Skip to main content

Full text of "The survey of western Palestine : memoirs of the topography, orography, hydrography, and archaeology"

See other formats


= 0) 




= CD 

\v\ \ 


— r— «—«•—»>—«—» — 


special Edition. No. 



f^luiirman of Executive Committee. 




J .>' 



































These 'Memoirs of the Survey of Western P;ilestinc' have been 
drawn up from notes taken in the field by Lieutenants Conder and 
KiTCHEXER. They are divided into 'Sheets' corresponding with the 
divisions of the Great Map of Western Palestine, in twenty-six sheets, 
on the scale of one inch to a mile. The method pursued in the division 
and sub-divisions of the Memoirs was adopted in accordance with the 
recommendation of a sub-committee appointed for the purpose of con- 
sidering the best mode of presenting the information in their hands. 

The first volume contains the memoirs of the first six sheets. 
The work of Lieutenant Kitchener will be found in Sheets I — 
IV. and Sheet VL The fifth Sheet is the work of Lieutenant 
CoxDER. The notes of these officers are printed exactly as they 
were sent in, nothing being added or suppressed. The additions 
made by the editors are distinguished by being printed in small type. 
They will be found to supplement the information gix'cn by the 
Surveyors ; as, for example, under the head of ' Tyre ' will be found an 
account of the excavations conducted by Rexax. The opinions of other 
travellers on disputed sites, such as Capernaum, for instance, are also 
given. The works consulted for this volume are principally those ot 
RoBixsoN, Staxlev, Van de Velde, Renax, Wilsox, Porter, Sepp, 
Tristram, Thomson, Macgregor, and Guerin. 


The lm|x>rlanc«: of securing, without dilay. wn accurate accouiu ol 
the monuments still remaining in Western Palestine is illustr U( d liy ilic 
following note from the Rev. 11 1 >. Kawnsley (' Quarterly Statemciu,' 
April, iSSi) received after the following sheets were in type : 

'On rcaohing K.idcsh in Mny, 1S79, wc were disgusted to find that the marble sarcophagi 
and the Temple ruins were being broken up and demolished, to fill the yawning trenches 
that the Fclbhin navvies had dug for the foundations of a siigar/iutory. It appeared lliat a 
Damascus merchant was speculating in sugar, so the Fellahin said — in cotton, so the Drago- 
man afHrmed ; had Iwught the village, and wishing to run up buildings cheaply, was going to 
utilise such marble as he found in the ruins near. We bargained with backsheesh, that at 
any rate the sarcophagi as yet unbroken should be buried in the trench as they were.' 

The illustrations in this volume have all been taken from photo- 
graphs, drawings, and plans made by the officers during the conduct of 
the Survey. One only is excepted — Marino Sanuto's plan of Acre, 
the block of which was lent to the Committee by Mr. John !\Iurr.\y 
from Colonel Yule's edition of Marco Polo. The Ijjock of Sufsaf, 
drawn for the Builder from Lieutenant Kitciiexek's photograph, was 
also lent to the Committee by Mr. George Goinvi.x. 

The maps for which these Memoirs have been written arc edited 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Warren, C. M.G., R.K., and Major Anderson, 
C.NLG., R.PZ. The illustrations have been edited by Professor 
H.wter Lewis. 

A general index to the Memoirs will be found in the last volume. 

E. H. P. 
W. B. 

1, Ad.\ji Street, Adelphi, W.C., 
April, 1 88 1. 


Sarcophagi, Kades 
Method of Survey 
Kabr Hiram . 
Tyre, modern Si'ir 



To face page 23 


To face page 72 

Plan of Cathedral at SOr (Tyre) . . . . -73 

Cathedral at Tyrp:, looking east . . . To face pa^e 74 
Lintel at Abrikha ....... 107 

Figures on Tomi; at 'Alman . . . . . .108 

Grotto and Niches, B.vnias . . ' . To face page 109 

Niche, with Inscription on Tablet, at Banias . . . . .109 

Stone, with Flowers, at Banias . . . . .110 

Lintel, with Three Crosses, at y.\. Beiyad . . . .114 

Ancient Lintel at Deir DughIya . . . . • I'S 

Plan of Crusading Castle at Kulat ed Dubbeh . . .122 

Kulat Hun in . . . . . To face page 124 

Plan of Crusading Castle at Kulat HunIn . . . .124 

Banias, Kulat Subeibeh . . . . To face page 125 

Round Tower south face of Castle, Banias . . To face page 126 

Kulat Subeibeh ..... To face page 128 

Doorways at Chapel on Roof of Kulat esh Shukif (Crusading Castle of 

Belfort), with Plans of Mouldings and Sections . . 129—131 

Kulat esh ShukIf ..... To face page 130 
Plan of Kulat TibnIn (Crusading Castle of Toron), wiih Doorway at 

Southern Side in Castle . . . . -133' '34 

KuL.vr TiBNiN ..... To face page 134 

Greek Inscription on Capital of Column at Shakra . . •138 

Stones with Crosses at SiddIkIn . . . . -139 

viji 7 r^T n/- IT : cstka rroxs. 

Acre as rr was whi «J90i '•'o*' ""■ '*' ^^' i-"^' >>' "^' Mai*"no 

S\Ni'io . . . • 163 

Wmri: Mariiu: Tombstone, from thk Rvins of Maamii. kolnh in ihi. Holm; 

• \ Grkck Catholic Prikst at ei. Bi-ssa .168 

I'l^N or Remains at Kh. lUi.Ar '7' 

CoiONXAi.K. AT Dei AT .... To face page 172 


KCUt JitJuiN .... To face page 185 

RocK-cvT FiciRE OF HiMAX Hf:ai> at Kh. VAkiN • 'ffS 

KCmt ei. KiREiN, Crvsapixc Casti.e . To face page 186 

KCUt ei. Ki-KEIN ..... Tofacepage 188 

Scvi.m-RF.D Stone at ShIhIn . . . .192 


Poor of To.mii at ei> Duweir . . . .222 

KocK-ciT Sarcophagus, on Pede.stai, wuh Steps, at Hanjn . . 223 

MENTATION FRo.M Sarcophagus ; Heurew Inscription, and Scrap of orn.v- 
MENTED Stone ...... 224, 225 

Ruins of Temple, Kades .... To face page 226 

Kades — Plw of Sarcophagi ; PlvVN of the Temple of the Sun (.so-called) ; 
Pl.\n and Section of Masonry Tom is ; Plan and Seciion of Loculus ; 
Architr.we Moulding at Door .... 226 — 229 

Lintel of ^[A1N Gateway, with Bust of Baai, Temple, Kades To face page 227 

Masonry Tomb, Kadf.s .... Toface page 228 

Side G.vtew.av, with Figure of Eagle, Temple, Kades . To face page 229 

Portion of Cornice, Temple, Kades . . . To face page 230 

Sketch of Facade and Pl.\n of Great Synagogue at Kefk Bik'lm ; Archi- 
TRAYE Moulding on Doorposts; detail of .\rchitr.\ye ; Cornice under 
Architrave; Diagram of Gateway .... 230 — 232 

S\-xacogue, Kefr Bir'im .... To face page 230 

G.\teway of Small Synagogue, Kefr Bir'im . . To face page 232 

Plan of Tube Yusef . . ,,, 

Pl.\x of Remains of Temple at Kh. Keisun, and Moulding of Doorpost 240, 241 
Moulding of Lintel at Kh. en Nebratein ; Sketch of Candlestick on 
Lintel ; Sketch of Sculpture on Base of Column ; Hebrew Inscrip- 

™"' 243, 344 

Sketch of Sarcophagus at Kh. She.mA, with Plans; .utached Pilaster; and 

Pu\x OF Tunnel with Arched Roof . . 246, 24- 

Kuuat Safed . r;, r,., ^„„ 

J joce page 249 

Pu\N OF Arch of \"ault at el KulAh, or KulAt Safed 




Capital of Column, and Architrave with Greek. Inscription, at Marun er 

Ras . . . . . . . -251 

Synagogue at Meirox ..... To face page 252 

Sketch and Plan of Synagogue .vt MeirGn, with Mouldings and Diagram 
OF Doorway; Plan of Tomb of Rabbi Hillel; Plan of another Toimb; 
Sketche.s of Three Dolmens .... 252 — 254 

Sufsaf ...... To face page 257 

Plan of Church at YarCn, with Cornice, Doorway, Carved Panelling (?), 
Corinthian Capital and Doorpost of Modern Mosque, with Inscrip- 
tion . . . . " . 

'AthlIt ...... 

'.A.thl1t fro.m the South-west .... 

'Athlit from the South-east 

Principal Buildings .\t 'Athlit 


Reservoir of Spring called 'Ain U.m.m el F.\ruj . 

RocK-cuT To.MBS .AT BuRj Haifa 

Plan of Kh. Dustrey (Crusading Fort of Detroit) 

Stables .\t Kh. Dustrey .... 

Rock-hewn Cistern at Kh. el Keniseh 

Plan of Irregular-shaped, wtih isolafed Sarcophagus, 
Mithilia ..... 

Plan of Ruins .at Kh. ; Stone in the Ruins, and Liniel of the 

G.vie ....... 31S— 320 

Sketch and Plan of Curious Monu.ment at Kusr ez Zir, with Ionic Capi- 
tal of Pillar ...... 3-2 — 3^4 

Sketch and Plan of Cavern at Mugharet el Jehennum . . 325, 326 

Sculptured Heads at en N.asirah ..... 328 

Plan of Ruin .\t Rushmia, wuh Doorway of Solitary Tomb . 329, 330 

SeffCirieh— Plan and Section of Tombs; Plan of Reservoir; Plan and 
Moulding of Pedestal ; Sketches of Interior of Reservoir ; Plan of 
Church of St. Anne; Plan of Castle; Sketch of Window; Sarcopha- 
gus; Sketch of South Door, with enlargements of Mouldings 330 — 337 

Castle .\t Seffurieh ..... To face page 335 

Shefa 'Amr — F.A(jADE of Chief Tomb; Ba.s-reliefs on Vestibule; Plan of 

Ornamental Tomb; Skeich of Loculus . . • 34° — 34^ 

Sheik Abreik — Plan and Section of Tomb; Plan of Great Caves; Sketch 
of Chamber No. 6; Sketch of Head in White Marble from Sheik 
Abreik ....... 345 — 35° 

Plan and Section of Rock-cut Granaries at Yafa . • • 354 



To face page 




To face page 









AF Kh. 



Pi.\N or HniiiiNt: c.M.iJin ki. Miihughmi, anh Moiipinc ch I'iiasikk Cap 

ANi> Arch Profiu:, at ei. UaInkm -3^1 

MovNT Tabor, Jkbei. et Tor . To face page 388 

Plan of the Position ok the Khan ani> Fortress, Kuan 11 Ti-jjar, or SCk 

EL KhAn -395 

Rl'iNS of Svnacocij:, Irhih .... To face page 398 

Kh. Irbid — Plan of Tomh; I' ok Synagogue; North-east Doorpost; Stone 
Niche; Sketch of t%vo smai.i. sEMi-.\iTACHEn kluied Columns, with 
Moulding ...... 397 — 399 

Moulding of Doorpo-m and Sketchk:s ok Niches at Kii. Kikazkh . 400, 401 

Kh. Umm el 'Amed — Moulding and Uase-Seciion of Double Columns; 
MouiJ>iNGS AND Sketch ok Stvi.ohate ; Drafted Stones, with Bosses ; 
Ornamented I.i.ntel ..... 406 — 408 

Sketch of Carved Block of Blue Lime.stone from wai.i. ahovk Lcavkr Door- 
way .\T KCl-at Ibn M.\n ...... 410 

RIOR AND Exterior . . . . . 411, 412 

Tell-Hi"m — Pl.\n AND SEcmoN OK Masonry Tomb; Plan ok the Synagogue; 
Pl.\ns of Colu.mns; Moulding ok Base ok and Pedestal; Plan 
OF Top of Architrave; Section of Architrave; Soffit of Architr.\ve; 
Elevatio.v of Lintel over ^[\in Gateway, and Section through 
Lintel ...... 415, 416 




HE necessity for a society entirely de- 
voted to the work of collecting facts and 
information bearing on the Holy Land, 
its geography, ruins, people, and customs, 
seems first to have been perceived by a 
few Englishmen aliout the beginning of 
this century. The earliest ' Palestine 
Exploration Society' was founded in the 
year 1S04. It appears to have attracted 
little support. In 1S08 the Committee 
issued a volume, entitled ' Brief Account 
of the Countries adjoining the Lake of 
Tiberias, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea.' 
(1810. Hatchard, Piccadilly.) The 
book was a translation of certain rough 
notes made by Seetzen on his journey, and sent to Sir Joseph Banks by 
some unknown person, a member of the National Institute of Paris. A 
map of the country, which it would be interesting to reproduce, as 
illustrating the meagre geographical information then to be obtained 
on Palestine, accompanied the volume. The Committee, after publishing 
this volume, sent out two travellers, furnished with funds, and instructed 
VOL. I. 1 


to conduct an expedition of exploration, but they were stopped at Mali.i 
by information of the dantjerous condition of the country. 

After this elTort the very existence of the Society seems to have been 
fortjotten, even by its founders and oriijinal members, for twenty-six years. 
On the 2Sth of January, 1S34, a meeting was held, under the presidency 
of Mr. Bartlc Frerc, at which it was resolved to dissolve the Society, 
and to hand over to the Royal Geographical Society, then recently 
founded, all their books and papers, with the funds, amounting to 
£\oS 9s. 8d., then in their hands. 

In the year 1S40 another Association, with the same name and similar 
objects, was established. No attempt at scientific exploration in the field 
was made by this Association, which, after the issue of certain pamphlets 
and transactions, merged into the Syro-Egyptian Society. This, in its 
turn, has now become the Biblical Archaeological Society. 

The establishment of the present Palestine Exploration Fund took 
place twenty-five years later, and was effected by a far more powerful and 
influential Association than either of its predecessors. It was the result 
of a conviction forced upon the minds of a very large number of scholars, 
travellers, and persons interested in science and sacred history, that the 
state of our knowledge of Palestine was very far from what it ought to be ; 
and that, to make it as complete as possible, individual effort must 
give way to such scientific exploration as can only be obtained by 
organised expeditions conducted by specially-trained and qualified ex- 

This opinion, once formally stated, was found to be held by all living 
travellers in Palestine and students of the history and geography of 
Palestine, ancient and modern ; including, among the P""rench, the Due de 
Luynes, the Marquis de Voglie, and M. de Saulcy ; among the Germans, 
Herrs Petermann, Tobler, Kiepert, and Sepp ; among the Americans, the 
Rev. Dr. Thomson ; and among the English, the Archbishop of York, with 
the important body of gentlemen who formed the first Committee. 
Those who had travelled in the country had learned by experience how 
litde had been done and how much was waiting to be done ; those who, like 
the contributors to Smith's ' Dictionary of the Bible,' had searched for their 
own purposes among the vast mass of literature connected with Palestine, 
were able to realise, each in his own department, how many and how 


important were the gaps which had to be filled up. Thus, in geography 
alone, there are, according to Lieut. Conder (' Tent Work,' vol. ii. 
P- ooZ)^ 622 names of places in Palestine west of the Jordan men- 
tioned in the Bible : of these only a little more than one-third had been 
identified, and this after the careful journeys of Dr. Robinson, who added 
so many to the list of recovered sites. It was found impossible to lay 
down the boundaries of the tribes ; the track of the ancient roads had 
never been made out ; and he who would try to follow the marches of 
Joshua, or the wanderings of David, or the route of an invader, in the 
maps of Berghaus, Kiepert, or Vandevelde, soon gave up the task as 
hopelessly impossible. In geology we were in ignorance of almost every 
detail. In natural history the field had been worked only by Roth and 
Tristram. In archaeology hardly anything had been done. 

In the years 1S64-65, a work was undertaken which called general 
attention to the subject, and may be considered to have greatly facilitated 
the founding of the Society. A committee, formed for the purpose of 
considering the sanitary condition of Jerusalem, conveyed a request, 
through Dean Stanley, to the Secretary of State for War to allow 
a survey of the city to be made under the direction of the Ordnance 
Survey Department, the expenses, estimated at ^500, having been 
promised to the Committee by Lady Burdett Coutts. Sir Henry James, 
the Director of the Ordnance Survey, appointed Captain (now Lieut.- 
Colonel) C. W. Wilson, R.E., with si.x men of the Royal Engineers, to 
execute the work. The survey was accomplished by Captain Wilson, and, 
at the same time, tentative excavations and observations were made by him 
which seemed to promise results that, if not as rich as those in Assyria, 
would certainly prove as interesting. Reports of these exca\'ations 
reached England at a favourable moment, when travellers and students 
alike were dissatisfied and ready to join in a movement for united and 
organised work on a large scale, should anyone be found to give the 

The word was given by Mr. George Grove, the principal contributor 
to the Geographical Articles of Smith's ' Dictionary of the Bible,' and 
therefore better fitted than any other to speak of the need for exploration. 
It was by his efforts that the first preliminary meeting was held in the 
Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster, on Friday, the 12th of May, 1S65. 

I — 2 


The chair was taken I'V the Archbishop of York, and there were 

present : 

Mr. W. Ilcpworth Dixon. 
Mr. James I'crgusson. 
Mr. George Grove. 
Mr. CuUing Hanbiiry. 
Rev. Canon Hawkins. 
Dr. Joseph Hooker. 
Rev. Sanuicl Martin. 
Mr. Walter Morrison. 
Mr. John Murray. 
Sir Roderick Murchison. 
Professor Owen. 

Rev. Dr. Piisey. 
Mr. Henry Reeve. 
Mr. G. Gilbert Scott. 

Ml", j. AIjcI Smilh. 
Mr. W. Spottiswoode. 
Mr. W. Tipping. 
Mr. \V. Tite. 
Rev. A. W. Thorold. 
Dean of Westminster. 
Rev. George Williams. 
Mr. W. .S. W. \^au.\. 

Rev. E. II. Plumptrc. 

At this meeting the Society was formally constituted, under the title of 
the Palestine E.xploration Fund, ' for the purpose of investigating the 
Archaeology, Geography, Geology, and Natural History of the Holy Land.' 
The first Treasurers were Mr. Culling Hanbury and Mr. J. Abel Smith ; 
and the Honorary Secretary W'as Mr. George Grove. It was resolved to 
hold a General Public Meeting as early as possible. A Committee was 
appointed, consisting of those present, and, in addition, the following : 

Duke of Arg)dl. 

Dean of Christchurch. 

Earl of Derby. 

Duke of Devonshire. 

Bishop of Ely. 

Mr. F. W. Gibbs. 

Mr. Samuel Gurney. 

Bishop of London. 

Mr. (now. Sir) A. H. Layard. 

Mr. Ambrose De Lisle. 

Rev. Norman MacLeod. 

Mr. Samuel Morley, ]\LP. 

Bishop of Oxford. 

Mr. Antonio Panizzi. 

Dean of St. Paul's. 

Sir S. Morton Pcto. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson. 

Earl Russell. 

Dr. William Smith. 

Earl of Shaftesbury. 

The Speaker (Lord Ossington). 

Rev. H. B. Tristram. 

And a Sub-Committee was appointed, consisting of the Archbishop of 
York, the Dean of Westminster, and Professor Owen, for the purpose of 
drawing up a statement of the general purposes of the Association. 


In addition to the above, the following gentlemen have from time to 
time become members of the General Committee : 

Mr. H. W. Acland, F.R.S. 

Rev. W. Lindsay Alexander, D. D. 

Dean Alford. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

Mr. Amhurst Tyssen Amhurst. 

Major Anderson, R.E., C.M.G. 

Rev. Dr. Angus. 

Mr. James Bateman, F.R.S. 

Archdeacon Bickersteth. 

Rev. H. M. Birch. 

Dr. Samuel Birch. 

Rev. W. F. Birch. 

Rev. S. S. Bradley. 

Rev. H. M. Bullcr. 

Mr. T. Farmer Baily. 

Marquis of Bute. 

Earl of Carnarvon. 

Mr. T. Chaplin, M.D. 

Bishop of Chester. 

Dean of Chester. 

Lord Alfred Churchill. 

Lord Claremont. 

Lieut. Conder, R.E. 

Mr. J. D. Crace. 

Mr. John Cunliffe. 

Mr. Emanuel Deutsch. 

Professor Donaldson. 

Earl of Ducie. 

Earl of Dufferin. 

Earl of Dunraven. 

Bishop of Durham. 

Mr. F. A. Eaton. 

Mr. S. Jackson Eldridge, C.M.G. 

Sir Howard Elphinstone, K.C.B. 

Bishop of Exeter. 

Rev. Canon Farrar. 

Mr. A. Lloyd Fox. 

Mr. H. W. Frccland. 

M. C. Clermont- Ganneau. 

Rev. D. Ginsburg. 

Mr. James Glaisher. 

Mr. Cyril C. Graham. 

Mr. H. A. Harper. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison. 

Rev. Roswell Hitchcock, D.D. 

Rev. F. W. Holland. 

.Sir Henry Holland. 

Col. Home, R.E., C.B. 

Mr. A. J. Beresford Hope, ALP. 

Rev. H. I-hill lioughton. 

Mr. Holman Hunt. 

Bishop of Jerusalem (Dr. Barclay). 

Lieut. Kitchener, R.E. 

Mr. E. H. Lawrence, F.S.A. 

Lord Lawrence. 

General Lcfroy. 

Sir F. Leighton, P.R.A. 

Lord Henry Lennox. 

Professor Hayter Lewis. 

Bishop of Lichfield. 

Dean of Lichfield. 

Bishop of Llandaff 

Mr. Samuel Lloyd. 

Mr. William Longman. 

Mr. W. M 'Arthur, M.P. 

Mr. John MacGregor. 

THE scRVEY OP wi:sti:k.\ rAI.ESriXF.. 

Rev. Sanuirl Manning, P.P. 

Mr. K. H. Martin. 

Mr. 1 Icnry Maialslay. 

Mr. Kdward Miall, M.P. 

Rev. Dr. Moflatt. 

Sir Moses Monicfiorc. 

Mr. Xocl Temple Moore. 

Rev. Joseph Mullens, PP. 

Sir Charles Nicholson. 

Duke of Northumberland. 

Dean of Norwich. 

Mr. Lawrence Oliphant. 

Admiral Sir Erasmus Omman- 

Professor E. II. Palmer. 
Bishop of Peterborough. 
Herr Petermann. 
Rev. J. L. Porter, LL.D. 
Rev. Professor Pritchard. 
Rev. Professor Ravvlinson. 
Bishop of Ripon. 
Marquis of Ripon. 
Baron Lionel de Rothschild. 

Pcan (.f St. Paul's (Rev. Dr. 

\'iscounl Sandon. 
Pr. Sandreczky. 
^L de Saulcy. 

Lord Henry J. 1\L P. Scott. 
Mr. William Simpson. 
Major Stewart, R. K. 
Rev. John Stoughton, P.P. 
Viscount Strangford. 
X'iscounl Stratford de Redcliffe. 
Duke of Sutherland. 
Lord Talbot de Malahitle. 
Mr. Vandevelde. 
Rev. C. J. Vaughan, P.P. 
Marquis de Vogue. 
General Walker. 
Lt.-Col. Warren, C.M.G., R.E. 
Lt.-Col. C. W. Wilson, C.B., R.E. 
Bishop of Winchester. 
Mr. George Wood. 
Mr. T. H. Wyatt. 
Earl of Zetland. 

The first Public Meeting was held on June 22nd, 1865, at Willis's Rooms. 
The Archbishop of York took the chair. The speakers were the Bishop 
of London (now the Archbishop of Canterbury), Viscount Strangford, 
Sir A. H. Layard, the Marquis de Vogue, Sir Roderick Murchison, Mr. 
W. Gifford Palgrave, Professor Owen, the Rev. H. B. Tristram, the 
Dean of Westminster, the Dean of Canterbury, the Bishop of Moray and 
Ross, and Dr. William Smith. The response of the public to the appeal 
made at this meeting for funds to make of the Society a great national 
institution worthy of the objects it had in view, left no doubt as to the 
support which would be given. The sum of over ^2,500 was promised 
at, or in consequence of, this meeting. Before the end of the year 1865 
the subscriptions paid amounted to ^1,438. The receipts for the year 
1 866 amounted to ^1,965. 


On the I St of October, 1S65, the Original Prospectus of the Society 
was issued. It was as follows : 

' No countr)' should be of so much interest to us as that in which the documents 
of our Faith were written, and the momentous events tliey describe enacted. At 
the same time no country more urgently requires illustration. The face of the 
landscape, the climate, the productions, the manners, dress, and modes of life of its 
inhabitants, differ in so many material respects from those of the Western world, that 
without an accurate knowledge of them it is not too much to say the outward form 
and complexion of the events and much of the significance of the records must 
remain more or less obscure. Even to a casual traveller in the Holy Land the Bible 
becomes, in its form, and therefore to some extent in its substance, a new book. 
Many an allusion which hitherto had no meaning, or had lain unnoticed, starts into 
prominence and throws a light over a whole passage. It is not to be expected that 
the modes of life and manners of the ancient Israelites will be revealed by any 
discovery of monuments in the same fulness that those of the Egyptians and 
Assyrians have been. But still, information of value cannot fail to be obtained in 
the process. Much would be gained by obtaining an accurate map of the country ; 
by settling disputed points of topography ; by identifying ancient towns of Holy 
Writ with the modern villages which are their successors ; by bringing to light the 
remains of so many races and generations which must lie concealed under the 
accumulation of rubbish and ruins on which those villages stand; by ascertaining 
the course of the ancient roads ; by the discovery of coins, inscriptions, and other 
relics — in short, by doing at leisure and systematically that which has hitherto been 
entirely neglected, or done only in a fragmentary manner by the occasional unassisted 
efforts of hurried and inexperienced travellers. Who can doubt that if the same 
intelligence, zeal, knowledge, and outlay were applied to the exploration of Palestine 
that have recently been brought to bear on Halicarnassus, Carthage, Cyrene— places 
without a single sacred association and with little bearing on the Bible — the result 
would be a great accession to our knowledge of the successive inhabitants of S}Tia — ■ 
Canaanite, Israelite, Roman ? 

' Hitherto the opportunity for such s}-stematic research has been wanting. It 
appears now to have arrived. The visit of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales to the 
Mosque at Hebron has broken down the bar which for centuries obstructed the 
entrance of Christians to that most venerable of the sanctuaries of Palestine ; and 
may be said to have thrown open the whole of Syria to Christian research. 

'The survey of Jerusalem at present in progress under the direction of Captain 
Wilson, R.E. — a survey supported by the private liberality of a single person — has 
shown how much may be done with tact, temper, and opportunity, without arousing 
the opposition of the authorities or inhabitants. Recent letters of Sir H.James and 
others in the Times have borne testimony to the remarkable fitness of Captain 

s 7v^^ sr/n/^y OF westerx Palestine. 

Wilson for such u:u!cilakin!::>5,aiul luvc pointed out other places where explorations 
niigljt be advantageously carried on. 

• It is therefore proposed to raise a fund to be applied to the piiiposc.-; of 
investigating the Holy Land by employing competent persons to examine the 
following points : 

' I. .■/r<-//.r.'/.'ji>'.— Jerusalem alone would hunish an ample field in this depart- 
ment. What is above ground will be accurately known when the present survey is 
completed ; but below the surface hardly anything has yet been discovered. The 
Tombs of the Kings on Mount Zion— the course of the Tyropceon Valley— the real 
extent of the Temple enclosure— the site of the Tower of Antonio— of the Palace 
of Herod— of Ophel— of the Pool of Bethesda— the position of the Towers of 
Hippicus and Pscphinus— the spring and conduit of Hczckiah— arc all awaiting 
excavation ; and it is not too much to anticipate that every foot in depth of the 
'sixty feet of rubbish ' on which the city stands, will yield interesting and important 
materials for the Archaeologist or the Numismatist. 

' Beyond the Holy City the country is full of sites which cannot fail amply to 
repay examination. Of these a few only may be enumerated :— Mount Gerizim, 
possibly the Moriah of Abraham's sacrifice, certainly the Holy Place of the 
Samaritans, containing the stones which they allege to have been brought up by 
Israel from the bed of the Jordan— the Valley of Shcchcm, the earliest settlement 
of Jacob in the Holy Land, with his Well and the Tomb of Joseph— Samaria, with 
the traditional tombs of John the Baptist and others, and with the extensive remains 
of Herod's edifices— the splendid Roman cities along the coast, Czesarea of Herod 
and St. Paul — Antipatris— the once-renowned harbours of Jamnia and Gaza — the 
mounds and other remains of Jiljilieh, probably the Gilgal which contained the 
Great College of Prophets in the days of Elijah and Elisha— the Fortress and 
Palace of Herod at Jcbel Furcidis— the Tombs (probably those of Joshua) at Tibnch 
— the mounds of Jericho— the numerous remains in the Valley of the Jordan — 
Bethshean, one of the most ancient cities of Palestine, with remarkable remains of 
Roman, and probably still earlier, date — Jezreel, the capital of Ahab and Jczcbcl — 
the Assyrian mound, called Tell es Salhiych, near Damascus, etc., etc. 

' 2. Manners and Customs. — A work is urgently required which shall do for the 
Holy Land what Mr. Lane's "Modern Egyptians" has done for Egypt — describe in 
a systematic and exhaustive order, with clear and exact minuteness, the manners, 
habits, rites, and language of the present inhabitants, with engravings intended, like 
his, " not to embellish the pages, but to explain the text." Many of the ancient and 
peculiar customs of Palestine are fast vanishing before the increasing tide of Western 
manners, and in a short time the exact meaning of many things which find their 
correspondences in the Bible will have perished. There are frequent references to 
these things in the books of travellers, and they have recently formed the subject of 
more than one entire work ; but nothing sufficiently accurate or systematic has been 


done. It can only be accomplished by the lengthened residence of a thoroughly 
competent person. 

' 3. Topography. — Of the coast-line of Palestine we now possess an accurate map 
in the recent Admiralty Charts. What is wanted is a survey which when we advance 
inland should give the position of the principal points throughout the country with 
equal accuracy. If these were fixed, the intermediate spots and the smaller places 
could be filled in with comparative ease and certainty. In connection with the 
topography is the accurate ascertainment of the levels of the various points. The 
elevation of Jerusalem and the depression of the Dead Sea are already provided for 
by the liberality of the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society ; but the 
level of the Sea of Galilee (on which depends our knowledge of the true fall of the 
Jordan) is still uncertain within no less than 300 feet — as are other spots of almost 
equal moment. 

' The course of the ancient roads, and their coincidence with the modern tracks, 
has never been examined with the attention it deserves, considering its importance 
in the investigation of the history. 

'The principle on which the modern territorial boundaries are drawn, and the 
towns and villages allotted between one district and another, would probably throw 
h'ght on the course of boundaries between the tribes and the distribution of the 
villages, which form the most puzzling point in the otherwise clear specifications of 
the Book of Joshua. 

'4. Geology. — Of this we are in ignorance of almost every detail. The valley of 
the Jordan and basin of the Dead Sea is geologically one of the most remarkable 
on the earth's surface. To use the words of Sir Roderick Murchison, " it is the key 
to the whole of the geology of the district." Its Biblical interest is equally great. 
To name but one point. The decision of the question whether any volcanic changes 
have occurred round the margin of the lake within the historical period, may throw 
a new aspect over the whole narrative of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. 

' 5. Natural Sciences — Botany, Zoology, Meteorology. — These are at present but 
very imperfectly known, while the recent investigations of Mr. Tristram, limited as 
they necessarily were, show that researches are likely to furnish results of no common 
scientific interest. Naturalist after naturalist will devote himself for years to the 
forests of South America, or the rivers of Africa. Why should we not have some of 
the same energy and ability applied to the correct description of the lilies and cedars, 
the lions, eagles, fo.xes, and ravens of the Holy Land ? 

' It will perhaps be said that many of the points above enumerated have been 
already examined- — that Robinson, Stanley, Rosen, and others have done much in 
the department of topography — that Hooker, and more recently Tristram, have 
reported on the botany — that Roth and Tristram have brought home shells, fish, 
birds, and eggs — that the researches of M. Lartet on the geology of the Dead Sea 
and those of the Due de Luynes, De Vogiie, and De Saulcy on archaeology, are on 
vol.. I. 2 


the cvc of publication. Tiiis is true; but without intending to detract from tlic 
usefulness or the credit of the labours of these eminent men, it is sufficient to observe 
that their researches have been partial and isolateii, and their results in too many 
ca-r '" - -innt with each other. What is now proposed is an expedition composed 
of t .A- competent persons in each branch of research, with perfect command 

of funds and time, and with all possible appliances and facilities, who should produce 
a report on Palestine which might be accepted bj- all parties as a truslwortli)- and 
thoroughly satisfactory document. 

' It is hoped that an arrangement may be made by which Ca[)tain Wilson will 
be able to remain for a few months in the country after he has completed the survey 
of Jerusalem and the levelling between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea ; and 
it will not be difficult to find competent persons to undertake the other departments 
named above. The annual cost of each investigator ma\- be taken roughly at ^800 
(including both remuneration and expenses). 

' Her Majesty the Queen has been graciously pleased to become the Patron of 
the Association, and to contribute to its funds. 

'The British Association for the Advancement of Science, at its recent meeting 
at Birmingham, signified its approval of the undertaking, and its sense of the 
importance and feasibility of the investigation, by voting .£^100 in its aid. 

' Subscriptions are received by the Bankers of the Association, Messrs. Coutts 
and Co., Strand ; and the Union Bank of London, Princes Street, Mansion House, 
and by the Honorary Secretarj'. 

' V>y order of the Committee, 
Oct. \sf, 1S65. 'George Grove, Hon. Secretary: 

At the first meeting of the Committee held after the formation of this 
Society (July 27th, 1865), Captain Wilson, who had recently returned from 
Jerusalem, read a report, which he had prepared for the Committee, on 
the work which seemed most desirable to be first set in hand. 

It was thereupon Resolved — ' That it is expedient to send out a small 
party to explore and excavate in Palestine during the ensuing winter and 
spring, and that a sum of ;^2,ooo be set apart for the expenses of the 
expedition ; and that Captain Wilson be requested to take charge of the 
expedition, if the consent of the War Office can be obtained.' 

Definite instructions were drawn up for him at the next meetin"- 
(August 3rd, 1865), and the expedition, under the command of Captain 
Wilson, R.E., who had with him Lieutenant Anderson, R.E., was finally 
despatched at the end of October, and work was carried on in the country 
from December, 1865, to May, 1866. 


The principal results of this, the first, expedition were drawn up from 
Captain Wilson's letters by the Archbishop of York, the Dean of West- 
minster, and Professor Owen. The following is their report, the first 
' Statement of Progress' issued by the Society : 

' In pursuance of the plan adopted by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1865, 
Captain Wilson, of the Ro^'al Engineers — who had so succcssfull}' conducted the 
Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, at the cost of Miss Burdett-Coutts — was sent out, 
in company with Lieutenant Anderson, R.E., with the view of making such a general 
survey of the country as would enable the promoters of the Fund to fix on particular 
spots for further investigation, and also to collect such special information as was 
compatible with the larger purpose of the expedition, and as would throw light on 
any of the points mentioned in the first programme of the Exploration Fund. 

'The expedition was constantly employed in the country from December, 1865, 
to May, \%G6, and its results maj' be briefl)' stated as follows : 

' I. Topograpliy. — By accurate observations for time and latitude, made at fort}'- 
nine separate points between Be'rut and Hebron, and by a line of azimuths carried 
through the country' from Banias to Jerusalem, a series of detailed maps has been 
formed, on the scale of one mile to an inch (the scale of the English Ordnance 
Survey), of the whole backbone of the country, from north to south, including the 
Lake of Genesareth and all the watercourses descending to its western shores. 

' Two debated questions have been definitely settled — the confluence of the 
Jabbok (Wady Zerka) with the Jordan, and the course of the Wady Surar. The 
nature of the country, especially in the south, is very unfavourable for rapid recon- 
naissance, as the numerous watercourses are so narrow, and have such tortuous 
courses, that it is unsafe to trust the eye and lay anything Aoww that has not 
actually been visited. Most of the errors in the existing maps seem to have arisen 
in this way. To remedy this defect has been the aim of the present map, and must 
be the aim of any completions to it hereafter. 

'2. A)-cluvology. — Materials have been collected for making about fifty plans, 
with detailed drawings, of churches, synagogues, mosques, temples, tombs, etc., 
amongst which are the plans of the cities of Beisan, Sebastiyeh, and Ca:sarea ; of 
the Holy Place of the Samaritans, and the ruined Church of Justinian, on the 
summit of Mount Gerizim ; of ancient churches at Baalbek, Yarun, Sebastiyeh, 
Beitin, Bireh, Ca:sarea, Lydda, Beit Jibrin, Kuryet el Enab, and Jerusalem ; of 
seven Jewish synagogues ; of the Grand Mosque at Damascus ; of a mosque at 
Nablus ; of Temples at Deir el Kalah, Mejdel-Anjar, and Kades ; and of numerous 
tombs in various parts of the country. 

' Inscriptions were found and copied at the Nahr el Kelb, Deir el Kalah, Masi, 
Damascus, Tell Salhiyeh, Harran, el Awamid, Banias, Kades, Yarun, Nebartein, 

,i 7nr FrRvr.y of western Palestine. 

Kcfr Rir'iin, k.i-v uii. XAbhis. Several of these arc new, two of ihcni in tlic 
Hebrew character, ami others hi the Samaritan. Squeezes were taken of the most 
important, including the tablets of Sennacherib at Nahr el Kelb. The Hebrew and 
Samaritan inscriptions have been referred to Mr. Dcut.sch, of the ]5iitisli Museum, 
who has kindly undertaken to report upon their contents, age, etc. 

' The most interesting remains are those of the ancient synagogues at Tell Hum, 
Irbid, Kcfr Bir'im, etc. To these attention has been called by Ur. Robinson, in his 
'• Later Uiblical Researches." T.ut the present expedition has furnished the first com- 
plete account of their arrangement and construction. They all lie north and south, 
have three gateways in the southern end, the interior divided into five aisles b}- four 
rows of columns, and the two northern corners formed by double engaged columns. 
The style of decoration does not always appear to have been the same. At Tell 
Hum (the strongest claimant for the site of Capernaum) and Kerazeh (Chorazin), 
Corinthian capitals were found ; at Irbid a mi.xture of Corinthian and Ionic ; whilst 
Kefr Bir'im.Meirun, and Umm el Amiid have capitals of a peculiar character. The 
faces of the lintels over the gateways are usually ornamented with some device : at 
Nebartein there is an inscription and representation of the seven-branched candle- 
stick : at Kcfr Bir'im the ornament appears to have been intended for the Paschal 
Lamb ; and at Tell Hum there are the pot of manna and lamb. A scroll of vine- 
leaves with bunches of grapes is one of the most frequent ornaments. 

'The position of Chorazin at Kerazeh, a couple of miles north of Tell Hum — 
which had been indicated by the Rev. G. Williams in 1842 — now seems to be fixed 
with tolerable certainty, by the presence of extensive remains, including those of a 

' The ancient system of irrigating the Plain of Genesareth can still be traced, and 
may help to throw light on the site of Capernaum. From the streams which descend 
the three wadys of Hamam, Rubudiyeh, and Amud, water was carried to the right 
and left by small aqueducts ; and beyond these, towards the north-east, the plain 
was watered by the spring of Tabghah. The Round Fountain seems to have irri- 
gated a comparatively small extent of ground between Wady Rubudiyeh and Wady 
Hamam, the aqueducts from both of which can be traced nearly up to their 
sources, the latter one being still in use. By carefully using the water derived from 
these sources the entire plain was perfectly irrigated, and, from the richness of its 
soil, must have been of great fertility. Neither 'Ain et Tineh nor the Round Fountain 
answer to the account given by Josephus of the Fountain of Kcpharnome ; they 
are too small, and hardly come into the scheme of irrigation — the former not at all. 
But supposing it to be 'Ain Tabghah, his allusion is at once explained by the 
copiousness of the supply, and the excavated channel through the rock above Khan 
Minia, by which the water was carried into the plain. The fertilising powers of 
the fountain are still attested by the rank vegetation around the mills, more notice- 
able there than at any other point on the lake. 


' Near the mouth of Wacly Scmakh, on the eastern shore of the lake, some ruins 
called Kersa were visited, possibly those of the ancient Gergasa ; and between this 
and Wady Fik (opposite Tiberias), appears to have been the scene of the destruc- 
tion of the herd of swine — indeed, no other point on that side of the lake is so 
suitable. From the eastern plateau the ground slopes steeply, in a few places almost 
precipitously, down to the level of the lake, leaving a margin of fertile land from 
half a mile to a mile broad between the base of the hills and the water ; but at this 
particular point, and only at this, a spur runs out to the shore. There is no " cliff," 
but a slope sufficiently steep to fulfil the requirements of the Bible narrative. 

' Excavations were made in three places in the mound of Tell Salhiyeh, appa- 
rently an Assyrian monument, near Damascus, during which the sculptural slab 
mentioned in Porter's " Five Years in Damascus " was re-discovcred. Owing to the 
badness of the weather it was not advisable to persevere with the exploration at 
that time, but it has been since resumed by Mr. Rogers, her Majesty's Consul at 
Damascus, to whom a sum of .^50 has been voted by the Committee for that special 

' Besides determining the general form of the authentic synagogues, the excava- 
tions made at Kades confirm the conjecture that the supposed synagogue there was 
a Greek temple, of about the same age as those at Baalbek. At Jerusalem, the gate 
Gennath, so-called, was found to be of comparatively modern construction ; and the 
continuation of the passage from the Bab el Burak of the Ilaram was discovered. 
The vault is of massive, well-built masonry, and there seems no reason to doubt 
that it is one of the original entrances to the Herodian Temple. 

' On Mount Gerizim numerous excavations were made, under the direction of 
Lieutenant Anderson. Within the ruin known as the " Castle" the foundations of 
an octagonal church were laid bare, probably the one kno\\'n to have been built 
there by Justinian. On the eastern side of the church is an apse, on the northern 
side the main entrance, and on each of the others doors leading to small side- 
chapels. In the interior are the piers of a smaller octagon, apparently intended to 
carry a dome. The church and castle were found to be built on a rough platform 
of large stones laid together without mortar, and of this — which may possibly be 
that on which the Samaritan Temple stood— the so-called " twelve stones " form a 
portion. No trace of large foundations could be found on the southern portion of 
the small plateau on which the castle stands. Close to the Holy Rock of the 
Samaritans a number of human remains were dug up, but no clue could be obtained 
to their age or nationality. 

' 3. PlwtograpJis. — A series of photographs (9-1-6), 166 in number, have been 
taken, the majority for the first time. They comprise views of sites, d etails of 
architecture, inscriptions, etc., the Samaritan Pentateuch, and a 'i&w natural objects. 
They are sold to the public at \s. 6d. each, but subscribers to the Fund have the 
privilege of purchasing them at the reduced price of \s. each, with a further reduc- 
tion on taking a number. 


' Holh as a matter of satisfaction in the first expedition, and as an encourage- 
ment for future researches, it may be mentioned llial the Aial) population was in 
general well disposed, and that few precautions only were necessary in travelling, 
Tlic Jordan \'allc\- may be casil)- explored by approaching it through the proper 
channels : the Sukr Ikdouin, who own the northern portion, having friendly rela- 
tions with the people of Nazareth, and the Mesa'id Bedouin, who own the centre, 
with the people of Nablus ; the districts occupied by these tribes might thus be 
visited separately, when it would be unwise to pass directly from one to the other. 

'The thanks of the Association are due to Colonel Sir Henry James, R.E., 
F.R.S., Director of the Ordnance Survey ; General Sabine, P.R.S. ; James Glaisher, 
Esq., F.R.S. ; and John P. Gassiot, Esq., F.R.S., who kindly afforded material 
assistance by the loan of instruments and by valuable counsel. The chronometers 
employed were from Messrs. Fiodsham and Co. 

• The authorities at Constantinople, the Governor-General of Syria, and Izzct 
Pacha, Governor of Jerusalem, took much interest in the proceedings of the ex- 
ploring party, kindlj' giving every assistance in their power ; and the local Turkish 
authorities were equally ready to further the objects of the expedition. 

' But whatever successes have been achieved are mainly owing to the energy, 
intelligence, and accuracy of Captain Wilson, which more than fulfilled the anticipa- 
tions raised by his former operations at Jerusalem, and expressed in the Original 
Prospectus of the Fund. Captain Wilson was admirably seconded in all his arrange- 
ments by his able associate. Lieutenant Anderson, R.E. 

' It is needless to recapitulate the reasons for urging on what has been so well 
begun. \\'hat has been laid down in the present map, and in the present plans, is 
so much clear gain for any future explorations. What is needed is to complete this 
in the various spots which, as above indicated, from want of time or money, were 
left untouched. So long as a square mile in Palestine remains unsurveyed, so long 
as a mound of ruins in any part, especially in any part consecrated by the Biblical 
historj-, remains unexcavated, the call of scientific investigation, and, we may add, 
the grand curiosity of Christendom, remain unsatisfied. By the recent expedition 
we have almost reached a certainty as to Capernaum ; we have obtained a complete 
account of the synagogues, if not of the Christian era, yet of the centuries that 
immediately followed it ; wc have approached more nearly to the foundations of 
the main buildings of Jerusalem ; we have obtained a map from which all future 
explorers may start as from sure ground. 

' This is what has been done. What remains to be done is also evident. 

' In Topography, the whole of the country between Jerusalem and the Jordan — ■ 
especially the very tangled system of valleys leading from Bethel to Jericho, by 
which the first approaches of the Israelite host were made — the whole \'alley of the 
Jordan, and the basin of the Dead Sea, still need the same elucidation as that which 
this map has furnished for the central topography of Western Palestine. The whole 


of the Eastof the Jordan still needs the same process of scientific observation before 
the knowledge of Palestine can be considered complete. 

' In Archeology, mounds of rubbish, as at Jezreel, Bethshan, and Samaria, 
await only sufficient time and sufficient money to be perfectly explored. The sites 
of Capernaum and Bethsaida ought to be finally determined. Nazareth and Cana, 
both places associated in the closest manner with the life of the Saviour, demand a 
more searching investigation than they have yet received, not without hope of sub- 
stantial results. And although at Jerusalem it would be difficult to obtain permission 
to disturb the surface of the Haram area, researches might, under the authorit)- of a 
vizierial letter, be made in the vaults, cisterns, and passages below the surface ; ex- 
cavations might easily be made outside its limits to determine the character of its 
western wall, north of the Mahkameh ; others might be made to ascertain the 
natural features of the ground between the Ecce Homo Arch and .St. Stephen's 
Gate, and between the Jaffa Gate and the Bab es Silsileh of the Haram ; in the 
Muristan, or Hospital of St. John, south of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, for 
traces of the second wall ; and in front of the Damascus Gate, where there is an old 
gateway. In the vaults of the Haram enclosure the western wall of the "triple 
passage" might be uncovered, the two ancient doorways in the passage under El 
Aksa opened, the course of the curious passages discovered by Mons. de Saulcy, in 
front of the " triple gateway," traced out, and several cisterns, which appear to have 
been originall)' constructetl for other purposes, examined. Such excawations, how- 
ever, would be of little use unless made on a large scale ; and for this it would be 
necessary, in most cases, to purchase or rent houses covering interesting sites, and 
to incur considerable additional expense for compensation and hakhsliish to the 
landowners and others, and [ox the timber necessary to protect the houses in the 
neighbourhood of the excavations. In fact, no serious explorations in the Holy 
City itself should be commenced without a large sum in hand ; but the Committee 
have determined to undertake them as soon as the money can be raised, and the)' 
trust that when the intimate connection of the investigation with scenes and events 
so dear to every student of the liible is considered, and the good prospect there is 
of success, if judiciously planned, and carried out with system and liberality, there 
will be no want of funds. 

'In Geology and Natural History nothing has yet been accomplished by the 
Fund. Although the Topographical and Antiquarian researches have appeared to 
the Committee to claim the first place, it is not their intention to neglect the 
Scientific investigations which were put prominently forward in their first prospectus, 
and which present the ad\'antage that their results are definite and free from con- 
jecture, and that, once obtained, they are obtained for ever. It is intended to send 
out competent observers to undertake the systematic examination and description 
of the Geology and Natural History of the country, well provided with instruments 
and appliances for the thorough investigation of each branch of the work, and 


cmpowvretl to make such prolonged sta)- a.s may be necessary to perfect their 
inquiries, and obtain a more final and exhaustive examination of Ihc subject than 
is likely to be obtained by any unsupported individual, however able and energetic. 
The Committee propose to form, in connection with the Department of Science 
and Art at South Kensington, a " Palestine Museum," to consist partly of objects 
obtained on loan, partly of those collected by the agents of the Inuul ; and in tliis 
museum the fossils and other geological specimens, the quadrupeds, birds, fishes, 
eggs, and plants brought home will be deposited, for the ready examination of 
Biblical students. It is hoped that the museum may be opened early in 1867. 

' The explorations of the preliminary expedition have cost ^1,550. The cost of 
travelling during the past winter was much higher than usual, owing to temporary 
causes, such as locusts and cattle plague ; but the sum named will give an idea of 
the large amount necessar>' to carry out the objects of the Fund in that complete 
manner which the Committee contemplate, and which alone is worthy of the im- 
portance of the subject and the great interests at stake. 

' Tor the Committee, 

'W. EBOR. 


'July 2yd, 1866.' 

In the spring of 1866 the Society took an office at the Royal Asiatic 
Society. In April the first Executive Committee was appointed. On 
the return of Captain Wilson, his letters were printed and sent to sub- 
scribers, and arrangements were made for the publication of the Survey 
Report. On November 5th the Rev. F. W. Holland was associated 
with Mr. George Grove as Honorary .Secretary. An attempt was made 
to establish a Biblical department at the South Kensington Museum. 
The negotiations, however, broke down. 

The excavations in Jerusalem, under Captain Warren, R.E., were com- 
menced in 1867. A letter from Mr. Grove to the Times, detailing what 
was proposed to be done, and followed by a leading article on the same 
subject, e.xcited great interest in the public mind, and from that time until 
the cessation of the excavations, in 1S70, there was a steady flow of sub- 

In 1868 an office was taken at 9, Pall Mall East, and Mr. Walter 
Besant, was appointed Secretary to the Society. 

Up to the year 1869 Captain Warren's letters were printed as received, 


and then distributed to such subscribers as chose to write for them ; while 
the pubHc were kept informed of resuUs by letters and paragraphs in the 
papers ; but this method proving unsatisfactory, it was resolved to issue a 
periodical appearing at regular intervals in which the work of the Society 
would be published in more lasting form. Accordingly, the first Quarterly 
Statement of the Fund was published on April ist, 1869, and has been 
continued ever since, as a journal for recording the Society's operations, 
and for publishing all other discoveries connected with the Holy Land. 
The issue of the first number was 500; it now varies from 4,000 to 5,000. 
In the same year an Exhibition was held of the objects found by Captain 
Warren in his excavations, with various collections lent by travellers. In 
November the Committee resolved on voting a sum of ^300 towards the 
expenses of an expedition under Mr. (now Professor) E. H, Palmer, of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, and Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, for the 
exploration of the Desert of the Exodus. This sum was afterwards in- 
creased by ^100. The year 1S69 was also memorable for the destruction 
of the Moabite Stone, which had been discovered in August, 1S6S, by the 
Rev. Mr. Klein. 

In 1S70 Captain Warren returned, and was present at a meeting of 
the General Committee, held on June 29th, in the Jerusalem Chamber. 
Among the resolutions passed at that meeting was the following : 

' That the most cordial vote of thanks be passed to Captain Warren 
for the work he has done at Jerusalem, and that he be invited to join the 
General Committee as soon as he has finished his labours for the Fund.' 

When it became apparent that as much had been done in Jerusalem as 
the circumstances of the time, the limitations of the firman, and the funds 
would allow, it was resolved to give to the world, as speedily as possible, 
the results of the work up to that date. This was done in the volume 
called the ' Recovery of Jerusalem,' which contained an introductory chapter 
on the modern city and its ruins by Captain Wilson, R.E. ; the Official 
Report sent in to the Committee by Captain Warren, R.E. ; and papers on 
the architectural remains of Palestine, the Sea of Galilee, the Hauran, the 
Survey of Palestine, the pottery and glass found in the excavations, the 
Moabite Stone, and the Peninsula of .Sinai. The book was published in 
December, 1870. 

VOL. I. 3 


In the same year, through the agency of ilic Rev. Ilcnry Alloii, 1 ).l >., 
the American Association lor ilic F-xiiloratlon of Palestine was founded, 
under the presidency of the Rev. Roswell 1 >. I liichcock, D.D. In this 
year also the Hamath inscriptions were re-discovered, having been first 
noticed by Burckhardt, who did not perceive their importance, at the be- 
ginning of this century. The attention of the Committee was called to 
the subject by Professor Palmer, and accurate casts of these inscriptions 
were ultimately obtained. 

In the January number of the Quarterly Statement for 1871, the 
Report of Professor Palmer's Journey to the Desert of the 'lih and Moab 
was published, with a route map. This report will be republished in the 
course of this work in the volume of special papers, with the original plans 
and sketches. 

An arrangement was entered into with the American Society, by which 
they undertook the survey of the country east of Jordan, and an inter- 
change of papers was agreed upon. 

The work of this year chiefly consisted of preparations for the survey 
of Western Palestine, which was now resolved upon. A portion of country 
in the south, containing a little survey work done by Captain Wilson, was 
engraved on a scale of one inch to the mile, side by side with a piece of 
the same size taken from the Ordnance Survey of Kent, in order to show 
how little was then really known of Palestine. A special jjrospectus was 
drawn out, showing the necessity for making such a survey ; letters were 
written to the papers on the subject by Mr. Grove, Captain Burton, and 
others ; lectures were delivered and meetings held in various parts of the 
country in explanation and advocacy of the enterprise. Captain 
Stewart, R.E., was appointed officer in charge ; two men, non-commis- 
sioned officers of Royal Engineers and trained surveyors, Sergeant Black 
and Corporal Armstrong, were granted by the War Office; and Mr. 
C. P^ Tyrwhitt Drake accompanied the expedition in the capacity of 
naturalist. His knowledge of Arabic and experience of the country were 
of the greatest value to the expedition at the commencement. He also 
communicated to the Committee a series of reports on the archccology, 
natural history, and customs of the j^eople, which were i^ublished in 
the Quarterly Statement. Portions of these reports will be incorporated 
in this work. 


■ The history of the Survey, as carried on in the field, is narrated in the 
following chapter by Lieutenant Conder, R.E. The work was finally 
completed by Lieutenant Kitchener, and the maps, notes, memoirs, plans, 
and drawings handed over to the Committee on September the loth, 1878. 

The history of the Society during the progress of the Survey consists 
chiefly of a record of Committee meetings, at which letters and reports 
from the officers in Palestine were received and read. Lectures were 
given all over the country in advocacy of the cause, numerous Local 
Societies and Ladies' Associations were formed, the Quarterly Statements 
were continued, and a small book, giving a popular account of the Society 
and its objects, called, ' Our Work in Palestine,' was issued, which proved 
successful, and is now in its ninth edition. 

The only additional work of exploration undertaken by the Committee 
during the progress of the Survey was that confided to M. Clermont- 
Ganneau. This gentleman, who added a great reputation for scholarship to 
long practical experience of the Holy Land, proposed to the Committee to 
undertake an expedition to Palestine, for one year's work in archaeological 
investigation in Jerusalem and elsewhere. His proposition was received 
in the year 1872 ; but it was not till the autumn of 1873 that he was able 
to take the field. He was accompanied by an architect, M. Lccomte, who 
acted as his draughtsman. The results of his labours, which were of the 
greatest importance, were published in thcOuarterlyStatement for 1874-75, 
M. Clermont-Ganneau, on returning to Paris, received the appointment of 
Professor of Semitic Archaeology at the Sorbonne. 

In the summer of the year 1873 a second exhibition of objects con- 
nected with the exploration of Palestine was held at the Dudley Gallery. 
There, for the first time, tracings of the new map were shown, and the 
casts of the Hamath inscriptions. 

In the autumn of 1874 the Society sustained a heavy loss in the death 
of Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, who had been engaged upon the work of explora- 
tion for more than four years. He died at Jerusalem, having contracted 
fever in the Jordan valley, in addition to other disorders under which he 
laboured. A successor to IMr. Drake was found in Lieutenant H. H. 
Kitchener, R.E. 

On the return of the party in 1875, an office was taken for them, first in 
Cockspur Street, and afterwards at the South Kensington Museum, where 


the work of drawing the maps and plans was carried on unlil completion. 
In 1877 Lieutenant Kitchener went out to complete the Survey, which was 
executed with great rapidity and without further hinilrance, in spite of the 
disturbed and excited state of the country. 

The total cost of the Survey, not counting such expenses as manage- 
ment, printing, etc., amounted to about ;/^ 18,000, spread over a period of 
eight years. During the same time the office expenses anKJunled to 
;^5,200; and the printing, posting, illustrating, and distribution of the 
Quarterly Statement, by means of which interest in the work is chielly 
maintained, amounted to ;i/^4,400. 

In other words, the expenditure was as follows : 

Survey - _ - . . 

65 per cent, 

Management . . . . 


Returned to Subscribers in the ) 


form of Quarterly Statements ) 

The donations and subscriptions were generally sufficient to meet the 
current expenses. At those times when the bills from Palestine exceeded 
the amount in the hands of the Committee, the Treasurer, Mr. Walter 
Morrison, advanced the money to carry on the work. Without his 
assistance it would have been absolutely necessar}', on more than one 
occasion, to suspend the Survey and withdraw the party in the field. 

During the fourteen years of work in Palestine, of which the above is 
a brief record, many travellers have visited portions of the country, and 
several important works have appeared, giving the result of their labours. 
Among them may be mentioned those of the Rev. Canon Tristram, ' The 
Land of Moab'; Rev. Dr. Porter, ' Five Years in Damascus' ; Mr. John 
MacGregor, 'The Rob Roy on the Jordan'; Professor Palmer, 'The 
Desert of the Exodus'; Captain Burton, 'Unexplored Syria'; Mrs. 
Burton, ' Inner Life in Syria' ; Mr. Henry Maudslay, who excavated on 
the southern slope of Mount Zion and laid bare portions of the first wall ; 
Professor Socin, Herr Sepp, Dr. Sandreczky, M. Gucrin, and many others. 
A French survey of the country was commenced in 1870, but aban- 
doned, after the completion of a small portion round Akka, in consequence 
of the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. Works on the Topography 
of Jerusalem have been published during the same period of fourteen 


years by Mr. Fergusson, Lieut. -Colonel Warren, and M. de Vogiic. 
An American and a German Society have been established for purposes 
similar to our own. The latter has published several numbers of its 
Zcitsclirift, containing papers of considerable research and interest : the 
former has executed through its officers (Lieutenant Steever, Colonel 
Lane, Professor Paine, and the Rev. Dr. Selah Merrill), a reconnaissance 
map of Eastern Palestine, which will be useful when a survey of that 
country is begun. It may be added that Professor Palmer expanded his 
Report of the Journey to the Tih (Quarterly Statement, January, 1S71), 
and his previous work in .Sinai, into two large volumes, called the ' Desert 
of the Exodus'; that Colonel Warren also published a supplementary 
account of his work in Palestine, under the title of ' Underground Jeru- 
salem,' and that the Committee have recently issued a popular account, 
by Lieutenant Conder, of the Survey and its results, called ' Tent Work 
in Palestine.' 

W. B. 

Offices of the Fund : i, Aham Street, Adelphi. 
Novcml't-r, 1 SSo. 


original party, consisting of 
Sergeant T. Black, R.E., 
and Corporal G. Armstrong, 
R.E., under command of 
Captain R. W. Stewart, R.E., 
reached Jaffa early in No- 
vember, 1 87 1. On the 25th 
of November the measure- 
ment of a base was com- 
menced in the plain between 
er Ramleh and Ludd. On 
the 1 7th of December Mr. C. 
F. Tyrwhitt Drake, who had 
volunteered his services and 
was attached to the expedition in the capacity of naturalist, arrived from 
Damascus, On the following day he accompanied Captain Stewart to 
Jerusalem. Here this officer fell ill, and was ordered to return to Eng- 
land by medical advice. On the 30th of December Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake 
rejoined at er Ramleh, and took temporary charge of the party. During 


his absence about twenty square miles of country round cr Ranilch had 
been surveyed. 

On the 1st of January, 1872, the extension of the trianc^ulation com- 
menced in the direction of Jaffa, where the Admiralty Astronomical 
Station was connected with the base. Sixty square miles were surveyed 
during the month. Early in I'\:I)ruary the camp was shifted eastwards to 
Beit Nilba, thence, in March, to cl Jib, and thence to Jerusalem, for the 
purpose of connectinfj the Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem with the 
Ramleh base. In February fifty square miles were surveyed, but the 
work was much hindered by stormy weather. On the 3rd of April the 
expedition returned to the Jaffa Plain, and camped at Yazftr, whence 
they marched to Khurbetha Ibn Harith, and in May to 'Ain Sinia. In 
June, Kuzah was reached, and on the 21st of June the party rested 
in Nablus, where office-work was commenced in the house of the Rev. J. 
Elkarey. ^Ir. Drake here left the party and went on a journey to 

]\Ieantimc it was found that Captain Stewart would be unable to resume 
work in Syria, and the command of the Survey was offered to and ac- 
cepted by Lieutenant Claude Reignier Conder, R.E., who landed at Jaffa on 
the 8th of July, and joined the party on the 17th, after visiting Jerusalem. 
On the 1 8th Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake rejoined. Up to this time 560 square 
miles had been surveyed and plotted, and tracings of this work were now 
sent home to England, without, however, the hill-sketching. The survey 
was extended from the Nablus camp, and, on the iSth of August, the 
expedition moved to Jeba, and thence, on the 30th of August, to Jcnin. 
From the Jenin camp the check base was measured on the Plain of 
Esdraelon, and a large amount of country (130 square miles) was surveyed 
in a month. On the 30th of September the camp was shifted to Umm 
el Fahm, and on the 20th of October to el-Mujeidil. An assault on the 
native servants occurred at this camp, rendering it necessary to institute 
legal proceedings, which ended in the payment of a fine. On the Sth of 
November the party moved to Nazareth, and were quartered in the 
Hospice. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake and Sergeant Black were here invalided 
for about a week, and two assaults on the natives of the party occurred. 
On the 26th of November the camp was established at Sheikh Abreik, 
and at this camp Sergeant Black was assaulted by the villagers of el 


Hanthiych, who fired on him. The oflenders were imprisoned, and a 
fine of ^5 was paid in May, 1874. On the loth of December the 
party settled in winter quarters in a house of the German colony, near 
Haifa. On the 31st of December Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake left on a visit to 
Egypt to recruit his health. The total amount of country surveyed at 
this period was 1,250 square miles. 

On the 27th of February, 1S73, the e.xpedition took the field, returning 
southward along the plain, and camping at Jeba, near 'Athlit. On the 
2nd of March Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake rejoined. On the 21st of March the 
camp was moved to Kannir, and on the Sth of April to Zeita. On the 
22nd of April it was established near the coast, at Mukhalid, and on the 
30th Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake left the expedition on a visit to England. 
On the 7th of May the expedition marched to the hills, camping at Kefr 
Zibad, and moved thence south to Bidyeh on the 26th of May, and to 
Rentis on the 3rd of June. The summer campaign was terminated on 
the Sth of June, a total of 1,800 square miles having been surveyed. 
On the 30th of May the expedition was increased by the arrival of 
Corporal J. Brophy, R.E. 

The party rested in the Anti- Lebanon during the summer, and re- 
turned to Jerusalem in the beginning of October. On the loth of 
October the camp was established at Beit 'Atab, and thence moved east 
to Bethlehem on the 24th. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake rejoined the party at 
this camp. On the 5th of November the camp was moved to Mar Saba, 
and on the 15th to 'Ain es Sultan, from which camp a large area (180 
square miles) was surveyed in less than a month. From the Beit 'Atab 
camp two theodolites were used by parties working simultaneously, and 
the rate of survey was increased from that period, partly on account of 
these double parties, and partly because four members (including Lieutenant 
Conder, R.E.) henceforward were employed in mapping the details in 
the field. The rate was thus increased to more than three times that of 
1871-2. On the 4th of December Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake was seized with 
fever ; Lieutenant Conder and fifteen natives subsequently suffered from 
similar attacks. The work was suspended, and the party returned to 
Jerusalem on the i ith of December, going into winter quarters in a house 
kindly lent by Dr. Chaplin, outside the town. 

On the 22nd of January, 1874, Lieutenant Conder and Sergeant Black 



proceeded ti) Dcir Diwan and sur\f\cHl tucnty-fivc s(iu;irc miles. The 
total, including winter work round Irrusiileni, was thus raised to about 
2,300 square miles. 

On the 26th of February the survey of the Jordan \'alley was re- 
commenced, the camp being established at 'Ain Fusail. On the loth of 
March it was moved to Wady Farah, where the work was delayed by 
rain and storms. On the 25th of March the camp was shifted to Wady 
Maleh, and on the 4th of April to Beisan. On the 14th of April Lieu- 
tenant Conder and Sergeant Black proceeded to Kaukab el Hawa, 
carrying the survey to within three miles of the Sea of Galilee. On the 
17th they camped at Sulam, where the rest of the party which had been 
employed on the special survey of Beisan rejoined, and the survey was 
closed on the work of 1872. On the 20th the expedition commenced 
its march to the Jaffa Plain, reaching Kefr Saba on the 23rd. The 
survey of the Plain of Sharon was thus completed, and the total of 3,000 
square miles reached. 

The party rested during the summer outside Jerusalem, and Lieutenant 
Conder left early in May for England, returning to camp on the 20th of 
September. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake was again attacked by fever, due to 
exposure during the trying work in the Jordan Valley, and the party 
sustained a severe loss in his death on the 23rd of June, 1874. 

On the 5th of October the camp was moved to Hulhid, and on the 
22nd to Yutta, and on the 4th of November to Dhaheriyeh. At this 
camp Lieutenant PL H. Kitchener, R.E., joined on the 19th of Novem- 
ber, and Sergeant Black was attacked by dysentery, and subsequently 
invalided home early in the following year. On the loth of November 
Lieutenant Conder and Corporal Armstrong v/ent to Bir es Sebd, and 
on the nth to Tell el Milh, surveying the south boundary of the work. 
On the 23rd the party returned to Jerusalem, the camp having been 
almost wrecked by the storms of the two preceding days. On the 8th 
December an unsuccessful attempt was made to commence the survey 
of the Dead Sea Desert, and the party were driven back by the stormy 
weather, and went into winter quarters in a house in the Armenian 
quarter of Jerusalem. The total amount surveyed at this time was 
about 3,500 square miles. Lieutenant Kitchener suffered severely from 
fever during the winter, as did several natives of the party. 


On the 25th of February, 1S75, Lieutenant Conclcr, Corporal Arm- 
strong and Corporal Brophy commenced the survey of the Desert, 
camping on the 26th at Wady Hiisasah, on the 28th at 'Ain Jidy, on the 
1st of April at Bir esh Shcrky, whence Masada was visited and surveyed 
with chain and compass. On the 6th the camp was moved to Wady 
Seiyal and on the 8th to Hebron. The weather from the 4th was very 
stormy, and the party were delayed in Hebron three days. This 
campaign was, however, the most rapid piece of work during the course 
of the Survey, 330 square miles being surveyed in fourteen days, in- 
cluding those on which the camp was shifted. 

Lieutenant Kitchener, R.E., rejoined with the heavy baggage and 
three more tents at Beit Jibrin, on the 13th of March ; the survey of 
Philistia having been commenced on the nth. On the 13th Lieutenant 
Conder was assaulted by a native of Tell es Safi, who was subsequently 
imprisoned for the offence at Hebron. On the ist of April the camp was 
moved to Mejdel, and on the i6th to Gaza; on the ist of May to 
Yebnah, and on the 7th to Dhenebbeh, where the work was suspended on 
the 15th of May. Thus, from the 26th of February to the 15th of 
May, 1,000 square miles were added to the Survey, making a total of 

The party rested about three weeks outside Jerusalem, and then 
proceeded to Galilee. Corporal II. Junor, R.E., sent to replace Sergeant 
Black, joined the expedition at Gaza. 

On the 1 2th of June the camp was fi.xed at Shefa 'Amr, and the 
levelling from the Mediterranean to the Sea of Galilee was commenced, 
the survey being extended northward from the 1872 work of the Sheikh 
Abreik and el Mujeidil camps. 

On the 30th of June the camp was shifted to el Baineh, and the total 
amount was thus raised to 4,700 square miles. 

On the loth of July the expedition reached Safed, where the members 
were attacked by the Algerine colonists. Lieutenants Conder and 
Kitchener and all the native members were more or less severely injured, 
and the Survey was suspended. The party rested in the monastery on 
Carmel, where they were all attacked by fever, and the general spread 
of cholera in Syria necessitated the withdrawal of the non-commissioned 
officers. After a long trial at 'Akka the chief offenders in tlie Safed affair 



were imprisoned, and a line of /"270 was paid to ihc Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund. 

On the 1st of October Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener left Pales- 
tine for England. 

During- the year 1S76 the party was employed in office-work in the 
Royal Albert Hall, London, the staff consisting of Lieutenants Conder 
and Kitchener, Sergeants Armstrong and Malings, Corporals Brophy, 
Wilson, and Maule. The members who had been employed in Pales- 
tine all suffered with fever, which rendered it impossible to take the 

Early in January, 1877, Lieutenant Kitchener left for Palestine in 
command of a party including Sergeant Malings, R.E., and Corporals 
Broi^hy and Sutherland, R.E. Lieutenant Conder, Sergeant Armstrong, 
and Corporal Wilson, R. E., were employed during the year in the office 
in the South Kensington Museum preparing the map and memoirs for 

On the 27th of February Lieutenant Kitchener camped at Haifa, 
and extended the Survey over the plain of 'Akka, bringing the line of 
levels down to the Mediterranean. On the loth of March the camp was 
moved to Hattin, and thence to Tiberias, the levelling being carried down 
to the Sea of Galilee. The camp was moved on the 4th of April to 
Khan Jubb Yusef, and on the loth of April to Safed. On the i8th it was 
shifted to Meiron, on the 3rd of May to Dibl, on the i6th to Kades, and 
on the 24th to et Taiyibeh, whence the northern boundary of the Survey 
was completed. On the 2nd of June the expedition moved to Banias, 
on the I ith to Marakah, on the 22nd to en Nakurah, and on the 2nd of July 
to Yanuh. Haifa was again reached on the i ith of July, and the survey 
of Galilee was thus completed, 1,000 square miles having been added in 
rather less than five months. Sergeant Malings was invalided home from 

After resting four weeks in Lebanon near 'Aleih, the party marched 
south, and, leaving Jerusalem on the 12th of September, proceeded to 
Beit Jibrin, and established a camp at Tell el Hesy, whence the Survey 
was recommenced on the 15th. On the 24th of September the camp 
was moved to Khuweilfeh, and on the 26th to Bir es Seb'a, where the 
Survey of Western Palestine was completed on the 27th of September. 


The total surveyed in 1S77 was 1,340 square miles, making a grand total 
of 6,040 square miles. 

From the loth of October to the 22nd of November Lieutenant 
Kitchener and his party were employed in examining the work of 1S72, 
in settling various minor points, and in collecting further names. The 
party returned to England in December. 

The memoirs and map were completed during the year 1S7S. Lieu- 
tenant Condcr left the service of the Fund on the ist of May, and 
Lieutenant Kitchener finally handed over to the Committee the whole of 
the work ready for publication on the loth of September. 

Method of the Survey. — The same method was employed through- 
out the whole course of the Survey. A camp having been established, the 
points suitable for trigonometrical stations were visited, and stone cairns 
six to ten feet high were built. In some cases conical piles of brushwood 
bound to a pole were substituted, and when possible the dome {kubbcJi) 
of a small sacred building was used. The cairns and domes were white- 
washed. From 'Ain es Sultan and some subsequent camps small mirrors 
were used for Hashing signals between the observing-parties. The stations 
selected were visited by observing-parties, and all other stations visible 
from them observed with a seven-inch theodolite, three rounds of angles 
being taken. The cairns were pulled down, and the instrument placed 
over the centre, where a broad arrow had been cut on rock or on a large 
stone. The cairns were rebuilt over this centre after the observations 
had been completed. 

The trigonometrical angles having been taken, a round of angles, read 
to minutes only, was next taken, including every prominent object within 
eight or ten miles, such as village-towers, domes, trees, river or valley 
junctions, hill-tops, and other objects distinctly recognisable. The names 
of these objects were collected, as far as possible, from the guides who 
accompanied the party. 

The observations having been concluded, two days were generally 
allowed for calculation and plotting. The triangulation was scored from 
calculations of the lengths of lines made by Sergeant Black, and afterwards 
by Sergeant Armstrong. The round of angles to visible objects was 
plotted on the sheets, and a number of points were fixed by the intersec- 
tion of the directions determined by the angles from three or more 


trigonometrical stations. Tracings of these points were then prepared, 
the ground within a radius of eight or ten miles from camp (or less In 
difficult country) being divided between the surveyors. The members 
of the party then proceeded separately to sketch in the detail of the 
allotted portion by means of interpolation with the prismatic compass, 
taking angles to the points fi.\cd by the theodolite. Several points along 
the Jordan were fixed by pacing from the trigonometrical stations 
established near the banks ; and the detailed survey of the river was con- 
trolled by observations to points on the banks from the trigonometrical 
stations nearest the river. 

The traces were ne.xt inked in and completed, and the camp after- 
wards moved to a place as nearly as possible central to the work next 

The camp consisted of from three to six tents, with an equipment 
of seven horses and seven mules. On the days of moving, five or six 
camels were required in addition. The dragoman of the expedition 
throughout was Habib el Jemail, a native of Damascus. The number of 
natives, including servants, grooms, muleteers, cavalry guards, and guides, 
varied from ten to twenty. The expenses of the party, not including 
the pay of the European members, varied from ^loo to £1^0 per 
month, and the cost of the actual work In the field Is calculated to have 
been about £1 per square mile. 

The rate of the actual field-work until the end of June, 1872, averaged 
from 50 to 100 square miles per month ; and from July to December, 
1872, 140 square miles per month. In 1873, until the middle of June, 
the rate was 160 square miles per month ; and from October to the end 
of the year It rose to about 200 square miles per month. In 1S74 the 
survey of the Jordan Vallej' was at the rate of 280 square miles a month, 
and this rate was maintained throughout the year. The Judean Desert was 
triangulated and surveyed at the rate of 660 square miles a month. In 
Galilee the rate was 220 square miles per month, Including the levelling 
operations. In Phlllstia, where the country was extremely easy and the 
detail not very close, the rate was 330 square miles per month. The 
rapidity with which the work was accomplished seems to have been due 
to two causes : ist, that the detail was sketched entirely by means of 
interpolation within the triangulation, and no chaining or traversing 


operations became necessary ; 2nd, that every surveyor was mounted and 
all the work done on horseback. 

Triaxgulation. — The attached diagram shows the general character 
of the triangulation. Little diftkulty was experienced in obtaining 
good stations, and the main obstacle was the mirage in summer, which 
sometimes interfered with the accuracy of the observations. Cairns 
were occasionally destroyed, and this delayed the work ; while in the 
Jordan Valley the stormy weather made the work of observing very 

Bases. — Two bases were measured, the first near Ramleh, the second, 
as a check on the triangulation, in the Plain of Esdraelon. The difference 
between the measured length of the second base and its length as calculated 
from the first base was about ten links (79 inches). 

The Ramleh base was laid out with a five-inch theodolite, and 
marked by pickets : it was measured twice, from opposite ends, with a 
chain. The working chain was compared with a standard steel chain 
corrected for a temperature of 75' Fahr. The total mean length was 
found to be 3361 175 links, or rather over four miles. 

This distance was further checked by observations taken from stations 
on either side of the base to its ends, and to a point on the base 14003 "2 5 
links from the southern end. The total length was calculated from this 
part, and the result confirmed the length found by measurement. 

The direction of the meridian was computed from observations of 
Polaris, and the true bearing of the base and the variation of the needle 
were thus determined. The trianfrulation havinij been extended to the 
Admiralty Astronomical Station at Jaffa, the latitude and longitude of that 
Station were adopted, and a check was afterwards obtained at Acre, by 
comparison of the Admiralty observations with the Survey. 

Check Base. — The check base was measured in the same way, and 
was traced in line with Neby Sain, afterwards a trigonometrical station. 
The measured length was 3607575 links, or about four and a half miles. 
The total calculated length from the south end to Neby Sain was, how- 
ever, about sixteen miles, and the triangulation was rapidly extended 
from the base on a secondary line, almost at right angles, between 
Sheikh Iskander and Jebel Abu Madawar, a distance of nearly fifteen 
miles. The south end of the check base was marked by a rough plat- 


form of large stones set in mortar, with a small central cairn, over 
which the instrument was set up. The base was laid out on the 3rd of 
September, and measured on the ;th and loth. Observations were made 
from a point 18496-9 links from the north end, and also from the two 
ends of the base, to a dome in the village Jclamy, to check the length, as 
in the Ramleh base. The true bearing was determined by observations 
of Polaris, taken from the station at the south end. A meridian thus 
was obtained, and the variation of the compass ascertained. 

TRIA^■GULATIO^•. — The triangles were made as large as circumstances 
allowed, the distance which could be ridden from camp being the limit. 
Where possible the main triangulation was supplemented by secondary 
points, useful for observing detail. In the hills, the triangles were from 
five to eight miles side ; in the plains and north, from ten to fifteen miles. 
The extension from the check base was more easily arranged than from 
the Ramleh base, and some long lines were observed in the neighbourhood 
of Carmel and Nazareth. The extension northwards in 1877 was based 
on long lines observed in 1S72 and 1875, and proved satisfactory. Within 
thirtv miles of the bases the [rreatest amount of error was calculated at 
Southampton not to exceed ten feet, and in the Jordan Valley, and at the 
extremities, where observation was rendered more difficult by bad 
weather, it did not exceed 100 feet. The longest lines observed from 
both ends were between Mount Ebal and Neby Duhy, and between 
el Miintar near Gaza and Ras en Nukb. At Jerusalem the trigono- 
metrical stations of the Ordnance Survey were connected with the main 
triangulation. Observations were also taken to several points east of 
Jordan, which may be plotted by the intersections. These points include 
the two ends of the Lisan in the Dead Sea, Sheikh Abu 'Obeideh, and 
Kalat er Rubd. 

Heights. — Heights were obtained in four ways: 

First Method, by Levels. — The bench-marks on the line 
run by Colonel Wilson, R.E., from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, 
were recovered and connected with the triangulation in several cases. 
In other cases aneroid readings were taken at the bench-marks. The 
heights of the camps at el Jib and Yaziir were fixed by levelling from 
bench-marks, and the heights of the trigonometrical stations at Jimzu, el 
Jib, and on Olivet were fixed by the same method. 


The triancTulation was also connected with the levels at Ruim el Bahr 


on the Dead Sea. 

A line of levels was run in 1875 and 1877 between the Mediterranean 
and the Sea of Galilee with a ten-inch level. Thirty -five bench-marks 
were cut and their position fixed by connecting them with trigonometrical 
stations. The distances between the bench-marks in Wady el Melek, 
where no stations could be seen, were chained. 

A check was kept on the record of the levelling by means of a five-inch 
theodolite, which accompanied the level, and was read independendy. 
The level of the Sea of Galilee was thus fixed at 682-5 feet below that ot 
the Mediterranean. The levellincr was commenced near the village 
Mejdel, and sixteen miles were completed in 1875, '^he remaining sixteen 
being finished in 1877. 

The height of the camp at el Baineh was ascertained from the nearest 
bench-mark on this line by levelling. 

.Second Method, by Vertical Angle s. — Vertical angles 
were read at every trigonometrical station, and the telescope was reversed 
for the second round. 

The results were pronounced by the Southampton calculator to be very 
good. They were checked, as before explained, by reference to the bench- 
marks, and along the maritime plain, where possible, by measurement to 
the sea-level. Thus the height of the station at Ca^sarea was ascertained 
by dropping a line directly from the tower to the sea. 

The height of the trigonometrical station of the Convent on Mount 
Carmel was obtained by construction. A base was measured on the sea- 
shore at right angles to the line from the trigonometrical station to its 
western end. The length of the base was 42675 feet, and its cast end 
was fixed so that the length subtended an angle of 14" 2 from the station 
on the convent. The horizontal distance from that station to the east end 
of the base was consequently 1,707 feet, and by means of this length, 
and the vertical angle from the west end of the base to the station on 
the convent, the height of the latter, at the top of the Convent dome, was 
ascertained to be 556 feet above the Mediterranean. This result agreed 
well with the vertical angles of the triangulation. 

Third Method, by the Mercurial Baromete r. — The 
mercurial barometer was kept in camp and read daily at eight a.m., and, 



when possible, at tour p.m. The aneroids were huno; near it. The 
heights of the camps w^ere fixeil from the observations of the mercurial, 
and were checked, where possible, as follows : 

El Jib camp, by levelling from beach-marks. 

YazClr ,, ,, ,, 

Baineh ., ,, ,, 

Khurbetha Ibn Ihirith, by observation to trigonometrical stations. 

Kuzah ,, M >) ). .. 

Haifa, bv levelling to the sea. 


The various stations of the mercurial barometer in Jerusalem were also 
connected with the nearest bench-marks. 

Fourth Method, by Aneroid Barometer. — The aneroid 
barometers were read, with their accompanying thermometers, at points 
easily distinguishable, such as villages, trees, ruins, etc. The extra- 
ordinary pressure in the Jordan Valley rendered the readings less re- 
liable than could be wished ; but the levels of the river are controlled 
by the heights of the trigonometrical stations near the banks. The 
heights were ascertained by the differences from the readings in camp. 
Corrections were obtained by comparison of the aneroid readings taken 
at the trigonometrical stations with the heights of those stations as 
ascertained trigonometrically. 

The accuracy of these four methods was considered to be according to 
the order in which they are here enumerated. 

AsTROXOMiCAL OBSEKVATiorv s. — Astronomical observations were made, 
with the object of keeping a check on the triangulation, by means of 
latitude observations and the true bearings of long lines. The accuracy 
of the triangulation was, however, greater than that of such observa- 

The observations actually used were as follows: (i) Altitude of the 
sun for time, (2) Polaris for latitude, (3) Spica for latitude, (4) Circum- 
meridian of the sun for latitude, (5) Polaris for true bearings and the 
variation of the compass. 

These observations were generally taken in camp, and also at the 
ends of the bases, and at the trigonometrical station at Tell es Seba. 


The true bearings of two or three long Hnes having been ascertained, 
the variation of the compass was ascertained from time to time by obser- 
vations along lines of the triangulatlon. 

Meteorological Observations. — Meteorological observations were 
taken as long as the instruments lasted, but the rough journeys gradually 
reduced the number of these, and the constant change of station, as the 
Survey became more rapid, rendered the observations less valuable. 

The instruments used were: ist. Maximum and minimum thermo- 
meters; 2nd. Wet and dry bulb thermometers; 3rd. Blackened bulb for 
maximum in the sun's rays; 4th. Minimum thermometers for ground 

Observations of the direction and force of the wind and of the amount 
of cloud were taken, and readings of a standard thermometer. A series 
of ozone observations were also taken with Dr. Schonbein's papers, and 
the interesting result was obtained that during the dry east winds the 
air contained no ozone. Tlie fresh west wind gave from 6 to 10 on 
the ozone scale (see Dr. Chaplin's paper, P. E. F. Statement, 1873, 
page 39). 

Hill Shadixg. — The characteristic slopes of the hills were observed 
with an Abney's level by each surveyor when sketching detail, and the 
hills were sketched by Lieutenant Conder (with exception of 1,000 square 
miles in Galilee, executed by Sergeant Malings) with horizontal hachures. 
The hill-traces were kept distinct from the rest of the work. These 
sketches were used in 1877, at Southampton, for the reproduction of the 
hills by means of chalk-work photo-zincographed. 

Nomenclature. — The names were collected on the spot by each 
survevor, erreat care beinsj taken to obtain them from persons most likely 
to be well informed, and to avoid asking the names of distant objects, 
concerning which confusion might arise. Each surveyor was accompanied 
by a native guide, whose information was checked, whenever possible, by 
the testimony of two or more other natives. 

The guide returned to camp with the sur\'eyor, when the names were 
readout in presence of Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, and, after his death, in that of 
Lieutenant Conder. They were then written down in Arabic by Mr. 
Drake, and, after his death, by a native scribe, Na'aman Kassatly, who 
also revised the whole of the nomenclature collected before he joined the 



party. Every eflbrt was thus made to secure botli correct spelling and 
correct application for every name. 

The total number of names collected was about 9,000. Of these a 
small percentage do not appear on the Survey sheets, as the detail is in 
places too close to allow of their being written ; but even the least im- 
portant are preserved in the name indexes of the memoir, prepared from 
the field name-books. 

The name-books were submitted in Palestine to Mr. Wright, of 
Damascus, to H.M.'s Consul N. T. Moore, Esq., and to other gentlemen 
well acquainted with Arabic, who pronounced a favourable opinion on the 
correctness of the orthography. 

The meaning of each name was obtained, as far as possible, on the 
spot, many terms having peculiar signification in the local dialects. 

The following lists were carefully compared throughout with the Survey 
nomenclature, and in all cases where discrepancy occurred further inff)rma- 
tion was obtained : 

1. The Turkish official lists of villages, in which there are many errors. 

2. Robinson's lists and index ('Biblical Researches,' vol. iii., ist 

3. A list of villages and ruins in Galilee, kindly prepared by Rev. J. 
Zeller, of Nazareth. 

4. A list of places round Nablus, kindly prepared by Rev. J. Elkarey, 
o'i Nablus. 

Special Strvevs. 

The most important sites included within the limits of the Survey 
were specially surveyed. The following ancient towns and ruins were 
among them : 

1. 'At h lit. Surveyed by Lieutenant Conder with chain and com- 
pass. (Sheet 5.) 

2. Ceesarea. The Roman town surveyed with compass and by 
pacing by Sergeant Armstrong, R.E. The Crusading town surveyed by 
traverse with chain and five-inch theodolite, by Lieutenant Conder and 
Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. (Sheet 7.) 

3. Arsuf. Surveyed in the same manner as the last by Sergeant 
Black. (Sheet 10.) 


4. Beisan. The Acropolis surveyed by traverse with chain by 
Lieutenant Conder ; the rest of the site by compass interpolation between 
points fixed by the intersections of lines observed with five-Inch theodolite, 
the base being a short trigonometrical line. (Sheet 9.) 

5. Kaukab el Haw a. Surveyed by chain traverse by Lieu- 
tenant Conder and Sergeant Black. (Sheet 9.) 

6. Nablus. Compass survey by Lieutenant Kitchener, R.E. 
(Sheet II.) 

7. Samaria. Compass survey by Corporal Brophy, R.E. 
(Sheet 1 1.) 

8. A seal on. Surveyed by traverse with chain and compass by 
Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R.E. (Sheet 16.) 

9. Gaza. Compass survey by Corporal Brophy, R.E. (Sheet 19.) 

10. Tell Jezer. Surveyed with five-inch theodolite. A base was 
measured on the Tell, and a triangulation established fi.xing the most 
important points. The detail was sketched in with a compass. Executed 
by Lieutenant Conder and Corporal Brophy, R.E. (Sheet 16.) 

11. Masada. Surveyed by traverse with chain and compass by 
Lieutenant Conder and Corporal Brophy, R.E. (Sheet 26.) 

12. Beit J i b r i n. The fortifications surveyed by with 
chain and compass by Lieutenant Conder, R.E. (Sheet 20.) 

13. Kulat esh S h u k i f . Surveyed by traverse by Lieutenant 
Kitchener, R.E. (Sheet 2.) 

14. Tyre. By Lieutenant Kitchener, R.E. (Sheet i.) 

The buildings of which plans are given in the memoirs were surveyed 
with tape or chain and compass. 

Geology. — Notes of the succession of the strata, of the dip and litho- 
loo-ical constitution of the rocks, and of the fossils found in them, were 
collected by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, with the object of illus- 
trating the structure of the country and the period and causes of the 
depression of the Jordan Valley. A reconnaissance map of the geology 
of Palestine was made from these notes as the survey extended. 

Memoirs. — The memoirs were composed from the field-notes ot the 
Survey officers, and from abstracts of about forty standard works, the 
latter specially prepared by Lieutenant Conder for the purpose. 


They were compiled uiulcr the direction of Colonel W'ilson, R.E., 
and Mr. Georofe Grove. Sheets numbered V., and from \'II. to XXVI., 
were written by Lieutenant Condcr, and occupied the greater part of 
his time from September, 1875, ^o ^^'^7- ^^78 ; the sheets numbered 
I. — 1\'. and V'l. were prepared by Lieutenant Kitchener. The notes 
and descriptions of previous travellers, especially of Colonel Wilson, 
Colonel Warren, Major Anderson, Mr. Tyrvvhitt Drake, and M. Clermont- 
Ganneau, were carefully compared with those of the Survey officers, and 
the substance of any additional information was added to the accounts 
written in the field. The Quarterly Statements of the Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund were also compared, and abstracts of the reports inserted in 
the memoir. The notes left by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake were also utilised, 
and the accounts given by Robinson and other authorities compared. 
These memoirs, therefore, form -a prdcis of the information collected by 
the Fund from the earliest years of its existence, with the exception of 
the operations within the walls of Jerusalem. The additional information 
collected without the walls, but within the limits of the Ordnance Survey 
of Jerusalem, is given in sheet 17, section B. 

Fair Plotting of the 1\L\p. — The sheets finally prepared in London 
by Lieutenant Conder's party were executed in the following manner : 

The trigonometrical observations were sent to Southampton for calcu- 
lation, and the margins of the sheets were laid down in London on Sir 
Henry James's projection, from a central meridian and its perpendicular. 
The trigonometrical points were fixed, as well as the corners of the 
sheets, by co-ordinate distances from the central meridian and joerpen- 
dicular. The position of the points was checked by means of the lengths 
of the sides of the primary triangles, also computed at Southampton. 

The detail was plotted on the framework of fixed points thus obtained, 
from traces prepared from the field-sketches. The execution of these 
sheets was superintended by Sergeant Armstrong, R.E. The lettering 
was principally done by Corporal Wilson, R.E., but the names of the 
non-commissioned officers employed ajDj^ear on the sheet-margins. The 
representation of the trees, forests, vineyards, etc., was executed by 
Sergeant Malings, R.E. 

The sheets having been lettered, the whole nomenclature was carefully 
checked and compared with the name indexes of the memoirs. This was 


a labour of many months, executed by Lieutenant Conder and Sergeant 
Armstrong, R.E. The northern sheets (i, 2, 3, 4 and 6) were also 
checked by Lieutenant Kitchener, R.E. 

Reduction. — This was accomplished by replotting the triangulation 
to the reduced scale, and inserting the detail by aid of photographs on the 
reduced scale. The work was executed under the direction of Lieutenant 
Kitchener, and the nomenclature of the reduced sheets was selected from 
that of the one-inch Survey by Lieutenant Conder, all the names trace- 
able to modern origin being omitted, as they could not be shown on the 
smaller scale of three-eighths of an inch to a mile. 

Photographs. — About fifty photographs were taken by Lieutenant 
Kitchener, and added to the list of those taken during the expeditions of 
Colonel Wilson and Colonel Warren, which preceded the Survey. 

The whole of the operations here described, together with the com- 
pletion of the memoirs, was the work of seven years, in the field and at 

C. R. C. 


■»\\VW \VV\*>w— 


TiiK Survey Memoirs are rlivided according to the twenty-six sheets 
composing the Survey map on the one-inch scale. 

Each Memoir is subdivided into three Sections as below : 

Section A. — The geographical and topographical description of the 
Sheets. All the villages included in the Turkish official lists are 
described. The sub-headings of this Section are ' Orography,' 
' Hydrography,' ' Topography,' ' Roads,' and ' Cultivation.' The 
identifications of ruined sites already proposed on the Sheet are 
noticed, in addition to those identifications suggested under the 
head ' Topography.' 

Section B. — Archaeology of the Sheet, giving a detailed account of 
the ancient remains in alphabetical order, with plans, sketches, and 
drawings of detail. 

Section C. — Ethnographical, with notes on the population, and on 
any legends and traditions which were collected by the Survey 
party in connection with various sites. 

The reference letters show the position of each place on the Sheet. 

The modern names collected in the course of the Survey form a 
separate volume of the Memoirs. They are arranged in alphabetical 
order, printed in Arabic character, with a transliteration into English 
VOL. I, 6 


character ; the translation is given whenever possible, with arcJKcological 
and philological notes. 

The following table of words of frequent occurrence is necessary to 
avoid repetition. The transliteration follows Robinson's system, adopted 
by instruction of the Committee : 

'A i n (pi. 'A )• u n ) ... Spring, fountain, source. 

Ab(Abu) Father | As geographical terms these signify 

Umm Mother / ' producing,' ' containing,' etc. 

Ibn(pl. Beni) Son 

'Arak (pi. 'Arkan) ... Cliff. 

Bab (pi. Buwab) ... Gate. 

Bahr Sen. 

Balliit Oak. 

Bass ah (Basset) ... Marsh. 

Beit House. 

Belad ... ... ... Country or district. 

Belled Town. 

Bir (pi. Biar) Well. 

Birkeh (pi. ]!ur;ik) ... Artificial pool, tank. 

B u h e i r a h ... ... Lake. 

B u k 'a ... ... ... Valley (between two mountain ranges). 

Burj Tower. 

Dar... ... ... ... Large house. 

Deir ... ... ... Convent (sometimes ruined). 

Derb Road. 

D h a h r ( 1 ) h a h r e t ) ... Back, ridge. 
H a r a m ... ... ... Sacred place. 

Haudh ... ... ... Reservoir. 

Hosn ... ... ... Fortress. 

J a m i "a ... . . ... Cathedral Mosque. 

Jezireh (Jeziret) ... Island or peninsula, 

Jebel (pi. Jebal) ... Mountain. 
Jisr ... ... ... Bridge. 

Jubb Well, pit. 

K li b r or K a b r (p 1. K u b ii r ) Tomb. 

KiiTah Castle. 

Kana(pl. Kanat) ... Channel, aqueduct. 
K a n a n (plural of K u n n a t ) Ridge or spur. 

Kiasr Castle or Palace. 

Kefr Village. 

Keniseh Church. 

Khallet A depression or dell. 

Khan Caravanserai. 


K h u r b e h (before a vowel \ 

K h ii r b e t ) I Ruin, 

(pi. Khiirab) J 

K u r m ( p 1. K Li r u m ) ... \'ineyanl. 
Kuryeli (before a vowel 

Kuryet) Village. 

K u b b e t ( K u b b e b ) ... Dome. 

K u r n Horn or peak. 

M a d h n e h ... Minaret. 

MakhiUleh Ford. 

Mar .Saint (Christian). 

Marah Cattle-shed. 

Mcidan ... ... ... Plain, open place. 

Merj ... ... ... Meadow, plain. 

Mesh-hed... ... ... Monument or shrine. 

M e z r 'a h ... ... .., Sown land, arable land. 

Mineh (Minet) ... Harbour. 

M ugh a rah (pi. M ugh air) Cave. 
M li k a m (sometimes spelt 

Makam)... ... ... Sacred station, or shrine. 

Nahr ... ... ... River or perennial stream. 

N ft k b Pass. 

Neby ... ... ... Prophet (See Wely). 

R a s (pi. R u' u s ) ... Head, cape, top. 

R e s m (pi. R u s u m ) ... Traces of ruins. 

R u j m ... ... ... Cairn. 

Sahel ... ... ... Plain. 

Sakia ... ... ... Water-wheel (also water-course). 

Siikneh ... ... ... Suburb. 

S e b i 1 ... ... ... Wayside fountain. 

Sell ... ... ... Stream. 

S h c j e r e h . . . ... ... Tree. 

Shukf (Shukif) Cleft. 

Sir Fold. 

S i 1 1 . . . ... ... ... Lady, female saint. 

Sheikh ... ... ... Chief, elder, saint. 

T a I'a ( T a 1 'a t ) Path up a mountain, or ravine. 

Tahuneh (pi. Tawahin) Mill. 

Tell (pi. Tellul) ... Mound (especially one covering ruinsV 

T u b k ... ... ... Terrace. 

Tor ... ... ... ... Rock or isolated mountain, 

,,, - , f Watercourse (dry in summer, but occa- 

W a d y ... ... \ . .■' . ' 

( sionally filled m wmter). 

\\' e 1 y ... ... ... Moslem saint (used for a saint's tomb). 

Reference is sometimes made to Turkish officers : such as the 



Caimacam. thr Mutascrrif, clc. The rollowin;^ noU; will explain the 
nature and extent of the jurisdiction of ihise officers : 

The Turkish Empire is divided into Wilayets or General Govern- 
ments, each presided over by a Wali or Governor-General. The Wilayets 
are divided into Liwas (or Sanjak) or Provinces, each with a Mutascrrif or 
Governor at its head ; the Liwas are subdivided into or Districts, 
ruled by a Caimacam (Kalni-inak;ini) or Litaitenant-Governor ; and the 
Kadhas again are divided into Nahiyehs or Communal circles, each under 
the presidency of a Mudi'r or Chef de Bureau, who is generally a native 
of the place ; lastly, the Nahiyehs are divided into Kuriytis or Communes, 
under a Mukhtar, or Kiaha, or Sheikh (Headman). 

One Kuriyeh = 40 houses 

One Nahiyeh = 7^*Kuriyehs. 

One Kadha = n Nahiyehs. 

One Sanjak = n Kadhas. 

One Wilayet = 2, 3, or 4 Sanjaks. 

The memoirs of Sheets I. — IV. and VI. were written by Lieutenant 
Kitchener, R.E. The remaining sheets are the work of Lieutenant 
Conder, R.E. Additions in small type are the work of the Editors. 

In the plans the Synagogues are uniformly drawn to the scale of 
100 feet to the inch, and the Tombs to the scale of 20 feet to the inch, 
unless otherwise stated. 

* The letter ;/ is used for 'any number of.' 


This sheet contains 6o'8 square miles of the country east of Tyre. It 
is bounded on the north by the Nahr el Kasimiyeh, which in the valley 
of El Bukaa receives the name of the Litany, anciently known as the 
' Tyrian river.' 

Orography.- — A narrow strip of maritime plain runs along the coast ; 
it is widest opposite Tyre, and there measures a little over a mile across ; 
towards the north, near the river Kasimiyeh, the hills come down within 
half a mile of the coast, while at the extreme south of the sheet spurs of 
the hills extend to the sea-coast, cutting off the plain altogether. 

The most remarkable feature on the sheet is the artificially formed 
promontory, originally a rocky island, on which Tyre stands, projecting a 
mile into the sea, and forming a bay north and south. 

The isthmus joining the island to the mainland is nearly half a mile 
in width, and has been caused by sand silting up against a causeway made 
by Alexander the Great, when he besieged insular Tyre. 

The bay on the north forms a harbour, protecting vessels from the 
south-west winds ; it is too .shallow to admit vessels of any importance, 
and the anchorage farther out is not good. 

The soil of the plain is most fertile at the base of the hills, and 
becomes impregnated with sand near the sea ; it is bounded by a narrow 
sandy beach, and is principally cultivated with barley and wheat. A large 
tract of gardens, running north from Ras el 'Ain to Tyre, produces every 
sort of vegetable grown in the country, and is planted with fruit and 
mulberry trees. 

Between Wady el Humraniyeh and the Nahr el Kasimiyeh, at the 
northern portion of the plain, the land is not so fertile, owing to there 
being no valleys to bring down fresh soil in the winter months. 


The hills on this sheet are spurs running- west from a watershed on 
sheet II. l-iast of Tyre they average a height of between 800 to 900 feet 
above the sea, and are composed of soft white limestone. Tlic prin(ii);il 
peculiarities of the district are the steepness of the valley banks and ihc Icvc-l 
platforms on the ridges. All the ground is cultivated with barley, wheat, 
etc. To the south of Kana the character of the hills chanofes ; the lime- 
stone becomes of a harder description, and the hills are higher, being 
1,050 feet above the sea at Kana, ami increasing in height towards the 
south ; there is a good deal of brushwood in this part, and the country 
becomes wilder and more difficult to pass over. Near the northern 
boundary of the sheet the same change occurs in a less degree ; there arc 
more trees, and the hard limestone forms precipitous banks to the river 
Kasimiyeh, The hills are here about 900 feet above the sea. 

The principal wadies that intersect these hills are Wady el 'Ezziyeh in 
the south, ami Wady el Hubeishiyeh, which joins Wady el Humraniyeh 
near the coast, and runs into the sea a little north of Tyre. 

ToroGRAi'HV. — The present sheet contains thirty-nine villages and 
inhabited farmhouses. They are all under the government of the 
Caimacam of Tyre, who is himself under the Mutaserrif of Beirut. The 
principal town is Tyre, which has a population of about 3,000 (according to 
Consul Rogers, 1859), half Christian and half Metawileh." Professor 
Socin (1874) estimates the population at 5,000; Guerin (1880) at 4,185, 
viz., 2,500 Metawileh, 15 Mussulmans, 70 Latins, 200 Maronites, 1,200 
United Greeks, and 200 Schismatic Greeks. The whole population of the 
area included in the sheet is approximately (on the same estimate) 8,500, 
of whom 6,000 are Mohamedan and Metawileh, 1,000 being of the former 
creed ; 2,000 are Christians ; and 130 are Druzes. 

The description of the villages follow, alphabetically arranged. The 

* ' Metawileh (i^ing. Mutawaly), a Mohamedan sect here regarded as lieretical, though 
their tenets accord for the most part with those of the sect of 'Aly, or the Shiites (Shi'ah) of 
Persia. Their chief practical characteristic, which forces itself upon the notice of a stranger, 
is the custom neither to eat nor drink with those of another religion ; to which they rigidly 
adhere. They use no vessel, for instance, out of which a Christian has eaten or drank, until 
it has been thoroughly cleansed ; and if a Christian chance to drink out of one of their 
earthen vessels, they break it in pieces. They are said even to regard themselves as unclean, 
should a stranger touch their clothes.'— Robinson's ' Palestine,' iii. p. 373. Sepp thinks them 
to be descendants of the Assassins. 


population is given approximately. It will be setjn that in some cases the 
estimate made differs from those recently offered by Guerin, Baedeker, 
and others. The letters which follow the names indicate the position on 
the map, following' from west to east and from north to south. 

'Abbasiyeh (N a). — A stone-built village, containing 400 Meta- 
wileh, built on a ridge ; the ground around it is cultivated for barley, etc., 
and there are groves of figs and olives. The water supply is derived from 
a large pool to the north, and a good spring built up with masonry, also 
to the north of the village ; there are no antiquities, and only a few- 

Guiirin estimates the population at 600. 

'A i n Abu 'A b d a 1 1 a h (M a).— A village built of stone, containing 
about 150 Moslems, built on the slope of the hill, with figs, olives, and 
pomegranates, and surrounded by arable land. There is a strong spring, 
enclosed with masonry, at the village (see Hydrography). 

'A i n Ib'al (M b). — A stone-built village, containing 200 Metawileh, 
built in a valley ; the ground is arable, with groves of figs and olives 
planted round the village. The water supply is from the spring of 'Ain 
Ib'al, described under the head of Hydrography ; just north of the village 
there are also some cisterns. 

B a h h u r (M a). — A stone-built village, containing 200 Mohamedans, 
situated on the slope of the hill. The ground is arable, and there are 
groves of figs, olives, and pomegranates. The water supply is from a 
spring enclosed by masonry, described under the head of Hydrography. 
There are some caves east of the village. 

El Baziiriyeh (M b). — A village built of stone, containing 300 
Metawileh, situated on a ridge. One oil-press and one rock-cut cistern 
are the only antiquities. Water is obtained from a spring half a mile to 
the west. 

Beit Hulei (Mb). — A village built of stone, with a few mud 
houses, containing 100 Metawileh, situated on rising ground, surrounded 
by figs and arable land. There are no ruins of importance ; a few 
cisterns. The water supply is from 'Ain Furawiyat, described under 
the head of Hydrography. 


B i (.1 i a s (M a). — A village built of stone, on llic top of a ridgr, sur- 
roiimlcd by olive trees and arable land, 'riuic is an olivc-prcss near the 
vilhu'C. The water supi'lv is iK:ri\ed from a large birket and cisterns. 
GutJrin states that the population consists of 450 Mctawileh. 

B u r j el K i I1 1 v (M b). — A village built of stone, containing about 
150 IMetawileh, on low ridge, with olives and figs near, and surrounded 
by arable land. There are two cisterns and a good well near. The 
antiquities are described in Section B, p. 57. 

Gucrin found here about fifteen houses, inhabited by as many Metawilch families. 

B u r j Rahhal (N a). — A large village built of stone, containing 
1 50 Metawileh, on a ridge, surrounded by figs, olives, and arable land. 
There is a good spring and well near. 

Guerin gives the population as 400 Metawileh. 

B u r j e s h S h e ni a 1 y (M b.) — A large village built of stone, con- 
taining about 300 IMetawileh, placed on a low ridge, with figs, olives, and 
arable land around. There are two good springs near. 

Deir Kanun (M b). — A well-built stone village, containing about 
400 Moslems. There are olive-groves and arable land around. It is 
built on a ridge, and the water is obtained from 'Ain Furawiyat. 

El 'Ezziyah (IM a). — A village built of stone, containing about 70 
Druzes, situated on a ridge, with two cisterns. There are two caves to 
the north of it. 

Gue'rin says that the two habitable houses in this village contain six Maronite families. 

'E z z i y a t e t T a h t a (M c). — A farmhouse, in gardens of lemons, 
jjomegranates, etc. ; watered from the Neb'a el 'Ezziyah by an aqueduct. 
It contains about 20 Moslems. There are large groves of olives to the 

'El Hammadiyeh (M b). — A stone building, containino- 90 

Christians. There is here one olive-press, and the building is surrounded 

by arable land. There are cisterns and a spring to the south-east. 

'A simple hamlet on a hill, inhabited by several families of Maronites, Schismatic Greeks, 
and Metawileh.' — Guerin. 

H e n a w e i (M b). — A village built of stone, on a hill-top, surrounded 
by figs, olives, and pomegranates, and some arable soil. It contains 300 
Metawileh, and the water supply is from cisterns. 

{sheet /.] TOPOGRAniW 49 

Jebal el B u t m (N c). — Stands on a steep hill, and contains 
about 25 Moslems, occupying the ruins of the ancient place. Water is 
obtained from cisterns and from 'Ain Yarin, which lies a quarter of a mile 
to the south-west. Cultivation in valleys round. 

Probably this name lielongs to the hills on which the village stands. — E. H. P. 

K a n a (N c). — A large village of well-built houses, whose inhabitants 
are partly Christians, partly Moslems. There are about 400 Christians to 
500 Moslems. The ground is cultivated, and planted with olives and figs. 
The village is divided into two parts, with a birket between. There is a 
Christian church. It is situated on high ground, and is well supplied 
with water from the two springs, 'Ain el Gharbiyeh and 'Ain el Kussis. 

' This great village, the population of which is at least a thousand, is divided into three 
qiiartlcrs. The highest, called Kana el Foka, occupies the summit of the hill. It is con- 
sidered the most ancient of the three. It is now entirely abandoned, except by about thirty 
Metawileh, and the stones of its overthrown houses are continually being removed to build 
new houses in the two other quarters. In the second quarter are about 600 Metawileh ; in 
the third, 400 United Greeks.' — Guerin. 

Khurbet el II an iy eh (Mc).— A modern farmhouse, occupied 
by from 15 to 20 Moslems. 

Khurbet J u w a r en N u k h 1 (M a). — Good stone ancient re- 
mains, occupied by 60 Druzes, on sloping ground. Has a large cistern 

Khurbet el M 'alii y a (M c). — A modern farmhouse, containing 
about 20 Moslems, surrounded by gardens. Water from a cistern called 
Bir el Wasi'a. 

Khurbet el W a r d i a n e h. — A modern farmhouse, occupied by 
about 15 Moslems, and surrounded by cultivated ground and olives. 

K h u r e i b e h (N 1)). — Part of Kana, built to the north on the highest 
ground, and probably on the site of ancient ruins. About 50 Moslems 
occupy it. 

El Kuneiseh (M c). — A small village built of stone, containing 
about 50 Moslems, with spring near, surrounded by olives, and containing 

El Kureih (N b). — A stone village built on a ridge, surrounded 
by figs, olives, and arable land. There are cisterns and a spring. It is 
occupied by about 70 Metawileh. 

VOL I. 7 


Lc i 1 c h (M c).— A small wcU-buill stone village, containing about 50 
Moslems, surrounded by olives and arable ground. The water supply is 
from 'Ain Zaheiriyeh. 

El Man surah (L c).— A village built of stone, on the [jlain, 

surrounded by olives, figs, and arable land ; contains about 50 Moslems. 

Water from cisterns and spring near shore. 

'About a dozen houses, built of old materials, inhabited by a few poor Metawilch 
families. ' — Gudrin. 

N eby 'A mran (M c). — A few ruined farmhouses, still occupied by 
about 20 ^loslems. 

Neby Kasim (Ma). — The buildings here contain about 50 
Moslems : there are a few fig and olive trees, the land is arable. Water 
from ri\er. 

Neby Ma'shuk (M b).^Stone houses, containing about 30 
Moslems, round the Neby, situated on slight hill. Water obtained 
from the aqueduct. The ground is arable. 

Ras el 'Ain (M b). — A village built of stone, containing about 
100 Metawileh, in the plain, surrounded by gardens of figs, pomegranates, 
mulberries, and olives. Five mills in the village, and near, in working 
order, a good many ruined. The water supply is described under the head 
of Hydrography. 

R u m e i d i y e h (M c). — A well-built village, with cisterns, containing 
about 150 Moslems, surrounded by groves of figs. Water from 'Ain el 

Er Rusheidiyeh (Mb). — A large square building, built by 
Rusheid Pasha for a factory ; now contains about 70 Metawileh, and is 
surrounded by gardens of olives, figs, pomegranates, and lemons. It 
stands on a slight hill above the plain, and has two strong springs near, 
surrounded by masonry. 

Semmaaiyeh (M b). — A small stone-built village, contains about 
80 Moslems. It is surrounded by figs and olives, on the slope of a ridge 
near bed of Wady. Water is brought from Ras el 'Ain. 

Shatiyeh (M c). — A village built of stone, contains about 150 


Moslems, surrounded by figs and olives, situated on high ground. Water 
is brought iVom 'Ain el Kuneiseh. 

Shernei (M b). — A village built of stone, situated on the top of a 
hill, contains about 150 Metawileh, and is surrounded by figs, olives, and 
arable land. There is a good spring to the north of the village at the birket. 

Es Sur (Tyre) (L b). — This is the capital of the district, and is 
the residence of the Caimacam ; it contains about 3,000 inhabitants, half 
Greek Christians and half Metawileh and Moslems (see above, p. 46). 
An account of the city, with special plans, will be found in Section B, 
p. 72. The houses are well built of small stones, the streets are narrow 
and dirty ; a good deal of trade is done in cereals and fruit. 

Teir Dubbeh (M b).— A village built of stone, containing 250 
Metawileh, situated on a ridge surrounded by olives and fig-trees and 
arable land. There are three cisterns in the village. 

To rah (N a). — A village of mud and stone, situated on the top of a 

hill, and surrounded by figs, olives, and arable land. There are a spring 

and cisterns. It contains about 200 Metawileh. 

Gucrin says : ' The village contains 450 Metawileh, and occupies the summit of a hill 
entirely covered with fig-trees.' 

Yani'ih (N b). — A village built of stone, containing 150 Metawileh, 
on a hill-top, surrounded by figs, olives, and pomegranates, and arable land. 
A spring and cisterns are found here. 

Anxient Sites. — There is no doubt that Tyre, whose Hebrew name 
was Tsor, the rock, is es Siu'. Kana was identified by Dr. Robinson 
with Kanah (Josh. xix. 28), which was one of the places which formed the 
landmarks of the boundaries of Asher. It is mentioned after Hammon, 
for which 'Ain Hammul on the shore south of Tyre has been suggested. 
Yanuh is perhaps the ancient Janoah mentioned once only (in 2 Kings 
XV. 29) as one of the conquests of Tiglath Pileser. 

Lieutenant Conder suggests the following additional identifications : 
El Ezziyah ... = Hosah (Joshua xix. 29). 

Bidias = Beth Cedia of the Talmud. 

Ras el Ain ... = Palrctyrus (see p. 79). 

Hydrography. — The most remarkable features of the water supply on 
this sheet are the fine springs at Ras el 'Ain (see p. 69), which 


supply a large district with water. The reservoirs are called Birket 

el 'IsrAwy and es Sufsdfeli. Tlie aciuediict carrying- the water 

to the neighbourhood of Tyre, wilh other details, are described in 

Section B of this sheet. The northern boundary of ilic work is formed 

by the river K A s i m i y e h. This river is not fordablc at the mouth, but 

just below the bridge (Jisr el Kasimiyeh) it is. It is here between thirty 

and forty yards wide, and is a strong rapid stream of rather turbid water. 

It is generally stated by travellers that the Litany or the K a s i m i y c h is ' the ancient 
I.eontes.' Stanley says, however (' Sinai and Palestine,' note to p. 414 d), ' The notion that 
the Leontes was the ancient name of the river is doubly mistaken, (i) The Litdny has no 
ancient name except the Tyrian River. (2) The name of Leontes never occurs in ancient 
writers, and is a confusion with the genitive case of the river Leon, which is the name given 
by Ptolemy (v. 15) to a river between Sidon and Beirut, cither the Bostrenus or the 

The rest of the water supply is given alphabetically : 

'A i n A b u '.\ b d a 1 1 a h (M a). — -A large spring enclosed in masonry 
reservoir, from which a stream of water flows. 

'A i n A b u 'A m r (N a). — A perennial spring of good water ; slight 
stream (lowing from it. 

'A in el 'Aleiliyat, or 'A i n el Muthniyat (M c).— A 
perennial spring, built up wilh masonry ; small supply of good water. 

'A i n edh Dhelat (L c). — A large supply of fresh water on the 
beach, flowing at once into the sea. 

'A i n Furawiyat (INI b). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; small supply of good water. 

'A i n el G h a r b i y c h (N b). — A perennial spring ; moderate supply 
of good water on level. 

'A i n el Hubeishiyeh (M b). — A perennial spring of good 
water, built up with masonry ; there is a moderate supply. 

'A i n Ib'al (AI b). — A perennial spring north of village; good 
supply of water. 

'A i n J i 1 u (N b). — A perennial spring, built up with masonry ; 
there is a moderate supply of good water. 

'A in el Judeideh (M b). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; there is a moderate supply of good water. 

{sheet i:\ IIYDROGRArilY. 53 

'A i n K u n e i s e h (M c).— A perennial spring, built up with masonry ; 
moderate supply of good water. 

'A i n K u r d i y e h (N b).— Rock-cut cistern ; rain-water. 

'A in el Kussis (N c).— A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; there is a moderate supply of good water. 

'A i n el INT a 1 1 i y a (M c).— A perennial spring ; there is a moderate 
supply of good water. 

'A in el Medfeneh (L c). — Rock-cut well. 

'A in S h i d g h i t h (N b). — Good water flows into a rock-cut 

'A i n S u r (L b). — Deep well ; small supply of good water ; peren- 

'A i n Torah (N b). — A perennial spring in rock-cut well; there is 
a moderate supply of good water. 

'A i n Umm el 'Ami (Mb). — A perennial spring built round with 
masonry ; there is a moderate supply of brackish water. 

'A i n Ya r i n (N c). — A perennial spring of good water ; there is a 
moderate supply. 

'A i n e z Z a h e i r i y e h (M c). — A perennial spring of good water ; 
there is a moderate supply. 

B i r el 'A k k a d (L b). — A perennial spring, built up with masonry ; 
there is a good supply of water. 

Bir Beit Shakura (Lb). — Large rain-water cistern. 

Bir el J e be 1 tin (M b). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; there is a moderate supply of good water. 

Bir el Wasia (M c). — Rain-water cistern. 

Birket 'A i n ez Zerka (M a). — A perennial spring in rect- 
angular masonry reservoir, from which a strong stream of good water 
flows into the Nahr el Kasimiyeh near its mouth. 

Birket el Bakbuk (M b). — Contains a spring enclosed in 
masonry reservoir, from which a stream of water flows to the sea. 

Birket el Bass (Mb). — Ruined birket ; dry. 

Birket Tell el Bahr (M b).— Ruined birket ; dry. 


Neba lA 'V.7./.\\i\\\ (M c). — A large perennial sprint^ of c^nod 
water. An aqueduct carries water to the gardens in the; bed of the 
wAdy ; there is a large supply. 

Roads. — The main road on this sheet is that along the sea-shore, 
leading north and south from Tyre. To the south thtn-e are still traces 
of ancient paving. According to an inscription found at the spring 
of Nakurah, there were formerly bridges to carry this road across the 
torrents that fell into the sea in winter, but they are now all broken 
down. At the extreme south of the sheet the road begins to pass in a 
cutting in the rock along the side of a white precipice immediately above 
the sea. This (which is shown in Sheet III.) was called the Promontorium 
Album, Ras el Abyadh, or White Cape of the Crusaders ; an account of 
this place is given under its name in Sheet III. To the north of Ras el 
'Ain the road runs through the sand along the sea-shore as far as Tyre. 
At the extreme north of the survey it passes over the Jisr el Kasimiyeh, 
which spans the river by a single pointed arch. There are some good 
roads leading east from Tyre. One leads to Kana, passing by the villages 
of Henawei and Kabr Hiram ; another good road leads up the Wady 
Hubeishiyeh, and a third up the Wady Humraniyeh. The roads north 
and south are not good, owing to the steepness of the sides of the valley 
which have to be crossed in the south-east corner of the sheet. The 
tracks are very difficult to follow in places, owing to the scrub and wild- 
ness of the countrv. 


Ix this section (see p. 41) will be found an account of the ruins, the 
ancient remains, inscriptions, etc., existing in the part of the country 
covered by the Sheet. The additions in small print give those details 
which have been omitted by the officers as already published, or have 
been observed by other travellers. In a few cases statements are made 
which cannot be reconciled. If we consider the continual destruction of 
old materials which is going on in Palestine, we can easily account for 
most of these discrepancies. The references to Guerin will be found in 
every case sub voce in his volu-nes. 

Speaking generally of this district Lieutenant Kitchener says 
('Quarterly Statement,' 1877, pp. 173-4) : 

'The rocks of this district are composed of white chalky Umestone, and the valleys are 
deep and difficult to cross. The country is thickly covered with villages, but, except just 
round them, is bare of trees, and has a very barren appearance. A remarkable feature is the 
number of olive-presses; they occur on almost every hill-top, and differ from the more 
southern ones. Two square pillars of stone stand side by side about five feet high, with a 
slit cut in each of them, and by them is the circular stone press about four feet in diameter. 
Occasionally the round stone is also there that crushed the olives by being rolled round the 
press. The stone pillars, which do not occur in other parts of the country, were evidently to 
hold up the rolling stone, and the centre of the press is always raised slightly to receive the 
framework to which the roller was attached. They have a very ancient appearance, and as 
these pillars stand up very distinctly all over the country, they look like ancient landmarks. 
The steep hills are almost all terraced, and there are a great number of ruins, showing that 
the ancient population of this part must have been very great. Most of the ruins are simply 
heaps of stones with doorposts and lintels of stone. .Some rude figures cut in the rock occur 
at different places; they are of the rudest description, occasionally only a parallelogram with 
a small circle for the head, which is pierced for eyes, mouth, etc. Others are better finished, 
and show portions of the dress. They occur on the face of the rock generally near tombs. 
Another feature in this part of the country is the large number of sarcophagi, which occur 
all over the country, some on pedestals, some lying on the ground. The grandest remaining 
is the "tomb of Hiram," though I think there must have been formerly many equally magni- 
ficent, though now ruined.' 

'A bbasiy eh (N a). 
' Twenty minutes from this place to the wcbt is a ruined village called Kh. el Tineh. 


'At Abkisiyeh itself arc a good many rock cut tombs, covered by blocks of stone rudely 
squared. ... On the western slopes of the hill are several ancient sarcophagi and old 
quarries.' — (lUerin. 

' In following the Wady Humraniyeh, which leads to Abbastyeh, one sees many vestiges 
of a Roman road, which perhaps led from Sur to Damascus. All along the road arc seen 
from point to point groups of ruins, presses, and sarcophagi.'— 1\[. Gaillardot, (luoted by 
Renan, ' Mission en Phenicie,' p. 644. 

'A 111 II d c I A t r a s h (M b). — This is a specimen of a pcciiliar sort of 
olive-press, which occurs frcqticntly in Phoenicia, ami ranly in the more 
southern districts ; there are e.xamples at Kefr Ri'it, Sheet XVH., and at 
Beit Sur, Sheet XXI. 

At 'A m 11 d el Heir u t y there are remains similar to the above. 

At 'A w amid el M e n k e 1 e h there is a similar olive-press, with 
a stone across the top of the two uprights. 

B i d i a s (N a). 

'This village has replaced an ancient one, as is proved by the cut stones which are built 
up in some of the Arab constructions. Five minutes north of this place, and over above the 
southern bank of the Kasimiyeh, which flows here in a deep ravine, I met with many ancient 
millstones, broken, and an ancient tomb cut in the rock, having the form of a simple grave, 
but covered with a great curved block of stone. Thirty minutes west of Bidias is the ruin 
called Khiirbet ed Dar, on a hill overlooking the ravine. It consists of the interior of an 
enclosure formed of numerous stones roughly squared, with those of a few houses. .\t a 
short distance west of this place there are the ruins called Kh. el Meshatah, on a northern 
hill. They are those of an abandoned Mohammedan village, in which are older ruins, 
especially those of a building twenty-seven paces in length from west to east, the door of 
which is still standing. It is surmounted by a magnificent lintel, in the centre of which was 
once sculptured an ornament, now defaced, which occupied the middle of a sort of rectangular 
frame, terminating to right and left in the usual dove-tail. This building, which had been after- 
wards divided into several houses, was built of cut stones very regularly put together.'— 

Birket el Bakbuk (M b). 

'This reser\-oir supplied an aqueduct now destroyed, which led to the ])lains round Tyre, 
and irrigated the plantations. It is a pentagon in form, its greatest length being fifty paces 
and its greatest breadth about thirty. .\ footway paved with small shells and fragments of 
pottery closely stuck together with good cement surrounds it. The sjiring now forms a 
brook, which fertilises a garden before running into the sea. 

'Not far from the reservoir, to the north, I observed fragments of a mosaic, the foundations 
of houses, and fragments of sarcophagi. 

A little more to the north of this reservoir is a mound called Tell Abrian, entirely covered 
with broken sarcophagi. Here is also a great tomb cut in the rock. To the east of the 
Tell are the remains of houses covered up with sand, and a spring called Ain Abrian. 
It is perennial, and its waters are regarded as medicinal. A mile from the east of Tell 

{sheet /.] TOPOGRAPHY. 


Abrian are some foundations with three rock-cut cisterns, known as Kh. el Yehudiyeh ; and 
on a hillock to the south-south-west of this place a mass of ruins, called Kh. ez Zaklef. An 
aqueduct partly upright and built of good cut stones crosses the Wady Zaklef — Guerin. 

B u r j c 1 H a w a (M a). — Foundations of a large square building of 
drafted masonry, with large cisterns and four sarcophagi. This was 
probably a tower guarding the bridge over the River Kasimiyeh. 

'The mouth of the Kasimiyeh,' says Renan ('Mission en Phenice,' p. 595), 'presents 
many points of interest. Here, perhaps, was the Leontopolis of Greek geographers. The 
acropolis of Burj el Hawa (Tower of the Winds) above the river seems as if it must be taken 
for the site of the city. Here is seen a great construction of drafted masonry, with a door 
in the rock of extremely ancient character, and in the neighbourhood a colossal sarcophagus, 
whose sides and lid are sculptured with richness and taste. The lid is in the form of a 
roof, and presents an imitation of metal bands. It is one of the most carefully worked 
tombs that I have seen in Phoenicia. Around it are other very fine sarcophagi ; one remains 
which has never been detached from the quarry. It is a cemetery, called, as is usual, Kubur 
el Moluk. All the environs of Burj el Hawa are of the greatest archsological value. One 
feels that here was once an important centre. An uncommon number of presses and 
millstones are found here. AVest of Burj el Hawa may be seen two .sarcophagi with 
sculptures very well preserved, under which we observed the ruins of buildings and cut rock. 
Near here is Khallet er Rihan.' 

The place stands upon a plateau, commanding on the west a \ lew of the sea across the 
narrow plain between it and the coast, and on the north the beautiful valley of the Kasimiyeh. 
The building referred to by Renan is described by Guerin as measuring 60 paces in length 
by nearly as much in breadtli : it consists of a thick wall constructed of enormous blocks cut 
more or less perfectly, and which appear to have been retouched at various periods : the lower 
courses, in fact, are much more considerable than the upper, and are very probably more 

' On the same plateau, to the south, outside this enclosure, we find cisterns, an ancient 
pres.s, traces of old buildings, small cubes of mosaic scattered about in several places, and 
five .sarcophagi, one of which especially is very richly adorned with garlands and, on one of 
the small faces, with a head, unfortunately mutilated, which seems to represent a Jupiter 
Amnion or the sun. The cover is similarly sculptured with rare elegance. It is in the form 
of a roof, and on one of the small faces another figure, more mutilated still, occupies the 
centre of a sort of small pediment.' — Guerin. 

Burj el K i b 1 y (M b). — In this village there are the remains of a 
square tower of drafted masonry, probably a Crusading outwork to protect 
the Plain of Tyre from approach from the east. 

' Close by is a hill called Tell Burj el Kibly, on which are a few scattered ruins and several 
broken sarcophagi. On a higher hill is the village of Burj el Kibly, containing some fifteen 
houses, inhabited by as many Metawileh families. One of these houses, recently rebuilt, is 
partly constructed, especially at the angles, with good blocks found on the spot, and belonging, 
it is said, to a demolished ibrt. The village is separated from Burj esh Shemaly by a valle)-, 
in which can be seen an ancient piece of sculpture on a block of stone. It represents in a 
rectangular frame the image of a shepherd: on his right and on his lel't are figured three heads 

VOL. I. 8 


of sheep, each surrounded by a crown ; at the feet of the figure is an animal, now mm Ii worn 
away by linie, probably also a sheep. The sides of the valley, formerly used as a ijuarr)', are 
pierced by a good number of rock-cut caves.' — Gucrin. 

Burj Rahhal (N a). 

' Here are seen good cut stones lying here and there, taken from an ancient fort 

Ten minutes to the west of the village I observed three good subterranean magazines 
contiguous and parallel. Partly cut in the rock and partly constructed of cut stones, they 
measure ten metres in length by a breadth not greater than a metre and a half. 'Ihey are 
covered within by a stony cement, in which are inserted fragments of pottery, and arc 
surmounted by great inclined slabs forming a triangular roof These arc covered over by a 
layer of earth, so as to form a platform. Several other similar caves are adjoining them, but 
they are at the present moment closed. Formerly they probably served as oil and wine- 
cellars, or stores for corn. The place is called Kh. Mahitha.'— Gucrin. 

Renan, who first discovered these singular constructions found seven of them in a row, 
three being open, the rest closed. He was also informed that to the north-east of these 
there are seven more hidden under gi'ound. The natives call them the Tombs of the Tyrian 
Kings — Kubur el Moluk. — ' Mission en Phanicie,' pp. 643, 644. 

'A few minutes more to the west, Guerin found a ruin called Kh. Kerm el Meserta, where 
he obser^'ed the uprights of grooved oil-presses, broken sarcophagi, mill stones, numerous little 
cubes of mosaic scattered about, and a great cistern extending under a platform. At twenty 
minutes' march west-south-west of El Meserta, he observed a hillock with the remains of a 
ruined village called Kh. Halua. Not far from this place, to the east-north-east, he found a 
platform surrounded by a wall of large stones, having a great cistern hollowed in the middle. 
It is called Bir el Mellaha.' 

Burj esh Shcmaly (M b) is a village with a similar tower of 
drafted masonry. 

The hill is crowned by a stronghold, the vaults of which, slightly ogival, do not appear 
older than the Crusaders, but it was constructed of older blocks, some in drafted masonry 
and others completely smoothed. About a mile to the south-west of this hill is a subter- 
ranean series of tombs, each containing several ranges of loculi, which was explored by Kenan. 

Ed D e i r (N b). — Traces of foundations, stone lintels, and heaps of 
hewn stones of moderate size ; eight to ten sarcophagi, several cisterns. 

D e i r el A r b 'a i n (N b). — A number of cisterns, several sarcophagi, 
and a small cave ; there are no ruins. 

D e i r K a n u n (M b). — At this village there are traces of ruins west 
of the village, with rock-cut wine-presses and cisterns, and a few olive- 
presses. North of the village, on the side of the hill, there are 
some rock-cut tombs ; close to one of these there are two very rude 
figures cut in the rock, roughly representing human forms. 

In a small mosque Guerin observed two shafts, one without its capital, the other with a 
Corinthian capital. Half an hour south of Deir Kanun is a ruin called Kh. el Mhasnieh. 
Here are two mutilated sarcophagi, and several uprights of oil-presses, with a heap of rubbish. 


[sheet I^ ARCH.EOLOGY. 


At Deir Kanun there are great stones, excavations in the rock, and extravagant sculptures, 
resembhng those of the Wady Kana. 

'These figures are near the village, and all the people of the country know them. 

'Besides, on the hill (covered with brushwood) on the north-east of the village, and on its 
northern slope, there are said to be four figures of the same kind, which we looked for, but 
could not find. Opposite the principal group of these sculptures is rock cut with a pick, 
which clearly recedes where it leaves the line of the ground. The soil is entirely formed of 
light soil, brought to the place. Very likely there is an underground chamber of some kind 
here, the entrance to which is closed. On the smooth surface of the rock mentioned above 
is seen a Latin cross, to the left of which have been rudely figured the sun and the moon ; 
below there are traces of an inscription. Impossible to make out any of it. I am not even 
sure that it ever was an inscription. Above is a cave with seats in the interior and, outside, steps. 

'The ground round Deir Kanun is covered with cuttings in the rock and old con- 
structions. There are also sarcophagi ; one feels that one is on an old site. I had heard at 
Tyre of a ' black bull ' which should have been here, but I could not find it. 

The road from Deir Kanun to Leileh is interesting. First, on the right-hand, we find 
caves in the style of Adlun, or nearly so, on the slope of the hill of Semaaiyeh; there is next 
a house built of great blocks, with smooth surface. On the next hill, after passing to the 
opposite slope, is a place called Malkiyeh (perhaps the Crusading casalc of Mclekieh). 
Here is the site of an ancient city, and one of those which offer the most characteristic type 
of an old Canaanite locality. For more than a quarter of an hour we saw nothing but 
remains of buildings, great walls, and fine works in stone. The tombs cut in the rock 
resemble those of Belat, near Jebcil. There are great sarcophagi, with acroteria which present 
some analogy with those of Khan Khaldi. A sepulchral cave has over its door the sign of a 
triangle, with which we were already acquainted. One is struck also with a double cave, 
having several niches, of good style, into which an entrance is eflected by a common shaft, 
placed in the middle of the two grottoes. Several of these niches communicate with each 
other from one side to the other by the bottom. In the midst of these ruins rise three long 
hillocks, of strongly-marked characteristics, giving the idea of an artificial ' high place.' The 
primitive Semitic altar was a pile of stones. Remains of very old houses recall Umm el 
Awamid : one lintel especially resembles those found in the ruins of that place. A square 
house on an embankment of made earth is remarkable for the size of its blocks and its good 
but rude construction. A very carefully built cistern reminds one of the finest works of the 
kind in this neighbourhood. All these things are found along the road, which descends into 
the valley, and are even seen on the slope of the hill opposite. 

' The striking thing in these ruins is the absolute absence of elegance. A fragment of 
moulding or sculpture is very rare. The idea of art in the house was only introduced 
into these countries by the Greeks and Romans. The places which remained in the hands 
of the people, such as those which we have just visited, were in matters of taste exactly 
similar to the villages which now cover the country, save that they were much better built. 
We see also a difterence between the country of Tyre and that of the Lebanon. On every 
hill of the Lebanon, as in the country of Tyre, we found the traces of some ancient site ; 
but in the Lebanon we met everywhere temples by the side of industrial works. Here the 
scattered ruins of the country are great farmhouses, rich villages, with grandiose sepulchres. 
Temples, at least in the immediate neighbourhood of Tyre, are rare in the country. One feels 
that the Temple of Melkarth, like the Temple of Jerusalem, overwhelmed the others and 



prevented tlic muUiplicily of sanctuaries. We must remember, also, that we are already on 
Jewish soil.' — Renan, p. 690. 

I ) c i r c 1 K u h 1) (• i (M b). — Large heaps of stones ; one cattle shctl. 

HI 'Ezziyali (Ml). 

'On the summit of the hill was once a village called el '.\zieh, of which tlicre remain fine 
ancient blocks scattered about, two tombs in the form of rectangular graves cut in the rock, a 
well and a good many other materials, which have served to build two great houses.' — 

]:i 11 am mad i ye h (M b). 

'A simple hamlet built on a hill, the houses constructed of old materials found on the 
spot.' — Guerin. 

Hen^wei (I\I b). 

' On the slopes of the hill on which this village is situated I observed two great ancient 
presses cut in the rock, each composed of two compartments communicating together, the 
one to press the grapes and the other to receive the juice. The village is scattered over with 
cut stones, taken probably from an ancient church consecrated to St. John the Baptist, for a 
wely there is sacred to Yahia ben Zakaria. Built in one of the walls of the little court which 
surrounds the sanctuary is a fine block of stone, on which arc sculptured double crosses 
inscribed in a circle : that of the centre has been purposely chiselled out by the Moham- 
medans, because it was more easily recognised than the other for a cross. In another place, 
on a block sening as a lintel, I observed, in the midst of a rectangular frame, the remains 
of some effaced ornament. 

' Opposite to Henawei is a ruined village called Khurbct el Ras, of which nothing is left 
but broken cisterns. A square stone was found here, having upon it certain characters, among 
which were an j), H, and 0.' — Guerin. 

' Between Henawei and Kh. el Ras, in the Wady el Akkab, are found rude sculptures of 
about fifteen personages, male and female. They are nearly all represented as upright, and 
as if enclosed in a little niche, the hands placed one upon the other before the breast. In 
the centre of the group is a figure which appears meant for a divinity, towards which three 
men and a woman march in procession. These figures, in considerable relief, are clothed in 
short dresses falling in folds, and belted. They are for the most part mutilated. They seem 
to me anterior to the Greco-Roman epoch. Probably they are Egypto-Phcenician.' — Guerin. 

' From Kabr Hiram or Henawei to Kana, monuments cut in the rock are met with at 
every step ; they may be counted by hundreds. The Kana road is in this respect the most 
remarkable I have ever seen. I would point especially to certain caves having round holes 
cut above them mixed with rockcut tombs. Stone erections in the form of a gallows 
(presses) abound. Chambers cut in the rock are seen on all sides. There are also buildings, 
remains of walls. The rocky hill near Kana, especially, is covered with these works, round 
holes, large and small, in the rock, basins, trenches, etc. 

' Turning to the right, in the valley called here Wady Kana, in order to examine the 
north face of this rocky hill, we find ourselves in the presence of certain strange sculptures 
cut in the rock. They are completely rude, such as might be executed by a man without any 
knowledge of drawing or the least education in this direction. They may be divided into 

\_SHEf:T I.'] ARCH.EOLOGY. 6r 

three series. The first forms a sort of long procession ; the second, placed below, is com- 
posed of upright figures. M. de Prunicres, who was with us, saw a third series hidden 
among the bushes. Impossible to attribute to the simple sport of idle shepherds images 
which must have required continuous labour, and in which one remarks so much intention ; 
it is also difficult to recognise in them the production of serious art. Similar things are 
found at Deir Kanun.'^Renan, ' Mission,' p. 635. 

Jebel el 'A m u d (N b). — Ruins and scattered stones, several 
olive-presses, five cisterns, hill deeply terraced. 

Jisr el 'Ezziyah (Lc ).■ — A broken bridge, apparently modern. 

J i s r el K a s i m i y e h (M a).~A single pointed arched bridge of 
Arabic work. 

K a b r H i r a m (M b). — On a base formed of three courses of large 
blocks of whitish limestone, reaching a height of 9' 8", there stands a noble 
sarcophagus, the base of which, projecting a few inches all round, is 7' 9" 
wide, by 12' 2" long; the total height is 6' 2", 2' 3" of this is the base. 
The sarcophagus then tapers slightly, until it measures 6' 2" wide, by 
11' i" long at the junction of the lid. The lid is made with a ridge in th(^ 
direction of its length, and is 3' 7" high in the centre, and 2' 10" at the 
sides. The first two courses of the pedestal measure 3' 10" and 2' 10" 
high respectively, and are S' 9" wide by 13' 2" ; the third course projects 
6 inches all round, and is 3' high. 

Immediately on the north side of the monument two llights of a few 
rudely made steps lead to the door of an artificially cut cavern. This is 
about eight feet wide, by ten feet long, and five feet high, and is cut in 
the soft rock. 

M. Renan made important excavations in the neighbourhood of the so-called ' Tomb of 
Hiram.' It must be presumed that the tradition which connects the torn!) with Solomon's 
contemporary has no value whatever. Robinson and Guerin both heard tlie name pronounced 
Kabr Hairan. There is no tradition of Hiram in the country ; the peasantry have long for- 
gotten that once famous king. Yet tlie monument itself may be of extreme antiquity. 

The excavations were made in the ])lateau close to the tomb. The northern end was 
cleared of rubbish, and the 'Tomb of Hiram's Mother' (so-called) cleared out. The first 
result was the proof that the tomb did not stand in a cemetery, but in a town or village. 
Everywhere were found the foundations of houses, presses, mill-stones, and agricultural 
implements, including vessels made of the black lava of the Hauran. 

At the foot of the tomb, on the south side, the shafts led to a very curious and interesting 
discovery. They brought to light ' a staircase cut in the rock more ancient than the 
mausoleum itself, and leading to a great cave, irregularly vaulted, comparatively lofty, 
presenting neither a sepulchral nor a religious aspect. The cave was completely empty. 
Proof that the staircase is more ancient than the mausoleum is found in the disposition of 


the tbundations.' It seems, in fad, that the staircase formerly ran under the site of tlie 
tomb; and it is conjectured that the lower part of it was filled up with cement, and the upper 
part was tlien added. 

M. Renan tims describes the monunieni itself: 

'The enumbk of the tomb, although imposing, is irregular and unfinished. The monu- 


ment is badly sloped at the top, and seems on one side * to affect the vertical. The southern 
side, that on which the cave was found, is particularly rude, while the side of the road and 
the two narrow ends (e.xcept for some little irregularities at the western end) are comparatively 
finished. We concluded from the unfinished state of this side next the cave, and because 
the monument seems to lean over on this side, that formerly the tomb was placed against 

* Perhaps that from which the view in Thomson's ' Land and the Book ' was taken. 


some building, for part of its height at least. The entrance to the cave was then covered 
over. It must certainly have opened upon an interior, otherwise the cave would have been 
filled with water.' 

M. Renan thus speaks of the vicinity of Kabr Hiram : 

' In the valley to the south of the road is observed a little cemetery of interesting 
character. It contains sarcophagi cut in the rock, the covers formed each of a quadrangular 
block. On the slope are seen two caves, cut square, with coverings composed of enormous 
blocks of stone. Here and there are caves rudely cut, having for covers undressed 
blocks. Only one sepulchral grotto was found ; it was completely cleared out. Other 
sepulchres may have escaped our notice. The natives kept on saying, " All the country 
round Kabr Hiram is full of sarcophagi ; there are hundreds of them." 

' On the mound to the left, before reaching Kabr Hiram from Tyre, is a great tomb 
resembling it, called the ' Tomb of Hiram's Mother.' Near this place exists a white mosaic 
in great cubes, very well preserved. Round it are seen mosaics lying about, and square 
openings filled with enrth, which seem shafts for descending into subterranean caves, as at 
Saida. It appears, however, that these caves are only quarries in walls of old houses. 
. . . What, then, is this Kabr Hiram ? Is it an ancient city ? Is it the old cemetery of Tyre ? 
One can hardly at first sight believe that this enormous mass of tombs can belong to a city 
once situated on this spot. The tombs, not grouped in one place, are scattered over an 
extent of two-thirds of a mile. Yet, on the other hand, there were undoubtedly important 
buililings at Kabr Hiram. The locality has served as an immense quarry for the whole of 
the surrounding country; we must not therefore be astonished if constructions other than 
sejiulchral are rare at Kabr Hiram. 

' The character of these monuments offers a remarkable unity. Everything is simple, 
grandiose ; not a sculiJture, not a moulding, not an inscription in which it resembles those in the 
cemetery of el Lawwatin and the sepulchral monuments of Sidon. It has a primitive air, an 
appearance siii generis. A trait entirely Phcenician is the want of care to finish off the monu- 
ment or to arrive at exact measures . . . Nothing has been proved against the theory that the 
cemetery of Kabr Hiram is of high Phoenician antiquity; nothing proves that it is of this 
antiquity . . . Where, however, was the city w-hich furnished so many tombs? I believe that I 
have partly discovered it. Following the road from Tyre to Kana, about a quarter of an 
hour's walk will take the traveller to one of the most curious ancient places in Phcenicia. It 
is on the left of the road and opposite the modern village of Hanawei. It is a sort of 
acropolis, or rather a rock cut out with surprising boldness. Immense blocks are seen on 
every side. One tomb especially astonishes the visitor by its dimensions : it is a stone rudely 
quarried, not regularly cut, with an enormous cover formed of a prism of rock. Around it, 
broken sarcophagi, others cut in the rock ; everything of a grand and strange appearance. A 
little beyond, we observe a house of white stone, the walls of which are still in good preser- 
vation; next, wine-presses. The whole style of this place is massive, without form, mono- 
lithic, which one may assign to the old Canaanitic style, if we call by that name the remains 
which commence in the neighbourhood of Tyre and cover the territory of the tribe of Asher 
(cities with monolithic wine-presses, mixed with sarcophagi, an eiiseiiiMe quite distinct 
from the Phcenician remains properly so called, which have a character of art and civilisation. 
On the top of the necropolis is seen the angle and a portion of a wall, in which some of the 
stones resemble those of the building near the Kabr Hiram. Embossed stones abound in 
the locality. Besides, the interval from Kabr Hiram to Kana is studded with remains which 
may be called Canaanite.' 


A[. Rcnan also discovered near the site of Kabr Hiram a Greek church of llic year 701 
(Sidonian era, i.e. about a.d. 5S0), with a beautiful mosaic, now in tiie l.ouvre. 

K a n a (N c). — Traces of ruins around the village, and at Khureibeh. 
At the spring to the east of the town, there are a few Greek letters on one 
of the stones forming the watci"-trough. 

Thomson and Sepp notice some curious human figures sculptured on tlic face of the 
rocks on the south side of the ravine near Kana. Porter describes them as ' Egyptian in 
style and physiognomy.' Rcnan (sec p. 60) says tliat they form three series. A drawing of 
them may be found in Sejjp. 

In Kana itself Rcnan found an ancient well with a single Greek word — EKOCAIIIC'EN — 
the only survivor of a complete inscription. He says, however : 

'In the neighbourhood of Kana are found most beautiful Tyrian tombs, often com- 
parable in their magnificence to that called after Hiram. The village of Rukly, in the 
valley north of Kabr Hiram, is most remarkable in this respect. Here are three caves of 
striking grandeur. One is a Tyrian cave with a central vault following the axis of the cavern, 
and niches on the two sides. The second is a beautiful cave with square lateral niches (five 
or six on either side). The third, above the preceding, contains at the end facing the entrance 
two large sarcophagi, with square cover, arranged long-ways ; this appeared to me to be of 
great antiquity. There is also a great tomb of massive beauty in the fields. Its two sides 
are sculptured in the same way (as I ascertained by clearing away the earth), which proves 
that the tomb was isolated. The interior contained a pillow for the head.' (Mission, 
pp. 636, 637.) 

Eusebius, and Jerome after him, assign this as the place where the miracle was per- 
formed. The name of Neby el Jelil, which is given to a wely close to the village, may be 
a reminiscence of the tradition. 

' In the Wady Ashiir, about a quarter of an hour from Kana, there is the most important 
rock-sculpture in the whole country of Tyre. It is a cd!a, or niche cut square in the 
rock, situated below a great cavern cut in the side of the valley. The tablet forming the 
end of the niche is entirely occupied by a sculpture, the appearance of which is Egyptian. 
The headdress, especially that of the principal personage, who is sitting, is perfectly 
Egyptian, and very like the pschcnl. Like all Egypto-Phcenician sculptures, that of 
Wady Ashiir shows the winged globe. Unfortunately the monument is in a very bad con- 
dition. It has served for centuries as a mark for the Metawileh, who, out of their hatred 
for idolatr)*, think themselves obliged to shoot at it whenever they cross the valley.' — Renan, 
p. 640. 

' Close to Kana, on the south, and near the place called Ardh el Urdani, or El-Urdan, 
there is an enormous double sarcophagus. The two coffins are cut in a single block ; one 
lid covered both. The block which encloses the coffins rested on a base. The lid, a great 
rounded mass, lies at the side. This monument recalls that of Kabr Hiram.' — Renan, p. 666. 

El Keniseh (IM c). — A few scattered stones, site of an ancient 

El Khurbeh. — Heaps of ruins. 

K h Abu F a r h a t (N c). — Heaps of stones and a few cisterns. 

[sheet I.'] AKCILEOLOGV. 65 

K h. Abu Sal eh (M c). — Heaps of stones. 

K h. el 'A j n eh (M c). — Here is a ruined watch-tower for tjuarding 
a vineyard. 

K h. 'A k a b e t el M c 1 1 a h a h (M a).— Scattered heaps of well- 
cut stones, with three olive-presses and five sarcophagi. 

K h. 'A 1 y Sale h (M a). — Heaps of ruins with some drafted stone 
cisterns, six sarcophagi and three olive-presses. 

K h. el 'A ni u d (AI c). — Traces of ruins, cisterns, olive-presses, and 

Kb. el 'A warn id (M c). — Heaps of ruins, olive-presses, and two 

Kb. Dabbisb (N c). — A modern ruined building. 

K h. ed Deir (M c). — Ruins of building ot drafted stones, pro- 
bably Christian convent. 

K h. e d Dibs (M c). — Ancient foundations and ruins, tombs, and 

K h. Dukmash (M b). — Ruins and foundations of walls, large 
cisterns, and seven sarcophagi. 

K h. 'E z z i y a t el F oka (M c). — Heaps of ruins, modern. 

K h. el F u r e i w i y e h (]\I b). — Heaps of ancient ruins and founda- 
tions, lintels, and doorpost ; on one of the former two lions are very rudely 
cut, facing a man's head in centre ; tombs, sarcophagi in rock and loculi, 
olive presses, and cisterns. 

K h. el Ha m m u d e h (M c). — Heaps of stones. 
K h. el Haniyeh (M c). — Traces of ancient foundations, tombs 
and cisterns ; a modern house. 

K h. Jarudiyeh (Mb). — Ruins and foundations of walls, two 
sarcophagi, one olive-press and one cistern. 

' Here are the remains of a small square enclosure constructed of cut stones, the founda- 
tions of which are still visible. On one side lies a broken sarcophagus.' — Gueiin. 

K h. J e b e 1 el K e b i r (M c). — Large well-cut stones and founda- 
tions, tombs, cisterns, and olive-presses, in two parts ; western part modern 



K h. cl J u II j c i 1 (Mb). — Ruins, one olive-press, and two sarco- 

K Ii. I u \v a r e n X u k h 1 (M a). — Lar<je well-cut stones, scattered 
masonry, drafted ; probably Crusading. 

'The village is built entirely of ancient cut stones. On the site which the older village 
formerly occupied may be seen the ruins of an edifice adorned with columns, now almost 
entirely destroyed. Near this is another building, now three-fourths buried under a mass of 
rubbish, once decorated with a splendid door a crossct/es, the jambs of which, now half buried, 
are surmounted in a lintel very well worked, and measuring 3-30 inches in length. Here are 
also several sarcophagi, their lids with acroteria, rock cut tombs, the great uprights still in place 
of two oil-presses ; others lying on the ground, and numerous little cubes of mosaic scattered 
about.' — Guerin. 

About a mile to the west of Kb. Juwar en Nukhl are the ruins of a place to which Guerin 
gives the name of Khurbct Shumar. They appear in the map without a name, and cover the 
slopes and summits of two hillocks. They consist of stones, foundations of houses, the base 
of a column, mutilated sarcophagi, some with ruined lids and some provided with acroteria, 
a rock cut tomb with three loculi, cisterns, a winepress cut in the rock, and the grooved uprights 
of four oil-presses, with a large number of mosaic cubes scattered over the ground. Another 
insignificant ruin was observed by M. Gut'rin north-west of Kh. Juwar, called Kh. Remalah. 
I-'our sarcophagi were found there. Again, a little further to the north, he found the remains 
of a hamlet called Kh. Seddin. 

Still following a west-north-west route, Guerin discovered a ruin called Kh. el Mahalib, 
where are the foundations of a tower, a press cut in the rock, cisterns, and rock-cut tombs. 
He here turned to the east and followed the course of a valley, in which he found well-cut 
tombs with sarcophagi, their lids fitted with acroteria, and a number of rectangular graves cut 
in the rock, covered by close-fitting flat slabs. He also found, half a mile from Burj el 
Hawa, a village called Sukharct Abd Allah. 

K h. Kabu el Mais re h (Mb). — Heaps of ruins, one small 
piece of column. 

K h. Kabur er Rasas (M c). — Here were observed two sar- 

K h. el Khamsiyeh (M c). — Ruins and foundations, cistern. 

K h. K hash n ah (N b). — Heaps of ruins and cisterns in rocks; 
X.E. of ruin several rough figures are cut on the rock. 

K h. K h u t a (L b). — Slight traces of ruins ; modern house near. 

K h. el K u n e i s e h (M c). — Small ruin, heaps of stones. Site of 
an ancient church. 

At twenty minutes from this place is a spring, called by Guerin, who found it, Ain Seirieh, 
enclosed in a scjuare basin, probably ancient. Around it are the remains of a small number 
of dwelling-houses. 

K h. el K u r e i n (M c). — Traces of ruins. 

{sheet l?^ ARCH.EOLOGY. 67 

K h. el M a 1 1 i y a (M c). — Ancient foundations of well-cut stones, 
modern ruined building-, tombs, two cisterns, sarcophagi and olive-press. 

K h. e 1 M a 1 u h i y e h (iM b). — Scattered stones. 

K h. Mashta el As-her (M c). — Traces of ruins, olive-press. 

K h. el Medfeneh (L c). — Extensive foundations and heaps of 

ruins, walls about one foot thick, some large well-dressed stones, sarcophagi, 

and olive-presses. 

These ruins are also known as Kh. Shebrieh, Shebrayeh, Sliibrcriyeli. Ouciin (' Oalilee,' 
ii. 177) speaks of them as forming a kind of long street, with houses on cither side, 
their foundations still visible. Here and there are some constructed of regularly cut stones. 
Among the ruins are those of a church, once ornamented with granite columns, of which 
some broken fragments are lying on the ground. A small well once served as a pool for 
this seashore place. 

K h. M e 1 1 a h a h (M \<). — A few well-cut stones, two sarcophagi. 

K h. el Me r j (M c). — b'oundations and heaps of stones. 

K h. M e r j en Nusr (Mb). — Ruins and one sarcophagus, one 
olive-press and cisterns. 

K h. Mimas (M c). — Ancient foundations and rin'ns, olive-press 
and cisterns. 

K h. el Musebbah (N c). --Heaps of ruins, foundations, door- 
posts and lintels, cistern.s. 

Kh. el Muthniyeh (M b).— Heaps of stones and small 

K h. Ras el Lozeh (M c).— Heaps of ruins, with large door- 
posts and lintels. 

Kh. Siddein (M a).— Heaps of ruins excavated for stone, some 
well-cut large stones, four sarcophagi. 

K h. .Shahur(;l Kana (M b).— Ruins, modern walls, one sarco- 

K h. e s h S h e r a fi a t (M b). — .Scattered stones, one oil-press, two 

K h. S h i d g h i t h (N b). — Ruins, rock-cut tombs, quarries, ten chains 
N.E., olive-press and sarcophagus. 

K h. S u w e i d i y e h (N c).— Traces of ruins and oIi\'e-press. 



K h. et Taiyibch (Mb). — AnciciU ruin, wiih small birkct ; olivc- 
presses, sarcophagi and cisterns. 

K h. T a r a b i r h (M a). — Large well-cut stones, scattered. 

K h. T ell el K a d y (M b). — Scattered ruins ; two cisterns, four 
sarcophagi, three oH\'e-presses. 

K h. Varin (N c). — -Ancient foundations and modern cattle-shed; 
tombs and cisterns. 

K h. (1 W'ardianeh (N c). — Small ruin of good-sized well-cut 
stones, olive-press, and sarcophagi. 

K h. e z Z a h c i r i y c h (M c). — Heaps of stones and olive-press. 

K h. c z Z a t c r i y e h (M c). — Small ruin and olive-press. 

K h u r e i b e h (N b). — Ruins on top north-west of Kana, with modern 

El Kurcih (N b). — A wine-press and several ruined houses and 
remains at this village. 

Kurm Dabil (M b). — Ruins of large stones, three olive-presses, 
and six sarcophagi. 

Kurm iMusertcn (N c). — Ruins of large stones, two olive- 
presses, and two sarcophagi. 

Kurm es Suky (Mb). — Ruin of large stones, scattered; three 
olive-presses and two sarcophagi. 

Leileh (M c). 
Guerin describes a ruin here, which he calls Kh. Kleileh. The upright of oil-presses, 
a winepress cut in the rock, with two compartments, one round and one scjuare, and three 
broken sarcophagi, are all that remain here. A short distance south of this place he found 
another ruined hamlet, having a cistern cut in the rock, and an enormous millstone lying 
on the ground, called Kh. Ratieh. (See also under ' Deir Kanun.') 

El Malkiyeh (M c). 
' A hamlet where an ancient press cut in the rock, and in two compartments, one square 
and the other circular, proves an ancient establishment. Ten minutes north, on a neighbour- 
ing height, separated from the preceding by a valley, lie the inconsiderable ruins of Kli. el 
Mhasnieh. I'wo broken sarcophagi and several uprights of oil-presses are lying on the ground, 
with a heap of materials from ruined houses.'— Gucrin, 'Galilee,' ii. 401. (See also under 
' Deir Kanim.') 

El Man surah (L c). — There are some rock-cut tombs at this 

[sheet Li ARCH.EOLOGY. 69 

M li g h a r e t J u rat I d r i s (INI b).— A rock-cut tomb, cemented 
inside : the remains of rude paint-marks are still visible ; there is one 
sarcophagus in a loculus. 

Mugharet el Lawatin (Mb). 
Here (see p. So) was the priaciiial necropolis of Tyre. The vast subterranean diambers 
visited by Renan have been recently explored by Guerin. 

M li cr h a r e t e s -S u k . 


' This is a very beautiful sepulchral cave, situated east of Tyre, at the place where the hills 
begin to rise near the garden of the Greek Church. It was completely choked up when we 
went to see it. but we had it cleared out. It is entered by a gently inclined plane. The door 
is broad and higli. AVithin, it is divided into tliree naves of imposing aspect. It is rec- 
tangular in form ; there are no inscriptions and no sculptures. Without, over the whole 
breadth of the grotto, the rock is smoothed, and covered with pebble-work very well preserved. 
There was certainly some building there, probably a church.' — Renan, ' Mission,' p. 5S6. 

To this information Guerin adds that the grotto contains a large number of rectangular 
loculi, all empty, in each of which there might have been placed a sarcophagus. 

Neby 'Am ran (M c). 

'This is nothing more than a hamlet, the ancient importance of which is attested by 
numerous cisterns cut in the rock, and by the ruins of a fine building, constructed of cut 
stones ornamented by columns of white marble with Corinthian capitals. On the place which 
it occupied is a wely consecrated to Neby Amnin. A Doric capital lies on the ground, mixed 
with other fragments of marble carefully sculptured.' — Gue'rin. 

Neby Mashuk (Mb). 

Sepp describes Sheikh or Tell Mashuk as a rock crowned with a wely (or shrine) 40 or 
50 feet liigh and 600 feet in circumference. In this, 'the Beloved,' .Sepp recognises a shrine 
of Baal and Astarte, and mentions that 'in the middle of July the Tyrians celebrate the 
feast of Sheikh Mashuk, whose tomb lies near that of his wiie, on the hillock.' 

R a s el ' A i n ( M b). — This is the spring-head which supplied ancient 
Tyre by means of a long aqueduct. The springs are enclosed in four 
strongly-built reservoirs, as at Tabghah (Sheet VI.), by means of which the 
water is raised to a height of from fifteen to twenty feet, in order that an 
aqueduct with a slight iail should be able to carry it to the neighbourhood 
of Tyre. The walls of these reservoirs are of large well-dressed ashlar- 
work, and vary in thickness. The stones are joined and coated on the 
inside with strong cement. The principal reservoir is octagonal in shape, 
with sides of irregular length. Its diameter measures si.\ty-si,\ feet, and 
it is twenty-five feet above the ground. The retaining walls are very 
thick, and show traces of modern repairs in one part. They have so 


gentle a slope that it is not dillicult to riilc up on to the broad border 
eight feet wide round the spring. The water wells up most abundantly, 
and was formerly carrieil eastward to three other reservoirs about 150 
yards distant in an aqueduct, the only traces of which are the large 
remains of stalactites that once filled up its arches. At the present day 
the water is used only to turn a few mills, and then rushes in a broad 
stream through luxuriant gardens to the sea. Immediately north of this 
reservoir there is a small village of modern construction. 

The remaining three reservoirs are close together, and are of an 
irregular quadrangular form. The two largest are connected together, and 
measure sixty feet and thirty feet side respectively. The third is only 
twelve feet square. These reservoirs are about fifteen feet above the 
level of the ground. Two aqueducts still carrying water start from these 
reservoirs, one running north to Tyre, and the other south to irrigate 
some gardens. The northern one, starting from the two larger reservoirs, 
is of Roman work, with round arches and a continuous small cornice. 
The stones are large and well dressed ; the arches are almost full of large 
stalactites. The section of this aqueduct is slightly contracted at the 
top, like the rock-cut aqueduct leading from Khan Minia to Tabghah. 
Water still runs for a distance of three furlongs, and it is tapped at 
various places, for the irrigation of luxuriant gardens on the west. The 
ground rises, so that after about a mile the aqueduct is carried on the level 
of the ground, without arches. 

The second aqueduct from the third of this series of reservoirs, running 
south, is carried on pointed arches of Saracenic work. It runs only a short 
distance, and was probably only intended to turn a mill and irrigate some 

These aqueducts were mentioned by Menander, see Josephus, 
'Antiquities,' IX. xiv. i. He relates, from Tyrian archives, that when 
Shalmaneser retired from the siege of insular Tyre, he left guards behind 
to cut off the aqueducts which supplied the city, so that for five years 
the inhabitants drank only from their wells and cisterns. 

Ras el 'Ain is thus described by William of Tyre (twelfth century), xiii. 3, p. 479 (edition 
of Paulin Paris). 

' Here issue fair and very clear springs of water, useful in tempering the heat of summer. 
Among others rises here that very noble fountain spoken of in many lands, which Solomon 
calls the Fountain of Gardens, the ^^'ell of Living Waters. This fountain has been so raised 


by art that it is made to issue from a tower, nearly five toiscs high, built of very hard stones. 
As one draws near, one sees nothing but the tower, v,-hich makes no show of water ; but steps 
are constructed by which one can mount, even on horseback; and when one has ascended, 
the water flows in such great plenty that it seems on a level with the tower. Hence it is 
carried off in different directions by conduits which receive it. This fountain nourishes 
gardens, where grow wholesome herbs and trees which bear good fruit. Among other 
precious things grow here the canes from which comes sugar, which merchants come to seek 
and carry off to all parts of the world.' 

A local tradition attributes the building of these reservoirs to Ale.xander, but they are 
probably very much older. 

Maundeville thus describes the principal reservoir : 

' It is elevated above the ground, nine yards on the south side and six on the norlh ; 
and, within, is said to be of an unfathomable deepness ; but ten yards of line confuted that 
opinion. Its wall is of no better material than gravel and small pebbles; but consolidated 
with so strong and tenacious a cement, that it seems to be all one entire vessel of lock. 
Upon the brink of it you have a walk round, eight feet broad, from which, descending by 
one step on the south side, and by two on the north, you have another walk twenty-one feet 
broad. All this structure, though ~o broad at top, is yet made hollow, so t!iat the water 
comes in underneath the walks, insomuch that I could not, with a long rod, reach the 
extremity of the cavity. The whole vessel contains a vast body of excellent water, and is so 
well supplied from its fountain that, though there issues from it a stream like a brook, driving 
four mills between this place and the sea, yet it is always brim full. On the east side of this 
cistern was the ancient outlet of the water, by an aqueduct raised about six yards from the 
ground, and containing a channel one yard wide ; but this is now stopped up and dry, the 
Turks having broke an outlet on the other side, deriving thence a stream for grinding their 

Sepp calls Ras el 'Ain the mightiest spring in all Phcenicia, or Palestine, and one most 
deserving of its name— 'the Fountain Head.' 

It is also known to the inhabitants by the name of 'Solomon's Spring;' not from the 
Jewish king, the friend of Hiram, but because it was built by the Jinn (Genii), and after the 
mythical Solomon, who, according to the same legend, founded the temple at Baalbekk. It 
was in the neighbourhood of this great fountain, too, that the second Dionysius, Alexander, 
pitched his tent (.\rrian 11. 20), and had, according to Plutarch (.\lex. 24), that mysterious 
dream of the Satyr (2a rujoj) which at last allowed himself to be captured. 

Sepp also mentions an aqueduct for irrigation similar to that at Jericho, and a pool near 
a ruined temple in the vicinity, called Rirket el I'lzruni. 

R u s h c i cl i y e h (L b). 

This place was formerly called Tell Habish. It is a hill Libout sixty feet above the level of 
the sea. It took its present name a few years ago, Rusheid Pasha ( written 
keshid Pasha) having acquired the place and built a farm upon it of the old materials which 
covered the soil. It is distant thirty stadia from Tyre, the distance at which Sirabo places 
the acropolis of Palretyrus. 

S h ;i t i y c h (M c). — A village btiilt of .stone, with a base and [jIccc of 
a column, olive-presses, and cisterns. 


Es S II r (Tv !•(.•). — TIh; antiquities of Tyre consist of the walls, 
the ancient Iiarliour, ami the cathedral. 

The ancient walls are now in a very ruinous condition, and in some 
parts have totally disapjieared or been covered up by sand. They appc;ar 
to have once surrounded the whole rocky island or islands which formed 
the site of ancient insular Tyre. 

On the east, where the walls cut off the isthmus and defended the 
approach from the land, they are almost entirely covered by sand. A 
tower on this side near the southern shore, called the Tower of the 
AIgeriai\s, shows where the lines commenced, but beyond this the heaps 
of sand-hills leave the direction to conjecture. They probably ran just 
east of a little enclosed garden, and curved round to the harbour on the 
north. On the south and west the walls are easily traceable, sometimes 
by the mountls of debris that cover them, and occasionally by bits of the 
wall itself The masonry appears to be of the Crusading period, and is 
similar to that at Arsuf and Ascalon — of small, friable, sandy limestone 
joined by very strong cement, and bonded together by ancient columns. 

The walls were built following the shore-line, and leaving only a 
narrow beach between them and the rocks, the foundations being between 
ten and twenty feet above the sea. The remains of thirteen towers are 
discernible. They were built on a square foundation, and appear in some 
cases to have been circular above. 

The present port of Tyre is the old ' Sidonian port ;' the second of its 
harbours, the ' Egyptian port,' is now silted up, and its position a matter 
of dispute. The harbour is formed by a little bay on the north-eastern 
side of the original island. It measures 286 yards east and west, by 220 
north and south. The northern side was formerly protected by a wall, 
now in ruins, though portions of it are still standing above the sea. The 
entrance was probably at the south-east corner, between two towers built 
on foundations of large drafted stones, and bonded together by columns 
of ancient materials. The walls to the north and east stand on similar 
foundations, but, like the towers, appear to have been repaired at no very 
remote date, probably by I'akhr ed Din in the first half of the seventeenth 

The cathedral occupies the south-east corner of the niodern wall of 
Tyre. It is now in ruins; only the eastern portion, with the three apses, 


Smnfcrd^ Ge^^' Fstah^ Lont/en- 

{sheet /.] 



remain standing''. Of these the northern one is ahnost perfect. Modern 
hovels have been bnilt in the nave, and destroy the appearance of great 
size that the building would otherwise present. 

The inside dimensions of the church were 214 feet long by 82 feet 
wide. The central apse has a diameter of 36 feet, while the two smaller 
on each side of it are 19 feet in diameter. The transepts project 15 feet, 
and have side-chapcls in them, with small apses made in the thickness of 
the wall facing north and south. In the east corner of the transepts a 
circular staircase led up to the 
roof The walls of the nave are 
5 feet thick, and the retaining 
walls of the apses are 9 feet thick. 
The masonry is small, of soft 
stone, joined with strong cement, 
and bearing some masons' marks. 
In the interior there are magni- 
ficent monolithic columns of red 
granite measuring 27 feet long. 

These were probably taken from sonie ancient temple, and show the form 
of double columns peculiar to synagogues. The rest of the interior deco- 
rations appear to have been of finely-cut white marble. Some capitals 
and bases of columns of this material are strewed about ; amongst the 
ruins there is also a broken font of white marble. The windows of the 
apse are pointed, and are ornamented on the outside by a zigzag decoration. 
An inscription, roughly cut, occurs on the lower course of the north wall of 
the northern apse. 

The cathedral, according to I\I. de Vogiie, is Crusading, dating from 
the latter half of the twelfth century (' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' p. ZIZ)- 
It very probably occupies the site of the church erected by Paulinus and 
consecrated by Eusebius in ^i^ a.d., in which lay the bones of Origen and 
the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. 

The following is De Vogue's account of the cathedral (' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' p. 373), 
written in i860, before the German excavations by Sepp : 

' The cathedral of Tyre is one of the most beautiful churches that the Crusaders built. 

It measures 70 metres in length by 22 metres in width, and presents this peculiarity, that the 

transepts project 5 metres on each side. Otherwise its general plan is like that of the 

churches of Sebaste and Lydda and the other buildings of the same type. It has three aisles 

vor,. I. 10 


and three contiguous apses separated from the transept by a bay. Tlic [jilhirs have entirely 
disappeared, and I can give no exjjlanation of their style, unless that the spoils of ancient 
temples were used in their construction. On the ground are found magnificent coupled 
columns of red granite, monoliths which from their size must have belonged to buildings of 
the first order, and which doubtless adorned the central jjiers of the cathedral. E.xternally 
the windows have a curious ornamentation, composed of a IviiJin and a crenulated fret, 
enclosing the whole bay. The arches arc pointed, and rest on a plintli of coniiilicated 

' This monument appears to me to date from the second half of the twelfth century. 'I'he 
only part preserved is the east end. The three apses are enclosed in the walls of the modern 

The excavations of Sepp and drutz in the year 1874 were undertaken at the cost of the 
German Government, in the hope of discovering the tomb of Frederick Barbarossa, and 
jierhaps that of Origen. They began by buying and pulling down a number of houses which 
had been put up by Metawileh families in the eucehite of the cathedral. They then ran 
trenches across the naves, the apses, and the transept. These trenches brought to light 
many tombs, but these had all been broken and their contents violated. None of them had 
any signs or fragments of inscriptions which could connect them with Origen or Frederick 
Barbarossa. Some of the shafts sunk deeper than the rest came upon the loose layers of a 
part of the basilica, layers consisting of very regular cut stones, and apparently as old as the 
foundations of the building ; the upper layers, of smaller stones, showed a Crusading restora- 
tion. On all sides lay, under an enormous mass of ruins, superb shafts of rose and of grey 
granite, the latter of smaller diameter. These columns, taken probably from the ancient 
temples or porticoes of Tyre, had been crowned, in the Byzantine period, with Corinthian 
capitals in white marble, very carefully executed. Among them were found two enormous 
pillars, perhaps once belonging to the temple of Melkarth. 

To the south of the cathedral there are ruins and remains of ancient foundations, with a 
few columns. This part has been excavated for building-stone, and is now partially covered 
by Mohammedan graves. 

Tyre, whose ' antiquity is of ancient days,' was founded, as the priests of Melkarth 
told Herodotus, 2300 years before his visit — i.e., about the year 2750 e.c. Josephus 
(Antiq. VIII. iii. i) states that from the building of Tyre to that of the Temple 240 years had 
elapsed. No mention of the city is made by Homer. It is spoken of in the Book of Joshua 
(.\ix. 29) as ' the strong city.' The relations of Hiram, king of Tyre, with David and Solomon 
first afford evidence of the flourishing condition of a city whose king not only supplied 
Solomon with cedar, precious metals, and workmen, but also gave him sailors for his voyages 
to Ophir. After the secession of the Ten Tribes, we find Ahab marrying the daughter of a 
Tyrian king. The friendship of the Hebrew race was turned to enmity when the Tyrians 
bought Hebrew captives and sold them as slaves. Yet there does not appear to have been, 
at any time, war between the Israelites and the Phoenicians. It was about the year 721 e.g. 
that the wealth of the city and adjacent country excited the cupidity of the Assyrians, and 
caused the first siege of Tyre by Shalmaneser, The water supply was cut off from the city, but 
it held out for five years, water being obtained from wells sunk within the walls. The singular, 
prosperity which the city and people enjoyed for a hundred and fifty years after the siege is 
described in remarkable detail in the twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel. The siege by Nebu- 
chadnezzar lasted for nineteen years, and ended, probably, by some capitulation on honourable 



terms, the kings of Tyre becoming tributary allies to the Persian king. In the invasion of 
Greece by Xerxes, the Tyrians sent a contingent of ships. In the fifth century Tyre was 
visited by Herodotus, who speaks of the Temple of Melkarth, but gives no details as to the 
city. In the year 332 B.C. it sustained a terrible disaster in its conquest by Alexander. 
The siege lasted seven months, and the city was taken by the union of the island to the main- 
land by an artificial mole. Of its inhabitants, 30,000 were sold as slaves. The city, however, 
speedily reco\ered from this blow. Strabo (xvi. 2-23) describes it in the time of Augustus : 

' The City of Tyre is the most considerable and the most ancient of all Phoenicia. It 
rivals Sidon in grandeur, celebrity, and antitjuity, as is attested by numerous mythological 
traditions; for if, on the one hand, poets have spoken more on Sidon (Homer, in fact, does 
not mention Tyre at all), on the other, the foundation of her colonies, both in Libya and Iberia, 
as for as the Columns, raises the glory of Tyre far higher [than that of Sidon]. Both have been 
of old, and still are, very famous and flourishing. As to the title of mother-city of the 
Phcenicians, they may each pretend to it.* Sidon, situated on the mainland, possesses a fair 
liarbour, hollowed out by nature ; but Tyre, entirely enclosed upon an island, is built very 
much like Aradus. It is joined to the mainland by a mole constructed by Alexander when 
he besieged the city. It has two ports — the one closed, the other open ; the latter is called 
the Egyptian Port. It is said that ti.e houses are built in more stages than at Rome ; there- 
fore, on account of the earthquakes which it has experienced, the town has had a narrow 
escape of being destroyed ; it also received great damage at the siege by Alexander. But it 
surmounted all these misfortunes, and was able to repair its losses, partly by navigation, in 
which the Phcenicians in general have at all times surpassed other nations, and partly by their 
purple, for the Tyrian purple is acknowledged to be the best ; the fishing (for this purpose) is 
carried on not far off t Tyre possesses, besides, everything necessary for dyeing. It is true 
that the workshops of so many dyers make residence in the city incommodious, but it is to 
the skill of her workmen in this branch of industry that the city owes her wealth. The kings 
of Syria left Tyre her independence, and she obtained a confirmation of liberty from the 
Romans at the price of certain light conditions. The Tyrians worship Hercules very de- 
voutly. Their maritime power is attested by the number and grandeur of their colonies.' 

Pliny (Nat. Hist. v. 17) says; 

' We next come to Tyre, formerly an island separated from the mainland by a channel of 
the sea of great depth, 700 paces in width, bat now joined to it by the works which were 
thrown up by Alexander when besieging it ; the Tyre so famous in ancient times for its off- 
spring, the cities to which it gave birth, Leptis, Utica, and Carthage — Gades also, which she 
founded beyond the limits of the world. At the present day all her fame is confined to the 
production of the murex and the purple. Its circumference, including Pahetyrus, is nineteen 
miles, the place itself extending twenty-two stadia.' 

Jerome, in his commentaries on Ezekiel, speaks of the city as, in his day, nol>ilissii)ia ct 

* Isaiah xxiii. 12 : ' Thou daughter ofZidon.' 

t With regard to the celebrated shell-fish {innrcx fiiinailHs) formerly used in the manu- 
facture of the Tyrian purple, Mr. Macgregor was informed in 1S69, by an old Jewish 
resident of Tyre, that the fish is still found, though no use is made of it, along the coast from 
Tyre to Ras en Nakurah, but not further south. Canon Tristram, however, found it in the 
bay of Acre. 

10 — 2 


The 'Bordeaux Pilgrim,' a. n. 333, merely given the distance of Tyre from Cxsarea. 'J'he 
' Pilgrimage of Paul.i,' in the same century, says that she passed ' per arenas 'I'yri ' on her way 
from Sarepta to Ptolemais. 

In the year 570 Antoninus Martyr says : 

'Exeuntesde Sarepta veninuis in civitatom Tyriim a Sarepla milliario scptimo. Tyrus 
civitas habet homines potentes ; vita pessima, tanta luxuria, ciuanta dici non potest.' 

In 638 A.n. the city was taken by the Mohammedan invaders. The lives and properly of 
the inhabitants were spared on the usual conditions — that there should be no building of new 
churches, no ringing of bells, no insults offered to the Moslem religion, and no riding on 
horseback. Under these conditions the trade and prosperity of the city seem to have speedily 
passed into the liands of the Mohammedans. Later pilgrims all testify to the importance 
and thriving state of the place. 

Wiljibald (a.d. 721) was searched by the citizens to see if he was smuggling anything. 
'Cum venissent illi ad urbem Tyrum, illi cives urbis toUentes eos constringcbant et omnem 
scirfam eorum requirebant ut reperirent si aliquid habuissent abscunditum.' 
Johannes AVirziburger.sis (circa 1165) says of Tyre : 

'Sors, id est, Tyrus, phanicum nobilissima civitas, metropolis, qua; Christum perambu- 
lantem in maritima, ut Syri asserunt, recipere noluit, quK et . . . martyres Deo reddidit . . . 
Tyrus Originem lunmlatam celat. Ante Tyrum lapis ille marmoreus haud modicus, super 
quem sedit Jesus iltesus h tempore Christi usque ad expulsionem gentium ab urbe, sed postinde 
fractas a francis et vcneticis. Supra vero residium illius lapidis in honore Salvatoris ecclesia 
quKdam constructa est.' 

Johannes Poloner (a.d. 1422) says : 

' Civitas Tyrensis . . . magno murorum ambitu assurgit a littore maris, mari circumdata 
undique, nisi in parte oriental!, ubi earn Xebuchodonosor et postea .-Mcxandcr fecerunt con- 
tiguam terrje fere ad jactum lapidis. Ibique cincta est muro triiilici et alto cum turribus 
firmis. In ea Origincs tumulatus fuit. Multiu reliquix sanctorum qui in ea pro Christi 
nomine interemti sunt permanserunt. ."Vnte portam versus austrum ad jactum duarum sagit- 
tarum signatus est locus prasdicationis Christi per lapidem in quo stetit; super ciuem fimdata 
erat ecclesia in honore Salvatoris. Est etiam ibi locus, ubi mulier finita pra'dicatione, dixit ad 
Jesum Beatus venter, etc. Hie locus non operitur arena qua; licet sit levis et volatilis, sicut nix 
in intense frigore apud nos, qua; a vento rapitur et spargitur, iste tamen locus in medio 
arenarum semper est viridis.' 

The history and importance of Tyre are thus summed up, according to his knowledge, by 
William of Tyre ; it is a curious mixture of truth and legend : 

' Marvellous and very ancient was the city of Tyre. Ulpian, who made many laws, was 
born here. According to ancient history Agenor was born here, who had two sons and one 
daughter. Cadmus, the eldest, built the city of Thebes, and invented Greek letters ; the 
second was named Phcenix, whence the whole country was called Phcenicia ; the dau'j-hter 
was named Europa — after her was named the third part of the world. The citizens of the 
town, as one learns from Scripture, first invented Latin characters. Here are caught those fish 
from which is obtained the purple used to clothe kings ; better is made nowhere else. Here 
were born Sychasus and Dido his wife, who founded in Africa the city of Carthage, which 
wrought many evils to Rome and great wars. This town has two names ; for according to the 
Hebrew tongue it is called Sor, wherefore they now call it Sur. Cy its other name it is called 
Tyre, which more accords with the Latin and with the name of him who founded it ; for 
Tyras first built the city, who was the seventh son of Japhet, the son of Noali, who built tlie 

{sheet I?^ ARCH.EOLOGY. 


Ark. In this city was born Abdimus, a young man, as Josephus says, whom Hiram l<iag of 
Sur kept in prison. Solomon, who was very wise, sent him riddles and obscure sayings, in 
order that he might guess and expound them. The king could not do it, but gave them to 
this young man, who guessed and expounded all well and with much subtlety. Now it hap- 
pened that once Solomon made a wager of very great price that his words would not be guessed : 
this Abdimus guessed them all, and caused his lord to gain this wealth. In this city lies the 
body of Origen, who was an excellent clerk. Hence came the woman who prayed Jesus 
Christ for her daughter tormented by the devil, to whom Our Lord said, " Woman, thy faith 
is great." This is tlie greatest and most noble city in the land of Phcenicia ' (xiii. i). 

And further (xiii. 5) he says : 
• ' Around this city the sea will never be at peace, for there are great rocks near the entrance 
where the waves hurtle rudely ; and great mountains there are hidden beneath the water, in 
such wise that if a ship comes there and tlie pilot knows not the bearings of the port, needs 
must she be wrecked. On the side of the sea the city was shut in by two walls, high and 
strong; towers there were great and thick. On the side of the rising sun, where the entrance 
is from the land, there were three walls, very thick ; towers very high and thick, so close that 
you might almost think they were joined together ; and d^ fosse so broad and deep that without 
great difficulty tiie sea could run from one arm to the other. On the north side is the port, 
which is within the city; the entrance is between two towers, and the harbour is within the 
walls; for the island on which the city stands so breaks the force of the waves that it ensures 
the safety of the ships within, and no wind can strike them there, save only tiie north wind. . . . 
The people of the city were noble and of great plenty, because for a long time they had, by 
merchandise and the passage of pilgrims, made great gains and assembled large riches in 
the city.' 

Benjamin of Tudela also bears testimony to the thriving condition of the place about the 
same time. Among the owners of ships were Jews, of whom about 400 lived in the city. 
Its chief manufacture was, as of old, in glass ; and the best sugar was sold by the Tyrian 

Tyre had been taken by the Christians on the 27th of June, 11 24. It was retaken by the 
Saracens in March, 1291, the inhabitants evacuating the place without striking a blow. In 
the next century, when Sir John MaundeviUe visited the city, he found it almost entirely 

The place has never recovered. Even its ruins have been in great part removed. The 
lowest depth of humiliation was reached about the middle of the last century, when Hassel'iuist 
found ten inhabitants in the place. 

In the )'ear 1766 the Metawileh took possession of the site, and it now contains, as above 
stated, from three to four thousand inhabitants. Some measure of prosperity may in the 
future return to the place, but with its harbours filled up or destroyed, it is dilficult to con- 
ceive the possibility of the city ever again becoming of importance. 

The ruins which are now found in the peninsula of Tyre are those of Crusaders' or 
Saracens' work. The final destruction of the place after the year 1291 left nothing but a 
heap of stones, most of which have since been removed, for building purposes, to Sidon and 
Acre. 'Aqueducts, a Christian basilica, and a few displaced columns make up,' says E.enan, 
'all that remains of one of the most populous cities of antiquity.' And he compares the 
attempt lo find Phoanician remains below all this rubbish to a search in Marseilles for the 
original Phocian settlement. The city of the Crusaders lies beneath several feet of debris ; 
below it are what remain of Mohammedan and early Christian Tyre. Tyre of the Phceni- 
cians, if any of it still remains, lies below these ruins. 


'Reminiscences of the ancient popular religion are afforded by the festival of Si. Mekhlar 
(^[elkarth), which takes place in July, when the saint's devotees fish for purple shells on the 
west coast, where stood the Plicinician temple of Melkarth ; and by the festival of St. ]]arbara, 
when " Adonis' Gardens " are arranged in her honour.'— Dr. Socin in Ba;deker's Guide, p. 428. 

In the year 1S60 M. Renan conducted excavations, among other places, on the site of 
Tyre. They were as follows : 

(i.) In the Bazaar close to the port. The excavation at this spot proved that the modern 
buildings rest on a thick bed of sand, in other words, that they arc built upon an encroach- 
ment, and that the harbour was once not only much deeper but also much larger. 

(2.) Between the gate and the basilica, in search of a statue stated to be buried there. It 
was not found. 

(3.) On the west side of the island, near the serai built by Ibrahim Pasha. The sliaft 
was sunk to a depth of eight mitres, when muddy soil was reached. The ground was found 
to consist entirely of debris : cut stones, parts of old buildings, a great jar, a head in terra 
cotta with an Egyptian cachet, and other things were found here. 

(4.) The plain which lies on the south-south-east of the island, formerly called the Eiiry- 
choriis, contained the forum, the bazaar, the market-place, and 'Cao.Campus, as Justin calls it, in 
which the whole public life of the city was passed. This plain has been worked for the last 
hundred years as a quarry rich in marble ; it is full of holes where excavations have been 
made. M. Renan sunk a shaft here, and was rewarded by several broken statues and an 
interesting tablet, with a Greek inscription commemorating Marcus iEmilius Scaurus, lieu- 
tenant of Pompey in his war with Mithridates. 

(5.) An excavation designed to ascertain whether the present south-w^est angle was 
originally a rock separated from the rest of the island. The shaft was found to be sunk 
through made earth, so as to make this hypothesis very probable. 

(6.) Other excavations which produced scanty results. 

The topographical difficulties connected with Tyre are three : (i.) Where was the Temple 
of Melkarth ? (2.) Was the island ever larger than at present ? (3.) Where was the ' Egyptian 
Port ?' 

A theory has been advanced, and accepted 'oy many without question, that a great part 
of the island has been submerged by earthquakes. This theory rests mainly on the fact that 
there are a large number of columns lying in the water itself. Eut, as M. Renan has pointed 
out, these columns were built into the forts, walls, and towers erected by the Crusaders, as 
may still be seen in the towers which defend the port of Jebaii. The soundings taken for 
M. Renan by M. du Boisguehennenc seemed to prove that the level of the western coast had 
always remained the same. This theory, therefore, may be abandoned. Besides, there 
seems no occasion for supposing a larger space than is at present occupied by the island. It 
covers over 600,000 square yards : by calculations based on modern towns it would support 
more than 22,500 inhabitants. After the siege of Alexander 30,000 were sold as slaves. 
Probably there were never more than that number actually on the island ; but we need not 
measure the importance of a city by its population. 

Finally, M. Renan thus sums up the changes which have taken place on this island : 

(i.) Before man appropriated the place it was a chain of rocks, extending from the islets 
now on the north to those now on the south-east. The largest of these rocks was that part 
of the peninsula in which now stands the modern town. 

(2.) The first Canaanite establishments were upon this largest of the islands. There 



ihey built a temple to the Supreme God, considered a protector of the city, whom they called 
Melkarth. In addition, they built a temple to another divinity on one of the smaller islands. 
This temple the Greeks considered as dedicated to Zeus Olympios. 

(3.) A considerable earthwork, attributed to Hiram, united to the large island (i) the 
islet on which stood the second temple, (2) the plain called Euyychorus. This space was 
probably occujjied before this work by shallow water, studded with rocks on a level with the 
sea, as are found along the whole coast of Pho;nicia. Towards the south a considerable 
space was gained from the sea by means of concrete moles at the south-east point and a (juay 
with an embankment on the south. In this stage the city had two ports, one at the north- 
east, the other at the south-east. 

(4.) Alexander, profiting by a submarine bar of sand, joined the island to the mainland 
by a dyke, which served to stay and fix the sand constantly rolled up by the currents. 

(5.) The encroachment of the sand filled up the Egyptian port. 

(6.) Daring the decay of the old civilisation the sands partly filled up the north or Sidonian 
port. At the south of the island the waves demohshed the artificial embankment and left 
things much as they were in the time of Hiram. 

(7.) The Mussulmans and Crusaders found the circumference of the peninsula in the 
latter state and surrounded it with a wall, in which they stuck the columns they found lying 

(8.) The wall gave way to the action of the sea, and fell into the waves little by little. 

(9.) The Metawileh in the last century settled down around the Sidonian port.' 

Thus the island has gained a little in e.xtent along the interior curve of the Sidonian port ; 
it has lost an important triangle formed by the old embankment on the south ; on the west 
its area has been very slightly lessened by the corrosion of the limestone. 

It remains to speak of Palretyrus, the ' Old Tyre,' a place which, according to Strabo, 
was thirty stadia to the south of Tyre, and according to Pliny is included in the nineteen 
miles of circumference which he assigns to Tyre, stating further that the place e.xtended for 
twenty-two stadia (see above). It has been suggested that Pah-etyrus was built first, but all 
the evidence goes to show that the antiquity of Tyre itself extended beyond the memory of 
man ; or that there was a town there while the island was as yet only a possession or partly 
built over, or that some inhabitants of the island migrated there, or that some accidental 
circumstance led to the place receiving this name. None of these conjectures is impossible. 
It does not appear that the name has been found in the neighbourhood by Lieutenant 
Kitchener, M. Renan, or any other traveller. 

The evidence as to the position of Palatyrus is exceedingly confused. Pliny says that with 
Tyre and Patetyrus the city had a circumference of nineteen miles. In spite of the name, 
there can be little doubt that PaLxtyrus was the overflow of the island city. A river ran 
through Patetyrus, or beside it. This may have been the Kasimiyeh, or it may have been the 
artificial stream of Ras el Ain. The most probable opinion seems to be that adopted by 
Renan, that the continental city spread itself along the coast, having the rock of M'ashuk as its 
acropolis. Ras el Ain, which is generally set down as the site of Pakx-tyrus, presents no 
appearance of ever having been extensively built upon. On this point M. Renan says: 

'The great plain opposite the island of Sur no doubt covers ruins of great interest; but, 
setting apart the isolated rock of M'ashuk and certain tombs, there is no place in this uniform 
prairie which, more than another, invites one to open up the ground. The sand dunes which 


are piled up over the dyke and tlie adjacent parts of the coast doubtless cover archa:ological 
treasures .... but to look for tlie ruins of Palretyrus in the chausseeof .Mcxandcr would be 
an enterprise costing millions.' 

His excavations between the coast and IM'ashuk resulted in the discovery of several 
remarkable s.ircophagi. Their characteristics were all the same : thick sides, no ornament, 
no sculpture, no inscription, massive pointed covers. Such sarcophagi have been discovered 
in Cilicia, at Telmessus and in other places. The idea seems to have been that of resisting 
to the attacks of time or robbers an enormous weight. 

If this plain extending from the Kilsimiyeh to Ras el Ain was the site of the great suburb 
known as Palretyrus, M'ashuk is its central point ; the town might group itself round this 
rock as round an acropolis ; the waters of Ras el Ain were carried to the western base of the 
rock, whence an aqueduct conducted them to the city of the island. 

' The summit of Neby M'ashuk, or Sheikh M'ashuk, has certainly been at one time the 
site of a temple — perhaps, as M. de Bcrtou supposes, the temple of Heracles Astrochiton. 
Here probably was the temple of Melkartli, which they pretended before Alexander was 
more ancient than that on the island. The excavations which we made at the eastern base 
of the hill gave us a broken column and the ruins of a Corinthian building of no great value. 
The embankment of the M'ashuk hill is a mass of ancient ruins. Prob-ibly the whole of the 
ancient buildings which crowned this hill are there still, piled up in fragments, and that, if a 
magic wand could bring these fragments together, the rock, still so picturesque, would resume 
its ancient beauty ; but the whole is too much broken for us to draw any conclusion, and our 
researches on the side produced no result. Nevertheless, we may conclude that the temple 
which last covered the rock of M'ashiik was of late period. All the fragments that we found 
were mean and worthless. Probably it was upon this hill that the miserable paganism of the 
fourth century made a stand. No church was built upon the spot, and the wely there now 
preserves intact to this day the myth of antiquity. Doubtless in the fifth, sixth and seventh 
centuries pagan traditions still lingered about the place, and, in the form of popular super- 
stitions, with its cupolas and its legends, the spot is still a kind of centre for all that remains 
of pagan Tyre.' — Renan, ' Mission en Phenicie,' p. 582, 

The slopes of M'ashuk on the north and east are covered with tombs. Everywiiere in 
the neighbourhood of Tyre and on the island itself are tombs and funerary objects. But the 
principal burial-place of the city extended along the chain of hills which bounds the plain of 
Tyre on the east, especially at the place named el Lawatin (called by M. Renan, el .Vwwatin). 
Here the rock is everywhere excavated for sepulchral chambers containing two or three 
ranges of tombs. All of those which have been examined were absolutely empty. If there 
were any sarcophagi, they have been carried away and destroyed. 

M. Renan thus speaks of this great cemetery : 

' In order to acquire a just idea of this strange place, I recommend the traveller to take 
the road from Kabr Hiram to the place where he will find certain caves, whose entrance 
resembles that of the caves of Sidon. Here, close to the place where we excavated, he will 
find many tombs ; on ascending the hill, the tombs are multiplied south of the fig trees. 
One of these is especially remarkable. In the Valley of the Fig-trees will be observed the 
tomb decorated with a sculpture resembling, at the first look, a " Good Shepherd." Further 
on, an immense /lyppgce, the roof of which has fallen in, and the recesses are exposed. These 
recesses form two stages, cut in white limestone ; they present an extraordinary effect. 
The whole valley, which follows in a straight line behind M'ashiik, a little to the south, is in 
the same way a vast subterranean chamber, whose roof has fallen in. Excavations, four or 


five in number, lead to great subterranean halls, which now serve as stables for goats. These 
caves were the largest that I saw in the wliole of Phrenicia .... Not a sepulchre, 
not an inscription.' 

'We see, then, how erroneous was the idea that the environs of Sur present no collection 
of tombs proportionate to the importance of the city. The idea started, in fact, from a false 
principle, namely, that the ancient cities of Phcenicia must have had a necropolis par cxcd- 
lence, a sort of city cemetery. There was nothing of the kind ; the public cemetery (un- 
fortunately for hygiene, happily for picturesqueness) did not exist in antitj^uity. In Phcenicia, 
interments were made all round the cities, and even within the walls. We have found tombs 
in the island of Aradus; we have just found them in the island of Sur. As for the plain 
of Tyre and the hills which surround it, we may say that the tombs upon them are in- 
numerable. It is true that the sarcophagi appear to have been less rich and less varied 
here than elsewhere, but the caves are very magnificent.' 

The researches of Renan seem to prove that excavations conducted here would certainly 
yield a great harvest of Grxco-Roman, and perhaps a few Phcenician, remains. But, as in 
Jerusalem, the changes have been too many, and the history of the city is too extended, to 
hope that much is left, even in the safe custody of the sand, belonging to the. times of 
Hiram or even of Alexander. 

VOL. r. 1 1 


This sheet contains 203 square miles, bounded on the north ]:)y the 
River Kasimiych, or Litany, which runs throuL;h a deep chasm, with 
rocky, precipitous sides ; on this account it is difficult of access, from the 
high plateau on the south. There is a bridge, called the Jisr Ka'kaiyeh, 
at the mouth of the great W'ady el Hajeir, and a ferry about a mile N.W. 
of el Hallusiyeh. 

' The Litany is a river almost without .1 name. Its native name, Litany, is confined 
only to its upper course ; while its lower course, the large stream which issues from the 
mountains and falls into the sea a few miles north of Tyre, has the separate name of 
Kasimiyeh. Its interest lies in its geographical peculiarity. It rises in the vale of Ctt'le- 
Syria, a few miles south of Baalbec; but instead of penetrating through the narrow screen 
which parts that valley from the Wady et Teim, it forces its way through the eastern flank 
of Lebanon, thus almost entirely eluding the notice of travellers and geographers, as 
well by this unexpected turn as by the deep ravine which encloses it. . . . It finally runs 
westward under the huge precipice of the castle of Belfort, a castle, as its name implies, 
built by the Crusaders, but raised on the foundations and out of the remains of some still 
older fortress intended to guard the gorge which conveys this furious but retired stream 
into the Mediterranean near Tyre.'- -Stanley, 'Sinai and Palestine,' p. 414^. 

A bridge o\er the river existed in the seventeenth century, when it was mentioned by 
D'Arvieux and Maundrel. A late (perhaps sixteenth century) tradition assigns the drowning 
of Frederic Barbarossa to this river. 

OROGRAniv. — The main watershed of the country, dividing the sea 
from the Jordan Valley, passes along the hills to the east of Meis. This 
divides the sheet into two portions. This watershed, after passing along 
the steep ridges of hills that run in an almost perfect north and south line, 
turns, on reaching a prominent top, on which is the tomb of the Neby 
'Aweidah, (2814) to the east, and descends into the low volcanic country 

{_SHEET 7/.'] OROGRAPHY. 83 

of the Merj Ayun ; here it runs aloni; a ridge of rolling ground to the 
extreme north of the sheet. 

The country to the west is divided by a great valley, running north to 
the River Kasimiyeh ; it is called the Wady Seliikieh, and, further north, 
the Wady el Hajeir. To the west of this valley there Is, therefore, another 
watershed, dividing the water that tlows into it from that which Hows into 
the sea. This watershed commences to the west of Ber'ashit (2266), 
passes along ihe low ridges to Safed el Battikh, where it has an altitude 
of 2220 feet, passes on to el Yehudiyeh in a westerly direction, and then, 
turning north, reaches its highest altitude at Jebel Jumleh, 2625 feet; it 
then passes north, descending to Kalawei, which has only an altitude of 
1475, and passing through the village of Burj Alawei, it terminates at 
Tuweirah. Thus we have the country of this sheet divided into three 
portions : commencing from the west, there is first the country to the 
west of the watershed between the sea and Wady el Hajeir; next the 
country between that watershed-line and the main watershed-line of the 
country dividing the waters that run into the sea from those that run 
into the Jordan Valley, and thence to the Dead Sea ; and, thirdly, the 
country to the east of this watershed. 

The first division may be subdivided in an east and westerly direction, 
by the Wady el Ma ; it then runs east to Safed el Battikh, and bending 
round, forms almost an island of Tibnin, and runs west and north-west to 
the sea. 

The country to the north of this subdivision may be described as a 
high plateau, sloping down to the west from an altitude of about 1400 feet 
to 1000 feet at the western boundary of the sheet. This plateau is of soft, 
white, chalky limestone, and is intersected by valleys, which have cut deep 
and steep courses for themselves through it. The underlying rock is of 
hard limestone, which sustains the sides of these very steep valleys. 
This country is all cultivated, and is crowded with villages ; the principal 
crops are barley and cereals ; olives are scarce, but figs are plentiful. 
There is very little waste land. 

To the south of the subdivision the country rises rapidly to an 
altitude of 2560 feet; it is much more rugged and rocky; the white 
soft chalk disappears, and steep hills, covered with low scrub and brush- 
wood, only cultivated in patches here and there, take the place of the 

1 1 — 2 


fertile plateau. Some vines and more olive-trees are cultivated in this 

The second division between the two watersheds is divided by the 
W'ady el Hajeir. On the west the country slopes gradually down to the 
north from 1900 feet to 1600: it is partially arable and partially covered 
with thick brushwood. The valleys arc steep, but the tops are broad and 
moderately level. 

On the east the hills descend rapidly from the watershed 2900 feet 
to 3000 feet high to 2400 feet ; and then spurs run down to the Wady 
el Hajeir at a much less steep incline ; these are cultivated for barley, 
etc. ; there are a good number of figs and olives. The steeper slopes 
to the east are uncultivated, rocky, and covered with scrub. 

To the north, round et Taiyibeh, a plateau is formed, the hills from 
the watershed falling abruptly to the Wady 'Aizakaneh, which runs into 
the Kasimiyeh. This plateau slopes down to the west from a height of 
1950 feet at et Taiyibeh to 1400 feet. It is all well cultivated for 
barley and cereals. 

The third division comprises the country to the east of the watershed. 

This contains two plains, the Jordan Plain and the Merj 'Ayun, the 
latter of which is at a higher level, and is the mouth of the great valley 
which divides the northern country, the Lebanon, from the Anti-Lebanon, 
This plain is very fertile, being of volcanic origin and covered with basalt 
and debris. The slopes down to the south are gentle, and are covered 
with basaltic lava, which has flowed from an ancient volcano. This has 
probably turned the Litany River out of its natural course, down the 
Jordan Valley, and forced it to cut its way through the rugged cliffs to 
the sea. 

The plain to the south is, at a low level, from 200 to 500 feet above 
the sea. The hills of the watershed descend very steeply on the west, 
without any long spurs running out into the plain. 

To the east the plain is enclosed by the low hills of basalt on the 
eastern side of Jordan, and to the north-east by Mount Hermon, from the 
lower spurs of which the Jordan rises. 

The plain slopes down to the south from 500 feet to 100 feet above 
the sea. r\.t the extreme south of the sheet the papyrus marsh of el 
Hi'deh commences, seen on Sheet IV. 

[sheet //.] TOPOGRAPHY. 85 

Banias, situated on the lower spurs from Hermon, is 1080 feet aloove 
the sea. Here is the principal source of the Jordan. The river descends 
rapidly, at the rate of 200 feet a mile, for the first four miles ; it then 
reaches the plain, and falls, at the rate of about forty feet a mile, to the 
papyrus marsh. The other source, at Tell el Kady, is only 505 feet above 
the sea ; it falls at first at the rate of seventy feet a mile, for three miles, 
and then at the rate of about forty feet to its junction with the Banias 


There are ninety-two villages or inhabited places on this sheet. Theyare 
classed in four districts. Forty-five belong to the Merj 'Ayun district, whose 
governor is a Caimacam e.xercising authority under the Mutaserrif of 
Beirut; he resides principally at Judeideh, north of the present work, but 
very often at et Taiyibeh, where he possesses a house and some land. This 
governorship has been held by one family of Beys for a long time; they 
are much respected, and they have a considerable interest in the country. 

Thirty-six belong to the Kadha Siir, the Caimacam of which district 
resides at Sur (Tyre) ; he is under the Mutaserrif of Beyrout, and has 
jurisdiction to a limited extent over the Mudir of the Belad Besharah. 

Ten villages belong to this latter district, the governor of which is a 
Mudir and resides at the castle of Tibnin, the ancient Crusading castle of 
Toron. He is under the Caimacam of Tyre for some things, and under 
the Mutaserrif of Beyrout in other points of government. 

Banias belongs to the Kadha of Kuneiterah, which is ruled by a 
Caimacam residing at Kuneiterah, on the east side of Jordan. 

The total population of the sheet is, approximately, 2300 Moslems, 
14,000 Metawileh, 2100 Christians, 300 Druzes ; total, 18,700 inhabitants. 

In the western portion the villages are unusually thick and the popu- 
lation is crowded ; to the east the country becomes more open and 
uncultivated. The descriptions of the villages follow in alphabetical order, 
arranged in districts. 

The Merj 'Avux District. 

Abl (O b). — A small Christian village, containing 150 Christians and 
possessing a modern church. It is surrounded with arable soil of a 


basaltic nature, and is close to a stream of water from 'Aiii ed Uerdarah ; 
it has also a spring. Though there is little doubt that this site is that of 
Abel Beth Maacha, there are tew traces of ancient remains to be 
seen near it. 

.\ b r i k h a (O b). — A village, built of stone, containing about i 50 
Metawileh, situated on a hill-top. It was evidently an early Christian 
village (sec Section B). The country rountl is cultivated with figs, olives, 
and arable land ; there is a rock-cut birkeh and several cisterns in the 
village. Traces of an ancient paved road are to be found to the north in 
the valley, that may have formerly led up to the village. 

El 'A b s i y e h (R c). — A collection of mud hovels in the plain of the 
Huleh, on the Nahr Banias containing about seventy Moslems. They 
till the land, which is arable round the village ; there is a large supply of 
water and some trees near the village. 

'A id ib (O b). — A small village, built of stone and mud, situated on 
the slope of a hill and surrounded by a few fig-trees and olives. It con- 
tains about ninety Metawileh, and is supplied with water from three 
rock-cut cisterns and a spring. 

'A 1 m a n (P a). — A few houses built of stone on the ruins of a village ; 
they contain about forty Metawileh. The place is situated on the edge 
of the cliffs above the Litany River, and is surrounded by a few gardens 
with figs and olives ; there are five rock-cut cisterns and a birket (see 
Section B). 

'Atshis (P b). — A small village, built of mud and stone, containino- 
about 100 Metawileh, situated on a low ridge surrounded by small gardens 
and olives. The water supply is from four rock-cut cisterns. 

Beni Haiyan (P b). — A small village, built of stone, containin"- 
about fifty Metawileh, situated on the side of a hill and surrounded by 
figs, olives, and arable land. The water supply is from about ten rock-cut 
cisterns in the village and a birket near. 

Burj Alawei (Ob). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
300 Metawileh, situated on upland, with a few olives, figs, and some arable 
land round. The water supply is from a well and spring. 

Deir Mimas (Pa). — A village, built of stone, containing about 



300 Christians, surrounded by large groves of olives, and gardens of figs, 
pomegranates, and vineyards, with arable land to the east. There is a 
modern church in the village, which is well supplied with water from 

The population ascribed to Deir Mimas by Guerin is r,ooo. With tlie exception of 
twenty Protestants, he says, they are all Schismatic (Ireeks. 

Deir e s S u r i a n (P b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
200 Metawileh, situated on the plain and surrounded by small gardens 
and arable land. Water from wells and a spring. 

Furun (O b). — A village, built of stone, containing 100 Metawileh, 
situated on a hill and surrounded by small gardens and arable land. The 
water is supplied from rock-cut cisterns. 

El G h a j i r (O b). — A village built of basaltic stone, and containing 
about 300 Moslems. It is situated on a ridge close to the River Hasbany, 
and has a mill and a prominent holy place called Mazar el Arb'ain in it. 
The land around is arable. 

El Hola (P c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 500 
Metawileh (according to Guerin, 3C0), one of the most prominent objects 
in which is a Sheikh's tomb. It is situated on the hill-top, and is 
surrounded Ijy olives, vines, and arable land. There are several cisterns, 
two birkets (one rock-cut), and a spring. 

Hun in (P b). — A village, built of stone, joining on to ruined 
Crusading castle (see Section B), and containing about 100 Moslems. The 
situation is on a low ridge just before the hills drop down to the east to 
the Huleh X'alley ; the hills round are uncultivated, covered with low- 
scrub, but in the valleys there is some arable land. Water is obtained 
from numerous cisterns ; a birket and spring to the south-east. 

K a 1 a w e i (O b). — A village, built of stone, on high ground, contain- 
ing 150 Metawileh, surrounded by olives, fig-trees, and arable land. The 
water supply is from cisterns only. 

El Kan tar ah (P b).— A village, built of stone, containing about 
250 (according to Guerin, 150) Metawileh, situated on an isolated and 
conspicuous hill, and surrounded by gardens, olives, and figs. There are 
two perennial .springs a little to the south of the village. 

Kefr Kila (P b). — A village, built of stone and mud, containing 


about 150 Moslems (according to Guerin, 1,000 Mctawilch), sitiiatt;d on 
sloping ground, with figs, olives, and arable land around. A good spring 

El Keitiyeh (Q c). — Mud hovc-ls on the plain, surrounded by- 
streams ; occupied during spring and harvest. Contains about eighty 

El Khali sail (Q c). — A small \-illagc, built of stone, on plain, 
surrounded by streams of water. Contains about fifty Moslems. 

Khan ed Duweir. — Two stone houses here contain about 
twenty Moslems ; situated on slope of hill near the stream of water, with 
olives and arable cultivation around. 

El Khiam (O a). — A village, north-east of the Merj Ayun, built 
of stone, containing about 300 Christians and 200 Druzes. It contains 
a white round Moslem holy place and a modern church. It is situated on 
a low ridge, surrounded by figs, olives, and arable. The water supply 
is from three rock-cut cisterns, one birket, and the good spring of 'Ain ed 


' El Khiam contains two quarters : the one on the south, with a population of 700 
Metawileh, and the other on the north, with 600 Christians, divided into Maronites, Schismatic 
Greeks, and United Greeks, with some Protestants, who have founded a chapel and a 
school. ' — C ; u erin. 

El Khurbeh (Q a). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
100 Christians ; contains a chapel ; surrounded by figs, olives, grapes, ana 
arable land. There is a birket and spring near. 

Kh. en Nukheileh (R b). — A few mud hovels on the plain, 
occupied in summer as cattle-sheds. 

K h. S e 1 e m. — A village, built of stone, containing 200 Metawileh, 
on ridge, with spring and cisterns ; arable cultivation around. 

' In the middle of a deep and broad ravine the 'W'ady el Huzir rises, a sort of rocky islet 
lying north and south. Oblong and narrow, it serves as the site of a village called Kh. Selem, 
which contains a population of 130 Metawileh.'— Guerin. 

K h. Serada (Q b). — A small village, built of stone, on site of 
ruined houses; contains about 100 Christians ; good spring near ; arable 

Kill at ed Dubbah. — About twenty Moslems inhabit the ruins 
of the old castle. For description and plan see Section B. 


El K u 1 e i a h (O a). — A village, built of stone, containing about 1 50 
Christians ; it contains a church, and is situated on a ridge, with vineyards, 
olives, figs, and arable land around ; it has a birket and spring near. 
Guerin gives lliis place a poiiulation of 400 .\raronites. 

E 1 K use i r (O b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 300 
Metawileh, situated on ridge of hill, surrounded by gardens of figs and 
olives, and by arable land. Water is obtained from rock-cut cisterns, and 
running water in the Wady el Hajeir. 

El L a z a z e h (O c). — Consists of mud hovels on the plain, near the 
river, and containing about seventy Moslems. 

El Man surah (R c). — Consists of stone and mud hovels on the 
plain, surrounded by arable land ; river near ; the village contains about 
seventy Moslems. 

Marwabah (O a). — Two stone houses, containing about fifteen 
Moslems ; spring, and water collects in small birket. 

Mejdcl I slim (O b). — Large village, built of stone, of ancient 
appearance, containing about 500 (according to Guerin, 300) Metawileh 
(see Section B). Situated on table land, surrounded by olives and arable 
land. Water supply from a large masonry birket and many cisterns. 

Merkebeh (P 1)). — A village, built of stone, containing about 400 
(according to Guerin, 150) Metawileh, situated on top of hill, surrounded 
by figs, olives, and arable land, with a birket, cisterns and a spring near. 

El Mutallah (Ob). — A small village, built of stone, containing 
about 100 Druzes, situated on slope of hill, near a large stream, surrounded 
by arable land. 

E n N aameh (O c). — .Stone and mud village on the Huleh Plain, 
containing about 100 Moslems. 

'Odeithat etTahta (P b). — A village, built of stone, containing 
about 250 Metawileh, situated in valley surrounded by arable land. A 
market is held here one day each week. Water supply from spring in 
village, spring near, and several cisterns. 

Er Rafid (Ob). — A farmhouse near the River Litany; contains 
about ten Moslems. 

R u b b T h e 1 a t h i n (P b). — A small village, built of stone, containing 
VOL. I. 12 


about lOO MctAwik'h, siuiali'd nn a hill-top, surrounded by figs ami arable 
land; water sui)ply from cisterns and spring near, and a small birket. 

ShakrA (O c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 300 
Metawileh, on high-level plain, surrounded by olives and arable land ; 
there is a mosque in the village ; two birkets and several cisterns give the 
water supply. For ruins and inscription see Section B. 

Suwaneh (O b). — A village built of stone, containing about 200 
Metawileh ; it is situated on high table-land, which is cultivated for figs, 
olives, with some portions of arable land ; cisterns and birket supply the 

Et Talyibeh (P b). — A large well-built village, built of stone, 
containing about 600 Metawileh and 400 Moslems. 'l"he Caimacam has 
a good house here. There are some figs and olives round the village and 
arable land ; water is supplied from a spring and two birkets. 

Tallusah (P b). — A small village, built of stone, containing about 
100 Metawileh, situated on hill-top, and surrounded by arable cultiva- 
tion ; water supplied from cisterns and birket. 

Till in (Ob). — A village, built of stone, contains about 150 Meta- 
wileh, situated on hill-top, with figs, olives, and arable land ; water from 
rock-cut birket and cisterns. 

T u w e i r a h (O b). — Small village of rough stone and mud, contain- 
ing about fifty Moslems, on top of low hill, surrounded by figs and arable ; 
two rock-cut cisterns in village. 

Z u k e t T a h t a (R c). — Stone and mud village, with ruined Arab on north side, and a mill ; contains about 100 Moslems; situated 
on the Huleh Plain ; arable land around, and a large stream near. 

The Tyre District, Kadha Sur. — Tiiirtv-six Villages. 

'Ait it (M b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 450 Meta- 
wileh, situated on hill-top, surrounded by olives and arable cultivation ; 
water supplied from cisterns and a spring near. 

Baflei (N b). — A small village, built of stone, containing about 
seventy Metawileh and thirty Christians, situated on the side of a hill. 

\SIIEET //.] TOrOGRArHY. 9' 

with arable cultivation and a few fig-trees around ; water from cisterns 
and a spring near. 

Barish (N b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 
Christians, situated on the top of a hill, surrounded by gardens, figs, and 
arable land ; water supplied from cisterns in the village and spring near. 

El Beiyadh (N c). — A village, built of stone, with many ruined 
houses (see Section B.), containing about 100 Metiiwileh, situated on 
hill-top, surrounded by fig-trees, olives, and arable land ; water supplied 
from cisterns. 

Bistath (N b). — Mud and stone village, containing about seventy 
Moslems, built on low end of ridge, surrounded by arable land ; water from 
a spring and two wells. 

Deir Amis (N c). — A village, built of stone, situated on a ridge, 
with olives and arable land around, containing about 100 Metawileh ; 
water from cisterns. 

Deir D u g h i y a (N b). — A village built of stone, containing about 
300 Christians ; contains a modern Christian church (see Section B.) ; 
situated on a hill, surrounded by fig-trees and arable land; water supplied 
by rock-cut cisterns. 

Deir Kan tar (N b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
150 Metawileh, situated on a hill, surrounded by olives, fig-trees, and arable 
land, with waters supplied from birket and cisterns. 

Deir K a n u n (M a). —A village, built of stone, situated on the top 
of a hill, surrounded by gardens, fig-trees, olives, and arable land, contain- 
ing about 250 Metawileh; water supply from springs, birket, and cisterns. 
Guerin gives the population at 400 Metawileh. 

Deir K i fa (O b). — A village built of stone, containing about 150 
Metawileh and fifty Christians, situated on a hill, and surrounded by fig- 
trees, olives, and arable land ; water supply from two springs and cisterns. 

Dib'al (N b). — A village, built of stone ; about 100 Metawileh; 
situated on a hill, surrounded by fig-trees, olives, and arable land ; water 
supply from spring and cisterns. 

El Hal 111 sly eh (N a). — A village, built of stone, divided into 
two quarters, east and west, with Moslem holy place. 

'This village is divided into two quarters, the lower of which is called Halliisiyeh et 

J 2 2 


i upper HalWsiyeh el Foka. The latter occupies the summit of a high hill, 
f both quarters arc rudt;ly built : thc>- may contain about 500 Metawileh.'— 

Thata, and the 

Tlic houses of both quarters arc rudely 


Ncby Mil ha mine a Ibn Y ak 11 1) (N a).— The position is high, 
and it contains about 150 Moslems; the cultivation is mostly arable, but 
there are a few fi?s and olives ; water is supplied from springs and 


Humeireh (N a). — Village of mud and rough stones, containing 
about 200 Moslems, on the top of a ridge, surrounded by figs, olives, and 
arable land ; water from cisterns. 

Jennata (N b). — A small village of stone and mud, containing 
about 100 IMoslems (according to Guerin, 60 Metawileh). It lies low, on 
arable land. The water is supplied by two wells in the village. 

J ilu (^I b).— A small village of stone, containing about 150 Meta- 
wileh. It is situated in the valley, and is surrounded by figs, olives, 
pomegranates, and arable land. There are two springs, cisterns, and a 
birket, and there are the remains of a small aqueduct, which once carried 
the water to a mill which has since disappeared. 

Juweiya (N b). — A large village, built of stone and of good ma- 
terials, containing about 1,000 Metawileh. They weave and dye cloth, 
and have a small market. It is situated on a hill, and is surrounded with 
olives, figs, and arable land. The water supply is from two springs and 
many cisterns. 

K e f r D u n i n (O b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 150 
(according to Guerin, 3cSo to 400) Metawileh, on a hill, surrounded by 
figs, olives, and arable land. The water is obtained from a spring near 
and cisterns in the village. 

Kerzon (N b). — A small village of mud and stone, with a large 
palm-tree near, containing about fifty Metawileh. It is situated in the 
valley, with figs and arable land around. There is a spring and cisterns 
at the village. 

K u 1 a t Mar u n (O b).- A ruined Saracenic castle (see Section B.), 
containing about fifty Metawileh. The country is arable, and there are 
cisterns and a spring near. The Arab houses are built with materials 
from the castle. 


IVI a h r u n e h (N b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 1 50 
Metawileh ; no houses of note ; situated on a hill, sun-ounded by olives, 
figs, and arable land, with a spring and cisterns. 

Marakah (M b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 400 
(Guerin says 700) Metawileh, on flat top of high ground, surrounded by 
gardens, olives, figs, palms, and arable land. There is a spring and five 

Marub (N b). — Mud and stone village, containing about 200 Meta- 
wileh, built on the side of a hill, with figs and arable land around. Water 
from cisterns and a spring. 

Mezrah (N c). — A small village, built of stone, on hill-top, spring, 
birket, and cisterns, with many ruined houses ; it contains about 100 
Metawileh. There are olives, figs, and arable land around. 

Mujeidil (N b). — A village, built of stone, with a few ruined 
houses, containing about 150 Metawileh. It is situated on a hill, sur- 
rounded by figs, olives, and arable land. Water supplied from a spring, 
cisterns, and birket. 

En Neffakhiyeh (N b). — A village, built of stone, containing 
200 Christians. There is a modern church in the village, which is situated 
on the top of a hill, surrounded by figs and arable land. Water supplied 
from springs in the valley, and three cisterns in the village. 

' The village is situated between two deep wadies (one on the north and the other on the 
south), and lies upon the summit of a hill, from which may be seen a large number of villages- 
The population is 600, all United Greeks ; they are now repairing their humble church. At 
the foot of the hill is a spring — the 'Ain Neffakhiyeh — which waters a few gardens.'— Guerin. 

N i h a (N b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 Moslems 
(according to Guerin Christians and Metawileh), situated low down on 
ridge, with figs and arable land arotind. The water supply is from springs 
in the valley and cisterns in the village. 

R e s h Kan a n i n (N c). — A small village built of stone, containing 
about 100 Metawileh, on side of valley, surrounded by figs, olives, and 
arable land. Water is obtained from cisterns and the spring of 'Ain el 

Sari fa (O b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 Meta- 


wileh ; it is situated on a hill, and surrounded by olives, figs, and arable 
land. Water from a spriny; and cisterns in the village. 

S h u h u r (N a). — A large village with some good houses, containing 
about 600 Metawileh ; it is situated on a hill, and has a well and cisterns 
in it. There are figs and olives around. 

S i d d i k i n (M c). — A village, built of stone, with many ruined houses ; 
contains about 150 Metawileh; surrounded by figs, gardens, and arable 
land. Water from cisterns and 'Ain el Tuzeh. 

Silah (X b). — A village, built of stone and of good materials, con- 
taining about 200 (Guerin says 250) Metawileh, on hill, with figs, olives, 
and arable land. Water from cisterns and a spring near. 

T e i r F i 1 s e i h (N a). — A village built of stone ; about 250 Meta- 
wileh; on side of hill near the top, with figs and arable land around. 
There are two springs, and cisterns. 

T e i r S a m h a t (O a). — A small village of mud and stone ; about 
forty Metawileh ; on the side of an uncultivated hill. Spring, and water 
collects in small birket. 

Teir Zinbeh (O b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
300 Metawileh, situated on a ridge, with figs, olives, pomegranates, and 
arable land round. Water supply from spring and cisterns. 

The Belad Besharah has ten villages on this sheet. 

'A i t a e z Z u t (O c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
fifty Metawileh, situated on a hill-top, with figs, olives, and arable land 
around. There are two springs and two cisterns in the village. 

Berashit (O c). — A large village, containing about 500 Metawileh 
and 200 Christians. It is situated on the side of a hill, and surrounded 
by figs, olives, and arable cultivation. There is a good spring and several 
cisterns in the village. 

H a r i s (N c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 100 (Guerin 
says 200) Metawileh, situated on hill-top, with vineyards, figs, and arable 
cultivation. There is a birket and many cisterns at the village, and a 
spring near. 

El Jumeijmeh (O c).— A small village of stone and mud, con- 

{SHEET //.] . TOPOGRArilY. 95 

taining about lOO Metawileh, situated on hill-top, with a few olives and 
figs around. Water supply from cisterns. 

Kefrah (N c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 
Metawileh, situated on hill-top, with olives and arable ground around. 
There is a large spring and masonry birkct at the village. 

Me is (P c). — A large village in two parts, containing about 700 
Metawileh, on low ridge, surrounded by figs, olives, and arable land. 
There is a birket near the village, and three good springs to the north, 
besides cisterns. 

Safed el Battikh (O c). — A village, built of stone, containing 
about 100 Metawileh and fifty Christians, situated on hill-top, surrounded 
by arable land. The water supply is from several perennial springs and 
ten cisterns in the village. 

Tibnin (O c). — A village, built of stone. The Mudir of the district 
resides in the castle (see .Section B.). The inhabitants are about 450 
(Guerin says 600) Metawileh and 250 Christians. There is a Maronite 
chapel in the village. It is situated on a hill, and there are figs and 
arable land around. The water supply is from a large birket and twenty 
to twenty-five cisterns in and round the village. 

K u 1 a t Tibnin (O c). — The residence of the Governor. Contains 
about twenty Moslems. It is immediately above the village. 

El Yehudiyeh {O c). — A small village, containing about 100 
Metawileh, situated in a valley, with olives, figs, and arable land. There 
is a spring and cisterns at the village. 

1 he Kadha Kuneiterah extends to the east, and rules over only one 
village of this sheet. 

Banias (R b). — A village, built of stone, containing about 350 
Moslems, situated on a raised table-land at the bottom of the hills of 
Mount Hermon. The village is surrounded by gardens crowded with 
fruit-trees. The source of the Jordan is close by, and the water runs in 
little aqueducts into and under every part of the modern village. {Vox 
antiquities see Section I?.) 


?Ri\cirAi, Ancient Snrs. — Shf.f.t II. 

Panium, Ccesarea Philippi (Matt. xvi. 13) = Banias. 
Dan = Tell d Kfuly. 

Abel Beth Maachah (2 Sam. xx. 1 5) = Abl. 

The following are suggested by Lieutenant Conder : 

Janoah (2 Kings .w. 29) = Yanuh (from the context probably the nnrlhern cily of that 
n.mie, not that in Sheet III.). 

I-uz (Judges i. 26) is possibly the Luweizeh north-west of Banias. 

Migdal-el (Josh. xix. 38), possibly the village of Mujeidil. 

Berias, possibly the Biri of the Talmud, on the line of the Galilean boundary, betu-ecn 
Kanah and Tirii (or Tireh). 

Kulat esh Shekif, the Crusading castle of Belfort. 

Merj '.\yun perhaps takes its name from the Nukbetha di 'Ayun, or ' Gorge of 'Ayun,' 
mentioned in the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Shebiith, vi. i, and Tosiphta Shebiith, chap, iii) as 
forming part of the Galilean boundary, the plain being close to the deep gorge of the 
Kasimiyeh. William of Tyre also mentions the name Mergium near Paneas (book .\.\i.). 

Serada.— This site was identified with Zereda (i Kings xi. 26) by R. Gersou of Scarmela, 
in 1561 A.D. He also calls it Caphar Khanias, and places it near Banias. The tomb of 
Joseph bar Joizar was shown here (cf. Pirke Aboth, i. 4), one of the earliest Talmndic 

Tibnin. — See Kul'at Tibnin. This site is identified by Benjamin of Tudela (1163 A.n.) 
with an ancient Timnatha. It appears to be the Tamena of the hieratic MS. called 'Travels 
ofa Mohar.' Benjamin of Tudcla places the tomb of Samuel the Just here, perhaps the 
same sacred place now called Neby es Saddik, half a mile north-east of Tibnin. In i5f)[ 
.A.D. Gerson of Scarmela mentions here two marble pillars over the supposed tomb of 
Sharagar (Judg. iii. 31). Uri of Biel (1564 a.d.) writes the name of the place Timnin. 

Gu^rin suggests that in Haris we have the ancient name of Harosheth. 

HvDROGR.\PHV.— Besides the Nahr el Kasimiyeh, or Litany River, 
which forms the northern boundary of this sheet, there are also the various 
sources which form the Jordan River. The Litany is a fine stream of 
very rapidly running water, that cuts its way through the cliffs in a deep 
gully, after passing round the bend, which turns its course at right angles 
to its previous direction ; before that it was more open in the eastern 
side, where a very productive basalt plain occurs. The river is still shut 
in by cliffs 1500 feet high on the west, crowned by the picturesque 
Crusading castle of Beaufort. There is a bridge across the river, just 


north of the limits of the survey, and another bridge at the mouth of the 
Wady Hajeir, and a ferry lower down. 

The Jordan Valley, or the Huleh Plain, as it is called, is covered with 
a very intricate system of streams, some running in their natural channels, 
others in artificial aqueducts, used for irrigating the very fertile but 
malarious plain. The marsh of papyrus commences at the southern 
extremity of the sheet, and is described (Sheet IV.). 

Commencing from the west, the streams that go to form the Jordan 
are the Nahr Bareighit, rising from the large springs of Derdarah and 
Hush, near el Kulei'ah, in the Merj 'Ayun ; this stream is not large, and 
nearly dries up in autumn. There are some other springs, such as Ain 
edh Dhaheb, Ain el Musa (described in the alphabetical list), that send 
small streams into the Jordan or the marsh. The next stream is the 
rapid-flowing Nahr Hasbany, that rises in the north, and comes down the 
valley. It is a muddy, rapid stream, and has cut a course through the 
basalt rocks that surround it. It is rather smaller, about one-third less, 
than the Nahr Leddan or the Nahr Banias, the other two streams 
which journey from the Jordan, between the Nahr Hasbany and the 
Leddan. There are a number of springs ; the ground is basalt, and the 
water, in spring and winter, oozes out in almost every direction. The 
great spring in the country is that of Leddan, at Tell el Kady ; quite a 
river rushes away from the source. It is much used to irrigate the plain, 
and turns some mills. The spring itself is larger than the spring at 
Banias, but the latter receives water from several smaller springs, so that 
the two streams are about equal. The plain to the south of Tell el Kady 
is almost impassable in the winter from its marshy character. The Nahr 
Banias has its source out of the cave of Pan at Banias (see .Sect. B). Being 
longer than the Nahr Leddan, it may be considered to be the source of 
the Jordan, as the Hasbany is only an affluent of a river more than twice 
its size, when it joins the Jordan, composed of the Banias and the Leddan. 
The Nahr Banias has a rapid fall over waterfalls, till it reaches the plain ; 
descending at the rate of 200 feet a mile, for the first four miles, it then 
runs more slowly, till, after the junction with the Leddan and the Hasbany, 
it flows into the dense jungle of papyrus of the Huleh marshes. 

The only other noticeable water supply on this sheet is that in Wady 
Hajeir, it commences at 'Ain el Khan, and at once turns a mill. It is a 
VOL. I. 13 


strong stream, running down to the Leontes, being fed by several springs 
on its course. 

The alphabetical list of the water supply follows. 

'A i n Abu G h e i b c h (O b). — A small spring of perennial water. 

'A in Abu K u s e i y e h (N b). — A rock-cut cistern, having a good 
supply of water, probably a spring, in it. 

'A in Abu Nahluh (N a). — Perennial spring of good water; no 
stream ; medium supply. 

'A in Abu Sudan (Ob). — Large spring of good water, with a 
stream of water flowing from it, joining the stream in the valley ; perennial. 

'A i n 'A i d i b (O b). — Small spring of good water, built up with 
masonry ; perennial. 

'A i n 'A k a b e t el K a n d 6 1 e h (O b).— Small spring, with rock-cut 
entrance ; perennial ; good water. 

'A in el 'Alak (Q b). — A medium-sized spring, with slight stream 
flowing from it ; perennial supply. 

'A i n el 'A r i d (N b). — A supply of good water ; the spring is built 
up with masonry, with a large circular opening ; perennial. 

'A i n el B a r d e h (N a). — A small supply of good water ; the spring 
is surrounded by a slight marsh, and is perennial. 

'A in Barish (N b). — The ground is marshy round this spring; 
the water is good and perennial. 

'A in Beiban (O c). — A rock-cut cistern, probably containing a 
spring ; good supply of water ; supposed to be perennial. 

'A in el Beneiye h. — A rock-cut entrance to a small spring of 
good water ; said to be perennial. 

'A in Berashit (N c). — An open circular spring, built up with 
masonry ; good water ; perennial. 

'A i n B e r u k h e i (N b). — A good supply of water, from a rock-cut 
entrance to perennial spring. 

'A i n B u t e i t a (O c). — Medium-sized spring, built up with masonry ; 
good water, and perennial. 


'A i n B i d i as (N a). — Slight stream flows from this ; good perennial 

'A i n B i r k e t S u w a n (O c). — Perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; good supply of water ; masonry birket near. 

'A i n ed Dalieh (N \i). — Masonry-covered well, containing 
perennial spring of good water ; stone troughs round. 

'A i n e d D e i a h.— Rock-cut cistern ; dry in autumn. 

'A in Deir el Foka (Ob). — A spring, built up with masonry; 
good water ; small supply ; dry in autumn. 

'A i n Deir K a n u n (M a). — Medium-sized perennial spring of 
good water, with small stream flowing from it. 

'A i n Deir K i f a (O b). — A perennial spring, built up with masonry, 
with large circular opening ; good water. 

'A i n Deir Mimas (O a). — Medium-sized perennial spring of 
good water, with slight stream flowing from it. 

'A i n D e 1 1 a f e h (P c). — Open circular spring, built up with masonry; 
perennial supply of good water. 

'A i n e d D e rda r a h (R a). — A very large spring, partly enclosed 
by masonry at its source, of good water ; a strong stream flows from it, 
and after receiving the waters of 'A i n Hosh, becomes the Nahr 

' A i n e d h D h a h e b (O b). — A large spring, with a strong stream 
running from it to the Hasbany River. 

'A i n ed Druz (N b). — A well-mouthed spring, built up with 
masonry ; good water ; perennial supply. 

'A in el Fakaieh (N b). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry, with a well-mouth. 

'A i n el Foka (N b).— A perennial spring, built up with masonry. 

' A i n el F u w a r (N a).— A large spring, having a good stream 
flowing from it ; a good perennial supply. 

'A i n el G h a n e m (P b).— A small stream flows from this perennial 
spring of good water. 


'A in el G h a z z a r (N a). — The small supply of good water collects 
in a small birket at this perennial spring. 

'A in el G h u s i 1 (O b). — A large spring, with stream of water 
llowing from it ; perennial and good. 

'A in el H a j 1 (P b). — A perennial spring, built up with masonry ; 
small supply. 

'A i n el H aj r (Pa). — Medium-sized .spring, with small stream of 
good water flowing from it ; perennial. 

'A i n H arb (O c). — Perennial .spring, built up with masonry; small 
supply of water. 

'A in el H 6 s h (O a). — A large spring, enclosed by masonry at its 
source with a large stream of good water llowing from it, which joins 
the waters of 'Ain ed Derdurah. 

'A i n el Mum ma (Ob). — A perennial spring of medium size; 
water collected in stone troughs. 

'Ain el H u m r a (O c). — An open-mouthed spring, built up with 
masonry ; perennial supply of good water. 

'Ain H 11 r a (O a). — Medium-sized spring, with small stream flowing 
from it ; perennial supply of good water. 

'Ain Jedideh (Ob). — A perennial spring, surrounded by marshy 

ground; good water. 

'Ain J e h 1 r (N a). — A perennial spring, with slight marsh ; good 

'Ain J enan (X b). — A medium-sized perennial spring; no stream 
or marsh. 

'Ain J e n n a t a (X a). — A perennial spring, with marshy ground ; 
good water. 

'Ain el Jozeh (N c). — A good spring, with small stream flowing 
into a small masonry birket ; perennial supply. 

'Ain el J u b e i b (P b). — A perennial spring ; good water ; built up 
with masonry. 

'Ain el Kan tar ah (P b). — A perennial spring; good supply ; 
built up with masonry. 


'A i n K e f r ah (N c). — A large rock-cut cistern for rain-water. 
'A i n Kefr Kila (O b). — A medium-sized perennial spring of 
good water, with slight stream flowing from it. 

'A in K e r z 6 n (O b). — A perennial spring of good water with slight 

'A i n el Khan (O b). — A large perennial spring, with strong 
stream flowing from it to the River Kasimiyeh; turns a mill close to the 
spring, and several others lower down ; good water. 

'A i n el K i n ie h (O c). — -An open-mouthed perennial spring, built 
up with masonry ; good water. 

'A i n el Kubbei (N e). — A spring, with marshy ground; good 
water ; dries in summer. 

'A i n el L e d d a n (R b). — One of the largest springs in Palestine. 
It bursts out of the ground on the west side of Tell el Kady, and at once 
forms a river. It is joined by another spring from the centre of the tell 
itself, which is part of the same spring, and llows down to its junction 
with the Banias River, where it forms the Jordan. It is much used for 
irrigating the plain. 

'A i n L u b i e h (P a). — A medium-sized perennial spring, with a 
small stream of good water flowing from it. 

' A i n Marnabah (O a). — A medium-sized perennial spring; a 
small stream collects in small masonry birket. 

'A in Mar lib (N b). — A medium-sized perennial spring, with a 
small marsh. 

'A in Matmurah (N b). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; no stream ; small supply of good water. (2 O c). Ditto, ditto. 

'A i n el M e i s e h (O c). — A rock-cut well containing perennial spring. 

'A i n el Mel ah (Q b). — A medium-sized perennial spring, with a 
small stream of good water. 

'A in el Metawileh (O a).— A medium-sized perennial spring, 
with a small stream of good water. 

'A in el Mezrab (2 O c). — A good perennial spring, with open- 
ing cut in rock ; birket also cut in rock. (P c). Pool in bed of wady ; bad 
water ; dry in autumn. 


'A i n c 1 Mezrdb (N c). — A rock-cut wi-ll containing perennial 
spring of good water. 

'A i n V 1 M u sa (O c). — A large perennial spring, sending a stream 
of water into the papyrus marsh. 

'A in v\ i\I u s m a r (O c). — A perennial spring built u]) with 
masonry ; good water. 

'A i n N dib (P a). — A medium-sized spring, with a small stream of 
good water ; perennial. 

'A i n en Ned a (P b). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; open-mouthed ; good water. 

'A i n N u w e i y a (N b). — A good perennial spring, built round with 

'A in cr Ram ah (N b). — A good perennial spring, built round 
with masonry. 

'A in er Rihaneh (N a). — A small spring of good water; 

'A i n R u e i h i n e h (O b). — A large spring of good water; perennial 

supply ; much used for irrigation purposes. 

'A in er Rumeileh (N a). — A rock-cut well, covered over, con- 
taining a perennial spring of good water. 

'A in es Sabbih (N a). — A large spring, with stream flowing into 
the Nahr Kasimiyeh. 

'A i n Safed (O c). — A perennial spring built up with masonry; 
good supply of water. 

'A in es Sahia (N b). — A perennial spring, built up with masonry ; 
good supply of water. 

'A in Sari fa (Ob). — A medium spring, enclosed with stones; 
perennial supply of good water. 

'A in es Sifla (2 N c). — A well-mouthed spring, built up with 
masonry ; good water. (A c). Ditto, ditto. 

'A i n S u k t i r (O b).— A large spring, with a stream of water flowing 
from it ; perennial supply of good water. 

{sheet I l\ hydrography. 103 

' A i n e t T a f u r a h (O b). — A perennial spring, in the rock on the 
side of the valley ; good supply of water. 

'A i n Talhah (O b). — A perennial spring, with a small stream of 
good water. 

' A i n e t T a i y e b e h (P b). — A small spring ; no marsh or stream ; 
good water ; perennial. 

'A in Teir Filsie h. — A medium-sized spring ; marshy ground ; 
perennial supply of good water. 

'A i n Teir S a m h a t (O a). — A perennial spring of good water, 
cut in the rock. 

'A i n Teir Zinbeh (N b). — A perennial spring of good water, 
built up with masonry ; well-mouthed. 

' A i n e t Tin (O c). — A perennial spring of good water, in a rock- 
cut well. (N c). Ditto, built up with masonry. 

'A in et Tineh (R b). — A large perennial spring, with a large 
stream flowing from it of good water. 

'A i n Umm 'Okiish (Q a). — A medium-sized spring, with a small 
stream flowing from it of good water ; perennial. 

'A i n el Werdeh (O c). — A perennial spring of good water, 
built up with masonry. 

'A i n el Yanuh (M b). — A perennial spring of good water, built 
up with masonry. 

'A in ez Zerka (O c). — A perennial spring of good water, built 
up with masonry. 

'Ay {In el 'Ajjal (Q b). — Two medium-sized and one small 
perennial springs with small streams flowing from them ; good water. 

'A y u n el Ghtizlan (P b). — A perennial spring, deep in the rock, 
with steps leading to it ; good water. 

' A y u n Indeiyideh (P c). — Two medium-sized and one small 
springs, with a small stream flowing from them ; the springs are enclosed 
with masonry, and are perennial. 

'A y u n el Khan (Ob). — Two springs, enclosed with masonry; 
perennial ; a good supply of water. 


"Ayuii (J 1 MuL;hr (O b). — Three medium-sized springs, wiih 
slight streams tlowing- from them ; perennial and good water. 

Im r Heit esh Shih (N c). — Rock-cut cisterns ; good supply of 

B i r e 1 H a j Y u n i s (N b). — A well, built up with masonry ; good 
supply of water, perennial. 

B i r el H 6 w a s h (O b). — A good perennial spring of water. 

B i r K u n e i s e h (O b). — A rock-cut cistern ; dries in autumn. 

Bir Meitun (Ob). — A perennial spring, good water; built up 
with masonry ; large trough. 

Blr Musellabat (P b). — A perennial spring, built up with masonry. 

Bir es Sakfeh (Mb). — A rock-cut cistern. 

Bir S h i b 1 y (C) c). — A rock-cut well ; perennial supply. 

B i r k e t B e n i H a i y a n (P b). — Pond, dry in summer. 

Birket Dcir es Surian (Pa). — Pond, dry in summer. 

Birket el Gharz (P b). — Large tank, built round with masonry ; 
dry in summer. 

Birket Haddatha (N c). — Large pond ; does not dry. 

Birket el H aj r. — Rock-cut pool ; dries in summer. 

Birket el Hamra (R b). — Pond; dries in summer. 

Birket Jelameh (N c).^ — Pond all year. 

Birket Karkaf (P b).- — Pond; dries in summer. 

Birket Nakiych (P c). — Pond ; does not dry. 

Birket Raj (Pa). — Pond; dries in summer. 

H a m m am S a f e d (O c). — Perennial spring, built up with masonry, 
with a birket, into which the water is passed. 

Nahr Bania s.— A broad stream of water flowine from the 'Ain 
Banias. It descends rapidly in its course — in 8 miles looo feet; for the 
first 4 miles it descends at the rate of 200 feet a mile. The supply of 
water is about equal to the Leddan, and is more than the Hasbany. 

Xahr Bareighi t. — This is a small perennial stream of water 
llowing from 'Ain Derdarah. 

\_SHEET 7/.] IIVDROGRAriiY. ,05 

N a h r Hash a n y. — A rapid stream of muddy water coming from the 
north, near Hasbeiya. It has cut its way through the basalt rock in a 
deep course, and is passed by two bridges. 

N a h r el K a s i m i y e h. — A larger flow of water than any other 
on the sheet. Descending from the north in the great valley, it suddenly 
turns to the west, through the rough rock and deep gorges to the sea 
north of Tyre. It forms the northern boundary of the present survey. 

Nahr el Led dan. — This river is the product of the enormous 
spring at Tell el Kady. It is much used to irrigate the plain, and at last 
joins the Nahr Banias before the junction with the Hasbany. 

Nahr el Litany. — The same as the Nahr Kasimiyeh. This 
name applies to the river before its bend to the west. 

Nahr en Nile h. — Some aqueducts from the Nahr Leddan to 
turn mills. 

Nebat el Beiyadh (N c). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; a good supply of water. 

Nebat el Jindy (O c). — A perennial spring cut in the rocks; 
good water. 

Es Sidd (O c).— A perennial spring, built up with masonry; good 

Spring E. of Kefr Dunin (O b), built up with masonry; 
dry in autumn. 

Spring S. side of 'Odeithat et Tahta (Pb), built up 
with masonry ; perennial. 

Spring N. of Silah (Ob), built up with masonry ; perennial. 

Spring S. of el Yehudiyeh (O c), built up with masonry ; 
perennial ; good supply. 

Roads. — The principal roads in this sheet run in a northern and 
southerly direction. 

There is a good road on the edge of the Jordan Valley, which leads 
north, either to Hasbeiya or to Sidon, by crossing the bridge over the 
Litiny, which is just north of the limits of the work. 

There is a good road leading north, through Merkebeh and Taiyibeh, 

VOL. I. l_j. 


by crossing the valley to the east of the latter village. This road leads 
past Deir Mimas to the bridge over the Litany and Sidon, or to Hasbeiya 
and Damascus. 

There is a good road passing to the south of Tibnin, where there is a 
khan. It leads north to the bridge over the Kasimiyeh at the mouth of 
Wady Hajeir. 

East and west there is a good road leading from Banias past Tell el 
Kady, over a bridge across the llasbany River, and then, mounting the 
hills, crosses the watershed near 'Odeitha. To the west of this the road 
shows traces of antiquity. Paving is to be seen in places, particularly near 
Abrikha, where it descends from the plateau into the valley. It then 
leads by Burj el Alawei, past Kul'at Marun, a Saracenic castle, down to 

The other roads on the sheet are of no importance ; they are mostly 
tracks, and in some parts are hardly fit for anything but goats. 

The roads in the plain of Merj Ayun are better than the rest of the 
country. There is also a fair road leading from Tibnin, past Haris, to 
the south-west. 


A bl (O b). — A village, built of stone ; there are remains of ruins. 

' This Abil may well be regarded as representing the ancient Abel or Abel Beth Maachah 
of this region, known to us in Scripture. It probably had the latter name, as lying near Beth 
Maachah, from which it is also distinguished. Once it is called Abel-maim. It is twice 
mentioned with other places in the order from north to south ; once, " Ijon (Heb. '/)'''", 
Arab. 'Ayun), Dan, Abel, and all Cinneroth ;" and again, " Ijon, Abel, Janoah, Kedesh, 
Hazor, Gilead." These notices all corresjiond well to the position of Abil. — That this place 
is the true Abel of Scripture, rather than Ibl el Hawa, situated on the ridge between Merj 
'Ayun and Wady et Teim, is probable for two reasons. The former lies on a Tell like most 
of the ancient strong cities ; and, further, its situation is such, that the series " Ijon, Dan, 
Abel," as above, is not unnatural ; which would not be the case with Ibl el Hawa, lying as it 
does north-east of Ijon.' — Robinson, 'Biblical Researches,' p. 372. 

The modern name of this place is given by Gue'rin as Tell Abel Kamah. The hill is of 
oblong form, as will be seen in the maps. On the highest point, that of the north, he found 
the ruins of walls and a Mohammedan cemetery. Everywhere hewn stones are dug out of 
the ground. 

Abrikha (P b). — There are here the remains of an early Christian 
church. Two of the columns still stand /// sifu in the village, and one bears 
its capital of Corinthian design, re- 
sembling- those at YarCm. Several 

pedestals are also /;/ siiii, with the 
doubtful traces of an apse. Under 
this there is a rock-cut tomb, with 
the entrance outside the east end 
of the church, and the loculi under 
where the altar would probably be 
placed. The loculi are ordinary 
square-headed k o k i m ; the tomb was too much filled with chopped 
straw to see how many there were. A large stone, used as a lintel in 
one of the houses, bears the representation of a vase ; and there is also 




a stone niche Imlli into thr wall of a modern house. There are several 
well-dressed stones of considerable size, and sonic rock-cutting showing 
foundations of ancient buildings. 

Robinson thus describes the ruins ('Biblical Researches,' p. 55) as they stood in the 
year 1S52 : 

' On approaching the village, wc came upon the ruins of dwellings, some of them of hewn 
stones ; and I afterwards found among them a curved stone of an arch with a projecting 
shoulder, such as is seen in the remains of the theatre at Smyrna. The ruins we had come 
to examine are in the village itself. They consist of two rows of columns of an ancient 
temple, extending from east to west. The columns are of a whitish limestone. Of the 
northern row there are four standing in place, two prostrate, and fragments of two others. Of 
the southern row, three are standing and two are lying. One of the upright columns has an 
Ionic capital with delicate tracery work below the volutes. Its height in all is about twelve 
feet. Many large hewn stones are built into the walls of hovels around and among the 
columns ; but there are none that seem to be in place. That here was an ancient heathen 
temple there can be little doubt, but whether it was of Phoenician, Greek, or Roman origin, 
there exists no historic trace whatever to afford light or reward inquiry.' 

(juerin reports only one column standing. He agrees with Lieutenant Kitchener in 
thinking that the remains are those of an early Christian church or synagogue. 

'Akhsas el Halabiyeh. — Ruined Arab houses. 

'A i t i t (M b). — There are traces at this village of ancient remains. 
It is said by the natives that there was once a church here. There are 
broken pillars scattered about, stone lintels, three caves, and three olive- 
presses, with cisterns. 

' Its antiquities are a stone with three circles, two with rays, in which are crosses (not of 
great age), a grotto, and beside it a good sarcophagus lid serving to support a press. Near 
Aitit is a rectangular cemetery, well preserved.' — Renan, 'Mission,' p. 641. 

'A 1 m a n (P a). — The present village is built on the ruins of a former 

town, of which the foundations can be seen. The houses are built with 
great blocks of ancient appearance. On the north side there is a rock-cut 



■•V: J . 















{SHEET //.] 



tomb, with roughly-sculptured figures over the entrance : this is called 
Mugharet ish Shahl. 

There was an Almon belonging to the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua xxi. 18). Perhaps tlie 
ancient name of this place was also Almon. 

Ban ias (R b). — -The principal point of interest at this village is the 
immense spring that gushes out of the cave, called Mugharet Ras en Neb'a, 
and forms one source of the River Jordan. The cave is situated in the side 
of a perpendicular cliff, about 100 feet high, which occurs on the southern 
side of the western end of a steep ridge, coming down from the eastern 
hills. On the highest part of this ridge the castle of Banias, Kul'at es 
Subeibeh (q. v.), is situated. The front of the precipice is partially filled 
up with Allien rocks and debris, and the roof of the cave has fallen in ; 
this has been probably caused by an earthquake. Through this mass of 
stones the water gushes out, finding different channels leading from the 
cave, but uniting immediately below the debris, and at once forming a 
strong stream. 

In the face of the cliff, now only just above the debris, but once 
probably high above the ground, there are three niches, two of which have 
tablets with inscriptions. The niche nearest to the great cave is the most 
perfect, and is immediately above an artificially made cave in the rock, 
with a round arched roof; this cave is regularly cut, and is seven feet deep 
by twelve feet high, and ten broad. The niche is finely sculptured ; two 
columns, with grooves in them, support a round arch, the interior of which 
is carved like a shell, the dimensions are five feet 
high by three feet wide, and the inscription occurs 
on a label below it. 

The second niche is lower than the first, and is 
similar to it, except in the ornamentation of the 
interior of the niche, which is cut to represent 
scales instead of a shell. There is no inscription 
under this niche, though there is a piece of rock 
levelled as if to receive one. 

The third niche is the lowest, and is smaller 
than the others. It has an inscription cut on a THNAeesANcoHKe^ 
tablet, like the first, only that the tablet is o\\ a OYKTWPAA'HTWtAici 
level with the top of the niche, and on the left-hand 
side of it. There is a corresponding one on the right-hand side, without 


any inscription. The letters on the leli h;uul tablet are much mutilated, 
and arc difliciilt to decipher. 

There are some fragments of columns and masonry lying about, but 
nothing to determine the actual site of any building. To the west of the 
spring, and above it, is the little Moslem shrine of el Khidr. Here 
the rock is much cut, as if to admit buildings, the side of the hill is 
terraced, and the walls of the terraces ornamented by small stones three 
feet square, set diagonally in cement. There are also some rock-cut tombs 
in this direction. Farther on, under .some fine olive-trees, at the end of 
the ridge close to Wady El Khashabeh, some tesselated pavement of 
different coloured marbles was turned up. 

In the village of Banias there are some Roman round arches, which 
probably carried an aqueduct through the town ; they are now choked up 
with rubbish, and only just appear above the ground. There are several 
columns and broken pieces of columns ; there are also some well-dressed 
stones, and a round-arched bridge over the stream, of good masonry. To 
the west of the town, on the road to Tell el Kady, there are several 
columns and remains of ruins, but nothing definite on which the ancient 
town of Panium or Caisarea Philippi can be reconstructed. Nothing now 
remains above ground of the magnificent palaces and temples of Herod or 
of Agrippa. The town is surrounded by the remains of a wall, fianked 
by massive towers, and on the east side protected by a ditch. The work 
is of the Crusading period ; large drafted stones, well-dressed in some 
parts ; several courses remain to the south. A new gate-way has been 
constructed, partially of old materials, leading by a bridge across the 
wady, that cut off this part of the town from the south. On this bridge 
there are some stones which formed a cornice. 

Another block has two flowers, like the right-hand one in the sketch, 
and measures 3' 10" long, and a third is the same as the one drawn, and 

probably ended the cornice. The for- 
' \.-r^^ \~\ tifications were of irreofular shape, and 
^^^ I i seem to have been protected by water- 
^^^ -I I ditches all round. There arc three 
towers along the eastern wall, and one 
on the western side, at the bend of the river. There is an Arabic inscrip- 
tion over the gateway ne.xt the bridge. 

[sheet If.] ARCILEOLOGY. iii 

These were probably the fortifications of the town that resisted 
Nur eel din, Prince of Damascus, when he attacl-:ed the place ('William of 
Tyre,' book xx.). 

IJeuteiwnt Kitchener also says of Banias (Quarterly Statement), 1S77, p. 172 : 

' From Tell el Kady to Banias the road passes through park-like scenery, the country 
being thickly studded with trees, principally oak, not very large, but very refreshing after the 
bare plain on the west of the tell. After mounting a slight ridge, the village of EJnias is 
seen situated in a small |)lain at the junction of two wadies coming from the north and east ; 
these join in front of the town and run south. The village is completely surrounded and 
shut in by trees of all sorts, and looks remarkably green and lovely, with the castle of 
Subeibeh towering above it. 

' On approaching the village the rushing water is seen falling over cascades, tearing 
through thickets, and almost hidden by creepers. The source is to the north-east of the 
town, and the stream runs west till it joins the wady from the north at the north-west angle 
of the town, in which there is also a small stream ; it then rushes down a steep fall, forming 
a foaming torrent, to its junction with Nahr Leddan. 

' A bridge crosses the stieam before the town. The spring itself is a few hundred yards 
cast, and before reaching the bridge a great deal of the water is diverted for irrigation and to 
turn mills in the town. Little streams seem to be running in every direction, cooling the air, 
and making this one of the most lovely spots in Palestine. Above the spring there are about 
forty yards of stones and debris^ which gradually rise to a large cavern in the face of the rocky 
cliff The roof of the cavern has fallen in, but it shows no visible signs of artificial work. 
Immediately to the right are the three niches for statues, two of which have inscriptions on 
tablets cut in the rock ; these have been often copied and described. 

' On the left of the cavern, high up on a ledge of rock, is the little Moslem sanctuary to 
El Khidr, or St. George ; the rock is a good deal cut on this side to allow of buildings on 
the ledges, and the hillside seems to have been terraced, and the walls of the terraces 
ornamented by small stones three inches square set diagonally in cement. A little farther 
west, about 200 yards from the spring, some mosaic pavement was found running under the 
roots of very large olive-trees. 

' The town was naturally fortified on three sides, north and west by the river, and south 
by a deep valley. On the eastern side a wall with three large square towers was defended by 
a broad and dee]5 ditch, which was probably flooded with water. At the north-west angle 
another large square tower defended the bridge over the river and the northern side, where 
the river does not run so deep as on the western side, and therefore more liable to be attacked. 
Surrounded by water, and with strong towers and walls, this must have been a very strong 
place in the early days of siege operations. 

' All the fortifications are of large drafted stones, and appear to be Crusading work ; they 
probably are the remains of the citadel of the town alluded to by "William of Tyre (XX.), 
which resisted Nur ed Din's attack on the town. 

'The only other remains of ancient Banias are some fine granite columns lying about, and 
the remains of a Roman aqueduct running through the town, now almost buried in refuse.' 

Banias, the ancient Paneas, has no Old Testament history. The cave referred to above, 
now called Mugharet Ras en Neb'a, and formerly Panium, was sacred to Pan. Here Herod 
erected a temple in honour of Augustus Philip, Tetrarch of Trachonitis, enlarged and 
embellished the town, and called it Ccesarea Philippi. It appears under this name in the 


New Testament (Matt. xvi. 13; I^Fark viii. 27). Agrippa gave it tlic name of Neronias. 
Titus held public spectacles here, at which the captive Jews were compelled to fight. It was 
a bishopric under the patriarchate of Antioch in the fourth century. The old name surviving 
in the modem Banids has displaced tlie other names. The history of the castle, Kiil'at 
Subeibeh, will be found under its name. The hill on which Biinias stands is called by 
Eusebius Wa.\u<,i ojo;. 

Few places in Palestine have been more frequently described. Josephus thus speaks of 
it : ' This is a very fine cave in the mountain, under which there is a great cavity in the earth, 
and the cavern is abrupt, prodigiously deep, and full of still water. Over it hangs a vast 
mountain, and under the cavern rise the springs of the River Jordan. Herod adorned this 
place, which was already very remarkable, still further by the erection of this temple, which 
he dedicated to Cffisar' (.\ntiq. xv. 10, 3). He describes the place again, and in similar 
language, in the Wars (i. 21, 3). 

Eusebius relates a legend belonging to the place, and says (b. vi. ch. 18), that not only 
was the woman cured of an issue of blood (Luke viii. 43) a native of this place, but that her 
house was shown in the city to his day. ' At the gate of her house, on an elevated stone, 
stands a brazen image of a woman on her knees, with her hand stretched out before her, like 
one entreating. Opposite to this was another image, of a man erect, of the same material, 
decently clad in a mantle, and stretching out his hand to the woman. This, they say, is a 
statue of Christ, and it has remained even to our times, so that I myself saw it when in the city.' 

Of modem travellers it will be only necessary to quote Burckhardt, Newbolt, Robinson 
and Guerin. 

Burckhardt visited the place on October 13th and 14th, 18 10. He thus describes it : 

' Banias is situated at the foot of the Heish, in the plain, which in the immediate vicinity 
of Banias is not called Ard el Hiileh, but Ard Banias. It contains about 150 houses, 
inhabited mostly by Turks ; there are also Greeks, Druses, and Nusairiyeh. It belongs to 
Hasbeiya, whose Emir dominates the Sheikh. On the north-east side of the village is the 
source of the river of Banias, which empties itself into the Jordan at the distance of an hour 
and a half, in the plain below. Over the source is a perpendicular rock, in which several 
niches have been cut to receive statues. 

' The largest niche is above a spacious cavern under which the river rises. This niche is 
six feet broad and as many in depth, and has a smaller niche at the bottom of it. Immedi- 
ately above it, in the perpendicular face of the rock, is another niche adorned with pilasters, 
supporting a shell ornament hke that of Herribeh. 

' There are two other niches near these, and twenty paces further two more, nearly buried 
in the ground at the foot of the rock. Each of these niches had an inscription annexed to 
it, but I could not decipher anything except the following characters above one of the niches 
which are nearly covered with earth : 

.... uHeP ffflTHPIAC XnN KTPinN 
. . . 001 . . in.. PEA© . . lOTPn . . NTA . . TTHO. 

' In the middle niche of the three, the base of the statue is still visible. Upon the top of 
the rock, to the left of the niches, is a mosque dedicated to Neby Khuder, called by the 
Christians Mar Georgius.' 

\SHEET n. ] AR CIL EOLOG ] '. 

1 1 - 

The following inscription was copied by Captain Newbolt ('Journal of the Asiatic 
Society,' vol. xvi. p. ii): 

HAN . AN . . . IM<I>AIC . . 
MAIIIC ..!'.. ION . T0 . TE0H 
KENC N . . lOCH ON . . 

EN n . . n . o . I . . . . 

cmK N . . or . . Ai ... 

CIC . . lOCAAA OP . . N . . . . 

Robinson ('Biblical Researches,' 1852) says: 

'We ascended the steep slope, and came out at the top upon the beautiful terrace on 
which Banias is situated . . . This terrace of Banias was to me an entirely new feature 
in the region ; no traveller had ever mentioned it. Towards the north it abuts upon the 
flank of Jebel esh Sheikh, between the gorge of Wady el Asul and the angle of the mountain 
with the eastern hills ; on the east it lies against the declivity of the same range ; while on 
the south it runs together and mingles with the gentler slopes of the same hills. It is thus 
nearly triangular ; is highest towards th-^ north, and slopes very gently towards the south. 
The elevation of Banias in the interior north-eastern angle is 1,147 feet above the sea' — but 
see the exact height ascertained by Lieutenant Kitchener — 'being 500 feet higher than Tell 
el Kady. In this angle the great fountain bursts forth, and sends its waters down a ravine 
of its own south-west to the plain of the Hiileh. Yet they are also drawn off over the whole 
surface of the terrace, and are even carried down its western declivity, to irrigate portions of 
the plain below, to which the waters from Tell cl Kady cannot be conducted. The formation 
of the terrace is wholly limestone ; but at Banias the igneous rocks again present them- 

The inscriptions arc thus given by Guerin : 

. . AIHCrON . . E0H 
KEN . . BnaiON 
Eni . . . ETI 

. . . . or . AI 

CH . AN . ON. 

(3). rnEPC.aTiiPiAcTnNKrpinN 





Captain Wilson also made copies of the inscriptions in 1S66, and at the same time took 
photographs of the source and the castle. 

VOL. I. 15 


B e i n c r R u s (M c).— Cisterns and traces of ruins. 

!■: 1 H e i y a d (N c).— There are many ruined houses at this village, 
and a lintel with three crosses upon it, the 
centre being the largest. Foundations of 

+ ^ * 4" 

rough-hewn stones of some building. 


Benl Haiydn (P b). 

' All the houses arc built of regular stones belonging to ancient buildings, and most of 
the doors have fine lintels.' — Guerin, 'Galilee,' ii. 268. 

Be rash it (O c). 
'A cistern partly cut in tiie rock, and partly constructed, seems ancient.' — Guerin 
' Galilee,' ii. 377. 

D ei r 'Amis (N c). 

'At Deir Amis there is a large basin of great stones, and a portion of wall wliicli seems 
of Crusading times. At the church there is a drawing like the stone of Aiiit. As the stone 
of Deir Amis is certainly Christian, so must also be that of Aitit.' — Renan, p. 640. 

Here Guerin found numerous ruined houses, a fragment of a column in the interior of a 
small mosque, cut stones scattered over the ground, cisterns cut in the rock, a tank partly 
built and partly rock-cut. On an ancient lintel is carved a double cross in a circle. 

Dhahr es Seiyid (N b). — Heaps of stones and one broken 

Ed Deir (O c). — Heaps of hewn stones of moderate size, several 
lintels and foundations of walls, several cisterns, and a well, containing a 
spring ; probably an early Christian monastery. 

Ed Deir (P c). — A few scattered stones, no walls, a spring near. 

Deir Abu Dei (Ob). — A few foundations and traces of buildings, 
three broken pieces of columns. A stone, with a much-defaced Greek 
inscription, was taken from here to the village, close by, of Deir Dughiya 
(see below), and there placed over the door of the church. 


Deir 'A 1 (N b). — Heaps of unhewn stones, a sarcophagus, and three 

Deir 'Akrab (O b). — Heaps of stones, mostly unhewn, of small 
size, not drafted ; two cisterns. 

Deir Dughiya (N b). — Stone, forming the lintel of the modern 
church of the village ; it is ancient, having been brought from Deir 
Abu Dei. 

[SHEET //.] 



The stone is rudely sculptured. The inscription is too much defaced to be correctly 

A Greek inscription was found in this village in the year iS6o. It was over the door of 
the church of St. George. M. Renan (' Mission,' p. 645) read it as follows : 

"Ayiri [for a.yif\ 'lc:uai>j B/ZTr/ffrjj, //,vyi6Sr}ri . . . Taiiyuyj aiayiuiSzTfo. 
Guerin found here a sarcophagus in terra cotta, recently dug up. At one of the angles were 

0€NHRQirncN CO u eoPn^cl 



' two signs which appear to be emblems of the goddess Astartc.' He does not state what 
these signs were. 

D e i r K a n u n (M a). 

' Here I saw an ancient rock-cut basin, many cut-stones built up in private houses or 
forming the enclosure of gardens and cisterns, and, on the surface of a block lying on the 
ground, figures carved, to the number of five, each in a different fiame. Unfortunately they 
are much mutilated by time and rough usage. The best preserved has the head surmounted 
by the high Egyptian coiffure known under the name of psclicnt, and holds in one hand a 
sort of curved stick.' — Guerin. 

Deir Kan tar (N b). 

' Most of the houses show a mi.xture of old hewn stones and modern materials without 
character. Several tombs, cisterns, a great press, with two compartments, and a rock-cut 
tank point to a period of more or less antiquity.' — Guerin. 

Deir Kila (Ob). 

'Cisterns hollowed in the rock, and cut stones of ancient appearance, show that this 
village has succeeded a more ancient one.' — Guerin. 

Deir e s S u r ian (P b). 

' Cisterns and tanks pxartly cut in the rock and partly built. Hewn stones show that here 
was an ancient village or edifice.' — Guerin. 

El Ghajir (Rb). 

A short distance south of this village is the bridge over the Nahr el Hasbany, called the 
Jisrel Ghajir. It is built with three arches of limestone and basalt. Two ruins are seen, one 


to the north of the bridge, one on the south called respectively Kh. Mei/ch and Kh. Sem- 
bezieh. Not far from this place, in a west-south-west direction, Guerin found a ruined village 
(not placed upon the map), called Kh. Khan ez Ziak el Fokuni, lying on several artificial 
terraces formed on the Wady l^crdarah. Here are the foundations of numerous ruined houses, 
built with limestone or basalt. Cisterns and presses are also seen. 

' Ptolemy mentions the city Gazoras on the east side of the Jordan (cf. Jazar, i Mace. v. 8). 
The village of El Gadschar is -inhabited by Nasariyeh, or so-called Christians, who descended 
from the ancient Nazarcnes.' 

'The Jews of Hasbeya reckon this arm of the river Hasbany or Keroni as the frontier 
of Palestine, for which reason they bury their dead on the opposite side of the stream in the 
village of Abel el Kerum.' — Schwarz, *Das Heilige Land,' 13, 40. 

El Hallusiyeh (N a). 
This village is divided into two — Hallusiyeh el Thata and Hallusiyeh el Foka. The 
only tradition which connects this village with the past is that a wely consecrated to Neby 
Mohammed is said to have succeeded an ancient church. 

H aris (N c). 

' Here there appear to be no vestiges of ancient constructions, except a circular cistern 
cut in the rock. Guerin suggests that it may be the site of the ancient Harosheth.' (Judges 
iv. 2). 

This identification is strengthened by the fact that the same word which occurs in the 
name Kir Haroseth, the modern Kerak, exists in the present local dialect in Moab, under 
the same form, Harith or Maris. 

El H o 1 a (P c). — Several lintels, two wine-presses, and one olive-press. 

Hosn Tibnin (O c). — A square enclosure, with a ruined round 
tower at each angle, used as an outwork to Kiil'at Tibnin ; Arabic work, 
perhaps built by Dhahr el 'Amr when he rebuilt the castle. 

Jennata (Mb). 

'The village contains a number of ruined houses. A little mosque is partly built of 
ancient materials.' — Gut^rin. 

J u w e i y a (N b). — Several lintels at this village. 

K a 1 a w e i (O b). — Ancient remains and some lintels. 

El Kan tar a (P b). 
'The mosque is built of hewn stones of apparent antiquity. Its door is surmounted by a 
lintel belonging to an ancient Christian church, in the midst of which can be made out a cross 
with equal branches enclosed in a circle.' — Guerin. 

El Khalisah (O c). 

Close to the village is a Tell, Guerin says, called Tell El Khalisah, and also known as 
Tell el Wawiyeh. 

Kefrah (N c). 

'Here are broken columns, tombs, presses, cisterns, and a great reservoir cut in the rock. 
Another tank is partly cut in the rock, and partly constructed with regular stones.' — Guerin. 

\_SHEET //.] ARCH.-EOLOGY. 1 1 7 

Kefr Dun in (Ob). 

' Near a little mosque are well-cut stones, the remains of a demolished church, of which 
there also survive fragments of monolithic columns and several broken capitals, strewing the 
soil in several places, and especially near the Sheikh's house.' — Guerin. 

Kefr Kila (O b). 

' The mosque and several of the houses are built of old materials. The spring is partly 
ancient.' — Guerin. 

El Khan (N c). — Foundations of walls, Arabic work ; two cisterns. 

El Khan (O c). — Ruined rectangular building, masonry, small 
arches, pointed groined roof; two springs near. 

K h u r a b e s S e b b a n (O b). — Scattered basaltic stones. 

El K h u r b e h (O a). 

' Here are the lower courses of a rectangular tower built of great blocks, not cemented, 
and, not far from the preseni church, the remains of another, more ancient, of which there 
yet remain some hewn stones, several shafts of monolithic columns, and in one block a cross 
surrounded by a circle.' — Gue'rin. 

Khurbet Abu S i r k i n. — Heaps of imhewn stones, with a few 
cut, of small size, and three cisterns. 

K h. 'Aiya (M c). — Ancient foundations and heaps of stones, well 
dre.ssed ; some cisterns. 

K h. Aridk (O b). — Traces of foundations of walls and heaps of 

K h. el 'A rsa (O b). — Heaps of unhewn stones, and eight or nine 

K h. el 'Azziyeh (Q b). — Foundations of walls and scattered 

K h. B a k e i r a h (O b). — Heaps of stones, with large rocks. 

K h. B a 1 a b i n (M b). — Traces of ruins and two cisterns. 

K h. Berbish (N b). — Heap of ruins forming a mound, with traces 
of walls. 

K h. el Berias (N c). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. 

K h. Berukhei (N b). — Heaps of stones. 
This is the site of an ancient village of considerable importance. Guerin found the cut 
stones belonging to the old buildings jjiled up in heaps to make room for cultivation. There 
are rock-cut cisterns, nearly all half filled up. 

K h. el B i r k e h (P a). — Traces of foundations, scattered masonry ; 


some cisterns, two of which hav^e been cov^cred with domed masonry ; 
traces of subway and a birket. 

K h. Dei r 'A b d u (M c). — Thesite of some ancient place of import- 
ance. Stone door-posts and lintels remain in sitti. A few small columns 
are scattered about the foundations of walls of cfood-sized, well-dressed 
masonry; some cisterns and rock-cut tombs with loculi ; there is also a 
curious large round stone cut out of the rock. The place is probably an 
early Christian site of some importance. 

K h. D e i r She m'li n n (M c). — Not far from the above Kh. Deir 
Abdu. This was also an early Christian site. Good-sized, well-dressed 
stones, with stone door-posts and cisterns. 

Kh. Dhahr es Saghir (R b). — A few walls; basaltic stones 

K h. D u f n a h (R l)). — The site of the ancient Daphne. Mound of 
ruins, with a few basaltic walls. 

Josephus says (' Bell. Jud.' iv. i. i.) : ' The m.nrshes ("of the lake Semechonitis) reach as far 
as Daphne, which in other respects is a delightful place, and hath fountains which supply 
water to what is called Little Jordan, under the Temple of the Golden Calf, where it is 
sent into great Jordan.' The site of either Tell would seem to correspond with that here 

'At the distance of two kilometres south of Tell el Kady rise two other tells, much less 
considerable, both called Tell Defna' (Lieutenant Kitchener writes 'Dufneh'). 'The first of 
the two small tells has, besides the name of Tell Defna, that of Tell Sheikh Dhuri, because a 
santon of this name has his tomb there. Some twenty other tombs of Ghawarineh are here, 
also shaded by a grove of old oaks. A little more to the south the same name of Defnah is 
given to a second hillock. — Gue'rin. 

K h. ed D II rah (N c). — Heaps of small hewn stones, and two 
modern Arab houses. 

K h. el Emir Yahia (P b). — A few scattered unhewn stones 
on summit of terraced hill ; one cistern only. 

K h. H arah (O c). — Heaps of small unhewn stones, with two olive- 
presses and a spring at the ruin. 

K h. el H e i t (O b). — Heaps of basaltic stones. 

K h. el Humeireh (Ob). — ^A few scattered heaps of stones ; 
large rock-cut cistern. 

K h. H u r (M a).— Foundations of walls, and well-dressed, good-sized 


K h. H u r a (R b). — A few ruined Arab huts. 

K h. Iksaf (P b). — Considerable remains of large masonry build- 
ings, and some well-dressed stones. On the east side is a doorway with 
stone doorposts, and near it are the remains of a broken lintel. This 
is evidently an early Christian site, probably of the fifth century. There 
are ten cisterns (rock-cut) and an olive-press. 

Robinson was the first to suggest that this place is the ancient Achshaph of Joshua 
xi. I ; xii. 2 ; xix. 25 ; a city on the border of Asher, whose king is twice mentioned in 
connection with the King of Hazor. Eusebius states that a village called 'Ejaoou; (called by 
Jerome Chasalus) on the plain at the foot of Mount Tabor, is the ancient Achshaph. 

K h. J a m m u 1 (O b). — Foundations of walls and heaps of basaltic 

K h. el Jelameh (N c). —Foundations of walls ; small-sized stones, 
several of them drafted ; lintels and door-posts of stone ; also one wine- 
press, one olive-press, several cisterns, and a birket near. To the north- 
west there are two ruined vineyard-towers ; masonry rough-hewn. 

K h. J ol a (P b). — A few scattered stones. 

K h. J umleh (O b). — Heaps of moderate-sized hewn stones, soine 
fallen columns, several cisterns, and a rock-cut birket ; probably an early 
Christian site. 

K h. Juneijil (O b).— A few cut stones and traces of ruins; site 
now used for burial-ground. 

K h. K e f r N a y (O a). — Ruins and ruined buildings ; stones roughly 
dressed ; modern work. 

K h. el Kuneiseh (P b). — Traces of ruins; rock-cut cistern to 

K h. Kurm el 'A warn id (Mb). — -P'oundations and remains of 
walls ; several large well-dressed stones. 

K h. Kurm el Helu (N b). — Here is an olive-press with stand- 
ing pillars, as on Sheet I. There are also heaps of stones, and traces of 
ruins and a tomb. 

Besides the olive-press, Guerin observed a sarcophagus without its lid, and at its side 
another large and double sarcophagus hollowed out of a simple stone. On one of the ends, 
between two sculptured roses, is a great i^rojection, ajjparently designed to facilitate the car- 
riage of so heavy a mass. 


K h. cl Kuscir (O a). — Heaps of unhewn stones, three olive- 
presses, and four cisterns. 

Rcnan found near this village of El Kuseir, and at a spot called Atabeh (not in the map), 
a door, one-third sunk in the ground, of great stones, jamb and lintel monoliths, and the 
rest of good cut stones. The lintel was 2-09 metres (6 feet 10 inches) long, 0-85 metres 
(2 feet 9 J inches) broad, and 0-45 metre (i foot ^\ inches) thick. The following inscription 
was upon it : 


K h. el Lakeikah (N c). — Heaps of unhewn stones and two 

K h. L u b i e h (P a). — Foundations of walls ; a few well-cut stones. 

•Kh. Luweiziyeh (R b). — Basaltic stones scattered and in rough 


K h. el Mansilrah (O c). — A few foundations and heaps of 
stones, mostly unhewn and of medium size ; one olive-press and many 

K h. el M e n a r a h (R b). — Ruins of a modern Arab village, several 
rock-cut cisterns, and one wine-press. 

K h. el Mezara (R b). — Foundations of walls. 

K h. c 1 M u g h a i r (M b). — A small ruined building, masonry small ; 
heaps of stones and cisterns. 

K h. el Rluseijid (M c). — Ancient foundations and heaps of 

K h. N iha (P b). — Foundations of walls ; some drafted stones scat- 
tered about. 

K h. en Nukheileh (R b). — Heaps of basaltic stones, and two 
or three Arab huts. 

K h. el 'Ozeiziyat (R b). — Heaps of basaltic stones. 

K h. Raj (P a). — Foundations and piles of loose stones, eight rock- 
cut cisterns ; ancient site. 

' An immense heap of ruins lies upon a plateau. They consist of well-cut stones, for the 
most part of large dimensions, coming from ruined houses. A few foundations are here and 
there visible.' — Guerin. 

K h, R ii e i h i n e h (O b). — Scattered stones. 

{SHEET 11. \ ARCHEOLOGY. ■ 121 

K h. c s S a n b a r i y e h (O b).— A few ruined Arab houses. 

K h. e s S e h b u g h i y e h (O b).— A few scattered stones on a 
terraced hill, one wine-press near, and an ohve-press quarter of mile to the 
west. The stones are not dressed. 

K h. S e 1 c m ((3 b). — South of the village there is a level area of rock, 
in the middle of which one column is standing. Another column and 
two or three pedestals form part of a wall on the west. There are no 
capitals. This was probably a Christian church. The columns are not 

well dressed. 

' In the middle of the ravine there stands a rocky islet, rising by terraces from south to 
north, oblong and narrow ; it serves as the site of a village called Kh. Selem. Here are 
found the remains of an ancient church, such as cut stones, shafts more or less broken, and a 
circular baptismal font. Here I also saw several Greek crosses engraved on lintels of doors, 
cisterns, presses cut in the rock, and even some houses still standing which may be older 
than the Mussulman invasion.' — Gue'rin. 

K h. Shaghury (M b). — Heaps of stones and two pieces of 

K h. S u k Li r (O b). — P^oundation of walls, basaltic stones, and three 

K h. T a 1 h a h (O b). — Traces of foundation of walls of basalt stone. 

K h. Tell en N a a m (O b). — Scattered remains. 

K h. e t T u r b e h (O a). — A few foundations, and some cut stones 
lying about. There are two rock-cut cisterns. 

K h. T 11 r r i t h a (O b). — Large heaps of basaltic stones. 

K h. Umm el 'A m u d (M b). — Heaps of well-hewn stones, and 
many rock-cut cisterns ; pieces of semi-detached pillars ; tesselated pave- 
ment ; a great number of olive-presses and lintels. The masonry is medium 
size ; this is probably an early Christian site, with a church. 

Kh. Umm el 'Amiid is called by Sepp 'Umm el Amad.' The longer Phcenician inscrip- 
tion is thus rendered by him : ' To Adon Baalshaniaim dedicates Abdelini, son of Mattan, 
son of Baal Schomer (Ben Sagla), as a tribute this door and the double wing of the Baaltis : 
I who alone built i So high places to Adon Milkom, 243 cisterns for the people of Tyre, I'or 
my memory and good name. For the healed leg of my father may Baalschamaim bless me 
for ever.' ' \\'e see here,' says he, 'a high-altar with columns, as the Semitic people raised 
their Banwt/i, beneath the open sky.' 

To the east of Kh. Umm el 'Anuid runs north-west and south-east the Wady el Mughair 
(N b), a valley ' whose side is a great face of rock full of chambers, whose presence is betrayed 

VOL. I. 16 



by numerous square openings like the holes of a dovecot. Within these are stages, and one 
can mount to the higher chambers by internal staircases. Without exaggeration it may be 
said that there are three or four hundred such chambers. Opposite, other grottoes of the 
same kind.' — Renan, p. 641. 

K h. el Y a d h u n (N c). — Two olive-presses, heaps of small masonry, 
one small birket of masonry, and many cisterns. 

K h. 0.7. Z a b i b (O b). — Foundations of walls and heaps of stones. 

K h. Z II k el H aj (O b). — Foundations of walls built with basaltic 

K ii 1 d t e d D u b b e h (P c). — There arc here the foundations of a 
Crusading castle, on which a Saracenic tower has been erected. The 
castle was of small size, and surrounded by a moat. Situated on a steep 
and narrow spur running into the great Wady Selukieh, it protected the 
northern road that led up that valley, and also made a connecting link 
between Himin and Tibnin. It was probably built at the same time as 
the latter fortress by Hugues de Saint Omer, Prince of Tiberias, about the 
year 1 104 a.d. The special plan gi\'es the general plan and arrangements 
of the castle, which was rebuilt by the Saracens to act both as a khan 
and a castle. The masonry is small but good and regular, the arches are 
all pointed, and the work appears to be of the same date as the Khans 
at Minia and Jubb Yusef, along the Damascus road. Some large drafted 
stones built into the walls show the Crusading origin of the castle, and 
bear a striking resemblance to the remains of that date at Tibuin. 

There is a rock-cut birkeh near, and betwe(Mi eight and ten rock-cut 
cisterns for water. There are also six sarcophagi cut in the rock. 

The casde has a romantic and beautiful appearance, as it is not visible 
till quite close, on account of the high ground all round. 

Ruin S.W. of Kulat ed Dubbeh (Pc). — Here are heaps of 
stones roughly hewn, with portions of walls, the stones of which are all 
small sized. 

Kulat el Kott or Shukif el Kott (P b). — A rocky peak, 
without ruins. 

Kulat Hunin (Pb). — This castle was situated in an indentation 
in the hills overhanging the plain of the Jordan Valley, and defended 
the communications from Tyre to Banias. It is difficult to trace any 




history of the place in Crusading times, though it was apparently 
then known as Chateau Neuf, and was probably built about the same 
time as Toron. The castle consists of a large courtyard surrounded by 

walls, defended with towers. On 
the eastern side there was a place 
(faiiiu's, overhanging the steep de- 
scent of the hill. The whole of 
the northern portion was taken up 
by a square citadel, surrounded by 
a rock-cut ditch of considerable 
dimensions, and showing excellent 
workmanship. The older portion 
of the masonry shows stones with 
marsfinal drafts and rough bases. 
The citadel was reached by means of 
a drawbridge communicating with 
the courtyard. The castle has been 
very much destroyed since the solid 
masonry of the Crusaders. It has 
since been repaired by Saracenic 
workmen, and their work is also 
ruined and mixed up with the origi- 
nal work. The entrance to the castle 
was on the west, as at Tibnin. A 
paved roadway led along the front 
'—^-'''^ ■ ' of the fortifications, exposed to all 

the fire of the ramparts before it reached the postern. Should this be 
forced, the garrison could retire to the citadel, remove the drawbridge, 
and hold out still against their enemies. 

The ruin of the modern work was effected by the earthquake of January, 1S37, since when 
no part of the castle has been habitable. With regard to the marginal drafted stones, Robinson 
says ('Eiblical Researches,' 1S52): 

' In the northern portion no remains of antiquity are visible except a few small bevelled 
stones on the eastern side, and also near the Turkish portal in the south side. Here is a 
bevelled stone of larger dimensions, A few other bevelled stones are found indifferent parts, 
and some are built into the walls of the houses of the village. In the village, outside of the 
later fortress, is a fine ancient ]jortal, nearly complete, built of large bevelled stones still in 
their place, with grooves for the doors ; it is the finest fragment among all the remains. A 



peculiar feature of this ruin consists in several pieces of ancient wall built of unhewn stones, 
that is, of stones broken to a smooth face, but not squared, and laid up in this rude, 
irregular manner. Such fragments of wall are found in several parts of the fortress.' 

Hunin, according to the same authority, is the ancient Beth Rehob, or Rehob (Numbers 
xiii. 21 ; Judges xviii. 28; 2 Sam. x. 6, 8). The Danites came to Laish 'that is by "Beth 
Rehob.' Now Laish is identified with the modern Tell el Kady (see sub rwc), which is 
close by. Also the spies searched the land ' unto Rehob, as men come to Hamath.' Now 
the direct way to Hamath lies through the Wady et Teim. 

Thomson, on the other hand, inclines to the belief that Banias is Beth Rehob. 

' Two-and-a-half hours' journey to the north of Kades lies the celebrated Hunin ; on our 
way, one of the Haroseth Haggoim, or Gentile cities, from which in Christ a great light shall 
spring up (Matt. iv. 15), Hunin lies 2,500 feet above the level of the sea : it is the ancient 
capital of Jabin, the Hanana of the "Notitia dignitatum," where the "equites sagitarii indigenre" 
lay (Reland, 230), and proves itself by its foundation of unhewn masonry one of the oldest 
works built by human hands.' — Sepp. 

Jabin, King of Hazor, sent to the Kings of Madon (Meidun), Shimron (Semireh), and 
Achsaf (Iksaf). 

Kiilat Marun (Ob). — A ruined Saracenic castle, built by Dhahr 
el 'Amr, of rectangular form, with round-towers at each angle, and at 
intervals along the north and south walls. A considerable portion of 
the walls are still standing ; the masonry is all small, with pointed 
arches. There are no signs of the castle having been built on earlier 

The castle is situated on the road from Tyre to Banias, on commanding 

Kulat Subeibeh, or Kulat N i m r u d (R b). — The Crusading 
castle of Banias. This castle was situated on the crest of a narrow 
rocky ridge with deep valleys on the northern and southern sides. It is 
one of the largest and best preserved ruins of the sort in the country. 
The castle was long and narrow, in order to suit the ground on which 
it was placed, and the general slope down was from east to west. The 
east, being the highest end, was chosen for the citadel, which was very 
strongly built : several rooms and vaults of the citadel still survive almost 
perfect. The rock was allowed to remain in its natural state, rising 
above the towers and walls that protected the castle. 

At the west end there was also a citadel and several small towers and 
barracks, with large cisterns. In this portion some very large stones were 
used, measuring as much as 8 to 10 feet long by 4' by 3 feet. These are 
perfectly dressed, and are drafted, sometimes with a double draft on a 


single stone measuring 5" and 7" or 6" and 7" each. This was certainly 
magnificent ashlar-work, but from the key-stone of an arch of this 
masonry there is no doubt the pointed arch was used. There is also a 
pointed arched passage and some vaulted roofed chambers under this 

The round towers that protected the walls were built of smaller drafted 
masonry, with numbers of masons' marks. The larger masonry had 
none. This masonry is well fitted, and, though smaller than the great 
blocks of the west end, is very fine work. It probably belongs 
to Crusading times, and the towers are made with broad and deep 
loopholes on the inside, with pointed arches, like the loopholes at 

The eastern keep also appears to be Crusading work. The masonry 
is not drafted in inside work, or in walls sheltered by other walls ; and this 
rule was also observable at Belfort and Tibnin. 

There are the foundations of a small square building in the centre of 
the northern side, with remains of five small columns. This may have 
been the ancient chapel of the castle. 

The only entrance to the castle is by a narrow and steep path that 
leads along the southern side of the castle. It enters a square tower by a 
Crusading gateway, which opens on to the rocky terreplein of the castle. 
The barracks and western towers flank this entrance. 

The eastern keep is separated from the rest of the castle by a rocky 
ditch, and is very strongly built, two square towers probably guarding a 
drawbridge. There are cisterns inside the keep, and many chambers of 
that portion are still perfect. 

In the ' Quarterly Statement ' (1S77, p. 173), Lieut. Kitchener, writing on the spot, says : 
'The castle of Banias, Kul'at es Subeibeh, is situated on a lofty spur 1^ miles east of 
the town, and towers nearly 1,500 feet above it. It is the finest ruined castle I have seen 
in the country, measuring 1,450 feet from east to west, by an average of 360 feet north and 
south. Deep valleys defend it on the north and south ; on the west there is a rock-cut 
ditch, and the end of the spur falls steeply away from it ; on the east, the only approachable 
side, it is difficult of access, as the rocks rise steeply from the narrow ridge to the castle. 
The walls are defended by round towers, and are built of drafted stones with the bosses left 
rough, having a good many masons' marks. There seems to have been an earlier tower at 
the north-west angle, built of much larger stones, with the faces hammer-dressed, and without 
masons' marks. Some of the stones are double drafted ; in this portion there are the re- 
mains of an undoubted pointed arch, thus limiting the date of the most ancient portion.' 

i\ 1 


J — *<. 











The following is Robinson's account of this fortress (' Bibhcal Researches,' pp. 402—440) : 

' Leaving Hazury we descended to the deep saddle between it and the castle ; and, climb- 
ing a very steep and difficult ascent to the latter, we kept along the southern wall, and 
reached, at 1.50, the only entrance, through one of the southern towers. Here we found 
ourselves within the most extensive and best preserved ancient fortress in the whole country. 
It stands upon the eastern and highest point of the thin ridge sliced off, as it were, from the 
flank of Jebel esh Sheikh by the Wady Khushabeh ; and which is connected only with the 
ridge of Hazury towards the east-south-east by the saddle just mentioned. The castle covers 
this high thin point, and follows its irregularities. We estimated its length from east to west 
at 800 or 1000 feet ; its breadth at each end being about 200 feet ; while in the middle it is 
only from one half to two thirds as broad. The direction of the ridge is from east-north-east 
to west-south-west. 

' The interior of the fortress is an uneven area of four or five acres. In some parts the 
rock still rises higher than the walls, in others the ground was now ploughed and planted 
with tobacco and other vegetables. Here are also several houses, forming a small village. 
The fortress was dependent for water wholly on its cisterns. One of these, in the open 
area near the western end, is of immense size ; and even now contained much water. Others 
are found in different parts. Besides these, there exists a large reservoir outside of the 
castle in the saddle below the eastern end. 

' The western and lower end of the fortress, which overlooks the whole region below, 
exhibits in some parts specimens of the heaviest and finest work. At the north-west corner 
especially, large stones lie scattered, which are six or eight feet in length, finely wrought, and 
bevelled. Several of the towers along the southern wall are in like manner finished with 
superior bevelled work. In particular, one round tower, with fine sloping work below, 
presents a finished bevel at least not inferior to that of the tower Hippicus at Jerusalem. 

' The eastern end of tlie ridge is the highest ; and this was taken advantage of to form 
an upper citadel commanding the rest of the castle. It is separated from the lower western 
portion by a regular interior cross-wall, with towers and trench ; and is without entrance or 
approach, except through the lower fortress. Here, more than anywhere, the beetling 
towers and ramparts impend over the northern precipice, and look down into the chasm of 
AVady Khiishabeh 600 or 700 feet below. Within this citadel are the loftiest and strongest 
towers ; and this portion is the best preserved of all. Not less than one-third of it is ancient 
bevelled work, exhibiting a better and more finished bevel than is perhaps elsewhere found 
out of Jerusalem. 

' The Saracens and Crusaders made no additions to the fortress. They did nothing in the 
citadel, but patch up a few portions of it, where this was necessary for defence, leaving all 
the rest as they found it. Their repairs are everywhere quite distinct and visible. Nor did 
they do much more in the lower or western part. Yet there are quite a number of Arabic 
inscriptions, mostly dated about a.h. 625, equivalent to a.d. 1227, recounting that such and 
such a prince, with a long pedigree, built up this or that tower at a certain time. 

' There are numerous subterranean rooms, vaults, passages, and the like, which we did 
not visit. At the western end is a stairway cut in the rock, descending at an angle of forty- 
five or fifty degrees. This my companion had formerly entered for a few steps, and found it 
choked up with rubbish. Popular belief, nevertheless, regards it as extending down to the 
fountain of Banias. 

'The fortress is not less than 1000 feet or more above the town of Banias, and is, there- 
fore, about equal in elevation to the Kul'at esh Shukif, which towers in full view over 


against it. The prospect over the Ilulch and the mountains opposite is magnificent, though 

' The whole fortress made upon us a deep impression of antiquity and strength ; and of the 
immense amount of labour and expense employed in its construction. It has come down to 
us as one of the most perfect specimens of the military architecture of the Phoenicians, or 
possibly of the SyroGrecians ; and whoever will make himself acquainted with the resources 
and the prowess of those ancient nations, must not fail to study the ruins of this noble fortress. 

'Situated more than two miles distant from Banicis, the castle could never have been 
built for the protection of that place; and is not improbably older than the city. It was 
doubtless erected in order to command the great road leading over from the Huleh into the 
plain of Damascus. It may have been a border fortress of the Sidonians, to whom this 
region early belonged. 

' The fortress is now ordinarily known to travellers as the castle of Baniiis ; but such is not 
its specific name. Arabian writers speak of it as the Kul'at es Subeibeh; but it is rarely 
mentioned by them, and mostly in connection with the neighbouring city.' 

The history of this place before the time of the Latin kingdom is entirely unknown. It 
is always spoken of as Subeibeh in the histories of the period. Long Arabic inscriptions 
exist in the south-east part of the castle which have never been collected. Dr. Socin read 
some of them in 1S72. He says : 'So far as I could decipher the inscriptions, they reached 
back to the beginning of the thirteenth century, and probably have reference to the thorough 
restoration of the castle.' As the situation commands the pass from the Huleh and the 
plains of the Jordan over Hermon to Damascus and the East, it must always have been of 

Thomson suggests that it is the Baal Hermon of Judges iii. 3, and i Chron. v. 23, arguing 
that Baal-Hermon was on the south side of the great mountain, and that there is no other 
point in the whole region so important or so conspicuous as this. It is greatly to be wished 
that excavations could be made here. 

On the inscriptions in the castle Captain Newbolt ('Journal Asiat. Soc.,' vol. xvi. p. 27) 
writes : 

' I found two or three Arabic inscriptions with the name of Saladin's son, " Sultan el 
Melek ed Dhahir." 

' The name of Baber occurs also on a fragment of marble in the interior. On the south- 
east angle is a square stone with an inscription bearing the date a.h. 625.' 

The Jews seek here the grave of Iddo the seer (II. Chron. ix. 29; xii. 15; xiii. 22). 
They also take a domed ' wely ' on the mountain to the north of the town, called Meshed 
et Ter, for the place where Abraham received the promise that his seed should be more 
numerous than the stars of heaven, and where he offered up his sacrifice (Genesis xv.). 

Kill at esh Shukif (Crusading castle of Belfort) (Pa). — The 
castle was situated on the top of a narrow rocky ridge which descends 
precipitously over 1000 feet on the east to the River Litany. It is a little 
over two miles from the curious bend at right angles in that river which 
takes the stream to the Mediterranean instead of the Dead Sea. On the 
west the slope is also steep for a short distance, until it reaches the small 
plain on which the village of Arnun is situated. From the village the 

Mm*M v:m 


[_SHEET II.'] 



castle took its name In Arabic histories. It is called the Kul'at esh 
Shukif Arnun. 

On the top of the ridge to the south of the castle there is a small 
plateau, which appears to have been levelled artificially. This was pro- 
bably the site of the town of Beaufort ; and the Templars appear to 
have built an outwork at the southern extremity in 1260, when they 

iCALC ih 



■ ) 



; > 




acquired the place by purchase. It was, however, destroyed in 1268 by 
the Sultan el Melek ed Dhahir Bibars. A few foundations of this building 
are still traceable. 

The form of the castle itself was determined by the site ; 
it is long and narrow, and is formed of two portions : the 
lower portion on the east, on a terrace of rock overhanging 
the precipice ; the upper portion on the top of the ridge, 
which is cut to receive it, forming a citadel. 

The southern and western fronts are protected by deep 
ditches cut in the rock. The rocky scarp sustaining the 
upper portion or citadel was riveted with blocks of cut 
stones. The walls were massive, and built of drafted stones. 

The remains are now mixed up with Arabic work built by the Emir 
VOL. I. 17 




sCAic lis 

An inzeripfion on j metal plafs 
oppeen to have tsen herv 

Fakhr ed Din in the seventeenth century, when that prince rebelled 
aijainst the Sultan, and tried to hold the castle against the forces of 
the Pashas of Acre and Damascus. 

The entrance was to the south, facing the jilateau on which the 
village was situated. It led inio the lower court of the castle. l'"roin 
this court a narrow ascent cut out of the rock had to be followed, 
entirely commanded by the upper-works, which led to a gate at the 

southern portion of the castle. On 
passing this gate, an entrance is 
effected to the place (fanucs,\^\nc\\ 
runs round the southern end of the 
castle, and to which the two round 
towers at that end belong. Another 
gateway from this place d'ari/ics had 
then to be forced, which led, by 
means of a long vaulted chamber, 
to the upper fortress. 

The entrance at present used to 
the casde is over the ruins of 
Crusading and Arabic work in a 
northerly direction from the lower 
courtyard, and then up a winding 
staircase to the upper platform in the north-eastern angle of the fortress. 

In this portion there are 
many vaults and chambers 
in a fair state of preserva- 
tion, showing Crusading 
work. These are comprised 
In an irregular shaped tower 
that forms the defence of the 
northern side. 

On the western side of 
the upper platform there is 
a square keep of massive 
masonry. The doorway was 
covered bv a lintel. The remains of a vaulted roof and staircase in the 

DOORW/>y AT N . E. ANGUf, H. 

ic*Li: eh 

An inscription on a metal pfa,o 

appears to have been let in here. 

re' • 







hiUl Ca.'.th- rf Bflfvrt. 

StnixfoT'd-^ Gfcg^ r-Ft-ih^ Lomicn 

\_SHEET I/.'] 


thickness of the wall are to be seen in the interior. The whole keep is 
very much ruined, and was probably a lofty and imposing tower. 

Opposite to the keep, on the eastern side of the upper platform, and 
overhanging the lower court, is a building of later construction. It is a 
vaulted chamber, divided in two. The doorway is groined, and the vault- 
ing is accentuated with care 

There are three windows, two looking to the 




— v 



"-• c 

east, and the third over the platform of the castle. The building seems to 
have been built hurriedly after the rest of the castle, as some of the stones 
are dressed with more care than others, and seem to have been taken from 
more ancient buildings. From the ornamentation it appears to date from 
the second portion of the thirteenth century. It is called El Keniseh 
(the church) by the natives ; but it seems hardly ever to have been used 
for such a purpose, and was more probably a great hall of audience. 

The Arabic historian Muhammed 'Ezz ed Din Ibn Sheddad tells that 
the Kul'at esh Shukif was taken by Fulke, King of Jerusalem, in 1139. 
At that time it was in the possession of the Emir Shehiib ed Din. It was 
given to the Lord of Sidon, and was rebuilt by him, and from that time 
the title was Lord of Sidon and Beaufort. 

It is difficult to fix the date of the remains of this castle, but they appear 
to date from the early part of the second portion of the twelfth century. 



Ill ihc year i 192 Saladin besieged this castle, and as the siege seenicil 
likely to be long, and success was uncertain, he resorted to a ruse. Couin 
Raynold of Sidon was defending the fortress, when Saladin demantled an 
interview, sending his ring as a guarantee of safe conduct. Ow his 
arriving in the Sultan's quarters he was seized and put in irons. As he 
would not deliver up the fortress, he was taken out in front of the walls 
and tortured in the presence of the defenders ; Init, instead of counselling 
them to surrender, he ordered thcni to hold out to the last. Eventually 
Raynold was sent in irons to Damascus, where he was kept prisoner. 
After two years of siege and famine the defenders of Belfort capitulated, 
on condition that their lives should be spared, and that Count Raynold 
should be set at liberty. 

In 1240 a treaty formed with Saleh Ishmael, Prince of Damascus, gave 
back Belfort to the Crusaders. On this occasion the Mohammedan 
soldiers would not obey their prince's orders, and he had to come from 
Damascus and besiege the place, and, having reduced it, he gave it up to 
the Lord of Sidon. It was then rebuilt, and shortly afterwards sold to the 
Knights Templars. 

The castle was taken by the Sultan Bibars on the 26th April, 1268. 

Robinson's account of this fortress is as follows ('Biblical Researches,' p. 51) : 
' We now entered the fortress. The main approach is from the south ; and here was a 
fine reservoir for water, in connection with the moat. This latter was cut in the solid rock 
along the western side and southern end of the castle ; the other quarters being in themselves 
inaccessible. The crest of the ridge is very narrow ; and the castle occupies its whole 
breadth, and more. The approach was by a drawbridge on the south ; and was then carried 
along upon a lower ledge on the east, thirty feet or more below the main body of the fortress. 
Here are the remains of buildings, perhaps stables, erected by the Crusaders, on what would 
seem to have been earlier platforms or abutments resting on lower projecting rocks. Near 
the north- east corner, massive erections lean upon the upper castle ; and through these was 
the main entrance. The whole approach, therefore, was perfectly commanded by the castle. 
The surface of the declivity between the lower ledge and the upper castle, where not of itself 
so steep and smooth as to be inaccessible, is covered with fine sloping masonry. This was 
now gay with a profusion of anemones. 

'The form of the castle was controlled by the ground on which it stands. It is, there- 
fore, long and very narrow ; the length being greatly disproportioned to the breadth. The 
eastern side seems to have been chiefly built up by the Crusaders ; with the exception of the 
sloping work outside. Here, about the middle, is the Latin chapel, with groined ceilings, 
and a fine Gothic portal opening into the inner court. But along the whole western side, 
including the corners on the north and the south-west, it needs but a glance to perceive, that 
this whole portion belongs to a period far earlier than the Crusades. This part still forms 
the main body of the building ; and e.\hibits very few traces of the work of the middle ages. 

[sheet II.'] 


It is built throughout with bevelled stones ; not large stones like those at Jerusalem, nor with 
a bevel so regular as is found even in the tower of Hippicus ; but yet of tlie same general 
character, left rough in the middle and coarser. The stone is also softer, and consequently 
more weather-worn. There are here several square projecting towers, with substructions 
sloping upwards from the moat, which maybe said to be v\mo%\. fac-siDiiles of Hippicus. On 
the south-west is a round corner tower, having also its round sloijing substructions ; the 
w^hole producinc; a fine effect. East of this was a small pjortal, having a round arch of 
stones hewn smooth and fully bevelled, presenting an ornamental appearance. 

' Tlie walls are very solid and lofty, rising sixty or eighty feet above the trench. The 
length is given at about Soo feet ; the breadth is variable, but nowhere exceeds 300 feet. 
The repairs of the Crusaders are everywhere easily to be distinguished ; they have a character 
totally different from the rest. This great fortress is now wholly deserted and in ruins ; and 
its vaulted stables and princely halls serve only as a shelter for the goatherd and his ilocks. 

'Although there can be no doubt that this fortress existed long before the time of the 
Crusades, yet I am not aware of any historical notice respecting it earlier than the twelfth 
century. Perhaps some notice of the kind may yet be discovered, to fix the date ; but at 
any rate it cannot be latei than the times of the Byzantine or Roman dominion in Syria ; if 
not indeed earlier. Here was always an important pass from Sidon towards the East. The 
Sidonians early had possession of the country around Banias and of the plain of the Huleh, 
which Josephus speaks of as " the great plain of Sidon ;" and their only direct access to that 
region, the only point where they could well cross the Litany to reach Merj 'Ayun and the 
Hiileli, was by this pass. Here, too, is still found the easiest of the great roads from Sidon 

to Damascus, avoiding entirely 
the steeps and the rough 
places of Lebanon. That in 
the prosperous times of Phe- 
nician commerce, there should 
not here have been a fortress 
commanding this important 
pass, can hardly be supposed.' 

K u 1 a t T i b n i n 
(the Crtisading castle of 
Toron) (Oc). — This 
castle was situated on a 
small round hill to the 
north-east of the villaee 
of Tibnin. The hill 
itself is on a ridge, which 
is separated on the north 
and south from the sur- 




deep valleys with steep 


Thus the castle stands at a crood elevation above the surrounding 

o o 



countr)', and would command the country as far north as llic. RI\cr 
Kasimiyeh, and protect the country between Safed and Tyre from incur- 
sions, besides protecting the roads from Tiberias and Banias to Tyre. 
From it a view is obtained of Kul'at esh Shul<if 

The casde was founded by Hugh de Saint-Omcr, Lord of Tiberias, 
about the year 1 104 a. d., and was called Toron, from the old I'rench word, 
meaning a small isolated hill. 

After the death of Hugh de Saint-Omer, the castle was given to a 
knight who assumed the name of the fortress. Humphrey de Toron, 
the Seigneur of the place, in 1151 was raised to the rank of Constable 
by Baldwin HI.; his grandson, also Humphrey de Toron, married the 
sister of Baldwin I\'., and was made prisoner at the battle of Hattin. 

The castle was taken by Saladin immediately after the battle of 
Hattin, in 1187. It served the Saracens as a place of vantage whence 
to annoy the Christians. Two years later, therefore, an attempt was 
made to retake the place, by the help of a host of pilgrims and Crusaders, 
chiellv from Germany. This attempt ended in disastrous failure and 
flio-ht of the besieged. It was dismantled by the Sultan Mu'adh-dhcm 
in 1 2 19. In 1229 it was rebuilt, and became a cause of dispute amongst 
the Teutonic knights and the heirs of Philip de Montfort, who by his 
marriao-e had obtained the rights of lordship over the castle. 

The Emperor 
Frederic II. gave 
Toron, which was 
then designated 
Turo-Militum, to 
Eleonore de Mont- 
fort, and gave the 
Teutonic knights, 
in compensation 
for their rights, a 
yearly revenue of 
/Ooobesants, levied 
on the dues of the port of St. Jean d'Acre. 
The castle was rebuilt by Dhaher el Omer during his revolt, and the 
principal portions of the present ruins are of his time. 



<* SV»- 





The form of the castle was arranged to fit the top of the hill on which 
it was placed, and is roughly circular, with round and square towers to 
flank the sides. The lower portions of the masonry of these towers show 
large Crusading heavy drafted stones, and in some parts the same style 
without draft. The slopes of the hill were faced with smooth-dressed 
stones as at Belfort, but not at quite so steep an angle. 

The interior is principally taken up with ruins. On the west, how- 
ever, there are some buildings of Dhaher el Omer's time, which still form 
the residence of the Mudir of the Belad el Besharah, and though falling 
into ruins, show that it was built in good Arabic style. To the south 
of these there are some Crusading vaults and stables, probably dating from 
the thirteenth century. On the eastern side there are the foundations of 
some Crusading walls with drafted stones, six feet thick ; they form an 
irregular rectangular space. 

A paved road leads along the south-western side, and then bends round 
to the gate of the castle. 

The castle appears to have been built on the foundations of the 
Crusading structure, and the plan of the present remains coincides very 
nearly with the original structure. 

El Kuneiseh (Q b). — Foundationsof walls; well-cut stones ; about 
three feet of wall of one building is standing, it is about twelve feet square, 
and contains a sarcophagus in the centre. 

El K u s e i r (O b). — There are three caves and a lintel now in use 
in the village, with a Greek inscription. There are remains of vaults, and 
the modern houses are built of ancient materials ; several rock-cut cisterns. 

El K u s r. — (N c). A ruined building of small masonry, much worn, 
and one cistern ; a watch tower. 

El K u s r. — (O c). Ditto, ditto, with two cisterns. 

El K u s r, R. south of — Two ruined watch-towers; rough 

K u s r el J u r a h (N c). — A small square building of rough masonry, 
ruined ; probably a vineyard watch-tower. 

Mahruneh (N b). 
' Here are traces of a surrounding wall, ancient materials, a tomb cut in the rock, and a 
quarry, a part of which has been formed into a tank.' — Guerin. 


M'arakah (M b). 

' Here are uprights and lintels of doors with cut stones, apparently ancient ; and in a small 
mosque, built of regular blocks probably taken from an old church, arc several fragments of 
monolithic columns.' — Gut^rin. 

M a r u n (O b). 
Here Gucrin found cut stones and a small Corinthian capital in -white maiblc built up in 
the wall of a private house. 

i\I a r n a b a h (O a). — Two stone houses, built of well-dressed stones. 

M e i s (Pc). — Ancient remains ; one olive-press and two sarcophagi on 
east side. 

M ej d e 1 I s 1 i m (P b). — Village containing several good lintels and 

remains of ruins ; an ancient road leads from the village to the Birkeh. 

'A mosque, now abandoned and falling into ruins, has succeeded here a Byzantine church, 
the materials of which have been used in building it. Over one of the windows is a stone 
(apparently once the lintel) with an old Greek inscription, the characters of which are too much 
defaced to be read. A monolithic column lies beside it, half buried in the ground, surmounted 
by a capital elegantly sculptured in form of open basket work.' — Guerin. 

]Merkebeh (P b). — A village containing the remains of an early 
Christian church ; two Corinthian capitals, several broken columns of 
different sizes, lintels, and some large well-dressed stones scattered about 
the village. Here is a Greek inscription on a stone, and a cross on 
another stone : 

There is a wine-press, rock-cut cisterns, and a dolmen near this village. 

' Here a mosque replaces a more ancient sanctuary, temple, or church, to which belonged 
several fragments of monolithic columns, and good hewn stones scattered about in the village, 
or built up in the farm-buildings. About twenty rock-cut cisterns and a sarcophagus also go 
to prove that this was a place of some importance.' — Guerin. 

jNIezrah (N c). — There are ruined houses, lintels of well-dressed 
stone, and some cisterns in this village. 

' In the Wady Ashur, west of Mezrah, may be seen the most important rock sculpture in 
the whole of the country round Tyre. It is a cdla or niche cut in the rock, below a great 
cavern cut out of the wall of the valley. The end of the niche is entirely occupied by a 
carving, which has an Egyptian appearance. The head-dresses especially of the princip.d 
personage, who is represented sitting, are quite those of Egypt, and greatly resemble the 
pschent. Like all these Egypto-Phcenician sculptures, that of the ^Vady Ashur has the 
winged globe. The whole greatly resembles the Egyptian door of Umm el Awamid. Unfor- 
tunately the carving is in a very bad state. It has for centuries served as a mark for the 
Metawileh who traverse the valley, and in hatred of idolatry, think they must fire a shot at 
it.' — Renan, 'Mission,' p. 640. 



Guerin also saw it, and describes it with a little more detail : 

' About 250 feet above the northern bed of the torrent, I came upon a square niche cut 
in the rock, and measuring 31^ inches in height and breadth, and 23^ inches in depth : it 
is surrounded by several frames, so to spea'.c, all square, and retreating one behind the other. 
At tiie end of this niche are sculptured five personages, four upright and one seated. The 
last seems to be a divinity, before whom those who are upright pay homage with raised 
hands. These upright figures consist of two men, with the Egyptian /jv/^ev// for headdress, 
and clothed in a short robe, which does not come below the knee, and two women, bare- 
headed, who wear a somewhat longer dress. Above these five figures, which are now much 
mutilated, is represented a winged globe, whose wings occupy the whole breadth of the niche. 
We have, therefore, here an Egyptian bas-relief, the date of which cannot, unfortunately, be 
fixed, because the hieroglyphics which accompanied it are entirely efficed.' 

M u j e i d i 1 (N b). 

Guerin suggests that this is the Migdal-el of Joshua xix. 38. It was one of the strong 
places of the tribe of Naphthali. Here are seen at this day several great wine-presses, each 
composed of two conapartments cut in the rock. One of these presses was lined within by 
small square cubes, making a mosaic. Here are also fine rock-cut tombs, some containing 
sarcophagi covered with arched arcosolia and other loculi destined for sarcophagi ; and there 
are other tombs hollowed like simple graves, and covered by heavy blocks more or less 
squared. There are several broken sarcophagi, and especially a great piece of rock cut so as to 
form a double .sarcophagus, the sides of which are sculptured carefully, and ornamented with 
garlands, discs, trees, rose-work, and a beautiful garland supported in the centre by little 
columns. There are cisterns and two tanks, one square and the other circular, probably the 
work of the most ancient people who came to live in this place.' 

Neby es S i d di k (ruins at) (O c). — A small square ruined 
building north of Kfilat Tibnin, probably used as an outwork like Hosn 

En Neffakhiyeh (Ob). 

About two thirds of a mile due north of this village (which appears to present no traces 
of antiquity) Guerin found an ancient site called Kh. Budayeh. The ruins consist of three 
fragments of monolithic columns with their bases, cisterns, a tank, and a tomb cut in the rock 
with nine loculi, three at each side and three at the end. 

N i h a (O b). — Large well-dressed stones scattered about the village, 
and rock-cut cisterns ; probably a Crusading village. 

'O d e i t h a el F 6 k a (P b). — A ruined Saracenic building with one 

Guerin describes it as an elevated plateau crowned with the ruins of a small fort of 
rectangular form, measuring forty paces long by thirty broad. It is in rubble work, with an 
external casing of regular stones of small size, and is divided in the interior into several 

'O d e i t h a e t T a h t a (P b).— Cisterns and several lintels. 
VOL. I. 18 


Reshkananin (X c).— The rocks to the west of the vilkic^c are 
cut into wine-presses, cisterns, etc. ; probably an ancient place. 
R u h b T h c 1 a thin (O c). — Several lintels and cisterns. 

Sari fa (O b)- 

Here Gucrin found an ancient column and a few cut stones, proving that the place was 
an ancient site. 

Seiyid H 1 1 d a Ibn Y;\kub (Re). 

The name of this place is given by Thomson as Seid Yehdda, the ' Lord Judah.' He 
s.iys ('The Land and the Book,' p. 254), 'Who was this Lord Judah — for such is the 
signification of the name — and what place is this ? That it marks some very ancient site is 
unquestionable; and I believe it is that "Judah on Jordan, toward the sun-rising," which 
Joshua (xix. 34) mentions as the extreme north-eastern point in the boundary of Naphtali. 
If this identification be correct, it solves one of the greatest geographical puzzles in the Bible. 
It always seemed to be impossible that the border of Naphtali could touch that of Judah 
anywhere, certainly not "upon Jordan toward the sun-rising." But here we have an im- 
portant ancient site called Judah, on tJiis most eastern branch of the Jordan, at a point which 
must have marked the utmost border of this tribe eastward, if we admit that it came up to it, 
and I see no valid objection against this admission. Naphtali possessed the western side of 
this plain, and, if able, would certainly have extended their border quite across it to the foot 
of the mountains, just where this Seid Yehuda stands. 1 have great confidence in this iden- 
tification, and regard it as another evidence that, as our knowledge of this country becomes 
more extensive and accurate, diflSculty after diflSculty in Biblical topography will vanish away 
until all are solved.' 

Shakra (P c). — Several ruined modern buildings and remains of 
ancient ruins ; several lintels and cisterns ; Greek inscription on capital 
of column built into wall of modern house to the south-west of the 



\ \ EYCEKI+ 


There probably once stood an 
early Christian church here. 

Siddikin (M c). — There 
are remains of an early Chris- 
tian site at this village ; some 
well-dressed stones .scattered 
about with crosses on them : 
There are also rock-cut cisterns, 
tombs, and stone olive and 
wine presses. The site of the 

ancient place was a litde to the north of the present village. 

[SHEET //.] 







' Here are what appears to be the remains 
of an ancient synagogue. Its direction is from 
south to north, which is the general direction of 
the ancient synagogues of Palestine ; and, 
besides, here I remarked two monolithic pillars, 
cut one side in pilaster fashion, and rounded on 
the other side like a half column. This kind 

of pillar generally terminates the end of the range of columns in these synagogues.' — 


S i 1 a h (O b). — An ancient site ; there is a terraced hill ; there are si.x 
sarcophagi and two olive-presses near the village. 

' Here I found an ancient press, the lid of a sarcophagus with acroteria, and a broken 
sarcophagus, at one of whose ends is a projection resembling an altar. Near it is a great 
grave with room for two bodies, with a partition wall left in the rock; and beside this an 
enormous detached block, hollowed out for tw^o bodies, and resting on a surface purposely 
planed.'— Guerin. 

Close to Silah, Guerin aiso found the ruins of a small vill.age, completely destroyed, known 
as Kh. Faniun. 

S 11 wan eh (Ob). — -Here are several lintels used in village, and 


' Here are shown the scanty remains of an ancient church, of which I found here and 
there scattered fragments, fine cut stones, a monolithic column, and a great lintel partly 
broken, in the centre of which is sculptured a cross, accompanied right and left by little squares 
disposed lozenge fashion.' — Guerin. 

Et Taiyibeh (P b). — There are several sarcophagi and cisterns 
in the village ; some caves near. 

' Its prinriiial mosque, now in ruins, is built of superb blocks, apparently ancient. It 
contains in the interior several monolithic columns.' — Guerin. 

T e i r Z i n b e h (O b). 

' This village contains a great number of cut stones, dispersed, coming from an ancient 
church now destroyed. On the base of a pillar once belonging to this building, I remarked 
two Greek crosses extremely well sculptured.' — Guerin. 

Tell el Kady (Re). 

Lieutenant Kitchener thus describes Tell el Kady (Reiiorts, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S77, 
p. 171-2): 

' The road descended steeply to the Huleh plain, here covered with basalt rock and dibris, 
and considerably raised above the marsh, which commences about five miles south. After cross- 
ing the bridge over the Nahr Hasbany, a fine torrent running in a deep gorge which it has cut 
for itself out of the basalt rocks, the plain appears to be studded with small springs that bubble 
up everywhere, the water now running to waste, as this portion of the pjlain is uncultivated ; 
these gradually increase as we approach the great spring of the Nahr el Leddan. Tell el Kady, 
the site of Dan, is a round tell, broad and low on the northern side, rather steeper to the 

iS— 2 


south ; it is situated a mile south of the slopes of licrmon, and stands up prominently on the 
plain, marking the boundary of the basalt. There are two springs at Tell el Kady ; one of 
them, the largest in the country, starts on the west side of the tell, the other from the centre 
joining the first stream immediately south of the tell, where they form the Nahr el Lcddan. 
This is the largest source of the Jordan, being, as far as I could judge, about twice as large as 
the Nahr Hasbany. The ruins on the tell are very slight. I saw nothing but the basalt 
remains of modern cattle-sheds. Two very large trees by the side of the centre stream shade 
the tomb of a dog which has been turned into a holy place under the name of the Sheikh 
^[erzuk. It must have been the favourite of some Arab chief. 

'The river rushes away south through luxuriant vegetation, irrigating the country round ; 
it passes Khurbet Dufnah on the cast, a smaller mound than Tell el Kady, with no ruins of 
importance, which has been identified with Daphne. The stream then runs close alongside 
the Hasbany and joins the Nahr Baniiis four miles south of Tell el Kiidy ; the two together 
are then joined half a mile farther south by the Hasbany. 

' The ancient records always speak of the spring at Banias as the source of the Jordan, 
and, though the correctness of this has been doubted, they seem to have been quite right. 
Working up the river, the Hasbany joins the stream composed of the Nahr el Leddan and the 
Nahr Banias, and as it is smaller than either of them there can be no doubt that it is only an 
affluent of the River Jordan ; farther up these two separate, and then, the flow of water being 
nearly eijual, the longer course was taken, and the source was fixed in the romantic cave 
of Banias. The water from the Leddan is much diverted for irrigation purposes in the 
plain, which yields splendid crops, and some of the water is even carried into the Nahr 

The place is described by Robinson, ' Later Biblical Researches,' p. 390 : 

' On approaching Tell el-Kady from this quarter, the first object which strikes the eye is 
an immense stream of the most limpid water pouring from its western side. The Tell is 
oblong ; its greatest length extending from west to east. Its length, on the northern part, 
is some thirty or forty feet above the plain. The western end appears as if built up with 
large trap boulders ; and through these the water gushes out several feet above the base. It 
forms a little lake at the bottom, and then rushes down a steep channel to the next lower 
plateau. This is one of the largest fountains in the world ; the stream that issues from it 
being not less than four times as large as the Hasbany, even after all the accessions which the 
latter receives. 

'Not all the water, however, from the interior of the Tell escapes in this way. In the 
surface of the Tell directly above is a cavity of some extent, into which the water also rises ; 
and runs off, as a considerable stream, through a break in the edge of the Tell, tumbling 
down its south-western side. This stream drives two mills, and furnishes water-power enough 
for any number. It then goes to join the other river. This of itself would be regarded as a 
very large fountain. Just in the break of the Tell stands the noble oak (Sindian) under 
which we rested. Its vast boughs spread widely around ; though its trunk is not as large as 
some we had seen. Beneath it is the grave of a Mohammedan saint, a parallelogram of 
stones clumsily laid up, with many rags hanging upon the branches above. There are also 
smaller trees scattered upon the Tell, and the mills are almost buried beneath the luxuriant 

' The Tell is situated a mile and a half, a little west of south, from the south-west corner 
of the mountains, nearly in a line with the western base of Jebel csh-Sheikh. It is about 
midway of the Huleh from west to east. It stands connected with the step or offset between 



two plateaus ; so that the southern side of the Tell is twice as high as the northern, rising 
above the plain at its southern base not less than eighty or ninety feet. The form, though 
oblong, is irregular. The top is an area of several acres, perhaps fifty rods in length, and 
somewhat highest towards the east. It is in part cultivated, and there were nov/ patches of 
wheat upon it ; but the greater portion was given up to rank grass, weeds, thistles, and brush- 
wood ; so that it could be examined only with difficulty. Singularly enough, this Tell and 
offset form the dividing line between the volcanic and limestone formations. The Tell and 
all the plain north are volcanic ; while all the plain of the Hiileh south, as far as our examina- 
tion extended, is limestone. 

'The elevation of this spot above the sea, is six hundred and forty-seven feet,* as deter- 
mined by Dr. Ue Forest a {(iw days before. 

' Mr. Thomson was the first, I believe, to regard this Tell as the crater of an extinct 
volcano, in which he has been followed by others. As the region is volcanic, and as the 
Lake Phiala is held by all to be an ancient crater, there is no lack of analogy or of proljability 
in supposing this Tell to be of the same character. Still, Dr. Anderson, the geologist of the 
Dead Sea Expedition, saw here "no evidence of the former existence of a crater." 

' On the Tell, near the upper fountain, are some remains of houses, apparently not 
ancient. But the chief rums are on the southern declivity of the Tell. Here are many 
heaps of stones, most of them volcanic and of good size. Among them are mingled blocks 
of limestone squared ; one of these is very long, and has a groove along the middle. The 
town which stood here was doubtless built mainly of the volcanic stones of the region ; and 
these remain, and are some of them quite large. Burckhardt was told of foundations a 
(juarter of an hour further north ; but we did not look for them. 

'This great fountain and stream is now called el Leddan, which may possibly be a corrup- 
tion from the name Dan. Josephus, while he assumes the fountain at Banias as the main 
source of the Jordan, perhaps on account of its somewhat longer course, speaks also of the 
fountains of " the lesser Jordan " at Dan. Of the identity of these with Tell el Kady, there 
can be no (question. 

' The city of Dan, too, was situated at these fountains ; and the slight ruins upon the 
Tell are apparently its only remains. The testimony of Josephus is explicit. Eusebius and 
Jerome describe Dan as being four Roman miles distant from Paneas on the way to Tyre ; 
and here, too, they say, the Jordan breaks forth. The Targum of Jerusalem likewise writes, 
" Dan of Caesarea ;" implying its vicinity to C^sarea Philippi. Against all this testimony, a 
single indefinite remark of Jerome, in which he might be supposed to confound Dan with 
Paneas, can have no weight. 

'The story of the founding of Dan is given in the books of Joshua and Judges. Originally 
belonging to Sidon, under the name of Lesciii, or Lats/i, it was seized and named Dan by a 
warlike colony of Danites. It became afterwards a chief seat of Jeroboam's idolatry, where 
one of the golden calves was set up ; was conquered with other towns by the Syrians ; and in 
the days of Eusebius was still a small village. The name, however, is perhaps best known, 
in the almost proverbial expression, " from Dan to Beersheba," as denoting the whole length 
of the Promised Land.' 

Macgregor ('The Rob Roy on the Jordan,' p. 1S8-9) says : 

' The Tell itself is a mound of great size, and its shape, as will be seen by the opposite 

'"' As determined by the Survey, it is 505 feet above the level of the sea. 


plan, is rectangular, with ruiindcd corners. Its length is about 300 yards, and the breadtli 
250 yards. The space within is hollow, and nearly (lat, while the sides or walls are like those 
of a railway viaduct, with an average height of thirty feet, but much higher at the south-west 
end, and steep. Ruins are at various parts visible all round, and within, and upon the mound 
itself, which seems to me to be wholly artificial ; but it is said to be partly formed by a volcanic 

' In the four-sided enclosure already described is a most tangled thicket, ijuite impenetrable 
to man, and perhaps almost to beasts. Round it is a low quadrangular raised dais, and the 
remains of what once was evidently a splendid amphitheatre, often perhaps thronged with 
spectators of the idol's rites. 

'Scattered trees, still in some sort of order, dot the wide space beyond ; hut the thorns of 
the brake itself, a dark and thick .screen even in mid-winter, must be ten times more dense in 
spring, or in the luxuriance of summer growth. These cover a hidden pool, which defies all 
efforts to enter its retreat ; but, under a pit half filled by heaps of old grey stones, you can 
just hear the smothered murmuring of pent-up secret waters, and on the west side of the 
embankment, beneath a mass of fig-trees, reeds, and strongest creepers, the water issues free 
into the day, and filling up to the brim the circular basin a hundred feet wide. Here the 
new-born Jordan turns and bubbles, and seems to breathe for a while in the light, and then 
it dashes off at once a river, with a noisy burst, but soon hiding its foam and waves in another 
thicket, and there its loud rushing is shrouded in darkness as it hurries away to the mysterious 

And Tristram (' Bible Places,' p. 2 So) thus speaks of Tell Kady : 

' On the higher part of the mound to the south ruined foundations can still be traced, 
where tradition places the temple of the Golden Calf Nature's gifts are here poured forth in 
lavish profusion, but man has deserted it. Yet it would be difificult to find a more lovely 
situation than where " the men of Laish dwelt, careless, quiet and secure— a place where there is 
no want of any thing that is in the earth " (Judges xviii. 10). Here, too, is what is considered 
the source of the Jordan. On the west side of the mound an impenetrable thicket of oaks, 
oleanders, and reeds entirely conceals the shapeless ruins, and beneath them burst forth the 
"lower springs" of Jordan, a wonderful fountain like a large bubbling basin, the largest 
spring in Syria, and said to be the largest single spring in the world, where the drainage of 
the southern side of Hermon seems to have found a collective exit. Full-grown at birth, at 
once larger than the Hasbany, which it joins, the river, here called Leddan, perhaps from 
ancient Dan, dashes through an oleander thicket.' 


Orography. — This sheet contains 201 "6 square miles. 

It is divided into two very distinct natures of ground. The plain by 
the sea coast, south of the Ras en Nakurah, and the hills to the east of it. 

The plain is flat and sandy, and highly cultivated in parts where water 
can be got to irrigate it ; in these cases it is turned into gardens of fruit- 
trees and vegetables of every description common to the country, such 
as oranges, pomegranates, lemons, and figs. The vegetables are also 
numerous, water-melons, tomatoes, cucumbers, vegetable-marrows, etc. 
A number of cypress-trees are seen round the villages on this plain. 
The el Bahjeh gardens, N.E. of 'Akka, are among the best ; these are 
beautifully laid out and watered. The aqueduct which brings water 
across the plain from el Kabry is tapped at many points to irrigate 

The plain is narrower to the north. A broad valley coming into it 
from the east forms almost the southern boundary of this sheet ; it passes 
Mejd el Kerum in a broad plain, dividing the Jermuk range of hills from 
the more southern Galilean hills of Shefa Amr. 

The hills are routrh limestone rido-es covered with brushwood, beine 
spurs from the watershed on the next sheet (Sheet IV.) 

The valleys are deep, with steep banks, and arc difficult to cross. 
The Kurn Hennawy and the cliffs by Deir el Asad are high and steep, 
and form part of the boundary of this hilly country. 

Wady el Kurn is the most important valley ; it cuts through the hills 
in almost a straight due west course to the sea, in a deep gorge. North 
of this the hills advance to the west till they close in the plain, and form 
the headland of Ras en Nakurah, 223 feet high, which is the end of a 


long narrow ridge running east and west. To the north of this the 
country is wild and rugged, particularly to the north-cast, where another 
great division wAdy is just seen, W. cl 'Ezziyeh. 

All these hills seem to ascend in al)oul the; same ratio towards the 
east, reaching an altitude of approximately 2,500 feet along the eastern 
margin of the sheet. There are some little plains amongst these hills, as 
at Teirshiha, where the white chalk crops up, and denudation has 
smoothed the rugged outlines still preserved all around. At Terbikha 
there is also a slight plain, which is well cultivated for barley, etc. 

The hills arc only very sparingly cultivated, and a good deal of the 
land is given up to Arab tribes, who feed their flocks amongst the brush- 
wood and have become famous for their butter and milk. 

ToPOGRAPiiv. — There are fifty-one villages and inhabited places on this 
sheet, and they belong to almost all the governments of Galilee. The 
principal government is that of the Sanjak 'Akka, which has twenty-six 
villages on this sheet. The Kadha Sur and the Jebel Safed have each 
ten. The Esh Shaghur has four, and Belad Besharah has one. 

The Sanjak 'Akka is immediately under the Mutascrrif of 'Akka, who 
has authority over jebel Safed and Esh Shaghur. The Kadha .Sur and 
the Belad Besharah are under the Mutaserrif of Beyrout. The whole is 
under the Wali of Syria. 

The population of the sheet is approximately 12,000 IVIoslems and 
Metawileh, 3,650 Chri-stians, and 1,400 Druzes ; making a total of 17,000 

The description of the inhabited places follow in alphabetical order, 
according to their district. 

Sanjak 'Akka. 

Abu Senan (Lf).^ — A village, built of stone, containing about 

100 Moslems and 150 Christians, situated on the low hills near the plain, 

and surrounded with olives and arable land ; there are many cisterns of 

rain-water in the village, on which the natives rely. 

Guerin estimates the population of Abu Senan at 400, of whom 360 are Druses and 140 
Schismatic Greeks. 

[s/fEFT ///.] TOPOGRAPHY. 145 

'A kka (Kf). — This is a large fortified town on the sea-shore ; it is 
only entered by one gate, and is l^uilt on a triangular point, that faces the 
northern limit of the Bay of 'Akka. The fortifications are old, and the 
guns are of ancient types and not powerful ; the place could not hold 
out long in modern warfare. 

The interior of the town is well-built, the mosque being the pjrincipal 
building; it is decorated with the remains of the columns of the Crusading 
churches and Roman temples. 

The principal exports are barley and cotton ; the barley is brought 

from the Hauran by camels to this port. 

The population of Akka is given by Giierin as 9,00c, ihus divided : 7,400 Mussulmans, 
1,600 Christians, further divided into 160 Latins, 500 United Greeks, and 940 Schismatic 
Greeks. Dr. Socin estimates the population at S,ooo, of whom 5,600, he says, are Moslems. 

'A m k a (L e). — A stone-built village inhabited by about 300 Druzes ; 
it is situated on a slight rise in a valley, and surrounded by olives, figs, 
and arable land ; the water supply is from rock-cut cisterns. 

El Basseh (Ld). — A large village, built of stone, containing 
about Soo Christians and 250 Moslems, situated on the edge of the plain, 
surrounded by large groves of olives and gardens of pomegranates, figs, 
and apples ; a fevv vines ; the water supply is from two large springs and 

According to Gue'rin the population is about a thousand, of whom 550 are United Greeks, 
a few are Protestants, and the rest are Mussulmans or Schismatic Greeks. 

D a r el J e b a k h a n j y ( K e). — A stone and mud \'illage, containing 
about 150 Moslems, situated on the Maritime Plain, N. of the Nahr 
Mefshukh, and cultivated for olives, mulberries, and pomegranates, with 
some arable land. The water sup[)ly is from a stream near and two cisterns, 

D a r .S u r s u k (K e). — A modern Arab house, containing ten Mos- 
lems, on the plain. 

El Ghabsiych (L e). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
150 Moslems, on the edge of the plain, surrounded by olives, figs, pome- 
granates and gardens ; a stream of water near, plentiful supply. 

J e 1 1 (M e). — A village, built of stone, on the ridge of a hill ; contains 
about 120 Druzes (according to Guerin, 150) ; surrounded by olives and 
figs ; the water from cisterns and w'elLs. 

VOL. I. [9 


El J Li d e i y i d c h ^^Ll).- A vilhigu, biiik ol slonc, coiiUiiiiinL; about 
eighty Moslems and twenty Christians, surrounded by olives and arable 
land, situated near the plain, five miles and a <|uartcr M. of 'Akka, with 
many cisterns for rain water to drink from. 

J ulis (L f). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 Dru/.es, 
surrounded by olives and arable land, situated near the plain, two miles 
from El Judeidiyeh, with water from cisterns and birkct. 

El Kabry (L e). — A village built of stone, containing about 400 
Moslems, situated on the edge of the plain, with gardens and olives, figs 
and mulberries, apples and pomegranates ; there is a large spring and 
birket here, at which the aqueduct conveying water to 'Akka commences. 

'At twenty-five minutes walk from El Kabry is a spring called Neba Fawara. Formerly 
received in a basin, of which the foundations only are now visible, it runs away in a con- 
siderable stream, which waters several gardens. Enormous fig-trees show the extraordinary 
fruitfulncss of the soil. A little farther I pass along arcades entirely covered with high 
bushes, which form part of the aqueduct of El Kabry. The ground rises here, so that the 
canal supported by these arcades is at the level of the ground, then it disappears altogether, 
reappearing again, according to the level of the ground. El Kabry is in a very advantageous 
position, thanks to its precious springs, which must always have caused the foundation 
of a group, more or less considerable, of houses. The name of Kabry shows that it was 
once called Gobara, a name given by Josephus to a place in another part of Galilee. It 
contains two abundant springs ; one is received in a reservoir similar to that of Et Tell, and 
from there, by an opening made expressly, the water runs off in a cascade to turn mills and 
water gardens. The second spring gushes from the bottom of a kind of vaulted cave, into 
which one descends by steps, and it feeds the aqueduct, which, sometimes subterranean, 
sometimes on the level of the ground, sometimes borne in arcades, supplies Akka with water. 
Reconstructed by Jezzar Pasha at the end of the last century, this aqueduct has succeeded 
one much older, of which traces yet remain. 

' Besides these two springs there is a third not far off, called Ain Jatun, of equal import- 
ance, which fertilises the proverbially fruitful territory of Kabry.— Guerin. 

El Kahweh (Le). — A stone and mud village, containing about 
250 Moslems (according to Guerin, 120), situated on the plain, surrounded 
by figs, olives, mulberries, and pomegranates ; there is a spring and 
ilowino- stream at this villaee. 

K e f r Y a s 1 f (L f). — A village, built of stone, containing about 300 
Christians and fifty Druzes ; there is a Greek chapel in the village ; 
situated near the plain, and surrounded by olives and arable land ; the 
water supply is from cisterns. 

' The place is situated on a hill, the slopes of which, towards the west, are sustained by 



a strong supporting wall. It contains 600 inliabitants, 100 being Mohammedans and the 
rest belonging to the Schismatic Greek Church. The latter have a church, about a hundred 
and forty years old, which contains a few tolerable pictures, a gift of Russia. At the foot of 
the hill is a beautiful well, twenty-five fithoins deep, of ancient appearance, constructed of 
cut stones. The reserxoir and troughs round it are also built of stones, with the same 
dressing.' — Gue'rin. 

K h. U m m cl I*" c r j (Kc). — A village, built of .stone, containing 
200 Moslems, situated on the plain, and cultivated for figs, olives, pome- 
granates, mulberries, and arable land ; spring and aqueduct to 'Akka give 
good water supply. 

K u s r M u h a m m e d B e k (K e). — A ruined dwelling, with court- 
yard inhabited by about ten Moslems, on the plain, with aqueduct near. 

Kuweikat (Le). — A village, built of stone; contains about 300 
Mo.slems ; near foot <.f hills, surrounded by olives and arable land ; good 
spring, well, and cisterns. 

E 1 M e k r (L f). — A village, built of stone, containing 100 Moslems 
and eighty Christians (according to Gucrin, 350 inhabitants, half Moslem 
and h.alf Schismatic Greeks), situated at the edge of the plain, surrounded 
by olives and arable land ; there are many cisterns for rain-water in the 

El M e n s h i y e h ( K f).- — A mud and stone villacre, containino- 
about 150 Moslems, on the plain ; arable land round ; water from 'Akka 
aqueduct to west of village. 

El Mezrah (Ke). — A stone and conglomerate village, having 200 
Moslems ; situated on the plain, with olives, pomegranates, mulberries, 
and arable land ; the aqueduct supplies good water. 

E s .S e m e i r i y e h (K e). — Mud and stone houses, containing about 
200 (Guerin says 400) Moslems, situated on the plain, surrounded by a 
few clumps of olives and figs and arable land ; two or three cisterns are in 
the village, and the aqueduct near brings good water. 

Sheikh D a n n 11 n (L e). — A small village, built of stone ; contains 
about fifty Moslems ; on the edge of the plain, with streani of water near. 

Sheikh Daud (Le). — A small village, Iniilt of stone, containing 
about seventy Moslems, on the edge of the plain, surrounded by olives 
and arabU: land, with a stream of water near. 



Et Tell (L c). — A stone and nuiJ village, containing about 200 
Moslems, with figs, olives, mulberries, pomegranates and gardens ; there 
are two streams of water at this village. 

' Below the village extend fresh and verdant gardens, where the water flows and murmurs 
incessantly in little canals, and where lofty poplars and great nut-trees, which recall Ivurope, 
mingle with the trees of Palestine. Near here is a mill, worked by water falling from a higher 
basin, which acts as a reservoir for a spring as abundant as that of Ras el '.\in. After leaving 
the mill, the water forms a stream which fertilises the adjacent orchards. This raised and 
broad reservoir, whence the water escapes by an opening made for the purpose in the edge 
of the reservoir, is of modern construction, as is shown by the stones ; but its first building 
must be ancient, because it is difficult to believe that the ancients should have neglected to 
get all the advantage possible from so important a spring.' — Guerin. 

Yanfih (M e).— A village, built of stone, in two parts, having the 
tomb of a Neby in the southern portion ; the village is partially in ruins, 
and contains about 170 Druzes ; it is situated on the high ground on the 
western brow of a ridge, and is surrounded by olives and a little arable 
land, but mostly brushwood ; there are two birkcts and cisterns to supply 

Yerka (L f). — A well-built stone village, containing about 400 
(according to Guerin, S50) Druzes, situated on a ridge of the hills, with 
olives, figs, and arable land ; it has a birket and cistern to supply water. 

E z Z i b (K e). — A stone and conglomerate village on the sea-shore, 
with olives, figs, mulberries and pomegranates ; there is a small mosque in 
the village, which contains about 400 Moslems ; the water supply is from 
a spring and cisterns. 

District of Jehel Safed. 

In the district of Jebel Safed (on the Eastern part of the sheet) there 
are nine villages and inhabited places on this sheet. 

Akrith (M d). — A village, built of stone, containing about 100 
Christians ; there is ^ modern chapel in the village ; it is situated on a tell, 
with figs, olives, and arable land ; there are three springs to the west of the 
village and fourteen cisterns, rock-cut, to supply water. 

Kefr .Sumeia (N e).— A village, built of stone, containing about 
200 Moslems, situated on a ridge, with figs, olives, and arable land round ; 
the water supply is from five cisterns in village. 



Mali a (M e). — This is a large well-built village of stone, on a com- 
manding situation ; there is a Christian church and ruined mosque ; it 
contains 450 Christians, and is surrounded by olWes and arable land ; the 
water supply is from birkets and cisterns. This was the Crusading Chateau 
du Roi. 

N e b y Rubin (N d). — This is a small village round the tomb of the 
Neby, containing about ninety Moslems ; it is situated on a prominent top, 
and is surrounded by many olives, a few figs, and arable land ; there are 
two cisterns and a birkct near. 

Sheikh M e j a h e d (N e). — A very small village, containing about 
twenty Moslems ; it is situated on a high hill-top, close to Teirshiha, and 
clusters round the tomb of the Sheikh who oives it his name ; around it 
are olives and arable land ; there are some rock-cut cisterns and birkets 
near Teirshiha. 

Suhmata (N e). — A village, built of stone, containing about 400 
Moslems, situated on ridge and slope of hill, surrounded by figs, olives and 
arable land ; there are several cisterns and a spring near. 

Suruh (N d). — A small village, containing about ninety Moslems, 
situated on a ridge, with olives and arable land round ; there are three 
rock-cut cisterns. 

Teirshiha (Me). — A very large village, containing about 1,500 
Moslems and 300 Christians; there is a fine mosque with minarets newly 
built, also an old one ; the houses are well-built ; a new and handsome 
church has been built in the Christian quarter ; the place is situated in a 
fertile plain, but is badly supplied with water from distant springs, birkets, 
and cisterns, of which there are large quantities ; the plain is covered with 
olives, and is surrounded by hills. 

' The birket of Teirshiha is of circular form. It receives the rain-water, and serves to 
water the cattle. It is commanded by a rocky tell, on the sinnmit of which rises a small 
Mussulman waly surrounded by tombs and dedicated to the Sheikh Kuweis. A little to the 
south stands the village on the gentle slope of a hill . . . It consists of four Cjuarters, under the 
jurisdiction of as many different sheikhs. There are 2,000 Moslems, who have their mosques. 
The principal one was built by Abdullah Pasha ; it is preceded by a court, then by a porch ; 
it is .surmounted by a cupola, above which springs an elegant minaret. The Christians occupy 
their own quarters : with the exception of a few families they are all United Greeks, and 
numljer about 500. ... A small ancient town stood here, of which there remains only 
cut stones built up in modern houses and many cisterns rut in the rock.' — Gucrin. 


Terbikha (X d). — A small villayc, situated on a ridge, built of 
stone and containing about lOO Moslems ; there are two \vi;lls built up with 
masonry ; olives are culii\atcd, and arable land. 

DtSTRTCT of EsII SlTAnilfR. 

The next district under the government of 'Akka is the i-lsh Shaghur 
(S.E. corner of the sheet), which has only four villages on this sheet. 

El Baneh (M f) — A village, built of stone, containing about 300 

Moslems and 100 Christians, situated near the plain, on rising ground, 

and surrounded by olives and arable land ; there is a spring and birket to 

supply water. 

Gucrin divides the population between Druzesand .Schismatic Clreeks. Here is a mosque 
built on the site of an old church. The Greek church is also built on the site of an older 
church. Outside the village is lying a great .s.arcophagus, whose lid has disappeared. 

Ueir el A sad (M f). — A village, built of stone, with a few ruins, 
containing about 600 Moslems (Guerin says 450 Druzes). It is situated 
near the plain, on the hill-side, and has olives and arable land ; there is a 
spring and birket near. 

K i s r a (N e). — A village, built of stone, containing about 1 50 Druzes, 
situated on the side of hill, surrounded by olives and araljle land ; water 
supplied from cisterns and rock-cut birket. 

Mejd el Kerum (M f). — A village, built of stone, containing 
about 600 (Guerin says 800) Moslems, situated on the plain, at the foot of 
the hills, surrounded by olives and arable land ; there is a spring and 
many cisterns to supply water. 

District of the Kauiia Sur. 

The district of the Kadha Sur (N. and N.E. part of the sheet) con- 
tains ten villages. 

'Alma esh Shaub (L d). — A large Christian village, containing 
about 500 inhabitants. The houses are clean and well built. There are 
two chapels, and the place seems increasing in size. It is situated on a 
ridge, with figs, olives, and jjomegranates and arable land around. To the 

[sheet III.'\ TOrOGRArHY. 151 

cast and north the land is covered with brushwood. There is a spring 
within reach, and about thirty rock-cut cisterns in the village. 

Beiut es Seiyid (L c). — A small stone and mud village, con- 
taining about thirty Moslems, on a hill, with gardens and figs and olives. 
There are cisterns in the village for water. 

Kill at Shema (M c). — A modern-built castle, situated on a very 
high conical and conspicuous hill seen from a distance, and is occupied 
by about forty Moslems. The ground around is covered with brushwood, 
and is uncultivated. There are ten cisterns for water. 

El Jubbein (iM d). — A small village, built of stone, containing 
about seventy Metawileh ; it is situated on a hill, with figs, olives, and 
arable land around. There are three cisterns for water. 

Lebbuna (L d). — A small stone and mud village, containing about 
forty Moslems, situated on the side of a hill, in uncultivated ground ; brush- 
wood round. Here are cisterns and wells, with traces of ruined houses 
and cisterns. 

El Mejdel (M c). — A large and conspicuous village, containing 
about 400 Moslems ; it is situated on a hill, with figs, olives, and arable 
land. The water from birket ; there are two cisterns in village. 

En Nakurah (L d). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
250 Moslems, situated on low hills by sea-coast. Gardens of olives, palms, 
pomegranates, figs, and arable land ; brushwood to the east. Two springs 
with plentiful supply of water. 

' The village stands upon a hill, on the south of which is a deep wady, through which 
flows a spring called 'Ain Nakurah, which waters plantations of fig-trees and olives mixed with 
palms. The village contains 400 Metawileh. The houses are modern, but some of the 
materials appear ancient by their regularity and dimensions. There must, therefore, have 
been an older village here, the name of which was probably similar, if not identical.' — Guerin. 

S h i h i n (M d). — A stone and mud village, containing i 50 (Guerin says 
200) Metawileh, with traces of ruins (see Section B.), situated on ridge of 
hills, with figs, olives and arable land. Here is a large birket and twelve 
cisterns for water. 

T e i r H a r fa (M d). — A stone and mud village, containing about 200 
Moslems, on a hill, with olives, figs, and arable land, and waste ground 
covered with brushwood. Water from cisterns. 


Z Ci hk i n (M c). — Small ruined villag-e on a hill, surrounded by brush- 
wood ; contains about thirty Moslems ('eighty Metdwileh ' — Guerin), and 
has olives and arable land to the south. The water is supplied by cisterns. 

Till. Besiiarah. 

The Belad Bcsharah (N.E. part of the sheet) has one village on this 

Salhaneh (N c). — A small village, containing about 100 Moslems 
(Guerin says Metawileh), situated on a hill, with figs, olives, and arable 
land. There are three cisterns, one of them ruined. There are a few 
ruined houses here. 

Ancient Sites on Sheet III. 

First in importance is Akka (St. Jean d'Acre), which is without doubt 
the A echo of the Old Testament, enclosed within the limits of the lot of 
Asher, but never taken by the people (Judges i. 31), and the Ptolemais of 
later history (See below. Section B., p 160.) 

The ruins now called Kh. Danian, which will be found on the map 
about two miles east of Ras en Nakurah, were first discovered by Dr. 
Schultz. Prussian Consul at Jerusalem, and suggested as the site of Dan- 
Jaan — ' Dan in the Wood ' — mentioned in 2 Sam. xxiv. 6, as one of the 
points visited by Joab in taking the census. But perhaps the well- 
known Dan was intended : Kh. A_bdeh (east of Ez Zib and north of 
Wady el Kurn), ruins w^hich are suggested as those of Abdon, a city in 
the tribe of Asher, given to the Gershonites (Josh. xxi. 30, i Chron. 
vi. 74). In Ez Zib 'there can be little doubt that we have Achzib, a town 
of Asher (Josh. xix. 29), whence, however, the Canaanites were not 
driven out (Judges i. 31). Yerka is perhaps the Helkath of Joshua 
xix. 25. At Kulat Kurein was the Crusading Castle of Montfort, and at 
Malia was the Chateau du Roi. Descriptions of these places will be 
found in Section II. 

[sheet i/i.'] ancient sites. 


Lieutenant Conder, in addition, makes the following notes on the ancient sites of this 
sheet : 

K e f r Y a s i f, a village north-west of Akka, may be the Achshaph of Joshua xix. 25. 

Alia, near INIalia, may be the Aloth of i Kings iv. 16. 

El A m u d, north of Akka, and East of Ez Zib, may be the Amad of Joshua xix. 26. 

Re t e n. This is placed by Eusebius eight Roman miles east of Ptolemais (Akka), or 
about in the i)osition of the present village of El Baneh, which may also be the Baimeh of the 

Abu Sin an is noticed about 1250 a.d. as a Casale of the Teutonic Knights, called 
Busnen (Tables of the Teutonic Order). 

'Ak k a. — The Biblical Accho and the Ptolemais of Josephus, is noticed in the Talmud 
as excluded from the boundaries of the Holy Land, the border running along the outer wall 
(Tosiphta Shebiith, 3). A bath consecrated to Venus existed here (AbodaZara, iii. 5). 

About 1250 A.D. the Teutonic Order, instituted in 1192, possessed thirty Ca sales, or 
unwalled villages, in the neighbourhood of Acre and in Lower Galilee. 

Bo b r iy e h. — This n.-'me probably represents the site of Casale Bubalorum, which was 
given by Hugh of Ca;sarea to the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre (Cartulary of H. S., No. 145), 
and which is mentioned witli Fiesse (el B a s s e h), near which the modern site is found on 
the south. 

I) e i r el A sa d is probably the Dersoet of the ' Cartulary of the Holy Sepulchre ' (Nos. 
123, 124), mentioned with other places in Galilee as property of the Canons of the Holy 
Sepulchre. The prominent Mukam of e 1 K h ti d r (St. George), east of the village, probably 
preserves the tradition of the Frank name of a town of St. George — perhaps identical with 
Deir el Asad— shown in about the same position on the map of Marino Sanuto (1322 a.d.). 
Fetellus in 1 150 a.d. describes the village of St. George as five leagues from Safed and three 
leagues from Acre ; and Marino Sanuto speaks of it as lying in a fat valley, extending towards 
the Sea of Galilee between mountains. The position thus indicated agrees with that of D e i r 
el Asad, and of the Mukam of e 1 K h u d r. A church of ' Black Monks ' is mentioned 
here in the ' Citei de Jherusalem.' 

H a m s 1 n seems from its position possibly to represent the Casale Ymbert or Casale 
Lamberti, which belonged to the Teutonic Knights. Theodoricus (1172 a.d). calls the 
same place Cast rum Imberti, three miles from Scandalium (I sk an d e r ii n e h), 
and four from Acre. Marino Sanuto places it at the foot of Mount Sarona, near the sea, 
and gives the same distances as above ; he also shows its position on his map. In the 
'Cartulary of the Holy Sepulchre' (No. 156) it is called Casale Lamberti or Mimas, but 
this position does not agree with the indications given above. Mimas appears, however, to 
have been the name of a neighbouring district. 

H a n ii t a. — This ruin represents the Hanuta of the Talmud (Tosiphta Shebiith iii., and 
Tal. Jer. Demai ii. i), a town beyond the limits of the Holy Land, in the country of the 
Tyrians. The Talmud mentions an upper and a lower town of Hanuta. 

El G h a b s i y e h is mentioned with Safed as a fief of the Teutonic Order ( 1 250 a.d.) 
under the form Cabecie (Tables of the Teutonic Order). 

El H II 1 e h. — This lake is called in the Talmud S a m c i or S a b c i (Tal. Jer. Kilaim, 
VOL. I. 20 


ix. s ; ami Tal. Bab., Baba Ballira, 74 /'), meaning 'reedy,' from liic growth of the I'.gyptian 
papyrus in its waters. By Josephus it is called invariably Scnicchonilis (Ant. v. 5, 1 ; 15. J. 
iiL 10, 7 ; B. J. iv. I, i); and the fens and marshes extended, according to him, as far as 
Daphne on the north. 

I s k a n d e r 11 n e h is mentioned in the Jerusalem Itinerary as a Mutatio (or station) 
between Tyre and I'tolcmais, twelve Roman miles from the former and twenty from the 
latter, under the name Alcxandroschene (.'Mexander's Tent). William of Tyre mentions that 
a fort was built in 1117 a.d. by King Baldwin I. at Scandalium near Tyre, as an outpost 
against that town. Foucher of Chartres, in the twelfth century, says the same, and translates 
the name Scandalium into Campus Leonis (Champ de Lion). Theodoricus (1172) places 
Castrum Scandalium four miles (leagues) from Tyre. Marino Sanuto (1322 a.d.) shows 
Scandalium on his map between Tyre and Casale Lamberti, and describes it as four leagues 
from Acre and one league from the springs of Tyre (R as el 'A i n). Maundrell (1697 a.d.) 
mentions the ruins of the Castle of Scandalium, named from its founder Alexander, as being 
120 paces square, with a fosse and a fair spring, ^\'illiam of Tyre also identifies the site with 
an ancient Alexandria. 

Jalun was one of the Casales of the Teutonic Knights, called Gelin in 1250 a.d. 
(Tables of the Teutonic Order). 

J 'a t h il n is noticed as a boundary-town of the Holy Land (Tal. Jer. Sliebiith vi. i, and 
Tosiphta Shebiith, chap, iii.), having also springs (Mia di G'athun), and situated north of 
Accho. The ruin stands close to the stream of N a h r M e f s h u k h, and near el K a b r y 
and J e 1 i 1, which are mentioned next to it on the list of the boundary towns. 

J e 1 i 1 is probably the Katzra of Gelil mentioned in the Talmud as on the boundary of 
the Holy Land, immediately after Z u w e i n i t a (Tosiphta Shebiith, chap. iii.). 

K a b r a. — The Gabara or Gabaroth of Josephus. The third largest city of Galilee 
(Vita, 10, 15, 25, 40, 45, 46, 47, 61 ; and B. J. iii. 7, i). 

El K a b r y is probably the Kabartha of the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Shebiith vi. i ; Tosiphta 
Shebiith, chap, iii.) mentioned next to J a t h i\ n on the border of the Holy Land. 

Kefr Yasin is the Kapharsin of the Teutonic Knights (1250 a.d.) mentioned in the 
Tables of the Teutonic Order. 

Kefr ah. — Probably the Capharath fortified by Josephus (Vita, 37), and possibly the 
Caphra of the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Beracoth, 31 a). 

Kiil'at Jiddin is mentioned by Marino Sanuto in 1322 as a castle of the Knights of 
the Teutonic Order, situated on Mount Saron. It is shown on his map in correct relative 
I osition to Chateau du Roi (M'alia) and Montfort (Kiil'at el Kurein). The fortress was re- 
stored by Dhahr el 'Amr in the middle of the eighteenth century. 

Kiil'at el Kurei n? — The Crusading Montfort. In the Tables of the Teutonic Order 
it is called Chateau Neuf, under date 20th April, 122S (but is not to be confused with the 
earlier Chateau Neuf, near Jordan). Montfort is mentioned by Marino Sanuto in 1322 a.d., 
and shown on his map. 

K il e i k a t is mentioned under the names Coket and Casale Blanc in 1250 as belonging 
to the Teutonic Knights. It is also noticed in the ' Cartulary of the Holy Sepulchre ' (No. 
124) as the north boundary of a fief belonging to the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre Church. 



M a 1 i a. — Apparently the Melloth of Josephus (B. J. iii. 3, i ), the western limit of Upper 
Galilee. The position agrees well with the boundary-line as described in the Tosiphta 
(Shebiith, chap, iii.), being near both Zuweinita and Jelil. In the 'Tables of the 
Possessions of the Teutonic Knights,' under date the 31st of May, i3.;o a.d., Mahalia, or 
Chateau du Roi is mentioned, with other places north-east of Acre, as a fief of the Order. 
Marino Sanuto in 1322 a.d. shows Chateau du Roi on his chart in a correct position in relation 
to Montfort and Jiddin, and in the text he speaks of it as a castle of the Teutonic Knights. 

El Mesherfieh is mentioned as la Mesherefie with M a s s ii b, B a s s a h, etc., as 
one of the fiefs of the Teutonic Knights in 1250 a.d. 

Mima s, Tell. — Mimas is mentioned as a district name in the ' Cartulary of the Holy 

R a s e n N a k u r a h. — The ancient Scala Tyriorum i Mace. xi. 59) : the steps by which 
the road crosses the headland, and whence its .ancient name was derived, are ascribed by 
Maundrell (1697 a.d.) to Alexander the Great. The mountain is called Mount Sarona, both 
by Maundrell and by Marino Sanuto (1322 a.d.). 

Sh'ab. — This perhaps represents the town of Saab in Galilee mentioned by Josephus 
(B. J. iii. 7, 21). 

S u k h n i n is probably the Sicnin of the Talmud, the native place of R. Joshua and R. 
Hanina ben Theradion (Tal. Bab. Rosh hash-Shanah, 29 a). By Josephus Sogane is placed 
twenty stadia from Araba ('A r r a b e h). It was fortified by Josephus (Vita, 51; B. J. ii. 
20, 2). In 1334 .\.D. Isaac Chelo found Caphar Secnin in ruins, and notices the tomb of 
R. Joshua and others having illegible inscriptions. These tombs are again noticed by 
Rabbi Gerson of Scarniela and Rabbi Uri of Biel, in 1561 a.d. and 1564 a.d. Under the 
form Zekkanin Sukhnin is mentioned among the Casales possessed by the Teutonic Knights 
(about 1250 A.D.) with 'A r r a b e h, R u m m a n e h, and others. 

Ya n u h. — In 1250 a.d. this site is mentioned under the name Lanahie, among the casales 
of the Teutonic Knights, with other places round /\cre. 

E z Z i b.- — Cezib, or Gezib, is noticed in the Mishna as the boundary of the Holy Land 
(Hallah, iv. 3 ; Shebiith, vi. i). It was on the north side of the boundary (Tcsiphta Oholoth, 
chap, xviii. ; Tal. Bab. Gittin, 7 /'). By Josephus the place is called Ecdippon (B. J. i. 13, 
4), Actipus, and Arce (Antiq. v. i, 22). Eusebius and Jerome (' Onomasticon,' s. v. Achzib) 
Ijlace it nine miles north of Acre. The Jerusalem Itinerary (^^iT, a.d.) gives the distance as 
eight miles. Maundrell, in 1697 a.d., appears to have been the first to suggest the identi- 

Zuweinita, from its position, is probably the Beth Zanita of the Talmud, on the 
border of the Holy Land (Tal. Jer. Shebiith, vi. i, and Tosiphta Shebiith, chap. iii.). 

HvDROGRArHY. — The two great water supplies on this sheet arc the 
stream in Wady cl Kurn and the great springs of El Kabry. 

The water of the Wady el Kurn commences as a stream at the Ras en 
Neba. It is at once strong enough to turn several mills, and as it 
descends the valley a good many springs add to its strength, till at its 

20 — 2 


mouth, where it enters the plain near Kh. 'Abdeh, it is twenty yards in 
breadth ; it is a fine stream, witli a rapid current and numbers of fish. 

The springs of VA Kabry are very large, and are at once carried in an 
aqueduct to the town of 'Akka. The water that escapes joins a stream 
descending in Wady Jathun from springs farther cast. It is much em- 
ployed for irrigation and for turning mills. It is further strengthened by 
a stream from Birket Mcshukh, and flows into the sea after irrigating a 
large amount of ground directly west of Dar el Jebakhanjy. 

There are no other large streams of water in this sheet. The alpha- 
betical list that follows gives a description of the springs. 

'A i n 'Alma (L d). — A good perennial spring, with a small stream 
flowing from it ; medium supply of water. 

'A i n e 1 'A n k a 1 i s (L e). — A large perennial spring in the Wady 
Jathun, with a good stream flowing from it ; good water. 

'A i n el 'A si (L e). — A good perennial spring, built up with 
masonrv. There is also a birket. A stream of water flows to the sea. 

'A i n 'Aweinat (N c). — A small perennial spring, built up with 
rough masonry ; small supply. 

'A in el Basseh (Ld). — A perennial spring good water, built up 
with masonry ; medium supply. 

'A i n el B e i d a (L d). — A perennial spring, five miles east of Ras 
el Nakurah, good water, built up with masonry like well ; medium supply. 

'A in ed Dabsheh (M e). — A small spring, dry in summer. 

'A in Deir el A sad (M f). — A perennial spring good water, 
built up with masonry in form of well ; medium supply. 

' A i n e d D u m m (M e). — A small spring, near Kh. Belatun, south 
of Wady el Kurn, with water just dropping ; small supply, perennial. 

'A i n el F u w a r a h (L e). — A large perennial spring, close to El 
Kahweh, in the bed of the stream. 

'A in el Ghufr (L d). — A good perennial spring, with stream 
flowing from it to Mediterranean, north of Ras en Nakurah. It waters 
several gardens ; good supply. 

'A i n el Hamra (L c). — A large perennial spring good water 
lined with masonry ; square well. 


'A in Ham 111 (L d). — A large perennial spring of good water, 
irrigating gardens and turning a mill near its source ; plentiful supply. 

'A i n Haur (L d). — A rock-cut cistern, five and a half miles east 
of Ras en Nakurah ; rain-water only. 

'A i n I s k a n d e r u n eh (L c). — A large perennial spring of good 
water, south-east of Ras el Abiad, built up at the source, and carried in 
an aqueduct to drinking-trough ; it then runs waste to the sea. Plentiful 

'A i n el J 6 z e h (L e). — A large perennial spring in Wady Jathun ; 
good stream flows in valley ; plentiful supply of water. 

'A i n Kerkera (M d). — A perennial spring of good water, near 
Kh. 'Arabbin, with a small stream in wady ; good supply. 

'A i n el K fi 1 a i; (M e). — A large spring, joining the stream in Wady 
el Kiirn ; good water. 

'A i n L e b b u n a (L d). — A perennial spring, built up with masonry, 
and with birket ; medium supply. 

'A i n el M a j n u n e h (M e). — Dry in summer. 

'A i n el Mezrah (K e). — A good perennial spring, with slight 
stream ; medium supply. 

'A i n Mimas (Le). — A spring, south-west of Kuweikat, built up 
with masonry ; perennial, with birket ; medium supply. 

'A i n el Musheirefeh (K d). — A large perennial spring with 
good water : it was formerly built up with masonry, now ruined ; the 
stream flows into the sea south of Ras en Nakurah ; good supply. 

'A i n el 'Olleikah (M e). — A good perennial spring in the 
Wady Jathun : its stream joins that in the valley. 

'A i n .S h e m a (M c). — A perennial spring of good water, sur- 
rounded by slight marsh. 

'A i n Siria (N e). — A perennial spring of good water, a mile and 
a half north of Kefr Sumeia, with a small stream flowing from it. 

' A i n es Sitt (K f). — A masonry-built well, containing a perennial 
spring ; medium supply of water. 

'A i n e s S u f s a f e h (L d). — A large perennial spring, with a good 
stream flowing from it ; plentiful supply. 


'A i n e t T a n n u r (N c). — A perennial sprint;-, al head of Wacly el 
Bakk, north-east of sheet, built u[) w iih masonry in llie form of a well ; 
small supply. 

'A i n W'a z i a (X d). — A perennial si)ring-of good water ; no stream. 

'A i n Y a r i n ( M d). — A good perennial spring of water among the 
rocks ; no stream. 

'A i n e z Z a r 11 rah (M e). — A good spring, in Wady jAthun, with 
plentiful supply of water ; joining the stream in the wady. 

'A i n e z Z e i t li n e h (L e). — ^A small spring, similar to above. 

'A in ez Zib (K d). — A perennial spring of good water, built up 
with masonry in the form of a well. 

'A y u n A k r i t h (M d). — Here are three springs : one small and two 
medium-sized ; a little stream flows from them ; they are perennial ; this 
water is good. 

B i a r 'A r n u s (N e). — A few cisterns for rain-water. 

B i r Abu T a r u h (M e). — A rock-cut cistern containing rain-water. 

B i r I k 1 i 1 (L e). — A perennial spring and well, with a stream and 
a good supply of water. 

Bir Kefr Neb id (L d).— A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; also a masonry birket and large trough ; medium supply of 

Bir en Nusf (N f). — A rock-cut cistern containing rain-water. 

Bir esh Sherk (N f). — A rock-cut cistern containing rain-water. 

Bir ez Zeitun (Me). — A small perennial spring, near Yanuh ; 
it is enclosed in a masonry well. 

Birket Mefshukh (L c).— A birket of masonry, and a large 
perennial spring, with a stream flowing from it to the sea ; the stream is 
called the Nahr Mefshukh ; gives a very plentiful supply of water. 

The other birkets on this sheet are all pools of rain-water, generally 
dry, or nearly so, in the autumn. 

Ras en Neba (N e). — A very large perennial spring, with a very 
strong stream flowing from it ; it at once turns several mills, and forms the 
stream of water in the Wady el Kurn. 

{sheet III.'] ROADS. 159 

Roads. — The main road on this sheet is that running north from 
'Akka, leading to Tyre ; it passes along the plain to the foot of the Ras en 
Nakurah, and then rises at a steep gradient over the Headland, formerly- 
called the Ladder of Tyre. The road is well made, and would be 
practicable for wheeled traffic as far north as the Burj el Beiyadah. Here 
the road passes along a ledge cut in the face of the white cliffs of the 
Promontorium Album. The road is now too much damaged for wheeled 
traffic in this portion. The sea beats against the perpendicular cliffs below ; 
any fall would therefore be dangerous. An inscription in Arabic occurs 
at the spring of Nakurah, claiming for El Melek ed Dhahir the repairing 
of this road. The inscription is dated in the year seventy and eight 
hundred, i.e. 1294 a.d. 

Another good road leads from 'Akka past Mejd el Kerum ; it passes 
along the plain and ends at Safed. 

The other roads are difficult to pass, being never repaired, and 
some of them in the wilder parts only fit for goat-tracks. 


Abu S e na n (L f). 

' Abu Senan has succeeded an ancient town, as is proved by the cisterns cut in the rock, 
and a considerable quantity of cut-stones, now used for modern buildings.' — Gue'rin. 

'Akka, Acre (K f). — Many perfect, and some broken, columns of 
different kinds of marble are scattered about and used in the modern walls 
and in the fortifications. The remains of a Crusading mole of masonry that 
enclosed the southern bay can still be traced ; the masonry was small, as 
at Ascalon and Arsuf Besides these remains there are many fragments 
of Crusading masonry in the town. A small chapel, near the sea, of this 
nature has been identified with the Church of St. Andrew. There are 
also remains of the Hospital of the Knights of St. John, now rebuilt as 
the military hospital ; and traces of the Church of St. John attached to the 
hospital: these were identified in 1845, by M. de Mas Latrie, from the 
description of d'Arv^ieux in 1658. 

The modern name of Akka preserves the ancient form of Accho, the town whicli was 
included in the borders of the tribe of Asher, though it was never taken by them. The 
place was mentioned by Menander (Josephus, Antiq., i.x.-.\iv., § 2.) as belonging to the 
TjTians at the time of the siege of Tyre by Shalmaneser. Strabo calls it Ptolemais, but it 
is uncertain when or from which of the Ptolemies it took that name. Simon Maccabeus 
endeavoured, but in vain, to carry the place, which was afterwards given to Jonathan Macca- 
breus. It was besieged, by Alexander Jannsus without success, and was taken by 
Cleopatra shortly afterwards. It fell into the hands of Tigranes, King of Armenia, when 
that king made a rapid descent upon Syria. Herod the Great embellished the city, 
and Claudius raised it to the rank of a Roman colony. Coins exist in which the city 
is represented as a figure on a rock surrounded by the sea. In the right hand she bears 
three ears of corn ; at her feet is the image of a river with open hands. Saint Paul 
(.\cts xxi. 7) remained there one day in his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem. 
Ptolemais became very early the seat of a bishopric. In a.d. 198 Clarus, Bishop of Ptole- 


mais, was present at the Council of Ciosarea ; in a.d. 335 Guieas, Bishop of Ptolemais, was 
at the Council of Nice; Nectabus, Bishop in A.n. 381, was present at the first Council of 
Constantinople; PauKis, Bishop in a.d. 451, was at that of Chalcedonia ; and John, Bishop 
in A.D. 536, was at that of Jerusalem. Probably the name of Accho had always lingered on 
the tongues of the common people, for when the place was taken by the Mohammedans, in 
A.D. 638, the ofificial name of Ptolemais was lost, and the old name had reappeared under 
that of Akka. 

On the arrival of the Crusaders in 1099, the Emir sent food for the invaders, and pro- 
mised to deliver up the place within a certain time if no help came from Egypt. I'his 
promise he broke, and the city was not taken till four years later, when Baldwin I., after 
once raising the siege, got possession by means of a Genoese fleet. The place immediately 
became one of the most important ports and strongholds in the country, and the port at 
which the Crusaders and pilgrims chiefly landed. Genoese, Venetians, and Pisans, had 
their establishments here for trade, and an Archbishopric was created. One of the Arch- 
bishops, Jacques de Vitry, 1216 — 12S1, is remembered as the author of a history of the 

In 11S7 the city surrendered to Saladin, after the disastrous battle of Hattin. In 11S9 
Guy de Lusignan, just returned from captivity, resolved upon making an effort to reconquer 
Akka. He accordingly sat down before the place, encamping on the hill of Taron with 
9,000 men. The siege of Acre was one of the most important in the history of the Crusades. 
The following brief account is taken from Besant and Palmer's ' Plistory of Jerusalem ': 

' He nearly took it by assault, when an alarm was spread that Saladin was coming, and 
his men fled in a panic. It was not Saladin who was coming from the land, but the first 
reinforcement of the Crusaders from the sea. The Frisians and Danes, twelve thousand 
in number, came first, and camped with Guy. Next came the English and the Flemings. 
And then Saladin, becoming aware of the new storm that was rising against him, came down 
from Phoenicia, and prepared to meet it. Every day the Crusaders arrived ; before Richard 
and Philip were even on their way there were one hundred thousand of them, and the hearts 
of the Mohammedans sank when they beheld a forest of masts, always changing, always 
being renewed, as the ships went away and others came. The Christians, on the other hand, 
wete confident of success ; a French knight, looking on the mighty host about him, is 
reported to have cried out, blasjihemously, " If God only remains neuter, the victory 
is ours." Saladin forced on a battle, and experienced a disastrous defeat. The Saracens 
fled in all directions, and already the Christians were plundering their camp, when a panic 
broke out among them. Without any enemy attacking them, they threw away their arms, 
and fled. Saladin stopped his men, and turned upon them. The rout was general, and 
victory remained with Saladin, but a victory which he could not follow up, in consequence 
of the confusion into which his camp had been thrown. He withdrew, and the Crusaders, 
recovering from their panic, set to work, fortifying their camp, and besieging Acre. They 
passed thus the winter of 1189-90, without any serious success, and contending always 
against Greek fire, which the besieged threw against their movable towers. In the spring 
came Saladm again ; the Crusaders demanded to be led against the Saracens, the chiefs 
refused ; the soldiers revolted, and poured forth against the enemy, only to experience 
another defeat, exactly similar to the first. And then the leaders, despondent at their ill 
success, endeavoured to make peace with Saladin, when the arrival of Henry, Count of 
Champagne, followed by that of Frederick, Duke of Swabia, raised their hopes again. But 
then came famine, winter, and disease. Worse than all these, came dissension. Queen 
VOL. I. z\ 


Sybille died widi licr two children. Conrad of Tyre resolved to break the marriage of licr 
sister Isabelle, now the heiress to the crown of Jerusalem, with Humphrey de Toron, and to 
marry her himself. He did so, and claimed the throne ; so that the camp was split into two 
parties, lliat of Guy, and that of C'onrad. It was resolved to submit the matter to the arbi- 
tration of the kings of England and France. The two kings were quarrelling on their way. 
Richard refused to espouse Alice, Philip's sister, to whom he was betrothed, and married 
in her place Berengaria. He further offended Philii) by his conduct in Sicily, and by his 
conquest of Cyprus, which island he refused to share with Philij). Of course, therefore, 
directly Richard declared for Guy, Philip took the part of Conrad ; and it was not till after 
long discussions that it was decided that Guy should hold the crown during his life, after 
which it was to descend to Conrad and his children. Then both kings fell ill ; .Saladin also 
was ill, with continual fevers, and constant messages were sent to and from the Christian and 
Saracen monarchs, which were construed by the savage soldiers into proposals of treachery. 
Acre fell, after a two years' siege, and the loss of si.\ty thousand Christians by the Saracens' 

It was during this siege that the Teutonic Order of Knights was established, Ijy the union 
of forty German Knights into a fraternity sworn to protect the poor and wounded of their 
own countrymen in Palestine. At this time, too, was founded the Association of the 
Trinity, whose object was to ransom Christian captives. 

.^cre remained for a century in the power of the Christians, becoming in that time the 
most important and the most wealthy place in Syria. In 12 19 St. Francis of Assisi founded 
here the first house of the Order. The three great chivalric orders of Hospitallers, 
Templars, and the Teutonic Knights all had establishments here. The first-named took the 
title of St. Jean d'Acre, which afterwards passed into the name of the city itself. The town 
was divided into sixteen quarters, each submitted to special jurisdiction, a mode of govern- 
ment fertile in dissensions which led to frequent bloodshed. Its fortifications were greatly 
strengthened by Louis IX., in 1252. The most important part was a double wall, sur- 
mounted by crenelated towers, which were built round the city on the land side. 

In 1263 the Sultan Bibars advanced to the foot of the walls, ravaging the suburbs. In 
1291 the Sultan Melek el Akraf, son of Calavon, invested Acre with an army of forty 
thousand foot and sixty thousand cavalry. The siege began early in April. The Christians, 
torn by internal dissensions, at first united for the common defence ; but division quickly 
appeared among the chiefs, and many sought safety in flight. On the nth of May the King 
of Cyprus deserted the city with three thousand soldiers and all his knights. 

' The siege of this, the last place held by the Christians, lasted a month, when the 
Mohammedans entered the city after a furious assault. They were driven back by arrows 
and stones hurled from the houses ; day after day they came on, were repelled with slaughter, 
and every day the Christians saw their camp growing larger and larger. The military orders 
fought with a heroism which caused the Saracens to think that two men were fighting in 
every knight. But the end came at length, with a great and terrible carnage. The nuns, 
trembling and yet heroic, actually preserved their honour by cutting off their noses, so that 
the Saracens only killed them. The Patriarch of Jerusalem was put on board a ship, 
entreating to be allowed to die with his flock. The ship sank and he was drowned, so that 
his prayer was granted. A violent storm was raging. Ladies rushed to the port, offering 
the sailors all they had, diamonds, pearls, and gold, to be put on board. Those who had no 
money or jewels were left on the shore to the mercies of the victors. The Templars held 
out in their castle a few days longer and then fell. All were killed. So ended, after two 




hundred years of continued fighting, tlie Christian settlements in Palestine. The \Vcst 
heard the news of the fall of Acre with a sort of unreasoning rage, and instantlj' set about 
mutual accusations as to the cause of its fall. And the wretched Piillani, the Sj'rian 
Christians, who had survived the taking of Acre, dropped over one by one to Italy and 
begged their bread in the streets while they told the story of their fall.' 

The Saracens proceeded to destroy the fortifications and to raze the city. Four hundred 
years later it was visited by a French traveller, the Chevalier d'Arvieux, who speaks of the 
vast mass of ruins lying about, with vaults which had been cisterns and magazines. And he 
found there, still standing, the ruins of the churches of St. Andrew and St. John, the arsenal, 
the monastery of the Hospitallers, and the palace of their Grand Master. 

In 1749 the Sheikh Dhaher el Amer began to reconstruct the city and to rebuild its 

In 1799 Acre was attacked by Bonaparte, but without success. In 1S31 it was taken by 
Ibrahim Pasha; and in 1S40 it was bombarded by the united fleets of England, Turkey, 
and Austria. 

Lieutenant Conder contributes the following note on the fortifications of Acre : 
' A plan of the walls and public buildings of Acre is given by Marino Sanuto (1322 a. d. ) 
It shows a large quarter on the north, where are now remains of unfinished fortifications of 


ToFiiBRIDZF r.:7/:;4flCM-. Tniv 



kC^'c. AS IT WAS WHEN iosr ( A .D. 1291 ) . 



a later period. The mole, with a tower at its further end (still remaining in ruins), is also 
shown, and two walls on the east, as at present. An inner port or dock, marked on this 
map, seems also to have existed in 1799 (as shown on a plan of the fortress of that date 
given in the ' Journal des Sciences ' for the year), but this is now filled up. The tower at the 
end of the mole was called the Tour des Mouches, and also, as at present, el INIenarah (see 
' Itinerary of Richard,' 1191 a.d.). 

The dock is described by Rey (' Monuments des Croises en Syrie,' j). 172) as a rectangle 
of about eighty metres side, almost entirely filled up in 1S60. Remains of a smaller basin 

21 — 2 


also existed about half-way between tlie square dock and the land-gate ; and soundings taken 
by Com. Mensell of the English na\7 showed the existence of a second mole, running out 
from the land-gate to the tower el Menarah, not now visible above the sea-level. Tiic port 
was tlius apparently entirely enclosed, like the Crusading ports at Tyre, Beirut, etc., leaving 
only a narrow entrance, probably closed with a chain, as at Tyre. 

At the north-east salient of the outer wall was the Turris Maledictum, attacked by King 
Richard Lion Heart, in 1191 .\.d. ; and south of this the towers of St. Nicholas, of the 
Bridge, and of the Patriarch. East of the salient was the tower of the English and the 
Venetian Custody (or guard). The wall on the north was guarded by the Templars and 

The sea-wall along the south front, as now existing, is Crusading work, with large stones, 
having a deep draft and rustic boss. The west sea-wall was, however, rebuilt at a later 
period, as will be seen immediately. 

An inscription in Arabic on the eastern inner wall attributes its erection to Dhaher el 
'Amr. This wall appears on the French map of 1799, copied from the 'Journal des 
Sciences ' into the 'Royal Engineer Corps Papers ' for 1843 (vol. vi.). On this map the 
town is shown as occupying about the same extent now covered, but the inner dock was still 
apparently in existence, while the defences on the east were formed by a single wall. The 
French attack was from the east, where is the hillock now called Tell el Fokhar (or, 
by Christians, Napoleon's Hill), identical with the Mount Turon, which was the site of the 
camp of King Richard in 1191 a.d. (Itin. Ricardi). Three parallels were run by Napoleon, 
and batteries constructed in each of them. A false attack was directed towards the castle 
(now the S e r 'ai) on the north, but the main attack was on a tower at the north-east salient 
of the town. The tomb of Major Oldfield, R.M., killed in a sortie on 7th April, 1799, is 
now to be seen just outside the Greek monastery. The water supply at the time was obtained 
through a subterranean aqueduct, which was blown up by the French ; and the great mosque 
of Jezzar Pasha, which had only recently been erected, was injured in the bombardment of 
the 20th of May, the day of Napoleon's retreat, the trenches having been first opened on the 
19th of March, 1799. 

After the French retreat, Jezzar Pasha and his successor, 'Abdallah Pasha, increased the 
fortifications of the land side of the town. The present outer line of wall, about 400 feet 
from the inner line (that of Dhaher el 'Amr), was then added, with a deep fosse. There 
were three bastions on the east, and four on the north, while the inner line had only square 
projecting towers — three on the east, three on the north, and one at the northeast angle 
(that attacked by Napoleon). It seems possible that these two lines of fortification coincide 
wiUi the two lines of the Crusading city. In 1S31, during the siege by Ibrahim Pasha, the 
Turks made an inner coupure across the north-east angle of the outer line of rampart, traces 
of which are still visible. 

The fortifications of Acre were again increased by Ibrahim Pasha, and, after the bom- 
bardment of the 4th of November, 1840, and the evacuation by the Egyptians on the same 
night, the town was surveyed by Lieutenant Symonds, R.E. (see ' R.E. Corps Papers,' 
vol. vi., 1843, where his survey is given). 

With exception of a few new buildings, the walls and principal edifices of the modern 
town are exactly the same shown on the survey in question. The fortress is an irregular 
pentagon, with two land-fronts. The scarp on the sea-sides is twenty-seven to thirty feet in 
height, with guns in embrasures. At the north-west angle is the Burj el K eri m (Great 
Tower) ; in the middle of the west face the Burj el Hadid (Iron Tower) : on the south- 


west angle the Burj es Sanjak (Mag Tower). The bastion soutli of this is semicircular, 
with guns in barbette. 

The land-gate at the south-east angle, close to the shore, is in the tower called K c ji i 
Burj. The inner scarp on the east face is thirty-five to forty feet in height ; the tower :it 
the north-east salient having a scarp of ninety feet. The parapets are of stone. The ditch 
is dry, and the outer line, as before mentioned, consists of bastioned fronts with straps 
thirty to forty feet high, the parapets being of earth. The outer ditch is also dry ; and a 
covered way, with traverses, exists in an unfinished condition outside the countcrscar|). 
'J'he outworks beyond these two lines were commenced by Ibrahim Pasha, but never 
finished. The ditches were arranged for cavalry sorties from the town. A double ravelin 
was constructed on the north-east, and two others with less saliency, one on tlie east, 
one on the north. These are still visible, much decayed and overgrown. They were 
to have been rivetted with masonry, but the town was lost before this could be done. 
The whole of the west face was rebuilt by Ibrahim Pasha, as well as the Burj es 
Sanjak, between 1836 and 1840. The stone was obtained from 'Athlit, and this accounts 
for the demolition of parts of that fortress (see Sheet V.) The main magazine on the east 
(e.Nploded in 1840) was between the two lines of fortification ; 1,600 men, 30 camels, 50 asses, 
and 12 cows and horses were killed, and a great store of arms destroyed by this explosion. 
The port of Acre measures about 1000 feet north and south by 700 east and west. The 
average depth of water inside the mole is about three feet, partly because the port was filled 
up by the Moslems in the fifteenth century, partly through subsequent silting. The town 
has an extreme area of about fifty acres, within the boundary of the outer wall. The mosque 
of Jezzar Pasha is the most conspicuous object. The present aqueduct is on the same line 
as that of 1799.' 

'Acre,' says Renan (' Mission en Phe'nicie,' p. 72), 'has litUe archa:ological interest; the 
military spirit, even among Mohammedans, is too destructive of antiquity for any considerable 
traces of the past to be left here. The plain to the east of the city is, nevertheless, rich in 
ancient debris, fragments of pottery, marble, wells, etc. The tell called the Napoleon's Hill, 
or Tell el Fokhar, is, I think, an artificial tumulus, like that of Ras el Ain and Borak et Tell. 
The great plain is, however, covered with these tells. Situated in a country formerly 
marshy, they had, like the above-mentioned, a hydraulic purpose. One of these tells must 
have been the " Tomb of Memnon," mentioned by Josephus. The name became common 
to all the great tumuli of Phicnicia.' 

The following is Guerin's account of the present state of the city : 

' The ramparts of St. Jean d'Acre, on the land side, are double, very broad, and in 
tolerably good condition ; they are flanked by towers and bastions. The great blocks 
employed in their construction or repair are of different dates, and come from different 
places. Each enceinte is surrounded by a broad moat. Beyond the wall of the counter- 
scarp of the second, or external moat, is a third moat, which has not been completed. It is 
due, according to some, to Abdallah Pasha ; according to others to Ibrahim Pasha, who had 
an idea of introducing the sea into this channel, and so to transform the peninsula into an 
island. The ramparts are armed with cannons and mortars to the number of two hundred 
and thirty, some of them being French, with the dates of 1785, 17S6, and 1787. They are 
those which were sent by sea for the use of Napoleon, but were captured by Sir Sidney 
Smith, and brought here to serve for the defence of the city. 


'St. Jean d'Acre liad formerly two ports, one external, which is the jircscnt roadstead, 
the other internal. The latter was enclosed by a dyke, now partly destroyed, which was pro- 
tected by several towers, of which the lowest stones only are now visible. One of these 
tiiwers was the famous Tour des Mouches, so called, according to Vinsauf, because here was 
an ancient place of sacrifice, to which the wasps were attracted by the blood of the 
victims. This port is much choked with sand, its greatest dci)th being now one and a half 
metres. Small boats only can therefore enter, and vessels of any considerable si/.c must 
now lie in the roadstead, which is much less safe than that of liaiffo. 

' In the northern part of the town (which is of much smaller area than the old town) is 
the citadel, which has been several times destroyed and rebuilt. On one side is the military 
hospital, the lower part of which belongs entirely to the Crusaders' work, and consists of 
large subterranean magazines. All the upper part is modern, and contains on one side a 
barrack, and on the other a hospital. In the middle is a great court shaded by trees, such 
as figs and palms, under which are vaulted galleries and cisterns. Under the ramparts 
extend also immense ogival vaults, many of which belong to the time of the Crusades. 
Some are in very bad condition, and threaten to fall ; some have already fallen. One of 
Ihese sotitarains, dark and wet, served years ago as a prison. 

' The great moscjue called after Jezzar Pasha, because it was built by this governor 
towards the end of the last century, occupies, it is said, the site of the ancient cathedral of 
St. Jean d'Acre. In 1S63 it was much dilapidated, and in some places broken away. 
Since then it has been repaired. It stands within a large rectangular area, within which arc 
vaulted galleries supported by ancient columns, ornamented by capitals and brought fiom 
the ruins of Tyre and Cresarea. Along these galleries have been built cells destined 
for the people employed at the mosque, or the pilgrims who came to visit it. They 
surround a magnificent court, under which are cisterns, and upon which are palms, 
cypress, and other trees. Among them are white marble tombs, notably those of Jezzar 
and Soliman Pasha. 

'The town contains three other mosques, the columns in which, and the pavement, 
have certainly belonged to more ancient buildings. 

' There are four Christian churches in the city : one belonging to the Schismatic 
Greeks, one to the Maronites, a third to the United Greeks. That named after Saint 
Andrew has three naves, the middle one resting on pillars, each with three engaged columns ; 
the walls are thick, the windows are narrow embrasures. A fourth church, dating from 1727, 
serves as a parish church to the Latins. 

' The Franciscans have a convent, which is not older than the seventeenth century. It 
occupies one of the extremities of a khan called the Frank Khan, because the European 
merchants used to have their magazines here. Under the house of the Sisters of Nazareth, 
and under several neighbouring houses, extend vast vaulted cellars, which I have explored. 
They belong to different proprietors and are now divided by walls of separation. They 
are for the most part filled with a thick deposit of dung, probably of Crusading times ; deep 
cisterns also date from this period. Of the same date also are certain remains of walls and 
vaults, near the convent, which are the ruins of a church almost completely destroyed. 

' The city is traversed by several bazaars. One is vaulted, and of stone, seeming to 
be of recent construction. The others are only covered by planks, mats, and cloths. 

' Besides the Frank Khan mentioned above, it possesses other establishments of the 
same kind. The most remarkable is at the port. It is called the Khan Jezzar Pasha, 
because it was built by that governor, or the Khan El Amid, on account of its columns; 

[^SlIEET in.'] ARCH.EOLOGY. 167 

the galleries surrounding it being built on pillars, in grey or red granite, covered by capitals 
of different orders, and brought away from more ancient monuments. This khan is said to 
have been built upon the ruins of an old Dominican convent. Another khan, called Khan 
Shawardi, is said to have been the house of the Dames Clarisses. It is a modern construc- 
tion, which, however, may have stood upon the site of the celebrated convent. 

' The j)resent population of St. Jean d'Acre does not exceed the total of 9,000 inhabi- 
tants, among whom are t,6oo Christians, viz., 500 United Greeks, 940 .Schismatic Greeks, and 
160 Latins. 

" Outside the double wall we observe towards the north numerous excavations made in 
the ground, in order to extract the stones belonging to older buildings. This proves that 
the city once extended much further on this side than at present. Along the shore vestiges 
of ancient magazines are visible. One observes, too, a number of cells lashioned by the 
hand of man, like so many little basins, in the middle of the reefs which line the shore, and 
against which the sea breaks with fury. Advancing thus north of the city for about 
half-a-mile, we reach the remains of an ancient rampart, the facing of which has been 
removed, and only the blocks of stones, which they have begun to carry away, have been 
left. Beyond was a moat, now three-fourths filled up. This is the northern limit of the 
mediaeval city. 

' If we now direct our steps towards the east, we shall find that in the same way the 
ancient city extended 750 to Soo metres further than at present. This interval is now 
occupied by a Mussulman cemetery lying round a ?i'<7r dedicated to Neby Saleh. Cisterns 
half choked up ; the walls of an aqueduct, which brought to the city the water of Kabry ; 
foundations of houses, and remains of walls, are all that remain of the ancient town. The 
sand is continually more and more swallowing it up.' 

El Basseh (L d). — Some stone lintels and a few drafted stones, two 
marble pillars, and one Corinthian capital ; probably a Crusading village. 

Neubauer ('Geographic du Talmud,' [x 22) proposes to identify this place with the 
I! a t z e t of the Talmud. 

Renan says that el Basseh is built out of the delnis of Kh. Masub (see below). Frag- 
ments of sculptures, showing heifers and gazelles, were shown him by the Greek priest. 

Gucrin observed fragments of columns and sculptures scattered about the village ; among 
them a broken block of marble, with a Clreek cross upon it, between two pillars. 

.V Greek inscription found here was copied by Van dc \'elde. It is printed on page 16S. 

B e i 11 1 es Seiyid (L c). — There are some rock-cut caves and 
wine-presses at this village. 

B u r j M Ti s r (N d). — A square ruined building of drafted masonry, 
probably a guardhouse and point of observation of the Crusaders. 

' Here I examined the remains of a tower extremely ancient, measuring twelve metres on 
each face. It was constructed of enormous blocks, roughly squared, some being 3.20 metres 
long, by one metre high, and one broad. They are placed without cement one on the other, 
as is shown by some layers still remaining in position. It is entered by means of a door, 
whose right side and entrance are really gigantic, and which opens into a kind of vestibule, 
where a lateral door gives entrance to the interior of the tower . . . From the primitive 
character of the great polygonal blocks, and its colossal clnractcr, the to ver seems to be of 
the most remote antiquity.' — Guerin. 



Deir L' 1 As;id t .M 1).- Ruiiird churcli wllhoul an a|>sc, the door 

with a pointed arch; masonry small; some stones draltcd ; prohahly a 

Crusading village. 

'Constructed of small stones very regularly cut, this church had three naves and three 
apses. Its windows were narrow, and fashioned like actual loopholes, and several details of its 
architecture show a knowledge of art. Unfortunately the Druses have half demolished it, 
and what they have spared has been converted into a stable.' — Guerin. 






WhiJU marble, tombstcne, frcrrL the nuns of MaasHi fciuid uu 
the, Jhovuso ofcu Greek CathoUc pncst at cl-Bussa^. 

El Ghabsiye-h (L e).— One Corinthian capital was observed. No 
other remains. 

Jett. (Me) 

'This is the site of an ancient township, of which there remain cisterns, a built reservoir, 
and fragments of cut stones disposed about platforms or built up in the walls of modern con- 
structions. Its ancient name was probably Gath, Gith, or Gittah, given to many towns in 
Palestine, of which Jett is the modern form.' — Guerin. 

[_SHEET in.'] ARCH.-EOLOGY. 169 

Jul is (L f). 

' Immediately before arriving at Julis I came upon a small plateau pierced by many 
cisterns. The cisterns and the cut stones which are built up in the modern houses show that 
the place is the site of an ancient town or village. On a neighbouring hill a waly is conse- 
crated to the Sheikh Aly.' — Guerin. 

El J Li b b c i n (M cl). — Rock-cut birket, ruined. 

El K a b r y (L c). — Several stone lintels were observed. 

' Many of the houses are built of good materials, which seem ancient. They are con- 
structed of stones finely cut, mixed with simple rubble, perfectly jointed by means of little 
stones so placed as to fill up spaces and to make the whole compact. The site of an ancient 
church, now completely destroyed, is still, to a certain extent, to be traced. Many columns 
have been removed from it, and numbers of cut stones of medium size. Above the village, 
the ruins of houses prove that the place was once much more populous than now.' — Guerin. 
Kefr Yasif (L f). 

' The oldest construction in the village is a sort of small square tower, built of very regular 
stones, and enclosing a vaulted chamber lit by an o:il dc Ixviif, above which, outside, a cross 
has been sculptured. It was formerly part of a more considerable building, which has been 
demolished and replaced by modern houses. . . . Five minutes to the south of Kefr Yasif 
they told me of the site of an ancient church, of which nothing but the recollection remains. 
Columns and cut stones have been taken from it.'— Guerin. 

Kabu Jamriyeh (N d). — Heaps of large stones, probably the 

remains of a watch-tower. 

Kefr S u m e i a (N e). 

Guerin found here the remains of ancient buildings with rock-cut tisicrns and a great 
pentagonal birket built of small but very regular stones. 

Neubauer ('Geog. du Talmud,' p. 234) says : 

' In this place, according to tlie Talmud of Jerusalem, lived a certain Jacob, who per- 
formed wonderful cures in the name of Yeschu Pandeia (Jesus). One day he wished to cure 
a certain Eleazar ben Dama, who had been bitten by a serpent ; but Rabbi Ismael, who was 
present, opposed it in the name of religion. Jacob would not be set aside ; he tried to prove 
to Rabbi Ismael, on the support of sacred texts, that it was permitted to cure by every method. 
While he victoriously established his thesis the patient died. " Happy art thou, Eleazar,'' 
cried Rabbi Ismael, " to have left the world rather than transgress the law of the wise !" ' 

K h a n Abu H e d a (K d). — A ruined building of small masonry, 

K h u r a b J u b ]:> S u w e i d (M c). — Ancient walls and foundations 
ot large masonry, roughly dressed. The name applies to four ruins on tells 
all close together and of a similar character. 

Khurbet 'Abbasiyeh (L d). — Traces of ruins and two olive- 

'A village entirely destroyed, of which there remain no more than a confused mass of 
materials, with here and there the grooved uprights of old olive-presses, and the jambs or 
lintels of monolithic doorways.' — Guerin. 

VOL. I. 2 2 


i\ n. 

Alidch (L d). — Ruined walls of incdiuin-siiicd masonry, a 
broken column, and several cisterns; probably an ancient site. 

'At length we arrived at a plateau, whose highest point is nearly 500 feet above the sea, 
and from which is obtained a broad view over the whole plain of St. Jean d'Acrc. Here are 
remarked the remains of an inclosure fifty paces long by forty-six broad. Built of ancient 
blocks, doubtless found upon the spot, it does not appear older than mediajval times, and 
seems to have been rapidly constructed at a time of war with the object of defence. It is 
divided into small compartments, and shows in the north-east angle the remains of a little 
chapel, where a chamber turned from west to east terminates in an apse. Outside the 
inclosure, which is covered with thistles and brushwood, grow fig and karoob trees. The 
name of Abdeh given to the ruins upon the hill naturally suggests the Abdon of Joshua .\.xi. 
30. .As it stands in the territory of the tribe of Asher, the identification of Abdeh with 
Abdon seems probable, not to say certain. Doubtless the present ruins are of very small 
extent ; but the hill, on the summit of which they stand, was evidently once disposed by the 
hand of man to serve as the site of a small city, as is proved by the regularity of the great 
circular terraces, rising one above the other, which surround it.' — Gucrin. 

K h. A b u .S hash (M c). — Heaps of stones and ruins. 

K h. A in H a u r (L d). — Heaps of small-sized stones, with several 

'The ruins of this village are very confused. The hill on which they stand rises between 
Wady el Delem on the south and Wady 'Ain Haur on the north. Circular and concentric 
terraces surround it in the upper part as high as the summit.' — Gucrin. 

K h. A i t e i y i m (K e). — Scattered remains and two cisterns. 

K h. el 'A j 1 i y a t (N d). — Foundations of walls and heaps of stones. 

K h. Akrush (L e). — Extensive remains of buildings and heaps of 

K h. 'Alia (M e). — A small square building of well-dressed stones 

w^ithout draft, probably Crusading ; a large number of cisterns and traces 

of ruins. 

Gucrin suggests that this place may be the Hali of Joshua xix. 25, a town in the boundary 
of Asher, named between Helkath and Beten. ' Here, on a hill where terraces are now 
under cultivation, and have been cleared of the materials belonging to houses destroyed, 
which are now heaped up like walls, was once a town, long since destroyed. All that remain 
of it are the lower corners of a square stone, measuring about twelve yards on either side, 
and built of magnificent t)locks perfectly square, lying on each other without cement. 
Besides this, there are several cisterns and a certain number of tombs in a tolerable state of 
preservation. Some of the tombs are cut in the rock like rectangular graves, covered by a 
great block of stone for a lid ; the others consist each of a single sepulchral chamber, into 
which one descends by steps, containing three arched arcosolia, containing each two sarcophagi.' 

K h. e 1 'A m 11 d (L e). — A few scattered unhewn stones and one 

\_SIIEET ///.] 



K h. 'A r u b b i n (M d). — Foundations of walls and modern walls; 
remains of a small modern chapel, with two columns inside and an apse ; 
two cisterns. 

' The ruins of this name are scattered over the flanks and summit of a hill, bordered on 
the south by the deep ravine of Wady Kerkera. Terraces, once regulated by the hand of 
man and now overgrown with thick underwood, were formerly covered with dwelling-houses 
whose remains cumber the soil. The foundations of some are still visible. They were small, 
but tolerably well-built, with regular stones of fair dimensions. 

' On the door, still standing, of one of them, we observe a cross with equal arms set in a 
niche. Besides these, the ruins of a building measuring twenty-si.x paces long from west to 
east, and twenty from north to south, deserve particular attention. It was built with cut stones 
worked in with much care and without cement. The southern fagade was pierced with these 
doors. Another door, the only one on that side, was constructed in the middle of the 
western fagade ; its lintel is lying on the ground. On the east was an apse, whose interior 
layers are in place. Within this ancient church are several monolithic columns half hidden 
by the bushes; they measure 2.50 metres in length, by thirty-five centimetres in diameter. 
The capitals and the base: are wanting, or at all events no longer visible. By the side of 
this building is observed a sort of subterranean magazine arched in stone with a circular arch. 
It is partly filled up. On the sumrnit of the hill the vestiges of a town can be recognised. 
It was approached by a number of steps.' — Guerin. 

K h. 'Aweinat (N c). — Large heaps of stones, and a well lined 
with masonry. 

K h. el B a 1 u a (N e). — Scattered remains of a few modern buildings. 

K h. Beit I r i a (L e). — Extensive ruins ; a few walls and cisterns. 

K h. el B e i y a d (M e).— Remains of buildings and foundations ; 
rock-cut cistern ; medium-sized masonry. 

K h. Beiyad el Juwany (M c).— Large sarcophagi and heaps 
of stones. 

K h. Bel at (N d). — These remains are situated on the top of a 
high wooded ridge difficult of access, and were probably those of some 
very ancient temple. khurbet belat 

The remains of sixteen columns are apparently 
ill situ. Some of them still bear an architrave. 
If the building was originally uniform, it would 
have been formed of a double colonnade of 
twelve columns, the inter-columnar distance vary- 
ing from six to eight feet. The whole was sur- 
rounded by a wall at a distance of seven feet. 
The columns and architrave form a total height of 14' 6". The entrance 
was probably in the centre of the eastern side, where two columns are 


squared on the outside. It w>is i)rol);ihly ;i doubli: iiorlal, with a round 
column between. The end columns at both ends of the colonnade were 
squared on the outside, forn-iini;- a doulilc column on the inside, similar to 
those which occur in Jewish synagogues. Another point of resemblance to 
a synagogue is the direction. There is no decoration ; everything is rude 
and archaic, and seems to point to a very early period, when some unknown 
deity was worshipped here. Adjoining, on the eastern side, there are some 
foundations of buildings, with stejjs leading down the hill-side, and a large 
cistern. They seem to have once been a monastery of some sort. 

The whole of these ruins have a very ancient appearance, and are 
much weathered. 

These ruins are tluis described by Guerin : 

' Here rise, amid a copse of terebinths, oaks, and laurels, the picturesque ruins of an 
edifice turned north and south, measuring forty paces long by twelve broad. It was built of 
great blocks without cement, and of different dimensions, and was pierced by a single door- 
way on the southern face. One of the uprights of this door is still standing; the second is 
lying on the ground with the lintel. 

'The door opened into a sort of long hall ornamented by twenty columns, ten on each 
side, and by four pilasters, square on one side and round on the other, so as to form two half 
columns. The pilasters terminate at the two extremities of each range of columns, as in the 
ancient Jewish synagogues. A part of the columns are still standing, crowned by their 
capitals and their architraves. The monolithic shafts in common limestone like the rest of 
the building, do not e.vceed 2. So metres in height; they are rudely fashioned like the bases 
and the chapters, which imitate Doric. A second door opened a communication from the 
east side of the monument with a great paved platform, a sort of terrace, closed on the east 
by a wall, and pierced in the middle by a cistern. On the right and the left of the door are 
the foundations of two small buildings, probably dependencies of the greater edifice. 

Robinson's account differs trom both Kitchener and Guerin ('Later Biblical Re- 
searches,' p. 64.) : 

' Here was once a temple of some sort, of which ten columns are still standing. From 
the northern end, its sides have the direction south 20° east. On the eastern side, near the 
south end, four columns still bear their architraves ; as also three at the north-west corner 
that is, the corner pillar and one on each side of it. All the columns are of the common 
limestone of the region, with imperfect capitals resembling the Doric. They are about 12 
feet high, i J feet in diameter, 55 feet in circumference, and stand 73- feet apart. The length 
of the whole edifice is about 90 feet by 22 feet broad. The pillars at the four corners are 
square on the outside ; but on the inside, each corner of the pillar is so rounded off as to 
give the appearance of a sort of double column. The two columns in the middle of the 
eastern row are also square on the outside, and round within ; they served apparently to form 
the portal. On the west side are remains of a platform on which the edifice stood, e.vtending 
seven feet beyond the row of columns. The whole area is now full of fallen columns, archi- 
traves, and the like ; but there does not appear to have been any interior building or fane. 
The stones are exceedingly worn by the weather ; and there is the appearance of great rude- 



^■'^^'?!i^'iN4itl^^l %9'"^\% 









ness of architecture. No sculpture is to be found except the columns; nor any trace of 
inscriptions. There is a cistern roughly hewn, in which we found water. Some traces of a 
small village are seen near by, and a few hewn stones. We saw also a single sarcophagus 
sunk in a rock, with a rudely formed lid. 

' This is a singular ruin, and hard to be accounted for. It has no resemblance to the 
heathen temples in Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, of which I afterwards saw so many ; nor yet 
to the remains we had so recently visited at Kubrikhah. In some points, especially in the 
form of the capitals, and of the pillars at the four corners, there was a resemblance to the 
remains of Jewish edifices of the early centuries after Christ, which we afterwards saw at 
Kefr Bir'im, Kades, and elsewhere. But it is difficult to conjecture for what purpose the 
Jews of that day should have erected such a structure here, inasmuch as the days of idolatry 
and high places among them had long since passed away.' 

Renan, who calls the place B elat, thus speaks of it : 

'The height of Belat possesses the most striking ruin in the whole country. It is a great 
colonnade resembling the Doric, and still bearing its frieze. The materials here, situated as 
they are ou a scarped height, have not been carried away. All the stones, or nearly all, are 
scattered about the hill, and one could almost rebuild the temple. This picturesque mass 
of ruins, on which grows a littk cluster of laurels, the remains of the ancient sacred wood 
(the laurel is rare in Syria, and does not grow in clumps spontaneously), ought to be 
thoroughly examined. The stones are of the country. The work is heavy, and as if it were 
an imitation of the Greek style by rustic or provincial stone-cutters. The temple had a good 
cistern, which gave us fresh and excellent water. Belat was very probably dedicated to the 
Magna Dca Ccekstis, or Venus {SKarTa oi-o.aa 'Af joSi!-*;; ■/.a^a, rsir f:(iivr/.a:, Lydus de 
Mens. § 24), or at least to some goddess, rt^a, equivalent to " Notre Dame," is an honorary 
epithet of the goddesses in the Yemen ... I am inclined to believe that these buildings 
belong to the Ptolemaic or Seleucide period. The Roman period would have produced some- 
thing more correct. However that may be, Be'lat is the finest example of a " high place " which 
the country has to show. This cluster of laurels are those green trees the shadows of which 
inspired so great a horror to the monotheistic prophets. Robinson thinks there was no a//a 
behind the colonnade of Belat. Very likely ; open-air worship was a distinguishing feature 
in this country. Compare Carmel.' — ' Mission de Phenicie,' p. 686. 

K h. Belatun (Me). — Traces of ancient ruins, and remains of a 
modern small building. 

K h. Ben n a (L d). — Heaps of hewn stone and several cisterns. 

K h. Bobriyeh, or K h. el Menawat (Le). — F"oundations of 

walls, medium-sized masonry ; ruins of modern building- near on west 

side ; several cisterns. 

'The remains of a strong building in cut stones, of ancient appearance, but which does 
not date perhaps earlier than the time of the Crusades, or at least which seems to have been 
rebuilt at that time. Several pieces of wall still remain standing, and appear to have belonged 
to an ancient fortress, or to a fortified monastery, overturned in a heap. Three broken 
shafts of columns lie along the ground mixed with a mass of cut stones.' — Cucrin. 

K h. B u d a (L e). — Heaps of stones and three cisterns. 


K li. cl 13 u t c i s h 1 y i: li (l>tl). — Walls of modern iiKisonry, and 
remains of ancient foundations ; five cisterns. 

' These ruins consist of a great rectangular enclosure, constructed of good blocks, lying 
one upon the other without cement, some of the courses being still /;/ situ. The enclosure 
formerly contained an edifice, now completely destroyed, ornamented by monolithic columns, 
now dispersed. I believe it was a church, because I observed a square cross sculptured in 
a niche on a stone lying on the ground. The place, which is occupied, together with the 
whole interior of the enclosure, has been divided into some thirty compartments, indicating 
the foundations of as many houses. These have been destroyed, and are now overgrown 
with thistle and brushwood.' — Ouerin. 

K h. e d D a b s h e h (M c). — Heaps of stones and cattle-sheds. 

K h. I) a n i a n (L d). — Heaps of roughly-hewn stones. 
Khurbet D.inian is perhaps the ancient Danjaan (II. Sam. xxiv. 6). 
K h. DhahCir el Harah (L c).— E.xtensive foundations and 
traces of ruins. 

K h. el Ghureib (Lc). — Heaps of well-cut stones, medium-sized ; 
lintels, broken pillar, cisterns, and several foundations and traces of ruin.s. 

Kh. el Habai (M e).— Heaps of .stones. 

Kh. Hanuta (Ld). — Heaps of small-sized stones, several olive- 
presses, and cisterns. 

' Filled up cisterns and foundations of a house, with several uprights of grooved olive- 
presses. The Talmud speaks of an Hanuta in Palestine, which may be this place.'— Gucrin. 

Kh. el Hamra (L c). — Heaps of stones and remains of ancient 
foundations ; a deep square well, with steps leading down to the bottom, 
round two sides ; three, with pillars having slits in them, 
described in Sheet I. 

' Here are several broken sarcophagi, and the lower layers of great sustaining walls which 
once formed terraces ; the foundations of houses still to be traced ; five or six grooved 
uprights of olive-presses, and a beautiful well, built with regular stones, covered with thick 
cement, in which one descends by twenty steps.'— Gue'rin. 

K h. H a ni s i n ^ (L d). — Few traces of ruins, rocks much quarried 
round ; a high column standing alone on a pedestal. The ruins are north 
and south of the column, and a few small pillars are mi.\ed with them, 
also some broken olive-presses. Another column similar, though smaller 
than this one, exists in northern Syria, in the Plain of El Bukei'a, west 
of Baalbek. 


The column stands on a pedestal of large masonry, somewhat similar 
in character to the pedestal supporting Hiram's tomb (described Sheet I.). 
It Is 9 feet high, by 1 1 feet x 10 feet. There are three courses of stones, 
and on the upper one is a cornice, carried all round the pedestal, now much 
worn by time. 

The pillar does not stand in the centre of the pedestal, but is much 
nearer the eastern side and a little south. 

It is formed of round discs of stone 17 feet in circumference and 2' 16" 
high. Eleven of these discs still remain in position, though the lower 
ones have been much shattered by natives in search of iron and by the 
weather, so that the column must soon be destroyed. The total height 
from the ground of this monument is : pedestal, 9 feet + 2' 10" x 1 1 = 40 
ft. 2 in. It no doubt formerly was higher, and bore a capital, which would 
make its height over 43 feet. 

Renan thus describes Hamsin : 

'The place named Hamsin is aheap of ruins of some importance. Here are the remains 
of walls of strong construction. It is an ancient place of habitation. 'I'here is found here a 
singular monument, consisting of an isolated column composed of cylindrical drums super- 
posed and laid upon a great square base corniced on the edges. It must have had a capital 
which has fallen down. I could not find it in the neighbourhood. The column does not 
now occupy the centre of the pedestal. It is, I think, a funeral monument, showing the 
total decadence of Phcenician art.' 

Gue'rin furnishes other particulars : 

' The different drums which form the columns have suffered many mutilations, principally 
towards the north. On this side they are grooved longitudinally from top to bottom, the 
work, of those who constructed the column. Deprived of its capital, and of any other 
ornament which may have surmounted it, the column is placed on a pedestal 2.35 metres 
high by 2.50 metres broad, but it is no longer in the middle. The under blocks, now very 
much mutilated and in part displaced, which form the thin layers of this pedestal, repose in 
their place in the middle of a platform, thirty-nine metres long and ten broad, to which we 
mounted, on the south side, by certain steps. On the platform, now covered with brush- 
wood, lie several heaps of cut stone and monolithic columns of different diameters.' 

M. Guerin observed on the southern slope of the hill innumerable fragments of pottery 
and tlie traces of ancient houses. Among them are the foundations of an edifice which may 
have been a church. It lies from east to west, was once paved with mosaics and ornamented 
with columns. The western slopes of the hill are also encumbered with ruins and 

K h. en H a n b a 1 i y e h (L c). — Some large well-dressed stones and 
traces of foundations ; heaps of ruins. 

K h. W a r 11 n e h (N d). — Scattered heaps of stones. 


K h. c 1 Hi m a (N d).— Large heaps of stones. 

K h. Idmith (Ld). — Three or four modern houses built out of 
ancient materials ; several cisterns cut in the rock, two good spring wells, 
and a few traces of ruins. 

K h. Iklil (L e). — Extensive foundations and remains of ruins ; 
some good well-dressed masonry ; a few broken columns and cisterns. 

K h. I n a i 1 e h (M d). — Traces of ruins ; some large stones. 

K h. I s k a n d e r u n e h (L c). — Extensive foundations of buildings 
and remains ; an abundant spring carried through the ruins by an aqueduct, 
and discharged into a trough Ijv the side of the main road along the sea- 

Guerin observed several fine tombs cut in the rocks; one contained four arched (t/ww/w. 
Some are enlarged to make room for shepherds and their flocks. On a platform near the 
entrance are the ruins of a small stronghold, flanked by two square towers, built of great 
blocks laid one upon the other without cement. 

IMaundrel (a.d. 1697) found much more important ruins here: 

' The ruin of the castle Scandalium, taking its name from its founder, Ale.xander the 
Great, whom the Turks called Iskander, is 120 paces square, having a dry ditch compassing 
it; and from under it, on the side ne.xt the sea, there issues a fountain of very fair water.' 

As regards the legendary connection of the place with Alexander, Van de Velde supposes 
that it may have been built to serve as a retreat for Alexander's troops when he was going 
to besiege Tyre. 

Renan is inclined to suppose that the camp of Alexander was about eight miles away 
from Tyre, and not even in sight of the city. But he thinks it may have been named after 
him, just as 'AXsgavSjI/a' 'Jffiro'v was named after the victor at Issus. Baldwin built, or 
rebuilt, a castle here before the taking of Tyre. It is the mutatio Akxadroschcne of the 
Bourdeaux Pilgrim. 

K h. Jathun (Le). — Heaps of stones and modern ruins; a few 

mills ; some well-dressed stones scattered about. 

Kh. Jauharah (Ld). — Extensive ruin of well-dressed stones, a 
few foundations, and one olive-press ; probably an early Christian site. 

K h. J e 1 i 1 (M'd). — Foundations of walls and heaps of ruins. 
' These important ruins cover the sides of a hill which rises by terraces sustained by very 
thick walls, which bushes and underwood have overgrown. On the summit we remarked 
the ruins of a fortified enclosure, now divided internally into small compartments, which 
serve as dwelling places for Bedawins and stables for their cattle. On a lower platform lie 
the remains of an ancient church, built of cut stone ; the foundations of a central apse are 
still visible; it was ornamented by monolithic columns measuring 17^ inches in diameter, 
and crowned by well-worked Corinthian capitals. Near this building, now completely 

{sheet III?\ • ARCIT.EOLOGY. 


overthrown, are observed the foundations of another construction, less considerable, under 
which was a sort of httle crypt, whose vault, arched in cut stones, was carefully executed.' — ■ 

K h. lijjin (Ld). — Extensive ruin, walls built of medium-sized 
masonry ; two cisterns and two olive-presses. 

About one hour's walk from this ruin to the north-west, Gue'rin found a ruin, which is not 
placed on the map, named Kh. Tell Ermet, or Kh. Tell Ermed, of which the following is his 
description : 

' Isolated on all sides, and inaccessible towards the west, it is difficult to climb it from the 
north or the south. On the east there is a series of terraces rising one behind the other, 
some of them with sustaining walls, still partly standing, built of gigantic blocks. On the 
lower slopes, both on the south and the east, I remarked graves hollowed in the rock, the lids 
of which have been either broken or removed, and a certain number of sarcophagi, on one of 
which is represented a garland beautifully carved. Near it lies the lid, with a ridge and 
acroteria. Farther on I came upon a block measuring 3x5 inches long by 25 inches broad, 
in which has been worked a rectangular draft ii'S inches long by 9'S inches broad and S'6 
inches deep. On the panel of this block, unfortunately broken, can be distinguished a 
hatchet, with a hand holding a reed and seeming to write. Below can be read the four 
letters aiqx. 

' Continuing my course round the lower sides of the Tell, I observed ancient cisterns, 
presses cut in the rock, and quarries.. Mounting the hill, I came to a platform, on which are 
the ruins of a building once ornamented with monolithic columns, some of which are buried 
in the earth and some are 1) ing about. They have diflerent diameters, and were, used to 
decorate either a temple or a porch, now completely destroyed, and the site overrun with 
thistles and bushes. Around may be seen the foundations of a thick surrounding wall, in 
great blocks badly sciuared, and for the most part of large dimensions. The whole of this 
upper part of the hill is also covered with the debris of ruined houses, now confused and 
covered with a profuse vegetation.' 

K h. el Juk (N d). — Foundations of walls and some drafted 
masonry; several cisterns, and some sarcophagi : probably a Crusading site. 

K h. el J u b b e i n ( M d). — Two small ruins ; large heaps of small 

K h. J u b b R u h (; i j (M e). — Heaps of stones and rock-cut cisterns. 

K h. J u d e i d e h (L d). — Scattered stones and a few cisterns, 

K h. J u r d e i h (M d). — A ruined Arab village ; one cistern. 

K h. el Kabarsah (K e). -Traces of ruins. 

K h. K a bra (X f). — .Scattered stones and foundations of walls. 

K h. K a f k a fa (L d). — A small ruin ; heaps of large stones. 

K h. K a r h a t h a (N e). — Small ruin ; heaps of well-cut stones. 

VOL. I. 23 


K h. K (.; r ni i I h (L c.)— Extensive foundiilions of biiiklin^s on llu; 
summit of a high and conspicuous tell ; thick walls and masonry roughly- 
hewn ; several large olive-presses, with pillars having slits (described 
Sheet I.), and the pedestals of nine columns /// silu outside the buildings ; 
there are large sarcophagi and a well with domed masonry roof. 

Gu(5rin does not mention this place, but he speaks of a ' Kh. Ksilr,' ' i,8oo metres west of 
Kulat Shem'a,' which corresponds with Kii. Kermitli on the map. Here he found the ruins 
of three ancient towers, still partly standing, surrounded by thick bushes. They are square, 
and constructed of great blocks rudely cut and without cement. They measure ten paces on 
each side. .\ rectangular door, surmounted by an enormous lintel, gives access to each of them. 

K li. K c r 11 m el H u m m e i d (N d). — Foundations of walls and 
traces of ruins. 

K h. Khallet el Wawy (Ld).— A few heaps of worn stones 
and several cisterns. 

K h. el K h a s h m (L d). — Heaps of large stones. 

El K h u r e i b e h.— Heaps of large stones ; extensive ruins. 

K h. K u z i z i y e h (L d). — Heaps of hewn stones, lintels and foun- 
dations, and several cisterns. 

K h. Kuseikis (M d). — Scattered stones. 

K h. el K u s e i r (L d). — Walls and heaps of large stones ; small ruin. 

K h. el K Utah (N c). — Foundations and heaps of roughly-dressed 
stones, cisterns, and rock-cut tombs ; two roughly-carved figures on the 
rock ; an ancient site. 

K h. el M a d a u w a r {L c). — Large olive-presses and sarcophagi ; 
foundations and remains of buildings ; no drafted masonry. 

K h. Mahhiiz (MO- — Heaps of well-cut stones, foundations, and 
vaults with pointed arches ; many cisterns ; also a large rock-cut birket. 

' The foundations of overthrown houses, which had been built of small sized stones, but 
regularly cut, are ever)'\vhere to be seen. Cisterns and caves cut in the rock are also visible 
here and there. A great basin, half cut in the rock and half built, measures 65 ft. 7 in. on 
each face. Now partly fallen in, it has lost nearly the whole of the mortar which formerly 
covered the inside of the walls, and terebinths have taken root anl liave grown up in it. At 
a short distance from this reservoir is seen, on a good artincial platform, the ruins of an 
enclosure built with magnificent blocks taken from older constructions. Portions of columns 
and lintels of doors are engaged in the body of the work. Within the enclosure, which 
measures 98 ft. 4 in. long and 91 ft. 10 in. broad, one comes across a mass of cut stones in 
the midst of a thicket of terebinths. This ruin, it can be perceived, was once divided into 



small vaulted compartments. East of this enclosure and adjoining it was a church, now 
completely destroyed ; in the interior terebinths have overgrown the site of the nave. 

' Of three apses there remain now only the rubble, all the cut stones which formed the 
outer dressing having been carried away. 

' Higher, on the side of the hill, are observed the lower courses of a kind of square tower, 
which was built of four blocks, and contained within it a cistern and a vaulted magazine. It 
appeared to me ancient. It was surrounded by evergreens, oaks and terebinths. 

'Continuing to ascend, I observed the foundations of other small habitations of very 
ancient appearance. Some have still three rectangular entrance doors consisting of two 
uprights and a lintel. The greater part of them had only one principal room and a ground 
floor, with a flat terrace exactly the same as those now in use. 

' After examining these ruins, long since abandoned, as is proved by the forest of trees 
and shrubs which has taken possession of the site, I went on to visit at a short distance to 
the east, on the lower slopes of a neighbouring hill, two little buildings still standing, parallel 
and adjacent, lit by windows extremely narrow, like loopholes. The two doors which give 
access to them towards the west consist of monolithic uprights 6 feet 10 inches high, sur- 
rounded by monolithic lint°ls, one of which, rudely squared, is marked in the ceatre by a 
cross with equal branches placed in a circle, and the other is ornamented by lozenges 
surrounded by rectilinear mouldings figuring an oblong frame. The walls of these two halls, 
which measure 59 feet in length, are constructed of blocks more or less regular, and pointed 
with fragments of stone. Their orientations, and the cross carved above the entrance door 
of one, make me believe that here was an ancient chapel of Crusading times, if not earlier.' 

K h. M a r vv a h i n (M d). — Traces of ruin.s, one tomb with fourteen 
lociili ; three cisterns, and one olive-press. 

K h. M a s II b (L d). — Scattered stones and several lintels, roughly 

dressed ; twelve olive-presses. It is reported that a church once stood here. 

The stones of these ruins have been removed by the inhabitants of el Uasseli, who have 
used the place as a cjuarry for building materials. Guerin found cisterns cut in the rock, 
mostly closed. The place is identified by M. Neubauer with a place mentioned in the 
Talmud under the name of Matsabah. 

K h. el M a t m u r a h (M d). — Foundations of walls over extensive 
area and heaps of stones. 

K h. Mazi (L d). — Foundations and heaps of ruins; some walls 
standing of medium-sized masonry. 

K h. M e n a w i t h a (M e). — Heaps of stones. 

K h. j\Ienhatah (Me). — Foundations and a few walls standing; 
masonry medium-sized ; several cisterns. 

K h. M e r j el B e i n e h (L d). — Heaps of small stones and cisterns. 

K h. Mibilieh (M f). — A ruined village; foundations and walls 
built of small stones, and several cisterns. 


K h. M i r i A m i n (N c). — An importanL I'Liin on round hill, half a mile 

north of Wady el Bakk ; many foundations, lintels, door-posts ; masonry 

large and rough, weather-worn ; a few pieces of columns ; rock-cut birket, 

cisterns, spring, and tombs ; evidently an old site of considerable strength. 

Guerin adds to the above particulars certain tombs cut in the rock trench wise ; others 
more considerable presenting the aspect of caves with three small apses, containing each, 
under an arched arcosolium, throe parallel and contiguous loculi. 

K h. e 1 M I'l n e h (1. e). — Large stones roughly dressed, foundations 
of buildings ; large rock-cut cisterns, and wine-presses : probably an 
ancient site. 

K h. el M u s h e i r e f e h (K d). — A few heaps of scattered unhewn 
stones and one cistern. 

K h. M u s h m u s h (M d). — Small ruin of scattered stones only. 

K h. M u s 1 i h (L e). — Traces of ruins. 

K h. N a s r (M d). — Traces of ruins. 

K h. N e i f e d (N c). — Rock-cut tomb, containing eight loculi, four on 
either side some kokim. Some French officers, at the time of the occupa- 
tion of Syria, are said to have taken a valuable inscription from this tomb. 

K h. el 'Omry (L d). — Heaps of stones, a few hewn, all of small 
size, and two olive-presses. 

K h. R u m e h (M d). — Heaps of scattered stones ; a few cisterns. 

K h. er Ruweis (L c). — Foundations and four or five courses of 
large masonry, roughly hewn ; heaps of stones and cistern. 

K h. R u w e i s a t (M e). — Traces of ruins. 

K h. S e m a k h (L d). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. 

K h. es Sih (N d). — Small ruin ; heaps of stones. 

Kh. es Shakkarah (N e).— Large stones scattered, and traces 
of foundations ; medium-sized ruin. 

K h. esh Shefeiyeh (Me). — Modern cattle-sheds and granaries ; 
traces of ancient ruins. 

K h. Shomeriyeh (L d). — Heaps of stones, a few lintels, and 



K h. e s h S h u Id e i k e h (L e). — A large number of stone door-posts 
and lintels of moderate sizes ; traces of foundations of buildings: medium- 
sized ruin. 

K h. S u r u h el F o k a (N d). — Scattered stones and traces of ruins. 

K h. S u w a n e h (L d). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. S u w a n e h (M d). — Heaps of large stones on terraced hill. 

K h. Suweiyireh (L e). — Foundations and walls, medium-sized 
stones, cisterns, and traces of mosaic pavement ; several rock- cut tombs on 
hillside, with side and end loculi : probably an ancient site, added to in 
early Christian and Saracenic times. 

' The sides of the hill are covered with enormous rocks like gigantic steps, which have 
formerly been used for quarrying. Great blocks which have been detached have rolled 
down the hill. Many caves have been cut in these slopes, which become gradually less 
steep and less rocky, and form, one behind the other, terraces partly cultivated with wheat 
and partly covered with oak and the mimosa acacia. On tlie higher platform, I examined 
the remains of a little enclosure, thirty paces long from north to south and twenty broad. It 
is divided into several compartments (in one of which is a column lying on the ground), and 
seems to have been designed for some military purpose. It is easy to see that it has been 
constructed in ancient materials, among which are some of large dimensions ; but they 
appear to have been put together in haste. Stone chippings fill up the interstices. Two 
arched doors are still standing. 

'Two other enclosures similar to the above attracted my attention. I observed not far 
from one of them the debris of a great mosaic measuring thirty paces long from north to 
south by a breadth of eight to nine paces. It consists of little cubes fitted closely, and 
forming probably the pavement of an ancient edifice completely destroyed, or [)erhaps that 
of the court of some monument.' — Guerin. 

K h. e t T able h (M d). — Traces of ruins and heaps of stones. 

K h. Tell Fcrkhah (L e). — Heaps of stones and traces of 

K h. et Terjeman (L c).— Heaps of stones on rocky side of 

K h. Tetaramah (N e).— Foundations of walls and heaps of 
stones ; medium-sized ruin ; cistern.s. 

K h. Tibria (L d). — Heaps of stones and a few cisterns; small- 
sized masonry. 

K h. T Li b k el Henna (L d). — A few scattered stones and traces of 

K h. U m m e 1 'A m u d (L c). — E.xtensive ruins, which have been 




r A 





— ••-SO'-"- 

.... ^ 

excavated by the French ; traces of aqueducts bringing; water to birkets ; a 
large quantity of foundations of walls built of large masonry, roughly hewn ; 
some very large well-dressed stones. One measured 3' 4" x \' 6" x 8'. On 
the 3' 4" side a square 3 feet wide by 2' 9" had been cut ; on the i' 6" side 
a deep moulding. 

On the lintel of a building there is a small carved figure. The lintel 

has light mouldings. There are 
S I several columns lying about, some 

of them fluted. 

On the west side of the ruin is 
an extensive colonnade of some 
temple or building of importance. 

The diagram gives the position 
of these columns, but there is not 
sufficient data to say what the build- 
in"- was. There are a number of 


olive-presses amongst the ruins. 

The columns, some of which are still 

standing, are from fourteen to fifteen 

® feet high, and two feet in diameter. 

Numbers of pieces of broken cornice with mouldings similar to those 

above, broken Corinthian capitals, broken columns, and a few drafted 

stones with mouldings, lie about, and have rolled down the hill from the 

ruins. A quantity of discs of mosaic pavement are scattered amongst the 

remains of the temple. There are also several curious semi spherical stones 

with a square hole cut in the centre, not very deep. 

At this place excavations were conducted by M. Renan, whicli produced results of great 
value. Subjoined is a condensed account of his discoveries. The place has been visited 
and described by Buckingham, De Vogiie', and De Sauky. Robinson mentions it. 
Thomson briefly describes the place. The ruins are situated at a short distance from the 
shore, and lie upon the slopes and the plateau of a hill, which is completely covered with 
debris for the length of one kilometre and the breadth of 800 metres. Among the ruins still 
to be traced, there are three which seem to call for special attention. One of these, situated 
nearly in the middle of the city, is the .Egypto-Phoenician monument, first pointed out by 
M. de Vogiie in 1853. The wall of inclosure is still standing, and is composed of very con- 
siderable blocks, having on the inner side the joints covered with a thick cement. The two 
jambs of the door, which want the lintel, are monolithic, and measure 2.55 metres in height ; 
as for their breadth, it varies, that of one being eighty-nine centimetres, and that of the other 
not exceeding seventy-two centimetres. This difierence seems to show either that the two 

{sheet in.'\ ARCILEOLOGY. 1S3 

jambs were not prepared for the same door, or that the monument was rude, a conclusion 
whicli may be inferred from the rough state of the walls. Beside one of these jambs, there 
lies on the ground a mutilated block, on which is represented a personage holding in his 
hand a bent stick, and having on his head the Egyptian coiffure known under the name of 
psilitut. In the interior of the monument, we remark near a shaft a second broken block, 
on which has been sculptured a winged globe flanked by the iinviis, and below a crescent 
reversed, i.e., the points below embracing a little globe. 

Near this edifice Renan found the remains of two lions in high relief Not far from the 
door there lay a sphinx, much broken, but well carved. 

These discoveries are of an Egypto-Phccnician character, and connect the buildings with 
a period earlier than the conquest of Alexander, when Greek art began to spread in Syria and 
Palestine. The buihJing which stands next to this, however, seems to belong to the Greek 
period. It was constructed with blocks of stone regularly cut, paved with large slabs, and 
decorated with monolithic columns, mutilated trunks of which are lying about with the rest 
of the debris. At the western extremity of the city lies the platform which was the principal 
scene of Renan's excavations. Upon this platform stand the columns which have given the 
place its name, ' The Mother of Columns.' The history of the city has been worked out 
with great care by Renan from his excavations and from inscriptions which he found here. 
Three are Phccnician, and one is Greek. The Greek inscription bears these words : 


Of the Phcenician inscriptions, the first is a fragment on a broken gnomon (which has 
been made the subject of a special study by Colonel Laiissedat), which is read by the dis- 
coverer : 

. . . Thy servant Abdosir, son of E . . . 

The second is carved upon a cube of stone. It is thus read : 

To Moloch Astarte, the God Hammon ; 
Vow made by Abdeshmoan for his children. 

The third and most important contains eight lines, and is thus read by M. Renan : 

' To the Lord of the Heavens, Baal. Vow made by Abdelim, son of Mattan, son of 
Abdelim, son of Baalshamar, in the district of Laodicea. I have built this gate and the doors 
which are at the entrance of the ai/a of my sepulchral house, the year 280 of the Master of 
Kings, the year 143 of the people of Tyre, so that they may keep me in remembrance and 
good reputation at the feet of Baal, my Lord of the Heavens, for ever. May he bless me !' 
The following conclusions are drawn from this inscription : 

1. The city whose ruins are now called Umm el Amud appears to have been one of three 
formerly called Laodicea. This city was still flourishing in the Greek period, when con- 
siderable buildings were erected. 

2. In Phcenicia, under the successors of Alexander, Phcenician inscriptions were still 
made, and the old Phccnician religion was preserved. 

3. The language was the pure old Canaanite without Aramaic admixture. The philo- 
logical and chronological conclusions arrived at by M. Renin, with tiie full account of his 
excavations, may be consulted in his ' Mission en Plu.enicie,' p. 695 et seq. 

As to the name of the place, it was called, in addition to Kh. \]mva el Amud, Medinet 


el Turan, or Mcdinet cl Taharan, or Tuliran cs Sham. Following, therefore, the usual rule, 
we may find in one of them nn earlier name still (cf. Banias, Akka, and many other examples). 
Or Medinct el Turan may be a survival of ctX/j Tusfwu. Perhaps the place is the real 
Alexandroskene (see Iskanderoon). 

The destruction of the city is placed by Rcnan at some time daring the interval between 
the decadence of the Seleucidx and the cstablisliment of the Roman power. This conclusion 
he arrived at from the two following considerations : 

1. The total absence of monuments of the Roman period, and of marble and granite 

2. The omission of the name by ancient geographers. Why does not Strabo mention a 
place so important? Clearly because it no longer existed. During the Roman domination 
no cities in Syria disappeared ; it was a time of peace and prosperity. The ruins of Syria 
are full of Roman remains. 

Gu<5rin thinks that the ancient name (before that of Laodicea) was probably Hanimon, 
and would identify it with the Hammon of Joshua xix. 28. His reasons for this identification 
are: i. The name on the Phcenician inscription, 'The (jod Hammon;' 2. That close by 
the ruin is the wady called Hamul and the Ain Hamiil, in which he thinks the old name 
may be traced. 

K h. U m in 'O f c i y e h (L c). — Foundations of buildings and heaps 
of stones. 

K h. U in m er Rubb (L c). — Foundations and traces of ruins; 
some olive-presses. 

K h. U m m T ii t e h (M d). — Large ruin, some walls standing, built 
of medium-sized masonry ; one olive-press and three cisterns. 

' Here was formerly a place of considerable importance, to judge by the foundations of 
houses still to be traced here and there, and by the considerable quantity of great blocks, 
more or less rudely cut, which are scattered over the soil, or have been taken out and piled 
up to make pens for cattle. Cisterns and presses cut in the rock, and the lower courses of a 
square tower, in blocks of large size and not cemented, belong probably to a very ancient 
epoch. To a time less remote, but before the Crusading period, belong the remains of a 
great building, ornamented with columns, whose ruins lie scattered about. Old oaks, 
terebinths, great fig-trees, enormous vine-stocks, grow up amidst these ruins, whose ancient 
name has disappeared entirely, for the present is purely Arabic, and means " Mother of the 
Mulberry." ' — Guerin. 

K h. Umm ez Zeinat (N d). — Traces of walls. 

K h. Waziyeh (L i). — Foundations and heaps of stones, all small 
size ; several cisterns. 

K h. Yarin (Md). — Large ruin; .some small-sized drafted stones 
with bosses left rough, two stones bearing Latin crosses ; remains of 
modern walls and heaps of stones ; two rock-cut tombs with square-headed 
kokim ; loculi. In the more eastern one a figure of a human head is roughly 




cut out of the I'ock in the first chamber of the tomb, out of which two 
square locuH open. 

Guerin adds to the above : 

'On the east extends a sort of avenue, former'y bordered by important buildings. One 
remarks especially the remains of a great edifice measuring forty-five paces in length from 

west to east by twenty-two in breadth from north to _^ ^_ ^ ^ 

south. It was built of finely cut stones lying one '^ — "^ - ''5-^^=^^?^, 

upon the other with cement, and terminated at the 

east in three apses, the largest of which, that in the 

centre, is still partly upright. It was once an ancient 

church divided into three naves by monolithic columns, 

some undulated fragments of which are lying on the ground . . Small cubes of mosaic in 

red, white, and black still adhere to the soil in several places.' 

K h. Z a 1 1 11 1 i y e h (M d). — Large heaps of small stones. 

Kb. e z Z a w i y e h (N e). — Large ruin, foundations of walls; some 
drafted medix'val masonry, bosses left rough ; five sarcophagi, four olive- 
presses, and si.x cisterns. 

K h. Zebed (M c). — Heaps of stones. 

K h. Z u b d i y e h (L d). — Heaps of hewn stones and several cisterns. 

K h. Z u w e i n i t a (M e). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. 

K i s r a (N f). — Foundations and heaps of well-cut stones. 

K u 1 a t J i d d i n (M e). — A Saracenic castle, built by Dhaher el 'Amr 
during his rebellion against the Turkish power. Some parts of the castle 
are still in a fair state of repair, though now it is entirely deserted and is 
rapidly falling to pieces. It shows some good Saracenic masonry, and 
was protected by a wall defended by round towers at some little distance 
from the keep, on the east side. 

A photograph in the Palestine Exploration Fund new series shows the 
general characteristics of the building. There arc a good many rock-cut 
cisterns and a rock-cut birket round the castle. 

This castle is mentioned by the Monk ?]ouchard (' Descriptio Terr;'c Sancta;,' c. iv. ) 
as the CcntcUuiii /iidi;i, about four leagues from Acre. He says that it formerly belonged to 
the Teutonic Order, but was in his time destroyed. 
Guerin thus describes it : 

'Two great square towers, dejirived of their upper stage, are still there, partly upright, 
and contain several chambers now in very bad condition. The staircases which lead to them 
have been deprived of part of their steps to make access more difficult. Underneath are 
magazines and cellars, the vaults of which rest on several ranges of arcades. Cisterns 
hollowed in the rock are found beneath a paved court. Below and near the castle a second 
VOL. I. 24 


inclosure, flanked by semicircular towers, contains williin it the remains of numerous 
demolished houses and cisterns.' 

K u 1 a t c 1 K 11 ri' i n (the Crusading castle of Montfort) (M e). — This 
castle was situated on the southern side of the Wadyel Kiirn. Like many 
other Crusading castles, a narrow rocky ridge separated by deep valleys 
with steep sides from the surrounding country was chosen for the site. 
The broad stream of water in the Wady el Kiirn, below the casde, passes 
by a bend round the northern and eastern sides, while a smaller valley 
on the south, joining Wady el Kurn, isolates the castle. 

The buildings on the summit are of different characters, and, in order 
to suit the site, are long and narrow, running approximately east and west. 
To defend the most vulnerable part of the castle the rocky ridge joining the 
castle to the land is cut off by a deep ditch, which may also have been the 
quarry from which the stone to build the castle was procured. The slopes 
of the rock were then cased with masonry, and a massive square keep 
erected. On this side of the casde the stones used are very large, mea- 
suring eight and nine feet long, and are smoothly dressed. 

A drawbridge may have communicated with the rocky ridge, but the 
usual approach was from below, along the side of the small valley, and then by 
stairs, reaching the postern of the keep. This road shows signs of being cut 
in the rock at different i^laces, and leads to M'alia, the ancient Chateau 
du Roi. 

The keep on the east of the castle is situated on the highest part of 
the rock on which the casde stands, the ridge falling towards the west. 
Large cisterns were excavated under the keep. 

A staircase led down on the west to the interior of the castle, where 
was probably the residence of the garrison. This part is of rubble masonry, 
small stones being- used. 

Beyond this is a large square chamber, with a central monolithic column 
of octagonal form, which once supported a vaulted roof of, no doubt, great 
beauty, but which has now entirely disappeared. This was ^irobably the 
grand apartment, in which chapters of the Order were held, or it may have 
been the chapel of the castle. It has been suggested by M. G. Rey 
('Documents inedits sur I'Histoire de France,' p. 149) that it was the 
treasury of the castle, and where the archives were kept ; but it seems 


more likely that valuables would be deposited in the keep (already 
described) at the eastern side of the castle. 

Beyond this grand hall a lower terrace, with bastion defences and a 
semi-circular end, terminated the upper or principal defences of the 

Some little way down the slope of the hill from the fortress was a sur- 
rounding- wall, flanked by square towers. This was the first defence of 
the castle. It is now so much ruined and overgrown with brushwood as 
to be hardly traceable. 

Thus the fortress, if attacked from the north or west of the steep incline 
on which it stands, would offer a succession of strongholds to the attacker. 
First the outer wall, then the lower terrace, would have to be surmounted ; 
after that, access to the hall, living-rooms, and vaults would have to be 
obtained, which would be no easy matter ; and lastly, an almost impregnable 
keep would resist the invader. From the east and south the rock-cut 
ditch and the masonry-cased rocky slopes offered an insurmountable 
barrier to the invader. 

The castle is so much ruined that few ornamental details are to be 
found. Pointed arches are universal in the ashlar masonry work, as well 
as in the rubble work. The moulding on the capital of the octagonal pillar 
in the hall or chapel is simple, and apparently o{ the thirteenth century. 
Some unimportant fragments of capitals carved with flowers ^xn^^^flcur-dc-lis 
were observed. 

Below the castle, in the hollow close by the river, is a large Gothic 
ruined building, with the remains of a bridge. Some have thought it to 
be a church, but it is really a mill, the bridge having been constructed to 
carry the water to an aqueduct. 

The history of the castle is closely connected with that of the Teutonic 
knicrhts who built it. 

The first account of it is in 1229, when the Grand Master of the 
Teutonic knights hospitaller, Herman de .Saba, by a treaty with the 
Lords of Mandelee, became possessed of the fortress of Montfort. The 
rebuilding of the fortress was commenced in the month of March of the 
same year, and the name changed to Starkenberg. The castle was 
designated as a treasury for the order of the Teutonic knights, The 
archives were guarded there which are now in Berlin. The guardians of 

24 — 2 


the castle were also Grand Treasurers of the Order ; four of ihrir names 

have come down lo us : 


Helmerich 1223 

Conrad 1 240 

Jean de Nifland .... 1244 

Jean dc Saxe . . . 1270— 1272 

Before the Teutonic knights acquired Montfort there must liave been 
a strong castle, and it is probable it was built about the same time as 
Toron, and perhaps by the .same prince, Hugues dc Saint Onicr, as the 
possession of Toron is disputed by Philip de Montfort. 

Some points of resemblance to the German castles on the banks of the 
Rhine are traced by M. Rey, ' Monuments de 1' Architecture Militaire des 
Croises en Syrie,' p. 148. 

The Sultan Melek ed Dhahir Bibars made an unsuccessful attack upon 
the fortress in 1266. 

In 1 27 1, however, he returned, and was successful. The Arabic 
historian, Ibn Ferat, who describes this siege, minutely describes how 
first the outworks were taken, and that then the lower court was attacked. 

Bibars destroyed Montfort, and probably left it in very much the con- 
dition it now is. 

Thomson gives the following account of the castle : 

' I was puzzled to make out the age and object of the building at the bottom of the wady. 
It is about one hundred feet long and eighty high. The basement is a very strong vault, 
evidently ancient ; above it is a group of groined arches, mostly broken — they are apparently 
of Saracenic origin. One might suppose that this was a church if he could find or fancy 
where the congregation was to come from. A single granite column stops up the top of the 
stairway to the tower, which may have been a campanile or a minaret, or neither, for there 
is nothing about it to determine its character. A powerful dam, apparently Roman, once 
turned the w-ater of the river into the basement of this curious edifice at the north-east 
corner. This favours the idea that the lower storey at least was a mill ; and in that case the 
upper part may have been a guardhouse, though it was finished off in a style more elaborate 
than is common for such places. The dam would convert the river above it into an im- 
passable fosse for that side of the hill on which the castle stands. There is a tradition that 
a covered way led down to the river from the castle, and, as the distance is not great, the 
thing is possible ; and, indeed, the termination of what miglit have been such a passage is 
seen in this basement-room. 

' The ascent from this building to the top of the castle was e.\treniely fatiguing. It is 
only six hundred feet, but it is nearly perpendicular, and covered with bushes and briars, 

sgsj «s J* . ^ •4«. Jtf«l», 



through which one must burst his way upward. Where the bold, sharp ridge of the castle 
joins the eastern mountain, it is only a few feet across from north to south, with rugged 
cliffs descending on either side to a great depth. Just here it is cut off by a broad and deep 
fosse, on the west and lower edge of which stands the first part of the fortifications. 

'The top of the ridge was widened by a wall built up from below, as was done by Solomon 
on Mount ]\Ioriah,to enlarge the platform of the temple. This basement work is very solid, 
and exhibits very fine specimens of the old Jewish or Phcenician bevel. On this platform 
stood a noble tower, of extremely well-cut and very large stones, but not bevelled. They 
are all three feet thick, and of various lengths up to ten feet. It must ha\e been quite 
impregnable before the invention of cannon. The ridge falls down rapidly toward the river 
in a direction nearly west, having the sides almost perpendicular. There are three other 
towers or departments, each lower than the one above, and also wider, for the hill linlgis out 
as it descends, and the lowest of all incloses a considerable area. These various departments 
were so connected as to form one castle, and yet so separated that each would have to be 
taken by itself. The second from the top has in it a beautiful octagonal pedestal of finely 
polished stone, about eight feet high, with a cornice ; and over it stood eight demi-columns, 
united inwardly — a column for erch face of the pedestal. It probably supported an image 
or statue. Above all spread a lofty canopy of clustered arches like those in the building at 
the river. The entire castle and its hill are now clothed with a magnificent forest of 0.1k, 
terebinth, bay, and otlier trees, whose ranks ascend, shade above shade, — 

' "A woody the.itre of stateliest view ;" 

and underneath is a tangled network of l)ricrs and bushes, which makes it very difficult to 
explore the ruins. After groping about for two hours I was obliged to leave, thougli not 
half satiated with the scene, nor satisfied with my examinations of it. Indeed, Castle Hill 
is inexpressibly beautiful and imposing ; a swelling pyramid of green, hung up in mid-heaven, 
with the grey old towers peering out here and there, as if to taice a i]uiet look for themselves 
on the fair world around and below. And then the river gorge, who ran describe it, with 
its lofty ramparts, where 

' " Woods over woods in gay theatric pvide," 

climb clear up to the sky. The very eagles fly tiiuidly through its dim and solemn avenues.' 
Gudrin adds the following particulars about the keep on the east of the castle : 
' I came at last to a great square tower, measuring in the inside twelve metres on each 
side, and terminating the castle on the east. The lower [.art of the tower is still standing, 
and is formed of gigantic blocks perfectly planed and adjusted. Under the tower is a deep 
cistern nearly intact. An elegant ogival arcade terminates on the south side a great 
rectangular bay. On the same side the tower rests en rctmite on an admirable sloped wall, 
whose blocks, dressed with much art, have been disposed and cut in such a manner as to 
give to each stone a projection beyond the stone below it. This made it more difficult to 
cliiub the slope.' 

Nothing is known about the history of the castle previous to its occupation by the 
Teutonic Knights. It has been suggested, however, that the deep ditch spoken of towards 
the east was cut first of all, and that this ditch served as a quarry to draw upon for the 
material of the castle. The eastern keep would thus be built (or rebuilt) by the German 
knights out of the great blocks cut long before from the ditch. Having used up the old 


materials which they found there, they cut smaller stones, according to their own fashion of 
building, for the rest of the building. 

A similar instance is recorded by Jacques de Viuy of the building of the Caslclliim 
Pacgriiuim at Athlit. When they cleared away the sand for the foundation, the work- 
men found the lower courses of two ancient walls, the stones of which, thus lying ready to 
their hands, they proceeded to use for their new fort. 

K u 1 a I .S h (■ 111 A (L c). — A Saracenic castle, also said to have been 
built by Dhalir el 'Anir. The walls and llankinj;' towers are now fallin_(r 
to ruin. The place is occupied by about thirty Mohammedans ; it is 
situated on a very hi^h conical and conspicuous hill, and was no doubt at 
one time a strong place. 

Kulat ct Tufaniyeh (M f). — A ruined square tower of large 
roughly-hewn masonry ; it has an appearance of great age; there are also 
a small rock-cut birket and two sarcophagi. 

L e b b u n a (L d). — Rock-cut cisterns and traces of ruins. 
' These ruins cover a hill whose higher plateau, of small extent, was surrounded by an 
inclosing wall. The lower courses of this wall, still partly standing, are composed of cut 
stones of small dimensions. Within I observe the vestiges of an ancient church. The place 
which it occupied is now planted with tobacco. It was ornamented with monolithic stone 
columns, of which several broken shafts measuring forty-five centimetres of diameter, lie upon 
the ground. Several cisterns, a pool cut in the rock, and two ancient presses, now half 
destroyed, are standing near two modern houses inhabited by about ten Metawileh and 
Christians. One of these told me that the place was aloO called Deir Bonna.' — Guerin. 

Mai la (M e).— A walled village with many drafted stones used in 

the walls and lying about ; a large number of rock-cut cisterns. A ruined 

mosque. The position is strong, rising steeply from the plain on the east 

and south. 

The ancient name of this site is unknown. In the Crusading period it was called 
Castelhim Regiiim, or Chateau de Roi. 

Burchard (1283) says of it: 

'Inde' — that is from the " Castellum Judin " (see above) — 'leucis III. est Castellum 
Regium in valle, quondum domus ejusdem ' — i.e. of the Teutonic Order — 'habundans 
omnibus bonis et fructibus qui eciam in terra ilia rari sunt nisi ibi. Nunc Saraceni tenent 

Burchard is in error, first in putting it three leagues from the Kiilat Jiddin, and secondly, 
in placing it in a valley instead of upon a hill. But there is no doubt that M'alia is the place 
he speaks of. It was bought on the 31st of May, 1220, by the Teutonic Knights, from Otho 
Count of Hennebuk, for the sum of 7000 marks of silver. Their purchase included M'alia 
with its dependencies, and a third of the fief of St. George. 

Gu^rin says : 

' On the highest part of the hill we remark the remains of an ancient fortress, flanked by 


four square towers; considerable portions remain, showing that it was built of regular blocks, 
some levelled plane and some embossed ; the latter were reserved for the angles. The 
ruins and interior of this fortress are now inhabited by about twenty families, which have 
built their little habitations in the midst of the dil'ris.' 

M e d i n e t en Nehas (M c). — A small-sized square building; of 
well-dressed stones. 

' A great mass of ruins in the midst of high brushwoo;!. The foundations of a great 
fortified enclosure built of irregular stones, the greater part of considerable size, and not 
cemented, can be distinguished. This enclosure was divided into numerous compartments. 
Cisterns cut in the rock and a pool furnished water to the inhabitants.' — Guerin. 

El Mekr (Lf). 

' Between Jebel Tantur and El Mekr I passed near an ancient press cut in the rock, and 
composed of two compartments — one square, the other, on a lower level, circular. They 
communicate by means of a little canal . . . Farther on I came to an ancient well, the reser- 
voir and troughs of which are built of good materials. .Still climbing the hill on which El 
Mekr is situated, I came upon magniticent cut stones lying on the road. They belonged to 
an orchard, now planted with fig-trees, where I discovered the traces of an ancient church, 
now completely destroyed : it had been built of regular and good-sized stones ; monolithic 
columns decorated the interior. The proprietor of the orchard told me that the ruins were 
formerly much more considerable, but that he sold them, and intends to sell what remains, 
for building materials. The Christians, he said, give these ruins the name of Deir Mar Barbara, 
"Convent of St. Barbe." 

' In and about El Mekr are broken colunms, the fragment of an ancient bas-relief, a little 
sarcophagus in terra cotta, and several sepulchral caves.' — Guerin. 

Miigharet Abu el Jerajmeh (iM e). — A very large cave, 
difficult of access, with traces of its having been u.sed as a place of con- 
cealment or fortress in modern times. 

En Nakurah (L d). — Rock-cut tombs, olive-presses, and sarco- 
phagi are found round this village, which occupies probably an ancient 

The village called En Nakurah is three miles north-cast of Ras en Nakurah, called also 
El Mesheif On the sea-coast is a town called on the maii Ilurj el .Shurfi. Guerin heard it 
called also Burj en Nakura. 

Ras K e 1 b a n (M e). — Heaps of stones, covering e.xtensive area. 

Ras en N a k u rah (K d). — Ruins of modern guard-house. 

These ruins are mentioned by almost all modern travellers who have crossed the Sccla 
Tyrionim. Guerin says : 

'On the highest point of the promontory is a little watch-tower, half in ruins. Con- 
structed partly of ancient stones, but probably of Arabic origin, it has succeeded a more 
ancient building. In this spot, in fict, there must alwa)s have been a look-out p'ace, and 


perhaps a customs office, the caravans and iraxellers wlio follow ibis route bting necessarily 
constrained to pass by this, the only path.' 

The identification of the place with the Scala Tyriorum is clear, though some have 
placed it higher up at the Ras el Abiad. Josephus is jjrecise on this point. He says: 

'Ptolcmais is surrounded on the east, at a distance of sixty stadia, by the mountains of 
Galilee ; by Carmel, 120 stadia distant ; on the north by a very high mountain called by the 
natives the I^adder of the Tyrians, which is distant from the city 100 stadia.' 

At Ras el Abiad the road is cut after the manner of a staircase, it is true, but before 
certain recent alterations, the same might have been said of Ras en Nakurah. The distance 
given by Josephus, however, appears conclusive. 

Salhanch (\ d). 

' Many overthrown houses, the vestiges of a church, of which three shafts yet remain, 
cisterns cut in the rock, and a reservoir now fallen in, attest that here once stood a village of 
some importance.' — Guerin. 

.S h ih i n (!\I d). — Some large well-dressed stones and foundations of 
ancient buildings ; one column and broken sculptured stone ; probal^ly an 
ancient place of importance. 

Guerin says that the hill on which the village stands is surrounded by an enclosure coii- 

j. structed of great blocks regularly cut and of varying dimensions. 

Here and there are standing, unbroken, pieces of this thick wall. 

On the highest point of the hill may be remarked the remains of 

a fortress built with stones of the same dressing, the interior of 

which has been transformed into private houses, themselves half 

demolished. Near here the site of an ancient tower is still to be 

m.ade out. Here are also broken sarcophagi, cisterns, a press cut in the rock, and a great 

basin to hold rain-water. 

Suhmata (N e). — Foundations and ruins, some drafted stone, one 
rock-cut tomb filled with rubbish ; probably a Crusading village. 

This village divided into two distinct quarters, occupies two hills near each other, 
between which is a great birket, partly cut in the rock and partly built. One of these hills 
is crowned by the remains of a fortress flanked by towers and built with simple rubble ; it 
contained several subterranean magazines, a mosque, and various chambers. The foundation 
is attributed to Dhaher el .\mer. It is now three parts demolished, and on the place where 
it stood grow vines and tobacco.' — Guerin. 

Suriih (X d). — Four sarcophagi near the village, on the east side. 
Under the name of Khurbet Seroueh Guerin describes a ruin about a mile north-east 
of Terbikha, which appears to be Lieut. Kitchener's Suruh. He says : ' These ruins 
cover the summit of a hill. At the highest point W'e observed the remains of a very 
ancient square tower, measuring fourteen paces on each side, the lower courses consisting 
of very large blocks, roughly squared and without cement. The interior is full of similar 
blocks, piled up in confusion, in the midst of which terebinths and pomegranates have taken 
root. Near this tower a few old houses served as an asylum to four families of Metawileh. 
On the lintel of the door of one of these houses a square cross inscribed in a circle can still be 


traced. The terraces of another house are supported in the interior by arched arcades in 
good cut stone of Roman, or at least liyzantine, date. There are also the remains of numer- 
ous houses which have been destroyed, a dozen cisterns cut in the rock, a column lying 
on the ground, and the fragment of a sarcophagus.' 

Terbikha (N d). — Three sarcophagi near, on the south side. A 
semi-circular pool, cisterns, and tombs. 

Yaniih (M e). 

'Cisterns cut in the rock, and many cut stones scattered over the soil, surrounding plat- 
forms or employed as building material, show that we are here on the site of a small ancient 
city, the name of which is faithfully preserved in its modern name.' — Gue'rin. 

Yerka (L f). 

' I observed that cut stones of ancient appearance have been used in building the modern 
houses. Here and there are broken shafts belonging to some building entirely demolished, 
the site of which can no longer be found. Perhaps it was once a synagogue, which may have 
been succeeded by a Christir.n church. About a hundred cisterns cut in the rock, a half of 
which are no longer used, and the other half serve for the wants of the people, reveal the 
existence in this place of an ancient locality of some importance.' — Guerin. 

E z Z i b (K e). — Three broken pillars observed. 

The ruins at Zib are of small importance. Renan noticed an artificial tell and certain 
cubes of mosaic. Guerin says that the hill was formerly surrounded by walls, traces of which 
are still to be seen on the east. The greater part of the houses, he says, are built of old 

There can be no doubt that it is the ancient Achzib of Joshua xi.x. 29 and Judges i. 31. 
(Not the city of the same name situated on the Shefelah and belonging to the tribe of 
Judah). Josephtis calls it either Arce or Ecdippus. After the return from Captivity it was 
one of the north frontier towers of Galilee; it possessed a synagogue, and was fortified. The 
Bordeaux Pilgrim calls it Ecdippa, under which name it also appears in the Onomasticon. 

Z fi b k i n (M c). — Olive-presses, rock-cut cisterns and traces of ruins. 
Guerin observed a great pool, constructed with regularly cut stones, and several broken 
columns. On the chapter of one he saw a mosaic representing a cross flcuroniuc, which 
proves that it came from a church. 

VOL. I. 



Okograpiiv. — This shecf. contains 307 square miles of country. The 
watenshed divides it into two ahnost equal portions. Crossing the broad 
valley a little to the east of er Rameh, it passes up the steep mountains to 
Jebel et el 'Arus, 3520 feet above the sea ; it then follows the ridge until 
it culminates in the highest point in Galilee, the Jebel Jermuk, 3934 feet 
above the sea. From there it passes to the north-west, to Jebel Adather, 
3300 feet above the Mediterranean ; from there it turns sharply to the 
east, passing S'as'a, and through Kefr Bir'im ; it passes on to el Khurbeh, 
2650 feet above the sea, and from there across the plain of Yarun ; it 
then turns still more to the east, passing through Jebel el 'Asy to Deir el 
Ghabieh, and from there it passes north along the ridge of the hills. To 
the west of this watershed, as far as Jebel 'Adather, the country is com- 
posed of rocky spurs, running in a westerly direction from the watershed ; 
these hills are covered with scrub and brushwood ; the roads are bad, 
and the cultivation is only in patches near the villages and in the valleys. 

To the east of a line drawn north through Jebel 'Adather, the country 
is all of this description ; but to the west it is more cultivated. The 
plains of Rumeish and low hills round are well cultivated for barley. There 
are also a good many vineyards in this district. 

The country in this central part of Galilee is better cultivated than any- 
where in Palestine. Young trees are seen planted, and growing vine- 
yards carefully tended, and good crops obtained almost everywhere. This 
prosperous portion extends over the whole central plateau on both sides 
of the watershed from Dibl to Kadditha, and from S'as'a to 'Aitherun. 

To the east of the watershed the country has more great divisions. 

The Wady Tawahin cuts off the mountains of the Jebel Kan'an, near 


Safed, 2764 feet high ; to the east of which is the great basalt plateau, 
which reaches as far as the Jordan. 

The breaking down of the hills to the Jordan Valley tends towards the 
east as we progress northwards. 

And the great plain, Ard el Kheit, bordering on the Huleh Lake, is a 
remarkable feature. 

A great division in this portion of the country is formed by the great 
valley of Wady 'Auba, Wady Mu'addemiyeh, or Wady Hinda, which cuts 
through the rocks with precipitous and very high rocks on either side, 
and drains the central plateau into the Huleh Lake. 

To the north of this there is the mountain of Marun cr Ras, reaching 
an altitude of 3050 feet, and the fall to the Jordan Valley seems to divide 
into two steps or terraces, enclosing the Plain of Kades between them. 

Below the second step of these hills, which has an altitude of about 
800 feet, is the Marsh of Papyrus, that closes in the northern shores of 
the Huleh Lake. It is a dense mass of reeds, with open pools and traces 
of the river's course to be seen in it. It is quite impenetrable, except for 
a short distance, and then only by Arabs and buffaloes. It is si.\ miles 
long, by an average of from one and a half to two broad. 

It is probably encroaching upon the Huleh, which will eventually dis- 
appear as the marsh descends. There is about 100 feet fall in the six 
miles of marsh, and the Huleh Lake is within very litde of being on the 
level of the sea ; our observations made it seven feet, but they were not 
very good. 

From the Huleh the Jordan descends with a rapid flow, occasionally 
falling over rapids on its course. These commence shortly after the Jisr 
Benat Yakub ; before that the flow is something slower, the descent being 
only forty feet. Below that the river descends at the rate of about sixty 
feet a mile, to the Sea of Galilee, on the sheet below. 

TopoGRAPiiv. — This sheet contains sixty villages. It is almost equally 
divided between the districts of the Jebel Safed and the Belad Besharah. 
In the south, however, there is a small corner of the esh Shaghur district 
that contains five villages. 

As described in Sheet II., the Belad Besharah is governed by a Mudir, 
living at Tibnin and ruling under the authority of the Caimacam of Tyre, 


who is under the Mutaserrif of Beyrout. Tlu' Jcbcl Safed is governed by 
a Caimacam, who lives at Safed and rules under the Mutaserrif of 

The principal town is Safed, besides which there is an important and 
populous village, called Bint Umm Jubeil. Besides these there are no 
places of importance on this sheet. 

The alphabetical lists of the villages follow. In the Govcrnnicnl of the 
Jebel Safed there arc twenty-eight villages. 

'A i n e z Z e i t u n (P c). — A village of good stone houses, situated 
on the side of a hill north of Safed. It contains about 200 (Guerin says 
350) Moslems, and is surrounded by arable cultivation. There are two 
good springs near the village. 

'Akbara (P f). — A small village, built of mud and stone, containing 
about ninety Moslems. Products, olives and figs. Perennial stream in 
wady close by. 

'Alma (P d). — A well-built stone village, containing about 250 
(Guerin says 200) Algerine Mohammedans. There are some well- 
dressed stones in the village ; an almost obliterated inscription on the 
door-step of a house. It is situated on a well-cultivated plain, with a few 
Sfardens. Water from cisterns and a birket. 

Beit Jenn (O e). — A good village, built of stone, containing about 
300 Moslems and 100 Druzes, situated on hill-top, with gardens and 
extensive vineyards. There are two good perennial springs near the 
village, and birket for cattle, besides cisterns, in the village. 

'Beit Jenn contains 200 inhabitants, all Druzes. A few years ago it was much larger, as 
is indicated by the abandoned houses which are beginning to fall into ruins. I am told that 
their occupants have fled to the Hauran to escape conscription. 

'The flanks of the hill on which the village stands are covered with vines which creep 
along the ground ; their grapes, of a prodigious size, make one think of the cluster brought to 
Moses by the spies. 

'The place was known in the middle ages as Beitegfine, or Bette-Gen. Its Hebrew 
name would be Beth-Jannim, the " House of Gardens." ' — Guerin. 

Biria (P e). — Good stone houses, containing about 100 (Guerin 
.says 150) Moslems, surrounded by arable cultivation, and several good 
springs near the village. 

El Bukeiih (N e). — A good village, built of stone, containing a 
chapel and a synagogue. There are about 100 Moslems, 100 Christians, 


100 Druzes, and 100 Jews. It is situated on the slope of tine hill, with 
gardens, figs, olives, pomegranates, and arable land. There is a good 
spring in the village, and two springs near. This is the only place where 
Jews cultivate the ground. They say it has descended to them from 
their fathers from time immemorial. 

' The population at present number 600 — Druzes, United Greelvs, Schismatic Greeks, and 
a few Jewish families, who pretend to descend from the ancient inhabitants of the country. 
Ever)' year in the summer several hundreds of Jews come here from Tiberias to pass the hot 
season. Most of these Jews came originally from Europe, and are happy in finding here the 
last indigenous scions of the ancient national stock. ... At Bukeiah, thanks to the two 
springs which issue from the hill-side, they cultivate on the slopes and almost to the bottom 
of the valley delicious gardens, watered by numerous streams. Here grow, on different 
terraces, kept up by great walls, probably ancient, fruit-trees of all kinds, such as citrons, 
oranges, pomegranates, figs, quinces, and mulberries. The vine flourishes marvellously, as 
is shown by the enormous trunks. The United Greeks have a little church, which I found 
shut ; the Schismatic Greeks also have one which has replaced a much more ancient Christian 
sanctuary. Only a few cut stones and the trunk of a column remain of it. The Jews 
worship in a synagogue of modern date.' — Guerin. 

Ed Deir wa el Kasy (N e). — This village is in two por- 
tions ; it contains altogether about 200 Moslems, and is situated on a 
ridge, with figs, olives, and arable land. There are cisterns and a birket 
for water ; there is also a spring to the north-east. 

Delata (P e). — A mud and stone village, containing about 100 
Moslems, situated at the foot of a large hill, with a few gardens. Water 
is supplied from wells and a birket. 

Edh Dhaheriyeh ct Tahta (P e). — This village is built of 
good stone matei-ials, at the foot of a hill, with olives and arable land 
around. It is inhabited by about 100 Moslems, and has two good springs 
close to the village. 

Farah (O d). — Mud and basalt houses, containing about 100 
Moslems. It is situated on a plain, cultivated as arable land. Water 
from Wady Far'ah and from cisterns and birket. 

Pass Utah (N d). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 
Christians, situated on ridge, with gardens of figs, olives, and arable land. 
There are two cisterns in the village, and a good spring near. 

Feram (P c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 
Moslems, situated on the end of a ridge of the hills. There is a good 


supply of water in the W'ady Fcram to irrigate the gardens, and a spring 
at the village. Products, olives and figs. 

Ilurfeish (N e). — A village, built of stone, containing about 150 
Christians, situated on a low ridge, with figs, olives, and arable land. 
There arc a few wells in the village, and four good springs on the south side. 

Jaaunt'h (P e). — A village, I)uilt of stone, containing about 140 
(Guerin says 200) Moslems, on slope of hill, with figs, olives, and arable 
land. Two good springs in wady near village, on south side. 

El Jermuk (O e). — A small half-ruined village, built of stone, 
containing about thirty Druzes. Water supply from a good well and 
sj^rings near. 

El J i s h (O e). — A well-built village of good masonry, with chapel, 
modern, but built of ancient materials. 600 Christians and about 200 
Moslems inhabit the village. There are extensive vineyards and gardens 
of olives and figs, besides arable land. There are several springs in the 
valley and cisterns in the village. 

'The height of El Jish rises by successive stages, and by terraces sustained by great 
blocks which have an ancient appearance. The village, so called, is situated on the southern 
slopes of the hill. It is divided into two quarters : that of the Mussulmans on the west, to 
the number of 300, and that of the Christians on the east, consisting of 200 United Greeks 
and 70 Maronites.' — Guerin. 

K a b b a a h (P e). — A masonry village, with a few caves to the south ; 
contains about 150 Moslems ; situated on a ridge, with olives and arable 
land. Water from birket and good springs. 

K a d d i t h a (P e). — A mud and stone village, containing about 200 
Moslems, situated on the slope of the hill, with gardens of figs. There is 
a birket and spring. 

Guerin found only ten houses, inhabited by as many Moslem families. Cisterns cut in 
the rock prove that it is the site of an ancient place. 

K e f r B i r 'i m (O d). — A village, built of stone, containing about 300 
Christians (Guerin says 500 Maronites), the remains of two synagogues 
(see Section B.). The village is situated on high ground, with gardens on 
the west side, olives, vineyards, etc. Perennial supply of water from 
springs near, and excellent cisterns round the village. 

Meiron (O e). — Small village, containing about 50 Moslems (for 
ruins see Section B.) ; a large number of olives to the north and north- 


east. The village is at the foot of the high hills of el Jermuk. There are 
springs of water in the valley to the south. 

El Miighar (P e). — Masonry village, with a number of caves, 
some large ; containing about 300 Moslems. It is situated on slope of 
hills above the plain of el Kheit, which is arable land. Water is supplied 
from the good spring of 'Ain el Mtighar, near Kabaah. 

Neby Sebelan (N e). — A village, built of stone, surrounding the 
tomb of the Neby Sebelan ; contains about ico Moslems ; on top of high 
hill, with figs, olives, and arable land. There are four good springs to 
the east, besides cisterns. 

Neby Sebelan possibly represents the Zabulon of Josephus (B. J. ii. 18, 9) attacked 
by Cestius, and also called ' the City of Men ;' unless the same city be also intended in B. 
J. iii. 3, 1, in which case it was in Lower Galilee. 

Ras el Ah mar (P e). — Well-built stone houses, containing 350 
(Guerin says 150) Algerian Moslems, situated on high hill, with gardens 
dow n the slopes. There is a perennial supply of good water in Wady 
Ras el Ahmar. 

Safed (P e). — This is the capital of the district, and is situated on 
the top of high hills surrounded by steep valleys. The houses are well 
built of stone, and surround the castle (see Section B.). The population 
is about 3,000 Moslems, 1,500 Jews, and fifty Christians. The Moslems 
are about half of them Algerines, followers of 'Abd el Kader in his exile. 
The Caimacam of the district resides here, and there is a Kadhi with 
some troops under an officer to maintain order in the district. 

' The city is divided into several quarters, situated on the higher slopes and on tlie 
plateau of the hill, and separated from each other by valleys and gardens planted with vines, 
olives, and figs. In the north (juarter reside the Jews, numbering about 7,000; to the 
south and the east, the Mussulmans, about 6,000 in number. As to the Christians, they do 
not exceed 150 in number, and their quarter is between the two preceding. They are United 
Greeks, who only obtained permission to build a chapel and have a priest in 1864. 

' The Jews, who have come here from different countries, have several synagogues. The 
part of the city which they occupy was almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1S37, 
the greater number of the houses having been entirely overthrown by the violence of the 
shocks. Nearly 6,000 people, of whom 4,000 were Jews, remained buried under the debris of 
their dwellings. The Jews felt the shock more severely than their neighbours because their 
houses were less solidly constructed, and because many of them were built almost on the 
roofs of those lower on the slopes. Their quarter is badly kept, and the streets or lanes 
which intersect it are covered after rain by a thick and pestilential mud, which causes 
frequent epidemics. A little before my arrival the cholera had carried off many victims. 


'In the Mussulman quarter, which is subdivided into three distinct groujjs, called Hard 
Jura, Haret Lekrad, and Haret Sawain, are four mosques, now in ruins, and several walys. 
One of these mosques is built of stones alternately black and white, the latter of limestone, 
the former of basalt, a peculiarity of construction ^Yhich the Mussulmans affect. The door 
is ornamented with a sort of parallel piping, probably of Arab origin.'— Guerin. 

S a s a (O e). — A well-btiilt village, on a mound of ancient remains, con- 
taining about 3CO Moslem.s. It is situated on a slight tell, surrounded by 
vineyards, figs, and olives. There are some cisterns in the village, and 
four good springs near on the south side. 

Es Semuaieh (O f). — A village, built of stone, containing about 
200 (according to Guerin, 100) Moslems. There is a Moslem tomb in the 
village to Sheikh Muhammed el 'Ajamy. It is situated on a hill, with 
olives and arable culti\ation. There is a good spring three-eighths of a 
mile north-vi^est of village, and cisterns in the village. 

Sfifsaf (O e). — A small village on the plain, containing about 100 
Moslems. There are gardens of olives and figs, with vineyards. The 
water is from two springs and rock-cut wells. 

Teitaba (P e).— A village, built of stone, containing 200 Moslems, 
with gardens on the west side. The water supply is from wells and a 
large birket. 

The next district on this sheet is the Bel ad Besharah, which 
has twenty-seven villages. In this sheet the Modir of the district resides 
at Tibnin. Part of the country to the west goes under the name of 
esh Shaub, but it is not recognised in the Government returns of 
the district. 

'A in I b 1 (O d). — Well-built modern village, with a Christian chapel ; 
contains about i,coo Christians (8co Maronites and 200 United Greeks). 
It has vineyards on the slope of the hill on which the village is placed, and 
olives in the valley below. Good water supply from springs in the valley. 

'A i n i t h a (O c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 500 
Metawileh. There is a Moslem school in the village ; extensive vineyards 
and a few olives in the wady. Water supplied from birket and many 

'Aita esh Shaub (N d). — A well-built village of stone, situated on 
hill-top, with figs, olives, and arable land. It contains about 200 Moslems 
(Guerin says Metawileh), and has water from several cisterns and birket near. 


'Ait her an (Pel). — A lartjc village, built of stone, containing 400 
Moslems, situated in bed of wady, with olives, gardens and arable land. 
Water from a large birket and cisterns. 

Beit Lif (N c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 150 
Moslems (Guerin says So Metawileh), situated on a hill-top, with a few 
olives and arable land. Two cisterns and a birket near supply the water. 

Beit Y a h u n (O c). — A village, built of stone, containing about fifty 
Metawileh, situated on hill-top, with grapes and figs. There are no 
springs, but a birket and cisterns for water supply. 

Belideh (P c). — A village, built of stone, containing mosque, and 
having about 150 Moslem inhabitants, situated on a ridge, with figs, olives, 
and arable land. One cistern and a good spring one mile south-cast of 
the village give the wa^er suppl\-. 

Bint Umm Jubeil (() d). — A very large Metawileh village, 
containing about 1,100 to 1,500 Metawileh. A market is held here every 
Thursday. The village is well built, and has a mosque. The situation is 
surrounded by higher hills, though the village is on high ground. The 
cultivation around is grapes, olives, and arable land. Water is supplied 
from a spring and many cisterns and large birket. 

L^ c i s h u n (P d). — A well-built village. The houses have gable 
roofs ; the inhabitants are about 400 Algerine Moslems. The village is 
situated on the side of a steep hill near the bottom of a valley, in which 
are three mills. There are small gardens ; there is a perennial suj^ply of 
water in the wady. 

D i b 1 (N d). — A village, built of stone, containing about 500 Christians 
(Guerin says 400 Maronites) ; there is a Maronite chapel. It is situated 
on hill-side, with grapes, figs, olives, mulberries, and arable land. The 
water supi^Iy is from many good springs in the wady to the north-wesl of 
village, and cisterns and birket near the village. 

Haddatha (O c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 150 
Metawileh, on hill-top ; a few grapes, figs and olives, and arable cultivation; 
there is a spring near and cisterns in village ; a birket for cattle. 

Han in (O d). — A small village, built of stone; 100 Moslems; on 
end of rocky ridge, with vineyards and arable land ; water h'om 'Ain Hanin 
in the valley below. 

VOL. I. 26 


Kadcs (P J). — A village, Iiuik of stone, containing about lOO 
(Guerin says 300) Moslems, very much ruim-il, on spur from hills, with figs, 
olives, and arable land ; one good spring and birket near on the cast side. 

!•- 1 K o z a h (N d). — A small village, containing about 1 00 Christians, 
with a small Christian chapel situated on a hill-top, witli figs, olives, and 
arable land ; a few cisterns for the water supply. 

Kunin (O c). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 
Metawileh ; it is situated on ridge, with olives and arable land around ; 
water from cisterns in the village and from a large birket. 

Guerin gives the population of this place at 400, divided between Moslems and 

El INIalkiyeh (P d). — A mud and stone village, containing about 
200 Moslems (Guerin says 300 Metawileh), situated on the plain, above 
Kades, with olives and arable land ; a perennial supply of water in wady 

]\I a r u n e r R a s (O d). — A stone village, with some large stones built 
into walls (see Section B.), containing about 150 Moslems, situated on the 
top of high hills, with vineyards and arable land ; water is obtained from 
'Ain Hara, and cisterns in the village.' 

Neby Muheibib (P c). — A small village round the stone Neby, 
containing about seventy Moslems, situated on top of ridge, with olives 
and arable land ; there are two cisterns in the village. 

R a m i a (M d). — A small stone village, containing about 1 50 Moslems, 
situated on hill-top in valley, with a few figs, olives, and arable land ; the 
valley to the west turns into a swamp in winter, owing to having no 
drainage ; there are cisterns and a large birket for water supply. 

Rumeish (N d). — A stone and mud village, containing about 500 
Christians ; there is a Christian church ; it is situated in the plain, with 
two large birkets and cisterns, surrounded by arable land and having 
some vineyards. 

Rusheif (N c). — A stone village, containing about 100 Metawileh, 
situated on a hill-top, with a few grapes, figs and olives, and arable culti- 
vation ; there is a spring near and cisterns in the village ; also a birket for 

Sal hah (O d). — A mud and basalt village, containing about 200 


Moslems, with gardens and arable land around, situated on plain at edge of 
steep wady, with a large birket and several cisterns in the village for water. 

Es Salihiyeh (Rd). — A mud village, containing about ninety 
Moslems ; situated on plain of arable land, with marsh and river near. 

Surubbin (X c). — A small stone village, containing about eighty 
Metawileh, situated on hill-top, with olives and arable cultivation ; springs 
near, and cisterns and birket. 

Et Tireh (O c).— x'\ small stone village, containing about eighty 
Metawileh, in narrow valley, with grapes, a few olives, and figs ; many 
cisterns in and round village ; on hill-side old masonry birket. 

Yater (N c). — A stone village, containing about 300 (Gucrin says 
160) Metawileh (see Section B.), situated on hill-top, with olives and arable 
land about, having a l^iirkct and many cisterns and a spring near it. 

\ a run (O d). — A stone village, containing about 200 Metawileh and 
200 Christians ; a Christian chapel in the village (see Section B.). The 
village is situated on the edge of a plain, with vineyards and arable land ; 
to the west rises a basalt-top called el Burj, full of cisterns, and supposed 
to be the site of an ancient castle ; there are large stones strewn about ; 
there are three large birkets and many cisterns to supply water ; one 
of the birkets is ruined. 

The third and last district on this sheet only contains five villages. 
The district of e s h S h a g h u r. 

r^erradieh (< J f). — A village, built of stone, containing about 150 
Moslems, situated in plain, with gardens, figs, olives, and arable cultiva- 
tion ; there is a good spring to the north of the village, and running water 
on west of village. 

Kefr 'A n a n (Of), — A village, built of stone, containing from 150 
to 200 (Guerin says 100) Moslems, in plain, with gardens, olives, and 
arable cultivation ; there are several cisterns and stream in Wckly near 
village on west side. The water sinks into the bed of the valley about 
half a mile south-west of village. 

N u h f (J\I f). — A village, built of stone, containing about 200 Moslems, 
in plain, with olives and arable land ; water from cisterns and a spring. 
Gutjrin sa^'s that there are here 400 Moslems willi a lew fainihcs of Schismatic Greeks. 



\'.\- R a m c li (N f). — A Nillagc, built of .stone, of ;^oocl materials, 
containinsj Greek chapel and about 600 Christians and 500 Dru/.es ; it is 
situated in plains, with large olive-groves, gardens, and vineyards ; five 
perennial springs near village, and several cisterns in it. 
Gucrin says tliere are 800 inhabitants, half Cliristian and half Dru/cs. 

Seijur (N f). — -A village, built of stone, containing about 100 
Druzes, in jilain, with olives and arable land ; water supply from cisterns 
and spring near. 

A\riE\T SiTKS. 

Diblath (accurately Diblah). — This place is mentioned once 
only in the Bible (Ezek. vi. 14) as if at one of the e.xtremities of the land 
of Israel. The name is in Vandevelde's map, but the identification seems 
first to have been proposed by Lieut. Conder. Renan speaks of the ruins 
at D i b 1, but does not su^Qfest that it was a Biblical site. 

E n H a z o r (Josh. xi. 2)'l)- — I' or these the ruin named H a / i r e h 
is proposed. 

Hazor (Josh. xi. 1). — For this place (Josh. xii. ig, xix. 36) several 
sites have been proposed. Robinson suggests Tell K h u r e i b e h, 
the ' mound of the ruins ' (the El K h u r e i b e h of the ma[)). Lieut. 
Conder points out that 'the name Hadireh, the exact Arabic equi- 
valent of H a z o r (compare Hazireth and Hezron in the Sinaitic 
desert) occurs a mile and a half west of this ruin in Jebel Hadireh 
and INIerj Hadireh. The latter, the ' plain of Hazor,' is probably 
that mentioned in i Mace. xi. 67 and Ant. xiii. 57. 

Heleph (Josh. xix. 11). — Vandevelde proposed Beit Lif for this 

Beth Anath (Josh. xiv. 38). — Eusebius calls it Batanda. 
Thomson (' The Land and the Book ') gives this identification. 

Iron (Josh. xix. 38). — Thomson proposes Yarun for this site. 
A h 1 a b (Judges i. 31). — A h 1 a b appears in later history as Gush 
Chaleb, or El Jish (Giscala). 

Kedesh of Napthali. — The important identification of this 
place with the modern K a d e s was made by Robinson. 


R a m a Ii (Josh. xix. 36). — This phice was identified by Robinson 
with Ram eh. 

Hannathon (Josh. xix. 14). — The sug-gcstion of Kcfr 'A nan 
for this place is due to the Survey. 

]VI c r o ni , W a t e r s o f . — Now the B a h e i r e t el H u 1 e h . 

A 1< b a r a = A c h a Ij a r a. 

This is the place called by Joseplius 'Xya^ai-M Thia, ' rock of Achabara,' which was 
fortified by him daring the insurrection of the Jeivs. lie also calls it Achabarc. It is 
mentioned (Carmoly ' Itineraires,' 1S5) as the burial place of Rabbi Nehurai, Rabbi Jannai, 
and Rabbi Dostai. 

Guerin suggests that Kadditha is the ancient Kisma mentioned in the Itinerary of Samuel 
Bar Simson (Carmoly, p. 133). Kisma lay between Safed and El Jish. Now Kadditha is 
the only village between these places. At Kisma was the sepulchre of a Is.ablji. 

To these Lieut. Conder adds the following : 

Edrei (Joshua xix. 37). — Probably the village of Yates. (But see in Section II. 

Sl//> VOu'.) 

Ho rem (Joshua xix. 38). — Probably the present ruin Harah. Vandevelde suggested 
Ilurah, which appears on the map as Kh. el Kurali. 

'A i n ez Zeitun is mentioned in 125S by R. Jacob of Paris as containing the tombs 
of R. Hanina ben Dosa and R. Jehuda ben Elai, Rabbis mentioned in the Mishna. The 
latter tomb is also noticed in 1561 a.d. ami 1564 a.p. See below, Safed. (Sheet IV.) 

'Akbara is identified with the 'Rock of the Achabari ' of Josephus (13. J. ii. 20, 
6). It is mentioned in the Talmud as containing the school of R. Jose bar .\bin (Tal. 
Jer. Trumoth, x. 7.) In 125.S R. Jacob of Paris found there the tombs of R. Nehurai 
(Pirke Aboth, iv. 14), R. Jannai, and R. Dostai, his son (Pirke Aboth, iii. 8), situated 
in the gardens (Ikhus ha Tzadikim, 1561 a.d.), by a spring (Ikhus ha Aboth, 1564 a.d.). 

'Alma. — North of Safed, is mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela (i 163 .\.d.) as contain- 
ing a large Jewish cemetery. Rabbi Samuel Bar Simson, in 1210 ad., mentions the tombs 
of R. Eleazar Bar Arach and R. Eleazar Bar Azariah (Pirke Aboth iii. 17). R. Azariah 
himself and R. Jehudah Bar Tenia were also buried here according to Jacob of Paris 
(1258 A.D.); but there is some confusion, as Benjamin of Tudela places their tombs 
elsewhere. The tomb of R. Eleazar Bar Arach was a famous place of resort for the Jews 
and Moslems in 1322, according to Isaac Chelo. Two sacred pomegranate trees stood over 
it. The tomb itself was a rock-cave, widi a porch above it. The site was south of the 
village (Vikhus ha Tzadikim, 1561 a.d.). At a later period other sacred tombs near 'Alma 
are mentioned (in Yikhus ha Tzadikim and Yikhus ha Aboth), including that of R. Eleazar 
Bar Hyrcanus ; and a cave called the Cavern of the Babylonians, near the spring of the 
village, in which cave two other Rabbis were buried. 

'A m m II k a.— The ' Desert of Amaik,' mentioned in the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Baba Kama, 
79/'), is most probably the district near 'Ammuka. The place is mentioned by Samuel Bar 
Simson as containing the tomb of Jonathan ben Uzziel (the author of the 'Targumof 
Jonathan ') under a tree. R. Uri of Biel (1564) gives a rude sketch of the monument, and 
places it south of the village (Vikhus ha Aboth). 


'Arrdbet cl lluttauf is mentioned in tlie Talmud as not far from Scpijhoris (Tal. 
Jer. Taanith, iv. i, and in the Mishna, Sabbath, xvi. 8). Josephus (Vita, 51) places Araba 
twenty stadia from Sogane, wliich is just tlie distance between 'Arrabeh and Sukhnin (Sheet V.). 
Araba is also noticed ni the ' Onomasticon ' (s. v. Araba) as in the confines of Dio-C;csarea 
(or Sepphoris). In 1250 a.d. it was one of the Casales belonging to the Teutonic knights. 
R. Gerson of Scarmcla mentions the tombs of R. Ilanina, son of Dosa, and R. Reuben the 
Astrolabe, here; and Uri of Riel notices a terebinth tree over these tombs (1561 and 1564 a.d.). 
'Arrabeh was the original seat of the family of Dhaher el 'Amr. The site of the sacred tombs 
is perhaps marked by that of Y'akub es Saddik (' the just one'), north of 'Arrabeh. 

Beit J e n n is mentioned among the Casales of the Teutonic knights as Beitegcn, 
about 1250 A.D. It is probably the Caphar Genam of R. Uri of Riel (1564 a.d.) between 
Kefr Menda and Benit, containing the tombs of R. Jehuda bar Barak and R. Hezekiah. Beit 
Jenn is at the present day a Druze village, and there is a single ancient sepulchre on the 

Kh. Benit is apparently the Abnith of R. Uri of Bid, where was the tomb ot 
R. Khisda — the position, between Beit Jenn and Kh. Keisun, being exactly that of the 
modern site. It is also not improbably the Jamnia which Josephus fortified, and which was 
in Upper Galilee (Vita, 37 ; B. J. ii. 20, 6), near Seph and .•Vchabari. 

Ueir Hanna. — A walled 'town. The name ('Convent of John') is evidently of 
Christian origin. The wall and moscjue (with a large house for himself) were built by S'ad, 
son of Dhaher el 'Amr, about the middle of the last century. 

Del at a. — The tombs of R. Jehuda Bar Tamra (mentioned in Pirke Aboth, v. 20), 
and R. Jose the Galilean, a celebrated Rabbi, are noticed by R. Samuel BarSimson in 1210 ; 
and other tombs are here noticed by R. Jacob of Paris (1258), and by Isaac Chelo (1322). 
The latter speaks of the sepulchres as caves. Uri of Biel (Yikhus ha Aboth, 1564 a.d.) gives 
a rough sketch of the tombs of Jose the Galilean and Ishmael his son, which he places on 
the hill-top at the end of the village — the site now occupied by Sheikh Ahmed el Kasim. 

F a r 'a h seems to be the most probable site of Caphar Farara (or Farawa), where was 
the tomb of R. Nahum of Gimzo, as mentioned in the various Jewish itineraries from 1 2 10 to 
1664 A.D. 

El J 'aim eh is perhaps the site of Caphar Gun (Tal. Jer. Baba Bathra, v. i), or 
Caphar Agin (Bereshith, Rabba, chap, c), places which are both mentioned in connection 
■with R. Takhum, who was a Galilean. 

El Jish is called in the Talmud Gush Halab (Eracin, viii. 6; Tal. Bab. Menahoth, 
85 b), a name which Josephus changes into Giscala (Vita, 38, and B. J. ii. 20, 6; iv. i, i ; 
iv. 2, I — 5). R. Samuel Bar Simson (12 10 a.d.) places the tombs of Shemaiah and Abtalion 
(mentioned in the Mishnah, Pirke Aboth, i. 12) north of the village; and Isaac Chelo 
(1334 A.D.) speaks of this monument as of wrought stone, but mentions also caves and rock- 
cut tombs at the site. R. Uri of Biel (1564 A.D.) attributes the synagogue to Simeon Bar 
lochai, the famous Cabalistic writer, who erected twenty-four synagogues in Galilee, and lived 
about 120 A.D. (according to Chiarini). 

Jisr Ben at Y'akub. — The bridge itself appears to be of later date than the 
Crusading period. William of Tyre calls the place the Vadum Jacob, or ' Ford of Jacob,' 
and places it six miles from Banias. A strong fortress was built near it in 1 1 78 a.d. on a low 
hill. It was of square shape, and was finished in six months, and called Chateau Neuf 
(William of Tyre, xviii. 13, and xxi. 26, and xxii. 22). The Templars took charge of the 
new fortress. Monro describes the ruins of this castle (vol. ii. p. 44 of ' A Summer Ramble 

[sheet I]-.\ A.XC/EXr SITES. 207 

in Syria,' 1S33) about a mile below the bridge on the west,, where the present ruin Ktisr 'Atra 
is marked. 

Kades. — This is possibly the Kadesh mentioned, with other Galilean towns, on the 
List of Thothmes III. (No. i) under the form Kedeshu (see Mariette's ' Listes des 
Pylones de Karnak'). Josephus calls the town 'the Upper Cadesh' (Ant. v. i, iS), and 
Cydida (Ant. i.\. 11, 1). It appears also to be the Cydessa, an inland city of the Tyrians, 
mentioned with Giscala (B. J. iv. 2, 3). In the ' Onomasticon ' of Eusebius and Jerome, 
Cydissus is placed ' near Paneas,' and twenty miles from Tyre, which agrees fairly with the 
position of Kades.* Isaac Chelo (1334 a.d.) places the tombs of Barak and Deborah here. 
Gerson of Scarmela (1561) adds Jael to the number, and mentions the 'School of Joshua' 
(as does Uri of Biel, 1564). probably the large ruined building called sometimes 'the 
Temple of the Sun.' Kades is shown in correct position on the map of Marino Sanuto 
(1322 A.D.). 

Kefr 'A nan. — The same place is mentioned in the Mishnah (Shebiith ix. 2) as 
the boundary of Lower Galilee. Isaac Chelo (1334 .\.d.) speaks of this site, and identifies 
it with the Talmudic town as above. He mentions the tombs of R. Khalefta Bar Dosa 
(noticed in Pirke Aboth, iii. 6), R. Jacob (Pirke Aboth, iv. 16), and his son R. Eleazar, as 
square masonry structures, with terebinths near them. R. Gerson of Scarmela mentions 
three other tombs in 1561 (Yikhus ha T/:adikim), namely, R. Simeon, R. Jose (son of R. 
Khalefta), and R. Zechariah (mentioned in Sota, v. i, and Ediyoth, viii. 2). He speaks also 
of a cavern called El Bizaran (compare Khurbet Rumeh, Sheet V., Section A.), with twenty- 
four stone kokim ; and two other caves or rock-cut tombs, one consecrated to a Neby 

Kefr Bir'im. — R. Samuel Bar Sinison (12 10 .\.d.) mentions the tomb of the 
famous Honi the magician (mentioned in Taanith, iii. 8), and his family ; also one of the 
twenty-four synagogues of R. Simeon Bar lochai (about 120 a.d., according to Chiarini's list). 
He further notices a school with the supposed tomb of Abdias the prophet beneath it, and in 
the synagogue the tomb of Phinehas Ben Jair (mentioned in Sota, ix. 15). These tombs are 
also noticed by R. Gerson of Scarmela (1561 a.d.), the last mentioned being south of the 
village, and that of Abdias under a terebinth on the north. The supposed tomb of Esther 
was also shown, with others of various Rabbis. The town at this time was a place of Jewish 
resort, the Jews assembling to read the Megilla (or Book of Esther) at Esther's tomb on the 
occasion of the Feast of Purim (Yikhus ha Aboth). 

Kul'at Tibnin was built, according to William of Tyre, by Hugh, Seigneur of 
St. Aldemar and Lord of Tiberias, in 1107, the earliest of all the Crusading fortresses. It 
was called Toron (an old French word, signifying an isolated hill) ; but the former name of 
the site was, according to him, Tibenis (WiUiam of Tyre, xi. 5). There was another Toron 
in Galilee — the mound east of Acre, where Guy of Lusignan pitched his camp, and which 
was afterwards called Napoleon's Hill (see ' Chronicles of the Crusades,' pp. 104-1 12). See 
back, Akka. Tibnin was still a strong fortress in the thirteenth century. It was dismantled 
by Sultan Mu'addem in 1219 (for further details see Robinson's 'Biblical Researches,' vol. ii. 
I)p. 451-3, second edition). Marino Sanuto (1322 a.d.) places Thoron seven leagues from 
Tyre. The present ruins at Tibnin are attributed by Key (' Monuments des Croises en 

••' It is, however, possible that the Kadesh of the Thothmes Lists was the city on the 


Syrie,' p. 141) to Dliahcr el 'Anir, who rebuilt the fortress in llic middle of the eighteeiiih 
century on the foundations of the Crusading castle, which are still visible, consisting of large 
drafted stones like those used by the Crusaders at 'Athlit. 

Meiron is mentioned with Gush Haleb in the Taluuul (Tal. Jcr. Shebiith, ix. 2; 
Midrash Koheleth, xi. 3). It is also noticed as a city of the priests (Tal. Jer. Taanitii, iv. 5). 
The tomb of R. Eleazar bar Kliasma, for whose body the inhabitants of Meiron and el Jish 
are reported (Midrash Koheleth, xi. 3) to have fought, is said by R. Samuel bar Simson to 
have existed at Meiron in 12 10 .a.d. ; as well as a school of R. Simeon ba- lochai, which was 
square. The tombs of Hillel and Shammai are placed by the same authority at the foot of 
the mountain, with 336 other tombs. Over the tombs were domed buildings with reliefs 
inside, representing the branches of trees. There were six reservoirs connected together in a 
cavern here, to which a tradition attached. Jacob of Paris (in 1258 a.d.) speaks of the 
synagogue of Simeon bar lochai and of the tomb of a second R. Eleazar, son of Simeon bar 
lochai. Isaac Chelo (1334 a.d.) mentions the tomb of bar lochai (who lived about 120 a.d., 
and was one of the most famous cabalists) to the left of the school and to the right of the 
synagogue. R. Uri of Biel (1564 a.d.) gives a sketch showing a square enclosure representing 
the school of Simeon bar lochai, with his tomb, and that of his son Eleazar; both being 
round monuments, with roofs of peculiar form, situated inside the school. He also gives a 
sketch of a sarcophagus in the cavern on the slope west of the village, containing the tomb 
of Hillel and of some of his disciples ; and he places the tomb of Shammai under a stone 
vault west of the village on the hill-top. Many other Rabbis were also buried here. 'J'he 
tomb of Simeon bar lochai is still shown in the large building where the Jews assemble 
for the feast of Lag le Omer, or the Feast of the School as it is also called. The tomb of 
R. Johanan Sandelar (noticed in 1344, 1561, and 1564) is also shown near the synagogue. 
This doctor is mentioned in the Mishnah (Pirke Aboth, iv. 11). Benjamin of Tudela 
(1163 A.D.) also mentions the site of Meiron as six parasangs from 'Alma. The sacrifice of 
valuable articles (cashmere shawls, etc.) by burning in the fires lit in the school of R. Simeon, 
may be compared with the sacrifices at Joseph's tomb (see Sheet XL). 

El !Mughar. — Probably the Meroth mentioned as fortified by Josephus (Vita, 37; 
B. J. ii. 20, 6). There is nothing to show which of the two villages so named is intended. 
In the Tables of the Teutonic Knights Mogar is mentioned with Romane (Rummaneh, 
Sheet V.) and Sellem (Selameh, Sheet V.) as a fief of the Order. The southern site is the 
one here probably intended. 

N u h f is mentioned among the Casales belonging to the Knights of the Teutonic 
Order about 1250 a.d. by the name Nef, with Beit Jenn, Jalun, and other places in the same 

S'as'a. — ^A synagogue of R. Simeon bar lochai is mentioned as existing here by R. 
Isaac Chelo (in 1334 a.d.), and Gerson of Scarmela (in 1561 a.d.), as well as a school built 
by the same founder. These buildings have not been rediscovered as yet. 

Seijur is mentioned in 1210 a.d. by R. Samuel bar Simson, between Acre anil 
Kefr 'Anan. He identifies it with the Shizur of the Talmud (Demai iv. 3), the home of R. 
Simeon, whose tomb, with that of his son R. Eleazar, was shown there. Isaac Chelo 
(1334 .\.v>.) speaks of these tombs as square monuments of stone, with terebinth trees round 
them. These and other tombs are noticed also in the sixteenth century. ALarino Sanuto 
shows the place on his map in 1322 a.d. under the name Seggori. Two sacred places still 
exist near the villaiie. 


Sufsaf is apparently the Safsufa of the Tahnud, near Safed and Meiron (Tal. Jer. 
Trumoth, viii. 9). 

S u m e i a, south of Safed, is apparently the Caphar Simai, or Sama, of the Talmud 
(Tal. Jer. Gittin, i. 2 ; Tosiphta Oholoth, chap, xviii.), a place nearer to Sepphoris than to 

E t T e 1 e i 1, ' the Little Mound,' appears to be the Thella of Josephus (B. J. iii. 2, 1 ) — a 
village near the Jordan, forming the eastern limit of Upper Galilee. 

Hydrogr.vpiiy. — The principal water supply in this sheet, besides the 
Jordan, which forms the eastern boundary of the work, is the streatii of 
water in Wady et Tawahin near Safed. It rises at a spring near Meirun, 
and is mcreased by numerous springs in its course, until it becomes a good 
stream of water, with a considerable fall the whole way. There are many 
mills, some of them ruined, turned by this stream. To the east, in Wady 
'Akbara, there is another smaller stream, which is perennial ; it is also kept 
flowing by numerous springs along its course. In summer the upper part 
of this wady is dry. 

A stream of water Hows down from the S[>ring of el Jish into the Wady 
Far' ah, where it is joined by a small stream in the wady ; shortly after this 
junction a large spring, 'Ain el Balat, considerably increases the water in 
the wady, which is further increased by the Neb'a 'Auba, from which the 
wady then takes its name. It here turns several mills, and the water in 
the winter finds its way along Wady Hindaj to the Huleh Lake. In the 
summer this portion of the stream is dry, the water sinking into the 

A considerable flow of water descends from the 'Ayun el Wakkas in 
the wady of that name. In the winter there is a stream in this wady from 
the 'Ain el Beida to the Huleh, but in summer this stream sinks into the 
ground, and very little water reaches the Huleh from the 'Ayun el Wakkas. 
This is all the important water supplies on this sheet. The description of 
the springs, etc., follows, in alphabetical order. 

'Ain 'Abb ad (O f). — A cistern, rock-cut, for rain-water. 

'Ain 'A b a d i y e h (O f). — Good spring of water, with a stream for 
a short distance only ; perennial. 

'Ain el 'A fi e h (P e). — A good spring, in the form of a well, built 
up with masonry ; good supply ; troughs. 

VOL. I. 27 


'A i n 'A k b a r a (P I"). — A small spring, with no stream ; good water ; 

'A i n el 'Ala w i y e h (O e). — A good perennial supply of water; 
small stream, collected in drinking-trough. 

'A i n el 'A 1 m a n i y e h (O d). — -A good spring, with slight stream 
running into the Huleh ; the water slightly brackish. 

'A i n el Hakhrah (N d). — A medium-sized perennial spring of 
good water. 

'A i n el B a 1 a t (O d). — A large spring, with strong stream flowing, 
joining the stream in Wady Far'ah ; perennial. The stream soon turns a 
mill ; perennial. 

'A i n el B a 1 a t a h (O c).— A strong stream of good water, llowing 
into Huleh marsh ; perennial. 

'A i n el B a n i e h (P e). — A good perennial spring, in form of well, 
built up with masonry. 

'A i n B a r b i r (O e). — A perennial spring of water, with stream 
flowing into Huleh marsh. 

'A in el Bardeh (O e). — A good perennial spring, with small 
stream flowing into pool cut in rock. 

'A i n el B e i d a (O e). — A good perennial spring, with stream flow- 
ing from it ; medium supply. (P f). Ditto, rock-cut cistern, for rain- 

'A in el Bellaneh (P f). — A rock-cut cistern, for rain-water. 

'A i n B i r i a (P e).— A spring, built up with masonry, like well ; 
good water ; small supply ; perennial. 

'A in el Burraniyeh (P e). — A good spring; perennial; medium 
supply. (N f). Ditto, good spring, with slight stream ; perennial. 

'A in ed Durrah (N e). — A good spring, with slight stream; 
perennial supply. 

'A i n F e r a m (P e). — A good supply of water, forming a perennial 
stream in wady ; used for irrigation. 

'A in el Foka (O c) near 'A i n Ibl. — A good spring, with 
small stream, and birket ; perennial. Second in O d. A good spring, built 


up with masonry in the form of a well ; perennial. Third in O e. A 
good spring, with a small stream for 200 yards in wady ; perennial ; 
medium supply. 

'A i n Ghabbati (O e). — A good spring, with small stream; a 
birket close by to receive the water ; perennial. 

'A i n el Ghanem (M f). — A good spring, built up with masonry 
in form of well ; perennial ; small supply. 

'A i n el Ghawardai (M d). — -A small perennial spring; good 
water ; small supply. 

'A i n el G h u d r a n (N c). — Rain-water, in bed of wady ; no spring 

'A i n el Hamra el Foka (P f). — A large spring, with stream 
of good water flowing from it in wady ; perennial ; good supply. 

'A i n el Hamra el Tahta (P f). — Similar to above. 

'A i n H a n i n (O d). — A good spring, built up with masonry in 
form of well ; medium supply ; perennial. 

'A i n el Harah (O d). — A good perennial spring, built up with 
masonry in form of well ; medium supply. 

'A i n H a r a m u n (O d). — Dry. 

'A i n el H a s c 1. — A good spring, built up with masonry in form of 
well ; small supply ; j)erennial. 

'A i n Haudein (N f). — A good spring, built up with masonry; 

'A i n el Hush (P f). — A rock-cut cistern, for rain-water. 

'A i n H u m e i m e h (O e). — A small spring ; dry in summer. 

'A i n el H u m m a m (R e). — A spring, with small stream flowing 
from it into Jordan ; ruined building near ; perennial ; good supply. 

'A i n el Hurriyeh (O d). — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; small supply. 

'A i n Huwarah (P e). — Good water; small supply; dries up in 



'A in J u a il n e h. — There are two springs, with a good perennial 
supply of water and a small stream. 

'A i n Jahulah (O c). — i\ large perennial spring, with a stream 
flowing to the marsh of the Mulch ; a large supply of good water. 

'A in el J a m i d (1' e). — A good perennial spring, with small 
stream flowing from it. 

'A i n el Jedideh (N e).- — A square birket, with stagnant rain- 
water ; some cisterns near. (O e). Ditto, a perennial spring, with slight 
stream. (P f). Ditto, small perennial spring, built up with masonry in 
form of well. 

'A i n el Jemel (N e). — A rock-cut cistern, for rain-water. 
'A i n el Jenadiyeh (N d). — A small perennial spring of good 

'A i n el Jenan (N e). — A good perennial spring, with slight stream 
of water flowing from it. 

'A in el Jerab (P f). — A good perennial spring ; no stream ; small 

'A i n el Jinn (P c). — A large spring, with strong perennial stream 
of good water flowing from it. The source of water in the wady. 

'A i n el Jish. — A good perennial spring, with stream flowing 
perennially. Collected in long stone trough. 

'A in el Jozeh (O d).- — A good spring, built up with masonry in 
form of well ; perennial ; small supply. 

'A in el Judeiyideh. — A perennial spring of good water, built 
up with masonry in the form of a well ; small supply. 

'A i n el J u r a n y (P e). — A small spring ; dries up in summer. 

'A i n el Jurun (O e). — A perennial spring of good water, built up 
with masonry ; small supply. 

'A i n Kadditha (P e). — A good perennial spring, with a small 
stream flowing from it ; medium supply. 

'A i n el Kady (Of). — A small spring ; dry in summer. 

'A in el Kantarah (P e). — A good perennial spring, with small 
stream for short distance ; it flows through a hollow in the rocks. 


'A i n Katamun (N d). — A good perennial spring; medium 

'A i n el Kebireh (O e). — A medium-sized perennial spring, with 
a small stream flowing from it. 

'A i n Kefrah (N c). — A very large masonry well, containing 
perennial spring, with a birket ; good water ; medium supply. Also a 
rock-cut cistern, for rain-water. 

'A i n el Kerum (O e). — A good perennial spring, with stream of 
water ; good supply. 

'A i n el K h a r r u b e h (O e). — A rock-cut cistern, for rain-water. 

'A i n K h a 1 1 a r a h (P f). — A small spring ; dries up in summer. 

'A i n el Khurbeh (O e). — A good perennial spring, built up 
with masonry ; medium supply. 

'A i n el Kuseibeh (P e). — A perennial spring; no stream; 
medium supply; good water. (P f). A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; slight supply. 

'A i n el Lebweh (O f). — A large perennial spring of good water, 
with stream flowing into Jordan. 

'A i n el L6z (O f). — A good perennial spring, with stream ; good 
supply. There is another spring, ditto, to the north, and a large spring- 
to the south. The stream from these flows into the Jordan. 

'A i n el L 6 z i y e h (O e). — A good perennial spring; medium supply. 

'A i n Kh. Mar us (P e). — A good perennial spring, in rock-cave ; 
medium supply. 

'A i n Meiron. — -A large perennial spring of good water; with a 
good stream flowing down wady ; good supply. 

'A i n el ]M e 1 1 a h a h (O d). — A very large perennial spring, flowini-- 
in a strong stream from the base of the mountain ; at once turns a mill, and 
forms almost a small river. It flows into the Huleh Marsh ; good water. 

'A in el Merj (N c). — A rock-cut well for rain-water. 

'A i n S h e r s h el K h u b b. — A small spring ; dries in summer. 

'A in el Mezarib (N e). — A good perennial spring, with small 
stream ; medium supply. 


'A in cl Mug- hill- (O e). — A good perennial sprinq-, with medium 

'A in el M u k e i s i b c h. — A small spring ; dries in sumnnji-. 

A in M u k h a 1 1 i d (P e). — A good perennial spring ; small su[)ply. 

'A in en N a h e i 1 e h (P e).— A good perennial spring ; small supply. 

'A in en Nebratein (Q e). — A good perennial spring; forms 
large pool round source ; good supply. 

'A in Neby H a n i y a.— A good perennial spring; large supply; 
the water runs in stream, and is used to irrigate gardens. 

'A in en Nimreh (N e). — A good perennial spring, with a small 
stream of water flowing from it. 

'A in en Nom (N e).— A perennial spring of good water, built up 
with masonry in the form of a well ; small supply. 

'A in N li h f (INI f). — A perennial spring of good water, built up with 
masonry ; a large trough near. 

'A i n en N li s u r a h (P e).- — A small spring ; dries up in summer. 

'A i n e r R a h i b (O e). — A good perennial spring, with small 
stream ; medium supply. 

'A in er Rihaneh (P f). — A large spring, with perennial stream 
which joins water in wady ; good supply. 

'A i n e r R u m e i 1 c h (O f). — A large spring, with good perennial 
stream in wady ; good supply. 

'A i n R u s h e i d e h . — A small spring, perennial ; small supply. 

'A i n R u s h e i f (N c). — A joerennial spring, built up with masonry ; 
medium supply. 

'A in es Saghireh (O e). — A medium-sized perennial spring of 
good water, with a small stream. (N f). A perennial spring good water, 
built up with masonry in form of well ; small supply. 

'A in es Sahle h. — A rock cut cistern for rain-water. 

'A in es Sakhrah (P f). — A small spring good water ; percolates 
through rock ; perennial ? 

'A i n Sal eh (P f). — A perennial spring of good water, with slight 
stream ; medium supply. 

{SHEET I v.'] HYDROGRArilY. 215 

'A i n S a m u r a h (P f). — A large spring, with a perennial stream 
in the wady ; good water supply. 

'A i n Seijur (N f). — -A perennial spring of good water, built up 
with masonry ; medium supply. 

'A i n e s S e m u a i e h (O f). — A perennial spring good water, built 
up with masonry ; medium supply. 

'A i n e s h S h a i r (O e). — A perennial spring with a small supply of 

good water. 

'A i n e s h Sheikh (O f). — A perennial spring of good water, built 
up with masonry ; medium supply. 

'A in Sidret el Lehebiyeh (Rf). — A small perennial spring, 
with a small supply of good water. 

'A i n Siifra (O e). — A perennial spring of good water; medium 


'A i n S VI f (O d). — A good perennial spring, built up with masonry ; 
medium supply. 

'A i n es Siifsafeh (Of). — A large perennial spring, with a 
stream flowing into Jordan ; good supply. 

'A i n es Sultan (P e). — A small spring, which dries up in 

' A i n e s S i^i r a r (N f). — A perennial spring of good water, built up 
with masonry. 

'A i n S u r u b b i n (N c). — A rock-cut cistern for rain-water. 

'A i n et Tabil (P e). — A good perennial spring, which forms 
a stream ; good supply. Ditto (P f). A large perennial spring, with a 
stream in the wady ; good supply. 

'A i n et Tahta (O e). — ^A medium-sized perennial spring, with a 
small stream in the wady ; good supply of water. 

Ain et Tarah (O e). — A rock-cut cistern for rain-water. 

'A i n T i r i a (O e). — A perennial spring of good water, with a good 
stream of water flowing from it ; good supply. 

'Ain Toba (O f). — A small spring ; dries up in summer. 

z 1 6 TI/E SUA' / TT 3 • OJ' 1 1 ESTEI^N PALESTINE. 

'A i n ct Tiiffah (O c). — A small sprinc;', which dries up in 

'A i n U 111 m K a d I'l s (N c). — A rock-cut cislcrn for rain-water. 

'A in Umm cl Kura (Of). — A good perennial spring, with a 
stream flowing into the Jordan. 

'A i n U 111 111 T a h in (P c). — A good perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; medium supply. 

'A in el \V a r a k a h (O e). — A hole cut in rock for rain-water. 

'A i n Yater (N c). — A good perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; medium supply. 

'A i n e z Z e i t u n , and Spring S. of ditto (P e). — A good 
perennial spring, built up with masonry, and with a trough ; medium 

'A in ez Zerka (P e). — A good perennial spring, built up with 
masonry, and with a trough ; medium supply. 

'A y u n el Butm (Pe). — Good perennial springs ; medium supply. 

'A y u n el M a 1 h a h (P e). — Good perennial springs, built up with 
masonry ; medium supply. 

'A y fi n el 'Okeibeh (P f). — Good perennial springs; slightly 
marshy round ; medium supply. 

'A y u n el W a k k a s (Q e). — Large springs, forming a strong 
stream of good water in wady ; large supply. 

'A y u n el Werd (P e). — Built up with masonry ; perennial springs. 

B i a r el J e r m u k (O e). — Good rock-cut cisterns. 

Biar es Sukker (O e). — Good rock-cut cisterns. 

B i r el 'A b d. — Dries in summer ; small supply. 

B i r el 'Ay u n. — A rock-cut well ; small supply. 

Bir el Beiyad. — A rock-cut cistern ; rain-water. 

Bir el Haiyat. — A ruined cistern. 

Bir el Khashab (N f).- — A perennial spring, built up with 
masonry ; medium supply of good water, 

Bir el M a k a t i a. — A cistern for rain-water. 



B ir INI cz rah (1' c). — A perennial spring, closed in masonry well ; 
small supply. 

B i r S h. H u z a b y. — A cistern for rain-water. 

B i r e s h .S h i h (P e). —A rock-cut cistern for rain-water. 

B i r e s S u k k e r (O e). — A good cistern for rain-water. 

Bir et Tell (Be). — Rain-water collects in deep hole. 

B i r e t h T h e n i y e h (N d). — Rain-water ; dry in summer. 

Bir Y u s h a (O d). — A rock-cut cistern ; rain-water. 

Bir Z e b u d (O e). — A cistern, rock-cut ; rain-water. 

Bir Z u h 1 u k. — A small spring : dries in summer. 

Birket el Hafur (O d). — A pond for rain-water, with masonry 
on one side. 

P) i r k e t M a m 1 (O d). — A large rain-water pond. 
Birket el J i s h (O e). — A very large pool in rocky hole on plain, 
supposed to be a crater of extinct volcano ; there is water all the year. 

Birket J u b b Y u s e f (O f). — A pool fed by a sjM'ing in Khan Jubb 
Yusef The spring in the khan is built up with masonry, and is perennial. 

Birket K u n i n (O d) is a large pool of water. 

Other birkets on this sheet are pools of water that generally dry up in 

Neb a 'Auba (P t). — A large spring, joining stream in Wady 
'Aiiba ; turns several mills directly ; large supply. 

Nebat Dibl (N d). — Some rock-cut cisterns. 

N e b a t W a d y F a r a h (O e). — Large springs, joining stream in 
Wady Farah. 

Spring to the W. of K h. es Seiyarah. — Good perennial 
spring, with stream for fifty yards ; medium supply. 

RoAHs. — The principal road on this sheet is the old Damascus road, 
leading from Khan Jubb Yusef till it crosses the Jordan at the bridge of 
Jisr Benat Y'akub. This bridge is mentioned in the times of the Crusades, 
and this road appears to have been always a main-road in the country in 
Roman times. 

VOL. I. 28 


The portion of it on this sheet passes across a rough basaltic plain. In 
parts the road is still fairly good, but at others it is almost lost amongst the 
surrounding rocks. 

Another main-road leads up in the great valley by cr Rameh from 
'Akka ; it crosses the Wady Tawahin, and mounts the high hills to Safed. 
From Safed there is a good road leading north by Kadditha el Jish to 
Kefr Bir'im, and also traces of an ancient road connecting it with Meiron. 
From Kefr Bir'im the road leads north to Yarun, and from there to Bint 
Umm Jubeil, and thence by 'Ainitha and Hunin to Tibnin, on the sheet 

A fair road also passes round by Sasa to Rumeish and Dibl, and from 
thence by et Tireh to Haddatha. This latter portion of this road shows 
signs of antiquity. 

There is also a road along the Jordan Valley, traversing the whole 
space of the sheet ; and also a road from Kades leading north to Meis, 
on the next sheet. 

The roads leading on the Western portion of the sheet to the sea are 
bad. The principal one leads by Hurfeish to the Bukeiah, or past ed 
Deir \va el Kasy to Fassutah. 

In general the roads and paths of the district on this sheet are better 
than on any other in Palestine, particularly in the central part of the 


'Aita esh Shaub (N d). — Here are foundations of walls, built 
with well-dressed stones. Several sarcophagi were observed. On the 
east, south and west of village there are also two olive-presses and two 
rock-cut cisterns. 

' The village has taken the place of a small town surrounded by a wall, of which some 
remains still exist in well-cut stones and a fort measuring forty paces long by twenty-five 
broad. Beneath this building lies a large cistern vaulted with circular arches, and built of 
regularly cut stones. It is covered by a platform, on part of which has been built, later on, 
a little mosque, now falling into ruins. Here one may remark columns which come from 
an older building, the site of which is marked by a mass of blocks regularly cut, and by 
mutilated shafts lying upon the ground. 

' Below the village, the upper slopes of the hill are cultivated in terraces, and planted with 
vines, fig-trees, pomegranates, olives, and filberts. Here I found several cisterns, a great 
sepulchral cave, ornamented with arched arcosolia, each surmounting two sarcophagi, con- 
tiguous and parallel, a press with two compartments, one square and the other circular, the 
whole cut in the living rock. 

'Ascending towards the east, I passed beside an ancient pool half cut in the rock and 
half built. Not far is an old evergreen oak, one of the most remarkable that I have seen in 
Palestine, to which the inhabitants offer a kind of worship. It is protected by a little wall 
which supports the venerable trunk.' — Guerin. 

'A k bar a (P f). 

' The ruins of xVkbara cover a hillock whose slopes were formerly sustained by walls 
forming terraces ; the threshing floors of an Arab village occupy the summit. Round these 
are grouped the remains of ancient constructions now overthrown. 

' The village lies on the east of the wady. It is dominated by a platform on which 
foundations can be traced of a rectangular enclosure called el K u n e i s e h, measuring 
thirty paces in length by twenty-three in breadth. It stands east and west, and was firmly 
constructed of good cut stones. The interior is at present given up to cultivation. This 
enclosure seems to have been once a Christian church.' — Guerin. 

28 — 2 


M 1 in .1 (I'd). — There are some well-dressed stones in the village, and 
an almost-obliterated inscription occurs on the stone door-step of one of the 

In the ' Iiineraires de la Terre Sainte,' translated from the Hebrew by Carmoly (Paris, 
1S47), this place is frequently mentioned. Here were standing the tombs of Rabbi Jehudeli, 
son of Tima ; of Rabbi Azariah, and of Rabbi Eleazar, his son, as well as that of Rabbi 
Eleazar, son of Arakh. ' Alma,' said Rabbi Ishak Chelo, ' possesses a sacred Jewish asso- 
ciation. Here stand three tombs of as many sages of Israel, who all bore the name of Rabbi 
Eleazar. Beautiful pomegranates shade these ancient tombs. Jews and Mussulmans alike 
light torches here every Friday evening. The ' Sepulchres of the Just,' translated in the 
same work, assigns the situation of these monuments : ' At the south of the village is 
interred R. Eliezer, son of Hycanos, as well as R. Eleazar, son of Arakh, Eleazar son of 
Ajuriah, and his father. At the head of the mountain is the tomb of R. Zimra ; that of R. 
Jehudeh, son of Tima, is found on the other side of the village. Here is also the cave of 
the Babylonians, where are buried Rabbah, son of Rab Huna, and Rab Hamenuna.' All 
these tombs are now forgotten. 

Guerin found here the ruins of an ancient synagogue, the debris of which are found 
scattered about the village, broken shafts in the wall of a mosque, and a lintel used for a 
bench near the mcdafch. On the lintel is an inscription in a single line of Hebrew, which 
M. Renan has translated : 

' (Peace be) upon this place and in all the places of Israel.' 

.\n allusion may perhaps be made to Haggai, ii. 9. 

'A 1 m a (ruins to the east of) (P d). — Remains of ruined watch-towers 
occur on the crest of the ridge, and a quarter of a mile to the south of 
these there are three perfect dolmens, not very large, the covering-stone 
averaging lo'x 7'x i'6". There are no marks of any sort upon them. 

'A m m u k a h (P e). 
This place was celebrated among the Jews of the Middle Ages as containing the tomb of 
Jonathan, son of Uzziel the Targumist (see Carmoly ' Itineraires,' p. 132), the author of the 
Chaldaic paraphrase of the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, and the 
Prophets. Over the tomb was formerly a great tree. The tomb is now gone, but an old tree 
stands, under which are certain cut stones, on which the Jews who go there write their names. 

Belideh (P c). — Here are several columns and remains of ruins. 
Double triangles are cut on either side of door of mosque. 

El B u r j (O e). — Here is part of a modern ruined watch-tower. 

Dalata (P e). 
Dalata (See Carmoly, ' Itineraires,' pp. 135, 185, 263, 379, 451), was full of the so-called 
tombs of learned Jewish doctors. The memory of these scholars has now completely died 
out of the country. On the way between Dalata and .A.lma is the ' cave of the Babylonians,' 
with the bones of the Jewish holy men who died there, 

{SHEET //:] 


Ed Deir (N e). — This is the ruin of a large church at Yarun (see 

Deir el G h a b i e h (P cl). — Foundations and traces of ruins. 

Deir H a b i b (P d). — Heaps of stones and foundations of buildings 
on a tell. 

Deir K u 1 u n s a w e y (N d). —Traces and foundations of walls. 

E d h D h a h c r i y e h el F u k a (P e). — Heaps of stones, mostly 
hewn and small. 

D i b 1 (N d). — At this village there are some rock-cut tombs, in one of 
which there is an inscription. Many well-dressed stones are used, and 
turn up in digging. On one of these was a fragmentary inscription. 
Under some of the houses of the village there is a large piece of tesselated 



^ - 6'1^-^ ^■J' 

pavement of very good design. The colours are red, black, and white 
There are some sarcophagi and some broken jjillars. This was pro- 
]jal)ly an early Christian site. 

This village stands on a hill whose highest platform seems to have once been surrounded 
by a very thick wall, of which some traces still exist. The lower terraces rested on support- 
ing walls, in great part destroyed. In the midst of plantations of tobacco and mulberries 
one remarks numerous cisterns, most of them f;;llen in, a great pool cut in the rock, and 
several rock-cut tombs. One of these has a large vertical entrance like a rectangular well, 
three metres deep, from which one reaches a sepulchral cave, now empty. A second tomb, 


the entrance to which is horizontal, contained under different arcosolia several sarcophagi, 
which have disappeared. 

In the third tomb there are the following inscriptions : 

(i). On the right, at entrance, above tlic door of a compartment containinL; four loculi, 

two before and two behind, 


(:;). Above a neighbouiing door, opening upon a single loculus — 


(3). Above a third door, opening on three loculi — 


(4). Opposite the entrance, above the door of the first loculus — 


(5). Above the door of the second loculus — 


(6). Above the door of the third loculus — 

TPICEIIPO.— Guc'rin. 

Renan read them rather differently, taking the first three and the last three together, and 
reading for the last II a n, see Renan, 'Mission en Phe'nicie,' pp. 674 — 675. 

Ed Duwarah (P c). — Here are heaps of unhewn stones; no 

Ed D 11 w e i r (Oe). — There are here some rock cut tombs and traces 

of ruins. One of the tombs has a door still in 
position. It rolls on the lower part, which is 
rounded and fits into sockets. 

Fas silt ah (N d). — Here are traces of 
ancient ruins ; two sarcophagi hewn out of very- 
large detached stones ; two cisterns. 

' Numerous cisterns, a great reservoir, vestiges of many 
ruined houses, fine cut stones marking out floors, and a 
dozen of presses nearly perfect. These presses are all on the same model : worked in the 
rock, they consisted of two compartments, one larger, in which the grapes were placed, 
and one smaller and lower down, in which the juice was received. In the humble church 
of the modern hamlet I remarked a chapter imitating Corinthian, and probably of Byzan- 
tine period. On two of its faces a cross with equal branches has been sculptured. Above 
the door of the main church has been placed for a liniel a fragment of frieze decorated with 
flowers and foliage elegantly executed.' — Guerin. 

Fcram (P e). — Here are remains of ancient buildings built into the 
walls of modern structures. 


H a j r M a n e i k a (O e). — A dolmen. 

H a j r e d D u m m (O f).— A small dolmen, without any marks. 

Hani n (O d). — This is evidently an ancient site ; the rock to the 
south of the villaije is cut into cisterns ; j;^^:;^^:^^^-^;^ 
tombs with side and end on kokim loculi; J4\?v^s='''"-'*^'--- -J 
sarcophagi or tombs covered with flat lid J'v'?''''V 
on the surface ; birkcts for holding rain- " >-- ^^ ^^ 

water ; olive-presses and wine-presses in considerable numbers, all cut 
in the rock. There is no ancient masonry in the village, except at 
the mouth of an enormous cistern, where the round arches that support 
the wheel for drawing up the water may be ancient. A little down the 
hill on the south-east '■here are some sarcophagi cut out of the rock on 
jjcdestals ; steps lead up on the west side to one of them ; there are 
grooves for the lids to fit into, but these are in all cases wanting ; they 
had probably a ridge and knobs at the four corners, as frequently observed 

H az z u r (N d). — This is a rock-cut tomb with a masonry arch over 
the entrance ; it is at the ruins of Kh. Hazireh. The masonry appears to 
be Roman from the cutting of the stones ; at present the vault has fallen in 
and quite blocked up the entrance to the tomb ; the dimensions are given 
by Dr. Robinson ('Later Biblical Researches,' p. 63) before this accident. 
The arch is round ; the stones rather large, but not bevelled, and the whole 
bears the marks of extreme antiquity. Beneath the vault the tlat rock is 
cut away to form a sloping passage leading down to the sepulchre. This 
passage is four feet wide, twelve feet long, and at the lower end five and a 
half feet deep. Here is a low portal leading into an excavated chamber 
with a sarcophagus. The vault above is six feet broad by twelve long, 
and nine and one-third high. There is another sepulchre south-west of 
this similar to it, but having no vault over it. 

The following is Robinson's description of this place : 

' The arch is round ; the stones rather large, but not bevelled ; the whole bears the marks 
of extreme antiquity. Beneath the vault the flat rock is cut away to form a sloping passage 
leading down to the sepulchre. This passage is 4 feet wide, 12 feet long, and at the lower 
end 5i feet deep. Here is a low portal leading into an excavated chamber with a sarco- 
phagus. The vault above is 6 feet broad by 12 long and 9j high. There is another 



sepulchre soulli-wcst of this and similar to it, excavated in a flat rock, Init having now no 
vault over it.' 

This vault was demolished the year before Renan went to Palestine. He suggests Y.w 
Hazer as the ancient name of Hazzur. 

j a a It n c h (P e). — There are at this village some broken pillars and 
a capital with ordinary mouldings. 

El J c r ni u k (P e). — There are traces of ruins round this village. 
El Jish (Pe). — At this village there are a large number of well- 
dressed stones with a draft cut round the edge ; these are scattered about 
and dug up by the peasantry; they probably formed the fortifications of el 
Jish in the times of Josephus, when it was known as Giscala. There are 

also several sarcophagi dug up 
by the peasants and lying about ; 
they are ornamented with con- 
ventional bands ; these occur on 
the south side of the village. 
Scattered about in the village, 
near the modern church, there 
are columns, capitals, and bases 
of a synagogue, which was probably one of considerable size. The site 
of this synagogue is not distinguishable, but it was very probably where 
the church now stands. A great many stones in the walls of the modern 

church show by their workmanship 
that they came from a synagogue. 
There is also an attached pilaster built 
into the wall, and pieces of sarcophagi 
in the walls of the houses. 

The ruins of this synagogue show 
'■"■■ ' that it was built of very white limestone. 

To the east of the town, half a mile distant, there are the remains 
of another synagogue ; it is situated above and to the west of the great 
valley of el Jish, on a levelled plateau. There still remain the bases of 
three columns and the stone door-posts of the southern door in situ. There 
are also traces of the walls. This seems to have been a small synagogue, like 
the smaller one at Kefr Bir'im. The remains are like those of Nebratcin : 
no capitals, but portions of lintels, columns, and double columns are 


o .o ic 30 fo iofccr 



Strewed about. The outside dimensions are 58' long by ^^ feet wide 
having a doorway, 5' wide, in the centre of - . ^ •_ —_= n^ 1 ' 
the south wall. The special plan will show the . t__ «_ » 

remains and also the form of the moulding of 
the lintel antl a jjeculiar stone, carved with re- h \) il ^'^ ^ 
presentation of a Roman eagle. On one of the __^ i L i— t ^ 
fallen columns there is a much defaced fiebrew | J ! » ««/ i 
inscription, probably written by some Jew who came to lament over the 
noble buildings of his ancestors. 

There is also a small scrap of ornamented stone that 
may have been a portion of a capital. ''^\Or 

El Jisli is without any doubt the Gischala of Josephus, which was ' ^ 

fortified with a wall (doubtless that whose ruins yet remain) by order of Josephus. The 
inhabitants were for the nust part peaceful cultivators of the soil, who were goaded into 
revolt by John. The story of his escape and headlong ride to Jerusalem is well known. 
Jerome says that tradition assigned Gischala as the birth-place of St. Paul's parents. 

The place is mentioned in the Talmud (see Neubauer) under the name of Gush Chalcb, in 
which may be seen the Ahlab of Judges i. 31. It is mentioned in Carmoly's ' Itine'raires de 
la Terre Sainte ' as containing in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the tombs of several 
illustrious Rabbis, an ancient synagogue, and a school. It was also the residence of many 
wealthy Jews, and the seat of a considerable commerce in oil. 

The place was e.xamined by Renan, who says (' Mission en Phcenicie,' p. 77S) : 

' In the valley, to the north of the town, on the slope of the ground, appear the ruins of 
a synagogue, whose style reminds one of that of Kefr Birim. There are the same garlands, 
the same ornaments. The gate, at least the threshold, is well preserved. There is a con- 
siderable mass of ruins, millstones, great stones, etc. On one of the columns of the 
synagogue was a Hebrew inscription which may be translated : 

' "Joseph Bar Nahum built this arch. May a blessing fall upon him !" ' 

The column and inscription liave now apparently disappeared, as they were not seen by 
Lieutenant Kitchener or by M. Guerin, who thus describes the place : 

'The Ain el Jish flows into a deep ravine planted with fig-trees, pomegranates, and vines, 
overlooked by the lofty hill of El Jish. Above the fountain and the valley, and at the foot 
of the hill, is seen a platform partly artificial and partly natural, as is proved by the founda- 
tions of a sustaining wall in great blocks, some courses of which are still in position. On 
this platform are the ruins of an ancient synagogue now completely destroyed. The 
building, like most of those of its kind, measured about twenty-two paces in length by 
thirteen in breadth. Three bases of columns are still buried in the soil on the spot where 
they stood. .Several broken shafts are scattered here and there, together with the fragments 
of two abutments and a lintel of a door decorated with mouldings. I could not find the 
column on which M. Renan in 1S60 had discovered his Hebrew inscription. The hill 
of El Jish rises by successive stages and terrace sustained by great blocks of stone, some of 
which appear ancient. The village is situated on the southern slopes of the hill. 

' Continuing to mount the hill, and at the moment of reaching the top, we remark the 

VOL. I. 29 


traces of a surrounding wall constructed of regular cut stones. As recently as 1S63 there 
were still remaining considerable vestiges, but at present it is almost entirely destroyed, the 
stones having been taken away to build a new church. These are the remains of the wall 
which once surrounded the acropolis of Gischala, whose name is preserved in El Jish. 

' On the plateau are the remains of a second synagogue, of which, at my first visit, there 
remained four shafts and other ruins. These remains arc now dispersed and lost. 

'The lower slopes of the hill are pierced by numerous sepulchral caves, almost all i);uily 
destroyed or blocked up.' 

J i .s r Be n a t V a k u b (Re), ' The Bridge of the Daughters of Jacob.' 

Across the bridge is a large Khan three-fourths destroyed, and buiU of 

middle-sized basaltic stones. X'aulted galleries, now destroyed, formerly 

surrounded it. In the middle of the court are the remains of a small 

rectangular basin, once adorned by four columns, one at each corner. 

A little north of the bridge Guerin found a circular reservoir called H u m m a m B e n a t 
Va k ub, the ' Bath of Jacob's daughters,' close to which arc a fcv ruins on a hillock called 
K h. el H u ni m a m. These names arc not on the map. Still farther north Guerin came 
upon a tomb of circular form, built of basaltic stones, called the Kubur B e n ;i t Yakub, 
' the Tombs of the Daughters of Jacob.' Here the Bedouins have hollowed out places where 
they store grain under the protection of the tomb. An adjacent hill is covered with tombs, 
and on another mound, in the midst of more tombs, the remains of some small houses. The 
legends of the bridge, the baths, and the tomb of Jacob's daughters seem to be entirely of 
Mussulman origin. 

K a d e s (P d). — There are a few columns in the village, and some well- 
cut large stones. A well-carved Corinthian capital was also observed 
round the spring. There are a number of sarcophagi plain and used as 
drinking-troughs. At the east of the spring there are a succession of Roman 
works ; first a large masonry tomb to contain eleven bodies, and probably 
vaulted over. The door-way, with simple mouldings, has a niche on the 
right-hand side. The next is a platform showing Roman work and bear- 

p_-_ ing four sarcophagi, two double and two single ; 

i rczTDj ii they were formerly decorated with figures bear- 

ing up wreaths, as at Kh. Shelabun ; the sarco- 


y uu 


phagi singly measure 3' 10" x 8' 3" x 3' 4" 
^ i^ I - - . high ; the double ones 6' 4" x 7' x 2' 10" 

» high. The jDlatform measures 29' x 20' 6". 

A photograph (No. 40, Fund Series) has been taken of these sarcophagi 
from the west ; a few pieces of small columns are lying about ; a slight 
moulding ran under the sarcophagi along the top of the platform ; the double 
sarcophagus on the west has fallen from the platform. The lids had a 






[sheet IV:\ ARCHEOLOGY. 


ridge and four projections at the corners ; as in other cases tliey were 
ornamented with scale-work, and fitted into a groove in the top of the 
sarcophagus. These sarcophagi are only a very short distance from the 
masonry tomb. 

The third building, which is called el 'Amarah, is the remains of the 
Temple of the Sun (so called) ; it is also Roman work, probably of the latter 
half of the second century ; the door-post, still standing, is k a d e s 

1«l/'r ri'll • 1 TEMPU£ OF THE SUN ) 

a monolith fifteen leet high ; the ornamentation over the 



small doorways is beautifully carved ; over the northern one i 

is the representation of an eagle with outspread wings. 

Farther north, on this side, is a little projecting stone, 

with a small passage made in the masonry to a small ' ' 

recess on the inside ; through this money could be dropped, or an oracle 

could be delivered from the inside without the speaker being seen. 

A little to the left of the southern doorway, in a corresponding position, 
is a niche with the figure clothed in a robe, with a spear in the left hand. 

The lintel which lies broken in front of the doorway bears on the under 
side a representation of the winged deity, the sun ; it resembles the lintel 
of the small temple at Baalbek. A portion of the elaborate cornice also 
lies exposed. 

The temple has a similar form to the temples of the same kind found 
in Syria. 

Two great columns probably supported the porch, which sheltered the 
beautifully fine work of the eastern front. 

The hill on which these buildings stand has an artificial appearance ; it 
was probably partly levelled and filled out in places to become regular. 
There are a good many large stones and traces of ruins about, and also of 
a Roman road leading to the spring. 

There are a good many rock-cut tombs to the west of Kades, in the 
rocky slopes of the hills. 

Kadcs lias generally been accepted as the Kedesh Naphthali, or Kedesh in Galilee, of 
Joshua xix. 37-39, xii. 22, xx. 7, and xxi. 27, 32. It was a city of refuge. Its name is 
associated with Barak, who was a native of the place, and the defeat of Sisera. It was taken 
by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings xv. 29). In the time of Josephus it was populous, hostile to 
the Jews, and fortified. In the thirteenth century there were ' great ruins and fair sepul- 
chres ' seen here by Burchard the monk. In the fourteenth century the place was chiefly 
inhabited by Jews (Carmoly, ' Itine'raires,' p. 264) whose principal occupation was the care 

29 — 2 



K A D e; s 


-i# c^^ 

of the tombs of illustrious Rabbis. There are no longer any Jews in Kades, and only a few 
Metdwilch, who have no legends connected with Barak or Deborah, but venerate the name 
of Joshua at the Xeby Veshua, close to the village. 

The following account of the ruins shows how Captain Wilson found them in the year 
1 866: 

'At Kades there is a building (Photograph 38, P. E. F.) 34ft. 4in. square, with a doorway 

on the southern side, which leads into a chamber, 
on each side of w-hich are three loculi, except on the 
south, where there are only two, one on each side of 
the entrance ; in the corners arc piers of solid 
masonry, and the spaces between them were covered 
with semiNcircular arches, portions of which on the 
north and east remain ; the centre appears to have 
been vaulted. The masonry is of plain chiselled 
stones set without mortar in courses from ift. loin. 
to 2ft. 3in. in height, and the mouldings are of a 
simple character and well cut ; on the exterior near 
the door is a niche 5ft. i lin. high, and round the base 
of the whole building runs a plinth. The loculi have 
been used for interments at a comparatively recent 

■ g 5 .0 ^JlF€r^ ' Of the sarcophagi, those at Kades are the most 

elaborately ornamented ; not far from the masonry 
tomb described above, there is a very remarkable group, formerly elevated on a masonry 
platform, but now, with the exception of one, overturned. (See Photograph 40.) Some 
of these are made to contain two bodies laid in opposite directions, and at the bottoms of 
the loculi are small raised pillows to take the heads ; the covers are pent shaped, and 
covered with a leaf-like ornament. (See Photograph 42.) The material out of which 
the sarcophagi are hewn is hard white limestone, almost marble, and the workmanship 
is excellent; the usual design on the sides is a garland held up in two or more loops 
by nude figures, with some device over each bend, and a bunch of grapes hanging from 
the bottom. The ornament has been disfigured and worn away, so that it is difficult in many 
cases to see the design, but on one which was uncovered (see Photograph 47) the carving 
was sharp and good, though the faces and busts of the figures had been purposely muiilated; 
they consisted of a winged female figure with flowing drapery at each corner, and two figures 
on the sides holding up a garland, over which are a vase, flowers, etc., and from which hang 
bunches of grapes. On the end of the lid of one of these sarcophagi is a shield and sword 
(see Photograph 42), and on one seen in another part of the country are a shield and three 
javeHns. A sarcophagus with three loculi, and a flight of steps leading up to it, was found 
by Lieutenant Anderson, R.E., on Tel Khureibeh, near Kades. 

'At Kades some excavations were made on the site of the ruins : the western building is 
a tomb containing eleven loculi, the eastern one is a temple of the sun of about the same 
date as Baalbek. The lintel over the main entrance was dug up ; on its under side is a large 
figure of the sun (I think), and over the architrave is a small cornice beautifully worked; it 
consists of a scroll of vine leaves, with bunches of grapes ; in the centre is a bust, and facing 
it on either side is the figure of a stag. On either side of the main entrance is a small niche 
with a hole communicating to larger niches within the building, like a sort of confessional ; 









[SHEET //'.] 



on one of the niches is part of a figure clothed in a robe, with a spear in the left hand ; over 
one of the side doorways is the figure of an eagle ; close to tiie temple, and evidently 
belonging to it, an altar with a Greek inscription was found, wliich 1 cannot make out, but 
have copied and taken a S(]ueeze of; in the group of sarcophagi one buried in the ground 
was dug up, and the decoration found in better repair than those exposed to the air: it con- 
sisted of a wreath held up at the sides in two folds by nude male figures, and at the corners 


F' t A U \ , 

by four female figures with wings and fiowing drapery ; the figures have been purposely 
defaced, but the arms and feet still remain, and the whole is finely sculptured ; after seeing 
this better-preserved one, similar designs can be traced on the others, one of which has a 
sword and shield cut on it. Detailed plans have been made of the mouldmgs, etc., on both 
the buildings and the sarcophagi, sufficient to reconstruct the former with great accuracy. 
On the same hill some curious tombs were found, of one of which a plan was made ; each 
loculus is constructed to receive two bodies.' — 'Letter III.' (January, 1S6C). 

The Greek inscription is not mentioned by Renan, who gives a drawing of the temple. 
He ascribes the ruins and the sarcophagi to the Greco Roman period. 

Gu^rin thus describes the most important ruins of Kades. Tlie first is what Lieutenant 
Kitchener calls the 'large masonry tomb': 

'It measures ten metres on each face. It is built of splendid limestone blocks, resting 
without cement one upon the other. The upper ]) rt is destroyed. I suppose that it was 
once vaulted over in the interior, and outside surmounted by a Hat terrace. On the south 
side is a small door ornamented by mouldings a cnisse/tes, which occupied the centre of the 


facade. To right and left of tliis rectangular door is a small niche, now empty. \Vithin this 
edifice, enclosed under four arcades still standing and constructed of cut stone, arc eleven 
great rectangular niches built in cut stone, the twelfth being occupied by the entrance door. 
On the diflcrent shelves above these niches there was room for several sarcophagi. On examin- 
ing these loculi I found bones in them. 

'Eighty paces to the east are seen the remains of another mausoleum well worthy of 
attention. It consisted of a great square base formed by several courses of magnificent 
blocks cut beautifully and crowned with a cornice. On this artificial platform had bec^ 
placed two sarcophagi ; one is in place, the other is broken. To right and left of this 
central base are lying on a lower platform two immense double sarcophagi. . . . 

'Two hundred paces further eastward one admires the ruins of another monument no 
less remarkable. Its direction is from east to west, consequently we may affirm a priori that 
this building has neither been a Jewisli synagogue nor a Christian church, the ancient 
synagogues being generally from south to north and Christian churches from west to east. 
Everything, therefore, points to its being a Pagan temple.' 

'In the elevated plateau from Kadesh Naphtali in Upper Galilee, so called in opposition 
to Kadesh Issachar in Lower Galilee, we meet with some fallen columns and a ruin about 
25 feet square, with abyzantine portal, a church in the form of a Greek cross. A second 
ruin in the field has a length of 36 paces with a breadth of 18, and a great portal with two 
side-doors on the eastern side. It contains also several chapels, the inmost of which is over- 
grown with bushes. On a platform stand three gigantic sarcophagi, two of which are double 
(doppelsiirge), each with a roof-shaped cover, with scaly ornamentation : they are each 
fashioned out of a single block of stone. The place is rich in antiquities of all kinds.' — Sepp. 

K e f r B i r ' i m (O e). — There are two synagogues at this village : the 
large one and a smaller one. The large one is in the interior of the village ; 

and the southern facade is almost perfect ; it is used as a modern dwelling, 
a mud and stone house being attached to the ancient remains, the doors of 
which give access to the modern house ; bevond this building, to the 

I" fj *-s,'f« 



•4 ^^-.^^ 


[sheet //:] 



north, two pillars arc still to be seen standing- in siin, one of them in 
double, showing that it was a corner pillar ; from these and the facade a 
plan of the building- has been reconstructed. On the southern side is a 
ruined synagogue. It had double columns at the corners, which is excep- 
tional, as this is the only synagogue in which this court or porch can be 

The pillars round this court bore an architrave with siniple mouldings. 
The north-eastern column still bears this architrave, as can be seen in the 
photograph. The other columns have all fallen down, though the pedestals 
are in si/ii. The doubli; column of the south-east corner of the porch is 
lying close beside the pedestal, and has been recently uncovered. 

GREAT synagogue:. KEFR BIRIM 



SCALE ii, 

r ■ 




SC^LE ^ 

A portion ol this architrave was found, with mouldings exactly similar 
in every respect, but having a bend not at right angles. 

This leads one to suppose that thearchitrave over the central bay, opposite 
the great door of the synagogue, was carried up to a point resen-ibling the 
Gate Tadi in Herod's Temple, described in the Talmud. 

The mouldings of the doorways and the bases of the columns are similar 
to those at Meiron. 

As regards the small synagogue at Kefr Bir'im, the only part 
still standing is the fine southern gateway. There are traces of other 
remains, such as pedestals, pieces of columns, etc., lying about. Major 
Wilson was able, by nieans of excavation, to trace the walls of the build- 
ing, and to show that this synagogue, unlike the majority, had only two 
rows of columns (O. S., No. 2, April, 1869). 

The square Hebrew inscription on the lintel was read by the late 
Mr. Deutsch — ' Peace be upon this dwelling-place.' The remains of 






sculptured figures of lambs arc still traceable, though very iiiutil.ilrd, on 
the lintel. Both door-posts have been much shaken, but tliat on ihe west 
has been shifted bodily in, as can be seen by the mouldings, [)r()bal>ly the 
effects of an earthquake. 

The gateway is to be seen in photo- 
graphs, No. 69 Old Series, No. 459 
New Series. The dimensions are 
shown on the following diagram. 

Plans of these two synagogues were taken by 
Wilson and Anderson in t866. A Hebrew in- 
scription partly effaced is on a stone beneath one 
of the windows of the synagogue in the town. 
Renan took a squeeze, and prepared a transla- 
tion, which, however, he did not insist upon in 
consetiuence of the half defaced condition of the 

As regards the second synagogue outside the 

village, Renan thus reads the Hebrew inscription there found : 

' Peace be upon this place and upon all the places of Israel. Joseph the Levite the son 
of Levi put up this lintel. A blessing rest upon his vork.' (Cf. Haggai ii. 9). 

The name of this place, which is not mentioned in the Bible, occurs frequently in Car- 
moly's ' Itineraires de le Terre Sainte.' In the sixteenth century it was supposed to contain 
the tomb of the Prophet Obadiah. Esther was also said to be buried here. These tombs, 
formerly the objects of pilgrimage among the Jews, are now neglected and forgotten. Guerin 
examined several at Kefr Bir'im, among them one which contained three vaulted chambers, 
each having space for two bodies. 

Of this place Renan says (' Mission en Phenicie,' p. 772) : 

• The Jewish or Galilean region commences in the most unmistakable manner at Kefr 
Bir'im and Keisun. Here the synagogues appear in a fully developed style, with Greek and 
Hebrew inscriptions which leave no room for doubt. Keisun, Nebratein, Jish (Gischala), 
Kefr Bir'im, Meiron (Mero or Meroth), Tell Hum, offer us monuments of this kind, well ])re- 
served, some of which have remained almost unknown. One attaches a value of the highest 
order to these buildings, which we should like to date back to the times of the Herods or the 
later Maccabeans, when one thinks of the discussions which they have heard and of the feet 
which have walked in them. The archeeology of Galilee thus presents itself under conditions 
very different to those of the country of Tyre. Classical edifices are rare, but the Judaism of 
the first centuries of our era, perhaps even that of the later Asmoneans, have left here monu- 
ments oftheir own kind. At Kefr Bir'im, at Jish, at Nebratein, these ruins of synagogues are 
accompanied by Hebrew inscriptions ; at Keisun by Greek inscriptions. We know that 
after the ruin of Jerusalem, Judaism continued to flourish in Upper Galilee. A special 
mission might be sent to draw plans of these curious monuments ; some — for example, those 
of Kefr Bir'im, Keisun, Aleiron — might be perfectly rebuilt. In general the style is dry, 
overloaded with superfluous little ornaments, and devoid of grandeur. We should, I believe 
be finally led to assign them, for the most part, to the time of Septimus Severus ; but perhaps 


some of them have witnessed the strategies of rising Christianity. Is it not strange that 
this branch of arclireology, from all points of view the most interesting, that which we may 
call " evangelical archeology," on which excavations at Tell Hum or Tell Minyeh would cast 
so much light, has yet to be entirely created? How can Christianity, which will expend 
millions to erect a temple, leave that soil untouched beneath which are lying monuments 
associated with the most august and most sacred souvenirs ? 

' The village of Kefr Bir'im is one of the places in Galilee most remarkable for Jewish 
antiquities. The name of the village is not found in the Bible, or in Josephus, or in the 
Talmud ; but it figures in the Itineraries of medieval Jews under the same name as at 
present. In that epoch it was celebrated for its two synagogue.s. The ruins were already 
ruined in the middle of the sixteenth century. 

' We shall not insist on the apocryphal character of the tombs of the doctors whom the 
Jewish pilgrims in the middle ages place in every one of the cities of Galilee. In order to 
understand how little foundation in fact this tradition possesses, it suffices to remark that 
many of the men supposed to be buried in Galilee never even went there, such as Shemaia, 
Hillel, Abtalion, and Shammai. Probably this collection of apocryphal traditions, to which 
so many ancient monuments were adapted, as well as modern constructions, dates from the 
year Soo or 900 \.Vi., a time when the Jews lived peaceably under the Khalilate, and returned 
with zeal to their ancient studies and their old souvenirs. And as the traditions of Galilee 
were Talmudic, this country was filled with Talmudic legends.' 

The date of the synagogue is thus considered by Renan (' Mission in Phenicie,' p. 770) : 

' In short, the style of this synagogue reminds one of the second Antonines. The synagogue 
of Keisun, for instance, has a votive inscription for the health of Septimus Sever us. Certainly, the 
building may have existed before the inscription, but historic considerations point to the end 
of the second century and the beginning of the third as the time which best corresponds with 
the construction of such buildings. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Judaism fled for 
refuge into (Jalilee and the neighbouring countries. About the year 200 a.d. Tiberias was 
the capital of Judaism. The great movements from which came the Talmudic compilations 
were conducted in Galilee. Probably it was towards the time of Juda Hakkadosh that the 
insci iption of Kefr Cir'im was traced, and we may very well believe that it is in the same 
character as that in which the Mishna was written. We may remark that the spelling exactly 
conforms with that of the Bibles which we now use. 

'AI. Levy inclines to believe the monument older than this date. He does not believe 
that two centuries could have elapsed between this inscription and that of the "Tomb of 
St. James.'' It is by comparison with the inscriptions of the Crimea and those of Rome 
(although exact reproductions of the latter have not been made) that he is led to this 

' M. de Saulcy treats the question with a great deal of reserve. He adduces, in order to 
fix the date of the building, a passage from Rabbi Samuel Bar Simson, in which that pilgrim 
says that the Kefr Bir'im synagogue is one of the twenty-four which Rabbi Simeon, son of 
Jochai, caused to be built. M. de Saulcy would take this passage to be historic. But these 
four-and-twenty synagogues have, very probably, a legendary foundation only. In order to 
build four-andtwenty synagogues as beautiful as those of Kefr Bir'im, Simeon Ben Jochai 
must have been a Rothschild. Samuel Bar Simson travelled about the year 1210 : such a 
tradition after a thousand years has little value. Jewish pilgrims in the middle ages were 
no more critical than Christian.' 

VOL. I. :;o 



Sepp gives tlie following : 

' Kefr Bir'im, where Simeon ben Jochai founded the synagogue, and, besides various Rabbis, 
Barak also and the prophet Abdias (Obadiah), are buried. Amongst other sites the tomb 
of Queen Esther is here pointed out. Here the Jews assemble and read the Megilloth 
(scrolls) at the Feast of Purim.' 

The Jewish Pilgrim from Leghorn (a.d. 1512) found in the village of Orem (Kefr ISir'im) 
the inscription — 

'Wonder not at snow falling in April; wc have seen it in June.' — Schwarz, ' Das Ileilige 
Land,' 325. 

Sepp says, 'One of eleven synagogues was built by Simeon ben Jochai here. On one 
window is the inscrii)tion, "Eleasar ben Rabbi Ithan," in Hebrew characters — 

in '-13 nir'TN' 

K h an (Po). — This is an Arab ruined buildinf^ at Safed. The walls 
enclosed a courtyard, and were decorated with towers, and formed a sort 
of bastion front. 

Khan (Re). — This is the Khan Benat Yak fib. It was a 
square building, similar to the Khan Jubb Yiisef, but is now in ruins, the 
walls standing only a few feet above the ground. 

Khan Jubb Yusef (Pf). — It was built on the great Damascus 
KHAN JUBB YusEi; road at the same date as Khan Minyeh, Khan et 
Tujjar, and others. It is still in very good repair, 
and is used as a resting-place by merchants on the 
road. Long vaults for stabling animals, with small 
dwelling-rooms and places for prayer, are the prin- 
cipal points in the building. 

Near this Khan, on a hill to the east-north-east, is a cistern, 
which is traditionally that in which Joseph was thrown by his 
brothers. Dothan however, now called Tell Dothan, is four miles 
south-west of Jenin, where it was discovered by Van de Velde. 

El K h u r b e h (O d). — Here are ruined walls of good large masonry, 
a few broken pillars, and some carved stone. At Yariin, which is a little 
more than a mile to the west, the ruin is planted all over with fig-trees ; it 
probably dates from early Christian times, having been a dependence of 
the great monastery at Yarim. 


Gucrin remarked here the lower courses of a rectangular tower built of great blocks not 
cemented, and the ruins of another building, of which only a few stones, several shafts of 
inonolithic columns, and on a fine block of stone a cross in flowerwork surrounded by a circle. 

Kh. 'Abbad (N e). — A small ruin ; foundations of walls composed 

of small stones ; heaps of stones. 

' I here remarked the foundations of a wall which once formed part of an edifice, com- 
pletely overthrown, which may have been a church. One column, still upright, with others 
which have disappeared, decorated the interior. Several cisterns are scattered here and 
there. They told me at El Bukeiah that there was here a deep cavern haunted by evil 
spirits ; I went into it by the help of the steps cut in the rock, and found that it was nothing 
more than an old cistern of medium size, whose walls were covered with cement.' — Guerin. 

K h. Abu L 6 z e h (R f). — Heaps of stones ; sevei-al good springs 

K h. Abu e s h S h e b a (O f). — A large ruin, which stands upon 
the terraced hill- top. 

K h. Abu Zelefeh (Q f). — Heaps of basaltic stones. 

K h. 'A i n el B u t m (P c). — Traces of ruins and heaps of stones. 

K h. 'Akbara (M d). — Large ruin ; traces of foundations of walls ; 
medium-sized stones scattered. 

'The remains of an ancient town. At every step one comes upon vestiges of numerous 
small houses formerly built of cut stones of medium size not cemented. There are also the 
remains of a more considerable edifice, which seems to have been ornamented by columns, 
for one shaft, now mutilated, lies beside the place where it once rose. About twenty cisterns 
cut in the rock are scattered about. A circular pool is now half filled up.' — Gut'rin. 

Josephus mentions a fortified town named Achabara ('Wars of the Jews,' II. x.\. 6), but 
this is not the Khurbet Akbara, but the place also retaining its ancient name in the modern 
form Akbara, about two miles south of Safed in this sheet. 

K h. e 1 'A 1 a w i y e h (O e). — Heaps of rough stones. 

K h. el 'A 1 i e h (O f). — A large heap of basaltic stones. 

K h. 'A ! m a n i y e h (O d). — A few cattle-sheds and traces of ruins. 

K h. 'A sal iy eh. — Heaps of basaltic stones and ruined Arab 

K h. 'A s s i 1 e h (N e). — Heaps of stones, two foundation walls, one 
olive-press, and one cistern. 

K h. 'A u b a (P d). — A large ruin of roughly-dressed stones. There 
are foundations in places, and a large birket immediately south. There 
ai"e also some large caves in the neighbourhood. 




K h. cl Bediyeh (O d). — Remains of modern walls and old found- 
ations. There are two cisterns and one olive-press. This was probaijly 
an ancient place of importance. 

K h. el B e 1 1 ;'i n e h (O f). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. 

Kh. Benat Y a k u b (Re). — Heaps of stones, probably the re- 
mains of modern cattle-sheds. 

K h. B e n i t (R e).— Heaps of stones ; a Moslem holy place. The 
shrine of Sheikh Benit is erected on the ruins. 

Kh. Berza (Me). — A large ruin; some large well-cut stones 
scattered, and heaps of rubbish. 

Kh. cl Biar (O e). — Some large well-dressed stones, with stone 
door-posts; a number of cisterns with good water, called Biar es Sukker ; 
a small ruin of probably early Christian times. 

K h. el Biar eh (M d). — A large ruin, foundations of walls; 
some large well-cut stones, and cisterns. 

Kh. ed Dawajiyeh (O e). — Heaps of stones and two olive- 

K h. ed Duweir (O d). — A small ruin on a sharp hill-top; some large 
well-dressed stones, a rock-cut birket, and several cisterns ; probably an 
ancient place. 

Renan visited and examined this place in i860. He thus speaks of it (' Mission en 
Phenicie,' p. 675) : 

'Duweir ("the Little Temple") possesses the remains of a temple, the door of which, its 
jambs being of a single stone, still exists. It is in good style, resembling that of Umm el 
Awamid, with flat mouldings. There is an interior groove in the jambs. The materials are 
of large dimensions. Among the debris I found a large block of cubical form, showing on 
one of the faces a curious sculpture with an inscription. The masons and stonecutters of 
Ain Ibl offered to cut off the carved face, and to reduce it to a slab thin enough to be carried 
on camel-back to Tyre.' 

This was done, and the sculpture is now in the Louvre. It represents Apollo and Diana, 
the sun and the moon. The inscription was thus read by Rcnan : 

[0:]u; 'Avro'?vXww Ynei-tgiiMKii likaiuavmi 'or/.ov6iji,o-j 


The date of the inscription is the year 321, which, calculated according to the era of the 
SeleucidK, would give the year 9 a.d. This appears too early. Renan, therefore, takes 
the era of Tyre, which would give us 195 a.d., a date which seems to agree very well with 
the buildins;. 

{SHEET 1]'.'] ARCH.EOLOGY. 237 

K h. Fdnis (RI e). — A large ruin, foundations of wall, large well- 
cut stones, and a few cisterns. 

Small cubes of mosaic scattered on the ground ; on the upper platform of the hill 
foundations of ruined houses, cisterns, broken millstones, and masses of rubbish or blocks of 
greater or less size. 

Kh. P^asil Danial (M d). — A medium-sized ruin; foundations 
of walls, masonry drafted in part ; several cisterns, and a few sarcophagi ; 
probably a Crusading village. 

K h. G h a b b a t i (N e). — Foundations of walls and one olive-press. 

K h. G h fi z a 1 e h (O f). — Foundations of walls and basaltic stones. 

K h. e 1 H a j a r (O c). — Heaps of stones, a few unhewn ; four rock- 
cut tombs, with side and end loculi or kokim ; a rock-cut birket, ten to 
twelve cisterns, five sarcophagi, two wine-presses, and one olive-press. 

' To the east, and at the foot of a hill, whose sides at certain points are abrupt and 
bristling with sharp rocks, are observed the ruins of a very ancient village, whiLh formerly rose 
terrace upon terrace to the summit of the hill. There, on a long and narrow plateau extending 
from east to west, are the remains of an enclosure formed by enormous Cyclopean rocks 
which present the appearance of the highest antiquity, and seem to have been piled by 
the hands of giants. Everywhere the rocky surface of the hill has been excavated in cisterns, 
and lower down in wine-presses, tombs, and pools.' — Guerin. 

K h. el Hamra (Pe). — Heaps of small-sized stone.s, foundations of 
walls ; a spring near in valley. 

K h. H a r r a h (O d). — -This is an important ruin on a hill-top. There 

are considerable remains of walls of good-sized masonry and foundations, 

with caves, and two rock-cut tombs, with loculi. A few stones are 

moulded, probably door-posts or architraves. There are a number of 

cisterns. The principal remains are on the top and the eastern slope of 

the hill. A zigzag pathway formerly led down to the great spring of 'Ain 

el Mellahah. 

' A little more than two miles south-east of Kedes, on an isolated hill called Tell Harrah, 
we found the remains of a large city of very ancient date; on the top of the hill were the 
walls of the citadel, and below a portion of the city wall could be traced. All the buildings 
are of the same character — rough courses of undressed stones, with the interstices packed 
with small stones. On the eastern slope were found the remains of a building with mouldings 
of a plain, simple character ; the surface was covered with broken glass and pottery. I can- 
not regard this as any other less than the long-sought-for Hazor. Every argument which 
Robinson adduces in favour of Tel Khureibeh applies with much greater force to these ruins. 
The position is one of great strength, and overhangs the lake ; there are numbers of large 
cisterns on the hill, and it seems to have escaped the ravages of the Crusading period ; no 


favourable point could be seen for excavation to determine the name of the place.' — Captain 
Wilson's Letters, No. III. 

Guerin agrees with Wilson in this identification. ' This hill,' he says ' is crowned 
by an oblong summit named Tell Harrawi, forming an unequal platform about 1 1 2 
paces ir^. length from north to south, twentj'-eight paces broad towards the north, fifty 
towards the centre, and forty towards the south. A strong enclosure surrounds this Tell. 
It is now three-fourths destroyed, but it was flanked by several square towers constructed, 
like the wall itself, of great blocks rudely squared and lying one upon the other without 
cement. Northward, and especially to the soudi-east, are distinguished the foundations of 
several important constructions, built with polygonal blocks. A certain number of cisterns 
cut in the rock, particularly under the tower, are either intact or half tilled up. The city, of 
which this portion formed the acropolis, extended below it, to the cast, in successive 
terraces. It is now completely destroyed, and is only visited by poor shepherds who feed their 
cattle among its solitary ruins. . . . The city appears to have been destroyed in a very 
remote time, for nothing shows any modern rebuilding, and everything bears the trace of the 
most ancient ages, notably the polygonal dressing of the blocks and the absence of cement.' 
In the ruins of a single building, which was perhaps designed for some religious function, I 
remarked fine cut stones carefully squared, and the upright of a great door with its lintel 
measuring eight feet ten inches long by two feet three inches broad. They are ornamented 
with simple but well-executed mouldings.' 

Robinson thought, on the other hand, that Kh. Khureibeh, two miles to the south-east, 
was the site of Hazor. The following is his description of the latter place : 

' On approaching the foot of the Tell we came upon an oil-press of former days. We 
ascended from the north ; and here, not far above the base, was an ancient sepulchre in 
good preservation. The lower (northern) side of a sunken rock had been laid bare, and 
hewn so as to form a perpendicular surface; in this was a door, with an inclined plan' 
leading down to it ; while upon the rock above was a Cyclopean wall. We saw no other 
tombs. We reached the top at 11.40. The place is high and sightly; overlooking the deep 
and rugged Wady Hindaj on the south, and the plain of Kedes towards the north, with a 
fine view of the Like and the plain of the Hiileh north of it. Wady Hendaj breaks down 
just above between lofty precipices. At the foot of the Tell on the north is a strif) of lower 
plain, about a quarter of a mile wide, and some fifty feet or more below the jjlain of Kedes. 
It has on the north a rocky eminence, and is drained to the Hindaj by a Wady on the west 
of the Tell. 

' On the summit of the Tell are many large heaps of stones. Some of the stones are 
large and squared, but not hewn. We saw neither bevelled stones nor columns. Most of 
the stones, apparently, had often been built up into houses of different epochs. Here also 
were two oil-presses : or, rather, one of them was perhaps the vat for receiving the oil ; it 
was round and deep, and lower and smaller than the press. These presses show that the 
olive was once extensively cultivated here ; while now not an olive tree is seen. Many oaks 
(Baliita) are scattered round about. 

'This Tell had been seen and noted by Dr. Smith when at Kedes in 1844 ; and I had 
formerly suggested the inquiry, whether it might not possibly be the site of the ancient Hazor 
of Naphtali. AVe had now come hither to examine this point upon the spot. The Hazor 
of Naphtali was obviously the Hazor of Jabin, who gathered many kings together against 
Joshua to the waters of Merom, the present lake of the Huleh, but was discomfited by that 

[SHEET/]:] -. . ARCH.EOLOGY. 339 

leader, and Hazor burned with fire. This account presupposes that Hazor lay in the vicinity 
of the lake; and Josephus says expressly, that it ''lay over the lake Semechonitis," as he 
names it. At a later period another Jabin of Hazor oppressed Israel, whose armies were 
discomfited by Deborah and Barak. The same Hazor, apparently, was fortified by Solomon. 
We read, further, that under Pekah king of Israel, '• Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria came and 
took Ijon, and Abel-betli-Maachah, and Janoah, and Ivedesh, and Hizor, ani Gilead, and 
Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria." Tiglath-pileser came 
from the north, and Ijon, Abel, Kedesh, and Gilead, are mentioned in the order in which 
they are known to lie, from north to south. Hence arises a very strong presumption, that 
Hazor, being mentioned next to Kedesh, was not far distant from it towards the south. This 
again is strengthened by the enumeration of the fenced cities of Naphtali in the reverse order, 
from south to north, viz., " Hamraath, Rakkath, and Chinnereth, and Adamah, and Ramah 
and Hazor, and Kedesh." There is no further mention of this Hazor after the invasion of 
Tiglath-pileser, except historically by Josephus as above cited. 

' So far as the situation is concerned, no spot could correspond more completely to the 
data above collected, than this Tell. It overlooks the lake and plain of the Hiileh, being 
nearly opposite the northen extremity of the former ; it is distant one hour from Kedes 
towards the south ; and is in itself a position of great strength. The jiresent indefinite name, 
" Ruins," affords no clue. The main objection is perhaps the absence of all aiipearance of 
fortifications and of large structures ; but it should be borne in mind that the place was 
destroyed before tlie Jewish exile, and never afterwards built up ; except, according to what 
now appears, as an agricultural village. That it was once a large place is evident. 'J'he 
sepulchre marks high antiquity, wealth, and probable rank ; while the structures which now 
give distinction to Kedes are of a far later date. I am therefore led to lay no great stress 
upon this objection, and am disposed to rest in the conclusion that this spot was the site of 
the Hazor of Naphtali.' 

He did not visit Kh. Harrah. Gue'rin says : ' The ruins of Tell el Khureibeh are less 
important and less extended than those of Tell el Hurrawi ; they are also situated at a dis- 
tance of several kilometres from the lake, so that while it is im[)Ossible to say that this hill 
connects the lake, the height and the ruins at the former site ecpially fulfil this condition.' 

K h. el Hasaniych (O c). — A few ruined cattle-sheds. 

K h. H a z i r c h (N d). — Foundations of walls, built with large well- 
dressed stones, a few small columns and broken pieces mi.xed up with the 
ruins ; eight rock-cut cisterns, one rock-cut birkch ; two rock-cut tombs — 
one of these has been described under the head Hazztir. 

K h. el H e k a b (P f). — Small heaps of roughly-cut stones. 

K h. H i n e h (N d).^Heaps of unhewn stones and cisterns. 

K h. el H ti m m a m (O f). — Heaps of stones and ruined walls. 

K h. I m s i e h (N d). — A few heaps of stones, on the top of a 
terraced hill, and one cistern. 

K h. J a fa (O e). — A large heap of stones. 

K h. J e f t e 1 e k (Q e). — Ruined hovels and cattle-sheds. 



K h. (■ 1 J (■ n a tl i y c h (M d). — I h'ajw of laro-e stones. 

K h. Jubb Yuscf. — I-"oundations of walls and lica[)s of stones, 
one rock-cut cistern ; ruined khan near. 

Kh. Jul (Of). — A few scattered stones, on the top of a low 
artificial mound. 

K h. K a I a ni u n (N d). — A large and important ruin. There arc 
remains of ancient walls, and a modern arched buildintr is still standine. 
To the north the roc'.c is very much cut about. There is a birkeh as 
well as a number of rock-cut cisterns and tombs. There are some small 
aqueducts cut in the rock collecting the water in these cisterns. The 
tombs had both side and end kokim or loculi. On the west side there 
is a fine wine-press, well-preserved and cut out of the rock. 

Kh. Kefr Ibnin (O d). — A small ruin; heaps of stones and 
good foundations of buildings, rock-cut birkeh and cisterns. 

K h. K e i s u n (P e). — There are a number of rock-cut tombs at this 
ruin having kokim or loculi. In the ruin there are the remains of a temple. 

i j-^ \\ . .1 1 " of columns in srto on i\ 

i H-.^-y^HptiLF^rd^ bsae ofcQiume) 25 4' 

66 aiy cfl- fie.ghtjfbs3e32'i- 

Wall 15-hi'^h ^>tJ} bases 

of columns in srto on it 

VaUa »ith piers 
f/robably for aup 
•poi-f^f •columns 


probably of about the same date as the Temple of the Sun at Kedes. Three 
bases of columns remaui vi siht on a wall which formed the southern boun- 




dary of a ruined birkeh ; one has fallen, and It seemed probable that there 

might have been others ; there was a step or seat between the columns. 

A causeway separated the birkeh at the north-west corner from another 

birkeh to the west and south. The east boundary-wall of this second 

birkeh is built with large piers, as 

if for the support of columns, 

about twenty feet apart. South 

of the bases of columns on the 

north wall are two rather small 

door-posts with simple mouldings. 

On the south side they appear to 

have been disturbed and moved. To the south of this gateway there are 

four bases of columns in the ruins that may be in si/n ; they are smaller 

than the columns of the north wall would have been. 

An inscribed stone (see below) was found to the south of the ruins ; 
it may have been a lintel. 

Also a piece of a cornice that had fallen down to the north of the wall 
on which the bases of the columns rest. 

Renan thus restores the Greek inscription : 

'T57i^ curris'ia; ruin Jt(u=/- 



^.(•TTT. ■S 


2£/3. Eu(T£/3. Ilsjr. 2s/S. jca/' M. Aus. 'A{vtuh 

ivou{ A. Ssxr. r)ira, wwi; auT(n\Jxai •xgoff 
iv^riQ lovoaioiv 

He also calls the building the remains of a synagogue. Captain Wilson (Letter IV., p. ;^^) 
mentions 'the ruins of a small temple and a mutilated Greek inscription' at Kasyun (a 
spelling which is the same as that adopted by Renan). 

Guerin also speaks of the building as a synagogue. The inscription has been assigned 
to the year 197 a.d., because Caracalla received the title of Ceesar in 196, and Severus gained 
his first victories over the Parthians in 197. Kh. Keisini is probably the Jewish Kasioun, 
where (Carmoly, ' Itinc'raires,' p. 455) were interred 'Rabbi Jochanan and Rabbi Simeon, 
son of Lakish, of precious memory.' 

K h. el K e i y u m eh (P c). — Foundations of buildings of roughly- 
hewn stones, and five rock-cut cisterns. 

Here tradition places the country of Tobias. It is mentioned in Carmoly "s ' Itineraires' 
as the burial-place of several great Rabbis. 

VOL. I. ;t 


K h. K c r s i fa (O d).- -A small ruin, with a few hrokcii columns and 
Corinthian capitals, called el Kcniseh by the natives. No remains of 
an apse. Foundations of buildings, heaps of stones, wine-press, and 
cisterns. Probably an early Christian site. 

K h. el K h a m m a rah (N d). — Heaps of rough stones. 

K ii. el Khudra (I\l d). — Foundations of walls of well-dressed 
stones ; a few cisterns. 

K h. el K u 1 u n s a w y (N c). — Traces of walls. 

K h. el K urah (\ d). — Heaps of stones and cisterns, on a small 
tell ; a birkeh below in valley. 

K h. el K u r e i y e h (O d). — Heaps of unhewn stones. 

Kh. el Loziyeh (Q e). — Caves and ruined cattle-shed. 

Kh. el Mansurah (O d). — A few heaps of stones and some 
foundations. The masonry is medium-size, and well-dressed. The door- 
posts are of stone ; there are cisterns on the top of the hill, which is steep. 

K h. el Mansurah (N d). — Scattered stones ; birkeh near. 

K h. Mar us (P e). — Modern and ancient ruins; a spring in a 
rock-cut cave, ancient foundations of good-sized stones ; the foundations 
of a small rectangular building to the west of the eastern portion of the 
ruin. Some rock-cut tombs and many caves in hills around. 

Kh. el Maserah (P c). — Foundations of walls and scattered 

Kh. el Mehafir (P d). — Foundations and traces of ruins of 
unhewn stones. 

K h. el Mejdel (P c). — Foundations of walls and heaps of well- 
cut stones. 

Kh. el ]\Ienarah (X e). — Traces of foundations of walls and 
heaps of stones. 

Kh. el Merj (N d). — Scattered stones. 

Kh. Muaddemiyeh (O d). — Heapsof ruins ; small-sized stones ; 
mills ; remains of ruined aqueduct. 


Kh. el Muntar (O e).— A ruined Arab village, built with 
basaltic stones. 

K h . el M u s h e i r e f e h (O e). — Large heaps of basaltic stones. 

Kh. el Muzeibelat (M c). — Well-dressed stones, scattered; 
cisterns and tombs. The ruin is in two portions. 

K h. en N e b r a h (P e).— A small ruin, with heaps of well-dressed 
masonry, some drafted, and two small columns ; a lime-kiln. 

Kh. en Nebratein (P e). — Here are the remains of a syna- 
gogue, completely levelled to the ground. There are fallen columns and 

the lintel of the main entrance, which bears an ^^mm^.s>.^^. .,^ 

inscription in Hebrew and a representation •.: ; '^f|i^|giisF-"---~^^^ 

of the seven-branched candlestick, photo- 4...^, -r; v.- V^-' . 

graphed (No. 66), Old Series, and also in' ■ -'' " 

the New Series (No. 461). This lintel measures 9 feet long x 2' i" x 2' i", 
and is moulded similarly to those in other synagogues. The top of the 
lintel is decorated with a wreath of leaves, boldly sculptured, instead of 
the vine with grapes seen at Kefr Bir'im. 

The candlestick is in the centre of the lintel, and is in high relief. 

On the base of one of the columns a hare is roughly sculptured. 

The total length of the building appears to have been 67 feet, with a 
width of 57' 6". There are no capitals remaining. The diameters of the 
pedestals vary : they are i' 7" to 2' and 3". The diameter of the base of 
the columns was 2' 2". An attached square pilaster was observed, with 
ordinary moulded capital, which probably decorated the exterior. 


The inscription is not legible at the beginning. The hitler part 
appears to be as follows : 

This place was discovered in iS66 by Captain Wilson, who found the synagogue with the 
Hebrew inscription, and the representation of the candlestick with seven branches. lie took 
a squeeze of the inscription. A squeeze was also taken for Renan in i860, but it proved 
illegible. He says (Letter IV.) : ' From Tiberias we turned north again to complete the 
examination of the Jarmuk district, and at some ruins called Nebratein discovered an old 
synagogue, on the lintel of which was an inscription in Hebrew, and over it a representation 
of the candlestick with seven branches, similar to the well-known one on Titus's arch at 

The place is often mentioned by the Jewish pilgrims (see Carmoly ' Itineraires,' pp. 132, 

185. 378, 450)- 

' Immediately above, and to the west of this spring, rises a hill covered witli ruins. Here 
were fragments of columns of different diameters, mixed with materials of all kinds and 
sizes, belonging to buildings now destroyed. Other trunks of columns and good cut-stones 
were lying close to a lime-kiln, about to be calcined. 

' North of the hill, and separated from it by a road, is a second hill, of greater extent, 
but lower than the preceding, also covered with ruins. Surrounded on the N.E. and \V. by 
ravines, successive terraces have been constructed upon it, supported by high walls. On the 
upper platform we remarked the remains of an ancient synagogue. Tliis edifice, lying north 
and south, as in nearly all the monuments of this kind in Palestine, measured 27 paces long 
by iS broad. It was divided into three naves, and was ornamented within by ten stone 
columns, five on each side, which are now broken in pieces ; they were crowned by 
Corinthian columns. On the base of one column is an animal with long ears, tolerably well 
sculptured, but mutilated : probably it is a hare. Where was the great door two splendid 
blocks are lying on the ground ; one was the jamb and the other the lintel ; the second jamb 
is broken. In the middle of the lintel, which measures 9 feet 4 inches long, and is decorated 
by mouldings a crosseltes, is figured the seven-branched candlestick, surrounded by a wreath. 
It separates into two equal parts a Hebrew inscription, engraved in relief in a single line. I 
attempted to take a squeeze of this, but owing to a high wind succeeded imperfectly. I 
found no traces of the side doors. Beside these ancient synagogues, I distinguished the 
vestiges of another building also entirely overthrown.' — Gue'rin. 

K h. en N e t a r a h (N e). — Scattered heaps of stones. 

Kh. en Nuseibeh (O e). — Small heaps of stones. 

Kh. el 'Okeibeh (P f). — Roughly-hewn stones, scattered, and 
three wine-presses. 

Kh. 'Okeimeh (Of). — Heaps of basaltic stones. 

K h. Rabbis (P c). — Heaps of large roughly-hewn stones. 



K h. e r R a n d e h (N d). — P^oundations of walls, one large and one 
small rock-cut cistern, one rock-cut sarcophagus. 

Kh. er Rujm (N d). — Heaps of stones. 

Kh. Rusheideh (P f). — Heaps of stones, mostly unhewn; hill 

K h. er Ruweis (N d). — Traces of foundations of walls and 
scattered stones. 

Close to this ruin is a place named on the map Neby Abu Haliim. Gut-rin gives the 
name Abu Eliun, and calls attention to a passage preserved in Eusebius, which is as follows : 

' After having spoken of the God Sydyk and of his sons, the Dioscuri, or Cabeiri, Philo 
thus continues : " In their time were born a certain Eliun, whose name signifies the Most 
High, and his wife, named Beruth. They dwelt in the neighbourhood of Byblos. Of them was 
born Epigeios, or Autochthon, who later on was called Uranus," ' etc. 

If the name is a survival cf the Canaanitish divinity, this was probably one of the High 
Places, the sanctity of which has never been lost. 

K h. e s S a b n c h (N e). — Traces of ruins and a few foundations. 

K h. e s .S a h 1 e h (N f). — Heaps of stones and a few cisterns. 

Kh. Samurah (Of). — Heaps of stones and foundations, none 
large ; several lintels ; a spring near. 

Kh. es S e i y a r a h. — Heajas of stones. 

K h. Semmukhieh (N d). — A small ruin, with modern cattlc- 
.shed ; rock-cut cistern, and small birkeh. 

K h. e s h S h a r a h (P f). — Heaps of roughly-cut stones. 

K h. e s S e n i n e h. — Scattered heaps of basaltic stones. 

Kh. Shelabun (O d). — Heaps of well-cut stones, some of large 
size ; four or five sarcophagi, very large and well-preserved, decorated 
with figures holding up a wreath, similar to those at Kades, but better 
preserved (see photograph. No. 47, Old Series). There are also two 
caves and many cisterns, and a large birkeh on the south side. 1 his 
was an ancient and important place. 

Guerin calls attention to the sarcophagi alluded to by Lieutenant Kitchener. He says 
there are two which have sculptured on the sides a winged figure holding up a garland to 
right and left, the curve of which is surmounted on one side by a disc, and on the other by a 
cross. Beside one lies the cross, furnished with a ridge and acroteria. To the west of this 
hill rises a second, the slopes of which are terraced, the highest platform being sustained by 
a strong wall. Here are the vestiges of a small town, in the shape of cisterns and foundations 
of cut stones. 


Kh. Shema (O e). — A large ruin, with heaps (if well-cut stones 
mixed up with broken columns and bases that have the ajjpearance of 
having once belonged to a synagogue, though there are now no traces of 

such a building. A peculiar double sarcophagus stands near. It has a 
lower chamber, built round with large blocks of dressed stone. On this 
the sarcophagus, which is excavated for two bodies, rests ; and over this 



















there is a covering slab of stone. It is photographed (No. 72, Old 
Series), and is called by the natives es Serir, ' The Bedstead,' ' throne,' or 
' sarcophagus.' 





There is also an attached square pilaster of ordinary design in the ruins, 
and another peculiar tomb. A tunnel with an arched roof has been driven 
into the rock, and at the end a sarcophagus has 
been excavated in the Hoor, where it is slightly 

' Here we remarked the ruins of a small building, once adorned 
with monolithic columns, whose mutilated trunks lie on the 
ground mixed with a confused mass of cut stones. On the 
front of a doorpost, I remarked an eagle, with outstretched 

wings, sculptured on a crown The double sarcophagus ' — 

mentioned above — ' is surmounted by a great covering rudely 
cut, measuring 2 'So metres in length by 2 '16 metres in breadth. 
One of its small faces, that on the south, is preceded by a kind 
of porch or vestibule, formed by two abutments and a lintel, 
under which one could look into the interior of the two 
sepulchral loculi upon the bodies lying there, as a rectangular 
opening had been cut for the purpose in the side of the sar- 
cophagus. One of the sepulchral caves cut in the rock is 
called the Mugharet Shema, and is said to have been the 
tomb of Rabbi Shemmai and his principal disciples.' — 

Kh. Sherta (O d). — Ruins on a steep top; lintels and large 
masonry ; stone door-posts, and a number of cisterns. 

Kh. Shora (O c). — Foundations of walls and some well-dressed 
stones (limestone). 

Kh. Shufnin (O e). — Heaps of stones, mostly unhewn; a small 

Kh. Shuweit (N d). — Large heaps of stones and a rock-cut 

K h. S 1 r i a (M e). — A small ruin, traces of walls, and scattered stones. 

Kh. Surtuba (O e). — A few scattered heaps of stones and 

Here are the remains of a building constructed of hewn stones, and ornamented with 
columns, which may have been a church. — Gut'rin. 

Kh. et Tahuneh (O f). — A ruined modern mill, originally built 
of old materials; small ruined aqueduct. 

K h. T e i r H i r m e h (M c). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. 


Kh. Tcii-tirch {O '^). — Traces of walls, scattered stones, and 

Kh. cl Tclcil (N c). — Small ruin, heap of stones in circular 

K h . c t T u 1) a k a h (N d). — Traces of a few buildings. 

K h. I' m m 'A 1 y (P d). — Rocks and scattered stones. 

K h. I' ni m cl Ilumum (P d). — Heaps of stones. 

K h . U m m i e h (N d).- — Foundations of walls of well-dressed stones ; 
medium size heaps of stones, some larger than ordinary ; several lintels 
and door-posts, three sarcophagi, and cisterns. 

K h . \\' a k k a s (O e). — Cattle-sheds. 
This place is also called Kh. Maltha. ' Near a small enclosure, in the centre of which is 
a broken column consecrated to a san/oii, are shown the remains of an edifice oriented east 
and west, once probably a church. It was ornamented with monolithic columns in ordinary 
limestone, some broken pieces of which are still lying about. Other similar fragments are 
found in the neighbouring houses. Here and there I remarked cut stones, which no doubt 
belonged to this monument. A little to the south, a hillock is also covered with ruins of 
houses.' — Gudrin. 

K h . \' a n Li h i y e h . 

Here are the traces of an ancient village, the very foundations of which are now destroyed, 
leaving nothing but small cubes of mosaic and a few rock-cut tombs. These are all alike in 
construction. A stair of seven or eight steps conducts the visitor to a sepulchral chamber, 
containing three vaulted arcosolia, each surmounting two sarcophagi. — Guerin. 

Kh. Zebdd (O e). — Heaps of stones, all small size and well- 
dressed ; a number of cisterns and a large wine-press, called Mught en 
Xuriyeh, near. 

El K h u r e i b e h (O e). — An extensive ruin on a high hill-top, and 
extending on to the plain below. There are cisterns, olive-presses, and a 
large sarcophagus. INIodern ruins mixed with more ancient materials are 
found on the top ; rock-cut tombs in side of hill to the south. 

El Kill ah, or K til at Safed (P e). — This was originally a 
Crusading casde, but of that there remains but little. Vaults and 
entrances to cisterns still show Crusading work, but the principal remains 
are those of the castle that Dhaher el 'Amr built here at the time 
that he defied the Turkish Government, and governed this part of the 
country by force. Excavation might show Crusading remains hidden 
beneath the modern ruins. 


(O-usatitnif itiui Sttracrnic //*v/i/ii/*.s 

%\ltM^ ^ -tj— I? — "_; — " 

ip /*» 

Stojifardls Gecg^ Esiah^ London. 

{SHEET 1V.\ 



A viiult that runs in a circular direction round the top of the castle 
shows good Crusading masonry. Some of the stones are 6' 5" long by 

2 5" wide. They are well fitted together 
with cement, and the round arch is built on 
a curve, as shown by the plan. The stones 
have a slight draft, varying from \\' to 2" 
wide. They are hammer-dressed nearly 
on a level with the draft. 

Underneath this there are large vaults, 
at present inaccessible. This was probably 
the citadel of the casde. To the south- 
east there is the entrance to large cisterns. 
This is also built of large stones ; it is 
probably of Crusading work. 
The rest of the remains of the castle are of small rubble masonry faced 
with well-dressed stones of small size, and are the work of Dhaher el 'Amr. 
The castle of Safed is rarely mentioned in Crusading history. It was 
probably built by King Fulke about 1140 (Marin. Sanutus, p. 166). It 
is mentioned by William of Tyre as the place to which King Baldwin III. 
fled after his defeat in 1 157 a.d. (book xviii. chap. xiv.). It is also men- 
tioned book xxi. chaj). xxviii., and book xxii. chap. xvi. Jacob de Vitry also 
mentions Safed (chap. xlix. p. 1074). The defence of the castle appears to 
have been entrusted to the Knights Templars, who claimed all the country 
west of it (book xxi., chap. xxx.). 

After the battle of Hattin, in October of 1188, Saladin took Safed. 
It is then described as a strong castle (Bohaed., Vit. Salad., p. 87). In 1220 
el Melek el Mu'adhdhem caused Safed to be destroyed, for fear of the 
Christiansgetting possession ofit (Jac. de Vit., Hist. Hieros., lib.iii.p. 1 144). 
In 1240 it was given up to the Christians after the treaty with the Sultan 
Ism'ail of I.")amascus, when Kul'at esh Shukif and Tiberias were also 
surrendered. The Tenhplars rebuilt the casde owing to the efforts of 
Benedict Bishop of Marseilles. He laid the foundation-stone, and saw 
it completed in 1260. In 1266 it was taken by el Melek ed Dhaher 
Bibars, after he had failed to obtain possession of Montfort. It was 
strengthened by Bibars. The castle was much destroyed by an earth- 
quake in I 759. 

VOL. I. ■\2 


'The summit of the hill at Safed is crowned by the ruins of a great elliptical enclosure^ 
the entrance of which is towards the south. It is surrounded by a fosse partly cut in 
the living rock, and three parts filled up. It was formerly flanked by ten towers, which 
have lost their casing of cut stones, and now possess nothing but the inner rubble. A 
second fosse runs within, and beyond it is the castle properly so called, now nothing but a 
confused mass of rubbish : it was (lanked by lowers at the angles, and was provided with 
great and deep cisterns. Every day some of it is taken away, as it serves for a ([uarry for 
the inhabitants of the city. A powerful tower or keep, of circular form, measuring thirty-four 
metres in diameter, dominated the castle, which in its time dominated the city ; there 
remain several courses composed of regular blocks worked with much care. A\'ithin one 
remarks the debris of a vaulted gallery constructed with similar blocks.' — Guerin. 

El K u 1 a h (O e) applies to rocky ground. 

Kill at H i dd c i y c h (Of) applies to higli and rugged rocks on 
top of steep hill. 

K ul a t el M e rj (P c). — Foundations of a circular building built 
of rough stones ; probably a watch-tower. 

Kulat er Rahib (M d). — A small square building of large drafted 
stones, probably of Crusading origin ; one olive-press, and remains of 
ruins scattered. 

Ku n i n. — There are two round and two octagonal pillars at this village, 
remains of old materials, and a lintel measuring i 7' long and bearing a 
Greek inscription. There are also several cisterns and a large birkeh. 
The inscription on the lintel is probably the common formula, KYPIE 
BOHeH (• Help, Lord'). 

Kusr 'Atra (R e) (the Crusading casde of Castellet). — This is a 
rectangular castle, measuring 420 feet long by 200 feet wide. It was built 
on an isolated tell above the River Jordan, and was surrounded on the 
north and west by a ditch, and on the east and south by the River Jordan. 
The place is entirely ruined, though traces of the walls can still be distin- 
guished, and some large well dressed limestone stones are still in position. 
The majority of the building material was basalt. 

This castle is mentioned by William of Tyre (book xxii. chap, x.xii.), 
where, describing an expedition made by the king with his army into the 
country on the other side of Jordan, it is said they came to a position called 
Chastellet, and from there passed over the Jordan by the Bridge of 

' The upper surface of the hill is generally flat, and is surrounded by a rectangular 
enclosure, which consisted of a thick wall composed of small volcanic stones cased with 

[SHEET 1 1:] 



splendid limestone blocks either completel)' smoothed or cut in relief. The casing has 
been three-fourths taken away. A tower flanked each of the angles of this rectangle, and 
at the centre of each side a gate was constructed, facing one of the four cardinal points. 
\Vithin this enclosure nothing is to be distinguished in the midst of the bushes except at the 
northern extremity, at the highest part of the hill, where is remarked a mass of piled-up 
rubbish, under which some foundations still in place are visible.' — Guerin. 

Kusr Marriish (N d). — Two rtiined vineyard towers of rough 

Malkiyeh (O d). 
This village, which stands upon a lofty summit, is remarkable, Guerin says, for possessing 
neither well nor cistern : the women fetch their water from the spring at Kades. But a 
birkeh is placed on the map close to the village. 

Ma run cr Ras (P d). — At this viUage there area considerable 
number of well-cut stones and remains, which indicate 
that there was once a church here similar to that at 
Yarim ; these stones have been mostly found to the 
west of the village, in vineyards. A capital of a 
column, with mediaeval ornamentation, and a small 
piece of sculptured stone, with leaves and figures as 

at Yarim (see Yarim), are in the village. There is also an architrave 

with a Greek inscription, in three pieces : 




To the north there is a large sarcophagus for two bodies ; it measures 
5' 2" X 8' 2" in plan. 

In Marim is the birth-place of the sect of the Maronites. CTementinus mentions an 
interview between St. Peter and Maron, the founder of the sect ; and the ' Midrash Coheleth,' 
118, 4, speaks of a cjuarrel between the people of Maroni and the inhabitants of Gush Caleb 
about the grave of R. Eleazar ben Simion. 

I\I e i r o n (O e). — At this village are the remains of an ancient syna- 
gogue in very fair preservation, coming next to Kefr Bir'im in that respect. 
The principal southern door, with the small one on the western side, are 
nearly perfect. The site of the synagogue has been chosen on the steep 
eastern slope of a rocky mound, and the western side and lloor have been 

= 3- 


excavated out of the rock. On this rocky lloor the tracHs of where the 
pedestals stood can be traced on the rock. The eastern side, Ixiii- on 
made-up ground, has entirely thsa[)pearcd. The niouUhniis oi the door- 
way are siniihir to those at KelV Bir'ini. The ni(nildin,>;s of the pedestals 

and capitals were also similar to those at Kefr Bir'im. The ruins have 
now rolled down the eastern slope, and very little remains of the masonry 
of the structure ; pieces of columns are lying about with pedestals and 



5; n a ~ o 
i, Q o o ■:; 
^; o ■:: i:- a 

S- Q ;; '* r; 
3; l: r; o B 
5; o 3 c ::; 

p 10 a>30 *C SQ^CZl 





2 . * -- 

There are also a large number of rock-cut tombs round the village ; 
two of these are drawn on the special plan. The traditional tomb of Rabbi 



{SHEET 1V:\ 



Hillei and his thirty-six companions is very remarkable ; there are thirty- 
two sarcophagi, by fours, in niches ; most of them are covered by stone 
lids with raised corners ; there is room for five more sarcophagi. 

M L I R N 
Plan of 


t ._ .. . 



There are also the traditional tombs of Rabbi Shammai and of Rabbi 
Simeon Ben Jochai ; the latter is much venerated, and pilgrimages are 
made to the tomb, which is apparently a modern building. The rock is 
much cut in places into steps, cisterns, and olive-presses. 

There are also three dolmens to the north of Meirun, one of which 

is called Hajr Muneika ; they are not far apart, and are quite distinct, 
though of small dimensions ; there are no traces of marks of any sort on 
the stones. 

' The village of Meiron,' says Renan, ' is a veritable reli(]uary of Jewish antiquities. It 
possesses the best preserved Jewish necropolis that I have ever seen. Perhaps the Judaism 
which one touches at this spot is the Talmudic Judaism, which made the name of Tiberias so 
celebrated. The strange mystery which surrounds these schools, which one is accustomed to 
see only through the cloud of scholasticism, is here a little dissipated. The tomb called at'ter 



" Hillel the Younger" is the most beautiful typeof Jewish tomb which I have ever met witli. 
The coverings have round acroteria. At the end there is another great cave on the same level 
as the first, in which are cut in the ground five sarcophagi without lids. At the entrance, per- 
l>endicular to the door, are two other caves. On the two sides of the great cave are five sarco- 
phagi with lids cut in a sort of ledge of rock. All these tombs arc without inscriptions. 


' The synagogue is as remarkable. The door is perfectly preserved, and reminds us of 
that without Kefr Bir'im, but with less ornamentation. The earthquake of 1837 overthrew 
what was above. The jambs are monoliths ; the monoliths, like that of Kefr Bir'im, have 
been broken by an earthquake. The hall is cut in the rock on one side. The facade is 
also partly cut in the rock, which served for a pavement. It is a beautiful hall, which would 
make a very good church. A good deal oi debris is scattered about.'— ' Mission en Phccnicie,' 
p. 7S0. 

Meiron is probably mentioned by Josephus as Meroth, a place fortified by him m Upper 
Galilee. Benjamin of Tudela mentions it as the burial-place of the doctors Hillel and 
Shammai, in the year 1210 (Carmoly, 'Itineraires de la Terre Sainte '). There was an 
inscription over the door of the synagogue. This has now vanished. 

'The site,' according to Robinson, 'Biblical Researches,' p. 74, 'is an area artificially 
levelled off on the eastern side of a huge overhanging rock. The edifice fronted towards the 
south ; and here, too, only the fine portal and a portion of the front wall, including a side- 
door, is standing. The architecture is almost exactly like that of the remains at Kefr Birmi, 
but of more massive proportions, larger stones, and richer sculpture. Some of these stones 
are 4! feet long by 2\ feet thick. The portal is nearly 10 feet high by i\ feet wide. Its 
side-posts are each of a single stone, elaborately sculptured. The sculptured lintel projects 
somewhat above the side-posts, and is without inscription and without the wreath. The 
portico is wholly gone, except a corner pedestal fitted inside for a double column. Some 
fragments of columns and sculptured entablatures are scattered around. The area of the 
interior is empty.' 

' Meiron, the ancient Beth Meron, contains the remains of the great synagogue which 
according to Jewish tradition was built fifty years after the destruction of Jerusalem.' — Sepp. 

El I\I u g h a r (O f). — A number of caves and rock-cut tombs in the 
hills to the west of the village ; two columns, one pedestal, and fragments 
of some building, probably a synagogue, were observed. 

?^Iuntaret et Kotn (P e). — A ruined watch-tower of rough 


N uh f (M f). — Two broken pillars were seen, and traces of ancient 

This place was called Nef in the time of the Crusades. Guerin found there, 'near a 
little moscjue, a certain number of regular blocks and three broken shafts, which prove that 
there was once here a building of some kind, now destroyed from top to bottom. Was it a 
synagogue, later on transformed into a church ?' 

Ra mia (M d). — Several larg-e sarcophagi round this village, and one 

This place was suggested by Robinson, who gives the name (in which he is followed by 
Van de Velde and Guerin) as Rameh, for the Rameh of Joshua xix. 29. Van de Velde found 
another Rameh three miles east of Tyre, but this place has not been recovered by the Survey. 

Robinson thus describes the place (' Biblical Researches,' p. 64) : 

' We came upon an ancient sarcophagus at the foot of the hill, and saw others on the 
way up. On the top near the village are two very large ones. One of the lids measured ^\ 
feet long by 2 feet broad, with nearly the same thickness. In a field below our tent, about 
midway of the hill-side, were others of an unusual character. In a large isolated rock were 
excavated no less than three sarcophagi, side by side ; and then the exterior of the rock was 
hewn away, and the corners rounded oft'. Around each sarcophagus a ledge was left for a 
corresponding groove in the lid. The whole is a striking monument of antiquity.' 

Gucrin found here a great sarcophagus cut in an enormous block, the lower part not 
yet detached from the rock, containing three receptacles for bodies. The lids were missing. 
Here are also several rock-cut tombs, one of which, examined by Gac'rin, was found to contain 
three loculi. 

Ras el Bedendy (N c). — .Scattered stones, a small rock-cut 
birkct, two cisterns, one olive and one wine press. 

Ras el Gharbiyeh (N c). — A few heaps of stones, mostly un- 
hewn ; a piece of tesselated pavement on the road near the ruin, about 
fifteen square feet. 

Ras esh Sherkiyeh (N c). — Remains of a ruined watch-tower 
of rough-hewn stone, and one cistern. 

Safed (P e). — Besides the castle described under Kfil'at Safed there 
are not many remains of antiquity in this town. There are a few rock-cut 
tombs around, and some columns and broken fragments to be seen in the 
streets. A cave in the town called Mugharet Benat Y'akiib is believed to 
be the site where Jacob buried his daughters (see Safed, Sect. A, Villages). 
Lieutenant Conder communicates the following notes on the history of this place : 
Safed. — This town seems probably to be the Tziphoth of the Egyptian hieratic M.S. 
called 'Travels of a Mohar' (see 'Records of the Past,' vol. ii. p. 62), mentioned with 
Kedesh, Tamena (Tibnin), Cophar Marron (possibly Meiron), and other places in Upper 


In the Talmud the to\Yn is called T z e p li a I h, and mentioned as a [ilace fit fur a 
signal-station (Tal. Jer. Rosh hash-Shanah, ii. 2). The Seph of Josephus, in Upper Galilee 
(B. J. ii. 20, 6), is also generally identified with Safed. Possibly also the Saphoth mentioned 
(Ant. xiii. 12, 5) as near Jordan, where Alexander Janna;iis met and defeated Plolemy 
Lathyrus, was the same place as Seph. Sephet is also mentioned in the Vulgate text of 
Tobit i. I (' that city ' in the Greek) ; and allusions to this passage are observable in later 
writings. In the twelfth century the tomb of Tobias is mentioned in a cave near Sephet 
(' Citez de Jherusalem'), and in 1322 a.d. Marino Sanuto speaks of Sephet as a very strong 
place between Ptolemais and the Sea of Galilee, and places the Nephtalim of Tobit at or 
near it (Lib. III. Part VI. cap. 18). 

Since the sixteenth century many writers have identified Safed with Bethulia (see Khan 
Jubb Y i1 s e f, above ; cf. Robinson's Bib. Res., vol. ii. p. 425, second edition). Fetellus, 
however, places Bethulia only four miles from Tiberias, and Marino Sanuto places Mount 
Bethulia above and ai)parently west of Dothan, which he places on his map west of Tiberias. 

In the thirteenth century, Saphet is noticed among the fiefs of the Teutonic Knights 
(Tables of the Teutonic Order). 

R. Samuel bar Simson, in 12 10 a.d., mentions Safed as inhabited by numerous Jewish 
communities; R. Jacob of Paris (1258 a.d.) places the tomb of R. Dosa bar Harcenas 
(mentioned in Pirke Aboth, iii. 10) at Tzephath. In 1334 a.d. R. Isaac Chelo found Jews 
from all parts of the world at tliis town. He notices an ancient synagogue and a public 
school. The tomb of R. Dosa and his son Hananiah is mentioned also by R. Isaac, in a 
cavern with a carob-tree before the entrance. In the sixteenth century many other Rabbis 
are noticed as buried near the town, which was a place of pilgrimage (Yikhus ha Tzadikim 
and.Yikhus ha Aboth), and many famous Rabbis were living at this time in Safed. (See 
Robinson's Bib. Res., vol. ii.,'p. 429.) 

The castle of Safed was standing as early as 1157 a.d. (William of Tyre, xviii. 14; 
cf. xxi. 28 and xxii. 16). It was built as a defence for the Christian kingdom against the 
Sultan of Damascus by King Fulke of Anjou (1131 to 1144 a.d. See Jaques de Vitry, 
chap, xlix., and Marino Sanuto). It capitulated to Saladin in November, 1187, after five 
weeks' siege (' Vita Saladini '). It was dismantled in 1220 a.d., but rebuilt and enlarged in 
1240 — 1260 A.D. Bibars took it in 1266 a.d., and strengthened and enlarged it. (See 
Robinson's Bib. Res., vol. ii. p. 427, second edition.) 

The castle was rebuilt in the middle of the eighteenth century by 'Aly, son of Dhaher el 
'Amr, and was the capital of one of the eight districts ruled by the Zeidaniyin. The great 
earthquake of the 30th of October, 1837, reduced the casde to a heap of ruins, and it has not 
been since rebuilt. 

S a s a (O e). — There is the pedestal of a column at this village similar 
to those used in synagogues ; there are caves and heaps of ruins and 

The pedestal mentioned by Lieutenant Kitchener as similar to those found in synagogues 
very likely belonged to the synagogue which stood here (Carmoly, 'Idn^raires,' p. 262) in 
the year 1334. At the top of the hill Guerin found the ruins of a fortified enclosure. 

E s S e m II a i e h (O f). — Many of the houses appear to be built of 
ancient materials. 



'A dozen sepulchral caves cut in the rock, enclosing for the most part nine loculi, dis- 
posed three by three under a semicircular arcosolium. Here may be distinguished also the 
vestiges of a building in cut stone, to which belonged several shafts scattered and three with 
Doric capitals.' — Guerin. - - ■ 

Shu net en Nakah (Pel). — A small ruined building of small 
masonry with one cistern. 

S Li f s a f (O e). — Built into the doorway of the modern mosque of this 
village there are ancient stones that formed the door of a synagogue, 
which once stood probably on about the same spot. 

The lintel is 5 feet long by i' 8" high, and is decorated with two 
rams' heads, surrounded by ornamental scroll-work, dividing the space 
into squares ; in the centre is a wreath in high relief, without any inscrip- 
tion. This lintel probably belonged to one of the small doors of the 
synagogue, as it measures almost the same as those at Meiron. Over it 
is a shell-formed niche, with a radius i' S", surrounding this niche are 
voussoirs very elaborately carved ; they measure i' 4" on the inner circle, 
and i' 9" on the outer ; they do not fit round the niche, and are evidently 
not in their proper position ; they were probably over the central door, 
which was much larger. One of them has had to be broken to fit in round 
the niche, and a perfect one with fragments of others is lying by. Other 
voussoirs are built into the modern wall of the mosque ; these have simple 
mouldings similar to the architrave of the large synagogue at Kefr Bir'im, 
and probably surrounded the niches above the small doors in the original 
synagogue here. 

There are some broken columns of limestone, about the same dimen- 
sions as those used in synagogues, lying about. 

T a w a h i n F c r r a d i e h (P f). — Four ruined mills, on side of a 
hill, modern ; an aqueduct conveys good water to wady and gardens 

T e i t a b a (P e). — Remains of ancient tomb, on north side, and traces 
of ruins. 

Sepp suggests this as the place from which Elijah received his patronymic of the Tishbite, 
the n and l^■ being often interchanged by the Aramteans. 

E t T c 1 e i 1 (O d). — Modern cattle-sheds and traces of ruins of 
basaltic stone. ■ 

VOL. I. ■ XX 



Tell A b a 1 i s (O d). — Ruined catde-sheds and traces of ruins. 

Tell 'Ara. — Remains of foundations of a building, a large sarco- 
phagus, and part of a cornice, similar to that at ed Deir at Yarun. 

E t T i r e h (O c). — Many old and well-cut stones and broken frag- 
ments of a pillar were observed at this village, showing probably early 
Christian occupation. An old masonry birkch and a large sarcophagus, 
for three bodies under one lid, was observed. Three-quarters of a mile 
to the south-east there is a dolmen on the side of the road of small 


Here is a little mosque, some of the cut stones in which have probably been taken i'roni 
some ancient building now destroyed. Other cut stones of similar appearance, and trunks 
of columns scattered about the village, belong apparently to the same monument. A great 
birkch, partly cut in the rock and partly built of medium-sized regular stones, adjoins the 
houses. Broken sarcophagi are lying about : their lids have acrotcria. — Guerin. 

Y a r It n (O d). — At this village there are the remains of a large church, 
built of very large blocks of stone. A great many columns and portions 
of moulded door-posts, with finely-cut capitals, are scattered about, princi- 
pally round the large birkeh, 
into which a great many ap- 
pear to have rolled. Of the 
church itself, the foundations 
are clear, and the bases of 
inost of the columns are in 
situ. The church was paved 
with mosaic-work, large por- 
tions of which are still perfect 
underneath the soil. Very large monolithic blocks of stone were used 
as door-posts, and a classical cornice, a similar piece of which was ob- 
served at Tell 'Ara. The 

k'l^v}-:. 2a:.._^..._ f:r.. ..........wT" 1. moulding on a number of 

stones, probably part of an 
architrave, was simple. The 
same sort of moulding was 
also probably used round the 
In the birkeh two long stones are decorated with carved ornaments 
in relief, and were used probably as panelling in the interior. 






These stones are now half covered by the sUmy water of the 

Another larsre stone, 

now in three pieces, was 
cut in a curve and orna- 
mented all round in a profuse manner, with leaves, supporting an 
arcade, in which there are representations of figures. A small piece, similar 

to this, was found at el Khirbeh close by. This probably formed the 

capital of some large pier of masonry built with a curve, as seen on plan. 

The small centre-piece was 

not seen, and is a reconstruction. 
There are also several Corinthian 
capitals, beautifully cut, and some 
of other designs, at the birkeh, in 
the mosque of the village. 

The door-post of the modern mosque of the 
village is formed of an old stone, having a well- 
cut palm-tree on one side and a Greek inscrij: 
tion on the end, partially cut off. There are , 
also several columns in the town, and an attached - 
pilaster of early Christian design. 

To the south-west of the town there is a 
small round basaltic outbreak, which is called 
the Burj, or Castle. The rock has been ex- 
cavated for large cisterns, and large blocks of 
limestone, well-dressed, are continually being 
turned up by the cultivators of the soil. 
Farther west there are several rock-cut tombs 



and sarcophagi. There is also a large sarcophagus on the south side of the 

church. To the north there is a birkch, which contains round masonry 

arches for the support of the wheel by which the water was formerly raised. 

To the w-est there was another masonry birkc;t, now in ruins. 

An inscription found here is given by Renan. The greater part of it has been effaced : 













Yatcr (N c). — There are three rock-cut tombs, with side lociili and 
kokim, at this village ; one of these has an olivc-prcss inside. The rock 
is much quarried round, and the place has the appearance of having been an 
ancient site. There is also a rock-cut wine-press and ruined birkeh. To 
the north-west there are two ruined watch-towers, with rough-hewn stones. 
To the north there is another similar, with a cistern. 

Guerin says that the ancient name of Yater must have been Yattir or Jether, a city of 
which name was among the mountains of Judah. — Joshua xv. 48. 

' Tivo other rocky hills, situated, the first to the south, the second to the soutli-west of 
this village, served as cemeteries to the ancient city. All the stones with which it was built 
were taken from this place. Vastquarries, cisterns, presses, and tombs, have been cut in the 
sides and on the summits of these hills, which are separated by a narrow valley. The greater 
part of the sepulchral grottoes contained each nine loculi, grouped three by three — to right, 
to left, and at the end — under a vaulted arcosolium. The facade of two among them is 
pierced by several small niches, some designed for simple lamps, others for statuettes. 
One of these caves seems to have been set aside for some sacred purpose.' — Guerin. 


The present sheet contains 316 square miles of the country north- 
west of Nazareth to the Bay of Acre, with the whole range of Carmel, 

OROGRAniY. — The country is naturally divided into four districts, 
ist. The Sea-coast; 2nd. The Shefa 'Amr Hills; 3rd. The Nazareth 
district ; 4th. Carmel. 

I. The S e a-c o a s t. — On the north is a deep bay, the best harbour 
south of Beirut. From Acre to the promontory of Carmel it has a 
breadth of eight miles in a direct line ; the bay receding inwards, opposite 
the mouth of the KIshon, for three miles. The natural harbour near 
Haifa is protected by the Carmel ridge and by the sudden curve of the 
.shore from the south-west winds. The Admiralty soundings show here an 
average depth of three fathoms at a distance of a quarter of a mile from 

The shore of the bay is an open beach of fine sand, with dunes of 
blown sand, e.xtending within for nine miles, and being one mile broad in 
the middle of the bay. Within the dunes a plain reaches to the foot of 
the low hills, a total distance of four miles from the sea. In part this is 
marshy, as shown south of J i d r u and along the course of the N a h r 
N 'a m e i n. In parts it is covered with crops of barley and of vegetables. 

The coast at Haifa consists of a narrow corn-plain half a mile wide, 
reaching to the foot of Carmel. The shore is sandy as far as the ruins of 
Haifa el ' A t i k a h, ' Old Haifa,' beyond which point it is more rocky, 
with a shingly beach. 

On passing the promontory a narrow plain extends southwards, 


gradually widening. The shore-line is very straight, broken only by a pro- 
montory and little bay at 'Athlit. At Jezirat el 'Ajjal, on the 
south, the total width to the foot of the hills from the sea is two miles. A 
low and narrow ridtre of dunes rises north of K h u r b e t el K e n i s c h, 
separating the beach from the arable land. Ras el 'Akra is the most 
conspicuous knoll on these dunes. As it e.xtends southwards the division 
becomes more marked and the ridge is composed of sandy limestone, and 
extensively quarried. At the 1\I a k t i y e t 'Athlit the height of the 
ridge is forty-five feet above the sea. This feature is still more marked 
farther south (see Sheet VII.). 

The shore is in parts occupied by quicksands formed by the inland 
springs. The plain within the ridge is arable land, with olive-groves at 
the foot of the hills. The promontory of Carmel does not come down to 
the water in any place ; the narrowest part of the plain at T e 1 1 c s 
S e m a k being some 200 yards wide. 

The Murex is found along the shore, and especially in the bay, after 

II. The S h e f a 'A m r Hill s. — This district is bounded on the 
south by W a d y el M e 1 e k, and on the north it extends to VV a d y 
el Halzun. On the east is the plain of the Buttaiif. North of 
Shefa 'A m r the block of hills slopes gradually to the plain from the 
high tops north of the Buttauf. The most conspicuous point on 
his range is Jebel ed Deidebeh (1781 feet). The slopes of 
the range are very steep on the south side, but on the north and west 
more gradual. The average elevation may be stated at 500 feet above 
the sea. The hills are uncultivated, except near the villages, and thickly 
covered with brushwood of lentisk, arbutus, and other shrubs. Olive- 
yards occur near the villages. 

South of Shefa 'A m r and west of the Buttauf the hills 
are flatter, with gentle slopes. The greater part of this district is covered 
with scattered oaks, and in the neighbourhood of el K h a 1 1 a d i y e h 
these form a dense wood, extending over a mile westwards. The ground 
is, however, very open near Taiyibeh, and cultivated with corn. 
West of Shefa 'A m r there are olive-groves reaching to the neigh- 
bourhood of the plain. 

III. The Nazareth District consists of the hills west of 


that town, and of the B u 1 1 a u f Plain. The range resembles the former 
hills, in having- gentle slopes on the north, and in falling gradually 
towards the Plain of Acre. On the south there is a precipice (J. Kafsy) 
950 feet high, rising to the cast of the narrow pass which leads to the 
mountain plateau on which Nazareth stands. This precipice has been 
shown from the twelfth century downwards as that over which the Jews 
would have thrown our Lord, and was called S a 1 1 u s Domini (John 
of Wirtzburg, iioo a.d.), and Leap of our Lord (Sir John Ahiundeville, 
1322 A.D.). 

The plateau extends a mile and a half north from this precipice, 
gradually falling 140 feet, towards Nazareth. Immediately behind the 
town, which stands on the southern slope, the hill rises from 1,144 feet 
to 1,602 feet at Neby Sain. The watershed gradually curves away 
on the east to Jebel es Sih (Sheet VL). On the north the block 
of hills extends to Seffurieh, a total distance of five miles from the 

The hills round Nazareth are white and bare ; but, proceeding west- 
wards, they become covered with scrub similar to that before noticed, 
which is especially thick east of el Mujeidil. The southern slopes 
gradually become less steep, and in the part west of el Mujeidil 
they are very flat, and merge gradually into the Plain of Esdraelon. 

At S h e i k h A b r e i k the hills project in a sort of bastion towards 
Carmel, and thus a narrow pass is formed, through which the Kishon 
passes from the Great Plain into the maritime Plain of Acre. At 
Sheikh Abreik the hill has an elevation of 528 feet, or about 
350 feet above the Kishon, and of white chalk, bare of trees. 

The whole district north of M a 1 u 1 and Sheikh Abreik as 
far as W a d y el M e 1 e k, and on the west to the edge of the 'Akka 
Plain, is occupied by a wood of oaks having an area of about forty square 
miles. This is especially thick between Sheikh Abreik (which 
stands just outside it on the bare white hills) and el Ilarithiyeh 
where there is much underwood in the thicket known as el 'A b h a r i y e h. 
The trees are also very thick in the part cut by the road through 
Tubaun to She fa 'Amr, and, as the hills are of equal height 
no view can be obtained in the wood. The trees are not generally larce, 
being perhaps twenty feet high at the most. They are of the species 


Qitcrais yEgilops (Sindidii). In parts corn is grown beneath them, Imi in 
the denser portions there is underwood. The sides of Wady c 1 
Melek are crowned by these beautiful woods all along its course; 
whilst the valley itself, a quarter of a mile broad towards its head, is lull 
of barley between the wooded slopes. 

The Buttauf Plain is nine miles long east and west, and about one 
and a half miles wide on the average. It is flanked by steep ridges on 
the north and south, rising 1,200 feet above the plain, the elevation of 
which is about 500 feet above the Mediterranean. The eastern half is 
occupied by a marsh which dries up in summer. The western portion 
consists of a rich basaltic loamy soil, extremely fertile, and cultivated with 
wheat, Indian corn, millet, lentiles, and other crops. 

W . Carmel forms a range almost detached, being nearly separated 
from the hills south of it by the great valley Wady el Maleh 
(Sheet Vn I.). 

The highest point is 'Esfia, 1,742 feet above the sea. From the 
south end, at e 1 M a h r a k a h , the ridge runs approximately north- 
west for a distance of twelve and a half miles to the cliff above the 
Mediterranean. The height of this point is about 470 feet above the 
sea, the trigonometrical jDoint on the convent roof being 5 1 7 feet, and the 
top of its dome 556 feet. 

The general shape of the block is triangular, the watershed forming the 
north-eastern side, and spurs on the south extending from it westwards to 
the coast, seven miles. Thus the north-eastern slopes, which are from 
30' to 40", and in parts precijiitous (especially near 'Esfia), descend 
abruptly to the Plain of Acre, giving a fine ridge 1,400 feet high near el 
IMahrakah. On the opposite side, however, long parallel spurs, 
divided by rugged valleys of great depth, run out of the watershed. The 
most notable point on these is R a s U m m e s h S h u k f (1,607 feet). 

The slopes at the ends of these spurs are also abrupt, and in places low 
cliffs occur above the plain, as at Wady el Mugharah. The 
valleys are narrow and winding, but near the watershed, at e d D a 1 i e h 
and 'Esfia, small level plateaux occur. The descent from the cliff of 
el ]\I a h r a k a h to \\" a d y el M a 1 e h is also very steep. 

The Carmel block terminates on the south-west in the precipice of 
el Khashm (see Sheets VII. and VHP). 


T he whole of Carmel Is now wild and uncultivated, except round 
the two villages 'Esfia and ed Dalieh. The mountain consists 
of hard grey limestone, covered more or less thickly with brushwood. 
On the watershed is a thin layer of chalk, and here the stunted pines 
{Piiiiis Canca, according to Tristram) are found on the very top of 
the mountain. A solitary palm exists at Khurbet Umm esh 
S h u k f , and olives at T{ s f i a. The red soil of the slopes appears to 
be very rich, as the wild growth, which is remarkably luxuriant, indicates. 

The most remarkable place on the mountain is e 1 Mahrakah, 
commanding a view over the whole of the Great Plain to the trans-Jordanic 
ranges, and as far north as Hermon, and south to Mukhalid, over 
the Plain of Sharon. It is visible on a fine day from Jaffa. 

There is a cliff on the north side of el Mahrakah some fifty or 
sixty feet high, and beneath is a little plateau, with a well cut in the rock, 
and shaded by a large tree. The well ( B i r el RI a n s u r a h ) con- 
tained water in the autumn of 1S72. The name of the peak, el 
IM a h r a k a h (' the place of burning- '), suggests its identity with the site 
of Elijah's sacrifice, and this view is confirmed by the existence of the 
well. This identification is mentioned in the history of the monastery 
on Carmel, composed by an Italian monk of the Order of Carmelites 
(' Compendio Istorico del Carmelo, 1780 a.d.'). 

Hydrography. — Three perennial streams are to be found on this sheet 
— the Kishon, Wady el Melek, and the River Belus. 

The Kishon rises on Sheet VIII. Throughout its course on the 
present sheet it is fed by small springs, and when crossed east of Tell 
el K asis in June, 1875, it was found to be about four feet deep and 
some ten yards across. It is an extremely dangerous river at this point, 
from the boggy nature of the bed, and the adjoining marshes, formed 
by the springs at K h i r b e t M u s r a r a h and 'A i n I s - h a k . 
Rushes and canes border the banks, forming quite a thick jungle in some 
parts. The river is fordable near Tell el K a s s i s. 

After passing through the narrow neck at the last-mentioned point, the 
Kishon fiows between steep banks some fifteen feet high, and is impas- 
sable excepting at two points where the roads are shown crossing it. The 
first of these crosses about a mile below the ford at T e 1 1 el K a s s i s. 
VOT.. I. 34 


The bed was here found dry and stony in the October of 1S72 ; antl the 
place where the main Haifa road crosses, near el H a r i t Ii i y e h, was 
at this time, and also in September, 1875, quite dry ; but a deep and very 
treacherous pool exists immediately north of the crossing-place. 

Below this last ford the Kishon receives a tributary on the left bank 
from the fine springs called 'A y u n el Werd, issuing among rocks 
at the foot of Carmel. The channel of the river is full of water from this 
neighbourhood to the shore. Two other tributaries come in on the right — 
one from the springs of el Harbaj, the other from the marshes and 
springs near T e 1 1 el Khiar. The latter is called el Fuwarah. 

The mouth of the Kishon is its most curious feature, and is constantly 
shifting. The river is here some twenty yards wide, flowing sluggishly 
between low banks in very flat and uncultivated ground. After joining 
the stream from el Fuwarah, which runs nearly due west, the united 
waters flow west for about a mile. At this point the large stream from 
the fine springs of 'A i n e s h joins, and the present channel that 
runs due north. The stream called \V a d y S e 1 m a n , fed by small 
springs, runs parallel with the main channel, and may very probably have 
been the original mouth, for the river appears to be gradually boring 
northwards. Wady Selmanis blocked at its mouth by sand-dunes, 
and forms a lagoon surrounded by palm-groves, which extend along the 
shore from near H ai fa as far as the left bank of the main stream. 

Several small lagoons also occur on the risjht bank among the sand- 
hills, and the main stream runs north-west, parallel to the shore, for about 
half a mile. 

When the wind is from the east the water is brought down with sufii- 
cient force to break through the bar of sand which usually closes the 
mouth, but when the south-west wind blows, after storms, the sand again 
stops the channel, and the river does not reach the sea. Even after the 
winter rains the mouth is sometimes blocked for many days, as was 
observed during the winter of 1872-3. In the spring of 1877 the river 
was, however, unfordable. When the water runs into the sea a bar is 
formed farther out, almost beyond the breakers, where the passage is 
safe and easy. 

The Kishon is the most important river in Palestine after the Jordan ; 
from the spring-head, west of Tabor (near el M e z r a h ), its length to 


the sea is twenty-three miles. The springs of Lejjun, which feed 
its southern affluent, are nineteen miles distant from its mouth ; and the 
spring at J e 1 b 6 n , the most distant point which drains towards the 
river, is about thirty-five miles from the mouth. The total fall from near 
e 1 M e z r a h (Sheet VIII.) to the sea is 280 feet. 

Wady el M c 1 e k. — This broad and gently sloping valley forms 
a communication between the shore and the inland plain of the B u 1 1 a u f 
(Sheet VI.) having a fall of 450 feet from its head, near Tell 
Bedeiwiyeh, and a total length, from this point to its junction with 
the Kishon below el H arbaj, of ten miles. The valley was chosen 
as the line by which the levels were run in 1S75, from the plain of Acre to 
the B u 1 1 a u f , in order to reach Tiberias by the shortest way possible. 

The stream, which was running as late as the end of June in the valley, 
is first supplied from marshy springs near the ruins of el Khalladiyeh. 
A mile lower down a further supply is obtained on the left side, from small 
springs near K h u r be t el Musheirefeh. The stream here forms 
pools surrounded by rushes. 

Lower down the fine supply from Ras el 'A i n is added. A 
large blue spring of clear and good water here occurs a little above the 
valley bed, on the right bank. The water wells out into a shallow 
ma.sonry reservoir, and finds its way down to join the stream, which is here 
surrounded with boggy ground and rushes, and is about a couple of yards 

Thus far the course of the valley is very open, with low hills on either 
side. The ravine gradually narrows from this point, the hills becoming 
loftier ; the stream flows over ledges of white rock, and the current is 
more rapid. A supply of very clear cold water comes in on the left bank 
from the springs about one-third of a mile below Ras el 'A in. 
The valley then takes a curious bend between steep hills, and here feeds 
two modern mills. It gradually becomes broader as it approaches the 
plain, and the stream is more sluggish and marshy. The water lies in 
deep pools, but is not a continuous brook, in summer, in the lower part 
of its course ; resembling in this respect the Kishon. The springs at 
el H arbaj are the last along the course of the stream, which there 
joins the Kishon. 

The Bel us, now Nahr N'amein, is a marshy stream which 



collects the drainage of the whole watershed from Wady el 
Halzun on the nortli, to Wady A be 11 in on the south. The 
stream is also fed by marshy springs north of 'A i n e t T i n e h , 
and flows northwards through swampy ground for five miles. Close to 
the shore, about a mile south of Acre, the course is double, a loop three- 
fourths of a mile long having been cut across, which perhaps shows the 
original mouth to have been farther north. The river is here about equal 
to the Kishon, but the current is more rapid, and the ford at the mouth 
deeper. The stream penetrates between the sand-dunes, and is sur- 
rounded by palms like those near the Kishon mouth. The swampy ground 
extends along the whole course of the stream inside the sand-dunes. 

The Nahr N 'a me in is the ancient Belus mentioned by Pliny 
{' Hist. Nat.,' Book xxxvi. chap. 26) as a place whence glass made of its 
sands was brought, and on the banks of which stood the monument of a 
certain general named Memnon (Cf. Josephus, B. J., II. x. 2), which is 
also noticed by Geoffrey de Vinsauf (' I tin. Ric.,' 1 191 a.d.). 

Springs. — The water supply of the hill district north of Wady el 
Melek is derived almost entirely from wells and cisterns near the 
villages. The only springs are those just below the saddle, south-east of 
Kaukab ( 'A y u n K a u k a b ) , which are not very large. 

The southern slopes of the Nazareth hills abound in springs of good 
water, principally near the villages with which they are noted. 

Between Nazareth and Seffurieh, about one mile south of the latter 
town, are the springs famous as the rendezvous of the Christian armies 
before the battle of Hattin. (See Robinson's Bib. Res. ii. 2>Th-) The 
valley is open and full of gardens, and a stream of water flows down 
it, driving eight mills when the water is plentiful ; the place is called 
Kastal Seffurieh. 

A fine group of springs, surrounded by gardens, exists west of 
Jebata, in the plain, and farther west, at Khirbet Musrarah, 
are others, already noted as supplying the Kishon. 

The Carmel district is not so well supplied, but on the north side the 
springs are found at the foot of the mountain. On the other side of the 
watershed the finest supplies are those of 'A i n e s S i h and e 1 
M i sh e r i a. The first is close to the foot of the mountain, with gardens 
round it, and a smaller spring coming out of a reservoir of peculiar form 


higher up (see e d D e i r, Sect. B). The water is carried away in a 
small aqueduct for irrigation. 

El M i s h e r i a is a pool of cool clear water under a rock in the valley, 
and contained a good supply in the spring of 1873, after a very dry winter. 

The water supply of the Haifa colony and of the town is derived from 
wells, some sunk close to the shore, rather lower than the sea-level. 
The water is slightly brackish. 

There is a small supply of water from springs, apparently below the 
sand, which form a sort of quicksand called Nahr el Mantneh, 
between Haifa and the Kishon. 

Topography. — A total number of thirty-nine inhabited towns and 
villages are marked on the sheet ; beloncrin;/ to the Government Divisions, 
Nahiet Shefa 'A m r, Kadha Nasi rah, and Kadha Haifa; 
these districts have Caimakams respectively at Shefa 'Amr, 
en Nasirah and Haifa, under the Mutaserrif of 'Akka. 
This division is the one existing in iS;6. The villages may be enu- 
merated alphabetically in their respective groups. 

SiiEF.A. 'Amr NEiGiiBOURiioon. 

I. 'A b e 1 1 i n (L g). — A village on high ground with gardens beneath 
it on the south, and a spring ('A i n 'Afieh) about half a mile to the 
south. There is a minaret to the mosque which is a conspicuous object. 
This mosque and a wall to the town are said to have been built by 
el H a j j Y u s e f, one of the family of the Z e i d a n i y i n , according to 
an Arabic inscription on the wall of the mosque. 

The houses in the village are principally of stone ; wells occur south 
of the hill, with olives near them. The population in 1S59 is stated by 
Consul Rogers to have been Soo souls, and the tillage fifty feddans. 
Some of the inhabitants are Greek Christians. 

'Abellin is mentioned by its present name in 1334, by Isaac Chelo. 
who saw there the tomb of Gamaliel — probably the present mosque. He 
identifies it with Jabneelof Naphtali (Josh. .xi.x;. 2,2)). It is also enumerated 
with Kabul by Marino Sanuto in 1322 a.i>., but is confused with 
'A i 1 b u n (Sheet VI.) on his map. 


Gudrin estimates the population at 600, divided equally between Moslems and Greek 
Christians, the latter subdivided into United Greeks and Schismatic Greeks. The latter 
have a church dedicated to St. George. 

2. Beit Lahin (L h). — The ancient Bethlehem of Zebulon (Josh. 
xix. 15). A village principally built of mud on high ground in the border 
of the wooded country. The nearest water is in Wady el Melek, 
on the north (Ras el 'A i n), and at the springs near Muwarah 
on the south. Consul Rogers (1859 a.d.) states the population at 1 10 
souls, and the tillage at sixteen feddans. 

3. El Be r well (L f). — A large village, on high ground, near the 
edge of the plain, with a well on the south and olives on the north. 
Consul Rogers states the population at 900 souls, and the tillage at fifty 
feddans. Part of the population consists of Greek Catholics. This 
place would appear to be the Beri of the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Pesakhim, 
iv. i) mentioned as near Kabul. 

4. E d Damun (L g). — A good-sized village, in an open situation, 
surrounded by olive-gardens. It contains two small mosques. Consul 
Rogers states the population, in 1859, at 800 souls, and the tillage at 
twenty feddans. The inhabitants are Moslems and Catholics. This 
place is possibly the Damin of the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Megilla, 70 a), sup- 
posed by the Rabbis to be the Adami of the Bible (Joshua xix. ^sZ)- See 
Sheet VI. 

5. E 1 H a r i t h i y e h (K h). — A miserable hamlet of mud, on high 
ground, with an open plateau to the east and a spring below on the west 
('A i n el Ghafr). The population in 1859 is stated by Consul Rogers 
at 120 souls, and the tillage at twelve feddans. This place has been 
supposed to be the ancient Harosheth of the Gentiles from the identity 
of name (Judges iv. 2). The position is not an impossible one. 

Guerin proposes this place as the site of Josephus's Besara (Life § 24), which was twenty 
miles from Gabx He places Gaba at Sheikh Abrayk. 

6. Jeida (Li). — Resembles the last, but standing on flat ground, 
the houses of mud. A spring exists about three quarters of a mile to the 
west ('A in el K h a s h a b e h), and scattered oaks on the east. Consul 
Rogers makes the population in 1859 to have been 160 souls, the tillage 
twenty feddans. 


7. K a b u 1 (L g). — A moderate-sized village, on a hill-side, with olives 
on the north and south. Its population in 1859 is given by Consul Rogers 
as 400 souls, and the tillage as thirty feddans. The place is the ancient 
Cabul (Josh. .xi.x. 27), and is mentioned by Josephus as Chabolo (Xn/SwXw 
Vita, 43 — 45). In the Talmud the same place is noticed (Tal. Jen 
Taanith, iv. 8 ; Pesakhim, iv. i) ; but its site was not known to Jerome 
(see Onom., s. v. Chabol). Rabbi Uri of Biel (1564) notices the place, 
and speaks of the tombs of three Rabbis there buried. Marino Sanuto 
enumerates it with 'A bell in, and says it was called Castrum Zabulon 
by the Saracens. 

8. K u s k u s (L h). — A mud village, in the oak-woods, on high 
ground. The population is given in 1859 by Consul Rogers as 100 
souls, and the tillao-e as si.xteen feddans. 

9. Mi'ar (M g). — A large village, on high ground, in the middle of 
rough uncultivated country. Its population is stated at 1,500 by Consul 
Rogers in 1859, and the tillage at thirty feddans. 

Guerin gives the population in 1S79 at 500. 

10. Er Riieis (L g). — A moderate-sized village, in open ground, 
with olives to the north. The population is probably about that of 
K a b II 1. 

11. Shaib (M f). — A large village, with a small mosque. It is situate 
in the valley and supplied from a well on the north (B i r el H a n a n y). 
Fine groves of olives exist in the valley, and the hill behind is partly cul- 
tivated with corn. The population is stated by Consul Rogers in 1859 
at 1 500 souls, of whom some are Catholics, the majority Moslems. The 
tillage he states at eighty feddans. This place Is possibly the Saab 
(2aa/3) of Josephus (B. J., III. vii. 21), native town of Eleazar, son of 
Sameas, In Galilee. 

' The village of Sh'aib consists of four quarters, gently rising on the lower flank of a low 
hill. The inhabitants are for the most part Moslems : they number Soo, including about 20 
Schismatic Greek families. The Moslems have two mosques and two walys. One of the 
mosques is said to be on the site of, and to have been built with the dvlui's of, an ancient 
synagogue. I saw here mutilated shafts of different-sized diameters, an Ionic capital, good 
cut stones, and a fragment of sculpture.' — Guerin. 

12. S h e f a 'A m r (L g). — This Is, properly speaking, a town, beln^' 
divided Into quarters and Including a mosque and bazaars. It Is the scat of 


a Caimacani, or licutcnant-^ovcrnoi', and chief place of the district. The 
houses, which are generally built of stone, stand on a hill, with a narrow- 
valley on the south, and one rather broader on the north, in which are 
gardens of figs, etc. The road descends to an open valley on the west, 
where is a good grove of olives, in which the Survey camp was pitched. 

The principal water-supply is from the 'A i n She fa 'A m r — a 
spring with a building over it, and a trough, by the main-road. To the 
south are gardens of fruit, including plums and pears, almonds and pome- 
granates, figs and apricots ; the gardens are walled and have hedges of 

The town has a large fortress on the south, well-built with crenellated 
battlements, and containing stalls for 400 horses. This is now partly 
ruined, the north side being the best preserved. This fortress is said to 
have been built by Othman, son of the famous Uhaher el 'Amr, about 
1 761 A. P., and does not appear to be older. It had once four watch- 
towers outside the town, of which only one on the south (el B u r j) 
remains. This statement is made by the inhabitants generally. The 
present mosque is close to the Kalah or castle, and a small ruined 
mosque exists on the north of the town. 

On the east are the threshing-floors, and near them the foundations of 
a school-house, commenced in 1875 by Rev. J. Zeller. of Nazareth. 
About 100 yards farther are the convent and church of the Roman 
Catholic Nuns (Dames de Nazareth), built in 1866, with a school for 
girls. The church is ancient (see Section B). 

The population was stated to me, by the native Scripture-reader, to be 
2,500 souls — 1,200 being Moslems, the rest Druses, Greeks, and Latins. 
There is a Greek Catholic Church in the town. Consul Rogers in 1859 
gives 2,000 souls, and 120 feddans of tillage. Professor Socin gives the 
same estimate. Pere Lievin (Guide, p. 609) estimates it thus : 

Moslems .... 300 
Druses .... 600 
Greeks . . . • . 1,500 


There are a few Protestants and Jews. With regard to the agricultural 
colony see Section C. 


This town was identified by Vandevelde with Shafram, the seat of 
the Sanhedrin. It is called Shefram by Arabic writers (Baedeker's 
Guide, p. 356), and appears to be the Cast rum Saphar noticed 
by INIarino Sanuto as on the road from Nazareth to Acre (which is 
distinct from Seffurieh). The change of the name is due to a 
tradition (see Section C). In ' La Citez de Jherusalem' (1187 a.d.) it is 
called Safran, and said to be three leagues from Acre and three leagues 
from Seffurieh, with ruins of a church, and to be the birthplace of 
St. James and St. John (see Section B). 

13. Sheikh Abreik (Li). — A small village, on a hill, with a 
Mukam on the south, which is a conspicuous object. There is plenty of 
water on the south from various springs ('Ayiin el 'Afy, etc.). The 
houses are principally of mud ; foundations of better buildings however 
exist. The place was once an important site (see Section B). The village 
belongs to the Sursuk family (sec Section C), who have an agent there. 
The hill is terraced and corn grown on it : there is also good corn-land, 
and cotton is grown in the plain just south of the village. The population 
is probably about 150 souls. The tillage in 1S59 was sixteen feddans. 
The Survey camp was pitched on a terrace in the little valley north of the 
village, and about fifty or sixty feet below it. 

Guerin estimates the population at 350. 

14. Tubaun (L h). — A small mud hamlet, on high ground, at the 
edge of the wood. Its tillage was twenty-two feddans in 1859 (Rogers). 
It appears probably to be the Tabaun of the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Megilla, 
24 b) in lower Galilee. 

15. Tijmrah (L g). — A large village, with a small mosque on the 
east and well on the north. There is a rock-cut tomb west of the houses. 
•South of the village, in the valley, a fine olive-grove extends as far as e r 
Rueis. The inhabitants are all Moslems, and numbered 1,200 souls in 
1S59, according to Consul Rogers ; the tillage being eighty feddans. 

16. U m m e 1 'A m e d (L h). — Resembles the last, but stands in the 
oak-woods on a hill-top. There is an ancient rock-cut sepulchre on the 
south-east. The population is given as 100 souls, and the tillage as ten 
feddans, in 1859, by Consul Rogers. Rude caves or tombs exist near the 

VOL. I. 35 


Kauiia of Nazareth. 

1. 'Ail At (I h). — A small village, in the woods. The population is 
stated at i8o souls, and the cultivation at thirteen feddans, in 1S59 

2. J c b a t a (M i). — A small mud hamlet, in the plain, said only to con- 
tain 80 souls, and cultivating twenty-one feddans, in 1859 (Rogers). About 
a mile to the west is a group of fine springs by a ruin (T ell G h a 1 1 a h). 
The place is mentioned by Jerome as near the plain of Tegio, in the 
border of Dio-cresarea (Onom., s.v. Gabathon). It is also, perhaps, the 
Kebatuan of the lists of Thothmes III. (No. 41), mentioned with 
Taanach and other places, in the Plain of Esdraclon (See ' Quarterly 
Statement,' July, 1876, p. 147). 

J e b a t a was fortified by Dhahr el 'Amr in 1 162 a.ii. 

Guerin gives the population as 350. 'It is situated upon a low hillock, once occupied 
by a small tower, of which nothing remains but confused debris. A few cut stones scattered 
on the slopes and on the upper part of the hill are what is left of the Gabatha mentioned by 
Jerome in the Onomasticon in the following terms : 

' Et alia villa Gabatha in finibus DiocKsarea; juxta grandem campum Legionis.' 

3. Kefr Mend a (M g). — A mud village at the foot of Jebel ed 
Deidebeh, having a white jNIukam in it. The population is given as 200 
souls, and the tillage as twenty feddans, in 1852 (Rogers). 

Guerin gives the population as 400. 

The place is mentioned by its present name by Isaac Chelo (1334). 
He states it to contain the tomb of Rabbi Akabla. Rabbi Gerson of 
Scarmela, in 1561, also notices this, and three other tombs under the 
village. Rabbi Uri of Biel, in 1564, also notices it (see Carmoly's ' Iti- 
neraires de Terre Sainte'). 

4. El ]\Iakbiyeh (N i;. — A kind of suburb of Nazareth, in a 
valley near a good spring; said to have had, in 1859, a population of 60 
souls, and to cultivate four feddans. 

5. j\Ialul (AI i).— A mud village on a hill, with open ground on the 
west, where stands the prominent ruin K u s r e z Z i r. The place is said 
to have had a population of 280 souls, and a tillage of forty-two feddans, 


in 1859 (Rogers). The water supply is from a well in the valley on the 

In 1S75 CJucrin found 350 inhabitants in the place. All were Moslems, except about 
thirty Schismatic Greeks. 

6. El 1\I Li j e i d i 1 (M i). — A nourishing village on high ground. The 
place is built of mud and stone, and stands on the northern side of a small 
plateau, where the thrashing-lloors are placed. There are fine olive- 
groves east oftlie village and south of it. On the north the valley is 
rough, but not deep. The camp was here established near the principal 
spring ('A in el H e 1 u), the supply from which was nearly (-xhausted 
in October, 1S72. There is another si)ring of bad water ('A i n el 
M a 1 h a h) near, and a third — a pit cut in rock ('A in el J u d e i d e h), 
farther down the valley. The inhabitants are principally Moslems, but 
there is a Protestant niission with a fluctuating congregation, and there 
are orthodox Greeks in the village. The population is stated by Consul 
Rogers, in 1859, at 800 souls, and the cultivation at 100 feddans. 

7. En N a s i r a h (N i). — The capital of this district, with a Caimacam 
or lieutenant-governor, and a Kadi or judge. It is the largest town on the 
sheet, its population being probably greater than that of Haifa. 

The situation of Nazareth is peculiar ; the houses run up the sides of 
the hill which rises north-west of the town. On the east is a hollow 
[ilateau, running out to the precipice of Jebel Kafsy; on the south 
are the threshing-floors below the town. Nazareth has been materially 
improved by the erection of numerous fine houses and public buildings 
within the last ten or twenty years. The town has no walls, and is a 
rough trapezoidal shape, divided into three quarters, viz., Haret el 
Latin (the Roman Catholic cjuarter), on the south and south-west, 
.separated by the main street, which runs diagonally north-west : Haret 
er Rum, or the Greek quarter, or the north-w-est and north ; Haret 
el Islam, the Moslem quarter, on the east. The buildings in these 
quarters may be considered in order. 

In the Latin Quarter the principal building is the great monastery of 
the Eranciscans, including the Church of the Annunciation. The buildin"' 
is very strong, and entered Ijy a low iron door. It is supplied by a well 
inside, and has a good garden with palms and cypresses. The present 
structure was erected in 1730 a.d. The church is not oriented, the high 



altar being on the north. This arrangement is due to the shape of the 
grotto beneath the altar, which runs north and south. The total length 
of the church is about seventy feet, and the breadth fifty ; the walls are 
covered with pictures ; llic high altar is reached by two staircases, one 
from each side of the llight leading to the grotto ; behind the altar is a 
large choir. 

The grotto is reached by a descent of seventeen mar^e steps leading 
to the vestibule (Chapel of the Angel), which measures thirty feet by 
twelve, with a passage in the middle : an altar is placed on each side of 
the passage, that on the right dedicated to St. Joachim, and on the left to 
the angel Gabriel, both placed against the north wall of the vestibule. 
The chapel within, reached by a descent of two steps, is rock-cut, 
measuring twenty feet in width, and about the same to the back. A 
wall divides it in two : the outer or smaller portion is called Chapel of 
the Annunciation, with an altar on the north ; the inner, reached by a 
narrow door to the right of the altar, is dedicated to St. Joseph, with an 
altar on the south wall. In middle of the west side of the outer chapel 
an ancient pillar-shaft of red granite hangs down from the roof, probably 
part of an older ornamentation of the grotto. 

From the north end of the Chapel of St. Joseph a passage leads up 
by rock-cut steps obliquely to another cavern. There are fourteen steps, 
and the passage is about three feet wide and twenty feet long. 

This second grotto is of irregular shape, about as large as Joseph's 
Chapel, and is called 'the Virgin's Kitchen.' It has a hole through the 
roof called the chimney, apparently the mouth of an ancient cistern. 
The two inmost chapels are unornamented, but the Chapel of the Annun- 
ciation has a marble flooring and a good picture over the altar. 

This grotto appears to be mentioned as early as 700 a.d., by 
Arculphus, as the House of the Virgin. A church was also here erected 
by the Crusaders, and of this remains were found in building the present 
monastery, and are still visible below its foundations. The columns were 
still standing in two rows in 1620 a.d., as mentioned by Ouaresmius. 
The present plan has, however, no connection with that of the Crusading 

The Franciscan monastery occupies the south-west corner of Nazareth, 
with an open place on the west side. Just south of it is the Khiin, 


and on the opposite side of the road (west) is the Latin Hospice, or Casa 
Nuova, built during the last ten years. At the back of the Hospice is 
the Franciscan convent. A narrow street leads up by steps west of the 
convent to a higher level, between poor huts of stone. At the top it 
joins a long lane running north towards the market, and here is the 
English Episcopal Church, a fine building with a garden round it, built 
in the last twelve years. The parsonage is just north of it. 

North-west of this, in the e.xtreme north-west corner of the town, and 
reached by the main street, leading west from the market, is a small 
Maronite church and the Latin church called M e n s a Christi, in 
the middle of which a rudely-shaped block of limestone stands up about 
four feet, and measures about twelve feet by ten feet. This church was 
built in 1 86 1. The house of the French c/z/r of Nazareth is just opposite 
the K h a n, on the south edge of the town. 

The Greek Quarter commences from the north side of the market, 
and is traversed by a long lane leading from the corner of the market 
towards the Virgin's Well. At this corner is the Protestant School and 
Mission House. 

On the north side of the market there is also a chapel once belonging 
to the Latins, but since 1770 a.d. given to the Greek Catholics, and sup- 
posed traditionally to stand on the site of the synagogue which e.xisted 
in the time of our Lord. Following the lane or street the Russian 
Hospice is reached. In the higher part of the town on the north is the 
English Hospital, a well-built structure ; and, aljove this, outside the 
town, half way up to the summit of the range, a very large orphanage 
was being built, in 1S75, for the Society for Promotion of Female Edu- 
cation in the East. 

The palace of the Greek bishop with the Greek church is in the 
north-east corner of the town ; in its gardens are to be seen the curious 
mediaeval carved heads mentioned in Section B. A school for children 
is attached to the church. 

The Virgin's Well is about 600 yards from the Latin monastery, north- 
east of Nazareth. Immediately north of it is the Greek Church of St. 
Gabriel, which was rebuilt about the end of the last century. The sprin'^^ 
of water rising just north of the high altar is conducted past it on the left, 
and there is an opening in the lloor of the church to the conduit, which 



carries the water south to the \'irc;in's Well. This arnuigeinent is men- 
tioned in 700 A.i). 

The Moskm Qiiar/cr contains the Mosque, the Serai, and 
the Mufti's house, all close together, about 200 yards north of the 
Latin monastery. The mosque has a low minaret ami a dome. it 
is surrounded by very fine cypress trees. In this quarter also, south-east 
of the mosque, close to the edge of the town, is the little Latin Church 
of Joseph's Workshop, built in 1859. 

The public buildings thus described are nearly all of white stone, which 
gives the city a very glaring aspect. 

The water supply of Nazareth is principally derived from rain-water 
cisterns ; for the only spring is the one already mentioned on the north, 
and its supply is scanty in autumn. The water comes out through spouts 
in a wall under an archway at the \'irgin's Well, and falls into a stone 
trough. A broken sarcophagus lies near the foiintain on the east. On 
the south-west is a Hat open space, with a few olives — the usual camping- 

The English missionaries and other inhabitants have erected three or 
four country houses above Nazareth on the north-west ; gardens and olive- 
yards extend near them on the hill. The Protestant cemetery is on 
this side. 

The Moslem cemetery is close to the town on the east, and cactus 
hedges here line the sides of the road to the Virgin's Well. 

The population of Nazareth appears to be nearly 6,000. It is variously 
Sfiven as below : 

Professor Socix. 

Pere Lievin. 



. 2,000 

. 2,000 . 

Not Stated 


. 2,500 . 

. 2,000 . 


Greek Catholics 

180 . 

750 . 


Latins . 

800 . 

900 . 



80 . 

250 . 


Protestants . 


35 • 





Consul Rogers, in 1S59, states it at 4,000, with a tillage of loofeddans ; 
but both tillage and population have increased in the last twenty years. 

{SHEET ;:] TOrOGRAPlIY. 279 

The threshing-floors are on the south, below the town. A fine garden 
exists farther south, on the roadside at B i r Abu Z c i d. 

Thomson maintains that the soft stone of which everything here is built disintegrates 
with such rapidity, that exposed stones would not last fifty years. Hence he concludes that 
all the places shown : ' The Church of the Annunciation, the Cave, the Keletun of Mary, 
the Workshop of Joseph, the dining-table of our Lord and His apostles, the synagogue 
where He read the Prophet Isaiah, the precipice down which they wished to cast Him, are 
all apocryphal, fabulous, and have no claims to veneration or respect.' 

Nazareth, not mentioned in the Old Testament or by Josephus, became very early a town 
of Christian pilgrimage. Paula and Eustochium, in their epistle on the sacred places 
(a.d. 404), speak of it: 'We shall go,' they say, 'to Nazareth, and according to the inter- 
pretation of its name, we shall behold the flower of Galilee. Not far from it shall be seen 
Cana, where the water was turned into wine. We shall go to Tabor and the Tabernacle of 
the Saviour, not as Peter once worked with Moses and Elias, but with the Father and the 
Holy Spirit.' 

Theodoras (a.d. 530) gives distances, ' from Dio-ca;sarea to Nazareth five miles : from 
Nazareth to Tabor seven miles.' 

Antoninus Martyr [cin-a 570) thus describes the place in his day : 'Thence we came to the 
city of Nazareth, in which are many virtues. There is still hanging in the synagogue the 
\-olume in which the Lord had His ABC, in which synagogue is deposited a beam whereon 
the Lord, with others, sat as a child. This beam is lifted and moved by Christians, but no 
Jew can move it at all, nor does it suffer itself to be taken away. The House is the 
Basilica of Holy Mary, and there are many benefits (to be derived) from her garments. In 
the city itself, so great is the beauty of the Hebrew women, that in all that land no fairer 
Hebrew women can be found, and this, they say, was granted to them by Holy Mary : for 
they affirm that she was their mother. And whereas there is no charity of Hebrews towards 
Christians, here are they all full of charity.' 

Subsequent pilgrims nearly all mention the city. In 1103 it hid been totally destroyed 
by the Saracens, but that a monastery marked the Place of the Annunciation. During the 
Latin kingdom it was the seat of an archbishopric, held by si.\; prelates. In the year 1185 
Phocas describes the magnificent Church of the Annunciation, which was not destroyed at 
the first taking of the place by Saladin. The Sultan Bibars destroyed the Church in 1263. 
It was rebuilt in 16 jo. 

8. Seffurieh (N h). — A large village of low houses of mud and 
stone, with llat mud roofs, grouped in a sort of crescent shape on the 
south slope of the hill. No spring occurs near, but cisterns and a pool 
exist on the south. For the antiquities, see Section B. 

Seffurieh is the ancient Sepphoris or Tzippori of the Talmud and 
Josephus (see Reland, Pal., p. 999), called by the Romans I)io-ccesarea. 
It is also famous in the Crusading chronicles as a place of rendezvous (see 
Rob. Bib. Res. ii. 345). 

In the town, on the north, are remains of the Church of St. Anne, the 


traditional home of St. Joachim and birihphicc of the \'ir<^in (sec Section B). 
On the hill above is the square tower said to have been built by D h a h r 
el 'A m r ' s son Ahmed about 150 years ago, but jirobably only 
restored, as it appears older, and as a castle; at Seffurieh is noticed in 
13:! I by Marino Sanuto (p. 253). 

The place is surrounded with olives, and about a mile to the south is 
K us till Seffurieh, with the fine springs, where the army of the 
Christians encamped before the b.ittle of Hattin. 

The population is given in 1S59, by Consul Rogers, at 1,800 souls (all 
Moslems), and the cultivation at 150 feddans. Pcre Lievin in 1869 
gives a total of 3,000 souls (Guide, p. 607) ; but, judging from the size 
of the place, this seems a high estimate, 2,500 probably being the 

9. S e m u n i e h (L i). — A small village on a knoll at the edge of the 
Plain of Esdraelon, with three springs — 'A in e r R e s m e k on the north, 
a second in a garden, and a third ( 'A i n el 'A 1 e i k ) on the south, 
coming out of a masonry wall," with a good supply of water as seen 
in September, 1875. The spring is said, however, to be unwhole- 

The village is very small, and contains, probably, less than 100 souls. 
This site is the Simonias of Josephus (Vita, 24), and is mentioned 
in the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Megilla, 70 a) under its present name, 
Simuniah, supposed by the Rabbis to be identical with Shimron 
(Josh. .xix. 15). 

10. Yafa (Mi). — A moderate-sized village in a strong position on 

the spur running from Nazareth down to J e b a t a. It has a well 

on the north side and a second (Bir el Emir) in the valley to 

the north-east. The inhabitants are a very fanatical and turbulent 

people, and numbered, according to Consul Rogers, in 1859, 600 

souls, cultivating forty-five feddans. This pk\ce is the Japhia of Zebulon 

(Josh. xix. 12; see Rob. Bib. Res., ii. 343). It is also thought to be 

the Japha of Josephus (Vita, 45 ; B. J., iii. 7, 35). For the antiquities, 

see Section B. 

Guerin (1875) found 400 inhabitants here, divided into Latins, Schismatic Greeks, and 
Moslems. There are also Protestant schools in the village. 


Kadiia of Haifa. 

1 . 'A i n Ha u d (j i). — A very small village, situate at the end of a 
spur above the Maritime Plain. There is a fine spring (el M i s h e r i a) 
north-east of the village, in the valley. The inhabitants were stated at 
50, and the cultivation at three feddans, in 1S59 (Rogers). 

2. 'A t h 1 i t (J h). — A hamlet of mud hovels covers a good portion of 
the ancient site (see Section B). The place was said to hold 200 souls, 
tilling twenty feddans, in 1859 (Rogers). The inhabitants are Moslems, 
and have a very bad reputation as thieves and murderers. 

'A t h 1 i t is the medieval Castellum (or Castrum) Perigrinorum, 
and was the landing-place for pilgrims. It was called by the Crusaders 
Tyrus Antiqua. William of Tyre places Ancient Tyre near Dora, and 
Capernaum (Kefr Lam, Sheet VH.), and Petra Incisa (now 
Khurbct D u s t r e y ). In the ' Citez de Jherusalem,' St. John of 
Tyre is mentioned as near Chastiau Pelerin and Capharnaon, south of 
Haita. This is evidently the present Sheikh Apia (John the Baptist), near 
'Ain Haud. Jerome also speaks of 'Deserted Tyre' (Onomasticon) in 
connection with Dor (Sheet VH). 

3. Belled e s h Sheikh (J h). — A moderate-sized village at the 
foot of Carmel, with good springs below near the road, and olive gardens, 
with a few palms. The population in 1859 is stated at 350, and the tillage 
at twelve feddans (Rogers). 

Gucrin (1S75) found about 500 souls in this place. 

4. D a 1 i e t el K u r m u 1 (J i). — A stone village of moderate size, 
on a knoll of one of the spurs running out of the main watershed of 

On the south there is a well, and fine springs on the west, near U m m 
e s h S h ii k f . On the north is a little plain or open valley cultivated 
with corn (Merjat ed Dal i eh). The inhabitants are all Druses. 
They are numbered by Consul Rogers in '859 at 300 souls, and tilled 
twenty feddans. 

5. 'Esfia (K h), the companion village to the last stands on the 
highest part of the Carmel watershed, and the highest house was therefore 

VOL. I. 36 


the trioonomctrical station on the ridge. It is a moderate-sized village of 
stone houses, with a well on the south-west. The inhabitants are all Druses, 
and the number was estimated at 400 in 1859 (Rogers), with a tillage 
of twenty feddans. Corn-land and olives surround the village. 

6. H a i fa (J g). — A seaport town, the chief place of the district, seat 
of a Caimacam or lieutenant-governor. 

The town is surrounded with walls on three sides, and is traversed by 
a main street parallel to the shore. The walls are well-built of small 
masonry, with round towers : on the sea-side they project to the water. 
They are said to have been built by Dhaher el 'Amr, as well as 
the Serai. The gate in the south wall was partly destroyed in 1875 to 
make an easier entrance. It previously resembled in its arrangement the 
Jaffa Gate at Jerusalem. 

Haifa has been gradually increasing in importance of late years. A 
fmc new house w^as built close to the sea in the north-east corner of the 
town between 1873 and 1875, ^"^ several other good houses exist in 
various parts of the town. It has a market and bazaars, a Serai and mosque. 
The Austrian Lloyd steamers touch here once a fortnight, and the place 
has a small trade. 

The water supply is from wells, one of the principal being outside the 
walls on the north-west. Near this is a small church, with a .school con- 
nected with the Carmel monastery. In the south part of the town is the 
Greek church. 

The population is about 4,000, according to all authorities. This in- 
cludes, according to Pere Lievin (Guide, p. 593) : 


Greek Catholics 

Maronites . 








1 140 


In 1859 the population was only 3,000, and the cultivation thirty-two 
feddans, according to Consul Rocrers. 








• 65 



84 . 



• 311 


To this population must be added the German colony north-west of 
the town, which consisted in 1S73 and 1875 of: 

Married men 

Single ..... 

Married women 

Single ..... 

Children .... 

Total . 

In 1S75 the colony owned 600 acres of arable land and 100 acres of 
vineyards and gardens, 250 head of cattle, and eight teams of horses. 
The number of houses belonging to the colony at this latter period was 

The German colony is situate about half a mile north-west of the 
town, and the houses, neatly built of stone quarried near, are principally 
arranged along a wide road running from the sea up to the foot of Carmel. 
They include the hotel near the sea, and the school and meeting-house a 
little higher up. There is a wind-mill near the shore, close to the 
promontory, and a second was building in 1872 near it, and is now com- 
plete. The ground west of the houses to the promontory and to the foot 
of Carmel belongs to the colony. It is not very fertile, and the other 
possessions bought later, on the plain south of Tell es Semak, 
have a very poor .soil (see Section D). 

The Monastery o f Mount Car m e 1 stands on the end of 
the ridge 470 feet above the sea, and nearly two miles from Haifa. It 
is a very strong building, erected in 1825 by Fra Gianbattista di P^rascati, 
rVa Matteo di Filipopoli, and Fra Giusto, of Naples. It was designed 
by the first-named father to protect the monks, who had previously suffered 
much from the Moslems. The projecting east apse of the chapel (on 
the north of the building) forms a bastion, giving flank defence to the 
back of the monastery. A ditch also protects the building on this side. 
The monks first arrived in 1830. (This information was obtained from 
Fra Cirillo, who obtained it from Fra Matteo, who died in 1872, the last 
of the three founders). 



The monks own several vineyards round ilie niunaslery, and grow a 
good deal of tobacco. They have 300 goats and twenty cows. 

Several chapels arc built south and east of the monastery, called 
' Ruinitorii' bv the monks. Farthest east is that of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, with a small Italian picture of the Queen of Heaven The ne.xt 
is of St. John Baptist, with a wooden image. The third is Sta. Theresa, 
where arc two cemeteries and a large garden. The picture over the 
high-altar represents Sta. Theresa appearing to Fra Bartolomeo, with a 
view of Carmel behind. 

The main building, occupied by seventeen monks, with twenty-eight 
beds for guests, includes the chapel over the Grotto of Elijah. The 
church is octagonal, with a high-altar in the apse on the east, ascended by 
stairs from each side of the descent into the grotto. The grotto is cut in 
rock, about five yards broad by three deep, reached by a descent of five steps, 
and with a rock-cut altar. The church is in modern Italian style. Above 
the hiofh-altar is the imaoe of La Madonna di Carmine. An old wooden 
image of Elijah at a side-altar is loaded with silver bracelets, anklets, and 
chains, and an Austrian gold piece of about five Napoleons is hung to its 
neck by a silver chain. These gifts come from the peasantry and Druses. 
The heart of the Count de Craon is buried in the wall on the left of the 
south altar, having been sent there in 1864. 

There is a large library in the building, mostly of patristic literature. 

The monks are supplied with water from w^ells within and without. 
On the north-west is an open space, at the end of which is the lighthouse. 
The entrance to this yard is defended by a wall with loopholes, forming a 
sort of traverse. The ascent is by a steep path with steps. 

On the slope of the hill, beneath the lighthouse, is a little chapel 
dedicated to St. Simon Stock, of Kent, who resided for si.xteen years in a 
little grotto enclosed by the chapel. He arrived about 1245 a.d. The 
monastery of St. Bertoldo once stood round this chapel, and traces of 
its buildings still remain. It was destroyed in 1291, and the monks 

The history of the older Monastery of Elijah at e d D e i r will be 
found in Section B. 

At the foot of Carmel is e 1 K h u d r, or the ' Place of Elijah ' — a 
modern house in front of a grotto, which is partly artificial, measuring 


about seven yards by eic^'ht and six high. This grotto is l<;nown as the 
' School of the Prophets.' The site was bought in 1631 by Fra Prospero 
di Spirito Santo, a native of BiscagHa, and a small chapel erected. In 
1635 a massacre of the monks occurred, and the place was seized by 
the Moslems. The present building is said to date from 1S67. There is 
a palm in the courtyard. 

Haifa is the ancient Hepha of the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Sabbath, 26 a) 
(see Reland, Pal., p. Si 9). The Crusaders called it Sycaminon and Por- 
phyreon (William of Tyre, Marino Sanuto, etc. The true site of Por- 
phyreon was eight miles north of Sidon. Cf. Sycaminon below). It is also 
noticed by its modern name in the middle ages (Benjamin of Tudela, 

El Harbaj (K h). — A small village, on a mound, surrounded by 
springs. It was fortified in 1162 (a.ii.) by Dhaher el 'Amr. Traces of 
the wall still remain. 

Kefr Etta (K g). — A small mud village, on the plain, with a well 
on the north and olives on the east. The population is stated in 1S59 by 
Consul RoLfers at 100 souls, and the cultivation at sixteen feddans. 
About a mile north-west on the road is the little farmhouse of Jidru, 
with a well. It belongs to a Greek from Constantinople. 

El Mejdel (K h). — A mud village, like the last, with a few figs 
on the south, olives to the north, and a well on the west. The popula- 
tion in 1859 was 100; the tillage ten feddans (Rogers). 

Et Tireh (J h). — A village, at the foot of the mountain, with fine 
olive-groves round it, and a well on the west and a Mukam on the north. 
It is built of mud and stone, with numerous ca\'es in the hill by it. The 
inhabitants are very turbulent. In 1859 Consul Rogers states the 
population at 1,200 souls, and the tillage at sixty feddans ; but the vilki'^-e 
has decreased in prosperity, having undergone heavy conscription in 

One village on the sheet belongs to the S h agh u r district, namely : 

S u k h n i n (N g). — A large village of stone and mud, amid fine 
olive-groves, with a small mosque. The water supply is from a large pool 
about half a mile to the south-cast. The inhabitants are Moslems and 


Christians, and in 1S59 numbered 1,100, and cullivalcd 100 feddans, 
according to Consul Rogers. 

This place is called Sikni, or S i k n i n, in llu; 'ralnuid (Tal. Bab. 
Rosh-hash-Shannch, 29 a). It appears also to be the Sogane of Josephus 
(Life, §51), near Gabara (K hur bet Kabra, Sheet III.), and is noticed 
as in ruins, under the name Kefr Sukhnin, by Isaac Chclo, in 
1334. He speaks of ancient tombs there existing. In the thirteenth 
century it is noticed as belonging to the Knights of the Teutonic 
Order, under the name Z e k k a n i n (Rey, p. 279). 

S u k n i n (N g). 

This village stands upon the site of an ancient town, as is shown by the cisterns and 
rock-cut tombs. One of the latter contains a sepulchral chamber with loculi, and in the 
centre a sarcophagus, apparently Moslem, in which repose the remains of Neby Saddik, 
according to Arab tradition, or those of Rabbi Jehusheh, according to Jewish tradition. 
This subterranean chamber is surrounded by a square construction, of no great height, in 
form of a low tower, built of splendid cut stones. In the Moslem quarter, to the west, I 
remarked the site of an ancient edifice, which, perhaps, was a synagogue first and a churcli 
afterwards. Foundations of cut stones show that it was built with care. Near it are lying 
mutilated shafts which once belonged to it. The platform on which it is built is now partly 
demolished, its stones having been used to build houses. 

AxciEXT Sites. — In addition to the inhabited places above enume- 
rated there are several ruined sites which may be identified with historical 
places of interest. 

Neiel. — A place on the boundary of Asher (Josh. xix. 27), near 
C a b u ] . Tlie similarity of name suggests its identification with 
Yanin (M f) in the required direction. 

Calamon. — A place noted in the Jerusalem. Itinerary as twelve 
Roman miles from Acre and three from Sycaminon (see Reland Pal., p. 678). 
It is noted by Isaac Chelo as between Sycaminon and Ccesarea. It was 
the place where a Roman cohort was stationed (Reland. Pal., p. 231), and 
hence is supposed to be the Castra noticed in the Talmud, near Hepha 
(xicsp, Midrash Ekha, i. 17) a place inhabited by Minim (or heretics) and 

The name of K u 1 m u n was collected by Robinson and others as 
applying to the place called Kefr es Samir on the Survey, but 
appears now to be forgotten (see ' Quarterly Statement,' January, 1876, 
p. 20). This ruin is 2^ English miles from Tell es Semak. 


Lieutenant Kitchener also searched for the name. 

' I have also made a strict inquiry after the name of " Kulnion " or " Kalamon," 
mentioned in "Quarterly Statement," January, 1S76, p. 20, as to be found on tlie maps of 
Robinson, Ritter, and Jacotin, but not on those of M. Gue'rin and Vandevelde, and which 
also occurs on Murray's map. The German colony here have purchased nearly all the land 
north of Tireh. and by the kind permission of Mr. Schumacher I have been allowed to care- 
fully e.xamine their title-deeds; though they have land all round Khurbet Kefr es Samir, no 
such name occurs. 

' I have also ridden to Tireh with the sole object of finding this name. I asked everyone 
I met on the road there and back, about twenty people, first for all the names of the country 
round, and as a last resource, if they had ever heard of " Kulmon," " Kulanion," or 
anything like it. At Kh. Kefr es Samir I found an old man who inhabited a cave close by, 
and put the same question. At Tireh I saw the sheikh and about two dozen men ; none 
had ever heard of such a name. Since then the superior of the convent of Mount Carmel, 
who knows the district most thoroughly, has assured me that no such name occurs. I can 
therefore only assume that the name does not e.xist, and that our map is therefore right in 
not putting it on. How other maps have procured the name seems difficult to understand ; 
but, as in some other cases, u may have been supplied by some too enthusiastic traveller, 
who looked more for what ought to be in the country than what is.' 

Cana of Gallic e. — Thi,s place appears to have been considered 

by the Crusaders as identical with K h u r b e t K a n a. .Sa_\vulf in 

1102 places it si.x miles north of Nazareth, and north of Roma, which he 

states to have been on the high-road from Acre to Tiberias. John of 

Wirtzburg- makes it equidistant with Tabor from Nazareth (four miles), and 

two from Sepphoris, which he makes two miles from Nazareth. He places 

it 'ad Oricutciu' from Sepphoris (K h. Kana is north-east). Fctellus 

(see Du VogLie ' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' p. 423) makes it five miles 

from Nazareth, Sepphoris being two miles. In the ' Citez de Jherusalem' 

(1187) it is made to be three leagues from Nazareth, Sepphoris being 

one league. John Poloner (1422) makes it four leagues east of Acre, and 

two north of Sepphoris. Finally, Marino Sanuto (1321) draws and 

describes the place as east of Acre, and on the north edge of a plain 

extending to Sepphoris, with a mountain on the north of the place. This 

agrees with the description of Brocardus in 1183; and Ouaresmius in 

1616, whilst fixing on Kefr Kenna as the true site, also mentions 

the tradition of K h u r b e t K a n a." 

* The term Kana el J e 1 i 1 was given to Robinson by a Christian at Nazareth. It is 
unknown to the Moslem peasantry. 'We asked for it both in 1S72 and 1S75, and were told 
by one native that it was a name only used by the Franks. — C. R. Conder. 

The name Kana el J e 1 i 1 was given to me on the spot by a herdsman in answer 
to the question, ' What is the name of this place ?' — C. ^\'. Wilson. 


The distance from Nazareth is six English miles to the north. Kcfr 
Kenna is 1% English miles north-east (Sheet VI.) Seffurich is 3,', English 
miles, and Tabor is 5^ English miles, from Nazareth. 

'As regards tlie name, the word Cana, as spelt in the Greek, seems undoubtedly to 
represent Kanah as spelt in Hebrew with the " Koph," a name occurring in the Book of 
Joshua as that of a town near Sidon (now Kanah) and that of a valley south of Shechem. 
Kenna spelt with the " Caf " is quite a different word ; the root of Kanah has the meaning 
"reedy," and this applies well to Khiirbet Kanah, situate above a large marsh; the 
root of Kenna signifies "roofed," and would be spelt properly in Greek with the X, 
not the K. 

' As regards position, it seems far more probable that Kenna, on the road to Tiberias, 
would be the place twice visited by Christ, than the remote Kanah, which is on no main 
line of travel. The objections also that the word Kefr has to be accounted for, and 
that no signs of antiquity are found at Kefr Kenna, were removed by the Survey, for 
we found an old ruin called Kenna near the beautiful spring west of the village of Kefr 

'There is, however, another place which has never, I believe, been noticed, and which fits 
better than either with the early Christian site noticed by Willibald. The little village of 
Reineh is on the road north-east of Nazareth, and only a mile and a half away ; from it a 
main road leads to Tabor, and by this road is a fine spring called 'Ain Kanah, spelt as the 
Greek leads us to suppose the Hebrew form of Cana must have been. In the absence of 
more definite indications, it seems to me that this third site may well rank with either of the 
others before mentioned. 

' The Crusaders, then, believed Cana to be north of the Buttauf Plain, the early 
Christians placed it south. In the seventeeth century both sites were known, but finally 
ecclesiastical sanction was given to Kefr Kenna ; thus the northern site presents now only 
ruined walls and dry wells in the rock on the slope of the rugged mountain which is also 
named Kanah, whilst the southern place is a flourishing Christian village of flat-roofed huts 
standmg above the beautiful gardens and orchards which surround its spring. Like many 
others of the New Testament towns, .Enon, Bethabara, or Nazareth, there is nothing in the 
Gospel definitely to fix the position of the place ; Josephus and the Talmud give us no aid, 
and the question appears to me destined to remain always unsettled from want of any 
evidence sufficiently conclusive.' — 'Tent Work in Palestine,' vol. i. p. 153. 

District, le Detroit, or the ' House of Narrow Ways,' was 
a fort built by the Templars at some distance from the sea before 
1 2 18 A.D. (Jacques de Vitry, quoted by Rey, 'Monuments des Croises,' 
p. 94). This is the present ruin of Khurbet Dustrey, near Castel 
Pelegrino ('Athlit). It is mentioned as early as 1191 (Goeffry de 
\'insauf, Itin. Ric), and is also called Petra Incisa. 

Hirieh. — A place noticed in the Talmud as identical with Idalah 
of Zebulon (Tal. Jer. Megilla, ;o a), possibly the present ruin el 
H u w a r a h . 


J o t ap a t a (IwraTrdrn). — A towii of Galilee, forty stadia from Gabara 
(Sheet III.), noticed by Josephus (Vita, 46 and 51). The description of 
the place (B. J., iii. ;) applies well to Khilrbet Jefat. A place 
called Gopatata is also noticed in the Talmud (Midrash Koheleth, 108 a), 
as three miles from Tsippori (S e ffu rich), which is probably the same 
(cf Reland, Pal., p. 816). It is also possible that Judepheth, noticed 
in the Mishna(Eracin, ix. 6), may be the same. It is, also, not impossibly 
Jotabe (Iwro/Si;), an episcopal town in the year 536 a.d. (Reland, Pal., 
pp. 533 and 867). See Section B. 

Magdiel. — Noted in the ' Onomasticon ' as five Roman miles north 
of Cassarca, on the way to Tyre. The distance coincides with that of the 
present K h u r b c t M a 1 h a h . 

Monastery of Saint Brocardus was foimded in 1209 a.d. 
at the Fountain of Elijah ('A in es S i h ), and destroyed in 1238. A 
Monastery of Elijah at Carmel by Antony of Piacenza (seventh century), 
is described as near the Castra Samaritorum (Kefr es Samir). 
probably the same site. 

Osheh. — A seat of the Sanhedrin in Galilee, mentioned with 
Shafram, from which it was two Sabbath days' journey (Tal. Bab. Abodah 
Zarah, 8 b). Two and a half English miles south-west of Shefa 'Amr 
(.Shafram) is K h Ci r b e t Husheh. This would give the correct 
distance within a few hundred yards. 

Roma. — A place mentioned in the Targums as that where Messiah 
would appear (see 'Quarterly Statement, April, 1876, p. 98). It is noticed 
by Rabbi Jacob of Paris in 12 58, and by Rabbi Uri of Biel in 1564, whence 
we gather it to have been near Seffurieh, Kefr Menda and 
'Ail bun. Thus it is apparently the present Khurbet Rumeh, 
also mentioned as south of Cana by Sa;wulf in 1 102 a.d. This place has 
fallen into ruins within the century. 

Sycaminon was a place apparently distinct from Haifa (or P o r- 
phyreon, as Haifa was erroneously called by the Crusaders). The 
place is called Shikmonah in the Talmud (Mishna Demai, i. i ; cf Reland. 
Pal., pp. 957 and 1024). The 'Onomasticon,' however (s. v. Japthie), 
identifies Sycaminon with Haifa. There are now two distinct ruined 
sites — one at T e 1 1 es Semak, one at Haifa el 'x^ t i k a h — two 
VOL. I. 37 


miles apart, both apparently large towns. It has also been proposed 
to identify Sycaminon with 'Athlit (Lievin, p. 602). The distances in 
Roman miles are as below : , 

From Ca:sarca . 
l-'rom Acre direct 
From Acre along shore 

AxTONiNE Itix. Jerusalem Itix. 

Sycaminon from Acre .' . . 24 . . . 15 

,, from Ca^sarea . . 20 . . . 16 

Haifa ei, 'A' 



es Semak. 




-Ml • 









1 5.1 . 



The true totals being 35^ Roman miles direct, and 36.V along shore. The 
correct readings should probably be : 

SvcAJiiNOx. Tell es Semak. 

From Csesarea . . . . 26 . . . 24^ 

From Acre . . . . . 15 . . . \<^\ 

41 39i 

supposing only the loss of the X in one distance. (See ' Quarterly State- 
ment,' October, 1877, p. 187). 

Roads. — The main lines of communication on this sheet are : ist, the 
coast road ; 2nd, the road over the plain to Haifa and Acre ; 3rd, the road 
from Haifa to Nazareth ; 4th, the roads from Nazareth to Acre ; 5th, the 
road from Tiberias to Acre ; 6th, the road from Jenin to Nazareth. 

The Coast Road runs near the beach to the west of the low 
ridge as far north as 'Athlit, and there passes through the ridge south of 
Khurbet D us trey (see 'Athlit, Section B). The antiquity of the 
road is marked by a rude side-wall near Haifa el ' A t i k a h (see 
Section B). From thence to Acre the shore is followed. 

{SHEET /'.] . ROADS. 291 

The Road of the Plain is also an ancient line of com- 
munication from Legio (el Lejjun, Sheet VIII.) to the coast. It 
runs close under Carmel until due west of S h e i k h Abreik, when it 
bifurcates, the 'Akka branch crossing the Kishon by a ford, and running 
in the plain, where it is merely a broad beaten track, with the telegraph 
line from Nablus beside it. 

The Haifa branch only crosses the stream from 'A i n es S'adeh 
by a bridge, running parallel to the Carmel range at the foot of the 

The Nazareth Road leaves the last about a mile north of 
Jelameh, crosses the Kishon at the ford near Lei yet Zahluk, 
and ascends the hill near el Hiirithiyeh. A new branch crosses 
by a small German bridge south of e 1 H arbaj. It again reaches the 
plain after passing out of the oak-wood and bifurcates at Je ida. The 
northern branch by M a 1 u 1 and e 1 W a k b i y e h has been cleared 
and improved by the German colonists, and carts can be driven along it. 
The southern, which is apparently the older road, by Yafa, is very 
stony and bad, especially near el AI u j e i d i 1, on the east. 

From Nazareth to Acre there are two lines of communication : 
1st, that by Seffurieh and She fa 'Amr, which has been cleared 
and improved by the Turks, so that in 1875 the Governor of Acre came 
by it in a carriage to Nazareth. It is, however, almost impassable near 
el Khalladiyeh, and She fa 'Amr. The German carts also 
travel between Seffurieh and Nazareth. The second road passes 
down Wady el IMelek, and joins the telegraph road at the farm 
of J i d r i\. This is an easy road for horsemen, but impassable for 
wheeled vehicles in places. 

From Tiberias to Acre the main road, a broad beaten track 
crosses the plain of Seffurieh, and reaches the top of Wady 
'Abel 1 in, an open valley, by which it passes into the Maritime Plain. 
At Tell Bedeiwiyeh are ruins of a khan for travellers, and from 
this point another branch goes through S h e f a 'A m r, and only rejoins 
the first about two miles from Acre. 

This branch is also like the others, merely a broad track, not made, 
metalled, or drained. 


The; road from J i: n i n to Nazareth ascends a steep pass 
at el K has hash, near Jebel Kafsy, and is here only fit for 
horsemen. There is also a path from el Lejjun to Nazareth, which 
joins the southern branch of the Haifa road east of el Mujeidil. 
The remaining lines shown are mere mountain tracks, one of which 
runs all along the Carmcl ridge, and descends to the Kishon l)y a 
steep winding footway, near J e 1 a m e t el Man s u r a h. 

The Cultivation on this sheet is noted with the villaws, and 
that of the Plain of Esdraelon in Sheet Mil. In the Maritime Plain 
corn is grown, with olive-groves at the foot of the hills. On Carmcl 
there are traces of former cultivation in the existence of rock-cut wine- 
presses among the thickets. 

Stan/bnii Gec^^Sstah^ Ltmdan- 



'A till it (I i). — The ruins of the fine fortress of Castclhun Pere- 
grinorum here exist. The place was built by the Templars in 1218 a.d. 
(Jaques de Vitry, quoted by Rey, p. 94). A small fort, called 1 c Detroit, 
had existed previously (see Khurbet Dust rey), and ancient 
foundations were discovered by the Templars, and a spring between 
two walls on the south-east (marked ' well ' on plan). The Templars 
built two towers, each 100 feet by 74 feet, with a wall between, an outer 
wall enclosing the well, and a chapel. These buildings are all traceable. 


atiilIt from the south-west. 
The fortress stands on a promontory with a shallow bay on the south, 
and a second protected by a reef of rocks on the north. An outer line of 
fortification is formed by a long wall, running north and south, and by a 
second running west to the sea from the tower at the south-cast corner. 
The ground outside this is marshy. The buildings to be described are — 

1st. The outer wall and towers. 
4lh. The vaults. 

2nd. The main walls. ;rd. The church. 



Outer Walls. — The corner tower on the south-east is much 
ruined : it contained a cistern. On the outside is a ditch, rock-cut, with 
vertical scarps. The ditch is thirty-cii;ht feet wide on the east, and thirty- 
two feet on the south. It is calleil el K li a n d u k , ' ihc h'osse.' In 
the counter-scarp are three chambers : one four feet eight inches by three 
feet six inches, and three feet high ; a second, four feet by two feet three 
inches, three feet high ; a third, one foot by two feet, three feet high. 
These contained recent skeletons ; beyond them is a channel, two feet six 
inches deep, thirteen paces long, in the face of the scarp. On the glacis 
outside the fosse there are shallow rock-cut basins, resembling salt-pans. 
There are other chambers in the counterscarp ; some had structural roofs ; 
one measured four feet nineteen inches by three feet three inches, and was 
three feet eight inches in height. 

'athlit from the south-east. 

The south wall is 300 yards long, and appears to have had a gate ; the 
ditch is probably filled up with blown sand. The east wall is 800 yards 
long, and had three gates ; the southern seven feet wide ; the central 
eleven feet six inches ; the northern thirteen feet eight inches, being the 
main entrance on the road from Dustrey to the gate of the main 
enceinte. The space enclosed between the outer enceinte and the town is 
about 50 acres. Along the eastern wall outside are remains of the fosse once 
filled from the sea. The digging of this is related to have taken seven 
weeks (Jaques de Vitry) ; it still contains water in places. The founda- 
tions only of the eastern wall are visible, half covered with blown sand. 

Behind the wall, half-way between the two northern gates, is a 
chamber (B), thirty-one feet six inches square outside, with a groined 
roof. On the west and south a passage, five feet four inches broad, runs 
within the wall of this building. Its height is eight feet— equal to that of 



ivi^nj^'^T-v 'J i'^'M''f^^/}'^'j^-'fi^p-fA}(^f'' 


'-'■'■""■""' r 

J / — J 

.',4Ult:, f s g 



(Remnant ofj 

SCALt lk> 


WINDOW ''^0\ 

Stan/oTdjs Cuiff^ Ustah': LondoTt 

[sheet /".] ARCII.EOLOGY. 

= 95 

the chamber. The north end is stopped by a wall of good-sized stones. 
The vaulting is a cradle vault, with pointed arch. The ground roof of the 
chamber is also slightly pointed. 

The eastern wall terminated on the north at a tower (C) projecting 
into the sea ; the floor only and foundations of the walls remain. The 
floor is six feet above the water. The walls are of good stones, four or 
five feet long, not drafted inside, laid lengthwise, and the joints broken 
by short stones, two feet by two feet. The total length of the tower ap- 
pears to have been twenty-five feet, the breadth fourteen feet, inside, the 
walls being si.x feet thick : there are two ruined windows on the east, and 
steps on the south, where a narrow tongue of rock connected the tower 
with the mainland. The length of the stones in the ashlar is very irre- 

Main Wall s. — Two hundred and seventy yards west of the outer 
enceinte the counterscarp of the ditch before the second wall extends 
from the water right across the neck of the promontory, and the second 
wall runs within it. The ditch here is loo feet wide, measuring to the 
curtain of the wall, which has a gate in the middle and a rectangular tower 
ninety feet broad, and projecting thirty feet either side of the gate. The 
total length of the wall, north and south, is 200 yards. Each tower had a 
postern or sallyport in its side : near the sea there is a small semi-circular 
tower of small masonry, apparently built later. The masonry of the wall 
is very fine ; the stones two feet high, and two feet six inches to five feet 
long, with a draft one and a half inches broad, and never less than three 
inches deep ; in the cases where the boss is rustic, it projects as much as 
a foot. The backing is of rubble of small stones in hard mortar, with 
sea-shells (Bivalves) and bits of pottery. It is important to notice that 
one of the posterns has a pointed arch of drafted stones, with even 
number of voussoirs. The mortar used is of two kinds throughout the 
walls — grey, mixed with ashes, for interior work ; white, with cockle shells, 
as before noticed. Some of the stones have been cut by the natives, and 
the lead clamps with which they were bound together removed. The 
gate is broken down, but appears to have been built with a square recess, 
in the south wall of which was the door ; the entrance was thus flanked 
by the line of the wall and by the towers. There is no reason to suppose 
older masonry to have been used up in these walls, for the stones in the 


pointed arch are like those in the lower courses. The material is a sandy 
limestone from the quarries near, (M a k t i y e t A i h 1 i l). It is related 
that two oxen could scarcely drag one of the stones used by the Templars 
on a cart. The wall of the towers has a slight halter. 

The two great towers within the second wall have almost entirely 
disappeared. The southern cannot be traced, but the vault that was 
beneath it remains. It seems to be the building called K u s r 11 i n t e 1 
Melek, 'The King's Daughter's Palace,' by the peasantry. The east 
wall of the northern tower is still standing. It is nearly eighty feet high, 
sixteen feet thick, and thirty-five paces long (thirteen feet short of the total 
length given by Jaques de \'Ilr\). On the inside or west are three ribbed 
pointed arches, supported on corbels, representing on the left a bearded 
head ; on the right a head shaven, with curling hair ; in the centre a 
cantaliev^er, with three lilies in low relief (compare the corbel at 
Kaisarieh in the Kulah, Sheet VII.). The wall itself on the 
outside has eighteen courses of fine ashlar, and rubble-work above for 
the rest of its height. Both sides were originally faced with ashlar. 
The stones are two feet in height and about four feet long on the average, 
with drafts, as before described ; the bosses are dressed. Square lewis- 
holes occur in many of the stones, by which they were raised. This 
tower is called el K a r n i f c h by the inhabitants. 

The modern village covers the whole site of the town, which stood 
upon vaults, running round four sides of a rectangle measuring 500 feet 
north and south and 300 feet east and west. There was also a wall out- 
side the vaults, leaving a broad street or esplanade round the town, 
from which the vaults were entered. This wall joins the one on the east 
outside the great towers, and on the south-west had a pointed bastion, 
with a second line of fortifications within it. The bastion fianked the 
jetty leading down to the water in the south harbour. 

The Church is described by Pococke as a large decagon, with three 
pentagonal apses, on the three eastern faces, forming the choir, but is 
now almost entirely destroyed. A vault, the entrance of which is choked, 
is said to exist beneath it. The roof was still whole before the great 
earthquake of 1837, but was then thrown down, and much of the ashlar 
was removed to 'A k k a for reparations after the time of Ibrahim Pacha, 
in 1S38. The cornice noticed by Dr. Porter ('Murray's Guide') has 

[sheet /•.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 


also disappeared, though remembered by the villagers. One apse only 
is now left, pointing east (92'), being a decagon of twelve feet side (see Plan, 
TTTu). In the court of a hovel west of this two slender pillar-shafts are 
standing, eleven feet ten inches apart, probably not /// situ. The remains 
of two of the windows — huge masses of masonry, lying upside down — 
have fallen outside. The arches appear to be round. A capital of Gothic 
design, and belonging apparently to a very thick column, lies much broken 
near. The window-mouldings were sketched (see Plan), as well as the 

Vaults. — These are marked E, F, G, J, K, L, on the Plan. 

The vault E is on the north-east. It is twenty-si.\ feet broad, fifty 
feet long, with a pointed barrel roof. The stones in the walls are four 
feet by three feet ; those in the roof are much smaller, narrower, and laid 
lengthwise, being about one foot long on the average. 

F is the principal vault, running along the whole east side of the town, 
and having two chambers leading out of it, which are beneath the two 
great towers. The vault has an entrance on the south, and another 
broken through on the east. The middle part is fifteen feet higher than 
the southern end, where the vault communicates with that along the 
south side of the town (G). The two tanks or chambers under the towers 
are still lower by some three or four feet, and are reached by steps. The 
northern of the two is broken in at each end, and its e.xtent is doubtful. 

The total explored length of F was 264 feet, divided into various 
chambers of different width, as shown on the Plan. The one just south 
of the east entrance has a groined roof resembling that in vault K, about 
to be described. On the south a passage six feet wide, seventy feet long, 
gradually descends to vault G. On the north and west are doors which 
led to other vaults, but are now closed. 

Vault G is a fine building, 240 feet long and about thirty feet hioh. 
The width is thirty feet for eighty feet on the cast. The rest is thirty- 
five feet wide. This gives a very awkward appearance to the vaultino-. 
This vault has windows of a curious shape, with a slit above, about four 
feet six inches hisrh. 

Vault J seems to have been a cistern, being cemented within. The 
natives say it was used for storing oil (profia];)ly in casks); It measures fiftv- 
nine feet six inches east and v;est, and is twenty-eight feet broad. The 
VOL. r. 28 


door on the west (perhaps broken through hiter) is fourteen feet eight 
inches from the north wall, and three feet eight inches wide. The capa- 
city of the vault is over 260,000 gallons. There is a man-hole in Uk; roof. 
\'^ault K is an interesting building, and was probably a hall of scime 
kind, having- a groined roof wiUi ribhixl arches and line masonry, widi 
ornamental corbels. Its great peculiarity consists in the shape of the 
portion to the south, twisted obliquely, with an end wall, in two lines (see 
Plan). The north wall of the vault is also half of an irregular octagon. 
The reason appears to be that this vault runs parallel with the outer 
line of rampart, which here turns at an angle to form the bastion. 

The vault K has an entrance on the south, and three windows each, 
five feet broad and six feet high, with round arches inside and lintels 
outside. A great arch of masonry forms the support of the vault 
in the middle ; it is seven feet broad ; the top of the arch is twenty- 
five feet from the floor, and there is a rib, supported on a corbel, on 
either side of the arch. From these corbels also ribbed groining arches 
run across (see Plan), and the north end of the vault has a canopy-vault, 
with five rays, also ribbed. The bosses, where the ribs intersect, 
are carved in every case with a cross of four trefoils in good relief. 
The arches are all pointed. The corbels are five feet from the floor, 
and the masonry beneath is about equal to that of vault E. The masonry 
of the roof is of small stones one foot eight inches high. None of the 
interior is of drafted stones. The corbels are of elegant shape, two leet 
four inches high, and in plan half octagons, two feet four inches diameter 
of the inscribed circle. The whole of the masonry is beautifully worked. 

Vault L in the north-west corner of the outer wall, probably under a 
tower, is about equal to E at the north-east corner already described. A 
vault seems here to have run under the rampart all along the north side 
of the town. 

These vaults appear to be noticed by Jaques de Yitry, who describes 
' two tiers of vaulted chambers' under the great towers. 

The ruins of the bastion in the south-west corner of the town are 
almost indistinguishable. One archway, with a pointed arch and a fallen 
block of masonry, remain ; and near this (at M) is the base of a great 
octagonal column, eight feet diameter of circumscribed circle. 

A shaft of grey granite twenty feet two inches long, three feet one 

[sheet r.] - ARCTI.EOLOGY. 299 

inch in diameter, lies west of the church, to which it probably belonged. 
Others like it were said to lie buried. 

The west wall in front of vault K has three windows and remains of 
a gate. An outer line probably here existed close to the water, leading to 
the tower L. 

Some of the vertical joints in the walls arc very broad (three and a 
half to five inches), and are packed with small stones cemented round. 
The joints are carefully broken throughout. Some curious marks were 
observed rudely cut on the stones, just east of a wall which stands up 
in the middle of the village. 

There are narrow secret passages, one north of el Karnifeh, 
with a straight arch of two stones placed against one another to form a 
triangular roof; the second in the wall at the south-east corner. 

The outer line of the main enceinte is built so as to include a spring- 
well of fresh water. 

There is a curiou;. joint in the vaulting of part of a building on 
the bastion. It was covered by a rib so as not to be seen. 

The buildings thus described are perhaps the finest Crusading remains 
in Palestine. 

'Athlit resisted in i 2 19 the assault of el Melek el Muaddham, who had 
destroyed Ca;sarea ; hence probably arises the tradition preserved by the 
peasantry (see Section C). In 1283 it had sixteen cantons of possessions. 
In i2gr a.d. it fell into the hands of the Moslems, and was dismantled. 
In 1S37 it was wrecked by earthquake, and in 1838 the building stones 
were carried off by the Turks to Acre, Jaffa, and Beirut. 

Other remains of interest are to be found in the vicinity. E 1 
Buwabeh, 'the Portals,' is the name given to the rocks on the reef 
closing the northern bay. M a k t i y e t 'Athlit is the rocky ridge, 
quarried both sides, forming an outer line of defence on the land side, 
through which two roads are cut. Remains of a wall here seem to 
indicate a southern detached work like Khurbet Dustrey on the 
north. Dustrey itself, the original post constructed before the fortress, 
is beside the northern passage, and commands the springs and the 
cistern (el H a n n a n e h). The position is defended here by a creek 
running in as far as Dustrey on the north. Thus, besides the spring, 
three wells of spring water existed within the detached works; two 


within the glacis, as before noticed ; one outside c;ilk:d 1! i r el Y e z e k, 
' Well of the Sentinel' All along the two roads ruts are visible, 
resembling those near 'A y u n Heiderah (Sheet VII.). They are 
probably to be referred to the carts used by the Templars in dragging 
their heavy weights to the fortress. 

The name, el M ikleh, 'the Drain,' refers to a channel cased with 
stone, with drain-pipes leading to the sea, near the pool and salt-marsh 
(el Mellahah) with which it seems connected. A salt-pan (Beil 
el Mil h) also exists on the shore. 

A curious tomb was also found 
near 'Alhlit. It is reached by a 
t'.ouble shaft, in the sides of which 
notches are cut for foot-hold. The 
two chambers at the bottom are 




connected by a passage. Th 




i.yi'^rWc&^e-.s-^^^-j 'C'^-'S'x.^-' ^O'le of sepulchre is also found in 

^■^'■^I'A^^-i "' ^-^ Phoenicia. 

The shafts were thirty-five feet 
apart, north and south. The 
northern shaft is si.x feet six 
inches east and west by three 
feet ten inches, and sixteen feet 
deep. West of it is a chamber 
fourteen feet north and south, 
eifjht feet ei"ht inches east and 

■" — ' — ^ '' '-^ ^- '"" west, much filled with rubbish, 

with four recesses one foot high, six inches across, on the south wall. The 
chamber was eight feet high. The southern shaft was nine feet three 
inches east and west by three feet, and sixteen feet deep, with a chamber 
to the west, nine feet three inches east and west, by fourteen feet north 
and south, and five feet eight inches high. 

A passage runs between the shafts to the east, into which they open. 
It was fifty feet long north and south, thirteen feet wide in the middle, and 
eight feet six inches at the north end ; the east wall being irregular. The 
average height was five or six feet above the fioor of the shaft, the top 
beino; eleven or ten below the surface. 


The original entrance to this passage was near the north end from the 
east, by a passage twenty feet long and eight feet wide, with a door four 
feet six inches wide at its west end. This is now choked with rubbish. 

Visited 3rd, i6th, 20th March, 1S73. 

Beit Lah ni (L h). 

Here Gucrin remarked the ruins of two buildings : one, completely destroyed, had been 
constructed of good cut stones; the entrance was at the south facade. He thinks, from its 
orientation north and south, that it was a synagogue. 'I'he other building, wliich lay east 
and west, may have been a Christian church. On its site are seen a few shafts, four of 
which are still /// sifii and half covered up. 

B e s t a n (J i). — Ruins of walls ; a village, now destroyed, with springs 
beneath, on the north. 

B u r j es Sahel (Kg). — Ruins of buildings, apparently of no 

Ed Deir (J g). — Ruins of the Monastery of St. Brocardus, above 
'A in e s S 1 h, the fountain of Elijah. The place is mentioned by Antony 
of Piacenza as near the Castra Samaritorum ( K h u r b e t K e 1 r e s 
S a m i r ). The monastery was founded in 1209, and destroyed in 1238 ; 
the monks being thrown into the tank below. The valley is therefore 
called Valley of the Martyrs by the Carmelite Monks, and A s h 1 u 1 el 
H aiyeh, 'Cascades of the Serpent,' by the natives. The place is also 
called St. Margaret (' Citez de Jherusalem,' Du Vogtie, p. 445). 

There is a steep ascent from the 'A i n es .S i h to the sice of this 
monastery, which is built close to 'A i n Umm el F"ariij. A wall of 
rubble, once faced with ashlar, is visible above the lower spring, with 
remains of a semi-circular arch. There are other traces ot the outer walls, 
and a rock-cut cave, surrounded with sedilia. The upper spring has an 
artificial reservoir, with sedilia near it. These may be noticed in order. 

'A i n e s S i h (J h) is a natural double spring of clear water, from 
which the stream is carried in a canal to the rock-cut tank, with steps and a 
little filter, from which another channel now leads to the gardens of pome- 
granates, apricots, figs, olives, and vines. A carob-tree grows near. 
The rock is full of large flints or geodes, whence the tradition ol Elijah's 
Garden "■' (see Pere Eievin, p. 603). 

* This letrend is monkish and not nati\ e, therefore not given. 


The monastery is cin the south of the nu'ine, and appears to ha\-c 
consisted of two buildings with massive walls. 

The spring called 'A in V m m el V a ru j is just cast o^ the last. 
The rock is scarped, and two llat sedilia, with pointed tops, cut in it. 
The reservoir has a curious .slit by which tin; water is brought down, 

whence the name. A cross is cut in the rock, by the reservoir. A 
stream finds its way on the ground beneath. 

On the north side of the valley is a cave"' in two storeys ; the lower 
part is called ' The Stable,' and the upper part ' The Liwan.' The lower 
storey has recesses like stalls, probably sedilia, cut along two sides. They 
are about three feet from the ground, and the partitions ten inches to one 
foot high. The cave, which was inhabited when visited by a certain Haj 
Muhammed, measures about fifteen feet north and south and twenty-five 

* This cave, with sedilia, is not improbably the rock-cut Greek Chapel at the Abbey of 
St. Margaret, mentioned by the author of the ' Citez de Jherusalem ' (Du Vogiie, ' Eglises de 
la Terre Sainte,' p. 445). The sedilia resembled those in Greek Chapels, as at Mar Saba.— 
C. R. C. 

\_SHEET /'.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 303 

east and west. The entrance is on the south. A rock pillar supports the 
roof of the upper storey, and two fliLjhts of rock-cut steps lead up to it. 
This Liwan is open on the south. 

Visited January 7, 1S73. 

D u b i 1 (J i). — Traces of ruins only. 

D u w e i m i n (J h). — Foundations. 

Haifa (J g). — The ruins noticeable are, ist. The southern cemetery 
and the Burj ; 2nd. Haifa el 'A t i k a h and the system of tombs on 
the north-west and near the promontory Ras el Kerum. 

B u r j H ai fa is said to have been built by Dhaher el 'Amr. It is 
now dismantled, but has one gun yet in place. It is a square tower in 
two storeys. Some of the English cannon-balls are embedded in the 
walls since 1840. 

Beneath the tower on the west are several rock -cut tombs of rude 
description. The majority have three loculi level with the (loor of the 
chamber. There is also a chamber of masonry about ten feet by five feet 
and six feet high ; the roof nearly Hat ; the walls of rubble in mortar, 
including bits of pottery of large size. 

Jewish tombs are noticed at Haifa by Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela as 
early as 1160 a.d., and by Isaac Chelo 1334 a.d. The tomb of Rabbi 
Jechiel, who died in 1260 a.d., is also noticed by Isaac Chelo (1334 a.d.) 
and Rabbi Uri of Biel (1564 a.d.) as existing here. 

Haifa el 'Atikah is the name of the ruins beyond the present 
town. The site is principally covered with gardens surrounded by cactus 
hedges. In digging here for dressed stones, a workman found, some 
years ago, a brass pot containing 1,000 gold pieces under the sill of a 
garden-gate. Along the shore there are many wells, and on the beach are 
the remains of an old tower projecting into the sea. Only a block of 
rubble remains, the ashlar having been removed. The beach is here 
covered with fragments of syenite, porphyry, and serpentine, marble slabs, 
and other indications of handsome buildings. The modern Jewish ceme- 
tery of structural tombs is just west of the German colony. In this plot 
there is a fine rock-cut tomb, and a second near it ; also a Moslem structural 
tomb of modern date. 

The first rock-cut tomb consists of four chambers, with entrances from 


a central court, which is open to the air, and sunk six feet below the surface, 
mcasurinij twelve feet north and south, and eight feet east and west, the wall 
having a direction of 95" Magnetic. The three doors on the south, cast, 
and west are square, but that leading into the chamber on the north has 
an arch. 

The southern chamber consists of an original chamber with kokivi, and 
an addition at the farther end with /ociili. The first part is twelve feet 
long and eight feet broad. Each koka (of which there are four on either 
side) is two feet broad and about six feet long. The entrance door is two 
feet wide. The added or later part is nine feet broad and six feet long, 
with three arched recesses, one on each side, nine feet long and six feet 
broad, and one at the end of similar dimensions. 

The second chamber is to the east. Over its door a rough representa- 
tion of the seven-branched candlestick is cut. The chamber is entered by 
the door two feet wide, and is twelve feet long and ten feet wide ; also 
with four kokiDi each side, of size similar to the former. There are also 
three loaili beyond in a prolongation of the chamber, six feet long. The 
loculus at the end is two feet wide and seven and a half feet long ; the 
side ones two feet wide, six feet long. They are not under arcosolia, but 
stand in the body of the chamber like sarcophagi. 

The northern chamber is entered by a square door two feet high, 
two feet six inches wide, under an outer arch five feet wide. The 
chamber within is ten feet east and west by twelve feet north and south. 
On the east is a loculus under an arched recess, six feet six inches long, 
two feet wide. On the north an arched recess nine feet deep, six feet 
wide, with a loculus six feet by two feet. At the end on the west a similar 
recess and loculus. On the south a loculus six feet long, two feet broad. 
From the back of this a hole is broken through into the western 
chamber of the tomb. This is of irregular shajoe, 9 feet deej), with two 

[sheet r.] 



lociiH uiuler arches at its west end directed north and south, and each 
5 feet long. 

A flight of steps leads down into the central court on the west side. 

The second tomb is smaller. It also has a sunken court, and remains 
of masonry and mortar show that this was once either covered in or sur- 
rounded with a parapet wall. There are also marks as if of recesses to 
hold joists over the courtyard. The chambers are choked with earth, and 
their doors broken away. There is a representation of the golden candle- 
stick over the door of the eastern chamber cut on one side. Rock-cut 
steps on the north lead down into the central court, which measures 15 
feet east and west, and is sunk 7 feet 6 inches : on the north and south 
it is of irregular shape. 

The southern chamber has an entrance 5 feet wide, with a locitlus 
tmder an arcosoUuin at the further end, and two loculi each side 5 feet 6 
inches broad, but choked at the end. The chamber measures 7 feet east 
and west, by 13 feet north and south. 

The eastern chamber had also loculi, now choked, and so probably 
had the western. 

The northern had a locnlus on each of the three sides, one now broken 
away at the end so that it can be entered from the court. The door of 
this chamber is perfect. The doorway itself is 2 feet broad, 6 inches 
thick, about 2 feet high. Outside is a larger opening i foot deep and 
3 feet wide. This has on the right side an arrangement for fastening 

VOL. I. 



the iloor, II groove 4 inches broad running vertically, with ;i cross 
groove at the top 5 inches by 10 inches ; 3 inches below the lop 
of the entrance outside is a notch 3 inches square. The arrange- 
ment appears to have been that a slab about 4 inches thick was 
put before the door, and a bar in front of il. One end of the: bar 
was run up the groove, and [jushed back into the notch at the top wli'ii 

Another system of tombs exists farther west, but has been broken away 
in quarrying for stone. It is just south of the new German mill. There 
are also here llat unhewn slabs of stone standing on edge, marking the old 
boundarv-walls of an ancient road. Thev are four or five feet hicfh. and 
about one foot thick. 

One group of the tombs south of the mill consisted of chambers with 
koki/ii. One of these chambers still shows seven ko/cim and one lociilus 
arranged with two /co/a'm at the end, 2 feet broad, 4 feet 6 inches long, with 
a ioculits 7 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet broad ; on the right two kokim 4 feet 
6 inches long, 2 feet broad, with a thickness of six inches of rock between 
them ; on the left three similar kokim. These, though not broken away, 
are all so short (4 feet 6 inches) that they must have been intended for 

The second group is also partly destroyed. It would appear origiucdly 
to have consisted of a courtyard with chambers round it, those on the 
south and west only remaining. 

The southern one has a fa9ade 11 feet long, with a flight of three 
steps in the west corner each 3 feet broad, 3 feet 6 inches long. This 
facade had once an ornamented bas-relief upon it, the design of which 
cannot now be traced. 

There are two levels to the toml,), the southern chamber being lower 
than the western, and a second tier of chambers existing on the west. 

The southern chamber is 9 feet broad and 18 feet long, the door 2 feet 
broad, with an arch outside. On either side is a recess 9 feet deep and 
8 feet broad, arched, with three locnli or rock-hewn sarcophagi arranged 
one each side, one across at the end. At the farther part of the chamber 
there are two locnli under airosolia, 3 feet by 6 feet at the sides. At the 
end was another recess 9 feet by 8 feet, but the back is broken through, 
the rock being quarried away south of the piece in which the tomb is. 

[sheet /'.] 



On this side also, east of the chamber described, are remains of another, 
with lociili : and east again is a drop of six feet, where was once another 

'^^mW^i^y-^ ■ '^il?'^!llwk■'(■- 


The western chamber, entered from the court, is 6 feet square, with 
three recesses 6 feet by 6 feet, havinQ- each an arch above, and two graves 
or rock-cut sarcophagi beneath. From the southern recess a passage is 
broken into a chamber at a lower level which is much destroyed, but 
which seems to have had similar arrangements. 

These specimens are valuable as showing /v^/Jv'w and locnli together in 
tombs, probably Jewish, because close to a Jewish cemetery, and marked 
with the golden candlestick. 

Visited 17th, iSth, 19th January, 1S73. 

VA \\ u warah (L h). — Ruins of a large building, with a few rude 

E 1 I s-h ak iyeh (K i). — Ruins of good masonry, but not /// situ. 
Some stones are drafted, the draft about three inches broad. There were 
two rows of columns, east and west. Four shafts stand in line. One is 
built into a hovel, of which two exist in the ruins. There are remains of 
small buildings made from the old masonry, and a fine spring on the west. 
The place seems probably to have been an early chapel. 

J e b e 1 e d D e i d e b e h (N h). — A belt of oak-trees grows within a 
dry-stone circular wall on the summit, and in the centre is a rude watch- 
tower of unhewn stones. North of this is a rock-cut tomb, with door on 



the north, h has six koki»t, two on each wall. Remains of walls and 
enclosures exist round. The place has been an old hill station, whence 
its name, ' Mountain of tlic Watch-tower.' 
\^isited 15th June, 1875. 

Jebcl Kafsy (X i). — Ruined walls of a small chapd, with a cistern, 
caves, and cactus hedge ; the apse cut in rock, and traces of an ancient 
mosaic pavement. This is probably niedia'\al, connected with the tradi- 
tion of the Saltus Domini. 

Jeida (L i). 

Gu(5rin considers that the presence of rock-cut cisterns, and the fact that cut stones of 
different dimensions are constantly dug up, prove that this is an ancient site. He thinks that 
it may be the site of Idalah (Joshua xix. 15), one of the cities of the tribe of Zebuhin, named 
between Shimron (Semunieh) and Bethlehem (Beit-Lahm). Schwartz wished to identify 
Idalah with ' Kula't el Chiri, six miles south-west of .Semunieh.' But no such place seems 
to have been found by the surveyors. Lieutenant Conder (see list. Appendix i. 'Tent Work') 
would identify it with the modern Daliet el Kurmud. 

K a b II 1 (L g). 

' On the sides and top of the hill are found many rock-cut cisterns, a great many cut 
stones scattered here and there or built up in modern houses, fragments of columns, the 
vestiges of a surrounding wall, and remains of sarcophagi adorned with discs and garlands.' — 

El Khalladiyeh (M h). — Ruined walls of a building, near the 
spring. It seems to have been a tower, but there is no indication of date. 
It stands on a mound, beside the main-road from Sefttirieh to Shefa 'Amr, 
and was probably a station on this line. 

El K h a s h a s h (N i). — The ruins shown are of walls and scattered 
stones, apparently modern. 

K h. 'A b e 1 1 i n (L g). — A few heaps of stones and one or two 
rock-cut bell-mouthed cisterns. 

K h. Abu M u s i 1 s i 1 (K g). — Foundations, heaps of well-cut small 
stones, several cisterns. 

K h . el 'A i t a w i y e h (L g). — A few stones and a masonry well. 

Kh. el 'Asafneh (K h). — Heaps of stones. 

K h. 'A 1 1 e i s y (J g).— A mound, with scattered stones. 

K h. 'A i y a d i y e h (L f). — Heaps of stones, of small size ; a good 
spring-well near. 

{_SHEET /'.] 



Kh. u 1 B c i d ;i (Lh). — A small Tell or mound, with ruins of 
buildings ; nothinq; to indicate date. 

Kh. Bezewaiyeh (M g). — Heaps of stones, some hewn, all 
small, on the top of a terraced hill. 

K h. el I) i r (L h). — Scattered stones and a well. 

Kh. Dank (Kg). — Foundations, ruined walls, and traces of small 
hewn masonry exist here ; numerous cisterns and a good s[)ring well 
( B i r D a u k ). The ruins are on a small mound. 

K h. I) u s t re y (I h). — The Detroit of the Middle Ages, a small fort 
constructed before 1191 a.d., and forming the north-west corner ot the 
outer enceinte beyond the glacis of 'A t h 1 i t. A narrow passage is cut 
through the rock on the south. A creek of the sea protects the place on 
the north. The fort is partly cut in rock on the low ridge separating the 
shore from the plain. (See Section A. District.) 

The ruins consist ot a small tower surrounded with a courtyard, and 
on the east of this a fosse. North of the tower are rock-cut stables. 

The tower is rock-cut below, with walls above, eight feet thick ; four 
courses of stones remain, well laid, with tine joints ; the longest measured 

live feet ; the average length was three and a 
half feet. The top of the building has a relief 
of si.Kteen feet from the bottom of the fosse, 
and a command of seven feet, the tosse being 
nine feet deep. 

A cistern e.xists in the base of the tower, 
L-shaped, with a man-hole on the east near the 
end. It is rock-cut, lined with very hard cement, and tive feet deep, 
with a round-arched barrel vault. 

The rock-base is covered with rubble of small stones, well packed, 
with but little mortar ; the outline is so irregular that it seems probable 
that large ashlar has been torn off the face of the rubble. On the 
west side is a recess, with a well and a trough ; the recess is three 
feet six inches north and south, tive feet six inches east and west. 
An earthenware pipe leads along the west wall south of this well, and 
perhaps brought rain-water from the top of the tower into the well. 




The exterior measure of the tower was liliy leel each side. On llie 
north there was no ditch. 

The courtyard surrounds the tower on three sides, measuring seventy 
feet either way. There is a thicl-; wall in continuation of the west wall 
of the tower which divides the courtyard into two (see Plan). The walls 
of the yard are three feet si.x inches thick, of rubble on the rock. The 
bottom of the yard is nine feet below the natural surface of the ground. 
Along the inside of the east wall is a row of thirteen mangers, each with 
a hole above for the halter. Over them are holes in the rock, six inches 
either way, apparently to support joists for roofing-in the )ard. 

The rock ditch on the east is twenty-one feet broad and nine feet 
deep; on the north it is suddenly stopped at a vertical scarp ; on the south 
it continues beyond the fort some litde way ; the rock slopes down east- 
wards from it, forming a natural glacis. There is a postern in this glacis 
just north of the end of the ditch, leading to the north side of the tower ; 
it is a passage four feet wide. In the ditch-counterscarp is a rock-cut 
chamber thirteen feet seven inches long north and south, eight feet four 
inches broad east and west. In the two corners either side of the door 
are two small partitions about one foot high and two feet square ; their 
object is not clear. The chamber was probably a stable. 

Just north of the tower is another rock-cut stable. It is entered by a 
door from the west. The chamber is thirteen feet six inches stables at 


broad, sixteen feet deep, with three mangers at the end. 
Doors on the right and left lead to two chambers ; that on 
the right twelve feet broad, eighteen feet long ; that on the 
left twelve feet six inches long and fourteen feet broad, with 
three mangers cut in rock. 

The mangers have their bottoms two feet above the floor, and are in 
shape like the arcosolluiii of a tomb, one foot six high, one foot to the back, 
and two feet long along the face of the wall. Each manger has a place 
for putting the halter through. Some sort of porch was probably put 
before the door, notches six inches wide existing above it. 

A good rock-cut cistern, eight feet square and ten feet deep, exists 

The little fort was calculated therefore to hold from fifteen to twenty 
men, with their horses. 

{sheet /'.] ARCIl.EOLOGY. 3" 

K h. ed Duwcibch (K i). — Heaps of stones, well-cut and of 
good size, apparently Byzantine work. 

Kh. el Humeireh (L h). — Heaps of stones. 

K h . Hush e h ( L h). — Heaps of stones ; a small imikaiu ( i\' e b y 
H u s h a n ) on the south-west. 

'The ground is everywhere covered with small fragments, with which are mixed cut 
stones. The remains of a considerable building attracted my attention. It is completely 
demolished, but the fine blocks which lie on the ground where it stood, and a broken capital, 
prove that it was built with care and adorned within by columns. Perhaps it was a syna- 
gogue, for the Khurbet Husheh is very probably the ancient Usha, often spoken of in the 
Talmud in connection with Shefa 'Amr, to which it was contiguous, k little before the fidl 
of Bitter the Sanhedrin left Yabneh to establish itself here. They would then naturally 
build a synagogue at Usha, unless there was one here already. 

' Not far from the ruins of this building may be remarked in a valley to the west a circular 
well fairly well built with stones of middle size, to which belongs a reservoir. To the south 
is seen, on a neighbouring hill covered with fine oaks and brushwood, an arched vault con- 
structed of cut stones of ancient appearance, at the end of which is constructed a little niche 
for a mihrab. Rags are fastened over this wely — a kind of ('.v voto offerings. It is consecrated 
to Neby Hushan, the Proi)het Hosea, according to Mussulman tradition, which places the 
tomb of the prophet in this place. But according to a rabbinical tradition the prophet was 
interred at Safcd.' — tlucrin. 

K h. el J a h u s h (L g). — Heaps of stones. 

K h. Jail II n (M f ). — A conspicuous Tell or mound, on a hill-side, 
with heaps of small stones, and several cisterns. 

'The foundations of two rectangular constructions in cut stone of medium size are alone 
visible. Fragments of pottery cover the soil' — Gut'rin. 

K h. J etat (M g). — The ruin is situate on a high and precipitous 
hill, and reached by a winding path from the south. A steep knoll rises 
above the valley some 500 or 600 feet, and is evidently in part artificial. 
The principal ruiris are on a .saddle connecting this place with a hill on 
the north ; ruins of houses, with many .squared stones two to three feet 
long, one with a rough boss and draft, are there found. Remains of a 
church are spoken of by the natives, but no apse was found. A pillar-shaft 
about one and a halt teet in diameter lies in the ruins. 

The knoll to tlie south is e.xtremely rocky, with no soil on the rock. 
It can only be approached by the saddle on the north. It is burrowed 
with cisterns throughout, and large caves e.xist on the north and east 
slopes. There are cuttings in the rock, and llat places as though for 


foundations. The citadel or rocky knoll is scvcnly paces, or marly 
three and a half chains, east and west, antl rather less north and south. 
The foundations of a rude tower, some twenty feet square, arc \isil)le at 
the foot of the knoll on the north, where the path on the saddle 
approaches. The site is very secluded, being hidden until close to the 
town, and surrounded by other mountains. The ground is llat and open 
on the north. The whole is surrounded with trees and brushwood, cover- 
ing the northern ruins. Kaukab is visible, and part of the Buttauf 
about el 'A z e i r (Sheet \'I). Some cisterns still hold water. The 
entrances to the caves have been cut square (see Section A, Jotapata). 
\'isited 9th July, 1875. 

The identity of this singular ruin with the Jotapata of Joscphus was first pointed out by 
Schultz in 1847. I'^e place was visited by Robinson in 1852. He suggested that in Jefat 
we have not only Jotapata, but also the Jiphthah-el of Joshua \i.\. 14 and 27. This identi- 
fication is not accepted by Lieutenant Condcr, who places it at the gorge (Gai) leading to 
the maritime plain from the Plain of Rameh. 

After the first repulse of the Romans under Placidus before Jotapata, Vespasian, Josephus 
says, reduced the town of the Gadarenes before advancing on Jotapata. Reland has 
suggested Gabarenes. Now nine or ten miles north of Khurbet Jefat is the hill now called 
K a b r e s, which is probably the old Gabara. This place taken, the famous siege of 
Jotapata, the particulars of which, heightened by the imagination of the narrator, who was 
himself the principal hero of the defence, are found in the ' ^Vars of the Jews,' was taken in 

The description given of the city by Josephus is as follows : 

'Jotapata is almost all of it built upon a precipice, having on all the other sides of it 
every way valleys immensely deep and steep, insomuch that those who would look down 
would have their sight fail them before it reaches to the bottom. It is only to be come at 
on the north side, where the utmost part of the city is built on the mountain, as it ends 
obliquely at a plain. This mountain Josephus had encompassed with a wall when he 
fortified the city, that its top might not be capable of being seized upon by the enemies. 
The city is covered all round with other mountains, and can no way be seen till a man 
comes just upon it. And this was the strong situation of Jotapata.' 

' On visiting the spot one cannot fail to notice how exaggerated is Josephus's description 
of Jotapata, which he defended.' — Conder, 'Tent Work,' i. 206. 

The following details are taken from Gucrin : 

' Pursuing my ascent, I penetrated a great cavern, the fore part of which has been 
entirely thrown down by the growth of fig trees and terebinths, which have made their way 
into fissures of the rock, and have broken off considerable masses. A staircase cut in the 
rock enabled me to descend into the cave, and I then perceived that it formerly served 
as a cistern, for the walls were covered with thick cement. Two piers, partly composed of 
rock and partly of masonry support the vaults. Higher up still, two other caves, the 
entrance of which is equally obstructed by fig trees and masses of fallen rock, attracted my 


'On the extreme edj,'e of the upper plateau of the hill may be remarked at certain points 
the traces of a surrounding wall. One wonders how the ramparts flanked with towers, which 
so long resisted Vespasian, have left such insignificant remains ... I entered a great many 
of the caves, but I confess that none of them could possibly have hidden for any length of 
time the hero of this memorable siege and his companions from the hands and eyes of the 

K h. J e 1 a m e h (L g). — Hcap.s of stones and cisterns. 
' Some thirty cisterns, two birkehs, several sepulchral caves, and presses either cut in the 
rock or formed by means of grooved uprights, some still standing, others lying on the 
ground.' — Gue'rin. 

K h. c I K ab u (N f). — Ruined walls, heaps of stones, and cisterns. 

' I first examined a square enclosure, measuring about thirty-five paces on each side, the 
walls of which, no metres thick, are constructed of blocks of good size, but not regular. 
The interstices of the joints are filled with small rubble. In the middle of this enclosure has 
been constructed a cistern, now closed ; and to right and left run two great vaulted cells 
half fallen in. The part still standing serves as a stable for the shepherds. Not far from it 
is an elliptic basin, partly hollowed in the rock and partly built, near which is seen a great 
cistern, three parts destroyed. 

'Also, outside the enclosure and near it the ground is covered, with great blocks more or 
less squared, belonging to buildings now destroyed. The lower courses of a long vaulted 
hall are still visible. 

' Further still to the east are the foundations of an edifice completely destroyed.' — 

K h. Kana (see Cana of Galilee, Section A) (N g). — A ruined 
Arab village, on a low spur of J e b e 1 K a n a, just above the B u 1 1 a u f 
Plain. Only inodern ruined houses were found, some of which were yet 
inhabited in 1S38. There is a small tank ten feet long, and half-a-dozen 
bell-mouthed cisterns. On the west is a considerable cave, with two 
entrances broken in. This is probably the crypt noticed by Marino 

Visited 9th July, 1S75. 

' At the foot of the hill on the southern slopes of which lie the ruins of this name, I 
observed an ancient cistern, heaps of stones from overthrown buildings, the traces of a wall 
of enclosure, and several rock-cut tombs. 

' One of these present a rectangular opening, a sort of vestibule, which precedes a low and 
narrow bay giving access to a sepulchral chamber. This contains three loculi, the upper one 
of which is arched. Another rock-cut tomb presents the appearance of an arched pent- 
house, under which a little bay gives access to a chamber containing only one loculus ; a 
second one has been commenced but not finished. 

' Climbing the hill I found about thirty feet above the plain the debris of a great village ; 
but, except a few cisterns, all appeared Arab. Some of the houses are still partly standing, 
and have been very badly built with small materials. Beyond and above the village the hill 

vor,. I, 40 



continues to rise by natural steps, which form a kind of rocky beds, one behind ihc other. 
Afier climbing them, several platforms in succession are reached. Here are remarked cisterns 
and caves cut in the rock, with piles of great blocks scattered in the midst of a cluster of 
terebinths, lentisks, and kharftb trees. On the upper platform, which must be about 400 feet 
above the plain, the foundations of a thick wall are still visible. All the constructions whose 
remains are crowded together here, have been built with stones of large dimensions, and 
squared more or less perfectly. They are now, and no doubt have been for a long time, 
overthrown from top to bottom. The southern slopes of the hill are also covered with 
similar di-bris. 

'Low down on the north side and beyond a great wall, of which some courses in gigantic 
blocks are still in situ, is a basin cut in tlic rock, and measuring thirty-eight paces long by 
twenty-five broad. It is an ancient quarry which has been utilised to collect the rains. In 
fact these ruins offer a double aspect. Those which cover the southern slopes of the hill are 
mostly Arab ; those which are scattered about upon the summit are much more ancient. 
Both together bear the name of Kh. Kana. That of Kana el Jelil was not given once by any 
of the natives of whom I inquired, either at Arrabeh or Kefr Menda, or Sukhnin. At the 
last-named village the Greek priest, an intelligent man and well versed in the traditions of 
the country, thus expressed himself: "They are the ruins of an ancient Kana, but not by 
any means those of Cana of Galilee, which all Christians agree in placing at Kefr Kenna.'" — 

Kh. Kefr cs S a m i r (I g). — Heaps of stones and masonry 

caves, and a stone with a cross cut on it (see Calamon. .Section A). 

K h . el K c n i s e It 


rock-hewn cistern exists here, 
cemented inside, forty feet long, 
eight feet broad at the top, four- 
teen feet broad at the bottom, 
fifteen feet deep ; the sides recede 
from the top. 
A small ruin, with cisterns and heaps of 

Kh. el Kezaz (M f).- 
small stones. 

Kh. el Kerck (K i).— Traces of ruins. 

K h. el K h i1 d e i r a h (L h). — Traces of ruins and walls. 

K h. Kurdaneh (Kg). — Heaps of stones. 

Kh. el Maksur (M h). — Heaps of stones. 

Kh. Mai hah (see Magdiel, Section A) (I i). — Ruins of a village 
and rock-cut tombs ; a modern arch is still standing. There is a chamber, 
sunk In the rock, about five feet square and six feet deep ; also a cistern, 
cut in rock, lined with a thick coat of very hard cement, roofed with large 


Stones, and apparently once covered by an arch ; it is sixteen feet square 
and four feet high, reached by a shaft three feet deep and eight feet 
square. The lid of a sarcophagus lies in the ruins. 

Two systems of tombs, apparently of different date, also occur near. 

The first has eight tombs, all on one plan, and all closed originally 
by the rolling stone. On one a is cut. 

The chambers are 7 feet square and 5 feet high, with a loculus on 
each of the three sides 7 feet by 3 feet, the bottom level with the floor. 
Two or three steps lead down to the interior from the door, which is 2 feet 

Close by is a tomb of curious character, containing two kokiiii and three 
loculi. The chamber is 5 feet high, about 9 feet long, by 7 feet broad ; a 
loculus each side 6 feet by 2 feet 6 inches, with pillows of stone for the 
head of the corpse ; the kokiin one in each corner at the back of the side 
walls, 7 feet long, 2^ feet wide ; the third loculus at the end, like the other 

Another tomb near is destroyed, as is also a bell-mouthed cistern, by 

The second system consists of kokiin tombs, the largest a chamber 
II feet broad, 12-i-feet deep, of irregular shape, with five kokiin at the 
back, and three on each side-wall. They are 8 feet long, 3 ieet broad, all 
but the third on the right, which is 9 feet by i\ feet, and has a round roof. 

A second tomb is i 2 feet 6 inches broad, and 1 1 feet 6 inches deep, 
with three kokiin on each of the three walls, each 6 feet by 3 feet, one un- 
finished. Over the door of this is a cross. 

A third tomb is 12 feet 6 inches broad, 14 feet 6 inches long; three 
kokiin each side 7 feet by 2 feet 6 inches each ; three at the back, one of 
the partitions broken awa}'. It has a double door, with an arch in front, 

Another chamber is 5 feet high, 5 feet wide, 7 feet 6 inches long ; a 
koka on the right 3 feet high, 6 feet 6 inches long, 2^,- feet broad ; a koka 
at the back of same dimensions, at the right end of the wall. 

A fifth chamber measured 1 1 feet 6 inches long, 1 5 feet wide, with 
three kokini each side 6 feet by 3 feet. At the end it seems to have had 
two kokiin 7 feet long, and a central one 8 feet, but the partition walls have 
been cut away. 

40 — 2 



The sixth tomb planned was a chamber lO feet by 8 leel, 4 leel high, 
with two kokim on the left side. 

There is also a tomb of the kind seen at Iksal, which is generally 
of Christian orio;in : a shaft sunk in the face of the rock 2', feet 
by 6i feet, with a locnlns under an arcosolium each side. Another 
tomb is merely a square chamber 8 or 10 feet side, with a door like 
the rest. 

Whilst the first system had rolling stones to the doors, the kokiui group 

here appears to have had none. 
\'isited 3rd March, 1S73. 

Kh. Mithilia (I h). — Caves, tombs, and a well were found here. 
\ A larcre cave, of irregular shape, has a raised recess to the 
left on entering, measuring 2 feet deep, 3 feet long, 3 feet 
2 inches to the roof, which is arched. There is also a 
curious sarcophagus cut on the top of an isolated piece of 
rock 2 feet 8 inches deep, 6 feet long, 2 feet broad. It is 

r\ Entrance 


broken at one end. A similar sarcophagus was found in the marshes 
south of the Zerka (Sheet VH). 
Visited 26th March, 1873. 

Kh. el Musheirefeh (M h). — A square enclosure about filty 
feet side on a hill-top. Inside are chambers round the wall, and in the 
north-west corner a small tower built of stones about nine inches cube 
undressed, laid in courses, the joints patched with smaller stones in mortar. 
It commands the junction of the roads from Nazareth to Acre and from 
Semunieh to Shefa 'Amr, and is a strong position. It is said by the 
natives to be a fort built by Dhaher el 'Amr about 1 162 a.ii., as a protec- 


tion against Jezzar Pasha of Acre. It resembles the building at Tell 
K e i m u n (Sheet VIII.), erected by the same chief. 

Visited June, 1S75. 

K h . M u s r a r a h (L i). — Heaps of stones. 

Kh. er Rakhtiyeh (J h). — Heaps of stones. 

Kh. Ras edh Dhahr (M f).— Heaps of stones. 

K h. cr Rujm {L g). — Heaps of stones. 

Kh. Rumeh (N g).— (See Roma, Section A). This place was an 
inhabited village about seventy or eighty years ago. It stands on a knoll, 
with a well on the west, by which is an old sarcophagus, used as a trough, 
and ornamented with wreaths in relief on the sides. The top of the hill 
is covered with the ruins of the houses. On the south are remains of 
enclosures, and a ruined dry-stone watch-tower of larger size than 
usual. On the south-east is a cavern, and near it a tomb, much 

The cave is 10 paces long, 8 paces broad, with a recess on the right, 
at the back, 2 paces across, 6 paces long ; the door is on the east. This, 
perhaps, is the cave called Caisran, mentioned by Rabbi Uri of Biel, 
1564 A.D. In 125S Rabbi Jacob of Paris mentions a cave at Roma as 
the tomb of Benjamin. In 1561 Rabbi Gerson of Scarmela speaks of the 
tomb of Ahijah at the same place. 

The tomb is about 5 paces north of the cave. It was rudely cut, 
and is now much defaced. It is 10 paces to the back, and 12 paces broad. 
On the north and south rude recesses, like unfinished locidi, occur round 
the walls ; and near the entrance are remains of two graves in the floor of 
the tomb, side by side, 2 feet 3 inches broad, and broken at the end. The 
head of the lonthis is rounded in each case. 

In the south-east corner of the Tell or knoll on which Rumeh stood 
is a small building some 20 paces square, with a cross wall extending 
east from it. Immediately north of the wall lay a well cut capital of grey 
limestone, the shaft i^ foot in diameter, the capital with a very simple 
moulding i foot 2 inches high. It is not unlike capitals used in the 
Galilean synagogues. The cave is 10 paces north of the wall above 



There is a small circular pit cut in ihc rock, which was full ol staL^nanl 
water ; and a large cistern, with bell-mouth, north of the tomb. 
The site is small, but evidently ancient. 

K h. Sasa (L h).- — Caves and foundations. 

K h. S e m m a k a (K i). — This is the site of a place of importance 
on a llat hill-top on Carmel, with a deep valley behind. There seems 
good reason to suppose that a synagogue stood here. 


feM--''':"' • 7b^A,„fl ^ifci ...^ffi 

mci^' ■'- «"^i» 

■'--^mtoundaiionj '/™„l;ii.i.."i Well 

100 net 

The ruins extend over a distance of about 400 paces (300 yards) east 
and west. A number of rollers {marked R on Plan) are found on the hill- 
top here and at Umm ed Derajeh, about a mile south (Sheet 
VIII.). They are of limestone, about 3 feet diameter and 7 feet long. 
There are on the sides four vertical lines of sunk grooves, four or five 
grooves in each line. These rollers occur in pairs by the foundations 
of buildings about 20 feet square. A similar column was found near 
Kulunsaweh later. It was supposed that these columns, which 
weigh about two tons (taking 27 as the specific gravity of the stone), 
were used for crushing olives in the square buildings."" 

* Such rollers, with iron spokes, are still used in Galilee for crushing olives, and are 
called Mat ruf.—C.R.C. 

\SHEET v.] 



On the west is a rock-cut tank 10 feet square, and a well 3 feet 
diameter by it ; near this a rock-cut, bell-mouthed cistern 30 feet diameter ; 
south of this foundations and a sarcophagus 8 feet by 3 feet, with a Hat 
cover; east of the cistern a cave, four rollers, and a rude tomb. 

South of this the hill is covered with foundations of buildings, one 
corner of fine masonry seeming to belong to an outer wall. There is a 
terrace here beneath the highest part of the hill, on which are remains of 
a building which is not improbably a synagogue. 

A wall here extends for 70 paces (or about 180 feet) in a direction 
87° Mag., 150 paces east of the corner described above. At the end, 
within or north of the line, is a well. There are some cross walls, but 
these seem to be later, as stones not /// situ are used in them. One of 
these stones is 5 feet long, 2 feet high, with two dressed bosses on it, and 
shallow drafts 3 inches broad, the one between the bosses 8 inches broad, 
\\ deep. A second stone, also not in situ, seems to have been the lintel 



of a door. It is 7 feet long, i foot 10 inches high, and has on it a winged 
tablet such as occur in Roman buildings, upon which, in low relief, two 
lions are carved facing one another. They are badly e.xecuted and de- 
faced. Between them is a cup, and a smaller cup is shown over the 
neck of the left-hand lion. This lintel resembles those of the Galilean 

The stones in the main wall are small, about 6 inches high and i foot 
long, and it is probably later than the larger masonry. 

At the west end of the long wall are remains of a building with pillars. 
A wall exists perpendicular to the long wall, and in it is a gateway 5 feet 
3 inches broad, with a lintel and jambs, both ornamented with mouldings. 
The lintel is 2 feet 4^ inches high and 9 feet 3 inches long ; the jambs 
are 2 feet broad. The mouldings of the i imbs run round the lintel, and 
a broad moulding with a ilat curve, in section 6h inches broad, runs 



riloni;- the top oi tlic lintel. Thus in general appearance, and in the way 
in which the moulding returns outwards on the lintel, the doorway 
resembles that of the synagogue at Kcfr ISir'ini (Photo. No. 69) 






Ilk ^1 







and at I\I c i r u n (Photo. 71). The lintel has sockets for the gates. The 
relief of the mouldings is very small, the total projection being only 
2^ inches. The details are very like those at Meiron. The wall is 
I foot 9 inches thick. 

Inside this wall, on the west, just south of the door, and 9 feet 3 inches 
from it (to centre from interior), is a pillar; and below this, on the south, 
7 feet i\ inch from it (centre to centre), a second. They are 2 feet 3 
inches diameter, as near as weathering allows of measurement. It appears 
therefore that the building had a colonnade north and south, and probably 
a door, now destroyed, on the south. 

The diameter of the pillars is about equal to that in most of the 
synagogues, as is also the thickness of the wall. The larger lintel is 
rather longer than the principal lintel at U m m el 'A m e d, but the 
same height ; and the smaller lintel is proportionately larger than the 
smaller lintel at U m m el A m e d (.Sheet VI.). 

Kh. esh Shelkiyeh (K h). — Remains of walls. 

Kh. Shellaleh (J h). — A ruined village, in a very strong position, 
on a promontory, surrounded by valleys about 600 feet deep, with 
slopes of 35^ On the north-east a road approaches it ; below it, on the 
east, is a broken aqueduct leading to a mill. This aqueduct consists of 
small masonry, with two pointed arches ; a fragment of a larger stone, 
I foot 6 inches high, is built in, and on this a Maltese cross is cut, with a 


raised border. Several small stones occur in the ruins, with broad Hat 
drafts ; the bosses dressed. Also a lintel, 7 feet long, 2 feet deep, i^ foot 
broad, with the face well-dressed; and a draft, 3 inches broad, i^ inch 
deep. There is also a pillar-shaft in several pieces ; two caves, some good 
pieces of ashlar, and on the east a scarp, apparently the foundation of a 
tower, with rock- cut steps in front on the north-east. Behind the knoll 
is the quarry from which the masonry came. In it there are two tombs : 
one a lociihis, 8 feet long, 2 feet broad, placed like a koka in the rock, 
with an arch in front, 4 feet diameter, cut back 2 feet. The second is a 
chamber 7 paces long, about 3 paces broad, with a recess on the right, 
4 paces deep, in which is a locitliis, under an arcosoliiiin. At the end of the 
chamber is a similar locuhis. 

The general impression is that an early Byzantine monastery stood 

Visited iith March, 1S73. 

K h. S h e r t a (K g). — Heaps of stones. 

'The summit and slopes of the hill covered with rubbish from demolished houses, in the 
middle of which are seen a certain number of cisterns and caves cut in the rock.' — Guerin. 

Kh. Shihah (I h). — Foundations, caves, and fragments of a rude 
column embedded in the ground. 

Kh. es Siyeh (N f). — Heaps of small stones, foundations, and 

K h. S u ft a 'A d y (L h). — Heaps of stones. 

Kh. es Suleiman (L h). —Traces of ruins. 

K h. e t T a i y i b e h. (L h) — This has been a place of some import- 
ance. It has a well of good water, and on the south a spring. There is 
an open plain on the south-west. All these are named from the ruin. 
The main-road from .S h e f a 'A m r to .Sefiiirieh passes the ruin, 
and is ancient. The water is cold and abundant. Above the well is a 
mound covered with fallen masonry and fotmdations. There are two 
stone troughs by the spring. By the well is a base of a double corner 
column like those found in the Galilean synagogues, measuring 4 feet 
2 inches by 3 feet 2 inches, and in height i foot 7 inches, with simple 
mouldings. There are other similar bases in the ruins ; and a syna^oo-ue 
probably stood here. 

VOL. I. 41 


K h. c I 1" 1 IT. h (^L g). — l'"oun(.Lilioas, heaps of sloncs, bell-muiilhrd 
cisterns. , 

Kh. Tirci rl Kezaz (N f). — A few scattered stones and 

Kh. Van in (see Neiel, Section A) (I\I f). — A terraced Iiill. with 
heaps of stones on the top; the masonry licwn, but small. i)w the north 
is a well. 

K h . V u n i s (I h). — Traces of ruins. 

K 1 K h 11 r e i b e h (J h). — Ruins of a village, destroyed by Ibrahini 

K i:i s r 0.7. Zir (M i). — This curious monument stands outside 
M alul, on the hill, with llat ground to the cast and a steep .slope to the 

west. It is surrounded with cactus hedges. A plan of it was first made 
by Colonel Wilson, R.E. (see Plan, scale tIo). 

The place appears to have been a tomb chamber, 2\\ feet east and 
west by 14 north and south inside. The bearing 102° Magnetic. The 
east wall now is 5I feet thick, but broken away ; the east and west walls 
were originally 6 feet 3 thick ; the north and south walls are 10 feet thick. 
The building stood on a podium, surrounded with columns, whose bases 
are on a stylobate projecting from the podium ; the pillars are 2\ feet 

SHEET /"".l 


diameter. Thus the total exterior measure alony the podium is 36 feet 
north and south, and the same east and west. The building was originally 
in two storeys, the lower of which remains almost intact, with the roof still 
on. The proper door, 5 feet broad, was on the east, in the middle ot 
the wall, with a descent of two steps. In the north wall are two k'oki)ii, 
8 feet long, 3 feet 3 inches broad, raised above the floor 2t^- feet, and 3^ 
feet high. A similar pair of kokiiu existed on the south, but the western 


has had its end broken out to make a door, now in use. The interior of 
the chamber is about 15 feet high, roofed with a semi-circLilar barrel vault. 
It has ten courses of masonry — five large, five small ; the crown is 7 feet 
above the haunches. 

The walls are of fine ashlar ; the average length of the stones 3^- feet, 
breadth 16 inches, and 2 feet 2 inches height of the course. The material 
is a moderatelydiard limestone, found in a quarry near. The mortar is 
hard and black, mixed with ashes and charcoal ; the exterior joints 
are set in hard white mortar. In the core of the wall, small pieces of 
black basalt are packed in the joints, which are 3 inches broad in these 
cases. The vertical joints are carefully broken, and the stones are built in 
a sort of irregular bond in the thickness of the wall. The masonry is 
pick-dressed in horizontal lines on the interior, and in some places 
hammer-dressed on the exterior ; but the stones are much weathered. 
On the west wall there are recesses cut in the stones to hold small votive 
lamps inside the chamber. 




1 lie floor of llu' upper storey is pavcil wIlH ll il;s 12 to 16 iiiclies 
square. The eastern door h;is the sill iiKule of ;i l)li).-k of l),is:iU. 

No rubble is used in ,ui\- |)art of the huildiiiL;. There are two small 
holes in the barrel vault of th(- lower storey. The entrance on the east 
has a seniicircuhu- arch, with six voussoirs each side of a central key- 

Between the kokiDi on the north and south walls, inside, about six feet 
from the ground, there are two brackets of stone. 

The upper story is indicated by the corner pilaster on the north-west, 
which stands up some ten feet or more above the top of the vault. The 
lower parts of the pillars, five in number, are still visible all along the north 
side. The corner pillar on the north-east has been destroyed. One pillar 
exists on the east wall, one on the west. Thus it is evident that originally 
the monument had six pillars on each side, the corner pillars being only 
quarter circles in plan, built into a square projecting pilaster. The 
capitals have disappeared, but in the interior of the building is an Ionic 
capital, with a shaft having twenty-two flutings. The bases and the 
stylobate have very simple mouldings. 

For the traditions as to this place, see Section C. It is now used as 
a Greek church, being adorned with small pictures on wood inside. The 
south-west koka forms the door. 

Visited 25th November, 1872. 
This place was visited by Gue'iin in 1S54 and again in 1875. He reports that during 

{SHEET /'.] 



that period tlie destruction of the monument has been very rapid. At his second visit, 
three years after Lieutenant Conder's examination of the |)lace, he found the inhabitants 
tearing down the stones with pickaxes in order to sell them at Nazareth. Possibly by this 
time the whole of the monument has been destroyed. 

M i a r (M g). 

'I remarked here several trunks of columns, three broken capitals, and a certain number 
ol cut stones, coming from some ancient building. I observed also many blocks of ancient 
appearance disposed round threshing-floors. There are also cisterns, walls, and caves cut in 
the rock, which belong to times more or less remote.' — Guerin. 

Miigharet c 1 J e h l- n n ti m (Li). — A cavern tinder the hill on 
which Sheikh Abreik i.s built. It consists of a central chamber, 
from which there are two doors leadiny- to other chambers on the south, 
one on the east, and three on the north. 

The /ocii/i\n this and all the tombs near it were originally covered with 
Hat slabs about fotir inches thick. In many cases they seem to have had 
a cement coating of triangtilar section, forming a ilat ridge over the slab. 

No. I, the centnd chamber on the north, has an average height of 

feet. It has a second entrance on the east, leadino- to No. 

Both the 

entrances have flat arches, but the roof of the chamber is flat. It measures 
10 feet east and west, 20 north and south. 

No. 2 is 5, J; feet high, about 12 feet .square, with an inner chamber 
rather smaller : the door communicating between them has a slightly 
arched roof. 

No. 3 has a flat roof It has a recess (c/) on the right, 13 feet long and 



about 6 feet wide ; and an inner chamber with arched roof, whit h lias a 
recess on the west, another on ilie north, and a iliird, with two lociili 
raised 2\ feet abo\e the ground, on the east. 


No. 4, the eastern chamber, is entered by an arched door, with 
locitli or recesses above it. Similar recesses exist over the doors from 
the central chamber to Nos. 3 and 5, cut back 2\ feet, 7 feet lons^s 2 1 
high. No. 4 has two koki)n in its north wall, one being under the recess 
in Chamber 3 {<•/). The /cokiiii ixri^ short, about 5^ feet long and 2\ broad. 
The chamber is about 14 feet by 12 feet, the door arch 6 feet wide and 

7 feet span. The walls here are cut with an instrument having, apparently, 
two teeth. The kokbn are on the level of the floor, 2 feet 8 inches high, 
with arched roofs. At the height of 6 feet 6 inches from the floor there 
is a set back in the walls of 2 inches on all sides. The entrance is 5 feet 

8 inches high ; the roof of the chamber, which is slightly arched, is 10 feet 
from the floor. On the back wall, as well as on the side of the entrance 
to No. 3. a cross is rudely cut. 


No. 5 has also a recess or loiii/iis over the entrance from the central 
hall corresponding to that over No. 3 entrance. On its east wall it has a 
recess {c) 8 feet by 10 feet, the floor of the recess raised 2^ feet, with three 
loculi in it (one across at the end) ; and underneath are three kokiin 5 feet 
long and about 14 inches wide, probably intended for children. There is 
also an inner chamber about the same size, with two kokim on the east 
rudely cut, 6 feet long, 3 feet wide ; on the south two loculi arranged like 
kokuii, but under one arch ; and a third (/'), 4^ feet long, placed sideways. 
1 here is another recess on the west, with three loculi — two at the sides, 
one at the end. This chamber is very irregular in shape. The roof of 
No. 5 is about 6 feet from the floor. 

No. 6, the last entered chamber, has two large recesses on its west 
side, and the northern of these has a koka beneath it. On the east is a 
loculus parallel to the side of the chamber, and a koka beneath it. The two 
western recesses are on the same level, but the floor sinks in the main 
chamber 3 feet towards the back, and the height to the roof is here 7 feet. 
Thus the kokim have their floors on the same level with that of the cham- 
ber. The western recess over the koka has three loculi, one being across 
at the end. At the north end of the chamber is a recess, with a koka 
under it ; and to the right of this a second recess 4 feet wide, 8 feet deep, 
also witli a koka under it. These kokim are about the same size with 
those in No. 5. 

hrom the left-hand recess at the back of No. 6 a little passage is 
broken into a further chamber with a recess on the k;ft, another on the 
right, and a larger one at the end with three loculi, one across at the end 
being only 5 feet long. 

Over the entrance-door are several rude crosses. On the l)ack 
wall of No. 4 is a T-shaped mark rudely cut, 8 inches at top and 
10 inches high. 

A portion of a child's skull and a bit of pottery were found in this cave. 

The main peculiarities of this system of tombs are : 

1st. E.xtreme irregularity of the cutting, scarcely any of the walls being 
at right angles. 

2nd. The use oi kokim and loculi together, the former on the level of 
the floor, as though the chamber had been enlarged and matle higher (as 
indicated also, perhaps, by the set back in the walls). 



3. The existence of kokini and /octdi so small ;is e\idciul) to be 
intended for children. 

4th. The Lise of the cave for sepultvire or otherwise !>)■ Chris- 

Mtt^harct es Sih (Li) is close to the last, on the north-east, 
under the hill on which stands .Sheikh Abreik. This cavern is 
apparently an old reservoir, as the walls are cemented. It is entered from 
the west by a doorway 10 feet broad, 5 feet high, and it extends 52^ feet, 
being 19 feet broad. ,\l the f.irther end on each side is a recess 12.^ feet 
broad, blocked at the end, ksuling perhaps to other ch.imbcrs. The roof of 
the cave is 13 feet from the lloor. At the end is a drop of 7 feet, and a 
reservoir 35 feet long by 17 broad at one end, and 15 broad at the other, 
a set back occurring 20 feet from its farther end. The roof of this is 20 
feet from its floor. 

En Nasi rah (N i). — The anti([uitics of Nazareth consist of rock- 
cut tombs and of bell-mouthed cisterns existing towards the west, up the 
hill. One tomb has ten kokiiii within, and two more outside the door each 
side. Another is a chamber iSi feet long, 7 feet broad, entered from the 
south-east by a small door 3 feet high, 2 feet 4 inches broad, having an 
archway outside 4J, feet broad, 5 feet 8 inches high. The rock scarp forms 
sloping sides to a passage 6 feet high, 5 feet 10 inches broad, in front of 

the tomb. The chaml:)er is 5 feet 8 inches 
high, with hve kokini to the right, five to 
the left, and two at the end, each 7 feet 
long, 2 feet 10 inches broad, and i foot 
6 inches high. 

The stone is soft ; the whole is well 
cut. Two large blocks of stone appear 
to ha\-e formed the door, now fallen in 
front of the entrance (compare Sheikh 

In the courtyard of the Greek bishop's 
house are two curious sculptured heads, apparently mediaeval work. 


found in 1S67 in digning in the lower part of the town. They probably 
belonged once to the Crusading church. They are cut in soft stone, and 
are about 18 inches high. 

R a s e d h D h a h r (M f). — The ruins here are on the summit of a 
terraced hill, and consist of three or four broken pillars and portions of 
tesselatcd pavement, probably remains of a little chapel. 

Gucrin found here, on tlie higher plateau, the wall of an enclosure constructed with 
stones more or less well squared, and resting on each other without cement. At the southern 
extremity was a large cistern cut in the rock : at the opposite extremity another much larger, 
and divided into three compartments. 

Rush m i a (J h). — The ruin ol a rectangular building, with a tower 
in its north-east corner. The walls are standing some 15 feet high in 
places. The building measures 35 feet north and south, and 45 east 
and west outside. The tower is about 15 feet square, and rushmia 
intended to flank the northern entrance. The east wall has 
been destroyed. The walls are 7 feet thick, built of courses 
of ashlar, the stones averaging 2 feet 3 inches by i foot ^ — :•— — '""" 
2 inches by i foot 2 inches. The material used is very soft, and the 
stones much worn ; the mortar joints arc very thick, and large pieces of 
pottery are used. No drafted stones were seen. 

The tower is entered by a door 5 feet high, 2 feet broad, on the west. 
The roof is of rough stones, with a pointed arch. It is barrel-vaulted, and 
covered with hard cement. On the south is a loophole-window, and a 
side-door, the latter with a flat lintel. On the west wall is a window with 
retaining arch, and a small window above. All these arches are pointed. 
There is a large window in the south wall of the main building. It 
appears to have had a semicircular arch. 

The site is a very commanding one. A path leads down to Haifa. 
There are ruins all round for a distance of some hundred yards. About 
150 yards west are four vaults, apparently the basement of some 

This is evidently the ruin of a fortress, on the hill-side, and the 
character of the masonry would lead to the supposition that it was one of 
those constructed by Dhaher el 'Amr. 

South of this fort, higher up the hill, is a solitary tomb, cut in very 
VOL. I. 42 




hard rock. The entrance is to the north : an archway. 5 feet liii^h, with 

a door williin, 1 foot deep and 
about 2.', feet hroad. There is 
a recess to tin; Ictl ol the arch- 
way for a roIIin<^r-stone ; il is 4 
feet hii^h, 2], ft;et cut back, and 
2 feet broad. A projection op- 
posite to this recess prevented 
the stone from rolling too far 
-...-'■■^ forward. The chanil)(n' within 

has three locidi, one on each ot threes walls. 
\'isited Sth January. 1873. 

Seffiirieh (N h). — The ruins are of two kinds: of the 
Roman period, tombs, sarcophagi, and the aqueduct ; those of later 
times, the church and castle. 

T o m b s. — East of the village, on the top of the hill, are some rock-cut 
sepulchres of a peculiar kind, being merely three graves cut in the surface 

of the rock and covered with blocks of stone, 
like the covers of sarcophagi. They are 

' v 'J'iijftJ^ gr ^"" ^ — ' P'^'''^'y covered with earth. A scarj^ of rock 

secT^n^A B. a foot high extends east and west 1 2 yards. 

At the east end it changes direction slighdy, and the tombs are cut side 
by side, pointing north and south, each 5 feet 9 inches long, 2 feet wide, 
with a rim 2 inches broad sunk about 2 inches to support the stone, which 
is iS inches thick, with the top rudely dressed to a ridge. The tombs are 
rounded at the north ends. 

The Aqueduct. — This is perhaps the channel mentioned in the 
Talmud (see Tal. Bab. Erubin 87 a, and Neubauer, Geog. Tab, p. 259) as 
conveying water from Abel to Sepphoris. 

The water appears to have been originally obtained from the 'A i n 
el J innan (Sheet YI.), about 1500 feet above the sea, and was con- 
veyed a distance of nearly four miles along the hill-side to the e.xtensive 
reservoirs east of Seffurieh, about 800 feet above the sea (this is a fall 
of uV)- The aqueduct was however only traceable as far as a point south- 



[SHEET /:] 


west of el Mesh-hed (Sheet VI.), and the course appears to have 
been at first subterranean. The 'A i n el Jinn a n is one of three 
shallow pits of water with a perennial supply. The ground round is 
alluvial. South of e 1 Mesh-hed is a deep cistern, near the old road, 
probably connected with the aqueduct. The channel, where first visible, 
is cut in rock 14 inches broad, choked with earth, but proljably very deep 
in places ; small channels at right angles lead into it, bringing down the 
surface drainage. This [)art is traceable for about half a mile along the 
hill-side. The next indication, a little farther west, is a broken cistern and 
part of a masonry wall ; the masonry is of good proportions and the 
cement hard. The wall is set in hard cement, and seems to have carried 
the channel across a small tributary valley. West of this is a rock-cut 
cistern with steps, and near it the ruins of two others, cut in very soft 
rock, which has fallen in. 

The course has hitherto been almost due west ; the channel now turns 
north, still following the contour of the hill, and appears to have passed 
through caves which have now fallen in. Ii was then supported for over 
a quarter of a mile on a masonry wall 5 to 6 feet in height and 5 feet 
broad. The material is a very hard limestone, in rudely-squared blocks 



On the section the stno// figures fnarli levels beiaw the ht^he^f surface. 

about 2 feet square or 2 feet by 2.', feet. They are laid lengthwise across 
the line ol the channel, and the joints carefully broken. Idat slabs were 

42 — 2 


liiid on the top of the wall, l)ut ihc channel has disappeareil. 'I'lie 
mortar was hard, greyish, ami mixed with ashes and a lilllc rarllicn- 

Orr^,o.,, ,; t r r " „ r ., WAXV.. A little WeSl of lllC CIKI ( .) f 

this wall a rock-cut channel was 

X __, , MOULDING AT stfruRitH iound leading soulli, for a short 

i ; I distance, to the grc^at reservoir for 

This reservoir was traced 

westwards for a length of 580 

!' -• — feet, the height of the cavern 

^ ■: . ■. lieing from 8 fi-et to 20 feet, the 

; breadth 8 feet to 1 5 feet. The 

channel at the west end is 
blocked with earth, and is five- 

eighths of a mile from S e f f u r i e h. Man-holes in the roof of the cavern 
occur in eight places. 

The entrance on the east is Ijy a gradual descent, with a scarp on 
the north. At the point No. 1 the passage contracts from 1 1 feet 

to 7 feet, the height being 20 feet. There are here two coats of plaster 
on the vertical sides, the lower of which has been roughened with a pick 
to allow the upper to adhere. The colour is brownish. 

[SHEET v.] 



yVn opening lofcct 

At point No. 2 the south wall has been broken in 
broad here occurs in the roof. The channel 
continues to be 20 feet deep and 7 to S feet 
broad to point No. 3, where a barrage 10 feet 
high is made across it. This is partly of ; 
masonry, and it was found that the top of the , 
barrage was about ■^\ feet lower than the 
water-line on the walls of the reservoir. On 
the north side of the channel is a recess, a 
natural cave, at a level above that of the bar- 
rage. This was, perhaps, to receive infiltra- 
tion from the strata. It resembles the re- 
cesses in the side of the passage from the 
T w in P o o 1 s at Jerusalem. The masonry 
is rubble coated with cement ; the mortar, like 
that oi the aqueduct wall, is orcv, mixed with 
ashes and pottery. Sharp flat stones are used in the rubble ; two coats of 
cement covered the rubble, the upper containing small shells. The south 
wall is again broken in at the point marked 4. 

Point No. 5 is a second barrage 2 feet below the water-mark. There 
is a sort of buttress towards the south of it. The bottom of the reservoir 
is here lower, being 26 tect from the roof; thj rock abo\'e which, as 
measured through tlie man-hole, is 8 feet thick. The original height of 
the barrage, which is partly hidden under rubbish, appears, therefore, to 
have been i ; feet. The buttress is 3 feet higher at the bottom of the 
rest oi the barrage. On the south side of the buttress is a recess with a 
half arch, 2\ feet broad, 4 feet high, and extending inwards 5} feet 
(west). The buttress of the barrage is 6 feet thick, and the west face of 
it b\ feet high. On it is an overtlow channel north and south, the breadth 
being 5:^ feet. The east face of the buttress is rudely bowed. There is 
a man-hole 10 feet square in the roof above it. On the south side, west of 
the barrage, there is a recess (marked b on the Plan), which is sunk 6^ 
feet below the level of the top of the buttress. It is arched at the end. 

No. 6 is an opening measuring 7 feet by C)\ feet, the rock about 6 feet 
thick. The south wall is here broken in a good deal, and continues to be 
ruinous west of this point. 


No. 7 is a side passao;e on the north of No. 6. It is lo feet hi^h at llie 
point of junction with the main passaj^e ; but the lloor descends so that at 
the farther end, 50 feet from the main passa,q;e, it is 19 feet high. The 
inu'n passage is here 10 feet high, the roof partly iM-okcn in. V)x\ the .south 
side is a small circular opening in tin' roof. The w idih of the passage is 
I4tV feet. The water-line is distinctly seen on the cement of the sides 
1 5 feet below the surface of the soil over the cave. 

No. 8 is a domed well-mouth, not plastered, 2), feet diameter above, 
8 feet below, the rock being 4 feet thick. There is here a cement of 
slightly difierenl character in the channel — a sort of concrete- full of pebbles, 
and white instead of brown — indicating repairs. Shells are used in the 
cement over it, and broken potsherds in the concrete. The roof is here 
much broken in, and the reservoir partly filled up, the south side being 
all ruined from No. 6 to No. 9. Between 8 and 9 (point a) there is a 
.square well-mouth, with remains of step.s. 

At 9 there is a masonry wall on the south sitle of the reservoir, of 
stones rudely squared, i foot by 2 feet by lA foot, backed with rubble con- 
taining sharp stones about 6 inches long. The wall was 3] feet thick. 
In it is a sort of drain or recess, stopped at the end with rubble. It is 
I foot 8 inches high, and about i foot broad. 

No. 10 is the passage leading out north from the end of the reservoir. 
It is 6 feet high and 3:^ feet broad. On the right of it is a recess 3^ feet 
high. The bottom of the passage was visible 5 feet below the line of 
the water-mark. The passage is stopped with fallen earth, but perhaps 
led to a cistern not far from the tower of S e f f il r i e h. 

The section shows that the water-line is i foot below the roof of this 
passage, 2 feet above the top of the western barrage (No. 5), 3^ feet 
above the eastern barrage (No. 3), and level with the floor of the reservoir 
at the east end, which is <\\ feet lower than the bottom of the rock-cut 
channel of the aqueduct east of the reservoir. Thus the whole length 
could be filled easily from the aqueduct. The barrages seem to have 
acted as filters (like that in the passage from the Twin Pools), the sediment 
falling to the bottom, and the reservoir filling up till above the height of 
dam, so that clean water flowed on the top. 

Planned and explored 20th November, 1872. 

The Church of St. A n n e is in the north part of the village, 








■*r-^T! -^ 


^vv at''' -, 





[SHEET r.\ 


west of the castle. Only the apses remaui, and low mud hovels have been 
built ao-ainst them. The church is noticed by Sir church of s' anncscffOrieh 
John Mandeville (1322 a.d.), and bears every indica- 
tion of twelfth century work (see Lieutenant 
Kitchener's Photograph, No. 47). The roof of the 
apses is standing-, the arches pointed, of ashlar, with ? ° . . . ^. <='^'^ 

rubble filled in above ; but the arches of the windows were round. 
The cornice from the pillars each side of the central apse runs all 
round the apse, and a stylobate, on which the pillars stand, also runs 
round. The north aisle is not terminated in an apse, but in a square 
chapel, with groined roof, 16 feet 6 inches side in the interior. The 
total breadth of the church was 64 feet, the nave being 29 feet in the 
clear. There are two granite shafts in position on the line of the wall 
I foot 9 inches in diameter. The bays would appear to have measured 
16 feet 3 inches in the span of the arch. The main apse is 23^ feet diameter, 
I I feet 9 inches to the back from the apse. The south apse is 10 feet 
diameter. A staircase in the first (eastern) bay on the north wall led up 
to the roof in the thickness of the wall. The masonry is much worn. No 
masons' marks were noted on the walls, though sought. The mouldings 
are simple. A mound of earth on the east, outside, reaches up above the 
level of the cornice. The north wall is 7 feet thick, and the core of rubble 
faced inside and out with ashlar. 

The Castle situate on the hill-top, commands a view on all sides, 
and is a place of natural strength. The lower storey is perfect, the south- 
west wall of the upper is standing. The gate is on the 
south. The exterior is 49 feet 6 inches square, the 
interior 24 feet 6 inches; the walls being over 12 feet 
thick. The whole tower is built of old materials, including 
drafted ashlar and sarcophagi. The south-west corner ' ' ■ ■ *" ""' 
appears to be the oldest part ; the door and south wall, east of it, being 
of smaller masonry. The qualities of the stone used differ in hardness. 
Some stones are hammer-dressed ; the smaller masonry dressed with a 
toothed instrument. The interior of the wall is of rubble, with stones 
7 inches long, in white mortar. The courses are very irregular. At 
the bottom of the wall, on the south-east, is a well-dressed stone, 6 feet 
9 inches long, 2 feet 4 inches by 2 feet 6 inches across, and with a draft 



1 inch deep, 3 inches broad. On the east wall are small stones, with 
a draft and rustic boss ; and north of the window, on this wall, a larije 
stone, with a draft on its upper side 6 inches broad. 

Sarcophagus ih castle waul at 5EfruniE.H 

There is a sarcophagus built into the north-east corner, another into 
the south-west corner at the bottom, and another on the west wall north 
of the window. In the north-west corner is a stone 4 feet 8 inches long-, 

^/i I foot high, with a rustic boss, 
the draft 6 inches broad at one 
end, 3 inches on the other sides, 
the boss projecting 2 inches. 
Thus all the corners have been 
built on large blocks. 
A passage ascends by steps from the left on entering to the south- 
west corner, and thence led originally to the second storey. Several 
steps are broken away. Loopholes in the wall lighted the staircase. 
The vault above is a segment of a circle, the diameter being 4 feet; the 
vault is cemented. The loopholes in the south wall are 4 inches broad 

{SHEET r,] 



outside, 2\ feet inside, with pointed arches above and llat lintels below 
the arches. On the west there is a window at a higher level, also with a 
flat lintel — a stone with a boss. The core of the wall is visible on this 
upper storey and consists of rubble. The springing- of the arch of the 
roof remains, and a sarcophagus is built in on the south wall as a sort of 
parapet above (see Lieutenant Kitchener's Photograph, No. 48). A pillar 
is also here built in at right angle.s, as in the walls of Ascalon. The 
stones are drafted up to the very top of the wall on the south and west, 
near the corner. 

The south door is 7 feet high, 4 feet broad, and covered with a flat 
lintel I foot 10 inches high, 5 feet 6 inches long. Above is an arch pointed 
and adorned with mouldings. The work is poor and in low relief; it 
resembles Arab rather than Gothic work. 

The windows of the lower storey are recesses 8 feet wide, 6 feet deep, 
in the north, east, and west walls. In these recesses three or more men 
could stand above the level of the floor and fire through the three 
loopholes, one straight and two slanting ; all 3 feet broad inside, 4 inches ; 
broad outside. 

VOL. I. 43 


The arches in this tower are all [)()inlcil ami the rooi a barri'l vault; 
the section north and south being a semicircle. The present castle is 
said to have been built about 150 years ago, by Ahmed, son of Dhahc:r el 
'Amr; but a castle is noticed at Sepphoris in the middle ages. Probably 
the south-west corner, which is the oldest part, with perhaps the staircase, 
which has a segmental vatilt, belonged to the original castle ; the door 
and smaller masonry to the Arab restoration. The mortar generally is 
not so hard as that used by the Crusaders. 

There is a fine cistern close by, on the south-east, rock-cut, and sup- 
ported on rock-cut piers. It is about 20 feet deep, and reached by rock- 
cut steps ; the descent roofed in with large Hat slabs. There is also a 
shaft, 4 feet diameter, for drawing water. The cement on the interior is 
soft and of a brownish colour. 

There are scattered sarcophagi and blocks of masonry lying hear the 
village in various directions. 

Visited 14th November, 1872; 3rd July. 1875. 

Guerin mentions another monument in the eastern quarter of the village. It is built 
north and south, with good cut stone, and columns of grey granite ornamented and separated 
the aisles, so far as can be judged by the numerous mutilated remains which are lying 

Two places mentioned by Josephus as being near Sepphoris have not yet been found. 
They were named Garis and Asochis. 

As regards the first, it is mentioned twice — once in the ^Var (III. vi. 3), and once in 
the Life (§ 71) — as being twenty stadia from Sepphoris. Josephus also speaks of a town 
named Garsis, which may be the same place. A circle whose radius is 2\ miles, and whose 
centre is Seffuriyeh, passes near four inhabited villages, namely, Ailut, er Reineh, el Meshhed, 
and Rumraaneh. It also passes near the ruins of Rumeh, Bedeiwiyeh, Khelladiyeh, and 
khurbet Kenna. If el Meshed (see Sheet VI.) be Gath-ha-Hepher, and Rummaneh be Rim- 
mon of Zabulon, there remain Ailut and er Reineh among the villages. Ailut seems badly 
placed for a camp. There therefore remains only er Reineh, still a considerable village, 
better situated and enjoying an abundant spring. None of the ruins would do for the site 
of Garis except Tell Rumeh and Bedeiwiyeh. Near Tell Rumeh is the ancient Ruma; 
Guerin proposes Bedeiwiyeh for Asochis. Therefore, by a process of exhaustion, he places 
Garis at er Reineh. 

As regards Asochis, there are these conditions to fulfil : 

(i) It was near a great plain. Kow, Tell Bedeiwiyeh overlooks the Sahel el Buttauf. 

(2) It was near Sepphoris, and north of that city (Josephus, Life, § 45). Tell Bedeiwiyeh 
is less than three miles from Sepphoris. 

(3) It was on the road from Sepphoris to Gabara. The most direct way would be by the 
well called Bir el Bedeiwiyeh, situated at the foot of the hill. 

(4) It nmst have been a strong and important place— a condition fully uiet in the identifi- 
cation of Tell el Bedeiwiyeh. 


S e m II n i e h (M i). — Artificial mounds, traces of ruins, and a sar- 

Schwartz proposed to identify this place with the Sinionias of Josephus, and in accord- 
ance with the Tahmid (Nenbauer, ' Geog. dcr Tahmid,' p. 1 89), also with the Shimron ot 
Joshua xix. 15. 

' The present village has succeeded a small ancient city, now completely destroyed. 
East of the site which it occupied rises a round isolated hill, which commands the plain in 
every direction, and was once surrounded on its summit by a wall, of which a few traces 
still remain. This hill must probably have been fortified. .Scarped towards the east, it 
slopes gently on the western siile towards the town, which covered the lower hillocks at its 
feet. Among them I found, in the midst of the various di-hris which cover the soil, the 
remains of a building in cut stone, completely overthrown, once ornamented by columns, as 
is attested by two mutilated shafts lying on the spot. This edifice seems to have been 
constructed from east to west, so that it may have been a Christian church. 

' In another place I saw an enclosure measuring thirty-five paces in length by twenty-five 
in breadth. From a distance it appears ancient. It is, however, of modern date, con- 
structed of stones of all sizes and shapes ; among them pillars of broken sarcophagi. 
— Guerin. 

S h a b a n e h ( L h). — Traces of ruins. 

-Shaib (M f). 

'The well of Shaib (I!ir el Hanany) is loS feet deep, entirely cut in the rock ; it is 
certainly ancient. The reservoir, with troughs belonging to it, is constructed of blocks 
taken from old buildings. Here I remarked a sarcophagus. The only face visible was 
ornamented with discs and garlands of flowers, elegantly carved. On a block of stone 

lying beside it is figured a two-handled vase of very graceful form One of the two 

mosques in the place seems to have been built on the site, and from the dlhris, of an 
ancient synagogue. I saw broken shafts lying about, an Ionic capital, cut stones, and a 
fragment of sculpture. East of the village, cisterns and tombs prove the antiquity of the 
site. Josephus mentions it under the name of Saab.' — Gut'rin. 

Shefa 'A m r (Lg). — The traces of antiquity at this town include 
various periods. Tombs, Jewish antl Christian ; a church, apparently 
Byzantine ; and the Kul'ah, Arabic (see Section A). 

T o m b s exist north and south of the town ; on the north close to 
the convent wall. The largest is a chamber entered by a door 2 feet wide, 
and a descent of two steps (i foot 4 inches) inside the door, which is on 
the north ; the chaml^er inside is 5 feet 8 inches north and south and 
7 feet 2 inches east and west, with three arcosolia, one on each ot the three 
walls, cut back 5 feet 4 inches, and 5 feet 8 inches broad. They include 
two graves each, side by side lengthwise, so that the feet lay towards the 
central chamber. The arcosolia measure 4 feet 10 inches to the top ; the 




chamber being 5 feci 1 inch high. The walls ul ihc gr.ucs, which re- 
semble sarcophagi cut in rock, are i foot 6 inches high, 8 inches thick. 
This kind of tomb is a sort of transition from the k-olcini to the loctdi. 

A second tomb was a chamber 5 feet 9 inches square, with loculi 

1 foot 7 inches wide. One on the south wall at back, one on the west, 
and two under one arcosoliuiii on the east — the two bodies in this cave 
lying with their length parallel to the side of the chamber. The door is 

2 feet wide, and two steps lead down ; the chamber is 5 feet 5 inches 
high ; the arcosolia 4 A^et 10 inches high ; the locitli sides i foot 6 inches 
high. Outside is a sort of passage, 6 feet 9 inches high, and about 5 feet 
broad and long, in the face of the rock, which shelves. 

A third tomb was double, with two parallel passages, one 4 feet, the 
other (west) \\ feet wide ; both 6 feet 6 inches long ; leading to the tomb 
doors. The w'est chamber had three arcosolia, one on each of the three 
walls, and under them each two loculi, the feet pointing to the chamber. 
The east chamber is rudely square. Steps lead down in the passages, or 
vestibules, to the doors. 

There are perhaps a dozen tombs in all on this side of Shefa Amr. 
Before the door of one a rolling-stone has fallen. Another has a vestibule, 
with steps leading down sideways, and three locjtli within. 

The most important tombs are howc\'er those on the south, two of 
which are ornamented with designs. 

The chief tomb has a facade 4 feet 8 inches long and 3 feet 6 inches 

hieh, with a door 2 feet broad, 2 feet 
7 inches high, having an arch in front 
measuring 3 feet 8 inches across at the 
bottom and 3 feet in height. There 
is a vestibule to the tomb, formed by 
the slant of the face of the rock ; the 
two sides of the vestibule being 3 feet 
6 inches long. The fa9ade is covered 
with the design of a vine with grapes, 
in bold relief, and small figures of 
birds are introduced. Each vine-plant grows out of a pot. Each side of 
the door is an effaced Greek inscription, with rosettes in lozenges below 
and birds above. 



On the left : 

KXl'E .... A 

On the rioht : 

. . EAR . . MR . . E . . 

On the left side wall of the vestibule is a bas-relief of a lion and a small 


:,^^ Mr^^r- ^z^-%ip 


animal, perhaps a cub ; on the right a lion, a cub, and a bird. The drawing 
is \-ery primitive and has a Byzantine appearance, resembling the work on 

coins of the fifth and sixth centuries, and far less true to nature than the 
figures on the lintels of the synagogues. 

The interior of the tomb is reached by steps, and the chamber is about 
6 feet hieh and i foot 10 inches below the outside. It has three loculi : 
one at the back, one parallel to the side of the chamber ^ ?^/ ^ 

on the left, one at an angle on the right. The first 6 feet ^^ ' ' ^'' ' 

by 3 feet, the second 5 feet 2 inches by 3 feet i inch, 

the third 5 feet 7 inches by 2 feet 10 inches. 

arcosolia in the centre are 5 feet 5 inches from the fioor. 

The loculi have the rock in front 2 feet high. The 

back locnlus has a pilaster, with lluting, both vertical and spiral, standing 




on a sort of rude base, ll has a vine running along the wall in lln^ 

corners, above the arch of the airosoliiini, with birds in the: vine ; and 

there are mouldings and tracery round the arch, 'i'hcrc arc two bosses, 

J". _ 


■■■ i 



about nine feet diameter, in the rock at the back, above the grave ; and 
on the bosses crosses cut in relief. 

The left-hand loculus has similar bosses at the back, and a Latin cross 
with four half-globes in the four angles of the cross. Above the arch of 
the arcosoliwn in front are other crosses in low relief in circles, and a 
palm-branch (a mortuary emblem). The right-hand loculus has a cross 
on the wall at the back in relief, and rosettes in circles in front (see 
.Sketches). It appears that these bosses cannot have been made <•?/?<:';- the 
loculi were cut. 

The tomb east of this is quite plain. The third tomb, also east 
of it, now used as a granary, has a design of a Latin cross in a 
circle, with four globes, and on each side of the circle the figure of 
a bird in relief. 

With regard to these tombs, it appears : 

I St. They are not in the cemetery of the older tombs with rolling- 
stones and kokini, or locidi like kokiiii, which are on the other side of the 

2nd. They have crosses cut on them, which cannot (from their position 



ill relief o\\ the bosses, the bosses themselves beiiiL; also in high rehef) be 
considered later than the tombs. 

3rd. The western tomb has a Greek inscription, in which the form of 
the; i and /i seem to indicate late date. 

4th. The lions are e.xecuted in Byzantine style. 

5th. A tomb with locnli like this occurs at e 1 M i d i e h (sec Sheet 
XIV.), and is undoubtedly Christian. 

We may therefore safely attribute these tombs to Christian times, 
perhaps to the Byzantine period. The door of the western tomb closes 
from within, not from without, as in most tombs ; thus it did not hide any 
part of the ornamented facade. 

The Church has been rebuilt on old foundations. The apse was 
found standing as high as the cornice ; the south wall up to the sill of the 
windows ; the north wall stood about one yard above-ground. A pillar was 
found, now placed in the south-west corner. It has a Byzantine appearance. 
The church is twenty-seven feet broad, thirty-seven feet six inches along the 
S(.)uth wall, with one apse, seventeen feet diameter, on the east. It seems 
therefore, from plan and details, most probably earlier than the Crusading- 
period, and is probably fifth and sixth century work, perhaps of the same 
date with the last-noticed tombs. 

'Going out of the village towards tlie south, upon a platform now partly cultivated, one 
meets with the vestiges of a church which measured thirty-five paces in length from cast to 
west, and twenty-two in breadth from north to south. Some courses in cut stone lying 
over upon the others without cement, and belonging to two of the walls which bounded the 
enclosure, were still upright. The edifice, now completely destroyed, seems to have possessed 
three aisles, separated by monolithic columns, of which only two mutilated trunks are left ; 
but similar shafts, more or less broken, have been taken away and transported elsewhere. 
Like the Church of St. Phocas, it had a tesselated pavement, for numerous little cubes of 
mosaic are strewn about the ground. Formerly it may have been the prinicipal church of 
the township ; perhaps it succeeded a synagogue.' — Guerin. 

Sheikh Abreik (Li) has evidently been a place of importance. 
A sarcophagus, with bas-reliefs of wreaths and bulls' heads, was found 
close to camp. The hill beneath the village is full ot caves, as 
Miigharet es Sih and INIiigharet el Jehennum, already 
described. Not far off are the ruins of el Is-hakiyeh; and the 
hill north of the village contains one of the most extensive and im- 
portant rock cemeteries found in Galilee. 


On the hill nortli of the camp lour loinbs were explored. One iuul lis 
door to the west, and two roiiQh kokivi on each side wall of the chamber. 
An inner chamber had kok-iin just commenecd, and only about one foot 
long. The chambers were five feet hi^h. A .second consisted of a rude 
chamber, with three rude recesses for locitli, six feet high ; the door to the 
south-west. A third was a chamber with its door to the west, measuring 
seventeen feet six inches inside, ami seven feet six inches width, with 
three koki?fi on each side wall, and at the farther end one niche to the 
right, and two to the left, and ihri'e at the back, all ai)parently un- 
finished kokini. This tomb has two i)eculi;u-ities. It seems to have 
had a masonry door, a fragment of lintcd remaining; ami in the lloor 
of the chamber a locnlus is sunk, with a rounded head, the body lying 
across the chamber near the back wall. Niches for lamps occur in the 
first tomb, and the recesses in the second very probably were intended to 
hold sarcophagi. 

A little farther west was a fourth tomb ; its entrance was on the south- 
east. The chamber was ten feet wide, twenty-eight feet long, with three 
kokini on each side wall ; one choked. At the farther end two loadi, two 
feet six inches broad and about six feet long, one on each side wall under 
rude arcosolia. The end wall had an arcosoliniii, with two loculi side by 
side, parallel to the line of the wall. The locitli were shelves raised about 
two feet from the floor ; the arcosolia being about five feet from the floor 
at the top of the arch. 

The door in this case was also structural, one jamb still remaining 
in situ. 

The second hill east of the last was examined. The tombs here have 
been much destroyed, and in some cases are covered over with earth. 
One, with its door to the south-west, was a rude chamber, with an inner 
chamber having three rude locitli. There is a well on this hill with a 
circular mouth, carefully cut in the rock, and a .sarcophagus with a rounded 

The north side of the hill on which Sheikh Abreik stands has 
two large caves in it. One has a sort of shaft or chimney, and was 
probably a reservoir from which water was thus drawn. 

The tombs were also examined — one near the cave just noticed, the 
other close to Mugharet el J e h e n n u m. The first consisted of 

{SHEET r] 






three cave-like ante-chambers side by side, opening to tlie north-east. 

From these three doors led to three 

square chambers, communicating by 

side doors ; and, at the back, three 

more doors led to three chambers, 

having each a loathes right and left 

and one at the back. The chambers , 

were about ten feet square. The 

second tomb had also an entrance 

from the north-east, three feet wide. 

The chamber within was fifteen feet 

long and nine feet wide, with three 

kokim on each side wall. A door at 

the back led to the inner chamber, ten 

feet square, with a loculus on the right 

and one on the left and another at the 

back, seven feet six inches long, three feet three inches broad, and one 

foot six inches deep ; the top of the arcosolintn being four feet iour inches 

from the iloor. The loculus front wall is eight inches thick ; the back wall 

projects four inches, to support a slab above ; thus the loculus is only two 

feet three inches wide inside. The outer chamber is filled with earth to 

within three feet of the roof; and the entrance is very rude and has crumbled 

away. The kokim are filled with earth, and are very rough. The door to 

the inner chamber is also rough. The chamber itself is better cut ; the floor 

is partly covered ; the roof is slightly arched on the section from door to back. 

The next group consists apparently of later tombs, better cut, and 
includes the large system, called ' The Great Caves.' The former tombs 
were ruder and seemed older, having kokim. It will be remarked that the 
inner chamber of the seventh tomb has loculi apparently later and better 
cut than the older kokim. The present group consists of seven fine 
tombs, besides the great caves. 

The first entered was a chamber 20 feet long, 1 5 feet broad ; the roof 
slightly pointed across, 4 feet 10 inches high at the sides, 7 feet in the 
middle. The rock is a very soft white marl. The entrance is on the west, 
and is broken. On each side wall are two arcosolia, containing each two 

loculi, sunk in a shelf about i foot hiirh. 

VOL. I. 

The top of the anosolium 



is 4 Icct 4 inches from tlu; lloor. 'I"he locuU arc 6 tcct S inches 
lone ;ind i feet hroail. Al thi; back of the sliclf is a loculus at 
right angles (its lengtii parallel to side of chamber), of etinal dimen- 
sions with the others. Two projecting piers, with an arch above, occur 
in from of the end loculus at the back of the shelf in which the other 
two are cut. 


The arcosolia on the back wall of the chamber are similar, luit the 
shelves are i foot 6 inches from the Hoor, and the two end loculi are sunk 
in shelves 8 inches higher again, with piers and an arch in front, as at the 
side of the chamber ; the dimensions being the same. 

The second tomb was still more interesting, having been originally a 
kokim tomb, enlarged with loculi. The chamber first entered had its door 
to the south, and was lo feet square, with three kokim to the left, all 
choked. At the back a door with an arch, 5 feet high, leads to a chamber 
5 feet 5 inches high, having a loculus on the right, and the left, and a third 
at the back. All the loctdi in the tomb are about 2 feet broad and 6i feet 
long, with ledges for the slabs 6 inches thick. 


The roofs are all flat and well cut. The kokiiii have floors on the level 
of the floor of the chamber. The right-hand /cvv/Zz/.s- in the chamber at the 
back has a place for the head of the corpse — a stone pillow. The locttli 
are 2 feet 6 inches deep. 

On the right of the first chamber there were originally three kokim, 
but these have been destroyed ; one only remaining. The side of the 
chamber has Iieen cut away, and a second formed on the right, 5 feet 

5 inches high, with a locnlns on the right and another on the let't (north 
and south). A door leads to a second chamber 6 feet high, which has an 
arcosolhn/i on each of its north, south, and east walls. On the north the 
arcosoliiiiit contains three locitli, like those just described, 2 feet 6 inches 
deep, 2 feet broad, 6 feet 6 inches long, with a passage between the two 
at the sides. The eastern arcosolimn has three similar locitli and a recess 
on the north, with a loculiis 6 inches higher, having its length east and 
west, with a stone i)illow at its east end. The arcosolinni on the south 
wall covers also three locnli, and a fourth, raised 6 inches higher, on the 
east, placed lengthwise noith and south. 

In this tomb an inscription in red paint (IIAPGENHS, ' of the virgin'), 
was found over the arch of the last-noticed arcosoliitiii, on the south wall 
of the inner eastern chamber, close to the roof of the chamber. 

Immediately east of the last is a third tomb, lower down the hill, almost 
entirely choked at the entrance ; the door is to the south, with a rude cave 
as a vestibule. The first chamber is 6 feet long, 7 feet broad, with a 
koka each side 7 feet long, 5 feet broad. A passage, now stopped, led 
from the back of the left-hand koka, probably to another tomb. An inner 
chamber on the north is entered from the last by a door 3 feet broad. It 
is 7 feet square, and has three arcosolia, under each of which are three 
locnli, 7 feet long, side by side ; the feet to the chamber. This tomb is 
therefore an example of the transition style. 

The fourth tomb is entered by a rude passage 17 feet long on the east. 
The chamber is 27 feet long and 7 feet 6 inches across. On each of 
the side walls are three arcosolia, under which are shelves 2 feet 6 inches 
high ; in each shelf four locnli are sunk to the level of the chamber-floor, 

6 feet long, 2 feet broad ; three side by side, with feet to the chamber ; 
one across at the end. A similar arcosolinni at the end of the chamber, 
with a shelf containing three locnli, with feet to the chamber. At the 



back two rock piers and an arch, antl behind thcni a locuKis under an 
arcosolium, 7 feet long (nortli and south), 4 feel wide, and 2 feet 6 inches 
deep. The arcosolia have all \-cry (lat arches, and the tops are 4 feet from 
the floor, the chamber being about 5 feet high. 

Two more tombs were found a little lat(;r, west of the village. One 
was entered by a shaft 10 feet deep, having three locic/i on three sides, 
and a door on the north. It was almost entirely filled with soil. The 
door led to a chamber, with a lociiiiis to the right and one at the back, under 
arcosolia, that at the back having a stjuare set-back to the arch, by way 
of ornament. On the left an archway led to an inner chamber, uiih (vco- 
solia at the back and to the right (north and west) ; each held four loculi, 
disposed as in the last tomb, three in a shelf, and side by side, one across 
at the end. The arch of the northern arcosolinvt had a double set-back 
for ornament. 

The next, or sixth tomb, was broken in on the south ; a chamber with 
three kokiiii to the north and three to the west ; the doorway in the 
south-east corner. The door was still in situ. It consisted of a square 
block, with two jambs extending inwards, forming three sides of a stone 
box, as it were, the stones 2 feet high and broad, 6 inches thick. 

The seventh tomb is still larger. It was opened with difficulty, and 
found nearly full of soil, which had run in through the door. It had a 
second door to one chamber at the side, still in place. The first door 
led to three chambers running north, one beyond the other ; the first two 
with loculi each side, the inmost with three loctdi on three walls. Two 
small dwarf pillars, rock-cut, flank the door to this inmost chamber. 
From the right-hand locitlus of the first chamber an entrance has been 
broken into the back of a loculus to the left of another chamber. This 
chamber has, on the right, an airosoliuin, with four lociili sunk in a shelf, 
and, on the north, a similar arcosoliiini. On the south an arch leads to a 
square chamber, and this, again, to a second, farther south, which appears 
to be the chamber first hewn, having two kokim to the right (or east) 
and a door on the west. The rock outside is so cut that the first-mentioned 
door and this one both lead out to the face of the rock. The western 
door was i)i situ in this tomb also, and consisted of a lintel, above which 
small stones were packed to the top of the doorway inside, whilst beneath 
it a stone, flanked by two jambs, remained in place. 

[SHEET v.] 



The Great Caves are west of the village, on the side of the 
northern hill, separated by a valley from the village hill, and are entered by 
a door on the south-east. They were discovered by women digging for chalk 
(Huwarah), and had to be re-opened for exploration. They run into 
the hill loo feet, and consist of five chambers on one level, and a sixth on 
a higher level (see Plan scale, ^^. The chambers are numbered from the 
inmost outwards on the Plan. 

These caves are so irregular that a minute descri]jtion is impossible. 
There appeared to have been two entrances, one to Chamber No. i, one 
to Chamber No. 6. Chamber No. 2 has a door opposite the door of 
Chamber No. 5, and a passage probably connects the two, but both doors 
are in sila closed. Chamber No. 5 only communicates with No. 6 
through a hole in the back of an arcosoliiiDi. The system contains loculi 
principally, and kokini in Chambers i, 2, 4, 5 and 6 : places for thirty-five 
full-grown bodies in all, and one small recess, perhaps for a child (marked c). 

Chamber No. 1 is apparently unfinished and full of earth. The 
entrance is 2 feet broad, 2;^ feet high. Marks of the instrument used in 



cutting the rock, which is here so soli that il can he carved with a knilV, 
show some sort of pick to have been used, and a ilal inslniinciu, ."..ths oi' 
an incli broad. 

Chamber No. 2 is, on the average, 5 feet 6 inches high ; the locidi -.wv. 
sunk to the same level with the lloor, and have rock walls 2 feet high ; 
the koka is 3 feet high ; the roof of the chamber is flat, but the side cham- 
ber is arched. The door here, and in No. 5, is of one great stone with 
two jambs. 

Chamber No. 3 averages 7 feet in height ; tl 

u- arciK^oI/a are 5 feet from 
the lloor ; the walls of the 
loiiili 2 iect 2 inches high. 
A hole {a) in the roof of the 
inmost part of the chamber 
leads up to No. 4. 

Chamber No. 4, on tlu; 
higher level, is unfinished ; 
about 5 feet 3 inches high ; 
the floor 7 feet 6 inches 
above the floor of No. 3. 

Chamber No. 5, on the 
lower level, averages 6 feet 
in height ; the entrance was 
made from the side of one; 
of the two kokim, which are 
raised about a foot above the 
lloor, with a step or bench 
in front of them. 

Chamber No. 6 is the 

y4 principal, ox painted chamber. 

Its original door seems to 

have been on the south-west, 
where are two steps. On this 
wall is a koka to the left on 
entering, and a second koka entrance {b) to the right. The slab closing 
this was still in situ ; the passage was found carefully packed with small 
stones. The chamber within was full of earth, fallen through the roof. 



Many crumbling- bones were found, and two small tear-bottles (one 
broken) just outside the slab closing the passage. The chamber was 
excavated as far as shown. 

The ornamentation of the tomb (see .Sketch) consists of rude repre- 
sentations in red paint, of a very inartistic character ; b and c were repre- 
sentations apparently of trees ; perhaps, however, meant for the golden 
candlestick ; d and c, wheels, and another design below (see Sketch, which 
looks from b to a). At f ivy is represented, palm-branches, and lines 
horizontal and vertical ; g represents festoons, as on the side of a 
sarcophagus ; at / are crossed lines and dots ; at /•, a wreath at the back of 
the loctibts. On the roof of the chamber a circle with rays from it. 

No Christian symbols occur in any of the tombs at Sheikh Abreik, or 
in this chamber. The work is rude, and very unsymmetrical, as the plan 
and sketch show. There appears to be an imitation of classical style in 
the ornamentation of some of the locitli. 

A coin of Agrippa, and a second, obverse Romulus and Remus under 
the wolf, reverse a head, were picked up. A capital with acanthus leaves, 
well executed in white stone, was found near the village. Much pottery 
and glass, fragments of osteophagi, and foundations of masonry of mode- 
rate size were found. 

A head, carved in white marble, 7 inches high, was shown at 
Nazareth, as coming from .Sheikh Abreik. There is every reason to 
consider these ruins as belonging to the later Jewish times, about 
the Christian era.'" 

Explored 30th November, 3rd and 4th December, 1872. 
The distance of this place from Senn'mieh (see above, sub voce) seems to agree with the 
distance as given in Josephus of Gaba, where /Ebutius had his headquarters, from Simonias. 
Gucrin therefore proposes to identify tlie place with Gaba. It appears from Josephus 
(Bell. Jud. III. iii. i, and .\ntii]. XV. viii. 5) that Gaba was in Galilee, near the ' threat Plain,' 
near Carmel, and that it was a strong place. The conditions seem all answered by these 
jiositions of Sheykh Abreik. Guerin found on the hill the foundations of a building sixteen 
paces long by fourteen broad, containing a cistern, and built of great stones, which seemed 
to him to have been part of a tower. He also found columns lying buried in the earth, and 
a wely which appeared to have succeeded a Christian Church. 

N.B. — The Tells not enumerated appear to be natural elevations. 

Tell Abu H u w a m (J g). — A small mound covered with 

scattered squared stones. 

* There are evidences, however, of Christian occupation of the site. — -Sec Miigharet 
c 1 J e h e n n u ni . — C. R. C. 


Tell 'Ami- (or Lei yet Zahluk) (K h). — A hirL;e Lirlilicial 
mound with stones on it. 

Tell Be d e i \v i ye h (I\I h). — A large mound widi ruins of a 
small K Ii a n and a well at its foot. 

Tell el !•" a r (^K h). — A small mound, a[)[)arently artificial, with 
traces of ruins. 

T e 1 1 (i halt a h (L i). — An artificial mound. 

Tell K c i sa n (L g). — A large artificial mound in tlu! plain. 

Gu<frin gives the measurement of the mound at 350 jiaccs in length from west to cast, by 
125 in its greatest breadth ; it is about 130 feet high. It is ascended at the north and south 
by a kind of slope produced by artificial depression of the ground. The plateau on the top 
is covered with fragments of pottery, and among them cubes of mosaic; heaps of stones from 
buildings now destroyed are also scattered about. On this Tell Saladin had his head finarters 
during the siege of St. Jean d'Acre by Guy de Lusignan, Richard Coeur de Lion, and Philip 

Tell el Khiar (Kg). — A low mound; fragments of ])0ttery 

and glass. 

Tell el Kussis (K i). — A mound with very steep sides; 
apparently artificially formed. 

Tell el M u w a j e h (L i). — Apparently artificial. 

Tell en Nahl (Kg). — An artificial mound; on it a stone 
drafted, and the boss dressed ; the draft half an inch deep, 2 inches broad. 

Tell e s S e m a k (J h). — A low hillock by the sea. It is covered, as 
well as the shore near it, with ruins of dressed masonry, and there appears 
to have been a place of some importance at this site. Pottery, glass, and 
marble were found, and there are tombs east of it, in the sides of Carmel. 
Quantities of the ashlar blocks have been taken away, the holes remaining 
whence they were dug out. A fragment of a capital and coins (Byzantine) 
were here found by the Germans. Shafts and capitals of Byzantine appear- 
ance were also dug up. Fine building stones were transported to Haifa 
to build houses with. Large quantities of copper coins of Constantine 
were found, and a Crusading coin, with the date 127 — . The tombs are 
rude caves, with locidi (see Sycaminon, Sect. A). 

These ruins are close to of another place, which according to Guerin bears the 
name of Khurbet Tennaraeh. The same traveller calls attention to a discrepancy between 

[sheet /.] ARCILEOLOGY. 353 

llic ' Iiincraiy ' of the Bordeaux Pilgrim and tluU of the Rabbi Ishak Chelu, who travelled in 
Palestine in the year 1333. The latter says that from Cxsarea one goes by sea to Kalamun, 
and from Kalamun to Haifa. But the pilgrim places Kalamun between Ptolemais and 
Sycaminos, that is, north of Haifa. Gue'rin iiroposes therefore to read the Pilgrim thus, 
(i) Civitas Ptolcmaida : (2) Mutatio Sycaminos \ii. miUia: (5) Mansio Calamon iii. 
millia. That is to say, he would substitute .Sycaminos for Calamon, which agrees with the 
distance between Ptolemais and Haifa or .Sycaminos. It is true that the distance from 
Haifa to Tell es Semak is not more than three miles. If the transposition is not allowed, 
then these ruins should be those of Sycaminos. 

Tell cs Semn (K h). — A small artificial mound. 

Tell esh S hem mam (Li). — Ditto, ditto. 

Tell es Subat (K g). — A low mound. Remains of pottery and 

Tell e t T a n t u r (L f), — A natural mound, covered with a 
few stones. Said to have been a redoubt in the siege of Acre. It 
is near el K 'a d e h, i.e., ' the place of sitting down,' sciliccf, to besiege the 

Umm esh Shukf (J i). — Ruins of a modern village, with 
a palm-tree on a cliff. Behind this place (probably one of the Druse 
villages ruined by Ibrahim Pacha) arc two rock-cut tombs, one 
10 leet square, with kokiin 5 feet 6 inches long, and 2 feet wide 
— three at the back, one each side. On each side also is a loculus 

5 feet long, with a pillow of stone at the end farthest from the 
door. The second tomb has a door 2 feet 5 inches high, 2 feet 
3 inches wide, with an arch in front 2 feet thick, 4 feet wide, 5 feet 

6 inches high. The tomb chamber is 5 feet 6 inches long, 6 feet 
9 inches broad, 5 feet 4 inches high, with a loculus to the left under an 
arcosoliimi, and a second at the back. Lower down, below the scarp in 
which these are cut, are some rude caves, one of which seems to have 
had kokiiii. 

Visited nth March, 1873. 

Yafa(N i). — A system of domical chambers in three storeys is here 

cut in the rock. The entrance is from the south into a rough cave, from 

which a passage leads to four round chambers. In their floors are holes 

about 3 feet in diameter leading to the second tier, and in these holes to the 

VOL. I. 45 



third. The chambers are about 4 feet high, ilic upper storey 5 feel high, t 


t> — 






ili.uneler about \2 leet to each ehaiiibe'r. 
The holes have sunk rims to receive a 
cover. Each chamber communicates l)y 
a door with those round it. The instru- 
ment used was a pick 2\ inches broad. 
The rock is so soft that it can be very 
easily cut. Niches occm- in the walls 
for lamps. There were ten chambers in 
all, as far as was ascertained. The air 
was so foul as to put out the candles. 

It seems most probable that the places 
in question were granaries, like the 
modern Metamir, or grain pits found 
at the villag-es. 

\'isited 17th November, 1872. 

Yafa is the Japhia of Joshua xix. 1 2, and the Japha of Josephus which was taken and 
destroyed by Titus (see p. 117). Guerin states that when one of the chambers was cleared 
out in 1869, a vase was found containing about two hundred coins of Roman emperors. 
According to his observations, there are two of the subterranean systems, one of which 
is described above, both of which have suffered considerable damage since they were first 
visited by him in 1870. He found nothing of the ancient town, except five or six frag- 
ments of columns, broken stones, and about thirty cisterns. The city formerly included 
three adjacent hills. 


The settled inhabitants on this sheet are Moslems, Druses, and Greek 
Christians, with Jews, Maronites, and Europeans in the towns. The total 
population of the sheet is 28,050 (according to the returns available) in 
316 square miles. Subtracting the populations of Shefa 'Amr, Haifa, and 
Nazareth, the three chief towns, the result gives an average of 450 souls 
for the population of each village, whence a rough estimate could be made 
of the total population of Palestine (compare Sheet VHL). 

The H e n a d y Arabs are survivors of a strong tribe which was 
headed by A k i 1 A g h a . 

There are also Arabs north of Shefa 'Amr, near 'Abellin, called 'A r a b 
et Tuwal. Near Shefa 'Amr, to the east, there are Arabs of the 
tribe of Ghareifat (see Sheet VTH.), with el Hajeirat and 
Mureisat. To the south and south-west of the town are the H u 1 f , 
with those mentioned on Sheet VHI. 

There have been three attempts at colonisation in this district. First, 
by Morocco Jews, at Shefa 'Amr. Some thirty families settled as 
agriculturists before 1850. They were still at work in 1867, but the 
colony is now extinct. In 1867 a colony of about twelve Germans es- 
tablished itself at Semunieh, and endeavoured to cultivate the plain, 
living in huts. They all fell ill, and died of fever. 

The third colony is that at Haifli (see Section A). This is described 
by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake ('Quarterly Statement,' April, 1S73, P- 62). 
Further information, collected from Mr. Schumacher, head of the colony in 
1875, is as follows : 

There were 311 souls in the colony. In the school modern 
languages, geometry, drawing, geography, history, mathematics, singing, 
music, etc., are taught. 600 acres are cultivated, and over 100 acres 



of vineyard and garden ; 75 licad of cattle, 250 sheep, j^oats, .ind 
hogs, 8 teams of horses, and a superior threshing machine, belong to 
the colony. 

The trades practised include architecture, stone-cutting, waggon- 
making, smith's work, joinery, copper and tin smithery, shoe-making, 
tailoring, harness-making, turning, soap-making, vintner's, butcher's, and 
farmer's work, and quarrying. 

Olive oil, Castile soap, and articles of olive-wood had been made, but 
the colony was then suffering froni want of capital. There is a good 
windmill for tlour-making, with English machinery, and an olive mill and 
press from the same makers. 

A tannery was just being put u[) in 1875. One general shop existed in 
the main street of the colony. 

The Nazareth road has been [jut in ordm' by the colonists, who have 
also been employed in building the Orphanage in Nazareth, designed by 
]\Ir. Schumacher, who contracted to build it. 

In 1872 the Government sold the north half of the Plain of Esdraelon 
and many of the Nazareth villages (Sheikh Abreik being one) to a 
banker's family named Sursuk ; twenty-three villages and some seventy 
square miles were obtained for _y^20,ooo, according to the statement of 
Mr. Zeller, of Nazareth. 

She fa 'A m r (' Healing of Omar') is locally supposed to derive its 
name from the fact that Dhahr el 'Amr here recovered from a 
severe illness. It is really a corruption of the old name Shefaram d;>-iec 
one of the seats of the Sanhedrim after the destruction of Jerusalem. 

The Druse population of Carmel now numbers only 700 to 800 souls. 
A number of Druse villages on the mountain are said to have been destroyed 
in the time of Ibrahim Pacha. The name el M i k t e 1 e h (' the Place of 
Slaughter') has possibly some connection with this. The Druses are said 
to sacrifice yearly at el Mahrakah, whence the name of that place 
(' place of burning ') is possibly derived. They also pay vows offered to 
the wooden statue of Elijah in the monastery on Carmel ; and a boy was 
brought to have his locks cut in the cave of the chapel, in performance of 
a vow, in 1875. 

Traditions are connected with the names of 'A t h 1 i t and e d D e 1 r 
as follows : 

\_SIIEET /".] ETHNOGRArJlY. 357 

'A t h 1 i t is said by the inhdbitants to have been besieged for seven 
years by Melek ed Dhahr (Bibars) without success. This is possibly true, 
as it resisted the Sultan el Melek Moaddham in 12 19 a.d.. and was only 
taken in 1291 by el Melek el Ashraf el Salah ed Din Khiilil (Rey, p. 100). 

Ed D e i r is said also to have been destroyed by el M e 1 e k e d 
D h a h e r, and the prior of the monastery, whose name was given by an 
inhabitant of the cave as Ful es Serjilani, is said to have been 
killed. The place was however destroyed before the time of Melek ed 
Dhahr Bibars in 123S .v.d. 


OROGRArnv. — This sheet contains 252"8 square miles, and includes the 
Sea of Galilee. The watershed of the country commences near the 
western corner, and passing to the east of Iksal, runs north to Ain Mahcl ; 
from there it follows the hills to esh Shejerah, and passing over the plains 
to the east of Lubieh, bends round to the west to the hills above Nimrin ; 
it then crosses the low ridge on which is Kh. Umm el 'Amed, and finds 
its way north-west through the hills of the Shaghur, passing Deir Hanna 
on the east ; then, bending to the west, follows the ridge round the Wady 
el Khi^irb to the northern boundary of the sheet. 

Mount T a b o r is one of the most prominent objects of this sheet. 
It forms the southern end of a low range of hills covered with brushwood 
and woods. To the east the country is broad plains, which descend by 
two well-defined steps to the Sea of Galilee. All these plains are covered 
with basaltic debris, and are of very rich, fertile soil ; but are poorly 
cultivated. The first step leads to the brow which overhangs the Sahel 
el Ahma. We look down on one of the richest plains in the country, 
sloping gradually down on both sides to the Wady Fejjas, with an 
abundant supply of water. There is no doubt this might be made a most 
fertile district. It is now given up to wandering tribes of Arabs, who 
plant a little barley in places. The next step we look down on the Sea 
of Galilee, with only a very narrow fringe of coast-line between the shores 
and the high ground shutting it in. The country in this south-eastern 
portion of the sheet, from the Damascus Road, passing up W^ady el Mady, 
past Lubieh on the west, to the Wady el Hamam on the north, may be all 
described as rolling plains of rich land, capable of bearing large crops of 


barley, but now lying waste. To the west of that district there are high 
Hmestone hills, divided by two great valleys, running west, the Wady 
Rummaneh north of Kefr Kenna, which is really a broad plain, well- 
cultivated and shut in by hills; and the Sahel el Buttauf, which in winter 
becomes a broad marsh, owing to the narrow ridge at Kh. Umm el'yVmed, 
stopping its drainage into the Wady el Hamam. These two broad plains 
are separated by a high ridge of limestone mountains, called the Jebel 
Tor'an, or the Jebel er Rahweh. To the north of the Sahel el Buttauf 
the country is hilly, covered with brushwood ; the plains in the valleys 
only being cultivated, with good olive-groves, figs, and arable land. This 
extends as far east as Yakuk. Here the basalt rocks crop out again, and 
shut in the Plain of Genesareth, which has been formed by the debris 
carried down by the three streams that run through it. The great chasm 
in the limestone rocks, through which the Wady Hamam stream forces 
its way, is the end of the second step observed to the south, as it sustains 
the Plain of Hattin. The first step seems to have terminated in the Kurn 
Hattin, leaving the northern portion beyond the Wady el Hamam without 
being found in steps. From this forniation a flow of water is to be 
expected down to the sea, which we find in the three streams that 
water the plain. 

The northern shores of the Sea of Galilee are low, rising ground, 
covered with basaltic lava and debris. This district is not cultivated, being 
given up to wandering tribes of Arabs, who find enough to feed their tlocks 
upon. The water supply of this basaltic region, which here hems in the Jordan 
itself is deficient. This, and a portion of the sheet north (No. IV.), is the 
only part of the Jordan's course that is shut in by hills and does not run 
through an open plain. 

The Jordan flows into the lake a rapid stream, with a descent of about 
sixty feet a mile. It naturally affects the water of the lake, which in the 
dry season stands about six inches lower than in the wet. This can be 
seen by the white marks left by the winter water on the stones in the 

The Jordan leaves the lake without any great fall ; it flows gently for 
a mile, and then becomes more rapid, with a fall similar to that on 
Sheet IX. 


ToroGRAriiY. — There are thirty-three villages in the present sheet, 
divided under three governors of districts. The three districts are the 
Kadha Tiibariych, the Kadha Nasireh, and esh Shaghur. The whole 
of the district of Tiberias, or the Kadha Tubariyeh, on the west side of 
the Jordan, is included in this sheet ; the other governments are partly 
on other sheets. They are all under the IMutaserrif of Acca. 

The whole population of the sheet is approximately, of which 
S.oooare Moslems, lOO Christians, and 1,000 Jews. 

The description of the villages is in alphabetical order for the districts 
to which they belong. The numbers of the inhabitants are only approxi- 
matelv estimated. 

There are seventeen villages in the Kadha Tubariyeh. 

El "A b e i d i y e h (O i). — Stone and mud houses, built on a round 
tell, close to the Jordan river. It contains about 200 Moslems, and the 
plain is cultivated. There are several mills in the neighbourhood. 
There are a few small palms, but not many trees, round the village. 

El Hadetheh(P i). — Stone village, containing 250 Moslems, on 
cultivated plain, growing barley, etc. No trees or gardens near. Good 
spring of water and cisterns in the village. 

H a 1 1 i n (P g). — Large village of well-built stone houses, containing 
about 400 ^loslems. It is surrounded by gardens filled with fruit-trees 
and olives ; the plain is cultivated. There is a large spring of good 
water to the south-west of the village. 
Guerin states the population to be 700. 

Kefr Sabt (O h). — Stone houses, built of basalt; contains about 

300 Moslems. The plain around is arable land, without trees. There 

are two springs near, and cisterns in the village. 

Professor Socin states that Kefr Sabt was presented in 1870 by the Turkish Govern- 
ment to some of the Algerines who followed Abd el Kader to S)Tia ; the ■sTllage was then 
exempted from taxation for eight years. 

Kefr Kama (O h). — Basaltic stone houses, containing about 200 
Moslems, situated in plain of arable soil. There is a spring at the 
village, and cisterns. 

Kh. Abu Shusheh {Qg). — A few wretched hovels, all built of 
basalt, roimd a mill. It contains about 20 Moslems. The plain to the 

{sheet r/.] TOrOGRAPHY. 361 

east is only slii^htly culiivated by the inhabitants. There are several 
ruined mills near. 

L u b i e h (O h). — Large village of stone houses, built of good 
materials, containing about 400 Moslems (according to Guerin, 700). 
It is situated on the to[) of a limestone ridge, with olives, figs, and arable 
land. There are many good cisterns in the village. 

El M e j d e 1 (P g). — Mud and stone village, containing 80 Moslems ; 
situated in the jjlain of partly arable soil ; no gardens. 

M e s h a h (O i). — Houses, chiefly of basaltic stone, a few of mud and 
stone; contains about 100 Moslems; situated in arable plain, without 
trees. The water supply is from cisterns in the village. 

Mad her (Q i). — Stone and basalt houses, containing about 250 
Moslems, situated in an arable plain, without trees. Wat(;r supply from 
cisterns and spring on east and west side. 

Nimrin (O g). — Stone houses, containing 250 Moslems, on the 
slope ot the hill, surrounded by arable ground. There are many good 
cisterns in the village. 

Sarona (P h). — Basaltic stone houses, containing about 250 

Moslems, situated in arable plain, without trees. There are two springs 

n(;ar, and several cisterns. 

' Tliis village is diviiled into Uvo quarters ; the houses are rudely built on two hillocks 
rising round a valley. This is watered l"rom a spring enclosed in a sort of small square 
chamber, the floor of which is formed of large slabs, and which has a vaulted vestibule 
built of regular stones.' — Guerin. 

,S e m a k h (O i). — On the shore of the Sea of Galilee, built of stone 
and mud ; contains about 200 Moslems ; cultivated plain, no trees. 

Esh Shejerah (Oh). — Good stone houses, containing about 
150 INIosIems ; surrounded by arable ground and olives and figs. There 
are cisterns in the village, and a spring to the south. 

T 1 1 b a r i y a (Tiberias) (O h). — This is the capital of the district, 
and the residence of the Mudir. It was formerly, in the days of Dhaherel 
'Amr, a walled town ; but the walls and the castle built at the same time 
have lallen into disrepair, and are f^ist tumbling down. It contains about 
2000 inhabitants, 900 of whom are Jews, 100 Christians, and 1000 Mos- 
lems. The Jews are divided into the two sects Sephardim and Askenazim. 
VOL. I. 46 


They both have schools over the tomli of tht; RaMii Meir, lo iIk: south 
of the town. They occupy a (juarlcr of the town lo the south-west, 
and have several synagogues. 

There is a Latin convent close by the shoa; of the lakr, where a 'io.w 
Franciscan monks arc resident, in connection with the monastery at 

Professor Socin, in 1873, states the population of Tiberias at 3000 souls, more than half 
bein" Jews. There are five synagogues of the Ashkenazim and luo of the Sephardim. A 
few Greek Catholic Christians are found here. The south side of the town is not enclosed. 
The ruins of the castle are on the north. The Jewish burial-ground outside the town on the 

Captain A\"ilson, R.E., in 1865 ('Recovery of Jerusalem,' p. 360) mentions the small 
church of St. Peter, north of the town, which dates from the times of the Crusades, but which 
was remodelled in 1869 (Professor Socin). It belonged originally to the Greek Catholics, 
but is now in possession of the Franciscans. The city walls were originally not less than 
twelve feet thick, with round towers at intervals. These walls were destroyed by the terrible 
earthquake of 1837. The castle is partly built of black basalt. 

U m m J u n i e h (() i). — A stone and mud village on the east side of 
the Jordan, on the top of the eastern bank of the river ; contains about 
250 r^Ioslems. The plain round is arable soil : no trees. A mill is worked 
at the village. 

Yemma (P i). — Basaltic stone houses, containing 100 Moslems, in 
arable plain, with no gardens or trees ; two springs near, and cisterns in 
the village. are all the villages of the Government of Tiberias in this sheet. 

The Kadha Nasirah has ten villages, under the Caimakam of 

'A i n Mahil (N h). — Stone village, situated on very high ground, 
surrounded by figs and olives and arable land. It contains about 200 
Moslems, and has near it a fine group of springs. 

El 'Azeir (N h). — A stone village at the foot of the hill. The 
jalain to the north is cultivated with cotton, barley, etc. There are 
about 150 Moslems in the village. Water is supplied by cisterns in the 
village, and a tank. 

El B a i n e h (N g). — A village built on the hillside, containing 200 
Moslem inhabitants. It possesses a spring, and there are olive-groves 


in the plain to the north. The Survey camp in 1875 was placed north- 
west of the village. 

Deburich (N i). — A small village built of stone, with inhabited 

caves ; contains about 200 Moslems and is surrounded by gardens of 

figs and olives. It is situated on the slope of the hill. Water is ob- 
tained from cisterns in the village. 

I ksal (N i). — A large stone village, built in the plain, with a con- 
spicuous square tower, surrounded by gardens, and containing about 400 
Moslems, many caves, and cisterns. 

K e f r K e n n a (N h). — A stone-built village, containing about 200 

Christians and 200 Moslems. There is a Greek church, in which are shown 

some stone troughs and large pottery vessels which are said to have held 

the water chancred into wine at Cana of Galilee. There are also traces of 

the site of a church. The Latin monks from Nazareth say mass here once 

a year. The village is on the side of a hill, and is surrounded by gardens. 

A fine spring of water fiov^s near the village on the north, through fine 

gardens of orange, lemon, fig, and pomegranate, shown on the map. 

Professor Socin (with whom Guerin agrees) gives the population of Kefr Kenna, in 1S73, 
as 600 souls, half Christian and half Moslem. 

PI 1 M e s h h e d (M h). — A small village, Iniilt of stone, surrounding 
the traditional tomb of Jonah — a low building surmounted by two white- 
washed domes. It contains about 300 Moslems, and is situated on the 
top of a high hill, without gardens. The water supply is from cisterns. 

Er Reineh (M h). — A large village of well-built houses, con- 
taining about 500 Christians and Moslems. There are two springs south 
of the village ; one, called 'Ain Kana. It is surrounded by arable ground 
and olive-groves. There is a church in the village. 

Gue'rin gives the jiopulation Soo, half of whom are Moslems and half Schismatic Greeks. 
There are, however, a few Protestants. 

R u m m a n e h (M h). — A small village built of stone, and containing 
about 70 Moslems. It is situated on a low ridge above the plain, and 
there are a few olive-trees around. The water supply is from cisterns 
and a well. 

Tor'an (N h). — A stone village, partly built of basalt, containing- 
about 300 inhabitants, half Christians, half Moslems (accordin-T to 

46 — 2 


Gucrin, 350 Moslems and 200 Greeks). I'lie vilhi^e is silualed al ilie 
foot of the hills, and is surrounded by groves of olives. There is a good 
spring to the north-west. 

The rest of the villages of the sheet are contained in ihe disirici of 
esh Shaghur, as follow : 

'A i 1 b u n (O g). — A stone village, well built, conlaining about 100 
Christians. It is situated on a ridge, surrounded by brushwood, with 
arable land in the valleys. A good spring exists to the west of the 

'Arrabet el Buttauf (N g). — A large stone-buill village, con- 
taining about 1,000 Moslems and Christians, and surrounded by groves 
of olives and arable land. Water is obtained from a large birkeh and 
cisterns. This was the place where Dhaher el 'Anir's family was founded, 
and was long occupied by them. 

Deir Hanna (N g). — High walls all round the village, which is 
built of stone. The walls have round towers, and were built by Dhaher 
el 'Amr's son, S'ad el 'Amr. It is situated on the top of a high ridge, 
and contains about 400 Christians. It is surrounded by olive-groves and 
arable land. Water is obtained from cisterns and an old paved birkeh 
to the north of the village. 

El ]\I a n s Li rah (O f). — A stone-built village, situated on the slope 
of the hill, containing about 1 50 Moslems ; extensive olive-groves to 
south ; water from spring and cisterns. 

Guerin says that the population ot" this village is 200, all Druses. 
El ^lughar (Of). — Large stone-built village, containing about 
1,100 Moslems, Druses, and Christians, situated on the slope of the 
hill, with extensive olive-groves to the south and west ; a large spring 
and birkeh gives a good supply of water. 

Yakuk (P f). — Stone-built village, containing about 200 Moslems, 
surrounded by arable land, and situated at the foot of a hill ; there is a 
good spring, and many cisterns are found in the village. 

Guerin says that, in 1875, the village was reduced to about twenty houses. 

{sheet r/.] ANCIENT SITES. 363 

Ancient Sites on Sheet VI. 

Hukkok (Josh. xix. 34) = Yakuk. 

Chorazin — Kerazeh. 

Rimmon — Rummaneh. 

Arbela (i Mace. ix. 2) = Irbid. 

Tiberias = Tubariya. 

Gath Hepher = El Mesh-lied. 

Chesullotli (Josh. xix. iS) = Iksal. 

Daberath (Josh. xix. 12) = Deburieh. 

Sennabris = Sinn en Nabrah. 

To these Lieut. Conder adds the following : 

Adamah (Josh. xix. 36). — Identified in the Talmud with Damin (Tal. Jer Megilla, 
70 r?), which from the context appears to be the present village of Da mi e h, west of the 
Sea of Galilee. 

Jabneel (Josh. xix. 33). — Called later Caphar Yama (Tal. Jer. Megilla, "joa). 
The present ruin Yc m m a, south-west of the Sea of Galilee. 

Mad on (Josh. xi. i). — Probably the ruin of Mad in near 11 a 1 1 i n. 

Mag da la (Matt. xv. 39). — The present vilLage el Mejdel, north of Tiberias. 

Nahallal (Josh. xix. 15). — Called aftervvards Mahlul (Tal. Jer. INIegilla, 70 a). 
Possibly the present 'A i n M a h i 1, north-east of Nazareth. 

Nekeb (Josh. xix. 33). — Called later Siadetha ( I'al. Jer. Megilla, 70 (?). The 
present ruin S e i y a d e h, west of the Sea of Galilee. 

Rak k a th. — .Vfterwards Tiberias (Tal. Jer. Megilla, 70 <?). 

Tabor ( Mount). — J e b e 1 e t Tor 

Z a a n a i m (Judg. iv. 11). — According to the Talmud and the I'argums the reading is 
IJizaanaim, and from the context (see also Josh. xix. ^x) it appears to be the present village 
Bess (1 m, west of the Sea of Galilee. 

Ziddim (Josh. xix. 35). — According to the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Megilla, 70 a) was 
afterwards called Caphar Hittia, the present H a 1 1 i n. 

'A i 1 b i\ n. — Mentioned in 1561 .\.D. as the place of burial of R. Matthias ben Kharash. 

'A i n ct Tin, near Minieh, is possibly the En Tinah of the Talmud (Midrash 
Koheleth, ii. 2). See INIinieh below. 

B e s s ii m. — In the Talmud the name Bitzaananim is rendered Agnia di Kadesh, the 
' Basin of Kadesh ' (Josh. xix. t,^, and Tal. Jer. Megilla, 70 a). This indicates the meaning 
of the name Bitzaananim (rendered ' by Zaananim ' in the Authorised Version) to be 



' Marshes,' and the more exact form of the word survives in the name, 'A y u n c I 
Bus a s, ' Springs of the Afarshes,' close to Bessum. 

Debilrieh is mentioned by Josephus as Dabaritta (\'ita, 6j), and in the ' ()no- 
masticon,' as Dabira, a village near Tabor. It is probably the Dabathartha of the 'l\ihmi(l 
(Tal. Jer. Orlah, i i.), and is mentioned witli Nain by ^^■illialn of Tyre (Book xxi.) under 
the form Buria. See further. Jebel et Tor. 

H a m m a m Tubariya. — The site of the Biblical liammalh (sec above, i'art I.) 
is mentioned by Josephus (Ant. xviii. 2, 3) as having thermal springs. Vespasian's second 
camp in the expedition against Tiberias was pitched here (B. J. iv. i, 3). The Talmud 
mentions the same place as being a mile from Tiberias (Tal. Bab. Mcgilla, 2 h). 'Ilie name 
Hammath and the later from Enmiaus (used by Josephus), like the Arabic II am mam, 
signify 'a hot bath.' The same jilace is apparently mentioned in tlie Egyptian hieratic MS. 
called 'Travels of a Mohar ' (see 'Records of the Past,' vol. ii.), as early as the time of 
Ramescs II. (about 1350 b.c). It is also very probably the Hemtu of the list of Thoth- 
mes III. (about 1600 r.c), where it appears (No. 16 on list) with otlicr Galilean towns. Pliny 
also mentions these baths (Hist. Nat. v. 15) as well as Marino Sanuto in fourtccntli 
century. Benjnniin of Tudela (1160) places the tomb of Caleb near them. The 
present building over the northern spring (Ham mam Ibrahim B a s h a) was 
erected by Ibrahim Pasha in 1S33 a.d. 

Hat tin. — The Caphar Hittia of the Talmud (see above Ziddim,), is famous for the 
battle of 5th July, 1 187, in which the Christians were defeated by Saladin. R.Samuel 
Bar Simson (1210 a.d.) mentions the tombs of Jethro and Zephaniah at this village. The 
former is still shown under the native name of Neby Sh'aib, (properly Shuaib) by 
which Jethro is called by the Moslems. 

Ik sal, see ChesuUoth (Part I.), is called by Josephus Xaloth (C. J. iii. 3, i ; and Vita, 
§ 44), and in the ' Onomasticon ' Chasalus, eight miles east of Dio-Csesarea (S e f f fi r i e h), 
in the plains near Tabor. It is also possibly the Huxemia of the ' Cartulary of the Holy 
Sepulchre' mentioned with Beisan and Tiberias (No. 124), and as having a cave near it 
— probably that in the great cemetery south of Iksal, called by the natives M a k b a r e t el 
Afranj, or 'Cemetery of the Franks,' the tombs being of the usual form of Christian tombs 

Irbid. — See Arbela in Part I. of this paper. In the Talmud the plain of Arbela is 
frequently mentioned (Bikath Arbal, see Shir-hash-Shirim, Rabba, 34, 3). In the 'Mishna' 
(Pirke Aboth, i. 6), R. Nitai is mentioned as a native of Arbela : his date, according to Chi- 
arini's list (' Prolegomenes du Talmud'), was circa 200 B.C. Josephus also mentions this site 
(Vita, 37). The Casale Ardelie of the Teutonic Knights (1250 a.d.), mentioned with Tibe- 
rias and Beisan, was no doubt the same place, the d being an error of transcription for /'. 

R. Samuel Bar Simson (1210 a.d.) mentions Arbel, between Kefr 'Anan and Hattin, and 
speaks of the tomb of the Rabbi Nitai above-mentioned ; also of the large synagogue built 
by the same Rabbi, then in ruins, situated in the middle of the town ; and also of a ruined 
tomb of Rabbi Zera outside the village. Isaac Chelo places the tombs of Jochabed and 
Dinah near Arbela (in 1322 a.d.), and their names appear to have been then legible on the 
monuments. He also speaks of the tomb of Seth, which is described by R. Gerson of Scar- 
mela (1561 .\.d.) as in a cave with a spring, to which a flight of steps led down. Near the 


tomb of Dinah a myitle is noticed as growing, and R. Uri of Biel (1564) gives a rude sketcli 
of tliree square monuments, supposed to be the tombs of Dinah (with the myrtle growing 
over it), and of Levi and Simeon, her brothers. He describes these cenotaphs as in 
the low ground near the village. If we accept the Jewish tradition, which attributes 
the existing ruined synagogue to R. Nitai, it is apparently the oldest of the Galilean 

Kefr K e n n a. — Apparently the traditional site of Cana of Clalilee in the fourth and 
fit'th centuries. Sta. Paula in 3S3 a.d. visited Cana on her way to the .Sea of Galilee from 
Nazareth. St. 'Willibald in 722 .\.d. visited Cana on the way from Nazareth to Tabor, and 
found a large church. (See Khurbet Kana, Sheet V., Section A.) Isaac Chelo (1334 a.d.) 
places the tomb of Jonas (Neby Yimis, Sheet V.) near Cajihar Kenna. R. Gerson of Scar- 
mela (1561 a.d.) speaks of two other tombs of R. Ishmael Bar Elisha and R. Gamaliel. 
R. Uri of Biel (1564) places the tomb of Jonah on a high mountain near Caphar Kenna. It 
is worthy of notice that none of these travellers mention any village round the tomb, and the 
present village e 1 M e s h-h e d is probably more modern, having grown up round the monu- 
ment. This would seem to indicate that the actual site of Gath Hepher, where Jonah was 
buried (Josh. xix. 13 ; 2 Kings xiv. 25) was at Kefr Kenna itself 

Quaresniius in the seventeenth century was apparently the first to revive the ancient 
tradition placing Cana of Galilee at Kefr Kenna, though mentioning also the northern 
site of Khurbet Kana (Sheet V.). See ' Elucidatio Terrce Sancta;, ii. p. 85 2. A castle was 
built in Kefr Kenna in the eighteenth century by 'Othman, son of Dhaher el '.\mr. 

Kefr Sab t, mentioned with Beth Maon (see T e 1 1 M 'a u n, below), under the name 
Caphar Sobthi (Midrash Bereshith, Rabba, ch. 85). 

Jebel et Tor. — The modern name of Mount Tabor. I'olybius (Historiar., lib. i. 
p. 413, as cjuoted by Reland, p. 599) mentions the mountain as Atabyrium, and speaks of a 
town on it. So also in i Chron. vi. 77, Tabor stands for the Dabareh of Josh. xxi. 28, as 
the name of a town, probably D e b u r i e h, at the foot of the mountain. Josephus also gives 
the form Itabyrion (Ant. xiv. 6, 3 ; B. J. i. 8, 7). He himself caused a wall to be built round 
the top of the mountain, and estimates its length at twenty stadia (Vita, 37 ; B. J. ii. 20, 6, 
and iv. i, 8). The tradition which makes this mountain the site of the Transfiguration dates 
from the fourth century (Ejjit. Paula; and Cyril, Catech. xii. 16). Three churches are noticed 
by Antony of Piacenza (600 a.d.); and Arculphus (700 a.d.) mentions an enclosing wall, 
possibly that of Josephus. The three monasteries were dedicated to our Lord, to Moses, and 
to Elias (Willibald, 722 a.d.) ; that of Elias being at some distance from the others (Sa:wulf, 
1 103 A.U.). About I too A.D. Tancred erected a Latin church on the mountain (.\lbert of 
Aix, vii. 16 ; William of Tyre, ix, 13). In 1185 a.d. Phocas describes a Greek and a Latin 
monastery here, the first being on the north. These buildings were destroyed by Saladin in 
1 187 a.d., and in 1212 a.d. his brother el Melek el 'Adll erected a fortress on the mountain ; 
but by 12S3 a.d. the place was entirely in ruins (see Brocardus). 

Du (' Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' p. 353) speaks of the northern ruined chapel as 
consisting of Roman masonry well-dressed, and notices remains of frescoes. This building 
he considers to belong to the fourth or fifth century, and to be the chapel of Elias, and the 
site of the twelfth century Greek monastery. The larger ruin with nave and aisles on the top 
of the mountain he dates as twelfth century work, being the remains of Tancred's church. 
The fortifications also appear to be of the Crusading ciioch, though probably on the line of 


tlio walls of Josephus. The towers and walls (^still traceable) are mentioned by Kudoliih of 
Suchcm (1336 A.n.). 

A tradition arose in the twelfth century that Abraham and Melchizedek met at the foot 
of Tabor (Fetellus, 1150 a.d.), and Marino Sanuto calls the place Vallis Regis (the 'King's 

Kerak. — Situated at the south end of the Lake of Tiberias, at a distance of thirty fur- 
longs from the ruins of ancient Tiberias. Tlie modern name signifies ' fortress ' in Syriac. 
Robinson identifies Kerak with the town of Tarichex, wliich Josephus jilaces thirty stadia 
(or furlongs) from Tiberias (Vita, 32), and which Pliny states to have been at the south end 
of the lake (Hist. Nat. v. 15). Josephus also indicates that Tarichea; was south of Tiberias 
in stating that the second camp constructed by Vespasian in his advance from Bethshean 
was at the hot-springs of Emmaus — the modern Hilmmam Tabariya south of Tiberias (Wars, 
iv. I, 3) — and between Tiberias and Tarichere (Wars, iii. 10, i). The description of Tarichea; 
in the last-mentioned passage, as at the bottom of a mountain washed by the sea on some 
sides and with a plain in front, applies exactly to the situation of Kerak. The Bethirakh 
of the Talmud mentioned with Tsinnabri (Tal. Jer. Mcgilla, i. i), and as marking the i)oint 
below which Jordan received the name Jordan (Tal. Bab. Beracoth, 55 a), is no doubt the 
same as Taricheas or Kerak, situated close to Sinn-en-nabra. Josephus also gives the 
name Jordan only to the river below Sinnabris (Wars, iv. 8, 2). 

Kerazeh. — The Corazim of the Talmud (see Chorazin in Part I.) mentioned with 
Caphar Ahim (Tal. Bab. Menakhoth, 85 a). In the ' Onomasticon ' of Jerome and Eusebius 
it is placed at the second mile from Capharnaum (sub voce, Chorath). A church at Chorazin 
is mentioned by Willibald (722 a.d.). Fetellus (1150 a.d.) places Corozaim four miles from 

Khan Jubb Yuse f — ' The hostel of Joseph's Pit.' The tradition that this was the 
site of Dothan is mentioned by Brocardus (1283 a.d.). Fetellus (1150 a.d.) places Dothan 
four miles south of Tiberias, as does also Theodoricus (1172 a.d.), and Eugesippus, and 
John of Wirtzburg (twelfth century). Marino Sanuto also shows Dotaym in a position south- 
west of Magdala, on the plain of el Ahma (about where the present D a m i e h now stands) ; 
he describes it as a place with many trees, and says that the cistern where Joseph was placed 
by his brethren still existed. Dothan is correctly placed by Sir John Maundeville, 1322 a.d. 
(see Sheet VIII.); but Maundrell in 1697 a.d. places it in sight of Mount Tabor. The 
tradition is connected with that concerning Safed (see below), supposed to be Bcthulia, which 
was near Dothan (Judith iv. 6.) 

L u b i e h was the camp of the Christians on the night before the fatal battle of Hattin 
(see Hattin) (Bohaeddin ' Life of Saladin,' p. 68). The Marescallia mentioned as near 
Lubieh by the Frank historians (see Robinson's 'Biblical Researches,' vol. ii. p. 375, note i. 
second edition) is probably the ruin of e 1 M a s k a r a h west of Lubieh. 

M a 'as are t 'A is a, ' the A\'ine-press of Jesus.' This name is probably connected with 
the tradition which makes the high ridge above K h a n M i n i e h the Mount of the Beati- 
tudes — a site which, since the seventeenth century, has been shown on the hill above Tiberias, 
though earlier tradition placed it further north. The earliest notice of the site appears to be 
that of Fetellus (1150 a.d.), who places the mountain where Christ preached one mile from 
the Mensa Christi. 


M e j d c 1 is aiiparently the Migdol Tzebaia of the TaUmid (Midrash Ekha). The 
Magdala within a Sabbath journey of Tiberias (Tal. Jer. Erubin, v. i) can hardly be the 
present village; and Migdal Nunia ('the Fish Tower'), one mile from Tiberias, is 
probably the same as the last (Tal. Bab. Pesakhim, 46 a). See also Magdala in Part I. of 
the present paper. 

Theodorus (530 a.d ) places Madgala two miles from Tiberias (half the true distance). 
St. A\'illibald mentions it by name, and Scewulf calls it the Castle of Gennesareth, four miles 
north-east of Tiberias. Fetellus (1150 a.d.) gives two miles between Magdalum and 
Tiberias, and two miles from Magdalum to Gennesareth. Theodoricus (1172 a.d.) gives the 
same distances, as does also John of Wurtzburg, who mentions Gennesareth as a country 
producing gold, a legend commonly believed in the middle ages. 

Minieh. — This is apjxarently the Caphar Nahum which is mentioned by Isaac Chelo 
(1334 a.d.) as a town inhabited by the Minai (or heretics) north of Tiberias, containing the 
tomb of Nahum the Ancient, a Rabbi mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud (Beracoth, vii. 
f 48). The site is noticed still earlier by the present name in Bohaeddin's ' Life of Saladin ' 
(twelfth century) ; and Quaresmius (16 16 a.d.) identifies Khan Minieh with Capernaum. 

Marino Sanuto in 1322 a.d. shows Bethsaida on his map in the position of Minieh, and 
describes it in the text as ' beside the road leading from Syria to Egypt where the sea begins 
to curve southwards.' He also describes a fountain (probably 'Ain el Tin) close to the site 
as producing the Coracinus fish. Of the tradition placing Bethsaida at this spot there is 
perhaps a trace in the name Sheikh Seiyad applying to the small Kubbeh near Khan 

Theodorus (530 a.d.) places a church near the same spot, two miles from Magdala. 'A i n 
e t Tin appears to have been one of the seven fountains between Magdala and Capernaum 
(see e t T a b g h a h, below). 

In the Talmud (Midrash Koheleth, vii. 17) the name Hut a or Miinii ('sinners' or 
'heretics') is said to be equivalent to a 'Son of Capharnahuni,' which explains the con- 
nection noticed by Isaac Chelo, and gives some countenance to the identification of Caper- 
naum with the Minieh site as upheld by Dr. Robinson ('Biblical Researches,' vol. iii. p. 
348 — 358, second edition'). 

The site of Bethsaida was placed north of Capernaum (Tell Hum) in the earlier cen- 
turies of the Christian era. Theodorus (530 a.d.) makes it six miles from Capernaum, and 
^Villibald also places it in the same direction, both apparently referring to the true site of 
Bethsaida-Julias beyond Jordan. The site of the so-called Galilean Bethsaida, placed by 
Dr. Thomson and Col Wilson at Minieh, was first proposed by Reland (' Palestina Illustrata,' 
vol. ii. p. 654), in 17 14 a.d. ; but the existence of this second Bethsaida is not admitted by 
I )r. Robinson and others, only one Bethsaida being noticed by Josephus and Pliny. 

el 'O r e i m e h. — The small artificial square plateau on the hill above 'Ain et Tin is now 
so called, the name signifying 'the little mound. This appears to be the place called Mensa 
Christi (Christ's Table) in the middle ages, the supposed site of feeding the 5,000 (though that 
miracle actually occurred east of the sea according to Matt. xiv. 13). 

Theodorus (530 a.d.) speaks of the Seven Fountains, where the 5,000 were fed, as two 
miles from Magdala, and an equal distance from Capharnaum. Arculphus (700 a.d.) speaks 
of the site as a grassy plain, not far from Capernaum. Sa,'wulf in H03 a.d. is the first to 
mention the name Mensa Christi, and places the site six miles from Tiberias and two miles 

VOL. I. 47 


from Capernaum ; a ruined church of St. Peter standing at its feet (sec above, sub voce 
^[inieh). This churcli is no doubt that mentioned by Theodorus as near the Seven Foun- 
tains, of which Arculphus only found a few pillars remaining. 

John of Wurtzburg places the Mensa one mile from the fountain and two miles from 
Capernaum. Fetellus (1150 .a. u.) places it one mile from the Mountain of the Beatitudes 
(see above, sub voce Ma'asarel 'Aisa), and agrees with all the other authorities in giving two 
miles as the distance from Capernaum. Marino Sanuto shows the Mensa Christi on his 
map (1322 A.D.), in the position of el 'Oreimeh, north-east of ^Vady el 'AmCid. 

The site was, however, transferred at a later period to the mount.nin above Tiberias, and 
the modern Latins identify it with the Hajaret en Nusara (marked on the Survey). See below, 
et Tabghah. 

Rabbi K a h n a.— This tomb is apparently that of Rabbi Johanan, the celebrated com- 
piler of the Jerusalem Talmud (230 — 270 .v.d.), who lived and died at Tiberias. Benjamin 
of Tudcla (1160 A.D.) mentions his tomb at Tiberias. R. Samuel bar Simson ascribes the 
tomb to R. Johanan ben Nuri (first century a.d.). He speaks of it as a building with a cave 
beneath. The modern name is first used by R. Jacob of Paris (1258 a.d.) who speaks of the 
tomb of R. Kahnah at Tiberias. R. Isaac Chelo distinguishes, however, between R. Johanan 
and R. Kahna. According to Gerson of Scarmela they appear to have been buried together 
(Yikhus ha Tzadikim, 1561 a.d.). Uri of Biel notices that the tomb of R. Johanan was south 
of Tiberias, which is the position of the tomb under consideration. 

Rabbi A k i b a. — Situated west of Tiberias. This tomb is mentioned by R. Jacob of 
Paris (1258) and by Isaac Chelo (1334). R. Gerson of Scarmela speaks of a cemetery of the 
pupils of R. Akiba to the number 24,000. The wife of R. Akiba was buried with him (Yikhus 
ha Aboth, 1564 a.d.). R. Akiba was the standard-bearer of Bar Cocheba, and was killed at 
Bether in 135 a.d. 

Rabbi M e i r.— This tomb is close to the hot baths south of Tiberias. It is mentioned 
in the various passages cited above with R. Akiba and R. Kahna. The Rabbi in question 
was not the famous Meir mentioned in the Mislina, who died in Babylonia, but (as R. Jacob 
of Paris notes) was R. Meir Casson (probably a native of el Keisun, north of Safed). 

R. M u s h a Ben M a i m u n.— This tomb, close to Tiberias, is that of the famous 
Rambam, or Maimonides (twelfth and thirteenth centuries). It is mentioned in all the 
Jewish Itineraries above quoted. R. Uri of Biel (1564 .\.d.) gives a rude sketch of the 

Sarona is mentioned in the 'Onomaslicon' of Eusebius and Jerome (sub voce Saron), 
where it is stated that the region between Tabor and the Lake of Tiberias was called Sharon in 
their time. The Lasharon of Josh. .\ii. 18 is possibly the same place. 

Sinn-en-Nabra.— Tzinabrin is mentioned in the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Megilla, i. i) 
with Bethirakh (see above, Kerak), as part of the fortifications of Tiberias. Josephus places 
Sinnabris thirty stadia from Tiberias (B. J. iii. 9, 7), and makes it the point whence Jordan 
began to take the name Jordan (B. J. iv. 8, 2). 

Sh 'a in.— This site appears to represent the Seon of the ' Onomasticon,' mentioned by 
Jerome as near Tabor, and identified by him with Shihon of Issachar (Josh. xix. 19), an iden- 
tification possibly correct. In the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Nedarim, v. 9) Shihin is mentioned as 
in the neighbourhood of Sepphoris, which is possibly the same place, the substitution of A i n 



for K h e t h being not unusual, and having apparently taken place as early as the time of 
Jerome in this case. 

S h 'a r a h possibly represents the Beth-Shaaraim of the Talmud, a place of importance, 
as having been the seat of the Sanhedrim after it left Shefaram (S h e fa 'A m r. Sheet V.), 
and before it removed to Tiberias (Tal. Bab. Sanhed, 32 l>, and Rosh has-Shanah, 51 /'). 

Tabariya, Tiberias, founded by Herod Antipas (Ant. xviii. 2, 3), occupied the site of 
the ancient Rakkath (Josh. xix. 35), according to the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Megilla, i. i). This 
identification is again noticed in the fourth century (Tal. Bab. Sanhed, 12 a), when the name 
Rakkath appears to have been used by the Jews instead of the foreign title Tiberias. (For 
the history of the town see Robinson, 'Bib. Res.,' ii. p. 391, second edition; and Reland's 
'Pal Illus.,' p. 1036 seq.) 

In addition to the tombs of Jochanan, Maimonides, R. Meir, and R. Akiba, above noticed, 
the tombs of other famous teachers were shown in the middle ages at Tiberias. Benjamin 
of Tudela in 1163 a.d., and Isaac Chelo in 1334 a.h., place Ashdoth Pisgah (Deut. iii. 17) 
near the town, but the origin of the tradition is unknown. A synagogue, built by R. Simeon 
bar lochai, is also mentioned as standing in the town (Yikhus ha Aboth, 1564 a.d.). 

The walls of Tiberias were built by Dhahr el 'Amr about 1738 a.d., as was also the 
J a m i 'a el B a h r. The mosque called J a m i 'a e r R a m 1, or ' Mos(iue of the Sand,' was 
erected by Haj Yusef, son of the same celebrated chief 

et Tabghah. — The seven fountains mentioned by Theodorus in 530 a.d. as two miles 
from Magdala, in the direction of Capernaum, no doubt include the springs of et Tabghah, 
as well as the 'A i n e t T 1 n. The octagonal reservoir at the largest spring is attributed by 
local tradition to 'Aly, son of Dhahr el 'Amr ; and the mills in the Plain of Gennesaret are 
also stated by the surviving descendant of the family of Dhahr el 'Amr to have been built 
by the same family. This agrees with the description of the masonry in the aqueduct leading 
from et Tabghah, which is not mentioned by any of the early travellers, Jewish or Christian, 
and which resembles Arab work. 

Tell H u m. — For the identification of this site with the Christian traditional Capernaum, 
see Col. Wilson (' Recovery of Jerusalem,' p. 3S0 seq.). Theodorus in 530 a.d. places Caper- 
naum four miles from Magdala. St. Jerome (in the ' Onomasticon ') places it two miles from 
Chora/in (see Kerazeh, above), distances agreeing exactly with the position of Tell Hum. 

The meaning of the modern name is ' Black Mound,' probably from the basalt round 
the site. It seems probably also to represent the site of the Talmudic Caphar Tanhum 
(Midrash, Shirhash Shirim, iii. 18; and Tal. Jer. Trumoth, xi. 7). The Caphar Ahim, 
mentioned with Chorazin (Tal. Bab. Menakhoth, 85 a) as famous for its corn, is also probably 
the same place. 

Tell M 'aun probably represents the Beth Maon of the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Sota, i. 6 ; 
and Baba Metzia, vi. i), which was above Tiberias. It is also possibly the Beth Maus of 
Josephus, four stadia from the same city (Vita, 12) ; but see below, W. e 1 'A m m i s. 

U m m J u n i e h is possibly the place called Union, or Homoncea, by Josephus (\'ita, 54), 
thirty stadia from Tiberias, in the border of Galilee. 

Wady Abu el 'A m m i s, a place called Ras Ben 'Amis, is mentioned by R. Gerson 
of Scarmela (1561 a.d.) as half a parasang from Tiberias (fifteen stadia) on the north. The 
tomb of Jochabcd the mother of Moses, and that of his wife Zipporah, of Miriam his sister, 



and of Elisheba the daughter of Aminadab, Aaron's wile, were shown here. R. Uri of lieil 
speaks of the place as a village. The name of the valley probably preserves that of tlic hill 
Ras ben Amis. 

Y a k il k, see Hukkok, in Part I. of this paper. R. Snmucl bar .Simson mentions the 
tomb of Habacuc near this village, in 1210 a.u., evidently the present N e b y II a b k 11 k. 
It is also noticed in 125S and 1561 a.d. 

The following are the places in which are noticed Synagogues attributed to Rabbi Simeon 
Ear lochai (120 a.d.) by the mediaeval Jewish travellers. He is said by R. Samuel Bar 
Simson to have built twenty-four synagogues in all, which would be a number greater than 
the total of those as yet found existing or noticed by early travellers. 

1. Kefr Bir'im, measured by Captain Wilson in 1S66. 

2. Meiron, ditto. 

3. Etam (near Bethlehem), unknown. 

4. S'a'sa, ditto. 

5. el Jish, measured by Captain Wilson in 1S66. 

6. Tiberias, unknown. 

7. Tireh, South-east of Acre (Sheet V.), unknown. 

Hydrography. — The principal supply of water on this sheet is that 
which waters the Plain of el Ghuweir. The waters of Wady el Hamam, 
swelled by the strong .spring of 'Ain es Surar, form a broad perennial 
stream, used to irrigate the plain. 'Ain el Mudauwerah also has a 
good flow of water, but the greatest supply descends by the Wady er 
Rubudiyeh, from the spring of that name. This is a fine perennial stream, 
used to irrigate the plain and to turn .several mills. In the Wady Amud 
there is also a stream of water, which is said to dry up in summer ; there 
are a good many fish in it near Kul'at esh Shimeh. There is a strong 
perennial stream formed by two streams running from the north. 

The next supply of water on this sheet of the map is the perennial 
stream in the Wady Fejjas, which drains the Sahel el Ahma ; an aque- 
duct formerly took the water from here to Tiberias. The flow of water 
commences at 'Ayun el Biisas, where there is a pool from which the water 
issues. It is fed lower down by 'Ain Sarona, 'Ayim el Kharia, 'Ayun 
Yemma, 'Ain Hassimeh, all of which have perennial running streams of 
good water. 


There is also a stream of water in Wady el Mady, which commences 
at Khan et Tujjar, and is fed by 'Ain el Mady and 'A in el Jizan. 

In Wady Sellameh there is a stream of water that was formerly more 
abundant, as evidenced by the ruined mills. The water commences at 
'Ain et Tabil, and runs in the valley for about three miles, turning three 
mills ; it then sinks into the bed of the valley, and very probably reappears 
at 'Ain er Rubudiyeh, as described above, in the same valley. 

The springs on this sheet are described alphabetically, as follows : 

The hot springs of the Hummam come under the heading Hummam 
Ibrahim Basha. 

'Ain Abu Ha m e d (P h). — A small spring ; dries up in summer. 

'Ain Abu Z e i n e h (O f). — A small spring of perennial water, 
in low ground, near the Jordan mouth. 

'Ain 'Ail b u n (O g). — A good supply of perennial water. The 
spring is built up with masonry, and flows in a small stream into a trough. 

'Ain 'A u 1 e m (Pi). — A good supply of perennial water coming 
out of a rocky ledge, and flowing into a masonry birkeh. 

'Ain el Beida (Oh). — Two small springs of good water, sur- 
rounded by basaltic stones ; no stream runs from them, and the springs 
dry up in summer. 

'Ain B e s s u m (P h). — Small spring of perennial water ; no stream 
running from it in summer. 

'Ain ed Day eh (Oh). — Small perennial spring of good water, 
with several wine-presses near. The spring is built up with masonry. 

'Ain ed Dellafeh (M g). — Perennial spring of good water, in 
the bed of valley, built up with masonry ; no stream flowing from it. 

'Ain e d D i a h (O f). — A large perennial supply of good water, 
llowing into a masonry birkeh. 

'Ain E y u b (O g). — This is one of the largest supplies of water 
in the country. It rushes out of the ground into an octagonal birkeh, 
described in Section B under B i r k e t 'A 1 y e d D h a h e r. The water 
is brackish, and rises with a temperature of 86^'. A good deal of it runs 
waste to the sea, but some is carried in aqueduct and turns a mill. There 


are fish in the water inside the birkcli. The si)rin;^' is more generally 
known as e t T d b g h a Ii . 

'A in el V u 1 i y e h, or 'A in el \\ a r d r li (P g). — This is a 
spring close to the shore of the sea. It has a good jiennnial supply of 

Under the name 'A in Barideh ('the Cold Spring'), 'Ain cl Fuliyeh ('the Spring 
of the Bean') is described by Captain ^Vilson, R.E., in 1870 ('Recovery of Jerusalem,' 
p. 359). It is within a few yards of the lake, and rises with a temperature of 80^° Fahrenheit. 
Two of the sources are surrounded by walls, as at the T a b g h a h spring, apparently to feed 
a mill. The water is sweet. Here, according to a tradition of the seventh century, was the 
feeding of the 5,000. 

'Ain el H a m a m (P g). — A perennial supply of good water, 
flowing in a stream in the Wady el Hamam. 

'Ain H a s s u n e h (P i). — A small spring of pertmnial water, with a 
small stream leading into Wady Fejjas. 

'Ain el J i k 1 e h (M h). — A small perennial spring of good water. 

'Ain el Jinnan (N h). — Several springs near together, with 
small supplies of good water. From one the aqueduct took water to 
Seffiirieh. (See Sheet V. Section B.) 

'Ain el Jizan (O h). — Small spring of good water in Wady el 
Mady ; a perennial supply ; flowing in a small stream in winter and spring. 

'Ain el J 6 z e h (N h). — A good spring of perennial water. 

'Ain el Juaby (Pi). — Medium-sized perennial spring, flowing 
in a small stream in winter and spring ; good water. 

'A i n K a n a (M h). — A good supply of perennial water, flowing in 
a stream in the valley. The spring is surrounded with masonry, and near 
it is a masonry tank. 

'Ain Katab (P h). — A small pool of bad water ; dry in summer ; 
used for cattle. 

'Ain Kefr Kenna (N h). — A good supply of perennial water, 
flowing in a stream to water gardens, .surrounded by troughs and having 
a small birkeh. 

'Ain el Kelb (Pi). — A small perennial spring of good water, 
joining stream from 'Ain Hassimeh ; surrounded by a clump of trees. 

[SHEET r/.] 




in a small stream in 

'A i n el Kelbeh (P h). — A small spring in a birkeh, built of 
basaltic stones ; no stream ; dries up in summer ; there is a small spring 
near, built up with masonry, called 'A i n Nasr ed Din. 

'A i n K e ra z e h (O f). — Small perennial spring of good water with 
a small stream flowing from it. 

'A in KohAleh (P f).— Small 
spring of good water ; dries up in 

'A i n L a f y (O i). — Small spring 
of good water ; perennial supply. 

'A i n el M a d y (O i).— Good 
spring of sweet water ; perennial supply ; runnim 
winter and spring. 

'A i n el M a n sura h (O f ). — A good supply of perennial water ; 
spring built up with masonry ; no stream running from it. 

'A i n el IVIudauwerah (P g). — A large supply of good water, 

having a temperature of ']-^ Fahrenheit ; it rises in a circular birkeh, loo 

teet in diameter, and runs in a strong stream down to the sea. There are 

many fish in the birkeh, notably the Coracinus, mentioned by Josephus 

as inhabiting the spring of Capharnaum. The supply is smaller than 

that of et Tabcjhah. 

' Between Wady Rubudiyeh and Wady Hamam is tlie ' Round Fountain,' Ain Mudawarah, 
whicli is held by some travellers to be the fountain of Capernaum. There are, however, no 
ruins of consequence in the vicinity, and the wall which surrounds the spring is not sufficiently 
strong to raise the water to a higher level ; there are no traces of aqueducts, and it seems 
never to have been used much for irrigation, as the water from the two streams on either side 
was brought almost up to it. The fountain is about one-third tire size of that of Et Tabigah ; 
the water is sweet, and rises at a temperature of 73° : a number of small fish were seen, and 
Mr. Tristram tells us, in his " Land of Israel," that he found several specimens of the Cora- 
cinus — a fish common also to the waters of the Nile.' — 'Recovery of Jerusalem,' p. 352. 

'Ain el M u g h r a h (P i). — A good-sized spring with a perennial 
supply of sweet water, running in a small stream in winter and spring. 

'Ain el M u t a t u s h u s h (P g). — Small spring, built up with 
masonry ; water good. 

'Ain Nasr e d Din (Q h).— Described with 'Ain el Kelbeh. 


'A i n X c 1) )■ S ha i 1) (P '•^. — A large supply of j^ood \v;iU:r, rusli- 
iiig in a strong stream oul of the rock ; a long trough for walcring animals 
and washing ; perennial supply ; irrigates gardens. 

'A i n en Ncjeimiych (O g). — A gooil supply of perennial 
water, used by the villagers of Deir Hanna. 

'A i n er Rubiidiyeh (P g). — A large spring of good water, 
rrushin*'" out of the rock, and falling down about forty feet, m a lovely 
cascade ; a perennial supply ; the stream is fed by another spring, about 
lOO yards lower down, and is then carried in aqueducts on both sides to 
turn mills ; many of these are now in ruins. 

'A i n esh Shemaliyeh (N h). — A good spring with a small 
stream running from it in winter ; perennial supply of good water. 

'A in e s S i 11 a (O h). — Small perennial spring of good water, 
with no stream. 

'A i n e s S o k h n e h (P g). — A portion of the valley of the Wady 
el Hamam, with water standing in it ; no spring. 

'A i n es Sufsafeh (P h). — A good spring of perennial water, 
having a small stream flowing from it in winter and spring. 

'A in es Surar {P g). — A large spring of good water, that llows 
from under the cliffs, on the north side of \\'ady Hamam, and nearly 
doubles the stream in that valley. 

'A i n et Tabil (N f). — Large spring, with perennial supply of 
good water ; stream in wady for a short distance ; several ruined mills 
show that there was once a more plentiful supply. 

'A in Tabghah. (Pg). 

'Westward along the shore of the lake, a mile and a half from I'd Hum, is the charming 
little bay of et Tabigah, and the great spring which is without a doubt the fountain of 
Capharnaum, mentioned by Josephus as watering the plain of Gennesareth. The bay is about 
half a mile across, and on its western side is shut in by the cliff of Khan Minyeh, the only 
place at which the shore of the lake cannot be followed. There is a small tract of fertile land, 
but we could find no ruins except those connected with the mills or waterworks. There are 
five fountains^ all more or less brackish, and var)ing in temperature from 73^ to 86J° ; four 
are small, but the one mentioned above is by far the largest spring in Galilee, and was esti- 
mated to be more than half the size of the celebrated source of the Jordan at Eanias. It 
rises to the surface with great force, at a temperature of 86A°, which can hardly be considered 
warm in such a climate as that of the lake district. Most of the water now runs to waste, 
producing a (|uantity of rank luxuriant vegetation ; but some of it is collected in a small 


reservoir, and is tlience carried off by an aqueduct to a mill owned by a man of Safed, the 
only one in working order of five that were built by the great chieftain Dhaher el 'Amr.' — • 
' Recovery of Jerusalem,' p. 348. • •• . . 

'A in et Tin eh (P g). — A plentiful supply of water flows out from 
tinder the rocks which close the north-east corner of the Plain of el 
Ghuweir ; the water forms a small lagoon along the coast, full of papyrus, 
and joins the sea about 100 yards south of where it commences ; the water 
is slightly brackish and warm ; temperature, 82" Fahrenheit ; it is crowded 
with fish, and surrounded by green turf. 

'A i n et Tineh (P f). — At Yakuk, this is a medium supply of 
water, built up with masonry, having a rock-cut birkeh near ; the water 
is good and perennial. There is also a spring to the north of the Jebel 
Habkuk, near the road, with a good perennial supply of water. 

'A i n Tor'an (N h). — A good perennial spring in the bed of the 
valley ; no stream running from it. 

'A y u n el Bijan (P i). — Perennial springs of good water, form- 
ing a stream in winter and spring. 

'A y 11 n el Busas (P h). — Some large springs in a pool, which 
feeds the stream in the Wady Fejjas ; good water and perennial supply. 

'A y u n el K h a r i a or 'A y ii n Tell en N a a m ( P i). — Some 
large springs, forming a stream which joins the stream in \\'. P\-jjas ; good 
water and perennial supply. 

'A y u n M u s a (N h). — Perennial supply of water. 
'A y u n el 'O s h s h e h (O f). — Small supply of brackish water in a 
valley ; no stream. 

'A y u n esh Shain (N h). — Two springs, built up with masonry, 
about thirty yards apart ; good perennial supply of water ; no stream. 

'A y u n Yemma (P i). — Good perennial supply of water, with 
small stream llowing in the valley in winter and spring ; good water. 

Biar es Sebil (O h). — Two rock-cut cisterns at Khan Liibieh ; 
good water ; used by inhabitants of Lubieh. 

Bir el 'Ajra (Of). — A well built-up with basaltic stones; the 
water is slightly brackish. 

Bir el 'A r j a (O h). — Rock-cut well full of rain-water. 
VOL. I. 48 


1' ' '■ 1> (.- i >• 1 n (O h). — Rock-cut well supplictl b)- rain-\v;itcr. 

Bir Irbid (P g). — A deep well, built-up with basall, having steps 
leading to the bottom ; a good supply of water from a spring at the 
bottom ; perennial supply. 

Hir Kihshany (O i). — Rock-cut well. 

Bir Muslakhil (N g). — Deep well, Ijuilt round with masonry; 
another close by; perennial supjjly of good water. 

Bir el Muzekka (P g). — A well with good supply of water; 

Bir en N u e i r i y e h ( P f). — Rock-cut cistern for rain-water. 

Bir S e b a n a (P g). — A masonry well, \\ith good supply of water ; 

B i r k e t 'A 1 y e d D h a h e r (O g)._An octagonal birkeh, con- 
taining Ain Eyub, described in Section B under that head. 

Birket 'Arrabeh (N g). — A large tank, paved with .slabs of 
stones, the sides sloping inwards ; contains a large quantity of water all 
the year round. 

Birket el K u r m (P h). — A pond that dries up in autumn. 

Birket el I\I e r j (N g). — A large tank, rectangular, like Birket 
'Arrabeh ; contains a good supply of water all the year round. 

El H a d e t h e h (P i). — Spring on south-east side ; good supply of 
water, perennial ; a small stream flowing from it in winter and spring. 

H u m m a m Ibrahim B a s h a (O h.) — This is the principal hot 
spring of the group south of Tiberias. It bursts forth in a copious supply, 
with a temperature of 144^ Fahrenheit. The baths are in good repair, 
and the water, after passing through an aqueduct, leads to them. The 
spring rises under a small dome. 

To the south, between this and Huinmam Sidna Suleiman, is another 
smaller .spring, with a temperature of 143" P"ahrenheit. It is quite in the 
open, and a small stream runs thence to the sea. 

H u m m a m .Sidna S u 1 e i m a n (O h). — The water here has a 
temperature of 132' Fahrenheit. It may be conveyed in an aqueduct un- 
derground from the former spring, and the intermediate one may be only 

{sheet /•/.] ROADS. 379 

a leakari-c from it. The balhs here arc now in ruins, and unused. The 
water deposits sulphur on its course to the sea. 

H u m m a m T u b a r i )■ a . 

Captain 'Wilson, R.E., in 1865 describes no loss than seven springs at this place, varying 
from 142.2° Fahrenheit to 132.2° Fahrenheit in temperature, three being enclosed in masonry. 
The water smells strongly of sulphur, and the deposit is of greenish colour. The water 
of the Hummam Ibrahim Pasha is received in a circular basin three feet deep, with marble 
columns surrounding it, and a marble floor. A dense steam is given off The temperature 
registered by AMlson ^^as 136.7' Fahrenheit. The bath is esteemed by the Jews as a 
curative for rheumatism ('Recovery of Jerusalem,' p. 362). 

In 1839, during the occurrence of an earthquake, the springs were noticed (according to 
Professor Socin) to be unusually copious and hot. The bath is frequented chiefly in summer. 
The modern bath-house of Ibrahim Pasha was erected in 1833, and is now let out by the 
Turkish Government. An older bath-house is still standing. The buildings stand on a 
slight eminence. The remains of a very solid wall (eleven feet six inches thick) are found 
extending from the mountain to the sea, a short distance south of the springs. 

K Ii a n et Tujjar (O i). — There is a well with ijerennlal supply 
at this khan. 

-Sarona (P h). — Two springs at this village give a good supply, 
which forms a streani in winter, and is perennial as a spring. The water 
is of good quality. 

Yemma (P i). — To the south-west of this site there is a supply of 
water among the rocks of the valley. 

Ro.vns. — The main road of this shed is the great Damascus road, 
running from Beisan up past Mount Tabor on the east, past Khan et 
Tujjar (see Section B), on through Lu])ieh, and thence down the steep 
decline of the first step of the plateau, to the village of Hattin. P^-om 
thence it crosses the plain to the mouth of Wady el Hamam, down 
which it plunges. Emerging on the Plain of Gennesareth, it follows along 
the coast as far as Khan Minia. It then strikes north to Khan Jubb 
Yiisef (Sheet IV.). This road is still the caravan route to Damascus, 
though many travellers and small merchants prefer to go by the safer 
route of Hasbeiya on Mount Hermon. 

Another great road runs east and west across the sheet. It runs 
from 'Akka to Tiberias. Passing over the low hills south of Rummaneh, 
it enters the plain north of Kefr Kenna, where it is joined by the road 
from Nazareth, which also shows traces of antiquity. Passing over the 

48 — 2 


watershed close to esh Shcjcrah, it descends to the broad plains on the 
east. After descending the first step of the series of terraces above 
Tiberias, near Kefr Sabt the road di\ides, one branch running straight 
across the plain, and down the second step, to Tiberias ; the other descend- 
ing the Sahel el Ahma, and emerging by the pass at its mouth. This is 
the great road used by the Bedawin and Druses, who bring barley from 
the plains of the Hauran to market at 'Akka ; and in the autumn long 
strings of camels laden with barley are continually seen passing along it. 

Another good road from 'Akka to Tiberias leads past Rummaneh antl 
el Baineh to Hattin, and from thence down to Tiberias. 

An ancient road ascends the Jordan Valley, and skirts the west shore 
of the lake. An old fortification at Kh. el Kerak defended the entrance 
to the lake district. After passing Tiberias, it joined the Damascus road 
north of Mejdel. 

These are the principal roads of this sheet. The remainder are 
moderately good. In the south-eastern portion, being a flat and open 
plain, the roads are good ; but in the north-west, the rough hilly ground 
and brushwood render them bad. 


'Ail bun (O g). — West of this village there is a rock-cut sarco- 

The place is mentioned in Carmoly's ' Itineraires ' as tlie burial-place of Rabbi Mathias. 
Guerin found here a few remains of a building ornamented with columns, perhaps an old 



piiAsaR CAP 


El Baineh (N g). — The building called 
el Mudbaghah, or ' the Dyeing House,' ap- 
pears to have been a tomb standing above the 
road, and below the village. The masonry is 
much worn, but well cut ; the courses are i 
foot 2 inches high, and the stones from 3 feet 
3 inches to 2 feet or less in length. The 
north side is open ; the south appears to 
have been closed, but the wall has been 
broken down. 

The interior is closed in with a semicir- el mudbackah 

cular arch haviuLT a mouldincr at the north end of the building, much worn. 
The keystone is narrow, the haunch-stones broad. The arch rests on 
two cantaliver capitals slightly broader than the moulding, which is about 
I foot 4 inches wide. 

The interior consists of three benches, with a iociilns sunk in the 
centre. Steps lead down 4 feet 6 inches to a cave, which is rough. It 
seems to have been a cistern measuring 1 1 feet 6 inches from east to 
west, and 15 feet from north to south. The loiiili are round-headed, 
with a sunk border, some 2 inches deep or more, to hold a stone. 
Pilasters i foot 3 inches broad, and i inch projection, exist on the east 
and west sides of the buildinq;. 


Sj the survey of western PALESTINE. 

The general impression is ihat ilic work is Roman or 

A long flight of rude rock-cut steps l(;:uls up in Iront of tlic toml) 
towards the village. 

A httlc to the north-west of this tomb is a loculus cut in tlic rock, 
having a curious basin beside it, probably a wine-press. 

South-west of the village, on the hill, are other rock-cut loinl«. 
Gue'rin found below the village, on the iioith-e.isl side, .t curious reservoir cut in tlie rock, 
with three troughs. Steps lead down into it. ^Vithin it is covered with a thick cement, and 
v.aulted over with cut stones. Tlie water formerly flowed into it tlirough a conduit now 
choked. The mosque of the village is an ancient church, a new door having been made in 
the north side. The slopes of the hill were formerly covered with houses, built in terraces. 
Rude characters were found traced on the rocks about 600 paces to the east of the village. 

Beit J e n n (P i). — Ruined Arab village built of basaltic stone. 

Probably anciently called Beth Gannim, ' House of Gardens,' on account of the fertility of 
its soil and the abundance of grapes which grow around it. 

B i r k e t 'A 1 y e d D h a h e r (O g). — An octagonal wall of ])asaltic 
stone surrounds the spring of 'A i n E y u b at et Tabghah. I'his 
wall is modern, but appears to rest on more ancient foundations, the 
cement and dressing of the stones being far better at the bottom ; 
this foundation may have been Roman work. The sides are 26 feet 
long, by 4 feet 2 inches thick, and the surface of the water at present 
is 16 feet 4 inches below the top of the birkeh ; it escapes at this level 
into a modern aqueduct, which leads to several mills; there are two 
stones let into the birkeh above the present surface of the water, with 
holes in them for letting out the water into aqueducts. Steps lead 
down nearly to the bottom of the birkeh. Several fish were observed in 
the water, which is slightly brackish, l)ut no Coracinus ;'" this may be 
accounted for by the depth of the water, which is choked up with weeds 
and not clear, and by the fact that these fish remain at the Ijottom. There 
are several aqueducts leading the water from this source to mills, and for 
cultivation ; they are modern Arabic work, and show no signs of antiquity. 
There are also traces near the reservoir of a ruined tower, of small 
masonry. A sketch of this birkeh appeared in the ' Quarterly Statement,' 
July, 1877, made by Major Hamilton, R.E. The top of the birkeh is 50 

* The Coracinus is known to live in the lake ; but as the spring has no direct com- 
munication with the waters of the lake, the absence of the Coracinus in the former is not 


feet 6 inches abox'e the water ; this was obtained by levelHng. LVoni 
thence traces of an aqueduct lead in a northerly direction up the valley, 
and then across and back on the other side ; here there are still consider- 
able remains ; the masonry is small, but firmly set in strong cement, and 
the bottom of the water-course was thickly covered with very hard cement ; 
the channel was then carried by rock-cutting round the brow that runs 
out into the sea east of Khan Minia. Here there is 40 feet of con- 
tinuous cutting, and the fall was calculated to be 7 feet in the mile. The 
form of the channel resembles the aqueduct leading from Ras el 'Ain to 
Tyre, being broader at i foot below the surface than it is at the top. 

The height of the bottom of the aqueduct above the sea, at the angle 
close to Sh. 'Aly es Seiyad, was calculated by theodolite angles to be 
52 feet 4 inches. Beyond the rock-cutting near Khan Minia the aqueduct 
is again traceable, consisting of masonry with 4 to 6 inches of thickness 
of very hard cement to form its base. The water from this aqueduct 
could not have extenelecl iar on to the plain, but would have watered the 
gardens of Kh. Minia."' 

There is no doubt that the present walls of the birkeh were not built 
with the intention of forcing the water round this channel, so as to water 
the Plain of Gennesareth, but it is probable they were built in imitation of 
the former w.ills that were used tor that purpose, which must have been 
stronger and considerably higher than the present walls. 

The rock cutting to which the aqueduct from e t T d b g h a h leads, as shown in the 
Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph No. 59, Old Scries, is much larger than is usual in 
other rock-cut aqueducts in Sj'ria. It resembles the rock-cut road at S u k W a d y B a r a d a 
in the Anti-Lebanon. The cutting may perhaps have been originally made with this inten- 
tion, and afterwards utilised for the aijucduct, as suggested by M. Renan ('Vie de Jesus,' 
1>. 140). 

Captain Wilson, R.E., in 1865 ('Recovery of Jerusalem,' p. 348) mentions live springs at 
et Tabghah, varying in temperatuie from 73.5° Fahrenheit to 86.5' Fahrenheit. The 
largest (with a temperature 86.5' Fahrenheit) is enclosed in the reservoir. The aijueduct 
appears to have been supported on arches, of which the piers remain where it crossed the 
valley. After passing the cliff it is traceable for a few hundred yards inland. 

The Coracinus has never been observed in these springs, and 1 )r. Tristram remarks that 
this fish (Chirius Macracanthiis, the same species found in tlie Nile, cf Josephus, Wars, 
III. X. S), wliich is found in the 'Ain el Madauwerah, cannot be expected to live in the 
Tabghah spring, which is tepid and brackish and l\ill of weed. The habitat of the Cora- 

* The a(iueduct followed the contour of the hill, and its elevation above the plain was 
sufficient to enable it to irrigate a large portion of the eastern end of Gennesareth. 


cinus is the sandy bottom of frcsli water (sec 'Land of Israel,' p. 444). 1 lie l^gyplian 
papyrus grows in abundance round the springs of et Tabghah, as well as at 'Ain et Tin (sec 
Tristram's 'Natural History of the Bible,' p. 433). 

H i r k c t c 1 B e i d a (O c;). — A Xwr^ii ruined tank of small masonry. 

Damich (P h). — Ruined modern houses Ijuilt of Ijasallic stone; 

round birkeh lined with masonry. 

The place may be the Adami of Joshua xix. 2,li or t'le .\damah of Joshua xix. 36. 
Gue'rin found considerable remains here of modern houses, built of old materials. ' On the 
eastern slopes of the hill the ground is covered with a mass of debris of all kinds, the confused 
remains of ruined houses. Lower down three s[)rings unite to come out by different conduits 
into a basin seventeen paces in length, by eleven in l)rea(UIi. Near this basin lie on the 
ground several broken shafts, which once ilecorated a building, now completely rased.' — 

I ) e b b e t el .M u y h r (O h). — Heaps of stones, one cistern, and a cave. 

Deburieh (N i). 

' Deburieh is the Daberath of Joshua xix. 12 and xxi. 28, and the Aa(3agiTTuv xu/xri of 
Josephus. Here Van de Velde found a tradition that the miracle of Matt. xvii. 14 was 
wrought in this place. Among the houses may be remarked the remains of an ancient edifice, 
measuring twenty-two paces in length by ten in breadth, and built from west to east. It was 
once constructed of cut stones and a certain number of courses are still standing. The 
interior is now occupied by a private house and a stable, above which rises the medafeh — a 
house set apart for strangers. In all probability this was a Christian church.' — Guerin. 

Ed D e i r (P h). — Foundations of walls and heaps of basaltic stones ; 
two cisterns. 

El H a d e t h e h (Pi). 

' Some of the houses, which are still inhabited, have been constructed of good cut stones 
taken from some old buildings and mixed with small materials. On the slopes of the hill are 
found some ten shafts of columns lying scattered about the ground. They are the remains 
of a monument totally destroyed.' — Guerin. 

Hajaret en Nusara (Ph). 
This name is given to a collection of basaltic blocks lying on a hillock, two miles 
south-east of Hattin. The name signifies ' Stones of the Christians ;' it is also called 
Khamsa Khubzat, the 'five loaves,' and is, according to a local tradition, the 
place where the miracle of Matt. xv. 32 — 39. That of the seven loaves, rather than that of 
the five loaves (Matt. xiv. 15 — 21), which, according to Saint Luke, was at Bethsaida. 

Hannanet el Kussis (P g). — Ruined tower of medium-.sized 

Hattin (O g). — There are a number of rock-cut tombs to the west 
of this village. 

South of the village is the 'wcly' of the Neby Shu'aib, who is no other than Jethro, father- 

[SHEET ]■/.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 385 

in-law of Moses, buried here according to Mohammedan tradition. Here they show his tomb 
and the imjirint of his foot upon a piece of marble. A short distance from this place is a 
sepulchral chamber, said to have contained the remains of his daughters, now called Wely 
Benat Neby Sh'aib. 

K urn H a 1 1 i n (O g). 

A tradition of the fifteenth century identifies this hill with that in which the Sermon on 
the Mount was delivered ; it is also said to be the place where the Lord's Prayer was first 
given to the disciples. The hill with the adjacent plain was the scene of the disastrous battle 
of Hattin (July 3, 11S7), when the Christian army was crushed by Saladin, and the Latin 
kingdom destroyed. 

' The whole hill was formerly surrounded in its upper part by a wall, and special fortifi- 
cations seem to have been constructed at the two horns. Judging from the nature of the 
materials, of every form and size, which lie scattered about the ground, the wall must have 
been built hastily. The inhabitants of Hattin say that here was once a little town, long since 
levelled. To the indistinct ruin they give the name of Kh. Medinet elTuwileh, 'ruins of the 
long tower.' ... At the south-east point of the hill is seen an oblong cavern, cut in the rock, 
and cased with cement ; it is in great part destroyed. It was either a tomb or a cistern. 
Beside it are the foundations of a si.iall square building, measuring eight paces on each side ; 
it passes for an ancient wely, having succeeded a Christian church. Others see in it the 
ruins of a tower.' — Guerin. 

Ik sal (N i).— At thi.s village there is a large cemetery of tombs, 
which is called ' the Franks Cemetery '■ — M 11 k b a r a t el A f r a n j . 

The largest tomb is much broken away. It contains two .square 
recesses, perhaps niches for statues. The cave adjoining the tomb is 
roughly excavated. 

There are here some 200 or 300 tombs of the kind called ' rock sunk.' 
Some are merely rock-cut graves ; others have locitli beside the shaft ; 
sometimes one each side, sometimes only one. They face in every 
direction. There were channels round the mouths of the shafts to lead 
away surface water. The channels are 5 inches broad, i inch deep. One 
tomb had a rim round the top of the shaft raised 3 inches, and 7 inches 
wide. Niches occur in most of the shafts, either one or two in each, 
intended to facilitate descent, or for lamps. 

Some of the shafts had heavy blocks of stone, 6 feet to 7 feet lono-, 
to cover them. 

Several large cisterns also occur, with well-holes in top. Four of 
these in use. They are lined with hard cement, containing large bits of 
broken pottery and shells ; the ceinent is of grey colour. 

VOL. I. 49 



It has been proposed to identify Iksal wiili Chcsulloth of Joshua xix. i8. In llic 
Onomasticon it is spelt Ayisikiii, and said to be a village called XtaXoi/; (which Jerome 
corrected into XffaXoi/c), near to Mount Tabor. Guerin calls the cemetery Jewish. Roljin- 
son heard of it, but did not visit it. The cemetery lies on a rocky platform cast of the town. 

The following is extracted from the reports of Lieutenant Conder on the rock-cut tombs 
of Iksal, et Tireh, and the adjacent country : — 

'The country just entered is far richer in objects of archaeological interest than that south 
of the plain, and amongst these the rock-cut tombs form a principal group. 

'The interest of such remains is very great, for two reasons: first, because we can be 
tolerably certain that they belong to ancient times ; secondly, because the existence of every 
such cemetery points to the probable existence of a town or village of the same date some- 
where in the immediate vicinity. Thus the antitjuity of a site may be verified by the discovery 
of tombs in the neighbourhood. That no such excavations are made at present is well 
known, and it is a curious feature of the country that whilst at some former time the inhabi- 
tants must have been almost a nation of troglodytes, whole hillsides being burrowed with 
caves often still inhabited, cisterns, granaries, and tombs, yet none of the present natives have 
any notion of mining or hewing in the rock. 

' Three principal classes of tombs are observed in the plain and in the hill country about 
Nazareth, each class including several varieties. The first consists of roughly-excavated caves, 
the second of tombs sunk in the surface of the rock and covered with a stone, the third of 
chambers entered at one end with loculi in the sides. 

' The first class is exemplified at Jeba, at Khirbet Khazneh (in the plain), at Iksal (near 
Nazareth), and at et TLreh, on the hill above Iksal. It seems to have been used where the 
limestone is very soft, and the more carefully worked sepulchres of the other classes are 
generally cut in much harder rock. The Jeba tomb has a square ante-chamber carefully 
plastered, with a structural arch over the door leading to the cave within. This is far rougher, 
cut in a sort of cheese-like marl, with a loculus scooped in each side. A second cave to the 
west of Jeba is even rougher, and may probably be also a tomb, as it is regarded as a sacred 
place by the Mohammedans. Khirbet Khazneh is a ruin on the east of the jilain not far from 
Lejjun, where traces of a large building, a broken sarcophagus, a capital, a shaft, and a small 
Roman altar, were found on the surface, whilst beneath, a cave with four loculi roughly 
semicircular is excavated in soft limestone. There appear to be at least two more connected 
with it, but their passages were filled with rubbish, as were also the front entrances. 

' The cave at Iksal is the most interesting of this class, and differs from any as yet found. 
A large chamber, the roof of which had fallen in, was first found, with four loculi parallel to 
its sides, and raised above the floor about 2 ft. 6 in. Two niches for lamps or tablets were 
cut in the sides, and on the south side was a small opening through which I succeeded in 
scrambling into a cave with rough-cut loculi on two sides. The rock here also was soft, 
and much chalky debris had fallen on the floor. There were many bones strewed over the 
floor, which from their brittleness and general appearance may probably be very old ; and 
in one loculus I was fortunate enough to discover a skull almost perfect to the orbits (the face 
having disappeared), and near it a jaw-bone, probably belonging to the same skeleton. A very 
nanow passage led out of this cave, but was too small to allow of my creeping far into it. It 
appeared to come to an end, and may only have been a loculus, but of this I cannot be 


'Amongst tlie tombs at et Tireh are two which may rank in the first class, being also caves 
cut in soft stone and entered by rough and narrow passages. 

' The second class is extensively represented at Iksal, where close to the cave is a cemetery 
of perhaps over two hundred tombs. Near Seffuriyeh, and at et Tireh, other examples have 
also been measured. 

'The Iksal tombs include several varieties, single loculi sunk in the stone, rock-cut sarco- 
phagi, tombs with a single side loculus, and tombs with two. Most of them had water-channels 
to conduct the rain, and some raised edges. All appear to have been closed by heavy, roughly- 
squared blocks of stone from 7 ft. to 8 ft. in length. There was no appearance of any special 
direction chosen for the body to lie in, and here, as in the other groups, the tombs faced in 
all directions. Seemingly more attention had been paid to the direction the water would 
take in running over the surface of the rock in which they were sunk, than to any other con- 
sideration. For this reason they are never used at present, as the native Mohammedans bury 
east and west, with the face turned south towards Mecca. 

' In one of these tombs two skulls were found, one very large and perfect, the other small 
and possibly female. The arrangement of double loculi is supposed, I am told, to be Christian, 
and to be intended for the reception of the bodies of a man and his wife. I do not, however, 
think these skeletons can have been those of the original occupants, for they appear to be 
more modern, and rags of clothing were mingled with the bones, the greater number in each 
skeleton still remaining in something like relative position. The natives call these the ' Frank 
tombs ;' possibly they may be of crusading times. 

'Sefluriyeh, the Sephoris of Josephus, gives signs of having been a flourishing town in Roman 
times, and would merit a more complete exploration than we can manage to give to it this 
year. A great number of sarcophagi lie round the village, or are built into the old crusading 
castle, and in all that I have observed the end where the head was laid is rounded. 

' Near .Seffuriyeh are three small sunken tombs or loculi, also with the head rounded, and 
closed, not with a square block, but with one cut into the ordinary triangular cross section of 
a sarcophagus lid. Thus these tombs, though belonging to the second great class, are pro- 
bably earlier than those at the Iksal cemetery. 

'Two tombs of the second class, sunk in the surface of the rock and closed above by large 
stones, are found amongst those at el Tireh. The first has four loculi on the four sides of 
the quadrangular sunken chamber, but they are far rougher than those at Iksal, which have 
semicircular arches, and a partition separating the body from the chamber. The second has 
three loculi, and at one of its ends a small passage into a quadrangular chamber cut in soft 
rock without loculi, a curious combination of the arrangements of a sunken tomb with one 
entered on the level of the floor. 

' The last class of tombs is exemplified at et Tireh, at Nazareth, and near Kefr Menda. 
It appears, however, to be far less common than the other two, and these are the first examples 
we have found. The chamber is entered at one end, and the loculi placed with their length 
in each case perpendicular to the side of the chamber. The et Tireh tomb is partly fallen 
in, but seems to have been roughly circular in plan, with seven of these loculi radiating, and 
an entrance of some size. The tomb at Nazareth is cut in rather soft rock, its roof, unlike 
most of the tombs as yet found, is a kind of tunnel vault, and the loculi, of which there are 
twelve (five on each side, and two at the end opposite the door), have a similar tunnelled roof 
A second close by, said to contain ten loculi, with two more outside the door cut in the sides 
of the passage before the chamber, was filled up and unapproachable. 



'Another tomb not as yet measured, but resemliliiig those at Nazareth, was found on the 
summit of the higli hill above the village of Kcfr Menda, the most northern of our trigono- 
metric stations, and situate within that portion of the country which was reconnoitred by 
Captain Anderson during the preliminary expedition under Captain Wilson. This hill is 
visible from points near Tiberias, from Safed, Akka, Haifla, Carmcl, and Nazaretii, and would 
be a most valuable point but for the thick ring of oak-trees springing from the ruins of some 
ancient building beneath which the tomb was cut in the rock. 

' I>arge numbers of cisterns occur amongst the tombs found in the cemeteries at Iksal, and 
in the hill close to Tell el Tireh.' 

Jebel et Tor, Mount Tabor (O i). — (^n the top of this 
mountain there are the ruins of a fortress. 'l"hc stones are of a good 
size, and are drafted, the draft varying from 2 inches to 3^ inches ; the 
stones measure 2 feet 7 inches by i foot 8 inches to 2 feet 2 inches by i 
foot 8 inches. The loopholes which remain appear to be much more 
modern than the walls. Square towers were built to flank the walls. 
The appearance of the walls and the dressing of the stones are very 
similar to the remains on Mount Gerizim. (See Sheet XI. Section B.) 

On the north side, near the north-east corner of the fortress, there are 
considerable remains of vaults and foundations of a tower, probably of 
Crusading: oricfin ; the remains are now covered with ruins of modern 
buildings, and could not be planned without excavation. Between the 
birkeh at the north-east corner and the loophole on the eastern wall there 
are also considerable remains of unintelligible ruins, probably not very 

At the south-east angle of the fortress there is a massive tower, with a 
postern built of drafted stones in the interior. 

There are three ruined chapels ; the stones in their walls are small, 
and in the most eastern chapel have Crusading dressing. A portion of 
this chapel is cut out of the rock. 

By Crusading dressing is intended the fine dressing with a toothed chisel, generally in a 
diagonal direction, which distinguishes the masonry of the twelfth century in Palestine. The 
small size of the stones points to the same conclusion as to the date of this building. 

The Due de Vogii^ ('Eglises de la Terre Sainte,' 1S60 a.d., p. 353) thus describes these 
ruins : 

' They cover a part of the top of the mountain ; they are surrounded by the remains of the 
rampart which Josephus caused to be raised during the Jewish AWir, and which was restored 
by the Sultan el Melek el Adel during the middle ages.' [N.B. — It seems, however, more 
probable that the existing masonry belongs to a Byzantine or to a Crusading period.] ' In 
the midst of the mounds of rubbish and of the large-leaved oaks the remains of two churches 
can be distinguished, one of which appears to be very ancient, the other dating from the 
Crusading period. 

Mi' iA ^1^ 


[SHEET /'/.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 389 

' Tlie first is not of gi'eat interest ; it is a little rectangle, four metres wide and not more 
than five or six metres long, ending on the east in a semicircular apse. The walls are built 
in Roman masonry, carefully executed, and covered inside with white plaster, on which the 
traces of foliage painted in red are visible. The pavement is of mosaic of large black and 
white cubes, with the design of a large circle and lozenges. This little structure has the 
character of an oratory of the fifth or sixth century. For my jjart, I do not hesitate to regard 
it as one of the oldest sacred edifices of the Holy Land. It formerly belonged, I suppose, to 
the (Jreek Monastery of St. Elias. 

' The second ruin consists of some small subterranean chambers with groined vaults, into 
which the descent is by a stone staircase. This is the ruined crypt of a Roman church, 
which appears to have had three aisles and three chapels, in memory of the three tabernacles 
which the Apostles wished to erect on this place after the Transfiguration. It belonged to a 
convent founded in the commencement of the twelfth century, under the name of St. Saviour 
. . . richly endowed by Tancred, Count of Galilee, in favour of the monks of Cluny ' (' Albert 
of Aix,' vii. 16 ; ' William of Tyre,' ix. 13 ; ' Letters of Peter of Cluny,' c. iv., epist. 44). 

The Franciscans from Nazareth surrounded the ruins of this convent with a drystone wall 
to preserve their proprietorship. Excavations were undertaken on the spot in 1S73. The 
ruin described first by De Vogii^ is that near the Greek monastery. 

The second chapel appears to be also of the same date, and the 
chamber on the northern side of the entrance, corresponding to this 
chapel, may have been the third, the three together forming the three 
churches known to have been erected on this mount in memory of the 
Transfiguration, and mentioned towards the close of the sixth century by 
Antoninus Martyr (I tin., par. 6). They are also mentioned by Arculphus, 
696 A.D. The Crusaders under Tancred built a church, probably on the 
ruins of the former churches, in 11 85 a.d. Phocas describes here two 
monasteries, one Greek and the other Latin. The former was towards the 
north ; the latter was upon the highest point of all, towards the south-east 
(Phocas de Locis Sanct., § n) ; this is exactly where the present remains 
have been lately uncovered. 

The third chapel, to the west of the others, has a more modern 
appearance, and is not, apparently, very ancient. All these chapels are 
surrounded by considerable ruins of what were probably the large 
monasteries described in the Crusading records. 

Tabor, ' the Height,' was, hill and city, a frontier city to the tribes of Issachar and Zabulon 
(Joshua xix. 22). In i Chronicles vi. 77 it is assigned to Zabulon : ' Tabor with her suburbs.' 
Here Barak assembled his troops ; here the brothers of Gideon were slaughtered. Tabor is 
also alluded to in Psalm Ixxxvii. 13; Jeremiah xlvi. 18: and Hosea v. i. The tradition 
which places the Transfiguration on Tabor is at least as old as Saint Jerome, although the 
Pilgrim of Bordeaux places it on the Mount of Olives. 


Fortifications were erected hero by Joscphus. The place was taken l)y I'Incidus, Ves- 
pasian's general. 

In the year 326 Helena built a church on Mount Tabor, and endowed it with considerable 
sums of money. Antoninus Martyr, towards the end of the sixth century, mentions three 
churclies, in commemoration of the three tabernacles. Arculfus saw a great monastery on 
the summit. Saint M'illibald observed three churches besides the monastery. Tancrcd 
endowed the monastery, which was pillaged and the monks murdered by the Mussulmans in 
1 1 13. In 11S3 the i)lace was attacked again by the Saracens and the Greek convent sacked. 
In 11S7, after the battle of Hattin, Saladin laid waste the mountain and destroyed the 
monasteries. One of them was shortly afterwards restored in part, but in 1209 destroyed by 
el Melekel 'Adel, who constructed a fortress out of the debris he found lying about. In 1217 
this stronghold was attacked by John de Brienne at the head of a large and well-appointed 
army, but without success. In 1263 the fortress was finally destroyed by Bibars. For 600 
years pilgrims found nothing but ruins on the mount ; of late, however, the Greeks have 
begun to restore their old chajjcl, and Franciscans have occupied a corner of the Latin 

The ruins on the summit of the hill are therefore Jewish, Byzantine, Crusading, and 
Saracenic. But so great is the confusion that it is difficult to assign its date to any portion. 
Guerin thus describes them : 

' To the first period belong without doubt the ancient cisterns cut in the rock, and a good 
number of great blocks cut in relief. These great blocks may have been used by Josephus 
in the construction of his works, or later on by Crusaders and Mussulmans in turn. 

' To the Byzantine period belong apparently the remains of a small church, which has 
been disentangled from its ruins quite recently. 

When De Vogiie examined these ruins, one apse only was visible ; but the Greeks, while 
clearing out the remains of the monument before restoring it, have disengaged the lower 
courses of a second apse, so that the church was much larger than this scholar imagined. 
The church as now restored measures twenty-four metres in length by fifteen in breadth. It 
is in three aisles, and the sanctuary is adorned by fairly good pictures given by Russia. 'J'he 
pavement consists of marble slabs ; here and there appear fragments of the old mosaic, still 
in place. The Greeks have respected the remaining courses of the two apses. A great 
cistern belongs to this church ... an ancient tank partly destroyed is converted into a 
garden . . . The whole is surrounded by a wall built of the great blocks found on the spot. 

The Franciscans, after enclosing their own property by a wall, have begun to dig there. 
They have brought to light, I believe, the site of the true sanctuary of the Transfiguration. Up 
to the present two little vaulted and subterranean chambers, where the Franciscans uf 
Nazareth came once a year to celebrate a mass, were shown on the right of the old church. 
The later tradition must now, however, give way to the earlier. The monks, in fact, while 
clearing away the plateau on the south-east point, found the remains of two chapels under an 
immense mass of ruins. The first was small, and had but one apse, at the east end ; it was 
wholly paved in mosaic, and numerous little cubes cover the ground, many of them still in 
their place. 

This chapel was very probably that of Moses, for when they continued their excavations 
towards the east, they soon came across the vestiges of a second chapel much more consider- 
able than the former, which seems to have had three aisles, with a length of about thirty-six 
metres and a breadth of about sixteen. This chapel enclosed under its central nave a crypt 


thirty metres long and six broad, into which a descent is made by a stair of twelve stejjs, 
some cut in the rock, others made of good stones. It is the same with the crypt ; it is partly 
cut in the rock, and partly, where there is no rock, built of middle-sized but regular blocks. 
At the end is an altar still half upright, in front of w^hich is an excavation constructed in the 
rock, not yet completely examined. This crypt, hitherto buried under a prodigious mass of 
stones and rubbish, and tjuite recently discovered, is, in my opinion, of priceless value. I 
believe it, in fact, to belong to the first ages of trie Church, and to form part of the primitive 
sanctuary erected on Tabor under the title of the Holy Saviour. The cha|X'l which covered 
it may have been destroyed and re-erected many times, but the crypt must always have 
escaped the ravages and reconstructions which have altered the character of the chapel itself. 
As we are exactly on the highest point of Tabor, and as this chapel was certainly the largest 
and most remarkable of the three already found, it seems logical to call it that of the Saviour 
while the other two were those of Moses and Elias. Here, then, we have the place where, 
according to earliest traditions, the scene of the Transfiguration took place . . . Among the 
ruins w^hich encumbered the crypt or the chapel above it have been found several pieces of 
marble columns, mutilated capitals, one adorned with young lions and the other with heads 
of sheep ; a stone, on which are a Greek cross with 7m Alpha m-\A an Omega; an innumerable 
quantity of mosaic cubes, some in glass, others in various coloured stones, red, black, and 
w^hite ; terra-cotta lamps, fragments of glass phials ; and on a marble slab, now incomplete, 
the following Greek characters : 



The greater part of the upper chapel was overthrown by the Mohammedans about the 
beginning of the thirteenth century. Nevertheless, the foundations of the great central apse 
can be still distinguished. A lateral oratory has been discovered, with a part of its mosaic 
pavement, and its altar still upright, standing over a tomb cut in the rock, containing bones. 
This altar is surrounded by an ogival arcade of Crusader work. 

These two chapels were enclosed within the walls of a great fortified convent, w'hich at 
the time of the Crusades belonged to the Latins. The area presents to the eye nothing but 
a mass of confused constructions. The ruins of Saracen date are also described by Gucrin, 
but seem to offer little of interest. Considerable portions remain, built of old materials. 

J i s r L' s S i d d (O i). — Ruined bridge over the Jordan, of five 
pointed arches of small masonry, well-dressed. 7'he foundation formed 
a footpath about the level of the water when the river was not flooded. 

El K a a k u z a h (P h). — Heaps of basaltic stones. 

Kefr Kama (O h). — There are ruins in this village, and portions 
of five limestone columns, but no capitals. There is also a circular basalt 
olive-press, and cisterns. 

Kefr Kenna (N h). — There are the traces of an ancient church 
at this village. Pieces of columns and remains of mediaeval mouldings are 
found by digging on the site. A yearly mass is said here by the Latin 
monks, in memory of the miracle at the marriage-feast in Cana. 


The question of the identification of Cana may ijc found liLatcd in Robinson, iii. 206 ; 
Gut'rin, 'Galilee,' i. 175: 'Quarterly Statement,' Palestine Exploration Fund, 1S69, ji. 71. 
(See also 'Memoirs,' Sheet V. pji. 287, 314). As regards the evidence of tradition, the 
following are the most important points in the testimony of early travellers : 

Eusehius, and Jerome after him, confuse Cana of Galilee with Cana of Joshua xix. 28, 
now Kana. Antoninus, towards the end of the sixth century, goes from I'tolemais to 
Dio-cassarea (SefTurieh), and thence to Cana, three miles distant, where there was a spi-ing 
of 7vater. Now, Khurbet Kana is five miles from SefTurieh, while Kcfr Kana is two and 
seven-eighths. There is no spring at Khurbet Kana. Saint AVillibald in the eighth 
centUT)' visited Cana from Nazareth, and from Cana went to Tabor. Now Kefr Kenna is 
four and a half miles from Tabor and four from Nazareth, but Khurbet Kana is eight 
miles from Nazareth and ten from Tabor. Srewulf say.s that Cana of Galilee was six miles 
north of Nazareth, on a hill. This helps us very little, because one is eight and the other four 
miles from Nazareth, and both might be called north. In the same century (the twelfth) 
Phocas goes from Ptolemais to Seffurieh, thence to Cann, and from Cana to Nazareth. It 
would seem to be going a good deal out of his way, were his Cana at Khurbet Kana, and not 
at Kefr Kenna. John of AVurzburg {cirea 11 65 .\. n.) .says that Cana of Galilee is at the 
fourth mile from Nazareth and the second from Seffurieh, to the east. This is most certainly 
Kefr Kenna. An anonymous writer of the same century (cjuotcd by De Vogiie, ' Les Eglises 
de la Terre Sainte,' p. 449) says that Cana of Galilee is three leagues from Nazareth. This 
is certainly Khurbet Kana. Other writers, including Burchard and Mnrinus Sanutus, 
evidently refer to Khurbet Kana. It seems, therefore, that during the Latin kingdom and 
later there were two traditional Canas, but that the earlier tradition attaches to Kefr Kenna. 

Robinson dwells upon the name Kana el Jelil, which was also given to Colonel Vi'ilson 
on the spot. But on this point Dr. Zeller is explicit. The Arabs, he says, do not know 
Khurbet Kana by that name at all. The following is his account of the two jilaces (' Quarterly 
Statement,' 1869, pp. 71 — 73): 

' Situaiio7i. — Kefr Kenna lies five miles north-east of Nazareth on the direct road to the 
Sea of Galilee. It is bordered towards the west and north by the plain of Buttauf. Its 
situation is particularly suitable, pretty and healthy, for the village lies on a hill gradually 
sloping down towards the west, so that the houses, built in terraces up the slope, receive the 
cool west wind, which has through the plain of Buttauf a free and strong current over the 
village. On the south the village is separated by a valley from the higher mountains (called 
Jebel Essih) separating it from Mount Tabor and the- plain of Jezreel. At the south of the 
village is a copious fountain of excellent water. The present village contains about 200 
houses, half of them belonging to Greek Christians, and the other half to Moslems. It 
covers only the middle and southern slope of the hill, whilst there are sufficient traces that in 
former times the village was at least thrice as large, and the excellent situation, with the 
copious supply of water, certainly afforded space for a large place. The gardens at the foot 
of the hill are luxuriant, and the pomegranates produced there the best in Palestine. 

' The situation of Kana el Jelil, or, as the Arabs call it, Khurbet Kana, does not bear a 
comparison with that of Kefr Kenna. It lies on a very narrow terrace, scarcely to be called 
a terrace, on the steep side of the hill bordering the plain of Buttauf, eleven miles to the 
north-north-west of Nazareth, and six miles to the north-north-west of Seffurieh. Kana 
faces the south, and being directly exposed to the hottest rays of the sun, which take peculiar 
effect on the steep and rocky side of the hill, the position is in summer exceedingly hot, and 


it is so little elevated over the plain that no pure mountain air is obtainable. No spring 
water is near, and the two or three cisterns supply only a small quantity of water, and the area 
suitable for building is exceedingly limited. 

' Traces of Ruins. — These consist in Khurbet Kana only of one or two fragments of small 
columns and a cistern which might be old. The people of Saukhnin formerly cultivated part 
of the plain of Buttauf, and built there a number of hovels for their cattle, which now arc 

' In Kefr Kenna, however, traces of ruins are very distinct and of considerable extent. 
The ruins of the church at the foot of the hill are well known. Two years ago, when the 
Latins made an attempt to appropriate this ruin, the jealousy of the Moslems of the place 
was awakened. They intended to rebuild this place, which had been a mosque, laid open 
the western wall of the church, which had been hidden under ground, and, to the astonish- 
ment of all, it appeared that the foundations were constructed of very large well-cut stones. 
The thickness of the wall is seven to eight feet. This foundation very much differs in its 
material from the material of the ruins still in existence above ground. These consist 01 
small stones one and a half feet in height, and two to three feet in length. 

' About thirty ])aces to the west of the church is a ruin called by the Christians the house 
of Samaan (the father of the bridegroom), of Saracenic construction, perhaps of equal date 
with the upper part of the church, but the foundation of this building is said to contain large 
stones of superior workmanship, similar to those of the church. Two large columns of very 
white hard limestone, and two others of yellow limestone, lie prostrate in the ruined church, 
also a fine pedestal of a column. All over the village are found traces of old foundations, 
also occasionally arches built of well-hewn stones. Still in existence above ground are two 
large strongly-built vaults, perhaps from the time of the Crusaders. In the south of tlie 
village lies half of a large limestone column. 

' Facing Kefr Kenna to the west, about half a mile distant, is an elevation called the D e i r 
(or monastery), where I discovered the foundations of walls built of large well-dressed stones. 
This seems to coincide with Srewulf, a.d. 1103, ^vho describes Kana as nearly six miles north 
of Nazareth, on a hill, and says: nothing there remained except a monastery called 

' Half a mile farther to the west, about a mile west from Kefr Kenna, stands a conical hill 
covered on all sides from top to bottom with the ruins of old buildings, especially foundations. 
This place is called Kenna, or Khiirbet Kenna. On the south side there are six or seven 
large old cisterns : one of them has a small pond attached to it, with steps leading down, and 
the cement on the pond and several of the cisterns still perfect. One of the cisterns is 
covered with a square block of stone four feet in height and breadth, also the fragment of a 
stone door lies among the ruins. On the north side a piece of wall consisting of three layers 
of large stones is still in existence, about forty feet long. Some of the stones are about four 
feet in length. The weather has washed away the cement and injured the stone. Evidently 
these foundations are of great antiquity ; similar strong foundation walls are to be traced 
along the slope, and on the top of this Tell. Most of the smaller and better preserved stones 
have been used by the people of Meshhed to rebuild their houses. 

' The name of K a n a c 1 J e 1 i 1 is evidently only known since Robinson's discovery, by 
which many travellers went to Khurbet Kana. The Arabs know it only by the name ot 
Khurbet Kana, and the Christians of Palestine never doubted the identity of Kefr 
Kenna with the Kana of the Gospel. The Clreek Christians built their houses all round the 

VOL. I. 50 


ruins of the church, hut being prevented by the Moslems from rcluiildint; the same, tliey 
erected a church a few paces only to the west of the old ruin, between the same and the 
so-called house of Samaan. 

'The mentioning of Kana in Josephus when he marched from Sephoris to Tiberias, 
certainly directs us to Kefr Kenna, and not to Khurbet Kana (or Kana l1 Jelil), which latter 
place would have been out of his way. The narrative of the gosi)el that our Lord went to 
Kana, and from there to the Sea of Galilee, is also in favour of Kefr Kenna, because this 
place lies in the direct road from Nazareth to the Sea of Galilee. The fact that two of the 
disciples of our Lord (Nathanael and Simon) were from Kana, lets us suppose that our Lord 
was frequently at that place, \\o\x\d it not seem strange tliat (if Kana is where Robinson puts 
it) no mention is made of Sephoris, then the principal place in Galilee, though the direct 
road from Nazareth to Khurbet Kana would have led our Lord through that town ?' 

Kefr Sabt (Oh). 

' Near a spring, inclosed in a small circular basin, the soil is covered with the confused 
debris of many overthrown houses ; some still standing are inhabited. Here and there are 
scattered cisterns cut in the rock. On the highest point of the hill, formerly occupied by the 
ancient town, are observed the remains of a strong edifice built of cut stones, which seems to 
have been put up for military purposes ; it formed a quadrilateral forty paces long. Beside a 
mosque may be remarked two broken capitals in debased Corinthian, as well as several coluums 
belonging probably to an ancient church, now completely destroyed.' — (Juerin. 

El Khan (O h). — Foundation walls of a khan, of small masonry ; 
arches below, pointed and groined, seem to show it was originally of two 
stories, one of which is covered up. It measures sixty feet square. There 
is also a ruined masonry birkeh. 

Khan M i n i a (P g.) — This is a ruined khan on the great Damascus 
road, similar to Khan Jubb Yiisef and Khan et Tujjar. It is now in 
ruins, and is not used. There are still a few chambers round the court- 
yard, showing it to have been very similar in plan to Khan Jubb Yiisef. It 
faces due north and south, and is 192 feet long, by 165 feet east and west. 
The entrance was by a handsome gate in the centre of the southern side. 
Basaltic stone was principally used in the construction, and white lime- 
stone was employed as ornament. 

Khan et Tujjar, or Suk el Khan (O i). — This is a fine 
buildin'^'- of well-dressed stones, in the best style of Arabic ma.sonry. It is 
now in ruins, and is not used as a khan. It forms one of the line of great 
khans on the Damascus road, the khan at Beisan and Khan Minia being 
to the south and north of it respectively. 

To the north-west of the khan there is a fortress on a slight eminence, 




ill which the inhabitants of the khan could protect themselves from any 
raid oi Arabs. The towers are octagonal, and are built of well-cut stone 




drafted, and showing a slight rougli boss. The stones are small and of 
white limestone, i foot square, and the masonry is Saracenic in character. 

The masonry of the khdn is not drafted, but is well dressed. The walls 
are strengthened with buttresses, and the towers are round. The windows 
are small loopholes. The interior is a mass of ruined arches, with remains 
of stables at the southern end, and a building containing a spring in the 
centre. The Khan measures 360 feet long, by 249 feet wide. 

The fortress measures 218 feet long to the outside of the towers, and 
1 50 feet wide. The towers are 23 feet in diameter, and the walls are 
about 5 feet 6 inches thick. 

There is a market held at this khan every Thursday. 

El K h u r b e h (O h). — A ruined farmhouse, occupied by a few 
families. Probably, from its position above the town, it once formed 
the citadel and watch-tower of Lubieh. 

K h u r b e t el ' A i t e h . — Heaps of stones and traces of buildings. 

K h. 'A r b i t h a (O h). — Heaps of basaltic stones. 

Kh. Abu Shush eh (O g). — There are modern ruins in this 

village, and a number of ruined mills in the valley below. No ancient 

remains were observed. 

This place has been proposed by M. de Saulcy as the Chinnerelh of Joshua xix. 35. 
The entire absence of ancient remains seems against the theory. Josephus does not mention 
the town, which had perhaps already disappeared in his time. 

K h . Abu Z e i n e h , or S h u n e t e s h S h e m a 1 n e h (O f ). — 
Modern Arab granaries and .slight traces of modern ruined houses. 
Gu^rin found here the foundations of a building with walls one metre in thickness. 
K h. B e i y i n (O h). — Heaps of stones and several cisterns. 

Kh. Felih (O h).— Foundations of walls, traces of ruins, and 

K h. H a z z II r (O f). — Heaps of stones and cisterns. 

Kh. el Hoseiniyeh (M f). — A few scattered stones, several 
modern walls, and two cisterns. 

Kh. Irbid (P g)- — This is an important ruin, extending over a 
considerable area. The stones are unhewn, except at the synagogue. 
Some modern arches and granaries have been made, and there are 
traces of an Arab village having existed here. 

\SHEKT /■/.] 



A spring well is found to south-east of the ruin. It is very deep, and 
is built up with well-cut blocks of basalt, and has projecting stones all the 
way down, forming a staircase. 

On the north side of the ruin the rocks have been excavated with 
tombs and wine-presses, and also quarried a good deal. There are a 
number of simple sunk tombs or sarcophagi in the face of the rock. They 
measure from 6 feet to 6 feet 5 inches long, and i foot 10 inches deep. 
They are round at the head, and square at the foot, which is 



"*E ti"0 SUNK COUKT v;d 

"h- .- ^; 

%CALI. 20''!'. 


slightly deeper. There was a ledge cut 
round to receive the stone cover, and 
a channel made to keep the surface-water 
from running in. They face in all 

Another rock-cut tomb opens out of a 
deep rock-cut chamber, which appears to 
have been in connection with a wine-press, 
and was, perhaps, used as the reservoir for the wine before it was con- 
verted into the ante-chamber of a tomb. 

The loculi are 3 feet 4 inches high, square-headed outside. In the 
side of the sunk court, a .sarcophagus is sunk in the rock, and is covered 
by a very large stone. The height of the recess is 2 feet 6 inches. 

On the northern side of the ruins are the remains ot an ancient 
synagogue, similar in type to those at Kefr Birim, Meiron, etc. (see 
Photographs, Old Series, Nos. 60 and 63). It is situated 
on ground sloping towards the north, and a level platform 
has been formed by excavation at the southern end. This 
peculiarity of the site prevented the entrances from being 
on that side, as in the other Galilean synagogues, and 
they are placed on ' the eastern side, where one doorway and traces of 
another still remain. The floor was below the level of the ground, 
and was reached by a descent of three steps at the north-east door. 
Two ot these steps were carried round the northern side of the 
building, and formed seats. They are each i foot high. Two columns 
— one double, at the corner, and the other next it — remain standing. 
They are monolithic blocks of very hard limestone. One door-post 
is also standing of the north-eastern door, and the lower portion of the 







other is /// situ. Se\cral pedestals, on which the cokimns ol the Iniildiiij^ 
stood, are also /// siln. AmoiiL;- the ruins lie several fine capitals, of different 
sizes and styles. IMack basalt and white limestone appear to have been 

used both inside and out. Some 
of the capitals were of basalt 
(see Photograph 63, Old Series). 
In the centre of the southern 
wall is an apse or mihrab 6 feet 
'-'--"■'?.'^^ 4 inches in diameter, and 4 
feet 2 inches deep. It must 
have extended up nearly as high 
as the columns, and was faced 
with small well-dressed blocks 
of white limestone. There are 
Corinthian and Ionic capitals 
in the ruin. Some have simple 
mouldings, as at the Kefr Bir'im 
N.)i..hoorpost ,^^j other synagogues. There 

are also several portions of semi-attached columns amongst the ruins. 
They are 9 inches in diameter, and have Ionic capitals. The stones used in 
the building were large and very well dressed. One measured 16 feet long, 
by I foot 4 inches by i foot 6 inches. Basalt voussoirs were also observed. 


A stone niche, which probably was placed over one of the smaller 
doorways in the north side, was found. 

It differs considerably from the niches of the synagogues at Kefr Bir'im, 





\_SHEET /'/.] 



Sufsaf, etc., and is more like those found at Kerazeh, thou^di not so highly 

A stone was also found with two small semi-attached f]uted columns, as 
drawn, apparently the ornamentation of some part of the base of the walls. 

The column on the left side of the stone has four llutings i^ inch 
wide, with half an inch between each. The other has twisted llutings 
I inch wide, without any space between. 

The columns in the synagogue are lo feet 6 inches high, on pedestals 
I foot 3 inches high. The lower diameter of the columns is 2 feet i inch, 
and the upper i foot lo inches. 

The capitals have various hc-ights, from i foot to 2 feet 2 inches. 

6" 5" 6" 6" 

The mouldings on the door-post and lintel are similar to those at other 
synagogues. The dotted lines in the drawing show where the moulding 
is now broken away. The design on the top course is very indistinct. 
The lintel and door-post are in one solid block of limestone. 

The T-shaped return of the mouldings on the lintel, as at Meiron and 
many other synagogues, can be recognised in the door-post still standing. 
The lintel is broken, and seems to have been attached differently to the 
usual method of resting on the door-posts. 

The synagogue at Irbid was at one time used as a mosque, as evidenced by the 
M i h r a b on the south wall, which remains perfect. 

Kh. Irbid occupies the site and nearly preserves the name of Arbela, mentioned some- 
times by Josephus. It was situated in Galilee, near the Lake of Tiberias, and near it were 



numerous caverns. The caverns are probably those in tlie \\'ady el Ilamam. The place is 
thus described by Col. Wilson : 

' Opposite, on the southern heights, lie the ruins of Irbid, the ancient Arhela, a place 
once of some importance ; part of the surrounding wall is standing, and there arc two small 
pools, several cisterns, and the remains of numerous houses belonging to the old town, 
amongst which, easily discernible, are those of a later Arab village. Close to the edge of 
the steep descent to Wady Hanidm is an old synagogue, similar to those found in other 
places, except that the door is on the eastern side instead of the southern, an arrangement 
necessitated by the rapid rise of the ground to the south. The building was at one time 
used as a mosque, and many changes appear to have been rnade in it at that time, as we 
found both Corinthian and Ionic capitals in the rubbish ; there were, too, the same semi- 
barbarous mouldings, and peculiar arrangement of columns, which are distinctive marks of 
the Galilean synagogues.' 

Kh. Kadish (Oh). — Heaps of basaltic stones, and ruined Araij 

K h . K a i s a r i y e h (O f). — A {(t^N heaps of stones and several cisterns. 

K h. K a i s h a r u n (O h). — A few heaps of stones and one cistern. 

K h. el K a n e i t r i y e h (P g). — Foundations and heaps of stones, 
on a round hill with steep sides. 

K h. K astah (O h). — Heaps of stones, chiefly basalt, a piece of a 
column, and several cisterns. 

Kh. Kenna (N h). — A bare top, with traces of ruins and founda- 
tions, and numerous cisterns cut in the rock. 

'On the top of a hill, twenty minutes west-south-west of Kefr Kenna, called Kh. 
Kenna, I discovered the remains of an enclosure built of great irregular blocks. Within 
it are the debris of overthrown buildings, and here and there cisterns .... Another 
hill, fifteen minutes to the west of Kefr Kenna, is also covered with ruins and great blocks 
of stone. There are also a few cisterns. This ruin is called Khurhct Deir er Ras.' — Gu^rin. 

K h. K e r a z e h (O f). — There are extensive ruins of basaltic stone 

strewn about ; a few foundations and 
walls of houses, and the remains of a 
synagogue situated about the centre of 
the ruins. 

This .synagogue appears to have 
been entirely built of basalt, which has 
been elaborately cut and carved for its 
decoration, as seen in the niches photo- 
graphed (No.s. 50 and 51, Old Series, and No. 52, Old Series, gives a 


\_SHEET /'/.] 



good general view of the ruins). Two pedestals still remain /;/ situ, and 
a portion of the wall. The rest of the synagogue is a mass of ruins. It 
appears to have resembled the synagogue at Tell Hum more closely than 
others, but there are not sufficient data on the ground to allow of a special 
plan of this building. 

1 he interior length is 74 feet inches, with a breadth of 49 feet, the 
walls being 4 feet thick. The intercolumnar distance is 9 feet 6 inches, 
and the lower diameter of the columns was 2 feet, the upper being i foot 
10 inches. No perfect column remains, so that the height could not be 
determined. The capitals are Corinthian, and are 2 feet 3 inches high. 
They are well cut in the very hard basalt. The height of the pedestal, 
with the base of column, is 3 feet 3f inches. 

The characteristic of this synagogue is its excess of ornamentation of 
rather a debased kind. The niches are most elaborate, and remain as sharp 

VOL. I. 5 I 


as wlicn they were cut in ihe hard used. The inoul<.Hn^;s oi the 
door-posts are similar to those used in other synagogues, and there are 
inanv stones cut with deep mouldings, and pieces ol chissical cornices 
strewn about amongst the ruins. 

' As early as 1740 Pocockc heard the name of Gerasi, and identified it with Chorazin ; and 
since his time the place has been mentioned and visited by more than one traveller ; but 
perhaps owing to the peculiar character of the masonry, which is barely to be distinguished at 
one hundred yards distance from the rocks which surround it, and the shortness of their visits, 
they have failed to apjircriate the extent and significance of the ruins. They cover an area 
as large, if not larger, than the ruins of Capernaum, and are situated partly in a shallow 
valley, jiartly on a rocky spur formed by a sharp bend in ^Vady Kerazeh, or, as it is called 
lower down, Wady Tell Hum, here a wild gorge eighty feet deep. From this last place there 
is a beautiful view of tlic lake to its southern end ; and here too are gathered the most 
interesting ruins —a synagogue, with Corinthian capitals, niche heads, and other ornaments 
cut, not as at Tell Hum, in limestone, but in the hard black basalt. Many of the dwelling- 
houses are in a tolerably perfect state, the walls being in some cases six feet high ; and as they 
are probably the same class of houses as that in which our Saviour dwelt, a description of 
them may be interesting. They are generally square, of different sizes — the largest measured 
was nearly thirty feet — and have one or two columns down the centre to support the roof, 
which appears to have been flat, as in the modern Arab houses. The walls are about two 
feet thick, built of masonry or of loose blocks of basalt ; there is a low doorway in the centre 
of one of the walls, and each house has window^s twelve inches high and six and a half inches 
wide. In one or two cases the houses were divided into four chambers.' — 'Recovery of 
Jerusalem,' pp. 346, 347. 

K h. el K e r a k (O h). — This appears to have been a fortified place 
of considerable strength at the southern extremity of the Sea of Galilee. 
A large plateau extended from the road to the mouth of the Jordan, and 
appears to have been artificially raised, and is levelled on the top. It 
measures approximately 1,000 yards long, by 180 wide. At the north- 
western end there are the remains of .some buildings, and this is, probably, 
where the principal defences of the castle were placed. A wall across the 
road appears to have joined this fortress to that of S i n n en N a b r a, 
which is situated on a spur running down from the hills, and thus the 
road to Tiberias would be guarded from the south and east. 

The place was well defended on three sides by water. A broad ditch 
was cut along the west and south-west side, which was in communication 
with the River Jordan. The sea and the river defended the other two 
sides, and thus only left a narrow isthmus on the north-east by which the 
assailant could attack on dry land. Traces of a wall round the plateau 
were observed. The plateau itself is now ploughed up, and does not show 
any traces of buildings. 



' Kerak, or Taiichca?, commanding as it did tlie southern end of the road whic li ran along 
the western shore of the lake, and also the three bridges over Jordan in its immediate vicinity, 
was formerly of great importance, and we find it repeatedly mentioned in the account which 
Josephus gives of his campaign in Galilee. The position of the place is naturally strong ; a 
mound about thirty feet high, surrounded on three sides by water, and on the fourth by a 
broad ditch, through which a branch of Jordan appears to have passed ; this feature is pro- 
duced by the eccentric course of the Jordan, which soon after leaving the lake takes a sharp 
turn and flows nearly north-east. The land approach was l)y a causeway, well provided with 
culverts, across the ditch, and this was defended by a small fort or tower on the land side. 
There are also the remains of a bridge connecting the town with the eastern side of Jordan. 
Of the town absolutely nothing remains but a heap of rubbish covered with broken pottery, 
and fragments of sculpture, offering probably a rich field for excavation.' — 'Recovery of 
Jerusalem,' pp. 362, 363. 

In the Talmud (Bereshith Rabba, c. 98) Senabrai and Beth Joreach are mentioned as 
near each other, and Neubauer (Geog. du Talmud) conjectures that the name Kerak is a 
corruption of Kir Jerach. Herodotus (II. 15, 113) makes us acquainted with the Pelusian 
Tarichcea and another city of the same name at the Canopian mouth of the Nile. The name 
really signifies a salt-store, or a place for curing fish ; the Phcenicians also used the word 
Malaga for the same thing. The still existing site of El Mellaha {.\rd el Mellakaya on Zimmer- 
mann's map) thus answers to the ancient Tarichcea. \ Phoenician votive inscription from 
an altar in Sardinia mentions one Cleon, a man from the guild of salt workers. "">'='?■' "^'^ °": 
is a Punic ' Societas apud salinas,' from vh-^ 'salt.' Anyhow, our Tarichtca is an ancient 
station of the Phcenicians, who had such salt-depots on all the coasts ; as, according to 
Strabo (III. 3), at Malaga, lasiyiiai ij.iyu.7ac, as well as at the Carthage newly-founded by 
Hannibal. — Sepp. 

Kh. Kib.shany (N h). — Traces of ruins, some large stones, 

Kh. el Kur (P f). — Traces of ruins. 

K h. M a d i n (P g). — Heaps of ruins, some well-dressed stones. 

K h. INI a m e 1 i a (O g). — Considerable traces of ruins, heaps of 
stones, and cisterns. 

K h. el M a n s 11 r a h (O i). — Heaps of basaltic stones. 

K h. Pvleskeneh (Oh). — Extensive ruins of much-worn stones, 
foundations of walls, and rock-cut cisterns. There are several sarcophagi 
and a large birkeh near ; also some caves and wine-presses cut in the 
rock. Probably an ancient place. 

K h. M i n i a (P g). — A .slight mound and traces of ruins, a few walls 
visible. The ruins e.xtend over an area of about 100 by 200 yards. It is 
said that good stone for building can be procured by a little excavation 
here. There is no data forjudging of what age these remains may be. 



'A short distance nortli of llio spring is Klian MinNcli, alnvi^t a ruin, ihouyli inhaliitetl 
by a few Arabs. The Khan was doubtless built for the convenience of travellers to Damascus, 
and is at least as old as the twelfth century, being mentioned by Bohacddin in his " Life of 
Saladin."' \\'est of the sjjring are the ruins (Kh. Minyeh) which Dr. Robinson, the learned 
American traveller, identifies with Capernaum. They form a .series of mounds, covering an ex- 
tent ot ground small in comparison with either those of Tell Hum or Kerazeh. AVe made some 
small excavations in these, but did not succeed in finding the remains of any building of 
great size. The walls were rudely built, and the fragments of pottery dug up appeared to be 
modern. There were traces of a thick wall surrounding the site. No fragments of columns, 
capitals, or carved stones were found in the ruins, nor could any be seen in the walls of the 
Khan, or round the tombs close by — a fact whic h seems to indicate that the ruins are of 
modern date, or at any rate never contained any building such as the synagogues or churches 
found elsewhere, as in all otiier places old material is invariably found built into the walls 
of later buildings where they are near old sites.' — ■\\'ilson, 'Recovery of Jerusalem,' i)p. 

350. 35I' 

The site of ,%rinia, or Minyeh, has been identified by Robinson, Macgregor, and Conder 
with Capernaum, which is placed by Dr. Wilson, Tristram, Colonel Wilson, and otiiers at 
Tell Hum. Guerin identifies it with Bethsaida. 

K h. M u 1:; h e i y i r (O i). — A few heaps of stones, five or six caves, 
and a few cisterns. 

K h. INI u s h t a h (N y). — Heaps of stones, and cisterns. 

K h. Muslakhit (N gj. — Foundations, cisterns, and hea[)s of 


Guerin observed here, besides the remains of an ancient village, those of a stronghold in 
enormous blocks badly squared and placed together without cement, seeming to indicate the 
site of an ancient military post. The place, according to him, is also called Khurbet Amer es 

Kh. el Muzekka (O g). — Small heaps of dressed stones of 
medium size, a cave, and spring in rock-cut well. A trough is also cut 
in the rock near the well. 

Kh. Natef (O g). — Foundations, heaps of stones, and cisterns, 

on small tell ; a rock-cut tomb, now filled up. 

'The ruins of a monument ornamented with columns are still visible in the soutliern 
part, and several mutilated shafts are either upright or lying on the ground.' — Guerin. 

Kh. Nejeimiyeh (O g). — Heaps of stones and cisterns, near a 

Kh. en Nueiriyeh (P f). — Heaps of drafted masonry on the 
top of terraced hill, with a rock-cut well and three rock-cut wine-presses. 

Kh. el 'Oreimeh (P g). — An artificial plateau, 19S feet by 86 

\_SHEET /'/.] ARCII.EOLOGY. 405 

feet, on the top of a rocky hill. In the north-west angle of the plateau 
there are the remains of walls and ruins of a building, prolxiljly a lortress 
or stronghold of some sort. The great Damascus high- road ran just 
below to the west. 

K h. '( ) s h s h e h (O f). — A few heaps of stones. 

K h. R u b u d i y e h (P g). — A few piles of stones near the spring. 
''I'he site of an ancient village : caves, cisterns, tombs and presses remain, cut in the 
rock.' — Giierin. 

K h. Ruweis el H a m a m (INI f). — A few .scattered stones and 

K h. .Sad ((3 g). — Heaps of unhewn basaltic stones. 

Kh. Sarah (O i). — Heaps of stones, all of small size; a lew 
cisterns ; a few basaltic stones also scattered through the ruins. 

Kh. -Sebana (P g). — Heaps of stones and foundations on the top 
of a terraced hill ; cisterns. 

K h. Seiyadeh (P h). — Ruined Arab houses, all basaltic and ap- 
l)arently modern. 

Kh. Sell am eh (Of). — Heaps of stones, cisterns, and caves. 

This was a Druse village destroyed by the Zeidaneh, the lamily of 

Dhaher el 'Amr. 

This jjlace is probably the Selaniis mentioned by Josephus as having been foi'tified by 
him at the same time as he fortified the Jotapata, Bersabee, and other places. On the top 
of the site Guerin found the remains of a rectangular enclosure. So paces by 50. \Vithin the 
enclosure and along the walls have been built twenty crude vaulted chambers, which ap- 
peared to him modern. Besides the cisterns and caves mentioned by Lieutenant Kitchener, 
Guerin observed two presses cut in the rock. 

K h. .S e r j u m i e h (P h). — Modern ruins of basaltic houses. 

Kh. S h a r a h (O i). — Basaltic ruins oi Arab houses; several 

Kh. Shemsin (Pi). — Basaltic ruins of Arab houses ; two cisterns 

K h . .Sir! n (P f). — Heaps of cut stones. 

K h. Umm el 'A 1 a k (Oh). — Heaps of basaltic stones, portions 
of a pillar, and several cisterns. (See Kefr Sabt, p. 205.) 



K h. I' m 111 cl 'A 111 c (.1 (O g). — The ruined synagogue stands on 
flat ground on a low saddle north of the road, south of which is a modern 
building partly constructed of stones from the synagogue walls. 

The synagogue was built of hard grey limestone. It is, unfortunately, 
almost eniirelv destroyed. The distinctive double column still remains 


Standing in situ at the north-west corner, and the base of one of 
the columns of a central walk exists on the south, apparently also 
in situ. 

From these data it would appear that the synagogue measured 53 feet 
north and south from the outer angles of its double columns. 

The angular direction of the building was due north and south. Part 
of the west wall remains, showing a stylobate of simple profile, which ran 




round the building on the interior. The height of the stylobate was i foot 
4 inches, and the profile similar to that of the pillar bases. 

\_SBEET 7-7.] ARCH.KOLOGY. 407 

The dimensions uf ihe columns are as below : 

Base . 

Shaft . 

Capital (with abacus) 

The diameter of the pillars was about 2 feet. 

Thi! building south of the road is about 40 feet square. The north 
wall is constructed of masonry evidently taken from the synagogue. 
There are drafted stones with a well-finished boss in the lowest course. 






I I 






L5!l'^!l32ii>*?i!'?x^S'.' . 


One of these measured 3 feet 2 inches in length and i foot 8 inches high 
the draft was .■, inch deep and 2| inches broad. 




On the east of the building is a courtyard with drystonc? walls 
built of black basalt, into which is built a great linlrl with a design; 
compare Phol(5graph No. -] i. Old .Series) representing two lions facing 



oiH' another, with an nrn hct\vi't:n tht'ni. 'I'hc stone lias hvx\\\ cracked 
clown the middle. It mcastircs 8 feet 4 inclies by 2 feet 4 inches, ami it 
appears e\'ideMitly to liave been the hntt'l of tlie main eninmct.' to the 






synagogue ; while the two ornamented blocks above described were pro- 
bably the lintels of side entrances. Though differing in length, they are 
of the same height. 

After describing the synagogue, Gue'rin says : ' To the east and at a short distance rises a 
hillock quite covered with rubbish, and surrounded by fine blocks of stones from ancient 
constructions. To the west and about 200 paces from the synagogue, one observes a 
great resen'oir half filled in, its form indicated by a range of stones ; its form is semi- 

' To the south of the basin, which was made to catch the rain, are the remains of a strong 
square building made of limestone, which seems to have been a mausoleum ; but it would be 
necessary to excavate to be sure of this. The entrance was by two doors, situated one on 
the east and the other on the south facade. The lintels were ornamented with roses and 
foliage beautifully executed, but now mucli broken. Monolithic columns stood on either 
side of these doors : perhaps they surrounded the whole building with a continuous 

There are other ruins here besides the synagogue. They have been described by Gudrin. 
He found (i) two hundred paces from the synagogue a great reservoir half filled up 
— a range of stones marks out the shape, which was semicircular. (2) South of this basin 
the remains of a strong square building. The entrance was by two doors situated on 
the eastern facade, and the other at the south. The lintels which covered the jambs 
were adorned with roses and foliage executed with some elegance, now much mutilated. 
Monolithic columns stood at the side of these doors ; perhaps they surrounded the edifice 
with a sort of continuous portico. This monument is now little more than a pile of confused 

{SHEET /•/.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 409 

K h. U m m c 1 G h a n i; m (O i). — Heaps of stones, a few of which 
are hewn, all of small size ; one small cave and one cistern. 

Guerin saw here several ancient cisterns, still unbroken, and ancient caves cut in the rock, 
which now serve as a refuge for shepherds. 

K h. U m m J e b e i 1 (O h). — Foundations of an old wall, on the top 
of the Tell on which the ruin stands. The hill is terraced, and appears 
to have been an ancient place of importance. There are some rock-cut 
tombs, with kokiiii and lociili ; also some caves and four or five cisterns. 
A portion of a pillar was also observed. 

K h. el W e r e i d a t (P g). — Heaps of stones of small size. 

El Khureibeh. — Foundations of walls and scattered heaps of 

El Kill ah. — Ruined castle in Tiberias, built by Dhaher el 'Amr's 
son in the last century. It is constructed of small stones of basalt, well 
dressed and firmly bedded in good mortar. It has been shaken down by 
earthquakes and is fast disappearing. 

K u 1 a t el G h u 1 (O h). — A large boulder on the shores of the 
Sea of Galilee. 

Kill at Ibn ]M a n (P h). — This stronghold was situated in the 
precipitous rocks of the Wikly Hamam. The cliffs on both sides of 
the valley have numerous caves in them, but the Kiil'at Ibn Man, 
on the southern side of the valley, is far the most extensive. The 
cliffs here reach an altitude of over 1,000 feet above the bed of the 
valley. A steep slope of debris fallen into the valley leads up about 
500 feet to the foot of the cliffs, which then rise perpendicularly, and 
in some places have crumbled away, or have been burrowed out 
below till they are overhanging. There are traces of well-made basalt 
steps leading up to the castle. The entrance was flanked by two 
small round towers, besides loopholed galleries in the face of the 
rock, so that a heavy fire could be brought on an assailant. Inside this 
entrance is a large natural cave, which probably formed the stable, and 
from this a staircase leads to an upper tier of natural and artificial caves, 
opening from a passage which was carried along a narrow ledge in the 
face of the rock, and walled in on the outside. Round towers and loop- 
holes from this gallery added to the defensive strength of the jjlace. 
Staircases led up from both ends of this gallery to other caves on ditierent 
VOL. I. 52 



tiers, coniiL'Clcd by i^allcrics, and staircases, now lalkn to ruins, occujjicd 
the face of the rock. Water was brought, probably from Irbid, in a rock-cut 
channel along the face of tlie precipice ; il then poured down througli an 
earthenware pipe into a cistern, coated with liard reddisli cement, in the 
interior of the castle. The walls existing are Arabic work, built with great 
care, the stones being of finely dressed hard crystalline whi