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Full text of "The survey of Western Palestine-Jerusalem"


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ROBA 




THE SURVEY 



OF 



WESTERN PALESTINE, 



JERUSALEM. 



BY 



COL. SIR CHARLES WARREN, K.C.M.G., R.E., 

AND 

CAPT. CLAUDE REIGNteR CONDER, R.E. 






PUBLISHED FOR 



THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 

ADELPHI, LONDON, 
1884. j^ 



I, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C. 






PREFACE. 



This volume contains a complete account of our researches in Jerusalem, 
in the years 1867- 1870, with other discoveries by Colonel Sir Charles 
Wilson, R.E., in 1865, and by Captain Conder, M. Clermont Ganneau, 
Dr. Chaplin, Hon. Conrad Schick, Herr Guthe, and others, since 
my departure from Jerusalem. The volume is accompanied by a 
portfolio of drawings, plans, etc., to which reference is made in 
the text. 

CHARLES WARREN. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



—^-o^- 



CuKic Inscription round Arcade of Dojie of ■ 

Block Plan of Herod's Te.mple 

Plan of the Noble Sanctuary 

Shaft through Concrete at Birket Israil 

Conduit of the Birket Israil 

Gallery on East Wall of Sanctuary. 

Characters on the Stones of the South-East 

Gallery at South-East Corner of Sanctuary 

Earthenware Jar found at South-East Angle 

Jar-handles found at South-East Angle 

Shaft at South-East Angle 

Robinson's Arch 

VoussoiR of Fallen Arch 

Base of Column 

Lamp 

Wilson's Arch 

Capital in Ancient Hall 

Postern of Ancient City Wall 

Chamber above the Aqueduct 

Plan of Gate and Passage in the East Wall 

tion and Sections 
Bases and Capitals at the Dome of the Rock 
View of the Dome of the Rock 
Interior of the Dome of the Rock . 
Masons' Marks on the Platform Pavement 



he Rock 



Angle 



OF THE HaRAM, with ElEVA 



page 

38 

To face page 99 

,. >i7 
124 

125 

143 
151.152 

153 
154 
156 
157 
177 
181 
182 
182 
196 
201 
205 
214 



238 
246,247 

248 

249 

250 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Crosier-like Mark on Voussoik 

Masons' Marks collecied in ihk Mlkistan 

Aqueduct to the Twin Pools 

Plan of Kulat JalCd ('Goliath's Castle') 

I'l^N OE TVROPCEON VaLLEV .... 

.Sections ok Dino ..... 
Plan and Sections of Ancient To.mbs North-East ok JerlsalEiM 
l'i„\N OK Rock-Cut Cha.mbers near Ecce Homo Church . 
Section showing Surk.\ce ok Via Dolorosa and Surface uk 

Rock .... 
Capital in the Kuhbet es Sakhra 
Arches at the Kubbet es Sakhra 
Elevation and Section of Arches 
Pl.\ns and Sections ok Holy Sepulchre 
The Stone of Bethphage 
Plan of Bethphage Chapel . 
Environs of Jerusalem, 1882. 
The Siloam Inscription 
Alphabet ok the Siloam Inscription . 
Plan of Siloam Aqueduct 

Section of Diito, showing Probable Rock Surface 
Central Portion, Siloa.m Aqueduct, Enlarged 
Rock-Cut Passage above Virgin's Fount 
PuvN and Section ok Tomb of Simon the Just 
Plan of Monastery ok the Cross 
View of el HeidhemIyeh 
Plan ok Rock, West of Last 
Jerusalem in 1187 a.d. 
Supposed Tomb of Eudoxia . 
Mason's Mark, kro.m the .\snerii; 
Plan of newly discovered Church outside th 
MEDLtvAL Fresco in Same 
Enlarged Figure krom the Fresco 
Plan of Asnerie District 
Inscripiion at newly discovered Church 
Rock Scarp ok Modern Zion 



E Da.mascus Gam. 



page 

255 

256 

To face page 264 

265 

To face page 286 

„ 286 

,298,299 

304 



Natural 



305 



314 
32'-329 

338 
To face page 344 

ji n 34^ 

348 

354 
35*5 
359 
369 

37S 
379 
3S1 
382 
383 
3S5 
386 

387 
389 
390 
391 
392 
To face page 394 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Vll 



ARiMENiAN Inscriptions 

Masons' Marks, Virgin's Tomt. 

Hebrew and Greek. Inscription 

Head of Hadrian, found near the Tombs of the Kings 

Hebrew Inscription, Beni Hazir Tomt. 

Supposed Phcenician Letter . 

Greek Inscriptions in Wady Rababeh 

Square Hebrew Inscription . 

Greek Inscriptions . 

Latin Inscription . 

Jeremiah's Grotto from the South-East 

Plan of Ancient Tomb (possible Sepulchre of Christ] 

Tomb, West of Jeremiah's Grotto 

Temple of Hibbariyeh 

Temple of Thelthatha 

Pottery found in the Excavations 



To face 
To face 



page 

401 

402 

403 
406 

414 

416 

417,418 

422 
424-426 

428 
page 430 

433 
pc:<( 437 

492 

495 
534-541 



JERUSALEM. 



CHRONOLOGICAL SYNOPSIS OF THE HISTORY OF 

JERUSALEM. 

Jerusalem taken by David (ist siege) 

First Temple founded by Solomon 

Shishak takes Jerusalem (2nd siege) 

Jehoash destroys the walls (3rd siege) - ■ - 

Uzziah builds towers ------ 

Jotham builds Ophel wall 

Pekah and Rezin besiege Ahaz (4th siege) 
Sennacherib besieges Hezekiah (sth siege) 
Asshur bani Pal takes Jerusalem (6th siege) - 
Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem (7th siege) 
Second Temple founded by Zerubbabel - 

Nehemiah rebuilds the walls 

Bagozes profanes the Temple - - - . 

Ptolemy, son of Lagus, takes Jerusalem (Sth siege) 
Antiochus the Great takes Jerusalem (9th siege) 
Antiochus Epiphanes visits Jerusalem - 
Antiochus Epiphanes takes the city without siege - 
Profanation of the Temple ----- 
Restoration of the Temple by Judas Maccabjeus - 
Antiochus Eupator takes Jerusalem (loth siege) 
Jonathan builds a new wall - - - 
Simon takes the Akra citadel - - . . 

Antiochus Sidetes besieges Jerusalem (nth siege) - 
Aretas, the Arab, besieges Jerusalem (12th siege) - 
Pompey takes Jerusalem (13th siege) 
Antipater rebuilds the walls - - - 





B.C 


circa 


1044 


)) 


1007 


T» 


SS6 


n 


837 


11 


770 


)j 


740 


)J 


730 


)) 


702 


- 


650 


- 


577 


• 


537 


- 


457 


- 


405 


- 


305 


- 


219 


- 


176 


- 


170 


- 


168 


- 


165 


- 


163 


- 


143 


- 


139 


- 


134 


- 


65 


- 


63 


- 


55 




I 



THE SURl-LV OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



n.c. 



Crassus visits Jerusalem 4S 

Kerod and Sosius take Jerusalem (14th siege) - - - 37 

Herod's Temple commenced >9 

„ „ completed ' i 

Golden Eagle in Temple cut down 4 

A.D. 

Riots as to the Aqueduct of Pilate 35 

Agrippa builds the third wall - - 4' 

Agrippa builds a new palace 5'^ 

Cestius Callus attacks Jerusalem 66 

Tnus TAKES Jerusalem (15th siege) ----- 70 

Hadrian visits Jerusalem - 130 

Bar Cochcba revolts ?32 

„ „ is expelled '35 

Rufus ploughs the Temple site ( 1 6th siege) - - - - 13S 

Hadrian founds ^-Elia Capitolina 136 

Helena visits Jerusalem 3^6 

Coxstaxtine's Anastasis Church 335 

The Jews revolt and are excluded from the city - - - 339 
Julian attempts to rebuild the Temple ----- 362 

Sla Paula visits Jerusalem 3^3 

Eudoxia rebuilds the walls and dies - - - - 450 — 461 
The Council of Chalcedon establishes Patriarchate - - 45 " 

Justinian's Church of St. Mary finished 532 

Chosroes n. takes Jerusalem (17th siege) . . - - 614 
Heraclius enters Jerusalem with the Cross . - - - 629 
Onlvr takes Jerusalem (i8th siege) ----- 637 
Abd el Melck builds Kubbct es Sakhrah . - . - 688 
St. \Villibald visits Jerusalem - - - - - - 7^4 

Charlemagne builds a hospice area 800 

Patriarch Thomas enlarges the Holy Sepulchre dome - ., 830 
The Khalif el Mamun restores Dome of the Rock - - 831 

Khalif Moez takes possession of the city - - - - 969 
Hakem destroys Holy Sepulchre Church . . - - loio 

Nicephorus completes its restoration 1016 

Pilgrimages become numerous 1033 

Robert of Normandy's pilgrimage ------ 1035 

Turkomans expel Egyptians from the city - - - - 1094 

The Egyptians retake Jerusalem 1098 

Crusaders take Jerusalem (19th siege) - - - - 1099 
Cathedral of Holy Sepulchre commenced - - - - 1103 

The Hospital of St. John rebuilt 1130 

Templum Domini alterations complete 1136 

AValls of Jerusalem repaired 11 78 

Saladin takes Jerusalem (20th siege) .... 1187 



JERUSALEM. 

A.D. 

Saladin repairs the walls of the city 1192 

Melek el Muazzam dismantles the walls 1219 

Frederic II. rebuilds the walls --...- 1229 

Daud, Emir of Kerak, destroys the walls - - . - 1239 

Christians obtain Jerusalem by treaty 1243 

Kharezmians destroy tombs of Latin Kings - - - - 1244 

Kharezmians defeated by Egyptians ----- 1247 
Selim I. TAKES Syria - -.- - - - - -1517 

Soliman the Magnificent builds walls 1542 

Holy Sepulchre Church burnt ------ 1808 

Muhammed Aly takes Jerusalem (no siege) - - - - 1832 

The Fellahin seize Jerusalem - ------ 1834 

Syria and Jerusalem restored to Turkey ----- 1840 

Protestant Bishopric established - - - - - - 1842 

Disputes as to the Sepulchre ------ 1850 

Ordnance Survey executed ------- 1864 

^Varren's excavations - 1867 — 1S70 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM liV TITUS, 70 a.d. 



Epitome of Josephus's Account. 

nth Abib. Titus levels the ground north of the city (5 Wars ii. 5, iii. 2, xiii. 7). 
14th Ahib. Passover. John seizes the Temple. 

23rd Abib. First day of siege (5 Wars vii. 2). 

24th .'\bib. Banks against outer walls of city complete. 

7tli Zif. Wall of Agripjxi taken (5 Wars vii. 2). 

iSth day of siege according to Josephus. 

I 2th Zif. Second wall taken (5 Wars viii. i). 

15th Zif. Second wall taken again (5 Wars ix. 2). 

20th Zif. Banks against Antonia and upper city (5 Wars ix. 2). 

29th Zif. Banks completed (5 \Vars xi. 4). 

ist Sivan. Antonia bank mined (5 AVars xi. 4). 

3rd Sivan. Bank against upper city destroyed (5 Wars xi. 5). 

5th Sivan. Wall of circumvallation commenced. 

29th Sivan. New banks completed (5 ^^'ars xii. 4, 6 Wars i. i). 

I St Tamniuz. AVall of Antonia falls (6 Wars i. 3). 

3rd Tanimuz. Death of Sahinus (6 Wars i. 6). 

4th Tamnuiz. Antonia surprised by night (6 Wars i. 7). 

17th Tammuz, Daily sacrifice ceases (6 Wars ii. i ; Taanith iv. 4). 

20th Tammuz. Four new banks in Temple. 

22nd 'I'ammuz. Cloisters fired (6 Wars ii. 9). 

24th Tammuz. Other cloisters burned. 

27th Tammuz. West cloister burned (6 \\'ars iii. i). 

28th Tammuz. North cloister burned. 

8th Ab. Temple wall battered (6 Wars iv. i). 

9th Ab. Temple gate fired (6 Wars iv. 5) ; Fast (Taanith iv. 7). 

loth Ab. Temple fired (6 Wars vi. 3). 

20th Ab. Banks against up])er city (6 Wars viii. i). 

7th Elul. Banks completed (6 Wars viii. 4). 

8th Elul. Conquest of upper city (134th day of siege). 

N.B. — The abstract given by Canon Williams contains the curious error of supposing 

the Jewish year to be solar, and is therefore incorrect. 



ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF JERUSALEM. 



The present paper is confined to the consideration of the dates of existing 
buildings in the city of Jerusalem so far as they can be determined. 

The oldest existing remains appear to be those of the ramparts of the 
upper city. It was round this hill (now known to the inhabitants as 
Sion) that the wall of David and Solomon ran, according to Josephus 
(5 Wars iv. 2). It appears therefore possible that the great scarps in 
the present British cemetery (described under the head Hiimmam Tubariya) 
may be as old as the time of David (the eleventh century B.C.), or even 
earlier. 

The ancient tomb now known as that of Nicodemus, west of the 
rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre Church, has been proposed by Captain 
Conder as representing the burial-place of Solomon, David, and the more 
famous of the succeeding Kings of Judah, which was to be found in the 
' City of David.' Captain Conder agrees with Sir Charles Warren in apply- 
ing this term to the Lower City, and if the suggestion be accepted, this 
tomb is one of the oldest monuments in Jerusalem. We learn from the 
Talmud (Tosiphta Baba Bathra, c. i.) that the Tombs of the Kings were, 
with the sepulchre of Hulclah, the only tombs inside Jerusalem ; and the 
so-called Tomb of Nicodemus is the only ancient tomb inside modern 
Jerusalem, so far as has been discovered. There is no doubt that its form 
is that of the oldest class of Jewish tombs, and the fact that some of the 
kokim are sunk beneath the floor of the chamber seems to agree with 
Josephus' description of the Tombs of David and Solomon (7 Ant. xv. 3), 
which were invisible even when standing within the monument. It must, 
however, be noted that other writers have supposed all the Kings of [udah 
to have been buried on the Ophel spur south of the Temple. 



6 TKE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTiyR. 

The great tunnel from the upper spring to the Pool of Siloam is a third 
monument of Jerusalem which certainly dates earlier than the Captivity. 
The inscription recently discovered in this rock-cut aqueduct is supposed 
to date as early as the eighth century B.C., and it appears probable that 
this great work is referred to in the Bible in the account of Hezekiah's 
preparations for the Assyrian siege (2 Chron. xxxii. 4, 30), in which it is 
stated that the waters of the spring of Gihon were artificially diverted. 

The great wall discovered by Sir Charles Warren on Ophel is another 
relic which appears to date at least as early as the time of Nehemiah. 
Nearly all authorities agree that the Wall of Nehemiah occupied this 
position, and that it appears to have been built on the older line of Jotham 
and Manasseh (2 Chron. xxvii. 3 ; xxxiii. 14). 

The rocky scarp of the Tower of Baris, with its exterior fosse, appears 
Ko have existed at least as early as the second century n.c. (18 Ant. xiv. 3), 
and is not impossibly mentioned in the Bible (Neh. ii. 8, iii. i ; Zech. xiv. 10 ; 
cf I Wars iii. 3, Middoth i. 9, Tamid i. i, Zcbakhim xii. 3). Sir Charles 
Warren agrees with Sir Charles Wilson in fixing this on the scarp now 
existing at the north-west angle of the Haram. Captain Conder follows 
them in this identification, and the same views were held by the Due de 
Vogu^, and yet earlier by Dr. Robinson. 

The so-called Cotton Grotto, near the Damascus Gate, is a great 
quarry whence the Temple stones were obtained. It may have been used 
by Solomon, and was clearly in existence in the time of Herod. It is 
perhaps to this grotto that Josephus alludes in speaking of the ' Royal 
Caverns ' (5 Wars iv. 2) on the north side of the city. 

The architectural character of the old rock-cut monuments in the 
Kedron valley, opposite to the Haram, has led architectural authorities to 
regard these sepulchres as belonging probably to the Hasmoncan period — 
the second century n.c. Josephus speaks of a monument of Alexander 
(Jannaeus) on the east of the city (5 Wars vii, 3), in a situation possibly 
represented by that of the Tantur Fer'un, or so-called Absalom's Pillar, 
which may thus perhaps be identified with the sepulchre of the Hasmonean 
monarch, Alexander Jannajus. Two other tombs in immediate proximity 
are traditionally named after St. James and Zechariah ; but on the facade 
of the first there is a rude inscription in square Hebrew, which mentions 
the family of the Bene Hezir as there buried. This family of priests m's 



JERUSALEM. 7 

mentioned in the Bible (i Chron. xxiv. 15), and the date of the inscrip- 
tion (which is in so inaccessible a position as to have been very probably 
cut before the facade was completed) is held by the Due de Vogiie to be 
determined by the form of the characters as belonging to the century 
before Christ. 

Another monument further south is often mentioned by De Vogiie 
and others as the 'Egyptian Tomb' on account of its mouldings; but 
these mouldings are repeated on the so-called tombs of Absalom and 
Zechariah just noticed, and the remains of two letters, apparently of the 
earlier Hebrew character, have recently been observed on this tomb by 
M. Clermont Ganneau, which might serve to class this monument as even 
earlier than those already noticed. 

North of Jerusalem is the fine monument called generally the ' Tombs 
of the Kings.' Dr. Robinson has given reasons for supposing that this 
is the sepulchre of Helena, Queen of Adiabene, and of her sons. This 
monument was surmounted by three pyramids (20 Ant. iv. 3), like that on 
the tomb of Zechariah. Pausanias notices the rolling stone at the door 
(Grecia Descript. 8, 16), and later writers also mention the monument. 
(Euseb. Hist. Eccles. ii. 12 ; Jerome, Epit. Pauls, etc., etc. ; cf ' Biblical 
Researches,' i., pp. 363 and 610). The so-called 'Tombs of the Kings ' 
are still closed by a rolling stone, and parts of the surmounting pyramids 
have been discovered in excavating above the fagade. This monument 
may therefore be regarded as belonging to the century before the Christian 
Era. A fine sarcophagus with an Aramaic inscription, stating that it held 
the body of Queen Sara, was discovered in this tomb by De Saulcy. 

The so-called ' Tombs of the Judges,' north-west of the preceding, are 
held by the Jews to be those of the chiefs of the Sanhedrin ; and this 
tradition agrees with the architectural style of the fagade in determinin"- 
this system of sepulchres as belonging to the same period with the pre- 
cedinof — viz. the Hasmonean aofe. 

A tomb of similar character exists on the south side of Wady Rababeh, 
having a frieze ornamented with rosettes and triglyphs. This monument 
appears to agree in position with the sepulchre of Ananus (5 Wars xii. 2), 
the famous high priest who lived about the time of Christ. The tomb of 
Simon the Just (fourth century b.c.) is shown by the Jews north of the 
city, but there is no evidence beyond tradition of its identity. 



8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The great drafted masonry of the Haram walls is all of one class to 
the foundation (with differences of finish according to position), and it is 
referred by the Due dc Vot,niL: entirely to the Herodian period. The 
discover)' of Phojnician letters at the base of the wall near the south-east 
angle does not of necessity prove that this rampart was erected by 
Solomon, as the character was also in use in Herod's time. Captain 
Conder has followed De Vogiie in supposing the present ramparts to have 
been erected from their foundation by Herod. This question is, however, 
further discussed in detail on a later page. 

The great reservoir, now known as Hummam el Batrak or Hczekiah's 
Pool, is supposed by many authorities to be the pool Amygdalon (or ' of 
the towers') mentioned by Josephus (5 Wars xi. 4), apparently near 
Hippicus. In this case the pool is at least as old as the Herodian 
period. 

The low-level aqueduct from Bethlehem was constructed by Pontius 
Pilate (18 Ant. iii. 2), and this is the last of the existing remains in and 
round the city which can be assigned to the period preceding the great 
destruction by Titus in 70 a.d. For although it is agreed by nearly all 
authorities that the present ' Tower of David ' stands on the site of one 
of the old Royal Towers (representing Phasaelus according to Lewin, 
De Vogiie, Conder, and others, or Hippicus according to Robinson and 
earlier authorities), the existing masonry is in part more modern. 
The great Tyropoeon Bridge, which existed already before Pompcy's 
siege (63 B.C.), may be considered as part of the Haram, and the arch, 
now represented by a few haunch stones, is of the Herodian age. The 
date of the aqueduct leading into the Haram from outside the Damascus 
Gate is uncertain, but it has been thought to represent the narrow passage 
called Strato's by Josephus (13 Ant. xi. 2), and in this case the excavation 
is at least as old as the Hasmonean age. 

The remaining monuments of ancient Jerusalem, of which no traces 
have as yet been recognised with certainty, include tlie famous second 
wall, commenced by Solomon, to include the lower city, and the third 
wall, built about 40 a.d. by Agrippa, yet further north. The various 
theories concerning these fortifications will be mentioned later. 

The tomb of John Hyrcanus, near the pool Amygdalon, is also 
unknown, and the sites of the towers of Psephinus and Mariamne remain 



JERUSALEM. 9 

doubtful. The Monument of the Fuller, the Women's Towers, the pool 
Struthius, are also subjects of controversy ; as is the exact position of 
the Holy House within the Haram area, and the extent of the Temple 
enclosure, with the position of its gates. Of natural features, the 
Dragon's Well and the Serpent's Pool (with the adjoining monument of 
Herod) are the most important remaining to be fixed, while the site of 
Calvary, traditionally placed within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
has been sujsposed by Captain Conder to be recognisable in the present 
cliff of Jeremiah's Grotto. 

The first builder whose work can be recognised after the great 
destruction by Titus is the Emperor Hadrian, who rebuilt Jerusalem 
under the new name ^lia Capitolina in 136 a.d. The walls erected 
by this Emperor seem probably to have followed a line closely repre- 
sented by that of the present city wall, excluding great part of the high 
south-west hill now called Sion. This line on the south was clearly so 
traced when the Bordeaux Pilgrim visited Jerusalem in -ij^n a.d., when 
Hadrian's walls were apparently still standing. 

Hadrian erected a statue of Jupiter (still in position when seen by 
the Bordeaux Pilgrim) on the site of the Temple (Jerome, Comm. on 
Isaiah ii. 8 and on Matt. xxiv. 15), and the inscription which was cut 
on its base is still recognisable on a large stone built upside down 
into the south wall of the Haram near the Double Gate. According 
to Eusebius (Vita Const, iii. 26) and Jerome (Epit. xlix.), Hadrian 
also built a Temple of Venus on the site of the present Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre ; but of this no remains have been recognised. A 
coin of Antoninus Pius represents such a temple as existing in 
Jerusalem. Among the other public buildings of this period were two 
markets, a theatre, a mint, a tricameron, a tetranymphon, and a 
dodekapylon (' Paschal Chronicle '), but none of these have been 
recognised. It is, however, supposed on architectural grounds that 
the so-called Ecce Homo arch was a triumphal entry (similar to that 
at Jerash, beyond Jordan) erected by Hadrian, or by one of his 
immediate successors, in the second century a.d. 

The attempt of the Emperor Julian to rebuild the Jerusalem 
Temple in the fourth century failed entirely ; in 333 a.d. the enclosure 
was found still in ruins by the Bordeaux Pilgrim. According to Eusebius, 

2 



10 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

it would appear that a church already existed on Olivet when Helena 
visited the city in 326 A.n. According to Epiphanius, seven synagogues 
were found by Hadrian on Sion, one of which still existed in the fourth 
century, according to the Bordeaux Pilgrim. Epiphanius also speaks 
of the Sion Church (the later Coenaculum) as existing in the time of 
Hadrian. A cemetery of tombs in the Wady Rababeh belonging to this 
church will be found described in a later page under the name of that 
\'allcy. 

It is possible that the great pool called Birket Israil was constructed 
at the time of the restoration of Jerusalem by Hadrian ; for, although 
Sir Charles Warren has shown that some kind of fosse must here 
have existed at a very early period, there is no description of this 
pool in the works of Josephus, and it is very improbable that he 
would have omitted to mention so enormous a reservoir had it existed 
in his time. He speaks only of a fosse, and the masonry of the birket 
is inferior in character, and resembles the later Roman work in Syria. 
This reservoir appears to be mentioned by the Bordeaux Pilgrim 
(section 4) as already existing, and would therefore most naturally be 
referable to Hadrian. 

With the conversion of Constantine a new building epoch commences 
in Jerusalem. The original Basilica of the Anastasis was completed by 
Constantine in the year 335 .\.n. The situation of the traditional site is 
described by Theodorus (530 a.d.) as being in the middle of the city. 
Eucherius (427 — 40 a.d.) places it north of Sion, and the site of Sion at 
this time was identical with that now shown — the hill of the old upper city. 
The Bordeaux Pilgrim {m a.d.) speaks of the Basilica, which was then 
building, as on the left hand of a pilgrim proceeding to the Porta 
Neapolitana, which is generally supposed to have been the present 
Damascus Gate. Eusebius and Jerome (in the ' Onomasticon ') also place 
Golgotha north of Sion. These various notices appear to indicate that 
Constantine's Basilica occupied the same site now shown as that of the 
Holy Sepulchre, close to the hill of Calvary. The view of Mr. Fergusson 
will, however, be mentioned later. The Due de Vogue and Professor 
Willis agree in restoring the Basilica on the present site in such a manner 
as to make the walls and colonnade still existing east of the present 
church parts of the atrium and propylca, which are described by 



JERUSALEM. ti 

Eusebius (Vita Constant, iii. 39) as existing east of the Basilica and of the 
Sepulchre. 

This Basilica is described by various writers of the fourth, fifth 
and sixth centuries, and often mentioned in the Homilies of St. Cyril. 
It was destroyed in 614 x\.d. by Chosroes II., a Sassanian King of 
Persia, as mentioned by the contemporary writer of the ' Paschal 
Chronicle.' 

Other buildings existing in the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries are 
as follows. The Church or Basilica of the Ascension, on the summit of 
Olivet, was already in existence in 2)11 a.d., but no trace of this original 
building has been found. The Church of the Tomb of the Virgin is 
mentioned by John of Damascus as existing in the time of the Empress 
Pulcheria (390 — 450 A. p.) and a Basilica is here described by Theodorus 
{530 A.D.). Bernard, in 867 a.d., found it in ruins — a round church with- 
out any roof. A Basilica is described in the south-east angle of the 
Haram as early as 530 a.d., marking the site of the so-called Cradle of 
Christ. Theodorus calls it St. Simeon. 

In the last years of her life the Empress Eudoxia retired to Jerusalem 
(450 — 461 A.D.), and rebuilt the walls of the city. She also erected a 
Church of St. Stephen, north of the city, of which some traces remain. 
(Cf. under head el Heidhemiyeh.) It was a stadium from the city wall 
(Evagrlus Hist. Eccles. I. 22), and in or near it the Empress was burled. 
A tomb discovered recently in this vicinity has been thought to be pos- 
sibly that of Eudoxia. The church was found in ruins by Ssewulf in 
1 102 A.D. 

The following sites are also mentioned in the fifth and sixth centuries, 
before the Moslem conquest, which took place under Omar in 637 a.d. 
St. Anne (a church re-erected by the Crusaders) is mentioned by Antony 
of Piacenza in 600 a.d. The Church of Gethsemane existed even In the 
fourth century. St. Pelagia, on Olivet (a church with the tomb of the 
Saint), Is noticed by Theodorus In 530 a.d., and probably occupied the 
site of the present traditional cave of St. Pelagia. The same author 
speaks also of the Church of St. Peter on Sion — probably the site after- 
wards known as Gallicantus. Another Chapel of St. Mark, not now 
recognisable, seems also to have then stood on Sion. 

The most important buildings of the early Christian period after the 



12 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

time of Constantinc appear, however, to have been those of Justinian, in 
the Haram area, erected about 532 a.d. Theodorus was the architect, 
and the well-known tract describing Jerusalem in the sixth century bears 
his name. These buildings included the Basilica of St. Mary (cf. ' Pro- 
copius de Edificiis Justiniani,' v. 6), which stood on vaults, and was 
surrounded with cloisters {stoa) ; and also two hospitals for the sick and 
poor. The remains of this Basilica are recognised by the Due dc Vogiie 
in the present mosque el Aksa, and it is possible that not only the later 
ornamentation of the Double Gate, but also the structure of the Golden 
Gate, and the roofing of many of the Haram cisterns, belong to this 
period, as well as the vaulting of the Twin Pools, which is similar to that 
of the tunnel leading to the Double Gate. In the fourth century the 
Twin Pools were apparently open and uncovered, though now beneath 
the lc\-el of the roadway. 

The Basilica of Constantine, burnt in 614 a.d., was replaced in 616 a.d. 
by a group of small chapels or oratories erected by the Monk Modestus, 
afterwards Patriarch of Jerusalem. A curious plan exists (cf De Vogiie, 
' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' p. 161), made by Arculphus about 680 a.d., 
showing these chapels, one being on the supposed site of Calvary, a 
second over the cave of the Invention of the Cross, a third dedicated to 
St. Mary, west of Calvary, while the Holy Sepulchre itself stood in a 
rotunda, called the Martyrion. These chapels were destroyed in 1010 a.d. 
by order of the Fatemite Khalif Hakem. They were again replaced by 
little chapels {praloria valde modica), which the Crusaders found standing, 
and which they incorporated in their great Cathedral ('William of Tyre,' 
viii. 3). 

Among the Christian chapels already in existence when the Crusaders 
entered Jerusalem may be mentioned St. John on Olivet, St. Leon in the 
valley of Jehosaphat, the Chapels of the Agony and of the Credo on 
Olivet, and St. Mamilla, apparently near the present Birket Mamilla. The 
great Hospital of St. John was erected on the old site of Charlemagne's 
hospice, which is mentioned by Bernhard the Wise in 867 a.d., adjoining 
a Church of St. Mary (afterwards St. Maria Majora). This building was, 
however, destroyed in the eleventh century. St. Maria Latina, north of 
the hospice, was founded by the merchants of Amalfi between 10 14 and 
1023 a.d., and the firman granted for its re-endowment by the INIoslcm 



JERUSALEM. 13 

ruler, Melek Muzzafer, in 1023 a.d., is still preserved in the Franciscan 
monastery at Jerusalem. Sancta Maria Parva, adjoining this last, was 
added for female pilt^rims, apparently also in the eleventh century 
(William of Tyre, ix. 18), and a hospital and chapel of St. John the 
Almoner adjoined this smaller church. All these buildings existed when 
the first Crusaders entered Jerusalem. The cemetery of Aceldama is 
also mentioned as early as 680 a.d., apparently at the present site (Hakk 
ed Dumm). This site adjoined the mediaeval Chaudemar, but is to 
be distinguished from the Charnel House of the Lion mentioned by 
Bernard the Wise and John of Wirtzburg, which was on the site of the 
present cemetery, near Birket Mamilla. 

The pool of Siloam appears also to have been at one time covered by 
a building, which is called a church by Antony of Piacenza, about 600 a.d., 
and the tombs in the Jehosaphat Valley were at this time inhabited by 
Christian hermits. 

The early pilgrims before 530 a.d. speak, as we have seen, of the 
Temple enclosure as in ruins. The Bordeaux Pilgrim mentions the vault 
and tanks, the ramparts and the ' pierced stone,' near which was Hadrian's 
statue. The latter is apparently the present Sakhrah rock, pierced by 
the shaft leading to the cave beneath. Eucherius (in the fifth century) 
saw only a few cisterns, and \hQ pinna, or pinnacle, which appears to have 
been formed by the masonry of the south-east angle, standing many 
courses higher than the rest of the ancient walls. 

None of the early writers speak of the Golden Gate before Justinian. 
Antony of Piacenza and Saewulf in 1102 are the first to describe this 
monument, and the latter does not carry its real history back further than 
the time of Heraclius (the beginning of the seventh century). Arculphus, 
in 680 A.D., is the first to speak of the Moslem buildings erected in the 
Temple Area. It appears from Eutychius (tenth century), and from the 
Arabic writers, Mejr ed Din and Jelal ed Din (fifteenth century), that 
Omar found no building over or near the Sakhrah rock. The Khalif 
erected a wooden building near the Rock, but this was subsequently 
removed ; it is to this structure that Arculphus appears to allude in 
describing a rude square house of prayer on the site of the Temple, raised 
with planks and beams on old foundations, and large enough to hold 
3,000 men. 



>4 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



The followincf arc the most important notices of Jerusalem from the 
fourth to the twelfth centuries : 

The earliest description is that written by the unknown Pilyrim of 
Bordeaux, who was in Jerusalem in the year 2ioo< while Constantine's 
Church was being built. 



'Sunt in Hicrusalem piscina; magna; dune 
ad latus tcmpli, id est, una ad dextcram, 
alia ad sinistram, quas Salomon fecit ; in- 
tcrius vlto in civitatc sunt piscina; gcmellares, 
quincjue jwrticus habcntes, qux appellantur 
Bcihsaida". Ibi a:gri multorum annorum 
sanabantur; aquam autem habent piscinx in 
niodum cocci turbatam. Est et ibi crypta, 
ubi Salomon dxmones torquebat Et ibi est 
nngulus turris excelsissima;, ubi Dominus 
asccndit, et dixit ci, qui tentabat euni : Si 
filius Dei es, mitte te deorsum. Et ait ci 
Dominus : Non tentabis Dominum Deum 
tuum, sed illi soli servies. Ibi est lapis an- 
gularis magnus, de quo dictum est : I,a[)idem, 
quern reprobaverunt jedificantes, hie factus 
est ad caput anguli. Et sub pinna turris 
ipsius sunt cubicula plurima, ubi Salomon 
palatium habebat. Ibi etiam constat cubi- 
culum in quo sedit et Sapientiam descripsit ; 
ipsum vcro cubiculum uno lapide est tectum. 
Sunt ibi et exceptuaria magna aquce subter- 
ranea et piscinse magno opcre a;dificatx. 
Et in lede ipsa, ubi templum fuit, quod 
Salomon a;dificavit, in marmore ante aram 
sanguincm Zacliaria; dicunt hodie fusum; 
etiam parent vestigia clavorum militum, qui 
cum occiderunt, per totam arcam, ut putes 
in cera fixum esse. Sunt ibi et statUcX dua; 
Hadriani, et est non longe de statuis lapis 
pcrtusus, ad qucm vcniunt juda;i singulis 
annis, ct unguent cum, et lamcntant sc cum 



' There are in Jerusalem two large pools 
beside the Temple, that is, one to the right,' 
the other to the left,'- which Solomon made ; 
but within the city are the Twin Pools,' 
having five porches, which are called Beth- 
saida. There those who had been many 
years sick were healed, for the water of the 
pools is troubled as if boiling. There also 
is the crypt where Solomon tormented de- 
mons'* ; and there is the corner of a very high 
tower ^ where the Lord ascended, and he who 
tempted Him said, " If Thou be the Son of 
God, cast Thyself down ;" and the Lord said 
to him, " Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy 
God, but Him only shalt thou serve." There 
is the great Stone of the Corner, of which 
it is said, " The stone which the builders 
refused is here made the head of the corner." 
And under the pinnacle of the same tower 
are very many cells where Solomon had his 
palace." There also stands the cell in which 
he sat and wrote about Wisdom, and this 
cell is roofed by a single stone.^ There are 
also great tanks underground for water, and 
pools made by great labour. And in the en- 
closure itself, where was the temple which 
Solomon built, in the marble before the 
altar, the blood of Zachariah, son of liara- 
chiali, they say, yet flows (dicunt hodie 
fusum), also the marks appear of the clubs of 
the soldiers who slew him, all over the court, 
so that you would think them printed in wax. 



' Cistern near St Anne. - Birket Israil. 

' Twin Pools by the barracks, north-west angle of Haram. ■* Rock-cut passage from last. 
* South-cast angle of Haram. o 'Vaults at south-east angle. 

"Ancient window in east wall at south-east angle, roofed, as described, with a single 
stone, and large enough to be called a cell. 



JERUSALEM. 



IS 



gemitu, et vestimenta sua scindunt, et sic 
recedunt. Est ibi et domus EzechL-e, regis 
Juda2. 



' Item exeunti Hierusalem, ut ascendas 
Sion, in parte sinistra et deorsum in valle, 
juxta murum, est piscina, qua dicitur Siloa 
et habet quadriporticum, et alia piscina 
grandis foras. Hie fons sex diebus atque 
noctibus currit, septimo vero die, qui est 
sabbatum, in totum nee nocte, nee die 
currit. 

' Inde eadem via ascenditur Sion, et paret, 
ubi fuit domus Caipha: sacerdotis, et columna 
adhuc ibi est, in qua Christum flagellis ceci- 
derunt. Intus autem. intra murum Sion, 
paret locus, ubi palatium habuit David. Ex 
septem synagogis, qu^ illic fuerant, una tan- 
tum remansit ; reliquEe autem arantur et 
seminantur, sicut Isaias propheta dixit. 



' Inde ut eas foras murum de Sion, eunti 
ad portam neapolitanam ad partem dexteram, 
deorsum in valle sunt parietes, ubi domus 
fuit sive prsetorium Pontii Pilati : ubi Domi- 
nus auditus est, antequam pateretur. A 
sinistra autem parte est monticulus Golgotha, 
ubi Dominus crucifixus est. Inde quasi ad 
lapidis missum est crypta, ubi corpus ejus 
positum fuit, et tertio die surrexit. Ibidem 
mode jussu Constantini imperatoris basilica 
facta est, id est, dominicum miraj pulchritu- 
dinis, habens ad latus exceptoria, unde aqua 
levatur, et balneum a tergo, ubi infantes 
lavantur. 



There are the two statues of Hadrian, and 
there is not far from the statues a pierced 
stone (lapis pertusus),i to which come the 
Jews every year and anoint it, and bewail 
themselves with groans, and tear their gar- 
ments, and thus depart. And there is the 
house of Hezekiah, King of Judah. 

' Likewise to one going out of Jerusalem, 
that you may go up Sion, on the left and 
down in the valley near the wall is the pool 
which is called Siloa, and it has four porches, 
and another great pool outside. Here a foun- 
tain runs six days and nights, but on the 
seventh day, which is the Sabbath, it runs not 
neither the whole day nor the whole night. - 

' Thence by the same way one goes up 
Sion, and the place where was the house of 
Caiphas the priest is seen, and the column is 
still there on which they scourged Christ with 
scourges.^ But within, inside the wall of 
Sion, appears the place where David had his 
palace.* Of the seven synagogues which 
were there, only one remains, for the rest 
have been ploughed and sown, as the prophet 
Isaias said. 

' Thence that you may go out of the wall 
from Sion (inde ut eas foras murum de Sion) 
for one going to the Neapolitan Gate,^ on 
the right hand, down in the valley are walls, 
where was the house orprcetorium of Pontius 
Pilate", where the Lord was heard before He 
suffered. But on the left hand is the little 
Mount Golgotha'', where the Lord was cru- 
cified. Thence about a stone's-throw is the 
crypt ^ where His body was placed and rose 
the third day. There now, by order of the 
Emperor Constantine, a basilica is making, 
that is a^ti«////Wc;« of wonderful beauty, having 
beside it a tank, whence the water is drawn, and 
a bath behind, where the infants are washed. 



1 The Sakhrah Rock. 

2 Siloam, with the old pool beneath, and an intermittent supply, as at present. 

2 The present site of Caiaphas House. ■* The so-called Tower of David. 

5 Damascus Gate. '^ Present barracks, north-west angle of Haram. 

" Calvary Chapel. s ^ioVj Sepulchre. 



1 6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'Item ab Hicrusalcm cunti ad portam, ' Likewise from Jerusalem, for one going 

qiine est contra oricntcm, ut asccndatur in to the gate which is on the east, that he may 

inotitcm Olivcti, vallis, qux dicitur Josaphat. ascend the Mount of Olives, there is the 

Ad partem sinistram, ubi sunt vinea;, est et valley which is called Jchosaphat.' On the 

petra, ubi Judas Iscarioth Christum tradidit ; left, where are the vineyards, is also the stone 

ad partem vero dextcram est arbor palnix', where Judas Iscariot betrayed Christ, but on 

de qua infantes ramos tulcrunt ct, veniente the right is the palm-tree whence the children 

Christo subslravcrunt Inde non longe, quasi plucked branches, and coming to Christ, 

ad lapidis missum, sunt monumenta duo, strewed them beneath. Thence not far, about 

nionubitesniira:pulchritudinis,''acta: in unum a stone's-throw, are two monuments con- 

positus est Isaias propheta, qui est vere mono- structed of wondrous beauty ; in one is placed 

lilhus, et in alium Ezechias, rex judaeorum. Isaias the prophet,'-' which is a true monolith, 

and in the other Hezekiah, King of the Jews.-' 

' Inde ascendis in montem Oliveti, ubi ' Thence you ascend the Mount of 

Dominus ante passionem discipulos docuit. Olives, where the Lord taught His disciples 

Ibi f^icta est jussu Constantini basilica mirns before His passion. There is made by com- 

l)ulchritudinis. Inde non longe est monti- mand of Constantine a basilica of wonderful 

cuius, ubi Uominus ascendit orare, et apparuit beauty. Thence, not far, is the little mount 

illic Moyses et Elias, quando Tetrum et where the Lord ascended to pray, and Moses 

Joannem secum duxit.' and Elias appeared there, when He took with 

Him Peter and John.'^ 

Constantine's Basilica is thus described by Eusebius (Professor Willis's 
translation is followed) in his ' Life of Constantino,' Book III. : 

' 34. First, the Emperor's magnificence decorated the Sacred Cave itself, as the head of the 
whole work, with choice columns and great decoration, and ornamented it in every possible 
manner. 

' 35. He then proceeded to set in order an extensive space open to the sky, which he 
paved witii polished stones, and enclosed on three sides with long cloisters. 

' 36. On that side of the court which was situated opposite the Cave and towards the 
rising sun was i)laced the Basilica (Sair/Xsw; niai), an admirable work, raised to a mighty 
elevation, and extensive in length and breadth. Its interior was lined with many-coloured 
marbles, and the outer surface of its walls decorated with polished and closely jointed 
masonry as handsome as marble itself. The roof, with its chambers, was covered with lead 
to protect it from the winter rains. The inner roof was decorated with sculjjtured panels, and 
extended like a vast sea over the whole Basilica, and being gilt with the purest gold, caused 
the entire building to shine as if with the rays of light. 

' 37. Moreover, on either side double piers of double porticoes above and below extended 
the full length of the temple, and their ceilings were gilt. Of these porticoes, those in front 
were sustained by enormous columns, those within by square pilasters richly ornamented. 
Three doors towards the rising sun admitted the entering crowd. 



' Kcdron Valley. 2 Now called Tomb of Zecharias. 

' Now called Absolom's Pillar. 

* This is a mistake, as the Transfiguration occurred in Galilee. 



JERUSALEM. 



17 



' 38. Opposite these doors was the apse, the head of the whole work, raised to the very 
roof of the Basilica. It was surrounded by twelve columns, the number of the Apostles, and 
they were ornamented with large silver capitals, which the Emperor dedicated to God as a 
beautiful gift. 

' 39. Hence, going forward to the entrances which were before the temple, he interposed 
an open space, namely, between the Basilica and the portals ; there were also recessed 
chambers (exedra;) on each side of the first or entrance court, which had cloisters attached 
to it — and lastly the gates of the court. Beyond them, in the very middle of the wide market- 
place, stood the propyla^a, or vestibule, of the whole work, which being decorated in the most 
imposing manner, afforded to those who were passing a promise of the wonders within. This 
temple did the Emperor construct as a Martyrium of the saving Resurrection.' — Eusebius, 'Vita 
Constantini,' lib. iii. 



The next account of the city 
Eucherius about 427 — 440 a.d. 

' Hierusalem ab Aelio Hadriano Aelia 
vocitatur. Nam, post subversionem Titi, 
conditoris Aelii nomen cum opere suscepit. 
Natura loci edita, ajunt, qualibet ex parte 
haud dubie ascendendum erit ; diutino quippe, 
sed moUi tractu assurgit. Situs ipse urbis 
pene in orbem circumactus, non parvo mu- 
rorum ambitu, quo etiam montem Sion, 
quondam vicinum, jam intra se recipit, qui, 
a meredie positus, pro arce urbi supereminet. 
Major civitatis pars infra montem jacet in 
planitie humilioris collis posita. 

' Mons Sion, latere uno, quod aquilonem 
respicit, clericorum religiosorumque habita- 
tionibus frequentatur : cujus in vertice plani- 
tiem monachorum cellula; obtinent ecclcsiam 
circumdantes, quje illic, ut fertur, ab apostolis 
fundata pro loci resurrectionis dominicre 
reverentia : ob quod promissum quondam 
per Dominum paracleto repleti sunt spiritu. 

' Celebriores tres sunt portarum exitus : 
unus ab occasu, alter ab oriente, tertius a 
septentrionali parte urbis. 

' Primum de locis Sanctis. Pro conditione 
platearum divertendum est ad basilicam, 
qu33 martyrium appellatur, a Constantino 
magno cuitu exstructa. Dehinc cohferentia 
ab occasu insunt Golgotha atque anastasis ; 
sed anastasis in loco est resurrectionis, Gol- 



which should be quoted is that of 

' Jerusalem is called ^lia after /Elius 
Hadrianus. For after the destruction by 
Titus it received the name with the works of 
its founder, ^Elius. The nature of the place 
being, they say, lofty, it must be of necessity 
ascended to from all sides ; because it rises 
for a long way, although gradually. The site 
of the city itself is almost round, with no 
small circuit of walls, within which Mount 
Sion, formerly near, is now included, which 
rises on the south as the citadel of the town. 
The greater part of the city lies below the 
mount, placed on the flat of a lower hill. 

' Mount Sion is occupied on the side 
looking north (aquilonem) by the dwellings of 
clerics and religious persons ; on the flat sum- 
mit are cells of monks round a church, which 
was there founded, as is said, by the Apostles 
through reverence of the place of the Resur- 
rection of the Lord, because, as promised 
before by the Lord, they were filled with the 
Holy Ghost. 

'The chief gates are three, one on the 
west, another on the east, and a third on the 
north side of the city. 

' First of the holy places. By the position 
of the streets it is necessary to turn towards 
the Basilica, which is called Martyrium, built 
with great zeal by Constantine. Joining this, 
on the west, are Golgotha and the Anastasis ; 
the Anastasis on the site of the Resurrection, 



i8 



THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



gotha vero, medius inter anastasim ac mar- 
tyrium, locus est dominicae passionis : in quo, 
etiam rupcs apparet, qua: quondam ipsam 
affixo Domini corpore, crucem pertulit. 
Atque hcec turn extra montem Sion posita 
cernuntur, quo sc ad aquiloncm deficicns loci 
tumor porriyit. 

' Templum vero, in inferior! parte urbis 
in vicinia muri ab oriente locatum niagni- 
ficeque constructum, quondam miraculum 
fuit, ex quo parietis unius in ruinis qua:dam 
pinna stat super reliquis ad fundamenta 
usque destructis. Paucae illic cisternae in 
usum aquarum ostenduntur in ea parte civi- 
tatis, quffi ad septcntrionem in vicinia temj^li 
extenditur. 

' Bethesda gemino apparet insignis lacu : 
alter hibernis plerumque impletur imbribus, 
alter rubris est discolor aquis. 

' Ab ea fronte montis Sion, qu;s prrerupta 
rupe orientalem plagam spectat, infra muros 
atque e radicibus collis fons Siloa prorumpit, 
qui non semper, scd in certis horis diebusque 
emanat per antra saxaque decurrens; aquarum 
accessu in meridiem fluit. Juxtamurum Jeru- 
salem vel templi ab oriente Geennon occurrit 
sive vallis Josaphat a septentrione in austrum 
porrecta, per quam torrens, siquando pluvias 
aquas recipit, decurrit 

' Circumjccta hierosolymitanx urbis as- 
pcre et montosa cernuntur, qux etiam mon- 
tem Oliveti mille a sc discretum passibus in 
oricntem prespectat. Dux in eo ecclesire 
celeberrimsehabentur : una in eodem fundata 
loco, in quo Dominus ad disci]julos sues 
habuisse dicitur sermones, altera in loco, de 
quo ccElum ascendisse traditur.' 



but Golgotha, in the middle between Anastasis 
and the Marlyrium, is the place of the Lord's 
Passion, where also the rock appears which 
once bore the cross with the Lord's body on 
it. And these places are found outside Sion, 
where a knoll of scanty size stands on the 
north. 

' But the Temple is placed in the lower 
part of the city near the east wall, and mag- 
nificently constructed, being formerly mar- 
vellous, of which a certain pinnacle of one 
of these ruined walls stands above the rest, 
which are demolished even to their founda- 
tions. A few cisterns of water still in use are 
shown in that part of the city, which is to the 
north, in the neighbourhood of the Temple. 

' Bethesda appears famous for its Twin 
Pool; the one is filled generally by the winter 
showers, the other is discoloured with red 
waters. 

' On that face of Mount Sion which looks 
east, with a steep rock, below the walls and 
at the bottom of the hill, the Fountain of Siloa 
bursts forth, which issues not always, but at 
certain hours and days, running through 
caves and rocks, the w^ater flows south from 
the entrance. Near the wall of Jerusalem, 
or of the Temple, on the east, is Geennon, 
or the Valley of Josaphat, lying north and 
south, through which a torrent flows when 
it receives the rain waters. 

' Round the city of the Hierosolymites are 
found rugged and mountainous parts, where 
also the Mount of Olives is seen a mile to the 
east. There are two very famous churches 
on it : one is founded on that spot where 
the Lord is said to have held discourse with 
His disciples, the other in the place where 
He is held to have ascended to heaven.' 



The next is the account written by Theodorus, probably the architect of 
that name sent by Justinian about 530 a.d. to build the Basilica of St. Mary. 

'2. In medio civitatis est basilica. A 'In the midst of the city is a Basilica, 

parte occidentis intras in sanctam resurrec- From the west you may enter the Holy 
tioncni, ubi est sepulcrum Domini nostri Resurrection, where is the Sepulchre of our 



JERUSALEM. 



19 



Jesu Christi. Et est ibi mons Calvarice, ad 
quern montem per gradus callis est. Ibi 
Dominus crucifixus est, et ibi est altare 
grande : sub uno tecto est. De sepulcio 
Domini usque in Calvarias locum sunt passus 
numeio XV. In monte Calvarias Abraham 
obtulit filium suum in holocaustum, et quia 
mons petraeus est, in ipso monte, hoc est ad 
pedem montis ipsius, fecit Abraham altare. 
Super altare eniinet mons. 

' 3. Et in circuitu montis sunt cancelli de 
argento. Et ibi est esca, ubi fuit resuscitatus 
per quem fuit crux Christi declarata : cubicu- 
lum, ubi posita est crux Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi. Et ipsa crux est de auro et gemmis 
ornata, et crelum desuper aureum, et deforis 
habet cancellum. Ibi est illud missorium, 
ubi portatum fuit caput Joannis Baptists; 
ante Herodem regem. Et ibi est cornu illud, 
unde unctus est David. Et ibi plasmatus est 
Adam. 

' 4. Postea intras in basilicam, in Golgo- 
thara, ubi inventse sunt tres cruces abscon- 
ditce. Et est ibi altare de auro et argento. 
Et habet columnas novem aureas, quje sus- 
tinent illud altare. Et est in media basilica 
lancea, unde percussus fuit Dominus Jesus 
Christus in latus suum. Et de ipsa lancea 
facta est crux, et sic lucet per noctem sicut 
sol per diem. 

' De Calvariaa loco usque in Golgotham 
passus sunt numero XV. 

' 5. Inventio sanctfe crucis. Quando in- 
venta est ab Helena, matre Constantini, 
XVII kal. octobris et per septem dies in 
Hierusalem ad sanctum sepulcrum Domini 
missse celebrantur, et ipsa crux ostenditur. 

' 6. De Golgotha usque in sanctam Sion 
passus numero CC, qu^ est mater omnium 
ecclesiarum : quam Sion Dominus noster 
Christus cum apostolis fundavit. Ipsa fuit 
domus sancti Marci evangelistte. Columna, 
quae fuit in domo Caiphte, ad quam Domi- 



Lord Jesus Christ. There also is Mount 
Calvary, to which mount the way is by steps. 
There the Lord was crucified, and there is a 
great altar ; it is (all) under one roof. From 
the Sepulchre of the Lord to the place of 
Calvary are paces (passus) XV in number. 
In Mount Calvary Abraham offered his son 
as a holocaust, and since it is a stony moun- 
tain, in this same mount, to wit at the foot of 
the mount itself, Abraham made an altar. 
Above the altar rises the mount. 

' And round the mount are silver railings, 
and there is the . . . (esca) where he was 
brought to life by whom the cross of Christ 
was made known : the cell where is placed 
the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. And 
the cross itself is adorned with gems and 
gold, and the roof above is gold, and outside 
is a railing (cancellum). There is the banquet 
hall (missorium), where the head of John the 
Baptist was brought before Herod the King. 
And there is the horn wherewith David was 
anointed. And there Adam was formed. 

'Afterwards, you may enter the Basilica 
in Golgotha, where the three crosses were 
hidden. And there is an altar of gold and 
silver ; and it has nine gold columns which 
sustain the altar there. In the midst of the 
Basilica is the lance wherewith the Lord 
Jesus Christ was struck in His side. And of 
this lance a cross is made, and it shines by 
night as the sun by day. 

' From the place of Calvary to Golgotha 
are paces XV by number. 

'The Invention of the Holy Cross. 
When it was found by Helena, mother of 
Constantine, on the XVII of the calends of 
October ; and for seven days masses are cele- 
brated in Jerusalem at the Holy Sepulchre of 
the Lord, and the cross itself is shown. 

'From Golgotha even to Saint Sion are 
paces in number two hundred, which is the 
mother of all churches, which Sion our Lord 
Christ founded with His Apostles. There 
was the House of St. Mark the Evangelist. 
The column which was in the House of 



20 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



nus Christus (lagellatus, est modo in Sancta 
Sion. Jussu Domini ipsa columna secuta 
est, ct quoniodo earn, dum flagellarctur, 
amplexavit, sicut in. ccra, sic brachia ejus, 
manus vel digiti in ea haeserunt, et hodic 
paret, sed et facicm onincm, mcntum, nasum 
vcl oculos ejus, sicut in cera, designavit. Et 
est ibi in media basilica corona spinca, undc 
coronatus fuit Dominus apud judceos, ct 
misit manum suani super coronam. Indc 
venis ad sacrarium. Vx ibi est lancea. Et 
ibi est lapis illc, undc lapidatus est sanctus 
Stephanus. Ibi docebat Dominus discipulos 
sues, quum cosnavit cum eis. 



' De sancta Sion ad domum Caiphre, quje 
est modo ecclcsia sancti Petri, sunt plus 
minus passus numero L. 

' 7. De domo Caipha; ad prffitorium 
Pilati plus minus passus numero C. Ibi est 
ecclesia sanctse Sophite. Juxta se missus est 
sanctus Hieremias in lacum. 

' 8. Piscina Siloa a lacu, ubi missus est 
Hieremias propheta, habet passus numero 
C, qux piscina intra murum est. A domo 
rilati usque ad piscinam probaticam plus 
minus passus numero C. Ibi Dominus 
Christus paralyticum curavit, cujus lectus 
adhuc ibi stat. Juxta piscinam probaticam 
est ecclesia dominie Maria:, ubi se lavabant 
infirmi et sanabantur. 

' 9. Et venis ad illam pinnam templi, ubi 
tentavit satanas Dominum nostrum Jesum 
Christum, et est ibi basilica in cruce posita. 
Sanctus Jacobus, quem Dominus manu sua 
episcopum ordinavit, post ascensionem Do- 
mini de pinna templi prascipitatus est, et 
nihil ei nocuit, sed fullo eum de vecte, quem 
reportare consueverat, occidit, et positus est 
in monte Oliveti. 

' 10. Sanctus Stephanus foras portam 
Galilaea; lapidatus est. Ibi et ecclesia ejus 
est, quam fabricavit domina Eudocia, uxor 
Theodosii imperatoris. 

' 1 1. Ibi est vallis Josaphat. Ibi judica- 



Caiphas, on which the Lord Christ was 
scourged, is now in St. Sion. At the com- 
mand of the Lord the column itself followed, 
and like as He embraced it, while He was 
scourged, so His arms, His hands, or His 
fingers, were stamped in it as in wax, and it 
.still appears; and all Mis face, His chin. His 
nose, and His eyes. He marked as though in 
wax. And there in the middle of the P.asilica 
is the crown of thorns with which the Lord 
was crowned by the Jews, and He put His 
hand on the crown. Thence you come to 
the sacristy, and there is the lance. And 
there is that stone with which St. Stephen 
was stoned. There the Lord taught His 
disciples, when He supped with them. 

' From St. Sion to the House of Caiphas, 
which is now the Church of St. Peter, are 
about fifty paces by number. 

' From the House of Caiphas to the Prre- 
torium of Pilate, about an hundred paces by 
number. There is the Church of St. Sophia. 
Near it Jeremiah was placed in the pool. 

' The Pool of Siloam is an hundred paces 
from the pool (lacus) where Jeremiah, the 
prophet, was put, which pool is inside the 
wall. From the House of Pilate to the Sheep 
Pool is about an hundred paces. There the 
Lord cured the paralytic, whose bed even yet 
remains there. Beside the Sheep Pool is the 
Church of the Lady Mary, where the sick 
wash and are healed. 

'And you come to that pinnacle of the 
Temple where Satan tempted our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and there is a basilica of cross shape 
(in cruce posita). St. James, whom the Lord 
made bishop with His own hands, after the 
ascension of the Lord was thrown from the 
pinnacle of the Temple, and it did nothurthim, 
but a fuller slew him with the club he carried, 
and he was placed on the Mount of Olives. 

' St. Stephen was stoned outside the 
Galilean Gate. There is his church, which 
was made by the Lady Eudoxia, the wife of 
the Emperor Theodosius. 

' There is the valley of Josaphat. There 



JERUSALEM. 



turus est Dominus justos et peccatores. Et 
ibi est fluvius ni^/m;, qui ignem vomit in 
consummationem SKCuli. Et ibi est basilica 
sanctse Maris, matris Domini, et ibi est sep- 
ulcrum ejus. Et ibi Dominum Judas tra- 
didit. Et ibi est locus, ubi Dominus ccenavit 
cum discipulis suis. Ibi et Dominus lavit 
pedes apostolorum. Ibi sunt quatuor accu- 
bitus, ubi Dominus cum apostolis ipse medius 
accubuit, qui accubitus ternos homines re- 
cipiunt. Modo aliquanti pro religiositate ibi 
cum venerint, excepta carne cibaria sua 
comedere delectantur, et accendunt lumi- 
naria, ubi ipse Dominus apostolis pedes lavit, 
quia ipse locus in spelunca est, et descendunt 
ibi modo CC monachi. 

' 12, A pinna templi subtus monasterium 
est castimonialium, et quando aliqua earum 
transierit de sseculo, ibi mtus in monasterio 
ipso reponitur, et qu£e illuc intraverint, usque- 
dum vivunt, inde non exeunt. Quando 
aliqua de sanctimonialibus illuc convert! vo- 
luerit, aut alicui pcenitenti hue tantummodo 
ipsse port^ aperiuntur ; nam semper clause 
sunt. Victualia per murum accipiunt, et 
aquam de cisterna, quam apud se habent. 

' 13. Deinde ascendis in montem. De 
Hierusalem usque in montem Oliveti, quod 
scribitur, stadia septem sive milliarium unum. 
Inde Dominus ascendit in ccelum. Ibi sunt 
fabricatEB XXIIII ecclesice, et ibi prope est 
spelunca, quje dicitur iJ^aQi, quod interpre- 
tatur discipulorum, ubi Dominus, quando 
prjedicabat in Hierusalem, requiescebat. In 
monte Oliveti posuit Dominus humeros super 
lapidem, in quo fixi ambo humeri adhuc 
apparent sicut in cera molli, qui locus ideo 
icona vocatur. Et est illic etiam fabricata 
ecclesia, juxta quam est ecclesia, in qua 
sancta Pelagia requiescit. Et ibi sunt duse 
basilica, ubi docebat Christus discipulos suos. 
Et inde venis ad Galiteam, ubi discipuli 
viderunt Dominum Jesum, postquam resur- 
rexil a mortuis. 



the Lord will judge the just and the sinful. 
There is the river Purinos, which will pour 
out fire at the end of time. And there is the 
Basilica of St. Mary, the Lord's mother, and 
there is her sepulchre. And there Judas 
betrayed the Lord, and there is the place 
where the Lord supped with His disciples. 
There also the Lord washed His Apostles' 
feet. There are four couches where the Lord 
lay with His Apostles, Himself in the midst, 
which couches (accubitus) will hold three 
men, and now some through piety, when 
they come there, delight to eat their food 
(save only meat) and light lamps where the 
Lord Himself washed His Apostles' feet, for 
that place is a cave, and only two hundred 
monks can enter it. 

' Under the pinnacle of the Temple is a 
nunnery or castimonialium, and when one of 
them goes from earth, she is placed in the 
monastery itself, and those who enter while 
they live do not go forth thence. When 
anyone would be admitted to vows or for a 
penitent, then only the doors are opened, for 
they are ever shut. They receive food from 
the wall, and water from a cistern which they 
have near them. 

' Thence you ascend on to the mountain. 
From Jerusalem to the Mount of Olives, 
as is written, is seven stadia, or a mile. 
Thence the Lord ascended to heaven. There 
are built XXIIII churches, and there is the 
cave called Maza, which is interpreted " of 
the disciples," where the Lord, when He 
preached in Jerusalem, rested. On the 
Mount of Olives the Lord placed His 
shoulders against a stone, in which the mark 
of both shoulders still appears printed as 
though in soft wax, which place is therefore 
called Icon, and there also is built a church, 
beside which is the church where St. Pelagia 
reposes. And there are two basilicas where 
Christ taught His disciples, and thence you 
come to the Galilee, where the disciples saw 
the Lord Christ after His resurrection from 
the dead. 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



' Sanctus Jacobus et sanctus Zacharias et 
sanctus Simeon in una memoria positi sunt, 
quam memoriam ipse sanctus Jacobus fabri- 
cavit, corpora illorum ipse ibi recondidit et 
sc ibi cum eis pra^ccpit jioni.' 



' St. James and St. Zachariah and St. 
Simeon are placed in one monument, which 
St. James himself made, and placed their 
bodies himself there, and commanded that 
he should be placed with them.' 



Arculfiis, ' the holy bishop ' of Gaul, visited the city about the year 
6So A.D., and coming home was wrecked on the coast of Scotland, and 
gave an account of llie Moly Places, with a rough plan, the earliest which 
exists, to the monks who entertained him. The translation which accom- 
panies this text and the two following is that of Bohn's ' Early Travels 
in Palestine,' which is more tensely worded than the Latin. 



' Arculfus, sanctus episcopus,gcnte Gallus, 
diversorum longe remotorum peritus locorum, 
in Hierosolymitana civitate per menses no- 
vem hospitatus, et locis quotidianis visita- 
tionibus peragratis. 

Mxnia ccrnantur cujus in magno murorum 
ambitu octoginta quatuor turres porte vero sex 
visuntur : prima porta David ad occidentem 
montisSion, secunda porta vallis Fullonis, tertia 
porta sancti Stephani, (luarta porta Beniamin, 
quinta portula, id est, parvula porta a qua 
per gradus ad vallem losaphat descenditur, 
sexta porta Thecuitis. Celebriores tamen ex 
his sunt tres exitus portarum : unus quidem 
ab occasu, alius a septentrione, tertius ab 
oriente. A meridie autem, aquilonale mon- 
tis Sion sui)ercilium supereminct civitati, et 
pars murorum cum interpositis turribus nullas 
habere portas comprobatur, id est, a supra 
scripta David porta usque ad cam mentis 
Sion frontem, que prerupta rupe orientalem 
respicit plagam. 

Situs quijjpe ipsius urbis, a supercilio aqui- 
lonali montis Sion incipicns, ita est molli divo 
dispositus usque ad humiliora aquilonalium 
orientaliumque loco murorum, ut pluvia ibi 
decidens nequaquam stet, sed instar fluvio- 
rum per orientales defluens portas, cunctis 
secum platearum fordibus raptis, in valle 
losaphat torrentcm Cedron augeat. 

' Diversarum gentium undique prope in- 
numera multitudo quindccimo die mensis 



' .\rculf, the holy bishop, a native of Gaul, 
after visiting many remote countries, resided 
nine months at Jerusalem, and made daily 
visits to the surrounding districts. . . . 

' He counted in the circuit of the walls of 
the holy city eighty-four towers and six gates, 
the latter being distributed in the following 
order : the Gate of David on the west of 
Mount Sion, the Gate of the Valley of the 
Fuller, St. Stephen's Gate, Benjamin's Gate, 
the little gate leading by a flight of steps to 
the valley of Jehoshaphat, and the gate 
called Tecuitis ; of which, the three most 
frequented are, one to the west, another to 
the north, and a third to the east. That part 
of the wall which, with its towers, extends 
from the Gate of David over the northern 
brow of Mount Sion, which overlooks the 
city from the south, to the precipitous brow 
of the same mountain which looks to the 
east, has no gates. 

' The city itself begins from the northern 
brow of Mount Sion, and declines with a 
gentle slope towards the walls on the north 
and east, where it is lower ; so that the rain 
which falls on the city runs in streams through 
the eastern gates, carrying with it all the filth 
of the streets into the brook Cedron, in the 
valley of Jehoshaphat. 

'On the 15th September, annually, an 
immense multitude of people of different 



JERUSALEM. 



septembris anniversario more Hierosolymis 
convenire solet ad commercia mutuis vendi- 
tionibus et emptionibus peragenda. Unde 
fieri necesse est, ut per aliquot dies in eadem 
hospita civitate diversorum hospitentur turbe 
populorum, quorum plurima camelorum et 
equorum asinorumquc numerositas, mulorum 
necnon et bourn masculorum, diversarum 
vectarum rerum per illas politanas plateas 
stercorum abominationes propriorum passim 
sternit : quorum nidor non mediocriter civi- 
bus invehit molestiam, que et ambulandi 
impeditionem prebit. Mirum dictu, post 
diem supra memoratum recessionis cum di- 
versis turmarum iumeiitis, nocte subsequente, 
immensa pluviarum copia de nubibus effusa 
super eandem descendit civitatem, que totas 
abluit abominabiles de plateis sordes ablu- 
tamque ab inmunditiis fieri facit earn. 

' Ceterum in illo famoso loco, ubi quon- 
dam templum magnifice constructum fuerat, 
in vicinia muri ab oriente locatum, nunc 
Saraceni quadrangulam orationis domum, 
quam subrectis tabulis et magnis trabibus 
super quasdam ruinarum reliquias con- 
struentes, vili fabricati sunt opere, ipsi fre- 
quentant : que utique domus tria hominum 
millia simul, ut fertur, capere potest. 

' Arculfus itaque de ipsius civitatis habi- 
taculis a nobis interrogatus respondens, ait : 
Memini me et vidisse et frequentasse multa 
euisdem civitatis edificia, plurimasque domos 
grandes, lapideas, per totam magnam civi- 
tatem. 

'Que utique valde grandis ecclesia, tota 
lapidea, mira rotunditate ex omni parte collo- 
cata est, a fundamcntis in tribus consurgens 
parietibus, qulbus unum culmen in altum 
elevatur, inter unumquemque parietem et 
alterum latum habens spatium vie ; tria 
quoque altaria sunt in tribus locis parietis 
medii artifice fabricatis. Hanc rotundam et 
summam ecclesiam supra memorata haben- 
tem altaria, unum ad meridiem respiciens, 
alterum ad aquilonem, tertium versus occa- 
sum, duodecim mire magnitudinis lapidce 



nations are used to meet in Jerusalem for the 
purpose of commerce, and the streets are so 
clogged with the dung of camels, horses, 
mules, and oxen, that they become almost im- 
passable, and the smell would be a nuisance 
to the whole town. But, by a miraculous 
providence, which exhibits God's peculiar 
attachment to this place, no sooner has the 
multitude left Jerusalem than a heavy fall of 
rain begins on the night following, and ceases 
only when the city has been perfectly cleansed. 



'On the spot where the Temple once 
stood, near the eastern wall, the Saracens 
have now erected a square house of prayer, 
in a rough manner, by raising beams and 
planks upon some remains of old ruins ; this 
is their place of worship, and it is said that it 
will hold about three thousand men. 



'Arculf also observed many large and 
handsome houses of stone in all parts of the 
city. 



' The church of the Holy Sepulchre is 
very large and round, encompassed with three 
walls, with a broad space between each, and 
containing three altars of wonderful workman- 
ship, in the middle wall, at three different 
points ; on the south, the north, and the west. 
It is supported by twelve stone columns of 
extraordinary magnitude ; and it has eight 
doors or entrances through the three opposite 
walls, four fronting the north-east, and four 
to the south-east. 



24 



THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 



sustentant columnc. Hcc bis quaternales 
portas habct, hoc est quatuor introitus, per 
trcs e regione, intcrjcctis vianim sjiatiis, 
stabilitos parietcs, ex quibiis quatuor exitus 
ad vulturnum spectant, qui et cccias dicitur 
vcntus, alii vero quatuor ad curum 
rcspiciunt. 

' In medio spatio hujus interioris rotunde 
domus rotundum incst in una eademque 
pctra excisum tugurium, in quo possunt tcr 
terni homines stantes orare, et a vertice 
alicuius non brevis stature stantis hominis 
usque ad illius domuncule cameram pes et 
semipcs mensura in altum extcnditur. Hujus 
tugurioli introitus ad orientem respicit, quod 
totum extrinsecus electo tegitur marmore, 
cuius cxterius summum cuhnen auro ornatum 
auream non parvam sustentat crucem. In 
hujus tugurii aquilonali parte sepulcrum Do- 
mini in eadcm petra interius excisum habetur, 
sed eiusdem tugurii pavimentum humilius 
est loco sepulcri ; nam a pavimento ejus 
usque ad sepulcri marginem lateris quasi 
trium mensura altitudinis palmorum habcri 
dignoscitur. Sic mihi Arculfus, qui sepe 
sepulcrum Domini frequentabat, indubitanter 
emensus pronunciavit. 

' Do illo supra memorato lapide, qui 
ad ostium monumenti dominici, in duas 
divisum partes refcrt, cuius pars minor, fer- 
ramentis dolata, quadratum altare in rotunda 
supra dcscripta ecclcsia ante ostium sepe 
illius memorati tugurii, hoc est dominici 
monumenti, stans constitutum cernitur. 
Major vero illius lapidis pars, eque cir- 
cumdolata, in oriental! ejusdem ecclesie loco, 
quadrangulum aliad altare, sub linteaminibus 
stabilitum exstat. 

' Totum simplex, a vertice usque ad 
plantas Icctum unius hominis capacem super 
dorsum jacenlis prcbens, in niodum spelunce 
introitum a latere habens adaustralem monu- 
menti partem e regione respicientem. In 
quo utique sepulcro duodene lampades, juxta 
numerum duodecim apostolorum, semper 
die ac nocte ardentes lucent, ex quibus 



' In the middle space of the inner 
circle is a round grotto cut in the solid 
rock, the interior of which is large enough 
to allow nine men to pray, standing, and 
the roof of which is about a foot and a 
half higher than a man of ordinary stature. 
The entrance is from the cast side, and the 
whole of the exterior is covered with choice 
marble to the very top of the roof, which is 
adorned with gold, and supports a large 
golden cross, ^\'ithin, on the north side, is 
the tomb of our Lord, hewn out of the same 
rock, 7 feet in length, and rising 3 palms 
above the floor. These measurements were 
taken by Arculf with his own hand. 



' The stone that was laid at the entrance 
to the monument is now broken in two ; the 
lesser portion standing as a square altar, 
before the entrance, while the greater forms 
another square altar in the east part of the 
same church, covered with linen cloths. 



' This tomb is broad enough to hold one 
man lying on his back. The entrance is on 
the south side, and there are twelve lamps 
burning day and night, according to the num- 
ber of the twelve Apostles ; four within at 
the foot, and the other eight above, on the 
right-hand side. Internally, the stone of 
the rock remains in its original state, and 



JERUSALEM. 



25 



quatuor in imo illius lectuli sepulcralis loco 
inferius posite, alie vero bis quaternales, super 
marginem ejus superius collocate ad latus 
dextrum, oleo nutriente fulgent. 

' Tugurium, nullo modo intrinsecus ornatu 
tectum usque hodie per totam ejus cavaturam 
ferramentorum ostendit vestigia, quibus dola- 
tores sive excisores in eodem usi sunt opere : 
color vero illius ejusdem petre monumenti 
et sepulcri non unus, sad duo permixti viden- 
tur, ruber itaque et albus. 

' lUi rotunde ecclesie supra sepius me- 
morate que et anastasis, hoc est resurrectio, 
vocatur, eo quod in loco dominice resurrec- 
tionis fabricata est, ad dextram coheret partem 
Sancte Marie, matris Domini, quadrangulata 
ecclesia. Alia vero pergrandisecclesia, orientem 
versus, in illo fabricata est loco, qui hebraice 
Golgotha dicitur, in cujus superioribus gran- 
dis quedam erea cum lampadibus rota in 
funibus pendet, infra quam magna crux ar- 
gentea infixa statuta est eodem in loco, ubi 
quondam lignea crux, in qua passus est 
humani generis salvator, infixa stetit. 

' In eadem ecclesia quedam in petra 
habetur excisa spelunca infra locum dominice 
Crucis, ubi super altare pro quorumdam 
honoratiorum animabus sacrificium offertur, 
quorum corpora interim in platea jacentia 
ponuntur ante januam eiusdem ecclesie Gol- 
gothanee. 

' Huic ecclesie in loco Calvarie quadran- 
gulate fabricate structura, lapidea ilia vicina 
oriental! in parte coheret basilica magno 
cultu a rege Constantino constructa, que et 
martyrium appellatur, in eo, ut fertur, fabri- 
cata loco, ubi Crux Domini cum aliis latronum 
binis crucibus sub terra abscondita, post 
ducentorum triginta trium cyclos annorum, 
ipso Domino donante, reperta est. 

' Itaque inter has duales ecclesias ille 
famosus occurrit locus, in quo Abraham 
patriarcha altare composuit, super illud im- 
ponens lignorum struem, et ut Isaac immo- 
laret filium suum, evaginatum arripuit 
gladium : ubi nunc mensa habetur lignea 



still exhibits the marks of the workman's 
tools : its colour is not uniform, but 
appears to be a mixture of white and 
red. 



' To the right of this round church (which 
is called the Anastasis, or Resurrection) 
adjoins the square church of the Virgin Mary, 
and to the east of this another large church is 
built on the spot called in Hebrew Golgotha, 
from the ceiling of which hangs a brazen 
wheel with lamps, beneath which a large silver 
cross is fixed in the very place where stood 
the wooden cross on which the Saviour of the 
human race suffered. 



' Under the place of our Lord's cross, a 
cave is hewn in the rock, in which sacrifice is 
offered on an altar for the souls of certain 
honoured persons deceased, their bodies re- 
maining meanwhile in the way or street be- 
tween this church and the round church. 

'Adjoining the church of Golgotha, to 
the east, is the basilica, or church, erected 
with so much magnificence by the Emperor 
Constantine, and called the Martyrium, built, 
it is said, in the place where the cross of our 
Lord with the other two crosses were found 
by divine revelation, two hundred and thirty- 
three years after they had been buried. 

' Between these two last - mentioned 
churches is the place where Abraham raised 
the altar for the sacrifice of his son Isaac, 
where there is now a small wooden table, on 
which the alms for the poor are offered. 
Between the Anastasis, or round church, and 

4 



26 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



non parva, super quam pauperum eleemosyne 
a populo offeruntur. Sed et hoc mihi dili- 
gentius interroganli sanctus Arculfus addidit, 
inquiens : Inter anastasim, hoc est sepe supra 
memoratam rotundam ecclesiam, et basilicam 
Constantini quedam patct plateola usque ad 
ecclesiam Golgothanani, in qua videlicet die 
ac nocte semper lampades ardent. 

' Inter illam quoque Golgothanam basi- 
Hcam et martyrium quedam inest exedra, in 
qua est cahx Domini, quem a se benedictum 
propria manu in cena, pridie quam pateretur, 
ipse conviva apostohs tradidit convivantibus : 
qui argenteus calix sextarii Gallici mensuram 
habet, duasque in se ansulas ex utraque parte 
altrinsecus continet compositas. In quo 
utique calice inest spongia, quam Dominum 
crucifigentes obtulerunt ori ejus. 

' Idem Arculfus nihilominus et illam con- 
spexit lanccam militis, qua latus Domini in 
cruce pendentis ipse percusserat. Hec eadem 
lancea in porticu iJlius Constantini basilice 
inserta habetur in cruce lignea, cujus hastile 
in duas scissum est partes. 

' De aliqua valde summa columna, que a 
locis Sanctis ad septentrionalem partem in me- 
dio civitatis stans pergentibus obvia habetur, 
breviter dicendum est Hec eadem columna, 
in eo statuta loco, ubi mortuus juvenis. Cruce 
Domini supcrposita, revixit, mirum in modum 
in estivo solstitio meridiano tempore, ad cen- 
trum celi sole perveniente, umbram non 
facit. 

' Sanctorum locorum sedulus frequentator, 
sanctus Arculfus, Sancte Marie ecclesiam in 
valle Josaphat frequentabat, cujus dupliciter 
fabricate inferior pars sub lapideo tabulato 
mirabili rotunda structura est fabricata, in 
cujus orientali parte altarium habetur, ad 
dcxtram vcro cius partem sancte Marie 
saxcum inest sepulcrum vacuum, in quo ali- 
quando requievit sepulta. Sed de eodem 
scpulcro, quomodo vel quo tempore aut a 
quibus personis sanctum corpusculum ejus 
sit sublatum, vel in quo loco resurrectionem 
exspectat, nuUus, ut fertur, pro certo scire 



the Basilica of Constantine, a certain open 
space extends to the Church of Golgotha, in 
which are lamps burning day and night. 



' In the same space between the Mar- 
tyrium and the Golgotha, is a seat, in which 
is the cup of our Lord, concealed in a little 
shrine, which Arculf touched and kissed 
through a hole in the covering. It is made 
of silver, of the capacity of about a French 
quart, and has two handles, one on each side. 
In it also is the sponge w-hich was held up to 
our Lord's mouth. 

' The soldier's lance, with which he 
pierced our Lord's side, which has been 
broken into two pieces, is also kept in the 
portico of the Martyrdom, inserted in a 
wooden cross. 

' He observed a lofty column in the holy 
places to the north, in the middle of the 
city (where the dead youth was revived, being 
placed on the Lord's Cross), which, at mid- 
day at the summer solstice, casts no shadow, 
which shows that this is the centre of the 
earth. 



' Arculf next visited the holy places in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Jerusalem. In 
the valley of Jehoshaphat he saw the round 
church of St. Mary, divided into two stories 
by slabs of stone ; in the upper part are four 
altars; on the eastern side below there is 
another, and to the right of it an empty tomb 
of stone, in which the Virgin Mary is said to 
have been buried ; but who moved her body, 
or when this took place, no one can say. 
On entering this chamber, you see on the 
right-hand side a stone inserted in the wall, 
on which Christ knelt when He prayed on 



JERUSALEM. 



27 



potest Hanc inferiorem rotundam Sancte 
Marie ecclesiam intrantes, illam vident petram 
ad dextrani parietis insertam, supra quam 
Dominus in agro Gethsemane ilia nocte, qua 
tradebatur a luda in manus Iiominum pec- 
catorum, flexis oravit genibus ante horam 
traditionis eius : in qua videlicet petra duorum 
vestigia genuum eius, quasi in cera mollissima 
profundius impressa, cernuntur. 

' In eadem supra memorata valle, non 
longe ab ecclesia Sancte Marie, turris Josa- 
phat monstratur, in qua ipsius sepulcrum cer- 
nitur. Cui videlicet turriculc quedam lapidea 
domus a dextra coheret parte, de rupe excisa 
et separata a monte Oliveti, in qua intrinsecus 
ferramentis cavata duo monstrantur sepulcra 
sine aliquo ornatu : quorum unum illius 
Simeonis justi viri est, qui, infantulum Domi- 
num Jesum in templo amplexus ambabus 
manibus, de ipso prophetizavit, alterum vero 
eque Joseph, sancte Marie sponsi. 

' In latere montis Oliveti quedam inest 
spelunca, baud procul ab ecclesia Sancte 
Marie in eminentiore loco posita contra 
vallem Josaphat, in qua duo profundissimi 
habentur putei, quorum unus sub monte 
magna profunditate descendit, alter vero in 
spelunce pavimento, cujus vastissima, ut fer- 
tur, cavitas, in profundum descendens, recto 
tractu dirigitur : qui duo putei semper clau- 
duntur. In eadem ergo spelunca quatuor 
insunt lapidee mense, quarum una est, iuxta 
introitum spelunce ab intus sita, Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi, cui procul dubio mensule 
sedes ipsius adheret : ubi cum duodecim apos- 
tolis, simul ad alias mensas ibidem habitas 
sedentibus, et ipse conviva aliquando recum- 
bere solitus erat. Illius putei os clausum, 
quem in pavimento spelunce inesse supra 
scripsimus, apostolorum mensis proprius 
haberi monstratur. Hujus spelunce portula 
ligneo, ut refert sanctus Arculfus, concluditur 
ostio, qui eandem Domini speluncam sepius 
frequentavit. 

' Porta David montis Sion molli clivo ab 
occidentali adheret parte. Per eandem de 



the night in which He was betrayed ; and 
the marks of His knees are still seen in the 
stone, as if it had been as soft as wax. 



' In the same valley, not far from the 
church of St. Mary, is shown the tower of 
Jehoshaphat, in which his tomb is seen ; 
adjoining to which little tower, on the right, 
is a separate chamber cut out of the rock of 
Mount Olivet, containing two hollow sepul- 
chres, one, that of the aged Simeon the Just, 
who held the child Jesus in the temple, and 
prophesied of Him ; the other of Joseph, the 
husband of Mary. 



' On the side of Mount Olivet there is a 
cave, not far from the church of St. Mary, on 
an eminence looking towards the valley of 
Jehoshaphat, in which are two very deep 
pits. One of these extends under the moun- 
tain to a vast depth ; the other is sunk straight 
down from the pavement of the cavern, and 
is said to be of great extent. These pits are 
always closed above. In this cavern are four 
stone tables ; one, near the entrance, is that 
of our Lord Jesus, whose seat is attached to 
it, and who, doubtless, rested Himself here 
while His twelve Apostles sat at the other 
tables. There is a wooden door to the cave, 
which was often visited by Arculf 



' After passing through the Gate of David, 
which is adjacent to Mount Sion, we come to 

4—2 



28 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



a stone bridge, raised on arches, and point- 
ing straight across the valley to the south ; 
half-way along which, a little to the west of 
it, is the spot where Judas Iscariot hanged 
himself; and there is still shown a large fig- 
tree, from the top of which he is said to have 
suspended himself, according to the words of 
the poet presbyter Juvencus — 

"Informem rapuit ficus de vertice mortem."' 



civitate egredientibus, portam et montem 
Sion proximum ad sinistram habentibus, pons 
lapideus occurrit, eminus per vallem in aus- 
trum recto tramite directus, arcubus sussaltus, 
ad cuius mcdietatcm ab occasu ille vicinus 
habetur locus, ubi Judas Iscariothis, despera- 
tione coactus, laqueo se suspendit. Ibidem 
et grandis hodie adhuc monstratur ficus, de 
cuius, ut fertur, vertice inlaqucatus pependit 
Judas, ut Juvencus, presbyter versificus, 
cecinit : 

" Informem rapuit ficus de verticem ortem." ' 

On jMount Sion, Arculf saw a square church, which included the site 
of our Lord's Supper, the place where the Holy Ghost descended upon 
the Apostles, the marble column to which our Lord was bound when He 
was scourged, and the spot where the Virgin Mary died. Here also was 
shown the site of the martyrdom of St. Stephen (as marked on his rough 
diagram). He saw on the south of Mount Sion a small field (Aceldama) 
covered with a heap of stones, where the bodies of many pilgrims are 
carefully buried, while others are left to rot on the surface. 



' Ab Elia septentrionem versus usque ad 
Samuelis civitatem, que Armathem nomina- 
tur, terra petrosa et aspera per quam mon- 
strantur intervalla, valles quoque spinose 
usque ad Taniticam regionem patentes. Alia 
vero a supra dicta Elia et monte Sion qualitas 
regionum monstratur usque ad Cesaream 
Palestine occasum versus ; nam quamvis 
aliqua ibi sint angusta et brevia et aspera 
loco interposita, precipue tamen latiores plani 
monstrantur campi, interpositis olivetis, 
letiores. 

'Aliarum arborum genera, exceptis viti- 
bus et olivis, in monte Oliveti, ut refert 
Arculfus, raro reperiri possunt ; segetes vero 
frumenti et hordei in eo valde lete consur- 
gunt. Non enim brucosa, sed herbosa et 
florida illius terre qualitas demonstratur. 
Altitude autem ejus equalis esse altitudini 
montis Sion videtur, quamvis mons Sion ad 
montis Oliveti comparationem in geometrie 
dimensionibus, latitudine videlicet et longitu- 



' The ground to the north of Jerusalem, 
as far as the city of Samuel, which is called 
Ramatha, is at intervals rough and stony. 
There are open valleys, covered with thorns, 
extending all the way to the region of Tam- 
nitis ; but, on the other side, from .•Elia (Jeru- 
salem) and Mount Sion to Csesarea of Pales- 
tine, though some narrow and craggy places 
are found, yet the principal part of the way 
is a level plain interspersed with olive-yards. 



'Arculf states that few trees are found 
on Mount Olivet, except vines and olive- 
trees, but wheat and barley flourish exceed- 
ingly ; the nature of the soil, which is not 
adapted to trees, is favourable to grass and 
flowers. The height of this hill appears to 
be equal to that of Mount Sion, although 
it is much more extensive in length and 
breadth : the two mountains are separated 
by the valley of Jehoshaphat. 



JERUSALEM. 



29 



dine, parvus et angustus videatur. Inter hos 
duos montes vallis Josaphath, de qua superius 
dictum est, media interjacet a septentrionali 
plaga in australem porrecta partem. 

' In toto monte Oliveti nuUus locus altior 
esse videtur illo, de quo Dominus ad celos 
ascendisse traditur, ubi grandis ecclesia stat 
rotunda, ternas per circuitum cameratas 
habens porticus desuper tectas : cujus ecclesia 
interior domus, sine tecto et sine camera, 
ad celum sub aere nudo aperta patet, in cuius 
orientali parte altare sub angusto protectum 
tecto exstat. Ideo itaque interior ilia domus 
cameram non habet, ut de illo loco, in quo 
postremuni divina cernuntur vestigia, cum in 
celum Dominus in nube sublevatus est, via 
semper aperta sit, et oculis exorantium ad 
celum patat. 

' Nam cum hec, de qua nunc pauca com- 
memoravi, basilica fabricaretur, idem locus 
vestigiorum Domini, ut alibi scriptum reper- 
tum est, continuari operimento cum reliqua 
statorum parte non potuit. Siquidem que- 
cumque adplicabantur, insolens terra humana 
suscipere respuens, in ora adponentium rejecit. 
Qain etiam a Domino concalcati pulveris 
adeo perenne documentum est, ut vestigia 
cernantur impressa, et cum quotidie con- 
fluentium fides a Domino calcata diripiat, 
damnum tamen area non sentit, et eandem 
adhuc sui speciem, veluti impressis signata 
vestigiis, terra custodit.' 



' On the highest point of Mount Olivet, 
where our Lord ascended into heaven, is a 
large round church, having around it three 
vaulted porticoes. The inner apartment is 
not vaulted and covered, because of the 
passage of our Lord's body ; but it has an 
altar on the east side, covered with a narrow 
roof On the ground, in the midst of it, are 
to be seen the last prints in the dust of our 
Lord's feet, and the roof appears open above, 
where He ascended ; and although the earth 
is daily carried away by believers, yet still it 
remains as before, and retains the same im- 
pression of the feet. 



Saint Willibald, who follows, was a traveller about the year 722 a.d. 



' Et inde venit ad Jerusalem in ilium 
locum, ubi inventa fuerat sancta crux Domini. 
Ibi est nunc ecclesia in illo loco, qui dicitur 
Calvarife locus. Et heec fuit prius extra 
Jerusalem ; sed Helena, quando invenit cru- 
cem, collocavit ilium locum intus intra Jeru- 
salem. Et ibi stant nunc tres cruces lignese 
forisin orientali plagaecclesise, secusparietem, 
ad memoriam sanctte crucis dominicae et 
aliorum, qui cum eo crucifixi erant. lite 
non sunt nunc in ecclesia, sed foris stant sub 



' On his arrival at Jerusalem, he first 
visited the spot where the holy cross was 
found, where there is now a church which 
is called the Place of Calvary, and which was 
formerly outside of Jerusalem ; but when St. 
Helena found the cross, the place was taken 
into the circuit of the city. Three wooden 
crosses stand in this place, on the outside of 
the wall of the church, in memory of our 
Lord's cross and of those of the other persons 
crucified at the same time. They are without 



30 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



tecto extra ecclcsiam. Et ibi sccus est illc 
hortus, in quo crat scpulcbrum salvatoris. 
Illud sepulchrum fuerat in petra excisum, et 
ilia pctra stat super terram, et est quadrans in 
imo ct in summo subtilis. Et stat nunc in 
summitate illius scpukbri crux, ct ibi supra 
nunc redificata est mirabilis domus, et in 
orientali plaga in ilia petra sepulchri est 
ostium factum, per quod intrant homines in 
sepulchrum orare. Et ibi est intus lectus, 
ubi corpus Domini jaccbat. Et ibi stant in 
Iccto quindecim cratera; aurea; cum oleo ar- 
dentes die noctuquc. Ille lectus, in quo 
corpus Domini jacebat, slat in latere aquilo- 
nis intus in pctra sepulchri, et homini est in 
dextra manu, quando intrat in sepulchrum 
orare. Et ibi ante januam sepulchri jacct 
ille lapis magnus quadrans in similitudine 
prions lapidis, quem angelus revolvit ab ostio 
monumenti. 

' Et illuc veniebat in festivitate sancti 
Martini episcopus noster. Et cito ut illuc 
venit, ccepit a^grotare, et jacebat infirmus, 
usque una hebdomada erat ante natalem 
Domini. Et tunc quando aliquid recreatus 
fuit et de infirmitate melius habebat, surgit 
ct abiit ad illam ecclcsiam, quae vocatur 
sancta Sion. Ilia stat in medio Jerusalem. 
Illic orabat, et inde ibat in porticum Salo- 
monis. Ibi est piscina, et illic jacent infirmi, 
exspectantes motionem aquse, quando angelus 
veniret et moveret aquam, et tunc, qui pri- 
mum in illam descenderet, sanaretur : ubi 
Dominus dixit paralytico : " Surge, tolle gra- 
batum tuum et ambulla." 

' Sancta Maria in illo loco in medio Jeru- 
salem exivit de sseculo, qui nominatur sancta 
Sion. Et tunc apostoli undecim portaverunt 
illam, sicut prius dixi, et tunc angcli venientes 
tulerunt illam de manibus apostolorum et por- 
taverunt in paradisum. 

' Et inde descendens episcopus Willi- 
baldus venit ad vallem Josaphat. Ilia stat 
juxta Jerusalem civitatem in orientali plaga. 
Et in ilia valle est ecclesia sancta: Maria:, et 
in ecclesia est sepulchrum ejus non dc eo, 



the church, but under a roof. And near at 
hand is the garden in which was the Sepulchre 
of our Saviour, which was cut in the rock. 
That rock is now above ground, sfjuare at the 
bottom, but tapering above, with a cross on 
the summit. And over it there is now built 
a wonderful edifice. And on the east side of 
the Rock of the Sepulchre there is a door, by 
which men enter the Sepulchre to pray. And 
there is a bed within, on which our Lord's 
body lay ; and on the bed stand fifteen 
golden cups with oil burning day and night. 
The bed on which our Lord's body rested 
stands within the Rock of the Sepulchre on 
the north side, to the right of a man entering 
the Sepulchre to pray. And before the door 
of the Sepulchre lies a great square stone, in 
the likeness of the former stone which the 
angel rolled from the mouth of the monu- 
ment. 

' Our bishop arrived here on the feast of 
St. Martin, and was suddenly seized with 
sickness, and lay sick until the week before 
the Nativity of our Lord. And then, being 
a little recovered, he rose and went to the 
church called St. Sion, which is in the 
middle of Jerusalem, and, after performing 
his devotions, he went to the porch of 
Solomon, where is the pool where the infirm 
wait for the motion of the water, when the 
angel comes to move it ; and then he who 
first enters it is healed. Here our Lord said 
to the paralytic, " Rise, take up thy bed, and 
walk !" 

' St. Mary expired in the middle of Jeru- 
salem, in the place called St. Sion ; and as 
the twelve Apostles were carrying her body, 
the angels came and took her from their 
hands and carried her to Paradise. 

' Bishop Willibald ne.xt descended to the 
valley of Jehoshaphat, which is close to the 
city of Jerusalem, on the east side. And in 
that valley is the Church of St. Mary, which 
contains her sepulchre, not because her body 



JERUSALEM. 



31 



quod corpus ejus ibi requiescat, sed ad me- 
moriani ejus. Et ibi orans ascendit in mon- 
tem Oliveti, qui est ibi juxta valleni in oricntali 
plaga. Ilia vallis est inter Jerusalem et mon- 
tem Oliveti. Et in monte Oliveti est nunc 
ecclesia, ubi Dominus ante passionem orabat, 
et dixit ad discipulos : " Vigilate et orate, ut 
non intretis in tentationem." Et inde venit ad 
ecclesiam in ipso monte, ubi Dominus ascen- 
dit in coelum. Et in medio ecclesije stat de 
aere factum sculptum ac speciosum, et est 
quadrans. Illud stat in medio ecclesise, ubi 
Dominus ascendit in ccelum. Et in medio 
aereo est factum vitreum quandrangulum, et 
ibi est in vitreo parvum cicindulum, et circa 
cicindulum est illudvitreum undique clausum. 
Et ideo est undique clausum, ut semper ar- 
dere possit in pluvia, sed et in sole. Ilia 
ecclesia est desuper patula et sine tecto, et 
ibi stant duse columns intus in ecclesia con- 
tra parietem aquilonis et contra parietem 
meridialis plaga;. lite sunt in memoriam et 
in signum duoruni virorum, qui dixerunt : 
"Viri Galilsei, quid statis aspicientes in coe- 
lum ?" Et ille homo, qui ibi potest inter 
parietem et columnas repere, liber est a pec- 
catis suis.' 



rests there, but in memory of it. And having 
prayed there, he ascended Mount Olivet, 
which is on the east side of the valley, and 
where there is now a church, where our Lord 
prayed before His passion, and said to His 
disciples, " Watch and pray, that ye enter 
not into temptation." And thence he came 
to the church on the mountain itself, where 
our Lord ascended to heaven. In the middle 
of the church is a square receptacle, beauti- 
fully sculptured in brass, on the spot of the 
Ascension, and there is on it a small lamp in 
a glass case, closed on every side, that the 
lamp may burn always, in rain or in fair 
weather, for the church is open above, with- 
out a roof; and two columns stand within 
the church, against the north wall and the 
south wall, in memory of the two men who 
said, " Men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing 
up into heaven ?" And the man who can 
creep between the wall and the columns will 
have remission of his sins.' 



Bernard the Wise visited the city about the year 867 a.d. 



' De Ramula festinavimus ad Emmaus 
castellum. De Emmaus pervenimus ad sanc- 
tam civitatem Jerusalem. Et recepti sumus 
in hospitale gloriosissimi imperatoris Caroli, 
in quo suscipiuntur omnes, qui causa devo- 
tionis ilium adeunt locum lingua loquentes 
romana : cui adjacet ecclesia in honore 
sanctas Marije, nobilissimam habens biblio- 
thecam studio prasdicti imperatoris, cum XII 
mansionibus, agris, vineis et horto in valle 
Josaphat. Ante ipsum hospitale est forum, 
in quo unusquisque ibi negotians in anno 
solvit duos aureos illi, qui illud providet. 

' Intra hanc civitatem, exceptis aliis eccle- 
siis quatuor eminent ecclesia mutuis sibimet 
parietibus cohserentes : una videlicet ad orien- 



' From Ramula we hastened to the castle 
of Emmaus ; and thence we went to the holy 
city of Jerusalem, where we were received in 
the hostel founded there by the glorious 
Emperor Charles, in which are received all 
the pilgrims who speak the Roman tongue ; 
to which adjoins a church in honour of St. 
Mary, with a most noble hbrary, founded by 
the same Emperor, with twelve mansions, 
fields, vineyards, and a garden in the valley 
of Jehoshaphat. In front of the hospital is 
a market, for which every one trading there 
pays yearly to him who provides it two aurei. 

' AVithin this city, besides others, there are 
four principal churches, connected with each 
other by walls ; one to the east, which con- 



32 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



tern qure habct montem Calvarire et locum, 
in quo repcrta fuit crux Domini, et vocatur 
basilica Constantini, alia ad meridiem, tertia 
ad occidentem, in cujus medio est sepul- 
chrum Domini habens IX columnas in cir- 
cuitu, sui, inter quas consistunt parietes ex 
optimis lapidibus : ex quibus IX columnis 
IV sunt ante faciem ipsius monumenti, quae 
cum suis parietihus claudunt lajjidcm coram 
sepulchro positum, qucm angelus revolvit ct 
super quem sedit post peratam Domini resur- 
rectionem. De hoc sepulchro non est ncccsse 
plura scribcre, cum dicat Beda in historia 
anglorum sua sufficientia, qufe et nos possu- 
nius rcferre. Hoc tamen dicendum, quod 
sabbato sancto, quod est vigilia paschal, mane 
officium incipitur in hac ecclesia et, post 
peractum officium, Kyrie eleison canitur, 
donee, veniente angelo, lumen in lampadibus 
accenditur, qu£B pendent super prsedictum 
sepulchrum : de quo dat patriarcha episcopis 
et reliquo populo, ut illuminet sibi unus- 
quisque in suis locis. Hie autem patri- 
archa vocabatur Theodosius, qui ab me- 
ritum devotionis a christianis est raptus de 
suo monasterio, quod distat ab Jerusa- 
lem XV millia, et ibi patriarcha con- 
stitutus super omnes christianos, qui sunt 
in terra repromissionis. Inter pr.xdictas igi- 
tur I HI ecclesias est paradisus sine tecto, 
cujus parietes auro radiant ; pavimentum vero 
lapide sternitur pretiosissimo, habens in medio 
sui confinium IIII catenarum, qua; veniunt 
a prsedictis IIII ecclesiis : in quo dicitur me- 
dius esse mundus. 

' Est prKterea in ipsa civitate alia ecclesia 
ad meridiem, in monte Sion, quje dicitur 
sancti Simeonis, ubi Dominus lavit pedes 
discipulorum suorum : in qua pendet spinea 
corona Domini. In hac defuncta traditur 
esse sancta Maria, juxta quam, versus orien- 
tem, est ecclesia in honore sancti Stephani in 
loco, in quo lapidatus esse asseritur. In 



tains the Mount of Calvary, and the place in 
which the cross of our Lord was found, and 
is called the Basilica of Constantine ; another 
to the south ; a third to the west, in the 
middle of which is the sepulchre of our Lord, 
having nine columns in its circuit, between 
which are walls made of the most excellent 
stones ; of which nine columns, four are in 
front of the monument itself; which, with 
their wallg, include the stone placed before 
the sepulchre, which the angel rolled away, 
and on which he sat after our Lord's resur- 
rection. It is not necessary to say more of 
this sepulchre, since Bede has given a full 
description of it in his history.^ I must not, 
however, omit to state, that on Holy Saturday, 
which is the eve of Easter, the office is begun 
in the morning in this church, and after it is 
ended the Kyrie Eleison is chanted, until an 
angel comes and lights the lamps which hang 
over the aforesaid sepulchre ; of which light 
the patriarch gives their shares to the bishops 
and to the rest of the people, that each may 
illuminate his own house. The present 
patriarch is called Theodosius, and was 
brought to this place on account of his piety 
from his monastery, which is 15 miles from 
Jerusalem, and was made patriarch over all 
the Christians in the Land of Promise. 
Between the aforesaid four churches is a 
parvis without roof, the walls of which shine 
with gold, and the pavement is laid with very 
precious stone ; and in the middle four 
chains, coming from each of the four 
churches, join in a point which is said to 
be the middle of the world. 

' There is, moreover, in the city, another 
church on Mount Sion, which is called the 
Church of St. Simeon, where our Lord 
washed the feet of His disciples, and in 
which is suspended our Lord's crown of 
thorns. St. Mary is said to have died in this 
church. Near it, towards the east, is a church 
in honour of St. Stephen, on the spot where 



That is to say, Arculphus' account, which Bede inserts into his history. 



JERUSALEM. 



33 



directum autem ad orientem est ecclesia in 
honore sancti Petri in loco, in quo Dominum 
negavit. Ad aquilonem est templum Salo- 
monis, habcns S5'nagogam S'arracenorum. Ad 
meridiem sunt portaa ferrece, per quas angelus 
Domini eduxit Petrum de carcere, quK postea 
non sunt apertce. 



' Exeuntes autem de Jerusalem descendi- 
mus in vallem Josaphat, quas abest a civitate 
milliario, habens villam Gethsemane cum 
loco nativitatis sanctte Marios, in quo est, in 
honore ipsius, ecclesia sanctte Marice rotunda, 
ubi est sepulchrum illius, quod, supra se non 
habens tectum, minime pluvium patitur. In 
ipso etiam loco est ecclesia, in quo Dominus 
traditus est, habens ibi quatuor mensas ro- 
tundas ccens ipsius. In valle quoque Josa- 
phat est ecclesia S. Lcontii, in qua dicitur 
Dominus venturus esse ad judicium. 

' Inde perreximus in montem Oliveti, in 
cujus declivio ostenditur locus orationis Do- 
mini ad patrem. In latere autem prsedicti 
montis ostenditur locus, in quo pharisxi de- 
duxerunt ad Dominum mulierem in adulterio 
deprehensam. Habetur ibi ecclesia in honore 
sancti Johannis, in qua servatur scriptura in 
lapide marmoreo, quara Dominus scripsit in 
terra. 

' In cacumine autem sa;pius dicti montis, 
milliario uno a valle Josaphat, est locus ascen- 
sionis Domini ad patrem. Habetur ibi ec- 
clesia rotunda sine tecto, in cujus medio, hoc 
est in loco ascensionis Domini, habetur altare 
sub divo patens, in quo celebrantur sollem- 
nia missarum. 

'Inde transivimus ad Bethaniam, qure 
est ad meridiem, distans a monte Oliveti 
milliario uno, in descensu ipsius montis. In 
quo est monasterium, cujus ecclesia sepul- 
chrum monstrat Lazari : juxta quod est pis- 
cina ad aquilonem in qua jussu Domini lavit 
se ipse Lazarus resuscitatus, qui dicitur postea 
exstitisse episcopus in Epheso XL annis. In 



he is believed to have been stoned. And, 
indirectly to the east, is a church in honour 
of St. Peter, in the place where he denied our 
Lord. To the north is the Temple of Solo- 
mon, having a synagogue of the Saracens. 
To the south of it are the iron gates through 
which the angel of the Lord led Peter out 
of prison, and which were never opened 
afterwards. 

' Leaving Jerusalem, we descended into 
the valley of Jehoshaphat, which is a mile 
from the city, containing the village of Geth- 
semane, with the place of the nativity of St. 
Mary. In it is a round church of St. Mary, 
containing her sepulchre, on which the rain 
never falls, although there is no roof above 
it. There is also a church on the sjiot where 
our Lord was betrayed, containing the four 
round tables of His supper. In the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat there is also a church of St. 
Leon, in which it is said that our Lord will 
come at the Last Judgment. 

' Thence we went to Mount Olivet, on 
the declivity of which is shown the place of 
our Lord's prayer to the Father. On the 
side of the same mountain is shown the place 
where the Pharisees brought to our Lord the 
woman taken in adultery, where there is a 
church in honour of St. John, in which is 
preserved the writing in marble which our 
Lord wrote on the ground. 

' At the summit of the mountain, a mile 
from the valley of Jehoshaphat, is tlie place 
of our Lord's ascension, in the middle of 
which, on the spot from which He ascended, 
is an altar open to the sky, on which mass is 
celebrated. 

' Thence we proceeded to Bethany, which 
is to the south, on the ascent of the moun- 
tain, I mile from the top ; there is here a 
monastery, with a church containing the 
sepulchre of Lazarus ; near which, to the 
north, is a pool in which, by our Lord's com- 
mand, Lazarus washed himself after he had 
been raised from the dead ; and he is said 

5 



34 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

descensu etiam dc monte Oliveti ad occi- to have been subsequently bishop in Ephesus 
dentalem plagam ostenditur marmor, de quo forty years. On the western declivity of 
descendit Dominus super pullum asinae. Mount Olivet is shown the marble from 
Inter hoec ad meridiem, in valle Josaphat, est which the Lord descended on the foal of an 
natatoria Siloe. ass. Between these, to the south, in the 

valley of Jehoshaphat, is the pool of Siloah.' 

The original Latin of Scewulf need not be given, as his description, 
though interesting, is not so important as those which precede. His date 

is I I02 A.D. 

' The entrance to the city of Jerusalem is from the west, under the citadel of King David, 
by the gate which is called the Gate of David. The first place to be visited is the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre, which is called the Martyrium, not only because the streets lead most 
directly to it, but because it is more celebrated than all the other churches ; and that rightly 
and justly, for all the things which were foretold and forewritten by the holy prophets of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ were there actually fulfilled. The church itself was royally and magni- 
ficently built, after the discovery of our Lord's cross, by the Archbishop \Laximus, with the 
patronage of the Emperor Constantine, and his mother Helena. In the middle of this church 
is our Lord's Sepulchre, surrounded by a very strong wall and roof, lest the rain should fall 
upon the Holy Sepulchre, for the church above is open to the sky. This church is situated, 
like the city, on the declivity of Mount Sion. The Roman Emperors Titus and Vespasian, to 
revenge our Lord, entirely destroyed the city of Jerusalem, that our Lord's prophecy might 
be fulfilled, which, as He approached Jerusalem, seeing the city. He pronounced, weeping 
over it, " If thou hadst known, even thou, for the day shall come upon thee, that thine 
enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every 
side, and shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children with thee ; and they shall not 
leave in thee one stone upon another." We know that our Lord suffered without the gate. 
But the Emperor Hadrian, who was called Julius, rebuilt the city of Jerusalem, and the 
Temple of the Lord, and added to the city as far as the Tower of David, which was pre- 
viously a considerable distance from the city, for any one may see from the Mount of Olivet 
where the extreme western walls of the city stood originally, and how much it is since 
increased. And the Emperor called the city after his own name, /Elia, which is interpreted 
the House of God. Some, however, say that the city was rebuilt by the Emperor Justinian, 
and also the Temple of the Lord as it is now ; but they say that according to supposition, 
and not according to truth. For the Assyrians, whose fathers dwelt in that country from the 
first persecution, say that the city was taken and destroyed many times after our Lord's 
Passion, along with all the churches, but not entirely defaced. 

' In the court of the Church of our Lord's Sepulchre are seen some very holy places, 
namely, the prison in which our Lord Jesus Christ was confined after He was betrayed, 
according to the testimony of the Assyrians ; then, a little above, appears the place where the 
holy cross and the other crosses were found, where afterwards a large church was built in 
honour of Queen Helena, but which has since been utterly destroyed by the Pagans ; and 
below, not far from the prison, stands the marble column to which our Lord Jesus Christ was 
bound in the common hall, and scourged with most cruel stripes. Near this is the spot 



JER USALEM. 35 

where our Lord was stripped of His garments by the soldiers ; and next, the place where He 
was clad in a purple vest by the soldiers, and crowned with the crown of thorns, and they 
cast lots for His garments. Next we ascend Mount Calvary, where the patriarch Abraham 
raised an altar, and prepared, by God's command, to sacrifice his own son ; there afterwards 
the Son of God, whom He prefigured, was offered up as a sacrifice to God the Father for the 
redemption of the world. The rock of that mountain remains a witness of our Lord's passion, 
being much cracked near the fosse in which our Lord's cross was fixed, because it could not 
suffer the death of its Maker without splitting, as we read in the Passion, " and the rocks 
rent." Below is the place called Golgotha, where Adam is said to have been raised to life by 
the blood of our Lord which fell upon him, as is said in the Passion, " And many bodies of 
the saints which slept arose." But in the Sentences of St. Augustine, we read that he was 
buried in Hebron, where also the three patriarchs were afterwards buried with their wives : 
Abraham with Sarah, Isaac with Rebecca, and Jacob with Leah ; as well as the bones of 
Joseph, which the children of Israel carried with them from Egypt. Near the place of Calvary 
is the Church of St. Mary, on the spot where the body of our Lord, after having been taken 
down from the cross, was anointed before it was buried, and wrapped in a linen cloth or 
shroud. 

' At the head of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in the wall outside, not far from the 
place of Calvary, is the place called Compas, which our Lord Jesus Christ Himself signified 
and measured with His own hand as the middle of the world, according to the words of the 
Psalmist, " For God is my king of old, working salvation in the midst of the earth." But 
some say that this is the place where our Lord Jesus Christ first appeared to Mary Magdalene, 
while she sought Him weeping, and thought He had been a gardener, as is related in the 
Gospel. These most holy places of prayer are contained in the court of our Lord's Sepul- 
chre, on the east side. In the sides of the church itself are attached, on one side and the 
other, two most beautiful chapels in honour of St. Mary and St. John, as they, participating 
in our Lord's sufferings, stationed themselves beside Him here and there. On the west wall 
of the chapel of St. Mary is seen the picture of our Lord's Mother, painted externally, who 
once, by speaking wonderfully through the Holy Spirit, in the form in which she is here 
painted, comforted Mary the Egyptian, when she repented with her whole heart, and sought 
the help of the Mother of our Lord, as we read in her life. On the other side of the Church 
of St. John is a very fair monastery of the Holy Trinity, in which is the place of the baptistery, 
to which adjoins the Chapel of St. John the Apostle, who first filled the pontifical see at 
Jerusalem. These are all so composed and arranged, that any one standing in the furthest 
church may clearly perceive the five churches from door to door. 

' Without the gate of the Holy Sepulchre, to the south, is the Church of St. Mary, called 
the Latin, because the monks there perform divine service in the Latin tongue ; and the 
Assyrians say that the blessed Mother of our Lord, at the crucifixion of her Son, stood on the 
spot now occupied by the altar of this church. Adjoining to this church is another Church of 
St. Mary, called the Little, occupied by nuns who serve devoutly the Virgin and her Son. 
Near which is the Hospital, where is a celebrated monastery founded in honour of St. John 
the Baptist. 

' We descend from our Lord's Sepulchre, about the distance of two arbalist-shots, to the 
Temple of the Lord, which is to the east of the Holy Sepulchre, the court of which is of 
great length and breadth, having many gates ; but the principal gate, which is in front of the 
Temple, is called the Beautiful, on account of its elaborate workmanship and variety of 

5—2 



36 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

colours, and is the spot where Peter healed Claudius, when he and John went up into the 
Temple at the ninth hour of prayer, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles. The place where 
Solomon built the Temple was called anciently Bethel ; whither Jacob repaired by God's 
command, and where he dwelt, and saw the ladder whose summit touched heaven, and the 
angels ascending and descending, and said, " Truly this place is holy," as we read in Genesis. 
There he raised a stone as a memorial, and constructed an altar, and poured oil upon it ; and 
in the same place afterwards, by God's will, Solomon built a temple to the Lord of magnificent 
and incomparable work, and decorated it wonderfully with every ornament, as we read in the 
Book of Kings. It exceeded all the mountains around in height, and all walls and buildings 
in brilliancy and glory. In the middle of which temple is seen a high and large rock, 
hollowed beneath, in which was the Holy of Holies. In this place Solomon placed the Ark 
of the Covenant, having the Manna and the Rod of Aaron, which flourished and budded 
there and produced almonds, and the two Tables of the Testament : here our Lord Jesus 
Christ, wearied with the insolence of the Jews, was accustomed to repose ; here was the place 
of confession, where His disciples confessed themselves to Him; here the Angel Gabriel 
appeared to Zacharias, saying, " Thou shalt receive a child in thy old age ;" here Zacharias, 
the son of Barachias, was slain between the temple and the altar ; here the child Jesus was 
circumcised on the eighth day, and named Jesus, which is interpreted Saviour ; here the Lord 
Jesus was offered by His parents, with the Virgin Mary, on the day of her purification, and 
received by the aged Simeon ; here, also, when Jesus was twelve years of age, He was found 
sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing and interrogating them, as we read in the Gospel ; 
here afterwards He cast out the o.xen, and sheep, and pigeons, saying, " My house shall be a 
house of prayer ;" and here He said to the Jews, " Destroy this temple, and in three days I 
will raise it up." There still are seen in the rock the footsteps of our Lord, when He concealed 
Himself, and went out from the Temple, as we read in the Gospel, lest the Jews should throw 
at Him the stones they carried. Thither the woman taken in adultery was brought before 
Jesus by the Jews, that they might find some accusation against Him. There is the gate of 
the city on the eastern side of the Temple, which is called the Golden, where Joachim, the 
father of the Blessed Mary, by order of the Angel of the Lord, met his wife Anne. By the 
same gate the Lord Jesus, coming from Bethany on the Day of Olives, sitting on an ass, 
entered the city of Jerusalem, while the children sang, " Hosanna to the Son of David." By 
this gate the Emperor Heraclius entered Jerusalem, when he returned victorious from Persia 
with the cross of our Lord ; but the stones first fell down and closed up the passage, so that 
the gate became one mass, until humbling himself at the admonition of an angel, he descended 
from his horse, and so the entrance was opened to him. In the court of the Temple of the 
Lord, to the south, is the Temple of Solomon, of wonderful magnitude, on the east side of 
which is an oratory containing the cradle of Christ, and His bath, and the bed of the Virgin 
Mary, according to the testimony of the Assyrians. 

' From the Temple of the Lord you go to the church of St. Anne, the mother of the 
Blessed Mary, towards the north, where she lived with her husband, and she was there 
delivered of her daughter Mary. Near it is the pool called in Hebrew Bethsaida, having five 
porticoes, of which the Gospel speaks. A little above is the place where the woman was 
healed by our Lord, by touching the hem of His garment, while He was surrounded by a 
crowd in the street. 

' From St. Anne we pass through the gate which leads to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, to 
the church of St.' Mary in the same valley, where she was honourably buried by the Apostles 



JERUSALEM. 37 

after her death ; her sepulchre, as is just and proper, is revered with the greatest honours by 
the faithful, and monks perform service there day and night. Here is the brook Cedron ; 
here also is Gethsemane, where our Lord came with His disciples from Mount Sion, over the 
brook Cedron, before the hour of His betrayal ; there is a certain oratory wliere He dis- 
missed Peter, James, and John, saying, " Tarry ye here, and watch with me ;" and going 
forward, He fell on His face and prayed, and came to His disciples, and found them sleeping: 
the places are still visible where the disciples slept, ai)art from each other. Gethsemane is at 
the foot of Mount Olivet, and the brook Cedron below, between Mount Sion and Mount 
Olivet, as it were the division of the mountains ; and the low ground between the mountains 
is the Valley of Jehoshaphat. A little above, in Mount Olivet, is an oratory in the place 
where our Lord prayed, as we read in the Passion, " And He was withdrawn from them 
about a stone's cast, and being in an agony, He prayed more earnestly, and His sweat was 
as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground." Next we come to Aceldama, 
the field bought with the price of the Lord, also at the foot of Mount Olivet, near a valley 
about three or four arbalist-shots to the south of Gethsemane, where are seen innumerable 
monuments. That field is near the sepulchres of the holy fathers Simeon the Just and 
Joseph the foster-father of our Lord. These two sepulchres are ancient structures, in the 
manner of towers, cut into the foot of the mountain itself We next descend, by Aceldama, 
to the fountain which is called the Pool of Siloah, where, by our Lord's command, the man 
born blind washed his eyes, after the Lord had anointed them with clay and spittle. 

' From the church of St. Mary before mentioned, we go up by a very steep path nearly to 
the summit of Mount Olivet, towards the east, to the place whence our Lord ascended to 
heaven in the sight of His disciples. The place is surrounded by a little tower, and honourably 
adorned, with an altar raised on the spot within, and also surrounded on all sides with a wall. 
On the spot where the apostles stood with His mother, wondering at His ascension, is an 
altar of St. Mary ; there the two men in white garments stood by them saying, " Ye men of 
Galilee, why stand ye gazing into heaven ?" About a stone's throw from that place is the 
spot where, according to the Assyrians, our Lord wrote the Lord's prayer in Hebrew, with 
His own fingers, on marble ; and there a very beautiful church was built, but it has since 
been entirely destroyed by the Pagans, as are all the churches outside the walls, except the 
church of the Holy Ghost on Mount Sion, about an arrow-shot from the wall to the north, 
where the Apostles received the promise of the Father, namely, the Paraclete Spirit, on the 
day of Pentecost ; there they made the Creed. In that church is a chapel in the place where 
the Blessed Mary died. On the other side of the church is the chapel where our Lord Jesus 
Christ first appeared to the Apostles after His resurrection, and it is called Galilee, as He said 
to the Apostles, " After I am risen again, I will go before you unto Galilee." That place was 
called Gahlee, because the Apostles, who were called Galileans, frequently rested there. 

' In the Galilee of Mount Sion, where the Apostles were concealed in an inner chamber, 
with closed doors, for fear of the Jews, Jesus stood in the middle of them and said, "Peace 
be unto you ;" and He again appeared there when Thomas put his finger into His side and 
into the place of the nails. There He supped with His disciples before the Passion, and 
washed their feet ; and the marble table is still preserved there on which He supped. There 
the relics of St. Stephen, Nicodemus, Gamaliel, and Abido, were honourably deposited by St. 
John the Patriarch after they were found. The stoning of St. Stephen took place about two 
or three arbalist-shots without the wall, to the north, where a very handsome church was 
built, which has been entirely destroyed by the Pagans. The church of the Holy Cross, 



38 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

about a mile to the west of Jerusalem, in the place where the holy cross was cut out, and 
which was also a very handsome one, has been similarly laid waste by the Pagans ; but the 
destruction here fell chiefly on the surrounding buildings and the cells of the monks, the 
church itself not having suffered so much. Under the wall of the city, outside, on the 
declivity of Mount Sion, is the church of St. Peter, which is called the Gallican, where, after 
having denied his Lord, he hid himself in a very deep crypt, as may still be seen there, and 
there wept bitterly for his offence.' 

The great Cufic inscription which runs just beneath the ceiling round 
the outer arcade of the Dome of the Rock gives the date of the erection 
of that beautiful building. The name of the founder has been replaced 
by that of a later Khalif (el Mamun) ; but the forger forgot to alter the 
date, and the darker shade of blue in the ground colour betrays the 
alteration. The text at present reads thus : 

dilL j^ix£ ^\\\ -> ■ ^ nmlL ^ -^ o ^ 

CILq ^iil L Ll£U J.&^4JL1II ^ JJjJuL 

which being translated means : 

' Built this dome the servant of God, 'Abd (Allah the Imam Mamun), Emir of the faithful, 
in the year two and seventy. May God be pleased thereby, and be gracious unto liiui. 
Amen.' 

The Khalif el Mamun reigned in the ninth century (813-833 .\.i).), and 
made certain additions to the Dome of the Rock. The Khalif who was 
reigning in the year 72 of the Hejirah was 'Abd el Melek. The beginning 
of his name was left untouched, but the words within brackets were 
changed. It is to 'Abd el Melek, the fourth of the early Ommiyah 
Khalifs, that Arab writers attribute the erection of the building, giving 
the same date mentioned in the inscription, 72 a.h., or 688 .^i.D. 

The same Arab authorities also state that the Dome of the Chain was 
the original model of the Dome of the Rock. Captain Conder has pointed 
out that the proportions of the smaller monument are reproduced by the 
larger, if we except the present exterior octagonal wall, the roof and 
doors of which bear dates of the ninth and tenth centuries. If this view 



JERUSALEM. 39 

be accepted, it would appear that the Dome of the Rock, as originally con- 
structed by 'Abd el Melek Ibn Merwan, consisted of a central drum 
supported on columns and piers and crowned by a dome, with an outer 
arcade supporting a sloping roof. The building, like the Dome of the 
Chain, would have been open at the sides, and the outer walls, which 
quite spoil the proportions of the structure, would not have been added 
until the time of el Mamun. 

Various alterations were made by the same Khalif 'Abd el Melek in 
the Aksa Mosque, which was the new name given to Justinian's Basilica 
of St. Mary. And according to the Arab historian Jelal ed Din, el Mahdi 
in the eighth century (775-7S1 a.d.) decreased the length of the Basilica 
and widened it. The restorations of the Dome of the Rock effected by 
el Mamun are twice recorded above each door, with the date 831 a.d. 
(216 A.H.) ; and a beam above the outer octagonal wall has been found 
bearing a date equivalent to 913 a.d. 

William of Tyre specially alludes to these mosaic inscriptions as being 
supposed to contain the date of the building; but being unable to read 
the 'Arabic idiom,' he refers them to Omar (William of Tyre, i. 2, 
viii. 2). 

In 1016 A.D. the Dome of the Rock was injured by earthquake, and 
the present woodwork of the cupola bears the date 413 a.h. (or 1022 a.d.) 
in a very fine inscription in Karmatic characters, containing the names 
of Hakem, the famous Fatemite Khalif, and of his son, Abu el Hassan. 
A half-effaced inscription also records the restoration of the original glass 
mosaics in 1027 a.d. 

We are thus brought to the next great period of building activity in 
Jerusalem, when, immediately after the capture of the city on Friday, 
15th July, 1099, by the first Crusading army under Godfrey de Bouillon, 
the Christians at once commenced to restore the various e.xisting churches 
and to build others. 

The existing cathedral church of the Holy Sepulchre is mainly the 
work of the Crusaders. It was commenced in 1103 a.d., and stood 
uninjured until 180S, when it was pardy destroyed by fire. The main 
structure is, however, still extant, and some of the mosaics described by 
Theodoricus in 11 72 a.d. are yet visible on the walls. The belfry was, 
however, originally some sixty feet higher than it now is. The main part 



40 THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of the rotunda, the three chapels south of it, and the corresponding 
northern chapel, with the northern aisle, the chapels of Adam and 
Calvary, and the subterranean chapel of Helena, are all supposed by 
De Vogiie and Willis to be earlier than the Crusading period, while the 
last mentioned may even belong to the time of Modestus. The choir and 
presbytery, with the great eastern dome, and the apse and outer gallery 
with chapels, are substantially the work of the Crusaders, as is the 
southern entrance and the little exterior chapel of St. Mary the Egyptian, 
and the upper porch once giving access to the Calvary chapels. The 
structure at present covering the Sepulchre itself is, however, of later 
date than the fire of 1808, as are the buildings on the cast side of the 
southern courtyard. 

Next in importance to the Cathedral of the Holy Sepulchre was the 
great Hospice of the Knights of St. John, immediately to the south. 
The principal buildings (which are now hidden under ddbris) were erected 
about 1 130-1 140 A.D. The Church of Sancta Maria Majora, adjoining the 
hospital on the east, belongs to the same period, and the remaining 
buildings, the ruins of which were excavated in 1872, south of this church, 
belonging to a convent, were built rather later, as is evidenced by the 
architecture. 

The Crusading Church of St. Anne, which was restored by the French 
about i860, also belonged to the first half of the twelfth century, and stood 
on the site of an older building. The large Church of St. Mary Magdalen, 
in the present Moslem quarter, is mentioned in the Cartulary of the Holy 
Sepulchre as early as 1160 a.d. The Armenian Church of St. James is 
also mentioned by the pilgrims of the twelfth century. The Cccnaculum 
church on Sion is of the same age, replacing the old Sion Church of Simeon 
or Peter. A convent was erected beside it by Sancia, wife of Robert of 
Sicily, in 131 3 a.d. The Franciscans continued to hold the site until 
1 56 1 A.D., when it was taken from them by the Moslems. The present 
Chapel of the Flagellation also represents the mediaeval Church of the 
Virgin (Ubi Ouievit); and the little Church of St. James the Less, 
close to the Protestant Church on Sion, is a Crusading building. The 
Mosque of the Malawiyeh Derwishes, near the Damascus Gate, is a 
mediaeval chapel, but its name is not known. In the same quarter, south 
of the Magdalen Church, is the small Chapel of St. Peter, and the yet 



JERUSALEM. \\ 

smaller Chapel of the Nativity of the Virgin, both evidently built in the 
twelfth century. The Chapel of the Crowning with Thorns still exists 
within the Turkish barracks at the north-west angle of the Haram ; and 
in the present Jews' quarter there are two very interesting twelfth-century 
ruins, viz. : the Hospice of St. Mary of the Germans (founded in 1 1 28 a.d.), 
of which a few traces are standing above the vaulted substructures among 
Jewish houses, and a little chapel, now inhabited, which may perhaps re- 
present the Church of St. Thomas of the Germans. The following chapels 
of the same period are not now known, viz. : St. Chariton (possibly the 
present Khankah of Saladin), north of the Holy Sepulchre ; St. Gilles, 
near the Mehkemeh ; St. Julian, St. Cosmo, St. John, in the Via Dolorosa ; 
St. Elijah and St. Agnes, in the present Moslem quarter. 

Outside the city, the Crusaders erected a new church over the Tomb of 
the Virgin. This was the work of Melisinda, wife of King Fulk, and was 
completed before 1 161 a.d. It still remains almost unchanged. On Olivet 
stood the newly erected round Church of the Ascension (still in use), and 
the Pater Noster Chapel a stone's-throw distant. The new Church of 
Gethsemane is mentioned by John of Wirtzburg, and above it were the 
Chapels of the Credo and of the Weeping. On Sion, east of the Coena- 
culum, was the Cave and Chapel of Gallicantus, where St. Peter was 
supposed to have heard the cock crow ; but this site cannot now be 
identified with certainty. There was also a Chapel of St. Saviour, sup- 
posed to stand on the site of the house of Caiaphas ; and south of Sion 
was St. Mark, on the site now called Deir Abu Tor. North of Jerusalem 
was the great inn called the Asnerie, built by the Templars, and of which 
remains were discovered in 1S75. A twelfth-century church has lately 
been excavated immediately north of the ruins of the Asnerie, but its 
mediaeval name is unknown. 

The above list, with the older Churches of St. Stephen, St. Mary 
Latin, St. Mary the Little, and the old Basilica of the ' Forerunner' in 
David Street, gives a total of thirty-seven churches which are known to 
have existed in Jerusalem or in the vicinity of the city walls in the twelfth 
century. Nor is this all that remains of the Crusading town, for wherever 
the explorer walks through the Holy City he encounters mediaeval remains, 
The whole of the present meat bazaar, adjoining the Hospital of St. John 
on the east, is Crusading work, representing the old street of Malcuisinat; 

6 



42 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and the walls of the street leading thence towards the Damascus Gate, 
together with a fine vaulted building on the east side, are of mediaeval 
masonry. The present Tower of David is the Crusading Castle of the 
Pisans, which was rebuilt as soon as the city was taken by Godfrey, and 
which was not destroyed when the walls of the city were demolished in 
1 2 19 A.D. The so-called Kalat Jalud, in the north-west angle of the 
present city, is the mediaeval Tancred's Tower (William of Tyre, viii. 5). 

The w^alls of Jerusalem had only just been repaired by the Egyptians 
before Godfrey's siege in 1099 a.d. They were again repaired by the 
Christians in 1178 a.d., and by Saladin in 1192 a.d., but were dismantled 
in 1219 by Melek el Moazzam. The foundations of these mediaeval walls 
are still visible on the north-west, outside the present wall of the city. 
'J"he principal addition to the water-supply during the Christian domina- 
tion consisted in the construction of the present Birket es Sultan, which 
was then known as Lacus Germani, and made by the Germans to water 
their horses ('Citez de Jerusalem' and Cartulary of Holy Sepulchre). It 
is not mentioned by any writer before 1 172 a.d., when Theodoricus speaks 
of it as the Nova Cisterna. The present Bir Eyub was also rediscovered 
and cleaned out in 1 184 a.d., when it began to be identified as the site of 
En Rogel. 

The Crusading work in the Haram enclosure remains to be mentioned. 
The Dome of the Rock was known to the mediaeval Christian writers as 
Templum Domini. It is described by John of Wirtzburg, Fetellus, William 
of Tyre, Theodoricus, and several other writers during the period of the 
Christian domination. A Chapter of Canons of the Templum Domini 
was established in 11 12, and various works were executed in the interior 
of the Haram between 11 15 and 11 36 a.d. (William of Tyre, viii. 13; 
XV. 18). There is a remarkable statement in this author, to the effect that 
for fifteen years after the entry of the Christians the Sakhrah Rock re- 
mained open and visible {padiil et apcrtci). This might be thought to 
refer to non-existence of the outer wall, but the gates in that wall, as we 
have seen, bear the date 831 a.d. The arcade above the roof, on the top 
of the outer octagon-wall, is first mentioned by John of Wirtzburg, and 
has been thought possibly to be a Crusading addition ; but the masonry 
of this wall is unlike mediaeval work, and has not the peculiar dressing of 
the Crusading masonry. The arcade, with its double columns and round 



JERUSALEM. 43 

arches, is very like the work lately described by Captain Conder at 
'Amman, which is supposed to be not later than the eleventh century. It 
is probable that William of Tyre really refers to the casing of the Holy 
Rock with marble, and not to the outer wall of the buildino-. 

The pictures with which the Crusaders decorated the Dome of the 
Rock were destroyed by Saladin, but three small Crusading altars still 
remain — two in the cave beneath the rock (the Makams of David 
and Solomon), and the third within the grille towards the south-west, 
which until a few years since supported the so-called Shield of Hamzeh. 
The capitals of the Mihrab, on the south side of the Dome, are also 
Christian, and the heads of angels are only partially defaced by the 
Moslems. The magnificent grille or high iron screen, which shuts off the 
space beneath the dome from the outer arcade, is also French work oi 
the twelfth century. 

Mediaeval columns are built into a wall on the south side of the Platform, 
and the flagstones of the Platform are covered with Crusadinof masons' 
marks. An old sundial used, until a few years since, to stand on the Plat- 
form south-west of the Dome of the Rock. This is mentioned by John 
of Wirtzburg, Fetellus, and Theodoricus, in the twelfth century, as the 
site of the original Altar of the Temple, near which Zacharias, son of 
Barachias, was slain. It has now been removed, but is marked on the 
Ordnance Survey Plan. 

The Dome of the Chain was known to the Christians as the Chapel 
of St. James, and supposed to be the site of his tomb — a tradition differing 
from that noticed by Theodorus in 530 a.d., for he alludes to the 
sepulchre of the Bene Hezir (already noticed), now called the Tomb of 
St. James. 

The Schola Virginis, a vault mentioned by Theodoricus, appears to 
have been the cell of Kishan mentioned by Mejr ed Din, or possibly the 
Dome of the Roll. The former was examined by Captain Conder in 1S73 ; 
the latter is no long-er existent. The Porta Aurea of the Crusaders was 
the present Golden Gate ; and the Porta Speciosa, on the west, was ap- 
parently the present Bab es Silsileh, which is mentioned in 1564 a.d. by 
the present name in a Jewish tract (Jichus ha Aboth). The first distinct 
account of the so-called Stables of Solomon — the great vaults in the south- 
east angle of the Haram — is that of Theodoricus, writing in 11 72 a.d. 

6—2 



44 rilE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

John of Wirtzburg says they would hold 2,000 horses. The holes through 
which the Templars' horse-halters were passed arc still to be seen in tlic 
piers of these great vaults, and the Single Gate appears to have been the 
Crusading southern entrance to the stables. The Chapel of the Cradle 
of Christ was called in the twelfth century Balneum Christi, and supposed 
to have been in or beside the house of Simeon. The niche for a statue, 
to which this tradition is attached, still lies recumbent in the little chamber 
in the south-east angle of the Haram. 

The Order of the Templars was created by King Godfrey, and followed 
the rule of St. Augustine (William of Tyre, i.x. 8). In 1 1 18 some French 
Knights were established by King Baldwin I. in the Aksa Mosque, where 
he himself resided, and which is variously called Templum Salomonis and 
Palatium Salomonis by the twelfth-century writers. The Order received 
a rule from Pope Honorius in 1 12S a.d. On their seal they engraved the 
Templum Domini, and the representation is evidently intended for the 
Dome of the Rock. There were nine grand-masters resident in Jerusalem 
between Hugh de Payens in 11 18 a.d. and Thierry in 1 187 a.d., when 
Jerusalem was taken by Saladin. 

The Templars made considerable additions and alterations to the 
Aksa Mosque. On the east arm of the transept, beneath the dome, they 
placed an apse, the walls of which still remain visible in ruins. On the 
west they built a magnificent refectory, now known as Bukdt el 
B e i d h a. The so-called Makam of Omar, east of the south aisle of the 
Templars' Church, is probably an early Arab structure preceding the 
Crusading work, as are the four outer aisles of the Basilica itself — pro- 
bably the work of el Mahdi in the eighth century ; but the capitals of 
the slender columns which flank the Mihrab in the Makam or Mosque of 
Omar were found, when the plaster was removed in 1874, to be beauti- 
fully carved with animal figures and scroll-work, evidently mediaeval work. 
The porch of the Aksa Mosque, which is in Gothic style, is referred by 
De Vogii^ to the thirteenth century. 

The following are the niost valuable accounts of the city in the 
twelfth century. The first is that of Theodoricus, ' De Locis Sanctis,' 
dating 11 72 a.d. It is principally valuable for its detailed description of 
the Crusading Cathedral of the Holy Sepulchre, and also of the Dome of 
the Rock, as e.\isting during the Christian occupation : 



JERUSALEM. 45 

' In ipsa denique montium summa eminentia, ut Josephus atque Hieronymus attestantur, 
sita est civitas ilia Jerusalem, quje universis per orbem urbibus et locis sanctior habetur et 
eminentior, non quia a se vel per se sit sancta, sed quia ipsius Dei et Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi ejusque pife genitricis prcesentia, et patriarcharum et prophetarum atque apostolorum, 
nee non et aliorum sanctorum inhabitatione, doctrina, prsedicatione, martyrio fuerit illustrata. 
Quffi licet altiora, quam ipsa sit, montium juga scilicet habeat undique imminentia, tamen ipsa, 
in monte posita, in se ipsa existit coUiculosa. Unde accidit, ut ab omnibus circumpositis mon- 
tibus intuentibus ipsa rapiat adspcctum. Denique inter coUem Moriam, in quo templum Domini 
situm est, et montem Oliveti, qui ceteris montibus altius verticem attollit, torrens Cedron et 
vallis Josaphat interjacet, quis a monte Gaudii, a quo ab aquilonari parte introitus patet in 
civitatem, initium faciens et per ecclesiam beatse Marias, quae ex ipsius nomine sic appellatur, 
et per sepulchrum Josaphat, regis Judreae, a cujus occisione hoc ipsa sumpsit vocabulum, nee 
non et juxta natatoriam Siloe cursum dirigens, occurrente sibi alia valle, ab angulo dextro 
civitatis per novas cisternas inter montem Sion et agrum Acheldemach cursum reflectente et 
duo civitatis latera complectente, in profundissimam dehiscit vallem. Sepulchrum vero 
Josaphat in vallis ipsius medio quadrato opere in modum pyramidis est erectum, circa quod 
habitacula servitorurn Dei seu reclusorum plurima insunt, qus omnia sub cura abbatis beat?e 
Mariie constituta sunt. Porrigitur autem ipsa civitas ab aquilone in meridiem per longum et 
ab occidente in orientem per latum, turribus, muris et propugnaculis super valles prsedictas in 
montis altitudine firmissime communita. Vallum quoque sive fossatum extrinsecus muro 
appositum et propugnaculis atque minis munitum existit, quod barbicana vocant. Portas 
habet septem, quarum sex singulis noctibus usque post solis ortum firmiter obserantur ; 
septima vero muro conclusa nonnisi in die palmarum et in exaltatione sancta; crucis aperitur. 
Et cum ipsa sit civitas oblonga, quinque habet angulos, quorum unus est transversus. Plates 
ejus omnes fere magnis lapidibus inferius constructse, superius vero plurima; sunt opere lapideo 
testudinata;, fenestris passim ad lumen recipiendum dispositis. Domus, in altum operosa 
maceria porrectK, tecta non nostro more culminibus sublimata, sed piano schemate habent 
sequalia. Ex quibus inundante pluvia in cisternis suis pluvialia stillicidia recipientes usibus 
suis reservant ; nee enim aliis aquis utuntur, quas non habent. Ligna ibi sive fabricis sive 
ignibus apta cara sunt, quia mons Libanus, qui solus cedrinis, cypressinis et abiegineis abundat 
lignis, longe ab eis est remotus, nee eum propter gentilium insidias adire possunt. 

' Turris David incomparabili firmitate ex lapidibus quadratis infinitn; magnitudinis com- 
pacta, et juxta portam occidentalem, quae versus Bethleem viam dirigit, sita cum adjacente 
solario et palatio noviter sedificato, fossatis et barbicanis valde munito, in proprietatem cessit 
regis hierosolymitani. Sita autem est in arcu montis Sion. Unde dicitur in libro Regum : 
Cepit David autem Sion. Sita est etiam e regione templi Domini, quo civitas porrigitur per 
latum, habens a meridie montem Sion, ab oriente montem Oliveti. Mons autem Sion ab 
ipsa turri usque ad ecclesiam beatte Marise foris muros sitam et ab ipsa ecclesia fere usque 
ad palatium Salomonis et usque ad viam, qute de speciosa porta ad ipsam turrim ducit, dila- 
tatur, monte quidem Oliveti latior, sed humilior. Et cum mons Moria valli Josaphat incum- 
bens, in quo templum Domini et palatium Salomonis est situm, magnus collis habeatur, mons 
Sion tanta fere altitudine illi superincumbit, quanta rursus ille valli Josaphat, ut supra dictum 
est, supereminere videtur. In agro Acheldemach, quem ab ipso prxdicta tantum dividit 
vallis, sepultura peregrinorum est, in qua ecclesia sancta; Dei genitricis et virginis Maria; 
habetur, ubi etiam in die sancto palmarum quemdam fratrem nostrum dcfunctum, nomine 



46 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Adolfum, de Colonia natum, scpelivimus. Ipsi autem agro mons Gion incumbit, in quo, ut 
in libro Regum legitur, Salonio regium diadema suscepit. 

' Dc aliis Kdifiriis communibus sive privatis nulla vcl pauca potuimus repcrire signa prmtcr 
domuni Pilati juxta ecclesiam beata; Annaj, niatris domina; nostra;, et juxta piscinam pro- 
baticam sitani. De omni opere ab Herode, ut Josephus refert, facto, modo plurimum 
truncato, nihil occurrit nisi ununi latus, quod adhuc rcstat, palatii, quod vocabatur Antonia, 
cum porta juxta atrium cxtcrius sita. 

' Restat ergo, ut de locis Sanctis, propter qu^ ipsa civitas sancta vocatur, disseramus. 
Unde a sancto sanctorum vel a sepulchro dominico duximus incipicndum. Ecclesia dominici 
sepulchri mirifico fulgens opcre ab Helena regina constat esse fundata, cujus exterior niurus 
quasi per circuli circumferentiam traductus ipsam ecclesiam facit esse rotundam. Locus 
autem dominici sepulchri vicem centri in ipsa ecclesia obtinet, cujus dispositio a;dis est opus 
super ipsum sepulchrum erectum et marmoreo tabulatu decenter ornatum. Non integram 
circuli habet circumferentiam, sed ex ipso circulo versus orientem duo parvi parietes proce- 
dentes et tertium recipientcs tria in se continent ostiola, tres in latitudine, septem in altitudine 
pedes habentia, quorum unum ab aquilone, secundum ab oriente, tertium a meridie patet 
Ab aquilonali intratur, a meridiano exitur, orientalc custodum sepulchri usibus vacat. Inter 
haec tria ostiola et quartum, quo ad ipsum sepulchrum intratur, altare quidem parvum, sed 
referendum habctur, ubi corpus dominicum, antequam sepulturae daretur, positum fuisse a 
Joseph et Nicodemo narratur. Denique super os ipsius speluncoe, quod retro ipsum altare 
situm est, ab eisdem per picturam musivi operis corpus Domini sepultura; mandatur, adstante 
domina nostra, ejus matre, et tribus Mariis bene ex evangelio notis cum aromatum vasculis, 
superscdente etiam angelo ipsi sepulchro et lapidem revolvente atcjue dicente : Ecce locum, 
ubi posuerunt eum. Inter ipsum quoque foramen et ipsum sepulchrum linea per hemicyclum 
in longum porrigitur hos continens versus : 

' Christo surgenti 
locus et custos monument!. 
Angelus et vestis 
fuit estque redemtio testis. 

Hecc omnia niusivo opere pretiosissimo sunt depicta, quo opere tota ilia domuncula est 
decorata. Utrzeque vero janua; acerrimos habent custodes, qui non minus quam sex, nee 
plus quam duodecim simul intromittunt ; nee enim plures loci capit angustia. Per aliam, 
postquam adoraverint, januam exire compelluntur. Ipsum autem os speluncse nonnisi 
rependo cruribus quislibet valet intrare, quod pertransiens optabilem thesaurum invcnit, 
sepulchrum videlicet, in quo benignissimus Dominus noster Jesus Christus triduo requievit, 
pario marmore, auro et lapidibus pretiosis mirifice decoratum. Tria in latere rotunda habet 
foramina, per qua: ipsi lapidi, in quo Dominus jacuit, optata peregrini porriguntur oscula, 
duos et semis pedes in latitudine, cubitum virilem et pedem habens in longitudine. Planities 
vero inter ipsum sepulchrum et murum posita tantum obtinet spatii, ut quinque homines 
versis ad sepulchrum capitibus locum habeant geniculatim orandi. Extrinsecus igitur circa 
ipsum opus decern columnse sunt dispositK, qua; sibi impositos gestantes arcus cancellatum 
efficiunt circillum, cui limbus suppositus est, banc aureis litteris insculptam continens scrip- 
turam : Christus resurgens ex mortuis jam non moritur. Mors illi ultra non dominabitur, 
quod enim vivit, vivit Deo. Cccterum ad caput ipsius, quod ad occidentem versum fuit, 



JERUSALEM. 47 

altare ferreis parietibus et januis atque seris circumseptum continetur cancellis cypressinis 
varia pictura decoratis et tecto ejusdem generis similiter decorato ipsis parietibus incumbente. 
Tectum ipsius operis ex tabulis cupreis deauratis consistit, in medio foramine rotundo 
existente, circa quod columnelire in circuitu constituta; et arculos impositos gestantes super- 
positum tectum simile ciborio continent. Super tectum quoque ipsum crux dcaurata et super 
crucem columba continetur similiter deaurata. Inter duas autem columnellas superius ab 
arcubus, in singulis suis arcubus, singula; lampades dependent in circuitu. Similiter quoque 
inter inferiores columnas per circuitum bins lampades dependent. Circa ipsos vero arcus 
inferiores ipsi versus in unoquoque arcu descripti sunt, quos nequaquam propter colorum in 
quibusdam abolitionem legere potuimus; nos tamen sex in tribus arcubus tantum ad planum 
valuimus comprehendere : 

' Venit in hunc loculum, qui condidit antea sceclum. 
Ejus adis tumulum, cito fac, ut sis mihi templum. 
Cernere gratum 
qucm cupit agnum 
concio patrum, 
Ephrata natum, 
Golgatha passum, 
petra sepultum, 
hie protoplastum 
vexit ad astrum, 
d^emonis astum 
vicit, et ipsum 
surgere lassum 
dans, ait : Assum. 

' Circa ferreum vero parietem ad caput, ut diximus, constitutum, cui cancelli superpositi 
sunt, linea per circuitum porrigitur hos continens versus : 

' Mors hie deletur 
et nobis vita medetur. 
Hostia grata datur, 
cadit hostis, culpa lavatur. 
Ccelum Isetatur, 
flent tartari, lex renovatur. 
Ista decent, Christe, 
quia sanctus sit locus iste. 

' Csterum pavimenta ipsius eccIesiK pario et vario marmore speciosissime sunt constrata. 
Ipsa vero ecclesia quadratis columnis VIII, qufe vocantur pilaria, et XVI rotundis columnis 
de uno lapide existentibus inferius sustentatur, superius vero, quum inferius et superius sicut 
ecclesia Aquisgrani testudinata est, octo similiter pilariis et XVI columnis fulcitur. Cymatium 
inferius, quod per totam ecclesiam circulariter traductum est, grrecis litteris descriptum est 
per totum. Spatium vero muri, quod medio atque superno cymatio interjacet, musivo opera 
incomparabili specie prajfulget, ubi in fronte chori vel supra arcum sanctuarii, eodem quidem 
opere, sed antiquo, gratissimo vultu puer Jesus refulgens umbilico tenus cernitur esse de- 



48 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

pictus, ad sinistrain vcro ii)sius manum mater sua, ad dextram autcm Gabriel archangclus 
illam notaiii dejjromens salutationem : Ave, Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedlcta 
in mulieribus ct bencdictus fructus ventris tui. H;cc salutatio tarn latine, quam grxcc circa 
ipsum Dominum Christum dcscripta est. Ulterius quoque ad dextram partem XII apostoli 
per ordinem eodem operc sunt dcpicti, habentes singuli eulogias Christi mysteriis competentes 
in manibus suis. In medio autem eorum Constantinus impcrator pro eo, quod una cum 
matre Helena ipsius ecclesia: fundator exstitit, in fenestra mure non profunde imposita regali 
munificentia trabeatus consistit. Post apostolos quoque sanclus Michael archangelus mirifice 
decoratus cffulget. Sequitur ad sinistram ordo XIII prophetarum, qui omnes ad ipsum 
speciosum puerum vcrsas habentes facies et prophetias olim ab ipso eis inspiratas manibus 
prxferentes vencrabiliter locuti sunt. In quorum medio e regione sui filii sancta Helena 
regina magnifice decorata consistit. Ipsi deindc muro tectum plumbeum cypressinis laque- 
ariis sustentatum incumbit, nabens grande et rotundum in supremo foramen, per quod 
immissum superne lumen totam ecclesiam perlustrat ; nee aliam aliquam fenestram habet. 

' I'rffiterea sanctuarium vel sancta sanctorum, a Francis postea opere mirifico constructum, 
hujus ecclesise corpori adjunctum est, qui etiam divinas in ea laudes die ac nocte delectissime 
celebrant, scilicet canonicis horis prope cursum virginis Mari^ : prajmia tenentes, quorum 
stipendiis media pars oblationum dominici sepulchri deputata est, altera medietas patriarchal 
usibus attributa est. Principale altare nomini et honori Domini salvatoris articulatum est, 
retro quod patriarchalis sedes sita est, supra quam icona dominie nostrre permaxima et reve- 
rendissima, simul et icona beati Johannis Baptists;, nee non et tertia icona paranymphi sui 
sancti Gabrielis ab arcubus sanctuarii dependent. In ipsa autem sanctuarii ccclatura ipse 
Dominus noster Jesus Christus, in sinistra crucem ferens, dextra Adam tenens, ccelum im- 
perialiter intuens, giganteo passu sinistro pede levato, dextro adhuc in terra posito, coelos 
penetrat, circumstantibus his : sua scilicet matre et beato baptista Johanne et omnibus 
apostolis. Sub cujus pedibus linea de muro ad murum per ipsum hemicyclum porrecta hanc 
continet scripturam : 

' Crucifixum in came laudate 

et sepultum propter nos glorificate 

resurgentemque a morte adorate. 

Dchinc in linea superiore per idem hemicyclum ducta hoec continetur scriptura : Ascendens 
Christus in altum captivam duxit carnem, dedit dona hominibus. Circa medium vero ipsius 
chori altare cavum et parvum, sed reverendum habetur, in cujus pavimento cruciola in 
rotundo circulo est impressa, hoc significans, quod Josephus et Nicodemus corpus dominicum 
de cruce depositum ibi deposuerunt ad lavandum. Ante ostium vero ipsius chori altare non 
mediocre habetur, quod ad Surianorum tantummodo spectat ofificium. Deniquc, peractis a 
Latinis quotidie divinis officiis, Suriani vel ibidem ante chorum sive in aliqua ecclesise abside 
divinos decantare solent hymnos, qui etiam plura in ipsa ecclesia habent altariola nullorumque 
nisi suis usibus apta vel concessa. Hre sunt professiones sive secta;, qux in ecclesia hieroso- 
lymitana divina peragunt officia, scilicet Latini, Suriani, Armenii, Gra;ci, Jacobini, Nubiani. 
Hi omnes tarn in conversatione, quam in divinis officiis suas quisque habent differentias. 
Jacobini in suis festis Hebrxorum more tubis utuntur. 

' Moris est in ecclesia sancti sepulchri, in sabbato sancto paschse oriente sole tarn in ipsa 
ecclesia, quam in cunctis aliis per civitatem constitutis ecclesiis materiale lumen e.xstinguere 
et lumen coelitus venturum exspectare, ad quod lumen recipiendum una ex lampadibus 



JERUSALEM. 49 

argenteis, quarum ibi septem dependent, ante ipsum sepulchrum prreparatur. Totus deinde 
clerus et populus in magna ct anxia exspectatione constitutus, donee Deus manum suam de 
alto emittat, pr^stolantur, saspius, aliis adjunctis precibus, Deus ad juvet et sanctum sepul- 
chrum alta vociferatione non sine lacrymis intonantes. Interim tam patriarcha sive alii 
episcopi, qui ad susceptationem sacri ignis conveniunt, quam et alius clerus cum cruce, in 
qua maxima portio ligni dominici continetur, nee non et aliis sanctorum reliquiis srepius 
orandi causa visitare ipsum sepulchrum solent, lustrantes etiam, si Deus adhuc luminis sui 
gratiam vasi ad hoc constituto immiseril. Solet quippe ipse ignis in certis horis et locis saepe 
exhiberi. Nam aliquando circa horam primam, aliquando circa tertiam vel sextam sive 
nonam horam vel etiam completorii tempore solet advenire. Aliquando quoque ad ipsum 
sepulchrum, aliquando ad templum Domini, nonnunquam ad sanctum Johannem solet venire. 
Ipsa vero die, qua nos pauperes cum aliis peregrinis in ipsius sancti ignis eramus exspecta- 
tione, statim post hora; nona; tempus sacer ille ignis advenit, cum ecce concrepantibus eccle- 
siasticis signis munia missalis officii per totam civitatem persolvebantur, baptisteriis et ceteris 
officiis antea peractis. Mox vero ut sacer ille ignis advenerit, antequam aliquis suam candelam 
prffiter patriarcham accendat, ad templum Domini solet repra2sentari. 

' Ab occidentale fere enim parte in exitu ecclesise ipsius, quo per gradus amplius quam 
XXX ad plateam ab ecclesia ascenditur, ante ipsum exitum capella in honore beatae Marice 
habetur, cui praesunt Armenii. Item ad sinistram ecclesia; a septentrionale parte capella in 
honore sanctffi crucis existit, ubi etiam ipsius venerabilis ligni magna portio auro et argento 
inclusa tenetur, quse sub Surianorum custodia consistit. Rursus ab eadem parte juxta 
ipsam capellam versus orientem summe venerabilis habetur capella, in qua altare reverendum 
honori sanctce crucis articulatum et ejusdem beati ligni maxima pars auro, argento et lapidibus 
pretiosis, ita ut videri apte queat, inclusa summa cum reverentia in locello speciosissimo 
observatur, quod etiam salutare signum adversus paganos in bello, cum necessitas exigit, 
gestare solent christiani. Hebc etiam capella musivo opere mirabiliter est decorata. Hanc 
autem crucem Heraclius, romanus imperator, Cosdre, regi Persarum, bello cum eo gesto 
ereptam christianis restituit. Juxta ipsam quoque capellam versus orientem ad obscuram quam- 
dam capellam per XX fere gradus intratur, ubi altare itidem venerandum existit, sub cujus pavi- 
mento cruciola cernitur impressa. In quo loco Dominus noster Jesus Christus reclusus 
fuisse perhibetur, quando de judicio Pilati ad locum passionis diutius exspectavit, donee ei et 
facies velaretur et in Calvaria crux constitueretur, ut in ea posset appendi. Item post ipsam 
capellam altare in honore sancti Nicolai existit. Dehinc porta claustralis, qua in claustrum 
intratur canonicorum, quod circa sanctuarium est constitutum. Post claustralis autem 
ambitus circuitionem ex alia parte ecclesiam intrantibus occurrit imago crucifixi supra ipsam 
claustralem portam ita depicta, ut cunctis intuentibus magnam inferat conipunctionem, circa 
quam isti versus descripti sunt : 



' Aspice, qui transis, qui tu mihi causa doloris. 
Pro te passus ita, pro me tu noxia vita. 



' Dehinc versus orientem XXX et amplius gradus ad venerabilem beatce Helenae reginas 
capellam extra ipsam ecclesiam sitam descenditur, ubi in ejus honore altare venerandum 
habetur. Hinc iterum ad dextram partem per XV vel paulo plus gradus in subterrancum 
specum descenditur, ubi in dextro specus ipsius angulo cavum altare et sub eo crux pavimento 
impressa cernitur, in quo loco ipsa regina crucem dominicam reperisse narratur : ubi altare in 

7 



50 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

honore sancti Jacobi habetur. Ipsa quoque capella nulLim habct aliam fenestram nis 
magnum supcrne foramen. 

' Ex alia nihiloniinus parte ecclesiaj vel in dextro retro chorum altarc decorum existit, in 
quo pars magna columns, circa quam Dominus ligatus et flagellatus est, consistit. Exinde 
ad meridiem ante ipsius ecclesiee januam quinque sepulchra videntur, quorum unum pretioso 
opcrc factum de pario marmore et choro contiguum fratris est regis Hierosolymorum nomine 
Baldewini, secundum regis Baldewini, fratris ducis Godcfridi, super quod talc scriptum est 
cpitaphium : 

' Rex Balduwinus alter Judas Machabxus, 

Spes patria:, decus ecclesia;, virtus utriusque. 

Quem formidabant, cui dona, tributa ferebant" 

Cedar et Aeg}'ptus, Dan ac homicida Damascus. 

Proh dolor in modico clauditur hoc tumulo. 

Deinde tertium sepulchrum fratris est ipsius, ducis Godcfridi, qui ipsam civitatem Hierosoly- 
mam, a Saracenis invasam et Turcis, gladio et sapientia recupcravit et christianis rcstituit, 
patriarcham a paganis ejectum in scde sua relocavit, clerum in ipsa ecclesia instituit, stipendia 
ci, ut Deo militare valeret, ordinavit. Quartum sepulchrum patris est istius regis seu Emal- 
rici ; quintum patris abbatissre sancti Lazari. 

' Itcrum fere ad meridem janua paret, per quam in capellam intratur sub turri campanaria 
constitutam, et ex ilia in aliam capellam reverentia plenam, honori bcati Johannis liaptistx 
adscriptam transitur, in qua etiam baptisterium exstat. Et ex ipsa rursus in tertiam capellam 
pervenitur. Dc prima autem gradibus XL vel plus ascenditur ad plateam. 

' Restat nunc dc monte Calvaria dicere, qui sicut oculus in capite, ita ipsa in ilia resplendet 
ecclesia, unde per filii Dei mortem et sanguinis effusionem lux et vita nobis proveniet seterna. 
Ante ipsius ecclesiaj introitum sive januam solido rere indutam, quoe etiam duplex esse 
dignoscitur, gradibus fere XV ad quoddam parvum, sed cancellatuin et picturis dccoratum 
ascenditur consistorium, cujus desuper adstantes custodes et januas observantes, quantos 
volunt peregrines intrare, permittunt, ne forte ex magna compressione, quce s^pius ibi solet 
accidere, oppressio aliqua sive periculum mortis eveniat. De illo quoque vestibulo per aliud 
ostium tribus ascenditur gradibus in capellam veneratione et reverentia cunctis sub sole locis 
supereminentem, qua; quatuor fornicibus grandi robore prceditis erecta subsistit, cujus pavi- 
menta omnigeno marmore egregie constrata, testudo vero sive coelatura ipsius prophetis, 
David scilicet, Salomone, Isaia et quibusdam aliis, scripta passioni Christi consonantia munu 
gestantibus, musivo opere in ea depictis nobilissime est adornata, ita ut illi operi nullum sub 
ccelo posset aequari, si tantum clare posset viderL Nam propter circumstantes fabricas locus 
idem aliquantulum obscuratur. Locus autem, ubi crux ipsa stetit, in qua salvator mortem 
pertulit, versus orientem alto gradu elatus, pario et nobilissimo marmore ex sinistra parte 
constratus, foramen rotundum ct adeo latum, quod caput fere posset intrudi, ostenditur, in 
quo crux ipsa defixa fuisse dignoscitur : in quod peregrin! caput et faciem ob ipsius crucifixi 
amorem et revcrentiam solent imprimere. Ad dextram vero ipse mons Calvaria, altius 
verticem attollens, pavimento longam, latam et valde profundam rimam ex scissura, quam in 
morte Christi sustinuit, demonstrat. Insuper anterius horribili foramine hiscens, sanguinem 
qui de latere pendentis in cruce Christi cucurrerit, usque ad terram se emisisse testatur. In 
cujus summitate peregrini cruces, quas de terris suis secum illo adduxerint, solent deponere, 
quarum magnam ibi copiam vidimus, quas omnes custodes Calvaria; in sabbato ignibus solent 



JERUSALEM. 51 

exurere. Altare venerandum in ea habetur, et in parasceve omne diei illius officium a 
patriaicha et clero ibidem pcrcclebratur. In sinistra altaris parte, in muro ipsius, crucifixi 
imago mir.-e pulchritudinis est depicta, adstante ad dextram Longino cum lancea latus pun- 
gente, a sinistra Stephaton cum spongia et arundine acetum offerente, adstante etiam ad 
sinistram matre, ad dextram Johanne, per circuitum vero ipsius duo grandes porrigunlur- 
Linete litteris gra;cis per totum descriptje. Ad dextram quoque ipsius altaris jam mortuum 
Christum Nicodemus et Joseph de cruce deponunt, ubi etiam hoc est descriptum : Descensio 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi de cruce. Hinc per XV gradus in ecclesiam descenditur et ad 
capellam, quce Golgatha vocatur, reverendam quidem, sed obscuram pcrvenitur, retro quam 
fenestra profunda exstat, quce finem scissura:, quae Calvaria illo desccnderat, intucntibus 
demonstrat. In quo loco sanguis Christi, qui per scissuram illuc cucurrerat, restitisse perhi- 
betur. Prseterea super arcum ipsam Golgatham concludentem vel in latere Calvariaj versus 
occidentem constituto tabula quxdam in pariete depicta perspicitur, in qua hi versus aureis 
litteris descripti esse videntur ; 

' Est locus iste sacer, sacratus sanguine Christi. 
Per nostrum sacrare sacro nihil addimus isti. 
Sed domus huic sacro circumsuperjedificata 
est quinta decima quintilis luce sacrata 
cum reliquis patribus a Fulcherio patriarcha. 

Ante fores ecclesife inter duas januas Dominus Christus reverendo habitu quasi jam a morte 
resurgens consistit, ad cujus pedes Maria Magdalena prostrata, non tamen ipsos pedes 
tangens, jacet, cui Dominus chirographum porrigit hos versus continens : 

' Quid, mulier, ploras ? 
Jamjam quern quEcris, adoras. 
Me dignum recoli, 
quern jam vivum tu modo tangere noli. 

' Exeuntibus ecclesiam versus meridiem occurrit quasi quoddam prastorium quadrangulum, 
quadratis lapidibus constructum, ad cujus sinistram partem juxta Golgatha exterius capella 
trium Mariarum in honore habetur, quam Latini tenent. Ulterius quoque ad meridiem alia 
capella exstat, cui prresunt Armenii. Inde ulterius parvula quredam existit capella. In exitu 
vero ejusdem planitiei ad sinistram platea testudinata occurrit rebus referta venalibus. A 
fronte ecclesiam ipsum forum venalium rerum se reprtesentat. In qua fronte sex columnaj 
superius arcuatce consistunt, ubi ex templo versus meridiem ecclesia et hospitalc beati 
Johannis Baptistee offertur. Quse quantis redificiis decorata, quantis domiciliis et lectulis 
atque aliis utensiliis in usus pauperum et infirmorum atque debilium exhibendis abundans, 
quam in substantia pauperum rccreationibus impendenda locuples, quam in egenorum sit 
sustentatione sollicita, nuUus alteri verbis fidem posset facere, nisi ipse propriis hoc oculis 
valeret deprehendere ; siquidem transeuntes per palatium numerum simul accumbentium 
nullo modo quivimus discernere, lectorum vero numerum millenarium vidimus excedere. 
Nee enim quisque regum vel tyrannorum prjepotens tantos, quantos ilia domus, quotidie 
posset sustentare. Nee mirum. Nam prseter ea, quae in exteris possident terris, quorum non 
est facile numerus comprehendi, omnes fere civitates et villas ad Judseam quondam perti- 
nentes a Vespasiano et Tito destructas cum universis agris et vinetis tam ipsi, quam templarii 

7—2 



52 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

sibi subjugavcrunt, disposita per universam regionem militia et castris adversus pagano 
valde munitis. Post hoc ad orientem stanti sequitur ccclesia beata; Marire, in qua sancti- 
moniales sub abbatissa constituta; divinas quotidie celebrant laudes. Qui locus idcirco 
beata; Marice dicatus esse dicitur, quia, dum salvator noster ad passionem ductus male 
tractaretur, ipsius jussu in eodem loco, ccenaculo quondam, quod tunc ibidem exstitit, inclusa 
fuisse pcrhibctur. Item sequitur confestim alia ecclesia ad orientem posita, qua; similiter 
dominse nostra; exstat articulata, eo quod, cum Dominus noster tantum supplicium pro 
nostra salute pateretur, ipsa, spasmo aflecta prie doloris magnitudine, manibus ferentium eam 
illuc in subterraneum specum perlata est, ubi dolori suo satisfaciens capillos capitis sui 
evellebat, qui adhuc in ipsa ecclesia in ampulla vitrea conservantur. Est etiam in ipsa eccle- 
sia caput beati Pliilippi apostoli auro valde decoratum et brachium sancti Simeonis apostoli 
brachiumque sancti Cypriani episcopi. Monachi in eadem ecclesia sub regula et abbatis 
imperio ibidem Deo descrviunt. 

'Hinc ad meridiem reflexo aliquantulum calle, per speciosam portam templi ad ipsum 
templum Domini pervenitur, per mediam fere civitatem transeundo, ubi de inferiore atrio ad 
superius ascenditur gradibus viginti duobus, et de superiori atrio intratur in templum. Ante 
ipsos vero gradus in atrio infcriori gradibus XXV vel amplius in piscinam grandem descen- 
ditur, ex qua, ut fertur, per subterraneum specum usque ad ecclesiam sancti sepulchri transitur 
in tantum, quod ecclesia in sabbato sancto ignem coelitus accensum per ipsum specum ad 
templum Domini deferri rcferatur. In ipsa autem piscina liosti?e ad templum Domini 
dcbebant offerri ; secundum legis mandatum lavabantur. Atrium autem exterius duplum vel 
pauIo plus majus est atrio intcriori, cujus, sicut exterioris, pavimenta Litis et magnis lapidibus 
constrata sunt. Permanent autem adhuc duo latera atrii exterioris ; alia duo in usus ces- 
serunt canonicorum et templariorum. In ipsis enim domos et hortos constituerunt. Ab 
occidentali latere duobus ordinibus graduum in atrium superius ascenditur et meridiano 
similiter. Super gradus autem, ante quos piscinam diximus esse sitam, quatuor columns 
arcuatfe consistunt, ubi etiam sepulchrum divitis cujusdam viri, ferreis cratibus circumseptum, 
ex alabastro decanter incisum consistit. Ad dextram quoque super meridianos gradus 
similiter quatuor columnar existunt arcuatae, ad sinistram vero tres. Ad orientem nihilo- 
minus XV duplices gradus existunt, per quos de aurea porta ascenditur in templum, secundum 
quos psalmista XV composuit psalmos, super quos quoque consistunt columnas. Ad meri- 
dianam prseterea plagam super duos angulos atrii interioris duae consistunt domunculse, 
quarum una versus occidentem posita schola dicitur fuisse beatse Marise. Inter templum 
quoque ct duo latera atrii exterioris, orientale scilicet et meridianum, lapis magnus situs est 
in modum altaris, qui secundum quorundani traditiones os est piscinarum ibidem consis- 
tentium, secundum aliorum vero opinionem Zachariam, Barachise filium, ibidem peremtum 
fuisse designat. Ab aquilonali autem parte claustrum et officinte existunt clericorum. Circa 
ipsum vero templum grandes piscina; sub pavimento existunt. Inter aurcam quoque portam 
et XV gradus grandis piscina vetus et coUapsa existit, in qua antiquitus hostise diluebantur 
offerendae. 

' Ipsum dcnique templum inferius octogonum esse manifestum est ; inferius usque ad 
medium spatium nobilissimo marmore ornatum et a medio usque ad superiorem, cui tectum 
incumbit, limbum musivo opere decentissime decoratum. Ipse vero limbus, circulariter per 
totum templi ambitum circumductus, banc continet scripturam, qure, a fronte vel ab occi- 
dentali introitu inchoans, secundum solis circuitum sic est legenda, in fronte : Pax ceterna ab 
Kterno patrc sit huic domui ; in secundo latere : Templum Domini sanctum est. Dei cultura 



JERUSALEM. 53 

est. Dei sanctificatio est; in tertio latere : Htec est domus Domini firmiter jedificata; in 
quarto latere : In domo Domini omnes dicent gloriam ; in cjuinto : Benedicta gloria Domini 
de loco sancto sue ; in sexto ; Beati, qui habitant in domo tua, Domine ; in septimo : Vere 
Dominus est in loco suo sancto, et ego nesciebam ; in octavo : Bene fundata est domus 
Domini super firmam petram. Prseterea versus orientem juxta beati Jacobi ecclesiam columna 
quEedam musivo opere in muro depicta est, supra quam talis est descriptio facta : Columna 
romana. Superior autem murus angustiori circulo, fornicibus interius sustentatus, circumducitur, 
qui, plumbeum gcstans tectum, in summo grandem pilani et super eam crucem deauratam habet 
stantem. Per quatuor januas intratur et exitur, unaqureque janua suam de quatuor mundi 
plagis respicientem. Subsistit autem ipsa ecclesia quadratis fornicibus VIII, columnis XVI, 
cujus muri et ccelatura musivo opere nobiliter sunt decorata. Ambitus vero chori quatuor 
habet fornices sive pilaria et octo columnas, quae interiorem murum, cum ipsius testudine in 
altum porrecta,'gestant. Super ipsos autem chori arcus linea in circuitu circulariter porrigitur 
hanc ex ordine continens scripturam Domus mea domus orationis vocatur, dicit Dominus. 
In ea omnis, qui petit, accipit, et qui quasrit, invenit, et pulsanti aperietur. Petite et acci- 
pietis, quserite et invenietis. In superior! vero circulo similiter circumducto hcec continetur 
scriptura : Audi, Domine, hymnum et orationem, quam servus tuus orat coram te, Domine, 
ut sint oculi tui aperti et aures tuK intentce super domum istam die ac nocte. Respice, 
Domine, de sanctuario tuo et de excelso ccelorum habitaculo. In introitu proinde chori 
altare in honore beati Nicolai habetur ferreo pariete inclusum superius limbum habente et 
hanc scripturam continente, in fronte : Anno millesimo C°. 1°, indicia quarta, epacta XI ; in 
sinistro latere: Ab Antiochia capta LXIIII. Jerusalem LXIII ; in dextro latere: Tripolis 
LXII. Berytus LXI. Ascalona XI anni. Verum versus orientem ad latus chori locus 
ferreo pariete januas habente circumseptus omni veneratione dignus habetur, in quo Dominus 
noster Jesus Christus, ad teniplum cum oblatione sua XL° nativitatis sute die delatus, a 
parentibus oblatus est, quem ad templi ipsius introitum senex Simeon in ulnas suscepit et 
ad locum oblationis detulit, in cujus loci fronte hi versus sunt descripti : 

' Hie fuit oblatus rex regum virgine natus. 
Quo locus ornatur, quo sanctus jure vocatur. 

Juxta eundem locum vix uno remotus cubito lapis ille situs est, quem Jacob patriarcha sup- 
posuerat olim capiti suo, super quem dorniiens scalam ad ccelos vidit erectam, in qua 
descendentes et ascendentes angelos vidit, et dixit : Vere Dominus est in loco isto, et ego 
nesciebam. In cujus loci fronte isti continentur versus : 

' Corpore sopitus, sed mente Jacob vigil intus 
hie vidit scalam, titulum direxit ad aram. 

' Hinc per orientalem portam ad capellam beati Jacobi apostoli, fratris Domini, intratur 
ubi idem, de templi pinna prsecipitatus et, fullonis fuste cerebro confracto, ab impiis Judasis 
peremtus, primo in valle Josaphat teniplo contigua sepultus et postea a fidelibus in eundem 
locum relatus honorifice, ut eum decuit, sepulturx traditus est, super cujus sepulchrum hoc 
scriptum est epitaphium : 

' Die, lapis et fossa : Cujus sunt, qua; regis ossa } 
Sunt Jacobi justi. Jacet hie sub tegmine busti. 



54 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Est autcm ipsa ecclesiola rotunda, infcrius latior, superius angustior, coluninis VIII sustcntata 
et picturis optime decorata. Rcdeuntibus ab ipsa ctiam per eandcm portam, retro ostium 
ipsius portcc, ad sinistram quadrangulus quidam occurrit locus in lato et longo quinque habens 
pedes, in quo Dominus stans et ubi esset intcrrogatus in Jerusalem, quam in medio orbis 
sitam asserunt esse, respondit et hoc : Locus ille Jerusalem appcllatur. Item retro idem 
ostium e regione prasdicti loci seu versus aquilonem alius occurrit locus illas continens aquas, 
quas Ezechiel propheta vidit de templo a latere dextro. Rcdeuntibus in ccclesiam majorem 
ad meridiem juxta chorum, immo sub ipso choro ostium paret, per quod gradibus fere XLV 
in cryptam intratur, ubi scribas et pharisxi mulierem in adulterio deprehensam adduxcrunt 
ad Dominum Jcsum cam accusantes, cui pius magister peccata remisit et a condcmnatione 
liberavit Quo exemplo peregrinis indulgentia ibidem dari solet. Habet autem ipsa ecclesia 
fenestras inferius XXXVI, superius XIIII, qux simul junctce faciunt quinquaginta, et est in 
honore nostra dominje sanctre Maria; consecrata, cui etiam principale altare articulatum est. 
Ipsa quoque ecclesia a beata Helena regina ct ejus filio Constantino imperatore fertur esse 
fundata. Videamus ergo, quoties vel a quibus ipsum templum cedificatum fuerit sive dcstruc- 
tum. Sicut legitur in libro Regum, primus rex Salomon templum Domini divina missione 
magnis impensis sedificavit, non rotundum, uti nunc conspicitur, sed oblongum, quod usque 
ad tempora Sedechicc, regis Jud^, permansit, qui captus a Nebuchadenasor, rege Babylonio- 
rum, in Babyloniam captivus adductus est, et cum eo Juda et Benjamin captivati similiter in 
terram Assyriorum translati sunt. Mox Nabuzardan, princeps coquorum ipsius, in Jerusalem 
cum exercitu veniens templum et civitatem ipse cremavit, et h?ec prima ejusdem templi fuit 
eversio. Post LXX autem captivitatis annos reversi ad terram Juda filii Israel, ducibus 
Zorobabel ct Esdra, cum favore et permissione Cyri, Persarum regis, idem templum in eodem 
loco recedificaverunt et, quoad melius potuerunt, ornaverunt. In recedificando autem templo 
et civitate una, ut fertur, manu lapides, alia propter gentilium circummanentium assiduas 
infestationes gladios tenebant. Hrec ergo secunda fuit templi re£edificatio. Postea eadem 
civitas, ut in gestis Machabxorum legitur, ab Antiocho, rege Syrire, etsi non penitus, tamen 
ex maxima parte vastata est, ornatus templi penitus destructus, sacrificia prohibita, muri diruti 
et quasi in solitudinem tarn civitas, quam templum rcdactum est. Quod postea Judas Macha- 
bseus et fratres sui cum adjutorio divino, fugato Antiocho ejusquc ducibus de Judaea propulsis, 
reoedificaverunt et renovaverunt, et reparato altari sacrificia et oblationes, sicut prius, sacerdo- 
tibus dispositis instituerunt. Hsc quoque templi tertia fuit restitutio, qure usque ad tempora 
permansit Ilerodis, qui, ut Josephus refert, contradicentibus licet Judtcis, hoc templum solo 
dejiciens majori et sumptuosiori opere aliud instituit. Et haec quarta templi resedificatio fuit, 
qu?e etiam usque ad tempora Vespasiani et Titi perduravit, qui, expugnata omni provincia, 
tam civitatem, quam templum funditus everterunt. Et ha;c quarta templi fuit eversio. 
Post hoc, ut paulo ante dictum est, hoc templum, quod nunc videtur, ad honorem Domini 
nostri Jesu Christi ejusque pia; genitricis ab Helena regina et ejus filio, imperatore Constan- 
tino, constructum est. Et haec etiam quinta templi fuit restitutio. 

' Sequitur ad meridiem palatium Salomonis, quod, in modum alicujus ecclesire oblongum 
et columnis interius sustentatum, nee non in fine sanctuarii similitudine circulariter ductum 
et magna atque rotunda testudine elatum, in speciem, ut diximus, ecclesiffi est formatum. Hoc 
cum omnibus appenditiis suis in proprietatem cessit militum templariorum, qui, in eo et in 
aliis domibus ad ipsum pertinentibus commanentes et arma, vestes et cibaria habentes repo- 
sita, ad custodiendam provinciam atque tuendam semper invigilant. Habent etiam sub se 
stabula equorum ab ipso rege quondam sedificata, ipsi palatio contigua mirandi operis varietate 



JERUSALEM. 55 

perplexa, fornicibus erecta, arcubus et testudinibus niultipliciter variata, quK secundum 
nostram asstimationem X millia equorum cum eorum custodibus posse capere testati sumus. 
Denique a fine usque ad finem ipsius redificii in longo et lato baleari arcu semel emissa 
sagitta nemo posset pertingere. Superius domibus, solariis et xdificiis cunctis utilitatibus 
aptis multiformiter abundat, superne vero deambulantibus viridariis, pra;toriis, vestibulis, con- 
sistoriis et pluviarum receptaculis in replendis cisternis exuberat ; inferius vero lavacris, 
horreis, granariis, lignorum receptaculis ac cteteris necessitatum provisionibus superexcellit. 
Ex alia ipsius palatii parte sen ad occidentem novam templarii domum constituerunt, cujus 
altitudinem, longitudinem, latitudinem, cellaria, refectoria, gradus et tectum, pn'eter illius 
terras morem, alto culmine elatum, etsi ego possem referre, auditor vix posset credere. Nam 
novam ibi constituerunt curiam, sicut ex alia parte habent antiquam. Novam etiam ibidem 
ad latus atrii exterioris miras magnitudinis et operis condunt ecclesiam. Quantse autem vires 
et divitiie sint templariorum, non facile quisque valet nosse. Nam omnes fere civitates vel 
villas, quibus olim tota locuplebatur Judnsa, quas a Romanis erant destructa:, tam ipsi, quam 
hospitarii, constitutis ubique castellis et militibus in iis dispositis, sibi subjugaverunt, prjeter 
plurimas et infinitas possessiones, quas in exteris terris habere noscuntur. 

' Et civitatis quidem murus a parte meridiana et orientali omnes eorum ambit habitationes, 
ab occidentali vero et aquilonali murus a Salomone factus tam eorum habitacula, quam et 
atrium exterius et ipsum circuit templum ; ad aquilonalem vero atrii partem ex reliquiis 
Antonire ab Herode factse unus cum una porta remansit paries. Ipse autem collis, in quo 
templum situm est, Moria antiquitus vocabatur, in quo rex David angelum Domini vidit 
stantem et evaginato gladio populum ccedentem, quando ad Dominum dixit : Ego sum, qui 
peccavi ; ego inique egi ; obsecro, ut in me vertas manus et domum patris mei ; isti, qui 
eves sunt, quid fecerunt ? In hoc colle area fuit Areuna Jebusaei, quam ad constructionem 
domus Domini ab eo emit David. Hinc per quoddam posticum angusta via inter murum 
orientalem civitatis et hortum templariorum transitur et ad venerabilem ecclesiam, qua; ad 
balneum sive ad prtesepe Domini salvatoris dicitur, pervenitur. Ibi cunce Domini Christi 
versus orientem in edito muro ante quamdam fenestram honorifice dispositK reverentur ; ad 
meridiem vero concha lapidea grandis in terra posita videtur, in qua balneorum usus infans 
ipse habuisse dignoscitur ; ad aquilonalem vero partem lectus dominse nostrEe, in quo, dum 
filium sinu lactaret, decubuisse ostenditur. In banc ecclesiam L fere gradibus descenditur, 
qux etiam quondam domus justi Simeonis fuit, in qua ipse in pace quiescit. 

' Ab ipsa ecclesia sive ab ipso civitatis angulo versus meridiem per declivum montis latus 
secus antemuriale, quo templarii domos et curiam suam munierunt, ubi etiam antiijuitus 
ipsius civitatis erat positio, puta ad natatoriam Siloe via dirigitur, quam idcirco, sic fertur, 
vocaverunt, quod a monte Silo occultis meatibus aquae fontis illius illuc soleant illabi. Quod 
mihi ideo est in ambiguo, quia et noster mons, in quo civitas est sita, et alii interjacent 
monies, nee recto tramite vallis qurelibet ab ipso monte ad eam dirigitur, nee propter remo- 
tionem locorum tanti montes cavari possent. Distat enim mons Silo a civitate milliaribus 
duobus. Hoc ergo in medio relinquentes, ea, quce vera esse novimus, auditoribus propona- 
mus. Hoc pro vero fatemur, quod in fontis modum de terra scaturiat, qui scilicet fons 
ipsam replens piscinam et in aliam juxta positam descendens non ultra comparet. Descen- 
ditur autem in ipsam piscinam gradibus XIII, ubi in circuitu fornices arcus gestantes con- 
sistunt, sub quibus magnis lapidibus per circuitum deambulatorium factum est, super quod 
consistentes inferius decurrentes haurire valeant aquas. Alia autem piscina quadrangula 
simplici muro circumdata est. Ista natatoria olim erat intra civitatem, modo ab ea longe 



S6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

rcmota est ; nam duplo fere tantum hie civitati dcmtum est, ([uantum circa sepulchrum 
Domini additurn est 

' Nunc igitur secundum Christi passionis ordinem nostra: narrationis nos oportet dirigerc 
sermonem, qui per suam gratiam ita nobis ei donet compati, ut ei possimus conregnarc. 
Milliario ab Hierosolymis Bethania, ubi domus Sinionis leprosi, Lazari et ejus sororum 
Alariaj et Marthx erat, distat, ubi Uominus sa;pe hospitari solebat. Sita est autem Betiiania 
juxta valleni Oliveti, montem a parte orientali terminantcm. A Bethania ergo in die palma- 
runi dilectissimus Dominus noster Jesus Christus prxccdens et Bethphagc venicns, qui locus 
inter Bethaniam et montem Oliveti medius est, ubi etiam honesta capella in ipsius honore est 
fabricata, binos ad adducendam asinam et pullum misit discipulos, et stans super lapidem 
grandem, qui in ipsa capella manifcste videtur, et asino insidens per montem Oliveti 
Hierosolymam properavit, cui turba multa in descensu montis ipsius obviam processit. Ipse 
vero progrediens ultra vallem Josaphat et torrentem Cedron ad auream portam, quae duplex 
est, pervenit. In cujus adventu una porta, excusso pessulo, per se illi patuit, alteram vero, 
extracto violenter ejus circulo, cum sonitu magno patere fecit : quapropter ibidem capella in 
ejus honore consecrata est, ubi idem circulus deauratus in magna veneratione habetur. Ipsa 
vero porta nunquam nisi in die palmarum et in exaltatione sanctre crucis solet aperiri, pro eo, 
quod Ileraclius imperator cum magna ipsius ligni portione, quod de Perside adduxerat, per 
eam transivit. Ipse autem in templum intrans in eo quotidie usque ad feriam quartam erat 
docens. 

' Cum eo igitur in montem Sion cupio ascendere et quid post ha^c fecerit, videre ; sed 
prius cum Petro volo incarccrari, ut cum eo a Christo doccar non negare, sed orare. In via 
quijjpe de templo provenientibus ad montem Sion decora occurrit capella, in qua career ille 
profunda altitudine sub terra positus, ulpote ad quem XX et amplius gradibus intratur, 
habetur, in quo Herodes Junior sanctum vinxerat Petrum, de quo eum angelus Domini 
eduxit. In introitu ipsius capellce isti sunt versus descripti : 

'Vestibus indutus, Petre, surge, recede solutus. 
Namque catenarum sunt vincula rupta tuarum. 
Nunc scio re certa, cum porta mihi sit aperta. 
O pietas Christi, quoniam me salvificasti. 

' Sion ergo mons, ad meridiem extra muros civitatis ex maxima parte constitutus, eccle- 
siam domina; nostrx sancti"e Maria: articulatam, muris, turribus, propugnaculis adversus 
gentilium insidias valde munitam continet, in qua rcgulares praepositum habentes Deo deser- 
viunt. Quam dum intraveris, in media abside ad sinistram locum ilium venerabilem reperies 
marmore pretioso exterius et opere musivo intcrius decoratum, in quo Dominus noster Jesus 
Christus dilectse matri suae, dominae nostrx sanctas Mariae, animam assumens ad caelestia 
transtulit. Quod opus inferius quadratum est, superius vero rotundum gestat ciborium. A 
dextris autem gradibus fere XXX ad illud ascenditur ccenaculum, quod in fine absidis situm 
est : in quo mensa cernitur, in qua ipse Dominus noster cum discipuHs suis coenavit, et post pro- 
ditoris abscessum ipsis discipulis corporis et sanguinis sui mysteria tradidit. Ab illo loco ad 
meridiem in eodem ccenaculo ultra spatium XXX pedum altare habetur in eo loco, ubi 
spiritus sanctus super apostolos venit. Abhinc tantum inferius per gradus descenditur, quan- 
tum hue est ascensum, et in capella ipsi ccenaculo supposita concha ilia lapidea in muro 
posita videtur, in qua salvator pedes apostolorum in eodem loco lavit, ubi juxta ad dextraai 



JERUSALEM. 57 

altare habetur in loco, ubi Thomas latus Domini post resurrectionem palpavit, qui pro hoc 
ipso digitus appellatur. Ex hoc per quoddam vestibulum circa ipsius ecclesicc sanctuarium 
transitur et ad sinistram ejus altare venerandum habetur, sub quo corpus beati Stephani pro- 
tomartyris a Johanne, episcopo hierosolymitano, sepultum fuisse non dubitatur, quod postea a 
Theodosio imperatore Constantinopoli Romam translatum esse legitur, quod etiam primo de 
Hierosolyma Constantinopolim ab Helena regina perlatum esse fertur. Ante chorum qucedam 
pretiosi marmoris columna juxta murum posita est, quam simplices homines circummigrare 
Solent. 

' Hinc post canam suam Dominus trans torrentem Cedron egressus est, ubi erat hortus. 
Torrens Cedron per mediam vallem Josaphat graditur. In loco autem, ubi hortus ille fuit, 
ecclesia beatse Marine cum suis officinis constituta est, ubi ipsa corporaliter fuit sepulta. 
Intratur vero per quamdam porticum gradibus amplius quam XL in cryptam, in qua sanctum 
ejus exstat sepulchrum, quod opere pretiosissimo de marniore et opere musivo dccoratum est. 
In hujus cryptEe introitu hi duo versus appositi sunt : 

' Haeredes vitce, dominam laudare venite, 
per quam vita datur mundique salus reparatur. 

Quod in circuitu XX columnis arcus gestantibus circumdatum Hmbum in circuitu et tectum 
desuper habet. In ipso autem limbo hi quatuor versus descripti sunt : 

' Hie Josaphat vallis, hinc est ad sidera callis. 
In Domino fulta, fuit hie Maria sepulta. 
Hinc exaltata ccelos petit inviolata : 
spes captivorum, via, lux et mater eorum. 

Super tectum quoque ciborium rotundum sex duplicibus columnis fultum cum pila et cruce 
deaurata desuper habet, et inter duas columnellas undique lampas dependet. Ad ipsum 
autem sepulchrum a parte occidentali intratur et per aquilonalem exitur. Assumtio autem 
ipsius in coelatura superius optime depicta est sub recta linea banc scripturam continente : 
Assumta est Maria in ccelum : gaudent angeli et coUaudantes benedicunt dominam. Circa 
sanctuarium quoque ipsius basilicae regula porrigitur banc continens scripturam : Exaltata 
est sancta Dei genitrix super choros angelorum ad ccelestia regna. Abhinc in ipsam ecclesiam 
tantis ascenditur gradibus, quantis in cryptam descensum est. Est autem ipsa ecclesia et 
omnes ejus ofificinse muris altis, turribus firmis et propugnaculis adversus gentilium insidias 
valde munita, circa se plurimas habens cisternas. Exeuntibus ipsam cryptam ad sinistram 
capella parvula in ipsis sita gradibus occurrit. In ipsa quoque ecclesia Suriani proprium 
habent altare. In coelatura quoque, qua; ipsis gradibus, quibus in ipsam cryptam descenditur, 
incumbit, migratio dominas nostra cernitur esse depicta, ubi dilectus filius ejus, Dominus 
noster Jesus Christus, cum multitudine angelorum assistens et ejus animam suscipiens ad 
ccelesta transfert, apostolis gemituose adstantibus et devotum ei ministerium exhibentibus. 
Cujus corpori sanctissimo feretro imposito dum superpositum velamen vellet quidam Judicus 
avellere, angelus utrasque manus ei gladio amputavit, quibus in terram cadentibus trunci in 
corpore remanserunt inanes : fertur enim quia, cum ipsa domina nostra migrasset de corpore 
in monte Sion, ut in anterioribus dictum est, et sancti apostoli sanctissimum corpus ipsius 
feretro reverenter impositum in valle Josaphat turaulandum per viam extra muros civitatis 
versus orientem tendentem ducercnt, Judrei, nondum sopita invidiam et odii flamma, quam 

8 



58 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

dudum in earn ejusque filium exercuerant, ut ci aliquid ignominire inferrent, occurrerant, 
([uorum unus, audacior ac ceteris infelicior, ad sancti corporis gcstatorium accedcns vclamen 
ci superpositum ausu improbo nisus est avcUere, sed hanc ejus temeritatem et bcataj virginis 
Marias merita et ultio divina graviter mulctaverunt. Nam utrisque manibus et brachiis 
arefactis, cxteris non sine horrore velocem fugani incussit. 

' Progresso deinde versus montem Olivcti ad meridiem non modica tibi occurrit ecclesia, 
Gethsemane nuncupata, ubi salvator, cum discipulis suis ab liorto veniens, intravit et ad eos 
dixit : Sedete hie, donee vadam illuc et orem. Ingressus itaque in earn statim invenies altare 
vencrandum, et ad sinistram in subterraneum specum ingredicns quatuor loca invenies 
denotata, in quibus singulis terni apostoli cubantes obdormicrunt. Est etiam ad sinistram 
saxum grande in ipsius specus angulo, in quod ipse Christus digitos imprimens sex in eo 
fecit foramina. Et ipse avulsus est ab iis, quantum jactus est lapidis. Nam paulo altius 
versus monlem Oliveti, ad meridiem, irinam fecit orationem, in cjuo loco nova nunc a;difi- 
catur ecclesia. Est vero unus locus unius orationis in abside sinistra, alius in medio chori, 
tertius in abside dextra. Inter Gethsemane autem et loco orationum medio spatio, in latere 
mentis Oliveti, ubi turbre Domino cum ramis palmarum occurrerunt, ex lapidibus locus altus 
factus est, in quo in die palmarum a patriarcha palmae benedicuntur. Circa haec itoque 
loca, cum Jesus paveret et cadcret, adveniens Judas cum laternis et facibus et armis et 
ministri Judxorum comprehcnderunt cum et angariaverunt et ad atrium princijjis sacerdotum 
seu Caiphs perduxerunt. Quem cum tota nocte illusissent, mane eum judici Pilato prxsen- 
taverunt. 

' Quem post multas interrogationes cum eo habitas ad locum judiciarium duci fecit et 
sedil pro tribunali in loco, qui vocatur Lithostrotos, qui locus ante ecclesiam beatte Maria; in 
monte Sion in edito versus civitatis murum situs est : ubi capella venerabilis in honore 
Domini nostri Jesu Christi habetur, in qua pars magna columnje exstat, circa quam ligatus 
Dominus a Pilato, postquam crucis appensioni ab eo adjudicatus est, jussiis est flagellar!, ubi 
peregrini ad ejus c.xemplum flagellari solent. Ante ipsam vero ecclesiam in lapide ad crucis 
similitudinem facto haec scriptura exarata est : Iste locus vocatur Lithostrotos, et hie Dominus 
fuit judicatus. Dehinc versus orientem ad dextram, ex alia parte plateae, gradibus L descenditur 
in ecclesiam Galitea nuncupatam, ubi duo circuli catena;, qua beatus Petrus erat vinctus, 
habentur. Deinde ad sinistram altaris partem LX fere gradibus descenditur in subterraneum 
specum obscurissimum, in quem Petrus fugiens post negationem in ejus angulo latuit. Ibi 
enim depictus est residens et caput in manibus dcclinans pii magistri incommoda et suam 
deflet negationem, ancilla ei minaciter instante et gallo ante ejus pedes stante et canente. 
Huic ecclesix pr?esunt Armenii. Hinc Dominus, per civitatis murum circumductus, in 
Calvariam, ubi tunc horli habebantur, nunc domus habentur, ductus et crucitixus est. Nam, 
sicut apostolus ait, Dominus extra portam passus est. 

' Et de Christo quidem et ejus locis ea, quce visu didicimus, pro posse narravimus. Nunc 
quDedam de ejus amicis et aliis locis nota referemus. Post hoc quondam a nobis visa, quoedam 
ab aliis nobis relata dicemus. 

' Juxta viam, quae ducit ad portam orientalem aureae porta: vicinam secus domum vel 
palatium Pilati, quam eidem viae contiguam esse supra diximus, ecclesia beatae Annas sita est 
matris dominre nostras sanctas Marire, ad cujus sepulchrum in subterraneum specum gradibus 
descenditur fere XX. Sanctimoniales in ea sub abbatissa Deo deserviunt. Ad cujus aqui- 
lonalem partem qui progreditur, in valle profunda, juxta lapidosum quemdam collem, cui 
vetus quoddam opus incumbit, piscinam probaticam invenict, qua;, sicut in evangelic scribitur. 



JERUSALEM. 59 

quinque porticus habet, in cujus ultima altare constitutum est. Quicunque muros circuit 
civitatis a turri David itineris initium faciens, juxta angulum occidentalem ecclesiam et habi- 
tacula leprosorum ornata et bene ordinata reperiet. Pertransiens autem cisternam grandem 
hospitariorum, antequam venias ad portam aquilonalem, ecclesia beati Stephani protomartyris 
in colle sita tibi occunit, qui, per ipsam portam ejectus et a Judreis lapidatus, coelos ibidem 
vidit aperte. Est autem in ipsa ecclesia media locus gradibus elatus, pariete ferreo septus, in 
cujus medio altare venerandum et cavum habetur, ubi locus lapidationis ejus fuit et coeli 
super eum apertionis. Hsec ecclesia abbati sanctce Marite in Latina subjacet. In ipsa vero 
porta hospitale venerandum habetur, quod grsece xenodochium vocatur. Per ipsam quoque 
viam cum aliquamdiu transiveris, ad sinistram viam carpens, versus orientem, ecclesiam 
quamdam, quam tenent Armenii, reperies, in qua quidam sanctus, nomine Chariton, requicscit, 
cujus ossa, ac si viverent, came teguntur. 

' Post hjec, cum tempus et hora dominicae ascensionis instaret, conscenso Dominus monte 
Oliveti stans super lapidem grandem, videntibus apostolis ejusque benigna dignatione bene- 
dictis, coelos ascendit. Est autem mons Oliveti, ut in anterioribus dictum est, omnibus 
circumpositis civitati montibus eminentior, omnium fructuum proventibus abundans, in cujus 
summo cacumine ecclesia summK venerationis honori ipsius salvatoris articulata continetur. 
Nee enim locis ipsius Domini prsesentia illustratis alia consecratio in partibus illis adhiberi 
solet prseter ipsam certe montis altitudinem. In ipsam ecclesiam XX magnis ascenditur 
gradibus ; in medio autem ipsius ecclesite opus quoddam rotundum magnifice pario marmore 
et cceruleo decoratum et alto culmine elatum existit, in cujus medio altare reverendum 
habetur, sub quo lapis lUe videtur, in quo Dominus ccelos scandens stetisse perhibetur. In 
ipsa vero ecclesia canonici officia divina peragunt. Quae et ipsa turribus magnis et parvis, et 
muris, propugnaculis et nocturnis custodiis valde adversus gentiles exstat munita. Exeuntibus 
de ipsa ecclesia versus occidentem ecclesiola subterraneo specu tenebrosa ocurrit, in quem 
cum gradibus XXV fuerit descensum, in sarcophago grandi corpus beatx Pelagiae cernitur, 
quje ibidem inclusa in divino servitio vitam finivit. Item ad occidentem juxta viam Betha- 
niam tendentem, in latere montis Oliveti, magnie reverentise habetur ecclesia, in quo loco 
residens salvator et a discipulis, qualiter orare deberent, interrogatus eos orare docuit dicens : 
Pater noster, qui es in co:lis. Hoc eis propria scripsit manu. Hoc sub ipso altari scriptum 
est, ita ut illud peregrini osculari possint. A medietate quoque ipsius ecclesire in subterra- 
neum specum gradibus fere XXX descenditur, ubi Dominus saspe residens discipulos docuisse 
perhibetur. 

' Quisquis per occidentalem urbis portam turri David contiguam exiens, reflexo versus 
meridiem calle, vallem Ennon duo civitatis latera cingentem juxta novam cisternam per- 
transierit. 

' Exeuntibus de sancta civitate versus occidentem per portam turri David contiguam ad 
dextram iter est ad quamdam capellam, in qua cum per gradus fere centum ad profundissimum 
et subterraneum specum fuerit descensum, innumerabilia reperiuntur corpora peregrinorum, 
qui hoc modo illuc devenisse feruntur : Omnes, qui in uno anno ipso solemni causa orandi 
venerunt peregrini, civitatem Saracenis plenam reperierunt, et propterea intrare non valcntes, 
nee recedere volentes, eos in civitate obsederunt. Sed nee arma, nee escas ad tam arduam 
rem explendam sufficienter habentes, defectu necessariorum vehementer arctari cosperunt. 
Et cum in defectu existerent, videntes Saraceni eos sibi non posse resistere, de civitate in eos 
subita eruptione omnes gladio interemerunt. Ascendente autem de tot hominum corporibus 
cetore, omnia decreverunt ignibus exurere ; ipsa autem nocte missus a Deo affuit leo, qui 

8—2 



6o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

omnia ilia corpora in ilium spccum os angustum habcntcm projccit. lUorum autem parva 
quxlibet particula trans mare potest deferri, quin et, si carinis fucrit illata, naves sua sponte 
rcdire feruntur.' 

The following is from the ' Citez de Jherusalem,' written about the 
year 1 187, a.d. It is of great value as giving the account of the mediaeval 
churches in Jerusalem, the names of the streets, pools, etc., as in use 
among the Christians of the Middle Ages : 

'Pour ce que li plus des bonz cresticnz parolent e oient volanticrz parler de la sainte cite 
de Iherusalem, e des Sainz Leux ou nostre Sire fu morz et viz, nous dironz, commant ele 
seoit au jor, que li sarrazin et Salahadinz la conquistrent seur les chrestienz. Aucunes gens 
porront estre qui Ic vorront oir ; cil a qui il desplera, porront trespasser cest leu. 

' Iherusalem, la gloricuse citez, n'est pas en eel liu qu'ele estoit, quant Ihesu Cris estoit en 
terre ne il fu crucefi^s ne il fu resuscit^s de mort a vie. Quant Ihesu Cris estoit en terre, 
estoit la cites de Iherusalem sor le mont de Syon ; mais ele n'i est ore pas. II n'i a solement 
c'une abeie de moines, e en cele abeie a un mostier de madame sainte Marie. La u li mos- 
tiers est, si con on fait entendant, fu la maisons u Ihcsus Cris cena aveques ses apostres le 
juesdi absolu, e fist le sacrcment de I'autel. En eel mostier est li lius u il s'aparut as apostres 
le jor de pasques, quant il fu resuscites. En eel mostier est li lius u il mostra ses plaies de 
ses pies et de ses mains et de son cost^ a saint Thumas as octaves de pasques, e se li dist 
qu'il li baillast sun doit, e le boutast en son cost^, si creist fermement, e noient ne se doutast, 
si ne fust mie mescreans, ains creist. E la meisnies s'aparut il le jor de I'ascension a ses 
apostres, quant il vint prendre congi^ a aus e il vot monter es cieus. D'alec le convoierent il 
jusqu'cl mont Olivet. De la monta il es ciex. Dont retornerent ariere en eel liu meisme e 
atendirent le saint espir, si con Ihesu Cris lor avoit dit e commande qu'il retornassent ariere 
en la citiJ, si attendissent le saint espir qu'il lor avoit promis. En eel liu lor envoia il la 
grasse del saint espir le jor de pentecoste. En eel mostier meisme est le lius u madame 
sainte Marie trespassa en Galile'e, e d'iluec le porterent li apostre enfoir el val de Josafas, e 
misent en un sepucre. 

' La u li sepucres madame sainte Marie est, a un mostier, c'on apele le mostier madame 
sainte Marie de Josafas, e si a une abeie de noirs moines. Li mostiers de monte Syon si a 
a non li mostiers madame sainte Marie de Monte Syon, e si a une abeie de chanoines. Ces 
n. abeies sont defers les murs de la cite, I'une est el mont e I'autre est el val. L'abeie de monte 
Syon est a destre de la cite en droit midi, e cele del val de Josaphat est vers solel levant entre 
mont Olivet e monte Syon. 

' Li mostiers del sepucre qui ore est e monte Calvaire, estoit, quant Ihesu Cris fu crucefies, 
fors des murs. Ore est en mi liu de la cite, e si est la citds auques en un pendant, e pent 
vers mont Olivet qui est vers solel levant desor le val de Josafas. 

' En Iherusalem a ini. maistres portes en crois, I'une en droit I'autre, estre les posternes 
Or les vos nomerai, e coment eles sient. 

' La porte David est vers solel couchant e est a la droiture dc portes oires qui sont vers 
solel levant deriere le temple Domini. Cele porte tient a la tor David, pour 50U I'apele on 
la porte David. Quant on est en cele porte, si tome on a mien destre en une rue. Par 
devant la tor David si puet on aler en monte Syon par une posterne qui la est. En cele rue, 



JERUSALEM. 6i 

a main senestre ains c'on isse hors de Li posterne, a un mostier mon segnor Jaque de Galisse 
qui frere fu mon segnor saint Jehan evangeliste. La dist on que sains Jaques ot la teste 
copee. Per 90U fist on la eel mostier. 

' La grans rue qui va de la porte David droit a portes oires, cele rue est apelee desi c'al 
cange la rue David. A main senestre de la tor David a une grant place u on vent le bl^, e 
quant on a un poi avale cele rue qui a a non la rue David, si trueve on une rue a main 
senestre qui a a non la rue le patriarche, por 50U que li patriarches maint al cief de cele rue. 
E a main destre de le rue le patriarche a une porte, par la u on entre en la maison de I'ospital. 
Apres si a une porte, par la u on entre el mostier del sepucre ; mais n'est mie la maistre porte. 

' Quant on vient al cange, la u la rue David faut, si trueve on une rue qui a a non la rue 
de monte Syon ; car cele rue vait a la porte monte Syon. E a senestre del cange a une rue 
tote coverte a vote qui a a non la rue des herbes. La vent on tot le fruit de le vile e les 
herbes e les espisses. Al cief de cele rue a un liu, la u on vent le poisson, e dcriere le marcie, 
la u on vent Ic poisson, a une grandisme place a main senestre, la u on vent les oes e les fro- 
mages e les poles e les awes. A main destre de eel marcie sont les escopes des orfevres 
suriens, e si vent on les paumes que li paumier apportent d'outre mer. A main senestre de 
eel marcie sont les escopes des orfevres latins. Al cief de ces escopes a une abeie de nonains, 
c'on apele sainte Marie le grant. Apres cele abeie de nonains trueve on une abeie de noincs 
moirs, c'on apele sainte Marie le latine. Apres trueve on le maison de I'ospital. La est la 
maistre porte de I'ospital. 

' A main destre de la droiture de I'ospital est la maistre porte del sepucre. Devant cele 
porte del sepucre a une moult bele place pavee de marbre. A main senestre de cele porte 
del sepucre a un mostier, c'on apele saint Jake des Jacobins. A main destre tenant de cele 
porte del sepucre a uns degres, par la u on monte en monte Calvaire. Lasus, en som le 
mont si a une moult bele chapele, e si a un autre huis en cele chapele, par la u on entre e 
avale el mostier del sepucre par uns autres degrez qui la sont tot si com on entre el mostier. 
A main destre desos monte Cauvaire si est Golgatas. A main senestre est li clochiers del 
sepucre, c si a une chapele, c'on apele sainte trinitd Cele chapele si est granz ; car on i 
soloit espouser totes les femes de la cite, e la etoient li fons, la u on batisoit tos les enfans de 
la citd E cele chapele si est tenans al mostier del sepucre, si qu'il i a une port dont on entre 
el mostier. 

' A la droiture de cele porte est li monumens. En eel endroit, la u li monumens est, est 
li mostiers tos roons, e si est overs par desore, sans covertures. E dedens eel monument est 
la piere del sepucre, e li monumens est tot covers a voute. Al chavec de eel monument ausi 
com al cief a un autel par defors, qu'on apele le chancel. La chantoit on cascun jor messe 
al point del jor. II a moult bele place tot entour le monument e tote pavee, si c'on va a pro- 
cession tot entor le monument. 

' Apres vers oriant est li cuers del sepucre, la u li chanoine chantent. Entre le cuer, la u 
li chanoine sont, e le monument a un autel, la u li griu chantent, mais qu'il a un enclos entre 
II. e si a un huis, par la u on va de I'un a I'autre. En mi liu del cuer as chanoines a un cru 
de marbre, c'on apele le compas ; la sus list on I'epistre. 

' A main destre del maistre autel de eel cuer est monte Calvaire, si que, quant on chante 
messe de la resurrexion, li diacres, quant il list I'evangile, si se torne devers monte Cauvaire, 
quant il dist crucifixum ; apres si se torne vers le monument e si dist : surrexit, non est hie ; 
apres le mostre al doit : ecce locus, ubi posuerunt eum, e puis se torne al livre, si parlist son 
evangile. 



(>2 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' Al chavec del cucra une porte, parla u li chanoine vont en lor ofiecines, e a main dcstrc 
entre cele portc c monte Cauvaire a une parfonde fosse u on avale a degres. La a une 
cliapcle, c'on apelc sainte Elaine. La trova sainte Elaine la crois e les clous e le martel e la 
corone. En ccle fosse, al tans que Ihesu Cris fu en terre, getoit on les crois, la u li laron 
avoient estd crucefii^, e les membres qu'il avoient deservi a couper. E por 90U apele on eel 
niont niontc Cauvaire, c'on i faisoit les justices e ^ou que la lois aportoit, c c'on i cschavoit 
les membres c'on lor avoit jugie a perdre. 

' Tot si comme li chanoine issent del scpucre, a main senestre estoit lor dortoirs, e a main 
destre estoit lor refroiloirs c tient a monte Cauvaire. Entre ces 11. offecines est lor clostres 
e lor prael. En mi liu du prael a une grant overture, par u on voit en la chapele sainte Elaine 
qui desos est ; car autrement n'i vcrroit on noient. 

' Or vos ai dit del scpucre, comment il est. Or rcvcnrai ariere al cangc. Devant le cange 
tenant a le rue des herbes a une rue, c'on apelc mal cuisinat. En cclc rue cuissoit on les 
viandes c'on vendoit as pelerins, e si i lavoit on lor cics, e si aloit on de ccle rue al sepucre. 
Tenant a cele rue del mal cuisinat a une rue, c'on apele le rue covcrte. La on vent le dra- 
perie, e est tote a voute par desus, e par cele rue va on al sepucre. 

' Or lairons del cange, si m'en irai a portes oires. Cele rue dont on va del cange a portes 
oires, a a non le rue del temple. Por ^ou I'apele on la rue del temple, c'on vient ains^ois al 
temple c'a portes oires. A main senestre, si con on avale cele rue a aler a portes oires, est 
la boucherie, la u on vent la char de la vile. A main destre a une rue, par la u on va a 
I'ospital des alemans. Cele rue a a non le rue des alemans. A main senestre sor le pont a 
un mostier de saint Gille. Al cief de cele rue a unes portes, c'on apele portes precieuses. 
Tor qo les apele on portes precieuses que Ihesu Cris entroit par ces portes en la cit(5 de 
Iherusalem, quant il ala par terre. Ces portes sont en i. mur qui est entre le mur de la cit^ 
e portes oires. 

' Entre le mur de la cite e le mur des portes oires si est li temples, e si a une grant place 
qui plus a d'une traitie de lone e le get d'une piere de 1^, ains c'on vegne al temple. Cele 
place si est pavee, dont on apele cele place le pavement. Si com on ist de ces portes, a main 
destre est li temples Salemon, la u li frere del temple manoient. A la droiture de portes 
precieuses e de portes oires est li mostiers del temple Domini, e si est en haul, si c'on i monte 
a degres. Quant on a mont^ ces degres, si trueve on le grant place tote pavee de marbre e 
moult est large, e cil pavemens va tot entor le mostier del temple. Li mostiers del temple 
est tos roons. A main senestre de eel haut pavement del temple est I'offecine de I'abe e des 
chanoines, e de cele part a uns degres, par la u on monte al temple del bas pavement el haut. 

' Devcrs solel levant tenant al mostier del temple a une chapele de mon segnor saint 
Jakome I'apostrc, le menor. Por 50U est iluec cele chapele qu'il i fu martirie's, quant li jui le 
geterent de desor le temple a val. Dedens cele chapele est li lius u Ihesu Cris delivra la 
pecheresse c'on menoit martirier, por ^ou qu'ele avoit este prise en avoutire, e il li demanda, 
quant il I'ot delivrde, ou cil estoient qui I'avoient acusde, e ele dist qu'ele ne savoit. Adonc 
li dist Dex qu'ele s'en alast e ne pechast mais. 

' Al cief de eel pavement, par devers solel levant, ravale on uns degres a aler a portes 
oires. Quant on les a avalds, si trueve on une grant place, ains c'on vegne as portes. La 
sicst li atres que Salemons fist. Par ces portes ne passoit nus, ains estoient murees, que 11. 
fois en I'an, c'on les dcsmuroit, e i aloit on a procession le jor de pasque florie, pour gou que 
Ihesu Cris i passa eel jor e fu recheus a procession, e le jorde sainte crois saltasse, por 50 que 
par ces portes fu rapportee la sainte crois en Iherusalem, quant li empereres Eracles de 



JERUSALEM. 63 

Rome le conquesta en Perse, e par cele porte le reinist il en la cite e ala on a procession 
encontre lui. Por <;ou c'on n'issoit mie hors de la vile par ces portes, avoit il une posterne 
par encoste, c'on apeloit la porte de Josafas. Par cele posterne issoient hors cil de la cite de 
cele part, e cele posterne est a main senestre des portes oires. 

' Par devers midi ravale on del haut pavement del temple el bas dont on vait el temple 
Salemon. A main senestre, si com on a avale del haut pavement el bas, la a un mostier, c'on 
apele le berc. La estoit li bers dont Dex fut bercies en s'enfance, si con on dist. 

' El mostier del temple avoit iiii. portes en croix. La premiere est devers solel couchant. 
Par la entroient cil de la cit(^ el temple. E par cele devers solel levant entroit on en la 
chapele saint Jaque, e si s'en rissoit on d'ilueques a aler a portes oires. Par la porte devers 
miedi aloit on el temple Salemon, e par la porte devers aquilon entroit on en I'abeie. 

' Or vos ai devise del sepucre e del temple, coment il siet, e de I'ospital e des rues qui 
sont de la porte David dusc'a portes oires, I'une en droit I'autre, dont I'une est devers solel 
levant e I'autre devers solel couchant. 

' Or vos dirai des autres 11. portes dont I'une est en droit I'autre. Cele devers aquilon a 
a non la porte saint Estevene. Par cele porte entroient li pelerin en la cite e tot cil qui par 
devers Acre venoient en Iherusalem e par tote la terre dega le flun desci c'a le mer d'Escalone. 
Dehors cele porte, ains c'on i entre, a main destre, avoit un mostier de mon segneur saint 
Estene. La dit on que mes sire sains Estenes fu lapides. Devant eel mostier, a main 
senestre, avoit une grant maison, c'on apele I'asnerie. La soloient jesir li asne e li somier de 
la maison de I'ospital, por gou avoit a non I'asnerie. Cel mostier de saint Estene abatirent 
li crestien de Iherusalem devant 90U qu'il fussent asegi(?, por 90 que li mostiers estoit pres des 
murs. L'asnerie ne fu pas abatue, ains ot puis mestier as pelerins qui par treuage venirent en 
Iherusalem, quant ele estoit de sarrasins. Por 50 que li sarrasin ne les laissoient mie her- 
bergier dedens la cite, por 90 lor ot la maisons de I'asnerie grant mestier. A main destre de 
la porte saint Estene estoit la maladerie de Iherusalem tenant as murs. Tenant a le mala- 
derie avoit une posterne, c'on apeloit la posterne saint Lasdre. La metoient li sarrasin les 
crestiens en la cite, por aler covertement al sepucre, que li sarrasin ne vouloient mie que li cres- 
tien veissent la faice de la cite, e les metoit on par la porte qui est en la rue le patriarche, el 
mostier del sepucre, ne ne les metoit on mie par le maistre porte. 

' Quant on entre en la cite de Iherusalem par la porte saint Estene, si trueve on 11. rues : 
I'une a destre qui vait a le porte monte Syon, qui est en droit midi, e la porte monte Syon si 
est a la droiture de la porte saint Estene. La rue a main senestre si va droit a une posterne, 
c'on apele la posterne de la tanerie, e va droit par desos le pont. 

' Cele rue qui vait a le porte monte Syon, a a non la rue saint Estene desi c'on vient al 
cange des suriens. Ainsgois c'on vegne al cange des suriens, a une rue a main destre, c'on 
apele le rue del sepucre. La est la porte de la maison del sepucre, par la entrent cil del 
sepucre en lor manoirs. 

' Quant on vient devant eel cange, si trueve on a main destre une rue coverte a vote, par 
u on va el mostier del sepucre. En cele rue vendent li surien lor draperie e si fait on les 
chandeles de cire. Devant eel cange vent on le poisson. A eel cange tienentles iii. rues qui 
tienent as canges des latins, dont I'une de ces iii. rues a a non rue coverte. La vendent li 
latin lor draperie. E I'autre a a non la rue des herbes e la tierce mal cuisinat. Par la rue 
des herbes vait on en la rue monte Syon, dont on va a la porte monte Syon e trescope la rue 
David. Par la rue coverte vait on en une rue par le cange des latins. Cele rue apele on la 
rue del arc Judas, e trescope on la rue del temple, e cele rue va droit a le porte monte Syon. 



64 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Cele rue apele on Ic rue del arc Judas, por cp c'on dist que Judas s'i pendi a un arc de piere. 
A senestre de cele rue a un mostier, c'on apele le mostier saint Martin, e pres de eel mostier, 
a main senestre, a un mostier de saint Pierre. La dist on que ce fu que Ihesu Cris fist le boe, 
qu'il mist es iex de celui qui onques n'avoit eu oil, e li commanda qu'il s'alast laver a le fon- 
taine de Syloe, si veroit, e il si fist, si ot iex e si vit. 

' Tot si com on ist hors de le porte monte Syon, si trueve on iii. voies : une voie a main 
destre qui vait a I'abeie e al mostier de monte Syon. Entre I'abeie e les murs de la cite si 
avoit un grant atre e i. mostier en mi liu. La voie a main senestre si vait selonc les murs de 
la cite tot droit a portes oires, e d'ilec avale on el val de Josafas, e si en vait on a la fontaine 
de Syloe. E de cele porte a main destre sor cele voie a un mostier, c'on apele saint I'iere 
en gallicante. En eel mostier avoit une fosse profonde. La dist on que sains Pieres se 
mucha, quant il ot Ihesu Crist renoie, e il oi le coc chanter, c la plora il. La voie a la 
droiture de le porte devers miedi si vait par desoz le mont dcsi c'on a passe I'abeie. Quant 
on a pass^ I'abeie, si avale on le mont e vait on par la en Belleem. 

' Si tost c'on a avale le mont, si trueve on i. lai en la valee, c'on apele le lai Germain ; car 
Germains le fist faire, por recoillir les ewes qui venoicnt des montagnes, quant il plovoit, e la 
abuvroit on les chevaus de la citd D'autre part la valee, a main senestre, pres d'ilueques a 
un charnier, c'on apele champ de mar. La getoit on les pelerins qui moroient a I'ospital de 
Ihcrusalem. Cele piece de terre u li charniers est, fu achetee des deniers dont Judas vendi 
la char Ihesu Cris, si con I'evangiles tesmoigne. 

' Dehors la porte David a un lai par devers solel couchant, c'on apele li lai del patriarche, 
la u on recueilloit les ewes d'iluec entor a abuvrer les chevaus. Pres de eel lai avoit un char- 
nier, c'on apeloit le charnier del lyon. II avint ja, si com on dist, a un jor qui passe's est, 
qu'il ot une bataille entre eel charnier e Iherusalem, u il ot moult de crestiens ocis, e que cil 
de la cit^ les devoient lendemain faire tos ardoir por le puor, tant qu'il avint, c'uns lyons vint 
par nuit, si les porta tos en cele fosse, si com on dist. E sus eel charnier avoit un mostier u 
on chantoit cascun jor messe. 

' Pres d'ilec a une lieue avoit une abeie de jorjans, la u on dist c'une des pieces de la 
crois fu coilluc, e I'estache de la crois fu prise devant le temple, qu'ele estoit demoree dou 
temple, c'on ne pooit trover liu u ele s'aferist, qu'el ne fust u trop longe u trop corte. Dont 
il avenoit, si com on dist, que, quant les gens venoient al temple e il avoient lor pies en boes, 
qu'il terdoient iluecques lor pies. Dont il avint c'une fois i passa une roine, si le vit enboee, 
si le terst de ses dras e si I'aora. 

' Or vos dirai de cele piece de fust dont ele vint, si con on dist el pais. II avint chose 
c'Adans jut el lit mortel, si pria une de ses fix por Deu qu'il li aportast un ransel de I'arbre 
dont il avoit mangie del fruit, quant il pecha. II li aporta e il le prist, si le mist en sa bouche. 
Quant il I'ot en sa bouche, il estrainst les dens, e I'arme s'en ala, n'onques eel rainsel ne li pot 
on esragier des dens, ains fu enfois atot. Cis rainsiaus, si com on dist, reprist e devint bel 
arbre,e quant ce vint queli deluives fu,siesragacisarbrese le menalideluives el mont de Liban, 
e d'ilueques fu il mcnes en Iherusalem avec le mairien, dont li temples fu fais qui fu taillids el 
mont de Liban. II avint, si com on dist, que, quant Ihesu Cris fu mis en crois, que la teste 
Adan estoit dedans le boise, e quant li sans Ihesu Crist issi hors de ses plaies, la teste Adan 
issi hors de la boise e recoilli le sane, dont il avient encore qu'en tos les crucefis c'on fait en 
la terre de Iherusalem, c'au pie de la crois a une teste en raimenbrance de celi. 

' Or vos dirai des jorjans qui sont en I'abeie u I'une partie de la crois fu prise, quels gens 
se sont, ne de quel terre il sont. La terre dont il sont, a a non Avegie, e si a roi e roine dont 



JERUSALEM. 65 

aucunes gens apelent cele terre terre de Femenie. Por ce I'apelent terre de Femenie que la 
roine chevauce e tient s'ost de ses femes ausi com li rois fait de ses homes. En cele terre 
n'ont les femes c'une mamele, e si vos dirai por coi. Quant la feme est nee e ele est un poi 
crute, si li cuist on la destre mamele d'un fer chaut, e la senestre il laisse on por ses enfans 
norrir. E por go li cuist on la destre qu'ele ne li nuise al traire, quant ele est en bataille. 

' A trois lieues de Iherusalem a une fontaine devers solel couchant, c'on apele la fontaine 
d'Emaus. La soloit avoir un chastel, dont il avint, si com I'evangiles tesmogne, que nostra 
Sire ala avec dos de ses desiples, quant il fu resuscite's, dusc'a eel chastel, e s'asisent a cele 
fontaine por mangier, si qu'il ne le conurent mie desci qu'il brisa le pain. Adont s'esvanui 
d'aus, e il s'en retornerent en Iherusalem as apostres, por faire savoir a iaus, comment il avoient 
a lui parle. 

' Or revieng a la porte saint Estene, a la rue qui vait a main senestre e vait a le posterne 
de le tanerie. Quant on a ale une piece de cele rue, si trueve on une rue a main senestre, 
c'on apele le rue de Josafas. Quant on a ale un poi avant, si trueve on un quarefor d'une 
voie, dont la voie qui vient de senestre, vient del temple e vait al sepucre. Al cief de cele 
voie a une porte par devers le temple, c'on apele porte dolereuse. Par la issi fors Ihesus, 
quant on le mena el mont de Cauvaire por crucefier, e por gou I'apele on porte dolereuse. A 
main destre sor le quarrefor de cele voie fu li ruisiaus, dont I'evangiles tesmogne que nostre 
Sire passa, quant il fu menes crucefier. En eel endroit a un mostier de saint Jehan Evan- 
geliste, e si avoit un grant manoir. Cil manoirs e li mostiers estoit des nonains de Bethanie. 
La manoient eles, quant il estoit guerre de sarrasins. 

' Or revieng a la rue de Josafas. Entre la rue de Josafas e les murs de la cit^, a main 
senestre, a rues jusc'a la porte de Josafas ausi com une vile. La manoient li plus des suriens 
de Iherusalem, e ces rues apeloit on la juerie. En cele juerie avoit un mostier de sainte 
Marie Madalaine, e pres del mostier avoit une posterne, dont on ne pooit mie hors issir as 
cans, mais entre 11. murs en aloit on. 

■ A main destre de cele rue de Josafas avoit un mostier, c'on apeloit le repos. La dist on 
que Ihesu Cris se reposa, quant on le mena crucefier, e la estoit la prisons u il fu mis la nuit 
qu'il fu pris en Gessemani. Un poi avant, a main senestre de cele rue, estoit la maisons 
Pilate. Devant cele maison avoit une posterne, par ou on aloit al temple. 

' Pres de la porte de Josafas, a main senestre, avoit une abeie de nonains qui avoit a non 
sainte Anne. Devant cele abeie a une fontaine qui a a non la pecine. Desor le fontaine 
avoit un mostier. E cele fontaine ne cort point, ains est en une fosse desos le mostier. A 
cele fontaine, al tans que Ihesu Cris fu en terre, avenoit que li angles par fies venoit movoir 
celeewe,e qui primes descendoit a cele fontaine, por baignier apres gou que li angles I'avait mute, 
il estoit garis de quel enfert^ qu'il eust. Cele fontaine avoit cinq porches, e devant ces porches 
si gisoient molt de malades e d'enfers e de langereus, por atendre le movement de I'ewe. Dont 
il avint que Ihesu Cris vint la un jor e trova la un home gisant en son lit qui xxxviii. ans i 
avoit jut, se li demanda Ihesu Cris, s'il voloit estre garis. E il li respond! : Sire, je n'ai home qui 
m'ajut a descendre en la fontaine, quant il angles a mute I'ewe. E quant il Fa mute e je 
m'esmuet, por aler la, si truis je un autre qui s'i est baignies devant moi. Dont vint Ihesu 
Cris, se li dist qu'il ostsat son lit e si s'en alast. E cil sali sus tos sains e tos saus, e si s'en 
ala. Cel jor estoit samedis, si com I'evangiles tesmogne. 

' Si com on ist de la porte de Josafas, si avale on el val de Josafas. A main destre de 
cele porte sont portes oires. El val de Josafas si avoit une abeie de noirs moines. En 
cele abeie avoit un mostier de madame sainte Marie. En eel mostier estoit li sepucres u ele 

9 



66 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

fu cnfoic, e est encore. Li sarrasin, quant il orcnt prise la cite, abalirent cclc abcic c enpor- 
terent les pieres a le cite fcrmer ; mais le mostier n'abatirent il mie. Devant eel moslier, al 
pic de mont Olivet, a un mostier en un roche, c'on apele Gessemani. La fu Ihesu Cris pris. 
D'autre pari la voie, si com on monle el mont Olivet, tant com on getcroit une picrc, avoit un 
mostier, c'on apeloit saint sauveur. La ala Ihesu Cris orer la nuit ciu'il fu pris, e la li degota 
li sans de son cors ausi com suor. El val de Josafas avoit hermites e renclus ases tos contre 
val, que je ne vos sai mie nomer, deci c'a la fontaine de Syloe. 

' En som le mont Olivet avoit une abeie de blans moines. Pres de cele abeie, a main 
destre, avoit une voie qui aloit en Bethanie, toute la costiere de la montagne. Sor le tor de 
cele voie, a main destre, avoit un mostier, c'on apeloit saint paternostre. La dist on que 
Ihesu Cris fis la paternostre e I'ensegna a ses apostres. Pres d'iluec fu li figiers que Dex 
maudi, quant il ala en Iherusalem, por 90 que li apostre i alerent coillir des figes e si n'en i 
troverent nule, e si n'estoit mie tans qu'eles i dcussent estre. Cel jor meismes retorna Ihesu 
Cris de Iherusalem, por aler en Bethanie, e li apostre alerent par devant le figier, si le 
troverent sec. 

' Entre le mostier de la paternostre et Bethanie, en la coste de la montagne, avoit un 
mostier qui avoit a non Bethfage. La vint Ihesu Cris le jor dc le pasque florie, e d'ilueques 
envoia il en Iherusalem dos de ses desciples por une asnesse, e d'iluec ala il sor I'asnesse en 
Iherusalem, quant il I'orent amenee. 

' Or vos ai dit e nom^ les abeies e les mostiers de Iherusalem e de dehors Iherusalem e les 
rues des latins; mais je ne vos ai mie nome ne nomcrai les abeies ne les mostiers des suriens, 
ne des grejois, ne des jacobins, ne des boanins, ne des nestorins, ne des hermins, ne d'autres 
gens qui n'estoient mie obeissant a Rome, dont il avoit abeies e mostiers en la cite. Por 50 ne 
vos vuel mie parler dc totes ces gens qui j'ai chi nome, qu'il ne sont mie obeissant a Rome.' 

John of Wirtzburg, who follows, died about the year 1213 a.d., and his 
account is much like that of Theodoricus, but contains several important 
details, such as his description of the outer wall of the Dome of the Rock. 

' Nunc vero eamus ad repri^sentationem Domini, adjicientes hoc de circumcisione ejus, 

quse facta est in templo Domini octavo die, quod ipsa, quamvis in ea carnis abscissio deposi- 

tioncm vitiorum in mentibus aliorum significet, tamen, quia ad vetus testamentum pertinet, in 

eo consummationcm accipiens, a modo cessare debeat. Inter sacramenta novi testamenti 

circumcisio non computatur, nee pertinet ad aliquod septem sigillorum. Sicut jam diximus, 

Dominus noster Jesus Christus a matre sua in tcmpio est reprresentatus, receptus ab ulnis 

beati Simeonis spiritu prophetico inferentis : " Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine," etc. In 

templo Dominus noster Jesus Christus jam major factus, dum moraretur Jerusalem, etiam 

duodennis disputabat cum judreis et docebat eos soepe postea, licet eum odio habuerunt. In 

templo laudavit munus pauperis, quod in gazophylazium miserat, quia totum, quod habebat, 

dederat. Super pinnaculum templi, quod reputatur supra latus circuitus, habens subtus se 

fenestras, quasi pinnas vel cinnas, statuit Jesum diabolus, et, tertio eum propter baptismum et 

jejunium tentans, dixit : " Si filius Dei es, mitte te deorsum." In templo Domini XI. kalend. 

decembris dicitur beata virgo Maria, jam trium annorum, oblata fuisse, ut hi versiculi docent 

ibidem inscripti : 

' Virginibus septem virgo comitata puellis, 

servitura Deo, fuit hie oblata triennis. 



JERUSALEM. 67 

' Ibi quidem saepe solatium angelicum percepit. Unde versus : 
' Pascitur angelico virgo ministerio. 

' XI. kalend. decembris prsesentatio beatse Marise virginis in templo : unde hoec dicitur 
oratio in eodem templo. Oratio. Deus, qui sanctam Dei genitricem, templum spiritus sancti, 
post triennium in templo Domini prtesentari voluisti, respice ad devotam tibi plebem, et 
prffista, ut, qui ejus prsesentationis festa veneramur, ipsi templum, in quo habitare digneris, 
efficiamur. Per Dominum, etc. 

' De templo vendentes et ementcs ejecit Dominus Jesus Christus, ad cujus rei indicium 
adhuc in dextra parte templi ostenditur lapis cum magna veneratione luminariorum et ornatus, 
tamquam pede Domini calatus et insignitus, quando ipse solus virtute divina tot restitit 
hominibus eos violenter ejiciendo : qui lapis adjunctus est lapidi, super quem tamquam in 
altare depingitur Dominus noster oblatus fuisse, ut demonstratur in pictura et superscriptione, 

qufe talis est : 

' Hie fuit oblatus rex regum virgine natus, 
quapropter sanctus locus est hie jure vocatus. 
Hie Jacob scalam vidit, construxit et aram. 
Hinc locus ornatur, quo sanctus jure vocatur. 

' Quod vero ibidem in lapide eodem Jacob depingitur caput posuisse, quando dormiens 
vidit scalam in ccelum porrectam, per quam angeli ascendcrunt et descenderunt, salva templi 
reverentia, non verum est : ubi et hie versus appositus est : 

' Heec tua sit terra Jacob cum prole futura. 

' Sed hoc non eo loco accidit, sed longe alibi ad Mesopotamiam eunti, scilicet juxta 
majorem Mahumeriam. 

' In templo liberavit Dominus noster adulteram ab accusantibus, dicens : " Qui sine pec- 
cato est," etc., qui etiam illis accusatoribus tacentibus et exeuntibus dixit : " Mulier, vade in 
pace, et jam amplius noli peccare." Locus ille reprtesentatur in parva crypta ejusdem templi, 
ad quam introitus est in sinistra parte templi, et vocatur confessio. In eundem locum dicitur 
ingressus Zacharias, quando ab angelo de conceptione Johannis est certificatus. Hoc totum 
indicat pictura et superscriptiones, qua3 tales sunt : Angelus ad Zachariam : " Ne timeas, 
Zacharia, exaudita est oratio tua," etc. In superliminari imago Christi : Absolve gentes sua 
crimina corde fatentes. 

' In templo ad altare, quod extra erat sub divo, remotum a templo plus quam per XXII 
passus, Zacharias, filius Barachias, martyr occubuit, supra quod in veteri testamento judsi tur- 
tures et columbas' sacrificare solebant : quod a sarracenis postea mutatum est in horologium, 
et adhuc videri potest, et notari, quod plures sarraceni etiam hodie orandi causa ad ipsum, 
versus meridiem dispositum, ad quem ipsi orare solent, veniunt. 

' Idem vero templum Domini, miro tabulatu marmoreo intus et exterius a quocunque 
exstructum, formam habet rotundam decentem, immo circulariter octogonam, id est, octo 
angulos habentem in circuitu, habens parietem de optimo musivo opere exterius adornatum 
usque ad medietatem ejus ; nam reliqua pars est de marmoreis lapidibus. Idem paries inferior 
est continuus, praeterquam quod quatuor ostiis interrumpitur, habens ad orientem ostium unum, 
cui adjuncta est capella in honore sancti Jacobi consecrata ; nam ab ea parte, de tecto templi 

9—2 



63 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ipse prrecipitatus, pertica fuUonis fuit occisus : qui primus pontifex fuit sub novae legis gratia in 
Jerusalem. Unde et hi versus sunt appositi in eadem capella, in latere parietis : 

' Jacobus Alphoei, Domini similis faciei, 
fmit pro Christo, templo depulsus ab isto. 
Sic Jacobum justum, praedicantcm publice Cliristum, 
plebs mala mulctavit, fullonis pertica stravit. 

' Hi in circuitu quasi ciborii ejusdem capellae intus et supra continentur : 

' Jacobus Alphaei, frater Domini nazarxi, 

piscator vita, vere fuit israclita. 

De templi pinna compulsus fraude maligna, 

ad Christum Isetus migravit, vecte peremtus. 

' Ad aquilone habens ostium unum versus claustrum dominorum, in cujus superliminari 
phires litterce sarracenicje sunt appositae. Ibidem vero juxta idem ostium est locus illius aquK 
salubris, de qua propheta : " Vidi aquam egredientem de latere," etc. In introitu templi versus 
occidentcm, supra vcstibulum, Christi imago est, circa quam hoc continetur epigramma : 
" Hfec domus mea domus orationis vocabitur." A meridic quoque habct ostium versus 
aidificium Salomonis. Ab occidente etiam habet ostium versus sepulchrum Domini, ubi et 
porta speciosa, per quam Petrus, cum Johanne transiens, respondens pauperi eleemosynam ab 
eis pctcnti, cum esset claudus, dixit : " Argentum et aurum non est mihi," etc. Utrumlibet 
istorum duorum ostiorum, videlicet ab aquilone ct ab occidente, habet sex januas modo val- 
varum conjunctas ; nam illud versus meridiem habet quatuor, illud vero ad orientem tantum 
duas. Quodlibet autem ostiorum pulchrum habet vcstibulum. 

' Hkc circa inferiorem parietem ; sed in supcriorc parte ejusdem parietis, scilicet ubi 
musivum opus optimum appositum est, fenestrse sunt intersertae sic, quod in quolibet de octo 
lateribus sunt quinque, proeterquam ubi sunt ostia templi, in quibus quatuor tantum con- 
tinentur fenestras, et est summa carum triginta sex. Inter istum exteriorem in circuitu 
parietem et interiores columnas marmoreas et magnas, quse numero sunt duodecim et susten- 
tant ilium interiorem et strictiorem et elatiorem et penitus rotundum parietem, qui habet duo- 
decim fenestras, suppositis etiam sibi quatuor quadratis basibus, inter hunc, inquam, et ilium 
sunt sedecim columns et octo bases cum quadratis lapidibus marmoreis, cum spatio octo 
passuum, abhinc et inde sustentantes tectum medium inter exteriorem, latiorem parietem et 
interiorem, strictiorem, cum pulcherrimis laqueariis supra se etiam juxta tectum locum deam 
bulatorium circumquaque exhibentibus, et habentibus canales plumbeos aquam pluvialem 
exportantes. Super hunc strictiorem parietem erigitur in altum testudo rotunda, intus depictas 
foris plumbo cooperta, cui signum sanctae crucis in supremo a christianis est appositum, quod 
sarraccnis est valde contrarium, et multi auri sui dispendio vellent esse remotum ; nam licet 
fidem passionis Christi non habeant, tamen hoc templum venerantur, cum in eo creatorem 
suum adorent, quod tamen pro idolatria habendum est teste Augustino, qui asserit, idolatriam 
esse, quidquid fit prxtcr fidem Christi. 

' In circuitu templi quasi sub tecto extra continetur haec littera in ascensu versus 
occidentem : Pax aeterna ab aeterno patre sit huic domui. Benedicta gloria Domini de loco 
sancto suo. Versus meridiem : Bene fundata est domus Domini supra firmam petram 
Beati, qui habitant in domo tua ; in SKCula saeculorum laudabunt- te. Versus orientem. 



JERUSALEM. 69 

Vere Dominus est in loco illo, et ego nesciebam. In domo tua, Domine, omnes dicent 
gloriam. Versus septentrionem : Templum Domini sanctum est. Dei culturi est. Dei 
sedificatio est. Intus vero in temple in superiori linea per circuitum appositum est in magnis 
litteris illud responsorium : Audi, Domine, hymnum, cum versu sue : Respice, Domine, etc. 
In inferiore quoque ambitu cum aureis litteris quidam versiculi de illo hymno : Urbs beata 
Jerusalem, continentur appositi. 

' Idem templum sic decenter compositum et exornatum circumquaque habet atrium latum 
atque planum, conjunctis lapidibus pavimentatum et in circuitu quadratum, ad quod a tribus 
partibus multis ascenditur gradibus. Est enim idem atrium a qualitate terrte satis artificiose 
elevatum. Et habet ab oriente in pariete suo latum introitum per quinque arcus quatuor 
magnis columnis sibi connexos, et hie paries sic patet versus portam auream, per quam 
Dominus quinto die ante passionem suam, sedens super asinam, solemniter introivit susceptus 
a pueris hebrceis cum ramis palmarum, laudantibus et dicentibus : " Hosanna tilio David," 
etc. Qu£e porta ex divina dispositione, licet postea stepe Jerusalem ab hostibus esset capta 
et destructa, semper remansit Integra. Hkc etiam porta, ob reverentiam divini et mystici 
introitus Domini a Bethania per montem Oliveti Jerusalem ascendentis intus clausa, foris 
lapidibus obstructa, in nullo tempore patet alicui, nisi in die palmarum, quo omni anno, ob 
memoriam rei gesta;, solemniter aperitur processioni et universo populo peregrinorum sive 
civium. A patriarcha facto sermone in pede montis Oliveti ad populum, finito eo die officio, 
iterum clauditur per totum annum ut prius, nisi in exaltatione sanctce crucis, in qua etiam 
aperitur. Circa eandem portam infra niuros Celebris sepultura habetur mortuorum. 

' Idem atrium a meridie habet patulum accessum per tres magnos arcus duabus columnis 
marmoreis conjunctos, et in eodem latere habet alium accessum priori latiorem. Ab occidente 
vero versus civitatem pulchrum habet accessum, patens per quatuor arcus tribus columnis 
marmoreis continuatis. Ab aquilone idem atrium angustatur in parte propter adjunctionem 
claustri dominorum ; in reliquo ejusdem lateris satis pulchram habet latitudinem et accessum. 
Pulchra quoque et satis ampla planities a meridie et occidenti, aliquantulum etiam versus 
septentrionem eidem atrio forinsecus adjacet in piano. 

' Hasc descriptio pr^'efati templi et adjacentis loci sufficiat ; potiori non invidemus. 

' In descensu majoris platese est porta magna, qua patet introitus in illud latum atrium 
templi. Ad dextram manum versus meridiem est palatium illud, quod quondam Salomon 
dicitur exstruxisse, ubi est stabulum mirabile capacitatis tanta;, quod plus quam duo millia 
equorum seu mille et quingenta camelorum possit capere. Juxta idem palatium milites tem- 
plarii habent plurima adjuncta a3dificia magna et ampla, cum exstructione novae et magnse 
ecclesioe nondum tamen consummate. Eadem namque domus multas habet possessiones et 
infinitos reditus tam in ilia terra, quam in aliis partibus. Eleemosynam quidem facit satis 
magnam in Christi pauperes, sed non in decima parte ejus eleemosynte, quam faciunt hospi- 
tales. Eadem domus habet quamplures milites pro tuenda chrislianorum terra ; sed hi, nescio 
quo infortunio, sive ex falso, sive ex vero, quoad fame relationem, aspersi sunt perfidire dolo : 
quod tamen manifeste probatum est per factum illud apud Damascum cum rege Cunrado. 

' Juxta sedificia eorundem templariorum, versus orientem, super murum civitatis fuit hos- 
pitium justi Simeonis, in quo saepe beatam Mariam virginem, matrem Domini, hospitalitatis 
ct familiaritatis causa, dicitur recepisse, fovisse et alimenta prcebuisse, sicut et ea nocte fecit, 
quando in sequenti die, videlicet quadragesimo die a nativitate Domini ipsum puerum cum 
niatre sua in templo oblaturus, in ulnis suis ad altare eum retinens et offerens, spiritu pro- 
phetico cognoscens, eum ilium fore, qui per tot et tanta retro spatia ab antiquis patribus 



70 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

inenarrabili desiderio esset exspectatus, inlulit prophetice : " Nunc dimittis servum tuum 
Domine," etc. In eadem domo, modo in ecclesiam transmutata, beatus Simeon sepultus 
quiescit, ut illc versus ibi appositus indicat. In eadem ecclesia infra in crypta retinentur 
adhuc et ostcnduntur cum magna veneratione Christ! de ligno incunabula.' 

' Appropinquante, ut diximus, Domini passione, post Lazari recuscitationem, die 
palmarum venit Hierosolymam. Eodem die, solemnitate jam dicta peracta, rediit ad Oliveti 
montana, moraturus ibi usque ad feriam quintam, in qua facturus erat una cum discipulis suis 
ccenam dominicam, in qua veteris testamenti terminum novique testamenti initium posuit 
Misit ergo in civitatcm, discipulis suis inquirentibus, ubi velit sibi pascha fieri, quosdam ex 
eis, ut venirent et prjepararent sibi habitaculum vel locum ad complendum hujusmodi coenae 
sacramenta idoneum, de quo plenius in Evangelio : " Ite in civitatem et invenietis hominem 
amphoram aqus bajulantem, sequimini cum," etc. Hoc ccenaculum in monte Sion est inven- 
tum, in eo loco, in quo Salomon quondam egregium dicitur construxisse aedificium, de quo 
in Cantico Canticorum : " Ferculum fecit sibi rex Salomon," etc. Ccenaculum illud in 
superiori parte grande erat ct latum, in cujus latitudine propter mysterii rationem Dominus 
noster cum discipulis suis dicitur coenasse, ubi et proditorem suum cauta indicavit descriptione, 
reliquos confortans de instante sibi passione et dans eis sub specie panis corpus suum ad 
manducandum et sub specie vini sanguinem suum ad bibendum : " Quotiescunque," etc., 
dicens. 

' Facta jam in superiori parte ejusdem habitaculi ccena, veri simile est ex ejusdem mysterii 
ratione, Dominum nostrum, in inferior! domus parte, humilitatis exemplum in lavatione pedum 
discipulorum ostendisse ; sive mavis hoc ante ccenam vel post factum fuisse, ut quredam 
expositio innuit super illam litteram Evangelii Johannis : " Et facta ccena surre.xit," etc., sive 
autem hoc ante vel post factum fuerit, parum refert ; sed hoc vel scire juvat, quod diversitatem 
loci adhuc hodie descriptio rei gestre in ecclesia mentis Sion innuit. Nam in sinistra parte 
ejusdem ecclesice, in loco superiori, depicta apparet ccena, in inferiori, scilicet in crypta, 
lavatio pedum discipulorum ostenditur exhibita. 

' His itaque consummatis mysteriis, orationis causa cum discipulis suis rediit ad 
montem Oliveti, in cujus montis pede et accubitu, dimittens discipulos suos, solus secessit ab 
eis, quantum erat jactus lapidis, scilicet Gethsemane. Oravit ad patrem suum, dicens : 
" Pater, si fieri potest," etc., ubi et ex tremore carnis sudorem fudit quasi sanguineum, et, ad 
discipulos suos reversus et inveniens eos dormientes, specialiter Pelrum increpavit, dicens : 
" Non potuisti una hora vigilare mecum ?" et aliis discipulis : " Dormite jam et requiescite,' 
etc. Sic vice tertia in eundem locum ab eis secedens et easdem preces Deo patri porrigens, 
tandem confortatus a patre et a se ipso secundum quod Deus, tertio reversus ad discipulos, 
dixit : " Vigilate et orate." Istorum locorum distinctio, videlicet, ubi discipuli remanserant, 
et ubi Dominus oraverat, manifeste in valle Josaphat apparet ; nam juxta majorem ecclesiam, 
in qua sepultura beatiE Maria; virginis, de qua postea dicemus, adhuc hodie in dextra parte 
introitus sui est capella cum caverna, in qua discipuli tristes et dormitantes remanserant, 
Domino ter secedenti ab eis et totiens redeunte. Hoc adhuc ibidem indicat pictura e.xistens. 
Locus vero, ubi Dominus oravit, circumdatus est nova ecclesia, quae dicitur ecclesia salvatoris, 
in cujus pavimento eminent tres non operati lapides, tamquam modicae rupes : in quibus 
dicitur Dominus orasse cum trina genuflexione, ad quos lapides fit veneratio et fidelium 
Christi oblatio cum devotione maxima. Ad prasdictam cavernam Dominus noster, noscens 
cum turbis Judam appropinquare, Judas enim, aliis discipulis post ccenam cum Domino 
remanentibus, solus abiit ad judajos, tractans cum eis de traditione Domini, mercedem pro- 



JERUSALEM. 71 

ditionis triginta argenteis ab eis recipiens,'cum turba jam appropinquavit : hoc, inquam, sciens 
Jesus, in eadem caverna dixit discipulis suis : " Surgite, eamus ; ecce appropinquavit," etc. 
Sic egressus Gethsemane, per osculuin Juda; cognitus, a cohorte transmissa est detentus, 
vinctus et deductus. Verumtamen in prsefata caverna ostenduntur quinque foramina in uno 
lapide, tamquam quinque digitis manus Domini impressa : Domini, dico, jam capti et a per- 
secutoribus violenter tracti, veluti sese retinentis. Quidquid autem de hoc sit, nos procul 
dubio scimus, eum majoris potestatis et virtutis ampliora potuisse facere. 

' Traditus est, ut diximus, Dominus noster a discipulo suo, captus et ligatus a milite 
romano, reductus ad montem Sion, ubi tunc erat prretorium Pilati, nuncupatum lithostrotos, 
hebraice autem Gabatha. Tunc enim temporis optima pars et fortitudo totius civitatis erat 
in altitudine ejusdem mentis, sicut etiam turris David, quje erat specula et tutamen reliquce 
civitatis, erat in eo elevata, et ratione maternte generationis et procurationis inferior pars 
ejusdem civitatis dicitur filia, unde : " Dicite, filis Sion," etc. Postea vero, destructa ibidem 
civitate et in alium locum, ubi nunc exstat, translata sub Aelio imperatore, mons quoque idem 
a sua celsitudine valde est humiliatus et ad^quatus, turre etiam sublata inde cum aliis 
Eedificiis. Ostenditur autem hodie locus ille, ubi praetorium et turris David fuerat. Tunc 
temporis juxta idem prastorium versus meridiem erat illud grande sedificium, ubi Dominus 
ccenavit cum discipulis suis. Juxta idem prfetorium versus orientem erat atrium, in quod 
vinctus ducebatur et tota nocte ilia retincbatur a custodibus et a judteorum principibus obser- 
vantibus eum usque ad horam sistendi judicio in sequent! mane. In eodem praetorio Petrus 
ter negavit Dominum ante galli cantum, ubi etiam, audito galli cantu. Domino eum respiciente, 
pie reminiscens verbi Jesu, vere pcenituit, flevit amare, fugiens in cavernam, quaa modo galli- 
cantus vulgariterque Galilaea appellatur. 

' In monte Sion Christus discipulis suis apparuit, unde et hi versus inveniuntur ibi appositi 
in dextro latere ecclesitc : 

' Christus discipulis apparuit hie galiteis 
surgens. Propterea locus est dictus Galilaea. 

' In via, qua de Sion descenditur in vallem Josaphat, sub porta montis Sion, super eandem 
cavernam, est ecclesia sedificata, quam hodie servant grseci monachi. 

' Facto itaque sequenti mane judicio iniquo, damnatus ante prsetorium in loco quodam 
flagellatur, alapis cEeditur, et conspuitur, veste rubea induitur, spinea corona pungitur. Quod 
indicat epigramma ibidem positum sic continens : 

' Iste coronatur, quo mundus jure regatur. 

' Eundem locum designat capella ante majorem ecclesiam Sion, versus boream sita, con- 
tinens picturam gestae rei cum tali epigrammate : 

' Sanctus sanctorum damnatur voce reorum. 
Pro servis bellum patitur Deus atque flagellum. 
Haec bona crux Christi Simoni subvenit isti. 
Non vehit banc gratis, qute dat bona cunctis beatis. 

' Ab eodem loco, post sententiam crucis et damnationis in se prolatam, crucem ad hoc 
prseparatam imposuerunt humero Domini, causa deferendi usque ad locum patibuli, ut ilia 
impleretur prophetia : " Principatus ejus super humerum ejus," etc. Supervenit autem 



72 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

quidam cyrcnxus, qucm angariavcrunt eandem cruccm portare usque ad locum Calvariae 
propter mysteriuni. 

' Erat tunc tcniporis juxta situm antiquoe civitatis locus Calvarine extra civitatcm, qui 
addictus erat capilali scntentia daninalis, a quorum decalvatione, crinibus eorum abrasis, aura 
consumtis eorum capitibus, etiam came denudatis at non in terra defossis, idem locus Cal- 
varix diccbatur, vcl idco, quod in co rei decalvabantur, id est, damnari solebant. Idem vero 
locus, qui et hcbraicc Golgatha, erat in veteri rupe, sicut et hodic passim extra civitates emi- 
nentiora loca supplicio damnatorum sunt deputata. Interim dum in eadem rupe per affixionem 
crux adaptaretur, Dominus noster in quodam loco, qui tunc campcstris erat, vinctus quasi in 
carcere servabatur, qui locus nunc modum capelte reprcesentat et adhuc career Domini appel- 
latur, et est, recte in opposita parte Calvarite, in sinistra absida ecclesise. Alii tamen aliter 
de eodem sentiunt loco, sicut prisesens audivi. 

' Post in loco Calvarise, Pilati jussu, judaeorum impulsu, Dominum nostrum tunica exutum, 
fclle et accto potatum milites romani crucis patibulo affixerunt, in quo, dum pateretur Jesus, 
niatrem suam Johannes, amicus suus, sibi commendatam in suam accepit custodiam, ut virgo 
virginem custodiret, dicente Jesu matri suae : " Mulier, ecce filius tuus," demonstrationem, ut 
quidam asserunt, ad Johannem vel potius ad se ipsum faciens, quasi diceret : Hoc modo 
patior ex filiatione, quam ex tua contraho maternitate ; non autem ex ea habeo miracula 
facere. Unde et alibi in nuptiis Chanse Galilseae : " Quid mihi et tibi, mulier ?" Sic ad 
matrem ; deinde vero ad Johannem : " Ecce mater tua," scilicet, ratione filialis devotionis et 
administrationis. 

' In loco Calvariae, dum in cruce pateretur hostia'mundi, latroni pendenti ad dextram, ab 
eo petenti veniam, stolam immortalitatis promisit. Crucis in patibulo perforatus lancea san- 
guinem emisit et aquam : ex stilla quorum aperti sunt oculi Longini, qui eum percusserat 
motu pietatis et confessionis, ne videlicet Jesus diutius vivens torqueretur. Domino nostro 
sic in crucis patibulo exspirante et animam suam sponte deponente, velum templi scissum est 
a summo usque deorsum, et eadem petra, in qua crux erat defixa, in ea parte, qua tangebatur 
sanguine, est per medium fissa, per quam fissuram sanguis ejus fluxit ad inferiora, in quibus 
dicitur a quibusdam Adam fuisse sepultum et sic in sanguine Christi baptizatum. Ad cujus 
rei designationem dicunt, quasi caput mortuum ubique depingi ad pedes crucifixi ; sed nihil 
est aliud, Adam in sanguine Christi baptizatum, quasi per sanguinem Christi redemtum, cum 
in Hebron scriplura referat eum fuise sepultum. Per deformem autem hominis faciem, quce 
solet apponi subtus ad pedes crucifixi, mors potius et ejus destructio designatur. Unde 
Dominus : " O mors ero mors tua," id est, destructio tua. Locus quidem Calvarice est ad 
dextram in introitu majoris ecclesise, in cujus superiori parte scissura ejusdem petrae Celebris 
cum magna solemnitate veneratur et adhuc hodie advenientibus manifeste ostenditur. 
Eadem pars superior optimo musivo opere pulchre depicta ; continetur passio Christi et ejus 
sepultura cum prophetarum testimonio gesta; rei hinc inde consono. 

' Nota, quod in eodem loco, sive crux fuerit infixa in rotundo foramine, quod adhuc 
patens ostenditur et in quod oblationes immittantur fidelium, sive in parte ea, ubi hastile 
cujusdam rotundi lapidis erectum ostenditur, ut quidam asserunt, et ut plus, quod ad situs 
positionem et ad sanguinis ex dextro latere ad rimam petrte emissionem, congruum et ido- 
neum esse videtur, facies Domini pendentis in cruce, ex positionis necessitate, versus orientem 
declaratur posita fuisse. 

' Juxta eundem locum in superiori parte ad dextram est altare situm, in honore dominicas 
passionis consecratum, el totus locus ille denominatur ab eadem passione. Inferior vero pars 



JERUSALEM. 73 

ejusdem Calvarite subtus continet altare, et vocatur ad sanctum sanguinem, quia eo usque per 
rimam petrse sanguis Domini dicitur fluxisse, qui locus hodie retro idem altare designatus 
est per quamdam concavitatem ejusdem petrce, ubi dependet ampulla cum continua 
illuminatione. 

' Extra in introitu Calvaric^ (versus leguntur) : 

' Hie locus insignis Calvaria sanctus habetur 
pro duce, pro pretio, pro cruce, pro lavacro. 
Nempe Jesu cruor et titulus, sacra corporis unda 
nos salvat, redimit, protegit atque lavat. 

' In medio choro dominorum, non longe a loco Calvariee, est quidam locus elevatione 
tabularum de marmore et reticulorum ferreorum concatenatione in modum altaris designatus, 
infra quas tabulas in pavimento, orbiculis quibusdam factis, medituUium terraj dicunt desig- 
natum, juxta illud : " Operatus est salutem in medio terrre." In eodem quoque loco post 
resurrectionem dicitur Dominus apparuisse beat^ Marice Magdalence, et idem locus habetur 
in magna veneratione, lampade etiam intus dependente. In eodem quoque loco quidam 
asserunt, quod Joseph corpus Jesu a Pilato impetravit ; eodem die, hoc est, feria sexta subla- 
tum de cruce lavit reverende, pretiosis liquoribus atque aromatibus condiens involutum in 
sindone munda ; baud longe sepelivit in horto, in monumento, quod novum sibi de rupe 
sculpserat. Inde descendit ad inferos, ad liberandum hominem. In eodem loco surrexit 
Dominus vere a mortuis, leo de tribu Juda, morte subacta. Ibi angelus Domini Sanctis 
mulieribus apparuit, jam ab ostio monumenti lapide revoluto, Jesumque vere resurrexisse a 
mortuis nunciavit, et ait ; " Ite, nunciate fratribus meis," et iterum : " Dicite discipulis ejus, 
et Petro." 

' Eodem die, declinante jam ad vesperam, peregrini sub specie Christus latens apparuit 
duobus discipulis in via sub conquestu de morte illius tendentibus Nicopolim, id est Emmaus, 
oppidum VI. milliario ab Jerusalem contra occidentem : quern et ibi secum receptum in hos- 
pitem recognoverunt in fractione panis ; sed statim disparuit. Deinde omnibus apparuit 
apostolis absque Thoma in monte Sion januis clausis, dicens eis : " Pax vobis." Octavo 
quoque die in monte eodem apparuit Thomre cum reliquis discipulis, quando ei vulnera sua 
palpanda obtulit. Quo facto Thomas intulit : " Dominus meus et Deus mens." Hte revela- 
tiones per picturam demonstrantur facta^ in loco montis Sion, scilicet, in crypta majoris 
ecclesise, ubi etiam depingitur Dominus noster pedes discipulorum suorum lavisse, cum mani- 
festa utriusque facti descriptione. Post resurrectionem etiam secus mare Tiberiadis et in 
mari ter discipulis suis Jesus se manifestavit, et pra^ter ha;c alibi multoties ad comprobationem 
suK resurrectionis jam factce et nostra resurrectionis adhuc futurte. 

' Dispositio monumenti, in quo continetur sepulchrum Domini, fere rotundam habet 
formam, intus musivo opere decoratam. Patet ab oriente per introitum parvi ostioli, ante 
quod habet protectum fere quadratum cum duabus januis. Per unam intromittuntur ingres- 
suri monumentum ad sepulchrum, per alteram emittuntur egressuri. In eo quoque protecto 
resident custodes sepulchri. Et tertium ostiolum habet versus chorum. Eidem monumento 
ab occidente, videlicet ad caput sepulchri, forinsecus appositum est altare cum quadam quad- 
rata superaedificatione, cujus parietes tres de reticulis ferramenti pulchre compositis sunt, et 
vocatur illud altare ad sanctum sepulchrum. Idem monumentum satis amplum habet super 
se quasi ciborium rotundum et superius de argento coopertum, in altum elevatum versus fora- 
men illud amplum in majori illo sedificio superius patulum : quod sedificium circulariter cum 

10 



74 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

forma rotunda, circa monumentum satis amplum, in cxtrcmo habet continuum parietem 
diversis imaginibus sanctorum large depictumet ornatum pluribusque lampadibus illuminatum. 
In strictiori ambitu cjusdcm majoris sedificii octo columna; marmorcce rotundas et totidem 
bases tjuadratx, totidem tabulis quadratis marmoreis forinsecus ornata; et circumquaque 
erectse sustinent molem superiorem sub tecto, quod, ut diximus, patulum est in medio. 

' Sequuntur aliqui versus, qui in locis diversis Icguntur. 

'In supcrliminirari ecclesi.x sancti sepulchri : 

' Quid, mulier, ploras ? en jam quem quneris, adoras. 
Me dignum recoli, jam vivum tangcrc noli. 

' In superliminari introitus interioris ad sepulchrum Domini : 

' Christo surgcnti locus et custos monumenti 
angelus et vestis fuit, estque redemtio testis. 

' Intus ad depositioncm Domini : 
' A caris caro cara Dei lacrimata levatur a cruce ; pro miseris rex pius hoec patitur. 

' Intus prope ad Domini sepulturam : 

' Conditur in tumulo conditus aromate Christus, 
toUitur ad superos meriti moderamine Justus. 
Gaudet homo, trepidant manes, gemit omnis abyssus. 
Est exccssus Adce Christo venicnte rcmissus. 

' Item ibidem, sed per medium : 

' Sub tumulo lapidis dum sic Christus tumulatur, 
ejus ad exequias homini co^lum reseratur. 

' Diximus, quod columna; circularitcr cum prcedicto numero sint appositse ; sed modo 
versus orientem mutata est earum dispositio et numerus propter adjectionem novce ecclesias, 
ad quam inde est transitus. Et continet illud novum et de novo additum aedificium satis 
amplum chorum dominorum et satis longum sanctuarium, contincns majus altare in honorem 
anastaseos, id est, sanctx resurrectionis, consecratum, quod et superius apposita pictura in 
opere musivo declarat. Continetur enim in ea imago Christi, seris confractis inferni, resur- 
gentis, antiquum patrem nostrum Adam inde extrahentis. Extra hoc altaris sanctuarium et 
intra claustri ambitum continetur satis latum spatium circumquaque tam per hoc novum, 
quam per antiquum prsefati monumenti sedificium processioni idoneum, qua; et fit singulis 
dominicis noctibus a pascha usque ad adventum Domini in vcsperis ad sanctum sepulchrum, 
cum antiphona : "Christus resurgens," cujus etiam antiphona: textus extra in extremomargine 
monumenti litteris in argento elevatis continetur. Finita ea antiphona per cantum, cantor 
statim incipit : " Vespere autem," etc., cum psalmo : " Magnificat," et cum collecta de resur- 
rcctione : Omnipotcns sempiterne, proemisso versiculo : Surrexit Dominus de hoc sepulchro. 
Similiter per hoc tempus omni die dominico missa celebratur : Resurrexi. 

' In capite etiam cjusdcm ecclesi^ novae versus orientem, juxta claustrum domi- 
norum, est locus in profundo, in modum crypta:, cum magna satis serenitate, in quo regina 
Helena crucem Domini dicitur reperisse, in cujus Helena; honorem ibidem continetur altare 
consecratum : qua; regina majorem ejusdem ligni sacri partem sccum detulit Constantino- 



JERUSALEM. 75 

polim ; reliqua vero pars Hierosolymis rclicta diligenter et reverenter servatur in quodam loco, 
in altera parte ecclesite, ex opposite loco Calvarije. 

' Ejusdem loci, licet sanguine Christi ibidem effuso jam dudum consecrati, in modernis 
temporibus, licet ex superabundant!, facta est a viris venerabilibus consecratio quinto decimo 
die julii. Unde et tales versus sub quodam in littcris deaurato opere propositis adhuc tes- 
tantur ibidem conscripti : 

' Est locus iste sacer sacratus sanguine Christi. 
Per nostrum sacrare sacro nil additur isti. 
Sed domus huic sacro circum supersedificata 
est quinta decima quintilis luce sacrata. 

' Eodem quoque die, in eodem mense, licet longe jam anteriori tempore, cum jam dudum 
eadem civitas sancta sub dominatu sarracenorum diversorum generum detineretur captiva, ab 
exercitu christianorum est liberata, ad cujus liberationis commemorationem eundem diem 
post consecrationis renovationem cum spirituali ofificio reddunt celebrem in priori missa 
decantando : " La;tare, Jerusalem ;" majorem vero missam celebrant de dedicatione : 
" Terribilis est locus." Nam eodem die quatuor etiam altaria in eadem ecclesia sunt conse- 
crata, scilicet, altare majus et illud superius in Calvaria et duo in latere ecclesiae ex opposita 
parte, unum videlicet in honorem sancti Petri et aliud in honorem sancti Stephani proto- 
martyris. 

'In sequenti die solemnem faciunt tam in eleemosynis, quam in orationibus commemora- 
tionem omnium fidelium defunctorum, prjEcipue occasione in cxpugnatione urbis occisorum, 
quorum maxime sepultura apud portam auream Celebris habetur. In tertio die anniversarium 
ducis felicis memoriae et egregii Gotefridi, illius sanctse expeditionis principis et magistri, 
stirpe alemanorum oriundi, tota civitas solemniter observat cum larga eleemosynarum in 
majori ecclesia distributione ex sui ipsius adhuc viventis dispositione. 

' Verumtamen, quamvis sic ibidem de suo honoretur, tamen expugnatio civitatis non ei 
cum alemannis, non minime in ea expeditione laborantibus et exercitatis, sed solis adscribitur 
francis. Unde etiam detractores nostra: gentis epitaphium illius famosi Wiggeri, per multa 
forlia facta approbati, quia non poterant eum denegare esse alemannum, deleverunt et cujus- 
dem militis de Francia superposuerunt, sicut adhuc a praesentibus videri potest ; nam ejus 
sarcophagus extra in angulo quodam inter majorem ecclesiam et sancti Johannis Baptistje 
capellam adhuc hodie exstans apparet, deleto inde nomine suo et apposito alieno. Ad com- 
probationem et indicium despectus virorum nostrorum et ad commendationem francorum 
tale epigramma ad monumentum in latere extra legitur appositum : 

' Anno centeno milleno quo minus uno 
virginis a partu, Domini, qui claruit, ortu, 
quindecies julio jam phcebi lumine tacto, 
Jerusalem franci capiunt virtute potenti. 
' Contra quod ego : 

' Non franci, sed francones, gladio potiores, 
Jerusalem sanctam longo sub tempore captam 
a paganorum solvere jugo variorum. 
Franco, non francus, Wigger, Guntram, Gotefridus 
dux, argumento sunt hsec fore cognita vero. 

lO 2 



76 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' Quamvis autcm dux Golefridus et frater ejus Balduinus, qui post ipsum in Jerusalem 
rex est constitutus, quod ante eum dux humilitatis causa de se fieri recusavit, de nostris essent 
partibus, tanicn quia, nostratum paucis cum eis remanentibus ct aliis quampluribus magno 
dcsiderio ct festinationc ad natalc solum redeunlibus, tola civitas occupata est ab aliis 
nationibus, scilicet, francis, lotharingis, normannis, provincialibus, alvernis, italis et hispanis 
et burgundionibus simul in expcditionc convenientibus, sicut nulla pars civitatis etiam in 
minima plalca csset alemannis dislributa. Ipsis non curantibus, ncc animum ibidem rema- 
nendi habenlibus, tacito eorum nomine, solis francis liberatio sanctce urbis adscribitur, qui et 
hodie cum aliis pra^nominatis gentibus urbi prsefatre, adjaccnti provincial dominantur. Qure 
utique christianitatis provincia jam dudum suos terminos ultra Nilum versus meridiem et ultra 
Damascum versus septentrionem extendisset, si tanta copia alemanorum, quanta est istorum, 
adesset. Scd, his imprnesentiarum omissis, ad propositam materiam revertamur. 

' In montc Oliveti, in eo loco, ubi hodie exstat magna ecclesia, in cujus medio, 
magno foramine quodam aperto, designatur locus ascensionis dominicas, a quo loco, disci- 
pulis suis aliisque viris galilceis una cum matre sua admirantibus, in coelum nube bajula est 
clevatus, pr^misso ad discipulos mandato, ne ab Hierosolymis discederent, priusquam 
spiritum paraclitum a patre promissum ad plenariam sui confortationem acciperent. Quod ct 
factum est decimo die ab ascensione Domini et quinquagesimo die a resurrectione Domini, 
videlicet in die pentecostes, discipulis in quodam conclavi illius prsefati a;dificii in monte 
Sion manentibus, ubi et Dominus noster dicitur ccenasse, in completione promissi exspectan- 
tibus, quod adhuc in eodem loco pictura exstante de musivo opere in sanctuario, abside ejus, 
dem ecclesiae, demonstratur ; nam ibi duodenarius apostolorum numerus cum ipsorum imagi- 
nibus, spiritu sancto in forma ignearum linguarum ad capita singulorum descendente, per 
similitudinem picturx continctur, cum tali epigrammate ; " Factus est repente de ccelo sonus 
advenientis," etc. 

' In eadem ecclesia, ad doxtram scilicet in introitu ejus, altare designatur locus cum politis 
tabulis de marmore in modum ciborii, ubi beata virgo Maria, cmisso spiritu, prxsenti dicitur 
migrasse ssculo, ubi et filius suus, Dominus noster Jesus Christus, animam suam in juxta 
posito pariete, praesentibus apostolis, dcpingitur assumere. In adificio autem eidem loco 
superposito in circuitu talis reperitur superscriptio : Exaltata est sancta Dei genitrix super 
choros angelorum. 

' His visis et summatim locis, in quibus hxc acta sunt cum descriptione etiam 
aliorum locorum his adjaccntium denotatis, ad ipsam etiam sanctam civilatem Jerusalem per 
sancta nova et venerabilia loca de novo exstructa et in cultum divinum mancipata intra niuros 
describenda redeamus. 

' Hoc etiam per adjectionem cognito, quod Judas in eadem civitate argenteos accepit pro 
traditione Domini noslri, cum quibus emtus est ager illc Hakcldama, id est, ager sanguinis, 
deputatus sepulturse peregrinorum usque in diem hodiernum, qui situs est ad sinistram montis 
Sion, secus viam, qure ducit Ephrata. Super quern agrum est mons Gion junctus, in quo 
rex Salomon regium diadcma suscepit et alii reges in eodem monte inungi solebant. 

' Et nota, quod Dominus noster in medio Jerusalem suscitavit puellam a morte, et in ea 
multa est operatus miracula. Juxta ecclesiam sancti sepulchri, quam superius descripsimus, 
ex opposito versus meridiem est pulchra ecclesia in honore sancti Johannis Baptista; con- 
structa, cui adjectum est hospitale, in quo per diversas mansiones maxima multitudo infir- 
morum, tarn mulierum, quam virorum, colligitur, fovctur ct maximis expensis quotidie reficitur : 
quorum summa tunc temporis, cum essem prjesens, ab ipsis servitoribus hoc referentibus ad duo 



JERUSALEM. 77 

millia languentium fuisse cognovi, ex quibus aliquando intra noctem et diem plus quara quin- 
quaginta mortui exportantur, iterum atque iterum pluribus de novo accedentibus. Quid 
plura ? Eadem domus tot homines tam extra, quam intus suis sustentat victualibus, prseter 
inlinitam eleemosynam, quje quotidie pauperibus datur ostiatim panem qusrentibus et extra 
manentibus, quod certe summa sumtaum nequaquam potest deprehendi etiam ab ejus domus 
procuratoribus et dispensatoribus. Prreter horum omnium siquidem expensam tam in infir- 
mis, quam in pauperibus aliis factam, eadem domus multas universis militaribus rebus 
instructas pro defensione terree christianorum ab incursione saracenorum passim per castella 
sua sustentat personas. Juxta eandem Johannis ecclesiam est coanobium sanctimonialium 
in honorem sanctte Marije constructum, et est fere contiguum in capite cum redificiis prajfatas 
ecclesias vocaturque ad sanctam Mariam majorem. Non longe abhinc, in eodem ordine 
ejusdem platere, est ccenobium monachorum, item in honorem sancta; Marix constructum et 
vocatur ad sanctam Mariam latinam, ubi testa vel caput sancti Philippi apostoli in magna 
veneratione habetur, et etiam cum devotione advenientibus et id postulantibus osten- 
ditur. 

'Juxta illam plateam, qute a porta David versus templum per descensum dirigitur, in 
latere dextro, prope turrim David est ccenobium monachorum armenorum in honore sancti 
Sabse, abbatis reverendissimi, pro quo etiam adhuc vivente beata virgo Maria, multa fecit 
miracula, constructum. Ibidem, non longe abhinc, per descensum ultra aliam plateam est 
magna ecclesia in honorem sancti Jacobi majoris constructa, ubi monachi habitant armeni, et 
habent etiam ibidem magnum hospitale pro colligendis pauperibus suk lingure. Ibi quoque 
in magna veneratione habetur testa ejusdem apostoli ; fuit enim ab Herode decollatus, cujus 
corpus discipuli sui in Joppe navi impositum in Galiciam detulerunt, capite suo in Patestina 
remanente. Eadem testa adhuc in eadem ecclesia peregrinis advenientibus ostenditur. 

' In descensu ejusdem platea;, versus portam, qua itur ad templum, ad dextram manum 
est quoddam diverticulum per longam porticum, in qua via est hospitale cum ecclesia, quce fit 
de novo in honore sanctam Marine, et vocatur domus alemannorura, cui pauci vel nulli alterius 
linguffi homines aliquid boni conferunt, 

'In eadem via versus portam, qua itur ad montem Sion, est qujedam capella in 
honore sancti Petri sdificata, in cujus crypta satis in profundo abscondita dicitur career fuisse, 
in quo beatus Petrus, ferreis catenis ligatus, custodia militum tam extra, quam intus adhibita, 
jussu Herodis diligenter servabatur ; sed ea diligentia elusa est divina potentia. Nam eadem 
nocte, angeli obsequio, inter niedios custodes, vinculis ferreis ruptis, ultro apertis ostiis tam 
carceris, quam civitatis, beatus Petrus angeli conductu abivit illsesus, dicens : " Nunc scio vere, 
quia misit Dominus angelum suum," etc. In introitu ejusdem ecclesiolse de eodem facto 
ibidem miraculo tales leguntur appositi versus : 

' Vestibus indutus, Petre, surge, recede solutus ; 
namque catenarum sunt vincula rupta tuarum, 
nunc scio re certa, cum porta mihi sit aperta. 
O pietas Christi, quoniam me salvificasti. 

' In cavea ejusdem ecclesise ad vincula, sancti Petri festo ibidem existente celebri, missam 
celebravi cum coUecta merito ibidem sic prolata : Deus, qui beatum Petrum apostolum a vin- 
culis in hoc loco absolutum illaesum abire fecisti, etc. Ecclesiola eadem modica est, nee 
odea reditibus ditata vel culta ornatu, sicut tantum divinura miraculum et tantum principem 



78 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

apostolorum deceret. Porta ilia, qua dirigitur versus montera Sion, vocatur porta ferrea, quae 
ultro fuit aperta angelo et I'etro. 

' In opposite atrii de templo, scilicet versus septentrionem ad portam, qua itur ad vallem 
Josaphat, est ecclesia magna in honore sanctoe Anna; constructa, in qua per picturam osten- 
ditur, qua dispositione et admonitione divina ex ipsa et Joachim sit concepla beata virgo, 
sicut in vita beala; Anna; largius cognoscitur, cujus festum in die sancti Jacobi majoris cum 
magna solemnitate ibidem celebratur : cui prsesens interfui. In eadem ecclesia servit Deo 
collegium sanctimonialium et utinam sacrosanctarum. In exitu ejusdem ecclesije, ad dex- 
tram manum non longe, per diverticulum est probatica piscina, quam tempore Jesu certis 
terminis angelus Domini solebat movere. Quicunque autcm infirmus post motionem aquae 
prior intrabat, a quacunque detinebatur infirmitate, saniis fiebat. notJiSars* groece pecualis 
dicitur, eo quod in sacrificiis inde solebant ablui exta pecudum ; erat quippe rubea aqua ex 
hostiis, qure ibi mundabantur. Ante probaticam piscinam languidum sanitati restituit Jesus, 
dicens ei : " Tolle grabatum tuum et ambula." 

' Inde ab eadem platea, qua: de porta Josaphat egreditur, sursum in proxima via, quse ab 
hac declinat platea, ad dcxtram manum, sursum versus murum civitatis est ilia ecclesia in 
honore sanctK Maria Magdalense facta, ubi sunt monachi jacobitK, de qua jam diximus, quae 
dicenda novimus. In praefata platea de porta vallis Josaphat itur per directum versus illam 
plateam, qua; ad portam sancti Stephani ducit, a qua deinde a septentrione versus plateas 
illas triplices, imo multiplices diversarum rerum venalium reprrensatrices, ad frontem majoris 
sancti sepulchri ecclesia dirigitur, in medio, iiTquam, illius plateae est quidam arcus lapideus 
antiquus ultra eandem plateam incurvatus, sub quo dicitur beata virgo Maria cum felici et 
beata prole sua adhuc parvula et infantili quievisse et eidem lac ibidem praebuisse. Qua; res 
gesta ibi facta pictura ostenditur, et idem locus, circumsdificatione aliquantula a publico 
usu discretiis, sine ecclesiae appositione venerabilis, sub veneratione debita habetur et 
colitur. 

' Item de platea a porta s. Stephani, directa sursum ad latus ecclesiae sancti sepulchri, non 
multum longe ab ea versus septentrionem, est parva platea, juxta quam in quadam ecclesia 
syrorum quiescit sacrum divi Charitonis martyris corpus, quod ibi a syris monachis in magna 
veneratione habetur, et fere adhuc integrum in quadam lignea arcellula reconditum, elevate 
cooperculo, peregrinis advenientibus ostenditur. Idem sanctus pater in ccenobio sue juxta 
fluvium Jordanis site, una cum monachis suis, pro confessione nominis Christi a sarracenis 
fuit occisus. 

' Ante portam Jerusalem, quae respicit ad occasum, qua parte liberata fuit urbs sub 
secundo Israel, saxis obrutus beatus Stephanus protomartyr occubuit : inde translatus in Sion 
et sepultus inter Nicodcmum et Gamalielem et Abibon, postea Constantinopoli, ad ultimum 
Romae beato Laurentio contumulatus. Unde et in tumulo : 

' Quem Sion occidit, nobis Bisancia misit. 

' Ante portam Jerusalem juxta lacum, qui respicit meridiem, cavea ilia videtur, in quam 
leo quidam, jussu Dei omnipotcntis, martyrum fere duodecim millia sub Cosroe peremta de- 
tulit nocte. Unde ct carnarium leonis dicitur. 

'Secundo milliario ab Jerusalem via, quae ducit Sichem, mons Gabaa in tribu Ben- 
jamin. 

' Milliario a Jerusalem, in accubitu mentis Oliveti, mons Offensionis et continuus ; dividit 



JERUSALEM. 79 

autem eos via, quae de Josapliat per Bethphage ducit Bethaniam. Dictus mons Offensionis, 
eo quod Salomon in eo idoluni posuit moloch, adorans eum. 

' Prope juxta Jerusalem, sub Salomonis regia in accubitu, in valle Josaphat natatoria Siloe, 
ad quam coecum ab ea illuminatum misit Jesus, ut ab ea lavaret oculos suos. Qui abiens 
lavit et vidit. Ergo Siloe interpretatur missus. Non ad eandam aquam Naaman, princeps 
Syrise, missus est, sed ad Jordanem ab HelisKO propheta, ut in eo ter lotus curaretur a lepra : 
quam ipse intuens quasi cum indignatione intulit : " Numquid Pharphar et Abana non 
meliora sunt flumina," scilicet, nostra provincias ? Tandem tamen monitis servi sui consen- 
tiens, mandatum propbetre implevit, et curatus est. Siloe secundum traditionem syrorum ex 
Silo manare dicitur. Siloe gurgitem suum cum silentio ducit, quia subterraneum. Juxta 
Siloe exstitit quercus Rogel, sub qua beatus Isaias sepultus quiescit. 

' In valle Josaphat sepultus fuit beatus Jacobus Alphsei, qui de templo, ut dictum est, 
prtecipitatus fuit. Est autem in eadem valle pulchra capella, in qua indicium manet sepul- 
turse ejus, his superpositis versibus : 

' Urgent Alphsei natum sine lege judsei. 
. Causa necis fit ei nomen amorque Dei. 

Alphcei natus de templo prKcipitatus 

hue fuit allatus et devote tumulatus. 

' Verum exinde postea fuit apostolus Dei Constantinopolim translatus. 

' In valle Josaphat sub acuta pyramide rex idem Josaphat tumulatus fuit, a cujus nomine 
tota vallis sortita est nomen. Interpretatur autem vallis judicii, juxta illud : " Congregabo 
omnes gentes," etc. Eadem vallis ex omni parte plures habet caveas, in quibus religiose 
personre vitam ducunt eremiticam. 

'Tota vallis pertinet ad ccenobium in summitate ejusdem vallis supra rivum torrentis 
Cedron situm, juxta hortum, in quo soepe Dominus noster cum discipulis suis solebat conve- 
nire. In hujus ccenobii crypta adhuc hodie ostenditur sepultura beatissima; virginis Maria;, 
de qua amplius dicemus. 

' In eodem die transmigrationis corpus beatissimje virginis Maria; cunctis duode- 
cim apostolis Domini ex sua dispositione tunc pra^sentibus in ecclesiam vallis Josaphat est 
delatum et ibidem in medio cryptae, miro tabulatu marmoreo et egregia pictura colore vario 
exornatse, est honorifice sepultum, cujus sepulture, licet corpore absente, egregia tam in tabu- 
latu marmoreo, quam in argento et auro in modum ciborii superposita exstat structura : cui 
tale appositum est epigramma : 

' Hie Josaphat vallis, hinc est ad sidera callis. 
In Domino fulta, fuit hie Maria sepulta. 
Hinc exaltata coelos petit inviolata, 
spes captivorum, via, lux et mater eorum. 

' Benedicto corpore absente, quia, ut dicitur, juxta morem hebroeorum intra octavum diem 
transitus visitato et inspecto sepulchro, corpus ejus non est repertum. Unde et pie creditur, 
non tantum animam, sed etiam corpus ejus a dilecto filio suo cum glorificatione fuisse assum- 
tum, quod tamen Hieronymus potius hxsitando, quam asserendo videtur innuere in ilia epis- 
tola : Cogitis me, o Paula et Eustochium, etc.- Quidquid autem de hoc sit, nos credimus, 
beatam virginem Mariam ex hoc solo, quod meruit suum portare creatorem, dignam fore 



So TFIE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

onini honore et beatificationc non tantum in anima, sed etiam in corpore, et filium suura 
siimme benevolum et summe potentera id velle et posse. Honoratur quoque et veneratur 
cadem ejus sepultura ratione cujusdam consortii, ad sirailitudinem honorificenti;ie, qua; sepul- 
chro dilccti filii sui cxhibetur. In introitu cjusdem cryptx talis pictura et scriptura cernitur : 

' Haeredes vit^, Dominum laudare venite, 
per quam vita datur mundique salus reparatur. 

* Ex parte sinistra imago Hieronymi hanc continet scripturam. 

'Monstratur autem sepulchrum ejus, cernentibus nobis, usque in prxsens in valle Josa- 
phat, in medio, ubi in ejus honore fabricata est ecclcsia miro lapideo tabulatu, in qua sepulta 
fuisse ab omnibus affirmatur. In dextra vero ejusdem introitus imago beati Basilii continet 
hicc : 

' Matris Christi dignitate 

et excelsa potestate 

est repertus Julianus, 

sKvus hostis et profanus ; 

nam defunctum hunc proslravit, 

sicut mater imperavit. 

Salvatrici sit reginaj 

laus et honor sine fine, 

qua: elegit hie humari. 

' Hxc et alia plurima ad laudem virginis in introitu cryptK per picturam sunt apposita ; 
sed interior! parte in parietibus hinc inde circa tumbam existentibus et in laqueari talis scrip- 
tura est apposita, in dextro pariete : Maria virgo assumta est ad sethereum thalamum, etc. ; 
postea in circuitu : Vidi speciosam sicut columbam, etc., usque : et lilium convallium, ibique 
subjungitur : Viderunt earn filial Sion. Hinc certe gloriosa virgo ccelos ascendit. Rogo, 
gaudete, quia ineffabiliter sublimata cum Christo regnat in scternum ; in anteriori : Assumta 
est Maria in ccclum ; ex opposite latere : Exaltata est sancta Dei genitrix, etc. ; et in medio : 
Multitudo angelorum adstantium in circuitu circa beatam Mariam in throno residentem, per 
quam facta via ad ccelestia regna declaratur. 

• In pede mentis Olivcti versus civitatem, ubi modo ostenditur sepultura beata; Marice 
virginis, erat viculus, qui dicebatur Gethsemane.' 

We may now pass on to consider the later Arab erections in Jerusalem, 
for the three centuries immediately following the time of Saladin's capture 
form a period of great architectural activity among the Arabs. 

Immediately after the fatal battle of Hattin, Jerusalem capitulated to 
Saladin in 1 187 a.d. The Haram was forthwith purified, the altar over the 
Sakhrah and the pictures on the walls of the building were demolished. 
The beautiful Mimbar, or pulpit, now in the Aksa, bearing the date 
1 168 A.D. (564 A.H.), was brought from Aleppo by Saladin for the newly 
recovered mosque, and the transept of the Aksa was restored in the same 



JERUSALEM. 8i 

year, when also the present Mihrab was constructed in the south wall, as 
shown by a fine Arabic inscription in mosaic above the Mihrab, contain- 
ing the name of Saladin, and the date 583 a.h. 

Two years later the gilding of the woodwork inside the dome of the 
Kubbet es Sakhrah and the leaden outer covering was renewed by 
Saladin, as witnessed by the Arab inscription bearing the date 585 a.m. 
Other restorations of this painted cupola are dated 718 and 719 a.ii., and 
another date of the seventeenth century inserted into these inscriptions is 
partly illegible. 

In the year 1199 a.d., the Emir Azz ed Din, Governor of Jerusalem, 
entirely rebuilt the small Dome of the Ascent (of Mohammed), the 
present Kubbet el Miraj. The date given by Mejr ed Din agrees 
closely with that mentioned in a long inscription over the door of this 
structure, which gives 597 a.ii. (1200 or 1199 a.d.) as the time of the 
building of the Dome, which stands immediately north-west of the Dome 
of the Rock. 

In the year 12 13 a.d., the north-western cloisters of the Haram were 
built as far as the present Bab el 'Atm, by Melek Isa (according to Mejr 
ed Din). In the year 1236, Melek el Muazzam Isa built (or restored) 
the porch of el Aksa, according to an existing inscription ; and other 
restorations of the porch and of the mosque are recorded in inscriptions 
bearing the dates 746 (1345 a.d.), 748 (1347 a.d.), 915 (1509 a.d.), 1233 
(1817 a.d.). 

In 1250 A.D. was built the Kubbet Musa, near the Bab es Silsileh, 
according to Mejr ed Din, who gives the name of the founder as Melek 
Saleh Nejm ed Din, and the date as 647 a.ii. The minaret in the north- 
west angle of the Haram was built apparently in 697 a.h. (1297 a.d.), or 
even earlier, in the time of Kalawun (Mejr ed Din). An inscription on a 
pillar-base at the entrance to the magazines east of el Aksa states that 
the wall (the outer wall of the Haram) was repaired in the time of 
Self ed Din Kalawun (1279-90). It is well cut in Arabic letters in 
relief 

The western cloisters were built in the time of Melek Nasr Muhammed, 
son of Kalawlin, those in the north corner being as old as 707 a.h. 
(1307 A.D.); and those between Bab el Mogharbi and Bab es Silsileh 
dating from 713 (13 13 a.d.), according to Mejr ed Din, who appears 

1 1 



82 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

throughout to have had regard to existing inscriptions. Another minaret 
was erected in the north-east angle by Sultan Ashraf Ibn Husein, in 769 
(1367 A.D.), and others near Bab el 'Atm and Bab Hitta by Melek Efkad. 
Thus part of the northern cloisters arc 150 years older than those on the 
west. The Bab cl Kattanin bears an inscription with the date "j^)! ■^•"• 
(1336 A.D.). The gate called Bab en Nedhir is said by Mejr ed Din to 
have been repaired about 600 A.ti. (1203 a.d.). The Bab cl Iladid was 
built by Arjim cl Kamcli. There arc now four minarets, namely, 
that of Sultan Ashraf, on the north-east ; that of Kalawun, on the 
north-west angle ; that by the Bab es Silsileh, and the fourth on the 
south. 

In the year 13 18 a.d. Fakhr cd Din, the Kadi of Jerusalem, restored 
the Dome of the Rock. In 1327 IMuhammed Ibn Kalawtjn ordered the 
restoration of the dome of the Aksa Mosque, as evidenced by an existing 
inscription in the woodwork bearing the date 728 a.h. To the same reign 
belongs the fountain of el Kas, north of the Aksa, dated 720 A.ii.( 1320 a.d.). 
The north-east minaret (1367 a.d.) is the latest known addition of this 
century. 

The beautiful Sebil, or fountain of Kaiat Bey, bears the date 
1445 A.D., and was erected by Melek cl Ashraf The south-west flight of 
stairs to the platform is said by Mejr ed Din to have been built later than 
the others on this side, and to date from 877 a.ii. (1472 a.d.). 

In the year 1520 a.d. the bases and the blocks above the capitals of 
the outer arcade in the Dome of the Rock were cased in marble by 
Sultan Suleiman. The beautiful glass windows of the building belong to 
the same reign, and bear the date 935 a.ii. (or 1528 a.d.). An inscription 
with the date 969 a.ii. (1561 a.d.) is found on the Kishani tiles of the 
Dome of the Chain, with the name of Soliman, son of Selim, son of 
Bayazid the Sultan ; and one year before his death the same Sultan 
Soliman caused the present doors of the Dome of the Rock to be added 
in 972 A.H. (1564 A.D.). 

The only important restoration dating later than 1564 a.d. is that of 
the ceiling of the arcade of the Dome of the Rock, which, as at present 
existing, was erected in 1190 a.h. (1776 a.d.). The Mimbar es Self 
belongs to the sixteenth century. Restorations were, however, effected 
in 1830, by the Sultan INIahmud, and in 1S73-5, by order of the late 



JERUSALEM. 83 

Sultan, Abd el 'Aziz. The east wall of the Haram was partly ruined in 
1 88 1, the small Arab masonry having fallen, and this is now about to be 
repaired. 

Having thus pursued the architectural history of the Haram down to 
the present day, we must turn back to notice other buildings in Jerusalem 
dating later than the capture by Saladin in 1187 a.d. The walls of the 
city were dismantled in 12 19 a.d. by Melek el Muazzam Isa, but the 
citadel on the west and the Haram on the east were left uninjured. In 
1229 the Franks, contrary to treaty obligation, rebuilt the fortifications, 
but in 1239 they were again levelled by Emir Daud, of Kerak, and even 
the citadel was on this occasion dismantled. The fortifications remained 
lying in heaps until 1542, when Soliman the Magnificent built the present 
fortifications, as evidenced by Arabic inscriptions on the city gates, and 
elsewhere on the walls. Much old material was re-used. Several Greek 
inscribed tablets are built into the ramparts, and fragments of mouldings ; 
but the elegant pinnacles over the Damascus Gate, and along the walls, 
were evidently carved on purpose for their present positions. 

In the thirteenth, fourteenth, and sixteenth centuries various Jewish 
pilgrims wrote short accounts of Jerusalem ; and an even earlier Jewish 
author (Benjamin of Tudela) has described the city briefly in 1163 a.d. 
In these itineraries the Tombs of the Kings are first mentioned as 
situated on Sion, whence arose the Moslem tradition placing David's 
tomb at the site of the Coenaculum, which was on this pretext wrested 
from the Christians in 1561 a.d. The present cenotaph, or one very 
similar, is shown in a rude sketch in the Jichus ha Aboth in 
1564 A.D. 

Mejr ed Din enumerates various schools and public buildings of the 
fourteenth century in Jerusalem, including the school of the Emir Tunjuz, 
opposite the Bab es Silsileh, built in 720 a.h. (1320 a.d.). There were ten 
pious foundations on the west, and fourteen on the north of the Haram. 
The Church of St. Anne was converted into a school by Saladin, and 
known as the Salahiyeh. An inscription on the principal door bore the 
date equivalent to 1192 a.d. This building remained in the hands 
of the Moslems until 1856, when the Sultan presented it to the 
French. 

The Hospital of St. John was not injured by the Moslems, though 

1 1 — 2 



84 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the Church of Sta Maria Majora was wrecked. On the north-west 
corner of the hospital a minaret was erected, apparently by Melek Muzaffer, 
who endowed the hospital in 1216 a.d. The small mosque in this corner, 
still in use, appears to be the place called the Cell of Dcrkah by Mcjr ed 
Din. The present Khankah, north of the Holy Sepulchre, appears also 
to be mentioned by the same author as founded in 585 a. 11. (1189 a.d.). 
The Khankah of Fakhr, near the mosque of the Mughrabins, was founded 
by the Kadi of Jerusalem, Fakhr ed Din, in 732 a.ii. (1332 a.d.). The 
mosque of the Mughrabins was erected earlier by the son of Saladin in 
589 A.II. (1193 A.D.) ; but its minaret was only added in 791 a.h. 
(1389 A.D.). The Church of the Magdalen was converted into a school 
by Maimi:in, son of Abdallah el Kasri, and endowed in 593 a.ii. (1197 a.d.). 
This Emir was Saladin's treasurer. 

Mejred Din devotes a whole chapter to the minarets of Jerusalem. 
A minaret at St. Anne's was erected by Sheikh Borhan ed Din before 
820 A.II. (141 7 A.D.). That at the Cell of Derkah, being overthrown by 
earthquake in 863 a.ii., was restored in 870 a.h. (1463 a.d.), and is still 
standing south of the Holy Sepulchre. 

Our knowledge of the streets, quarters, and gates of Jerusalem in the 
middle ages is very full and accurate, for we have not only the detailed 
description of the ' Citez de Jherusalem,' written shortly after the capture 
by Saladin, and the faithful account of Mejr ed Din, who was Kadi of 
Jerusalem in 1495 a.d., but we have also the curious map of Marino 
Sanuto, dating from 1308 a.d. (cf. De Vogue's ' Eglises de la Terre 
Sainte,' p. 437, and Bongar's ' Gesta Dei per Francos'). In this latter, 
the traditional sites now pointed out by the Latins and Greeks nearly all 
appear in their present positions, though many of the traditions have been 
transferred from sites mentioned by the Christian pilgrims of the centuries 
preceding the Crusades, Most of these traditional sites remained quite 
undisputed till the commencement of the present century, and they are 
all still firmly credited by Greek and Roman Catholic pilgrims and 
writers, though they are not all considered as equally well authenticated 
by the educated Latin clergy, who allow that w^hile the acceptation of the 
more important and ancient is a matter of faith, the less important may 
be held to be only probable and conjectural. It is interesting, however, 
to notice how the number of traditional sites, consecrated by buildings 



JERUSALEM. 85 

often still existing, increases steadily in succeeding centuries from the 
original pair of sites of the time of Helena — the churches of Olivet and 
of Sion. The site of Stephen's martyrdom, of the Pool of Bethesda, of 
the Flagellation, and of the tomb of St. James, are the most important of 
those which were changed in the twelfth century. 

Claude R. Conder, Capt., R.E. 



HISTORY OF JERUSALEM EXPLORATION. 

Explorations in Jerusalem may be said to have been first initiated by 
Constantine and his mother Helena, when they excavated the supposed 
Holy Sepulchre. From that time to the present day the city and its 
sites have again and again been described by Christian and Moslem 
writers in each succeeding century. 

The earliest Christian account is that of the Bordeaux Pilgrim (in 
333 A.D.). The Basilica of the Anastasis is fully described by Euscbius 
(' Vita Constantini,' iii. 34 to 39). Short notices also occur of the city 
in the ' Onomasticon,' in the letters of Jerome (especially that describing 
Sta Paula's journey), and in the Homilies of the Patriarch St. Cyril. 
In the fifth century we have the valuable tract of Eucherius (427-440 a.d.), 
and certain notices in the works of Epiphanius ; and Procopius (' De 
yEdificiis Justiniani ') in the sixth century, with Theodorus the Architect 
(530 A.D.), are the next in order ; while the credulous pilgrim, Antony of 
Piacenza, visited the city about 600 a.d. In 6S0 Arculphus made his 
pilgrimage, and his tract is of great importance. St. Willibald (723 a.d.), 
Bernard the Wise (867 a.d.), and Soewulf (1102-1103 a.d.), describe the 
city before its restoration by the Crusaders. 

The history of William of Tyre contains many valuable indications con- 
cerning Jerusalem topography, and we have several very important tracts 
of the twelfth century, including that of Theodoricus (11 72 a.d.), Fetellus 
(1150 A.D.), and the ' Citez de Jherusalem' (probably dating about 
1 187 A.D.). John of Wirtzburg's description is also valuable — he died in 
1 213 A.D. ; and the ' Cartulary of the Holy Sepulchre ' contains important 
ecclesiastical notices. 



JERUSALEM. 87 

In the twelfth century also Benjamin of Tudela gives a short account 
from a Jewish point of view, and other Jewish tracts dating 12 10, 1322, 
1 537' 1 56 1, contain short notes of Jewish traditions. The work of 
Brocardus in 1283 a.d. contains another account of the city ; and in the 
fourteenth century we have the description of Sir John Maundeville 
(1322 A.D.), and the map and description of Marino Sanuto (1322 a.d.). 
It is, however, doubtful whether the latter writer had visited Palestine. 
The account of Mejr ed Din is the best extant of the Arab writings con- 
cerning Jerusalem, and dates about 1495 a.d. The pilgrim John Poloner, 
in 1422 A.D., also gives an account from a Christian point of view. 

Quaresmius, a Latin monk residing at Jerusalem, wrote an account of 
the Holy Land in 1616 a.d., which Includes a description of Jerusalem, 
chiefly from a traditional point of view. Henry Maundrell, Chaplain of 
the Aleppo Factory, also gives a very intelligent sketch of the city in 
1697 A.D. Reland in 1714 a.d., Pococke in 1737, and Chateaubriand in 
1807, bring us down to the commencement of the present century, when 
the idea of critical e.xploration may be said first to have arisen. 

The traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre was first disputed by Korte, 
the German bookseller, who wrote an interesting tract in 1738 a.d.; but 
scientific exploration dates from the first visit of Dr. Robinson, in 1838, 
when that famous traveller laid down as a canon of criticism the worthless- 
ness of monkish tradition. Since this date the traditional view has been 
advocated by Canon Williams in 1S49 ; while Thrupp in 1S55, and Tobler 
in 1845-55, added to the existing information. The valuable editions of 
Christian descriptions published by Tobler began to appear in 1851, while 
the latest of these Palcstiiut: Dcscriptioncs appeared in 1S74. Mr. James 
Fergusson's earliest work on the topography of Jerusalem is dated 1847, 
and his latest (' Temples of the Jews') appeared in 1878. Amongst other 
authorities who wrote before the Ordnance Survey was undertaken, the 
most important are: Willis (1S49), Lewin (1863), Stanley (1856), De 
Saulcy (1865), Barclay (1857), Vandevelde, and the important publica- 
tions of the Due de Vogiie, including the ' Eglises de la Terre Sainte' 
(i860) and the 'Temple de Jerusalem' (1864). 

Plans of Jerusalem were executed by Sieber in 181 8, by Catherwood 
in 1833, by Robinson 1838-56, by Tobler in 1850, and by Lieutenants 
Aldrich and Symons, R.E., in 1849. Thrupp and Barclay made additions, 



88 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

as did also Vandevelde, to existing plans ; but these have all been 
entirely superseded by the Ordnance Survey, with its accompanying plans, 
executed under Sir Henry James, by Captain (now Colonel Sir Charles) 
Wilson, R.E., at the expense of Lady Burdett-Coutts, and published in 
1866. This survey is the basis of all the scientific exploration of the city 
which has been carried on by the Palestine Exploration Fund since the 
year 1866. 

The work of the modern explorers has in great measure rendered 
obsolete the writings of all their predecessors, with the exception of the 
learned Robinson and the scientific work of De Vogiie. The principal 
thcoj-etical works which have as yet resulted from the explorations of Sir 
Charles Warren (1867-70), M. Clermont-Ganneau (1873-74), and Captain 
Conder (1872-82), have been the works called 'The Recovery of Jerusalem ;' 
'Underground Jerusalem' (Warren, 1876), 'The Temple or the Tomb ' 
(Warren, 1880), together with two chapters by Captain Conder in ' Tent- 
Work in Palestine' (1878), and two chapters in Longmans' ' Handbook 
to the Bible' (Conder, 1879). Mr. Fergusson's 'Temples of the Jews ' 
(1878) also defends his views in face of the results of Colonel Warren's 
discoveries. 

Work of great value has also been carried on in Jerusalem during the 
last fifteen years by Herr Konrad Schick, and the results are incorporated 
in the present volume. The excavations of Dr. Guthe on Ophel in 1881 
also resulted in increasing our information, and several minor excavations 
have been undertaken by residents. The clearing out of the Muristan by 
the German Government (1872-74), and the exploration of the Zion scarp 
by Mr. Henry Maudslay in 1874, have also added materially to our 
information. 



STATEMENT OF THE PRINCIPAL CONTROVERSIES. 

It has often been said that there is not a single topographical question 
connected with ancient Jerusalem which is not the subject of controversy. 
This is, however, rather overstating the case, for there are points con- 
cerning which all authorities are in accord. First, as regards the natural 
features of the site, it is agreed that the Mount of Olives is the chain east 
of the Temple Hill, and that the valley beneath it on the west is the 
Brook Kedron. It is agreed that the Temple stood on the spur im- 
mediately west of the Kedron, and that the southern tongue of this spur 
was called Ophel. It is also agreed that the flat valley west of this spur 
is that to which Josephus applies the name Tyropoeon, although there 
was a diversity of opinion as to the exact course of the valley, which has 
now been set at rest by the collection of the rock-levels within the city. 
It is also agreed by all authorities that the high south-western hill (to 
which the name Sion has been applied since the fourth century) is that 
which Josephus calls the hill of the Upper City, or Upper Market Place. 
The site of the pool of Slloam is also undisputed, and the Rock 
Zoheleth was discovered by M. Clermont Ganneau at the present village 
of Silwan. As regards the walls of the ancient city, all authorities except 
Fergusson agree in placing the ' Royal Towers ' in the vicinity of the 
present citadel, and all suppose the scarp in the Protestant Cemetery to 
be the old south-west angle of the city. The Tyropoeon Bridge is 
accepted by all writers since Robinson as leading to the royal cloisters of 
Herod's Temple, and all plans of the Temple start with the assumption 
that its south-west angle coincided with the present south-west angle of 
the Haram. All plans also agree in accepting the east wall of the Haram 

12 



90 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

as an ancient rampart of the city. We have thus various data to begin 
with which must be considered as certain, because writers who differ on 
all other points agree on these. 

The chief controversies which still divide the opinions of contemporary 
authors are three in all. First, as to the extent of the ancient city before 
the destruction of 70 a.d., and the names of certain natural features within 
its bounds. Secondly, with regard to the area included within the Temple 
Enclosure, especially at the time of the enlargement of the sanctuary by 
Herod the Great. Thirdly, as regards the true site of Calvary and of 
the Holy Sepulchre, and respecting the position of the Basilica built by 
Constantine on what he supposed to be the true site. 

Questions respecting the topography of Jerusalem from the twelfth 
century down are not matters of controversy, our information being 
detailed and accurate, and the existing buildings numerous, and often 
well preserved. We may therefore confine our attention in the present 
paper to the three great questions, on each of which the explorations of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund have thrown so much light as practically 
to render many theories previously held no longer tenable. 



I. Extent of the Ancient City. 

The following is the description of Josephus (Whiston's Translation) : — 

' I. The city of Jerusalem was fortified with three walls, on such parts as were not 
encompassed with unpassable valleys ; for in such places it hath but one wall. The city was 
built upon two hills, which are opposite to one another, and have a valley to divide them 
asunder, at which valley the corresponding rows of houses on both hills end. Of these hills, 
that which contains the upper city is much higher, and in length more direct. Accordingly 
it was called the Citadel by King David ; he was the father of that Solomon who built this 
Temple at the first ; but it is by us called the Upper Market Place. But the other hill, 
which was called Acra, and sustains the lower city, is of the shape of a moon when she is 
gibbous ; over against this there was a third hill, but naturally lower than Acra, and parted 
formerly from the other by a broad valley. However, in those times, when the Asamoneans 
reigned, they filled up that valley with earth, and had a mind to join the city to the Temple. 
They then took off part of the height of Acra, and reduced it to a less elevation than it was 
before, that the Temple might be superior to it. Now the valley of the Tyropceon, as 
it was called, and was that which we told you before distinguished the hill of the upper city 
from that of the lower, extended as far as Siloam ; for that is the name of a fountain which 
hath sweet water in it, and this in great plenty also. But on the outsides, these hills are 



JERUSALEM. 91 

surrounded by deep valleys, and by reason of the precipices to them belonging, on both sides 
they are everywhere unpassable. 

' 2. Now, of these three walls, the old one was hard to be taken, both by reason of the 
valleys, and of that hill on which it was built, and which was above them. But besides that 
great advantage, as to the place where they were situated, it was also built very strong : 
because David, and Solomon, and the following kings, were very zealous about this work. 
Now that wall began on the north, at the tower called Hippicus, and extended as far as the 
Xistus, a place so called, and then joining to the council-house, ended at the west cloister of 
the Temple. But if we go the other way westward, it began at the same place, and extended 
through a place called Bethso, to the gate of the Essens ; and after that it went southward, 
having its bending above the fountain Siloam, where it also bends again towards the east at 
Solomon's Pool, and reaches as far as a certain place which they called Ophlas, where it was 
joined to the eastern cloister of the Temple. The second wall took its beginning from that 
gate which they called Genneth, which belonged to the first wall ; it only encompassed the 
northern quarter of the city, and reached as far as the tower Antonia. The beginning of the 
third wall was at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter of the 
city, and the tower Psephinus, and then was so far extended till it came over against the 
monuments of Helena, which Helena was Queen of Adiabene, and mother of Izates ; it then 
extended farther to a great length, and passed by the caverns of the kings, and bent again at 
the tower of the corner, at the monument which is called the Monument of the Fuller, and 
joined to the old wall at the valley called the Valley of Cedron. It was Agrippa who encom- 
passed the parts added to the old city with this wall, which had been all naked before ; for as 
the city grew more populous, it gradually crept beyond its old Umits, and those parts of it 
that stood northward of the Temple, and joined that hill to the city, made it considerably 
larger, and occasioned that hill which is in number the fourth, and is called Bezetha, to be 
inhabited also. It lies over against the tower Antonia, but is divided from it by a deep 
valley, which was dug on purpose, and that in order to hinder the foundations of the tower of 
Antonia from joining to this hill, and thereby affording an opportunity for getting to it with 
ease, and hindering the security that arose from its superior elevation, for which reason also 
that depth of the ditch made the elevation of the towers more remarkable. This new-built 
part of the city was called Bezetha in our language, which if interpreted in the Grecian 
language, may be called The New City. Since therefore its inhabitants stood in need of a 
covering, the father of the present king, and of the same name with him, Agrippa, began that 
wall we spoke of; but he left off building it when he had only laid the foundations, out of 
the fear he was in of Claudius Cffisar, lest he should suspect that so strong a wall was built in 
order to make some innovation in public affairs ; for the city could no way have been taken 
if that wall had been finished in the manner it was begun, as its parts were connected 
together by stones 20 cubits long and 10 cubits broad, which could never have been either 
easily undermined by any iron tools, or shaken by any engines. The wall was, however, 
10 cubits wide, and it would probably have had an height greater than that had not his zeal 
who began it been hindered from exerting itself After this, it was erected with great diligence 
by the Jews, as high as 20 cubits, above which it had battlements of 2 cubits, and turrets of 
3 cubits' altitude, insomuch that the altitude extended as far as 25 cubits. 

'3. Now the towers that were upon it were 20 cubits in breadth, and 20 cubits in height; 
they were square, and solid as was the wall itself, wherein the niceness of the joints and the 
beauty of the stones were no way inferior to those of the holy house itself. Above this solid 

12 2 



92 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

altitude of the towers, which was 20 cubits, there were rooms of great magnificence, and over 
them upper rooms, and cisterns to receive rain-water. They were many in number, and the 
steps by which you ascended up to them were every one broad : of these towers then the 
third wall had ninety, and the spaces between them were each 200 cubits ; but in the middle 
wall were forty towers, and the old wall was parted into sixty, while the whole compass of the 
city was i-it furlongs. Now the third wall was all of it wonderful ; yet was the tower Psephinus 
elevated above it at the north-west corner, and there Titus pitched his own tent ; for being 
70 cubits high, it both afforded a prospect of Arabia at sunrising, as well as it did of the 
utmost limits of the Hebrew possessions at the sea westward. Moreover, it was an octagon, 
and over against it was the tower Hippicus, and hard by two others were erected by King 
Herod, in the old wall. These were for largeness, beauty, and strength, beyond all that were 
in the habitable earth ; for besides the magnanimity of his nature, and his munificence 
towards the city on other occasions, he built these after such an extraordinary manner, to 
gratify his own private affections, and dedicated these towers to the memory of those three 
persons who had been the dearest to him, and from whom he named them. They were his 
brother, his friend, and his wife. This wife he had slain out of his love [and jealousy], as we 
have already related ; the other two he lost in war, as they were courageously fighting. 
Hippicus, so named from his friend, was square, its length and breadth were each 25 cubits, 
and its height 30, and it had no vacuity in it. Over this solid building, which was composed 
of great stones united together, there was a reservoir 20 cubits deep, over which there was an 
house of two stories, whose height was 25 cubits, and divided into several parts ; over which 
were battlements of 2 cubits, and turrets all round of 3 cubits high, insomuch that the entire 
height added together amounted to fourscore cubits. The second tower, which he named 
from his brother Phasaelus, had its breadth and its height equal, each of them 40 cubits ; over 
which was its solid height of 40 cubits ; over which a cloister went round about whose height 
was 10 cubits, and it was covered from enemies by breastworks and bulwarks. There was 
also built over that cloister another tower, parted into magnificent rooms, and a place for 
bathing, so that this tower wanted nothing that might make it appear to be a royal palace. 
It was also adorned with battlements and turrets, more than was the foregoing, and the entire 
altitude was about 90 cubits ; the appearance of it resembled the Tower of Pharos, which 
exhibited a fire to such as sailed to Alexandria, but was much larger than it in compass. 
This was now converted to a house, where Simon exercised his tyrannical authority. The 
third tower was Mariamne, for that was the queen's name : it was solid as high as 20 cubits; 
its breadth and its length were 20 cubits, and were equal to each other : its upper buildings 
were more magnificent, and had greater variety, than the other towers had ; for the King 
thought it most proper for him to adorn that which was denominated from his wife better 
than those denominated from men, as those were built stronger than this that bore his wife's 
name. The entire height of this tower was 50 cubits. 

'4. Now as these towers were so very tall, they appeared much taller by the place on 
which they stood ; for that very old wall wherein they were was built on a high hill, and was 
itself a kind of elevation that was still 30 cubits taller ; over which were the towers situated, 
and thereby were made much higher to appearance. The largeness also of the stones was 
wonderful ; for they were not made of common small stones, nor of such large ones only as 
men could carry, but they were of white marble cut out of the rock ; each one was 20 cubits 
in length, and 10 in breadth, and 5 in depth. They were so exactly united to one another 
that each tower looked like one entire rock of stone, so growing naturally, and afterward cut 



JERUSALEM. 93 

by the hands of the artificers into their present shape and corners ; so Httle, or not at all, did 
their joints or connection appear. Now as these towers were themselves on the north side of 
the wall, the King had a palace inwardly thereto adjoined, which exceeds all my ability to 
describe it ; for it was so very curious as to want no cost nor skill in its construction, but 
was entirely walled about to the height of 30 cubits, and was adorned with towers at equal 
distances, and with large bed-chambers, that would contain beds for a hundred guests apiece, 
in which the variety of the stones is not to be expressed, for a large quantity of those that 
were rare of that kind was collected together. Their roofs were also wonderful, both for the 
length of the beams and the splendour of their ornaments. The number of the rooms was 
also very great, and the variety of the figures that were about them was prodigious ; their 
furniture was complete, and the greatest part of the vessels that were put in them were of 
silver and gold. There were besides many porticoes, one beyond another, round about, and 
in each of these porticoes curious pillars ; yet were all the courts that were exposed to the air 
everywhere green. There were moreover several groves of trees, and long walks through 
them, with deep canals, and cisterns, that in several parts were filled with brazen statues, 
through which the water ran out. There were withal many dove-courts of tame pigeons 
about the canals. But indeed it is not possible to give a complete description of these 
palaces ; and the very remembrance of them is a torment to one, as putting one in mind what 
vastly rich buildings that fire which was kindled by the robbers had consumed ; for these 
were not burnt by the Romans, but by these internal plotters, as we have already related, in 
the beginning of their rebellion. That fire began at the tower of Antonia, and went on to 
the palaces, and consumed the upper parts of the three towers themselves.' — ' Wars of the 
Jews/ Book v., chap. iv. 

The chief authorities on this question are Robinson, WilHams, Lewin, 
De Vogiie, Tobler, Fergusson ; while Sir Charles Wilson, Sir Charles 
Warren and Captain Conder have also published the views which result 
from their examination of the city. 

First as regards the natural features of the site. S i o n has 
been supposed by Robinson, Williams, Lewin, and De Vogiie to be 
identical with the Upper City of Josephus — the hill traditionally called 
Sion since the fourth century. Colonel Warren, on the other hand, 
identifies Sion with Akra, and supposes it to have been north of the 
Tyropceon Valley, while Fergusson identifies it with the Temple Hill. 
Captain Conder, while placing the ' stronghold of Sion ' in the Upper 
City, has proposed to reconcile these various views by regarding Sion as 
a general and poetic title (' the sunny mountain '), applying to the whole 
site of Jerusalem as known before the Captivity. 

Akra, the site of the Lower City, is placed by Robinson in the 
vicinity of the present Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and Captain Conder 
has adopted the same view. By Williams, Lewin, and De Vogiie, the 



94 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

name is applied to the slopes rather further east, and Lewin distinguishes 
this name from the Akra of the Macedonian garrison, which he places at 
the north-west angle of the modern Maram. Fcrgusson agrees with 
Robinson on this point, and Sir Charles Warren follows Williams, but 
suggests the previous existence of a knoll south-east of the present Holy 
Sepulchre Church, which he supposes to have been that cut down by 
the Hasmoneans. 

Bezelha is placed by all authorities north of the Haram ; but 
Sir Charles Warren writes the name near the Damascus Gate, while 
Lewin would extend the application of the term even further west. 

]\I o r i a h is supposed by most authorities to have been the Temple 
Hill ; but Dean Stanley, and Captain Conder following his view, sup- 
pose the actual site of the sacrifice of Isaac to have been on Mount 
Gerizim. 

The Valley of Hinnom, according to Robinson, Lewin, De 
Vogiie, and Fergusson, is identified with the present Wady Rababeh, 
south of the city. Sir Charles Warren has proposed to identify it with 
the Kcdron ravine, and other writers have suggested the Tyropoeon ; but 
the balance of opinion is in favour of the southern valley, the traditional 
site which is also adopted by Captain Conder. 

The Fountain of En Rogel since the twelfth century has been 
supposed to be the present Bir Eyub. Robinson, Lewin, and De Vogiie 
follow this view ; but M. Clermont Ganneau's discovery of the site of the 
Rock Zoheleth modifies this conjecture, and has led Sir Charles Warren 
and Captain Conder to identify En Rogel with the 'Ain Umm ed Deraj, 
or so-called Virgin's Fountain. 

G i h o n from the fourteenth century has been supposed to be the 
Birket Mamilla, and the Lower Gihon to be the Birket es Sultan ; but the 
latter reservoir, as we have seen, was only constructed in the twelfth 
century. Robinson, Lewin, and Warren retain the traditional site of 
Upper Gihon ; and Robinson seems to have overlooked the date of the 
Birket es Sultan, where he places Lower Gihon. Rcland and De Vogiie 
follow the Jewish Targums in placing Gihon at Siloam. Captain Conder 
places the Upper Gihon at the Virgin's Fountain, and regards the 
aqueduct thence as Hczekiah's work. 

Bethesda, in the fourth century, was identified with the Twin 



JERUSALEM. 95 

Pools, at the north-west angle of the Haram. In the twelfth century the 
site was transferred to the present Birket Israil, which is now the tradi- 
tional site. This tradition is accepted by Fergusson, Lewin, and others ; 
but Robinson points to the Virgin's Fountain. The name, according to 
Gesenius, would mean ' House of the Stream,' and Robinson's view is 
accepted by Captain Conder. It is, however, possible, as Sir Charles 
Warren suggests, that a spring originally existed in the Tyropoeon, where 
the Hammam esh Shefa, or ' Healing Bath,' now exists, and this would 
be a possible site for Bethesda. 

Passing from the principal natural features to the early constructions 
of the Kings of Judah, we must notice The City of David, which 
some writers have even placed on Ophel. The early authorities identify 
it with Sion as beino; the south-west hill of Jerusalem. Sir Charles 
Warren restricts the application to the hill near the Holy Sepulchre 
Church ; Mr. Fergusson and Captain Conder agree in supposing that 
both Upper and Lower City are to be included under this term, and 
that it represents David's Jerusalem. 

The First Wall. — All authorities, except Mr. Fergusson, agree 
in drawing this eastwards from the present citadel to the Haram, including 
the Upper City only within its northern boundary. All authorities agree 
also in fixino- the south-west ande of this ancient line of fortification on the 
scarp found in the Protestant Cemetery. There is considerable difference 
of opinion as to the southern and eastern faces of this wall, which can 
only be settled by further exploration. The excavations of Dr. Guthe seem, 
however, to show that the wall crossed the Tyropaon, not far above the 
Siloam Pool. Sir Charles Warren's important discoveries on Ophel have 
proved that the wall joined the present south-east angle of the Haram, 
thus disposing of the conjectures of Lewin and Fergusson, who would 
make this wall join the Haram near the Triple Gate. Remains of towers 
have been found east of the so-called Tower of David, which probably 
belonged to the First Wall, and a steep scarp is known here to run parallel 
to the Street of David, on the south side of the Tyropceon Valley. 

Mr. Fergusson, however, draws the northern part of this wall quite 
differently from any other authority, making it include the Holy Sepulchre 
Church. He places Hippicus near the present ruined tower Kaldt Jalud 
(Tancred's Tower) ; but his view has not found favour with any subse- 



96 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

quent writer. Captain Conder has followed Sir Charles Warren very 
closely in his proposed tracing of the First Wall. Other writers do not 
essentially differ from the authorities mentioned above in their views as 
to these ancient ramparts. 

Second W a 1 1. — The course of this wall is fiercely debated, because, 
if it be drawn so as to include the site of the Holy Sepulchre Church, the 
authenticity of that site must be relinquished, as Calvary was outside 
Jerusalem in the time of Christ. The Second Wall was built by Solomon, 
and rebuilt by later kings, and by Nehemiah. Josephus gives only a 
very short account of it, saying that it began at the Gennath Gate in the 
First Wall, and encompassed the north quarter extending to Antonia 
(5 Wars, iv, 2). The site of the Gennath Gate is unknown, and 
that of Antonia is disputed. The advocates for the authenticity of the 
traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre draw the Second Wall (of which no 
remains have yet been recognised) in a series of angles, east of the 
Church, to the present north-west angle of the Haram, or to some point 
a little further south. Canon Williams, Lewin, and Sir Charles Warren 
agree in this instance, all e.xcluding the Holy Sepulchre Church. Dr. 
Robinson, on the other hand, insists on the meaning of the word 
(/vi/jcXoiviEroi') used by Josephus, and brings arguments to prove that the 
Gennath Gate was near Hippicus. He therefore draws the wall in a 
curve from a little east of Hippicus to the present north-west angle of the 
Haram, and of necessity includes the Holy Sepulchre Church within this 
line. He has been followed by Captain Conder, who argues that any 
line further east is subject to engineering and military objections. Mr. 
Fero-usson draws the line of this wall from the Kalat Jalud, along the 
present north wall of Jerusalem to the Damascus Gate, and thence south- 
wards to the west wall of the Haram. In this again he is not followed 
by any other authority. 

The Third Wall, commenced by Agrippa about 41 a.d., is of less 
interest than the preceding, and is very variously drawn. Traces of this 
wall seem still to have existed north-west of the present north-west angle 
of the city when Robinson first visited Jerusalem. Fergusson and other 
earlier authorities give a very wide circuit to this wall, bringing it close 
up to the Tombs of the Kings (so-called), or Monument of Helena. 
De Vogue and Lewin, on the other hand, identify it with the present 



JERUSALEM. 97 

north wall ot Jerusalem ; but Sir Charles Warren and Captain Conder, 
following Robinson's indications and the distances given by Josephus, 
extend the Third Wall beyond the modern one on the west and north- 
west, and make it turn back west of Jeremiah's Grotto to the Cotton 
Grotto, whence they make it coincide with the present wall to the north- 
east angle, and thence run on the present line to join the east wall of the 
Haram Enclosure. 

II. Site of the Temple. 

This question has been profoundly affected by the excavations of 
Sir Charles Warren. Controversialists are divided into two parties, one 
including Robinson, De Voglie, Warren, and Conder, who suppose that 
the Haram Enclosure is substantially a single building, representing the 
area of Herod's Temple ; the other including Fergusson, Lewin, etc., 
who restrict the Temple area to a square of about 600 feet side in the 
south-west angle of the same enclosure.* 

The chief argument in favour of this smaller area is the estimate 
ffiven by Josephus of the size of the enclosure, as being a stadium each 
side (15 Ant., xi. 3) ; while the cloisters 'reached 400 cubits' — whether 
in length or height is not stated (20 Ant., x. 7). Together with 
Antonia, Josephus estimates the circumference at six stadia (5 Wars, v. 2). 
The Temple Enclosure is thus supposed to have been a square of about 
600 feet side (400 cubits), and Antonia a stadium by half a stadium. 
The adherents of this view reject the detailed measurements contained in 
the Mishnah (Middoth ii. i, v. i, 2), which make the enclosure a square 
of 500 cubits ; and instead of making the Court of the Women a square 
of 135 cubits by 135 (Midd. ii. 5), they make it 135 cubits north and 
south, by 35 cubits east and west, the larger measurement given in the 
Mishnah not being reconcilable with the supposed total of 400 cubits. 

The opposite view rests chiefly on the results of exploration, as com- 

* This statement is confined to the question of Herod's Temple. Of the Solomonic 
Temple little is known ; and it must be remembered that a period elapsed between the 
time of Herod and that of Solomon equal to that between Queen Victoria and Alfred. It 
is the belief of most writers that Solomon's Palace stood on the site of the southern cloister 
of Herod's Temple Enclosure, and Sir Charles Warren believes the eastern part of the south 
wall of the Haram to be the original wall of the palace. 

13 



98 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

pared with oihcr statements of the Mishnah and of Josephus, to the 
following effect. Josephus says that the cloisters reached from ' valley to 
valley ' (15 Ant., xi. 5), and that the Ophel wall joined the eastern cloister 
(5 Wars, iv. 2). Sir Charles Warren's discovery of the great wall on 
Ophel is thus of the greatest importance, for the existing line joins the 
Haram walls at the south-east angle, running for some distance south 
in the same line with the eastern Haram wall. It thus joins the east w^all 
of the Haram, just as Josephus says the Ophel wall joined the east cloister 
of Herod's Temple. 

The description of Antonia (5 Wars, v. 8) standing on a lofty rock 
north of the Temple, with a great fosse on its north side (5 Wars, iv. 2, 
cf. ix. 2, and 6 Wars, i. 5, ii. 5), agrees in so remarkable a manner with the 
existing rock of the barracks at the north-west angle of the Haram, that De 
Voglie, Robinson, Wilson, Warren, and Conder, all agree in identifying this 
rock as the citadel of Antonia. In this case, the south-west angle of the 
Haram being agreed by all writers to represent the south-west angle of 
Herod's Temple, and the south-east and north-west angles being defined by 
existing ruins, the only doubtful point is the north-east angle of Herod's 
Temple Enclosure, which De Vogue identifies with the present north- 
east angle of the Haram, while Sir Charles Warren (followed by Captain 
Conder) places it at or near the Golden Gate, supposing the rocky scarp 
on the north side of the existing Platform to represent the old north wall 
of Herod's Enclosure, whence Antonia projected on the north-west. 
The adherents of this view consider Josephus to have estimated the area, 
rather than to have actually measured it, and refer the area 500 cubits 
square (noticed in the Mishnah) to the sacred enclosure, which no Gentile 
might enter, standing within the larger area, which, roughly speaking, 
would be a square of about 1,000 feet side. 

As regards the exact position of the Holy House within this area, 
those who confine the Temple to an area of 600 feet side place the altar 
in the neighbourhood of the present fountain El K a s, north of the 
Aksa Mosque. Those who consider the larger area to be clearly in- 
dicated by the results of exploration have much greater latitude in the 
choice of a site for the Holy House. De Vogtid, following the plan 
given in the Mishnah, places the altar north of the Kubbet es Sakhrah. 
Sir Charles Warren, following the same plan, places it south, and 



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JERUSALEM. 99 

supposes the Gate Nitzotz to have stood on the site of the Holy 
Rock. 

The latest writer on this question is Captain Conder, whose views are 
based on the levels of the rock in the Haram, which were determined in 
upwards of seventy places by Sir Charles Wilson and by Sir Charles 
Warren. These, together with the existing surface-levels determined by 
Sir C. Wilson, are sufficient to allow of a contoured plan of the rock being 
drawn with considerable accuracy ; and the existing levels may be com- 
pared with those differences of level which are given in the Mishnah, and 
noticed by Josephus. 

Captain Conder starts by accepting the tradition common to Jews, 
Christians, and Moslems, from the Middle Ages downwards, which 
identifies the Holy Rock with the Foundation-Stone of the Holy House 
on which the ark was placed (cf. Mishnah Yoma v. 2). Josephus places 
the Temple on the top of the hill (8 Ant. iii. 9), and the Sakhrah is the 
highest point of rock within the Haram area, which descends in terraces 
all round it. Captain Conder makes the floor of the Holy of Holies on 
the level of the Sakhrah (2,440 feet above the sea), and shows that the 
other levels of the Temple Courts agree very closely with the actual 
levels. If, however, the Temple be placed in another position, it becomes 
inevitable that very deep foundations should be supposed ; and Captain 
Conder has prepared sections to show that Mr. Fergusson's plan necessi- 
tates foundations of from 30 to 90 feet deep before reaching the rock, 
and Sir Charles Warren's plan foundations from 25 to 100 feet ; while for 
his own he claims that no foundations at all are needed in most parts, the 
levels coinciding with those actually ascertained, while the utmost difference 
of level is, according to his view, only 8 feet, if the Courts of the Temple 
were perfectly flat. The reason of these differences of section is, briefly, 
that unless the Temple be placed over the Sakhrah, its enclosure would 
occupy one slope, instead of a succession of terraces round the top of the 
hill. 

Sir Charles Warren and Captain Conder agree in identifying the great 
Tank No. 3 (Ordnance Survey), with the Bath-House leading to the Gate 
Tadi (Midd. i. 9). Captain Conder believes Tank No. i to be the 
passage from the House Moked to the Gate Tadi (Midd. i. 8). The latter 
view does not, however, agree with Sir Charles Warren's plan ; and 



100 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

he supposes this passage to have extended further south, and to have 
led to the Sakhrah rock, where he places the Gate-House Nitzotz. 
The two Iluklah Gates (Midd. i. 3) are supposed by De Vogiie, 
Warren and Conder to be the existing Double and Triple Gates on the 
south side of the Haram ; while the Prophet's Gate on the west is 
identified with Kipunus (Midd. i. 3). I'^ergusson supposes only the 
Double Gate to be intended by the 'two Huldah Gates' mentioned in 
the Mishnah. 

The places which still remain unexplored are the Gates Tadi* and 
Shushan, and the north-east angle of Herod's Temple. If these could 
be found, or if explorations under the Platform of the Dome of the Rock, 
and the examination of the closed chambers known to exist on the north 
and east sides of this Platform, could be carried out, the controversies 
might be set at rest by actual discovery. In the present state of Moslem 
feeling in the East, there is, however, no hope of excavation being per- 
mitted to Christians within the area of the Haram esh Shcrif 

The preceding sketch will, however, enable the reader to understand 
the grounds of the present opinions as to the Temple of Herod, and the 
bearing of the Society's explorations on the subject. 

The following is the account of Joscphus, and first, that given in the 
'Antiquities,' xv. 11, y^ : — 

'So Herod took away the old foundations, and laid others, and erected the Temple upon 
them, being in length loo cubits, and in height 20 additional cubits, which [twenty,] upon the 
sinking of their foundations, fell down ; and this part it was that we resolved to raise again in 
the days of Nero. Now the Temple was built of stones that were white and strong, and each 
of their length was 25 cubits, their height was 8, and their breadth about 12 ; and the whole 
structure, as was also the structure of the royal cloister, was on each side much lower, but the 
middle was much higher, till they were visible to those that dwelt in the country for a great 
many furlongs, but chiefly to such as lived over-against them, and those that approached to 
them. The Temple had doors also at the entrance, and lintels over them, of the same height 
with the temple itself. They were adorned with embroidered vails, with their flowers of 
purple, and pillars interwoven ; and over these, but under the crown-work, was spread out a 
golden vine, with its branches hanging down from a great height, the largeness and fine work- 



* Sir Charles Warren and Captain Conder both suppose that Tanks Nos. i and 3 
extend further north and meet on the line of the north wall of the modern Platform, and 
that the subterranean gate Tadi still remains to be found here, as shown on their plans, at 
the junction of the two passages. 



JERUSALEM. loi 

manship of which was a surprising sight to the spectators to see what vast materials there 
were, and with what great skill the workmanship was done. He also encompassed the entire 
Temple with very large cloisters, contriving them to be in a due proportion thereto ; and he 
laid out larger sums of money upon them than had been done before him, till it seemed that 
no one else had so greatly adorned the Temple as he had done. There was a large wall to 
both the cloisters, which wall was itself the most prodigious work that was ever heard of by 
man. The hill was a rocky ascent, that declined by degrees towards the east parts of the 
city, till it came to an elevated level. This hill it was which Solomon, who was the first of 
our kings, by divine revelation, encompassed with a wall ; it was of excellent workmanship 
upwards, and round the top of it. He also built a wall below, beginning at the bottom, 
which was encompassed by a deep valley ; and at the south side he laid rocks together, and 
bound them one to another with lead, and included some of the inner parts, till it proceeded 
to a great height, and till both the largeness of the square edifice, and its altitude, were im- 
mense, and till the vastness of the stones in the front was plainly visible on the outside, yet 
so that the inward parts were fastened together with iron, and preserved the joints immove- 
able for all future times. When this work [for the foundation] was done in this manner, and 
joined together as part of the hill itself to the very top of it, he wrought it all into one out- 
ward surface, and filled up the hollow places which were about the wall, and made it a level 
on the external upper surface, and a smooth level also. This hill was walled all round, and 
in compass 4 furlongs, [the distance ofj each angle containing in length a furlong ; but within 
this wall, and on the very top of all, there ran another wall of stone also, having, on the east 
quarter, a double cloister, of the same length with the wall, in the midst of which was the 
temple itself This cloister looked to the gates of the Temple ; and it had been adorned by 
many kings in former times. And round about the entire Temple were fixed the spoils taken 
from barbarous nations ; all these had been dedicated to the Temple by Herod, with the 
addition of those he had taken from the Arabians. 

'Now on the north side [of the Temple] was built a citadel, whose walls were square, and 
strong, and of extraordinary firmness. This citadel was built by the kings of the Asamonean 
race, who were also high priests before Herod, and they called it the Tower, in which were 
reposited the vestments of the high priest, which the high priest only put on at the time when 
he was to offer sacrifice. These vestments King Herod kept in that place, and after his death 
they were under the power of the Romans, until the time of Tiberius Ca;sar, under whose 
reign Vitellius, the President of Syria, when he once came to Jerusalem, and had been most 
magnificently received by the multitude, had a mind to make them some requital for the 
kindness they had showed him ; so, upon their petition to have those holy vestments in their 
own power, he wrote about them to Tiberius Ca;sar, who granted his request ; and this their 
power over the sacerdotal vestments continued with the Jews till the death of King Agrippa ; 
but after that, Cassius Longinus, who was President of Syria, and Cuspius Fadus, who was 
Procurator of Judca, enjoined the Jews to reposit those vestments in the Tower of Antonia, 
for that they ought to have them in their power, as they formerly had. However, the Jews 
sent ambassadors to Claudius Ctesar, to intercede with him for them, upon whose coming 
King Agrippa, junior, being then at Rome, asked for, and obtained, the power over them 
from the emperor, who gave command to Vitellius, who was then commander in Syria, to 
give it them accordingly. Before that time, they were kept under the seal of the high priest, 
and of the treasurers of the Temple, which treasurers, the day before a festival, went up to 
the Roman captain of the Temple guards, and viewed their own seal, and received the vest- 



102 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

mcnts ; and again, when the festival was over, they brought them to the same place, and 
showed the captain of the Temple guards their seal, which corresponded with his seal, and 
rcpositcd them there. And that these tilings were so, the afflictions that happened to us 
afterward [about them] are sufficient evidence ; but for the tower itself, when Herod the king 
of the Jews had fortified it more firmly than before, in order to secure and guard the temple, 
he gratified Antonius, who was his friend, and the Roman ruler, and then gave it the name 
of the Tower of Antonix 

'Now in the western quarters of the enclosure of the Temple there were four gates; the 
first led to the king's palace, and went to a passage over the intermediate valley ; two more 
led to the suburbs of the city ; and the last led to the other city, where the road descended 
down into the valley by a great number of steps, and thence up again by the ascent, for the 
city lay over-against the Temple in the manner of a theatre, and was encompassed with a deep 
valley along the entire south quarter ; but the fourth front of the Temple, which was south- 
ward, had indeed itself gates in its middle, as also it had the royal cloister, with three walks 
which reached in length from the east valley unto that on the west, for it was impossible it 
should reach any farther : and this cloister deserves to be mentioned better than any other 
under the sun ; for while the valley was very deep, and its bottom could not be seen, if you 
looked from above into the depth, this farther vastly high elevation of the cloister stood upon 
that height, insomuch, that if anyone looked down from the top of the battlements, or down 
both those altitudes, he would be giddy, while his sight could not reach to such an immense 
depth. This cloister had pillars that stood in four rows one over against-the other all along, 
for the fourth row was interwoven into the wall, which [also was built of stone ;] and the 
thickness of each pillar was such, that three men might, with their arms extended, fathom it 
round, and join their hands again, while its length was 27 feet with a double spiral at its 
basis; and the number of all the pillars [in that court] was 162. Their chapiters were made 
with sculptures after the Corinthian order, and caused an amazement [to the spectators,] by 
reason of the grandeur of the whole. These four rows of pillars included three intervals for 
walking in the middle of this cloister, two of which walks were made parallel to each other, 
and were contrived after the same manner ; the breadth of each of them was 30 feet, the 
length was i furlong, and the height 50 feet, but the breadth of the middle part of the cloister 
was one and a half of the other, and the height was double, for it was much higher than those 
on each side ; but the roofs were adorned with deep sculptures in wood, representing many 
sorts of figures : the middle was much higher than the rest, and the wall of the front was 
adorned with beams, resting upon pillars that were interwoven into it, and that front was all 
of polished stone, insomuch, that its fineness, to such as had not seen it, was incredible, and 
to such as had seen it, was greatly amazing. Thus was the first enclosure, in the midst of 
which, and not far from it, was the second, to be gone up to by a few steps ; this was encom- 
passed by a stone wall for a partition, with an inscription, which forbade any foreigner to go 
in under pain of death. Now, this inner enclosure had on its southern and northern quarters 
three gates [equally] distant one from another ; but on the east quarter, towards the sunrising, 
there was one large gate, through which such as were pure came in, together with their wives, 
but the temple farther inward in that gate was not allowed to the women ; but still more 
inward was there a third [court of the] Temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the 
priests alone to enter. The Temple itself was within this ; and before that Temple was the 
altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God. Into none of these 
three did King Herod enter, for he was forbidden, because he was not a priest. How- 



JERUSALEM. 103 

ever, he took care of the cloisters, and the outer enclosures, and these he built in eight 
years. 

' But the Temple itself was built by the priests in a year and six months, upon which 
all the people were full of joy ; and presently they returned thanks, in the first place to God, 
and in the next place for the alacrity the king had showed. They feasted and celebrated this 
rebuilding of the temple ; and for the king, he sacrificed 300 oxen to God, as did the rest, 
everyone according to his ability, the number of which sacrifices is not possible to be set 
down, for it cannot be that we should truly relate it, for at the same time with this celebra- 
tion for the work about the Temple fell also the day of the king's inauguration, which he kept 
of an old custom as a festival, and it now coincided with the other, which coincidence of them 
both made the festival most illustrious. 

'There was also an occult passage built for the king; it led from Antonia to the inner 
Temple, at its eastern gate, over which he also erected for himself a tower, that he might have 
the opportunity of a subterraneous ascent to the Temple, in order to guard against any sedition 
which might be made by the people against their kings. It is also reported, that during the 
time that the Temple was building, it did not rain in the daytime, but that the showers fell in 
the night, so that the work was not hindered. And this our fathers have delivered to us ; nor 
is it incredible, if anyone have regard to the manifestations of God. And thus was performed 
the work of the rebuilding of the Temple.' 

Next, his description in the ' Wars,' v. 5, 1-6 and 8 : — 

' I. Now this Temple, as I have already said, was built upon a strong hill. At first the 
plain at the top was hardly sufficient for the holy house and the altar, for the ground about it 
was very uneven, and like a precipice ; but when King Solomon, who was the person that 
built the Temple, had built a wall to it on its east side, there was then added one cloister 
founded on a bank cast up for it, and on other parts the Holy House stood naked. But in 
future ages the people added new banks, and the hill became a larger plain. They then 
broke down the wall on the north side, and took in as much as sufficed afterward for the 
compass of the entire Temple. And when they had built walls on three sides of the Temple 
round about, from the bottom of the hill, and had performed a work that was greater than 
could be hoped for (in which work long ages were spent by them, as well as all their sacred 
treasures were exhausted, which were still replenished by those tributes which were sent to 
God from the whole habitable earth), they then encompassed their upper courts with 
cloisters, as well as they [afterward] did the lowest [court of the] Temple. The lowest part 
of this was erected to the height of 300 cubits, and in some places more, yet did not the 
entire depth of the foundations appear, for they brought earth and filled up the valleys, as 
being desirous to make them on a level with the narrow streets of the city, wherein they 
made use of stones of 40 cubits in magnitude ; for the great plenty of money they then had, 
and the liberality of the people, made this attempt of theirs to succeed to an incredible 
degree. And what could not be so much as hoped for as ever to be accomplished was, by 
perseverance and length of time, brought to perfection. 

' 2. Now for tlie works that were above these foundations, these were not unworthy of 
such foundations, for all the cloisters were double, and the pillars to them belonging were 
25 cubits in height, and supported the cloisters. These pillars were of one entire stone each 



104 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of them, and that stone was wliite marble ; and the roofs were adorned with cedar, curiously 
graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polish, and the harmony of the joints in 
these cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable ; nor was it on the outside 
adorned with any work of the painter or engraver. The cloisters [of the outmost court] were 
in breadth 30 cubits, while the entire compass of it was by measure 6 furlongs, including the 
Tower of Antonia ; those entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of 
all sorts. When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] Temple, 
there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits. Its construction 
was very elegant ; upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the 
law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters. That no foreigner should go 
within that Sanctuary ; for that second [court of the] Temple was called the Sanctuary, and 
was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first court. This court was four-square, and had 
a wall about it peculiar to itself; the height of its buildings, although it were on the outside 
40 cubits, was hidden by the steps, and on the inside that height was but 25 cubits ; for it 
being built over against a higher part of the hill with steps, it was no farther to be entirely 
discerned within, being covered by the hill itself. Beyond these fourteen steps there was the 
distance of 10 cubits : this was all plain ; whence there were other steps, each of 5 cubits 
apiece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each 
of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. Yox since there was a partition built 
for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a 
necessity for a second gate for them ; this gate was cut out of its wall, over-against the first 
gate. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which 
was a passage into the court of the women ; for as to the other gates, the women were not 
allowed to pass through them, nor when they went through their own gate could they go 
beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own countries, and of 
other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally ; the western side of 
this court had no gate at all, but the wall was built entire on that side. But then the cloisters 
which were betwixt the gates extended from the wall inward, before the chambers, for they 
were supported by very fine and large pillars. These cloisters were single, and, excepting in 
their magnitude, were no way inferior to those of the lower court. 

' 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were 
the jambs of their doors and their lintels • but there was one gate that was without the 
[inward court of] the Holy House, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those 
that were only covered over with silver and gold. Each gate had two doors, whose height 
was severally 30 cubits, and their breadth 15. However, they had large spaces within of 
30 cubits, and had on each side-rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like 
towers, and their height was above 40 cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and 
were in circumference 1 2 cubits. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to 
another ; but that over the Corinthian Gate, which opened on the east over against the gate 
of the Holy House itself, was much larger ; for its height was 50 cubits, and its doors were 
40 cubits ; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker 
plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had the silver and 
gold poured upon them by Alexander the father of Tiberias. Now there were fifteen steps, 
which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate ; whereas those 
that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter. 

' 4. As to the Holy House itself, which was placed in the midst [of the inmost court,] 



JERUSALEM. 105 

that most sacred place of the Temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps ; and in front its 
height and its breadth were equal, and each 100 cubits, though it was behind 40 cubits 
narrower, for on its front it had what may be styled shoulders on each side, that passed 
20 cubits further. Its first gate was 70 cubits high, and 25 cubits broad : but this gate had 
no doors ; for it represented the universal visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded 
from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the 
house, that was more inward, did all of it appear, which, as it was very large, so did all the 
parts about the inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them ; but then, as the entire 
house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our 
view. Its height extended all along to 90 cubits in height, and its length was 50 cubits, and 
its breadth 20. But that gate which was at this end of the first part of the house was, as we 
have already observed, all over covered with gold, as was its whole wall about it ; it had also 
golden vines above it, from which clusters of grapes hung as tall as a man's height. But then 
this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of 
the outer, and had golden doors of 55 cubits altitude, and 16 in breadth ; but before these 
doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, 
embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet and purple, and of a contexture that was 
truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colours without its mystical interpretation, but was 
a kind of image of the universe ; for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified 
fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea, two of them 
having their colours the foundation of this resemblance ; but the fine flax and the purple 
have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 
This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting 
that of the [twelve] signs representing living creatures. 

' 5. When any person entered into the Temple, its floor received them. This part of the 
Temple therefore was in height 60 cubits, and its length the same ; whereas its breadth was 
but 20 cubits : but still that 60 cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was 
cut off at 30 cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among 
all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. Now the 
seven lamps signify the seven planets ; for so many there were springing out of the candle- 
stick. Now the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and 
the year ; but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which 
the sea replenished it, signified that God is the Possessor of all things that are both in the 
uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to His 
use. But the inmost part of the Temple of all was of 20 cubits. This was also separated 
from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and 
inviolable, and not to be seen by any ; and was called the Holy of Holies. Now, about the 
sides of the lower part of the Temple there were little houses, with passages out of one into 
another : there were a great many of them, and they were of three stories high ; there were 
also entrances on each side into them from the gate of the Temple. But the superior part of 
the Temple had no such little houses any farther, because the Temple was there narrower, 
and 40 cubits higher, and of a smaller body than the lower parts of it. Thus we collect that 
the whole height, including the sixty cubits from the floor, amounted to 100 cubits. 

'6. Now the outward face of the Temple in its front wanted nothing that was likely to 
surprise either men's minds or their eyes ; for it was covered all over with plates of gold of 
great weight, and, at the first rising of the sun, reflected back a very fiery splendour, and 

H 



io6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

made those who forced themselves to look upon it to turn their eyes away, just as they would 
have done at the sun's own rays. But this Temple ai)peared to strangers, when they were 
coming to it at a distance, like a mountain covered with snow ; for, as to those parts of it 
that were not gilt, they were exceeding white. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to 
prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. Of its stones some of them were 45 cubits 
in length, 5 in height, and 6 in breadth. Before this Temple stood the altar, 15 cubits high, 
and equal both in length and breadth, each of which dimensions was 50 cubits. The figure 
it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns ; and the passage up to it was by an 
insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much 
as touch it at any time. There was also a wall of partition, about a cubit in height, made of 
fine stones, and so as to be grateful to the sight ; this encompassed the Holy House and the 
altar, and kept the people that were on the outside off from the priests. Moreover, those 
that had the gonorrhoea and the leprosy were excluded out of the city entirely ; women, also, 
when their courses were ujion them, were shut out of the Temple ; nor, when they were 
free from that impurity, were they allowed to go beyond the limit before mentioned ; 
men, also, that were not thoroughly pure, were prohibited to come into the inner [court 
of the] Temple ; nay, the priests themselves that were not pure were prohibited to come 
into it also. 

' 8. Now, as to the Tower of Antonia, it was situated at the corner of two cloisters of the 
court of the Temple, of that on the west, and that on the north ; it was erected upon a 
rock of 50 cubits in height, and was on a great precipice ; it was the work of King Herod 
wherein he demonstrated his natural magnanimity. In the first place, the rock itself was 
covered over with smooth pieces of stone, from its foundation, both for ornament, and that 
any one who would either try to get up or to go down it might not be able to hold his feet 
upon it Next to this, and before you come to the edifice of the tower itself, there was a 
wall 3 cubits high ; but within that wall all the space of the Tower of Antonia itself was built 
upon, to the height of 40 cubits. The inward parts had the largeness and form of a palace, 
it being parted into all kinds of rooms and other conveniences, such as courts, and places for 
bathing, and broad spaces for camps, insomuch that, by having all conveniences that cities 
wanted, it might seem to be composed of several cities, but by its magnificence it seemed a 
palace ; and as the entire structure resembled that of a tower, it contained also four other 
distinct towers at its four corners ; whereof the others were but 50 cubits high ; whereas that 
which lay upon the south-east corner was 70 cubits high, that from thence the whole Temple 
might be viewed, but on the corner, where it joined to the two cloisters of the Temple, it had 
passages down to them both, through which the guard (for there always lay in this tower a 
Roman legion) went several ways among the cloisters, with their arms, on the Jewish 
festivals, in order to watch the people, that they might not there attempt to make any 
innovations ; for the Temple was a fortress that guarded the city, as was the Tower of 
Antonia a guard to the Temple ; and in that tower were the guards of those three. There 
was also a peculiar fortress belonging to the upper city, which was Herod's palace ; but, for 
the hill Bezetha, it was divided from the Tower of Antonia, as we have already told you ; and 
as that hill on which the Tower of Antonia stood was the highest of these three, so did it 
adjoin to the new city, and was the only place that hindered the sight of the Temple on 
the north. And this shall suffice at present to have spoken about the city and the walls 
about it, because I have proposed to myself to make a more accurate description of it 
elsewhere.' 



JERUSALEM. 107 

The following is the Talmudic account contained in the tract of the 
Mishnah called Middoth or ' Measurements.' The translation is that 
of the late Bishop Barclay, corrected by Dr. Chaplin from comparison of 
various Hebrew texts. 

'CHAPTER I. 

' I. The priests guarded the sanctuary in three places, in the House Abtinas, in the 
House Nitzus, and in the House Moked ; and the Levites in twenty-one places, five at the 
five gates of the Mountain of the House, four at its four corners inside, five at the five gates 
of the Court, four at its four corners outside, and one in the chamber of the Offering, and 
one in the chamber of the Veil, and one behind the House of Atonement. 

' 2. The Captain of the Mountain of the House \yent round to every watch in succession 
■with torches flaming before him, and to every guard who was not standing, the Captain said, 
"Peace be to thee." If it appeared that he slept, he beat liim with his staff; and he had 
permission to set fire to his coat. And they said, " What is the voice in the Court ?" " It is 
the voice of the Levite being beaten, and his garments burned, because he slept on his guard." 
Rabbi Eliezer, the son of Jacob, said, " Once they found the brother of my mother asleep, 
and they burned his coat." 

' 3. There were five gates to the Mountain of the House, two Huldah gates in the south, 
which served for going in and out ; Kipunus in the west served for going in and out ; Tadi in 
the north served for no (ordinary) purpose. Upon the east gate was portrayed Shushan, the 
Palace. Through it the high priest went forth who burned the heifer, and all his assistants, 
to- the Mount of Olives. 

' 4. In the court were seven gates — three in the north, and three in the south, and one in 
the east. That in the south was called the Gate of Flaming ; the second after it, the Gate of 
Offering ; the third after it, the ^\'ater Gate. That in the east was the Gate Nicanor. 
And this gate had two chambers, one on the right, and one on the left ; one the chamber of 
Phineas, the vestment keeper, and the other the chamber of the pancake maker. 

' 5. And the Gate Nitzus on the north was a kind of cloister (exhedra) with a room built 
over it, where the priests kept ward above, and the Levites below ; and it had a door into 
the Chel. Second to it was the Gate of the Offering. Third, the House Moked. 

' 6. In the House Moked were four chambers opening as small apartments into a hall — 
two in the Holy place, and two in the Unconsecrated place ; and pointed pieces separated 
between the Holy and the Unconsecrated. And what was their use? The south-west 
chamber was the chamber for offering. The south-east was the chamber for the shew-bread. 
In the north-east chamber the children of the Asmoneans deposited the stones of the altar 
which the Greek kings had defiled. In the north-west chamber they descended to the bath 
house. 

' 7. To the House Moked were two doors ; one open to the Chel, and one open to the 
court. Said Rabbi Judah, " The one open to the court had a wicket, through which they 
went in to sweep the court." 

' 8. The House Moked was arched, and spacious, and surrounded with stone divans, and 
the elders of the Courses slept there with the keys of the court in their liands, and also the 
young priests each with his coat on the ground. 

14 — 2 



io8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' 9. And there was a place a cubil square with a tablet of marble, and to it was fastened a 
ring, and a chain upon which the keys were susi)endcd. When the time approached for 
locking the gates, the priest lifted up the tablet by the ring, and took the keys from the chain 
and locked inside, and the Levitcs remained outside. When he had finished locking, he 
returned the keys to the chain, and the tablet to its place, laid his coat over it, and fell 
asleep. If sudden defilement happened to one of them, he went out and passed along the 
gallery that ran under the sanctuary, and candles flamed on either side, until he came to the 
bath house. Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Jacob, says, " In the gallery that went under the 
Chcl, he passed out through Tadi." 

'CHAPTER II. 

' I. The Mountain of the House was 500 cubits square. The largest space was on the 
south, the second on the cast, the third on the north, and the least westward. In the place 
largest in measurement was held most service. 

' 2. All who entered the Mountain of the House entered on the right-hand side, and went 
round, and passed out on the left ; except to whomsoever an accident occurred, he turned to 
the left " Why do you go to the left ?" " I am in mourning." " He that dwellcth in this 
House comfort thee." " I am excommunicate." " He that dwclleth in this House put in 
thy heart [repentance], and they shall receive thee." The words of Rabbi Meier. To him 
said Rabbi Jos^, " Thou hast acted as though they had transgressed against him in judgment ; 
but ' may He that dwelleth in this House put it in thy heart that thou hearken to the words 
of thy neighbours, and they shall receive thee.' " 

' 3. Inside of the [Mountain of the House] was a reticulated wall, 10 hand-breadths high ; 
and in it were thirteen breaches, broken down by the Greek kings. The [Jews] restored and 
fenced them, and decreed before them thirteen acts of obeisance. Inside of it was the Chcl, 
10 cubits broad, and twelve steps were there. The height of each step was i cubit, and the 
breadth A cubit. All the steps there were in height h cubit, and in breadth ^ cubit, except 
those of the porch. All the doors there were in height 20 cubits, and in breadth 10 cubits, 
except that of the porch. All the gateways there had doors, except that of the porch. All 
the gates there had lintels, except Tadi ; there two stones inclined one upon the other. All 
the gates there were transformed into gold, except the Gate Nicanor, because to it happened 
a wonder, though some said, "Because its brass glittered like gold." 

' 4. And all the walls there were high, except the eastern wall, that the priest who burned 
the heifer might stand on the top of the Mount of Olives and look straight into the door of 
the Sanctuary when he sprinkled the blood. 

' 5, The court of the women was 135 cubits in length, by 135 in breadth. And in its 
four comers were four chambers, each 40 cubits square, and they had no roofs ; and so they 
will be in future, as is said, " Then He brought me forth into the utter court, and caused me 
to pass by the four corners of the court ; and, behold, in every corner of the court there was 
a court. In the four corners of the court there were courts smoking, and why smoking ? 
because they were roofless" (Ezekiel xlvi. 21). And what was their use? The south-east 
one was the chamber of the Nazarites, for there the Nazarites cooked their peace-offerings, 
and polled their hair, and cast it under the pot. The north-east was the chamber for the 
wood, and there the priests with blemishes gathered out the worm-eaten wood. And every 
stick in which a worm was found was unlawful for the altar. The north-west was the chamber 



JERUSALEM. 109 

for the lepers. The south-west ? Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Jacob, said, " I forget for what 
it served." Abashaul said, " There they put wine and oil." It was called the chamber of 
the house of oil. And it was flat at first ; but they surrounded it with lattice-work, that the 
women might see from above and the men from beneath, lest they should be mixed. And 
fifteen steps corresponding to the fifteen steps in the Psalms (Ps. cxx. — cxxxiv.) ascended 
from it to the court of Israel ; upon them the Levites chanted. They were not angular, but 
deflected like the half of a round threshing-floor. 

' 6. And under the Court of Israel were chambers open to the court of the women. 
There the Levites deposited their harps, and psalteries, and cymbals, and all instruments of 
music. The Court of Israel was 135 cubits long, and 11 broad; and likewise the court of 
the priests was 135 cubits long, and 11 broad. And pointed pieces separated the Court of 
Israel from the court of the priests. Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Jacob, said, " There was a 
step a cubit high, and the pulpit " (cf Neh. viii. 4, Ezra i. 9, 42) " was placed over it. And in 
it were three steps each \ cubit in height." We find that the priests' court was 2^ cubits 
higher than the Court of Israel. The whole court was 187 cubits in length, and 135 cubits 
in breadth, and the thirteen places for bowing were there. Abajose, the son of Chanan, said, 
" in front of the thirteen gates." In the south near to the west were the upper gate, the gate 
of flaming, the gate of the firstborn, the water-gate. And why is it called the water-gate ? 
Because through it they bring bottles of water for pouring out during the feast of Tabernacles. 
Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Jacob, said, " Through it the water proceeded out, and in future it 
will issue from under the threshold of the house." And there were opposite to them in the 
north, near to the west, the Gate of Jochania, the gate of the offering, the gate of the women, 
the gate of music. And " why was it called the Gate of Jochania ?" " Because through it 
Jochania went out in his captivity." In the east was the Gate Nicanor, and in it were two 
wickets, one on the right, and one on the left, and two in the west, which were nameless. 

'CHAPTER III. 

' I. The altar was 32 cubits square. It ascended a cubit and receded a cubit. This was 
the foundation. It remains 30 cubits square. It ascended 5 cubits and receded i cubit. 
This is the circuit (or compass). It remains 28 cubits square. It ascended 3 cubits and 
receded i cubit ; this was the place of the horns. It remains 26 cubits square. The place 
of the path for the feet of the priests was a cubit on each side. The hearth remains 24 cubits 
square. Rabbi Jose said, "At first it was only 28 cubits square." It receded and ascended 
until the hearth remained 20 cubits square ; but when the children of the captivity came up, 
they added to it 4 cubits on the north, and 4 cubits on the west, like a gamma it is said ; and 
the altar was 12 cubits long by 12 broad, being a square. One might say it was only "a 
square of twelve," as is said. Upon its four sides we learn that it measured from the middle 
12 cubits to every side. And a line of red paint girdled it in the midst to separate the blood 
sprinkled above from the blood sprinkled below. And the foundation was a perfect walk 
along on the north side, and all along on the west, but it wanted in the south i cubit, and in 
the east i cubit. 

' 2. And in the south-western corner were two holes as two thin nostrils, that the blood 
poured upon the western and southern foundation should run into them ; and it commingled 
in a canal and flowed out into the Kidron. 

' 3. Below in the pavement in the same corner there was a place a cubit square, with a 



no THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

marble tablet, and a ring fastened in it. Through it they descended to the sewer and cleansed 
it. And there was a sloping ascent to the south of the altar, 32 cubits long by 16 broad. 
In its western side was a closet, where they put the birds unmeet for the sin-offering. 

' 4. The stones of the sloping ascent and the stones of the altar were from the Valley of 
Belhcercni. And they digged deeper than virgin soil, and brought from thence perfect stones 
over which iron was not lifted up. For iron defiles everything by touching and scratching. 
In .iny of them a scratch defiled, but the others were lawful. And they whitewashed them 
twice in the year ; once at the passovcr, and once at the feast of Tabernacles. And the 
Sanctuary [was whitewashed] once at the passovcr. The Rabbi said, " Every Friday evening 
they whitewashed them with a mop on account of the blood." They did not plaster it with 
an iron trowel ; " mayhap it will touch and defile." Since iron is made to shorten the days of 
man, and the altar is made to lengthen the days of man, it is not lawful that what shortens 
should be waved over what lengthens. 

' 5. And there were rings to the northern side of the altar, six rows of four each, though 
some say four rows of six each. Upon them the priests slaughtered the holy beasts. The 
slaughter-house was at the north side of the altar. And in it were eight dwarf ]iillars with 
square planks of cedar-wood over them. And in them were fastened iron hooks — three rows 
to each pillar. Upon them they hung up [the bodies,] and skinned them upon marble tables 
between the i)illars. 

' 6. The laver was between the porch and the altar, but inclined more to the south. 
Between the porch and the altar were 22 cubits, and there were twelve steps. The height of 
each step was \ cubit, and its breadth a cubit — a cubit — a cubit — a landing 3 cubits— a 
cubit — a cubit and a landing 3 cubits. And the upper one a cubit — a cubit, and the landing 
4 cubits. Rabbi Jehudah said, " The upper one a cubit — a cubit, and the landing 5 cubits.'' 

'7. The doorway of the porch was 40 cubits high, and 20 broad. Over it were five 
carved oak beams. The lower one extended beyond the doorway a cubit on either side. 
The one over it extended a cubit on either side. It follows that the uppermost was 30 cubits ; 
and between each one there was a row of stones. 

' 8. And beams of cedar were fixed from the wall of the Temple to the wall of the porch, 
lest it should bulge. And in the roof of the porch were fastened golden chains, upon which 
the young priests climbed up, and saw the crowns. As it is said, " And the crowns shall be 
to Helem, and to Tobijah, and to Jedaiah, and to Hen, the son of Zephaniah, for a memorial 
in the Temple of the Lord." And over the doorway of the Temple was a golden vine sup- 
ported upon the buttresses. Every one who vowed a leaf, or a berry, or a cluster, he brought 
it and hung it upon it. Said Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Zadok, " It is a fact, and there were 
numbered three hundred priests to keep it bright." 

'CHAPTER IV. 

' I. The doorway of the Temple was 20 cubits in height, and 10 in breadth. And it had 
four doors, two within and two without, as is said, " Two doors to the Temple and the Holy 
Place." The outside [doors] opened into the doorway to cover the thickness of the wall, and 
the inside doors opened into the Temple to cover [the space] behind the doors, because the 
whole house was overlaid with gold excepting behind the doors. Rabbi Judah said, " They 
stood in the middle of the doorway, and they were in a manner turned back and folded 
behind themselves i\ cubits ; and those 2\ cubits, \ cubit the jamb on this side, and \ cubit 



JERUSALEM. in 

the jamb on the other side." It is said, "Two doors to two doors folding back, two leaves to 
one door and two leaves to the other." 

' 2. And the great gate had two wickets, one in the north, and one in the south. Through 
the one in the south no man ever entered. And with regard to it Ezekiel declared, as is 
said, " The Lord said unto me : This gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no man 
shall enter in by it ; because the Lord, the God of Israel, hath entered in by it, therefore it 
shall be shut." The priest took the key, and opened the wicket, and went into the little 
chamber, and from the chamber to the Temple. Rabbi Judah said, " He went in the thick- 
ness of the wall, until he found himself standing between the two gates, and he opened the 
outside gates from inside, and the inside from outside." 

' 3. And there were 38 little chambers, fifteen in the north, fifteen in the south, and eight 
in the west. The northern and southern ones were [placed] five over five, and five over 
them ; and in the west three over three, and two over them. To each were three doors : one 
to the little chamber on the right, one to the little chamber on the left, and one to the little 
chamber over it. And in the north-eastern corner were five gates : one to the little chamber 
on the right, and one to the little chamber over it, and one to the gallery, and one to the 
wicket, and one to the Temple. 

' 4. The lowest row was five cubits, and the roofing si.x cubits, and the middle row si.x, 
and the roofing seven, and the upper was seven, as is said, " The nethermost chamber was 
5 cubits broad, and the middle 6 cubits broad, and the third 7 cubits broad." 

' 5. And a gallery ascended from the north-eastern corner to the south-western corner. 
Through it they went up to the roofs of the little chambers. One went up in the gallery with 
his face to the west. So he proceeded all along the northern side, till he reached the west. 
On reaching the west, he turned his face southward, going along the west side, till he reached 
the south. On reaching the south, he turned his face to the east ; he went along the south 
side till he arrived at the door of the upper story, because the door of the upper story 
opened in the south side. And at the door of the upper story were two cedar beams. By 
them they went up to tlie roof of the upper story, and on its summit pointed pieces separated 
between -the Holy and the Holy of Holies. And in the attic, trapdoors opened to the Holy 
of Holies. Through them they let down the workmen in bo.xes, lest they should feast their 
eyes in the Holy of Holies, 

'6. The Temple measured 100 cubits, and its height 100. The foundation 6 cubits, and 
the height [of the wall] 40 cubits, and the string course i cubit, and the rain channel 2 cubits, 
and the beams i cubit, and the covering plaster i cubit ; and the height of the upper story 
was 40 cubits, and the string course i cubit, and the rain channel 2 cubits, and the beams 
1 cubit, and the covering plaster i cubit, and the battlement 3 cubits, and the scarecrow 
I cubit. Rabbi Judah said, " The scarecrow was not counted in the measurement ; but the 
battlement was 4 cubits." 

'7. From east to west there were 100 cubits, the wall of the porch 5, and the porch 11, 
and the wall of the Temple 6, and the interior 40, and the partition space [between the 
Vails] I, and the Holy of Holies 20 cubits. The wall of the Temple was 6, and the little 
chamber 6, and the wall of the little chamber 5. From north to south there were 70 [cubits,] 
the wall of the gallery 5, the gallery 3, the wall of the little chamber 5, the little chamber 6, 
the wall of the Temple 6, its interior 20, the wall of the Temple 6, the little chamber 6, the 
wall of the little chamber 5, the place for the descent of the water 3, and the wall 5 cubits. 
The porch was extended beyond it 15 cubits in the north, and 15 in the south; and this 



1 1 2 THE sun VE J ' OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

space was called "The House of the Instruments of Slaughter," because the knives were there 
deposited. And the Temple was narrow behind and broad in front, and it was like a lion, 
as is said, " Ho ! Ariel, the city where David dwelt, as a lion is narrow behind and broad in 
front, so the Sanctuary is narrow behind and broad in front." 

' CHAPTER V. 

' I. The length of the whole court was 187 cubits. The breadth 135. From east to 
west 187. The place for the tread of the feet of Israel was 11 cubits. The place for the 
tread of the priests 11 cubits. The altar 32. Between the porch and the altar 22 cubits. 
The Temple 100 cubits; and 11 cubits behind the House of Atonement (or Temple). 

'2. I'"rom north to south there were 135 cubits. The sloping ascent and the altar 62. 
From the altar to the rings 8 cubits. The space for the rings 24. From the rings to the 
tables 4. From the tables to the pillars 4. From the pillars to the wall of the court 8 cubits. 
And the remainder between the slojMng ascent and the wall, and the place of the pillars. 

' 3. In the court were 6 chambers, three in the north, and three in the south. In the 
north, the chamber of salt, the chamber of Parva, the chamber of washers. In the chamber 
of salt they added salt to the offerings. In the chamber of Parva they salted the skins of the 
offerings, and upon its roof was the bath house for the high priest on the day of atone- 
ment. In the chamber of washers they cleansed the inwards of the offerings ; and from 
thence a gallery extended up to the top of the house of Parva. 

'4. In the south were the chamber of wood, the chamber of the draw-well, and the 
chamber of hewn stone. The chamber of wood, said Rabbi Eleazar, the son of Jacob, " I 
forget for what it served." Abashaul said, "The chamber of the high priest was behind 
them both, and the roof of the three chambers was even. In the chamber of the captivity 
was sunk the well with the wheel attached to it, and from thence water was supplied to the 
whole court. In the chamber of Hewn Stone the great Sanhedrin of Israel sat, and judged 
the priesthood, and the priest in whom defilement was discovered, clothed in black, and 
veiled in black, went out and departed ; and when no defilement was found in him, clothed 
in white, and veiled in white, he went in and served with his brethren the priests. And they 
made a feast-day, because no defilement was found in the seed of Aaron the Priest, and thus 
they said, "Blessed be the Place. Blessed be He, since no defilement is found in the seed 
of Aaron. And blessed be He who has chosen Aaron and his sons to stand and minister 
before the Lord in the House of the Holy of Holies."' 



III. The Holy Sepulchre and Calvary. 

It is agreed by all authorities that the Sepulchre and the site of the 
Crucifixion were close together, and that both were outside the walls of 
Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifi.xion. There is, however, a double con- 
troversy on this subject. First, as regards the true site of the Sepulchre 
and Calvary. Secondly, as regards the site of the Church built by 
Constantine over what he supposed to be the true sites. Williams, 



JERUSALEM. 113 

Fergusson, and De Vogiie agree in supposing that the true site was 
known in Constantine's time ; Captain Conder follows Robinson in 
supposing that the true site was not then known. All authorities, how- 
ever, with the exception of Mr. Fergusson, have agreed that Constantine's 
Basilica stood on the same site with the present Holy Sepulchre Church, 
while Mr. Fergusson points to the Sakhrah, or Holy Rock, in the Haram, 
as the tomb round which Constantine built his Martyrlum, and supposes 
that the traditional site was transferred from this spot to the present 
traditional locality in the eleventh century, about 1030 a.d., or rather 
later. 

First, as regards the true site of the Holy Sepulchre, it must be noted 
that we have no account of the locality after that contained in the Gospels 
until the year 326 a.d. Secondly, it should be remembered that wherever 
the second wall may have been, the present site of the Holy Sepulchre 
was, according to every authority, within the Third Wall, which was 
commenced (to include the undefended suburbs) only eleven years after the 
Crucifixion. This would seem to lead to the supposition that the present 
site was already surrounded by houses at the time of the Crucifixion, in 
which case Jewish law (Mishnah Baba Bathra, ii. 9) would have forbidden 
entombment on the spot. The arguments of Chateaubriand and Williams 
in favour of the site having been known in the fourth century, should be 
read with those of Robinson against such a supposition ; but there is no 
literary evidence between the years 31 and 326 a.d., when Helena, mother 
of Constantine, is said to have recovered the true site. 

Captain Conder has recently proposed to accept the existing Jewish 
tradition, which identifies the cliff above the grotto of Jeremiah with the 
place of public execution called 'House of Stoning' in the Mishnah 
(Sanhedrin, vi. i). He points to a single Jewish tomb west of this cliff 
as a possible site of the Holy Sepulchre, and this view, besides having 
tradition in its favour, has, moreover, the advantage that this site is without 
the limits of the Third Wall as restored by De Vogiie, Warren, Lewin, and 
other recent authorities. 

We must now turn to the most curious and interestino; of all the 
existing controversies, namely, that which refers to the position of the 
buildings erected by Constantine over the sites which he supposed to be 
those of the Holy Sepulchre and of the Calvary Mount. 

15 



114 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

All writers who have published their views since 1847 have agreed in 
supposinn^ that Constantine's sites were the same now covered by the 
Cathedral of the Holy So-pulchre, with exception of Mr. J. Fergusson, 
who points to the Dome of the Rock as being the Martyrium of Con- 
stantine, and to the Golden Gate as representing the propylea of 
Constantine's Basilica. Robinson, Williams, Lewin, Willis, De V^ogiie, 
Warren, Conder, and others, although differing in other points, agree in 
rejecting Mr. Fergusson's view, and since it was first proposed no author 
has published any work in its favour. Mr. Fergusson is nevertheless 
still convinced (as shown by his publication of the ' Temples of the Jews,' 
in 1S73) of the truth of his theory, and believes that it will finally obtain 
acceptance. 

The main ground of Mr. Fergusson's belief is found in the architectural 
style of the two buildings just mentioned — the Golden Gate and the Dome 
of the Rock. These he states to be evidently Christian work of the 
fourth century, and he compares them to existing buildings of that age in 
Rome and at Spalatro, contrasting them also with the later work of 
Justinian in St. Sophia at Constantinople. Mr. Fergusson rejects the 
statement of the Paschal Chronicle, repeated by other early writers, that 
Constantine's buildings were destroyed in 614 a.d., and he applies to 
Constantine's work the descriptions of Arculphus, Willibald, and Bernard, 
in the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries. Mr. Fergusson rejects the 
evidence of the inscriptions of 'Abd el Melek and Mamun as being 
forgeries of the eleventh century a.d. He likewise rejects the testimony 
of the Arab writers of the fifteenth century (Mejr ed Din, Jelal ed Din, 
Kemal ed Din) as representing only Moslem tradition of the origin of the 
buildings, and he claims to be supported by the Christian descriptions of 
the Holy Sites in the fourth century and the seventh. He places archi- 
tectural evidence before all other, and it was from architectural considera- 
tions that his theory first arose. 

With respect to this architectural evidence it must, however, be noticed 
that his views are controverted by the Due de Vogue, on the ground that 
the Christian buildings in the Hauran and in Palestine itself lead to quite 
a different conclusion as to the dates of the older existing buildings in the 
Haram area. He compares the Golden Gate with a gateway at el 
Barah (belonging to the sixth century a.d.), and contrasts it with 



JERUSALEM. 115 

Constantine's Basilica at Bethlehem, the style of which he pronounces to 
be earlier and purer (cf. 'Temple de Jerusalem,' p. 68). He accordingly 
attributes the Golden Gate to the Emperor Justinian, while he accepts 
the evidence of inscriptions and of Arab writers as proving that the Dome 
of the Rock was built by 'Abd el IMelek in 688 a.d., although the columns 
used to support the dome were taken, he believes, from Christian build- 
ings of Constantine or of Justinian. 

With regard to the Dome of the Rock, the Byzantine style of its 
mosaics is not disputed by those who suppose it to be the work of 'Abd 
el Melek. They account for it by supposing Byzantine builders to have 
been employed, as in other cases of buildings erected by the early Arab 
Khalifs, and they point to the Sassanian architecture of Persia — which 
has much in common with Byzantine style — as being more truly illustra- 
tive of the Jerusalem building than are any existing remains of the work 
of Constantine. They also insist on the improbability that the great 
Cufic inscription of 72 a.h., the eight inscriptions of El JMamiin, and the 
Karmatic inscription in the dome itself, should be forgeries in different 
styles of writing, all attributable to the eleventh century at earliest. 

With some difference of detail, Willis and De Voglie agree in restoring 
the buildings of Constantine on the site of the present Cathedral of the 
Holy Sepulchre. The plan so drawn is similar to that of the Bethlehem 
Basilica, also built by Constantine, consisting of an atrium, narthex, 
basilica, and apse, in which the tomb itself stood, with propylea opening 
on the east, of which remains are supposed still to exist in a row of pillar 
shafts. 

All writers except Mr. Fergusson agree in crediting the destruction of 
Constantine's work in 614 a.d., as related by a contemporary writer in the 
Paschal or Alexandrine Chronicle, also by Antiochus, then Abbot of St. 
Saba, and repeated by the later writers, Theophanes and Eutychius 
(' Annales,' ii., p. 213). They also all agree in supposing the accounts of 
Arculphus, Willibald, and Bernard to refer to the chapels built by 
Modestus on the same site, and they consider the descriptions of these 
writers, together with those of the Bordeaux Pilgrim, of Eusebius, and 
Eucherius, clearly to indicate that Constantine's sites were the same now 
shown. As regards the transference of tradition supposed by Mr. 
Fergusson, it may be admitted that several sites certainly were trans- 



Ii6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ferred in the twelfth century to new locaHtics ; but at the time when Mr. 
Fcrgusson supposes the transference of Calvary and the Holy Sepulchre to 
have been effected (1031-1048 a.d.), pilcjrimages were very numerous; and 
Eutychius, in the tenth century ('Annalcs,' ii., pp. 421-429), appears already 
to refer to the Holy Sepulchre Church as distinct from the Dome of the 
Rock. He says that a new dome was erected over the Church of the 
Sepulchre in the reign of el Mamfin (813-832 a.d.), which was higher than 
the Dome of the Mosque, which was repaired by the same Khalif. 

Without wishing to do more than indicate the various opinions held 
on this question, it may be remarked that, if the view of De Vogue and 
Warren as to the extent of the Temple Enclosure be accepted, it becomes 
impossible to place the real site of the Holy Sepulchre at the Sakhrah 
Rock, which, according to the traditions which Captain Conder has 
endeavoured to show to be reliable, was the Foundation-Stone of the Holy 
of Holies. It also becomes improbable that this site could have been 
that supposed by Constantine to be the true one ; because the statue of 
Hadrian, beside the lapis pertttsus, was still standing in the time of 
Jerome, and supposed to mark the site of the Jewish Temple. Mr. 
Fergusson, however, denies that the lapis perhisus, or ' pierced stone,' 
was the present Sakhrah, and also denies that the Sakhrah purified by 
Omar was the present Holy Rock. A Moslem transference of tradition, 
as well as a Christian one, must therefore have occurred if Mr. Fergusson 
is correct in his contention. The literary evidence has long ago been 
canvassed and exhausted ; but it is much to be desired that a competent 
architectural authority should pronounce an opinion, independent and 
unbiased, on the architectural evidence on which Mr. Fergusson's theory 
mainly rests. It will, however, be clear from these notes that the 
discoveries of Colonel Warren, and the surveys of Colonel Sir C. Wilson, 
have profoundly affected those great questions of Jerusalem topography 
concerning which differences of opinion still exist. 

C. R. C. 







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PART I. 

EXPLORATIONS IN JERUSALEM. 

The Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem was executed by Captain (now 
Colonel Sir Charles) Wilson, in 1864, and published in 1865, with special 
plans of the Haram Enclosure, and of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre ; 
and a folio of notes and plans. Fourteen excavations were carried out 
under Captain Wilson's direction, as detailed in the ' Ordnance Survey 
Notes.' (See 'Explorations since 1869.') The results were mainly 
negative, but were valuable as dispelling various erroneous opinions con- 
cerning the ancient topography of the city. 

The labours of Captain (now Colonel Sir Charles) Warren com- 
menced in the spring of 1S67, and he left Jaffa on 13th April, 1870. 
His excavations were carried on under difficulties of every kind, in face 
of the opposition of the local government, and in spite of continual 
fevers, and of lack of funds. The mines were driven to extraordinary 
depths : one at the south-east angle of the Haram being 80 feet 
deep, and another near the north-east angle being 120 feet beneath 
the surface, where it reached the rock. In consequence of the great 
depths, the scarcity of mining frames, and the treacherous character 
of the ddbris through which the shafts and galleries were driven, the 
work was one of unusual danger and delicacy, requiring much courage 
and determination. Colonel Warren and the non-commissioned officers 
of his staff worked constantly with their lives in their hands, and 
often undertook operations from which the native workmen recoiled. 
The prudence and discipline of the party, however, secured valu- 



ii8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

able discoveries without accident, and it is generally acknowledged 
that the results are of an importance which fully repays the labour and 
difficulty of the operations. 

Colonel Warren's excavations include : ist, Those outside the walls of 
the Haram ; 2nd, Those in the city itself; 3rd, Explorations in the 
vicinity of Jerusalem, which are noticed in Part II. of the present volume. 
The points on the Haram wall which were specially examined include the 
West Wall at Wilson's Arch, at the Prophet's Gate, and at the south-west 
angle, where the pier of the great Tyropoeon Bridge was discovered ; the 
Soiith Wall, west of the Double Gateway, at the Single Gateway, and at 
the south-east angle ; the East Wall, at the south-east angle and near 
the north-east angle. 

The excavations in the city itself include the examination of the East 
wall of the city near St. Stephen's Gate ; of the Birket Israil ; and of the 
Twin Pools and their aqueduct at the north-west angle of the Haram. 
Excavations were also made in the Muristan, and at the Damascus Gate ; 
at the so-called Gennath Gate south of David Street, in the street called 
cl Wad, near the Damascus Gate ; while the great Ophel wall was dis- 
covered and examined south of the Haram, together with the channels 
under the Triple Gate. 

The Haram Cisterns, which are enumerated in the Ordnance Survey 
Notes, were explored also by Colonel Warren, and the level of the rock 
in their roofs was determined, so that the original contour of the hill of 
the Sanctuary is now delineated with considerable accuracy. 

Outside the city the great shaft at the Virgin's Fountain (see 'Ain 
Umm ed Deraj in Part II.), and the Kedron aqueduct (see Bir Eyiib), 
were discovered and explored. The old aqueduct on Sion was also dis- 
covered by Colonel Warren. (See Birket es Sultan.) 

Various explorations since 1S69 are detailed in completion of Colonel 
Warren's account of his excavations, those beyond the boundaries of the 
modern city walls being enumerated in Part II. of this volume. 

The High Sanctuary. 

The Haram esh Sherlf, or High Sanctuary, is a quadrangle of about 
35 acres in area, or one-sixth of the total area of modern Jerusalem. The 



JERUSALEM. 119 

angles at the south-west and north-east corners are right angles, and the 
south-east angle is 92° 30'. The true bearing of the east wall is 352° 30' 
(general direction). The length of the south wall is 922 feet on the level 
of the interior. The west wall is 1,601 feet long; the east wall, 1,530 feet. 
The north boundary for 350 feet is formed by a scarp of rock 30 feet 
high, projecting at the north-west of the Haram. 

The modern gateways giving entrance to the interior are eleven in 
number ; three on the north and eight on the west. Of the ancient gate- 
ways there were two on the south, now called the Double and Triple Gates ; 
while east of the latter is the medieeval entrance known as the Single 
Gate, beneath which Colonel Warren discovered a passage. On the east 
wall is the Golden Gate, now closed ; and two small posterns, in the 
modern masonry, are found south of this portal. On the west wall the 
Prophet's Gateway (sometimes called Barclay's Gate) is recognised as the 
southern of the two Parbar (or Suburban) Gates, mentioned in the 
Talmud ; while the northern Suburban Gate appears to have been con- 
verted into a tank, and lies immediately west of the Dome of the Rock. 
(This is Tank No. 30, Ordnance Survey.) 

The raised platform in the middle of the Haram Enclosure has an 
area of about 5 acres, and is an irregular quadrangle. The Kubbet es 
Sakhrah, or Dome of the Rock, on this platform covers the sacred rock, 
which rises 5 feet above the floor of the building, the crest being at the 
level 2,440 feet above the Mediterranean. The Dome of the Chain is 
immediately to the east of the Kubbet es Sakhrah. 

The Jamia el Aksa, or ' distant mosque ' (that is, distant from 
Mecca), is on the south, reaching to the outer wall. The whole enclosure 
of the Haram is called by Moslem writers Masjid el Aksa, 'praying-place 
of the Aksa, ' from this mosque. 

For convenience of comparison. Colonel Warren has attached a letter 
to each course of the ancient masonry of the Haram walls, and as these 
are often referred to in his account of his discoveries, the following table 
is prefixed to explain the lettering : 



I20 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE, 



Return sltoiohig the height of courses in the Sanctuary wall as exposed on surface 

and in the several shafts. 




Lintel, 



The wall would appear to have been built at three epochs, 
and therefore the courses arc not of the same height all round : 
the boitom of course D is nearly on a level throughout. 
Some of the more important levels are eivcn : 
Bottom of B, springing of Wilson's Arch . . 
„ of I and •;, lintel Prophet's Gale . 
„ of C, springing of Robinson's Arch, and 

at S.W. Angle 2388 ft. 

„ of E and F, great course. Triple Gate . 2380 ft. 
„ of course J in columns 11 and 12 . . 3363-2 ft. 



3391*6 ft. 

2398-5 ft. 




— New work. 

— Top of drafted work. 

— Present surface of 

ground. 
—Top of rough-faced 

work. 
—Stones not measured. 

—Rock. 

—Presumed line of rock. 



Lines of Rock. 

I.— 2336-75 
2. — 2320 ft. 

*3.— 2321 ft. 
*4. — 2300 ft. 

S.— 2289-8 ft. 

6. — 2322-4 ft" 
* 7-— 2334 ft. 

8.— 2380 ft. 

9. — 2361 ft. 

10. — 2272 ft. 3 in. 
11.-2292 ft. 
12.— 2327 ft. 

* Presumed. 



JERUSALEM. 121 

The levels given in Colonel Warren's papers and plans are elevations 
in feet above the Mediterranean, depending on the bench-marks of the 
Ordnance Survey, and on the line of levels run by Colonel Wilson from 
Jaffa to Jerusalem. 



16 



EXCAVATIONS ROUND THE NOBLE SANCTUARY, 

1867— 1870. 

From East End of Rock Scarp to Birket Israil. 

No rock or wall is visible, the ground being covered with houses. 
There are two gateways leading out from the Sanctuary to the Tarik 
Bab Sitti Maryam : the Bab al'Atm ('Obscurity'), also called by Mejr 
ed Din the Bab al Dawater ; and the Bab Hytta (' Pardon'), which is 
also said by the same writer to derive its name from the command to the 
Israelites to ask pardon when they entered. 

It is to be remarked that the Bab al 'Atm (' Obscurity ') corresponds in 
its name to the northern gate of the Temple, Tadi (' Obscurity'). 

The Birket Israil. 

This great reservoir is about 360 feet long, 126 feet wide, and 
80 feet deep. It extends along the northern side of the Sanctuary from 
the north-cast angle, and is perpendicular to the line of the east wall. Its 
eastern end is dammed up by the natural rise of the rock in that direction, 
and by a dam thereon 46 feet wide, forming a portion of the old east 
wall of the city, which extends without break beyond the north-east angle 
of the Sanctuary. (Plates VI. and XVI.) 

The pool lies across a valley which commences to the north of the 
city wall, east of the Damascus Gate, and passes down between the high 
ground of the Mamuniyeh to the west and the Church of St. Anne to the 
east. It runs into the Kedron past the Sanctuary wall, at a distance of 



JERUSALEM. "23 

145 feet south of the north-east angle. This valley is only just perceptible 
at the present time, being filled up in parts to a depth of 125 feet, and in 
the Sanctuary It is filled up about 140 feet. 

The south wall of the pool is thus of masonry ; the north wall also is 
probably mostly of masonry ; the west wall is rock ; and the east wall is 
partly rock and partly masonry. The pool is filled up with rubbish to a 
height of from 2)1 to 50 feet, strongly impregnated by sewage; its 
bottom has only been seen at one point — 20 feet from the south side, 
and 158 feet from the east side. It is uncertain therefore yet whether 
the rocky floor is excavated or whether it is stepped up. 

The bed of the pool at tlic point exposed is covered with a very hard 
concrete 1 6^ inches thick, made of alternate layers of small stones and 
mortar, and floated over with 2-^ inches of very hard and compact plaster 
of cement and pottery, at a level of 2,325, the level of the Sanctuary 
above being 2,413 feet. 

The south wall of the pool Is the north wall of the Sanctuary. 

The walls of the pool are lined with small squared stones set with 
wide joints, packed with angular stones, in order to give the ccuuent 
facing a better hold. 

The south side of the pool was examined below the rubbish and found 
to be precisely similar to that seen above. 

This lining probably covers the ancient masonry of the Noble 
Sanctuary on the north. 

There are two vaulted parallel passages leading into the western end 
of the pool : they are of modern masonry, and are built for the support 
of the houses above. (See Plate XVI.) The crowns of these vaults are 
slightly pointed, are nearly on a level with the surface of the Noble 
Sanctuary, and their sides are cemented over. 

The southern passage is 21 feet wide and 134 feet long ; it is closed 
at its western end by a wall. 

The northern passage is 21 feet wide and 118 feet long, and opens 
into a small arched passage, running north and south, of modern con- 
struction, and used as a sewer. 

These vaults are nearly filled up with sewage and rubbish. The rock 
surface falls from the western ends near the crowns of the arches to east, 
until, at the entrance to the pool, it is about 40 feet below the crowns. 

16 — 2 



124 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



A shaft was sunk through the rubbish under the northern vault, at 
the entrance to the pool, and at a depth of 14 feet 6 inches a floor of 
concrete was found. 

The floor has a slope towards the entrance, where there are four 
stone steps 16 inches broad and 7 inches in height ; the bottom step is 
nearly flush with the west wall of the pool, and from this step to crown 
of the arch is 49 feet ; beyond this there is a landing 8 feet broad, and 
then a drop of 4 feet. Attempts were made to get through the concrete 
at this point, but the instruments could make no impression on it ; the 
gallery was then driven down along the face of the concrete to the cast, 
which is found to consist of irregular steps. (See woodcut). The concrete 




was followed down until, at a point 22 feet above the bottom of the pool, 
the rubbish was found to be in too loose a state to work through, and the 
gallery has been discontinued ; it is probable that in any case we could 
not have continued more than a foot or two deeper, on account of the 
water in the pool. 

The masonry at the eastern end of the pool is about 45 feet thick, and 
its lower portion is part of, and in continuation of, the ancient masonry 
forming the Sanctuary east wall. There are two conduits leading out of 
the pool, one at a level of about 2,390 feet (described under Shaft H, id) ; 
the other appears to be the original outlet to the pool, and requires a 
full description. It was discovered in May, 1869, when driving the 
gallery along the so-called Tower of Antonia on east side. It runs east 



JERUSALEM. 



125 



and west, is 3 feet 9 inches high and about 2 feet wide. (See Plate XVI.) 
Its western end is closed by a perforated stone having three round 
holes, each 5^ inches in diameter, and below these there appears to have 
been a basin to collect water. At its eastern end it opens out through 
the Sanctuary wall. There are three openings on the east side, at 
Courses y, N and P. The upper opening at P is to throw light upon the 
passage, is 3 inches high, and runs along the width of the passage. 

The floor of this light shaft falls about one in one, and opens through 




.Igiig'Ktr' 



the roof of the conduit upon the doorway of a staircase leading into the 
conduit through the solid wall from above. 

This staircase entrance is in Course N, and is about 1 2 feet from east 
side of dam. The staircase was jammed up with rubbish and stones, and 
attempts were made to clear it out, but after getting up 28 feet the 
danger became so great that it had to be abandoned. The staircase is 
very steep, at an angle of one in one, and appears to have been cut out 
of the solid after the wall was built. 

The roof of the conduit is the bottom of Course ]\I. The stones are 



126 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of large size, from 14 to 16 feet in length, and vary from 4 feet 6 inches 
to 3 feet 10 inches in height. 

The actual height of the conduit is about 1 2 feet, but the rubbish 
from the staircase has nearly choked it up in the centre. The roof is 
stepped down 4 feet at about 1 1 feet from the western end. The appear- 
ance of this passage seemed to be similar to that discovered under the 
Single Gate in October, 1S67, and it is evident that it was built at 
the same time as the wall or dam ; and taking the perforated stone as 
the K:vcl of the overflow, the level of the water in the pool could not 
have stood higher than 2,347 f^t:t ; that of the floor of the pool being 
2,325 feet, thus giving an original depth of 22 feet to the water in 
IJirket Israil. 

The old floor of the conduit has been torn up, apparently at some 
comparatively recent period, for the purpose of letting the water out at a 
somewhat lower level, and for this purpose an irregular hole has been 
knocked through the wall at Course P, but a portion of the ancient exit 
for the water can still be seen at the bottom of Course O, where there 
is a neatly cut channel about 5 inches square. 

A roughly built masonry shaft has been constructed around on the 
outside of the opening from Course M to Course P, and there is a 
rough drain about 2 feet high and 9 inches wide to carry away the water 
to east. (See Plate XVI.) 

These alterations are of a very rough description, appear to be of 
recent date, and the workmen have left their mark on the wall in the 
shape of a Christian cross of the Byzantine type. 

The top of the dam serves as a road from St. Stephen's Gate to the 
Sanctuary. 

St. STEriiEx's Gate to Golden Gate, Inxluding Nortii-East Angle 

01' Noble Sanctuary. 

The eastern wall of the Noble Sanctuary is terminated on the north 
above ground by the so-called Tower of Antonia, which measures on the 
surface of the ground 83 feet 10 inches from north to south. 

The north-east angle of this tower is the north-east angle of the Noble 
Sanctuary. From this north-east angle to St. Stephen's Gate, the wall 



JERUSALEM. 127 

forming the east side of the Birket Israil is built (above the surface of the 
ground) with small-sized stones having no marginal draft, and between 
the wall and the masonry of the north-east angle above ground there 
is a straight joint, but near the rock the old wall continues past the 
north-east angle, forming the eastern side of the Birket Israil. (See 
page 122.) 

In the Tower of Antonia there are five complete courses of large 
marginal-drafted stones still in situ, and at the northern end there are 
eleven courses above the surface, reaching to a height of about 40 feet. 
The height of each course averages 3 feet 7|- inches, and the marginal 
drafts vary from \\ to ^\ inches. 

The stones are similar to those in the Wailing Place, and are of con- 
siderable weight, one being over 24 feet in length. The remainder of the 
tower, up to a height of 45 feet from the surface, is built of small squared 
stones of more than one date, apparently Saracenic. 

It may be pointed out that the production on plan of the wall of 
the tower falls upon the junction of the wall with the Golden Gate, 
and if still further produced, coincides with the wall running north from 
the south-east angle for some distance. 

It is thus apparent that the foundation of the east wall is in one line, 
although the superstructure as now seen above ground has more than one 
bend in its length. 

It would appear, from what is seen on surface and the results of ex- 
cavation, that between the Tower of Antonia and the Golden Gate the 
ancient masonry was composed of large stones with marginal drafts and 
rough projecting faces, from foundations to a level with the sill of the 
Golden Gate, while those of the Tower itself have rough projecting faces 
only as high as Course P, and above that the stones are dressed as those 
in the Wailing Place. (See Plates XII.— XIV.) 

The present surface of the ground is nearly level from St. Stephen's 
Gate to the Golden Gate, but beneath the surface the ground falls 
steeply and rises again, forming the mouth of the valley which runs south 
through the Birket Israil. 

The excavations made by the Palestine Exploration Fund about the 
north-east angle are pronounced by Sir Charles Wilson to be without 
parallel in the history of excavation. 



128 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The deepest shaft struck the rock at a depth of 125 feet below the 
surface, and in one shaft alone no less than 600 feet run of shaft and 
gallery was excavated. The results of these excavations will now be 
given. 

Shaft D, South-east Angle ok so-called Tower of Antonia. 

The ' Castle of Antonia,' as it is popularly called, appears on the surface 
of the ground to be of separate construction to the Sanctuary wall to the 
south of it, and projects 7 feet beyond it. The tower is formed of stones 
with manjinal drafts like those at the Wailing Place, while the wall to the 
south is formed of marginal drafted stones with rough projecting faces. 
On arriving at the angle of this tower in the gallery (level 2,363 feet 
3 inches), about 42 feet below the surface it was found that the projection 
of the tower only amounted to 2 feet ; and though the stones of the tower 
were like those at the Wailing Place, and those to south of it had rough 
projecting faces, yet at this point these two different faces were cut 
on one and the same stone, the stone being cut back from 2 to 4 feet, 
at the angle of the tower. No doubt at no great distance above the 
gallery the stones are bonded together like those to be seen above 
ground. 

As the courses of the wall are set back from 4 to 7 inches, while the 
same courses in the tower are set back only about ig- inches, this pro- 
jection of the tower gradually diminishes until at the sixth course (/') it 
disappears altogether. It will be found that the rate of diminution of the 
projection of the tower, of from 7 to 2 feet, from the surface to the level 
of gallery (42 feet), is similar to that from the level of the gallery to the 
top of Course P. From this point down to the rock the wall and tower 
are in one and the same line, the stones in each course setting back about 
4 to 5 inches. (Plates XII.— XIV.) 

The twenty-one courses in this shaft average about 3 feet 5 inches in 
height, and vary from 2 feet 7 inches to 4 feet. The marginal drafts 
average about 4 to 5 inches. All the faces of the stones above Course P 
are much worn. The face of the stones in Course X was very faulty, and 
its irregularities were filled up with small stones and mortar, rendered on 
the outside to look like stone. 



JERUSALEM. 129 

On the third course from the rock (Course c) some red painted 
characters were found. The face of the stone was not dressed, but in 
the working of it a large piece had split off, leaving a smooth face, and on 
this the characters were painted. In one case the letter appeared to 
have been painted on before the stone was laid, as the trickling from the 
paint was on the upper side. (Plates XIII. — XV. and XXI.) 

Notes on Soil, Etc. 

Commenced 7th July, 1869, on the level 2,363 feet 3 inches. At first 
the soil was good, with here and there some very large cut stones which 
required breaking up. Subsequently loose stone-chippings were met with. 
At a depth of 45 feet (level 2,318 feet) red earth mixed with small stones 
was met with. 

Along the top of the sixteenth course (Z), which is set out ']\ inches, 
at level 2,310 feet 7 inches (?), was found a small drain, similar to that 
found on the top of the same course in Shaft A, D, C. It was 6^ inches 
deep and 5 inches wide, and could be examined for 10 feet to the south. 
To the north it was found to run into a small catch-pit or tank, 5 feet 
7 inches deep, 2 feet 9 inches from north to south, and 3 feet from east to 
west, situated about i foot 6 inches from the Sanctuary wall. It was 
covered with a piece of stone flagging much cracked and shaken. The 
sides of the tank were rendered with plaster, but no pottery intermixed. 
The inlet for the water was in the north-east corner, and the outlet in 
the south-west corner of the tank. The duct leading into the tank was 
I foot 4 inches wide. There was a deposit of mud 1 2 inches deep in the 
tank. 

At a depth of 54 feet (level 2,309 feet), 4 feet of stone-chippings were 
met with. The rock was reached at a depth of 70 feet 6 inches (level 
2,292 feet 9 inches). The rock rises abruptly to the north, about 8 feet 
in the width of the shaft. 

Gallery along East Wall of Sanctuary. 

Commenced 5th June, 1869. From a point (/) iS feet south of the 
north-east angle, a gallery was driven along the wall (level 2,363 feet 3 



I30 THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTINE. 

inches) to north, past where the straight joint between the Castle of 
Antonia and city wall should occur ; but no straight joint was found to 
exist. The wall runs on without a break of any kind, and there is no 
projection. At 26 feet (or 6 feet beyond the north-cast angle) was found 
the light shaft to overllow aqueduct, described on page 126. As far as 
33 feet the soil was good, then stone chippings with layers of concrete 
were encountered to a distance of 58 feet, and at 64 feet a concrete 
floor ascending to north. To a distance of 65 feet the stones were 
all like those at the Wailing- Place, but beyond this to 75 feet they 
had rough projecting faces (projections about 6 to 10 inches) with well-cut 
marginal drafts. It is to be observed that this wall was traced consider- 
ably beyond the point where the massive wall in Shaft 1 1 was found, and 
therefore the two walls do not appear to be connected. In consequence of 
the proximity of the graveyard above, no attempt could be made to 
examine the wall nearer the surface than 2,363 feet 3 inches. 

From the point (/>) the gallery was driven to south (at level 2,363 feet 
3 inches) to the southern angle of the tower (where Shaft D was sunk), 
and continued along the wall of the Sanctuary to the south. (See 
Plate XIII.) 

In the tower the stones were like those at the Wailing Place, while in 
the wall they have rough projecting faces. 

Shaft E, 14th June, 1869. — The southern side of shaft was 66 feet 
6 inches north of the southern angle of the tower on the level 2,363 feet 
3 inches. It was sunk through black earth mixed with chips of stones, 
about 12 inches cube, with a few larger stones which required to be 
broken up. At 1 1 feet 6 inches it came on two pieces of flao-o-Ino- 

2 feet 6 inches square and 7 inches thick, with the dressed sides 
downwards. At level of 2,346 feet the soil changed to stone chippings, 
which continued until the rock was reached at level of 2,327 feet 

3 inches. 

The stones in Courses K to O were much worn, but like those at 
the Wailing Place ; but below from Course P to T the stones had the 
usual marginal drafts, with rough projecting faces (sec Plate XIII). The 
rock steps down steeply to south. 



JERUSALEM. 



1.^,1 



Record of the Shafts ABC, South of the so-called Tower 

OF Antonia. 

In speaking of this shaft, the projecting southern angle of the tower 
(of Antonia) at the north-east angle of the Sanctuary (at the level 2,363 
feet 3 inches) is taken as the point of departure. This shaft was com- 
menced the 1st December, 1869, at the level 2,363 feet 3 inches, its 
southern edge being 63 feet south of the angle of the tower, and it 
was kept close alongside the Sanctuary wall ; the width of the shaft was 
3 feet. 

In consequence of the projecting faces of the stones of the w'all, and 
the set-off of from 3 to 5 inches on each course, the sinking of this shaft 
so close to the wall was barely practicable, and after arriving at a depth 
of 60 feet it was found necessary to run a gallery north and south, and to 
commence fresh shafts for the further depths from this gallery. 

The shafts A, B, and C had their three southern edges respectively at 
distances of 104 feet 6 inches, 72 feet 6 inches, and 45 feet from the angle 
of the tower, and were continued until the rock was reached in each case. 
In the following record there is first an account of the earth passed 
through in the second shafts and gallery, then a description of the wall, 
and, finally, some remarks on the manner in which the stones were let 
into the rock. The deductions arrived at will be spoken of when the 
whole of the work at the north-east angle is considered. 



Nature of Soil m Shafts A, B, C. 

I St December, 1869. — Commenced on level 2,363 feet 3 inches. 
Southern edge of shaft, 63 feet south of the angle of the tower. 

The stones of the Sanctuary wall have rough marginal drafts, and 
rough faces projecting from 10 to 16 inches. The soil was black, firm and 
good to a depth of 1 7 feet 6 inches (level of 2,345 feet 9 inches) ; then loose 
earth among large broken stones, some of them rough-hewn, others well- 
dressed with marginal drafts. These stones were of various sizes, from 
I 2 inches to 2 feet 6 inches cube ; some of them were of large size, over 
4 feet in length. Not a particle of earth was to be found among these 

17—2 



132 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

at about 28 feet depth. This work was of a very dancjcrous and 
difficult nature, and occupied the party until i ith December. 

At 31 feet (level 2,332 feet 3 inches) these stones and chippings ter- 
minated, and to 36 feet (level 2,327 feet 3 inches) alternate layers of black 
soil and small stones were met with, like an old surface soil — each layer 
of earth about 6 inches thick, and each layer of stone about 9 inches 
thick. 

Very loose chippings of stone without any earth were now met with to 
a depth of 50 feet (level 2,313 feet 3 inches). The size of the stones was 
from 3 inches to 9 inches cube. 

19th December. — Passed through solid black earth, sloping in layers to 
the east until 56 feet (level 2307 feet 3 inches), when a layer, 3 inches 
thick, of red clay mixed with stones was reached, sloping down to east. 

At 53 feet (level 2,310 feet 3 inches) a small drain was found, 4 inches 
wide, and 5 inches deep, running along the Sanctuary wall on top of 
Course Z, evidently the same drain that was met with in the shaft at 
the angle of tower ; it w'as made of small stones and mortar, which had 
become very hard, having apparently been mixed with oil. Below this 
drain several pieces of tessera were found ; they are similar to those 
found about Jerusalem, supposed to be Roman. Several specimens were 
sent to England ; they have a high polish. 

Taking advantage of the solid nature of the soil above this layer of 
clay, a gallery was driven north and south along the Sanctuary wall at a 
level of 2,302 feet 9 inches, to act as a landing for the earth brought uji 
from the deeper shafts. To the north for 20 feet this gallery was driven 
through hard black earth. To the south for 40 feet the gallery passed 
through hard black earth sloping to south ; on the top of this was earth 
mixed with small chippings sloping to south i in 20, and above that 
again a layer of chippings falling to south i in 4. Three shafts (A, B, C) 
were sunk along the Sanctuary wall to the rock from this gallery. 

Shaft B. — 28th December. — Distance of southern side of shaft from 
angle of tower, 72 feet 6 inches (level 2,302 feet 9 inches). Sunk through 
2 feet of black soil, and then through loose stones and earth, with some 
broken pieces of pottery intermixed to a level of 2,296 feet, then through 
2 feet of stone chippings, stones about 3 inches cube, with a little earth, the 
layer falling to north. Thence through stones and wet earth to a total 



JERUSALEM. ' i33 

depth of 80 feet (level 2,283 feet 3 inches), on ist January, i8;o, when the 
rock was found sloping to the north. 

In the gallery driven along the rock to the north, some large stones 
were encountered lying in the wet mud. 

Shaft C. — 1 2th January, 1870. — Distance of southern edge of shaft from 
angle of tower, 45 feet (level 2,302 feet 9 inches). Two feet of stone 
chippings were met with, and then firm dark soil to a depth of 10 feet 
6 inches (2,292 feet 3 inches), when stone chippings were met with for 
3 feet, resting on the rock, which was found at 2,289 feet, sloping rapidly 
to south, and stepped down for the reception of the stones of the wall. 

A gallery was driven to south along wall to meet that from Shaft B. 
On the rock lying in the wet mud were found large masses of rough stones, 
which do not appear to have been dressed, and above these stones layers 
of stone chippings. 

Shaft A. — 2nd February, 1870. — Distance of southern side of shaft 
from angle of tower, 104 feet 6 inches (level 2,302 feet 9 inches). Sunk 
through 18 inches of hard black soil, then through a layer of blue clay 
without stone or grit in it, from 9 inches to 12 inches thick, and sloping 
to east and south i in 12. Underneath this was a layer of stone 
chippings, very hard on top, like concrete, then layers of stone chippings 
and earth until rock was met with at a depth of 2,289 feet east of the 
wall, and at 2,286 at the wall. 

Wall of Sanctuary, Shafts A, B, and C. 

The whole of the masonry laid bare in these shafts is of one description. 
The stones have marginal drafts and rough projecting faces. The courses 
average 3 feet 6 inches in height, and vary from 2 feet 10 inches to 4 feet 
in height. 

The drafts average about 4 to 5 inches in width, and vary from 3 
inches to 7 inches. The projections are of all shapes and forms, being 
evidently the shape of the stone as it was in the rough ; they sometimes 
amount to 2 feet, but the average projection is about 1 2 inches. Each 
course is set back on that below it about 3 to 4 inches, but there is no 
constant dimension. Twenty-five courses were laid bare in this shaft, viz. 
from K to Z, and from a to /. The courses at Z and a have been partially 



134 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

plastered over below the drain and tesscrcE. The total depth of this shaft 
from gallery to lowest stone let into rock was 85 feet (level 2,278 feet 
3 inches). The ground above, on surface, is at a level 2,404, so that the 
di'bris covering up the wall is no less than 125 feet in depth. 

The extreme height of the wall as it at present exists is 166 feet, and 
the height of the interior of the Sanctuary at this point, above the lowest 
point found in the wall, is 142 feet. 

On stone U, at level 2,326 feet, a mark was found; it is difficult to say 
whether it is natural or not ; it was so shallow that no impression was 
taken on the squeeze- paper. 

Rock Exposed in Shafts A, B, and C. 

These shafts were sunk for the purpose of ascertaining the position of 
the bottom of the ravine, across which the wall of the Sanctuary is built. 
The highest and lowest points of rock exposed were as follow : 
42 feet 6 inches south of angle of tower, at the level 2,289 feet. 
61 feet „ ,, ,, . „ „ 2,278 feet 3 inches. 

104 feet 6 inches ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 2,289 feet. 

The lowest point of the ravine thus appears to be at a distance of 
61 feet south of the angle of the tower; the rock rising to north about 
1 I feet in 19 feet, and to south about 1 1 feet in 43 feet. 

There is, however, the possibility that the true bottom of the ravine 
lies still further to the south, as the rock does not slope uniformly in a 
given direction, but lies in a succession of gende slopes and scarps. The 
only indication, however, of the bottom of the ravine lying further to 
south is to be found in the fact that in shaft A the layers of black earth 
and clay dip to the south. 

About 2 feet in front of the wall the rock is to be seen in its natural 
state, but at the wall itself it has been stepped and scarped for the recep- 
tion of the stones. 

At Shaft A the rock is stepped down 3 feet in two steps for the recep- 
tion of the foundation stone, and appears to have a fall to west. At Shaft 
D the rock is cut down about 1 2 inches, and falls to east. At Shaft C 
there is a natural scarp about 7 feet in height where the rock is exposed, 



JERUSALEM. _ 13S 

and it is cut down in steps for the reception of the foundation stones. 
The lowest course running through the Shafts y=/, B and C is that lettered 
g ; below this the courses // and i are very irregular, and are merely formed 
of stones (some of them not drafted), fitted in to suit the steps cut in the 
rock. The plans and sections show this work in detail (Plates XIV. 
and XV.) 

Shaft 41 Feet South of the Tower. 

This shaft, on the level 2,363 feet 3 inches, was commenced 22nd 
November, 1869, to expose the courses of stone in Sanctuary wall. Four 
courses were exposed, similar to those in the gallery, having good marginal 
drafts with rough projecting faces : the average height of courses 
was 3 feet 5 inches. See elevation and section (Plates XIV. 
and XV.) 

Shafts N.E. of the Sanctuary. 

Shaft H I (Plate II. and XVII).— At the foot of the mound of 
rubbish outside St. Stephen's Gate, at a point about 305 feet east 
of the Sanctuary wall. Surface, 2,343 f^^t above sea level. Rock was 
found at 6 feet (2,337 feet). Commenced 2nd April, 1869 ; completed 
24th April, 1S69. 

At this spot some of the local Christians stated that tradition placed 
the site of an ancient church. 

The rock, on being struck with a jumper, caved in, and a grotto was 
discovered, nearly circular on plan, about 9 feet in diameter and 4 feet in 
height. It had been used as a tomb, and was divided into five lociiJi by 
plaster partitions about 3 inches thick and 12 inches in height. Two of 
these lay about north-east to south-west, and three north-west to south- 
east. 

At the southern side a shaft led down into a chamber (No. 2), 20 feet 
6 inches long and 6 feet broad, running north and south, divided latitudinally 
into ten loculi, separated as in the chamber above ; one of the middle lociili 
served as a passage, opening to east and west into two chambers (Nos. 3 
and 4), parallel and similar to No. 2. Other chambers open out from 
these, the largest being at the south-east angle of No. 3, where there is a 
shaft (about 6 feet deep) leading down into a lower range of chambers, in 



136 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

direct length about 40 feet. All these chamljcrs, nine in number, are 
divided off into loculi, except one which appears to have been an ante- 
room, and in which some pieces of stones with marginal drafts were 
found. 

The partitions separating the loculi are in some cases cut out of the 
rock. The chambers were half full of earth, fallen in from above, and it 
was obvious that they had been opened and examined subsequent to their 
use as tombs. The earth was moved from one chamber into another, 
and search made for further chambers without result. The shafts leadinof 
upwards to the surface were not examined except in one case. 

The work was continued for twenty-four days. Six pottery lamps of 
the early Christian period and some glass vases were found. 

The chambers arc cut in the malaki, of a very friable description, 
nearly approaching to the kaJmli, and no chisel marks were found in 
the rock. The chambers are connected with the surface by vertical 
shafts, somewhat on the plan of the Graeco-Phoenician tombs at 
Sidon. 

Plate XVII. gives a sketch plan of chambers Nos. 2, 3, and 4, with a 
section through No. 2. The whole system of caves at this site is of so 
irregular a description as to suggest the idea that they are natural grottos 
enlarged by the hand of man. 

Shaft H 2. — On the north side of the road cast of St. Stephen's Gate, 
88 feet 6 inches from the south-east corner of the Cemetery, and 104 feet 
from the Ordnance Survey bench mark at the bottom of the road. The 
level of the surface is 2,369 feet 6 inches. Rock was found at a level 
2,364 feet. The soil 3 feet 6 inches above the rock was of the red virgin 
earth. 

S/m// II 2). — At the bottom of the road leading east from St. Stephen's 
Gate, on the east side of the Cemetery, 70 feet 6 inches north of the 
bench mark above-mcniifMied. The surface level is 2,359 feet. Rock 
was found at the depth of 2 feet. 

Shaft H 4. — On the north side of the rubbish heap outside of, and 
256 feet to the east of, St. Stephen's Gate, 4 feet from the south side 
of the road leading east. Commenced 9th April, 1869. Surface, 2,390 
feet. Rock, 2,369 feet 3 inches. 

At 14 feet a small aqueduct, or cistern, of masonry was broken into, 



JERUSALEM. i37 

about 4 feet 6 inches square, and 6 feet in depth, resting on the levelled 
rock at 20 feet 9 inches. 

For 13 feet the soil was nearly black, in layers, sloping from north to 
south for 1 1 feet, and from west to east to a depth of 1 3 feet, the slope 
being 2 in 3. Below this the colour was red, and continued so down 
to the rock. 

Shaft H 5. — Higher up the road than H 4, and at 162 feet from St. 
Stephen's Gate. Commenced 9th April, 1869. Surface, 2,409 feet. 
Rock, 2,379 feet. At 30 feet the rock was found scarped down to the 
east. 

The scarp was followed down for 20 feet, the rock receding under to the 
west, and plastered. This was found to be the western side of a tank ; 
the northern side was subsequently found. Large stones, apparently a 
portion of the vaulting, were found in the tank. For the first 20 feet the 
soil was black and loose, apparently rubbish from the city ; from thence to 
the rock, loam mixed with stones. 

Shaft H (>. — Near the road at 109 feet east of St. Stephen's Gate. 
Commenced 12th May, 1869. Level of surface, 2,411 feet. Rock, 
2,388 feet 3 inches, falling one in one to the south-east. At 16 feet the 
colour of the soil changed from black to a reddish brown. At 8 feet some 
pottery was found. 

After reaching the rock a gallery was driven to the west in search of 
the massive wall found in Shaft H \\. The rock was very soft, and 
rose slightly to the west 3 inches in 15 feet. It is then scarped down to 
the west to a depth of 8 feet 4 inches, is level for 10 feet, and then rises 
in a step of 2\ feet, and continues level to the west. The ditch is filled 
in with small stones and earth. The total length of the gallery to west 
was 25 feet 8 inches. No signs of any wall as at Shaft H 1 1 existed ; 
but probably the gallery was not continued far enough. 

Shaft II 7. — At the first angle in the city wall, 43 feet north of St. 
Stephen's Gate. Level of surface, 2,419 feet. Rock, 2,400 feet 6 inches. 
(Plate XV IL) The wall below ground is similar to that above. At 18 feet 
the shaft came on the rock on which the wall is built. The rock is \'ery 
soft and decayed, and has been made good with concrete. No appearance 
of any foundations more ancient than the present city wall, as seen above 
ground, were found. The soil passed through was loose rubbish. 

18 



138 THE SURVEY OF WESTERiX PALESTINE. 

Shaft II 8. — At a point 200 feet due east of the south conier of the 
tower at north-east angle of the Sanctuary. Level of surface, 2,347 feet. 
Rock, 2,317 feet 6 inches. Commenced 8th April, 1869. Some broken 
pieces of fresco on plaster were found near the rock. The soil was black 
for the first 8 feet, then of a brown colour, with the appearance of water 
having passed through wiili lime in suspension. A gallery was driven to 
the south-west to determine the inclination, but after progressing 1 1 feet, 
it had to be tamped up, In consequence of the proximity of loose shingle, 
which filled the gallery. The rock was found to slope to the south-east. 

Shaft II 9. — At a point 40 feet higher up the hill than Shaft H 8. Level 
of surface, 2,364 feet. Rock, 2,317 feet. Commenced 30th April, 1869. 
It was sunk 23 feet through black earth, and then through chippings 
of stone, I to 2 inches cube, without any earth. At 43 feet the chippings 
changed to stones 3 to 4 inches cube, and in getting through these the 
chippings began to run, and it was neces.sary to tamp up the shaft to the 
level of good soil. A gallery was driven to west for 25 feet at 22 feet 
below the surface, and a shaft was sunk through stones 12 inches cube 
and mud to a depth of 25 feet. The rock falls i in 4 to south. 

Shaft H 10. — At first angle to south of St. Stephen's Gate, at 34 feet 
from the gate. Level of surface, 2,410. Rock, 2,390. Commenced 
5th May, 1869. The ashlar of city wall reaches to a depth of 11 feet, 
resting on concrete formed of stones about 6 inches cube and hard lime. 
Concrete rested on rock at a depth of 20 feet. The shaft was then filled 
up to the top of the concrete, and a sloping gallery driven to south of the 
city wall. 

At 19 feet in the gallery a strong rough masonry wall was met with, 
lying east and wQSt, about 3 feet thick, which did not reach up to the city 
wall by 6 feet. Within this wall to south was a pavement of rough 
tesserce, at a level of 2,391 feet. Sergeant Birdes suggests that this was 
perhaps the remains of a house, the space between the rough wall and the 
city wall having been the doorway. Before reaching the rough wall a 
masonry drain, 7 inches by 6 inches in the clear, was crossed below the 
level of pavement. 

At 38 feet the top of a barrel-drain, or aqueduct, was crossed, and at 
40 feet another rough wall, and large cut stones, were found at the east 
side and bottom of gallery. 



JERUSALEM. 139 

At 44 feet 6 inches a shaft was sunk and water found at 4.^ feet below 
the sole of the gallery, being 33I feet below the surface of the ground at 
the mouth of the shaft. The surface of rock at this point is 2,377 ^et. 

The top of the barrel-drain was now examined ; after following it 2 feet 
6 inches to west it ended, and another roof of Hat stones, at a rather higher 
level, was seen ; and after 8 feet the sides of an aqueduct, running west, 
were visible, formed of large squared stones. For the first 10 feet this 
passage is only 10 inches wide; after this it is 2 feet wide, the southern 
side being formed of large stones 3 feet 6 inches high, 4 feet 6 inches 
long, well squared, and exhibiting slight traces of marginal drafts. The 
aqueduct was traced to 39 feet in all, and was blocked up by a stone 
having fallen down from the roof. In the roof, at about 15 feet from the 
entrance, a cylindrical earthenware pipe, 9 inches in diameter, was built in, 
apparently to conduct water from a higher level ; also two other pipes, 
about 4 inches in diameter, were found laid horizontally above the stones 
forming the roof. The aqueduct was in a very decayed state, not safe for 
the men to work in ; it apparently leads from the Birket Israil at a level 
of 2,390 feet, the bottom of the pool being 2,325 feet. 

It seems probable that this drain, or aqueduct, is built at the northern 
termination of the Sanctuary wall, and that the marginal drafted stones at 
the south side of the drain are a portion of the north side of the old wall. 
It is to be observed that the masonry about this portion was found to be in 
the most confused state, having apparently been overthrown from its 
foundation, or perhaps the wall never existed here. The city wall could 
not be found in the vicinity of the drain, in the line of the wall. 

On account of the danger of disturbing the graves in the cemetery 
overhead, the work in this gallery could only be carried on with the greatest 
caution. 

Shaft H 1 1. — At a point about 100 feet to east of the Sanctuary wall, 
a little north of the north-east angle of the Sanctuary. Level of surface, 
2,405 feet. Rock, 2,341. Commenced i6th April, 1869. At a depth of 
42 feet an aqueduct was broken through, very rough, and without plaster, 
the roof formed by rough stones in form of an arch ; it runs in a north- 
westerly direction directly towards the aqueduct found in Shaft // 10. To 
the north-west 27 feet were open, and to south-east 20 feet. 

The shaft was continued, and at 60 feet the earth changed colour, and 

18-2 



MO THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

rock was found at 64 feet from the surface ; it is cut in steps, apparently 
for resting a foundation on. It falls to west about i in 4. 

The shaft was filled up to the level of the aqueduct, and the clearing 
out of the portion towards the city wall was commenced. The passage 
was 3 feet 6 inches high, and i foot 9 inches wide ; the stones forming 
sides and roof, 3 inches thick and 6 inches long, are very rough. 

At 32 feet the passage was broken in at the sides ; after securing this, it 
was found to continue and to be filled with hard silt. At 57 feet a very 
massive wall of bevelled stones running north and south, and 65 feet from 
the city wall, was reached — -stones well squared and somewhat similar to 
those found at the Jews' Wailing Place : the courses were 3 feet 7 inches in 
height. A gallery was commenced along the wall to the north ; the second 
stone found was not bevelled, though well squared and dressed. At iS feet 
from the aqueduct, the gallery being driven horizontally, the rock was 
struck, and the lowest course of the wall took a turn about 30 degrees 
north-east, while the second course continued straight on to north ; the wall 
now was composed of small stones, and after continuing it for 8 feet 
farther, the gallery was tamped up by earth taken from a new gallery 
driven along the wall to south. 

This gallery was continued to the south along the bevelled stones of the 
wall ; at 19 feet it reached the corner stone, the wall now runnine to 
west. The stones here are very well dressed, but have a curious 
cracked appearance, as if they had been subjected to great heat, and 
they broke off in large chips when struck accidentally. The wall was 
followed to west, and at 13 feet 6 inches the gallery came upon what 
appeared to be part of a rough wall running to the south, of stones 
about I foot 6 inches high and 2 feet long. The main wall still went 
on to the west, but was now composed of very rough irregular stones of 
large size ; the gallery was continued for 46 feet from the angle, when 
the wall suddenly ended, and after being continued for 7 feet farther, the 
gallery was stopped, and another gallery driven to south-west from the 
point (47 feet from the angle) where the main wall had ended. 

Continuing gallery to south-west, progress was impeded by meetlno- 
with a concrete tloor composed of black cement and small stones ; the 
point where this floor was met with is 29 feet from where the gallery 
branched. At 38 feet the miners came close on the point below the 



JERUSALEM. 141 

north-east angle of the Haram wall, and broke into a gallery from 
H 12. This was done for the purpose of tamping up H 9 with the 
soil from // 12, to avoid taking it along the rough aqueduct, which had 
been an awkward business. 

It does not appear that the stones of the massive wall in No. 11 are 
in situ ; they differ in height, and sometimes a square stone is inter- 
polated : it is probable that this wall was built after the aqueduct had 
ceased to be of use, as we find it cut in two by the wall ; that is to say, if 
we are to suppose it to be one and the same with that found in Shaft 
H 10. Plate XVII. 



General Remarks on the North-East Angle. 

The wall of the tower above Course P is similar in many respects 
to that at the Jews' Wailing Place, but the roughly faced wall below the 
Course P and to the south of the tower is not similar to the roughly 
faced portion at the south-west angle of the Sanctuary, although it 
would be difficult to specify exactly how it differs. The stone does not 
seem so hard and compact as that at the south-east angle, and the 
chisel-working is not so carefully done. The characters in red paint 
are pronounced to be Phoenician. The excavations here showed that 
there was a deep valley to the north of the Temple, as described by 
F. Josephus. (Ant. xiv. iv., 2. Bel. i. vii,, 3.) 

It appears probable that when the north-east angle was built, the 
earth had already accumulated in the valley, the surface being about the 
line of Course P. 

It would be purely a matter of speculation entering into any dis- 
cussion as to dates when the wall was built and when the several altera- 
tions took place. 

The Golden Gate. 

The construction of the Golden Gate is still a vexed question ; it is 
possibly a reconstruction of comparatively late date, but it stands on the 
ancient foundations of a gateway, which in some measure correspond 
with those of the Triple Gate. The level of the sill is 2,396, while that 
of the Triple Gate is 2,380. 



142 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The whole space in front of ihe east wall of the Sanctuary is 
occupied by Moslem tombs, and no excavations could be made near 
the wall except at considerable depth beneath the surface by means of 
galleries ; and on account of the slope of the ground these galleries had 
to be stepped up through the loose shingle — a very hazardous and 
dangerous operation. 

Il Jjcing dcsirablr, ihcn, lo examine the wall al the Golden Gate, 
the only method was lo sink a shaft at some distance off and drive a 
gallery up, so as to be altogether out of the way of the cemetery. (See 
Plates II. and VI.) 

The nearest convenient point was found to be i.)3 feet from the south 
end of the gate, and in a line perpendicular to its front, in a piece of 
ground through which a shaft was sunk in 1867. 

This point was found to be 55 feet 6 inches below the level of the 
ground outside the gate. The shaft was commenced 25th January, 1869, 
and sunk down 25 feet 6 inches, giving a total difference of level between 
the ground outside the gate and the bottom of the shaft of 81 feet. 
(See Plate XI.) 

Soil. 

First 8 feet, loam mixed with small shingle ; from 8 feet to 13 feet 
in depth the shaft passed through stone packing 9 inches to 12 inches 
cube; from 13 feet to 18 feet good solid dark brown loam ; from x8 feet 
to 22 feet 6 inches, stone packing again; 22 feet 6 inches to 26 feet 
9 inches, loam mixed with stones. 

A gallery was then driven in to the west, and at 10 feet 3 inches the 
rock was struck, rising about one in four to the west ; the gallery then 
rose gently with the rock until at iS feet 6 inches a tank or rock-cut 
tomb was crossed. The examination of this was reserved, and the 
gallery continued, until at 27 feet the rock was found to present a cut 
scarp of 3 feet 9 inches height, on the south side, running in a north- 
westerly direction, the natural surface of the rock falling to the north. 
The scarped rock was followed for over 10 feet, when it suddenly took a 
turn to the north, and it was necessary to cross over it. On the top oi 
the scarp a rough masonry wall was found, which was broken through. 
At this point, ■%,•] feet from the shaft, the total rise in the gallery was 8 feet. 



JERUSALEM. 



143 



The rock is inisscr, and on the scarp, about 2 feet 10 inches from the 
bottom, was found a hole cut for passing a rope through, similar to those 
found in the cavern south of the Triple Gate. This ring or hole was 
apparently for tying up animals to. 

The gallery was now continued on a gradual rise through a loose and 
dangerous accumulation of stones. At 47 feet the rock was found to 
rise suddenly to a height of 4 feet, and at 53 feet another rough masonry 




wall was encountered and broken through. At 68 feet a portion of the 
shaft of a column (3 feet in diameter) was met with, placed erect in 
the dt'bris, and about 3 feet above the rock. (See woodcut.) On 
the bottom of this shaft of column are what appear to be masons' 
marks. 

From this point forward the work became very dangerous, the gallery 
being driven through a mass of loose boulders alternating with layers of 
shingle, which on being set in motion ran like water. 



144 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

At 85 feet fnim the shaft, the gallery had ascended 25 feet 6 inches. 
The debris now began to run into the gallery, forming a cavity above ; 
and to prevent further falls fifty old baskets were stuffed in, and a 
quantity of old timber. After a considerable amount of labour the 
gallery was continued, and at 97 feet (i.e., 46 feet from the Sanctuary 
wall) a massive masonry wall was reached, running north and 
south. 

An attempt was made to break through this wall, but after getting in 
5 feet it was abandoned ; the stones being of large size, it was also found 
not practicable to get over the wall, as it appeared to continue up to a 
considerable height. A gallery was then driven south along the wall for 
14 feet, but there was no appearance of any break. The ddbris pierced 
through was of the loosest description, and the gallery had become in a 
highly dangerous state. It was therefore tamped up, all the frames for 
about 30 feet being left in. 

The tamping up was continued as far as the hanging column, and at 
the same time a branch gallery was driven to the north from a point 
immediately east of the column. At 14 feet it was turned in to the 
west. (See Plate IV.) It was found that there were here about 3 feet 
of solid earth between the dSris and the rock, and by very careful 
management the gallery was driven on for 34 feet from the turn. At 
this point the massive wall was again met with, running in a north- 
westerly direction ; the gallery followed along it, but the layer of solid 
earth gradually diminished in thickness, until on the 2Sth April, when 
55 feet from the turn, the shingle suddenly came in with a rush, quickly 
filling up 6 feet of the gallery, and burying some of the tools. An 
attempt to remove this shingle was of no avail ; when touched it only 
ran farther into the gallery, and, very reluctantly, the work was 
abandoned. 

Although the object at this point was not attained, some very in- 
teresting results were arrived at. 

1. It was now nearly certain that at the Golden Gate the Sanctuary 
wall e.xtended below the present surface outside, to a depth of from 
30 feet to 40 feet. (See Plates VI. and XI.) 

2. It appeared that the rock had an inclination to the north near the 
Golden Gate. 



JERUSALEM. 145 

3. The massive wall where first encountered was about 46 feet in 
front of the Golden Gate. It appears from thence to run to north and 
gradually turns in to west, apparently following the contour of the 
ground. 

This wall is composed of large quarry-dressed blocks of misscc, so far 
similar to the lower course seen in the Sanctuary wall near the Golden 
Gate, that the roughly dressed faces of the stones project about 6 inches 
beyond the marginal drafts, which are very rough. The stones appeared 
to be in courses 2 feet 6 inches in height, and over 5 feet in length. 
On trying to break through the wall a hole was made 5 feet 6 inches 
deep, without any signs of the stones terminating. The horizontal joints 
are not close, but are about 12 inches apart, and filled in with stones 
6 inches cube, packed in a very curious cement, which had the appear- 
ance of an ar8:illaceous stone with a conchoidal fracture. The fellahin 
pronounced it to be formed of lime, oil, and the virgin red earth, and 
stated that such is used at the present day in the formation of cisterns. 
Specimens of this cement were sent home. 

It appears probable that the massive wall met with may continue up 
to the present surface, as immediately above it in the road are some 
large roughly drafted stones lying in the same line. 

To the south from the Golden Gate to the postern, a distance of 
51 feet, there are three courses of large stones, with marginal drafts 
3 inches to 6 inches wide, with rough projecting faces. 

The postern itself appears to be of very recent date, but possibly 
marks the site of Merj ed Din's gate al Burak. 

Southward of this postern there are no drafted stones visible above 
ground until reaching Mahomet's Pillar, when the lowest courses visible 
are again found with marginal drafts and projecting faces similar to those 
near the Golden Gate, and these stones extend to a break in the wall 
105 feet 6 inches from the south-east angle. 

An excavation was commenced 300 feet south of the Golden Gate, 
east of the cemetery, but when 60 feet from the Sanctuary wall the 
shingle became too loose to work in, and the gallery was abandoned. 
At the south-east angle the wall was seen for a distance of 161 feet on 
the south side, but from that point to the Golden Gate it has nowhere 
been seen below the surface. Yet the inference is that it is composed of 

19 



146 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the same marginal drafted stones with rough projecting faces as arc met 
with in other parts of the east wall. At the south-east angle, for 
1 08 feet on east side, the stones are similar to those above Course P at 
the Tower of Antonia and at the Wailing Place. 

Galleries were driven in search of any pier in connection with the 
supposed arch near south-east angle. 

The northern end of the skewback is just where the break occurs in 
the wall at 108 feet from the south-cast angle. A gallery was driven 
close to the rock, so as to encounter the pier if it still existed, but nothing 
was found as far as 50 feet from the Sanctuary wall, and the span of the 
arch, as calculated, should not be more than 27 feet. A gallery was 
driven from this last to south for 14 feet at 30 feet from the Sanctuary 
wall, and then small galleries for about 10 feet east and west, but no 
signs of the supposed pier were found. 

All the stones in the Sanctuary wall, from 108 feet from south-cast 
angle to 161 feet, were found to have projecting faces and marginal 
drafts. (See Plate XIX.) 

The angle of the corner-stone of the base course is 92 degrees 
35 minutes, and that of the corner-stone on the surface is 92 degrees 
5 minutes, while the general direction of the east wall with south wall, 
as determined by the Survey, is 92 degrees 50 minutes. The eastern 
wall is somewhat irregular, the first 120 feet only being in a straight line; 
beyond this are several bulges, but it is probable that below the surface 
the first 260 feet of wall are in a straight line. At this point there is a 
small postern on about the same level as the Single Gate on south side. 
From this postern the wall takes a slight bend to north-east, so that at 
650 feet from south-east angle it is about 8 feet to east of a line in pro- 
duction of first 260 feet. 

SouTii-E.vsT Angle. — Masonry Above Ground. 

At the south-east angle there are fourteen courses of drafted stones 
above the surface, giving a height of about 54 feet. Above this is later 
work for about 23 feet 6 inches, giving a total height above ground of 
']'] feet 6 inches. Tlie upper masonry is much out of repair. 

Counting from the surface, there are si.\ courses, averaging in height 



JERUSALEM. 147 

3 feet 8 inches, then \h^ great course, 6 feet in height, and then again seven 
courses of about an average of 3 feet 8 inches in height. The bed of the 
great course is on a level with the floor of the vaults known as Solomon's 
Stables, which will be described while speaking of the south wall. The 
courses are set back, each behind that below, from i to f inch. The 
stones from the inalaki are much worn, while those of the viissa; beds are 
in an excellent state of preservation. 

On some of the stones are projecting shoulders or tenons, which may 
have been used in bringing the stones from the quarries and in setting 
them. Similar projections are to be found in the wall of the Haram at 
Hebron, and also in the masonry of the citadel. At about 74 feet from 
the angle northward the east wall sets back about 3 inches. This is done 
by notching out the stones. It is supposed by some to mark the 
northern limit of a tower ; but there is nothing to show there was any 
tower here. 

The stones run on beyond this point as one wall. At 105 feet 
6 inches from the corner there is a cut joint in the wall, the drafted stones 
with smooth faces terminate, and those with rough projecting faces com- 
mence (described page 125). A similar break is found immediately below, 
near the rock, and therefore it is probable that it is continuous throughout. 
Although there is thus a distinct break in the wall at this point, it does not 
follow that the old east wall from the south-east angle proceeds no further 
north ; it may recede a few feet and then be continued within the rough-faced 
wall. Between the set back at 74 feet, and the break at 105 feet 6 inches, 
at a level of 2,372, are two stones which form the springing of an arch, 
extending for 18 feet. These stones appear to be in situ, and they would 
appear to have formed a portion of an arch to the east, but this is not 
probable. Immediately above this springing there is a passage in the 
wall, filled up, which appears to be of later date than the drafted stones. 
The course below the springing projects 18 inches, as it appears to do 
under Robinson's arch. A search for traces of the pier was made below 
ground without result. (See preceding page.) 



19- 



148 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



South-east Angle. — Masonry Below the Surface. 

The masonry below the surface was examined by several shafts and 
galleries. There are twenty-one courses of drafted stones below the 
surface (from Af to g), making a height of 80 feet 5 inches, or 79 iccr. 
3 inches to the rock in which the bottom course is bedded. The five 
lower courses, having never been exposed to view, are in a most excellent 
state of preservation, as perfect as if they had been recently cut. They 
are well dressed, and with the exception of the size of the drafts, differ in 
no wise from the more perfect stones at the W'ailing Place. The mar- 
ginal drafts and a space about 2 inches round the projecting surfjicc, have 
been picked over with an eight-toothed adze, about eight teeth to the 
inch ; within this a ' point,' or single pointed chisel, has been used. 
With the exception of two courses, IV and A', all twenty-one were seen at 
one point or another, and they appear similar in every respect to those at 
the Wailing Place. The heights of the courses differ at different 
points. 

On the south wall the stones set back about i inch in each course ; on 
the east wall they set back from 3 to 4 inches, and in one case 6 inches. 
It will be necessary to examine each course separately. 

Course g. — The lowest or foundation course,^, is 3 feet 8 inches high ; 
it is partially sunk in \.\\v. rock at the angle, but to the north it was found 
to be let entirely into the rock, until at 41 feet it ceased, the rock here 
rising abruptly, and the second course being let into it. There are drafts 
on the upper portions of this course. The course rests on the hard 
mczzeh, the rock cut away for the stones being soft and decayed. 

Course/. — The second course,/] is 4 feet 3^ inches in height, and 
e.xtends to the north the same distance as the lower course, where the 
rock rises abruptly. On the south side it extends to the west 8 feet 
3J, inches, and is bedded in the rock, and completely covered at its western 
end. The corner stone has a i inch draft at the top, ordinary drafts at 
the bottom and sides ; it is very roughly dressed within the draft. The 
second, third, and fourth following stones to the north are very peculiar 
in appearance : the second stone has an 8i inch draft at top, while the 
lower draft is only i^- inches ; it has ordinary drafts at the sides ; within 



JERUSALEM. i49 

the drafts the surface is well dressed, and there are incised letters. The 
third stone has no upper draft, while the lower draft is i6f; inches wide. 
The side drafts are of ordinary width ; the surface within the drafts is 
well dressed, and there are red paint marks thereon. The fourth stone 
has an upper draft of i2i inches, but no lower draft; the side drafts 
are as usual, and the surface within the drafts is well dressed. The 
remaining stones of this course (5, 6, 7) have drafts of from 2 to i\ inches 
in width. 

Course c. — The third course is 4 feet 2\ inches high, and extends 
about 64 feet to north ; but has not been examined for more than 41 feet. 
It is set back 4I inches on the east side, and \\ inches on the south side. 
It extends about 14 feet along the south side to west, where it is let into 
the abruptly rising rock. The corner stone has no draft at top, and a 
4^ inch draft at bottom. The second stone is cut in a very careful 
manner. The drafts in this course are of the ordinary type ; those on 
the upper side, except near the corner, were not seen. 

Course d. — The fourth course is 3 feet 75 inches high ; it extends 
about 76 feet to north, where it is let into the rock ; to the west it 
extends 18 feet, where it is let into the rock. It is set back 23 inches on 
east side, and \\ inches on south side. The corner stone has a shallow 
9 inch draft on top, and is 1 7 feet 4 inches long on east side. The nine 
following stones have drafts which vary from 3^ to 8 inches at top ; the 
side drafts are of ordinary width, and the bottom drafts were not seen. 
The last stone let into the rock was not seen. 

Course c. — The fifth, course is 3 feet 8 inches in height ; it extends 
about 80 feet to the north, where it is let into the rock, and 19 feet 
5 inches to west, where it is let into the rock. It is set back 4^ inches on 
the east side, and i inch on the south side. The corner stone is 14 feet 
4f inches long on the south side, by 6 feet 6 inches on the east side ; it is 
similar in every respect to the best specimens of stones found at the south- 
east angle above the surface. 

The drafts vary considerably ; they are generally about 2\ to 5^ 
inches on the lower side, and from 3 to 6 inches on the upper side ; 
the upper drafts were not seen beyond 45 feet from the angle. The third 
and eighth stones are very roughly dressed within the drafts. From the 
fact of the red paint marks being found on so many of these stones, 



ISO TIIR SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and from two of these being roughly faced, it is apparent that this portion 
of the wall was not exposed to view. The thirteenth stone at 54 feet 
from the corner has no draft ; it is only 18 inches wide. The face of the 
eleventh stone, on which there are some incised characters, projects 
about J- inch too much, and has been worked a second time over about 
half its surface. y\t 71 feet the set-off on Course d changes from 2 to 
4.1 inches. The course reaches the rock at 76 feet to the north. 

Course b. — The sixth course is 3 feet 6 inches in height ; it extends to 
west on south side for 20 feet (in one long stone), and its western end 
is let into the rock, which covers its upper edge for 18 inches. The 
eastern side was not seen. 

Course a. — The seventh course is 4 feet in height. It was not seen 
at the south-east angle, but two stones were uncovered in the shaft sunk 
to the west of the Ophel wall. They rest on the rock, and have no 
draft. 

Course Z. — The eighth course is, 4 feet 6 inches high. One stone was 
uncovered in the shaft to west of the Ophel wall. It has a 6-inch draft 
at top and bottom, and the face projects 9 inches. This course sets back 
I \ inches. 

Course V. — The ?/////// course is 4 feet high. Two stones were 
partially seen in the shaft west of the Ophel wall. It has ordinary 
drafts, and the faces of the stones are well dressed. The upper portion 
of this course is also seen in the gallery that runs along the tenth 
course (A'). At 64 feet 3 inches north of the south-cast angle, this course is 
reduced 6 inches in height to allow of the tenth course setting into it. 
At 108 feet from the south-east angle this course terminates, and 
courses at a different level, with rough projecting faces, continue the wall. 

Course X. — The tcuth course, 3 feet 8 inches high, runs north for loS 
feet from the south-east angle, where there is a straight joint for at least 
three courses, JF, X, and V, and there is the probability that this break or 
straight joint continues to the surface, there being a similar break in the 
wall immediately above. During the east wind a strong gush of air came 
through this break in Course V into the gallery, but not so in the west 
wind ; this is probably owing to the east wind pressing against the break 
in east wall above, and is strong evidence that this break continues 
throughout. 



JERUSALEM. 



151 



The tenth course was seen from 32 feet north from the south-east angle, 
to 108 feet. The stones have the ordinary marginal drafts. The first 
stone met with has a face dressed with the pick. At 64 feet 3 inches from 
the south-east angle the height of the course increases from 3 feet 8 inches 
to 4 feet 2 inches, by being let down into the Course Y below 6 inches. 
This continues up to loS feet from the south-east angle, where the straight 
joint in the wall occurs. At 70 feet from the corner there is a stone with 
a face which is not well dressed, and the next stone to it has a projecting 
face. At 89 feet 9 inches there is a break of some kind, but it may only 
be caused by unskilful workmanship. The set-off to the south of this 
point is 65 inches, but beyond it the whole Course X sets back 9<V inches 
on l\ and /^/^^projects 2 inches over^Y. Beyond the break at 108 feet, the 
bed course with rough projecting faces is i foot 10 inches above the bed 
of X for 25 feet 8 inches ; beyond this point the course rises again 4 inches, 
and continues 25 feet 7 inches, when the next stone falls 10 inches. The 
northern course of this stone touches the rock at 161 feet 10 inches from 
the south-east angle. 



The Characters on the Stones. 

The characters found on Courses c, d, e, and f, at the south-east angle, 
are cither painted or cut on the stones. The incised characters are cut 




STONE C OF SECOND COURSE OF EASTERN WALL. 

with a tool to a depth of {^ inch. The painted characters, in some instances 
12 inches high, appear to have been put on with a brush. The paint used 



152 THE SURVEY OF UESTEKN PALESTINE. 

is red, probably vermilion, and easily rubbed off with a wet finger. There 
arc a few red splashes here and there, as if the paint had dropped from the 
brush. The general impression from an inspection of the characters is 





INCISED CHARACTERS. 

that they arc the quarry marks, and were painted on before the stones 
were laid in their places. The principal characters are given full size in 
Plates XXI. to XXIII. 

On some of the stones there are no characters visible ; on others, the 
whole of the surface within the draft is occupied by characters. 

In the second course, the second stone has two incised characters, the 
third stone is covered with painting. (See Plates XVIII., XIX., XXII. 
and XXIII. 

In the third course {e), the first stone has one character, the third, 
fourth, and fifth have a few faint red paint marks on them, and the sixth 
stone has an incised mark. 

In the fourth course no marks were seen. 

In the fifth course, nearly every stone has a red paint mark. On the 
first there arc two on the south side, in seven instances there are single 
paint marks at the left-hand top corner. 

These graphiti were examined by the late ]\Ir. Emanuel Dcutsch, 
and the conclusions he came to were as follows : — 

1 . The signs cut or painted were on the stones when they were first 
laid in their present position. 

2. They do not represent any inscription. 

3. They are Phoenician. I consider them to be partly letters, 
partly numerals, and partly special masons' or quarry signs. Some of 
them were recognisable at once as well-known Phcenician characters ; 
others hitherto unknown in Phoenician epigraphy I had the rare satisfac- 
tion of being able to identify on undoubted Phoenician structures in Syria. 



JERUSALEM. 



153 



Generat, Notes. — Soutii-East An'gle. 

A shaft was sunk (commenced 14th November, 1868) at a distance of 
about 20 feet south-east of the south-cast angle. Stone chipping's 
were met with, alternating with layers of fat earth, and in some 
instances rough stones a foot cube. At 53 feet a gallery was driven 
in to Sanctuary wall on level of bed of Course c (2,293 feet), passing 
through two rough masonry walls, one running north and south, 




GALLERY AT SOUTH-EAST CORNER OF SANCTUARY. 



the other cast and west. In the gallery exposing Course c a 
gallery was driven to the east for about 8 feet from the south-east 
angle, and it was ascertained that the rock slopes away at an angle of 
I in 9. Subsequently it was driven for 30 feet, and found to be at an 
angle of 31°. The upper surface of the rock, for a depth of 2 to 3 feet, 
is very soft and decayed ; beneath this is the hard uiczzcJi, on which the 
base course of the wall is built. 

20 



154 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

At 3 feet to the cast of the angle a hole was found scooped out of the 
rock, I foot diameter and i foot deep. On clearing the earth out, a little 
earthenware jar was found, standing upright. 

At 4 feet nDrili of the angle, close to the wall, the rock is cut away in 
the form of a horseshoe or semicircle, 2 feet wide and 2 feet 8 inches deep. 
Dark mould was found in this. 

Upon the soft rock there rests an accumulation of from 8 to lo feet of 
fat mould abounding in potsherds. This mould does not lie close up 




against the Sanctuary wall, but is 12 inches away from it at top, and 
gradually closes in to it. Between it and the wall is a wedge of stone- 
chippings. 

The fat mould slopes to the east at an angle of i in 4. It is quite 
evident that when this wall was built, this 10 feet of mould and pottery, 
and the soft rock also, was cut through, for the purpose of laying the 
foundation-stones on solid rock. The pottery found in the mould is 
broken up into fragments, and no shapes can be recognised. A long 
rusty nail was, however, found. 

The chippings between the wall and the fat mould are in many cases 
rounded, and unlike what would result from stone-dressing, having more 
the appearance of backing used in the walls at the present day in Palestine. 
It is apparent that the stones were finished at the quarries, and not when 
in the wall. 

Above the mould is a layer of stone-chippings, which slope at an angle 



JERUSALEM. iSS 

of I in 3 to the east. At one point, near the corner, tliey slope towards 
the Sanctuary instead of away from it, but this is merely local. At this 
point the chippings are mixed up with some black stuff like decomposed 
or charred wood. 

The rock rises i8 feet in 76 feet to north from the south-east angle, and 
again 17 feet in another 85 feet, giving a total of 35 feet in 161 feet. 
To the west it rises very rapidly, 18 feet in 20 feet; then there is a 
level space ; and it rises steeply to the Great Passage under the Single 
Gate. To the east of the corner it is nearly level for S or 10 feet ; it then 
falls rapidly, at about 30°, to the Kedron valley. 

The pottery and relics found about the south-east angle consisted of 

1. A small jar found in a hole cut in the rock, standing upright as 
though it had been purposely placed there. Dr. Birch considers this jar 
may possibly be of the fourth or fifth century B.C., and to be of Egyptian 
ware in shape. 

2. Fragments of pottery and fat-lamps ; these are considered by 
Mr. Franks 'to be of late date,' not earlier than the second century l.c, 
but it was noticed during the excavations that these fat-lamps were 
always found in the red earth in all quarters of the city, and it is probable 
that they were the earliest type of lamp used in Jerusalem. 

3. A long rusty iron nail, some charred wood, and a layer of broken 
pottery resting on the red earth. Among the pottery were found several 
jar-handles, some of which had well-definecl figures impressed on them, 
resembling in some degree a bird, but believed to represent a winged 
sun or disc, possibly the emblem of the Sun God. 

There are Phcenician characters, similar in shape to those of the 
Moabite stone, on each handle, above and below the wings, and in two 
instances they have been read by Dr. Birch as follows : — 

LeMeLeK ZePHa 

To or of King Zepha. 

LeK SHaT 

King Shat. 

]\I. Ganneau, however, renders these incriptions as — 

MoLoCH ZaPH. 
LoCH SHaT, 

20 — 2 



IS6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and believes them to be names of men, partly composed of the name of 
the God Moloch, like Hannibal. 

Another handle found in ilic same place bears as a potter's mark 
'a cross within a semicircular mark.' 

While such different views can e.xist as to the meaning of these 




characters it is idle to speculate as to their age, or as to the light they 
may shed upon the age of the south-east angle. 

G.XLLERIES IN WESTERN SiDE OF KedRON VaLLEY CELOW THE 

SouTii-E.\ST Angle. 

Three separate attempts were made in 1867 to find the rock at an 
intermediate point between the south-east angle and Kedron valley. A 
gallery, a staircase gallery, and a perpendicular shaft were tried in turn, 
but each failed after working a few feet into the rubbish, which lies at an 
angle of 30°, consisting of stone-chippings, without a particle of earth, 
being in character almost a fluid. 

It was apparent that if the rubbish on the eastern side of the Sanctuary 
existed to any great extent, it would cover the true Kedron valley for 
some distance : and it was found on excavation that the true bed of the 
Kedron is 240 feet to the west of, and 38 feet below, the present bed, 
and that water flows through it during the rainy season. 

A shaft was sunk 305 feet due east of the south-east angle. At a 
depth of 20 feet the rock was found falling to the west ; and at 65 feet, 
or at 240 feet from the Sanctuary wall, the true bed of the Kedron 
was found at level 2,171 feet. 



JERUSALEM. 



157 



A masonry wall 5 feet thick was found on the west side of the true bed. 
For the first 60 feet from the Kedron bed there is a gentle ascent, 
west ; and here some roughly rounded flints (pot-boilers ?) and whorls 
were found on the rock. The rock now rises rapidly, west, and loose 
shingle was encountered, which, when it got in motion, carried all before 



III \iS>" 



ir^~y°^7^ ^ 




it to the bottom of the gallery. At 160 feet from the entrance the air 
became very impure, but on going a little further a rushing noise was 
heard, which proved to be a stream of pure air circulating through some 
rift in the soil. Masonry walls were now encountered, apparently for 
supporting terraces along the Kedron valley. 

The rock now rose so rapidly (at 30") that further advance was im- 
possible, and the v/ork was abandoned at 130 feet from the Sanctuary 
wall. (See Plate X.). 



The Opiiel Wall at the South-East Angle of Sanxtuary. 

The wall of Ophel, abutting on the south wall of the Sanctuary at the 
south-east angle, was probably about 12 feet 6 inches wide at the top, and 
is about 15 feet wide at the bottom. Its faces are perpendicular. At 
the south-east angle it is found at 4 feet from the surface (level 2,352 feet), 
and it is here 18 inches in advance of the Sanctuary wall. At the level of 
2,324 it Is flush with the Sanctuary wall, and at its foot it is probably 
about 2 feet 6 inches behind it, but this has not been ascertained. 

It was examined to a depth of 30 feet on the western side, close to the 
south-east angle. The top course is drafted, and Is 3 feet 8 inches In 



I S8 THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

height, ;uk1 serves as a co[)Ing. For the next 26 feet the stones are 
squared and well dressed, in courses averaging i foot 9 inches in height ; 
they arc in some instances of malaki, and in others of mezzch. Below 
30 feet, at a level of 2,322 feet, there is a set-off of 8 inches, and the wall 
is built of rubble from its foundations. 

It is probable that when this wall was built the old Sanctuary wall had 
been in existence many years, and the dddris had filled up the valley at 
this i)oint to ;■. height of 44 feet. This is apparent from the rough rubble- 
work up to a height of 44 feet from the rock, and from the fact that the 
foundations of the wall are not on the rock, but on the hard layer of clay 
or fat earth resting on the rock about level with Course Z. 



South Wall of the Sanctuary. — Glnkral Aspect. 

The south wall is 922 feet in length on the level of the Noble Sanctuary, 
and is broken into three nearly equal sections by the Double and Triple 
Gates. The former is 330 feet from the south-west angle ; the older 
portion of the latter is 300 feet from the south-east angle. 

The present surface of the ground runs nearly at a level (2,380 feet) 
from the south-west angle to the sill of the Triple Gate ; it then shelves 
down 22 feet to the south-east angle. The natural features of the rock on 
which the south wall is built present a very different appearance, being 
covered up at the south-east angle and in the valley at 90 feet from 
the south-west angle, with accumulation of rubbish to a depth of about 
80 feet, and cropping up to the surface at the Triple Gate. The highest 
point of the rock at the Triple Gate, about 2 feet below the sill, is 
2,378 feet, from whence it falls eastward about 100 feet in 300 feet, to 
the south-east angle, where the level is 2,280 feet. It continues with a 
fall of 109 feet in 240 feet to the true bed of the Kedron valley (2,171 
feet), which is thus 209 feet below the sill of the Triple Gate. The 
rubbish has accumulated in the Kedron valley to a depth of ico feet, 
covering over the true bed. 

Towards the west of the Triple Gate, to a point 90 feet from the 
south-west angle, in a distance of about 500 feet, the rock falls about 90 feet 
to the bed of the Tyropoeon valley (2,290 feet), and from this point to the 



JERUSALEM. 159 

south-west angle there is a rise of about 35 feet in 90 feet. At the 
Double Gate the rock is probably about 36 feet below the sill. The 
south wall was examined at nine separate points, and there is no doubt 
that it is one continuous wall, and that the courses of stone are drafted 
from the rock, and are in situ ; but portions were built at different epochs, 
the portion at the south-west angle as far as the Double Gate appearing 
less ancient than the remainder. It is built up to Course N, a height of 
55 feet from the valley bed, with drafted stones with rough projecting faces, 
and at this level there is the indication of a pavement stretching from the 
south-west angle to the Double Gate, the sill of which is 36 feet above 
the rock. 

These roughly faced stones run out under the Double Gate. In the 
remainder of the wall the faces of the stones arc well worked from the 
foundation course. It has been suggested by Colonel Wilson that there 
may be a break in the wall at the Single Gate at about 108 feet from the 
south-east angle. 

As the rock is found at the sill of the Triple Gate, it follows that 
there is no course running through from end to end below that level. 
The first course has its bed on a level with the sill of the Triple Gate ; 
it is nearly double the height of the other courses in the Sanctuary wall, 
being from 5 feet 10 inches to 6 feet in height. 

The portion of the Sanctuary wall between the south-east angle and 
the Double Gate at present lies wholly outside the city wall. It has 
one distinguishing feature, viz., the Great Course, of drafted stones, 
which extends with some lacnna; from the south-east ande to the 
Double Gate. There are no drafted stones to be found above the Great 
Course except at the south-east angle. Here there are seven courses, 
which break down rapidly to the west. The ancient masonry at the 
angle after the destruction of Herod's Temple thus rose like a turret 
before the more modern ashlar was built up. 

This is probably the so-called ' Pinnacle of the Temple ' spoken of by 
the Bordeaux Pilgrim and others. 

The remainder of the wall above the Great Course is composed of 
masonry of various ages. 



.i6o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'riiK Great Course (See Plates XX. and XXIV.). 

The average height of drafted stones in the Sanctuary wall is from 

3 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 9 inches ; the Great Course measures from 5 feet 
10 inches to 6 feet in height. It is unbroken between the Double and 
Triple Gates ; from thence to the Single Gate there is one stone in situ, 
and it is found again for 70 feet at the south-east angle; it extends 
24 feet from the south-east angle on east side. Its bed is on a level with 
the sill of the Triple Gate and the floor of Solomon's Stables, and is 
about I foot above the highest part of the rock where cut by the south 
front at the Triple Gate ; consequently it is the first course on this front 
that can run uninterruptedly from east to west. It extends for 600 feet 
from the south-east angle, but is not to be found to the west of the 
Double Gate. At the south-cast angle the corner stone of this course 
weighs over one hundred tons, and though not the longest, is the heaviest 
stone visible in the Sanctuary wall. 

The bed of this course falls about 2 feet from the Triple Gate to 
the south-east angle ; this may have been purposely arranged on 
account of the peculiar nature of the ground, to avoid offending the 
eye, the rock having a fall in this distance of 90 feet from west to 
east. 

Were the wall of one construction, the course should be found running 
throujrh to south-west ansfle, but no sIltus of it could be found west of the 
Double Gate. At the two shafts near the Double Gate, the stones at 
the level of this course are so worn that it is uncertain whether they 
were drafted, and they consequently throw no light on the subject ; but 
at the south-west angle and in the two shafts to east of it, the drafted 
stones are found at a higher level than the Great Course, and yet there 
are no signs of the Great Course itself. At the south-west angle itself 
there is a stone (Course D) 38 feet 9 inches long, whose bed is about 

4 feet above the bed of the Great Course, but its height is little more 
than half, from 3 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 6 inches, and it is not of so fine 
a description of masonry. (Plate XXVIII.) 

On the west side of the Triple Gate the stone of the Great Course 
has a moulding. 



JERUSALEM. i6i 



Masonry above the Surface eelow the Great Course. 

Below the Great Course all the stones are drafted similar to those at 
the Wailing Place. Six of these courses are to be seen at the south-east 
angle. Those of the softer malaki beds are very much worn, while 
those of hard viezzeh are beautifully preserved. 

There are thus at the south-east angle fourteen courses of drafted 
stone visible, which, from the upward slope of the ground and the breaking 
down of the stones from above, gradually lessen in number until at the 
Single Gate, 105 feet from the south-east angle, only the Great Course is 
visible. 

The Single Gate (Plates XX. and XXIV.). 

This is a closed entrance with pointed arch of modern construction, 
leading to Solomon's Stables. Its sill is about 3 feet 9 inches below the 
level of the floor of the vaults. It is situated about 105 feet to west of 
south-east angle. 

Beneath the surface, from the south-east angle, which has been des- 
cribed (page 153), the masonry of the wall was examined for 3 courses, 
in search of any opening under the large aisle of Solomon's Stables. 



The Great Passage. 

This was discovered October iS, 1867, at a distance of loS feet from 
the south-east angle, and immediately beneath the Single Gate. The top 
of this passage is on level (2,360) with the bed of course K, and is about 
19 feet below the floor of Solomon Stables, or 60 feet below the level of 
the Sanctuary. It is 69 feet long, 3 feet wide, and is at right angles to 
the south wall. 

It was nearly full of rubbish ; but its height is probably from 6 feet at 
the northern end to 14 feet at the entrance. It lies under one of the aisles 
of Solomon's Stables. At the entrance the floor appears to be about 5 
feet above the rock, and at the northern end the rock, which rises in that 
direction, is probably the floor. 

21 



i62 THE SURVEY OF UESTERN PALESTINE. 

There are two entrances, one over on the other, with a course of stone {M) 
between ; they arc 2 feet wide. The upper opening is the height of the 
course L ; the lower opening is cut out of courses N and O, and is about 
6 feet high. At 7 feet within the entrance there are indications of there 
having been a metal gate. A check 10 inches square, and of the same 
depth, is cut in one of the roof stones, and there is the mark of abrasion on 
one of the side stones, as though a metal gate has swung against it. 

On both sides the stones are of large size : one of them is 1 5 feet long; 
they are nearly all drafted, and are beautifully worked, but some of them 
are only hammer dressed. The roof is made of larger marginal drafted 
stones, laid horizontally on the side walls. At a distance of 69 feet the 
roof stones disappear, and the passage probably leads into a chamber ; it 
is here closed with broken stones and rubbish, and appear to have been 
filled up before the piers of the stables were built. On the east side there 
is a passage, blocked up. This was cleared out for 9 feet, but had to be 
abandoned for fear of interferin» with the substructure of the vaults above. 
A shaft leading upwards was here found. The upper course is 3 feet in 
height, and at the bottom, on each side, are the remains of a small aque- 
duct, jutting out from the wall, made of dark cement. 

There is a channel sunk in the floor, about 1 2 Inches wide and deep. 

It has been suggested that the east side of this passage may possibly 
have been the west side of an outlying tower, but it is to be remarked that 
the west side of this passage is quite as substantial and well built as the 
east side. There is also no reason for supposing that any straight joint 
occurs in the Sanctuary wall at this passage. 

It is useless at present to speculate on the subject in a permanent 
record ; all that we know for certain is that the passage was for the exit 
of some liquid — whether for water, sewage, or for the flow from the altar 
cannot be determined. 

In order to reach this passage, the existence of which was surmised, a 
shaft was commenced 37 feet south of the gate, and at 22 feet a slab was 
found drafted on its under face ; it is supposed to have covered a passage 
from the Great Passa<^e. This shaft had to be abandoned on account of 
the looseness of the soil. 

A shaft was then sunk at 14 feet from the Single Gate; rock was 
found at 34 feet 6 inches ; the surface rugged. 



JERUSALEM. 163 

For the first 20 feet there were loose stones and rubbish, then for 
10 feet the soil was very firm, of a dark-brown colour. Fragments of 
dressed stones of malaki and viezzeh, pieces of marble, and rough stones 
were found. 

The shaft was filled up for 1 1 feet, and a gallery driven northwards, 
when the Great Passage was discovered. 

There was great danger to the workmen in getting to this passage, on 
account of the loose character of the earth and rubbish; consequently 
measurement could not easily be taken at the entrance, though the wall 
could be seen. There was no appearance either above or below of any 
straight join in the east wall, but there was the appearance of the wall 
being continuous. 

This shaft was kept open for some weeks in case the Committee of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund should require any further information on 
the subject. 

Solomon's Stables. 

These vaults are in part ancient and in part a reconstruction, probably 
about the time of Justinian. The floor is somewhat above the bed of the 
Great Course, so that, except at the south-east angle, the whole of the 
outside wall enclosing these vaults is of later date than the epoch of 
drafted stones. 

The name of Solomon's Stables is of mediceval origin ; the Moslems' 
call them El Masjid el Kadim (The Old Mosque). They were used as 
stables by the Crusaders, and the holes in the piers by which the horses 
were fastened may still be seen. 

Exclusive of the double tunnel of the Triple Gate there are 1 3 rows 
of vaults of a variety of spans, from 1 1 feet to 25 feet east and west ; 
north and south the spans average 1 1 feet 6 inches. 

The vaults sjalay out from south to north, on account oi the south-east 
angle being more than a right angle. 

In the south-east angle are the remains of some rough rubble work 
attached to the ancient wall, and these appear to be the remains of a 
massive semicircular arch. 

The piers of the vaults are made out of old material, from stones 

21 — 2 



1 64 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

that probably at one time formed part of the south wall ; nearly all these 
piers have drafted margins on one side ; in some cases on four sides, and 
in others on two. These vaults extend from the south-east angle to the 
Triple Gate, on the south side, and for about 170 feet to north on the east 
side. 

It is surmised that Solomon's Palace occupied this site ; but this is a 
matter of speculation. 

The Triplic Gate and Double Tunnel (Plate XXV.). 

This gate is generally ascribed to the time of Justinian, and opens into 
the Stables of Solomon ; it formerly was the entrance to a double tunnel 
similar to that at the Double Gate. (See Plate V.) 

The gateways of the Triple Gateway are each 13 feet wide, with 
piers 6 feet wide. The outer arches are semicircular, but inside they 
are elliptical, and have a greater span, so that the doors might fold back 
llush with the piers. 

At the base of the gateway are remains of the ancient entrance. 

The Great Course forms a portion of the western jamb, and has a sort 
of architrave moulding. On the face of this stone some modern Hebrew 
characters can be traced. 

The west wall of the tunnel is formed of piers 4 feet thick and 10 feet 
6 inches apart, with semicircular arches thrown over, on which rests the 
vault covering the passage. Between the piers rough walls of ashlar are 
built, forming recesses 18 inches deep. This portion appears to be of the 
same date as the Triple Gate and vaults of Solomon's Stables. 

At about 192 feet from the south Sanctuary wall, the piers and arches 
terminate, and the wall is built up of ashlar very irregular in size, here 
and there a stone of considerable size being worked in, and on one of 
these false joints are cut. 

The ramp rises at about i in 12, which is the rise of the ramp 
at the Double Gate. It is cut into the rock in parts to a depth of 
3 feet. At the sill of the gate it is 38 feet below the level of the 
Sanctuary. 

At 192 feet from the south wall the original Double Tunnel ter- 
minates, and it is continued with a modern arch and wall. 



JERUSALEM. 165 

There is nothing whatever in this wall that can give it the slightest 
pretension to be considered as the east wall of the Temple Enclosure of 
Herod, and the remains of engaged columns in siin assist in proving that 
it was an entrance to the Sanctuary, with a ramp like that at the Double 
Gate. 

There are remains of engaged columns in the gateway similar to some 
which have been found deep down in the excavations at the south-east 
angle, among the debris. On either side in the piers of the western arch 
of the Triple Gate are engaged columns similar to that in the wall. The 
lowest course only remains, and they have no base mouldings. 

There is a lintel, which may have formed part of the old gateway, 
forming part of one of the piers in Solomon's Stables. 

The width of the Double Tunnel at the Triple Gate is 39 feet, while 
that at the Double Gate is 41 feet ; probably the passages may have been 
17 feet wide. The piers added in recent times have reduced these 
passages to about 14 feet each. 

These two double tunnels in the south wall, at the Double and Triple 
Gates, thus correspond to each other in their length, width, and slope 
of ramp ; and though they may not have been built at the same time, 
they probably both led up to the Sanctuary level. That at the Triple 
Gate, on the east, is probably the most ancient. The sill of each is on 
the same level. 



Passages Under the Triple Gate (Plate V.). 

These passages are evidently overflow canals and inspection passages 
connected with the various tanks of the Sanctuary, and were arranged so 
that the water might be drawn off at different levels. It is obvious that 
they could not have been used for carrying off the blood, etc., from the 
altar, as the tanks in connection with them are on a considerably lower 
level. They may have been used for flushing the blood channel, which 
may possibly be the Great Passage below the Single Gate. 

The passages were blocked up to the north by walls of hard old 
masonry. On removing these, they were found to communicate with 
Tanks X. and XI., and probably with the Great Sea. They were cleared 



1 66 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIXE. 

out for 60 feet to the north in the tunnel, Ixil the work was stopped by 
the Pacha. 

There arc two of these sets of passages — the upper and the loiocr. 

The upper passage lies to the east, and is entirely rock-hewn until it 
leaves the Triple Gate. It is a continuation of the rock-hewn overflow 
passage from Tank XL, and is also connected with Tank X. It passes 
under the centre arch of the Triple Gate, and then turns sharply round to 
the cast until opposite the cast pier of the gate, when it turns again to the 
south-west in a zigzag course. This passage may have been for inspecting 
the tanks ; it does not appear to have been a water-channel. To the 
south of the Sanctuary wall this passage is roofed with flat stones. It 
passes the foundations of some old building, the stones of which are 
dressed without marginal drafts. The sides of the passage rest on the 
rock. The floor is about 9 feet below the surface at the Triple Gate. 

The western passage is double, the branches joining a few feet south 
of the Triple Gate. The western branch, coming from Tank X., is 3 feet 
6 inches wide, and has a drain or water-channel sunk in its floor, with a 
step on each side, as in the old aqueduct from Solomon's Pools found near 
the Coenaculum. It is 19 feet below the surface of the ground. The 
eastern branch comes from just under the floor-line of the tunnel, at the 
entrance to Tank X., and descends very rapidly to a depth of 19 feet, 
when it meets with the western branch. Here there is an old doorway, 
W'hich indicates that it was a passage, and not a water-channel. These 
passages have not been explored to the south. 



The Double Gate. 

This Gate has a twin passage, or tunnel, leading from the level 
2,380 feet by a ramp up to the Sanctuary above ; it probably is one of the 
Huldah Gates mentioned in the Talmud, and is similar to the double 
passage at the Triple Gate. The double entrance is partially covered by 
the Khatuniyeh, but about 6 feet of its eastern side is exposed (vide 
photograph). The pier separating the passages can be partially seen in 
Khatuniyeh vaults. The pier is 6 feet wide, and the passages 18 feet, and 
correspond to the other three openings in the Sanctuary wall, at the Triple 
Gate, Barclay's Gate, and that near Bab al Mathara. The openings are 



JERUSALEM. 167 

covered by a lintel, with relieving arch and cornice. Both the pier and 
the lintel have marginal drafts, but the general appearance of the entrance 
leads to the conclusion that it is a reconstruction out of old material 
of comparatively recent date. 

In the Sanctuary wall at this point is the Antonine inscription, upside 
down." 

The sill of the gate is on a level with that of the Triple Gate, and is 
estimated to be 36 feet above the rock. 

This double tunnel at the present extends for 260 feet under the Aksa 
before it opens on to the Sanctuary, but from the drains and ducts found 
on the surface, 7tndcr and alongside the present Aksa, and from the fact 
of the masonry of the tunnel changing at 190 feet, it is evident that this 
tunnel originally opened into the Sanctuary at 190 feet from the south wall. 
The same was found with the double tunnel leading from the Triple 
Gate. 

In building the Aksa Mosque it was necessary to extend the passage 
to 260 feet, and to cut down a portion of the ramp to a more gende slope 
to prevent its coming to the surface too soon. The western portion of the 
passage was also filled up on the north, to give room for a heavy pier of 
masonry supporting the Mosque. There is a break in the arch of the 
eastern passage just where the western terminates, and the ramp at that 
point also changes its inclination. 

The change in the inclination of the ramp necessitated the cutting away 
of the duct to the Well of the Leaf. 

The additions to this vault and to that of the Triple Gate appear 
to be described by Procopius in his account of the erection of the Mary 
Church of Justinian, on the foundations of which the present Aksa 
Mosque is supposed to be built. 



Entrance to the Tomb of Aaron's Sons, at South End of 
Double Passage below the Aksa. 

Within this gate the stones were removed, and the passage through 
the wall e.xamined. It is 10 feet 6 inches thick, and rough inside, and is 

* See paper on inscriptions. 



i68 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

backed up with earth. There was no appearance of any series of vaults 
or buildings to the west of this passage. 



Standing Place of Elias, east side of Double Gate. 

Tlie end of the passage or doorway was broken through ; it is 1 8 inches 
thick. Behind is a mass of loose rubbish, after the removal of a quantity 
of which it was apparent that there was only made earth beyond. 

It is thus clc;ar that the double tunnel is by itself in the made earth, 
and is not a portion of any series of vaults similar to those at the south- 
east angle. It is possible, however, that at the south-west angle there 
may be vaults in continuation of Cistern XX. 



Masonry from the Double Gate to the Soutii-West Angle 

above Ground. 

About the Double Gate itself drafted stones are to be seen ; but 
beyond it, to a point about 67 feet from the south-west angle, only large 
stones with plain-dressed faces are to be found. These stones arc of 
about the same height as the drafted stones, and the top of the highest 
course is on the same level as the top of the highest drafted stone at the 
south-west angle — 2,400 feet. 

Some of the stones are upwards of 4 feet in height ; they are not laid 
very skilfully, and the lines of the horizontal joints have a wavy appear- 
ance ; and in one case a course 4 feet high at one end gradually runs out 
in 200 feet to a height of 3 feet 4 inches. This, however, is not a feature 
confined to this hewn or squared work, as it frequently occurs in the 
drafted stones, and may be seen at the south-west angle. The corner- 
stone, 38 feet 9 inches long, is 3 feet 3 inches high at the northern end, 
and 3 feet 6 inches at the south-west angle. 

The jointing also of the squared stones is not well arranged, the joints 
acting as weepers, and the wall being much disfigured by the deposit of 
lime on it. 

The upper portion of the wall, above the squared and drafted stones, 
is constructed with mediaeval masonry of small stones with rough pro- 
jecting faces. 



JERUSALEM. 169 

Masonry at the Double Gate relow the Surface (Plate XXVII). 

Shaft C 21 was sunk 213 feet from the south-west angle, close to the 
platform of the Double Gate. Commenced 17th June, 1869. 

The level of ground was about 2,378. Fifteen courses of stone were 
exposed, from G to U, the latter being bedded in the rock at level 
2,322 feet 4 inches. The distance from surface to rock was 54 feet 
10 inches. 

The courses vary in height from 3 feet 4J inches to 4 feet. The 
eight lower courses {N to U) have marginal drafts, with rough projecting 
faces. 

The first two courses {G and H) below the surface are so much worn 
that it is not certain that they have marginal drafts ; /andyare also much 
worn, but the drafts can be seen. On K no drafts can be seen — It is very 
much worn ; L and ]M are worn, but the drafts are quite conspicuous. 

Below this the stones have rough faces ; but the drafts are in excellent 
preservation, having never been exposed to the weather since the wall 
was built. 

At 3 feet 6 inches an old wall was encountered butting on to the 
Sanctuary wall, the mortar of which appeared to have been mixed with oil 
to harden it. It was passed at 6 feet, and then the soil was found to be 
composed of lime and small stones. 

At a depth of 25 feet, about on a level with the stones with rough pro- 
jecting faces, some large stones were met with, which continued to 36 feet. 
From this to the rock the soil was composed of small stones and chippings 
mixed with earth. The rock at the bottom appeared to fall to the west. 



Masonry at 90 feet East of South-West Angle. 

Shaft C 19 was sunk 90 feet east of south-west angle. It was com- 
menced in October, 1867. 

The level of the ground was 2,377 feet. Twenty-four courses were 
exposed, varying from 3 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 9 inches in height ; from 
G to d, 87 feet 6 inches. 

The foundation-stone {d) is bedded in the rock at the bottom of the 



170 TJfE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Tyropoeon Valley ; it has a marginal draft, and a smooth face finely 
dressed. 

The stones of the fourteen next courses, from P to c, have finely 
worked marginal drafts from 4 to 6 inches wide, and rough faces — in 
many cases as much as 18 inches beyond the drafts — as though they had 
not been touched after leaving the quarries. 

The next course {O) has a face projecting 3 inches beyond the draft ; 
and the next course {N) has a roughly dressed face. 

The four next courses {J to L) are similar to those at the Wailing 
Place, but much worn ; and the remainder above are pkiin-drcsscd, without 
marginal drafts. 

The rough-faced stones are in an excellent state of preservation, 
having never been exposed to the weather since the wall was built. The 
joints are hardly discernible, and so close that the blade of a knife can 
scarcely be thrust in between them. Each course is set back about i inch, 
to give the wall a batter. 

At 12 feet 6 inches from the surface is a pavement of inezzeh, well 
polished (probably from wear), the stones about 12 inches by 15 inches. 
Beneath this, the shaft passed through 16 feet of concrete of stones, 
bricks, and mortar. In this, at a depth of 22 feet, the signet-stone of 
' Haggai, the son of Shebaniah,' was found, the name engraved in 
Hebrew of the transition period, supposed to be at least as old as 
the time of the Maccabees. 

For 5 feet, to a depth of 33 feet 6 inches, loose stones and shingle 
were met with. Here the rough projecting stones commence. Below this 
level a wall was found perpendicular to the Sanctuary wall, and reaching 
down to the rock, built of rubble, the stones about 2 feet cube. The shaft 
was continued to the east of this wall, and large stones were met with, 
measuring 3 feet by 2 feet 6 inches by 2 feet. 

At 79 feet the covering-stone of a passage running south was reached, 
the bottom 6 feet lower down, and the rock at 87 feet 6 inches (level 
2,289 ^^^^ 8 inches). The passage is 4 feet high, 2 feet wide, built of 
rubble masonry, with llat covering-stones. It is similar to that at the 
Triple Gate, but not so carefully constructed. 

The passage was cleared out for 600 feet, and appears to follow the 
bed of the Tyropoeon valley, the rock being found to rise on either side. 



JERUSALEM. 171 

At 350 feet from the Sanctuary wall a narrow branch gallery runs in from 
the east. 

This passage appears to have existed previous to the building of the 
Sanctuary wall, and to have been cut in two by it. It appears to have no 
communication now with any drain from the north. 



Masonry at 64 feet 6 inches East of the Soutii-West Angle. 

This shaft (C 20) was commenced loth June, 1869, immediately under 
the Sanctuary wall, at the Bench Mark near the point where the drafted 
stones break off abruptly. Surface of ground, 2,380 feet 4 inches. 

Nine courses (from F to N) were exposed, varying in height from 
3 feet 4 inches to 3 feet 1 1 inches. The three first courses are much 
worn ; those from I \.o N well preserved. The rough-faced projecting 
stones commenced at A^. 

Small stones and dry earth were found to a depth of 1 1 feet ; at a 
depth of 1 5 feet 6 inches was a rough pavement set in lime, of stones 
from 12 to 14 inches square, and about 9 to 12 inches deep. 

Below the pavement the soil was good. On finding at a depth of 
29 feet 6 inches that the stones with rough projecting faces commenced 
with Course N, the shaft was closed. 



Masonry in Shaft at South-west Angle, South Side. 

Shaft C 22 commenced 30th June, 1869. Level of soil, 2,384 feet. 
Thirteen courses from 3 feet 4 inches to 4 feet in height were exposed 
from Course D to P. The stones with rough projecting faces com- 
menced at P and the shaft was not sunk deeper. A gallery at Course P 
was driven round the south-west angle to the west side, and two stones in 
that corner examined in order to ascertain whether the stones with rouofh 
faces continued to west. At the end of this gallery to west a shaft was. 
sunk, and it was ascertained that the next course (0 had also a rough 
projecting face. 

The stones below the first pavement from K to P are well preserved. 
In course/ is a round hole 5 inches in diameter and 10 inches deep. 

22 — 2 



172 THE SURVE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Loose stones and chippings were found to about i6 feet in depth, 
then large rough stones 3 feet by 18 inches. 

At 23 feet 10 inches a pavement was met with near the top of Course 
A' below the hole in Course/. At 28 feet the shaft came on some early 
Christian lamps, one with a Greek inscription. 

The soil, which below the pavement had been good, now changed to 
rough stones, and the shaft was continued with difficulty to a depth of 
38 feet 4 inches, when a pavenicnl of \(jry large stones was met with, in 
an e.xcellcnt state of preservation ; it is 1 8 inches in depth. Below the 
pa\-ement the drafted stones with rough projecting faces were found at 
a depth of 42 feet 4 inches, the rubbish here being composed of large 
rough stones. 

TiiK South Wall irom Double G.vte to Soutii-West Angle. 

From these excavations it is clear that this section of the wall is com- 
posed of stones with rough projecting faces up to the level 2,350 feet, 
except at the south-west angle, when they only reach up to 2,343-5 fc<^t. 
The two courses between these two levels have not such projecting faces 
as those below. From here up to level 2,366'5 feet, there are four courses, 
similar to those at the Wailing Place, except for about 60 feet at the south- 
west angle, where there arc ten more courses rising to 2,402 feet, so that 
more than 36 feet of the old masonry has evidently been overturned be- 
tween the Double Gate and south-west angle, and been replaced by stones 
with plain dressed faces of nearly similar size to the drafted stones. 

The Pavements. 

It would appear thai the upper pavement extends from Wilson's Arch 
round to the Double Gale ; it is about 23 feet below the present surface, 
and is nearly on a level with the sill of Barclay's Gate and with the 
pavement discovered in the shaft under Wilson's Arch. It has been found 
to extend round the south-west angle to east for at least 90 feet, and it is 
possible that it may be the roadway leading under Wilson's Arch to 
the Dung Gate, spoken of in the Citez de Jherusalem. 

A similar road under Wilson's Arch to the Dung Gate is to be seen 



JERUSALEM. 173 

depicted on the plan of Jerusalem of the twelfth century. Smith's ' Biblical 
Dictionary,' art. Jerusalem. Underneath this pavement was the pottery 
ascribed to the fourth and fifth century, and if so, we must suppose this 
pavement to have been made after that date. 

The lower pavement is apparently a portion of that found running up 
from Robinson's Arch, past Barclay's Gate, which existed at the time of 
the fall of Jerusalem, after the siege by Titus ; it is possible it may be the 
marble pavement laid down by Herod Agrippa. It appears that it may 
have been carried under the ramp at Barclay's Gate, through an arch 
which there is reason to suppose still exists there, similar to, but smaller 
than, Robinson's Arch. 

The filling-in of the ground about the wall up to the level of the top 
of the courses of stone with rough projecting faces appears to be exactly 
in accordance with the account of Josephus (Bib. v. v. i). ' The lowest part 
of this was erected to the height of 300 cubits, and in some places more, 
yet did not the entire depth of the foundation appear, for they brought 
earth and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make them on a level 
with the narrow streets of the city.' Whether the valley had partially 
begun to fill up, or whether the whole of the soil was brought, is now the 
only question that needs clearing up, it being generally admitted that the 
roughly faced stones were never exposed to view. 

The Tyropceon Bridge at South-West Angle of Sanxtuary. 

The masonry at the south-west angle of the Sanctuary is now allowed 
by all classes of controversialists to be of the Herodian period. It 
extends as far as Barclay's Gate on the east side and as far as the 
Double Gate on the south side ; beyond these points there is a change. 

The peculiarity of this portion of the Sanctuary wall is that it is 
built with drafted stones with roiigh projecting faces up to a certain height 
(Course P), whereas at the south-east angle, and from Barclay's Gate to 
the Wailing Place, the drafted stones have their faces nicely worked 
throughout the wall from the foundation. 

The remains of a pavement have been found, running round the wall 
at the height of the termination of the drafted stones with rough faces, 
and the inference to be drawn is that this portion of the wall is of 



174 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTEXE. 

a construction later tlian the portions above mentioned ; that is to say, 
that the portions about the Wailing Place and south-east angle were buik 
before the time of King Herod, and that the south-west angle was the 
extension by King Herod. 

The Sanctuary wall is now covered up by an accumulation of soil at the 
south-west angle to about the level 2,388 feet, and above this level several 
courses of drafted masonry are visible. At the present level of the ground 
is to be seen the longest stone that has yet been found in the wall. 
It measures 38 feet 9 inches from the south-west angle to the com- 
mencement of Robinson's Arch; it is 3 feet 4 inches high, and 10 feet 
thick, and weighs about 80 tons ; it is about 62 feet above the foundation 
of the wall. 

Above this stone there are on the south side four courses, and on 
the west side two courses of drafted stones yet remaining in the wall. 
This masonry, as may be seen from the photograph, is similar, but not 
superior, to that at the Wailing Place. The south-west angle is a right 
angle. 

Above these drafted stones are ten courses of small squared plain 
dressed stones, without marginal drafts, averaging i foot 10 inches in 
height, similar to those in the south wall, east of Double Gate, and to those 
in the west wall at liarclay's Gate. They are generally considered to be 
late Byzantine. (Plate XXYHI.) 

At about 75 feet from the south-west angle, on the south side, the four 
upper courses of drafted stones cease and their place is occupied by 
large squared plain stones, without marginal drafts^ of about 3 feet 
6 inches in height, similar to those at the Wailing Place. Above these 
again are the small squared stones with smooth faces. At about the 
level of the Sanctuary the wall is built of small drafted stones with 
rough projecting faces, similar to those in a portion of the Citadel. 
(Plate XXVII.) 

In the west wall, about 50 feet from the south-west angle over 
Robinson's Arch, there is an abrupt change in the style of masonry. 
The wall is built of small stones cut out of old material ; beyond the arch 
the small stones without drafts again appear in the lower portion of 
the wall. There is thus evidence of five distinct periods of construction, 
which probably succeeded each other in the following order : 



JERUSALEM. 175 

1. The large stones with marginal drafts. Epoch from Solomon to 
Herod Agrippa. 

2. The large plain dressed stones, from Hadrian to Justinian. 

3. The medium plain dressed stones, sixth to eighth centuries. 

4. The small stones with marginal drafts and projecting faces, ninth 
to twelfth centuries. 

5. Small stones of various description, recent. (Plate XXVIII.) 

At 39 feet from the south-west angle on the west side are the remains 
of the springing of an ancient arch, first discovered by Dr. Robinson, and 
so called Robinson's Arch. The three first stones, forming the springing 
and being portion of the wall, are all that now remain of the arch above 
the surface of the ground. They are of soft iiialaki, are much worn, but 
yet the curve of the intrados is quite apparent. This line of springing 
extends for 50 feet at a level of 2387"5 feet. Below this the course 
has an off-set of i foot 3 inches, and it has been suggested that this 
is a pier extending to the foundation. It is probable, however, that the 
next course again sets in in line with the Sanctuary wall, as is the case 
with a similar set-out under the arch-stone at the south-east ang-le. 

It seems to be a matter for speculation as to why the arch-stones of a 
bridge should be of soft inalaki, when the adjoining stones in the wall are 
of hard misses. These arch-stones are about 4 feet in height, and do not 
appear to be a portion of the original wall. From the arch up to Barclay's 
Gateway the Sanctuary wall above the surface of the ground is made up 
of small stones squared and drafted, and none of the ancient masonry is to 
be seen. 

West Sanctuary Wall below Ground. 

The wall was seen at the south-west angle (described in speaking of the 
south wall) to a depth of 48 feet to Course P, where a gallery was driven 
round the angle to a distance of 10 feet along the west wall, where these 
stones were found to have rough projecting faces. The wall was seen in 
several places above the pavement in a drain reaching as far as Barclay's 
Gate, running along the wall at a level. Here it was found to be similar 
to the wall at the Wailing Place. (Plates XI I. and XXVI II.) 

Again the wall was seen at several points beloiv the pavement, and the 
stones were found to have rough projecting faces. It was seen in a 



176 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

gallery immediately below the pavement under the arch, and at the foun- 
dation at three points, at one 55 feet north of the arch, and in a passage 
a little south of the arch, where the same rough faces were seen. It is 
thus certain that below the level of the pavement (at Course P) the stones 
have rough projecting faces, while those; above the pavement are similar 
to those at the Wailing Place. There are si.x courses below the pave- 
ment and twelve courses above to the surface of the ground. They 
average 3 feet 4 inches to 4 feet in height, and give a general height from 
the ground to the rock of about 62 feet. The excavations below the 
surface proved that the Sanctuary wall extended in an unbroken line 
from the south-west angle to Barclay's Gate. 

The wall is here built over the western side of the valley. 
(Plate VII.) No excavations were permitted from the surface close to 
the Sanctuary wall on the west side, but early one morning three courses 
were uncovered near the southern side of the arch. 



Robinson's Akcii and the Pier. 

The arch as it is now seen in the west wall extends for 50 feet, and 
the span is a little over 41 feet 6 inches at the pavement; probably at 
the surface under the springing the span may have been 43 or 44 feet, 
allowing a batter both for the wall and pier. 

The pier is 5 1 feet 6 inches in length, so that there thus appears to 
have been a batter on the ends of the pier of 9 inches, as the width of 
the arch is 50 feet. The pier rests on the rock at 42 feet below the 
spring of the arch at level 2,345 feet, and is 20 feet above the base of 
the Sanctuary wall, and is above the pavement. It is 12 feet 2 inches 
thick, and constructed of long drafted stones of hard mezzeh, similar to 
those in the wall above the pavement, one being over 13 feet in length 
and weighing ten tons. 

Only about half the bulk of the pier is occupied by stone, there being 
a hollow space 5 feet wide in the interior, and the eastern side being 
built up in a series of five smaller piers, each 5 feet long, with spaces 6 feet 
6 inches wide, covered with lintels. This extends upwards for two 
courses, or about 7 feet 3 inches, and the stones of the third course lie 
like lintels over the spaces. 



JERUSALEM. 



177 



Three courses were /// sittt on the eastern and two on the western side. 
The lowest course Is 3 feet 6 inches in height, the second 3 feet 9 inches, 
and the third 4 feet in height. They correspond in appearance to 
Courses Z, M, N at the south-west angle. 

The eastern side of the pier has no batter for the two courses, while 
on the western side the second course is set back several inches. The 
pier was examined at its northern and southern ends, on the eastern side 




for 28 feet, and along the western side — but here, on account of the nature 
of the ground, it could not be carefully examined. 

To the west of the pier is a rock-hewn channel close to the pier, with 
a perpendicular scarp below the pier of 4 feet ; and on the east side of 
the pier the rock is scarped down nearly perpendicularly for a depth of 
about 18 feet. 



1 78 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The Pavement {Plates XXV'III. and XXIX.). 

Stretching from the base of the pier to the Sanctuary wall, at a level 
of about 2,345 feet, there is a pavement of blocks of hard missa weighing 
about ]i ton each. They are highly polished (probably by traffic), and 
have a fall slightly to the east. 

This pavement was also seen at the southern end of the pier, where a 
manhole was found leading down to an aqueduct below. As will be men- 
tioned hereafter, the shafts up to the surface from this aqueduct were 
traced from the south-east angle for a distance of 220 feet, or nearly to 
Barclay's Gate. This pavement is probably a portion of that found at 
the south-west angle at level 2,350. The pavement appears to have a 
rise in its length of about 8 feet to Barclay's Gate. 

The Voussoirs of the Arch (Plates XXVIII. and XXIX). 

On the pavement reaching from the base of the pier to the Sanctuary 
wall are the voussoirs of the arch lying in lines north and south, just as 
they fell ; and there was space sufficient between each set to enable a 
man to squeeze, with difficulty, for about 10 to 15 feet to north or south 
from the central point, where they reached close to the pier. 

They are of the vialaki bed, but are so hard that it was necessary to 
blast out a passage through them to the east. This was very dangerous 
work, as the stones lie loosely one over another, and the gallery frames 
were not strong enough to support their weight. 

These voussoirs were again examined both at their northern and 
southern terminations, from the extremities of the piers across nearly to 
the Sanctuary wall ; but there was other masonry here intermingled, and 
the voussoirs forming the faces of the bridge could not be identified. 

Aqueduct above the Pavement (Plates VII., XXIX. and XXXII.). 

The northern portion of the pier was found to have been utilized as the 
side of a cistern, its bottom above the pavement. After it was emptied, 
a low passage or drain was found in its eastern side leading to the 



JERUSALEM. 179 

Sanctuary wall at about 8 feet above the pavement. On reaching the 
Sanctuary, it branched off north and south along the wall. It is 3 feet 
wide and 2 feet high, and is covered with flagging on the top ; its sides 
are of rubble and flagging. 

On the side to the Sanctuary wall the rubble is thick, and every here 
and there, through a break in the side, the ancient wall can be seen with 
its drafted stones, similar to those at the Wailing Place. 

It was traced as far north as the southern side of Barclay's Gate, where 
a break in the top occurred, through which a great amount of shingle 
poured, and prevented the continuation of the search. It was, however, 
found again in the shaft along the northern joint of Barclay's Gate. 

The total length to the north was 165 feet (.'*). It here appears to end 
in a vault or cistern, probably the arch supporting the viaduct to Barclay's 
Gate. It was examined about 35 feet to the south, when the roof stones 
were found to be wanting. 

Rock below the Pavement (Plates XXVIII. and XXIX.). 

The rock appears originally to have sloped from the foot of the 
pier to the Sanctuary wall at a slope of about i in 2, or 20 feet in 40 feet. 
It is, howev-er, scarped nearly perpendicularly down for 20 feet from the 
pier, and is then cut nearly horizontally and smoothly from the foot of the 
scarp to the Sanctuary wall. It continues to fall to the valley bed, 
which was found at about 90 feet east of the south-west angle. 

The space under the pavement, between the Sanctuary w'all and the 
rock, is filled with ddbris and old masonry. 

The Old Aqueduct, and Voussoirs of a Fallen Arch 
(Plates XXVIII. to XXX.). 

Cut in the levelled rock (level 2,325) is an aqueduct, which, under the 
middle of the bridge, is 1 2 feet deep and 4 feet wide ; and its eastern side 
is 1 2 feet from the Sanctuary wall at this point. The bottom is at a level 
2,313 feet. 

It does not run parallel to the wall, and was probably cut a long time 
before the wall was built. It is covered by an arch, but opposite the 



i8o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

centre of the pier this arch has been broken in for about 20 feet in length 
by two large stones, apparently the voussoirs of a bridge, which have 
fallen from above. One of them is much decayed ; the other is 7 feet 
long, 5 feet thick at the extrados, 4 feet 4 inches at the intrados, and 4 feet 
high. Towards the centre, at one side, is a square joggle hole 14 inches 
by 1 1 inches, by 4^ inches deep. 

Search was made both in the aqueduct and in the dcbrii for other 
voussoirs without result, though they may exist. 

This aqueduct has a fall to the south. 

At 24 feet south of the two voussoirs is a square rock-cut cistern, 
spanned by a segmental arch from north to south, whence a passage runs 
east to the Sanctuary wall, which is cut in two by it. A second passage 
to the west from this cistern is closed by a fallen stone, on which the arch 
of the tank rests. 

To the south there is an entrance to a circular rock-hewn cistern, 
diameter 16 feet, height 14 feet 4 inches, the roof of rock and flat, with a 
thickness of 2 to 3 feet. The roof is pierced with a shaft leading down 
from the pavement above. 

This rock-cut aqueduct continues from the cistern to the south with 
its bottom nearly at the same level as that of the aqueduct to the north, 
while the bottom of the cistern is 3 feet lower, so that there might be a 
supply of water in the tank to be drawn off by buckets let down from the 
pavement above through the shaft. 

The aqueduct continues to the south-east, 8 feet deep, 3 feet 9 inches 
wide, and covered by a nearly semicircular but slightly pointed arch of 
six stones. After passing round the south-west angle, the aqueduct 
changes its direction more easterly, and, emerging from the rock, is carried 
on in masonry 3 feet wide, with an arch of 5 voussoirs. It falls rapidly 
towards the bed of the valley. After about 40 feet it turns to south, and 
is continued as a drain 2 feet wide, roofed over with flat stones, for a 
further distance of 59 feet, when it becomes silted up and very narrow. 

To the north of the fallen voussoirs the aqueduct runs slightly away 
from the Sanctuary wall, and is 3 feet 9 inches wide and about 1 1 feet high. 
It is arched by a peculiar skew-pointed arch, with five courses, two on one 
side, measuring 22 inches, and three on the other side, measuring -^i inches. 
At 34 feet from the north end of the pier the canal issues from a circular 



JERUSALEM. 



iSi 



rock-hewn cistern, 12 feet 9 inches in diameter, 14 feet high, with its 
floor 3 feet below that of the aqueduct. The roof is of rock, and is 
pierced with a shaft from the pavement above. There are also two shafts 
down from the pavement to the aqueduct, between the two rock-hewn 
cisterns, but only one is shown on the plan. A canal 4 feet wide, cut in 
the rock, and 14 feet in length, enters the cistern at the north. At 
the north end of this canal, to the east, is the entrance to a circular 
rock-cut cistern, of which only half can be seen, as it is cut in two by 




v^i^-'T- 



the foundation of the Sanctuary wall. To the west of this canal, and 
partially over-lying the rock-cut cistern, are two rock-hewn rectangular 
chambers, 16 feet by 6 feet, with semicircular arches. In one is a flight 
of steps leading up above, cut in the rock. A base of a column had 
fallen through the roof, and was lying in one of these chambers. 

The canal from this cistern turns to the west for a few feet, and then 
sharply to the north : it leaves the rock, and is continued in masonry 
for 123 feet, 3 feet wide and 8 feet high, with a semicircular arch of 



l82 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



five voussoirs. In front of Barclay's Gate, and at about 14 feet from the 
Sanctuary wall, it is replaced by a narrow passage 18 inches wide with a 
flat roof of flagging. It now runs off from the Sanctuary wall, and at 
a distance of 160 feet, near the Street of the Chain, it is cut in two by 




the wall of a house. Opposite to Barclay's Gate the bottom of the 
canal was about 7 feet above the rock. At every 30 or 40 feet in the 
canal, shafts in the roof were found leading up to the pavement, by 
which buckets could be lowered for the purpose of obtaining water. 
The aqueduct, from its commencement to the south-west angle, has a 




fall of about i in 20. The aqueducts were filled with mud and silt 
nearly up to the top of the arches. 

Several lamps, stone weights, jars, and an iron bar were found in the 
canal ; also a stone-roller similar to those still in use in some parts of the 



JERUSALEM. 183 

country for rolling the flat roofs of houses, covered with wooden joists 
and mud. There are no such roofs now in Jerusalem ; they are all of 
masonry, wood being very scarce. 



The Valley under the Sanctuary. 

The bed of the valley is about 90 feet east of the south-west angle, 
the rock sloping down to it at about 2 in 5. The wall crosses the valley 
to the eastern side, between Wilson's Arch and Barclay's Gate. 

The following is a suggestion as to the sequence of the various works 
about this portion of the wall : 

1. The winding aqueduct was cut in the rock at a very early period, 
and may be the ' brook that ran through the midst of the land,' 
(2 Chron. xxxii., 4) with its cisterns suitable for the supply of the 
inhabitants with water. It probably proceeds from the Hammam csh 
Shefa, higher up the valley, a rock-cut well which now supplies the 
baths of Jerusalem with water. 

2. The west retaining wall of the Temple of Solomon was built, 
(represented by the present Sanctuary wall) from Barclay's Gate to 
Wilson's Arch. The Palace of Solomon was built (represented by the 
old masonry) at the south-east angle of the Sanctuary. A bridge was 
constructed leading across from the Lower City to the Palace. 

3. The arch of this bridge fell in, or was removed ; the aqueduct was 
arched over ; the present south-west angle was constructed from Barclay's 
Gate to the Double Gate by King Herod. 

At this time the rubbish in the valley was raised to a height of 
23 feet; accordingly the wall was built with rough projecting faces to this 
point, and the rubbish covered over with the present pavement, and the 
pier and arch of the Tyropceon Bridge were constructed. In order to 
obtain water readily, shafts (which still exist) were constructed at intervals 
from the pavement to the canal and pools. 

At Barclay's Gate the ramp would be 16 feet above the pavement, 
with a retaining wall on east side. That on the north still exists. It is 
probable that this ramp passed over an arch which still exists. ( Vide 
B. J. V. 5, I, and Ant. xx. 9, 7.) 

4. The bridge fell at the time when the city was taken by Titus, 



1 84 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and now rests upon the pavement ; the valley became choked up with 
d(!bris. 

5. A pavement and the drain found underneath was laid at the level 
of Barclay's Gate, from the south-west angle to the Bab as Silsile, and 
Wilson's Arch was built over it. 

Mention of this road and arch is made in the Citez dc Jherusalem, and 
parts of the pavement and drain still exist. 



Excavations in the TvRorcEON (Plate XXVI.). 

Seven shafts were sunk in a line cast and west across the Tyropocon 
Valley, opposite to Robinson's Arch, in order to ascertain the nature of the 
valley and search for remains of the ancient viaduct. 

No. I. — 2S5 feet from the Sanctuary wall, and close in under the 
eastern side of the Upper City ; the level of surface was 2,401 feet ; the 
level of rock, 2,379 feet 6 inches. It was sunk through common garden 
soil, and at 21 feet 6 inches came on a polished limestone slab, 6 feet 
square, covering the main sewer of the city, which is 6 feet high, 3 feet 
wide, cut in the rock, and full of sewage, through which a current of 
water was running to south — probably from the baths ; some i^ieces of 
paper were thrown in, and in a few minutes they appeared in the main 
sewer, where it is uncovered, outside the Dung Gate. This seems to be 
the sewer through which the fellahin entered the city in the time of 
Ibrahim Pasha, when they appear to have penetrated up as far as the 
causeway of David Street, and found exit through some of the vaults 
there. The sewer itself runs on past the Dung Gate towards Siloam, 
until it opens out on the side of the hill above the Kedron, only a few 
feet south of the Fountain of the Virgin. It was examined by our 
party in 1S68, and is, no doubt, the passage explored by Dr. Barclay 
('City of the Great King'), as far as the Dung Gate, when he supposed it 
to be a water channel running into the Virgin's Fount, from the Temple 
or from Sion. 

The sewage at present escapes from the sewer after passing the Dung 
Gate, and is used by the fellahin for the purpose of irrigating and 

nuring. 

No. II. — 250 feet from the Sanctuary wall (line of surface, 2,4o6"6 feet ; 



JERUSALEM. 185 

level of rock, 2,388'6 feet) came upon the remains of a colonnade just 
below the surface, consisting of piers built on the rock, 2 feet by 3 feet, and 

3 feet by 4 feet, and about 12 feet 6 inches apart, with fallen arches be- 
tween ; the piers were built of well-dressed ashlar of soft sandstone, similar 
to the ruins of Kakun, Suwaimeh, etc., in the Jordan valley. On the 
north side a jDlastered wall of rubble was found between the piers, and it 
was not ascertained whether there were more piers beyond ; to the east 
they were continued (as will be seen in the succeeding shafts), and appear 
to have formed either a covered way or else to have supported the viaduct 
reaching over to Robinson's Arch. The flooring was much disturbed, and 
is formed of well-dressed limestone flagging cut in squares, and laid parallel 
to the lie of the building, east and west. The piers measure about 1 2 feet 
from flagging to springing of arches, and are built in courses about i foot 
each in height. 

Cut in one of the piers is a little door, leading to a cylindrical cistern 
cut and roofed in rock, and plastered with 2 inches of cement ; the 
diameter of the cistern was 10 feet ; the height, 15 feet 3 inches; the roof 
is slightly domed. 

No. III. — 216 feet from the Sanctuary wall (level of surface, 2,409"5 
feet ; level of rock, 2,377'5 feet) at 12 feet an arch similar to, and in line 
with the north wall at No. II. was found ; at 18 feet a limestone pavement 
similar to No. II. Below the pavement was found debris of cut stones, 
2 feet by i foot by i foot ; and the remains of a wall {inalaki') running 
north and south, of well squared dressed stones, resting on the rock. 

No. IV. — 182 feet from the Sanctuary wall (level of surface, 2,405*5 
feet; level of rock, 2,383'5 feet) at 12 feet was found the ddbris of a 
stone building, and part of a white marble column, 12 inches in 
diameter. These ruins appear to be a portion of the colonnade 
met with in Nos. II. and III. Below this at 22 feet, the mouth of a 
cistern was cut in the rock. The cistern was square, the sides 10 feet 
long, the roof flat, and 7 feet below the surface of rock the height 
10 feet, with plaster 2 inches thick and very hard; there is no entrance 
for water ; two man-holes e.xist, opening down through the roof, i foot 

4 inches by 2 feet 3 inches, and 2 feet 6 inches by 2 feet respectively. 
This may have been constructed for the reception of grain in early 
times. 

24 



i86 THE SURVEY OE UESTERX PALESTEVE. 

No. \^ — 132 feet from the Sanctuary wall (level of surface, 2,399 feet ; 
level of rock, 2,369 feet) came at 13 feet 6 inches on the walls of a 
plastered chamber, resting at 21 feet 3 inches on a strong wall of hammer- 
dressed stones, running north and south, which again, at 26 feet 10 inches, 
rests on a strong wall, running east and west ; there are three courses of 
this latter remaining, and they rest on the rock ; the courses are i foot 
8 inches in height. 

The rock here is scarped and cut into steps ; there is a recess at the 
bottom of the steps covered over by a piece of flagging 3 inches thick, on 
which a buttress rests ; the stones of these walls arc of malaki ; the wall 
running east and west is about 15 feet thick, and its use is not apparent. 

No. VI. — 92 feet from the Sanctuary wall (level of surface, 2,395 feet ; 
level of rock, 2,354 feet 6 inches) passed some dc'bris of sandstone similar 
to that found in Nos. 2, 3, and 4, probably forming part of the colonnade. 

At 9 feet was found the mouth of a shaft 8 feet deep, opening 
through the crown of a nearly semicircular arch, covering a tank 18 feet 
long, north to south, 11 feet 6 inches wide, and 15 feet high from the 
bottom to the springing of the arch. A hole was made through the 
plaster at the western side, and rock found at 3^ feet ; it is scarped for 
some feet north and south ; it probably is the east side of the second 
pier from the Sanctuary wall ; no drafted stones, however, were found on 
it, neither were any fallen voussoirs found underneath the tank, which is 
quite a modern construction. 

From this cistern a staircase gallery was driven along the face of the 
rock to the pier of Robinson's Arch, the last 16 feet being in a curious 
cutting in the rock. 

The TvRorcEOx \'.\llev. 

It appears by the excavations recorded above that there is a steep 
scarp from the Upper City down to the Tyropoeon, and that thence the 
rock shelves down to and past the south-west angle of the Sanctuary wall, 
the levels beinsf : — 

Brow of cliff under Jews' Quarter, about 2,446 feet ; 
Ground at foot of scarp, about 2,415 feet ; 
Level of rock at Robinson's Arch, 2,325 feet; 



lERU SALEM. 187 

Level of rock in bed of valley, 2,289 feet ; 

Spring of Robinson's Arch, 2,387"5 feet ; 

Level of Sanctuary, 2,420-0 feet ; 

Present level of ground at Robinson's Arch, 2386'5 feet. 

In this slope there are two minor depressions, which arc probably 
artificial ; they serve to show how hazardous it is to risk speculation as to 
the slope of the rock from its appearance over a small area ; thus at 
two points for several feet it slopes to west instead of to east. 

Sir Charles Wilson has suggested that the sandstone piers found on 
this line may be portion of a bazaar or other building erected during the 
period of the Frank kingdom. 

There are no grounds for supposing that the roadway over Robinson's 
Arch led up to the Upper City, either by steps or by a bridge ; it was prob- 
ably one of the suburban entrances spoken of by Josephus. There may 
have been other arches in continuation of Robinson's Arch, but there is no 
indication of this existing on the ground. 



The First Suburban Gate and Wailing Place. 
(Plates, XXX L and XXXII.) 

This gate is called by old writers ' the Gate of Mahomet,' or ' the 
Prophet's Gate ;' it is also called ' Barclay's Gate,' after Dr. Barclay, who 
first discovered it, and above it is the modern gate of ' Bab al Magharibe,' 
or Moor's Gate. 

The Moor's Gate is situated about 270 feet from the south-west angle ; 
from this point to the Mahkama, a distance of about 200 feet, the old 
wall of the Sanctuary is exposed for six courses above the pavement of 
the Wailing Place ; level 2,392-5 feet. 

The stones in these courses are very unequal in appearance ; some of 
them are from the best viissce beds, and are admirably finished and well 
preserved, while others are from the soft ntalaJd and upper misscc, con- 
taining numbers of small nodules, and disintegrating rapidly. (See 
Woodbury-type.) 

Many of these softer blocks are much worn by the weather, and are 
not set on their quarry beds. In consequence of these inequalities in the 



iS8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

wall, it has been suggested by Sir Charles Wilson as 'almost certain that 
the stones are not really in situ, and that this section of the wall is a 
reconstruction out of old material.' But as these inequalities are also 
found among the stones down to the rock, both at the Moor's Gate and at 
Wilson's Arch, the suggestion merely amounts to the proposition that 
when this wall was built some stones were used in it that had been used 
in a former wall. But even in this case it is only a proposition that this 
wall was not constructed by the firsi builder at Jerusalem who used 
drafted stones. 

It would appear also that it would be the /wsi builder at Jerusalem 
who would make the mistake of using soft and hard stone indiscriminately, 
before experience had taught that stones of certain kinds wore out before 
others of a more durable nature. 

In fact, the very faults found in this wall rather tend to jarove its 
antiquity. In later years experience taught the builders how to select 
and place the large blocks so that they might survive through all 
ages. 

The drafted stones in the Wailing Place are of an average height of 
3 feet 6 inches and have drafts of from 2 to 4 inches in width, and \ to 
}^ inch in depth, worked over with an eight-toothed chisel, the face being 
also worked over in a similar manner. 

The stones of the Wailing Place are so well known that they are taken 
as a standard of comparison for other portions of the wall of the Noble 
Sanctuary. 

Above these drafted stones are four courses of large squared stones 
with plain dressed faces, which are usually referred to the late Roman or 
Byzantine period. There are several holes notched into the wall, which 
seem to indicate that formerly it was covered over with vaulted buildings, 
as at the Mahkama and the House of Abu Saud. 

The general level of the Sanctuary is 2,420 feet, but at the Moor's 
Gate it is but 2,416 feet. Immediately outside this gate the general 
surface of the ground is about 2,395 feet, and a ramp leads up to the gate 
on vaults. This ramp, near the gate, is formed of two vaults one over 
the other, and in the lower one the lintel of Barclay's Gate is seen. 

The bottom of the lintel is at a level of 2,398 feet 5 inches, beino- 
5 feet 5 inches above the surface of the ground at thai point. 



JERUSALEM. 1S9 

The height of the Hntel is 6 feet 10 inches ; the total length visible is 
20 feet I inch. 

The calculated length of the lintel is 24 feet S inches. The lintel pro- 
jects over the northern jamb, and this jamb is flush with the northern side 
of the older portion of the passage inside, which is here 18 feet 8 inches 
wide ; supposing the gateway to be also 18 feet 8 inches wide, and the lintel 
to project also as much over the southern jamb, its length is thus obtained. 
The entrance under the lintel is 28 feet 9f inches in height, and calculated 
to be 18 feet in width. Above the lintel the Sanctuary wall is built with 
small stones plain dressed, and the entrance itself is filled up with coarse 
rubble, with here and there a few cut stones. 

Built into the rubble masonry, 1 1 feet below the lintel at its northern 
end, is a projecting stone corbel, which has probably been used for 
supporting the substructures or vaults of a house built against the 
Sanctuary wall. 

The two courses of drafted stones and four courses of squared stones 
above the level of the lintel, which are to be seen at the Wailing Place, 
terminate abrupdy at about 12 feet from the gate, on the north. 

Sanctuary Wall below the Surface at Barclay's Gate. 

The wall below the surface and the northern jamb of gateway were 
examined by a shaft sunk down to the rock. 

The sill-stone of the gateway is so broken that it is difficult to deter- 
mine whether the entrance was 28 feet 93- inches, or 32 feet \\ inches 
below the lintel ; the former has been assumed as the height. 

The Sanctuary wall was bared to a depth of 78 feet 6 inches from the 
bottom of the lintel to the rock, and the stones are of one appearance 
throughout, and are probably in situ. They appear to be similar to those 
at the Wailing Place, but are not so much worn. Many of them are well 
preserved at the top and worn at the bottom. 

There are twenty-six courses of drafted stones in all, twenty-two below 
the lintel, two on a level with it, and two above its level. They are from 
3 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 1 1 inches in height. With one exception the top 
draft on each stone is a little wider than the bottom draft, and this i^ecu- 
liarity has been noticed in other portions of the wall. 



190 THE SURVEY OF VVESTERX PALEST/ XE. 

The bottom course Is let into the rock, and each course is set back 
from \ to I inch. 

A shaft was commenced near the northern jamb of the gate on i 7ih 
March, 1869, at level 2,392. At 5 feet below the surface a lamp and a 
good deal of broken pottery, bearing scrolls and other devices, was 
met with. 

The soil was very black and loose; at 14 feet hard earth was met 
with, mi,\ed with large stones, some of them 2 feet long. 

At 9 inches below the sill course a piece of stone flagging was encoun- 
tered, forming the flat roof of the drain running along the Sanctuary wall 
to the south-west angle. This drain is here 2 feet 4 inches wide, and 
5 feet 6 inches high. 

This drain was followed from the south-west angle to within a few 
feet of this point ; communication by knocking was made between the 
two portions of the drain, but it could not be opened throughout, 
as rubbish from above had choked up the passage. This drain is 
above the pavement found at Robinson's Arch and at the south-west 
angle. 

Below this drain, at 31 feet below the surface of the ground, is a 
heavy masonry wall, faced to north with well-dressed stones in courses 
9 inches to 18 inches in height, of malaki, without drafts; it is perpen- 
dicular, and abuts on to the Sanctuary wall, and is a retaining wall, as it 
has only a rough face to south : it is 6 feet thick. It continues down for 
35 feet 6 inches, and its foundations are about 7 feet from the rock ; they 
rest on rubbish. 

For the last 30 feet the shaft was sunk through hard earth and broken 
cut stones, many of them 3 feet by 2 feet by 1 8 inches. 

The rock is cut horizontally at the base of the wall for the reception of 
the foundation-stone ; its natural fall appears to be to the west at this 
point, but the general fall must be to the east, as the bottom of the valley 
is considerably to the east of this portion of the wall. 

Near the foot of the wall is the aqueduct which runs from the Great 
Causeway to the south-west angle. 



JERUSALEM. 191 

Approach to the Gateway. 

From the two shafts sunk at Wilson's Arch and at Barclay's Gate, it 
is obvious that the Sanctuary wall is for this portion built up from the 
bottom with drafted stones with well-cut faces. But to the south of the 
retaining wall at Barclay's Gate, at the south-west angle and round the 
south-west angle to the Double Gate, the stones in the wall have rough 
projecting faces up to the level of the pavement under Robinson's Arch, 
that is, up to Course P, or to about 23 feet 6 inches above the rock 
at Barclay's Gate, the sill of the gate being about 50 feet above the 
rock. 

From this the inference may be drawn that the wall to the south of 
Barclay's Gate is of later date than that to the north, and was not com- 
menced till the valley had begun to fill up about 23 feet 6 inches at this 
part. 

In this case the retaining wall may have been one side of a ramp or 
viaduct leading across the valley to this Suburban Gate, at a height of 
27 feet above the surface of the ground at that time. 

Ancient Passage at Barclay's Gate. 

By those who have considered the position of the Temple in the 
Court of the Sanctuary, great stress has been laid upon the importance 
of the passage under the lintel into the Mosque al Burak. 

Colonel Wilson says : ' This mosque marks the line of the passage 
which gave access to the Temple platform, and part of the original 
covering arch can be seen.' And in speaking of the continuation of this 
passage where it turns to the south, he says : ' The west wall of the 
cistern is parallel to the Haram wall, and in prolongation of the west wall 
of the passage, so that it evidently formed part of the approach to the 
Temple platform.' 

All we know on the subject at present is that here are the remains of 
an ancient passage leading from the Prophet's Gate, but whether it is 
Byzantine, Herodian, or of more ancient date, cannot be at present 
determined, and until correct plans on a large scale of the tunnel and its 
arches are obtained, it is useless to speculate with too great certainty. 



I9-' Tlir. SUI<\r.Y 01- WESTERN r.\!.r.STlXE. 

The passage running in to the Sanctuary from Barclay's Gate is i8 
feet wide, and reaches up to and above the Hntel, but its lloor is about 22 
feet above the level of the sill of the gate ; it is called the Mosque al 
Burak, and is reached by a modern llight of steps leading down from the 
west cloisters of the Sanctuary. At 38 feet from the Sanctuary outer 
wall this chamber is closed by a masonry wall. 

The inner face of the lintel is nearly concealed by a Oat arch of 5 
stones. Height, 2 feet 10 inches ; the keystone is 3 feet 2 inches in 
height. 

I'rom thence, for 10 feet to east, there is a segmental arch of 19 feet 3 
inches span, and 3 feet 8 inches rise, of fine workmanship. The keystone 
is 2 feet 6 inches wide, while the other courses of the arch vary from i foot 
9 inches to 3 feet 6 inches. The spring of the arch is on a level with the 
bottom of the lintel of the gate, and the floor line is 5 feet below this. 
This arch has a simple moulding on its eastern face. The eastern portion 
of this passage is covered with an elliptical arch of later date. In the 
mosque is shown the ring to which the winged beast al Burak was tied 
by Mahomet on the occasion of his famous night journey. 

At 42 feet from the Sanctuary wall this passage is again to be seen In 
Cistern XIX. It reaches to a distance of 69 feet from the Sanctuary wall, 
where there is a vestibule about 1 8 feet square, covered by a rather flat 
dome. The passage then turns round to south and continues for 43 feet 
parallel to the Sanctuary wall. 

The east and west passage is covered by an elliptical arch of well cut 
stone ; its springing is horizontal, but in that north and south there is a 
rise to south of about i in 10 ; this latter arch is segmental. 

To support the dome are segmental relieving arches at a lower level. 
The span is 16 feet 5 inches ; there are seven stones in each course. The 
keystone is only about i foot 6 inches wide, while the others are about 
3 feet 6 inches. These voussoirs are about 3 feet deep. They have 
several mouldings of peculiar shape (shown in wood-cut). The dome is 
flat, formed of four courses of stone. The sides of the passage are thickly 
coated with cement, and are irregular in parts. 

There was water in the tank when it was examined. Farther to the south 
this passage is supposed again to be found in Tank No. XX., which is 40 
feet wide, 54 feet long, and 44 feet 6 inches deep, with a double vaulted 



JERUSALEM. 193 

pointed roof supported by a set of piers runninL;- up the centre. It appears 
to be modern in construction, with the exception of the remains ot an old 
arch on the western side. 

It seems probable that the passage opened out into the Sanctuary at 
the site of this tank. 



The Great Causeway and Pool Al Burak. 

The buildings of the Mahkama, or Court House, extend along the 
Sanctuary wall from the Wailing Place to the Gate of the Chain, over a 
distance of more than 90 feet, and within its vaults the great wall can be 
traced at intervals, and is found to be in the same line, and built in the 
same style, as at the Wailing Place. 

These vaults are reached by an opening from the south through the 
garden, recently walled off from the W^ailing Place. They have pointed rag- 
work arches, and their haunches rest on corbels built into the Sanctuary 
wall. From the appearance of similar cuttings in the stones of the wall 
to south, it is probable that the Wailing Place was also at one time 
covered up by a series of vaults. The level of the Wailing Place is 
2,394 ft^tit, but the lloors of the vaults are at 2,405. At about 71 feet 
north from the southern face of the IMahkama is the Pool al Burak, 
whose level at bottom is 2,388 feet. 

This Pool is irregular in shape : for about 25 feet it has a segmental 
arch of good masonry of about 17 feet span, on which the wall of the 
Mahkama is built. On the haunches of this arch are corbels which 
may possibly have supported the 'Secret Passage' described page 203. 
Beyond, for about 8 feet, is a trimmer arch of more recent construction 
and inferior masonry, and the remainder of the Pool is covered by a 
semicircular arch (Wilson's) with a span of 42 feet, and width of about 
43 feet. Recently (in 1866) about 16 feet of the northern portion of the 
Pool has been cut off and turned into a tank, so that the arch now only 
measures about 27 feet in width. The Pool formerly extended still 
further beyond Wilson's Arch, and this northern part is covered by a 
pointed arch. 



ly-j THE SURILY Ol- WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Masonry ok tiii; Wist Wall. 

\ anOus iioriinns of the Sanctuary wall arc to be seen within these 
vaults and in lluj I'ool al lUir.ik ; and Ijcnealli tin- lloor of the Pool the 
wall was exaniincd by a shaft sunk down alonJ3^side it It) the rock im- 
mediately under the southern end of Wilson's Arch, and also by a gallery 
driven south along Course / from the shaft, 27 feet above the rock. A 
shaft also was sunk in one of the vaults for a depth of i 7 feet, at a point 
18 feet south of the soullurn entrance to the Pool, 'i'he object of these 
researches was to e.xamine the wall, in order to ascertain whether there 
was a second gateway similar to the Suburban Gate (Prophet's Gateway), 
south of the Pool al Purak. No signs of any such gateway could here 
be found, but subsequently a gateway was found to the north of the Pool, 
near Bab el Mathara. 

It was clearly ilemonstrated by these excavations that there was no 
break in the continuity of the wall from the Wailing Place to the northern 
end of the Pool. 

There are twenty courses of drafted stones south of Wilson's Arch, 
exclusive of the foundation-stone. They vary in height from 3 feet 

3 inches to 4 feet i inch, and each course sets back from i to 
25 inches. The foundation course at this point is 2 feet 10 inches high, 
sets out 6 inches, and has no draft. The top drafts vary from 2.^ to 
5 inches, the bottom from 2\ to 4 inches, and the side drafts from 2} to 

4 inches. The stones exposed are similar to, but in a much better state 
of preservation than, those at the Wailing Place. The wall, when first 
Ijuilt, appears to have been exposed to view from the bottom, and is 
probably one of the oldest portions of the Sanctuary now in existence. 
Course D, level with the concrete forming the bed of the Pool al Burak, 
has been cut away to the depth of iS inches, ajiparently to receive the 
skewback of an arch. 

Course / is very rough, M and N are nicely worked and preserved, 
while O is much worn. From the manner in which stones well preserved 
and those much worn, even as far a:; the foundation, are mingled together, 
it is evident either that the whole wall is a reconstruction from the bottom, 
cr else that it has been exposed to view from the bottom, the stones much 



JERUSALEM. i9S 

worn being of vialaki, and those well preserved being of 7nczzeJi. The 
highest course reaches up to level 2,412 feet, while the lowest {O) is 
bedded in the rock at a level of 2,337 ^^^t. The soft rock is cut away to 
a depth of 2 feet 9 inches, in order to allow of the foundation resting on 
hard mezzeh. There is thus a height of 75 feet from the top of the highest 
course of drafted stones in the Sanctuary wall at this point to the bed of 
the foundation course. The top of the highest course is nearly on a 
level with the crown of Wilson's Arch, and is 7 feet below the level of 
the Street of the Chain above. 



Wilson's Arch. 

The Mahkama, or Court House (possibly the site of the Council 
House of Josephus), is a large building measuring about 90 feet from north 
to south and 80 feet from east to west. It rests upon the vaults already 
alluded to. To the north of the Mahkama, supporting the roadway and 
a shop wall, is the trimmer arch referred to before (p. 193), about 8 feet 
across, and immediately to the north of this is Wilson's Arch, 42 feet in 
span and 43 feet in breadth, stretching from the Great Causeway to the 
wall of the Sanctuary. The road over the arch leads to the two gates 
of the Sanctuary, Bab as Salam (Peace), and Bab as Silsile (Chain), at 
a height of about 80 feet above the rock. 

This arch covers the greater portion of the Pool al Burak, which was 
first discovered by Dr. Tobler, and is shown by De Vogue in the ' Temple 
de Jerusalem,' Plate I. ; but Colonel Wilson appears to have been the first 
to have drawn particular attention to its importance during the visit to 
Jerusalem in 1S64. The arch is twice mentioned in ' La Citez de 
Iherusalem,' in Chapter HI.: 'A main senestre sur le pont avoit un 
mostier de S. Gille,' and again in Chapter XVI. : ' La rue a main senestre 
si va droit a unde posterne, c'on apele la posterne de la tanerie, e va 
droit par desos le pont ' (' Descriptiones Terrse Sanctee, by Titus 
Tobler). From this and from other accounts it is apparent that the 
street from the Damascus Gate to tht; Dung Gate passed under Wilson's 
Arch in the Middle Ages. 

Wilson's Arch has 23 courses of stones of varying dimensions, as 
will be .seen by reference to the elevation (Plate XXXIII.); and the 

25—2 



196 



THE SIR\TA- OF WESTERX PALESTINE. 



voussoirs aro not of 1 qual iliickness, as is the case with the more ancient 
arches to the west. They are from 7 to 12 feet in length, and have no 
appearance of any marginal draft on them. There is very little simi- 
larity between this arch and that at the south-west angle (Robinson's). 
The spring of Wilson's Arch is at level of 2,391 "5 feet, whereas that of 
Robinson's is at 2,387-5. Thi; three fn-st stones of the arch appear to 
form part of ilie Sanctuary wall ; but this is not quite ascertained. It 
is sucrcfcsted that this arch as it now stands cannot be (earlier tlian the 




fifth or sixth century. Colonel Wilson suggests that it was ' rebuilt in 
its present form by Constantine or Justinian'; but its reconstruction 
should more probably be ascribed to a still later date. 

The western pier was examined by a shaft sunk at 7 feet from the 
southern end of the arch. It consists of two walls — that to the east 10 feet 
thick, and that to the west 4 feet thick — of different kinds of masonry. 
At the point where the walls were examined there was a space of 6 inches 
between them, which probably increased towards the north, in which 



JERUSALEM. i97 

direction the walls splay outwards about 12 Inches. The total thickness 
of the pier at the point examined was 14 feet 6 inches. 

The east face of the pier (10 feet thick), for 25 feet down from the 
springing of the arch, is built of large, .squared, well-dressed stones without 
marginal drafts, and similar to those to be found above the drafted stones 
in the Wailing Place. There are seven courses of these stones, and they 
vary from 3 feet i inch to 4 feet 2 inches in height. In the three lower 
courses there is a recess 6 feet wide, 9 feet 5 inches high, and 5 feet deep, 
the lintel being 4 feet 2 inches in height. The sides of the recess are well 
dressed. Some q-roovcs cut in the stonework of the recess would indicate 
that there was here, at one period, a metal gate. 

A hole was with great difficulty broken through the pier, disclosing Its 
double nature. On the western side, the 4-feet pier was found to be built 
of rubble masonry, and to have a recess 2 feet 9 inches deep, 5 feet 
6 inches wide, and 5 feet high, the top of which Is nearly level with the 
bottom of the Pool al Burak. This double pier rests upon a solid pier 
14 feet 6 inches thick, constructed of rough hammer-dressed boulders of 
large size. On the east side It extends 19 feet 3 inches, down to the rock 
on level 2,347-25 feet. The interstices were filled up with lime, but it 
would be impossible to say whether It was once mortar, or caused by 
more recent infiltration of lime-water. 

In consequence of the southern section of the Pool having been made 
in 1866 into a tank, there was no possibility, without danger, of examining 
the pier to the north, in order to see whether any portion of it was of 
ancient date. 

The general impression gained from the examination of this work is 
that the older portion of the pier of Wilson's Arch was not built until the 
epoch when the squared stones without marginal drafts were laid on the 
Sanctuary wall, when the \'alley had filled up about 30 feet, to a level of 
2,366'5 feet, possibly In the second or third century ; but Wilson's Arch itself 
appears to be even of a later date than the pier, as there Is a mass of 
broken drafted stone, and apparently of fallen voussoirs, reaching from 
the recess In the pier to level 2,367 feet 5 inches at the Sanctuary wall. 



198 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Gexf.ral Notes, West Wall. 

A shaft was commenced at the south end of Wilson's Arch, alongside 
the Sanctuary wall, on the 20th November, 1867. The level of the 
bottom of the Pool is 2,388. The shaft was sunk through 3 feet 6 inches 
of concrete, formed of stones about 3 inches cube, set in a hard dark 
cement, nearly as solid as masonry. Below this there is black soil, 
mi.xed with stones and chippings, to a depth of 21 feet below the level of 
the Pool, when a mass of very large stones was encountered, apparently 
the \-oussoirs and drafted stones of a fallen wall and arch. These stones 
continue for a depth of 8 feet, are of hard missce, and appear to be similar 
ti) the drafted stones in the wall above. A similar mass of stones was 
met with in the opposite shaft, alongside the pier, but it is not certain that 
they extend across from pier to wall. Water was found at 44 feet below 
the springing of the Arch ; but after a heavy rain it subsided, and the 
shaft was continued down to level 2, 339*5 feet to the rock, through black 
soil and large stones. 

At a depth of 2 1 feet below the bottom of the Pool a gallery was 
driven in to south along ilie Sanctuary wall, in search of any appearance 
of a suburban gate. At 23 feet from the south end of Wilson's Arch, and 
about 27 feet above the rock, the top of a wall was met with, abutting into 
the Sanctuary wall, of well-dressed stones about 2 feet square. From 
the top of this wall for a distance of 1 i feet, to a wall immediately below 
the south wall of the Pool el Burak, a pavement was found on a level with 
the entrance to Barclay's Gate. This pavement may have been in con- 
nection with those found at the Prophet's (I'arclaj's) Gate and at the 
south-west angle. 

It has been suggested that the ground on which the lallen voussoirs 
and drafted stones were found must have been rough and unlevelled, but 
there is nothing to indicate this. It is possible that in sinking the shaft a 
pavement may have been passed through without its having been ob- 
served, as a single mining-frame would have covered it up. 

A shaft was also sunk on the east side of the pier of Wilson's Arch, 
about 7 feet from the .southern end, and at about 18 feet from the bottom 
of the Pool the mass of drafted stones was met with, 3 feet higher than 
on the eastern side of the arch. Prom hen- down to the rock was a 



JERUSALEM. 199 

mass of rough stones mixed with black earth, very difficult to work 
through. 

The Vallev. 

A gallery was then driven across the valley through red mud and large 
rough stones, and at the eastern end, about 3 feet above the rock, was 
found the appearance of a rough concrete pavement. 

The rock under the western pier of Wilson's Arch is 10 feet higher 
than under the Noble Sanctuary, and the lowest point in the valley is 
about 16 feet west of the latter. 

The gallery was constantly flooded with water, to the great inconveni- 
ence and danger of the workmen, especially after heavy rains. When the 
works commenced under Wilson's Arch, the water was constantly about 
10 to 12 feet above the rock; but during a heavy rain it suddenly fell 
about 8 or 10 feet, and afterwards rose only at uncertain periods. It 
seems probable that the opening of the aqueducts under Robinson's Arch 
may have allowed an exit to the pent-up waters. The water has the 
peculiar flavour of the Hammam ash Shafa and of the Virgin's Fount, 
and the soil, for 8 to 10 feet above the rock, is full of limestone crystals. 

The Causeway Vaults. 

These vaults, discovered in January, 1868, during the progress of the 
excavation, are of so complicated a nature that their description is a matter 
of difficulty. They lie to the west of Wilson's Arch, and form the con- 
tinuation of the causeway, under the Street of the Chain. They are totally 
distinct in appearance from the vaults of the IMahkama, which latter have 
pointed arches, and appear to have been built at a comparatively recent 
period. A closed window in the second chamber of the northern 
row of the Mahkama vaults was broken through in January, 1868, and the 
causeway vaults were discovered. 

The opening led into a space covered over by a trimmer arch immedi- 
ately under the Street of the Chain, and the vaults lie to the north of this 
street and immediately to the west of Wilson's Arch. They consist of two 
parallel rows of vaults, and a long passage or tunnel running along under 



100 THE SURVr.Y OF WESTER.y PALESTINE. 

the street, which will be called the ' Secret Passage :' these parallel vaults 
lie to the north of the Secret Passage, and are broken iqi by more recent 
work, ajjparently Saracenic, and also are wanting in one i)ortion, where 
there is a very ancient chamber of drafted stones, a ])(jrlioii of which 
held been removed to make room for the vaults. 



Tiiic Anciknt llAii, (PiATKs XXXI II., XXXV. .\M. XXXVI.). 

As this ancient chamber e.xisted before the vaults and the causeway 
were constructed, it will be first described. It lies about 27 degrees west 
of north, and 8 feet of its southern end is under the Street of the Chain; 
its south-eastern corner is about 84 feet from the Sanctuary wall. It is 
at present 30 feet 8 inches from north to south, and 23 feet from east to 
west, but 10 feet 4 inches has been added on to its southern end, so that it 
originally was but 20 feet 4 inches from north to south. This additional 
portion has apparently been made for the Secret Passage to pass over. 
It has been used as a cistern, and its walls could only be seen when the 
plaster was broken away. The pavement is at a level of 2,371-5 feet, 
about 2 feel above the pavement under the Pool al Ikirak, and at the 
Prophet's (ist sulnirban) Gate. The walls are 18 feet in height, and of 
very ancient appearance. The crowning arch of the hall is semicircular, 
with 21 voussoirs, but not as old as the walls; the arch to the south 
is still more recent, and, to cover the junction, a column was raised in 
the centre under the break, and two pointed relieving arches thrown over 
from the column to the sides, the span of each being about 10 feet. This 
column, with pari of the relieving arches, has since fallen, exposing the 
junction of the arches. The chamber was filled up with silt to a depth 
of about 15 feet 6 inches. Al the southern end of the chamber is a break 
in the wall leadinir into one of the vaults of the Mahkama. 

The walls of the Hall are 4 feet thick, and the stones are on the c.\- 
terior similar to those of the Wailing Place, with marginal drafts ; in the 
interior the faces of the stones are plain dressed, extremely well-jointed, 
looking as if laid without mortar, and at each angle there are pilasters, 
projecting about 2 inches. These pilasters have Ionic capitals of peculiar 
shape, the volute being something similar to that on one of the capitals 
found at Hyrcanus' Palace, at Arak el Emir. 



JERUSALEM. 201 

At the original south-east angle of the chamber on the east side is a 
double entrance, with lintels, on which, as well as upon the jambs, there 
are traces of ornament. 

The gateway was opened out, but a mass of fallen masonry was found 
in front of it, and the outer walls could not be examined without endanger- 
ing the buildings above. 

In the centre of the chamber a shaft was sunk, 15 feet 6 inches to the 
pavement, and then through rough masonry to a further depth of 1 1 feet 
6 inches, without finding rock. This masonry was as hard as a solid 
wall. 




The Ancient Hall has all the appearance of being one of the oldest 
buildings in Jerusalem. 

Between the Ancient Hall and the southern portion of Wilson's Arch 
there is but one vault, 23 feet 6 inches wide, with a span of 22 feet ; its 
springing is at about 2,402 feet, and its Boor at 2,398 ; its crown is a little 
lower than that of Wilson's Arch ; it has 19 courses of stones, all of the 
same size, and is apparently Roman work. Below this vault there is 
another of similar description, nearly choked up with rubbish. Below the 
spring of the lower arch is the recess in the pier, already alluded to when 
speaking of the pier of Wilson's Arch. In the rubbish below some com- 

26 



202 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

plicated aqueducts were found, which arc cut asunder by the Mahkama 
buildings; they probably were in connection with the aqueduct running 
under Robinson's Arch. 

To the north of the Ancient Hall and of the vault just described 
is a series of vaults running somewhat to the south of west from the 
northern portion of the pier of Wilson's Arch. These are also vault upon 
vault, and can be examined below ; but the vaults above, with one excep- 
tion, are covered over with some water-passages of later date. These 
vaults are 21 feet wide, and about 14 feet span ; they have semicircular 
arches, of from 13 to 15 courses each. These two sets of viaducts arc 
thus 44 feet 6 inches wide, rather more than the width of Wilson's Arch. 
The continuity of the southern viaduct, as has been already stated, is 
broken by the 'Ancient Hall,' and west of this it is replaced by the 
' Secret Passage ' already alluded to. 

The northern viaduct extends from these arches in the same direction 
as that to the south ; it then trends somewhat more southerly, and runs 
north of and parallel to the Street of the Chain and the Secret Passage. 
Between it and the Secret Passage is another series of vaults, about 16 
feet wide, with thick piers. These vaults, when examined, were full of 
sewage and water, and could only be sketched. 

The most easterly vault of the northern viaduct has a span of 13 feet; 
its arch is semicircular, with 1 5 stones ; its flooring is on a level with that 
to the south (namely 2,398). Below it is a similar vault, the crown of the 
arch of which is on a level with the crown of the Ancient Hall. In this 
chamber are some curious aqueducts, which communicate by a shaft with 
the aqueduct at a lower level found when breaking through the pier of 
Wilson's Arch. The two vaults of the northern viaduct to the west are 
covered over with some building of later date- — small passages with 
pointed arches, connected with the supply of water to the buildings above. 
There are draw-well openings in the roof, and the marks on the sides 
caused by the rope of the bucket. These passages arc choked up with 
rubbish at their ends. The vaults of the northern viaduct average 18 feet 
from north to south, and 14 feet span, with piers of about 7 feet 6 inches 
thickness ; the vaults of the southern viaduct are about 16 feet from north 
to south, and 1 1 feet from east to west, with piers about i 2 feet thick, the 
arches opening into the Secret Passage. Between the two eastern 



JERUSALEM. 203 

chambers of the southern viaduct is a vault at a lower level ; the floor 
at the level, 2,390, runs east and west, in it there is a shaft to the depth 
of 14 feet, and from it an aqueduct running- in a south-easterly direction, 
and cut off by the later buildings of the Mahkama. 



Secret Passage. 

This passage is mentioned by Mejr ed Din, who, in speaking of the 
Street of David, states that it is ' so named from a subterranean 
gallery which David caused to be made from the Gate of the Chain to 
the Citadel called the Mihrab of David. It still exists, and parts of it are 
occasionally discovered. It is all solidly vaulted.' 

The Gate of the Chain (Bab as Silsile) lies immediately over the Pool 
al Burak, and the Street of the Chain (Tarik Bab as Silsile) runs west 
towards the Citadel or Tower of David, and along the western prolonga- 
tion is called the Street of David. It is certain, therefore, that the sub- 
terranean gallery referred to by Mejr ed Din should lie somewhere under 
the present Street of the Chain. 

For the first iio feet from the Sanctuary wall this passage has dis- 
appeared, having made way for the more recent vaults at the Mahkama ; 
but for a distance of 150 feet, that is to say, up to a distance of 260 feet 
from the Sanctuary wall, it has been discovered to be still in existence, a 
portion of it being used as a sewer, and other portions as tanks for 
water. 

This passage has no appearance of great antiquity about it : it appears 
to be Roman of a late date. It has been suggested that its western 
entrance is probably that noticed in the ditch of the Citadel ; but on the 
other hand, its entrance may be at the so-called Gennath Gate. As it has 
only at present been traced one-seventh of the whole distance from the 
Gate of the Chain to the Citadel, it would be hazardous to speculate with 
too much certainty on its having connected the Citadel with the Temple ; 
but it may be mentioned that there is a general impression among the 
inhabitants of the buildings about this line at the present day, that such a 
passage runs through under their houses, and that it has been divided 
into tanks and receptacles for sewage. It is possible that it may yet prove 
to have been a water-channel only. This passage is from 8 to 12 feet in 

26 — 2 



204 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

widtli, and is covered by a semicircular arch of cut stone ; it is nearly 
choked up with sewage, so that it could only be examined with great 
difficulty at certain points. At its eastern extremity its floor-line is 
about on level 2,400 feet ; the walls are about 8 feet in height ; and the 
crown of the arch is about 8 feet below the level (2,419 feet) of the 
street above. 

At the western extremity, 260 feet from the Sanctuary wall, the passage 
appears only to be aboi.it S feet wide ; its floor is on the same level of 
2,400, and ihi: crown of its arch is about 8 feet below the level (2,422) of the 
street above. Above the crown of this arch probably runs the aqueduct 
from the Pools of Solomon. 

This Secret Passage, at its eastern extremity (about i 10 feet from the 
Sanctuary wall), is suddenly broken, the end being filled up with rubbish 
from above. If it ever continued to the Sanctuary wall, it would have 
passed over the southern and newer portion of the arch over the Ancient 
Hall, and along the trimmer arch to the south of the causeway vaults, 
and south of Wilson's Arch. There is an appearance of a break in the 
Sanctuary wall to the south of Wilson's Arch, by which the entrance may 
have been effected. 

Westwards this passage runs almost immediately under the Street of 
the Chain. At first it is about 12 feet broad, but it gradually narrows to 
8 feet in width. The arch is semicircular, of w^hitc viezzeli. On the north 
are to be seen the entrances to the vaults already mentioned, which form 
the causeway, and to the south is a door or opening. 

At about 205 feet from the Sanctuary wall the passage was blocked 
up with a thin masonry wall, and there was here a drop of 6 feet to the 
bottom of the passage. The passage terminated at 220 feet in a solid 
wall to the west. The chamber or section thus cut off had a door to the 
south, which opened into a donkey-stable built in the side of the 
causeway. 

The continuation of this Secret Passage was subsequently found to a 
distance of 260 feet from the Sanctuary wall. A section of it is here used 
as a tank, about iS feet in length, and the breadth is about 8 feet. 

The plan of this passage was not completed before the vaults leadino- 
to it were closed up by order of the Pacha, but it is probable that there is 
not likely to be any great error in the sketch-plan given on Plate XXXV. 



JERUSALEM. 



205 



It may be supposed that the Secret Passage should run immediately under 
the roadway of the Bab as Silsile, but this is merely a matter of conjecture ; 
and as it is known that there is a slight error in the ground-plan of the 
city at this part, no correction of the underground plan can profitably be 
made until that on the surface is examined, even on the supposition that 
one lies over the other. 

It appears, however, improbable that the modern houses of the 
Moslems should necessarily follow the lines of a passage of the existence 
of which they are uncertain. It is also doubtful, however, whether the 
causeway and Secret Passage may not be of comparatively recent date, as 
is indicated by the discovery of an arched gateway or city postern nearly 
immediately below it. 



Postern of anxient City Wall. 

Close to the last section of the Secret Passage, at 250 feet from the 
Sanctuary wall, was found a vaulted chamber of peculiar shape, the crown 
of which was about 13 feet 6 inches below the bottom of the Secret 




Passage. It had the appearance of having originally been a postern in 
the city wall, leading out eastwards ; but if so, it must have been before 
the causeway was constructed. 

In the vault leading to the cistern, or portion of the Secret Passage at 
250 feet from the Sanctuary wall (see Plate XXXV.), is the mouth of a 
narrow .shaft, at a level of 2,412 feet. At a depth of 25 feet this shaft 
opens into the crown of a vaulted chamber running nearly east and west, 
its western side on the plan being about 5 feet from the southern side of 
the Secret Passage. 



2o6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

This chamber is 14 feet 6 inches in length, 8 feet broad at its western 
end, and 10 feet 6 inches broad at its eastern end. It is plastered. The 
roof is peculiar : it is a ' straight-sided,' pointed arch, the rise at the widest 
part being only 2 feet. It was nearly full of rubbish. A doorway, built 
up, was found leading into another vaulted chamber lying east and west, 
18 feet long, and, like the first chamber, wider at its eastern extremity 
than at its western — 12 feet wide to east, and 13 feet 9 inches wide to 
west. There was no plaster about this chamber. The arch appeared to 
be semicircular, of nineteen courses of nearly equal size. 

At the eastern end is a doorway 5 foot wide, with a lintel 12 feet 
4 inches in length, ami i foot 10 inches in height, and a semicircular re- 
lieving arch of 5 feet span. Beyond this doorway is a passage 2 feet 
6 inches wide, and covered over with blocks of stone laid horizontally. 
At 10 feet to east this passage is closed by fallen masonry. The 
entrance between these two chambers is 4 feet 6 inches wide, and is 
covered by a lintel i foot 9 inches in height, with a segmental relieving 
arch. 

A hole was made 4 feet to west of the western chamber, but no con- 
tinuation could be found, and it is possible that this may be a more recent 
addition to the eastern chamber. A broken volute of an Ionic capital was 
found in the eastern chamber. 

It has been suggested that these chambers may be the vestibule or 
guard-room to the postern of the city wall. Nothing similar to the eastern 
chamber has been found about Jerusalem. 

Anxient Crrv \V.\ll. 

Although the complicated nature of the causeway vaults makes it 
extremely hazardous to offer any conjectures as to the date when any 
portion was built, yet there is one conclusion at which all theorists appear 
to have arrived, viz., that the first city wall mentioned by Josephus lies 
along the northern edge of these vaults. 

Josephus states (B. J. v. 4. 2) that the first wall 'began on the north 
at the tower called Hippicus, and extended as far as the Xystus, a place 
so-called, and then joining to the Council House, ended at the west 
cloister of the Temple.' Colonel Wilson says : 'It is almost certain that 



JERUSALEM. 207 

this wall crossed the deep ravine running down from the Damascus Gate 
at Wilson's Arch.' 

It would thus join the Sanctuary wall about 650 feet from the south- 
west angle ; and as it joined the zvest cloister of the Temple, the north-west 
angle of the Temple cloister must be looked for at least at some distance 
to the north of the Pool al Burak and Wilson's Arch. 

There is nothing at present known to bear out the suggestion that at 
the building of the second wall the first wall was pierced for through com- 
munication towards Siloam. All that is known is that after the Roman 
period, during the Middle Ages, such a passage existed. 

The west pier of Wilson's Arch and the voussoirs are essentially 
Byzantine in their appearance, and quite distinct from the arches and 
vaults more to the west. Until there is a correct ground-plan of the 
buildings on the surface and of those beneath on a large scale, it will be 
premature to do more than make the faintest suggestions as to the original 
construction of the vaults and their precise object. 



Possible Nature of the Causew.w. 

Assuming that the northern side of the vaults defines the position of 
the first wall, the question arises whether these vaults are of the same age 
as this supposed wall (which is known to have been built in the Maccabaean 
period), or whether they are of more recent construction. There is nothing 
in their construction which will warrant any closer identification than that 
they are Roman, and as such may be attributed to any period from the 
Roman procurators to Justinian. 

The Ancient Hall alone can be considered of ancient type, and is of 
the same date, apparently, as the Sanctuary wall. If the Sanctuary wall 
is Herodian, then this Ancient Hall is probably Herodian also, and the 
Secret Passage and causeway vaults are comparatively modern, and 
Wilson's Arch is of so late a date that it affords no interest to those whose 
study is the topography of the Bible. But if it be admitted that the 
Sanctuary wall at the Pool al Burak is of the time of Solomon or of the 
Jewish kings, then there is a possibility of the Secret Passage and causeway 
vaults being as old as the time of Herod. 

The following conjectures are put forward with much difiidence : 



2o8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTIXE. 

During the time of Solomon or of the Jewish kings, the present 
Sanctuary wall at the Pool al Burak was constructed from the bottom of 
the valley, at which time there were only a few feet of red or virgin soil 
in the valley. The Ancient Hall was at the same time built, and was the 
Council House. It is to be noted that the floor of this Hall is 30 feet 
above the rock at the Noble Sanctuary ; it may therefore have been 
constructed after the valley had commenced to fill uj). In the time of 
the Maccabees the city wall was built, called the birst Wall by 
Josephus. 

Portions of this wall have been found on the northern side of the 
Upper City, south of the Muristan. 

Either at the building of the w^all or at some subsequent period 
a causeway was constructed along its southern side to join the Temple 
to the Upper City. Probably this was done when Akra was cut 
down. 

Whether the present causeway vaults were built at this period or not 
can only be a matter of conjecture. When this causeway was built there 
was possibly a series of vaults, reaching u]) to the Sanctuary wall over 
the space now occupied by Wilson's Arch. 

These causeway vaults are double, and run together east and west, 
and do not appear to be of the same age or construction. One set must 
be older than the other. 

The northern viaduct appears to be more ancient. In after years this 
viaduct appears to have been added to by the southern viaduct, making 
up together a width of 44 feet 6 inches. At the same time the Secret 
Passage was constructed. This may have taken place in the time of 
Herod, or at a later period. 

This Secret Passage passed over the new arch over the Ancient Hall, 
and probably was connected with the arch spanning the southern portion of 
the Pool al Burak, which has all the appearance of being more ancient 
than Wilson's Arch. 

At the time of Constantine, when the present Holy Sepulchre was 
taken within the city walls, there was no object in keeping up the old 
First Wall at this point, as it had been broken down in other parts. 
Therefore a roadway was made along the Sanctuary wall at a level 
2,366 feet, spanned by an arch 42 feet in width. Whether this was done 



JERUSALEM. 209 

during the reign of Constantino or later must remain a matter of con- 
jecture. 

After the destruction of the arch, the present (Wilson's) arch was 
constructed about the fifth or sixth century. 

The existence of the City Postern, with its semicircular and segmental 
relieving arches, so far down below the Secret Passage, is itself a strong 
indication that the latter is of comparatively modern origin. 



Twin Tunnel beneath the Convent of the Sisters of Zion. 

These souterrains occupy the space or ditch cut out of the solid rock 
along the ridge or backbone which once united Bezetha with the high rock 
at the north-west angle of the Sanctuary (probably the Antonia). This 
ridge runs from north-north-west to south-south-east, and the souterrains 
follow this line. They are inclined at about 111° to west of the northern 
side of the Sanctuary. The south-west angle of the west souterrain is 
100 feet from the north-west angle of the Sanctuary, and the western side 
of this souterrain, if produced, will cut the Sakhra near its north-west 
corner. 

The western souterrain was discovered when the convent was built, and 
was described by Captain Wilson. The passage leading to the Sanctuary 
was discovered and examined by Lieutenant Warren. The eastern 
souterrain was first examined by INI. Ganneau and Lieutenant Warren. 
The souterrains were cleared out in 1S72 by Joseph Effendi, and a plan 
made by M. Schick and Dr. Chaplin, when the lower portion of an 
ancient wall was discovered ; and finally, the upper portion of the wall was 
described by Lieutenant Conder. 

These souterrains are parallel tunnels about 20 feet broad, and separated 
by a pier 5 feet 9 inches broad, and reaching, at the southern and northern 
ends, to the rock escarp and counterscarp. The souterrains appear to 
have been covered at different periods. The portion of them for about 
80 feet to the south appears to be of different construction to that to the 
north : the arches differ, the width differs, and there is no rock visible on 
the east of the southern half. 

M, Ganneau, however, states that he has ascertained, ' by sight and 

27 



2 10 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN J'ALESTEXE. 

touch, the existence of the rock, cut vertically along nearly the whole 
perimeter of the parallelogram' ('Quarterly Statement,' 1871, p. 106). 

The Souterrain No. i, from scarp to counterscarp, measures about 
165 feet. It is entered by a flight of steps at the northern end, leading 
down from the kitchen of the convent. The counterscarp is here about 
40 feet high, reaching from 2,417 feet to 2,457 feet. The floor of the 
souterrain falls considerably (18 feet) in its length to south, until at the foot 
of the scarp it reaches 2,399 feet. The scarp is here about 57 feet high, 
reaching up to 2,456 feet. The souterrains do not run straight through, 
but have a slight bend to the south at about 85 feet. The western side 
has a rock scarp from 13 to 24 feet in height. The eastern side, of 
masonry, is pierced with four arched openings leading into No. 2. 

The arch is semicircular, of plain chiselled stone, except from 52 to 
72 feet from the south end, where it has been rei^laced by a pointed arch. 
The springing has a gradual fall to the south of 6 feet. There are flights 
of steps at either end leading to the surface, which appear to be of the 
same age as the covering arch. 

Souterrain No. 2 is 127 feet long, and from 20 to 26 feet across, and is 
terminated at the south by the same escarp that terminates No. i. To 
the north it does not run so far as No. i, and is terminated by a masonry 
wall of later date blocking up the tunnel. 

At the northern end the width is 20 feet for 45 feet, and is cov-cred 
over by a semicircular arch of thirty-one courses. At 45 feet the souterrain 
widens to 24 feet, and the arch has a slope to the south of 1 in 6 ; but the 
crown of the arch appears to remain horizontal, as it increases its span 
throughout its length of 36^ feet. For the remaining 46 feet there is 
another arch, whose crown is lower by 4 feet 6 inches. 

These two latter arches are nearly semicircular, but appear to be 
slightly pointed. The springing of the arch to the east appears to be on 
the rock. 

The pier between these two souterrains is pierced by four openings, 
each about 10 feet wide. 

Water was brought from the north into Souterrain No. i by means of 
an aqueduct, which still exists, and will be described later. 



JERUSALEAI. 211 

ROCK-JIEWN PaSSAGF. 

From the south-west corner of Soutcrrain No. i is a rock-hewn passage 
or aqueduct about 4 feet wide, running nearly due south along the western 
side of the Sanctuary wall, apparently to Tank 22. 

At about 16 feet from the entrance it trends to the west for 6 feet, and 
then pursues its course to the south for about 60 feet. There is a dam 
10 feet high, which is provided with a sluice for letting off the water when 
necessary. 

At about 150 feet from the dam is the passage to the east, leading to 
the chamber in which is the ancient masonry with pilasters ; and a few 
feet further the aqueduct turns sharp round to the cast, and meets the 
masonry of the Sanctuary under Bab es Serai. 

The aqueduct is rock-hewn as far as 200 feet from the pool, opposite 
to the small passage, and is covered with slabs and columns. At the 
entrance the roof reaches up to about 2,452 feet, or about 30 feet above 
the level of the water held up in the dam. Beyond the dam it slopes 
down to 22 feet, and eventually to S feet. 

South of the passage the rock runs out, and only appears in the lower 
portion to a height of two or three feet, the passage being of masonry 
with an arched covering. The level of the bottom of the aqueduct near 
its south end is 2,406. The rock has here a level of 2,409. 

There are several shafts leading down through the crown of the 
aqueduct arch for the purpose of obtaining water. 

Above the covering arch is a handsome stone pavement of great 
thickness and solidity, which extends as far as the Eccc Homo Arch. 
M. Ganneau believes it to be of the time of Hadrian. 

From the scarp at the north-west angle of the Sanctuary to the scarp 
visible at the south end of the Twin Pools, measures about 100 feet of 
solid rock. 

In cutting the northern ditch of the Antonia, the aqueduct which 
comes from near the Damascus Gate was apparently cut through, and 
again when building the ancient west wall of the Sanctuary. 

It is possible that the space where there is water running between the 
Bab es Serai and Bab en Nazir, may be the hollow space within the two 
mentioned by Josephus ; but our knowledge of the ground is yet too 



-'2 THE SURVEY OF WESTERX J'ALESriNE. 

imperfect to admit of anything more than mere speculation. The two 
souterrains arc probably the Twin Pools, identified by Euscbius and the 
Bordeaux Pilgrim with Bcthesda, and M. Ganneau identified this site 
with the pool Strouthion, mentioned by Josephus (B. J. v. ii, 4) in his 
description of the attack on the Antonia by Tilus. He thinks that 
during the period of A'Xva Capitolina the pool was closed up, and the 
fine stone pavement above was laid, and that the Ecce Homo Arch is of 
the same date, built as a triumphal arch to celebrate the victory over 
Bar Cochebas ('Quarterly Statement,' 1871, p. 106). 

The bottom of the aqueduct appears to have been plastered, and there 
is a small water channel in it which may have been used when the water 
became low. There are recesses which arc supposed to facilitate the 
collection of water ; but this is doubtful. 

Nortii-West Anglk of S.anxtu.vrv. 

The rock appears on the surface in the interior of the Sanctuary, 
immediately north of the Bab en Nazir, or 'Gate of the Inspector,' and 
the levels of its surface gradually increase northwards into the corner of 
the court. On the north side of the Sanctuary a rock scarp, facing south- 
wards, runs east for 350 feet, with a maximum height of 32 feet. At the 
east end its height is only about 20 feet, and under the north-west minaret 
(of Kalawun) it is 30 feet ; the levels of the top being in the first instance 
2,433, ^"<^1 iri the second 2,460. This scarp is the south face of the block 
of rock on which the modern barracks arc built. The position of the 
north face, or scarp, of the block is only known when it appears at the 
south end of the Twin Pools ; and the cast scarp is also unknown, because 
it is hidden by buildings. 

I'^rom the internal corner of the .Sanctuary court, under the aliove- 
noticed minaret, a scarp facing east runs past the Bab al Ghawanimeh 
almost as far as the Bab es Serai. The level of this scarp decreases 
rapidly as it extends southwards. At the point shown on the plan 
(Plate XXXVH.) the scarp stops, and its top is here only 3 feet above 
the level of the rock surface in the Sanctuary court, which is about 2,431 
at this point. The scarp here turns west (as shown on the plan), and 
runs as far as the rock-cut aqueduct from the Twin Pools. The foot of 



JERUSALEM. 213 

this part of the scarp, as visible in the aqueduct, has a level 2,409, so that 
this scarp (which faces southwards) is at least 22 feet high. How much 
further west it may run from the aqueduct could not be ascertained without 
the destruction of masonry in the aqueduct ; but the known length of the 
scarp in question is 37 feet. The result of these observations is, briefly, 
that the great block of rock at the north-west angle of the Sanctuary is 
L shaped, the one limb measuring 350 feet east and west, the other 
120 feet north and south. The north and west sides of the block are 
hidden by buildings, and it is not known what scarps may exist in these 
directions. 

The lower part of the Bab al Ghawanimeh consists of rock-cut jambs, 
and there are steps at this gate descending into the Sanctuary from the 
street outside, which is on a level 6 feet above the level (2,431) of the 
Sanctuary court at this point. 

Beneath the Bab es Serai an ancient wall is visible, where the aqueduct 
from the Twin Pools stops after turning sharp round eastwards. This 
wall was measured by Herr Schick in 1872, and in the next year 
Lieutenant Conder discovered that the ancient masonry reaches up even 
higher 'than the level (2,431) of the interior of the Sanctuary. Through 
the roof of the aqueduct Lieutenant Conder gained access into a small 
modern chamber, built against the Sanctuary wall, just north of the Bab 
es Serai ; and here he found part of a wall of large drafted stones, with a 
plinth course and two pilasters, like those in the Hebron Haram. The 
space between the pilasters was occupied by a window, or opening into 
the Sanctuary, which seems to be ancient, as the lintel and jambs are of 
large ashlar — the former drafted. 

This ancient wall is parallel with the west Sanctuary wall. It is 8 feet 
thick, and its inner or east face appears to coincide with the line of the 
outer face of the west Sanctuary wall where known further south. There 
is thus clearly a set-back of 8 feet on plan at some point on the west side 
of the Sanctuary walls, and although the exact point is unknown, it is 
most probably at the Bab en Nazir, where the rock surface inside the 
Sanctuary suddenly drops beneath the existing surface. 

The ancient wall measured by Herr Schick presents one whole course 
and parts of two others visible in the aqueduct. The whole course is 
4 feet 6^ inches high. The courses set back 3 or 4 inches : the marginal 



214 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



drafts are 6i inches wide at top and bottom of the stones, and 3 inches to 
4 inches at the sides. They are about \ inch deep. 

In the chamber above the aqueduct four courses of ancient masonry 
were visible. The lowest of these was bevelled back between the pilasters 
(as at Hebron), forming a plinth, and giving a. projection of i^ feet 
to the pilasters. The southern pilaster is 4 feet g inches broad, the 
northern (which is partly rock-cut) is only i .', feet wide ; the interval 
between is 8 fcK;t 9 inches. The top of the plinth course has a level 




of 2,431, or about equal to that of the surface of the ground inside the 
Sanctuary. 

The height of the courses visible in the chamber above the aqueduct 
has not been recorded. It is probable that there are in all five 
courses above the highest one seen in the aqueduct, as the plinth 
course has its top 22 feet above the aqueduct, giving a height of 4 feet 
6 inches for each of the unseen and unmeasured courses, almost exactly 
the same as the height (4 feet 6^ inches) of the course seen in the 
aqueduct. 

As regards the probability of the plinth course here found having run 
all round the walls of the Sanctuary, with pilasters at intervals, as at 



JERUSALEM. 215 

Hebron, it should be remarked that the ancient wall is never found as 
high as this level (2,431) in any part save at the north-east angle of the 
Sanctuary, where the ancient masonry remains in situ in the east face of 
the tower (the so-called Tower of Antonia) up to a yet higher level (2,440). 
There is therefore nothing to show whether the pilasters and plinth 
existed on all sides, and they certainly did not exist in the face of the 
north-east tower. 

The Nortii-West Minaret. 

The north wall of the Haram, near the east, forms the south wall 
of the Birket Israil, and is at right angles to the east wall. Its 
production westwards will be found to cut the production of the 
west Sanctuary wall at the north-west angle of the north-west 
minaret (called Kalawun's). The two lines meet at an angle of 
about 85^ The minaret, which is on the highest part of the great 
scarp already described, thus stands on the north-west angle of the 
Sanctuary walls. 

The commanding site on the top of the great rock scarp, which is 
known to have been separated from the Bezetha hill by a trench, of which 
the Twin Tunnel (next to be noticed) formed part, is generally recognised 
as the site of the Antonia, and it is worthy of notice that in this case the 
barracks, the old Serai (or Pasha's residence) and the military Governor's 
house stand on the site of the Roman garrison and Governor's house. 



Deductions : North-west Angle. 

There are now known to be two ditches to the north-west and 
south-east of the rocky knoll at the north-west angle, as shown on Plan. 
These ditches are cut perpendicular to the backbone of the hill, running 
from north-north-east to south-south-west. 

The southern ditch can only be seen on the surface : it appears to be 
160 feet wide (see section), and may be 20 feet deep. The northern 
ditch is apparently 165 feet wide, and 30 feet deep, but is deepened to 
57 feet opposite the highest point of the rock, where the souterrains now 
stand. From ditch to ditch measures 3S0 feet. Between these two 



2i6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ditches the rock is low from the Biib en Nazir to Ikib cs Serai, and here 
tiicrc may be cither a natural depression from the west or else a deep 
ciittint^. 

The counterscarp of the northern ditch is probably connected to the 
west with the remarkable rock escarpment running west to the Austrian 
Hospice (described later). The aqueduct which enters the ditch on north 
at level 2,417 leaves it again at level about 2,420. 

C. W. 



TANKS INSIDE THE SANCTUARY. 

The first twenty of these were planned by Captain (now Sir C.) 
Wilson. The level of the rock was ascertained in them by Captain (now 
Sir C.) Warren. A few additional notes were obtained by Lieutenant 
Conder and Herr Schick. The numbers here given are the same as 
those on the Ordnance Survey for all the tanks planned by Sir C. Wilson. 

No. I. North of the Dome of the Rock, under the platform. It is 
about 130 feet long north and south, and 24 feet wide and 30 feet deep 
from the level of the surface of the platform. The lower 18 feet is cut in 
rock, and a segmental arch forms the roof, consisting of small well-dressed 
voussoirs with a narrow keystone and gradual widening of the other 
voussoirs towards the haunches. The level of the rock surface is 2,427. 
The tank is cemented throughout. The northern end is closed by a 
massive wall, also cemented over the masonry, and the voussoirs appear 
to run past this wall, which is not built square to the sides of the tank. 
It appears, therefore, that the passage may continue further north behind 
the present wall. The manhole in the roof, by which the tank is entered, 
is at the south end, and the south side of the tank appears to consist 
mainly of rock rudely hewn and cemented over. It has, however, been 
conjectured that the tank may also originally have extended further 
south. 

No. 2. A large tank, about 60 feet by 50 feet, in the north-east part 
of the platform. It was said by the sheikh of the mosque to communicate 
with No. 34, but there is no indication of this. The rock surface is 2,429 
at 6 feet from the surface of the platform. The total depth is 47^ feet. 

No. 3. West of No. i. Consists of three chambers divided by piers. 

28 



2i8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The walls arc of rock, and slope outwards towards the floor. The narrow 
top is roofed by a segmental tunnel vault, as in No. i. This tank has a 
total depth of 32 feet from the surface of the platform. The rock surface 
has a level 2.426 at 9 feet below the present surface. Towards the south 
the tank is entirely roofed in rock. The two side chambers to the west 
are divided off by a wall of inferior masonry, with low arched doorways. 
The end of the main passage on the north is closed by a wall like that in 
No. I. The interior is cemented over both rock and masonry. The 
elliptical roof described in the northern part of this tank by Sir C. Wilson 
is due to the way In which the rock is cut immediately beneath llie 
segmental arch of the vaulting, as was observed in 1S74, when Lieutenant 
Conder examined this and No. i tank by magnesium light. Sir C. 
Warren suggested that No. 3 tank is the bath-house of the Temple 
mentioned in the Talmud. The production of the main gallery of No. 3 
cuts the production of the gallery of No. i, if both are produced north- 
wards, just at the north wall of the platform, where the subterranean gate 
Tadi appears most probably to have been j^jlaced, as shown on the: plan 
(Plate VI.). The ground in this vicinity has a hollow sound. There are 
two manholes in the roof of No. 3, and in November, 1867, a rock-cut 
channel bringing surface water to the tank was examined. It runs north 
and south, with small side ducts from the east and west. 

No. 4. A small retort-shaped cistern with a long shaft. It is 37 feet 
deep, the rock-surface being at 2,417, or iS feet below the present surface. 
An ancient mouth in the shaft occurs 1 1 feet below the present surface. 
This tank is beneath the platform west of the Dome of the Rock. 

No. 5. In the south-east corner of the platform, has an entrance with 
a flight of steps at its east end, ascending southwards to the surface out- 
side the platform, and a manhole at its west end, down from the platform. 
This tank is a long passage, with recesses on the north and another at its 
west end running south. The main passage has a semicircular vaulted 
roof, but the branch on the cast is cut entirely in rock. The floor is 
48 feet below the platform surface. The rock surface is 2,425 at the west 
end, and 2,408 at the entrance on the east, where are remains of a door. 
The former level is 10 feet below the platform level; the latter level is 
8 feet below the present surface of the Sanctuary. The modern name of 
this tank appears to be B i r c r R u ni m a n e h, or ' The Well of the 



JERUSALEM. 219 

Pomegranate.' Sir C. Warren places the altar of the Temple over the 
north-west end of No. 5 tank. According to Lieutenant Gender's plan, 
the manhole at the north-west extremity would have been just outside the 
' Water Gate ' of the Priest's Gourt. 

It may be here noted that the Gell of Bostam, according to Mejr ed 
Din, was under the platform on the east. A door, with a window to the 
north of it and another to the south, is visible on the east wall of the 
platform, north of No. 5 tank and south of the eastern steps. These 
three apertures are now closed up, but the levels of the rock in No. 5 
tank render it probable that the south-east part of the platform is supported 
on vaulting. The Gell of Bostam was, however, already closed in the 
time of Mejr ed Din. In 18S1 an attempt was made to obtain permission 
to open this doorway and explore the unknown cells and vaults. This 
was not only refused, but a large heap of earth was soon after piled in 
front of the closed doorway by order of the architect of the mosque, com- 
pletely hiding the platform wall on this side. The known levels of the 
rock render it extremely important that the supposed vaults in this part 
of the platform should, if possible, be explored in future. 

No. 6. A tank T shaped on plan, east of el Kas, near the Great Sea. 
(No. 8), between the Aksa and the platform. It is 41 feet deep. The 
southern branch, which is 25 feet long, has its floor raised 4 feet 8 inches 
above the rest of the tank. The cistern has the shape of a hollow 
truncated pyramid above ; the roof is pardy of rock, partly of stone 
slabs laid flat on the rock surface. The level of the rock surface is 
2,410 feet 6 inches, and it is 5^ feet below the present surface of the 
ground. 

No. 7. Appears to be called el Bahr, or the 'Sea' (or lake). It 
is east of the last, and 62 feet deep. The main part is a rock-cut chamber 
with two entrances on the east, 6 feet above the general level of the floor 
leading to a side chamber with lofty roof. On the south is a branch 
running east, and in this four steps lead up to a flat platform. The roof 
of the excavation is rock throughout, the general level being 2,411, or 
5 feet below the present surface. This cistern has two mouths near each 
other. A surface conduit is visible, entering the tank high up. 

No. 8. Usually known as the ' Great Sea,' is called by the natives 
B ir el As wad, or ' The Black Well.' It is a fine cavern with rocky 

28—2 



2 20 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

piers, reached from the south by a narrow staircase. It is 43 feet deep, 
being partly roofed in rock and partly with flat stones. It is the largest 
of all the Sanctuary tanks, and has numerous manholes from the surface, 
three of which are in use. The floor, where visible (when the water is 
low), consists of a sort of limestone shingle. The rock surface is at the 
level 2,411, or 5 feet beneath the present surface. A conduit enters this 
tank from the cast. On the north-east there is a small circular chamber. 
The capacity of this tank is at least two million gallons. 

No. 9. Called B i r el Warakah, or 'Well of the Leaf,' is under 
the Aksa Mosque, south of the last. The general rock surface is about 
2,400, though this has not been ascertained with exactitude. This tank 
is 42 feet deep. There is a branch on the north and a central pillar 
supports the roof, which is of rock. The name is due to a legend related 
by Mejr ed Din, according to which, in the time of Omar, Sherik Ibn 
Habashah, of the Beni Temim, let his bucket fall, and descended to 
recover it. He found in the well an entrance to Paradise, and brought 
back a leaf of the ' tree of life ' with him. An aqueduct leads from the 
Well of the Leaf through the passage of the Double Gate under the 
Aksa. Various ducts conveying surface drainage into the Well of the 
Leaf were also found about 5 feet below the present surface of the 
Sanctuary. 

No. 10. East of the last, and on the west side of the passage from 
the Triple Gateway. It is 30 feet deep, and is reached through a hole in 
the wall of the passage just mentioned. It is now dry, and the manhole 
in the roof (which is of rock) is closed. The rock has a surface at 2,387, 
for 3 1 feet below the present surface of the Sanctuary over this tank, 
which is a long passage leading in the direction of No. 9 and No. 32. 
On the south-east it communicates with the rock-cut channels which run 
under the Sanctuary wall below the Triple Gate. 

No. 1 1. North of the last and of the old part of the passages from 
the Triple Gate. It is 6i,\ feet deep, and consists of three tanks, each 
about 26 feet by 40 feet, connected by a passage running north and south, 
and 14 feet wide. The total contents arc about 700,000 gallons. The 
roof is of rock cut out into arches. Steps on the west ascend to the 
mouth of the tank, and west of these are foundations of a massive wall on 
the rock. The passage from the Triple Gate is continued so as to run 



JERUSALEM. 



221 



over this tank. The general rock surface is about 2,397, or 19 feet 
beneath the present surface as determined on nth November, 1S67. 

No. 12. East of the platform, and south of the next two, a rectangular 
tank 44 feet deep. The roof is a semicircular vault. The rock which 
appears on the present surface towards the north end of the tank has a 
level 2,406. 

No. 13. Immediately north of the last, is of irregular shape, 40 feet 
deep and about 30 feet square. The sides are vertical, the roof is partly 
domed in rock. A conduit for surface water from a small cistern 250 feet 
further north comes in on the east side of No. 13. The rock on the 
present surface has here a level of about 2,409. 

No. 14. A pair of chambers 29 feet deep. They appear to be 
natural caverns, which have been enlarged. The roof has a plain semi- 
circular vaulting. The rock here appears on the present surface at a 
level 2,409. 

No. 15. North of the last and west of the Golden Gate. It is about 
18 feet in diameter, and nearly circular. The depth is 35 feet, the whole 
being cut in rock, with a roof also of rock. The rock surface is at a level 
of 2,393, or 15 feet below the present surface. 

Nos. 16 and 17. Near the Birket Israil. These two mouths lead to 
a single quadrangular tank, entirely of masonry, with four large piers, froin 
which groined vaults with pointed arches spring. The total length is 
63 feet north and south, by 57 feet east and west. The inner face of the 
wall on the north side is 23^ feet from the face of the Sanctuary wall, 
which forms the south side of the Birket Israil. The arches, which 
spring from the south faces of the two southern piers, appear to be either 
continued beyond the present walls of the tanks, or are simply flying 
buttresses. The remaining arches are stilted and pointed. The piers 
and arches all differ from each other in dimensions. The crowns are 
about 28 feet from the floor, and the springings 14 feet from the floor. 
This tank was first visited in January, 1869, by Sir C. Warren, and again 
by Lieutenant Conder, in 1874. Some large blocks have fallen into the 
tank, some of which are 3 feet square and 7 feet long. The floor is 
about 45 feet from the surface of the Sanctuary, which has here a level of 
2,413. On the south wall of the tank is a staircase, which led down till 
recently from the Sanctuary. A grating 2 feet square in the north wall 



222 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

(visible from the Birkct Israil) lets light into the tank. In 1S74 part of 
the vaulting was broken in, and the interior was therefore visible from 
the surface of the Sanctuary, la general appearance this reservoir 
resembles the Moslem work of the thirteenth century at Hebron, 
Ramleh, etc., and there can be little reason to doubt that the reservoir 
dates about the time when the Moslems repaired the Sanctuary after the 
expulsion of the Crusading Christians. The arches have ribs of cut 
stones, and the groined vaults between them are of rag-work, an arrange- 
ment found in the later Crusading work, and in the Moslem buildings of 
the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. 

No. 18. In the north-west part of the Sanctuary near the Bab es 
Serai is a tank 10 feet by 7 feet and ■^']\ feet deep. The rock surface 
has a level 2,414, or 4 feet below the present surface. 

No. 19. (So numbered in the 'Ordnance Survey ' Notes.) Is part 
of the passage from the Prophet's Gate (or so-called Barclay's Gate), 
mentioned under that head. 

No. 20. Tlie continuation of the same passage southwards. No rock 
occurs in either of these two last. Their floors have a level 2,374. 

No. 21. Ill the north-east portion of the Sanctuary, east of No. 18. 
This is a tank 24 feet by 12 feet, and 21 feet deep. It is entirely built in 
masonry, and no rock is visible. 

No. 22. Near the Bab en Nazir, south of No. 18. This is a large 
rock-cut reservoir with a domed roof of rock. It resembles the domical 
caves at Beit Jibrin, and like them it has a rock-cut staircase running 
round the wall. There are two manholes in the roof, both now closed. 
The surface of the rock has a level 2,416, or 4 feet below the present 
surface. It should te noted that the aqueduct from the Twin Pools may 
have been originally cut to fill this tank, or No. 18, the floor of which is 
16 feet below the level of the aqueduct channel, where it cuts the west 
Sanctuary wall. 

No. 23. North of the north-west corner of the platform. This is a 
retort-shaped tank, 8 feet in diameter, and 35 feet deep. The rock 
appears on the present surface at a level 2,429. 

No. 24. On the platform north-west of the Dome of the Rock. This 
is not properly speaking a tank at all, but a chamber, with its floor and 
part of its east wall made of rock, and sinking below the level of the 



JERUSALEM. 2^3 

platform. The upper part of the chamber is of comparatively modern 
masonry, and the place is used as a store. The interior was revisited by 
Lieutenant Conder in 1872. The floor is of rough rock, falling west 
wards at an angle of about 30", and the level near the east wall of the 
chamber is 2,425. A rock scarp 7 feet 8 inches high is here visible, 
running north and south between the masonry piers which support the 
groined roof of the chamber. It is finely finished, and has a bearing 01 
about 185°; the level of the top is 2,433, o'" about 2 feet below the 
surface of the platform. The levels in No. 25 seem to indicate that this 
scarp may continue rather further south. Further north the rock is 
visible in the Kubbet el Arwah (at 2,435), '^'■'t is known to be about 
2,426 on the west of the Kubbet, in the Kubbet el Khidr. If the plat- 
form were removed a scarp might probably be found running north on 
the line above noticed to an intersection with the north boundary of the 
platform. On the south it probably does not extend very far, as the 
contours of the rock clearly indicate. According to Captain Conder's 
view this scarp may have been connected with the Soreg, or boundary, 
dividing off the area of the Temple, which no Gentile might enter. 

No. 25. South of the last, is 12 feet in diameter and 37 feet deep. 
The rock appears at 2,416, or 20 feet from the surface. 

No. 26. A small cistern west of No. 16. No rock is visible. 

No. 27. A small cistern cut in the scarp on the north side of the 
Sanctuary. 

No. 28. This is outside the platform on the north-east. It appears 
to be called Bir el H abash, or 'the Well of the Abyssinian.' It is 
about 10 feet in diameter, and cut in rock. The level of the rock surface 
is here 2,412, or 3 feet below the present surface. This cistern is just 
north of the production of the rock scarp in No. 29, but its level is 
important as showing that the scarp does not probably extend far east. 

No. 29. This is not a tank, but a masonry chamber built under the 
present surface against the north retaining wall of the platform. It was 
discovered by Sir C. Warren in 1868, and thus described. An arched 
passage 18 feet span runs east and west under the steps of the eastern 
flight leading from the north wall of the platform. The vault is choked 
at each end, the length visible being 65 feet. On the south are four deep 
arcades between piers running back southwards to the line of the north 



"4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

wall of i!ic platform. The piers are partly of rock, partly of masonr)-, 
built on north of the rock ; the bays are from 1 1 feet to 13 feet span, and 
about 16 feet deep. The piers are 3?, feet thick. The backs of the bays 
are formed by a scarp of rock, the level of the top of which is 2,420, or 
I ; feet below the surface of the platform. The rock portions of the piers 
project about 6 feet from this scarp. The crowns of the arches in these 
vaults are only about 2 feet below the present surface outside the plat- 
form, the rise from haunch to crown being 9.', feet. The vaulting of the 
bays is groined into the vault of the main passage, which has a parabolic 
section, while the bay arches are pointed. The whole of the voussoirs 
are small, the stones being about 15 inches by 4 inches. There is no 
appearance of rock on the north side of the vault, save in one place 
(as marked), about the level 2,410. The masonry of the vault is in parts 
of ashlar, large and small, in part of rubble. There are two recesses in 
the masonry of the north wall as shown, 2 feet wide, 6 feet high, and 
8 feet to the back, where they are choked. The ends of the bays above 
the rock are filled in with coarse rubble. There is no cement or plaster 
in the vault. The floor of the chamber is not of rock, and the rock scarp 
may run down to some depth below it. Rock, however, occurs at the 
level 2,412 further east, so that the floor of the vault is probably not very 
far above the rock. The vault itself seems clearly to be Arab work not 
earlier than the thirteenth century, built on to an ancient scarp, which, 
according to Sir C. Warren's plan, is the northern limit of Herod's 
Temple enclosure. 

No. 30. This is the passage piercing the west wall of the Sanctuary 
west of the Dome of the Rock. It corresponds to the passage (Nos. 19 
and 20) from the so-called Barclay's Gate, and the two passages together 
represent the two western or Parbar entrances to the Temple enclosure, 
according to the plans of Sir C. Warren and of Captain Condcr. The 
passage (No. 30) was first described by Sir C. Wilson in the ' Ordnance 
Survey' notes. No rock occurs in this passage, now used as a tank with 
two mouths. The sides and floor are cemented ; the length is 84 feet 
cast and west, the breadth 18 feet north and south. It is 34.', feet deep, 
and the bottom is at the level 2,390. A modern flight of steps leads 
down into the passage. The roof is a round arch of well-dressed stones 
without mortar. 



JERUSALEM. 225 

No. 31. Immediately outside tlie platform on the west is a small 
cistern in a garden. 

No. 32. A small tank in the Aksa Mosque, apparently connected 
with No. 8. 

No. 33. A small tank north of the Aksa Mosque, under the stairs 
leading to the passage from the Double Gate. 

No. 34. Is on the platform just south of No. 2. It is a rock-cut 
cistern of irregular shape, about 60 feet in diameter. The surface of the 
rock has a level 2,431. A passage from the north-east side of this tank 
runs in 10 feet, and then appears to stop. 

No. 35. Is close to the east end of the great scarp en the north side 
of the Sanctuary. It is an ordinary cistern cut in rock. 

No. 36. West of No. 6, which it resembles in plan ; it is cut entirely 
in rock. 

No. '^'j. Was examined by Herr Schick, a little west of No. 13. 
The mouth is shown on the ' Ordnance Survey.' The excavation runs 
west in the direction of No. 34, passing beneath the east wall of the 
platform. The whole is cut in rock, which appears on the surface at the 
level 2,420. 

C. R. C. 



29 



EXCAVATIONS ON OPHEL. 

The junction of the Opliel wall with that of the Sanctuary has already 
been described in speakincj of the excavations at the South-East Angle. 
South of the Sanctuary this wall was traced for a total distance of 800 
feet, with results perhaps more important than any which have been 
gained by exploration in Jerusalem. 

More than fifty shafts were sunk by Sir C. Warren in various parts of 
the spur, south of the Sanctuary, and the levels of the rock were 
determined in no less than twenty places. These levels are of great 
importance in connection with some of the more recent controversies, and 
the more important are here given according to the shafts which are 
shown on the Plans. 



Shaft No. 


XVI. 


Rock Le\ 


,'el 


2,280. 




XXXI. 






2,270. 




XXXIV. 






2,320. 




XXXV. 






2,25s. 




XXXVI. 






2,271. 




XXXVIII. 






2,303. 



South of the wall the rock was traced along the crest of the spur as 
far as the point where Doctor Guthe afterwards excavated. Three shafts 
on this line give levels 2,274, 2,270, 2,264, showing a gradual and steady 
fall of the crest southv/ards. The observations of the rock on the 
surface further south, and in the passage and shaft from the Virgin's 
P'ountain, agree with the above-mentioned levels, and allow of the 
contours of the spur being traced with confidence. The conformation of 



JERUSALEM. 227 

the rock is similar to that of the present surface, showing a narrow spur 
sinking gradually in the direction of the Pool of Siloam, 

The application of the name Ophel on this spur is a matter of opinion. 
The radical meaning of the word is a tumulus or ' swelling,' either 
applicable to the spur generally, or to a knoll towards the northern part 
of the spur. The A.V. (margin), however, understands 'tower' (2 Chron. 
xxvii. 3, xxxiii. 14), and the Targum on the first of these passages renders 
it by ' the interior palace,' or fortress. Josephus mentions Ophel (5 Wars 
iv. 2) in connection with the junction of the city wall with the east cloister 
of the Temple, and it is possible that the name should be restricted to 
the vicinity of this great tower, which was discovered during the 
excavations. 

The wall and the curious cavern south of the Triple Gate will now be 
described. The great tunnel from the Virgin's Fountain which is cut 
through the Ophel spur, together with that spring and the Pool and 
inscription of Siloam, will be found described in Part II., under the 
headings, ' 'Ain Umm ed Deraj,' and ' 'Ain Silwan.' The excavations 
of Dr. Guthe are noticed on a later page in speaking of the explorations 
which have been made in Jerusalem since 1869. 

The Ophel wall was found to be \\\ feet thick, with vertical faces built 
up without any batter. At the South-East Angle of the Sanctuary the 
highest remaining course was discovered to be only 4 feet below the 
present surface (or at a level 2,352), and as the rock on the east face of 
the wall at this point has a level 2,278, the wall stands no less than 74 
feet in height. The highest course consisted of drafted stones, and is 
3 feet 9 inches in height. Beneath this the courses only average i foot 
9 inches in height. These smaller stones are not drafted. The wall was 
examined on its west face near the junction with the Sanctuary wall, and 
at a depth of 30 feet the character of the masonry was found to change. 
Above this level the stones are well dressed and carefully cut and 
squared ; below the same level (2,322) the wall consists of rough rubble. 
This does not extend to the rock, but is founded on a layer of hard clay 
over the rock. Near the Sanctuary a gallery was driven through this 
clay under the foundation of the wall until it reached a previously con- 
structed gallery on the opposite or west side of the wall. 

The change in the character of the masonry above noted was obscrv- 

29 — 2 



228 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

able throughout the whole course of the Ophel wall, and it might perhaps 
hence be deduced that the lower part of the wall was never visible, and 
that the rock was hidden at a depth of about 40 feet below the surface 
when the Ophel wall was built. The excavations for the foundations 
appear to have been sunk to the surface of the clay, whereas in the case 
of the Sanctuary wall they were carried down lower, so that the bottom 
courses are let into the rock. 

The Ophel w-all abuts on the Sanctuary wall with a straight joint; 
being vertical, its east face does not run flush with that of the Sanctuary 
wall, which is built with a batter. At the top the Ophel wall projects 
\\ feet eastwards beyond the face of the Sanctuary wall, and at the 
bottom (70 feet lower) it recedes 2 feet behind the face of the Sanctuary 
wall westwards. There is no sign of any gateway at this junction, and 
there is good reason to suppose that the Sanctuary wall and the Ophel 
wall were not built at the same time. Sir C. Warren believes that the 
Sanctuary wall is shown to be the older of the two because the rubble 
foundations of the Ophel wall might indicate a great accumulation of 
rubbish on the hill at the time when this rampart was built, if they were 
never intended to be visible. 

The bearing of the Ophel wall is the same (352° 30' true bearing) as 
that of the Sanctuary east wall for go feet south of the South-East Angle 
of the Sanctuary ; at this point there is a tower on the Ophel wall, 
projecting 6 feet, with a face 24 feet broad. The wall then turns south- 
west, and was traced for 700 feet, when it appeared to stop. Three other 
towers like that at the angle were found along its course, as well as a 
large tower projecting eastwards. This projecting fortification has on the 
north-cast side a kind of corner turret which projects 22^ feet from the 
wall, with a face 26 feet broad. There was possibly a corresponding 
turret on the other side, while the main part of the tower projects 41 5 
feet from the wall, and has a face 80 feet broad. The faces of this tower, 
as will be seen on the plan, are not quite at right angles to each other. 
The south face is 475 feet from the corner, where the wall bends towards 
the south-west, as above described. 

There can be litde reason to doubt that the great tower thus described 
is the one mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah as the Migdol ha Jutza, 
or 'tower that projects' (Neh. iii. 25), and this building constitutes 



JERUSALEM. 229 

therefore an important fixed point in the topography of ancient 
Jerusalem. 

The masonry in the corner turret of the great tower consists of large 
drafted stones, 2 feet to 3 feet high, and 4 feat to 8 feet long, with roughly 
hewn bosses. The base is founded on a rock scarp, and is 5 feet below 
the level of the base of the wall. The rock beneath is scarped to a 
height of 14J feet. The natural rock surface is here falling very rapidly 
eastwards. The face of the great tower itself consists of stones i foot to 
2 feet high, and 2 feet to 3 feet long. It is now standing to a height 
of 66 feet, and is founded on rock. The south-west face is much 
decayed. The wall is plastered in places, as on the large drafted stones 
of the corner turret. Beneath the rock scarp just mentioned there is a 
water channel, 10 feet high and i^ feet wide, sunk at the foot of the 
scarp. The scarp was traced 25 feet north-north-east, when a rough wall 
took its place. 

The first shaft sunk in the examination of this rampart was at 37 feet 
south of the South-East Angle of the Sanctuary. It struck the rock at a 
depth of 53 feet on the east side of the Ophel wall. A gallery thence 
was driven to the Sanctuary wall. A wall was found 4 feet thick, and 
15 feet south of the south Sanctuarj' wall, running parallel to the latter 
westwards from the inner side of the Ophel Avail. This foundation, like 
the Ophel wall, consisted partly of luclckch, partly of luczzch, or very 
hard limestone. 

The Ophel wall was found to stop suddenly on the south, and about 
200 feet further south-west in the same line, the rock appears to rise in 
a kind of knoll, the rock surface being only about 12 feet below the 
present surface (or at a level 2,474). It is probable that the masonry 
of the Ophel wall has been removed in this vicinity, being easily 
reached, and the stones may perhaps be now built into the south wall of 
the present town. The same removal of masonry has also apparently 
occurred in the case of the Third Wall on the north side of Jerusalem, 
where no great accumulation of rubbish existed to conceal and protect 
the ancient ramparts. 

The Ophel wall appears possibly to have been built up in two or 
more steps, with a pathway at the foot of each. The same arrangement 
is also noticeable in the case of the rock scarp in the Protestant Cemetery. 



230 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

(See Part II., heading ' Ilamniain Tabariya.') The three smaller towers 
on the wall above mentioned project about 6 feet, and have faces 22 to 
28 feet broad. The first is at 310 feet from the angle with corner tower, 
the second at 425 feet, the third at 575 feet. The rough rubble already 
noticed at the base of the wall has an average thickness of 20 feet, and 
above it is a plinth course setting back 6 inches, on which the masonry of 
cut stone rests. Only a few courses of these cut stones remain in some 
parts, and some are as much as 2\ feet in height, with lengths varying 
from 2 to 4 feet. 

Sir C. Warren was of opinion that the stones in the Ophel wall were 
not in situ, but that they had been re-uscd. It appears also that some 
outer retaining wall may exist, which may have banked up the soil so as 
to cover the rough rubble if the latter were not intended to be seen. 

A scarp 12 to 14 feet high was found running south-east and north- 
west at the knoll above mentioned, which is 200 feet along the line of the 
Ophel wall south-west of the point where it appears to stop. A scarp 
only 3 or 4 feet high was found by Dr. Guthe, on the hill immediately 
west of the Virgin's Fountain. These scarps seem to indicate that tlie 
Ophel wall took a bend eastwards. The masonry of a small tower 
excavated by Dr. Guthe is of a character similar to the smaller well cut 
masonry of the Ophel wall, and this may perhaps be a continuation of 
the wall. Further excavation would, however, be necessary before any 
certainty could be felt in the matter. 

The question of the date of the Ophel wall is one of considerable 
difficulty. Sir C. Warren believes that a great accumulation of rubbish, 
and perhaps of clay soil on the rock, occurred after the Sanctuary wall 
was built and before the Ophel wall was constructed. It must not. how- 
ever, be forgotten that Sir C. Warren proved in the case of the Sanctuary 
wall that rubbish already existed when it was built, through which the 
foundations were sunk to reach the rock. It is, moreover, not certain 
that the rubble base of the Ophel wall was from the first invisible, for no 
traces of any outer retaining wall serving to keep up the earth or rubbish 
against the outer face of the rubble have been found. It may perhaps 
prove to be the case that the rubble and the cut stone represent two 
building periods. The cut stones in the wall (e.xclusive of the large 
drafted stones used in the top course and in the outlying tower) resemble 



JERUSALEM. 231 

in character the Roman masonry of the second century a.d., or even later. 
The rough rubble and the rocky scarps may perhaps represent the older 
part of the rampart, and may be referred with considerable confidence to 
the time of Nehemiah. The cut stones, together with large drafted stones 
like those in the Sanctuary wall (but, as Sir C. Warren notes, re-used), 
may in their present positions represent the work of Herod, of Agrippa, 
or Hadrian, or even of some later Roman builder, thus agreeing with the 
conclusion which Sir C. Warren reached on the spot, that the Ophel wall 
as at present existing is later than the Sanctuary wall. The fact that the 
Ophel and Sanctuary walls have the same bearing at the junction is, how- 
ever, important, because it might be thought that the obtuse angle at the 
south-east corner of the Sanctuary resulted from the building of the cast 
wall of the Sanctuary in a line with the already existent Ophel wall. 

Rock-cut Cave South of the Triple Gate. 

Two shafts were driven early in 1869 with the object of ascertaining 
whether any wall coming from the south ever joined the Sanctuary wall 
at or near the Triple Gateway. The first (No. 34) was 132 feet south of 
the gate, west of a cistern : rock was found after 22 feet (or at a level 
about 2,340), and in a drain at this level a number of lamps of pottery 
and glass bottles were found, supposed to date about the third century a.d. 
A gallery was driven 25 feet west along the rock, but no wall was found. 
The owner of the adjoining property objected to the gallery being con- 
tinued further west. A cistern was found east of the shaft, with a cross 
(of St. John) moulded in the plaster of a small alcove. The second shaft 
(No. 42) was sunk 260 feet from the Triple Gate, in a line at right angles 
to the east jamb of the centre arch of the Triple Gateway. The rock was 
reached at a level about 2,300, and the shaft is close to the inside of the 
Ophel wall. A gallery driven west along the rock struck the same 
ancient drain found in the former shaft, and a branch from the north- 
west was also found. After running 30 feet from the shaft, the gallery 
struck on a massive wall running north in the direction of the east jamb 
of the centre arch of the Triple Gate. This wall was followed southwards 
31 feet, where it ceases, and 35 feet to the north, where it is succeeded 
by a wall of rubble, on the top of which, not apparently in situ, was a 



232 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

well-cut drafted stone 2 feet high by 3^ feet long. The rubble wall 
continues 10 feet further north. Further examination showed a large 
stone 3 feet high by 1 5 feet in length, used in this wall, and cut stones 
appear to have stood on the rubble. A shaft was found immediately east 
of the wall, which (as shown on the Plan) led to the rock-cut chamber which 
is under the wall. Tlic level of the surface at this point is 2,349, and the 
rock is 29 feet lower (or 2,420). The shaft is 4I feet deep, and passes 
down into the roof of the chamber. 

There was nothing to indicate the age of the walls thus found, which 
may perhaps have been built to retain a ramp running up towards the 
Triple Gate. Further excavations were undertaken (Nos. 38 and 40) 
just south of the path leading east and west at the corner of the modern 
city wall. In the latter, rock was found at 27^ feet, with rock-cut cisterns 
and a passage leading to them with steps east of the shaft. A gallery 
was driven north and reached another cistern, 17 feet square, and was 
continued for 60 feet. The rock was found to have a scarp facing east. 
In the other shaft rock was found at 12 feet (2,303) with a scarp facing 
west, and 12 feet to 14 feet high for 15 feet north-west and south-east. 
The chief result of these shafts was the determination of the rock, and of 
the fact that this part of the hill had once been covered with buildings. 
The drain discovered may be connected with the rock-cut channels which 
come from inside the Sanctuary under the Triple Gate. 

The cavern above mentioned was fully explored. It consists of 
two chambers cut in the rock with fiat rock roofs. The northern chamber 
is about 1 2 feet square, and on the east side a masonry wall closes it. 
The southern chamber is of irregular shape: three rock piers divide it, 
and run in a line north-east and south-west. The portion east of the piers, 
which may have formed some kind of porch, is confined by masonry walls 
on the east and south. It is in the roof of this portion tliat the rock shaft 
(noticed above as found in gallery No. 42), occurs. The larger part of 
the chamber, west of the piers, is of rock, except on the east (south of the 
piers), where a masonry wall occurs. The shape is best seen on the plan. 
There are two troughs cut in rock against the wall, as shown, 1 \ feet 
wide and 6 inches deep. In one a plug-hole was found, as though the 
trough were a vat for the reception of a liquid. Eyes are cut in the roof, 
on the walls, and at intervals below the troughs, two grooves in the rock 



JERUSALEM. zy^, 

being connected by a hole pierced horizontally. These holes are about 

I inch behind the rock surface, and a rope \\ inches in diameter might be 
passed through them ; the holes are about 2 inches long. The present 
floor is about 2 feet below the level of the troughs, but the rock floor is 

I I feet below the same level. This seems to preclude the possibility that 
the troughs were originally intended for mangers, if the floor were on the 
rock. 

The modern dyers' shops in Jerusalem contain somewhat similar 
tioughs or vats, and staples in the walls for the lines on which the dyed 
cloths are hung to dry. The vats are, however, circular, and not as in 
the cavern, long and narrow. The earth in the cavern was turned over 
and many fragments of pottery were found, as well as the base of a 
copper candlestick, which appears to be of the Byzantine period. Above 
the shaft in the roof of the cave is a drain, in which fragments of glass 
and pottery of the early Christian period were also found. 

Tradition points to this quarter of Jerusalem in connection with the 
trade of fulling. Thus En Rogel (probably the Virgin's Fountain) is 
generally translated ' The Fuller's Spring,' and St. James is said by the 
early traditions to have been thrown from the Sanctuary wall and slain by 
a fuller's mace. On the other hand, the troughs are not unlike the rock- 
cut mangers which occur in caves in Southern Judea (possibly also at 
Bethlehem), and at Arak el Emir, east of Jordan, as well as at Dustrey, 
near Athlit. Such mangers seem to have been used in the Middle Ages, 
in early Christian times, and also in the Jewish ages before the destruction 
of Jerusalem. The cave may therefore have been either a fuller's shop 
or a stable ; but in the latter case a considerable accumulation of earth 
must have existed above the rock where the troughs were cut. 



t> 



C. R. C. 



30 



EXCAVATIONS IN THE CITY, 1867— 1869. 

The excavations within the city include those in the Muristan ; the 
shaft at the so-called Gennath Gate ; those outside the Damascus Gate ; 
and the shaft in the street called el Wad. The results in the Muristan 
were mainly negative, and are noted in the full account of the Muristan 
given on a later page. 

Gennatii Gate (so-called). 

The spot to which this name is traditionally applied is at the corner 
where the street called llaret ed Dawayeh turns sharp north and 
descends into David Street. A few voussoirs of a semicircular arch of 
squared stones were here visible in the wall facing west. A donation was 
made by H.R.H. the Archduke of Modena for excavations at this spot. 
A shaft was sunk beside the north jamb in Ecbruary, 1S69, and the arch 
found to be well preserved beneath the surface, though much weathered 
above. The rise is 5 feet 4 inches, the diameter 10 feet 8 inches. The 
haunch rests on a capital, the profile of which was measured ; it is 2 feet 
high. The jamb consists of three courses below this capital, having a 
total height of 7 feet 4 inches for the three courses. A flat sill projects 
12 inches beyond the jamb at the bottom, but no pavement was found. 
The arch consists of eleven voussoirs, each 2 feet 3 inches deep, by the 
same measure at the extrados ; the keystone projects 3 inches below the 
soffit of the rest of the arch — unless this be due to settlement in the 
crown. A pointed archway of late date was found to be built within 
the older gate. The groundsill is nearly on the level of the present 



JERUSALEM. 235 

surface of David Street. The shaft was sunk below the sill, and this 
gateway was found to rest on earth mixed with pottery. The rock was 
struck at a level 2,449, the level of the sill being 2,474^, and that of the 
present surface 2,486. No signs of any ancient wall were found at the 
bottom of the shaft. 

The gateway has probably no connection with the true Gennath Gate. 
It appears to be Roman or Byzantine in origin, perhaps the west door of 
a church or public building. The level of the sill enables us to measure 
the rate of growth of the rubbish in Jerusalem at this point, which has 
amounted to only 10 feet in about fourteen centuries. On the other hand 
the level of the modern streets is in parts known to have been raised more 
than 6 inches in about ten years when the town was repaved. 

Damascus Gate. 

An excavation was commenced in August, 1867, outside this gate 
and east of the road, where a great heap of rubbish now occurs. A 
solid wall was found outside the present city wall, and north of this a 
flight of steps probably leading into a tank. North again of the steps an 
ancient wall was found running east and west, consisting of large drafted 
stones like those of the Sanctuary, but apparently not in situ. The wall 
stops nearly opposite the present gate, and wa? here found to be lo.j feet 
thick, the north side being of different masonry to the south, but judged 
to be of the same age. The foundations of this wall are 3 feet lower 
than the present roadway at the Damascus Gate, and the greater part of 
the wall is above the present general level, but concealed by the heap of 
rubbish. The conclusion reached by Sir C. Warren was that the wall in 
question was built by the Crusaders with ancient material, and this agrees 
with the fact that traces of the foundations of the Crusading north wall 
of Jerusalem are visible further west at the edge of the fosse outside the 
modern city wall. A stone was found in the rubbish at the foot of the 
wall, on which a Templar's cross was cut. It had once formed part of 
the wall. The core of the wall was traced west of the present roadway 
under the rubbish heap, which exists on this side of the modern Damascus 
gate. This gate in the twelfth century was called St. Stephen's Gate. 
The Third Wall, built by Agrippa, is generally supposed to have passed 



23G THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

above the Cotton Grotto rather further east, and from that ancient rampart 
the largo stones in the Crusading wall were probably taken. 



The Street called El Wad. 

A shaft was commenced on tlic 19th May, 1S69, close to the corner of 
this street, where the Via Dolorosa joins it immediately south of the 
Austrian Hospice (at the point marked 27 on the Ordnance Survey). 
The level of the surface is here 2,418. The shaft on the west side of the 
street passed through black soil and large rough stones until, at a depth 
of i/i feet (2,400), the rock was found to shelve down at about 45'' in a 
west-south-west direction in steps 2 J, feet high, A gallery was driven 
west through hard soil and large stones, and after 5.^ feet the old sewer 
from the Damascus Gate was found, which is 2 feet wide and 4 feet 
9 inches high; the floor is of rock, falling about one in six to the south; 
the roof is of flat stones laid across: this was examined for 130 feet 
southwards, and three shafts leading down into it were explored. The 
gallery was continued beyond this sewer, and at 1 7 feet it reached a shaft 
with a drain above reaching 7 feet higher. The shaft was cleared and 
rock discovered at 15 feet below the gallery (2,378). The shaft was 
4 feet square of masonry. The rock was scarped on the east and south. 

The principal result of these excavations was the determination of the 
rock in an important locality. The existence of a scarp facing south 
further east, near the Ecce Homo Arch, and of another scarp facing east 
in the street called Tarik Bab el 'Amud, north of the Damascus Hotel, 
together with the lie of the rock in the gallery above mentioned, seem to 
point to a rocky counterscarp in this part of Jerusalem, which might 
prove to have been that of the ditch outside the famous ' Second Wall.' 

C. R. C. 



EXPLORATIONS SINCE 1869 A.D. 

THE HARAM ENCLOSURE. 
BiRKET IsRaIl. 

It is worthy of notice that the masonry of the pool is similar to 
masonry found in Byzantine ruins in various parts of Palestine, not only 
because of the size and square proportions of the stones, but also because 
the wide joints are packed with small cubes of stone. The stones were 
rudely scored over to make the cement adhere better. Where the casing 
has fallen away a second thickness of similar masonry is seen behind. 
This seems to render it improbable that any wall like those on the other 
three sides of the Haram here exists ; for such a wall would hardly have 
been faced with a double casing of such inferior masonry. This conjecture 
agrees also with the fact that no corner or straight joint was found in 
Colonel Warren's excavations in the eastern face of the east wall, which 
runs north beyond the present north-east angle of the Sanctuary. We 
have as yet no conclusive evidence of the line of the ancient north wall of 
the Temple Enclosure. 

East Wall. 

A gateway in the more modern masonry was opened in this wall in 
1882, and an attempt at excavation made within the wall by the Turks. 
The wall at the level of the present surface was found to be 9 feet 
6 inches thick. The following is Lieutenant Mantell's account of the 
gateway : 



=3S 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



'The thickness of the wall is 9 feet 6 inches, and through it a passage is built 3 feet 
9i Inches in width. The height is 6 feet 7 inches to the si)ring of the arch, which is formed 
of seven voussoirs in all, the key-stone being smaller than the side voussoirs. The height in 
the centre is 8 feet 6 inches, so that the rise of the arch is just half the span. It is, however, 
not semicircular, but slightly jjointcd. 

•At the eastern face arrangements have been made for a door. The three horizontal 
grooves arc presumably intended to leave space for the bolts in opening and shutting the 



■ Plan, oC Gate & Passage' 




Sectirn, on A.B. Fig 3. .-•"^■7/' 



■m 



jm^i- 



:-,; a 



Section on CD 



Section, on EK 





fact I 



_L_ 



SccLle 



wdet 



door — an arrangement sometimes followed at the present time. On each side also is seen a 
hole for hinges or bolts, one being represented in the figure below the central horizontal 
groove. 

' The opening on the east is narrower than the passage itself (being 6 feet i inch high by 
3 feet broad), and is surmounted by a lintel-stone 6 feet 6 inches by 2 feet by lo inches thick. 
The size and arrangement of the adjacent stones are shown according to actual measurements. 

'The left (southern) jamb of the door is 257 feet from the south-east corner of the 
Haram. 



JERUSALEM. 239 

' With the exception of the lowest course, the masonry within the gate and on the inner 
surface of the wall consists of well-cut undrafted stones, i foot to 2 feet 6 inches in length, in 
courses from i foot to 2 feet in height. The materials of the lowest course, however, are 
evidently more ancient ; the stones are much larger (the dimensions of two of them being 
4 feet 6 inches by 3 feet 8 inches, and 4 feet 9 inches by 3 feet respectively), and show signs 
of a marginal draft with a much worn rustic boss. One side of the passage is partly covered 
with good white mortar, with tool marks on the surface resembling arrow-heads, intended 
either to be ornamental or for the reception of another layer of plaster. 

' After reaching the inner face of the wall, the excavators ran a gallery northwards under 
the surface of the Haram for a distance of 29 feet. The earth through which it runs consists 
of stones (some 6 inches to i foot across) and rubbish, and is supported by woodwork, one 
side of the gallery being formed by the wall itself. It is here that the interior course of more 
ancient material referred to above has been laid bare. One stone projects from the floor of 
the gallery, but the rest of the floor is apparently earth. At the north end the ground plan of 
the wall is as represented. The dotted line at this point shows a closed up drain, or the 
vacant space left by removing one of the lowest stones in the wall. 

' The work has now been left some months, I believe, in statu quo, and the Turks do not 
at present show any intention of continuing their investigations further. 

'A. M. M.' 

' This door is probably not older than the fifteenth century at earliest. The masonry of 
the Haram above the door and north of it became much dilapidated in 1881. 

' C. R. C 



Measurements of the Haram. 

The Tyropceon Bridg e. — The existing arch is 50 feet broad, 
and measures 38 feet 9 inches from the south-west corner of the Haram. 
The accord between this and the dimensions of the Royal Cloister of 
Herod's Temple is striking. As regards the diameter of the pillars of the 
Royal Cloister, they may, no doubt, be assumed at about 6 feet, which is 
about the diameter of the existing monolith at the Double Gate. The 
measurements of the Cloister will then be : 



JosepJmss 


Meastirement. 


Wall (thickness) 


... 8 feet) „- 

r \ 38 feet, 
... 30 feet ) "^ 


South Walk of Cloister 


Pillar (diameter) 


6 feet \ 


Central Cloister 


... 45 feet > 52 feet, 


Pillar (diameter) 


6 feet ) 



Total ... ... ... 90 feet. 



240 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Actual Measurement. 

From south-west angle to south side of 

Bridge ... ... ■■. 3S feet 9 inches. 

Breadth of Bridge ... ... .•• 50 feet. 



Total ... ... ... 88 feet 9 inches. 

This is as near as we can go without actually knowing the diameter of the 
pillars, which could hardly be spanned by three men (Ant. xv. 11, 5). 
If we reduce the diameter to 5 feet 6 inches, the result will agree with 
actual measurement within 3 inches. 

Length and Width of El A k s a. — The measurements are 
given in an Arab MS. of the fifteenth century of the Masjid el Aksa, 
which, as is well known, was the old Arab name for the whole enclosure 
now called H a r a m e s h S h c r i f . The Arab writer gives the breadth 
along the north wall as 455 dhra, which is just the length of the north 
wall of the Haram, 1,042 feet. The length, 784 dhra, which he gives, is 
equally close to the length of the west Haram wall, 1,601 feet. The 
dhra is the Turkish/?^, or 2 feet 3 inches. 

The measurements of the Masjid given in the same century by 
Mejr ed Din (Hist. Jerusalem, Chapter xx.) are equally exact. He makes 
the length of the east wall from Bab el Asbat to the M i h r a b 
DclCld (south-east corner) to be 669 common architectural dhra, which 
agrees with the length of the present east wall, 1,530 feet. The width 
he giv'es is a mean measure from the outside of the wall at the Bab e r 
R a h m e h (Golden Gate) to the opposite cloisters. This he states at 
406 dhra, agreeing very closely with the actual measurement of 970 feet. 

Mejr ed Din adds, ' Should any one else find it one or two dhra 
more or less, it must be put down to the difficulty of measuring. I 
measured it twice myself before I obtained the true measure ' (Chajncr 
XX., Section 20). 

Mejr ed Din also gives the size of the J a m i 'a el Aksa, or mosque, 
on the south Haram wall. He makes it 100 dh'a long by "Ji dhra wide. 
The measurements are exact, without including the porch outside on the 
north. 

These measurements are of value as showing that the area of the 



JERUSALEM. 241 

Haram was the same in the fifteenth century as it now is, and that Mejr 
ed Din, who took the mean width, was aware that the area was not 
rectangular. 

Two standard examples of the small and medium amch are said in the 
Mishna (Kelim xvii. 9) to have been preserved at the Gate Shushan, 
which was due east of the Holy House. This gate has not yet been 
rediscovered. When it is, let us hope the standard measures will also be 
found. 

The Jews had at least three measures called ameh, or cubit. The 
smallest, of five handbreadths, measured the vessels of the Temple ; 
the medium, of six handbreadths, measured its buildings (Tal. Jer. 
Menakhoth 97 a). The medium cubit consisted of two spans [sit). 

It must not be forgotten, in dealing with this matter, that the Jews 
are not a tall people, and that their hands were probably as delicate as 
those of the present Jews and Arabs. We may therefore take the 
measures of an English gentleman's hand as not being less than those of 
a Jewish hand. 

Taking, therefore, the cubit of forty-eight barleycorns (Maimonides, 
Sepher Torah, ix. 9), and the barleycorn as equal to our English long 
measure barleycorn — as results from actual measurements of barleycorns 
in Syria made in 1872 — we obtain 16 inches for the medium cubit, and 
the span is consequently 8 inches, which is about the extreme distance 
which can be stretched from the thumb to the small finger of an ordinary 
hand. A hand spanning 9 inches is a large one. 

^\\& zercth, rendered ' handbreadth,' will in this case be 5 33 inches, 
which is the ordinary span of the four fingers. As to the smaller 
divisions, there is great difficulty in ascertaining how the measurements 
are to be made, and the determination of the larger ones, sit and zeretJi, 
is of course more conclusive in the matter. As regards verification from 
monumental remains, I have pointed out that in the Synagogue of Umm 
el 'Amed the pillars are 10 cubits high, with bases of i cubit and capitals 
of half a cubit, the cubit being taken as 16 inches. 

The proposed determination of the levels of the Temple Courts 
from the same hypothesis has also been explained in ' Tent Work in 
Palestine' (Vol. I., p. 359). 

In the Haram itself there are several other similar indications. Thus, 

31 



242 TJIE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

at the north-west corner of the area, the chamber which I explored in 
1873 shows piers projecting from the wall at an interval of 8 feet 9 inches, 
with a Hice of 4 feet 9 inches, giving a total of 1 3 feet 6 inches as the 
distance from centre to centre of the piers. Ten cubits of 16 inches is 
equal to 13 feet 4 inches, giving an interval of 10 cubits for the piers 
from centre to centre, while the piers are 3^ cubits broad. 

The average height of a course of masonry in the Haram wall is 
3 feet 4 inches, or 2 A cubits of 16 inches. The lintel of the Single Gate 
is 82 inches high, which is within 2 inches of 5 cubits. The master-course 
on the south wall is 6 feet in height, or 4^ cubits of the 16-inch dimen- 
sions. The wall at Jerusalem (and at Hebron) is 8 feet, or 6 cubits, thick 
above the level of the interior. The Hebron buttresses are 8 cubits from 
centre to centre. Three consecutive stones in the second course of the 
east wall, as measured by Colonel Warren, are respectively 7 cubits, 
3^ cubits, and 4I cubits in length. Colonel Warren has remarked that 
the dimensions of the Haram masonry arc generally multiples of the 
English foot. The explanation is perhaps to be found in the relation 
of 4 to 3 between the foot and the cubit. 

1 1 may be that this accumulation of coincidental indications is not 
conclusive, but at least no such evidence has been collected in favour 
of a longer dimension for the cubit. 

The amch was the length of the fore-arm to the first joint of the 
fingers. It requires a long arm to make this equal to 18 inches. 



Note as to the Haram Masonry. 

The masonry above the surface was carefully examined by the Uuc de 
Vogiie in 1862, and is described in his great work on the ' Temple of 
Jerusalem' (pp. 4-7). He considers the drafted ashlar to belong to the 
time of Herod, and the good square masonry above it to be of the 
Byzantine period (i^robably of the time of Justinian) ; the latter is found 
chiefly on the south-west and west. Both these kinds of masonry and 
the later Arab work above are described in detail in the Ordnance Survey 
Notes, pp. 23-28. The early undraftcd Byzantine masonry almost equals 
the drafted in the dimensions of the stones. 

The dressing of the drafts in the ancient masonry Is quite unlike that 



JERUSALEM. 243 

found in any other buildings yet examined throughout Palestine, with 
exception of the Hebron Haram, the stones of which, in size and finish, 
exactly resemble the finished work at Jerusalem. The adze of 8 teeth to 
the inch was carefully used in a vertical direction ; such an instrument is 
still used by native masons, but it is much coarser, and is more carelessly 
used than in the Haram ashlar. Drafted masonry of the Byzantine and 
of the Crusading period is common in all parts of Syria ; but the Byzan- 
tines used a chisel giving a rough finish only, and the Crusaders used a 
fine chisel, generally in a diagonal direction. The Crusading drafted 
stones have, moreover (as, for instance, at Kulat el Hosn, north-east of 
Tripoli) in some cases mason's marks on the face of the stone. The 
dressing of the Baalbek drafted masonry (Roman work of the second 
century, a.d.) is also quite different from that of the Jerusalem and Hebron 
Harams. The drafted stones east of the Holy Sepulchre Church, and 
those in the scarp of the so-called Tower of David, and at the Zion 
scarp, are quite differently dressed along the drafts from the Haram 
masonry. 

The fine adze dressing also occurs on the remaining voussoirs of the 
Tyropceon Bridge — an indication of some importance — and Sir C. 
Warren describes the same dressing on the stones at the base oi the 
great walls. It would appear, therefore, not Improbable that all the 
finished drafted masonry in the Sanctuary walls belongs to the same date 
with the Tyropceon Bridge. 

Sir C. Warren is disposed to give different dates for different parts 
of the ancient Sanctuary wall, for two principal reasons. First, because 
of the distinct style of the masonry north of the Golden Gate, west of the 
Double Gate, and on the west wall south of the Prophet's Gate, where 
the stones have rustic bosses with great projection. Secondly, because 
the master-course, which ran from the Double Gate to the south-east 
anele, is not found west of the Double Gate. With regard to these two 
arguments it may, however, perhaps be useful to remember, first, that in 
the three places where the rustic work occurs a valley intersects the east, 
the west, and the south walls of the Sanctuary respectively. It may be 
suggested that the ground was filled in in these valleys, both inside and 
outside the Sanctuary, above the level of the rough masonry, at the time 
of the construction of the walls, and that the pavement at this level at the 



244 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Prophet's Gate and south-west angle belongs to the time of the building 
of the wall. In this case the rough-faced stones would have been left 
unfinished because they were never intended to be seen, and the drafts 
only cut to insure the fitting of the joints, which is so close that a knife can 
hardly be inserted between the stones. It would not on such a theory be 
necessary to suppose that the rougher masonry is of different date to the 
smooth ; but the masonry must in this case be later than the original 
TyropcKon Bridge. Secondly, as regards the master-course, it may be 
remarked that this band of stone is not continued northwards along the 
cast wall, any more than westwards from the Double Gate. It is replaced 
on the east by two ordinary courses ; but the east wall (towards its south 
end) is supposed by Sir C. Warren to be of the same date with the south 
wall for two-thirds at least of its length towards the east. The argument 
drawn from the absence of the master-course would affect the east wall as 
well as the western part of the south wall and the southern part of the 
west wall ; remembering, however, the many irregularities of material, 
finish, and angular measurement in the Sanctuary walls, it does not perhaps 
seem possible to draw a very definite conclusion from the extent of the 
Great Course. 

No conclusion as to the date of the wall can be drawn from the 
characters painted on the stones of the bottom courses. We are without 
any monumental inscription of the time of Solomon with which to 
compare them. The letters have been pronounced Phoenician by the 
late Mr. Deutch, but their forms are too rude to give any clear indication 
of their age. They may have been painted by Herod's masons quite as 
well as by Solomon's. 

The stones at the base of the wall at the south- east angle have the 
face within the draft dressed, but the drafts are very irregular. It may, 
perhaps, be suggested that these are spoilt stones, which either through a 
failure of material, or through the stupidity of the mason, were so cut as 
to be unfit for their original destination in the part of the wall which was 
visible. I'or these reasons they were marked for the foundation and 
placed in the lowest courses, which Sir C. Warren has shown never to 
have been seen after the wall was finished. This view would agree with 
the supposition that the stones were faced in the quarry, and not after 
being placed in the wall. 



JERUSALEM. 245 

Josephus tells us that the area of the Temple Enclosure was increased 
by various builders since Solomon (5 Wars, v. i), and that Herod rebuilt 
the cloisters from their foundations (i Wars, xxi. 1). The intersection of 
the ancient aqueduct, on the south-west, by the wall, together with the 
above historical statement, with the dressing of the Tyropoeon voussoirs, 
and with the similarity of finish in the foundations and in the highest 
drafted courses, all seem to point in one direction : namely, to the late 
date of the Haram walls as at present existing, and to the drafted masonry 
being — as contended by De Vogiie — the work of Herod the Great. 

On these considerations the following suggestions of date are founded, 
which may perhaps be considered worthy of notice. 

1. The foundations of the Ophel wall were the work of Nehemiah 
in 457 B.C. 

2. The single voussoir of the Tyropoeon Bridge, found in the rock-cut 
aqueduct beneath the pavement supporting the other fallen voussoirs, 
belonged to the bridge destroyed at the time of Pompey's siege in 63 B.C. 
(14 Ant. Iv. 2, I Wars vii. 2). 

3. The Tyropoeon Bridge was rebuilt by Herod the Great, 19 B.C., 
and the lowest pavement laid. 

4. The drafted masonry of the Haram walls, which has the same dress- 
ing with the voussoirs of this second bridge, belongs to the same period. 

5. The somewhat different masonry of the east wall north of the 
Golden Gate, together with the great stones lying north of the modern 
city (see Part H., el Heidhemiyeh), belong to the wall of Agrippa, 41 a.d. 

6. The undrafted Roman masonry, the later work of the Double and 
Triple Gates, the vaults of their tunnels, the vaulting of Solomon's Stables, 
of the Prophet's Gate, of Wilson's Arch, and of several of the tanks. 
Including the Twin Pools, belong, together with the Golden Gate, to the 
time of Justinian's restorations in 532 a.d. 



Byzantine Work in the Haram. 

The vaulting and piers of the passage from the Double Gate, the 
Double Tunnel from the Triple Gate, and the so-called Solomon's 
Stables, are generally acknowledged to be of Byzantine origin. These 
vaults have all the same peculiarity of a very narrow keystone with 



246 



THE SURVEY 01- WESTERN PALESTINE. 



voussoirs gradually increasing in width towards the haunches. The same 
peculiarity is observable in the vaulting of the passage from the Prophet's 
Gate, and in the masonry vaults covering cisterns I. and III. (of the 
Ordnance Survey), as well as in the older part of the vaulting over the 
Twin Pools. It is probable, therefore, that the passage from Barclay's 
(or tin; Prophet's) Gate was roofed in in the sixth century, the older roof 
of the passage having fallen in, unless the entrance consisted only of an 
open passage without any roof. 



Dome of the Rock. 

Restorations were commenced in 1873 by order of the Sultan 'Abd el 
'Aziz, and during their execution several interesting discoveries were made. 




The I larain was frequently visited at this time by MINI. Clermont Ganneau 
and Le Comte, by Lieutenant Conder, and by l\Tr. Tyrwhitt Drake. 



JERUSALEM. 



247 



Herr Schick was also connected with the work as an adviser of the 
native architects. Within the Dome of the Rock the marble casing of the 
blocks above the pillars and surrounding the bases was removed and the 
original bases laid bare. They proved to be different from each other, 
and the shafts were found to rest on a bedding of lead above the base. 
The capitals were all sketched by Lieutenant Conder in 1S73, with a view 
of showing the great differences existing between them. It appears that 




J 





^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




■■ W'WS'.A'^W 








« - -7 JO - --> 



the columns were taken from some earlier building or buildings, very 
possibly from the Holy Sepulchre Basilica of Constantine, for the purpose 
of supporting the present Dome, 

During the time when the scaffolding was erected within the Dome, 
Lieutenant Conder ascended into the drum and was able to observe the 
glass mosaic. It is remarkable that the gilded tessercc are fitted in at an 
anyle so as to reflect the licrht downwards. The tcsscrcc of other colours 



248 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

are not so arranged, but are placed flat in the wall. This arrangement 
appears first to have been noticed by Herr K. Schick. 

The removal of the Kishani tiles from the e.xterior of the octagon 
wall laid bare the arcades of the balustrade above the roof. This was 
examined by all the officers of the Society. The dressing of the stones 
has been injured by their preparation to receive the tiles, but both in 
proportion and dressing they appear to bear no resemblance to Crusading 
masonry. Beams were found resting on this wall above the modern 
ceiling, forming part of an older roofj with an inscription dating from 
913 .A.D. A well-carved wooden cornice, hidden by the modL-rn ceiling, 




appears to have supported the older roof. The date thus obtained, 
together with the dates above the gates in this wall (216 a. 11., or 
831 A.P.), appear to agree in pointing to the erection of the octagonal 
wall in the ninth century. The arcades arc not mentioned before the 
twelfth century, but llu: round arches and the pairs of dwarf pilasters, 
standing above the larger panels, having also round arches, give to the 
octagon wall a general style approaching to that of Sassanian buildings. 
The building at 'Amman, which has been considered by architectural 
authorities to be not later than the eleventh century, bears a striking 
resemblance to the octagon wall of the Dome of the Rock. The pointed 
arch is .said to have been first used by the Arabs in the ninth ccntiu'v. 



JERUSALEM. 



249 



and the general result of these various indications seems to tend to the 
supposition that the octagon wall of the Dome of the Rock was erected 
in the ninth century. (See Dr. Chaplin's Letter, ' Quarterly Statement,' 

1873. P- I55-) 

Some eight rafters in all were laid bare above this wall in 1873. 
The inscription was in Cufic, and was thus rendered by Professor 




Palmer : 'In the name of God, grace from God to the servant of 
God, Jafer el IMuktader Billah, Commander of the Faithful, may God 
spare him to us. According to the order of Essaiyedeh (may God aid 
her), and it was performed at the hands of Lebid, a Freedman of 
Essaiyideh, and that was in one and . . .' 

The date was illegible, but Professor Palmer points out that the 
Mosques of the Empire were repaired by 'Aly Ibn Isa, vizier of El 



zso THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Muki.ulir, in ilv \v\w of th(j llcginih 301 (913 A.D.), which is evidently 
lh<: cl.iK; of this text. 

The carved wooden cornice was found between the modern ceiling 
and the roof. The ceiling dates from 1190 a. 11., or 1776 a.u. The 
cornice was evidently once visible. 

TiiF. Platform Pavement. 

A good many masons' marks were observed on the flagstones of the 
platform round the Dome of the Rock. They were copied by Captain 
Conder and Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake : 

'^ D-HV- P ^ S ^41. E 

A few of these are marks commonly found on Crusading buildings, but 
others are peculiar to this pavement, and not found in other buildings in 
Palestine. Several of the marks approach closely to those found on the 
walls of the palace of Saaditalat, near Ispahan. It is doubtful whether 
the pavement should be referred to the early Arab period or to the 
Crusaders. Masons' marks (with one doubtful exception) do not appear 
to occur on the octagon wall of the Dome of the Rock, where ihcty have 
been sought carefully by Lieutenant Conder and others. 

The Aksa. 

The original basilica of Justinian, as restored by De Vogue, consisted 
of a nave and four aisles, the total length north and south being 250 feet, 
and the total breadth 150 feet. Several of the original pillars remain in 
position, with Byzantine capitals, of which drawings are given by 
Du Yogiie. ('Temple de Jerusalem,' Plate XXXI 1.) 

In 1871 the plaster which covered the capitals Hanking the Mihrab in 
the so-called Makam 'Amr, immediately adjoining the Aksa Mosque on 
the east, was removed, and the capitals proved to be elaborately carved 
specimens of Gothic work representing symbolical animals with arabesques. 
These were drawn by Rev. J. Xeil, and afterwards by Captain Conder. 



JERUSALEM. ■ 251 

There are several other fragments of Crusading work in the Haram, 
including the twisted pillars in the wall on the south-west side of the 
platform, the three small altars within the Dome of the Rock, and the 
capitals, with small angels' heads between the volutes, which flank the 
Mihrab in the latter building. 



Dome of the Chain. 

The capitals in this small building (which is said to have been the 
original model of the Dome of the Rock) are very various, but all of much 
later style than those of the great pillars in the Dome of the Rock. They 
may possibly have been carved for their present purpose, and though 
elaborate specimens of tracery in stone, they are of debased style. Some 
of them closely resemble in character the tracery in St. Sophia, at 
Constantinople. 

THE CITY. 

Explorations within modern Jerusalem are rendered almost impossible 
by the fact that the foundations of the modern houses are laid not on the 
rock but on rubbish, so that even an unusually rainy winter is sufficient 
to cause many buildings to collapse, as was notably the case in 1873-4. 
There are, however, certain antiquities within the walls, which require 
special notice, which have been further e.\plored since 1869. 

Constantixe's Basilica. 

The remains of the Propylea were recognised by Willis east of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and close to the Via Dolorosa. In a vault 
west of this street four grey granite shafts may still be seen ; they were 
discovered by Schultz. They are '6 metres in diameter, and 2 '5 metres 
apart. On the south at the end of this colonnade is a pier, '8 metres on 
its north face, with a semi-pillar on the north side, 75 metres in diameter 
and projecting '3 metres. This pilaster is about iS metres south of the 
axis of the present Rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre Church, and 54 metres 
east of the east end of the present church. 

The remains of an ancient wall, having a corner to the south-east, run 



252 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

parallel to this colonnade, about 15 feet west of it. The south face of this 
wall runs cast and west, a little south of the pier above-mentioned. The 
relation of this wall to the granite columns has not been determined, but 
it seems possible that the pillars formed a porch, and that the wall had 
gates entering into the Atrium, which is supposed by De Vogue and 
Willis to have existed west of this colonnade. The wall was supposed by 
Canon Williams and by De Vogiie to be the remains of the ancient 
Second Wall of Jerusalem. This wall was examined in 1864 by Captain 
Wilson. (See Excavation No. 6, ' Ordnance Survey Notes,' p. 74.) 

The following is his account : 

' Three openings were made, first by the side of the massive masonry 
said to be part of the Second Wall, where the rock was reached at a depth 
of 7 feet 4 inches below the pavement of large flat stones, and nothing 
found but loose earth and rubbish. The lower part of the masonry was 
of large stones, without the marginal draft ; the bottom course was pinned 
up on the rock with smaller ones ; mortar of a bad quality, crumbling 
directly it was touched, was used in building. The portion of wall running 
in a north and south direction consists of a single line of large stones, with 
marginal drafts, faced interiorly with stones having plain chiselled faces, 
and against this a wall running east and west abuts with a straight joint. 
Many pieces of broken marble casing and a fine white marble font or basin 
were found by the Russians in another part of the ground. The second 
opening was made under the gateway (south of the wall), to clear the two 
sides and examine its construction ; on one side the arch rested on a hand 
some Corinthian capital, whilst on the other it was supported by a column, 
on the top of which was an unfinished capital, or block of stone, roughly 
hewn into shape. On the column a large cross was cut in relief, and 
beneath the arch in the doorway itself later masonry was found, something 
like a small oven. The third e.xcavation was made at the foot of one of 
the granite columns, at the north end of the Bazaar ; the column is set on 
a pedestal of the limestone of the neighbourhood, but the rubbish could 
not be cleared all round it.' 

Two photographs were taken, and a plan made showing the relative 
position of the buildings. (Plate XX., Fig. 8, Ordnance Survey.) 
These remains were subsequently visited and described by Lieutenant 
Conder in 1872. 



JERUSALEM. 253 

The gateway where the second excavation was made is a distinct 
structure south of the wall and columns. It has been drawn by De 
Vogue ('Temple de Jerusalem,' p. 120), and is evidently a Byzantine 
reconstruction with older materials. The arch is about 8 feet in diameter, 
semicircular, with 9 voussoirs, and facing east on an axis parallel to that 
of the granite colonnade. The wall continues north of the arch about 
8 feet, terminating in a pilaster with a capital level with the crown of the 
arch. This capital, like that under the north haunch of the arch, is also 
Corinthian, but is much damaged. There are six courses of stones in 
this wall, the whole being of good ashlar, not drafted, and resembling the 
Byzantine work in the Haram. The capitals are about 2 feet 4 inches 
high and 32 inches broad at the top ; the stones in the wall are about 
2\ feet high. The general appearance of the arch and wall is that of the 
southern half of .a triple portico, but there can be no question that it is a 
reconstruction, for the courses composing the northern pilaster are jointed 
in a very awkward manner into the rest of the wall, the horizontal joints 
of the masonry being at different levels. 

The wall of drafted masonry north of this archway is very superior in 
character. It is visible on the north side of a courtyard containing the 
archway. The part running east and west consists of three courses, and 
presents a buttress facing south, 5 feet broad, and forming the original 
south-east angle of the building, the continuation of the wall eastwards 
having no bond. This buttress resembles those described in the Haram, 
and consists of drafted stones, the largest measuring 5 feet by i\ feet in 
height, the face being smooth on the boss. The projection of the buttress 
is also, as in the Haram, due to the bevelled set-back of the wall west of 
it. A careful examination of this drafted work showed, however, that the 
dressing, though careful, was entirely different from that of the Haram 
masonry. 

The wall running north from the buttress is 3^ feet thick, the stones 
about 2\ feet to 2 feet high and 3,^ feet long. The bevelled set-back in 
the south wall consists also of drafted stones, but above it is smaller 
undrafted masonry, on one stone of which a cross and a cross croisd are 
cut, apparently^^T^^V/ of pilgrims. The general impression which resulted 
from this e.xamination was that the corner in question was probably early 
Christian work, in imitation of the Haram masonry, and that the buttress 



254 Tin: SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

marks the south-cast angle of the Atrium of Constantine's Basilica, the 
pillars to the east being remains of the Propylea in front of the Atrium 
doorways. 

TlIF. MURISTAN. 

('Quarterly Statement,' 1872, p. 100; 1S73, p. 19 ; 1875, p. 77.) 
In ihc centra; of motkrn Jerusalem is an area about 150 yards square 
south of the Holy Sepulchre Church. The eastern half of this area was 
given to the German Government by the Sultan in 1869, and the Emperor 
ordered this part of the area to be cleared out. The western half is still 
covered with diibris to a depth of some 20 feet, and before the excavations 
commenced the greater part of the area was occupied by a ploughed field, 
beneath which the massive piers and walls were found. The chapel and 
hospital of the Knights of St. John still remain to be e.xcavated under the 
ddbris on the west ; the Church of St. Mary the Great, and the abbey 
attached to it on the south, occupy the eastern part of the area. The 
whole enclosure, now known as the Muristan, or ' hospital for the insane,' is 
bounded by David Street on the south, by the Street of Palmers on the 
north, by Christian Street on the west, and by the bazaars — the mediaeval 
INIalcuisinat— on the east. A fine arcade of groined vaults and pointed 
arches, resting on massive piers of drafted masonry with rustic bosses, 
forms the boundary of the enclosure on the south, opening on David 
Street. The Byzantine Church of St. John the Forerunner stands at the 
south-west angle at the corner of David Street and Christian Street. The 
mosque and minaret of 'Amr at the north-west angle possibly occupies 
the site of the chapel of the Hospital, which appears to have been very 
near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. St. Mary the Great occupies 
the north-east angle, and was built about 1 130 a.d. It is remarkable for 
the fine double north doorway, a Gothic structure with a round arch, 
having representations of the twelve months, with their names. These 
are carefully reproduced by De Vogile (' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' Plate 
X\TII., p. 260). The windows and south door of the church have also 
round arches with a curious chess-pattern ornamentation. The founda- 
tions of the piers of the nave were found when the church was cleared in 
1872, and the floor proved to be of marble mosaic, part of which remains 
still in place. The masonry of the w^alls is very finely cut, and presents 



JERUSALEM. 255 

many examples of the mediaeval diagonal dressing and masons' marks ; the 
lines of the dressing are, however, often vertical or horizontal. The 
church consisted of a nave and two aisles, of four bays with three apses. 
The south wall of the church has been thickened on the south side at a 
later date than that of the Crusading work, and a little stairway leading to 
an Arab doorway runs up this wall to the level of the upper story of the 
southern cloisters. Under the south wall was found a grave containing 
bones and remains of Crusading date ; one of the skulls had a deep sword 
cut across it, and it would appear that some knight, killed probably by the 
blow, was buried beneath the church wall. The belfry tower is at the 
south-west angle of the church ; and in the west wall of the cloisters, 
immediately south of this, there is a fine Gothic window with a low-pointed 
arch (see Lieutenant Kitchener's photograph). 

The cloisters south of the church are mainly an Arab reconstruction 
of the fifteenth century, and more rudely built than the mediaeval work. 
The masonry here examined in 1875 was found to have no masons' 
marks. The piers, with small attached columns in the north cloister, and 
two on the east, appear, however, to be of the twelfth century. The 
remaining vaults and piers discovered during excavation are shown on the 
plan. 

It should be noted that the bazaar east of this church and abbey is also 
mainly a medieeval structure ; the roofing consists of groined vaults with 
flat ribs, and the walls have the mediaeval dressing, while an inscription 
on the west wall (see paper on inscriptions, No. X.) seems to indicate 
that the property belonged to the Church of St. Anne. The traces of 
mediaeval work continue north of this bazaar on both sides of the covered 
street which is called Khan ez Zeit, and which forms part of the Via 
Dolorosa. At the angle of Khan ez Zeit and 'Akabet et Takiyeh, a fine 
mediaeval vault exists ; and further north, on the east side of Khan ez 
Zeit Street, is a pointed arch of stones with the diagonal dressing, having 
a crozier-like mark on one voussoir — 



1 



probably an indication of ecclesiastical property, 



25^ THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The Hospital of St. John was still standins^ in 1322, when Sir John 
Maundevilk; describes it. A street divided the Hospital from the church 
and abbey, running south opposite the south door of the Holy Sepulchre 
Church. It is specially described in documents of the twelfth century. 
In 1 1 74 .x.i)., the King gave the western side to the hospital and the 
opposite side to the abbey of St. Mary. The remains of vaults opening 

^VvV^A.</'-v/i_l_jX\/T^x/ 



2 ^ 



into a passage running north and south immediately west of the church 
evidently indicate the line of the street in question. The latest part of the 
great group of buildings appears to be that on the south-east, south of the 
cloisters ; differences of masonry and straight joints were here observed, 
and the arches of the arcade in David Street are pointed. This southern 
arcade is believed by De Voglie to be mentioned in the Cartulary of the 
Holy Sepulchre (1144 a.d.), where are mentioned the ' Voltas Concambii 
Hospitalis . . . in via quee ducit ad Montem Sion.' It is, however, perhaps 
more probable that the bazaar on the east is really intended. 

The masonry of the piers in the southern portion of the area is 
very fine, the stones being of large size and very carefully dressed 
with a point. A great many masons' marks have been collected in 
the Muristan at different times, and are here given, being valuable for 
comparison. 

There is a magnificent double cistern, 70 feet deep, occupying the 
.southern part of the area, and extending east and west for a length 
of 100 feet. In the bottom of this the rock was found falling gentlv 



JERUSALE}r. 257 

eastwards, with steps in one or two places. The He of the rock is 
shown in the sections which accompany Herr Schick's plan of the 
Muristan. In 1876 he was able further to examine the lie of the rock 
in another large cistern east of the bazaars and of the Church of St. Mary 
the Great. 

Excavations were made in the Muristan by Sir C. Warren in 1867. 
A trench was dug, 350 feet long north and south, about 200 feet from the 
cast boundary of the enclosure. The average depth was 25 feet, and 
shafts 40 feet deep were sunk in two places near the south without 
reaching rock. Rock was found at a level 2,430 in a shaft 70 feet deep, 
just west of the west wall of the church of Sta. Maria Majora (No. 221 of 
the Register), and at 2,450 in a tank in the north-west corner of the 
Muristan. 

The following is Herr Schick's account of his explorations in the 
Muristan : 

No. I on the [ilan is a shaft sunk to ascertain whether any vault 
existed beneath. It was driven through earth, with a strong wall 
on the south running east and west. At 1 1 feet from the surface the wall 
rested on earth for 3 feet, with shingle beneath, to a total depth of 2 1 feet 
from the surface, when a wall of large hewn stones was reached, and the 
shaft was stopped. 

No. 2 was a shaft sunk to ascertain if any tank existed. Only earth 
was found to a depth of 13 feet, when the shaft was abandoned. 

No. 3 was sunk through the roof of a vault with a groined vaulting. 
This vaulting rested on a fine arch of cut stones (a Crusading arrange- 
ment). 

No. 4, a shaft sunk 2^- feet to a pavement, beneath which, at 5 feet, 
flagstones covering a drain were found. The drain was followed, leading 
to a larger conduit (No. 33 on plan), which is 2 feet 3 inches wide and 
6 feet high. It runs to the sewer (No. 34) under David Street. The 
other end of the passage could not be explored, being stopped by fallen 
stones, and within the property of the Greek Convent. 

No. 5, a shaft again meeting the pavement 2^^ feet beneath the surface, 
with a strong wall on the west side. The flagging of the pavement was 
removed, and a cistern found beneath, with three arches of hewn stone 
supporting flat flagging, which formed the roof. This cistern (No. 32) 



258 Tlir. SURVEY or WESTERN PALESTINE. 

had its bottom 28 Wx-X beneath the present surface. The shaft was sunk 
20 feet beneath the lloor, and rock found at a depth of 48 feet 9 inches 
beneath the surface in David Street. 

No. 6, a shaft sunk south of a conduit (No. 41), with a wall on the 
south. The conduit bends northwards, and was thought to have commu- 
nicated with the western part of the large tank (No. 26 on plan). The 
shaft was sunk lower than the conduit through earth, and 12 feet from the 
surface another wall was found, and at 21 feet a lower conduit (No. 30 on 
plan), which ran east for 120 feet, when it was choked by the fall of the 
roof (lagging. This conduit was i foot 10 inches wide and 4 feet high. 
The masonry was very little worn. Two other passages {a, b) enter 
from the north. 

No. 7, a shaft sunk through red earth and stones — apparently remains 
of a brick kiln — -to solid earth. This shaft was abandoned at a depth of 
23 feet from the surface. 

No. 8, a shaft sunk to examine No. 40 on the plan^ which proved to 
be an old oven. It was driven through earth to a depth of 24 feet from 
the surface and left open. 

No. 9, near the tombs found under the south wall of the church. 
The shaft here sunk passed through 3 feet of earth, and then through 
shingle. The work was abandoned at 1 1 feet from the surface. 

No. 10 was sunk in search of a crypt beneath the church apse, but 
only cross walls were found, resting on earth, at a depth of 14 feet. 

No. II, sunk to examine Cistern No. 31 on the plan, was driven 
through earth with a well-built wall on the north to a depth of 26 feet, 
and then abandoned. 

No. 12, west of Cistern No. 31 on the plan, was driven through earth 
and abandoned at a depth of about 30 feet. 

No. 13 reached a water conduit a few feet beneath the surface, 
and was only sunk 13 feet, encountering masonry of no great importance. 

No. 14. — Sunk 13 feet through earth without result. 

No. 15 reached a cesspool west of Cistern No. 24, 14 feet deep, with- 
out any roof. The floor was broken through, and it was found to rest on 
earth beneath. 

No. 16.— -Sunk 1 1 feet beside a wall running east and west, and founded 
on earth at that depth. 



JERUSALEM. 259 

No. 17. — A large stone trough, standing on solid masonry, was ex- 
amined, and foundations of small stones discovered beneath. 

No. 18. — A circular building, 7 feet in diameter, was found, full of red 
earth and clay. It was apparently a well for kneading clay, and dates 
from the Arab period. 

Nos. 19, 20. — Sunk in the central apse of the church without result. 
(Cf. No. 10.) 

No. 21. — The foundations of the south-west angle of the church here 
rested on rock 30 feet beneath the surface. 

No. 22. — A cistern with the lower part cut in rock 30 feet beneath the 
surface. 

Nos. 23, 24, 25. — Cisterns with floors 20 to 24 feet beneath the surface. 
They are entirely of masonry. 

No. 26. — The great double cistern or tank in the south-east part of 
the enclosure. It has a barrel vaulting of mediseval masonry, and the 
floor is of rock. There are several manholes in the roof, and two large 
slits in the masonry, apparently intended for wheels used in raising 
water (like the modern Naurah of the Arabs, in the gardens of Jaffa 
and Ramleh called Beiyarahs, or ' well-places '). The section of rock 
here exposed in the bed of the Tyropoeon is the most important within 
the walls of the modern city. The cistern was visited by Lieutenant 
Conder in 1873. 

No. 27. — A conduit in the east wall of this cistern near the bottom 
leads out eastwards; perhaps leading to another tank. A vertical shaft 
leads up from it towards the surface. 

No. 28. — Two connections here occur with Cistern No. 37. 

No. 29 marks the position of the waterwheels in No. 26. 

No. 30 (see No. 6). — This number marks the lower conduit. 

No. 31. — A well in the property of the Greek Convent has a conduit 
(No. 35) bringing water from the direction of David Street. 

No. 32 (see No. 5). — This number marks the cistern. 

No. 33 marks the conduit described under No. 4. 

No. 34. — The main sewer under David Street. 

No. 35. — The conduit to No. 31. 

No. 36. — Brick (or pottery) pipes bringing water from the west, 
apparently to a bath. 



CiC 



26o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

No. '^']. — An ancicnl cislcni, wiih three mouths in the vaulted roof. 
It appears to be unfinished. 

No. 38. — An old cesspool, apparently belonging to the latrines of the 
Abbey. 

No. 39. — An arch supporting the southern wall of the arcades. 

No. 40. — A piece of masonry belonging to the oven. (See No. 8.) 

No. 41. — A conduit leading to No. 26. (See No. 6.) 

No. 42. — A pier which shows evidence of having been built at two 
distinct periods. 

No. 43. — A similar enlarged pier stood here, but has been re- 
moved. 

No. 44. — Tomb of a Moslem W'ely. 

No. 45. — A Scbil, or public drinking fountain. 

No. 46 marks on the section the line of the rubbish before ex- 
cavation. 

No. 47. — The Moslem stairway on the south wall of the church. 

No. 48. — The modern Lutheran chapel, in the upper story of the 
cloisters. 

Hcrr Schick considers that the buildings were divided into several 
blocks, roofed in, and with narrow lanes between, including that west of 
the church already noticed. 

No inscriptions appear to have been found, except one on a pier 
south of the cloisters, which may possibly mark the site of a grave in the 
cloister. (See Paper on ' Inscriptions,' No. 34.) The objects found 
with bones and skulls in the grave near the church were of mediitval date 
and of very little interest or value. 

The following is the account of the cistern east of the bazaar given to 

Colonel Sir C. Wilson by Herr Schick ('Quarterly Statement,' 1877, 

p. 9) : 

' It appears that some time last year the ground at a point a little east of the bazaars 
suddenly gave way, carrying with it a fig-tree and several bushes of cactus, and leaving a large 
crater or depression in the surface. For some months occasional earth-slips took place, and 
it became evident that the debris was finding its way into one or more subterranean chambers ; 
the ground was at the time considered too dangerous for examination, but last summer Herr 
Schick was requested by the Pacha to investigate the whole matter. It soon appeared that the 
earth had been running away into a great chamber over 100 feet long and 17 feet 6 inches 
wide, and that the cause of the slip had been the sudden fall of a portion of the covering 



JERUSALEM. 261 

arch. The interesting point is, that in the floor of the chamber, which is entirely of rock, we 
have presented to view a larger area of the original surface of the ground on which Jerusalem 
stands than has hitherto been exposed within the city walls.* We have, too, not only the 
depth of rubbish at a point near which there were few previous rock levels, but the actual 
fall of the rock over a distance of 100 feet in a north and south direction, or combined 
with the known level of the rock in the street to the north, a section over more than 
200 feet. 

' I was hardly prepared for the great accumulation of rubbish, So feet, at this particular 
place, or for the rapid fall in the rock, i in 4, towards the south, which seems to indicate 
that the valley running eastward from near the Jaffa Gate is deeper than has generally been 
supposed, and that it may perhaps partake of the ravine nature of the valley examined by 
Captain Warren under Robinson's Arch. The section from east to west, though only 1 7 feet 
6 inches long, is of value as showing a steady fall of the rock towards the east, and thus 
indicating that the axis of the spur between the valleys from the Jaffa and Damascus Gates 
has been passed. 

' Herr Schick's investigation has also proved that the bazaar called on the Ordinance Map 
of Jerusalem, tt-Vu scale, Suk al Khowajat, formerly extended as far north as the other two 
bazaars, and has brought more prominently to notice the great depth of rubbish on which all 
the bazaars stand. 

' The long cistern or chamber is parallel to the bazaars, and as it was evidently not 
originally intended to be used as a cistern, we may perhaps have in it the line of one of the 
streets of ancient Jerusalem. The chamber, at any rate, offers a favourable base of operations 
for an exploration of this part of the city, as galleries could be driven in several directions to 
examine the ground. 't 



HUMMAM ESH ShEFA. 

' The Bath of Healing': the curious well, we.st of the Haram, described 
in the 'Ordnance Survey Notes' (pp. 60, 85, Plate XXII.). It was 
revisited in 1S71 by Dr. T. Chaplin. 

' A few days ago I received a visit from Herr Victor zur Helle, of Vienna, who informed 
me that he had been able to enter the hitherto unexplored southern passage of the 'Ain 
es Shefa, and had followed it to its termination, 96 feet from its commencement. He had 
lost his compass in the water, and consequently could not be certain of the exact direction 
of the passage, but believed it to be south-west. As the water is seldom so low as to admit 
of an examination of this canal, and the winter rains, which are now anxiously looked for, 
may soon close it again, I took the earliest opportunity of descending, and the following are 
the notes of my observations : 

' The descent was made on the 29th of November, 1870. The passage commences at 
the southern end of the western wall of the basin. It runs 43 feet 6 inches in a direction 

* Except in the great cistern in the Muristan, No. 26, above noticed, 
t The levels of the rock in this cistern are 2,440 at the north end, and 2,420 at the south 
in feet above the Mediterranean level. 



26 J THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

264', 13 feet 5 inches 260', 5 feet 4 inches 181', 12 feet 6 inches 245', and, lastly, 
27 feet 6 inches 174°, its entire length being about 102 feet. At its termination it is 
blocked up by fallen, or most irregularly constructed, masonry, and has no basin. A stick 
could be thrust in under the blocks of stone for about 3 feet, but no continuation of the 
passage could be made out. The floor slopes towards each end, the highest part being 
about the middle. At the entrance, and for some 20 feet beyond, the water was a little over 
knee-deep ; in the middle the passage was nearly dry, and at the further extremity the water 
reached 6 or 8 inches above the knees. The canal is 4 feet high and 3 feet broad at the 
entrance, and of about the same dimensions throughout, except where narrowed by fallen 
masonry, or widened or made higher by the disappearance of the walls or roof. Only at one 
spot was there any difficulty in passing. The walls are of rough masonry, some of the stones 
being of large size. The roof, where perfect, is of thick broad blocks of limestone, laid 
across. No arches, columns, or ornamented stones were observed. The rock could not be 
detected anywhere, though it is possible that it may in some places form the floor. Plaster 
still covers portions of the sides and floor, but the passage is in a very ruinous condition. 
Water was observed trickling down from between the stones of the southern wall, at a spot 
not far from the entrance, and the sides and roof were in some places very wet, in others 
nearly dry. No appearance of a fountain was discovered, though carefully searched for. 

' Advantage was taken of the low state of the water to examine the basin somewhat more 
minutely than has (I believe) hitherto been possible. It was found to measure, from north to 
south, in the middle, 1 1 feet 9 inches ; from east to west, in the middle, 6 feet 6 inches ; from 
east to west, opposite the entrance to the lower passage, 5 feet 10 inches. The floor is of 
rock at the northern part ; how far the rock extends to the south could not be ascertained, in 
consequence of the depth of the water. The walls are everywhere of rough irregular masonry. 
Plaster still remains on the northern and southern sides ; that on the latter being continuous 
with that of the lower passage. The plastered surface on the northern side extends farther 
to the east and west than the side walls which abut upon it. The plaster is made with small 
white stones, instead of the usual pounded pottery. Water was trickling in a rather copious 
stream from under the masonry on the east side of the northern passage at its termination, 
and it was observed that here the masonry rests upon plaster, from between which and the 
stones the water was running. Further north, also in this passage, the walls rest upon a 
plastered surface. 

' It can hardly, perhaps, be said that the mystery which has attached to this remarkable 
well is even now entirely removed ; yet every fresh observation tends to confirm the opinion 
that its 7i'aUr is d(rived solely from the percolation of the rains through the debris upon ivhich 
the city is built. There is no evidence to show that it proceeded originally from a subter- 
ranean source ; and it is not likely that, if a fountain had existed here in ancient times, it 
could have escaped mention by either the sacred or profane writers. Probably there was 
ormerly a pool near this situation, into which the water coming down the valley (which 
drains a large extent of surface) was carefully conducted. After the destruction of the city, 
and the consequent filling up of the pool, the water would still find its way down to the 
same spot, and either well up to the surface or be reached by means of a shaft. As the 
level of the city continued to rise, a longer shaft would be required, and thus in tlie course 
of ages, what was at first a superficial collection of water would become converted into a 
deep well.'— Tho. Chaplin, M.D., ' Quarterly Statement,' 1S71, pp. 101-103. 



lERUSALEM. 26 



o 



The followinof is Sir C. Wilson's account : 

' The Esh Shefa well is near the Bab el Kattanin of the Haram, and 
supplies the Turkish bath there. On descending the well the different 
styles of architecture were very noticeable — semicircular arches at the 
bottom, pointed ones higher up, and near the top the later additions of 
the present day, the shaft seeming to have grown upwards as the rubbish 
increased. The passage is covered by arches of different sizes, and has 
been made at various times ; the portion cut in the rock seems to be of 
great antiquity, and was probably connected with the water system of 
the old city. The water was reported to have failed during the winter of 
1864-5, but arrangements could not be made for paying it a second visit. 
The plan and section show the details. 

' The Esh Shefa well supplies the Turkish baths in the old Cotton 
Market. From the bottom of the shaft a channel cut in the rock, and 
vaulted with masonry, leads down in a southerly direction to a small 
cave or basin, from which the water is obtained in summer by a man who 
descends for the purpose. No leakage was visible at the side of the 
passage, but the greater portion of the water probably passes through the 
deep rubbish above, and thus acquires the peculiar Siloam flavour. The 
supply and quality cannot well be improved.' 

The rock is So feet beneath the surface, at a level 2,339 feet above 
the Mediterranean. The peculiar llavour of the Siloam and other 
waters in or near Jerusalem appears to be due to the infiltration of 



Aqueduct to the Twin Pools. 

This aqueduct, leading from a pit outside the Damascus Gate, was 
discovered in 1S71. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' 1872, p. 47.) It is from 
2\ to 3 feet wide, and in places more than 12 feet high. It is throughout 
high enough to allow a man to pass along it ; it is partly hewn in rock, 
and partly of masonry, with an arched roof, in which are man-holes, now 
closed, which once led to the surface. It appears to have crossed the pit 
east of the Damascus Gate, and is probably older than this pit ; but 
although surface drains have been found on the west side of the knoll 



264 THE Sl'R\-EY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

1)1" [cremiiih's Grotto, which may have led to this channel, no remains 
of the aqueduct have been found west or north of the gate, where building 
has been going on for the last ten years. The upper part of the aqueduct 
was destroyed in building the modern city wall, which stands on older 
foundations. This aqueduct, with its continuation south of the Twin 
Pools, may have been constructed to supply the Temple cisterns. It is 
at a much higher level than that near the Prophet's Gate. The levels 
arc given by Colonel \\'arrcn in speaking of the Twin Pools. 

KuLAT Jali;d. 

' Goliath's Castle,' the name now given to the tower in the north- 
west angle of the mediaeval city, known in the twelfth century as 
Tancred's Tower. It has been supposed by Felix Fabri, and by more 
recent authorities, to mark the site of the tower of Psephinus. A plan 
of the building was made by Lewin, and another by Colonel Wilson. 
(' Ordnance Survey Notes,' Plate XXVU.) It was visited and described 
by Lieutenant Conder in 1872 ('Quarterly Statement,' 1872, p. 166), 
and in 1S77 a new plan was made by Lieutenant Kitchener at the time 
when a new Latin school was erected on the site. (See ' Quarterly 
Statement,' 1878, p. 78.) 

The following is Sir C. Wilson's account (' Ordnance Survey Notes,' 

P- 73) : 

' Excavation No. IV. This was made at the ruins of el Jali'id, or 

Goliath's Castle, in the north-west angle of the city. The plans and 
sections will show the details of what was discovered : the trench on the 
west uncovered a peculiar re-entering angle formed of large stones with 
drafted margins ; on examining this it was found that they must have 
been built at different periods, the line A, B, faced with large stones, and 
running into the mass of masonry, first, and the line C, I), which forms 
the present facing of the tower, afterwards ; there is no bond between the 
two masses : a straight joint being left in the direction C, B, the space 
between the two lines of facing stones is filled in with small rubble 
masonry, and the backing to the older line. A, B, is of the same descrip- 
tion. Both rows of large stones are bedded and jointed with mortar ; the 
chiselled drafts are from 2 inches to 5 inches wide, and the faces are left 



JERUSALEM. 



265 



rough, projecting from 4 to 6 inches. The Hne D, C, if produced 
towards C, would cut the north-east angle of the so-called Tower of 
David, in the Citadel, and if produced towards D, would pass through 
the remains (of ancient walls) near Mr. Bergheim's house. 

' Within the Castle there is a vaulted chamber of modern date, and 
the floor of this was broken through in consequence of a rumour that 
there were vaults beneath. The report proved to be correct, for on 
creeping through the hole a chamber nearly filled with rubbish was 
reached, and near the east end of this an open doorway led to two other 
chambers, in which two piers or towers, constructed of large stones with 
drafted margins, were found. From the appearance of the masonry they 




must have existed before the present building, which is built on to it. At 
first they were thought to be part of an old wall, or the towers of a 
gateway ; but, taking everything into consideration, it seems more pro- 
bable that they were solid piers supporting the groined roof of a chamber 
beneath some tower of mediaeval date ; piers of the same character, built 
with old material, and supporting groined roofs, are seen in several places 
in the city. In this case the groined roof seems to have been destroyed 
and replaced by a plain pointed arch, to carry which the piers have been 
connected by substantial party walls, which divide the original chamber 
into two. The drafts are between 2 and 3 inches broad, and the facing 
left rough. All the covering arches are pointed. The doorway between 

34 



266 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the two chambers is of the same style as the one found in the Citadel, the 
stones of the pointed arch having a chiselled draft run round their 
margins. There is a large accumulation of dry mud in the chambers, and 
an excavation was made through this to the floor, which was found to be 
of rock, covered with a thick layer of cement. The northern faces of the 
piers could not be found, although the rubbish was cleared away from 
the place where they should have been. 

' Nothing found at El Jalud seemed to be earlier than the Saracenic 
or Crusading period, except, perhaps, the piers, and there was no trace of 
the foundation of any large octagonal building ; there is so much rubbish, 
however, at this angle of the city, that it would require a regular system 
of excavation on a large scale to explore it thoroughly ; another chamber 
would probably be discovered north of the two that were found.' 

Subsequent exploration during the building of the schools has 
confirmed the conclusions of Colonel Wilson. The original tower 
appears to have been a square of about loo feet side, reaching north- 
wards to the line of the present city wall. Two piers, similar to those 
found by Colonel Wilson, were found, as he suspected, north of the 
northern of the two parallel vaults which he explored. The four piers, 
and the east and south walls of the Castle, are apparently of one date, and 
the parallel vaults with tunnel roofs are later. The tower presents all 
the appearance of a square Crusading fortress, with walls 12 feet thick, 
consisting of rubble faced with fine ashlar of drafted stones. The stones 
are not of great size, being 2 feet 4 inches high, and 4 feet long. The 
southernmost vault measures 24 feet north and south, by 53 feet east and 
west. The two ancient piers arc visible in the north-west angle, and in 
the middle of the north wall. This wall is a partition about 4 feet thick, 
built at an angle, so that it covers part of the western pier. The 
masonry is small, and together with the vault above appears to be 
perhaps Arab work. There is an entrance into this vault from the east, 
closed by more modern masonry. On the west another entrance leads to 
a chamber, measuring 26 feet east and west, by 24 feet north and south. 
The arch of the door consists of five fine drafted stones, with the boss 
dressed ; the arch is pointed, and the voussoirs have evidently been cut 
for their present purpose. Although the dividing off of this chamber 
may perhaps have been accomplished later than the original period of the 



JERUSALEM. 267 

building of the tower, the masonry, compared with the Crusading work of 
'Athlit, Kaukab el Hawa, Kulat el Hosn, Kiildt es Subeibeh, etc., etc., 
is evidently to be ascribed to the twelfth century. The original vaulted 
substructures of the tower, as will be seen from the plan, appear to have 
consisted of three rows of three bays each, probably with groined roofs— 
a construction common in the mediaeval towers and great tanks. The 
identification of this tower with Psephinus is not confirmed by the 
discovery of any really ancient masonry, while the original shape now 
proves to have been a square, whereas Psephinus is described by 
Josephus as an octagon. 

In 1S77 the rubbish was removed, and the old work laid bare to the 
floor. Two of the stones in the piers measure ']\ feet by 2 feet 8 inches, 
by 2 feet 4 inches high, and 8^ feet by 2 feet 9 inches, by 2 feet 4 inches 
high. The draft varies from 3^ inches to 4 inches. A thin bed of very 
hard mortar divides the courses ; the bosses in some instances project 
8 inches ; the four courses of drafted stones measure 9 feet 4 inches in 
total height. Masonry as large as this is not uncommon in Crusading 
work, although it is possible in this case that old material was used. 



Tower of David (so-called). 

This is one of the most conspicuous monuments of the city, described 
by every writer on Jerusalem, and identified with Hippicus by earlier 
writers, and with Phasaelus by most of the later authorities. It measures 
about 54 feet north and south, by 68 feet east and west (see Plan, 
'Ordnance Survey Notes,' Plate III.), and is situated 130 feet from the 
north-west corner tower of the Citadel, which measures about 50 feet 
square. The size of David's Tower thus roughly agrees with the 
dimensions of Phasaelus, which was 40 cubits, or about 53 feet, square 
according to Josephus. It is also remarkable that Josephus describes a 
cloister 10 cubits above the base, which 'went round about, and it was 
covered from enemies by breast-works and bulwarks.' (5 Wars, iv. 3.) 
A similar outwork still exists round the north and east faces of the 
so-called Tower of David, and although the battlements of the wall of 
this chemin des rondes (as it would be called in a modern fortification) 
appear to be modern, while the sloping outer scarp with drafted masonry 

34—2 



268 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of moderate size appears (like the sloping scarp of Caesarea, etc.) to be 
mediitval, yet this masonry may very probably be only a facing to the 
original work of the old cloister. 

Sir C. Wilson, in describing the modern Citadel, of which the 
two above-mentioned towers form the northern defence, speaks thus 
(' Ordnance Survey Notes,' p. 46) : — 

' The so-called Tower of David appears to be the oldest part of the 
Citadel : it has a sloping escarp of masonry, round the top of which runs 
a berm, or chcmin des rondcs, and above which the tower rises in a solid 
mass to the height of 29 feet ; upon this the present superstructure is 
raised. The escarp is faced with large stones, and retains to some 
extent its original appearance ; but time and hard treatment have worn 
away much of the fine work, and the repairs have been executed in a 
very slovenly manner. . . No entrance, or appearance of one, could be 
discovered in the solid masonry of the basement portion of the tower, 
though it was carefully searched for ; although many of the stones are 
much the worse for wear, they appear to be in their original positions, 
and to have been set without mortar. When repairs have been necessary 
from decay of the material or fracture of the masonry, they have been 
made with small stones set in mortar. The marginal draft on these 
stones is wider than usual, being 4 to 5 inches ; and the dressing of the 
faces seems never to have been finished, as many of the stones are left 
in the rough state. (The attached sketch in the ' Ordnance Survey 
Notes ' gives a height of 4 feet 2 inches for one of the courses.) 

' Above the solid block of masonry there is a plinth course, and over 
this the superstructure, which contains several chambers and a cistern ; 
the cistern rests on the solid masonry, and is supplied entirely by 
rainfall ; in one of the chambers is shown the INIihrab of David, marking, 
according to Moslem tradition, the place where David composed the 
Psalms. In the superstructure, which is badly built, there is a mixture of 
stones with the marginal draft, and those with plain chiselled faces all set 
in mortar ; and over the main gateway a very unpleasant effect has been 
produced by suddenly bringing the masonry of the upper part to the face 
of the large stones, instead of keeping it back on the plinth course. . . 

' The interior of the tower near the saluting battery (north-west tower 
of the Citadel) consists of one large chamber covered with a pointed arch ; 



JERUSALEM. 269 

the masonry appears to be a reconstruction ; most of the stones have a 
deeply chiselled draft round their margins, with the faces left rough and 
turned inwards towards the chamber ; from this a passage, the entrance 
to which is now closed, apparently led into the ditch. Within the 
chamber there is a cistern, and a second at the entrance of the tower, 
which were described as being of great size and always containing a good 
supply of water ; when visited they were too full of water to admit of 
exploration ; they are supplied partly by surface drainage, and partly by 
a branch of the aqueduct from the Birket Mamilla, which, after passing in 
front of the Jaffa Gate, crosses the ditch on a wall, and then runs into the 
y tower and cisterns. Whilst examining the portion of the aqueduct in the 

ditch, the remains of a conduit were found beneath the Jaffa Gate, and 
1 2 feet below the level of the present one.' 

With respect to this aqueduct, it should be noted that Josephus 
(5 Wars, vii. 2) speaks of the ' gate where water was brought in to the 
tower Hippicus.' If the larger eastern tower represent Phasaelus, the 
north-west tower of the Citadel very probably stands on the site of 
Hippicus, These Royal Towers were left standing by Titus (7 Wars, 
i. i), and only destroyed in 1239 by Daud, Emir of Kerak. David's 
Tower was called the Castle of the Pisans in the Middle Aees, but the 
solid base appears to belong to the Herodian period. 

In 1874, Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake and Herr Schick visited the tower 
together, and in the same year, as well as in 1882, it was examined by 
Captain Conder. 

Mr. Drake gives some additional information (' Quarterly Statement,' 
1874, p. 64). Seven courses are visible above the scarp to the plinth. 
' On some of the stones there is a double draft, which, being in an un- 
finished state, leads to the conclusion that the draft was worked after the 
stones had been set in their places. The width of the draft, as I measured 
it in many places, was 3, 4, 6, or 7 inches, the greater breadth being 
always at the sides or bottom, usually the latter. The height of the 
courses varies from 4 feet i inch to 4 feet 2 inches. The following are 
the lengths of several stones which I measured : 8 feet, 5 feet 2 inches, 
9 feet 2 inches, 13 feet 7 inches, 9 feet 5 inches, 10 feet 9 inches, 14 feet ; 
while the breadth at the north-east corner varied from 3 feet 7 inches to 
3 feet 8 inches.' 



270 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Subsequent exploration on the part of Herr Schick led to the discovery 
of a passage in the solid part of the tower. It is formed by leaving out a 
line of stones in the fourth course above the level of the top of the scarp. 
The entrance is from the west, and the height corresponds with the 
height of a single course (4 feet 2 inches). It runs irregularly eastwards 
nearly to the middle of the tower. The stones in the interior had plain 
faces, and were irregularly laid with wide joints. 

The market-place east of the fosse which surrounds the Citadel appears 
to be supported on vaults ; an entrance exists to these through a closed 
gate in the counterscarp south-east of the Tower of David. An examina- 
tion of these vaults, were it permitted by the Turks, would be of con- 
siderable interest, as a communication might be found with the passage 
about to be noticed, while it is also possible that the foundations of the 
unknown Tower of Mariamne may yet be discovered in this direction. 



The Great Passage on the Modern Sion. 

The following is Sir C. Wilson's account (' Ordnance Survey Notes,' 
p. 60) : 

' In the house of the Rev. J. Barclay, incumbent of Christ Church, 
there is a shaft by which access is obtained to a passage running east and 
west under the Mission premises. The rock was found here to be 34 feet 
below the yard in front of the church ; the passage has been cemented, 
and in its original state was probably a water- conduit or drain ; the roof 
is in places of large flat stones, in others of a sort of rough vaulting with 
large stones as shown on sketch. It seems doubtful, however, whether 
any portion of this formed part of the original covering. At the western 
end is a closed shaft reaching nearly to the surface, and at this point the 
passage turns off to the left for a short distance, when it is closed by 
rubbish ; the eastern end is closed by the falling in of the roof. A great 
portion of the passage is cut out of the rock.' 

The total length given by Sir C. Wilson (Plate XXI.) is 265 feet, 
exclusive of the bend on the west, which is 14 feet long. The width 
varies from i foot 5 inches to 2 feet i inch. The bottom is 37 feet 
4 inches beneath the surface in the shaft under the house. The rock is 
generally 2 to 5 feet above the bottom for about 90 feet from the west 



JERUSALEM. 271 

end, when it disappears altogether. The west end is entirely rock-cut, the 
channels being here only some 3 feet high. The masonry is of inferior 
quality, and the vaulting very rude. The passage was discovered by 
Herr Schick in 1S60, when the church was built. It was visited by 
Lewin in 1862 (see 'Siege of Jerusalem,' p. 206). He gives the 
height of the passage as 6 feet. The passage is perhaps part of that 
mentioned by Mejr ed Din as extending from the Citadel to the Gate of 
the Chain. The level of the secret passage found by Colonel Warren 
outside the Gate of the Chain was 2,400. The level of the floor of the 
passage under consideration is about 2,504 towards the west end ; the 
distance between these observations is about 1,400 feet, so that if the 
two passages are connected, there must be a drop or steep slope in some 
part of the line. 

Ancient Towers on the Modern Sign. 

The discoveries made of the level of the rock in different places along 
the line of the street called Harat ed Dawayeh, south of David Street, 
and further east in the Harat esh Sharah, appear clearly to indicate a sort 
of scarp or very steep slope facing northwards, and running parallel to 
David Street on the south. During the erection of the Mission School 
(marked No. 67 on the Ordnance Survey) the remains of two old towers 
in a line east and west were found immediately north of the Harat ed 
Dawayeh (see Lewin's 'Siege of Jerusalem,' pp. 215-217). They are 
now hidden beneath recently constructed cisterns. The western tower 
had an interior measurement of 9 feet east and west by 8 feet north and 
south, with a doorway 5 feet wide on the west side. The floor was 
36 feet beneath the level of the street (or about 2,470 above the 
Mediterranean). The supposed door had a round arch 18 feet above the 
floor at the soffit of the crown ; and there was a second arch 8 feet above 
this. The second building was 64 feet to the east, corresponding in 
dimensions, but without any door ; projecting stones in the wall seemed 
to indicate an internal stair. South of these towers, and between them, 
were remains of a massive wall of masonry, smaller than that of the 
Haram, and not drafted. There are at present no means of judging the 
antiquity of these remains. 



2 7 2 THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Remains in the Jews' Quarter. 

In May, 1872, Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake examined some remains in 
tlie Jews' Quarter pointed out to him by Dr. T. Chaplin ; these were again 
visited by Captain Conder and Dr. Chaplin in 1881. They appear to 
have escaped the observation of the Due de Voglie, whose work on the 
churches of the Holy Land contains careful descriptions of all the other 
Crusading remains as yet known in Jerusalem. 

The first of these remains is a chapel, now converted into a living 
room, in the house of a Morocco Jew. It is situated on the south side of 
the street called Haret el Meidan, where it runs east and west, and 
immediately west of the southern alley near the bench mark 2,485 of the 
Ordnance Surv-ey. It is perhaps this chapel which was called St. 
Thomas of the Germans. There are only two apses visible on the east 
side of the room, which are now fitted with wooden doors, and used as 
cupboards ; they measure 5 feet and 7^ feet in diameter, the southern 
being the largest. A third probably exists behind the south wall of the 
room. The length east and west was about 12 feet. The roof consists 
of two groined vaults, but the whole is so covered with whitewash and 
plaster as to be barely recognisable as mediaeval work. 

The second ruin is found in the block of buildings which stand on the 
scarp facing east towards the Haram. It is entered from the small square 
in the Harat el Meidan, east of the last-mentioned site. The remains of 
ribs of vaulting springing from the walls indicate that a large mediaeval 
building stood here. There are vaults below with pointed arches and 
rubble work. One of these is T shaped, with a groined roof and flat- 
pointed arch. This was believed to be full of treasure, which turned to 
charcoal when touched. The corbels supporting the ribs above have 
boldly cut leaves, such as are common in Crusading capitals. The lintel 
stone of the door of the house has an effaced Latin inscription on it : the 
date 8 NOV is legible. These substructions belong probably to the old 
Hospice of St. Mary of the Germans, which stood in the twelfth century 
in this part of the town. Immediately west of the square is a house in the 
courtyard of which is a well said to contain a spring of water which has a 
brackish taste : the well is 33 feet deep. 

Further west in the same quarter of the town is the so-called Beth 



JERUSALEM. 273 

Ruakh hak Kodesh, or ' House of the Holy Ghost' — probably the site of 
the old monastery. It stands south of the Harat el Yehiad, which runs 
from the great Armenian Church of St. James eastwards. The site is 
marked by the alley with a level 2,527 near B.M. 2,504'i. North of this 
again is the Harat es Surian, with the Syrian monastery and Church of 
St. Thomas. The north entrance to the monastery has a fine Crusading 
doorway, like that on the west of the rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre 
Church. Near the street which leads east to the Jews' Wailing-Place 
is a little sacred shrine of Sheikh 'Aid, in the street called Harat el 
Mugharbeh, south of the corner marked B.M. 2,399' i, and on the 
east side of the street. The west entrance to this building seems 
possibly to be a Crusading arch. It should be remembered that the 
southern part of the city was not the Jews' Quarter in the Middle Ages, 
for, as shown by the ' Citez de Jherusalem,' they then inhabited the 
Juiverie, answering to the modern Moslem Quarter of the city, north of 
the Haram. 

Dr. Gutiie's Excavations. 

On the 27th May, 18S1, these works were courteously shown by Dr. 
Guthe to Captain Conder and Lieutenant Mantell, R.E. The principal 
discovery on the Ophel hill was that of a small tower and a rock scarp 
south of the point, to which Colonel Warren traced the Ophel wall. The 
stones were well cut, of moderate size, not at all approaching the Haram 
stones, but rather resembling the later Byzantine work in the Haram. 
They were not drafted, and their proportions were very square. There 
were three courses setting back one on the other. This masonry stands on 
the north on rougher masonry, and on the west face it is seen to be 
founded on a scarp of rock apparently of no great height. A little further 
south a wall was visible just below the surface, running south. The 
stones were 2 or 3 feet long, with a broad irregular draft and rustic 
bosses ; the dressing and general appearance seemed to suggest Byzantine 
work. The wall stood on a low scarp of rock. 

The most northerly excavation was a hundred yards west of the 
Virgin's Pool. The wall on the low scarp was about 200 feet further 
south. The tower was between these two. None of the stones were 
more than i foot 6 inches high, nor longer than 4 feet. 

35 



274 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Further south-west, some caves and cisterns and remains of a vaulted 
building, with tesselated floors, were examined. These may have belonged 
also to some large monastic building on the hill. West of the Old Pool, 
below Siloam, a corner of another building was excavated, also of drafted 
masonry, which appeared to be probably either Byzantine or Crusading. 
Although the scarp running north and south on the east side of the Ophel 
hill may perhaps be a continuation of the line explored by Sir C. Warren, 
there appeared to be no discovery of any masonry likely to be of great 
age. The excavations would require to be far more numerous and exten- 
sive than those of Dr. Guthe in order really to gain a complete knowledge 
of the topography of this part of the city. 

The remaining buildings of interest within Jerusalem are noticed in 
the paper on the architectural history of the city. The Ordnance 
Survey notes give detailed accounts of the Haram, the Holy Sepulchre 
Church, and other remains of the mediaeval city. The two works of 
De Vogiie on the Temple and on the Churches of the Holy Land should 
also be consulted by the student of Jerusalem topography ; but the pre- 
sent volume contains a notice of every monument in and round Jerusalem 
which has as yet been discovered down to the year 1882, and a description 
of every such monument considered to date earlier than 70 a.d., as well as 
of all the more important since that time. 

Rock Levels. 

The accumulation of rubbish in Jerusalem is so great that our only 
means of ascertaining accurately the original features of the natural site 
must depend on a careful examination of the levels of the rock. For 
although when the city was first inhabited the rock was no doubt in many 
places covered with the red virgin soil which Colonel Warren often found 
at the bottom of his shaft, yet even this red soil is not a safe indication, 
as there are instances in which it has been found with dddris beneath it 
again. The rock levels give us the niaxiimim differences. The surface 
levels of the Ordnance Survey give us the 7niniiiium differences, and, 
controlled by the surface contours, we are able to cut sections through 
any part of the city, and discuss on a sound basis the question of relative 
heights, and situation, of the old hills and valleys. 



JERUSALEM. 275 

Colonel Wilson was the first to set on a proper scientific basis this 
question of the natural contours, modern and ancient. He has marked 
on the Ordnance Survey all the levels of the rock where it appeared 
above the surface, and the Ordnance Survey plan is accurately contoured 
at vertical differences of 10 feet, and referenced to the level of the 
Mediterranean, the levels being those of the surface in 1864, which have 
not been materially altered since, although some fresh accumulations of 
rubbish have occurred outside the Jaffa Gate and in a few other places. 

Colonel Warren was always most careful to ascertain with accuracy 
the rock levels in tanks, shafts, and galleries during his explorations, and 
added materially to our knowledge of the rock, especially in the vicinity 
of the Haram enclosure. Both these scientific explorers urged on the 
town architects the value of recording all observations possible of the 
depth beneath the surface at which rock was found in digging foundations 
or otherwise. 

The record of his own observations was obtained in 1873 by Lieutenant 
Conder from Herr Konrad Schick, at the instance of Colonel Warren. 
These observations are often not as accurate as those of the Ordnance 
Survey or those taken by Colonel Warren, but they may be relied on 
within 2 or 3 feet, and their number makes them of great importance, as 
no questions of topography depend on such minute accuracy as to be 
affected by even a yard in depth, while the drawing of contours is only 
possible when a great number of observations are available. 

The excavations of the Muristan in 1S72 laid bare the rock in the 
great cisterns for a distance of over 100 feet east and west, and thus gave 
most valuable information as to the course of the Tyropceon Valley. 
Another fine series of observations was obtained further east by Herr 
Schick in 1876, in a great tank outside the Muristan. 

From the rock levels, numbering 265 in all, contoured, plans have been 
prepared by Colonel Warren, Captain Conder, and Herr Shick inde- 
pendently. Although these differ in some minor details, they are sub- 
stantially in accord, the observations being only deficient in the quarter 
of Haret Bab es Silsileh, where, however, the surface contours control 
the sections. The small differences can only be settled by further obser- 
vations, which there is no immediate prospect of obtaining, and they are 
of no archaeological importance. 

35—2 



2 76 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The whole register of levels published in the ' Quarterly Statement' in 
1879 was carefully revised by Captain Conder and Herr Schick in 1881, 
during the late campaign in Palestine, and Herr Schick states that it may 
now be relied on for accuracy. 

Next to the Ilaram levels the most valuable are those which determine 
the depth of the Tyropocon Valley, and the question of these levels is 
therefore treated in cxlcnso. The discovery of a scarp 12 to 14 feet 
high facing east, and running parallel to the street northwards from the 
Damascus Hotel, was an important addition in iSSi. 



Notes ox the Register. 

1. This register includes all the recorded observations in Jerusalem — 
total 265. Those marked (O) are taken from the Ordnance Survey 
Notes and Plan, dating 1864 — 5. Those marked (W) were taken by 
Captain Warren in 1867 — 70, as noticed in the ' Recovery of Jerusalem.' 
Those marked (S) were collected by Herr Konrad Schick, and are mainly 
the results of excavations for the foundations of houses. Those marked 
(C) were observed by Lieutenant Conder in 1872 — 5 and 18S1 — 2. 

2. The levels depend on, and are referred to, the surface levels 
marked on the Ordnance Survey. 

3. Negative results of value have also been obtained. In 1872 all the 
chambers under the platform of the Dome of the Rock on the south and 
.south-west were examined by Lieutenant Conder. No rock was found 
in them, the general floor-levels being 2,420. 

4. From these levels the contoured plans which accompany the 
present volume have been prepared. 

5. The contours on Ophel are not included in this register. The 
levels of the rock on this spur were determined in twenty places by Sir 
C, Warren. 



JERUSALEM. 



277 









INTERIOR OF HARAM 










D 


epth 


X 




No. 


Position. 


Level. b 


='lovv 


i 


Remarks. 






su 


face. 


< 




I 


Highest crest of S a k h r a h . 


2440 







5 ft. 3 in. above floor. 


2 


Dome of the Rock 100 ft. E. of last 


2432 


3 


c 


Excavated, 1S74. 


3 


KubbetelArwah 


2435 




c 


Surface. 


4 


E. wall of Platform iSo ft. N. of steps 


2421 




c 


I ft. above base of wall. 


5 


E. wall of Platform 80 ft. N. of last . 


2423 




c 


4 ft. above base of wall. 


6 


Flat rock 50 ft. E. of last 


2419 







Surface. 


7 


Flat rock 120 ft. S. of S.E. corner of 












Platform 


2420 







Surface. 


8 


N. wall of Platform 50 ft. E. of top 












of N.W. stairs .... 


2432 




c 


2 ft. above surface. 


9 


Flat rock N. of N.W. stairs . 


2430 







Surface. 


10 


Top of rock scarp, E. wall of cham- 












ber No. 24 .... 


2433 


T 


c 


Examined, 1872. 


II 


Bottom of ditto (rock falling W. 30°) 


2425 


9 


w 


Recov. Jen, p. 214. 


12 


K u b b e t el K h u d r floor . 


2426 




c 


Surface. 


13 


E. side of N. door of last 


2428 




c 


2 ft. above surface. 


14 


N.W. corner outside same 


2425 




c 


Surface. 


IS 


Flat rock N.W. corner of Haram . 


2425 







Mean surface. 


16 


Highest point (at steps) of scarp in 












N.W. corner of Haram 


2462 




s 


30 ft. above interior. 


17 


E. end of same scarp 


2432-5 




s 


13! ft. above interior. 


18 


Scarp on W. Haram wall, highest 












point So ft. N. of B a b as Serai 


2447 




s 


7 ft. above interior. 


19 


S. face of same scarp at window in 












Haram wall S. of last . 


2434 




c 


3 ft. above interior (1873). 


20 


Under sill of Triple Gate 


2378 


I 


w 


Recov. Jen, p. 230. 


21 


W. wall of passage 60 ft. N. of out- 












side line of Triple Gate 


2388 




w 


Surface of floor. 


22 


W. wall 130 ft. N. of last 


2396 




w 


3 ft. above floon 


23 


Cistern No. i . . . . 


2427 


[2 


w 


Recov. Jen, pp. 206 — 217. 


24 


„ No. 2 .... 


2429 


6 


^v 




25 


„ No. 3 .... 


2426 


9 


\v 




26 


„ No. 4 


2417 


[8 


w 




27 


„ No. 5, N.W. end 


2425 


[O 


w 




28 


„ „ S.E. entrance . 


2408 


8 


w 




29 


„ No. 6 .... 


2410-5 5 


■5 


w 




30 


„ No. 7, average 




241 1 


5 


^v 




31 


„ No. 8, average 




2411 


5 


AV 




32 


„ No. 9 




2400 


15 


\N 


Doubtful, p. 208. 


33 


,, No. 10 






2387 


51 


w 




34 


„ No. II 






2397 


9 


w 




35 


„ No. 12 






2406 




^v 


Surface. 


36 


„ No. 13 






2409 


, , 


w 


Surface. 


37 


„ No. 14 






2409 




w 


Surface. 


38 


„ No. 15 






2393 


[5 


w 




39 


„ No. 18 






2424 


4 


w 




40 


„ No. 22 






2426 


4 


w 




41 


„ No. 23 






2429 




AV 


Surface. 


42 


„ No. 25 






2416 : 


!0 


w 




43 


„ No. 28 






2412 


3 


w 





278 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



INTERIOR OF 1 1 ARAM— ««////«.</. 









Depth 






No. 


Tosllion. 


Level. 


below 
surface. 




1 


Remarks. 


44 


Cistern No. 29, top of scarp . 


2419 


10 


w 




45 


W. of last 


2417 




s 




46 


Cistern No. 34 ... . 


2431 


4 


AV 




47 


„ No. 35 ■ • • • 


2429 


6 


s 


Doubtful. 


48 


„ No. 36 ... . 


241 1 


5 


c 





OUTSIDE HARAM \VA[,LS. 



49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 

56 
57 

58 
59 

60 
61 

62 

63 
64 

65 

66 

67 
68 
69 

70 

7' 

72 
73 
74 

75 
76 



W. Haram wall at \\'iIson's Arcli 
W. pier (42 ft. ^V. of last) 
W. Haram wall, Tyroptcon Bridge . 
Prophet's Gate 14 ft. W. of wall 

„ 7 ft. N. of N. jamb . 

Ham mam es Shefa, S. end . 
Rock surface at S. end of Aqueduct 

from Twin Pools (channel 2406 

at bottom) . . . . . 
S. Haram wall 90 ft. E. of S.W. angle 
S. Haram wall 213 ft. E. of S.W. 

angle . . . . . 

S. Haram wall 14 ft. S. of Single Gate 
S. Haram wall S.E. angle, falls E. 

I in 9 
S. Haram wall 16 ft. \V. of last 

of S.E. 

N. of S.E. 

of s.e! 

of S.K 



N. E. tower of Haram S. side . 
„ 200 ft. E. 

135 ft- 

N.E. angle of Haram 100 ft. E. of 
wall 

N.E. angle of Haram 97 ft. due E. 

of wall ..... 
E. wall of Haram i8 ft. S. of N.E. 

angle ..... 

Outlet ofBirkctlsrail. 
72J ft. S. of No. 66 

45 ft- >. .. ... 

61 ft. „ „ (rising N.) 

104 ft. „ „ (rising S.) 



E. Haram wall 15 ft. 


N. 


corner 




E. Haram wall iS ft. 


N. 


corner 




E. Haram wall 41 ft. 


N. 


corner 




E. Haram wall 162 ft. 


N 


corner 




Golden Gate S. jamb 





233975 


82-25 


W 


2347-25 


75 


\N 


2325 


62 


W 


2320 


90 


W 


2320 


74 


w 


2339 


80 





2409 


22 


c 


22S9 


85 


w 


2322 


52 


w 


2334 


35 


w 


2277 


80 


^v 


2287 


73 


\v 


2287-5 


70 


^v 


229S-8 


60 


w 


2279 


80 


^v 


2312 


70 


w 


2360 


33 


^v 


2293-2 


112 


w 


23'7 


30 


w 


2317 


47 


w 


2341 


64 


w 


2337 


59 


w 


2330 


74 


w 


2344 


60 


w 


2282 


120 


w 


2289 


115 


w 


2278 


125 


w 


2289 


115 


w 



Recov. Jen, p. 81. 

p. 104. 
p- 1 14- 
P 115- 



Measured 1873. 
Recov. Jer., p. 97. 



P- 132- 

p. 138. 
P- 149- 

„ p. 147. 

P- 151- 
P- 97- 

Estimated. 

Recov. Jer., p. 183. 
p. 176. 

Falls S. I in 4. 

Recov. Jer., p. 17S. 
little N. of next. 

Recov. Jer., p. iSo. 

„ p. 181. 

Estimated. 

Greatest depth, p. 187. 



JERUSALEM. 



279 



MOSLEM QUARTER OF CITY. 



No. 



77 
78 

79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 

85 
86 



87 
88 
89 

90 

91 
92 

93 
94 



95 
96 

97 
98 

99 

100 

lOI 

102 

103 

104 

i°S 
106 

107 
108 



109 
no 



Position. 



256 ft. E. of B a b S i 1 1 i M i r i a m 

162 ft. ,, (scarp 20 ft. high) . 

109 ft. „ (rising W. in steps) 

43 ft. N. of B a b S i 1 1 i M i r i a m 

34 ft- S. of „ 

78 ft. S. of 

Outside Church of St. Anne . 

N. W. corner of Birket Israil 

53 ft. E. of last 

Cistern 33 ft. W. of T a r i k Bab 

Hitta, 61 ft. N. of Tarik 

B a b S i 1 1 i M i r i a m 
Top of'AkabetetTakiyeh . 
Ecce Homo Arch .... 
W. of Street el Wad at Catholic 

Armenian Monastery . 
Scarp over Cotton Grotto 
400 ft. \V. of Bab e z Z a h r a h 
N.E. corner of city, highest point of 

scarp ..... 

E. side of T a r 1 k B a b e 1 A m u d, 

60 ft. N. of 'Ak abet S h. S'ad 
W. end of arch in alley E. of N. 

end of S u k e 1 'A 1 1 a r i n, close 

to B. M. 2472'5 
At arch E. of last .... 
N. end of vault S.W. of last . 
S. „ 120 ft. S. of last . 

N. side of street 180 ft. E. of last . 
N.E. of arch 60 ft. S. of last . 
Corner of S u k el K a 1 1 a n i n 

and e 1 W a d . 
80 ft. N. of Bab el Had id in 

N.W. corner of court 
looft. S. ofetTakiyeh . 
W. of last, S.W. of et Takiyeh. 
' House of Dives,' point 2412 O.S. . 
W. of last 130 ft., N. side of Via 

Dolorosa ..... 
S. of B.M. 2420-6 on Austrian Hos- 
pice, 17 ft. W. of 89 . 
Opposite French Consulate on E. . 
N. side Via Dolorosa under wall of 

Austrian Hospice opposite Arme- 
nian Catholic Monastery 
W. end of scarp N. of Via Dolorosa 
E. end of same scarp in chapel of 

Sisters of Sion .... 



Level. 



Depth 
below 
surface. 



Remarks. 



1 1 1 I Scarp at N. end of Twin Pools 



2370 

2379 
2388 
2400 
2390 

2377 
2410 
2360 
2344 



2385 
2477 

2436 

2378 
2524 
2520 

2474 
2420 



2470 

2457 
2440 
2420 
2400 
2400 

2390 

2365 
2430 
2444 
2360 

2374 

2400 
2402 



2420 
2440 

2456 

2454 



21 
30 
23 
19 
20 

33"S 

15 
30 



36 

9 

40 



35 



10 
30 
50 
45 
45 

10 

35 

7 

5 
53 

50 

i7| 
45 



W 

^v 
w 
^v 

w 



w 
c 
o 

AV 
O 

o 
o 

s 



w 

s 



s 
c 

s 

s 



Recov. Jer., pp. 174 — 177. 
Top of scarp. 



Surface, p. 193. 
p. 189. 



P- 195- 
Above surface. 



Recov. Jer., p. 281. 
Average. 



Base of city wall. 

Surface. 
Discovered 1876. 

)> I! 

Surf, marked 2445 on O.S. 



Recov. Jer., p. 281. 
Foundation. 



Measured, 1874. 

The scarp is about 20 ft. 

high (see No. 88). 
Scarp 37 ft. high. 



38o 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 





MOSLEM QUARTER OF CITY- 


—continued. 








Depth 


■r 




No. 


Position. 


Level. 


below 
surface. 


1 
< 


Remarks. 


112 


Scarp at S. end of Twin Pools 


2458 




S 


Surface of Barracks. 


i'3 


Rock bottom of Twin Pools on S. . 


2400 


48 


S 


The S. scarp is 58 ft. high. 


114 


)» )i )i W. • 


2417 


50 


s 


W. side of pool rock, 2410 
to 2420. 


"S 


Arch inTarik Bab ez Zahreh, 












N. of B.M. 2479-1 


2474 


12 


s 




116 


Second arch 100 ft. N. of last 


2489 




s 


Just beneath surface. 


"7 


Tarik Sh. Rihan E. of English 












Consulate, opposite B.M. 2489-6 


2477 


12 


s 




118 


Corner of same street, 50 ft. E. of 












B.M. 2442-1 .... 


2400 


40 


s 




119 


150 ft. N. of B.M. 2462, which is 












opposite Austrian Consulate 


2471 


7 


s 




120 


E. side of street N. of e 1 M a 1 a- 












w i y c h 


2503 


3 


s 




121 


N. of last 50 ft. S. of B.M. 2525-2 . 


2504 


2 


s 




122 


100 ft. \\. of B.M. 2525-2 at 2502 . 


2503 




s 


I ft. above surface. 


123 


N. side of H a r a t Bab H i 1 1 a, 












80 ft. W. of B. M. 2501-6 . 


2496 


8 


s 




124 


Alley N. of last, W. of point 250S . 


2498 


10 


s 




125 


In garden 200 ft. N. of last . 


2522 




s 


Surface. 


126 


N. side of H a r a t Bab H i 1 1 a, 
150 ft. E. of Tarik Bab ez 












Zahrah 


2497 


6 


s 


420 ft. S. of N. city wall. 


127 


Corner of Sikket Deir el 
'Adas, 100 ft. S. of Madeleine 












Church ..... 


2474 


6 


s 




128 


Same street, corner N. of Madeleine 












Church, near point 2483 . 


2487 


... 


s 


4 ft. above surface. Doubt- 
ful. 


129 


Opposite B.M. 2450-9 at 250 ft. S. 












of, and 500 ft. W. of city walls . 


2446 


5 


s 




130 


At 80 ft. S. of B.M. 2468-4, 180 ft. 












AV. of city wall .... 


2440 


20 


s 




131 


'Akabet Abu Waly near point 












2441 


2399 


35 


s 




132 


At 50 ft. E. of arch in Sikket 
Deir el 'Adas in buildings 
between 'Akabet Abu Waly 












and 'Akabet Sh. Hasan . 


2457 


6 


s 





»33 
134 

13s 

136 
137 



JEWISH QUARTER OF CITY. 



Surface of scarp opposite Haram 
At W. pier Tyropceon Bridge, 4ii ft. 

W. of Haram wall . . " . 
285 ft. W. of Haram wall, same line 

as last . . . . . 

25° .. 
216 „ 



2430 


... 





General level. 


2345 "5 


42 


w 


Recov. Jcr., pp. 95—99 


2379'S 
2388-6 

2377-5 


21 
18 
32 


A\- 
W 

w 





JERUSALEM. 



281 





JEWISH QUARTER OF <ZVY\— continued. 








Depth 


>. 




No. 


Position. 


Level. 


below 
surface. 



< 


Remarlcs. 


138 


182 ft. W. of Haram wall, same line 












as last 


2383-5 


22 


w 




139 


^3- 5) )» J) )» 


2369 


30 


w 




140 


9- " 11 " M 


2354'S 


40 


w 




141 


Corner 180 ft. N. of W. wall of Ger- 












man Jewish Hospital . 


2451 


45 


S 


' 


142 


N. wall, same hospice . 


2436 


10 


s 




143 


H a r a t el M a s t a h, S. end, E. 












side of street .... 


2456 


40 


s 




144 


Same street, 60 ft'. N. of last . 


2452 


38 


s 




145 


Corner, 90 ft. S. of N. wall of syna- 












gogue. No. 53 (O.S.) . 


2460 


26 


s 




146 


80 ft. E. of last .... 


2455 


44 


s 




147 


Under synagogue No. 58 (O.S.) 


2497 


2 


c 




148 


N. of last by point 2508 on E. side 












H a r a t e 1 J a w a n y 


24S0 


25 


S' 




149 


Under large synagogue. No. 57 












(O.S.) 


2476 


17 


s 




15° 


W. of arch in H a r a t el Y e h u d, 












near synagogue, No. 47 (O.S.) . 


2468 


30 


s 




151 


H s h N a m m e r, middle of street 












on N. side 


2472 


30 


s 




152 


In alley S.W. of Caraite Synagogue, 












near point 2497 .... 


2477 


20 


s 




153 


Synagogue No. 48 (O.S.), S.E. 












corner 


2464 


34 


s 




154 


Synagogue No. 48 (O.S.), N.E. 












corner 


2465 


30 


s 




iSS 


Synagogue No. 48 (O.S.), N.\\'. 












corner 


2475 


25 


s 




156 


Steps in H a r a t el M e i d a n, S. 












of northern arch 


2412 


35 


s 




157 


Corner S. of last .... 


2420 


32 


s 




158 


150 ft. W. of last, near No. 6 (O.S.) 


2457 


12 


s 




159 


Harat el Meidan, E. side, N. 
end of third arch from Temple 








. 




street 


2456 


3 


s 


Checked 18S1. 


160 


At 70 ft. E. of last .... 


2409 


40 


s 




161 


Wall west of Wailing Place . 


2323 


70 


s 




162 


Gennath Gate (so-called) 


2449 


34 


w 


Recov. Jen, p. 276. 



163 

164 

165 

166 

167 

168 



ARMENIAN QUARTER. 



N.W. angle Prot. Bishop's Palace 



E. wall do. . 

N.E. angle Bible warehouse 

W. wall English church . 

N.W. angle do. 

S.W. corner courtyard, do. 



2500 

2510 
2520 
2512 
2509 
2521 



40 


S 


30 


s 


20 


s 


38 


s 


41 


s 


2 2 


s 



See O.S., p. 60, Aqueduct 
with rock, 2504. 



282 



THE SURVEY OF WESTER X l'ALESTl.\E. 
ARMENIAN QUARTER— r^«/;«/W. 



No. 


Position. 


Level. 


Depth 
below 
surface. 


1 

3 
< 


Remarks. 


169 


N.W. corner of school, S. of church 


^l^S 


28 


s 






170 

'7' 


S.W. do 

Cistern in barracks S. of castle 


2536 
2537 


10 

7 


s 
s 






172 


David Street S. side, E. end of arch 














E. of Ciiristian Street . 


2478 


40 


s 






173 


Cistern N.E. corner of Armenian 














convent garden .... 


2527 


•7 


s 






174 


Cistern 100 ft. S. of last . 


2520 


24 


s 






'75 


Cistern 80 ft. S. of last . 


2517 


22 


s 






176 


Corner of Ha rat Deir cs 














Surian, N. of B.M. 2505 5 


2485 


25 


s 


S. side of Mission 


Hos- 


177 


\V. end of alley S. of Syrian con- 








pital. 






vent ...... 


2492 


20 


s 






178 


S. side of same alley near point 












179 


25'2 

\V. corner of arch in front of syna- 


2492 


20 


s 






180 


gogue No. 60 (O.S.) . 
H a r a t el Jaw a n y, E. side point 


2515 


20 


s 






iSi 


2505 

H a r a t el A r m e n, S. ^V. corner 


2492 


13 


s 








of southern arch .... 


2529 


16 


s 


400 ft. N. of S. city 


wall. 


182 


Cistern 100 ft. N.W. of Bab en 














NebyDaud. 


2516 


1 1 


s 






183 


Cistern 50 ft. N.W. of last 


2518 


10 


s 






184 


S. wall of building E. of B..M. 














2499"8 


2490 


10 


s 


E. of H a r a t 
Neby Daud. 


Bab 


'85 


Tarik Bab en Neby Dafld, 
50 ft. S. of southern arch, W. 












186 


side ...... 

At 100 ft. S.W. of last . 


2484 
2510 


20 
20 


s 
s 


Doubtful. 





CHRISTIAN QUARTER. 



187 
188 

1 89 
190 
191 
192 



Church of Holy Sepulchre, Tomb 
of Nicodemus . . . . 

Church of Holy Sepulchre, above 
Chapel of Adam 



Church of Holy Sepulchre, N. of 

Latin Chapel .... 
Church of Iloly Sepulchre, N.W. 

corner, S. courtyard . 
Church of Holy Sepulchre, in front 

of Convent of Abraham 
Church of Holy Sepulchre, West 

door ...... 



2485 


... 


C 


249s 


... 


C 


2479 


... 


C 


2473 


7 


S 


2458 


18 


S 


2495 


8 


S 



Possibly higher. 

N.B. Floor of the Calvary 
Chapel, 2494. Checked 



Top of ridge. 



JERUSALEM. 



283 





CHRISTIAN QUARTER- (w; 


'i line a 


J 










Depth 


>. 






No. 


Position. 


Level. 


below 
surface. 



< 


Remarks. 




193 


Church of Holy Sepulchre, S.E. 
corner of courtyard, above Chapel 














of Helena 


2480 




s 


Surface. 




194 


Excavation No. VI. O.S. 


2470 


7 





Excavated 1864. 




195 


Kala't Jaliid S. side 


2580 







Surface. 




196 


„ ,, city wall, N. of . 


2576 


4 


w 


Recov. Jen, p. 285. 




197 


140 ft. N. . 


2570 







Average surface. 




198 


Outside city wall, 700 ft. N.E. of 














Kala't J alud 


2527 







Surface. 




199 


Corner of H a r a t I s t a m b u- 
liyeh, 250 ft. E. of Kala't 














J a 1 u d, by Convent of St. Basil . 


2567 


5 


s 






200 


N. wall Latin Convent (18 O.S.) . 


2549 


10 


s 






201 


H a r a t I s t a m b u 1 i y e h, foun- 
dations of Convent of St. Theo- 














dore 


2565 


. . . 


s 


Surface. 




202 


W. of same street, 80 ft. N. of Con- 














vent of St. Demetrius . 


2537 


8 


s 






203 


Latin Patriarchate, N.E. angle 


2549 


• . • 


s 


Approximate. 




204 


Latin Patriarchate, 50 ft. E. of 














last 


2557 


13 


s 






205 


Latin Patriarchate, W. wall, 100 ft. 














from N.W. angle 


2534 


14 


s 


Doubtful. 




206 


Church of St. Saviour, under floor . 


2532 


20 


s 






207 


H a r a t el A\' a r i y e h, 140 ft. 














N.E. of last .... 


2553 


3 


s 






208 


Grounds of Patriarchate, S.E. corner 


2553 


12 


s 






209 


At 50 ft. N. of B.M. 2563 


2553 


10 


s 






210 


100 ft. W. of Greek Catholic Con- 














vent ...... 


2 C 22 


20 


s 






211 


W. side of H a r a t I s t a m b u- 
1 1 y e h, between St. Demetrius 














and Greek Catholic Convent 


2525 


12 


s 


Another observation 
Schick, 1 88 1, close 
gives 2428. 


by 

by, 


212 


Greek Catholic Convent (11 O.S.) . 


2523 


17 


s 






213 


Pool of the Bath, middle of N. side . 


2512 




s 


Surface. 




214 


„ „ W. side 


2510 


9 


s 






215 


,, „ S.W. corner 


2500 


20 


s 






216 


Mediterranean Hotel, S.W. corner . 


2494 


32 


s 






217 


German shop, N.W. corner, 70 ft. 














N.W. of last .... 


2494 


32 


s 






218 


100 ft. N.W. of W. door Holy Sepul- 














chre Church .... 


2500 


15 


s 






219 


N. of Holy Sepulchre Church S.W. 














of K h a n k a h . 


2479 


3° 


s 






220 


M u r i s t a n N.W. corner 60 ft. S. 














of Minaret J a m i a' el 'Omary 


2463 


54 


w 






221 


Church of St. Mary Magna, west 














wall 


2438 


31 


w 







\6 — 2 



284 



THE SURVEY Of WESTERN PALESTINE. 





CHRISIIAN 


. j U A RTE ^—continued. 








Depth 






No. 


Position. 


Level. 


below 





Remarks. 








surface. 


1 




222 


Cistern mouth, 120 ft. N. of S.E. 












corner of M u r i s t a n 


2426 


53 


c 




2^3 


Bottom of large cistern S.W. of last . 


2429 


50 


S 


Visited by Lieutenant Con- 
der, 1872. Rock stepped 
and falling E. 


224 


Corner of Via Dolorosa and Khan 












ez Zeit, B.M. 24649 


2465 


• . • 


C 




225 


House W. of German Hospice of 












St. John 


24S8 


• . < 


s 




226 


Corner of K h 6 t el K. h a n k a h, 












and 'A k a b e t el 'A s a f i r 


2487 


* . • 


s 


Surface. 


227 


50 ft. N. of entrance to German 












Hospice 


2455 


13 


s 




228 


E. of 'Akabet el 'Asa fir, 40 












ft. N.E. of No. 226 . 


2484 




s 


Surface. 


229 


In front of Damascus Hotel . 


2437 


24 


S 




230 


N. wall 


2453 


•3 


S 


Scarp found 1881, running 
N. from these about 
14 ft. high, facing E. 
Level 2467. 


231 


W. of last, 70 ft. from T a r i k Bab 












e 1 'A m u d 


2470 


• . • 


s 


Rock on surface. 


232 


'Akabet el Batikh, W. of 












point 2494 


2489 


5 


s 




233 


Between last and Convent of St. 
John Euthymius, N. of B.M. 












2501-8 


2497 


7 


s 




234 


Corner opposite St. John Euthy- 












mius on north .... 


2486 


20 


s 




23s 


N. of Khankah, E. of Deir es Seiyi- 












deh, and of Street 


2477 


3° 


s 




236 


Spanish Consulate, N. wall . 


2489 


1 1 


s 




237 


E. end of second alley, N. of last at 












point 2484 .... 


2462 


22 


s 




238 


E. end of next alley, N. of last at 












point 2482 .... 


2470 


12 


s 


Scarp of 10 ft. here, bottom 
2460. 


239 


N. side of same alley 


2483 


8 


s 


Surface. 


240 


Jew's House of Industry, B.M. 2490 


2480 


10 


s 




241 


E. end of alley opposite No. 238 . 


2480 


12 


s 




242 


Open ground near city wall, 50 ft. 












N.W. of point 2501 


2483 


18 


s 




243 


150 ft. S. of last, in street, loo ft. 
N. of B.M. 2502 T west of point 












2499 


2494 


5 


s 




244 


W. side of winding street So ft N.E. 












of last 


2487 


15 


s 




245 


Corner of House 100 ft. W. of B.M. 
2517-2, which is on corner N.W. 












of Greek convent of St. Catherine 


2517 


r 2 


s 





JERUSALEM. 



28s 





OUTSIDE THE 


CITY. 












Depth 


>, 

•c 




No. 


Position. 


Level. 


below 
surface. 




< 


Remarks. 


246 


240 ft. E. of S.E. angle of Haram. 












(Bed of the Kedron Valley.) 


2171 


38-5 


^v 


Recov. Jen, p. 97. The 
rock was traced 175 ft. 
W. 


247 


Golden Gate, 133 ft. E. of S. side of 












gate, rock rising W. i in 4 . 


2312 


30 


AV 


Recov. Jer. p. 154. 


248 


Ccenaculum, N. end of courtyard . 


2504 


IS 


s 




249 


„ middle S. wall . 


2479 


3° 


s 




250 


„ at cross roads, 50 ft. 












^V. 


2495 


25 


s 




251 


Rock tower foundation under Pro- 












testant School on Sion 


2483 




c 


Scarp is 36 ft. high, 9 ft. 
above passage. 


252 


Rock platform A\\ of last 


2447 


31 


c 




253 


Scarp S.E. of tower (top) 


2485 




c 


Average. 


254 


Outside school washhouse on E. 


2472 


... 


c 


Surface. 


255 


Back of shoemaker's shop, N. of 












last 


2467 


42 


c 


For these observations, 250 
— 259, see Lieutenant 
Conder's plan of this 
scarp. 


256 


N. end of scarp, N. of Tower 


24S0 




c 


10 ft. above surface in 
cemetery. 


257 


Tower in S.E. corner of Protestant 












cemetery (top of scarp) 


2480 




c 




258 


Bottom of same scarp . 


243s 


35 


c 




259 


Scarp running N.E. from last . 


2500 







Surface. 


260 


Cistern opposite last on S.E. . 


24S0 







Surface. 


261 


Rock 400 ft. S.W. of No. 250 


2380 







Surface. 


262 


„ 400 ft. S. of last . 


2350 







Surface. 


263 


Scarp 200 ft. W. of Pool of Siloam 












(top) 


2200 







Surface. 


264 


Scarp 300 ft. E. of pool . 


2160 







Surface. 


265 


Scarp 500 ft. N. of Aceldama . 


2180 







Surface. 



The Tyropceon Valley (Rock Levels). 

The accompanying plan, embracing part of the City of Jerusalem 
between Christian Street on the west and Valley Street on the east, 
and between the slope of Sion, south of David Street, on the south, and 
the Via Dolorosa on the north, has been constructed with a view of 
showing how the observations of the levels of the rock beneath the 
surface affect the question of the depth and width of the Tyropoeon 
Valley near its head. 



286 TJIE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The plan includes 56 actual observations of the rock, and is fairly 
representative of the kind of information obtained throughout Jerusalem, 
as the known points in other parts are, if anything, more numerous in 
comparison with the area — excepting always the ground immediately 
west of the Haram, where few measurements have been made. 

The area in the present plan has, however, been selected, because the 
accumulation of ddbris in this part of the city is greater than in almost 
any other part within the modern walls ; and for this reason the 
observations of the rock have here given results of more importance 
than in any other quarters of Jerusalem. By glancing the eye along the 
surface contour, No. 2,449, ''^''"^1 then along the rock contour. No. 2,450, 
and observing the wide divergence between them, it becomes at once 
evident that a great alteration has taken place in the original outline of 
the ground. 

The only method by which general results can be obtained from 
isolated observations of level is by the use of contours, or lines of equal 
level, the tracing of which indicates the relative positions of the features 
of the ground. By this method Colonel Wilson has delineated the 
supposed outline of the present surface beneath the houses of the modern 
city ; and Colonel Warren has employed the same principle in his plan of 
rock surface in the Haram area. In the case of the present surface the 
number of observations is of course considerably larger than it has been 
as yet possible to obtain by soundings of the rock, taken in deep 
excavations, or under the foundations of houses, or in cistern mouths. 
The surface contours are consequently more accurately traced, but all 
contours are approximations more or less close to actual surfaces, 
answering to the lines which in section may be drawn to indicate the 
supposed lie of the rock between known points. 

It is not, however, on the known levels of the rock alone that the 
contours depend in the case of the present plan. They are controlled by 
two other considerations. In the first place by the surface levels and 
contours, for it is evident that the rock level must never be higher than 
the surface contour, except in cases where the rock is visible above the 
general surface. In the second place the level of the floor of various 
vaults and cellars being known, it is practically almost certain that the 
rock in their vicinity does not occur at a level higher than that of these 



■2*»0 



Section A B. Looking North. 



2*70 



u. 



2400 



24S0 



^v 



2-M0_ 
2430 



Bw*? 



2400 /eet dbmre Ihe Sea- 





Section CD. Looking North. 



Tiresen Jb Surface 



g3ao 



2370 



2360 fiet afave ihe Sea, 




Section E.R Looking West, 












2420 fett above^SS'iM^JiMM, >' 



^^ 



Vmctnl'DrociTis Day & Soil lath 




VracenlBi iiute Bay iSan lifli 



JERUSALEM. 287 

floors. These negative observations are often very useful in determining 
the superior Hmit for the rock level, though they do not of course give an 
inferior limit. 

In order more clearly to show the manner in which the contours may 
be traced, it may be useful to follow one line across the plan. The 
contour 2,450 feet above the sea may be taken as a good specimen, and 
is, in fact, the master contour of Jerusalem, running through the heart of 
the city from the north-east to the south-west angle. 

This contour first appears on the present plan in the north-east corner, 
where a vertical scarp 20 feet high runs parallel to the Via Dolorosa on 
the north side of the street. Behind the Austrian Hospice there is a 
steep slope (from which we may fairly infer the rock to be close to the 
surface), and the surface contour 2,449 limits the deviation of our rock 
line on the south ; all the ground further south being here not more than 
2,339 feet above the sea. On the north an observation occurs about 200 
feet from the rock contour at a level 2,477, thus confining the contour 
2,450 within a limit of about 70 feet north and south. As, however, the 
surface slope is much gentler to the north, the limit of deviation is pro- 
bably in reality less. 

The rock contour 2,450 reappears on the west side of the valley, 
which runs down south-east from the Damascus Gate, the bed of which 
has an accumulation of some 40 feet of debris above it. We have here 
three observations in a line east and west, showing an even fall of the 
rock of 36 feet in 150 feet. The furthest east of the three observations 
has a level 2,453, thus limiting the position of our contour on the west ; 
while on the east the surface contour 2,449 occurs at a distance about 
100 feet from our rock-line, and an observation (2,402) of the rock is 
obtained 10 yards east again. 

These data practically limit the deviation of the rock contour 2,450 at 
this point within about 20 feet east and west, and its direction southwards 
is controlled between the surface contour on the east and the observations 
(2,455 ^nd 2,454) ns^f the Via Dolorosa on the west. 

Proceeding southwards to the street called 'Akabet et Takiyeh 
(the next parallel to the Via Dolorosa), we find that the surface contour 
2,449 curves outwards to the east, and that an observation (2,444) west 
of e t Takiyeh shows rock above the ground. The rock contour. 



288 THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTINE. 

therefore, cannot here be far away from the surface contour, and its 
ai)proximate direction is obtained by joinins^^ the point 2,444 ^^'^h ihe 
point 2,477 'It the top of the above-mentioned street, where also the rock 
is visible on the surface for a short distance ; by dividing this distance of 
350 feet proportionally (in the ratio 2 7 to 2)i)' we obtain the point throuj^h 
which the contour should pass. 

The next observation, in the street south of the last, agrees with the 
preceding determination. The rock contour is here confined between 
the observation 2,457 on the west, and the surface contour 2,449 or* the 
cast — an extreme limit of lOO feet ; and on the supposition of a uniform 
slope, the limit of deviation is not greater than about 30 feet at most. 

Within 50 yards of the last point the line of the contour, which here 
begins to deviate considerably from that of the surface contour, is fixed 
within a limit of about 29 feet, passing between two observations of the 
rock, 2,470 on the north, and 2,440 on the south, at a distance apart of 
about 100 feet. A section of the hill-side, extending over a length of 200 
feet, is here obtained by aid of the observed lie of the rock, in a great 
cistern discovered in 1876, showing a uniform slope of about i in 5, and 
defining in a satisfactory manner the northern slope of the great valley, 
now hidden beneath 50 feet of rubbish. 

The rock contour 2,450 now enters the area of the M u r i s t i n (the 
old Hospital of St. John), the surface of which, before the excavations 
undertaken by order of the German Government had been commenced, 
was an open field at a level of about 2,480 feet above the sea. The first 
observation (2,438) gives the level of the rock under the south wall of 
the Church of St. Marie la Grande, where a rock-cut tomb (of Crusading 
date) was found in 1872. The next (2,462), about 100 yards further 
west, shows rock 15 feet below the surface. In connection with these we 
must take the observation close to the Holy Sepulchre Church, where, in 
the vaults of the southern courtyard, the rock is found 1 5 feet from the 
surface (2,458). Under the belfry (2,473) 't "s only 7 feet from the 
surface, and in Mount Calvary it is 15 feet above the lloor of the church 
(2,495), 3S ascertained in 1882. From these, and the other neighbouring 
observations, it is clear that the church stands on the hill-top, and that 
the ground falls rapidly south of it. The contour which we are tracing 
therefore runs between the Holy Sepulchre Church and the south wall cf 



JERUSALEM. 289 

St. Marie la Grande ; and on the supposition of a uniform slope its 
position is limited to narrow bounds. 

It now becomes evident that the contour must again turn south, as 
there is an observation near the south-west angle of the Muristan of 
2,478, while all the observations further west are at yet higher levels. 
The ancient Byzantine chapel discovered in 1840, at the corner of 
Christian Street and David Street, has its floor 25 feet beneath the sur- 
face, and the level of the rock seems thus to be about 2,470 in this place. 
On the east our contour is limited by the level of the rock in those 
magnificent tanks excavated in 1S72-3, where the bed of the valley was 
laid bare to the rock at a depth 50 feet below the surface. The rock 
was here found to be stepped down eastwards with a gentle fall, the mean 
level of the part measured being 2,429. 

Crossino- David Street we obtain further indication of the rock-levels. 
The two ancient towers which are now built into the cistern of the Jewish 
Mission School have their bases about 35 feet below the street. East 
of Dr. Chaplin's house there are also vaults below the street level, and 
at this point Colonel Warren obtained an observation (2,449) at a depth 
of 34 feet beneath the surface under the so-called Gennath Gate. The 
ground at the present time falls northwards from Dr. Chaplin's house to 
David Street at a slope of about i in 14 ; but the fall of the rock from the 
so-called Gennath Gate to the great cistern in the IMuristan is at a slope 
of I in 10. 

Following our contour eastwards from the last point (2,449), we find 
it controlled by another level (2,457), where the thickness of dt'bris is 
only 1 2 feet. The last point is 400 feet from the preceding, and between 
them the line is not well defined ; but immediately east of the point 2,457 
we find the contour line almost absolutely fixed, the surface contour again 
approaching it, while four observations at levels differing by nearly 50 
feet, occur so close together as to give evidence of the existence of a pre- 
cipitous slope or rocky scarp, which runs southwards until it becomes 
visible as a cliff some 20 feet high, facing the Haram opposite the south- 
west angle. 

From the detailed account of this important contour the reader will 
be able to judge the manner in which the other lines of level have been 
traced. The general results may, however, be perhaps more clearly 

Z1 



290 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PA LESTIXE. 

explained by means uf sections of the ground. Three sections are 
accordingly given, one through the hill spur (east and west), a second 
along the valley bed (east and west), and a third across the valley and 
hill (north and south). 

b'rom these it will be evident that there is only a very small accumu- 
1. nil in (if di'bris on the hill-toi), wliile the valley bed has been filled up 
nearly to a level with the higher ground, or to a depth of 50 feet in the 
middle. 

The surface outline in these sections is traced in accordance with the 
contours given on the Ordnance Survey ; and, w^ith regard to the rock 
outline, it should be noted that the line depends not only on the points 
marked Rock, where observations occur on the cutting line, but also on 
other intermediate observations near the cutting line, and thus on the 
rock contours of the plan. 

All that was known of the rock before 1872 has been already noticed 
in speaking of the Muristan. 

In 1872 the great cistern in the south-east portion of the Muristan 
was excavated and the bed of the valley laid bare. In 1876 the discovery 
of another tank north-east of the Bazaars gave a valuable confirmation to 
the correctness of the contour lines previously traced ; and although further 
observations would be of great interest, the main fact of the existence of a 
valley some 100 feet deep and 800 feet wide (north and south) may now 
be considered definitely proved. 

It is interesting to compare our present information with the dis- 
cussions of earlier writers, by whom it would have been considered invalu- 
able. In 1838 Dr. Robinson described the Tyropocon Valley as com- 
mencing near the Jaffa Gate, and pointed out the fact that there was a 
descent northwards to David Street, from the so-called Mount Sion. 
(' Biblical Researches,' ii. 264.) In 1849 Canon Williams writes, ' I never 
could find any traces of the valley Dr. Robinson calls the Tyropueon.' 
(' Holy City,' ii. 29.) In answer to this, Dr. Robinson was only able to 
point out the level of the old chapel of St. John, 25 feet below the street. 
(' Later Biblical Researches,' p. 185.) 

The earliest attempt to restore on the ground the City of Jerusalem 
as described by Josephus, is that of Brocardus, who, writing in 1283 a.d., 
says of the valley under consideration, ' The ravine is now itself quite 



JERUSALEM. 291 

filled up, but nevertheless shows signs of its former concavity.' Brocardus 
had visited Jerusalem, and possibly was aware of the existence of the 
great tanks subsequently filled up. His description, at all events, now 
proves to be absolutely correct. 

By denying the existence of this valley, it became possible for the 
apologists of the traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre so to draw the line 
of the second wall as to pass entirely clear of the church on the east. It 
can hardly be now supposed that the city wall can have crossed the bed 
of so deep and wide a valley, leaving ground at an elevation 80 feet higher, 
and only 100 yards to the west, on the outside. The determination of the 
contour of the valley thus forces us to remove the line of the second wall 
further west, where a saddle of higher ground forms the head of the great 
valley. 

The tracing of the rock also throws light on the description which 
Josephus gives of the ancient city, which was rendered obscure by reason 
of the filling up of the valley. 

Josephus (5 Wars, iv. i) speaks of the Tyropceon Valley as dividing 
the hill Akra from that of the Upper City,* and describes Akra (which 
was separated from the Temple Hill by another valley) as being 'gibbous' 
in shape (d/t^tKopToc), or like the moon in the third quarter. Nearly all 
authorities agree in placing Akra near the present church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, and the gibbous shape of the spur, on which that church stands, 
is rendered conspicuous by the rock contours, but is not apparent from 
the surface contours. It will also be observed that a flat terrace is here 

* The name Tyropceon is generally supposed to be Greek, in which case it would mean 
' cheese-makers,' but it may be noticed that Josephus generally gives the Aramaic names in 
his topography, and (as in the case of Bezetha or Ccenopolis) makes special mention of any 
Greek translation which he may make of a native name. It was suggested by Dr. H. Bonar 
that the word Tyropceon may be Hebrew or Aramaic. Captain Condor therefore proposes 
to read it as jvdiv from a root meaning to 'smelt,' and hence applied to money. A 
Beth Tzeripha KDnvn''2 is mentioned in the Talmud, apparently towards the east of 
Jerusalem, where the offal from the Temple was thrown. This may also perhaps be con- 
nected with the name Tyropceon. The same root occurs in the Arabic Serf, ' change ' or 
'silver.' It seems strange that cheese-makers should reside in Jerusalem, but the Aramaic 
would give the natural meaning, ' Valley of Money-changers,' and in support of this view it 
should be noticed that part of the city immediately over this valley was called Khan c s 
Serf as late as 1500 a.d. (Mejr ed Din), and that the money-changers still have their shops 
in David Street, which runs down the Tyropceon Valley. — C. R. C. 

37—2 



292 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

formed with a steep slope on both the cast and west (sec section, A, B), 
and it seems possible that this marks the artificial levelling of the Akra 
Hill by the Hasmoneans, as twice described by Josephus. 

The amount which would have been cut off, supposing the original 
slope to have been uniform, is about 30 feet on the average, and if, as 
seems not improbable, there was here originally a knoll of higher ground, 
the amount cut down would have been yet greater. 

Colonel Warren (' Temple or Tomb,' p. ^l) supposes the knoll cut 
down by the Hasmoneans to have been about 1,000 feet south-east of the 
Holy Sepulchre Church, with a level 2,470. The section of the present 
surface rather confirms such a supposition, but at least 50 feet of rock {in 
height) must in this case have been removed. (Cf. 13 Ant. vi. 7; 
5 Wars, iv. i.) 

The rock contours have been traced all over Jerusalem, but with 
exception of the Haram area, there is no part of the city where the 
results of a study of the original surface appear to be as interesting and 
instructive as in the vicinity of the Tyropoeon Valley. 

C. R. C. 



THE 

WORK OF M. CLERMONT GANNEAU. 

M. Clermont Ganneau was resident in Jerusalem, as Drogman-Chancelier 
in the French Consulate, from the year 1865 to 1872. He again went to 
Jerusalem in 1S73-74 for the Palestine Exploration Fund, on an archaeo- 
logical mission, and in the year 1881-82 was French Consul at Jaffa. 
The work which he accomplished during these three periods of residence 
is of a very varied and remarkable character, principally in South- 
western Palestine. It is proposed in this volume to extract from his 
letters and reports certain portions which relate to Jerusalem itself 
and its immediate neighbourhood. 

The Stone of Zoheleth. 

(i Kings i. 9). 

' Nearly in the centre of the line along which stretches the village of Siloam, there exists 
a rocky plateau surrounded by Arab buildings, which mask its true form and extent : the 
western face, cut perpendicularly, slightly overhangs the valley. Steps rudely cut in the rock 
enable one to climb it, not without difficulty, and so to penetrate directly from the valley to 
the midst of the village. By this road, troublesome, and even dangerous, pass habitually the 
women of Siloam, who come to fill their vessels at the so-called "Virgin's Fount" (Ain Sitti 
Mariam or Umm ed Deraj). Now, this passage and the ledge of rock in which it is cut are 
called by the Fellahin "Ez Zehwele." It is impossible not to be struck with the absolute 
identity which this name offers with that oi the s(ofie of Zoheleth^ which the Bible (i Kings i. 9) 
places near (^5{X) En Rogel. It is quite sufficient, in fact, to compare Jl7riT '^^'''h Zehwele 
or &^.^') to determine with what precision the phonetic elements correspond. The vocal 
type itself is exactly reproduced, putting aside an insignificant inversion of the sound O, 



294 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

which in Ikbrew precedes, and in Arabic follows, the consonant Pi- A homogeneous 
transcript will present us with this identity in still clearer manner. Hebrew : Zohclet ; 
Arabic : Zthotkt. 

' I believe, then, that we can consider the situation of the Stone of Zoheleth definitely 
determined. This point fi.xcd with certainty can serve to determine the position of many 
others of the highest interest. At present I can only indicate a few, proposing to return to 
the question at length at some future time. For example, it becomes extremely probable 
that we must put En Rogel at the Virgin's Fountain, and not at B'lr Eyub. In fact, Bir Eyub 
is 700 metres distant from Zehwele, and the Pool of Siloam is 400 metres; while the Virgin's 
Fountain, situated exactly opposite Zehwele, is only separated from it by the breadth of the 
valley, about 60 metres. I call attention to the importance of this result in tracing the line 
separating the territories of Benjamin and Judah, which passed by En Rogel, and the 
support which it affords to Captain Warren's ingenious theory of the direction of this 
line. 

' I must advance another fact which appears to me intimately connected with this remark, 
and to confirm it in a certain measure. We know the multiplicity of denominations under 
which the great western valley of Jerusalem, so commonly called the Kedron, is known. 
The Fellahin of Siloam divide it into three sections, which are, proceeding from north to 
south : ist, Wady Sitti Mariam ; 2nd, Wady Fer'aun ; 3rd, Wady Eyub. The name of the 
intermediate part, which extends from the south-east angle of the Haram to the confluence 
at the north of Bir Eyub, is remarkable : Wady Fe/aiin, that is, Pharaoh's Valley. Now, it 
is well known that to the Arabs, the name of Pharaoh simply indicates the idea of something 
or other of ancient times, and it is found with this vague meaning in a crowd of places 
which have nothing to do with Egypt, very much as in F'rance, where all Roman camps are, 
for the vulgar, Cresar's camps. 'Wady Fer'aun signifies, then, the valley of the king, and the 
region to which this name is applied is precisely that which the King's Gardens of the Bible 
used to occupy.* 

The Tomb of Absalom. 

' Excavations made by me at the western face of this curious monument, on which 
opinions are so much divided, have enabled me to discover the base and pedestal of the 
columns, which are, according to the mouldings, purely Greek ; the bases rest on a 
pedestal of o'8o metres in height, supported, in its turn, by a kind of plinth {socle) more 
than a metre in height. Further, I have completely cleared out the interior of the 
central chamber, which was almost filled up by the stones thrown in from time immemorial. 
1 have thus exposed to light the two funnel arcades surmounting the slabs in which were 
placed the sarcophagi. Three high steps cut in the rock and connected with three other 
steps above them enabled me to reach the original door of this monument, situated above 
the cornice. I have found another door, more modern, consisting of a horizontal passage 
in a level with the chamber, and opening to the exterior, at half the height of the monu- 
ment 

' This chamber has evidently been transformed at a certain time into a place of residence, 
as is proved by perforations irregularly made in the walls, to admit the air and light, as well 

* See Part II., under head 'Tantur Fer'on.' 



JERUSALEM. 295 

as the construction of a new door. These excavations allow me to arrive at the following 
three important facts : — i. The height, the proportion, and the true aspect of the monument ; 
2. A proof that the ornamentation is in Greek style ; 3. The presumption that the chamber is 
of earlier date than the ornamentation ; thus it is probable that originally a subterranean cave 
had been cut into the bed of the rock, into which one descended by six steps ; later on this 
cave was isolated by these low and deep cuttings, so as to be transformed into an edifice, 
and the first door, opening into space, was thus generally, but wrongly, supposed to be a 
window. 



The Pool of Stroutiiion. 

' About two years ago we explored for the first time, Captain VVarren and myself, the new 
tunnel parallel to that which had been discovered under the establishment of the Sisters of 
Sion some years before. The presence of rock, ascertained in several places, led us to believe 
that we were examining a large cistern half cut out of the rock, and half covered by two long 
vaults. Subsequent examination has entirely confirmed this theory, and has proved that at 
this place existed an ancient pool or hirkct, forming a long parallelogram, cut in the rock, open 
to the sky, having a mean depth of four to five metres. I have ascertained, by sight and touch, 
the existence of the rock cut vertically along nearly the whole perimeter of the parallelogram. 
At a later epoch the reservoir was covered by the two long tunnels at present existing, in 
order to prevent the evaporation of the water by converting an open into a closed reservoir. 
The intermediate wall on which the double vault rests is pierced by six large semicircular 
arches, forming a means of inter-communication for the two tunnels. 

'This reservoir, lying in a direction north-west and south-east, measured about 53 metres 
long and 15 broad. At its south-east extremity it abuts against the rock on which rose the 
fortress of Antonia (the present barracks). Here is evidently the pool StjoiitJiioii, which it 
has been sought to identify with the Buket Israil, or in an imaginary prolongation of it, in 
spite of the impossibility of taking account in this theory of the plan of attack by Titus against 
Antonia as given by Josephus. On the other hand, my explanation makes everything clear 
and conformable to the rules of strategy. Titus evidently attacked the north-west angle of 
Antonia ; with this object he established an ai;ger on the left of the pool Stroitthion, and 
against the middle of one of its long sides ; then at some distance, about the middle of 
the pool, a second agger, commanding the western side of the north-west angle of the 
fortress. 

' The comparative smallness of this pool, reserved, probably, for the wants of the fortress 
(Baris Antonia), might even partly account for the -name Sirouthioii, which means in its 
simplest, and, therefore, most probable sense, a sparrow, the sparrow's pool, that is to say, the 
little pool, by a sort of popular sobriquet. 

' Archffiological and historical considerations seem to demonstrate that the transformation 
of the pool Strouthion into a closed reservoir belongs to the period of CElia Capitolina ; the 
splendid stone-work above the double tunnel and extending as far as the Ecce Homo Arch 
must be contemporary; the arch itself is probably a triumphal arch erected in commemora- 
tion of the decisive victory of the Romans over Bar Cochebas. 



296 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



DisTiN'CTivE Character of Crusading Masonry. 

' An observation which I made some time ago, I beUeve for the first time, has a certain 
value, because it leads to nothing less than an almost absolutely certain diagnosis of the stones 
cut by the Crusaders. 

' This distinction concerns not only the medieval archreology of Palestine, but also, and 
almost to the same degree, the archaeology of earlier times. 

' One knows already how little people agree respecting the age of several of the Palestine 
monuments ; it is not rare to see contradictory theories on the subject of the same edifice, 
or the same part of an edifice, varying between the most diverse epochs, Hebrew, Jewish, 
Roman, Byzantine, Mcdiccval, Western, and even Arab.* 

'The reason of this is, that we confine ourselves usually to the examination oi forms 
and styles, and that nothing is more deceptive than this kind of evidence when other means 
of identification are not at our disposal. I will cite but one example. One looks uj)on it 
as an established truth that every pointed arch with normal joints is Ara/>, and that every 
pointed arch with vertical joints is JVesfern. 

' This rule, elsewhere fixed, is frequently violated in Palestine, and will assuredly mislead 
those who would take it for an infallible guide. 

' The peculiarity which I now i)oint out enables us to decide, stone by stone, what 
materials were worked into any edifice by the Crusaders. 

' As is already known, a great number of the blocks found in the constructions erected in 
Palestine by the Crusaders show masons' marks, consisting of letters of the Latin alphabet, 
including various symbols, some of which are very characteristic (the fleur-de-lis, for example). 
I have collected some hundreds of examples in my notes. No possible doubt would exist if 
each stone showed these incontestable signs, but unfortunately this is far from the case. My 
course of observations, however, enables me to supply their absence and to arrive at the 
following conclusion: That I believe myself able to generalize as follows: "The stones 
bearing mediaeval (Latin) letters have their exterior faces dressed, or rather scored, in a special 
manner, which of itself alone suffices to characterize them." 

' This surface-dressing consists (on stones with plane surfaces) of oblique lines closely 
ranged, all in the same direction, done with a toothed instrument. The obliquity of the lines 
appears generally to be at an angle of 40° to 45°. This uniform line is particularly visible 
when the stones are illuminated by a side light. I have found it on a quantity of stones 
without masons' marks, but employed concurrently with signs on stones in perfectly homo- 
geneous buildings. 

' Its presence is so specific that it has often led me to note masons' marks which would 
otherwise have escaped me, because it determines, a priori, the age of the stone, and warns 
me that, perhaps, a mason's mark is to be found. 

' 1 have noted the existence of this surface-dressing on stones of all shapes and positions : 
blocks, in courses, in walls or pillars, voussoirs of arches, and even in rebated blocks. It 
exists also on stones with carved surfaces placed vertically, shafts of columns, concave or 
convex blocks of apses, or circular walls. 

* See Appendix on 'Architecture.' 'Memoirs,' Vol. III. A dressing almost indistinguish- 
able has been found on Arab buildings. 



JERUSALEM. 297 

' But in this case the cuts are very sHghtly oblif[ue, and approach perceptibly to the 
vertical, which is the normal of the cylinder ; when, on the contrary, the cylinder is disposed 
horizontally (as in horizontal mouldings), the lines of the cut are very nearly horizontal. 

'These facts are easily explained by the necessity of making the tool follow a rectilinear 
direction ; if, for example, the same method had been followed as for plane surfaces, the tool 
would only have touched the carved surfaces perpendicularly to their normal, and would 
have produced marks only instead of lines. I have remarked another group of stones also 
dressed obliquely, but on which the cuts are replaced by a series of dotted lines. I have not 
yet studied this peculiarity sufficiently to say if these stones belong to the same epoch as the 
others. 

' So far I have not met with a single fact in contradiction to the broad rule which I think 
I am able to lay down as follows (restricting it, be it well understood, to those parts of 
Palestine with which I am familiar) : 

' All stones showing what I propose to call " the medireval dressing " (taille mediicvah) 
were worked by the Crusaders. 

' There is no need, I think, to insist further on the advantages which may arise in a 
multitude of cases from an application of this rule, reposing as it does on the result of minute 
observation, so to speak, on what one may consider the " epidermis " of the blocks. The 
nature of the dressing is one of the most certain means of recognising the date of the con- 
struction," says one of the most learned architects of our time, M. Viollet le Due, in his 
" Dictionnaire Raisonne de I'Architecture Franc^aise." 

' Besides the practical and local application which I have indicated, this fact which I have 
pointed out concerning the " medireval dressing " is capable of furnishing a new element in 
the history of the development of Western architecture itself It is known that the dressings 
vary in the West according to the district and period. Tlie period being known, it would 
perhaps be easy to determine the original European region of the method in question, and, 
in consequence, to find out to what school the builders belonged who were employed by the 
Crusaders. 

' It will not be forgotten that it was precisely in the twelfth century that (in France, at 
least) the different styles of dressing reached a great degree of perfection. Some authors are 
even tempted to attribute this result to the influence of Grreco-Roman art in Syria. 



Ancient Tombs North-east of Jerusalem. 

' There is a group of rock-cut sepulchres which, so far as I know, have never been noticed. 
They are all in a large field lying between the moat north-east of Jerusalem and the magni- 
ficent pine standing close to a winepress worked by Mohammedans; this place is generally 
known under the name of " Kurm esh Sheikh."!-' These sepulchres are interesting from a 
double point of view: (i) in regard to their form : they belong to the horizontal system of 
rock sepulture; the entrance consists of a rectangular trench about i-6o m. by 0-45 m., and 
more than a metre in depth; at the end a rebate cut in the rock appears to iiave been 
destined to receive and support a slab closing the tomb properly so-called, placed in a 
sepulchral chamber situated below. So far as I have been able to judge of the exterior, 

* See Part II., under head ' Kurm esh Sheikh.' 

3S 



298 



THE SURIEY or WESTERN PALESTINE. 



these chambers arc excavated in a vaullctl form : they aj^pcar to have a considerable 
extent, and the proprietor of the ground lias assured me that many of them communicate. 
There have been found in them, I am told by the jiroprietor, quantities of bones. 




broken pottery, "boxes" in soft stone, and an car-ring in gold, which he promised to 
show me. 



JERUSALEM. 



299 



'(2) The position of the sepulchres may be of imporlance for the question, adhuc sub 
judke, of the third wall of Jerusalem. They extend along a line of about 125 degrees, 
starting from the south-east angle of the building, marked close to the great pine on the 




a 
I 



% 








3 J *.• 






1'^' 









,,y^^^ 



Ordnance Survey map, and running to the road which passes along the moat of the city at 
the north-east, We counted a dozen openings of tombs, and the last are hardly 40 metres 



3O0 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN TALESTINE. 

from the moat of tlic city. If ilic examination of these tombs, which \vc arc about to make 
without delay, leads us to assij^n them an ancient date, it is clear that the existence of a 
cemetery of a certain date may furnish us proofs for or against tlie existence of a third wall to 
the north of this point. 

'The i>ro|irictor of the ground told me that they had found another great tomb cut in the 
rock under the wall north-east of the present building (at the south side of the tittle court 
margined on the house on the Ordnance Survey map). It appears, besides, that a tradition 
assigns to the Kurm esh .Sheikh a ma/jain of El Khadher (the prophet Elijah). I think that 
there must exist about here many tombs of the same kind. We know that it is very near this 
point that the partisans of the identity of the wall of Agrippa with tKe modern northern wall 
place the Fuller's monument spoken of by Josephus. 

' I have, with M. Leconitc, drawn up an exact plan of the ground where these tombs 
lie, so as to give their position relatively to the city. We have carefully noted the 
orientation, which differs with each. Within the plot of ground which is bounded by 
a dry-stone wall bordering the road we counted thirteen openings, some completely 
open, some partially filled with earth, others which seem to have been commenced 
and left unfinished. Opposite the gate of the enclosure, on the road itself, we also remarked 
traces in the scarp of the rock of three rectangular graves (belonging probably to the same 
system) and of a great wall. On the counterscarp of the city moat there exists one other 
grave, which might belong to the same group. 

' It is difficult to give, in a simple description, any idea of the arrangement of these tombs, 
which (so far as we have seen) are composed of a chamber oblong in plan, vaulted in the 
manner known technically as " arc dc cloitrc" or " coved vault," formed by the direct penetra- 
tion of two cylinders ; whilst the vault known as " rotile d' antes " (the plain groined vault) is 
obtained by the intersection of two cylinders. Architects are well aware that the first-named 
system is older than the second.* 

' M. Lecomte has added to his plan a little sketch giving the geometrical perspective of 
this vault. Below the springing of the vaults are vertical walls ; at its summit is the opening 
of the grave, communicating with the exterior, and of this the bottom seems to have been 
closed by a big block resting on a rebate cut in the rock. 

' The first chamber (O) which we entered, almost entirely filled with earth, communicated 
by a small round opening (R) with a second chamber (P). This is very small, and contains 
three loculi cut trough fashion and parallel. A hole pierced by the Arabs in one of the 
angles permits the visitor to penetrate to an adjoining chamber (Q), which is only separated 
from its neighbour by a very thin wall of rock. 

' This third chamber is filled with earth nearly to the springing of the vault, so that we 
could not discover the funereal arrangement. At the top is the rectangular opening marked 
in the general plan (under No. 2), by which this chamber opens directly to the exterior. 

'We visit a very curious tomb, in which, to the left on entering, one sees an 
"arcosolium" covering in a trough, rounded at one end, square at the other: the 
rounded end was evidently that in which the head was, so that the feet were turned towards 
the entrance. A second chamber, situated in the axis of the other, is ended by a 

* The arrangement of these tombs, as elsewhere described in the volumes of the 
' Memoirs,' is that of a shaft, with a loculus under an arcosolium on either side. (See 
Appendix on 'Architecture,' 'Memoirs,' Vol. III. 



JERUSALEM. 301 

" hemicycle " (or semicircular apse). I have never until now met with this singular 
arrangement ; we shall see presently the plan and section of this sepulchre, which is unique 
in its way. 

' We shall return soon to the exploration of the other tombs, which are at present filled 
with mud and water. I can at present give no opinion whatever on the exact age of these 
tombs, and my hesitation is increased by the importance of the question connected with it, 
and which I indicated in my last report, viz., the extension of ancient Jerusalem to the north 
of this point. I will only observe for the moment that in building the Latin Patriarchate 
there were found inside the present city, about 250 metres west of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, tombs with sarcophagi identical with those of which I have many times spoken, 
and a number of lachrymatory glass vases, like those picked up by M. de Saulcy at the 
entrance of the Kabour el Molouk, and to that found by myself in a sepulchral cave, with 
Jragntents of Hebrew inscriptions. 

' I think it would be of some interest to attempt an excavation on this spot to try to clear 
out one of the tombs not yet violated ; perhaps one might come across something of an 
cpigrajihic character, or at least some objects which might help us to determine the period to 
which they belong. 

' One may compare the interior arrangement of the second chamber with that of a tomb 
described by Lieutenant Conder ("Quarterly Statement," 1S73, P- 22), which is close to the 
excavation marked No. 81 on the Ordnance Survey map of Jerusalem.* A little distance 
north of the house of the Kerm esh Sheykh is an old Arab cemetery, which appears to have 
been long abandoned. 

Cavern on the Ophel Spur. 

'While exploring, some days before I fell ill, tliat part of Mount Ziont in the neighbour- 
hood of the spot where, according to my calculations, the tombs of the kings of Judah should 
be, I remarked, about 280 English feet east of the great mulberry-tree of Silwan, situated at 
the south-west angle of the " Old Pool " of the O. S. map, a curious cavern. The entrance 
is very narrow, but the cave, which appears to be in part cut by the hand of man, enlarges 
considerably, and plunges almost horizontally into the side of the hill. At the end a pillar, 
rudely cut, supports the roof of the cavern, and I think I saw openings to other galleries. 
Unfortunately, the interior is in great part filled with earth, so that at certain points one is 
obliged to creep in order to pass between the ground and the roof. I undertook a small 
excavation in order to ascertain the extent and the direction of this cavern ; above all, its 
extent. I cut a narrow trench of no great depth, with the intention of pushing it as far as 
the cave extends, intending later on to cut deeper in order to reach the original bottom. 
We were already fifteen metres from the entrance when my illness put a stop to the works. 
The excavation has, up to the present, produced (i) considerable quantities of bones, which 
appear to have been thrown in pell-mell, as into a charnel-house; (2) bits of broken pottery 
by the thousand, some of which appear very ancient; (3) a large number of fragments of 



* The tomb in question, with all others like it, is suggested by Captain Conder to be 
Christian, and not earlier than the Byzantine period. 

t M. Clermont Ganneau suggests that the spur north of the Pool of Siloam, generally 
called the Ophel Spur, is the ancient Zion. 



302 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

great stone vessels, worked all round in flutings and mouldings ; (4) and lastly, one stone 
weight. I have brought away all the things indiscriminately, and we have taken out and put 
aside for iihotographing sonic as being worthy of attention. It is evident that all this rubbish 
has been designedly accumulated in the cavern. It seems to me very curious to know where 
this subterranean passage leads. AVithout assuming that it may have a connection with the 
Tombs of the Kings, we may suppose that it will teach us something on the topography of 
Zion. 

Rock-cut Cii.\mi3Ers West oi- the Ecce Homo Church. 

' Among my proposed researches I pointed out certain rock-cut chambers immediately 
beside the rock in the Ecce Homo Church.* The presence, previously unsuspected, of these 
excavations in the interior of Jerusalem, and in a place which is particularly interesting as 
regards the topography of the Holy City, is a fact of great importance, and one of my first 
cares was to visit the chambers with M. Lecomtc, in order to get an exact plan of them. 
The work, which it was desirable should be accurate, was rendered difficult by the com- 
I)lication of modern houses placed at different levels, and leaning on the flank of Bezetha, 
so as to mask the general direction and particular aspect. We met with an excellent 
reception from the residents of the houses — Arabs of Greek religion — and every facility for 
accomplishing our task. The work was nearly finished, and there only remained a last visit 
to be made to take certain measurements, when an unforeseen accident put an end to our 
examinations. The very day when we were to return, an hour before our arrival, the house, 
an old tumbledown ruin, saturated with the heavy rains, suddenly fell down. We found 
nothing but a mountain of debris, completely barring the Via Dolorosa. We had had a 
narrow escape. An hour later and we should have been in the cellars of the house, and in 
all probability there would have been an end of all our archaeological labours. Fortunately 
the house was uninhabited. The worthy people next door escaped with no worse injury 
than a fright. They had, however, to decamp immediately, their own house appearing 
desirous of following its neighbour's example, so that it was judged expedient to anticipate its 
wish and pull it down at once. This unfortunate contrckmps leaves us with an unfinished 
plan on our hands, and I fear they will pile up the fallen stones in such a way as to hinder 
access to the chambers. Anyhow, the essential part of the work is done, and the plan, such 
as it is, very minute, so far as it goes, gives a good idea of the place. 

' The following notes will serve to some extent to describe what we found : — 
'You know the escarpment of rock (O. S., No. 72) in the Ecce Homo Church, forming, 
with a length of several metres, part of the northern wall of the church. The escarpment 
suddenly stops, interrupted by the houses which rise west of the church, and which line the 
Via Dolorosa as far as the garden of the Austrian Hospice. It is behind these houses (there 
are three) that I found and marked the rock forming a continuation to this escarpment, about 
25 metres in length. Proceeding from east to west, in the first house is observed a piece of 
rock in nearly the same line as the escarpment of the church. The wall makes almost 
directly an obtuse-angled bend to the north-west, and gets buried among buildings where it 
cannot be followed. The presence of the rock up to this point is noted by Tobler (" Dritte 

* Some of these chambers had been previously mentioned by Dr. T. Tobler. (' Dritte 
Wanderung.') 



JERUSALEM. 303 

Wanderung," p. 249). Passing into the next house, we find the rock with its general direction 
to the west (slightly southing), with a length of about 12 metres. Arrived at this point, the 
rock offers a peculiarity of double interest to the arclijeologist and topographer. In tlie 
vertical wall is cut a corridor, winding at first, which plunges into the masonry and takes a 
north-west direction. It divides in two my first chamber, irregularly cut in the living rock, 
with fiat ceiling, flanked right and left by two broad stone benches, measuring nearly 2-20 by 
2-40 metres. After this it immediately abuts on a second chamber also cut in the rock about 
3 by 3 metres, with irregular angles. A space opening out in the wall north of this chamber 
loses itself in the earth and masonry. In the last wall is indicated a doorway whose frame- 
work has given way ; the upper part alone is pierced, and gives access to a little alcove, which 
seems an unfinished chamber. In the south wall two doors have been opened similarly with 
fallen-in framework, one of which communicates with the first chamber already described, and 
the other debouches into a third chamber cut in the rock, with a complicated arrangement of 
benches. This is not all. On the lower floor — the cellar, so to speak, of the house — the 
same wall of rock is perceived descending below the actual level of the street. A broad bay 
forming a vestibule is cut in it, and gives access to a group of chambers also cut in the 
rock, extending in a north-west direction under the chambers above, with which they 
communicate by means of a hole. 

' Lastly, in the third house near this, the rock is found again, at the end of the lower 
caves or chambers ; it has been cut in the same way, and appears to have been cloven by an 
earthquake. Immediately beyond is the partition wall separating this last house from the 
garden of the Austrian Hospice. 

' The exploration of these lower regions was not by any means easy or pleasant, on 
account of the mass of filth and rubbish piled up nearly to the roof in the rock-cut chambers, 
over which we had to clamber and creep ; one room in which we were obliged to remain 
several hours was a mere receptacle of sewage, though fortunately disused for some time. 
However, temporary uneasiness is forgotten in thinking how nearly this wretched place was 
becoming our tomb. 

' Cisterns made at different points along this line of the rock have been sounded by us, 
and have given depths which show that the rock extends several metres below the level at 
which it ceases to be visible. This line is at a mean distance of about 9 metres at the 
back and north of the Via Dolorosa. It is more than probable that it is directly connected 
with the rock which was observed in the construction of the Austrian Hospice, at the north- 
east angle of the actual building. There also is found a rock-cut chamber which Tobler 
(" Dritte Wanderung," pp. 244, 245) is tempted to consider as a stable of great antiquity. It 
is difficult for one to pronounce on the destination of this chamber, now transformed into a 
cistern and consequently inaccessible ; but I am sure, and M. Lecomte entirely agrees with 
me, that the chambers visited and noted by us have not been cut for any such purpose as a 
stable ; the only doubt is whether to call them chambers for the living or for the dead. The 
latter destination appears much more probable, and in this case it is unnecessary to point 
out that sepulchres cut in a i)lace situated more than 250 metres south of the north wall of 
the present city, and at a few metres only from the Tower of Antonia, must necessarily go 
back to a remote antiquity, and bring us to the time of the Jebusites, or at least to a [leriod 
which precedes the reign of Herod Agrippa. 

' The people of the house reported to us that, according to an ancient tradition, there 
was formerly in one of the higher chambers, into which there is an entrance by the passage 



304 



TJ]E SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



described above, a chapel dedicated to St. John ilie Baptist (Mar Hanna el m'a moudany). 
I do not know what foundation this legend may have, '.t is not impossible that at some time 
or other one of these chambers was converted into a little chapel ; if so, the little alcove 




r 



spoken of above would certainly serve as a small apse. It appears that some years ago 
ancient coins were found in the square opening cut at the end of the second chamber.' 

'We can now forward you the plans and sections of the rock-cut chambers near the Ecce 



JERUSALEM. - 3°S 

Homo Arch. The complicated arrangement of the chambers, and the accident which for 
some time kept us from getting access to them, has retarded the preparation of the i)Ians. 

' I have considered, in connection with this subject, the rock which is visible at the 
Church of the Ecce Homo, ah-eady known, because it has an intimate relation to the 
position of the well observed by us. We have thus a full development of the rocks in a 
line nearly 42 metres in length. If we consider this line generally on my plan, we observe 
that it lies in a direction sensibly constant, only at about the middle of its course it makes a 
sharp turn at an obtuse angle, after which it resumes its original orientation. This is 
important, because the hne has been cut nearly everywhere with the pickaxe, and is not a 
natural formation. This cutting is most visible in the Ecce Homo Church, and is found 
again in the rock of the house R, and in that of the adjacent houses Q and R'. In the 
house Q it seems now that the cutting has suppressed one of the walls of the chamber cut in 
the rock S. This result is a valuable indication for the date of this chamber, and the group 
of those of which it forms a part, a date anterior to the period of the cutting of the rock. 
(The vestibule Y has undergone a similar excision.) 

' If, now, we turn to the general section, and particularly to the small section, we may 
easily follow the slope of the rock from east to west in the direction of the slope of the street. 









Ik. .. _ 



f 



The passage, which now debouches into space, might originally have opened upon a layer of 
rock which has now disappeared, owing to the same cause which has destroyed a wall in one 
of the chambers. 

' Another general remark. The normal axes of the chambers and the direction of the 
passage form acute and obtuse angles with the present face of the rock, which could not 
originally exist, for it would be contrary to all known usage up to the present day in that kind 
of excavation. 

' We have undertaken two excavations. 

' The first, in the chambers cut in the rock between the Austrian Hospice and the church 
of the Ecce Homo. I at first tried to push myself into the opening I, at the end of the 
chamber P, hoping to arrive at another chamber, or at a primitive entrance. I had to force 
my way in the midst of a mass of rolling stones, which shook at every movement. After two 
days of stubborn as well as dangerous work, we were obliged to give it up. We have, how- 
ever, meanwhile, succeeded in seeing and touching to right and left two vertical walls of roik, 
at right angles, the angle being about i metre from the opening. These two walls may 
belong to a chamber like that lettered P ; but they may also be the walls of a vestibule, 
whose sides were cut in the rock, and which was open to the sky. In favour of this 
hypothesis, the ground of the passage I, above the surface of the chamber P, is on a 

39 



3o6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

level with that of the region X, still to explore, an arrangement which applies bcUcr to the 
entrance of a tomb than to a simple communication between two chambers. Besides, the 
enormous mass of stones, against which we have vainly endeavoured to struggle, implies the 
existence of a hollow much higher than a single chamber. Either this chamber has lately 
given way, or else it was always open to the sky. 

'The second e.xcavation is in the Armenian ground (27 O. S.). Captain Warren has 
already made an excavation on this side in the Street of the Valley (March, 1869). The 
point that I have chosen is 60 metres more to the east, at the lowest point of the ground. 
One shaft is already 5 metres deep. I propose to open a shaft to the south-south-cast, in 
order to cut the probable line of the second wall' 

' In the passage on the left may be remarked a broad " notch," apparently indicating that 
the workman wanted to rectify the sinuosity of the passage. The square opening made at 
the end of the chamber P seems to communicate with another chamber filled with earth, 
which I should very much like to dig. It is a question whether this opening is not the 
original entrance to the cave, and whether a passage has not been cut afterwards from the 
inside, to attach the chamber V directly with the e.xterior. I must add that the conjecture is 
rendered difficult by the configuration of the ground, as one makes it out, the chamber 
appearing to plunge into the depth of the hill. On this hypothesis, we should have to admit 
that the chamber P communicates with another chamber by the square hole, and that the 
chamber filled with earth had its entrance communicating with the exterior by the west face. 
In that case, the real primitive entrance of the group of chambers would have to be sought 
to the cast of the Austrian Hospice, near the second A in the word IMahometan in the O. S. 
map. We may, in fact, admit, without too much temerity, that the side of the hill turns and 
faces the west. All this, ho\vever, is purely conjectural. 

' If we pass to the examination of the lower chambers, we shall make the following notes. 
The people of the house told us that the chamber Q was provided wuth a bench cut in the 
rock ; it is impossible to ascertain the fact now, as the place is filled with ordure to the ceiling. 
The wall of rock, which we saw in the third house, appears to be in the alignment of the 
extremity of the rock of the neighbouring house, Q ; there is, between the two, a solution of 
continuity of only a few metres. 

' In this third house the rock had been also excavated to make a chamber, partly destroyed. 
A piece of the ceiling of this chamber has fallen (section K L) through some movement of 
the ground overloaded with houses, or an earthquake. Most likely the latter was the cause, 
for the wall of the chamber is cloven vertically. 

' If now we search for the origin of this rock-work and the period at which it was eflected, 
we are reminded of what Josephus says about the fortress Antonia, which 7cas separated from 
the Hill Bezctha, not only naturally, but by means of a deep ditch cut so that the foundations of 
Antonia were not at the foot of the hill and, therefore, easy of access. The same historian 
informs us, besides, that the second wall, starting from the Gennath Gate, joined Antonia, 
only circumscribing the northern region. 

' The second wall, then, evidently starting from Antonia, must have been directed to the 
west, and turned its face to the north. Now, during the first part, it was exposed to the same 
inconveniences as Antonia in being commanded by Bezetha. To the same evil the same 
remedy was applied — the rock was cut, or the moat of Antonia extended. Can we not see 
in the face of the rock cut by the pickaxe, which we found behind the houses, the counter- 
scarp of the prolonged moat, cut to protect, not Antonia, but the second wall ? It was not 



JERUSALEM. 3°7 

necessary to prolong the moat beyond the point where is now the eastern wall of the garden 
of the Austrian Hospice, for at this point the base of Bezetha seems, according to our 
observations, to turn to the north, forming one of the sides of the great valley from the 
Damascus Gate, which the second wall must necessarily have crossed. In the eastern flank 
of this valley were excavated chambers, belonging, perhaps, to a cemetery, of which those 
chambers found by us formed a portion. In that case these chambers, cut across by the 
moat and consequently older than it, were probably more ancient than the building of the 
second wall. 

' These facts are of extreme importance in helping us to find the second wall ; it seems 
to me that it must have passed between the two streets called " Tarik as Serai al Kadim " 
and " Daraj as Serai " in the Ordnance Survey map. Now all the west part of this place is 
occupied by a large space of ground belonging to the Catholic Armenians, where I believe I 
could easily obtain permission to dig. Captain Warren has already sunk a shaft on this side 
in the street Haret el Wad, without results, but possibly he missed the wall by some few 
metres.' 



The Haram and the Dome of the Rock. 

' In one of my recent visits to the Haram, I remarked that m one or two places they had 
taken away some of the slabs covering the ground within the Kubbet es Sakhra : (i) before 
the gate of the cave ; (2) before the eastern gate called Bab en Neby Daoud. Ascertaining that 
on Saturday last they were going to dig at the second point, I went on that day to the Mosque, 
but unfortunately too late; the excavation, insignificant (o'3o metre) in dimensions, was 
already finished and the hole filled up. Vexed at losing an opportunity which might never 
occur again, I succeeded in my entreaties that the excavation should be begun over again 
before my eyes. I chose a point different from the first, trying to get as near as possible to 
the rock. We attacked the soil again, 0-50 metre, south-south-east of the angle of the south 
pillar placed between the eastern gate and the first circle of columns and pillars which sur- 
rounds the Sakhra. 

'The excavation was pushed to a total depth of 0-90 metre, not counting the thickness 
of the upper slab. After a layer (o'3o metre) composed of greyish earth, mixed with stones 
and fragments of marble, a bed of cement was reached extremely compact and about o'oy 
metre in thickness ; the material was very hard, and the pick struck fire against the fragments 
of stone which were mixed up with it. I gathered a specimen of this cement, which is grey 
in colour, and seems, like the Arabic cements, to be mixed with cinders and charcoal. 

' Immediately beneath this layer appears the red earth, the same as is to be seen in 
Jerusalem and its environs, in those places where there have been few inhabitants. We 
excavated in this earth for o'33 metre more, till it was impossible to go any lower without 
making a regular excavation and exciting susceptibilities. The conclusions to be drawn from 
this little sounding are these : (i) There is no rock 0-90 metre below the surface at the point 
of examination, which might have been guessed beforehand, as, judging from the Sakhra 
itself, the rock must have about here a general inclination of west to east. (2) The existence 
of a layer of earth almost untouched. (3) Immediately above this earth a bed of cement, 
forming the general substratum of the edifice, and apparently of Arabic origin. (4) A layer 
of earth between this and the surface slabs. 

39—2 



3o8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' A number of Arabic texts, neskfii, flourishes, are daily being discovered in the interior of 
the Sakhra during the course of the works ; many of these inscriptions are on plaques of 
marble which have been used in covering up the interior walls of the edifice, the bases of 
columns, sides of pillars, etc. Many of these texts are interesting from an epigraphic point 
of view, or for the history of the Haram. They prove in any case how many successive 
alterations the Mosque has undergone. Not only arc these ancient materials which have 
been used in the first construction, there are also anterior Arabic materials used for sub- 
sequent modifications and alterations. Among these texts I remarked very fair specimens of 
Karmatic writing : one in ncskhi contains a part of the Sourah of the Koran called El Koursi ; 
and the mention of a work executed by the orders of an Emir Zeyn ed Din, son of Aly, son 
of Abdallah, about the year 500 of the Hegira. 

' ^^'e have been several times to the Mosque to study the bases of its pillars and columns 
uncovered, and the famous semicircular arcading of the external wall. M. Lecomte has 
made detailed drawings of our observations, which will reach you with this report. An 
important flict has been revealed by the fall of certain mosaics. It is the existence of a string 
course in stone in the interior, and nearly in the middle of the drum which supports the 
cupola. The profile of this string course appeared to M. Lecomte to resemble a mediaeval 
profile of the twelfth century. Here is a new element which appears now only to complicate 
still more the already obscure problem of the origin of the actual monument.* 

'As for the semicircular arcade of the external wall, it is still very difficult to pronounce 
upon it. Up to the present, however, two things are quite certain : (1) The absence of the 
mediaeval dressing on the blocks entering into the construction of the wall and the arches ; 
(2) the existence on one of the blocks of a mason's mark of undetermined period, having 
this form ^. It is on the second pier left of the west door, and the third course above 
the leaden roofing. 

' A work is about to be undertaken in the Haram, which I shall follow with the greatest 
attention. There has been found, it is said, in the wall of the Haram, an Arabic inscription, 
which states that by digging at the place where it was written a great quantity of stones will 
be found which will serve for repairs or reconstructions. Three years ago, following this 
indication, they sunk a shaft of some depth, since covered up, but which I have seen open. 
This excavation led to no result. The new director {meinour) sent from Constantinople to 
superintend all the Haram works is about to reopen this shaft. The work, in the Haram 
itself, may be of the greatest importance, and I shall follow it with the greatest care possible. 
The point chosen is a little south of bench mark 23S77 of the Ordnance Survey map. 

' The inscription spoken of above is on the exterior of the eastern wall at the height of 
the loopholes (second course, counting the battlements), about 133 metres north of the 
south-east angle. Observe that at this place is a very sensible break in the continuity of the 
Arab wall, seeming to indicate a later repair; the line of junction is oblique, descending 
from south to north at an angle of about 45°. The inscription is as follows : " In this place 
are stones buried for the use of the Haram esh Sherif." 

' The writing is of the kind called sulits. The text presents in construction and ortho- 
graphy certain faults which seem to indicate a Turkish hand. It may be that this text was 
contemporary with the works executed in the reign of the Sultan Selim, who repaired the 

* See paper on ' Architectural History of Jerusalem ' as to Crusading work in the Dome 
of the Rock. 



JERUSALEM. 309 

ramparts of the city. The first excavation undertaken under Kondret Bey on these indica- 
tions had been placed immediately behind the inscription. The m'cmoUr proposes to open it 
a little farther to the north, and, if necessary, to push a trench parallel to the wall. Accord- 
ing to Captain AVarren's map, we ought to light on the rock at a depth of about i o metres. 
It remains to be seen whether the inscription is in its original place. 

' On going back to the Haram we examined a veiy fine base placed near the entrance of 
the magazine close to El Aksa, at the east. The lower face is entirely covered by a beautiful 
Arabic inscription in relief, the meaning of which I made out at once, to the great astonish- 
ment of my Mussulman companions. It relates the restoration or construction of a sur- 
rounding wall {sour) of the city, or Haram, under the reign of the Sultan el Melik el 
Mansour self ed den Kilaoun es sal(^hy. This Sultan, seventh king of the Mameluke dynasty 
of the Baharites, reigned from 678 to 698 of the Hegira (1279 — 1290 a.d.). 

'The Arabic historian of Jerusalem, Mejir ed Din, mentions among the works e.xecuted 
by order of this Sultan, a.h. 678, the reconstruction of the " roof" of the Mesjid el Aksa, on 
the south-west side, near the Mosque of the Prophets. Such, in fact, states the Arabic text 
published at Cairo. It is evident that the editors have made the mistake of writing sagafior 
sour, roof for walL This is clear (t) from the possible confusion of these two words in 
Arabic writing; (2) from the impossibility of speaking of the roof oi the Mesjid el Aksa, the 
phrase meaning the whole Haram ; (3) from the inscription which I have just quoted. 

' Between the El Aksa and the Sakhra I observed, at the foot of the south staircase which 
leads to the platform, on the left, a fragment of a moulding with the mediceval dressing 
strongly marked. This morceau, which M. Lecomte will sketch on the first opportunity, is 
extremely interesting, because it furnishes us with a moulding belonging without possible 
doubt to the period of the Crusades, further specimens of which we shall doubtless find in 
edifices of date hitherto undetermined. In the barrack wall I have found another, of which 
also we shall take a drawing. 

' We have at length been enabled to examine closely the base of the arches hitherto 
hidden by a casing of marble, over the columns of the intermediary peristyle of the Kubbet 
es Sakhra. One of the external faces was stripped, and we obtained leave to mount a ladder 
and examine the capital closely. You will have a drawing of it ; meantime here are a few 
words of description which will give an idea of the arrangement, to the knowledge of which 
archceologists attach great importance. 

' The capital of the column is surmounted by a cubical abacus, over which passes the 
beam which runs all round the edifice. This beam consisted of two pieces of wood, clamped 
by a dovetailed coupHng. The point of junction is in the middle of the abacus. Upon the 
beam rest the abutments of the arches. It is evident that this part of the beam, now masked 
by the marble casing, was originally intended to be seen, because we found the ornamenta- 
tion of the beam continuing under the marble. As for the abacus, it seems clear that it was 
always intended to be covered with some kind of ornamentation, for its bare surface and 
its rudeness would have made a disagreeable contrast with the richness of the general 
decoration. 

' As for the presence of the beam passing over the capitals, one can only remember the 
classical fact not long since mentioned by M. de Vogiie, in these terms : — " The presence of 
the wooden tiebeam is characteristic ... it appears to be of Arab invention, for it is found 
in the greater number of early mosques, such as the Mosque of Amrou at Cairo, and the 
Mosque el Aksa, and has never been found, so far as I know, in any church of the fifth or 



3'o 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



sixth century." We have now to see what is hidden by the marble casing which surmounts 
the column of the interior perimeter. I hope to obtain equal facilities in this investigation. 

' It may be interesting to note here an observation that I have recently made, and which 
I have never seen anywhere else. The scaffolding now erected within the Kubbct es Sakhra 
has enabled me to examine closely the mosaics ornamenting the walls. I have ascertained 
that on many of the vertical walls in the interior of the Kubbet es Sakhra, the coloured and 
gilded little cubes of glass which produce together so marvellous an effect arc not sunk in 
the walls so that their faces arc vertical, but are placed obliquely, so that the faces make an 




CAPITAL IN THE KUBBET ES SAKHRA. 



angle with the walls. This ingenious inclination is evidently intended to present their many- 
coloured facets at the most effective angle of incidence to the eye below. Such is the simple 
secret which produces the dazzling and magical effect of this decoration. Curiously, the same 
method has been followed in the construction of the splendid windows of the edifice. They 
consist of plaster cut into charming designs ; in the holes so formed are fixed small pieces of 
coloured glass, arranged with exquisite taste. I have been able to examine a fragment of one 
of the window frames, and I observed that all these bits of glass arc inserted obliquely, and 
not vertically, so as to overhang and meet the eye of the visitor at right angles, whence this 
charming brightness of colour. Perhaps this arrangement of the mosaics belongs to a 



JERUSALEM. 311 

certain known epoch, perhaps to the time of the construction of the windows, /.(•., the six- 
teenth century. 

' At last we are able to send you the results of our examination of the balustrade of the 
Kubbet es Sakhra, and of a certain number of the bases belonging to the columns of the 
edifice. This work has cost a great deal of time, and has been necessarily delayed. We 
have at least the satisfaction of forwarding precise and definite information on these important 
parts of the mosque, only recently discovered and already beginning to disappear. AVith the 
photograph you have already received, and the five plates sent with this containing 
M. Lecomte's drawings, you will be able to attack with profit the interesting questions 
raised by these unlooked-for facts, facts which may throw precious light upon the much 
disputed origin of this monument. 

' During the course of the repairs several columns of the intermediate peristyle of 
the Kubbet es Sakhra have been laid bare by the removal of the marble casing which 
covered up the bases. One of these columns has even had its abacus partially exposed, 
as I stated in my previous report. 

' By reference to Plate 2 of the Ordnance Survey the positions of the columns examined 
can be easily ascertained : A, column south of the south-east face ; B, column north of the 
same face ; C, column south of the east face ; E, column north of the same face ; F, column 
north of the north-east face ; I, column of the south face, represents a column and a base, 
having already undergone a restoration which will very soon cover up all the preceding. 

' The other bases of the intermediary peristyle have not yet been stripped of their old 
covering ; as to that of the interior perimeter, none has yet been touched. We wait im- 
patiently for the moment when they will undergo this operation. 

'A glance at the drawings will show the form of their bases better than any description. 
It sufinces to show one positive fact : that they are heterogeneous. We cannot certainly deny 
that there is a great resemblance in the profiles A, B, C, if we only consider form ; but the 
proportions, sensibly different for each of these three bases, do not permit us to refer them 
to a single type. Besides, they vary in every case absolutely from the base E, as much in 
the dimensions as in the dispositions of the mouldings. Finally, the marble in which they 
are cut is not of the same kind for each. 

'The aspect of the bases fully confirms what the variety of modules in the columns above 
them might teach us — the opinion of those who see in the primitive building ancient materials 
from various sources used over again. This use, which seems very improbable in an ancient 
work, even of late period, is on the contrary quite in accordance with Arab customs. It is 
clear that if the bases and columns, whatever their absolute age, had been specially made for 
the Kubbet es Sakhra, they would all be alike. The builders would have no interest in 
seeking for the absence of symmetry, which shows itself not only in the variation of profile 
in the bases, but also in differences of thickness and height in the shafts. No caprice, no 
supposed intention, can account for the last and grave irregularity which the sketches show. 
It was so striking that it fully justifies the adaptation of these false bases, which are at least 
regular, formed of marble slabs; it is very probable that from the very beginning the de- 
formities of the halting columns had been disguised by this dress of marble, and that this 
remedy is as old as the evil. The value of this fact is proved when one reflects that these 
bases and these heteroclite columns support a wall ornamented with mosaics, dated from the 
year 72 of the Hegira (a.d. 691), that is, the very year of the first construction of the Arab 
edifice. 



312 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' To coniijletc this group of bases, M. Lccomte has made notes of three others, which 
arc found outside the building, to the right of the east and north porches (the gate Neby 
Daoiid, and that of Paradise). We know that these porches have been added to the building, 
and arc not an integral part of it. Consequently, we cannot draw any conclusions, in the 
sense of the ])rcceding, from the aspect of these bases. Nevertheless, they deserve, by 
their singularity, to be brought to the attention of architects. 

' G is on the north side, and H on the south of the eastern gate (Ordnance Survey, 
Plate II.). 

' D is on the west side of the north floor. 

' They are in one block, and show a bastard profile, formed by mouldings, which are 
complicated and do not belong to any determined category. They present one curious 
detail, on which M. Lecomte rightly insists, because it may put us on the path of their origin, 
'{'he higher part of the base surmounting the ])edestal has one of its faces lightly curved, as 
the sketch of the base G shows, in which the torus projects beyond the vertical face of the 
plinth. These bases, although different in detail, appear to belong to one building, and the 
same part of the building, perhaps circular. 

' M. Lecomte's elevation on the scale of i-ioo shows two of the sides of the octagon, the 
west and the south-west At the right extremity of the south-west side has been shown a 
portion of the tile covering, to show the way in which this interesting and unsuspected arrange- 
ment was masked. If we begin by studying this latter face, we shall remark that the wall is 
pierced by seven high and narrow semicircular arches (a fact already known), of which the upper 
half forms the bay of the windows lighting the interior. The lower half is solid, and covered 
with a plating of marble ; the bays of the two arches at the extremities are blind, and not 
blinded, as the arrangement shows. Above the great arches runs a jjrojecting band, which 
gives passage to six leaden gargoyles, by which the rain-water runs out above the six piers. 
This band is surmounted by a high course, which supports a series of small semicircular 
arches, resting on colomdtes grouped two and two. 

' These arches, of which there are thirteen on each of the two sides seen, have been 
closed subsequently to their construction. In fact, (i) the side of the wall which fills them 
up is in the same plane as the general face of the wall and the cutting of the capitals of the 
columns ; (2) the columns are in fact part covered up by the filling in ; (3) the filling in is 
effected by stones quite different from the rest of the building ; (4) one of the arches in the 
west front has been opened, and has given evidence that it was originally destined to be 
always so. 

' Lastly, immediately above the little arcades, at a tangent to their extrados, runs a 
terminal cornice, the profile of which is extremely difficult to restore, so much has it 
suffered. 

' The western face shows the same arrangement. \\'e remark only that the last of the 
higher arches on the right extremity has been opened during the works, and that the great 
central arch which serves as the door is broader than the six other arches. This breadth has 
been secured by the narrowing of the bays, the breadth of the piers remaining sensibly the 
same. The proportions of the higher arches remaining unaltered, there results a general 
difference between the west and the south-west faces ; in the latter the higher arches are 
calculated in such a manner that their axis, two by two, corresponds with the axis of the 
arches below, if we count i, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 ; with the axis of the piers if we count 2, 4, 
6, 8, 10, 12. In the west face, on the other hand, this correspondence does not exist 



JERUSALEM. 



313 



' The drawing represents in stippling the projection of the porch, whicli is supposed to 
have been taken away to show the original entrance. The surface of the blocks of the whole 
construction has a good deal suffered. It is, besides, covered with holes, serving to fix the 
casing which covered it. As a result, the dressing (tool marks) has almost wholly disappeared ; 
we have, however, been able to ascertain that the dressing is not that which I have shown 
to be mediaeval. The only lapidary sign which we have noticed is engraved on the third 








course of stones, below the left abutment of the third great arch of the western face, starting 
from the left. It is, as may be seen from the copy of it in Plate 28, too indeterminate in 
form to permit us to attach it to one epoch rather than another. 

' It is more than probable that the six other faces of the octagonal wall, still concealed 
by the tiles, would show e.xactly the same respective disposition as these two, if they were also 
stripped. 

40 



3'4 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



' Starting from the band, the wall in which the higher arches are built is much less thick 
than the great wall on which it rests ; this appears to indicate that it has originally been treated 
as a lighter construction, not having so much to support. 

' The existence of these arches running all round the monument reveals to us a previous 
state very different to the present aspect, and raises curious historical questions. 

' Above all, we should take account of two essential facts : (i) the arches are semicircular; 
(2) they were originally destined to remain open. 

* This fact established, if we try to determine the date of this building exclusively by the 
aid of technical considerations, we shall be much embarrassed. We may nevertheless hold 
for certain that the whole wall, from the higher arches fy the half of the louver arches — that is 
to say, in the whole of its height which has been exposed — is, in spite of the differences of 



ELEVATIOH 










: '• --^i ' « • '- " "■' vi-. • 'V ■■■*///'/'] 







PLAN 









wri 




thickness, of homogeneous construction, and can have only one date. As for the part below, 
it is difficult to pronounce. The casing of marble hides the true wall, e.\cept at the right 
feet of the gate of the western face, where it seems to show that the wall is entirely the same 
from the top to the bottom. 

' Besides the absolute age of the construction, it remains to fix the period of the trans- 
formation which it subsequently underwent, and which led to the stopping up of the upper 
arches. It is evident that the transformation is at least contemporaneous with the decoration 
of the monument by means of the tiles placed upon the wall : the beautiful sourate of the 
Koran (Yasin) in white letters on a blue ground, which runs all round the eight faces of the 
octagon, passes away nearly in the middle of the upper arches. Although the employment 
of these tiles, called keshany, is of different dates, there is a general agreement in fi.xing the 



JERUSALEM. 315 

first application of them in the sixteenth century. It is easy to understand that the decorators 
in trying to get as large a surface as possible to cover with their enamelled tiles, thought of 
gaining this surface at the expense of these closed arches, which had perhaps a long time 
before lost their natural use, and which were treated as a higher prolongation of the 
wall.* 

' What was this natural use ? To answer this question we must go back six centuries, to 
the time of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. We have several descriptions of the Templum 
Domini, made by contemporary authors. Among these descriptions there are none more 
exact and more detailed than that of John of Wirzburg. Unfortunately, I have not with me 
the original text, and I quote from the partial translations of Tobler and De Vogiie the 
following important passage : " Between the e.xternal wall (pierced by four doors and by 
windows) .... and the interior columns (12 + 4) supporting the interior wall, less broad, 
higher, and pierced by twelve windows, there is a row of sixteen columns and eight pillars. 
This circle of columns supports a roof which joins the interior to the exterior wall, and a 
ceiling ornamented with beautiful caissons. The roof is surrounded by a contiiii/ous gallery, 
with pipes of lead to carry off the rain water." This description applies admirably to the 
monument in its present state, and proves how few were the essential modifications which 
the Kubbet es Sakhra has undergone since it ceased to be the Templum Domini. 

' As to the valuable detail which terminates the description of John of Wirzburg, it appears 
to me to exactly correspond with the description brought to light by the repairs. Here is 
Tobler's translation, in his own words : " Am unterm Dache war ein Rundgang zum 
Lustwandel und bleierne Rohren schenkten das Regenwasser aus." The lower roof is that 
properly so called in opposition to the cupola ; the " Rundgang zum Lustwandel " is a gallery 
running round. 

' There is no possible doubt our arches are nothing else than a little portico surrounding 
this gallery ; the inclined roof would, at its lower end, approach the horizontal, or, at least, 
stop suddenly to permit a passage, which would not need to be very broad. The breadth of 
the lower wall (i metre) is of itself sufificient. A spout and leaden pipes, corresponding 
with the present gargoyles, would suffice for the rain-water to pass away. 

' A man standing upright in the internal wall is just able to look without by the bays of 
these arches, whose height, measured from the summit of the arch to the base represented 
by the great wall, is at least 2 metres. 

' It is not necessary to remark how this explanation accounts for the existence, and justifies 
the utility of this little portico, which, later on, closed and transformed into a wall, seemed 
to have no reason at all for existence, and gave to the eight faces of the octagon the unpleasing 
appearance of eight panels cut out in cardboard. Unfortunately, the repairs follow the same 
error, and this light colonnade, exposed for one moment, will again be transformed into a 
massive wall, this time not even having the excuse of bearing the elegant fayence of 
Soliman. 

' Henceforth we may hold for certain that such was the disposition of the Templum 
Domini. I will add that we may see a vague but real confirmation in the reproduction of this 
edifice which figures on the seal of the Templars ; there are clearly to be distinguished two 
rows of bays superposed. 

* As to the date of this wall, see the paper on the 'Architectural History of Jerusalem.' 

40 — 2 



3i6 IJIE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' This gallery, adorned with porticos still in use at the time of the Crusaders, the traces 
of which are now wholly lost — did it exist before their time ? I think that wc may, without 
hesitation, reply that it did, for plenty of reasons : the absence of medieval dressing, the use 
of the semicircle, the historical certainty that the Crusaders had never interfered with the 
work, as a whole, of the Kubbet es Sakhra, the homogeneous nature of the arcade and 
the wall which supports it. 

' To these general reasons one more precise may be added. A I'crsian author, Nasir 
ibn Khosrou, who visited the Kubbet es Sakhra in the year 438 of the Hcgira, that is to 
say, some years before the first Crusade, describing the exterior wall of the Kubbet, says 
that it was so " yards " high and 33 long, on each side of the octagon. I have not the 
original here, and forget what was the exact measure called by the English translator. Major 
A. R. Fuller, a yard, consequently I do not know the real dimensions expressed by the 
author. At any rate, the proportion of hcighth to breadth was as 20 : 33. Now these 
dimensions are actually 12 and 27 metres. In order that the ratio of Nasir's dimensions 
should be as I : 2, there wants 7-66ths ; in order that the ratio of the actual dimensions 
should be as I : 2, there wants 1-18. Now, the difference between i-iS and 7-66 is only 5-99, 
a difference so small that we may neglect it, and conclude in consequence that the wall before 
the Crusades was the same height as it is now. And we have seen above that it may be 
considered as produced at a single effort. 

'As to the period which extends between this epoch and that of the firsl construction, 
the field is still open to conjectures as to what concerns this part of the monument. 

' If we wanted to find examples of analogous dispositions we might, as M. Lecomte suggests, 
find the point de depart in certain edifices of central Syria, towards the fifth or sixth century. 
As to relations with other places, we might multiply them, but without great advantage to the 
chronological elucidation of the special question which occupies us.' 

' I have at length succeeded, after many researches in the various libraries in Jerusalem 
to which I have access, in getting at the original text of John of AVirzburg, and in studying 
the principal passage of this author on the little arcade round the Sakhra. Here is the 
passage : — 

'"Supra se etiam, juxta tectum, locum deambulatorium circum quaque exhibentibus et 
habentibus canales plumbeos qui aquam pluviatilem evoniunt." 

' The construction of the phrase is sufficiently obscure, and the manner in which Tobler 
and M. de Vogiid render it seems to me a paraphrase rather than a translation. If we keep 
to the text, taking the architecture itself as our commentary, it seems that supra sc should 
mean, in the incorrect language of the author, " above the exterior wall " of which we have 
just been speaking, as well as of the interior wall, and not "above the roof," since imme- 
diately afterwards we \xx\q jiixla tectum, "near the roof." It is the only exi)lanation possible, 
if we admit the punctuation adopted by the editor of the text and followed by these two 
learned archreologists. But I think that this punctuation, which makes of the words supra se 
a phrase by themselves, is an error ; and, in fact, by cutting up the text in this fashion, the 
words exhibentibus et habentibus belong to nothing at all. Replace the colon by a comma, 
and restore the passage as follows: — "cum pulchcrrimis laqueariis supra se etiam, juxta 
tectum," etc., and translate : " Between the two walls there is an intermediary roof, with a 
beautiful panelled ceiling, over which (which has above it), running all round, is a gallery, 
and which has leaden pipes for getting rid of rain water." From this rigorous translation, it 



JERUSALEM. 3' 7 

is clear that the gallery was above the ceiling, and therefore had a large relative width, not 
being limited to the breadth of the wall. Possibly the inclination of the roof stopped 
suddenly before reaching the external wall, surmounted by arcades, and let the water fall 
upon the floor of the gallery : here they would be caught by the leaden gutters and thrown 
out by gargoyles placed most likely at the same points as we now see them. Tobler trans- 
lates canaks by ro/iren, De Vogiie by fnyaiix. It is better, I think, to use the French word 
cJicneaux derived from it, and signifying, not a tubular conduit, but an open canal. 



Excavation within the Haram. 

' The excavation undertaken by the Memour against the interior of the east wall of the 
Haram, of which I have already spoken, has been sunk to more than 30 feet. The point 
chosen is nearly r6o metres (173 y.irds) south of the (iolden Gate. We have now reached, 
and even passed below, the level of the soil outside. The excavation has led to no archaeo- 
logical or practical result, nor any traces of the dressed stones searched for. It has passed 
through made-up earth mixed with pottery, cubes of mosaic, fragments of marble, etc. We 
descended the shaft, which is not very cleverly made, and narrowly framed in. We were 
able to examine the wall as far as the shaft goes, and can state that the stones have no 
mediaeval dressing. ... I am afraid that the shaft will, be shortly closed. 

' At the bottom of the shaft the wall presents two successive sets back, the first 3 inches 
of projection and 15 inches of height ; the lower yi- inches of projection, with a height as yet 
undetermined. At a point 6 feet 6 inches above the first projection the wall shows a very 
sensible change in construction, seeming to indicate two successive visible epochs, visible 
also from the outside : the more ancient below, the more modern above, naturally. 

' Now a few remarks on my visits to the Haram. The blocks of the inner side of the 
exterior wall of the Kubbet es Sakhra, visible in the frame of the wooden stair leading to the 
roof, are pierced by numerous openings, in which have been inlaid small pieces of flint, 
having their visible faces cut and polished. I cannot explain the purpose of this singular 
arrangement, which has perhaps a superstitious origin. The dressing of the blocks is not 
mediaeval. 

' The application of the rule of medieval dressing has led us to establish several important 
facts in the enceinte of the Mesjid. (i) Great bases of engaged columns on the platform and 
near the Mosque of the Mogrebbin, certainly mediaeval. (2) Various fragments of archi- 
tecture of the same origin built up here and there. (3) Medieval stones and gate in the 
wall north of the gallery, which joins the Aksa to the Mosque of the Mogrebbin.* (4) The 
whole sottth-west angle of the esplanade of the Sakhra is entirely niediaval. (5) Several but- 
tresses on the west side of the platform are made up of materials of the Middle Ages. I 
observed on the pillars of the porch north of the Haram a large number of Latin masons' 
marks (pricked with the point of the tool) ; they are engraved on great blocks, which have 
been stripped of their mediaval dressing. I suppose them to be older blocks simply used 
again by the Crusaders, who put signs on them to facilitate placing them in proper positions. 



This gallery was already known to be the refectory built by the Knights Templar. 



3'S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Inscription in the Haram. 

' I have rediscovered, within the Haram, an inscription of some importance, pointed out 
by several Mussulman authors. Up to the present time we have not been able to establisli 
its existence : it is a stone on which are inscribed the dimensions of the Haram measured at 
a very ancient period. 

'The Arab chronicler of Jerusalem, Medjr ed Din (p. 29 of the text edited at Boulaq), 
after having recorded that Hafiz ibn Asakir assigns to the Haram 755 royal dhraa of length 
and 465 dhraa of breadth, ([uotes this passage of one of his i>redecessors, the author of the 
" iMuthir el Ghoram," from which he repeatedly borrows : — " I saw, a long time ago, in the 
north wall, above the door adjacent to the Eab ed Uouidariye, inside the surrounding wall, a 
slab on which are inscribed the length and breadth of the Haram. These measurements do 
not agree with what we have stated above. It is there said that the length is 784 dhraa, and 
the breadth 455 ; the nature of the dhraa is specified, but I was not able to see if it was the 
dhraa mentioned above, or another, on account of the writing being injured." 

' The Persian Hadji, Nasir ibn Khosrou, who came on pilgrimage in the year 438 (a.m.), 
and consequently before the Crusades, saw this slab also. " On the northern side, which is 
contiguous to the Dome of Yakub (on whom be peace !), I observed an inscription on a 
tablet, to the effect that the Mosque was 704 yards.long and 455 yards by the Malak (measure)." 
— Major Fuller's translation. 

' This inscription I have just found by accident fitted into the wall of one of the many 
Arab Medre'si^s which adjoin the northern face of the Haram ; it is immediately to the right, 
coming out of the Bab el Atme, which seems to correspond to the " Bab ed Douidariye " of 
the ancient account. In order to see it, you must mount the steps of a stair leading to the 
upper floor of the Medresd The stone is of hard inczzch, and the wTiting neshky, carelessly 
traced. It is composed of four lines separated by four horizontal strokes ; the first being 
broken, with nothing on it but the traditional invocation, " Bismillah er Rahman er Rahim." 
After this I read, without much difficulty, as follows : — " The length of the Mesjid is seven 
hundred .... and four dhraa, and its breadth is four hundred, fifty, and five dhraa, the 
dhraa of . . . ." 

' The length is broken off in the tens, but we cannot hesitate between thirty {thalathbi), 
and eighty {thamanin) : according to the author of the " Muthir el Ghoram," the last number 
would be the true one. Nasir seems as well to have been embarrassed in the reading of the 
last number, and to have omitted altogether the doubtful number of tens. The last word, 
containing the designation of the kind of dhraa, is hard to make out ; it was also hard in the 
time of the author of the " Muthir el Ghoram." Nasir does not hesitate to write the word 
Malak (of the king), but the appearance of the original makes me doubt the exactness of 
this reading. 

' Now that we are on this point, which is not without interest, let me notice further that 
the author of the " Muthir el Ghoram " gives as dimensions of the Haram, measured by the 
line, in his time, 683 dhraa for the length of the east side, and 650 dhraa for that of the 
west ; the breadth, taken outside the surrounding wall, being estimated at 483 dhraa. 

'In another passage (p. 377) Medjr ed Din also gives us the result of his personal ob- 
servations on this point He measured the Haram with a cord twice over, and found for the 
length, north to south, from the Mihrab of David to the Bab el Esbat (not counting the walls), 



JERUSALEM. 7,^9 

660 dhraa (the common dhraa), and for the breadth, between the cemetery of Bab er Rahme 
and the Medr^se of Tenguiz, 406 dhraa. 

MVe have now before us very different figures and divergences, the more difScuU to 
harmonise because they spring from the differences in the dhraa employed ; further difficulties 
are the manner and points of measurement, and the broken condition of the inscription 
Cjuoted ; all perhaps evincing, which would be of interest to us, real variation in the extent 
of the Haram at certain epochs in the Mussulman rule. 

' I have already informed you [in a private letter] of the existence of mosaics within the 
arcades of the outer wall of the Kubbet es Sakhra. It results from this fact that between the 
period when these arcades were opened and when they were completely covered by the fayence 
tiles now placed on them, they passed through an intermediary stage ; that is, they were built 
up and transformed into little niches, the interior walls of which received a rich ornamentation 
of mosaics in coloured and gilt glass. If, as I have said before, these arcades were open and 
formed a part of the gallery in existence at the time of the Crusades, we must admit that 
this transformation is later than the Crusades, and the addition of the mosaics to be the work 
of the Arabs, perhaps that of Saladin. 

' We know that Saladin must have subjected the Kubbet es Sakhra to many changes in order 
to efface the traces of Christian worship which had made the Mussulman sanctuary the Templum 
Domini. These mosaics are good enough, in colour and design, to belong to such a date. 
Thanks to the kindness of the Memour, who uncovered a second arcade next to the first, I 
ascertained that each arch had received the same ornamentation. The mosaics had dis- 
appeared from this arch, leaving marks in the casing to prove where they had been placed. 
M. Lecomte made a careful study of these mosaics, shattered as they were, and has succeeded 
in restoring the principal subject of the decoration in accordance with the position of the 
colours. You will receive, if not by this mail, at least by the next, the result of this restora- 
tion. By the intersection of the pattern, crosses are formed, to which I think it would be 
difficult to assign anything beyond a geometrical origin and value. 

' The presence, duly ascertained, of mosaics outside the Kubbet es Sakhra, is a fact of 
much interest in the history of this building, because it had been often doubted, in spite 
of the formal affirmation of the ancient descriptions. From John de Wirzburg to Medjr ed 
Din, all authors agree in saying that the Kubbet es Sakhra was adorned with mosaics inside 
and outside. The last trace of this system of decoration has disappeared from the outside, 
since the general application of the fayence — that is to say, since the sixteenth century. 



The So-called Tomb of Joseph of Arimath^a. 

' About twenty yards west of the Holy Sepulchre, in the church itself, is a little crypt 
traditionally known as the Tomb of Joseph of Arimath^a, or the Tombs of Joseiih and 
Nicodemus. The question whether this crypt is ancient or not has long been recognised as 
one of the essential elements in the great controversy over the authenticity of the 
Sepulchre,* 

* It is this sepulchre which Captain Conder suggests to be that of the Kings of Judah 
(see paper on the ' Architectural History of Jerusalem ' at the commencement of this 
volume). 



320 TITE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'The ascertained existence in this place of remains belonging without doubt to a Jewish 
burial-place, would at once remove one of the principal objections to the authenticity of the 
site. 

'The question may, in fact, be resolved into two propositions, the latter subordinate to 
the former — viz., (i) Can the traditional Sepulchre, which is within the walls of the modern 
city, really be a Jewish tomb? and (2) If so, can it be the Tomb of our Lord ? 

' The presence round the Sepulchre of a group of ancient tombs would solve the first 
difficulty, which many desire to see removed before proceeding to the second. They do not 
see their way to admit that there were, in the time of our Lord, tombs existing on the spot 
which now is shown as His. It is, therefore, most important to establish, if jiossiblc, the fact 
that the shrine now adored has, or may have, within it, if not the very tomb in which Jesus 
was laid, at least a real Jewish tomb. 

' Both adversaries and partisans of the Sepulchre have appreciated the value of this 
]ireliminary difficulty, and have from the first made it the starting-point of their argument. 
But neither have, in my opinion, produced an exhaustive examination of the place in 
dispute. 

' I have been enabled, by a careful study of this crypt, to ascertain sundry points which I 
believe have not been noticed by my predecessors, and which appear to me decisive in this 
question.* 

' A few yards west of the Holy Sepulchre, which rises isolated in the midst of the rotunda 
of the church, we enter, after passing through two of the columns on which the cupola rests, 
a little chapel belonging to the Syrians. At the end of the chapel is an apse looking west. 
A passage on the left, at the commencement of the apse, gives access obliquely to a narrow 
and dark retreat partly formed by walls cut in the rock, and partly by the wall belonging to 
the church itself. 

' There is a step cut in the rock. Mounting this, we see at our feet, by the uncertain 
light of a smoky lamp, a black and angular hole in the rocky soil. A few inches beyond we 
have before us the wall cut vertically in the rock. In the middle of this wall is an arcade, 
semicircular and sunk in the wall, about 4 feet in height by 24 feet in breadth. It covers 
two smaller arched openings, two black and gaping jaws — kokim (K J, Fig. 2), which are 
sunk horizontally into the rocky foundation to a depth which we shall presently learn. 

' On the right is another wall of rock, making, with that of the end, an obtuse angle. 
Two other openings (I H) are pierced in it, but these are walled up. Between the second 
mouth and the entrance of the vault the wall is constructed ; in it is a door (E) shut with a 
key. 

'The wall on the left is made up of a thick wall (Fig. i) which traverses diagonally the 
ditch cut in the ground, and forms, with the two other walls, two very acute angles. The 
lamp is suspended to this wall. 

' This singular retreat is therefore triangular. Two only of the sides are of rock, the third 
being a part of the wall belonging to the church, which appears to have been thus built across 
a pre-existing cave. The greater part of the roof is also cut in the rock. 

' At the left extremity of the wall, at the back, beside the opening of the hole K, we may 

♦ Sir Charles Wilson has pointed out (' Quarterly Statement, 1877, p. 129) that the side 
chambers which M. Clermont Ganneau notices were already shown in the Plan accom- 
panying the Ordnance Survey notes on this tomb. 



JERUSALEM. 



321 



recognise the existence of a third opening similar to the others, but walled up and partly 
hidden by the thick oblique wall. The stopping of this opening is not so perfect but that we 
can insert a thin stick and prove that here is a third place, L, parallel to the other two, and 
lying, like those, horizontally in the rock. 

' On the wall to right we make a similar observation. There was once following the two 
openings I H, in the place occupied by the little closed gate E, a third opening parallel 
to the preceding. It is easy to ascertain, towards the point O, the commencement of the 
lateral wall of the opening now destroyed. 

' Already in this disposition of rock-cut openings had been recognised the general form 
of Jewish tombs, which consists of a small square cave, with a certain number (generally 
3+3 + 3) of lociili in three of the four faces. But even those who admitted this resemblance 
were unable to give a satisfactory account of the primitive form which belonged to this cave, 




and could offer no reply to the grave objections which their adversaries made on certain 
strange peculiarities. 

' Before proceeding further, let us consider a point which has contributed largely to the 
controversy ; it is the kind of hole cut in the rocky floor of the chamber in front of the 
loculus K, which I have already mentioned. It consists of a triangular opening, Z G, the 
angle of which is opposed to the oblique wall on the left. The two sides of this angle show 
on the edge a small groove or rebate, probably intended to receive a horizontal slab. Along 
the wall the edges of the trench are irregularly cut away. 

' On descending (at G) into this hollow, which is 3 feet 7 inches deep, we find ourselves 
in a kind of long cave, marked in dots on the plan, which runs partly (especially on the 
right between S S) under the rock ; thus we can see at G how it penetrates beneath the 
locidi K J. This hole is less than 5 feet long by i foot 8 inches in breadth. Certainly 
no adult body could have been placed in it. Still less, again, in the hole Z, which is close 
to G, and separated from it only by a thin partition cut in the rock. This is rectangular, 

41 



322 



THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 



and 2 feet in length by i foot 7 inches in breadth ; it is i^artly covered over by a fragment 
of flat rock. Its height is 2 feet 7 inches. Between the edge of the rock forming the 
ceiUng and the upper edge of the partition, which separates the two trenches Z H, there 
is only 10 inches of breadth. 

' The smallness of these dimensions renders the examination of these holes extremely 
difficult That is probably the reason why no one before me ever ascertained a fact oj 




capital importance, so much so as to profoundly modify all received ideas up to the present on one 
side and the other. 

' But before stating what I may without any exaggeration call a discovery, let mc return 
to a few details which are not without interest. 

' Those who maintain the apocryphal character of the Holy Sepulchre, relying on the 
dimensions of the two latter holes (to which tradition attaches the names of Joseph of 
Arimatha;a and Nicodemus) deny them any sepulchral character, because they are not large 
enough to contain the bodies of adults. The objection is specious, and it has been even 
pushed to an extreme by the supposition that we have here a pseudo-sepulchre hollowed out 
at the period of the Crusaders on a Jewish model, in order to furnish a material justification 
of the legend. I need not point out how inadmissible this supposition is, and how little in 



JERUSALEM. 



323 



accordance with popular habits, which generally imagine the legend in order to explain the 
monument. 

' It might be replied that we have simply two hollow places excavated as ossuaries, and 
intended to receive the bones accumulated in the sepulchre either directly or by means of 
those little funerary chests or coffins of which I collected so many and such curious specimens 
during my mission. 

' The same objection has been urged against the loculi K J placed in the higher level. In 
fact, these two loculi hardly measure more at the present moment than 5 feet in depth, which 
is insufficient for a body of ordinary proportions. 

' The loculi have in general a depth of 6 feet 6 inches ; and it must be owned that this 
time the objection is more embarrassing than before, and that those who think these are 
fictitious or artificial sepulchres may find an occasion for triumph over this argument. The 
reply, however, although it has never to my knowledge been made, is easy. 

' We saw above that the mouths of the two loculi are within a sunken arcade ; hollowed 







out, that is, of the flat vertical wall. Suppose for a moment that the arcade was made after 
the loculi. What follows ? The loculi wovX^ be increased in length by the space which they 
lost in sinking the arcade, as the arcade would have simply shortened the loculi by cutting 
away the front part. Well, that is e.xactly what has happened. The loculi originally extended 
as far as S S in the drawing ; we have the material proof. The removal of the rock has not 
been so skilfully effected as not to leave behind the visible traces of this original extension. 
These traces are easily to be recognised in the engraving of the cave. 

' W'e. must also observe that this unmistakable mark, which goes considerably beyond the 
end of the arcade, is slightly in advance of the perpendicular face of the wall, which would 
tend to prove that the wall itself had experienced a slight setting back. 

'If we proceed to restore the loculi to their original dimensions by measuring them from 
the end to the line S S, we shall find ample room for our regulation two metres. 

' But, it will be asked, for what purpose was this arcade hollowed out and the two loculi 
thus disfigured .' For what purpose ? Here we may introduce our legend. Popular belief 
attached to this place the names of Joseph and Nicodemus. The double site has been 

41—2 



3^4 



THE SURVEY OF WESTER. \ PALESTINE. 



localized in the two lociili, visible at once to pilgrims, to this crypt half destroyed by the 
construction of the church. Then, in order to fix this association indissolubly to the spot, 
and to give the sanctuary in course of formation a religious consecration, they constructed 
this kind of niche, convenient for the purposes of worship, and lending to these openings 
thus connected the aspect of a little chapel. I am convinced, for my own part, that in the 
Middle Ages the two tombs revered were the two loculi^ and not, as is generally admitted, the 
two little subterranean hollows to the consideration of which I must now come. 

' If we descend into hole G and contrive to introduce a head into the narrow opening of 
Z (lo inches) to examine its walls, we shall be amply rewarded for this disagreeable kind of 
tour de force, which makes the archseologistj so to speak, stand on his head. The same 
results can, to be sure, be arrived at by lying flat on the ground and then sliding into tlie 
hole head first : a position quite as uncomfortable as the first. We perceive, then, that the 




rectangular hollow, Z, is not in reality entirely formed by the rock, but that one of its sides, 
that of the end, parallel to the partition of rock, consists of a vertical slab about 2 Ject 3 inches 
in height. 

' This slab covers the entrance of a long passage apparently cut in the rock ; it seems to 
be placed against a little rebate, also well cut and jutting out behind it. I was able to 
introduce between the interstices of the slab and the rock in which it rests a long stick, 
which penetrated to more than 6 feet 6 inches ; after that I could get no farther, and I 
thought I was stopped by earth and rubbish. I repeated my experiment several times, and 
touched with the stick the side walls and roof of this kind of corridor. M. Lecomte relieved 
me in this fatiguing work, and it is thus that we were able to get the elements of the figures 
marked F. After a good many failures I managed to light up the passage by arming the 
extremity of my stick with a bit of lighted candle, and so verify by sight what I had 
discovered by touch. 

' A single glance at the drawings will show all those who are at all conversant with the 
([ucstion the considerable value of this fact, which, I think, I was the first to discover, and 
by which the field of a discussion already large is remarkably enlarged. I need hardly 
speak of the ardent curiosity which impelled me to find out, if possible, whither the passage 
blocked by this mysterious slab leads. There is the chance of finding one's self in some 
new sepulchral chamber totally unknown before ; perhaps inviolate, perhaps pillaged, but so 
as to leave behind some relics precious to an archceologist — funerary objects, worthless in 



JERUSALEM. 



325 



themselves, but furnishing valuable evidence of synchronisms ; ossuaries, fragments of 
ossuaries, with Hebrew inscriptions such as I found in other places round Jerusalem. Cannot 
we picture to ourselves the conclusions which might be drawn, on the points at issue, from 
an epigraphic document of this kind ? I indulged in all these dreams of an antiquary, and 
I may go on indulging in them, because the authorisation to remove the slab could not be 
procured. The possession of this sanctuary is, like so many others, the object of dispute 
among the various clergies, so that one does not know where to apply. Besides, at the 
moment I was in a very delicate situation towards the administrative and religious authorities 
of Jerusalem, in consequence of the quarrel about the " Moabite " potteries and the Gezer 
case. I had raised up against myself so many animosities that even my personal credit was 
beginning to suffer. Everybody knows, besides, what grave political complications may be 
caused in that singular city of Jerusalem by the least attempt to touch, not only a stone, but 
even a rag, or a nail, in these disputed sacred places. 

'Is it possible, from what we already know, to form any idea of what this unknown passage 
may be .'' 

'The first idea which presents itself is that, as in many other sepulchral chambers, a 
corridor gives access to a second chamber situated at a lower level. But, on reflection, 
that seems difficult to suppose. The dimensions of this corridor, although narrow, are 




indeed broad enough to admit of passage, and the different cemeteries of Jerusalem furnish 
us examples of corridors as narrow and as low ; but the dimensions of the mouth of the 
passage, between the edge of the flooring and the partition, are certainly too small. A living 
man might with difficulty thrust himself through this kind of cleft ; but it appears to me 
almost impossible to force a body through. The rigidity of death would prevent the bending 
of the limbs necessary to get through this cleft into the passage itself. 

' The same objection may be raised against those who may be tempted to consider 
this space as belonging simply to a supplementary loculus, the slab closing the original 
opening, and the loculus coming to an end in the rock close to the point A, where I ascer- 
tained the presence of the debris. Passage or loculus, this hole offers equal difficulties to 
the introduction of a corpse. Besides, in the latter assumption, we are open to new con- 
siderations. 

' I. The mouth, nearly impracticable, of this opening, would be in advance, in the middle 
of the sepulchral chamber ; we should expect it to be, as usual in such cases, below the 
locicli in the left wall, and in the vertical level of this wall. 

' 2. The height of this loculus, about 2 feet 7 inches, would be greater than that of the 
loculi (L K J) of the same sepulchre. 

' 3. The length of this pretended loculus, measured from the partition which separates 
(} and Z to the point A reached by my rod, is 9 feet i inch ; that is, it would exceed be 
2 feet 7 inches the regular length of the loculi. If we only measured from the slab D — i.e., 
from the rebate, we should obtain the normal length of 6 feet 6 inches ; but what are we to 



326 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



make, in that case, of tlie trench Z, which would then be situated in front of the loadus, and 
would he a useless and unintelligible prolongation? 

' 4. The accumulation of rubbish in A, at the end of the passage, seems to show that 
there is a large space beyond from which the rubbish comes ; the angle of this accumula- 
tion A leads us to believe that the debris has fallen in a direction from A to D, and not 
from D to A, in which case the angle would be -, just the reverse. Now, the end of 




ggg JiofkKUialwn 

the IuchIhs being exactly marked by this point A, whence come the debris which we find 
where wc looked for rock ? 

'This place, therefore, is not a blind passage. 

'The right wall (R O) is not the original wall, although it is cut in the rock. It would 
form, with the rocky wall at the end (in which arc the locitli K J), nearly a right, and 
not, as in fact it does form, an acute angle. It is probable that it lay originally along the 
line R T, and that it was afterwards cut again to enlarge the chamber, and especially to form 
a passage between the wall on the left and the point O. Naturally the loculi I H E have 
been shortened by the operation, so that we can now predicate of them that when it is possible 
to explore them, they will not be found of the normal length of 6 feet 6 inches. 



JERUSALEM. 3^7 

'The original /['//// di depart of this wall thus altered is perhaps marked in the rock by a 
small notch at the point R, although this lies a little behind the marks at S S, the mouths of 
the lociili K J. 

' We may observe besides, that in adopting this, so to speak, forced restoration of the 
wall on the right, we note that one of the walls of the lociili N and E (in O) is manifestly 
perpendicular to this imaginary line. If we suppose that the side walls of the three other 
loculi have been slightly altered or re-cut transversely to a depth at which they were originally 
irregular, we can establish between tlie wall on the right and the loculi which were pierced 
there, the perpendicularity which is de rigueur, and which the present state of the place is far 
from showing. 

' The loculus J of the wall at the end, and the loculus I on the right wall, con- 
sidered by themselves, arc very nearly at right angles at R, as is the custom in the tombs of 
Palestine ; but the irregularity commences at the second side wall of the loculus I, which is 
not parallel to the first. 

'Taking all these observations into consideration, we had better suppose the corridor 
to be nothing else than a loculus belonging to a neighbouring chamber, and that the end 
of it was perforated and prolonged at the time when the trenches G and Z were cut. 
It is an accident which not infrequently happens in the tombs of Palestine : often two 
sepulchral caves are so close, that the kokhn of the one penetrate to the interior of the other. 
This penetration may be accidental, the result of inaccurate measurements, or ignorance of 
the existence of a neighbouring chamber, or intentional, to establish a communication between 
the two caves and make them one and the same tomb. Here the communication would seem 
to have been due to accident, otherwise they would have had to make access to the "corridor" 
easier and less painful. Nevertheless, I cannot be certain on this last point ; it is most prudent 
to wait for a complete exploration. 

' However that may be, loculus or corridor, it is more than probable that this passage, 
unknown up to the present day, leads to a second sepulchral chamber situated on a slightly 
lower level than that of the first, and completely covered over with the building of the 
church. 

The following are Sir C. Wilson's notes on M. Clermont Ganneau's 
paper as to this tomb : 

' In an extremely interesting paper in the last " Quarterly Statement," M. Ganneau has 
drawn attention to the tomb-chamber in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, known as 
that of "Joseph and Nicodemus," and has given his reasons for believing that there is a 
second and somewhat similar tomb-chamber at a lower level. There is nothing improbable 
in this suggestion, though I think it rather hazardous, as the facts upon which M. Ganneau 
bases his argument might be explained in another way. My object, however, is not to criticise 
M. Ganneau's paper, but to give a few additional details which came under my own observa- 
tion whilst employed upon the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem in 1864-65. 

'The first is that, contrary to the usual custom at Jerusalem, the tomb chamber is 
excavated in the hard {missa) and not in the soft {inalaki) strata of limestone ; the second is that 
the beds or floors of the koktni slope downward from the mouth, the general rule being to 
cut them horizontal. M. Ganneau mentions a door, E on the right of the chamber, of 
which he does not appear to have been able to procure the key. I was more fortunate, and the 
following note on the chamber to which the door gives access may be of interest to the 



328 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



subscribers of the Fund. The cli.-imber, as will be seen from the plan, is irregular in 
shape ; the wall on the right-hand side on entering is masonry ; the remaining sides, as well 
as the roof, are rock. It is evident that the chamber was formed, probably when the church 
was built, by cutting away a portion of the original tomb-chamber in such a manner as to 
leave a sort of cave, and the floor was lowered at the same time for a certain purpose 







itfiwm I ' .,■.,,„ »^^ ! i^.v; . ^»jap - 



w 



J 







explained below. I think M. Ganneau is quite right in supposing that the door, E, was 
originally a kok, though its shape is now rectangular ; this kok has entirely disappeared, and 
so has that marked H, with the exception of the mouth and a small portion of the sides. The 
third kok, I, is of special interest ; the right side and a portion of the roof have been cut 
away, but the bed has been left untouched, and the remaining portion of the roof forms a 




F/onr rtfJiofii nrfir 





¥. 






Y 



^^jaiorA Eltvaticn 

sort of rock-canopy over it. The reason for lowering the floor {gf) is now apparent ; it was to 
convert the bed of the kok (d e) into a raised bench or altar, and I believe on certain occasions 
it is still used as an altar by the Syrian community to whom the chamber belongs. The 
illustration shows also in elevation the openings of the kokhn H, I, and of the door E, in the 
thin wall of rock which separates the chamber from the original tomb-chamber of " Joseph 



JERUSALEM. 



329 



and Nicodemus." In my notes to the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, I alluded to the light 
which the kok I might possibly throw on the primitive form of the Holy Sepulchre. My 
impression is that if the Holy Sepulchre were originally a kok — and I see no reason why it 
should not have been — the mode of proceeding was somewhat similar to that described 
above ; that is to say, the floor of the original tomb-chamber was lowered, the side of the kok 
was cut away, and a canopy of rock left over its bed. As time went on and changes were 
made, the kok would probably be entirely isolated, the canopy of rock disappear, and the 
tomb assume its present form. I have endeavoured to show this in the sketch. Felix 
Fabri, 1480 a.d., mentions that pilgrims were in the habit of knocking off little pieces of the 
rock to carry away as relics, and it is possible that this may partially account for the dis- 
appearance of the roof of the kok (<'/). Some of the early pilgrims mention a cave ; this may 




JlocS Secirim 

iro^ RcckElei'attcr7L 



be explained by reference to the little Syrian chamber in which a roof of rock has been left, 
and the Holy Sepulchre may have undergone similar treatment. 

' M. Ganneau, in his opening paragraphs, alludes to the doubt which at one time existed 
as to the nature of the so-called tombs of Joseph and Nicodemus ; I cannot understand how 
any one who had ever seen the rock-hewn tombs near Jerusalem could have any doubts on 
the subject. The chamber in which they are situated is unmistakably a Jewish tomb- 
chamber, and the tombs themselves are as clearly Jewish kokhii. Whether this tomb- 
chamber was inside or outside the second wall is quite another question ; I think myself it 
was inside, but the question is one which would require more space for argument than can be 
given at present. . . . 

' There is no rock visible in the chapel of the Holy Sepulchre at the present day ; it is 
entirely concealed by the marble casing.' 

The following note was also supplied by Captain Conder : 

' It has long been pointed out that the stone closing the door of our Lord's tomb was not 
a mere shapeless mass of rock, but a carefully constructed apparatus peculiar to Jewish, 
tombs. There are one or two points with regard to the rolling stone which I have not, 
however, seen noticed in any account of such tombs. 

' The rolling stone is not a very common method of securing the entrances of the rock- 
cut sepulchres, and it is natural to suppose, from the great advance in mechanical simplicity, 

42 



330 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

that it is a late contrivance. The large majority of the rock-cut sepulchres, some 500 of 
which hive been examined in the course of the Survey, are not fitted with the groove 
necessary for the use of the stone. They arc closed in some instances by a sort of portcullis 
of stone, but most frequently by a stone door on pivots fitting into holes bored above and 
below the entrance, and closed by a lock. The lock was probably of metal, since in every 
instance yet examined it has disai)pcarcd. The rolling stone generally measures about 3 feet 
diameter, and is i foot thick in some instances, resembling a cheese set on end. It rolls right 
or left of the doorway, which is some 2 feet wide, and it is kept up by a ledge of rock having 
a groove behind it, into which the stone is pushed back to open the tomb. The bottom of 
this groove is slightly sloping in some cases, so that the stone would roll down to close the 
door by its own weight. The weight, taking the specific gravity of the rock at 27, would be 
about six cwt. Thus not only is it entirely impossible to open the tomb from within, but 
it is difticult to do so from without ; and a shock of earthtjuake would not, as has been lately 
suggested, cause the stone to roll bark up hill, nor would it rem.iin in that position unless 
scotched beneath. 

'The principal point to be noticed is that this kind of door seems to belong to the later 
Jewish tombs. This accords exactly with its use in the new tomb of Joseph of Arimatheea. 
The only dated example known is that of the tomb of Helena, Queen of Adiabene, mother 
of Izates, who was buried in Jerusalem in the first century (Ant. xx. 4, 3). In addition to 
this, it may be remarked that in the country north of Cresarea, where there are many examples 
of this kind of door, the tombs are of the loculus description, and not kok'im tombs. The 
same remark applies to the instance of a tomb near Endor, and in other cases the tombs 
contain both hKiili and kok'im ; but we have collected no instance of a tomb with kok'uii only 
closed by a rolling scone. In a former paper I have shown reasons for supposing the kok'im 
tombs to be the older form used by the Jews, the loculi to be the later form, also used by 
them. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' January, 1S76, p. 19.) In the Mishna(Baba Bathra, vi. S) 
a description of a tomb is given having kok'im, but no account of a rolling door is added, and 
the form of antechamber prescribed precludes the possibility of such a method of closing the 
entrance, but the description applies exactly to the majority of the more ancient Jewish 
sepulchres. 

'The conclusion which may be drawn from the above notes seems to be that the Holy 
Sepulchre was in all probability a loculus tomb. 

' This deduction is in accordance with the description in the fourth Gospel (xx. 12)—' two 
angels in white sitting, the one at the head and the other at the feet where the body of Jesus 
had lain ' — a disposition which is evidently impossible in the case of a tomb with a koka, 
which is, as has often been explained, a sort of pigeon-hole running in from the wall of the 
chamber some 5 to 7 feet in length, and 2 feet six inches to 2 feet broad, the feet of the 
corpse being at the nearer end, the head at the further. The koka was closed by a slab 
2 feet broad, 2 to 3 feet high. The loculus tomb has a sort of sarcophagus under an arched 
roof, the body lying i)ara!lel to the wall of the chamber. 

' An argument for the identity of the present site has been drawn by De \'ogiie and by M. 
(lanneau from the existence of an ancient kok tomb in the church. This position has been 
considerably strengthened by the (juotation of the Mishna (Halia Rathrn, ii. 9), which runs 
as follows : 

'"Corpses and sepulchres and tanneries are separated from the city fifty cubits." 

'Still there is evidence from the same sources to show that sepulchres dating from an early 



JERUSALEM. 33 1 

period existed within the walls of Jerusalem, and I may perhaps be allowed to collect these 
passages for the use of those interested in the argument. 

' Mishna Parah iii. 2: "The buildings (Hazeroth) of Jerusalem were founded on the 
rock, with caves beneath them, because of the Kabr Hat 'I'ahtum" (or "Sepulchre of the 
Abyss "). 

' The passage continues to explain that for the same reason the children sent to fetch water 
for the Red Heifer Sacrifice from Siloam were mounted on bulls, in order to have their feet 
off the ground, so as to escape pollution from the same source. 

' The explanation of the term " Sepulchre of the Abyss " is given by Maimonides, 
commenting on another passage (Nezir ix. 2), where he speaks of it as a hidden tomb, 
the depth of which was not known to any man. Thus it would appear from the Mishna 
that the Jews were aware of the existence of ancient tombs in and beneath the surface of 
the city. 

'The Tosiphtah gives us further inlbrmation. It is a work of authority almost equal to 
that of the Mishnah, being attributed to Rabbi Hijah, about 120 .\.d. Commenting on the 
same tract (Tosiphtah Baba Bathra, ch. i.), it states that all the sepulchres within Jerusalem 
were transferred outside the walls except those of the family of David and of the prophetess 
Huldah. 

'Another passage of the Tosiphtah is given by Neubauer (Edouyoth, ch. ii.) : " Bones had 
once been found in a house of wood. The Rabbis wished therefore to declare the capital 
unclean, but Rabbi Jehoshua objected, saying, ' It would be shameful if we declare our 
houses unclean.' " ' 



The Stone of BETtiriiAGE. 

' I have received from the Frere Lievin certain documents and drawings relating to an 
important discovery lately made near Jerusalem. They describe a Crusaders' monument, 
interesting both as regards the history of Western art in the East, and as illustrating the 
topography of Jerusalem. Frere Lievin was fortunate in obtaining the valuable assistance of 
Captain Guillemot, to whose pen we owe the drawings here engraved. Farther on will also 
be found a notice, drawn up by Captain Guillemot, on the monument, its origin and destina- 
tion, in support of which I shall have a few remarks to offer. The drawings are the more 
valuable because the monument has greatly suffered since the clearing out. I heard, for 
instance, in October, that a part of the inscription painted on the western side fell off shortly 
after it was copied. 

' The excavations undertaken with a view to clear out the monument met with every kind 
of obstacle from the natives, until the intervention of Reouf Pacha, who has rendered a great 
service to science in this inatter — one which ought not to be forgotten, and which leads us 
to count on him for the future as an enlightened protector and patron of archaeological 
research. 

' The following is the text of Captain Guillemot's report : 

' " On leaving the Convent of Carmelites on the Mount of Olives to go to Bethany, the 
path to the east follows the contour of the south side of the mountain. After a gentle 
descent of about five hundred metres it turns abruptly to the south, passing over a natural 
ridge, which unites the Mount of Olives with that of Bethany. 

42—2 



33* 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



' " When you aic arrived at the middle of the ridge, turn to the cast, the Dead Sea is visible 
in the distance ; hehind you, on the west, is the group of sanctuaries, the Ascension, the 
I'atcr Nostcr, and the Credo ; on the north, at the left, you arc overlooked by the new con- 



Iiyi-vrvr 



'ITQC 



iSKh^^CAOl/ 



structions of the Russian Archimandrite ; the road of Bethany, on the right, runs to the 
south, and if you advance a few steps you are on the spot where the most ancient traditions 
place Bethphage. 

' " Some time in the spring of the present year a Fellah of Jebel Tur, digging on this spot 
in the hope of finding building stones, struck upon a polished block, upon which, on clearing 
away the earth, he found paintings and characters. In the hope of backsheesh he ran to 




.Ui 








his neighbours the Russians ; these, however, preoccupied with the coming war, told him to 
cover all up and leave it for the present. 

' " For centuries past the Franciscans have been accustomed to celebrate every year the 
Feast of St. Magdalene at Bethany ; on their return they halt at Bethphage in order to recite 
the Gospel of Palm Sunday. During the ceremony of this year (July 23, 1877) an assistant 
perceived certain letters on the stele, which had been imperfectly covered over, and clearing 



JERUSALEM. 



Zll> 



away a portion of it, found a Latin inscription in Roman characters. Tlie feather in charge 
of the sacred places, recognising at once the importance of this discovery, instructed Frbre 
IJfevin to commence excavations as soon as ])Ossible, to take notes of and to copy accurately 
everything that should be found. 

' " Shortly after, Frere Lievin, having with him a small band of workmen, armed with 
picka.xe and spade, brought me to the Mount of Olives and asked for my assistance. The 
moment our work was commenced the cupidity of the Fellahtn began to raise difficulties. 
Every resident of Jebel Tur pretended immediately to be the sole proprietor of this spot, 
hitherto neglected ; and, to crown all, the villagers of Bethany declared that the place 




belonged to their territory. I had, however, time to make notes of two fragments of inscrip- 
tion and a sketch of the north side of the fresco, representing the master of the castle accord- 
ing to the two disciples permission to carry away the ass and the foal. 

' " Next day, when I came back to compare my finished drawing with the original, and to 
study the details, the excavations had been completely filled up and again partly cleared 
out. Happily, the part which I then wanted was not hidden. 

' " Next day, the same trouble ; there was only the western face which remained partly 
uncovered. It was possible, however to draw the figures bearing palms, and hardly visible, 
which stand on the right and left of the niche. Two days afterwards the whole was com- 
pletely covered over ; not even the top of the stone was visible. 

' "These proceedings resulted from disputes between the Fellahin, some of them wanting 
the excavations to proceed in the hope of getting backsheesh, and the others filling them up, 
as fast as made, out of jealousy. 

' ''Things being in this position, Frere Lievin had recourse to the Pacha, who immediately 
accorded us his protection. Orders were given by his Excellency to the chiefs of the 
villages of Bethany and Jebel Tur ; a soldier was placed on guard over the excavations, and 
we were enabled to continue our labours in peace. 

' " The fresco, which I had, happily, copied carefully, had been seriously damaged by the 
pickaxes and by the continual friction with stones and earth ; several letters of the inscription 
had disappeared. I made haste to note all that remained ; it was fortunate that I did so, 
because shortly afterwards an unknown hand destroyed in our absence the greater part of 
the rest. 

' " The stele measures i '30 metres (4 feet 3-18 inches) in its greatest length ; in breadth it 



334 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



is ri3 mclrcs (3 Icct 849 inches) at the norlhcrn end, and i 06 metres (or 3 feet 563 inches) 
at the southern end. 'I'lie height at the northern end is irregular, and averages one metre 
(3 feet 3-37 inches). At the southern end it is o'qo metre (2 feet 114 inches). It is con- 




structed of the rock on which it stands, a porous Hmestone, lying in irregular strata, with 
alternate soft and hard beds. 

' "The monolith has not been separated from the rock of which it forms part, except on 
the four faces. 



JERUSALEM. 335 

' " At first sight the monument would be taken for an altar, or even for a tomb. But there 
exist no traces of the steps and other accessories to an altar. As regards the second, there 
is no sign of any opening. The white stucco which covers it is still solid in certain places. 
The paintings are finely executed and of a striking character. Nevertheless, the inscriptions 
leave no doubt as to the origin of this decoration. 

' " But is it only a restoration ? At what period was the stone cut ? That is a question 
impossible to answer. Those who thus ornamented it must have had no doubt that formerly 
the rock stood out above the level of the soil, presenting a sort of rustic seat, and that our 
Lord may have sat upon it on a certain memorable day. 

' " The Resurrection of Lazarus. — The choice of the south side for this painting, which faces 
Bethany, and the subject, that of the permission to take the ass and the foal, makes me think 
that the west part, facing Jerusalem, must have represented the triumphant entry of our Lord 




into the Holy City. The figures which can still be seen bearing palms, on the two sides of 
the niche, are in favour of this hypothesis. 

' " This painting is much superior to the others. I believe, however, that it is by the same 
hand. 

' " On the faqade of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre there is a Resurrection of Lazarus 
carved in the prolongation of the lintel. It is in great measure identical with that of Beth- 
phage. Did the painter copy the sculptor ? Perhaps while studying the vigorous bas-relief 
he may have acquired a more perfect understanding of the line and of light and shade. I 
am happy in having been able to copy this composition in time. At present it is greatly 
damaged ; wet fingers have been passed over the figures, and have effaced them ; many of 
them have quite disappeared. 

' " The fresco on the other side ajipears to be the blessing of the restoration of this little 
sanctuary. The notch which is observed in the upper part, about the middle, may have been 
to hide a defect in the stone. 

' " On clearing away the earth from our excavations we came upon a circular construction 
of a much more ancient appearance than the decoration of the stele. The disposition and 
arrangement of the materials have nothing in common with Crusaders' work. Besides, at 



336 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

two metres from the cinimifcrence we found the fragment of a column standing still upright 
upon its base. Is this the first and most ancient sanctuary, which those who restored the 
monument were unable to repair in its original grandeur ? JMore complete examination of 
the place is required to prove the point. 

' " In any case, we ascertained that the stUe itself was in the centre of the circular 
space. 

' "Near the monument lie a number of cisterns, some in ruins, some covered over and 
still in use. Their depth and size, and the fact that they are gathered together over a narrow- 
space, their acknowledged antiquity, all go to prove that there once existed an imjjortant 
village in this place. Two of the reservoirs are in ruins ; two others serve as watering-places 
for cattle. A small rocky ravine, which used to feed these cisterns, separates them towards 
the west from a mamclon which may very well be the site of Bethphage. I have seen on the 
ground broken i)illars, fragments of marble pavement, an enormous quantity of broken 
Jewish pottery, and mosaic cubes of all colours, all of wliidi have been brought to light by 
the cultivation of the soil. 

' " I one day met the proprietor on the spot at the moment when he was taking out of 
the ground a stone evidently once part of an aqueduct, and evidently of great age. I asked 
him if he found many things like it. He replied, ' You see all this place ; I cannot dig any- 
where without finding walls.' Then he added, ' There was formerly a city on this spot.' 
That, indeed, is the opinion of the whole country. 

' " It does not seem to me possible that Bethjjhage could have been placed on the side 
of a road which, shut in to right and left by two hills, is a mere gulf for the west wind, so 
terrible in this country. The old cities in the vicinity are all built on slopes which incline to 
the south-east Now this mamelon near the cisterns has a similar inclination. 

' " Again let us turn to the sacred narrative. The Saviour came from Jericho towards 
Jerusalem ; he had passed Bethany, and passed over the ground broken by the hills which 
separate the valleys of Bethany and licthphage. ' Go,' He said to His disciples, ' to the 
village over against you' (Matt. .\xi. 2). Now the road has not been changed, since it could 
have passed no other way than over the narrow ridge to join the Mount of Olives. If, then, 
the village was on the road, why send the disciples, since the Lord would pass it Himself? 
And if we look at the plan, we may be sure that the disciples, to make a short cut, descended 
the valley to climb the mamelon of Bethphage, w^hile our Lord, with the rest of His disciples, 
continued to follow the road in the direction of the Mount of Olives, and there waited the 
return of the disciples. 

' " And to the faithful this stone would be that on which Jesus rested by the wayside and 
where He mounted the ass." 

' To this report M. Clermont Ganneau appends several pages of valuable comment. He 
points out that the niche shown in the drawing may, as Captain Guillemot suggests, have 
been carved on the stone originally, and in order to hide some defect ; or it may have been 
cut by a Fellah of more modern days to receive a beam for some construction of his own. 
The inscription he ascribes, as beyond doubt, to the twelfth century. On one of the faces 
occurs the name of Bernard Witard. There appears in the Cartulary of the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre the name of Johannes (iuitard ( ^= Witard). Probably Bernard belonged to 
this family, and defrayed the expenses of the monument. 

' As regards the constructions found round the stele, M. Ganneau is of opinion, in which 
Lieutenant Kitchener's observations support him, that the wall was not actually circular, but 



JERUSALEM. 



337 



apsidal, and part of a church, and he calls attention to the importance of proving that the 
church was built before the stone was painted. His own discovery of the taille mediavale 
(' Quarterly Statement,' April, 1874) may be applied here. 

' As regards Captain Guillemot's suggestion that the stone may have been regarded as 




that on which our Lord rested, M. Ganneau brings direct proof that such was the case. He 
quotes Theodoricus de Locis Sanctis (a.d. 1072) : " Milliario ab Hierosolymis Bethania, ubl 
domus Simonis leprosi, Lazari et ejus sororum Maris et Marthre erat, distat, ubi Dominus 

43 



338 



'HIE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



sxpc hospitari solcbat. Sita est autcm Bethania jiixta vallum Olivcti, montem a parte orientali 
tcrminantcin. A Bcthania ergo in die i)aliiiaruni dilectissimus dominus noster Jesus Christus 
pr.xcedens et Bethphage veniens, qui locus inter Bethaniani et montem Oliveti medius est, 
ubi etiam honesta capella in ipsius honore est fabricata binos ad adducendum asinam et 
pullum niisit discipulos, et slans super lai)idem grandem qui in ista capella manifeste videtur, 
cl asino insidens per montem Oliveti Hierosolymam properavit cui turba multa in descensu 
montis ipsius obviam processit." (Tobler's edit., ]). 52.) 

' So that in the second half of the twelfth century they showed between the Mount of 
Olives and Bethany the site of Bethphage and the place where Jesus had sent two of His 

Fttm' of rcccjtt- dLscortry 
iloimt cf Olircj 



\ 






o 



\ 



disciples to seek the ass and the colt. There they had raised a " lair chapel " — Iwncsta capella 
— and in this chapel was visible the stone on which our Lord stood before mounting the ass. 

'" This rock," says M. Ganneau, "can be no other than this monolith, from which the 
surrounding rock has been carefully cut away, lovingly covered on all sides by delicate paint- 
ings, which remind one of illuminations in a precious missal rather than an ordinary fresco 
drawn to hide the naked stone. . . . ^\'e may remember that the Crusaders had an especial 
predilection for fresco painting ; they covered the walls of all the churches on the sacred sites 
with frescoes. Many pilgrims, especially John of W'urzburg, have preserved the description 
of these paintings, the subjects of which, all borrowed from the Old and the New Testament, 
were in accordance with the traditions of each sanctuary. These paintings were accompanied 
by long inscriptions, generally in rhymed Latin, according to the fashion of the time. It is 
a pity that John of Wurzburg did not visit the place and copy the inscriptions. He mentions, 
however, the church of Bethphage. Several other writers of the twelfth century speak of 
Bethphage and its church. Soewulf, however (a.d. 1102), speaks as if a church had not yet 
been erected : " Bethphage, ubi Dominus prsemisit discipulos ad civitatem est in monte 
Oliveti, sed fere nusquam apparet." 



JERUSALEM. 339 

' Bernard (a.d. 865) says : " In descensu etiamde monte Oliveti ad occidentalem plagam 
ostenditur niarmor, de quo descendit dominus super pullum asina;." 

'The "western" slope of Olivet will not fit in with our stch\ but the fact remains that in 
the ninth century such a stone was shown. 

' M. Ganneau goes on to show that the traditional site of Bethphage was maintained up 
to the seventeenth century. He concludes his paper ("Revue Archreologique," Dec, 1877) 
as follows : " We know, therefore, beyond any doubt, the point where the Crusaders localised 
the episode to which the name of Bethphage is attached. The ruins noticed by M. Guillemot 
not far from the painted stone belong to the Bethphage so-called by the Crusaders. Is this 
mediaeval Bethphage identical with that of the Gospel ? This is a question quite distinct 
from the first. We know how different are opinions on the site of Bethphage. According 
to some who rely on the Greek text of Luke xix. 29, it is placed to the east or the south-east 
of Bethany ; others consider it as identical with the modern village of Silwan ; others, again, 
relying on the authority of the Talmud, make Bethphage a suburb of Jerusalem. For my 
own part, I confess that I ask myself whether Bethphage is not simply the village of the 
Mount of Olives called Kefr et Tur. I believe this village ancient on account of its name of 
Kefr, on account of its situation, and on account of the ancient remains that one sees there. 
Kefr et Tur means the Village of the Mount of Olives ; it may formerly have had a designa- 
tion more personal, which is lost. Now the (}ospel tells us of an ancient locality whose name 
has disappeared ; it is Bethphage, the Village of the Mount of Olives. 

' This hypothesis will enable us to explain and understand certain Talmudic passages, 
which are all clear if one admits that Bethphage marked on the east the boundary of the 
Sabbatic zone which on every side surrounded the city. The Mount of Olives (by which we 
may now understand a particular point of this mount) was exactly a Sabbath-day's journey 
from Jerusalem. And what point could this be except the village of the mountain which 
occupied its principal summit and now bears its name ?" 



'Lieutenant Kitchener's Report. 

' The road from the Mount of Olives to Bethany crosses a narrow ridge of land which 
joins the Mount of Olives to the hill above Bethany. On this narrow strip ancient tradition 
placed the site Bethphage, mentioned (Matt. xxi. i ; Mark xi. i : and Luke xix. 29) as the 
place where our Lord mounted the ass for his triumphal entry into Jerusalem. The remains 
of an ancient chapel have been uncovered, dating probably from the twelfth or thirteenth 
century. 

' In the chapel there is an almost square block of masonry or rock covered with paintings; 
it measures 4 feet 3 inches by 3 feet 6 inches by 3 feet 10 inches high, and its position in the 
chapel is curious — being on the north side, probably between two columns of the nave, as 
seen on the accompanying plan. 

'This square block is supposed to be either an altar, a shrine, or a portion of the rock cut 
out and ornamented, being the exact place where our Lord mounted the ass. 

' The paintings, of which I send you pen-and-ink sketches, are well done, though now 
much disfigured. On the south side is the Raising of Lazarus ; on the north are the 
Disciples Fetching the Ass ; on the east there are a number of persons standing in a row, 
but it is too much disfigured to be recognisable ; on the west there is a niche covered by an 

43—2 



340 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

arch, which was probably supported by two small columns ; below the niche is a i)ortion of 
an inscription still remaining ; several lines have been destroyed. 

' On the top there was also some design and the traces of an inscription. The walls of 
the small chamber to the south were also painted with a design of squares containing circles, 
and the walls of the church were painted in a common pattern. 

' M. Le Capitaine Guillemot was the first to visit these remains, and he has made 
elaborate drawings and copies of the paintings and inscriptions when ever)thing was almost 
perfect. These he is about to publish. He was able to read on different parts of the 
inscription, " Hie est," " Bethphagus," and " Hierusalem." ' 

The Veil of the Temple. 

' In pursuit of the hitherto neglected question of the connection of the Phoenicians with the 
reloi)onnese, I have been led to ascertain the existence in the province of Elis of certain 
facts, customs, and observances which offer a remarkable analogy with wliat we know of the 
Phoenicians, and, particularly, of the Hebrews. I confine myself in this place to a succinct 
enumeration of the principal points, full details of which will appear in my forthcoming work, 
called " Le Dieu Satrape et les T'hcniciens dans le Peloponnese." 

' 1. The Eleans, alone in Greece, cultivated the hyssus, a textile plant the Oriental origin 
of which is incontestable. Pausanias tell us that the Elean byssus was quite equal in fineness 
to the byssus of the " Hebrews." 

' 2. The Eleans were forbidden, for religious reasons, to breed mules ; the same 
interdiction existed for the Jews, as we know. It was based on a passage of Leviticus 
(.\ix. 19). 

' 3. In Elis, near Lepreos, a city whose name is traditionally explained as derived from 
the leprosy which afflicted its earliest itihalntauts, flowed a river anciently called 'lajoaw; — the 
same as Jordan. 

' But it is especially at Olympia, the famous theatre of the Olympic games which have 
given Elis so considerable a place in Greece, that we are presented with points which strike 
us at once as resembling observances of Semitic religion. 

' 4. Anointings with oil were practised on the celebrated statue of Olympian Zeus (to 
preserve the ivory, says Pausanias). 

'5. In the temple of Olympian Zeus were certain I3u,u,cil, held in extreme veneration, 
formed by the accumulation of the ashes of victims, and exactly similar to the deposits of 
ashes coming from the altar of Jehovah — deposits regarded as sacred (Leviticus i. 16, iv. 12 ; 
I Kings xiii. 3 ; 2 Mace. xiii. 8). 

' 6. The women of Elis were absolutely forbidden to penetrate into the sanctuaries of 
Olympia : they were not to pass beyond a certain limit. This is parallel with the Court of 
Women. The women of Elis were also forbidden to be present at the Olympic games and 
to cross the waters of the Alpheus at certain periods, the whole under pain of death. This 
idea of woman's constitutional impurity, this implacable penalty which sanctioned it, are 
traits essentially Semitic. 

' 7. The women of Elis, thus kept apart, had ceremonies of their own, on the other hand, 
which seem based on those of the Phoenicians, those mourners for Adonis and for the solar 
Tammuz whom Ezekiel (viii. 14) shows us in the very Temple of Jehovah. " At a certain 
season,'' says Pausanias, " at the moment of the setting sun, the women of Elis went to weep 



JERUSALEM. 34i 

round the empty sepulchre of him whom they called Achilles " — a fabulous Achilles, an 
Achilles sprung from some Oriental kmviasiLoc, rather than from Homeric tradition. 

' 8. At Olympia, near the Temple of Hera, sixteen women were employed in weaving the 
peplos of the goddess, just as the women wove the sacred tents for Asherah in the Temple of 
Jehovah (2 Kings xxiii. 7 ; Ezek. xvi. 16). 

' 9. At Olympia also was adored the singular Zsi: Ato/xl/zoc, whose literal prototype is found 
in Baalzebub, or BaaX /iuTa of Ekron (2 Kings i, 2, 3, 16). 

' 10. Finally, there was in the sanctuary of Olympia a great woollen veil, of Assyrian 
workmanship, dyed with the Phoenician purple, given by Antiochus, and executed, perliaps, 
on the same plan as that great veil of the Temple, of Babylonian texture, the marvels of which 
have been described by Josephus. 

' I even venture to ask whether this veil of the Olympian Temple might not have been 
the very veil of the Temple of Jerusalem carried off by Antiochus lY., the grand pillager of 
temples. 

' This conjecture may appear rash at first sight. There are, however, certain facts which 
seem to me to lend to it a high degree of probability. 

'The first book of Maccabees (i. 23, 24) informs us that Antiochus took away from the 
Holy City " the golden altar, and the candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof, and the 
table of the shewbread . . . and the veil {ro xaTaTriras/Ma) . . ." This is confirmed by 
Josephus, according to whom Antiochus " did not spare even the veils made of fine linen and 
scarlet" ("Antiq. Jud.," xii. 5, 2). 

' Pausanias said that Antiochus dedicated {a./ei)rixsv) his oriental veil in the Temple of 
Olympia. 

' It was the custom to adorn temples with similar trophies. 

' But there is more. 

' Pausanias minutely explains that the ira^avi-aaij.u, or curtain of the sanctuary of Olympia, 
in place of rising up to the roof as, for instance, that of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, 
was dropped to the ground from above by means of ropes. He might have spared himself a 
good deal of trouble by stating at once that it was not a na^a.'Kirasij.a, but a y.aTa'xiTa.aiJ.a 
(down-curtain), i.e., he might have used the word always employed by Josephus and in the 
texts of the Maccabees to designate the Jewish veil. St. Matthew also says that the veil 
(nuraTirag^u.u) was rent, amdsv tdi; xdriii. 

' Again, to whom did Antiochus dedicate the Temple of Jerusalem — plundered and 
defiled by him? To Olympian Zeus {2 Mace. vi. 2). AVe need not be astonished, therefore, 
if he hung up the veil of the Jewish Temple in that of the Olympian Zeus. Are not always 
the spoils of the conquered deities consecrated to the victorious deities ? (Cf the sacred 
utensils of Jehovah consecrated to Chemosh by Mesha, King of Moab.) 

' If the veil of the Olympian and that of the Jewish Temple are identical instead of being 
similar, the argument which I thought to draw from an analogy to establish an affinity must 
be set aside. On the other hand, we obtain a result important in quite another way. There 
are not two objects to be compared, but two deities placed side by side. 

' I think the foregoing reflections are of a kind to draw special attention to the excava- 
tions now being conducted at Olympia. Should, for instance, any discovery be made bearing 
upon Syrian rites, religions, and antiquities, I for one should not be surprised.' 



PART II. 



NOMENCLATURE ROUND JERUSALEM. 



I . Wady Unim cl 'Anab (or Wady cs Sam.'ir). 
;. ^Vady cl I lamarah. 

3. 'Ain cl ^^^do\verall. 

4. Ri'is cs Sillim. 

5. Riis cl NLndbasch. 

6. Ard cs Saniar. 

7. R.is cl Mcsharif (Scopus). 

8. Bir cl Mcsharif. 
g. Ras .'\bu Halawi. 

10. Khallet cl 'Ajiiz. 

1 1. 'Ain cs Suwan. 

1 2. Ras Umm et Tal'a. 

13. 'Akabet es Suwan. 

14. Bir el Ka'ah. 

15. Kijsr el Kiitb. 

16. Kiisr esh Shehabi. 

17. Kusr el Khatib. 

18. Kiisr el Ka'ah. 

19. Kiisr el Mufti. 

zo. Bir eth Thogherah. 

21. Bir Zeitunat el Haweileh. 

22. Bir er Rasasyeh. 

23. Sheikh Jernih. 

24. 'Akabet Sheikh Jerrah. 

25. Bir el Yehudiych (and Tomb of Simon 

the Just). 

26. Bir Sheikh Jerrah (in Court of 23). 

27. Tombs of the Judges (or Sanhedrin). 

28. Kabur es Salatan (Helena's Tomb). 

29. Rujni el Kehakir. 

30. Mugharet el 'Anab. 

31. Sheikh Kamir. 

32. El Muskobiyeh (Russian buildings). 

33. St. Stephen's (Ruins). 

34. El Heidhemiyeh (Place of Execution). 

35. Kurm csh Sheikh. 

36. Bir el Hinvarah. 

37. Bir cl Kos. 

38. Birket ^L^milla. 

39. Birket es Sultan. 

40. Deir es Salib (Convent of the Cross). 

41. Khallet et Tarhah. 

42. Khiirbet el Bedr. 

43. Khurbet es Salah. 

44. Khallet cl Kusab. 

45. Bir Abu Shalbek. 

46. Kurm Ahmed. 

47. Ras en Nadr. 

48. Kusr el Kurmeh. 

49. AVady Umm Ahmed. 

50. Kusr Ishenar (Schneller's Orphanage). 



51. Sheikh Bedr. 

52. Khurbet cl Khamis. 

53. \Vady el Wely. 

54. Khtirbet el KhazGk. 

55. El Hawich. 

56. Jebel Deir Abu Tor (Mount of Evil 

Counsel). 

57. Sheikh Ahmed et Toreh (at 56). 

58. Bir Eyiib. 

59. Wady Kadiim. 

60. Bir el Khulil. 

61. Wady Deir es Sonneik. 

62. Batn el Howa. 

63. Sheikh Selman el Farsi. 

64. Kefr et Tor (Village, and Church of 

Ascension). 

65. Russian House on Olivet. 

66. Pater Noster Chapel. 

67. New Convent of the Latins. 

68. Tombs of the Prophets. 

69. Bethphage Chapel. 

70. Jebel et Tor (Mount of Olives). 

71. El K'adi (where Christ sat). 

72. Riis Mesa'adet Sidna 'Aisa. 

73. Ahbal el Kibrit. 

74. Kubr Sitti Miriam (Virgin's Tomb). 

75. El Khelweh (the Hermitage). 

76. Gethsemane. 

77. Wady es Sahel. 

78. Sihvan (the village of Siloam). 

79. 'Ain Umm ed Deraj (En Rogel and 

Gihon). 

80. Tantiir Fer'on (Absolom's Pillar) 

81. 'Ain Sihvan (Pool of Siloam). 

82. Neby Daiid (the Ccenaculum). 
S3. Wady en Nar (Kedron). 

84. Wady et Rababeh (Hinnom). 

85. Hiimmam Tubariya (Protestant 

Cemetery). 

86. Wady Tubl (by 61). 

87. Khurbet Abu W'air. 

88. Sheikh el Mensi. 

89. Almshouses for Jews. 

90. Zahweileh (Zoheleth at 78). 

91. Rujiim el Behimeh (near north-east). 

92. 'Akabet el Ghuzlan (near last). 

93. Kubbet el 'Abd (by 38). 

94. Birket es Sitti Miriam. 

95. 'Arak et Tireh. 

96. Hakk ed Dumm (south of 84) Aceldama. 




nLtinl.yrool<?Tjcty SSujiIiui 



Jerusalem and its Environs 
IN 1882. 
Slio>mig tlie Ai-aLic Noiiieuclature and New Bii'ildui^s 

Scale 2 Iuc]ies=lMile. 



PART II. 

THE ENVIRONS OF JERUSALEM. 

The following descriptions refer to the exploration of places outside the 
walls of modern Jerusalem which have been examined and planned down 
to the year 1882. 

The complete Arabic nomenclature of this area, which is comprised 
within the limits of the Ordnance Survey Plan of the environs of 
Jerusalem (scale toouu), will be found in the volume of the name lists 
(pp. 313 — 320). The nomenclature outside the city was collected by 
Captain Conder's Survey Party in the summer of 1S74. Those names 
which have no archa;ologIcal value are omitted in the present paper. 

'AiN SiLWAN. 

The modern Arabic name of the Pool of Siloam, which is, however, 
not properly speaking a spring, but a tank fed by the great aqueduct 
from the Virgin's Fountain ('Ain Umm ed Deraj), and having an 
intermittent supply consequent on the intermittent How of that spring. 
Josephus (5 Wars iv. i) also calls Siloam a fountain, but in the Bible 
it is called a pool (Neh. iil. 15). The present pool consists of modern 
masonry, measuring 55 feet north and south, by 18 feet east and 
west, and having Its bottom at a level 2,086 feet above the Mediter- 
ranean. The average depth is 20 feet, and on the north an archway 
5 feet wide appears, leading to a small vault 12 feet long, In which is 
a descent from the level of the top of the pool to the level of the channel 

44 



346 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

supplyini,^ il. This vault is modern, and the old nioulh of the rock-cut 
channel has been stopped up on the east side of the present pool, the 
water now beinij admitted further west under the vault. The recent 
explorations of Dr. Guthe prove that the Pool of Siloam was originally 
much larger and cut in rock. On the east it probably extended to the 
present rocky scarp, in which a channel is now cut communicating with 
the old pool, formed by a strong masonry dam below the Pool of Siloam, 
at the mouth of the Tyropa^on, where it opens into the Kedron valley. 
The date of the masonry of this dam, which is about a hundred yards 
south-east of the Pool of Siloam, is unknown ; but it is extremely massive, 
and probably of great antiquity. The present Pool of Siloam is, in fact, 
a small area kept open by the modern retaining walls in the middle of 
the great ancient rock-cut pool, which has been filled up with rubbish. 
The extent of the original pool cannot be ascertained without further 
e.Kcavation. Doctor Guthe's explorations appear, however, to indicate an 
original width for the pool of about 95 feet east and west. 

The tunnel which connects the Pool of Siloam with the Virgin's 
Fount has been passed through by Dr. Robinson and Colonels Wilson 
and Warren, and recently revisited (in 18S1) by Captain Conder and 
Lieutenant Mantell. It was in this tunnel that an ancient Hebrew 
inscription was accidentally discovered in 1880, by some Jewish boys 
who were attempting to go through the tunnel. The inscription is 
incised on a rock tablet about 5 yards from the mouth of the channel. 
The tablet is about 27 inches square, and the inscription, in six lines, 
occupies the lower portion, the top of the tablet being only about a yard 
above the bottom of the channel, which is here some 2 feet wide and 
I I feet high. The tablet is on the right hand of an explorer entering the 
tunnel from the Siloam end. 

The new inscription was reported by 1 lerr K. Schick, and visited early 
in 188 1 by Professor A. H. Sayce, who translated the text. The clear- 
ness of the inscription was much improved by Doctor Guthe, who, in the 
same year, washed the tablet with a weak acid solution, dissolving the 
deposit of lime which had formed in the incised characters, but without 
injuring the hard, smooth rock in which they are cut. 

The doubtful letters of the text were carefully examined by Captain 
Conder and Lieutenant Mantell ; and Professor Sayce was thus enabled 





00 






00 






■*" 






>-' 


iii 




_i 




z 


—J 


q: 


o 


X 


_i 


— 


LU 


a. 


Z 


Z 
< 


q: 


< 


n 


o 


h- 


z 

< 


CO 


lJ 




2 


N 
LU 


LU 


_^ 


LU 


n 




.D 


p 




U 


o 


2 


CO 


o 


< 


< 


CO 


O 


5 

O 

rr 


1- 


-J 


lU 


— 


LL 


-1 


CO 


o 


>- 




z 


tu 




o 






< 






on 






h- 





^^/ 



/V// 



V 



■ ////- -- 



CH' >{ 



/ 






■^ 















^ 



«^ 










\J 



^\ ^. 



4 

<^'^ ^ ^ 






JERUSALEM. 347 

to improve his original rendering in a few points. The final result of 
these various labours is the transliteration and translation of Professor 
Sayce given beneath. A cast of the inscription in plaster of Paris was 
obtained by Captain Conder for the Palestine Exploration Society, 
and is remarkably successful, giving even the most obscure letters very 
faithfully. 

TRANSLITERATION OF THE TEXT. 

First line. 

fy ----- - niya • nnpj ■ n . ini • 'r:r\ ■ nn • r\2p} - - 

Second line. 

• p^a -hp - - - - rh ■ nz:x ■ ii^'bc^ ■ niym • lyn ■ ha ■ trx • jn: • n 

Third line. 

• n n^2 ■ "1 p'j^ ■ -1^:: • mi • n*n • o • iyi • ha a - 

Fourth line. 

laSn • jnj ■ h^ ■ |n: • lyi rrnpS ■ ua ■ CDnvnn • i^n • nnp3 

Fifth line. 
Sixth line. 

• - - • n5f n n • ti^xn Sy > "iifn • n^i ■ n^r^ ■ n&x • n 

This transliteration depends on a careful comparison of the copies of 
Professor Sayce and Doctor Guthe with the cast. The following is the 
translation by Professor A. H. Sayce: 

(i) (Behold) the excavation. Novv this (is) the history of the tunnel: while the excavators 
were still lifting up 

(2) The pick towards each other, and while there were yet three cubits (to be broken 
through) . . . the voice of the one called 

(3) To his neighbour, for there was an (?) c.xass in the rock on the right. They rose 
up . . . they struck on the west of the 

(4) E.xcavation ; the excavators struck, each to meet the other, pick to pick. And there 
flowed 

(5) The waters from their outlet to the Pool for a thousand two hundred cubits ; and (?) 

(6) of a cubit, was the height of the rock over the head of the excavators . . . 

44—2 



348 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



As regards ihc date of this inscription, Professor Isaac Taylor points 
out that the Koph and Tsadi approximate to the sixth centviry forms of the 
Eshmunazar sarcophagus, and the Alcph and Mim are like those of the 
seventh century Phoenician inscription of Abu Simbel. The inscription 
thus appears to belong to the later period of the Hebrew monarchy, and 
may very well be considered to agree with the Biblical account of 
Hezekiah's preparations for Sennacherib's siege (Ecclus. xlviii. 17, and 
2 Chron. xx.xii. 30). Professor Sayce, comparing the alphabet of the 
inscription with those given by Euting, stated that the text must belong 
to the period between the eighth and sixth centuries B.C. He has, 
however, subsequently proposed to recognise the inscription as being as 
old as the time of Solomon. 

The various discussions which arose concerning this text before an 
accurate ca.st and copy of the letters had been obtained need not here be 
noticed. The general accuracy of Professor Sayce's first translation was 
confirmed by the subsequent copies of the inscription. 

ALPHABET OF THE SILOAM INSCRIPTION. 



-F ' 


K 


B 


a 


1 


7 


A 


T 


% 


n 


^ 
"n:* 


1 


-* > 


9 

n 




IP 


1^ 


s 


^6 





Resembles the form on some of tlie Jewish coins. 

As on Moabite stone. 

As on Moabite stone, nearly. 

As on Moabite stone. 

As on Moabite stone. 

Approaches the Samaritan form. 
Approaches the form on Moabite stone. 

Three bars as on Jewish coins. 
]]'a>!tiiig, as also on Moabite stone. 
As on Moabite stone. 

As on Moabite stone. 

As on Moabite stone, but ver)' long. 



JERUSALEM. 



349 



J 

V 

y 
w 



As in Phcenician of seventh century. 

As on Moabitc stone and on coins. 

Wanting. 

As on Moabite stone, 

Approaches the form on Moabite stone. 

Peculiar, but well-defined. 

Peculiar. Appro.\imates to sixth century form. 

As on Moabite stone. 
As on Moabite stone. 
As on Moabite stone. 



The following remarks on the doubtful parts of the text were sent 
home by Captain Conder in August, 1881, before Professor Sayce's final 
translation of the inscription was published : — 

' Our method was to produce ■^^ facsimile founded on a careful squeeze, and distinguishing 
the sculptured strokes from natural cracks or dents, by pencilling the former on the squeeze 
itself. We then compared the whole again with the text, reading letter by letter, and throwing 
the light on each letter in turn from every side. 

'The text consists of six lines, occupying a space of 23 inches by 7 J inches, on the lower 
half of the tablet. The letters are from half an inch to three-quarters of an inch in height. The 
first and second lines are injured on the right, and a large deep crack extends all down the 
tablet near the left hand extremity, breaking the three upper lines, and partly mutilating the 
fourth. The first line is illegible to the left of this fissure, the surface being rough and 
covered with cracks. The fifth line does not extend the whole length of the longer lines, 
occupying only about 16 inches. 

'There appear to have been originally about 190 letters, of which 170 are now more or 
less clearly recoverable. The text is thus not quite as closely written as the famous Marseilles 
tablet. The letters are carefully formed, and some of the minor peculiarities, such as the 
small hooks at the right hand extremities of the two horizontal strokes of the Zain, are 
repeated in each repetition of the letter. The size of each letter is also much the same on 
each repetition ; the vertical lines are broad, but not deep, the horizontal strokes are narrow, 
but very sharply cut. 

'AVe revisited, on the 4th August, 18S1, the rock-cut channel, and again spent three hours 
in examining the te.xt. 



350 TJIE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' The result is that after several independent readings, we do not feel able to make any 
alteration in the copy which I sent home on the 19th ult., with the exception of one doubtful 
letter in the first line. It seems to us that this copy may be taken as representing all the 
letters clearly traceable in the present condition of the inscription ; and although, when 
guided by Professor Saycc's copy, we were able in some cases to distinguish traces of other 
letters, we were not always able to make these agree entirely with the forms which he has given. 

' \Ve arc able only to add one letter to those given by I'rofessor Sayce, namely a Koph, 
which appears pretty distinctly at the end of the second line. We still are obliged to omit 
twelve letters which are no longer traceable (to our eyes), and our co])y differs in eighteen 
letters from that of Professor Sayce, notably in two passages which occur in the third and the 
sixth lines. It must be remembered that I speak of the present condition of the text, as we 
had no opportunity of examining it very minutely before it was cleaned with acid. Dr. 
Guthe's copy, taken before this operation was performed, may, however, show letters not now 
traceable, although, as far as we can judge, the inscription has not been in any way damaged 
by the removal of the lime deposit. 

' In our recent visit we were obliged to stand each for an hour and a half knee-deep in 
water ; and we could not but admire the accuracy of Professor Sayce's results, obtained under 
conditions even more unfavourable than those of our last visit. His published copy is, 
however, not a facsimile, the spaces between the letters not being always the same as those 
given by the squeeze, and the form of many of the characters not being exactly that given by 
the text. The inscription occupies a space 23 inches long by 8 inches in height, the top 
being 14 inches from the upper surface of the tablet, and the bottom of the sixth line 5 inches 
above the lower border of the tablet, which is 2 7 inches square. 

' As regards the forms of the letters, I may add a few notes to those in my former com- 
munication. 

'The Akph is written throughout in a uniform manner, and the shape does not appear 
to us to be exactly that given by Professor Sayce, which resembles the Aleph of the Moabite 
Stone, but rather the form of an inverted F with a spur — such as is found on Jewish coins. 

' The Van appears also to be written throughout with a head formed by three strokes. 
We are unable to find a single instance in which the head of the letter remains, and in which 
only two strokes occur. In all the best preserved specimens the central stroke has at the end 
a cross stroke or shoe, which makes it specially conspicuous. 

' The Zain — as now seen very clearly — has also a uniform character, and is not formed 
as shown on Professor Sayce's copy, no curved line occurring to join the horizontal bars. 
The hooks at the right-hand end of these latter I have already noticed in a former letter. 

' The Tzadi al.so does not seem to be formed as shown in Professor Sayce's copy. The 
letter is only found five times on the inscription, and in three cases it is imperfect. In the 
two perfect instances there is no loop joining the bars, but the latter resembles a W inverted 
with shoes. 

' These peculiarities have no doubt become clearer since the inscrijition was cleaned. 
The length of the stroke of the Lamed, and its inclined position, are also details which seem 
worthy of notice. 

' The form of the Mem is also an important consideration. The cro,ss strokes are very 
sharply cut, and although at a first glance the letters seem to have a W form for the head, 
yet when minutely examined they all prove to be cut with a bar and cross strokes. The 
Niin is also formed in a similar manner throughout. 



JERUSALEM. 35' 

' We may now proceed to consider the differences which appear in the copy made from a 
squeeze by Lieutenant Mantell and myself, as compared with Professor Sayce's copy. The 
results, which are given below, are derived from four independent readings of the inscriptions, 
two taken by me, and two by Lieutenant Mantell. The position of the letters in our tracing 
recently sent home is obtained by means of the squeeze, and this serves in one or two 
instances to check the readings, and to determine the number of letters missing with tolerable 
certitude. 

'■ First Line. — At the commencement of the inscription the original surface of the rock is 
still preserved, though somewhat cracked. The first Nun is very imperfect, and we were 
quite unable to trace any distinct letters preceding it, though indications of what may have 
been a He might be conjectured to exist. 

' It is very doubtful whether one or two dots follow the word H^pJ- There are so many 
small holes in the stone that the dots between the words are in a great many cases very 
doubtful. 

' The DaletJi in the word ^131 is not very clear, but its form and size resemble those of the 
Dahtli immediately beneath it in the second line, the horizontal stroke being very slightly 
curved. 

' The reading Tiy^ given by Professor Sayce appears to us to be still legible, but the third 
letter only is distinct, being a large and well-formed Van. The first and fourth letters seem 
to be unusually small. 

'The Vau at the end of the line has no head, and never apparently had one, the rock 
being quite smooth. We thought that we could distinguish traces of Lamed and Ain pre- 
ceding it, as read by Professor Sayce, but their existence seems extremely problematical. 
There is room for two such letters, but to the right of them is a hole, and we were 
unable to trace the Betli shown by Professor Sayce immediately to the left of the great 
crack. 

' AVith these exceptions, the reading of the text in this line is remarkably clear, and (save 
as to the form of the letters) is the same as given by Professor Sayce. Our copy, however, 
supports Mr. Filter's reading H^pJ, and after carefully re-examining the first letter of this 
word, we felt sure that it could never have been a Mem. 

' Second Line. — The traces of a LLe will be found in our copy at the beginning of this 
line, and after minute examination, we were able to find the remains of a Gimel following it, 
and to distinguish a Resli, well formed, but much worn, to the left — thus confirming the 
reading |T"lJn- The last two letters and the dot are quite clear. 

' After the word ly^, there is a dot and a very clear Vau. Between this and the Daleth 
there is room for two large or for three smaller letters — as shown by Professor Sayce. The 
letters which he shows we were, however, unable to recognise, and the first two seemed to us 
most to approach y;^, though so indistinct and confused by cracks as to be very doubtful. 
There would also seem to be the tail of a letter J/cw, Nun, CaJ>/i, or Fe to the left of those 
two. 

' The He in the word AmaJi is, as I have previously noted, almost indistinguishable, from 
a crack in the rock. The next two letters are clear, but beyond these, where Professor Sayce 
shows nSi we are only able to trace what looks like the head of a Vau, and the loop of either 
a Betli or a Resh following it. 

' Beyond the great crack in this line, there is a Koph as shown by Professor Sayce, and to 
the right of this three strokes, which seem most probably to have belonged to an Alepli. 



352 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'Ihc Lamed :Skq.x the Koph seems to us quite clear, as well as the ,S///'« and the second Koph 
with a dot after it (the last letter is not given by Professor Sayce). 

' In all the distinct and several of the doubtful letters of this line, we are therefore able to 
confirm the readings of Professor Sayce. 

' Third Line. — The first Aleph should be preceded by a Beth, but there is now a small 
deep hole in the rock where this letter (marked as doubtful by Professor Sayce) would have 
occurred, and no trace of it is visible. 

' After the distinct word iy"1 we make a great difference from previous copies. It is to be 
hoped that our reading may render the translation of this puzzling passage easier. The 
words, according to us, should stand m' • T\''T\ ■ O • "lyi- The Cff/Z/and the K7</seem very 
clear. The double stop after the Tau is not, however, very certain. Lieutenant Mantell was 
inclined to think that an Aiii might have existed here, which Professor Sayce also shows with 
a query. The Dakth in the last word of the group is also not quite certain. There is a 
horizontal stroke beneath it, but the rock is smooth and well preserved, and no trace of a 
vertical stroke exists. Nor would the shape of the Beth thus formed, if it existed, be the 
same as that of other Betlis in the inscription. 

' Professor Sayce has divided the letters IJi^^ further on in this line into two words by a 

dot, but we were unable to make certain of this division. The two letters which follow are 
much defaced, and the rock is covered with a network of small cracks in this part, which 
would make the cast almost entirely unintelligible. I was inclined to think that I could trace 
the Koph shown by Professor Sayce, and that it may have been followed by a Beth. Lieu- 
tenant Mantell would, however, give a Resh, with part of the tail of another letter. 

' Beyond the great crack on the left, we read with Mr. Piker nS'^l ; and after a very close 
examination we could clearly determine that the last letter but one is not a Nun, but certainly 
a Mem, with the horizontal stroke and cross-bars. The only letter which we are unable to dis- 
tinguish to the right of this word looks like the remains of an Ahph. There may have been 
a Lamed between this and the Vati, but we regard both these letters as highly problematical. 
There is room for a third letter before the Vau. 

'^ Fourth Line. — The second word is read I^H by Professor Sayce; but the first letter of 
the word seems to us clearly to be a lie and not a Cheth. There is a deep crack in the stone 
at this point, which, before the deposit was removed, would have given the left stroke of the 
Cheth, but as now seen, it appears to be clearly a natural and not a sculptured line. The 
surface of the stone being uninjured, we could ascertain that there had never been any 
" horn " on the left at the end of the bars of the He. 

' By the aid of the copy we are able to distinguish the Ain preceding the Lamed in the 
sentence n"lJ • 71? • HIJl- The first Zain is, however, imperfect, and the second G^mt/ cannot 
be distinguished. The Vau succeeding these words is fairly clear, but only the middle 
stroke of the head can be seen, with its characteristic shoe on the end of the stroke. The 
final Vau at the end of the line we could not see clearly, but a trace of its vertical stroke may 
perhaps be recognised. 

' Fifth Line. — The second Mem has the same form as all the others in the text. We are 
quite unable to find any remains of the Kc^/ given by Professor Sayce in Xi*lJ3, nor does there 
seem to be any s|)ace for it between the Tzadi and the Aleph. The Tau in TlXM seems to 
us to be very doubtful, though strokes exist which may have belonged to such a letter. It 
should be noted that between this word and the next there is more space than is shown in 



JERUSALEM. 353 

Professor Sayce's copy. The dot is at some distance from the Yod, but even then there is 
fully room for another letter before the Akpli. The surface of the rock is, however, injured in 
this place. The last two letters of this line appear to us to read il, though the last may be 
Mem, as it is very imperfect and indistinct. 

' Sixth Line. — The third letter read Chcth by Professor Sayce is very indistinct, and may 
have been a LLe. The letters T\'^T\ appear to us to be now quite distinct, and unmistakable, 
although Professor Sayce reads quite differently. The letters H^T also seem to us to be dis- 
tinct, and the letter which follows seems more probably a LLc than a Clielh. The Tzadi 
which follows is imperfect, and the Resh or Beth next in order cannot be read as now 
seen. The final letter of the inscription should apparently be Beth, but the surface of 
the rock is here so damaged as to make it impossible to distinguish any of the three letters 
which Professor Sayce places after the last Tzadi, for there is a hole in the stone at this 
point. 

' Such is a summary of our observations, which have been pursued entirely without con- 
sideration of anything beyond the present appearance of the text. The main results which 
seem likely to be of some service are those which concern the forms of the letters, and the 
difficult readings of the third and sixth lines.' 

It will be noticed that most of the alterations suggested in this report 
have been adopted by Professor Sayce. 

As regards the length of the aqueduct mentioned in the inscription, it 
should be remarked that Professor Sayce has finally agreed to the trans- 
lation, which gives a total of 1,200 cubits. The actual length of the 
tunnel is about 1,760 feet from the Virgin's Spring to Siloam. A distance 
of 1,200 cubits of 16 inches would measure 1,600 feet, and 18 inches 
gives 1,800 feet. We may thus, perhaps, obtain a rough approximation 
for the Jewish cubit. 

The church over the Pool of Siloam, mentioned by Antony of Piacenza 
(600 A.D.), may perhaps account for the two pillar stumps standing in the 
modern pool. The intermittent flow of Siloam is mentioned by the 
Bordeaux Pilgrim and by Jerome in the fourth century. The tunnel to the 
Virgin's Fountain is described by Ouaresmius in 1625 a.d. A certain 
Pater Julius had passed through it a few years earlier. Doctor Robinson 
explored the channel in 1S38 a.d. ('Biblical Researches,' i. 338). The 
following is the account given by Colonel Warren of his examination of 
the aqueduct : 

' The question of the origin of the Virgin's Fount aqueduct is a very interesting one ; it 
appears to me to have been constructed in the following manner : 

' First, an intermittent fountain on the west side of the Kedron issuing into the valley. 
When the Assyrians were expected by King Hezekiah, the fountains outside the city were 

45 



354 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



stopped and the water brought inside. Tiiis applies completely to this fountain, for \vc find a 
canal cut in the rock leading due west till it is well under the hill of Ophcl, then a shaft down 
to this canal with a place scooped out at bottom for water to lie in, and an iron ring at top 
to tic the rope of the bucket to ; leading from this shaft is a great corridor cut in the rock ; 
and then also a staircase leading up until it is under a vaulted roof, the exit being on the hill 
of Ophel, a few feet from the ridge, and almost certainly within the ancient walls. Below the 
vaulted roof is another rock-cut shaft shown on the illustration, but this was only examined to 
a depth of about 35 feet. 

' Ai)parcntly after this had been in use for some time, it was considered insufficient for the 



'. ; 




sujjply of the city, as the receiving hole at the bottom of the shaft is so small and the corridor 
so confined for a large number of people ; and so a rock-cut channel was cut through tlie hill 
1,700 feet long, to carry the water into the Pool of Hezekiah, which already received the over- 
flow water from the Gihon Pools. This pool was probably without the wall, but being at the 
mouth of the valley it would be surrounded on three sides by the outer wall, and would thus 
be as secure for the people as though it were inside ; at the same time it would act as a wet 
ditch to protect a very vulnerable part of the fortress. This passage from the Virgin's Fountain 
to Siloam has been examined by several gentlemen, but to most of them some accident 
hajjpened, so that only measurements were taken. Le Frere Lievin (author of the very 



JERUSALEM. 355 

useful French Guide to the Holy Land) apparently took angles with an ordinary compass, 
and I found his plan of the canal, which he lent mc to compare with mine, to be very 
correct. 

' In the month of December, 1867, I made a thorough examination and survey of the 
passage leading from the Virgin's Fount to Siloam. V/e entered from the Siloam end, so as 
to have as much clean work as possible. For the first 350 feet it was very plain sailing ; the 
height of the passage sloping down from 16 feet at entrance to 4 feet 4 inches ; the width 
being 2 feet ; the direction a wavy line to the east. At 450 feet the height of passage was 
reduced to 3 feet 9 inches, and here we found a shaft leading upwards apparently to the open 
air. This might be made use of to great advantage by the owners of the soil overhead. From 
this shaft the passage takes a north-easterly direction, and at 600 feet is only 2 feet 6 inches 
high. Our difficulties now commenced. Sergeant Birtles, with a Fellah, went ahead, 
measuring with tape, while I followed with compass and field-book. The bottom is a soft 
silt, with a calcareous crust at top, strong enough to bear the human weight, except in a few 
places, where it let us in with a flop. Our measurements of height were taken from the top 
of this crust, as it now forms the bottom of the acjueduct; the mud silt is from 15 inches 
to 18 inches deep. We were now crawling on all fours, and thought we were getting on 
very pleasantly, the water being only 4 inches deep, and we were not wet higher than our 
hips. Presently bits of cabbage-stalks came floating by, and we suddenly awoke to the fact 
that the waters were rising. The Virgin's Fount is used as a sort of scullery to the Silwan 
village, the refuse thrown there being carried off down the passage each time the water 
rises. The rising of the waters had not been anticipated, as they had risen only two hours 
previous to our entrance. At 850 feet the height of the channel was reduced to i foot 
ID inches, and here our troubles began. The water was running with great violence, i foot 
in height, and we, crawling full length, were up to our necks in it. 

' I was particularly embarrassed : one hand necessarily wet and dirty, the other holding 
a pencil, compass, and field-book ; the candle for the most part in my mouth. Another 
50 feet brought us to a place where we had regularly to run the gauntlet of the waters. 
The passage being only i foot 4 inches high, we had just 4 inches breathing space, and had 
some difficulty in twisting our necks round properly. When observing, my mouth was under 
water. At 900 feet we came upon two false cuttings, one on each side of the aqueduct. 
They go in for about 2 feet each. I could not discover any appearance of their being 
passages : if they are, and are stopped up for any distance, it will be next to impossible to 
clear them out in such a place. Just here I involuntarily swallowed a portion of my lead 
pencil, nearly choking for a minute or two. We were now going in a zigzag direction 
towards the north-west, and the height increased to 4 feet 6 inches, which gave us a little 
breathing space; but at 1,050 feet we were reduced to 2 feet 6 inches, and at 1,100 feet we 
were again crawling with a height of only i foot 10 inches. We should probably have 
suffered more from the cold than we did, had not our risible faculties been excited by the 
sight of our Fellah in front plunging and puffing through the water like a young grampus. 
At 1,150 feet the passage again averaged in height 2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches; at 1,400 we 
heard the same sound of water dripping as described by Captain AVilson, the Rev. Dr. 
]>arclay, and others. I carefully looked backwards and forwards, and at last found a fault 
in the rock, where the water was gurgling, but whether rushing in or out I could not 
ascertain. At 1,450 feet we commenced turning to the east, and the passage attained a 

45—2 



3S<5 TIFF. SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

height of 6 feet; at 1,658 feet we came upon our old friend, the passage leading to the 
Ophcl shaft, and, after a further advance of 50 feet, to the Virgin's Fount Our candles 
were just l)econiing exhausted, and the last three angles I could not take very exactly. 
There were fifty-seven stations of the compass. AVhen we came out it was dark, and we had 
to stand shivering for some minutes before our clothes were brought us ; we were nearly four 
hours in the water. I find a difTcrence of 42 feet between my measurements and those of 
Dr. Robinson, but if he took the length of the Virgin's Fount into account, wc shall very 
nearly agree. 

'The discover)' of a shaft leading down to the water of the Virgin's Fount threw 
considerable light upon the object of the rock-cut canal leading from that fountain to the 
Pool of Siloam, and proved that it could not have been constructed for the purpose of 
conducting away the refuse and blood from the Temple.' 

The following is the report sent home by Captain Conder of his visits 
to the aqueduct on the loth and 22nd November, 1881 : 

'Jerusalem, \st December, 1881. 
' The details recorded in the Siloam inscription concerning the great conduit, seemed to 
render it expedient to revisit the channel, in order to search for the point of junction between 
the two working parties, as well as to ascertain whether any other inscribed tablets might 
exist in other parts of the tunnel, or whether any marks connected with original measurements 
might remain. 



^sraaTKB? 'Wi^t^^^' _'f!^ iks^ar' 5!sSiS„... .'fcsxi®^ 



B e «« 109 XM 300 ^co 5O0IV4 ^ 

I— L— ^ .-^1 I 1 I ' 

' Lieutenant Mantell, Mr. Armstrong, and I therefore visited the tunnel on the loth 
November, and spent nearly five hours in it, crawling from one end to the other, and 
measuring carefully, with a chain and a prismatic compass, the whole length between the 
Tool of Siloam and the upper spring (En Rogel, Gihon in the Valley, Bethesda, 'Ain Umm 
ed Deraj, or the Virgin's Fountain, as it is variously called). 

' We found less difficulty than Captain Warren experienced, because the level of the water 
has been lowered, and the overflow of the upper spring does not occur often in autumn. We 
were nevertheless very anxious while employed in the central section of the tunnel, where the 
height is only about 1 9 inches for some 20 yards, the breadth being only about 2 feet : for if 
the waters were to rise here (when the overflow occurs) to a height of little over a foot, it 
would be almost impossible to escape drowning. We were unable to ascertain when the 
water was expected to rise, or the height to which it attains ; but fortunately no overflow 
took place during the five hours which wc spent in the tunnel, and we suflered only from the 
discomforts of mud and leeches and wet clothing, with the fatigue due to crawling so long in 
a cramped position, occasionally over stones or sharp fragments of broken pottery. 



JERUSALEM. 357 

' The measurement which we obtained with a chain (afterwards corrected by the standard) 
gives a total length of i,7o6'S feet between the Siloam end of the tunnel and the place where 
it enters the cross passage to the Virgin's Pool, thus agreeing within i -2 feet with Colonel 
Warren's total of 1,708 feet, and proving that his conjecture as to Robinson's measurement 
must be correct, and that the latter authority includes in his total of 1,758 feet that portion 
of the cross passage which leads from the Siloam tunnel to the back of the Virgin's Pool, and 
which measures 50-8 feet by the chain. 

'The accompanying plan will be found to agree with that of Colonel Warren. The 
section is made from measurement of the height of the channel in different places, taken by 
us at frequent intervals where a marked alteration occurs. The surface is shown in accord- 
ance with the intersections along the canal of the contours shown on the Ordnance Survey ; 
and the supposed rock surface agrees with Colonel AVarren's " Rock Contours on Ophel," 
checked in one place by an actual measurement of the rock surface, which we have now 
taken in the vertical shaft leading up from the roof of the tunnel. 

'We were, however, not completely satisfied with the results of our first visit, and 
accordingly, on the 22nd November, Lieutenant Mantell and I revisited the tunnel with a 
view of ascertaining the point of junction between the two working parties, and of searching 
for measurement marks on the walls. 

'We entered from the northern end, and had just commenced operations, when a shout 
from our servant warned us that the waters were rising. 

' When we first entered there was not much more than a foot depth of water in the pool, 
but the rush of water was now very rapid, and the depth increased just after we had reached 
the foot of the steps which lead down to the pool, to 4 feet 7 inches. The sound of the current 
pouring down the tunnel was distinct, and the depth of the water in the channel, as we found 
afterwards, was somewhat over 9 inches, so that before the level had been lowered at the 
Siloam end the passage of the tunnel must always have been a very dangerous undertaking ; 
and, indeed, might still prove so to an explorer caught by the overflow in the lowest part of 
the passage near the centre. 

' On our second visit we remained four hours in the tunnel, and inspected both walls very 
carefully, from the northern entrance to the place where we now suppose the junction of the 
two working parties to have occurred. I think we may state with confidence that there is no 
tablet similar to that now famous, to be found in any other part of the tunnel, and that there 
is no other inscription. There is, indeed, no place fitted like that where the existing tablet 
has been found, because the tunnel is quite dark except at the mouth, and is for the greater 
part of its length so low that it would be extremely difficult, and often impossible, to carve an 
inscription. 

' As regards the existing tablet, I may remark that I have examined it again very closely, 
and feel convinced that the inscription has not been in any way damaged by the application 
of hydrochloric acid to remove the lime deposit which had filled in the letters. We have 
copies by Dr. Guthe, taken both before and after the cleaning of the inscription, which serve 
to show that no bad effect resulted from the repeated washings ; and the rock surface is still 
quite firm and hard, showing no signs of rottenness or chipping. I cannot but think that 
the letters which Professor Sayce put down, and which cannot now be discovered on any of 
the squeezes or casts, were not actually existent in the rock, but were merely marks formed 
by the lime deposit, and thus removed by the acid. Having seen the tablet before the acid 



3S8 THE SURVEY OF WESTER. V PALESTINE. 

was api)lied, I can add my testimony to that of others as to the entirely di/Tercnt aspect 
which the inscription presented before and after cleaning. Before cleaning it resembled 
a rude scrawl of uncertain shapes, while it is now seen to have been carved with 
great care, in regular lines, and with constant forms for every letter. The copy published 
in the "Quarterly Statement" for April, p. 70, contrasted with that given in October, 
p. 2S6, gives in fact a very fair idea of the difference which was made by cleaning the 
tablet. 

' The cast which has now reached England is fortunately so good that but little room for 
dispute can be left It appears that the text must originally have consisted of about 190 
letters, of which 171 are recoverable. This number exceeds that which was first given in 
Professor Sayce's copy, the total of which was 169 letters. It seems, therefore, clear that 
no letters have been lost in the process of cleaning. 

'The cast and se[ueeze will be found to agree with Professor Sayce's copy in 151 out of 
169 letters. It is therefore clear that, practically, I'rofessor Sayce was able, in si)ite of the 
great difficulties which he encountered, to transcribe correctly the great bulk of the inscription, 
and thus was the first to give the reading which in the main has been accepted. In his latest 
copy he has corrected 13 letters out of 18, in which he differed from the squeeze and the 
cast, and has added one of the two missing letters. The points of dispute, so far as the 
letters are concerned, are thus reduced to five letters which are doubtful, and two letters 
wliich a])pcar on the cast but were not sent home on the squeeze, or noticed in the accom- 
])anying report. 

' I have also compared the cast and my own squeeze with Dr. Guthe's copy, which is the 
best which has been made, with the exception of the cast. Dr. Guthe's copy agrees with ours 
in every respect. He has, however, shown six more letters than we were able to recover, and 
all six are correct according to the cast. Indeed, Dr. Guthe's copy appears to be perfect, 
with exception of the omission of two letters in the first line, which will be discovered on the 
cast. 

' The important details which will be elucidated by the cast are as follows : In the first line 
Professor Sayce and Professor Socin read liy^ nipjri' which proves to be correct. In the 
fourth line Professor Sayce reads 7X1 but Professor Socin 75J. It will be seen from the 
cast that Professor Socin is right. There arc, of course, many other minor points on 
which the cast throws much light, confirming the squeeze in a very satisfactory manner. 

In the fifth line there is no doubt room for the disputed letters in the reading S7XI DTlSO^' 
but I have not been able to find any traces of the 1 Q on either squeeze, cast, or stone ; and 
it seems highly probable that a fissure in the rock here existed at the time when the inscrip- 
tion was cut. 

' The two letters |n at the beginning of the inscription, which Professor Sayce adopted 
from Mr. Piker, I have never been able to find on the stone, although the original surface 
li ])reserved, nor have I been able to find the letters (n)I at the end of the inscription, 
which are also absent from Dr. Guthe's copy. Possibly these, and the disputed a in the 
second line, may have been marks due to the lime incrustation, and not actual letters 
at all. 

' I may now proceed to describe the reasons which induce us to suppose that we have been 
able to fix the exact point of junction of the two working parties, in a position which exactly 



JERUSALEM. 



359 




36o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE 

•TTccs with ihc inscription, according to Professor Sayce's latest translation (" Quarterly 
Statement," October, 1881, p. 284). For this purpose we have prepared an enlarged 
plan and section of the central part of the tunnel, where a remarkable S shaped contortion 
occurs. 

' At the points a, h, c, e, /, g, h, and /, certain set backs will be observed in the walls of the 
])assage, which indicate a sudden change in direction on the part of the excavator. They 
are, indeed, (iilse heads, abandoned apparently from the conviction that the passage was not 
going in the right direction. In the case of // and /, however, which are out of the general 
direction, and continued further, those recesses may have served as sidings, allowing two 
excavators to pass one another, which would be impossible without them. 

' The important point, however, to observe is that some of these headings point up 
channel, and some point down, and this not without a system, for while a, b, c, e, point down, 
g, //, / point up. Similar headings occur in other parts of the tunnel, but they always agree 
with the rule thus observed, those which are between the Virgin's Fountain and the point a 
pointing down stream, and those between / and Siloam pointing up stream. 

' Each of these headings has a rounded lop, such as would result from the excavation of 
the rock with a pick, by a man working with his face to the front. It shows that on turning 
aside from the heading he left the roof unfinished, in just the form which would result from 
the swinging of a pick in a curve, which — as a moment's reflection will convince the reader 
— is the shape natural to an unfinished excavation. Looking at the plan then, we see that 
an excavator facing dmcn stream was working at the headings a, b, c, and was three times 
induced to work away further to his right. Looking at /, we see an excavator working up 
stream and induced to turn to his right. We see, moreover, that the point e might have been 
the actual point where the channels met, as there is a slight set back down stream within 
2 feet of the set back / up-stream. 

' Now on looking at the section and cross-section, it will be seen that there is a sudden 
difference of level in the roof of the channel at this point. 

' Within a distance of 2 feet 6 inches it falls from 4 feet 8 inches to 3 feet 7 inches, and 
a sort of rim occurs where the lower channel (up-stream) joins the more lofty down-stream 
excavation. 

' In fact, the general appearance of this part of the tunnel, looking up-stream from / is 
that of a smaller drain opening into a main drain, and would of itself suggest that this is the 
point of junction, without considering tiie testimony of the headings. It may, therefore, I 
think, be considered certain that the place of junction was at the point e, or '944 feet from 
the mouth of the tunnel, and consequently 812-8 feet from the back of the Virgin's 
Fountain. 

' This discovery agrees in a remarkable manner with the wording of the inscription. In 
the directions which are indicated by the headings at a and / the two parties were working 
nearly parallel to one another, and might have passed each other without joining, having a 
thickness of 7 feet of rock between ; those in the up-stream channel being to the right 
or east of those in the down-stream tunnel. Each, therefore, began to turn to his right ; 
and those in the up-stream channel did so most rapidly. The shape of the cutting at the 
point d gives evidence of a very complete change of axis. This is not, as might be supposed 
from the plan, an up-stream heading, conflicting with what has been said before ; for the roof 
of the tunnel at d is curved on the side and not at the end of this set back, showing that the 



JERUSALEM. 36: 

woikmnn, after leaving the false headings a, b, c, began to widen the channel on his right, 
facing for a short time to the side instead of to his front. The little buttress thus left was 
never cleared away, but remains to give its evidence of the method of excavation of the 
tunnel. 

'The inscription (line 2) tells us that /Itrec cubits remained to be broken through, when it 
was discovered that there was an "excess in the rock to the right." Now if we consider the 
down-stream party to have worked to e, it will be seen that the party at d were just three 
cubits of 16 inches from them, when they discovered their excess, and began to cut away the 
rock on the right. It was this which was done according to the text (line 3), for they "struck 
on the west " — that is, facing west, just as we have seen the excavator at d must have faced. 
The party at e, in the meanwhile, seem to have stopped working, which they would naturally 
do, to avoid injuring, or being injured by, the others when the pick struck through the last 
dividing partition of rock. Again, in the last line, we read that " three-fourths [?] of a cubit 
was the height of the rock over the head of the excavation." If this be the correct reading, 
it is remarkable that the difference of height of the two channels at the point of junction is 
just 13 inches, or close upon three-fourths of a cubit of 16 inches. 

'Unfortunately, however, the text is deficient just in the place where the number occurs, 
and it appears, according to Professor Sayce, that the word H/D^? is used as a plural : it may, 
tlierefore, be found that the measurement recorded in the inscription refers to something else. 
The words " height of the rock over the head of the excavators," strictly interpreted, would 
seem to infer that the excavators were aware of the thickness of the rock above them, that 
is, of the depth of the channel below the surface of the hill. This they could only ascertain 
either by measurement at the mouths of the channel, or by running contours over the hill — 
just as the accompanying section is constructed from the contours — unless they made a shaft 
to the surface. This is just what they did, for at a distance of 470 feet from the south end a 
shaft still exists reaching up to the rock surface. It is covered in above with large fallen 
blocks, but was no doubt once open and served as a well mouth. The rock surface is 14 
feet above the fioor of the tunnel, the height of which is 3 feet 8 inches at this point. The 
thickness of rock is, therefore, about 10 feet "above the head of the excavation" at the 
shaft. This is the minimum thickness, as is shown by the section, for towards the north the 
rock surface is 170 feet above the roof of the tunnel. Perhaps in the end the doubtful word 
may prove to be JlH^ "a hundred," of which the first and last letters certainly occur, 
though the X has not been discerned ; and the inscription in such a case would refer, in 
general terms, to the average thickness of the rock above the aqueduct. 

'Still more interesting is the question whether the length of "a thousand cubits" can 
have any connection with the measured length of the canal. It is remarkable that 1,700 feet 
is very close upon 1,000 cubits of 21 inches, and is also very nearly r,2oo cubits of 17 inches, 
so that the two readings adopted by Professor Sayce and Mr. Shapira respectively might both 
be supported on the assumption of a different length for the cubit. It would, however, be a 
very astonishing coincidence if a tunnel so irregularly excavated should in the end have 
proved to be exactly a thousand cubits long, and it seems far more probable that the writer 
of the inscription gives an estimated or approximate length, in round numbers, in which case 
the inscription has no value as fixing the length of the cubit. I have given, in the " Quarterly 
Statement" of 18S0, a rhunic of the measurements of the Jerusalem Haram and the Galilean 
Synagogues, which appear to indicate a length of about 16 inches as that of tlie Jewish cubit, 
which was not of necessity the same as the Egyptian cubit. 

46 



362 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

''I'lic avcinge measurement of the Iiiiman hand, as conipaicd wiih the length of the 
Zcrcth or breadth of four fingers, and of the sil or span : and the digit of Maimonides as 
compared with the contents of an average egg, all agree with this shorter measurement. 
Tlie " cubit " (or furc arm) " of a man " cannot be measured so as to give 2 1 inches, nor 
could 48 barleycorns be made to measure mure than about 16 inches (cf. "Handbook to 
Bible," pp. 57, 79). 

'We have paid special attention to the question whether any marks of measurement 
could be found on the walls or roof of the channel, and we obtained measurements of certain 
distances between marks on the wall, of which a digest is given below. The marks in 
question are evidently artificial, being square or triangular notches measuring about 1 J inches 
wide. In one place two of them occur 3 inches apart (half a cubit of 16 inches), which, if it 
had any weight, would seem to indicate that the measurements were not very carefully taken. 
It seems impossible, however, to deduce any result of value from the measurements 
tabulated. 

'There are marks in other places where iron cramps seem to have been driven some 
3 inches into the rock, but these also have no regular interval of occurrence, and a very 
careful examination of both walls, four times repeated, has failed to show us any other marks 
or signs than those above-mentioned. 

'The general impression resulting from an examination of the conduit is that it was the 
work of a people whose knowledge of engineering was rudimentary. It is well known that 
in mining it is very difficult to induce the excavator to keep in a truly straight line, the 
tendency being to diverge very rapidly to one side. It is possible that this is the real reason 
of the crooked run of the canal ; but another reason may have been the comparative hardness 
of the strata met in mining at a uniform level through a hill, with beds having a considerable 
dip. It will, however, be observed that, after jxassiiig the shaft, the direction of the tunnel 
changes to a line more truly directed on the Virgin's Fountain. The excavators from the 
Siloam end became aware, probably by the impossibility of seeing a light at the head of the 
mine, when standing at the mouth of the channel, that they were not going straight, and the 
only means they had of correcting the error, consisted in making a shaft up to the surface to 
see where they had got to. After ascertaining this, they went straight for about 140 feet, 
and then diverged gradually to the left; but their general direction, nevertheless, agrees 
roughly with that of the rock contour, which may be due to following a particular seam of 
rock. 

'The northern party were yet more hopelessly in the dark, and the great divergence to the 
AVest can only be explained by supposing that they did not know where they were going. 
They seem to have been guided, at length, by the sound of the picks in the other tunnel, 
which would be heard at a considerable distance through the soft rock, but even then their 
course indicates great uncertainty. 

' It is also apparent that a rivalry must have existed between the two parties, working as 
the inscription tells us "eagerly;" for the two narrowest parts of the tunnel occur, one on 
either side of the point of junction. In fact, the excavators must be accused of scamping 
their work, with the object of showing a greater total length than their rivals, and for this 
purpose they reduced the size of the excavation to a minimum in which it seems almost 
impossible that a man could have worked. It is clear, anyhow, that the excavators were not 
giants, and probable that they were under the average size of the modern pcasaiilry in 
ralcstiiie. 



JERUSALEM. 363 

' Another interesting question is the increase of height in the tunnel near the point of 
junction. This may have been due to the intention of concealing their previous proceedings, 
but it seems more probable that the reason is to be found in the difference of level between 
the two channels where they meet. The height of the channel does not appear — according 
to the section — to bear any relation to the thickness of the rock above, but there must 
evidently have been some cause for the difference of heiglit in various parts of the aqueduct. 
There is a fall of a foot in the whole length of the tunnel, but the bottom is coated with very 
hard mud, so that it is quite impossible to ascertain whether the floor is properly levelled or 
no. At one point (// on enlarged plan) a sudden fall of 4 inches appears to occur in the floor 
level, and tiie water becomes deeper within a few steps. From this point, also, the roof 
begins to rise, and gets gradually higher. In 49 feet from h to the point of junction e, the 
tunnel increases from 2 feet 6 inches to 4 feet 8 inches in height. It seems probable, 
therefore, that the southern, or up-stream tunnel, struck higher by about 2 feet than the floor 
of the down-stream shaft, and that the floor was subsequently lowered as far as //, when it was 
found that the water would flow for the rest of the way to the pool without further alteration. 
This inference could only be drawn from the fact of the soutliern channel being the highest — 
which is the case. If the northern channel had been the highest we should probably have 
found a kind of shoot, instead of a gradual levelling off of the floor. The observation serves, 
however, to give an independent confirmation of the determination of the point of junction 
before indicated from consideration of the plan alone. 

' With all allowances, it is nevertheless remarkable that there should have been so little 
difference of level between the two tunnels. It would have been easy, from the flow of the 
torrent in the Kedron, to make sure that the Pool of Siloam was lower than the spring; and 
it would not have been difficult by means of a plummet, or of a rude water-level of some 
kind, to preserve the level of the channel floor ; but it is extraordinary that the two extreme 
ends of the channel should differ by only a foot in level, considering that the two ends were 
started independently. 

' The two ends of the channel are more lofty than any other part, and near the mouth the 
tunnel is 12 to 16 feet high. Perhaps this may also be connected with the question of the 
water-level, for the intermittent flow of the Virgin's Pool must have caused considerable diffi- 
culties. It is true that at the time of the excavation of the tunnel, the overflow of the spring 
appears to liave been carried off by the " brook that ran through the midst of the land " 
(2 Chron. xxxii. 4), but some of the water would, nevertheless, run down the cliannel. If, 
however, the floor of the tunnel at its upper end had Liccn kept about a foot above the high- 
water m.ark until the end of the work, tliis would have been sufficient to prevent any flow 
down the tunnel. The height of the aqueduct at the upper end is 2\ feet, and it increases 
rapidly to 6 feet in 20 feet distance, after which it decreases gradually to about 3 feet. This 
might be explained by supposing that the tunnel was purposely at first run up-hill for a short 
distance to prevent the water entering, and was afterwards enlarged by sinking the floor so as 
to admit the overflow when the natural outflow of the Virgin's Pool down the Kedron valley 
was stopped. 

' The enlargement at the southern end may also be due to the sinking of the floor after 
the junction had been effected. It may have been found that the water stood in the tunnel 
and could not flow into the pool. The excavators would then cut away the rock floor until 
the water ran through, and the roof would consequently be higher above the water than near 
the centre, where the water was standing. In this case, it seems to have been merely acci- 

46 — 2 



3<5-1 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

dental that the levels of the tunnels near the point of junction were so nearly the same, and 
the differences of height in various parts are seen to be easily cxjjlained, on the theory that 
the aqueduct required considerable alteration after the junction had been effected, and the 
water admitted into the ui)per part of the cliannel in order to obtain an outflow at the Pool 
of Siloam. 

'I have thus enumerated all the points which seem to me of importance as bearing on 
the method of construction of tlie canal, and its relation to the wording of the inscription. 
The number of small bends and irregularities in the course of the tunnel shows, not less than 
do the larger irregularities, that it was the work of primitive engineers, unacquainted with any 
very accurate instruments or methods of measurement Such rock-cut channels are found in 
other parts of Palestine (as at 'Askar, near Shechem, Sheet XI. ; at 'Anin, Sliect VIII. ; or 
at LcjJLin, Sheet VIII.), but the Siloam tunnel is tlic most important work of the kind yet 
discovered. The sides are covered up to a height of about 3 feet with a thin red cement, 
very hard, and full of pounded pottcrj-, being exactly simihr in constitution to that now used 
in Palestine for lining cisterns. The cracks in the rock are in many places filled in with 
similar cement above the 3-feet level. In other places the rock has been cut away so as to 
form a little drain, by which a small land-spring could be led into the channel. 

' The lower part of the channel has been widened slightly in the parts where the tunnel 
is highest, the walls being scooped out some 3 inches on either side to a height of about 
2i feet. There is also a shaft or standing place at 700 feet from the south end. It is 7 feet 
high from the floor, and the roof is of rock. Possibly it was made by the excavator to rest 
liimself in by standing upright after working for a long time in a recumbent position, for it is 
near the lowest part of the tunnel. It may also have been constructed for safety when the 
sudden overflow of the spring filled the tunnel, for his head would be high above the water if 
he sat or stood under this shaft. 

'We did not observe any side entrance into the channel at any point, and the walls 
and roof are of solid rock throughout. The initials J. A. S. II. M., and date 1835, are 
burnt with the smoke of a candle on the roof of the tunnel at 240 feet from the southern 
end. 

' In connection with this tunnel I may add a few words as to the new aqueduct recently 
discovered by the Fellahin. It was not apparently e.xamined by Dr. Guthe, and only a small 
part of it is at present visible. The level of the top of the covering stones is about 2,091 
feet at the point observed. The stones are i foot thick, and the channel beneath is at least 
2 feet deep, and probably more, as it is filled up with rubbish. This gives a level 2,088 feet, 
which is a foot above the level of the bottom of the Pool of Siloam, from which this aqueduct 
appears to have led. The channel is rock cut, 3 J feet wide, and roo.''ed with slabs of stone. 
In some of these there are slits about 3 inches wide and 20 inches long, but the object of 
these openings is not clear, unless they served for air holes to relieve the pressure. The 
aqueduct apjjears to follow the contour of the hill, westwards from Siloam, and the Fellahin, 
who have not discovered the end of it, suggested tli.it it went to the Bir Kyub, where it will 
be remembered Colonel Wanen found an unfinished subterranean channel. The difference 
of level is, however, too great to allow of the two being probably connected. It would be 
very interesting to follow up the aqueduct from both ends, especially as it may furnish the 
real explanation of the ex|)ression that Hczekiah 'Stopped the watercourse of the upper 
spring and brought it straight down to the west side of the City of David " (2 Chron. xxxii. 30), 
thus throwing some light on the vexed question of the position of this part of Jerusalem. 



JERUSALEM. 



365 



It is quite possible that subterranean reservoirs, as yet unknown, may exist in ronncction witli 
this aqueduct, for the Bir Eyub itself \Yas long quite unknown, and was recovered in the 
Itliddle Ages by excavation. 



Taele of Distances, Siloam Tunnel. 

The Zero marks the commencement of a series of measurements letivccn 
tivo or more notches. 





Feet. 


16-inch 


1 7 ■72-inch 


18-inch 


2 1 -inch 




cubit. 


cubit. 


cubit. 


cubit. 


Notch A 

















,, B 


8 
1 J 


•5 


•45 


•44 


•38 


„ c 


5 7-1 J 


43'i2 


38-43 


3S-33 


3286 


)> ^^ 

















I) 1^ 


4.1^ 


3'-37 


28-33 


27 87 


23-90 



















!! Cz 


I--l^. 


95 


8-57 


8-44 


724 


>. H 



















'Si's 


11-37 


10 27 


lOT I 


8-69 



















,, Iv 


25 ;. 


19-12 


17-27 


'7- 


1457 


II I' 


2h"- 


18-37 


16-59 


15-93 


13-52 


„ M 


9i"- 


712 


643 


6-33 


5-43 



'AiN Umm ED Deraj, 

the so-called Virgin's Fountain, contains the supply which runs by 
the aqueduct to Siloam as mentioned in the preceding pages. The 
spring rises in a cave measuriiig about 20 feet to the back, and 7 feet 
across. There is an entrance at the back towards the left, into a small 
tunnel, which runs for 67 feet in a serpentine form, and out of which 
the main Siloam tunnel starts on the west side at a distance of 50 feet 
along the serpentine tunnel. The approach to the cave on the east 
is down two flights of steps, the upper of si.Kteen steps, the lower of 
ten — the second flight being under a modern arch, which also covers a 
landing 13 feet long by 10 feet wide, between the flights. The total 
length of the landing and two flights is about 53 feet, and there is a 
passage, \o\ feet long, 3 feet wide, at the bottom of the lowest flight, 



jOfi THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

v.hich is only 5 feet wide. The pool seems originally to have been visible 
-in the face of a cliff, and the vault and steps arc modern. Possibly the 
original e.xit of the water was down the Kedron valley, until this was 
stopped by I Iczckiah (2 Chron. xxxii. 4), when he stopped ' the stream of 
the upper spring' (Giiion, of. v. 30), and cut the aqueduct to Siloani. 

The water wells up in the cave, and attains a depth of about 4 feet 
7 inches before running- away through the passage at the back. The 
level of the bottom of the pool appears to be about 2,084 f^^t above the 
Mediterranean, and the aqueduct channel 2,088 feet where it leaves the 
pool, giving a fill of about a foot to Siloam. 

The intermittent flow is held by the natives to be due to a dragon 
v/ho swallows the water beneath the cave when awake ; when he is asleep 
the water rises and (lows away. It is interesting to note that a similar 
dragon, who ' keeps back the waters,' is the enemy of the Indian rain-god, 
Indra, whose contest with this dragon and delivery of the waters is con- 
stantly noticed in the Vedas, 

The modern Jews believe the waters of this pool to be a sure cure for 
rheumatic complaints. They often go in numbers, men and women 
together, and stand in tlicir clothes in the pool, waiting for the water to 
rise. This fact, together with the meaning of the name Bethesda, ' house 
of the stream,' renders it very probable that the Virgin's Fountain is the 
pool mentioned in the fourth Gospel (John v. 2), which was near the 
' sheep place ' — possibly, therefore, outside Jerusalem. 

The intermittent flow occurs, in spring, twice or thrice in a day, luit in 
autumn only once in two or three days. 

The following is Sir Charles Warren's account of his exploration of 
the shaft at the end of the serpentine passage at the back of the pool : 

'To-day, October 24t!i, having managed to obtain a small quantity of wood after infinite 
trouble, we went down to tlie Fountain shortly after sunrise; we had some 12-feet battens 2 
feet square, but were obliged to cut them in half, as 6-feet lengths could only be got into the 
passage ; the water was unusually low, and we managed to crawl through on our bare iinees 
without wetting our upper clothing very much, which was fortunate, as we had the whole d.iy 
before us. After passing through the pool we had to crawl 50 feet, and then came upon the 
new passage, which is 17 feet long, opening into the shaft. The bottom of this shaft is (now 
that the deposit is removed) lower by about 3 feet than the bottom of the aqueduct, and was 
evidently filled from the Virgin's Fountain. The length of the shaft averages 6 feet, and 
width 4 feet. We had a carpenter with us, but he was very slow, and quite unused to rough- 
and-ready style of work, and the labour of getting up the scaffolding devolved on Servant 



JERUSALEM. S--? 

Cirtlcs and myself, llic Fellahiii bringing in tlie vvood and handing it to us. Once, while they 
were bringing in some frames, the spring suddenly rose, and they were awkwardly placed for 
a few minutes, being nearly suffocated. 

' By jamming the boards against the sides of the shaft we succeeded in getting up 20 feet 
when we commenced the first landing, cutting a check in the rock for the frames to rest on, 
and made a good firm job of it. Then, with four uprights resting on this, we commenced a 
second landing. On lighting a piece of magnesium wire at this point, we could see, 20 feet, 
above us, a piece of loose masonry impending directly over our heads ; and as several loose 
pieces had been found at the bottom, it occurred to both of us that our position was critical. 
Without speaking of it, we eyed each other ominously, and wished we were a little higher up. 
The second landing found us 27 feet above the bottom of the shaft. The formation of the 
third was very difficult ; and, on getting nearly to the loose piece of masonry, we found it 
more dangerously placed than we had imagined, and weighing about 8 cwt. So we arranged 
it that the third landing should be a few inches under this loose mass, so as to break its fall 
and give us a chance. This third landing was 38 feet above the bottom of the shaft. We 
floored it with triple boards. It was ticklish work, as an incautious blow would have detached 
the mass ; and I doubt if our work would have stood the strain. About 6 feet above landing 
No. 3 the shaft opened out to west into a great cavern, there being a sloping ascent up at an 
angle of 45°, covered with loose stones about a foot cube. Having hastily made a little 
ladder, I went up ; and very cautious I had to be. The stones seemed all longing to be off; 
and one starting would have sent the mass rolling, and me with it, on top of the sergeant, 
all to form a mash at the bottom of the shaft. After ascending about 30 feet, I got on to a 
landing, and the sergeant followed. We found the cave at this point to be about 20 feet 
wide, and to go south-west and north-west. The former appeared inaccessible ; the latter we 
followed, and at 15 feet higher came on a level plateau. From this is a passage 8 feet wide 
and 3 feet to 4 feet high, roof cut in form of a depressed arch, out of rock. We followed it 
for 40 feet, and came to a rough masonry wall across the passage, with hole just large enough 
to creep through. On the other side the passage rose at an angle of 45°, the roof being at 
the same angle and still cut in the same manner as before. The space between the roof and 
the bank is about 2 feet. There are toe-holes cut in the hard soil, so that, by pressing the 
back against the roof, it is easy to ascend. Fifty feet up this found us at the top, where was 
another rough masonry wall to block up the passage ; and on getting through we found our- 
selves in a vaulted chamber 9 feet wide, running about south for 20 feet ; arch of well-cut 
squared stone, semicircular ; crown about 20 feet above us ; below us was a deep pit. We 
had now to go back for ropes ; but, on getting near the shaft, found it impossible to get down 
with safety. Luckily the sergeant had a sash on, which, torn up in four pieces, just reached 
down to the ladder ; and we hauled up the rope and took it to the vaulted chamber and 
descended into the pit, about 20 feet deep, and then into a smaller one about 8 feet deeper 
where we found the appearance of a passage blocked up. Coming back, we explored another 
little passage with no results. 

♦ The sides of the horizontal portion of the pissage are lined with piles of loose stones, 
apparently ready to be thrown down the shaft ; on these we found three glass lamps of curious 
construction at intervals, as if to light up the passage to the wall or shaft ; also in the vaulted 
chamber we found a little pile of charcoal, as if for cooking, one of these lamps, a cooking 
dish glazed inside, for heating food, and a jar for water. Evidently this had been used as a 
refuge. Two other jars (perfect), of red pottery, we found in the passage ; and also over- 



303 rilE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

hanging Ihc shaft an iron ring, by which a rope mi-ht have been attached for hauling np 
water. Having now explored this i)assage, there only remained that going south-west. To 
"et to it, it was necessary to go down half way to the shaft and then up again for about 15 
feet. I had a rope slung round me and started off; the use of the rope was questionable, as 
it nearly ])ullcd me back in climbing up. On gelling into the passage we found the roof (of 
rock) had given way, and nothing definite could be seen but pieces of dry walls built up here 
and there. In coming down, part of a dry wall toppled over into my lap as I was sitting on 
the edge of the drop. Sergeant Birtles was 6 feet lower down, and narrowly escaped them ; 
they were e.ich about a foot cube ; three of them came on me, but I managed to hilch them 
liai k into the passage. We now heard, to our surprise, that the sun had set, so getting 
logcllicr our dclf, we made all haste down. On coming out, great was the commotion among 
the i)eoi)le of Siloam, who wanted to have a share in the treasure, and would not believe we 
had only got aiiply jars. We got into town some time after dark. 

' October z8//i. — On going up the scaffold next day, a stone over 2 feel long was found 
lying on the top landing ; it had fallen during the night. The men are now working at the 
blocked-up passage in the vaulted chamber. Two more jars have been found. 

' The hill, which is generally called Ophel, extends in a southerly direction from Mount 
Moriah, gradually sloping down through a horizontal distance of 2,000 feet until it becomes 
lost at the Pool of Siloam. Its highest point, near the Triple Gate, is 300 feet above its foot 
at the Siloam Pool ; it is bounded on the east by the Kedron, and on the west and south by 
the Tyropceon valley, these two valleys meeting at the pool. The descent into the valley of 
the Kedron is very steep (about 30°), and the natural surface of the rock is covered up by 
ddiris from 10 to 50 feet in height. 

'About the centre of the Ophel hill, to the east, in the Kedron, is the Fountain of the 
Virgin, an intermittent spring whose waters communicate with the Siloam Pool by means of 
a rock-cut canal running in a serpentine course through the hill. About three-quarters of the 
way up the hill, due west from the Virgin's Fount, is a vault running north and south, the 
crown uf which is 22 feet below the present surface of the slope. This vault spans a chasm 
or culling in the rock, and the springing is from the rock ; the chasm, when discovered, was 
over 40 feet deep, and beyond that depth was filled up with debris ; it, and the vault also, is 
S feet wide ; the arch was originally semicircular, but is now very much distorted. The 
length of the arch is about 1 1 feet, but 4 feet farther to the south the vault is open, the roof 
being self supporting, earth and stones, and is in a very dangerous condition. It appears 
that the southern wall, on which the voussoirs overlapped, has given way and fallen into the 
chasm, taking with it a quantity cf rubbish from several feet above the crown of the arch at 
the south end : the voussoirs here project irregularly, and a slight fall of rubbish from above 
them would probably displace one of them, and thus cause a further fall, and so the arch 
would collapse. Some time in June, or July, or August, a fall of stones took place, when the 
work was not going on. 

' It is not apparent at present in what manner the vault was reached from the outside, but 
it is likely that there was an entrance through the southern wall which has been described as 
having fallen. 

' About 1 7 feet 9 inches below the crown of the arch at the north side is the commence- 
ment of a sloping rock-cut passage leading north-east by east. The earth has been cleared 
out, and we find the passage to be 8 feet wide and from 10 to 12 feet liigh. There are several 
rock<ut steps for the first part of the descent, then a landing and a drop of 10 feet. 



JERUSALEM. 



366 



■f... 




47 



370 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The horizontal length of this passage is 39 feet, the fall is 37 feet. At the bottom is a 
passage whose roof slopes about 5 feet in its length of 68 feet. This passage is on plan 
nearly semicircular, bending round from north-east by east to south-south-west. Then there 
is a sloijing jiassage for about 18 feet, the fall being at an angle of 45', and we arrive at the 
top of the shaft, 44 feet deep. All these passages, canals, shafts, etc., are cut in the solid 
rock, the nature of which is a hard silicious chalk called mezze/i, except near the top of the 
shaft, where the rock is soft and decayed. 

'As yet the rubbish has only been cleared out of the staircase passage, so that we know 
nothing about the bottom of the passage leading to the shaft, but probably it is 10 feet 
high. 

'It was very desirable to know how far the chasm under the vault extends, and for what 
purpose it was cut out, and also what there is to the south of the vault. The vault, however, 
was in too dangerous a condition to work under, so I arranged to fill up the chasm with the 
diliris from the staircase passage. This we have already partially done. On the soil reach- 
ing the top of the staircase landing, gallery frames were fixed up through the length of the 
vault, and battened together, and soil filled in at the side and top, so that the men can now 
work to south or sink a shaft without danger from the arch giving way. I hope the arch will 
be filled up to the top and quite secure in a week. 

' We have now commenced the prolongation of the before-mentioned gallery to the south ; 
if we find nothing in particular, I shall make steps up to the surface, so that any visitors this 
year to Jerusalem may go and see these passages without descending a vertical shaft. 

'I should have mentioned that the voussoirs of the arch are of mekkeli, very much 
decayed, and capable of crumbling on the slightest extra pressure. 

' It is a curious circumstance that the landing at the top of the staircase is unconnected 
with any doorway or other means of exit, so that it suggests itself whether there has been a 
wooden bridge across the vault from the southern to the northern side, as it appears as if this 
chasm is of great depth, and any very temporary means of getting across would have been 
disagreeable with such a drop down below-. 

' Should we find that our rock-cut canal below Bir Eyiib is unconnected with that well, 
we may hope that it extends from and forms part of this system of passages at the Virgin's 
Fount. It will be observed on the plan (No. 19) that the vault comes quite to the south-east 
of the canal from Virgin's Fount to Siloam, and may, therefore, very well be connected with 
other passages. 

'The work of excavation here has been going on at intervals. In May, under Dr. 
Chaplin's superintendence, the rock was bared for 30 feet on the surface down towards the 
Kedron, and the rubbish in the passages was moved from side to side in search of other 
branches. The gallery along the surface of the rock had eventually to be abandoned on 
•Account of the treacherous nature of the soil. The work was resumed about a fortnight 
ago. 

' A shaft was sunk at 40 feet to south of vault, and at the same time the space under the 
vault was filled up by the earth from the rock-cut passages. On getting up to the level of the 
entrance down by the staircase, a gallery was laid on the top of the soil and then covered 
over with earth until it was filled in right under the arch. This was very dangerous work, as 
the arch appears ready to fall at each concussion of the falling earth. The gallery was then 
driven to south, when it was found we were in a rock-cut passage without a roof, the original 
entrance to the vault ; after ascending rough steps we cut in upon the shaft we had sunk 



JERUSALEM. 37 1 

south of the vault, joined them, and then filled up the shaft, which was over the vault. 
Having now the arch made secure, we commenced a shaft directly underneath it to examine 
the rock-cut shaft, but the made earth was allowed to fall in, and a slip took place throughout 
the whole of the gallery, so much so that the work had eventually to be abandoned.' 



BiR Eyub, 

' Job's Well,' is so called from a native tradition that Job sat here 

on his dung-hill.* The well was rediscovered by the Franks in 1184A.D., 

and cleaned out ; it was then identified with En Rogel. TJie following 

is Sir Charles Wilson's description of the well : 

' The only well known at present is Bir Eyub, a little below the junction of the Kedron 
and Hinnom valleys ; but others may possibly exist in the city and neighbourhood, which 
have been accidentally closed by rubbish, or purposely stopped during some siege, and never 
reopened. This well, which has a depth of 125 feet, is still, in summer, one of the principal 
sources of supply. The water is collected in a large rock-hewn chamber, and is derived from 
the drainage of the two valleys and their offshoots. The supply is directly dependent on the 
rainfall ; and in winter, after from three to five consecutive days' rain, the water rises above 
the shaft, and flows down the valley in a stream. The well has been deepened at some 
period, as at a depth of 113 feet there is a large chamber, from the bottom of which a shaft, 
12 feet deep, leads to the present collector. There is a great quantity of rubbish in the 
valley ; and in constructing the well the idea seems to have been to stop out the surface- 
drainage, which might be charged with impurities from the city, and depend entirely on the 
water running in between the lower layers of limestone. The well might be greatly improved 
by enlarging and freshly cementing the collecting-chamber, as at present a large quantity of 
water is lost, and some arrangement of a public nature might be made for raising the water 
and conveying it to the city. This is now in the hands of the Fellahin of Silwan (Siloam), 
who charge from one penny to sixpence per goat-skin for water delivered in the city, and are 
much addicted to cheating by partly filling the skins with air. The water of Bir Eyub has 
that peculiar taste which arises from the surface-drainage of the city being imperfectly stopped 
out.' 

The rising of the waters near the Bir Eytib, from a hole among the 

heaps of ddbris, is held as a feast by the inhabitants of Jerusalem, who 

may be seen walking beside the water, or sitting in the valley in numbers 

on a bright winter day when the water is flowing. Men, women, and 

children here picnic all day. 

* The legend to which this well owes its name is probably that found in the Koran 
(Sura xxxviii., verses 40, 41), which relates that Job was commanded by God to stamp with 
his foot, whereupon a fountain sprang up miraculously for his refreshment. The same legend 
accounts for the Tannur Eyub, near 'Ain Tabghah, on the Sea of GaUlee (Sheet VI. of the 
Survey). 

47—2 



372 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Near this well an extraordinary unfinished aqueduct was explored by 
Sir Charles Warren. The following is his account : 

' Rock-cut Aqueduct. — Down the valley of the Kedron, and south of Siloam, there is the 
Well of Job, or Joab, about which there are several curious traditions which connect it in 
many ways with the ancient Temple. It has been examined, but to my mind there is yet a 
mystery concealed there. It is a well loo feet deep, without appearance of connection with 
any surface drains, and yet after heavy rains it fills up and overflows in a voluminous stream. 

' South of this well, about 500 yards, there is a place called by the Arabs, " The Well of 
the Steps," about which they had a tradition that there were steps leading up to the Well of 
Joab. I had the ground opened, and at 12 foct below the surface came upon a large stone 
which suddenly rolled away, revealing a staircase cut in the solid rock leading to a rock-cut 
chamber and aqueduct, running north and south. It was filled up with silt or fine clay. We 
cleared it out to the north for about 100 feet, and found it to be a great aqueduct 6 feet high, 
and from 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet broad. \\'hen the winter rains came on, a stream burst 
through the silt, and, completely filling the passage, found its way up the steps and rolled 
down the valley in an abundant stream, joining that from the Well of Joab. In April the 
stream abated, and in May we were able to commence again ; and, working day and night, 
we may expect to reach the city in six months. We are working with English barrows in 
this aqueduct, much to the delight of the Arab workmen, who take a childish pleasure in 
using these new toys. We clean out at present about 15 cubic yards in twenty-four hours. 
Looking at this aqueduct from a sanitary point of view, we might suppose it built for carrj-ing 
off the sewage of the city, and, from a military point of view, for carrying secretly off any 
superabundant water to the nearest crevice in the rocks ; possibly it may have been used for 
both purposes. Looking into the Bible history, we find in the Second Book of Chronicles 
that Hezckiah stopped the brook that ran through the midst of the land, saying, " Why 
should the King of Assyria come and find much water ?" Again, we find from another 
account that the refuse from the burnt-offerings was carried down to the Kedron by a subter- 
ranean channel ; and, as water would be wanted to run it down, it may be supposed that the 
aqueduct in question might have been used for some such purpose. At any rate, it is highly 
important that we should discover for what purpose; and we have the chance of its being a 
due to the Altar of the Temple, and — which is of more practical value to the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem — to the hidden springs of Hezekiah, which, if found, might again supply the city 
with living water. 

' Rock-cut passage at 'Ain el Lozeh. — The passage was followed up until 1 70 feet from Bir 
Eydb, where another staircase was found, the steps of which are in very good preservation : 
the passage was then continued to north for upwards of 100 feet, until 12th December, 1868, 
when a heavy downpour of rain stopped the work, Bir EyCib overflowed, and the rock-cut 
passage was filled up with a stream of water, which found vent by the two lower stair- 
cases. 

'The rainfall in December of 1S68 was much greater than usual; up to 15th of the 
month 8703 inches had fallen, and it is interesting to find that the overflowing of Bir Eyiib 
is due, not so much to a steady long-continuous rain, as to a sudden heavy fall. 

' It is now nearly certain that the rock-cut passage does not communicate with Bir Eyflb, 
as we are only 70 feet to south of it, and at least 70 feet to west. Since that time the work 
has not been resumed until within the last few days, when I recommenced in order to 



JERUSALEM. 373 

obtain a correct idea of the probable expenditure that would be incurred in continuing the 
work. 

' It took a few days to get quit of the mud which lay in the passage, for all through the 
summer there has been a little water trickling into the tunnel : on going on to north we had 
not cleared away 3 feet before a large grotto was discovered, out of which the aqueduct 
opened. 

'Apparently this grotto was originally natural, but afterwards cut out so as to form a 
receiving tank. It is 35 feet from east to west, and 20 feet from north to south, nearly oval 
on plan ; it is about 45 feet in height, the roof being formed by the sides gradually approach- 
ing each other. At the highest point there appears to be a shaft upwards, about 2 feet square, 
covered by a white stone. The bottom of the passage by which we entered is about 9 (or 
more) feet above the bottom of the cistern, so that there would always be a depth of 9 feet 
of water retained in it. At the northern end are two aqueducts running into the cistern : the 
upper and eastern one has its bottom 12 feet above the bottom of the outlet aqueduct; below 
it (the upper) by 9 feet, and 6 feet to the west, is the lower aqueduct, which, after a few feet, 
runs in under the upper one ; they both come from the same point (about 80 feet north-north- 
east of the cistern), where they are in one, forming a passage 15 feet high, and nearly 6 feet 
wide. This point is 90 feet due west of Bir Eyub. 

' The way in which these two aqueducts run together is very curious : at the point where 
it is one passage, there is a little staircase cut in the rock going up about 9 feet on to a land- 
ing, where the upper aqueduct begins ; this is 3 feet 10 inches wide, and 5 feet 9 inches high ; 
it is very well cut, the roof is curved a little, and it runs nearly straight to the cistern, falling 
about 2 (?) feet in length ; about midway it is blocked up by a masonry wall 3 feet thick, and 
composed of cut stones set in a hard black mortar, apparently mi.xed with oil. The lower 
aqueduct starts from the same level as the bottom of the high passage. It is only about 
3-5- feet high (apparently), and the top is about 6 feet below the bottom of upper aqueduct ; 
for some distance it runs immediately under the upper one, and then, with some winding, 
comes out to its west by 6 feet : just before it enters the cistern, it opens into a natural cleft 
in the rock, which appears to be part of the original cavern. This cleft is nearly perpendicular, 
and is about 4 feet wide, and over 15 feet high. Corporal MacKenzie went up it 48 feet to 
north-west ; it then gets too narrow to be followed up. 

' The rock throughout is a hard mezzeh, and the passages appear to have been cut out 
with the chisel. The surface of the rock appears to be not less than 70 feet above the 
aqueduct. 

'This tunnel, as we have now examined it, extends from near Bir Eyiib to a point 
1,800 feet down the Kedron valley : it has been judiciously cut under one side (the west 
side) of the valley, so that, though it is from 70 to 90 feet under the surface of the rock, yet 
the staircases being commenced to the east (nearer the bottom of the valley), have not to 
descend by more than 40 to 50 feet. In the 1,800 feet we have cleared out, seven staircases 
have been exposed : they are about 3 feet wide, and descend at about an angle of 35°. The 
steps are about i foot in height, and the tread is about 15 inches : in some cases the steps 
are much worn and broken. At the bottom of some of the staircases the aqueduct is 
deepened a little, so as to form a shallow pool. 

' In one place, between the third and fourth staircase, there is a branch tunnel leading 
across towards the east side of the valley in a south-east direction : this was only followed for 
30 feet. 



374 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTL\E. 

' It is apparent that this aqueduct was of considerable importance, for the labour in cutting 
it so far below the surface must have been enormous. That it was for water I think there 
can be no doubt, and probably for pure water. 

' The cistern we have just found is similar in its construction to those found under 
Robinson's Arch, and the aqueduct altogether has the same appearance as the rock-cut 
aqueduct found there. The staircases, too, may have originally been used for bringing up 
the chiijpings, but they appeared to be very much worn, as if they had been in constant 
use. 

' We have not as yet found there is any connection with Bir Eyub, and if we do find any 
it will probably be a communication by which the water from the aqueduct flows into it, and 
cut at a later period ; neither is there any appearance of its being connected with the Virgin's 
Fount Aqueduct, for they differ in height and width, the tunnel we have found being nearly 
twice as wide and very much higher ; also the Virgin's Fount Aqueduct winds very much 
more than this one, and there are shafts instead of staircases. 

' It would be a most important point to establish the direction from whence this great 
aqueduct comes ; at present we do not know whether it comes down the Kedron Valley, the 
Tyropaon, or by the valley from the Jaffa Gate. 

' It is currently reported in the city that a Jewish blacksmith descended Bir Eyiib a few 
years ago, when it was dry, and found a passage at bottom from whence a strong wind was 
blowing. However this may be, it is evident that the man has some curious tradition about 
the place, as he has been trying to buy the land over where we have lately found the grotto, 
and the Fellahin of Siloam say they refused twelve napoleons for it This man sent a 
messenger a short time ago to ask if we were going on with the clearing out of the great 
aqueduct, and to say that if so he intended to raise the money to continue our work. He 
probably had been reading the accounts of Jelal and Mejr ed Din. 

^December 2\st, 1S69. — In continuing our work a staircase at an angle of about 45', and 
90 feet on slope, has been found. The top is walled up with masonry : near the top another 
staircase leads off towards Bir Eyub, branching into two. The rains have suddenly set in, 
and if Bir EyCib overflows, this work will have to be stopped for the present. 

' N.B. — It has been stated that the bottom of the cistern or grotto is 9 feet below bottom 
of outflow aqueduct, but 9 feet is the depth to which we have sunk. The water in the cistern 
prevents our sinking deeper, and the jumper cannot be driven on account of the large stones 
met with. 

' The great Rock- Cut Aqueduct south 0/ Bir Eyub. — Account of this was given up to 
December 21st, 1869, when some rock-cut staircases were found 86 feet north of the cistern 
or grotto. 

' A shaft was now sunk at 75 feet north of the pool at Bir Eyub, and at a depth of 22 feet 
came on head of staircase. The soil sunk through was black earth and stones, mi.xed with a 
great quantity of red potsherds. The staircase was found to be closed at top by a masonry 
wall, and on breaking through this, the steps, after going 6 feet to west, branch off north and 
south. That to the north has again a branch staircase to east. 

' The northern staircase has sbcty-seven steps. It descends 39 feet vertical, in 56 feet 
horizontal, and ends abruptly, having never been finished At 16 feet 6 inches down this 
staircase the branch to east commences, and falls (with twenty-two steps) 19 feet vertical in 
27 feet horizontal ; it then turns to north, and falls 5 feet 10 inches in 10 feet 6 inches, and 
ends abruptly. 



JERUSALEM. 375 

' The staircase to south (with fifty-four steps) falls 41 feet 5 inches in 72 feet, and ends in 
the aqueduct, where the upper and lower join together, at about 86 feet north of the grotto. 
These staircases were only partially filled up with mud and broken jars and pottery. 

' There only now remained the continuation of lower aqueduct to north to examine. 
This was continued for 148 feet, where it was also found to end abruptly, rock on all sides. 
It is generally about 3 feet 7 inches wide and 6 feet high. It appears, then, that this great 
work has never been completed. It is to be presumed that the great volume of water which 
now issues from the aqueduct in the spring, enters through the rifts in the rocky sides of the 
grotto. The reasons for the wall stopping up the upper aqueduct having been built are not 
apparent. This aqueduct, leading into the grotto, is 86 feet long ; that is, 44 feet from grotto 
to first wall, 4 feet thickness of wall, 32 feet to second wall, 3 feet thickness of wall, and 3 feet 
to small steps. 

' In the first wall at bottom a hole or duct was left 6f inches by 4 inches, and on the 
northern side a stone plug to fit and 12 inches long was found in it.' 

The identification of this site (Bir Eyub) with En Rogel is unsatis- 
factory, for the latter was a spring, not a well, and it was close to the 
Rock Zoheleth (i Kings i. 9), which is the present rock Z a h w e i 1 e h. 
Thus it is more probable that En Rogel is the spring of the Virgin's 
Fountain described above. (Cf. Joshua xv. 7.) 



BiRKET MaMILLA. 

This fine pool feeds the Hammam el Batrak, or so-called Pool of 
Hezekiah, and also the north-west tower of the citadel, by an aqueduct. 
It is perhaps the Beth Memel of the Talmud (Tal Bab Erubin 51 b, 
Sanhed 24 a, Bereshith Rabba, ch. li.). Mejr ed Din says the Christians 
called it Babila, and the Jews Beit M e 1 1 o. It is called Lac du 
Patriarche in the ' Citez de Jherusalem,' and Eons Gihon Superior by 
Marino Sanuto. It measures 316 feet east and west; the east wall 
being 218 feet long, the west wall 200 feet. The buttresses at the 
sides are of modern masonry. The average depth is 19 feet; there is 
much rubbish at the bottom, and the pool leaks. A large cemetery 
surrounds it, and as it collects only surface drainage the water is impure. 
Thirty-eight feet from the lower end of the pool is a chamber, in which the 
conduit narrows from 21 inches square to 9 inches square, and can be 
closed by a stone to regulate the flow. 



376 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



BiRKET Es Sultan. 

An enormous reservoir, formed by clamming the valley (Wady 
Rababch). It was constructed about 1170 a.d. by the German knights 
(cf. 'Citez de Jherusalem'), and repaired later by Sultan Suleiman Ibn 
Selim in 1520-66 A.u. A fine Arab fountain on the dam bears an inscrip- 
tion of this reign. Rabbi Uri of Biel (1537-64) gives it the present name, 
and it is mentioned in the Cartulary of the Holy Sepulchre (No. 169) as 
Lacus Germani. The pool measures 592 feet in length, and is about 
220 feet wide and 40 feet deep. 

The present low level aqueduct from the pools at Urt&s crosses W'ady 
Rababeh above the Birket es Sultan (cf. Sheet XVII., Section B), and 
following the southern slopes of the modern Sion, enters the Haram by the 
viaduct of the Bab es Silsileh, carrying water to the fountain called El K4s 
('The Cup'), north of the Aksa Mosque. This aqueduct is often out of 
repair, but still carries water at times. It is supposed to be that mentioned 
by Josephus as constructed by Pontius Pilate (18 Ant. iii. 2). An import- 
ant discovery was, however, made by Sir C. Warren with regard to the 
old line of this conduit. The following is his account : 

' Aqueduct near the Ccenaculum. September, 1 867. — On the open ground on the western hill 
which lies south of the city wall, we made an important discovery, viz., an ancient aqueduct, 
at the south-east corner of the Ccenaculum, and about 50 feet north of the present aqueduct 
— I have no doubt it must be the original aqueduct from Solomon's Pools to the Sanctuary. 
We dug out the earth from a cut stone shaft 2 feet square, and at a depth of 16 feet was a 
channel running from the west to the north-east, precisely similar in construction to the 
passages under the Triple Gate. It varies very much in size .; sometimes we could crawl on 
hands and knees, then we had to creep sideways ; again, we lay on our backs and vsTiggled 
along, but still it was always large enough for a man of ordinary dimensions. In parts built 
of masonry, in parts cut out of solid rock, it is generally of a semi-cylindrical shape ; but in 
many parts it has the peculiar shoulders which I have only seen under the Triple Gateway, 
but which have been noticed by Mr. Eaton, in the channel leading towards Tekoah. To the 
north-east we traced the channel for 250 feet, until we were stopped by a shaft which was 
filled with earth ; to the west we traced it for 200 feet, till it was stopped in the same manner. 
In part of this passage we could stand upright, it being 10 or 12 feet high, with the remains 
of two sets of stones for covering, as shown in M. Piazzi Smyth's work on the Great Pyramid, 
the stones at the sides being of great size — 12 feet by 6 feet. This channel is evidently of 
ancient construction. It is built in lengths, as though the work had been commenced at 
several points, and had not been directed correctly. The plaster is in good preservation. 

'The aqueduct was traced for 700 feet, and at either end it was found to be crossed and 



JERUSALEM. 377 

used by the present low level aqueduct, it being at the same level, but the entrances are much 
farther up the hill, on account of the cutting being so deep, in one place 29 feet below the 
present surface. 

' It is apparent that the builder of the present low-level aqueduct made use of the origina 
one wherever it was convenient.' 



BiR EL YEiiuDiYEn OR Siiem'on es SaddIk. 

This well is so-called because it is immediately near the traditional 
tomb of Simon the Just, of which a plan has been now made. This tomb 
is in Wady el Joz, east of the Nablus road. It is mentioned in Finn's 
' Byeways,' and the annual visit paid to it by the Jerusalem Jews is 
there noticed. ' Simon the high priest, the son of Onias (Ecclus. 1. i), 
was one of the famous successors of Ezra, and chief of the "Great 
Sanhedrin." ' He is said to have gone to Antipatris to meet Alexander 
the Great (Tal. Bab. Yoma, 69 ci), and was high priest for forty years. 
The beautiful story of his last entrance into the Holy of Holies, when 
the white apparition failed to meet him as usual, is well known. He 
ranks among the inost venerated of Jewish worthies. Curiously enough, 
Josephus gives the name of Jaddua instead of Simon, as that of the high 
priest at the time of Alexander's visit to Jerusalem. 

The tomb is rock-cut, but a wall has been built in modern times across 
the entrance to the porch, and an iron door put up, with a small barred 
window on one side. This door is kept locked, and the key was obtained 
from the Spanish Jews through the kindness of Dr. Chaplin. 

The fa9ade is carefully white-washed ; within is the antechamber, 
2\ feet below the present surface of the outer ground. A small cistern 
is cut in the rock bench to the right, and a channel leads thence, round 
the walls of the next inmost chamber (No. 2), to a hole in the wall com- 
municating with another chamber (No. 4), which was originally a tomb, 
with three loctdi under anosolia, but is now used as a cistern with a depth 
of some 3 feet of water. There is no spring, but the surface-water from 
the rocks is collected in this manner. The second chamber (No. 2) has 
a single grave on the east (No. 3), and an entrance on the west to the 
fourth chamber (No. 5) : the level is 2^ feet below the antechamber. 
The fourth chamber has two loculi, that on the north being the supposed 

48 



378 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



tomb of Eliczer, son of Simon the Just, that on the south the grave of 
his servant. A small wooden table stood in this chamber. On the west 
a door leads to the furthest chamber (No. 6), where is the grave of Simon 
himself on the south side. It is apparently only a bench built up of small 
rough stones ; but these may cover a real rock-cut sarcophagus. A large 
vessel of oil was placed on it, in which floated many lighted wicks. I 
noticed a great many small stones piled in the locidus of Eliezer, probably 
memorials of visits to the shrine, like the Jlleskd/icd of the Moslem 
peasantry. 



F.,..f....f 




Sectwri oTvAM C 
I 



The Jews also show some 200 yards to eastwards a quarry facing 
northwards. This they believe was the school and synagogue where 
Simon the just used to teach and pray. The tradition has, however, 
probably little or no value. 

The tradition of Simon's tomb is at least three and-a-half centuries 
old ; but there is, so far as I know, no mention of it in medieeval Jewish 
travels before the year 1537 .\.d., when it is noticed in the Jichus ha 
Aboth. 



JERUSALEM. 



579 



Deir es Salic (the Monastery of the Cross). 

The old Georgian Church, said to date from the fifth century, was 
found standing by the Crusaders. The tradition is to the effect that the 
tree of the Cross, concerning which there are innumerable mediaeval 
legends, grew here from the time of Adam, and was watered by Noah, 
David, and Solomon. The site of its growth is shown in a little chamber 
behind the north apse. The church consists of three bays, a transept 
with a fine dome, and a chancel with three apses, built for the Eastern 
rite, with walls dividing the apses. On the south wall of the central apse 
a grciffita was found in 1873, in red paint, reading Beaice a Jehan, 




with date 1493 a.d. This part of the church is therefore older than the 
restorations of the year 1644 a.d. The floor of the church is paved with 
mosaic, which has in places been mended with good fayence work. The 
designs are curious, including the cock and other quaint animals. The 
piers and walls are painted and hung with pictures of Georgian origin, not 
unlike the frescoes of Kasr Hajlah (Sheet XVIII.), though probably later 
than the latter. The place now belongs to the Greeks, and there is a 
seminary in the monastery, which has a conspicuous belfry and a good 
library. The best MSS. from Mar Saba have lately been brought to 
this library. On the screen of the nave is a curious painting on wood, 
giving the whole history of the tree of the Cross. 
Visited 1873 and 1881. 

48—2 



38o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

HaKK ED DUMM. 

There is n very fim^ rock-cut and masonry vault at this place, 30 feet 
long, 20 f<;et wide, and 34 feet high, with two piers of drafted masonry 
with a rustic boss. The stones are of moderate dimensions and very 
white ; the top course is arched out to support the roof, which is groined 
and of rubble. This vaulted building resembles Crusading work. 

The vault is now called Aceldama, and in the twelfth century 
Chaudemar was apparently its name, a corruption, as is the present 
name, of the Hebrew. The lower part of the vault is a great rock-cut 
trench. Tombs exist in the sides. The vault is the vestibule to a series 
of tombs now choked up. There are crosses and Armenian inscriptions 
on the west wall. 

Immediately west is a quarried scarp covered with rude crosses, cut 
on the rock. There are four rows, some 30 or 40 crosses in all. The 
form of the cross is Latin. 

Immediately east of Ilakk ed Dumm is the cave called 
!•" c r d u s e r R u m ; it is some 35 feet high, and 10 by 6.', yards area. 

El HeidiiemIveii (Jeremiah's Grotto). 

The identification of this site with Calvary is mentioned in a separate 
paper, and the; cliff" described. A modern enclosure has been walled 
in on the south against the face of the cliff, and within this is the entrance 
to a cavern, with an inner circular chamber about 100 feet in diameter, 
the roof supported by a pillar. The tombs of Sultan Ibrahim and of 
Baruh ed Din are here shown, and the caverns are now in charge of 
the Moslems. They were formerly inhabited by an order of derwishes. 
Other caverns are entered from the courtyard. The whole system 
appears originally to have formed part of the Cotton Grotto, or great 
quarries under the city east of the Damascus Gate. The great fos.se, 
which separates the knoll of Jeremiah's Grotto from the cliff of the 
Cotton Grotto, is 500 feet wide. It was no doubt originally formed in 
quarrying the Temple stones, and probably enlarged when the third wall 
was built. Two smaller caves higher up the cliff are now left unap- 
proachable. 



JERUSALEM. 



381 



The remains on the knoll 300 yards west of Jeremiah's Grotto, and 
west of the main north road, are also mentioned in connection with the 
ancient tomb there found, which may perhaps be identified with the Holy 
Sepulchre. The remains of the old Church of St. Stephen at this spot 
require, however, a special notice, as it is the site of one of the oldest 
Christian buildings near Jerusalem. 

The site in question is an irregular rock plateau rising about five feet 
above the surrounding surface, and apparently scarped on all sides. The 
scarp is indeed plainly traceable, and evidendy artificial, except towards 





the south-east. The area is about 60 yards either way. The top of the 
plateau is sown with corn, and has a few olive-trees. At the south-west 
corner a part of the rock rises in a kind of natural wall about 5 feet 
hio-her than the rest. A modern cottage is built against this scarp on the 
east face of it, with a paved court in front. To the south of the cottage 
is a small cistern, and a cave in the south scarp now closed. 

The tomb, specially described on another page, is at the south-east 
angle of the plateau (marked A). In the north-east corner is a cistern 
measuring 1 5 feet by 20 feet, with a manhole in the roof, and an entrance 



382 



THE SUR VE V OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 



on the east, through a passage lo feet long, 3 feet wide, with three steps- 
This passage was once closed by a door (marked cistern C). To the 
west of this the scarp projects northwards, and a small chamber (marked D) 
is cut in thi' cast f>icr. It measures 10 feet north and south by 7 feet east 
and west, and is 4 or 5 feet high. The door is 2 feet wide and 3 {cax 
high. 

In the drystone wall of the courtyard of the cottage several fragments 
of mouldings are built in. One is a piece of a cornice with cantilevers 
and rosettes rudely executed and resembling Byzantine work. Marble 
tessem were also found here, and square stone slabs about 6 inches side, 




CCALt 



built diagonally (as in the optis reticulatnm) into a curved wall in front of 
the cottage on the east. This wall was destroyed, and the slabs used to 
pave the courtyard of the cottage. In the south scarp a small e.xcavation 
was found — a niche 3 feet 4 inches high, 4 feet 6 inches wide, 2 feet 
7 inches to the back, having a smaller recess about 2 feet across in its 
back wall. A skull is .said to have been found in this recess when the 
scarp was uncovered. 

Joscphus gives the distance of the Tomb of Helena, Queen of 
Adiabene, as being three stadia from the Women's Towers (2 Ant. iv. 3 ; 



JERUSALEM. 



383 



5 Wars ii. 2). There can be little doubt that the tomb in question is that 
now commonly called the Tomb of the Kings, and if a measurement of 
three stadia be made on the Ordnance Survey from that sepulchre south- 
wards along the main road, it will be found to reach to the rocky plateau 
just described. The scarps may thus be very probably regarded as those 
on which the wall of Agrippa stood about 41 a.u., and the Women's 
Towers were perhaps situated at this point, guarding the north gate of the 
ancient wall. 



''^h, 



JERUSALEM. 

IN 1187 AD. /^ 

"Pradiixxmat Norriej uvZa&n 










TjoaiaPadruirclui 




j5«wiJ<»ii mil 



1' 



AperRULmzs '^pfu^ 



The remains found on the plateau are possibly those of the old Church 
of St. Stephen, founded by the Empress Eudoxia about the year 460 a.d. 
It was about a stadium from the north wall, as existing in her time 
(Evagrius, Hist. Eccles. i. 22). The empress was buried in or near this 
church, according to the same authority. The building was found by the 
Crusaders in ruins (Sa;wulf). In the Citez de Jherusalem the Monastery 



384 THE PURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of St. Stephen is distinctly described as being on the right of one entering 
the north gate, the Asnerie being to the left. If the roads remain un- 
changed this would point to the site now being noticed as that of the 
Church of St. Stephen. It is, however, remarkable that no traces of 
Crusading work remain on this site, but thai a Crusading church does 
exist, as described later, north-east of the plateau of rock. 

The road bifurcates on leaving the Damascus Gate, and here — 
1 20 yards outside the gate and south of the rock plateau above described 
— a tomb was discovered in 1875, containing a sarcophagus of great size 
— 8 feet long by 3 feet high. The tomb appears to be older than the 
sarcophagus, which could not have been got in through the door, and 
may have been lowered through the hole in the roof of the chamber. 
The sepulchre consists of two chambers, which seem to have been 
originally distinct tombs with doors to the east. The north chamber, 
containing the sarcophagus, has an antechamber on the east containing a 
loaiius on the south side : the chamber itself has three loculi under 
arcosolia. The southern chamber, reached by a hole in the back of the 
loculiis on the south side of the former tomb, has also three loadi. The 
north loculus in the southern chamber has slabs at the bottom, which 
when raised disclosed a sunken chamber with three parallel loculi. On 
the south of the southern chamber is a rude cave like a cistern. The 
rock is at this place covered with about twelve feet of soil and rubbish. 
The hole in the roof of the northern chamber was carefully closed with 
masonry, as were the doors of the chambers. The southern chamber was 
the first discovered, and was entered through its roof, where were two 
holes covered by stone slabs. 

These tombs might perhaps belong to the later Jewish period, but 
they so closely resemble the Christian tombs round Jerusalem that they 
may perhaps be better referred to the Byzantine period. Their arrange- 
ment is different from that of the old tomb (A) in the rock-scarp further 
north. The sarcophagus is like those used by Romans and Byzantines 
in Syria. The Crusaders seem to have used lead or wooden coffins. 
Thus, though the sarcophagus is evidence of a secondary interment in 
this sepulchre, no great difference of date need be supposed between the 
times of the original tomb and the later interment, and it is probable that 



JERUSALEM. 



3S5 



both would be Christian, as the Christians do not appear to have used 
Jewish tombs. 

It has been suggested that the sarcophagus was that of the Empress 
Eudoxia, buried near St. Stephen's Church ; and there is nothing to 
contradict such a conjecture, although no inscription was found on the 
sarcophagus, which was broken by the Turks in attempting to remove it. 
The tomb was partly destroyed also, and has now been converted into a 
cistern. 



V. .. f. . . .9 




SccUons A3.& CD of Sarcophagus ■'^i 



Section CM. 



Just west of El Heidhemiyeh the remains of the twelfth century 
Asnerie were explored in October, 1S73, and further opened up in May, 

1875. 

Entering the gate in the north-west corner of the garden, west of the 
cliff, a scarp of rock is found running east and facing south (level of top 
2,520). In this, towards the west, is a rock-cut chamber which runs in 
northwards. East of this are cuttings on the scarp which would seem 
to have been connected with piers supporting vaults. 

The chamber is double, and has a double door. The right-hand, or 

49 



386 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

eastern part, contains three loculi, 8 feet 2 inches in length. This part is 
7 feet high. On the cast wall two crosses are painted in red, each with 
the letters A and Q either side. The cross is of the Latin form. The 
western chamber is 6 feet 2 inches by 1 1 feet 8 inches ; the latter measure 
north and south. A great quantity of bones were found in this chamber. 

South of this tomb is the cistern marked on the Ordnance Survey, 
which appears to be very extensive, and is cut in rock. Near it stone 
piers were discovered by excavation in 1S73. ^he stones were two to 
three feet in length, well dressed ; on one a mason's mark — 

B 

occurs, leaving no doubt that the masonry is of Crusading period. 
The stone has the diagonal dressing found on twelfth century work in 
Palestine. A marble capital and the base of a small attached column 
were found, with a pillar shaft i^ feet thick. 

About 40 paces south of the gate by which the plot of ground is 
entered, the excavations in 1875 laid bare the remains of a building, viz., 
a wall of masonry, resembling that described above, running north, with 
a second at right angles running east. The wall running north extended 
33 feet 6 inches, and ended apparently at a gateway. From this wall, 
6\ feet south of the gateway, a cross wall ran east. The south wall 
running east from the angle was laid bare for about 36 feet. Both walls 
were 6 feet 6 inches thick. 

Inside the southern wall are a row of stone mangers, each i foot 
9 inches broad ; the stone walls between them are 4 inches thick ; they 
measure 2^ feet north and south at the top, and i foot 10 inches at the 
bottom, being 8 inches deep, and having a shelving front, whilst the back 
is formed by the southern wall of the building. 

The scarps on the north and east show that this building probably 
covered an area of about 1 50 feet side. The position agrees with that 
ascribed in the ' Citez de Jherusalcm ' (1187 a.d.) to the Asnerie, or Inn 
of the Knights Hospitallers, which was in use after the conquest of 
Jerusalem by Saladin. 

Explored October, 1872; 24th May, 1875. 



JERUSALEM. 



387 



About 500 feet north-west of the Asnerie a Crusading Chapel, with 
surrounding chambers and a vault on the east containing graves, was 
excavated in 1882. North of the chapel lies a kind of trough cut out of 
a single stone 3 feet in diameter, 3 feet high, the hollow interior being 
2^ feet deep, and the same in diameter. The trough is rounded off 



% 






\^% 



j| . ,v, 


,„ „ ..,.,„. , , ■ , 




Va. all 


\". 


"■^ •' 




Va.vL,lt 


it--' ■ ^•■ ■■) 






eruig 



pffrmi. A rcct r s 

a ^ S to ts ic (?w4 



Va. u. It 




below. It seems possibly to have been the font of the chapel, and to 
have stood on the low pillar found in the chapel near the west end. The 
little Moslem shrine of Sad and Saideh, north-west of the chapel, is built 
partly of Crusading materials ; and outside the Mihrab the projection of 
the south wall rests on a defaced sculpture of an angel's head, in mediaeval 
style, probably taken from the church. 

The following are the accounts sent home in 1882. 



49- 



38S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



'I. 

'January \%lli, 18S2. 

'The church of which I sent a plan by last mail has been further excavated, and an 
interesting piece of painting brought to light. A slab of fine limestone 20 inches by 4 feet 
5 inches has on it a simple cornice, once apparently gilt, and beneath this are the figures 
of the twelve Apostles, each surrounded by a sort of canopy; they stand six each 
side of a central figure of the throned Christ. The figures are rather stiffly drawn, 
and have long robes. The slab has on the top surface the diagonal dressing used by the 
Crusaders. 

' Only a few courses of the walls of the church are standing ; they have been plastered 
inside, and the plaster was painted. I found a mason's mark on one stone, and others have 
the diagonal dressing. North of the church are found vaults with pointed rubble arches. 
The whole is evidently of the Crusading period. We are going to-day to take a tracing of 
the painted tablet, which will be sent home as soon as possible. The position of the church 
precludes the idea that it is that of St. Stephen, built in the fifth century. It seems to have 
been rather a chapel adjoining the Asnerie or Hospitallers' Stable, which I was able to identify 
in 1873 with certain ruins close to the newly found church on the south. 

' C. R. C 

'Jerusalem, February i^th, 1SS2. 

' The excavations at the newly discovered church outside the Damascus Gate are still in 
l)rogress, but have been greatly impeded by the recent rains and falls of snow. The work has 
been done principally at the ends of the church, that is to say, towards the east and towards 
the west of the building. The outer surface of the east wall of the church — that in which the 
apse is built — has been laid bare. Parallel to this has been discovered one wall of a second 
building, perhaps a convent in connection with the church. The passage left between 
the two buildings is only 3 feet 4 inches in breadth, and the stones of the convent 
have a remarkably clean and new appearance, as if the wall had only been recently 
constructed. This is no doubt due to the protection which it received from the church 
immediately in front of it Moreover, the passage between the two may very possibly 
have been covered in, and an additional protection thus afforded to the surface of the 
stone. 

' The north wall of the convent has also been laid bare for a distance of some 30 feet, but 
the eastern extremity has not yet been reached. It is built of larger blocks of stone and more 
solidly, being no doubt an outer wall, and appears to have been exposed to the weather 
before having been covered in by the earth which has just been removed. 

' The workmen say that they have discovered a cistern in the passage between the church 
and the convent It may, perhaps, exist, but yesterday while examining the place by ourselves 
we were unable to find the mouth. 

'A new door has also been discovered at the south-east corner of the church. It opens 
out towards the east, and is situated between the apse and the south wall. There is a fresco 
inside under the doorstep, but to see this and the door properly further excavation is 
necessary. 



JERUSALEM. 



389 



' At the west end of the church the ground outside the main 
been paved with flag-stones to a distance of eight or nine feet from 
entering the paving extends to the entrance to a tomb, and at 
this point an inscription has recently been discovered. 

'Further again to the west, at a distance of 31 feet from the 
church, a wall has been found running north and south. The 
extremities of this wall have not yet been laid bare, and its con- 
nection with the main building is not clear. 

' The point which has excited most interest is the inscription 
referred to above. It is cut in one of the flag-stones (measuring 
23 inches by 16 inches) over the tomb. The letters are of the 
well-known uncial forms, and in some instances are well cut. 
The surface of the stone is, however, much worn, so that in 
places it is very difficult to distinguish artificial and time-worn 
grooves. I send a copy of the inscription traced from a squeeze, 
and have shown as far as possible the distinction between marks 
certainly intentional and others which are doubtful. 

' As yet no one has been able to suggest a translation. In the 
first fine the word ^GPOY is very distinct. Dr. Chaplin thinks 
that the marks shown in outline adjoining the letter (J) may be 
a contraction for XPICTO'I>> making the whole word 
XPICTO<I>€ POY, or Christopher. In the second line the 
only doubtful letter is the Ai which has been read A- However, 
it seems to me that a horizontal stroke is visible, although not 
nearly so plain as the rest of the letter. As regards the third and 
fourth fine, there is little difference of opinion, but below the 
word OCTA ^re a number of marks in which it is almost im- 
possible to distinguish those which are time-worn from those which 
are artificial. 

' It has been suggested that we have only recovered a part of 
the inscription, the stone on which it is cut having formed portion 
of a block employed previously for some other purpose, and that 
Vk'e have lost the right half or the left half of each line. An 
examination on the spot shows, however, that this is improb- 
able. 

' The flag-stone is in situ, above a tomb — a very natural position 
for a tomb-stone. It is close to the door of the church, and the 
workmen would not be likely to disfigure the floor in such a place 
with a previously used stone, when a new one might be so easily 
obtained. Moreover, the tracing of the squeeze shows that the 
present inscription could nowhere be cut through at right angles 
to the lines without dividing some of the letters. If the inscription 
had been originally longer it is unlikely that it could have been 
cut in two without thus dividing the letters, but along each side 
stands there is no trace of any such prolongation of the lines. In 



entrance proves to have 
the wall. To the left on 







J>'f^ 




of the stone as it now 
all probability we have 



390 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 




JERUSALEM. 



391 



before us the whole inscription, and it only remains to decipher the contractions which it no 
doubt contains. 

' The enterprising owner of the church intends to continue his excavations. Unfortunately 
the ground outside the south wall does not belong to him, otherwise he might have found 
chambers and tombs similar to those on the north. He intends, however, to work in an 
east and west direction, and to uncover the walls as far as he is allowed to do so by his 
neighbours. 

'A. M. Mantell, Lieutenant R.E.' 

Note. — The word ^ejou suggests that we have here the end of the usual funerary inscrip- 
tion, Mfij^a ^/aptgou. (See under head Wady Rababeh). — C. R. C. 




Scale. 
300 400 



BOO/eot 



A further note on this church was sent by the Rev. S. Merril, in 
1883 ('Quarterly Statement,' p, 23S). It appears that there was a 
chamber with a mosaic pavement east of the chapel. The letters 96 OY 
were legible in the mosaic. A water channel cut in rock, reaching -Xil 
feet east and west, was found north of the mosaic floor, and seems to be 
older than the building. It is 2\ feet deep, 20 inches wide at the top, 
and 12 inches at the bottom. It turns north, and runs for some 20 feet. 
There are three large cisterns under the buildings. 



39* THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIXE. 

Another tomb was found in the north-west corner of the chamber, 
with mosaic floor about 6 feet below the floor. It is lo feet long by 9 
feet wide with a doorway 2 feet wide, and steps on the north-east. On 
the east wall a cross is cut in relief, 22 inches long by 13 inches wide. 

On the left of the cross are letters deeply cut, 
JERUSALEM. j^^(j r [nchcs lottg, giving the initials KX ('the 

Inscription 

VuPs1d'/,1:i%'msscus''o^^ Lord Christ '). The lonili are 2 feet deep in the 

tomb, which resembles that planned by Lieutenant 
Mantell. 

About 200 yards north of the Asnerie, close 
to Captain Wilson's Excavation No. 2, is a 
curious tomb. It is 20 yards south-east from a 
house, with cistern No. 81 to the south, and 
another cistern to the east. 



(€POY 

-NGAIA 
O P C C 

5S^ » - " " " 

\3"^\- 3 I A scarp 7 feet high is here laid bare, running 

• tiJi \ for 25 feet north and south. At the north-west 

corner it turns east, and at the south end it 

runs west, and was traced 8 feet. A plastered cistern has been built 

against the north face of the scarp. A building seems to have stood on 

the top, with a tesselated pavement visible in two places. 

Two rock-cut tombs exist in the scarp, which have their entrance from 
the west, and shafts reaching up to the surface of the ground. The 
southern tomb has two locttli, one each side, and a third at its east end 
directed north and south. The loculi at the side are 5 feet 10 inches by 
I foot 7 inches, and i foot 5 inches deep. There is an arcosolium over 
each. The end loculus is 4 feet 7 inches long, i foot 2 inches wide. 

The northern tomb has only two loculi, one at the end being 3 feet 
7 inches long. 

The shafts arc 5 feet 10 inches long, 2 feet across, and the height to 
the top of the shaft from the floor of the tomb is 7 feet 6 inches. 

I lalf way up the shafts, which are open on the west side, there are two 
grooves (one in each shaft), 2 feet i inch above the arcosoUa ; they are 
4 inches deep and high. Into these slabs of stone fitted, dividing the 
shaft into two tiers. Some of the slabs were found near. 

The loculi were full of bones and powdered bone-dust, pronounced by 
Dr. Chaplin to be ancient. 



JERUSALEM. 393 

Five feet lo inches north of the north tomb is a niche or excavation, 
as though for an unfinished tomb. 

These tombs resemble that described above near the Asnerie, and 
in common with all the rock- sunk tombs having shafts to the surface, may 
perhaps be ascribed to Christian times. The scarp may have been cut at 
a later period, laying open the west end of the chamber originally reached 
only from above. The building over the tombs may also be later. 

Immediately south of these tombs is the tank, the north wall of which 
is formed of four very large stones, resembling those of the Haram walls. 
Sir Charles Wilson's Excavation No. 2, at this spot, showed the stones 
to be probably not in situ ; and on digging a trench across the line on the 
west no further continuation of the line of masonry could be found. The 
stones have smooth faces, and drafts 5 inches wide and \ inch deep. The 
three eastern stones measure about 7^ feet, 5 feet and 1 1 feet 9 inches 
respectively in length. 

Further west (as marked on the Ordnance Survey) was another line, 
consisting of five stones resting on the rock, which has not, however, been 
cut to receive them. This group was carefully examined by Sir Charles 
Wilson, his Excavation No. 3 determining that the stones were under- 
pinned with small ones, and perhaps not in situ. The row could be 
traced further west, and several large stones were scattered near in front 
of the line. The four stones excavated had together a length of 2 1 feet. 
The height of the course was 4 feet 4 inches ; the drafts were 3 to 4 inches 
broad ; the faces were left rough, projecting sometimes 6 inches. 

These stones have since been destroyed. Together with the first 
group, there can be litde doubt that they once belonged to the wall of 
Agrippa, but there was doubt as to their being in situ, as they seem to 
have been re-used. 

Visited October, 1872. 

The Scarp on the (Modern) Sion Hill. 

H u m m a m T li b a r 1 y a (or D a u d). — The rock scarp of Jerusalem 
(' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1872, p. 169 ; January, 1875, P- 7 ; 
April, 1875, P- Si ; Ordnance Survey Notes, p. 61) was here excavated 
by Mr. Maudslay in 1874-5. 

50 



394 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Corner Tozocr. — The angle of the scarp is occupied by a square rock 
foundation, intended for a tower, and facing approximately north and 
south. The top of the scarp is at a level 2,483 above the sea. The 
tower foundation measures 48 feet north and south by 50 east and west, 
and is 20 feet high on the west edge of the scarp. In front of it on this 
side is a flat platform of rock 20 to 25 feet broad. Rock-cut steps lead 
up eastwards from this along the southern face of the tower scarp. The 
platform ends in another scarp on the west, where the rock is 1 2 to 20 
feet lower. 

JVesi Scarp. — The scarp runs northwards from the tower, with an 
average height of 22 feet. It was traced for over 100 feet, and points 
towards the present south-west corner of the city wall. In the ilat surface 
of this part of the scarp a cistern 1 2 feet deep and 1 2 feet diameter is cut 
just north of the tower, and further north is a small rock-cut trough. 
Fragments of mosaic pavement were found during the excavations in 
this part. At the north end of the e.xcavation is a rock buttress 8 feet 
by 4 feet. There were also many stones 3 to 4 feet long, with deep 
marginal drafts and dressed faces ; they appeared to have fallen from 
above. In one was a round-headed loop-hole 6 inches diameter outside, 
I foot inside. These stones Mr. Maudslay built up, in 1874, into the 
wall marked ' Modern wall of ancient masonry.' 

The platform in front of this northern part of the scarp is under the 
cemetery of the Greek Catholics, and was therefore not traced. 

Sozith Scarp. — From the corner tower the wall of rock runs south 
for 45 feet, and then turns through an angle of some 40° east, and runs 
for no yards in the direction shown on the plan. Its top is about the 
level of that of the tower for 115 feet, and then rises to the level 2,485, 
or 4 feet higher. At the eastern end the bottom of the scarp is at a 
level 2,435, giving it a total height of 50 feet for over 150 feet along 
the line. 

The scarp appears to have a width of about 30 feet, and the rock 
shelves down on the inner or northern side, at least in one part, where the 
foundations of a room were sunk 14 feet lower than the level of the south 
front of the scarp before reaching the rock. This point was 100 feet from 
the angle. (A cistern may, however, exist here.) 

Behind the corner tower there is now a large cistern In the scarp 




^5-"'' 



.JW'--' 



JERUSALEM. 395 

40 feet by 15 feet and 8 feet deep. There are two others, as shown on 
the plan, 1 2 feet and 8 feet deep behind the large one, which latter was 
made by Mr. Maudslay by blowing three small ones into one. All these 
cisterns are rock-cut, but the rock was found to shelve down on the inside 
behind {i.e. east of) the tower to about the same level mentioned in the 
preceding paragraph. The scarp was therefore a broad wall of rock 
standing up 10 to 15 feet above the outer platform, and perhaps 14 feet 
above the inside surface, with an average width of 30 feet. 

In front of the south scarp near the corner there is a chamber, now a 
laundry, with a floor of rock on a level 2,472, or about 5 feet above that 
of the outer platform. The face of the scarp forms one wall of the 
laundry, and in this is a trough with an arcosoliuvi above like a loculus, 
and by it are two small mangers in rock. (Compare K h. D us trey, 
Sheet v., Section B.) 

At 115 feet from the corner the scarp rises vertically 4 feet higher, at 
which point a rock-buttress projects 5 feet from the scarp. A cistern 
1 2 feet deep was found behind this buttress, and another masonry cistern, 
now broken to pieces, was at one time built in front of the scarp and lined 
with hard reddish cement. This seems to be later work. 

The platform outside the corner tower was traced southwards, and 
found to be 20 feet wide at the angle. It runs in towards the scarp at the 
laundry. A new cistern was here found to be built just at the edge of the 
platform. 

At a point about 1 70 feet from the angle the rock-scarp was found to 
be 26 feet high, and had a platform 20 feet wide outside. It seems, 
therefore, that the platform follows the course of the scarp up to this 
point, when it terminates, and a step occurs of 7 feet down, the total 
height of the scarp being immediately afterwards 33 to 35 feet. 

In front of the termination of the outer platform a ditch was found. 
It was about 30 feet wide, the rock outside being on the same level with 
the platform. This ditch may perhaps run along the whole face of the 
work, but it was not followed out. It appears to slope down eastwards 
or drop suddenly, for at the far end of the scarp — no yards from the 
angle — the total height of the rock-wall is 45 feet. 

During the excavations along the southern scarp stones were found, 
some being voussoirs of large semicircular arches. Bases about i.^ feet 

50—2 



396 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

diameter were also found, and corbel stones. Also a tombstone with an 
inscription in Qo\k\\cz\\7!S2iC\.&x?,: Hie rcquiescit Jolts dc Valencinis. Stones 
appear to have been quarried out from the ditch in front of the outer plat- 
form, the marks of the quarrying still remaining. 

At the further or south-eastern end of the scarp there appears to have 
been a tower, the top of the tower-scarp being at a level 2,473, o^" 3^ feet 
above the bottom of the scarp. The tower projected 25 feet. A flight 
of steps (explored by Sir Charles Wilson) led up the face of the scarp 
towards this tower. Sir Charles Warren and Mr. Maudslay found them 
to reach the rock 2>1 feet below the top of the scarp. There are two 
flights, the upper of 9 steps, the lower of 27, or 36 in all, with a total 
rise of 32 feet, the breadth of the flight being about 4 feet, and the length, 
including the landing, 45 feet. 

The scarp in this part forms the boundary of the Protestant cemetery, 
which has a level 2,470 at the surface, and a depth of over 35 feet of soil, 
all composed of cidbris. 

At the top of the flight of steps above described there are two cisterns 
to which the name H u m m a m T u b a r i y a is given. They are cut in 
rock, with steps on the floors, having 6 feet of water at the back. The 
roofs are of masonry — a barrel vault, with narrow keystones and broad 
haunch stones. The masonry is of moderate size and very well cut, not 
drafted. The cisterns are respectively 10 feet by 6 feet and 10 feet by 
4 feet. 

East Scarp. — Mr. Maudslay's excavations were not pushed further 
than the eastern cemetery wall, which runs out of the scarp of the second 
tower. Beyond this point the scarp is covered up with rubbish for about 
70 feet, and then re-appears, running north-east and rudely cut. There 
are three cave-entrances in it in this part, leading into small rough caves 
explored in 1872. 

There appears to be a ditch in this part 45 feet wide. Its depth is 
unknown, as it is filled in with soil and debris. The opposite or outer 
side is formed by a rock counter-scarp, the level of the top being 2,480, or 
20 feet lower than the scarp, which is 2,500. In this counter-scarp there 
is a small cistern 9 feet deep, lined with cement. A second cistern, now 
filled up, exists close by. 

Rcsumd. — The scarp is thus seen to extend over 800 feet, as at 



JERUSALEM. 397 

present traced, and to run round three sides of a trapezoid. It appears to 
have two towers 370 feet apart, and perhaps one intermediate. The 
greatest sheer height is 45 feet. In the neighbourhood of the angle there 
is an outer platform averaging 20 feet in width, and 10 to 15 feet below 
the top of the scarp. 

There is also in one part a ditch 30 feet wide and 7 feet deep in front 
of the outer platform. 

The scarp is, near the angle, about 30 feet wide, and slopes down on 
the inside. 

There are altogether 18 cisterns, which supplied the scarp buildings 
with water, and two flights of stairs, one in connection with each tower. 

The direction of the scarp, east of the Protestant cemetery, is not fully 
explored. On the west the scarp runs in the continuation of the line of 
the modern west city wall. 

The masonry which stood above the scarp seems possibly to be of 
Crusading origin (judging from the loophole), and is connected with 
Crusading remains, i.e. the tombstone.* 

Visited July, 1872, January, 1875. Surveyed by a traverse with chain 
and 5 inch theodolite and compass. 



Jebel Deir Abu Tor (' Mountain of the Monastery of the 
Father of the Bull'). 

The hill south of Wady Rababeh, called by Christians since the four- 
teenth century 'the Hill of Evil Council,' and supposed to have been the 
site of the country house of Caiaphas, where Judas plotted to betray 
Christ. The little modern shrine of Abu Tor ('the Father of the 
Bull '), with a large solitary tree south of it, possibly marks the site of an 
old monastery of St. Mark. It is now consecrated to Sheikh Ahmed 
eth Thoreh, who is said to have accompanied Saladin riding on a bull. 
(See Name Lists, jd. 318.) 

* It has been suggested by Captain Conder that the rock-cut ditch outside this scarp is 
the 'gutter' mentioned in connection with David's siege of the Upper City (2 Sam. v. 8). 
The Rev. F. W. Birch, however, supposes this gutter to be Warren's shaft to the Virgin's 
Pool, as he adheres to the view that the City of David was south of the Temple. 



39S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Jebel et Tor (the Mount of Olives). 

The principal places of interest on the mountain are : the Church of 
the Ascension, the Cave of St. Pelagia, the Pater Noster Chapel, the 
Bcthphage Chapel, the Tomb of the Virgin, Gethsemane, and the 
Grotto of the Agony, with the remains found near the shrine of Sheikh 
Sclman el Farsi, and the Russian House, south-east of the village of 
et Tor. The so-called Tombs of the Prophets, on the south-western 
slope of the hill, also require notice. 

The Church of the Ascension is now a small chapel inside an 
enclosure of irregular polygonal form, measuring about 40 feet north 
and south by 30 east and west. This enclosure was bu