west boundary of the churchyard adjoining the footpath is 
a plain table-tomb, with moulded sides, to the Field family. It has inscription 
panels set forward at each face, of which one reads: "To the Memory of 
M« JOHN FIELD of this Parish, Wax Chandler who died the 8'." of July 
1790 Aged 48 Years." 

The other tomb of interest lies close to the south boundary of the 
churchyard. It was probably set up about 1834. It is to the Ducrow family 
who were proprietors of Astley's Amphitheatre (see p. 71). 

South-east of the porch is a grave-slab in memory of John Stevenson, 
who in I 8 14 was killed by a stag at Astley's. 

Also worthy of note is the tablet on the south wall of the tower in 
memory of Ann Richards, who died in 1794 at a ripe old age and had been 
for "upwards of sixty years midwife in this parish." 

117 



CHAPTER 24 

LAMBETH BRIDGE AND ITS PREDECESSOR 
THE HORSEFERRY 

Some authorities hold that there was an ancient British ford, sub- 
sequently used by the Romans near the site of Lambeth Palace or a little 
down the river at Stangate.-^^ Whether this was so or not, It Is certain that 
from the time of the establishment of a town house of the Archbishops of 
Canterbury at Lambeth there must have been a constant plying across the 
river between Lambeth House (or Palace) and the King's palace at West- 
minster, especially as many of the mediaeval Archbishops held high offices 
of state. In 1367, for example, a sum of ^^ 1 6 was paid to the clerks of chancery 
for a barge "for passage to and fro across the Thames to the manor of 
Lambheth of Simon archbishop of Canterbury the chancellor where the Inn 
of chancery Is now held, and for wages of the keepers of the said barge. "^^ 

When the Horseferry was first established at Lambeth is not known. 
The earliest specific reference to It which has been found Is in the year 1 5 1 3,^'^^ 
when the Archbishop granted the ferry over the Thames from Lambeth to 
Westminster to Humphrey Trevilyan at the rent of 1 6d. a year. A provision 
was Included In the grant that the Archbishop and his servants and his goods 
and chattels should be carried free. Similar grants of a later date are to be 
found among the records at Lambeth Palace. In Thomas Cromwell's 
accounts^^ for the year 1538 is an entry for the "ferryage" of his horses at 
Lambeth and there is also extant a bill dated 1546 from Edmonde Lewes, 
"Feryman" for ferrying the king's horses "over the water at Lambyth 
ferry."23 

Archbishop Laud's arrival at Lambeth was marked by an accident 
which was afterwards regarded as an omen of his unhappy fate. The over- 
laden ferryboat as it crossed the river with his servants and horses sank to 
the bottom, though happily without loss of llfe.^^" The Incident was remem- 
bered when in 1656 a like accident befell Protector Cromwell's coach and 
horses and It was suggested that he too might be heading for dlsaster.'^^^ 

During the Civil War, Lambeth Ferry was confiscated with the rest 
of the Archbishop's property, and on 6th December, 1648, was sold to 
Christopher Wormeall.-^- On 7th July of that year, when there was insurrec- 
tion in Surrey, Instructions were issued to the keepers of the various ferries 
over the Thames from Lambeth upwards, "the better to prevent the con- 
fluence of people to those who have taken up arms against the Parliament," 
to arrange for the Horseferry boat to be kept on the Middlesex shore between 
sunset and sunrise, and for guards to be placed "so that none be suffered 
to pass In the daytime except market people, and such as have business from 
the State and passes to warrant their crossing over."^^^ 

At the Restoration the ferry reverted to the Archbishop. In 1 664 he 
granted a lease of It to Mrs. Leventhorp,'^^* whose successors do not seem to 
have carried out their public obligations, for some 40 years later the church- 
wardens and inhabitants of the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, 

118 



LAMBETH BRIDGE 



complained of Mr. Leventhorp's "usurping the whole profits of the horse- 
ferry, and neglecting to repair the roads leading thereto. "-^^ 

In 1688 Lambeth Ferry was the scene of one of the most dramatic 
events connected with the expulsion of the Stuarts. On the night of 9-ioth 
December, Mary of Modena, James II's queen, and the baby prince (after- 
wards the Old Pretender) with two nurses left Whitehall under the guidance 
of De Lauzun and St. Victor, and drove to the Horseferry. The night was 
stormy and so dark that the passengers could not see each other in the boat 
though they were closely seated. According to some accounts the queen and 
her baby had to spend an hour under the walls of the old church waiting for a 
coach," but St. Victor records that a coach and six were ready in an inn 
adjoining the landing place and took the party to Gravesend.-'^^ 

Kip's view of Lambeth Palace, reproduced on Plate 64, shows the 
ferryboat crossing the river. It suggests that the ferry plied to and from 
Lambeth Palace stairs, but this was not so, the landing place on the Lambeth 
side being a little farther south.'' On arrival there traffic turned left for a few 
yards along the northern end of Fore Street (now swallowed up by the 
Albert Embankment) and then to the right along Church Street (now 
Lambeth Road). 

An account of the terry in the year i 708 contains details of the fees 
charged — 

" For a Man and Horse 
For Horse and Chaze 
For a Coach and 2 Horses 

a Coach and 4 . 

a Coach and 6 

a Cart loaden 

a Cart or Waggon, each 







S. d. 


. 2 






I 






I 6 






2 






2 6 






2 6 






2 



As early as 1664 a proposal was made for the building of a bridge 
between Westminster and Lambeth, but had to be dropped because of the 
opposition of the citizens of London and the watermen.-^^ It was not until 
1736 that an Act was passed authorizing the building of a bridge at West- 
minster.^'*^ The Act provided for the payment of compensation to the Arch- 
bishop and his lessees for damage to the Horseferry, and on the opening of 
the bridge in 1750 a sum of ^"3, 780 was paid over and the Horseferry ceased 
to operate. It appears from the enquiries made at the time that the profits 
of the ferry during its last seven years amounted to /"92 8, a sum which would 
have been much increased if the patentees had not been at the expense of 

* See, for example, Macaulay — "She remained with her child, cowering for shelter from 
the storm under the tower of Lambeth Church and distracted by terror whenever the ostler ap- 
proached her with his lanthern."-^' Macaulay also tells us that when James II took flight the next 
night he crossed the Thames from Millbank to Vauxhall in a small wherry. "As he passed Lambeth 
he flung the great seal into the midst of the stream, whence, after many months, it was accidently 
caught by a fishing net and dragged up." 

'' The Horseferry landing place is clearly shown on Rocque's and other 1 8th century maps. 

119 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



building two new boats "the Ferry being in a very bad condition at the 
commencement of these 7 years. "^^^ 

In 1737 an amending Act^^^ had been passed providing inter alia for 
the new bridge to be built either from New Palace Yard or on the site of the 
Horseferry. The erection of Westminster Bridge put an end for the time being 
to proposals for a bridge on the Horseferry site, but at the beginning of the 
19th century these began to revive. In i 809 an Act"**^ was actually passed for 
the erection of a bridge on that site, but nothing came of it. In 1828 two bills, 
one for the construction of a stone bridge, to be called "the Royal Clarence 
Bridge," and the other for a chain suspension bridge, were introduced into 
the House, but because of the opposition they excited were not proceeded 
with.2*i In 1 836^*'^ an Act was passed incorporating the Metropolitan Suspen- 
sion Bridge Company for making a bridge at Lambeth, but nothing was 
done, and the powers conferred lapsed. In 1844 Sir Samuel Brown, R.N., 
and others, attended a meeting of Lambeth Vestry and produced a model 
"of the intended Suspension Bridge from Church Street to Millbank" and 
solicited the support of the churchwardens and overseers to obtain an Act.^^ 
This again proved fruitless, but finally in 1861^*^ the Lambeth Bridge Act 
incorporated a company to construct a bridge to connect Church Street 
(now Lambeth Road), Lambeth, with Market Street (now Horseferry Road), 
Westminster. The bridge, erected from the designs of P. W. Barlow at a 
cost of ^^48,924, was opened in November, 1862. The termination on the 
Lambeth side was a few yards north of the old Horseferry landing stage.^^^ 

The bridge was of stiffened suspension type, 828 feet long, divided 
into three spans, each 268 feet wide, by piers carrying the towers which 
supported the suspension cables. It was 3 1 feet 9 inches wide between the 
parapets.2*i 

While the bridge was the property of a company tolls were charged 
on all who used it. It was subsequently bought by the Metropolitan Board of 
Works under the provisions of the Metropolitan Toll Bridges Act, 1877, 
for ;^35, 974 and freed from toll. 

Even in 1879, when it had been in existence only 17 years, old 
Lambeth Bridge was in an unsatisfactory condition. The twisted cables had 
suffered from oxidation and the girders were also rusting badly. In spite of 
remedial measures the state of the bridge continued to deteriorate and in 
1 9 10 it had to be closed to vehicular traffic. Rebuilding was delayed owing 
to the 1 9 14— 18 war, but in 1924 the London County Council obtained 
parliamentary powers to construct a new bridge and to widen and raise the 
approaches at either end. The new bridge was completed and opened in 
1932.2*1 

Description 

The present bridge, which has five spans and is of steel con- 
struction, extends from the site of the old abutment on the Westminster side 
to a point 8 1 feet upstream of the centre of the old Lambeth abutment. The 
width between the balustrades is 60 feet, there being a 36-foot roadway with 

120 



r^'^ 



PLATE 96 






00 No. 6 PRATT WALK 



[b) No. 8 PRATT WALK 



J 




(t) LAMHKTH RECIORV, No. 214 
LAMBl'/m ROAD 



{d) No. 1 DORIS STREET 





(a) No. 57 



(/^) No. 2 



WiM**i|»'.: "i'!^4^tr IMP 





(<■) No. 8 {d) No. 5 

WAI.NITT TREE WALK DOORWAYS, 1927 



ri^i\ if. 9» 



/2. 





(a) Nos. 35-41 CARLISI-K LAM., ic^50 
li>) Nos. 11-13 ST. MARY'S WALK, 1950 



PLATE 99 





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(<0 No. 122 KF-NNI\GTON ROAD, 1927 

lb) WAIXOT SgUARE, NORTII-KAST SIDE, 1950 



LAMBETH BRIDGE 



1 2-foot footways on each side. The balustrade is of cast-iron seated on a 
steel cornice and it is surmounted by cast-iron lamp standards, two on either 
side of the bridge in each span. There are also granite lamp standards above 
the carved panels over the buttresses at the ends of each pier. These piers 
and buttresses with the standards and panels are all built in granite. The 
obelisks on either side of the bridge approaches are also of granite; each 
stands on a pedestal and is terminated by a pineapple finial. The design was 
in the main the responsibility of Sir George W. Humphreys, then Chief 
Engineer to the Council, in collaboration with the architects. Sir Reginald 
Blomfield and G. Topham Forrest. 



121 



CHAPTER 25 

LAMBETH ROAD 

Lambeth Road is approximately on the site of the old road leading 
inland from the Horseferry. The river end of it was known as Church Street 
until 1876, when the subsidiary names Buxton Place, Canterbury Place, 
Barkham Terrace, Durham Place, Lambeth Terrace and Union Place were 
all abolished and the whole renamed Lambeth Road.'*^ 

No. 214, The Rectory 

Before the Reformation most rectors of Lambeth were chaplains to 
Archbishops, and lived in the Palace. There was still no separate residence 
for the rector in Featley's time, and John Featley relates that when Dr. 
Featley fell sick in 1625 he left the Palace and went to his wife's house in 
Kennington.^** This house is marked on the plan of the Manor of Kennington 
(Plate i). In 1684 the court rolls record the admittance of the Reverend 
George Hooper to the "Parsonage House" and an acre of copyhold land 
called the Pound Close.^*^ The former was on the opposite side of the road 
to the present rectory and it is represented in a drawing reproduced by 
Nichols as a double gabled house with a thatched roof.^ It had apparently 
been taken down before 1778 when a private Act was obtained to enable 
the Archbishop of Canterbury to enfranchise part of the glebe land and 
waste belonging to the manor,^*^ including the piece of copyhold land on 
which the "Parsonage House" formerly stood. This ground was sub- 
sequently let for building. Under the same Act the Archbishop granted the 
rector a piece of waste ground on which one of the pounds of the manor 
had previously stood, adjoining Pound Close'* for the erection of a new 
rectory. The house was built by William Head, carpenter, and Joseph 
Buckmaster, plumber.247 An east wing was added in 1828-29 but the house 
remained substantially unaltered until the 1939-45 war when it received 
serious damage. 

Architectural Description 

The rectory, a plain building in yellow stock brick, was originally, 
as shown in the view on Plate 94, of three storeys above a semi-basement. 
The later east wing was a storey lower and in the recent reconstruction after 
war damage the whole building has been reduced to the same height. The 
entrance has an architrave surround with a rectangular fanlight over the 
door. On the back of the older part of the house Is a stone tablet inscribed — 

"GULIELMUS VYSE, RECTOR 

PRIMUM PONENTE LAPIDEM 

CAROLINA CORNWALLIS 

UXORE FREDERICI ARCHIEPISCOPI 

EXTRUI CURAVIT 

MDCCLXXVIII" 

^ The pound is marked on Rocque's map of 1746. 
122 



LAMBETH ROAD 



Another tablet on the west side gives the builders' names and the 
date 1778. 

Nos. 212-204 (even numbers, formerly 1-5 (coNSEc), Union Place) 

Under the Act of 1778-''^ the rector was empowered to grant building 
leases of the glebe land, and two separate leases were granted to William 
Head and Joseph Buckmaster of part of the Pound Field with a road frontage 
of 400 feet.-'*' Two terraces of houses were erected on the ground with a 
passage between them leading to a walk which abutted on the canal of the 
Archbishop's park. 2*8 Only Nos. 212-204 survive of the western terrace 
and No. 180 of the eastern. 

Architectural Description 

Both terraces were plainly built in yellow stock brick with two con- 
tinuous moulded stone bands at parapet gutter level. The entrances have 
stuccoed surrounds and moulded imposts. No. i 80 has been refronted. 




214 



212 



210 



203 



TO 
I FEET 



206 



204- 



Nos. 214-204 Lambeth Road 

No. 210 (formerly No. 2 Union Place) was leased by Buckmaster to William Singleton, 
carpenter, in 1784.-*^ From this time to the present day Singleton's Eye Ointment has been made 
on these premises. There is a tradition in the firm that the preparation was invented by a Lambeth 
doctor, Thomas Johnson, in the 17th century. Stephen Green, the stone-potter, married a 
descendant of Singleton and also continued the manufacture of the ointment.-*" He lived in the 
house from 1829-77.*^ No. 204 (formerly No. 5 Union Place) was occupied in 1829-30 by 
William Thomas MoncriefF, dramatist. ^^ He was successively manager of Astley's, the Coburg 
Theatre and Vauxhall Gardens. He wrote over 170 plays, some of them for those places of 
entertainment, including the famous "Tom and Jerry ."^* 

Archbishop Temple's Boys' School 

This school was erected in 1902-4 on land which had been given 
by Archbishop Frederick Temple. Three foundations had been combined 
in 1753, Thomas Rich's Grammar School, Richard Laurence's charity for 
the clothing and education of twenty poor boys of Lambeth Marsh, and a 
subscription parochial school.^-" The school moved to its present site from 
Hercules Road; it had previously been situated near the southern end of 
what is now Carlisle Lane (formerly Lambeth Green). 

123 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 

NOS. 160-148 AND 102-96 (even) 

These houses were all built on copyhold land of Lambeth Manor, 
Nos. 160-148 before 1788^^ and Nos. 102-96 a few years later.*^ They are 
plain houses in yellow stock brick, Nos. 160-148 distinguished by a raised 
approach for pedestrians. Nos. 150 and 156 have bold splayed bays, and 
most houses have half or full Ionic pilasters to their entrances. Nos. i 56-60 
have rectangular fanlights over the doors and Nos. 102-96, which are 
less imposing, have small bowed iron balconies to the first floor windows. 
The entrance to No. 102 has panelled impost stones and a carved female 
head to the keystone. 

No. 150 (formerly No. 14 Lambeth Terrace) was occupied from 1798-1803 by James 
Knowles (perhaps) the lexicographer. He was born in Ireland but was in England about this time.'* 

No. 148 (formerly No. 15 Lambeth Terrace) from 1788-98 was occupied by Samuel 
Buckmaster and in 1799-1802 by John Buckmaster.^^ 

No. 100 (formerly No. 3 Durham Place) was built about 1794,*^ the first occupant being 
William Bligh, vice-admiral, 1794-1814 (Bligh of the Bount}'). Bligh accompanied Captain Cook 
on his second voyage round the world in 1772-4 when bread-fruit was discovered at Otaheite. 
This lead to Bligh's appointment to the Bounty in 1787. The famous mutiny occurred on the 
voyage from Tahiti where bread-fruit plants had been collected with a view to acclimatizing them 
in the British West Indies. In 1805 Bligh was appointed governor of New South Wales but he had 
a troubled term of office and he was deposed and imprisoned by a Major Johnston, who was 
subsequently cashiered.'* Bligh died in 18 17 and was buried in Lambeth Churchyard (see p. 1 16). 

No. 96 (formerly No. l Durham Place) was occupied in 1795-6 by Colonel (subsequently 
Sir) Hildebrand Oakes. He served in America, Corsica and Malta, and was created a baronet in 
1 8 1 3 in recognition of his services.** 

Surrey Lodge Dwellings 

In 1884 the South London Dwellings Company, with Emma Cons 
as the prime mover, built a quadrangle of model dwellings at the north-west 
corner of Lambeth Road and Kennington Road on the site of Surrey Lodge, 
previously the home of Sir James Wyatt.^^ Emma Cons and her niece 
Lilian Baylis occupied two of the cottages, Nos. 5 and 6, Morton Place, for 
a number of years. The range of buildings fronting Lambeth Road was 
destroyed during the 1939-45 war. 

Lambeth (Wesleyan Methodist) Chapel 

Lambeth Chapel at the south-west corner of Lambeth Road and 
Kennington Road (Plate 115a), was built in 1808.^ In 1928 it was adapted 
for use as a mission hall and cinema but was destroyed during the 1939—45 war. 
A large sculptured figure representing a Street Preacher has been placed on 
the front wall of the new church hall on the site.^^" 



124 



CHAPTER 26 
THE WALCOT ESTATE 

Like the three acres of marsh which afterwards became Cuper's 
Gardens (see p. 25), and the seven acres of "Hopes" later owned by Jesus 
College on the river bank, the land included in the Walcot Estate was in the 
1 5th century the property of the Earls of Arundel and later of the Dukes of 
Norfolk (see p. 137). The sale in 1559 by Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, of his 
Lambeth property included 23^ acres of land "lyinge in severall parcelles" 
in Cotmansfield. Seventeen acres of this ground, having passed through the 
same hands as the marshland mentioned above, was sold by Augustine 
Skinner in 1657-^^ to Edmund Walcott and was by him left in trust 
for the poor of St. Mary, Lambeth, and St. Olave, Southwark.^^'^ The descrip- 
tion of the property in 1559 suggests that the open field system was still in 
use, but as such descriptions were often copied from older documents this 
may be an anachronism. Colour is, however, lent to the suggestion by the 
fact that as late as 1636 the disposition of holdings in Cotmansfield was 
obscure, both customary tenants and freeholders being ordered in that year 
by the homage to produce their charters and copies in the manor court of 
the Archbishop to prove the limits and bounds of their holdings.^^^ 

In addition to his seventeen acres of freehold, Edmund Walcott held 
an acre of copyhold ground in Cotmansfield which had previously belonged to 
his uncle, Richard Walcott,-^'* sometime bailiff" of the Manor of Kennington.^^ 
This acre of land reverted to the Archbishop as lord of the manor, since no 
representative of the charity came forward to claim it in the manor court 
after Edmund's death in 1668." 

The freehold estate comprised the area now lying between Walnut 
Tree Walk and Brook Drive, on either side of the present Kennington Road. 
In I 713 the estate was partitioned between the two parishes in order that it 
might be developed more conveniently; the present line of Kennington 
Road formed roughly the line of demarcation, St. Mary's taking the north- 
eastern and St. Olave's the south-western portion.^^^ In 1750-51, when the 
New (Kennington) Road was laid out, St. Olave's and St. Mary's parishes 
both sold land to the Turnpike Trustees, St. Mary's retaining part of the 
land on the west side of the road and St. Olave's a tiny triangular piece of 
land on the east side. 

In I 8 1 5 it was found necessary to make a further partition of the 
estate, since in its development two houses (Nos. 112 and 114 Kennington 
Road) had been built half on St. Olave's and half on St. Mary's land. The 
triangular piece of land referred to above was given to St. Mary's parish 
and an adjustment was made in the boundaries on the other side of the road.^^^ 

In pursuance of a decree in Chancery an Act of Parliament was 
passed in 1828 "for confirming a Partition of the Walcott Charity Estates, 
... by vesting the same in Trustees for the several Parishes of Lambeth 

* Edmund left his property to his father, William Walcott, for life and the reversion for 
the charity, but his father survived him only for a year. Both Edmund and William asked to be 
buried in St. Olave's Church. 

125 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



. . . and St. Olave, Southwark, and St. John, Horslydown,* . . . and for 
regulating the said Charity, and for empowering the Trustees ... to grant 
Building and Repairing Leases. "^^^ 

At the time of Edmund Walcott's death the estate was tenanted by 
Thomas Hardy.^^^ According to the Rev. John Denne it passed to John 
Ramsey, grocer and alderman of London, and to his two daughters and their 
husbands, Henry Herbert, Baron Herbert of Cherbury, and Sir William 
Broughton. By an agreement between them Lord Herbert paid rent to St. 
Mary's parish and Sir William to St. Olave's.^^^ The very sparse entries in 
the vestry books refer to the estate at this time as the "Flower Pot" Rents.^^ 

In 1 71 3, when the estate was partitioned, the lands were in the 
occupation of John Gold, Simon Harding, Edmund Golderkey or Goldegay, 
and Thomas Ellisome. Gold and Harding were both gardeners, and probably 
the whole estate was used for market-gardening.^^^ It is shown on Rocque's 
map of I 746 as tilled ground. 

The frontages opened up by the making of the New Road increased 
the value of the estate. In 1755 the Lambeth trustees granted a building 
lease to Richard Summersell, who held land elsewhere in the parish, of two 
pieces of land in Walnut Tree Walk (which then extended on either side of 
Kennington Road) containing in the whole about i acre and 6 perches, on 
condition that he spent ;r5oo in building thereon.^ss Whether the agreement 
was carried out is not clear, for Summersell made no mention of the lease 
in his will in 1772, and soon after the trustees granted other building leases 
of the Kennington Road frontage which do not suggest the existence of 
previous buildings. 

With a view to the further improvement of the estate, the Lambeth 
trustees in 1835 obtained from the Archbishop of Canterbury a piece of 
ground on the north-west side of Bird Street (now Monkton Street) so that a 
road might be opened from the turnpike road (i.e., Kennington Road) into 
Bird Street. In the same year the trustees also had an assignment of an 
adjoining piece of ground from Lytton George Kier and Isaac Lawrence. 
This ground, like that adjoining it in St. George's Fields, had a few years 
earlier been in the hands of the Hedger family, lessees of the Dog and Duck 
public house, who had made a fortune out of speculative building in the 
neighbourhood. The land, which had previously been garden ground in the 
occupation of Dionysus Fairclough, was laid out to form what is known as 
Walcot Square, though in fact it is a triangle.^ss 

The Lambeth estate now comprises 121— 167 (odd) and 104-112 
(even), Kennington Road (see p. 128); 2-62 (even) and 1-95 (odd), Walcot 
Square (see p. 127); 1-29 (consec), St. Mary's Gardens; 1-15 (consec.) St. 
Mary's Walk; and the sites of 1-7, Bishop's Terrace.** 

* The parish of St. John was created out of St. Olave's by an Act of Parliament in 1733, 
but the inhabitants were entitled to the same charities as the inhabitants of St. Olave's. 

b St. Mary's Gardens (formerly St. Mary's Square) and St. Mary's Walk (formerly St. 
Mary's Street) were developed in 1 839-40 shortly after Walcot Square. Bishop's Terrace (formerly 
part of Ship Lane) marks the line of the eastern section of Walnut Tree Walk. 

126 



THE WALCOT ESTATE 

The St. Olave's property consists of Nos. 1 14-134, 150-160 (even), 
Kennington Road (see p. 134), Nos. 2-17, 55-63 (consec), Walnut Tree 
Walk, and Nos. 73-75 Lambeth Walk. 

Walcot Square 

This square was laid out and the houses erected in 1837-39, Nos. 
9-81 by John Woodward of Paradise Street, Nos. 16-24 by Charles 
Newnham of Newnham Place, Paris Street, and Nos. 26-50 by John 
Chapman of Waterloo Road, builder.^^^ The houses are of simple terrace type 
in yellow stock brick with stucco surrounds to the entrances and a plain 
coping above the parapets. 

No. 19 (formerly No. 60) was occupied in 1870 by William Henry Rich Jones (1817-85), 
antiquary. He was born in Christ Church parish, Blackfriars. He was vicar of Bradford-on-Avon in 
1851-85 and published several antiquarian works." 

No. 20 (formerly No. 4) was occupied in 1840-41 (?) by Wm. Hosking (1800-1861), 
architect and civil engineer. Apprenticed in Sydney to a builder, he came to England in 18 19. He 
was engineer to the West London Railway and later held a professorship at King's College, London. 
He designed Trinit}'- Chapel, Poplar, and buildings in Abney Park cemetery. His most important 
publication was a work on bridges; he claimed to have originated the design for the British 
Museum Reading Room. He married a daughter of William Clowes, the printer.'' 

.^t No. 77 (formerly No. 31) in 1840-41 lived Thomas Barnes (1785-1841), editor of 
The Times?^ He had previously lived in Nelson Square, Southwark (see Survey of London, 
Vol. xxii). 

Walnut Tree Walk 

At the beginning of the i 8th century Walnut Tree Walk was a 
lane leading out into the fields from Lambeth or Three Coney Walk.^^ 
Simon Harding, gardener, had a cottage there with a small-holding of just over 
three acres,-^^ but there does not seem to have been any other development 
until 1755, when Robert Hardcastle was granted a 61 years' building lease 
of ground on both sides of the way by the St. Olave trustees of the Walcot 
Estate.^" Of the houses erected by him, Nos. 9, 10, and 1 1 and Nos. 56-63 
(formerly Nos. 15-22) still survive. Nos. 14-17 and probably Nos. 64-66 
were built about i 8 i 7, Nos. 1 5 and 1 6 by John Money I'Anson of St. Maryle- 
bone, builder. Nos. 53-55 appear to have been built about 1830, and it is 
probable that No. 56, one of the original houses built by Robert Hardcastle, 
was substantially altered at this date. 

Architectural Description 

The fronts of Nos. 9—1 i have been much altered by the formation of 
a way through for vehicles, but they retain their original doorways with wood 
architrave surrounds and shaped or enriched brackets supporting a flat hood. 

Nos. 53-66 form a continuous group of three-storey houses in stock 
brick. The doorways to Nos. 58-63 are in pairs and are of wood with 
trefoil-headed panels at the sides superimposed on Tuscan-type pilasters. 



127 




No. 
near 



135 Kennington Road 



CHAPTER 27 
KENNINGTON ROAD 

The increase of traffic resulting from the 
building of Westminster Bridge and its approach 
road brought into prominence the deficiencies of 
the roads further out. As an attempt to remedy 
these, an Act was passed in 1 750-1 empowering 
the Turnpike Trustees of Surrey, Sussex and 
Kent to repair and widen certain existing roads 
and to make new ones.^^^ The latter included 
Kennington Road, known as the New Road or 
W alcot Place," linking Westminster Bridge Road 
with Kennington Common. It was laid across 
open fields and gardens, and there was therefore 
no difficulty in complying with the clause in the 
Act which said it was to be as straight as possible. 
Three estates were concerned — those of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, the Walcot Charity and 
the Duchy of Cornwall. Most of the road front- 
age was built up by the early years of the 19th 
century. 

Kennington Turnpike Gate, which was 



St. Mark's Church, is outside the area covered by this volume. 



East Side 

Nos. 53—57 {odd), Kennington Road {formerly 1-3 {consec), Wohingham Place) 

Nos. 55 and 57, with No. 53, which has a flat bowed facade, form a 
small group of houses, built in yellow stock brick, standing in advance of the 
later terrace at the south end of Mead Row. They are of plain appearance 
with basements and three or four storeys. 

Nos. 55 and 57 have round-headed entrances, No. 57 having small 
cast-iron balconies at each first floor window. There are original railings with 
spear heads and vases at the boundary of No. 55. 

These houses were erected about 1790*^ on part of the copyhold land of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

Nos. 1 21-143 {odd) {formerly 61-50 (consec), Walcot Place East) 

The terrace Nos. 123-143, with No. 121, which is detached, make a 
very good informal group of Georgian houses. The terrace is of three 
storeys with basements, two of the houses also having dormers to mansard 
roofs behind the parapets. They are all built in brown or yellow brick. A 

* In the 1 8th century the name Kennington Road was applied to what is now known as 
Kennington Park Road. What is now Kennington Road was divided into a number of terraces 
with subsidiary names until 1868. 

128 



PLATE 1 08 





(rf) MILL !\ LAMBLTH, circa 17^0, (p. 143) 

{h) KN'l'RANCl'. TO THE DISTILLERY, circa 1780 



^ 



ri^n. 1 r. luy 





(a) CARLISLE HOUSE SCHOOL 

(/.) No. 20 CARLISLE LANE, 1950 



PI. ATI-, no 









(a) ROYAL STREET, NORTH SIDE, «m» 1880 

(F) CHURCH OF THE HOLY TRINITY, CARLISLE LANE, 1950 



PLATE I I I 





3W 






'i i . - 111 ill 








5^:^f\ 





■*r**4t. *»3»3< 



(^) HOUSES IN LAMBETH ROAD, circa i860 

(^) STIFF'S DRAIN PIPE MANUFACTORY, HIGH STREET 



PLATE 112 





(<t) OLD HOUSES ON THE l-.AST SIDl-. OK IIK.H 

STREET, 1885 
(I?) WATCH HOUSE L\ IIK.H STREET, 1828 



PLATE 113 




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PLATE 115 





(a) LAMBETH CHAPEL, LAMBETH ROAD 
li>) LAMBETH WALK, 1886 



KENNINGTON ROAD 




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Stair at No. 1 2 1 Kennlngton Road 



number have set-back extensions at the sides. Some of the basement areas 

are enclosed by original railings and nearly all the garden steps have simple 

balustrading. 

No. 121 also has attics, but is one 
storey less in height. The front is of yellow 
brick and has, like some parts of the terrace 
elevations, been rebuilt in replica of former 
work. The window openings have stucco 
flat arches and the doorcase has an open 
dentil pediment with pilasters and shaped 
brackets. 

No. 123, the first terrace house, 
has its entrance in a round-headed recess 
with stucco reveals and sham key block 
and imposts. 

No. 125 has a semicircular fanlight 
to the pedimented wood doorcase with 
Tuscan columns, enriched frieze and dentil 
cornice. 

Nos. 127 and 129 are without door- 
cases but have semicircular-headed entrances 
with plain stucco surrounds. No. 127 has 

an original gate with pineapple cappings to the posts. The first floor of No. 

129 has an iron balcony. 
The doorcases at 

Nos. 125 and 131 are 

similar except that at 

No. 131 the caps are 

fluted and the entrance 

is in an arched recess 

which also encloses the 

first floor window. 

No. 133 has an 

entrance porch with flat 

hood carried on slender 

fluted Doric columns, 

while the porch at No. 

1 35 has Tuscan columns 

and an open pediment 

with mutule cornice. 

No. 137, mostly des- 
troyed during the war, 

repeated in reverse the 

elevation of No. 135, 

including the porch. No. 135 has a wrought-iron overthrow and gate piers 

with ball cappings. 

129 




Fireplace in No. 125 Kennington Road 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Nos. 139, 141 and 143 are generally similar to the remainder of the 
terrace but form a small group of their own. With block corbelling at the 
parapets and brick bands at first floor level, they have open pedimented wood 
doorcases with fluted pilasters and shaped brackets. Nos. 141 and 143 have 
iron balconies at the first floor windows, while No. 139, which has good 
interior detail (Plates 102 and 103), was of the same width as the other two 

houses until about a century 
ago, when it was extended to 
cover the site of the coach- 
house of No. 137. The ex- 
tension, which included the 
building of a ground storey 
bay window, repeats the 
window and parapet detail of 
the group. 

These two rows of houses 
belong to St. Mary, Lambeth parish 
as part of the Walcot estate (see p. 
126). No. 121 was built between 
1774 and 1777 and was leased in 
1777 to John Jones, potter. Nos. 
123-133 were built in 1773-5 ^7 
William Head, carpenter, and Nos. 
135-143 at about the same time by 
Edward Chandler. Nos. 155-165 
can be traced back to 1788 in the 
rate books ; they were in need of 
repair before 18 16. Nos. 167 and 
169 were erected by William RofFey 
about 1816 and leased to him for 61 

; 255 

No. 121 (formerly 61 and 
previously 60, Walcot Place East) was 
the residence of Daniel Lerpiniere 
(i745?-i785), engraver, who died 
there. Until 1803 it continued in the occupation of Mary Lerpiniere, his wife or daughter.^^ 

No. 127 (formerly 58, previously 59, Walcot Place East) was occupied in 1812-1847 by 
William Tidd( 1760- 1847), legal writer. He was called to the bar in 1 81 3 after having practised 
as a special pleader for over 30 years. Tidd was chiefly known as the author of "Practice of the 
Court of King's Bench," for a long time the sole authority for common law practice. The work is 
mentioned in David Copferfield. Tidd died here on 14th February, 1847.'* This house is now 
the residence of T. F. Garnish and it is also used as the office of the Lambeth Endowed Charities. 

Nos. 129-135 are occupied by the Lady Margaret Hall Settlement. 




ELEVATION 




l ^^~^ 



PLAN 



^<-^-^ I I I M I ll 1 T ^^^^ 

No. 139 Kennington Road. Fireplace in Front Room 
on First Floor 



years. ■= 



Nos. 155-169 {odd) {formerly 15-22 {consec), Walcot Place East) 

Nos. 155-169 form part of a terrace and are of three storeys with 
basements. Nos. 167 and 169 have attics above the parapets. 

Nos. 1 55-1 6 1 form a balanced group in stucco with a rusticated 
ground storey. They have cornice and blocking course to the parapets and 

130 



KENNINGTON ROAD 



bands run between the floors. The windows are recessed and mostly have 
architraves. There are flanking pilasters at the first and second floors of 
Nos. 157 and 159, while the two outer houses in the group have first floor 
balconies. 

Nos. 163 and 165 are in brown brick with flat segmental window 
arches. Each house has a splayed bay window, that to the former being 
stuccoed and having 
a dentil cornice. Both 
houses have wood 
doorcases with shaped 
brackets to the hoods, 
the brackets at No. 1 63 
being enriched above 
fluted pilasters. 

Nos. 167 and 
169, in yellow brick, 
have ground floor 
windows recessed in 
round-headed arches 
linked to each other 
and to the arched 
entrances by stone im- 
post bands. 

No. 165 (formerly 
20, Walcot Place East) was 
occupied in 1788-89, and 
perhaps before, by John 
Broughton, pugilist. He was 
apprenticed to a Thames 
waterman as a boy, but gave 
up his boat and turned prize 
fighter. He became the 

protege of the Duke of Cumberland until he lost his last fight in 1750. He amassed a considerable 
fortune and in his retirement he lived at Walcot Place East, where he died. He was buried in 
Lambeth Church.^* 




SCALE OF LL 



■ ■ — <^ .^. \^ \*J 

No. 125 Kennington Road, Folding Doors on Ground Floor 



Nos. 177-193 {odd) 

Nos. 177—187 form a terrace having three storeys and attics behind 
parapets. Each house has a basement and all are in yellow stock brick and 
of two windows in width. Nos. 177 and 185 have, in addition, one blank 
panel at each storey. 

The entrances to Nos. 177 and 179 are linked by coarsely detailed 
stucco surrounds, while No. i 8 i has a plain, round-headed entrance with 
recessed stucco lining. Nos. 183 and 185 have identical door surrounds with 
architrave linings and consoles supporting flat door hoods. 

No. 187 has a reeded door surround at the side entrance. Its wing of 
three storeys has rough arches to blind panels above the entrance. 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



Nos. 189 and 191 form a pair and are raised above the terrace com- 
prising Nos. 177—187. They are set back further from the roadway. Their 
detail and materials are similar. Each has a plain, round-headed entrance. 
Extending across the fronts at first floor level is a verandah. 

No. 193 is similar and was erected on the same building line as Nos. 
177—187. Its entrance has a dentil cornice and flat hood with consoles at 
the sides. The frieze under the hood is fluted vertically and has, at the centre, 
a female figure in an oval panel. 

Nos. 177-187, and No. 193 were erected before 1788; and Nos. 189-191 were erected 
in 1807.*^ 

No. 185 (formerly No. 29 Walcot Place East) was occupied in 1 831-1834 by John 
Baldwin Buckstone, actor and dramatist. He made his London debut at the Surrey Theatre, and 




Rear of Nos. 186-208 Kennington Road 

became a member of the Coburg company. His own plays were highly successful and he was 
manager of the Haymarket Theatre for thirteen years.'* 

No. 1 89 (formerly No. i Walcot Terrace) was occupied in 1 808-1 840 by John Kershaw.'* 
He had a lease from the Archbishop of Canterbury of a timber yard and wharf near Waterloo Bridge 
which he afterwards sold to James Coding for part of the site of the Lion Brewery (see p. 5 1). 

The Church of St. Philip 

This church was designed by Henry Edward Cole and consecrated 
in I 863. It is of Kentish ragstone and has a conspicuous tower and octagonal 
spire. Its cost was defrayed from a fund opened in 1849 as a thank-offering 
for the deliverance of the district from a cholera epidemic. 

132 



KENNINGTON ROAD 



No. 203 {West House) 

No. 203 is of three storeys, with a single-storey shop projection on 
one side. It is stuccoed and has a cornice at the parapet. The entrance has a 
wood door surround with dentil cornice and pediment, the latter supported 
on grooved consoles. Since the war the oriel window over the entrance has 
been replaced by flush sashes. There 
is a blind round-headed panel in the 
centre of the elevation at second floor 
level. 

Nos. 233-291 {odd) 

Nos. 2 3 3-2 9 1 form a balanced 
terrace of three storeys with base- 
ments and attics. A number of houses 
have ground floor windows set in 
round-headed openings of the same 
size as those of the entrances. Ex- 
tending above the parapets of the 
three houses slightly set forward at 
the centre of the terrace is a weakly- 
designed pediment. 

Nos. 233-291 (formerly 2-31 (con- 
sec), Chester Place) were erected about 1788- 
1792^^ on part of the demesne land ot Kenning- 
ton Manor, called White Hart Field. ^^ The 
field had been known previously as the "eight 
acres," and early in the 17th century was called 
the "Coney Warren." 

No. 233 (formerly 2 Chester Place). 
In 1797 the tenant was Joseph Watson, teacher 
of the deaf and dumb. On the completion of the 
deaf and dumb asylum in Old Kent Road, he was 
appointed headmaster, an appointment which 
he held for the rest of his life. He wrote text books for the instruction of the deaf and dumb.'° 

No. 235 (formerly 3 Chester Place) this was in 1 846—47 the residence of the Rev. Jonathan 
Crowther, Wesleyan minister. He was appointed general superintendent of the Wesleyan missions 
in India in 1837, but returned in 1843 because of bad health. He spent most of his life in the north 
of England.'* In 1855-56 the Rev. Frederick James Jobson, D.D., Wesleyan minister, lived here. 
He was articled to an architect, but secured a reputation as a preacher by his fervour, and became 
a minister. He served for nine years at the City Road Chapel and superintended the Methodist 
Magazine for twelve years. He was the author of several devotional works.'* 

No. 239 (formerly 5 Chester Place) was in 1791-99 the residence of Augustus Applegath, 
brother-in-law of Edward Cowper, the inventor, with whom he was in partnership as a printer.'* 
The firm was taken over by William Clowes (see p. 16). 

No. 253 (formerly 12 Chester Place) was occupied in 1803-09 by George Woodfall, 
printer. He was well-known as a typographer and was elected master of the Stationers' Company 
in 1833-34 and 1841. He edited and published Junius' Letters in 1812.'* 

No. 255 (formerly 13 Chester Place) was occupied in 1846-53 by Jonathan Duncan, the 
younger, currency reformer, son of a governor of Bombay. He published several works. 




Rear of No. 127 Kennington Road 



133 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



No. 265 (formerly 18 Chester Place) was the residence in 1795 of (Sir) Thomas Edlyne 
Tomlins, legal writer. He was called to the bar in 1783, and was for some years editor of the 
St. James' s Chronicle. He held the post of parliamentary counsel to the chancellor of the exchequer 
for Ireland. He was knighted in 18 14. He published several legal works, including Statutes at 
Large, 41 to 49, George III.** 

West Side 

Nos. 104-128 (even) 

Nos. 104-128 form a terrace of three storeys and basements. With 
the exception of Nos. 126 and 128 each house has dormers in a mansard roof. 

Nos. 1 04- 1 12 form a group and are of brick with rusticated stucco 
ground floors. The door surrounds have wreathed friezes and cornices above 
the architraves. 

Nos. 1 1 4-1 16 both have wood doorcases with Tuscan columns, 
triglyphs and open mutule pediments. 

No. 118 is stuccoed with blank panels above the wood doorcase, 
which has an architrave beneath the open modillion pediment with consoles. 
It has a bracketed cornice below the parapet and to its bay window. 

No. 120 is in stucco and has a splayed bay of three windows in wood 
to the first and second floors with balustrading above in the same material. 
There is an architrave round the wood doorcase which has a pulvinated 
frieze and consoles under the cornice. 

No. 122, also stuccoed, has a parapet cornice with blocking course. 
At the first floor is a splayed bay with flush-framed windows served by a semi- 
elliptical iron balcony. The wood doorcase has architraves and a flat hood on 
shaped brackets. 

No. 124, built in brown brick, also has a splayed bay and a doorcase 
with a flat hood, but the brackets are foliated. 

No. 126 has no bay. Its doorcase is delicately detailed with a pediment 
on light brackets above the thin architraves. 

The floor levels of No. 128 are raised slightly above those of No. 126. 
The house has no external features of architectural interest. 

In 1768 the trustees of the Walcot estate for St. Mary, Lambeth, granted a triangular 
piece of land on the west side of the New Road to James Morris. He erected five houses (now Nos. 
1 04-1 12) but. No. 112 having been built partly on St. Olave's property, in 181 5 the boundary 
between the two estates was altered, so that No. 1 1 2 was entirely the property of the Lambeth 
trustees. ^^* 

No. 108 (formerly 3 Walcot Place West) was occupied in 1849-50 by Samuel Prout, 
water-colour painter. He contributed to Britton's Beauties of England and Wales?^ 

Nos. 1 14-128, formerly 6-13, Walcot Place West, belong to St. Olave and St. John's 
parish as part of the Walcot Estate. The land was granted to Robert Hardcastle in 1755 on 
a building lease which expired in 1816. Nos. 114-126 are mid to late i8th century buildings 
and were probably built by Hardcastle. No. 128 is described by a rental in 1829 as a "new 
built house" and was granted in 1 8 16 (the probable date of its erection) to Wm. Fisher for 61 
years.*" 

'Nos. 150-158 (even) (formerly 6—2 (consec.) Davidge Terrace) 

Nos. 150-158 form a regular terrace of early Victorian houses of 
three storeys, with ground storeys raised above basements and approached 

134 



KENNINGTON ROAD 

by short flights of steps. Each house has a rusticated ground floor and upper 
floors of yellow stock brick. There are segmental heads to the ground floor 
windows and doorways, the latter having fluted Doric columns at each side. 
At first floor level there is a stucco band and windows with small cast-iron 
balconies. The parapet has a cornice, with blocking course raised at the 
centre and incised DAVIDGE TERRACE. 

These houses were bulk in 1840 by Davidge.*^ No. 154 (formerly No. 4 Davidge 
Terrace) was in 1849-50 occupied by John Woodward, builder. He erected houses in Walcot 
Square (see p. 127). 

No. 1 60 {Tresco House) 

Tresco House has the same number of storeys but is raised slightly 
higher than Davidge Terrace. Its general detail is similar, including the 
cornice to the parapet and the rustication of the ground storey. The entrance 
has a porch with entablature and blocking course. The entablature has an 
egg and dart moulding, and is carried on fluted columns with acanthus- 
leafed caps. The window over the porch has an architrave surround with 
consoles supporting a pediment. The ground and first floor windows have 
cast-iron guards with honeysuckle ornament. 

In Tresco House (formerly i Davidge Terrace), lived George Bothwell Davidge, lessee 
of the Surrey Theatre,'^ from 1840 until his death in 1842. 

Nos. 172-202 (even) (formerly 6-21 East Place) 

Nos. 172-202 form part of a continuous terrace of houses of which 
Nos. 180-200 make a unified group. With the exception of No. 172, which 
has been much altered, the terrace is in yellow stock brick. Each house is 
of three storeys with a basement, and most have dormers behind the parapets. 
Over Nos. 190 and 192 the parapet is raised to make a centre feature in 
pediment form; it has a central lunette at the level of the adjoining dormers. 
The terrace has no distinctive external features of architectural interest. 

East Place was erected in 1786 ^^^ at the same time as East Street (now Lollard Street) 
on land belonging to Lambeth Manor. 

No. 172 (formerly 6 East Place) was occupied in 1 802-181 3 by Harriett Sealy 
(see p. 1 17). 

No. 180 (formerly 10 East Place) was occupied in 1829-31 by John Tidd Pratt, 
registrar of friendly societies, son of John Pratt, surgeon, of Kennington.^* 

Nos. 1-9 {consec.) Pownall Terrace 

Nos. 1-9 are built in yellow stock brick and are grouped on a line set 
at an angle to the roadway. They are of basement and three storeys, the base- 
ments extending forward to form a raised way. The lower windows and doors 
are set back slightly in semicircular recesses linked by stone impost bands. 
Above this level the fronts have been rebuilt in recent times, probably in 
replica of the original facades, which would appear to have dated from the 
early 19th century. The first floor cills are linked by a stone band and there 
is a simple cornice to the parapet. 

These houses can be traced back in the rate books to 1790, but it is improbable that 
much 1 8th century work remains. The terrace perhaps takes its name from James Pownall 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



who occupied No. 3 in 1823-50, or from Benjamin Pownall who was at No. 9 in 1796- 
1800. 

No. 9 was in 1829 in the occupation of John Coney, draughtsman and engraver. He 
exhibited a "Perspective View of Lambeth Palace" at the Academy in 1 805. For fourteen years he 
was employed to draw and engrave views for a new edition of Dugdale's Monasticon. He was also 
employed by the architects S. P. Cockerell and Sir John Soane. He died at Leicester Place, 
Camberwell. He was the author of Original Drawings of London Churches, 1 8 20.'' 

The Church of St. Anselm 

The ground on the west side of Kennington Road between what is 
now Black Prince Road and Kennington Lane was demesne land of the 
Manor of Kennington, known as Pound Close, Manor Field and Long Field. 
In 1785, Pound Close, where the pound of the Manor of Kennington had 
stood in the 1 7th century, was occupied by the Queen's Head Public House 
and its outbuildings, skittle grounds and gardens, while in Manor Field, 
the site of the mediaeval palace of Kennington, were a "substantial Brick 
Manor House, a large old Barn, stables, extensive Cowhouses," etc., all of 
which were on lease to William Clayton.^^ 

Bancroft Street (known until 1882 as Park Street) was formed across 
this ground about 1 800.^^ The first church of St. Anselm, a mission hall with 
church above, was built just south of Sancroft Street in 1887. In 1912 plans 
were made for a new church by S. D. Adshead and S. C. Ramsey. The 
foundation stone was laid by the Prince of Wales in 19 14, and the walls 
were carried up to about six to ten feet when the outbreak of war stopped 
work.^^^ The church was not completed until 1933. It was perhaps fortunate 
that owing to lack of funds the original design, which had a Latin cross plan 
crowned by an elaborate dome, could not be carried out. 

Architectural Description 

St. Anselm's is a church of simple character built in London stock 
brick with detail derived from Early Christian basilican churches. The main 
roof, of flat pitch, is covered with Roman red tiles. On the road frontage under 
the gable, which is decorated by a moulded cornice, there is a round window 
with an architrave surround. The main entrance beneath this window is in 
stone and is flanked by columns with richly carved capitals. Over the door- 
way and enclosed by a bold enriched surround is a semicircular tympanum 
which has a carved panel representing St. Anselm seated between a lion and 
a lamb. An uncommon feature of St. Anselm's is the stone plinth-seat 
round its base. At its north-west corner above the clerestory is a small 
bellcote. 

Internally the nave, aisles and small organ gallery are severe in 
treatment with plain plastered walls and a wood open-trussed roof above the 
clerestory windows. The usual orientation being reversed, the ciborium is 
at the west end of the church. The carving to the entrance and the capitals 
of the nave arcades was executed by A. H. Gerrard. The sculptor for the 
font was Derrick Frith. 

The vicarage adjoining (erected in 1913-14) was designed by the 
same architects and is built in similar materials. 

136 



PLATE I 1 6 



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(rt) PAROCHIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS, 1815 

(b) RACGKD SCHOOLS, NEWPORT STREET, 1851 



PLATE 117 





00 No. 14 OLD PARADISE STREET, 1908 
ll>) Nos. 49-53 HIGH STREET, 1908 



PLATE ii8 



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(a) OLD HOUSES ON THE ALBERT EMBANKMENT, 1886 
(l>) No. 85 ALBERT EMBANKMENT, 1950 



PLATE 119 








(a) LAMBETH BRIDGE AND TOLL HOUSE, 1896 
(i?) RIVER FRONTAGE OF FORE STREET, arai i860 



/^^ 



PLATE 1 20 





(./) VAUXHALL MANOR HOUSE 

(^) Nos. 28-42 \'AUXHA1,I. WALK, 1950 



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CHAPTER 28 
NORFOLK HOUSE AND OLD PARADISE STREET 

In 1397 a certain John Beaufitz was granted^^" a messuage and twelve 
acres of ground in Lambeth, part ot the property forfeited by Richard 
FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, on his attainder''. How long the 
FitzAlans had held land in Lambeth it has not been possible to ascertain, 
but in 1399,^^ when his father's attainder was reversed, Thomas FitzAlan 
regained possession of his lands, and it seems most probable that, after 
Thomas FitzAlan's death in 14 15, they passed to his sister, Elizabeth, and 
her husband, Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, and ultimately to their 
great grandson, Thomas, Earl of Surrey and second Duke of Norfolk of 
the Howard house.^^i The latter built the Howard chapel in St. Mary's, 
Lambeth, and, at his death in 1524, left-^- his house and freehold and copy- 
hold lands in Lambeth to his second wife, Agnes. Five of his sons, who died 
while still children, were buried in the church,^^® as was his widow, who 
bequeathed a chalice and paten of silver gilt to her "chappel" there. ^^^ 

It was at Norfolk House that the ill-fated Catherine Howard, grand- 
daughter of Thomas, second Duke of Norfolk, through his first wife, Eliza- 
beth, spent her neglected childhood, nominally in the charge of her step- 
grandmother, Agnes, Dowager Duchess of Norfolk. The story of the latter, 
after Catherine's arrest, rummaging through the coffers Francis Dereham 
had left at Norfolk House to remove incriminating papers, is well known.^^ 

Thomas Howard, third Duke of Norfolk, used Norfolk House, 
Lambeth, as a suburban residence^^ until his attainder in 1547. His life 
was saved by the death of Henry VIII, but his estates were seized and granted 
to William Parr, Marquess of Northampton.^^ On the accession of Queen 
Mary, however, Norfolk's attainder was reversed and he regained possession 
of his Lambeth property, which, at his death in 1554, descended with his 
title to his grandson, Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk.'' The latter sold-^* 
the Lambeth estate to Richard Garthe and John Dyster, thus terminating the 
long connection of the family with Lambeth. The property is described in 
the sale as a capital messuage "wherin the ancestors of the said duke have 
accustomed to lye," two inns, formerly called the George and the Bell, the 
former being annexed to the mansion house on the west and the Bell on the 
east; Bell Close, at the rear of the Bell, containing two acres, two perches; 
2 3i acres in "Cottmansfeld," an acre of pasture in St. George's Field, a 
close lying near the Bishop of Rochester's House (Carlisle House) containing 
four acres, three acres of meadow near Prince's Meadows, and eight acres 
of marsh called "the hopes." Garthe and Dyster divided the property into 
three parts, two-thirds of which, including the land in Cotmansfield and 
Lambeth Marsh, ultimately came into the hands of Thomas Cure (see pp. 

* Arundel had been one of the Lords .Appellant who had attacked the King's favourites 
in 1386-88. In 1397 the Earls of Gloucester, Warwick and Arundel were tried for treason; 
Arundel was beheaded and his brother, Thomas FitzAlan, .Archbishop of Canterbury, was banished. 

•> Thomas was the son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, poet, who was executed in 1 547. 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



25 and ^6). The remaining third, which included Norfolk House and the 
Bell and Bell Close (the latter being copyhold), was sold first to John 
Glascocke^^* and then to Margaret Parker,^^^ wife of Archbishop Parker, 
and, at her death in 1570, it passed to her younger son, Matthew.^®^ 

The days of Norfolk House as a great house were numbered. In 
1575' when Matthew Parker died,267 he left the whole of the property to 
his brother John, with the proviso that his wife, Frances, might occupy the 
central portion during the remainder of her life if she wished. Within a few 
years John Parker had divided the property into three. The eastern part, 
which contained a messuage, a garden, an orchard, and four acres of ground 
extending as far as the road, now Lambeth Walk, he sold to John Gryffyth.^^^ 
From the description it appears that this was the ground on which Hodge's 
Distillery afterwards stood and through which Norfolk Row (referred to in 
1 6 10 as a cartway to a lane on the back side of Lambeth) was subsequently 
made. The middle section, on which a small part of the original house 
(perhaps the stables) stood, he sold to Richard Adams,^^^ who erected new 
buildings which were stated in 16 10 to be in the occupation of Thomas 
Blague, rector of Lambeth.^'^^ The western portion, on which stood the main 
part of the original house, he sold in 1590 to Archbishop Whitgift.^^^ Sir 
George Paule bought the house from Whitgift's son in 1608 and lived there 
until his death in 1635. From the details contained in this sale^^^ some idea 
can be gained of the size of Norfolk House and the disposition of the buildings. 
There was a great gate from "the King's highway leading from Lambeth 
Town to St. George's Fields" (i.e. Lambeth Road) leading into a paved yard. 
On the west was the Duke's chapel which, by 1590, had been partitioned 
to make a hall, buttery and parlour, and a number of small rooms; on the 
east were the kitchen offices with "a greate chamber" on the first floor, a 
gallery, oratory and several closets and the hall opening on to the garden on 
the south. The total width of the garden was 125 feet, and it is a reasonable 
assumption that the street frontage was approximately the same. Sir George 
Paule left^^^ the house with some copyhold land adjoining to his nephew, 
John Oldbury, in trust for his wife and son, and ultimately with the exception 
of three messuages and gardens sold^^* to John Dawson in 1681, Paule's 
property was bought^^^ by Archbishop Tenison for the endowment of the 
girls' school in the High Street and for a burial ground (see p. 142). It is 
probable that the messuages sold to Dawson comprised the original street 
frontage of Norfolk House, since none of the property devised by Archbishop 
Tenison had a frontage to Lambeth Road. 

Old Paradise Street 

This street was formed in the late 17th century on land which had 
formerly belonged to Norfolk House. Nos. 2-18 formed part of the endow- 
ment left by Archbishop Tenison to the school for girls founded by him in 
High Street. In the i8th century they were let by the school trustees 
on long lease to Richard Summersell, who held the offices of bailiff 
of the manors of Kennington, Vauxhall, Lambeth and Walworth, surveyor 

138 



OLD PARADISE STREET 



of the Parish Roads and surveyor of Thrale's Brewery. His daughter, 
Elizabeth Pillfold, widow of Alexander Pillfold, surrendered the lease when 
land was required to enlarge the burial ground^^^ (see p. 142). 

Architectural Description 

Nos. 2-8 form a plain brick-built terrace probably dating from about 
1760. Nos. 2—6 are identical and have open pedimented doorcases carried 
on Tuscan type pilasters. No. 2 has been partly demolished. 

No. 8, of slightly wider frontage though with its parapet at the same 
height, has a doorway with flat hood and sunk panelled surrounds. The 



PANELLED l^OOM 




KEY PLAN 



FIRST FLOOH FRONT 






f^^-- — 


^ 


a=^ 


= 






















































1 



ELEVATION. A. 



ELEVATION B 





ELEVATION. C. 



ELEVATION D. 



11 fO I 1 i i it 

^r.,>n. H- I I I I I I — >...T 

No. 8 0/J Paradise Street 



house has good panelling on the first floor and formed a pair with No. 10, 
which was pulled down in 1950. 

No. 14 probably dates from the late 17th century. It also has three 



139 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



storeys, but the upper storey is in the roof. On the street and west elevations 
is a heavy eaves gutter and wood boxed cornice supported on block modillions. 
It has a first floor brick band raised at the ends. Though the house is derelict 
and due for demolition the first floor windows still retain their flush frames.* 

OLD PARADISE STREET 




12 



lO 



10 5 O 
lllllllllll 



10 

-L- 



20 

_l — 



50 
I 



40 
—I — 



50 

-I— 



60 

— I— 



70 

-J 



DRAWM BY I1.0.AB5OL0M MC./A9 



* Nos. 8 and 14 have been demolished since this survey was prepared (early in 1951). 
140 



CHAPTER 29 

PRATT WALK, FORMERLY PRATT STREET 

A house at the corner of Pratt Walk and Lambeth Road formerly 
bore a tablet inscribed "Pratt Street, I'j'/^."'^^^ The street was laid out on 
copyhold land" held by Sir Joseph Mawbey, Bart., and named after his wife's 
and his mother's family.*" Of the original houses only Nos. 4-8 (consec.) 
now remain. 

Architectural Description 

Nos. 4-8 form a terrace of houses whose regularity is broken only by 
the varying of their doorcase detail. They are built in stock brick with gauged 
flat arches and windows in recess. 



^ J^ M. A^ A 




Nos. 4-12 Pratt IValk 

The doorway to No. 5 has a plain panelled wood surround and flat 
hood, while those to Nos. 6 and 7 are similar, though their hoods are set 
forward and have fluted friezes. No. 8 has an open pedimented doorcase 
with a key-block above the semi-circular fanlight. Nos. 9-12 form a more 
humble terrace one storey less in height; like Nos. 4-8, they have plain 
parapets and copings. 

* The ground had belonged to the Jackson family for the previous century. When it was 
purchased by Mawbey in 1762 it comprised a messuage, barn, stable and garden containing 4 acres. 
Mawbey also owned the adjoining ground in Church Street (Lambeth Road) on which stood the 
Britannia and 4 tenements, and 21 tenements in Nevill's Yard."' 

*• Sir Joseph's mother, Martha, was the granddaughter of John Pratt, who served as a 
Colonel on the Parliament side in the Civil war. Sir Joseph's wife, Elizabeth Pratt, was John 
Pratt's great granddaughter by another line. 



141 




Sir Henry Doulton 



CHAPTER 30 

WATER LAMBETH 

The old village of Lambeth, often appropriately called "Water 
Lambeth," consisted of a few houses near the church and a narrow strip of 
buildings bordering the river up to Vauxhall. There were houses along 
Church Street (now Lambeth Road) and Lambeth Butts (now Black Prince 
Road), but otherwise little building further from the river than the High 
Street (then known as Back Lane) until the end of the 1 8th century. In 1 8 1 5 
John Doulton set up in business in High Street, and during the 1 9th century 
his firm and that of James Stiff gradually bought up the ground between 
High Street and Fore Street, with the many little courts and alleys, Brothers 
Row, Harpur's Walk, King's Head Yard, Calcots Alley, etc., many of them 
the sites of earlier potteries.^^^ 

The Burial Ground 

The burial ground on the east of High Street was given to the parish 
by Archbishop Tenison and consecrated in 1705. It was enlarged in 18 15 
by the purchase and demolition of adjoining premises in High Street and 
Paradise Row.^^ When it became a public open space in i 884 the gravestones 
were placed round the borders, but the ground contains little either to attract 
or interest. A stone from the watch-house incised — 

"Watch-House" 
1825 

has been fixed to the boundary wall. 

Archbishop Tenison's School 

Archbishop Tenison erected a school at the west end of Lambeth 
churchyard for the education of 1 2 poor girls of Lambeth, and by his will, 
dated 171 5, he devised the schoolhouse and property in Water Lambeth 
(see p. 138) to trustees for the benefit of the school.^^^ He also left to the 
school a portrait of Mrs. Tenison, painted by Mary Beale, a pupil of Peter 
Lely, in memory of her "constant and prudent Care" for "that Charity 
House."^^^ In 18 16 the school was rebuilt, and at this time the parochial 
school for girls was combined with it.^^^ The present building was 
erected in 1863. The grant of clothing to 12 girls was continued until 
1939. The traditional dress is still worn by the older pupils on ceremonial 
occasions. 

Lambeth Ragged Schools 

These schools in Newport Street (Plate 1 1 dF) were built by Henry 
Beaufoy in 1851 as a memorial to his wife, who had taken an interest in the 
school which had previously been held in one of the railway arches. ^^ All 
but the southern wing was pulled down about 1904 when the railway was 

142 



WATER LAMBETH 



widened and the school removed to temporary premises in Auckland Street, 
Vauxhall^^^ and later to Wandsworth Road. 




OOOOmTV STIUtT 
O* ».twPOQ.T STOUT 



Plan of Ragged Schools 

Lambeth Walk 

Lambeth Walk was in the i8th century a country lane known as 
Three Coney Walk. Lambeth Wells, a place of public entertainment, 
was opened there towards the end of the 17th century. It flourished for about 
50 years, but became disreputable and was closed. The premises were for a 
time used as a Methodist meeting house.^ 

The Mill 

Rocque's map (1741-45) shows a circular building to the west of 
Three Coney Walk approximately on the site of Mill Street (now Juxon 
Street). The rate book for 1773 has an entry after Paradise Row "Thomas 
Corner for y' Mill,"*^ but there is no similar entry in subsequent years. 
Walford's Old and New London gives a view of the mill which is almost 
identical with that reproduced on Plate loSa except that the latter shows the 
river on the left (see p. 2 6n.). Walford states that the mill belonged to the 
Apothecaries' Company and was used for the grinding of drugs, but nothing 
has been found in the records of the company to confirm this. 



143 



CHAPTER 31 

BLACK PRINCE ROAD AND DORIS STREET 

Black Prince Road, formerly known as Lambeth Butts, is divided 
into five sections on Horwood's map (1791-99 edition) known as Broad 
Street, Lambeth Butts, Workhouse Lane, Elizabeth Place and Prince's Road. 
It was by then fairly continuously built up on both sides. Workhouse Lane 
was subsequently renamed Prince's Road, and Lambeth Butts was absorbed 
into Broad Street in 1882. Broad Street and Prince's Road were renamed 
Black Prince Road in 1939. 

The Church of St. Mary the Less 

In 1827 the Church Building Commissioners made a grant for the 
purchase of a piece of land, formerly part of Cotmansfield and then used as 
nursery ground, for the erection of a parochial chapel attached to St. Mary's, 
Lambeth.2^° On this ground, at the corner of Ward Street and Black Prince 
Road the Church of St. Mary the Less was built from the designs of Francis 
Bedford, architect of St. John's, Waterloo Road (see p. 32). It was conse- 
crated in i828,i''*' schools being added on the adjoining ground in 1837.^^'' 
St. Mary the Less was made into a separate parish in 1842.^ 

The church is designed in Gothic style and is built in grey brick 
with stone dressings. It has a stone octagonal spirelet mounted on an open 
arcaded stage over the south gable. The interior has plaster vaulted ceilings 
supported on arcades of thin clustered columns; it is simple in detail and 
presents a cheerful appearance following the recent redecoration. 

List of Vicars. 1846, Robert Gregory; 1874, G. H. W. Bromfield; 
1 91 9, E. F. E. Partington; 1923, B. P. T. Jenkins; 1935, R- G. More- 
combe; 1938, Leslie Stevenson; 1945, C. R. Seear. 

BoLWELL Street 

At No. 8, Bolwell Street (formerly Terrace) (Plate 1 13^) Sir Arthur 
Sullivan was born on 13th May, 1842. The house is marked by a commem- 
orative tablet erected by the Incorporated Society of 
■^^ Musicians. 



Doris Street 

This street, running between Lambeth Butts 
(Black Prince Road) and Tracey Street, was laid out 
about I 8 1 2 across part of an open piece of ground 
previously in lease from the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury.^*^ Part of the terrace of houses erected at the 
east end of the south side circa 1 8 1 5 still survive. Nos. 
Door ^''"''^^'^'■^'J"- I ^^"^ I and 3 are both stucco-fronted houses with an orna- 
mental band under the first floor cills. The doorway 
of No. I has reeded quadrant reveals and architrave, and the door has a large 
fanned circular feature with knocker and bear's head at the centre. No. 3 
has a Guardian fire office sign between the upper windows. 
144 




\ 



i 



PLATE 124 




,• ' , ~-- — fff^*'^^^'-^*. r~" 



rN 






c.---- 




A". 



.).-« 



^Vcct 



',■■_ 



IM.AN OF VAUXHALL CARDKNS, 1785 



|i 



wv 



Kli' 



PLATE 125 





VAUXHALL GARDENS 

(a) TEMPLE OF COMUS, 1753 

ll>) TRIUMPHAL ARCHES 



/- 



PLATE 126 





VAUXHALL GARDENS 
00 THE GRAND WALK 
{b) MUSIC ROOM 



PLATE 127 




H 
U 

w 

Ph 

c 

Ph 

< 
W 

;^ 

w 
o 

Q 

< 

o 

X 

< 
> 



CHAPTER 32 

VAUXHALL WALK 

On the 1745 edition of Rocque's map Vauxhall Walk (or Lowner's 
Lane) is shown as a lane with hedges and fields on either side leading from 
Lambeth Butts (Black Prince Road) to Vauxhall Gardens. In 1768 the 
Duchy of Cornwall granted a building lease of ground on the west side 
of the road to William Pace and 28 houses were erected there ;^^ of these 
only 8 survive. 

Architectural Description 

Nos. 28—42 (Plate 120^) form a group of terrace houses built in 
stock brick with red brick arches above the flush-framed windows. Some of 
the houses have a brick band at first floor level and the fronts (excepting No. 
42 which has eaves) are parapeted with plain copings. Over the entrance to 
No. 28 is a stone tablet incised — 

"Vauxhall Walk" 
1769 

The doorcases of Nos. 28-34 have narrow panelled wood surrounds 
and consoles supporting poorly detailed pediments. Nos. "^d and 38 have 
doorways with wood architrave surrounds, and shaped consoles carrying the 
pediments; the consoles have flat clockface pendants. The doorway to No. 
40 has wing lights surmounted by a pediment; it is masked by a wood trellis 
porch. 

Wesleyan Chapel and Schools 

The Chapel, which stands back from the road, is built in yellow 
stock brick in Gothic style with lancet windows. The approach is flanked by 
the Boys' and Girls' Schools of ragstone. Tablets in the gables state that the 
Chapel and Boys' and Girls' Schools were built respectively in 1841, 1849 
and 1852. 




YiT-^^iH''f?Fi'/3'ftri k'n^ >'~ TTT ^rfr 



■ \ ILMi 



! iiri 



'-.-.II. ..P-'Lli. inilrir]'. !-.i.....L 



;ii 



sp- 



m £531 



Ji 



J« 



50 



Nos. 38-28 Vauxhall Walk 



145 



CHAPTER 33 
VAUXHALL GARDENS AND KENNINGTON LANE 

During the 200 years of their existence, Vauxhall Gardens were so 
important a feature of the social life of London, there are so many allusions 
to the gardens in contemporary literature, and so much has since been written 
about them, that it would take a monograph to do justice to the subject. 
Only the merest outline can be attempted here, with a short account of the 
previous history of the site and of its subsequent development. 

The ground on which Vauxhall Gardens were laid out was copyhold 
of the Manor of Kennington. It was held at the beginning of the 17th 
century by John Vaux and Jane, his wife.^'' In 1615 Jane Vaux, widow, was 
the tenant, and after her death it passed to Joan Barlow (widow of William, 
Bishop of Lincoln). The gardens were probably started by an undertenant 
of one of the copyholders, sometime before the Restoration, for on 2nd July, 
1 66 1, John Evelyn wrote of his visit to "a pretty contrived plantation" 
called the New Spring Garden at Lambeth,^^^ and two years later Balthasar 
de Monconys described them as being laid out in squares enclosed with 
hedges of gooseberries, within which were roses, beans and asparagus, etc.,^^^ 
thenceforward references were frequent. The gardens soon lost the rural 
simplicity described by Pepys. In 17 12 Addison attributed to Sir Roger de 
Coverley the remark that he should have been a better customer to the 
gardens "if there were more Nightingales and fewer Strumpets. "^^^ 

In 1728 Elizabeth Masters leased Spring Garden to Jonathan Tyers 
for 30 years at a rent of £2^0. The lease mentions the Dark Room, the 
Ham Room, Milk house and Pantry-room, and that the arbours were 
covered and paved with tiles and bore names such as Checker, King's Head, 
Dragon, Royal, etc.^'' 

Tyers opened the gardens at night during the summer months and 
spent much money on decoration, on which he employed, among others, 
the artists Hayman, Hogarth and Roubiliac. Music and illuminations and 
good food completed the attractions of the gardens. In the 1750's Tyers 
bought the ground from George Doddington the copyholder. He died in 
1767, leaving his property between his four children -j^^ his son, Jonathan 
Tyers, managed the gardens until his death in 1792. In the 1785 survey 
the premises are described as "all that substantial Brick Dwelling House 
called Spring Garden House, the Tap House and 26 other Dwelling Houses, 
Coach Houses, Stables, Out houses. Workshops, Sheds, Icehouse, Great 
Room, Orchestra, Covered Walks, open Walks, Ways, Passages, Pavillions, 
Boxes and spring Gardens Yards, Pond and an Aquiduct to supply the said 
Pond from Vauxhall Creek." The copyholders were then Tyers, Rogers and 
Barrett. 35 

Bryant Barrett, Tyers' son-in-law, a wax chandler, managed the 
gardens from 1792 until his death in 1809.284 George, his elder son, suc- 
ceeded him in the management, and his younger son, Jonathan Tyers 
Barrett, became the first incumbent of St. John's Church, Waterloo Road. 

146 



KENNINGTON LANE 



In 1 82 1 the property was sold for about ;^30,ooo to T. Bish, F. Gye 
and R. Hughes, who traded as the London Wine Company.^^ 

The last entertainment at the gardens was given on 25th July, 1859, 
the fireworks displayed the device Farewell for Ever, and Vauxhall was 
closed.^* In August the property was sold by auction and within the next 
five years the whole site was built over, the boundaries being Coding Street, 
Vauxhall Walk, Leopold Walk, St. Oswald's Place and Kennington Lane. 

No. 308 Kennington Lane 

This house, now the vicarage of the church of St. Peter, formerly 
stood within Vauxhall Gardens, and was the manager's residence. It has a 
Victorian gabled attic built above the original parapets. 

The Church of St. Peter, Kennington Lane 

St. Peter's Church, at the corner of St. Oswald's Place and Kennington 
Lane, was designed by John Loughborough Pearson, and was one of the 
earliest of his many churches. It was consecrated in i 864.^* 

The chief interest of St. Peter's is its interior; it is designed in Early 
English style and built in yellow stock brick with stone dressings. There 
are delicately-ribbed vaults to the nave, aisles, chancel and chapel, and the 
chancel has an apsidal end with a triforium and lancet-windowed clerestory 
above — all details characteristic of Pearson's work. The nave and chancel 
are graceful and lofty, and the nave, clerestory and roof rest on arcades with 
column caps of Byzantine design. 

The exterior is built in stock brick, but is of less distinction though 
boldly buttressed at the gabled street front. 

List of Vicars. G. W. Herbert (perpetual curate 1864, vicar 1870); 
1896, A. B. Sharpe; 1899, E. Denny; 1910, A. W. Tudball; 1926, Percy 
W. Seymour. 



147 



CHAPTER 34 
THE ALBERT EMBANKMENT 

The Victoria and the Albert Embankments were constructed at 
about the same time, but whereas the former ran down-stream from West- 
minster Bridge to the City, the latter was built up-stream from Westminster 
Bridge to Vauxhall. The decision as to the position of the embankment on 
the Surrey side was probably due to several factors; M.P.s wished to improve 
the view from the windows and terrace of the newly completed Palace of 
Westminster; old Lambeth, Fore Street, High Street, etc., were flooded 
whenever there was an exceptionally high tide, and there were various users 
anxious to take up the new river frontage once the land was reclaimed and 
embanked. At the northern end a considerable strip of ground was reclaimed, 
Lambeth Palace Road was constructed on the site of Stangate and Bishop's 
Walk, and St. Thomas' Hospital and the embankment walk were built on the 
old boat-building and barge house sites and on reclaimed land. South of 
Lambeth Bridge, Fore Street and many of the little courts and alleys opening 
out of it were swept away. At the southern end the Albert Embankment 
was merged into the street previously known as Vauxhall. 

It was along the river strip between St. Mary's Church and Vauxhall 
that the population and industries of Lambeth were concentrated prior to 
the 19th century. Clay, charcoal and other materials for the potteries in Fore 
Street and High Street (formerly Back Lane) and for the Vauxhall glasshouse 
were brought by water and the finished products were transported in the 
same way.'' To the north of Vauxhall Stairs (approximately where Vauxhall 
Walk now joins the Albert Embankment) was the house known originally as 
Copthall, and later, misleadingly, as Vauxhall (see p. 8). There Sir Thomas 
Parry lived in the time of James I,^^ and there the luckless Arabella Stuart 
was confined after her marriage to William Seymour.^^ It was in this house 
that the ingenious Marquess of Worcester and his assistant Caspar Kaltoff" 
conducted their experiments, making guns, engines and other mechanical 
contrivances,285 niany of which, though they were not put to practical use, 
anticipated the inventions of the following century. The house remained 
standing until the beginning of the 19th century (Plate 120^7). 

The ground south of Vauxhall Stairs to Vauxhall Creek (see Plate 123) 
was part of the demesne land of Vauxhall Manor and belonged to the Dean 
and Chapter of Canterbury. Part of this ground was leased towards the end 
of the 17th century to Gerrard Weymans,286 who had built "several mills 
for the cutting of Marble and a fair brick messuage and dwelling house 
there," while on other parts of it were the barge houses of the Clothworkers', 
Mercers' and Fishmongers' Companies, several inns, the Feathers, the Royal 
Oak, etc., and the glasshouse of John Bellingham.^^^ 

=■ During the excavations for Messrs. Doulton's premises, the headquarters of the London 
Fire Brigade, W. H. Smith & Son's premises, and the Ministry of Works building, many fragments 
of 17th and 1 8th century delft pottery were found. See, inter alia, English delft ware, by F. H. 
Garner. 

148 



THE ALBERT EMBANKMENT 



In 1767 and 1777, Sir Joseph Mawbey obtained leases of the whole 
of this property from the Dean and Chapter, including what was described 
in 1777 as a messuage called the Vine, with three stables and a garden which 
had recently been made into a bowling green. ^^^ There he established a dis- 
tillery which was subsequently taken over by Robert Burnett. When Vaux- 
hall Bridge was built in 1809, the approach road from Kennington Lane 
was built across this property, the old Royal Oak Tavern being pulled down 
for the purpose. The Cumberland Tavern and Gardens, then a popular 
place of resort, lay to the south.^s^ On the site of the old Vine Inn 
and close to the distillery, Sir Robert Burnett built a residence which was 
described in 1809 as "modern, "^^^ and in 1823 as "replete with every 
Office and Convenience fitting for a genteel Family.''^^^ The firm of Burnetts 
remained in possession until 1928, when it was taken over by the Distillers 
Company, Ltd.^^ The house, which is still standing, and is known as No. 
85 Albert Embankment, is now owned and occupied by the Anglo-American 
Company, Ltd. 

Architectural Description 

This is an asymmetrically grouped house of two and three storeys, 
built in yellow brick partly stuccoed with stone dressings. The main front 
faces northward and has bowed projections at either end. Its entrance has a 
stuccoed surround and a segmental patterned fanlight with a modelled female 
head to the keystone. There is paterae ornament with light pendant enrich- 
ment to each spandrel and an austere wood panelled porch set forward from 
the doorway. The elevation is unified by a deep band at first floor level, and 
there is a mutule cornice with blocking course to the parapet (Plate i i8i^). 

The room adjacent to the 
entrance has a small splayed bay 
window and contains a delicately 
detailed fireplace with reeded white 
marble surround and carved panels 
beneath a moulded shelf. The en- 
trance hall has a mutule cornice and 
enriched ceiling rose, and above the 
spiral staircase the ceiling, pierced by 
an oval skylight with simple plaster 
relief, has a reeded cornice entwined 
Fireplace in Ground Floor Room with a foliated motif. 




149 



APPENDIX 

PEDIGREE OF CLAYTON 
— Clayton = 



William = Mary 



Thomas = Mary 
d. 1707 



(Sir) Robert = Martha Trott 
Lord Mayor, 1679 
d. 1707 



(Sir) William = Martha Kenrick 
M.P., 1st Bart, 
d. 1744 



(Sir) Kenrick = Henrietta Maria Herring Mary Warde (i) = William = (2) Mary Eliza Catherine Lloyd 



M.P., 
2nd Bart, 
d. 1769 



d. 1774 



d. 1760 



d. 1764 



of 

Harley- 

ford, 

Bucks. 

d. 1783 



Sir John Whitwell (i) = Catherine = (2) Lord Howard de Walden 
d. 1807 



(Sir) Robert = Mary Martha 

M.P., 3rd Bart. d. 1802 

d. 1799, s.p. 



(Sir) William = Mary, only dau. of Sir Wm. East George. Mary Anne = Gen. Hon. Edw. Fox, bro. 



4th Bart, 
d. 1834 



d. 1833 



(Sir) William Robert = Alice Hugh Massey 
5th Bart. 



d. 1866 



William Capel 
d. 1848 

(Sir) William Robert 
d. 1914 



d. 1828 



d. 1809 



to Chas. Jas. Fox 



(Sir) East George Clayton East 
1st Bart, of Hall Place 



Gilbert East Clayton East 



Sir Gilbert Augustus Clayton East 



150 



REFERENCES 



1. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English 

Place-names, by Eilert Ekwall, 1936. 

2. Surr. Arch. Coll.',\o\. XLIII. The Roman 

Road from West IVickham to London, 
by B. F. Davis. 

3. An Act for making new Sewers and Drains 

. . . within certain Districts under the 
jurisdiction of the Commissioners of 
Sewers for the Limits extending from 
East Mouldsey in Surrey to Ravensbome 
in Kent, 49 Geo. Ill, cap. 183. 

4. English delft ware, by F. H. Garner, 

1948. 

5. Information supplied by Messrs. Clowes 

&- Sons, Ltd. 

6. The history and antiquities of the Parish 

of Lambeth, by T. Allen, 1826. 

7. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Everyman Edi- 

tion. 

8. History and antiquities of the parish of 
I iaOT(5,f/;{, by J. Nichols, 1786. 

9. V.C.H., Surrey. 

10. Registrum Roffense, ed. John Thorpe, 

1769. 

11. Private Act, 31 Hen. VIII, No. 26. 

12. P.R.O., C 54/3414. 

13. Local Act, 46 Geo. Ill, cap. 57. 

14. Private Act, i Geo. IV, cap. 48. 

15. Historical particulars of Lambeth Parish 

and Lambeth Palace in addition to the 
histories by Dr. Ducarel, by Samuel 
Denne, 1795. 

16. Cal.of Close Rolls. 

17. MS. History of the Manor of Kennington, 

by Rollo Laird Clowes, in the Minet 
Library (copy in the L.C.C. Members' 
Library). 

18. Cal. of Charter Rolls. 

19. Cal. of Pat. Rolls. 

20. Survey of London, by John Stow, 161 8 ed. 

21. P.R.O., E i79/i84/49a. 

22. Johannis Lelandi Antiquarii de Rebus 

Britanniciis Collectanea. 

23. Cal. ofL. y P. Hen. FILL. 

24. P.R.O.,C 66/1332. 

25. Cat. of MSS. and Muniments of Dulwich 

College, 188 1. 

26. P.R.O., E 317 (Surr.), No. 33. 

27. P.R.O., E 320/R. 20. 

28. Private Act, 16 Geo. Ill, cap. 58. 

29. Case betzveen Sir William Clayton, Bart., 

and the Duchy of Comivall by J. 
Haines, 1834 and 1835. 



30. P.R.O., E/36/168. 

31. City of London Records, Norden's Survey 

of Kennington, 161 5. 

32. Duchy of Cornwall Office, Harbord's 

Survey, quoted by R. L. Clowes. 

33. P.R.O.,E3i7(Surr.),No. 34. v 

34. P.R.O.,T/5i/i-i4. t 

35. Duchy of Cornwall Office, Hodskinson 

and Middleton's Survey of Kennington, 
1785. 

36. Bankside. Survey of London, vol. XXII, 

L.C.C, 1950. 

37. Historical anecdotes of some of the Howard 

family, by The Hon. Charles Howard, 
1769. 

38. Public Act, 50 Geo. Ill, cap. 6, "An 

Act to enable H.R.H. George Prince 

of Wales to grant leases of certain lands 

and premises called Prince's Meadows 
>» 

39. A description of Messrs. Clowes and Sons 

Printing Office. Privately printed. 

40. Picturesque views on the River Thames, 

by Saml. Ireland, 179 1. 

41. Life of William Curtis, by W. H. Curtis, 

1941. 

42. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 93142. 

43. L.C.C. Street naming records. 

44. L.C.C. Surrey and Kent Sewer rate books. 

45. Lambeth M.B.C. Poor rate books. 

46. Information supplied by W. H. Smith 

& Son. 

47. St. Thomas' Hospital Group, Records of 

the Royal Hospital for Children and 
Women. 

48. P.O. and other London Directories. 

49. L.C.C. Building Act records. 

50. L.C.C. Print in the Library Collection. 

5 1 . Report of the Benevolent Society of St. 

Patrick, Stamford Street, Blackfriars 
Road, 1822. 
5 2 . Life and Letters of John Galsworthy, by 
H. V. Marrot, 1935. 

53. Pub. Act 6 and 7 Vict. cap. 37. 

54. Church Commissioners* File: 17760. 

55. Local Act 49, George III, cap. 191. 

56. L.C.C. Ceremonial pamphlet on the open- 

ing of Waterloo Bridge, 194;. 

57. Local Acts of 53, George III, cap. 184 

and 56, George III, cap. 63. 

58. L.C.C. Bridges, 1906. 

59. P.R.O.,C 54/559. 

60. Jesus CoUege Deeds. 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



6i. P.R.O.,C.P. 25(2), Surr. Mich.gCar. I. 

62. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 90782. 

63. Anew view of London, by E. Hatton, 1708. 

64. The London pleasure gardens of the 1 8//5 

century, by W. Wroth, 1896. 

65. Gent. Mag. 

66. Newspaper cutting, 30th June, 1 741. 

67. An Act for the better preventing thefts and 

robberies ... 25 Geo. II, cap. 36. 

68. Family tradition, 1641-1941, an unpub- 

lished account of British firms of 
distillers, by H. Sarson. 

69. Some account of London, by Thos. Pennant, 

2nd ed., 1791. 

70. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 86901. 

71. Christopher Tadpole, by A. Smith, 1848. 

72. The origin and progress of the Royal 

Hospital for Children and Women. 
Privately printed, 1899. 

73. The Times. 

74. L.C.C. Solicitor's Dept., Deeds. 

75. Annual Register, 1847. 

76. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 87156-8. 

77. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 90782. 

78. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 90783. 

79. Church Commissioners: File, 17760. 

80. A public Act for building and promoting 

the building of additional churches 
in populous parishes, 58 Geo. Ill, 
cap. 45. 

81. Duchy of Cornwall Office, extract dated 

1822 in a file of newspaper cuttings. 

82. St. Mary, Lambeth, Vestry Minute Books. 

83. Metropolitan Improvements, by Jas. Elmes, 

1827. 

84. London Church Guide, by Charles Mac- 

keson, 1894-5. 

85. The history and antiquities of Lambeth, by 

J. Tanswell, 1858. 

86. Bap. Reg., St. John, Waterloo Road. 

87. L.C.C. U.L./F.io. 

88. Historical and descriptive accounts of the 

theatres of London, by Edward W. 
Brayley, 1826. 

89. The Old Vic, by Cicely Hamilton and 

Lilian Baylis, 1926. 

90. Alton Locke, by Charles Kingsley, 1850. 

91. Church Commissioners: Deeds,86885,2/2 

92. Local Act 47, Geo. Ill, Sess. 2, cap. 128. 

93. Turnpikes and Tollbars, by Mark Searle, 

1930. 

94. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 86870-3. 

95. Waterloo Station Centenary, 1848-1948, 

by British Railways. 

96. D.N.B. 

152 



97. St. Thomas' Hospital Group. Minutes of 

the General Lying-in Hospital. 

98. St. Thomas' Hospital Group. Deeds of 

the General Lying-in Hospital. 

99. Extension Fund Appeal, circa 1930. 
100. St. Mary, Lambeth, Churchwardens' 

Accounts, 
loi. O.E.D. 

102. P.C.C, i36Cann. 

103. L.C.C. Records: Minutes of Surrey and 

Kent Sewer Commission. 

104. Church Commissioners: Deeds 86901. 

105. L.C.C, U.L./Fii. 

106. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 91 139. 

107. Appendix to the history and antiquities of 

the parish of Lambeth, by J. Nichols, 
1786. 

108. Public Act 25, Geo. Ill, cap. 89. 

109. Information supplied by the Metropolitan 

Water Board. 
no. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 359667-8. 

111. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 54670. 

112. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 91142. 

113. Information supplied by Messrs. Char- 

rington & Co. 

114. Church Commissioners: File, 1094. 

115. Memoirs of the Geological Survey. The 

Geology of London, vol. 2, by W. 
Whitaker, 1889. 

116. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 91 141. 

117. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 90782, 

fol. 38. 

118. Public Act, 6 and 7 Wm. IV, cap. 133. 

119. Local Act, 6 and 7 Vic, cap. 19. 

1 20. ///. Land. News. 

121. Public Act, 22 and 23 Vic, cap. 81. 

122. Y^.Q-.Q.., Bridges, 1914. 

123. Local Act, 40 and 41 Vic, cap. 99. 

1 24. Magazine of the Whitbread Group, 

Spring 1950. 

125. Commonwealth Relations Office, Sur- 

veyors' Records, vol. 15. 

126. Jesus College Magazine, March, 1949. 

127. Patent Office, 447 and 448. 

128. A short treatise of artificial stone, as ^tis 

now made, and converted into all manner 
of curious embellishments and proper 
ornaments of architecture, by Richard 
Holt, 1730, B.M. 444 C. 51. 

129. An Essay on the origin, nature, uses and 

properties of artificial stone, by Daniel 
Pincot, 1770, B.M. 61 b. 18. 

130. Guildhall Library MSS. 897/5. Records 

of Inscriptions in Bunhill Fields Burial 
Ground. 



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131. Somerset House, Non-parochial Registers 

— Bunhill Fields. 

132. Sealy Tomb in Lambeth Churchyard. 

133. P.C.C, 168 Bellas. 

134. A descriptive catalogue of Coade^s Arti- 

ficial Stone Manufactory, 1784. 

135. Description of ornamental stone, in the 

Gallery of Coade and Sealy. 

136. P.C.C, Admon. Act Book 18 14. 

137. P.C.C, 195 Sutton. 

138. P.C.C, 651 Mansfield. 

1 39. Lambeth Endowed Charities Office. Ac- 

count of benefactions to Lambeth Parish, 
by Dr. John Denne. 

140. Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 

vol. XV: Maudslay, Sons y Field as 
General Engineers, by J. Foster Petree. 

141. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 90782, 

fo. 62. 

142. Opening ceremony at the new County Hall 

— \-jthJuly, 1922, L.CC 

143. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 93143. 

144. Local Act, 6 Ed. VII, cap. 86. 

145. L.CC, Boat of the Roman Period. 

146. L.CC, Guide to the County Hall. 

147. Guildhall Library. Westminster Bridge, 

. . . 1722. 

148. A Public act for building a bridge across 

the River Thames, from the New 
Palace Yard in the City of Westminster 
to the opposite shore ... 9 Geo. II, 
cap. 29. 

149. A survey of Westminster Bridge as 'tis 

now sinking into ruin, by Batty Langley, 
1748. 

150. L.CC, Westminster Bridge, original 

manuscripts. 
i^l. A short account of the methods made use of 
in laying the foundations of the piers of 
Westminster Bridge, ... by Charles 
Labelye, 1739. 

152. Bridges, historical and descriptive notes — 

L.CC, 1914. 

153. Thames Bridges, by James Dredge, 1897. 

154. P.R.O., Works 6/60. 

155. P.R.O., Works 6/61. 

156. Home Counties Mag., vol. 6, 1924. 

157. Church Commissioners: Maps, 8959. 

158. P.R.O., Works 6/163/2. 

159. L.CC Library, Particulars of Sale, 1855. 

160. Church Commissioners: Maps, 8963. 

161. The greatest show on earth, by M. Willson 

Disher, 1937. 

162. Surrey County Council Records, Q.S. 

2/1/26. 



cc 



163. Master Humphrey's Clock, by Charles 

Dickens, 1841. 

164. City of London Records, B.H.E. 287/1. 

165. Ibid., B.H.E. 287/64. 

166. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 15, App. I, MSS. 

of Earl of Dartmouth, III. 

167. L.CC, Water-colour drawing in the 

Library Collection. 

168. L.CC, Pamphlets on houses of historical 

interest. 

169. Lond. Top. Record, vol. 9, Blake i^ 

London, by T. F. Ordish. 

170. An Account of . . . the Asylum or House 

of Refuge ... 1763. 

171. Pietas Londincnsis, by A. Highmore, 1 8 1 o. 

172. The annual charities register and digest. 

173. Christ Church Jubilee Tear Book, 1926. 

174. The Star, 1917. 

175. Private Act, 31 Hen. VIII, no. 26. 

1 76. Transactions of the English Ceramic Circle, 

No. 4, 1937. Lambeth Earthenware, 
by F. H. Garner. 

177. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 31627. 

178. Private Act, 7 and 8 Geo. IV, cap. 57. 

179. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 17433, 

etc. 

180. Church Commissioners: File, 17750. 

181. Information supplied by the Rev. A. P. J. 

Gedge. 

182. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 90782-9. 

183. Lamb. Pal. MSS. Court Roll, 545. 

184. Church Commissioners: Deeds, 171 184, 

2/4. 

185. Bray ley's History of Surrey, revised by 

E. Walford, 1878. 

186. The history of St. Thomas's Hospital, by 

F. G. Parsons, 1932. 

187. Florence Nightingale, by C Woodham 

Smith, 1950. 

188. St. Thomas' Hospital Records. Grand 

Committee Minutes. 

189. The Story of Lambeth Palace, by Dorothy 

Gardiner, 1930. 

190. Rolls Series 38. Memorials of Richard LI. 

191. Cal. of Liberate Rolls. 

192. William Temple, Archbishop of Canter- 

bury, his life and letters, b}- F. A. 
Iremonger, 1949. 

193. The history and antirjuities of the archi- 

epis copal palace of Lambeth, by Dr. 
Ducarel, 1785. 

194. The history of the worthies of England, by 

Thos. Fuller, D.D., 1662. 

195. Lambeth Palace and its associations, by 

J. Cave-Browne, 1882. 



SOUTH BANK AND VAUXHALL 



199. 

200. 



206. 
207. 
208. 
209. 

210. 

211. 
212. 
213. 



196. The natural history and antiquities of 

Surrey, by J. Aubrey, 17 19. 

197. Notes from Blore's report in a collection 

belonging to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. 

198. Surr. Arch. Coll., vol. XII, pt. i. The 

Manor of Lambeth, by S. W. Kershaw. 
Lamb. Pal. MSS. Court Roll 573. 
The Progresses . . . of Queen Elizabeth, 

by Jn. Nichols, 1823. 

201. Lamb. Pal. MSS. Court Roll 562. 

202. Surr. Arch. Coll., vol. XXXII, The crypt 

and chapel of Lambeth Palace, by P. M. 
Johnston. 

203 . Canterburies Doome, by Wm. Prynne, 1 646. 

204. Lamb. Pal. Library MSS. Court Roll 576. 

205. Surr. Arch. Coll., vol. VII, pt. 3, Chip- 
stead Church, by Major Heales. 

Lamb. Pal. MSS. Court Roll 549. 
Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 29, 549. 
Cal. ofS.P. Dom. Eliz., 1558. 
Lambeth Palace illustrated, by E. W. 

Brayley and W. Herbert, 1 806. 
Church Commissioners: Map of Lambeth 

Palace, 1784. 
L.C.C. Minutes, 1900. 
Church Commissioners: Deeds, 90982. 
Environs of London, by D. Lysons, vol. I, 

1810. 

214. Register, W. Wykeham, quoted by Lysons 

and Brit. Mus. Egerton, M.S. 2033. 

215. P.C.C, Home 32. 

216. Environs of London, by D. Lysons, vol. I, 
1791. 

P.C.C, Milles 38. 

P.C.C, Wattys 10. 

Mercurius Rusticus, 1646. 

Lambeth Parish Church, by G. Masters, 

1904. 
The Builder, 1852. 
Information supplied by the rector and 

churchwardens of St. Mary, Lambeth. 
P.C.C, 16 Holgrave. 
College of Arms, Vincent MSS. Coll., 

Surrey. 
P.C.C, 15 Blamyr. 

226. P.C.C, 25 Holder. 

227. P.C.C, 25 Bennett. 
Polychronicon, by Ralph Higden, Rolls 

Series II. 

MS. of the Dean and Chapter of Canter- 
bury, Register T, fol. 112. 

Diary of the life of Archbishop Laud 
(1695 ed.). 

Hist. MSS. Comm., App. to 5 th Rep. 



217. 
218. 
219. 
220. 

221. 
222. 

223. 

224. 

225. 



22 



229. 



230. 



231. 



232. 
233. 
234. 

235- 
236. 

237. 

238. 
239. 
240. 
241. 



242. 
243. 
244. 



245. 
246. 

247. 
248. 
249. 

250. 

251. 

252. 
253. 
254. 



255- 

256. 
257. 



258. 
259. 
260. 
261. 
262. 
263. 
264. 
265. 

266. 

267. 



P.R.O. C 54/3414. 

Cal. ofS.P. Dom., 1648-64. 

Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep., App. 1. 

Ibid., 4th Rep., App. 

History of England, by Lord Macaulay, 

1849 ed. 
Lives of Queens of England, by Agnes 

Strickland, 1852. 
P.R.O., Works 6/32, pp. 248, 274. 
Public Act, 10 Geo. II, cap. 16. 
Local Act, 49 Geo. Ill, cap. 142. 
L.C.C Ceremonial pamphlet: Opening 

of Lambeth Bridge . . . l<)th July, 

1932. 
Local Act, 6 and 7 Wm. IV, cap. 134. 
Local Act, 24 and 25 Vic, cap. 117. 
A succinct history of the life and death of 

. . . Daniel Featley, by John Featley, 

1660. 
Church Commissioners: Deeds, 171 187. 
Private Act, 18 Geo. Ill, cap. 32. 
L.C.C: Deeds of Lambeth Rectory. 
1806 Lambeth Enclosure Award Map. 
Deeds in possession of L. Bull, 210, 

Lambeth Road. 
The Lambeth Mission Street Preacher, by 

Thomas Tiplady, 1950. 
P.R.O., CP. 25(2), 602, Surr. Mich. 

1657. 
P.C.C, 26 Hene. 

Church Commissioners: Deeds, 171193. 
Guildhall Library, M.R./M.S. 2063. 

"A True and exact Transcript of all 

entered In The Tenants Court Book 

. . .," 1685. 
Lambeth Endowed Charities: Walcot 

Estate Deeds, kept at Hayle's Estate 

Office, St. George's Road. 
Private Act, 9 Geo. IV, cap. 45. 
A Rental and Account of Monies Arising 

. . . From Gifts, (etc.) . . . To the 

Parishes of St. Olave and St. John, 

.... Printed 1829. 
Local Act, 24 Geo. II, cap. 58. 
The Architect and Building News, 1933. 
P.R.O., C 66/347. 
G.E.C, Complete Peerage. 
P.C.C, 23 Bodefelde. 
P.C.C, 40 Pynnyng. 
P.R.O., C 54/559. 
P.R.O., CP. 25(2), 225 Surr. Mich., 

4 and 5 Eliz. 
The life and acts of Mat hew Parker . . . 

by John Strype, 171 1. 
P.C.C, 13 Pyckering. 



REFERENCES 



268. 


P.R.O., C 54/1 1 14. 


280. 


269. 


P.R.O., C.P.' 25 (2), 226 Surr. Trin., 
24 Eliz. 


281. 


270. 


P.R.O., C 54/2004. 


282. 


271. 


P.R.O., C.P. 25 (2), 227 Surr. Mich., 






30 and 31 Eliz. 


283. 


272. 


P.R.O., C 54/1943- 


284. 


273. 


P.C.C, 3 5 Sadler. 




274. 


P.R.O., C.P. 25 (2), 734 Surr. Hil., 32 
and 33 Car. II. 


285. 


275- 


P.R.O., C.P. 25 (2), 972 Surr. Hil., 7 






.-^nne. 


286. 


276. 


Endowed Charities Return, vol. IV, 1901. 


287. 


277. 


Church Commissioners: Deeds, 171197, 
fol. 202. 


288. 


278. 


Deeds of Messrs. Doulton, Ltd. 


289. 


279- 


P.C.C, 3 Fox. 





Church Commissioners: File, 18135. 
Diary and correspondence of John Evelyn. 

Bohn ed. 1862. 
Journal des Voyages de M. de Monconys 

. . . Publie par son Fils, 1665. 
The SpectatorYio. 383, 20th May, 1712. 
The history and antiquities of . . . Surrey, 

by O. Manning and W. Bray, 18 14. 
The life, times and scientific labours of 

the second Marquis of Worcester, by 

Henr}' Dircks, 1865. 
Church Commissioners: File, 70433. 
Church Commissioners: File, 70432. 
Church Commissioners: Deeds, 70308, 

fol. 23. 
L.C.C. Ceremonial pamphlet issued on 

the opening of Vauxhall Bridge, 1906. 



155 



INDEX 



Page 
Abbot, Archbishop (see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 

Abney Park Cemetery - - - - 127 

Abrahall, John --____ 8 

Acton Church ------ 106 

Adam, William ------ 63 

Adams, Richard- - - - - - 138 

Addington, Archbishop's Palace at- - 107 

Addington Street - - _ _ — 70 
Adelphi - - - - - - -61,64 

Adelphi Theatre ----- 16 

Adshead, S. D. - ----- 136 

Agar, Richard ------ 15 

Aird, John ------- 48 

Aitken, Rev. G. H. - - - - - no 

Albany Baths ------ 42 

Albemarle, Earl o( {see William de Forti- 

bus) 

Albert, Prince ------ 68 

Albert Embankment— - - - - 

1,77,79, ''9' 148-149, plates 118, 122 

Alfred Place ------ 28 

Allectus ------- 64 

Alleyn, Edward ----- j 

Alleyn, Thomas- - — — — - 109 

All Saints, Maidstone - — - - 107 
All Saints, York Street - - - 2, 33, 44 

Ambley, James ------ 9 

Amphitheatre of Arts and Amphitheatre 
Riding House {see Astley's (Royal) 
Amphitheatre) 

Anderson, — . ------ 32 

Andrew de Brugge - - - - - 109 

Andrews, Robert — — - _ - 62 

Anglo-American Oil Company — - 149 
Anne Street {see Boyce Street) 

Apollo Gardens ------ 70 

Apothecaries' Company - - - - 143 

Applegath, Augustus- - - - - 133 

Applegath printing works- - - - 2, 16 

Appleby's Tavern — — - - _ ^i 
Archbishop Temple's School — - 61,123 

Archbishop Tenison's School - - 138, 142 

Archbishop's barge house- - - - ^ 

Archbishop's Park ----- 123 

Argall, Sir William - - - - -107 n. 

Armourers Company- - - - - 77 

Armstrong, Robert ----- 75 

Arne, [Thomas Augustine] - _ _ 25 

Arts Council ------ j8 

Arundel, Earls of - - 12, 13, 14, 25, 125 
Arundel, Thomas {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 

156 



Page 
Arundel House - - - - - -14, 25 

Arundell, John - - - - - -8, 14 

Arundel Marbles - - - - 14, 25n. 

Ashmole, Elias ----- 106, 114 

Ashmolean Museum- — - - — 114 
Asker, Rev. George Edward - - - 22 
Astley, John ------ 71 

Astley, Philip ----- —70-72 

Astley's Circus {see Astley's (Royal) 

Amphitheatre) 
Astley's (Royal) Amphitheatre 

70-72, 117, 123, plate 46 
Asylum for deaf and dumb {see Deaf and 

dumb asylum) 
Asylum for Female Orphans {see Female 

Orphan Asylum) 
Auckland Street- - - - - - 143 

Avon, bridge over ----- 55 

Back Lane {see Lambeth High Street) 

Bacon, John ------ jg 

Bacon, William - - — - — - 115 
Bainbridge-Bell, Rev. Francis C. — - 34 
Baldwin, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Baldwin de Redvers ----- 1 1 

Bancroft, Richard {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Banke, Le ------- 14 

Bankside ------- 45 

Barber Surgeons Company - - - 77 
Barker, Miles ------ 7 

Barker, William Bligh - - - - 116 

Barkham Terrace {see Lambeth Road) 
Barlow, Joan ------146 

Barlow, P. W. ------120 

Barnes, Thomas— - - — - — 127 
Barrett, Bryant and George - - - 146 
Barrett, Rev. J. T. - - - - 34, 146 

Barry, Sir Charles ----- 67 

Bartelot, Thomas - - - - 105 n. 

Bascom, Charles- _ - _ _ _ 51 
Baseley, William ----- 12 

Bateman, Rev. Hugh Wilson - - - 34 
Batty, William ------ 71 

Bawerie, Barons of- - - - - 115 

Bayeux, Bishop of - - - - - 3 

Baylis, Lilian - - - - - 38, 124 

Bazing, Agnes ------ 28, 40 

Beale, Mary ------ 142 

Beamond, Richard ----- 7 

Beaufitz, John - - - - - - 137 

Beaufoy, Henry— ----- 142 



Page 
Beaufoy, Mark ------ 26 

Beaufoy's Distillery or Wine Manufac- 
tory- - _ - - - 15, 26, plate 7<? 
Becket, Thomas k {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Beddington- ------ yj 

Bedford, Francis - - _ _ 32, 144 
Bedford, Thomas ----- 25 

Bell Close - - - - - - 137, 138 

Bell Inn - - - - - - 137, 138 

Bellingham, John ----- 148 

Belvedere (or Belvidere), The 15, 51, plate 37^ 
Belvedere Crescent (formerly Ragged 

Row) ------- 56 

Belvedere Road (formerly Narrow Wall) 1 2, 
15, 16, 24, 25, 40, 45, 46, 47-5+. 56-57. 
58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 65, 69, 77, 78, plates 29a, 

33-35. 36 
Benevolent Society of St. Patrick, schools 

of - - - - - - 18-19, plate 9(7 

Benham, Thomas - - - - - 109 

Bennet, R. ------- 75 

Benson, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Bent, Edward - - - - - - 77 n. 

Bevan, Frederick Lincoln- — — - 28 
Bickerdike, Alfred ----- 73 

Biggin, Eleanor and John - - _ 56 
Birkhead, Edmund and Mary - - 45 
Bish, T. ------- 147 

Bishop's Acre ----- 45, 62, 63 

Bishop's Terrace (formerly Ship Lane)- 126 
Bishop's Walk - - - - 77, 102, 148 

Bird Street {see Monkton Street) 

Black Prince Road (formerly Broad 

Street, Elizabeth Place, Kennington 

Way, Lambeth Butts, Prince's Road 

and Workhouse Lane)- 5, 8, 10, 136, 142, 
144, 145, plate i2la 
Blackfriars Bridge ----- 23 
Blackfriars Road (formerly Great Surrey 

Street) - - - - - - 23, 59, 73 

Blage (Blague), Thomas - - - 109, 138 
Blake, William ------ 72 

Bligh family tomb - - r r 5-1 16, plate 93^ 
Bligh, Vice-Admiral - -116, 124, plate 93^ 
Blomfield, Sir Arthur W- - - - 32 

Blomfield, Sir Reginald - - - - 121 

Blore, Edward, architect, plans and 

drawings of - 75,81,82,85,88,90,93, 

98, 100, loi, 102, plates 61, 77a, 

8o<j, 83a 

Boat-building - - - 2, 48, 77, plate 55^ 

Bolwell Street (Terrace) - 144, plate 113a 

Bond, Thomas — — — — — — 15 

Boniface of Savoy ----- 92 

Booth, Junius Brutus - _ - - 37 
Boots Chemists ------ 18 



Page 

Borough High Street — _ - - yg 
Botanic garden {see London Botanic 

Garden) 
Bourchier, Thomas {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Bowater's Wharf ----- 16 

Bower Saloon ------ 78 

Boyce (formerly Anne) Street- - - 28, 29 
Brent, Mrs. ------ 70 

Brick Close- ------ 72 

Bridge Street {see Westminster Bridge 

Road) 
Britannia Club for Soldiers and Sailors - 74 
Britannia P. H. _ _ _ - - 141 n. 

British Museum Reading Room - - 127 
Brixton Hundred ----- 5 

Brixton Road ------ 9 

Broad Street {see Black Prince Road) 
Broadwall - - - - - 12, 17, 18, 19 

Brocas, Arnold ------ 6 

Bromfield, Rev. G. H. W. - - - 144 
Brook Drive - - - - - - 125 

Brothers Row ------142 

Broughton, John - - - - - 131 

Broughton, Sir William - - - - 126 

Brown, John ------ 56 

Brown, Sir Samuel ----- 120 

Browne-Dalton, Rev. Charles - - 33 n., no 
Bruges, Church of Notre Dame at— — 76 
Brunei, Sir Isambard K. - — — — 55 
Buckley, Lt. Henry - - - - - 115 

Buckraaster, John ----- 124 

Buckmaster, Joseph - - - - 122, 123 

Buckmaster, Samuel ----- 124 

Buckstone, John Baldwin- _ - - 132 
Bullfynch, Nicholas - - - - - 109 

Bungey, John ------ 109 

Bunhill Fields - - - - - 58 n., 59 

Burfield, Rev. Arthur W.- - - - 22 

Burgess, — . ------ 25 

Burhngton, Earl of - - - - -15,58 

Burnett, (Sir) Robert - - _ _ 14^ 
Burnham's Wharf ----- 62 

Bury, John— ------ 109 

Buxton Place {see Lambeth Road) 

Byrch (Burchall), John — — - - 109 

Cabanel, Rudolph ----- 37 

Calcots Alley ------ 142 

Camberwell Grove ----- 59 

Camberwell Road ----- 9 

Cambridge University - - - -85,88 

Camera Armigerorum {see Lambeth Palace 

— Guard Room) 

Candle manufacture ----- 2 

Canney, Rev. Alfred S. - - - - 22 

Canova -___--- 23 

Canterbury- - - - - - - 1,64 



Page 
Canterbury, Archbishops of - 3, 4, 9, 17, 25, 
27, 28, 32, 40, 42, 45, 50, 51, 55, 62, 63, 
69, 73, 75, 81, 82, 104, 118, 122, 125, 126, 
128, 132, 144 {see also Lambeth Palace) 
Abbot ------ 88, 105 

Arundel ------- 90, 99 

Baldwin- - - - - - -81,88 

Bancroft- _ _ - - 85,88,113 
Benson ------- 108 

Bouchier- ______ 82 

Chichele- - - - - - -85,88 

Cornwallis - _ _ - 102, 114, 122 
Courtenay ____-- ^7 

Cranmer- ----- 96-97, 99 

Davidson _____ _ 102 

FitzAlan- - - - - - -137 n. 

Howley ------- 93 

Hutton -------114 

Juxon _ _ _ - 81 n., 85, 93, 96 
Langton ------- 81 

Laud - - 85,91,92-93,96,98,118 
Moore ------ 102, 113 

Morton- - - - - - -82,83 

Parker - - - 85,88,93,96,138 

Pole (Cardinal) - 88, 97, 98, 99, 100 

Reynolds ------ 82 

Robert de Winchelsey - - _ _ 85 
Sancroft- - - - - - -93,96 

Seeker __-_-__ii4 
Simon - - - - - - - 118 

Sheldon- - - - - - -85,88 

Stafford ----_-- 88 

Tait __----- 93 

Temple -----_-i23 

Tenison - _ - - - 114, 138, 142 
Thomas a Becket - _ _ - - 79 
Tillotson- ------ 84 

Walter ----- 3, 81, 88,92 

Warham- - _ _ _ _ 105, 113 

Whitgift- ------ 138 

Canterbury, Christ Church 

Black Prince buried there - - - 6 

Dean and Chapter of - - - 11, 148 
Prior and Convent of- - - 6, 11, 81 
Canterbury Cathedral (see Canterbury, 

Christ Church) 
Canterbury Music Hall - - 78, plate 47 
Canterbury Place (see Lambeth Road) 
Carlisle, See of-- — --- 4 

Carlisle (formerly Rochester) House 4, 75-76, 

78, 102, 137 
Carlisle House School - — 75> plate 109a 
Carlisle Lane (formerly Carlisle Street and 

Lambeth Green) 75-76, 1 2 3, plates 98^, 109^ 
Caron, Sir Noel- ----- 7 

Carr, Rev. Agmond C. - - - - 22 

Castille, King of - - - - - 6 

Catherine of Aragon ----- 7 

158 



Page 
Central Printing School (see London 

School of Printing) 
Chalcroft ------- 31 

Chalner (Chalener), Robert - — - 109 
Chambers' Dock _ _ _ _ - 56 

Champneys, Sir Francis - - - - 42 

Chandler, Edv^ard - - - - - 130 

Chantrey, — . — — -_ — -114 
Chapman, John - - - - - - 127 

Charing Cross Bridge (see Hungerford 

Bridge) 
Charing Cross railway - - - -55.79 

Charity Commissioners — - - - 38 
Charles, Prince (later Charles I) - - 7 

Charles II------- 66 

Charlotte, Princess ----- 37 

Chaucer, Geoffrey ----- 6 

Chester, Earl of (see Edward, the Black 

Prince) 
Chester Place (see Kennington Road) 
Chichele, Henry (see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Child, Sir Francis ----- 15 

Chipstead Church — - — — - 94 n. 
Chiswick, house of Lord John Russell in 75 
Chiswick House, marbles— - - — 15 
Cholmeley, Sir Richard - - - - 7 

Christ Church, Canterbury (see Canter- 
bury) 
Christ Church, Southwark - 12, 13, 127 
Christ Church, Westminster Bridge Road 2, 

72-73, plate 44 
Church Building Commissioners 22, 32, 144 
Church (formerly Ecclesiastical) Com- 

sioners - - - - - -4, 11, 71 

Church Hoopys or Hopes (see Hopes, also 

Pedlar's Acre) 
Church Osiers (see Pedlar's Acre) 
Church Street (see Lambeth Road) 
Chute, Margret- - - - - - 114 

City of London churches - — _ - 78 
City of London lands - - — -72,74 
City of London Lord Mayor and Com- 
monalty ------ 14, 27, 69 

City Wharf - - - - - -12,14 

Civil War - - - - - 93,98,118 

Claggett, Crispus - _ _ _ _ 70 

Clayton family - - 8, 9, 136, appendix 

Clayton, Sir Robert - - 8, 79, plate 54 

Clere, Thomas - - - - - - 114 

Clifton Suspension Bridge - _ _ 55 
Clothworkers' barge house - - - 148 
Clowes, William - - 2,16,127,133 
Clyff, Thomas ------ 109 

Coade and Sealy's Gallery - 69, plate 39a 
Coade family - - - 58, 59, 61, 69, 1 16 
Coade's Artificial Stone Factory - 2,58-61, 

69, plates 37^, 38 



Page 
Coade's Row _--_-- 69 

Coade stone - -18,54,58-61,114,115 
Coburg Theatre {see Royal Victoria Hall) 
Cockerham, — . - _ _ - - _ 12 
Coffee Palace Association _ - _ j8 
Coin (formerly Prince's) Street - 16, 20, 21, 

22, plate 8 
Cole, Ernest, ------ 65 

Cole, Henry Edward - - - - 132 

Coleridge, John ------ 20 

College Street {see Jenkins Street) 

College Wharf ------ 57 

Collyar's Yard ------ 15 

Commercial Road {see Upper Ground) 
Commissioners for Building New 

Churches _ _ _ - 22, 32, 144 
Committee for plundered ministers — 105 
Commonwealth soldiers {see Civil War) 
Comper, Sir Ninian ----- 32 

Coney, John — — -- — -136 

Coney Warren {see White Hart Field) 

Cons, Emma - - - - - 38, 124 

Constantius- ______ 64 

Conway, John - — — — — — yin. 

Coo, Mary- ______ g 

Cook, Captain -- — ---124 
Cooke, William ------ 71 

Cooper, Sir Edwin ----- 80 

Cooper family {see Cuper) 

Copped Hall, Coptehall or Copthall 8, 9, 148 

Corlyn, John - - - - - - 117 

Corner, Thomas ----- 143 

Corner Meadow - - - - -12, 13 

Cornwall, Duchy of- 2, 5, 9, 10, 13, 17, 22, 

28, 128, 145 
Cornwall, Duke of - 6 {see also Edward, the 

Black Prince) 
Cornwall House — — _ _ _ ig 
Cornwall Road (formerly Green Lane)- 10, 

16, 17, 18, 22 
Cornwallis, Caroline- - - - - 122 

Comwallis, Frederick {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Coronet Inn ______ 62, 69 

Cottingham, Lewis Nockalls - 28, 29, 30 

Cottingham, Nockalls Johnson - - 30, 36 
Cottington, Lord - _ _ _ _ 7 

Cotmansfield (Cottmansfeld) - 125, 137, 144 
County Hall - i, 62-65, 69, plates 40-42 
Courtenay, William {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Covent Garden hustings - - - - 70 n. 
Cowper, Edward - - — — -2,133 
Cranmer, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Craven Street --_-__ 42 
Crewe, Jeremy ____-- 13 
Croggon family - - - - - 59, 60, 61 



Page 

Cromwell, Oliver (Protector) - - - 118 
Cromwell, Thomas - - - - - 118 

Crosse and Blackwell's factory- - - 63 
Crowther, Rev. Jonathan - - - — 133 
Croydon --__ — -— 10 
Crozier Street ---___ 75 
Cumberland, Duke of - - - - 131 

Cumberland Tavern and Gardens — - 149 
Cuper (Cooper) family - 14, 25, 56, 106 

Cuper's Bridge - - 26 n., 45, 56, 58, 62 
Cuper's (Cupid's) Gardens - 15, 25-27, 45, 

56, 125, plate 6a 
Cure, Thomas - - - - - 25, 137 

Currey, Harold Wynne _ - - - 80 
Currey, Henry ----__ 79 

Curtis, George - - - - - -17 n. 

Curtis, William - - - - - -16,17 

Curtis's Botanical Garden {see London 

Botanic Garden) 
Curtis's Halfpenny Hatch - — _ 17 
Cut, The 28, 31, 38 {see also Lower Marsh) 

Daily Telegraph, The — _ _ _ ig 

Damory, Elizabeth and Roger- - - 11 

Dance, Sir John- _____ 7 

Darenth manor ---_-_ 3 

Darfield Wharf- _____ 50 

Dartmouth, Earl of - - - - - 72 

Davidge, George Bothwell - _ _ 135 
Davidge Terrace {see Kennington Road) 
Davidson, Archbishop {see Canterbury) 

Davis, Dr. J. Bunnell _ _ _ _ 27 

Davy, John- - — --__ 7 

Dawson, John ______ 138 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Old Kent Road 133 

Dean, Rev. Eric W. A. - - - - 22 

de Assheton, Robert - - - _ _ 6 

de Aulton, John - - - - - 109 

de Bolebec, Hugh and Richard - - 5 

de Breaute, Falkes - _ _ _ _ 1 1 

de Brugge -------109 

de Buckenhall, Hugh - - — - 109 

de Burgh, Elizabeth ----- 5 

de Colon, John ------109 

de Drax alias Draper, William - - 109 

de Eltesle, Thomas - - - - - 109 

de Exton, John ----__ 109 

de Fortibus, Isabel! _____ 11 

de Fortibus, William _ _ _ _ 5 

de Gerseroy, Richard _ _ _ _ j j 

de Hannay, William _ _ _ _ 6 

de La Rue, — ., junior _ _ _ _ 50 

De Lauzun, — .- - - - - - 119 

Delaval, Hugh ------ 5 

Delft {see Pottery) 

Denne, John - - - - - 1 10, 126 

Denny, Rev. E.- - _ _ _ _ 14.7 

Derby, Robert ______ 109 



Page 
de Redvers family _____ 1 1 

Dereham, Francis - - - - - 137 

Despenser, Hugh (Le) - - _ -5,11 
des Roches, Peter _____ yg 

de Stanley, John _____ 6 

de Theobaldo, John - - - - - 109 

Devon, Earl of {see William de Redvers) 

de Warenne, John _____ 5 

de Winchelsey, Robert _ _ _ _ 85 

Distillers Company - - - - - 149 

Distilleries - - 15, 138, 149, plate 7a, 108^ 
Ditton- _-_-__- 51 
Dixon, Richard ______ 42 

Doddington, George- - - - - 146 

Dog and Duck P.H. - - - - 126 

Dollond, Peter - - - - - - 114 

Domesday Book or Survey - 3, 5, ir, 104 
Door knockers — _ - _ — plate 36 
Doris Street _ _ _ _ 14^.^ plate <)6J 

Doulton, H. Lewis - - _ _ - 28 
Doulton's Pottery 108, 142, 148 n., plate 122 
Dover,—. ______ 8 

Dover, William - _____ n^ 

D'Oyly, Rev. George - - - - no 

Drapers' Company _ _ - - - 77 
Drew, Rev. George S. - _ _ _ 76 
Drewe, Thomas- — - - - - 113 

Drogheda, Earl oi {see Moore, Lord) 
Duchy of Cornwall {see Cornwall, Duchy of) 
Duchy (formerly Duke) Street - 2, 16, 18 
Duck, Thomas ______ 15 

Ducrow family _ - - - - 71, 117 

Duke Street {see Duchy Street) 

Dulwich College _____ 7 

Duncan, Jonathan - - - - - 133 

Dunn, — . ----___ 37 

Durham Place {see Lambeth Road) 

Dust destructors- — — - _ - 16 

Dyster, John _____ 25,137 

East family - 17, 32, 45, 62, 69, appendix 
East India Military Stores {see India Stores) 
East Place {see Kennington Road) 
East Street (now Lollard Street) - - 135 
Eastwood, John Fisher _ - _ _ 28 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners {see Church 

Commissioners) 
Eccleston, — . - — - - - — 56 n. 
Edgware Road ------ i 

Edward II------- 5 

Edward III --___- 5, 6 
Edward VI - _ _ -jz, 79, plate 52 
Edward, Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) 1 36 
Edward, son of Odo- _ — _ - 92 
Edward, the Black Prince - - 5, 6, 11 
Edward, the Confessor _ - - - 5 

Edwards, Francis _____ 51 

Eeles, Margaret- _____ 15 

160 



Page 
Eggecombe, Thomas - — - - 109 
Elizabeth, Queen - - - - -7, 13 

Elizabeth de Burgh ----- 5 

Elizabeth Place {see Black Prince Road) 
Ellisome, Thomas - - - - - 126 

Elme, John- ______io9 

Embankment Fellowship Centre - - 48 
Enchmarch family 58 n., 59, 117 {see also Sealy) 
Enclosure Act (Lambeth Manor) - - 4 

Evans, Ephraim— _____ 25 

Evans, Widow _____ 25-26, 56 

Exton Street _____ 28, 32, 36 

Facette, Thomas _____ 7 

Fairclough, Daniel {see Featley) 

Fairclough, Dionysus - - - - 126 

Fair Maid of Kent {see Joan) 

Fairfax, Lord ------ 8 

Falkes de Breaute - _ _ _ _ j i 

Faulx(e) Halle, Faux(e)hall, Fawkes 

Hall {see Vauxhall) 
Feathers Tavern or Inn -25, 26, 27, 45, 148, 

plate "ji 
Featley (Fairclough), Daniel - 105-106, 108, 

log, 122 
Featley (Holloway), Joyce - - 108-109 
Female Orphan Asylum - 72-73, plate 43 
Ferry Street _____ plate 1 14^ 

Festival of Britain - i, 40, 46, 47, 57, 59, 61 
Field, John- - - - 28, 30, 40, 41, 117 

Fielder, Rev. Trevor- - - - - 22 

Fielding, Sir John _____ 72 

Finch, — . - - - - - - -56n. 

Fisher, Bishop ------ 75 

Fisher, Brice ______ 4.2 

Fisher, William _-__--i34 
Fishmongers' barge house _ _ _ 1^8 
FitzAlan family- - - - - - 137 

Flaxman, — . _ _ _ - - 72, 114 
Float Mead - 40,45,47,51,55,62,69 
Flora Londinensis _____ 17 

Flower Pot rents _ — - - - 126 
Ford, Thomas F. - - - - - 36 

Fore Street- 119, 142, 148, plates 114, \l<^b, 

1216 
Forrest, G. Topham- - - - - 121 

Forrest, Robert -_-___ 63 
Forsyte Saga ------ 21 

Four Acres- _ - _ _ 45,62,63-64 
Fowler, John - - - - - - 50, 5 1 

Frank, Sir Peirson _ _ - - - 24 
Freeman, John — — - - - -25 n. 

Freeman, Sambrook ----- 8 

French, Paul ------ 8 

Frith, Derrick ------ 136 

Froment, John Baptiste Le Maire - - 75 

Galsworthy, John and Silas - — — 21 



Page 
Gardiner, Rev. T. G. — — — - iio 

Garnish, T. F. ------130 

Garthe, Richard - - - - 25,137 

Gatti brothers ------ 16 

Gatti's Music Hall ----- 70 

Gedge, Rev. Arthur Paul J- - - - 76 

General Lying-in Hospital 41-44, 70, plate 27 
George Inn - - - - - - 137 

Garrard, A. H. - - - - - - 136 

Gibbons, Grinling ----- 7^ 

Gibson, Rev. Edmund - - - - no 

Gilbert de Glanville- - _ - _ jog 
Gillman, Rev. James- - - - - 76 

Glascocke, John- - - - - - 138 

Glassworks- - - - - - 2, 56, 148 

Gloucester, Earl of - - - - -137 n. 

Glover's Halfpenny Hatch - - - 70 
Goda, sister of Edward the Confessor -3, 104 
Goding, James - - - - 50, 51, 132 

Goding Street ------147 

Gold, John- ------ 126 

Golderkey (Goldegay), Edmund - - 126 
Goldsmiths' Company — - - - 77 
Goodersay, Daniel ----- 14 

Gordon, Rev. Edward G. - - - 34 
Graves, Richard ----- 8 

Great Surrey Street (see Blackfriars Road) 
Great Yarmouth suspension bridge - 55 n. 
Green, Rev. William E. - - - - 76 

Green Lane {see Cornwall Road) 
Green Wall —__--_ jo 
Greenwood, John Danforth - - - 61 
Green, Stephen- - - - - - 123 

Gregory, Rev. Robert - - — - 144 
Griffiths, Thomas ----- 73 

Grimaldi, Joseph ----- ^j 

Gryffyth, John - ----- 138 

Guldeford, Richard ----- 7 

Gyc, F. ------- 147 

Haines, Elizabeth ----- 56 

Halfhopes ------- 1 1 

Halfpenny Hatches — - - - -17,70 

Hall, Rev. Newman ----- 73 

Hanburie, Richard ----- 25 

Handel, Frederick ----- 25 

Hanmer, Ralph— ----- 12 

Hardacnute ------ 3 

Hardcastle, Robert - - - - 127, 134 

Hardiman, Alfred ----- 65 

Harding, Simon- - - _ - 126, 127 
Hardwick, Philip Charles 105, 107, no, 112 
Hardwick, Thomas ----- 69 

Hardy, Mathew ----- 4 

Hardy, Thomas- - - - - - 126 

Harlequin and Comus — - _ _ 37 
Harpur's Walk ------ 142 

Harris, Renatus - - - - - - 107 



DD 



Page 

Harrison, Henry - - _ - _ 42 

Hart, John- - - - - 75, 105, 108 

Hartop, John ------ jq 

Hasardes Bridge - - _ - _ g 

Hasse, [Johann Adolph] - - - - 25 

Hatfield Palace ----- gj 

Hawkes, Rev. F. O. T. - - - - 1 10 

Hawksmoor, Nicholas - - - - jq 

Hawkstone Hall ----- -rj 

Hayes, Rev. Archibald O. - - - 76 

Hayles Estate ------ 27 

Hayman ------- j^g 

Head, William - - - - 122, 123, 130 

Heath, Nicholas- ----- yj 

Hedger family ----- 73^ 126 

Hedley, Rev. H. ----- no 

Henry IV------- 6 

Henry VI - - - - - - 6, 93 n. 

Henry VII- ------ 104 

Henry VIII - 6,7,72,79,98,99,137 

Henry, Prince of Wales - - - _ 6 

Herbert, Lord ------ 126 

Herbert, Rev. G. W. - - _ - 147 
Hercules Buildings {see Hercules Road) 

Hercules Hall ------ 72 

Hercules Road, Buildings, or Row- - 72, 

75. 123 
Hereford, Bishop of- - - - - 6, 92 

Hernaman, John - - - - - n4 

High Street {see Lambeth High Street) 

High Wycombe— ----- 73 

Hill, John - - - - - - -12 n. 

Hill, Rowland - - - - - - 2, 73 

Hillyard, William ----- 4^ 

Hinde, Anne ------ g 

Hiorns, F. R. ----- - 65 

H.M. Stationery Office - - - _ 18 
Hoare & Co., brewers - - _ - 52 
Hodge's Distillery — - - - - 138 

Hogarth - — -----146 

Holland, Lancelot ----- 42 

Holland, Thomas - - - - - 48 n. 

Hollar's Prospect of London and West- 
minster ----- plates 57, 58 

HoUingshead, John - - - - -37, 38 

HoUis, Charles ------ 21 

Holloway, Messrs. ----- 64 

HoUoway, Mrs. Joyce {see Featley) 

Holt, Richard ------ 58 

Holy Trinity, Carlisle Lane - 2, 75-76, 102, 

108, plate wob 
Hoole, Elijah ------ 38 

Hooper, Rev. George _ - _ \\o, 122 
Hopes (or Hoopys) -i, n, 25,45, 56-57, 77, 
125, 137 {see also Pedlar's Acre) 
Horseferry - 1,77, 104, 118-121, 122, plate 64 
Horseferry Road (formerly Market 

Street) -------120 

i6i 



Page 
Hosking, William ----- 127 

Howard family - - - - - 114,137 

Howley, Archbishop (see Canterbury) 
Howley Terrace _____ 40 

Hugh de Bolebec, daughter of - - 5 

Hugh de Buckenhall- - - - - 109 

Hughes, R.- ------ 147 

Hugh Le Despenser (see Despenser) 
Humphreys, Sir George W. - - - 121 
Hungerford (or Charing Cross) Bridge - 55, 

56, plates 5<J, 29^ 
Hungerford Market - - - - -55.79 

Hunne, John ------ 89 

Hutchinson, Rev. Charles W.- - - 34 
Hutton, Matthew {see Canterbury, 
Archbishops of) 

r Anson, John Money - - - - 127 

Ibbetson, Rev. Richard - - - - no 

India, Secretary of State for - - - 57 

India Stores ______ 57 

Irvine, Rev. R. ----- - 34 

Isabel de Fortibus - _ _ - _ 1 1 

Isle of Wight, Earl of {see Baldwin de 
Redvers) 

Jackson family ------ 141 n. 

James II ------- 119 

James, Thomas ____-- 45 

Jelfe, Andrews ----__ 66, 69 

Jenkins, Rev. B. P. T. _ _ - _ 144 
Jenkins, Sir Leoline - - - - -25,45 

Jenkins (formerly College) Street - 56-57, 58, 

plate 28^ 
Jephson, Rev. Arthur W. and Arthur J. 34 

Jerbert (Jerebert), John - - - - 109 

Jesson, Roger - - - - - - 105 

Jesus College, Oxford - 25,26,28,45,56, 
57, 59,62,68, 125 
Joan, wife of Edward the Black Prince - 1 1 
Jobson, Rev. Frederick James - - - 133 
John, King- _-_--- 1 1 
John de Aulton - ----- 109 

John de Colon ------ 109 

John de Exton ------ 109 

John de Stanley- ----- 6 

John de Theobaldo ----- 109 

John de Warenne _ - _ - - 5 

Johnson, John --_--- 12 
Johnson, Thomas - - - - - 123 

Johnston, Major ----- 124 

Johnston, Rev. J. Aitken - - - - 21, 34 

Jones, — . ------- 37 

Jones, Rev. A. L. ----- no 

Jones, John- - - _ - - - 130 
Jones, Thomas ------ 45 

Jones, William Henry Rich - - - 127 
Joye, Charles ___--- 80 

162 



Page 
Juxon, William {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Juxon (formerly Mill) Street - - - 143 
Junius' Letters - - - - - - 133 

KaltofF, Caspar - - - - - — 148 

Kean, Edmund ------ 37 

Kennester, Thomas - - - - — 77 n. 

Kennington Common - - -8, 10, 128 
Kennington Lane - 3, 108 n., 136, 147, 149, 

plate 106^ 
Kennington Manor - 2-3, 5-1 1, 12, 13, 122, 
125, 133, 136, 138, 146, plates I, 2 
Kennington Manor House (Palace or 

Place) - - - 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 136 
Kennington Park Road - - - -128 n. 

Kennington Place {see Kennington 

Manor House) 
Kennington Road (formerly Chester 
Place, East Place, Davidge Terrace, 
New Road, Pownall Terrace, Walcot 
Place, Walcot Terrace, Wolsingham 
Place) - I, 10, 51, 72, 124, 125, 126, 127, 
128-136, plates 100-107 
Kennington Turnpike Gate - - - 128 
Kennington Way {see Black Prince Road) 
Kershaw, John - - - - - 51, 132 

Kier, Lytton George - - - - 126 

King, James —-____ 66, 70 

King George's Hospital — — _ _ 18 
King's Arms glassworks _ _ - - 56 
King's Arms stairs - - - 56-57,58,59 
King's Arms wharf ----- 50 

King's barge house - - 12, 13, 14, 15, 77 
King's College, London - - - - 127 

King's Head ______ 105 

King's Head Yard ----- 142 

Kingston Rode {see Kennington Lane) 
Knott, Ralph ------ 64 

Knowles, James- — — — — — 124 

Labelye, Charles _ - _ _ _ 66 
Lady Margaret Hall Settlement - - 130 
Laing, David - - - - - -21,27 

Lambert, John ------ 69 

Lambeth, origin of name - - - - 1,3 

Lambeth Borough Council _ _ _ 63 
Lambeth Bridge 64, 118-121, 148, plate 119 
Lambeth burial ground _ - _ 138,142 
Lambeth Butts {see Black Prince Road) 
Lambeth Chapel — — —124, plate ii5<» 
Lambeth Church {see St. Mary's) 
Lambeth Dole ------ 83 

Lambeth Endowed Charities - - - 130 
Lambeth Green {see Carlisle Lane) 
Lambeth High Street (formerly High 

Street or Back Lane) - - 138,142,148, 
plates mi, 112, 117^ 



Page 

Lambeth House {see Lambeth Palace) 

Lambeth Manor - 2-4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 40, 

45.75'77>8i, 118, 122, 124, 12;, 135, 138, 

plate 51 

Lambeth Marsh - l, 4, 9, 10, 12 n., 17, 

25. 37» 69, 72, 77-78, 123, 137 

Lambeth Palace (or House) - 4, 81-103, 

1 18, 122, plates 60-83 

Archbishop Davidson's memorial - 102 

Archbishops' portraits - — - - 98 

Banqueting House - - - - 102 

Buttery and pantry _ _ _ _ 85 

Chapel - - 81,85,89,90,92-96,99, 

plates 68-71 
Chichele's Tower {see Lollards' Tower below') 
Cloisters— _ - _ 88, 89, plate 67/5 
Cranmer's Tower - - -95,96-97,101 
Crooked Lane - - - - - 10 1 

Dining Parlour ----- gg 

Galleries- - — - - 88, 99-100 
Gardener's house - - - - 76, 102 

Gardens and grounds - i n., 75, 76, 99, 
102-103, plates 67a, 73 
Great Chamber {see Guard Room and 

Presence Chamber below) 
Great Hall 85-88, 98, loi, plates J-jb-Jf) 
Guard Room or Chamber -85,97-99, 100, 

10 1, plate 76 
Kitchens- ----- g^^ joi 

Laud's Tower - 91, 92, plates 66^, 73, 74 
Library - - - 85, 88, 89, plate jja 
Lollards', Chichele's or Water Tower 

89-91, 92, 103, plate Jia 
Manuscript Room- - - - - 88 

Moat -------102 

Morton's Gatehouse and Tower- 82-84, 
99, 103, plates 66a, 73, 85, 86 
Oratory --- — - — — gg 
Post Room - - - 89, 90, 91, plate 75 
Presence or Great Chamber - 98, 99 
Residential wing - 99-101, plates 80-83 
Stables and service buildings — 101-102 
"Tarras Walke" - - - - 99, 102 

War damage 81, 82, 85, 87-88, 96, 98, 100 
Water Tower {see Lollards' Tower 
above) 
Lambeth Palace Road -71, 77, 79, 80, 103, 

148 
Lambeth Palace Stairs - - - - 119 

Lambeth Ragged Schools - 61, 142-143, 

plate 1 16^ 
Lambeth Reach- _ _ - _ plate 56^7 
Lambeth Rectory {see St. Mary's) 
Lambeth Road (formerly Barkham Ter- 
race, Buxton Place, Canterbury Place, 
Church Street, Durham Place, Lambeth 
Terrace, and Union Place) 119, 120, 
122-124, 138, 141, 142, plate iii<2 



Page 
Lambeth, South, Manor - - - - 11 

Lambeth Terrace {see Lambeth Road) 
Lambeth Town— - — - — - 138 
Lambeth Vestry ----- 63 

Lambeth (formerly Three Coney) Walk 127, 

138, 143, plate 115^ 

Lambeth Waterworks - 48 n., 51, 55, 63, 

plate 39ii 
Lambeth Wells - - - - - - 143 

Lancaster, Duke of - - - - - 6 

Lancaster, Earl of - - - - - 11 

Lanchei — -_--__ j 

Langley, Batty ------ 66 

Langton, Stephen {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Large, Rev. William J. H. - - - 76 
Larkin, George ------ 48 

Larkin, Mary Peache _ _ - - ^^ 
Laud, William {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Launce, John ------ 109 

Laurence, Richard - - - - - 123 

Lawrence, Isaac- - - - - - 126 

Lawrence, Thomas Barton - - - 72 
Lawton family ------ 69 

Lead works- ----- 47, 50, 51 

Leake, Dr. John - - _ _ ^j^ ^2, 70 
Leake (formerly York) Street - - - 33 
Lee,—. ------- 55 

Lee, Edmund ------ 45 

Lee, J. and H. - - - - - - 18 

Lees, Rev. George R. _ - - - 21 
Legh, James and Robert - - - - 7 

Legh, Ralph ------ 6 

Leigh, Sir John - - - - _ 107, 113 

Leigh, Ralph ------ 107 

Leigh, Roger ------ 9 

Lely, Peter- ------ 142 

Le Maire, Froment {see Froment) 

Leopold Walk ------ 147 

Lerpiniere, Daniel and Mary - - - 130 
Lett, John ------- 16 

Lett, Thomas - - - - 16, 18, 114 

Leventhorp, — .- - - - - - iig 

Leventhorp, Mrs. - - - - - 118 

Lewes, Edmonde - - - - - 118 

Lightfoot, Thomas ----- 45 

Lincoln, Bishop of - - - - - 146 

Lincoln, President ----- yj 

Lincoln Tower ------ 73 

Lingham, Rev. J. F. - - _ _ 107,110 
Lion Brewery — 50— 54, 61,132, plates 31,32 
Lister, Lord (Joseph) _ - _ _ ^2 
Litlehopes ------- 1 1 

Lloyd, L.W. ------ 73 

Lollards - - - - - - - 89, 90 

Lollards' Tower, Lambeth Palace {see 
Lambeth Palace) 

163 



Page 
Lollards' Tower, Old St. Paul's - - 89 
Lollard Street - - - - - - 135 

London, Bishop of - - - - - 89 

London, Samuel _____ 58 

London, City of {see City of London) 
London and South-Western Railway -40, 73 
London Botanic Garden - — - -16-17 
London Bridge - - -1,6, 23, 66, 67, 79 
London College of Divinity - - - 48 n. 
London County Council - i, 19, 24, 38, 57, 
62, 63-64, 71, 103, 120 
London Fire Brigade - - - - 148 n. 

London Museum ----- 64 

London Wine Company - - - - 147 

London School of Printing - 18-19, plate <)6 
London Waste Paper Company - - 50 
Long Field- ------136 

Lort/ William Bentinck _ _ - - 63 
LottMead- _---_- 4 

Love, Richard ---_-- 25 
Lowe, Thomas, and Company - - 15 
Lower Marsh - 30-31, 40, 69, 78 (/^^ aAi? 

Cut, The) 
Lowner's Lane [see Vauxhall Walk) 
Lyme Regis ______ jg 

Lying-in Hospital (see General Lying-in 
Hospital) 

Mabey, C. H. ----- - 65 

Macready, Sheridan Knowles- - - 37 

Magdalen Hospital _____ 74 

Mallet, Robert - - - - - - 68 n. 

Maltby, Thomas, and Company - - 47 

Mann, Rev. William _ _ _ _ 48 

Manners Street - _ _ _ - plate 28a 

Manor Field ______ 136 

Manor House P.H. - _ - _ _ 21 

Margaret de Redvers _ _ _ - j i 
Market Street (see Horseferry Road) 

Marsh Gate ______ 6g 

Martineau, David _____ 57 

Martineau's brewery- - - - - 56, 57 

Martin's (or Merton) Bridge - - - 9 

Mary, Queen ------ 137 

MaryofModena - - - - 104,119 

Mason, John - - - - - - 113 

Mason, Thomas _____ 109 

Masters, Elizabeth ----- 146 

Matchett, John - _____ 109 

Matthews, Rev. Basil W. B. - - - 76 

Maude Place ------ 28 

Maudslay, Henry _____ 62 

Maudslay, Sons, and Field _ _ _ 63 

Mawbey, Sir Joseph- - - - 141, 149 

Mead Place __-_-- 73 

Mead Row- -__--- 128 

Meats, C. and G. - - - - - 108 

Mcdwin, James- ----- 8, 9 

164 



Page 

Mercers' barge house- _ _ - _ 148 
Merchant Taylors' Company _ _ _ 14 
Merton Bridge {see Martin's Bridge) 
Metropolitan Board of Works 23, 64, 79, 120 
Metropolitan Suspension Bridge Com- 
pany __-____! 20 

Michelangelo, statue of Madonna by — 76 
Middleton, John - - - - - 114 

Middleton, Rev. Wilfrid G. B. - - 22 
Mildmay, Sir Henry- - - - _ 8 

Millbank ----- 119 n., 120 

Miller, — .- ------ 56 n. 

Mill Street {see Juxon Street) 

Ministry of Works - - - - - 148 n. 

Mitre public house - - - 77, plate 5 5a 
Mompesson family - - - 113, plate 89 
Moncrieff, William Thomas - - - 123 
Monkton (formerly Bird) Street - - 126 
Montagu, Duke of - - - - - 77 

Monument, The - _ _ _ _ 78 

Moore, John {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Moore, Lord ------ 8 

More, John ______ 105 n. 

More, Sir Thomas _____ 97-98 

Morecombe, Rev. R. G. - - - - 144 

M or ley, Samuel- _____ ^8 

Morley College - - - - - -38,74 

Morrice, John ______ 8 

Morris, Fulke ______ 14 

Morris, James - - - - -114,134 

Morris, Roger ______ 62 

Morton, Charles _____ 78 

Morton, John {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Morton Place ------124 

Mottistone, Lord ----- 82 

Mountague, James ----- 18 

Mowbray, Elizabeth- - - - - 137 

Mowbray, Thomas {see Norfolk, Duke of) 

Narrow Wall {see Belvedere Road) 

National Theatre, Joint Council of the - 38 

Nelson Square — — - - - - 127 

NevilJ's Yard - - - - - - 141 n. 

New Cut {see Cut, The) 

New Inn _______ 69 

Newgate ------_ 6 

Newington- - - - - - -5, 10 

Newnham, Charles — — — - — 127 
New Palace Yard - - - - - 120 

Newport Street - - - - 142, plate 116^ 

New Road {see Kennington Road) 
New Royal Amphitheatre of Arts {see 

Astley's (Royal) Amphitheatre) 
New Spring Gardens {see Vauxhall 

Gardens) 
Nicholson, Sir Charles A.- - - - 76 



I 



Page 

Nightingale, Florence _ _ _ - 42, 79 
Nine Elms ------- 40, 69 

Norfolk, Dukes of - 15, 25, 107, 125, 137 
Norfolk House - - - - 25, 137-138 

Norfolk Row - - - - - - 138 

Northwood— — — — — — — 4 

Oakes, Col. Sir Hildebrand - - - 124 

Oakey, J., and Sons ----- 73 

Obelisk, The ------ 23 

Ode, Ralphe ------ 9 

Oke, Frances and Walter— - - - 59 n. 

Oldbury, John ------ 138 

Old Paradise Street (formerly Paradise 

Row) - - 137-140, 142, plate 117a 

Old Swan Yard- - - - - plate ii^a 

Old Vic {see Royal Victoria Hall) 

Old Vic Theatre School - - - - 38 

Olife, John- ------ 12 

Ordnance OfEce - _ _ _ _ 62 

Pace, William ------ 145 

Paganini - — -_--_ ^7 
Page, Thomas ------ 67 

Page, William ------ 12 

Paget, Paul- ------ 82 

Palmer family ----- 62, 104 n. 

Pantheon, The - — - — — - 70 
Paradise Row {see Old Paradise Street) 
Paris Garden Manor - 10, 12, 13, 25, 45 
Parker, Frances - - - - - - 138 

Parker, John — — - - - 9>i38 
Parker, Margaret - — — - - 138 
Parker, Matthew {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Parker, Matthew, junior — — - - 138 
Park Street {see Bancroft Street) 
Parliament, Houses of (Palace of West- 
minster) ----- - 67, 148 

Parliament Street - - _ _ - 64 
Parochial School for Boys {see a/so Arch- 
bishop Temple's) - — — - plate 116^ 
Parr, William ------ 137 

Parry, Sir Thomas ----- 148 

Parsonage House — — - - - 122 
Partington, Rev. E. F. E. - - - 144 
Paternoster, Roger — - — — — 109 
Paule, Sir George ----- ijg 

Paull, H. J. ------ 73 

Payne, Ambrose- ----- 109 

Peach, C. Stanley — — — — - jg 

Peache family — — - - - 33, 48, 50 
Peachc's Wharf— ----- 50 

Pearman Street ------ 70 

Pearson, John Loughborough — - — 147 
Pedlar's Acre (formerly Church or Osier 

Hope) - _ - - I, 45, 62-63, 69 
Pedlar's window - - — _ 62, 104 



Page 
Pelham, Rev. the Hon. F. G.- - 107, no 
Percy, Sir Robert ----- 7 

Peter des Roches - _ _ - _ yg 
Peyntwyn, Hugh - - 11 2-1 13, plate 90 
Phelps, R. - - - - - - - 108 

Phelps, Samuel ------ 37 

Phelps soap factory ----- 40 

Pillfold, Alexander and Elizabeth - - 139 
Pillford, — . ------ 26 

Pincot, Daniel ------ 58 

Place, La— -- — --- 75 
Plantagenet, John ----- ^ 

Poitiers, battle of - - — - - 6 

Pole, Reginald {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Ponton, Daniel ------ 72 

Port of London Authority - - - 57 
Porteus, Rev. Beilby- - - - - no 

Pory (Porie), John - - - - - 109 

Pory, Robert — — - - - — no 
Potteries 2, 57, 142, 148 n., plates mi, 122 
Pouley, Thomas _ - - — _ g 

Pound Close ----- 122, 136 

Pound Field ------ 123 

Poverty Corner ------ 41 

Powell, Rev. Arthur H. - - - - 34 

Powell, E. Turner ----- 44 

Pownall, Benjamin ----- 136 

Pownall, James — - - _ - 135-136 
Pownall Terrace {see Kennington Road) 
Praemonstratensian Order _ _ - gj 
Pratt, Rev. John _ _ - - _ 76 
Pratt, John, and John Tidd - - - 135 
Pratt, Col. John _ _ — - _ 141 n. 
Pratt Walk (formerly Street) - 141, plate 96 
Prayer Book, The (Cranmer's) - - 97 
Prerogative Registry - - - - _ 82 

Pretender, The Old - - - - - 119 

Prince's Meadows (Prince's Town) - i, 5, 
8, 10, 12-16, 18-22, 31, 137, plate 3 
Prince's Road {see Black Prince Road) 
Prince's Street {see Coin Street) 
Prince's Town {see Prince's Meadows) 
Prince's Wall — — - — — - 45 
Printing trade - - - - - -2, 16 

Prince Regent ------ 16, 23 

Protestants —-- — — _- 105 
Prout, Samuel -- — ---134 
Prynne, William _ _ _ _ - 93 

Pudding Mill Stream - - - _ jj 
Pulteney, Sir John — - - — — 7 

Queen's barge house {see King's barge 

house) 
Queen's Head P. H. - - - _ - 136 

Ragged Row {see Belvedere Crescent) 
Ragged Schools {see Lambeth Ragged 
Schools 

165 



Page 
Ralegh, Captain George - - - - 115 

Ralegh, Judith - - - - - - 115 

Raleigh, Sir Walter - - - - - 115 

Raminger, Henry ----- 16 

Ramsey, John ----- -126 

Ramsey, S. C. ------ 136 

Rawe, Frances ------ 15 

Rawe, Richard - - - - - -14,15 

Rawlinson, John — - — — - 109 
Red Lion Brewery {see Lion brewery) 
Reeve, Rev. John Andrewes - - 108, no 
Rendel, Palmer and Tritton, Messrs. - 24 
Rennie, John - — - - - 23, 24, 32 
Reynolds, Walter {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Rhys, Rev. Edwin V. - - - - 34 

Rich, Sir Peter - - - - - - 115 

Rich, Thomas - - - - - - 123 

Richard II------- 6 

Richard de Bolebec ----- 5 

Richard de Gerseroy- _ - - - 1 1 
Richards, Ann - - - - - - 117 

Richmond, Duke of - - - - - 77 

Riddell House ------ 80 

Ripley, Thomas- ----- 58 

Risshopes ------- n 

River Wall- - - i, 46, 64, 77 n., 102 
Robert de Assheton ----- 6 

Robert de Winchelsey {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Roberts' boathouse - - - 77, plate 5 5^ 
Robinson, Rev. Arthur J.- - — — 34 
Robinson, Robert ----- 12 

Rochester — — - — - — — i 

Rochester, Bishops of - 3, 75, 81, 104, 109 
Rochester, convent, prior and monks of- 3, 75, 

81, 104 
Rochester, See of - - - - -4,104 

Rochester House {see Carlisle House) 

RofFey, William- ----- 130 

Rogers, — .— ------ 146 

Rogers, William- ----- 33 

Roggles, Philip ------ 109 

Roman boat _ - - - 64, plate 40 
Roman Catholics - — - - — 105 
Roman Road — - — - - — 1,64 
Roper, David Riddal- - - - - 47 

Rothbury, Robert - - - - - 109 

Roubiliac -------146 

Roupell, John ------ 31 

Roupell, Richard Palmer - - - - 22 

Roupell Street ------ 31 

Routledge, Thomas - — - — — 61 
Rowntree, Douglas ----- 38 

Royal Clarence Bridge - - - - 1 20 

Royal Coburg Theatre {see Royal Vic- 
toria Hall) 
Royal Doulton Potteries {see Doultons) 

166 



Page 
Royal Festival Hall - - - - -52, 59 
Royal Grove and Amphitheatre {see 

Astley's (Royal) Amphitheatre) 
Royal Hospital for Children and Women, 

Waterloo Road - 18, 27-28, 40, plate i la 
Royal Oak Inn or Tavern - - - 148 
Royal Saloon {see Surrey Theatre) 
Royal Society of Arts — - - — 61 
Royal Street ----- plate iioa 
Royal Swimming Bath - — 30, plate 11^ 
Royal Universal Infirmary for Children 27 

Royal Victoria Coffee Music Hall - - 38 
Royal Victoria Hall (Old Vic) - 37-39,74, 
123, 132, plates 19, 20 
Royal Waterloo Hospital {see Royal 

Hospital for Children and Women) 
Russell, G.- - - - - - - 15 n. 

Russell, Lord John ----- 75 

St. Albans ------- 43 

St. Andrew's, Coin Street 2, 22, 70, plate 8 
St. Andrew's convent {see Rochester, 

convent, prior and monks of) 
St. Anselm's, Kennington Road -2, 10, 136, 

plate \o6a 
St. Davids, Bishop of - - - - 6 

St. George's Circus ----- 37 

St. George's Fields - - 10, 78, 126, 137 
St. James's, Kennington Park Road — 108 
St. James's Park- ----- 64 

St. John's Hall, Highbury - - - 48 n. 
St. John's, Horslydown - - — - 126 
St. John's, Waterloo Road - 2, 21, 32-36, 
44, 48 n., 70, 146, plates 12-17 
Saintleger, Thomas ----- 7 

St. Margaret's parish, Westminster - 118 
St. Mark's, Kennington - - - - 128 

St. Mary Overy Priory - - - - 79 

St. Mary the Less, Black Prince Road - 2, 32, 

144, plate 113^ 
St. Mary's Gardens (formerly Square) - 126 
St. Mary's Lambeth 45, 104-117, plates 65, 

84, 86-93 
Bells ------- 108 

Broughton, John, buried in- - - 131 
Caron, Sir Noel, buried in — - — 7 

Chancel- - - - - 105-106,112 

Choir stalls ------ 107 

Churchyard - 59, 11 5-1 17, 124, plate 93 
Communion Table - - - 105-106 
Fittings - - - - - - - 112 

Font - - 75, 105, 108, plates 91^, 92 
Fraternity of St. Christopher, Our 
Lady and St. George - - - -105 

Galleries- - - - - 105, 106-107 

High Altar ------ 105 

Howard's Chapel - 105, 106, 107, 108, 137 
Lee's (Leigh's) aisle and chapel 105, 107, 108 



Page 
Lett, Thomas, buried in - - - i6 n. 
Monuments - - 1 1 2-1 1 5, plates 89, 90 
Nave - - 106, 107, III, plate 91 <J 
North aisle ------ 104 

Organ ------ 107, 112 

Parish - - - 2, 125, 126, 130, 134 
Pedlar's window — - - 62, 104, 112 
Pelham Memorial (tbrmerly Leigh's) 

Chapel ------ 108 

Plate ------ 108-109 

Pulpit ----- 105, 106, 108 

Rectors - - - - 104, 109-110, 122 

Rectory - 108 n., 122, plates 94, 95, 96c 
Reredos ------ 107-108 

Rood and rood loft — - - — 105 
St. Christopher's aisle - - — — 105 
St. John the Baptist's altar - - - 105 
St. Mary the Virgin's altar - - - 105 
St. Nicholas' Chapel - - - - 108 

St. Thomas' altar - - - - - 105 

Screens —-- — -- — 106 
South aisle _- — ---104 
Steeple Cross- — — - - - 106 
Tower - - 104, 105, 108, 110-112, 
119 n., plates 87, 88 
Trinity altar — - — - - — 105 
War memorial chapel - - - — 108 

St. Mary's Square {see St. Mary's 
Gardens) 

St. Mary's Walk (formerly Street) - 126, 

plate 98^ 

St. Olave (and St. John), parish of- 126, 127 

134 
St. Olave (and St. John), poor of - — 125 
St. Olave's, Southwark — — - — I25n. 
St. Oswald's Place ----- 147 
St. Paul's Cathedral - - - - 15, 23, 89 
St. Peter's, Kennington - 2, 147, plate 106^ 
St. Philip's, Kennington Road - 2,132 
St. Thomas' Hospital - 43, 79-80, 148, 

plates 50<2, 52-54 
St. Thomas's Church and Vicarage - 2, 70 
St. Thomas's House ----- 80 
St. Thomas' Spital {see St. Thomas' 

Hospital) 
St. Victor, — . - - - - - - 119 

Sancroft, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Sancroft (also Park) Street - - 10,136 
Sandon, — . — — -- — — i^ 
Sanger, George - ----- 71 

Savoy Palace _-__-- jy 
Scheemakers ------ 7<j 

Scot, Thomas ------ 4 

Scott, Sir Giles Gilbert - - - -24,65 

Scott, Robert - - - - - - 115 

Scott, Thomas ------ 8 

Scott, WiUiam ------ 8 



Page 

Sealy family - 58 n., 59, ir6-i 17, 135, 

plate 93f {see also Enchmarch) 

Searle, boatbuilder _ — - - -71,77 

Seeker, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Seear, Rev. C. R. - - - - - 144 

Selden, John ------ 85 

Serres, John Thomas - _ - - 37 
Seven Acres Field ----- 40, 5 1 

Sewer Commissioners - - - -1,45 

Seymour, Rev. P. W. - - - - 147 

Seymour, William — — - - — 148 
Sharpe, Rev. A. B. - - - - - 147 

Sheldon, Gilbert {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Sherwood, Bailey, Newman and William 57 
Ship Lane {see Bishop's Terrace) 
Shirley, Thomas ----- 14 

Short, Samuel — — — — — — 31 

Shorter, Sir John _ _ - _ -45,51 
Short Street ------ 31 

Shot towers and works - 2, 15, 16, 47, 78, 

plates 6i, 29a, 30 
Simmonds, John W. - - - - - 62 

Simon, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Singleton, Thomas - - - - - 107 

Singleton, William - - - - - 123 

Singleton's eye ointment — - - - 123 
Skinner, Augustine - - - - 25, 125 

Skinners' Company ----- 77 

Slake, Nicholas ------ 109 

Sluice (or Sluce) _ - - - 10, 12, 14 
Smith, Edward ------ 14 

Smith, George - — — — -- 55 
Smith, W. H., and Son - - - 18, 148 n. 
Smythe, William ----- 12 

Smythopes — — — — — — — 11 

Snowe, Ralph or Raphe - - - 106, 114 
Soap manufacture - - — — 2, 40, 75 
Somerset House— — — — — — 23 

Southampton Terrace - - - 27 

South Eastern Railway - _ _ - 41 
South London Dwellings Company - 1 24 
Southwark - — - — — — — 6, 79 

South Western Railway - - - - 69 

Sowters lands - - - - 4, 40, 77, 102 

Sparagus Garden — — - — — 56n. 
Spencer, Rev. John L. — - — — 76 
Spring Gardens {see also Vau shall Gardens) 64 
Stafford, John {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Stamford Street- - 16, 18-22, 27, 28, 31, 

40, plates 9, 10 

Stangate - 4,45,62,70,71,77-78,79, 

102, 118, 148, plates 55, 56 

Stangate Street - - - 77-78, plate 59 

Steeple Langford Church- - - - 113 

167 



Page 
Stevenson, John- - - - - - 117 

Stevenson, Rev. Leslie - - - - 144 

Stiff's pottery _ - - - 142, plate 1 1 1;^ 
Stockwell Manor - - - — — 107 
Stoughton, Richard ----- g 

Strand Bridge Company - - - - 26 

Straunge, John ------ 6 

Strikeley, Katherine ----- 13 

Stuart, Arabella - ----- 148 

Sugden (Sugdon), John - - - - 109 

Suffolk, Duke of ----- 72 

Suffolk Street ------ 61 

Sulhvan, Sir Arthur - - 144, plate iija 

Summersell, John — - - — — 10 
Summersell, Richard- - - - 126,138 

Sumner, Bishop {see Winchester) 

Surbiton _- — — — -— 51 

Surrey, Earls of- - - - - 5,137 n. 

Surrey and Kent Sewer Commission — 1,45 
Surrey Chapel - — — - — — 73 
Surrey Gardens— — — - — — 79 
Surrey Justices ------ 71 

Surrey Lodge (Dwellings) - - - 124 
Surrey Theatre - - - 37,71,132,135 
Sutton, Charles Manners- - - - 48 

Sutton Walk ------ 54 

Syon House, Isleworth - - - - 59 

Tait, Archbishop {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of ) 
Tanner, Henry ------ 18 

Taylor, Francis ------109 

Temple, Frederick {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Tenison, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Tenison, Mrs. ------ 142 

Tenison Street ------ 40 

Teodric ------- 5 

Terra-cotta and scaglioli works - — 61 
Teulon, Samuel Sanders — — — —22,70 

Thames crossings - - i, 77, 118 (/^^ <j/xo 

River Wall) 
Theobald, James - - - - -14-15 

Theobald, Peter ----- 51 

Theobald's Dock ----- 56 

Thomas, Rev. Wilfrid S. - - - - 76 

Thomas a Becket {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Thomas de Eltesle, Eltislee or Eltesley- 109 
Thrale's brewery - - - - - 139 

Three Acres ------ 56 

Three Coney Walk {see Lambeth Walk) 
Tidd, William ------ 130 

Tillett, Alexander ----- 40 

Timber yards - - - - - -2, 55 

Tines, The- ------ 127 

Tinworth, George - - - - 108,114 

168 



Page 
Tite, Sir William ----- 41 

Tiverton — - - - — - -58 n. 
Toll House, GrifEn Street — - plate 26a 
Toll House, Lambeth Bridge - - plate 1 19a 
Tom and Jerry ------ 123 

Tomlins, Sir Thomas Edlyne - — - 134 
Tomkyns, Thomas - — - — - no 
Townsend, C. Harrison - - — - 19 
Tradescant family - - - 1 15, plate 93<j 
Trafalgar Square ----- 64 

Tramways Building or Office - - - 56, 64 
Tresco House — - — - - - 135 
Trial by Battle - ----- 37 

Trevilyan, Humphrey - - - - 118 

Trinity Chapel, Poplar - - - - 127 

Tudball, Rev. A. W. - - - - 147 

Tufnell, Samuel- ----- 66 

Tugwell, Rev. Frederic - - - - 22, 28 

Tugwell, Rev. Lewen - - - - 22 

Tunbridge Place ----- 69 

Tunstall, Cuthbert - - - - - 113 

Turnpike, York Road - - - plate 26^ 
Turnpike Trustees - - - - 125,128 

Twenty-one Acres Field - - - - 40 

Tyers, Jonathan— — — - - — 146 

Union Jack Club ----- 28 

Union Place {see Lambeth Road) 

Universal Dispensary for Sick and In- 
digent Children ----- 27 

Upper Ground (formerly Commercial 

Road) ----- 16, 27, 45, 77 

Upper Marsh - - - - 78, plate 47 

Upper Stamford Street {see Stamford 
Street) 

Ure, Andrew ------ 50 

Vaux, Jane and John - - - - 146 

Vauxhall (Fauk(e) Halle, Faux(e)hall, 

Fawkes Hall) 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 119 n., 142 
Vauxhall (Fauxhall) Bridge - - 9. 149 
Vauxhall Creek - - - - - 9,148 

Vauxhall Gardens (Spring Gardens) - 64, 

123, 145, 146-147, plates 124-127 

Vauxhall glass works- - - - - 148 

Vauxhall Manor and Manor House — 3, 5, 

6, II, 138, 148, plates I20i7, 123 

Vauxhall Stairs ------ 148 

Vau xhall Walk (formerly Lowner's Lane) 145, 

147, plate \zob 
Vauxhall Walk schools - - - 2,145 
Victoria, Princess (later Queen) 37, 61, 68, 79 
Victoria Embankment - - - - 148 

Vincent, David ------ 7 

Vine, The- ------ 149 

Vine Street- ------ 40 

Vinegar Yard - - - - - -26n. 



i 



Page 
Virgil Street ___-_- 76 
Vyse, Rev. William - - - - 110,122 

Walcot Charity- Estate 125-127, 128, 130, 134 
Walcot Place {see Kennington Road) 
Walcot Square - 126, 127, 135, plate 107/^ 
Walcott, Edmund - - - - 125, 126 

Walcott, Richard - - - - - 125 

Walcott, William - _ - - -i25n. 
Walcot Terrace {see Kennington Road) 
Walnut Tree Walk - 125, 126, 127, plates 

97, 99, lOIf 
Walker, Judah ------ 14 

Walker, Parker and Company- - - 16, 47 
Waller, Edmund - - - - -2;n. 

Waller, Sir William ----- 8 

Walpole, Rev. G. H. S. - - - 108,110 
Walter, Hubert {see Canterbury, Arch- 
bishops of) 
Walton, Rev. Thomas _ - - _ 22 
Walworth Manor - - - - - 138 

Warburton, Henrj' - - - - 40, 47, 5 1 

Ward Street ------ 144 

Warenne, Earl ------ 11 

Warenne and Surrey, Earl of {see Plan- 

tagenet, John) 
Warhara, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishops of) 
Waring and Nicholson - - - - 28 

Warren, Rev. Edward W. _ - - 76 
Warwick, Earl of - - - - -i37n. 

Watch houses - - 36, 142, plates 18, 112^ 
Water Lambeth- - - _ 4, 142-143 
Waterloo, battle of - - - - 23, 115 

Waterloo Bridge and approaches - i, 2, 16, 

18, 23-24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 32, 37, 40, 45 

46, 47, 132, plates 4, 5 {see also Waterloo 

Road) 

Waterloo Bridge Company - - -28,37 

Waterloo Road - 12, 16, 18, 25-31, 33, 36, 

37. 40. 41. 45> 73. plates 11-24, 36 

Waterloo Station 16, 28, 30, 33,40—41, 69, 79 

Watermen - - - - - - - 119 

Waterworks - 48 n., 51, 55, 63, plate 39^ 
Waterton, John ------ 6 

Watson, Joseph - - - - - - 133 

Watts, Messrs. ------ 16 

Webber, Thomas ----- 7 

Webber Street ------ 31 

Weigall, Rev. Gilbert - - _ - 76 
Weller, Mercy — — - - - - 114 

Wellington Mills ----- 73 

Wells -------- 52 

Weslevan Chapel and Schools, Vauxhall 

Walk ------- 2, 145 

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel {see Lam- 
beth Chapel) 
West, Benjamin- ----- 5^ 



Page 
West House — — — — — — 133 

West London Railway - - - - 127 

Westminster — — — _ 64, 66, 104 
Westminster .Abbey ----- 7 

Westminster Bridge(s) and approaches - 1,4, 

23. 42, 45. 59' 64. 66-68, 69, 70, 71 n., 

72, 77, 120, 128, plates 48-50 {see also 

Westminster Bridge Road) 
Westminster Bridge Commissioners 62, 67, 69 
Westminster Bridge Road (formerly 

Bridge Street) - 1,23,38,40,42,59, 
62, 65, 69-74, 77, 79, 80, 128, 
plates 43-46 
Westminster (New) Lying-in Hospital 

{see General Lying-in Hospital) 
Weymans, Gerrard ----- 148 

Whalley, Bernard ----- 45 

Wheeler, E. P. ----- - 65 

Whitbreads- ------ 57 

White, G. P. - - - - - 108, 115 

White, Henry ------ 14 

White, John ------ 109 

Whitehall - - - - 7,77, 104, 119 

Whitehall Stairs- ----- 58 

White Hart Field (Coney Warren) - 133 
White Horse Club - - - - -33,44 

Whitgift, Archbishop {see Canterbury, 

Archbishop of) 
Whytwell, John- - - - - - 109 

Wilberforce, Bishop - - - - - gj 

Wild Marsh - - - - - -4, 31 

Wilkinson, Ellen ----- jg 

William de Drax alias Draper- - - 109 
William de Fortibus- - - - _ 5 

William de Hannay ----- 6 

William de Redvers ----- 1 1 

William of Lambeth- — - - - 109 
William of Wykeham - - - - gj 

William Rufus ------ 3 

Williams, Sir John ----- ^2 

Wilmot, Ralph ------ i^ 

Winchester, Bishops of - 32, 79, 85, 107 
Winchestre, Henry - — - - - 109 
Windmill - - - 26 n., 143, plate io8fl 
Wodeland, Richard - - - - - log 

Wollaston, Sir John ----- 4 

Wolsingham Place {see Kennington Road) 
Woodfall, George ----- 133 

Woodhouse, Rev. John Walker - - 34 
Woodington, W. F. - - - - - 61 

Woodmongers barge house - - - 14, 15 
Woodmongers Company - - - - 14 

Woodstock— ------ 5 

Woodward, — .- - - - - - 105 

Woodward, John - - - 75, 127, 135 
Worcester, Bishop of - - - - 6 

Worcester, Marquess of - - - - 148 

Wordsworth, Rev. Christopher - - iio 

169 



Page 
Workhouse Lane {see Black Prince Road) 
Worksop _ — - — — -— 15 
Worman, — . — __ — -- 25 
Wormeall, Christopher - - - - 118 

Wren, Sir Christopher - - - - 81 

Wyatt, — .___---- 70 

Wyatt, James ------ 59 

Wyatt, Sir James -----124 

Wyatt, Sir Matthew Digby - - - 57 



Page 
Wyld, Rev. George - - - - - no 
Wylde, Rev. Charles E. - - - - 76 

York Hotel- - - - 28, 29, plate 23^ 
York Road - 23, 27, 28, 33, 40-44, 65, 69, 
70, plates 25, 26b, 2jb, 36 
York Road Chapel ----- 44 
Yorkshire Society's School - 74, plate 45a 
York Street {see Leake Street) 



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