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THE S U R \^ E Y 



OF 



WESTERN PALESTINE, 







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a. 



THE SURVEY 



OF 



WESTERN PALESTINE. 

MEMOIRS 

OF TUF, 

TOPOGRAPHY, OROGRAPHY, HYDROGRAPHY, 

AND 

ARCHEOLOGY. 



\\\ 



LIEUT. C. K. CUXDER, R.E., AND LIEUT. II. II. KITCIIEXER, R.E. 



VOLUME II. SHEETS VII.- XVI. 

SAMARIA. 



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EDITED WITH ADDITIONS BV 

E. H. PALMIER, ^LA., AND WALTER BESANT, M.A., 

roK 

THE COMMITTEE OF THE PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 
I, ADAM STREET, ADELPHI, LONDON, W.C. 
1882. 



P R E F A C E. 



The Memoirs for Sheets \'II. — XXI. which are contained in this 
volume are entirely the work of Lieutenant (now Captain) Conder. 
The method of division is the same as that adopted for the first 
volume. 

The additions made by the Editors are distinguished by being 
printed in small type. It must be remembered that the observations 
made by Guerin, which in some cases seem to disagree with those of 
our officers, were taken twenty years ago, when some of the ruins 
were more perfect than they are at present. 

The illustrations for this volume are all either taken from the 
photographs of the Society, or drawn by the officers of the Survey 
for the Memoirs. As in the case of the first volume, their production 
has been superintended by Professor Hayter Lewis, to whom are due 
the drawings of Ramleh on p. 273. 

The General Index will appear with the last volume of the work. 



E. H. P. 
W. B. 



I, Adam Street, Adelphi, 
Aftil isf, 1882. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 







PAGE 


Ruins at Mezraa .... 


Frontispiece 


BiRKF.T AiN U.MM EL FaHMEH . 


T 


El BCrj ..... 




7 


TantOrah, tomb near 




10 


Kaisarieh, Roman and Medlkvai. Riins 


. To face p 


'.S"'' 15 


„ Medleval Rlins 


. To face p 


aqe 17 


„ FaIj'ade of Temple . 




. 18 


„ Aqueducts 




19 


„ Shaft in Sea Wall 




22 


„ The C.A.THEDRAL 




^7 


Khurbet Heiderah .... 




30 


Khurbet Ibreikt.\s .... 




31 


KhCriset Mansur el 'Arab 




32 


TahCnet Abu Nur .... 




34 


Tomb on Tell Barak .... 




34 


FuREiDis, To.mbs near . . . . 




52 


IjZlM ...... 




^7, 


Khurbet Abu 'Amir . . . . . 




55 


Abu 'Amir ..... 




56 


Khurbet BeidCs .... 




57 


KhCRBET el pARRiVEH, TOMB AT . . . 




59 


Khurbet KIreh .... 




6t 


Khurbet esh ShIh . . . . . 




62 


El LejjCn ...... 




65 


MA-MAS, Roman Theatre at . 




67 


Tell Kei.mun . . . . . 


69, 70 


Beisan, Plan of . 


To face page 105 


„ HiPPODRO.ME . . . . . 


. 106 


„ Acropolis and Ruins . . . . 


To face page 107 


„ Theatre . . . . . 


. 107 


,, The Portress 


. loS 


„ MuGH.^RET et Tell 


. 


109 



VI 



LIST OF ILL USTRA T10N3. 



Beisan, ToNrBs 

„ MuGHARET Abu Yaghi 

„ JlSR EL MaKtCa 

„ Sculptured Slab and Capital 
Deir Giilzaleh 
Kaukab el Hawa 
Khan el Ahmar 
Khurbet MALtr 
Ars6f 

MUGHAR ESH ShERIF . 

Kuryet Jit, Guest House 

'AZZLN 

BiR Yakub, jACor.'s Well 
Ueir Serur . 

„ Tombs at . 

Ebal and Gerizim 
SA^L\RITAN Place of 'Worship 

KtJLUNSAWEH 

El Mejdel . 

Nablus, Gateway of Mosque 
,, Samaritan Inscription 
„ ^'lE^v of old Silver C 
teuch 
Sebustieh, Plan of 
„ Colonnade 

„ Church of St. Joh 



„ Masons' Marks 

„ Details of Church 

Group of Samaritans 

BURJ EL Maleh. 

Khurbet Jebrish 

Khurbet Kefr Beita 

Khurbet Umm el Ikb 

Khurbet Yerzeh 

Raba 

TeiasIr 

El 'Aneiziveh 

Kui.at Ras el 'Ain 

Ludd, Church of St. George 
„ Plan of Church 

Er Ramleh . 



Details 



ARKET containing 



PAGE 

I lO 

III, 112 

112 

■ 113 

• "5 

• "7 
120 

• 123 

To face page 137 
. J41 

■ 163 

• 171 
i72> 173. 17s. 177 

180, 181, 182, 183 
. 184 

To face page 1S6 
To faee page 18S 
200 
202 
7^0 faee page 203 
To faee page 204 



Samaritan Pent.v 



To face page 206 
To faee page 211 

21 1 
To face page 212 

212 

• 213 
. 214 

To face page 218 

• 235 
■ 238 

• 239 
. 241 

242 

243. 244 

• 245 
264 

. 266 

To face page 267 

267 

26() 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 





PAGE 


Er Ramleh, Details of Church 


. 270 


„ Mosque .... 


271, 273 


El Azeir ..... 


■ 304 


El Azeirat ..... 


• 304 


BeitIn', Circle ok Stones near 


Tofixcepage 305 


BuRj BardawIl .... 


. 306 


BuRj BeitIn ..... 


• 307 


nEIR '.\RAIiY ..... 


311, 312 


DeIR ED DeRI! .... 


313. 314 


Deir Kul.4h . . . . . 


• 315. 316, 3'7> jiS, 319 


DeIR SlULVN ..... 


■ 320 


El Habs . - . . . 


321, 322 


El Khudr ..... 


■ 325 


Khurbet el Bureij .... 


• Zl° 


Khurbet el Fakh.akhir 


■ 334 


Khurbet Kurkcsh .... 


• ll'i'^ 339. 340 


Khurbet Midieh, Plan of . 


To face page 341 


!) »» .... 


• 341 


Khurbet el MukAtir 


• 353 


Mok.\t.\ 'Abud .... 


361, 3^2, }>(ih 364 


Mukam en Neby Yahvah . . . . 


. 366 


Seilcn, Plan of . 


• 368 


„ Section of Stone 


• 36S 


,, Jamia el .^rbain 


■ 369 


TiDNEH, Plan of . 


To face page 375 


„ Tomb . . . . . 


• 375 


Rock-hewn To.mb . . . . 


To face page 376 


Kurn Surtubeh .... 


. 381 


n j» • ■ * ' 


To face page 387 


KURAWA EL Mas'LDV, LETTERS ON To.MB AT 


• 396 


Jezer ...... 


To face page 429 


„ Idol found at . 


• 439 



THE 



SURVEY 01' WESTERN PALESTINE. 



SHEET YIL— SECTION A. 

The present Sheet contains 38 square miles of the sea-coast near 
Caesarea. It is divided into four districts by three perennial streams. 

Orography. — The slopes of Mount Carmel are immediately east of this 
Sheet. (See Sheet VIII.) The northern district of the Sheet is a narrow 
lilain, cultivated, and having olive groves near the foot of the hills. It is 
bounded on the west by a low range of rocks, averaging 60 feet above 
the sea. The stony sides of this wall of rock separating the plain from 
the beach are extensively quarried. The shore itself is rocky from 
T a n t u r a h as far north as the J e z i r e t el M ti k r ; south of 
Tanturah is a fine, open sandy beach. A larger bay to the south and a 
smaller one to the north of this village break the shore-line. 

The second district south of Nahr ed Dufleh consists of marshy 
ground extending east to the foot of the hills, which are here bounded by 
the steep cliff of el K h a s h m, about 450 feet above the sea. From 
the south side of this promontory the plain suddenly widens. (See 
Sheet VIII.) The marsh is bounded by a dam on the north (see 
Kebarah, Section B.), and on the west the low range of rocks still 
separates the plain from the beach. The rocks are here covered with 
low brushwood. The beach Is sandy. 
/ VOL. II. I 



2 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The third district south of the Nahr ez Zerka is a desert of 
rollino- sand-dunes and of sandy soil, scattered thinly with low shrubs and 
dry grasses, with here and there a stunted oak. 

A little corn is cultivated in the part east of Caesarea. 

The sand-hills hide the ruins of Ceesarea, which lie low near the shore, 
and are only seen when within a mile of the walls. The chain of rocks 
gradually disappears near Csesarea, and the beach is narrower, with low 
cliffs above it. 

The fourth district is similar to the last, with cliffs above the beach 
and blown sand in the interior. The only cultivation is in the neighbour- 
hood of S h e i k h H e 1 ii, where a litde barley is grown. 

Hydrography. — The Bedawin obtain water from the pools among the 
sand-dunes. The only springs are along the sides of the rivers, which 
are three, as follows, proceeding from north to south : 

Nahr ed Dufleh, a stream some 5 to lo yards across, and 
apparently perennial. On either side are marshes. The stream is fed by 
springs and also by the drainage of the Carmel slopes. A small bridge 
crosses the stream near ' A b d u n . 

Nahr ez Zerka is one of the most important streams in Pales- 
tine. It is fed by fine springs near Ma-mas'- (Sheet VUL), and is 
dammed across at the Jisr ez Zerka, where it has formed a broad, 
deep pool. Extensive marshes, entirely impassable, exist along the course 
of the stream on either bank. The water is clear and good. The stream 
Hows into the sea near el M e 1 a t over a stony bed, and was found 
to have a strong current 5 to 10 yards across, and about 2 feet deep, in 
October, 1876. The ruins of the bridge at this point show the course to 
have altered slightly southwards since Crusading times. 

The course of the stream is hidden above the dam by a cane-brake 
and rushes. The tamarisk grows luxuriandy in the marshes, and the 
Syrian papyrus was found in the stream, being the only place near the 
coast where it was observed except in the Nahr el F a 1 i k. (Sheet X.) 

* Ma-mas is an ancient Majumas unnoticed in history. The word has been doubtfully 
derived from the Coptic M a i, a place, and I o u m, water, and applies here to a site with 
springs. (See Sheet VIII., Section B.)— C. R. C. 



{SHEET Vn.\ TOPOGRAPHY. 3 

The Zerka is the ancient Crocodile river (Reland, Pal, p. 730), and 
was so known also to the Crusaders (I tin. Ric, book iv.). The croco- 
dile is still found here according to A b u N u r, the owner of the mill 
on the river. 

Close to this mill a low foot-bridge spans the stream. This, with the 
viaduct over Jisr ez Zerka, is the only place where the stream can 
be crossed, except at the mouth, where it is generally fordable. 

N a h r el M e f j i r is also apparently a perennial stream. It runs 
between high, steep banks, and has marshes at various points along its 
course. A tract of pasturage exists close to it (Dukat en Nimreh) 
The stream is fordable at the mouth, and about three-quarters of a mile 
higher up are remains of an ancient bridge of masonry in hard cement. 
This stream appears to have been known to the Crusaders as the Dead 
River (Itin. Ric, book iv.). The river was found full of water in 
October, 1873, after a dry season ; but the mouth was then closed by a 
bar of sand. 

Topography. — Only four inhabited villages occur on this Sheet. 
They belong to the K a d h a H a i fa. The most Important is — 

Tanturah (I j).— This is a moderate-sized village of cabins, one 
storey high, built of mud, and lying along the beach. To the east is a 
square, isolated stone building used as a Medafeh, or 'guest-house,' for 
passing travellers. There is a well north-east of the village. 

The population was stated by Consul Rogers in 1859 to be 300 souls, 
and the amount of land cultivated 25 feddans. The village has a small 
coasting trade with Jaffa, and sailing boats are anchored off the 
shore. 

Tanturah, or more properly the ruin of Khfirbet Tanturah 
(see el B u r j, Section B.), is supposed to mark the site of the ancient 
Dor. In the ' Onomasticon ' this town is placed 9 Roman miles from 
Caisarea northwards (see Reland, p. 738 ; Smith, Bib. Diet., s.v. Dor ; 
' Onomasticon,' s.v. Dora), which agrees with the position of e 1 B u r j . 

The population of Tanturah is given by Guerin as about 1,200. Socin speaks of it as a 
village, 'consisting of a few miserable hovels.' 

Kefr Lam (I i) is a small village of mud hovels crowded within the 



4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

walls of the ancient fort. (See Section B.) The population was stated by 
Consul Rogers, 1859, to be 120 souls, and the cultivation to be 16 feddans. 
There is a spring west of the village. 

Gu^rin gives the population as 300. 

A place called Capernaum is noticed in 1191 a.d. (Itin. Ric, book 
iv. ch. 12), as between Haifa and Caesarea. The distance is given by 
Benjamin of Tudela (i 163 a.d.) as 4 parasangs (=120 stadia or 15 Roman 
miles) from Haifa. Kefr Laim is 14 English miles from Haifa; 
R. Benjamin also calls the place Khephar Thancum and Meon. This is 
probably the fort of Rloen destroyed by Saladin in 1191. The fort of 
Capernaum was found in ruins by Richard in the same year. 

Stirafend (I i). — A small mud village, having ruins to the north. 
(See Section B.) The population was stated by Consul Rogers in 1S59 at 
150 souls, and the cultivation 16 feddans. The houses stand on the ridge 
between the plain and the beach. 

Stirafend was visited in 1863 by Guerin, who found a population not exceeding 300. 

Sheikh Helu (II). — A few mud hovels near the Mukain. It 
is not noticed in the official list of the district. 

The site of the ancient Caesarea Palestina is specially described in 
Section B., with the various dates of its buildings. 

The only place in addition which has been identified is the ruined 
tower of el Mezrah, which may perhaps be the JNIerla mentioned in 
the march of King Richard (Itin. Ric, book iv., ch. 12) as between the 
House of the Narrow Ways (D us trey, Sheet V.) and the Crocodile 
River (N a h r e z Z e r k a). 

Roads. — No road, properly so called, can be said to exist, as only 
tracks made by the foot are found. There was, however, an ancient 
main-road along the coast, the line of which is traced by means of the 
bridges over the stream. This line passes to the east of the village of 
Tanturah, and also enters Crusading Caesarea on the east. At el B fi r j 
there are nine granite columns placed in line, and perhaps intended to 
mark the ninth Roman mile from Caesarea ; that being the distance from 
Dor to Caesarea according to the ' Onomasticon.' The guard-house at the 
pass by which the road crosses through the low ridge of rocks is specially 
described (Section B., D r e i h e m e h). 



[SHEET riJ.] TOPOGRAPHY. S 

Near ' A y u n H eider ah there are ruts formed by a wheeled 
vehicle, 3 feet 3 inches apart and some 6 inches wide. It must be noted 
that the Crusaders are known to have used carts conveying heavy weights 
in this part of the country in 1218 a.d. (See 'At h lit, Sheet V., Sec- 
tion B., p. 293, \'ol. I.) 



SHEET \II.— SECTION B. 

Archeology. 

'A b d u n (I j). — The ruin consists of foundations with nothing to in- 
dicate clearly the date. Immediately north on the Nahred Dufleh 
is a ruined mill, with two small bridges, and a rock- cut channel which is 
traceable northwards about half a mile in the direction of e 1 M e z r a h : 
cisterns and traces of ruins are found beside it. 

'Ayun Heiderah (I j). — Near the springs on the road are 
deep ruts worn in the soft rock by wheels, 3 feet 3 inches apart and about 
6 inches wide each. 

On either side of the rocky ridge there is a group of rock-hewn tombs, 
Those on the sea side number eight in all, four being square chambers, 
with three loculi, one on each wall under arcosolia ; the fifth tomb is curious, 
as containing a locubis opposite the door flanked by two koknn, one each 
side. A third koka exists on the side-wall to the right on entering. The 
loaclus and kokini are unusually short. The sixth tomb is a square 
chamber 10 feet wide, 5 feet 6 inches high, with a door 4 feet broad, 
5 feet high. The seventh and eighth are merely rude caves, the former 
with a square door, the latter measuring 6 paces by 8 paces inside ; the 
roof, roughly pointed, is 7 feet from the floor. North of this group of 
tombs are about a dozen small caves. 

The second group of tombs includes seven, all different. The first a 
square chamber with three loculi; the second is blocked up; the third 
has its door in the angle and only two loculi ; the fourth has six kokini, 
two on each side ; the fifth has a single loculus only 4 feet in length ; the 
sixth, apparently large, is blocked ; the seventh has three loculi. A rolling 
stone has fallen before the door (compare S u r a f e n d). Over the sixth 



{SHEET 171.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



[?- 






or principal tomb there appears to have been erected a sort of tower, 
probably semicircular, and about 8 paces diameter. The stones measure 
2 feet in heip[ht by 3 in breadth. (V^isited 8th March, 1873.) 

Birket 'A i n Umm cl Fahmeh (III). — A tank of masonry 
in cement, measuring 36 feet east and west, 
by 25 north and south, having corner but- 
tresses, and one in the centre of each side 8 
feet broad, 4 feet projection. The walls are 
4 feet thick. Similar reservoirs occur at e 1 
H a n n a n e h on this Sheet and on Sheet V. 
They seem probably of mediaeval date. 

El Biirj or Khilrbet Tanturah (Ij). — The ruins consist of a 
mound with a tower towards the south, the remains of a harbour, and of 



i. 1 




TOWtR TANTURAH from nmrn 



a colonnaded building near it, of a large cistern called el H a n n a n e h, 
and of a causeway leading north and south to the east of the town. Rock- 
cut tombs also e.xist north and south of the ruins. 



8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The Tower is apparently Crusading work, and stands on a low pro- 
montory, the harbour being on the north and a sandy beach and bay on 
the south. A deep moat separated the tower from the town. The height 
appears to be about 40 feet, and the base measures 20 feet by 40. It 
formed the corner of a fortress, and the foundations of another corner 
tower are visible near. The whole is built of rubble and small stones in 
hard cement, and faced with ashlar. 

The rubble contains layers of sea-shells (large bivalves), the mortar is 
very thickly laid round the stones, and has pieces of red pottery in it. 
The ashlar is well cut, the stones being on an average 2 feet 6 inches 
long, and i foot 6 inches to 2 feet high. The material is a coarse sandy 
limestone from the immediate neighbourhood. The lower courses of the 
ashlar have been removed, and leave the rubble visible, so that the tower 
is smallest at the base. Remains of a circular staircase can be seen on 
the south side of the tov/er, and on the east face there is a pointed arch 
in the wall about half-way up. 

The Mound, representing the site of the town itself, is about 200 yards 
long, and is covered with broken masonry, and with fragments of pottery 
and glass. The majority of the fallen blocks have been dug up and 
removed, but a few pillar-shafts remain. The mound continues as far as 
the promontory on which the tower stands, and its top, which is flat, is 
about 20 to 30 feet above the shore. The top of the tower is 58 '8 feet 
above the sea-level. 

The Colonnade is on the edge of the mound near the sea. The bases 
and ^capitals are of a rude Byzantine character, in imitation of the Ionic 
order, with large volutes resembling those in the ruins east of Jordan and 
elsewhere, which are dated as of the fifth century. The diameter of the 
shafts is 3 feet. Some rough square bases also occur. 

The Harboiw is immediately north of the tower. There are ten columns 
lying on the ground about i foot 6 inches diameter, with a simple square 
base without mouldings, the remains apparently of a building close to the 
water. The material is the same coarse limestone found in the tower. 

Just north of these columns and in the cliff, there are four rock-cut 
tombs, one hdiVing shelf loctili* (one on each of two walls of the chamber), 

* By shdf locuhis in these Memoirs is intended a kind of rock cut bench under an 
arcosoliiiin, as though the body or coffin was laid on it. They may, however, be unfinished 



{SHEET /7/.1 ARCHEOLOGY. 9 

the second a square chamber, the third and fourth having three loculi 
each. 

The building on the shore consists of three retaining walls, the southern 
being against the north face of the promontory on which the tower 
stands. The walls are of fme masonry in coarse limestone, the stones 
5 feet 6 inches long by 2 feet 6 inches broad and 2 feet 2 inches high ; the 
total height is about 15 feet, and the thickness 6 feet. The masonry is 
laid in alternate courses of headers and stretchers, like brickwork, but the 
stones are not all equal in size. The ashlar was originally faced inside 
with rubble, remaining in parts to a thickness of 3 feet, the stones 6 inches 
cube set in a dark-coloured mortar full of shells. 

The building measured 30 paces north and south, and the side-walls 
are about 1 1 paces in length, the northern projecting nearly to the water. 
1 n front of the space thus enclosed, there was a flat pavement of slabs 
equal in size to the stones in the walls, and built in the same kind of bond. 
A small jetty is still visible in the water. 

In the sea itself there is a curious scarped reef, a passage cut through 
forming a narrow entrance to the harbour. This passage appears to have 
been curved, some 50 yards long, and the sides 8 to 10 feet high. The 
entrance was probably, as at Tyre, once closed with a chain or boom. 

The Causeway is traceable east of the ruin for about a quarter of a 
mile. On one side, just south of el Hannaneh, are nine granite 
columns : these are placed touching each other ; south of these are three 
more, also touching ; the remaining three are fallen and scattered. They 
are i foot 6 inches in diameter, without base or capital, having only a 
simple fillet at the upper end of the shaft ; they are sunk in rubbish to 
some considerable depth. The arrangement of these shafts resembles 
that of some of the milestones on the Roman roads, and they may pro- 
bably have been taken from an older building and utilised to mark the 
ninth Roman mile from Ceesarea, as noted in Section A. 

El Hannaneh is a ruined cistern just east of the causeway ; it is 
about 10 paces square, and built of stones 2 feet to 3 feet 6 inches in 
lenc^th. The interior is lined with rubble coated with hard white cement. 



tombs, and the bench intended to have been excavated to form the ordinary rock-cnt 
sarcophagus beneath the arcosolium. — C. R. C. 

VOL. II. 2 



THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



ROCK MEWN TOMB NLAR TANTUR/H 






containing fragments of pottery pounded small, and dark red in colour, 
together with ashes. The mortar behind this cement is thickly bedded, 
and contains large bits of pottery. Close to the north wall of the cistern 
is a shallow round well of small ashlar. The work resembles that of the 
walls of CcEsarea, and may probably be attributed to the twelfth or 
thirteenth century. 

El Biirj is thought to stand on the site of the ancient Dor, which 
was in ruins in the fourth century. The tombs are apparently Jewish, but 
most of the buildings may probably, and the tower with a great degree of 
certainty, be attributed to the Crusaders. 

South of the ruin and north of the modern village of Tanturah a tomb 
is marked on the plan. It is a chamber 14 feet 6 inches across and 19 

feet 6 inches long, with five kokim 7 feet 
by 3 feet each on the left, three at the 
back, and four on the right. In the four 
corners of the chamber are four small 
chambers, seemingly double kokim, for 
receiving two bodies each. The entrance 
to the tomb is a long passage descending 
by steps to the door, which is square, 
with an arch above outside. On the left 
of the passage is another koka 7 feet long 
by 3 feet broad, which contained a skele- 
ton ; but this was probably recent, as the 
koka pointing east and west could be 
sciL£ used by Moslems for interment. Bones 

9 , p 10 15 2 3 FT ^ 

and skulls also were found in the tomb 
itself In the double koka at the back on the left there is a niche i foot 
6 inches high, 9 inches across, probably for a lamp. 

Visited 8th March, 1873. 

The city of Dor is first mentioned in Joshua xii. 23. It fell to the lot of the half tribe 
of Manasseh. It is again mentioned (i Kings iv. 1 1) as the seat of government of Aminadab, 
one of Solomon's twelve officers. In the year B.C. 217 it was besieged, but not taken, by 
Antiochus. It was again besieged (b.c. 139) by Antiochus VII., after his victory over 
Tr)-phon (i Maccabees xvi. 13, 14). During the civil war between the two brothers Antiochus 
Gr)-pus and Antiochus of Cyzica, the city was seized and held by one Zoilus, who held it 
during his life, when it fell into the possession of Alexander Jannreus. Pompey accorded the 




[SHEET Vn.] ARCHEOLOGY. ii 

city its autonomy b.c. 64. It was rebuilt by Gabinius u.c. 56, having suffered greatly during 
the occupation by the Jews. 

It seems to have (alien into decay after having become an episcopal city. Pliny speaks 
of it as 'memoria urbis.' In the ' Oiiomasticon ' it is said, ' Ha;c est Dora . . . nunc deserta.' 
Koulcher de Chartres calls the place Pirgul, that is, Ilusyo:, now el Piurj. Probably the 
Crusading tower was built upon more ancient foundations. 

Dreihemeh (I j). — Four tombs were here examined, the first 
and second being chambers with doors about 3 feet 6 inches wide and 
measuring within about 6 feet in length by 3 feet 6 inches in width, thus 
forming a single grave or koka each. The third is merely a double 
loculus in the face of the rock, each grave being about 5 feet 6 inches 
long. 

The fourth tomb is, however, more important, having a sunk court 
entered from the east and 15 feet broad by 31 feet long north and south. 
On the north and south are two square chambers, about 10 feet side and 
5 feet high, entered by two doors, one either side of the court. On the 
west side of the court are three chambers, communicating with each other 
by arched doors cut in the rock : the southern 10 feet long, the middle 3 
feet, the northern 4 feet, the width east and west being the same (6 feet) 
in all three. The most northern communicates with another chamber 
north of it, now blocked up. 

The remaining ruins consist of foundations only. There is a curious 
flight of three rock-cut steps leading down to a court west of them. They 
are about 2 feet 6 inches tread, and the breadth of the flight is 7 paces. 
The total rise is i foot 6 inches. No buildinq; now exists near them. 
There is also the foundation of a small dry-stone tower, like the vineyard 
towers in other parts of Palestine : three courses remain ; the largest stone 
measures 5 feet 2 inches by 2 feet, but none of the stones are 
dressed. 

To the west of this, on the top of the low ridge, near which the former 
ruins lie, there are some shafts of columns of dark grey limestone or 
marble in fair preservation ; the largest is about 2 feet in diameter. The 
base of a column of very simple moulding lies near, and close by is a sunk 
court like that before a tomb, with a narrow flight of steps leading down ; 
the door of the tomb (if a tomb exist) is hidden by rubbish accumulated 
in the sunken area. 

A Rock-cut Passage exists close to the above ruin, leading to e 1 



12 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

R u r j, through the ridore of low hills from the plain on the east. (See 
Section A.) This is the most southern of four passages, but is the only 
one extensively scarped by human means. It would appear to be of con- 
siderable antiquity, because rock tombs with kokwi are cut in the sides. 

The average breadth of the cutting Is 5 paces, its height 10 feet, and 
its length about 200 feet in all. The entrance on the east is partly 
closed by a buttress of rock projecting from the southern wall, and the 
rock is cut back for the first twenty paces on the north to a distance of 
seventy paces from the line of the passage ; this part being raised 3 feet 
above the level of the floor of the passage, and the rock wall being 15 feet 
high on this side. Two tombs are here excavated, each having three 
loculi and doors on the south. 

There are no excavations in the south wall of the passage, but in 
the northern there are four recesses, possibly intended for guard-houses, 
cut in like caves to a distance of about 5 paces, and each from 3 to 5 
paces broad, measuring east and west. They resemble the cave or guard- 
house beside the Roman road in the Jordan valley. (See e 1 M a k h r li k, 
Sheet XV.) 

Further west there are two more tombs in the passage, which may, 
however, possibly have existed before the rock was entirely cut through. 
They contain each nine koknn, and have doors on the south. The 
kokini in the first are remarkable, having the floor raised at the end, thus 
forming a sort of stone pillow for the head of the corpse. The other 
chamber is sunk below the level of the ground, and its floor reached by a 
single step. The kokiiii are 7 feet 6 inches long, 3 feet broad, and 3 feet 
9 inches high. 

Near this passage is another tomb, a chamber 9 feet square, with 
large kokhn 3 feet 6 inches broad, 7 feet long, 4 feet high. The roof 
of the tomb is 5 feet 6 inches from the floor. The door is also larger than 
usual, 5 feet broad and 4 feet high. These tombs are fine specimens of 
their kind, being cut in soft rock easily quarried. 

Visited 7th March, 1873. 

Guerin speaks of an ancient well here, which he calls B i r D r i m e h. ' It is cut in the 
rock, and is square. Holes are cut in its wall to permit of descent.' He suggests that the 
name D r e i h e ni e h, which he spells D r i m e h, may be a souvenir of Aj-j.ao;, a name 
applied by the Greeks to the whole region round Mount Carmel. It is here, he says, that 
the stone was quarried for the buildings in the city. Here also was the cemetery. ' A great 



[SHEET 17/.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 13 

number of tombs are still found in good preservation ; all of iheni have been opened. Some 
are simple ; others contain several sepulchral chambers.' 

Jisr ez Zerka (I j). — This is properly speaking a dam rather 
than a bridge, built across the river so as to form a large pool. There 
is a causeway on the top of the dam : the height on the west is 20 
feet ; on the east the level of the water was 3 feet below the roadway. 
The masonry resembles that of the aqueduct fed from the pool. (See 
Kaisarieh Aqueducts below.) The eastern face of the dam is cemented. 
Sluices lined with cement are constructed in the dam. The roadway is 8 
feet to 10 feet broad. The work appears to be Roman. 

El J i 1 e i m e h (I j). — The ruins here noticed consisted of founda- 
tions, with only one or two tombs belonging to the series described at 
D r e i h e m e h . 

Kaisarieh (J k). 

The building of Cassarea by Herod, at a place before that time called Strato's Tower, is 
fully described by Josephus ('Antiquities,' xv. 9, 6, and B. J. i. 23). He spent twelve years 
in the work. The constructions which are mentioned are, first, the sea-mole, built of stones 
50 feet in length, 18 in breadth, and 9 in depth. It was built in water 20 fathoms deep, 
and was 200 feet wide. A wall stood upon part of it, having several towers, the largest of 
which was called Drusus. There were also ' arches ' for the residence of mariners. The 
entrance to this artificial port was on the north, the mole having a tower at the north end. 
There were also a temple, a theatre, and an amphitheatre, with a complete system of drainage. 
The city was called Ka/ffaji/a '^i^aerr;, and sometimes Cssarea Stratonis, or Cassarea Palasstina;, 
or Kaiauiha Uusay.io;, or Ka^trajsa ;; iti iahurrr,. Pliny calls it Colonia Prima Flavia 

The dissensions here between the Jews and the Syrians led to a great massacre of the 
former (Tosephus, B. J. ii. 17), which led to the rebellion and the Roman war. A Council 
was held here in a.d. 93, when the city was the seat of an Archbishop. Origen sought 
shelter in Cresarea when he fled from Alexandria. Eusebius was Archbishop from the year 
15 to 31 S. In A.D. 548 the Jews and Samaritans united in taking up arms against the 
Christians. The city was taken by Abu Obeida in the year 63S. It remained in 
Mohammedan hands for nearly 500 years, being taken by Baldwin I. in the year 1102. It 
was visited by the traveller Nassiri Khosrau in the year 1035. He describes it as ' an agree- 
able city, irrigated with running water and planted with date-palms and oranges sweet and 
bitter. It is surrounded by a strong wall pierced by an iron gate. There are a great number 
of springs in this city. The principal mosque is a fine building.' 

We must therefore note that there was a wall round the town, either built or restored by 
the Mohammedans during their first occupation. The Crusaders settled themselves within 
the place after their own manner. That is, they made the broad city of gardens and orange- 
trees into a small cramped medisval fortress. Saladin took it from them in the year 1187. 
It was recaptured by the Crusaders in 1 191. Saint Louis rebuilt the citadel and the walls It 
was taken again by Bibars in 1265. The walls and buildings were then destrojod. 



J 



14 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The following is an account of the taking of the city by Makrizi, an Arabic historian : 

'Bibars next directed his course to Kaisariyeh. He arrived under the walls of the place, 
surprised the inhabitants, who were not expecting the attack, and gave his troops the signal 
of assault. . . . The people took refuge in the citadel, which bore the name of Khedra (the 
Green), and was one of the finest and strongest fortresses in Syria. The Francs had trans- 
ported to this place columns of granite, which they placed across the walls, so that they had 
not to fear sapping, 'and could not fall when they should be undermined. 

' The Sultan had established himself on the roof of a church opposite this place. 

' Soon the Mussulmans scaled the ramparts, burned the gates, and entered in crowds 
above and below the walls. 

' The Sultan advanced to the citadel accompanied by his Emirs. He divided the city 
between them and the Mamelukes, and began at once to destroy the city. 

' The prince came down with a pick in his hand and worked in person at the demolition. 
It was nearly completed when he sent away the two Emirs at the head of a body of troops. 

if * * * # * * ^; 

' The Sultan caused the city to be so completely destroyed that there remained not the 
least vestige of it.' 

Such is the history of Csesarex We have four periods of construction : (i) The Herodian ; 
(2) the Byzantine ; (3) the first Mohammedan period : (4) the Crusading period. 

The city was erected by Herod on the site of Strato's Tower, and 
finished 13 u.c. The Crusading walls were built by Gautier d'Avesnes, 
1 2 18 A.D., repaired by St. Louis of France, 1251 a.d., and destroyed by 
Bibars in 1265 a.d. 

The existing ruins are of two periods — ist, the Roman town, with walls, 
theatre, hippodrome, the mole, the temple, the aqueducts ; 2nd, the 
Crusading town, with walls, castle, cathedral, a northern church, and 
harbour. These will be described in order. 

(i) The Roman Enceinte. — The length north and south of the space 
enclosed by the Roman walls is 1,600 yards, and the breadth east and 
west 900. The line of the w^alls is traceable, except towards the south- 
west end ; in other parts it is represented by a mound raised above the 
general level. There is also a sea-wall visible in places from the north- 
west corner of the Roman town as far as the harbour. The high-level 
aqueduct enters the town at this corner, and the low-level some 50 yards 
east, near which, at the point marked (R), are foundations of a tower about 
20 to 30 feet square of small masonry. 

The sea-wall is of masonry similar to that of the harbour at e 1 B 11 r j, 
but the stones of each course are laid alternately, as headers and 
stretchers, 2 feet 6 inches long, and are drafted apparently with a rustic 



ROMAN 

AND 

M EDI /EVAL RUINS 

KAISARIKJI 



N 



Scale 



^JfiZe 



T 



iloU ,>f PiBtu-a 



Mole of Fillnra vD^:nn~z^r ^ Church 



El KnIaJ, 



^lUuTvtd Arch- 
Weil 




Stanftn^ GoffP^sUlb^ Imdoru 



[SHEET /7/.1 ARCHEOLOGY. 15 

boss. Further south, along- the same line north of the Crusading wall, are 
remains of a wall, or of a line of towers, but of smaller masonry undrafted ; 
and at this point is a narrow channel between two reefs of rock, apparently- 
intended as a landing-place. 

South of the Crusading town are a row of mounds probably formed 
by the accumulation of sand blown over the buildings, and extending to the 
theatre at the south-west corner of the town. 

The whole enceinte is scattered with fragments of masonry and pillar- 
shafts, cisterns, and corner walls of buildings. The well without the walls 
on the north is apparendy modern, having a pointed arch. The tank west 
of the hippodrome has walls 6 feet thick, and measures 30 feet side ; it has 
three buttresses on each wall (see above, Birket 'A i n Umm el 
F a h m e h ), and is lined with a coat of mortar containing bits of pottery, 
and a coat of cement ; the masonry is of fair size (compare el H a n - 
n a n e h, above). It may be ascribed to the mediaeval period. 

(2) T/ic Theatre at the south-west corner of the Roman town appears 
subsequently to have been converted into a fortress. The remains con- 
sist of a mound and ditch reaching to the beach on either side, and 
enclosing an area in form of the segment of a circle. In the mound is a 
semicircular building of masonry. 

The diameter of this construction was chained S50 links (561 feet) ; 
the mound at the top has an average thickness of about 150 links (100 
feet). The mound has a height of about 20 to 25 feet from the bottom of 
the trench without. The ditch is 130 links broad (76 feet). No masonry 
is visible in ditch or mound. The entrance is by a ramp crossing the 
ditch, which is 58 links (38 feet) broad, and a gate with flanking towers 
would seem to have existed here ; foundations of a block of masonry, 40 
links by 50, having a semicircular projection, perhaps the base of a turret 
30 links diameter, still remain. 

The enclosure thus described has an area of not less than 35 acres in 
all ; and allowing a square yard per man, this would hold in all about 20,000 
men if used as a camp. 

The building in the mound is apparently a theatre, and has a diameter 
of 285 links (188 feet), and a wall of stones i foot to i foot 6 inches 
long, which appears to run into the mound to a thickness of 20 to 
30 feet, giving a building about the same size as the Roman theatre at 



i6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Mamas (Sheet \'III.). The whole is much overgrown, and requires 
excavation. In the hollow which represents the arena are some fallen 
column shafts of granite. A fragment of limestone cornice, with two or 
three letters in bold Roman character, was found lying in the ditch on the 
south of the mound near the beach. 

Either end of the mound is marked by a ruined tower above the beach, 
but these seem probably more modern. The southern has a wall of stone 
of some thickness, but of small masonry, standing. A long reef here runs 
out into the sea. The northern tower also stands on a projecting jut of rock. 

Between these towers there is another low projecting reef, and on it is 
a square foundation sunk in the rock, and the remains of a wall, showing 
that a small building, about 30 feet wide, here projected into the sea. 
Remains of a paved jetty are visible south of this building, and another 
tower stood at this point on the low cliff, and was connected with the 
south-west corner tower by a wall, traces of which still remain. 

On the north side of this central tower the mouths of two drains are 
visible, debouching on the beach from under the cliff, which is 10 or 12 
feet in height. The two drains diverge at an angle, being of rectan- 
gular cross section, and 9 feet 2 inches across, lined with two coats of 
cement, one dark and mixed with ashes, the second over it white and hard, 
and finely mixed. 

Two courses of stones, one of headers, the other of stretchers, are here 
visible on the cliff, the stones being i foot 7 inches by i foot by 2 feet in 
length. 

Further north, and not far from the north-west corner of the mound, are 
other remains of a wall, and a small drain with a larger one close to it ; 
the smaller 2 feet, the larger 6 feet high. 

The enclosure thus described is almost entirely artificial in character 
but the site is carefully chosen between two projections of the coast ; and 
the lie of the strata visible in the side of the ditch shows that a natural 
mound here existed, which was cut into the present form. 

Josephus (Ant. xv. 9, 6) speaks of a stone theatre, and of an amphi- 
theatre 'capable of containing a great number of men,' situate south of 
the port and in view of the sea. The building described seems to answer 
to this account. The same authority speaks of drains which were cleansed 
by the admission of sea-water, which would apply to those near the beach. 



M E D I /EVAL RUINS 

KAI SARI Ell 

SoaZe-, Z5 inche^n to n mile. 




Jfotr ■ The /It/uyyw rijire.fH7it htinM^ aho\e »»'« It^el 



Sutnfordh Gcog^ £9tah* Zondoii, 



{SHEET rjJ.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 17 

The towers and walls, which resemble the masonry of the sea-wall at 
the north end of the Roman town, are of uncertain date. 

(3) The Hippodrome is a sunken level space surrounded by a mound, 
and situate close to the east wall of the Roman town. It is about 1,600 links 
(1,056 feet) from north to south, by 400 links (264 feet) east and west. 
The town-wall bounds it on the east, and its lloor is sunk about 20 feet 
below the top of the mounds. No masonry was noticed. In the middle 
of the arena lie three blocks of fine red granite of circular cross section, 
each forming a segment of a truncated cone. When standing one upon 
the other they formed a conical pillar, 7 feet 6 inches high 5 feet 8 inches 
diameter at the base, and 4 feet diameter at the top, standing on a square 
base, also of granite, 7 feet side and i foot 6 inches high. 

Near these is another fine block of red granite, broken Into three, 34 
feet long by 4 feet 10 inches, into 4 feet cross section. Unsuccessful 
attempts have at some time or other been made to cut the conical blocks 
into thinner segments, probably for use as millstones ; but the granite is 
so hard that the cutting has been abandoned after penetrating a few 
inches only. 

(4) The Mole. — The harbour of Caesarea measures i So yards across, 
and on the south a long reef runs into the sea for 160 yards from the shore. 
This appears to be the mole mentioned by Josephus. The buildings are 
mostly Crusading (to be described later), but the general plan, half break- 
water (n-jooKu/taTia), half occupied by a tower (on the site probably of the 
ancient Drusus), is still maintained. Under the present tower (el K li 1 a h) 
two columns of red granite lie fallen, 9 feet in length and 4 feet diameter 
at the base, tapering slightly ; also a fine block of the same stone 6 feet 5 
inches by 6 feet 6 inches by 3 feet 3 inches, having a hole 6 inches dia- 
meter at each corner. These are possibly remains of the stclcc which 
stood on the mole. 

Beneath the K Ci I a h on the west there was also observed a double 
tesselated pavement, showing two periods of building. The foundation 
is a stone pavement covered with rubble, and on this white marble tesserae 
are laid in grey mortar. These have been covered later with a thick bed 
of mortar mixed with charcoal, on which a layer of cobble stones is laid, 
and the second floor of tessera; in white cement stands on this. Similar 
VOL. 11. X 



iS 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



remains of pavement, covered by 1 5 feet of accumulated rubbish, are 
visible near the north-west corner of the Crusading- town. 

(5) The Temple, built by Herod in honour of Caesar and of Rome, 
stood on an eminence near the harbour, and was of white stone. For 
this reason the ruin close to the Cathedral appears to be possibly the 
remains of this edifice, for the Crusading masonry is all of brown lime- 
stone, but the stones in this building are white. Three courses of 
masonry finely dressed, about 2 feet height of course, and varying 
from I foot to 4 feet 6 inches in length, are visible, and the tops of 
three niches at equal distance apart can be seen. The accumulation 
of rubbish here must be considerable. The top of the wall is some 
20 feet above the sea-level. One of the stones appears to have had a 
shallow draft. The wall runs approximately north and south for 30 feet, 




FA(;ADt OF THt TEMPLE, C/t3AR£A 

traces of another runnino- east and west were observed. Excavation is 
required to determine the character of the building. Between it and the 
Cathedral are a series of vaults, narrow, and of inferior masonry. Their 
date is uncertain. 

(6) Aqiteditcts. — The town was supplied with water principally from 
the two aqueducts, the low-level and high-level. Native traditions relate 
that these were both made by daughters of a king, for a wager to see who 
would first carry water to the city. 

The LoxiJ-level Aqueduct starts from the Zerka river, close to the 
Jisr ez Zerka. Not only was the river dammed up to the required 
height, but a wall was built across the marshes north of the Zerka (see 
Kebarah) in order to collect any leakage and confine the spread of 
water on that side. 

This aqueduct has a total length of three miles in a direct course. It 
starts about \\ miles from the sea, and is here for half a mile rock-cut, the 



{SHEET VI1.\ 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



19 




< 
X 

o 



u 

Q 

a 



X 

o 




20 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

channel open at the top. Afterwards it is vaulted with masonry, having 
a height of 7 feet to the crown of the arch inside, and an interior breadth 
of 6 feet 4 inches. The channel is composed of stones averaging i foot 
6 inches in length ; the arch is semicircular, with a key-stone. The 
channel is lined with a coating of hard dark-coloured cement, and an 
upper coating of very hard white cement. 

The lower-level aqueduct crosses beneath the high level, nearly two 
miles north of Caesarea, entering the town east of it. 

The High-level Aqiieduct is a more important work, and bears evidence 
of two periods of construction. It starts from a spring near S u b b a r i n 
(Sheet \TII.) having a total length of over 8 miles. At Sindianeh 
(Sheet \T II.) it was discovered by women, who broke into the tunnel 
while digging for clay. 

The channel is first visible at the springs called 'A i n I s m a i n and 
'A i n el ]\I e i y i t e h below S i ndianeh (Sheet VIII.), achannel from 
the spring and a bit of the masonry being visible. From this point to 
Caesarea the total length of the course is 6 miles. 

The aqueduct can be traced from this point to Tvl a m a s, where it 
obtained a third supply of water from the clear springs south of the theatre, 
(See Sheet \'1 1 1.) West of this point it has a rock-cut channel open above 
for about a quarter of a mile, but east of M a m a s the pipes were sup- 
ported on a rubble wall. It is here connected with the springs by a 
channel on semicircular arches, 3 feet diameter, of 9 voussoirs each, the 
stones about i foot 6 inches in length, leading from the water. A cistern 
like that at Caesarea and about the same size exists near, and there are 
four or five broken dams of ashlar and rubble across the stream from the 
springs. Several grey granite columns, one 20 feet long, lie near. 

The aqueduct crosses the Zerka river by a low bridge, and here 
becomes double. Its construction is well seen just below the T a h u n e t 
Abu Nur (see p. 34). The foundation of the aqueduct here con- 
sists of two courses of ashlar, the stones laid lengthwise across and 
resting on rubble-work faced with ashlar so as to give a proper level to 
the top of the upper course. This foundation measures 6 feet across. 
Upon it three courses of stones are built parallel to one another so 
as to divide the channel in two (the section given shows only one of the 
two channels, three pipes out of si.x). Each row consists of stones 3 feet 



[SHEET /•//.] ARCH.EOLOGY. =i 

3 inches high and i foot broad. Thus two clianncls i fool 6 inches broad 
and 3 feet 3 inches deep are formed, which are Hncd at the bottom by a 
tloor of cobble in two courses set in mortar. The sides of the channel 
and the bottom above this iloor are lined with a very fine hard white 
cement, and on this the pipes for the water are laid, six in all, three in 
each channel placed side by side, but not on the same level. The re- 
maining space above the pipes is filled in with rubble to the level of the 
side stones, and a course of covering stones placed lengthwise across and 
3 feet long, resting on the central ashlar rib and on the side stones, com- 
pletes the masonry box in which the pipes were laid. The rubble above 
the pipes is laid in fine white mortar, containing sea-shells, and has a 
thickness of 2 feet 3 inches, the cement and cobbles below having a thick- 
ness of about 5 inches. 

The pipes are of good red earthenware, 6^ inches diameter inside and 
nearly \ inch thick. In one place they were found to be butt-jointed, 
one pipe having an internal rim, reducing the clear diameter to 5-^ inches 
to prevent leakage. In another part, however, the end of the pipe was 
found to widen to 8 inches interior measure, as though to allow of the end 
of the next pipe being fitted into it. 

There are air-holes at intervals in groups of six to each channel, or 
two to each pipe. They are formed by earthenware pipes, 7 inches inside 
diameter and \ inch thick, placed above the pipes, and each row of three 
separated by a distance of i foot 3 inches, centre to centre. 

At about a third of a mile west of the T a h u n e t A b u N u r, the 
aqueduct enters and crosses a marsh, and the channel is here supported on 
arches. It seems that the foundations here would not have been sufficiently 
good to bear the total weight of the structure required for the double 
channel, and the aqueduct, therefore, is divided into two branches, which 
rejoin after crossing the marsh. 

The left-hand channel leaves at an angle of 49°, and runs about half a 
mile in four bends, being about a third of a mile distant from the right- 
hand channel in the middle of the marsh. It rejoins the latter channel, 
which runs straight at an angle of I05^ The arches resemble those to be 
described later ; in one or two places where pieces of rock exist, they have 
been utilised to form buttresses for supporting the piers. 

The left-hand channel in this part was found to be 4 feet across, 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



interior measurement ; the stones of the side wall were i foot 6 inches 
broad, and the covering stones consequently 7 feet long. 

At points where streams run through the marsh and a span of 2 or 3 feet 
only is required, a flat lintel is used between piers instead of an arch. 

At the point where a road is shown on the map going under the 
aqueduct west of the marsh, east of the sea-side ridge, the aqueduct was 
again examined. There is here again a double channel supported on 
arches, the total breadth of the structure being 7 feet 6 inches. The 
arched causeway below is 1 2 feet 6 inches broad, the arches being 1 2 feet 
span and semicircular, with one row of voussoirs i foot 6 inches broad, 
above which a sort of cornice of simple profile is built. 

In many parts the rock has been cut away and left standing in side 
walls, forming sloping buttresses to the piers, with masonry built in behind. 
Where no rock exists, masonry sloping buttresses, 3 feet across at the 
base, are used. 

The aqueduct, which from the point of crossing the Zerka has run 
due west, now reaches the low limestone ridge separating the plain from 
the shore, and passes through it in a tunnel now much choked up. Near 
this point are extensive quarries, whence the stone for the aqueduct was 
probably obtained. The length of this tunnel is about a quarter of a mile, 
and the channel is at its deepest 30 feet or more beneath the surface. 
It is reached at intervals by w'ell-staircases cut in the rock, probably 




Shaft ui Sea Wall near Zcriia, JUier 

first made to facilitate the cutting of the tunnel, and afterwards useful for 
drawing water. One of these was a rectangular shaft, 26 feet 8 inches 
deep, and 10 feet 8 inches by 1 1 feet 3 inches across at the top. A flight 



[SHEET I'll.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 23 

of stairs descends along the sides, and passes round twice, reducing the 
breadth of the shaft at the bottom to 2 feet 8 inches by 3 feet 8 inches. 
The flights are 2 feet broad, and the steps about 6 inches rise. The 
tunnel below is too much choked to allow of accurate measurement, but 
must have been at least 3 feet high and 2 feet 6 inches broad. 

After passing through this ridge, which is of soft stone easily tunnelled, 
the aqueduct turns due south, and runs along the shore for rather more 
than a mile, its course being marked by a ridge of loose sand blown over 
it and entirely hiding it. Near the north-west corner of the Roman 
enceinte of Cresarea it is, however, visible, and was here also ex- 
amined. 

The channel is here double, and the cross section giv^es evidence 
that the western channel, was built on after the eastern had been com- 
pleted, for there is a cornice or string-course on the western or inner side 
of the older structure, which projects into the masonry of the additional part. 

The older channel here measures 2 feet breadth, the newer or western 
is 3 feet 4 inches broad. The height also differs, the older being 3 feet 
6 inches deep, the newer 3 feet. The channels are carried on arches 14 feet 
span, with piers 3 feet thick. There is only a single ring of voussoirs to 
each arch i foot 5 inches thick, 25 voussoirs in each arch. The total 
breadth of the structure is 17 feet, the total height 18 feet 8 inches. The 
string course runs just above the crown of the voussoirs, and is 9 inches deep. 

The aqueduct breaks off suddenly near the town. It seems in parts 
to have been repaired at a later period, possibly by the Crusaders. It 
dates most probably from the Herodian period, as without it Csesarea 
would apparently have depended on one well and on cisterns for water. 

(7) TJic ]\I cdiccval Jl'alls enclose an area 600 yards long by 250 yards 
broad, east and west (30 acres). Thus Mediaeval Ceesarea was less than 
a tenth of Roman Co^sarea."' 

The north wall has a tower in the middle. The east wall has a tower, 
nine buttresses, a postern, and a main entrance. There is also a gate in 
the south wall. 

The walls throughout are built of small masonry, set in very hard 
white cement, and are 9 feet thick. The buttresses are 30 to 50 feet 

* The enclosure within these walls formed, no doubt, the fortress protecting the cathedral, 
but the town seems to have extended on the cast beyond the walls. — C. R. C. 



24 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

long, and project 20 to 26 feet. A sloping scarp has been built against 
the wall, having an angle of 60°. It is not bonded in. The cement used 
differs from that of the wall, being red, from the great quantity of pounded 
jDottery mixed in it, and extremely hard. On the north, a pointed arch of 
a window is covered by this scarp ; on the south it is built hollow, as seen 
near the gateway, the wall behind being carefully built of rubble, faced 
with small ashlar, and with well-pointed mortar joints. 

It is evident, therefore, that the sloping scarp was added at a later 
period, very possibly at the restoration of 1251 a.d., the wall behind being 
that built by Gautier d'Avesnes, 12 18 a.d. (Will, of Tyre, lib. xxxi. 
ch. 13.) 

There was a covered way 13 feet wide behind the wall, and loopholes 
at a height above the revetment suitable for men standing in the covered 
way ; two loopholes, also, in the ace of each buttress, and one command- 
ing the ditch in each flank of the buttress. Under the covered way, on 
the north, is a small drain covered with flat roofing stones. 

The ditch without the walls has a strais^ht revetment to the counter- 
scarp. Its width on the east, opposite the curtain, is 65 links (43 feet), 
and the relief of the scarp is 20 feet. The counterscarp is much ruined, 
and the ditch filled up, so that the general height now appears to be only 
4 to 6 feet. The revetment is best seen at the south-east corner of 
the town. The width of the ditch, opposite the curtain, is here only 58 
links (38 feet), and opposite the corner buttress 51 links {ll\ feet). 

The northern tower was built behind the wall, probably having a 
postern on its eastern side. It was two storeys high, a total of 35 feet 
above the present surface. It measures iio links (72^ feet) east and 
west outside, and 105 north and south (70 feet). The lower storey con- 
sisted of a single room, 62 links (41 feet) side, internal measure, with a 
doorway on the south 20 links (13 feet) broad, having a slightly pointed 
arch. The roof was a groined vault, remains of a rib to the groin being 
visible in one corner. A loophole on the north side of the chamber com- 
mands the ditch. 

Immediately west of the tower a wall projects into the ditch 10 feet. 
The same arrangement is visible in the gateway on the east side at 
Kaukab el H a w a. (See Sheet IX.) 

The tower is built of the same soft sandy limestone used throughout 



[SHEET VIL] ARCHAEOLOGY. 25 

the Crusading work, of very dark brown colour, the stones 8 inches high, 
and averaging 2 feet long and i foot 4 inches broad. 

The postern in the eastern wall has a passage descending from it into 
the ditch. It is 4 feet wide and 5 feet 6 inches high, with a vault having 
a pointed arch rising 2 feet 4 inches. The arch has ten voussoirs i foot 
2 inches deep, and no keystone. The passage roof descends in a series 
of steps. The passage was traced 15 feet, and the total descent is 10 feet. 
The lower end is choked. 

The main gateway at this point is destroyed, the wall being entirely 
obliterated. It would seem to have been reached by a passage parallel to 
the line of the ditch, some 70 feet long and 16 feet broad, turning at right 
angles towards the gate. 

The southern gateway is perfect, with a jwinted arch ; and this, like 
that of the postern, has no central keystone. The entrance is 8 feet wide- 
A row of four loopholes is visible in the south wall east of the gate. Near 
the gate inside is the only well now existing, of fine clear water, and some 
20 feet deep. 

Traces only of the wall are visible on the west side, and the south-west 
part of the wall has also been almost entirely destroyed. 

The fortifications thus described are among the most important 
Crusading remains in Palestine. 

(8) The Castle (el K ii 1 a h) consists of a rectangular building, a 
donjon in two storeys, a tower at the end of the reef, and an outer fortifica- 
tion on the south. 

The castle appears to have been separated from the town by a ditch 
80 links (53 feet) broad. The outer wall or foundation encloses an area 
90 links (59 feet) north and south, by 230 links (142 feet) east and west. 
The north wall of this is washed by the sea, and is in a good state of pre- 
servation. It is built of grey limestone ashlar; the stones, 2 feet high 
and 2 to 4 feet in length, having a draft 1 inch broad, the face pro- 
jecting 2^ inches, and bevelled at the draft as shown. In the second 
and fifth courses, counting from the lowest visible pillar, shafts are 
built in as thoroughbonds alternating with stones. These project from 
the face of the wall. Two kinds of pillars are found : some are of red 
granite, others of grey ; and in addition, a few shafts of grey marble occur. 

VOL. II. 4 



26 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The wall is therefore evidently built at a late period, older material being 
used up. Judging by comparison with other buildings (see Kaukab el 
H a w a, Sheet IX. ; A t h 1 i t, Sheet V., etc.) the ashlar was quarried by 
the Crusaders for its present purpose. The columns probably belong to 
the Roman period. {Compare A seal on, Sheet XIX.; compare 
Section I.) 

Upon this foundation stands the donjon, measuring 50 links side {^-i^ 
feet), interior measurement, with walls 22 links (14!^ feet) thick. The first 
floor is 40 feet above the sea ; the top appears to have been nearly 70 feet 
above the same. 

The wall is standing to the height of the first floor on three sides. 
On the south it remains to a further height of 27 feet, and two windows 
are visible. Steps lead up to the first floor on the north. The west 
window, 4 feet broad, has a flat lintel ; but the eastern has a pointed arch 
with an even number of voussoirs and no keystone ; it is about 4 feet 
6 inches broad. 

The rib of the groined roof still remains in the south-west angle, 
supported on a corbel in the form of a human head. Another rib, sup- 
ported on a corbel, projects close to the east side of the east window 
from the south walls. 

The masonry of the tower is of good size, undrafted. In the north- 
west corner is a shaft leading down to the lower storey, where was probably 
a cistern. The shaft measures 2 feet by 4 feet, and is apparently 25 feet 
deep. A staircase leads up in the south wall, probably to the roof, when 
it e.xisted. 

The tower on the reef is almost entirely destroyed. It measured 
65 links east and west (43 feet), and loo links north and south (66 feet), 
interior measurement, and had walls 6 feet thick. The distance between 
its east wall and the west wall of the donjon is 246 links (152 feet). 
_"here was a wall to connect the two, and apparently a series of vaults, 
the date of which is uncertain. The foundation here is a flat reef of 
rock. The outer fortification on the south has a sea-gate and a curious 
triangular vault at the junction with the south wall of the donjon. 
This part appears to be of the same date with the mediaeval walls of 
the town. 



[SHEET r//.] 



ARCH^.OLOGY. 



27 



CATHtDRAL KAISABIEH 








??!*^^tf 



- »^ . 



^£^ 0/ /I00* 0/ CAinUKAL 



ky^'/^' H, 



A fine capital in white marble lies fallen in the vault west of the donjon 
close to the dotible tessclated pavement already described. 

(9) The Cathedral (el K e n 1 s e h). 

The town within the mediceval walls stood on two eminences, and on 
the southern was the cathedral, w-hilst 
another building, apparently also a church, 
stood near the sea on the north. The 
cathedral consisted of a nave and two aisles, 
with three apses on the east. Its bearing 
is 118° Mg., being 28' out of the east and 
west line. The nave is about 24 feet 
broad, the aisles about 1 7 feet. There 
appears to have been an atrium at the 
west end of the church, and four buttresses 
are here standing, 18 feet deep, 6 feet 
broad, and about 50 feet high. The level 
of the floor of the church was found, and 
it consists of white marble set in cement 
over a grey earthy mortar. 

Two vaults exist under the church, the ^ 

one filled up, the other perfect, measuring about 65 feet by about 1 2 feet. 
The roof a semicircular barrel vault. Two sedilia were measured on the 
south side of the central apse. On the north side is the piscina, having a 
pointed arch, with ten voussoirs and no keystone, 3 feet 9 inches span, 
2 feet 5 inches rise. The remains of a window are visible in the north 
apse. The masonry in the walls of the cathedral is beautifully squared, and 
the joints very fine; the stones have the ordinary dressing remarked in other 
mediaeval churches. The stones are 9 inches to 2 feet long, 6 to 8 
inches high, the vertical joints being irregular. 

One mason's mark was noticed on the walls. The walls of the 
apses are 5 feet thick. Traces of white plaster are visible on the 
inside. 

(10) The Northern Church is about 18 feet wide, and two bays are 
standing, the walls some 1 2 to 15 feet high. There were ribbed vaults 

4—2 



,0 



28 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Starting from corbels which project from a string-course along the walls, 
lo feet above the present level. The door is on the north, having a 
very flat-pointed arch, the crown below the string-course. The walls are 
about 5 feet thick. A curious feature is visible in the sides of the most 
eastern of the two exterior buttresses on the north wall. Small arches 
are built in at the sides, having a pointed form, and an even number of 
voussoirs. The masonry of this building resembles that of the town walls. 
The discovery of these small Roman arches in the cathedral and in 
this chapel is of importance, as showing that this kind of arch w^as used by 
the Crusading builders. A central keystone was, however, more generally 
used by them. 

(i i) The Harbour is flanked by the reef on which the K u 1 a h stands 
to the south, and by a sort of jetty composed mainly of pillar-shafts on the 
north. Some sixty or seventy of these columns lie side by side in the water, 
varying from 5 feet to 20 feet in length, forming a pier some 200 feet 
long. The part nearest the shore is, however, of a double row of flags, 
some 4 feet long (compare el B u r j Harbour). The sea-wall here 
appears to be of two dates. A lower inner wall of drafted masonry, re- 
sembling that of the Kulah foundations, and an upper wall of smaller 
stones like that on the east of the town. The drafted stones are some of 
them 5 feet 4 inches long, 2 feet high, 2 feet 8 inches broad. The draft 
is here 3 inches broad, and the face was probably rustic. Above this 
masonry there is rubble in grey mortar full of shells, with sharp pieces of 
limestone some 6 inches cube. Another drain, 3 feet wide, lined with 
grey mortar, was found here. 

It is probable that the large drafted ashlar here described belongs to 
the first period of building, 12 18 a.d., as similar work of the same date 
occurs at 'Athlit. The smaller masonry would belong to the second 
period, 1251 a.d. 

The building east of the northern church is a vault in three bays, with 
a door in each bay. The ends of the vault are destroyed. This building 
is only remarkable from the fact that the arches have a central keystone 
and six voussoirs, the arch being 2 feet rise and 3 feet 4 inches span. 
The keystone is 9 inches deep, and cut away beneath to form the point of 
the arch. 



[SHEET Fir] ARCH.EOLOGY. 29 

Ccesarea was visited by the Survey party on the ist, 5th, and 6th of 
April, 1873. The Plan was made from a traverse of the Crusading walls 
effected with a chain and 5-inch theodolite, by which the buildings were 
fixed. The slopes were taken for contouring with Abney's level, and the 
whole plotted to the scale of 50 inches per mile and then reduced. 

Kebarah (Ij). — Traces of ruins exist here: a cave, and a tomb 
with nine kokim, and an ante-chamber and entrance of masonry, with 
a circular arch of small stones. 

Near this ruin the wall or dam, built to prevent the spreading north- 
wards of the marsh surrounding the Zerka, will be found marked on the 
Sheet, ending in a knoll on the east. The masonry resembles that in the 
aqueducts at Ccesarea ; the stones vary in length, averaging about 2 feet, 
and are set in cement. The wall is about 4 feet thick, with two rows of 
ashlar, and thoroughbonds, being built in alternate headers and stretchers. 
The core of the wall is of rubble. 

Visited March, 1873. 

Kefr Lam {I i). — The Crusading fort at this village appears 
to have been about 70 feet square, with round towers at the 
angles. Those on the east wall are best preserved ; along the wall 
between the towers were six buttresses about 2 feet thick. The 
towers are about 1 5 feet diameter. The stones are small, about i foot 
long by 6 inches high ; the joints of the masonry fine and regular. 
The mortar is thinly laid, and very dark in colour, and hard in con- 
sistency. The walls stand some 12 to 15 feet in height, and the fort is 
on rising ground, commanding the road. 

The general effect is similar to that of the castle at ]\I i n e t e 1 
K u 1 a h (Sheet XVI.), which is also attributable to Crusading times. The 
twelfth century castles in Syria have similar masonry, and round towers. 
The fort at Kefr Lam is called e 1 K u s r, ' the tower.' 

South of the village there are quarries and a group of rock-cut tombs, 
seventeen in all. 

The first has three iociili, the second is simply a locuhis under an 
arcosolium cut in the cliff The third has three shelf loctili, raised i foot 
from the floor. The fourth has three shelf loaili, raised 2 feet 6 inches 
from the floor, and 5 feet long. The fifth and sixth have each three 



30 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



loculi under arcosolia ; the seventh is blocked. The next seven are Hke 
the fifth. The fifteenth and sixteenth have five kokini each, 6 feet 3 
inches long, 2 feet 5 inches broad, two kokim at the back, two on one side, 
one on the other. The last tomb has three loculi, with walls in front, 
which have been broken by quarrying, and with arcosolia. 
Visited 8th March, 1873. 

K h li r b e t H e i d e r a h ( I j). — Foundations were found here, 
and squared stones, one 10 feet long, by 3 feet by 3 feet — probably a 
lintel. In the midst of the ruin is a square sunk place, i foot 6 inches 
deep, and about 6 paces (15 feet) square, on two sides of which there are 
twelve rectangular recesses, 6 inches square; these recesses are irregularly 
arranged, and a second row appears beneath. Their object was not 
ascertained, but they may have held the ends of joists or rafters. Some 
of the buildings have walls standing three or four courses high ; two rude 
columns, i foot 6 inches in diameter, lie in the ruins. 

North of this is a system of five tombs. The first a large chamber 
with a single lociiliis, cut in the face of the cliff The second has three 
loculi, and the door is constructed for closing with a rolling stone ; the 
remainder are similar. One was found full of skulls, which appear, how- 
ever, to be modern, and according to the native evidence belonged to 
persons murdered by the villagers. 

Remains of a sarcophagus were found near, and a very fine rock- 
cut wine-press with three chambers communicating by spouts. The 



^^T^ 





^ feSS. 



ROCK HLWN WINt PRCSS AT KH. ntlDLRAH 

first and largest about 20 feet square, the ne.\t lowest 15 feet, the third 
ro feet. 



[SHEET n/.] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 




ROCK CUT TOMBS NEAR KH IBRElKTAS. 



There is also a shaft here some lo feet deep, and i6 feet wide at the 
top, cut in rock. A staircase descends the side, and an arch of rock has 
been left in the middle across the shaft. In the sides small recesses are 
cut, the object of which is not apparent. This shaft somewhat resembles 
that of the tomb near 'Athlit (Sheet \'.), which is not improbably of 
Phoenician origin. 

\'isited 7th INIaicli, 1873. 

Khurbet Ibreiktas (II). — Foundations and ruined cisterns 
are found here, and three tombs with koknu. The smallest has foiu- 
kokini, 5 feet 5 inches long, and 
about 2 feet 6 inches broad, one 
each side, two opposite the door, 
which is arranged for closing with 
a rollinsf stone. The kokiin have 
arched roofs. The second tomb is 
a chamber, 1 1 feet across, and 
1 2 feet from door to back, with nine 
kokiin, three on each wall, 6 feet 
long by 2 feet 3 inches broad ; the 
doorway is arched, and 5 feet 
6 inches broad, inside which is an 
entrance 2 feet across, also arched. The third tomb has two chambers, 
one door being blocked, the two communicating by a tunnel 7 feet long 
and about 3 feet broad. The right-hand chamber has three kokim of 
unequal length ; it is 7 feet across, and the kokim are respectively 4 feet, 
5 feet, and 6 feet 4 inches long. 

\'isited 6th May, 1873. 

Tombs and quarries e.xtend southward from this ruin beyond 
Birket-Belakis. 

Khurbet Mansur el 'Akab (Ij)- — This curious ruin 
stands on the brow, of the cliff called el Khashm. It consists 
of a series of vaults, the object of which is not clear. They are 
possibly connected with the theatre at Ma-mas beneath. (See 
Sheet VIII.). 

Four vaults remain standing in all, directed north and south, closed 




3-' 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



by a wall along their north ends, but opening into a courtyard, about 
12 feet wide on the south. The vaults are lo feet broad each, their walls 
I foot 6 inches thick ; the roof, which is perfect, is a semicircular masonry 
vault. Three of the vaults are each 45 feet long; the others appear to have 



KH. MANSUR EL AKAB 



I 

i ! 



© 



(Xatern, 





SC.CTION A 



wmmm 



□ DDDaDnoDDDcnnDDnc 

nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnrl 



been originally longer. The enclosure was probably entered from the 
north by a door between the two groups of vaults, which are about 20 feet 
apart, east and west. In the enclosure there is a larce cistern. The 



{SHEET /'//] ARCHEOLOGY. 33 

masonry is of the sandy limestone, from the ridge near the coast ; the 
stones are i foot to i foot 6 inches long, and 8 inches high. The lloor 
consists of a pavement of small stones (such as that at the Monastery of 
el INI e r fi s s u s, Sheet X\T I.), and from this to the crown of the vault is 
S feet. 

The most curious feature has still to be described. The walls 
between the three eastern vaults are pierced by communications. These 
are 2 feet 4 inches high, and i foot 9 inches broad, and covered with 
tlat lintels, above which are little windows, 8 inches high, i foot 
broad. 

No date can be assigned by evidence of the architecture, but the 
work is apparently earlier than the eleventh century, because of the semi- 
circular vault of ashlar, and the place may be ascribed to Byzantine or 
Roman times. 

Visited 7th April, 1873. 

El Helat (Ik). — There are remains here of a small tower on 
the shore, and of foundations and cisterns built of rubble. Only the 
rubble remains in the tower, with hard white mortar, possibly once faced 
with ashlar. There are remains of the piers of a bridge, just north of the 
present mouth of the Z e r k a. The work has every appearance of 
Crusading orio-in. 

El Mezrah (1 j). — There is here a ruined tower of rubble in 
cement, like that at el B u r j. It appears probably to be of the same 
date. 

Surafend (I i). — North of this village there is a system of rock- 
cut tombs, si.xteen in all. Eight have each three locnli under arcosolia, 
and in three cases the rolline: stones which closed the doors lie beside 
them. One of these stones was 3 feet diameter, and i foot thick, 
weighing probably about 6 cwt. Five of the tombs are single loculi, 
open in front, cut in the face of the cliff under arcosolia; two of the 
tombs have only two loculi each, and one is blocked up. This group 
presents the best examples found by the Survey party of the rolling stone 
arrangement for a tomb door. 

Visited 8th March, 1S73. 
VOL. II. 5 



34 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERy PALESTINE. 



height 4 




DETACHED ROCK NEAR TAtlUNET ABU NUR 



Tomb on tell barak near tahunet abu nur 



ferp"^'' loculi 
T long 
3 8" fi'gh 
Z9'brosd 



.^11 



Tahunet Abu Nur (Ik). — A modern flour-mill on the river, 

near which a curious isolated rock was noticed. It is 4 feet high, 

TEL BARAK 9 feet 6 inches by 12 feet at the 

bottom, being cut back in steps. 

Tell Barak (Ik) is an arti- 
ficial mound, with traces of ruins 
and scattered sarcophagi. Tombs 
with kokini were found near the 
Tell. 

One of these is a good example of a tomb subsequently enlarged, 
having an outer chamber with kokiin and an inner (or more recent cham- 
ber) with loculi. The outer chamber 
,/ measures 12 feet square, the koknii 

siiehcoi; being six in number, three on each 

side, 7 feet long, 3 feet 8 inches 
high, 2 feet 9 inches broad. The 
entrance to the inner chamber is from 
the middle of the back wall of the 
outer. The first chamber is approached 
through an ante -chamber with an 
arched door. The ante-chamber is 
also 1 2 feet square. 

South-west of this ruin are re- 
mains of a tank, and on the edge of the marsh 
near the aqueduct a foundation 24 feet by 27 feet, 
forming three sides of a rectangle built of stones 
arranged in alternate headers and stretchers 5 feet 
long, 2 feet 4 inches broad, 2 feet high. This 
would seem to be of the same date with the dam at K e b a r a h, and to 
have some connection with the aqueducts — possibly it is a ruined tank. 



-I 



< ^''^--'y>L ^ 



y 



y--^ "'■''- • 



'y 

^ 



X"*'^£ ntrs nceY 



^«Sfc^ 




SHEET VII.— SECTION C. 

There is but little to say as to the Ethnology of this Sheet. The in- 
habitants of the four villages described in the Sheet are Moslems. Those 
of Tanturah are fishers and sailors, and convey fruit and vegetables to 
Jafta by sea. 

There are small encampments of Arabs who live permanently in the 
marshes of the river Zerka. They are so strongly posted (the intricate 
way through the marshes being only known to themselves), that they are 
almost free from contributions to Government. They are known as 
'Arab el Ghawarni. 

The tradition with regard to the aqueducts of Caesarea is given in 
Section B. 



5—: 



SHEET VIII.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — This Sheet contains 368'6 square miles, including the 
western part of the Plain of Esdraelon, the hills west of that plain, and 
the eastern part of the Plain of Sharon. It is thus naturally divided into 
five districts: ist. The Plain of Esdraelon ; 2nd. The Belad er Ruhah ; 
5rd. The Sheikh Iskander Hills; 4th. The Plain of 'Arrabeh ; 5th. The 
Plain of Sharon. 

I. The Plain of Esdraelon measures 14 miles north and south 
from J e n i n to J u n j a r, and 9 miles east and west from L ej j u n to 
Z e r 'i n (Sheet IX.). It has an average elevation of 200 to 250 feet above 
sea-level towards its centre, and consists of loose volcanic soil, which is 
very tiring to horses, and therefore unfitted for cavalry evolutions, and 
in winter bogg)'. The plain collects the drainage from the surrounding 
hills and from the neighbourhood of el 'Afuleh and of Fuleh 
(Sheet IX.), and almost as far east as the foot of Tabor (Sheet VI.), 
the whole of which drainage is carried to the north-west, where a narrow 
gorge in the neighbourhood of Tell Keimun communicates between 
the Plain of Esdraelon and that of Akka (Sheet V.). 

The watershed west of the plain running in a north-west direction is a 
continuation of the main watershed of the country (described Sheet XII.), 
which bifurcates near the ruin of T a n n i n (Sheet XII.), the eastern fork 
running on due north to form the Gilboa chain (Sheet IX.), the western 
running north-west and forming the block of low hills south-east of 
J e n i n . 

This western watershed runs through the ruin of Khtirbet Umm 
el B u t m into the Plain of 'Arrabeh east of K h u r b e t J i n z a r. 
It here turns due north, running for 2 miles to the neighbourhood of 
Burkin, where it is again contorted and very narrow, running west to 



[SHEET VJII.] TOPOGRAPHY. 37 

Sheikh Zeid for 5 miles, and rising to nearly 1 300 feet above sea- 
level. From Sheikh Zeid it runs in a curve for 3^ miles to Sheikh 
Iskander (1699 feet above sea-level). About 2 miles north of this 
high point the shed is only a few hundred yards in width near the 'A i n 
Ibrahim. Thence for 8 miles the line continues north-west to the 
neighbourhood of Umm ez Zeinat, where it forms the Carmcl Ridge 
(Sheet v.). 

II. The Belad er Riihah is a district of bare chalk downs, with 
an average elevation of some Soo feet above sea-level. Though for the 
most part treeless it is not altogether barren, as there are many springs in 
its valleys, and corn is grown on its slopes. 

On the north it is almost separated from the Carmel block by the two 
valleys which spring at Umm ez Zeinat, the broad \V a d y el 
M i 1 h running east to the Kishon near Tell K e i m u n, and W a d y 
M a t a b i n running to the Mediterranean by I j z i m . The latter valley 
is the true southern boundary of Carmel. Immediately north of its 
course is the little plain of I j z i m, about a mile square and apparently at 
one time a lake, as the volcanic outbreaks round it appear to have been 
formed under water. 

On the south the Belad er Ruhah is divided from the Sheikh 
Iskander Hills by the deep and wide valley called Wady 'A rah, 
running south-west to the Plain of Sharon. The district measures 8 
miles along the watershed between these limits. 

On the east the downs sink gradually into the Plain of Esdraelon, and 
on the west the spurs are gentle and run down to the Plain of Sharon. 
The average width of the hill district between the two plains is about 1 1 
miles. 

On the north, however, a long spur runs out westwards from 
the watershed, and terminates in the cliff, called el K h a s h m 
(Sheet \TI.), forming a projecting bastion, which bounds the Plain 
of Sharon. North of this bastion the plain is about i^ miles wide. 
(See Sheet \\\.) South of it the width increases at once to about 
5 miles. 

The western slopes of the Belad er Ruhah are clothed with an 
open woodland of small oaks, which give their name to the village of 
S i n d i a n e h. 



3S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

III. 1' h e Sheikh I s k a n d e r Hills are of an earlier geological 
formation than the chalk downs of the preceding district, consisting of 
hard crystalline limestone, and densely covered with thickets of lentisk, 
spurge laurel, dwarf-oak, hawthorn, and other shrubs, which grow most 
luxuriantly, and in parts form an impenetrable thicket. The highest 
point, on which stands the little: chapel of Sheikh Iskander, appears to be 
a volcanic crater, with an outbreak of friable lava to the north. Further 
west, at Sheikh M u h a m m e d e t T e 1 1 u 1 i, there are other small 
cones of basaltic mud. 

The main spur of this ridge runs out westwards to e 1 M n n t a r 
(1278 feet above sea-level). The valleys throughout the district are 
steep, narrow gorges. The width of the block is about 1 1 miles from the 
maritime plain to that of Esdraelon, and along the watershed it 
measures 5 miles from W a d y 'A r a h to W a d y el 'A s 1, which 
both flow to the Mediterranean. Immediately south of the latter valley 
there is another block of hills of about equal elevation, with a ridge or 
spur running out westwards. This block consists of soft limestone, and 
is bare of trees, and less rugged than the hills just described. 

IV. The Plain of 'Arrabeh lies south of the hills last 
mentioned, and is a continuation of the Plain of Esdraelon, from which 
it is separated only by a low block of downs, some 500 feet higher than the 
latter plain. A broad, open valley (Wady Belameh) forms a com- 
munication between the two, and Wady S e 1 h a b runs down from the 
little plain in the neighbourhood of Zebabdeh (Sheet XII.), which is 
thus hardly separated from the 'Arrabeh Plain. There are thus five 
small plains in all, near the watershed of this part of Palestine, viz. : 

1. The Plain of 'Arrabeh (Sheet VHI.) \ draining into 

2. The Plain of Sileh (Sheet XI.) the 

3. The Plain of Zebabdeh (Sheet XII.) ) Mediterranean. 

4. The Merj el Ghuruk (Sheet XL), which has no outlet. 

5. The Mukhnah (Sheet XL), draining to Jordan. 

These are here distinctly enumerated, because the watershed has been 
incorrectly drawn on previous maps. 

The Plain of Arrabeh measures 6 miles east and west, and 2^ miles 
north and south ; the average elevation being 700 to 800 feet above the 



{SHEET Vni.] TOPOGRAPHY. 39 

sea. Thus it is a plateau higlicr than the Plain of Hsdraelon. On its 
east the downs rise about 500 feet above the skirts of the Esdraelon 
Plain, and about 100 above the 'Arrabch Plain; the Esdraelon level 
near J e n i n being rather less than 400 feet above the sea. The hills 
rise some 600 feet above the 'A r r a b e h Plain on the north and on 
the south. On the west a sort of gap occurs in the low hills, by which 
the drainage of the 'Arrabeh plain is carried down to the maritime plain. 
This pass is called W a d y el G h a m i k, and runs out north of N ii z 1 e t 
esh Sherkiyeh (Sheet XL), the distance being not quite 4 
miles. 

Y. The Plain of Sharon. The northern portion included on 
the present Sheet consists of ground partly arable, partly covered with 
oak woodland, the trees growing to a medium size and with less under- 
wood than in the woods west of Nazareth (Sheet W). The sand has 
encroached to a distance of 4 miles from the coast east of Ciesarea 
(Sheet \TI.). The oak wood covers an area of about 8 square 
miles. 

HvDROGRArnv. — This part of Palestine is remarkable for its fine 
water-supply. Along the west side of the Plain of Esdraelon, there were 
more than 50 or 60 springs between Tell Abu K u d e i s, and Tell 
K e i m u n, a distance of about 10 miles. They are all fresh and good, 
with running streams in most cases. The three most remarkable groups 
are those of Lejjun, Wady ed Dufleh, and Kireh. In 1872, 
after the heat of September, there was still a considerable stream at 
Lejjun, and the water is capable of turning mills which exist there. 
At Kireh also, just before the rains, there was water all along the 
valley bed ; and in 1875, in the month of June, streams were running all 
alonir the feet of the hills. 

The river Kishon (Sheet V.) is fed by these streams, and the Lej j u n 
stream is sometimes called the head of the Kishon ; but the real source is 
near K h u r b e t el jNI e z r 'a h and the springs called c 1 M u j a h i y e h 
('the place of bursting forth of water.') A string of pools and springs 
occurs all alonof the course from this head, and in the month of October, 
1872, it was found difficult to ford the river in the neighbourhood of el 
W a r a k a n V , where the stream was some 5 or 6 yards wide. 



40 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The B e 1 a d e r R u h a h contains many good springs, especially along 
the course of Wad y esh Shukak, Wady es Sinajak, and 
Wady el F u w a r, the latter containing a mill. These springs were 
visited in April after a dry winter (1872-3). A little further south is 
Wady Kudran (or G hud ran), also well supplied with water all 
along its course. A fine spring called 'A i n el M e i y i t e h in this 
valley has a little garden by it, and supplied originally the Caesarea aque- 
duct (Sheet ML). Further west at Ma-mas there are also good 
springs which probably gave the place its name (see Ma-mas, Sheet VII.). 
These springs also supplied the aqueduct. 

The Sheikh Iskander range has small springs scattered all over 
the mountain. 

In the Plain of Sharon the water from the hills rises north of Tell 
e d h D h r u r in the springs known as el 'A 1 e i y a n, and runs in a 
marshy stream called D a r d a r a. About a quarter of a mile south is 
Wady K h u d e i r a h, also filled with water by springs along its course. 
These two streams unite to form the N ahr el M e f j i r (Sheet VII.). 
Another fine group of springs exists further north at Khiirbet 
B a b 1 u n , the water from which, with that from M a - m a s, feeds the 
Z e r k a river. 

The Plain of 'A r r a b e h contains no springs. The water-supply of 
the villages is mentioned under that head. The best supplied are J e n i n 
and U m m el F" a h m, where the Survey camps were fixed. 

Topography.— There are 53 inhabited villages on the Sheet, belong- 
ing to the Government divisions — Kadha Nasi rah, Kadha 
Haifa, N a h i e t J e n i n, under the Mutaserrif of Acre ; and S h 'a r a- 
wiyetesh Sherkiyeh, and Sh'arawiyet el Gharbiyeh 
under the Mudir of Nablus. They will be enumerated under these 
divisions : 

I. — Kadha Nasirah. 

(i .) El 'A f u 1 e h (N j). — A small village of mud in the plain, supplied 
by two wells. This is possibly the Ophlah of the lists of Thothmes III.* 

* N.B. — See the Special Paper on the Topographical Lists of the temple at Kaniak, 
giving an account of the conquests of Thothmes III. 



[SBEET ;■///.] TOPOGRAPHY. 41 

Compare el Fuleh (Sheet IX.). It is also mentioned l)y Marino Sanuto 
(132 1 A.D.), under the name Afel. 

(2.) Junjar (M i). — A small mud village at the foot of the hills, 
supplied by a well. 

(3.) E 1 \V a r a k a n y (L i). — A little mud hamlet close to the Kishon. 



II. — Kadha Haiia. 

(i.) Abu Shusheh (L j). — A little hamlet on the edge of the plain, 
with a spring to the east. 

(2.) 'A in Ghiizal (J j). — A small village of mud and stone on the 
hills, supplied by a well. The population is stated at 450 souls, with 35 
feddans of cultivation, by Consul Rogers (1859). 

(3.) 'Ararah (K k). — A village of moderate size on high ground, 
with a spring to the east, a second to the west, and a well to the south. 
There are rock-cut tombs near. The population is stated by Consul 
Rogers (1859) at 400, the cultivation being then 30 feddans. 

(4) Bureikeh (J j). — A small village on a hill-top, with a well to 
the north, and wooded country round. 

(5.) Daliet er Ruhah (K j). — A village of moderate size on the 
west side of the watershed, with a good spring close by on the south. 
Consul Rogers (1859) gives the population as only 60 souls, with 10 
feddans of cultivation. 

(6.) El Fureidis(I j). — A small village of mud and stone at the 
foot of the hills, with a well to the south. It would seem to have decayed, 
as Consul Rogers gives the population (1859) as 200 souls, with 18 
feddans of cultivation. 

(7.) I j z i m (J i). — A village of moderate size on a low eminence just 
south of a little plain. The houses are of mud and stone ; the surrounding 
lands are fertile. Consul Rogers (1859) estimates the population at 
1000, and the cultivation at 64 feddans. This seems rather high for its 
present condition. The place seems to be an ancient site, having rock-cut 
tombs. 

VOL. II. 6 



42 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

(8.) J arah (K j). — A small village on the east side of the watershed, 
with four springs below it. There are rock-cut tombs, so that the place 
seems to be an ancient site. 

(9.) J eba (I i). — A small village in a recess on the hill-slope close to 
the plain ; the houses principally of stone. It has a good olive-yard on the 
west below the village, in which yard the Survey Camp was placed. The 
water-supply is from a well on the north-west, which has a wheel and 
troughs. The place seems ancient, having rock-cut tombs and caves. 
The population is stated by Consul Rogers (i<S59) at 150 souls, with 18 
feddans of cultivation. 

This place seems without doubt to be Geba of Horsemen, mentioned 
by Josephus with Ptolemais and Caesarea (B. J. ii. 18, i), and again as 
being close to Carmel (B. J. iii. 3, i). It is also, perhaps, the Gibea 
mentioned in the " Life of Josephus " (sect. 24). 

(10.) K a n n i r (J k). — A village of moderate size, built of mud, stand- 
ing on a low eminence, with flat ground on the south, where the Survey 
Camp was established. It has two wells, one to the south, the second 
to the west. The population is given by Consul Rogers in 1859 as 250 
souls, with 24 feddans of cultivation. 

(11.) Kefr Kara (K k). — A good-sized stone village on high 
ground, with a well to the east, and caves. Consul Rogers gives the 
population as 450 souls, and the cultivation as being 32 feddans, in 1859. 

(12.) Kef rein (K j). — A village of moderate size on the west side 
of the watershed, with a spring on that side. Consul Rogers, in 1859, 
states the population at 200 souls, the cultivation being then 30 feddans. 

(13.) Kerkur (J k). — A little mud hamlet in the plain, with a well 
on the west. 

(14.) Khobbeizeh (Kj). — A village of moderate size on high 
ground, with wells in the valley to the south. Consul Rogers, in 1859, 
estimates the population at 270 souls, and the cultivation at 24 feddans. 

(15.) Khurbet ez Zebadneh (J k). — A very small hamlet near 
the edge of the plain, with springs on the north-west. 

(16.) K u m b a z e h (J i).-- A small hamlet on high ground. 



[SHEET J-I/l] TOPOGRAPHY. 4;, 

(17.) El M a rah (J k). — A small village near the edge of the \Ami-\, 
with a spring at some little distance to the south. 

(18.) Shefeiya (J j). — A small village on the edge of a steep hill, 
with a well to the north. Consul Rogers, In 1859, gives the population 
at 100 souls ; the cultivation being 1 1 feddans. 

(19.) S i n d i a n e h (J j). — A village of moderate size on high ground, 
with a spring below it, and a cave ; it was here that the tunnel of the 
Ccesarea aqueduct is said to have been broken into by women digging for 
clay. (See Sheet \'II.) The population is stated by Consul Rogers in 
1859 at 300 souls, with 22 feddans of cultivation. 

(20.) Suamir (I i). — A small mud village at the edge of the plain, 
with a well on the west. Consul Rogers states the population in 1859 
at 1 20 souls, with 1 5 feddans of cultivation. 

(21.) S u b b a r i n (J j). — A large village of mud and stone houses, on 
a slope, with a fine masonry well of unusual size to the west. There is a 
palm below the village. The well is said to be the head of the Caesarea 
aqueduct. (See Sheet VII.) Consul Rogers in 1859 gives the popula- 
tion at 600 souls, and the cultivation at 55 feddans. 

(22.) Umm esh Shuf (K j). — A small village well supplied with 
water from two springs on the north, on which side is a little garden. 
Consul Rogers in 1859 states the population at 150 souls, and the 
cultivation at 21 feddans. 

(23.) U mm et Tut (Jj). — A small hamlet in the valley, with caves 
to the south. The valley is well supplied with water. Consul Rogers in 
1859 gives the population at 60 souls, with 10 feddans of land. 

(24.) Umm ez Zeinat (K i). — A good-sized village on a saddle, 
built principally of stone, with a well on the south. This seems to be an 
ancient site, having many well-cut rock-tombs. Consul Rogers in 1859 
states the population at 350 souls, with 25 feddans of cultivation. 

II. — Nauif.t Jf.xin. 

The villages on this Sheet, belonging to the Ndhiet (or Sanjak) 
J en in are classed as forming the Shefat el Gharby, or western 
division, except Mukeibileh, which belongs with those on Sheet IX. 

6—2 



44 THE SURVEY OF U ESTER N EALESTINE. 

to the She fat el K i h I y, south of Wady Jalud; the Shefat 
csh Shemaly being north of the same. These three subdivisions are 
collectively called N a w a h y J e n i n, and also Belad Karithet 
e s h S h e m a 1 i y e h ; the Belad Harithet el Kibliyeh being 
the district of Mesharik el Jerrar (Sheet XL). These divisions 
of the country are of interest, as they appear to be of some antiquity. 

(i.) 'An i n (L k). — A small village on a ridge, partly built of stone, 
with a small olive grove beneath it on the west, and two wells on that 
side. It has the appearance of an ancient site, having rock-cut tombs, 
and a curious channel for water. (See Section B.) 

This place appears to be the Betoaenca of the ' Onomasticon ' 
{s.v. hviip, Aniel), 15 Roman miles from Csesarea, 'in the mountain to 
the East.' The distance is rather over 1 5 English miles, in an easterly 
direction. Jerome adds, ' where the baths (lavacra) are said to be good.' 
This place may also perhaps be the Biblical Anem of Manasseh 
(i Chron. vi. "jt,). 

(2.) El 'Arrakah (L k). — A village of moderate size on a hill-side, 
with a well on the south. 

(3.) B u s e i 1 e h (L j). — A very small hamlet, with five springs below. 

(4.) E z b u b a (M j). — A village of mud, of moderate size, with wells 
and cisterns. It stands near the foot of the hills, and is probably an 
ancient site, having a sarcophagus, and a wine-press to the south. 

This place is marked under the name Sububa on the map of Marino 
Sanuto (1322 A.D.), and identified by him with Megiddo. 

(5.) J e n i n (N 1). — The capital of the district, the seat of a Caimacam, 
is a town of about 3,000 inhabitants, with a small bazaar. The houses are 
well built of stone. There are two families of Roman Catholics; the 
remainder are Moslems. A spring rises east of the town and is con- 
ducted to a large masonry reservoir, near the west side, of good squared 
stonework, with a long stone trough. This reservoir was built by 'A b d 
el H a d y, Mudir of Acre, in the first half of the century. Towards the 
north of the town is the little mosque of ' Ezz ed Din, with a good- 
sized dome and a minaret. This may perhaps occupy the site of the 
Christian church mentioned in 1555 a.d. (see Pere Lievin's 'Guide,' 
p. 470). 



[SHEET VIII.] TOPOGRAPHY. 45 

Jenin is remarkable for its fine gardens north of the town. They are 
walled with cactus, and contain palms, oranges, tamarisks, and vegetables. 
Two small mills, now ruined, communicated with the fountain by an aque- 
duct on low arches. The threshing-floor is to the west, where there are 
also olives ; on the east is a modern barrack and drill-ground. 

Jenin is the En Gannim of the Bible (Josh. xi.x. 21 ; .\.\i. 29), the Gin;^a 
of Joscphus (Ant. xx. 6, i ; B. J. iii. 3, 4). John of Wirtzburg (i 100 a.I).) 
calls it Major Gallina, Minor Gallina being, according to him, Zer'in or 
Jezreel. 

(6.) Kefr Ad an (M k). — A village of moderate size on the 
slope of the hills, built of stone, with olives below, and a well on the west. 
This appears to be the Kefr Outheni of the Talmud, a village on the 
borders between Samaria and Galilee (IMishnah Gittin, vii. 7). It might, 
perhaps, also be En Haddah of Issachar (Josh. xix. 21), from its 
proximity to En Gannim, the town immediately preceding this name 
on the list. 

(7.) El Mesheirfeh (Lj). — A very small hamlet on high 
ofround, with a well to the south. 

(8.) M usmus (L k). — A little village on a hillside, with springs to 
the south-west ; the houses of stone and mud. 

(9.) Mukeibileh (X k). — A mud village in the plain, supplied 
by cisterns. 

(10.) Rummaneh (L k). — A small village of mud and stone, 
near the foot of the hills, with wells to the west and olives below. 

This village seems to mark the site of Maximianopolis, a town 20 
Roman miles from Caesarea (Itin. Hierosol.) and 10 miles from Jezreel 
(Zer'in), the ancient name of Maximianopolis being, according to Jerome, 
Hadad Rimmon (Comm. in Zech. xii. 11). Rummaneh is 18 English 
miles from Caesarea, and ~\ English miles from Zer'in (Jezreel, Sheet IX.). 

(11.) Salim (L k). — A small village standing above the road, with 
a well on the north. 

(12.) Sily (M k). — A good-sized village, well built of stone, with 
a spring and cisterns. There are rock-cut wine-presses on the west, and 
olives and figs round. A palm grows close to this village. 



46 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIXE. 

(13.) Tannuk (M k). — A sm.ill village, which stands on the 
south-east side of the q:reat Tell or mound of the same name at the edgfe 
of the plain. It has olives on the south, and wells on the north, and is 
surrounded with cactus hedges. There is a white dome in the village. 
The rock on the sides of the Tell is quarried in places, the wells are 
ancient, and rock-cut tombs occur on the north near the foot of the 
mound. This place is the Taanach of the Bible (Josh. .\ii. 21). 

(14.) Tell edh Dhaheb (M j). — A hamlet on an isolated hillock 
in the plain. It has been recently rebuilt by the SursiTik family of Greek 
bankers from Beyrout. There are springs to the west. 

(15.) Umm el Fahm (Lk).— Next to Jenin this is the most 
important place on the Sheet, although a modern village. The village is 
divided into four quarters, each under its own Sheikh — el Jebarin, 
el Ma ham in, el Mejahineh, and el Akbariyeh. There 
are some 80 Christians, and the total population would probably amount 
to some 500 souls. 

The villagers are very rich in cattle, goats, and horses. They own 
some 20 or more springs, and near the village are grown olives, oranges, 
lemons, and very large shaddocks. The taxes amounted in 1S72 to 
about ^200. 

The village is well built of stone, standing on a sort of saddle, with 
four springs on the north-east. The Mukam of Sheikh Iskander is on the 
hill above. The camp was established in 1872 in the low ground, near 
the principal spring, ' A i n el B i r. 

(16.) El Yamon (M k). — A large village, with olives round it, 
standing on high ground, with a well on the east. This appears to be the 
Janna of the ' Onomasticon,' 3 miles south of Legio ; but the distance 
does not exactly agree, being 7 English miles. 



IV. — Sh'arawiyet esh Sherkiyeh. 

(i.) El Barid (INI k). — A small hamlet on the hillside, with a 
well to the west. 

(2.) Burkin (M 1). — A village of Greek Christians, with a small 
modern church for the Greek rite. It stands on the side of a white hill. 



[SHEET /'///] rOrOGRAPHV. 47 

with a good well below on the north, and olivts near it. The church is 
described in ' Tent Work in Palestine,' Chapter I\'. 

(3). Kefreirch (LI). — A good-sized village on a hill at the edge 
of the Plain of 'Arrabeh, with a well on the east and olives. 

(4.) Kefr Kud (Ml). — A good-sized village in a recess among 
the hills on the slopes of S h e i k h S h i b 1 e h. It is supplied by a good 
spring well called 'A i n el H a s n. 

This village is the ancient Capercotia of the ' Peutinger Tables,' 28 
Roman miles from Ctesarea and 24 Roman miles from Scythopolis. The 
true distances are about 20 English miles from Kefr Kud to Kaisarieh 
and also to Beisan by road. 

(5.) Yabid (LI). — A good-sized stone village, with .some Christian 
families and two factions of Moslems, called respectively the 'Abd el 
Hady and the Beni Tokan, living in separate quarters. 

The villacre stands on a ridge, with a well to the south and a small 
separate quarter on the east, in which is a small Mukam. 

\ . — Sh'ak.vwivet el Giiarbiveii. 

(i.) Ferasin (K 1). — A small village on a rocky hillock, with a well 
to the south-east. 

(2.) Kuffin (K 1). — A good-sized village on the low hills east 
of the Plain of Sharon, with a well on the south side. It has rock-cut 
tombs, and a palm grows near the village. 

(3.) El Mesady (J 1). — A small mud hamlet in the plain, near 
the fine springs of e 1 ' A 1 e i y a n . 

(4.) Niizlet el M'asfy (K 1). — A small village on the low hills, 
with wells. 

(5.) Tell edh Dhriir (J 1). — A little mud hamlet in the plain, 
with springs to the north. 

In addition to these inhabited places several ruins on the Sheet are 
identified as below. 

(i.) Bileam (i Chron. vi. 70), was a town of Manasseh, apparently 
near Jenin, within the territory of Issachar. The name is perhaps to be 



48 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

recognised in Bel am eh, now applied to the valley and well south of 
Jenin, but not apparently to any ruin. It is probable that the Belmaim 
or Belmen of Judith (iv. 4 ; vii. 3) is the same place, being a Samaritan 
town near Dothaim (Tell Do than. Sheet XL). In the ' Onomasti- 
con,' a place called Abelmea is mentioned as between Neapolis and 
Scythopolis. This is also perhaps B e 1 a m e h, and it is worthy of notice 
that Jerome makes Abelmea possibly identical with Abelmeholah, which 
is the Syriac reading for the Belmen of Judith. I b 1 e a m {Josh. xvii. 1 1, 
2 Kings i.\. 27) is sometimes supposed to be the same place, but is 
perhaps better identified with Y e b 1 a (Sheet I X.) as proposed by 
Dr. Thomson. 

(2.) Haphraim, a town of Issachar (Josh. .\i.\. 19), is identified 
by Eusebius in the ' Onomasticon ' with a place called Affarea, 6 Roman 
miles north of Legio. At a distance of 5^ English miles north-west of 
Lejjun is the important ruin of el Farriyeh, evidently the Affarea 
of the fourth century, and possibly the true site of Haphraim. 

(3.) J o k n e a m, a border city of Zebulun (Josh. xi.x. 11), is the 
present Tell K e i m u n, which is also possibly the Cyamon of Judith 
(vii. 3). The place is mentioned under its modern name in the Samaritan 
Book of Joshua. John of Wirtzburg (iioo) calls it Cain Mons, 8 miles 
fron; Nazareth, near Carmel ; Marino Sanuto (1321 a.d.) says that Cain 
was here killed by an arrow by Lamech, and marks the place on his map 
in the position of K e i m. u n. Fetellus (i 130 a.d.) makes Kaim Mons 
10 miles from Acre, 3 miles from Carmel, and speaks of the fountain at 
its foot as the place where Cain was killed. This tradition accounts for 
the chapel. (See Section B). In the ' Onomasticon ' it is called Cimona, 
and placed 6 Roman miles from Legio, on the way to Ptolemais. 

(4.) Kedesh, a town of Issachar (i Chron. vi. 72), is perhaps the 
present Tell Abu K u d e i s, which lies within the territory of that 
tribe. 

(5.) K e t u n i t h, mentioned in the Talmud as identical with Kattath 
(Josh. xi.x. 1 5) may perhaps be the ruin of K o t e i n e h (Tal. Jer. Megilla, 
70 a)' but this site is not suitable for the Biblical Kattath. 

(6.) Legio. — An important town of the fourth century, mentioned 
in the 'Onomasticon,' 15 Roman miles west of Nazareth, 6 from 



[SnEET VII/.] TOPOGRAPHY. 49 

Cimona, 6 from Affarea, 3 or 4 from Taanach. The distances, though 
not quite exact, serve to place the town at Lejj u n. 

Lejjun is identified by Dr. Robinson with JMcgiddo, but no strong- 
argument is adduced in support of this view. (See ' TentWork in Palestine,' 
Chapter IV.) In the fourteenth century IMarino Sanuto places Megiddo at 
a place called Sububa on his map, evidently Ezbuba. (See above.) 

(7.) Mesrah, mentioned by Marino Sanuto (1321) and marked on 
his map in the position of K hurbct el INI ez rah, is also noticed by 
Brocardus as Casal Mesra (ch. vii. p. 176). 

(8.) Sarid. — A place on the boundary of Zebulun (Josh. xi.x. 10-12) 
b3tween Chisloth Tabor (Ik sal) and Jokneam (Tell K e i m ii n). 
The LXX., in both Alexandrine and Roman texts, reads S for i, which 
suesfests the orioinal name to have been Sadid, in which case it might 
very well be the present Tell S h a d ii d, in the required position. 

Roads. — The main line from Egypt to Damascus crosses this Sheet, 
and the road from Jenin to Haifa and Acre, with that to Haifa from the Plain 
of Sharon. All these are, however, only broad beaten tracts, not made roads. 

ist. Jenin to Haifa. — The main road froni Nablus, passing 
over the low hills near K h. U m m el But m, descends W a d y 
Be lam eh by a gentle fall to Jenin; thence it runs along the base of 
the western hills by Lejjun to K e i m u n, almost in a straight line. 

2nd. Jenin to Nazareth. — The main road runs straight 
to the north in flat ground the whole way, and enters the pass of e 1 
K has hash. (See Sheet V.) 

3rd. Lydda to Haifa. — The main road described in Sheets 
XI. and XI\'. runs north from Baka, and gradually ascends the 
low downs near K a n n i r, running in a straight line northwards across 
the watershed of the B e 1 a d e r R u h a h, and so descending by 
Wady el INIilh to K e i m u n, where it joins No. i. The electric 
telegraph runs beside it. 

4th. From the Plain of Sharon to Jordan. This line leaves the 

last at Khurbet es Sumrah, and ascends by the broad and open 

valley Wady 'Arab, crossing the watershed at 'A i n Ibrahim, 

which is about 1,200 feet above the sea. Thence the road descends, 

VOL. II. 7 



so THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

falling some 700 feet in 3 miles to Lejjun, where it bifurcates, one 
branch running' towards Nazareth, and ascending the hills near Tell 
S h a d u d ; the second continuing eastwards to e 1 'A f u 1 e h, and thence 
down the \^alley of Jezreel. (Sheet IX.) This line, which appears to be 
ancient, is one of great importance, being one of the easiest across the 
country, owing to the open character of W a d y 'A r a h, 

5th. A branch leaves this last road at Khurbct 'Arab, running 
north-east and rising 400 feet in 5 miles towards the watershed of the 
Belad er Ruhah. It passes by the old ruined Khan of el 
IMawiyeh and through Kefrein, descending thence some 500 feet 
in 3 miles to join No. i at Tell Aghbariyeh. It was probably the 
old line from Nazareth to Sharon, but the path thence to Nazareth leads 
over a bad part of the Kishon, where there are dangerous pools. 

6th. J en in to Sharon. — The road leaves No. i at the head of 
W a d y B e 1 a m e h, and passes along the Plain of 'A r r a b e h north 
of D 6 t h a n, descending by W a d y el G h a m i k. This is also a 
very easy line for crossing Palestine, as it runs through plains, excepting 
one pass of about 4 miles, with a fall of less than 100 feet per mile at 
most, the highest point being only about 800 feet above the sea-level. 
This road was probably the one by which the Midianites descended to 
Egypt with Joseph; but it is not now a main line of communication. 

Cultivation'. — The Plain of Esdraelon is naturally very fertile, but the 
amount of cultivation differs in different years. The proportions in 1872 
were estimated by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake to be : 

Wheat and barley . . . • . . 45 

Millet 35 

Sesame, cotton, castor-oil ... 10 

Fallow land . . . . . . 10 



100 



The greater part of the Plain of Sharon is uncultivated, except close 
to the villages. 

Vegetable gardens occur near the springs in the low hills, on which 
corn is also grown. The Plain of 'A r r a b e h produces good crops 
of corn. 



SHEET \'1 1 1. —SECTION 15. 
Archaeology. 

'Akkddeh (L k). — Ruined buildings, apparently modern. 

'An in (L k). — Immediately north of the village is a rock-cut 
passage large enough to walk along, extending about 50 feet and lined 
with cement ; it then becomes about a foot high. This leads out on to a 
flat surface of rock. It may have some connection with the Lavacra of 
Jerome. (See Section A.; see also 'Askar, Sheet XL, Section B.) 
Two rock-cut tombs, now blocked, exist west of this. 

Visited 12th October, 1S72. 

Bertah (K k). — A ruined Arabic village on a high hill, with a 
spring in the valley to the north 400 feet below. 

Besmeh (N k). — Foundations of modern masonry. 

Bir el Belameh (N 1). 

As regards the identification of this place with Bileam (i Chron. vi. 70), and Bcmaim 
(Judith iv. 4), see Section A., p. 47. 

' The well is not deep, circular in form, and built of tolerably regular blocks. A little 
farther on another well, called Bir es Senjem ' — apparently that called in the map Bir es 
Sinjib — ' is found at the entrance of a souterrain, evidendy ancient, which is 1 1 feet 6 inches 
broad. The vestibule is of masonry, and is surmounted by a semicircular arch ; then the 
souterrain itself begins, cut in the rock, and plunging into the hill. I entered, and managed 
to advance about 30 paces, but it is at present half filled by an accumulation of rubbish. 
.... According to the guide the passage goes much farther, rising, in fact, to the middle of 
the town which once covered the hill, so that in case of necessity the inhabitants could get 
down to the well in the valley, which was then concealed from an enemy by a wall. Climb- 
ing up the slope of the hill, and getting over several sustaining walls, I arrived at a little 
plateau covered with ruins, which I was told are called Kh. Beldmeh. Here are the remains 
of a tower with very thick walls ; it does not appear to be older than the Crusades, but it may 
have taken the place of a still older fortress, and may have been built of the old materials. 
Besides the ruins of the town, the plateau is strewn with a mass of stones of different d;men- 

7—2 



52 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



sions and with innumerable fragments of pottery. Surrounded on three sides by deep 
ravines, it once served for the site of a small stronghold, now completely reversed. It is to 
all appearance the Belmaim of the Book of Judith. ' They camped in the valley near unto 
Bethulia, and they spread themselves in breadth over Dothaim, even to Belmaim, and in 
length from Bethulia unto Cyamon, which is over against Esdraelon' (vii. 3). On descend- 
ing again I found the Kubbeh of a Moslem A\'aly, surrounded by a small enclosure, and 
dedicated to Sheikh Hassan. The sanctuary is entirely constructed of old materials. On 
my return to the valley I passed near a wall of rectangular form, built of regular stones and 
measuring 2 paces in breadth by 4 in length. Like the former well, it is called the Ain or 
Bir Belameh.' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' i. 341. 

El Burcij (I k).- 
of date. 



-Walls and foundations without any indication 
1 Khcil (I k). — A Baikch or cattle-yard 



\\\ 



the 



B u r j 
plain. 

D e i r el H a w a (L j). — Foundations and scattered stones. 
El F a k h i r e h (I j). — Traces of ruins and a column shaft. 

EI Fu re id is (I j). — Three tombs were here examined by Cor- 
poral Armstrong, R.E. One a chamber 9^ feet across, 15 feet to the 

F.OCK-HlWN TOMSS near FUREICiS 



BPoUcn > 
■jv\ Down fti^ 




iions partSy 



^^ V tJie locuius >n 



prossri/axjon. 









J*. 





back, with five koktni on each side wall almost entirely broken up, but one 
measuring 7 feet 2 inches in length, 2 feet across ; at the back is a recess 



[SHEET V1I1.\ 



ARCILEOLOGY. 



53 



broken down ; probably there were kolain here also. The door has an 
archway outside. The second tomb, also much broken up, had three kokim 
on each side, but the arrany^ement at the back is doubtful. The chamber 
was lo feet square. The third tomb is very curious, resembling that at 
K h u r b e t I b r e i k t a s- (Sheet \T I.) ; it was a round chamber 9 J feet 
by 8^ feet, with a door reached by steps and three radiating kokuii about 
6 feet long, 2\ feet across. 

El Ghannam or Kefr Yarub (NM). — A mound with traces 
of ruins. 

' These ruins occupy a plate.iu, surrounded on all sides by cultivated valleys, and consist of 
numerous piles of stones of large dimensions, eaten away by time, and disposed in circles 
round artificial caves cut in the rock, some of which were once cisterns, and others sub- 
terranean vaults.' — C'lUerin, 'Samaria,' i. 342. 

Ijzim (J i).— A tomb was visited to the north. The front was 
scarped on the north side, and several steps led 
down to a cave 8 paces across, 6 paces to the 
back. Round the cave recesses, forming rude 
koktiii, were scooped, six in all, from 2 to 3 
paces deep. There are several other broken 
sepulchres near. 

Two other tombs were planned by Corporal Armstrong. One, a 
chamber with steps down from the door inside, 5 feet 9 inches wide, by 
5 feet to back wall, with a loculns 
on each of three walls, 5 feet by 2 
feet 2 inches, and 2 feet deep, with 
arcosolia. The second tomb had a 
loculns on each side wall, 6 feet 8 
inches by about 2\ feet. The 
chamber was 7 feet wide, and on the back wall were two kokim 5^- feet 
long, 2 feet 4 inches broad, with stone pillows at the further end for the 
heads. This is also a transition specimen. (Compare Sheikh Ibreik, 
Sheet \'.) 

Visited 28th February, 1873. 

Here Guerin found an ancient marble column at the door of a mosque ; in the valley 
below the village a large square well, built with regular stones and surmounted by a vaulted 
construction. Near the well a birket, no longer used, and partly filled up, and close at hand 
the foundations of an ancient tower, measuring 15 paces by 10, and built with large masonry. 




TOMBS AT I J Z I M.J 






1 




54 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

I k h n e i f i s (M i). — Ruins of a tower built by Dhahr el 'Amr aljout 
a century ago (1162 A. 11.). 

J 'a rah (K j). — The rock-cut tombs at this place arc blocked up. 

Jeba (I i). — There are two closed rock tombs in the ledge south 
of the village, and a third with a courtyard 14 feet square, sunk 2 feet ; 
two doors lead into chambers. One has three locidi, one on each wall ; 
the other has two locnli and a recess 5 feet 6 inches, with two parallel 
graves under one arcosoliiuu placed like kokun with the feet to the 
chamber. This is therefore a transitional example. (Compare Sheikh 
Ibreik, Sheet V.) 

There are several caves north of the village, and another tomb 
at the head of the valley forming the recess in which the village 
stands. 

Visited 14th March, 1873. 

El J a h m e h (K k). — A mound with scattered stones. 

J e n i n (N k). — For the supposed Roman Camp see Sheet IX. 

J u w e i d i r e h (M k). — Traces of ruins on a mound. 

K a u k a b (L 1). — Ruins of modern houses. 

Kefr Adan (M k). 

Here Gu^rin remarked a broken column and a certain number of cut stones of ancient 
appearance. 

El Kharrubeh (N k). — Traces of ruins. 
El Khatmiyeh (K k). — Traces of ruins. 

Khfirbet el 'Abhariyeh (K k). — A few stones; two 
springs. 

K h u r b e t Abu 'Amir (M k). — A small building was here found, 
on the top of a flat hill, and near it a structure resembling an altar. 
A road leads up from the south. The walls measured 42 feet north and 
south, and 39 feet east and west ; on the south wall was a doorway 4 feet 
wide, 1 1 feet from the west wall inside. There was another wall running 
east and west 13^ feet north of the north wall. A pillar shaft, 4 feet 10 
inches in circumference, stands within the building ; on the south a lintel 
stone lies on the ground. The masonry is well dressed, of good size, not 
drafted. The largest stones are in the jambs of the doorway. The 
average size is about i foot in height, by from i to 2 feet in length. 



[SHEET VII I. \ 



ARCIl.EOLOGY. 



55 



Voussoirs belonging to a circular arch were found .strewn about, and 
there are remains of foundations, apparently of houses, round the building. 



R -f. (.'..r. 







,*=.ketcm of Building at khurblt abu 'amir 



"» — .-~ "*• 





STONE, ONE FACE ORNAMENTED FLAT SLAB 

There are also cisterns cut in rock, and lined with pink cement full of 
powdered pottery mixed in the lime. One of the voussoirs was orna- 
mented with mouldings in low relief The base of a pillar, i foot 8 inches 



5G 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN rALESTJ.\E. 



diameter, 14 inches higli, was found, and a capital much battered. 
Remains of a cornice, very clal:ioratcly carved, and of slabs of stone, 



BUILDING AT ABU 'AMIR 
CAPITAL 



Sketch or 

VOUSSOIR OF ARCM. 




<lf 



East 
GENERAL PLAN. 

PART OF A CORNICE ABOUT 4 FEET LONG 




also ornamented, were copied. The ornamentation is of debased 
character. 



{SHEET Vin.\ 



ARCII.EOLOGY. 



57 



About lOO yards from this building to the west is the masonry 
structure which resembles an altar. It appears to be solid, measuring 30 
feet north and south, 35 feet east and west. The masonry is rudely 
squared of stones about 4 feet by 2\ feet by i^ feet. A modern tomb 
of Sheikh Selameh stands on this platform, which consists of three 
courses where complete. A large tree hangs over it. To the north-east 
is a cave, partly natural, with rock-cut steps leading down to it. The tree 
is an oak. 

Visited 21st September, 1S72. 

Khurbet Abu Rujman (K 1). — Foundations. 

Khurbet 'A 1 y Koka (K k). — Foundations, and remains of 
ancient cultivation. 

Khurbet 'A n i n (L k). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet 'Arab (K k). — Traces of ruins on a prominent mound 
with a well. 

Khurbet B a b 1 u n (J k). — Traces of ruins by fine springs. 

Khurbet Basil a (K 1). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Beidus (J 1). — Traces of a ruined village, a cave, a 
cistern, and a pillar shaft, e.xist here, with a doorway hewn out of one 
piece of stone. 

•Scale- Vj. 




Bmqe 



The total height of this doorway is 8 feet i inch ; the total breadth 
about 9 feet. The door is 6 feet high, 4 feet broad in the clear. A mould- 

VOL. II, 8 



58 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ing in low relief runs round it, and at one end of the lintel is a tablet in 
low relief. There is a socket for the pivot of the door, and a hole for a 
bolt. The whole is cut out of a block of yellowish hard limestone contain- 
ing many, fossils, and quarried near. The workmanship is rough, and 
seems unfinished. Some blocks of the wall are visible in situ on the 
right. The doorway faces approximately west (3° 30' true bearing). It 
may have belonged to an early chapel. 
Visited 9th April, 1873. 

Khiirbet Beit Ras (L j). — Mound, with traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Biar (K k).— Scattered stones; ruins of a few 
modern houses. 

Khurbet B i r I s i r (K 1). — Foundations, cisterns ; a deep well, 
with cemented troughs round it. 

Khurbet el B u r a k ( K k). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet B u s e i 1 e h (L j). — Foundations of small masonry, pro- 
bably modern. 

Khurbet D h a h r e t H a m m a d ( K k). — A hillock strewn with 
stones. 

Khurbet ed Dufeis (J k). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet el Farriyeh (K i). — Evidently an ancient site; a 
steep hillock with traces of ruins, and on the north a good spring in the 
valley. The first tomb was merely a koka, 7 feet 3 inches long, 2 feet 
2 inches wide, 3 feet 6 inches high. The second was rude, and entered 
by a hole above. 1 1 had a loculus at the back, 6 feet 6 inches long ; a 
second, to the left, 5 feet long ; a koka to the right, about 8 feet long, 
2 feet wide. The third tomb was a very well cut specimen, with three 
koknn on each wall, nine in all. The chamber measured 8 feet 4 inches 
across, 8 feet 8 inches to the back ; the door was 2^ feet wide. There 
was, in addition to these tombs, a curious excavation, presumably also a 
large tomb, though of unusual shape. 

It is a chamber, measuring 25!- feet to the back wall and 30 feet across, 
with a door to the north-west, and a side chamber to the right ii|- feet 
by 10 feet. The height varies from 8 feet to 5 feet. On the left-hand 
wall are three recesses sunk a foot below the floor of the chamber. They 



[SHEET VIII.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



59 



are in the shape of a half-hive, with a raised slab in front 2 feet high. 
The total height is about 7 feet, and the depth to the back on the floor 
5 feet 6 inches ; they have arched roofs, and though of unusual form may 
perhaps be lociili. On the back wall are two recesses, level with the floor 
of the chamber, of the same shape (a hollow quarter-sphere), rudely cut and 
about equal in size, about 2\ feet diameter. There is also a recess 6 feet 
across, 15 feet to the back, level with the chamber floor. On the front 
wall left of the door is a recess 3 feet 4 inches by 4 feet 3 inches (to the 

NEAR KHURBET EL FARRIYEH. 




back), level with the floor. In the side chamber, on the back wall, is a 
recess 4 feet 6 inches by 4 feet 8 inches and 5^ feet high, level with the 
floor, and to the left of this another, 3 feet 10 inches across, 4 feet 8 inches 
to the back, 5 feet 6 inches total height, and sunk 3J feet below the floor. 
In the middle of the chamber is a shaft 2^^ feet diameter, now full of 
stones. 

Visited 13th March, 1S73. 

Khiirbet el Funeitir (K k). — Stones on a mound, with 
trees. 

Khurbet Hadeithiyeh (I j). — Foundations and a rock-cut 
tomb. 

Khurbet Hanna (J i). — Foundations and walls. 

Khurbet Hannaneh (J j). — Walls and caves. 

8—2 



6o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khtirbet Ikhrcin (K 1). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbct Jcbjeb (Ml). — Traces of ruins. 

K h Li r b e t J e r r a r (L k).— A few scattered stones. 

K h u r b e t J i n z a r (M 1). — Mound, with traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Kefr Basa (J 1). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet el Kelbi (J k). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet K e z a z e h (I 1). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Khaneizireh (I j). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet K h u d c i r a h (J j). — Walls, cave, and cistern. 

Khurbet el Khuzneh (L j). — This seems to be a site of 
some antiquity. There are foundations of a good-sized building, several 
shafts of columns and portions of broken sarcophagi. A broken capital 
of Corinthian order was sketched. There is a rude cave with rough 
locnli, and a second cave blocked up close by ; these appear to be 
tombs. 

A sculptured block was found which looked like an altar, but the 
mouldings only run round three sides, and it is more probably a pier, 
4 feet 4 inches high, 2 feet by 2 feet 2 inches at the top, with a simple 
moulding at the top. It is embedded in the rubbish. 

Visited 20th October, 1872. 

Khurbet Kireh (K i). — Evidently an ancient site. There are 
traces of ruins and broken pottery on the hill ; to the north are kokini 
tombs, caves, and a quarry ; to the east are other tombs, caves, quarries, 
and a rock-cut water channel, Umm el Hash Ci rah. There is a 
good supply of water in the valley at this point, and a small mill. A 
colony of Turcomans live in the caves ; they pronounce the name J i r e h. 
Most of the tombs are rough, with the doors hewn square. One 
tomb is of transition character ; on the right side (north) two kokini 
with arched roofs ; on the south two locnli under anosolia, with 
three kokim beneath, as at Sheikh Ibreik ; on the back wall two loc7ili, 
and between them an arched recess about 3 feet long, with a koka 
at the end of it at right angles, also arched. The locnli are of ordinary 



[SHEET /•///.] 



ARCII.EOLOGY 



6i 



size ; those on the south wall are 2\ feet above the level of the chamber, 
allowing room for the kokiiii below ; those at the back are level with the 
floor. The water channel has externally the appearance of a tomb ; an 
entrance, 2 J- feet wide, leading to a passage some 20 feet long; in front of 
the mouth an archway carefully cut. 
Visited 6th December, 1872. 







K h u r b e t K o t e i n e h (J j). — Foundations and walls. 

K h u r b e t el K u s a b (K j). — Ruined hamlet and spring. 

K h fi r b e t K u s i e h (J 1). — Ruined walls. 

Khtirbet Mansilrah (K i). — Heaps of masonry; a cistern in 
masonry. Apparently an early Christian ruin. 

Khurbet el Mawlyeh (K k).— A small ruined khan, of no 
great antiquity, on the road, near a spring. 

Khurbet el jNIedekakin (M k). — Traces of ruins and a rock- 
cut tomb, whence the place derives its name. 

Khurbet el Rledineh (Lj). — Traces of ruins on a mound. 

Khurbet el IMezrah (N i). — Modern ruins on an apparently 
more ancient site, broken sarcophagi, and good springs of water. 

Khurbet el Man tar (L k). — A square tower of drafted 
masonry — (compare Raba, Sheet XII.) — similar to others more particularly 
described, perhaps of Crusading times. 

Khurbet N a d h r (L k). — Huts and cave for goat-herds. 

Khurbet N a s il s (J i). — Traces of ruins. 



62 



THE SUR VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



for the tombs 
and rock-cut 



K h u r b et N e h a 1 i n ( K 1). — -Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t en N u z 1 e h (I j). — Traces of ruins 
see F u r e i d i s. 

K h u r b e t R a s e i s e h (I j). — Foundations 
tombs. 

Khurbet cr Rihaneh (K j). — A ruined modern village, and 
watch-towers in ruins, with two springs. 

Khurbet e s S a b i r (J k). — An orchard wall. 

K h u r b e t S a m a r a h (L 1). — Traces of ruins and caves. 

K h u r b c t She m sin (K 1). — Traces of ruins and a cistern. 

Khurbet e s h S h i h (I j). — Ruins of foundations, with scarps of 
rock 20 feet high, full of tombs facing westwards. Eight were examined 
as follow :— The first, a chamber 6 feet high, reached by the descent of a 
step from the door ; the door 2 feet broad, 3 feet high, with an exterior 




arch, and in the side of this a recess 2 teet deep for a rolling stone to 
slide back. There are three locitli measuring 5^ feet to the top of 
arcosolmin, 6 feet long, 3 feet broad, raised slightly above the tomb floor, 
with pillows at the head for the corpses. The second tomb, south, has a 
door in the face of the clifi, reached by a step, and an arch, with recess for 
stone as before. The chamber is reached by a descent of two steps ; it is 

5 feet high, i foot 9 inches broad, 6 feet long, with a loculus each side, 

6 feet by 2 feet, with pillows of stone at the further ends. The bottom of 
the ioculi are 6 inches above the tomb floor ; the door is 2 feet 6 inches 



{SHEET VIII.\ ARCH.EOLOGY. 63 

above the door. The third tomb has one step down from door to floor, 
and two locitli — one at the side, one at the end ; the fourth is hke the last ; 
a buttress of rock juts out between the two. It is much choked, and 
has no roHing stone ; the side locitliis is on the left, the former (No. 3) 
having it on the right. The fiftli and sixth tombs have three locuh, 
like No. I. The seventh also ; but in this case the front of the loailiis 
is walled, making a sarcophagus of rock under the arcosolium. There is 
a recess in the door-arch to the left for a rolling stone. The eighth tomb 
is similar, but has no recess for a stone. 

These tombs are on the north side of the valley. On the south is a 
cave, with a scarp in front 10 feet high, down which water has worn a 
groove ; the cave was 10 paces long, 3 paces broad, with a chimney in the 
roof, blocked up, about 15 feet high. A small recess, about 4 feet 6 inches 
high, 1 5 feet long, 4 feet broad, to one side ; the place is still inhabited at 
times, tibn and charcoal being probably stored there. Close to it, on the 
south, is a rock-cut cistern, like a tomb, or /oaiiiis, but the water-line 
visible. Here are two more tombs like the last noticed, but with doors 
4 feet 3 Inches wide and 3 feet high. The face of the rock is here pick- 
dressed to a height of 10 to 20 feet in a herring-bone pattern. Another 
tomb, further south, is a mere loctchis under arcosolium in the face of the 
cliff ; the length, 6 feet ; height from floor to centre of arch, 6 feet ; 
breadth of loaibis, 2 feet inside ; depth, 3 feet ; covered originally with a 
slab. South of this, again, is a tomb with kokiDi: the door and one koka 
to the right are partly destroyed ; the chamber was 12 feet square, with 
nine kokim, three on each of three walls, those at the end 9 feet by 3 feet, 
on the left 7 feet, on the right 5 feet long. 

The ruins near this tomb are foundations, with a tank about 8 paces 
square, and a bell-mouthed cistern ; the rock in which the tombs are cut is 
naturally soft, hardening on exposure. 

Visited ;th March, 1873. 

K h u r b e t S i 1 1 Leila (J k). — Foundations and cisterns. 
K h u r b e t e s S u 1 e i m a n i y e h (J j). —Traces of ruins. 
Khurbet es Sum rah (J k). — See Tell el Asawir. 
K h u r b e t c s S u r u j (L k). — Traces of ruins. 
Khurbet et Turm (LI). — Traces of ruins. 



64 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h u r b e t Umm el Busl (Ik). — Ruined walls. 

K h u r b c t U m m el But m (N 1). — Traces of ruins ; a Mukam 
with a Cufic inscription. 

' These ruins lie on a ]ilateau built up in terraces and partly cultivated. They are those 
of an ancient village, the houses of which were constructed of stones irregularly cut and of 
moderate dimensions. They are now piled up in circular heaps round cisterns or caves cut 
in the rock. In the centre of the plateau, near these ruins, stands a Moslem Wely. 
Towards the south end of the plateau I saw an ancient birkct, 17 paces long by 14 broad. 
It is cut in the rock, but now half filled up and planted with vegetables.' — Gudrin, 
' Samaria,' i. 343. 

K h u r b e t U m ni el H a f f e h (I\l 1). — Two mounds with traces 
of ruins. 

Khurbet Umm el Jemal (J j). — -Foundations. 

Khiirbet Umm el Kedish (J k). — Ruined walls and cisterns. 

Khurbet Umm el K u t u f (K k). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet Umm er Rihan (L k). — Traces of ruins; drafted 
stones of good sized masonry, with a rustic boss. West of it in the 
valley is a ruined watchtower. 

El Kusabiyeh (J k). — Traces of ruins. 

Kusr 'A in esh Sheriah (L k). — Remains of a building with 
a well near a good spring. 

Kusr Fukkis (K j). — Traces of ruins. 

El Lejjun (Lj). — The ruins appear to belong to a former 
village, but there are remains of columns, both granite and limestone, 
which are earlier. There is a small mound or Tell immediately 
north of the stream, on the top of which two pillar shafts remain 
erect. 

In the southern face of the Tell is a masonry semicircular archway of 
rough workmanship, and under this an entrance, 2i feet wide, 4 feet high, 
with a flat lintel stone. This leads into a chamber under the Tell, with 
a vaulted roof of pointed section. This leads again into a second smaller 
chamber to the left (on entering the first), and from this a third is reached, 
south of the other two. The two chambers have, like the first, pointed 
vaults, and the last is cemented inside and has two rude pilasters in the 
north-west and north-east corner. It had originally a cornice running 
round it, and there are traces of red paint on the cement. 



[SHEET vnr.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



H 



Into this chamber, which is only a few paces square, a water-channel 
leads from the west. The channel is cemented, and large enough to walk 
along for 25 paces. It is built of masonry, very irregularly, for about 
20 paces. It turns northwards, and is then rock-cut, becoming gradually 









SKETCHES AT LLJJUN 



smaller. Water still runs in the passage. (Compare 'Anin, on this Sheet, 
and 'Askar, Sheet XI., Section B.) 

A capital was found on the mound, with a base and many shafts. 
There are also foundations of a large building. 

Along the stream, south of the mound, there are four small mills, and 
a good masonry dam is built across the stream. South of this are remains 
of a good-sized Khan, close to the road. 

VOL. II. 9 



66 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The area occupied by the ruins on the Tell is about loo yards either 
way. 

' The place where we hahed, near one of the sources of the Wady Lejjun, was commanded 
by a hillock called Tell Iskander, on the summit of which I could not observe any ruins. 
Some distance north-east of this Tell, and on the right bank of the AVady, rises another hill 
much more considerable than the preceding, called Tell el Mutaselim, the higher plateau and 
slopes of which, now covered with thorns or cultivated, formerly served for a city long since 
completely ruined. There remain at present only heaps of materials scattered about : about 
twenty trunks of columns in granite, stone, or marble, the remains of buildings, and innumer- 
able pieces of pottery. One of the buildings was constructed east and west, as is apparent 
from the lower courses still in situ. Was this once a church? It is possible; but excavations 
would have to be made before the question was answered. Another building, also ornamented 
with columns, rose at the western extremity of the city, on a little mound which dominates 
Wady Lejjun. In its side there is found an arched grotto, inhabited by a Mussulman 
family, from which flows a spring. At a short distance to the south are seen the vestiges of 
a great Khan, very probably of Arabic origin, almost entirely demolished.' — Guerin. 

It is evident, from the mention made of Legio by Eusebius, that the place, now without 
doubt identified with Lejjun, was of considerable importance. For instance, he measures 
four places, at least, by their distance from Legio. It was also at one time the seat of a 
Suffragan Bishop. There is no record of its destruction. According to the theory of Robin- 
son, the name of Legio replaced that of Megiddo. 

Visited 14th October, 1872. 

Ludd (K j). — Traces of ruins, with a pillar-shaft near a spring. 

El M a i s e r (J k). — Foundations and a modern grave. 

M a-m a s (I k). — There are remains at this place of a Roman theatre, 
converted later into a fortress, and of dams at the stream to lead the water 
of the springs into the Caesarea high-level aqueduct. The theatre has 
been partly destroyed. The interior diameter, that of the arena, appears 
to have been 120 feet; the exterior diameter is 195 feet. The passage 
behind the vomitories, which are destroyed, is 1 1 feet in the clear. The 
true bearing of the diameter of the theatre is 5° 30'. The seats have been 
entirely destroyed, as well as part of the outer wall. The masonry is of 
sandy limestone ; the stones about \\ feet in length. Several vaults have 
been built on in the south-west corner, and here is a small square tower 
standing on the top of one of the vomitories. The tower measures 19 feet 
by 22 feet outside; the battlements are 36 feet from the ground; the 
lower storey is 1 5 feet high. One of the arches in the additional work is 
of curious form, having a long flat keystone. The arch is 5 feet span, 
and 2 feet rise to this keystone, with four voussoirs on each side. The 



{SHEET Vni.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



67 



walls of the theatre are 5 feet tliick, those of the tower 3 feet. The 
passages are cemented inside, and in the additional buildings a brown hard 
mortar, like that used at Ca;sarea, is found. 

ROMAN THEATRE MAMAS 




The ruined dams are noticed on Sheet VII. (Section B.), under head 
'Kaisarieh High-Level Aqueduct.' 

Visited and planned 7th April, 1873. 

El I\I e d h i a b (K 1). — Walls and foundations. 

El M e n s i (L j). — A small ruined village, with springs. 

El INI i s k a (K k). — Ruined tank for irrigation. 

El Miindtir (Lj). — Traces of ruins ; an unfinished capital. 

El Muntar {K k). — The trigonometrical point was established 
on a large cairn of fallen stones, perhaps remains of a vineyard 
tower. 

9—2 



68 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

About 200 yards east is another of these towers in ruins, about 30 feet 
square, of undressed blocks 2 to 4 feet long, roofed in with slabs of stone. 

There are several others in the middle of the thickets in this neigh- 
bourhood, all belonging to the same class with those described on Sheet XI. 
(Section B., 'Azzun) and Sheet XIV. (Section B., Kurawa Ibn 
H a s a n). 

There are also ancient terraces on this mountain above ' A r a r a h, and 
rock-cut tombs near that village, closed up. It is evident that the his/i 
or wild growth, which is here so thick, has covered up ancient cultivation. 

Visited 2Sth March, 1873. 

M u r t e f e h (L j). — A ruined vault, apparently modern. 
Er Raseiseh (J k). — Ruined walls. 

Ru mm an eh (L k). 

It is important to know whether this village, identified by Van de Velde with the ancient 
city of Hadad-Rimmon, contains any remains of ancient buildings. Guerin found none. 
There were, however, cisterns cut in the rock and a well. 

S al im (L k) 
At this village Guerin remarked verj- distinct traces of ancient buildings. 

Sheikh Madhy (J j). — Foundations and caves, rough tombs, 
and ancient wells. The site is close to S u amir. There is also a modern 
Mukam. 

Sheikh ]\I e i s i r (K 1). — Foundations near a modern Mukam. 

Siibbarin (J j). — The well mentioned in Section A. is of oval 
form, 15 feet longest diameter, 15 feet deep, built of good-sized ashlar, 
with rock below. Near it are foundations of a building, of stones about 
3 feet by 2 feet by i^ feet, with an interior of rubble. 

Et Taiyibeh (L k). — A modern ruined village with springs. 

Tannuk (M k). 

' Once the southern sides and the whole upper plateau of the oblong hill on which the 
village stands were covered with buildings, as is proved by the innumerable fragments of 
pottery scattered on the soil, and the materials of every kind which are met with at every 
step : the larger stones have been carried away elsewhere. Below the village is a little 
mosque, which passes for an ancient Christian church. It lies, in fact, east and west, and all 
the stones with which it is built belong to early constructions ; some of them are decorated 
with sculptures. Farther on in the plain are several cisterns cut in the rock, and a well, 
called Bir Tannuk.' — Guerin. 

Tarbaneh (M i). — Traces of ruins by the springs. 



[SHEET VI/L] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



69 



Tell Abu Ha mm ad or K h. Bablun (J k). — Traces of ruins. 

Tell Abu Kudeis (M j). — An artificial mound, with traces of 
ruins, scattered pottery, and tjlass ; and on the north side are springs. 

Tell Afrein (J 1). — Traces of ruins. 

Tell el Aghbariyeh (Lj). — A mound with foundations and 
caves. 

Tell c 1 A s a w i r (J k). — A mound, apparently artificial, near fine 
springs. 

Tell ed Dodehan (L k). — Traces of ruins on an artificial mound. 

Tell K c i m u n (K i). — A very large and prominent hillock, formed 
by scarping the outlying tongue of a range of hills. (See Section A., 
Jokneam and Cain Mons.) It stands 300 feet above the bottom of the 
valley north of it. The hillock, as now existing, is isolated, and has steep 
slopes of about 30°. 

The top of the Tell is occupied by a square fort 125 feet side, pre- 
sumably, from the masonry, that built by Dhahr el 'A m r in the 
end of the last century. It is now destroyed, only the foundations 
remaining ; but the plan is still traceable, with corner towers, one round, 
two rectangular, and one on the south-west projecting irregularly. The 
fort had a central courtyard, and chambers round it. 




SIDt tLEVATION 4 

Block of Stone. {See next page.) 
Under this fort is a vault of rough masonry, with much mortar. The 
roof is of rag-work, with a pointed arch. The walls of the fort are of 
stones, measuring 2 feet by i^ feet, by i foot, set in fairly good mortar. 



7° 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



A little lower down the Tell are the remauis of a small chapel. Only 
the foundations remain, with one heavy pier in siiu. The diameter of the 
apse is 15 feet ; the aisles terminated in square recesses, for altars, not in 
apses ; the aisles were 9 feet in the clear. The length of the chapel could 
not be determined. The bearing is 80° Mag. 

Near this was a block of stone, i foot 9 inches by 4 feet, with a 
Byzantine capital sculptured at one end. A corbel lay near ; both probably 
belonged to the chapel. A stone, 4 feet by i foot 8 inches by i foot 8 
inches, was also measured ; and a curved stone, 2 feet 8 inches along the 





LNU tLtVATION 



CORBLL 



arc, with a draft i inch deep, 3 broad. There are fine springs at the 
foot of the Tell to the east. (See Traditions as to Keimiin in the Special 
Paper on Samaritan Topography.) 
Visited 6th December, 1872. 

Tell el Mutasellim (Lj). — A long, tlat-topped mound about 
200 yards by 100 (or four acres). 

Traces of walls seem to be visible, now covered with rubbish, and the 
surface is covered with broken pottery. The sides are steep ; on the 
north-west there are fine springs. 

Tell Shad Lid (Mi). — A good-sized artificial mound, with fine 
springs beneath on the south. 

Tell Thorah (Li). — A small artificial mound, with a few mud 
hovels above springs. 

U m m el 'A b h a r (L k). — A few mud hovels on the hill-top. 



[SHEET rn/.] ARCHEOLOGY. 



71 



U m m el 'A I a k (I j). — Ruined walls. 

U m m c 1 B e n a d i k (J i). — Traces of ruins. 

Umm el Buteimdt (K j). — Traces of ruins. 

U m m e d D c r a j e h (J i). — Traces of ruins. 

Umm el K e 1 a i d (L j). — Foundations. 

U m m e t T o s (I j). — Traces of ruins. 

Umm ez Zeinat (K i). — South of the \illage and to the south- 
west are rock-cut tombs. l'"urthest east of the second group are three 
tombs all of one kind. An archway, 4 feet diameter, 2 feet deep, in 
front of a doorway 2 feet wide ; a chamber, 6 feet square, with three 
recesses under arcosoiia, one on each wall. In the second group, further 
west, are two tombs at some little distance apart. The first, w'ith three 
loctiii under arcosoiia, the left-hand locubis having at its back wall a koka, 
4 feet long, 2 feet wide, probably intended for a child's body. The second 
tomb has an archway 5 feet diameter, a door 2 feet broad, a chamber 13 
feet wide by 8 feet 6 inches to the back ; the chamber is 5 feet high. On 
the left hand is a loculus under an arcosoUiiiu, 5-I feet long. The back 
wall has a long trough 13 feet in length, and behind this a koka, 6 feet 4 
inches by 2 feet. A modern skeleton lay in the trough. On the right- 
hand wall is a loculus, 5^ feet long, under an arcosolium ; from the back 
wall at the level of the top of the loculus (or about 2^ feet from the 
ground) a koka runs in, 5 feet 3 inches long, 2 feet wide. In the corner 
of the wall, just right of the door, is another koka of the same size with 
the last. 

Further west there are six tombs, stopped up, and over the door of 
one, under the arch, an inscription is rudely cut on rough rock and the 
letters painted red. 

This was copied, but a squeeze could not be taken, as the letters were 
only dimly visible and the rock very rough. A second tomb had lines 
of red paint above the doorway, and close by was a tomb full of dead 
bodies quite recently interred, and another closed with large stones, pottery 
and rags, sticks and lamps laid in front, and a mark over the doorway, 
probably recent. 

One other tomb was measured. An archway, 7 feet wide, 5 feet deep, 
before a door 5 feet 2 inches wide ; the inner chamber measured 1 1 feet 



72 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

to the back, 12 feet 4 inches across. On the left was a koka 6 feet 9 
inches long, and a locubis ; on the right a loculiis, 7 feet 3 inches long, 
2 feet 8 inches wide, under an arcosolinm like the first, and on the same 
wall a koka 6 feet 9 inches by 2 feet 4 inches. On the back wall are four 
kokivi, of the same size with the last, and with stone head-pillows at the 
further end. On the front wall left of the door is a koka 5 feet 2 inches 
by 2 feet 2 inches. 

There arc foundations and heaps of stones near the eastern tombs. 

The mi.xture of Icokhn and loadi is a good example of transition which 
would seem to date the tombs about the Christian era or rather earlier. 
(See Special Papers on Rock-cut Tombs, and on Architecture in Palestine.) 

Visited 13th March, 1873. 

Wady Matabi n. — Three ancient watch-towers exist here. (Com- 
pare e 1 M u n t a r.) 

Z ebdah (L 1). — A ruined village with a well. 

Zebed (M k). — Traces of ruins. 

Z e 1 e f e h (L f). — A small ruined village with a well. 

E r Z e r g h a n i y e h (I k). — Traces of ruins. 

Zimmarin (I j). — A ruined village on a hill, with a spring to the 
east. 



SHEET VIII.— SECTION C. 

The only traditions connected with this Sheet relate to Sheikh Iskandcr, 
or Neby Iskander as he is called by some. The Kady of the village said 
that Sheikh Iskander was a king of the children of Israel. Others make 
it a Mukam of Alexander the Great, Iskander el K u r n c i n. 

Sheikh S h i b 1 e h appears to have been the Emir of that name 
mentioned by Maundrell in 1697 a.d. 

The family of the Zeidaniyin (see Sheet V.) ruled the whole of the 
district of the modern Kada Haifa, their head-quarters being at 'A t h 1 i t 
(Sheet v.). 

This district (including the villages on Sheets Y. and \'ll.) had a 
total population in 1859, according to Consul Rogers, of 23,540 souls, 
and a cultivation of 1,531 feddans, without including the Arabs in the 
population. This gives an average of about 500 souls and about 30 
feddans per village. 

The plain of Sharon and the lower slopes cast of it are in winter and 
spring covered with flocks and herds of Turcomans, who in summer and 
autumn inhabit the Merj Ibn 'Amir, or the plain of Esdraelon. They 
cultivate the soil and pay tithes or Ashr. They arc divided into seven 
tribes : 

1. Tawat-hah. 

2. Beni Gowa (or Bcnihah). 

3. 'Awadin. 

4. Shageizat. 

5. Beni SAidan ] . r-i -i ■ 

. . , , . , > under one Sheikh. 

6. 'Alakmeh j 

7. Naghnaghiyeh. 

VOL. 11. 10 



74 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

There are also three small tribes of Arabs, whose territory is on the 
present Sheet in the Merj Ibn 'Amir. 

'Arab el Gharcifiit 
,, es Saideh 
,, el Kabiyeh 



200 


souls. 


!;o 


n 


200 


M 


570 


souls. 



They cultivate about 50 feddans of land in all. 

A small tribe called Z e b e i d a t live on Carmcl, near Sindianeh. 

The Turcomans are a distinct race, and in personal appearance approach 
most to the Kurds ; few of them now speak their native language, but only 
Arabic. Their eastern camps are on the edge of the hills near Lejj u n 
and Kireh. In the spring of 1873 they were found in the plain of 
Sharon, west of K a n n i r, as far as the Zerka river. 



SHEET IX.— SECTION A. 

This Sheet contains 262*6 square miles of the country cast of the plain 
of Esdraelon, and including part of the Jordan valley. 

Orography. — The Sheet may be conveniently divided into four 
districts : the Gilboa range, the Jordan valley, the valley of Jezreel, the 
plateau of Kaukab. 

The Gilboa range forms the watershed between the Kishon basin 
and the Jordan valley. The shed runs north from the saddle at Wad y 
S hubash (Sheet XII.) for 4^ miles, and the highest point at Jebel Abu 
Madwar (i64S"5) has an elevation 1,420 feet above the plain, and of 
1,520 feet above the Jordan valley. North of this point the watershed 
curves until it runs nearly east and west, the ground gradually falling, 
until at Z e r i n, 7 miles from the last point, the elevation is only 
400 feet above the sea. The water parting from this point to the 
isolated hill of N e b y D u h y is still lower, being only 260 feet above 
the sea. 

The western slopes of the range are gradual, but those facing north, 
near N u r i s and Z e r' i n are steep, averaging 25° to 30°, with precipices 
in many places, and the ground is extremely rugged. The eastern slopes 
over the Jordan valley are also steep, in places precipitous, especially 
towards the south. 

The following is Guerin's description of Mount Gilboa : 

' This mountain lies west-north-west and east-south-east, being about eight miles long by 
three to five miles in breadth. It is cultivated in parts, and is divided into several plateaux 
and summits by valleys and ravines of greater or less depth. Here and there basaltic stones 
are found, but limestone predominates. The soil is for the most part of a reddish colour, and 
is fit for cultivation in many places. Wheat and barley grow on the more gentle slopes and 
on the plateaux; clumps of olives and figs, hedges of cactus surrounding gardens, and where 
man has not seized upon the soil, wild grass and brushwood ; at other points naked rock ; 

10 — 2 



76 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

such ia tlic appearance of this mountain, once the scene of the death of Saul and Jonathan, 
against which David pronounced his malediction.' 

The Jordan Valley in this Sheet has a breadth of 6 miles from 
the river to the foot of the hills, south of the N a h r J a 1 u d, forming the 
northern half of the B e i s a n plain. A section east and west through 
this part shows three distinct levels, ist. The Z 6 r or depressed bed, 
in the middle of which the river winds. This is not continuous, and 
narrow necks with cliffs occur between the basins. The depression is 
about 900 feet below the Mediterranean level. 2nd. The G h 6 r, or 
Jordan plain, three miles broad, and having here an average depression of 
700 feet below the sea. It is a flat plain covered with wild growth and 
cultivated in parts ; the torrents run across it, and have formed deep 
trenches near the cliffs, which rise from 50 to 100 feet above the level of 
the Z 6 r. 3rd. In the neighbourhood of B e i s a n there is a distinct rise 
from the Ghor level to the next. The step is extremely steep, but on the 
south the two levels gradually merge into a gentle slope, and the step dis- 
appears near Tell S a r e m, whilst northwards the division becomes yet 
more marked, including the shelf on which B e i s a n stands, and rising 
gradually to the plateau of Kaukab el H a w a. At Beisan, the 
difference of level between the shelf and the Ghor is about 300 feet. 

The cliffs above the Zor are precipitous in places, of soft white marl. 
The Zor is in parts \ mile broad, and only 5 or 6 feet above the spring 
water-level, so that it is often under water in January. In the neighbour- 
hood of Tell e d h D h i a b e h the cliffs recede, leaving a plain about 
\ mile wide extending to the Zor e s h S h 6 m a r. A similar hollow 
exists at Z 6 r e s S i m s i m further south. 

North of N ah r J alti d the Jordan valley narrows suddenly to an 
average breadth of \\ miles, and the shelf as before mentioned rises 
in steep cliffs of limestone and basalt. After passing Jisrel Mujamia 
the valley is still narrower, and the slopes of the western plateau almost 
reach the river. The level of the Zor and Ghor is here the same. 

The valley of Jezreel commences at the watershed north of Z e r' i n, 
not far from el F ill eh, and runs eastwards for about 10 miles, debouch- 
ing into the Beisan plain. The narrowest part is near the head ; the 
average width is 2 miles. The channel of the N a h r J a 1 u d occupies 
the centre and sinks gradually deeper and deeper, until near Beisan it 



[SHEET IX.] OROGRAPHY. 



77 



forms cliffs about 30 feet high, coming out below the Ghcjr level and 
running down lo the Zor. The valley is open throughout, gradually 
sloping north and south upwards to the foot of the hills. 

This valley, if the identification of Megiddo (at Mujedda) be correct, is 
called the valley of Megiddo in the Bible (2 Chron. xxxv. 24). 

The Kaukab plateau extends 7 miles northwards to the Sheet edge, 
and is part of the Ard el Hammeh (Sheet VI.). On the east it 
is terminated by precipices and steep slopes above the Ghur. The 
greatest elevation is at Kaukab el Hawa, 999 feet above the sea, and 
about 1,850 feet above the Jordan valley. On the west the plateau 
merges into the plain round Tabor. On the south the rolling downs 
gradually descend into the valley of Jezreel. At the south-west corner 
stands the isolated hill of N e b y D u h y. 

The whole plateau consists of arable land, and is intersected by the 
two great watercourses of Wady el 'Esh-Sheh and Wady el 
B i r e h, which are similar in character, rising on the west and gradually 
burrowing down eastward, falling rapidly to the Ghor level between cliffs 
which have an elevation near the precipices east of the plateau of about 
1,500 feet. These sides are very steep, having an average slope of 
30°, and are seamed by innumerable small torrent-beds forming knife-like 
ridges, like those above Wady Kelt (Sheet XVIII.). Both can, 
however, be crossed with difficulty. 

The hill of Neby Diihy is a conspicuous feature. It was called 
Little Hermon by the Crusading chroniclers, a name still known to some 
of the Nazareth Christians (Jebel Haramun); also Mount Endor 
(John of Wirtzburg, iiooa.d., and Marino Sanuto, 1322 a.d.). It is of 
volcanic origin, and the summit is conical, 1,470 feet above the plain. On 
the east there is a small cliff at a rather lower level, called el K li 1 a h. 
The slopes towards the bottom are gradual, sinking into the plain and 
plateau. Near the summit on the south and east the inclination is from 
25° to 30". The northern side is more gradual in its slope. The valley 
above N e i n is the natural approach on this side to the summit. The 
great mound called Tell el 'Ajjul on the north is a volcanic 
crater. 

The soil of this portion of the country, especially on the Kaukab 
plateau, is of a rich crumbling volcanic character, and very fertile. This, 



78 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

with the abundance of sprinj^ water, makes the Jezreel valley, the Kaukab 
plateau, and parts of the Jordan valley very productive. The insecurity 
from Bedawin raids and the unhealthiness of the low ground prevent, 
however, the cultivation from being fully carried out, and the inhabitants 
are poor. 

The Gilboa district contains good arable land, partly volcanic soil, 
near the villages, especially north of J e 1 b 6 n. The northern part of the 
range is, however, barren and rocky, of white soft limestone (Ras esh 
S h e i b a n) ; towards the south, the western slopes are clothed with 
thickets, more or less dense, of lentisk {^Pistachio Lentiscus), hawthorn, 
dwarf oaks {Q. Pseiido-Coccifera) and the Arbutus Andrachne. The 
open spaces, where not cultivated, abound in B e 1 1 a n [Potcriuin 
Spinosuvi), with thyme, mint, and rock roses {Cistiis) between the 
ledges. 

The plough-land is principally cultivated with barley. (See Sheet \'I II.) 
Olive-groves occur near J e n i n and at 'A r r a n e h. 

The Jordan valley is cultivated with corn and indigo near Beisan, and 
in the Zor the crops were being reaped early in April, 1S73. Near the 
river the soil is covered with gigantic thistles, 10 to 15 feet high. A few 
scattered trees of the Zizyplnis genus occur along the plain near 
water, and one or two terebinths {Pistachio Tercbinthus) near the 
hills. East and south of Beisan stunted palms grow wild, but no 
large ones now exist. In Wady el Bireh oleanders were observed 
near the mouth and also higher up the valley. The jungle of the Jordan 
is the same all along its course, consisting princiiDally of the tamarisk. 
{T. Palazii), the acacia {A. Scyal), the Rishrash willow {Agmis Castus), 
and of reeds and rushes. 

The canals marked on the Sheet irrigate the crops round Beisan 
and supply the mills with water. The flocks of the peasantry are pastured 
in spring on the rich herbage of the Jordan valley. 

Hydrography. — No less than 65 springs are marked on the Sheet, 
the majority of which are sweet. There are also two perennial streams, 
besides the river Jordan. 

1st. The Jordan. — Within the limits of the Sheet, the river falls 
some 190 feet. The course is so crooked that whilst the total direct 



[SflEET JX.] HYDROGRAPHY. 79 

length is about 17 miles, the length along the channel is 27 miles, the 
fall is therefore jDrobably about 7 feet in the mile along the stream." At 
ordinary seasons the breadth is 20 to 2fi yards, but in winter the Zor is 
overflowed (January and February), and the total width in flood will be 
\ mile to I mile. The river is here shallower than in the lower part 
of its course. Thirty fords were pointed out, though the majority are 
only found in summer. The most important is Makhadet 'Abara. 
There is also a ruined bridge at the Jisr el Mujamia. A small 
island covered with tamarisks and other trees occurs just below this 
point. 

2nd. The Nahr Jalud is fed by several important .springs. 
At its head are the 'A in J a 1 li d and 'A i n T u b a u n. The former 
was supposed by the early Christians to be the scene of David's batde 
with Goliath (Itin. Hierosol.). It is called 'A i n J a 1 vi t, 'Spring of 
Goliath' by Bohaidin (Vita Sal., p. 53). It comes out from under a cliff 
of coarse conglomerate at the foot of Gilboa, and forms a pool about 
50 yards long, which is artificially dammed at the further end. The water 
when it rises is fresh and good, but the bottom is covered with soft mud, 
which, when stirred, had a sulphurous smell. The edge of the pool is 
trampled and defiled by cattle. The water near the dam is some 6 to 
8 feet deep. Robinson mentions fish as existing in the pool. It was 
visited in April, 1S73, after a wet winter. The second spring, 'A i n 
Tubaiin, is smaller, and the water is reddish in colour. It is sur- 
rounded with marshy ground, and had a small stream of muddy water. 
This fountain was known to the Crusaders as T u b a n i a (Will, of Tyre), 
and the name possibly preserves the site of the Talmudic Tubnia (K-iaio) 
in Lower Galilee (Tosiphta Sheviith, ch. 7). The Christian army is said 
to have been miraculously supplied with fish when camped near these 
springs (Will. Tyre, x.xii. 27). 

* This estim.ite of the fall seems to agree witli the aneroid readings obtained along Jordan, 
but the Jisr el M u j a m i 'a is made by our aneroid readings to be — S45, and the 
mouth of the Yarmuk is — S35, giving less than 10 feet fall per mile. The mouth of the 
Yarmuk is only i,\ miles from the south end of the Sea of Galilee, where the level is — 682. 
This gives a fall of nearly 40 feet per mile to this upper part of the stream. The current 
in the upper part of Jordan appeared to be more rapid than towards the south end of the 
Sheet The fall on the next Sheet (XII.) is only 4 or 5 feet per mile, according to the aneroid 
readings. (See the summary of levels, Sheet XVIII.) 



So THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Eight other springs feed the river, including the 'A i n el M e i y 1 1 e h, 
' A i n el 'A s y, and others smaller. The first of the above-named is 
a little below Z e r i n, and is a clear supply of good water. A number 
of small fish were observed in it. It comes out of the rock, and is 
surrounded by blocks of basalt, covered with orange-coloured lichen. 
The second ('Ain el 'Asy) is one of the finest springs in Palestine, coming 
out from under a rocky precipice, on the south-east of a pool some 20 feet 
deep, 100 yards east and west, and 20 yards north and south. On the 
north is a shingly beach ; the cliff is about 8 or 10 feet above the water. 
The water is clear and blue, with a temperature about 80° F. ; the 
bottom gravelly. The eastern end of the pool is artificially dammed 
across. 

The stream fed by these springs is rapid, and descends in a length of 
12 miles about 960 feet to join the Jordan. Three bridges span it near 
Beisan. Under the middle bridge, called Jisr el Khan, there is 
a waterfall about 17 feet high, and two waterfalls lower down with a 
drop of about 20 feet. This bridge is 39 feet span. East of Beisan the 
river passes through a narrow gorge, and from this point it flows between 
steep banks to the Jordan. The gorge is spanned by a bridge, with a 
central arch of 25 feet. The course is here surrounded by canes. 

3rd. Wady el Bireh is also probably a perennial stream, judging 
from the growth of oleanders, and the mills along its course. It was 
flowing with a rapid shallow stream over the pebbles at the mouth of the 
gorge when visited in April, 1874. 

Another perennial water-course is the marshy stream of e 1 J i z i 1, fed 
by four springs. It forms a sort of swamp, with a cane-brake extending 
Itt miles, through which runs a torpid main stream, whilst the ground 
around is intersected by numerous rivulets, occupying a breadth of nearly 
half a mile. 

The total area covered by marsh in the neighbourhood of Beisan 
is about i^ square miles. The waters of the fine springs which exist on 
every side are allowed to run to waste, and no attempt at irrigation is 
made. 

All the torrent beds are more or less full of water during the rainy 
season. In April, 1873, after a heavy winter, streams were found in 
Wady el 'Esh-sheh, Wady Umm W a 1 h a n, Wady el 



[SHEET J. \:] HYDROGRArHY. 8i 

1 1 u m r a, and streams were flowing from the springs south of Bcisan, viz., 
'A i n el M ogh a r r a b eh, 'A i n Umm Haiyeh, 'A i n Umm 
Sidreh, 'A i n Mak-hflz. These springs are in the Ghor, and slow 
marshy streams, which, though only a yard or two wide, are impassable 
from their steep banks and marshy borders, were flowing down in their 
narrow trenches to the Zor to join the Jordan. 

Among the remaining springs the following are the most important : 

'A i n el Madua (Ok). — A large spring, apparently perennial, 
with a considerable stream ; shoals of small fish were remarked in it. 

'A i n e s Soda (P k), north of Beisan ; a very large spring with 
a considerable stream and a gravelly bed. It appears to be perennial, 
and its temperature is slightly above that of the air. 

'A i n el Mai hah (P j). — A large spring beneath Kaukab el 
Hawa ; brackish ; perennial, with a temperature 71° F. 

'A i n el Helu (P j). — Close to the last. A clear cool spring, 
coming out of a cliff, and forming a small pool near the last. An inscrip- 
tion on a rock was found here. (See Kaukab el Hawa, Section B.) 
It is thought to give fever to those who drink it, and though salt, the 
villagers of Kaukab prefer the waters of the preceding spring. 

'A i n el J e main (Ok) is a small spring of fresh water, with a 
considerable stream, between two larger ones. The name (' Two 
Companies') suggests that this may be en Harod, which is said by 
Josephus to have been near Jordan (Ant. v. 6, 3), and near a river. 
The spring comes out of a rock, and is noted for excellent water. (Sec 
Judges vii. i. ) 

The ruin of ]\I u j e d d a is also remarkable for its fine springs. 

ToFOGRAPiiv. — The majority of the villages on this Sheet belong to 
the Sanjak Jenin, ' Flag of Jenin,' or Ndhiet Jen in, ' Neigh- 
bourhood of Jcnin, 'also called B el ad Haritheh esh Shemaliyeh, 
' The Northern Ploughed Country.' This district is under the iNIudir of 
'Akkeh, and a Caimacam, or Lieutenant-Governor, lives at 
Beisin. 'Aulam belongs to the Tiberias district (Sheet VL), el 
Fuleh belongs to Nazareth (Sheet Y.), el Miighair and Umm et 
Tut belong to the Mesharik el Jerrar (Sheet XL). 

VOL. II. I I 



82 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Taking first these outlying villages : 

'A u 1 a m (P i), in the north-east corner of the Sheet, is a place of 
moderate size, the houses made of mud, and surrounded by cactus-garden 
hedges. It stands on rising ground, with a spring on the north-west. 
The population is stated in 1859 by Consul Rogers to have been 
1 20 souls, and the cultivation 30 feddans. The place is mentioned under 
the name of Ulamma in the ' Onomasticon,' as 12 miles from Diocsesarea 
to the east (s.v. 'onAa/t^d). 

El Fiileh (M j). — A small mud village, with a few stone houses 
in the middle. It stands on a swell of ground, and is surrounded by corn- 
land, and has marshy ground to the north. The water supply is from 
wells west of the villag-e. Round the site are remains of the ancient 
Crusading fosse. The population is stated in 1859 by Consul Rogers to 
have been 64 souls, and the cultivation 14 feddans. 

F Ci 1 e h is apparently the place called Aphla in the Lists of 
Thothmcs III. This name is repeated again, which is accounted for by 
the proximity of the village 'Afuleh. (See Sheet VIII.) The two 
names immediately follow that of Anuheru (en Naurah). Fuleh 
(' Bean') was called Castellum Fabae (' Bean Castle') by the Crusaders, 
a translation of the modern title. It was the property of the Templars 
and Hospitallers conjointly. In 1799 Kleber here fought a battle with 
1,500 men, and held his ground against 25,000 Turks till relieved by 
Napoleon. 

El M u g h a i r (O 1) is a small place on a rocky hill-top. The 
water supply is by means of rain-water cisterns. The houses are of stone 
and mud. 

Umm et Tut (N 1) resembles the last. It stands amongst dense 
thickets on the north and west, and has open plough-land on the south. 

Nahiet JenIn. 

'Arraneh (M k). — A small village, principally of mud, with a few- 
stone houses, standing in the plain, surrounded by olive-yards. It is sup- 
plied with water from cisterns.^ A kubbeh exists about \ mile north of 
the village. This place is apparently mentioned both in the Conquests of 



[SHEET IX.] TOPOGRAPHY. 83 

Thothmes III. as Aaruna (' Records of the Past,' vol. ii.), on the road to 
the south of Megiddo, and within a few hours' march of Kaina (perhaps 
Kaun). It is also possible that the place called Rangan by Josephus 
(Ant. vi. 14), where the Philistines encamped before attacking Saul on 
Gilboa, may be 'A r r a n c h. 

Beisan (P k), a miserable hamlet of some 60 mud cabins, stands 
in the south-east corner of the ancient site. A small square tower south- 
east of the houses is the Serai or courthouse, the residence of the 
Caimacam. The place is abundantly supplied with fresh water, three 
springs existing close to the village on the north. The houses are built 
in irregular blocks, with yards in front, surrounded by mud walls. In 
these the cattle are kept. A marshy rivulet finds its way through the 
main street. 

The ruins round the village represent the ancient Bethshean and the 
later Scythopolis, which was a Christian Bishopric until Crusading times, 
when the See was transferred to Nazareth. (See Reland, ' Pal. Illustr.') 
The place is referred to as Bethsheal in the ' Travels of a Mohan' (See 
' Special Papers,' p. 1 70.) 

Beit Kad (N k). — A small village on a knoll near the plain. 
It has a large cemented cistern, now broken. The houses are of stone 
and mud. This place is mentioned as B e th A c h a t h in the ' Ono- 
masticon,' about 15 Roman miles from Legio, which distance, as Mr. Grove 
was the first to point out, applies to the present site. Jerome identifies it 
with 'the Shearing-house,' 2 Kings x. 12. 

D e i r Abu D a i f (X 1). — A small village near the edge of the 
hills, on rising ground. The water supply is from cisterns. Olive- 
gardens exist on the north. The houses are of mud and stone. 

Deir Ghuzaleh (N k). — Resembles the last; the ground round 
it is pardy rock, partly arable land. 

Denna (P j). — A little village on a slope, pardy of stone, partly of 
mud ; it is surrounded by plough land, and has a spring on the west 
with a drinkincf-troueh. 

E n d 6 r (O i). — A small village of mud cabins, built against a steep 
hill-side, south of the houses. A few cactus-hedges exist beneath, and a 
small spring on the north. 

1 1 — 2 



S4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Above the village on the east there are some small caves in the side ot 
the hill, which is of soft limestone, in ledges some lo feet high. The 
largest cave was examined, but did not appear very ancient, having been 
excavated at the further end (and probably altogether) in search of 
Huwwdrah, or soft chalk, for mortar. Several large blocks are arranged in 
a rude circle before the entrance, but appear to be naturally disposed. 
The caves are quite dry. (Josh. xvii. 1 1 ; i Sam. xxviii. 7.) 

E n d 6 r has been recognised from the fourth century downwards, and 
by the Crusaders, as well as by the early i^ilgrims, as the Biblical Endor. 

Fukua (O k). — A large village on the top of a spur. It gives its 
name to the Gilboa range, which is often called Jebel Fukua. It is 
surrounded by olive-gardens, and supplied by cisterns east and west of the 
village. 

It ajDpears possible that Aphek, where the Philistines camped before 
attacking Saul on INIount Gilboa, may be the present l-'ukua (i Sam. 
xxix. i), being near the Rangan of Josephus. (See 'A r ran eh.) 

J abb ill (P j). — A small village of mud and stone, on low ground, 
surrounded with plough-land. A kubbeh exists south of the houses. 

J elameh (M k). — Resembles the last. It stands in the plain, sur- 
rounded with arable land, and is supplied by cisterns. It has a kubbeh 
on the north side. 

This place seems not improbably the K a 1 i i m n a of the Lists of 
Thothmes III. (No. 49), mentioned in the same group with Taanach, 
Anahareth, and other places on the plain. (See ' Quarterly Statement,' 
July, 1876, p. 14;.) 

J c 1 b 6 n (O k). — A small village in a remote position on one of the 
spurs of the Gilboa range. It is surrounded with plough-land, and built 
of mud and stone, and supplied by cisterns. 

Under the name Gelbus it is noticed in the ' Onomasticon' as a large 
village, 6 Roman miles from Scythopolis, and supposed to represent the 
name Gilboa. The mountains north of Jelbon have always been recog- 
nised as the Biblical Gilboa ; by the early Christians , by the mediaeval 
pilgrims (Sir J. Maundeville, 1322 a.d.), and by modern scholars. A 
perennial spring-well exists at Jelbon, from which the place receives 
its name. 



[SHEET 7 X.] TOPOGRAPHY. 85 

Jelkamus (N 1). — A small village on a hill-top, surrounded by 
plough-land, with a few olives, built of stone and nuid, with rain-water 
cisterns. 

K a u k a b el W a w a (P j). — The whole area within the w^alls of the 
ancient fortress is crowded with miserable hovels of nukl. There is fine 
plough-land on the south, and west. The water sui)ply is from the 'A i n 
Mdlhah. The population is stated in 1S59 by Consul Rogers at 
no souls, and the cultivation at 13 feddans. 

Kaukab el Hawa is the Crusading Belvoir, which was built by King 
Fulke about 1 140 a.d., and taken by Saladin in 1 1S8. (SeeSection 15.) 

Kefr M i s r (O i). — A small mud village, with a spring on the 
north, standing in plough-land, and inhabited by Egyptians, whence its 
name. It is probably modern. 

K u m i e h (O j). — A small village, which is very prominent, being 
situate on a knoll in the middle of the valley, about i^ miles from 'A i n 
T u b d u n. The houses are principally of mud, and the place is sur- 
rounded by gardens of prickly pear. The site is rocky, and the name of 
the place is derived from its position. 

K u r y e t e d D u h y (N j). — A little hamlet of stone cabins, on the 
saddle west of the conical peak of J e b e 1 e d D u h y. Straggling olives 
exist on the north and west. The water supply is from a well lower down 
the hill, on the north. 

El Mazar, or El Wezr (N k). — A village on the summit of the 
mountain. It is principally built of stone, and has a well on the south-east. 
A few olives surround the houses. The site is very rocky. It is inhabited 
by Derwishes, and is a place of Moslem pilgrimage. 

El Murussus (Pj). — A small village on high ground, entirely 
built of mud, and standing amid plough-land. The water supply appears 
to come from the valley beneath (W a d y Y c b 1 a). 

En NACirah (O j). — Also small and built of mud, placed on a 
gentle slope, with gardens of prickly pear, and plough-land round it. 

The position fits well for the site of Anahareth (De Saulcy), and 
also for that of Anuheru, in the Lists of Thothmes III., which is 
supposed identical with the Biblical Anahareth. (Josh. xi.x. 19.) The 



86 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Biblical town was apparently near Shunem (Solam), and the Egyptian 
town is noticed with the two Aphlas ('Afuleh and El Fuleh), and 
with Kaliimna (J e lam eh). The place is well supplied with water 
from springs on the north and east. 

N e i n (N j). — This little village stands on a small plateau at the 
foot of J cbel ed D li h y, in a position elevated above the plain. It 
is of stone and mud, with a little mosque called Mukam Sidna 
'A i s a on the north. There are numerous traces of ruins extending 
beyond the boundary of the modern hamlet to the north, showing 
the place to have been once larger ; but these ruins have a modern 
appearance. There is a small spring north of the village ; a second, 
'A i n el Baz, exists on the west, and beside it are rock-cut tombs, 
much defaced, and a tree. (Cf. Luke vii. ii.) 

The place has always been recognised as the Nain of the New 
Testament. No remains of walls or of very ancient buildings were 
noticed. In the ' Onomasticon ' Nain is placed two miles from Tabor 
(s. V. Naim). The village is approached by a path from the valley 
on the north-west, which is joined by another path from the west, near 
the present entrance between the houses. 

Nuris (N k). — A small village on rocky ground, much hidden 
between the hills. It is situate above the steeper slopes of the Gilboa 
chain, which face northwards and below the main ridge, and is about 
600 feet above the valley. 

Er Rihaniyeh (O k). — A small village of mud and stone. On 
the south the ground is rocky ; on the north there is plough-land. It 
stands on the foot of the Gilboa slopes. 

S h u 1 1 a (O j). — A small village of mud hovels on rising ground, 
surrounded by hedges of prickly pear and by plough-land. It is supposed 
by Robinson to be the Biblical Beth-Shittah (Judges vii. 22), but appears 
to be too far west, and is not well watered. 

S i r i n (P i). — A mud village of moderate size, on flat ground, 
with hedges of prickly pear, and a spring on the north and another on 
the east. The population is stated by Consul Rogers in 1S59 to be 
100 souls, and the cultivation 35 feddans. There are remains of antiquity 
near the spring. (See Section B.) 



[SHEET JX.] TOPOGRAPHY. 87 

This is possibly the place called Sirin in the Samaritan Chronicle, 
mentioned with 'Afuleh and other places as inhabited by Samaritans in 
the seventh century. (' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196.) 

Sol am (N j). — A large village standing on a slope near the foot 
of J (' b c 1 ed U u h y. No special marks of antiquity were observed 
except the mounds on which the modern houses are built. Part of the 
village is of stone. A sort of suburb of mud hovels runs out southwards. 
Towards the west is a spring, the water being collected in a stone trough. 
West of this is a shady garden of lemon-trees, through which water was 
running in September, 1872. The spring has a good supply of clear 
water, and is perennial. Hedges of cactus surround the village on the 
east and south ; one or two palms occur in the gardens. This place has 
always been recognised as the Biblical Shunem. In the ' Onomasticon ' 
it is noticed as 5 Roman miles from Tabor. (Cf. Josh. xi.x. 18.) It was 
also known to the Crusaders as Suna (Marino Sanuto, 1322 a.d.). 

S u n d e 1 a (N k). — A small village on the edge of the plain, built 
of stone and mud, supplied by cisterns, and surrounded by plough-land. 

Taiyibeh (O j). — A straggling village, of moderate size, lying on 
flat ground, and containing several good stone houses. There is one 
in the middle of the village, belonging to the Sheikh, which is larger 
than the rest. A muddy pool was observed near this house, and a spring 
east of the villafje. A few scattered blocks of hewn basaltic stone were 
lying here and at the ruin close by (Khiirbet el Haddad), but no 
other signs of antiquity were observed. The Sheikh's house, which re- 
sembles a tower, is not built of very good masonry. 

This place is perhaps the Tubi of the Lists of Thothmes III., 
mentioned next to .Sarana (S a r 6 n a, .Sheet VT.), the name being 
identical. 

Tiret Abu 'A m r a n (O i). — A small village, principally of mud, 
on a hill-top, above a deep gorge. The water appears to be brought 
from the springs in this valley. 

This place is not improbably the A t a r a of the Lists of 
Thothmes III., named with Abara (el Bireh) and Hammath (near 
Tiberias). (' Quarterly Statement,' July, 1876, p. 146.) 

Tumrah (O j). — A village of middling size, perhaps 50 or 70 



88 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

houses, situate on high ground, and surrounded by plough-land. It is 
built almost entirely of mud, and has a spring to the north-east. Ruins 
exist on the south (see Shu net Tumrah, Section B.), and there is 
another spring on this side beneath the village, among the ruins. 

Z e r' i n (N k). — A village of moderate size, built of stone, surrounded 
by rocky ground and standing on a spur projecting from the Gilboa range. 
A modern tower or taller house stands in the centre of the village. 

The position of Zcr'in is very remarkable. On the south the ground 
slopes gently upwards towards the site, and on the west also the place is 
accessible. On the east occurs a saddle separating the high point on 
which the town stands from the Gilboa chain, and a road here passes beneath 
the village. On the north the ground is extremely rugged and falls 
rapidly, the road ascending from the valley and the neighbourhood of 
'A i n J al u d. The top of the hill is 284 feet above this spring, which 
is visible beneath. Thus the site is naturally strong, except on the south- 
west, and conspicuous from the plain. It commands a view down the 
valley to Bcisan and the trans-Jordanic ranges, and on the west to Carmel : 
on the south to the hills near Jenin ; and on the north, the opposite range 
of J e b e 1 e d D u h y is visible, with all the villages at its feet. 

The site is well supplied with water from the 'A i n el M e i y i t e h, 
which represents probably the ' Fountain in Jezreel.' (i Sam. xxix. i.) 
A well, called B i r e s S ti w e i d, also exists north of the town. 

The houses stand on a mound of rubbish, and in this a great number 
of ruined cisterns (Major Wilson estimates them at the high figure of 
300) exist among the houses. No very ancient buildings appear to exist 
at present. The number of the modern houses is, perhaps, 20 or 30 in 
all. The ancient vineyards of Zer'in ajspear to have been to the east, 
where rock-cut wine-presses now exist. (Cf. i Kings xxi. i.) 

Z e r' i n has always been recognised as the ancient Jezreel, which is 
placed by the Jerusalem Itinerary 12 Roman miles from Scythopolis 
(B e i s a n), and by the ' Onomasticon ' between this place and Legio (e 1 
Lejjun, Sheet VIII.). 

The Crusaders also recognised it, and in the Middle Ages it was called 
Stradela, Zarzin, Little Gerin, and Little Gallina (as distinguished from 
Great Gallina, Jenin). 



[SHEET IX.] BIBLICAL SITES. 89 

In addition to the above-mentioned inhabited places, the following 
ruined sites are probably to be identified as beneath : 

Biblical Sites. 

1. A da mi (Q j). — A town of Naphtali (Joshua xix. 2)o), near Chin- 
neretha, would seem to be K h u r b e t A d m a h, immediately north 
of W a d y el B i r e h, which is thus ver)- probably the natural boundary 
between Naphtali and Issachar. 

2. Bethabara (O k). — The name is supposed to be the 
Hebrew (^'jas ""a) ' House of Crossing Over,' and this title is preserved 
in the Arabic 'Abara. (See Makhadet 'Abara on the Sheet.) 
The reading Bethabara is, however, doubtful, as the oldest MSS. read 
Bethany. 

' The site of Bethabara is of interest as the probable one of our Lord's baptism, and as 
such has been eagerly sought As yet, however, no trace of the name has been recovered, 
and the arguments on the probable position are far from satisfactorj-. Bethabara is only once 
mentioned in the New Testament, as the place where John was baptizing soon after, and pro- 
bably at the time of the commencement of Christ's ministry. (John i. 2S.) We learn, first, 
that it was " beyond Jordan " (c£;av roa loibu-.o-S) ; and, second, probably in the " region round 
about Jordan'' (Matt. iii. 5) : the Ti:iyruioi which is supposed identical with the Ciaar of the 
Old Testament, a term by which Dean Stanley understands the Zor or lower valley through 
which the Jordan flows in the middle of the Ghor or broader depressed plain. 

' From the fact that " Jerusalem and all Juda^ " went out to be baptized, Bethabara has 
been generally located in the southern part of the valley near to the traditional site of the 
baptism, and in explaining the topography of the flight of Midian, and the slaughter of Oreb 
and Zeeb, I have had occasion to point out that such a site would best fit the Bethabara of the 
Book of Judges— the ford held by the men of Ephraim, and generally thought to be identical 
with the Xew Testament Bethabara. 

' The word Bethabara (" House of the Crossing Over " or " Ford ") is one ver>' likely to be 
applicable to many points on the course of the Jordan. In the south it would have a special 
application, and might be considered as traditionally preserving the memor}- of the great 
"crossing over" — the passage of the Jordan by the children of Israel under Joshux It would 
seem probable that the Bethabara, or House of the Ford, was a small hamlet or group of houses 
in the immediate vicinity, and it may even be supposed that part was west, part east of the 
river, thus explaining the qualification of "Bethabara beyond Jordan." This is rendered yet 
more probable if the nsiiyy^o; be properly equivalent with the Ciccar, as in this case the site 
of Bethabara is limited to a distance of about half a mile from the water. 

' Curiously enough the oldest manuscripts read Bethany instead of Bethabara, but the 
reading is not admitted, nor would the Judxan Bethany be a fit place for baptism, or in any 
way to be described as in the region of Jordan. Bethabara is mentioned as a known place 
by Eusebius, but he seems evidently to refer to the modern traditional site. In the absence 

VOL. II. 12 



yo THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of more cx.ict information, it lias been generally identified with Bethnimrah, which has been 
fixed at the modern Nimn'n. This identification rests solely on the fact that Eusebius 
describes Ns^f a as a large village in Katariia, and called 'Abara. 

' It seems, however, to have escaped notice that there is a serious objection to placing 
Bethabara so far south. Our Lord descended from Galilee to Jordan, and to Galilee he 
returned after the baptism and temptation. In the chapter which relates the testimony of 
John the Baptist to Christ, and which contains the passage, " these things were done in 
Bethabara, beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing," we learn, in continuation (verse43,) "the 
day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee," and the next chapter commences, "and on 
the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee," at which Christ was present. (John ii. i.) 

' It seems to me, therefore, that the search for this site should be confined to the immedi- 
ate neighbourhood of Jordan, within 30 miles of the site of Cana of Galilee (the present 
Khurbet Kana), and it is precisely in such a position, one mile north of the mouth of Wady 
Jalud, within an easy two days' journey (25 miles) of Nazareth and Cana, and at one of the 
principal fords, that we have found the name. 

' The fords of Jordan, some shifting and insignificant, but others permanent and lying on 
principal roads, have as yet been very little known, ^^■e were careful to collect every one we 
could, and to verify the names and positions. It was no slight task, as our sketch of the 
river now shows upwards of fifty, of which eight only are to be seen on Murray's map lately 
published. The labour of this part of the Survey was very trying, but we should be sufficiently 
rewarded by this simple discovery if generally accepted. 

' The ford in question is called Makhadet 'Abara, or the " Ford of the Crossing Over," 
for the name is derived from the Arabic root, 'Abr, having the meaning of crossing ; and thus, 
though the second a is an akpli, and would not occur in the Hebrew Beth'abara, the Arabic 
root and the Hebrew root, and consequently the meaning of the name in both languages, is 
identical. 

' Makhadet 'Abara is one of the principal northern fords : the great road descending 
Wady Jalud on its northern side, and leading to Gilead and the south of the Hauran, passes 
over by it. The situation is well fitted for the site of the baptism, not only on account of its 
nearness to Galilee and Nazareth, but also because the river-bed is here more open, the steep 
banks of the upper valley or Ghor lesser and farther retired, thus leaving a broader space for 
the collection of the great crowd which had followed John the Baptist into the wilderness. 

' As regards the village itself, no traces seem now to exist. In the valley of Jordan there 
were scarcely any ruins, and those round Jericho all date seemingly in Christian times. AVere 
the former villages similar to the miserable mud hovels of Jericho, Scythopolis, and Delhemiyeh, 
it would, however, be quite possible for all traces to have vanished of the hamlet here standing 
eighteen centuries ago. The position on a principal road would in any case make the pro- 
posed site that most probable for a hamlet, and it seems unlikely that any more important 
place would have been situate so near to the banks of the river.' — Lieutenant Conder, ' Quar- 
terly Statement,' 1875, p. 72. 

3. M egiddo. — The site of Megiddo is generally placed at Lejjiin. 

(Sheet V^III.) The site of Khurbet Mujeddd, near Beisan, fits well the 

requirements of the Egyptian accounts, and the Biblical account of the 

battle of Tabor (Judges iv.), when the kings are said to have fought 

' in Taanach by the waters of Mcgiddo,' and again (Psa. Ixxxiii. 9) to have 



[SHEET IX.] BIBLICAL SITES. 



91 



' perished in Endor.' Several other passages of the Bible connect 
Megiddo with the neighbourhood of Jezreel and Bethshean. The identi- 
fication of Ibleam (2 Kings ix. 27) at Yebla, and of Gur at Khurbet Kara, 
both in the present Sheet, also agrees with the view that Megiddo should 
be placed at Khurbet Mujedda. 

' I. — There are few places in Palestine which possess more general interest for students of 
the Bible than does the ancient Canaanite city of Megiddo. It was here that the death of 
Josiah, King of Judah, and ruler, apparently, of the greater part of Palestine, closed the history 
of the Jewish monarchy, being immediately followed by the defeat, at Carchemish, of the 
victorious Necho, the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Chron. xxxv., xxxvi.), and the 
captivity of the children of Judah. To the student of prophecy, again, it is of importance as 
identical with the " place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon " (hill of Megiddo). 
(Rev. xvi. 16.) It is curious to find that so important a site has been identified by Dr. 
Robinson on such apparently insufficient evidence. 

' Megiddo will be found on the map placed about 4 miles north of Taanuk, the ancient 
Taanach, at the large ruin of Lejjun, on the western edge of the great plain of Esdraelon. 
Lejjun is undoubtedly the ancient Legio, a place well known in the fourth centur)', and men- 
tioned by Jerome as being 4 miles north of Taanach. There is, however, nothing to con- 
nect Legio with the Biblical Megiddo. 

' The arguments in favour of the site are three : 

' ist That Megiddo is mentioned in many passages in connection with Taanach, and was 
therefore probably near it. 

'2nd. That we find, in Judges v. 19, the expression, "then fought the kings of Canaan 
in Taanach, by [Heb. A/, " over"] the waters of Megiddo," pointing to the same connection. 

' 3rd In Zechariah xii. 1 1, we read, " the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of 
Megiddon." This word is taken by Jerome to be the name of a town, and he identifies it as 
being the place called in his time Maximianopolis, " in Campo Magiddo." The distances 
given by the Bordeaux Pilgrim sen-e to fix Maximianopolis at or near the present village of 
Rummaneh, near Taanach, as discovered by Vandevelde, whence the identification made by 
Jerome; and hence Jerome's supposition that the "plain of Legio" (the modern Merj Ibn 
'Amir) is equivalent to the " valley of Megiddon " comes to be accepted. 

' It will be noticed that none of these arguments fix Megiddo at Lejjun, which is only 
adopted as the most important site near both Taanach and the Hadadrimmon of Jerome, in 
a place well supplied with water, and which in the fourth century gave its name to the great 
plain. Insufficient as these arguments evidently are, they have been pretty generally accepted, 
in default of any better proposition, and in consequence of the very scanty information as to 
the position of Megiddo which can be gleaned from the historical books of the Bible. 

'There are, however, at the outset, objections even to these arguments which may be 
stated as follows : 

' ist Megiddo is often mentioned in connection with places farther east in the Jordan 
valley. 

' 2nd The battle in which Sisera was defeated was not fought at Taanach or Megiddo, 
but near Mount Tabor. This is to be gathered from the Biblical account (Judges iv.), and it 
is clearly stated by Joseph us that Barak camped "at Mount Tabor. . . . Sisera met them, 
and pitched not far from the enemy" (Antiq. v. 5, 3) ; an account in strict accordance with 

I 2 2 



92 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the expression, "And I will draw unto thee to the river Kishon Sisera" (Judges iv. 7), for the 
sources of the Kishon are at the place called el Mujahiych, or " the springhead," where is to be 
found an extensive chain of pools and springs, about 3 miles west of the foot of Mount Tabor. 

' Thus the site of this famous battle is almost identical with that of Napoleon's battle of 
Mount Tabor, and the advantage obtained by Barak in his impetuous descent from the 
mountain on the enemy in the plain is evident. Had the battle taken place at Taanach, he 
would have had to come the whole width of the great plain, and would have attacked from 
low ground the enemy on the spurs of the hills far away from the main bed of the Kishon. 
The words "/« Taanach," therefore, mentioned in connection with the " waters of Megiddo," 
over which the kings fought, must either be taken to be a district name applying to all the 
plain, of which Taanach was the capital, or it must be translated to its meaning, " sandy soil." 
This term is evidendy derived, in the case of the town of Taanach, from the loose basaltic 
soil in its neighbourhood ; and the same soil is found all over the great plain and in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Tabor. 

' 3rd. As regards Hadadrimmon, it is sufficient to remark that Jerome's identifications are 
often extremely misleading, that Megiddo was evidently unknown at his time, that it is 
doubtful whether Hadadrimmon was the name of a town or of a pagan deity, and that the 
Hebrew word Bikah, rendered " valley," is not properly applicable (judging by other instances) 
to a broad plain like that of Esdraelon, but rather to a great valley such as that leading down 
to the Jordan at Beisan. 

' The discovery that there is an important ruin in the neighbourhood of Beisan, called 
Mujedd'a, led me to re-examine the question with the view of seeing whether the site would 
fit the various requisites of the case, and the arguments appear to me sufficiently favourable 
to bear discussion. 

' II. — Megiddo occurs in connection with other towns in the following passages : 

Joshua xii. 20, 21. 

Shimron Meron (in Upper Galilee). 

Achshaph (near Accho). 

Taanach (west of the great plain). 

Megiddo. 

Kedesh. 

Jokneam (west of the great plain). 

Again : Joshua xvii. 1 1. 

Bethshean (in the Jordan valley). 

Ibleam (probably in the same direction). 

Dor. 

Endor (near the Jordan valley). 

Taanach (west of the great plain). 

Megiddo. 

Again : Judges i. 27. 

Bethshean. 

Taanach. 

Dor. 

Ibleam. 

Megiddo. 



[SHEET /.v.] BIBLICAL SITES. 93 

Again : i Chron. vii. 29. 

Bethshean. 
Taanach. 
Megiddo. 
Dor. 

Lastly: i Kings iv. 12, Solomon's fifth district included. 
Taanach. 
Megiddo. 
Bethshean. 
Zartanah (below Jezrcel). 

' It is evident that a position near Beisan is not at variance with the various notices of 
Megiddo in these passages. 

' Placing Megiddo in this position, the " valley of Megiddon " becomes the great valley 
leading down from Jezreel to Bethshean, and the " waters of Megiddo " the strong stream of 
the Nahr Jalud, which receives a considerable supply from numerous large springs round the 
site, called Mujedd'a. We are thus brought much closer to the neighbourhood of Tabor, 
where the battle was fought by the " kings of Canaan " against Barak ; nor is the distance 
from Taanach itself very great, as it is situate 14^ English miles west of the proposed site at 
Mujedd'a. 

'Two other passages remain in which Megiddo is mentioned: ist, the account of 
Aniariah's flight from Jehu ; and, 2nd, the battle of Megiddo, in which Josiah lost his life. 

' Amariah fl}'ing from Jehu " by the way of the Garden-house " (Beth-hag-Genn) was smitten 
"by Ibleam. And he fled to Megiddo, and died there." (2 Kings ix. 27.) The town of Jenin 
is generally supposed to represent the Garden-house, but the explanation of the topography 
on this supposition is extremely confused, as it obliges us to trace the flight southwards from 
Jezreel, and afterwards back northwards (that is to say, ffway/r^;// Jerusalem) to the supposed 
site of Megiddo at Lejjun. 

' If, however, we suppose the Beth-hag-Genn, or " Garden-house," to be the modern Beit 
Jenn, the flight of Amariah was directed northwards ; and there exists in a position inter- 
mediate between Jezreel and Beit Jenn a site called Bel'ameh, which may very probably 
represent Ibleam. In this case the King of Judah by a detour would have reached Megiddo, 
lying on his route toiuards Jerusalem along the Jordan valley, and it is worthy of notice that 
all the district thus supposed to have been traversed is suitable for the passage of a wheeled 
vehicle. 

' As regards the battle of Megiddo there is but little to be said. The Eg}ptian records 
make it pretty clear that the route across Palestine, usually followed by the Eg)ptian armies, 
was the same as that by which the Midianites descended into Egypt with Joseph. Following 
the great plain northwards until the high Judean watershed and the great Samaritan chains 
were passed, it struck across the lower hills and emerged into the plains near Dothan. Thence 
along the great plain of Esdraelon it led towards the valley of Jezreel, and descended by 
Bethshean to the fords of Jordan at the Makhadet 'Abara. Here the road crossed into the 
plain below the plateau of Mount Gilead, and so continued eastwards towards the empire of 
Ass}Tia. 

' There can be but little doubt that this was the route pursued by Necho, being the 
shortest and easiest which he could choose in crossing Palestine ; and on this route we find 



94 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the ruin of Mujedd'a, whilst Lcjjun lies some miles to the north of the line. Still further, 
there is no point at which the King of Judah would be more likely to intercept the advance 
of the Egyptians. To toil over the mountains of Judea, to pass the hostile district of Samaria, 
to camp at a spot north of the enemy's line of march, and thus to cut himself from his own 
base of operations, would have been a dangerous and difficult, and, yet further, an extremely 
improbable course for Hezckiah to pursue ; but an advance along the highway of the Jordan 
valley into a strong position on the flank of the enemy, threatening them in their attempt to 
cross the river, would have been an easy and, strategically, a probable proceeding. Any 
reader who will take the trouble to look for a moment at the map will see that Mujedd'a, near 
Bethshean, is a natural place of meeting for the Egyptian and Jewish armies. 

' As far, then, as the scanty indications obtainable from Biblical accounts are concerned, 
there is fair reason for identifying Megiddo with the present Mujedd'a. 

' III. — In three ancient Egyptian documents, Megiddo is mentioned in connection with 
other towns, namely: ist, in the history of Thothmes III., especially in the document called 
the " Battle of Megiddo ;" 2nd, in the " Travels of a Mohar ;" and, 3rd, in the " Geographical 
List of Shishak." 

' With regard to the last, it is sufficient to remark, that though Taanach occurs in the 
same list it is separated by ten other names from M'akedau, which is supposed to represent 
Megiddo. In the same way, in the lists of Thothmes III., Megiddo stands first, as being the 
objective of the campaign; but Taanach, in company with other places in the great plain, is 
to be found in the third group as No. 42 on the list. 

' It remains to see how the other documents fit with the new site, for the difficulties which 
arise in endeavouring to reconcile these with the generally accepted position at Lejjun are very 
considerable. 

' The Egyptian advance is described with considerable minuteness from the " fortress of 
the land of Sharuana," where the troops assembled. The advice of the allied chiefs, with 
regard to the line of march, is given as follows (see " Records of the Past," vol. i. p. 39) : 

LINE. 

26. They say in reply to his Majesty what is it like going on this road 

27. which leads along so narrow . . . 

31. The enemy were standing at the main roads 

32. of Aaaruna they -will not fight. Now as to the course of the main roads. 

33. One of the roads it leads . . . us . . . 

34. of the land Aanaka the other leads to 

35. the north road of Geuta. Let us proceed to the north of Maketa. 

36. How will our mighty Lord march on (the way in triumph there). Let his Majesty 

make 

37. us to go on that secret road. 

' This advice was, however, rejected by the king with contempt. " I will go on this road 
of Aaruna," said Thothmes, " if there be any going on it," and a march over difficult country 
followed, the third fragment commencing as follows : 

LINE. 

1. Aaruna the powerful troops of his Majesty followed to 

2. Aaruna the van coming forth to the valley. 

3. They filled the gap of that valley. 



[SHEET IX.] BIBLICAL SITES. 95 

I J. (It was the time of) noon when his Majesty reached the south of Makela on the shore 
of the waters of Kaina it being the seventh hour from noon liis Majesty pitched . . . 

14. The south horn of the army of his Majesty was at the shore of Kaina the northern 
horn to the north-west of Maketa. 

' In previously discussing the question of tliis march, I found considerable difficulty in 
reconciling these details with the position of Mcgiddo at Lejjun. As I liad then occasion to 
explain, the site of Araneh would fit well with the Aaruna of the List of Shishak, but could not 
be reconciled with the i)resent account, sujiposing Megiddo to be correctly identified. (See 
" Quarterly Statement," April, 1876, pp. 90, 91.) 

' In the same way we are obliged to seek for Kaina south of Megiddo, and this identifi- 
cation is easily made with the important ruin of Ka'un in the Jordan valley, sujjposing 
Megiddo to be at the newly proposed site. 

' The route may probably be traced as follows : 

' The main road from Jenin towards Eg)-pt passes, as I have had occasion to explain pre- 
viously, along the plain north of Dothan ; the easiest route then follows one of the spurs to 
the north of 'Arrabeh, and descends by the villages of Kefr Ra'i, 'Ellar, and 'Atlil, to the 
plain of Sharon. A little to the north is the strong site called Jett, which would seem to be 
the Geuta or Gethuna of Thothmes. 

'A second road passing through Jett leads across more open country to the neighbourhood 
of Lejjun, and thence descends by Jezreel into the Jordan valley north of Mujedd'a. This is 
probably the route which the allied chiefs proposed to follow, and though longer it is 
undoubtedly easier than the former. 

' The valley of Aaruna, first reached by the troops of Thothmes, is probably the plain of 
Esdraelon, in which 'Araneh now stands. It does not appear clearly whether they attacked 
a town of that name, but we understand that they advanced to Kaina, south of Maketa, and 
consequently we must suppose the main body at least to follow the line of the Roman road 
eastwards from Jenin to the site of Ka'un, in the Jordan valley, 4 Roman miles south of 
Mujedd'a. The northern horn, which was on the next day to the north-west of Maketa, may 
very possibly have taken a more direct route by the old road through 'Araneh across Mount 
Gilboa. 

' As regards the time required for these operations. From the plain of Sharon to Jenin 
is a distance of 15 Roman miles, which might probably be traversed in five hours, and from 
Jenin to Mujedd'a, or to Ka'un, is some 10 miles farther, or three hours. Thus, leaving the 
neighbourhood of Geuta at 4 a.m., Thothmes might easily have arrived by noon at the 
" shores " or border of Kaina. 

' This explanation of the topography is not only consistent in itself, but the new position 
of Megiddo serves to confirm the identifications proposed by me for several places in the 
Geographical List (See "Quarterly Statement," July, 1876, p. 146.) Thus Nos. 9 and 10, 
Raba and Tutina (Raba and Umm et Tut), are now on the line of march, and Nos. 14, 15, 
Atara and Abara (et Tireh and el Bireh), in the Jordan valley, are a little to the north of the 
new site for Megiddo. 

' Turning to the journey of the Mohar, we find the new site for Megiddo also presents less 
difficulty than the old. (See "Quarterly Statement," April, 1876, p. 81.) In this document 
Megiddo appears in company with Beithsheal (Beisan), Rohob (Sheikh Arehab), and the fords 
of Jelden (Wady Jaliid), and it would seem to be close to the latter, if we accept the most 
simple rendering of the words : 



96 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'"The fords of Jelden, how docs one cross them? let me know the passage to enter 
Mageddo." 

'The difficult country of which the Mohar is warned lay apparently west of Mageddo, and 
to avoid it he makes a detour. This is easily explained if we accept the new site for Megiddo 
at the foot of Gilboa, and suppose the Mohar to follow that same north road along the valley 
of Jezreel, which was recommended by the allied chiefs to Thothmes, and which necessitates 
a considerable detour before joining the direct road to Egypt. 

• ' As far, then, as this document is concerned, the site is possible, and, indeed, fits in a 
remarkable manner. Thus not only do the lists of the Old Testament and those of Thothmes 
and of Shishak all allow of the proiiosed identification, but the site allows us to trace in a satis- 
factory manner the routes pursued by successive expeditions in various directions, namely, 
that of Thothmes advancing from the south-west, that of the Mohar reaching Megiddo from 
the north, and that of Pharaoh Necho in his direct advance on Carchemish. 

' IV. — It only remains to investigate the relations between the Hebrew and Arabic words, 
and to describe the site. 

'The Hebrew word Megiddo is apparently derived from the root Jcded (to cut down). It 
is certain that the translators who rendered Zech. xii. 1 1 regarded it in that light, for the 
Greek reading in this passage has 'ExxoTro'.asKo;, \s-here the English has Megiddon. This root, 
Jeded, is synonymous in its meanings with another Hebrew root, Jcd'a, with the guttural Ain, 
also meaning "to cut down." In Arabic, however, the root Jed'i only has this meaning, 
" to cut down ;" thus the Arabic derivative, Afujedd'a, is the equivalent in meaning of the 
Hebrew Megiddo ; and the fact that the Arabic xoot,/edd, has no connection with the Hebrew 
Jeded, but means "to be large or great," explains in a satisfactory manner the existence of 
the guttural in the Arabic which is not found in the Hebrew. 

' Mujedd'a means " the grazing place," or place cut down by sheep. It is not improbable 
that this may be the original meaning of the name Megiddo, as the site is situate in a part of 
the country where a plentiful sui)ply of water produces a large crop of herbage during the 
greater part of the year. 

' As regards the site itself, it resembles most of the more ancient cities of Palestine in pre- 
senting nothing beyond huge mounds of debris, with traces of ruins rendered indistinguishable 
by age. It has every appearance of having been at one time a place of importance, and no 
less than four springs exist close to it, the water being clear and good, and a considerable 
stream flowing north-east from the ruins to join the Nahr Jalud. The distance from Jenin is 
10 Roman miles, and from Beisan about four. 

' These notes may perhaps serve to show that a place of great importance, jireviously 
identified on very insufficient grounds, has been recovered by the Survey party. The name 
IMujedd'a will, however, be found on Murray's map.' — Lieutenant Conder, ' Quarterly State- 
ment,' 1877, p. 13. 

' In the modern name of the river Kishon, Nahr el Mukutta, may there not be a trace 
of the ancient Megiddo, which no doubt stood on its banks ? It is true that the meaning of 
the modern name is the River of Slaughter, and the fitness of that meaning to the history 
connected with the ancient name may account for the substitution. There are numerous 
instances of alterations of the same kind, as Cape Sanjak, for Cape St. Jacques. 

' Dr. Robinson identified Megiddo with Lejjun, the ancient Legio. In all probability the 
remarkable Tell el Mutsellim, or Mutasellim, was the ark or fortress of both cities, but while 



{SHEET /A'.] BIBLICAL SITES. 97 

Lejjun on the south of tlie Tell doubtless represents Legio, it may be suggested that the site 
of the city of Mogiddo is indicated by the remains extending northward and westward from 
the Tell, including el Medineh, or "the City." Lieutenant \'andevelde places Megiddo on 
the Tell itself, but Robinson affirms that there is no trace of any kind to show that a city ever 
stood there. It appears to be quite impossible to separate Mcgiddo from the Kishon or 
Mukutta as Lieutenant Condor proposes. The alluring resemblance to the ancient name in 
Khfirbet el Mujcdd'a is too heavily counterpoised by its situation in the Jordan valley, at tlic 
eastern foot of Mount Gilboa, and south of Bcisdn ; a situation not only too far apart from 
Taanach and the Kishon, but also divided from them by the bold heights of Gilboa. 

'In connection with Megiddo, Dr. Robinson has contended against identifying Legio with 
Maximianopolis, which was said by Jerome to be a later name of Hadadrimmon. In Dr. 
Robinson's opinion, this place had a more southerly site, and the suggestion has been con- 
firmed by Lieutenant Vandevelde (i. 355), who claims Rummaneh near Tannuk as still 
retaining the essential part of the old name Hadadrimmon ; but he agrees with Van Rourmcr 
against Robinson in connecting Legio with ]Ma.\imianopolis.' — Trelawney Saunders, 'Quarterly 
Statement,' 18S0, p. 223. 

' Lieutenant Conder proposes to locate Megiddo by the Jordan in the plain of Beisan, 
where the name Mujedd'a yet remains. In his " Handbook " he says, " Egyptian and Assyrian 
records do not as yet cast much light on the subject." There is one passage of interest which 
confirms his conjecture. It is given in Brugsch's "Egj^pt" (English edition), ii. p. 106, in a 
poem of Pentaur, of the time of Rameses II. It reads as there given, " Describe Bethsheal, 
Thargaal, the Ford of Jirduna how it is cursed. Teach me to know the passage in order to 
enter into the city of Jilakitha, which lies in front of it." This, if correctly rendered, seems 
conclusive.' — Rev. A. Henderson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1880, p. 224. 

'The suggestion that the name Mtikutta! may be a corruption of Megiddo is open to the 
objection that only the M is common to the two names, and, which is more important, that the 
T'va. the Arabic word is the Hebrew 13 or strong t, which is not interchangeable with the Daleih. 

' Mr. Trelawney Saunders also follows Robinson in an assumption which seems to be con- 
trar)' to two passages in Scripture, viz., in supposing that the stream which springs near Lejjun 
is the ancient Kishon, and thus unconsciously begs the question of the identity of the "Waters 
of Megiddo " with the river Kishon. 

'Now Barak encamped on Tabor before defeating Sisera (Judges iv. 12), and the 
Canaanites advanced on that position. " I will draw unto thee to the river Kishon Sisera " 
(verse 7). In the Psalms also (Psalm Ixxxiii. 9) we read, "as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the 
brook of Kishon : which perished at Endor," which is close to Tabor on the soutli. 

' It thus seems clear that the name Kishon applied not to the affluent from Lejjun, but to 
the stream from the springs of el Mujahiyeh (" The Place of Bursting Forth ") west of Tabor. 

' Mr. Saunders says, " it seems impossible to separate Megiddo from the Kishon." If this 
were the case, then the site of Lejjun could not be that of Megiddo according to the Biblical 
definition of the Kishon. 

'Robinson's identification of Megiddo with Lejjun rests mainly on the proximity of 
Taanach, a town often mentioned with Megiddo in the Bible. It cannot be too clearly stated 
that the only connection between the names Legio (LejjQn) and Megiddo is found in Jerome's 
paraphrase of the term Bikath Megiddon by the " Campus Legionis." Megiddo is mentioned 
with Bethshean, Jezreel and other places in the Jordan valley (separate towns of the tribe of 
VOL. II. 13 



98 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Manasseli) as well as with Taanach, and there is no real foundation for the assumption that 
the valley of Megiddon was the plain of Esdraelon, for the term Bikath (rendered " valley " in 
the A. V.) is also used in the Bible of the Jordan valley (Dcut. xxxiv. 3 ; Zech. xii. ii), and 
on the edge of the broad Bikath of Bethshean the important ruin of Mujedd'a with its springs 
and streams now stands. 

' Mr. Henderson has quoted in defence of my theory the translation given by Brugsch of 
a passage in the " Travels of a Mohar " (for the quotation of the poem of Pentaur as including 
the statement that Megiddo was near Bethshean appears to be an oversight. The Pentaur 
Epic refers to the wars of Rameses Miamun against the Hittites). This translation is more 
favourable than that of Chabas, and was not previously known to me. 

' In support of the Mujedd'a site, another argument may be drawn from the account of the 
flight of Ahaziah from Jezreel (2 Kings ix. 27), " he fled in the direction of Beth-hag-gan " and 
wassmitten at "MaalehGur, which is by(ornear)Ibleam,and he fled to Megiddo and died there.'' 

' Dr. Thomson many years since proposed to recognise Ibleam in the ruined site of Yebla 
which gives its name to a long valley south-east of Tabor. On the plain east of Tabor also, 
15 miles from Jezreel, is the ruined village of Beit Jenn ("House of the Garden"), exactly 
representing the Hebrew Beth-hag-gan, rendered " Garden-house " in the A. V., and the road 
from Jezreel past Tabor and past the head of AVady Yebla, towards Beit Jenn, leads over a 
rolling plateau where a chariot might easily be driven. After crossing the bed of the Jezreel 
valley it ascends gradually towards en N'aurah (Anaharath), and on this Maalch or ascent 
stands the ruin Kara, a word derived from the root Kih\ which is cognate to Jur or Gur, all 
having the meaning of " hollow." This ruin, possibly representing Gur, is 2\ miles north-east 
from Jezreel, and 5 miles west of the ruin Yebla. We thus appear to recover the names Gur, 
Ibleam and Beth-hag-gan in connection with some other north-east of Jezreel, and this is 
much in favour of the Mujedd'a site, because an easy chariot road leads from Kara south-east, 
crossing the upper part of Wady JalCid, and thence skirting the foot of Gilboa to Mujedd'a. 

' I have hazarded the suggestion that the Kings of Judah used the Jordan valley as their 
highway to the north ; that, instead of toiling over the hostile mountains of E])hraim they 
marched up to assist the Israelite monarchs by the chariot road from Jericho, and advanced 
to oppose Necho by the same route. Megiddo would thus seem to have been their outpost 
on this route, and Ahaziah's retreat to it is intelligible, whereas the reason of his flying first 
south to Jenin, and then back north to Lejjun, has never appeared intelligible. 

' In order to render this interesting subject more clear, the following points are recapitulated 
as those which seem most to require consideration. 

' I. There is no known connection between the ruin Lejjun (Legio) and the site of 
Megiddo, either by name, by measured distance, or by tradition. 

' 2. It is purely an assumption that the plain of Esdraelon is the valley of Megiddon. 

'3. It is an assumption which contradicts Scripture that the stream from Lejjun is the 
ancient Kishon. 

' 4. It is a pure assuinption (and a very misleading one) that the '" Waters of Megiddo " 
were the Kishon river. 

' 5. The mention of Taanach in connection with Megiddo should not outweigh the notice 
of Bethshean, Ibleam, Endor, Zartanah, and other places east of Jezreel, also mentioned with 
Megiddo. (See "Quarterly Statement," January, 1877, p. 16.) 

' 6. The Egyptian records, so far as they elucidate the subject, are favourable to the 
Mujedd'a site. 



{SHEET /.v.] BIBLICAL SITES. 99 

' 7. The riiin Mujedd'a is ancient, well watered, situated in a plain on an important high- 
road ; and here only has a name closely approaching to the Hebrew Megiddo been found. 

' 8. The topography of Ahaziah's flight may be explained in easy accordance with the 
situation of Mujedd'a. 

'I am far from supposing this question to be settled, but it seems that the Mujedd'a site 
has claims to attention which recommend it to such careful critics as Mr. Henderson has 
proved himself to be ; and that it should not be condemned merely because the assumptions 
of Ur. Robinson are taken as of equal value with his sounder arguments. The Lejjun site 
rests on a more flimsy argument than perhaps that which fixes any other important Biblical 
site, for we have positively not a single statement of the identity of Legio with Megiddo by 
any ancient authority. It is a vague conjecture, and not an identification at all.' — Lieutenant 
Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S81, p. 86. 

4. Zartanah (i Kings iv. 12) (PI). — Is possibly ihc present Tell 
es Sarem, which name approaches closely to the LXX. rendering, 
2inpn/t (Alex. MS.), and contains the two first radicals of the Hebrew. 
The place was ' beneath Jezreel,' and is mentioned in connection with 
Bethshean. A place named Succoth is noticed (i Kings vii. 46) with 
Zarthan. This may, perhaps, be the present Tell esh S h 6 k, near 
Tell es Sarem. Reland derives the later name of Bethshean 
(Scythopolis) from Succoth, 'a booth.' 

'Zarthan (i Kings iv. 12 ; vii. 46) is mentioned as being below Jezreel, and near Beisan. 
Between it and Succoth were the clay grounds in \vhich Solomon cast the brass utensils for 
the temple services. Hitherto no trace of the name has been found. The reading of the 
Alexandrine Codex seems, however, to throw a light on the subject. Here we have 2/aj«,a, 
and there is a very conspicuous and unusually large mound 3 miles south of Beisan, called 
Tell es Sarem, a name identical with that in the Greek text. There is a good deal of clay to be 
found also between this place and Dabbet Sakut, which may, I think, be accepted as Succoth. 
Zarthan is also mentioned (Joshua iil 16) as near the city Adam ; the proper rendering here is, 
" and the waters which came down from above rose up upon a heap very far off by Adam, the 
city which is beside Zarthan " (see " Bible Dictionary," sec v., x\dam). The meaning of 
Adam is red earth. Near Tell es Sarem, one mile to the south, is Khiirbet el Hamreth, the Red 
Ruin, which may not impossibly be a translation of the old name. The colour of the soil in 
this district is also pointed out by the name of a ford near Dabbet Sakfit— this is Makhddet 
el Imghar (red earth). It has been suggested that the waters of the Jordan were suddenly 
dammed up by a landslip or similar convulsion ; the adherents of this theory might perhaps 
point to the present appearance of the banks and the curious bends of the river near this 
place in support of their idea.'— Lieutenant Conder, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1875, p. 31. 

Non-Biblical Sites. 

I. Ablra (Pi), mentioned in the Lists of Thothmes III. (Xo. 15), 
next to Atira (el Tireh), is possibly the ruined village of c 1 Birch, 
near the other site. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' July, 1876, p. 146.) 

13—2 



100 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

2. Arbcl ('Apj3j)X") (Ok), mentioned in the ' Onomasticon ' as 
9 miles from Legio in the great plain. This may possibly refer to 
'A r r u b 6 n e h, lo English miles from el L e j j il n. 

3. Anion (AuAwr), a district mentioned in the ' Onomasticon,' 
included Scythopolis, Bethaula ('A i n H e I w e h, Sheet XII.), and all 
the Jordan valley from Tiberias to Engedi. 

4. B a 1 (P k), noticed in the Lists of Thothmes III. (No. 50), 
next to K a 1 i i m n a, and near 7\ n u h e r u ; possibly the present ruin of 
Yebla, which is possibly the Biblical Ibleam. 

5. Kefrah (msp) (P j), noticed in the 'Talmud' (Tal. Bab. 
Berachoth, 31 «) as in Lower Galilee, is supposed by Neubauer to be the 
ruined village of K e f r a h. 

6. R o o b (P 1), mentioned in the ' Onomasticon ' as 4 Roman 
miles from Scythopolis, is the present ruin at Sheikh A r e h a b. 
Under the form R o h ob the same place appears also to be mentioned in 
the 'Travels of an Egyptian.' (See ' Quarterly Statement,' April, 1876, 
p. 81.) It is also noticed next Bethshean in the geographical List of 
Sesostris. 

Roads. — The principal roads on the Sheet are the two Roman roads 
in the Jordan valley. The western of these, from Wady Shubash, 
ascends the Kaukab plateau and runs northwards to Tiberias on the high 
ground. The eastern continues along the valley towards the shore of the 
sea. The construction is specially noticed at K h u r b e t F u s a i I. 
(Sheet XII.) The two roads join at Beisan, and a main line leads down 
the valley. 

An ancient road leads over Gilboa by Fukiia from Beisan to 
J e n i n, but it is now very rugged and ruinous. Along the ridge of R a s 
S h e i b a n there are a series of ancient watch-towers (see Sheikh 
B a r k a n. Section B.), which may have had some connection with this 
route. 

The remaining roads are mere paths, only distinguishable in the hills 
by a slightly browner colour of the stones. 

The pillars at U m m el 'A m d a n arc not improbably milestones of 
the Roman road in the Jordan valley. 



SHEET IX.— SECTION B. 

Arcii.eology. 

•A in Jalud (Nj). 

Guerin states that the rock from which the fountain springs has been artificially hollowed 
into a cavern, and that the pool was formerly paved. Lieutenant Conder suggests 'Ain el 
Jemain for the Well of Harod. (Judges vii. i.) Dean Stanley, followed by Guerin, would put 
the Well of Harod at 'Ain Jalud, the story of Goliath (Jalud) having displaced in some way the 
recollection of the former name. 

Arub6neh (N k). 

Guerin remarked, south of this village, the foundation of an ancient building, which he 
does not appear to have examined. 

EI 'Afulch. — The moat is 112 feet wide. Some 50 yards of wall 
are standing. The masonry, rudely dressed, of stones 2^ by 2 feet, 
wedged in with smaller, has no appearance of antiquity. A ruined chapel 
exists south of the place. 

EI 'A k u d. — See below, Beisan. 

Beisan (P k). 

Before proceeding to Lieutenant Conder's detailed account of the ruins, it seems well to 
quote the more general description given by preceding travellers. Among them, the follow- 
ing, quoted from Dr. Robinson's ' Biblical Researches ' (p. 326), appears to give the best resume 
of its ancient history and present apj^earance. Another excellent description of the city may 
be found in Guerin, 'Samaria' (vol. i. p. 284 ct seq."). 

'The village and ruins of Beisan are situated on the brow, just where the great valley 
or plain of Jezreel drops down by a rather steep descent some 300 feet to the level of 
the Ghor. This plain is here from 2 to 3 miles broad, between the northern hills and 
the mountains of Gilboa on the south. The northern hills reach quite down to the Ghor, and 
are tame. The southern mountains do not extend so far east ; and a strip of the plain of 
Jezreel runs down along their eastern base, there forming a higher plateau along the Ghor. 
These mountains are bold and picturesque, and sweep off southwards in a graceful cun-e ; 



I02 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

forming no projecting corner or angle where the valley meets the Ghor. The village and 
ruins are near the northern hills. 

'Through the great valley comes down the stream Jfilud, which has its sources at 'Ain 
Jalfid and around Zer'in. Just here it flows under the northern hills, and breaks down by a 
ravine to the Ghor. This ravine is joined by another, much broader, from the south-west. 
Between the two, at the point of jimction, rises the steep and sombre Tell, directly north of 
the village. South of the Tell is a low open tract in the last-mentioned valley, in which are 
many ruins. Between this low tract and the other ravine, there is on the west of the Tell a 
low saddle, which serves to isolate the Tell. On this also are important ruins. Going south- 
wards from the low tract around the Tell, one ascends to the level of the great plain ; and 
here are other ruins and the modern village. The site in this part is not much less than 
300 feet above the level of the Ghor. The Tell rises somewhat higher ; and standing out 
alone, is visible for a great distance towards the east and west. We. had formerly seen it from 
Zer'in. 

' Not less than four large brooks of water pass by or through the site of Beisan. The first 
and northernmost is the Jdlud, coming from Zer'in, and washing the northern base of the 
Tell ; its water is brackish and bad. The other three come from the south-west, in which 
direction there seems to be a marsh, and perhaps ponds. One flows through the side Wady 
into the Jalud just at the Tell ; another passes just on the south of the village and descends 
the slope eastward to the Ghor, where we ascended ; while the third rushes down the same 
declivity still farther south. Halfway down it has a perpendicular fall of some 25 feet, 
and turns a mill. The water of both these southernmost streams has a slightly darkish tinge, 
and an odour of sulphur. This would seem to indicate a different source from that of the 
brook in the side Wady ; otherwise it would be easy to suppose that they originally flowed 
down the same Wady, and were turned into their present channels for the purposes of 
irrigation. 

'The whole region here is volcanic, like that around and above the lake of Tiberias. All 
the rocks and stones round about, as also the stones of the ruins, are black and basaltic in 
their character. The Tell, too, is black and apparently volcanic ; it resembles much in its 
form and loose texture the cone of a crater. 

' The most important ruins are near the Tell ; but the ancient city evidently extended up 
towards the south, and included the tract around the present village. Its circumference 
could not have been less than 2 or 3 miles. The whole brow round about the village 
is covered with ruins, interspersed with fragments of columns. Near by is the Kusr, so 
called, which is merely a ruined Moslem fort. There is also a deserted mosque and 
minaret. 

' ScythopoHs must have been a city of temples. One or more stood on the saddle on the 
south-west of the Tell ; here I counted eight columns still standing together. Another temple 
was in the low area south of the Tell ; and the traces of several are seen in various direc- 
tions. There remain standing some 20 or 30 columns in all. All the edifices were 
apparently built of black basaltic stones, except the columns. 'W'c saw no bevelled 
stones. 

' The most perfect of the ruins is the amphitheatre. It is south of the Tell, near the 
opposite side of the low area, and in this fertile soil is overgrown with rank weeds. It is 
built of the black stones, and measures across the front of the semicircle about iSo feet. 
All the interior passages and vomitories are in almost perfect preservation. It has one 



[SHEET IX.] ARCHJiOLOGY. 103 

peculiarity, which Vitruvius says was found in few of the ancient theatres, viz., oval recesses 
half-way up, intended to contain brass sounding-tubes. 

'Over the chasm of the Jalud, just below the Tell and the junction of the other stream, is 
thrown a fine Roman arch, with a smaller one on each side, resting upon an artificial mound. 
The middle arch is too high for a bridge. Possibly the city wall was carried over upon 
the mound and arch ; though for that, too, it appears too high. It would seem also quite 
problematical whether the wall ever crossed the stream. 

' The ascent to the Tell is from the saddle on the west, from which an easy path leads to 
the top. Here are seen traces of the thick walls which once surrounded the summit, a level 
plot of considerable extent. The heavy portal is still half standing. Connected with it are 
some quite large blocks of limestone, and also a beautiful Corinthian capital, built in among 
the common black stones. One of the large blocks is bevelled. 

' From the Tell there is a wide view. On the west it includes the whole great valley of 
Jezrcel to Zer'in, with Kumieh on the northern hills. In the plain, west by north, we noticed 
a bridge with Roman arches over the Jalud; and beyond it, according to Irby and Mangles, 
may be seen the paved way which once led to 'Akka. Just beyond the stream, and north- 
west from the Tell, is a large Khan on the road to Nazareth. Towards the east the eye takes 
in the whole breadth of the Ghor, including Sakut and the various Tells ; as also the eastern 
mountains, which we had just visited; on which the Kul'at er Rubiid forms here too a con- 
spicuous object 

' Beyond the stream, and north-east from the Tell, in the face of the northern hill, which 
just there is high and steep, are the excavated sepulchres of the ancient city. They were 
examined by Irby and Mangles, who found sarcophagi remaining in some of them ; also 
niches of a triangular shape for lamps, and some of the doors still hanging on the ancient 
hinges of stone, in remarkable preservation. 

'The site of the ancient city, as of the modern village, was a splendid one, in this vast 
area of plain and mountain, in the midst of abundant waters and of exuberant fertility. There 
is no doubt but that the present Beisan represents the Bethshean or Bethshan of the Old 
Testament, a city which lay within the borders of Issachar, but belonged to Manasseh, 
though not at first subdued. After the catastrophe of Saul, when he and his three sons were 
slain upon the adjacent mountains of Gilboa, their bodies were fastened by the Philistines to 
the wall of Bethshan. Thence they were taken by the men of Jabesh-gilead, who " went all 
night," and carried away the bodies to their own city, and burned them and buried their 
bones. Bethshan is further mentioned in Scripture only as a part of the district of one of 
Solomon's purveyors. 

' After the exile, under the Greek dominion, the city received the Greek name of Scytho- 
polis, " City of the Scythians," by which it was known for several centuries. The origin of 
this name has not yet been satisfactorily accounted for. Many suppose that a colony of 
Scythians actually had possession of the place, and so gave occasion for the name. Herodotus 
indeed relates, that during the reign of Psammetichus, the cotemporary of Josiah, the 
Scythians made an incursion through Palestine into Egj'pt. Near the close of the eighth 
century, the historian George Syncellus also writes that the Scythians entered Palestine and 
took possession of Bethshan, which they called Scythopolis. But this is very late authority for 
so definite a fact, and looks much more like an hypothesis to account for the name. Hence 
Reland and others regard Scythopolis rather as a compound from the name Succoth, as if for 
Succothopolis. But it is hardly probable that the most important place in the region would 



I04 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

take its name from one comparatively unknown ; nor was it the habit of the Greeks to engraft 
foreign names into their compound words without translation. The Greek and Latin name for 
Succoth was Scenre ; and the composite name thence resulting would have been Scenopolis. 
Perhaps, after all, the term Scythians is here to be taken, not in its literal application, but as 
put generally for any rude people, barbarians. In this sense it might well be applied to the 
wild nomadic tribes who of old, as now, appear to have inhabited the Ghor ; and seem often 
to have had possession of this city, and to have made it their chief seat. 

' However this may be, the city was known as ScythopoUs as early as the times of Judas 
Maccabreus, and was then not a Jewish city. Jews indeed dwelt there, but not as citizens ; 
and they are expressly distinguished from the inhabitants proper. Indeed, this held true at a 
much later period ; and even during the Roman wars the Jews sacked Scythopolis ; while, not 
long after, the inhabitants treacherously massacred the Jewish residents to the number of 
13,000, according to Josephus. Hence it was not unnatural for the Talmudists to speak of 
Bethshan or Scythopolis as not a Jewish, but a heathen city ; which their fathers did not 
subdue after their return from the Babylonish exile. 

' According to Josephus, Scythopolis was on or near the southern border of Galilee. It 
was the largest city of the Decapolis, and the only city of that district lying on the west of 
the Jordan. Here Alexander Janna^us had his interview with Cleopatra. Pompey took 
Pella and Scythopolis in his way, on his march from Damascus into Judea; and he subse- 
quently restored Scythopolis and several other cities to their own inhabitants. The city was 
rebuilt and fortified by Gabinius. It was long after this time, under Florus, the last Roman 
procurator, about .\.d. 65, that the massacre of the Jews above referred to took place. 

' In the fourth century Scythopolis is mentioned by Eusebius and Jerome as still a "noble" 
city. It was already the seat of a Christian bishop ; and the name of Patrophilus, its earliest 
recorded bishop, appears at the Council in Palestine in a.d. 318 ; and again in the first Nicene 
Council, A.D. 325, as well as elsewhere. It was reckoned to Paljestina Secunda, of which it 
became the chief see ; and the names of several of its bishops are preserved. One or more 
convents had also been established, with many monks ; and continued to flourish for several 
centuries. The monks of Scythopolis were represented in the Council held at Constantinople, 
A.D. 536. The city was the birthplace of Basilides and Cyril, each surnamed Scythopolitanus, 
the latter known as the author of a life of St. Sabas, and also of St. Euthymius, in whose 
monastery he resided, between Jerusalem and Jericho. 

' According to the historian Sozomen, this region in the fifth century was full of palm- 
trees, of which there is now not a trace. The monks here (as well as in the monastery of 
St. Sabas) were accustomed to weave the palm-leaves into cowls and habits for themselves, as 
also into baskets and fancy fans, which were sold at Damascus. 

' In the time of the Crusades the city was known both as Scythopolis and Bethshan. It is 
described as a small place, with extensive ruins of former edifices and many marble remains. 
The Franks transferred the episcopal see, as an archbishopric, to Nazareth ; which thus first 
became the seat of a bishop. Beisan, though weak, was gallantly defended by its inhabitants 
against Saladin in 11S2 ; although the very next year it was deserted on his approach, and, 
after being plundered by him, was consigned to the flames. It is subsequently mentioned by 
other writers ; and R. Parchi resided there for several years, early in the fourteenth century. 
But it seems not again to have been visited by travellers, until Seetzen in 1806 made an 
excursion hither from Jenin, and Burckhardt in 1S12 took it in his way from Nazareth to 
as Salt' 



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[SHEET IX.] ARCHEOLOGY. 105 

The city is placed on the south side of the N ah r | ill u d, in a situa- 
tion extraordinarily well supplied with water, and on a low table-land 
above the Jordan valley. The ruins are divided into three sections by 
the two streams, the southern, from the 'A i n Mai hah and 'A i n 
el IMclab, joining the northern, called ed Duwaich, at the north- 
east corner of the okl town, above the Jisr cl M a k t u a. (i) The 
southern section contains the modern village, the hippodrome, the 
theatre, the ruined mosque, and ancient exterior walls. (2) The central 
division includes the fortress, Tell cl Hosn, and numerous ruins. 
(3) The northern section beyond the stream, but within the walls, includes 
the church, the tombs, the fort called Tell el Mast a bah, and the 
H u m m a m. The bridges on the north-east and north-west, and the 
cemetery to the south of the town, must finally be noticed. 

The Walls include an area of rather over a third (jV) of a square 
mile. On the east a bastion is thrown out, flanking the road over the 
bridge. On the west an ancient gateway was remarked. Interior walls 
are also marked, dividing the town into at least three parts. The course 
of the walls is marked by heaps of scattered stones and foundations. 
They resemble in structure those of Tell el Hosn. 

The Modern Village is composed entirely of mud except the 
Serai, or court-house. The small mosque, 'A 1 a m e d D i n, as well 
as that by the tree south of the Serai, in ruins, is modern. 

The large mosque (Tristram states it to have been originally a Greek 
Church), J ami a el Arbain Ghuzawi, is also in ruins. It is 
built of black basalt, but of inferior masonry, with a ruined tower in the 
south-east corner. Over the mihrab is a rudely cut inscription, trans- 
lated as follows by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake : 

' In the name of God .... through God, when the end of the 
building was accomplished by the ransom [this word is doubtful] of Akka, 
the blessing of God be perfected and prayers in it upon .... 
Muhammed. And the completion was in the year . . and ninety and 
one hundred ' (a.d. 806). 

Another inscription was seen by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake in 1872 
near the Serai; it has now disappeared It was cut on a block of lime- 
stone. 

T he H i p p o d r o m e is almost entirely covered up. It is 280 feet 
VOL. Ti. 14 



io6 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



from east to west, and 152 feet north and south, measured within 
the area of the seats. It was enclosed by a bank 9 feet thiclc, and the 
seats, in tiers 2 feet broad and i^- feet high, surrounded the area on all 
sides. They are of white marble. The number of tiers is not j^lainly dis- 
coverable. The form appears to have been that of an oblong 152 feet lono- 
by 138 feet broad, with a circle of 76 feet radius at each end. The entrance 




Prv babU Enirctnc^ 



•'tt-iioiitumiui 




L-tse of WesI' 



appears to have been on the east. The ashlar is backed with rubble 
in which chips of basalt are inserted, as in the theatre. The natives 

state that vaults exist below. Of this 
some indication is possibly giv'en by the 
sinking of the ground. Towards the 
. B^od^r^ west was found a sort of pillar base, 
2 feet diameter above, 3 feet 6 inches below. Possibly the base of one 
of the goals. 

It will be observed on the Plan that the interior walls in this section 
of the ruins have a batter like those of T e 1 1 e 1 H o s n, with buttresses, 
and a well or shaft exists on the wall. 

The Theatre el A k il d is the best-preserved specimen of Roman 
work in Western Palestine. 

The diameter is 197 feet, true bearing 265°; there were 9, and possibly 
originally 11, double vomitories 50 feet long. The building faces north, 
the wall on that side being 60 feet north of the centre of the circle forming 
the cord to an arc of 120°, so that the building was originally ^ more 







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[S/JEET IX.] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



icy 



RcstrrcJ See£u>n, arvA D . 



than a semicircle. From eacli vomitory a passage 2,V feet wide leads 
at an angle to a cage with a domed roof like part of a hollow sphere. 
The greatest height of the cage is 6 feet. 
On the Plan the cage is about f of a 
circle of 8 feet diameter. The vomitories 
are built in black basalt blocks about 2 feet 
to 3 feet long, with tunnel vaults sloping 
down from the outside, semicircular, of 
good ashlar, the keystone narrower than 
the haunchstones. The tunnels support 
the seats built of black basalt ashlar in 
tiers, apparently 12 in all, each 2^ feet 
wide by I5 feet high. This ashlar rests 
on a good rubble bed (above the vault- 
ing) of hard cement mixed with chips of 
black basalt. In the arena is a wall of 
blocks of limestone or marble, one of 
which is 6 feet 9 inches long by 4 feet 
broad. This was perhaps a portion of 
the base of the water-tank used in the "" "" 

naumachia. The theatre might easily be filled from the stream, which 
was at one time dammed up. The modern name simply means ' vaults, 
but the spring called 'A i n el ]\I e 1 a b, ' Spring of the Playhouse,' shows 
the ancient use of the building to be still traditionally known. 

The marks of sockets for bars are observable in the caches where the 
wild beasts were no doubt placed. 

A remarkable feature in the theatre is one noticed by Irby and Mangles, and by Robin- 
son, who, however, does not seem to have himself observed it, namely, the ' oval recesses 
half-way up,' intended to contain brass sounding-tubes. They are thus referred to by 
Gue'rin : 

' I observed, here and there, certain low and narrow passages, into which a man might 
penetrate by bending down, a peculiarity observed in a very small number of ancient theatres. 
Their object was probably to increase by repercussion the voice of the actors. In the place 
of the seats, which have been taken away, of the divisions into stages, and the staircases 
which divided them into wedge-shaped compartments, grow bushes and grass.' 

The street of columns of the Tell el 1 1 o s n extends across the 
stream east of the theatre. 




14- 



io8 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Tell el H o s n, 'The P'ortress,' a natural mound artificially- 
strengthened by scarping the side. The shape is trapezoidal. The wall 
is of black basaltic ashlar, very thick, having buttresses at intervals of 
perhaps 8 feet ; two of these project 15 feet from the wall (in the ravelin). 
The sides of the Tell have a slope of about 30°. A keep or tower, nearly 
square, stood within the trapezoid. A gate exists on the north-west where 
the path leads up. On the east, at a lower level, is a ravelin or outwork of 




Pi^ar Stam^tnn c:^ C 



triangular shape, measuring about 170 feet along the perpendicular of the 
triangle. Its walls, like those of the main fortress, have a slight batter. 
Only the foundations of the central tower remain. Two walls were noted 
within the enceinte. The gate is decidedly of late construction, as several 
shafts of columns and bases are built into its masonry. The rubble-work 
resembles that in some buildings known to be of Crusading origin. A 
fine Corinthian capital is built into it. 



{SHEET AV.] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



109 



The Tell appears to have been surrounded, at least on west and 
south, with a colonnade apparently rectangular. The columns shown are 
in situ, and about 2 feet diameter. One of them on the west has a sort 
of tablet on the shaft, as though for fixing notices upon, perhaps in connec- 
tion with the theatre. 

There is a long row of columns, of which 9 remain, 1 1 feet apart, 
3 feet diameter, true bearing 125°, south of the Tell. 

There are also remains of niches just appearing above the surface, as 
though a considerable amount of rubbish existed here. These niches are 
placed in a line bearing 42° ; the central recess is 9 feet across and 4 feet 
deep — semicircular. On either side is a smaller niche 3 feet across by i foot 
2 inches deep. The hollow of the roof of the niche is distinctly seen 
curving inwards beneath the present surface. 

There are three pieces of stone with mouldings on them ; two built into 
the central niche are not in situ ; the third in the side niche appears to be 
in situ. These may be remains of a small chapel. 

Mugharet ct Tell is a fine vault of black basalt, H-shaped, 
with a semicircular tunnel roof apparently of Roman 
workmanship. The eastern vault is 40 feet 9 inches 
long by 7 feet wide. The cross passage is blocked 
on the west; it is 10 feet 6 inches broad. The 
vault is entered from the south. A very large 
base, 5 feet 6 inches square at the bottom, was 
found lying in this vault. 

The small Rlukam of S h e i k h el H a 1 e b i, west of the Tell, is 
apparently modern. The ruins north and west of it are confused heaps 
of stone, of which no plan could be made. 

The Church will be found marked as a ruin south-west of the 
Tawahin el Wady, on the north side of 
the main stream. The apses only remain, 
pointing eastward. The central apse is 27 feet 
in diameter. It is built of large limestone 
ashlar. 

A capital of Byzantine type, similar to 
those dating from the fifth century found in 
the Hauran, was sketched near this building. 




HcLSf tywf n^ar IdugKartl cl TeJb 




Captial n^ar Sfu^^'-et <i Tlii 



1 10 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

On Tell el Mastabah stands apparently the ruin of a fort, at 
the north-east corner of the town, guarding the approach by the causeway 
across the J i s r el M a k t il a. This roadway leads down by the hollow 
from El H u m m a m, and is banked up in parts to the level of the 
bridge. Tell el Mastabah llanks it, and the ruins of the wall pass 
across it. 

El H li m m a m, ' The Hot Bath,' is a reservoir which was originally 
filled by the aqueduct called Kanat el Hakeimiyeh, ' The Wise- 
man's Aqueduct,' which takes the water of the Nahr Jalud from the pool 
below the western bridge. This reservoir measures 2\\ feet east and 
west, 26 feet north and south, and is 12 feet deep. Tt is well built, and 
the interior covered with a hard cement. Three coats of cement were 
used : the first contains large pieces of red pottery imbedded and carefully 
arranged ; the second coat, grey cement mixed with ashes ; the third, red, 
with fine ground pottery, very hard. The reservoir was covered with a 
tunnel vault, now fallen in. It appears to have been surrounded by a 
colonnade, the pillars of which remain in sitit on the south side, being 
2 feet diameter of shaft and 10 feet 6 inches intercolumniation. The roof 
is possibly not part of the original structure, which would seem to have 
been a public bath. 

The Tombs shown immediately south-east of this are structural and 
covered with domes. They resemble the monument at T e i a s i r (see 
Sheet VIII.), but are of much ruder workmanship. A sarcophagus lies 
near them on the hill-side. The graves themselves are subterranean, and 
the structural domes have fallen in. They are built in basalt. The 
chamber is 6 feet 9 inches square, with three loculi, one on each side, 

2 feet 4 inches broad under arcosolia. The chamber 
1^. is covered with a vaulted dome like that of a modern 
Syrian house. The dome is broken in, but the top 
was about 8 feet from the ground. The crown of 
the arch of each m-cosolium is 4 feet from the ground. A covered way led 
from the southern tomb to the little ruined building south of it. The 
entrance-door is a square block of black basalt. 

The Mugharet Abu Yaghi, or 'Cave of Graves,' is another 




[SHEET /.v.] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



cemetery, dating probably from the Roman period, as the lociili are all 
placed parallel with the sides of the chamber. Three tombs in all were 
here found, the largest being to the west. This is properly a double 
tomb, having two doors on the 
south and a communication be- 
tween the two parallel chambers 
broken throug-h the back of the 
locnh. The eastern chamber 
feet north 



measures 



00 



ana 




south, by 9.V feet east and west, 

the entrance being 3 feet 8 

inches wide by 4 feet high. It 

is closed by a door still in situ, 

a block of black basalt, 7 inches 

thick, fitting against a rebate 

in the doorway, and fastened by 

a wooden or metal bolt, now 

removed. The door swung on 

pivots fitting in sockets cut in 

the rock. The chamber has five recesses or loculi on either side, 

each measuring about 5^ feet north and south, and 7 feet east and 

west. The recesses have flat roofs rather lower than the chamber, the 

roof of which has a slight arch, and is 5 feet 7 inches from the floor in the 

centre. Two other loculi occur at the north end of the chamber ; the 

recesses seem to have been filled with sarcophagi of white stone, some of 

which still remain, but they have been pulled out of place and rifled, the 

lids lying beside them. As one of these measures 6 feet and another 5 feet 

9 inches in length, they must have been placed side by side in the 

recesses, thus lying east and west. 

The western chamber of this tomb is similar to the eastern, with only 
four recesses each side, of the same form and dimensions. The chamber 
roof has also a slight arch ; the chamber measures 26 feet 4 inches 
north and south, by 7 feet 6 inches east and west. Its south entrance 
is 3 feet broad, and in the face of the cliff west of that to the first 
chamber. 



112 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



'---'v.'^w 




The second tomb is smaller, measuring 13 feet 4 inches north and 
south, by 9 feet 9 inches east and west, having three loculi on either 

side and two at the end, their dimensions being 
about equal to those in the first tomb. The 
entrance on the south is 2 feet 8 inches broad, 
with an outer approach 3 feet 8 inches broad, in 
which are two steps leading down towards the door, 
which is slightly arched outside. 

The third tomb to the east of the last is rougher 
and much destroyed. It is a cavern about 20 feet 
north and south by 14 feet east and west, having three loculi on each 
V.^^^v, side and two at the end. There is also a lower 

story with three loculi either side and one at the 
end, the chambers being only about 6 feet broad. 
In the south-east corner of the cavern is a narrow 
entrance to a chamber 8 feet 2 inches east and 
west by 7 feet 7 inches north and south, having a 
small door on the south blocked up. A similar 
chamber now destroyed existed in the south-west 
corner of the cavern. 

This cemetery lies without the walls on the 
north bank of the river, in a steep cliff of soft white rock. 

The Jisr el Khan, or 'Bridge of the Hostel,' named from the 
Khan el Ha mar (cf. s.v.), is a fine arch of basaltic ashlar. It is 
remarkable as being a skew bridge, but built as though a straight one. 
The roadway, which has no parapet, is skewed, having a base equal to 
one-third of the breadth of the roadway : the voussoir joints are perpendi- 
cular to this line, but the haunches of the arch are parallel to the sides of 
the stream. 

The arch is 39 feet span, 14 feet rise in clear, 3^ feet thickness of 
masonry. 

Jisr el M a k t II a, the lower or eastern 
bridge, is of limestone, and is apparently mediaeval 
work. It seems to have been repaired at a later 
period. The piers are pierced with arches to 
lighten their construction. It consisted of a 






[^SHEET IX.\ ARCH.EOLOGY. 1,3 

single arch, now broken down (whence the name), to the lc;vel of which a 
raised causeway led. The span of this arch is 25 feet ; the roadway is 
50 feet above the stream and 26 feet wide. The south buttress is pierced 
by an arch 26 feet span, 12 feet rise, and its crown is 27 feet above the 
ground. 

There appears to have been another cemetery south of the town, at 

about I mile distant, where one or two sarcophagi still ._-^— -r- 

remam. On this side also, beyond the walls, several '-;;^I^iio\."^^;^ 
pieces of ornamental work, a fine capital, and a slab ' rrf) v ''i?^ - 
with lion's head enclosed in a wreath, were found. - i-<^"'ii^^"?-^^^j^ 
Thirteen mills are marked on the plan, of which ten s^!et>«-^ st^ r^^^ ^^ c^irp 
are in working order. These, with the aqueducts leading to them, are 
of Arabic workmanship. They may in some cases date back to the limes 
of D h a h r el 'A m r, who constructed a great number 
in Galilee. 

The marsh formed by the decay of the irrigating 
system from the many fine springs west of Beisan, has -^piu^VX^o^ s^z,.^ 
gradually encroached until on the south it has reached almost to the 
Serai, within the ancient walls. 

' There is perhaps no corner of Palestine where the events of Bible history crowd so thick 
upon one another as in that portion which we have just completed. On the north, the sea of 
Galilee, with its sacred memories ; on the west, Tabor and the hill Moreh, the valley of 
Jezreel, and the chain of Gilboa ; on the south, Succoth ; and on the east, the winding 
Jordan. But perhaps the history most fully illustrated by our present survey is that of 
Gideon's victory over Midian, and subsequent pursuit. (Judges vii. ) The nomadic hordes of 
the Midianites had, like the modern Beni Suggar and Ghazawiyeh Arabs, come up the broad 
and fertile valley of Jezreel, and their encampment lay, as the black Arab tents do now in 
spring, at the foot of the hill Moreh (Neby Dahy), opposite to the high limestone knoll on 
which Jezreel (Zer'in) stands. As on the first night of our camping at Sulem (Shunem), 
when six horsemen and fifteen foot of the Bedouin came down on the village and retreated, 
after stealing a horse and a cow, followed by the fellahin with shouts and a dropping fire, so 
in Gideon's time the settled Jewish inhabitants assembled to drive back the marauders. The 
well Harod, where occurred the trial which separated 300 men of endurance from the worth- 
less rabble, was no doubt the 'Ain Jalud, a fine spring at the foot of Gilboa, issuing blue and 
clear from a cavern, and forming a pool with rushy banks and a pebbly bottom more than 
100 yards in length. The water is sweet, and there is ample space for the gathering of a 
great number of men. It has, however, like most of the neighbouring springs, a slightly 
sulphurous taste, and a soft deep mud covers the middle of the basin below the 
surface. 

'The graphic description of the midnight attack, when, no doubt concealed by the folds 
of the rolling ground, the 300 crept down to the Midianitc camp " in the valley beneath," and 

VOL. II, i; 



114 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

burst on the sleeping host with a sudden fliclvcr of tlie concealed lamps, can be most readily 
realised on the spot. The immediate flight of the nomadic horde is most easily traced on the 
map. " The host fled to Beth-shittah in Zererath, and to the border of Abel-meholah " (vii. 22), 
a course directly down the main road to Jordan and to Beisan. Beth-shittah may perhaps be 
identified with the modern village of Shatta, and Abelmea (as it was called in Jerome's time) 
with Wady Maleh. Zererath would appear to be a district name, and is generally connected 
with the Zerthan and Zeretan of other passages of the Old Testament. It is known to have 
been " below Jezreel," and near Beisan. I think, therefore, we can scarce doubt that the name 
still exists in the Arabic 'Ain Zahrah and Tullul Zahrah, 3 miles west of Beisan. Thus 
the immediate pursuit drove the enemy some 10 or 15 miles towards the Jordan banks. 
A systematic advance immediately followed. Messengers went south two days' journey to 
Mount Ephraim, and the Jews descended to the lower fords of Jordan at Bethbarah, which 
has been supposed identical with the Bethabara of the New Testament, and which was in all 
probability situate at the traditional site — the pilgrims' bathing-place near Kiisr el Yehiid, east 
of Jericho. Meantime Gideon, having cleared the Bethshan valley of the Midianites, crossed 
by the fords near Succoth at its southern extremity (the modern Makhadet Abu Sus), and 
continued the pursuit along the east bank of the Jordan. The Midianites were thus entirely 
cut off. They appear (or at least some part of the host) to have followed the right bank 
southwards towards Midian, intending, no doubt, to cross near Jericho. But they were here 
met by the men of Ephraim, and their leaders, Oreb and Zeeb, executed on that side of 
Jordan, their heads being subsequently carried to Gideon, "on the other side." This con- 
firms positively the theory which I offered somewhat cautiously in a former report, and makes 
the identification of the " Raven's Peak " and the " Wolfs Den " with the 'Ash el Ghor'ab and 
Tuweil el Dhiab a natural and probable one. The sharp peak overlooking the broad plain 
north of Jericho would indeed form a natural place for a public execution, which would be 
visible to the whole multitude beneath. 

'Additional interest attaches to the identification of Zererath or Zerthan, for it points to 
the locality where the Jordan was miraculously blocked during the passage of the Israelites. 
The Ghor or Lower Jordan valley is not continuous here ; in parts the cliffs are closely 
approached, and a blockage of the river at one of these narrow places would leave its bed dry 
for a very considerable time, as a lake would gradually form in the wider basins above, and a 
rise of more than 50 feet, with a width of nearly a mile, could be obtained in place of a river 
some 20 yards in breadth. Such a blockage might any day be occasioned by one of those 
shocks of earthquake which from the earliest historical period down to the present day have 
been constantly felt in the Jordan valley, and which point to the volcanic nature of the agency 
which has caused this extraordinary depression.' — Lieutenant Conder, ' Quarterly Statement,' 
1874, p. 182. 

El B i r e h (P j). — Ruins of an ordinary villacre. 

' The ruins are those of a large Arab village, whose houses were built for the most part of 
basaltic stones. It replaced an ancient township, to which belongs an edifice now completely 
destroyed, of which there yet remain several basaltic columns and a mutilated capital.'^ 
Gue'rin, 'Samaria,' i. 129. 

Dab II (O j). — Ruins of an ordinary village and of a small 
mosque. 



[SHEET J X.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



D c i r G h u /. a 1 c h (ruin near) (O 1). — About i mile south-east of the 
villacfe, on the side of the hill, is a drv^stone monument of 
hard crystalline limestone blocks, very rudely hewn, if at ^ ^. ■ 
all. The longest side lies at about 292°. The building ■-%_ 

was a rectangle of 15 feet in this direction by 14 the ^^^KO^[\j'^p 
other. On the east side a long stone, 6 feet 9 inches by "•" 

about I foot cross section, lies upon two smaller; the remaining stones 




are smaller. In the centre of the rectangle stands a slab placed 
perpendicularly, 3 feet high, 6 inches thick, and 2 feet broad. It is 




firmly bedded into the earth, which contains fragments of pottery, appa- 
rently ancient. The stone seems to have been packed with smaller ones 
round its base to keep it in position, as found by excavation. The stones are 
very heavy, and the construction of this monument must have been a 
considerable labour. It somewhat resembles the vinevard towers existing 

15—2 



n6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

in other parts of Palestine ; but fallen stones sufficient for such a structure 
were not observed, and there is no reason to suppose it to have ever con- 
sisted of more than two courses. 

Dcir es Sudan (O 1). — Heaps of masonry exist here, and traces 
of the foundations of a large building, apparently a monastery. 

El Fiilch (N j). — The modern village is surrounded by a ruined 
fosse, and remains of a wall are traceable in one part. 

E 1 H u m m a m. — See Beisan. 

End or (Oj). 

Gu^rin says that this village is in great part overthrown. Half the houses have fallen 
down, and the remaining half are ready to fall. A great many caverns, silos, and cisterns 
cut in the rock attest its ancient importance. Here he also observed a number of ancient 
tombs surmounted by vaulted arcosoUa. A fountain called 'Ain Endor flows along the 
bottom of a cavern and emerges by a little canal. This spring partially fails in August and 
September, for which reason the former inhabitants cut the cisterns. 

J e n i n.^ — On the top of the hill, south of the village, is a plateau 
covered with cairns consisting of small stones, arid each cairn about 
50 to So feet diameter ; these occur within an oblong enclosure, and it 
has been suggested that they represent the remains of a Roman 
encampment. 

Jisr el Khan. — See Beisan. 

J i s r e 1 M u j a m i a (O j). — A bridge of one large pointed arch and 
three small ones, is still passable ; near it is a ruined Khan, or ' hostel,' a 
large square building with vaults beneath, still in a good state of preser- 
vation. 

Jisr el M a k t Li a. — See Beisan. 

K a n a t el H a k e i m i y e h. — See Beisan. 

Kanat es Sokhni (P k). — An aqueduct leading from the stream 
of the N a h r J a 1 11 d to the mills called T a w a h i n el W a d y. 1 1 is 
excavated in the earth, and probably of the same date with the mills. 

Kanat U m m H e i 1 (O k). — A canal made apparently for purposes 
of irrigation, and not lined with masonry. 

Kanat el W 6 k i f (Q k). — A canal dug in the ground for irrigation, 
like the above noted. 



{sheet /.v.] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



117 



K 1 K a n t a r a h, ' The Arch' (P k). — A bridi^^c with pointed arches, 
by which an aqueduct crosses W a d y el K a n t a r a h. It is apparently 
not of great antiquity. The aqueduct resembles those above noted. 

Kaukab el II aw a (Q j). — The modern mud village stands 
within the crusading fortress. (See Section A.) This fortress is sur- 
rounded by a strong wall of black basalt, and by a ditch on three sides, 
whilst on the east it overhangs the Jordan valley. The west wall 
(true bearing i;;') measures 322 feet. At the north-west corner is a 
tower 36 feet square, projecting 15 feet from this wall and 20 from the 
north wall. A postern led out of it, and a causewav from it crossed 





<^^^i^^^^ii^:*&^a2.^_ ...^;S.Cii^i^!a.^^si:i.:-=Ui^iii><^ik£ 



:^iL< 



the northern ditch. At the distance of 161 feet from the north-west 
corner another tower projects 20 feet from the west wall ; it is 30 feet 
north and south, and a small sally-port or postern leads by a sloping 
ascent from the ditch to the interior. At the south-west corner is a 
tower 12 feet long, projecting about 20 feet; and steps lead up from the 
ditch on the south side. The south wall has also two corner towers and 



ii8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

one about the centre, the south-west being 25 feet long, the central one 
38 feet, and the south-east 50 feet, all projecting about 20 feet from the 
wall. The total length on this side is 381 feet. 

The main entrance was on the east, but approached by a causeway 
leading through the southern wall. On the cast, therefore, there is an 
interior wall, and the space between the two was arched over. The 
vaulting remains perfect to the north of the gateway. A long buttress 
projects 20 feet from the inner wall south of the gate, so as to form a 
narrow passage 2 feet across, before arriving at the gateway itself 

The entrance is thus, as in most crusading fortresses, very carefully 
guarded. The gateway itself has a pointed arch, 12 feet span and 12 feet 
deep. It is constructed with a groove 2 feet broad, so arranged that the 
portcullis could be drawn up through the archway. It leads into a 
vaulted passage 1 2 feet broad, and there is on the south a side chamber 
from which apparently a little postern opened into the main archway. 

The eastern outer fortification is very much ruined, and the wall has 
entirely disappeared in some places. There are traces of an outwork on 
this side 70 feet from the face of the main wall. The east wall runs north 
at right angles to the southern for 238 feet, and is here bent north-north- 
west in the direction 165°, extending for about 90 feet. At the obtuse 
salient angle thus formed on the east are traces of another doorway. The 
eastern wall was loopholed, and could be defended from the vaulted 
passage between it and the inner eastern wall. This passage is about 
22 feet across. 

The northern wall runs at right angles to the second direction of the 
eastern wall for 35 feet, when it recedes 17 feet. Thus at the north- 
east a tower or bastion is formed, giving a certain amount of flank defence 
to the northern ditch and its postern. The north wall then slopes to the 
south for about half its length, and the remainder is at right angles to the 
west wall. A central tower or buttress exists at i "jO feet from the west 
side of the north-east tower ; it projects 20 feet, and is 30 feet broad. 

An inner vaulted gallery, 1 7 feet broad, ran along the north side. 

The fortress may be described generally as a rectangle of 330 feet by 
380, with a bastion in the north-east corner, and an inner wall on the east 
22 feet from the outer. 

The ditch on the north, south, and west is about 50 feet broad, the 



[SHEEl' JX.] ARCff.£OLOGY. 119 

counter-scarp rudely hewn in tlie black basalt. It is probable that it 
formed the quarry from which the stones of the wall were taken. 

The masonry is finely hewn black basalt ashlar, the stones being from 
2 to 3 feet long, with a broad boldly cut marginal draft, and a central 
rustic boss to each stone. It resembles the masonry at 'Athlit and 
other Crusading sites. The wall has throughout a slight batter, and is 
9 feet thick at the top. 

It is probable that a gallery was built within the wall on every side, 
and the ditch thus defended through loopholes. 

The masonry of the east gate is not drafted, but is \-ery carefull\- 
dressed, and many of the stones are of great size. 

The vaulting is of rag-work, the ordinary barrel vault seen in all 
Crusading buildings. 

In the middle of the fortress are other vaults of similar character, 
forming probably the foundations of the keep, which has now disappeared. 
Their direction is not parallel to the outer walls. 

A small modern building stands over these vaults, and is constructed 
partly of ancient materials. The remaining huts are of mud. The 
ditch is now about 10 feet deep, but is probably much filled up with 
rubbish. 

South of the fortress there are traces of ancient garden walls, but with- 
out any indication of date. 

There is an Arabic inscription at the lower spring ('A in el H e 1 u) 
beneath the fortress on the south. It is almost entirely illegible, cut on a 
piece of basaltic rock, but according to Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake it refers to 
the finding or digging of the spring by a certain Emir. It is about 
500 yards from the fortress. 

Kef rah (P j) is a ruined village with traces of antiquity. Dr. 
Tristram mentions it as inhabited in 1866, and containing drafted masonry, 
but the ruins do not appear important. (See Kefrah, Section A.) 

Khan el Ah mar {P k). — A fine specimen of the Saracenic 
hostels. The walls are standing throughout, and the vaulting is entire on 
the east. It measures 270 feet east and west by 235 north and south 
outside, and is built of finely wrought ashlar of moderate dimensions, in 
alternate courses of white limestone and black basalt. The main entrance 
is on the north, a gateway with pointed arch ; on either side is a staircase 



I20 THE SURVEY OF UESTERN PALESTINE. 

leading to the roof. That on the left (west) is circular. (See Plan.) 
The galleries on each wall are ^y feet broad, the tunnel- vaulting being 
of rag-work with pointed arches. Four marble shafts stand in the centre 
of the yard, once supporting a dome over a fountain. These columns are 
1 8 inches diameter. The lintel within the pointed arch of the north door- 
way is 1 5 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet wide, 3 feet high. Another lintel to 




the side door is 6 feet by i foot 10 inches by i foot 4 inches, dressed to 
represent a stone with two bosses and a draft 3 inches broad. The 
whole is dressed smooth, and the separation is shown by a groove cut in 
the face. 

This is apparently the place described by Guerin under the name of a ' Mussulman Khan.' 
His description, written ten years ago, differs in some important respects from that of Lieu- 
tenant Conder. It is as follows : 

' The building measures 100 paces on each side, and forms a perfect square. The walls 
which surround the enclosure are 3 feet 6 inches in thickness. The south face is in great part 
overthrown, as well as the gate which opened on this side. The remaining faces are better 
preserved : that of the north is nearly perfect. It is built of good cut stones, which doubtless 
came from the ruins of Bethshean, and is pierced by a door constructed of superb blocks, 
alternately black and white, very regularly dressed and of considerable dimensions. This 
door, which corresponds to that on the south side, now destroyed, rests in two abutments 
crowned by a magnificent lintel, which is itself surmounted by an ogival arch. It opens upon 
a vestibule formerly closed by an interior door. Within the rectangle of the enceinte there 
formerly ran four ogival galleries . . . they have been replaced by miserable Arab erections, 



[SHEET IX.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 121 

now in ruins. In the middle of the Khan three monolithic shafts in grey granite are still 
upright A fourth is overturned.' 

K h u r b e t 'Aba (N 1). — Remains of a small ruined village, apparently 
modern. 

' Here was formerly a township of some importance, now completely destroyed. There 
remain nothing but the foundations of old walls, numerous heaps of stones, time-eaten and 
rudely cut, the greater part disposed in circles, some cisterns and several caverns or tombs 
cut in the rock. One of these tombs contains three arcosolia in a mutilated condition, under 
each of which must have been laid sarcophagi long since carried away.' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' 
i- 337- 

Khiirbet Admah (Q j). — Foundations of apparently modern 
character. North of the site is a tomb consisting of a square chamber. 
A sarcophagus lies at the foot of it. The ruin is of some e.xtent, in two 
divisions. A spring e.\:ists on the south, and two others on the north-west. 
(See Adamah, Section A.) 

Khiirbet 'A i n el Haiych (Q j). — Foundations of buildings, 
apparently modern. 

Khtirbet Barghashah (0 1). — Foundations of buildings, ap- 
parently modern. 

K h u r b et Beit I 1 fa (P k). — Foundations of buildings and walls. 
There are in the ruins many stones well dressed, and apparently older 
than the Arabic work. 

This place was proposed by Schultz for the lost Bethulia ot the Book 01 Judith, but 
neither its site nor its surroundings seem to agree with the story. It is, however, an ancient 
site. Guerin found, a little to the right of the ruined and abandoned village, numerous heaps 
of stones, the greater part of fair dimensions, and dispersed in the midst of high thorn- 
bushes. Among these remains were noted also two ancient sarcophagi, each measuring 9 feet 
10 inches long by 3 feet 3 inches broad, decorated by rare ornaments. The lid of one 
of these sarcophagi lay still on the ground nearly uninjured ; that ot the second was 
broken. 

K h u r b et B e d r i y e h (O j). — Foundations of buildings, apparently 
modern. 

Khurbet Beka (O j). — A mound, with no perceptible ruins nor 
any indication of date. 

Khurbet Bir Tibas (N j). — Only traces of ruins remain, with 
no indications of date. 

Khurbet el 'Esh-sheh (Q k). — Foundations of buildings, appa- 
rently modern. 

VOL. II. 16 



122 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 

K h u r b e t el H a d d a d ( P j). — A small ruin close to the village 
of T a i y i b e h, consisting of heaps of roughly hewn masonry and stones. 
No indication of its date, but it is ap^jarently unimportant. 

Khurbet el Hakeimiyeh (Q k). — Ruined walls and a few 
modern deserted houses— a small deserted villaq-e. 

Khurbet el H u m ra (P 1). — A few walls standing and a ruined 
mill. No indications of antiquity exist. 

Khurbet el Judeideh (Ok). — Foundations of buildings and 
heaps of stones. It may possibly be an ancient site. 

Khtirbet Kara (O j) consists of ruined walls. Near it is a 
trough or grave cut in the rock, apparently a tomb, resembling those at 
S e f f u r i e h. 

Khurbet Kummil (P j). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el M u g h a i r (O 1). — Traces of ruins only exist, and 
a few ancient rock-cut cisterns. It is apparently an ancient site. It takes 
its name from the village \\ miles west of it. 

Khurbet el Mujedda (PI). — Traces of ruins only remain 
upon a mound of ddbris ; but the place has the appearance of an ancient 
site and fine springs. 

Guerin's journey through this part of the country cannot be followed on the map. Either 
the Tells which he observed are not placed on the map, or, which is more likely, they 
are noted under different names. He says, starting with Tellul eth Thum ('Samaria,' 
i. 282) : ' Here are two Tells, close together. They are oblong; the higher is about 9 metres 
above the plain. Their upper surface is covered with debris of pottery and building materials. 
A quarter of an hour later, travelling north-north-west, we passed the site of an abandoned 
place called Khurbet Feraj. There are heaps of scattered stones and a quantity of silos, the 
greater part covered up. Fi\-e minutes later we had on our right the Tell el Asar, which is 
covered with pottery and building materials. Ten minutes brought us to Tell Ferwana, 
which is covered with black stones of basaltic appearance. On our left, at a distance of 
2 kilometres to north-north-west, we found ruins called Khurbet el Miijedd'a. We then directed 
our steps east-north-east, and pass on our left, at the distance of 2 kilometres to the west- 
north-west, a Tell, called Tell R'aian.' This place does not appear on the map, but its posi- 
tion seems to correspond with that of Tell esh Shcmdin. ' We were now approaching the 
lower valley of the Ghor, riding through bushes and tall grass, and crossing several streams 
which flow into the Jordan. At our right, in the lower valley, rose the Tell el Jizil ; and 
farther on, to the north, the Tell el Menshiyeh ; and ten minutes later, to the north, is a Tell 
called Tell Balah. AVe changed our direction to north-west, then to west-north-west, and 
arrived at Beisan.' 



[SHEET IX.] AKCILEOLOGY. 123 

Khurbct en Nejjdr (N 1). — Foundations of buildings, ap- 
parently a modern ruin. 

Khurbct S a b i r (P k). — Heaps of stones only remain, and there 
is no indication of the date of the ruin. 

Khurbct c s S a m r i y e h (P 1). — Ruined walls and traces of 
ruins alone remain. The place has, however, the appearance of an 
ancient site, and is well supplied with water. 

K h u r b e t ]\I a 1 u f (O j). — Resembles in character K h u r b e t 

5 i r e h. 

There is an ancient cemetery marked on the Sheet near this ruin. 
The tombs are cut in hard crystalline limestone. No. i, the most northern, 
is a square chamber of the usual dimensions, having one lociilus about 

6 feet long under an arcosoliuvi on either side of the chamber, and a third 
at the end opposite the door, which is on the south. 

The bottom of each locnlus is level with the floor. The rock has been 
left to a heicrht of about 2], feet in front, so as to . , ,.,,>..., . 

form a hollow sarcophagus, which was covered with pti^^^i^* 

flat slabs, leaving an alcove above between these and ♦■lif ifer 
the roof of the arcosoliuvi, which is rounded towards 'jn'^'^ jjii;__ ' " ' 
the back in cross section. ' ' 

The entrance is perfect, and was closed by a rolling-stone. The 
doorway is square, and 2 feet wide by 3 feet high. In front of this is an 
arched recess 5 feet 9 inches high, and extending about 2 feet either side 
of the door. This is continued on the left side in a groove about 9 inches 
broad and 5 feet 9 inches high. In this groove, which reaches back about 
4 feet from the side of the door, a cylindrical rolling-stone of 3.^ feet 
diarneter was originally placed. The groove held it upright when it 
was in front of the door, and it could be rolled back in it to open the 
entrance. The marks of the grinding of the stone against the face of 
the rock remain. 

In front of the doorway is a shallow trough or birkeh, about 15 feet by 
20 feet, and another trough or sarcophagus attached to the rock on the 
south-east of the birkeh. A similar sarcophagus, cut out of the rock (to 
which one end is attached), is placed on the left of the tomb, where the 

16 — 2 



124 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

rock is scarped north and south at right angles to the face containing the 
door. A cistern exists close to this, cut in the rock at a lower level. It 
is possible that these were intended for the washing of the bodies before 
sepulture. 

The second tomb is similar to the first, but the door is at a higher level, 
and two steps lead to the floor of the tomb within. The entrance is 
similar in construction to the first. In the locnli raised rollers are 
observable to fit the neck of the corpse. The three loctili measure 6 feet 
in length by 2 feet 9 inches breadth on the inside. , 

A curious mark, about 4 or^ 5 inches long, is scratched on the door- 
way of this tomb, and would appear to be recent, as it is not equally 
w-eathered with the rest of the rock. It exactly resembles that noted by 
M. Clermont Ganneau on the osteophagi discovered on the Mount of 
Olives. 

The third tomb, higher up the hill and south of the last, is blocked 
with rubbish. Three more occur in a group below this, resembling 
those already described, except that the loctdi are merely shallow graves 
beneath the arcosolia, and not deep sarcophagi. Two more, south of 
this, resemble number one in all respects, making a total of eight tombs 
visited. 

Three large sarcophagi lie on the hill-side south of the tombs. 
Another was also noticed further off, east of K h u r b c t Sire h. These 
tombs belong, therefore, entirely to the second class of sepulchres, and no 
koki))i appear to exist at this site. 

Khiirbet Sireh (Oj). — The ruins appear to have been exten- 
sive, though the plan of the buildings is now indistinguishable. Heaps 
of stones and blocks of flint lie in confusion. The foundation of a corner 
remains standing, of stones about 2 feet long, one of which has a broad 
and deep-cut draft, the central boss of the stone being left only roughly 
hewn. This resembles the Crusading masonry of K a u k a b el H a w a. 
The stone forms, apparently, the jamb of a doorway, and a channel is cut 
above, along the middle of the wall, similar to that described at K h u r b c t 
D e i r S e r u r (Sheet XI.). 

Khiirbet es Sufsafeh (O j). — A few stones. No distinguish- 
able buildings. 



[SHEET IX.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 125 

K h u r b e t e t T a k a h (O j). — Foundations of buildings, apparently 
modern. 

Khurbct Tubaun (Ok). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b c t Tunis (P k). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t U m m el ' A 1 a k (O j). — Foundations of buildings, 
apparently modern. 

K h u r b e t U m m G h a w a d y (X j). — Foundations, a few well- 
dressed stones, traces of a large site. 

K h u r b e t U m m S a b 6 n (O j). — Foundations of buildings, ap- 
parently modern. 

Khurbet Yebla {P k). — Heaps of stones. No indications of 
date. 

Khurbet ez Zawiyan (Q j). — Foundations of buildings, ap- 
parently modern. 

El Mobarah, 'The Cutting,' or 'The Quarry' (O k). — This is a 
large quarry of basalt on the face of the cliff, filled beneath with large 
chips and fragments. The basaltic buildings of Beisan are probably 
of stones obtained here. 

Mugharet Abu Yaghi (Q k). — See Beisan. 

Miigharet et Tel 1. — See Beisan. 

EI M u n t a r ( P 1). — A pile of unhewn stones upon a commanding 
point, apparently ancient. 

El Miintar (Q j). — A mound of earth. 

Muntar el Abeid (PI). — In the marshes. 

Miintar ez Azrak (PI). — In the marshes. 

El M u t e 1 1 y (O k). — Foundations of buildings, apparently modern. 

N e i n (O j). — Rock-sunk tombs exist here, probably of Christian 
origin. (See Section A, for further information.) 

Nuris (N k). 

This place is prob.ib!y an ancient site. Gu^rin ascertained the existence of rock-cut caves. 
At the distance of half a mile from the village he found a sarcoph.igus much defaced and close 
by the ruins of an ancient building, apparently a tower. 



126 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Es Se.bain (N ]). — A modern ruin. 

Sheikh A rehab (PI). — A ruined IVIukam or small mosque, 
apparently modern, and traces of ruins, without indication of date. (See 
Rohob and Roob, Section A.) 

Sheikh Barkan (Ok). — A ruined Mukam, apparently modern. 
Between this and the village of El Mazar are four small ruined 
towers, apparently watch-towers, on the old road. They resemble towers 
in the south (Sheets XL, XIV., etc.), but there is no indication of their 
date. 

Sheikh Muhammed el Kabil (Q 1). — Ruins of a small 
mosque, apparendy of no great antiquity. 

Sheikh S e m a d (O 1). — Small ruined Mukam of modern masonry. 

S h u n e t T u m r a h (O j). — A little tower, half ruinous, for storino- 



Shutta (Oj). 

Guerin inclines to Robinson's view that this place is the old Beth Shettah — the ' Home of 
the Acacia ' — of Judges vii. 22 ; but the meaning of the modern word in the name lists is given 
as ' probably a " river bank " ' : he does not meet the objection offered by Mr. Grove and 
Lieutenant Conder that it is not sufficiently watered. Gudrin gives the name with a spelling 
different from that proposed by Lieutenant Conder's scribe. As spelt by him it may mean 
the village of 'division.' Guerin found here a good many silos cut in the ground and 
serving as underground granaries to the families of the village. ' The women have to go for 
water to the canal of 'Ain Jalud ' — marked on the map as the Wady Jalud. 

S i r i n (P j). — By the spring are two fallen blocks, apparently lintels, 
and a piece of a cornice. They have the appearance of Byzantine 
work. 

Et Taiyibeh (O j). 

' This village, poor and miserable, is now nothing but a wretched relic of an important city, 
situated on the slope of a hill whose summit was surrounded by a fortress. This was formerly 
constructed of very fine basaltic blocks, cut and dressed with care ; a ditch cut in the rock 
and now three-fourths filled up surrounded it, at least on the south and west. There remain 
of this stronghold several thick parts of the wall, and within vaulted magazines which now 
serve the fellahin for refuge : rude dwelling-houses have also been built within the inclosure. 
One of these houses, more considerable than the others, and partly constructed of good 
basaltic stones taken from the ruins of the fort, occupies the top of the acropolis, which I 
regard as ancient, although allowing that it may have received attention from the Mohammedans 



[SHEET J X.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 127 

or the Crusaders. As for the city, which extended to the north and east of the castle, it 
now, with the exception of a few courses still upright, presents nothing but a heap of ruins.' — 
GutJrin, 'Samaria,' i. 126. 

Tell Abu Fa raj (Q 1). — A large mound, apparently artificial. 
Ruins of houses and of a small Mukam on the north-east, A stream of 
water from 'A i n M a 1 h a h exists on the north, and another spring, 
giving a good supply of water. It will be noted that this is the case with 
all the inic Tells on this Sheet. 

Tell Abu '1 J e m e 1 (O j). — Supplied with water by the Jordan 
and Wady el Bireh. It is an artificial mound. 

Tell el Basha (O 1). — An artificial mound. Water exists close 
by in a stream coming from the Biisset-ed-Diwan. 

Tell el Far (N j). — An ancient mound, apparently artificial, 
with traces of masonry on the top. 

Tell el Ferr (O k). — A small artificial mound, close to the Xahr 
Jalud. 

Tell el Hosn (P k).— See Beisdn. 

Tell el Jisr (P k). — A small artificial mound cut by the aqueduct. 

Tell el Jizil (O 1). — A mound, apparently natural ; it is full of 
excavated holes for storing: efrain. 

Tell el Malhah (0 1). — An artificial mound, situate close to 
the spring called 'A i n el I\I e i y i t e h. 

Tell el M a s t a b a h (O k).— See Beisan. 

Tell el Menshiyeh (0 1). — An ancient artificial mound, with 
a spring on the south side. 

Tell N i m r 11 d (O 1). — An artificial mound. 

Tell er Raian (0 1). — An artificial mound; a spring ('A i n es 
S u fsafeh) exists on the north, and water from the 'A i n el Malhah 
on the south. 

Tell es Sarem (PI). — A very large artificial mound, with a 
spring on the south side. (See Zartanah, Section A.) 



128 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Tell csh Shukf (PI). — An artificial mound, with a stream of 
water on the north side. 

Tell esh Shemdin (Southern) (P 1). — An artificial mound, with 
a stream of water on either side. 

Tell esh Shemdin (Northern) (Q j). — An artificial mound. 

Tell esh Shok (Southern) (PI)- — An artificial earthen mound, 
with water on either side. 

Tell esh Shok (Northern) (Q j). — An artificial earthen mound 
near Jordan ; a spring also exists about i mile to the west. 

Tell esh Sheikh Daud (0 1). — Possibly a natural mound; a 
ruined Mukam of modern masonry exists near it. 

Tell esh Sheikh Hasan (Ok). — An artificial mound, with 
foundations of buildings on the top. The masonry is well-dressed, of 
moderate proportions, and some of the stones have a marginal draft and a 
rustic boss like those at Khurbet Maluf. The ruins are not, how- 
ever, apparently of remote antiquity. It is close to a spring. 

'The ruins cover the slopes and summit of a Tell whose highest point seems to have been 
crowned by a tower measuring 12 paces on each side and built of good-sized blocks. Some 
foundations are still visible. At the foot of the hill, lying about the plain, are building 
materials of small dimensions, and innumerable remains of pottery. Under one of the seder- 
trees is a little Mussulman Wely dedicated to the Sheikh Hasan, whose name is given to these 
ruins.' — Guerin. 

Tell esh .Sheikh K a s i m (O j). — A very large artificial mound 
near Jordan. 

Tell esh Sheikh Semad (P k). — Artificial mound, with a 
stream of water. 

Tell ez Zanbakiyeh (O j). — An artificial mound near Jordan ; 
a spring exists about i mile to the west. 

Telltll Farwanah (P 1). — Small mounds, apparently artificial. 

Tellul eth T h 11 m (PI). — Artificial mounds; a stream of 
water to the north. 

Tellul ez Zahrah (P k). — Artificial mounds near a spring. 
'Attention was first drawn to the great interest of these curious mounds, which were first 
excavated at the same time by Captain Warren, who supposes them to have been fortifications. 



[SHEET /.v.] ARCH.EOl. OGY. 1 29 

In a subsequent number of the " Quarterly Statement " it was pointed out that similar mounds 
are in process of formation at the present day both in Eg)pt and in India, being made by the 
accumulating refuse of sun-dried bricks which are picked on these heajjs, those which arc 
spoilt serving as a sort of platform on which others are baked ; thus gradually a mound 
accumulates, and would, when deserted and overgrown, present exactly the appearance of a 
Tell. The Tells are found in the Plain of Esdraelon, and in that of Acca, near the Kishon, 
but more especially in the Jordan valley. Near Bcisan, and in the plain south of it, there are 
twenty true Tells, apparently of the same character with those at Jericho, besides other 
mounds formed of crumbled ruins to which the name Tell is also applied. In confirmation 
of the latter theor>' of their formation I would call attention to one or two points. First, they 
occur invariably in the immediate vicinity of water, generally at a spring or beside a running 
stream. Second, they are always found in alluvial plains and in places where clay may be 
expected to exist ; thus, for instance, at Beisun they are found in the "clay lands" between 
Succoth (generally supposed to be S'akut) and Zerthan, which was below Jezreel, where 
Solomon cast the brass-work for the temple service. Third, they are known, at least at 
Jericho, to consist of sun-dried bricks. It has been remarked that they occur at the mouths 
of passes which they were supposed to defend, but I may remark that this is hardly a rule, as 
many are placed in positions which can have no military significance, whilst the Wadies at 
whose mouths they are placed always contain water. Neither can they be held to defend the 
Jordan fords, for many important fords have no Tell near them. \\'here they do occur along 
Jordan it is in places where springs or tributary streams flow down to the river. Their great 
antiquity is shown first by their being mentioned in the Bible at an early period (Geliloth) ; 
secondly, by their having been subsequently built upon in a few cases in Roman times. None 
of the true Tells have, however, been identified with Biblical sites, unless, indeed, we e.xcept 
those at 'Ain es Sultan. 

' The shape and appearance of the true Tells would also point to the same e.xplanation of 
their origin. They are evidently accumulations. Often two occur close together of different 
size, or two or more small Tells spring on a platform formed by a large one ; sometimes a 
small subsidiary mound, as though only lately commenced. Will be found at the foot of a very 
large one. 

' The interest and importance of such remains can hardly be over-estimated. They form 
a key to the understanding of all the more ancient ruins in Palestine. Nothing is more 
natural and probable than that the Jews who in Egypt, as we know, were employed in the 
manufacture of bricks, and whose first possessions in the country were in the plains, should 
have resorted to this material for the rapid construction of towns, necessitated by the total 
destruction of the Canaanite cities. The method in which this destruction was made, its 
completeness and rapidity, seem to show that these cities themselves were of no great strength, 
and it is even possible that the brick -making may be carried back to Canaanite times. Of 
architecture as a fine art there seems good reason to suppose the Jews were ignorant, nor is 
there anything in the Bible or in the country to indicate that the towns of the early Biblical 
period were better built or more important than the present Syrian villages. In the time of 
Saul we find the people dwelling in caves, and there is much evidence which points to the 
old inhabitants of Palestine having been much addicted to such a practice. Even at the 
present day the natural caves and larger tombs are used as dwelling-places and stables. 

' In modern Damascus we have an instance of a city mainly built of sun-dried brick, and 
the chopped straw in its clay calls to mind the bondage of the Egyptian brickfields. Wood 

VOL. II. 17 



I30 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

is used in combination with this hardened mud, and may have been in the early Jewish towns 
at a time when it was more plentiful than now. At the same time, it must be recognised 
that stone-quarr)'ing was very extensively undertaken at some period of Jewish history, as is 
evidenced at the present day in every part of Palestine, though the period it is almost impos- 
sible to decide. In the hill country the use of stone must naturally have been greater than 
that of brick. So now in Palestine the hill villages are of stone, and those in the plains mere 
collections of mud huts. 

'The interest of the inquiry is very great in explaining how it occurs that the more ancient 
ruins of the country are mere mounds in which the presence of stone is scarcely discernible, 
and the grey colour of the mass alone distinguishes the site. Were brick supposed to have 
been extensively used, this peculiarity of the ruins of Palestine would be easily accounted 
for.' — Lieutenant Conder, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 180. 

Tireh el Kharbeh (P j). — A ruined village, apparently modern. 

T u m r a h (O i). 

' This village has taken the place of an ancient town which formerly rose in an amphi- 
theatre around an abundant spring, whose waters are received in a rectangular basin formerly 
vaulted. Everywhere considerable piles of stones, for the most part basaltic ; the remains of 
overthrown houses strew the slopes of the hill. In the midst of these confused' ruins I 
remarked, near the spring, the vestiges of a small church lying east and west and divided into 
three naves. It was ornamented with columns, of which several trunks yet remain. In the 
higher part of the city are still distinguished the remains of a second church, almost entirely 
destroyed, which was paved with mosaic, as is proved by the little cubes lying about on the 
ground.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' i. 124. 

Guerin also mentions a ruin called Kh. Marah, and a spring, 'Ain Marah, near this place, 
which are not on the map. 

U m m el ' A m d a n (O 1). — Several fragments of rude pillars, 
lykig in the vvater by the road. They seem probably to be Roman mile- 
stones. 

Z a t e r a h (N 1). — Modern foundatiorts. 

Z e b a (P k). — Heaps of stones. 

Zer'in (N k). — See Section A. In addition to the mound, with its 
numerous cisterns, there are scattered cisterns, sarcophagi, and, on the east, 
wine-presses round the village. 

' On our left Mount Gilboa grew gradually lower. Presently we climbed the slopes, partly 
rocky, of a plateau scarped to east and north, but on the west and south of small elevation 
and nearly on a level with the surrounding plain. These slopes, like those on the north, are 
pierced by numerous excavations ; some are ancient tombs and others old quarries ; some of 
them were for a refuge for the shepherds and their flocks. On arriving at the plateau we pro- 
ceeded to examine the western side ; on the way I remarked a certain number of ancient 
cisterns cut in the rock, and some small enclosures crowned by a girdle of cactus. We then 
passed the village of Zer'in, the miserable remains of Jezreel, which formerly in all probability 



{SHEET IX ] ARCH.EOLOG Y. 



131 



occupied the whole of the jilateau whicli I have just mentioned. At present it is nothing but 
a confused heap of poor houses which cover the western part of the [ilateau on the side by 
which it slopes by a gentle incline to the plain. Almost in the middle of the village, on a 
small hillock, rises a house of square form, like a tower — the residence of the Sheikh. It is 
very ruinous, like most of the other houses, and appears to be of Arab origin — but it may 
have replaced an older tower. ... I put up my tent lower down, west of the village, close to 
a little shallow birket, not built, but consisting of a simple depression in the soil. Near it I 
found an ancient sarcophagus of white marble. It was 3 feet 3 inches broad and 7 feet 
6 inches long. The four sides were decorated with sculptured ornaments, which have suffered 
from time and the hand of man. The lid was wanting.' — Gudrin, 'Samaria,' i. 31 1. 



SHEET IX.— SECTION C. 

The inhabitants of the villages marked on this Sheet are all Moham- 
metans and natives of Palestine, with the exception of those of B e i s a n 
and K efr M i s r, who are of Egyptian origin, settled there by Ibrahim 
Pacha. 

El M a z a r is inhabited entirely by religious Derwishes. 

The S u k r and G h u z z a w i y e h are true Bedowin belonging to 
tribes from the east of Jordan ; but the Beshutwi are a mixed race, 
being recruited from the runaway negroes who take refuge in the Ghor. 

A tradition attaches to the M u k a m S i d n a 'A i s a, a large block 
of basalt standing on the side of the Neby Diihy hill (see Map), as 
being a place where Christ sat and taught. This was collected from the 
Sheikh of the little mosque of Neby D u h y. 

J i s r el INI u j a m i A, ' The Bridge of the Place of Gathering,' is said 
to take its name from a contest of forty Arab poets, who here contended 
in verse for the love of an Arab maiden. (See Finn's ' By-ways in 
Palestine,' p. 105.) It is, however, noticeable that this name may have 
some connection with the ' Bridge of the Gatherer,' over which the 
Persians believed the dead to pass, as noticed in the Zend Avesta, 
which is the origin of the later Moslem legend of the Bridge es Sirat. 

The saint at el Wezr (apparently called Neby Wezr) is said to 
have been one of the sons of Jacob. 

NebyDiihy or Duheiyeh has his dog buried with him. The 
dog brought his bones from the river Kishon to the present tomb. 



SHEET X.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — The present Sheet contains 103 "3 square miles of the 
Mediterranean coast north of 'A r s u f. The whole extent is a flat plain 
about 150 to 200 feet above the sea, and terminated by rolling downs on 
the west. Beyond these downs are the dunes of blown sand above cliffs 
from 100 to 200 feet high, which reach all along the shore except in the 
neighbourhood of the two perennial streams, where the shore is open. 

In those parts where the cliffs are low, or do not exist, the sand 
dunes have encroached inland. Thus immediately north of the N a h r 
Iskanderuneh the blown sand reaches inland 2^ miles. Near Tell 
el 'A r f the dunes are a mile wide, and north of the Nahr Falik a 
tongue of sand extends inland 2 miles. The cliffs, however, have to a 
great extent prevented the encroachment in other parts. 

The shore beneath is a narrow beach strewn with fragments from the 
cliffs above. 

HvDROGRAPHV. — Two perennial streams cross the Sheet. The northern 
is the largest, and rises near the foot of the hills. (Sheet XI.) It is called 
Nahr Iskanderuneh, and is a sluggish stream some 1 5 yards across, 
with marshes on either side, in which are numerous springs, which feed 
the stream. The river is fordable near its mouth. This stream is called 
'the Salt River' by Geoffrey de Vinsauf in 1191 (Itin. Ric, ch. xv.). 

The second stream, called Nahr Falik, is of artificial origin. A 
large marsh formed inland, and confined by the range of downs on the 
west, is fed from various large springs rising in the plains. An artificial 
cutting through the rock drains this water to the sea, the stream being 
only about a mile in length. In October, 1873, the stream was dry at the 
point where the road crosses, immediately west of the cutting, but the bed 
was full of luxuriant Syrian papyrus. This river was called Rochetaillie 



134 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

in the Middle Ages (I tin. Ric, ch. xvi.), and tlae modern name has a 
similar meaning ('cloven'). 

Some of the water from the plain rises on the shore under the cliffs at 
'A i n Tubch, Bir el Yezek, Bir el Beleikeh, and Bir 
Z e i d, but the water is very brackish. 

A large marsh (Bah ret Katurieh) is also artificially drained by 
a rock-cut tunnel 535 feet in length, having a shaft near the middle. This 
tunnel is now choked up. 

Topography. — There are eight inhabited places on this Sheet belonging 
to the district of B e n i Sab, under the Mudir of Nablus. 

1. El Haram 'A 1 y Ibn ' A 1 e i m (Ho). — A mud village of 
moderate size on high ground, with springs to the north, and on the west 
a mosque. This building was erected, it is said, by Melek ed Dhahr 
Bibars in honour of 'Aly Ibn 'Aleim, who is said to have defended the 
town when attacked by that Sultan ; but the town in question was probably 
the adjacent ' A r s u f. 

2. Kefr Saba (J o). — A mud village of moderate size, with mud- 
ponds round it and good water in the wells of N e b y Y e m i n, to 
the east. (Sheet XI.) This place is the Caphar Saba of the Talmud 
(Tal. Bab. Niddah, 61 a\ Tal. Jer. Demoi, ii. 2), also mentioned by 
Josephus (Ant. xvi. 5, 2). It shows no marks of antiquity at the present 
day. The ground round it is sandy, with a few cactus hedges and some 
good-sized trees at N e b y Ye m i n. There are olives to the north and 
south. 

' This is a village of 800 inhabitants, situated on a low hill ; the houses are built of sun- 
dried bricks or of small stones. Palm-trees lift their heads in the midst of the streets. 
There is a mosque built of stones, which are larger and better cut than those used for the 
houses.' — Gudrin. 

The question of the site of Antipatris will be found treated in Sheet XIII., under the 
head of ' Ras el 'Ain.' It is sufficient to point out here that nothing whatever has been 
found at Kefr Saba to support the theory that here was once a great town. As regards anti- 
quities, Lieutenant Conder passes the place over altogether (Sheet X, Section B.); and 
Gu^rin could find nothing but two ancient columns in the mosque, and outside the village a 
mosque built of old blocks. An old man of the neighbouring village of Jiljulieh told Drake 
that the name of the place was Antifatrus, but as this statement has never been confirmed by 
any other traveller, it may be considered of litde value. Nothing is more probable than that, 
as in the case of most names imposed by the Romans, the name of Antipatris has long since 
been forgotten. 



[SHEET X.] TOPOGRAPHY. 135 

3. K h u r b c t c 1 ]\ y u s c h (II n). — A few mud hovels, occupied 
as an 'A z b c h, or summer residence for those in charge of the herds and 
flocks sent down to graze on the plain. It had a cistern to the north. 

4. Khurbet esh Sheikh Mu hammed (II). — A few mud 
hovels among ruins. 

5. Miskeh (I o). — A mud village of small size, with olives to the 

north and south, and a well to the south. 

Gucrin gives the population of Miskeh as 300. 'In the court of the mcdhajch I saw a 
column and a marble chapter, apparently of Byzantine work. Round the houses are gardens, 
planted principally with fig-trees, among which here and there rise palms.' 

6. El M II g hair (I m). — A small mud hamlet, with caves. The 
water supply is from springs a mile to the west. 

7. ]\I u k h a I i d (H m). — A small mud village, with ruins, and a 
.sacred place to the south. On the east is a good masonry well, with 
troughs and a wheel for raising the water. Near this the Survey Cam[) 
was fixed. There are also cisterns, and a pond with mud banks. There 
are cornfields to the east, but the soil is very sandy. The place is famous 
for its water melons, which arc shipped at the little harbour called M i n c t 
Abu Z a b II r a. 

8. Tabsor (H o). — A mud hamlet of moderate size, with a well 
to the north. 

The only ancient site on this Sheet which has been identified is the 
fortified town of Arsiif. This is the ancient Apollonia (Josephus, 
Ant. .xiii. 15, 4), said by Pliny (Lib. v. 13) to be between Ceesarea and 
Joppa. In the Peutinger Tables it is shown (393 a.d.) as between the two, 
but without any distance marked. 

The Crusaders considered Arsuf to be the ancient Antipatris (Will. 
Tyre, Jacob of \'itriaco, Marino Sanuto). On the map of Marino Sanuto 
it is marked as Arsur ; he identifies it wrongly with Dora. Fouchcr de 
Chartres (about 1 100 a.d.), says that it was ignorantly supposed to be 
Azotus, the real site of which he knew. 

Cultivation. — Corn and olives, with various vegetables, arc grown 
round the villages, but the greater part of the plain is uncultivated. Near 
the shore, and along the line of downs, the soil is bare and sandy, with 
scattered bushes. The neighbourhood of the marshes is in spring well 



136 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

supplied with pasturage. The country south-west of Mukhalid is an open 
woodland of oak, the trees attaining a fair size. This is the Crusading 
Forest of Assur (Geoffrey de Vinsauf Itin. Ric. cap. xvi.), between the 
Salt River and Rochetaillic. Possibly the ruin of U m m S u r may 
retain a relic of this name. 



SHEET X.— SECTION B. 

Arsuf (H o). — The remains of the Crusading town, with its inner 
fort and harbour, were surveyed in May, 1S74, with a chain and compass. 

The total area included inside the ditch is 22 acres, or 660 feet by 
1,452 feet. The form is irregular. The ditch has an average width of 
40 feet, but on the south side it is rock-cut and 100 feet wide. 

Very little remains above the surface, and the site presents dusty 
mounds which cover the foundations. There are remains of a postern on 
the east, with projecting piers for a drawbridge ; on the south, close to 
the sea, is a spring, to which a small path leads down from a postern. A 
wall projects at right angles to the south wall, and enfilades the western 
part of the ditch, where it is deeper and wider. There are several cisterns 
near the western wall above the beach. 

The inner keep stands directly over the harbour in the north-west 
corner of the place, and has on that side a batter wall some 50 feet high ; 
remains of vaults are visible here also. The keep had a ditch round three 
sides about 100 feet wide, and a ramp and drawbridge communicated with 
the outer part of the fortress. The keep has an area of about half an acre. 
The level of the bottom of the fosse is about 50 feet above the beach. 

The harbour measured 100 yards north and south, by 40 yards east 
and west. A well-built jetty runs out on the south, and a narrow 
entrance is here made, behind a reef of rock, the entrance being barely 30 
feet wide. 

The masonry at Arsuf resembles that at Ascalon. The work is, how- 
ever, earlier than 1 190 a.d. 

The ancient history and Phcenician associations of Arsuf may be gathered from the fol- 
lowing tract by M. Clermont-Ganneau. The name of ApoUonia, it has been suggested, may 
have been conferred upon the city by Apollonius, son of Thraseas, who governed Coele Syria 
for Seleucus Antipater. It is mentioned by Josephus as one of the places which had for- 
VOL. II, 18 



1 38 THE S UR VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

merly belonged to the Phcenicians. The Peutinger Tables give its position accurately as 
22 miles from Cresarea. It was in ruins in the year b.c. 57, when the Romans rebuilt it. It is 
then neglected by history for a thousand years, when we find it a fortified stronghold. Ray- 
mond of Toulouse besieged it, but failed to take it, and retired jealously, sending a message 
to the garrison that they need not be afraid of the King of Jerusalem. In fact, Godfrey met 
with so stubborn a resistance that he too had to raise the siege, and turned his arms in revenge 
upon Raymond. The place, however, was afterwards taken by Baldwin I., who gave the 
inhabitants permission to retire to Ascalon. Richard Coeur de Lion defeated Saladin beneath 
the walls of ArsCif in 1191, and regained the place. Louis IX. in 1251 restored the fortifica- 
tions; but in 1265 the Sultan Eibars, after an obstinate defence, took the city, massacred the 
inhabitants, and destroyed the fortress and walls. Arsuf has since remained uninhabited. 

The town of Arsuf has been shown byM.Clermont-Ganneau to be intimately connected with 
the legends of the ' Combat of Horus,' that of St. George and the Dragon, and the story of 
Perseus and Andromeda. He treats the subject in a pamphlet called ' Horus et Saint Georges ' 
{Rtroue Arch'eologique, 1877). The following extract will show the line of research which he 
has followed : 

' Une base essentielle sur laquelle je me suis, en dehors de I'iconographie, constamment 
apjjuye pour essayer de reconstruire cette fable etrangement deformee et transformee, c'est la 
localisation geographique ; il y a a observer, dans le developpement semitique de cette 
legende, une veritable unit^ de lieux pretant aux identifications obtenues une solidite qu'on 
ne saurait demander aux rapprochements purement philologiques. 

' Tout se joue sur un theatre parfaitement circonscrit : la scene peut etre representee par 
un triangle dont les sommets sont les trois villcs de Palestine : Arsouf, Lydda et Asdoud, et 
dont le grand cote est le rivage de la Mediterranee au nord et au sud de Jaffa. 

' Le culte de saint Georges, qui s'est de bonne heure etendu sur toute I'Egypte, a pris un 
caractere special et a regu un developpement considerable en Syrie, ou il a eu pour centre 
principal Lydda, la Diospolis des Gre'co-Romains. 

' La s'eleva, sous Justinien au plus tard, une superbe basilique contenant, disait-on, les 
reliques du tribun militaire decapite sous Diocletien. 

'Dans les listes episcopales, Lydda porte le nom de ' kyioyeuiyiowoXii en un seul mot. 
Lydda passait pour la patrie du saint ou celle de sa mere, pour le lieu de son martyre, etc. 
les habitants y montrent encore la maison de Khidhr, nom arabe de saint Georges. 

' Une tradition, attributie a Mahomet par d'anciens commentateurs du Goran, dit que 
Jesus tuera FAnkchrist sur la porte de Lydda, ou meme sur la porte de riglise de Lydda. 
L'Antechrist, appele par les musulmans Dadjdjal, est ddcrit comme un monstre et appele la 
bete de la terre. Ce hadith bizarre a incontestablement pour origine ^interpretation, plus ou 
moins arbitraire, d"un bas-relief du portail de la basilique ou etait figure le combat de saint 
Georges. En effet, I'on ajoute, en meme temps, que Jesus tuera aussi le sanglier, et Ton 
place quelquefois le lieu de cet evenement sur I'une des portes de Jerusalem ; or Ton connait 
par I'histoire I'existence d'un bas-relief, representant le sanglier de la A' legion, qui etait en- 
castrd au-dessus de la porte d'Aelia Capitolina. 

' L'explication apocalyptique de ce sujet adoptee par les musulmans se justifie par des 
analogies reelles qui ont deja ete signalees entre le role militant de saint Georges et celui de 
I'archange Michel et des divers cavaliers de I'Apocalypse. 

' Certaines traditions sont memes plus explicites encore et montrent jusqu'k I'evidence 
qu'il s'agit bien dans le hadilh d'un monument figure, et particulicrement du combat du 



[S//EET X.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 139 

cavalier contre le dragon. EUes disent, en effet, que Jesus, coiff^ d'un turban vert (khadhra), 
ceint d'une epee, tenant !i la main une lance (harbc), monte siir unejiiment (faras), potirsuivra 
le DadjJjal jusqu'a ce qu'il Pattcignc a la porie dc Lydda, oh il le ttiera. 

' Mais d'un autre cot^ le mot arabe dadjjAl me jiarait I'exact Equivalent phon^tique du 
mot hebreu Dagon, le dieu ampliibie adore par Ics Philistins spdcialemcnt .\ Echdod (Esdoud). 
Or Dagon a etc rapprochtJ avec raison du Set egyptien ; son adversairo, le Isa ou Jesus des 
musulmans, et le saint Georges syrien (ju'il recouvre, s'identifieraient done dcj;\ par simple 
symetrie avec Horus a clui'al, poursuivani et iiiant Typhon. 

' Le souvenir de Dagon semble s'C-tre d'ailleurs conserve d'une faron encore plus directe 
h. Lydda : d'anciens gdographes arabes nous parlent formellement d'une parte de Dadjoun \ 
Lydda; entre Lydda et Yabne " I'Onomasticon " signale un Caphcr Dagon qu'on identifiait 
jusqu'ici avec le village de Beth Dadjan ; mais je crois que c'est un lieu appele encore 
Dtuijoiin, que j'ai retrouve en 1874; Dadjoun repond beaucoup mieux, en effet, aux indica- 
tions de "I'Onomasticon." II se peut que le village se soit deplace et ait Ete transporte de 
I'endroit aujourd'hui inhabite de Dadjoun h. Beit Dadjan ; dans ce cas nous aurions une 
l)reuve periinente extremement solide de la transition phonetiquc de Dadjoun a Dadjdjal, 
Dadjan fournissant un i^tat intermediaire du mot. La forme archaique Dadjoun se serait, 
comme de coutume, conserviJe dans le nom de I'emplacement ancien. A ce compte, il 
faudrait voir dans Dadjoun, non-seulement le Capher Dagon de " rOnomasticon," mais 
aussi le Beth Dagon mentionnd par le livre de Josue dans le territoire de Juda. 

' L'histoire de Persee et d'Andromfede, dont les affinitds avec I'histoire lEgendaire de saint 
Georges ont ett^ depuis longtemps remarqu&s, est localisee expresse'ment par beaucoup 
d'auteurs classiques twn loin de Lydda, sur la cote de Syric, a Jaffa, c'est-^-dire toujours dans 
I'aire g^ographique dt^termin^e plus haut 

'Tout s'accorde a preter ^ cet episode, intercali^ dans le cycle du Persee hellcnique, une 
origine orientale. Les noms de plusieurs des personnages qui s'y montrent sont aisement 
explicables par les langues sEmitiques : Cepheus, Belos, /ope (cf. Kassiope, Kassiopa, Kas- 
siepeia), etc. 

' Des traits non douteux achfevent de donner .'i ce personnage une couleur franchement 
phenicienne. Persee est surtout le h^ros d'Argos ; or Argos a pour pere Agenor ; et Agc*nor, 
p^re de Phcenix, Kilix et Cadmus, repr&ente incontestablement, i I'etat fabuleux, I'clement 
l)henicien; le roi de Jaffa lui-meme, le p^re d'Androml-de, Kepheus, est parfois d&igne 
comme Jils d' Agenor, ce qui le met sur le meme rang que les trois freres. La gen(5alogie de 
Persee, qui le fait remonter jusqu'^ lo, lui prete entre autres ancetres Belos et Aigyptos, le 
rattachant ainsi h la fois k la Phenicie et il I'Egypte. 

' Mais il y a plus. Je puis demontrer que Persee correspond d'une fa^on directe a un 
dieu phenieien Reseph {^= flamme) dont les inscriptions de Chypre nous ont revele I'existence : 
c'est I'analogie des noms Reseph = Perseus qui a probablement determine I'attraction ; la 
simple inter\-ersion qui diffe'rencie les deux mots trouve sa contre-partie dans la Icgende 
grecque qui fait de lilc de Seripho un des principaux lieux de l'histoire et du culte de Persee. 

' Je ne veux pas dire que le inythe de Persia ne soit pas hellenique dans son ensemble, 
mais je desire etablir, par des arguments decisifs, qu'il a au moins subi, comme on le pres- 
sentait dcjcl, une addition phcniciinne. 

' Je n'ai pas besoin, pour cela, de revendiquer comme ph^nicien le nom meme de Persee; 
un simple rapprochement entre Reseph et Perseus est suffisant Ce rapprochement n'a rien 
d'in\Taisemblable, et il serait aise d'en montrer d'analogues. Je me contenterai d'invoquer 

18 — 2 



I40 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

un seul cxemple, qui a I'avantage do nous ramener en mC-me temps au occur de la 
question. 

' La dcesse phenicienne Anat (n^y), FAnaitis assyro-chaldeenne, d'ordinaire identifiee 
avec Artemis, Test aussi avec Minerve, par exemple dans une inscription bilinguc de Chypre. 
Pourquoi ? Parce que Ton a\ait c^de au desir de rapprocher les deux mots Anat, ou Anata, 
et Athaiia ( = 'A('?iva, 'A^iji'>j); nous voilh. en face d'une transposition absolument semblable h. 
celle qui a permis de passer de Reseph h Perseus. 

'La parfedre feminine de Reseph est precisement cette deesse Aiiaf, comme le prouvent 
les monuments figures egyptiens. 

' Cela pose, rappelons que les mythologues les plus autorises ont demontn? le caractere 
profondement appollonicn de Persee : or Reseph para'it avoir en pour Equivalent general Apollon. 

' L'assimilation de sa paredre Anat \ Artemis pouvait dejil le faire pressentir ; mais on a 
plus que de simples inductions a ce sujet : des inscriptions grecques de Chypre mentionnent 
Apollon-AmyJilaios, et Ton a compare ce dieu au Reseph Mikel ou Mekil d'inscriptions pheni- 
ciennes originaires du menie endroit. 

' Ce qui n'etait qu'une pre'somption devient un fait certain par Fobscrvation suivante : le 
nom nioderne de la ville 6!Arsouf, situee au nord et tout pres de [affa, est forme regulierement 
avec le nom du dieu Reseph; c'est la ville de Reseph; or les Grecs I'avaient appelde Apollonia, 
exactement comme, en Egypte, Edfou, centre principal du culte iHHorus, avait fte nomm^e 
par eux Apollonopolis, parce que Horus correspondait dans leur Pantheon h Apollon. 

' Reseph est done Apollon au meine litre gu' Horus. 

' Ce terme de comparaison hellenique nous permet du meme coup de conclure que 
Reseph et Horus, i^quivalant respectivement "k Apollon, sont, dans une certaine mesure, 
equivalents enlre eux ; or nous avons vu que Persi^e, d'un cot^, etait une forme secondaire, 
spdciale d' Apollon ; de I'autre, se rattachait en partie, phonetiquement et mythologiquement, 
h. Reseph : nous voila amenes h, rapprocher directement Persee d'Horus, et il faut confesser 
qu'h.un autre point de vue ces deux personnages, compares immediatement Fun a I'autre, 
dans leur role de vainqueur du crocodile ou du dragon, offrent d'incontestables analogies.' 

Ed Dusiikiyeh (I m). — Rock cisterns and a wall; the place 
looks like an ancient site. 

El K a n t u r (H o). — Traces of ruins ; a modern graveyard. 

Khurbet el Jczireh (H n). — A ruined village, standing on a 
promontory in the marsh. 

Khixrbet Madd ed Deir (I m). — Part of a ruined vault, with 
a cistern to the south, cemented inside. 

K h i^i r b e t M a 1 e i k a (I n). — Modern houses, inhabited in summer, 
as an 'Azbeh. (See Section A., Khiarbet el Jiyuseh.) 

Khurbet el M u n t a r (H o). — There are here some 40 rock-cut 
tombs : some with kokim, some with loculi. 

Khurbet Sabieh (1 o). — Foundations, apparently not very 
ancient. 



[SHEET X.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 141 

K h u r b e t e z Z e b a b d t: h (H n). — A small modern ruined 



V 



illaee. 




Khurbet ez Zerkiyeh (H n). — Heaps of stones ; no indica- 
tion of date. A spring of the same name close by. 

Mugharet Abu Semaha (H m). — A cave exists here ; some 
rock-cut tombs, like those next to be described, and a large and deep 
cistern or shaft. It is some 12 to 15 feet in diameter, and 40 or 50 feet 
deep ; a channel, 5 or 6 feet wide, leads from it westwards. This would 
appear to have been another of those irrigatory works which are described 
(under head B a h r e t K a t u r i e h) in Section A. 

Mughar esh Shcrif (H m). — A cemetery of tombs cut in 
the soft rock facing east. Fourteen tombs in all were examined. No. i, 
a square chamber 1 1 feet side, 6 or 7 feet high ; No. 2 is closed, but on 
the left hand, above the door, is a design cut in : a cross and 
circle 18 inches high. 

No. 3, close to the last, is a loailus only, under arcosolutni. 

No, 4 has a door 3 feet wide, 4 feet high, and three loculi, 
with their floors level with that of the chamber. The archway 
in front of the door is 6 feet diameter, 8 feet high, and a step of 9 inches 
leads to the floor on the inside. 

No. 5 is a chamber ^\ feet broad, 13J feet to the back. It has on 
either side-wall five kokiiii, each 6 feet by 2 feet, by 3 feet in height. At 
the back is a recess, raised 3 feet from the floor, 1 1 feet 6 inches by 5 feet 
6 inches, with a grave sunk in it parallel with the back wall of the tomb 
chamber : the grave, 6 feet 8 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches wide. A lamp 
recess is cut above the grave on the back wall. 

Nos. 6 and 7 are like No. 4. No. 8, in a cave of round shape, about 
10 feet diameter, and 7 feet high. No. 9 is also round, entered by a 
passage, on the left side of which is a locnlits raised 3 feet above the floor. 
Nine radiating kokim run in from the circumference of the cave. The 
whole is very rudely cut. 

This kind of circular tomb is peculiar to the plain of Sharon, as 
far as found yet. (See Khurbet Ibreiktas, Sheet VII., and 
el Fureidis, Sheet VH I.) 

No. 10 is merely a rude cave. No. 1 1 resembles No. 4 ; the loculi 



142 THE SURVEY OF IVESTERN PALEST/yE. 

are well cut, and measure 5^ feet by 4 feet, with arcosolia ; the lloors 
are level with that of the chamber, which measures 8^ feet either way. 

No. I 2 is the principal tomb ; the door is broken away. The interior 
is lined with good brown cement, and was once painted, remains of 
patterns being still visible. (Compare IMokata 'A b u d. Sheet XIV. 
Section B.) The lociili are three in all, on three walls, measuring 5^ feet 
by 4 feet, being unusually wide. 

No. 13 is a large kokhn tomb, the chamber \2\ feet side, with three 
koMm on each wall 7 feet long, 2\ feet wide, 3 feet high ; the chamber is 
7 feet high. There is a recess at the door for a rolling-stone— one of the 
few instances in which a rolling-stone occurs with kokiin. (Compare 
Khiirbet Ibreiktas, .Sheet VII., Section B.) The archway in 
front of the door is 10 feet high, 8 feet diameter, and cut back 3 feet. 

These tombs face east. On the opposite side of the low ridge was 
another tomb and a cistern. The latter was 6 feet diameter at the bottom, 
10 feet deep, 35 feet diameter at the top. The tomb is a chamber, entered 
by a door 4 feet wide. It measures 21 feet across, and 15 feet to the 
back. On the left a recess 14 feet by 7^ feet, with a floor at a higher 
level than that of the chamber. At the back a recess with three lociili 
on its three walls, each measuring Z\ feet by 4 feet. On the right another 
recess, with two loculi measuring 6^ feet by 3 feet. This last recess 
or side-chamber appears to be unfinished. The height of the central 
chamber is ^\ feet. 

Visited and planned 29th April, 1873. 

Mtighr el Ababsheh (H o). — There are a great number ot 
rock-cut tombs at this place, some 70 or 80 in all, with loculi. In 
one of these there are remains of a tesselated pavement. (Compare 
K h u r b e t M i d i e h. Sheet XIV., Section B.) 

M ukhalid (H m). — The old name was stated by the peasantry to 
be M e d i n e t Abu A b. 

Remains of a ruined vaulted building exist here. It appears to have 
formed one side of a small fortress, and may perhaps be of Crusading 
origin. A stone ring was found in the north wall for tying a horse or 
mule to, which suggests that this wall was in the interior, and that the 
vault ran round a central area. The vault is 82 feet long by 22 feet wide 
inside, the walls 5 feet thick. A loophole 18 inches wide, and a door 



[SHEET X.] ARCILEOLOGY. 143 

closed and 3^ feet wide, exist in the south or outer wall. In tlie north 
wall is a similar loophole, stopped up, and a door 7 feet wide. 

In the south-west corner are remains of a small tower 21 feet square 
inside originally ; the north wall of this is broken down. The tower 
projects 5 feet beyond the south wall, and has on that side an entrance 

7 feet wide, with two loopholes above. 

The door in the north wall of the vault has an arch, with a very llat 
point, 8 feet diameter, 3 feet high. The roof of the vault is also pointed, 
and covered with hard brownish cement, like that used at Caesarea. 
(Sheet VII.) This extends down to the springing- of the vault arch. 
The pointed arches of the windows and doors are also comparatively 
flat. 

The masonry is of stones 8 inches to 9 inches square, roughly dressed 
and carefully coursed, like the masonry at Caesarea. . 

In the roof are square manholes. In the north-west corner a staircase 

8 feet wide leads up parallel to the north wall ; seven steps remain. 

The total height of the vault is over 20 feet ; the doorways are some 
1 2 feet high. There are remains of an upper story. The stone used is 
the soft friable sandstone of the neighbourhood. 

The well below is fairly well built (B i y a r e t K a w i r k) of masonry 
similar to that of the tower, and has some large slabs of stone lying near, 
and a trough or cistern 1 5 feet square attached ; this is well cemented 
inside. The supply is from a spring beneath. 

Between the ruin and the well, on the side of the hill, are six circular 
rock-cut granaries (like Metamir), 5 feet diameter, 6 to 10 feet deep. 
There is also a circular cistern 12 feet diameter, of small masonry, like 
that of the ruin. 

Visited 28th April, 1873. 

Tabsor (H o). — Immediately west of the village is a small ruined 
building ; two small chambers cemented inside with hard brown cement. 
In one are fragments of tesselated pavement. The building resembled a 
cistern. 

Tell el I f s h a r (I m). — A small mound, apparently artificial. 

U m m S u r (J m). — The remains appear to belong to a modern 
ruined village, but in the middle is a ruined wall of solid construction like 



144 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the foundation of a tower, the stones being from i foot to 2 feet in length. 
The mortar is soft, and a great deal of red sand and chopped straw is used 
in it. This looks as if the work were modern. To the west is another 
wall and this runs south and is S feet high in places. It seems to have 
enclosed a square area of about 100 yards side, and in the south-east 
corner a mound and foundations of a wall, running west, were found. 
There are several holes (probably INI e t a m i r""') cut in the hard red sand, 
5 or 6 feet deep, outside the ruin. 

East of these remains there is a little square building, 25 feet side, 
walls 2)\ feet thick and about 5 feet high, of stones 2 feet by i foot by i 
foot, with irregular vertical joints. The mortar is brown and hard, with 
much pottery in it, and the joints are roughly pointed with brown mortar. 
On these walls is a layer of rubble, of stones 3 inches to 5 inches side, in 
hard brown mortar. There are several fine oak-trees round this ruin. 

Visited 5th May, 1873. 

*A Matmur {pi. Met amir) is a round well-like excavation with a domed roof, cut 
in rock or built up with masonry. It is used for the storage of corn. In some villages these 
granaries are merely dug in the earth and lined with mud. They serve to conceal the village 
stores from thieves. — C. R. C. 



SHEET X.— SECTION C. 

North of IMukhalid the country belongs to the 'Arab el Ha w a r i t h, 
whose chief is an Emir. The tribe is not now numerous, but claims at 
one time to have ruled from Tiberias to Caesarea and from 'Akka to 
Beisan. 

Immediately south of Cjesarea are the D a m a 1 k h a h and I\I u s a i 
Arabs, also small tribes. 

South of Mukhalid are the Nefeiat or club-bearing Arabs, who 
roam in the marshes and oak woods. 



VOL. II. 19 



SHEET XL— SECTION A. 

Orography. — 3697 square miles of the Samaritan hills and of the plain 
to the west are contained in this Sheet. There are three natural divisions 
of the country, viz. : ist. The hills north of Wady Shair ; 2nd. The hills 
south of Wady Shair ; 3rd. The plain to the west. 

I. The Northern Hills. The valley of Wady Shair is en- 
closed on the north by a chain of hills, the watershed of which is twisted, 
running northwards from the great outpost of Mount Ebal, 3,077 feet 
above the sea, as far as Y a s i d, rather over 4 miles, where the 
elevation is only 2,240 feet. Thence a range runs nearly due west 
to Sheikh Beiyazid 2,375 and Bir 'A s u r {west of a pass or 
saddle in the ridge) 1,675 ^^^^> whence it gradually descends towards 
the plain. 

The country within this hill theatre consists of spurs from the main 
chain and open valley ; a valley comes down from Y a s i d at the foot 
of the chain of Sheikh Beiyazid, and becomes flat and open in the 
neighbourhood of Sebustieh (Samaria), which stands on a knoll south of 
it, joined only by a low saddle on the east to a spur which runs out north- 
west from Mount Ebal. This valley joins the main line of Wady Shair, 
which runs north-west from Nablus, at Ram in, and thence enters the 
maritime plain by a narrow pass. 

The watershed is considerably contorted north of Yasid. It runs 
in a curve round to the neighbourhood of Sanur and between that 
village and Jeba it is only about 1,200 feet above the sea, leaving on 
the east the curious basin called Merj el Ghuruk ('Meadow of 
Drowning'), which has no oudet. From Sanur it rises into a long 
ridge, 1,768 feet above the sea, in the neighbourhood of Z a vv i e h, with 
open valleys on the east, near K u b a t i e h and M e s e 1 i e h. 



[SffEE T AV. ] OROGRAPH Y. 



147 



This line is not, however, tlie main backbone of the country, wliich 
runs further east. (Sheet XII.) 

North of the Sheikh Beiyazid range, which has steep slopes 
both north and south, there is a small open plain, above which stands 
'Ajjeh on the north and 'A n z a towards the east. A ridge on the 
north shuts it in, culminating in Batn en N u ry {1,660 feet), and on 
this is Ram eh, in a conspicuous position. On the west a block of very 
rugged high-ground curves round to meet the B i r ' A s i*i r range and 
terminates this small plain (which measures 3 miles east and west, by i^ 
north and south) near 'Attara; the drainage of the plain passes by a 
narrow gorge down W a d y M a s s i n. 

The north portion of the Sheet is occupied by a block of hills about 
1,100 feet above the sea, reaching the plain near Zeita and Baka, 
where the elevation is about 350 feet. 

Mount Ebal itself is the most remarkable feature on the Sheet, 
and a conspicuous object from the plains. On the east is a deep gorge 
which runs north.wards, called Wady Beidan; this valley rises near 
'Askar and joins the great Wady Farih. (Sheet XII.) The whole 
gorge consists of precipitous cliffs, with the steep slopes of Ebal rising 
above them 1,400 feet high. 

On the south-east the open plain (S a h e 1 'Askar) beneath Ebal 
forms the northern portion of the Mukhnah (Sheet XIV.), and is 
about i^ miles broad, east and west, the drainage being into the Jordan 
valley. 

The Vale of Shechem, about \ mile to \ mile broad, separates Ebal 
from Gerizim, the summits of the two being 2 miles apart ; the watershed 
between the two runs close to the barracks in the vale, being east of the 
double theatre in the hills about to be described ; the ground here is some 
1,600 feet above the Mediterranean. 

Mount Ebal is a dome-shaped mountain, its summit elongated north 
and south. On the west a spur runs out, gradually losing in height, till at 
Zawata the elevation is only 1,554 feet; 3 miles west of the main 
summit, on the east slope of a knoll of this spur, called R a s el K a d )-, 
stands the sacred place 'A mad ed Din. The southern slopes of 
Ebal are extremely steep, and there is a low ridge of cliff near the summit. 

1 9 — 2 



148 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

East of Nablus, due south of the summit, there is a recess in the moun- 
tain forming a sort of natural theatre about \ mile in diameter. 

A corresponding hollow in the side of Gerizim near the J a ni i a el 
'A m u d is of about equal size, the plain between being rather more than 
\ mile north and south. The recess in Ebal is backed by a cliff on the 
north, and the slope behind the little mosque, at the foot of Gerizim, is 
e.xtremely steep. 

The whole of Mount Ebal has a very desolate appearance. It is bare 
and very rocky, the upper part of grey nummulitic limestone, with white 
chalk beneath. There are no trees on it, and only here and there a little 
corn-land, lower down, and extensive cactus gardens on the lower slopes of 
the mountain near the City of Shechem. Gerizim is equally stony and 
desolate in appearance, except In the neighbourhood of Ras el 'Ain, where 
the beautiful gardens of the vale climb up the lower slopes of the moun- 
tain. On the east side there is a considerable thickness of white chalk 
visible below the grey (or almost blue) numm.ulitic limestone. 

II. The Southern Hills. These culminate in Gerizim on the 
south-east. This mountain is inferior In height to Ebal, being only 2,849 
feet at Its highest point. It consists of a ridge running north and south, 
forming at the top a small plateau \ mile in length. A low saddle on the 
south connects this block of mountain with the range of Sheikh Sel- 
man el Far si, supposed to be Mount Salmon (Judg. ix. 48 ; Ps. Ixviii. 
14), 2,641 feet above the sea. A spur runs out north from the plateau 
on the top of Gerizim, and encloses on the east the recess above noticed. 
Another spur runs out west, corresponding to the Ras el Kady on Ebal, 
and descends to Sheikh es Sireh, which is about 2,000 feet above 
the sea. 

The northern slopes of Gerizim are steep in all parts, and south of 
Nablus there are vertical cliffs near the base of the mountain. 

In continuation of the spur of Sheikh es Sireh a ridge runs out 
from Gerizim north-west, forming the southern limit of W a d y S h d i r. 
It reaches for about 7 miles to Beit Lid, which has an elevation 1,370 
feet above the sea, and thence to Kefr el Lebad, forming a barrier 
between the plain and the valley of Wady Shdir below Nablus. 

South of this a confused block of spurs runs down westwards from the 
watershed, and resembles in character the northern district of Sheet XIV. 



[SHEET XI.] OROGRAPHY. 149 

(See Section A.) They are bounded by the plain on the west, where they 
average about 500 feet in height, the slope being very regular and gradual 
from about 2,600 at the watershed, a fall of over 2,000 feet in a distance 
of 12 to 14 miles. 

III. The Plain. This is bounded on the east by the main road at 
the foot of the hills. The great valley which forms the Nahr Iskan- 
deruneh (Sheet X.) runs northwards up this plain, and collects the 
entire drainage of the Wady Shair or Samaria basin, and that of the 
hill-country immediately south of it. The drainage of the plain below 
Rameh is carried down Wady el Mai eh to the Nahr el 
M i f j a r, north of the last river (Sheet VII.). A low shed running north- 
west, near Tireh, separates the Iskanderuneh basin from that of Nahr 
el Falik (Sheet X.), which receives the drainage of Wady Sir and of the 
hills south of the spur on which stand K e f r Z i b a d and R a k a B c n i 
Sab. 

The main valley to the Nahr Iskanderuneh has a course of 
12 miles on the present Sheet. 

The hill-country consists almost entirely of soft white chalk, capped at 
Nablus by the nummulitic limestone of Ebal and Gerizim, and overlying 
harder formations. The hills are sparsely covered with scrub, and corn 
is grown upon terraces artificially cut in the sides, especially in the lower 
spurs of the Wady Shair basin and near the plain. 

Beautiful and extensive olive-groves surround the villages. Barley is 
grown in all the valleys, and especially in the small plains. The country 
is far more open and less rugged than that to the south (Sheet XIV.), 
and the well-built, flourishing villages show it to be fertile. The Vale of 
Shechem is especially well watered and productive, and every species of 
fruit-tree known in Palestine is found there. A large proportion of the 
Maritime Plain is uncultivated, resembling the western portion (Sheet X.), 
but fine crops of barley are grown upon it, the fields belonging to villages 
in the low hills. This cultivation, however, differs annually, and depends 
on the tranquillity of the country. 

HvDROGR,\PHV. — First District, the Northern Hills. 
This district, consisting of porous soil, is principally supplied by spring- 
wells and wells of living water dug down to the harder strata beneath. 



1 5 o THE S UK VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The south slope of Ebal also is destitute of springs, owing to the geological 
formation of the mountain. 

The basin of Wady Shair is well supplied with small springs of clear 
water near the villages, as mentioned with them. At the foot of the 
Sheikh B e i y a z i d range, to the north, there are also many fine 
springs of good water, especially near J eba. These are noticed with the 
villages. 

The most remarkable feature in the district is the ]\I e r j el G h u r u k, 
a plain the water of which has no outlet. It becomes, like the Buttauf 
(Sheet VI.), a marshy lake in winter, and when visited in the end of 
April, 1874, it was covered with a sheet of water extending 3 miles east 
and west, and about i mile north and south, but apparently not of great 
depth. In the end of August, 1872, it was, however, quite dry, and 
covered with stubble. The valleys in the low hills surrounding it bring 
down water in winter into it, but no springs exist near. 

Second District, Southern Hills. The district is again 
supplied by wells and cisterns, and contains no springs except along the 
northern slopes of Gerizim, and in the Vale of Shechem. Nablus boasts 
of twenty-two springs of fresh water in its neighbourhood, and most of 
these are south of the town and on the sides of Gerizim. The principal 
are as follows : 

1. Ras el 'A in. — An abundant perennial supply of cold clear 
water forming a pool even in August, from which a stream is conducted in 
a small channel to gardens below. The water issues from a masonry 
structure which has in it a small recess, as at 'Ain es Sultan. (Sheet 
XVIII.)-"- 

2. 'Ain Sarin a. — East of the mountain. A smaller spring in a 
cavity of the mountain, also perennial, with a little natural basin. 

3. 'Ain Balata. — By the village of the same name, which has a 
running stream of very clear water even in late summer. 

4. 'A i n D u f n a. — A spring over which the modern Turkish barracks 

* These small apses above the springs do not appear to be Christian in origin, as the one 
at Ras el 'Ain points south, that at 'Ain es Sultan west. They seem more probably 
Roman work, niches for a figure of the genius of the spring. — C. R. C. 



[SHEET X/.] HYDROGRAPHY. 151 

are built, also clear and abundant, with a running stream. It takes its 
name ' buried ' from its subterranean position. 

5. 'A i n el 'A s 1. — On the hill-side west of the town, near the H i z n 
Y a k ii b mosque : ' the honey-spring.' 

6. 'A i n el K u s a b. - All near one another west of the town 

7. 'A i n Fuad. \ in the valley, beside which also is el 

8. 'A in esh S h e r i s h. ) Khusfy, a spring well. 

9. 'A i n Beit Ilmch. — A very fine supply of good water beside 
the road, forming a clear pool, and issuing from an ancient building. It 
sends a good stream down the valley. 

The extraordinary fact of a well dug close to these springs (Jacob's 
Well) is worthy of notice. The well is specially described in Section B. 

Third District, the Plain. — The perennial streams of 
Sheet X. are fed by groups of fine springs, which occur about four 
miles from the hills. Thus Wady Maleh is fed by the springs called 
'Ayun el Jennahat, which form a long pool in the valley. The 
three groups, 'Ayun e d D a 1 )•, 'A y u n el J e h a s h, 'A y u n e z 
Z u t i y e h, are all abundant, and form marshy streams surrounded with 
long grass. They feed the N a h r I s k a n d e r u n e h. Further south 
are the small springs called 'A y u n el H u f i y i r, the largest of which 
comes up in a pit cut or dug in the ground, some 10 feet across ; the 
'Ayun el Kufy are of similar character. E.xcepting these springs, 
the plain is unsupplied with water, and towards the south artificial ponds 
occur for supply of the villages. 

Topography. — There are seven Government Divisions on the present 
Sheet, and a total of 99 inhabited towns and villages, which are 
enumerated according to the districts, beginning with the most northern. 
All the districts belong to the IMutaserriflik of Nablus. 

I. — SriAfUVWIVET EL GlIARBIVEH. 

I. 'At til (K m). — A considerable village, on a hill at the edge of 
the plain, with open ground to the north and a broad valley to the south. 
It has round it a small olive-grov-e, and is supplied by cisterns. 



152 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

2. Baka el Gharbiych (K 1). — A village of moderate size 
on the plain ; it is very white and conspicuous, of stone and mud, with a 
few olives, and an orchard to the south ; several wells and springs west 
and north. The main north road passes through it. 

3. Baka esh Sherkiyeh (K 1). — A very small hamlet on 
high ground, with olives. It has a well to the south and a little 
Mukam to the north ; scattered olives surround it, and there are two or 
three palms close by. A few houses stand separate, on the south-east, near 
a second Mukam, called Abu N a r (' Father of Fire '). 

4. D c i r el Ghusun (Km). — A village of moderate size, on a 
hill, with a well (B i r el 'Akaribeh) to the west. On the north is 
ojDen low ground. It is surrounded with magnificent groves of olives, 
occupying an area of about three square miles towards the south. 

5. J el am eh (J 1). — A small mud hamlet on the side of a 
knoll. 

6. J e 1 1 (J 1). — Evidently an ancient site ; a moderate-sized village 
of mud and stone on a high mound at the edge of the plain. It stands 
beside the main road to the north, near the junction with that from 
Shechem, and about 2^ miles north of the road throusfh 'Attil to the ereat 
plain. (Sheet VIII.) The village is surrounded with wells, and has a few- 
olives on the west. There are caves to the north (see Section B.), and 
springs about a mile to the north-west. 

This place is perhaps Gitta, the native place of Simon Magus, a 
Samaritan town. (Reland Pal., p. 813.) It may also perhaps be the Jethu, 
or Gath, of Thothmes III., a place north of the road which he pursued to 
Megiddo. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' April, 1876, p. 89.) It is also 
mentioned apparently in the ' Samaritan Chronicle.' (' Quarterly State- 
ment,' 1876, p. 196.) 

7. Kakon (J m). — A large village, which is, however, quite 
modern, having been built up by a mixed population coming from the hiil 
villages, round the fine central tower (see Section B.), which is ancient. 
The place is very conspicuous, though the ground to the north is rather 
higher. The houses are of stone and mud, the water supply from 
wells ; the neighbourhood round is arable land. 

This place is noticed by Benjamin of Tudela, who identifies it with 



{SHEET AV] TOPOGRAPHY. 



'DJ 



Keilah (1160 a.d.). Marino Sanuto shows it on his map under the title 
Caconanatat, and in his text gives it as Kakon-el-Anatah. 

S. Nuzlet esh Sherkiyeh (K 1). — A very small hamlet, with 
a well on the south, and a few olives. It stands on high ground, and 
has a palm-tree near. 

9. Nuzlet et Tinat (K 1). — A little hamlet with fig-trees, and 
a well to the west on low ground. It has caves opposite to it on the 
south. 

10. Xuzlet el Wusta (K 1). — Yet smaller, on a spur with a 
few trees. 

11. Shellalif (I m). — A few mud hovels near springs. 

12. Shuweikeh (J m). — A good-sized village on high ground 

near the plain, with wells to the west. It is mentioned in the ' Samaritan 

Chronicle,' and its Samaritan name given as Suchah. 

Guerin calls attention to the fact that the antiquity of this site is proved by the existence 
of old cisterns cut in the rock, and that the name is a diminutive form of the Hebrew 
Shocoh or Socoh, a name home by two towns in the tribe of Judah. He suggests that here 
was another town that bore the same name. 

13. Zeita (K 1). — A good-sized village on high ground at the 

edge of the plain. It is surrounded with fig-gardens, and has olives to 

the south. It would appear to be an ancient place, having tombs to the 

east. The supply is principally from wells, but there is a small spring 

('A in esh Shabutbut)on the south-west. The camp was pitched 

on high ground, south-east of the village, among olives. Two sacred 

places exist to the south side of the village. 

' Here I found, just as at Jett, an ancient capital hollowed out to make a mortar, and 
used for the same purpose. A very good well, constructed of cut stone, seems ancient.' — 
Guerin, ' Samaria,' i. 340. 

14. Zelefeh (II). — A very small hamlet, with springs to the 
south. 

II. — SlIARAWIVET ESH ShERKIVEH. 

I. 'Ajjeh (L m). — A village of small size, but of ancient appear- 
ance, perched on the edge of a hill, and built of stone, with olive groves 
below. It has a cistern on the south-east. 

VOL. II. 20 



154 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

2. 'Arrabeh (LI). — A very large village on the south slope of 
a ridge, the northern houses on high ground. There is a small mosque 
in the centre, and one or two large buildings, including the Sheikh's 
house. The water supply is entirely from wells within the village, and 
on the road-side towards the north. There is a ridge of very barren 
rock between the village on the south and the plain (M e r j 'Arrabeh) 
on the north. Scattered olives grow round the village, but the immediate 
neighbourhood is very bare. The villagers are turbulent and rich, owning 
very fine lands in the northern plain. 

' This town is situated on a plateau. ... It is divided into three quarters, one of which 
was once surrounded by a wall flanked with small towers. This wall is now in great part de- 
stroyed, having been overthrown in a siege sustained some years ago during a revolt against 
the Caimacam of Nablus. 

' 'Arrabeh has certainly succeeded an ancient town of which no mention is anywhere made. 
Probably it bore the name of the present town. There still remain cisterns cut in the rock, 
and a great many cut stones built up in modern houses. Before the Mohammedan conquest 
a church stood here, from the materials of which a mosque has been erected. This is now, 
in its turn, falling into ruins. We remarked above the entrance a beautiful monolithic lintel 
in white marble, in the middle of which was formerly engraved a cross with equal branches, 
which the Moslems have chipped out. It occupied the middle of a rectangle flanked by two 
triangles, one on either side, all three framed in a kind of rectangular cartouche. The lintel 
is alone sufficient to fix the date of the church at the period assigned by me. The church 
was decorated internally with columns having Corinthian capitals, and fluting half spiral, half 
vertical. Some fragments of the shafts still remain in the mosque, together with a beautiful 
piece of frieze formerly sculptured with interlaced links.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 218. 

3. 'At tar a (L m). — A small stone village on a spur of mountain, 
with a few olives and a well on the west. 

This place is mentioned in the ' Onomasticon ' (s. v. Atharoth) as a 
city of Ephraim, north of Sebaste, and 4 miles from it. The distance is 
exact. 

4. 'Ellar (K m). — A small village on the side of a hill, with olives 
and wells. The name suggests its identity with Aner, a Levitical city of 
Manasseh (i Chron. vi. 70). 

5. Fahmeh (L m). — A small mud hamlet on a saddle beneath the 
hill (B a t n e n N u r y). It has a well and a fig-garden towards the north. 

6. Kefr Raay (L m). — A large village on high ground, with 
good olives to the south, and two wells. 

7. E r Ram eh (L m). — A conspicuous village on a hilly knoll 



[SHEET X/.] TOPOGRAPHY. 155 

above the small plain, with a hij^h central house. It is of moderate size, 
with olives below. The sides of the hill are steep. 

This place appears to be Remcth of Issachar (Joshua xi.x. 21). (See 
Section C. for traditions as to Neby Hazkin at this village.) 

8. Saida (K 1).— A small village, with a well on the east on the 
back of a lonof and bare ridge. It has a few trees to the east. 

9. Silct edh Dhahr (L m). — A good-sized and flourishing 
village, built on a hill slope, with many good stone houses. It is sur- 
rounded by fine groves of olives, and owns good lands in the plain. The 
principal water supply is from a good spring of clear water, which appears 
to be perennial. This comes out of the chalk rock on the slope of the 
hill by the main road above the village on the north-cast. It is called 
'A i n S i 1 e h, and is half-a-mile from the houses. The name of the 
sacred place opposite the village on the north is of special interest : Neby 
Lawin, signifying the ' Levite Prophet.' This title in the Samaritan 
Book of Joshua is applied to Sanballat, the enemy of Nehemiah. (See 
Section C.) 

III. — Mesharik el Jekrar. 

1. 'A n z a (M m). — A village of ancient appearance on a hill perched 
above the plain, the houses descending the slope on the south-east. It 
has two wells down the hill and a good olive grove near the road on the 
south. The houses are of stone. 

2. 'Asiret el Hatab (1\I n). — A large village on a round knoll, 
with olive groves on every side. 

This would appear to be an ancient Asor, but no notice has 
been found to agree with its position, unless it be the Esora of 
Judith (iv. 4). 

3. F e n d a k ii m i y e h (L m).— A very small village on the slope of 
the hill, with three springs to the south-west, small and marshy. A sacred 
cave exists above it on the south. (See Section B.) The name of this 
village seems to be a corruption of the Greek Pentecomias (compare 
Terkumieh, Sheet XXL), perhaps referring to the group of 'five villages' 
in its vicinity. 

4. J e b a (M m). — A flourishing village on the hill-side. The houses 

20 — 2 



156 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

well built of stone. It is surrounded • with fine olive groves, and has 
several wells. The camp was established on the west on open arable 
ground, close to one well which has a Shaduf, or long pole with a 
weight for drawing up water. There is potters' clay close by, and a 
pottery in the village. The place is the K u r s i, or ' throne ' of the famous 
Jerrar family, once governors of this district. It is apparently an ancient 
site. There is a rock-cut tomb on the east. This place seems to be the 
Gabe of the ' Onomasticon,' 16 miles east of Csesarea (s. v. Gabathon), 
although the distance is not exact; also probably the Geba of Judith 
(iii. 10). 

5. Judeideh (N n). — A good-sized village on tlat ground, with a 
few olives. 

6. J urba (M 1). — A small village on the side of a slope, with olives 
to the south. 

7. Kubatieh (M 1). — A large stone village on a slope, east of a 
small plain which is full of olives. It has a sacred place on the south 
(Sheikh Theljy), and a good orange garden near the village. 

' Kubatieh stands upon a rocky hill, \Yhose sides are pierced by numerous cisterns of 
ancient origin, some of ^Yhich are partly filled up and in bad repair ; others are still used by 
the people. The latter are closed at the mouth by great round stones in form of a mill- 
stone, pierced in the centre. This second opening is itself closed by another stone, which is 
taken away when the water is drawn. This system of closed wells and cisterns by means of 
a stone is of extreme antiquity. It is found in many parts of Palestine, and was in use before 
the Hebrew conquest.' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' i. 343. 

8. INI e i t h a 1 1 1 n (M m). — A village of moderate size, of stones and 
mud, with a well to the north, situate at the foot of a high hill, with a few 
olives in the plain. 

9. INI e r k e h (M 1). — A hamlet on the side of a bare hill. 

10. Meselieh (M 1). — A small village, with a detached portion to 
the north, and placed on a slope, with a hill to the south, and surrounded 
by good olive-groves, with an open valley called Wady el Melek (' the 
King's Valley') on the north. The water-supply is from wells, some of 
which have an ancient appearance. They are mainly supplied with rain- 
water. 

'In 1876 I proposed to identify the village of Meselieh, or Mithilia, south of Jenin, with 
the Bethulia of the Book of Judith, supposing the substitution of M for B, of which there are 
occasional instances in Syrian nomenclature. The indications of the site given in the 



[SHEET XL] TOPOGRAPHY. 157 

Apocr)^pha are tolerably distinct Bethulia stood on a hill, but not apparently on the top, 
which is mentioned separately (Judith vi. 12). There were springs or wells beneath the 
town (verse 11), and the houses were above these (verse 13). The city stood in the hill- 
country not far from the plain (verse 11), and apparently near Dothan (Judith iv. 6). The 
army of Holofernes was visible when encamped near Dothan (Judith vii. 3, 4), by the spring 
in the valley near Bethulia (verses 3-7). 

' The site usually supposed to represent Bethulia — namely, the strong village of Sanur — 
does not fulfil these various requisites ; but the topography of the Book of Judith, as a whole, 
is so consistent and easily understood, that it seems probable that Bethulia was an actual site. 
V'isiting Mithilia on our way to Shechem (see Sheet XI. of the Survey), we found a small 
ruinous village on the slope of the hill. Beneath it are ancient wells, and above it a rounded 
hill-top, commanding a tolerably extensive view. The north-east part of the great plain, 
Gilboa, Tabor, and Nazareth, are clearly seen. West of these a neighbouring hill hides Jenin 
and Wady Bel'ameh (the Belmaim, probably, of the narrative) ; but further west Carmel 
appears behind the ridge of Sheikh Iskandcr, and part of the plain of 'Arrabeh, close to 
Dothan, is seen. A broad corn-vale, called " The King's Valley," extends north-west from 
Meselieh towards Dothan, a distance of only 3 miles. There is a low shed formed by rising 
ground bet\\-een two hills, separating this valley from the Dothain plain ; and at the latter 
site is the spring beside which, probably, the Assyrian army is supposed by the old Jewish 
novelist to have encamped. In imagination one might see the stately Judith walking through 
the down-trodden corn-fields and shady olive-groves, while on the rugged hillside above the 
men of the city " looked after her until she was gone down the mountain, and till she had 
passed the valley, and could see her no more'" (Judith x. 10). — C. R. C, 'Quarterly 
Statement,' July, 18S1. 

II. Sanur (M m). — A small fortified village, in a very strong 
position, guarding a pass into the plain east of it. The village is placed on 
the top of an isolated hill, joined only by a low rocky ledge on the north- 
west to the main chain. 

Portions of a surrounding wall are still visible, and the place has the 
appearance of a fortress. The houses are high and well built, especially 
the Sheikh's palace. 

This is still the chief town of one branch of the Jerrar family. The 
place was formerly fortified, and sustained a siege of six months from 
Jezzar Pacha without being taken. In 1830 it was taken by 'Abdallah 
Pacha after three or four months' siege, the Sheikh having followed the 
example of Dhahr el 'Amr in declaring himself independent. 

The place was ruined from the bombardment in 1S40, having been 
destroyed by Ibrahim Pacha. The fortress built by the Jerrar has never 
been restored, but the place now has a population of perhaps 200 or 300 
souls. 

The importance of Sanur lies in the fact that it has been identified first by \'on Raumer, 
and afterwards by other travellers and writers, including Guerin, with the Bethulia of the 



15S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Book of Judith. The requirements of the site — that it was a stony place, that it was near 
Dothaim, that it overlooked the plain of Esdraelon— arc all satisfied by the position of Sanur, 
as may be seen by reference to the map. The hill on which the modern village stands is 
described by Guerin as nearly circular in form, rising as if by successive terraces ; the slopes 
are steep, and pierced by numerous cisterns hollowed in the rock. The hill is completely 
isolated on three sides ; on the fourth, by means of a long tongue of rock, lower than the 
plateau on which the village stands, it is attached to other hills. ' It seems to have been 
predestined to serve as the site of a stronghold. A walled enclosure, flanked by towers, 
formerly surmounted the summit ; it is now in part over the town. A great number of houses 
are also demolished or partly rebuilt. That of the Sheikh, which I visited, is like a small 
fort." — Guerin, 'Samaria,' i. 45. 

As regards the name of Bethulia, which is nowhere else mentioned, we may argue that 
even if the story be apocr)-phal, there is no reason to suppose that the writer invented the 
name, any more than the names of Dothaim and Esdraelon, also found in the passage. 
Besides, the place is again alluded to in three or four other passages of the same book. The 
name has now entirely perished, so far as we know. That of Sanur ' may mean an 
" aqueduct '" (Name Lists, p. igr). The other sites which have been proposed are the 
Frank Mountain and Beit-Oula, which are in the south of Palestine ; Safed, which is 
very far from Dothaim and the plain of Esdraelon ; and Beit Elfa, also too far from these 
places. 

12. S i r i s (N m). — A small village in a valley, with olives. 

13. Tulluza (M n). — A good-sized village, well built, with a 
central Sheikh's house. It stands on a knoll, with a very steep descent 
on the east, and the sides of the hill are covered with beautiful groves of 
olives. To the east it commands a \iew down \\' a d y F a r a h, and to 
the west over the broad spurs from Ebal. The women of the village go 
down to the fine springs on the east, about a mile distant, where is a 
perennial supply of good water. The place is mentioned by Sir John 
Maundeville in 1322 a.d. as Deluze. 

14. Yasid (M m). — A village of moderate size on a knoll, with a 
few trees. 

15. Ez Zawieh (INI m). — A hamlet on a hill-side, with a well to 
the west. It seems to take its name from the sudden twist in the road 
near the place. 

IV. — Wady esh Shair. 

I. 'A n e b t a (K m). — A village of moderate size in the valley, with 
olives round it. It appears to be an ancient site, having rock-cut tombs 
and a tank. There is also a mill in the valley, one of several along its 
course. 



[SHEET XI.] TOPOGRAPHY. 159 

2. Beit Imrin (I. n).— A village of moderate size in llic valley 
at the foot of the Sheikh B e i v a z i d chain. 1 1 is built of stone, and 
has a spring in the valley to the south, and olives round it on the east 
and west. Some of the inhabitants are Greek Christians. 

3. B e i t Lid (L n). — A village of small size, built on a hill rising 
600 feet above the valley south of it. The houses are of stone, and 
supplied by a well on the south-east, lower down. A few olives grow- 
round the village. 

4. Bel ah (K m). — A good-sized village on very high ground, 
with magnificent groves of olives to the west, and supplied by cisterns. 
It is apparently an ancient site, having rock-cut tombs. The name 
suggests its identity with Bileam, a town in the western half of Manasseh 
(i Chron. vi. 70). 

5. El Bizarieh (L m). — A small hamlet on high ground, with 
springs to the east. Some of the sons of Jacob are said to be buried here. 

6., Burka (L m). — A large stone village on a terrace, with a good 
grove of olives and two springs to the west, and well to the south. The 
road ascends the pass through the village. There are cactus hedges 
round the gardens north of the village, and a large threshing-floor in the 
middle of the place^ which is built in a straggling manner along the hill- 
side. Some of its inhabitants are Greek Christians. 

7. Deir Sheraf (L n). — A village of small size, situate in a 
hollow. Above it, beside the road on the east, is a good spring, apparently 
perennial, and round this are vegetable gardens irrigated with its waters. 
Figs and olives also grow in the vicinity. 

8. Dennabeh (Km). — A good-sized village of mud and stone 
on high ground, with a few trees and a well to the west. 

9. Jennesinia (M n). — A small hamlet in a valley, with olives 
round it. 

10. Kefr el Lebad (Km). — A small stone village on high 
ground, with a few olives. The valley to the north, near 'Anebta, flows 
with water in spring. 

11. Kefr Rum man (K m). — A small hamlet on the side of the 
mountain, with a well to the north and olives. 



i6o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

12. K use in (L n). — A village on the side of a ridge, apparently- 
supplied by the water of the valley on the north, which has a Howing 
stream. A spring exists about three-quarters of a mile south-east in the 
viilley. 

13. En Nakurah (L n). — A small stone village on the slope 
of the hill. It has olives, which appear to grow half wild, and a spring 
of good water, apparently perennial, in the valley to the north, near which 
are vegetable gardens. A small Mukam stands above the village, on the 
south. 

14. N usf J ebi 1 (M n). — A small village in an open valley, with 

a spring to the east and olives. Some of the inhabitants are Greek 

Christians. 

Here Guerin found an ancient sarcophagus serving as a trough. Beside it lay its former 
cover of one stone, shaped en dos d'ane. 

15. Ram in (L m).— A village of moderate size, on a hill, with a 
second knoll to the east, whence its name. It has a few olives beneath it. 

16. Sebustieh (L n). — A large and flourishing village, of 
stone and mud houses, on the hill of the ancient Samaria. (See 
also Section B.) The position is a very fine one ; the hill rises 
some 400 to 500 feet above the open valley on the north, and is isolated 
on all sides but the east, where a narrow saddle exists some 200 feet lower 
than the top of the hill. There is a flat plateau on the top, on the east 
end of which the village stands, the plateau extending westwards for over 
half a mile. A higher knoll rises from the plateau, west of the village, 
from which a fine view is obtained as far as the Mediterranean Sea. The 
whole hill consists of soft soil, and is terraced to the very top. On the 
north it is bare and white, with steep slopes, and a few olives ; a sort of 
recess exists on this side, which is all plough-land, in whifl^tand the lower 
columns. On the south a beautiful olive-grove, rising in terrace above 
terrace, completely covers the sides of the hill, and a small extent of open 
terraced-land, for growing barley, exists towards the west and at the top. 

The village itself is ill-built, and modern, with ruins of a Crusading 
church ofNeby Yahyah (St. John the Baptist), towards the north- 
west. (See Section B.) 

Samaria commands two main roads, that from Shechem, to the north. 



\_SHEET XI.'] TOPOGRAPHY. i6t 

which passes beneath it on the east, and that to the plain from Shechem, 
which runs west of it, in the valley, about two miles distant. 

A sarcophagus lies by the road on the north-east, but no rock-cut 
tombs have as yet been noticed on the hill, though possibly hidden 
beneath the present plough-land. There is a large cemetery of rock-cut 
tombs to the north, on the other side of the valley. 

The neighbourhood of Samaria is well supplied with water. In the 
months of July and August a stream was found (in 1872) in the valley 
south of the hill, coming from the spring (A i n Harun), which has a 
good supply of drinkable water, and a conduit leading from it to a small 
ruined mill. Vegetable gardens exist below the spring. 

To the east is a second spring called 'A i n K e f r Rum a, and the 
valley here also flows with water during part of the year, other springs 
existing further up it. 

The threshing-floors of the village are on the plateau north-west of the 
houses. The inhabitants are somewhat turbulent in character, and appear 
to be rich, possessing very good lands. There is a Greek Bishop, who is, 
however, non-resident ; the majority of the inhabitants are JNIoslems, but 
some are Greek Christians. 

17. Sefarin (K n). — A small village on a knoll, upon a ridge, 
supplied by cisterns, with a few olive-trees. 

18. Shiifeh (K n). — A small stone village, in a strong position 
on a ridge, with steep slopes north and south. It is supplied by a well in 
the village, and has a few olives below it. A good view is obtained from 
it over the plain, and the country north and south, as well as to the range 
north of S e b u s t i e h. 

19. Till Keram (J ni). — A long straggling village, on high 
ground above the plain and surrounded with arable land and rock. On 
the west is a small garden of figs, beside which are the threshing-floors 
and a well. There is a second well on the north in the valley. 

There are several good-sized houses in the \'illage, and huge heaps of 
rubbish beneath the houses, which are principally of stone. 

The place is evidently an ancient site ; rock-cut tombs have been 
discovered on the north, half hidden by the plough-soil, and a winepress 
near them. 

VOL. 11. 21 



1 62 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIXE. 

Till Keram is mentioned in the ' Samaritan Chronicle ' (see ' Quarterly 
Statement,' October 1876, p. 186), and its ancient Samaritan name is 
there given as Santo Karimathah. 

20. Z a w a t a (M n). — A village of moderate size, on a hill, with 
springs in the valley to the north. 

V. — Jurat 'Amra. 

1. A matin (or Matein) (L o). — A village of moderate size on 
the slope of the hill, with a few olives. 

2. El 'Arak (M o). — Is named from the cliff on which it stands, on 
a sjDur of Gerlzim ; it is of moderate size and built of stone, with two 
springs beneath in the valley, one north, one south ; olives are grown 
on the hill facing the village towards the north. 

3. 'Asiret el Kibliyeh (Mo) — -A village of moderate size on 
low ground, with a well to the south-east. The head of W a d y K a n a h 
passes close to it on the north, from which fact it might be thought con- 
nected with Asher-ham-Michmethah (Josh. xvii. 7), but the place is not in 
sight of Shechem, and the name is not properly speaking a representative 
of the Hebrew. 

4. Beit I b a (L n).^A village of moderate size in low ground, 
with olives ; it is of mud and stone, with a good spring ('A i n e s S u b i a n) 
to the north. The olive groves in the valley are very fine and ancient ; 
here and there is a small mill, and in spring a stream of water. 

5. Beit Udhen (Uden or Uzen) (M n). — A village rather 
smaller than the last, lies on the slope above it ; it has a well on the east 
and a spring on the hill-side to the west. 

6. Burin (M o). — A large village in a valley, with a spring in 
the middle and a few olives. 

7. Ferata (L o). — A small village of ancient appearance, stand- 
ing on a Tell or mound, with a rock-cut tomb to the south, and a sacred 
Mukam to the east. It is mentioned in the fourteenth century by its 
present name, and has been thought to be the ancient Pirathon, but 
the Samaritan Chronicle (dating from the twelfth century), gives its 
ancient name as Ophrah, which suggests its being Ophrah of Abiezer 



[sheet ay.] 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



1 6^ 



(Judges vi. ii). (See 'Quarterly Statement,' October 1876, p. 197.) See 
also Fer on, in the next district (Beni Sab). 

8. Jineid (M n).— A few houses round a ruined town on a hill, 
with a spring to the south. 

9. Kcfr Kaddum (L n). — A good-sized village on low ground, 
with wells and olives ; it has a watch-tower on the side of the chalk hill 
rising over it on the east, and is supplied by wells ; the houses are of stone. 

10. Kcfr Kullin (or K u 1 i 1) (Mo). — A small village at the 
foot of Gerizim, with a spring in it ; it stands higher than the main road. 
This place is mentioned in the Samaritan Chronicle. (See ' Quarterly State- 
ment,' October, 1876, p. 196.) 

11. Kuryct Jit (L n). — A well-built stone village with a high 
house in it, standing on a knoll by the main road, surrounded with olives ; 




111 -1 H'.iU>l , 



it has a well to the west ; the inhabitants are remarkable for their courtesy, 
this part of the country and all the district west of it being little visited 
by tourists. 

12. M a d e m a (M o). — A small hamlet in a valley. 

13. Rafidia (M n). — A good-sized village on a hill-side, with a 
spring above it to the north-east, and vegetable gardens below. The 
inhabitants are Greek Christians, and are said by Robinson to have 
numbered 500. A Protestant school is conspicuous in the middle of 
the village. 



21- 



^^4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

14. Surra (L n). — A small villat^c in a hollow, with a spring on 
the south-east, surrounded by olives. 

15. Till (L o). — A villag-e of moderate size on low ground, with a 
high mound behind it on the south ; it has a well and a few trees, and on 
the west a pool in winter ; the hills to the north are bare and white, but 
terraced to the very top. 

VI.— Beni Sab. 

1. 'Azzijn (K o). — A small village lying low on a hiil-sidc, with 
several wells and olives on every side. The population is stated by Robin- 
son at 290 males, with one Christian family (in 1848). (See Section B.) 

2. Bdka (Beni Sab) (K o). — A well-built stone village in a con- 
spicuous position on a bare ridge, with a few olives, and a well to the 
north ; it is a small place. A high house on the north side formed a 
trigonometrical station in 1873. 

3. F e I a m i e h (J n). — A small hamlet on low ground, near the plain ; 
it appears to be an ancient place, having cisterns and rock-cut tombs. 

4. F e r '6 n (J n). — A small village on a slope, at the edge of the 
plain, with a few trees and a well to the east. The inhabitants are all 
Greek Christians. The place is shown by Marino Sanuto on his map as 
Farona. The name means ' Pharaoh ' but may perhaps be a corruption 
of Pharathoni or Pirathon. (Judges xii. 15 ; i Mace. ix. 50.) 

5. E 1 Funduk (L o). — A small poor village by the main road, 
with wells to the north and two sacred places ; it stands on high ground ; 
it is probably the Talmudic Fondeka, a Samaritan village. (Tal. Jer. 
Demoi, ii. i.) 

6. Furdisia (J n). — A small village near the edge of the hills, 
remarkable only from a palm growing at it. 

7. Irtah (J m). — A small village on a knoll in the plain, with 
wells and cisterns, and a Mukam. A few olives to the north. The 
houses are stone and mud. Perhaps the place called Irtah (No. 60), in 
the Lists of Thothmes III., which appears to have been north of Jaffa. 

8. J i nsafut (L o). — A small village on high ground, with wells to 
the north, and a few olives. 



[SHEET XI.'] TOPOGRAPHY. 165 

9. Jiyus (Jo). — A moderate-sized stone village on a ridge, 
with olives to the south-east. It appears to be an ancient site, having 
rock-cut tombs and ancient wells. 

10. Kalkilieh (lo). — A large somewhat straggling village, 
with cisterns to the north and a pool on the south-west. The houses are 
badly built. This appears to be the Galgula of the 'Onomasticon,' 6 miles 
from Antipatris to the north. (See ' Antipatris,' Sheet XIII., Section A.) 

11. Kcfr 'Abbush (K n). — A stone village of moderate size, on 
a steep round hill, with a few olives. It is supplied by cisterns. The 
ground is very rugged near it. 

12. Kcfr Jcmmal (J n). — A small stone village on a knoll, with 
cisterns. 

13. K e f r L a k i f (K o). — Resembles the last. 

14. K e f r S u r (K n). — A small stone village on a knoll, supplied by 
cisterns. 

15. Kefr Zibad (K n). — A village of moderate size on a small 
plateau, overhanging the valley on the north of it. It is of stone. A 
steep ascent, with a cistern on the north, on the south a fig-garden, and 
beyond this a few olives, where the tents of the Survey party were pitched. 
Near them was a rock-cut tomb. The water supply is from cisterns. 

16. Kulunsaweh (J n). — A village of moderate size, the seat 
of a Caimacam. The houses are principally mud, and surround the 
Crusading tower and hall in the centre (Section B.) ; by the former is a very 
tall palm, and another shorter. The water supply is from wells and from 
the springs ('A y u n e 1 K u f) on the west. This place is, perhaps. 
Plans in the plain, mentioned as a place where the Templars built a castle 
in A.D. 1191 (Geoffry de Vinsauf), which was destroyed in the same year 
by Saladin, and apparently rebuilt. 

I ;. K u r (K n). — A stone village in a strong position on a ridge, 
with a steep slope to the east. It is of moderate size, well-built of stone, 
and supplied by cisterns. Traces of an ancient road e.xist near it. It is 
the K u r s i, or seat of a famous native family (Beit J i y u s i). It is, 
perhaps, worthy of notice that the name resembles the Corea of Josephus, 
near which was a fortress called Alexandrium. About a mile north of 



1 66 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Kur is Khurbet Iskander (Ruin of Alexander) ; the position, however, 
does not seem to agree with the account of Josephus. (See Kuriut, 
Sheet XIV.) 

i8. K u r y e t H aj j a (L o).— A good-sized village on high ground, 
supplied by wells. It has a rock-cut tomb on the west, and appears to 
be an ancient place. It is mentioned in the ' Samaritan Chronicle.' 
('Quarterly Statement,' 1876, p. 196.) 

19. Er Ras (K n). — A small hamlet on a high knoll, supplied 
by cisterns, with olives below on the north. 

20. E t T a i y i b c h (J n.) — A large straggling village on the end of 
a slope, principally built of stone. It is supplied by cisterns and sur- 
rounded with olives. 

21. E t T i r e h (I n). — A conspicuous village on a knoll in the plain, 
surrounded by olives, with a well on the west side. This appears to be 
the Bet-thar of the Itineraries, between Antipatris and Ca;sarea. 
(See Antipatris, Sheet XIII.) 

Nablus (M n), the ancient Shechem and Neapolis, is the capital 
of all the districts on the Sheet. (For the description of the town see 
Section B., p. 203.) 

The water supply is extremely abundant, including the following 
springs : 

1. 'A i n el 'A s 1 (' Spring of Honey'). — In the gardens just south 
of H i z n Y a k u b. 

2. 'A i n K a r y u n. — In the town, near J a m i a e t Ti n e h. 

3. 'A i n H use in. — Near Jamia el B e i k. 

4. ' A i n el J a m i a. — In the great mosque courtyard. 

5. 'A i n el Kas (' Spring of the Cup'). 

6. 'A i n es Sikr ('Springof the Dam'). — West of the great mosque. 

7. 'A i n cs Sekkayeh. — Near the great mosque on the cast. 

8. ' A i n es Sitt (' Spring of the Lady'). 

9. 'A i n e s S i b a t. — Near Jamia en N u s r. 
There are also three principal wells : 

I. Bir ed Dcbaghah ('Well of Tanning'). 



{SHEET A7.] TOPOGRAPHY. 167 

2. B i r c t T c ni a 11 i r. 

3. Bir cd Dihib ('Well of Plane Trees'). — In the cast part of 
the town. 

There are also springs and wells outside the town, 'A in D u f n a on 
the east beneath the barracks, which have recently been completed ; 'A i n 
el K li s a b, on the west, in the valley below the town, amid the gardens ; 
and the beautiful R a s el 'A i n on the south, from which many of the 
others are supplied. By ' A i n el K li s a b there are mills in the valley. 
Water seems to run everywhere, the sound of the streams below in the 
valley being audible late in summer. Small mills exist all along the course 
of Wady Shair. The most famous spring is R a s el 'A i n, called also 
el I\I e r u s r li s a, or ' as cold as lead,' equivalent to icy cold. 

The town resembles Hebron in having city gates but no fortress 
walls. There are, however, low walls of small modern masonry round 
part of the city. 

Large ash-heaps have accumtilated on the north, the east, and the 
west : near the latter is a IMoslem cemetery. On the north-east there is 
also a large cemetery with two conspicuous tombs, having domed buildings 
over them. These graves are close to some of the old rock cut tombs on 
the lower slopes of Ebal. A long olive grove stretches east of the town. 
A few palms grow among the houses. On the west there are also olives. 

The small mosque called Jamia (or Rijal) el 'A m u d, at the 
foot of Gerizim, is perhaps (as believed by the modern Samaritans) the 
site of the 'pillar that was in Shechem.' (Judges i.x. 6 ; Joshua xxiv. 27). 

The town is surrounded with beautiful orchards and vegetable gardens, 
which are specially luxuriant on the lower slopes of Mount Gerizim to the 
south, and in the valley to the west. Among these are to be found olives, 
figs, walnuts, apricots, mulberries, pomegranates, and vines, with a few 
palms. Cactus hedges surround the gardens. The smooth-leaved Indian 
fig was also grown to feed cochineal insects, but this speculation failed. 

West of the town is an open place called e s S u w e i t e r a h, ' The 
Camping Ground,' beneath which are gardens of walnut and white 
mulberry trees beside running water. 

The points of interest at Jacob's Well and Joseph's Tomb, with the 
ruins on Ebal and Gerizim, are noticed in Section B., under those heads, 
by the Arabic names. 



i(3S THE SURVEY OF WESTERLY PALESTINE. 

The ]\Iukdm of 'A m a d c d Din,' The Pillar of the Faith,' perhaps 
represents Joshua's altar on Mount Ebal ; and the name of the hill on 
which it stands, R a s e 1 K a d y, is probably connected with the Cru- 
sading identification of that mountain with Dan, where the Golden Calf 
was set up, as mentioned by John of Wirtzburg, iioo A.n., Fetellus, 
1150A.D., and IVIarino Sanuto, 1320 a.d. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' 
October, 1S76, p. 167.) 

There is a German missionary and a native Protestant missionary in 
the town, who have established schools for children, and a Protestant 
church has been built in the town, and was nearly complete in 18S1. 



The remaining three villarres belong: to the district called M e s h a r i k 
Nablus, which lies principally on Sheet XII. They are as follows : 

1. 'Askar (N o). — A small hamlet of mud and stones on the 
slope of Ebal. It has a spring, 'A i n 'A s k a r, on the hillside lower 
down, and near this remains of ancient sepulchres. 

This place appears to be the Sychar, one Roman mile from Shechem, 
mentioned by the Bordeaux Pilgrim {333 a.d.) and by Jerome (Onom., 
s.v. Sichar). There is every reason to suppose it to be the Sychar of 
the Gospels (John iv. 5). The difficulty as to the initial guttural in the 
name is removed by the Samaritan Chronicle, in which the place is noticed 
and its old name given as Iskar, without the guttural. (See ' Quarterly 
Statement,' July, 1S77, p. 149.) 

2. Balata (No). — This is also a small hamlet in the valley, of 
low hovels, near a beautiful spring. On the east are figs and mulberries. 
The place is mentioned in the Samaritan Book of Joshua (see ' Quarterly 
Statement,' 1876, p. 190) by its present name. 

The name contains the radicals of the Aramaic word for ' oak,' and 
the place seems to be that mentioned as Balanus (translated 'oak') in the 
' Onomasticon,' which is noticed as close to Joseph's tomb, and identified 
with the ' Oak of Shechem.' (Judges ix. 6.) The oak is called Elonah 
Tabah and Shejr el Kheir (' Holy Oak') in the Samaritan Chronicle. (See 
' Quarterly Statement,' July, 1877, p. 149.) 

3. Rujib (N o). — A village of moderate size to the east of the 
plain so named, with a few olives round it. 



[sheet ay.] topography. 169 

In addition to these places, several ruins arc identified with ancient 
sites, as follows : 

'Askar (L o). — A second place called Kirjath Askur, apparendy 
distinct from Iskar, is mentioned in the Samaritan Chronicle. This 
may perhaps be K h u r b e t 'A ska r, near I-\mduk. 

Bethel (N o). — The Samaritans hold that this town stood on 
Gerlzim, and it is mentioned under its old name Luz in the Chronicle, and 
the Arabic translation gives Lozeh. This accounts for the existence 
of the name K h ii r b e t Lozeh, applied to the heaps of stones round 
the Samaritan place of sacrifice on Gerizim. The name is generally 
known ; il is also mentioned by Jerome (' Onomasticon,' s. v. Luza). The 
Crusaders held this to be the Bethel where one of the Golden Calves was 
erected, the other being in Dan, a m.ountain west of Ebal (Marino Sanuto 
and Fetellus), evidendy the modern Ras el Kady, which means ' Judge,' 
which is also the meaning of Dan. 

Beth Bezzin (L o). — Is mentioned in the Samaritan Chronicle as 
apparendy near Shechem ; it is probably the ruin Beit Bezzin. (See 
' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196.) 

Do than (M m). — Was known in the fourth century as 12 Roman 
miles north of Sebasti. This agrees with Tell Dothan 10 English miles 
north of S e b u s t i e h. The name means ' Two Wells ;' two such wells 
exist, one called B i r e 1 H u f i r e h, or ' Well of the Pit.' (See Section B.) 

Mohnah (N o). — Mentioned in the Samaritan Chronicle as a town 
(see 'Quarterly Statement,' October, i8;6, p. 196) ; is probably the ruined 
village of M li k h n a h in the plain of that name. It is possible that this 
plain represents the Biblical Asher-ham-Michmethah, east of (or ' before ') 
Shechem. (Joshua xvii. 7.) 

Soz u ra (or Sorucis or Sozuris) (L n). — An Episcopal town of Pales- 
tine in the fifth century (see Reland, ' Palestine,' ii., 102 1), is shown on 
an old map by Carolo A. Sancto Paulo (Amsterdam, 1704), about the 
position of the important ruined town called K h i:'i r b c t D c i r S e r u r. 

Tiphsah (2 Kings xv. 16) (Lo) seems to have been near Shechem, 
and not improbably identical with the present Khiirbet Tafsah. 

vol.. II. 22 



SHEET XL— SECTION B. 

Arch.eology. 

'A i n Beit lima (INI o). — There is a building of good squared 
masonry with a round arched vault over the spring, seemingly Roman 
or Byzantine work. A plain cornice runs along the wall on the interior. 

'Amad ed Din (M n). — This building is described as follows in 
Mills's ' Samaritans ' (p. 7) : — 

' The southern chamber is 24 feet by 2 i feet, with a dome and fragments 
of a mosaic flooring, red, blue, and white. The second chamber to the 
north is 24 feet by io|- feet. On the north-west is a courtyard 40 feet 
square, and in it a rock-hewn well 18 feet square and deep (a cistern), 
with 10 steps descending under a pointed arch.' The place is said by 
the native Christians to have been a church. 

The masonry has quite a modern apjoearance. The Mukam is built 
on the side of a steep slope and close to the road. For the traditions 
attached to the place see Section C. 

'A n e b t a (K m). — Rock-cut tombs and a tank of good masonry. 

'Askar (N r). — The tombs near it have loculi at the sides; the 
spring of the village has a rock-cut tunnel, and a reservoir with steps. 

The spring comes from a cave which is thus described by Mills 
(p. 11): — 'The cave is 7 feet deep, 3 feet wide, and extends 60 feet 
westwards ; in the floor is a channel 6 inches deep, i foot wide : 
this ends at the distance above given, but the tunnel extends 15 feet 
further. The whole extent has a pointed vault. There are three 
grottoes at the ends, with arched entrances ; that to the southern grotto is 
not pointed.' 

Similar tunnels occur at E 1 L e j j 11 n and 'A n i n. (See Sheet \T II.) 



[sheet A'/.] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 




Vlan 
Uvttrd lu<£j siuw fvnf 



'Azzun (K o). — Near this village are some six or seven drystone 
towers (two marked RR about a mile north by B i r e s R u j u m). The 
finest of these, west of the road from K c f r Z i b a d, 
is 15 feet square outside, with a door to the west 
2^ feet broad, 3 feet high, the top a single lintel, 
rudely squared, with sunk recess, on the inside of 
both lintel and jambs 4 inches broad. The tower is 
some 7 feet high, and has on one side an internal 
buttress, also of drystone, 2\ feet wide, 3I feet long ; 
this assists in supporting the roof of the tower, which 
is of flat slabs of stone. The corner stones of the 
tower arc blocks 4 to 5 feet long. Six courses are 
standing, and a good part of the roof. The wall is 
2\ feet thick ; thus a slab about 7 feet long rests on 
the south wall and on the end of the buttress, and the remaining roof 
slabs are placed across this line above, being about 4 feet long. 

The antiquity of such towers is indicated by the great size and weight 
of the stones used in them, which far surpasses that of the small round 
watch-towers now in use in the vineyards. The stones of the lintels and 
jambs are generally dressed roughly ; the towers occur by rock-cut wine- 
presses in some instances, and very often in wild country now uncul- 
tivated. These towers are marked as square buildings (R) on the plan. 
The natives state them to be ancient vineyard towers. (See Sheet XIV., 
Kurd w a Ibn Hasan). 

Visited and sketched. May 13th, iS 73. 

Baka (K 1). 
There are two places of this name — one called Baka el Gharbiyeh, and the other i i miles 
to the south-cast, called Baka esh Sherkiyeh. The former was visited by Guerin, who describes 
it as a considerable collection of badly built houses standing on a low hill. With the exception 
of a few wells and cisterns, which are evidently ancient, the rest has a modern appearance. 

Beit Bezzin (L o). — Traces of ruins and small scattered stones, 
a broken beehive cistern, 10 or 12 feet deep, and rude caves, one of which 
may probably have been a tomb. The rock is escarped towards the west. 
On the west is K h a 1 le t el K u s r, a dell east of K e f r K a d d u m, 
and in it a watch-tower, drystone, of blocks in some instances 5 feet long ; 
the door is perfect, 2 feet wide outside, and cut back 6 inches inside 
(total 3 feet), with a single lintel stone above. This tower, like those near 



172 



THE SURVEY OF UESTERX EALESTINE. 



'A z z u n and K u r A \v a I.b n Hasan has an appearance of considerable 
antiquity. (See Section A., Beth Bezzin). 
Visited May, 1873. 

Beit Jiffa (K o). — Walls, cisterns, a ruined dome, rude rock-cut 
tombs ; an ancient site, with a modern ruined hamlet on it. 

B e 1 ^ h (K m). — A tomb was broken into near this village about 
the time of the Survey visit. It consisted of a single chamber with a 
locnlus on each of three walls. The door was an in.scribed slab, with rude 
ornamentation. The inscription was as below : 

El2eE 

O 2 M O 

NOS 

Mr 

Eic ^ioi; [lovac, — ' one God alone.' The last letters were supposed by Mr. 
Tyrwhitt Drake to form a date, which, reckoning by the Alexandrian Era, 
would be 332 A.D. 

Bir 'Asiir (L m). — The trigonometrical point on this mountain is 
a remarkable square monument rudely piled up, of good-sized blocks, the 
stones not hewn, the whole pile some 4 or 5 feet high, and solid. 

■ >^ 




J.\COBS WELL. 



Bir Yd k Lib, Jacob's Well— The well is 75 feet deep and 7^ feet 
diameter. The shaft is cylindrical and lined with fair masonry in the 



[sheet XT.'] 



ARCn.EOLOGY. 



173 



upper part, the stones carefully cut on their faces to the required arcs 
to form the circle ; the lower part is cut through a soft bed of limestone, 




O 



and the well appears to be filled by infiltration through the strata. The 
vault over the well is 20 feet long east and west, by 10 broad ; the masonry 



174 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 

is rude, and the arch (which is broken through on the north-east) is rudely 
built and pointed, the lower part of the walls of the vault is cemented. 
The floor is covered with fallen masonry blocks. Access to the well is 
obtained from the surface through the roof of the vault, which is only 
about 6 feet high. 

On the north-west side of the vault is the entrance to a second, at 
right angles, now walled up. In this the bases of two granite columns are 
said to be visible on a floor of tesserce ; the shafts stick out through the 
roof of the second vault, and are visible among dust-heaps and fallen blocks 
of masonry. These vaults are thus shown to be comparatively modern, 
and seem to be at the earliest Crusading work. Another similar shaft of 
grey granite lies beside the road to B a 1 a t a ; they would appear to have 
belonged to the ancient cruciform Church noticed by Arculphus 
(700 A.D.), and by Jerome as standing in 404 a.d., but apparently de- 
stroyed before the Crusading period. The well is said to contain living 
water at certain times. Maundrell in 1697 found 15 feet of water, and in 
1839 (according to Robinson) there was 10 to 12 feet ; in 1S66 Captain 
Anderson found it dry, but with an unbroken earthen pitcher at the 
bottom ; in 1875 it appeared to contain water ; in May, 1881, it was dry. 
It seems possible that the water supply may be connected with the stream 
of 'Ain Balata close by. As late as 1555 a.d. there was an altar in the 
vault, where mass was said annually. This custom fell, however, into 
disuse in the seventeenth century ; but the well still belongs to the Greek 
Church. 

A rude stone wall 4 or 5 feet high surrounds the patch of ground in 
which is the vault. The area enclosed is about 60 yards square. 

Visited July, 1872 ; loth June, 1875, and 20th May, 1881. 

' Jacob's Well is situated at the spot where the Vale of Shechem merges into the Plain ot 
el Mukhnah, and the site is acknowledged by Jews, Moslems, and Christians. The existence 
of a well sunk to a great depth in a place where water-springs on the surface are abundant is 
sufficiently remarkable to give this well a peculiar history. It is remarkably characteristic of 
the prudence and forethought of the great Patriarch, who, having purchased a parcel of ground 
at the entrance of the vale, secured on his own property, by dint of great toil, a perennial 
supply of water at a time when the adjacent water-springs were in the hands of unfriendly, if 
not actually hostile, neighbours. 

' In the midst of a mass of ruined stones, among which .are two or three columns still 
standing, is a vaulted chamber about 1 5 feet square ; and in the floor of the chamber are two 
openings 4 feet apart, one of which is the proper mouth of the well. The other opening is 
either an accidental breach, or has been designedly made in a rough and ready way for the 



\SrfEET AY.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



175 



convenience of having two mouths, by which pitchers could be lowered into the well simul- 
taneously. The true mouth of the well has a narrow opening just wide enough to allow the 




body of a man to pass through with arms ujilifted ; and this narrow neck, which is about 
4 feet long, opens out into the well itself, which is cylindrically shaped and about 7 feet 



176 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

6 inches in diameter. The mouth and upper part of the well is built of masonry, and the 
well appears to have been sunk through a mixture of alluvial soil and limestone fragments till 
a compact bed of mountain limestone was reached, having horizontal strata which could be 
easily worked ; and the interior of the well presents the appearance of being lined throughout 
with rough masonry. 

' The well, when examined in iS66, was only 75 feet deep, but there can be no doubt that 
the original depth was much greater, as quantities of rubbish have fallen into the well from 
the ruins of the buildings that formerly covered it, and passers-by for many centuries have 
probably thrown stones into it. Robinson states that the well in 1S38 was 105 feet deep, 
and if his measurement is correct, debris to a depth of 30 feet has accumulated in thirty-eight 
years. In 1S75 the depth was found by Lieutenant Conder to be 75 feet, the same as in 1866- 
The well was undoubtedly sunk to a great depth for the purpose of securing, even in excep- 
tionally dry seasons, a supply of water, which at great depths would always be filtering through 
the sides of the well and would collect at the bottom. When examined in April, 1866, the 
well was dry ; but an earthenware pitcher was found at the bottom of the well and not broken, 
which would indicate that water still collects in the well at some seasons, as the pitcher would 
have been broken had it fallen upon the stones. 

'The vaulted chamber over the well might possibly be the crypt of the church built over 
the well about the fourth century. Arculphus, one of the early travellers in Palestine, de- 
scribes the church in the form of a cross and the well in the middle ; but by the time of the 
Crusaders the church was destroyed, and subsequent travellers who visited the well mention 
only the ruins around it. 

It would be a matter of the greatest interest if the Committee were enabled, not only to 
clear out the well, but to excavate and disclose to view the foundations of one of the earliest 
cruciform churches. It would then be for consideration how to give effect to the proposal 
to surround and protect the well with stonework. 

' The accompanying woodcut illustrates the state of the vault as it appeared nine years 
ago, but since then many of the stones composing it, and probably all the well-cut stones in 
the adjacent ruins, have been removed to supply materials for the new Turkish barrack, 
situated half a mile distant in the direction of Nablus.' — Major Anderson, R.E., ' Quarterly 
Statement,' 1877, p. 72. 

' The state of Jacob's Well is doubdess well known to the majority of your readers, even 
to those who have not themselves visited the Holy Land. It has again and again been 
described by the many writers on Palestine, and all have mentioned their disappointment 
that instead of finding any semblance to a well, or anything which could recall the interview 
of our Lord with the woman of Samaria, they have merely found a dark irregular hole amid 
a mass of ruins in a vaulted chamber beneath the surface of the ground. I have shared this 
disappointment on many previous visits to Nablus, and again as, a fortnight ago, we stood 
beside the spot, it was with great regret that we Avere so utterly unable to picture before us the 
scene so graphically described by the Evangelist. We had clambered down into the vault, and 
were vainly attempting to peer into the dark hole amid the heaps of stones and rubbish, when we 
chanced to notice, a few feet from the opening, a dark crack between the stones. Fancying 
that possibly it might be another opening of the well, we removed some stones and earth, and 
soon were able to trace part of a carved aperture in a large slab of stone. Deeply interested 
at finding this, we cleared away more earth and stones, and soon distinguished the circular 



[SHEET A"/.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



177 



mouth of the well, though it was blocked by an immense mass of stone. Calling to aid two 
men who were looking on, with considerable labour we at length managed to remove it, and 
the opening of the well was clear. It is impossible to describe our feelings as we gazed down 
the open well, and sat on that ledge on which, doubtless, the Saviour rested, and felt with our 
fingers Ac grooves in the stone caused by the ropes by which the water-pots were drawn u]x 
The following day we devoted to completely excavating round the opening of the well, and 




laying bare the massive stone which forms its mouth. This consists of the hard white lime- 
stone of the country, and is in fair preservation, though parts are broken away here and there. 
The annexed rude sketch gives some idea of its appearance. 
The exact measurements I also give : 

FT. 

Length - - - - - - - 3 

Breadth - - - - - - - 2 

Thickness - - - - - - - i 

Height above the pavement - - - - - i 

Breadth of aperture of the well - - - - • 

Depth of the well - - - - - - 67 

Width ....... 7 



IN. 

9 
7 
6 



Si 



We let a boy down to the bottom, but found nothing of any interest, though evidently there 
is a large accumulation of rubbish. I trust that a stone of such intense interest may long 
remain uninjured now that it has been exposed to light.' — Rev. C. ^V. Barclay, ' Quarterly 
Statement,' 1881, p. 212. 

The Rev. John Mill, in his 'Three Months' Residence at Nablus,' published in 1864, at 
p. 45 states, in reference to Jacob's Well, that 'in 1855, when we first visited this place, we 
measured it as carefully as we could, and found it to be 9 feet in diameter, and a little more 

VOL. II. 23 



178 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

than 70 feet deep. But older travellers found it much deeper. . . . On my second visit, in 
i860, the mouth of the well was completely filled up, so that it was with difficulty 1 could 
identify the spot where it was. Nor could I learn how this had occurred. Some of my 
friends at Nablus thought that the torrents during the rains of the previous winter were 
the cause ; but others believed that it was done by the inhabitants of the little village 
close by, on account of the well being bought by the Greek Church. The well, how- 
ever, was completely hid from sight, to the great disappointment of many travellers beside 
myself. 

'On further inquiry, I learnt from the Greek priest that their Church had actually bought 
the well from the Turkish Government, including a plot of ground surrounding it, of 229 feet 
by iSo feet. For this they had paid, he told me, 70,000 piastres; but another friend, be- 
longing to the same community, told me it was at least 100,000.' 

Mr. Mill also mentions that the Christians call it Beer SamariycJi, the ' Samaritan Well ;' 
while the Samaritans themselves call it Beer Jacub, or 'Jacob's Well.' He also points out 
that it is not an 'Ain (|<;?), a well of living water, but a Ber (1x3), a cistern to hold rain- 
water. 

B u r j el 'A t 6 t (I m). — Remains of a tower, apparently part of a 
Crusading castle. The wall remaining measures 30 feet east and west, 
and on the inside, towards the north, is a vault 25 feet long (north and 
south) and 1 2 feet broad. This is about 20 feet high. The wall on the 
south reaches up to a height of 40 to 45 feet, and has inside it a buttress 
dividing the buildincr into two aisles, north and south. The walls of the 
vault are 5 feet thick ; in the west wall is a small archway about 3 feet 
high, the arch pointed with two rings of voussoirs, five in the inner, seven 
in the outer, the keystones cut away to form the point of the arch. In 
the south wall, high up, is a loophole window some 4 feet high and 3 feet 
wide inside, and about 6 inches wide outside. The direction of the south 
wall is 104° ; it is 8 feet thick, built of very hard limestone, rudely 
dressed with soft white mortar and a packing of small stones 3 inches to 
4 inches side. The ashlar measures i foot by \\ feet, to 2 feet by i^ feet ; 
the arches seen were all pointed, the arch of the vault a tunnel-vaulting 
of smaller stones than those in the walls. The masonry is laid in courses 
with the vertical joints carefully broken. The place is inhabited by a 
peasant family. 

Visited 5th May, 1873. 

B u r i n (J n). — Traces of ruins on an artificial mound. 
This place is sometimes identified with the M u t a t i o B c 1 1 h a r of the Bordeaux 
Pilgrim. He places it 10 miles from Antipatris and 16 from Cassarea, distances which 
agree with Kefr Seba and Kaisuriyeh. These distances, however, do not agree with those 
given by Antoninus. 



[sheet XlP\ ARCH.EOLOGY. i79 

D a we r tall (Mo). — This name was given l)y the peasants 
as applying to some ruins where a small excavation was made in 
1S72. 

Three large columns of syenite were here found, two having fallen in 
a line, the third at a little distance, only half the shaft remaining ; the 
pillars were 16 feet long, 2 feet diameter at the centre, tapering slightly 
to each end, with a fillet in low relief, double at one end, single at the 
other. These three, with two at Jacob's Well, one near Balata, and one 
near Joseph's tomb, probably all belonged to the church (see Bir Yakub) 
over the well. 

The excavation brought to light remains of tesselated pavement in 
situ, about 2 feet below the arable land. A rubble wall was also uncovered. 
The pavement was smashed through by the fall of the columns ; it was of 
two kinds, one much rougher than the other, the cubes hardly squared 
at all and rudely set. Tessera; of glass were also turned up. The 
finer pavement (cubes i| inch side) had a pattern on it representing 
lozenges and leaves, the colours white, chocolate, red, pink, yellow, and 
indigo. 

Similar pavements and glass mosaics are found in Crusading work In 
Palestine. . 

This might, perhaps, be the ruin of the monastery which existed in 
1555 near Jacob's Well, but another possible site is a similar tesselated 
pavement, west of Joseph's tomb. (See Pere Lievin's ' Guide,' p. 401.) 
The mosaic is said by the peasantry to occupy a space some 50 yards 
wide. 

Visited 3rd August, 1872. 

Deir A ban (K n). — Foundations and cisterns; traces of ruins 
to the north-west. 

Deir 'A s f i n (I n). — Foundations, heaps of stones, ruined cisterns, 
fragments of tesselated pavement. 

Deir el B u n d u k. — A large mound on the south side of a 

narrow lane immediately west of Nablus ; foundations, remains of stones, 

some 3 feet cube, rudely squared ; also two pillar-shafts about 2 feet 

diameter, of white marble. Marked R on plan, west of Nablus, near 

Ain el Kusab. 

2;— 2 



I So 



THE sun VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Dcir Serur (K n). — An important ruined town in a command- 
ing position on a bare hill. The ruins occupy an area of 600 feet east 



Probable Approach, 




oChStcrrv 



JSISSSSS8S0 



ScqLc iTeo 



and west by 450 north and south. A wall appears to have surrounded 
the site, with a tower (the base rock-cut) on the south-west, and a second 
on the north, whilst on the north-east is a doorway or gate. On the east 
a large building stands on a terrace, sunk to a level. On the west a second 
building exists. Between these are remains of houses and cisterns, ruined 
walls, and a small tower. These may be described in order. 

The Eastern Building has a direction 104° true north along 

its length, and measures 65 feet ex- 
ternally on this line, and 43^ feet 
external breadth. The east wall is 
6 feet 2 inches thick, the north and 
south 6 feet 7 inches. The entrance 
was on the west, where two stones 
are standing upright, 9 feet 4 inches 
high, 2 feet broad (north and south), i foot 10 inches thick. A 



a 




[sheet ay.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



i8i 



cross wall 2 feet 3 inches thick exists 10 feet 10 inches east of 
the end of the south wall, and in this is an entrance 6h feet wide. 
The two jamb-stones have bases ornamented with a semi -classic 
moLildincr. 

Two stumps of pillar- shafts about 2 feet diameter lie outside the 
building-, on the south, and a lintel-stone 1 1 feet long. The base of the 
jamb-stones is 4 feet lower than the entrance through the cross wall, 
whence it appears that steps probably led up to the interior of the building. 
The length of the lintel-stone api)ears to indicate three aisles to the 
building. 

The masonry is well-dressed, smooth, and not drafted. One of the 
corner-stones measured 7 feet in length and i foot 8 inches in height. 
The horizontal course is broken in one place, two stones here having 
square set-backs, thus keying the courses together. 

A tesselated pavement covered apparently the whole interior. A good 
part of the outer wall stands to the height of four courses. A block 5 feet 
long, 2 feet broad, and about the same thickness, 
exists outside on the south. On either face is a 
pilaster in low relief; the shaft 3 feet long and 
14 inches broad ; the bases 5 inches high. One 
of the capitals is i foot high, and projects i inch ; it 
has a debased sculpture, of apparently Byzantine ^ 
character. This block would have formed the jamb 
of a small door, or more probably of a window, 

seven holes as though to hold the ends of iron horizontal bars being cut 
in the sides of the stone. 

This building might possibly have been a church, but had no apses on 
the east. The variation of the orientation is not greater than in some of 
the Crusading churches of Palestine. 

Near this building are two tanks, the northern about 23 feet square, 
the southern 18 feet by 28 feet; the walls 4 feet thick. In the first is 
visible a drafted stone, with a rustic boss projecting i to 3 inches. The 
draft is irregular, averaging 2^ inches in breadth. In the second tank is 
a stone 4 feet 10 inches by i foot 10 inches, i foot 9 inches high, with a 
rustic boss projecting 2o inches ; the draft 3 inches wide. The stones in 
this tank are all laid endwise in the walls. 




iS- 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTIXE. 



Just west of this tank is a lintel-stone 9 feet 5 inches long, i foot 
6 inches broad, 2 feet 9 inches high, resembling those common in ruined 
monasteries. The jambs beneath this lintel had capitals with rude 
mouldinsrs. 

The great building stood in a sunk courtyard 4S feet broad on the 
south, and about the same on the north and west. This seems to have 
had a fine wall of good masonrx^ round it, and on the east is a confused 
heap of fallen ashlar blocks. The ground outside the south wall is lower 
than on the inside. 

The Western Building faces exactly to the cardinal points. 
Its north wall is standing in parts to a height of 23 feet. The building 
was a rectangle. 93 feet 6 inches along the north wall, 105 feet S inches 
along the west wall. On the north it had a fine arched entrance, on the 
south a small door. It had a central corridor running north and south 
about 30 feet wide, and rooms on either side, those to the east being now 
buried under a mound of rubbish which reaches to the springing of the 
entrance archway, four courses higher than the north-west angle of the 
building. 

The north wall is the best preserved portion of the building. On the 




^^r^-r 




J A ti* Lw » uudaua of Civsm 



east is the archway, 14 feet span, semi-circular, with 13 voussoirs 3 feet 
5 inches thick. 

The height of the courses and size of the stones differ in a ver)- re- 
markable manner. Some fine blocks were measured near the north-west 
corner : one was 4 feet 3 inches by i foot 1 1 inches ; a second 3 feet 
4 inches thick by 3 feet 5 inches in height, and 5 feet 3 inches long. There 
are smaller stones built in irregularly, and the fifth course from the bottom 
was remarkably shallow. 

The corner-stones had a very shallow draft 3^ inches broad, almost 
worn away by age. A stone 3 feet 5 inches high and only i foot 




[^SHEET Xl.'\ ARCH.EOLOGY. 183 

6 inches broad was obscr\-cd. The drafting is carefully executed and 
regular. 

The south wall has a small door 5 feet broad outside and 5 feet 8 inches 
inside, Hanked Iiy jiilastcrs 13 inches broad projecting i inch. The wall 
is 3 feet 2 inches thick. The pilasters 
have simple bases. Only two courses are 
standing : the stones not drafted, and the 
upper course 2 feet 3 inches high ; whilst 
the right-hand (east) jamb is of a stone sDoor.vBu.idmg 

4 feet 9 inches high. A channel 8 inches square is cut along the midtlle 
of the top course on the left, as is frequently the case in Uyzantine 
buildings in Palestine. The stones here are not drafted. 

The west wall of the corridor is also standing to some height. One 
stone in it had a draft i\ inches broad. There is a corbel on the wall, the 
top 6 feet 10 inches from the ground ; it projects 3 inches, and is 18 inches 
broad and about 2 feet high. 

A central door leads westwards to a large chamber ; it was apparently 
10 feet wide, and had a lintel, now fallen beside it. just north of this 
door is a small window i foot 7 inches broad and about 5 feet high ; it 
was once spanned by a lintel 4 feet 4 inches long, i foot 10 inches deep, 
and as broad as the thickness of the wall (2 feet 10 inches). A second 
window (north-west corner) has small sunk sockets for iron bars. 

The room west of the corridor is 57^ feet long, and leads into a second 
to the north 43^ feet long, the wall between i^ feet thick, 3 feet 8 inches 
broad, and its lintel 5^ feet from the floor in the clear. 

The south door has a sunk recess in one jamb for a bolt. The build- 
ing appears to have been much shaken by earthquake. 

Between the two buildings thus described are numerous foundations of 
good masonry, remains of a street and small chambers, a large cistern 
once covered with flat slabs of stone, a small square tower with stones 
10 feet long in the foundation. 

There is another building of size equal to the last described, and of 
irregular plan ; in it are remains of a recess now much choked ; it is 
entered from the east and is 5 feet high, and about 18 inches deep, 
and 2\ feet broad, with a flat roof supported on corbels with a rude 
moulding. 



iS4 



THE SURVEY OF ]VESTERN PALESTINE. 



One stone of the tower measured lo feet 7 inches, by 2 feet 10 inches, 
by I foot 9 inches high. 

Vaults are said by the peasantry to exist under these ruins. A small 
copper coin with a defaced head, and the letters S.C. with a wreath on the 
reverse was picked up. Two columns about 2 feet diameter had fallen 
down into the recess above mentioned. 

Comparison with buildings found later (see Deir el Kulah, 
Sheet XIV'.), and with Justinian's work on Gerizim, leads to the conclusion 
that this work is Byzantine of fourth to sixth century date. The principal 
indications are the semicircular archway, the flat lintels, the drafting of the 
corner stones of the exterior, the style of the capital on the attached 
pilaster, the dimensions of the masonry, the tesselated pavement. 

This conclusion agrees with the proposed identification of the place 
with S o z u z a. (See Section A.) 

The necropolis of the town is on the opposite side of a stony valley 
on the east (Ras Abu Luka), which possibly retains the Christian name of 
Luke. 

Two tombs were here measured, the first a chamber 10 feet 6 inches 
square, with three lociili under anosolia, 3 feet by 7 feet. The entrance 

door is 5 feet 6 inches broad and 
high, 2 feet 2 inches thick ; outside is 
an arch 8 feet high, 7 feet 6 inches 
broad, 4 feet 8 inches thick. There 
is a stone seat either side of this 
arch, and two circles are cut over 
the small door outside by way of 
ornament. The arch of the arco- 
solium is 6 feet 8 inches from the floor; the loculi are i foot 10 inches 
high. 

The second tomb is a trough and loculus sunk in the rock as in the 

I k sal cemetery. (Sheet \TII.) The loc^dus is 5 feet 9 inches long, and 

jT'^^rr. 3 feet broad ; the shaft 2 feet broad and equal 

Jff| ^ " ^-^ -j ' '£J1«I '" length, and 3 feet deep ; the locnbts 2 feet 

•^•cCj - "--'■- i 5p^z^ lower ; the whole was roofed in with slabs ; 

^"^"^ it is, in fact, one of the tombs often used by 

Christians, but with only one locidus instead of two. 



Depth oC Loevdi. 1 W 

U,ui)a of . ilrch. o K 




[sheet XI.'] ARCH.EOLOGY. 185 

Three other tombs, resembling the first externally, but blocked 
up, were seen ; one has two circles above its door. This cemetery 
is of interest as giving the rock -sunk tomb close to the locnins 
tomb. 

Visited and surveyed, 17th I\Iay, 1S73. 

Feldmieh (J n). — Rock-cut tombs, three in number, like those at 
D e i r S e r li r. 

F e n d a k II m i y e h (L m). — There is a sacred cave on the hill above 
the village to the south ; it is of moderate size, with entrance on the 
north and two recesses on the east. There is a detached block like 
an altar before the recesses. It seems probably an ancient rock-cut 
chapel. 

Ferata (L o). 

A few cisterns and the remains of a sarcophagus were all the relics of antiquity obser\-ed 
here by Gutfrin. The place is the old Pirathon of Judges xii. 15. It was first mentioned by 
the traveller, Hap. Parchi, in the fourteenth century, and was seen, but apparently not 
visited, by Robinson, in 1S52. 

Hizn Yikub ('The Wailing of Jacob,' see Section C.) (M n). — 
A small ancient chapel of St. George. The building measures 28 paces 
by 10 paces. It is built in three bays, with groined roof and pointed 
arches, resembling Crusading work. A small Gothic capital elaborately 
carved is placed on the right side of the Mihrab. The whole interior is 
whitewashed and painted. On the north-west side is a tank ; several 
modern tombs are built close by. On the west is the minaret 
(apparently Arab work), in the east wall of which is built in a stone 
with a Samaritan inscription, said to contain the Ten Commandments. 
Other small inscribed stones once existed here, but were taken by Jacob esh 
Shellaby and sold to travellers. (Photograph No. 129.) The Samaritans 
say that this was formerly the site of their synagogue, which is probably 
true ; but the existing building dates probably from the twelfth or 
thirteenth centur)-. 

Iktaba (K n). — A place to which a certain Efendi of Nablus 
comes down in spring, a sort of 'A z b e h, or spring grazing-place for 
horses. (Section C.) 

Jebd (Mm). — East of the village is a tomb, very rudely cut in 

VOL. II. 24 



1 86 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

white soft rock. The entrance on the north-east leads to an ante-chamber 
with two coats of plaster on the walls ; the inner chamber has three kokim ; 
the door between is a rude arch of small masonry. 

Jebel Eslamiyeh (M n) — Mount Ebal. — El Kulah on the 
top of the mountain is a large building of stones of moderate size, built 
up without mortar ; the stones have the appearance of being rudely 
squared, but as the limestone here splits naturally into cubes, and as they 
show no tool-marks, they are more probably not artificially dressed at all. 
Similar masonry exists on the south slope of Gerizim. (See Palestine 
Exploration Fund Photographs Nos. 88, 92.) It measures 92 feet square 
externally, with walls 20 feet thick. Several chambers 10 feet square exist 
in the thickness of the wall, and a projection 4 feet broad is built at the 
ends, as if for defence. The walls are packed inside with small stones, 
and are entirely without mortar. They resemble in construction the walls 
now made to support terraces and enclose gardens on the lower slopes of 
Mount Ebal. The whole of the plateau on the summit of the mountain is 
covered with similar masonry, walls, terraces, and enclosures. All these 
remains have a very rude appearance. The scattered ruins about a 
quarter-mile east of el Kulah are called Khurbet Kuleisa, or 
Kuneisa. This name has been confused with the term Keniseh 
('church'), but is spelt quite differently in Arabic, and no remains resembling 
a church — no apses, pillars, or capitals — exist here. There are two long 
walls radiating south-west and south-east from the summit of Ebal, like 
the enclosure walls lower down. El Kiilih was thought by Mr. Tyrwhitt 
Drake to be an ancient cattle-fold, but the ruins are more probably con- 
nected with old orchards now decayed. The Samaritans say it is an 
ancient village. 

Visited July, 1872, and May, 1881. 

' The summit of Ebal is a comparatively level plateau of some extent. There is no actual 
peak, but the ground rises towards the west, and attains its greatest elevation near a small 
pile of stones. The view from this point is a perfect panorama, and one of the finest and 
most extensive in the country, embracing Safed, Jebel Jermuk, and Hermon on the north ; 
Jaffa, Ramleh, and the maritime plain on the west ; the heights above Beitin (Bethel) on the 
south ; and the Hauran plateau on the east. The upper strata of the nummulitic hmestone, 
of which the mountain is composed, are so cracked and broken, apparently by the action of 
weather, that the surface of the plateau, at first sight, looks as if it were covered by a rude 
pavement ; and it was some time before we realised that it was quite natural. Towards the 
east end of the plateau is the remarkable ruin called by the Arabs " Khurbet Kneeseh." 






31 - I 






'l 







i«- 






■I 



■I'"- ^A 







■■>•- 



[sheet XI.'\ ARCHAEOLOGY. 187 

It consists of an enclosure 92 feet square, with walls 20 feet thick, built of selected unhewn 
stones, without mortar. In the thickness of the wall are the remains of several chambers, each 
about 10 feet square, and at two opposite ends there is a projection of 4 feet, as if for defen- 
sive purposes. There is a cistern within the building, and round it are several heaps of 
stones and ruins. Excavations were made, but without result. It is not easy to form an 
opinion on the object of this building ; it is too small for a fortified camp, and though the 
chambers are somewhat similar to those in the fortified churches, the interior space, 50 feet 
square, is too restricted to have held a church. There was no trace of any plaster, and 
nothing that would enable us to connect it with the altar said to have been erected by Joshua 
on Mount Ebal. 

' The contrast between the rich vegetation on Gerizim and the barrenness of Ebal has 
frequently been commented upon by travellers. This arises from the structure of the rock, 
the strata dipping towards the north across the valley, and thus preventing the existence of 
springs on the southern slope of Ebal. The mountain, however, is by no means so sterile as 
has been supposed ; for a considerable height it is clothed with luxuriant cacti gardens care- 
fully cultivated in terraces, and above these, to the very summit, rise a succession of terraces 
well supplied with cisterns, that speak of a careful system of cultivation and irrigation at a 
former period. Many of these terraces are well preserved, and planted in spring-time 
with corn, which is as fine and healthy-looking as any on Gerizim. The northern slope of 
Ebal is rich in springs, and almost as well supplied with water as the northern slope of 
Gerizim. 

' At the foot of Ebal there is a modern Moslem cemetery, and scattered amongst the cacti- 
gardens, and over the southern slope, are numerous rock-hewn tombs.' — Colonel Sir Charles 
Wilson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1873, p. 66. 

Jebel et Tor (M o) — Mount Gerizim. — The ruins are of two 
kinds — the Samaritan and the Christian. 

Samaritan Ruins. — On the spur which runs out west from the main 
summit are the ruins known as Khurbet Lozeh, (See Luz, Section A.) 
It is by these ruins that the Passover is yearly sacrificed ; they are merely 
scattered stones and drystone walls surrounding the site connected 
with the sacrifice, viz., a large rough stone, on which the high priest 
stands in front of the congregation, and the trench (T a n n 1j r) in 
which the sheep are roasted, with the hole where the water is boiled 
on a fire of briers, and the shallow trench where the sheep are fleeced 
and the Passover eaten. (See Palestine Exploration Fund Photographs, 
No. 220.) 

Ez Sakhrah. — 'The Rock' is the sacred praying place of the 
Samaritans, supposed to mark the place where the Tabernacle was 
erected by Joshua, according to their belief. It is merely a flat sloping 
stratum of limestone dipping towards the north-west, at which end is a deep 

24 — 2 



iSS THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

cistern, traditionally the cave over which the Tabernacle was built. The 
rock is surrounded by rough blocks of stone (see Photograph No. 89), 
and to the west of the cistern, which is half full of stones, is a rude pave- 
ment. The rock measures about 50 feet either way, and is of irregular 
shape. The existence of a sacred cave at this spot is an interesting feature 
of the site. 

The Place where Abraham offered Isaac, according to 
the tradition of the Samaritans, is a little rock-sunk trench at the south- 
east corner of the plateau, on the summit of Gerizim. It resembles the 
trough used for the Passover feast, and measures about 8 feet by 5 feet. 
A semicircular flight of seven steps (traditionally called the Seven 
Steps of Adam out of Paradise) leads down in this direction from the 
west. 

The Twelve Stones, traditionally said to have come from Jordan, 
form a corner of a platform (see Photograph No. 127); they were excavated 
by Captain Anderson in 1 866. They are large masses of rock, quite unhewn, 
and appear natural, but underneath them are two other courses of stones 
rudely dressed and not squared. The upper course of the three thus 
formed has a height 2 feet 2 inches, and the length of the stones varies 
from I foot 10 inches to 2 feet 8 inches. Thus they are not of very great 
size. It seemed difficult in 1875 to be certain whether there were twelve 
or thirteen. The north-west corner of the platform was laid bare by the 
excavation in 1876. 

The neighbourhood of the stones and of the Sakhrah is covered with 
small drystone enclosures and cisterns filled with rubbish, of which there 
are half a dozen. East of the castle are rude paved terraces on the edge 
of the hill. A modern paved footpath, resting near the twelve stones on 
ddbris containing Cufic coins, runs thence towards the Sakhrah and the 
place of Abraham's sacrifice. There are three or four paved platforms for 
praying on near the Sakhrah. 

Human bones were found buried in 1866 in an enclosure immediately 
south of the Sakhrah. 

The platforms, including the twelve stones and those on the east, may 
perhaps have formed part of the temj^le on Gerizim said to have been 
built by Sanballat. 

North of the Kulah there are also remains of walls and fallen 



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[sheet X/.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 189 

masonry, and south of the main plateau, on the top of the hill, are 
other ruins, one being- a wall of rudely squared stones set without mortar, 
resembling the remains on l-^lxil. (See Photograph No. 88.) Siich 
structures might be of any date ; the masonry is not large, and has been 
built up like the modern drystone walls of the vineyards in some parts of 
the country. 

The knoll north of the main plateau of the summit is divided off 
by a deep ditch. The mound appears partly artificial ; there are 
traces of steps on each of its four sides, and on the summit foundations of 
a building 53 feet square, the wall very thick, and on the north some 
rock-sunk hollows. (Photograph No. 126.) This might perhaps be the 
place where, according to the Samaritan version, soldiers were stationed 
to prevent the Samaritans ascending the mountain to sacrifice under 
Justinian. 

Christian Ruin s. — These consist of a church surrounded by 
a rectangular fortress with corner towers, and with a large tank on 
the north. The church is an octagon, with an apse to the east and 
small side chapels except on the west and north, where were appa- 
rently entrances ; only the foundations remain. An inner line of eight 
pilasters divided a surrounding corridor from the central area, which was 
probably surmounted by a dome. 

The church measures 70 feet across inside, east and west (inscribed 
circle of the internal octagon). The east apse is 1 5 feet diameter. The 
side-chapels are 27 feet long inside, with apses 9 feet diameter ; their 
walls are thinner than those of the church. 

This church is related by Procopius to have been erected by the 
Emperor Zeno not earlier than 474 a.d., and to have been dedicated to 
the Virgin. 

The surrounding fortress (el Kulah) measures 180 feet north and south 
by 230 feet east and west, with walls about 9 feet thick. There are four 
corner towers, and one central on the south wall ; they are about 30 feet 
square outside ; entered from the inner court. The north-east corner 
tower has been rebuilt in later times with a rude modern dome, and is 
now a sacred spot dedicated to Sheikh G h a n i m, or, according to the 
Samaritans, the tomb of Shechem Ben Hamor. A flight of steps leads to 
the roof. 



19° THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The court has a eate lO feet lO inches wide on the north, and the 
whole seems once to have been surrounded by small chambers built against 
the wall inside, one of which measured internally 1 1 feet 9 inches by 
14 feet 4 inches along the line of the wall. This is just east of the gate. 
Outside on the north are modern walls. 

This exterior wall is related by Procopius to have been built by Jus- 
tinian (after 529 a.d.). It is thus one of the most valuable monuments of 
Byzantine art in Palestine, as being dated, and the masonry deserves 
special attention. 

The exterior stones of the walls are drafted with a broad and very 
irregular draft, the boss rudely hammer-dressed, and not left rustic, as in 
Crusading masonry. The draft is somewhat more carefully dressed with 
a toothed instrument, but not in a regular line, as in Crusading work. 
The stones vary considerably in length. One was 2 feet 2 inches high, 
and 2 feet 3 inches long ; the boss was i foot 8 inches long, the draft 
3-^ inches broad and about 2 inches deep. Another stone was 4 feet 
2 inches long, 2 feet 2 inches high, with two bosses — one i foot 2 inches 
long, the other i foot S inches ; the draft 3 inches above and below^ 
4 inches at one end, 6 inches between the stones and at the other end. 
The shape of the bosses is somewhat irregular, the draft being badly 
cut. 

The interior masonry and that of the church is better dressed, and not 
drafted. The work is finished with a blunt-pointed chisel used at right 
angles to the stone, forming a mottled surface, instead of lines, such as are 
made by the toothed instrument. 

The great reservoir north of the Kulah measures 120 feet east and 
west by 60 north and south, and is lined with similar drafted masonry. 
Such reservoirs occur in most of the great ruined monasteries of the 
Byzantine period. 

A cross is cut over the entrance of one chamber on the east wall. 
There was a debased Corinthian capital found in 1866. The flooring of 
the church was then found to be partly of marble, partly of tiles, on a 
platform of rough masonry. The walls of the church have been entirely 
demolished, but five or six courses of the outer fortress wall remain in sitti. 
(See Photograph No. 91.) 

Visited July 24th, 1872 ; June loth, 1875. 



[Sffi:ET X/.'] ARCH.EOLOGY. 



191 



' Immediately above Nablus there are several stone quarries, and in places the limestone 
strata stand out in bold clifTs, which seem to overhang the town and form a peculiar feature 
in the view from the opposite ridge, at tiie point where the road to Samaria crosses it. From 
the top of one of these, whence escape to the mountain behind would be easy, it is natural to 
picture Jotham delivering his striking parable. (Judges ix. 7-21.) 

' On reaching the summit of the mountain, by the road from tlie fountain of Ras el 'Ain, 
a long narrow shoulder is seen stretching eastward to the Samaritan [ilace of sacrifice. On 
the north the ground descends abruptly to the vale of Nablus, and on the south there is a 
more gradual slope, with no water and sparse cultivation. East of the place of sacrifice rises 
the true peak of Gerizim, crowned with the well-known ruins, and forming the eastern ex- 
tremity of the ridge. From this point a spur stretches out northwards, and partly encloses 
the natural amphitheatre mentioned above. The mountain is almost entirely composed of 
nummulitic limestone. The summit of Gerizim is a small level plateau, having its largest 
dimension nearly north and south. The northern end is occupied by the ruins of a castle 
and church, the southern by smaller remains, principally low and irregularly built walls. In the 
midst of the latter is a sloping rock, which is regarded by the Samaritans with much venera- 
tion ; it is said to be the site of the altar of their temple, and they remove their shoes when 
approaching it. At the eastern edge of the plateau a small cavity in the rock is shown as the 
place on which Abraham offered up Isaac West of the castle, and a short distance down 
the hill, some massive foundations are pointed out as the " twelve stones " which were set up 
by Joshua after the reading of the Law. 

' Considerable excavations were made under the superintendence of Lieutenant Anderson, 
and plan made of the ruins. The casde is rectangular, with flanking towers at each 
of its angles ; on the eastern side are the remains of several chambers, and over the door 
of one of them is a Greek cross. The walls are built of well-dressed stones, which have 
marginal drafts, and are set without mortar ; many of them appear to have been taken from 
earlier buildings. 

'The church is octagonal. On the eastern side is an apse, on the northern the main 
entrance ; on five sides there are small chapels, and on the eighth side there was probably a 
sixth chapel, but this could not be ascertained, as the foundations had been almost entirely 
removed. There is an inner octagon, which gives the plan some resemblance to that of the 
" Dome of the Rock " at Jerusalem. The flooring is partly of marble, partly of tiles, and 
below this a platform of rough masonry was found ; in the intervening rubbish a very early 
Cufic coin was turned up, which had apparently slipped down through the joints of the tiles. 
The only capital uncovered was of a debased Corinthian order. The church is believed to 
have been built by Justinian, area a.d. 533. 

' South of the castle there are no massive foundations, but numerous small walls, and 
amongst these are several cisterns half-filled with rubbish. A pathway of late date runs along 
the crest of the hill from south to north, passing in front of the " twe/re stones," where for some 
distance it rests on a mass of loose stones and rubbish, in which some Cufic copper coins 
were found The " holy place" of the Samaritans is a portion of the natural rock dipping to 
the north-west, and draining into a cistern half full of stones ; an excavation in an adjoining 
enclosure uncovered a mass of human bones lying on a thin layer of some dark substance, 
which had stained the rock beneath to a dark burnt-umber colour. The Amran said they 
were the bodies of priests anointed with consecrated oil ; but they seemed rather to be hasty 
interments, such as would be made in time of war. 



192 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' There are several platforms of unhewn stone, somewhat similar to the praying-places in 
the Haram at Jerusalem ; and one of these, near the place at which Abraham is said to have 
offered up Isaac, is approached by a curious flight of circular steps. 

' The ^'■twelve stones''' form part of a solid platform of unhewn masonry ; there arc four ■ 
courses of stones, and the upper, shown as the "twelve stones," is set back 8 inches ; two of 
the stones were turned over, but no trace of an inscription was found on them. The stone 
when exposed to the air is of a dark blueish-grey colour, but when newly broken it has a 
cream-coloured appearance. 

' East of the castle are the remains of three platforms, and below them, on the slope of 
the hill, are broken terraces. The platforms have evidently been built to support some 
building on the top of the hill, and add to its appearance ; and they, as well as the " twelve 
stones" may not improbably have formed part of the substructure of the Samaritan Temple 
Of the temple itself there is nothing left, but, to judge from the appearance and construction 
of the platforms, it probably stood on the site now occupied by the ruins of the church 
and castle ; if it were south of the castle, every stone must have been removed, as the 
ground was carefully examined, and no trace of the foundations of any large building was 
found. 

' North of the casde is a large pool, and below this and surrounding the hill on all sides 
are the ruins of a considerable town, to which no distinctive name could be obtained. These 
ruins are most marked on the southern slope, where a portion of the enclosing town wall, and 
the walls and divisions of several of the houses, can be seen. The walls are of unhewn 
stone, set without mortar. 

' Near the Samaritan place of sacrifice, at the western foot of the peak, are some incon- 
siderable ruins, to which everyone we asked gave the name which M. de Saulcy heard — 
Khurbet Luzah. This Dean Stanley identifies with the second Luz, founded by the inhabitants 
of Luz when expelled by the Ephraimites from Bethel. 

' At the extremity of the arm mentioned above as running northwards from the castle is 
a mound, partly artificial, and isolated from the ridge by a deep ditch. There are traces of 
steps on the four sides leading to the summit of the mound, which was occupied by a building 
53 feet square, having walls of great thickness. Some excavations were made, but, with the 
exception of a few Roman coins, nothing of interest was found. Below the mound, on the 
north, are some excavations in the rock, apparently for holding water. 

'Scene of tlie Reading of the Law. — The natural amphitheatre previously 
mentioned as existing at the water-parting near the eastern end of the vale of Nablus was, 
probably, the scene of the events described in Joshua viii. 30-35. It may be remembered 
that, in accordance with the commands of Moses, the Israelites were, after their entrance in 
the promised land, to " put " the curse on Mount Ebal, and the blessing on Mount Gerizim. 
" This was to be accomplished by a ceremoniuil in which half the tribes stood on the one 
mount and half on the other ; those on Gerizim responding to and affirming blessings, those 
on Ebal curses, as pronounced by the Levites, who remained with the ark in the centre of 
the interval." It is hardly too much to say of this natural amphitheatre that there is no other 
place in Palestine so suitable for the assembly of an immense body of men within the limits 
to which a human voice could reach, and where at the same time each individual would be 
able to see what was being done. The recesses in the two mountains, which form the amphi- 
theatre, are exactly opposite to each other ; and the limestone strata, running up to the very 
summits in a succession of ledges, present the appearance of a series of regular benches. A 



[sheet X/.'] ARCHAEOLOGY. i93 

grander sight can scarcely be imagined than that which the reading of the Law must liave 
presented : the ark, borne by the Levites, on the gentle elevation which sciiarates the waters 
of the Mediterranean from those of the Dead Sea, and " all Israel and their elders, and 
officers, and their judges" on this side and on that, "half of them over against Mount 
Gerizim, and half of them over against Mount Ebal," covering the bare hillsides from head 
to foot. Two questions have been raised in connection with the reading of the Law : the 
possibility of hearing it read, and the possibility of assembling the twelve tribes on the ground 
at the same time. Of the first there can be no doubt : the valley has no peculiar acoustic 
properties, but the air in Palestine is so clear that the voice can be easily heard at distances 
which would seem impossible in England ; and as a case in point it may be mentioned that 
during the excavations on Mount Gerizim the Arab workmen were on more than one occasion 
heard conversing with men passing along the valley below. It is not, however, necessary to 
suppose that every word of the Law was heard by the spectators ; the blessings and cursings 
were in all probability as familiar to the Israelites as the Litany or Ten Commandments arc 
to us, and the responses would be taken up as soon as the voice of the reader of the Law 
ceased. With regard to the second point. Lieutenant Anderson's jjlan of Ebal and Gerizim 
gives a good representation of the ground and the principal distances ; but without making a 
minute contoured plan of the mountain-sides (a work of great labour), it is not possible to 
form a correct estimate of the number of persons who could be assembled within the amphi- 
theatre. There are, however, few localities which afford so large an amount of standing 
ground on the same area, or give such facilities for the assembly of a great multitude. 

' At the foot of the northern slope of Gerizim is one of the prettiest cemeteries in the 
country, consisting of a courtyard with a well and several masonry tombs, one of which was 
said to be that of Sheikh Jusuf (Joseph). We were not allowed to examine the tombs, but 
were much struck with the care bestowed on the trees and garden within the enclosure. The 
place is called El Amud (" The Column "), and the Rev. George Williams has, with much 
probability, identified it with " the pillar that was in Shechem," where Abimelech was made 
king (Judges ix. 6) ; and with the Oak of Moreh, near which Abraham built his first altar to 
the Lord after entering the promised land, and Joshua set up a great stone (Joshua xxiv. 26). 
— Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Charles Wilson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1873, p. 67. 

Jett (J 1). — In the mound on which the village stands are several 
rough caves and a vault of good masonry, seemingly Roman or early 
Byzantine work. 

Two bronze Roman lamps were found at Jett in 1874, each having 
two spouts for a double wick. One of these is in the form of a bull lying 
down, with the tail curled round the hind leg ; the .spouts are formed by 
the fore-legs and hoofs of the animal, and there is a square hole in the 
back for pouring in the oil. These lamps were purchased by Rev. J. 
Elkarey, of Nablus. 

' Several ancient cisterns are scattered about on the rocky plateau upon which stands Jett. 

The houses are rudely built. In the midst of the small materials of which they are principally 

constructed I obser\-ed a certain number of cut stones of ancient date. In the courtyard of 

one house I found an old capital of white marble hollowed to serve as a mortar, and now 

VOL. n. 25 



■94 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

used to grind cofTee. At the foot of the hill is a well, which probably is of ancient date.' — 
Gu^rin, 'Samaria,' i. 345. 

J i neid (M n). 

Here are the ruins of a fortress, found by Gucrin, of which the casing has been entirely 
removed, only the rubble being left. In the centre of this stronghold is a little ^\'ely, 
consecrated to the Sheikh Jineid. 

Jisr el Maktabah (I m). — Ruins of a modern bridge built 
by a Pacha. It had three arches, the distance between the piers being 
18 feet, the pier 6 feet 8 inches thick, giving a total of 68 feet. The 
width was 29 feet. The piers had starlings projecting 5^ feet up 
stream. 

Kabr Yusef, Joseph's Tomb (M n). — The building is quite 
modern. An open courtyard surrounds the tomb, with plastered walls 
10 feet high. This enclosure was rebuilt by Consul Rogei-s, as stated in 
the following inscription on the south wall : 

' This building surrounding and covering the tomb of the Patriarch 
Joseph was entirely rebuilt at the expense of Mr. E. T. Rogers, H.B.M.'s 
Consul at Damascus, January, 1868.' 

The tomb is not in line with the walls of the courtyard, which have a 
bearing of 202°, nor is it in the middle of the enclosure, being nearest to 
the west wall. 

The tomb itself is rudely shaped, with a ridge along its length at the 
top, and has a bearing 227°. It is 3 feet high, 6 feet long, and 4 feet 
broad. There is a sort of pillar, also covered with plaster, at the head, 
and another at the foot of the tomb, with a cup-shaped hollow in the top 
of each, where oil-lamps are lighted and incense burnt by the Jews and 
the Samaritans. 

The pillars are 2 1 inches in diameter. That on the south 2 feet 
7 inches high ; that on the north 3 feet 9 inches. 

The courtyard measures 18 feet 7 inches square inside. The walls 
are i foot 9 inches thick. On the south is a Mihrab, 2 feet diameter, 
and 6 feet 3 inches high. Above it are two Hebrew inscriptions, 
both apparently modern ; a passage in the floor of the enclosure, 
4 feet wide, has a level 6 inches lower than the side Diwans or raised 
platforms. 

The entrance to the courtyard is from the north, through the ruin of a 
little square building, with a dome measuring about 22 feet either way. 



ISIfEET XL] ARCHAEOLOGY. '95 

or equal to the new courtyard. There is a vine on the north-east angle of 
the courtyard. 

Visited July, 1872; June, 1875; May, 1881. 

Kakon (J m). — In the middle of the town is a square tower of 
small masonry. One or two stones are drafted ; some of the arches arc 
pointed ; the mortar is white, and laid thick ; the masonry is of soft lime- 
stone, the walls 15 feet thick. A staircase leads up to the roof. The 
place resembles generally the tower of Kiilunsaweh ; it is about 60 feet 
square, and between 40 and 50 feet high. 

Visited 22nd March, 1873. 

The small castle whose ruins arc still standing at Kakon is mentioned by several 
Crusading chronicles. Burchard, who identifies it with Michmethah (Joshua xvi. 5, 6, 
and xvii. 7), says that the castle was erected by the Saracens, ' contra Castrum Peregrin- 
oruni.' Ricold (thirteenth century) mentions it as a castle 20 miles from Athlit. Marino 
Sanuto calls it Caco-Manatat. Michmethah was a city in the possession of Ephraim and 
Manasseh. 

Keffa (K m). — Wells and cisterns, a mound (apparently artificial), 
and traces of ruins. 

Kefr el Lebad (K n). 

Here are ruins covering the plateau of a hill. They were visited and described by 
Guerin. He says, 'They are the ruins of an ancient town, which is nowhere mentioned, at 
least under this name, in the sacred books. Important remains still exist, such as the lower 
courses of several buildings of cut stone, lying, with much regularity and without cement, 
upon each other. One of these, of rectangular form, and built east and west, measures 
22 paces in length and 15 in breadth. The door was ornamented with monolith pilasters, 
still standing. Another similar building belonging to this is somewhat smaller, but at a little 
distance is found a third more considerable, and built north and south, 50 paces long by 25 
broad. There are two entrances, one on the north, with a circular arch, and the other on 
the south, rectangular. AVithin the enclcsure, entirely constructed of cut stone of good 
dressing, and not cemented, runs a long court, with several parallel halls, whose partition 
walls show the same character as the wall of the external enclosure. Other buildings, also 
in cut stone, and partly overthrown, strew the soil with materials scattered or lying in heaps. 
Here and there are cisterns cut in the rock.' — 'Samaria,' iL 212. 

Kefr S a (J n). — Foundations, cisterns, heaps of stones; appears 
to be an ancient site. 

Khurbet Abu Kemeish (Km). — Foundations and heaps of 
stones ; rock-cut tombs opposite, now choked. 

Khurbet el 'A k i 1 (L n). — Traces of ruins. 



196 THE SURVF.Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h u r b e t el 'A k u d (N n). — A small ruined Khan. 

' The ruins of Khiirbet Akiid consist of three magazines side by side and parallel. The 
vaults are slightly pointed. They appear to have belonged to an old Khan. Near them lies 
a heap of building materials from houses now demolished.' — Gutfrin, ' Samaria,' i. 448. 

Khurbet 'Asafch (L n.) — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t 'Ask ar (L o). — Walls and cisterns. 

K h II r b e t 'A u f a r (INI o). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Beit S a m a (K 1). — A tomb is here found blocked 
up, with an ornamental sculpture over the door in a flat arc of a circle, 
with two rows apparently of ears of corn in low relief. To the north-west 
are two ancient watch-towers. 

Kh fir bet Beit Sellum (L n). — Traces of ruins. 

K h i^i r b e t el B u s h m (M m). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Deideban (M m). — Remains of masonry. 

Khurbet e d D e i r (L n). — Ruins of a small convent. 

Khurbet F a h a s (K n). — Ruined watch-tower, like that described 
at 'Azzun. 

Khurbet el H a j Rah-hal (Ml). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Hamarah (Km). — Foundations. 

Khurbet el Hawa (N n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet H u s e i n (K m). — Foundations. 

Khiirbet Ibn H aj Ham mad (K n). — A ruined village of 
apparently modern times. 

Khurbet Ibreikeh (I o). — A mound covered with vegetation, 
close to Neby Shem'on, with a well on the south — perhaps covers over a 
ruined tank. 

K h II r b e t I b t h a n (K m). — Traces of ruins and a well. 

Khi^irbet Ifka s. — Traces of ruins. 

KhCirbet Iskander (K n). — A good-sized ruin, with much 
fallen masonry, and cisterns. The masonry is of ordinary dimen- 
sions. 



[S/fHET X/.l ARCHAEOLOGY. 197 

K h u r b c t J d fa (M m). — Terraced hill, wiih traces of ruins, on the 
side of a valley. It has a very ancient appearance. 

K h u r b e t J a f r u n (L o). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el J e lam eh (J n). — Walls and foundations, much 
weathered, having an ancient appearance. A small domed building stands 
in the ruins, 

Khurbet Jureiban (L m). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet K a b u bah ( L n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet K e f r u r. 
This place does not appear in the Survey map. It was found by Gucrin to the west of 
el Arak (Mo), between that place and Fri.ita. He describes it as a confused assemblage 
of small houses, the vaults of which are broken down and the walls partly destroyed. Many 
of them contain cisterns cut in the rock and apparently of much greater antiquity than the 
Arab houses which formerly covered them. — '.Samaria,' ii. 178. 

Khiirbet el Keisumeh (J t). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Keriim (L n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet el Khareijeh (J o). — Traces of ruins, caves, 
cisterns. 

Khurbet el Kharjeh (Mm). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Kuferat (L n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Kumkum (K n). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Kefr Kus (N n). — A heap of stones, with a spring 
below. 

Khi^irbet Kurkilf (L n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet K 11 s e i n (L n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet K use in et Tahta (L n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Kuweib (L m). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet L 6 z e h (M o). — See Jebel et Tor. 

Khurbet el MaghazCln (I o). — A mound, with a large ancient 
tree above two sacred sites. 

Khurbet el Malakah (J n). — Traces of ruins on an artificial 
mound. 



'9S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khurbct Mass in (K m). — Large and small rooms, as of a 
monastery, in ruins, of soft white stone, much crumbled with age. The 
mortar has disappeared. A deej? well, now dry ; a large vault of masonry, 
and partly cut in the rock. By it is a large circular clump of terebinths. 
The walls are standing a few courses high. The place was said to be a 
D e i r, or monastery. 

Visited August, 1872. 

Khurbet el Mudahderah (K o). — Stones and cisterns. A 
stone roller lies on the ground. 

K h fi r b e t M u k h n a h (M o). — A ruined village. 

K h iTi r b e t el M li n t a r ah (M o). — Ruined watch-tower. 

Khurbet en Neirabeh (Km). — Foundations; has the appear- 
ance of an ancient site. 

Khurbet N e s h a (J n). — Traces of ruins and cisterns ; looks like 
an ancient site. 

Khurbet Nib (M n). — Traces of ruins, 

Khurbet Rash in (L m). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet e r R u z z a z e h (Jo). — Foundations, evidently modern. 

Khurbet Sir (K o). — Two rock-cut tombs, a large mound with 
terraces cut in the sides, a good well below ; has every appearance of an 
ancient site. 

Visited 13th May, 1S73. 

Khurbet Sebata (M m). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet S e i y a d (M n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet e s h S h u r e i m (M n). — Traces of ruins. 

KhUrbet Tafsah (L o). — Small ruined village in gardens; appears 
to be modern. (See Section A., Tiphsah.) 

Khurbet T e i y a h (K m). — Walls and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet U m m G h a n m e h (L n). — Fallen pillar shafts. 

Khurbet Wuseil (K m). — Walls and foundations, apparently 
not very ancient. 

Khurbet Yehuda (N n). — Traces of ruins, 

Khiirbet Yaubek (J n). — Foundations and cisterns. 



{SHEET XI.'] ARCH.EOLOGY. i99 

Khurbet Z ah run (K m). — Heaps of stones and ruins, appa- 
rently modern. 

Khurbet Z e i t a (M m). — Traces of ruins. 

' Here are the remains of an ancient church, now divided into ten chambers, some low, 
some high, inhabited by several families. The church lies east and west, and was consecrated 
to St. George ; its vaults were slightly pointed. The materials employed in its construction 
are in general regular ; some blocks are embossed. A long magazine, with a semicircular 
vault, and now belonging to two proprietors, who each occupy a part, presents a more regular 
appearance, and dates from a period anterior, apparently, to the church of which I have just 
spoken.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 1S2. 

K li 1 li n s a w e h (J n). — In this village are two fine Crusading ruins, 
viz., a tower and a hall. 

The Tower is 41 feet 6 inches high to the highest part, and 
40 feet square, with walls 6 feet 6 inches thick. The original vaulting of the 
roof is destroyed. In the lower courses of the walls the stones are 2 feet 
long and i foot 6 inches high, of good hard limestone. The corner stones 
are drafted. A great part of the upper portion of the tower is modern. 
The drafts are roughly cut by eye, the mortar is soft, with but little 
earthenware. 

The Hall is east of the tower, with walls some 20 feet high and 
vaults below the main floor. These vaults are of rude stones (a kind of 
rag work) tunnel-shaped. The hall measures 55 feet east and west by 
70 feet north and south ; externally the south wall is 7 feet 9 inches thick, 
the others 4 feet. The north-west part of the building is destroyed ; the 
vaults beneath are supported on buttresses, two rows of three bays each, 
north and south, the buttresses 5 feet square. On these stand the piers 
of the upper story, 4 feet broad, 5 feet long. There would seem to have 
been a fine double window on the north, with a central ^oillar i foot 
8 inches diameter. The capital is lying outside in the street, and is well 
cut in white marble, with an imitation of Corinthian mouldings, as often 
occurs in other Crusading buildings [e.g., Beit J i b r i n. Sheet XX.) 

There is a large window on the south wall, 6 feet broad, and beneath 
this an entrance to the vaults ; both have pointed arches, with a keystone 
cut away below to form the point ; the upper arch is filled in with masonry, 
keyed together by zig-zag joints (see Sketch), resting on a lintel. The 
stones in the lower part of the south wall are drafted irregularly, as though 
cut by eye, the draft 3 inches to 5^ inches broad, and 2 inches deep ; the 



2O0 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

face of the boss is dressed, and not rustic. The joints are beautifully cut, 
and the stones average from 2 feet to 3^ feet in length. A sketch of 
some of the courses towards the west, round the staircase loophole, was 
made. 

The staircase to an upper stor}- starts from the west side of the great 
south window, and ascends in the thickness of the wall in two flicfhts 
round the south-west corner, with a loophole in the south wall and another 
in the west wall. It is 2^ feet broad, and reaches up by 19 steps 11 




Entrance to IhuUs cuB 



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inches tread, 9 inches rise, to a height 14 feet 3 inches. The roof is 1 1 feet 
above, and ascends with a tunnel vaulting having a pointed cross section. 
The remaining dimensions are given in the sections. This staircase 
resembles that at the tower of S e f f u r i e h (Sheet V.), and is a beautiful 
bit of masonr)' for finish of the stonework. 



[SHEET XI.] ARCHEOLOGY. -oi 

The west wall had also a window in it, and the masonry here is extremely 
irregular, though the stones are well cut. This, with the lessened thick- 
ness of the wall and the less careful work of the higher courses of the 
south wall, looks as if the building had been hastily finished. 

The pier on the inside of the wall (A) has a corbel of beautiful work- 
manship, from which the vaulting of the roof must have sprung, but the 
vaulting has been entirely destroyed. 

None of the masonry of the interior is drafted ; all is very well cut and 
preserved. Mason's marks were observed on the interior stones of 
forms similar to those found in the Muristan work at Jerusalem, dating 
1130-40, and one of them in the Muristan at Jerusalem (1150-80). For 
the possible history of this building see Section A. 

Visited and planned loth April, 1873. 

This hall appears to be the ruin mentioned by Gudrin as a church. He thus 
describes it : 

' I next examined the remains of a beautiful church, built east and west, and divided into 
three naves, terminating to the e.ist in three apses. It was formerly constructed of good cut 
stones, some of which were slightly embossed, as is proved by the portions still standing. 
The naves were separated one from the other by monolithic columns, only the positions of 
which can be traced. They were probably crowned by Corinthian capitals, for I found one 
in a house, of white marble, cut into a mortar by the inhabitants, who told me they brought 
it from the site of the church. The other capitals and shafts had disappeared. Probably 
they came from some more ancient building. An elegant door, with pointed arch, is still 
standing. Under the nave runs a vaulted crj-pt, now divided into several compartments, 
which serve as a shelter for as many families. 

' Two good walls seem ancient. One of these is near the church ; the other below the 
village. The latter is large, and surmounted by a vaulted arcade in cut stones.' — 'Samaria,' 

•>• 351- 

K u r (K n). — A ruined watchtower, like the one described at 'Azzun, 
exists north-east of this place. 

K ury e t Jit (L n). 

Here Gu^rin observed among the houses a certain number of cut stones of apparent 
antiquity. Many of the houses are in a ruinous condition, others are completely destroyed. 
On the north-west side of the hill he found a great well, into which one descends by fifteen 
stejis, now fallen to pieces. It gives a supply of water which never fails. The place is 
probably the old Gitta mentioned by Justin Martyr and Eusebius as the birthplace of Simon 
the Magician. 

KClsein. — The ruin shown near this place is merely a heap of 

stones. 

El M a h r il n a h (M 1). — Appears to be a ruined beacon station. 

VOL. II. 26 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 




El M e j d e 1 (J n). — A large ruin north-west of F e 1 a m i e h. Walls, 
traces of a considerable town, a tank, caves, and cisterns here exist 

and rock-cut tombs, of which three were measured ; 
one of them is the ordinary rock-sunk double tomb, 
the shaft 2 feet broad, <-^\ feet long, 3 feet deep ; the 
loculi beneath 3 feet broad, 5^ feet long under arcosolia. The great 
stone over the shaft is 2 feet 7 inches broad, 6 feet 6 inches long, i foot 
8 inches high. 

The second tomb is a chamber with kokim ; the entrance is an 
arched doorway 5 feet broad, 5^ feet deep, with a door 2 feet square. 



/or«7i Arched, 
pnbabiy .1 wi eaxn 




Door 10 thick 
■i^ki' aboLut' 4 
hal/" htuTud up inujii rujti 
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Enlrcaice Archedb 
Cha/nber StXocali flat roofecb 



4 feet high. The slab closing this, lo inches thick, was lying by. The 
chamber is lo feet to the back and 8 feet wide ; on the right two koJcim, 
on the left four, much broken, at the back three, one broken into the one 
next it ; they are 7 feet long, 2 feet 2 inches broad. 

The third tomb has an arched doorway 4 feet 4 inches deep, with a 
door at the end 4 feet 4 inches broad. There is a recess on the left for 
closing the door ; the chamber within is 10 feet to the back, 15 feet broad ; 
on the right two kokiin irregularly placed, 7 feet long, 2 feet 8 inches 
broad ; on the left three, placed at angles rudely cut ; at the back two 
6 feet 4 inches long, 2 feet 5 inches broad, and to the right of them a loculus 
8 feet long, 2,\ feet broad, 4 feet high ; the kokiiii are only 2 feet 1 o inches 
hieh ; the walls of the last two are better cut than those at the sides. To 
the left of the door, inside the chamber, is a recess 2 feet 2 inches broad, 
2 feet 2 inches deep. The kokim in this tomb have flat tops. 

Visited and planned, 21st May, 1873. 




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[SffEEr X/.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 207, 

Mugharah ^M 1). — Ruins of modern houses. 

M u g h a r e t H a j K h u I i 1 (J n). — A ruined house, modern. 

Nablus (M n). — The modern town is narrow and long in shape, 
following the formation of the ground. The houses arc of stone, many 
of them large and well-built. A new street down the centre of the town 
was opened in 1875, and is a considerable improvement. The bazaars 
are fairly good, and the place is the market for the wool and cotton of 
surrounding districts. The soap manufactories also are numerous. The 
town has nine entrance gates on all sides. 

The population of Nablus was stated in i^.']^ at 13,000, of whom 135 
were Samaritans (So men), 600 Christians, and the rest Moslems. In 1S81 
the population was computed by ]\Ir. Falsher, the missionary, at 20,760 
souls, including 160 Samaritans (98 males) and 606 Christians and Jews. 

The principal buildings in the town are the mosques. Of these the 
largest (J ami a el Kebir) is an ancient church. It stands in the 
eastern part of the town, at the junction of two streets, where is a fine 
Gothic portal belonging to the surrounding enclosure and facing east. 
This gateway is painted red, blue, and white. (See Photograph No. 94.) 
The church within is probably one of those erected by Justinian. (See 
Section B.) 

The remaining mosques are seven in number : J a m i a en N u s r 
(the ' Mosque of Victory,' in memory of the victory of Omar Ibn Khatab), 
near the centre of the town ;Jamia el Beik, near the south wall, named 
from the Beiks of the Tokan family, whose house is near it ; J a m i a el 
Y a s m i n e h, north of the last ; Jamia Hizn Yakub, a small build- 
ing (also called el K h ii d r), immediately outside the town on the south- 
west. It was originally a chapel, traditionally the site of Jacob's mourning 
when the coat of Joseph was brought him. Close by is a tall minaret 
with a Samaritan inscription. This tower the Samaritans say once 
belonged to a synagogue of their own. The .southern mosque is called 
Jamid et Tineh, south of J a m i a en N u s r. The ne.\t, in the 
north-east corner of the town, Jamia Oulad YakCib el'Asherah, 
appears to be the site mentioned in the journey of Sta. Paula as con- 
taining the tombs of the sons of Jacob. (Compare Acts vii. 16.) The last 
is Jamii el Hanabileh, north-west of the J a m i a en N u s r. 

The town is divided into seven quarters : i. Haret elHableh, or 

26 — 2 



204 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' Division of the Terrace,' on tlie north-east; 2. H a r e t el Y a s m i n e h 
on the south-west, named from the mosque ; 3. H a r c t el K a r y u n on 
the south-east of the last, named from the spring 14. H a r e t el K e i- 
s a r i y e h, in the south-east corner of the town ; 5. H a r e t e s S a m a r a h 
(' of the Samaritans '), in the south-west corner round the synagogue, 
which is not far from the tower mentioned above ;6. Haret el Gharb, 
on the west ; 7. Haret el Hanabileh, near the last. 

The remaining buildings include e d D e r w i s h i y e h, a small mosque 
near the J a m i a e t T i n e h, and a building called Sheikh B a d r a n, 
in the centre of the town, north of the Serai. (See Sections B. and C.) 
The Samaritan synagogue is a poor whitewashed room with a dome, 
having skylights above, and a recess called M u s b a h, where the ancient 
MSS. are kept. There is a Latin monastery immediately outside the 
town, on the north-west, and a Greek convent in the interior, west of the 
great mosque. The governor's house (e s S e r a i) is in the centre of the 
town. Near it, on the south, is the palace of the Beikof the Tokan family, 
which is the largest building in Nablus, and said to be capable of con- 
taining 1,000 soldiers, with stables for their horses. Other large houses 
of the 'Abd el Hadi and Kasim families are to be tbund in the same 
quarter (Haret el Yasmineh). 

In the north-east angle of the town is the ruined building called 
J ami a el Mesakin, 'Mosque of the Poor,' or of the lepers. It is 
now inhabited by the lepers of the town, and shows remains of a large 
Gothic building with a vaulted roof. This is perhaps the Crusading hos- 
pital. There is also a Khan (Khan et Tujjar, i.e., 'of Merchants') 
in the town, towards the middle of the main northern street. 

' This spot, the site of the ancient Shechem, the City of Refuge, is unrivalled in Palestine 
for beauty and luxuriance. There are two mountains parallel to each other, almost meeting 
at their bases, but \\ miles apart at their summits. They inclose a beautiful little valley be- 
tween them, not more than 100 yards wide at the narrowest part, and widening out in both 
directions. The town of Nablus is situated at the narrowest part of the vale. The mountain 
on the north is Ebal, that on the south Gerizim, and the vale lies east and west. The site 
of the town is admirably chosen — on the watershed, in the middle of the pass, easy of access 
to the Jordan country eastwards, and to the sea-coast on the west. The whole of Mount 
Gerizim was thoroughly examined, and the plan of Justinian's church disclosed by excavation. 
It had been built upon older foundations, probably those of the old Samaritan temple. An 
e.xcursion was made to the summit of Mount Ebal, 1,200 feet above the vale. The summit 
is rocky and bare, and there are no ruins on the mountain-top, except a curious square en- 
closure with very thick rude walls. Jubt below the summit there is a break in tlie regular 




























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[SHEET XL] ARCHEOLOGY. 205 

slope of the hill, and a small but steep valley comes up from the vale below almost to the 
summit, forming a vast natural amphitheatre, in height equal to that of the mountain. Imme- 
diately opposite to this the steep slope of Mount Gerizim is similarly broken by a valley 
forming a second natural amphitheatre of equal beauty and grandeur. In these two lateral 
valleys were assembled the twelve tribes of Israel under Joshua — six tribes on Gerizim, and 
six on Ebal. The Levites and the ark were in the strip of the vale, and the blessings and 
cursings were read before the whole congregation. (Joshua viii. 32-35 ; and compare Deut. 
xxvii. II.) Nothing is wanting in the natural beauty of the site to add to the solemnity and 
impressiveness of such a scene. The best view of the town of Nablus is from Ebal. It seems 
to repose so snugly in the little vale, and while the houses seem to shrink from the base of 
the Ebal slope, they cling to and attempt to climb the slope of Gerizim, the mountain of 
blessings. At the edge of the plain of Mukhnah (Moreh), ij miles east of the town, is Jacob's 
Well, on the piece of ground he purchased from the Shechemites. Not far from the well is 
the site of Joseph's Tomb. The identity of the well has never been disputed. Christians, 
Tews, Moslems, and Samaritans all acknowledge it, and the existence of a well in a place 
where water-springs are abundant is sufficiently remarkable to give this well a peculiar 
history.' — ' Recover)' of Jerusalem,' p. 464, 465. 

The history of Shechem, apart from its Biblical associations, may be related very briefly. 
On the invasion of Alexander, the Samaritans represented themselves to be Jews, in order to 
receive the same privileges. On the other hand, in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, they 
made themselves out to be Sidonians, and not Jews at all, and obtained permission to conse- 
crate their temple on Mount Gerizim to Zeus. This request was granted. In the year 
B.C. 132 John Hyrcanus took possession of Shechem and destroyed the temple, after it had 
stood for two hundred years. 

In the time of Josephus the name of Shechem had already been changed to that of 
Flavia Neapolis, after the Flavian family, to which Vespasian belonged. It was also called 
by the people Mabortha, a name of which no trace was found by the surveyors. Medals of 
Antoninus Pius exist, struck at Neapolis, which represent the temple of Gerizim approached 
by great stairs cut in the mountain-side. Justin Mart)T was born at Neapolis. In the time 
of Jerome they still showed there the tombs of the Patriarchs. In the year a.d. 490 the 
Samaritans rose and massacred the Christians on the Day of Pentecost, while they were at 
service. The Bishop, escaping with the loss of his fingers, took refuge with the Emperor 
Zeno, who expelled the Samaritans from Neapolis, and assigned Mount Gerizim to the 
Christians. These built a chapel on the summit, and surrounded it with a wall. 

In the reign of Anastasius the Samaritans again rose in revolt and murdered the Christians 
who attempted to defend the church. The murderers were put to death, and Justinian sur- 
rounded the church with a strong wall. He also punished the Samaritans, who had murdered 
the Bishop of Neapolis, cut to pieces several priests, and destroyed five churches. 

ANTien the Crusaders took possession of the country, Tancred received the submission of 
Nablus. The place was visited by Benjamin of Tudela. He says that^it contained 100 
Cuthites, called Samaritans, who have priests of Aaron's house, and offer sacrifices on Mount 
Gerizim upon an altar formed of the stones which the Israelites took out of the bed of the 
JordaiL 

The city was sacked by Saracens in 1154 ; again in 1187, after the battle of Hattin. It 
was shaken by an earthquake in 1202. It was retaken by the Christians in 1242, but soon 



2o6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

fell again inlu the liands of the Mussulmans. Six hundred years later it was sacked by 
Ibrahim Pasha, and it was nearly destroyed by the great earthquake of 1837. 

The ruins of Nablus extend for some distance east of the modern town. 
\'aults were excavated in digoring the foundations of the barracks, and 
persons in the city claim to have tide-deeds of buildings and shops in the 
same direction. A long mound with traces of a rude wall exists between 
Balata and 'Askar, and there is a tesselated pavement just east of 
Joseph's Tomb, in which neighbourhood ruins are mentioned in the four- 
teenth century, and were supposed to be those of Ancient Thebez (Marino 
Sanuto). 

The 'A i n D u f n a, under the barracks, is surrounded with remains of 
ashlar of good size — an old building which once surrounded the spring. 
There was also once a round tower west of it, and a small aqueduct leads 
from it. The spring had been enclosed in 1881 in a newly-constructed 
tank, with steps leading down. 

North of the town is the rock-hewn cemetery, and some rock-cut 
wine-presses near it. 

Two groups of tombs were examined, east and west. The first 
included three tombs. No. i a chamber with three locnli, each 7 feet 
6 inches long, 2\ feet broad, the chamber 6 feet 6 inches high; the 
entrance door 3 feet wide, with an arch 5 feet wide, 3 feet deep, and 
5 feet high before it ; the loculi bottoms are 6 inches above the floor of 
the tomb, the avcosolia above 6 feet from the floor, the loaili themselves 
2 feet deep. In front of the archway is a platform of rock. No. 2 is 
only a loculus cut in the face of the rock, 6 feet long, 2J feet broad, re- 
sembling in other respects those above noticed ; in front of it is a step 
I foot high, i^ feet broad. No. 3 is a large tomb with three chambers, 
opening on a central court cut back 15 feet, and 2,S'k f'^et broad. 

There is one chamber in the right wall of this court, and two at the back ; 
the former has a breadth 9 feet 9 inches, and a loculus each side. The 
main chamber at the back has a door with a flat top 6 feet 6 inches broad, 
5 feet deep, 7 feet high ; inside this a small door. The chamber is 7 feet 
square and high, with three arcosolia, 7 feet by 6 feet deep, each having 
originally two kokim under it — the transition style. (Compare Sheikh 
Abreik, Sheet V.) The chamber to the left is 9 feet square, 7 feet 
high ; its entrance 5 feet broad, opening from the court. Pillars probably 



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.'hm/jra^- IT. '-^ Z:'!-'' 



VIEW OF OLD SILVER CASE CONTAINING THE. SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH. 



[SHEET XI.] ARCHEOLOGY. 207 

once stood in front of the court; the base of one 3 feet 6 inches diameter 
remains. 

The second group, further west, includes a dozen tombs. No. i a 
cave 15 feet square, 7 feet high, with a door 8 feet wide, 6 feet 
high. No. 2, further cast, about 10 feet by 5 feet. No. 3, west of 
No. I, is iS feet by 9 feet, and 6 feet high, with its front entirely 
open. No. 4, further west, 15 feet square, the door 8 feet wide, 
4 feet high. No. 5 is a very large cave, 100 feet by 50 feet, and 
some 15 feet high. On the north side (its length being east and 
west) is a recess 10 feet above the ground, with steps leading up the 
recess 10 feet long, 5 feet broad, 6 feet high. The cave appears 
natural, but whether the recess, which is artificial, was a tomb is 
doubtful. 

No. 6 (proceeding rather further west) is choked. No. 7 is 13 feet 
broad, 15 feet long, its door 5 feet broad, 3 feet from the left-hand corner, 
and 3 feet high. Near this is a tank 10 feet square, sunk in rock ; this 
appears to have been covered by an arch of small rough masonry, 
cemented. No. 8 is 20 feet square, with a door 3 feet broad ; in the left- 
hand corner a recess 5 feet square, 3 feet high beside the door. No. 9 is 
12 feet square. No. 10, a chamber 10 feet square, with a court 20 feet 
square in front, not roofed, but sunk in the top and face of the rock. 
No. II, a chamber 20 feet square, 7 feet high, with a loculns at the 
back 10 feet long, 4 feet w^ide, 5 feet high. No. 12 is 10 feet square, 
with an arched entrance 4 feet broad, ^^ feet deep, 7 feet high. On 
the left wall a locuhts 3 feet broad, 73- feet long. The chamber is 7 
feet high. 

These tombs, from No. 6 westwards, are in the side of a little valley, 
and face south-west ; opposite them on the west is a group of caves, 
some with well-cut doors and arched rock entrances. There are also 
some small caves east of the rock cemetery. Other rock-cut tombs of 
similar character occur beside the road to 'Amad ed Din, near the foot of 
the hill, and also further east, near the road leading to 'Askar. 

The remaining ruins near Nablus are noticed under the heads 'A i n 
Beit lima, Bir Yakub, Dawertah, Deir el Bunduk, 
Hizn Yakub, Jebel Eslamiyeh, Jebel et Tor, Kabr 
Y fi s e f, and R a s el ' A i n. 



2oS THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Inside the town is the Jamia el K e b i r, which is thus described 
by Major Wilson, R.E., in iS66: 

' The interior is irregular, and shows several additions and rebuild- 
ings ; the western portion seems to be a remnant of the old basilica, as all 
the columns except one at that end have Corinthian capitals of perhaps a 
little earlier date than the one found in the church on Gerizim ; the 
columns are of marble and serpentine ; one capital has long lotus-shaped 
leaves which give it an Egyptian look. The eastern portion of the 
mosque is irregular in shape, and in addition to the piers there are several 
columns without capitals, and some small columns with capitals of a later 
date ; at the eastern end is a handsome gateway built by the Crusaders, 
which seems to have opened into a courtyard surrounding the church ; 
it is now closed, except a small opening in the middle. Over the present 
entrance to the mosque facing the street (on the north), but half-covered 
with mortar, is the old lintel of the basilica ; there are numbers of stones 
with marginal drafts built into the walls of the mosque ; the Corinthian 
capitals in the Turkish bath close by are the same age as those in the 
mosque.' The mosque was visited by Lieutenant Conder, R.E., in 1881. 
It has two small courtyards, one leading from the Gothic portal on the 
east, and in this is a tank fed by a spring ; the other narrow and long, 
also with a tank leading from the street on the north. There are three 
bays of the old basilica on the west, the pillars about 2 feet in diameter, 
and 20 feet from centre to centre. The capitals on five of the shafts re- 
semble those of the basilica at Bethlehem ; the sixth has long narrow lotus 
leaves and no volutes. These capitals have been painted red and green. 
Further east is a capital with drilled work, like the Byzantine work of the 
sixth or seventh century. The eastern portion would seem to have been 
rebuilt by the Crusaders, who found the basilica in ruins. The old shafts 
have been arranged in clusters of two, some without capitals. In one case a 
double marble capital cut out of one block, with details of Gothic character, 
has been placed above two shafts standing close together north and south. 
The rough whitewashed piers probably conceal similar double pillars in 
other cases. The apses have been destroyed, and an open entrance is 
thus obtained from the east court and the Gothic gateway. 

This east gateway to the court is now painted in various colours, the 
columns being ornamented with bands of white, blue, and red. Four 



[SHEET X J.] ARCHEOLOGY. 209 

clustered columns each side, of slender dimensions, support the pointed 
archway. The general effect of the work is similar to that of the Holy 
Sepulchre doorway at Jerusalem. The top of the archway is filled in 
with masonry keyed with curved and zigzag joints (as at K Ci 1 u n s a w c h). 
(See Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph, No. 94.) On the outer wall 
here two masons' marks were observed : 

i^ ,< 

Both of these occur in the church of the Virgin's Tomb, 1105 a.d. 
The second is very common, e.g. St. Anne, 1103 a.d.; Scbastieh, 1 1 so- 
il 80 a.d.; Muristan, 11 30- 11 40. 

The church was rebuilt by the Canons of the Holy Sepulchre, and 
finished in 1167 a.d. It was dedicated to the Passion and Resurrection 
of Christ. 

Not far from the great mosque is a building containing the cenotaph 
of Sheikh Bad ran, otherwise called Sheikh Bedr er Rafid, 
father of Sheikh 'Amad cd Din. It contains four granite columns with 
early Byzantine capitals, and was evidently once a small chapel. The 
walls are now plastered and whitewashed. 

In the street north of the great mosque is a fine shaft of red granite 
fallen on its side. The building above the 'Ain Karyun is also of interest. 
It consists of an apse about 20 feet in diameter, with a domed roof (a 
quarter of a hollow sphere), all of good masonry, the stones in the apse 
wall being large. A simple series of mouldings runs round the apse be- 
neath the dome, and also round the arch of the dome itself. The spring, 
which is very clear and abundant, comes out of a small masonry trough in 
the floor. The apse is directed south-west, so that a Mihrab or niche 
has been cut in the back wall towards the left. There are many drafted 
stones with well-dressed bosses in the walls of houses near the spring. One 
of these has a broken winged tablet in low relief, but without any inscription. 
A small mosque of Sheikh Beiyazid exists close by on the north. The apse 
above described resembles that of one of the temples at Rukhleh on 
Hermon, and seems to have belonged to a heathen shrine ; but it should 
not be forgotten that churches of the fourth and fifth centuries in Palestine 
are not always oriented. 

VOL. II. 27 



2 10 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

In the north-east angle of Nablus is a ruin called Khan Ezbib 
(' The Raisin INIart'). It has on its south side a fine pointed archway, the 
keystone and voussoirs of stones carefully drafted, the bosses well worked. 
It looks like Crusading work, but has neither masons' marks nor the dis- 
tinctive mediseval dressing (the stones being finished with a toothed adze). 
The wall is of masonry similar to that of the arch, perhaps a fine specimen 
of Arab work. 

Immediately south of this, on the other side of the street, is the 
Oulad Yak lib (see Section C), apparently quite modern, a small 
mosque with two chambers, and a court on the north-east. The northern 
chamber contains a large cenotaph. In the courtyard are some small 
marble pillar-shafts, one with an Arab inscription containing the name of 
King Omar and the date 622 a.h. (thirteenth century). This place seems 
to be the tomb of the sons of Jacob, mentioned by St. Jerome. (See 
Section A.) 

A little further south is the Jamia el Mesakiii, a vault about 
25 feet wide north and south, and with walls 12 feet thick. Three bays 
remain, about 75 feet in all, the roof and all the walls but that on the east 
remaining almost perfect. On the east the building is broken down, and 
appears to have extended further. The roof is groined, with pointed 
arches. Many stones in the walls have rustic bosses. The building looks 
like a Crusading structure ; the lepers' houses are built in and around it. 
This possibly was the site of the Hospital of the Templars. 

Visited July, 1872 ; June, 1875; June, 1S81. 

N e b y E 1 y a s (J o). — Walls and wells, with a ruined kubbeh. 

N u s f J e b i 1 (K n). — Foundations on a hill. 

Rafidia (M n). — Foundations of a wall of good squared masonry, 
not drafted, visible from the road, south of the villao-e. 

o 

Er Ras (K n). — Seven ruins are shown on the plan north of this 
village within about a mile. They are ancient watch-towers, like those at 
' A z z u n, which see. 

Ras el 'A in (j\l n).— A wall of small masonry and rubble, with 
a niche pointing south behind the spring ; two aqueducts, partly rock-cut, 
partly of small masonry, the upper one only in use. The work looks 
like the Roman work of the Kan at el Kufar (Sheet XVII.), 







— ^.i-i 



I 






r" 

5<* 



.^ 



.r 

I 



{SHEET AY.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



211 



and that at 'A i n es Sultan (Sheet X\'III.). (See Hydrography, 
Section A.) 

Sebustieh (Samaria) (L n). — The site itself is described under 
Section A. The important ruins are of two dates, viz., i. Herod's 
Colonnade ; 2. The Crusading Church. 

The Colonnade appears to have surrounded the hill with a cloister 
not unlike that of the Temple at Jerusalem, situate on a level terrace with 
a higher knoll rising in the middle. The remains are most perfect on the 
south, where some eighty columns are standing ; the width of the 
cloister was 60 feet, the pillars 16 feet high, 2 feet diameter, and about 
6 feet apart. On the south it extended about 32 chains, or 2,100 
feet, and remains of a gate were pointed out, and rude rock cuttings 
in the south-west corner, apparently the foundations of two gate 
towers. 




Josephus (Ant. xv. 8) makes the circumference 20 furlongs, or 
more than 10,000 feet. The real circuit is probably some 6,000 feet, so 
that the estimate is nearly double the actual length. 

The columns are principally monolithic. There are others, also with- 
out capitals, on the north-east of the hill, near the village, in a line running 
north and south, where also there seems to have been a gate. The present 
threshing-floor is close to them. 

A street of similar columns leads up the flat slope of the hill on the 
north. This was possibly a hippodrome, or else an approach to the 
north-east gate, being directed on the north-east corner of the upper 
colonnade. 



27- 



rian, of Plet 

S'- 1 huJ> 



212 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The Church, a fine Crusading structure, over the traditional 
place of burial of St. John Baptist, is supposed to have been erected 
between 1 150 and 1 180 a.u. (Du Vogilc ' Eglise.s,' p. 361). It is now a 
mere shell, the greater part of the roof and aisle piers gone, and over 
the crypt a modern kubbeh has been built. The interior length is 

158 feet, the breadth 74 feet ; the 
west wall is 10 feet thick, the north 
wall 8 feet, the south wall 4 feet. 
There were six bays, of which the 
second from the east is larger, pro- 
bably once supporting a dome. On 
I the east are three apses to nave 
and aisles, the central apse is 30 
feet in diameter, equal to the width 
of the nave. The piers had four 
columns attached, one each side ; on the west was a doorway and two 
windows ; on the south four windows remain, and on the north three. 





CuCuUluiq ouXsuie. apso 

ScaJAVtS 





SaeUaniOirtnigK i^ufaf 






Corrucc iri aisie 

■Scale. W 




I 
Bns^-. of colli frtn C 
wt cu^sle ' 



,tl5 f^ 






The nave had clerestory lights. The sixth bay is slightly narrower than 



the rest. 



The bearing is due east and west. 



\^:^f^: 




,rt\ 





•%i^ 






.'^1 ('' 







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^-iii 






?m-'-r' 




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[SHEET XL ] ARCIEEOL OG Y. 



213 



The capitals resemble those of French tvvelfth century churches, 
but the cornice above is of semi-classic style, like that of the N a b 1 u s 
gateway. A sort of fortress appears to have been attached to the 
church on the north, flanked by square towers. 

The tomb in the centre is a small rock-hewn chamber, reached 
by 31 steps, and here the graves of Elisha and Obadiah are also 
shown. 

The masonry of the church is beautifully fine and perfect ; the stones 
are of moderate size (about 1-^ feet high and 2 feet long), and are 
regularly dressed with a toothed instrument, but not always in the same 
direction. The masonry of the northern building is rougher, and drafted 
on the north wall. Between the south windows on the outside are 
buttresses 5 feet by 2\ feet. 

The west door has a simple pointed arch, but the windows, though at 
a higher level, have round arches. 

The designs on the capitals differ considerably — smooth leaves, palm 
leaves, Corinthian volutes, etc. This is the case also at Ramlch. 
(See Sheet XIII.) The vaulting over the 

mam apse is groined, with pointed arches \ij^i 1(4 K QD G ® D 
beneath. PkAA '^-^ MR5e/'l 

There are a few crosses scratched on the ^ A" "^ ^ 

walls, and some masons' marks were collected. ' ''""' ""^ 

For purposes of comparison they are here printed with others collected 
by Colonel Wilson. With regard to these marks, it is curious that 
one, )\,, which recurs several times, is very much more boldly cut than 
the rest, and generally larger, being on some stones about 2 inches 
long. 

Of this collection some are found in other dated buildino-s, 
viz. : 

Muristan (i 130-40), 
Lydda (i 150 or later), 
Tomb of Virgin (11 03). 

The marks are thus in many instances extended over a period from 

I 100 A.D. to I 180 A.D. 

Tombs. There are rock-cut tombs on the north, on the opposite 
side of the valley, west of B e i t I m r i n. Some are of the so-called 



214 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



'rock-sunk' style, with heavy stones above; others are mere caves, the 
doorway in some cases artificially shaped, as at Nablus. 
Visited July, 1S72 ; June, 1875. 

(See Palestine Exploration Fund Photographs, Nos. 83, 84, 85). 
' Excavations were carried on simultaneously at Sebustiyeh and Gcrizim. At the former 
some excavations were made at the Church of St. John and two of the temples. A plan was 
made of the church and the grotto, which seems to be of masonry of a much older date than 
the church. There are six loculi, in two tiers of three each, and small pigeon-holes are left at 
the ends for visitors to look in ; the loculi are wholly of masonry. The northern side and 
north-west tower are of older date than the Crusades— I think early Saracenic ; in the latter 
there is a peculiarly arched passage. The church is on the site of an old city gate, from 
which the " street of columns " started and ran round the hill eastwards. The old city was 

easily traced. Plans were made of the temples ; they are 
covered with rubbish from 10 to 12 feet deep, to remove 
which with Arab labour would take some three or four 
months. Anderson took charge of the Gerizim excavations, 
and opened out the foundations of Justinian's Church 
within the castle ; in many places but one or two courses of 
stone are left. The church is octagonal : on the eastern 
side an apse ; on five sides small chapels — on one a door ; 
the eighth side too much destroyed to make out, probably a 
sixth chapel. There was an inner octagon, and the building 
without the chapels must have been a miniature " Dome of 
the Rock." A few Roman coins were found. The southern 
portion of the crest has been excavated in several places, but 
no trace of any large foundations found. In an enclosure 
about 4 feet from the Holy Rock of the Samaritans a great 
number of human remains were dug up, but nothing to tell 
their age or nationality ; we have since filled in the place 
and covered them up again. The Amran says they are the 
bodies of those priests who were anointed with consecrated 
oil, but may more probably have been bodies purposely buried there to defile the temple, or 
rudely thrown in and co\-ered up in time of war. An excavation was made at the " hvelve 
stones," which appear to form portion of a massive foundation of unhewn stone. M. de 
Saulcy is quite right about the name of Luzah being applied to the ruins near the place 
where the Samaritans camp for the Passover. They are not of any great extent ; by far the 
most important remains are on the southern slope of the peak, where a portion of the city 
wall can still be seen and the divisions of many of the houses. Whatever its name or date, 
there was certainly at one time a large town surrounding the platform on which the wely and 
castle now stand.' — Captain Wilson's Letters, p. 35. 

A door of basalt, similar to the door figured above, is in the British Museum. It was 
brought from the Hauran. — Ed. 

' At the western extremity of the monument rises a Mussuhnan sanctuary crowned by a 
little cupola pierced with narrow windows, which admit a feeble light into the crypt which it 
covers. This crypt probably belongs to the ancient basilica, which was replaced by the edifice 




Section o/i CD Samtdccr. 

n 




■fl 



[SHEET XI.] ARCHEOLOGY. 215 

now itself in ruins. Descent is managed by a staircase of fifteen steps ; then, after crossing 
a landing once closed by a monolithic door, you go down two steps, and find yourself in a 
crypt formerly paved with small slabs of marble in different colours, forming a sort of mosaic 
Here lies the door of which I have just spoken : mouldings divide it into compartments ; it 
is provided with hinges worked in the thickness of the block which composes the stone. 
This crypt, of small extent, contains a sepulchral chamber divided into three parallel arched 
loaili, with cut stones regularly worked between them. They are only seen by introducing a 
light across three small openings in the wall of the chamber. According to an ancient tra- 
dition, one of these compartments is the tomb of St. John the Baptist, and the others those 
of the prophets Obadiah and Elisha.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 189. 

Sheikh 'A i s a (L m). — A ruined kubbeh. 

Sheikh S a 1 a h (I 1). — A ruined house. 

Sufin (J o). — Heaps of stones. The place has an appearance of 
antiquity. 

E s S 11 r c t e i n (L n). — ^Modern watch-towers in a vineyard. 

Tell Dothan (M 1). — There is a large mound, which appears to 

be the ancient site of the town. South of it is a well with modern 

masonry, and a spring ('A in el H Ci f i r e h) near a cactus hedge, where 

is a drinkintr-trough. There is also a modern INIoslem building and a few 

terebinths near the ruins. 

' Tell Dothan stands close by two wells ; one of them is ancient, and the other modern. 
The slopes of the Tell and its summit are strewn with materials and numerous fragments of 
pottery, the sole remains of an ancient city entirely destroyed.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' 219. 

This place was discovered by Van de Velde, and identified by liim with Dothaim of 
Genesis xxxvii. 17 — an identification which seems generally admitted. The name agrees 
with the old one, and the situation accords, as Guerin carefully points out, not only with the 
requirements of the narrative in the Book of Genesis, but also with those of 2 Kings vi. 13 
et seq., and the two passages in the Book of Judith. 

Tel Ishkaf (I m). — An ancient artificial mound, with springs to 

the north and south. 

Tell el Kezaay (M m). — Apparently is a natural feature. 

Tell Kheibar" (M m). — Remains of a town and of a square 
building, perhaps a fort, on the top of the mound or Tell. The fort is about 
50 feet square, with an entrance on the south, once spanned by a lintel, 
now fallen. Two or three courses of the walls are standing. The masonry 
is of stones about 2 feet high and of square proportions ; on some there 
are remains of drafting. The walls are about 4 feet thick, the centre of 
rubble. The lintel is over 8 feet long. Round this fort, lower down, are 
remains of other buildings on the north and west. .Some 50 yards west 



2i6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

of the fort is a cutting in the rock about 9 feet wide, as though a path to 
a gate ; lower down a small cistern lined with hard cement ; and still 
lower a larger one ; north of this the foundation of a small round tower. 
The masonry of the fort resembles most closely the early Byzantine work. 
For traditions see Section C. 

Visited 26th August, 1S72. 

Tell M a n a s i f (J o). — Scattered stones and rock-cut cisterns, now- 
dry, on a high hill. 

Tell Subih (I n). — A mound, apparently artificial, with a pool on 
the north side. 

Tubras (L 1).^ — Heaps of stones, a well, and two sacred places. 

T u 1 1 u z a (N n). 
The identification of Tulluza with Tirzah was first made by Dr. Robinson (but see p. 228), 
and Van de Velde. The former thus describes it : ' The town is of some size, and tolerably 
well built. We saw no remains of anticjuity, except a few sepulchral excavations and some 
cisterns. We were admitted to the top of a Sheikh's house, in order to take bearings. The 
house was built round a small court, in which cattle and horses were stabled. Thence 
a stone staircase led up to the roof of the house proper, on whicli, at the north-west and 
south-east corners, were high single rooms like towers, with a staircase inside leading to 
the top. 

' In my former work the question was suggested whether perhaps this Tulluza may not 
be the representative of the ancient Tirzah, the seat of a Canaanitish king, and afterwards the 
residence of the kings of Israel, from Jeroboam to Omri, who transferred the seat of the 
kingdom to Samaria. The change of r into / is very common, the harder letter being 
softened, especially in the later Hebrew books and the kindred dialects. The place lies in a 
sightly and commanding position ; though the change of royal residence to the still more 
beautiful and not distant Samaria would be very natural. On the whole, I am disposed to 
regard Tulliaza as the ancient Tirzah — especially as there is no other name in all the region 
which bears the slightest resemblance to the latter. This, also, is doubtless the place which 
Brocardus speaks of as T/iersa, situated 3 leagues or hours east of Samaria. He probably 
recognised the change from r to / — if, indeed, it had then taken place. Tulluza has since 
been visited by no traveller.' — Robinson, ' Biblical Researches,' p. 302. 

El W i r i a (L n). — Traces of ruins and a sacred place, which, 
though modern, is built over a more ancient site. This building is about 
20 feet east and west by 15 north and south. On the south wall a 
Mihrab or prayer-apse, with a jDillar-shaft each side. The door is on 
the north. In the north-west corner is a sunk tomb in the corner, with a 
single /co/ca running in eastwards under the building. A capital of Byzan- 
tine type is placed on the lloor of the chamber, and on it a beam was 



[^SIIEET X/?\ ARCHAEOLOGY. 217 

resting. On the west is a window with a marbles Hntel ; and a stone, with 
lines intended for ornament, is huilt into the wall outside, on the west. 
On the north-east is a well ; and a sunk court 50 feet by 40 feet, with a 
modern stone wall, exists on the west and north, outside which are founda- 
tions of a tower 6 feet diameter, with remains of an entrance and small 
windows. Both the tower and the building are of poor masonry, but the 
former may perhaps have been a small minaret. A large heaja of stones 
exists on the north-west. 

The ruin stands in the centre oi a field, the soil (if which is grey, and 
perhaps indicates former ruins. The name indicati^s that a fire was once 
lighted here. 



VOL. II. 



28 



SHEET XI.— SECTION C. 

The population of the districts in this Sheet has never been properly 
ascertained, for the Government returns are not at all reliable. It is one 
of the most prosperous parts of the country, and most of the villages are 
large. In i860 Consul Finn obtained a return of 85,000 souls for the 
Nablus M lidirat. The inhabitants are mostly Moslems. The villages 
in which Christians are found are noticed in Section A. The Samaritans 
are also enumerated under Nablus in that section. A full account of 
the Samaritans will be found in ' Tent Work in Palestine,' chap. ii. 

Samaritan Tradition s. — The following information was ob- 
tained as to Samaritan traditions from Yakub esh Shellaby, the Samaritan, 
in 1877, in London (26th October) : 

Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb son of Jefunneh, are buried at Kefr 
Haris, south of Shechem. 

Eleazar the priest is buried some little way west of 'Awertah (at e 1 
'Azeir. See Sheet XIV.) 

Phinehas is buried close to 'Awertah (at el 'A z e i r a t) ; by him lie 
Abishuah (who wrote the famous MS.) and Ithamar. 

The place el 'A m u d is that where Joshua convened the tribes and 
made a compact with them that they should serve God. 

The cave where the five kings were hidden (Makkedah) is on Gerizim, 
between Ras el 'Ain and the place of sacrifice. It is now closed up. 

The sites 'A s h e r a h O u 1 a d Yakub and 'A m ad e d Din are 
not reverenced by the Samaritans ; the latter is in honour of a Moslem in 
the time of el Melek ed Dhahr (that is, any time about the conquest by 
the Moslems of Palestine). 

The ruin on Ebal (K h. K u 1 e i s a) is that of an ancient village. 

The following statements were made by the High Priest Jacob at 
Nablus, 2nd June, 1S81: 




< 



< 

s 
< 

O 
Q. 

o 

o 



[sheet A7.] SAMARITAN TRADITIONS. 219 

Joshua was buried at Kcfr Nemara (sec the Samaritan Chronicle), a 
place not certainly known, but thought to be 'Awertah. (See Samaritan 
Book of Joshua.) Kifil or Caleb was buried at Kefr Haris. (See Sheet XIV., 
Section A.) The site of Hizn Yakiib is not regarded as scripturally 
certain. The seventy elders were buried at 'Awertah. The so-called 
Ncby 'Osha, east of Jordan, is really the tomb of Nablh. (See Samaritan 
Book of Joshua.) The sons of Jacob were buried as follows: Reuben at 
Neby Rubin (Sheet X\T.) ; Simeon at Neby Shem'on, near Kefr Saba 
(Sheet X.) ; Levi at Neby Lawin, near Silet edh Dhahr (Sheet XI.) ; 
Judah at el Yehudiyeh (Sheet XIII.); Zebulon in the north — probably 
Neby Sebelan (Sheet II.) ; Issachar at Neby Hazkil or Ilazkin (Ezekiel), 
near Rameh (Sheet XI.) ; Dan at Ncby Danian (Sheet XIII.) ; Asher at 
Neby Toba at Tubas (Sheet XII.); Joseph at Shechem (Sheet XI.). 
Benjamin, Gad, and Naphtali he did not remember. All these sites are 
now Moslem Rlukams. 

The Samaritans have increased in numbers in the last ten years from 
135 to 160 souls. The younger men are very tall, strong, and handsome. 
Before the time of Ibrahim Pasha they are said to have held a special 
firman entitling them to exclusive employment in Syria as scribes, being 
unusually clever as writers and arithmeticians. Many traditions known to 
the former High Priest, 'Amram, are now forgotten, and many Christian 
and Moslem traditionary sites are accepted by the Samaritans as genuine — 
as, for instance, the mediaeval site of Dothan at Khan Jubb Yusef 

A Samaritan tradition was related, by Rev. J. Elkarey, of the 'A i n 
Sarin, which appears in Samaritan to mean ' Spring of Judgment.' It 
is a version of the story of Susannah, the elders being represented by two 
hermits who lived on Gerizim, and falsely accused a certain nun, also 
living there, whom they had been unable to corrupt. The judgment took 
place at 'Ain Sarin, and resulted in the punishment of the elders, con- 
victed by the same means used by Daniel in the story of Susanna. 

The only traditions of interest on this Sheet are connected with 
N a b 1 u s and Tell K h e i b a r. The names of el 'A m u d and 
'A mad ed Din, the sites of Jacob's Well, Joseph's Tomb, and 
K h u r b e t L6 z e h are all known to the peasantry and reverenced by 
them. The traditions of Hizn Y a k u b, as being the place where 
Joseph's coat was brought to Jacob, and of his mourning, and that of the 

2S— 2 



--° THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

A s h e r a h O u la d Yak u b, or ten sons of Jacob supposed to be buried 
north of Nablus, are interesting, but possibly of Christian origin : the 
first an ancient church, the second noticed by Jerome as existing in his 
day. Both arc, however, now credited by some of the Samaritans. 
According to the Sheikh of the mosque of the O u 1 a d Y a k u b, or 
' Sons of Jacob,' three only, and not ten of them, are there buried. He 
gave their names as ReiyaRin, Sah-yun (Sion), and Busherah 
(Asher). Other sons of Jacob are said to be buried at Bizarieh (north-west 
of Nablus), and at 'Asireh (on the north-east of the city). 

The site of Tell K h e i b a r is connected with a tradition of a 
Jewish king, who is said by the peasantry to have lived in Sanur. His 
daughter had her summer residence near the Tell in the INIerj el 
Ghiiriik. 

Another instance of the preservation of medieeval Christian tradition 
exists in the I\I u k a m en N e b y A h i a (or Y a h y a h), ' place of St. 
John,' venerated by the Moslems in the Church of St. John Baptist at 
Samaria. 

Three famous native families belong to this Sheet : the T o k a n, 
whose head (the Bey or Beik) lives in Nablus; the Jerrar, whose 
Kursi or 'throne' is Jeba, with another branch at Sanur, and the 
J i y ii s i at K u r, both once governing the surrounding districts. A fourth 
great family had its capital at 'Arrabeh — namely, the 'A b d el H a d i 
house. 

The 'A m a d e d D i n is said to be named from a Sheikh who lived, 
according to some, 500 years ago, according to others in the time of Omar. 
Some say he was a Sultan, and struck coins which are still to be found at 
Nablus. His father was Sheikh Badran, whose tomb is shown in the 
town. The Christians, both Greeks and Latins, say that the place was 
that where John Baptist's head was buried, and that it was originally a 
church. 

The S i 1 1 E s 1 a m i a is a cave and ruined building : the saint was a 
woman, whose bones are said to have been transported through the air 
from Damascus. According to others, she fled from Egypt, and tore open 
the rock to hide in it. She is said to have had a brother named Selim. 
Vows are offered and lamps lighted at the cave. 



SHEET XII.— SECTION A. 

Orographv. — The present Sheet contains 2 56 -9 square miles of the 
Jordan valley and of the hill country to the west. The two great valleys 
W a d y ]\I a 1 e h and W a d y F a r a h divide this area into three dis- 
tricts. 

I St. North o f W a d y jNI a 1 e h. — The main watershed of Palestine 
runs northwards from Mount Ebal (Sheet XI.) towards the barren 
rounded top called Ras el 'Akra (2,230 feet above the sea). It 
again curves round north-west from R a b a towards Tannin, and a 
bold spur runs out east from the conspicuous hill called Ras I b z i k, or 
Jebel Hazkin, which is covered with brushwood, and rises 1,400 
feet above the little open valley of T e i a s i r, near the head of W a d y 
M a 1 e h. This curving watershed shuts in on the east the plain known 
as the M e r j el G h u r u k, and the second shed on the west, de- 
scribed in Sheet XI., also bounds this plain, which is thus seen to be a 
crater of about five miles diameter east and west, without any outlet for 
its waters. The crater is about 1,200 feet above the sea, and the hills 
round it are 200 to 300 feet higher. North of this crater a valley, the head 
of which is at Ras el 'Akra, runs down north-west towards the j^lain 
of 'Arrdbeh. (Sheet VIII.) This valley (Wddy es Selhab) is 
flat and open, forming a sort of narrow plain of good arable soil, flanked 
by low hills about 200 feet high, on which stands the village of 
Zebabdeh. 

The twist in the watershed, near to R a b a, is followed by a straight 
ridge running to Jelkamus (Sheet IX.), whence the line continues 
(after another sharp bend east) along the top of Gilboa ; at R a b a is 
also the head of the great valley Shubdsh (or K 11 bash) draining 
into the Jordan, and the shed is here so narrow that in former maps the 
drainage has been represented in an erroneous manner. 



222 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Ras Ibzik, rising jusc south of Raba, is the highest point 
between Ebal and Gilboa ; the valleys draining to Jordan run from it in a 
north-cast direction, and the fall is regular, being about 2,600 feet in 
6 miles. 

There are two principal valleys on the east of the watershed. W a d y 
el K h a s h n e h, up which the Roman road passes, and W a d y M a 1 e h. 
The first is remarkable for the wild olives ('Azzun) which grow along 
its course ; they are rare in Palestine, but here clothe the hills thickly for 
2 or 3 miles. The Ret em broom, the hawthorn (Zarur), the wild 
almond (Asaf), the caper plant, the locust tree (Kharrubeh), and 
the S a r r i s bush (a kind of lentisk), are found on the hills in this part, 
the district being quite uncultivated. 

Wady INIaleh runs north from its head, which is in the plain of 
Tubas towards T e i a s i r, when it curves round and descends south- 
east, forming an open valley between the long spur of Ras J a d i r 
(2,326 feet above the sea) and the prominent hill called Ras el Bedd 
(1,750 feet) to the north. Four miles from Teiasir it turns east, and 
enters a narrow gorge commanded by the B u r j el M a 1 e h, above which, 
on the north, is a spur of Ras el Bedd known as Ras e r R u m m a 1 y, 
from the basaltic outbreak on its sides. The valley becomes rather more 
open below the hot salt spring ('A i n Mai eh), and turns north, running 
between rolling hills to the Jordan valley, where It again turns east, and 
the water here has a sudden fall at the little cliff ofesh Sherar some 
30 feet high. 

Wady Mai eh thus bounds the plain of Beisan (Sheet IX.) on 
the south. North of its course the Ghor has a width of about 4 miles, 
and an average depression of 600 to Soo feet below the Mediterranean. 
The Z6r or lower Jordan channel is continuous, with steep marl banks 
50 to 100 feet high. The narrowest part of the Zor is just north of the 
valley which runs from K h . K a a u n, north of Tell er Ridhghah, 
where there Is a conspicuous cliff of white marl over the river. It is 
broadest In the neighbourhood of Tell Abu S u s, where the low 
ground is about a mile across from the river to the upper part of the 
Ghor. This is cultivated land, and the Tell stands Isolated among 
barley fields. 

2nd. Between Wady Mai eh and Wady Fa rah the con- 



[sheet XIIP[ orography. 223 

formation is slightly different. Two parallel spurs, each having the 
appearance of an isolated mountain, run out in a south-easterly direction 
from the main watershed. The northern or higher is called Ras J ad i r, 
about 3 miles long, south-east, rising about 1,000 feet above the low ground 
which lies between it and the second, called Jebel Tammun, which 
is directly over the F a rah valley. 

On the saddle between Ras Jadir and the main shed stands 
Tubas, and from it a valley runs south to the Fa rah. Thus the 
ground, between the spurs above noticed and the watershed, is occupied 
by low shapeless hills and by the open low ground which drains into the 
Farah. 

East of the two spurs of Jadir and T a m m u n there is a plateau 
extending eastwards some 5 miles. The northern part consists of a 
series of rolling hills, something like those west of the Dead Sea, unculti- 
vated, and separated by a perfect net-work of sm;;ll deep valleys draining 
into W'ady Mai eh. The average elevation is some 500 feet above 
sea level, or 1,800 feet below the Ras Jadir, and 1,000 feet above 
Jordan. The southern half of the plateau is a level plain of arable land, 
draining into the Jordan viilley by the W a d y el Bukeia, which rises 
below Ras Jadir, and runs south-east parallel to the Farah. The 
plain, which is called el Bukeia, is from i mile to i^ miles broad and 
7 miles long, in a south-easterly direction, at which end there is a 
most curious feature in the sudden twist of the draining valley through a 
narrow gorge before reaching the Jordan valley. The plateau here ends 
in low precipices and steep slopes 1,200 feet above the Jordan. 

On the south-west of this plain there are low hills with valleys running 
down into the Farah valley, which is one of the main features of Pales- 
tine, and may be described as follows : 

Wady Farah is formed by the junction of two water-courses, one 
running south, the other north. The first comes from Tiibas, the 
second from the neighbourhood of 'Askar, under the eastern slope of 
Ebal. (Sheet XL) This second head, called Wddy Beiddn, is a 
deep and rugged gorge, with precipices on either side, which rise on the 
east 1,800 feet to the summit of the chain of Neby Bel an, which is 
thus entirely cut off from the watershed. 

The junction of these two heads is 4 miles south of Tubas, in a 



"4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

broad llat valley, a mile across, north and south, and about on the same 
level with the Bukcia jjlateau (500 feet above the sea), the spur of Jebel 
Tammiln separating the two basins. 

The Far^h runs from this junction in a tolerably straight course south- 
east, flanked on the north by Jebel T a m m u n, and the spurs rising 
south-east from it, and on the south by a parallel range from N e b y 
B e 1 a n, which receives the name Jebel el Kebir. The two ranges 
have their summits about four miles apart, and there is a band of cliff on 
each side about 2 miles apart, and the valley itself may be said to be over 
a mile wide to the foot of the hills. The stream runs nearest the northern 
range, almost at the foot of the slopes, and long flat spurs run out from 
the southern range with a slope of 5° or 10°, terminating in rocks above 
the stream. 

This general character is continued for 8 miles from the junction to 
the place called ed Deijah, where there is a flat plain (as the name 
signifies) about i:^ miles across, principally south of the stream. The fall 
from the head springs of the valley to this point is over 900 feet, or 100 
feet per mile. The chain on the south is 2,300 feet above the valley, 
and on the north 1,100 feet. The stream is now 400 feet below the 
Mediterranean level. 

Arrived at this point the F a r a h passes through a narrow gorge for 
about a quarter of a mile, with cliffs on either side ; it then opens into a 
flat plain, over a mile wide. (See Sheet XV.) 

The whole district passed through is uncultivated. The hills are bare 
and rocky, but the valley is covered in spring with luxuriant herbage and 
flowers. Tall canes grow in the stream, and oleander bushes flourish by 
the water. There is a line of mills along the course on either side, 
supplied by channels connected with the stream. 

The Jordan valley east of the central district of the Sheet is very 
narrow. From the cliffs which terminate the B u k e i d to the water is 
an average distance of about a mile, but east of the river the Ghor is 
about double this breadth. The Zor is now continuous, though narrow 
in places, and though there is not always a very distinct fall from one level 
to the other, as the ground is much cut up into hillocks, isolated and worn 
away by the torrents, which conformation has caused the name U m m e d 
Deraj (' Mother of Steps') to be applied to the whole of this district. 



\_SIIEE T A"//.] // } -DROGRATH Y. 2^5 

The Ghor is very bare, and only in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
river do trees exist, forming tlie Jordan jungle, as described on other 
Sheets. 

3rd. South of \V a d y F a r a h the country consists of one long 
spur running south-east, and draining on the north to the Fdrah, on the 
west towards the ]\I u k h n a h plain (Sheets XI. and XIV.), on the south 
to \V a d y F u sail. (Sheet X\'.) This block is only joined to the main 
watershed by the low saddle near Tana, and is practically isolated. It 
begins on the north-east at Neby Belan (2,509 feet above the sea), 
rises to the highest point at J e b e 1 el K e b i r (2,610 feet), thence falls 
to S h e i k h K a m i 1 (1,920 feet), and is joined by a narrow neck to the 
S u r t u b e h block. 

On the south-west there are five villages on the slopes, with open 
arable land ; but on the Jordan valley side the hills are rough and barren. 
The ground between Beit Furlk Salim and Beit Dejan is a 
branch of the Mukhnah plain, measuring about i mile across and 4 miles 
south-east. 

Hydrggrapiiy. — The Jordan valley was surveyed in early spring 
(March and April), after an exceptionally wet winter (1S73-74). The 
water supply was consequently at its fullest. 

W a d y F a r a h itself has a perennial llow of water, even in August. 
The springs at the two heads, near the B u r j el Farah and the 
Sahel ct Teireh, were full of beautifully clear cool water running 
in a rapid current, surrounded with oleanders, the neighbouring ground 
being covered in places with turf. The southern group of springs is called 
R a s el Farah. 

The whole course of the valley is full of springs, of which the principal 
are 'A i n M i s k y and 'A i n S h i b 1 e h. There are also springs on the 
southern hill-slopes — 'A in el ]\I e i y i t e h and 'A i n e d D a b b u r. 

Thus this valley is one of the richest spots in Palestine, and the 
current in spring forms the most important western affluent of the Jordan, 
only passable at certain fords. 

The River Jordan in the present Sheet winds considerably. 
There are seven small islets in the river, the largest, opposite 'Arak 
A b u el Hashish, being about 200 yards long. The fall of the river 
VOL. II. 29 



2 26 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 

is more gradual than near the Sea of Gahlee. There are rapids where 
Wady M al e h joins, but between the Sciidiyeh and Umm Sidreh 
fords there is a fall of only 40 feet in 9 miles of direct course. 

The river is tolerably uniform in width throughout, and deeper than 
near Beisan. (Sheet IX.) Si.xteen fords were found along the course. 

\V a d y M a 1 e h has in spring a considerable current of water along 
the part of its course near the spring, and when visited there was water all 
the distance to Jordan. The head spring is 'A i n M aleh, which has a 
temperature of 100° Fahr. (Robinson, 98° Fahr.), and comes out in a 
rocky basin, forming a pool about 2 feet deep. This spring is surrounded 
with black mud, and has a sulphurous odour ; it is too salt to be drunk. 
The stream is about So° Fahr. for half a mile down, and very turbid. The 
presence of a large basaltic outbreak just below the B u r j el M a 1 e h is 
no doubt connected with the thermal character of the spring. 

Above 'A i n M a 1 e h is another spring, with but little water, thence 
called 'A i n el M e i y i t e h (' Dead Spring'). Lower down the valley, 
at Tell Abu S i f r y, there are also springs. An affluent to the stream 
comes down a narrow rocky valley from the south. The spring here is 
called 'A i n el H e 1 w e h, being supposed drinkable; but, though not 
so salt as the ' A i n M a 1 e h, it is also brackish. 

There are three other springs in the valley itself before it reaches the 
Ghor, at which point another affluent joins it from the 'A i n esh 
S h u k k, so called because it comes out of clefts in a cliff, and flows down 
into the valley below. This spring is also warm and brackish. 

Reaching the Ghor, the stream is again supplied by two springs close 
tosrether, wellinsf out of soft soil, and surrounded with rushes. These are 
called 'A in el Helweh and 'A i n Habus. 

Spring s. — In addition to the springs above noticed there are several 
of importance in the Jordan valley. To the north there is a group of seven 
springs near Tell er Ridhghah, all with streams running to Jordan, 
and coming out in marshy ground surrounded with rushes. The spring 
at e d D e i r flows down a little valley full of brambles, and was found 
by Captain Warren to have a temperature of 78° Fahr. 

The 'A in el Beida is a large spring which irrigates the neigh- 
bouring land and is surrounded with cucumber-gardens. 

Close to the hills there are three good springs — one at K a a u n, one 



ISNEET A'//.] TOPOGRAPHY. 227 

at B e r d c 1 e h, and the third and largest at T e 1 1 el PI ti m m c h — each 
of which sends in spring a stream down into the Ghur, and is used in 
irrigation. 

One other spring remains to be noticed in this plain, 'A i n es 
S a k u t, which comes out of the side of a heap oi ruins, and has a tem- 
perature about 80° Fahr. The water is pure, and pours out in a narrow 
stream surrounded with fig-trees apparently wild. 

No springs occur in the hills which rccjuire special notice ; such as 
supply the villages are noticed with them. 

ToPOGRAriiv. — There are fifteen inhabited villages in the hills, which 
belong to two divisions of the Nablus Mudirat, the main portions of the 
districts beino: on Sheet XI. 



'£3 



Mesharik el Jerrar. 

1. 'Akabeh (O m). — A good-sized village on the northern slope 
of the Ras el 'Akra. It is surrounded with brushwood on the hills, 
but has arable land below. 

2. Rerdeleh (P m), though ruined, is inhabited in .spring by the 
peasants from the hill villages, who descend to find pasture and to culti- 
vate melons and other vegetables round the springs. 

3. Khurbet 'Atuf (P n). — This is a mud village built on an 
older site, and supplied by wells and cisterns. 

4. Khurbet Kaaun (P m) is a place of the same character, 
with mud hovels among ruins, and caves also inhabited. The place has 
the appearance of an ancient site and a fine spring. It may perhaps be 
the site called Kaina in the inscription of Thothmes III. (.see 'Records 
of the Past,' ii. 42), which was a place with water and south of Megiddo, 
occupied by the southern wing of Thothmes' army advancing from 
Aaruna (perhaps 'Arraneh, Sheet IX.). These two identifications 
agree with the supposition that the Megiddo of this inscription is 
Khurbet Mujedda. 

5. Riba (O m). — A stone village of moderate size at the head of 
a valley, surrounded with scrub and having arable land to the north. 

29 — 2 



2 28 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The water supply appears to be artificial, cisterns existing to the north- 
west among the ruins. 

This place may perhaps be Rabbith of Issachar. (Joshua xix. 20.) 
The remote position on the hills has prevented its previous discovery, and 
it is not marked on former maps. It may also perhaps be the R a b a (n a) 
of the Lists of Thothmes III., the na being an acknowledged Egyptian 
suffix. 

6. Sir (N m). — A small village on a knoll amid brushwood, with a 
large house on the west. 

7. T am m u n (O n). — A good-sized village at the foot of the moun- 
tain, with open ground to the north. The village stands high, with olives 
to the south. 

This name seems to preserve the Crusading Terra T a m p n e, 
which is described by Marino Sanuto apparently as north-east of 
N a b 1 u s. 

8. Teiasir (O m). — A small village which has, however, an aj)- 
pearance of antiquity. It has caves and tombs under the present houses 
and on all sides in great numbers. It lies in a secluded and fertile open 
valley, with good soil and arable land ; there are good and ancient olive- 
trees near the houses on the south, where is a curious monument. (See 
Section B.) There are many cisterns, and a place sacred to the Prophet 
T 6 b a. An ancient main road from Shechem to Beisan passes through 
the village ; there is no spring nearer than the Farah valley. The in- 
habitants cultivate the ground as far east as Wady Maleh, and have good 
soil near Yerzeh. 

This village has in its name all the radical letters of the name Tirzah, 
with an inversion of the last syllable, which is common among the 
peasantry. Of the position of Tirzah, once the capital of Israel, we have 
no indication in Scripture. Robinson suggests its identity with Tiilluza, 
which name has not a single letter identical with those in the name 
Tirzah. 

Brocardus (1283) speaks of Thirsa as three hours (9 or 10 English 
miles) east of Samaria ; Tulluza is barely 6 miles, but Teiasir is about 
1 2 miles, so that it fits fairly with the only known indication as to the 
position of Tirzah. 



{sheet A'//.] TOPOGRAPHY. 229 

9. Tubas (On) is the largest village on the Sheet. The houses 
stand high to the west of a basin, and are surrounded with olive-trees and 
corn land. Both the oil and the corn of Tubas is held in special estima- 
tion. The place has no natural water supply, but has cisterns for rain 
water. There are a few Christians both here and also in the neighbouring 
villages, but no churches. The inhabitants, as late as 1867 (see Finn's 
' Byeways,' p. 92), were divided into factions, the names of which arc still 
known. (See Section C.) 

Tiibas is identified with the ancient Thebez (Judges ix. 50 ; 2 Samuel 
xi. 21), though the names are not as close in Arabic and Hebrew as they 
appear to be in English. In the ' Onomasticon ' the distance from 
Neapolis to Thebez (which is said to be on the main road to Scythopolis, 
as is Tubas) is given as 13 Roman miles — the distance from Nablus 
to Tubas is about 10 English miles by road. The tomb of Neby Toba 
at this place is believed by the Samaritans to be that of Asher, son of 
Jacob; the meaning of the modern name being allied to that of the ancient 
Asher (' Blessed'). 

10. Zebabdeh (X m). — A moderate-sized village at the south 
edge of the arable plain called Wady es Selhab, supplied by a well 
on the east, with a low hill covered with brushwood on the south. 



Mesharik Nablus. 

1. 'Azmiit (N o). — A small village, standing on the slope of the 
hill, with cliffs on the west. 

2. Beit Dejan (O o). — A small village, evidently an ancient site, 
with rock-cut tombs and wells to the east. It stands at the eastern 
end of the plain which runs below Salim. This place, like the last, is 
surrounded with olive-trees ; it is, perhaps, the Dagon of the ' Samaritan 
Chronicle,' inhabited in the seventh century by the Samaritans. (See 
' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196.) 

3. Beit Furik (N o).— A small village in a nook of the hills near 
the plain of Salim. It has a well to the east. This is perhaps the place 
called Ferka in the Talmud (Neubauer, p. 275), which appears to have 
been in Samaria. It is also noticed in the ' Samaritan Chronicle.' 



23° THE SURVEY OF JVESTERy PALESTIXE. 

4. D e i r el H a t a b (N o). — A small village, with olives and a well 
to the south, standing on the hill slope. 

5. Salim (N o). — A small village, resembling the rest, but evidently 
ancient, having rock-cut tombs, cisterns, and a tank. Olive-trees surround 
it ; on the north are two springs about f mile from the village. 

This place is perhaps the Caphar Shalem of the Talmud, which was 
near En Kushi (perhaps Kefr K 11 s, Sheet XL). (Tal. Jer. Abodah 
Zara, v. 4.) 

In the 'Samaritan Chronicle' it is called 'Salem the Great' (see 
'Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196), and the Samaritans under- 
stand this to be mentioned in Gen. xxxiii. 18. Salim is also possibly the 
Caphar Salama of i Mace. vii. 31, which seems to have been in Samaria. 

There is a question whether this place is the Salim of the Gospel. 
The name 'Ainun is identical with ^non and Salim with Salim 
(John iii. 23) ; they are 7 miles apart, and the plentiful springs and waters 
of the F a r a h valley lie between, affording an explanation of the ' much 
water.' 

In the fourth century Salim was shown 8 miles south of Beisan 
(' Onomasticon '), and supposed to be the town of Melchizedek. A Salim 
is also marked in this position on the map of Marino Sanuto. The 
measurement brings us to the place called e d D e i r, the remains pro- 
bably of a monastery, in the neighbourhood of which there are seven 
springs and extensive ruins. About a mile to the north is Tell er 
Ridhghah, with another spring, and in the ruins a kubbeh, to which 
Vandevelde obtained the name Sheikh S a 1 i m. The inquiries of the 
Survey party in 1874 and again in 1877 did not prove successful in re- 
covering this name (see Report by C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, ' Quarterly 
Statement,' January, 1875, p. 32), but there can be little doubt that it was 
once known, as it was apparently also recovered by Robinson in 1856, and 
there seems every probability that this was the accepted site in the fourth 
century, though the absence of the name ^non and of any marks of great 
antiquity seem to make it doubtful whether it is to be held the true site. 



\_SIJEET XIL'\ AXCIEXT sites. 231 

In addition to the inhabited places a few ruined sites of interest are 
identified as follows : 

Abel Meholah is identified in the ' Onomasticon ' with a place 
10 miles south of Scythopolis, called Bethaula (BjjO/jaifAa). The distance 
brings us to 'A i n Helweh (Q m), the name of which contains the 
proper radicals, and the position seems not discordant with the notice in 
the Bible. (Judges xii. 22.) 

B a d a n. — A place where the congregation purified itself after passing 
Jordan and before going up to Gerizim, according to Samaritan tradition. 
(See Juynboll's 'Samaritan Book of Joshua,' note p. 314.) We can 
have little hesitation in recognising this name in W a d y B e i d a n 
(N o), with its fine spring (Ras el Far ah) on the high road to 
Gerizim from the Hauran, where the tribes are supposed to have 
assembled. 

Beth She mesh. — A place in Issachar. It may perhaps be con- 
nected with 'A i n esh Shemsiyeh (Q m) in the Jordan valley. 
(Joshua .\i.\. 22.) 

Bezek. — A place in the central part of Palestine (i Samuel xi. 8), a 
day's march from Jabesh Gilead. In the ' Onomasticon' two places called 
Bezec are said to have existed close together 17 miles from Neapolis, on 
the road going down to Scythopolis. This site is evidently K h u r b e t 
Ibzik (O m), 14 English miles from Nablus, on the road in question. 

Choba. — Mentioned in Judith iv. 4 ; xv. 4, 5 ; the name is derived 
by Gesenius from a root meaning 'hiding.' It is supposed to be the 
Coabis of the Peutinger Tables, by Reland ('Palestine,' p. 721), 12 
Roman miles from Scythopolis and 12 from Archelais. At the distance 
of II English miles from the former, and about 14 from the latter 
(Kurawa), is the cave called 'Arak el K hubby (O m) and the ruin 
el M e k h u b b y, names radically identical with Choba, and close to the 
main line of advance from Scythopolis into Samaria. 

S u c c o t h (Gen. xxxiii. 1 7). — Robinson has proposed to place this 
at SakOt, but Mr. Grove argues that it should be sought east of Jordan. 
The name S i k (i t is radically different from Succoth. 

In the fourteenth century Marino Sanuto marks Succoth on his map 
just where SakClt now exists. 



232 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

T a a n a t h S h i 1 o h (Joshua xvi. 6). — A place next on the boundary 
to Janohah (Y a n u n). This would seem to be the ruin of T a n a, 
7 English miles from Nablus and 2 miles north of Yanun. Eusebius 
speaks of a place called Thena, lo Roman miles east of Neapolis, which is 
probably Tana (O o) ; and Ptolemy mentions Thena as a Samaritan 
town. (See Reland, ' Palestine,' p. 1034.) 

Roads. — There are six ancient lines of communication on this 
Sheet. 

1. The Jordan valley road, from Jericho to Tiberias, which is not 
remarkable. It keeps near the foot of the western hills, and the paving is 
still traceable in many places, as, for instance, south of 'A in H e 1 w e h. 

2. The road from Nablus to Beisan, through Wady Beidan 
(where are pillars, perhaps Roman milestones) and by the head springs 
of the F a r a h ; thence up the open valley to Tuba s, and hence 
gradually falling to T e i a s i r. The road then bifurcates the northern 
branch, following the line of Wady el Khashneh to the Ghor, being 
the direct route, and marked by three fallen Roman milestones at the point 
where the view of Beisan and of the plain is first obtained. The 
number of stones seems in some instances to give the number of miles. 
(Compare K h li r b e t T a n t u r a, Sheet VII.) In this case the 3 miles 
would count from Coabis (el Mekhubby). The road keeps close to 
the edge of the hills from this point to Beisan. (Sheet IX.) 

The southern branch runs east from T e i a s i r (where there is a 
Roman milestone) down Wady Male h, and is marked in places by side 
walls. At 'Ain Maleh it gradually turns north-east, and joins the Jordan 
valley road east of T e 1 1 el H u m m e h, running at a higher level as 
far as the R a s el H u m e i y i r, where it gradually descends. 

3. The main road to the Damieh ford of Jordan from Nablus 
branches off from the Beisan road at the Wady Farah spring head, and 
descends that valley on the north side of the stream, until it arrives at 
B u s e i 1 i y e h, where is a ford, by which it crosses to the south. 

4. An ancient road from Nablus runs along the plain of Salim, 
and bifurcates at Beit F u r i k. The north branch, passing Beit 
Dejan, runs along the ridge to Muntdr el Beneik (Sheet XV.), 
and then descends rapidly into the Farah valley, a drop of nearly 2,000 



{sheet .v//.] cultivation. 233 

feet, by the Talat Abu 'Aid. The southern branch leads to 
F u s a i 1. (Sheet XV.) 

5. A cross communication exists from the large ruins in Wady 
Farah (Archelais, see Sheet XV.) to Tubas. Ascending the hill at 
B u s e i 1 i y e h, where the road is banked up, it passes round the eastern 
foot of J e b e 1 T a m m il n, and runs over the plateau past 'A i n il n, 
(the sides marked with remains of a stone fence,) under the south-west 
side of R a s J a d i r. 

6. A cross communication from the Farah valley to the ford 
(IMakhddet ez Zakkumeh), leading over to 'Ajlun and Kulat 
e r R u b li d, ascends by the N li k b el 'A r a i s, and crosses the last 
noticed road just at the edge of the B u k e i a plain. The ruin at this 
place (Khiirbet el Jurein) has the appearance of a small Roman 
station on the roads. The road is marked with side walls in places. 

CuLTlVATiox. — The principal cultivated district is the Bukeia corn 
plateau, the lands of which belong principally to Tubas, together with 
the vegetable gardens in the Ghor. The cultivation round the villages is 
noted under that head. The hills near the watershed are overrun with 
copse. The valley of the Jordan is for the most part uncultivated, though 
near the hills there are gardens, and in the Zor barley and simsim are 
grown. The Ghor is covered in spring with rank herbage, and mallows 
(Khobbeizeh) grow luxuriantly, concealing the ruins. The wild fig and 
bramble grow near the springs, especially near e d D e i r. The N e b k 
tree also is found scattered {Zizyphus Lotus) ; and on the hill slopes the 
Retem broom (the juniper of Scripture) is very common; the alcali 
plant is also common, and canes, hemlock, and blackberries near the waters. 
The wild olives, and other vegetation of Wady el Khashneh have 
been already noted, WMth the oleanders of the Farah, and the Jordan jungle 
as described on other Sheets. 



VOL. II. 30 



SHEET XII.— SECTION B. 

ArCII/EOLOGY. 

'A i n u n (O n). — See the probable identification under the head 
Salim, Section A. The ruins are those of an ordinary village, apparently 
modern, standing on a small hillock. 

' Here was once a large village, now completely overthrown. A great number of rock-cut 
cisterns are observed on the site ; most of them are filled up with materials belonging to de- 
molished houses. A little Burj of Mussulman appearance, and constructed of stones of 
medium size taken from the ruins of the ancient town, show that it ceased to be inhabited 
after the Arab invasion.' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' i. 362. 

'A i n e s S a k il t (O m). — There are here heaps of stones and 
foundations round the spring, and wild fig-trees. The site is close to the 
Zor, on a sort of promontory, with the spring lower down. The place 
seems once to have been a small village. (See Succoth, Section A.) 

Visited March 31st, 1874. 

'Arkan en Nimr(0 o). — A ruined fold. 

Beit Dejan (O o). — The ruin on the cast is a watch-tower, 
apparently ancient ; near the village are cisterns and heaps of stones, 
and rock- cut tombs. 

Burj el F a r a h (O n). — A square tower of small size, on a 
knoll, probably built as a guard-house, and not older than Saracenic 

times. 

Of the fountain and ruins here, Gu6rin thus speaks ; 

' The spring gushes from the ground, and forms immediately a very abundant stream. . . , 
I climbed on foot a small hill, the Tell el Fera'a, rising a little to the south about 150 feet 
above the level of the valley. The slopes and the summit are at present cultivated ; but in 
the midst of the flowers, the corn, and the grass which cover it, one comes continually upon 
stones of all sizes, the remains of buildings completely overthrown. The ruins extend to the 
base of the Tell, as far as the edge of the Wady. The Mussulmans had built a little sanctuary 
with ancient blocks, but this is now almost destroyed. 



[sheet XII.'] ARCH.EOLOG Y. 235 

' On the other side of the Wady, to the north-west, I visited another oblong hill, also 
cultivated. It was once covered with buildings, as is shown by the ancient materials scattered 
about in the midst of the corn. At its eastern extremity, on the highest point, is a great 
square tower, measuring 20 paces on each side. That of the east, which is the best preserved, 
is built of fine blocks, some of which are embossed ; the larger are placed at the angles. 
The other sides, and especially that on the west, are much more ruinous. Whether this tower 
is ancient in its lower courses, or whether it is built of old materials, it appears to have been 
in either case altered by the Mussulmans. 

' Beside the Burj I saw a good birket cut in the rock, and measuring 25 paces long by to 
broad. Near it are a good many cisterns, also cut in the rock. 

' All these ruins tend to prove that at the spring of 'Ain el Fera'a there formerly stood a 
town of considerable importance, the position of which would be very strong. I am inclined 
to think that this is the site of the ancient city of En Tappuah (Joshua xvii. 7).' — Gucrin. 
Samaria,' i. 25S. 

Burj el Mai eh (P n). — A fortress commanding the road down 
Wady Maleh, and placed in a very strong position, with a fine view of the 



Scaie of Vefi- 




Jordan valley and part of the Sea of Galilee, with a precipitous descent 
on the south-west. The area is included between a long curve on one 
side, and a wall with a slight salient angle on the south, the width north 
and south being 1 70 feet, and east and west at the greatest length 
320 feet. The main entrance was to the north by a door with a pointed 
arch, and vaults of irregular plan appear to have been built against 
the outer wall on every side. The outer walls are 8 feet to 10 feet 
thick, but those of the vaults from 3 feet to 5 feet. There seems to have 
been a large tank in the centre of the enclosure. On the east there is 
a window in the outer wall. 

The masonry of the building is not of great size, and is rudely squared 
and ill-dressed. The corner stones in the walls are drafted with a rustic 

30—2 



Z36 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

boss ; one stone was 2 feet 10 inches long, i foot 7 inches high, the draft 
7 inches broad one side, 5^ inches the other, 3 inches above and below; 
the boss projected 2 inches to 3 inches. A second stone was 2 feet 
3 inches long, i foot 2 inches high, the draft 2\ inches wide at top and 
bottom, 4^ inches at one side, and 2\ inches on the other. A third 
stone had a draft on three sides only. 

The roofs of the vaults are of rag-work, and the arch of the door- 
way is also of undressed stones. Some of the roofs are almost triangular 
in cross-sections, with a sharp point. 

This building would seem to be one of the later Crusading struc- 
tures, and most resembles the fortress atTalatcd Dumm. (Sheet XVIII. 
See Section B., Khan el Hathrurah.) 

Visited and planned, April 2nd, 1874. 

Buseiliyeh (P o). — A hillock, with heaps of stones and a well. 

The name was also obtained to a second site on the opposite side of 

a small valley, where are traces of ruins about half a mile to the 

south. 

' The ruins of this name extend from the Wady over a plain, and upon the hills which rise 
gradually to the south-west and north-east. The little town whose ruins these are is now 
completely destroyed. Not a trace of the surrounding wall is visible ; not a building remains 
upright. The site, grown over with grass, flowers, and young seder, is scattered over with the 
remains of pottery and materials of all kinds, the ruins of houses completely destroyed. 
Some cisterns cut in the rock are alone remaining in preservation. I observed also the lower 
courses of a wall determining a rectangle 58 paces long and 33 broad. This wall, 3 feet 
thick, was constructed of pretty large well-squared blocks. Small stones, with earth in place 
of cement, are inserted between the larger ones. A narrow ditch ran outside the southern 
face of this little enclosure, which the Arabs still call the Serai ("The Palace"), and which, 
except on the north side, where it rises to the height of 3 feet g inches, is elsewhere either 
razed entirely or buried beneath earth. It was divided into two unequal compartments, one 
of which encloses a sort of subterranean magazine with semicircular vaulting. The other 
buildings which formerly stood within this wall are so entirely destroyed that not a trace 
remains visible.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' i. 251. 

Ed D e i j a h (P o). — Foundations of an ancient watch-tower or small 
fort remain here in the valley. 

Ed D e i r (O n). — Heaps of stones and foundations. 

Ed D e i r (O m). — The northern site by the seven springs in the 
Jordan valley. This name is applied to a ruined wall by the spring. The 
real site seems to be at U m m el 'A m d a n. 



\_SnEEr X//.'] ARCHAEOLOGY. 237 

D hah ret Ilomsah (P o). — An ancient watch-tower of unhewn 
stone remains on this ridge. 

El Hum m a m (P n). — Just above 'A i n INI a 1 e h are traces of two 
buildings, once considerable, the stones well-cut, and in some cases 
4 feet long. An ancient aqueduct channel is visible close by, probably 
used for irrigation. The name of the place signifies that a lialli of 
some kind was erected by the hot spring. 

Hiltet Saduneh (Po). — Foundations and a ruined tank. Nothing 
exists which indicates the date. 

El K u f c i r (O m). — Ruins of an ordinary village, with 8 or 9 rock- 
cut cisterns and 'rock-sunk ' tombs, as at I ksal. (Sheet VIII.) 

K h u r b e t A b u 'A 1 y (N n). — Ruined house. 

Khurbet el 'Akabeh (P n). — Heaps of stones. 

Khiirbet 'Arkan es Sakhur (O o). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet 'A t u f (P n). — A modern village stands on the old 
ruins, which consist of foundations, caves and cisterns. There are wells 
and cisterns, but no tombs were found, and there is no spring at the place, 
which seems a strong objection to an identification (proposed by Robinson) 
with En Tappuah, a word with which the name has only one letter in 
common. 

Khurbet Beit F a r (O o). — Walls and foundations, apparently 
modern, with caves and a spring. 

Khurbet Bir esh Shucihch (O o). — Traces of ruins and a 
well. 

Khurbet F c r w c h (N n). — Fallen columns, possibly Roman mile- 
stones. 

Khurbet H a i y e h (N o). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Ibzik (O m). — Evidently an ancient site, with traces 
of ruins, cisterns and caves, as at Khurbet Y e r z e h. There is a 
kubbeh in the ruins sacred to Sheikh Hazkin, apparently Ezekiel. 
(See Bezek, Section A.) 



238 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



K h u r b e t J e b r i s h (P m). — Walls, foundations, pillar shafts, 
a portion of tesselated pavement. A lintel stone, 5 feet long, i foot 
9 inches high, 10 inches thick, was found, with a design of three wreaths. 
A column much worn had a capital of rude Ionic style (apparently Byzan- 
tine), 16 inches diameter, and the capital 11 inches high. One shaft was 
5 feet 6 inches long, 1 7 inches diameter. There was also an attached 




DutJiiV JG 






Liniel of Door Lenqth 5 feeV 
Breadth 1 3 ThickJiess W^ 



BrutJcet or CaiitelioJx 





semi-pillar, i foot i inch diameter, and a small bracket of stone, 10 Inches 
high, projecting i foot 8 inches. This place seems to have been probably 
a monastery of the fifth or sixth century. The towers marked near it 
resemble that at e 1 M u k h u b b y. 
Visited 3rd April, 1874. 

Khurbet Juleijil (No). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Kaiiin (P m). — (Sec Section A.) There are caves, 
and the place appears to have been an ancient site, perhaps Cola. 
(Judith XV. 4.) 

Khurbet el K i r u r (O o). — Foundations, tombs with koknn and 
cisterns. Evidently an ancient site. The enclosures marked near the 
Roman road east of this ruin are apparently old folds, with walls of dry- 
stone some 2 feet square. 

Visited iith March, 1874. 



K h u r b c I K a s h d e h (O n). — Traces of ruins. 



{sheet A'//.] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



239 



K h u r b c t K e 1" r L! c i t a (N o). — Foundations and cisterns. There 
is here a tomb with an ornamental facade and with koktm. The 
facade has two wreaths sculptured on it, 
tlanked by pitchers like those at Seilun, 
(Sheet XI.), perhaps representing the 
pot of manna. A second tomb has three 
wreaths above it, and a third has a 
simple cornice and side pilasters ; the 
door is choked. A central column ap- 
pears to have supported the cornice, 
now broken away except the top part of 

the shaft, which remains hanging. This tomb is about the same size 
with the principal tomb at K h u r b e t K u r k u s h. (Sheet XIV.) 










do- 



K h 11 r b c t K e f r D u k k (O m). — Traces of a ruined hamlet. 

K h u r b e t el M a 1 e h (P n). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Mofia (Q o). — Ruined walls and cisterns ; has the ap- 
pearance of an old site. On the north is a ruined watch-tower of good 
masonry, called M u n t a r Mofia, apparently ancient. 



240 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTEYE. 

Khiirbet en Nahm (N m).— Traces of ruins. 
K h u r b e t 'O d h f c r (O n). — Traces of ruins. 

K h li r b e t R fi s e d D i a r (O o). — Foundations, wells, and rock- 
cut tombs. This site forms part of that of Beit Dejan. 

Khiirbet Safiriyeh (N m).— Foundations. 
Khurbet es Sefeirah (P n). — Traces of ruins. 
Khurbet es Selhab (O m). — Traces of ruins. 

' A little town, now destroyed, on a hill whose rocky sides are pierced by numerous 
cisterns. The place which it occupied is now covered with confused materials, the remains 
of demolished dwellings, and disposed for the most part in circular heaps round silos or sub- 
terranean magazines cut in the rock.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' i. 355. 

Khurbet es Serb (N n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Sheilch Nasr Allah (No). — Cisterns, tombs, and 

a tank. 

Khurbet Sinia. 

Gucrin, whose account of his journey in this district cannot be followed on the map, speaks 
of a Khurbet Sinia, which he found ' immediately west of Teiasir.' He had been visiting 
Khiirbet Yerzeh, whose ruins, covered over with grass and undergrowth, were not examined 
by him. He then struck south, and in 40 minutes passed Teiasir on his left. This is impossible 
according to the map, in which it will be found that Teiasir is north-west of Khurbet 
Yerzeh. The confusion need not have been noticed but for the existence of this ruin, 
Khurbet Sinia, which he describes as exactly east of Tulas. The ruin, he says, consists 
of the remains of an ancient village on a rocky hill. It is completely destroyed except the 
numerous cisterns and ancient caves cut in the rock, round which are semicircular heaps of 
stones belonging to overthrown houses, and thus disposed by Arab shepherds, who use these 
enclosures for folds and the caves for dwelling-places. 

Khijrbet esh Sherarbeh (No). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet e s S m e i t (O n). — Ruined walls, seemingly modern, 
with a kubbeh, perhaps an old site. A pillar with fluted shaft. 

Probably this ruin is the same as that called by Gucrin Khurbet Asir, ' the remains of a 
small village completely destroyed. Here is also a kubbeh surrounded by a small wall of 
enclosure, revered by the Fcllahin as sacred to a santon called Neby Smeit.' 

Khurbet es Sumra (P n). — Ruined walls. 

Khurbet es Suweideh (O n). — A ruined village with a rock- 
cut tomb and sarcophagus, and a large watch-tower of solid masonry. 
(Compare Raba.) 

K h Li r b e t T e 1 f i t (O m). —Modern masonry. 



[sheet A'//.] 



ARCILEOLOGY. 



241 



K h Ci r b c t Tell c 1 !■" o k h a r (O o). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t T h a 1 a h (P o). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet U ni m Harraz (Q o). — Heaps of stones. 

K h u r b c t U m m e 1 \\ a s n (P n). — I leaps of stones. 

Khurbet Umni el Ilosr (P n). — Heaps of stones. Rock-cut 
tomb. 

Khurbet U m m el Ikba (P n). — Foundations, tombs, and 
cisterns, one tomb with three square chambers. 




K h u r b e t U m m el J u r e i n (P o). — On the main road, appears 
o be a station for guards. There is a ruined cistern, which has fallen in. 
A square foundation of stones, roughly dressed, 2 feet to 3 feet in length, 
and a platform within, some 15 feet square. 

Visited 23rd March, 1874. 

Khurbet Umm el Kasim (N n). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Umm Keismeh (P n). — Foundations and two 
cisterns. 

Guerin says that this place was called also Khurbet Mekeismeh. He found here a large 
number of cisterns and subterranean magazines cut in the rock. Round each of these caves 
he remarked a small enclosure in stones more or less squared, and generally of large dimensions. 
These stones, blackened by time and tossed together in confusion, he thinks were the remains 
of overthrown houses built each over its own underground magazine. 

Khurbet Umm el Kotn (P n). — Foundations and heaps of 
stones. 

Khurbet U m m el K u b e i s h (O n). — W'alls and heaps of 
stones. 

VOL. II. ^ I 



242 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 




V'oiissoir at Ycrzcli. 



K h LI r b c t U m m c s h S h e i b i k (P n). — Heaps of stones and 
cisterns. 

K h u r b (J t Y e r z e h (P n). — This place, reached by an ancient road 
from T e i a s i r, has evidently once been of some importance. The ruins 
of a village lie on the Hat g-round, and there are caves 
and tombs, with well-cut entrances, one having koknn 
within, rudely cut. 

The tombs are for the most part very rude 
chambers inside, but the doors well-cut, with cir- 
cular arches ; in one case the arch is structural. 
Another of the tombs here has an illegible Greek inscription over the 
door. 

This tomb is lar^e, with three rude lociili within. 

There is also a lintel-stone 7 feet long, 3 feet high, with sculptured 
designs representing three medallions and a vine-bough flanked by 
pilasters, and surmounted with a cornice projecting 6 inches. 

There were two pillar-shafts about 2 feet diameter, one 8 feet long ; 
and fragments of a simple moulding, with the base of a small attached 
pilaster, were found. 

The ruin is extensive, and the tombs and caves number 20 or 30. 
The masonry is, as a rule, roughly hewn, all but a few stones dressed 
with a very well cut flat, broad draft. These stones average about 2 feet 

in length, and are now used up in en- 
closures probably not connected with 
the original situations. A few founda- 
tions are visible. 

There is also a well, or birkeh, with 
a flight of 15 rock steps, iS feet total 
length of flight, 4 feet breadth, and 14 feet height. The birkeh measures 
24 feet by 12 feet, being 14 feet deep, rectangular shaft, in the middle 
of which the flight of steps descends. 

The character of the lintel seems, possibly, earlier than the Christian 
times of building, approaching to the style of the synagogues ; and this, 
with the existence of a koki/n tomb, seems to point to the antiquity of the 



Viis edge (.s- /^.i/. 



V cut 



jS*3^?^St^^^^5;p?^?5^^5' 



site. 



Visited 2nd April, 1874. 



[sheet A'//.] 



ARCILEOLOGY. 



243 



El K uf e ir (N m). 
The tombs and cisterns marked on the map are probably those referred to by Guerin as 
having been found there. He says it is an abandoned village, whose houses were built by 
Arabs of old materials, and whose antiquity is proved by the existence of the rock-cut 
cisterns. 

M ii g h a r e t I' m m c 1 'A m u d (P o). — A cave artificially excavated ; 
tombs, now blocked up. The pkice is not far from R ti s c i 1 i y e h. 

El I\Iuk hubby (O m). — A ruined tower of good masonry beside 
the Roman Road. It is a very substantial building, the masonry large 
and well cut, and is possibly Roman work. Other towers like it occur at 
K h u r b e t J e b r i s h, two miles further east. (See Choba, Section A.) 

M u n t a r e s h S h u k k (O m). — Traces of ruins on a high hillock. 

Raba (O m). — There are ruins on every side of the modern village. 
On the north-east is a small ruined tower with two courses of masonry 




standing; the south-west angle only remains. One wall, 12 feet in extent, 
is directed if. There is a stone, which seems to have formed part of a 
door, lying south-east of the tower, i foot 6 inches thick, 2 feet 7 inches 
high, and about the same in width, with three recesses, as if for bars or a 
lock. Three shafts lie fallen near, about 2 feet diameter. A terrace or 
outer wall ran round the tower. No cisterns e.xist near. The corner- 
stones are drafted ; one stone measured 3 feet in length, i foot 10 inches 
in height, the draft 3^ inches broad, and the boss rudely dressed, projecting 
about the same. 



244 



THE SURVF.Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



South-west of the village is another ruin, which seems to be a chapel, 
but is not facing directly to the east. The foundations only remain, the 
length direction being 19°, and the apse at the north-east end 10 feet 
4 inches diameter. The total interior length is 9 feet, plus 5 feet 2 inches 
the radius of the apse, or 14 feet 2 inches. The wall is 5 feet thick, of 
two courses of ashlar, with a core of rubble in soft white mortar. The 
stones in the ashlar are 2 feet long, i foot thick, and i^ feet in height. 
Several flagstones lie about. The stone is hard ; the masonry is not 
drafted. 

The third ruin is north of this chapel and west of the village. This 
includes a second ruined tower of larger size, called Kiisr Sheikh 
Ra b a. Only one or two courses of the foundation remain, the building 




being 29 feet square outside, and the foundation almost solid. The 
bearing of one wall is 42°. The stones are large : one was found 5 feet 
4 inches long, i foot 2 inches high. Some of the blocks are drafted with 
a draft 3^ inches broad, the boss left rustic. Near this tower there are 
five rock-cut cisterns and a small cave, with other traces of ruins. 

There would appear to have been a Christian site here, and the 
dressing of the stones suggests Crusading work. 

Visited 23rd September, 1872. 

Salim (N o). — Near this village are traces of ruins, cisterns, a 
ruined tank, and a cemetery of rock-cut tombs. 




CD 
< 
> 

lJ 



03 
S 

o 



\_SffEET .\7/.] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



245 



Sir (N m). — The ruin west of the village has the appearance of an 
ancient site. Foundations, cisterns cut in the rock, and heaps of stones 
among bushes. 

S u f y el K h 11 r e i b li t (P n). — Ruined walls. 

T a n a (O o). — Foundations, caves, cisterns, and rock-cut tombs. 

Tannin ( O m). — Traces of ruins. 

Teiasir (O m). — Caves and tombs like those at Khurbet 
Yerzeh undermine the village, and there are many rock-cut cisterns. 
The entrances to the caves are well cut, but the inside is rough. 

South of the village is the building called c 1 K li s r, which appears 
to be a tomb resembling somewhat the structural tomb (K 11 sr ez Z i r) 




I'Uaster F.. SiUf 




i'oriivits of iinUdiUuurc 




Spctton. of Door 



r.Uvahoip N. Face'. • 



near Mali'il. (Sheet \'.) The building was photographed in 1866. (Pales- 
tine Exploration I-'und, No. 97.) 

The building is 25 feet square outside. The door is on the north- 
east, and the wall at right angles to that in which it is has a true bearing 
209°. Inside the building there is a chamber 10 feet square, with a recess 



24<J THE SUR VE Y OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

on each of the four sides, each lo feet long and 4 feet to the back wall. 
Over each of these four recesses is an arch, and the roof of the building 
appears to have been groined, or perhaps domed, with groins beneath, as 
in modern buildings in Palestine. (Compare also the structural tomb at 
B e i sa n. Sheet IX.) 

A stylobate runs round the outside of the base of the building. It is 

1 foot II inches high, and has a total projection of 10^ inches, with a 
moulding at the top projecting ^\ inches in all, and 8 inches high. On 
this stylobate stand pilasters, four at the corners and two intermediate on 
each wall ; they project 2 inches, and are about 2 feet broad ; their bases 
have the mouldings of the stylobate, and the stylobate below projects 

2 inches further for a breadth of 4 feet under each pilaster. 

The door of the building has a flat lintel, with mouldings running up 
the jambs and across the top ; the profile is something like that of the 
curious door at the Mukam en Neby Yahyah (Sheet XIV.) ; the 
door is i\ feet wide and 5 feet high in the clear ; the flanking pilasters 
are narrower than the rest, 14^ inches diameter. The total height of the 
building seems to have been about 1 2 feet. 

The masonry is good, well-dressed, and the joints fine ; some of the 
stones are 4 feet long ; some are drafted. Fragments of cornice with 
elaborate classic designs were found lying near. 

Visited and planned, 2nd April, 1874. 

Tell Abu Rumh (P o). — An artificial mound, with foundations 
on the top. 

Tell Abu Sid re h (Q o). — An artificial mound, now occupied by 
an Arab graveyard. 

Tell Abu Sus (O m). — A very large artificial mound, standing 
isolated near Jordan. 

Tell Dablakah (P m). — A conspicuous red hillock; appears to 
be a natural feature. 

Tell Pass el Jem el (P n). — An artificial mound. 

Tell el H li m m e h (P m). — A large artificial mound near a good 



sp 



ring. 



Tell el K a b il r (O m). — A small mound with Arab graves. 
Tell el K a d h i y e h (O o).— A mound of earth. 



\_SIIEET Xn.'] ARCH.EOLOGY. 247 

Tell cr Rid hg hah (Q m). — A low mound, apparently artificial. 
On the north a good spring and a few ruined houses, with the little ruined 
dome of S h e i k h S a 1 i m. 

Tell e s S a f r a. 

This name is not on the map. Gucrin gives it to a Tell about a quarter of an hour up the 
Wady Far'ah. The summit, he says, is covered with a confused mass of stones of middle 
size and of blocks more considerable in size, belonging to ancient buildings. Two hundred 
paces further to the west he came upon a more important ruin, which he calls Khurbet Alia 
Kelum. (The name is not on the map.) 

' They crown a rocky hill easily accessible to the east, but very abrupt to the west and 
north-west. On this side it bristles with enormous blocks of rock, and commands the W.kly 
el Fera'a at a height of about 115 feet. I found on the summit the remains of a great wall of 
enclosure built of large stones, some very well cut, and others hardly squared. They must 
have been taken from the sides of the hill. Several rock-cut cisterns are partly filled up. At 
the foot of the hill, to the north-west, is a fertile plain, and on the right bank of the Wady 
the soil is covered with materials, some of which are of considerable size, the confused re- 
mains of numerous houses now destroyed.' — 'Samaria,' i. 253. 

Tell e z Z a k k u m e h (O m). — A little mound, apparently natural. 

Tubas (N m). — (See also Section A.) 

' This still important town is situated on the slopes and the summit of a hill whose sides 
are pierced with numerous cisterns, some still in use, and others half filled up. . . . Hundreds 
of the people live underground, in caves cut in the rock. These are certainly of very great 
antiquity. I examined some of them, in which several families were installed. Outside the 
town I also examined several ancient tombs cut in the flanks of the neighbouring hills. They 
are found on every side, but all violated. Some have their entrance closed ; others widened, 
in order to give shelter to the cattle, sheep, and goats owned by the people of Tubas.' — 
Guerin, 'Samaria,' i. 357. 

Umm el 'Am dan (O m). — Scattered stones and traces of a con- 
siderable ruin ; several fallen pillar shafts. The place was all covered 
with mallows and other flowers when visited. 

U m m e r R u j m a n (O o). — Heaps of stones. 

The Valley of the Jorda n. — It is impossible to follow the route described by 
Guerin along the valley of the Jordan, as there is no resemblance between the names he gives 
and those on the map. He crossed the AVady Abu Sidreh (P o), and, taking a northerly 
direction, in 25 minutes came upon a large square enclosure built of great blocks, 100 i)aces 
in length on each side, called the Khurbet es Sireh. This may be the Khurbet el Kasur, or 
more likely it is one of the two square enclosures marked on the map east of the Roman 
road (Q n). This is the more probable because Guerin in a quarter of an hour later comes 
upon another similar enclosure, which he calls the Siret el Ma'azeb. 

Immediately north of this enclosure is a Wady, nameless on the map, which Guerin calls 
the ' Wddy el Eurkan.' Another Wddy follows on the north, which Guerin calls the ' Wady 



248 THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

ez Zarha.' Others succeed, nameless on the map, which ho calls the ' Wady Kefr Anjda,' the 
' Wady Abu Sihban,' the ' Wady Asbcrra,' and the ' Wady Nekeb.' 

He then comes to a circular enclosure built of great blocks, called ' Haush ez Zakkum.' 
Two hundred paces to the north he observed foundations of ancient construction. Then ' the 
valley narrows more and more ; it is cut transversely by a deep ravine called the Wady es 
Sekaah.' He is now in the narrow part of the valley indicated on the map (Q m). He enters 
that part at 9.30 a.m. 

'At 9.34 ruins, which seem those of a little tower, stand on the borders of another Wady. 
They are called the Khiirbet el Brijeh, after the name of the Wady. At 9.45 we leave on our 
left, on the side of a hill, a cavern, which the Bedawin believe haunted by a redoubtable 
magician, and call the "Sat-h el Ghuleh,"* i.e., Sat-h, the Demon. At 9.50, at 10, and at 
10.7 we pass successively three small Wadies. The second is called the ^Vady es Seder. 
The valley continues uncultivated, although the bushes which grow in it, and its beautiful 
carpet of grass studded with flowers, prove the natural fertility of the soil. At 10.30 the valley 
becomes once more broken and hilly ; several ravines break in upon it, showing here and 
there numerous mamelons. One of these ravines is called the Wady Ghuzal. At 10.40 we 
cross the Wady Marmy Faiadh ; then, in 15 minutes more, another Wady, whose name the 
guide did not know. The valley of the Jordan at this point is very narrow.' — Gucrin, 
' .Samaria,' i. 268. 

* This is probably Satih, who is celebrated in Arabic legend as a diviner. 



SHEET XII.— SECTION C. 

The Bukeia and the ground in Wady Mai eh, with that round 
Berdelah and Kaiun, is cultivated by the peasantry from T lib as 
and Teiasir. The rest of the valley belongs to the Mesaid Arabs. 

There are a few scattered Christians of the Greek rite in the villages. 

The three factions at Tilbds (see Section A.) are named Deragh- 
meh, Sawaftah and F o k - h a h. 

The Arab tribes near Wady INIaleh are called Belauny, Sardiyeh, and 
Faheilat, and come from the east of Jordan. 

Neby Belan is identified by the natives with Belal Ibn Rubah, 
the Muedhcn of the Prophet. 



VOL. II. 32 



SHEET XIII.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — The present Sheet contains 189-5 square miles of the 
Plain of Sharon, being almost entirely corn-land, with the exception of 
the tract of blown sand averaging about three miles in width, extending 
from Jaffa southward. The shore north of Jaffa is bounded by low sandy 
cliffs, about 100 feet high. The plain is almost a dead level, extending to 
the low hills on the east (Sheet XIV.) which have an average of about 
500 feet in height. On the north of the Sheet is the River 'A u j e h, and on 
the south, the mouth of the river Rubin. Two large valleys (Wady 
Kin ah and Wady Abu Lejja) bring the drainage of the hill 
country to the former river, being dry in summer, with exception of 
occasional pools along their course. The special cultivation of the plain 
near Jaffa, Ramleh and Lydda is noticed under the names of those 
towns. 

Water Sup pi y. — The only important spring on the Sheet is that 
at Ras el ' A i n. The villages are dependent mainly on the wells and 
artificial ponds with mud banks. Jaffa is supplied by wells, and Ramleh 
by cisterns and wells. To the south the 'A y u n K a r a give a little water 
oozing out on sandy soil. 

The springs at Ras el 'A i n are among the finest in the country. 
The water wells up round the mound principally on the north, being clear 
and good, of a dark blue in the pools, and surrounded by willows, rushes, 
and canes. The stream flows thence at its full size with a somewhat 
rapid current. To the south especially, the plain is covered for several 
hundred yards with green grass. 

The river is perennial, but in the autumn of 1874 a bar of sand closed 
its mouth. In May of the same year (which was a very dry one), the 
stream was fordable near Khurbet Had rah, where it was some 



[SHEET XIJI.] TOPOGRAPHY. 251 

4 feet in depth, and about 10 yards across, flowing with a good current 
between steep banks of red consoHdated sand. In October, 1875, the 
'ACljeh was flowing into the sea, and was only fordable by horsemen 
with difficulty ; this year was a wet one. 

Several mills exist alonqf the course of the stream. 



TorOGRAriiv. — The villages on the Sheet belong to the Government 
division of the Kada Yafa under the Mutaserrif of Jerusalem. The 
governor of Yafa is a C a i m a c a m (locum tenens) and has under him 
a W a k i 1 at Ramleh. The villages may be ennumerated in alphabetical 
order. 

1. Beit Dejan (H q). — An ordinary mud village of moderate 
size; is held to be Beth Dagon of Judah. (Joshua xv. 41.) It is, however, 
apparently too far north to be the Caphar Dagon of the 'Onomasticon' 
The present village is surrounded by olives. 

2. Bir 'Adas (I p). — An ordinary mud village, with a well to the 
east. 

3. Fijja (I p). — A small mud village. 

4. Ferrikhiyeh(I p). — A few mud huts near the river. 

5. Ibn Ibrak (H q). — An ordinary mud village. It is identified 
by Vandevelde with Bene Berakof Dan. (Joshua xix. 46.) The position 
is very suitable. The 'Onomasticon' places this town at Bareca (see 
Burkah, Sheet XVI.), but this is out of the territory of Dan. The 
Bombra of the Crusaders is probably the same place as Ibn Ibrak. 

6. El Jelil (H p). — A mud village, w'ith a well to the south and 
a second to the north. It is very probably the ' G e 1 i 1 by the sea,' form- 
ing the boundary of one of the divisions of Samaria in the third century, 
('Samaritan Chronicle,' p. 440.) This agrees with the fact that Antiixatris 
was on the Jew-ish frontier. (See Ras el 'Ain.) A small olive-grove exists 
to the south-east. 

7. Jerisheh (H p). — A very small mud village, with olives and a 
palm. It has a well (S d k i a) and a mill. 

8. J ind^s (I r). — A very small hamlet of mud. 

9. K e f r 'A n a (I q). — A mud village. It is identified by Vandevelde 

.i2— 2 



252 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

with Ono of Benjamin. (i Chron. viii. 12.) It is surrounded with 
palms and other trees in gardens, and has a well (S c b i 1) to the 
north. 

10. Liidd (I r). — A small town, standing among enclosures of 
prickly pear, and having fine olive groves round it, especially to the 
south. The minaret of the mosque is a very conspicuous object over the 
whole of the plain. The inhabitants are principally Moslem, though the 
place is the seat of a Greek bishop resident in Jerusalem. The Crusading 
church has lately been restored, and is used by the Greeks. Wells are 
found in the gardens. L u d d is the Old Testament Lod, the New 
Testament Lydda. The church appears to date about 1150 a.d. (See 
Section B.) The mosque and minaret are noticed by Mejr ed Din, 
1495 A.D. The houses are principally of mud. There Is a palm-tree near 
the church, and figs are also cultivated.* 

11. El MIrr or El Mahmudiyeh (I p). — A small mud vil- 
lage, with mill close to the river. 

12. M u 1 e b b I s (I p). — A similar mud hamlet, with a well. 

13. Neby Danlal (J r). — A small settlement round the sacred 
shrine of the Prophet, with a well to the west. The tomb of Dan Is 
shown here, and Is believed by the Samaritans to be the true site. 

14. R anil eh (I r).— A town containing about 3,000 Inhabitants 
(Professor Socin), of which number more than two-thirds are Moslems.f 

* Pere Lievin gives the population of Ludd in 1S69 as follows (' Guide,' p. 32) : 

Catholics... 55 

Greeks 1,940 

Protestants 5 

Moslems ... 4,850 



Total... 6,850 



t Pere Lit^vin gives the population of Ramleh as follows (' Guide,' p. 35) : 

Moslems ... 3,000 

Greeks 400 

Catholics... 60 



Total... 3,460 



[SHEET X///.] TOPOGRAPHY. 253 

The majority of the houses arc of mud, but the remains of fine buildin gs 
exist among the cabins. There are three mosques, the largest (J a m i a el 
K e b i r), is a Crusading church ; the second is near the Greek monastery ; 
the third, J a m i a el A b i a d or A r b a i n M e g h a z i, in ruins west of 
the town. The other principal buildings arc the Serai, or Government 
House, the Greek monastery and the Latin monastery of Terra Santa, 
and lastly a small German inn. 

The town is surrounded by fine orchards and olive-groves, enclosed in 
hedges of prickly pear. Palms also exist, especially towards the cast. On 
this side is the Moslem cemetery. 

Ramleh is stated by Abulfcda (see Section B., p. I'll) to have been 
founded by the Caliph Suleiman, son of Abd el Melik, early in the 
eighth century, and is not found noticed in earlier travels. It was 
named from the 'sandy' nature of the soil round it. Late traditions 
identify it with Ramathaim Zophim and Arimathaea, but there is no good 
reason to suppose it to be an ancient site, as the position is not a strong 
one, the water supply almost entirely artificial, and the buildings not older 
than the twelfth century, as far as their dates are known. Wells of sweet 
water are found in the gardens. 

There is a bazaar in the town, but its prosperity has much decayed, 
and many of the houses are falling into ruins, including the Serai. (See 
Section B.) 

15. Ran tie h (I q). — A small mud village on the main road. 
R a n t i e h would seem to be the place ' in the region of Thamna, near 
Diospolis,' which is identified by Eusebius (' Onomasticon,' s.v. Ap|Haflf/i) 
with Ramathaim Zophim and Arimathaea. 



Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake gives a lower estimate in 1872 : 

Moslems ... 2,000 
Catholics ... 40 
Armenians.. 12 

Greeks 500 

Monks 30 

Jews 2 

Total... 2,584 



254 THE SURVEY OF WESTERY PALESTINE. 

i6. Sifiriyeh (I r). — A mud village. It is probably the Cap bar 
Siphilriah of the Talmud (Tal. Jer. Kidushim, iii. 15), and Beth 
S i p h u r i y a h (M i d r a s h 1} i k r a Rabba, ch. xxii.), which were in the 
plain of Judah (Neub,, Geog. Tal., p. 81). There are olives to the south 
of the village. 

The same place is also probably intended in the ' Samaritan Chronicle ' 
(p. 446) by Kefr Siporiah, mentioned in connection with Ramleh as a 
Samaritan town in the seventh century. 

17. Sik i a (I q). — An ordinary mud village, with a well to the south. 

18. Selmeh (H q). — An ordinary mud village, with gardens and 
wells. 

19. Sheikh M u a n n i s (H p). — An ordinary mud village. 

20. Summeil (H p). — An ordinary mud village. 

21. Surafend (H r). — Also a small mud village. Isaac Chclo 
(1334 AD.) speaks of this place as the Saraj^hin of the Talmud. The 
gardens of Seriphin are noticed in the Mishnah (Menachoth, vi. 2). The 
village stands on risinsf ground, with a few olives. 

22. Yafa (G q). — The ancient Joppa, the port of Jerusalem; a 
town standing on a high round hill, close to the sea. The houses are of 
stone, and well built ; a wall surrounds the town. Various suburbs 
(S d k n c h) exist on the land side, and a German colony is settled near. 
The surrounding gardens are also famous. 

Jaffa is said to have a population of about 8,000 souls (Professor 
Socin) ; the majority are Moslems, but Greeks, Latins, Armenians, 
INIaronites, Protestants, and Jews are found there.* The place has a 
trade with Egypt and the north in silk, oranges, sesame, etc. The annual 

* Professor Socin gives the population from Turkish sources (p. 130) as follows in 1S76 : 

Moslems 865 families. 

Greeks 135 „ 

Greek Catholics 70 „ 

Latins 50 „ 

^Maronites 6 „ 

Armenians 5 „ 

Total . . 1. 131 families, giving about S,ooo souls. 



{SHEET Xll/.] TOPOGRAPHY. 255 

value of the tVuit is said to be ;^io,ooo. (See ' Quarterly Statement,' 
April, 1872, p. 35). 

The town rises in terraces from the water ; it is surrounded on all 
sides by the wall and ditch, which are decaying rapidly. The port is 
vcr)- bad ; the ordinary entrance is through a narrow reef, but in stormy 
weather the boats go out by a passage on the north side. The bazaars 
are among the best in Palestine. The principal buildings in the town are 
the Latin Hospice, the Serai in the centre of the town, the mosque towards 
the north. The quarantine is outside the walls on the south, and the 
Greek monastery on the east, on which side a new gate was made in 1869. 
The wall is here pulled down. 

Immediately to the north is a suburb (Saknet el Musriych) of low 
mud cabins, extending along the shore, and inhabited by Egyptians ; the 
other small hamlets in the gardens are of similar character. 

North of the town is a garden belonging to the Latin monastery, and 
the sandhills are here covered with low vines trailinof on the ground 
Just south of this is the settlement founded by the American colony, now 
inhabited by the German Temple Colony. The houses are well built of 
stone, and include a good hotel. 

The gardens of Jaffa, surrounded with stone walls and cactus hedges, 
stretch inland about \\ miles, and are over 2 miles in extent north and 
south. Palms, oranges, lemons, pomegranates, figs, bananas, etc., are 
grown in profusion, water being found beneath the sand, which overlies a 
rich soil. The supply is by means of numerous masonry wells. 

The gardens are skirted by vineyards on the south. On the south- 
east is the land belonging to the Mikveh Israel, or Jewish Agricultural 



P^re Lievin ('Guide,' p. 21), in 1869, states the population thus : 

Latins 350 

Catholic Greeks . 375 

Maronites 50 

Orthodox Greeks 700 

Armenians 10 

Jews 400 

Moslems 4,300 

Total 6,185 

The German colonists must be added : 100 men, 70 women, 35 children, in 1872. 



256 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Alliance, 780 acres in all, of which a third is reclaimed land. This work 
employs about 100 of the natives cf the village of Yazilr and other 
villages. 

'Most tourists who pass through Jafta doubtless know that a German colony flourishes 
there, and many may have seen the Jewish Agricultural School, 2\ miles south-east of the 
town on the Jerusalem road. Few, in all likelihood, will have had time or opportunity to 
learn more than some main facts regarding them. I have therefore collected information 
which will, I think, prove generally interesting. This being derived from all sources, fre- 
quently contained the most decided contradictions, as each native interested in the matter 
gave his own colouring to it, and the truth could only be found by carefully sifting the evidence. 
I must take this opportunity of thanking M. Netter for the great courtesy and openness with 
which he supplied me with information on the subject. 

' The " Mikveh Israel," as the Agricultural Institution of the Universal Israelitish Alliance 
has been named, covers 2,600 dillem (i dillem= 1,600 square pics ; i pic = 076 metres), or 
316 hectares, which equal 7S1 acres, and of this one-third has been newly brought under the 
plough. This land is to be held free for ten years, and after that to pay a quit-rent of ^70 
Turkish, or ^68 sterling. Before the land was granted by the Sultan for the purpose of 
founding an agricultural school, it was cultivated by the villagers of Yazur ; and though the 
land belongs to Government, the Fellahin, from long usage, have got to look upon it as 
virtually their own, and resent its occupation by any other person. In this case the men of 
Yazur — a village with a mixed population well meriting the bad reputation it enjoys — were 
particularly enraged, as it had for a long time been their custom to plant gardens on the ex- 
treme edge of the land they cultivated, and then sell them to the people of Jaffa, in this way 
disposing of crown land for their own benefit. Thus cut off, by the interpolation of the 
Jewish colony, from a source of large revenue, they naturally became bitter opponents of the 
Agricultural School, which at this moment, however, employs from 80 to 100 Fellahin, who 
are chiefly from Yazur, a small number being from Selameh, Beit Dejan, and the neighbouring 
villages. A larger proportion of Yazur men was formerly employed, but they were found so 
dishonest that it was necessary to discharge them. 

'x\fter some delay, 1,600 dillem were allotted to the village of Yaziir from the Beit Dejan 
territory, which is very large, as compensation for what had been taken away on the other 
side. Still the Fellahin complain that they were not paid for land which they own to be 
Government property ! I can only say that it would be a most excellent thing if the Govern- 
ment set aside its dislike to selling land to foreigners. With proper guarantees a large propor- 
tion of this country would find a ready market, and then the present Fellah would be either 
eliminated or converted into a useful member of society, while the increase of revenue to the 
Turkish Government would be very considerable. 

' The men of Yazur vow that they are completely ruined, but they were still able, some 
three months ago, to offer 65,000 piastres (;^S2o sterling) for 4,000 dillem of land which the 
Government wished to dispose of to the south of their village. One party, led by the Mukhtar 
(Headman) jMahmud, is a violent opponent to the institution ; but a large section of the 
villagers who work on the estate, and receive from 3^ to 5 piastres (75 cents to i franc) per 
diem, are content with the arrangement. 

' The object of the Agricultural School is to train up children to a useful and industrious 
course of life ; to teach them market-gardening rather than farming, as the former is always 



{SHEET A///.] TOPOGRAPHY. 257 

a profitable pursuit in the ncighbourliood ol" towns, and the latter, owing to restrictions im- 
posed by the Turkish Government, and jealousy of the I'^llahin, is very precarious. A 
practical knowledge of land-measuring will also be taught, and will doubtless obtain Govern- 
ment employment for some of the pupils, native surveyors being generally incompetent and 
always open to a douceur, both of which qualities are found to have their disadvantages. 

'The school has been opened since July, 1870, and now has twelve pupils — viz., one 
accountant, three shoemakers, one farrier, four gardeners, two carpenters, and one agricul- 
turist ; but it is hoped that sufficient buildings will be ready to receive twenty-eight more at 
the end of the summer. At present all the pupils are Jews, but, according to the agreement 
with the Sultan, both Christians and Moslems are to be admitted on payment. One primary 
difficulty now being overcome is the establishment of a common language, without which it 
would be impossible to enter upon any course of instruction, as some spoke Spanish, others 
German, Polish, or Russian. French is the language adopted, and with success. It is hoped, 
when funds permit, to increase the number of pupils to one hundred, and to establish a school 
for the same number of girls. It is proposed to cultivate fruits and vegetables of many kinds, 
which will doubdcss find a ready market at Jaffa, especially during the tourist season ; at 
Port Said, where the rapidly increasing number of vessels passing through the Suez Canal 
will ensure a constant demand ; at Jerusalem, where there is a large resident European body 
of consuls, clergy, etc. j and, to some extent, at Beyrout. Twelve steamers belonging to three 
companies touch monthly at Jaffa, and might be looked to not only as a means of transport, 
but as consumers. 

'Trees are to be cultivated, and iSL Netter tells me that the nursery already contains more 
than 100,000 plants of different kinds, and that half a million of vines are also planted. As 
the land borders on the sandhills, which are rapidly advancing in a north-east direction, it is 
proposed to plant a belt of pinus marilima along the edge of the dunes. In some places, 
already covered with sand, it is found to be no more than i metre in depth ; in time it is in- 
tended to clear this away. The rate at which the sandhills advance is, of course, very difficult 
to determine, but it seems to be about 2 to 3 yards per annum, judging by the rate at which 
it is overwhelming a garden to the south of this village, computed by a comparison of several 
independent testimonies. At the Jewish colony, however, the rate would not be nearly so 
great. 

' It is also proposed to cultivate flowers for making scents, to make olive-oil and soap, and 
to tan the skins, which are e.xported raw at a low price, and brought back again as costly 
leather. 

' By these means it is hoped not only to make the Agricultural Institute a means of 
bettering the condition of the Palestine Jews, but also a successful mercantile operation. 
Whether the latter comes to pass or not, the former consideration is enough to recommend it 
to the attention of those Jews in Europe who are really an.xious to improve the degraded state 
of their co-religionists in Palestine.' — C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1872, p. 80. 

About \\ miles north-cast of the town is the settlement called S a r 6 n a 
belonging also to the Temple Colony. It includes 10 houses, and the 
surrounding ground is specially cultivated with vines. There are 13 
houses in the part of the colony obtained from the Americans, including 
the hotel and schools. The Sarona houses have been built since 1869. 

VOL. II. 33 



25 S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

There is a lighthouse near the custom-house of the town, and near 

this a Httle mosque, said to mark the site of the Crusading Church of St. 

Peter. The principal bazaar is in the north-east corner of the town, just 

outside the original land gate. The walls date from the end of the 

eighteenth century, at which period the town was re-built, having been 

almost entirely destroyed in the fifteenth century. They were commenced 

by the English, and continued by the Turks after the storming by Kleber 

in 1799. 

' Miss Arnott's schools, which now accommodate 60 boarders and 1 60 day scholars, have 
lately been established. They stand at the top of the hill, and command a very fine view. 
Beneath them are the so-called Pools of Solomon, into which the timber for Solomon's 
Temple is said to have been brought. There is water in them now (March, 18S1), and the 
land between them and the sea is said to be flooded in winter.' — H. L. 

Yazur (H q). — A small mud village, with gardens and wells, and 
with a kiibbeh, which is said to have been once a church. 

El Yehudiyeh (1 q). — A large mud village, supplied by a pond, 
and surrounded by palm-trees. Mr. Drake states the population at 800 to 
1,000 souls. Robinson identifies it with Jehud of Dan (Joshua xi.x. 45). 
According to the Samaritans, Judah (Neby Hudah) was buried here. 

The following ruined sites have also been identified with ancient 
places : 

I. — Biblical Sites. 

Antipatris. — A frontier town of Judea on the north (Tal. Bab. 
Sanhed, 94 b). It appears from the Talmud to be a place distinct 
from Caphar Saba. (See Neubauer, Geog. Tal, p. 87.) Josephus places 
Antipatris in the plain of Caphar Saba (Ant. xvi. 5, 2). In another 
passage he seems to make the two identical (Ant. xiii. 15, i).* 

Mr. Finn, in 1850, proposed Ras el 'A i n as the site of Antipatris. 
(See ' Byeways of Palestine,' p. 133.) This view is taken by INIajor 
Wilson. ('Quarterly Statement,' July, 1S74, p. 192.) 

The following distances serve to confirm the identification : they are 

* The article ri; agrees with teS/c.; in Ant. xvi. 5, 2, not with c(,/.;v. 



[SHEET A'///] BIBLICAL SITES. 259 

taken from the Antoninc and Jerusalem Itineraries. (Sec 'Quarterly 
Statement,' January, 1S76, p. 13.) 

Actual distance. 
c Lydda to Antipatris - 10 R.M. To Ras el 'Ain 1 1 [ R.M. 
^''"•J^''- tBether(Tireh) - - 10 „ „ 9] „ 

Itin. Ant. — Ca:sarea - - - - 28 ,, ,, 30^ ,, 

' Onomasticon ' — Galgula (Kalkilieh) 6 ,, „ 6J ,, 

The description of Antipatris given by Josephus (Ant. xvi. 5, 2) is 
borne out. The name has suffered the fate of all the foreign names of 
towns in Palestine, and is no longer recoverable at the site. 

' In 1S66, when making an excursion to Caisarea and Athlit with Captain Anderson, R.E., 
and Dr. Sandreczky, I stayed for two days at the large fountain of Ras el 'Ain, and came to 
the conclusion that the artificial mound above it, which is now crowned by the ruins of the 
Crusaders' castle of Mirabel, marks the site of the town of Antipatris, at which St. Paul rested 
on his journey from Jerusalem to CKsarea. Antipatris has generally been identified with the 
modern village of Kefr Saba, some distance to the north of Ras el 'Ain on the Maritime Plain, 
but there are good grounds for doubting the correctness of this identification. I had hoped 
before discussing this question to have been able to consult Lieutenant Conder's survey of 
this portion of the plain ; but as my friend Dr. Sandreczky, who independently came to the 
same conclusion as myself with regard to the position of Antipatris, has recently published a 
paper on the subject in the Ausland, it may interest the subscribers to the Fund to know the 
grounds upon which our opinion has been formed, without waiting for the arrival of the map, 
especially as Lieutenant Conder has adopted the same identification after a careful survey of 
the ground. 

' Our information relating to Antipatris is obtained from the Bible, Josephus, the Talmud, 
and early itineraries. In the Bible we are told (Acts xxiii. 31, 32) that "the soldiers, as it 
was commanded them, took Paul, and brought him by night to Antipatris. On the morrow 
they left the horsemen to go with him, and returned to the castle ;" whilst we gather from 
verse 23 that they were to start at the third hour of the night. 

'Josephus (Ant. xiii. 15, i) states that Alexander Jannsus, in order to prevent the march 
of Antiochus from Syria southwards along the Maritime Plain, " dug a deep ditch, beginnin<' 
at Chabarzaba, which is now called Antipatris, to the Sea of Jopi)a, on which part only his 
army could be brought against him. He also raised a wall and erected wooden towers, and 
intermediate redoubts for 150 furlongs in length, and there expected the coming of Antiochus ; 
but he soon burnt them all, and made his army pass by that way into Arabia." The parallel 
passage in the "Wars," i. 4, 7, informs us that Alexander "cut a deep trench between Anti- 
patris, which was near the mountains, and the shores of Joppa ; he also erected a high wall 
before the trench, and built wooden towers, in order to hinder any sudden approaches. But 
still he was not able to e.xclude Antiochus, for he burnt the towers, and filled up the trenches, 
and marched on with his army." In Ant. xvi. 5, 2, we are told that Herod " erected another 
city in the plain, called Capharsaba, where he chose out a fit place, both for plenty of water 
and goodness of soil, and proper for the production of what was there planted ; where a river 
encompassed the city itself, and a grove of the best trees for magnitude was round about it. 



26o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

This he named Antipatris, from his father Antipater. " And in the "Wars," i. 21, 9, that Herod 
built a city " in the finest plain that was in his kingdom, and which had rivers and trees in 
abundance, and named it Antipatris." 

'In describing the march of Vespasian from Cxsarea, Josephus says ("Wars," iv. 8, i) 
that he led his army to Antipatris, and after remaining there two days marched on, laying 
waste the places about the toparchy of Thamnas, and proceeded to Lydda and Jamnia. The 
Jerusalem Itinerary gives the following distances : Lydda to Antipatris, 10 miles; Antipatris 
to Betthar, 10 miles; Betthar to Cassarea, 16 miles; and Eusebius and Jerome make Anti- 
patris 6 miles south of Gilgal ; the Antonine Itinerary makes Betthar iS miles from Ctesarea 
and 22 from Lydda, or 40 from Lydda to Caesarea in one itinerary, and in another 31 from 
Cassarea and 28 from Lydda, or a total of 59 miles. Neubauer informs us (" La Geographic 
du Talmud," pp. 86-89) that the names Kefr Saba and Antipatris are both found in the 
Talmud, and he infers from the manner in which they are mentioned by the different writers 
that they were two separate and distinct places. In one passage the coasts of Antipatris are 
mentioned in connection with those of Yischoub, possibly Arsuf, and from this it has some- 
times been assumed that Antipatris was a coast town — an opinion held by William of Tyre 
and other writers of the Middle Ages, who identified it with Arsuf It is, however, impossible 
to reconcile any position on the coast with the notices in the Bible and Josephus, and we can 
only suggest that the exj^ression arose either from the establishment of a district of Antipatris, 
which reached to the seashore, or from the use of the river Aujeh as a means of transport by 
boats, which would make Antipatris in a certain manner a seaport. In the eighth century 
there was a large Christian community at Antipatris, and Theophanes alludes to a massacre 
of them by the Arabs in 744 a.d. 

' From the Bible we gather that Antipatris was on the military road connecting Jerusalem 
with Caesarea, and at a point whence it was convenient for the guard of horsemen to continue 
the journey without the foot-soldiers ; from Josephus, that the town was in the plain, yet near 
the mountains {rroipopiov) ; that it was abundantly supplied with water — " rivers in abundance;" 
that the soil was fertile ; and that it was a point in the line of defence taken up by Alexander 
Jannreus across the Maritime Plain. Josephus, in one passage, tells us that the line of forti- 
fication began at " Chabarzaba, which is now called Antipatris ;" and in another that Anti- 
patris was built " in the plain called Capharsaba," at a place where there was plenty of water. 
These two passages are somewhat at variance, and the latter would almost lead us to infer 
that Antipatris and Capharsaba were distinct places — a view supported by Neubauer's reading 
of the Talmud. 

' Let us now see how the two sites, Ras el 'Ain and Kefr Saba respectively, meet the re- 
quired conditions. At Ras el 'Ain there is a large mound, apparently artificial, covered with 
old foundations, broken columns, etc., and evidently the site of a place of some importance. 
On its summit is a large mediaeval casde, built, at least in part, on the foundations of a much 
older building ; and at its foot are the largest springs, without exception, in all Palestine, far 
exceeding in volume those of the Jordan at Tell el Kady. A small river rises at once from 
the ground, and flows off noiselessly, through marshy ground, to the sea. The springs are the 
only ones in the neighbourhood, and are probably the " Deaf Fountains " of the Crusaders ; 
the castle being Mirabel, a name which still lingers at the mills of El Mir lower down the 
stream. Ras el 'Ain is sufl5ciently close to the mountains to be called -Trapopiov ; it is on a 
rich portion of the plain, and conveniently situated with reference to the Roman road from 
Jerusalem, which strikes the plain immediately to the east of it. Kefr Saba lies on a mound 



[SHEET Xl/L] BIBLICAL SITES. 261 

partly composed of rubbish ; there are fragments of columns and old foundations in the village, 
and also on some small mounds to the east, where traces may still be seen of the Roman 
road to Cffisarcx There is no running water, and no spring, the villagers deriving their 
supply of water from two deep wells, and rain-water which collects in winter in two hollows. 
The position of Kcfr Saba out in the open plain cannot be said to be near the mountains, 
and as it is some 7 or 8 miles from the point at which the Roman road from Jerusalem to 
Cresarea left the mountains, it can scarcely be considered a suitable place for changing the 
guard from foot to horse soldiers. The name is certainly identical with the Capharsaba of 
Josephus, but, as we have previously shown, there are some grounds for believing that Kefr 
Saba and Antipatris were distinct places. We may now turn to the military aspect of the 
question, and ask what would be the best line of defence for an army to take up on the plain 
to prevent the march of a force southward. To this there can be but one answer — the line 
of the Nahr Aujeh. From the fountains at Ras el 'Ain to the sea the river is deep, unford- 
able for several months in the year, and has in several places marshy banks. It must thus 
have always presented a serious obstacle to the advance of an army, and one which no soldier 
acting on the defensive would neglect to make use of Between Ras el 'Ain and the foot of 
the mountains there is but a comparatively narrow strip of level ground, forming a pass, 
through which any force adv^ancing southwards must march, and one that could be easily 
closed by towers and a ditch. That the Crusaders were not ignorant of the military value of 
this feature is apparent from the ruins of the castles of Mirabel and Mejdel Yaba, guarding 
each flank of the pass ; and if Antipatris were at Ras el 'Ain, Herod, in selecting the site, was 
no doubt influenced by military considerations. Any line of defence from Kefr Saba to the 
sea would be almost useless, and the features of the ground do not lend themselves to a work 
of this kind. The distances in the itineraries differ considerably, and until Betthar, the inter- 
mediate station between Antipatris and C^sarea, can be identified, it is difficult to draw any 
inference from them. In the Jerusalem Itinerary 10 miles have been lost, apparently, between 
Betthar and Csesarea. Jerome, however, states that Gilgal was 6 miles north of Antipatris, 
and there can be scarcely a doubt that the former place is represented either by the modern 
Jiljuliyeh, which lies south of Kefr Saba, but some 3J miles north of Ras el 'Ain ; or by Kal- 
kilieh, which is nearly due east of Kefr Saba, and about 6 Roman miles north of Ras el 'Aia 
The distance from Lydda to Ras el 'Ain is iii Roman miles, which agrees fairly with 
that given by the Jerusalem Itinerar}' between Lydda and Antipatris, viz., 10 miles.' — 
Sir Charles AVilson, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 192. 

' The question of most interest in this part of the work is that of the site of Antipatris, and 
it seems to me that a very slight investigation of the ground is sufficient to decide the matter. 
The town built by Herod bearing this name in honour of his father was on the site of the 
ancient Kaphar Saba, the name of which still lingers at the village where our camp is now 
pitched. Th€ points in favour of its identity, further than the preservation of the name, are, 
however, few. Antipatris was 150 stadia, or about 16 miles, from Jaffx Kefr Saba is rather 
more than 14. Again, it was, according to the ' Onomasticon,' 26 miles from Caesarea, lying 
between it and Lyddx Kefr Saba is about 25 Roman miles from Csesarea. On the other 
hand, it is said by Jerome to have been 6 miles south of Galgula ; but Kefr Saba is about 
3 miles north-west of Jiljulieh, which is possibly the place in question, and nearly due west of 
Kalkilieh, which might perhaps be identified with Galgula. 

' Antipatris was protected on the south by a ditch and wooden rampart, with towers con- 
structed by Alexander Balas as a defence against the advance of Antiochus from the south. 



262 THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTEXE. 

The Roman road from Jerusalem to Csesarea led through Antipatris, which was surrounded 
by a river and by fertile wooded countrj', and situate close to a hilly ridge. All these latter 
requisites are quite inconsistent with the Kcfr Saba site. No Roman road leads to it from 
the hills ; no river is found, the water being from a couple of wells ; no trees or ruins of a 
large town exist. The indication of direction is also a very important point (although slighted 
by Dr. Robinson), as it is far less likely to have become corrupted in copying than the 
numbers which indicate distances would be. It would seem, therefore, that the name has 
wandered from some other site in the neighbourhood, and become affixed to this modern village. 
' It remains, therefore, to find in the vicinity a site which shall fulfil the requisites 
enumerated, and form a natural position for one of those noble towns which sprung up in 
Palestine during the prosperous times of Herod the Great. Such a site has been already 
suggested at Riis el 'Ain, where the ruined shell of the fine old castle of Mirabel stands 
above the " wonderfully beautiful " springs of the Aujeh river. The fine Roman road which 
we have traced step by step to from Jerusalem to Jifneh, and thence to Tibneh, descends the 
steep hills and runs down straight to Ras el 'Ain. It was by this road, as is now generally 
allowed, that St. Paul was hurried by night to Antipatris, whence he proceeded to Ctesarea. 
From Ras el 'Ain another Roman road, marked in one place by a milestone, leads along the 
foot of the hills to Jiljulieh and Kalkilieh, and thence to Kaisarieh. It is the main road from 
Ramleh through Lydda, and Ras el 'Ain thus lies exactly between Lydda and Csesarea, which 
cannot be said of Kefr Saba ; still further, it is south of the site of Galgula, being 3^ miles 
from Jiljulieh and about 6 from Kalkilieh. To Jaffa is 11 miles; to Ctesarea, 30 Roman 
miles. These numbers, though less exact than in the former case, are yet approximately 
correct in comparison with the words of Josephus and Jerome. But what is more important 
to observe is that Ras el 'Ain is the natural site for a town in the neighbourhood. The 
streams which burst out round the mound are the surrounding river of Josephus. The hilly 
ridge rises just behind. The trees, indeed, are no more, having shared the fate of the great 
oak forest, the stumps of whose trees cover the sandhills from Mukhalid to Jaffa ; but there 
can have been no spot so likely to be fertile in the plain of Sharon as the sources of the 
Aujeh. It would be interesting to find the ditch which was dug by Alexander Balas, and 
which was no doubt filled with water from the Aujeh, and intended as a more direct line of 
defence than that of the winding Wady bed. Mr. Drake informs me that a ditch full of water 
some 15 feet wide exists near the bridge, but this is some 5 or 6 miles from Ras el 'Ain, and 
directed south-east. The trench reached the " Sea of Joppa," according to Josephus, and 
has no doubt been filled in by the light soil of the plain, and left no more trace than its 
wooden wall and towers. At Kefr Saba no signs of a trench are visible, nor is there any 
supply of water to fill it. Thus balancing the evidence as a whole, we arrive at the pretty 
safe conclusion that the Antipatris of Herod was, like his Jericho, built at the source of one 
of the finest springs in the country. A visit to the site, with its mound occupied on the west 
by the Kala'at, and presenting in other parts an appearance similar to that of the ruins of 
Roman Ctesarea — heaps of broken stone and occasional large blocks overgrown with the 
yellow composite flowers which invariably mark such spots — serves to strengthen this impres- 
sion.' — C. R. Conder, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1S74, p. 1S4. 

The Crusading site of Antipatris at Arsiif is noticed under that 
head. (Sheet X.) 

Rakkon. — A town of Dan (Joshua xi.\. 46), apparently close to 



[SHEET XI//.] NON-BIBLICAL SITES. zes 

Jaffa, may be Tell e r Rekkeit, close to the 'Aujeh, which is 
generally held to be the Mejarkon (' Yellow Water '), in connection with 
which it occurs. The water of the 'Aujeh is very turbid, carrying down 
much sand. The present site is covered with blown sand, no ruins being 
visible, though said to exist beneath. 

2. — Nox-BiBLiCAL Sites. 

Geneth occurs in the Karnak Lists of Thothmcs III., immediately 
after Jaffa and before Lydda. (See ' Quarterly Statement,' July, 1876, 
p. 147.) It may possibly stand for Kefr J i n n i s. 

I\I i r a b e 1. — A castle mentioned by William of Tyre in the Jaffa plain, 
is apparently that at Ras el 'Ain. 

Ro.\DS. — A modern-paved road in a very bad state of repair leads 
through Ramleh from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and is flanked by modern 
watch-towers. 

The ancient road from Jaffa to Jerusalem leads through Lydda, but 
shows no signs of antiquity in the plain, being simply a broad beaten 
track. 

The ancient north road by Antipatris and Lydda to Caesarea passes 
southward towards Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), by Ramleh. The 
only sign of antiquity is the small bridge of one arch (J i s r e s S 11 d a h), 
which is possibly Roman. 

The roads from Jerusalem to Antipatris are described in Sheet XIV. 
The remaining roads are mere tracks. 



SHEET XIII.— SECTION B. 



Arch/eology. 



Scale As 



El 'Aneiziyeh (I r.) — These vaults (commonly called the 
Cistern of Helena') measure S^ feet by 74 feet. The masonry is small ; 

the vaulting has a pointed cross 
-^'"'"' section. The cisterns were full 

above the crown of the arch in 
January 1874. There is an in- 
scription in Cufic on the plaster 
of the interior. The cistern is 
mentioned as early as 1566, 
and seems to belong to the 
time of the re-building of 
Ramleh. 

Ed Dekakin (G r).— 
Ancient tombs in the rock, 
close to the shore. The northern 
is a rude cave ; the southern a 
kokim tomb with two entrances. 
The chamber is 15 feet square, 
the kokim 2 feet 2 inches broad, 6 feet long, three at the back, three on 
the right, two on the left. The third koka, near the door on the left, 
is made into a sort of narrow passage. South of this is a third tomb, 
choked with sand, the kokim not visible. A cistern exists east of the 
tombs. The whole cut in soft sandy limestone. 

Jisr Jindas (I r). — This bridge has on it the representation of two 




[SHEET XIII.] ARCILEOLOGY. 265 

lions in low relief, and an Arabic inscription. It appears to be Saracenic 
work. 

K e i b li t a (I p). — Traces of ruins onl)-. 

El K e n i se h and K c f r J i n n i s (I r). — The building is apparently 
the relic of a Crusading tower. The walls are of coursed rubble faced 
with small ashlar, stones large and small being used, laid in thick beds of 
mortar. The vaults were cemented, the arches pointed. Part of the 
walls are standing on the east, north, and south, in places to a height of 
30 feet. The tower appears to have been about 30 feet square, and the 
walls were originally faced with ashlar. In the south-east corner is a well. 
The ruins of Kefr Jinnis are apparently those of a former village 
amongst hedges of prickly pear. 

Jerisheh (H p). — South-east of the village are the ruins of a Khan, 
a graveyard, and some caves, also a masonry dam and a small bridge, 
apparently Saracenic. 

Kefr Ana (I q). 

' Near the village are two shallow basins hollowed in rock, not built up, which receive the 
winter rains. Several wells are here as well, which permit the gardens to be irrigated. By 
the side of one of these wells I observed trunks of columns which seemed ancient.' — Gucrin, 
' Juda;a,' i. 320. 

El K h u r a b (j q). — Traces of ruins and a well. 

Khurbet Abiar el Leimun (H r). — Traces of ruins and 
square tanks of rubble masonry. 

Khurbet ed Dubbeh (G r). — South of the INI inet Rubin. 
This is apparently a mediaeval tower on a sandy promontory. It is levelled 
to the foundations. The masonry is small, set in cement. There are 
several cisterns, with domed roofs of rubble set in a reddish cement. 
Shells are used in the mortar. The work resembles that at Minet el 
KuUh. (Sheet XVI.) 

Khurbet edh Dhaheriyeh (J r). — Foundations of buildings, 
apparently modern. Ruined kubbeh. 

Khurbet el Furn (H r). — Traces of ruins. 
Khurbet Hadrah(Hp). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el Haiyeh(I p). — A mound of stones overgrown with 
vegetation. 

VOL. II. 34 



j66 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



K h u r b e t L u 1 i e h (H r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbct cr RAs (I r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Shaireh {I q). — A rock-cut tank or birkeh exists here, 
surrounded with traces of ruins. 

Khurbet e s S u a 1 i m i y e h (I p). — Traces of ruins only. 

Khurbet Sura fend (H r). — A tank or birkeh of rubble in 
cement, resembling those at Ramleh, here exists, with traces of other 
ruins. 

Khurbet Wabsah(H r). — Traces of ruins, fragments of pottery. 
It has been ploughed over, but is not apparently a very ancient site. 

Kulat Ras el 'A i n (J p). — A mediaeval castle, standing on a 



Scale 



It) i^^ Iff •^o .yn 'fit JiV UKt 




A- 'A"-'A;Tyt;"',^'.'VV ^^"V'-' -^ 





'otc Th^ Castle standi ana mound- inetj£unnq 1000 fci:t£& Kby^Si 
tietlf&S. 




mound above the fine springs of the 'A ilj eh. The building is merely 
a shell, the outer walls being very perfect. The masonry is small and 




< 

Q 
Q 
> 



O 

o 



X 

o 

cr 

I 
o 



[SHEET A'///.] 



ARCILEOLOG Y. 



267 



regular, in hard mortar, resembling that at Minet el Kulah (Sheet XVI.), 
and the plan of the castle is the same, having a tower, one of which is 
octaeonal, at each corner. The castle measures about 280 feet north and 
south, by about 260 feet east and west. The entrance was on the west; 
the towers are about 36 feet square. 

This castle is supposed to be the Crusading Mirabel.* (See 'Quarterly 
Statement,' July, 1S74, p. 195.) The mound below consists of ruins 
of probably an earlier period. When visited in 1S74, they were much 
overgrown, and nothing could be plainly distinguished. (See Section A. 
Antipatris.) The principal spring is north of the mound, but there are 
small springs on the south. The castle stands some 30 feet to 40 feet 
above the level of the plain at this point. 

' The walls, now pierced with several breaches, are crenelated. The gate of this enclosure 
is partly destroyed. That which remains proves that it was built with more care and with 
more regular stones than the rest of the fortress. It was surmounted by a cornice, and above 
this cornice was once a marble slab, now gone, which gave the date of the foundation or 
reconstruction of the castle. It appears to be of Mussulman origin.' — Gucrin, ' Samaria,' iL 369. 

Liidd (I r). — The fine Crusading church of St. George, with the 
small side church of St. James, have been partly rebuilt. The nave and 



(\ Co. 


irt 


1 










^A 




1 














r" ""^ 


^^ 


1 \ 
















*'7\ 
-^^W ck 


\/ 


1 


— >( 


■^■squi ~Cnir\ 








1 \ / 




1 






i""^H! 


\ / 


^ 
^ 




1 






\ 



north aisle of the former are now made into a Greek church, two bays of 
columns being restored. The whole length was originally six bays, but 

* No masons' marks were found. The stones are small and roughly dressed. Mirabel was 
finished before 1149 a. d., and the Rds el 'Ain work is rougher than that of the early period 
of the twelfth centur)-, and smaller. It struck both me and Lieut. Kitchecer as looking like 
Saracenic or thirteenth century Christian work, and Mr. Drake was of the same opinion. 
— C. R. C. 

34—2 



268 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN EALESTIXE. 

the remainder is now used as the court of a mosque. The south aisle is 
destroyed, but the base of one cokimn is still visible. This aisle measured 
21 feet 7 inches across, and the nave 36 feet, giving a total of 79 feet. 
The total length is about 1 50 feet. (See Du Vogiie, ' Eglises de Terre 
Sainte,' p. 363, and the Plan by M. le Comte.) The southern chapel of 
St. James is now a mosque. It was planned by M. le Comte for 
M. Clermont Ganneau in 1874. 

The true bearing of the church is 90°. 

The church dates from about 1150 a.d., and contains a crypt where 
the tomb of St. George is shown. 

The diagonal dressing is very marked on the bases of the pilasters. 
Visited January i8th, 1874. 

According to ancient tradition, St. George was born at Lydda ; he suffered martyrdom at 
Nicomedia, and his remains were carried to his native town, where his head still rests beneath 
the altar of the great church consecrated to him. Several of the early pilgrims — Antoninus 
Martyr, Adamnanus, and Willibald — speak of Lydda as the place where St. George is buried. 
Bernard speaks of the "Monastery of St. George" as near Ramleh. Now there was a 
monastery of St. George at Lydda itself, and where there was a monastery there would be a 
church. It is therefore most probable that the tradition is true which represents a church to 
have been built on this spot in very early ages. It is said to have been destroyed by Hakem 
in the year loio, rebuilt by King Stephen of Hungary, destroyed again by the Mahommedans 
at the invasion of the Crusaders, and rebuilt by them with much magnificence. It seems to 
have been finally destroyed, until its partial restoration in late years, by Saladin ; the story 
that it was rebuilt by Richard being impossible. 

In the year 1863 the discovery of a tomb was made here. It is reported by M. Guerin, 
and seems never to have been followed up : 

' I have heard that, a month before my arrival, a peasant had made an interesting dis- 
covery in a field quite close to the town. While digging an excavation for some purpose he 
brought to light the entrance of a soiitcrrain enclosing two sepulchral chambers, which con- 
tained some thirty small coffins, whose length was not more than 2 feet 3 inches. They were 
each covered with a slab, and were still full of bones, but not one head was found among them. 
In the midst of one of these chambers was found a large stone sarcophagus 6 feet 6 inches long, 
and broad in proportion, in which lay a skeleton, not broken but at full length, and also 
without the head. On the front face of the sarcophagus was engraved a cross with equal 
branches, accompanying a Latin inscription.' 

The place had been closed by order of the authorities, and Guerin could not effect an 
entrance. It would be interesting to make a further examination of this tomb with its headless 
occupants. 

M i n e t R 11 b i n (G r). — The ancient harbour of Jamnia, situated 
immediately south of N a h r R 11 b i n. The port seems to have been 
double, and entered by narrow passages, as at Tyre and Jaffa. The 
northern bay is some 400 paces across (north and south), flanked with a 



[SHEET A'///] 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



269 



rocky promontory on either side. The southern bay is larger, and on the 
promontory south of it are the ruins ofEdDubbch. A large reef is 
visible outside, beneath the water. An isolated rock stands opposite 
the central promontory. The beach slopes gently, and low sandhills 
flank it, except at the point, where are the caves called Ed Dekakln, 
where is a sandy cliff some 10 feet to 20 feet ; other cliffs appear to 
the north. There are signs of former cultivation, for vines and a few 
mulberry trees are growing wild in the sand, which cannot probably be 
very deep. 

V^isited May 6th, 1S75. 

N e b y R u b i n (G r). — A chapel in a courtyard, full of very fine mul- 
berry trees. It is mentioned by Mcjr cd Din in 1495 as a place of pil- 



grmiage. 



Neby Kifil (Jq). — Scattered stones, a wall, a birkeh or tank, 
here e.xist. 

Neby T a r i (J q). — Ruined foundations of houses. 

E r R a m 1 c h (1 r). — Traces of the original extent of the town exist, 
as marked on the map, also two fine monuments, ist. The church, now 




j,».. 



=1 




a mosque (J am id el K e b i r). 2nd. The White Mosque (J a m i a el 
Arbdin Meghazi). 



27° 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN FALESTIAE. 




im 



MtuJv cffacedU 



The Church. It consists of a nave and two aisles, with three 
apses at the end. The nave has a clerestory, as at L u d d. The length 
is 150 feet, the breadth 75, almost the same as in the church at L u d d. 
The height of the centre of the nave roof is about 40 feet. There are 
seven bays of columns. The span of the arches is irregular, being from 
12 to 14 feet. The interior has been plastered, and a M ihrab made in 
the south wall. The church has a bearing 104°. The roof appears to be 
the original one. No masons' marks were found, as they have been 
l)lastered over. 

The piers are similar to those at L li d d, about 5 feet 8 inches square, 
including the attached semi-columns, iS inches diameter. The arches arc 

pointed, and the clerestory windows 
have also pointed arches. The capitals 
were sketched. One is peculiar as 
being unsymmetrical. They are much 
effaced by the whitewash. 

The church is entered from the 
north, but had a fine west door, with 
mouldings resembling those of the 
west door of the church at Gaza. This 
door is now blocked up. 

The minaret probably was the 
belfry ; on the east side, above the 
staircase door, which leads out on to 
the roof, is a lintel, with a beautiful 
bas relief, representing two conven- 
tionally represented animals. This has 
been sketched by M. le Comte. 

This church is perhaps the finest 
and best preserved specimen of 
Crusading work in Palestine. 
The White Mosque. The enclosure measures about 300 feet 
north and south, by 280 feet east and west. The fine minaret, commonly 
called ' Tower of the Forty Martyrs ' by Christians, is in the centre of the 
north side ; along the south wall is a double colonnade with pointed 
arches. There is a M i h r a b in the south wall. Beneath the surface are 





^>^.^>T 



rXrunl 




Capttui'i.ChnrrJit Riujnich. 



[SHEET XIII.'] 



ARCILEOLOGY. 



271 



three vaults, running cast and west, with pointed arches. To one of 
these the title Arbain Meghazi, 'Forty Champions ' (companions 
of the Prophet), applies. This vault is full of M e s h a h e d, or cairns, 
erected by pilgrims. A small ruined building or chapel stood in the 
centre of the court. 

The minaret has a winding staircase and solid core of masonry. 
Masons' marks (N WN^Z) \vere observed on the slabs used for 
steps, which were probably taken from one of the tenth century 
churches, destroyed before the building of the mosque. The tower 




has been severely shaken by earthquake. The height is 120 feet, 
and the base is 26 feet square. The masonry is remarkably fine 
throughout. 

Near the southern arcade is a long block of grey marble having 



272 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

an Arabic inscription, which was thus translated by ]\Ir. Tyrwhitt 
Drake : 

' In the name of God, the merciful, the compassionate. None restores 
the mosques of God but he who believes in God and in the last day. 
And God, whose majesty be exalted, allowed the issuing of the mandate 
because of the knowledge which he had before permitted His servant, the 
poor one who relies on Him and turns to Him in all his deeds, who is 
zealous in His ways, Nasr ed Din, Defender of the Faith and His 
Prophet, and the .... of his friend, the most majestic Sultan, the 
Wise, the Crescentator, the Preserver, the Fortifier, the Defender of the 
Faith, in this world and the next, the Sultan of Islam and of the Moslems, 
Bibars, Ibn Abdallah Kasi m, Commander of the Faithful, may 
God spare him to us. And he sallied forth with his victorious army on 
the loth of Rejeb el Ahed from Egypt, in order to go on a holy war and 
a raid on the men of sin and obstinacy ; and he halted at the fort of Yafa 
in the beginning of the day, and he conquered it by the permission of 
God at 3 o'clock (9. a.m.) of the same day. Then he ordered that this 
dome should be begun over the lanthorn .... by the hand of K h li 1 i 1 
Ibn D h VI r . . . . May God pardon his son and his parents .... in 

the year six and sixty and six hundred and on the 

Moslems. 

Bibars took Jaffa and Ramleh in 1268 from the Christians, according 
to William of Tyre. 

Over the door of the mosque is another inscription, with the date 
718 A.H., the same given by Mejr ed Din (see Rob., iii. 38,) for the 
completion of the mosque. The inscription gives the name of the founder 
as 'Abu '1 Fath, son of our Lord the Sultan, the martyr el Melek 
el Mansur. The latter is the title of the Sultan Kala'un by 
whose son, Nasr Muhammed, the mosque was founded, according to 
Mejr ed Din. His full title was Nasr Abu '1 Fath Muhammed Ibn 
Kala'Cln. 

There are remains of chambers, probably occupied by the ministers of 
the mosque, along the west wall. 

All the arches are pointed, the roofs are groined, the masonry is 
small. 

In the centre of the area is a square building about 26 feet wide. In 



[SHEET X//7.] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



273 



the north-west corner is the little kubbeh of Sheikh S ill eh. 
There is a gate on the north and another on the east, also remains of a 
central colonnade running east and west. 
Visited 17th January, 1874. 

The White Mosque (Jami'a el Abiad) has large remains of a cloistered court, on one side 
of which is a large minaret. 

This is of very unusual design for such a inirpose, being a square tower, with buttresses 
at each angle for more than half its height. 

Above the buttresses are two stories, each having a triple-light window on each face of 
the tower. The details show 
Arab characteristics, and the 
whole edifice, including the 
cloisters, was evidently exe- 
cuted by Arab workmen, from 
the designs of a European 
architect. 

The masonry is of about 
the same character as that of 
our thirteenth centur)' work, 
and the date may be that of 
Sultan Bibars (1260-70), or 
somewhat later, as stated by 
Dr. Porter (Murray, p. 112), in 
1318. 

The church, now a mosque, 
is still more curious. The 
dimensions have been given 
by Lieutenant Conder. It 





string 

\>;^//'' under 
'/'/i ' window 
of 
Side [Aisles 



THE GREATER FART OF THE CAPITALS ARE FORMED OF 
ROiMANESQUE FOLIAGE. 



Column 



to window ill Tower 





White Mosque 
at Ramleh 



iCoIumn 



Churcli at Ramleh 
iio« iii9d II k Mfltqua 



consists of nave, with apse and aisles, the piers between being formed of three-quarter 
columns attached to the sides of a square pier. The nave is vaulted with a barrel-roof of 
stone, which is carried on strong stone ribs. There is a clerestory, but no triforium. The 
VOL. If, 35 



274 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

mouldings of string courses, the carvings of capitals, etc., are Romanesque, and the whole 
design and details are strikingly like those of many churches in the south of France — 
Carcassonne, for example. Seen from a level, or at a distance, this and other towers in 
Palestine appear to be flat-roofed, there being scarcely any appearance of a roof above the 
parapets. But seen from a height, each house is shown to be arched, groined or domed, all 
of stone. — T. H. L. 

The following are Robinson's remarks on the history of this place : 

' The name er Ramleh signifies " the Sandy ;" and the place is first mentioned under this 
name by the monk Bernard about 870 a.d. Adamnanus, about 697 a.d., makes no allusion 
to it, although he speaks of the memorials of St. George at Lydda. All this tallies well 
with the account of Abulfeda, drawn from earlier Arabian writers, that Ramleh is not 
an ancient city, but was founded by Suleiman, son of the Khalif 'Abd el Melek, in the 
early part of the eighth century, after he had destroyed Ludd. A palace of 'Abd el Melek 
had already occupied the spot. William of Tyre and Marino Sanuto give the same testimony. 
The place soon became flourishing, and is celebrated by Arabian writers. Edrisi, about 
1150 A.D., calls Ramleh and Jerusalem the two principal cities of Palestine, and describes 
the former as pleasant and well peopled, with markets and commerce and revenue. Before 
the time of the Crusades it was surrounded by a wall, with a castle and twelve gates ; and 
with each of the four principal gates, towards Yafa, Ascalon, Jerusalem, and Nablus, there 
were connected markets and a mosque. 

' The Crusaders in 1099 a.d., on their march from Antioch to Jerusalem, having celebrated 
the Day of Pentecost at C?esarea, directed their course to Lydda, where they found the 
splendid tomb and church of St. George. Count Robert of Flanders, with five hundred 
knights, was sent forward to reconnoitre the neighbouring Ramleh, and found the gates open 
and the city deserted of inhabitants. The host of Crusaders followed, and took up their 
quarters in Ramleh for three days, recruiting themselves with the abundance of provisions 
which the inhabitants had left behind in their flight. Here they celebrated a festival to St. 
George, who had already aided them in the battle near Antioch, and with due formality in- 
stalled him as their patron saint. His tomb at Lydda was made the scat of the first Latin 
bishopric in Palestine; and Robert, a priest from Rouen in Normandy, was on the spot 
appointed bishop, and received tithes from the pilgrims. The new see was endowed with the 
cities of Ramleh and Lydda and the lands belonging to them. On the fourth day the army 
proceeded towards Jerusalem. 

' From its position between Jerusalem and the coast, Ramleh formed an important post 
for the Crusaders, and continued generally in their hands while they held possession of the 
Holy City, and long afterwards. About 11 77 a.d. the place was burned by the renegade 
Ivelin. In 11 78 a.d. Saladin was totally defeated in the vicinity by the Christians under 
King Baldwin IV.; but in 1187, after the decisive battle of Hattin, the whole plain, with 
Yafa, Ascalon, and also Jerusalem, fell into his hands. On the approach of Richard of 
England in 1191 a.d., Saladin caused the fortifications of Ascalon to be dismantled, and the 
fortress of Ramleh and the church of Lydda, as well as other castles in the plain, to be razed. 
In the truce made between Richard and Saladin in the following year, it was stipulated that 
the plain and coast from Tyre to Yafa, including the half of Ramleh and Lydda, should remain 
in the hands of the Christians. In 1204 a.d. Ramleh was wholly given up to them, and 
appears to have continued chiefly in their possession until 1266 a.d., when it was finally 
taken from them by the Sultan Bibars. In the subsequent centuries it is often mentioned as 



[SHEET X/IL] ARCHEOLOGY. 275 

the resting-place of pilgrims and travellers on their way between Ycifa and Jerusalem. About 
1547 Belon found it almost deserted, scarcely twelve houses being inhabited, and the fields 
mosdy untilled. 

' With the history of Mohammedan Ranilch the tower on the west of the town stands 
in close connection. This structure has long been a stone of stumbling to travellers, 
who have mostly been content to follow in this case, as in so many others, an indefinite 
monastic tradition. In all Frank writers, down to the middle of the sixteenth century, I 
find no allusion to the spot. At that time, about 1555, Bonifacius of Ragusa speaks of it as 
the site of a former Christian church, dedicated to the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste in Armenia. 
This is repeated by Zuallardo and Cotovicus, cited with approbation by Quaresmius, and fol- 
lowed by most other travellers. In the beginning of the eighteenth century we begin to find 
it regarded as one of Helena's churches. In the present century it has become fashionable 
to refer these ruins to the time of the Crusades, as having been a convent and church erected 
by the Knights Templars, and dedicated to the Forty Martyrs. The tower in question has 
usually been held to have belonged, as a belfry, to the ancient church. 

Er Reseim (I p). — Traces of ruins. 

Tell er Rckkeit (H p). — Cisterns and traces of ruins are said 
to exist under the sand. 

E s S a k i y e h (H p).— Ruined water-wheels for irrigation. 

Saruna (H (i).— Ruins of a farm exist near this settlement. (See 
Section A.) 

E s Sir (I p). — Ruins of a fold. 

Sheikh ]\I u a n n i s (H p). — Ruins of a house near the kubbeh. 

S u m ni e i 1 (H p) . — Large well and a cave. 

S u r a f e n d (H r). 
Guerin found here cut stones belonging to some old buildings, and two cisterns, apparently 
ancient. The site is probably that of an old city called Sariphaia, mentioned as having been 
the seat of a bishop, and having been destroyed by the Arabs in 797. One of its bishops took 
part in the Council of Jerusalem of the year 636. The old Sariphcea, however, may be the 
adjoining village of Safiriyeh. Reland conjectures that Surafend is the T s a r i p h i n of the 
Talmud. 

Yafa (G q).— The ancient cemetery of Jaffa was discovered by 
M. Clermont Ganneau (see below) on the north-west side of the town, 
extendine as far as the Saknet Abu K e b i r. Numerous Greek 
inscriptions, with Jewish emblems, have here been excavated. In the 
kubbeh of S h e i k h M Cl r a d a bas relief, representing a mitred abbot, 
or bishop, was found, and is in possession of one of the vendors of 
antiquities. It has been described by M. Clermont Ganneau, in his letter 

35—2 



2 76 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

publibhed in the ' Quarterly Statement ' of 1874. An inscription on the 

back gives the name Jemal ed Din Ibn I s h e i k as the founder 

of this Mukam, with the date 736 a.ii. (1335). 

The history of Jaffa, after the events which connect it with the Old and New Testaments, 
is stormy. A\'hen the revolt of the Jews broke out, the place was attacked by sea and land, 
and 8,400 of the people lost their lives. It then became a nest of pirates, who were attacked 
and mostly destroyed by Vespasian, who formed a camp in the place and garrisoned it. Later 
on it became the seat of a bishopric, which lasted until the Arab invasion of the year 636. 
It was taken without a siege by the Crusaders in 1099. Godfrey de Bouillon fortified it. 
Baldwin I. rebuilt and embellished the city in 1103. In 1115 and again in 1122 the people 
of Ascalon, aided by an Egyptian fleet, besieged it without success; in T187 it surrendered 
to Mclek Adel, brother of Saladin, and was destroyed by the Saracens; in 1191 its walls were 
rebuilt by Richard Cceur de Lion. It was here that Queen Berengaria rejoined her husband, 
whose army was encamped in the gardens without the city. It was besieged by Saladin, and 
would have been taken, but for timely relief, in 1192. In 1197 it was again taken by Mclek 
Adel ; in the following year it was retaken by the Germans, whose garrison was surprised and 
massacred; in 1204 it was restored to the Christians ; in 1267 it was taken by Bibars, whose 
siege is thus described by Anija : ' He took the Jaffa road, laid siege to the town, and carried 
it the same day. The citadel also fell into his hands. He made all the people come out of 
the place, and completely destroyed it. The wood and marble heplaced on board ship and 
sent them to Cairo, where the wood was used for making the Maksurah of the Mosque 
Daheri, situated in the Haramieh quarter, and the marble served to construct the Mihrab.' 
Then for four hundred years the place has no history. In the seventeenth century it con- 
sisted of nothing but a little fortress and a few small houses. In 1722 it was pillaged by 
Arabs; in 1778, by the Mamelouks ; in 1799, by Bonaparte's army; and after his attempt on 
Acre its walls were blown up. 

The site of the ancient cemetery was discovered by M. Clermont Ganneau in the year 
1874. He thus describes his archseological work in the place : 

' I took advantage of our short stay at Jaffa to make some examination of the city and its 
environs. I believe I have succeeded in settling a point which has for a long time engaged 
my attention, and is of great importance for the history of Jaffa and ulterior researches — 
namely, the situation of the ancient cemetery of Jaffa. I observed a circle, which extends in 
the great gardens outside Jaffa, bounded by a little hamlet called Abu Kebir, and by the well 
of Abu Nabbut. This circle, called Ardh (or Jebel) Dhabitha, contains a quantity of tombs 
cut in the tufa, and exposed every day to the light by the fellaheen. I had the good fortune 
to purchase on the very spot, of a peasant, a small slab of marble, with an inscription that I 
think to be extremely curious. It is the epitaph, in Greek, of a Jewish personage, with the 
representation of the seven-branched candlestick and the funeral palm.' 

' I had already, during my first stay in Palestine, remarked at Jaffo, in an Arab house be- 
longing to M. Damiani, the French Consular Agent of Ramleh, a fragment of bas-relief in 
marble fitted in the pavement. The first thing I did was to go and examine this. M. Lecomte 
made a very pretty drawing of it, which you will get by the next mail, with other illustrations 
of these letters. The bas-relief from Caesarea represents a tragic mask a great deal mutilated 
and broken below the nose ; the head is in fairly good style, and may belong to the best part 



[SHEETXIJL] ARCILEOLOGY. 277 

of the Greco-Roman period. Judging by the arrangement of the hair, the disposition of the 
fillet, and the ensemble of the features, the mask must belong to a woman's head ; the eyes 
are deeply sunk ; and the mouth, in great part gone, must have been open for the classical 
rictus. A fragment of ringlet on the left, and a bit of wing on the right of the head, seem to 
indicate that it formed part of a decoration ; and other particulars tend to show that the 
whole was to be looked at from beneath, and formed part, perhaps, of a frieze rather than 
tlie decoration of a sarcophagus. May we recognise here a piece of the Roman Theatre of 
Cxsarea ? 

' I made the tour of the city walls, trying to pick out the portions that are ancient, 
whether of construction or of material. I observed, esi)ccially towards the north and on the 
seaward side, a considerable quantity of fine blocks. The people of the place told me that 
they were brought here from Ca;sarea and St. Jean d'Acre. Along the wall may be very 
jilainly distinguished from place to place, in front of the actual wall, old foundations at present 
partly under water. I ran along the south part of the wall which separates the city from the 
sea in a boat. Starting from the advanced bastion, above which rise the lighthouse and the 
traditional house of St. Peter, extends a basin of water of very small depth, the boat touching 
the bottom every moment. This sea-basin is surrounded by a reef of rocks, and bears the 
name of Birkel el Kamar (" The Basin of the Moon "). All this place, and that portion of 
the site which adjoins it, deserve to be minutely explored. The coast here is covered with 
ruins, apparently ancient. 

' There is living at Jaffa a certain Mussulman named 'Ali Sida, master mason. This man, 
now of advanced age, has directed all the constructions ordered at the commencement of the 
century by the legendary Abu Nabbut, Governor of Jaffa. It would be interesting to collect 
from him and on the spot every kind of information on the considerable changes that Jaffa 
underwent at that time. 

' An extremely intelligent Arab, living at Jaffa, spoke to me of an amphora handle found 
in the gardens of Jaffa, and bearing characters of which he showed me a copy made by him- 
self. As far as I could judge by this reproduction, simple enough, but seriously meant, the 
inscription is Greek, and gives the name of the potter. I will try to see the original on my 
first journey to Jaffa. 

' On leaving Jaffa to go to Jerusalem, I wished to verify an important point, which 
has engaged me a long time, and I think that I have positively arrived at it — it is the 
site of the ancient cemetery of the city. With this object, on leaving the gate of the city, 
in place of following the ordinary road, I directed our little caravan to the left — /.f., to the 
north, across the gardens which surround Jaffa on all sides. We soon arrived at a small 
hamlet named Suktieh Abu Kebir, where I spoke to some of the fellaheen. One of them 
led us a few steps farther in the interior of certain gardens very little cultivated, when I 
ascertained the presence of numerous recent excavations designed to get building-stones. 
These excavations have brought to light at several points sepulchral chambers cut in the 
limestone. Such tombs are found, it ajipears, from the hamlet of Abu Kebir as far as the 
Jewish Agricultural Institute on the other side of the road, and to the present Catholic 
Cemetery. The peasants assured me that they had found in these tombs lamps and vases 
in terra-cotta, and stones with inscriptions. At my request one of them went to get such a 
stone ; it is the same of which I spoke in my first note from Ramlch. I bought it for the 
Society. I examined it at leisure at Jerusalem, and find it to be an epitaph in Greek 
of a Jewish personage, designated as *PONTICTHC AAE3ANAPIAC. The mention 



27S TEE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTn\E. 

of this function occupied by him at Alexandria gives this inscription a great historic value. 1 
propose to send you by the first opportunity a facsimile and an interpretation.' 

' During the heavy winter rains there are formed, close to the gardens of Jaffa and to the 
west, real lakes of considerable e.xtent. The largest of these marshy ponds lies south of the 
road, and is called by the name of Bassa, a word applied in other parts of Syria to similar 
pools. As for the signification of the word in Arabic, nothing more satisfactory can be found 
than that of firebrand^ lighted wood. The same word, on the other hand, is found in the 
Bible (Bissa), used to signify a lake or tiia?-sli. "Can," asks Bildad (Job viii. ii) "the 
rush grow up without mire ? can the flag grow up without water ?" And further 
(Job xl. 2i), "Behemoth lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed und fens." 
And the word is also found in Ezekiel xlvii. ii, "The miry places thereof and the marshes 
thereof shall not be healed; they shall be given to salt." Commentators and lexicographers 
{cf. Gesenius and Fiirst) derive this Aramaic word from a hypothetical root, l^;3^ to which, re- 
lying on the Arabic biidlidlia, they give the meaning oi " paulatim Jl/ixit et emaiiavif aqua." 
The supposition appears to me entirely gratuitous ; in fact, the existence of the Bassa at 
Jaffa and other places proves that Bassa, in the sense of pond, is allied with the Arabic bassa, 
io shine. The origin of the word shows that the meaning " pond " is connected with shining 
or glittering in the sun. It is exactly the same idea which has given the similar word its 
meaning of firebrand. A similar reasoning could be extended to the word ain, which in 
Hebrew and Arabic has the double meaning of an eye and a fountain, surely far enough re- 
moved from each other. The meaning in both cases has been borrowed from one and the 
same primitive sense.' 

El Yehudiyeh (I q). — There is a ruined tank or birkeh south of 
the village. 

Here Gue'rin found an ancient sarcophagus serving as a trough for water, and two shallow 
basins formed by a depression of the ground serving to collect the rain. 



SHEET XIII.— SECTION C. 

Traditions and Ethnology. — The natives of the villages on this Sheet 
are all Moslems and Syrians, except those in the Egyptian Colony at 
Jaffa. 

The statistics of the German colony at Jaffa, founded 1869, arc fully 
given by Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, as also the account of the Jewish Agricul- 
tural Alliance. (See p. 256.) 

The village of Neby Ddnial includes the Mukam of Neby Dan, from 
which it is said by the natives to take its name, and not from Danial. 

The ancient name of YazCir is said to have been Adaliah. It 
seems at one time to have contained a church. (See M. Clermont 
Ganneau's reports, ' Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 5 ; and Pere Li^vin's 
'Guide Indicateur,' p. 28.) 

An annual feast is held at Ramleh on 25th April at the White Mosque. 
An annual pilgrimage is still made to the Neby Rubin. 

The official return of 1851 gives the following statistics of the popula- 
tion of the district : 



Lydda . 


• 1.345 


Ramleh 


• 2,065 


Lydda villages 


. 4,400 


Ramleh villages 


. 10,200 






Jaffa . 


. 4,841 




5745 


Jaffa villages . 


• 4.370 



21,476 

Total males, 27,221 ; giving a population of 81,663. 



SHEET XIV.— SECTION A. 

Orography. — This Sheet contains 3707 square miles of the mountain 
country between Bethel (B e i t i n) on the south, and 'Awertah, near 
Nablus on the north, S e i 1 li n (Shiloh) on the east, and M e j d e 1 Y a b a, 
on the edge of the plain of Sharon, on the west. 

The great valley called W a d y D e i r B a 1 1 11 1, runs across the Sheet 
from east to west, forming a natural division which appears to have been 
that between Judaea and Samaria, as the Judaean towns of Shiloh, Lebonah, 
Beth Rima, and Antipatris (see Sheet XIII.), are south of the valley, 
while Berkit, on the main road, marks probably the site of Borceos, placed 
by Josephus (B. J. iii. 3, 5) on the border. The northern district is called 
Bel ad el J e m a i n. The southern is divided into six small districts, 
which may be grouped as Judeean hills. 

( I .) Northern District, B e 1 a d el J e m a i n. The watershed 
is formed by a very narrow spur running north-west and south-east in the 
corner of the Sheet from Khurbet Jerr'a towards the ruin of Ras 
e d D a r, The Gerizim block projects from this ridge on the north-east 
(See Sheet XI.) And to the east of this again is the southern portion 
of the M u k h n a h plain extending to H u w a r a h, near the foot of the 
mountain, and draining to the Jordan valley. 

The chain is about 1,900 feet above sea-level, along the ridge, and the 
M u k h n ah has a mean level of about 1,600 feet. 

From the watershed long spurs of mountain extend westwards, 
separated by deep valleys, of which the principal ones are : i st. W a d y 
Kan ah (supposed by Robinson to be the 'Brook Kanah,' Joshua xvi. 8 ; 
xvii. 9), which rises, in Sheet XL, near Burin, just south of Gerizim. 
The sides of this valley are very steep throughout, and with exceptions of 
W a d y D e i r B a 1 1 u t, it is the most important natural feature on the 



[SHEET XIV.] OROGRAPHY. 281 

Sheet. 2nd. Wady el 'A y il n, rising near Serta, and flowing parallel 
to the last. The sides are very steep, and in places (as at S h u k i f e d h 
D h i b b a n) precipitous. 3rd. The great valley, which, rising south-east of 
'A k r a b e h, joins the great branch called Wady S e i 1 il n at K h u r b e t 
K c i s, and forms the longer affluent and true head of Wady Deir 
BalHt in Sheet XII. 

Th-e country between these valleys consists of flat hills or sloping 
plateaux, which gradually descend towards the plain from an elevation of 
1,900 feet to one of about 450 feet above the sea. The slope east and 
west is gradual, and only broken by isolated knolls, except towards the 
south in the neighbourhood of D c i r B a 1 1 u t, where there is a sudden 
descent of about 300 feet from the mountain on which stands Deir 
K u 1 a h to the plain east of the last-named village : the southern slopes 
of the mountain above Wady Deir B a 1 1 u t have a series of rugged 
precipices. The ground falls again westwards from the village Deir 
Balliit gradually towards the plain. 

An open vale enclosed between mountains extends from L u b b a n to 
the neighbourhood of S a w i e h. It is hemmed in on the east and west by 
high rugged hills, and on the north and south by the two passes over 
which the main road crosses ; its southern boundary is at K h a n L u b b a n, 
and its extent northwards is a little under 3 miles. The broad valley 
from Seilun comes into it on the south-east ; the average elevation is 
about i,;oo feet above the sea, the hills round being nearly 900 feet 
higher. 

The mountains are much more rugged near the watershed than 
towards the west ; in the neighbourhood of F u r k h a h they are especially 
steep and stony, the strata showing in steps which have peculiar contor- 
tions. The country is extensively covered with scrub, in which clearings 
are made for the barley fields. The olive groves are unusually fine on the 
western slopes, especially round S e 1 f i t and B i d i e h. 

(2.) Southern District, Judcean Hills. The culminating 
point of the main watershed is the high mountain called Tell 'A s u r 
(supposed by De Saulcy and others to be Baal Hazor, 2 Sam. xiii. 23). 
The summit is 3,316 feet above the sea, the highest point in Central 
Palestine being only equalled on the north by Jebel Jermuk (Sheet IV.), 
VOL. II. 36 



282 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and on the south at E r R a m e h, and being more than 200 feet higher 
than Mount Ebal. 

This mountain forms the highest point of a curving chain, which shuts 
in on the east the narrow pass of 'A i n el Haramiyeh. On the 
north of the pass an open plain, draining to the Mediterranean, extends 
eastwards from Sinjil and north of Turmus 'Ay a to the neigh- 
bourhood of Kefr I stun a (Sheet XV.), being about i^ miles east 
and west by f mile north and south. This plain is called M e r j el 'Aid 
(' Meadow of the Feast'), possibly in connection with the yearly feast once 
held at Shiloh. (Judges xxi. 19.) The block of hills in which Shiloh 
stands bounds the plain to the north. 

The whole district west of the Tell 'A s u r range consists of ex- 
tremely rugged mountains and deep valleys, the sides of which are 500 
to 600 feet high. The pass at 'A i n el Haramiyeh is over 1,000 feet 
below the Burj el Lisaneh, to the east of it. 

The same step or sudden fall which was remarked near D e i r 
Ball At occurs in this southern division, and the hills fall rapidly in the 
line extending from near 'A b u d and DeirAbu Meshal, and in 
the neifjhbourhood of D e i r el K u d d i s. To the east of these 
points the elevation is about 1,300 to 1,500 feet, but in the distance 
of a mile west of the last-named village the elevation is 400 feet less— at 
N d 1 i n. 

The lower hills (or S h e p h e 1 a h) extend westwards to the neigh- 
bourhood of Mejdel Yaba, Kuleh, and Tireh, sloping gradually 
from 800 feet above sea-level to about 500 feet close to the plain. These 
lower hills are of soft limestone, and less rugged in outline, with open 
valleys between. 

The country is so intricate throughout the part which is occupied by 
the higher hills that it is impossible to give a more detailed description. 
It proved to be the most difficult to survey south of Upper Galilee, in 
consequence of the great depth of the valleys and the steep, precipitous 
slopes of the mountains, which are very rocky. The hills are terraced, 
and figs, vines, and olives are grown round the villages near Jufna and 
Bir ez Zeit. Towards the west the scrub is very thick in places. The 
neighbourhood of 'A b ti d and T i b n e h is specially desolate and rough, 
the hills being almost impassable for horses in parts. A long spur runs 



{SHEET XIV.\ HYDROGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY. 283 

out of the Tell 'Asur block south-west, and on this stands Beitin 
(Bethel). This part of the country consists of grey rocks, and is very 
bare of trees. The ridge is traced further south on Sheet XVII. 

HYDROGRAriiv. — No perennial stream occurs on this Sheet, but 
numerous fine springs occur in the beds of the valleys throughout the 
mountain district. The low hills (or Shephelah) consist of a porous 
chalk, and they are supplied by wells and cisterns, the water sinking 
through and appearing again in the plain, as at the R a s el 'A i n springs 
(Sheet XIII.), which receive the whole drainage from numerous springs 
along the course of the W i d y D e i r Ball u t. 

The finest springs are probably those at Khan L u b b a n, where a 
small stream of fresh water comes out at the foot of the mountain, and 
supplies the neighbourhood throughout the year. None of the springs, 
however, are sufficiently important to require very special description, 
being principally small pools between the rocks, from which a stream 
trickles. The names of 36 in all occur on the plan. 

Topography. — loS inhabited villages are included within the limits of 
this Sheet. They may be enumerated in order, according to the Govern- 
ment divisions. 



I. — Belad el JemaIn, under the Mutaserrif of Nablus. 

1. Ain 'A bus (M p). — A small village conspicuous on a low 
spur of the mountain, with a spring to the west and olives to the 
south. 

2. 'A m u r i e h (]\1 q).— A small village on high ground. 

3. Her akin (Lq). — A moderate-sized village on the end of 
a spur, with a steep slope to the valley beneath, in which are 
springs just below the houses. On the south arc caves, on the north 
olives. 

4. Bidieh (K p). — A village of moderate size, the houses prin- 
cipally of stone. It is surrounded with beautiful groves of very fine old 

36—2 



2^4 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

olives. It is evidently an ancient site. (See Section B.) The water supply 
is from rock-cut cisterns. 

5. Deir Estia (L p). — A large village on high ground, sur- 
rounded with olive-groves, and supplied by cisterns. 

6. Deir Ballut (K q). — A snuill village, partly ruinous, but 
evidently once a place of greater importance, with rock-cut tombs. The 
huts arc {Drincipally of stone. The water supply is from wells (B i r el 
Mesa f). 

7. Furkhah (L q). — An ancient village in a very strong position 
on a steep hill-top. The houses are of stone, and there are three sacred 
tombs, including H a r a m en N e b y Shit, on th-i south. The foun- 
tain of ' A i n Y a m b u a, in the valley, gives a supply of fine water, and 
there are two other springs east of the village. The place is evidently an 
ancient site. The hills around it are very steep and rocky. 

8. H a b 1 e h (J p). — A village of moderate size, evidently an ancient 
site, surrounded with cisterns and tombs. The ground is rocky. Wine 
presses cut in the rock exist near the tombs. The houses are principally 
of stone. The water supply from cisterns. 

9. Haris (L p).- — A medium sized village on high ground built 
of stone, and supplied by cisterns. It has rock-cut tombs and is probably 
an ancient site ; there are fine olive groves round it. 

10. Huwarah (N p). — A straggling village of stone and mud at 
the foot of Gerizim, just over the main road. It has an appearance of 
antiquity, and covers a considerable extent of ground. 

11. Iskaka (M p). — A small village, with ruined towers and 
rock-cut tombs, surrounded by olives and standing on high ground. The 
water supply is from a well. 

12. J em mi in (M p).- — The largest village in the district, on high 
ground, surrounded with olive groves. The water supply is from a pool 
and a well east of the village. 

13. El Kefr (K q). — A village of moderate size on the hillside, 
and apparently an ancient site, having rock-cut tombs to the east. 

14. Kefr Haris (L p). — A somewhat small village on high 
ground, with olive groves to the east. It has three sacred places, N e b y 



[SHEET Xn:] TOPOGRAPHY. 285 

K i f 1, Ncby Nun, and Ncby Lush a. This place is apparently 
that noticed in the Jewish Itineraries under the name Caphar Cheres 
(R. Jacob of Paris, 125S a.d.) and said to contain the tombs of Joshua, 
son of Nun, and Caleb. Marino Sanuto shows a place called Tapni 
Atzare on his map, apparently in this direction, and places the tomb of 
Joshua at it. Neby Lush a probably represents the traditional tomb 
of Joshua. In the account given by Jerome of Sta. Paula's journey, the 
site of Timnath Heres seems to be placed at Kefr Haris. The modern 
Samaritans say that Nun and Caleb (Neby Kill) were buried with 
Joshua, in accordance with which we find Neby N u n and Neby Kill 
at this site. 

15. Kefr Kasim (j p).— A village of moderate size, principally 
of mud, on a low hill in open ground. A rock-cut tomb e.\ists south of the 
village. 

16. K h u r b e t K e i s (M q). — A small village on the hillside. 

17. Khurbet Kefr Thilth (K p). — A small village on high 
ground, with two wells. It was in ruins in 1852, but has now a few 
inhabitants, the ground round is rough and uncultivated. The name is 
equivalent to the Hebrew Shalisha, and this suggests the identity of the 
place with Baal-Shalisha (2 Kings iv. 42), which appears to have been in 
this part of the country. (See Beth Sarisa in the present section, 
further on.) 

18. Kireh (M p). — A moderate village on high ground, with a 
chapel venerated by the Moslems, but named after the Virgin Mary, 
The water supply is from a pool. 

19. Kuril wa Ibn Hasan (L p).— A village partly ruinous, 
but evidently at one time a place of great importance (see Section B.), 
with ancient tombs, one of great beauty (see Dcir ed Derb, Section B.), 
and rude stone towers. Its ancient name is given by the natives as 
Sham et Tawil. The litde mosque of Sheikh 'A 1 y el 'A m a n a t 
stands apparendy over the apse of a church. The supply of water is from 
wells and cisterns. 

20. KCizah (M p). — A small village at the foot of the hills in an 
open valley, supplied by a well on the east. In the ' Samaritan Chronicle ' 



286 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

it is noticed (see 'Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196), and its 
ancient name given as Kirjath Tzekathah. It is possibly the Chusi of 
Judith (vii. 18). 

21. Lubban (M q). — A village perched on a terrace on the hill, 
with badly-built houses, half ruinous, and rock-cut tombs on the south- 
west. These tombs are little more than rude caves. There are five pillar 
shafts standing near the little mosque, and one doorway had designs in 
medallions on the arch, but looked like Arab work. The white colour of 
the cliff accounts for its name, 'Milk-White.' It has an appearance of 
great antiquity, but the water supply is at some distance — the fine spring 
in the ruins of Khan L u b b a n. The place is recognised as the 
ancient Lebonah (Judges xxi. 19), and it is probably the Beth Laban of the 
Talmud, from which wine was brought to Jerusalem. (Mishnah Menachoth 
ix. 7.) Marino Sanuto mentions it as Casale Lepna. 

22. Lubban Rent is (K q). — A small village on a knoll beside 
the Roman road. 

23. Mejdel Yaba (J q). — A large and important village, 
evidently an ancient site, having ancient tombs and remains of a church. 
It stands on high ground above the plain, and contains a house or palace 
of large size for the Sheikh ; it was the seat of a famous family who ruled 
the neighbourhood. (See Section C.) The water supply is from wells 
and cisterns. 

24. Merdah (M p). — A village of moderate size on low ground 
surrounded by olives. This place is noticed by its present name in the 
' Samaritan Chronicle.' (See ' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, p. 196.) 

25. Mes-ha (K p).— A good-sized village, with a high central 
house, but partly ruinous. It is supplied by cisterns, and the houses are 
of stone. 

26. Ra-fat (K q). — A semi-ruinous stone village on a ridge, 
apparently an ancient site, with a very conspicuous Mukam on a piece of 
rock west of the village, and rock-cut tombs. The water supply is from 
wells and cisterns. 

27. Rent is (K q). — A village, principally mud, on a slope sur- 
rounded by open ground and a few olives. It is supplied by cisterns, and 



{SHEET X/F.] TOPOGRAPHY. 287 

is evidently an ancient site, having- rock-cut tombs. Tliis would appear 
to be the place called Remphtis (P£/<ff) in the ' Onomasticon,' 'in the 
district of Diospolis,' given as an alternative site for ArimathEea. (Com- 
pare Rentieh, Sheet XIII.) 

28. Es Sawieh (N p). — A little village on a hill overhanging 
the road. 

29. S el fit (M p). — A large village, on high ground, with fine 
olive-groves round it, and a pool to the east. It is apparently an ancient 
site, with rock-cut tombs. It has two springs to the west at a little 
distance. 

30. Sen i rich (K p). — A small stone village, on a ridge, sur- 
rounded with olives supplied by cisterns. 

31. S e r t a (K p). — Resembles the last. 

32. Tell (N q). — A very small hamlet, on the hill-side above the 
road, with ruins. 

2)1- 'Urif (M p). — A stone village, on high ground, with a few 
olives ; supplied by wells and with a small spring to the east ('Ain el Jor). 

34. Yasuf (M p). — An ancient village, in a valley, with a good 
spring in the village, and olives. A beautiful garden of pomegranates 
exists north of the spring. The water comes out of a cleft in a cliff, near 
which is an ancient well with steps. There is a sacred place, with a large 
oak (Sindian), and a ruined shrine, south-west of the village, near 'Ain er 
Raja. There are drafted stones in many houses, and remains of well-built 
enclosures, now ruined. Many well-cut rock tombs are also found on either 
side. (See Section B.) This place is noticed by its present name in the 
Samaritan Book of Joshua (' Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876, pp. 190 
— 196), and in the 'Samaritan Chronicle' the ancient name is given 
as Jusepheh. 

35. Yet ma (N p). — A little village, on high ground, with olives 
round it. 

36. Zawieh (K p). — A village of stone of moderate size, probably 
an ancient place, having rock-cut tombs to the south. 

l"]. Zeita (M p). — A small stone village, on high ground, with a 
well to the west, and olive-groves. 



288 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The second Government District is to the east of the last, also under 
the Mutascrrif of Nablus, and called 

II. — Mesharik el Beitawv. 

1. All del ah (N p). — A small hamlet, on the low hills east of the 
Mukhnah plain. 

2. 'Awertah (N p). — A village, on the slopes east of the plain, 
with springs to the east, and olive-groves. It is built of mud and stone, 
and is of moderate size. This place is very important in the Samaritan 
records, and is called in the ' Chronicle ' Abearthah, and in the Samaritan 
Book of Joshua Kefr 'Aweirah, or Ghuweirah. (See ' Quarterly State- 
ment, October, 1876, p. 196.) It contains the tombs of Phinehas and 
Eleazar, and may possibly be the Biblical Gibeah Phineas (Joshua xxiv. 33), 
being in Mount Ephraim. (See el 'A z e i r and el 'Azeirat, 
Section B.) 

3. Beita (N p). — A large village, with a kind of suburb to the 
south, near which are ancient tombs. It is supplied by wells, and 
surrounded by olives. It stands upon the hills east of the Milkhnah 
plain, and is the capital of the district named from it. 

4. Kuriyut (N q). — A small village, on the top of a high chain, 
with a spring between it and the ruin of S e i 1 u n. This place, being at 
the head of Wady Fiisail, seems to have given rise to the mediaeval 
identification of that valley as the Brook Cherith (mentioned by Marino 
Sanuto in 1321). 

Kuriyut is supposed by Robinson to be the Corea of Josephus 
(Ant. .\iv. 3, 4), on the boundary of Judea. 

4. Kubalan (N p). — A village of moderate size, on high ground, 
with olives round it, and wells. 

5. Tel fit (N p). — Resembles the last. It is supplied by a well 
called 'A in Tel fit. 

III.— Beni Sab. 

Jiljulieh (J p). — A large mud village in the plain, with a fine 
ruined mosque, and a ruined Khan. It is supialied by a well on the west. 



[SHEET XIV.] TOPOGRAPHY. 289 

This place is perhaps ' Gilgal of Nations' (Joshua xii. 23), a place 
apparently in the maritime plain. 

The remaining divisions belong to the INIutasseritlik of Jerusalem. 



IV. — Beni Zeid, 

including the following places. 

1. 'A b u d (K q). — A large and nourishing Christian village, of 
stone, the houses nearly all marked with the Cross in red paint. It 
contains a Greek church, 30 feet broad, and about 45 feet long, with a 
porch on the west ; the interior carefully whitewashed. The population 
consisted in 1873 of 400 Greek Christians, and 100 Moslems. The 
church was said to be old ; a vine was trained over its porch. A Maltese 
cross was shown sculptured on the face of a stone, built into a dry-stone 
wall. A place dedicated to Saint Barbara e.xists near, and a very large 
pool. (See Barbara, Section B. See also I\I o k a t a 'A b u d for the 
ancient tombs, Section B.) The water supply is from the great pool. 
The Roman road passes by the place. 

2. 'A b we in (M q). — A village on a hill-slope, with a well to the 
south, and olive-trees beneath it on the north. 

3. 'A Jul (M q). — A village of moderate size, with a well. It is 
on high ground, with olives round it, and ancient tombs. An ancient road 
leads towards it on the south. 

4. 'Arara (K p). — A small village on high ground, remarkable as 
having five sacred places on the west side. The name recalls the Aroura 
of Josephus. (Ant. vi. 12, 4.) 

5. 'At tar a (INI q). — A large village, seemingly ancient, in a con- 
spicuous position on a hill, with olives round it. This place is perhaps 
that mentioned in the ' Onomasticon,' Jerome remarking that two places 
of the name existed near Jerusalem (s.v. 'Arapwfl). It is also identified in 
the ' Onomasticon ' with Archiataroth (s.v. 'Ap)(^iarapa/0), a town of Joseph, 
by which probably Ataroth Adar is meant. (See Sheet XVH., Section A., 
Ataroth Adar; also 'Attara. Sheets XI. and X\TI.) 

VOL. II. n 



29° THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

6. Beit Rima (L q). — -x^ small village on the summit of a ridge 
with wells to the west. It is mentioned in the Talmud (Mishnah Mena- 
choth, ix. 7) as a town whence wine was brought to Jerusalem, and was 
consequently within the bounds of Judea. 

7. Deir Abu Meshal (K r). — A small and partly ruinous 
stone village in a very strong position on a lofty hill. For the antiquities 
see Section B. A pool exists on the south side of the village, which 
supplies the place with water. 

8. Deir Ghiissaneh (L q). — A village on a ridge, with springs 
in the valley below. It is of moderate size, built of stone, and has olives 
beneath it, 

9. Deir en Nidham (L q). — A small hamlet on a high point, 
with olives round it. It is just above the ruins of Tibneh, and water is 
obtained from the 'A i n Tibneh. 

10. Deir es Sudan (L q). — A village of moderate size, with a 
well to the west, on the slope of a hill, with olive-groves round it. 

11. Jibia (L q). — A small village on high ground, with olives 
below. This place appears to be the Geba noticed in the ' Onomasticon ' 
(s.v. Gebin) as 5 Roman miles from Gophna (Jufna) towards Neapolis. 

12. Jiljilia (M q). — A large village on the top of a high hill, 
with a well to the south, and a few olives. The ridge is arable land. 
The name suggests its identity with Gilgal, a town in the mountains near 
Bethel. This Gilgal (2 Kings ii. i) is mentioned as though above Bethel 
(verse 2), which does not agree exactly with the position of Jiljilia (2,441 
feet above the sea), and of Beitin (2,890), but the descent into the great 
valley, Wady el Jib, may account for the expression, 'went down to 
Bethel." 

13. Kefr 'A i n (L q). — A small hamlet on a hill-slope, supplied by 
the A i n M a t r u n, in the valley south-west. 

14. K h li r b e t B u r h a m (M r). — A few houses on high ground. 

15. Kubar (L r). — A small village on a hill-top, with rock-cut 
tombs, cisterns, and olives. 

16. Kurawa Ibn Zeid (L q). — A small village on a knoll, with 
ancient tombs, and a tank, surrounded with olives. 



[SHEET XIV.] TOPOGRAPHY. . 291 

17. M e z r a h (L q). — A moderate-sized village on high ground. 

18. Neby Salch (L q).— A village of moderate size on a ridge, 
with a small mosque and a well to the south. A spring exists about 
three-quarters of a mile east. 

19. S el wad (N r). — On a hill, with ancient tombs and fine springs. 

20. Umm Suffah (L q), also called Kcfr Ishwah (Joshua's 
village), probably because near Tibneh, which has been supposed by 
some to be Timnath Heres.— A village on high ground on the Roman 
road to Antipatris. It contains a small mosque or Moslem chapel, and has 
a well to the north. The name would seem to connect it with an ancient 
IMaspha, or Mizpeh, perhaps the one noticed in the ' Samaritan Chronicle' 
under the name Kirjath ham-Misphat as a place inhabited by Samaritans 
in the seventeenth century. 



y. — Bexi Murrah. 

1. 'A in Sinia (M r).— A small village, undoubtedly of antiquity. 
It is of moderate size, and lies in a valley surrounded with olive and fig- 
terraces which cover the hill ; there are also gardens of vegetables, and a 
o-ood spring north-east. The houses are half ruinous, but some are of very 
good masonr)'. There appears to have been a small Crusading fort in 
the place. A doorway, with an arch, ornamented with crosses, etc., in 
medallions, exists in the village, and is said to be ancient, but looks like 
Arab Christian work. A tomb with a Hebrew inscription was dis- 
covered by the Survey Party in 1S72. The name and position suggests 
the identity of the place with Jeshanah, a town noticed as taken from 
Jeroboam, together with Bethel and Ephraim (2 Chron. xiii. 19). The 
main roads are here walled with drystone walls on cither side. The 
village commands one of the ancient main roads to Jerusalem. 

2. 'A i n Yebrud (M r). — A village of moderate size on the top 
of a hill, well built, surrounded with fine groves of olives, with a well on 
the north-east. 

3. Dar Jerir (N r). — A village of moderate size, with ancient 
tombs to the south, and a spring to the west ; a few olives on the same 
side. According to another list this belongs to the Beni Salim District. 

37—2 



292 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

4. MezrAt esh Sherkiyeh (N q). — A large village on a hill- 
top, the hill-sides covered with vineyards ; there are also olives and ligs. 
The houses are of stone and mud. 

5. Sinjil (N q). — A village of moderate size, straggling along the 
hill-side, with several houses of two storeys, on the slope of the hill, 
with fine fig gardens below. It has a well on the south-west. This 
place is apparently the Saint Gilles mentioned by Fetellus between 
Jerusalem and Sychem. • (See ' Quarterly Statement,' April, 1877, p. 88.) 
It obtained its name from Raymond de St. Gilles, fourth Count of 
Toulouse. 

6. Turmus 'Ay a (N q). — A village on a low knoll, in a fertile 
plain, with a spring to the south. The village is of moderate size, and 
surrounded by fruit trees. On the south at the foot of the mound is the 
conspicuous white dome of the sacred place. This appears to be the 
Thormasia of the Talmud. (See Neubauer, Geog. Tal, p. 279.) 

7. Yebrud (M r). — A village of small size on a hill, with a well 
and extensive fig-gardens or terraces to the east, and olives to the west. 
The roads are here walled in. 



VI. — Beni Salim. 

1. Khijrbet Abu Felah (N q). — A small hamlet on high 
ground, with ruins, (See Section B.) 

2. Kefr Malik (N r). — A village of moderate size on high 
ground, probably Caphar Melich of the Cartulary of Holy Sepulchre. 
(See 'Quarterly Statement,' July, 1874, p. 162.) 

3. Rummun (N r). — A village of moderate size, with cisterns 
and caves, evidendy an ancient site. On the north-east is a deep rock- 
cut tank, and south of it a rock-cut tomb. The houses stand on a barren 
conical point of rock north of a rough valley, and are built in terraces. 
The site is peculiar, being at the end of a plateau of arable soil extending 
southwards from Taiyibeh. The view is extensive towards the south-east, 
but bounded by the Taiyibeh range on the north. There are numerous 



{SHEET XIV.'X TOPOGRAPHY. 293 

caves in the rocky sides of the hill called A s h k a f J i 1 j a 1, as well as 
further west (A s h k a f Da u d). 

This place is held to be the Rock Rimmon. (Judges xx. 45.) 

4. Taiyibch (N r). — A large Christian village in a conspicuous 
position, with well-built stone houses. A central tower stands on the top 
of the hill ; on either side are olive and fig gardens in the low ground. 
The view is extensive on cither side. A ruined church of St. George 
exists near, and there are remains of a ruined caslle in the village. The 
inhabitants are Greek Christians. 

This place is, from its distance, supposed to be Ophrah of Benjamin, 
which Jerome states to have been 5 Roman miles east of Bethel. This 
view gains some probability from the fact that the valley of Zeboim is 
very possibly Wady Taiyibeh, for the name means ' valley of the Hyena, 
and WSdy Taiyibeh debouches at S h u k h e d D h li b a, ' Hyena's Lair.' 
(Sheet XVni.) The valley of Zeboim, looking towards the wilderness, 
is mentioned in connection with and may hav^e been in the vicinity of 
Ophrah. (i Samuel xiii. 17.) 

MI. — Be.m Haritii esh SiiemalIyeii. 

1. Abu Kush (M r).— A very small hamlet, with a well on the 
north, on an ancient road, with a few olives near. 

2. Abu Shukheidim (L r). — Resembles the last, and is supplied 
by the same well. 

3. Beit Ello (L r). — A village of moderate size on high ground, 
among olives, with a well on the south-east, and a spring and tank on the 
north-east below el Yasireh. The position near Belain (perhaps 
Baalath) and Tibneh (perhaps Timnah), towns of Dan, suggests its identity 
with Elon, a town of Dan (Joshua xix. 43) occurring next Timnah. 

4. Bir ez Zeit (M r). — A Christian village of moderate size, con- 
taining a Greek Church and a Latin Church, with a well to the north, and 
olives round it. The red-tiled roof of the Latin Church, on the top of the 
ridge, is a conspicuous object in the village. This place is probably the 
Bethzetho or Berzetha of Josephus, which was north of Jerusalem. (See 
' Quarterly Statement,' January, 1877, p. 24.) It might also be the 



294 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Azotus of the corresponding passage in Maccabees, (i Mace. ix. 4.) Tlie 
place is close to one of the main roads from the north by 'Ain Sinia. 

5. D e i r 'A m m a r (L r). — A village of medium size on a hill, 
with a well about \ mile to the west. 

6. Durah (M r). — A small village on the side of a valley, with 
springs on the south, and olives. 

7. Janieh (L r). — A small village on high ground, with two 
Mukams and a well on the east ; on the north is a modern graveyard. 
Olives exist round. 

8. Jemmala (L r). — A very small village, with a little mosque on 
high ground. 

9. Jufna (M r). — An important Christian village, with a Latin 
church and Latin convent (M a r Y li s e f), on the ancient road from the 
north to Jerusalem. The octagonal apse of the Latin Church, with 
coloured glass in its east window and a red-tiled pointed roof, form con- 
spicuous features of the village seen from the south. It is situate in a 
small plain, and on the south, higher up, is a spring called 'A i n 
J e 1 a z u n. The road crosses the valley-bed by a small foot-bridge (now 
broken), with an inscription in Arabic, and on the south of this is a Greek 
Church of St. George, with a fine walnut-tree and two Meis-trees. There 
are ruins of a tower in the village, and pillar shafts, as if of a former chapel 
east of the Latin monastery. The hills and valley are cultivated with 
olives, vines, figs, pear, apricot, and pomegranate. The population is 
stated by Robinson at 200, some Latins, some Greeks. Jufna is the" 
ancient Gophna of Josephus, 16 Roman miles from Jerusalem according 
to the Peutinger Tables. The place was supposed in the fourth century 
to be the Valley, of Eshcol, from its plentiful vineyards. (For the 
antiquities at the Greek Church see Section B.) 

10. Khurbetha Ibn Harith (K r). — A village of medium 
size, with a well on the west, standing on high ground among olive-trees. 

11. Mezeirat el Kibliyeh (L r). — A good-sized village on 
low ground, among olives. 

12. Er Ras or Ras Kerker (L p). — A small village in a lofty 
position, with a spring below it on the north. In the middle of the village 



[SHEET XIV.] TOPOGRAPHY. 295 

is a fortress built about 50 years since. The place was the seat of the 
great native family of the B e n i S i m h a n. 

13. Surdah (M r). — A small village on a hillside, with a garden 
to the south of it, and the spring 'Ain Jelazun on the east. The 
name suggests its identity with Zereda, the native town of Jeroboam, 
(i Kings xi. 26.) 



\Tn. — Bfxi Hakitii el KiblIveii. 

1. 'Ain Kanieh (L r). — A village of moderate size on a ridge. 
This would seem to be the place called En Gannim by Eusebius, and 
spoken of as a village near Bethel. (' Onomasticon,' s. v.) 

2. Deir Ibzia (L r). — A village of moderate size, on a ridge, 
with a well to the west, and surrounded by olives. 

3. Kefr Namah (L r). — A village of smaller size, with a well to 
the south, on the side of a hill, with olives. 

One village belongs to the Jebel Kuds namely : 

BEITIN (M r).— This village, the ancient Bethel, is built on the 
side of a flat spur which rises slightly on the north. On the south-east 
is a flat dell, with good fig and pomegranate gardens, and there are other 
fig-trees round the village and among the houses. The cottages have a 
ruinous appearance, with rough stone walls. There is one square white 
house in two stories, which is visible from a great distance. The ground 
is very open, and the slopes gende ; the village slopes down gradually 
south-east. The surrounding ground is quite bare of trees, of white chalk, 
very barren and stony on the south ; of hard limestone cropping up on 
the north ; the fields divided off by low drystone walls. The contrast of 
the grey rocks, the red ploughland and the dark green figs is very striking. 
The remains of a good-sized tower exist towards the north, and on the 
south the walls of a church of Crusading date, once dedicated to St. 
Joseph. The population is stated at 400. 

The place is supplied from a fine spring on the south, which wells up 
in a circular basin. The spring is double, and was surrounded with a 



296 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

large reservoir, 314 feet long north-west and south-east, by 217 feet; 
of massive stones. The eastern and southern walls are standing about 
10 feet high. The spring is perennial. 

One of the most peculiar features about Beitin is the group of rocks 
covering two or three acres north of the town. Although these seem to 
have been hewn in some places, there is no reason to suppose them to 
be other than natural features. A similar group occurs further east, and 
the country round the village is exceptionally stony and barren. 

In the valley, by the reservoir of the spring, there are several rock- 
cut tombs, as also further west. (See Bur] Beitin, Section B.) A second 
spring of good water ('Ain es Sultan) exists on the slope of the hill, and 
a third, 'Ain el K u s s i s, again further south near the road. A fourth 
'Ain D h a h r a h, is about half a mile to the north on the hisrh crround. 
Thus, in spite of its very barren appearance, the site is well supplied with 
water. The neighbourhood of Beitin commands extensive views ; the 
modern suburbs of Jerusalem are distinctly seen. Neby Samwil also 
appears, and the hills of Ras Sherifeh, west of Bethlehem, and of Neby 
Lut, east of Hebron, are seen. 

The remaining villages belong to the district called B e n i H u m a r, 
and are under the Governor of Jafta, who is under the Mutaserrif of 
Jerusalem. They are as follows : 

1. Bel ain (K r). — A little village on a hill-side. The position is 
suitable for Baalath, a town of Dan, mentioned (Joshua xlx. 44) with 
towns which exist west of this place, Jchud Beneberak and Gibbcthon. 
(See Sheet XIII., Section A.) 

2. Beit Nebala (J r). — A village at the edge of the plain, 
with a well to the east. It is of moderate size. This is the probable 
site of Neballat (Neh. xi. 34), a place mentioned with Lod and Ono, 
which are south-west of the present site. (Compare also B i r Nebala, 
Sheet XV 11.) 

3. B u d r u s (J r). — A small village, with olive-groves and cisterns. 
It has near it two sacred places, and a graveyard near one (Imam 
'A 1 y) on the west. This is perhaps the place called Patris in the Talmud, 
which was apparently in the plain not far from Antipatris. (Tosiphta 
Demoi, chap, i.) 



[sheet A'//:] ToroGRAniY. 297 

4. Deir cl Kuddis (K r). — A small hamlet on a hii^h hill-top, 
with gardens to the north, and a ruined monastery and cave near. There 
is a well on the east. The name intimates that a convent once existed 
here. 

5. Deir Tureif (J r). — A very small hamlet at the edge of the 
plain. This would seem to be the place called Betariph in the ' Onomas- 
ticon,' near Diospolis (Ludd). 

6. Haditheh (J r). — A moderate-sized village on a terraced Tell 
at the mouth of a valley at the foot of the hills, with a well on the east. 
There are remains of a considerable town round it, tombs and quarries 
e.xist ; and the mound on which the village stands is covered with pottery. 
This would appear to be the town of Hadid mentioned with Lod and Ono. 
(Ezra ii. 12, \ Neh. vii. i"], .\i. 34.) In the ' Onomasticon ' it is called 
Aditha, and placed east of Lydda. The name cannot apply to position 
on a 'sharp ' ridge, but might perhaps be better rendered ' boundary.' It 
is possible that this is intended by Adida (i ]\Iacc. xii. 3S), as that place 
was an eminence in the Shephelah. 

7. J i m z u (J r). — A village of mud of moderate size, on the side 
of a low hill, just at the entrance into the plain. It is surrounded with 
olives and cactus hedges. On the east are cisterns, and on the west a 
well by the road. This is the Gimzo of the Bible (2 Chron. xxviii. iS). 

8. Kibbieh (K r). — A very small hamlet with olive-trees, on 
high ground. The situation near Baalath (if at B e 1 a i n) and Eltekeh 
(if Beit Likia) suggests that this may perhaps represent Gibbethon 
of Dan. (Joshua xix. 44.) 

9. K u 1 e h (J q). — A village of moderate size on a slope at the 
edge of the plain. The modern houses are principally mud, but the place 
has remains of mediaeval date. (See Section B.) There are wells on the 
north-west. 

10. El Mezeirah (J q). — A mud village on the edge of the 
hills, near the last. 

11. INIidieh (J r). — The position of this village is somewhat 
peculiar. On the west is a broad and open valley, separating the village 
from the spur of Sheikh el Gharbawy. This gradually deepens 
and joins a larger valley north of the town. On the south the same Aalley 

VOL, ir. ,8 



298 THE SURVEY OF irESTER.V PALESTL\E. 



separates the site from higlier ground, which has been quarried, and con- 
tains rock tombs. The village is of good size, of mud and stone houses, 
supplied by cisterns ; beneath it, on the north, is a small olive grove, on 
the south a tank. The most peculiar feature, however, is a high conical 
knoll, with traces of ruins, a Mukam, and a few trees, the sides of 
the knoll sloping regularly, as if artificially cut ; and in this are rock-cut 
tombs and a birkeh below, with cisterns above. It is called er Ras. 

IMidieh would appear to be the ancient Modin. (i Mace. xiii. 25.) 
Bartenora (commenting on Hagiga iii. 5) speaks of the place as 15 miles 
from Jerusalem. It is also mentioned in the Mishna (Pesachim i.\. 2). 
and is placed in the ' Onomasticon ' near Lydda. The distance from 
Jerusalem along the main road is 18 English miles. 

12. N'alin (K r). — A large village on high ground, surrounded 
by olives, and supplied by cisterns. 

13. Shebtin (K r). — A small village in a valley, with a well to 
the east. It ajjpears to be an ancient site, and has rock-cut tombs south 
of it. 

14. Shukba (K p). — A small village on high ground, surrounded 
with trees. 

15. T i r e h (J q). — A mud village of moderate size, with cactus 
hedges, situate at the edge of the plain, the hills rising behind ; on the 
west, by the high road, is a good well, with remains of masonry. 

In addition to the above inhabited places, the following ruined sites 
on the Sheet are proposed as identical with the places enumerated. It is 
remarkable, however, here as in other Sheets, how few ruins are identified 
as compared with inhabited places. 

Biblical Sites. 

Baal Hazor(2 Samuel xiii. 23). — Was ' by Ephraim.' De Saulcy 
has therefore proposed Tell ' A s u r as being near Taiyibeh, which is 
generally supposed to be the city Ephraim. 

Baal Shalisha (2 Kings iv. 42). — Probably in the land of 
Shalisha and not far from Gilgal (Jiljilia). The place is also mentioned 



{sheet AV/'.] TOrOGRAPHY. 299 

in the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Sanhed., no) as apparendy in low country, 
and in the ' Targum ' of Jonathan it is rendered by Daroma (a district 
extending as far as Lydda. Pesachim, v. 3.) The land of Shalisha 
was apparently near Mount Ephraim. (i Samuel ix. 4.) 

These indications point to the country north-east of Lydda, where 
also Jerome places the site. (See Beth Sarisa further on.) On this Sheet 
we have the names, K h u r b e t K e f r T h i 1 1 h, S e 1 i t a, and 
Shilta, all in the low hills towards the west, and all approaching the 
name Shalisha. 

Chephar Haamonai (Joshua xviii. 24) (.M r). — Is probably 
the ruin Kefr 'Ana, north of Bethel. This place is also possibly the 
Anath of the Talmud, north of Jerusalem. (See Neubauer's Geog. 
Tal.. p. 154.) 

Kan ah (Brook, Joshua xvi. 8, xvii. 9). — Robinson proposes the 
present Wady Kanah, an important feature, rising at Gerizim. It 
will be observed that the Arabic name is not identical with the Hebrew. 

S h i 1 o h (Judges xxi. 19). — The undoubted site is the ruin of Seililn. 
(See Section B.) 

Non-Biblical Sites. 

A i a 1 o n. — Jerome places this site (Ajalon, Joshua x. 1 2), east of Bethel, 
at a distance of 3 Roman miles. This brings us to K h u r b e t 
'Alia. He allows, however, that the Jews placed it at Aialon, near 
Emmaus, 2 miles from it on the way to Jerusalem (Yalo), which place 
he makes Aijalon of Dan (Joshua xix. 43), and calls Alus. (Sheet XVH.) 

Beth Sarisa. — A town in the Lydda district, near the Thamnitic 
region (' Onomasticon,' s. v.), about 15 miles from Lydda. 14.') R.M. 
from Lydda, north-east, is the present ruin, Serisia. 

Garob. — Is mentioned in the Talmud (Tal. Bab. Sanhed, 103 a) as 
3 miles from Shiloh. The ruin, Khurbet Ghiirabeh is 3 miles 
west of S e i 1 u n. The valley beneath is called Wady Gharib. 

T h a m n a t h a. — An important town, capital of a toparchy (Josephus, 
'Wars,' iii. 3, 5 ; Pliny, ' Hist. Nat.,' v. 14), is placed by Jerome on the 
road from Lydda to Jerusalem. It is the present ruin Tibneh, which is 

38—2 



300 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

identified by some with Tininath Heres. (See Kefr Haris, Sheet XIV., 
Section A.) Tibneh might also be Timnah of Dan (Joshua xix. 43), as 
that place is mentioned with Elon (perhaps Beit Ello), and Eltekeh 
(perhaps Beit L i k i ei). 

Roads. — The main lines of communication are those between 
Jerusalem and Nablus, and Jerusalem and Antipatris. 

The Nablus road ascends to the plateau south-west of Beitin, and is 
here divided into three parallel branches. The most western passes 
down to the open and cultivated valley, in which are Jufna and 'Ain Sinia, 
which it follows. A path leads thence over the hill to the 'A in el 
Haramiyeh. The central line runs along the watershed, and 
gradually descends towards 'Ain Y e b r u d. The third or most eastern 
line passes closer. to Beitin, and rejoins the second at Kefr 'Ana. 
About half-a-mile further on, the united course rapidly descends into a 
narrow gorge, commanded by the Burj Bardawil at its south entrance, 
and here, under the cliff of the 'Ain Haramiyeh, it is a narrow stony 
lane with drystone walls. Hence ascending gradually, it reaches the open 
plain of Turmus 'Aya, and leaves it on the east. Beyond Sinjil it gradu- 
ally ascends a stony ridge, and here there are unmistakable signs of the 
antiquity of the highway in the side walls and the cuttings in the rock. 
Crossing the pass, a sharp descent brings it to the ruined Khan, with a 
fine spring (K h a n Lubban). There is also a more gradual descent 
on the west, which appears to be the older course of the road. 

Passing thence beneath Lubban, the road continues through a flat 
open valley until at Sawieh it ascends to a saddle, where are ruins of a 
Khan (Khan Sawieh, with a spring beside an oak tree east of the path). 
A steep descent and another very steep ascent with traces of the ancient 
side walls of the Roman causeway, leads the road across the \'alley, west 
of Yetma, to the ridge south of the INIukhnah Plain. 

Another but less precipitous descent leads down from the hill, whence 
first Gerizim is seen plainly, to the open plain (Sahel Mukhnah), and to 
the village Huwarah, where the path ascends slightly and runs along 
the lower slopes of Gerizim, above the plain. In this part the soft rock 
is cut away in many places to broaden the highway. 

From Jufna an ancient road leads down to the plain ; this, as well as 
the preceding, is marked on the Peutinger Tables. The task of 



[sheet X/V.'] TOPOGRArilY. 3°i 

engineering this second line was far less difficult, as it docs not lie across 
the direction of the main valleys. Thus, it follows a ridge gradually- 
descending and marked by a milestone between Umni Suffa and Neby 
Saleh ; it passes the ruin of T i b n e h, where are remains of its ancient 
pavement. It thence continues to the village of 'A b u d, wlu re it divides 
into two branches close to the great reservoir at IJarbara. '1 he 
northern branch descends with an even gradient of about .V ^Y ^^^ '^''**' 
in which are the fine tombs (Mokata 'Aliud), to the low plateau, 
which it follows to the plain south of M ej d c I Yaba, where it becomes 
lost in the neighbourhood of Ras el 'A i n. The second branch passes 
down an extremely rugged valley to R e n t i s by a considerable detour, 
which gives a gentler gradient ; it here strikes upon a branch which 
leaves the northern road at Lubban (Rent is), and is directed 
south-west to Tireh and thence to Lydda. At D e i r 'Alia the ancient 
pavement of the road is distinct, and milestones are here visible, fallen 
beside it in two places. 



SHEET XIV.— SECTION B. 

Arcileologv. 

'A i n c 1 Haramiyeh (M r). — The water of the spring comes 
from a hollow artificially scooped in the rock. There is also a rock-cut 
cistern, and on the south a square tank of good-sized masonry, the corner 
stones drafted with a rustic boss. On the east side, a little further south, 
are rock-cut tombs. The tank is cemented inside, and has a vault groined 
with pointed arches. This shows the work to be most probably of the 
Crusading period. There are other tombs further west. 

Visited June 8th, 1875. 

' Not far from the spring is a great ruined cistern, formerly surmounted by a rectangular 
tower measuring 18 paces in length by 10 in breadth : there remain at present some of the 
lower courses in great blocks. This tower commanded the passage of the valley, which in 
this place is extremely narrow. A little farther on, towards the south, are the remains of a 
large birket 46 paces long by 28 broad. It was built of irregular and large blocks, and the 
walls measure 4 feet 4 inches in thickness.' — Gu^rin, ' Samaria,' ii. 36. 

'A i n S i n i a (M r). — There are numerous rock-cut tombs here; over 

one was discovered by C. F. T. Drake, in 1872, a Hebrew inscription 
plainly legible, but so roughly cut that a squeeze was impossible. The 
name of Hananiah, son of Eleazar, is found on it. The tomb within 
is a rude cave with a lociilus on the north side. Osteophagi had been 
found her by the peasantry ; glass and broken pottery, bones, and a 
skeleton with three olive stones in the skull were found. 

'A bud (K q). — The present church has a modern appearance, 
though said by the priest to be very ancient. It is evident that an 



{sheet AVr.] ARCH.EOLOG Y. 303 

older church stood here, from the inscription found on a lintel in the 
village by Major Wilson, R.E., which is as follows : 

APTYPIONTOYAriOY— 

Evidently part of 

Mrioriioioi' roil (lyiou .... 

'Memorial (or church) of the Holy .' (See also Barbara and 

Mokata ' A b u d in this Section.) 

Guerin, after describing the cliurch mentioned in Section A. (p. 289), goes on to speak of 
lour ancient churches which he found outside the village, viz.: 

1. One called Barbara el Kcniseh : a simple chapel which crowned the summit of a rocky 
hill situated 12 minutes west of Abud. (See p. 305, ' Barbara.') 

2. A large church called Ueir Nestasieh. It was built of irregular blocks, had three 
naves, though only 18 paces in length by 8 broad, and was preceded by a vestibule. 

3. To the east of the village are traces of a church called Mar Thodriis. 

4. On the north of the village a small chapel called Mar Abadia. A hollow place, which 
may have been a tomb, was under the altar. 

'Arara (K p). — Ruined walls of good masonry. 

' The foundations of a large number of houses are visible ; they appear to have been con- 
structed for the most part of great blocks more or less squared, resting upon each other without 
cement Many of the stones are basaltic' — Gudrin, 'Samaria,' ii. 157. 

A r u ra (L p). 
Guerin observed fragments of columns and other indications of an ancient town in this 
place. There are also threshing-floors which appeared to him ancient. 

Arnutieh (M r). — Walls with drafted masonry; appears to be 
a Crusadinof ruin. 



& 



El 'Azeir (N p). — The tomb of Eleasar at 'Awertah is a modern 
rectangular structure with a pointed roof, and measures 18 feet 3 inches 
by 15 feet 4 inches, by 4 feet 8 inches in height. It stands in a court- 
yard by a small mosque, which has a Samaritan inscription, dating 
iiSoA.H. A fine terebinth grows in the courtyard. This place is the 
traditional tomb of Eleasar the son of Aaron. 

\'isited July 24th, 1872. 

El 'Azeirat (N p). — The companion tomb to the last, east of 
the village of 'Awertah and traditionally that of Phinehas. It is a 
plaster structure, like the last, measuring 14 feet by 7 feet 6 inches, and 



304 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



7 feet 8 inches high. It stands in a courtyard of good masonry 26 feet 
by 19^ feet. A small mosque is attached to this enclosure on the north- 




EL AZr.lR. 



east ; the entrance is at the opposite end. The interior is paved with 




EL AZEIRAT. 



square flags. Pilasters with a slight projection are built on the enclosure 
walls, and from these spring round arches. A wooden trellis above 







4 










I— 



< 



o 

a: 



{SHEET XIV.'\ ARCILEOLOG Y. 



305 



supports a grape-vine. This building appears to be of some antiquity. 
The tombs of Abishuah and Ithamar are supposed to exist near. 
Visited July 24th, 1872. 

'Azzun Ibn 'Atmeh (K p). — A ruined village, apparently modern. 
Here Guerin remarked, near the mosque, a column lying on the ground and several large 
slabs which belonged to some ancient building. 

Barbara (K q). — A small ruined chapel ; still a place of pilgrimage 
for Christians. It is of good masonry, the foundations only remaining, 
measuring about 10 feet across inside, and 22 feet in length east and west. 
Between the chapel and the village of 'A b u d is a fine pool lined with 
masonry, which was full when visited. 

Visited 5th June, 1873. 

Bahret Kufah (I r). — A dam of good masonry packed with 
smaller stones. 

Batn Harasheh (L r). — The ruins here are merely founda- 
tions near Sheikh 'A i s a. There is tdso a cave with a central column 
of rock. 

Beit in (M r). — (See Section A.) The church is on the south- 
east, north of the birkeh. It measures 108 feet by 47 feet outside; the 
walls are very thick, the side walls being 10 feet. There is an apse on 
the east 16 feet diameter. 

The masonry is of moderate size ; several bossed stones occur in the 
walls ; in the north-east angle outside are some long stones, 4 feet or more 
by I foot in height, the drafts being rude and the bosses rustic. A simple 
moulding runs round the apse at the springing of the roof. The apse 
dome is of unsquared stones, rudely bedded in mortar. Remains of a side 
door on the north show diagonal dressing on the stones. A fig-tree grows 
in the nave. The west end of the church is almost entirely destroyed. 
Several pillar bases are lying about, one at the spring, south of the church. 
The east wall of the birkeh, surrounding this spring, is of polygonal blocks 
faced and set in mortar. The south wall is of squared stones. 

At 15 minutes' distance south-west of Beitin, Guerin remarked a large excavation in the 
hill-side which collected the waters of a spring. In the village itself he found the remains of 
two towers, a Christian church, and a birkeh. The identity of Beitin with Bethel has never 
been disputed. The ruins of an ancient church at Burj Beitin may be those of the church 
mentioned by Jerome as built on the spot where Jacob slept. It may, however, have been 
the church described by Lieutenant Conder. 

VOL. II. 39 



;o6 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



Beit Kufah (J r). — Walls and foundations, apparently modern. 

B e r u k i n (K p). 

An ancient site. Here Gu^rin found a large number of cut stones in the walls of modern 
houses, and an ancient tomb near the village with two sepulchral chambers. 

Beit Nibala (I q). 
This place (perhaps the Neballat of Neh. xi. 34) is on the site of an old locality. Cisterns 
and large cut stones attest its antiquity. 

B e r II k i n (K p). 

Guerin found here a large number of cut stones belonging to ancient buildings. Close to 
the village is a rock-cut tomb with two sepulchral chambers. 

Bidieh (K p). — Rock-cut tombs exist here, principally rude 
caves. The rock is quarried in many places. South of the village is a 
birkeh about 30 feet by 20 feet, with a flight of 12 steps, leading down 
about 10 feet. It is made of rudely-squared stones, about i foot to 
i^ feet in length, which are covered again with a well-made rubble almost 
resembling a tesselated pavement, and this again is covered with a soft 
white cement, containing large pieces of pottery and small stones. 
There is on each side of the pool (north and south) a semicircular stone 
buttress, 2 feet diameter, on a base about 4 feet ; this perhaps indicates 
that the birkeh was roofed in. 

South-west of Bidieh is an ancient ruined watch-tower. 

May 26th, 1873. 

Burj Bardawil 
(M q). — A fortress on a 
steep hill commanding the 
pass of ' A i n el H a r a- 
m i y e h on the south. 
The plan is irregular, with 
the entrance-gate on the 
west, and a courtyard sur- 
rounded by vaulted cham- 
bers. The east and south 
walls are arranged so as 
to give flank defence. The 
masonry is very rough ; 
\i..\ r f ? r r ™ the vaults are tunnel vaults 




[SHEET XJV.] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



307 




of rubble (or rag-work), and are of pointed cross section. The place 
resembles the Burj el Mai eh (Sheet XII.), and might be of the 
same date. 

Visited June 8th, 1875. 

E 1 B u r j (M q). — A ruined tower, heaps of stones, and rock-cut 
tombs. The tower is not earlier than the Crusading period, and perhaps 
not so old. 

Burj Beitin (M r). — This place appears to have been a 
monastery and subsequently converted into a fortress. The ruins consist 

of a square area about 160 feet 
by 100 feet, having chambers 
along the wall. The masonry is 
good and plain, without drafts; 
at the corner is a small modern 
tower about 50 feet .square. 
Into the walls of this are built 
Ucu^^s Du,j n,-,i,.v ^ capital of heavy Byzantine 

character, 2 feet 9 inches wide, i foot 8 inches tall, which originally sur- 
mounted a square pier of masonry ; a lintel stone 5^ feet long, with two 
rosettes and a central design of a cross in a circle and lozenge ; and a bit 
of cornice in low relief representing vine-leaves and grapes (compare 
Mokata 'A bud); this last is 18 inches high, and is built vertically 
into the wall. The plan of the church itself was not distinguishable ; 
the character of the lintel would lead to the conclusion that the building 
whence it was taken was of the Early Byzantine period, fifth or sixth 
century. There are remains of a vault, now choked up. The walls are of 
good ashlar outside, of inferior ashlar within, the core of rubble. The 
mortar is soft and brownish, the joints laid with much mortar and a pack- 
ing of small chips in parts. The Jordan valley is plainly visible from this 
spot, which is probably a traditional site of Abraham's altar, east of 
Bethel. (Gen. xii. 8, xiii. 3 — 10.) 
Visited 24th January, 1874. 

Burj el Haniyeh (J q). — Foundations of a tower, apparently 
not ancient. 

Burj el Lisaneh (N r). — Apparently an important position, 

39—2 



3o8 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

inaccessible from north anel west, because of the precipices down the side 
of the hill. It is reached by a goat-track from the east. 

The hill-top is round, and is covered with ruined walls, the ashlar being 
of large size and in some cases drafted. There are cisterns of great size, 
bell-mouthed, and cut in rock. In the middle of the ruins are foundations 
of a building about 32 feet 8 inches by 43 feet 9 inches. It had a tunnel 
vault. The sides of the doorway are of stones carefully drafted ; the 
door is 5 feet 2 inches high by 3 feet 2 inches broad, and is to the east. It 
appears to have been barred across, the sockets remaining. The lintel is 
6 feet 3 inches long, 2 feet 3 inches high. 

Some of the stones of the building have rustic bosses; others are rudely 
dressed (as at the church at K u r y e t el 'A n a b), the joints being 
packed with smaller stones. 

The drafts average 4 inches in width and 7I inch in depth, but are 
irregular ; the bosses are dressed in the case of the lintel and jamb stones, 
except one on the south jamb, which is rustic. The jamb stones appear 
to have been rinsed. A small chamber is formed inside the tower, of 
modern masonry. The walls of the tower are 6^ feet thick, and are 
standing from 7 feet to 13 feet high. The vault is broken in. 

On the south is an enclosure of rougher masonry, probably not so 
ancient, more rudely built and not bonded into the walls of the tower. 
The interior is about 50 feet by 44 feet ; the walls are 4^ feet thick, and 
6 or 7 feet high. A similar wall runs in continuation of the north wall of 
the tower, and is not bonded in. An outer gate appears to have e.xisted 
here. The mortar used is hard and white. The corner-stones of the 
tower are large — one drafted on both faces measured 4 feet 3 inches by 
1 foot 10 inches by 2 feet 4 inches in height ; a second was drafted at the 
end, and measured 3 feet 4 inches by 15 inches by i foot 8 inches in 
height. The drafts were roughly made, 4 inches wide, J, inch deep. 
The other stones are 14 inches to 21 inches in height by 6 inches to 
3 feet. 

This tower seems to be of Crusading origin : the masonry being 
exactly similar to that at Kuryet el Anab. (Sheet XVII.) The better 
drafted stones of the doorway probably, however, belonged to an earlier 
building, as described below. 

Some 50 yards west of the tower are remains of a colonnaded building. 



[SHEET XIV.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 309 

Two bases are in situ, but not in line. Six pillar shafts lie north and 
south in no regular order. They are 7 feet 10 inches long, 21 inches in 
diameter, with a double fillet at either end. East of these are foundations 
of a recess, well-built of modern masonry, 4 feet 7 inches deep to the back 
wall, 3 feet wide at the back, and 4 feet 7 inches at entrance ; its side 
walls being set back. It resembles the side chapel at the end of an aisle 
(see Khurbet el Mukatir, or Seffurieh, Sheet V.), and the colonnade was 
probably part of a church. The length of the nave seems to have been 
30 feet, and the direction about 1 1 2° true bearing. INIany good blocks of 
ashlar are built into terrace-walls on the hill, or lie on the ground. There 
are remains of outer walls, enclosing the tower and the church ; also of 
rockcut cistens. Some of the stones have simple moulding on their faces. 
Revisited June 16, iSSi. 

' The piece of difficult countr)' near this place, in the middle of which is the spring aptly 
enough termed '.\in el Haramiyeh, " the Thieves' Fountain," seems always to have been 
regarded as the key of the road between Jerusalem and Nablus, for on the hill opposite to 
Burj Bardawil, and east of 'Ain el Haramiyeh, I found the ruins of an Important fort, Burj el 
Lisaneh, " the Tower of the Tongue," probably so called from the spur which it occupies. 
The situation is most commanding, being, with the exception of Tell 'Asur, which rises to 
some 3,100 feet, the most elev.ited hill-top in this region. The ascent is by a difficult goat 
track from near Selwad, or the round-about road from Mezra'a el Sherkiyeh. From the north 
and west it is almost inaccessible, there being about halfway down the hill one of those 
precipices of smooth rock, some 20 feet to 30 feet high, which are so common in this neigh- 
bourhood. The summit is nearly circular, and on it are many ruined walls built with massive 
cubes of rough-hewn stones, a few well-dressed drafted examples of considerable size being 
found at intervals. I remarked many unusually large excavated cisterns, but of the common 
bell shape. In the centre of the ruins is an oblong building, some 40 feet by 20 feet It 
was originally covered in by a round arched vault of masonry. The doorway, which is at the 
east-north-east end, is composed of large carefully-dressed drafted stones. The entrance is 
only about 5 feet by 3 feet, and inside are three sockets for bars, and a circular hole above 
either to receive an upright bar, which would prevent the door from being fully opened, or 
to attack the besiegers through in case the door was forced. 

' Though the building has all the appearance of Roman work, it still seems to have been 
built of old materials, as in one or two places I noticed stones with rustic bosses, the rest 
being rough-dressed. Some fifty yards to the north-west I found six prostrate limestone 
columns, 7 feet 6 inches high, and i foot 6 inches in diameter, the only ornamentation being 
a double fillet at top and bottom, but broader at the latter. Though the stones have mostly 
been cleared away to make room for vines, still two or three pedestals remained in situ, and 
I could trace the general plan of the building, which ran nearly north and south. It must 
have consisted of three rows of arches supported at the sides by pilasters, and down the 
centre by two rows of three or more columns, as I obser%-ed a similar pillar at a little 
distance.' — C. F. T)Twhitt Drake, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1872, p. 88. 



310 THE SURVEY OF UE STERN PALESTINE. 

B u r j el Y a k h u r ( L p). — Sec K u r a w a I b n Mas a n. 

Deir Abu Meshal (K r). — There are here indications of an 
important fort, apjiarcntly of Crusading times. A rock platform, roughly 
square, about 50 yards wide, occupies the top of the hill, and many well- 
cut stones, with rustic boss and a draft 3 inches wide, lie round. On the 
west is a wall of rubble faced with small ashlar, which stands over a rock 
scarp. On the north are traces of a similar wall. There is a small tank, 
well cemented, with a groined roof. There is also a large well near. A 
rock-cut drain some 6 inches wide leads towards the well. On the south 
are rock-cut steps. On the east, quarries and two tanks, rock-cut, but 
roofed in with masonry. One measured 20 feet by 12 feet. 

Visited 5th June, 1873. 

Deir Abu Selamch (J r). — Foundations, heaps of stones, and 
a few pillar shafts. 

Deir 'Alia {J q). — Remains of a considerable town on the 
Roman road, extending over an area of some 300 yards either way. The 
principal walls are of good-sized stones not drafted. A doorway remains, 
with a lintel, unornamented, 7 feet 2 inches long, 2 feet 5 inches high. 
There are remains of a building 90 feet long east and west and 30 feet 
north and south. At 40 feet from the west wall and 1 2 feet from the 
south is the base of a column 2 feet broad, i foot 2 inches high, the pillar 
having a diameter 20 inches ; 6 feet north of this is a second — the floor 
between appears to have been of cement. Four limestone columns have 
fallen near, 21 inches diameter, 8 feet 9 inches long, with a base ']\ inches 
high, and at the top a double fillet b\ inches. These are apparendy 
remains of a basilica. A capital was found, very rudely sculptured, 
22 inches diameter, 18 inches high, with leaves and flower-buds rudely 
designed, apparently Byzantine work. 

In the ruins there are several rock-cut cisterns and a birkeh, also rock- 
sunk tombs with a loadus each side of the shaft, probably Christian tombs. 

Roman milestones were observed on the road on either side of this 
ruin. They were about i^ feet diameter and 6 feet 4 inches high, with a 
base 2^ feet high and 2 feet 2 inches broad. 

This site, when compared with others in the country, seems probably 
to be that of an early Christian town and church. 

Visited June, 1873. 



[SHEET X J v.] 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



311 



D c i r 'A rally (K q). — Ruins of a large monasicry, with a chapel 
and great cisterns. The whole forms a rectangular enclosure, 234 feet 
east and west by i iS north and south, with the tanks to the west. The 
chapel is 56 feet long, 22 feet wide inside, with an apse on the east; its 
bearing is 87° 30'. The remaining chambers are shown on the plan. 





i 

JOoor i*f Otapel/ 



Itttill certirritfii t — — ; 1 



Jl 



1 1- 



fr,ti,^. CI' .V. »: IV^ Itivk-in CoUutau 



The principal reservoir is outside the west wall, 96 feet long (north and 
south) and 56 feet wide, 16 feet deep. The second to the south is 
irregular and smaller, varying from 2 feet to 10 feet in depth. Another 
cistern exists within the enclosure and a third on the north, where also is a 
rock hewn basin like that at D e i r S i m a n, about 5 feet diameter. 



312 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The great tanks are partly of rock, partly of masonry ; they probably 
formed the quarries whence the building-stone was obtained, and were 
then converted into reservoirs. They were originally covered with 
masonry vaulting and lined with hard brown cement. 

The walls are standing to a height of 3 or 4 courses, and are of well- 






^B^; 



M 







■ ii: 



&lfe^c^^^^^ I few! ^^i^^S^-^^Til^ 



,^:; 



(7 Q 







yz 






<i,-< IV". 




m%-.---^:M\ 



jz s 






hewn ashlar, not drafted ; the stones i foot to 2 feet in length, with a core 
of rubble. Three lintel stones were found in the ruins, the largest, 

17 feet long, 4 feet 9 inches high, with a Greek 
cross in an ornamental design ; the second, 1 5 feet 
2 inches by 5 feet, with three designs, two Greek 
crosses, in circles, with triangles above, and a 
central kind of alcove much injured by weather; the 
third, 12 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 10 inches, with a 

These designs seem probably 










iTlL. ^LJ P^ design like the first. 
of Byzantine date. 

Under the chapel, towards the west, is a vault of good masonry, which 
has the appearance of a masonry tomb with /oat/i or recesses for sarco- 
phagi. The entrance is from the west, outside the chapel ; the central 
chamber was 3 feet 6 inches broad, and 7 feet 2 inches long; on each 



[SHEET .V/r.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



side was a recess, 4 feet deep, and 8 feet 2 inches long, and at each 
end a similar recess, 4 feet deep, 6 feet 10 inches long. These are 
vaulted with a semicircular arch of 9 voussoirs, and the central chamber 
is roofed with three flat slabs placed across above the arches. South- 
west of this ruin there is a ruined watch-tower. 
Visited and planned 7th June, 1S73. 

D e i r B a 1 1 a t (K q). — West of the village there arc rock tombs of 
the kind called ' rock-sunk,' and attributable to Christian times. 

Deir Dakleh (K q).— Traces of ruins. 
' I first examined the remains of an enclosure, 55 paces long and 30 broad. The walls are 
4 feet thick ; they are built of stones, generally regular, and sometimes of large dimensions, 
which are for the most part much worn by time. Within this enclosure everything has been 
completely overthrown ; here are distinguished the vestiges of a rectangular edifice, lying east 
and west, and terminating on one side in an apse. It measured 18 paces in length and 9 in 
breadth, and must be an ancient chapel also. I remarked several rock-cut tombs. Outside 
the enclosure at a lower level there are platforms paved with small cubes of white mosaic. 
One of them is pierced with several cisterns, communicating with each other ; another abuts 
upon a birket, 14 paces long by 10 broad, and constructed of splendid rectangular blocks, 
covered with thick cement Here and there are caves cut in the rock, preceded by a sort of 
vestibule, built of cut stones and formerly closed by a door.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 122. 

Deir ed Derb {L p). — One of the finest sepulchral monuments 
in the country, resembling in character some of the tombs near Jerusalem, 



'•rrTrrrrTrr mT^Tr' rrrTr TTr TTTrrrTfTrTTrTr TrTTr mTrTTrT-T-rrrTm -rmTrm 



MffliffiTTMnlTrffiiiKniTri 




such as the so-called ' Retreat of the Apostles,' in Wady er Rababeh. 
The sepulchre consists of three chambers, with a court in front, the roof 
of which is supported by pillars ; to the right of the portico is a flight of 
VOL. n. 40 



314 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



five steps. The door would seem to have been closed by a rolhng-stone. 
The dimensions of the tomb and details are given in the plans. A 
Doric cornice runs for about 50 feet along the rock in front of the portico, 
supported by two pilasters and two Ionic columns, with volutes of the kind 
observed also in early Byzantine work. The rosettes between the triglyphs 
are all different ; 15 triglyphs and 14 rosettes are cut, but the facade is not 
quite finished, for some of the end triglyphs (two on the right, seven on 
the left) have no guttae. 



o^ 



^' 




The portico is 10 feet high, 18 feet wide, 13 feet deep ; the central 
chamber, entered by a door 2 feet broad, is 1 1 feet wide, 14 feet deep. It 
has three kokim at the further end, with arched roofs 6 feet long, 2 feet 
wide ; they have their floors on the level of a stone bench, 3^ feet high, 
3 feet wide, which runs round three sides of the chamber. On the same 
level are the doors leading to the two other chambers, which have flat 
roofs. The left-hand chamber has three loaili, 7 feet by 3^ feet, and the 
same sort of bank or bench round the three sides of the chamber, which 
measures about 12 feet by 13 feet. The right-hand chamber is similar, 



[SHEET XIV.] ARCHEOLOGY. 315 

but unfinished, with only one loctdus on the inner side wall. On the out- 
side the rock has been broken through to the daylight. 

The walls of the porch are carved to represent drafted masonry (as in 
the M li g h a r e t el ' A n a b, at Jerusalem), but very irregularly, whereas 
that at Jerusalem is regular. (Palestine Exploration Fund Photograph, 
No. 143.) 

The steps lead up to a platform of rock in front of the tomb, about 
5 feet high. 

The whole of the monument bears a close resemblance to the sculp- 
tured tombs of Jerusalem, including the tomb of Helena, dating from the 
first century a.d. In connection with the present tomb, it is interesting 
to observe the tradition of M e 1 e k F e r d u s, whose tomb is shown close 
by. This place was discovered by Sergeant Black, R.E., and visited and 
planned, 29th May, 1873. 

South-west of this monument are two watch-towers resembling those 
at K u r a w a I b n Hasan. 

D e i r E s t ia (L o). 
' A decayed place, many of the houses being overthrown. In the mosque I remarked 
several marble columns, once perhaps belonging to a Christian church. A great number of 
well-cut stones engaged in Arab constructions are certainly the remains of old buildings, as 
are also the lintels of some of the doors. On these I observed rectangular cartouches con- 
taining, some a cross chiselled out by the Mohammedans, and others a triangle which they 
allowed to remain, not understanding that it was a symbol.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 160. 

Deired Dham. 

A village placed by Guerin on the east of Ain ez Zerka (K q) ; ruins and rock-cut cisterns 
prove that it is an ancient tower. 

Deir el Jaly (M p). — Traces of ruins. 

Deir Kulah (K q). — Perhaps the finest and best preserved of 
the ruined monasteries in Palestine, situate in a very strong position on 
the edge of a precipice, and protected by deep and rugged ravines on all 
sides e.xcept the cast, on which side the quarries form a sort of ditch. A 
narrow path leads up on the west from the small plain of 
Deir B a 1 1 u t, passing under a projecting turret on 
brackets. The building, being on the side of the hill, is 
on three levels, east and west. 

The principal remains are those of the church, and 
of a great hall (apparently the refectory) south of it, with MucHicouUs 

40 — 2 




3i6 



THE SUE VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



a square tower on the east at a higher level ; and a huge birkeh north of 
the tower with two smaller again north. 

Outer W a 1 1 s. — The ashlar is of fine proportions ; the stones all 



- . Orncral' PJxuv 

.*>^y . "^ Stuall Scale 



«*rfTO 







- o 




drafted with a draft lo inches broad, and 2 to 3 inches deep ; the raised 
face is rudely dressed, and the draft is irregularly cut. The corner stones 
are in some cases 6 feet long and 3 feet high, but the average is about 



{SHEET XIV.\ 



ARCILEOLOGY. 



317 




3 feet by 2 feet. The retaining- wall on the west is 20 feet high, and the 
turret 14 feet square and 6 feet high ; the top on a level with the iloor of 
the enclosure within. The masonry of this wall resembles in appearance 
that of Justinian's fortress on Gcrizim. (See Jebel ct Tor, Sheet XI., 
Section H.) 

The Church measures 80 feet long by 23 feet wide inside, includ- 
ing a narthex of 1 2 feet at the west end. The walls are standing to a 
height of 16 feet to 18 feet. 

The east apse, 18 feet diameter, has a window in it, the sill 7 feet 
from the floor. A cornice runs round the apse 10 feet from the Iloor, and 
is remarkable, because it is bent so as to follow the line 
of the semicircular arch of the window. This feature 
resembles the cornice of the Golden Gate at Jerusalem, 
and that of the church of Kalb Louseh, ascribed by 
M. du Vogiie to the sixth century. ,„ .^. 

On the right of the apse a cross is 
sculptured, standing on a globe beside 
the cornice ; and a line of ornamenta- 
tion running up the wall exists above 
the cornice, with debased classic 
mouldings containing the cross on 
some of the bosses. The cornice is 
18 inches high, and this band of sculp- 
ture is 23 inches wide. 

The Hall is separated by a 
court 42 feet wide from the church 
and measures 34 feet in length by 
26 feet in breadth, divided into two 
aisles by two piers supporting three 
semicircular arches 7 feet span. Above these arc five windows, and in 
the south walls of the hall are also five windows ; 
in the north wall three windows, and a door sur- 





mounted by a flat lintel with a low relieving arch j'i'![fT7(^~^0l^; 

above it. The lintel is 8 feet 4 inches by 2 feet ^ '^"e ' i^ 

9 inches ; the arch has seven voussoirs, and a very 

narrow keystone, the haunch-stones broad. On the lintel Is a winged 

tablet, with a Greek cross in a circle upon it. 



3i8 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIAE. 



^ 



ilKffii! 




LuiuL B 



West of the hall is a chamber, with a roof 1 2 feet from the floor. 
The hall had a roof at not less than 20 feet from the floor ; the chamber 

was 8 feet wide, and equal in length to the width 
of the hall ; on the south a window ; on the north 
a window and a door. The door has over it in situ 
a lintel about equal to the last, with a relieving 
arch of five voussoirs. On the lintel a Latin cross 
standing on three hemispheres, the conventional sign of Calvary. 

A third doorway leads into other chambers, of which there seem to 

have been five in all, a total of 47 feet by 26 feet 

inside. The third doorway is surmounted by a flat 

lintel, 2 feet 4 inches high, 7 feet 1 inch long, with a 

Luuei.c tablet and cross in a circle as on the first. 

Beyond these chambers is another chamber 26 feet square, with five 

windows on the south wall. Thus, the total external length of these 

buildings east and west is 128 feet by 32 feet external 

breadth. The whole of the masonry is of good ashlar, 

not drafted. 

Only one column base was found fallen in the 
ruins. 



f^ 



\bm1 



,(§ill!r\ 




Base of a Column 






T h e Tower is 30 feet square outside, with walls 4 feet thick. 
The entrance is on the north, with a lintel-stone 6 feet 10 inches by 2 feet 

4 inches, and a relieving arch formed by cut- 
ting out the under side of two stones. On the 
lintel is a tablet, with large wings, and on this 
a cross in a circle. A drafted stone occurs in 
the wall to the left. The floor of the tower is 
14 feet above that of the chapel. The roof still remains, built of rubble- 
work, with a tunnel vault. 

The Birkeh measures 1 1 1 feet north and south by 34 feet 
breadth. It is cut in rock, and 15 feet deep; there is a sloping cutting 
at the sides, evidently to support the haunch-stones of a vault over it. 
The sides are in places built up to a level with rubble. North of this 
great tank are two smaller ones, 38 feet north and south, and respectively 
18 feet and g feet wide. All these tanks are lined with a hard brown 
cement full of pottery. 



{SHEET XIV.^ ARCH.EOLOGY. 



319 



Cross E Cross F 



A row of cells seems to have run along the eastern wall of the monas- 
tery, which is built above the main birkeh ; thus the total area of the 
monastery must have extended over 180 feet east and 
west by 200 feet north and south, or about the same tSh^ 
area enclosed by Justinian on Gerizim ; two crosses 'o^ 
were found on the inside of the eastern wall, well cut, 
one with a circle round it. 

No masons' marks occur on the stones, but on the outside of the south 
wall of the chapel several marks are rudely cut, two or three on one stone. 
These are probably the tribe marks of wandering Arabs, 
asat Sebbeh. (Sheet XXVI.) They are as shown. }rf O |3 |s| ([( 
(See Khurbet Kurkush and M ok a t a 'A bu d.) ''l^S%f^?de'^ 

The joints are well and firmly laid in the masonry. '* 

No pointed arches were found. The vaults are all tunnel form, and 
not groined. Rubble is used to form the core of the walls. The masonry 
in the interior is smooth and not drafted. All the characteristics of 
Crusading work are absent. 

There are two caves on the west, one about 30 feet long, the other 
20. The path ascends by steps. There is also a very large quarry east 
of the site, and a rock-sunk tank on the south-west. 

The following architectural points are principally worthy of notice : 

I St. The drafted masonry, resembling that of Justinian's work on 
Gerizim. 

2nd. The cornice bent into an arch, as in a sixth century church 
described by Du Vogiie. 

3rd. The semicircular arches, with a narrow keystone and broad 
haunch stones, and an odd number of voussoirs. 

4th. The flat lintels, with relieving arches above. 

5th. The debased classical character of the cornice mouldings. 

These serve to indicate that the building is of the Byzantine period, 
and not Crusading. 

Visited and planned, 2nd June, 1873. 

Deir es Saideh (L r).— Foundations. 

Deir Si man (K q). — A building similar to Deir el Kulah, 
but less well preserved, being razed to the foundations. The area en- 



320 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 




Tamh (^~\TiocJixut Bath, 






closed is a rectangle, 135 feet east and west by 125 north and south, with 
a smaller rectangle on the north-east, 50 feet north and south, ']'] feet east 

and west. Adjoining this on the west 
are two rock-cut tanks, 30 feet long. 

The chapel appears to have been 
towards the south, and had a bearing 82°. 
The traces of various other chambers 
can be made out. 

The most curious detail is on the 
north, where is a rock platform with 
a circular bath, 2 feet 9 inches deep, 
14 feet diameter ; three steps lead down 
into it, and immediately west is a tomb 
of the kind called ' rock-sunk,' as at 
I ksal. The steps are 8 feet 2 inches 
wide, 2 feel 6 inches tread, 8 inches 
rise. 

Two pillar shafts were found, with 
a double fillet round the end, and a 
small vault exists at a lower level. One cross was observed. A portion 
of the wall was measured, consisting of drafted masonry on the outside. 
This is a good instance of the general character of the Byzantine 
masonry. 

I St Course. Height, 2 feet 4 inches. Length of stone, 3 feet 6 inches. 
2nd ., „ I foot 4 ,, ..4 

3rd „ „ I „ 2 „ „ 4 

4th ,, ,, 1 ,, 9 ,, M 3 

5th „ „ I ., II „ .- 4 

6th ,, ,, I ,, 1 1 ,, >. 3 




o 
o 
6 
o 
6 



The drafts were about 2 inches deep and 4 or 5 inches broad. 

Visited and planned, 30th May, 1S73. 

Deir Tureif (J r). — South-west of the village are traces of ruins, 
cisterns, and ' rock-sunk ' tombs, evidently Christian again, as connected 
with a monastery. 



{SHEET XIV.'\ 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



321 



Ed D i u r a h (K q). — Traces of ruins only; foundations and scattered 
stones remain. West of this place is a ruin marked R; this is a modern 
garden tower, but east of the sam.e and of Deir Dakleh there is an 
ancient watch-tower like those at K u r a w a I h n Has a n. 

Hableh (J p). — A number of loculi sunk in the rock at various 
angles to one another. There arc also bell-mouth cisterns, one of which, 
12 feet by 9 feet, 8 feet deep, has a flat masonry arch. A wine- 
press with two chambers, one 8 feet square, i foot 4 inches deep, the 
second, 4 feet square, 3 feet deep. The character of the tombs, of 
which there are about a dozen, indicates probably that this is a Christian 
site. 

El Habs (J r). — This place would appear to have been a hermit's 
cell, consisting of a long excavated chamber, with windows opening north- 
wards, cut high up in a scarp of rock facing north. It has a total length 
of about 100 feet east and west, with various recesses and an average 
width of about 3 feet. Crosses are cut in the wall in two or three places ; 
the entrance was on the east. 

Near the rock chamber is a birkeh lined with rubble, resembling that 
at Tell Jezer (Sheet XVI.), and west of the rock chamber is an orna- 
mented tomb. The door of this tomb is 3 feet wide ; on either side is a 
rude pilaster capital, much defaced, i foot 9 inches broad. Over the door 
is a pediment, the triangle being 4 feet 8 inches side ; inside this is a 
medallion, on which an eagle is sculptured. The chamber within has 




Sectuorv 




^Flecr 



two /ocu/i, or recesses, on each side wall, and one at the back ; they are 
7 feet long and 3 feet deep, with arched roofs. They are ornamented 
VOL. II. 41 




332 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

with pilasters, having capitals of curious dcsiyn. The recesses are 6 feet 
4 inches high. A cornice runs round the chamber, of simple design. 

A second tomb exists near, being of the kind called ' rock-sunk,' with 
a shaft 2 feet 2 inches broad, and locnli 6 feet 3 inches long, 2 feet 2 inches 

broad. One has a round head, and in it 

MiMOPIni two crosses are cut. The second has an 

ru.c'.f^"''^'''' E^ Pnc inscription cut on its side walls as shown. 

The bearing of the tomb is 94^ The 
translation appears to be, ' Monument of Georgeos.' This inscription is 
valuable ; it is evidently of Christian origin, and the superposition of the 
vowel, with the barbarous character of the spelling, seems to indicate that 
it is of twelfth century date. It confirms, therefore, the idea that the 
rock-sunk tomb is one used by Christians at a comparatively late period. 
The neighbouring ruin of K h u r b e t K e 1 k h appears also to be 
Christian, and the true title of the place seems to be Zachariah. (See 
Khiirbet Zakariya.) 

Visited January i8th, 1874. 

H a d i t h e h (J q). 

At a quarter of an hour's distance south-east of Haditheh, Guerin found several ancient 
tombs cut in the rock. The village of Haditheh he found to be on the site of an ancient 
town. Cisterns, a birket, tombs, and rock-cut caves, with cut stones scattered about, are all 
that remain. 

H a r i s (L p). — The ruins west of this place are three ancient watch- 
towers, like those atKurawa Ibn Hasan. 

Gue'rin observed here a building used as a mosque, divided into three naves separated by 
marble columns of different sizes, and evidently ancient. ' On a neighbouring Tell, which 
commands the village, are the ruins of an ancient tower. The spot is now planted with ohves. 
Two ancient tom.bs and several cisterns cut in the rock once belonged to the ancient city 
which stood here.' 

H awarah (N o). 
Here Gudrin observed fragments of columns apparently ancient, with a small number of 
cisterns and grottoes cut in the rock. 

J i b ia (L q). 

Here Guerin found proofs of antiquity in a group of ten cisterns and a rock-cut birket, 
measuring 13 paces long and as many broad. Here is a Wely consecrated to Neby 
Bayazid el Bastani. Close to Jibia is a ruin called Khiirbet Pia, where Guerin found the 
remains of an old church with broken columns and their capitals lying about ; also cisterns 
cut in the rock, a birket, 1 2 paces long, the lid of a sarcophagus, and old quarries. 

It is here that Guerin would fi.x the ' Hill of Phinehas ' (Joshua xxiv. 33). 



[SHEET XIV.] ARCHEOLOGY. 323 

J u f n a (M r). — The Greek church, south of the village, is a modern 
construction, but its courtyard to the north appears to be older, having 
two gate-ways, one well cut, and resembling the side entrances to the 
Golden Gate at Jerusalem, with boldly designed mouldings. On the 
lintel, below the semi-circular arch of the larger of these entrances (the 
western), is an inscription in modern Greek with the words, ' Holy, holy, 
holy. Lord of Sabaoth ; heaven and earth are full of Thy glory.' The 
date is 1858, and the priest stated that the gate was not ancient. The 
smaller door has a Latin cross carved on it, and the date i860. A lintel 
stone, half-finished, with a cross flanked by an angel (native work) lies on 
the west. Inside the courtyard is the ancient font, now not used ; it is 
cylindrical, 4 feet 8 inches in diameter, with a central square well, 2 feet 
side, and four semicircular seats, forming a cross. (Compare Khurbet 
Zakariya and many other Crusading and Byzantine sites, where fonts of 
the same kind exist.) The lower part of this font is rough, as if sunk 
below the church floor. 

In the courtyard wall, east of the doorways, the side of a sarcophagus 
is built in, near the ground level. It is 6 feet 9 inches long, i foot 
5 inches high, with three Medusa; heads, separated by wreaths, supported 
by winged genii. The execution is poor. The rest of the sarcophagus 
lies near the church on the north. A rude Byzantine capital lies near it. 

South of this church on the hillside are some rock-tombs, now choked. 
There are many carved lintel-stones in the village, but they appear to be 
modern Christian work. The remains of a former chapel, east of the 
modern Latin church, are indicated by four pillar-shafts and fragments of 
walls. (See sketch of sarcophagus.) 

Revisited May 21st, 1881. 

Jurdeh (K v). 

' These are not the ruins of a simple village, but of a considerable town. There are 
numerous foundations of houses and of public buildings constructed of great blocks without 
cement, and much worn by time ; at least 100 cisterns hollowed in the rock, some of them 
still provided with those stones which closed them. The direction of the streets can still be 
traced' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 84. 

Kabr el Melek Ferdus (L p). — The place to which this 
name is applied is only a long heap of stones, but it is close to D e i r e d 
D e r b, with which place it is probably connected. 

41—2 



324 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

El Kefr (K p). 
Here Guerin found very considerable remains. They include two birkets cut in the rock, 
one 15 paces long by 12 broad, the other not quite so large; about 30 cisterns and 20 
tombs cut in the rock, some with sepulchral chambers, their walls pierced with loaili, others 
simple graves, either intended for a single body or having right and left vaulted tombs with 
arcosoUa. These graves were formerly covered with stone slabs. There were also several 
lintels, decorated with the rectangular cartouche, on either side of which were triangles, and 
in the middle a cross. There are four mosques, built with stones and columns belonging to a 
Christian church. There is also a square tower, measuring 7 paces on each side. It is lit 
by loopholes, and is covered with immense slabs forming a roof, and supported by vaulted 
arcades. Within it is a cistern. On the lintel is a cross with equal branches inserted in a 
circle near four semicircles, which lie in a four-leaved rose. This tower formed part of a 
larger building, now destroyed. 

K efr H a r i s (L p). 

The name of this place was given to Guerin as Kefil Haris. It may also be remarked 
that the ^^^ely marked on the map as Sheikh A t a, i mile north-east of Kefr Haris, is 
called by him Sheikh Khather. He also calls attention to the remains of an old watch- 
tower built of large, well-cut stones, between Deir Estia and Kefr Haris. At the latter place 
he found two broken marble columns built up in the wall of the mosque. 

Kefr Insha(J q). — A ruined village. A wall with a window in it 
i s standing, but appears quite modern. 

Guerin found here a large number of rock-cut cisterns and several houses, divided 
internally by a double row of arcades, which appear ancient. There are also the remains of a 
burj of more recent date. 

K e f r K as i m (J p). 

' The site of a more ancient town, as is shown by the cisterns and the mass of rubbish 
found outside the present village.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 141. 

Khan Abu Haj Paris (Mr). — Heaps of stones and founda- 
tions, probably remains of a large Khan. 

Khan Lubban (M q). — A ruined Khan beside the road, with a 
fine spring beneath it. 

Khan Sawieh (N p).— A small square building, also a ruined 
Khan ; the walls are standincj to some heitrht, and drafted stones are used 
at the corners. Rock-cut tombs exist just south, showing the place to be 
an ancient site. The name of the site is Khurbet Berkit. 

El K h u d r (N r). — East of the village of Taiyibeh. This building 
shows two periods of construction — an older Byzantine basilica, and a 
smaller and later Crusadiug chapel, built on the ruins and partly from the 
remains of the larger structure. The larger area measures 112 feet 



{SHEET XIV.\ 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



325 




east and west and S3 feet north and soutli. In the south-cast angle 
traces of a former apse arc distinguishable, and opposite this, in the 
west wall, is a door with a large lintel. The basilica proper was ap- 
parently 83 feet wide and about 67 feet long; the south apse 18 feet 
in diameter. The rest of the space on the west appears to have been 
occupied by a narthe.x and an atrium, some of the pillars of the latter 
and its east and west walls remain- 
ing. The masonry of the old build- 
ing is of good size, with many 
drafted stones with rude bosses, 
one having two bosses on a single 
block. In the south-west angle, 
the stones vary from 10 inches to 
2.', feet in length, and i foot to 

1 .J feet in height. The drafts are 
5 inches wide, and 3 inches deep ; the mortar is old and crumbling. 
The lintel over the south door is 7^ feet long, 2 feet 2 inches high. It 
has on it a tablet in low relief, 5 feet 2 inches by 19 inches, with the 
usual wings or wedge-shaped handles at the ends. There are eight or 
nine pillars in the atrium, three having been built subsequently into the 
west wall, and one into the south wall. Others remain in situ. One of the 
perfect shafts measured 10 feet 7 inches, with a double fillet at each end, 
and a diameter of 19 inches. A rude Byzantine capital lies in the ruins. 

The Crusading church standing in the nave of the old basilica, nearest 
the north wall, measures 45 feet by 15 feet inside. The west wall (30 feet 
long) remains intact to a height of some 20 feet. It has a door with a 
lintel, surmounted with a Hat relieving arch of rough stone (11 voussoirs) ; 
a window above with low pointed arch (7 voussoirs, well-cut) ; and a 
small round window above this again. The door is 5 feet wide, and 
choked up to within 3 feet of the lintel, which measures 6 feet by 2 feet 

2 inches, with a low relief tablet. Neither this lintel nor the former one 
have any inscription on them. On either side of the door is a stone, 
19 inches square, projecting 6 inches on its upper surface, 4 inches on its 
lower — the former surface level with the soffit of the lintel ; the object of 
these cantalevers is not clear. The wall itself is of roughly squared stones, 
2 feet to 6 feet long, 9 inches to i foot high, and set in white hard mortar. 



326 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the joints being packed with small stones. This style of masonry is found 
in the Crusading church of St. Jeremiah at Kuryet el 'Anab (Sheet XVII.), 
and in other twelfth century ruins. The other walls of the church are 
broken down, though the foundations of the apse are still visible. Dry- 
stone walls have been built up, and small modern chambers formed round 
the church. The south-east pier, close to the apse, is still standing, with 
part of the vaulting. The pier measures about 2^ feet square, and is of 
roughly hewn masonry, like the outer walls of the building. It was 
probably covered with plaster, as at Kuryet el 'Anab. A simple mould- 
ing, similar to details found in other Crusading buildings, surmounts the 
pier. The masonry of the groined vaults which spring from the pier is 
very carefully dressed with a toothed adze ; no masons' marks are visible. 
The stones are i foot to 2 feet long, and i foot 3 inches in height. The 
remains of the north-east and south-west piers are visible. The base and 
capital of a pillar lie in the apse. A stone, built into a modern wall, has 
the Latin and Jerusalem crosses cut as graffiti upon it. 

South of the church is a modern graveyard of Christian tombs. There 
are remains of an outer enclosing wall. On the east is a larsre rock-cut 
cistern, and on the north three others, one having a masonry roof and still 
containing water. On the west are two rock-sunk shafts, probably belong- 
ing to tombs, but now choked up. On the south, a cave 1 2 feet wide, 
6 feet long, and 7 feet high, with an inner chamber on the north-west. 
Twenty yards south of the cave, a cistern. South-east of the church 
remains exist of another rock-cut tomb, with two arcosolia, each 6 feet 
by 5 feet, divided lengthwise into two graves, which have their length 
direction at right angles to the wall of the central chamber (as in Jewish 
tombs about 150 B.C.). 

Votive offerings and lamps are still placed in the ruins of el Khudr, 
and the light of a small lamp may be seen there by night. Ancient 
pottery lamps are also found in the vicinity. This custom of lighting 
lamps in ruined shrines is common to Christians and Moslems in Palestine. 

Revisited June i8th, 1881. 

Khurbet ' A b d el Mah-dy (M r).— Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet 'Abd en Neby (K r). — Heaps of stones and founda- 
tions, two rock-cut tombs to the south-east. 



[SHEET AVK] ARCH.EOLOG Y. 



327 



K h u r b c t A b 1 a l a h. 
A ruin found by Guerin on the road from Ain ez Zerka (K q) to Neby Saleh. 

K h u r b e t A b 11 el F a h m (J r). 

South-cast of Budrus Guerin saw some ruins (wliich he did not visit) of this name. They 
are not on the map. 

KhTirbet Abu Felah (N q). — Appears to be an ancient site ; 
cisterns and an ancient birkeh, partly of good-sized masonry and partly 
cut in rock, exist here, with foundations. The place is still inhabited. 

K h Ci r b c t Abu H a m i d (J q). — Heaps of stones, a cave, and 
well. 

K h n r b e t Abu Samara (J p). 
At a short distance south-east of Mejdel Yaba Gutfrin came upon a ruin of this name. It 
was a rectangular enclosure, built of regular middle-sized stones, measuring 40 paces long by 
24 broad. It enclosed a second enclosure measuring 13 paces on each side, and built of 
much larger blocks, which seemed to be the ruin of an old tower. There were cisterns cut 
in the rock beside it, and the traces of other buildings. — ' Samaria,' ii. 135. 

Kh fir bet 'A frit eh (N p). — Foundations. 

KhCirbet 'Ain el Haramiyeh (N p). — See 'Ain el Hara- 
miyeh. 

Khurbet 'Ain el K li s r (M r). — Traces of ruins, and small 
spring. 

Khurbet 'Ain el L 6 z e h (M r). — Traces of ruins, walls and 
terraces of rude masonry on the south side of the valley, a small spring in 
the valley. 

Khilrbet 'Ain el Muheimeh (L r). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el Akra (L p). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet el 'A r a k (K q). — Foundations and cisterns. 

Khurbet ' A 1 e h (K q). — Traces of ruins. 

' A large extent of ruins lying within in heaps or scattered about over the ground, which 
is partly uncultivated and covered with brushwood, and partly planted. I picked up cubes of 
mosaic, which probably belonged to an ancient church. There are numerous very ancient 
cisterns cut in the rock, as well as several tombs, now serving for i)laccs of refuge for the 
shepherds and their flocks.' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' ii. 1 1 2. 

Khurbet 'Alia (N r). — Ruined walls and traces of ruins, with 



328 THE SUR VEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

a spring. This is the site of a village only destroyed about a century 
ago. Ruins of modern houses exist, and a small Mukam under a large 
tree. There are rock-cut cisterns among the ruins. The spring, about 
400 yards south-east of the hill-top, issues from the rock, the water being 
received in a cemented tank, rudely built. (See Ajalon, Section A.) 

Khiirbet Aliata (M q). — Heaps of stones and kokini tombs. 

The place- appears to be an ancient site. North-east of it is another ruin 

consisting of foundations only. 

' The hill on which this ruin stands was once the site of a small town, of which there 
remain at present only the foundations of small houses, the ruins of a Burj on the highest 
point, some thirty cisterns cut in the rock, and several roclc-cut tombs. One of these contains 
three circular arches, each surmounting a loatlus ; others consist of single graves cut in 
the rock on the level of the ground.' — Gut%in, 'Samaria,' ii. 167. 

Khiirbet 'A 1 y Malkina (J q). — Foundations. A birkeh or 
tank, partly rock-cut, partly of niasonry. 

Khurbet 'Amir (K p). — Foundations, and towards the south 
two ruined watch-towers, like those atKurawa Ibn Hasan. 

K h li r b e t 'A m u r i e h (N q). — Heaps of stones. 

Khii^irbet 'Annir(L r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Artabbeh (L r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet ' A s k a r i y e h. — Traces of ruins, heaps of stones, walls 
of rough masonry. 

Khiirbet 'Azzar (J q). — Traces of ruins and cisterns. 

Khurbet A z z u n (N p). — Walls in ruins ; seem to be modern. 

K h II r b e t B a e n n a (J r). 

A ruin south-east of Budrus, observed by Guerin. It consists of small square enclosures, 
the remains of houses, the lower courses only remaining. There are also well-preserved rock- 
cut cisterns, and a great birket made out of an ancient quarry.—' Samaria,' ii. 78. 

Khurbet Balatah (K q). — Foundations. 

Khurbet B a r a a i s h (K q). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet el Beida(Jr). — Foundations. 

' Here my attention was drawn to a great building 47 paces long by 19 broad, lying cast 
and west. There only remain traces of it. A Christian church stood here, having, it would 
seem, three naves, because there are three entrances in the west facade. It was paved with 



{SHEET X J V.^ ARCHAEOLOGY. 329 

white cubes forming mosaic. At the eastern end I found a broken column three-fourths 
buried. A cistern was cut in the rock near the west end. Round the church are the ruins of 
houses.' 

KhurlM't cl Bcida (J q). — Foundations and a cistern. 

Khiirbct Beit el Habs (L p). — Traces of ruins. The posi- 
tion is, however, a little doubtful.* 

K h 11 r b e t Beit S h e r u f (K q). 

This ruin was observed by Ciucrin on a hill to the west of Ayi'in Abu Zeinah. It appears 
to be that marked on the map as Khurbct Rashaniyeh. 

K h fi r b e t Beit Y e m i n (K p). — Walls, cisterns, and a rock-cut 
tomb. 

K h ii r b e t Ben R a i s h (K p). 

This ruin is not on the map. It is described by Guerin as 12 minutes south-east 
from Deir Dakleh. It therefore cannot be Khurbet Barraish, which is about the same distance 
north-north-east of Dakleh. Here are cisterns, rock-sunk tombs, and the remains of an 
ancient building, lying east and west, 15 paces long and 9 broad, built of very regular cut 
stones. 

Khurbet B e r k i t (N p). — See Khan es Sawieh. 

Khvirbet Bernikieh (J p). — This seems to be an old site, 
but the only ruins are fragments of masonry tanks in cement, such as are 
common further south (Sheets X\T. and XIX.), which seem to be not 
earlier than the Middle Ages. 

K h 11 r b e t el B e s a t i n ( K p). — Ruined garden walls. 

Khurbet B i r e z Z e i t (1\I r). — Ruins of walls, apparently not 
very ancient. 

Here Guerin found the remains of a building measuring 50 paces on each side. The 
walls are thick. He thinks the period of the building may be Byzantine, or even later. There 
were also cisterns and rock-cut tombs. 

Khurbet el Bireh (J q). — Foundations. East of it a cistern 
is marked, south of which are three ruined watch-towers like those at 
K u r a w a I b n Hasan. 

Kh fir bet el Bornat (I q). — Traces of ruins and a ruined 

* Khfirbet Beit el Hab s. — The name was obtained and the position pointed out, 
but the ruins not visited ; nothing was distinguishable from the neighbouring hill. 

VOL. II. 4- 



330 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



o W<-pA ■ 



Ipepthj 



tank (Birkct el Waka); the watch-towers noticed above are east 
of this. 

Khurbet Budrus (J r). — Apparently remains of a Khan. 
Foundations and heaps of stones. 

Khurbet Bur el Jan ( K p). — P'oundations. 

Khurbet el Bureij (Lp). — There are tombs here of the 
kind called 'rock-sunk' (see el Habs), and a rock-cut cistern ; also 
one of the finest wine-presses in the country. It consists of an open 

shallow platform sunk 3 feet and 
measuring 19 feet 2 inches by 22 feet 
3 inches, with a second chamber of 
equal width (22 feet 3 inches) and 
sunk 6 inches, its third dimension 
being 7 feet 10 inches. The whole 
is cut in rock, sloping from the 
shallower platform towards the second 
chamber, opposite which there are 
three circular sunk troughs, 3 feet 
diameter, communicating with the platform, and 2^ feet deep. In the 
middle of the platform is a sunk trough, 5 feet by 4 feet i inch, about 
9 inches deep, from this a channel, 9 inches broad at the top, 3 inches at 
the bottom, leads to a similar trough in the second chamber, measuring 
6 feet by 6 feet 2 inches, and sunk about 4 feet ; beside this is another 
trough, communicating with the platform itself by a channel through the 
wall of the platform, which is i foot 4 inches thick, the channel being 
6 inches wide ; this third trough is 4 feet by 4 feet 3 inches, and about the 
same depth with the last. The grapes were trodden on the platform and 
the wine ran into the troughs ; the use of the three circular troughs is not 
clear — perhaps the lees or skins were here collected. Such hollows (J u r u n) 
occur in other cases, as at Tell Jezer (Sheet XVI.) and sometimes 
by themselves in the rock. 

Khurbet Burham (Mr). — A ruined village, with caves. It is 
still inhabited by a few peasants. 

Called also Khurbet Miriam. Guerin found an ancient rock-cut tomb consisting of a 
rough sepulchral chamber containing only one /CvX';?, and preceded by a vestibule. Here and 




^epth 6 




[SHEET -V//-.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 331 

there are old foundations built of badly quarried stones. There are also remains, probably of 
an ancient church. 

Khurbet el B u r j (Mr). — Traces of ruins. 

K hurbet Dakleh (Lq). 
This ruin, consisting of foundations of houses, now entirely destroyed, with those of a 
tower, was found by Gucrin 12 minutes north-west of Umm Sufiah. It is not on the map. 

Khurbet D a r Ahmet (K p). 

The remains of an ancient village, now destroyed, lyingon a hill about 25 minutes west 
of Khiirbet el Mutwy, were seen by Gucrin. The place is not on the map. 

Khurbet D a r H a i y e h (X r). — Foundations of walls, a portion 
of a rude column, and a few rock-cut cisterns. 

Khurbet Dar Ibrahim (Kq). — Traces of ruined house. 

Khurbet Dathrah (J r). — ^T races, foundations, and walls; 
apparently modern, but may be a ruined convent. 

This appears to be the ruin called by Gucrin Dasera. He observed here a number of 
cisterns cut in the rock in the middle of demolished houses. On the highest point of the site 
was an enclosure measuring 30 paces on each side, and enclosing a square tower 1 2 paces on 
each side, the walls of which were built in cut stone, and over 4 feet 6 inches thick. 

Khurbet ed Deir (L q). — Traces of a ruined convent. 
Gucrin found, about half an hour's journey west-north-west of el Kefr (K p), a ' very 
ancient tower measuring 1 1 paces in length by 8 in breadth. Higher up the hill, to the 
north, a second tower 18 paces long by 13 broad, built, like the first, of great blocks not 
cemented. ' At a short distance from this tower is a broken block smoothed on one side only. 
It lies on the ground, and shows on its polished face the traces of several crosses, each sur- 
rounded by a circle. Probably this stone was the lintel of the door of the great tower 
Several cisterns cut in the rock were found in the neighbourhood. These ruins are known as 
Khiirbet Deiria.'—' Samaria,' ii. 155. 

Khiirbet Deir Assur (K q). 
A ruin observed, but not visited, by Gucrin, west-south-west of Tibneh. 

Khurbet Deir el Fikia (N q). — Foundations and heaps of 
stones. Ruins of a monastery and chapel, the masonry in the walls rude, 
the stones drafted in some cases with a rustic boss. The place appears 
to be Crusading work. 

Khurbet Deir el Kussis (K p).— Quarries and tombs of the 

kind called 'rock sunk.' 

' First I examined a great birket 28 paces long and 25 broad ; it is partly cut in the rock, 

42 — 2 



332 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

and partly constructed of great blocks with a boss and covered with thick cement. Before 
this basin lies a platform covered with little cubes of white mosaic, which shows that it was 
formerly paved. The group of houses which once stood in this place form a mass of rubbish 
of all kinds heaped upon the ground. A little mosque is alone standing : its lintel is apparently 
ancient, but the decorations are Arabic. Above the lintel is a pointed arch, whose principal 
feature is a broad voussoir furrowed by little canals perpendicular to the curve, like pipes, 
arranged to resemble a series of very narrow key-stones separated by deep joints. This 
disposition is met with in a large number of ancient mosques round and above the doors. 
It is also found in several churches of Palestine, especially that of the Holy Sepulchre and 
that of Saint Anne, the Christians having borrowed this method of decoration from the 
Arabs. 

' At some distance from the mosque there are ancient quarries and several tombs, rock- 
cut' — Gudrin, 'Samaria,' ii. 145. 

K h u r b e t D e i r el 'O k b a n (M r). — Remains of a ruined con- 
vent, with a spring. 

Khiirbet Deir Shebah (Mr). — Two ruins, one each side 
of a dell. The southern may have been built of materials from the 
northern. 

The southern ruin is that of a small hamlet, the masonry like that in 
the northern ruin, but the arches apparently not very ancient. 

The northern ruin appears to have included a church, a monastery, and 
a small village. Two or three pillar-shafts remain, and a circular font with 
four semicircular seats and central square trough i foot 9 inches side. 
The diameter of the font would be about 4 feet, but it is half hidden in 
the stones. North of the ruin is an enclosure of large rude blocks, perhaps 
a threshing-floor There are several large rock-cut cisterns, and remains 
of an oil-press (the vertical stone). The pillar-shafts are 7^ feet long, 
16 inches in diameter. A lintel-stone 7 feet 4 inches long, with a winged 
tablet, was also found. The masonry is rudely squared ; the stones 2 feet 
to 4 feet long. 

Revisited 14th June, 1881. 

K h li r b e t D i k e r i n (J q). — Ruins of houses, apparendy modern. 

' The slopes and summit of the rocky hill on which the ruin stands were once the site of a 
small town, now completely destroyed. It seems to have been well built, judging by the mass 
of great blocks carefully cut which lie about. Not only the public buildings, but also the 
private houses, seem to have been constructed of these regular stones. Cisterns cut in the 
rock are found here and there.' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' ii. 390. 

K h Li r b e t e d D i s (N r). — Traces of ruins, foundations, and rock- 
cut cisterns. 



[SHEET Xn:] ARCIl.EOLOGY. 333 

Khurbct e d D u w c i r. — Three places of ihe name occur on the 
Sheet. The first, near M ligh r A b u S h a r, consists of traces of ruins 
only. 

The second (K p) is near Khurbet Balata and is a very small 
monastery of the same class with D e i r ' A r a b y, D e i r el K u 1 a h, and 
others in the same district. The building occupies about 100 feet north 
and south, by 96 feet east and west. The chapel is in the south-east 
corner, and its wall has a bearing 98° ; the interior length is 50 feet, the 
breadth 18, with a single apse, 16 feet diameter, at the east end, and a 
door 5 feet high, 4 feet 6 inches wide. On the west the door has a 
simple lintel-stone still in place over it. There is a vault in the north- 
east corner cemented inside and covered with stone slabs 7 feet long ; 
this was no doubt the reservoir. The enclosure had a gate on the 
north. 

Visited June, 1873. 

The third ruin (K p) called Khurbet ed Duweir is near 

5 e r t a on the east. Traces of ruins only remain, and on the west, by 
a eoat-fold, is an ancient watch-tower like those at Kurawa Ibn 
Hasan. 

' A little group of houses built in the form of square towers, with cut stones of moderate 
dimensions. A fragment of a column and numerous small white cubes, the remains of a 
mosaic pavement, indicate the existence in this place of an ancient Christian church, now 
quite destroyed. Its site is covered with a tobacco-field. Near it is a great birkct cut in the 
rock. The excavation was originally made for a quarry ; then a part of the quarry became a 
circular basin, in which steps for descent were cut in the rock.' — Gu^rin, 'Samaria,' ii. 138. 

Khurbet el Emir (K q). — Appears to be a small ruined village 
of modern date. 

This place is called by Gui^rin Deir el Mir. 

KhTirbet Eshkara (N r). — Foundations. 

Kh fir bet el Fakhakhir (L p). — Walls, cisterns, tombs, and 
a building with pillars. Three tombs were planned. The first is a 
tomb with an arcosolhun cut in the cliff about 5 feet 7 inches by 6 feet 

6 inches. It has beneath it a loadns 5 feet 3 inches by i foot 8 inches. 
On the left hand is a recess for a lamp, and on the right, at the other 
end of the loctilus, a similar recess. No. 2 is like the former, but the 
locidus measures 2 feet 4 inches by 6 feet 4 inches. A recess for a lamp is 



334 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



cut ;U the back, and beneath it a sort of Httle pilaster by way of ornament, 
3 feet high. No. 3 is the orch'nary tomb called ' rock sunk,' about 6 feet 
length of the shaft. 

A sarcophagus with two squares and a circle in relief 7 feet 6 inches 
long, lies near, and a sarcophagus lid, 6 feet 9 inches by 3 feet 2 inches, 
with a pointed ridge to the roof 2 feet high. Part of another ornamented 
sarcophagus also exists. 






— - W a a^ tuit^ at eoM end 
thil-pctiiuj iistf meant to stismfii 
sr^rn^UunQ w cover tha ticdt 




Nu-hf. 
on back' vfS^ 




N?3 



''"•^ii^^ 



2^^;,-JL 



SarcovhAmis tui' 



. . - ^/ BrecuUh'^-2 
"■^ •*v*' Depth 2 




The building is a rectangle, 40 feet north and south by 45 feet east 
and w^est, with a smaller rectangle on the south-east corner, 13 feet either 
way. Two rows of pillars, 7 feet 6 inches high, i foot 6 inches diameter, 
form three aisles east and west. The bearing is 95° 30'. It would 
appear to be a small chapel In the wall of this building a stone was 
measured, 2 feet 6 inches long, i foot 9 inches broad and high. It had a 
draft 3 inches broad, i inch deep, with the boss of the stone dressed 
roughly. 

This ruin seem.s to be another of the many small Christian establish- 
ments in this part, dating from before the seventh century, as far as can 
be judged by comparison. The ' rock-sunk tomb,' it will be observed, 
here again is connected with a Christian site. 

\'isited 5th June, 1873. 

Kh fir bet Farah (L p). — Remains of walls. 

Khurbet Ghurabeh (M q). — Foundations of stones of good 



[sjijEet xn:] arch.eology. 33S 

size. A scarp cut in rock. Rock-out tombs to the east. Apparently an 
ancient site. (See Section A.) 

This place is clearly the site described by Gueriii as Khiirbet Rhuba. He calls it 
the important ruin of an ancient fortress. There are, he says, very thick walls, built of cut 
stones, well dressed, lying upon each other without cement. 'Within the enclosure were two 
fragments of columns lying on the ground, a birket, and cisterns cut in the rock. He considers 
this place the ancient Alexandrium, where was the castle built by Alexander Jannxus. It 
was destroyed by Gabinius, and rebuilt by Pheroras, brother of Herod the Great. Here 
Herod buried his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. 

K h u r b e t H a m i d (K r). — Traces of ruins. 

Kh fir bet Ha mm ad (K p). — Walls, a cistern and cave, two 
ancient watch-towers exist south of it. 

Khiirbet el Hamka (K p). 
Observed by Guerin immediately to the north of Benat Burry. It is described by him as 
a tower similar to those at Khurbet Deiria. It is not on the map. 

K h u r b e t Han u n e h (K r). — Traces of ruins and fig-gardens. 

Khurbet el Harakeh (L r). — Traces of ruins in the olive- 
yards. 

Khurbet Harasheh (L r). — Heaps of stones and foundations of 
rude masonry, a rock-cut wine-press. There is a good spring to the west, 
marked on the map. 

Khurbet H a r m u s h (J r). — Tombs, ' rock-sunk ' (as at e 1 
H a b s). Cisterns and traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Hazima (K p). — Walls of moderate-sized masonry, 
probably not very old. 

Khurbet Hosh (M p). — A heap of stones, probably ruins of 
a stable or fold. North-west of it are two modern orchard towers in 
ruins. 

Khurbet el H u m m a m (J r). — Traces of ruins e.\ist here, and 
a birkeh, 30 feet by 40. Whence the name. 

Khilirbet Ibanneh (J v). — Traces, foundations and walls, 
apparently modern. 

Khurbet I f k az (M p). — Ruined cottages and a well. 

Khurbet J e r r 'a (M p). — Foundations and walls. This appears 
from its position to be the G a r i a of Marino Sanuto's map. 



336 THE SUR VE V OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khurbct Jcradch (N q). — A ruin on a mound in the valley, 
inentioned by Robinson. The site is now occupied by Khurbet Abu 
Felah. The angles given agree pretty closely. Special incjuiry was made 
to ascertain the change of name. 

K h u r b e t K a m m u n e h (IM p).— Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Kasr es Sett (I p). 
This ruin consists of a small enclosure flanked with towers, now destroyed, with the excep- 
tion of one, whose lower courses still remain. It was seen by Guerin close to the Mejdel 
Yaba. It is jierhaps the place marked ' Tombs ' or ' Sheikh Bazar ed Din ' on the map. 

K h 11 r b e t K e f r F i d i a (L r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Kcfr 'Ana (Mr). — Foundations. A well on the 
south. 

Khiirbet Kefr Hatta (J p)- — A vault with the arch remain- 
ing. Cemented tanks, caves, and a ruined mosque exist here. The 
ruins seem to be late, but the site probably is old. Its name .signifies 
apparently ' Hittite Village.' 

K h ii r b e t Kefr T s e 1 e t s. 
A ruin of this name was seen, but not visited, by Guerin, about an hour's journey from 
Sennirieh (K o) and north-east of that place. It is perhaps the same as the Khiirbet Kefr 
Thilth (K o) marked on the map. 

Khurbet , K e f r T u t (L q). — A ruined village, seemingly on an 
ancient site ; but the present ruins are modern. 

Khurbet el Kelkh (J r). — Is part of the large site including 
el H a b s, Neb)- Z a k a r i y a, Khurbet Z a k a r i y a. The name 
is doubtful, because the plant so-called {i.e. ' hemlock ') was growing here 
in abundance at the time of the visit. An immense number of cisterns 
e.xist here, and many foundations. The place was evidently an important 
one. A font, with a Greek inscription running round it, lay among the 

+ YOEP CQTHP CQ<1)P0 - - - HAC ANAH - - - 8APXI 

ruins. It is of good hard stone, 5 feet 3 inches diameter, with a sort of 
cruciform hollow formed by four circles, i foot 2 inches diameter inside. 
Compare the font at Khurbet T e k 11 a (Sheet XXI.) and others. 

The inscription is written on the top surface, and occupies about a 
third of the circumference. It was cojjied as above. 



[S//££T X/f.'] ARCH.£.OLOGY. 337 

The cross marks this as Christian, and the form of the letter A and the 
contraction B, with other indications, seem to point to twelfth-century date. 
(Compare el Habs, and on Sheet XVI II. see the note as to the 
inscriptions of Kusr Hajlah and Kuruntul.) 

\'isited iSth January, 1S74. 

K h u r b e t K e s a r a y e h ( K p). 
Distant 20 minutes' journey from Khurbet Susieli. It is not on the map. The ruins are 
described by Guiirin as being without any importance. 

Khurbet K e s f a (J p). — jNIodern ruins, apparently of a 

village. 

' An edifice built east and west, and three-quarters demolished, seems to have been an 
ancient Christian church. Two columns were still lying on the ground, in the midst of the 
site. A good block, though partly mutilated, which I found some distance from the place, 
probably belonged to this church. I distinguished five circles upon it, each having a cross 
with equal arms. It may have been a lintel. Here are several rock-cut tombs, two birkets, 
and about a dozen rock-cut cisterns.' — Gucrin, ' Samaria,' ii. 1,36. 

K h li r b c t el K h o r c i s h (J p). — A rock-cut tank or birkch 
e.xists here. A vault, apparently modern. Caves and cisterns. 

Khurbet K u f r i y e h (L r). — Walls of a building, vault with a 
pointed arch, spring in the valley. 

K h 11 r b e t K u r e i s i n n e h (K r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khtirbet Kurkush (L p). — A ruined village with a fine 
cemetery of rock-cut tombs, and traces of ruins. A large birkeh, or tank, 
and extensive quarries also e.xist, with two sarcophagi cut in the rock, and 
still attached to it, 7 feet by 2 feet by 2-| feet high, with a channel cut 
round to lead off the rain-water. 

Six tombs were here planned, as follows : 

No. I. The principal tomb has a portico in front, originally supported 
on two pillars, the capitals of which still remain above, hanging from the 
frieze. The portico measures 14 feet by 8 feet, and has an arched recess 
raised about 3 feet from the ground, one side, and a loculus the other. The 
capitals are rude representations of Ionic style. The frieze above is orna- 
mented by two discs and a central rosette. The door of the tomb has 
T shaped mouldings, resembling those of the doors of some of the Galilean 

VOL. II. 43 



338 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



synagogues, and a design in the centre, which may be meant, perhaps, for 
the candlestick, though it has only five branches instead of seven. — 
The Jews at Jerusalem sometimes, in painting the golden candlestick over 
their house-doors, represent it with five branches instead of seven. — 
This door is about 3 feet 3 inches high by 2 feet 3 inches broad in the clear. 
Over the cornice is a niche, i foot 6 inches deep, 2 feet 6 inches broad 
and high. The cornice is i foot \o\ inches high. The tomb within is a 








Marks cutorvth0 wcUis of porch 





^ 



£1 



single chamber, with a stone bench at the further end, a locnlns to the 
left, and three kokiin at the end — their floors on the level of the top 
of the bench. The chamber is about 9 feet square ; the kokim, two 
of them 7 feet long, one about 5 feet 3 inches. They are arched, 
with stone pillows at the further end for the heads. Various rude 
designs, representing palm branches, camels and other animals, a beast 
with two riders, etc., are scrawled on the walls of the porch. Probably 
they are quite modern designs, just scratched on the stone. (See 
Plan.) 



{sheet Avr.] 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



339 




No. 2 tomb has also a rude ornamentation over the entrance. 
It is a chamber nearly full of earth, 6 feet i inch 
by about 7 feet. Two kokim to the right, 6 feet 
long, I foot 10 inches broad ; two at the back of 
the same dimensions ; one to the left. The kokim 
are arched, and 2 feet 2 inches high. The entrance 
door is only i foot 10 inches broad. 

No. 3 is entered by a doorway i foot 10 inches broad, 2 feet 
5 inches high, which has a recess to the right outside, for fastening 
the door. The chamber is 7 feet 10 inches across, 
and 7 feet 6 inches deep to the back. The roof is 
low, only 3 feet 2 inches above a stone bench, which 
is now I foot high, but the interior is much filled 
up. The bench is i foot 10 inches broad. There 
are two koktm at the back, 6 feet by 3 feet, the 
mouth of each koka being narrower, only i foot 7 inches wide. 

The fourth tomb is peculiar, because cemented inside. (Compare 
Mokata 'A bud, and on Sheet X. Mughar esh S her if) The 
door is 2 feet i inch wide, closed in the same 
manner observed in the last. The chamber has 
a hole 3 feet diameter in the roof ; it is 9 feet 










i'lauxfvrDcar 



10 inches wide, and measures to the back 8 feet 

9 inches. There is a stone bench 2 feet 3 inches 
wide, and the roof is 5 feet higher. To the right 
and left are two kokiDi each side, 6 feet 6 inches in length ; they have at 
the further end stone pillows 1 1 inches wide. At the back are three kokim. 

The fifth tomb is a chamber only 2\ feet high, much filled up ; the 
doorway is 2 feet high, i foot 1 1 inches broad, closed as before. The 
chamber measures 6 feet 6 inches to the back, 
and 7 feet wide. On the right a single koka, 

1 foot 9 inches wide, at the back another i foot 

10 inches high, i foot 8 inches wide ; this koka is 
arched, WMth an enlargement in front, square, and 

2 inches deep, as if to fit a slab against the end 
of the koka. Two kokim, i foot 8 inches and i foot 7 inches broad, on 
the left wall, all with the same arrangement for receiving a slab. 

43—2 







EmghccfPocrZ ' 




340 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

The sixth tomb has its front cemented, and has two tiers of kokiin, 
like the tomb at 'A i n Diik (Sheet XVIII.), and some of the tombs 

near Jerusalem, including the so-called Tombs 
of the Judges. 

The chamber is entered by a door i foot 
lo inches wide, closed as before by a slab, which 
^^^^bJ!2a^z*- niust have been 6 feet 7 inches wide, and i inch 
thick, fitting into a recess outside on the right. 
ntcm^nu This may perhaps have been a rolling stone. 

The chamber is 6 feet 8 inches wide, and 7 feet 9 inches to the 
back. A bench 2 feet 3 inches high runs round the two sides, and 
at the back the roof is two feet higher. There are two kokim 
each side, 6 feet long, and about i foot 6 inches wide, and one at the 
back I foot 10 inches wide ; these have their floors on the level of the top 
of the bench. There is a lower tier, one on each side, one at the back ; 
these are cut in the side of the bench. The kokim in this tomb are all 
arched. 

The whole of this cemetery is cut in hard rock ; the walls are well 
finished with a pick of some kind, but the work seems to have been done 
by eye, not squared, and the measurements of corresponding parts are not 
equal. The most ornamental tomb (No. i) is the only one in which a 
loailus occurs, an instance of transition style. 
Visited and measured, May 28th, 1873. 

Khiirbet Kurm 'Aisa (K p). — Foundations and a rude cave 
tomb. 

K h li r b e t M a s s a y a t (M r). — Foundations of ancient walls. 

Khurbet e! Meidan (L r). — Traces of ruins and a modern 
tower. Caves to the west. 

Khurbet Meiderus (L r). — Small heaps of rude stones. The 
site is barely distinguishable. 

Khurbet M u g h a r e t el Abed (J r). 
Observed by Guerin, but not on the map. The ruins consist of small square enclosures 
of large irregular blocks lying upon each other without cement. 

Khiirbet el Mezarah (N r). — Ruins of walls and foundations. 
Remains of a small village. A large rock-cut cistern at some little dis- 
tance on the south-east. 







Off 



\:T(10IV— HHKIIIV I'J 



{sheet xiv7\ 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 



341 



Khiirbet el Mezrdh {K p). — Foundations and two caves, five 
ancient watcli-towers to the south-east. 

Khiirbet Midi eh (J r). — These ruins, including those of 
K h u r b e t el H ii m m a m, K h li r b e t el L 6 z, and at S h e i k h e 1 
G h a r b a \v y, occupy the hill west of the village of M i d i e h. The site 
appears to have been first recovered by Dr. Sandreczki before October, 
1869. 

The place was visited by M. Guerin in 1870, and by Lieutenant Condcr 
in April, 1873, '^"d on the iSth of January, 1874. An excavation was 
made at the tomb near the kubbch in the same year by M. Ganneau. 




KHUREET MIDIEH. 



The first point of interest is the group of tombs called Kabur el 
Ye hud. or ' Tombs of the Jews ;' there are 18 of these, close together, 
nine being in a line east and west, four more in a second line, and four in 
a group, and one of these four is pointing north and south. The tombs 
are shafts, with loculi below, one each side, and are closed by huge blocks 
of stone ; they are sunk in the face of the rock, and south of them is a 
scarp parallel to the line in which they lie, 5 feet high, and about 75 feet 
east and west. At the west end the scarp turns southwards, and here 
there seems to be a tomb of another description ; two doors in the scarp, 
one leading north, one west, being visible, now blocked up. 7\bout 30 
paces north of the scarp is a wine-press, and near it three more rock-sunk 



342 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

tombs, making 21 in all ; three others exist further east. The wine- 
press consists of a flat area with two troughs, communicating, one 
2\ feet square, the second lower one 4^ feet square and 3 feet deep ; 
there are rock-cut steps by this press, which is cut in a prominent piece of 
rock. 

On my second visit I was informed that the name K a b u r el 
Y e h u d was a title used by the Franks. 

These sepulchres resemble that at El H a b s ; they are comparatively 
small, the loadi about 5 feet 6 inches long, the stones above not more 
than 6 feet 6 inches, and about 2 feet thick. Most of these stones are 
pushed off. 

One tomb is larger, and of a different kind ; it is situate west of the 
o-roup of four, and the stone is still in si/ii. On the east side of the shaft 
are three steps, on the west a door leading down to a chamber, with five 
loaili. 

With regard to these tombs, it must be observed that in all cases where 
rock-sunk tombs bear any indication of date they are Christian, and 
apparently not much earlier than the twelfth century. 

The next important ruins, are about a quarter of a mile north, on a hill. 
Separated by a slight depression, is the structural tomb ; between the two 
are the ruins and the ruined pool of K h li r b e t el H li m m a m (which 
see) ; a well and a modern kubbeh, near which, on the north-west, is a 
very fine tree. There is also, north-west of the tomb, a cave, 22 paces by 
14 paces, used as a stable, and east of it ruins of small buildings which 
appear to be modern, with rough masonry and pointed arches. The 
natives of the spot state them to be ruined houses. 

The Structural Tomb was excavated by M. Ganneau. It 
proved to consist of a central chamber with side loadi ; the floor of the 
chamber was a tesselated pavement with a cross upon it. Before excava- 
tion only one iocultis (that on the west) was visible, the structure above 
the others being destroyed. The tomb appears to have stood at the 
corner (south-east) of an enclosure, measuring 90 feet along a line 
directed at 8o^ and 115 feet 4 inches at right angles. The north wall 
has a set-back on the east of 14 feet 6 inches, as shown. About the 
middle of the west wall there is a cistern, its mouth now choked by a 
fig-tree. It is said to lead to large caves beneath. The masonry of this 



[sheet A7/'.] ARCIl.EOLOGY. 



343 



enclosure is good ; one stone was 8i feet long ; another 6 feet 5 inches by 
3 feet I inch height, but only i foot 6 inches in width. 

From the south wall of the enclosure a cross wall runs at a distance of 
38 feet from the west wall ; this wall is about 4 feet thick, with vertical 
joints, carefully broken, the stones 2 feet to 5 feet in length. 

The structural tomb itself was partly excavated by M. Guerin, who 
uncovered the loculus beneath the western recess, and part of the pave- 
ment, a mosaic of red, white and black. The loculus is sunk in the surface 
of the rock 3 feet 5 inches, and measures 6 feet 7 inches in length by 
3 feet 6 inches breadth east and west. A ledge of rock supported the 
slabs which once covered it. Above this loculus is a structure, 7 feet high 
in the clear, open on the east, its dimensions equal to those of the loculus 
on plan. A cornice, i foot 3 inches deep, projecting i foot, with a rounded 
moulding, runs round the three walls at the top ; this supported a flat roof 
of blocks 7^ feet long. The walls are of good masonry, well dressed, and 
not drafted ; four courses below the cornice ; the vertical joints carefully 
broken ; the stones from 4^- feet to i foot in length. 

This building, afterwards more carefully e.xplored by M. Ganneau, 
resembles somewhat in plan the tomb at T e i a s i r, and the structural 
tombs at Beisan. (Sheets XII. and IX.) The wall west of the tomb 
is not quite so good, as to masonry, as is the tomb itself. 

A capital of curious design lay in the ruins. M. Guerin found ten 
shafts, which had, however, disappeared at the time of my visit. 

A more probable site for the tomb of the Maccabees is afforded by 
the knoll of e r Ras, just south of the village of e 1 M i d i e h, where 
there are rock-cut tombs. The sea is visible from this knoll, but not from 

the village. 

The following account of the tombs of Midieh was published in the ' Quarterly Statement' 
of 1870, p. 245 : 

' Dear Captain Warrf.x,— When I told you of the rock tombs near el Medyeh (not as 
Van de Velde has it, " el Mediyeh "), which I believe to be the tombs over which Simon 
erected the mausoleum with the seven pyramids, etc., for his parents and brothers {v. i Maccab. 
13, 27 segj.; and Joseph. Ant. xiii. 6), and of the other rock tombs near 'Abud, which, like 
those of el Medyeh, had never, for aught I know, been visited, or at least mentioned, by 
travellers, you desired me to give you a description of those tombs which you might communi- 
cate to your Committee, and I am most willing to comply with this wish of yours. 

' I had visited el Medyeh, and seen the tombs there before, but only en passant ; yet even 
then the site of el Medyeh and the name of the tombs, Kabfir el Yeh(id {i.e., " Tombs of the 



344 THE SURVEY OF JVESTERN PALESTINE. 

Jews"), strongly impressed me with tlie opinion tliat cl Medyeh occuiiics the place of Modin, 
and that the " Tombs of the Jews" are tiie remnants of the Maccabrean mausoleum ; and you 
will remember that I spoke to you of this discovery as soon as I had returned from my tour. 
This time (in October, 1869) I spent nearly two days at el Medyeh, and found leisure to inspect 
the kahi'ir more closely. 

' Just opposite to the village, which lies on the top of a considerably high hill or ridge, 
on another ridge, forming the west side of the deep and narrow Wady between the two ridges, 
at a distance of about 1,100 yards in a straight line, you come to a kind of terrace from 50 to 
60 paces long (east-west) and some 40 paces broad (north-south), slightly sloping towards the 
east, and with a noble prospect towards the west, comprehending the whole tract between 
that ridge and the coast, with a wide expanse of the sea. 

' On this terrace I counted about twenty-four tombs. Along its soutli ledge there was a 
row of ten or eleven of them. On its south-west end, but advancing somewhat towards the 
middle, I found two, one smaller ; and in the same line, a little downward, again two. More 
downward still there was a large one, which I shall more particularly describe hereafter. 
Farther down still again a large one, and then three small ones, and below them one more as 
large as the other large ones. In the north-west corner there was another of the same size, 
and some feet above it, on a prominent mass of rock, I saw an old wine-press scooped out of 
the rock. Some feet below the south border or ledge of the terrace, and fronting the west, 
extends the fore-court of two tombs, one in the perpendicular rock of the west side, the other 
in that of the north side {i.e., in the ledge), which forms, with the ten or eleven above- 
mentioned tombs, the south border of the terrace. The entrances to these two tombs were 
thoroughly obstructed. But I must now describe the tombs on the terrace. 

' They were all of them scooped out of the horizontal rock, in the shape of coffins, or 
sarcophagi ; but, although they were nearly filled up with earth, one could discover in their 
longitudinal sides flat-vaulted niches {loeiili, ir,y.ai), so that it was evident that the coffin-like 
excavations were but entrances of a length which only in one or two cases exceeded 
1-50 metres. All these entrances were originally covered with very massy stone lids, the 
largest of which w^as 2-20 metres long and 1-5 metres broad, and 070 metres thick. But 
most of the lids were either broken or pushed off 

' The large tomb, of which I promised a particular description, had its lid still in siiii, but 
it had been so far smashed at its bottom (the lid) that one could creep through the aperture. 
On the east side of this tomb or entrance there were a few steps (three ?), and on the opposite 
(west) side was the entrance to a chamber with five niches. There was no door visible ; its 
fragments were probably buried in the rubbish. 

' Now, before I enter into an exposition of the arguments which I have to adduce on 
behalf of my opinion respecting Modin and the Maccabjean mausoleum, I must still mention 
that at a distance of about 200 yards east-south-east of the terrace of the just-described tombs, 
on a level stretch at the foot of a slope leading from it to the terrace, I found a block of a 
rock, whose front side was hewn out in the shape of a bevelled free-stone, apparently prepared 
for the basement of some monument, but with no trace of a tomb beneath or under it. Near 
this stone and a solitary fig-tree I found six tombs hewn out of the level rock, like those of 
the upper terrace, and of similar dimensions. The wrought surface of the bevelled block was 
I '20 metres long. 

' In I Mace. 13, 27 seqy. (I must quote from the Vulgate), we read : " Et redificavit Simon 
super sepukhrum patris sui et fratrum suorum aidificium altum visu, lapide polito retro et 



{SHEET A'/r.] ARCFLEOLOGY. 345 

ante ; et statuit septem pyramidas, unam contra unam, patri et matri, et quatuor fratribus ; et 
his circumposuit columnas magnas, et super columnas arma, ad memoriam setemam, ct juxta 
arma naves sculptas, qua; viderentur ab omnibus navigantibus uiaro. Hoc est sepulchrum, 
quod fecit in Modin, usque in hunc diem." 

'The description given by Josei)hus is nearly the same. (Ant. xiii. 6.) 

' According to Eusebius and Hieronymus, Modin was situated near Diospolis, or Lydda. 
As you know, it has been in later times shifted from place to place — not to Latriln {Castellum 
boni Latronis) only, but to Soba, far up in the hills, at a distance of about 14 miles from 
Lydda in a straight line ; nay, to a place south of Anathoth ! 

' At all events, as regards nearness to Lydda, el Medych has the strongest claim to identity 
with the Modin of Eusebius, etc. Yxoxa Soba, to be sure, the sea is in full view : but nobody 
will say that it is near Lydda, and there, as well as far more still on the low hill of Latrun, 
the pyramids, in order to be discerned by seafaring people, ought to have been of an extra- 
ordinary height — at Latrun much higher than the highest Egyptian pyramid. On the contrary, 
the prospect from the KabQr el Yehud is commanding, both land and sea, and not intercepted 
by the intervention of hills, which would cover it to observers from a distance of about 13 
miles (Soba is about 24 miles distant from the sea in a straight line). Hence the superstruc- 
ture of the tombs, and the pyramids upon, or by the side, or in front of that superstructure, 
need not have been of a giddy height in order to be discernible to people out at sea near 
the coast in the afternoon and evening hours, when the rays of the sun must have illuminated 
the splendid erections of polished stone ; and the Kabur were not only near Lydda ( i mile 
nearer than even Latrun), but so situated as not to belie that part of the old description which 
seemed to involve an exaggeration. 

' But there are no remains either of the superstructure and the pyramids, or of the columns; 
the number of the tombs surpasses that of seven three times ; and the name of el Mddyeh, 
which we have to derive from Mada, has nothing in common with the Hebrew yada 
(according to Rosenmiiller's explanation of the name). 

' These objections are very serious, yet I will try to show that they may be removed 
without taking too much liberty. 

' As regards the absence of all traces of the constituent parts of the mausoleum above 
ground, we must consider that such monumental structures are much more than other edifices 
exposed to a radical eversion, as their columns and polished stones are not only very 
alluring, but may be got to and cleared away with far less effort than those of other more 
complicated buildings. Moreover, it is well known that sepulchral monuments, and especially 
so magnificent ones as the Maccabtean mausoleum must have been, always were, and still 
are, considered a kind of treasuries — a circumstance which all over Greece, Egypt, and the 
countries of anterior Asia has so much contributed to their being so frequently utterly de- 
molished. As regards the number of the tombs, everybody will admit that, after the seven had 
received their occupants, other members of the family or the kindred may have chosen the 
place next to the mausoleum as fitted for their last dwelling. Finally, concerning the dis- 
crepancy between the names, I too must confess that it appears irremediable, if Rosenmiiller's 
derivation and interpretation of Modin (ti/ti's or d«v-iid, they who give notice as from a watch- 
tower or look-out) must be accepted as correct, because the Arabic words for ploughshare, 
boundar)-, term, etc., exhibit not a single point for reconciliation. 

' However, I waive all support from the names of the ancient town and modern village. 
To me the designation of the tombs as " Kabiir el Yehud" (" Tombs of the Jews") seems to 

VOL. II. 44 



346 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

be a very strong argument in favour of my view. The whole of Palestine, to be sure, is full of 
Jewish tombs, yet they are not distinguished by that name, except at places where, beside the 
Jewish burying-grounds, there are those of Christians or Moslems also, all still in use, when 
the name of " Tombs of the Jews " is given in contradistinction. Consequently, we have to 
consider the tombs near el Medyeh asbearing the name Kabfir el Yehud {xaT'i';^o^r,v), and 
are justified in concluding from this xaT'i^ny^f,v designation that the Jews there buried must 
have been peculiarly eminent Jew^s, whose family name fell into oblivion as soon as the Jews 
themselves were cast out of their country, whilst the memory of those eminent Jews was pre- 
served in the name " Tombs of the Jews " and in the tombs themselves, which, far and near, 
were the only ones of distinguished Jews. 

' But I must still refer to another circumstance which, in my opinion, is not less pregnant. 
Do not tombs excavated in the level rock, and that beside other tombs hewn out of the per- 
pendicular rock, indicate that they were in this way fashioned for the erection of a monumental 
superstructure of some kind or other ? It cannot occur to our mind that such tombs were 
destined for the poor, since the expenditure required by them was certainly considerable 
enough, and quite sufficient to achieve the purpose in a more tasteful and durable way, by 
excavating a perpendicular rock, as those flat tombs were far more exposed to destruction by 
undermining rains and resurrectionist jackals. The massy and unhandsome stone lids, too, 
whilst they may have been placed over the tombs as a last protection against profanation or 
sacrilege, almost compel us to believe that their shapeless aspect was concealed from sight by 
some covering of a more graceful or dignified form. 

' I hope the Kabur el Yehud will soon be visited by more competent judges, and the 
much-ventilated Modin question conclusively solved by them. 

' But I must now enter upon another question, which I am afraid will prove, as we 
Germans say, a very hard nut to crack. 

' From el Me'dyeh I went to 'Abud, another village, north-east of the former. Since the 
Frenchman, M. V. Guerin, has discovered (in 1865) the identical tombof Joshua near Tibneh 
(Timnath Cheres or Timnath Serach), 'Abud, which is but three-quarters of an hour distant 
from Tibneh (west-north-west), has been visited by some very few travellers. Robinson, 
Thompson, Van de Velde — in fact, none of the travellers who have written books on Pales- 
tine speak of 'Abud, as far as I recollect; nor have you or Captain Wilson been there, 
for aught I know.* Well, it is just such out-of-the-way places that belong to my line of 
travelling, and to me they frequently are the most interesting virgin soil in more than 
one respect 

' Of course I would not leave 'Abud without having seen the tomb of Joshua and the 
other rock tombs near Tibneh ; but after I came back to Jerusalem I discovered that Joshua's 
Tomb, which I had seen and taken for it, is not the one which Dr. Hermann Zschokke, the 
rector of the Austrian Hospice in Jerusalem, has described in his " Beitrage zur Topographie 
der Westlichen Jordan's Au," Jerusalem, 1866. I showed you my sketches of those tombs. 
Yet it is not of them that I will now speak, but of another discovery of mine, the reward of 
my not pursuing the track of the tourists. 

* The tombs at 'Abud were examined by Captain Wilson, R.E., and Lieutenant Ander- 
son, R.E., in 1866, when plans and drawings of the most important were made for the 
Palestine Fund. On an old lintel in the village was found the following Greek inscription : 
APTrPIONTOTAnOT. 



[SHEET XIV.] ARCHEOLOGY. 347 

'Soon after my arrival at 'Abiid, I asked for the way to Tibach, whither I intended to go 
the next day. " If you want to see tombs," said one of the people, "you may see plenty of 
them here in the neighbourhood ;" and he pointed to the peak of a steep basement of rocks 
forming the north extremity of a ridge or spur running west of the village, at the distance of 
about \ mile from it. No doubt I went thither as soon as I was at leisure, and found all 
along a terrace extending at the foot of the rocks and below it, rock tombs which reminded 
me both of the tombs in the Valley of Hinnom, and of the so-called " Tombs of the Judges." 
For those in the steep cliff itself (south side of the terrace) the terrace formed the forecourt, 
and two of the tombs there had ante-chambers. That of the more distinguished was 
600 metres long and 300 metres broad. On the architrave of this tomb were sculptured 
ornaments — a bunch of grapes in the middle, rosettes, triglyphs. In its chamber there were 
twelve niches. The other was plainer — i.e., without ornaments. At the foot of the peak and 
near its middle were small entrances to tombs of an artless description. The length of the 
terrace was from 170 to 180 paces. On its north and east sides were other tombs of a plain 
kind, with forecourts. The one next to the east side of the terrace had a very large forecourt, 
about 100 paces long; the entrance to its tomb was on the south side, and in a rock receding 
a little from the line of that side there was another tomb or chamber, down to the entrance 
of which led a few steps. This chamber contained five niches ; but as I had to make my 
survey in a hurr)-, I am not quite sure whether my statements as regards the interior of the 
tombs are conect It was after sunset that I began to examine them, because I had spent 
the short time left to me before sunset in walking over the whole ground and sketching the 
principal tombs. The place may have been a burying-ground for centuries before, and during 
the limes of the Seleucides and Romans ; and there can be no doubt but that a town of some 
note must have occupied the site of the village 'Abud. But which ? The name 'Abud alTords 
no key for tracing it to an antique original. In the times of the Crusaders — and perhaps 
before them already — 'Abud and the surrounding country must have been one of the chief 
allotments of the Church, as there are no less than six deirs round about it, in two of which 
divine service seems to be still continued, occasionally at least ; and 'Abud itself, being in- 
habited at equal parts by Christians (Greeks) and Moslems, has an old church, el 'Abudiyeh, 
which is the name of a ruined deir also, quite near the village. As Van de Velde has dis- 
covered here the traces of the Roman road leading from Jerusalem by Tifneh (Gophna) to 
Antipatris, this circumstance is rather favourable to my supposition that there may have been 
a place of note hereabout Well, there is Tibneh, whose identity with Timnath Cheres and 
Timnath Serach cannot be questioned, as the other Timnah, too, on the borders of Judah and 
Dan, has been changed by the mouth or tongue of the Arab into Tibneh ; and our Tibneh 
here certainly lies in one of the mountainous regions of Ephraim. But Tibneh had a burying- 
ground of its own, and that of 'Abiid would have been too distant — 3 miles. 

' That Timnath Cheres or Serach and the Thamna of Josephus are all one, I have no 
doubt ; yet I think that the Thamna {QaiJ.)ia.) of Josephus was a second edition of Joshua's 
Timnah — i.e., that old Timnah had been deserted for some reason or other (perhaps on 
account of the Roman road), and rebuilt on the site of 'Abud. In the course of time, this 
Thamna or Timnah, more exposed to the invasions of all the successively conflicting powers, 
may have lost both the original and the transmuted names through long desolation ; whilst 
the latter pertinaciously clung to the primitive Timnah, or the village which sprung from it, 
and is at present a heap of ruins only. 'Abud, which thus would represent the second 
Timnah, or the Thamna of Josephus, did not recall the old name to life again. 

44—2 



348 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' But I feel I cannot get a solid footing, and will therefore leave this question also to be 
solved by a more penetrating sagacity and the judgment of those whose profession is archreo- 
logical research. 

' Before I conclude my somewhat lengthy epistle, I must mention a few other discoveries 
which may be interesting enough to one so sedulously inquiring after the vestiges of bygones 
as you are. It is very little, what I have still to say, and will not take much of your time. 

' From the hills I went down into the plain to places I had often visited in former 
years. 

'On my way to Kefr Saba (Antipatris ?) I passed by Mejdel Yaba (Mirabel), near which, 
between it and Mezra'ah, I had many years ago discovered that ruin, which was afterwards 
visited and photographed by Captain Wilson (No. no), to whom I had pointed it out as 
most remarkable. Robinson had been very near it — h mile perhaps — but then struck into a 
more west road. 

'As to Kefr Saba, I am quite sure now that it does not represent Antipatris, which must 
be looked out for between Kalat Ras el 'Ain and the mills of el Mia, or perhaps in the depth 
of the Aujeh marshes at the foot of the castle hill. I shall another time give you my reasons 
for this opinion. Between Kefr Saba and the sea-coast, in a straight line, I found two 
Khiirbets. The first, about i|- miles west of Kefr Saba, did not show forth any trace of 
antiquity ; its name is Khiirbet Sebyi. The other, Khiirbet Tubsur, -|- mile farther west, pre- 
sented a curious relic — the only one visible above ground. It showed between broken 
remnants of walls what I must call two small apartments ; the iftside plastering, an indestruc- 
tible red cement, was still smooth, and there were in one of the rooms pretty large fragments 
of a tesselated pavement. The upper part of those rooms was utterly destroyed, and of their 
ceiling or roof not a vestige left. To me it occurred that it might have been the villa of a 
Roman. You have seen my sketch of it. 

' On my way back to Jerusalem, between Gimzo and Beth Horon, at a place about 3 or 
4 miles east of Gimzo, and i mile distant from Khiirbet Shilta farther onward, I saw a rock 
tomb underneath a long ledge of rocks, which, with a natural pillar, formed the roof of the 
ante-chamber. The entrance to the tomb, two chambers, was a few feet above the bottom. 
Not far from it, and near the road, there was a ruined open cistern (pool) of antique 
appearance. 

' It was impossible to take bearings, and before I met people to ask for names more than 
one hour had elapsed — a lapse of time which you know forbids a circumspect traveller to ask 
questions still about what is so far behind. 

'The postscript is finished, and therewithal I remain, my dear Captain Warren, very 
faithfully yours, Ch. Sandreczki.' 

In the year 1873 t'""^ following account of this place and its tombs was furnished by 
Lieutenant Conder (' Quarterly Statement,' p. 94) ; 

'This is a large Arab village, standing on a hill, and defended on the north, south and 
west by a deep valley. Immediately south of the present town is a round eminence with 
steep and regularly sloping sides, suggesting immediately an ancient site, but showing nothing 
in the way of ruins except a few stone heaps amongst the olives which cover its summit. The 
ground on the west side of the deep Wady, which has the modern name Wddy Mulaki, is, 
however, much higher, and closes in the view of the sea. It is here, about | mile west of the 
village, that the Kabur el Yehtid, or " Tombs of the Jews," were found, close to a modern 



[SHEET XIV.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 349 

white tomb-house, with a spreading tree beside it, the resting-place of Sheikh Gharbawi Abu 
Subhha. My survey and plans give the necessary details, and I will only add a few observa- 
tions to explain them. The sepulchres, which are fast disappearing, seem to have been seven 
in number, probably all of one size, lying approximately east and west, and enclosed by one 
wall about 5 feet thick. This is well preserved on the east and west, but has disappeared — 
or was removed by M. Guerin — on the north and south. Of the walls of partition, however, 
only one can be well traced, consisting of stones well dressed, laid with continuous horizontal 
and irregularly broken vertical joints, without any trace of drafting, and varying from 2 feet to 
5 feet in length, their other dimensions being about 2 feet. 

' The most northern is the only one of the chambers which is sufficiently preserved for 
examination, and differs entirely from any sepulchral or other monument I have as yet seen 
in the country. It consists of a chamber open on the north, nearly 8 feet high, 6 feet from 
east to west, and 5 feet from north to south. Its only remarkable feature is a cornice, the 
profile of which is a quarter circle, which is evidently intended to support a greater overlying 
weight than that of the flat slabs some 6 feet long which roof the chamber in. The floor was 
also of flags supported by a narrow ledge on all sides ; these having been removed, the tomb 
itself could be seen below, a square vault of equal size with the chamber, and apparently 
3 feet 6 inches deep, though the debris which had filled it on one side may have prevented 
my sinking down to the floor itself 

' The pyramid which once surmounted each of these chambers has entirely disappeared ; 
its only traces were the supporting cornice on the interior, and the sunk centre of the upper 
side of the roofing slabs, which were raised about 6 inches round their edge for a breadth of 
I foot to I foot 6 inches. The base of the pyramid must have been a square of 8 feet or 
9 feet wide (it is not possible to determine it exactly), and the height would therefore probably 
have been 15 feet, or at most 20 feet. Of the mosaic pavement to the tomb, and of the 
ornaments of its walls, I was not able to find a single trace. 

'The surrounding cloister has also been destroyed, but on the north and west a few 
courses of a well-built wall were visible in parts, parallel to the sides of the tomb, about 
20 paces from its outer wall. Within this enclosure was a choked-up cistern, and without, 
farther down the hill, a rough cave 22 paces by 14, used as a cattle stable, and full of soft 
mud. 

' Immediately north of the tomb are remains of later buildings of small rough masonry 
with pointed arches. They are ruined houses, according to the account of natives of the 
spot. 

' The name Khiirbet Midieh will be found on the map as applying to a set of rock-cut 
tombs about \ mile south of the Shaykh, and these are described by Dr. Sandreczki at some 
length. They are separated by a slight depression from the " Kabiir el Yehud," and between 
the two, as shown in my 6 inch survey, there is a well and a couple of ruined and broken 
cisterns. The doctor enumerates about 24 tombs; of these I observed 21, and a large 
one with two entrances — 23 in all. It is possible I may have missed or forgotten to 
show one. The tombs resemble exactly those formerly described in the large cemetery 
at Ikzal, but are smaller. They consist of square chambers sunk about 6 feet in the flat 
surface of the rock, with a loculus parallel to the length of the shaft on each side, cut back 
under a flat arch, as shown in the sketch. A large block of stone closes the tomb above ; all 
had, however, been pushed slightly to one side, leaving the interior, which in one case was 
occupied by the body of a poor native woman but lately placed there, distinctly visible. At 



35° THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

first I imagined that they all pointed east and west, but one, it will be noticed, is at right 
angles to this direction. Nine of them are placed in one roughly-straight line, and four others 
parallel. They were all very small. The loaili cannot be more than 5 feet 6 inches long, 
and the stones above are not much over 6 feet 6 inches. 

' As continually happens, a tomb of another class exists in the immediate neighbourhood. 
South of the nine tombs the rock is scarped perpendicularly to a height of 5 feet for over 
30 paces, and on the west a square chamber with rock scarps on three sides 6 paces in length 
is thus formed. It was probably once roofed over, but no traces of masonry remain ; it is 
filled with rubbish, and on the north and west the tops of two small entrances to chambers 
are visible : I could not, however, find any corresponding door on the south. A chamber of 
this kind exists in two or three places near Haifa, where the side entrances lead to tombs 
with loculi perpendicular in direction to the walls. Similar loctili occur at el Tireh, in con- 
nection with tombs sunk like the majority of those at el Midieh. In fact, the mixture of 
three or more classes of tombs in one cemetery is common throughout the country, and the 
chambers in question, if once the debris were removed (which would hardly repay the trouble), 
would very probably prove to have the Jewish loculus. 

' The wine-press mentioned in the former report I visited and measured ; it is not equaj 
to other specimens I have copied. East of the cenietery the rock is much quarried, and there 
are a few sunken square places resembling unfinished cisterns, or the commencement of a 
system of new tombs.' 

In the year 1S74 Lieutenant Condor again visited the place, and thus described it : 
' The plan of the tombs of the Maccabees — the structural monument, north of Dr. Sand- 
reczki's rock-cut sepulchres, known as the Kabur el Yehud (probably a Frank name) — I was 
now able to complete. It is extremely interesting, and a point about it which I had not 
previously noticed is, the apparent existence of a little court or vestibule to each tomb. The 
general appearance presented is that of an oblong building with cross walls. These are not, 
indeed, always visible, and without efficient excavation it cannot be said certainly that more 
than two intermediate and two end walls exist ; still the appearance of the ground, sinking in 
seven wells of rubbish, plainly intimates that formerly there were originally five intermediate. 
It was in the thickness of these walls that the tombs were built, being about 3 feet 5 inches 
broad, and the wall having a thickness of over 4 feet 6 inches. The tomb was open on the 
eastern side, and the grave itself sunk in the floor of the chamber and covered by a slab. 
Thus the present sunken pits, about 6 feet 9 inches square, appear to form vestibules between 
the tombs. From the discovery of a capital of most primitive appearance, roughly approaching 
the Ionic order, each would seem to have been ornamented by a column, probably supporting 
a level roof. There would probably be steps leading down into these, thus explaining how 
the intermediate tombs, to which there can have been no other means of communication, 
were reached. It may be to these pillars that Josephus (Ant xiii. 7, 6) and i Maccabees 
(xiii. 27) refer; that they were monolithic is highly probable, though they hardly deserve to 
be called "great pillars." The "cunning device" round about which they were set, and 
spoken of as in the pyramids, may be supposed to be the vestibules in question ; and it is 
noticeable that Josephus does not speak of the pillars as in the cloisters. 

' By the latter expression I understand the enclosure equal in extent with the monument 
on its western side, surrounded by a fine wall, with stones 8 feet long in parts, and measuring 
about 80 feet each way. It is remarkable that the outside walls are 5 cubits thick (a cubit of 



[SHEET X/V.] ARCHEOLOGY. 



351 



i6 inches as generally accepted), the interior 3! cubits, the vestibules 5 cubits square; and 
the length of the graves also 5 cubits— an unusual length, and greater than that prescribed by 
Talmudical rules. 

' The last question with regard to this monument is its height, which is described in both 
accounts as being very great. The question of the height of the pyramids is included in this. 
It has been said that the sunk centres of several stones show the resting-places of these struc- 
tures, but this is doubtful, for several reasons. First, that only one of these stones is in situ ; 
secondly, that the sunk portions do not occur in the middle of this slab, which covers the east 
tomb ; third, that in the case of another stone not in situ the sunken portion is not central. 
It is still not impossible that the theory is true, in which case about 3 feet would be the side 
of the base of the pyramid, which would not allow a greater height than 9 feet or 10 feet. 
The height of the rest of the building was 8 feet, and thus the maximum was under 20 feet, 
or about 15 cubits. 

' The graves beneath are rock-cut, and may have preceded the monument, as is rendered 
probable by the two accounts. Two small towers 5 cubits square flanked the entrance to the 
vestibule of the eastern tomb. Thus we have a monument capable of reconstruction in cubits 
within a foot of my measurement of the total length. 

' Josephus speaks of the stone used as "polished," but it seems to me not impossible to 
have been whitewashed or plastered, in which case, from its jjosition, it could not fail to be 
conspicuous from the whole extent of the seashore, visible from about the latitude of Mukhalid 
far down towards Gaza.' — 'Quarterly Statement,' 1874, p. 58. 

The account given of this place, with its group of tombs, by I\I. Gucrin, differs very little 
from that given above. He examined twenty-four tombs at Kabur el Yehud. At Kl^irbet el 
Hummam he found foundations of houses in cut stone, cubes of mosaic, cisterns cut in the 
rock, and the ruins of a so-called bath. Close to the Khurbet el Hummam is the ruin called 
Khurbet Zakarieh, which is not mentioned on the map, probably because it is so close to the 
former as to be considered by the surveyors a part of it. Here were tombs, ancient cisterns, 
and the remains of a large building, only the foundations being left. M. Ganneau found here 
a baptistry, with the name of the donor, Sophronia, and a Greek inscription of Christian date 
in a tomb. 

Guerin was informed by an old inhabitant of this place (el Midich) that all the ruins — 
the Khfirbet el YehCld, the Khurbet el Hummam, the Khiirbet Sheikh el Gharbawy — formed 
part of one old town called the Khiirbet el Midieh, and that as for the little village called 
Midieh, the people themselves called it el Minieh. 

Ganneau further found that a native of the place is spoken of as a Midnawy, thus showing 
the three consonants of the word Modin. 

The following is the account given (' Samaria,' ii. 404) by M. Guerin of his excavations at 
the Khurbet Sheikh el Gharbawy : 

' At the eastern extremity of the ruin called by the natives el Kulah, I could distinguish a 
kind of chamber filled up with stones and earth, the interior part of which was destroyed. 
After completely clearing it out, I saw that, contrary to my first supposition, it had no issue 
at the end, and that consequently there was no entrance through it to the crypt which I ex- 
pected. ^\'as it, then, a distinct sepulchral chamber ? My workmen went on, and presently 
disengaged an edge or lip which seemed to me that of a grave cut in the rock The slab 
which formerly covered it and formed part of the pavement has been carried away, and the 



352 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

grave violated. When my men had finished clearing out the grave, I saw that the bottom 
was paved with little cubes of mosaic, red, white, and black, laid in thick cement, and that it 
measured 6 feet 6 inches in length, 3 feet 6 inches in breadth, and 2 feet 3 J inches in depth. 
I then uncovered the surface of the immense blocks which lie on magnificent stones cut 
round at the corners, and, after removing the earth, I found that they bore the marks of 
notches very plain, and that, while they served as a ceiling for the chamber, they were the 
base of an upper building, probably of a small pyramid. The whole plan of the edifice 
revealed itself to me. It was built east and west, and seven sepulchral chambers built side by 
side, of cut stones, and each containing a grave cut in the rock, the bottom of which was 
inlaid with mosaic work, were surmounted by a series of seven pyramids arranged in the same 
line, and standing each on the roof of its own chamber. The rectangle, 91 feet long and 
15 feet 6 inches broad, formed by these pyramids, was itself surrounded by a porch sustained 
on the monolithic columns decorated in the manner described in the Book of Maccabees. . . . 
Great was my joy when presently, searching about among the ruins of the Mussulman houses 
near the edifice, I found ten fragments of monolithic columns, all with the same diameter— 
viz., I foot 6 inches. Here were the remains of the colonnade ... At sunset I found in 
another grave cut in the rock a few scattered bones. . . . This tomb was 35 feet west of the 
first. ... At daybreak I found that I could see very plainly the ships in the port of Jaffa ; 
consequently, one could see from Jaffa the great mausoleum on this hill, with its seven 
pyramids and its portico.' 

At the request of M. Guerin, the place was visited and reported upon by M. Mauss, a 
French architect then in Jerusalem. The following is an extract from his report : 

' Khurbet el Midieh is distant one hour and three-quarters from the village of Kurab, and 
two ho>ifs from L)^dda. The plateau on which the tomb is placed commands the plain of 
Ramleh : one can see the towns of Lydda, of Ramleh, and of Jaffa, especially at sunrise. The 
view embraces a portion of the sea from Gaza to Jaffa. This complies perfectly with the 
description of the Maccabaean tombs. 

' The tomb itself is completely isolated. At a certain distance others are found cut in the 
rock. 

' The importance of the ruins shows that it belonged to a family of great distinction. It 
must have presented a monumental aspect, judging from its dimensions. There is room for 
seven tombs, judging from the plan. I suppose that at the west end, just as at the east end 
of the rectangle, there was a double tomb. If the hypothesis is just, we could easily place 
between the two ends three simple sepulchres. 

' I found and measured above two foundation-stones of the wall discovered by M. Guerin 
an encastrement of 4 feet 7 inches, which may have served to receive the base of one of the 
pyramids mentioned in the narrative. This encastrement is nearly in the longitudinal axis of 
the rectangle. Another portion of encastrement exists on one of the slabs which cover the 
double sepulchre of the east end. It is now in the axis of the rectangle. 

' The history mentions a porch formed of monolithic columns. In the present state of the 
ruin it is difficult to restore the porch. An intelligent excavation might solve the problem. 
Nevertheless, there are found near the ruin seven or eight fragments of columns, which show 
that here was a monument decorated with columns. They are all about i foot 6 inches in 
diameter. 

' In conclusion, I think that, considering the importance of the discovery, it is very de- 
sirable that excavations should be made on the spot.' 



[SHEET XJV.] 



ARCH.'EOLOGY. 



353 



Khurbet el Mukatir (Mr). — A ruined basilica, with an outer 
courtyard round it, forming an atrium, with an entrance llanked by 
chambers on the west \vall. The basilica itself measures 48 feet 6 inches 
north and south, by 66 feet east and west outside. The north and south 
walls are 2 feet thick, the west wall about 3 feet, and has in it three 
entrances. The eastern apse is about 18 feet diameter. The exterior 
building measures 137 feet in length by 84 feet in breadth outside. One 
pillar in the north-west part of the atrium was in situ, whence it appears 
that there were probably eight bays of pillars, g feet high (without the 
capital), and i foot 6 inches diameter. The capitals were lying about in 
1866, and are described by Major Wilson as Corinthian. ('Quarterly 
Statement,' 1869, p. 124.) 



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11 :i II ]; II 



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Air t. U 771 



I ' 11' II 



HKi 




The doors of the basilica were 6 feet and 4 feet wide, and originally 
covered with tiat lintel-stones. The masonr)' of the walls is of narrow 
stones, 2 feet to 3 feet long. The chambers on the outer west wall 
measure about 15 feet north and south by 13 feet east and west inside ; 
two north, and two south of the entrance passage, 9 feet wide. The gate 
on this side is about 6 feet wide. Only the foundations of the basilica 
remain. There is an old well on the north wall of the basilica itself. 

The general appearance and plan of this building lead to the conclusion 
that it is a Byzantine structure. 

Visited and planned, 23rd January, 1874. 

VOL. II. 45 



354 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

K h u r b e t el M u n t a r (J q). — Ruined watchtower. 

Khiirbet el Murabah (N r). — Remains of a rock-cut founda- 
tion, 14 paces square (whence the name), and traces of a wall. 

Khiirbet Murarah or Kefr Murr (Mr). — Foundations of 
buildings. The masonry is rudely squared, and set with broad joints. 
The stones are 2 feet to 4 feet long. There is nothing distinctive of date 
in the remains, but they may most probably belong to the Crusading 
period. The site appears to have been that of a small hamlet. 

Revisited 14th June, 1881. 

K h ia r b e t el M u t e i y i n ( K p). — Ruined walls. 

Khiirbet el Mutwy (L q). — A ruined village. 

Khiirbet Nalan (L r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khiirbet Nasr (N r). — Heap of stones, and mere traces of a ruin. 

Khiirbet Nejjara (K p). — There are here about two dozen 
tombs, some of which are merely graves sunk in the rock, with a groove 
to hold the lid-stone ; some are of the kind called ' rock-sunk,' one of which 
is covered, not by a cube of stone, but by a lid like a sarcophagus, with 
ornamental edge. One is a square chamber 8 feet side, with steps lead- 
ing down to its door. Two of the graves are only 4 feet long, directed at 
right angles to one another. South of the tombs are extensive founda- 
tions of stones roughly squared, of square proportions, i\ to 2 feet long; 
the mortar is white and hard, laid thick at the joints ; small stones are 
inserted into the mortar-joints. An inner wall is standing, four or five 
courses high, and an outer one two or three courses. 

Visited 27th May, 1873. 

Khiirbet En-Nejar (J p). 

Gue'rin mentions certain ' inconsiderable ' ruins on a hill half an hour to the north-east of 
Khiirbet Nijarah. These are probably the ' tombs ' marked on the map. 

Kh fir bet er Rafid (N q). — Foundations and heaps of stones, 
having an ancient appearance. There are rock-cut tombs in the valley 
immediately north. 

Khiirbet er Ras (Q q). — Just south of Kh. Kurkiish; 
consists of traces only ; between the two is an ancient ruined watch-tower, 
like those at Kurawa Ibn Hasan. 

Khiirbet er Ras (Mr). — Heaps of stones. 



[SHEET XI r.] ARCHAEOLOGY 



355 



K h u r b e t e r R a s h a n i y e h (L r). 

Khurbet Ras et Tireh (K p). — Walls and cisterns. 

K h u r b c t R u b i n (L r). — Walls of rude masonry, jambs and lintel 
of a doorway. There are three springs north of the ruin. 

Khurbet Sad e d Din (J q). 
This ruin, consisting of foundations of a rectangular enclosure (perhaps a church) and 
some broken columns, was found by Guiirin. It is not on the map, but is described as 
2 minutes east from Khurbet Dathrah. 

Khurbet es Sahlat (M q). — Traces of ruins. Rock-cut tombs 
on west. Spring on south. 

Khurbet es Samkiyeh (N r). — Heaps of stones. Founda- 
tions of old walls. 

Khurbet Satty (Mr). — Foundations, rock-cut tombs, said by 
the natives to be the stables of Burj Bardawil. 

Khurbet es Selemiyeh (Mr). — Rude walls oi houses and 
vineyard terraces. A spring by the mosque. Remains of rock-cut tombs 
on the south. 

Khurbet e s S e m a n e h (K p). — Heaps of stones. 

Khurbet S h e b t i n (K r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet S h e h a d e h (K p). — A large cistern, apparently natural. 

Khurbet Sheikh Ibrahim (Kq). 
This ruin was found by Gu^rin 35 minutes east-south-east of Abud on the way to 
Tibneh. It is not on the map. He describes it as the ruins of a village completely destroyed. 

Khurbet esh Shejerah (M p). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet esh Shellal (L p). — Foundations and rock-cut tombs, 
near a spring. 

Khurbet esh Shukf (L q). — Foundations. 

Khurbet esh Shuneh (N q). — Traces of ruins. 

K h 11 r b e t S i a (L r). — Foundations, modern, on an ancient site. 

Khurbet Sirisia (K p). — A ruined village of some size, visited 
in 1873, apparently not ancient ruins. 

' Situated on a hill surrounded by a valley. It consists only of thirty small enclosures of 
great blocks of stone, some cut, others not. They are the remains of houses. There are also 

45—2 



356 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

some cisterns cut in the rock, but these are half-hidden by the brushwood which grows all 
over the site of this ancient village.'— Guerin, ' Samaria,' ii. 144. 

Khurbct Som (L r). — Foundations; traces of ruins also north 
of it (marked R). 

K h ft r b e t e s S u m r a (K p). — Foundations, caves, cisterns ; traces 
of an ancient road. Appears to be an ancient site. 

K h u r b e t S 1 1 s i e h (K p). — Traces of ruins. 

K h fi r b e t T a n n 11 r a h (K p). — Walls, cisterns and a cave. 

Khiirbet et Tanturah (N r). — Traces of ruins; nothinq' 
distinctive. 

K h li r b e t e t T i r e h (N p). — Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t U m m el B u r e i d (J p). — Traces of ruins. 

' These ruins are situated on a hill surrounded by a wall constructed of good-sized blocks 
irregularly cut. 'Within the enclosure, in great part destroyed, I found the foundations of an 
ancient building lying east and west, which was probably a Christian church. The site which 
it occupied — whose extent I could not determine, so entirely has it been overthrown — is now 
strewn with stones in confusion, in the midst of which I found a great number of little cubes 
of white mosaic, which were formerly the pavement. Three broken columns lying among the 
rest of the rubbish showed that the central nave was separated from the sides by pillars. 
These have been either carried away or perhaps reduced to lime. At the entrance of the 
church, as one observes in many others of this period, a cistern cut in the rock furnished the 
water necessary for worship. Round the church the foundations of some twenty small houses 
are visible. I remarked also several cisterns, and a birket partly rock-cut and partly built up 
of old materials covered with thick cement' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' ii. 137. 

Khurbet U m m el Hiammam (J p). — A ruin with a 
Hum mam or birkeh ; between it and Kefr Kasim is a tomb — 
a rock-sunk iocnlns only. The birkeh measures about 50 feet by 
75 feet. It is of masonry, of good .size ; one of the corner-stones is 
4 feet 9 inches long by 2 feet 4 inches in height ; with several others it 
has two bosses ; the marginal draft is about i inch broad, the bosses rough, 
projecting from i inch to 6 inches. On the south side the cistern is 
pardy rock-cut, but on the north all masonry. On the interior there is 
rubble and good white mortar. Close by lies a fragment of a pillar, 2 feet 
diameter, of limestone, with a double fillet. On the east is a second 
birkeh, 20 feet by 12 feet. It is of rock, and lined with good cement, 
but irregularly cut ; there are places at the side to receive the haunchstones 
of an arch ; it is about 7 feet deep. A millstone, 6 feet diameter, lies near. 



[SHEET X/r.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 357 

and there is a ruined tower of small masonry, apparently a modern garden- 
house. 

There would appear to be two ruins of this name — the one described above, and the 
other visited by Guerin, whose account of it shows it to be nearly south of Khurbet 
Kesfa (J p). The remains, according to him (he says nothing about any birket) are those of 
a ruined town or village, only the lower courses of the wall remaining, and the whole over- 
grown with brushwood. Several cisterns were observed. Outside the town there is a 
vaulted building still standing in part. It is called el Hiimman, whence the name of the ruin. 

' On a neighbouring hill, higher than that on which this ruin stands, I saw the remains of 
a little church built east and west, measuring 20 paces in length by 16 in breadth. Despite 
its small dimensions, it seems to have had three naves, and som£ fragments of columns lying 
on the ground are probably the remains of those which seiMrated the central nave from the 
sides. The entrance was on the north by three rectangular doors, whose jambs supported 
monolith lintels. The buildings belonging to the church, and now destroyed, are probaljly 
those of a convent.' — 'Samaria,' ii. 135. 

\'isited 27th May, 1S73. 

Khurbet Umm cl Ikba (J q). — Seems to be a small ruined 
village. There are foundations of a building about 40 feet .square, of 
stones some 2 feet in length. On the south-west, a door with a lintel 
stone, 6 feet long. An enclosure of late date is built on to the building 
on this side, the wall having a straight joint. Ruined walls and houses of 
fair-sized masonry e.xist lower down the hill on the west. In the building 
above noticed there is a corner stone with a rustic boss, 4 feet by 2 feet 
by 2 feet. 

A small ruined kubbeh stands apart lower down the hill. It has a 
rubble roof of groined arches, supporting a little dome ; the walls are of 
small ashlar, with rubble on the inside, cemented over. An earthenware 
drain pipe from the roof descends apparendy to some cistern beneath. 

Near to this is a well and a Matruf roller. (See Khurbet 
S e m m a k a h, Sheet V.), but with only two grooves in it. There is also 
a rock-cut birkeh, 7 feet by 5 feet, and 6 feet deep ; there are also caves, 
and a number of M e t a m i r or caves sunk in the ground for storing corn. 
This points to the place being held sacred. 

This is no doubt the place mentioned and described by Guerin as the Khurbet Umm el 
Kubbeh. He gives the measurements of the enclosure as 34 paces on the east and west 
sides, 28 paces on the north, and 45 on the south, and says that the irregular shape of the 
building is due to its having followed the irregularities of the hill. He also found in the 
smaller enclosure the foundations of a rectangular chapel 20 paces in length by 9 in 
breadth. 

\'isited May 28th, 1873. 



358 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN EALESTINE. 

Khurbet Umm et Tawaky (J (j). — Ruimid houses. 

K h u r b e t Umm c 1 T i n e h (J p). 

Gucrin gives this name lo a small ruin lying due east of Mejdel Yaba. He found ten 
cisterns cut in the rock, and the foundations of houses. There is a nameless ruin on the 
map east of Mejdel Yaba, \vlii( h is possibly the jilace he means. 

K h 11 r 1) c t W a d y 'A 1) b a s (INI r).— Ruined walls, rock-cut tombs, 
much choked, probably with kokini hidden beneath the rubbish. 

Khiirbet \V a dy el 'Asas (N r). — Traces of ruins and founda- 
tions. 

K h u r b c t W a d y e s S e r a h (M r). — Foundations. 

Khiirbet Zakariya (J r). — See Khurbet el K el kh, which 
forms part of the same site. Foundations of large rough stones surround 
the little kubbeh ofNeby Zakariya, and appear ancient. See also 
El Habs. 

Visited January iSth, 1874. 

Khurbet Z e b d a h (J r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Zeifizfiyeh (J r). — Traces of ruins, cisterns in ruins, 
and an oil-press. 

K u b a 1 a n (N p). — The ruin to the east consists of heaps of stones. 

Kiileh (J q). — This village includes some well-built structures. 
There is a large building of small well-cut masonry of mediaeval ap- 
pearance ; the door on the south has a pointed arch and a tunnel vaulting. 
South of this is a square building, with walls 10 feet to 12 feet thick, and 
a staircase on one side leading to the roof ; the corner stones are large, 
drafted, and with a rustic boss; there are remains of a lofty doorway. This 
is called Burj Kuleh. There is a birkeh, about 20 feet square, and 
6 feet or 8 feet deep, lined with good cement ; it is called Birket er 
Ribba. These remains have the appearance of Crusading work, and 
the name, Neby Yahyah, close by, points also to former Christian 
occupation of the place. 

Visited June 7th, 1873. 

Kurawa Ibn Hasan (L p). — A village containing several 
remains of interest, and evidently once an important place. Its ancient 
name was given by the inhabitants as Sham et Tawil. 

The first place visited was Burj el Yakhur, in the upper part of 



[SHEET X/V.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 359 

the village towards the south. There is here a fine vault 48 feet long, 
24 feet wide, and 13 or 15 feet high ; the walls 6 or 8 (eet thick. The 
door has a lintel, with a relic of tr.icery, much defaced, upon it, and over 
this a low semicircular relieving arch. The roof is a tunnel vault of 
smaller masonry, with a kind of parabolic cross-section. A stone near the 
door has what appears to be a defaced Cufic inscription on it. Another 
is ornamented with diagonal criss-cross lines : this building seems, there- 
fore, to be partly a reconstruction. Pieces of cornice are also built 
into the walls. Some stones are drafted with a rustic boss, others are 

not. 

The second building is called Kulat Ferdus from a king whose 

tomb (Kabr el Melek Ferdus) is shown on the south. This is a 
tower in a very perfect condition, measuring 40 feet north and south, 
45 feet east and west outside. The walls are standing to a height of 
20 feet to 30 feet ; the place is now inhabited, and in the middle of 
the village. The walls are 5 feet thick; the interior is reached by two 
doors on the east ; there are 6 vaulted chambers, each about 1 2 feet long 
north and south, by 8 feet east and west ; they have semicircular vaulting 
of moderate masonry. 

The stones in the outer wall vary from i^ feet to 5 feet in length ; 
they are all drafted. In height the courses vary from 2 feet to i foot 
8 inches. The drafts are boldly cut, 4 inches broad, and i inch deep ; the 
bosses are dressed, and the joints well laid. This place has thus every 
appearance of a Byzantine building of the date of D e i r el K u 1 a h, 
but may possibly be earlier. 

In the south-east end of this village is the mosque of Sheik h 'A 1 y 
el A man at, which is larger than the average size of village Mukams. 
A vault was said to exist below it. Adjoining it, on the west, is a sunken 
building of good masonry. This measures 58 feet north and south, and 
39 feet 5 inches east and west. It consists of 3 bays of pilasters, pro- 
jecting 8 inches from the walls, and i foot 10 inches broad. The end 
walls seem more modern, and the building now used as a birkeh may 
extend under the mosque. The tops of the pilasters are ornamented 
with a moulding ; the stones in the walls are 4 feet or s feet in lent'-th 
well-dressed, and carefully laid, but the courses are of irre^Tular hei'dit. 
The present surface inside is 8 feet or 10 feet below the level of the 



36o THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

mosque lloor. A pillar base, 3 feet 4 inches diameter, stands (seemingly 
in si/a) 12 feet from the south-west buttress; this looks as if the buikl- 
ine had consisted o( a nave 26 feet wide, and two aisles 12 feet wide in 
the clear. There are remains of cement on the interior of the building, 
but the moulding of the buttresses seems to show that this is a later 
addition. Possibly the place was once a church, and is now converted into 
a birkeh. 

The fine sepulchral monument called Deir eel Derb is about 
half-a-mile south of the village (see under that name). There are on 
the south and east, in a low flat valley, a number of ancient towers, 
some of which have names. Of these K usr M an surah is the most 
remarkable. It is a drystone tower, like those near 'A z z u n (Sheet XL), 
but with an arch 10 feet diameter, semicircular, of 11 voussoirs well cut. 
This supported probably a roof of tiat slabs as at 'A z z u n, which would 
have been some 4 or 5 feet long. The door is very small, and placed on 
the south side ; the lintel is rudely drafted ; over the door is a window 
3 feet high ; the building is about 1 5 feet square outside, and 1 5 feet 
high. 

Kusr el Kinz, Kusr es Subah, and K u 1 a t el 
K u m e i k m e h (L p) are similar watch-towers in various stages of ruin, 
but without the cut- stones. 
\^isited 2nd June, 1873. 

Kurnet el Haramiyeh (J p).- — Stones of good size in a founda- 
tion ; near it a small rubble-work tower, aj^parently not ancient. 

Guerin says that the ' siiuare enclosure,' by which he probably means the same tower, 
measures 1 7 paces on each side, and is constructed of enormous blocks rudely quarried, and 
lying upon each other without cement. — ' Samaria,' ii. 138. 

Lubban (M q). — The tombs cut in the rock are very rudely 

e.xecuted, and are inhabited by the peasantry. Near the village mosque 

are five pillar shafts, apparently belonging to a former chapel. 

The hou.ses appear to be very ancient, and present the particularity that many of them form 
together a continued whole, as if they were all one house, now divided among separate 
families. A quantity of ancient materials may be observed in the walls.— Guerin, ' Samaria,' 
ii. 112. 

M e j d e 1 Y a b a (J q). — The house of the Sheikh at this place is so 
built that one wall is against the wall of a building, possibly a church ; 



{SHEET XIV.-\ ARCH.EOLOGY. 361 

this is used as a stable, and is of massive masonry, with a side door 
surmounted with a lintel bearing the inscription : 

MAPTYPION TOY AriOY KIIPYKOY. 
' The Memorial (Church) of Saint Cerycus.' 

Over the lintel is a semicircular arch with a keystone (a sketch is given 
in Finn's ' Byeways of Palestine,' p. 130, but the arch is there shown as 
pointed). The inscription is on a winged tablet ; the door is to the right 
on entering the house, and the arch faces eastward ; the letters are about 
4 inches long. The doorway leads into a vault with a barrel roof, and 
the arch over it inside is slightly pointed. The lintel is probably not 
in situ, but must have belonged to a church, probably of Byzantine 
period. 

A little further north are fragments of a building, which appear to be 
Crusading. At Sheikh Baraz ed Din there are several rough 
tombs and caves, one cemented. There is also a tomb of the kind called 
' rock-sunk,' with a vault about 6 feet deep, and two unusually broad side 
loculi ; thus, once more, the 'rock-sunk tomb' appears in connection with 
Christian ruins. 

Visited 28th May, 1S73. 

M erda (L p). 

The site of an ancient town. Gu^rin observed that the mosque, now partly destroyed, 
lies east and west, and seems to have succeeded a Christian church. Before it lies a platform, 
beside which are a cistern and a small birket. There are also several broken capitals lying 
on the ground. 

Mis mar (K q). — A ruined house and foundations, apparently 
modern. 

Mokata 'A b u d (K q). — A fine group of rock-cut tombs, visited 
and planned by Major Wilson in 1866. Nine tombs in all were here 
planned by the Survey party. The first 
was simply a koka cut in rock, i foot 
8 inches wide at the entrance and 6 feet 
long. The second is a chamber entered 

by a doorway 2 feet 3 inches wide, the Jl^!^!TiS^ 

chamber 8 feet square, with a raised 

bench round three sides. It has three kokiin to the left, three to the 
VOL. II. 46 





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362 



THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 



right, three at the back, 6 feet long, i foot 10 inches broad; the left 
hand one at the baclc is about 5 feet long and unfinished. The kokim 
have arched roofs. 

The third is the most important tomb of the group, with a portico sur- 
mounted by a sculptured frieze, probably once supported by two columns, 
and having pilasters at the side. The portico is 19 feet broad and 9 feet 
8 inches deep. It has a door at the back and on the right, leading to two 
chambers. The frieze above represents wreaths, rosettes and grape 







\A 






bunches divided by triglyphs, and appears to be of the same style with 
the Kabur es Salatan at Jerusalem. These are the so-called 
' Tombs of the Kings,' but more probably the monument of Helena, 
Queen of Adiabene, second century, b.c. The roof of the porch is flat, 
about 1 5 feet from the ground. 

The chamber at the back is 1 1 feet wide, with a depth of 1 1 feet 
9 inches back to front ; the door is arched outside. There are three kokhn 
on each of three walls, nine in all, 5 feet 8 inches long, i foot 10 inches 
broad, all with arched roofs. There are small recesses in the back and 
left hand wall, probably for tear-bottles, or some gift to the dead. 



{SHEET A'/K] ARCH.^OLOGY. 363 

The ricrht hand chamber is the most remarkable tomb found durino- 
the course of the Survey, its walls beinq- carefully cemented and 
pointed in fresco. The chamber is 9 feet by 9 feet 8 inches, and has 
three koktm at the back, and three to the left ; they measure 6 feet in 
length, and arc widened as they recede, i foot 6 inches wide on the tomb 
wall, 2 feet at the further or head end. They are 2 feet 7 inches high, 
with arched roofs — a semicircular tunnel vault. The roof of the tomb 
chamber has also a semicircular vault. 

Between the top of the kokhn and the roof of the tomb, the measure- 
ment is 1 1 inches ; the design in the fresco here consists of four lozenges, 
black, bordered with red, on a white ground, three red squares between ; 
above comes a wavy festoon in red, yellow, and white. Between the 
koktm there are panels of red. 

This ornamentation is incomplete on the right hand wall, where there 
are no kokhn ; it seems to have been intended to paint alternate red and 
white panels, and the places are marked out ; a dash of red paint is also 
placed on one of those which was to have been finished with red. There 
is a recess over the middle koka at the back, 3 feet 3 inches, by 2 feet 
deep, and 2 feet 9 inches high. 

The door of this side chamber is 2 feet wide. It has a Greek fret 
running round the sides and top, and above this a frieze i foot 5 inches 
high, 3 feet 10 inches long ; it represents a vine with bunches of grapes 
and leaves pendant from branches, very awkwardly designed, and executed 
in low relief. The fret is 4A inches wide ; the door is 4 feet high. 

On the front of the portico above described, the following marks are 
cut : 



^ 



These seem most probably tribe marks. 

The fourth tomb is a chamber 8i feet square, with nine kokhn, three 
on each wall, with arched roofs. 

The fifth tomb is approached by rock-cut steps made in quarrying the 
rock ; the floor of this chamber is sunk lower than the sill of the entrance, 
and there is a stone bench round the walls. The chamber is 8 feet square, 
a koka each side, and two (with room for a third) at the back. This is a 

46 — 2 



3^4 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



case in which, from the position of the kokini, it seems that it was intended 
to excavate others as they were required. All the kokiin have arched 
roofs. 




Omairunua on tcp 



i' f fl N<>4 



'-3== 



Z3: 




N''e. 

Kokot 



This IS m the preapifc 

imb ts consulerahl^ hxgherup 



The sixth tomb is higher up in the rock, above the fifth ; it is merely 
a koka with arched roof. 

No. 7 is a large tomb with a portico 22 feet wide, and 9^ feet to the 
back, the roof some 10 feet or 12 feet from the floor. There was a 
frieze above the porch, of wreaths and rosettes, separated by triglyphs 





// ■ 



n 



-^:\ 





like that of the 'Retreat of the Apostles' at Jerusalem. This frieze 
is 22 feet long, and i foot 4 inches high. The chamber has four kokmi 
on each wall, 12 in all ; they have arched roofs, and rebates at the kokim 
mouths held the slabs which closed the kokrin. 

No. 8 appears to be only a doorway of a tomb just begun. 

No. 9, at some little distance east of the rest, has a rough door and 
nine kokim, three on each wall, of rather large size. 

The similarity of the sculptured friezes to those at Jerusalem would 
seem to date this cemetery as about the first century of the Christian 
Era. 

Visited and planned, June 5th, 1873. 

El Mu dadir (K p). — A ruined village, apparently modern. 



[SHEET X/V.] ARCHEOLOGY. 365 

M u k a m en Ncby Y a h y a h (J cj). — One of the most curious 
monuments in the country. It was visited by Consul Finn in 1S48 and 
1859, by Major Wilson in 1S66 (Photograph 110), by the Survey party in 
1872 and 1873. At the latter visit a plan and sketch of detail were made. 
The building has its entrance on the north, and has a bearing along 
the fa9ade of "Ji. It consists of a portico and a square building, includ- 
ing two chambers. The portico measures 30 feet by 9 feet 6 inches out- 
side ; the rest of the buildins^ 30 feet by 24 feet. The western chamber 
is 15 feet broad, the eastern 8 feet, interior measurement. The main part 
of the building is 14 feet 8 inches high to the roof, which is complete, but 
the eastern chamber has its roof 2 J feet higher. The pillar shafts are 

9 feet long. The portico has two pillars and two piers, with Corinthian 
capitals supporting a cornice. It seems probable that a second story stood 
above the roof of the building, or at least a parapet wall. 

The moulding of the little door was the most curious feature of the 
building, and unlike any other monument found by the Survey party. 
These details are all given on the plans. The door is only 3 feet 

10 inches wide outside, and 3 feet 6 inches inside ; 4 feet 8 inches high 
outside, 5 feet inside the wall, 3 feet 6 inches thick. 

The material of the walls is hard stone, but the masonry is roughly 
hewn, and not in all cases squared ; small stones are used in places in the 
thick joints, with white mortar mixed with pieces of pottery. The 
masonry of the porch is better, being squared, but the height of the 
courses is irregular. The whole is much worn with age, and of a deep 
yellow colour, like that of the Haram wall at Jerusalem. The walls appear 
to have been repaired in parts, and the roof, perhaps, also. 

In the western chamber there is a cenotaph and a mihrab. These are 
both evidently modern additions, and no part of the original design. 

The roof of the western chamber is supported on two semicircular ribs 
of 19 voussoirs each. The key-stones are the smallest, the haunch-stones 
the largest, as in Byzantine buildings. On these ribs, 15 feet span, and 
about 2 feet wide, the flat roofing slabs are laid in three rows of si.x each, 
north and south. The eastern chamber is roofed with six slabs. 

A staircase leads up the east wall of the east chamber inside ; it con- 
sists of flat slabs built into the wall, of which seven remain. They lead 
up a height of 10 feet 10 inches to a window, of which there are three on 



366 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



the east wall of different heights. The rest of the staircase was, perhaps, 
outside, but' there is also an opening to the roof on the north. 

The slabs on the roof are covered with a very hard cement mi.xed 








Pduster ami Cornice 



Fdlar 











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Door 



with pounded pottery (this is found in Crusading ruins, as at Caesarea. 

(See Sheet VII.) 

The principal indications with regard to this curious building are : 
1st. The order of architecture, which appears to be a debased classic 

style, such as would date to the early Christian period. 



[SHEET X/V.] ARCHEOLOGY. 367 

2nd. The fad that the roof is of the same date with the buiidinsfs 
which seems indicated by the method by which it is supported on the cross- 
wall and arches. The cross-wall is then part of the original design of the 
structure. 

3rd. The arches of the roof are semicircular, with narrow key-stones, 
as in fifth century buildings. 

4th. The general arrangement of the roof (which is that used in 
modern houses in the north of Syria), is also found in the ruined build- 
ings of the Hauran and 'Alah districts, which are attributed to the early 
Christian period. 

5th. Native tradition connects the place with St. John Baptist, who 
had a church at M e j d e 1 Y a b a, not far off. 

Visited June 7th, 1873. 

Ra-fat (K q). — On the north-west of the village is a steep rocky 
descent, in which are two tombs of the kind called ' rock-sunk,' one of 
which is cut in a square block of rock, the top of which is levelled. 

Visited 29th May, 1873. 
Guerin found a number of ancient cisterns, and a rectangular birket cut in the rock and 
measuring 15 paces long by 10 broad. He also speaks of 'several' tombs similar to those 
described above. 

Ras el Akra (J r). — Cairns on a prominent hill. 

Ras ed Dar (M p). — Foundations. 

Ras et Turfineh (M r). — Heaps of stones and traces of ruins. 

Re n t i s (K q). — South-west of the village, west of the Survey camp, 
there were some rude rock-cut tombs, with kokim cut in very soft rock. 

R u m m 6 n (N r). 
Guerin says that the sides of the hills are pierced by numerous grottoes, several of them 
serving as places of refuge to shepherds and their cattle. Here and there are ancient cisterns. 
The houses are built of old materials. 

S e 1 i t a (K p). — Walls in a fig-garden. 

Sheikh Y u s e f (M r). — A modern tomb and well. 

Sell tin (X q). — The position of this place is remarkably retired, 
shut in between high bare mountains, which intercept the view on every 
side. The ruins stand on a rounded Tell, with a deep valley at the back 
(about 50 or 70 feet below the top of the Tell) ; they consist of ruined 
houses of a modern village, with here and there fragments of masonry. 



368 



THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



which may date back to Crusading times, especially one slopino;- scarp. 
At the back of the village on the north is a sort of terrace with rocky 
sides, and other terraces below. This terrace is 77 feet wide north and 
south by 412 feet long, and the rock at the sides stands up in places to- 



&%^ > 




wards the east as high as 5 feet above the arable ground of the terrace. 
There are said to be only a few* inches of soil in the space between these 
scarps, and there are several small cisterns close by. Major Wilson pro- 
poses to recognise this as the place where the tabernacle stood. (' Quar- 
terly Statement,' January, 1873, p. 38.) 

South of the village at the foot of the hill is the J a m i a el Y e t e i m, 
a low building of stone, roughly squared, with a door on the north, and 
shaded by a fine oak tree. It has a mihrab on the 
south, and is divided into two aisles, being rather longer 
east and west than north and south. There is an 
outer stairway to the roof. South of this is a small 
birkeh with steps to it. 
rouruiM.,rv„fsuu,of-Door jj^g ,-,.,Qgj remarkable monument is a little further 

south, and is now called J ami a el Arbain. This building has two. 



/ 



{SHEET X1V.'\ 



ARCH.EOLOGY. 



369 




or perhaps three, periods. Tlie main portion is a square, with walls 3 feet 
thick. On the north (see Photograph No. 99) is the door 4 feet 8 inches 
wide, surmounted with a flat lintel 
stone 6 feet long, 2 feet high, on 
which are car\-ed two wreaths, 
flanked by two double - handed 
pitchers, and in the centre an 
amphora. (N.B. — An almost 
identical design occurs over a 
tomb at Kefr Bcita in a 
cemetery of koktvi tombs, Sheet 
XII.) On the west wall is another 
small entrance, surmounted by an 
arch, slightly pointed, with a key- 
stone. The masonry of the walls is carefully squared and dressed, the 
stones from i foot to 18 inches in length. No masons' marks were found. 
A strong sloping revetment or scarp has been built at a later time 
against these walls on the north, south and west ; on the latter side it is 
broken down. It is 13 feet 6 inches high to the top, and 6 feet thick at 
the bottom, making the wall 3 feet and 9 feet in all at top and bottom. 

This scarp is of smaller stones and rougher work than the wall it 
covers, and is evidently a later addition. 

In the interior of the building are three columns of about iS inches 
diameter, lying about ; also a capital w^ith acanthus 
leaves, apparently belonging to the shafts. 

A small ruined mosque, with walls 2\ feet thick, is 
built on to the west side of the square, measuring 24 feet 
north and south, and 16 feet 7 inches east and west out- o^"^- •/"""- '='^w«« 
side. It has a mihrab on the south wall, 2 feet 8 inches diameter, 
2 feet deep. 

The spring of Seiliin is three-quarters of a mile north-east up a 
narrow valley, the sides of which are flanked by rock-cut tombs, much 
destroyed. The water is good, and runs through an underground channel 
towards a rock-cut birkeh. One tomb near it, hewn in a detached block 
of rock, is peculiar. It is partly destroyed, but consisted of two chambers, 
with a loculus sunk in the top of the rock. (Photograph No. loi.) 
VOL. II. 47 




370 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

There is also a tomb west of S c i 1 u n in the side of the valley lead- 
ing towards L u b b a n. 

There are traces of an ancient road leading to S e i 1 u n from the 
south, the roadway lo feet wide. 

S inj il (RI q). 

' On the summit of the hill are observed the foundations of two strongholds, built of great 
blocks, evidently ancient, one of which is called the Kasr (" Fort "), and the other the Keniseh 
("Church"). The latter is, in fact, built east and west, and may have been a church. On 
the lower flanks of the hill I found several ancient tombs cut in the rock. One of the largest, 
preceded by a vestibule, contains two loculL' — Gu^rin. 

Taiyibeh (N r) was evidently a place of importance both in the 
Jewish times and in the Crusading period. A great number of rock-cut 
'bee-hive' cisterns occur on all sides of the village. On the north-west 
the rock has been extensively quarried, and there are several round sunk 
troughs in the rock (about 3 feet in diameter), probably small wine- 
presses. A birkeh, about 10 yards square, is also cut in the hill-side, and 
there are two tombs facing west, with carefully hewn entrances. The 
first is choked, but has an arched doorway, 9 feet wide, and 6 feet deep, 
the door beyond being 2\ feet wide. The second (or southern) tomb had 
an outer chamber, about 7 feet square, with a bench under an anosoliinn 
on the left. The entrance to the inner chamber appears to have been 
ornamented with sculpture, but has been broken down. Within is a 
chamber with nine kokim — three on each wall. They are large and well- 
formed, one being at a lower level (its fioor on the same level as that 
of the chamber) in the north-west corner. The entrance to this tomb 
has a fine rock-cut arch, and above this a double Latin (or Patriarch's) 
cross is cut in low relief. Thus the tomb, though Jewish, seems to have 
been re-used later by Christians. 

On the west side of Wady el Ain, west of Taiyibeh, is a single tomb, a 
square chamber v/ith a single koka at the back, and a bench with a koka 
beyond it on the right hand wall. The doorway has a place for the hinge 
and three bolt-holes cut in it. 

The Latin and Greek churches in the village are quite modern, the 
former built about 1875. The houses contain remains of ancient masonry, 
and are fairly well-built. Three pillar-shafts and some drafted stones 
occur in a terrace-vvall on the south side of the village. 

The top of the hill is occupied by the remains of a Crusading fortress. 



[SHEET XIV.] ARCHEOLOGY. 



371 



An outer enceinte, surrounded with vaulted chambers opening inwards (as 
at 'Athlit, Sheet V.), and an inner keep are traceable. The north-east 
angle of a tower, built of large stone, rudely drafted, is standing, some 
I 2 feet high. The east and south sides of the fort have been destroyed, 
probably intentionally, and modern houses cover the area. The paving of 
an inner courtyard is visible, and beneath this is a large cistern with a 
tunnel vault. The walls of the ancient vaulted chambers are some 5 feet 
thick, and have the appearance of Crusading work. 

On the north side a sloping scarp is visible about 25 feet high, and e.\- 
tending along two sides of an irregular polygon, 68 paces and ;^j paces 
side from the north-east angle, which is built up of drafted stones, i to 2 
feet long, the draft 3 to 4 inches wide, the faces rudely dressed. The 
rest of the masonry is rudely hewn and not drafted. 

Revisited June iSth, 1881. 

According to the village elders, Taiyibeh was formerly the scene of a 
great battle between the rival factions of Keis and Yemini, apparently 
some 60 or 70 years since. The whole of the south of Palestine 
was then divided between these two parties : the Keis being headed by 
the family of the Beni Simhan, and the Yemini by the family of Abu 
Ghosh (from Kuryet el 'Anab, Sheet XVII.). Mustafa Abu Ghosh was 
assisted by the 'Adwan, the Mesaid, the Kabneh, the Meshalkhah, and 
the Teiyahah Arabs. Hasein Ibn Simhaan was allied with Hasein el 
Waheiyideh, Emir of the Tell el Hesy Arabs (Sheet XX.), also wuth the 
Emir of the Hawarith Arabs, with the Sukr, and with the Shukran faction 
headed by the 'Abd el Hady family from 'Arrabeh. The western dis- 
tricts belonged to the Keis, those east of the watershed to the Yemini. 

The Arabs allied to the latter recovered Taiyibeh from the Keis, and 
took Kefr Malik and Selwad and Rummon. The inhabitants of Taiyibeh 
and Rummon, who had been driven away by the Keis to Jerusalem and 
Salt, now returned. The Keis were not driven out of Deir Diwan, and 
fought the Yemini Arabs at Khurbet 'Alia, then a village of the Yemini. 
The Keis were victorious, and killed 30 of the opposite party. The Arabs 
retreated east of Jordan, and the Keis destroyed 'Alia, which has never been 
rebuilt ; they also recovered the villages of Selwad and Kefr Malik. These 
factions are still e.xistent, though suppressed by the Turkish Government. 

Tell ' A s u r is still a sacred place among the peasantry, though 

47—2 



372 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

no Mukam exists. There is a group of fine oaks on the hill-top. (See 
Baal Hazar, Section A.), sacred apparently to a certain Sheikh Hadherah 
(the proper Arab form of Hazor). The Rijal el 'Asawir, or ' Men of 
'Asur,' said to be companions of the Prophet, are also invoked by the 
Moslems. This appears to be a probable survival of the ancient ctUtus of 
Baal on this lofty summit. 

Here Gucrin found ancient cisterns cut in the rock, and vaulted houses still standing. In 
the middle of the plateau was a Wely dedicated to Sheikh Hassan, on the site of an old church, 
now destroyed, of which some ruins remain, especially four fragments of columns lying on 
great slabs which were once the pavement of the church. Beside them a chapter, on which 
was formerly sculptured a cross of square form. 

Et Tell (M r). — This mound, conspicuous on the south, is at the 
end of a spur. There are no ruins, except a large cistern, and terrace 
walls supporting the soil. On the top is a fine group of olive trees. The 
view includes the Jordan valley, the Jordan, the north end of the Dead 
Sea, Rummon, Taiyibeh, Deir Diwan, Jeba, er Ram, Tell el Ful, Neby 
Samwil, and Jerusalem, also Tell 'Asur. On the road west of the Tell is 
an enclosure of rude blocks, some 4 yards square. Further west still, 
beside the same ancient road to Bethel, is a square structure of rude 
blocks, 2 feet to 4 feet long, two courses remaining, about 10 feet square. 
There is a similar structure in the valley, south-east of Deir Shebab. 
They resemble altars, but there is no indication of date. 

The following is Sir Charles AVilson's account of Et Tell : 

' In the spring of 1866 several days were spent by Lieutenant Anderson and myself in 
examining the mountain district east of Beitin (Bethel), with the view of fixing, if possible, 
the site of Ai, and the position of the mountain on which Abram pitched his tent and built 
his second altar to Jehovah after entering the Promised Land. The examination consisted in 
personally visiting ever)' hill-top and almost every acre of ground for several miles, east, north, 
and south of Bethel, and the result was most satisfactory, for we were able with great certainty 
to identify Ai with et Tell, and the mountain of the altar with a prominent hill between 
et Tell and Beitin. Several previous travellers appear to have identified Ai with the quasi- 
isolated hill of et Tell, but their descriptions of it are vague and unsatisfactory, its position is 
constantly changing on their maps, and it appears as Tell el Hajar, " The Heap of Stones," Tell 
er Rijmeh, " The Heap of Ruins," names which were probably given by the Arabs in answer to 
the question " What Tell ?" when the traveller was not satisfied with the first simple answer 
that he received — that it was et Tell, " The Heap." After close questioning we could never 
obtain any other name than that of et Tell, and it was with great pleasure that, after our 
return to England, I learnt from the Rev. G. Williams that in the original text of Joshua viii. 28, 
Joshua is said to have " burnt Ai and made it a Tell for ever," and that the word " Tell " only 
occurs in four other passages of the Bible, among which are Deut -xiii. 16, and Joshua .xi. 13. 
Mr. ^Villiams's identification of Ai with et Tell, which I was not aware of at the time, was 
described by him in a paper read before the Church Congress at Dublin in 186S. 



[SHEET Xir.] ARCHEOLOGY. 373 

' The topography of Ai is as minutely described as that of any oilier place in the Bible ; it 
lay to the east of Bethel, it had a valley on the north, and another on the west, in which the 
five thousand men were placed in ambush ; it also had a plain in front of, or on the cast side 
of it, over which the Israelites were pursued by the men of Ai. (See Joshua vii. 2, and 
viii. 1 1-14.) These features are all found in connection with et Tell, and with no other place 
in the neighbourhood of Bethel. The ground, which at first breaks down rapidly from the 
great ridge that forms the backbone of Palestine, swells out into a small plain three-nuarters 
of a mile broad before commencing its abrupt descent to the Jordan valley, and at the head 
or western end of this plain, on a projecting spur which has almost the appearance of an 
isolated hill, are the ruins known as et Tell. A short distance west of the mound, and entirely 
concealed from it by rising ground, is a small ravine well suited for an ambush, one of the 
branches of the main valley which runs close to et Tell and protects its northern face, the 
same into which the army of the Israelites descended the night before the capture of the city. 
On the hills to the north beyond the valley, Joshua encamped before making his final 
arrangements for the attack (viii. 11, 12), and it seems probable that he took his stand at 
some point on the same hill-side whilst the battle was raging, for there is a most commanding 
view over the whole scene, not only up the lateral valley in which the ambush was placed, 
but also down the way of the wilderness. He would thus be able at the same time to control 
the feigned flight of the Israelites, and signal the ambush to rise up quickly and seize the city. 
The site of Ai is now covered from head to foot with heaps of stones and ruins ; there are a 
large number of rock-hewn cisterns and the remains of ancient terraces, some of which arc 
cultivated by the fellahin of the neighbouring villages. On the top of the hill is a small 
circular space with a few olive-trees, which are blown on one side by the westerly gales like the 
well-known " Judas tret " at Jerusalem, and form a prominent object in the landscape for miles 
round, as the towers of Ai may have done before Joshua made them a Tell for ever. It may 
be mentioned here that there is no practicable road up the beds of the wadies from Jericho 
to Bethel. The present track crosses the plain mentioned above as lying below et Tell ; and 
the old road, the ascent by which Elisha " went up " to Bethel, must have followed the same 
course. Ai lying thus between the ravine on the north and the gorge on which Michmash 
stands (the " passage " of Isaiah x. 29) on the south, would lie directly in the way of an army 
advancing from the Jordan valley to the interior of Palestine. 

' Having fixed the site of Ai, our next object was to find the hill on which Abram and Lot 
were encamped before their separation. The place is described in Genesis xii. 8, as "a 
mountain on the east of Bethel, having Bethel on the west, and Ai on the east," and exactly 
in this position we found a hill from which there is a most commanding view, such as might 
be expected from Genesis xiii. 10, over the surrounding country, embracing the lower portion 
of the Jordan valley, the plain of Jericho, and the northern extremity of the Dead Sea. 

'On the top of the hill we noticed the ruins, or rather foundations, of an old fortified 
church, which are mentioned by one or two writers only. The church is 65 feet 6 inches 
long by 48 feet 6 inches broad, and lies in an enclosure 133 feet long by 73 feet broad, round 
the walls of which can be traced the foundations of cells or chamber.s. Some fragments of 
Corinthian capitals and the broken shafts of several columns were lying in the interior. 

' The presence of a church in such a position, with such a view from it, and with traces of 
an old road leading from it towards Bethel, was so striking that we could hardly resist 
coming at once to the conclusion that the site of Abram's altar was perfectly well known to 
the early Christians — as .-\i was certainly known to them by name down to the fourth century 



374 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

— and that the church was purposely built on the spot in commemoration of the events wliich 
had taken place there. 

' If we are right in identifying this hill with the mountain of Genesis xii. 8, there is one 
question on which considerable light will be thrown, the site of the cities of the plain. It is 
hardly possible, I think, for anyone to read the account in (ienesis xiii. lo, without feeling 
that Abram and Lot were actually looking down on Sodom and Gomorrah when " Lot lifted 
up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere, before 
the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah,'' etc. If this be the case, then the view from the 
hill fixes their position to have been on the plain at the northern end of the Dead Sea, not 
under the hills near Jericho, but out in mid-plain, possibly not far from the now barren tract 
which most travellers skirt on their way from the Dead Sea to the Jordan. That the greater 
l)ortion of this tract was at one time cultivated, " well watered everywhere, even as a garden 
of the Lord," there is ample evidence in the numerous traces of former irrigation to be found 
on a careful examination of the ground. In support of this view may be cited the mention 
of tJie plain of Jordan in verse lo, which could not have extended below the point at which 
the river entered the Dead Sea, and the direct testimony in verse 1 1 that Lot journeyed east, 
a course which would lead him far away from the southern end of the Dead Sea where 
writers from Josephus to the present day have placed the cities of the plain. The only 
argument which appears to be uniavourable to the above theory is that Abram would not 
have been able to see the smoke of the country going up like the smoke of a furnace from 
any point near his camp at Mamre. This would perhaps be true if his tent was pitched 
under " Abraham's Oak," in the valley near Hebron, but not if it was at Ramet el Khalil, 
where old tradition placed it, and where there are still the remains of Constantine's Church. 
The wording is also different in the two passages : in one case, Lot beholds the plain ; in the 
other, Abraham looks towards all the land of the plain and sees the smoke of the doomed 
cities rising up into the sky ; and it may be added that he could not have seen more if the 
cities had been at the southern end of the lake, tor it is not visible either from the neighbour- 
hood of Hebron or Ramet el Khalil.'* 

T i b n e h (L q).— A Tell 200 yards east and west by about 100 yards 
north and south, with a deep rugged valley (Wady Reiya) on the 
north and flat low ground to the south, where is the Roman road ; 100 yards 
south is a flat hill, in which is the cemetery of the town. On the north-west 
is 'A i n T i b n e h, a spring of good water emerging in a rocky channel. 

On the south-west is Sheikh e t T e i m, a noble oak tree some 30 
or 40 feet in height, and perhaps the largest tree to be found in Palestine; 
by it is a modern well, and a little further east a dry well. West of the 
tree are traces of ruins. The tree is fully covered with foliage, the leaf 
being extremely small. (See Photograph No. 107.) 

There are remains of walls on the west side of the Tell, apparently 
remains of an Arab village, and quite modern. Beside the road, further 

* The traditional place where Abraham is said to have stood before Jehovah is Beni 
Naim, about five miles cast of Hebron. 






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[SHEET XIV.\ 



ARCHEOLOGY. 



575 



east, there is, however, the foundation of a wall of drafted stones ; one 
measured 2 feet 2 inches by 2 feet 3 inches, and had a draft 3 inches wide, 
2 inches deep, the boss roughly dressed. 

Nine tombs were here observed, of which five were closed up with rubbish. 
The first tomb furthest west (sometimes called Joshua's Tomb) has a 
porch in front of it 11 feet high, 24 feet long, 10 feet 10 inches broad. 
In front of this were two pilasters and two piers of rock about 2 feet square. 
Both the piers were standing in 1866, but one had disappeared in 1873. 
The rock e.xtends 26 feet 6 inches in front of the fa9ade, in continuation of 
the line of the side-walls of the porch. The piers and pilasters are rudely 
cut, and not square ; they have capitals with a very simple moulding. The 
rock above is covered with bushes. (See Photograph No. 108.) 

The facade inside the tomb is remarkable for the number of niches 
for lamps, arranged in rows but not symmetricalK'. There are over 
200 of these niches, and they are all blackened with smoke. 

The inner chamber is entered by a small square doorway about 2 feet 
2 inches broad. 

The chamber within is 13 feet 9 inches to the back, and 13 feet 
6 inches broad. A bench or mastabah 3 feet 4 inches wide runs round 

the side and back walls. The central 
part is much filled with rubbish. The 
height from the bench to the roof is 
6 feet. There are 15 kokim, 5 on each 
wall, about 6 feet 9 inches long, and 
about 2 feet broad. They are not parallel, 
but pointed outwards like a fan. They 
are rudely cut, but have arched roofs, 
and are recessed to hold a square slab in 
front. The koka is 2 feet 9 inches high, 
the slab recess 3 feet. 

The middle koka at the back is con- 
verted into a passage 3 feet 4 inches 
broad, 7 feet long, 2 feet 9 inches high, 
leading to an inner and thus probably more recent chamber, which is 
trapezoidal, 8 feet i inch to the back. 7 feet 7 inches broad at the back, 
9 feet 3 inches at the front, 5 feet 5 inches high. On the left a niche for 



Rrvahcn ofLocsSL 




376 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

a lamp ; at the back a koka 7 feet 5 inches long and 2 feet 5 inches broad. 
Its floor is some 3 feet above that of the chamber. There is an attempt 
at ornamentation in a kind of small pendcntive of rock left in each corner 
of the chamber. 

No. 3 is a tomb, with a portico measuring 25 feet by 10 feet. It 
has two piers and two pilasters, and, between these, entrances with semi- 
circular arches cut in the rock, about 6 feet span. Over these is a rude 
ornamentation much worn, which appears to have represented festoons, 
wreaths, and rosettes, much more rudely executed than those of M o k a t d 
'A bud, but in the same style. There was originally a cornice above, now 
broken away. The tomb is choked^only the top of the door visible. 
No. 4 is only a koka cut in the rock. 

No. 7 has a porch 7 feet by 12 feet 2 inches, and a chamber within 
with 15 kokim, 5 on each wall. The doorway is damaged. 

There are remains of the ancient pavement of the Roman road close 
to this site. 

Visited 6th June, 1873. 

Gudrin found on the hill the ruins of a small square tower, built of medium-sized stones, 
and containing two ancient cisterns. On the top of the hill he saw the remains of a burj of 
Arab appearance. ' The hill on three sides looks over deep ravines : on the south it gradually 
slopes towards a valley covered over with habitations. Here is a birket, 30 paces long by 1 5 
broad, with several cisterns cut in the rock.' 

Guerin describes the tomb in much the same words as Lieutenant Conder. He adds, 
however, an interesting fact. It is that the fellahin only opened the inner chamber shortly 
before his own visit in 1863, and they found in it a sort of candelabrum, with three branches 
in yellow metal, and very heavy, which they sold to an officer of Bashibazouks for fifty 
piastres. The natives called the place Khubbet el Endieh. He then goes on to give his 
reasons for believing this to be the veritable tomb of Joshua. They may thus be summed up : 

(i.) It is a magnificent tomb, evidently designed for some Prince in Israel. 

(2.) The presence of the niches, not only in the chambers, but also in the vestibule open to 
the daylight, proves that it was a tomb held in the highest reverence. 

(3.) Joshua asked for, and obtained, for his lot, the city of Timnath Terah, in Mount 
Ephraim. Here lie was buried 'on the north side of the hill Gaash.' The Septuagint 
(Joshua xxiv. 30) renders Gaash by Galaad. It also adds that the knives with which Joshua 
had circumcised the people were placed in his tomb with him. And the Serah or Heres 
became in the Septuagint Saracl: or Sachar. 

(4.) The modern Tibneh faces the northern slope of a hill, on which stand the tombs 
described. May not this be Mount Gaash > 

(5.) The tomb of Joshua was known in the time of Eusebius and of Jerome. Paula visited 
the tomb, and says that the tomb of Phinchas was at ' Gabaa,' which corresponds to the 
modern Jibia. 




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[SHEET X/ v.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 



377 



(6.) Eusebius goes on to say that the town of Qatn/aaaia belonged to the tribe of Dan, 
which could never be said of Kefr Haris, the rival site. 

(7.) The tomb is of the greatest antiquity : the pilasters have no other ornamentation than 
a simple moulding. 

(8.) The tomb has been planned and measured by De Saulcy, and on his drawings a 
careful study has been made by M. Aurfes, published in the Jievue Archeologique. He asserts 
in this paper that the measure used was the Egyptian royal cubit of seven palms — brought by 
the Hebrews from Egypt. 

(9.) As to the 'knives' placed in Joshua's tomb. In the year 1870 the .\bb^ Richard 
found at Gilgal a large number of flint knives. hX the request of M. Guerin he visited the 
tomb at Tibneh, and found in the kok'tm a large quantity of flint knives e.xactly similar. 

.K\\ these facts together seem to M. Gue'rin to make out a very strong case for Tibneh. 
Let us add to his remarks the words of Lieutenant Conder ('Quarterly Statement,' 1878, 
p. 22), in which he sums up briefly the rival claims, inclining, however, to Kcfr Hdris. It 
must be acknowledged that if this monument be actually the tomb of Joshua, it is the very 
oldest building in Syria, and the greatest ' find ' of modern days. 

' There are t\vo places in Palestine which might claim the honour of being the place of 
sepulture of Joshua. The one is pointed out by Christian tradition, the other by Jewish and 
Samaritan. 

'The name of the city where Joshua was buried was Timnath Heres, and it was situate in 
Mount Ephraim ; but the e.xact site of it is not defined in the Bible, except by the statement 
that it was on the north side of .Mount Gaash, a place as yet not known. 

' Christian tradition points to the town of Thamnathah, now the ruin of Tibneh, on the 
Roman road from .\ntipatris to Jerusalem. Jerome speaks of this place as on the border 
between the possessions of Dan and Judah (though that border was not very well understood in 
his days), and on the way from Lydda to Jerusalem ; here Joshua's tomb was shown in his time. 

' The ruin of Tibneh has a remarkable rock cemetery, containing nine tombs, south of the 
site of the town, which was once the capital of the surrounding district. One of these tombs 
is large, with a portico supported on rude piers of rock with very simple capitals. One of the 
piers was destroyed between 1866, when Major Wilson visited Tibneh, and 1873, ^^'hen the 
Survey party were there. There are niches for over 200 lamps, once burning in front of the 
tomb entrance, ^\■ithin there is a chamber with fourteen graves, or kok'im ; and a passage, 
which at first looks like another grave, leads into an inner chamber with only one koka. 

' There is no direct evidence as to the date of this tomb, but in most cases where the 
more important rock tombs with such porticos can be approximately dated, they do not seem 
older than about the first century of our era. Thus, though the tomb may well be that de- 
scribed by Jerome, there is considerable doubt as to its being really that of Joshua. 

' There are two other curious facts as to Tibneh. The great oak-tree, some 40 feet high, 
near the tomb, is called Sheikh et Teim (" the Chief Sen-ant of God "). There is also a 
village about 3 miles to the east, called Kefr Ishu'a, or "Joshua's Village." 

'The second site for Timnath Heres is Kefr Haris, south of Nablus and about 9 miles 
from it. The Samaritans of the present day state that Joshua, son of Nun, and Caleb, son of 
Jephunneh, were here buried. On the map of Marino Sanuto (1322) the same place will be 
found marked as Timnath Here.s. The two tombs of Caleb and Joshua are noticed as here 
shown by Rabbi Jacob of Paris in a.d. 1258, and thus three separate traditions point to the 
same place. 

VOL. II. 48 



37S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' Kefr Haris is an ordinary village on a hill among olive-groves. It has on the east of it 
two sacred places resembling the other Mukams of the country, inclusive of Joseph's tomb. 
One of these has the curious name Neby Kifl (" Prophet of the Division by I.ot "), who is 
called now "Companion of the Proijhet." The other is now named Neby Kulda or Kunda, 
possibly a corruption of Caleb. May we not under tlie title Kill recognise Joshua, who 
divided the inheritance among the children of Israel ? It seems by far the most probable 
that the place to which Jew and Samaritan both point would be the true site, for it is most 
striking to find Jews visiting and venerating a place in the country of Samaria, yet in Samaria 
the tombs of Joseph, Eleazar, Phinehas, Ithamar, and Abishuah are still shown, and if we 
follow the indigenous rather than the foreign tradition, it is here that we should place the 
tomb of Joshua also.' 

Turmiis Aya (N q). 
Gu^rin found here ancient cisterns, cut stones built up in the houses, a broken lintel with 
a garland carved upon it, and the fragment of a column. 

U m m el L e b e d (J q). — Walls and foundations. 

U mm S uf f a (L q). 
Proved by Gu(^rin to be the site of an ancient town. These are old materials built up 
with wooden houses and fragments of columns. 

E t T ireh (I q.) 

Guerin found here caves and a tomb cut in the rock ; also, still standing, the door of an 
ancient house, its two jambs formed of great cut stones covered by a splendid block forming 
the lintel, and formerly decorated by mouldings, now effaced. 

Yasuf (M p). — Rock-cut tombs with kokiin here occur. The 
spring has a niche with scallop-shell pattern lying near it, as if to contain 
a figure. Drafted stones are built into the walls of the village, and a 
Roman road passes close by. There are also pillar-shafts. A sub- 
terranean channel leads from the spring, which has small fish in it. On 
the west are remains of older drystone enclosures, and a Mukam (Sheikh 
Abu Hasan) in ruins under an oak. North of this is a rock-cut tomb, 
with three lociili under arcosolia. They have each a pillow for the head ; 
over the arch of the chamber-door is a deep niche, 2 feet high, 15 inches 
diameter, i foot to back. A second tomb has a rolling stone fallen before 
the door. A third is a mere loculiis in the rock. There are tombs on the 
north-east also, and on the south-west. They have well-cut arches to the 
doors, and one has two rock piers in front. In the valley on the north- 
west is a modern vault with a mihrab. 

Ziwieh (K p). — On the hill west of the village there are some 
rude tombs ; one is an arcosolium, with a locjilus sunk beneath. The 
height of the arch is 4 feet 6 inches, the diameter 8 feet, the tomb within 
5 feet 6 inches long, and the arch 5 feet to the back. 



SHEET XIV.— SECTION' C. 

The name Merj 'Aid (' Meadow of the Feast') is worthy of notice, as 
possibly connected with the annual feast held at Shiloh, close by. (Judges 
xxi. 19). 

Two famous families have their seats on this Sheet — the B e n i 
Simhan at Ras Kerker, and the Beit el J e m a i n y at 
Mejdel Yaba. Both families are now ruined by the Turkish 
Government. 

The mediaeval Jewish tradition, and also that of the modern Samaritans, 
places the tombs of Joshua, Nun, and Caleb at Kefr Haris (see 
Neby Lush a, Neby Nun, Neby Kifil, on the map), and the 
tombs of Eleazar, Phinehas, Ithamar, and Abishuah in the vicinity of the 
village of 'A w e r t a h. 

The present Sheet contains a strong Christian centre at the villages of 
'A bud Jufna and Bir ez Zeit, Jania, and T a i y i b e h. The 
number of Christian ruins is also very large towards the south and 
west. 

The tradition of Melek Ferdus is connected with Kurawa 
Ibn Hasan, where his castle and tomb are shown. The corruption 
of Herodium into Fureidis perhaps indicates that this king's name 
should be Herodus. It is worthy of notice that the name Kurawa is 
closely approached to Corea, near which was Alexandrium, where Herod's 
sons were buried. (Ant. xvi. 11, 6.) In connection with this it is curious 
to note that the natives of Taiyibeh state that Melek Herodus married a 
wife of the tribe of the Hawarith Arabs, who once ruled all the district. 
(Sheet X.) 



48- 



SHEET XV.— SECTION A. 

OROGRArnv.— The present Sheet contains 235-9 square miles of the 
Jordan valley and of the hills west of it, from the mouth of Wady 
Fir ah on the north to the opening out of the plains of Jericho; two 
natural divisions of the Sheet are formed by W a d y F li s a i 1. 

I. The Northern Division. Between Wady Farah and 
Wady el I fj i m, which last, runningdue south, joins W ad y Fusail, 
there is a block of mountain almost isolated, and joined only to the water- 
shed by a low saddle. The most conspicuous point on this ridge is the 
conical peak of the Kiirn Surtiibeh, 1,244 feet above the Mediter- 
ranean level and 2,388 above Jordan at the D ami eh ford. This is 
not, however, the highest point, for the shed of the ridge has a slope 
down south-east from the rounded summit called Umm Hallal, 
1,360 feet above the sea, or 116 feet above the Ki'irn. 

The eastern slopes of the K u r n S u r t u b e h block are more 
gradual than the western, but all the declivities are steep, and especially 
so near the Jordan valley, where, on the south side of the K urn, the eye 
looks down a smooth slope of some 1,000 feet quite unbroken. 

The block is, in fact, broken away from the western hills, and Wady 
el I f j i m is, as its name signifies, a fissure with cliffs (S a d e t el 
F 1 k i a h) on the line of fracture. The Surtubeh consists of white chalk, 
with a capping of brown limestone, whereas the hills west of it are of an 
older formation of hard limestone. 

These latter hills slope steeply from the watershed, which is extremely 
narrow at et Towanik (bottom of Sheet XII.); the elevation is 
2,847 f^st above the Mediterranean, and it continues about the same 
to 'Akrabeh ; the western valley-heads drain towards the plain of the 
Mukhnah (.Sheets XI., XII., XIV.), which is a basin between two 



{SHEET XF.'] 



OROGRAniY. 



381 



ridges, the western being the main watershed of the country, the eastern 
terminating at N e b y B e 1 a n. (Sheet XII.) This conformation is no 
doubt directly traceable to the subsidence of the Jordan valley, forming 
the great fissure of W a d y B e i d a n. (Sheet XII.) 




^:MrY|Sg* 



KIKX si klUBKH. 



.At 'Akrabeh the eastern ridge joins the main watershed, and the 
head of the great valley of Deir Ballut (.Sheet XIV.) is found in a 
little plain south of that village. This plain, about h mile wide and 
2 miles long north and south, is the third of those near the watershed south 
of the great plain of Esdraelon, and the smallest. It drains to the Medi- 
terranean, whilst the Mukhnah drains to the Jordan valley, and the 
M e r j el Ghuriik has no drainage at all. High hills flank the 
'Akrabeh plain on either side, those to the west being about 2,600 to 
3,000 above the sea, those to the east some 2,200 to 2,400 feet. 

The watershed of the country runs south along the lower eastern hills 
to the head of the plain above mentioned, and south of this it is e.\- 
tremely narrow and contorted for about 4.'/ miles, as far as the neighbour- 
hood o el Mugheir, where is another little plain, Merj S i a, so 
called because it has no drainage. This latter measures about a mile 
east and west, by half a mile north and south. The watershed at this 



382 THE SURVEY OF UESTERX PALESTINE. 

point turns due west, and runs in lh.it line for about 4 miles to Tell 

'AsCir (Sheet XIV.). 

The mountains throughout this part of Palestine are very rugged and 
barren, but the valleys and small plains are of good arable soji. 

The head of W a d y F li s a i 1 is close to el M u g h e i r, and a 
second important branch, slightly shorter, starts from Mejdel Beni 
Fadl. The descent is extremely steep, the fall from IMejdel being 
2,700 feet to the opening of the Ghor, a distance of 4 miles. The eastern 
slopes of the hills between ' A k r a b e h and Mejdel are some 30° to 40°, 
and a lower step or plateau here extends north and south for some 
2 miles east of the main hills, on which is Tell e s S 11 w e i d ; the average 
level of this plateau is about 700 feet lower than that of the watershed 
hills, and it has the appearance of a landslip on a large scale, connected 
with the subsidence of the Jordan valley. 

This second step of mountain slopes eastward more gradually than 
the higher hills, and terminates in cliffs and steep slopes (S i d d el 
H a r i z, etc.), to the west of Wad y el I f j i m, which valley also ex- 
pands into a plateau (S a h e 1 el I f j i m ), west of the Sfirtiiibeh. 

The Jordan valley, east of the hill district thus described, varies con- 
siderably in width. The Far ah forms a broad open plain, some 2 
miles across, north-east of the Surtiibeh, and gradually loses itself in 
the Ghor, which, east of the Surtul^eh, is some 2^ to 3^ miles wide. 
There is also a small open plain south-west of the Surtubeh, into 
which Wady el I f j i m debouches, descending through a narrow gorge 
from the higher plateau of the S a h e 1 I f j i m. Thus the S u r t u b e h 
may be described as a bastion projecting into the Ghor between Wady 
F u s a i 1 and Wady el F a r a h. 

The Ghor is level and unbroken in surface, save near the banks of 
the great water-courses. The Z 6 r is also unbroken throughout, with 
an average width of about ^ mile from the cliffs to the stream. 

II. The Southern Division of the Sheet differs somewhat in 
character from the last. The feature of a second step or terrace in the hills 
is still observable as far south as Wady el 'A u j e h, the average eleva- 
tion being somewhat over 2,000 feet above the sea, whilst the watershed 
hills reach up to 2,6co near Kuriut and 3,300 at Tell 'Asdr (Sheet 
XIV.). The hills slope down from the second shed (which is almost 



[SffE£r Xi:] OROGRAPHY. 383 

separated from the main one by valley heads running down north and 
south) for about 4 miles, terminating above the Ghur in steep slopes, the 
fall being about 2,600 feet, and the whole consisting of narrow parallel 
ridges separated by deep valleys ; the district is barren and rugged, of 
white chalk like the Surtubch, with crystalline limestone appearing 
below on the west in the watershed hills. In parts there is a capping 
of the brown limestone found on the S u r t u b e h. 

South of Wady el 'Aujch a very conspicuous spur runs out from 
the watershed of the country, and forms a sort of bastion overlooking the 
valley. This is Jebel en Nejmeh, 2,391 feet above the sea, and 
3,000 feet above the. Ghor level. The block is bounded by two preci- 
pitous gorges (Wady el 'Aujeh and Wady Dar el Jerir), 
and by a steep descent on the east ; the fall being 2,190 feet in 2\ miles, 
measured on plan. At the foot of the mountain on the south-east is a 
flat plain, which rises again slightly on the east into a line of marl hills 
about 500 feet higher than the Ghor. The drainage of this plain or 
plateau is eastwards, directly towards Jordan. 

The Ghor, in the southern district of the Sheet, has a width of about 
5 miles to the Jordan river, and is some 700 feet to 800 feet below the 
Mediterranean towards the west ; on the east the Zor is from 1,100 feet 
to 1,200 feet below that level, and from \ mile to \ mile wide, the 
cliffs which bound it being from 50 feet to 100 feet high. Thus the 
Ghor itself has a gentle slope from west to east. 

THE VALLEY OF THE JORDAN. 
The valley of the Jordan about this part of the map is thus described by Lynch, 
pp. 211— 215 : 

' The boats had little need of the oars to propel them, for the current carried us along at 
the rate of from 4 to 6 knots an hour, the river, from its eccentric course, scarcely permitting 
a correct sketch of its topography to be taken. It curved and twisted north, south, east, and 
west, turning, in the short space of half an hour, to every quarter of the compass — seeming as 
if desirous to prolong its luxuriant meanderings in the calm and .silent valley, and reluctant 
to pour its sweet and sacred waters into the accursed bosom of the bitter sea. 

' For hours in their swift descent the boats floated down in silence, the silence of the 
wilderness. Here and there were spots of solemn beauty. The numerous birds sang with a 
music strange and manifold ; the willow branches were spread upon the stream like tresses, 
and creeping mosses and clambering weeds, with a multitude of white and silvery little 
flowers, looked out from among them ; and the cliff swallow wheeled over the falls, or went 
at his own wild will darting through the arched vistas, shadowed and shaped by the meeting 
foliage on the banks; and, above all, yet attuned to all, was the music of the river, gushing 
with a sound like that of shawms and cvmbals. 



384 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

'There was little variety in the scenery of the river to-day. The stream sometimes washed 
the bases of the sandy-hills, and at other times meandered between low banks, generally 
fringed with trees and fragrant with blossoms. Some points presented views exceedingly 
picturesque — the mad rushing of a mountain torrent, the song and sight of birds, the over- 
hanging foliage and glimpses of the mountains far over the plain, and here and there a gurgling 
rivulet pouring its tribute of crystal water into the now muddy Jordan. The western shore 
was peculiar, from the high calcareous limestone hills, which form a barrier to the stream 
when swollen by the efilux of the sea of Galilee during the winter and early spring ; while the 
left or eastern bank was low, and fringed with tamarisk and willow, and occasionally a thicket 
of lofty cane, and tangled masses of shrubs and creejiing plants, giving it the character of a 
jungle. At one (jlace we saw the fresh track of a tiger on the low clayey margin, where he 
had come to drink. At another time, as we passed his lair, a wild boar started with a savage 
grunt and dashed into the thicket ; but, for some moments, we traced his pathway by the 
shaking cane and the crashing sound of broken branches. 

' The birds were numerous, and at times, when we issued from the shadow and silence of 
a narrow and verdure-tented part of the stream into an open bend, where the rapids rattled 
and the light burst in, and the birds sang their wildwood song, it was, to use a simile of Mr. 
Bedlow, like a sudden transition from the cold, dull-lighted hall where gentlemen hang their 
hats, into the white and golden saloon, where the music rings and the dance goes on. 

' The hawk, upon the topmost branch of a blighted tree, moved not at our approach, but 

" .Stood with the dorni on his beak, ' . 
And stared with liis foot on the prey ;" 

and the veritable nightingale ceased not //^rsong, for she made day night in her covert among 
the leaves ; and the bulbul, whose sacred haunts we disturbed when the current swept us 
among the overhanging boughs, but chirruped her surprise, calmly winged her flight to 
another sprig, and continued her interrupted melodies. 

' Unable to obtain one alive, we startled the solitude of the wilderness with a gun-shot, 
and secured the body of a brown-breasted, scarlet-headed, and crimson-winged bird, the 
eastern bulbul. The Arabs call a pretty bird a bulbul, but Sharif, who was with me in the 
boat, insisted upon it that it was the specific name of the bird we had killed. We were less 
successful with others of the feathered race, for although the sharp crack of the rifle and the 
louder report of the carbine awoke the echoes of the Jordan wilds, no other trophy than this 
unhappy bulbul could be produced when we met at night. The gentle creatures seemed each 
to bear a charmed life, for when we fired at them, they would spread their wings unhurt, and 
dart into the thick and tangled brushwood, and burst forth again in song from a more hidden 
covert ; or sometimes just rise into the air and wheel above the broken sprig, or torn leaf, to 
settle once more as calmly as if the noise which had startled them were but the familiar sound 
of the breaking of a dried branch, or the plunge of a fragment of the soil from the water-worn 
banks into the current below. 

' Our course down the stream was with varied rapidity. At times we were going at the 
rate of from 3 to 4 knots the hour, and again we would be swept and hurried away, dashing 
and whirling onward with the furious speed of a torrent. At such moments there was excite- 
ment, for we knew not but that the next turn of the stream would plunge us down some 
fearful cataract, or dash us on the sharp rocks which might lurk unseen beneath the surface. 

' Many islands, some fairy-like, and covered with a luxuriant vegetation, others mere sand- 
bars and sedimentary deposits, intercepted the course of the river, but were beautiful features 
in the general monotony of the shores. The regular and almost unvaried scene of high banks 



[SHEET XV.] TOPOGRAPHY. 385 

of alluvial deposit and sand-hills on the one hand, and the low swamp-like shore, covered to 
the water's edge with the tamarisk, the willow, and the thick, high cane, would have been 
fatiguing without the frequent occurrence of sand-banks and verdant islands. High up in the 
sand-bluffs, the cliff-swallow ('asfur) chattered from his nest in the hollow, or darted about in 
the bright sunshine, in pursuit of the gnat and the water-fly.' 

On the climate of the valley, see 'Special Papers,' p. 201. 

Hydrography. — The most remarkable feature on the Sheet is the 
course of Wad y Farah. This perennial stream has always been 
formerly represented as joining the Jordan near the D a m i e h, but it turns 
south at the 'A i n Jozeleh, and tlows parallel with the Jordan about 
f of a mile west of it, for ^\ miles, when it runs south-east and joins the 
river. The mouth, when visited, proved to be a narrow trench full of water, 
and the stream was impassable, and about 5 yards to 10 yards across. 

The next important supply of water is found in W a d y F u s a i 1. 
There are three springs along this valley ; the lowest, \\ miles from the 
opening into the Ghor, has a fair supply of drinkable water, but there is no 
perennial stream. Lower down, near the Zor, a chain of salt springs are 
found in the valley (Mellahet Umm 'Afein). A small aqueduct, 
used for irrigation of the vegetable gardens which surround K h u r b e t 
F u s i i 1, conveys water in spring from the 'A i n F u s i i 1. 

Immediately south of the F u sa il valley is one of the main sources 
of supply for the salt of the Dead Sea : a marshy tract about \ mile 
across, and 3 miles in e.xtent, full of salt springs. This drains south- 
wards, and a water-course runs parallel with the Jordan for some 6 miles, 
carrying down a stream of salt water. 

This valley, called Widy el Mellahah is joined by the 'Aujeh valley, 
which has a supply of fresh water from the fine spring ('A in el 'Aujeh) 
at its head. An aqueduct from the spring formerly irrigated the Ghor. 

There are some smaller springs in the hills, noticed with the villages. 

The Jordan on this Sheet has a fall of 80 feet in i8| miles 
of direct course ; the junction of the 'A u j e h being 1,200 feet below the 
Mediterranean, and that at Makhadet Umm Sidreh (about i 
mile north of the Sheet edge) 1,120 feet. This gives a fall of about 
4^ feet per mile of direct course. (See summary of the fall of Jordan, 
Sheet XVI II.) There are four fords in this part of the river, of which 
the only important one is the D a m i e h, where a ferry is established, 
except in flood time. Even here the stream is quite impassable in spring. 
VOL. II. 49 



3S6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Topography. — There are eight inhabited villages on this Sheet, all 
belonging to the Government division of M e s h a r i k N a b 1 u s, under 
the Mutaserritlik of Nablus. The main part of this district is on the 
present Sheet; three villages are on Sheet XL, five on Sheet XII.— a 
total of 1 6 \illages. 

1. 'Akrabeh (Op). — A large village, surrounded with olives, of 
houses better built than most in the country. It stands on a saddle 
between two hills, one of which rises north of it 700 feet, the village 
standing at the mouth of a pass, through which the main road runs. The 
place is crescent-shaped, whence perhaps its name, ' carved.' On the 
south is the fertile plain (J e h i r 'Akrabeh). There is a mosque in 
the east part of the village, founded on the remains of a Christian church, 
and a second sacred place (e r Rafai) on the south. The inhabitants 
used to number, according to their own account, 2,000 guns, but the pre- 
sent population appears to be about 600 to 800 souls. 'Akrabeh is 
identified with the Acrabatta of Josephus (B. J. iii. 3, 5, etc.) ; it is men- 
tioned in the ' Onomasticon ' (s.v. 'AKpa/3/3£ti') as 9 Roman miles east of 
Neapolis, on the way to Jordan and Jericho. The distance is about 
8 English miles, and a Roman road leads through the village. The place 
is also noticed in the ' Samaritan Chronicle.' (See ' Quarterly Statement,' 
October, 1876, p. 196.) 

2. Domeh (O q). — A small village on the top of a ridge. It has 
cisterns and ancient rock- cut tombs. There is a spring, 'A i n U m m 
'Omeir, f mile south-east of the houses. On the north is the ruin of a 
place sacred to el K h u d r, St. George. There are olives to the north. 

Domeh is noticed in the ' Onomasticon ' as Edumia, 1 2 Roman miles 
from Neapolis ; the true distance is about 13 English miles from Nablus. 

3. J alud (N q). — A small village on low ground, with olives to the south. 

4. Jurish (N p). — A small village on a hill-top, with olives to 
the east, and a sacred place to the north-east, which last appears to be the 
ancient Caphareta;a (Kefr 'Atya), a Samaritan town, mentioned by 
Justin Martyr. (See Reland, 'Palestine,' p. 688.) The two sites are, in 
fact, one, and the ruin apparently preserves the old name. 

5. K us rah (N p). — A village of middling size, on low ground, 
with olive-trees. 

6. Mejdel Bcni Fadl (Op). — A small village on the top of 



{SHEET A'K] SITES. 387 

a hill, with olives on the south and west, and a small sacred place on the 
south-east. On the cast are caves, and there are tombs and rock-cut 
cisterns near the village. This place appears to be the Magdal Senna of 
the ' Onomastlcon,' though the distance to Jericho docs not agree, being 
16 English miles from Jericho instead of 7 Roman. Probably the a may- 
have dropped out in the Greek, and wc should read 17 Roman miles. 

7. El M u g h e i r (O p). — A small village of stone houses, on a 
ridge, with olives to the west, and beautiful corn-land in the M c r j Si a. 
There is also corn-land on the north. 

S. Y a n u n (O p). — A small village on the edge of a deep valley, 
with a sacred place to the east (N e by N u n), and a small spring about 
1 mile to the north ; the water is bad. 

This place appears to be the Janohah of Joshua xvi. 6, 7. In the 
' Onomasticon ' it is mentioned as 12 miles east of Neapolis. The real 
distance is about 8 English miles. 

In addition to the villages the following ruined sites arc identified as 
below : 

Adam. — A city in the Jordan \-alley (Joshua iii. 16); is possibly 
connected with the name e d D a m i e h, applied to the main ford at the 
road down W a d y F a r a h. 

Arum ah (Judges ix. 41). — Was apparently not far from Shechem. 
Vandevelde proposes el 'Ormeh, on the present Sheet. 

Archelais. — Founded by Archelaus (Ant. xvii. 13, i ; xviii. 2, 2) ; 
is placed in the Peutinger Tables (393 a.d.) between Jericho and Scytho- 
polis. It is represented as 12 miles from Jericho and 12 from Coabis (el 
iNIuk hubby); the true distances are 18 English miles and 14 E.M. 
(see Choba, Sheet XII., Section A.) to the ruins which surround Tell 
el M a z a r. (See Section B.) 

D o c u s. — A place really near Jericho (see Sheet XVI 1 1., Section A.), 
is shown by Marino Sanuto on his map (1321 a.d.) in a position evidently 
intended to represent the Kurn Surttibeh, and Sir John Maunde- 
ville, his contemporary, speaks of the land of Douke, seemingly in the 
same direction. Marino Sanuto describes the place as south of Tampne 
(T a m m li n), and apparently near Salim (S a 1 i m), which agrees with 
his map. At the foot of the mountain he marks Sartan, evidently in 
connection with the D a m i e h as Adam, ' beside Zaretan.' 

49—2 



3SS THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

P h as ae lis.— Built by Herod in the Jordan valley (Ant. xvi. 5, 2; 
xviii. 2, 2 ; B. J. ii. 9, i ; i. 21, 9), north of Jericho, is the present ruin 
of Fusail. It is mentioned by Marino Sanuto (1322 a.d.) as 3 leagues 
from Jordan, and he identifies the valley running down by it from the 
mountain with the Brook Cherith. (See Kuryut, Sheet XIV.) 

Sartabeh. — A place mentioned in the Talmud (Mishna Rosh-hash- 
Shaneh, I. i) as a mountain on which a beacon was kindled. This 
is apparently the K urn S u r t li b e h, and in this connection the 
names D a 1 u k, ' Burning,' and \V a d y en N a r, ' Valley of Fire,' are 
of interest; as also Umm Hallal, 'Mother of the New Moon;' all 
occurring close to the K u r n S u r t u b e h. 

Roads. — The Roman road from Jericho bifurcates south of Fusail. 
The eastern branch continues up the valley towards B e i s a n, and has a 
remarkable bend to the east, due to the projecting bastion of the K u r n 
S li r t li b e h. A branch from this road runs to the site of Archelais, and 
so up the Farah valley. At el Makhruk the main road from east 
of Jordan crosses, running up the north side of the stream of Wady 
Farah. At this place there are caves beside the road which appear to be 
remains of an ancient guard-house. (See el Makhruk, Section B.) 

The eastern road again bifurcates at K h u r b e t Fusail. The 
eastern branch goes directly up Wady el I f j i m towards N a b 1 u s, 
having a steep ascent at Sadet el Fikiah. The western branch 
ascends the lower hill terrace towards 'Akrabeh, and thence runs 
straight to N a b 1 u s. 

The pavement of the road is remarkably well preserved near 
Khurbet Fusail, and is described under that head in Section B. 

Cultivation. — The only cultivation in the Jordan valley, on this 
Sheet, is in the neighbourhood of Khurbet Fusail. There are here 
vegetable gardens, watered from the spring by an aqueduct. 

In the hills there are various places where good arable soil exists, and 
barley is grown in the J e h i r 'A k r a b e h, M e r j S i a, S a h e 1 I f j i m, 
and in many other valleys round the villages. 

The remainder of the Sheet is desert. The hills and gardens of 
K u r a w a belong to the system described in the F a r d h valley. 
(Sheet XII.) The ancient irrigation of the Ghor is attested by the 
great aqueduct with branches (K a n a t el M a n i 1), now in ruins. 



SHEET XV.— SECTION B. 

ArCH/EOLOGY. 

'A k r a b c h (O p). — The mosque has a regular dome, and is buik on 
the ruins of a Christian church ; one jamb of the door is formed by the 
broken lintel of the former church, with an inscription, copied as follows 
by C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake : 

OLEnOIH - - - YOEP LIMBIOYKAIINYN 

The letters have been shaved off at the top. The form of the E and 
other letters is square, not round as in the Byzantine inscriptions of the 
fourth and fifth centuries. The cross marks the stone as Christian. The 
stone is 5! feet long, and cut off on the left, where the inscription is 
imperfect. Beneath the letters on this side is a design of a rude 
geometrical pattern like a rosette — a common Byzantine detail. 

There are remains of another inscription above an arch inside the 
chamber, which is surmounted by a dome. This was copied as below : 

- - - Y2I ENTQAFIQ 

The forni of the A resembles that in some of the Crusading Greek 
inscriptions. 

North of the village is a fort called el H o s n, a block of buildings 
on the hill. The masonry is drafted ; the stones 2.^ to 3 feet long, and 
some 2 feet height of course. The draft is 3 inches wide, and the boss 
projects 2 or 3 inches, being left rustic ; the foundations only remain in 
part, and a fine bell-mouthed cistern exists within the enclosure, which is 
always supplied with water. 

A fine tank or birkeh stands in the middle of the village near the hill- 
side, of masonry rudely squared, the joints packed (as at Bidieh, 



39° THE SURVEY OF WESTERX PALESTINE. 

Sheet Xl\'.) with chips; the wall on the south is about 8 feet thick. 
Near this tank are remains of a building which the natives call a convent, 
having vaults below. It is hidden by olive-trees. There are also kokim 
tombs near the village. 

This place appears therefore to have been a Christian centre, perhaps 
in Byzantine times. 

Visited 20th March, 1S74. 

Bir Abu Deraj (P p). — A well with steps leading down, and 
a cairn of unhewn stones north of it. 

D a 1 il k (O p). — A pile of unhewn stones of ancient appearance, 
supposed at the time to be an old beacon, as the name seems to signify. 

Deir Abu Sekub (N q). — Walls of moderate masonry, remains 
of a monastery. 

Edh Dhirs or el Hatian (Pp). — A mound of stones and clay, 
probably marking the site of the conflict which took place here. (See 
Name Index.) 

D 6 m e h (O q). — Rock-cut tombs with locnli occur near the village, 
andnumerous cisterns. The litde mosque is an old Church of St. George, 
in the walls of which drafted stones are used. 

' The village was formerly defended by two towers, one on the east and the other on the 
west. One of them was 18 paces long by 13 broad, and the other was 17 paces long by 8 in 
breadth. Some of the lower courses are still in place, and show that the towers were built of 
stones of large dimensions, some cut smooth and others in boss. These remains, separated 
by a space of about 750 yards, prove ancient work. The antiquity of the site is also proved 
by the numerous excavations in the rock, such as cisterns and subterranean magazines, found 
everywhere.' — Guerin, ' Samaria,' ii. 15. 

Jisr ed Damieh (O p). — The end of the old bridge is standing 
east of the river and appears to be Saracenic work. 

K a n a t el RI a n i 1 (O r). — A ruined aqueduct which leads down 
the water from 'A i n el 'Aiijeh to the Ghor, running east some 5 
miles to the neighbourhood of K h u r b e t el 'A u j e h e t T a h t a n i. 
Here it turns north and runs for about a mile, having five branches of 
various length, leading from the channel eastwards, probably for irriga- 
tion. There is another well called el Maskarah, connected apparently 
with the aqueduct, probably to control the irrigation. The date of this 
aqueduct would probably be the same with the K a n a t M 11 s a, which 



[SHEET XV.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 39» 

branches off from it, and which seems to be not earher than mediajval times, 
or repaired at least at that period. (See Sheet XV'III.) The Crusaders 
cultivated the Ghor in many places (as, for instance, in W'ady Farah, 
where they cultivated the sugar-cane, and near Jericho and Beisan), and 
these aqueducts are probably connected with their irrigation of the valley. 

Kef r 'Atya (N p). — Foundations and a sacred place. (See Jurish, 
Section A.) 

Khilrab Abu Gharib (Op). — Foundations, heaps of stones, 
and bell-mouthed cisterns. The principal site to the south ; a second, 
nearly a mile north, foundations only. 

Khurbet Abu Malul (N q). — Foundations, cisterns, tombs 
blocked up. 

Khurbet Abu Rash id (N r). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Abu Risah (Op). — Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet 'A i n 'A i n a h (N p). — Traces of ruins and great 
piles of stones, with a sacred place ; this, with Khurbet el Kerck, close by, 
seems an ancient site. 

Khurbet el A r a k a h (P q). — Traces of ruins and a ruined tank 
or birkeh ; remains of massive walls. 

Khurbet el 'Aujeh el Foka (Or). — A ruined village on a 
mound, the ruins apparently modern. 

Khurbet el 'Aujeh e t T a h t a n i ( P r) . — Ruined walls and 
mill. South of these is Sheikh Ibrahim, of which a photograph was taken 
by Captain Warren. (Old Series, No. 232.) 

This is a well-built small chapel, but apparently not very ancient ; it 
has no trace of eastern apses, but a mihrab to the south. The entrance 
is on the north, and the bearing of the east wall is 265° 15' true bearing ; 
the length north and south is 37 feet outside, and the e.xterior measure 
east and west 49 feet 3 inches. There is a buttress at each corner, two 
projecting west 10 inches, 4 feet 3 inches broad, and two similar buttresses 
to the east. On the south wall are two buttresses 5 feet 8 inches 
apart, 10 inch projection, 3 feet 5 inches broad. On the north wall two 
buttresses 1 1 feet 5 inches apart, projecting i foot, and 2 feet 5 inches 
broad ; they have sloping tops. The door between is 4 feet 7 inches wide 
and spanned by a Hat lintel, partly fallen. Inside, the building is divided 



392 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

into three walks by two piers 2 feet 10 inches square, which supported 
arches, also springing from brackets from the north and south walls. The 
mihrab is 4 feet 1 1 inches in diameter. The walls are 4 feet thick. The 
roof appears to have been groined. A small rubble arch occurs in 
the north wall. The masonry is of moderate size, the corner stones 
are the best dressed ; none are drafted. The mihrab appears to be 
part of the original design of the building. The place is in fact a small 
mosque. 

Visited 26th February, 1874. 

Khurbet el Beiyudat (P r). — A watch-to vver, with a moat 
beside the road, perhaps a military post ; north of it is another little watch- 
tower. 

Khurbet B e n i F a d 1 (O q). — Foundations of buildings and 
caves. 

Khurbet ed Do war a (Op). 
Gucrin found a ruin of this name close to the Bir ed Dowa. It is not on the map. He 
was also given the name of the \\'ady el Aniar for the valley ; called also (see the Map) ^Vady 
Zam(ir. 

Khurbet Fiisail (P q). — The ruins are extensive, and occur at 
intervals for 2^ miles north and south, at the edge of the hills. They 
consist principally of the traces of ruined garden-walls, built of unhewn 
stones, and there are ruined mills and aqueducts. One channel, cemented 
outside as v.ell as in, is built against the side of the hill. The wall sup- 
porting it is in places 8 feet high, and 2 feet or 3 feet thick. The stones 
are of all sizes, and not squared, very rudely dressed, and set in cement. 
This aqueduct is traceable for 5^ miles from the 'A i n F li s a i 1 into the 
Ghor ; it supplied four tanks, and passes in one place through a line of 
pits at the place called Habej er Zir. There is also a small Tell or 
hillock, apparendy artificial, at the mouth of the valley. 

The Roman road is very perfect near this ruin ; it consists of three 
parallel lines of stones, about i foot square, forming the sides and central 
rib of the road, 9 feet apart, giving 18 feet for the width of the road. 
There seems to have been no foundation or drainage, but the central rib 
is higher than the sides, so that the road had a section of two inclined 
planes. The part between the ribs is filled in with a sort of cobble of 
stones of irregular size, covered with smaller metalling. The central rib 



[SHEET XV.] ARCHEOLOGY. 393 

consists of two lines of stones, the outer wall, or curb-stone, of a single 
line each side. 

Visited March loth, 1874. 

K h u r b e t j i b c i t (O q). — Foundations, cisterns, and rock-cut 
tombs, now blocked up ; drafted stones, with the rustic boss. The 
masonry is of moderate size. 

Khiirbet Kaswal (N r). — Small heaps of stones near ancient 
watch-towers (el Munatir). According to others the proper name of this 
ruin is Khurbet et Taiyireh (possibly Ataroth, Joshua xvi. 7), and Khurbet 
Kaswal is a similar heap of stones east of the valley close to the ruin of 
et Taiyireh. 

Khurbet K e f r Is tuna (N q). — Walls and foundations, bell- 
mouthed cisterns, and a building called El H abs, which is a tower on a 
rocky scarp, with walls, partly built of masonry, partly of rock, measuring 
62 feet by 31 feet outside. There is an entrance on the east, 5 feet broad, 
and a second in the north-east corner, i foot 8 inches broad. 

The north wall stands on the edge of a rock platform, with a scarp, 
and on the south the first course is partly of rock, with two blocks of 
ashlar, respectively 14 feet 6 inches and 12 feet 4 inches long; 4 feet 
2 inches heig-ht of course. In the second course is a stone 18 feet long 
and 3 feet 8 inches high; on the east wall is a stone 15 feet 8 inches long. 
This masonry is thus quite equal to the average size of the Temple stones, 
but most resembles that of the Beit el K h u 1 i 1, near Hebron. (See 
Sheet XXL, Section B.) 

West of this tower are remains of another larger building, 100 feet 
square, outside measurement ; the walls 6 feet thick. It has two doors 
in the north wall, and is divided into four parallel chambers, running east 
and west, of various breadth. The most southern of these is peculiar, 
for the partition wall has archways through it 2 feet span, with piers 
between. (Compare Khurbet I\I a n s u r el 'Akab, Sheet VII.) 
The masonry in the building is smaller than that of El Habs. In the east 
wall a stone was measured 3 feet long, i foot 4 inches high, with a draft 
2 s inches wide, the boss projecting only \ inch, and dressed smooth. 
Another stone, 8 feet 6 inches long, was found in the wall, and a corner 
stone, 3 feet by 6 feet, both being 2 feet g inches high. The bearing of 
this building was appro.ximatcly north-east and south-west. 

VOL. II. 50 



394 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khurbet el Kcrck (N q).— Walls and great piles of stones; 
appears to be an old site. 

Khurbet el K e r u m (O p).— Traces of ruins. 

K h u r b e t K u r k u f a h ( N p).--Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet Kiirzelliyeh (P p). 

.Apparently on the hill south of 'Ain el Kurzelliyeh, but not marked on the map. The 
ruin is described by Gudrin as occupying the summit of a rocky hill. It was formerly sur- 
rounded by a wall built of great blocks rudely iiuarried. 

Khurbet el INI e r a j i m (O q).— Foundations and heaps of 
stones. 

Khurbet M e r a s e d Din (O p).— Foundations of a building, 
and cisterns. 

Khurbet el M u n t a r (O q). — Foundations and heaps of stones 
near Domeh, probably an old watch-tower. 

K h u r b c t en N e j m e h (O p). — Ruined walls of a building. 

Khurbet Rude in (N r). — Small caves, rude walls, scattered 
stones. 

Khurbet R u j a n (N p).— Traces of ruins. 

Khurbet S a b b u b e h (O p).— Foundations of a building. 

Khurbet Samieh (N q). — Ruined village, with a tower and 
springs ; appears to have been inhabited within the present century. 
The ruins occur close to 'Ain Samieh as marked on the map. 

There are remains of two mills, and the ruins of foundations, walls 
and caves, cover a large area. A copious spring issues on the north-west 
side of the valley from a strongly-built wall forming a tank. A fragment 
of a column and some drafted stones are built into this wall. 

' The ruin is close to the 'Ain el Samieh. This spring flows under a chamber with circular 
vaulting and buiU of large blocks : near it lie several fragments of columns in stone and 
capitals imitating the Doric style. To the north and above the spring I remarked the ruins 
of a considerable building, intended perhaps to protect it, and constructed of gigantic blocks 
rudely hewn. On the lower slopes of the mountain a great many grottoes have been cut in 
the rock.' — Guerin, 'Samaria,' ii. 211. 

Khurbet Sarra (N q). — -Foundations and cisterns. A second 
ruin, \\ miles east, to which the same name was applied, consists of heaps 
of stones only. 



[SHEET A7'.] ARCHEOLOGY. 



595 



K heir bet Sia (N q). — Heaps of stones, walls, and cisterns, 
remains of a monastery (Deir Abu Sckub), and on the north a pool. 
Khurbet cs Sumra (P r). — See Sheet XVIII. 
K h u r b c t e t T ii \v c i y i 1 (O p). — Foundations. 
K h u r b e t Y a n u n (N o). — Traces of ruins above a small spring. 
K h u r b e t W a dy N a s i r (O p). — Traces of ruins. 

Kilia (Or). — A modern ruined house. Immediately cast of Kilia, 
in the gorge called Wady LCieit (or, according to others, el Waheit), 
is a cave called 'Alali el Benat ('The Upper Chamber of the 
Maidens'), apparently a hermitage. It is reached by some steep 
narrow steps on the face of the precipice, leading to a broad cave 
mouth. The cave within measures about 25 feet by 15 feet, and contains 
three round cisterns for rain-water, about 8 feet deep, 4 feet in diameter 
at the top, and 7 feet at the bottom. They are cemented, and a rock-cut 
channel, 3 inches deep, 4 inches wide, leads to the one near the entrance. 
There are also remains of a fourth cistern, now choked, close to the cave- 
mouth, and a rock-cut channel, like the preceding, conducted the surface- 
drainage of the rock to this reservoir. 

y\t the back of the cave, the water which trickled down the walls was 
received in a little basin. On the left hand a tunnel leads away to a 
double window in the face of the rock, commanding a view of the 
approaches to the cave. The window is about 12 feet above the cave 
floor. The tunnel is 20 feet long and 3 feet wide ; the roof rounded into 
an arch rising 2 feet 9 inches. Three steps lead to this passage, the first 
5 feet 9 inches high, the other two about i foot each in height. This 
arrangement of an outlook is generally found in the hermits' caves of this 
district. 

There are many other caves in this valley, including Kod esh Sherki 
(' East Cave '), Kod el Gharbi (' West Cave '), Moghr Shdb Abu Belj, ed 
Dekakin ('The Shops'), 'Arak el Menasir ('Cavern of the Place of 
Eagles,' which have built their nests there). 

Revisited 20th June, 1881. 

K u 1 a s 6 n (O q). — Heaps of stones on a hill-top. 

Kurawa el Mas'udy (P p). — This site, which seems to repre- 
sent the ancient Archelais, is extensive, and the name seems given rather 

50—2 



396 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

to the neighbourhood than to any particular ruin. The town seems to 
have stood at T e 1 1 el M a z a r, and the cemetery to have been in a 
rocky ledge \ mile north. 

The ruins lie all over the Tell, especially to the south, but when visited 
were hidden by the mallows. The Arabs .spoke of ruins of a church. 
There are ruined cisterns of masonry lined with cement on the Tell, with 
foundations and pavements of good-sized stones, remains of a considerable 
town. The Mazarof'Abd el Kader is modern. 

The tombs are principally mere caves, but two remain which have 
kokivi. One of these has a rude cave-antechamber 22 feet from front to 
back, from which a masonry door, which has fallen down, opens into the 
chamber. The door was i foot 9 inches wide in the clear, and 2 feet high. 
Inside is a chamber, with two kokhn at the back and three on each side- 
wall (eight in all), rudely cut. 

Another tomb is simply a grave sunk in the rock, 
-. MT^ 7 feet long, 2\ feet wide. On the side was found a 
"^ £i ^ >Q tablet, much worn, with letters just traceable, being 

' apparently like the Hebrew of the coins. The rock 

was so rough that all attempts to take a squeeze of this inscription failed. 
The letters c, i, and < are plainly traceable. 

Near this was an unfinished block of stone, probably intended for 
a sarcophagus cover ; and further north was an unfinished sarco- 
phagus. 

The channel to the mill (T a h u n e t el K a d r i y e h) is rock-cut, 
and seems originally, perhaps, to have belonged to an ttndersliot mill, now- 
repaired and altered to an overshot. 

Visited 19th March, 1874. 

Kiirn SCirtubeh (P p). — The ruins on the summit of this moun- 
tain consist of a central structure with a surrounding wall, and of an 
aqueduct with cisterns. An old road leads up from the south, with rock- 
cut steps in one place. 

The top of the mountain is a cone, artificially shaped, like that at 
Jebel Fureidis, and some 270 feet high. On all sides but the west 
this is practically unapproachable : on the west a trench has been cut, and 
the saddle thus made lower. The slope of the sides is about 35^ The 



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[SHEET XV.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 397 

top measures 90 feet east and west, and 25S feet north and south, being 
an oval. 

The foundation measures 92 feet 9 inches along a line 189'", and 
40 feet 6 inches at right angles. There is a set-back on the south-west of 
14 feet for 26 feet 9 inches. A wall runs south from this foundation for 
18 feet, being 20 feet 6 inches across. The outer rampart, now merely a 
mound, is 30 feet across, and covered with fallen masonry, as is also the 
eastern slope of the hill. 

The foundation consists of 10 courses of masonry, the stones placed 
in alternate courses of header and stretcher, and vatying from i^ feet to 
4 feet in length, the height of the course being i foot 10 inches. They 
have drafts from 3I to 6 inches broad, and the boss is left rustic, with a 
projection in some cases of 5 inches. 

Forty-four feet from the north end of the central foundation are two 
excavations or pits sunk in the soft rock, where are traces as if of the 
effects of fire kindled at some time in them. 

The building seems to have been struck by lightning, or perhaps 
shaken by earthquake, and the side of the Tell on the east, for some 
200 feet down, is strewn thickly with fallen ashlar, rather smaller than that 
of the foundation. The general appearance of the place is that of a 
fortress, with an oval outer enceinte and a central tower or keep, the 
foundations alone remaining. The masonry (which is of a hard crystalline 
limestone found on the ridge) is worked like that of the foundations at 
'A t h 1 i t, and may possibly be Crusading. The mention of a castle here 
in the fourteenth century (see Section A.) also favours this idea, as does 
the Arab tradition. 

On the ridge west of the Tell there is a well. About i mile further 
west there is a low saddle, which has been artificially banked across ; and 
a long narrow wall runs on the bank, with remains of a channel i foot 
3 inches deep and 2 feet wide, with covering blocks of stones, which were 
probably 8 or 10 feet long. This aqueduct was traced all round the north 
side of the Kurn block of hill, and evidently collected surface drainage, 
as the level prevents the supposition of its connection with any neigh- 
bouring spring or well of water. 

The total length is about 2\ miles, but the starting-point is only f mile 
west of the Tell. The watershed north of R a s K a n e i t r a h is 



398 THE SURVEY OE WESTERN PALESTINE. 

1 70 feet lower than the aqueduct on that side, and the Hne is plainly 
seen running round the hill, with a fall of 100 feet in about i^ miles, 
measuring to the bank across the saddle, where the channel dips in 
crossing, the centre being some 50 or 60 feet lower than the ends. 
From the saddle the line runs directly east on the north side of the 
hill, with a fall of 40 feet in the mile. It supplies large cemented cave- 
cisterns some 350 feet or more below the top of the Tell, and it runs past 
them to some terraces which seem artificial, and may have supported 
gardens irrigated by the channel. 

In places the channel is built of large rudely hewn blocks. The well 
or cistern mentioned above, on the plateau west of the Tell, may perhaps 
have been connected with the aqueduct, being at rather a higher level. 

East of the Tell is a cave, or quarry, and south of it three more, rudely 
squared, and some 1 5 feet side ; the southern one is the roughest, and is 
now used as a goat-fold. 

The central ruin on the Tell is called a ' castle ' by the Arabs. 

Visited 2nd and 5th of March, and 3rd April, 1874. 

This mountain was also ascended by Guerin from the north. He describes a northern 
and lower summit, on which is a plateau covered with ruins, fragments of pottery and small 
stones, called the Khiirbet Kufa. His account of the higher peak is substantially the same as 
that given by Lieutenant Conder, but not so detailed. The ruins on it are called, he says, 
Khurbet el Kul'ah. 

The following is from M. Clermont Ganneau's Report ('Quarterly Statement,' 1874, 

pp. 173—178: 

' My principal and only aim in going to Jericho, was to study on the spot a point whose 
full importance I realised on my first visit, I mean Kiirn Sartabeh, and a Biblical tradition 
which seems to me narrowly connected with that well-known mountain. 

' If, in the vast plain of Jericho, you raise your eyes northwards, you will see the horizon 
partly closed in the distance by a long chain of blue hills, above which rises a conical peak 
known as Kiirn Sartabeh. This peak, which is seen from a long way off, and which appears 
to command all the low ground at its feet, attracts the eye by its bold front, and retains it by 
its strongly marked form. Robinson is right when he says that this commanding summit 
appears from Jericho like a bastion of the western chain. 

' The first part of the name (written by Robinson Kiirn, and by me Q'rein, diminutive of 
Kti7-n, a horn) is frequently applied by the Arabs to remarkable peaks. It is this sense which 
has made Lynch commit the singular error of assigning to the name the meaning, " Horn of 
the Rhinoceros." The meaning of Sartabeh is completely unknown, and we must probably 
look for some ancient name to correspond with it. 

' It is, first of all, essential to establish its orthography. I have carefully noted the jiro- 
nunciation of the Arabs of Jericho and its neighbourhood, and have ascertained that the first 
letter is a soft S (sin), and not the hard 5 (sad), as the transliteration of Robinson shows. 



[SHEET XV.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 399 

' Under this form it is easy to recognise the name of the mountains mentioned in the 
Tuhnud. Here is the passage, quoted often since the time of Reland, which I thinic I ought 
to give in full for the better understanding of what follows : 

' "Signals of fire, serving to announce the new moon, were made from the Mount of Olives 
to Sartabeh, from Sartabeh to Gerufna, from Gerufna to Khoran, from Khoran to Beth 
Baltin." 

'^r. Neubauer ("Geographic du Talmud," p. 42) says: "They announced the new 
moon to the country districts by means of fires lighted on the mountains. Later on, the 
Samaritans, in a spirit of hatred, lighted other fires, which caused errors. Therefore the fires 
were suppressed and couriers substituted." 

'I have no occasion here to occupy myself with the historic side of the question, and to 
e.xamine if it was really possible to make a direct signal from the Mount of Olives visible at 
Kurn Sartabeh. I confine myself to the simple identification of one hill with the Talmudic 
Sartabeh. Observe, further, that the Hebraic orthography of the word is different to that of 
Robinson ; that is, the word no more contains a tsade than it does a sad. 

'This fact will permit us to pass immediately to a Biblical relation advanced for Sartabeh. 
It is quite natural to suppose that the Bible did not pass over in silence the name of a moun- 
tain so important. 

'Starting with this idea, some writers think themselves authorised to recognise in Sartabeh 
the new Zarthan (Zaretan of Joshua iii. 16), and placed by the Bible in the Jordanic region. 
Nothing is less admissible than this identification, which rests wholly on an etymology entirely 
recent. The external resemblances which seem to exist between the two words completely 
vanish when we compare them letter by letter. The nun final might correspond with the b, 
but both the s and the t are radically different in the two words. 

' Must we then abandon altogether the hope of finding this peak mentioned in the l]ible ? 
I think not, and I believe, on the contrary, I can adduce a passage of the highest interest, 
though under a form mythological rather than geographical. 

'In Joshua v. 13-15, is related a strange episode which seems to attach itself to the con- 
secration of Gilgal as a sacred place. Here is the literal translation : " And Joshua was at 
Jericho, and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man before him with 
his sword drawn in his hand; and Joshua went towards him and said unto him, ' Art thou for 
us or for our adversaries ?' and he said, ' Nay, but as captain of the host (SARSABA) of the 
Lord, and now I am coming towards thee.' And Joshua fell on his face to the earth and did 
worship, and saith unto him, ' What saith my Lord unto his servant ?' And the captain of 
the Lord's host said unto Joshua, ' Loose thy shoe from off thy foot, for the place whereon 
thou standest is holy.' And Joshua did so." 

' The Hebrew word Sarsaba signifies " Chief of the Army," and is rendered in the 
Septuagint by apyjeTpdrrr/o;. The different versions of the Bible render it " captain of the army 
of Jehovah." We know that Jehovah himself is sometimes called "Jehovah Sabaoth," w^hen 
mentioned as the head of the army of angels or stars, and that this expression appears in the 
Gnostic formulary, "Sabaoth." 

' I only wish for the moment to call attention to the striking resemblance which 
exists between Sar Saba and Sar Taba, when the Hebrew tsadc is replaced in the 
Talmudic and Arabic form by a tet and a ta. This substitution of the / for an s is one of 
the most frequent remarked in the passage of the Hebrew to the Aramaic; thus Tyre is 
now Sor. 



400 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

' This etymological coincidence being so complete cannot be fortuitous. It leads us to 
ask whether it does not conceal a close relation between the mountain and the apparition. 

' Let us remember how often mountains are found in relation with visions analogous 
to that of Joshua. Mountains, it is well known, occupy a considerable place in Semitic 
religions, and even the Hebrews attached sanctity to them. We understand how they 
served as a natural theatre for the manifestations of the Deity. I could cite many examples. 
Let us take only one or two. 

'First, the appearance of Jehovah to Moses in the burning bush on Mount Horeb. 
Moses, perceiving the supernatural flame, advanced towards it, as Joshua towards the man. 
Just as Sarsaba told Joshua, who came towards him, to take off his shoes because the place 
was holy, in exactly the same terms Moses is ordered to do the same thing. 

'For the suddenness of the vision we may compare Zech. i. S; ii. 5. It is the same 
prophet who says (viii. 3), " The mountain of Jehovah Sabaoth is a sacred mountain," and 
also shows us (xiv. 3, 4) the Lord going forth to fight with " his feet upon the Mount of 
Olives." 

' One of the apparitions which has the most literal resemblance with that of the Sarsaba 
to Joshua is the appearance of the destroying angel to David. This episode is told more 
simply in the Book of Samuel (2 Sam. xxiv. 15), but with greater detail in i Chron. xxi. 
14-17. The latter strongly recalls the passage in the Book of Joshua, and especially if we 
compare the Hebrew text 

' Jehovah having sent his angel to smite Jerusalem, had pity on the unhappy town, and 
said to the Destroying Angel (" Melek ha-Machhit ''), " It is enough ; stay now thy liand." 
David lifUd up his eyes and smv the angel stand between the heaven and the earth, /taring a 
drawn sword in //is hand. He threw himself upon the ground. The angel, who was at this 
moment above the threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite, caused Gad to tell David to go up 
and set tip an altar on the threshing-floor. 

' It results from this passage that the angel was above Mount Moriah. It may not be 
useless to remark that the angel called "Machhah" seems onomastically connected with the 
Mount of Olives, often designated by the much-disputed name of "Har ha-Machhit." We 
know that the two mountains of Moriah and Olivet were intimately connected from a religious 
point of view, and in ceremonies, and that on the latter (2 Sam. xv. 34) was a place where 
David adored Elohim. 

'These analogies alone would be enough to make us seek in this episode of Joshua's life 
the existence of a mountain. And is this mountain anything except that which now is called 
by the significant name of Sartabah, or Sar-Saba ? 

' The story of Joshua analysed means two things : ( i ) the height of the point where the 
apparition stood, for he lifted up his eyes; (2) a considerable distance between the vision and 
Joshua, for Joshua went to'wards him ; and the angel said, "7 come ioicards thee." Further, 
the use of the word "lOI?, stars, means that the supernatural being was upright on a base. 

'The dominant'iwsition and the characteristic aspect of Sartabeh, the master of the plain, 
makes it an admirable place for the appearance of the captain of the Lord's host. 

' It is not superfluous to remark that, besides its probable character of sanctity, the peak 
had great strategic importance. Schulz has already proposed to place on it the Alexandrium 
of Alexander Jannxus, and the considerable ruins which Zschokke found on the summit have 
induced him also to share this opinion. The fact of its military strength would help to explain 
Joshua's question, "Art thou for us, or for the enemy?" 



{SHEET XVi:\ TOPOGRAPHY. ' 409 



II. — Nahiet el Mejdel. 

1. Balin (H u). — A very small mud village with no traces of 
antiquity. The name suggests a connection with Baalath, a town of Dan 
(Joshua .\i.\. 44), and with the town of the same name, near Gezer, fortified 
by Solomon. (Ant. viii. 6, 1.) In the Talmud a place of this name is 
noticed as on the boundary of Dan and Judah. (Tal. Jer. Sanhed, i, 2 ; 
Geog. Tal., p. 99.) 

2. B e s h s h i t (G t). — A moderately large village of mud, with 
a large kubbeh having three domes (N eby S h i t) on the higher ground 
immediately north. It has gardens with cactus hedges, and a masonry 
well to the south. 

3. Beit D u r a s (G u). — An ordinary mud village, with a good 
masonry well and rubble cisterns, now ruined, indicating a place of some 
antiquity. To the north is a pond, and round the village are gardens and 
olives. 

4. Burkah (G t). — An ordinary village with the tomb of Neby 
Burk. This place is noticed in the ' Onomasticon ' (s.v. Barac) as a 
village (viculus) near Azotus, and called Bareca. 

5,6. B u t a n i (G t). — The two villages of this name are of mud, and 
situate on low ground, with patches of garden and wells. The western 
one has also a pond. 

7. Dhcncbbch (I u). — A moderate sized village, on high ground, 
having two good spring-wells on the south. It is built of mud and stone, 
with cactus hedges round it, and a garden of small fig-trees on the south. 

8. 'Ebdis (G u). — A middle-sized mud village. It is also called 
'Eddis. It stands in open ground. It may possibly represent the 
ancient Hadashah (Joshua xv. 37). 

9. Esdud (Ft). — This village marks the site of the ancient 
Ashdod, but no ruins of any great antiquity were observed. It consists 
almost entirely of mud houses, one story high, with walls and enclosures 
also of mud. The houses occupy the eastern side of a low hill, which 
rises considerably above them, and is covered with gardens, walled in with 
cactus hedges ; the soil a semi-consolidated sand. Gardens also e.xist on 

VOL. n. 52 



4IO THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the other sides of the villaq^e. The sand dunes extend almost to the 
village. On the south-west is the ruined Khan (see Section B.), and 
south of this a large marsh, which was only partly dry in April, 1875. 
The water-supply of the village is from ponds with mud banks, and from 
a masonry well to the east ; and in this direction there are a few date- 
palms and some small fig-trees in gardens. It is probable that the ancient 
site was on the top of the hill, but no ruins were found. This site has 
never been lost, being known to Jerome and Eusebius, and also to the 
best informed of the Crusading Chroniclers. For the peculiarities of its 
inhabitants see Section C. For the port, see M i n e t el K u 1 a h, 
Section B. 

North-east of E s d u d there is a small grove of remarkably fine olive- 
trees. 

10. J ilia (I t). — An ordinary village of mud and stone. It is 
probably the Gallaa of the ' Onomasticon,' mentioned (s.v. Gallim) as a 
town (vicus) near Accaron. 

11. J 111 is (F u). — An ordinary mud village. There are, however, 
ruined rubble cisterns, which suggest some antiquity. It has a well to 
the south and a pool with gardens to the north-east. 

12. Katrah (H t). — A mud village, without any special sign of 
antiquity. (See Tell el Ful, Section B.) It has a well to the west and 
gardens all round it. 

This site is identified with the Cedron of i Mace. xv. 39, a place near 
Jamnia (Yebnah), and Azotus (Esdud). Captain Warren suggests 
the identity of the place with Gederoth, apparently not far from Makkedah 
(Joshua XV. 41). The letters j and p and t and u are interchangeable 
according to Gesenius, and the place is near the probable site of Mak- 
kedah. 

13. Kustineh (H u). — A large mud village, with a well and 
gardens, situate on flat ground. 

14. Mejdel (E u). — -This is the most important modern place in 
the district, of which it is the capital. It is a market town, and said to 
contain 1,500 inhabitants. There is a small mosque, with a minaret, and 
a bazaar in the town. The houses are principally of mud, and the water- 
supply is from several wells and from a large pond east of the village. On 



[SHEET Xrj.] TOrOGRAPIIY. 411 

the same side there is a grove of pahns ; on the west a large cemetery ; 
and on the north are oHves of remarkable size. 

\'andevelde suggests the identity of this place with the Migdol Gad of 
Joshua xv. 2)'] ; but there is nothing beyond the name to support this 
view. 

The inhabitants arc traders, and rope-making was observed going on 
near the town. 

15. El ]\Iesmiych (II t). — A mud village of moderate size, with 
a well to the south and gardens round it. 

16. EI Mughar (H s). — This village consists almost entirely of 
mud houses, occupying the south slope of the hill, and built in front of 
caves in the rock. There are fig-gardens beneath, and pasture-land 
round it on the north and east. The village is not larger than most of 
those in the plain, but the kokini tombs at M u g h ii i r S u m m c i I (see 
Section B.) show that it is an old site. It has two wells : one north, one 
west. 

Captain Warren identifies the site with Makkedah, a place the position 
of which was unknown to Eusebius and Jerome. In support of this view 
the proximity to Naaneh (Naamah) and to K at rah (Gederoth) may 
be urged, and the existence of caves, which are not found at other sites in 
the vicinity. 

The village is placed on a sort of jut running out above Wady cs 
Siirar, on the north side. On the north there are gardens hedged with 
cactus, extending over the whole hill-top. There are also ancient olive- 
trees towards the south. The sloj^es of the hill on the cast are steep, and 
in places precipitous, and the site is one of some strength. For the 
antiquities see Section B. 

' One of the most important towns of a Royal Canaanite city, the site of the first great 
victory- of Joshua's Juda:an campaign, has escaped more than the merest conjecture, and even 
Captain ^^■arren's suggestion for its identification has not, as far as I am aware, appeared 
in print. 

' Makkedah is to be sought in the plain country of Judah, and in the neighbourhood of 
Beth Dagon and Naameh, names which immediately precede it in the topographical list. It 
must also be in the neighbourhood of one or more caves, and should show indications of an 
ancient and important site. 

' There is another consideration which limits the position of Makkedah. Joshua, who had 
marched from Gilgal to Gibeon, a distance of some 20 miles, before dawn, pursued the defeated 
Canaanites down the valley of .Ajalon to the plain, whence they fled to Azekah and Makkedah. 
Makkedah was taken, and the five kings hanged by sunset, and thus we cannot place it more 

52—2 



412 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTIXE. 

than some 8 or lo hours from Gibeon — that is, under 30 miles. It should also be on the 
natural route southwards from the point where the valley of Ajalon enters the plain. These 
considerations would lead us to place Makkedah near the north boundary of Judah, a situation 
also indicated by the fact that it occurs last in a list enumerating the towns in regular succes- 
sion from south to north. 

'The site of el Moghar, a village on the north side of the valley of Sorek, fulfils in a 
remarkable way all these conditions, as may be briefly enumerated thus : 

' ist El Moghar is immediately south-west of Ekron, one of the cities on the north tribe- 
line of Judah. 

' 2nd. It is not far east of Dejjun, the true site of Beth Dagon, as fixed by M. Ganneau. 
It is 5 miles south-west of N'aaneh, in which, I think, we can hardly fail to recognise the 
ancient Naameh. 

' 3rd. It is an undoubtedly ancient site, as evidenced by the rock-quarrying, and by the 
existence of tombs with the hKuli running in from the sides of the chamber. 

'4th. As far as careful examination has allowed us to determine, it is the only site in the 
plain where caves occur. The houses are built over and in front of caverns of various sizes, 
and small caves called Moghair-Summeil exist in the face of cliffs north of the village. 

' 5th. It is some 25 miles from Gibeon in a line down the valley of Ajalon, and close to 
the main road north and south from Gaza to Lydda. 

' 6th. It is not far removed from Azekah, which, as will be shown later, was some 10 miles 
farther east. 

'7th. Its name signifies in Arabic "The Caves." The Syriac version of Joshua x. 10 
furnishes, however, a link between the modern Arabic and the ancient Hebrew, as the word 
Makkedah is there rendered Mokor, which approaches the Arabic Moghr, of which the plural 
form is Moghar, or more commonly Moghiiir. 

' These various points, when taken together, seem to me to form a pretty satisfactory 
identification, placing Makkedah in the district in which Mr. Grove, and all the best 
authorities, have contended that Makkedah should be sought. Vandevelde's identification at 
Summeil, some 1 2 miles farther south, depending on the reported existence of a cave of which 
we could find no traces, and on the existence of ancient ruins which do not, however, date 
beyond the Middle Ages, falls to the ground, as would be naturally expected from its great dis- 
tance from the site of Gibeon. 

'A short description of this remarkable site may be of interest. The broad valley of Sorek, 
the home of Dalilah and the scene of the return of the ark from Philistia, expands upon 
leaving the hills into a flat plain of rich corn-land, bounded by the hills of Gezer on the north, 
and by rolling uplands separating it on the south from the next great water-course, the valley 
of Elah. About halfway along its course, from the hills to the sea, a sort of promontory runs 
out from the uncultivated downs around Ekron (now, as then, the property of nomadic tribes 
settled among the peasantry). The valley has, in fact, made a way here through a bar of soft 
sandy stone, and a corresponding promontory or tongue on the south melts away into the 
southern uplands. The northern is the highest, and is divided into three tops, the last of 
which falls abruptly, and supports a large mud village clambering up the steep eastern side and 
crowding round the caves. Another village, and a remarkable Tell or knoll immediately 
north of it, form the termination of the southern promontory. The first village is el Moghar, 
which I propose to identify with Makkedah ; the second, Katrah or Gatrah, which, as I shall 
have occasion to explain later, seems to me the true site of Gederoth, afterwards known as 
Kedron. 



{SHEET XI 7.] TOPOGRAPin '. 



-US 



'North of el Moghar are gardens hedged with cactus extendhig over the whole hill-top. 
South of it are ancient olives, also walled with cactus, whilst cast and west extend fine corn- 
fields and broad flat expanses of brown ploughed land. 

' The slopes of the promontory are steep on the east, and in part precipitous. It is in this 
respect unique, for in no other part of the plain do the sandstone cliffs thus appear. Hence 
it is, I believe, the only place where caves are to be found. One of these, now broken away 
in front, has, curiously enough, five loaili rudely scooped in its sides. It is the only cave I 
saw with such loculi, and an enthusiast might contend that here we liave the very place of 
sepulture of the five kings who " were found hid in a cave at Makkedah." 

'The site seems well to answer the requirements of the case. Hidden from view, and 
perched high above the route of their pursuers, the five sheikhs would have looked down in 
fancied security on the host hurr)'ing beneath on the high road to Azekah and Gath and other 
" fenced cities." The fact of their discovery and capture before the taking of the town would 
show that it is to one of the caves outside the city that they must have retired. These caves are 
generally very small ; some are broken away in front, and others filled in ; but two at least can 
be pointed out wherein five men might crowd, and the entrances of which could easily be 
blocked with the " great stones " which lie scattered near. No trees now exist near the caves 
though olives and others are to be noticed south of the village ; but the number of trees 
throughout this part of the plain is much greater than farther north, and the most enthusiastic 
could scarcely hope to discover those which in the time of Joshua supported the corpses of 
the five royal victims.' — Lieutenant Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1875, p. 165. 

17, 18, 19. Es Suafir (G u). — Three mud villages of this name 
exist close together. The name is sujDposcd to represent the Biblical 
Saphir (Micah i. 11), but a site in the hills would suit better. It is, 
howev-er, probably the Zeophir in the territory of Ascalon, given as 
property to the Bishop of Bethlehem in 1 1 10 a.d. (William of Tyre). 
The most ancient of the villages would appear to be Suafir esh 
Shemaliyeh, where there are ruined cisterns of rubble masonry. 
There are small gardens and wells at each village. 

20. Summeil (H u). — A small village on the edge of the higher 
ground, of mud and stone, with cactus hedges. A pond on the south and 
a well on the north supply the place. Near the latter there is a pointed 
archway of good masonry, apparently mediaeval work, and there are foun- 
dations of hewn stones in the village.* B i r Summeil (Sheet XX.), 
south of the village, is also a well-built masonry well, and the place 
evidently dates back to Crusading times at least. 

* Robinson (' Biblical Researches,' Vol. II., p. 368) describes the B i r Summeil as 
II feet in diameter, and no feet deep to the water, the walls circular and of good masonry. 

The well is a conspicuous object in the plain. 

He also notices a sloping revetment in the village. (Compare e d h D h a ii e r i y c Ii, 
Sheet XXV. The place was probably of some importance in Crusading times. 



414 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

2 1. Et T i n c ]i (II Li). — An ordinary nuul \ill.iL;(', witli a well to 
the south. 

22. Yasvir (G t). — An ordinary mud village. Robinson identi- 
fies this place (' Biblical Researches,' Vol. II., p. 370, note), with the 
Asor of the ' Onomasticon,' in the borders of Ascalon, towards the east. 
In the inscription of Sennacherib (' Records of the Past,' Vol. I.) a 
Hazor is mentioned in this direction. It has a well to the south, and 
large gardens to the north and east. 

23. Ye b n a h (G s). — A large village standing in a very conspicuous 

position on a hill. It has olives to the north and fields of corn and 

Knrsinneh (vetches). Some of the houses are of stone. The place is 

identified with the ancient Jabneel (Joshua xv. ti), and the later Jamnia 

(i Mace. iv. 15). It was known to Eusebius, and to the mediaeval writers. 

The fortress of Ibelin was here constructed in 1 142 a.d. (See Section B.) 

The Crusaders supposed the site to be the ancient Gath (William of Tyre). 

There are several wells in the gardens surrounding the hill. 

The history of Jabneel, or Jamnia, apart from the brief mention of it in the Old Testament 
(Joshua XV. 1 1 ; 2 Chron. xxvi. 6), is brief In the Book of Judith the people of Jamnia are 
represented as trembling at the approach of Holofernes. During the MaccabKan wars the 
city was taken by Simon, and its port destroyed by Judas. In the year 63 b.c. it was taken 
from the Jews by Pompey. In 57 b.c. it was repeopled by order of Gabinius,' governor of 
Syria. In the year 30 e.g. it was restored to the Jews by Augustus. Herod gave it to his 
sister Salome, with Jamnia and Phasaeles, and Salome bequeathed it to Livia, wife of 
Augustus. Jamnia was at this time one of the most populous and wealthy cities of the Jews. 
It became the seat of the Sanhedrim some time before the destruction of Jerusalem, and a 
great Rabbinical school grew up here. In the time of Eusebius it had decayed and was but 
a small place. There were, however, a Christian church here and a bishop early in the fourth 
century. The destruction of the place probably followed the Mohammedan conquest. The 
Crusaders found it in ruins, bearing the name of Ibelin. 

24. Zernukah (H s). — A large mud village with cactus hedges 
round it, and wells in the gardens. 

III. — Jebel KhulIl. 

1. 'Ajjur (J ii).^A small village with olives. It is supplied by 
cisterns. 

2. Berkusieh (H u). — A village ot moderate size, on a hill in a 
conspicuous position. The houses are of mud and stone. There is a fine 



[ SHEET X 1 7. ] TOPOGRAPHY. 



415 



well, resembling thai of SLiinincil, west of the village, and rock-cut tombs 
to the south-west. 

3. Deir edh Dhibban (I u). — See Section 1!. It has a well to 
the west. 

4. Ran a (I u). — An ordinary village of mud and stone, with a pool 
and gardens. 

5. Tell es Safi (I u). — See Section B. This important site is 
identified by Dr. Porter with the ancient Gath. Gath woukl seem to have 
been known to Eusebius and Jerome, 'as in the lilih mile Irom l{leuthero- 
polis (Beit J i b r i n) to those going to Diospolis' (' Onomasticon,' 
s. V. Gath.) The vicinity to the Valley of Elah may also Ik- urged in 
favour of the site, and the fact that Josephus gives Gath to the tribe of 
Dan (Ant. v. i, 22). The Gathrimmon of Dan (Joshua x.xi. 24) may 
perhaps be the same place, as the title may be rendered 'High Gath.' 
(See Gesen. Lex., i'0">., 2.) The; modern hovels are of mud ; the well in 
the valley to the north is the principal supply of water. 

' Beit Jibrin seems at some time to have been besieged by the Romans, if I am correct in 
supposing that the three great Tells which surround it are the sites of Roman camijs ; they 
may, however, have been constructed later, when the Crusaders fortified the town. They are 
known as Tell Burnat west, Tell Sandahannah south-east, and Tell Scdcidch north-west. On 
each is a square inclosure, with a foundation, seemingly of a wall of small stones, but some 
4 feet thick. The square faces towards the cardinal |)oints, and the length of a side is about 
50 yards. The positions chosen entirely command the town, and the artificial character of 
the top of each Tell is at once visible from a distance. An aqueduct leads from near Tell 
Sedeideh to a cistern close to the camp, but this ai)pears to be of Saracenic date. It is 
possible we may find some clue to the identification of Beit Jibrin in the history of the places 
besieged by the Romans in this part of Palestine. 

' Beit Jibrin has, I believe, been identified by some authors with Oath, but to this 
there seem to me to be many objections. The " Onomasticon " is not always a safe guide, 
but in this case is almost the only one we have, and, to say the least, it was easier to find an 
old site in the third century than in the nineteenth century. The "Onomasticon" defines 
Gath as being north from Eleulhcropolis (or Beit Jibrin), on the road to Lydda, and again 
visible to those who went from Eleutheropolis to Gaza (probably for Gazara, or Gezer, at Tell 
Jezer), at the fifth milestone. This is a fatal objection, at least to the Gath of Eusebius being 
at Beit Jibrin ; in addition to which Gath was in the country of the Bhilistines — the plain 
rather than the Shephelah — it was a strong site, and fortified by Rehoboam, not as is Beit 
Jibrin, a position naturally weak. Josephus mentions the "Borders of Gath" in connection 
with Ekron. Gaza to Gath he again gives, apparently as defining the whole extent of the 
southern plain taken by Joshux 

' In the flight of the I'hilistines down the N'alley of Elah, tiiey were smitten by Sha'araim 
and Gath. None of these indications, slight though they are, fit with Beit Jibrin, but they all 
fit well with the other proposed site of Tell el Sdfieh, the strong fortress of Blanche Garde or 



4i6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Alba Specula. The most conclusive passage in Josephus may be added (Ant. v. i, 22), 
where he defines the limit of the tribe of Dan : " Also they had all Jamnia and Gath, from 
Ekron to that mountain where the tribe of Judah begins," a definition which places Gath very 
far north, and at all events not farther south than Tell el Safieh. 

'In one passage Josephus substitutes Ipan (Ant. viii. 10, 1), where Gath occurs in the 
Old Testament (2 Chron. xL S), but this does not appear to assist the identification much. 
Gath seems to have been one of the principal Philistine strongholds, and as such its position 
must have been important. It is, however, curiously omitted in the topographical lists, as is 
also Ascalon, another Philistine city — probably because neither was taken during Joshua's 
campaign in the plains. 

' The magnificent natural site of Tell el Safieh, standing above the broad valley, which 
seems undoubtedly the ^'alley of Elah, and presenting on the north and west a white precipice 
of many hundred feet, must have made this place one of importance in all ages. In its 
mounds, excavation might be productive of good results, but even of the fortress of Blanche 
Garde no trace seems to remain beyond the scarped side of the rock upon the east, evidently 
artificial. There are many large caves in the northern precipice, and excavations, where grain 
is now kept. The village at the top is a collection of miserable mud huts, inhabited by 
insolent peasantry, one of whom I had the satisfaction of sending bound to Hebron for 
threatening me with a stone. 

' The isolated position of this site would fully account for its being held (as the Jebusites 
held Jerusalem) by the original native population, never expelled by Joshua, whilst the plains 
round it were in the hands of the Jews, and from this outpost there was an easy passage up 
one of the great high roads to the hills — the Valley of Elah in which Samson and Samuel, and 
probably also David, in turn, so repeatedly encountered the Philistine invaders.' — Lieutenant 
Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1875, p. 144. 

' As regards Gath, it is only necessary to say that the requirements of the narrative seem 
fully met by the Tell es Safi site advocated by Dr. Porter, and which alone fits with the 
description of the " Onomasticon." Gath so placed guards the entrance of the Valley of Elah 
into the plain, and is about 6 miles from the scene of the conflict. 

' The sites thus proposed serve considerably to elucidate the account of the battle. Saul, 
coming down from the hills by the ancient road from Jerusalem to Gaza, which passes near 
Shochoh, must have encountered the Philistines very near the great bend in the valley. Thus 
the two forces divided by the torrent bed are placed in a natural relative position : Saul on the 
east, coming from the east ; the Philistines on the west, coming/rom the west, having Shochoh 
south of them and Sha'araim behind them. The position usually assigned north and south 
has no such strategical significance as the one thus advocated. 

' The photographs of Lieutenant Kitchener, showing on the one hand the sweep of the 
valley, its broad extent of corn fields, flanked with low hills of rock and brushwood, and on 
the other the great hill of Sha'araim and the olives and terebinths at its feet, will give a far 
better idea of the scene than any I can convey in words ; but to one standing on the spot and 
looking across to the high and broken line of the hills of Judah, and at the broad vale in which 
a great host might easily have encamped, there will appear to be a perfect fitness in the site to 
the famous events occurring in it.' — Lieutenant Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1S75, p. 194. 

El Jurah {E u). — For this village see 'Askalan, Sheet XIX. 
It is probably the Yagur of the Tosiphta. 



[SHEET XVJ.] TOPOGRAPHY. 409 



II. — Nahiet el Mejdel. 

1. Balin (H u). — A very small mud village with no traces of 
antiquity. The name suggests a connection with Baalath, a town of Dan 
(Joshua xix. 44), and with the town of the same name, near Gezer, fortified 
by Solomon. (Ant. viii. 6, i.) In the Talmud a place of this name is 
noticed as on the boundary of Dan and Judah. (Tal. Jer. Sanhed, 1,2; 
Geog. Tal., p. 99.) 

2. Beshshit (G t). — A moderately large village of mud, with 
a large kubbeh having three domes (N e b y S h i t) on the higher ground 
immediately north. It has gardens with cactus hedges, and a masonry 
well to the south. 

3. Beit Duras (G u). — An ordinary mud village, with a good 
masonry well and rubble cisterns, now ruined, indicating a place of some 
antiquity. To the north is a pond, and round the village are gardens and 
olives. 

4. Burkah (G t). — An ordinary village with the tomb of Neby 
Burk. This place is noticed in the ' Onomasticon ' (s.v. Barac) as a 
village (viculus) near Azotus, and called Bareca. 

5,6. B u t a n i (G t). — The two villages of this name are of mud, and 
situate on low ground, with patches of garden and wells. The western 
one has also a pond. 

7. Dhcnebbeh (I u). — A moderate sized village, on high ground, 
having two good spring-wells on the south. It is built of mud and stone, 
with cactus hedges round it, and a garden of small fig-trees on the south. 

8. 'Ebdis (G u). — A middle-sized mud village. It is also called 
'Eddis. It stands in open ground. It may possibly represent the 
ancient Hadashah (Joshua xv. 37). 

9. Esdud (Ft). — This village marks the site of the ancient 
Ashdod, but no ruins of any great antiquity were observed. It consists 
almost entirely of mud houses, one story high, with walls and enclosures 
also of mud. The houses occupy the eastern side of a low hill, which 
rises considerably above them, and is covered with gardens, walled in with 
cactus hedges ; the soil a semi-consolidated sand. Gardens also exist on 

VOL. n. 52 



4IO THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

the other sides of the village. The sand dunes extend almost to the 
village. On the south-west is the ruined Khan (see Section B.), and 
south of this a large marsh, which was only partly dry in April, 1875. 
The water-supply of the village is from ponds with mud banks, and from 
a masonry well to the east ; and in this direction there are a few date- 
palms and some small fig-trees in gardens. It is probable that the ancient 
site was on the top of the hill, but no ruins were found. This site has 
never been lost, being known to Jerome and Eusebius, and also to the 
best informed of the Crusading Chroniclers. For the peculiarities of its 
inhabitants see Section C. For the port, see M i n e t el K u 1 a h, 
Section B. 

North-east of E s d u d there is a small grove of remarkably fine olive- 
trees. 

10. J ilia (I t). — An ordinary village of mud and stone. It is 
probably the Gallaa of the ' Onomasticon,' mentioned (s.v. Gallim) as a 
town (vicus) near Accaron. 

11. J 111 is (F u). — An ordinary mud village. There are, however, 
ruined rubble cisterns, which suggest some antiquity. It has a well to 
the south and a pool with gardens to the north-east. 

12. Katrah (H t). — A mud village, without any special sign of 
antiquity. (See Tell el Ful, Section B.) It has a well to the west and 
gardens all round it. 

This site is identified with the Cedron of i Mace. xv. 39, a place near 
Jamnia (Yebnah), and Azotus (Esdud). Captain Warren suggests 
the identity of the place with Gederoth, apparently not far from Makkedah 
(Joshua XV. 41). The letters j and p and n and u are interchangeable 
according to Gesenius, and the place is near the probable site of Mak- 
kedah. 

13. Kustineh (H u). — A large mud village, with a well and 
gardens, situate on flat ground. 

14. Mejdel (E u). — This is the most important modern place in 
the district, of which it is the capital. It is a market town, and said to 
contain 1,500 inhabitants. There is a small mosque, with a minaret, and 
a bazaar in the town. The houses are principally of mud, and the water- 
supply is from several wells and from a large pond east of the village. On 



[SHEET Xr/.] TOPOGRAPHY. 411 

the same side there is a grove of palms ; on the west a large cemetery ; 
and on the north are olives of remarkable size. 

Vandevelde suggests the identity of this place with the IMigdol Gad of 
Joshua XV. 2)1'^ ^"t there is nothing beyond the name to support this 
view. 

The inhabitants are traders, and rope-making was observed going on 
near the town. 

15. El M e s m i y e h (II t). — A mud village of moderate size, with 
a well to the south and gardens round it. 

16. El M u g h ;i r (H s). — This village consists almost entirely of 
mud houses, occupying the south slope of the hill, and built in front of 
caves in the rock. There are fig-gardens beneath, and pasture-land 
round it on the north and east. The village is not larger than most of 
those in the plain, but the kokim tombs at M li g h a i r S u m m c i 1 (see 
Section B.) show that it is an old site. It has two wells: one north, one 
west. 

Captain Warren identifies the site with Makkedah, a place the position 
of which was unknown to Eusebius and Jerome. In support of this view 
the proximity to Naaneh (Naamah) and to K at rah (G(;deroth) may 
be ureed, and the existence of caves, which are not found at other sites in 
the vicinity. 

The village is placed on a sort of jut running out above Wady es 
Surar, on the north side. On the north there are gardens hedged with 
cactus, extending over the whole hill-top. There are also ancient olive- 
trees towards the south. The slopes of the hill on the east are steep, and 
in places precipitous, and the site is one of some strength. For the 
antiquities see Section B. 

'One of the most important towns of a Royal Canaanite city, the site of the first great 
victory of Joshua's Judrean campaign, has escaped more than the merest conjecture, and even 
Captain Warren's suggestion for its identification has not, as far as I am aware, appeared 
in print. 

' Makkedah is to be sought in the plain country of Judah, and in the neighbourhood of 
Beth Dagon and Naameh, names which immediately precede it in the topographical list. It 
must also be in the neighbourhood of one or more caves, and should show indications of an 
ancient and important site. 

' There is another consideration which limits the position of Makkedah. Joshua, who had 
marched from Gilgal to Gibeon, a distance of some 20 miles, before dawn, pursued the defeated 
Canaanites down the valley of Ajalon to the plain, whence they fled to .\zckah and Makkedah. 
Makkedah was taken, and the five kings hanged by sunset, and thus we cannot place it more 

52—2 



412 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

than some S or lo hours from Gibcon — that is, under 30 miles. It should also be on the 
natural route southwards from the point where the valley of Ajalon enters the plain. These 
considerations would lead us to place Makkedah near the north boundary of Judah, a situation 
also indicated by the fact that it occurs last in a list enumerating the towns in regular succes- 
sion from south to north. 

' The site of el Moghar, a village on the north side of the valley of Sorek, fulfils in a 
remarkable way all these conditions, as may be briefly enumerated thus : 

' I St. El Moghar is immediately south-west of Ekron, one of the cities on the north tribe- 
line of Judah. 

' 2nd. It is not far east of Dejjun, the true site of Beth Dagon, as fixed by M. Ganneau. 
It is 5 miles south-west of N'aaneh, in which, I think, we can hardly fail to recognise the 
ancient Naameh. 

' 3rd. It is an undoubtedly ancient site, as evidenced by the rock-quarrying, and by the 
existence of tombs with the loculi running in from the sides of the chamber. 

'4th. As far as careful examination has allowed us to determine, it is the only site in the 
plain where caves occur. The houses are built over and in front of caverns of various sizes, 
and small caves called Moghair-Summeil e.^ist in the face of cliffs north of the village. 

'5th. It is some 25 miles from Clibeon in a line down the valley of Ajalon, and close to 
the main road north and south from Gaza to Lydda. 

' 6th. It is not far removed from Azekah, which, as will be shown later, was some 10 miles 
farther east. 

'7th. Its name signifies in Arabic "The Caves." The Syriac version of Joshua x. 10 
furnishes, however, a link between the modern Arabic and the ancient Hebrew, as the word 
Makkedah is there rendered Mokor, which approaches the Arabic Moghr, of which the plural 
form is Moghar, or more commonly Moghiiir. 

' These various points, when taken together, seem to me to form a pretty satisfactory 
identification, placing Makkedah in the district in which Mr. Grove, and all the best 
authorities, have contended that Makkedah should be sought. Vandevelde's identification at 
Summeil, some 12 miles farther south, depending on the reported existence of a cave of which 
we could find no traces, and on the existence of ancient ruins which do not, however, date 
beyond the Middle Ages, falls to the ground, as would be naturally expected from its great dis- 
tance from the site of Gibeon. 

'A short description of this remarkable site may be of interest. The broad valley of Sorek, 
the home of Dalilah and the scene of the return of the ark from Philistia, expands upon 
leaving the hills into a flat plain of rich corn-land, bounded by the hills of Gezer on the north, 
and by rolling uplands separating it on the south from the next great water-course, the valley 
of Elah. About half-way along its course, from the hills to the sea, a sort of promontory runs 
out from the uncultivated downs around Ekron (now, as then, the property of nomadic tribes 
settled among the peasantry). The valley has, in fact, made a way here through a bar of soft 
sandy stone, and a corresponding promontory or tongue on the south melts away into the 
southern uplands. The northern is the highest, and is divided into three tops, the last of 
which falls abruptly, and supports a large mud village clambering up the steep eastern side and 
crowding round the caves. Another village, and a remarkable Tell or knoll immediately 
north of it, form the termination of the southern promontory. The first village is el Moghar, 
which I propose to identify with Makkedah ; the second, Katrah or Gatrah, which, as I shall 
have occasion to explain later, seems to me the true site of Gederoth, afterwards known as 
Kedron. 



[SHEET XVJ.] TOPOGRAPHY. 



A^Z 



'North of el Moghar are gardens hedged with cactus extending over the whole hill-top. 
South of it are ancient olives, also walled with cactus, whilst east and west extend fine corn- 
fields and broad flat expanses of brown ploughed land. 

' The slopes of the promontory are steep on the east, and in part precipitous. It is in this 
respect unique, for in no other part of the plain do the sandstone cliffs thus appear. Hence 
it is, I believe, the only place where caves are to be found. One of these, now broken away 
in front, has, curiously enough, five loculi rudely scooped in its sides. It is the only cave I 
saw with such loculi, and an enthusiast might contend that here we have the very place of 
sepulture of the five kings who " were found hid in a cave at Makkedah." 

' The site seems well to answer the requirements of the case. Hidden from view, and 
perched high above the route of their pursuers, the five sheikhs would have looked down in 
fancied security on the host hurr)-ing beneath on the high road to Azekah and Gath and other 
" fenced cities." The fact of their discovery and capture before the taking of the town would 
show that it is to one of the caves outside the city that they must have retired. These caves are 
generally very small ; some are broken away in front, and others filled in ; but two at least can 
be pointed out wherein five men might crowd, and the entrances of which could easily be 
blocked with the " great stones " which lie scattered near. No trees now exist near the caves 
though olives and others are to be noticed south of the village ; but the number of trees 
throughout this part of the plain is much greater than farther north, and the most enthusiastic 
could scarcely hope to discover those which in the time of Jo.shua supported the corpses of 
the five royal victims.' — Lieutenant Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1875, P- '"^S- 

17, 18, 19. Es Suafir (G u). — Three mud villages of this name 
exist close together. The name is supposed to represent the Biblical 
Saphir (Micah i. 11), but a site in the hills would suit better. It is, 
however, probably the Zeophir in the territory of Ascalon, given as 
property to the Bishop of Bethlehem in 11 10 \.\i. (William of Tyre). 
The most ancient of the villages would appear to be Siiafir esh 
Shemaliyeh, where there are ruined cisterns of rubble masonry. 
There are small gardens and wells at each village. 

20. Summeil (H u). — A small village on the edge of the higher 
ground, of mud and stone, with cactus hedges. A pond on the south and 
a well on the north supply the place. Near the latter there is a pointed 
archway of good masonry, apparently medioe\-al work, and there are foun- 
dations of hewn stones in the village.* Bir S u m me i 1 (Sheet XX.), 
south of the village, is also a well-built masonry well, and the place 
evidently dates back to Crusading times at least. 

* Robinson (' Biblical Researches,' Vol. II., p. 368) describes the B i r Summeil as 
1 1 feet in diameter, and 1 10 feet deep to the water, the walls circular and of good masonry. 

The well is a conspicuous object in the plain. 

He also notices a sloping revetment in the village. (Compare e d h D h a h e r i y e h, 
Sheet XXV. The place was probably of some importance in Crusading times. 



414 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

2 1. Et Tinch (H u). — An ordinary nuul \ilLige, with a well to 
the south. 

22. Yasur (G t). — An ordinary mud village. Robinson identi- 
fies this place ('Biblical Researches,' Vol. II., p. 370, note), with the 
Asor of the ' Onomasticon,' in the borders of Ascalon, towards the east. 
In the inscription of Sennacherib (' Records of the Past,' Vol. I.) a 
Hazor is mentioned in this direction. It has a well to the south, and 
large gardens to the north and east. 

23. Y e b n a h (G s).- — A large village standing in a very conspicuous 

position on a hill. It has olives to the north and fields of corn and 

Kursinnch (vetches). Some of the houses arc of stone. The place is 

identified with the ancient Jabneel (Joshua xv. 11), and the later Jamnia 

(i Mace. iv. 15). It was known to Eusebius, and to the mediaeval writers. 

The fortress of Ibelin was here constructed in 1 142 a.d. (See Section B.) 

The Crusaders supposed the site to be the ancient Gath (William of Tyre). 

There are several wells in the gardens surrounding the hill. 

The history of Jabneel, or Jamnia, apart from the brief mention of it in the Old Testament 
(Joshua XV. II ; 2 Chron. xxvi. 6), is brief. In the Book of Judith the people of Jamnia are 
represented as trembling at the approach of Holofernes. During the Maccaba2an wars the 
city was taken by Simon, and its port destroyed by Judas. In the year 63 b.c. it was taken 
from the Jews by Pompey. In 57 B.C. it was repeopled by order of Gabinius, governor of 
Syria. In the year 30 B.C. it was restored to the Jews by Augustus. Herod gave it to his 
sister Salome, with Jamnia and Phasaeles, and Salome bequeathed it to Livia, wife of 
Augustus. Jamnia was at this time one of the most populous and wealthy cities of the Jews. 
It became the seat of the Sanhedrim some time before the destruction of Jerusalem, and a 
great Rabbinical school grew up here. In the time of Eusebius it had decayed and was but 
a small place. There were, however, a Christian church here and a bishop early in the fourth 
century. The destruction of the place probably followed the Mohammedan conquest. The 
Crusaders found it in ruins, bearing the name of Ibelin. 

24. Zernukah (H s). — A large mud village with cactus hedges 
round it, and wells in the gardens. 

III. — Jebel KhulIl. 

1. 'Ajjfir (J u).^A small village with olives. It is sup^Dlied by 
cisterns. 

2. Berkusieh (H u). — A village ot moderate size, on a hill in a 
conspicuous position. The houses are of mud and stone. There is a fine 



[SHEET X17.\ TOPOGRAPHY. 415 

well, resembling that of Summeil, west of the village, and rock-cut tombs 
to the south-west. 

3. Deir c d h Dliibban (1 u). — See Section B. It has a well to 
the west. 

4. Ran a (I u). — An ordinary village of mud and stone, with a pool 
and gardens. 

5. Tell es Safi (I u). — See Section 13. This important site is 
identified by Dr. Porter with the ancient Gath. Gath would seem to have 
been known to Eusebius and Jerome, 'as in the fifth mile from Eleuthero- 
polis (Beit J i b r i n) to those going to Diospolis ' (' Onomasticon,' 
s. V. Gath.) The vicinity to the Valley of Elah may also be urged in 
favour of the site, and the fact that Josephus gives Gath to the tribe of 
Dan (Ant. v. i, 22). The Gathrimmon of Dan (Joshua x.xi. 24) may 
perhaps be the same place, as the tide may be rendered ' High Gath.' 
(See Gesen. Lex., roi., 2.) The modern hovels are of mud ; the well in 
the valley to the north is the principal supply of v.-ater. 

' Beit Jibrin seems at some time to have been besieged by the Romans, if I am correct in 
supposing that the three great Tells which surround it arc the sites of Roman camps ; they 
may, however, have been constructed later, when the Crusaders fortified the town. The)' are 
known as Tell Burnat west, Tell Sandahannah south-east, and Tell Sedeideh north-west. On 
each is a square inclosure, with a foundation, seemingly of a wall of small stones, but some 
4 feet thick. The square faces towards the cardinal points, and the length of a side is about 
50 yards. The positions chosen entirely command the town, and the artificial character of 
the top of each Tell is at once visible from a distance. An aqueduct leads from near Tell 
Sedeideh to a cistern close to the camp, but this appears to be of Saracenic date. It is 
possible we may find some clue to the identification of Beit Jibrin in tlie history of the places 
besieged by the Romans in this part of Palestine. 

'Beit Jibrin has, I beUeve, been identified by some authors with Gath, but to this 
there seem to me to be many objections. The " Onomasticon " is not always a safe guide, 
but in this case is almost the only one we have, and, to say the least, it was easier to find an 
old site in the third century than in the nineteenth century. The " Onomasticon " defines 
Gath as being north from Eleutheropolis (or Beit Jibrin), on the road to Lydda, and again 
visible to those who went from Eleutheropolis to Gaza (probably for Gazara, or Gezer, at Tell 
Jezer), at the fifth milestone. This is a fatal objection, at least to the Gath of Eusebius being 
at Beit Jibrin ; in addition to which Gath was in the country of the Philistines — the plain 
rather than the Shephelah — it was a strong site, and fortified by Rehoboam, not as is Beit 
Jibrin, a position naturally weak. Josephus mentions the "Borders of Gath" in connection 
with Ekron. Gaza to Gath he again gives, apparently as defining the whole e.\tent of the 
southern plain taken by Joshux 

' In the flight of the Philistines down the Valley of Elah, they were smitten by Sha'araim 
and Gath. None of these indications, slight though they are, fit with Beit Jibrin, but they all 
fit well with the other proposed site of Tell el Safieh, the strong fortress of Blanche Garde or 



4i6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Alba Specula. The most conclusive passage in Josephus may be added (Ant. v. i, 22), 
where he defines the limit of the tribe of Dan : " Also they had all Jamnia and Gath, from 
Ekron to that mountain where the tribe of Judah begins," a definition which places Gath very 
far north, and at all events not farther south than Tell el Siifieh. 

'In one passage Josephus substitutes Ipan (Ant. viii. 10, i), where Gath occurs in the 
Old Testament (2 Chron. xi. 8), but this does not appear to assist the identification much. 
Gath seems to have been one of the principal Philistine strongholds, and as such its position 
must have been important. It is, however, curiously omitted in the topographical lists, as is 
also Ascalon, another Philistine city — probably because neither was taken during Joshua's 
campaign in the plains. 

' The magnificent natural site of Tell el Safieh, standing above the broad valley, which 
seems undoubtedly the Valley of Elah, and presenting on the north and west a white precipice 
of many hundred feet, must have made this place one of importance in all ages. In its 
mounds, excavation might be productive of good results, but even of the fortress of Blanche 
Garde no trace seems to remain beyond the scarped side of the rock upon the east, evidently 
artificial. There are many large caves in the northern precipice, and excavations, where grain 
is now kept. The village at the top is a collection of miserable mud huts, inhabited by 
insolent peasantry, one of whom I had the satisfaction of sending bound to Hebron for 
threatening me with a stone. 

' The isolated position of this site would fully account for its being held (as the Jebusites 
held Jerusalem) by the original native population, never expelled by Joshua, whilst the plains 
round it were in the hands of the Jews, and from this outpost there was an easy passage up 
one of the great high roads to the hills — the Valley of Elah in which Samson and Samuel, and 
probably also David, in turn, so repeatedly encountered the Philistine invaders.' — Lieutenant 
Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1875, p. 14.4. 

' As regards Gath, it is only necessary to say that the requirements of the narrative seem 
fully met by the Tell es Safi site advocated by Dr. Porter, and which alone fits with the 
description of the " Onomasticon." Gath so placed guards the entrance of the Valley of Elah 
into the plain, and is about 6 miles from the scene of the conflict. 

' The sites thus proposed serve considerably to elucidate the account of the battle. Saul, 
coming down from the hills by the ancient road from Jerusalem to Gaza, which passes near 
Shochoh, must have encountered the Philistines very near the great bend in the valley. Thus 
the two forces divided by the torrent bed are placed in a natural relative position : Saul on the 
east, coming from the east ; the Philistines on the west, coming/;vw the west, having Shochoh 
south of them and Sha'araim behind them. The position usually assigned north and south 
has no such strategical significance as the one thus advocated. 

' The photographs of Lieutenant Kitchener, showing on the one hand the sweep of the 
valley, its broad extent of corn-fields, flanked with low hills of rock and brushwood, and on 
the other the great hill of Sha'araim and the olives and terebinths at its feet, will give a far 
better idea of the scene than any I can convey in words ; but to one standing on the spot and 
looking across to the high and broken line of the hills of Judah, and at the broad vale in which 
a great host might easily have encamped, there will appear to be a perfect fitness in the site to 
the famous events occurring in it.'— Lieutenant Conder, 'Quarterly Statement,' 1875, p. 194. 

El Jurah (E u).- — For this village see 'Askalan, Sheet XIX. 
It is probably the Yagur of the Tosij^hta. 



[SHEET Xrj.] BIBLICAL SITES. 



417 



In addition to the villages thus enumerated, some of the more impor- 
tant ruins have been identified as follows, with Biblical and non- Biblical 
sites : 

I. — Biblical Sites. 

Tell Jezer. — See Section B. Is identified by M. Clermont 
Ganncau with the ancient Gezer (Joshua x. n, etc.), on account of the 
inscriptions, which he dates as about the Maccabean period, and on 
account of the description given in the ' Onomasticon ' (s. v. Gazer), ' in 
quarto milliario Nicopoleos contra septentrionem.' The site is noticed by- 
its modern name by Mejr ed Din, about 1500 a.d. 

The position is north-west of Nicopolis ('Am was) ; but only the four 
cardinal points are distinguished in the ' Onomasticon,' and the distance 
is approximately correct. 

S h i c r o n. — A place on the boundary of Judah (Joshua xv. 1 1), near 
Jabneel. The name Sukereir comes from a corresponding root, and 
applies to a stream and ruin. (See 'Quarterly Statement,' October, 1876 
p. 170. Note.) 

Timnah. — (Joshua xv. 10; Judges xiv. 5.) Was identified by 
Robinson with the present T i b n e h. ('Biblical Researches,' Vol. II., 
343.) The Thimnatha of Joshua xix. 43, may perhaps be the same, or 
possibly Tibneh, on Sheet XIV. (which see). 

II. — Nox-BiBLiCAL Sites. 

A seal on. — In the fifth century there were two Ascalons. (See 
'Quarterly Statement,' July, 1875, p. 152.) Benjamin of Tudela speaks 
of a second ruined Ascalon as 4 parasangs from the sea (15 miles). 
This is very probably K h u r b e t 'A s k a 1 u n, 23 miles from the sea, a 
site evidently of importance in the Byzantine period, but which has no 
trace of Crusading work, and was probably therefore ruined before 
1 160 A.D. (See Section B.) 

A s t h o is a place mentioned in the ' Onomasticon ' as between 
Ashdod and Ascalon (s. v. Asthaol). This would point to K h u r b e t 
K hasseh. 
VOL. II. 53 



4i8 THE SURVEY OF IVESTERy PALESTINE. 

B era.— Noticed in the ' Onomasticon ' as 8 miles north of Eleu- 
theropohs (s. v. Bera). This points to K h u r b e t el B i r e h. 

Betherebin and Caphar Zachariah arc mentioned by 
Sozomenus (Rel. Pal, p. 753) as in the region of Eleutheropolis. This 
would point to the village of Z a k a r i y a near Tell Zakariya, and to the 
ruin called Deir el Butm, ' House (or Monastery) of the Terebinth.' 

Galatia. — A fortress destroyed by Saladin (Itin. Ric, v. 3), not 
improbably K h u r b e t J e 1 e d i y e h (see Section B.), as indicated by 
the position between Blanche Garde (Tell es Safi) and Ascalon, for 
Galatia was visited by King Richard Lion Heart on his route between 
the two latter towns. 

INI ec ha num. — On the road from Eleutheropolis to Jerusalem 
(' Onomasticon,' s. v. Bethmacha), 8 miles from the former. It would 
appear to be K h u r b e t INI e k e n n a. 

Roads. — The two main lines of communication on this Sheet are the 
coast road and the road along the edge of the hills. The first road, which 
is the communication between Jaffa and Egypt, shows no signs of antiquity. 
It is a broad beaten track, not a made road. It crosses the Nahr 
Rubin by a bridge, and the Nahr Sukereir by another. (See Jisr 
Esdud, Section B.) The main line runs west of Yebnah, through 'Esdud^ 
to INIejdel. Near Hamameh it is flanked by garden walls, but is for the 
most part quite open. A parallel branch crosses the Nahr Rubin by 
the bridge north-east of Yebnah, and runs to Yaziir (Sheet XIII.). 

The road along the hills is ancient, as evidenced by the milestones 
(Sheet XX.) and by fragments of a side-fence of stones in places. It is 
the road noticed in the ' Onomasticon' as running between Eleutheropolis 
(Sheet XX.) and Lydda (Sheet XIII.). Another ancient cross-road, 
coming through Mughullis from the Jerusalem road near Shuweikeh 
(Sheet XXL), falls into this road near Dhenebbeh, and is marked by side- 
fences of stones in places. 

Cultivation. — Barley, wheat, lentils, lupines, melons, and vetches and 
other vegetables are cultivated. Round Yebnah there are olive-groves, 
and north of M e j d e 1, at which place there is a palm-grove. Sycamores 
(J i m m e i z e h) grow wild as solitary trees. Figs occur at el ]\I il g h a r. 
The district north of 'A k i r is quite barren. 



SHEET XVI.— SECTION B. 

ArCIL€OLOGY. 

Arak c d Deir (I u). 

Here are excavations similar to those at Deir edh Dhibban mentioned below. Guerin 
thus describes them : 

' They form three different groups, and present the greatest interest. 

'The most considerable of these groups contains about fifteen superb halls, communicating 
with each other, and vaulted, like all others of the kind, in the shape of inverted funnels. An 
air-hole above admits the light. They are circular at their base, and measure on an average 
19 paces in diameter; their height varies from 25 to 40 feet. The two other groups contain 
fewer chambers, and these are not so well preserved. Several have been entirely destroyed, 
and others partly, ^^"hile exploring these subterranean galleries I admired especially one 
chamber, which seemed to me the largest and most remarkable of all. The walls are pierced 
from the ground to at least half the height by several parallel ranges of little triangular or 
arched niches resembling pigeon-holes, the object of which is unknown to me. They certainly 
were not columbaria, because they are too small to have been used for cinerar)- urns. Per- 
haps on certain solemn days they contained lamps intended to light the chamber, like the 
niches which cover the walls of the vestibule of Joshua's tomb. 

' On one of the sides of the same chamber I found four crosses cut in the rock, three 
large and one small. The three first are patties : the ends of their arms are provided with 
two lines at an oblique angle. ... By the side of this chamber there is another smaller one. 
The walls arc pierced within up to the top with numerous niches, disposed in parallel ranks, 
and quite like those of the great hall. Here I found a great block upright, about ^h feet high. 
Was it a sacred stone ? Certainly it is found in the innermost chamber, the adytum of the 
other galleries. 

' In a third chamber I found several inscriptions, one long, traced on the walls in ancient 
Cufic characters: they are irregularly and lightly cut' — Guerin, ' Judee,' ii. 105. 

Bir el Jokhadar (G u). — A ruined well, with cistern for drinking 
beside it. 

Bir el Kushleh (E u). — This fine well was constructed by 
Ibrahim Pacha. It has a winding staircase in the side, leading down, and 
a vaulted chamber was built over it, now ruined. The well is dry, and 

53—2 



420 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN' PALESTIXE. 

covered with blown sand. It is built of moderately large masonry. The 
diameter is about lo feet. 

Bir en Nebah (G u). — A circular well of masonry, without water, 
on a round hill-top. Traces of ruins and pottery, with rubble-work and 
ruined cisterns, exist here. These remains, like the next, and like those 
at Mi net el Kill ah and at el Mel at (Sheet VII.), are peculiar to 
the Maritime Plain, and are found in connection with fortifications which 
appear to be of Crusading origin. (See also K h u r b e t u m m 
Jerrar, Sheet XXI II.) 

Bir esh Shekeir (E u). — Is a ruin of the same class, with rubble 
cisterns in white cement. 

Deir el 'Ashek (I t). — A large rectangular birkeh of rubble 
masonry in cement exists here, and several caves ; also the foundations of 
the apse of a chapel, 15 feet 6 inches diameter, of rough masonry, and a 
wall of masonry. The place is much overgrown with weeds. 

Visited 15th May, 1875. 

Burkah (Ft). 
Guerin noticed here, lying beside a well, several trunks of greyish-white marble. A 
kubbeh is here, dedicated to Neby Barak, and surrounded by tombs. 

Deir edh Dhibban (I u). — Near the modern village, which has 
the appearance of being on an ancient site, there are large caverns 
similar to those at Beit Jibrin, and a rock-cut wine-press, cisterns, and 
heaps of stones. The caverns are described by Robinson, see below. One 
contains Cufic inscriptions'" as at Beit Jibrin. (Sheet XX.) 

' In the soft limestone or chalky rock, which the soil here scarcely covers, are several 
irregular pits, some nearly square, and all about 15 or 20 feet deep, with perpendicular sides. 
Whether these pits are natural or artificial, it might at first be difficult to say. In the sides 
are irregular doors or low arched passages, much obstructed by rubbish, leading into large 
excavations in the adjacent rock in the form of tall domes or bell-shaped apartments, varying 
in height from 20 to 30 feet, and in diameter from 10 or 12 to 20 feet or more. The top of 
the dome usually terminates in a small circular opening at the surface of the ground above, 
admitting light into the cavern. These apartments are mostly in clusters, three or four 
together, communicating with each other. Around one pit towards the south-west we found 
sixteen such apartments thus connected, forming a sort of labyrinth. They are all hewn very 

* As to the inscriptions in these caverns, Captain Warren remarks (' Quarterly Statement,' 
April, 1871, p. 91): 'In one several inscriptions were cut on the rock and on plaster, 
apparently over a passage which had been built up. There is a Byzantine cross over one of 
the inscriptions.' Robinson states the inscriptions to be Cufic, as are those at Beit Jibrin. 



[SJ/£Er Xr/.] ARCH.£.OLOGY. 411 

r^ularly, but many are partly broken down, and it is not impossible that the pits them- 
selves may have been caused by the falling in of similar domes. Some of the apa^tmen'.^ 
ornamented, either near the bottom or high up, or both, with rows of small holes or ni 
like pigeon-holes, extending quite around the walL In the largest clusto-, in the innenno>t 
dome, a rough block of the limestone has been left standing on one side, 10 or 12 feet high, 
as if a nide pulpit or a pedestal for a statue. In the same apartment are several crosses cut 
in the wall; and in another of the same suite are several very old Cufic inscriptions, one of 
which k quite long. These we neglected to copy, much to our subsequent r^ret ; although 
from what we elsewhere saw, they probably would throw no light upon the age and character 
of these singular Excavations. 

' \Miai then could have been the object of these caverns ? Cisterns they were not ; and 
quanies they could hardly have been ; as the stone is not hard enough for building, and there 
is no place in the vicinity erected with such stone. Or, if quarries, why then excavate in this 
peculiar and difficult fonn, when all is so near the surface ? The fonn in itself resembles that 
of the subterranean magazines around many of the villages at the present daj-, and naturally 
suggests the idea that these caverns too may have been intended for magazines of grain. But 
their great nimiber, and especially the fact of their commimicating with each other, is incon- 
sistent with such an h)-potheas. I am imable to solve the mystery ; and the similar excava- 
tions which we afterwards saw on our second visit to Beit Jibrin, serve only to render the 
whole matter still more inexplicable.' — Robinson, ' Biblical Researches," iL 353. 

Esdud (Ft). 

' Most of the hous^ are built of nnbumt bricks ; some few are of stone. In a mosque 
called Jimi'a Sidi Amer, I found a great column in white marble supporting the vault 

' This place, which rises on the slopes of a low hill, is itself commanded on the north-west 
by a higher hill, which was formerly the citadel It is now cultivated and planted with fig and 
oli\-e trees ; a wall of cactus surrounds it This natural hedge grows over a thick wall buDt of 
blocks r^ularly cut and well dr^sed. This is the tradition among the people, and one of 
them declared that quite recendy while maUng a hole in the ground he had brought to light 
several courses of a great wall in magnificendy cut stones. . . . Below and round Esdud one 
observes a number of walls, some of them ancient Near one there is a mosque which contains 
the tombs of two Santons much revered in this neighbourhood. In the court before the 
mosque is an atKdent sarcophagus, 7 feet long and broad in proportion. Its principal far,- > 
cwnamented with sculptured garlands, to which are hanging, right and left, bunches of gra , r, 
emblems of the Promised Land. 

' South of the same mosque extend the ruins of a vast abandoned Khiit (See below, s. v. 
Khan Esdud) Outside it forms a great rectangle, ^^■i^hin, long galleries, sustained by 
ogival arcades, chambers, and magazines run round a central court The entrance faces the 
nonh. In the vestibule of the doorway, an ancient column of marble, Ijing on the ground, 
serves as threshold. . . . The inhabitants of Esdud have b^un pulling this Khan down in 
order to sell the materials'— Guerin, ' Judee,' it 71. 

The history of the city of Ashdod, or Azotus, the ' Great Cit)- of S>7ia,' as Herodotus 
called it, extends from the time of Joshua to the sixth century of the Christian era. Apart 
from its association with the Philistine wars, the place was beaeged and taken by Tartan, 
general of Sargon in the year 716 ac ; by Psammedcus 636 ac ; by Judas Maccabaeus 
163 ac ; and by Jonathan and Simon t48 ac It was taken from the Jews by Pompey; 



42 2 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

rebuilt 55 b.c. by Gabinius: bequeathed by Herod to Salome, and taken by Vespasian. It 
became the seat of a bishopric in the fourth century. Probably its decline followed the 
Moslem conquest. In the time of the Crusaders Ashdod was nothing but a small village. 

El H II m m a m (G u). — A domed building of rubble masonry, re- 
sembling those at M i n e t el K u 1 a h, which sec. There arc two 
places of this name on the plan, not far apart. 

J isr Esdud (F t). — A bridge with pointed arches, and apparently- 
modern. Cisterns of rubble exist near it. 

Kanat Bint el Kafir. — Is said to be first traceable near 
Mr. Bcrghcim's farm, and at the Bir et Taiasheh. Thence it is 
traced north of Naaneh to the Birket Bint el Kafir, west of 
Ramleh. (Sheet XIII.) The birkch, with several others near, appears 
to be most probably Saracenic work of the date of the building of 
Ramleh. 

Khan Esdud (F t).^A fine Khan., with small mosque attached. 
On the east, near the door of the mosque, is a large sarcophagus orna- 
mented on the side with wreaths, now used as a watering-trough. The 
Khan has fallen into ruins within the present century. 

Khiirab Ibn Zeid (J u). — Two ruins close together; heaps of 
stones, caves, and cisterns exist at each. 

Khurbet el 'Ajjuri, or ed Deheisheh (H s). — Consists of 
traces only, with fragments of pottery and a ruined cistern of rubble. 

Khiirbet Abu 'Amireh (I u). — Heaps of stones, foundations, 
caves, and cisterns cut in the rock. 

Khurbet 'A m i r (J u). — Resembles the last. 

K h 11 r b e t 'A m m 11 rich (I u). — A ruined village on high ground. 
It is not improbably an ancient site. A tower of moderate masonry stands 
in the ruins, and there are vaults with pointed arches and foundations of 
houses, but nothing, apparently, of great antiquity. The place when 
visited was much overgrown. 

Khurbet 'Asfurah, or Umm el Ausej (J t). — Consists of 
foundations and cisterns. 

Khfirbet 'Askaliin (J u). — Foundations of a building, heaps of 
stones, three cisterns (rock-cut), two rude capitals ; a lintel 6 feet 3 inches 



[SHEET XV/.] ARCII.EOLOGY. 423 

long, 2 feet 6 inches broad, having in the centre a Maltese cross in a 
circle. 

This site seems evidently to have been a place of some importance in 
the Byzantine period. 

Khiirbet Atrabah (lu). 

' An ancient Mussulman Wely is the only thing left standing of a village which formerly 
existed here. It is square, and measures 15 paces on each side. The lower courses are of 
good cut stones, probably taken from some older edifice ; they retreat one above the other so 
as to construct steps by which a terrace is gained, on the centre of which rose a cupola, now 
destroyed. The ^^'ely in the interior is circular. There are four ogival arches. Before the 
entrance an old terebinth spreads out its branches. 

' The eastern and northern sides of the hill whose summit is crowned by this Moslem 
chapel are excavated in every direction. The subterranean galleries consist of a suite of 
chambers cut in the form of inverted funnels and lit in the centre by a circular air-hole : most 
of them are now half destroyed' — Gu^rin, 'Jud^e,''ii. 98. 

Khurbet Bathen et Thonileh. 
This ruin, apparently insignificant, was visited by Guerin, who found it south of Khurbet 
el Mensiyeh (H t). 

Khurbet el Bedd (H s). — Traces of ruins, fragments of pottery, 
ruined cisterns of rubble masonry. 

Khurbet B e 1 a s (F w). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet Berdeghah (G u). — Resembles the last. A marble 
shaft lies in the ruins. 

Khurbet Beshsheh (F u). — Is of the same character as the 
above. 

Khurbet B e z z e h (F w). — Same character. 

Khurbet Biarel Kabeh(G u). — Also contains rubble cisterns, 
whence its name. 

Khurbet el Bireh (J t). — Foundations and heaps of stones. 
The site of an old town is traceable. 

Khurbet el Bireh (F u). — Traces of an ancient town, rubble 
cisterns in ruins, and fragments of pottery. 

Khurbet Bir el Med war (I u).— Heaps of stones and caves. 

Khurbet Deir el Butm (I u). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Demdem. 
This ruin, apparently insignificant, is mentioned by Gu^rin as north of Khttrbet Sumra. 
It may be that on the map called Khurbet Kallus. 



424 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Khurbet Dhekr (I u). — Caverns like those at Beit Jibriii 
(Sheet XX.) exist here. 

Khurbet edh D h i a b (I u). — Foundations, cisterns, and caves 
exist here. 

Khi^irbet D h i !•; e r i n (I u). — Ca\'es in the side of the hill and 
heaps of stones. 

Khurbet el F a t u n v h (G s). — Two ruined cisterns and scattered 
stones. 

Khurbet F e r e d (I t).— Has the appearance of being an ancient 
site. There is a rock-cut cistern, foundations, caves, and many scattered 
stones, some of which are hewn. 

Khurbet Gheiyadeh (F u). — Traces of ruins, cisterns of 
rubble masonry, fragments of pottery. There is a second ruin of the 
same name (G s) which consists of a few scattered stones only. 

Guerin identifies this place with Gederah (Joshua xv. 36), and says that the Arabs 
pronounce it Gadrah. 

Khurbet H e b r a (H s). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet Her m as (H s).— Resembles the last. 

Khurbet J e 1 e d i y e h (G u). — This is the site of a former castle. 
(See Galatia, Section A ) Only one block of a tower remains standing, 
of masonry similar to that at Ascalon. There arc several ruined cisterns 
of rubble masonry, and the base of a column with ornamentation in low 
relief, also scattered stones. 

Khurbet el J e 1 k h (I u). — Foundations. 

Khurbet Kail us (I u). — Caves, cisterns, and scattered founda- 
tions. 

Khurbet K h a s s e h (F u). — Traces of an old town, fragments of 
pottery, ruined cisterns of rubble. 

Khurbet Kerkefeh (G u). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet el Loz (J u). — Caves, cisterns, foundations, heaps of 
stones. 

K h u r b e t M a k k u s (F u). — Ruined cisterns of rubble, pottery, 
and fragments of stone. 

Khurbet el INIasebeh (F u). — Resembles the last. 



[SHEET XIV.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 425 

Khiirbet el Mekenna (It). — Consists of a few heaps of stones 
and foundations of a wall of rouqh hew n stones. There arc two springs 
near the ruin. 

K h u r b e t M e 1 d t (I s). — Appears to be an ancient site. There 
is a mound which appears to have been artificially dressed on the 
sides. 

Khurbet el Mensiyeh (I u). — Is also apparently an ancient 
site. There are caves and a wine-press cut in the rock, and one or two 
fallen lintel stones, such as occur in the ruins of monasteries, with heaps 
of hewn stones. It was probably the site of an early Christian 
monastery. It is still a sacred place, with a small Mukdni of Sheikh 
Daild. 

Khurbet el M u k h c i z i n (H t). — A large well and birkeh of 
masonry. Several ruined cisterns and a few scattered stones. 

Khurbet Nina (H t). — Traces of ruins, fragments of pottery, 
ruined cisterns of rubble masonry. 

Khurbet N u w e i t i h (J u). — Resembles the last ; there are traces 
of an ancient road passing the ruin. 

Khurbet 'Ok bur (J u). — Foundations and heaps of stones. A 
capital much weather-worn, and two fallen pillar shafts, also cisterns and 
caves. The ruins seem probably of the Byzantine period, but the site is 
possibly more ancient. 

Khurbet R u m e i 1 1 a h (G u). — Traces of ruins and ruined cisterns 
of rubble masonry. 

Khurbet S a 1 1 il j e h (H t). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet e s S a f i (I u).— Resembles the last. 

Khurbet S e 1 m e h (I s). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet e s h Sheikh K h a 1 i d (I t). — Cisterns and caves, 
and remains of a wall. 

Khurbet esh Shejerah (I u). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet Sukereir (F s). 
' This ruin is that of a Khan, now overthrown. It is 60 paces long by 37 broad. It con- 
tains a cistern and a small vaulted magazine, as yet not destroyed. Below the hillock 
covered by its ruins I remarked on the cast a reservoir and viaduct, a well partly fallen in, but 
VOL. II. 54 



4^6 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

well built. A canal, the traces of which are alone visible, carried the water of the reservoir 
to a fountain, now demolished, and situated in tlie plain near the road.' — Guerin, ' Judde,' 
ii. 79. 

K h li r b e t S u m m c i I (H s). — A well with a masonry roof, and a 
ruined ci.stcrn of rubble masonry, with traces of ruins and fragments of 
pottery. 

Khiirbet es Sumra (I u). — Foundations, caves, cisterns, heaps 
of stones, and various traces of ruins. 

Khurbet es Sutta (I u). — Resembles the last. 

Khfirbet et Teratir (H u). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet U m m e 1 'A k u d (I u). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet U m m e 1 He m am (I u). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet Umm Kelkhah (I t). — There are traces here of an 
old town, caves, cisterns of rubble, masonry, and pottery fragments. 

Khurbet Umm e r R i y a h (E u). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet Umm Z e b e i 1 e h (J u). — Resembles the last. 

Khurbet Yasin (F u). — Traces of ruins, and ruined cisterns 
of rubble masonry. The place is conspicuous, and has the appearance 
of an ancient site. 

Khurbet Yerdeh (J s). — See Tell Jezer. 

M i n e t el K li 1 a h (F t). — This ruin forms the port of Ashdod, and 
though nearly all the buildings are covered up with blown sand, it shows 
evidence of having been a place of importance. There is a small landing- 
place between reefs of rock, the shore sloping more rapidly here than 
elsewhere. Ships still touch here occasionally. The principal ruin is a 
square fort, which is, according to the natives, ancient, and the masonry 
and cement of which resemble those of the walls of Ascalon. It is cer- 
tainly more ancient than the time of Ibrahim Pacha, who erected other 
buildings along the coast. The building measured 180 feet north and 
south, by 144 feet east and west, outside, and had a round tower at each 
corner, and on the east and west walls towers flanking a sea and land 
gate. Seven of these towers remain. The west wall is nearly perfect, 
but the southern is broken down, and the other breached. The towers 
are 1 7 feet diameter, the wall 5 feet 6 inches thick, and the gateways 
1 2 feet wide. 



{SHEET AT/.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 427 

The masonry used is small, and of a soft sandy limestone from the 
cliffs near. The joints are well made, and the cement the same found at 
Ascalon, very hard, white, and full of shells and ashes. 

This building stands on the shore, only a few feet above the water. In 
the outer wall near the north-west corner, near the base, is a stone on 
which are the letters EAOM. 

Behind the castle, on the sand-hills, are traces of a considerable town. 
There are no cliffs near the spot, so that it affords a good site for a 
harbour town. South of the castle, also close to the shore, scattered 
stones and foundations exist, and the sand-hills are strewn for some dis- 
tance with numerous fragments of broken pottery. Remains of a tesselated 
pavement were also found in the ruins. Near the town on the south-east 
there is a ruined rubble cistern, circular, and 10 feet diameter, having a 
domed roof of similar rubble work, in good cement full of shells. This 
consists, in fact, more of cement than of stone, the stones used being small 
and friable. 

There can be no doubt that this was an important place, apparently in 
the Middle Ages, judging by comparison with other ruins in the plains. 
(See Section A.) 

Visited April 12th, 1875. 

Miighdir Sunimeil (H s). — Small broken caves in the cliff, 
north of the village of El M li g h a r. One of them is a ruined tomb, 
having three kokhn at the end, and two at the side. This is the only 
tomb of the kind which was found in the plain, except at M i n e t Rubin. 

El IMughar (H s). — In the village, which is described in Section A., 
was found an inscription, apparendy a mortuary tablet, on a slab, about 
8 inches long, mutilated on the left side. 

The inscription is Greek and Christian, and the letters about i^ inches 

high. 

~ XMHNOC 

EOYK 

A N H. E 

A n O Y 

A O Y N II T H C 

It was copied by Serjeant Armstrong, R.E. This inscription is noticed 
by M. Ganneau. ('Quarterly Statement,' October, 1874, p. 275.) 

54—2 



4-'S THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Miighair S h i h ;i h (I s). — A large cave, apparently natural. It 
was twice visited, but no remains of the paintings said to exist here by 
the natives were found. Near this spot there are a number of rock-cut 
chambers, to which steps lead down. Similar excavations will be found 
more particularly described under the head Khurbet 'Aziz. 
(Sheet XXI.) 

Riajm J i z (J t). — A large heap of stones, apparently an ancient 
watch-tower fallen over. 

Sheikh Daud (I u). — Near the kubbeh are the foundations of a 
small tower, hewn stones, and several lintels, such as occur in the Byzan- 
tine ruined monasteries. Round the top of the hill there is a wall of 
rough-hewn stones. (See Khurbet el Mensiyeh.) 

S u f i e h (I u). — Cisterns, caves, and heaps of stones. 

Tell B u t a s h y (I t). — Is apparently an artificial mound."" 

Tell el Ful (H t). — A small conspicuous knoll near K at rah; 
has every appearance of having been artificially formed, but shows no 
masonry. 

T el 1 J e z e r (I s). 

The discovery of Gezer is thus described in the 'Journal of the Paris Geographical 
Society ': 

' Gezer is one of the most ancient towns in Palestine, and was in existence prior to the 
arrival and settlement of the Israelites in that country. In the book of Joshua it is classed 
amongst the royal cities of Canaan : its king, Horam, was defeated by Joshua whilst attempt- 
ing to relieve Lachish, which was besieged by the Israelites. Later, after the conquest, Gezer 
was included in the territory of the tribe of Ephraim, and, in fact, marked its extreme western 
limit. The Ephraimites allowed the Canaanites they found there to remain. The city was 
assigned to the Levitical family of Kohath. 

' It is mentioned several times during the wars between David and the Philistines, on the 
confines of whose territory it was situated. 

' During Solomon's reign one of the Pharaohs, for motives of which we are ignorant, made 
an expedition against Gezer, which resulted in the capture and burning of the town. So 
great, however, was the strategical importance of the point, that, even in ruins, Gezer was of 
sufficient value to form part of the dowry of Pharaoh's daughter when she became Solomon's 
wife. Solomon immediately rebuilt Gezer and Lower Beth-horon, which was near it. 

'The town of Gezer reappears, under the name of Gazara, in the history of the wars of 
the Maccabees. Taken by assault in the first instance by the Jews, it passed successively 
into the hands of the two contending parties, who attached equal importance to its possession. 
John Hyrcanus, the Jewish commander, made it his military residence. 

* N.B. — The Tells not mentioned in this section are, to all appearance, natural hillocks. 



[SHEET XVI.] ARCHAEOLOGY. 429 

' In spite of the distinct indications contained in sacred and profane works, in spite even 
of the positive statement in the " Onomasticon " of Eusebius, that Gezer was 4 Roman miles 
from Emmaus-NicopoUs, a site well known at the present day, the town of Ge/er, though 
sought for, had not previously been found. 

'Whilst running through an old Arab chronicle, by a certain Mudjir-cd-din, M. Clermont- 
Ganneau quite accidentally came upon the passage which led to this important discovery. The 
Arab historian relates that about the year 900 of the Hogira an engagement took place 
between Jamboulat, Emir of Jerusalem, and a party of Bedawi raiders, between the village of 
Khulda and that of Tell el Gezer. The latter name means literally the hill of Gezer, and the 
Arab name is exactly the same as the Hebrew one. As the village of Khulda is still in 
existence, and, according to the details contained in the account of tiie Arab author, Tell el 
Gezer was so near it that the shouts of the combatants were heard at both places, the latter 
locality should have been easy to fix. No village, however, of this name was shown on the 
best maps of Palestine. After having determined theoretically the e.xact position which the 
Arab and Jewish Gezer ought to occupy, M. Clermont-Ganneau decided upon making an 
excursion to test the accuracy of his views on the ground. This expedition, made under 
adverse circumstances, without escort or tent, and in a desert country wasted by famine, was 
crowned with success. .\t the point which he had previously fixed upon, M. Clermont- 
Ganneau found the Tell el Gezer of Mudjir-ed-din, and the ruins of a large and ancient city, 
occupying an extensive plateau on the summit of the Tell. On one side were considerable 
quarries, from which stone had been taken at various periods for the buildings in the town, as 
well as wells and the remains of an aqueduct : a litde beyond this were a number of tombs 
hewn out of the rock, the necropolis in which repose the people who have successively 
inhabited the old Canaanite city. It is scarcely necessary to add that this place is exactly 
4 Roman miles from Emmaus-Nicopolis, and that it completely meets all the topographical 
requirements of the Bible with regard to Gezer. 

' M. Clermont-Ganneau points out the importance of the discovery with reference to the 
general topography of Palestine. Gezer being one of the most definite points on the 
boundary of the territory of Ephraim, the current views on the form and extent of that terri- 
tory, as well as of the neighbouring territories of Judah and Dan, must be very materially 
modified. This result alone is of importance, and makes the discovery of Gezer an event in 
Biblical researches. 

' The means by which M. Clermont-Ganneau was enabled to find the town are also worthy 
of remark ; it was by availing himself of a source which is too much neglected, the Moham- 
medan writings on the history and geography of Syria. This work is certainly difficult and 
thankless, but the example we have before us shows that it is not unproductive, and that it 
may lead to the most interesting and unexpected discoveries.' 

An important natural feature has here been artiticially strengthened, 
and there are traces of a town. 

The following report of the Special Survey of this place was published in the ' Quarterly 
Statement,' 1875, P- 74 = 

' In accordance with the instructions of the Committee, we took the earliest opportunity 
of visiting Tell Jezer, to make a special survey of the country within a mile of the Tell on 
each side, to the scale of 6 inches to the mile. In sending home a finished copy of this 
survey, as well as the photographs taken by Lieutenant Kitchener, I think best to append a 



430 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

detailed report on the work, and notes on its bearing upon the questions which make the spot 
specially interesting. 

' We started on Thursday, the 3rd of December, and reached the village of Kubab about 
2 p.m., where we arranged a camping-ground, and then at once proceeded to the work. We 
measured a base-line on the Tell, and found the position of the various stones, and made the 
necessary preparations for beginning the theodolite work next morning. 

' On Friday we started again early for a long day's work. Our base-line, which was traced 
on a distant tree to ensure accuracy, measured 2,312 links, and had a true bearing of 73° 30'. 
From the east end the position of the first stone and of a cairn erected near the second, as 
well as that of the inscription found by Dr. Chaplin, were visible. Observations were made 
with a five-inch theodolite from both ends to the top of the dome of Sheikh Mohammed el 
Jezair, ^^hich is a point in the triangulation of the one-inch survey. A point was chosen 
south of the base-line, and observed from both ends of the base. Observations were then 
made from this point to the first stone, Dr. Chaplin's inscription, and the cairn near the 
second stone. These lines will be calculated and the position of the stones definitely 
fixed. 

' Having finished this part of the work, we plotted the results, and commenced filling in 
the necessary detail. The plan of the Tell itself will be reduced from a much larger compass 
sketch made last winter. The rest was done by the ordinary method of interpolation used on 
the one-inch plan, and every precaution has been taken to ensure accuracy. 

' The day was one of the worst we have had this autumn. A strong east wind blew in our 
faces during the whole course of the observations, and the dryness and peculiarly depressing 
absence of ozone made our task far from pleasant. Lieutenant Kitchener succeeded in 
obtaining some photographs under peculiarly unfavourable circumstances, and after nine hours 
fatiguing work we returned to camp very tired. 

' Saturday morning we devoted to the vicinity of the inscriptions. At the stone visited by 
Dr. Chaplin we made a careful measured sketch of the letters, and a rough plan of the 
position of the blocks. Between the first and second stones Lieutenant Kitchener at once 
found the other inscription noticed by M. Ganneau. "Wx- took a sketch of its position on the 
stones, but I was aware that M. Lecomte had made a good drawing, and taken a squeeze of 
it ; we therefore only fixed its exact position. 

'■The Stones. — The first and most interesting question as regards Jezer is that of the position 
of the inscribed stones. The bearing from the second or south-eastern stone to the cairn 
erected for observation was 145°. From the cairn to the first or north-west stone the bearing 
was 323°. The first distance was 53 paces, the second 13S paces. This makes the bearing 
from one stone to the other as nearly as possible 152°. The variation of the compass was 4°, 
which gives 148° as the true bearing, being 13° off the north-west line. The stones are so 
near one another that this difference would make a very sensible error in the plotting of such 
a large area as is supposed to be represented by their direction. The reason why the bearing 
was obtained through an intermediate point was, that the two stones are not in sight of one 
another. The true east and west line from the south-east stone passes through the Tell 
towards the south side. 

' It must not be supposed that these inscriptions occupy a conspicuous position; they are 
on a low hill-side, among rough rocks, and far from any road or track. The south-east stone 
is not visible from the Tell, or from the first inscription. It is with difficulty that one recovers 
the places, even when knowing approximately where to look for them. No indication of the 



[SHEET XVI.] ARCH.EOLOGY. 431 

foundations of a cippus or other conspicuous monument which, as M. Ganneau pointed out, 
might have been thought to stand above them is traceable near to either. 

' The next question is that of the distance of the stones from the Tell, which is now 
definitely settled by the theodolite obser\ations from an accurately measured base, the only 
method which could with safety be adopted, owing to the hilly nature of the ground. It will 
be seen that they measure (85 chains) 5,600 feet from the centre of the Tell, but it is 
impossible to give this very accurately, as there is no fixed point from which to start. 

' In addition to these two stones, which, as will be seen, lie at a distance of 480 feet apart, 
there are two other rude inscriptions in the same locality. I was under the impression at the 
time of our visit that a fifth was known to the villagers of Kubab. Another inscription south 
of those mentioned is spoken of by the fellahin of Kubab as existing still, but they profess 
themselves afraid to show it I informed them that I knew of four altogether, at which they 
appeared surprised. At length one volunteered the information that the stone which remained 
lay between the other two. This refers, of course, to the Hebrew inscription seen by M. 
Ganneau, which lies 8 paces from the line of the boundary stones, and 72 paces on the line 
from the north-western or first stone. I send a sketch of the block upon which it occurs ; 
the face of the stone is sloping, and a sort of rim is left above, as if to protect the inscription. 

' The fourth inscription, north of the two others, was noticed by Dr. Chaplin in a late 
visit to Jezer ; it consists of only two letters. The bearing from the first stone is 310° ; it is 
therefore not on the line. 

' The stone on which they are found is irregular in shape, and lies upon a second with one 
side seemingly cut hollow. The inscribed stone may once have stood vertically ; the whole 
group may be natural, but bears some resemblance to a rude dolmen. Lying on the ground 
between the first stone and the last described, Lieutenant Kitchener pointed out a broken 
fragment not far from the road, on which appeared to be two Roman letters. It seemed 
most likely a fragment of a milestone, but we did not consider it of any interest in its present 
conditioa 

^The Site. — I will here briefly describe the points noticed whilst making the survey of the 
district The first point of importance was the examination of the other angles corresponding 
to that supposed to be represented by the second or south-east stone. We determined that 
there was no hope of finding anything on the north or west, as both places would lie beyond 
the rocks and in the middle of the corn-land. On the south also we found no inscription. 
The ruin of Sheikh Jobas lies near to the point in question, upon the summit of the 
hilL 

' The most marked feature at this site is the great number of wine-presses. We have 
marked twenty-three on the plan, and it is possible that one or two may still be omitted. The 
finest specimen, of which I send a plan, is on the east side of the Tell, at the spot where two 
tombs and two wine-presses are marked. I have only seen one finer specimen in Palestine. 
The tomb is also interesting. It is of that kind which has for its opening a shaft descending 
from the surface of the rock, and covered usually, as at el Medyeh, by a huge block of stone. 
A single loculus, parallel to the length of the shaft (which measures 6 or 7 feet by 2 or 3 feet, 
and is about 5 feet deep), is placed on either side. I have given reasons before for consider- 
ing this style of tomb early Christian. In the north of Palestine tradition makes them so. 
At Iksal is a large cemetery of such tombs, called the Frank cemetery. In no instance that 
I know has any Hebrew or pagan inscription been found on such a tomb, whereas Greek 
inscriptions, with crosses, have been found in more than one instance on the Mount of Olives. 



432 THE SURVEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 

Such a tomb was found containing two leaden coffins, each witli crosses on it. We have 
tliereforc, it seems to me, evidence of Christian work at Tell Jezer. 

'In a former report I have described the Tell itself ("Palestine