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The Surveyor and Muntcipal and County Engineer, JuIi/ j: , I0I7. 

The Surveyor 

Hnb nDunicfpal anb County lEnGtneer. 


JANUARY 5 TO JUNE 29, 1917 

f ^ ic^ ^>t> 

30 |S 1 I ^ 

Xont)on : 





The Surveyor and Municipal and County Engineer, -hdi/ il , 1917. 


Accidental Obstructions on Highways. 

Accidents from Falling Trees, 484, 5ii5 
Activated Sludge Process of Sewage 

Disposal, 6, 144, 297, 298, 359, 370, 544 

After- War Problems, 1 
Agricultural Machinery, Control of, (U 
Allotments, Tenure of, 34S 
Allowances to Officials on Service, 2S4 
America. Municipal Engineering in, 555 
American Roads, 180 
An Anglesey Sea Wall, 119 
Ancient Monuments, 128 
Animals on the Highway, 27 
Annual Reports :— 

Bulawayo, 88 

Cape Town, 186 

Gloucestershire, 492 

Herefordshire, 590 

Shanghai, 447 

Staffordshire, 495 
Apathetic Irish Councils, 61 
Ashbins and Public Health, 2 17 
Assistant County Surveyors, Irish, 453 
Association of Consulting Engineers, 

Atmospheric Pollution, 501, 511 

Belfast Electricity Undertaking, 272 
Belfast Ferro-Concrete Outlet Sewer, 

Binnie, Death of Sir Alexander, 491 
Birmingham Public Works Depart- 
ment, 21 
Bognor Coal Dues, 296 
Bognor Drainage Contract, 443 
Brighton, Electric Vehicles at, IGO 
Bristol, Insanitary Property at, 3 
Brushwood Sewage Filters, 4, 254, 458, 

Building Board, 391 
Building By-laws, 157, 186, 195, 241 
Building Licences. 540 
Building Materials and Fuel Economy. 

Bulawayo, Municipal Work in, 83 
Bundling Press, 123 
Burst Water Mains, 26, 29 

Calorific Value and Possibilities of 

House Refuse, 5.53, 557, 572 
Canals Control, 431 
Candidates for Commissions, Travelling 

Expenses of, 565 
Cape 'I'own Municipal Work, 186 
Cardiff Reservoir Contract, 511 
Cast-iron Pipes, Standardisation of, 603 
Catskill Mountains, Water Scheme, 28 
Cement .loints for Cast-iron Water 

Maias, 390, 4] 2 
Centre-Channel Roads, ls7 
Centrifugal I'uojps v. Pneumatic Ejec- 
tors for Sewage Pumping, 141, 161 
Chimney, World's Highest, 473 
Chinese Dwellings, 490 
Cineris: A Plea for Sanitary Reform, 

Cleator Moor Surveyor's Salary, 367 
Coal Concreted from Ashes or Du«t, 527 
Coal Distribution, Local Authorities 

and, 473, 5i9, .j95 
Coal from Coke Breeiie, 356 
<'oast Erosion in Ireland, 27(> 

Collection and Disposal of House Refuse, 

Comparative Reports of General 
Practice : — 

Cemetery Charges in the Metropolis, 

Motor Traction for Municipal Pur-- 
poses, 233 
Concrete, A Method of Proportioning 

Materials for, 441, 416 
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete as 

Substitutes for Timber, 3 1 1 
Concrete, Etfeot of Excess Water in, 419 
Concrete iu Cold Weather, Protection 

of, 94 
Concrete Institute :— 

Meetings, 12->, U6 
Concrete Roads, 228, 230, 409 
Concrete Roads, Specifications for, 2.!() 
(Concrete, Specifications for, 91 
Conferences, Representation at, 199 
" Consulting Engineers," 483 
Consulting Engineers and the War, .561 
(.'ontractors' War-time Difficulties, 

Road, 315 
Contracts Legislation, War, 21-:'. 
Control of Roadstone (Quarries, HJ6, 505 
Coolgardie Water Supply, 302, 379 
Correspondence :-- 
Adshead. Professor, and " Local Sur- 
veyors," 1 13 
After-the-War Trade: Overseas In- 
dustrial Exhibitions, 143 
Air-raids and Housing, 571 
Alibi, An, 327 

Blasting, (Quicklime for, 514, 535 
Building By-laws, l'.i5, 241 
Building Materials and Fuel Economy, 

"Carrying On" with Depleted Stafl's, 

Cement Joints for Cast-iron Water 

Mains, 412 
Chlorination of Water, .571 
Civic Survey of South-East Lanca- 
shire, The, 164 
Coinage Decimalisation Bill, 214 
Concrete Roads, 28ii 
Consulting Engineers, Government 

and, 598 
Conversion of Rtfuse into Fuel, 310 
Cottage Design, Surveyors and, 47 
Cremation and tVemature liurial,2U 
Decimal Currency, 155 
Decimal Weights, Measures, and 
Coinage, 140, lt;5, 19.5, 411, 436, 472, 47 \ 
Foreign Languages, Engineers and, 

392, 1-5 
Prance, Roiid Service in, 9 
Good Roads, The Importance of, 280 
({oods Clearing-House System, The, 

Housing and Town Planning After 

the War, 9 
Interconnecting Electricity Supply 

Undertakings, 279 
Ireland, Testing Facilities in, 164 
Irish Congress, Tfie Suggested, 215 
Junior Institution of Engineers and 

Engineering Students, 3, 10 
Light Railwajs, 155 
Light K'ailways for the Roads, 436 
" Looking Ahead," 514 
Men on Service, For the, 369 
Metric SyBtem, the, 61 
Motor, The Weight of, HI 
New Inventions, 494 
Organisers' Clearing-llouse, An, 143 
Pigsties, theii Election and Control, 

Rainfall, 598 
Refuse Destructor Clinker in Road 

Making 369 
Refuse Destructor Coats, 173 
Refuse Tips, Land for, 473 
Keservoirs. The Design and Cost cf, 9, 

60, lis. 142 
Koad St-rvice in France, 9 

Correspondence (cuidinued) -.— 
Rooks, The Destruction of, 514 
Rule of the Road in England, 1 14 
Salaries, 112 
Scavenging, 310, 3-11 
Sswage Disposal, Chemical Knowledge 

in, 494 
Sewage Filters, Brushwood as a 

Medium for, 575 
Sewage Pumping: Centrifugal Pumps 

V. Pneumatic Ejectors, 141, 161 
Sdwermeo, The Safety of, 51 1 
Sewers, Sizes of, 165 
South-east Lancashire, Civic Survey 

of, 1(U, 194, 241, 257, 310, 327 
Studs on Road Locomotive Wheels 

Use cf, 279, 210, 327 
Surveyors and Cottage Design, 17 
Testing Facilities in Ireland, 161, 281 
Timber Haulage, Damage to Roads 

by, 535, 5.5.4 
Vent-shafts on Private House Drains 

211, 2.57,280 
Waste IMaterials, Utilisation of, 344 
West Country Appointment, A, 5.54 
Wheel Tax, The Proposed, 280 
Worcester Activated Sludge Experi- 
ment, The, 1 14 
Workmen's Wages, 311 
Cottage Conversion in Rural Districts, 

Councillors and Oficials' Travelling 

Expenses, 339 
Country Roads Board of Victoria, 136 
Cracks in Concrete Roads, Causes of, 

Cremation and Premature Burial, 241 
Crystal Palace Engineering Society, 410 
Cultivation of Lands Order, 1916, 260, 

28i, 308, -iU, 339, 347, 420 
Cultivation of Roadside Wastes, 160 
"Cuteline," 255 

Dam Construction, Earthwork, 2 

Decay in Timber, .568 

Decimal Weights, Measures and Coin- 
age, 92, 110, 165, 195. 214. 215, 340,388, 
411, 115, 136, 150,45.5, 472 

Demolition Orders, 483 

Depreciation of Plant, Principles 
Involved in the, 127, 132, 161 

Diffusion of Sewage in Water, 190 

Doncaster, Tramway Foundation Re- 
newals at, 437 

" Don'ts " for Householders, 513 

Dublin Municipal Workshop*, 167 

Dublin Workshops, 26 

l)undee Housing Schemes, 363. .575 

Dustbins of Greater London, 429, 132 

Dutch-Oven Refuse Incinerator, l!-5 

Duties of a Surveyor, 3»2, 3.51 

Earthwork Dam Construction. 2_ 
Economy in Water Treatment, 251 
Edinburgh Tramways, IW'i 
Education of the Engineer. 441 
Egypt, Local (iovurnrnt-nt in, 5i;3 
Electing a IJoiough Surveyor in Ireland, 

Electricity in Agricultural Ateaj, Ut- 

velopment of, 3* •• 
Electricity in Agriculture, 5.S-1 
Electricity in Municipal Ennineenng. 

Uses of, :«!. 42 


Ji'LY 27, 1917. 

Electricity Sapplj : Di>p*rtinental 

C mmittet>, ■■'"','. U>.', m2, Sfo 
1 I'utnre of, .")70 

the Far East^ 4o6 
K . - ; vrds. 4'x. 

KL^.i:t...r= uui i oreign Languages, 35'.>, 

:3.'J. l.'iO 
K..-ex Water Supplies, STZ 
Kxct^ssive Weights on Highways, 5S3, 

Ixpt-riences in a Fen Rural District, 

:-oJ. lU" 
Exivrionces in Water Filtration, 49, 57 
Extraordinary Traffic: Time for Pro- 

oeedings. 127 

Failaree of Uituminous Surfaces, 474 
Falling Tr«t«, Accidents from, 4*1, 3iV) 
Farmer Councillors and lioad Work, SS 
1- t-nce Walls on Main Koade. 51 
1-. n Kural District, Experiences in a, 

;i-.'. »1'> 
Ferro-^.oncrete Bridges on the Meuse, 

Ferro-concrete Bridge Tests. High 

Wycomb?. il2 
Kerro-concrete, Government and, :5:J3 
Ferro-concrete in Swimming Bath Con- 
struction, 23<.i 
Fire Hydrants. Testing of, 340 
Fir. = »nd Wide Streete, 213 
! Without Batteries, 42 

nation. 4',>;? 
1 •, Dustbins and the. 445 

Hv .N uis-ince in South Africa, 62 
Food Waste: Local Authorities' 

!'--TPr=. t56 
r ■ ' Consumption, 13 

t'pair of, 'i»i 
. cuages, Engineers and, 359, 

-■.■J, W.1' 

Foreshore Sand Accumnlation, 385 
Forestry, Organisation of, 25 
France, Eoad Service in, '.', 157, 505 
Free/.ing of Water Mains and Services, 

Fuel, An Important Economy in, 316, 

Furniture Storage, Local Authorities 

and, lt>3 

Oa«. Testing of, .V/.i 

'lAology and Engineering. .<>( 

< iermans and Hritieh War Koads. 401 

<'la.<gMW Corporation and Cottage 

\l iIBbf, I'.'J 

Gin.-;,-.* - Now Baths, 2C1 
<;iii--'i{'iw's Sn^ces'-ful Tramways. 228 
Uo<Ki9 Clearing House System, 415, 4t'> 
Grimsby Team Labour Costs, 183 

llftlifaz. Control of Street Cleaning at. 

•.'7J, 271 
H^iri iir. I'-ath '■! >rr Wm., 510 

• ncy at, 386 

'inicipal WarltF, 

Hi/t.ent Kirth Dam,28<; 
I! ,•'»»> Ca«>?», 271 

I id Bywayg, ■.1(3, 211.234, 2CT 

iibe Ferro-< 'oncrete Bridge 

II I'l'-rtjloif Paving Sett« Controveny, 

Hom^-tfrown TiuilKfr, 27^! 

Hot Wat«r Surp'.y, t>'i') 

Bonainf and Town Planning : - 

A.r ■■ : -" I " 7! 



Cr. t i^Anca- 


C"<.!;™«- ■ '- ■.. .. i'iitrict», 


linblin New Town I'ian, if, 
lkiod«(; Uoaning Schemes, •'h^'l, .'>7.j 
C^Afow Corporation and <'ottage 
Uome*. 15fi 

Housing; and Town Planning 

I ■\'ntiiiued I : — 
Greater London Plan. 291 

Housing after the War, 37il, 383 

Housing Designs, 4;>9 

Housing of Munition Workers, 159, \ 
372 I 

Huddersfield, 22<." 1 

India, MO. Xk> 

Irish Housing Needs, 153 

London as it Ought to Be, 157 

Monumental Memorials and Town 
Plannini;, 1S4 

Municipal Kngineers and Town Plan- 
ning, ."«2 1 

Municipal Housing. :'>01 

Municipalities and Housing, 59 

Neath, 237 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Conference, 2S7 

Oxford (.'onference, 379, 38:5 

Port of London Houses, 540 i 

Preliminary Town Planning Schemes, 
420 I 

Private Enterprise, 500 

Progress of Town Planning in Scot- 
land. 520 

Property Owners and Hepairs, 5:55 

Kural Housing 25, l-U 

Scarcity of Small Houses, 329 

Sjottish Housing Council, 201 

Scottish L.G.B. Keport, 470 

State Assistance for Housing, 545 

State Expenditure oa Housing, 108 

Surveyors and Cottage Design, 47, 118, 

Town Planning Act Amendments, 499 

Town Planning of Greater London 
after the War, 11 
How the L.G.B. Pays, 21S 
Humorous Side of Sewage Disposal, 381 

Junior Institution of Engineers and 
Engineering Students, 310 


Importance of <iood Koads, 2So 
Importance of Water Economy, 405 
Improvisation at SheOield, 272 
Incorporated Municipal Electrical Asso- 
ciation, ■> (i. .J70, .■j34 
India, Town Planning in Southern, 320 

Individual Interest in Municipal Enter- 
prise, 50.'!, 500 
Industrial Kesearch. 50 
InHuence (■( Koads in Macadonia, 380 
Inland Water Transport, 352 
Insanitary Property at Bristol. 3 
Interest on Local Loans, K'ites of, 320 
Inatitation of Civil Engineers : — 
Annual Keport. 415 
.\ wards for Papers, 41 1 
Election of Ollicers. 411 
Prtrsidentiil Address. l-'iS 
Institution of Junior Engineers, '>So 
Institution of Municipal and 
County Engineers : — 
Annual Muetingat llasti/igs, .V.U 
Annual Keport. .'Jl'l 
AssociatH Mnmburs on Council, 209 
East Midland District Meeting, 389 
Elections of Ollicers. 33'.», 471 
Hounslow Meeting, ■'>'>'>, 3.')3 
Iririb Meetings. 01, 215 
Metropolitan District Meeting, 429, 

Neath Meeting, 237 
Orphan Fund, 205, 2ii9, .594 
Presidential AdilreB8,.'<91 
South-Ea^t«rn District Meeting, 20 J 
Spenborough Meeting. 2.i7, 3.M 
Worc< .-it'T Meeting, 517 
Institution of Mnnicipal Engi- 
neers : — 
Annual Meeting, :J0, 31, 30, 39, 15, M 
Annual lt<>port, 39 
I.ondon Meeting, .'>.')3 
Peterborough Meeting. .382, 410 
PreHidential Address. 3(J 
Institution of Sanitary Engi- 
Presidential AddresH, 7,2S 
Institution of Water Engineers : — 

Summer Mi»eting in London, Mb 
Inventinn". .New. 191,50.') 
Ireland. Extraordinary Traflic in, 281 
Ireland, 'lenti'-g Facilities in, 101, 281 
Irii-h Mouiing Needs, 153 
Iriiih Municipal Undertaking and 

Burrowing Powers, 515 
Irish Sanitation, 108 
Ironies of National Serrice, 105 

Killarney Rural District, Water Supply 
in the, 533 

Land Fertilisers from House Ksfuso, 

Law Notes : — 

Abatement of Nuisances, 301 
Accidents from Falling Trees, 484 
Bognor Drainage Contract, 413 
Contract? During the War, 253, 341, 

Demolition Orders, tS3 
" Domestic Purposes," 445 
Drainage Contract : Alleged Mis- 
representation Regarding Nature of 
Subsoil, .332 
Extraordinary Traffic and Road Re- 
pair, 543 
Extraordinary Traffic: Ireland, 281 
Highway Encroachments, 504 
Highway: Fallen Tree : Damage to 

Passenger : Liability, 192 
Housing and Town Planning Act. 
1909: Demolition Orders: Under- 
taking to Repair, 475 
Land Adjoining Highway : Removal 
of FencB : Claim for Damages : 
Alleged Trespass by Highway 
Authority. 556 
Porthcawl Esplanade, 295 
Resewering of Private Streets. 319 
Restricted Street Lighting : Acci- 
dent, 31 » 
Street Accident : Action Against Cor- 
poration. 21:! 
Surface Water Drainage : Flooding,373 
Water Supply : Public Health (Water) 
Act, 1878, Sec. G, 37;i 
Law Qaeries and Replies :— 
Adoption of Private Streets, The, 110 
Building By-laws : Air Space, 192 
Building Line: Public Health (Build- 
ings in Streets) Act, 1888, Sac. 3, 
145, .-.15 
Cesspools, The Cleansing of: Water 

Supply, 199 
Cesspools, The Emptying of, 115 
Contract with Urban District Council, 

Conversion of Privies into Water- 
Closots: Section :J6 Public Health 
Act, 187.5,285 
Extraordinary Traffic, 1 10, 1 15, 515 
Footpath (.'rossing Stream: Flooding, 

Greensward Adjoining Public Kjad, 

Highway: Damage to Gas Main: 

Explosion, 332 
Highway: Damuge to Orderly Bin 

by Motor-car, 192 
Highway : Gates and Stiles, 499 
Highway : Licence to Dig for 

Materials for K tpair; Costp. 285 
Highway: Materials for Repair: 

(juarry, 37:1 
Highway: Public Footpath: Sub- 
sidence: Repair, 110. 
Housing, Town Planning, Ac, Act, 

191111, and Building By-laws, 145 
Municipal Tramway: Accident to 

PaHsengere, Liability, 475 
New Strijot: Cul-deSac: Gates, 475 
Nuisance, .3:13 

Nuisance: Overcrowding, 285 
Officiate, Csmpensation to, on Altera- 
tion ot Area, .'i.">C 
Opening Road for Laying Drains, 435 
Private .Street Works. 285 
Private Street Works; Apportion- 
ment. 1 10 
Private Street Works: Crown Pro- 
perty. 435 
Private Street Works : Frontager's 
^ Liability Disputed After Final 

.\pportionment, 2'<5 

July 27, 1917. 


Law Queries and Replies (con- 
tinued) : — 

Repair of Footpath, 475 

Eesewering of Private Streets, 332 

Eural District Councillor: Appoint- 
ment as Surveyor, 102 

Sewer Construction : Compensation to 
Land Owner, 515 

Sewering of Xew Streets, 515 

Subsiding Banks and Trees Across 
Highways in Eural Districts, 192 

Surveyor to Local Authority : Effect 
of Bankruptcy, 333 

Timber and Stone Hauling on the 
Highways, 175 

Urban District Councillor, Disquali- 
fication of, 515 

Water Supply: Entry on Premises, 
332, 373 
Legal Precedents of 1910 in Relation to 

Municipal Engineering, 100 
Legislation of I'JlOin Ralation to Muni- 
pal Engineering, 109 
Lighting in the Metropolis, Street, 230 
Light Railways for the Roads, 387, 436, 

Linking-up Electricity Supplies, 2a2, 

Literature of Municipal Engineering in 

1916, 114 
Llangollen Urban Councillors and the 

Medical Officer, 300 
Local Authorities and Coal Distribution, 

Local Authorities and Furniture 

Storage, 163 
Local Authorities and the War Loan, 

Local Loans and Sinking Funds, 385 
Local Loans, Rates of Interest on, 32G 
London as it Ought to Be, 157 
London County Council Tramways Re- 
organisation, 204, 208 
London Main Drainage System, 158 
London Water, Treatment of, 518, 523 


Macedonia, Influence of Roads in, 380 
Machinery, Modern Road-making, 537 
Madras Water and Drainage Works, 14 
Makeshift Sdwage Schemes, 455 
Blecliauical Traction : — 
Brighton Electrics, 100 
Coal Gas or Petrol ? 504 
Costs, 589 

Dennis Brothers' Vehicles, 105 
Electric Vehicles in the Far East, 450 
Motor Traction for Municipal Pur- 
pose?, 233 
Koad Rollers, 107 
" Sentinel " Steam Wagons, 367 
Shoreditch Motor Machine Brooms, 

Straker-Squire Vehicles, 599 
Supply of Motor Sweeping Machines, 

Surbiton's Electrics, 15 
Metal Welding, 04 

Mexican Desert, lioad Work in the, 508 
Military and Road Repairs, 311 
Ministry of Health, 3U 
Minutes of Proceedings: — 
Activated Sludge Process at Worces- 
ter, The, 5tl 
Activated Sludge Process, The, 297 
Activated Slud^'e v. Tanks and Filters, 

Aft«r Thirty Years, 485 
After- War Problems, 1 
American Roads, ISO 
Ancient Monuments, 128 
Animals on the Highway. 27 
Annual Meeting, The, .505 
Army, Skilled Roadmen and the, 425 
Arterial Roads— Town Planning, 4^i0, 

Atmospheric Pollution, The Investi- 
gation of, .501 
Australian Water Supplies, 379 
Belfast Electricity Undertaking, 272 
Binnie, The Late Sir Alexander, 435 
Bognor Coal Dues, 296 
Bognor Drainage Contract Cise, The, 

443 , ^, 

Bradford Parka Committee and the 

Allotments, .525 
Bristol, Insanitary Property at, 3 
British War Roads, The Germans 
and, m 

Minutes of Proceeding's fcoji- 

Buckie, The Burgh of, and their Con- 
tractors, 50 
Building By-laws, 157 
Building Contract Case, A, 157 
Burst Water Mains, 20 
Canada, Road Improvement in, 583 
Cheap Tramway Fares, .301 
Coal-gas ur Petrol f .504 
Concrete. Proportions for, 4U 
Concrete K.oads, 228 
'"Consulting" Engineers, 483 
Contracts During the \S''ar, 253 
County Councils Association, The, 181 
Cultivation of Lands <Jrder, 339 
Darkness, The Danger from, 319 
Decimal System, The, 310 
Demolition Orders, 4S:! 
Discharged Soldiers, Employment of, 3 
Documents, The Right to Inspect, 51 
" Domestic Purposes," 415 
Dublin Rebuilding, The Ministry of 

Munitions and, 207 
Dublin Workshops : How Not to Do It, 

Dundee Housing Scheme, Landlords 

and the, 485 
Dustbins and the Fly Menace, 415 
Dustbins, Greater London's, 381 
Earthwork Dam Construction, 2 
Egypt, Local Government in, .563 
Electricity in Agriculture, -jSI 
Electricity Undertakings, Linking Up, 

Empire's Mineral Resources, 525 
Engineering Education, 423 
Engineering Standards, 465 
Enticing a Roadman, 361 
Extraordinary Traffic, 401, 583 
Extraordinary Traffic and Road 

Repair, 513 
Extraordinary Traffic: Time for 

Proceedings, 127 
Falling Trees, Accidents from, 484,505 
Famous Well, A, 51 
Federation of British Industries, 297 
Fence Walls on Main Roads, 51 
Food Restrictions, 425 
Footpaths, The Repair of, 504 
Foreign Languages, Engineers and, 

Foresight Rewarded, 464 
Forestry, The Organisation of, 25 
France, Road Service in, 505 
France, Road Services in : a Com- 
plaint, 157 
Geology and Engineering, 544 
Glasgow Corporation and Cottage 

Homes, 156 
Glasgow's Successful Tramways, 228 
Harpur, The Death of Mr., 505 
Highway Cases, Some, 271 
Highway Encroachment, 504 
Highways and Byways, 2U3 
Holywell Urban Council and St. 

Winifred's Well, .321 
Home Food Production, 207 
Home-grown Timber, 273 
House Refuse disposal, .524 
Housing After the War, 379, 4C4 
Housing the Working Classes, 585 
Iluddersfield, Housing in, 229 
I.M.E.A. Report, 'Ihj, .584 
Important Appeal, An, 253 
Important Statute, An, 179 
India, Town Planning in, 320 
Industrial Research, 50 
Insanitary Property at Bristol, 3 
Institution '^f Civil Engineers, The, 

Institution of Municipal Engineers, 

3, 27 
Inventor, The Rights of an, 129 
Irish Municipal Undertakings and 

Borrowing Powers, 545 
Junior Engineers, 585 
Labour, The Shortage of, 205 
L.C.C. Tramways, 481 
L.C.C. Tramways Reorganisation, 

The, 21 1 1 
Llangollen Urban Councillors and the 

Medical Offiser, 360 
Local Government in 1015-16 .565 
London Road Problems aftertbe War, 

London Water, Treatment of the, .523 
Metric System^ The, 27 
Military Service, Municipal Officers 

and, 205 
Ministry of Health, A. .^U, 521 
Multiple-Arch Dams, 124 
Municipal Enterprise, Individual 

Interest in, .563 
Municipal Housing, 320 
Municipal Piggeries, 321 
Municipal Kesearch liureau, A, 311 
Municipal lieserve Funds, The Pro- 

poaal for, 123 
National Service, 229, 252 

Minutes of Proceedings fcon- 

HnufcZ; : — 

National Service, Food Economy and, 

National Service, Professional Men 

and, 341 
New Inventions, 505 
New Year's Creed, A, 25 
Nuisances, The Abatement of, 301 
Obstructions on Highways, Accidental, 

Officials After the War, 227 
Officials and Military Service, 320 
Ontario, Highway Organisation in, .503 
Orphan Fund, The, 205 
Party Walls, 271 
Pig Keeping, 181 
Pigsties, 120 

Plant, Depreciation of, 127 
Plumbers, A Shortage of, •■)25 
Plumbers, Edinburgh "Trustees and 

the Aggrieved, 2t)4 
Porthcawl Esplanade Case, The, 295 
Presidential Address, The, 584 
Public Conveniences and Nuisances, 

Record Salary, A, 51 
Refuse Collection and Disposal, 424 
Refuse Collection and Labour Short- 
age, 4^1 1 
Reinforced Concrete, Steel in, 229 
Rainforced Concrete Wharves, 321 
Resewering of Private Streets, 319 
Roadmaking Under Difficulties, 331 
Road Openings in the United States, 

Roads and Reconstruction, 503 
Road Services in France: A Complaint, 

Roads in Macedonia, The Influence of, 

Road Stone Quarries, Control of, 565 
Royal Institute of British Architects 

and Civil Li'e, Toe, 180 
Rural Housing, 25 
Rural Housing and a Minimum Wage, 

Rural Repopulation, 49 
St. Pancras, Refuse Removal in, 253 
Safety First Campaign, The, 2, 400 
Salary, A Question of, 301 
Sewage Disposal from the Chemist's 

Point of View, 463 
Sewage Disposal, The Humorous Side 

of, 3S1 
Sheffield, War Improvisation in, 272 
Standardisation, 206 
State Canals, 227 
Statistics, Forms for, 401 
Storm in a Teacup, A, 229 
Street Accidents, Restricted Lighting 

and, 253 
Street Architecture, 120 
Street Cleansing Methods, 272 
Street Dangers, 3JU 
Street Numbering, 404 
Streets in Urban Districts, The Vest- 
ing of, 203 
Subsiding Highways, 26 
Summer Time, 251 
Surveyor's Salary. A, 205 
Surveyors, Some Questions for, 360 
'I'aunton, Insanitary Conditions at, 46s 
Timber Haulage and the Roads, -525 
Town Devi'lopment, .504 
Town Planning, Municipal Engineers 

and, 521 
Traction Engines and the Roads, 223 
Trade Refuse, Disposul of, 30<J 
Tramways and Road Subsidence, 310 
Travelling Expenses, Councillors' and 

Officials', 330 
Unexpended Grants, 331 
Urban Land Cultivation, 1.50 
War Loan, Local Authorities and, 155 
AVa--time Contracts, 311 
Waste Heclamation. 27.J 
Waste Utilisation, 21^ 
Water Economy, The Importance of, 

Water Filtration, 10 
AVater Treatment, Economy in, 251 
Water Waste. 252 
Waterworks Design, 155 
Wayleaves for Electric Mains, 399 
Well. A Famous. 51 
Wheel Tax, A Proposed, 25i, 273 
Modern Sewage Works— Design. Con- 
struction, and Management, 596 
Jlotherwell Baths. 230 
Motorists' Map Holder, 111 
Motor Omnibuses and Extraordinary 

Traffic, 1-^3 
Motor Omnibjs Weights, 303, 111 
Motor K^ad Rollers, 04 
Multiple Arch Dams. J07, lil, 426, 451 
Municipal Engineering, A Survey of, 3ii. 

Municipal Engineering in America, .5.55 


July 27. 1;I17 

Cnnicipal E&gineerin(f in 1916 : 

Bridges. 7*.' 
Klcctricity Supply, 71 
Uighway?. 73 
Hon?intr, ?•; 


t^uicklime for lilastingr. .Mt, 6c(.'i 

s'e Disposal, 80 


\'> .itvr .-^iippiy, SJ 
MuDicipal lioustDg, Some Observations 

on, ;!>'» 
Municipal Otlio^re and Military Service, 

Municipal Pi^geriee, :">21, 3ii, 4-Ji», 57t; 
Municipal Research Bureau, lUl 
Munition Workers, Housing of, 373 


National Physical Laboratory. 58'.' 
Newport. Isle of Wight, War-Tinie Eco- 
nomy in, H~' 
Newport (Mon.l Water Supply, 2Iii 
New Type of Trickling Filter. 4 
New York Water Supply. 7, 28 
Notes from Ireland, 'il, 108, aiS, 453, 53«i 
Noiaances, Abatement of, 'Ml 

Officials After the War, 227 
Officials and Military Service, 320 
Officials and National Service, 25o 
Officials on Active Service, 2C2 
Officials' Travelliag Expenses, Council- 
lors and, 33t) 
(.•mnibus Companies' Contribntions, 

527, .■>'5C 
Ooinibas Kontee, New, 471 
Ontario, Highway Organisation in, 503 

Party Walls, 271 

Peat for Power and Other Purposes, 53i; 

Petrol Allowances to Municipal Engi- 
neer?, J."»l 

I'itrttieii : Their Erection and Control, 
117, 12".', lfel.281 

Pooling Labour, :!11 

IVrtl CA'*1 r-il.made i'ase, 2".>5 

1': : in the Depreciation 


1 I ! ptions. Payment of 

Fablicationa : 

\r. ) If,., f-' <,nd Surveyors' Diary for 

! reman. The, 57G 

• inii Wasting Assets, t'.'.' 
ritieh UuildingCon- 

• -ry of Statistic?. 

Knik" ° 'vemment Iteporte, 

Jatu ... , '. 

lAxtoDit iiuiiciufit' I'rioe-book for K'I7, 

I/-c»l • t'Airnint nt. il'l . 1'. .'.'..'j 

.-. 17 

i> Cin- 

Mte. 273 
of Water Supply, 

'hods of Ventilation, 

WjiUir Supply. 175 

J' 1' . \uti.- riti'-x and the Control of 

I '<uisances, L'>0 

1 -t, A Central. 

I I.' Health Mattara, A lU-tamf- of, tl, 

Piiriticaticn and Kofteninc of Water, 

HecADt Practice in the, 1M», 1M7 

KailwAT Road Bridges, I'pkeep of, 315 
Rainfall of 1!)1(!. .'iG 
Reconstruction, Roads and, .")03 
Refuse CoUeotion and Disposal: — 

I'Alorific Value and Possibilities ot 
House Refuse, .553, 557, 572 

Cleansing of Receptacles, 21 

Collection and Disposal, 118 

Conversion into Fuel, 28G, 310, .Wi 

Destructor Clinker in Koadmaking, 
3.\!, :w.< 

Hisjiosal of Waste Scrap. 123, 171 

Domestic " Hurn-;ill," 2!>1 

" Dont's " for Householders, 51:! 

Dustbins and tlie Fly Nuisance, H5 

Dustbins of lireater London, 429, 132 

I'utch-oven Refuse Incinerator, 185 

Economy of 1 )e6tructors, 4;57 

Government Assistance for Councils, 

Hornsey, 123, 171 

Householders and Daily Collections, 

Land Fertilisers from Refuse, 103 

LiK'htning Dust Manipulators, 103 

Local (Jovernment lioard Circulars to 
Local Authorities, 300, 4-19 

London, 280 

St. Pancras, 2.53 

Salford's Rules. 4i»2 

Slough. 510 

Trade Refuse, 3G0 

Waste Fat from Military Camps, 456 

Waste Paper Economies, 450 

Waste I'tilisation, 20.!, :S06, 3H- 
Reinforced Concrete Bridges with 

Through Arches, 300 
Reinforced Concrete Chimney Shaft, 

Reinforced Concrete Road Bridge Con- 
struction, 325 
Reinforced Concrete Wharves, 321 
Reservoirs, Design and Cost of, 0, GO, 

Eeseweringof Private Streets, 319 
Rights of an Inventor, 129 
Right to Inspect Documents, 51, Gl 
Roads and Streets:— 

.Vccidental Obstructions on Highways, 

A Day in the Ollice, 31, 41 

American Roads, 180 

Animals on the Highway, 27 

Canada, .583 

Centre Channel Roads, 187 

Charges in Wood Block Paving 
Practice. 278 

Concrete Roads, 223, 28ii, 4CC 

Construction and Improvement by 
Means of Town Planning Schemes, 
Kill, pi2, 42;!, t2S 

Control of Road Stone (Quarries, 45G, 


Country lioads Board of Victoria, 13G 
County Councils and Tar Spraying, 

Cracks in Concrete Roads, 21i> 
Cultivation of Roadside Wastes, IGU 
Deer Distiict, .5.32 
Destructor Clinker in Roadmaking, 

Direct I/abour in Ireland. 318 
Enemy PriHoner<< and Road Work, 15 
Extraordinary Traffic, 127, 401, .583, 

Extraordinary Traffic in Ireland, 281, 

Failures of Itituminous Surfacep, 474 
Fenca Walls on Main Roads, 51 
Footpath Repair. .504 
Foundati<'ns, 487 

(ieriiiiins ami British War Roads, 401 
' •l')UC««terHhire, 492 
< !(K>d L'tads Train, G 
Hastingf, .599 
Herefordshire, .59<l 
llii;h\vay Cases. 271 
Hik'hwsy Encroachments, 5Gt 
Highways and Byways, 203, 211, 23i, 

Importance of (i<>od Itoads, 2S0 
Iptluence of Itoads in Macedonia, 38<i 
Ki-ntjsh RagRtoneTar Macadam I'ests, 

Light RiilwajB for the Roadf. 3^7. 

416, 455 
Locomotive* on Highways, &&! 

Roads and Streets {ei>niinutd) :— 
iMaintenanco Dilliculties. 395 
Massachusetts, 291 
Miterials and Appliances, 101 
Militjiry and Road Repairs. :!11, 513, 

Modern Road Making Machinery, 537 
Motor Omnibuses and Extraordinary 

Trallic. 18:i, 409 
Motor Omnibus Weights, 393, Ml 
Mushroom Roads. 511 
New Omnibus Routos, 471 
Omnibus Companies Contributions, 

527, 580 
Ontario. 503 

Practical Road Work, 31, 41 
Present and Future Problems. 419 
Proposed Wheel Tax, 2.52, 273, 280 
Reinforced Concrete Road Bridge Con- 
struction, 325 
Keiuforcement, 38 
Koseweriiij,' of Private Streets, 319 
Road Contractors' Dilliculties, 315 
Road Opinings, 181. 182 
Koads and Labour Conditions, 311 
lioad;; and Reconstruction, 503 
Road Survice in France, 9, 157, 505 
Roads Improvement .Association, 419 
Sand Clay Roads. 579 
Scottish Experimental R )ads, 311 
Shanghai. tl7 

Sheet Steel for Street Paving, 10 
Shellield, 151 

Skilled Roadmen and the .\rmy, 425 
Specifications for Concrete Roads, 238 
Specifications for Highway Bridges, 52 
Staffordshire, 195 
Standard Specifications for Materials, 

Street Cleaning Methods, 272, 274 
Stone Filled Slieet Asphalt Pavement, 

■' Studs " for Road Locomotives, 189 

209,279, 228, 2t0, 279, 327 
Subsidini; Highways, 25 
Supply of Materials, 352 
Supply of Motor Sweeping Machines, 

Tarrinfr Costs, t!, 118 
Tests of Roadmaking Stone, 516 
Timber Uaula^'e and Road Damage, 

;!23. .525, 53.5, .551, 574 
Trallic and Highway Design, 275 
Tramway Cars in Street Cleansing 

Work, 159 
Tramways and Road Subsidence, 340 
Trouble over Paving Setts, 278 
I'nexpendc 1 Grants, !!S1 
Ipkeep (if Railway Bridges, 315 
Vesting of Streets in Urban Districts 

AVaste Leather for R jad Making, 491 
What is Excessive Traffic ? 511 
Wood Paving in the United States, 

Work iu the Mexican Desert, 503 
Royal Sanitary Institute :— 

Meetings, 418 
Rural Repopulation, 49 
Russia's Municipal Services, 14 

" Safety First " Proposals, 2, 04, 1 14, 253 

3K), 357, 375, 400, 571 
Salt in Snow Cleansing, Use of, 358 
Sandgate Appointment, 210 
Saskatoon Public Services, 38 
School Building, Cheaper Type of, 287 
Scotland, Progress of Town Planning in 

Scottisli .Notes, 118, 18(!, 2i;i, .llrj, .J<)9 
Sea W ator and Metals, 3'.i| 
Sewerag'6 and Sewage Disposal: - 

Activated Sludge Process, 0, 114, 297, 
298, :;.•.!'. 3711. 51-4, 510 

Belfast Ferro-Concrete Outlet Sewar 

Bognor Drainage Contract, 41.3 

Bradford, Uii 

Brushwood Filters, 4. 254, 4.58, 575 

Centrifuijal Pumps v. Pneumatic 
EjectorK, 141, 104 

(Cesspool Emptying, 11.'! 

< Chemical Knowledge in Sewage Dis- 
posal, I9i 

DilfuHJon of Sewage in Water. 190 

HaKtitigH. Ool 

Humorous Side of Sewage Disposal, 

Lack of Sewage Works in Ireland, 168 

Jvh\ 27, 1917. 



Sewerage and Sewage Disposal 

fconiiiuted) : — 

Lath Filters, 1 

London Main Drainage System, 158 

Machinery and Plant, 108 

Makeshift Scheme, 155 

Neath Drainage, 420 

New Type of Trickline Filter, i 

Safety of Sewermen, 514 

Shanghai, 469 

Sheffield, 151 

sizes of Sewers, 118, 105 

Successful Sewer Dredging, 103 

Trade Effluent Problems, 284 

Treatment of Sewage, 463, 467 

Ventilation Shafts on Private House 

Drains, 166, 214, 257, 280 
Wanstead, 496 

Worcester Activated Sludge Installa- 
tion, 114, 511,546 
Works, Design, Construction, and 
Management, 596 
Sheet Steel for Street Paving, 16 
Shoreditch, Motor Machine Brooms at, 

Slough, Rafuse Disposal at, 540 
Society of Engineers:— 
Presentation of Premiums, 173 
Presidential Address, 173 
Some Duties of a Surveyor, 342, 351 
South Africi, Fly Nuisance in, 62 
Spocifioations for Concrete, 91 
Specifications for Concrete i; jads, 236 
Specifications for Highway Bridges, 52 
StafFordsliire Main Koads, 495 
Standardisation of Cast Iron Pipes, 603 
Standard Specifications for Koad Mate- 
rials, 206 
State Canals, 218, 227 
Statistics, Forms for, 401 
Stella Reservoir, Durban, 130 
Stone Filled Sheet Asphalte Pavement, 

Street Architecture, C'jntrol of 199, 277 
Street Cleaning Methods, 272, 274 
Street Numbering, t64- 
" Studs " for Road Locomotives, 1^9, 209, 

228, 240, 279, 327, 357 

Subsiding Highways, 25 

Suinmer '1 irae Act : — 

Economies, 251, 258 

Irish Opposition, 5:92 

Surveyors and Cottage Design, 17, 118, 

Surveyors' Institution :— 
Examinations, 105, 476, 541 
Surveyor's Salary, Military Representa- 
tive and, 106 
Surveyor, Some Duties of a, 342, 351 
Surveyor's Travelling Kxpenses, A, 567 
Swimming Bath Construction, Ferro- 
concrete in, 230 

Taunton, Insanitary Conditions at, 465 
Team Labour at <irimsby. Cost of, 183 
Technical School Buildings ; Accommo- 
dation and Equipment, 301 
Tenure of Allotments, 318 
Testing Facilities in Ireland, 16-t, 9,S1 
Testing of Fire Hydrants, 346 
Testing of Gas, 569 

Testing of Materials, 256 

Tests of Roadmaking Stone, 516 

Things One Would Like to Know, 16. 35, 
56, 115, 131, 167,191), 210,239,265,286, 
3(17, 329, 3t<;, 368,385, 416, 437, 454, 474, 
493, 512, 535, 552, 571, 598 

Thompson, Death of Mr. Gibson, 2S3 

Timber, Decay in, 565 

Timber Haulago and Road Dam !;?►(, 
3i3, 525, 535, 554, 574 

Timber Substitutes, 341 

'Too Good to be True, 569 

Town Planning (S:e Housing and Town 

Town Planning Institute:— 
_ Meetings, 46, 181, 330, 402, 523, 535 

Traction Engines and the Roads, 189, 
209, 228, 210, 279, 327, 357 

Traffic and Highway Design, 275 

Tramway Cars in Street Cleansing 
Work, 159 

Tramway Fares, 361 

Tramway Foundation Ranewals at Don- 
caster, 437 

Tramways and Road Subsidence, 310 

Treatment of Sewage, 463, 407 

Unexpended Grants, 381 
Urban Land Cultivation, 150 

Ventilation Shafts on Private House 

Drains, 166, 214, 257, 280 
Vesting of Streets in Urban Districts, 



Walsall Corporation Electricity Under- 
taking, 315 

Wanstead, Sewage Disposal at, 49() 

War :— 
After- War Problems, The, 1 
Consulting Engineers and the, 561 
Contracts, 243 

Employment of Discharged Soldiers, 3 
Enemy Prisoners and Road Work, 15 
Food Economy and National Service, 

Germans and British War Roads, 401 
Improvisation at Sheffield, 272 
Ironies of National Service, 165 
Local Authorities and Coal Distribu- 
tion, 473, 519, 595 

War (contintied) .— 

Local Authorities and Furniture 
Storage, 163 

Local Authorities and Land Cultiva- 
tion, 5, 213 

Local Authorities and the War Loan 

National Service, 229, 252, 255, 333, 341 

Officials and Military Service, 320 

Officials on Active Service, 202 

Road Service in France, D, 157, 505 

Tenure of Allotments, 348 
Waste Leather for Koad Making, 491 
Waste Paper Economies, 450 
Waste Reclamation, 273 
Waste Utilisation, 296 
Water :— 

Ash ford Tube Well Strainer, 94 

Burst Mains, 26, 29 

Cardiff Reservoir Contract, 511 

Catskill Mountains Scheme, 7, 23 

Cement Joints for Cast IroQ Water 
Mains, 390, il2 

Chepstow, 21 

Chlorination, 574 

Coolgardie, 302, 379 

Derwent Valley, 540 

Design and Cost of Reservoirs, 9, 60 

Earthwork Dam Construction, 2 

Economy in Treatment, 251 

Essex, 372 

Experiences in Filtration, 19, 57 

Filtration in America, 565 

Freezing of Water Mains and Ser- 
vices, 193 

Hot Water Supply, 460 

Importance of Water Economy, 465 

Killarney Rural District, 533 

Liverpool's 12,000 Leakages, 2()5 

London, 10,331 518, 523 

Machinery and Plant, 112 

Madras, 14 

Multiple Arch Dams, 407, 424, 426, 451 

Newport (Mon.), 210 

New York. 7, 28 

Purification and Softening, 160, 187 

Purification in War-time, 191 

Rainfall of 1910, 56 

Resistance to Filtration Experiments, 

Standardisation of Cast Iron Pipes 
• Stella Rose! voir, Durban, 130 

Supplies from Melted Snow, 3:5 

Waste, 252,205, 5il 

Watford, 20 

Western Australia, 363, 379 

Worcester, 276 

Works Design, 155 
Watford, New Water Supply and other 

Municipal Works at, 20 
Wayleav(!S, 386, 399, 413 
Welsh Surveyor's Salary, 51, 62 
West Country Appointment, A, 551 
Western Australia, Water Supply in, 

368, 379 
What is Excessive Traffic ? 511 
Wheel Tax, Proposed, 252, 273, 280 
Where Intuition Failed, 493 
Wolverhampton Municipal Under- 
takings, 560 
Wood Block Paving Practice, Changes 

in, 278 
Worcester Activated Sludge Installa- 
tion, 111, 541, 516 
Worcester, Water Filtration at, 276 
Works Projected by Local Authorities 

in 1917, 95 
World's Highest Chimney, 473 
Worthing Foreshore Sand Accumula- 
tion Experiment, 335 



Ji'l.Y 27, I!)I7. 



Abercrombie, P., 40 

Abrams, D.. 419 

Adams, S. H., +5S 

Adshead. S. D., 11. 1S4 

Aldridge, T. H. U.. 456 

Alloock, H., 388, 115 

ArdsTD. E..'208 

Karlow, K., 6 

Barton. E. C. 92 

Binnie, W. J. E., 7,28 

Blanohard. A. H., 182, 475 

Blonnt, B., t4i7 

Boot, H, 36 

Bowden, J. H., hi'<6 

Breed. H. E.. 23C 

Uridg:e8. O. A., :}22 

Broker. A. W.':iS2 

Brown. K.. 2<'.'1, 2S2, 308,. 324, 347, 429, 5i 

Brush, W. W.. H>3 

«arej, J.G., ;«0,353 

Chapman, C. M., 01 

Chilvers. G. B., 45 

Chubb. L. W,, 211, 2aj,2C3 

Cook, W. ^X.. 132.161 

Cooper, C. H . 4-ks 

Ccoper. W. W., S^W 

Cowan, P. C, 256 

Eddy, H. P„ 370 

Farrinftton. W. R , 291 
Freeman, A. C. 45 1 
Ford, R. E., 437 
Gill, F., 132. 161 
Godfrey, C. H., 447 
Godsell, D. B.. 275 
Goldbeck, A.T.,216 
Hall, C. E..62 
Hogarth, G.. 487 
Houston, A. C, 10 
Huber, AV., 537 
Humphreys, C. J., 568 
Humphreys, G. W., 158 
Hunter, H. G., 57 
Jack, G. H., 596 
Jeffreys, W. Rees. 402, 526 
Jenkins, D. M., 237 
Johnson, H. C, 4-15 
Jones, T. H., 466 
.lorgensen, L. R., 407, 420, 451 
Lanchester, H. V., 330 
Lindon, E.. 400 
Lister. R. Ashton, 492 
Long, F. M.. 570 
Longridge, M., 141 
Lovell, K. G., 527 
Macallum, A . F., 555 
MaxweU, W. H.,450 

Miller, C. F., 599, 604 
Mohlman, P. W., 6 
Mole, J. H., 304 
Moncur, J., 495 
Moorfield. C. H., 579 
Mullen, C. A., 328 
Nasmith, G. G., 4 
O'Brien, P. V., 362, 368 
O'Connor, J. A., 508 
Palmer, P. H., 591 
Parr, J., 302 
Phelps, G., 254 
Robinson, T.. 21 
Rodley, G., 34 
Rothera, A., 342 
Shaw, C. H., 390 
Slater, E. A., 149 
Smith, P. C, 166 
Snead.C. D., 325 
Stanley, A., 469, 400 
Terry, C. .506 
t;ren, F. C, 169, 187 
Vernier, ('., 386, 413 
Wakelam. H. T., .586 
Whitwell, E., 30, 54 
Wickenden, A. F., 199 
Yorath, C. J., 38 


Activated Sludge Experiments, 6 
Activated Sludge Plant, :57<i, 371 
Activated Sludge Process at Worceeter, 

The, 540, 547, 548, 549, .550, .551 
All Metel Bundling Press, 12:} 

" Baseco" Patent Boiler, W) 

Belfast Fem>concrete Outlet Sewer, 

l.'J8, 139 
Bognor Municipal Piggeries, 322, 323 

Candy Single-Bed Filter, 170 
Concrete, Excess Wnter in, 486, 487 

Davis Dcmestic" Bum All," 201 

Dennia .Sid^-tipping I/orry, 105 

Dennis Turbine Motor-Pump Fire 

Engine, 10.5 
T»iTu=i',r. '>f S-w.itT'- In \Vat<T, 1!»0 

f' • ; •-, .3«;i 

I voir, i:;"! 

' ' nerator, 1^.5 

Edlfon Electric Dtut-ooUecting Van 15, 

Ferro-concrete Bridges on the Meuse, 

80, 90 
" Fiberlic" Building Board, 391 


" Hatfield" Motor Fire Engine, 113 

Lightning Dust Manipulators, 103 


Marshall Road Eoller. New Type of, 107 
Mexican Desert, Road Work in the, 509, 

Motherwell New Public Baths, 230, 231, 

Motorist's Map Holder, 111 
Motor Road Rollers. 04 
Multiple-Arch Dams, 107. 408, 4«», 120, 

127, 428 
Multiple Filtration at Baniford, 160 

Pormutit Filtor, Section of, 18H 
PortriiitB : — 

italdwin Latham, The Late Mr., 37t'> 

Xonnott. Stephen A., 198 

Brown, lU>(;inald, 4ki 

GottingB, S. S., 118 

llarpur, The lAte Mr. William, 516 

Leeper, Leonard, 110 

Palmer, P. H. (Facing p, .5M) 

liothera. A.. .'151 

Scott, the Late Mr. Hugh, 5.30 

Whitwell, E. (Facing Title) 

"Rainbow Arch," Reinforced Concrete 

"Sentinel" End-tipping Steam Wagon 

Sewage, Two Methods of Air Diffusion 

in, odO 
Sheet Steel for Street Paving, IG 
Straker-Squire 5-ton Motor Wagon. 500 
Street- flushing Tramway Car at Work, 

Technical School Buildings, .302 
Trickling Filter, a New Type of, 4 

Ventilating Shafts on Private House 
Drains, 106 

Waller's Power-driven Portable Sludge 

I'ump, 113 
War-time Economy in Newport, Isle of 

Wight, 140 
Water ^Va8te : Bringing it Home to the 

Otnsumor, .5.31 
Where Intuition Failed, 403 

Mr. EDWARD WHITWELL, F.I.S.E., M.S.A. (Lieut. R.N.V.R.j, 

lingineer. Siineyor and Architect, Abcisychan Urban District Council, 

Preiident of the Institution of Municipal Engineers, 1917. 

»fc tindar-To lae« Tlfl«. 

The Surveyor 

Hub flDunfcipal anb Countie Engineer. 

Vol. LT. 

JANUARY 5, 1917. 

No. 1,303. 

Minutes of Proceedings. 


Ill aj>poiiitiiij5 a committer' 
to consider tho problems likely 
to ai'ise ab the temiinatioii of 
the war, the council of the Surveyors' Institution 
showed an entirely praiseworthy readiness to 
render available in the national interest the special 
knowledf^e possessed by surveyore, tis distinct 
from other' i)rofessional men or from repre- 
sentatives of trade iind industry. Tho general 
subject of the committee's reference divided itself 
naturally into two branches — urban and nu'al — a 
division which is clearl.\ recognised in the very 
valuable rejKjrts wliich have just been published. 
Broadly speaking, the uiljan report deals with the 
steps which should be taken to incet the jxjssi- 
bility of a period of acute unemployment after the 
wai', and recommends the prepai'ation of schemes 
for that ])un)aso. In preparuig the rural report, 
on the other hand, the committee were at once 
forced by the difficulty that agriculture, tlie priu- 
ci[)al industry concerned, does nf)t lend itself to 
emergency measures, 'riiereeommeiidations under 
this head aro therefore ciiiefly designed to sc«ui"e 
prosperity to iiginculture and tlie employment of 
more pei-sons in that industry, rather tliaii to meet 
any immediate omergeiic.y of unemployment. In 
considering tiie urban problem, the committei* 
iwcepted at tho outset four main pruiciples — 
namely, (1) that the expenditure in ret<pe<-t (A 
labour should fomi a ccynsidi-rable ])roportion of 
the total outlay; (2) tliat the work wlu'ii c<jmpiete<l 
should meet a well-ncognised puiilic need, and 
shf)uld ])!ulako iis little as pwsible of tiio nature 
of unproductive relief works; {'-i) that the .scheme 
should be ca|)al)le of l)eing definitely organised 
i)eforeiiand, and should be at .once jji-epared, ready 
to bo put into O|>eration immi'diatelv on the emer- 
gency ai'ising; (4) that- th© sclicme should bo so 
far as possible self-supporting. It is not sur- 
prising, in view of the adoption of these principles, 
that tlie primary method suggested by the com- 
mittee for providing » iii|)Ioyment is the erection 
of new buildings — jirimarily, houses for the work- 
ing classes. Li is, of course, matt<.'r of common 
knowledge that there is at> the present tinie a very 
acute shorttigo of housing accommodation, and 

til at the position is steadily growing worse. The 
[jroblem is one which on its merits calls for tJie 
most vigorous action immediately after the war, 
and if special works are to bo undertaken for the 
relief of unemployment, none can be more appiT)- 
jjriate than iiouse building. Work of this cha- 
racter certainly complies with the fii-st three of 
the })rinciple« laid down by the committee, while 
as regards the fomth, the committee point o>ut 
that if, avS ap})eai's to be the case, housing schemes 
will not bo self-supporting, any adverse balance 
should be home by the national exchequer as the 
contribution of tlie (Jovennnent, whicli would be 
relieved from the necessity of keeping a lai-go 
number of men with the C'oloui"s. I'pon a cai'eful 
consideration of the whole situation the committee 
were led to tho conclusion that it can only be in 
tho direction of pul)lic authorities undert^lving 
res])onsibility for the housing schemes needed to 
rncet the anticipated unemployment that a solu- 
tion of tho ])roblem can successfully i)e sought. 
This conclusion is very significant, for it appojirs 
froi^i ttie report that, as a matter of principle, the 
committee were unanimously of opinion that in 
the future, as in tho piust, the provision of houses 
would i)est l>e left to private enter|)rise, provided 
that that source of supply did not fail. 

The report is a reasoned docunieiit, and, coming 
as it df)es from a l)ody of expcHs. it is earnestly 
to be liop(^d tliat the recommendations which it 
contains will receive the consideration from tho 
(lovernnient which they undoiil)tedIy deserv<-. 
The main recommendation in regard to housing is 
that, in view of (V/) the need of l)eing prejuut^d 
for a p(«sible periotl I'f acute unemployment nft<'r 
the t<'rminjiiion of tlie war, (A) the admit tod 
.shortage of working cliuss dwellings, and (r) tlie 
practical iiiipossibilitv in existing cii*ciimstancos 
of attracting private capital to that form of invest- 
ment, the CiovorntiKiit should re(|uest tli«' councils 
of counties and count v bomughs to aiTaiigc Ix'ffn-e- 
haiid for tho preparation of schemes fm- prr>viding 
hous<s for tlio working cliisses with approximate 
estimates of cost, to bo put into opeiiition at once 
on unemplr>yniont lieing found to exist. As 
regards finance, it is recommended tliat the 


January 5, 1917. 

iR'c-essiiry funds be provided by t4ie Treasury on 
terms not loss fiivoural)le than tlnjBe on which 
they weiv projnued to iniUve ndvanees undef tlie 
Housing (.No. 2) Act, HU4, luid further, that tho 
rents tol)e charged bo not less than tliose ruluiy 
in the neisrhboiu-hood for similar aceomniodation. 

Earthwork Dam 

Apjiai-eutly tho eugiueei-s. ul 
the Koechelus resonoir, on tlie 
Vakiuia river in Wasliington, 
have had rather a nasty job before tlicni, and the 
uiannor in which they are deahng witli it is 
described in the Etiyiiieeriiiy Record of New York 
by Mr. C E. Ci-ownovex. llic dam consists of a 
biuik. and a core wall and puddled flay. The core 
wall for its entire longtli is founded on gravelly 
clay, wliich is said to be "" pritttically impervious. ' 
The word " practically "' in this connection at 
orce suggests |)ossil)ilities of trouble, but woi^se 
follows. At a doiith of li ft. belfvw tlie bottom of 
the coix^ wall, tost holes disclosed a tine sand 
under nuich pressiu-e — presiunably w ator pressiu'o. 
This sand formation is of considerable depth, and lujies were dri\en for a depth of 35 ft. with- 
out i>ii.ssu)g through. Tiiis sand is therefore con- 
sidered too deep to pass through with a cut-off 
wall, and tlic concrete core wall was therefore 
founded on tiio overlying clay. 

This method of construction gives the English 
engineer a very uncomfortable feeling, and 
suggests possiiiiiitic-s witii wliicli anyone who lia.s 
had to deal witii water pressure and running SiUid, 
and structures founded on material overlying run- 
ning sand, will l)c familiiU". It seems that the 
engineers lU^c of opmton tliat tiiere is no connection 
between the water in tiie lake above the dam and 
the stTivtum of fine sand, owing to a difference in 
tbe wator levels. A number of drill holes were 
made on the line of the conduit thi"ough the dam, 
luid no relation seemed fo exist Iwtween the water 
level in tiies*- holes and the water level in the 
lake. Furtlier, it appeared tliat the lake l)ottom 
wiis covered witii from o ft. to 20 ft. depth of blue 
mud of an imjiervious character. To those who 
have not the full facts l)eff)re them the arguments 
are not as convincing a« crmld l)e wished, and one 
cannot escape tho iniinv-ssion of a dam suijject to 
upward pix'ssure from beneath, and of cut-off walls 
resting on lui inswun- foundatifiii, and of ugly 
pOKsil>ihties of .seepage under the dam. It is more 
than probable that such imju'essions would in- 
removed 1)\ more e.xaet knowledge of the facts, for 
it Is not t'» Ik- sup])os('d that the engineers would 
willingly take such serious risks. 

'Hie embankment consists of gi'avel on the lf)wer 
side and of Hue selwted material, rolled, on the 
upper sidi'. 'I'lie gravel is of a cfmsistoncy which 
will nf/fc slougli under saturation. This is a ver\' 
important point, for the dam which will allow 
water t^; drain away aft<'r seejmge may stand well 
in spito (A that seepage, and for this reason the 
nx'k-filh-d drain, wliicih extends along the entii"<' 
lengtli of tlie lower t'x', and which is cf>iine<'(<d 
Ut tile drains in the bank, K to the g<x>d. The fine 
iiuit^'riid forming the watertight portirm of the 
dam is spreitd in G-in. \<> 8-in. Iavci"s, and is rfdied 
with u pressun- of 'M)i\ lb. jmt s(|uai'e in<h. It is 
U> iKi nottid that the material wa« K|ir<;ad bcffjrc 
rolling, and that all nw-ks over 4J in. h>ng w<'re 
picke<l out. Smaller rocks were left in, but were 
well dihtribut^^d. Here, again, the En^'lish eiigi- 
m-i-r will lf)f>k nKkance at the presence <A tlles(^ 
smaller nwks in piiddli-'l clay. \\s<>, we ar<; told 
thiU/ all stumps hu-gir than 12 in. in diaiiK-t^-r were 
removed from thri dam site. Aj»parently, tli<- 
smaller stumps were not roinoved. Evidently the 
f»wt« tluit Uie smaller Mtiimps remained, and that 
tbe smaller nx-kn wer<' alUwed to fonii i»art f>f IjIic 
puddUfl clay, were aiipn^'-iat^^-d by the enginox-rs 
and considered to be mattentof minor importance; 

i)ut they iu-e none the less puzzlhig. It also 
aj)iH'ai-s that a ix>ad\\ ay will lx> formed across the 
dam connecting two iuipoi'tant railways, and there- 
fore, luvsumably, likely to have to suppoi't heavy 
motor traffic. Whetlier the vibration caused by 
such traffic can be safely sustained by an eailh- 
work dam is open to questicMi. It is not that tJie 
I'arthwork structui-e under normal conditions would 
be insufficient; it is that in the event of the 
embankment being weakened by seepage or under- 
mining the vibration would lend to iiccelerato 
movement. It is thei"efoix> a ijuestion of general 
policy whether dams should be made use of in 
tiiis wav. ' 

I'lie views whicii we ventm'od 
Safety First. (,, express in a recent is^sue with 
regai-d to the "safety fii"st " 
campaign toi miniiiiising the dangers to pedes- 
trians caused by existing traffic conditions in tiie 
Metropolis lU'e endorsed in a remai'kabl'e manner 
in a letter from "A Ratepayer " wiiich appeal's 
in the columns of a contemiiorm-y. The writer 
])oints out t-liat it- is jiatent to ajiyone who chooses 
to watch the traffic at a dajigeroUs crossing that 
a large i)i-oportion of motor-drivei-s consider a few 
blasts fi"om their horn to be all that is requisite 
to .seoure them a jiassage free from accident. " No 
reduction of s])ee(i is made, and it is (piite evident 
tliat fcx)t passengers must get out of the way or 
be run over. To put it plainly, these men exhibit 
a brutal disregtu'd for human life. ^lost motorists 
insure against a<'cidents, and verdicts of man- 
slaughter are extremely rare, which facts can but 
conduce to CiU'elrssness. Turning to public 
vehicles, it is a cause for much wonderment and 
reflection why motor 'buses are allowed to travel 
at quite twice the sjjoed of trams when nego- 
tiating dangerous crossings and cornel's. Perhaps 
the police can explain." 

In tiie latter part of the letter the. writer makes 
som(> practictil suggestions in regard to reduced 
ligliting, which ap)K ar to us to be of the greatest 
inteivst and importance. In the first placo-, the 
{•resent primitive method of obscuring the light 
fffjin street lamps causes much unnecessary 
inconvenience to traffic and danger to foot- 
passengers. Light seen from above can proceed 
only from the source itself, or by reflection from 
the ground, Xc. Tiie former can be cut off by 
screens, permitting no rays above the hoinzontaJ 
to emerge, thougli in view of possii)le refrtiction 
and diffusion by w ater particles in tlie air it would 
l)e better to reduce, llie angle considerably below 
90 deg. The latter can be minimised by the use 
of a diffusing medium. Our ligliting expei-ts also 
seem to ignore juiothcr elcment^iry fact — viz., that 
the human eye is not constructed to rei-eive hori- 
zontal rays of ligjit. Our strcHjts are therefore 
full of vehicles bearing lamps that tlii-ow horizontal 
rays full into the i-ycs of jjci^sons (.'oming in the 
<»pp<isit<' direction, with the result that these 
unfortunate people are absolutely incapal)l(5 of 
seeing anything l)ehiiid the light. Carts drawn up 
close to the keri) constitute the gravest danger 
in this roKpect. As a ])edestrian approa<'lies a 
lamp of this descri|)tion his iris contracts with the 
glare. When he passes the lamp the ensuing 
ghxHii is accentuated liy the contracted iris admit- 
ting only a minimum iiiiif)unt rrf light. If he then 
att<'mpts to crrjss tli<' road he is in the woi-st 
jjossible condition to di Icct iidvancing traffic. Yet 
certain public brdies liaiig " guard " lamps on 
refuges at a height IcmI witJi (he eye ! Obviously 
the remedy is to require all lamps used on vehi<'les 
to have a froKt*^ (>r f)l)scur<d glass, so as to oust 
a diffu.Ked light. In fact, to secure ide«d con- 
ditions in oiu- streets at present, no direct rays 
should be allowed to reach the eye at all. Enougli 
has been said to show that the securing of safety 

January 5, 1917. 


is nob to be realised by the mere expedient of 
training tlie public in motor dodging. What is 
I'equired is reduced speeds coupled with the a])])li- 
cation of common sense and scientific principles 
to the problem of reduced ligliting, which is, of 
coui'se, an absolute necessity in present circum- 

at Bristol. 

The tender-hearted councillor 
whose sNuipathies tux- exercised 
on behalf <i defaulting property 
owners liad a not very happy 
experience at tiie meeting of the Bristol Town 
Council on Monday last. Without moving a 
definite resolution, he formally called attention to 
the large number of ckising and other orders made 
by the Health Committee under the Housing Act« 
since the commencement of the war, the inability 
of tenants of houses so chwed to obtain other 
houses, and the present dithculty and expense of 
effe<'ting re]>airs. It is cmly fair to admit that 
tlie case of thi- tenants was argued with a certain 
amount of plausibility, but the burden of the 
councillor's tale was undoubtedly the difficulty 
owners had in getting repairs executed owing to 
the shortage of labour and tlie high prices of mate- 
I'ials. These difficulties were no doubt genuiiie 
and cousiderahle, but it did not ajjpear tluit the 
Healtli Committee had conunitted the lilunder of 
altogetlier overlooking them. It was explained 
tiuit during the twenty-eight months of tlie war 
187 closing orders liad been issued, and that eiglity 
of these related to void or derelict premises. 
Forty-one of the ca^es had l>een determined, the 
houses having been put into decent condition, and 
thii-ty-four of the ordei-s had resulted in demoli- 
tion. The i)lea for the suffering tenants, in so 
far as this related to distiu'bance, broke down 
completely-, for it was explained that in the 
instances of thirty-six closing orders the tenants 
were still in occupation. This w«i,s described b\ 
Dr. Colston Wintle as an example of " long- 
suffering " on the ])art of the Health Committee, 
but it may Ix; cpiestioned whether the suffering 
does not also apply to the lot of tlie unfortunat<; 
people who are inluibiting "these unwholesome 
dwellings. The Health Committer have, as a 
matter of fact, stayed then- hands to an appre- 
ciable oxte.nt in so fai- as the issue of notices to 
repair are concerned, tJiis clemency being due 
to a recognition on tlieir jiart of the sCiU'city alike 
of materials and labour, as well as the difficulties 
of boiTowing money. But, while such considera- 
tion is doubtless necessary in the circumstances, 
it is at the same tim<i desirable not to play into 
the hands of defaulting ])roj)ei"ty owners in Uxy 
fidl a measure. The ruling of the town clerk on 
this occasion was a stern reminder that tlie po^;i- 
tion of the public authority in i-eference to 
insanitary property is defined by its absolute; 
responsibility to the law. lleplying to a proposal 
by the councillor who raised the subject that the 
Hcidth Committee should be instinicted to stop 
the issue of closing orders r)r orders to do re))airs 
till six months after the war, he stilted tliat the 
city council could nob pass a resolution proliibit- 
ing itself from caii-ying out' duties cast upon it by 
Act of Parliament. In any case, it was by no 
means probable that the city council would have 
entertained such a stultifying propoiition, except 
to treat it with ridicule. 


of Discharged 


A proi)iem of immediate and 
|)ressing necessity arisuig out of 
tiie wiu- is tliat of finding suit- 
able employment for men dis- 
charged from the Anny as jjartially disabled, and 
who, although no longer lit for the hardship and 
exposure of military life, are capable 
of doing certain classes of civil work. One kind 

of work which is peculiarly suit^ible for such men 
is tliat of motor driving, or acting as conductoi-s 
on tramways, and we observe with satisfaction 
that a number of discharged soldiers have already 
been tsdven on by the I^eeds Corporation 'i'l'iuu- 
ways Committee for employment in this capacity. 
Work of this kind, however, naturally talies a 
little while to letun, and certain membeis of a 
body known as the Leeds Trades and Lalx^ur 
Council are ai)parently angi-y because the men lUo 
not paid during tito week or .so that is necessju-ily 
spent in training. At a. recent meetbig oiui 
member s[)oke of the " brut^il action " of the 
committee in refjuiring men wiio have bet^n dis- 
abled iu fighting their country's battles, and who 
!ue now discharged, to work from six to twelve 
days without remuneration, while another 
described tlio department as having been " in- 
human enough " to ask him to work for ten days 
for nothing while he learned the job. . One would 
hardly imaguie from this kuid of talk that it has 
been the usual priictice of the committee not to 
pay prospective employees for the few days 
necessiu-y for learnuig the work. It is, of course, 
open to the Trades iuid Labour Council, or any 
other body to object to this system, suid to seek 
by all legitimate means to seciu'e its abolition if 
they do so object, lint the attempt to make a 
discharged soldiei-s' grievance out of it is obviou^^ly 
insincere and much to be regretted ; and it is not 
in this spirit tliat after-war problems will be 
worked out in the national interest. It is, how- 
ever, satisfactoi-y to record that the opinions 
extended were those of individuals, suid that they 
were not endorsed — nor repudiated — by the 
council as a whole. 


of Municipal 


A programme of considerable 
interest has been lU-ranged for 
the eighth annual meeting of 
the Institution of Municipal 
Engineers, which is to be held in London to- 
moiTow. Mr. Henry Adiuns, m.inst.c.k., will 
give up the office of jiresident of the institution, 
which he has held with such distinction during 
the past yeai-, and he will be succeeded by Mr. 
Edward Wliitwell, the engineer and surveyor to 
the Abersychan I'rban District Coimcil. In addi- 
tion to hearing Mr. WhitweU's inaugural address 
on assumuig the presidency of the institution, the 
members will have an o|)portunity of discussing 
three pa))ers. The first is entitled " -V Resume 
of I'ubhc Health Matt<'is," and will be read by 
Mr. (j. Belson Chilvei-s; the next, presented by 
Mr. Geoi-ge liodley, deals with '" Practical Road 
Work;" while Mr. Horace BfK>t, a past-president, 
tidies i\s his subject '" Notes on the Use of Elec- 
tricity in Miiniciilid Engineering. " These subjects 
iire all of speciid interest at the present time. It 
is well known that ii great wtu- is inviu-iably 
followed \j\ ii i>eriod of special anxiety in regiu-d 
to ])ublic health mabti«rs, while the present struggle 
hiis raised ])roblems of highway construction and 
maintenance of extraordimu-y difficulty. There 
should thus be |)l(Mity to interest the membei-s 
attending the meeting, in spite of the fact that 
the' usual round of visits will not take phu-e. 


The Special Annual Issue of "The Surveyor" will 
be published on January 26th, and readers who pro- 
pose to accede to our request for a short statement, 
for inclusion in the number, of the works projected 
by their authorities for 1917, will greatly oblige by 
making their return as early as possible. All other 
material, and particularly matter accompanied by 
illustrations, should likewise be forwarded without 
delay to ensure its appearance. 


Januaey 5, 1917. 

A New Type of Trickling Filter. 

By Lieut-Col. G. G. NA.SMITH, cm. 

111.1'., Director of Lalunutorie.-;, Dejiartment of Public Health, 
Toixjnto, Canada. 

[Reproduced, by kind pcrmisaion. •from the Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute for December (Vol. 

xxxvii.. Part 4).] 

The olijeel o( every inetliiKl of sewage dit-posal i.^ to 
re.-olve Ihf couii>hoated putrescihle organic materiiils 
l>res«-ut into simpler, hirtoly inorgaiiio. coiii|>ound~ 
whicli are no lonser doiuiii|>osable, and iiK;ii)al>lo of 
can.«ing offence; in other words, it is to create a 
harmless and non-i>>le eCBUent. Sucli an effluent 
i:* ooninionly said to be " purified." 

Metliodi sucli a.- that of tlie septic tank fiiil. beoau.^e. 
workiiiu in the abttence of oxygen, they only partially 
jiplil organic material, and these jiroduct.- of hydro- 
lylJc action liave .-^till to undergo further destructive 
l>roce6ses in tlie i>resence of oxygen before they 
iiecome stable. 

Sewage disposal in tlie ordinary sen.«e of the term 
resolves itself in chemical terms to the formula- 
Organic matter + oxygen = inorganic matter + humus 
la stable organic material). 

The aim of every nietluKl of sewage disposal has 
been to take advantage of the bxidising propertie.-; of 
Ii\'ing micro-organisms. Methods which have failed 
are which have not provided the necessary con- 
ditions — that is, a sufficiently large mass of aerobic 
micro-organisms, properly harnessed to work in the 
pn-sence of an abundant supply of air. 

Without ?oing into detail, it has l)een established 
Iteyond question that the only methods of .•sewage 
treatment which fulfil the above conditions are the 
trickling filter and the more re<-ent iutivated sludge 

The trickling filter requires specially prepared bac- 
teria l>eds. .several feet in depth, made of stone, slag. 
coke, or other resistant material, as a nidus for the 
bacterial growth. Sewage, when sjirinkled or sprayed 
over the surfaces of such beds, slowly trickles over the 
pieces of .stone until it finally reaches the liottom. 
In the course of a few weeks the ])ieces of stone 
liecomo coated with a pellicle of slime, which lias 
l>een shown to cont^isi principally of ba<-teriii and 
protozoa. It is this living slinie which, in the 
presence of the oxygen of the air. organic 

From the sewage slowly trickling over the surface 
of this bacterial slime the organic matter is abstracted 
and dec<uiip08ed into simpler products. These 
simpler jirodiicts are chiefly nitrites, nitrates, carbon 
dioxide. sulphates, and a brownish-bhick non- 
piilr«scil.le material, ea^ily setlimented. called huinns. 

If air is excluded from such beds, the oxidising 
)i<-ti<m .xton ceases, or. if antiseptics are added in 
suffiiient quantity to de.stroy the bacterial slime, the 
oxi<lisin<: action cea.s<'s. 

In the a<tivated sludge method of .sewage disposal 
a similar bacterial ma.s,s is gradually forme<l by blow- 
ing finely <livided air through tanks filled with sewage. 
The sludire whidi forms by this treatment is allowed 
to s«-ttle. tin- -nperiiatant fluid allowed to run off, and 
til. tank ai^ajn tilled wilh sewage, after which the 
pnxe-- is n i.ealf.l. By degrees the •'ludge wlii<-h 
Bcciimulate.-N aeqiiires the same projierlies as the 
»liinc coverioL' the filter-beds. When fully matured 
thi." aclivateil sludge will oxidi.-»e the organic matter 
ill fre.i|i ^tewage in from two to four hours; when 
n(fit:ite(| corilinnoimly with it in presence of finely 
(hvided air. a i>erfe<-tly <-le»r and stable effluent is 

•The two methods briefly deKcril>ed above are prae- 

Ii<-al1y identi<-al in prin<'i|ile. In the tri<'kling filter 

tlie .-ewM'.'e tiiikle- ov. i the bacterial iiias.s in an 

•itiii''-|.l"T'- <'f :ilr In ' i .• activated sludge method 

ill.. l.,i.^Fi;il Ml- III'! .Aa'.'e .'ire kept in intimat*' 

'• rir.i • ' ■ • •■ -I. uiili -(reams of fine air-bnhbles. 

I I .■ .. exactly the same. Furthermore. 

■'- ■ u filter, the vast majority of the 

I lit in the .^ewage. including hu't/ise 

iiid alsf), preininiably. the pathogenic 

.... destroyed. . . . 

rj, in an endeavour to deviw a method for the 

nf tbr. fitv f.f T ront''i'= =ewuge, and reduce 

!i ! . I l>egan experi- 

iii V of the tticklinv 

b. .. , ...» involved in mind. 

It u:i- ;ir:ii.(| iliai II ' -if Mirface or ba<'- 

I.Ti il -lirii- etMild U- I I a given volume, 

then a greater quantity of sewage could be pas.scd 
over it and oxidised in a given time. 

Experiments were tliereforc <lesigned with the 
object ot increasing the surface of the filter per cubic 
yard, and of allowing fner circulation of air than the 
ordinary types of iilter-lx'ds permitted. Wood was 
-selected as the material lending itself best to the 
problem, and the fir.<t filter, 6 ft. square, j\as made of 
laths. The laths of the lowest layer were laid ])arallcl 
to one' another, the spa<es Ijetweeii the laths being a 
little than the width of the laths themselves. A 
.second layer was laid on top of this and at right 
angh-s to it, with the same interspace. A third row 
was laid i)arallel to the lx)ttoiii row, but in such a 
manner that the latiis covered the .spaces left between 
the laths of the lower scries. In this way a filter 4 ft. 
in depth was constructed, in. which the sewage, in 
order to reach the bottom, had to flow^ over a very 
lartre surface of filter. .\ir could enter from ajl sides 
and the top through the regular channels provided; 
in fact, one can sec right through this filter, so uni- 
formly regular are the si)aces. 

Sedimented city sewage was allowed- to trickle over 
the surface of this lath-filter; in less than a month 
the filter was mature, and the results obtained there- 
afti'r exceeded all expectations. Where the standard 
tyj)e of stone filter, operated .side by side with it as a 
control, treated 2.000,tKH) gallons of sewage per acre 
per day, the lath-filter treated G,()tK),000 gallons and 
yielded a non-putrcscible effluent. This lath-filter 
has now been in continuous for three and a-half 
years, and has never failed to give satisfactory 

I'^roiii results wc argued that jjoles might give 
an even greater surface per unit of voliiinc, because 
the poles would only <onje into contact along very 
narrow surfaces when luiilt into a filt^M- like the laths. 
Two Buch tillers were built, ea<'h C ft. sijiiare and 6 ft. 
in dej)th ; after maturing they yielded ])ractically the 
same results as the lath-filter. They were, however, 
very difficult to coiislnict; it was difhctilt also to 
obain an even distrilmlion of the sewage flow, and 
short cir<-uiting of the flow was also liable to occur. 
This form was abandoned as not being of i)ractical 
value. One pole-filbr. however, was installed in 1914 
at the City of Toronto Industrial P'arni to treat the 
sewage from several hundreds of peoj)le. No provi- 
sion had l)een made tor the fact that .sewage in small 
coiumunities frequently comes in gu.shes, and 
()uenlly, as, the bed was overdo.sed at some periods 
and luui no work to do at others, the results were not 
satisfactory. These <lefect8 liave re<'ently been 

A filter built of slabs of wood was discarded, as it 
was only capable of tr.'ating sewage at the rale of 
3,5n0,00() gallons per acie per day. 

Finally, having proved our theory to be correct, 
and haviuL' made sonn- preliminary experiments, it 
was decided that brnhhwood, jtressed into bundles, 
would make the ideal lilter for filter-beds, because it 
would provide the coinliination of a very large surhu c 
area and preseiu'c of aii which is so <'8sential. 

Tandauy 5. 1917. 


When the town of Korth Toronto was annexed to 
the City of Toronto a few years ago it had a system 
of sewage disposal, i)art of which consisted of three 
trickling stone filters, each 30 ft. in diameter. In the 
early .i^pring of 1914 we had the stone removed from 
one of these filters. Bundles of brushwood, cut from 
the woods near by, were made on the spot by means 
of a rough, wired together, and placed in 
the filter until a deptli of 4 ft. had t>een obtained. A 
space of 1 ft. was left between the brush-bundles and 
the wall, and a small space in the centre so as to 
allow air to enter freely from the sides. The old re- 
volving distributing sprinkler was then put into 
operation, the hrush qiiickly Ix^canie uiatured. and in 
two months it was treating sewage at the rate of 
6,(KX),(XHI gallons per acn- per day. A very high degree 
of nitrification has been obtained; the effluent has 
been uniformly .stable ; and the installation has proved 
to be a decided succes.-. This brush-filter has now 
been in operation for two years, and has worked just 
as well in winter as in summer. Of course, it is 
always necessary to cover filters of every descri])tion 
in winter in Canada to i)revent freezing. A brush- 
filter that was operated in the open to prove whether 
this would occur in the Toronto climate rapidly froze 

After three and a-lialf years the lath-filter shows no 
signs of incipient decay. <-onfirming the connnon ex- 
perience that wo<,d which is kept constantly wet does 
not decay. In both the lath and the brush filter the 
wood is covered with >liiiie, .so that the wood is always 

The advantages of the brush-flHcr may he f>\nn- 
niari.sed as follows: (1) Brush is cheap, and may he 
obtained almost anywhere; (2) skilled labour is not 
required in construction ; (3) it does not sludge : the 
slime will frequently become quite thin after heavy 
rains, when tin; .sewau'e is diluted, though the 
efficiency of the filter is unimi)aired; (4) the brush 
may at any time be removed and burned; (5) it is 
durable — a filter has now been in oi)eration for over 
two years without showing any signs of decay ; (6) the 
distribution of the sewage over the surfa<'e of the 
filter does not need to be very uniform; the general 
tendency is to redistriimte ibself in the filter mesh- 
work; (7) it gives the maximum amount of surface, 
with a freer circulation of air in a unit volume of 
space; (8) it has proved to he a success when treat- 
ing the sedimented sewage of a city on a large scale, 
and has treated three times as much sewage to (he 
acre as the standard stone filter will treat. 

Unfortiniately, on a<-count of the war. I have not 
been able to give in detail the results which have 
l)een and are still being obtained since the filters were 
|)ut into operation. This Irrief summary is being given 
in order that others may avail themselves of our ex- 
perience. Patents were applied for in the year 1914. 
in order to protect the City of Toronto until such 
times as our exi)eriments shotild be com|)leted. No 
rights or royalties are claimed, however, in connection 
with the process. In fact, it is hoped that the <-heap- of the .sy.stem will enable comnniuities to iiistal 
systems of sewage disi)osal in districts where the high 
cost of the accepted types of installation\havc l>een 
prohibitive in price. In the iirairie jiroviiK'es of 
Canada, for example, where stone would in many 
cases liavc to he hauled by train for hundreds of 
miles, and costs a great deal, the l)rush-filter should 
solve the problem in regard to exi)ense of installation. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my great apprecia- 
tion of the work of my assistants, Mr. .1. Scott, 
chemical engineer, who ha.s carried out the <'onslruc- 
tion of, and has bi'en responsible for the operation of 
all the experimental filters, as well as the chemical 
analyses in conne<'tion therewith, and Dr. F. Adams. 
D.P.H., who has sujxTvised this work in my absence. 
1 am also greatly indebtfd to Mr. R. C. Harris, Com- 
missioner of Works, and to Mr. Worthington, engineer- 
in-eharge of the sewage sy,stem, through the unfailing 
co-operation and interest of both of whom it lias been 
I)ossible to carry out the experiments on a large and 
practical scale. 


The Price of Victory. Peng<! Urban District Counril 
were engaged recently in a law case over the Croydon- 
load public lavatory, in which they were successful, 
but in spite of this the bill of costs incurred amounted 
to £537, which was duly passed upon the recom- 
mendation of the Finance Conimittoe. One member 
described the bill as a bomb-shell, but it was explained 
that the clerk had aetcd on tho instructions of the 
council. He had to engage an exi)ensive counsel 
because the other side had a K.C. 


In connection with the Government scheme for 
increasing food production in Ireland, the Secretary 
of the Local Government Board has issued a letter 
to every urban council in Ireland stating that, with a 
view to increasing the area of land under cultivation 
in Ireland, His .Majesty's Government had resolved 
upon means which would enable urban district 
councils to take by agreement land for the purpose 
of letting it in allotments to workmen resident in the 
district who were not in occupation of land, and who 
were willing to undertake the cultivation of potatoes 
and oats. Arrangements are also being made for loans 
for the of seed potatoes and oats. 

Ampthill U.D.C— a letter was received at tlie last 
meeting from Mr. C. P. Hall stating that the Duke of 
Bedford was |)rei)are(l to offer the council about KM) 
acres in whole or in j)art at the Warren Farm, Mill- 
brook. This land has l)een unoccupied for several 
years, but excellent ])otatoes and vegetables had been 
grown on some portions during the past .season. A 
similar offer was being made to the rural district 
council, and it might l)e possible, in view of that 
authority wishing to take isome land. to« divide the 
area and meet the wishes of each council as far as 
possible. Members felt that it was an important 
matter, and it was left to a. conunittee with executive 

Blackburn T.C— The corporation have in hand the 
securing of suitable plots of land for cultivation. The 
land at Roe Lee, triveii by Messrs. .1. Duckworth and 
.). R. Eddelston for a park, will be cultivate<l under 
the •.scheme, and the conunittee have visited the cor- 
poration and Queeirs Parks with a view to selecting 
suitable plots. The committee will break U]) the 
land in the first instance, and will, if |)Ospible. pro- 
vide .seed, manure, and implements at cost j>rice to 
the cultivators. The committee will also arrange for 
expert assistance to be given in the preparation and 
cultivation of the allotments. 

Hull T.C. -—The Parks Commiltt'e have decided to 
bring into cultivation for potatoes, oat«, and wheat 
67 acres of corporation land. Unfit .soldier labour was 
suggested, ancl a councillor offered to lend the neces- 
sary plougiis. 

Llandubno U.D.C— The cliairinan of the Finance 
Conunittee, Mr. R. Rolx-rts, staled at the council 
meeting recently that his <-ominittee were moving 
energetically in the matter of jiroviding land for jiro- 
(lucing food, and Lord Mostyn, the principal land- 
owner, had state<i that he would give all possible 
assistance in the movement. 

St. Ives T.C. — Many applications have. Iiei-n re- 
ceived for plots of land for food-growing, and these 
have been referred to the General Purposes Com- 
mittee, which is dealing with the matter. 

Shrewsbuhv T.C. — AUierman Deakiii staled at the 
council meelini.' on .Monday that the Inqirovemeut 
Committee had inspected various i)lots of land and 
were prepared to make certain recommendations. The 
numt)er of applications received for allotineuts uj) to 
the preseut time was .seventy-two. It was propo.s«*<l 
to grow a considerable quantity of potatoes on tiie 
sewage farm, and to use the land acquired for the 
extension of the cemetery foi^^tlie same |)uri) 

Walmek U.D.C. — ^It has been decided to devot4' the 
public recreation ground to tlie growing of potntt>es 
and other vcget.;ibles during the war. The grouml 
will be let to applicants f."<ee of all rent on the .-ole 
<H)ndition that it is used to the liest advantage for 
producing food. * 

Woking U.D.C— The council are .-mowing with wheat 
land acquired for a hoiwing s<'lieini', and intend to 
prepare for cultivation next spring part of the public 
recreation ground. 

Road Work for War Prisoners in Essex. — It was 

reported at the hist meeting of the Essex County 
Council that the War Office had U'vn asked to arrange 
for the employment of German j)risoners of war in 
repairing Essex main roads. All the sur\eyor's staff 
of military age have lK?en released for road making 
Ix'hind the British lines in France, and ten ."tenm 
rollers have been lent for the same purpose. 


AM MI'V .1. liUT 


By EuwARD Bautow. F. W. Mohlman and 

lUinoia SUto Wutar Sarray. 
1 he first st<rifs of artivalod-sladge oxptn-iments at 
iIk' Ujiiversity of Illinois, begun November 1. 1014. 
was CArried out in .1-gallon bottles. Tlio serond series 
was ronduet«ii in a tank !' in. square and 4^ ft. dei^ji. 
The third s<'ries was conducted in four tanks each 
having an area of 10 sq. ft. and a depth of 9 ft. 
Kx^M»rinu-nts in tiie first tliiK series were carried on 
h\ the fill-and-tlniw jilan. At pivsent, for the fourth 
-<-ries. a ct«n!inu»>us-flow plant is being successfully 
I'lK-ratixl. This serie«i is conducted in the septic t.ank 
design««d hv Prof. A. X. Talbot in ISiC for the city 
ef '"' Early in 11)16 tliis lank was placed 

at i I'f tju- State Water Survey, and was 

V,:. v it h the exp.>ctation that "iOO'lXM) gallons 

I'f <luiue»iiL' sewage be treated daily. 


I'he i>Iaut (sei- accompanying illustration) contains 
-■reen cliainbiT and pump pit. a grit chamber, an 
ai-ration chamber, a settlini; chamb<>r. a blower-room, 
and a laboratory. ■ .\ sluiige-diying bed and a pond 
into which the efHuent from the process may be dis- 
charg<-d are also .provide"!. Plan.s have been made 
for the installation of sludge-drying apparatus. 

The sewage is drawn frnm the main outlet sewer of 
ill.- c ity of Chairipaign. The daily flow is from 
l.tXKi.iHX) to l,.j(¥l,0(K) gallons. The manhole nearest 
the M'ptic tank was modified to serve as a screen 
cliamjber and suction pit for tlie pumps. A weir was 
placed in the outlet to raise the sewage level and 

jnuKi n*ni 

■nir "^^ "' 



J. rum. -u-inMi for the pumps. Vertical bars spaced 
with 3-in. openings prevent coarse material from 
reaching the suction of the pumps. The sewage is 
pump<-<l U> a grit chamber by two centrifugal pumps, 
one with a capacity of T.") gallons and the other of 
110 gallons jM-r minute. ¥jiui:\\ pump is In^lt^connected 
Ui a ."i-h.p. electric motor. The grit chamber is 34 ft. 
long, having two compartments each 1 ft. wide. At 
the out let is an adjustable weir through which the 
-<w.iL'' must flow and when- its rat*- can b** measured. 
Til.- s<-wage flows from the grit chamber into the 
a<-rat)i.n chamlK-r, a r<"ctangular concrete tank 17 ft. 
by .'JC.j ft. in [ilan and 9^ ft. deep, having a capacity, 
afi'T allowances are made for the baflle walls and the 
sloping' bottoms, of about 3<i,0tX) gallons. TIk; 
(hainlx-r is divided longitudinally by thr<* baffles 
into four compartments, thrrmgh which the sewage 
travels a distance of alxMit 140 ft. The. lower part of 
e»f\i conipftrtment lias sidi's slo]>ing toward the 
centre, to a channel 10^ in. wide and 4 in. d<iep, 
exff-nding lengthwise through the tank. Above this 
channel filtros plate's are supported on T-bars that 
have lx-«-n emlx''id<-<l in the concrete. The channel 
Ix-low the filtiT>s plates was divider! into sections for 
-!\ filtros plat<-», with I h<- expectation that each set, of 
|.l;i!< - would bo separat<-<l from all the others, and 
ilin !li.- hujiply of the air to the platxrs could be 
i.,;:i; ii.d by an nir ]>ip<- and valve for each s<!t. 
Owini.' to lb" tlr.- nlofiiiig concrete sides it 

ha- Iv-ii f'.ii . lo regulate inde|M;ndently 

ea< h -'I 'f j . 1 !• .-leratioii tank should Ixi 

ca{iabl. of 1 i"-.'ii iii^; lll'iufi gallons of sewage and 
•Iti'lpe r>--> 'lii\ i( ;i<-rai<il <! rine a \n-ruA of six hours; 
- if aerai<"»l dvo noiirs; 21C.0tK) gallons 
I hf»nr!>. 
') hwrage and sludge flows from tJie 

• Prom Enoinncrino .Vcu-i. 

aeration chaiul)er to the settlitig chamlnM-. The 
Settling chanibi>r is G ft. by 10^ ft. in plan and 10^ ft. 
deep at tJie lowest point, It has a capacity of 
.3,7(X) gallons. This would give a rct^Mition period ol 
twenty-four minutes, thirty-one minutes, and thirty- 
seven minutes, witJi a flow of four hours, five hours 
and six hours i-espectivcly, through the aeration 

In order to assist the settling of the sludge, the 
liquid is jtassed down through tiie centre and up 
around the e<lges of a hollow woodi-n pyramid placed 
in th(> ci'iitiv of the settling basin. The pyramid is 
l.j in. square at the top. 3 ft. s<]uare at. the bottom, 
and extends to within Ji^ It, of the bottom of tlu- 

From the st^ttling tank the effluent ([o\\i> over a w-eir 
to the creek or into the jiond. Tlu- pond is formed 
by two danis jilaced across the abandoned bed of a 
small stream. It covers about 1 acre, and is 3 ft. 
deep in the dee]iest jjart.. 

The sludge is withdrawn from the settling chamber 
by an air lift, and can be discharged into the raw 
sewjige, where it enters the aeration chamber, or can 
be div<'rted for experimental purposes, or to the sewer. 
Some sludge has been dried on a sand bed having an 
area of 25(5 sq. ft. and a depth of 8 in. The drying of 
sludge on the sand bed is not consid<-ie(l a success. 

Air is supplied for aeration and for the air-lift by 
a rotary positive-pr<»ssurc bIow<-r having a rated 
capacity of 300 cub. ft. per minut«, driven by a l.^-h.ji. 
electric motor. The air is filtor<'d through cheese- 
cloth spread over a wire box before it eiiteis the blower 
suction pii)e. The air is measured through a Venturi 


The plant has been in continuous oixnation for 
twelve wt>eks (on October 4, 1916), prior to which time 
it was operated intermittently for periods of from one 
to three wtx-ks. No s|H-<ial effort was nec^ssaiy to 
build up activated sludge. The jilaiit has simply been 
put into operation, allowing the effluent from the 
settling chamber to escape while pumping back the 
sediment. From the start 90 per cent of the suspended 
matter was removed, and after thirteen days of opera- 
tion stable effluents were obtained. 

The results achieved have been veiy gratifying. 
Purification is indicated by the presence of from .5 to 
8 jiarts per 1,000,000 of dissolved oxj'gcn and the 
stability to methylene blue of from five to fifteen days. 
The effluent is odourless and generally clear, though 
at times, because of the insufficient capacity of the 
settling chamber, it contains small particles of sludge. 

The plant has been run to obtain a clear effluent. 
Owing to the insufficient size of the settling chamber 
the actual rate of operation has been less than one- 
half of its rated capacity. Additional settling 
chambers are to be installed. 

After satisfying ourselves that the plant could be 
run satisfactorily at a rate suitable to the capacity of 
the settling chamber, the rate has been increased to 
1.50,000 gallons per day, even though some sludge 
escapes with the effluent. At this increased rate, 
using 2 cub. ft. of air per gallon of sewage, stable 
effluents have usually bt>en obtained. Owing to the 
presence of sludge in tlio effluent, the effluent was 
allowed to settle in glass cylinders 30 minutes longer 
before taking samples for analysis. 

Coast Sand Dunes (By Gerald 0. Case, St. Bride's 
Press, Limited, 24 Bride-lane, E.G., price 5s.). — Mr. 
Case has done a valuable work in the writing of this 
h<M]i.—Southj)r>rt Guardian. 

Elgin Tar-spraying Costs. — The burgh surveyor, Mr. 
A. .\. Tnrril'f, reports the area of roadways in 
Elgin tar-sprayt-d during last year amounted to 
79,767 super, yds., at a cost of £462 14s. 2d., or 
1.39d. per super, yard, a^ against 63(1. in 1915 and 
oWrl. the year previous. 

A Good Roads Train. In the report of the United 
.States Ofliie of Public l.'oads and Rural Engineering 
for the year ended .liiiu- List, the interesting st;atement 
is made that a " gowl ro.ids" train, ecptipiKvl by the 
department with a complete set of road mo<lels ,ind 
[ihot/jgrajdis, and including, a lecture car provided 
with Ater«*>|)ticon and ciiieir)atf)graj)h equipment, was 
oiM'rat'fl (hrriughoiit th<- State of Iowa. .Stops were 
mafle at 131 l.ownR and ' ities, and 200 lectures and 
demonstrations of mod. is were made during these 
tours. The total attendance at the lectures and 
demonstrations was 22, 'KK). 

January 5, 1917. 


New York City Water Supply. 


By W. J. E. BINNIE, n.A., m.ixst.c.e., i.-.,i..s. 

[Mr. Binnie was on Wednesday eveniner installed as president of the Institution of Banita 
Engineers in succession to Mr A. P. I. Cotterell, minstce, and delivered a long and intcrcsti, 
address on the subject of Waterworks Engineering, dealing first with the water supply works 
Ancient Rome, and turning to the greatest undertakiner of moriom *.^^^ . *i •«_» » .. _^ .. 

of Sanitary 

address on the subject of Waterworks Engineering, dealing first" with \'J,o~w'atcr Tupply" workl^of 
Ancient Rome, and turning to the greatest undertaking of modern times the Water Supply of New 
York from the Catskiil Mountains.] up y or new 

Before couiiiiencing tliis pigaiitic- work prcliiniiiary 
investigations wore undertaken by niean.s of horelioles 
on a scale whicli was truly colossal, and l)y 1910 the 
length of core horin;; and pits for trial purposes 
aggregated nearly 33 miles, so that for every mile of 
the aqueduct there was over i mile in depth of boring 
and trial pits. 

As an example of the magnitude of some of this 
jjreliminary work, I cannot do better than refer to the 
boreholes at the proposed crossing under the river 
Hudson. It was "decided to cross the Hudson at 
Storm King, and at the point of crossing the hydraulic 
gradient would he 400 ft. above the level of the river, 
which at that point was over i mile wide. The Hud- 
son now flows in a valley filled with water-l)orne 
deposits of sand, gravel. l)OuLders, clay and silt, the 
maximum dei)th of water in the river at the ])oint of 
crossing being alxiut KHI ft., and it wa.s known that 
the rock in whicli the. old river had eroded a channel 
was overlain by a great depth of these deposits. 


There were four possiijle methods of crossing — (1) l)y 
a bridge 150 ft. or more above liigh-water level to 
carry steel j)i|)es; (2) steel or iron pii)es laid in 
trenches dredged in the river Iwttom ; (3) shield- 
driven tunnels under compres.sed air at a depth not 
greater than 100 ft. below water level, steel lined or 
containing pipes; (4) a pressure tunnel deep in sound 

Of the four methods the pressure tunnel — i.e., a 
tunnel designed to carry water under pressure — 
would be the cheapest and most durable, and the 
))roblem to be solved was the location of the surface 
of the rock, as, owing to the internal w-ater pressure 
to which the tunnel would be subjected, it was neces- 
sary to be deep in sound rock. Borings were started 
from barges in the ordinary way, but the difficulties 
proved almost insuperable, owing to the swift cur- 
rents, heavy traffic on the river, short working season, 
and the great depth at which the rock lay, so that 
after four years of drilling only six holes reached the 
rock below the river channel. The borehole near the 
centre of the channel did not meet rock, and was 
abandoned at a depth of 768 ft. 

It was early realised that vertical borings would 
only give inconclusive evidence as to the rock profile 
under the Hudson River, and the drilling proved so 
slow that it was evident that enough boreholes could 
not be put down in time to give even a fair estimate 
of the depth of sound rock underlying the river. Two 
.shafts were therefore sunk, one on each side of the 
river, to a depth of 1,100 ft., chambers being formed 
in the sides of these shafts at a depth of about 250 ft. 
l)elow the surface, and inclined boreholes were started 
from these chambers, which were to cross each other 
under the river and so determine whether solid rock 
was continuous. 

IThe first two boreholes were driven at such an 
inclination as to cross each other at a depth of about 
1,500 ft. below the surface. They were commenced 
in 1909. and the borehole from the east shaft, which 
was 1,834 ft. long, took seven months to complete, 
that from the west shaft, which was 2,052 ft. long, 
taking eight months, both boreholes being completed 
by March, 1910. These holes, whicli were bored by 
diamond drills, wen> commenced 4 in. in diameter, 
and gradually decrea.^ed to 1-,^ in. ; 55 i)er <'eiit of the 
core was recovered fnim the bore at the east and 
al)Out 66 per cent was recovered from that at the 
west shaft. boreholes showed t^at solid ro<^-k existed ritrht 
under the Hud.son at that depth, and two further 
borehfiles wer<' then commenced, which were com- 
pleted in August, 1910. after four months' work. Iwrelioles were inclined at an ancle of about 2T 
degrees to the horizontal, and intersected each other 
at a depth of about 900 ft. below the surface, the 
length of each bein? about 1,620 ft. 

The core recovered amounted to about 70 per cent, 

and the fact was established that if the tunnel was 
driven at a level of 1,100 ft. beloyv the surface it 
would lie deep in solid rock, and therefore this was 
fixed as the level of the tunnel I^kjIow the river. 

The cost of boreholes was about £12,000, and 
it was felt that the money was well spent, as previous 
experience with the Croton Aqueduct showed the 
necessity of ascertaining the nature of the strata 
beforehand, as a considerable length of tunnel under 
the Haarlem River had to be abandoned and recon- 
structed at a lower level owing to a deep channel in 
the rock, which was only discovered when reached 
by the tunnel. 


Turning now from preliminary investigation to the 
actual scheme as it was carried out, a gigantic reser- 
voir, called the Ashokan reservoir, was constructed 
I)rimarily tc store the waters of the Esopus and 
Beaver Kill, the former river being impounded by the 
Olive Bridge masonry dam, the latter by means of 

The Esopus watershed is 245 square miles in area 
and the Beaver Kill 17 square miles, and drain- 
age areas are estimated to yield 250,00(J,fKXl gallons per 
diem. In addition to the E,sopus and Beaver Kill, 
three other sources can be made contributory to the 
.'^•heme— the Rondout, estimated to yield ll'5,000,000 
gallons per diem ; the Schoharie, estimated to yield 
136,000,(XK) gallons per diem : and various drainage 
areas situated in the Catskiil Mountains, estimated 
to yield 149,000,000 gallo'ns; giving a gross total of 
660,000,000 gallons per diem. The Ashokan reservoir 
<-an make provision for part of the yield of the 
Schoharie and Catskiil watershed, which" are not yet 
made contributory to the scheme. 

The total storage j)rovided by this reservoir is 
130,000,(X)0,000 gallons, or ten times the quantity which 
can be stored in the Vyrnwy reservoir of the Liverpool 
Corporation, the largest artificial reservoir yet con- 
structed in this country, and as the aqueduct is de- 
signed to discharge 500,000,000 gallons a day. the reser- 
voir capacity is 254 days' supply of the discharging 
capacity of the aqueduct. 

New York already has two sources of supply, the 
Croton and the Bronx, which are estimated as being 
capable of yielding aI)out 400,000.000 gallons per diem, 
.so that with the additional supply afforded by the 
Catskiil scheme. New York will have a supply 
amounting to approximately 900,000,000 gallons per 
diem. Some idea of what this means can be realised 
when it is remembered that the average natural flow 
of the Thames at Teddington Weir is l,100,0(X»,(XtO gal- 
lons per diem. The population of Greater New York 
is alx)ut the same as that of Greater London, but 
New York requires 100 gallons per head of popula- 
tion per diem, whereas London is content to put up 
with less than forty ; consequently the total quantity 
supplied to London is only about 250,000,000 gallons 
per diem. 


The sheet of water formed by the reservoir is over 
11 miles Ions, and the maximum breadth is over 2 
miles, the water area when' the re.servoir is full lieing 
alK)ut 16 square miles. The total length of masonry 
structures and embankments which were necessary 
to imjiound the water is over 5J' miles, but the lenptlt 
of masonry included in the above is only 3.100 ft., the 
remainder l>eiiiL' embankment. The Olivo Bridg*- 
masonry dam the E)soj)us gorge, the water im- 
pounded hiving a maximum depth of 190 ft. We have 
no masonry dams in this country to compare with it. 
as the PenvKarrig dam of the Birmingham Corpora- 
tion, the highest yet <'onatructed. only impounds a 
maximum de|>th of I'i'J ft. of water. The structure 
has a length of only I.<M1I) ft., and the mart<inry alnivo 
ground level is broken up into divisions by means of 
vertical joints spaced 80 ft. to 90 ft. apart <o prevent 
cracks through the dam due to chances of fempera- 
turo. The masonry at the expansion joint is .«o 



January 5, 1917. 

formed that the two abutting sections of the dam 
interlock by means of tongues and groove;*, and a 
vertical in?i>ection well i>laoed about 18 ft. to A) ft. 
from the water fate traverses the joint, affording the 
means of inspection and also of closing the joint if 
leakage should prove exces.^ive. The vertical wells 
discharge into a longitudiual culvert, which counuuni- 
oates with a i:allery dischar>.:ing into the gorge below 
the dam. Another longitudinal gallery connects the 
wells at about top water level. 

In addition to tlie.*e insjiecMion wells. 16-in. diameter 
vertical holes arc left in the dam, spaced about 12 ft. 
apart, and surrounded by concrete so formed that any 
water which finds its way into the masonry would be 
intercepted and led away. These arranj:enients were 
made in order to i)revent the uplifting effect of the 
water, which is bound to occur if it i)enet rates a 
horizontal crack or fissure in the dam. Novelty is 
claimed for this method of construction, but, as a 
matter of fact, the late Dr. Deacon provided similar 
joints Miore than twenty years ago when designing the 
Upper Neuadd dam for the Merthyr Tydfil C'orpora- 
tion, except that in that case asphalt was used at the 
joint to prevent leakage, and there were no vertical 
insi>ection wells. 

The Olive Bridge dam is founded on hard bluestone 
rock, and the excavation was only carried to a mode- 
rate depth l>elow .stream l>ottoni. It is of ordinary 
section, the total height above the stream level being 
210 ft., and the maximum thickne.-^ at the base 180 ft. 
It carries a roadway 20 ft. above overflow level, and 
flood water escapes from the reservoir by means of a 
waste weir 1,000 ft. in length, which is located else- 
where. It was built of Cyclopeian masonry in the 
ordinary manner — i.e., large blocks of irregular-shaped 
stone bedded in concrete, and was faced with nioiikled 
concrete blocks. 


The .--everal embankments required to fill up other 
valleys and gorges before water could be inipoinided 
in the reservoir follow the usual .Vmerican practice in 
construction, which differs somewhat from that obtain- 
ing in this country. In order to prevent water from 
leaking either through or -under an embankment, 
longitudinal core walls or watertight diaphragms are 
introduced traversing the centre of the embankment. 
which walls are carried down to the solid rock or an 
impermeable stratum, and in this country puddle 
clay is the material employed for the construction 
above ground, the cut-off trench below ground being 
L'enerally filled with concrete. American engineers 
employ concrete for the core wall lx)th above and 
l>elow ground, and all the embankments of the 
.Ashokan reservoir are so provided. 

The reason for avoiding tlve use of concrete above 
ground in tliis country is because cracks in the con- 
crete, due to chances of tem|>eralurc or other causes. 
are to be anticipated, and water would tend to find its 
way through these cracks, whereas clay puddle, if 
kept moist, does not <'rack. Puddle, however, if it 
is to j>revent percolation, must be good throughout, 
a« the water will fin<l the weak spot, and once ero.sion 
start.'i the embankment is dot)mcd unless the reservoir 
can l»e emptied in time to preveijl diijaster. Concrete, 
on the other hand, does not erode, and therefore any 
leakage through any small cracks tend to bi-come 
blocke<l up by means of the embankment material 
carried into the crack by the water. The maximtnn 
heighi of the embankment was at the Beaver Kill 
Goru'e. whete the top wa^ II.') ft. above tlie bed of tin- 
stream, the foundations of the core wall going <lown 
to a depth of al>oul 70 ft. l>elow the groinul surface. 

The re.-ervoir is divided into two basin.- by means 
of a weir alH>ut 100 ft. long and an embankment, the 
weir .-erving the pur[(OHe of f.assing overflow from one 
diviHion to the other. The intake chamber is .-itiiated 
in thift bank, with inlets from each basin, and two 
culverts, one over the other, are pla<;ed in a trench 
below the bank for cf)nveying the water to the arpie- 
rlnct. ari'l two <'liannels had to be ex<'av!ite(l leading 
to this intjike chamlx.T, one in the east and the other 
in the weHt ba.«in, for a total length of 8,800 ft. and a 
inaxininin depth of 80 ft., in order to allow of the 
water level Ixint' drawn down in the reservoir. 

Considerable rlifferenee of opinion cxiste<l as to the 
advisability of slri[ifiing all vegcf«ble soil from the 
«it»« of the reitcrvoir iK-fore impounding. It was finally 
held that aeration and filtration would probably be 
r«-quired to obtain a satihfactory water, and that 
therefore the co.«f of -trifiping, which amounted to 
CI ,i«iO.0(ir) ,-lerling, was to l* avoided, seeing that it 
would have no Ifeneficial effect if the water was 
aerated and fllt<-red. The reservoir Bite was not 

stripi>ed. and spiral aerator nozzles were designed to 
fomitain the water into thin fins through the air 
before it entered tlie aqiioduct, but hitherto tiltors 
have not been i)rovided. 

The outlet from the re>ervoir is so arrangetl that 
the water can be i)assed tlirough the aerators or not. 
as desired, anil l>efore entering the aqueduct it passes 
through a gigantic Ventnri meter, so that its quantity 
can be -measured. The Venturi meter is constructed 
of reinforced concrete, wiiii the exception of the throat 
and nieasuring ring castings, its total length lieing 
400 ft., the waterway changing gradually from tlie 
normal aqueduct .section to a circular lironze throat 
casting 7 ft. !) in. internal diameter, the jjressure tul>es 
being connected one to the throat casting and the 
other to another circular bronze casting 17 ft. 6 in. 
in diameter, situated 30 ft. at the upstieam side of 
the throat. The Ventnri throat is depressed so that 
it is under a head of 25 ft., the ratio of contraction 
being about 5 to 1. Three other Venturi meters and 
several gauge chambers are provided at various points 
along the line of aqueduct, so that the amount of 
leakage between different points can l)e readily deter- 
mined. The outlet pressure culverts terminate in a 
battery of *S-in. jjijies. provided with special non- 
chattering valves, and tlie ordinary regulation of 
flow is by means of these valves, an overflow weir 
100 ft. lonjj i>roviding for the e.scai)e of water should 
flow in the aq\ieduct before the correspond- 
ing regulation of the valves can take iilacc. 

.\s the water level in the reservoir would generally 
stand UHich above that in the aepieduct. turbine 
machinery has been introduced for the purpose of 
utilising the head availnl)le for the production of 
electricity to give light and power for local service. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the headworks can 
be gathered from the folloiving figures: The work was 
let in several contra<-ts, the chief of which covered 
2.,")<X),000 cub. yds. of excavation, 7.5t)0,000 cub. yds. 
of embankment, and nearly 1,000,000 cub. yds. of 
masonry construction. 


Having now given a description of the headworks, 
I nuist pass on to the aqueduct and deal with it some- 
what more briefly, as 1 fear that I have already .some- 
what exhausted yotir j)atience. The total length of 
the aciueduct. from the .\shokan Eeservoir to Silver 
Lake reservoir is about 126 miles, and the average 
fall about 2 ft. per mile. It is full sized until the 
lllth mile is reached, being at this point mider New 
York City, where it conunences to diminish in steps 
as water is taken off till it enters the Silver Lake 
reservoir as a 48-in. cast-iron pijie. 

The chiet feature of novelty, as far as English prac- 
tice is concerned, is in the extensive use of pressure 
tunnels in lieu of pipe syphons. tunnels are 
sometimes subjected to enormous pressure, the one 
constructed under the Hudson, already referred to, 
having to withstand an internal jjressure due to a 
head of 1,500 ft. of water, which is equal to an actual 
crushing strain on tln' <oiH-rete lining of over 40 tons 
to the square foot, and. as the internal diameter of 
the ttninel is 14 ft., and the thickness of the con- 
crete only averages 17 in., the tension in the concrete, 
if there was no extern;!l jiressure to resist it, would 
amount to 2IH> tons to the square foot. These figures 
show how absolutely necessary it was that the timnel 
should be driven in solid rock ata.suf!icient depth, and 
explain why such <-arefiil preliminary investigation 
was es,<cntial befoie the work was put in hand. 

Some difficulty was experienced in driving this 
tunnel on account of tlu' ertormous pressure of the 
wilier which found its way in imder tile Hudson and* 
rendered u.-elcss the ordinary method of grouting to 
seal back the water. This difficulty was successfully 
-urinounted by special :ipj>arutus designed to inject 
Portland cement grout under pressure as high as 
0<H) lb. j>er square inch. 

The actual maximum uMter i)ressurc re<'orde(l was 
470 II). |)er sipiare inch, and, su|)posing the water- 
bearing seams had not- been sealed up and that the 
water <'ould work its way behind the lining and 
between it and the r'x-k. (he crushing strain thrown 
oil the coiKTete would aiiio\int to 170 tons i)er .s<piare 
fool, when the syphon i.-. imply, and it requires very 
;.'ood concrete indeed to stand this i)ressure without 
enishing, and <onsJderal)le courage on the part of the 
engineering staff to design the tunnel so that there 
was a jmssibility of its being submitted to siK-li 

1 believe, however, that the Hudson sy))hon has 
proved satisfactory, although I see from the engineer- 
ing Press that a pressure tunnel immediately adjoin- 




ing it, and vviiich was subjected to only about half the 
internal head, lias shown signs of weakness, neces- 
sitating the abandoniucnt of a short length of tunnel, 
which is beini; reconstnicted at a lower level. This 
failure is attributed to local yielding of the gneiss 
rock in which the tiiniu I is driven, which allowed the 
concrete to be forced back under internal water pres- 
sure, causing the lining to crack, with consequent 
leakage of water. 

The aqueduct consists in part of concret(> cut and 
cover construction, following the hydraulic gradient, 
horseshoe-shaped in cros.-;-section, and having a water- 
way of 241 sq. ft., or more than twice that of an ordi- 
nary tube railway tunnel. The conciete construction 
is covered with a bank having a width of 15 ft. and 
side sloi>es of 1 to IJ, there being 3 ft. of cover over 
the crown of the aqueduct. This is the cheapest form 
of construction, costing a little under £12 jier foot-run, 
and about 51 miles was built of this type. 
(To be conduded.) 


Etc aVTifi ov irdvB 6pa 

{One man doe.i not sec cccii/tliinii.) 

— EURll'lDES. 


To the Editor of ThE SURVEYOR. 

Sir, — I am very pleased to read .-ouie of the sugges- 
tions contained in the ])aper on " Housing and Town 
Planning After the War." by Councillor Harrison 
Barrow, of Birmingham, which ai)i)eared in your 
issue of December 29th Jast. 

It is very desirable that new housing developments 
throughout the country should be on better lines than 
has been usual, and it is evident that the Housing 
and Town Planning Act, 1909, with all its good inten- 
tions, is too slow and clumsy to effect much change. 
Also its permissive character renders it of no use just 
where it, or something like it, is most needed. 

The suggestion by Councillor Barrow that every 
town and urban district should be obliged to define 
the numl)er of houses which may be erected ])er acre 
upon the land within its boundaries is sinqjle and 
l)ractical. It would allow full scope for local condi- 
tions, involve iio tedious labour, and woidd accom- 
plish all of practical utility that town planning in its 
most complicated and elalx>rate efflore.scence could 

One map, and that a G-in. Ordnance, would l)e 
sufficient for defining zones, of which there ma.y be 
three, or any other numl)er which may be thought 
desirable. I see no reason to sti<'k at three if more 
are better. 

The iiuml)eis specified and the boundaries of the 
zones should be sid)ject to revision every five years, 
and the iiunil_>ers and zones should always l)e subject 
to Local Government apjjroval. 

If there were coupled with this the compulsory 
power to define building lines for all streets, then you 
have everytliing that is necessary to control develop- 

And you have it in a form simple to ojierate, easy 
to tuiderstand, j)rompt and fair in its action, and sub- 
ject to i)opular control. No new i)rincij)le (except the 
one of compidsioii) is involved in the suggestions. 
they sinqily Contain the marrow of the Housing and 
Town Planning Act compressed into tabloid form. 
No arbitrary standard would be thrust \ipoii an un- 
willing connnunity. It is simply left to each locality 
to work out its own salvation. But it must work. 

The whole l)usiness <-ould l)e put through Parlia- 
ment and all the plans prepared, ai)i)roved, and be 
operative for every town and urban district in the 
country inside six niontbs. — Yours, &c.. 


Borough EnL'ineei-. I.uton. 
.Janiuiry '.i. 1917 


To the Editor of The Surveyor. 

Sir, — -Having had the privilege of viewini: the ( ro^- 
Hill covered service reservoir during its <-onstructi(jn. 
and being piesent at the meeting when Mr. W. J. E. 
Binnie, b.a.(cantab'), m.inst.c.e., read his ver.v able 
l»ai)er on the design and construction of these works, 
the writer considers the criticism l)y correspomleut 
" Water.." who finds it necessary to write \nider a 
iinm. ilr /iliinii, somewhat disingenuous. 

The insinuation that the engineers who are rc.-|ion- 
sil)le for- the design have not had .-ufficienl experience 
in water engineering to warrant their departure from 

the orthodox design of .service reservoirs is somewhat 

To call the work • elaborate " is anything but 

The writer is, liowever, in full agreement with the 
remark, " somewhat unusual design," and thinks the 
engineers are to be congratulated on their spirit of 
originality; it would be a move in the rijrht direction 
If more oritrinality was put info the design of all 
nuinicipal works. 

With regard to the covering of the reservoir, the 
writers experience fully endorses the provision made 
in the Cross Hill covered service re.-^ervoir, more 
esiiecially as the water to be impounded will be 
■■filtered"; serious contamination can arise with 
water impounded in open reservoirs, notwithstanding 
the site of the works might l)e similarly situated to 
the reservoir under review. 

No water after being filtered and used for domestic should l)e exi)()sed to atmospheric conditions 
prior to its use. 

On " Water's " own estimate the cost of the covered 
.service reservoir justifies its adoption, as Mr Bimiie's 
fignres. £2,625 (per 1,(HK).()()0 gallons capacitv) are from 
.ictual cost, while the C2,465 is purely an Estimate.— 
Yours, <!fcc., 

Fred. J. Dixon, c e 
Town Hall Chambers, 

December 30, 191G. 


To the Editor of The Surveyor. 

Sir,— Your leading article and the letters of your 
correspondents overlook an important aspect of the 
case, and that is, the possibility of filling up these 
commissions by men over military age. "it will be 
remembered that about eighteen months ago a number 
of Navvy Battalions were recruited for roadwork in 
France, the navvies to be aged forty to forty-seven. 
Being over military age. I applied for a commission, 
but found that the age limit for officers in these bat- 
talions was fixed at thirty-five. I got in communica- 
tion with the War Office at that time through our 
local :Member of Parliament, and the reasons they 
gave for fixing the age limit at thirty-five were — (1) 
Tliat the work was too strenuous for men over thirty- 
five (although they accepted navvies up to forty- 
eight!), and (2) that they had received sufficient appli- 
cations from men under thirty-five. 

T luesume it did not occur to them that thev could 
have got sufficient navvies under thirty-five as well if 
they had asked for them. However, now that we have 
got a practical man at the head of affairs in the 
per.son of Brigadier-General Maybury the age limit 
has been raised to fifty. 

It appears to me that, under the circumstances, the 
first consideration .should be — can these posts be filled 
by men ovr military age ? I think it is time the 
venerable greybeards of the age of forty-five to fifty 
had a sporting chance. Of course, if" sufficient of 
these " antediluvians ■' cannot be obtained, by all 
means give preference to men now in the .\rmy rather 
than to men of military age who liave not yet 
joined up. 

One wonders how men stand who were de- 
clared by their eoun<-ils to l)e indisiiensable when 
required for the fighting units, and who are now 
being granted permission to join the Road Service 
battalions. — Yours, &<•., 


December 3(t, 191C. 

Business Announcement.— We are infonned that, as 
fri>iii December liMli la-t, (lie registere<l name and 
ti(h- of the .Vngli>-.M<-\ican Petroleum PnKlurts Com- 
pany, Liiiiil<-<l. will bi- .Viiglo-Mexicaii PedohMini Com- 
pany, Limited, the word " rimiucts," which has 
hitherto formed pail, of tile conipany's name, being 
omitted. This change hn- been made solely to simplify 
tin- title of the company, and involves no alteration 
whatever in the control, organisation or operation of 
the busines-.. The c<impuny will, as heretofor*-, con- 
tinue to market tlii' well-known pifKliiclN of tJie 
Mexican Eagle Oil Compajiy, Limit«.d, iii<liiding fuel 
oils and Diesel oils, ^Me.vplialte and Klu.vphalte for road 
construction, lubricating oils, (luratlin wax, &c. The 
.\nglo- .Mexican IVlioleiiin Company. Limited, also 
iinjicnt. Mexican keroM-iies and motor >|)iril. wliicli are 
iiiarketiil ill ihe United Kingdom by its sales agents, 
the Bowriiig Petioh-um Company, LiiiiittxJ, under the 
brand iiaiiiex of Snouflake, Bearcivik and £mpin< 
lamp oils, and Mex motor spirit. 



January 5. 1917. 


By Dr. A. C. Housto.n, 
Director of Water Examination. Metropolitan Water Board.' 
By " resistance to filtration" is im-aiit the degii^e 
to wliich the living and iKad suspended ntatt«?rs in 
a wat*T interfere with its filtration. Tlie subject is of 
great practical as well as of scientific itnportance, for 
several rea.sons. For example, the average cost of 
filtering water is said to be about 2Ss. per 1,000,000 
gallons. About 20s. of this goes in interest on capital 
' _ -. Iwiving 8s. for working costs. The above is 
i rresjH'Ctive of pumping costs before or after 
.•■n. If the pre-filtration waters contaiiKxl no 
>u>pend«i matters, the filters, if protected from light, 
.would practically never require t« be cleanetf, and on 
everv l,(KIO.OtKl gallons filteu-d there would thus be a 
saving, theon-tically, of nearly 8s., assuming it to be 
true that most of" the 8s. is expendt'd on deanuig 
operations, and putting on one side for the nu>nient 
the ne«-essity of maintaining a staff adetjuate to deal 
with all emergencies. If the suspended matters were 
r»-duc»-d om^half. presumably u<<al'ly twice the amount 
of water (2.(KX),00U gallons) could be filtered at a like 
cost. Tins would, theoretically, mean a saving of 4s. 
per 1,000.0(H1 gallons, and for less than this sum 
l,00U,tltl0 gallons could be treated with an ivlgicidal 
agent. It follows that when algal troubles are the 
cause of the filters blockiiig a jwint may be reacht-d 
when tile use of an algicidal agent is tHonomically 
advantag«^us. It must, however, be ivmembertHl that 
llu-sii growths develop not only in the storage rt^sser- 
voirs, but in tlie water lying over tJie sand in t^e 
filters and in tlie skin itself. It should also be noted 
that the tn-atjiieiit should precede the algal develop- 
ment, as a water, once it has become badly affected. 
may continue to filter badly even after treatment with 
an algicide. 

The«*e calculations are admittedly based on theo- 
r.tical rather than on practical considerations. Tlie 
informatit>ii apparently i<'quiie<l is the cost of clean- 
ing tlie filter beds under normal conditions, and the 
additional cost thrown on the board when the con- 
ditions are abnormal. If this extra cost could be 
wiped out by the use of algicidal agents at a less cost 
than the i>ri(e of the chemicals, the matter be<onies 
one of practical politics, assuming always the possi- 
bility of reducing the working staff corresjiondingly. 

The suK|>ended matters in water are living and dead. 
Tlie d«"ad mat«-rials may be <»rganic or inoigahjc. 
.Although tlie>- do not themselves undergo raultipli<U- 
tjon, they may mvertheless play a jiart in fostering 

Th« living matters (algal and other growths), on 

•' •' 11,-ind, often multiply in water U> an extra- 

K-nt, and as many of them secrete viscous 

their clogging effect on filters may, apart 

from questions of ta,ste, become serious. 

The dead matters, especially if non-colloidal, tend 
to settle out in the storage reservoirs, but the living 
ones may b«i Irtm swimming, and even the se<lentary 
forms aru so ea.-ily affe«ted by currents, &c., that 
they are frv<|uently dLspersed throughout the water 
in a reson-oir. 

River wat<i>r rontain.s these living growths, but 
usually in such relatively small numbers that, in the 
abM-nce of fn^h multiplication, they do not affect 
filtration to any grwat extent. It is the dead suspended 
matters present in exc<-ss during flo<jds that are the 
chi»'f obstacle to the filtration of river water. 

Whenever river water is stored in re^en■oirs the 
living growths are liable to take on powers of multi- 
|. Ik at ion, although the laws governing th<'ir vital 
;t-iiviiy ani but little understood. On the whole, the 
liK tors which favour multijiiication are light, pabulum, 
and iM^rhapH stagnation. Hence, shallow reservoirs 
With iliiiy. muddy b<jttoms. fed with impure, non- 
.■ waUir, are apt to suffer more than de«-p 
Mth clean bott/.ni'-. fed with pure circulating 

„,,„,. J, , - s f,f tiTii|>erature, diskolv<<l gaseti, 

and man\ ih jilay a part, and those who 

have had r ,-n<-*- of thin subject an- ajit to 

I*e the moM lauiious in expresting opinions a,H to the 
rause« at work. 

For nearly ten years this matter ha« b«M.'n under 

occasional inve«tigation, and for the last eighteen 

month' nit the pre-filtration watern (river waU'r, 

v.rwl water and mixtures) have been 

' vamine'J. 

> ' ' ict from Twelflh RMearch Heport. 

As regards the motluKl it is convouiont to quote 
from page 4 of my Ninth .Vimual Keport, as follows: — 

" The principle is U> filter 100 c.c. of the water 
through a stiuidard piece of linen (four layers) 
sti-etchwl tightly over tlu> e-nd of a glass tube (6 mm. 
inside diameter) and fixt-d in position by means of a 
rubber band. The result is that all the suspended 
matter (algre, &c.) in the 100 c.c. is left as a film 
on the inner side of the linen. The tube with attached 
linen is then transfernnl to another jiiece of appa- 
ratus, and tap water, under a constant head, filteietl 
through it for exactly one minute. The filtrate is 
collected and its volume measured. The greater tlie 
volume the better the water is for filtration purposes, 
so far as the life of a filter is concerned. With a 
good water the result will be well over 200 c.c, but 
with an algal-infected water it may be less than 
10 c.c." 

Since July, 191.5, tJiese filtration results have been 
correlated with the micri>scopical appearances of the 
susjieuded matters by means of photographs. 

Briefly, 20 c.c. of the water are centrifuged in 
sj>ecial tubes. By appropriate means- one-half of the 
sediment (ini-xed with 01 c.c.' of water) is' transferred 
to a small cell cemented on to a slide which is centred 
under the microscope, and a photograph taken. Witli 
a magnification of fifty diameters the photograph 
shows the sus])ended matter in what corresponds 
approximately to Oo c.c. of tlie original water (about 
l/20th of the whole field), and in this way a per- 
manent, (juantitative and qualitative picture of the 
suspeiuU'd matter is obt^iined. Many of the pre- 
filtration waters show remarkable seasonal fluctua- 
tions in quality, and th(\v differ from each other gi^eatly 
as regards the way they lespond to the filtration test. 


The following; particulars of works which municipal 
authorities are proiiosiiiu to undertake at the close of 
the war hav.e come to hand during the present week : — 

Aberavon T.C. — The projected schemes include a 
new cemetery and chapel ; theCwmavon-road improve- 
ment ; and the layiii^r out of a recreation ground at 
the beach. 

Glvncorkwg U.D.C— It is hoped to proceed with 
the coniplelion of the new Avon Valley road, also with 
a town ])hiniiiii.t.' .scheme, new roads and sewers, 
works of improved wati'r supply, and the provision 
of workmen's dwellinL's. 

Lambkth B.C.— The Highways Coniiuittee have 
scheduled a con.sidera])!e list of road repairs and re- 
newal.s which have been in abeyance, and the Wharf 
and Cleansing Committee submit three schemes— viz., 
the <'onstruction of a new jetty and paving work, 
Providence Wharf, Albert Embankment, £10,000; the 
reconstruction of liuildings at council's stables. Stock- 
well Green, .tl5.0()0; and the construction of new 
depot buildings and dust destructor, Roinniany-road, 
C34,947. The Public Health Committee propose an 
extensive schedule of drainage improvements and re- 

Merton U.D.C— The following schemes have l>een 
scheduled: Surfa<e - water drainage improvement 
.-(■heme for north-west |)ortion of district, £20,000; 
widening of B<-verley Brook culvert at Blagdon-road, 
CKK); main relief low-level sewer from Eaynes Park 
to Collier's Wood, £25,(K)(); widening and improve- 
ment of Crown-lane, £I,(XI0; laying out of Abbey 
Recreation Ground.s, £400; storm-water overflow sewer 
to river Waudle along London and Ep.som road, 
£G,<MK); surface-water <li. linage. Watery-lane and 
Manor-road, £120; inakinf,' up three privatt; streets, 
CI, 025; improvement of dangerous corners, £2,500; 
and painting and decorating offices, £40. 

MoDNTAiN Ash U.D.C. The council have in hand 
the plans for a housiiiK scheme, and twenty-five 
houses will, it is rejiorted. be proceeded with in the 
first instance. 

Neath K. DC— The po.-t-war schemeB include a new 
road in the Dylais Valley, estimated to cost £10,000; 
a new road to connect t)i.? Vale of Neath at Glyn- 
neuth with the Dylais Valley; a town planning 
.•^•lieine; and the extension of the waterwork.s. 

Neath T.C —The propo.^ed town planning scheme 
after the war contemplates the purcha,se of land from 
various owner.*. Other projects ere new roads in the 
I, district, and from the Q a. s works-road into 

the «'."r, 

jANUARy 5, 1917. 



The Town Planning of Greater London after the War. 

Bv Professor S. D. ADSHEAf). 

[We reproduce herewith the sixth— and last— of the recent series of lectures delivered by Professor 
Adshead at University College, London. In his previous lectures-extracts from or abstracts of which 
will be found in The Surveyor of November 17th and 24th, and December 1st, 8th, and 22nd- 
Professor Adshead dealt with the advantages that would follow a considered scheme for the 
planning of Greater London, and reviewed existing conditions and outlined the most important of 
the proposals that have been made up to the present day. In his concluding lecture consideration 
is given to the ways and means by which all these advantages and amenities can be secured. 

The proposals we have considered have not been 
merely the dreams of idealists, they have for the most 
part been tlif essential needs of the commonity as 
outlined by iiraetical men. 

Nor have they been proposals demanding an imme- 
diate expenditure of money; much more can .be 
secured for the future by prevision and strong 
administrative action, a.-^sLsted by some little improve- 
ment in our legal and administrative machinery, than 
by tlie spending of millions to satisfy immediate 
demands in a hasty and short-sighted way. 

Let us then examine the system, if such it may l>e 
called, under which the development of London now 
takes I) lace. 

First, tlien;, be it noted that of all the influences at 
work in the shaping of Greater London the most 
important are the railway companies and the various 
authorities responsible for local government. In 
addition, we must reckon with inherited traditions, 
habits and customs of the people, many of them 
obsolete, but which it is necessary to revise if progres- 
sion is to be the order of the day. 

London's govehning bodies. 

In enumerating the more important of the governing 
bodies, there should be mentioned: — • 

First, the London County Council, who exercise a 
controlling influence over a restricted area, known as 
the administrative county. Within this area there 
are the twenty-nine boroughs who, independently of 
one another, are each responsible for the local govern- 
ment of their different spheres. 

Then we have the city authority, financially the 
most powerful, whose area, buttressed with all the 
inherited traditions of administrative autocracy, is 
situated within the very heart of the administrative 
county, and whose exct'i)tional powers, unlike 
of its more youtliful iieighlx>ur,s, the borough councils, 
enable it to act in entire independence of the county 

Outside the boundaries of the administrative county 
we have eighty-two urban and rural councils, each in 
a modified way submissive to the county authorities 
of Middlesex and Surrey, but independent of the 
Loudon County Council, from whom they are separated 
merely by the very artificial administrative boundary. 

Of iState Departments, sitting in Whitehall and 
W^estminster, with Parliamentary powers to control 
tlie workings of local authorities, we have the 
Ijocal Government Board, the Board of Trade, the 
Board of 'Agriculture, and the Road Board. These, 
again, with such restricted powers as they possess, 
inay 1)e said to act independently, and interpenetrat- 
ing and interfering with the undertakings of this com- 
plexity of administrative machinery we have the rail- 
way comijanies, water companies, tramway com- 
panies, Tru.stecs of Park- and Crown Property, and a 
Port of London Authority, who, by Private Acts, hold 
special ])rivileges which they enjoy without reference 
to any other governing body. 

With the administrative machine handled by so 
many independent autliorities, and without any co- 
ordinated central authority, is it likely that in tlie 
matter of the town planning of Greater London, 
interests and aspirations 'common to every citizen 
and superior to local i)rejudices can be adequately 
secured ? 


No doubt much has been done, and much can still 
be done, by conference and negotiation : but, at the 
.same time, ther«' is ijiost certainly needed a central 
authority capable of grasping and dealing with the 
whole problem comprehensively, an authority which 
is backed by. if not a<liial money grants that would 
enable it to undertake the carrying out of a big con- 
structive programme, ;it least a sensible shaking of 
the money bags of the Treasury. 

I have said that nuicli h^ been done by conference 
and negotiation, but, with the best intentions in the 

world, the effect so far of these negotiations has re- 
sulted merely in the production of handsome but still- 
born schemes, and a general feeling of uncertainty, 
unreality and hesitancy. 

I might follow up this reference to the list of autho- 
rities responsible with a review of their respective 
powers. I might dwell at length on the most im- 
portant of these in reference to town planning. By 
so doing I might di.scover many unexercised powers. 

It is true that much could be done in regard to the 
making of arteri&l roads by a, fidl exercise of the 
powers held by the Road Board, and I am of opinion 
that in the Town Planning Act there are hidden away 
powers that, if adequately exercised, would enable the 
whole of Greater Loudon to te town planned compul- 
sorily. But where is the local authority, or even 
Government Department that has the courage, or 
.shall I say the reckless audacity, in view of the public 
ajjathy, to take full advantage of the powers jros.sessed. 
The real difficulty lies not so much in the lack of 
power as in its distribution, and in the acceptance 
of the Responsibility that its exercise entails. 


As an example, let us take the case of the local 
authority througli area it is agreed by the 
conference of local authorities that an important new 
arterial road shoidd be constructed. We will assume 
that the local authority concerned has, with the best 
intentions, adopted the Town Planning Act, and 
desires to carry through the road in question. The 
powers held under this Act provide the means wherebv 
this authority may decide not only the direction but 
also the width of the pro|)osed new arterial road. Then 
where is the difficulty ? The difiiculty lies in the fad 
that the cost Of the difference in width between tlie 
width of the road required as a main arterial road 
and as a by-law road is such as must be borne i)v 
that local authority. 

How can this l)e met ? Either by successfullv 
negotiating with the landowner so as-to obtain his 
consent to the giving up of the land without cost, or 
by a grant that through the Road Board can be made 
from the Trea.siiry; otherwise the cost will full upon 
the rates. But the carrying through of all these diffi- 
cult negotiations is dependent upon the neighbourly 
sympathy and co-ojieration of tlie adjoining local 
authority, who, possibly not having the same inlere>1 
in the road, will not undertake the negotiations nece.<- 
sary to the carrying of it through their locality. The 
reply is that the Local Government Board, convinced, 
as' they no doubt would be, of the necessity of town 
planning iij that area, can force that authority to do 
it compulsorily. But there is a risk that in doing s<. 
the Local Government Board may lie faced with a 
financial responsibility. The Local Government 
Board cannot meet it. for they have no power to ask 
the Treasury to make grants for such a purpose, and 
so, tossed to and fro from owner to local auth<irity. 
and from local authority to Government Department, 
the responsibility of carrying out main road siheiiie- 
is so difTicult as to have jeacheil an impasff. 

LOCAL authorities' DIFFICULTIES. . 

But you would reply that all this question of 
liability for cost of road construction is not an issue 
under debate; that whirt is required is not the neces- 
sary funds for the construction of tlie road, but merely 
the powers for fixintr the line. This is so; and it is true, as already >tated, that the local authorit% 
has in the Town Planning Act all the powers that ap' 
necessary for fixiiiir both the direction and width of 
roads. But the difficulties here are twofold, oven in 
the case of the most .sympathetic and best inteiitione.l 
of local authorities. First, the owner througli wb..-, 
land the i)rof)osed arterial road mu.<t pa.-s ha-- t'l I.. 
negotiatetl with, both ia the matter of dir.. ti. n . i 
also ultimate cost of extra width. He n 
agree on the first issue. butfluhje<-t to con 
the second, and her. is tlie crux of the (iiMnuii . 



.TaNT ARY .'). 1917. 

Who is tiling to relieve tlial local authority vi the 
resi.oiisil>ilit> it incur.* ia forcing on the larulowner 
the aocejitaiue of u wiilth. jiart of the i-ost of whioh 
the local authority may ultimately have l*> nieft ? 

There inisiht l>e in the first case a chiini for sterilising 
niereJy so much of tin- land as was over the by-law 
width. That would l>e imiiiediate. and ultimately 
there iiii'_'hl have to U' iiui the extra cost of <-on- 
structin^' a wide road. So. assnminj: for the sake of 
argument that the liK-al authority jncor|>oralo(l the 
road ill its s<heme. unless satisfaolory arranfiemeiils 
could l>e made with the lautlowner there would at 
once l>e a g«-neral claim for llic sterilisation of so nuicli 
of the land as was over hy-law widtli. a claim 
amouiitiity to the value of such land. It would seem 
that i-hc liabilities tluis entaileil should l>e iRirne by 
a higher authority. 

Now. havintc regard to the proved reasonableness of 
many landowner.-, and the po^ibility of getting a 
considerable amount of the land required without 
cost, haviu!.' regard to the interests of many of the 
Knal authorities in the making of the roads, having 
re-.-ard to the t-normou.- importaiu-c of the carrying; 
throutrli of su<'h an luidertaking by London before it 
i> too late, and havinj; reirard to the liettermelit thai 
in most, oases would ultiniately accrue, the actual 
cost that would l>e incurred in ensuring that the land 
for the roiids as generally apjirovcd by the conference 
of local authorities, if it were at once sterilised, would 
not 1h- great. 

The example of Liver|K>ol jtroves that much tan be 
gained simply by negotiations, provided such nego- 
tiations have a solid financial backing, which in the 
case of a IfK-al authority ro\H)d ].,ondon in very few 
cases exists. And why .-ihould a local authority i)ro- 
vide roads of national interest ? 

The constructitm of main arterial roads shoi'dd be 
timlertaken and financed by a central authority, and 
wliereas in the area of one locality there might be 
lietternn-nt aiul in the area of another considerable 
expen.-e. such an iindertakiiig would merely amount 
to an insurance .scheme for local authorities construct- 
ing main roads that were i)romofed nationally. 

But no existing Government Department has the 
ii<-<-e.-sary power to undertake this specifically. The 
Koad Board can ne'-'otiate for land, or contribute to 
widening* and the improvement or construction of 
new roads, subject to restri<-tions, but it is <loul)tful 
if they could contribute merely to the cost of sterili- 

But the construction o^ main roatls, even though 
the most urgent of the i»roi»osals on the town plan- 
ning progrt'inme as we see it to-day, does not satisfy 
every requirement. This. supplement«-d with a 
vigorous application of the Town Planning Act. would 
do much, but to ensure a full and satisfactory apjili- 
cation of this .\ct there mu.-l be cna<-te(l legislation 
which will unify the projiosals of railway comjtanits 
with the (tmsidered proposals of town iilanning. and 
■' must l»e i)owcrs to <'oiisider open si)a<'es and the 

itioii of built-up areas coinprehi-nsively. The 
_■ up of a new <lejiartnjeiit empowered to deal 
uiib the town planning of Greater London in this 
way, and which, unlike the Ix>cal Government Board 
which possesses merely the critical facidfy, is 
equip|>ed to make and carry through a constructive 
policy, is the f»nly .satisfiwlory means whereby the 
full <'omplement of iM-iiefits c'an l>e .se<-nre<l. 


In preceding lectures 1 have .shown the importance 
of quick lines of transit to develop building estates, 
and I would urge that it is in the interest of railway 
<-on)paiiies .-e«-kiir/ pas.*<'ni.'er.- to make their s<-hemes 
snbmii*<ive to n central authority for town |)lanning, 
in order that they may avail themselves of the value 
of a co-ordinate |M»licy whereby the line of route 
decided u|Hin iiuiy Im> that Ix-'^t suited to assist build- 
ing development. No other iirethfxi will prevent line- 
of railways obstructing free develo.omeiit or the de- 
velopment of areas which, viewed from a broad 
-tand|Kiint. should i>e kept o|>en. 

It would lie a iiiistake if -ucii u central authority 
for town planning were to U- any one of tlie existing 
authorities e'|uip|>«-d with the necessary powers. It 
.-hould 1»« a composite IkkIv. poiisibly representing the 
interest- of the l»ndon ('dijiity Council, the City, the 
Middlesex and Surrey County Councils, the Local 
Goveniment Board, the Bourd of Trade, the Board of 
.\i'riculture, and the Koa<l iioard. 

It- work would l>e lii^'lil> technical. Ulld it ^•llOul<l 
lie in a |><).«ition to commaiiil the .•«ervi<-c.- of the ino-t 
highly trained technical e.\|>' rt- m ibe diffeient de- 
part iiienUt ol town planning 

It should have coiurol over the dire<'tion of rail- 
wa\s and methods of constructing the tracks; it 
should have control over \he construction of main 
ro;id.s and public open sjiftoes ; -and it should have 
power to town-plan Greater I/ondon in so far as the 
allocation of areas for residential and industrial de- 
velopment was concerned ; and. liiially. it should 
advise the spending of county or State funds on works 
of metropolitan interest, and which ought not to be 
liH'ally borne. 

The Government is a( I lie moment in the throes of 
a great war. and it would l)e extremely injudicious to 
press ii))on them now the pn'miotioii of sucli a .scheme, 
but vc ry .soon we nuist l)e i)re.i)aied and see to it that 
the town planning of (ireater London is not left lo a 
hundred different authoritie*;, who. with enlightened 
self-int<'rest. may do niiiarknbly well few their own 
(■articular locality, but who are (|uitc luiable to sub- 
scribe to the improvement and natural development 
of London as a whole. 

We must beware of powers being given to an oxist- 
ing authority that can only take a one-sided view; 
we must demand the .setting up of a real Central Town 
Planning Board, and nothing Now, I think we 
may take it lor granted that no new department will 
be inaugurated during the period of the war, and 
meantime the c'hances of losing what we require are 
increasing daily, so that any intermediary action on 
the part of the Government, through an existing de- 
partment, tending to the sterilisation of areas for 
roads is to be coiinnended and encouraged. 


We liave shown that tlie sterilisation of land for 
the ultimate construclioii of main roads would neces- 
sitate the financial backing of the State. Negotia- 
tions with landowners with a view to ascertaining the 
liabilities entailed in order lo sterilise the required 
main artrrial routes generally agreed upon should at 
oiu-e be instituted, and having regard to the disin- 
terestedness of local authorities in certain areas, suc-h 
negotiations should be enc-ouraged or proceeded with 
by a Government Department. 

Financial assistance offered through the county 
councils or directly from State funds would tiltimately 
Ik.' wiped off as betterment, so that it wou]d only 
amount to a loan with deferred interest and sinking 
lund. as already exi)laiiied. 

The greatest difficulty would, of, be met with 
in the matter of bargainin;,' with owners, but this 
would l)e assisted in many by the substitution 
of an alternative route. 

It does not ai)pear to me that there ought to be any 
real financial didiculty in securing the sterilisation 
of all the roads pro]>()sed by the conference of 
local authorities, provided immediate action is taken 
on the lines suggested. Kevision could be made after 
the war and before actual construction commenced. 

A greater <liflic-ult\ would be the i)revention of 
building operations fioni jiroceeding in area^ which 
ought certainly to be retained as open land. 


When dealing with the futtire of building develop- 
ments in Greater I.,ond(-ii. I dwelt at some length on 
placing restrictions on ar(>as of development in what 
is now open country outside the confines of built-up 
London. I showed that no local authority acting in 
its own interest and in the interest of its ratepayers 
would, even with the assistance of the Town Planning 
.\ct. lie able to control building operations in this 

Such a considered treatment of Greater London 
c-ould only emanate from a central authority. I 
shc)wed also that it was absolutely essential, both in 
order to preserve the value of existing suburbs as well 
as to ensure the success ol tho.'^' that were to come, 
that open land ]>o. loft around Ijcjndon as it exists 


Then there is the que.-tion of how to accjuire the 
chain of .Nature re.servations so essential to the com- 
plete equipment of London's recreative areas, and on 
the lines suggested by the map that has been pre- 
pared by the Ixtndon Scn-iety/ 

.\ great deal of public; education would have lo l>e 
done iKffore a Governmenl responsible for its interests 
would undertake the purcliuse of large tracts of land 
for this purpose. I l>elie\'c that the first es.sential of 
such undertakingH is the clucation of the public. In 
due c-oiirse, aiicj when the public have come lo realise, 
the value ol relailiiiiL' lor «'ver a chain of Nature 
r(<.-ervation^ rounci London these ought to be acipiii rd 
in several wavs. 

Jakuary 5, 1917. 



The Surveyor 

^ Bn^ {Dunlclpal ani Counte Enoineet. 

Activiiteilsiudge Experiments 

After-war ProVJems 

Appointments Vacant 

A Rural Water Supply 

Birmingliani Public Works Department 

Cleansing of Refuse Beoeptaoles 


Design and Cost of Reservoirs 

Dust Collection at Surbiton 

Earthwork Dam Construction 

Employment of Discharged Soldiers 

Fooii Production in War Time 

Forthcoming Meetings 

Insanitary Property of Bristcd 

Institution of Municipal Engineers 

Local Government Board Inquiries 

London's Water 

Madras Water and Drainage Works 

Municipal Contracts Open 

Municipal Schemes after the War 

Municipal Work in Progress and Projected 

New Type of Trickling Filter , 

New Water Supply and other Municipal Work at Watford 

New York City Water Supply 

Boad Service in France 

Safety First 

Sheet Steel for Street Paving 

Things One would Like to Know 

Town Planning of Greater London after the War .... 

A sy.-^tem a(l(>])te(l in many towii.s of Aiuerk-a (and, 
indeed, we need not go to America lor an exampk-, 
a.s we have one in Wimhiedon) ha.s l)een to levy a 
rate on liou.-^es in proportion to tlieir proximity to tlie 
oi>en area, and when the need has iK'en iiilly realised 
and ventilated, miieli can he ohtained in thf way of 
free sifts from landowners, and adde<l to thi.'^ tliere 
should 1)6 a oontrihution from coqnty funds. 


But on the town planninj; of Greater 
London that omitted to refer to the housinjr question 
is incomi)lete, for, after all, town planning is but the 
ha.sis of a ureat hoiisinir and huildiiif,' scheme. 

With a deficiency of 3(H),(KK) cottages for the workinj: 
classes, w-hieh we are told is no exaggeration of the 
|)resent needs, which means l,OlK),(KX) j)eople imjjroiierly 
housed, is it to he wondered at that housinu, and not 
town i)laniiing, is at the present moment uppermost 
in ])eople's minds ? To ex[>ec-t the puhlic to neglect 
liousini; and take uj) town planiiini: luider such cir- 
cnmsfances is rather like asking a drownin-j man to 
study navigation. 

The prei>aration of a town planning scheme is a 
lonir and laborious undertakiui;, demanding the exer- of considerable imaL'ination ; but to seize on an 
empty piece of ground and at once connnence erecting 
thereon cottages is a direct and easily grasi)ed under- 

It is perfectly obvious to me, a.s it is to most peo))le, 
that an imm<'diate supply .of cottages will never 
await town planning; but I would i>oint out that if 
the authorities concerned in the erection of cottages 
would, without waiting for the necessary permission 
to ])repare a town jjlanning .s<'heme, without waiting 
for the promised Government grant, conunence at once 
and prejiare a comi)iehensive j)lan of their areas 
(they can get jjlenty of expert advice if they are so in- 
clined), they ooidd then fin<l sites for cottages, whieh, 
when time had allowed of the complete development 
of a detailed town planning scheme, would ensure 
that, at any rate, they had not made what may be 
described as a fundamental mistake as regards site. 


It is very likely that we shall .shortly have local 
authorities authorised to prepare .schemes for the 
building of <'Ottages. 1 presume tluit if j)ermission 
were granted thc! surveyor and his staff, who are 
certainly not qualified to undertake such work, would 
at once set about and make tlie plans. 

I sincerely hope that it will not be done in this 
way. My own view is that what is wanted is a 
standard cottage, or two dozen standard cottages, lue- 
jtared by a Government Department in conjunction 
with the big building trade n)anufacturers and 
builders, and with the hot architectural advice, :in(l 
.idopled to Garden C'it> jirinciple,-. 

The Iwal authorities. moBt of whom are quite in- 
capable of preparing a design for a cottage, should 

only be empowered to adopt these, and that sliould 
be a condition of the grant. 

I feel Very strongly ,iii tins point; otherwise leave 
cottage buikling to jirivate enteri)rise and give them 
where they deserve it financial assistance of a more 
stable kind. 

It is no new idea— villages of standard cottage.' 
were erected IIMI years ago. 

I am aware that the idea of a standard cottage 
sounds very unwholesome, but we are not living in 
the Middle .\ges. We are living at a time when every 
iiulividual cannot possibly exi>ress lumself as he did 
then. Yet, on the other hand, we will not allow him 
to be numbered and ti<'keted till he hardly knows his 
own door, as he has l)eeu in his standard street of 
last century. j^ 

We are, I hope, entering upon what Prof. Patrick '■> 
Geddes deseribes as a Neo-Te<'hnic Age — an age that 
realises that wealth and industry are but a moans 
and not an end — and no man's private outlook must 
be so regulated as that he is nothing but an iron cog 
in ihe social wlieel. 

London's amenities. 

Hut I can express my.self better by a reference. Let 
me point o\it the great i)ioneer examjile of the 
Hampstead Garden Suburb; think of all that it means 
as regards the individual interests of its inhaliitants. 
Think of all the beautiful .scenery that to-day sur- 
rounds London, its delightful old villages, its forest 
glades, its wild commons and village greens. With a 
l)anorama of all these amenities, than which no 
capital in the world is better sui)|)lied, let me con- 
clude by saying: By all means give every considera- 
tion to the econoniic and .scientific development of 
London, for only by so doing can we olitain physical 
essentials; but let us not forget the amenities, for 
only in their luovision lies real culture and progres- 

But the whole (piestion of town develo|)ment may 
seem irrelevant at a time when our vision is dimmed 
with the eircumstances of this great war. 


It is almost eertain that after the conclusion of 
peace it will \ye many years before the complete dis- 
liandment of soldiers not required for permanent 
service has taken place. What is to be done with 
these soldiers in the meantime ? In my own view no 
bettei- occui)ation could be given them, or, at any 
late. such of them as were u.sed to sj'ade work and 
military engineering, than that of constructing roads. 
It will be a great |)ity if notliing l>etter can be found 
for them to do than occupy themselves with the 
routine of barrack life. 

The difficuities of providing them with useful occu- 
pations while under military discipline and supervi- 
sion are great, but here in road making is an occupa- 
tion very closi'lv allied to that of their professional 
duties, and whi<-h could be uiulertaken under the 
ordiiuuy <-onditions of military discifiline. The sup- 
plv of material for road construction is another 
Tuatter; b\it, at any rate, they could be well emiiloyed 
in cutting, embanking iind '.'(jnerally prei)aring the 
surface of the trround. This is a matter that might 
be gone carefully into and urgently jjres.'^ed upon the 
Government at the right time. 

In conclusi(m. let me emphasise the enormous 
importance to the future of London of .setting up 
inunediately after the war the sort of administrative 
machinery that will be able to guide the comprehen- 
sive development of l,ondon as a whole. 

Watch the railways; let me impress upon you the 
importance of making the question of a new railway 
line a jjublic one, and do not remain in obscurity 
until you hear that the thing is done. We must in 
llie future be much more alive to what goes on at the 
conuuittee stage of the pa.<sing of a Railway Bill. 

Let me urge on you the importance of educating the 
general public. I believe tiiat those of you who are 
eniraged in pro|)agandist work are doing greater things 
than you know. I have spoken of iniexer<'ised ])Owers 
in town planning legislation: by your efforts, and only 
by your efforts, can legislation — which to-day is un- 
exercised through i)ul)lic apathy, short-sightedne.-.- 
and ignorance— be'converted into legislation all the ot which are strained. 

Fog and Gas Consumption.— The Birmingham Cor- 
poration Ga.- Conunitle ■ report that a record «-on>vuup- 
tion of gas in the history of the Ueparfment was. owing 
to the exce|)lionaT darknes.s due to fo'_', reached duriu-' 
the week ended December 2<lth, when the output war 
.•*n»,0(J«t.(Kj<) cub. fl. The previt)Us hiiihesl total was 
2«HJ.(Hl(l.0()(l cub. ft. 



Jantary 5, 1917. 

Madras Water and Drainage Works. 


Wlien war liroke out the Corporation of Madras. 
Imlia. bad in liand water supply and drainage works 
Uie estiniatetl cost of wliiih was £1,500,000. The value 
of the work ext^outed up to March last was about 
C500.000. leavinn work.-: of a value of alwut £l,000.tKH3 
still to l>t- exec-uied. In older to meet tlie financial 
stringency whioli arose after the outbreak of hostilities 
a re^tricteti programme was prepared. This involves 
an expenditure of about £^0,000, spread over five 
y«-ars, and is so sc-henied as to form part of the com- 
preliensive works, which oan be conii>leted as soon as 
funds l>eoonie available. 

It is 8nticipatt>d that the amount set aside for 
waterworks will enable a satisfactory supply to be 
installed, provided waste and misuse can he reduced. 
The main works still remaining to be done, and not 
included in the restricted programme, are seven addi- 
tional filters, and a waste-water prevention system. 

In an exhaustive report which he has recently pre- 
pared. Mr. J. W. Madeley. M.A., m.inst.c.e., 
j'.K., the special engineer to the corjwration, points 
out that, except for the works carried out during the 
last few years, the drainage of Madras is in a 
thoroughly unsatisfactory condition. The oollectinii 
drains, the pumps, and the pumping mains, all re- 
quire renewal to a fireat extent, and it. Mr. Madeley 
says, will Im> impossible to bring the sanitary condition 
of Madras to that of a normal healthy city except by 
carrying out a comprehensive scheme of drainage, 
such as that which has been sanctioned by Govern- 

The sum which it is proposed in the restricted pro- 
'jramme to sjtend on drainage works provides for the, 
<-on^tru<-tion of three new pumping stations and re- 
engining of a fourth. A new pumping main is pro-« 
vided for "he western area; this will relieve the 
present over-burdened southern area pumping main. 
" New sewers, laid at proper gradient.s and provided 
with apparatus to exclude silt, will," adds the engi- 
neer, " remove much of the insanitary jiuisance that 
now gives ri.«e to complaints. New gravitation mains 
will carry the s<-wage from the sewers to the pumping 
stations. The nett result should be a great reduction 
in pollution. an<l a considerable in)f)rovement in the 
ranitary <-ondition of the. more thickly i)ojjulated 
urea.t of Madras. The works propo.sed will be in con- 
formity with the comprehensive main drainage 
f«cheme, and may \te extended as urgency demands 
and funds i»ermit. until the whole scheme lias l)een 


The remark* of Mr. Madeley as regards the preven- 
tion of \\ ' ,ire interesting. In a hot climate 
like tha' thf tcini)tation to waste water is 
very inn ilian it is in the West. The re- 
Mtri<!tiou of cuii.->um|)tion i.s a very difficult matter, 
and that this in not the esse in Madras alone is 
j,r(iv ' ' -• -' .. experience of B<jmbay and Cal<-ufta. 
wli • of very costly works to provide a <-on- 
tiii' . at higJi prej»sure, it has l>een found 
iin|ii;-.-it.lo to apply the full pressure contitiuoii.'ily 
itirfiii'.'hout the twenty-four liours. 

" That '• ' -. nt economy is obvious,'' 

Mr. .Ma-i we refle<t that probably 

half *h' I rag is either wasted or 

lu' , orjjoratioii rules should l>e enforced 

wi' favour. It is unrK)pular work, and the 

in ..v..r....r. ,1.,, Yiavct to <-arry it out 

st' prote<-tion and encour- 

'"■'• apply to the hous«'-to- 

'I now in use for cheeking waste 
>" -iir.. (,f the water in the i)ipes. 

"'' Im' liourB of least demand. 

''' ■ *hnt nhnormal waste ir- 

'"* live iKftween the 

I** ' ■ cloHed down, Ml 

"^ ''r can Ik- taken. 

K.' water in reduced us 

"" -ent conditiont; without 

fund* are availalde— 
[^ ' "ion .«y.<tem should be 

'"-■•'■• 1. "und in large towns in 

^•"-■l ""I '•■ tta have had to adopt 

thio «yf.t«m. li. ..,.,.-, i.> .,. "ct and limit tli. waste of 

Mr. Madeley furnishes particulars of a twenty-four 
hours' experiment which was carried out to a.scortain 
the eSect of *upi)lying water to the city under full 
pressure. The niain objects of the experiment were: 
(I) To enable the inhal>it;ints of Madras to form an 
idea ot the pressure at which water could be supplied, 
if waste were sufticieiitly reduced; (2) to ascertain 
what would l>e the consumption under full pressure; 
(3) to find out how the jiipes would stand the pressure. 


As a result of the experiment — which would seem 
to have provided not a little in tlie way of excitement 
for the inhabitants — it was found: — 

(1) That the water sujiply system was capable of 
supplying water to the upper floors of houses all over 
Madras. Indeed, many tanks on the tops of the 
houses overflowed, and messages were received from 
all parts of the city reqiiesling that plumbers should 
be sent without delay to stop overflows and to remedy 
other defects that appeared. 

(2) That, with the system as it now is, the water 
taken under full jjrossuri' was 23,500,000 gallons per 
day. .\s the main jiart of the system is fiesigned to 
sui)ply only 14,500.000 gallons per day, and the filters 
now constructed to supjily 10,000,000 gallons per day. 
it is obvious that the iiresent system cannot supply all 
the water that would be consumed at tlie present time 
under full jire.ssure. Indeed, the present sources of 
supply, even if all irrigation were stopped, would lie 
inadequate to supply the rate of consumption diis- 
closeil by the experiment. 

Mr. !^Iadeley suggests that it speaks well for the 
elasticity of the .system and for tlie work of the staff 
that it was possible to maintain the full pressure for 
the whole period of twenty-four hours for which the 
experiment lasted and even for some four hours 

It may be interesting to state that the pressure 
maintained on the mains *was about 30 ft. above 
ground level, varying from 40 ft. during the- hours of 
maxininm consumi)tioii to 55 ft. at night. The rate 
of supply varied from a maximum of ],42().0()() gallons 
per hour at .seven o'clock in the morning to a iiiini- 
iiHim of .').'i(l,(KHI gallons jicr liour at night. The latter 
quantity represents wastage at the rate of 26 gallons 
per head per day. 

(3) As wa.s confidently expected, no failure of the 
l)ipe8 laid within the last few years took place, nor, 
so far as can lie a.scertained, did any of them leak. 
Some of the old pipes hurst and in others leaks de- 
velof)ed. (These wore serious in the case of certain 
22-in. and 36-in. mains. Service pipes and 
fittings also developed a numlwr of faults. 

(4) The inter-coniie<'1iou works, recently carried out. 
lu'oved extraordiiuirih effective. Although two lead- 
ing mains 22 in. and 30 in. in diameter had to be cut 
off. the areas served by them were never deprived of 

(5) The experiment showed the necessity of over- 
hauling the di.strihutioii system. This, says Mr. 
Madeley, can Ik; done systematically and effectively 
only when the waste-water meter system has been 
installed. The necessary valves, meters, &c., are in- " 
eluded in the sanctioned estimates, and the system 
would alieady l)e in ojxralion but for the war. At the 
present time it is impo--ihle to .say when it will be 
possible to proceed with the work. 

In the meantime, it is iiroposed to apply pres.sure 
to small sections of the distribution system, and by 
means of careful insj)e<li(in and stethoscoi)ic exami- 
nation to detect tlie [iriii. ipal faults and then to put 
them riglit. 


Mr. Madeley consider- that, the question of making 
the waterworks self-sujiin.! ting should receive .serious 
<'onhideration. He has no doubt that there arc advan- 
tages in the community h iving control of the supply 
of such u universal nec( - ity as water, but he rfgards 
it a« higlily that the waterworks should 
iwld to the burden of tin- vrieral taxes. The i)ractice 
in Madras is to levy a v iter, and drainage tax of 6i 
per cent on the rental v;iliie of house ijroperty and to 
charge for all water ii.sed ln-yond a certain free allow- 
ance where the nervici- ire metered. The income 
from the tax has. howcv r. never been ai)i)ortioned 
between waterworks and diainage works, though Mr. 

January 5, 1917. 



Madeley admits that the larger part should be allo- 
cated to drainage, which is unreimmerative. 

iThe water pumped at present he puts at 14,000,000 
gallons per day, but of this quantity a considerable 
amount is lost owing to defects in the pipes. To this 
inevitable waste must b(^ added the water supplied — 
without charge — for municipal At present 
it is impossible to meas\u-6 this quantity of water, 
but Mr. Madeley estimates the waste in the street 
pipes, plus the water used for municipal purposes, as 
roughly two-fifths of the supply. This is inclusive of 
water supplied to municipal buildings, pumping 
stations, &c., but exclusive of water wasted through 
defective house services and fittings. Deducting two- 
fifths (5,600,000 gallons), there remains a supply of 
8.400,(X)0 gallons per day, which should all be remune- 

At present the total water paid for is about 4,500,000 
gallons per day, so that aljout 9,500,000 gallons per 
day is unpaid for. 


In the course of his report Mr. Madeley puts for- 
ward a strong plea for the adoi)tion throughout the 
city of the water-cirriage system for the removal of 
nightsoil. This, he contends, would involve no extra 
expenditure over the existing system, as the present 
expenditure on hand removal by sweepers and 
.-scavengers would be eliminated. " Moreover," he 
oljserves, in conclusion. " sweepers and scavengers 
are becoming increasingly costly and scarce, and as 
education extends it will spread s\ich a loathing for 
scavenger's work as will make the general hand re- 
moval of nightsoil on present lines very exi)ensive, if 
not impossible." 



.As state<l in our issue of last week, Surbiton, 
Surrey, Urban District Council have agreetl to the 
purcliase, at a cost of J[;l,02o each, of two electrically 


Edison Electkic Dust-collection Van. 

propelled dust vans fi-om Edison Accumulators, 
LimittKl, Edison Building, 2 and 3 Duke-street, W. 

The tyj)e of vehicle d<-(ided upon by the council is 
illustraUxl in the accompanying photographic view. 
It will be remembered that the committee dealing with 
the matter reported that with two vehicles and five 
fillers the whole of the house refuse in the district 
could be collected one*- a week, and that after the 
vehicles were purchased, at the end of three years, 
the cost of the du^t collection would be about L'o.'K) 
l)er annum less than the cost of doing the work by the 
present system, assuming the contract price next year, 
and in the succeeding years, to be 10 |)er <-f>nt more 
than it is now. In addition, the council would have 
j)urchased the two vehicles outright, and would have 
a depreciation fund at the bank amounting to nearly 


At the last niwiing of Somerset County Council (the 
Bristol Tinie-i and Minor repoi'ts) a recommendation 
was made by the County Works Committee in favour 
of the employment of prisoners of war on the high- 
ways, and that boards of guardians be recomniendetl 
to provide accommodation for them in workhouses, so 
far as possible. 

The chairman asked if there was any chance of 
prisoners of war being employed on tire roads. 

Colonel Kirkwood said he was afraid not, unlesij 
they got the money to reconstruct roads. They might 
be used in quarries adjacent tjo their roads. 

Mr. Somerville said they were infonned tiiat there 
were no prisoners available. 

Mr. Lean said he had had experience of Austrian 
Bohemians, and a better class of man they could not 
get. They would not run away, and he hoped thej' 
would be. sent to the country districts, as they could 
be usefully employed on the land. 

Mr. Sonu^rville : I am talking of prisoners of war. 

Mr. Lean said some militjai'y pi-isoners had been 
brought up on the land. 

Mr. Kidner : I am told that then- are practically 
none, fit to go on the land. 

The report was adopted. 


Roadmaking in Canada.— Quebec Legislature has 
vote<l l;l,(KJ<J,{K)0 f(jr iriaking better roads in the 

Road Tarring in Somerset.— It wa.s agrt^'d at the 
last meeting af the Soni.-iM-t County Council to grant 
tl(),7(M) fur maintenance tarring in rural villages and 
towns, and £.'}, 100 for surface tarring in urban dis- 
tricts during the coming y<'ar, and to make application 
to the Itoad Board for a grant towards the cost. 


Russia as a field for British enterprise and lor the 
employment of British cajjital is (says a writer in the 
" Russian Section " of the 'fimi's) attracting the atten- 
tion of our manufacturers and financiers to an extent 
never known before in the commercial history of this 
country. The war is, of course, responsible for this 
awakened interest, and for the mutual desire of the 
Russian and British GoveiTunents and peoples to 
witness, when peace is concluded, a prefer- 
ential exchange of trade between the two 
nations. Russia does not want to " replace 
• iermany" by Britain or by any othei- 
counli-y. She has endured Gennan domina- 
tion of her industries and commerce long 
<-.iK)ugh iioi to desire to see any otlu'r nation 
installed in (Jermany's placi". What Russia 
does desir<^ is a single-minded co-operati*)U 
by the British in the development of her 
limitless natural resources. She will welcome 
with open anns the assistance of Britislj 
capitalists, manufacturers, dnd merchants in 
this gigauti<: task. 

The tn-niendous scoj)e for development may 
be gauged from such statistics as are avail- 
able in regard to the equii)ment of the 1,231 
municipal areas in Russia. Of these oidy 
1()2 are. liglite<l by electricity, 128 by gas, 
whil<> l,.02s depend upon the kerosene lamp. 
Ill respect to other services, 219 muni- 
cipalities have a system of aqueducts ; 6.5 
only have a main drainage system ; o4 a 
service of tramways ; .'^2 ordy are eiiuiiJix-*! with tele- 
graphs, and 314 with t*'lephones. • 

In addition to these administrative municipal areas 
there are large, numbers of so-called villages with 
populations of from 2(t.O00 to 30,000. .\11 th*-se towns 
and villages will begin to demand the same munici])al 
services and amenities as the returned soldiers have 
st^en to be regarded ;us indispensable among other 
communities, and in this work of social j)rogress 
British engineers and manufacturers ought to take no 
little share. 

New Municipal Buildings at Coventry. — The new 

municipal buildings at Coventrj', wliicli ha\e been built 
at a cost of about CGO.IXJO, have be^-n completed, and 
as tlie furnishing procei-ds they will be twcupied by 
the several departments of the rorj)oration. The street 
frontages are carried out in Runconi stone, with roofs 
of Cotswold stone, in the style considered best to 
hai-monise with the surroundings and the ancient 
traditions of the city. The frontage, to St. Marj-'s 
Hall is in brick and ^("tie, in tliH designing of which 
the foregoing consid-i' itions hav<- \-hh'u taken int4> 
account.. The buildniL.' lias a frontage to Earl-street 
of 27.5 ft., to St. .Mar.v's-»treet IKi fl., to Hay-lan.> 
53 ft., and facing St. Mary's Hall is a frontag<' 
of 270 ft. 



Janiaky ."). inn 



War. not tilt- '.'/•A. iif New York on ri^lit linos wlun 
it recently iiiil>lishi'<i an ariicle stating' tliat tliv man 
•if the future will' l>e " the man wlm fan «lo thinirs." 
anti not the mere talker or politieian. and that this 
man who ean do Ihin-.'s i- to l>e foiiiitl in the engineer ? 
Is it not evident that the war lia> emiiliasised this 
«i|iinion. and that tin- worlil will some day reaiis»> 
that the really useful man is the one who is eapahle 
of iTeation and or.aanisatioii. antI not the lawyer tir 
the |M>litleian. who. as a rule, are prone to keep thiiiL's 
hack instea<l of pnshiiii: tliem forward ? Have we not 
to tliunk the leiiislatitui of the pa^t for many ehecks 
ll|M>M ell.i.'ill<-orini; proirress ? 

« « * * 

Has the question yet In'en definitely decided as to 
how long it is necessary to keep the traftio off a newly 
constrneted concrete road so as to allow it to consoli- 
date properly ? Is the accepted time of three weeks 
sufficient. t>r is this jieriod found to l>e loo loni; in 
praitice ? DocSi it make any difference in the re- 
quired tinte if the <orurete is " fat " or " lean " ? 
Does the tpiality of the cement affect the tpieslion ? 
Do not the weather <'ondilions make a considerahie 
difference ? Are not these and other questions some 
of the things one w<udd like to know ? 

♦ • * ♦ 

When will a i)owerful " Utilisation of Waste Pro- 
ducts Conq>any " Ik? formed to deal scientifically 
with house ? Is it a fact that New York lias 
recently entere<l into a contract with suth a company 
to deal with an average i|naiility of 1.3IM( tons a day 
of housi- refuse, and that the plant to he erected wUI 
l>e capahle of dealing- with •i.tHMi tons a day. on the 
most scientific line~ and without causin-.' the sli^litest 
nui.^ance ■' When shall we see London and other 
large cities in this <'ountry dealing' with their refuse 
ill a .scientific and method instead of. 
a.s at present, wastini; so much vahiahle material ? 

• • * • 

Does not the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture set us a good exaiiq)le in their education of 
farmers hy ;;iving tlu'Ui detailed information on su<'h 
suhjects as ohtaining water hy rams or wind engines. 
Jcc. hy advising them a> to the sanitary requirement- 
of their houses and farmsteads, the con.struction of 
their farm huildiuL's. and the generation of |)Owcr. a.- 
well as on a host of other matters on whicli it is to 
l»e feare<l Uiost of our farmers are entirely ignorant ? 
Would it not Ik- an excellent thing if our Boaid oi 
Agriculture <ouUl arrange something of the same kind 
for the in.slrmtioii and assistance of the farmers ol 

this countrv ? 

♦ « * ♦ 

Is it a fact, as stated hy Councillor Barrow at ;i 
re<-ent meeting of the Town Plannintr Institute, that 
the avera'-'e numlur of new houses annually required 
in thi«» country is alwiut KNi.dOO, and that <lnring the 
past two years only 10.<)tK) or 2n,0lt0 have heen erected :- 
If this is .so will there not he un enormous shortage 
of hou.-^*" after the war ? How is this shortage going 

to l>e met ? 

* • • « 

^^'hy cannot the wear and te^r of the roads and 
railways in France and el.sewhere at the seat of war 
l>e relieved hy the <-on:-truction of aerial lines or 
" air trandines." as they are sometimes <"alled ? 
Could not the exauqile In; followed of a <ertain salt 
mine in California, where formerly the salt was carried 
in wagons «iver roads which l>e<;aiiie almost impassahle 
from this traffic, aixl the journey took thirteen day-. 
whereas now. hy mean^ of an aerial line, the salt is 
conveyc<l ill larger (piantities at al>out one-tenth of the 
coitt.and the jfntrney only takes two an<l a-half hour.- ? 
Cannot the engineers attached to our Army devise 
some ..iK-h means of tran-port, and thur divert some, 
if not all, of the eiiormon- trafti< whi< h is now so 
seriously ufft.-cliiiL' the condition of the roads :iii>l 
railway!- ? 

• • ♦ • ' 

Now that the name of .\hrahani Lincoln, the six- 
tet-iiUi President of the United States, is so pro- 
niiiiently l^efore the puhli<-. is it n<it interesting to 
find that, at one |xriod of hid life, he wu.- MXiiethini; 
of a road engineer 'f I- it ^'eiierally known that a 
.Mr. Cullioun. a county -nrv.yor. offt-reil lo lake' Mr 
Lincoln ar> an a.>4<istaiil. .md that " Honest Alie "- 
who was then the |Kistiiia-ter of the little hu'iidet <if 
Bahni — at once learnt surveying and levelling, and 

he.'ame Mr. t'alhoiin^s assistant ? Doe« not this go 
far to. |>rove that the training of an engineer fits a 
man for almost any position in life ? 

# «■ ♦ » 

Is there anything in "■ iiilro-energy." which, accord- 
ing to an Anierii-an mining engineer, is to he tl'ie 
power of the future ? Does it not read almost like a 
fairy tale when he state.- that with the api>aratus he 
has invented " 1 ton of iiitro-enerj;y is cipiivalent to 
1.3(H) tons of coal, and is .safer than petrol"? All 
this may he true theoretically, hut can any practical yet l>e made of the nitrogen which is iu our 
atmosphere, and have not many attempts heen made 
from time tc, time to harness t\iis great natural force .' 


A town in the United States. Charlotte. Xorth 
Carolina, is ex|>erimeiiiiiig in the use of steel sheets 
as a pavitig surfa<'e. On one of its streets a roadway 
7 in. thi<-k is f)eing hiiilt. consisting of a nuu-adam 
liase 4 in. in dcjdli. covered with .'i in. of concrete. 
.\ wearing surface of steel plates is used which mea- 
sure 18 ft. long. 3t) in. wide, and J in. thi<'k. 
Trapezoidal-shaped ])erlorations, 2 hy 1\ hy U in. in 
size, are i)tace(l throughout the jilate at i to LJ in. 
interval.-. The shorter side of each iicrforation is 
uncut, and ilie metal is hent down to form a project- 
ini_' lug on the under side. Connection hetween 


adjacent sheets is formed hy fitting tongues Oil one 
side of one sheet into slots iii the opposite side of the 
<ither sheet. 

The steel sheets were placed in jiosition and tamped 
to a solid hearing, with the tops with grade. 
Each steel sheet was joined to the one already ))laced 
hy raising the outer edye and slipping the tongues of 
the new sheet into corres])onding slots of the other 
plate. The new sheet was then lowered, and at the 
sairie time pushed <'lose to the other sheet. A space 
of ahout 1 in. was left lutween adjacent sheets. 

.\ cost data on what has heen done shows a 
Liiiii iii-i of ,Ss, Gd. ])er .-((iiare yard. 

Flies and Food Contamination.— At a meeting of the 
l;.i\;il .'Sanitary lij-iiiul. ici he held at St. Helens 
Town Hail on .Salui(la\. l'\«bruai-y ITtli, Dr. Josc'ph 
fates will open a discusMon on the subject (>f measures 
to b«' taken to prev«'ii( cotiiainination of food bv flies. 
The chair will be tak.ri at 10,30 a.m. 


The Special Annual Issue of " The Surveyor " will 
be published on January 26th, and readers who pro- 
pose to accede to our request for a short statement, 
for inclusion in the number, of the works projected 
by their authorities for 1917, will greatly oblige by 
making their return as early as possible. All other 
material, and particularly matter accompanied by 
illustrations, should likewise be forwarded without 
delay to ensure its appearance. 

January 5, 1917. 



Municipal Work in Progress and Projected. 

The Editor invites tlic co-operation of Survevor Tcadcrs tcith a ciew to malcina the 

Head as complete and accurate as possible. 

information uii'en under tltis 

The following are among the more important pro- 
jected works of which particulars have reached us 
during the present week. Other reports wUl be found 
on our " Local Government Board Inquiries " page. 


Carlisle T.C. — It was i<_j)oit«l to the Health Com- 
mittee tliat tile town clerk had laid before a special 
meeting the opinion of Mr. A. jVIacmorran, k.c, on 
the case he had submitted to him with reference to 
the claim of the Central Control Board (Liquor Traffic) 
to be exempt from compliance with the provisions of 
the different Acts and by-laws in force in the city 
with regard to new buildings, and that it had been 
resolved, in the ciiTumstances, that no further action 
be taken. 

Chorley T.C. — The borough surveyor, Mr. G. H. 
Hopkinson, ha.s received instructions to report upon 
a ]noposed scheme of improvement of the council 

Falmouth T.C. — A letter has been received from 
the Falmoutii and Truro Port Sanitary Authority 
asking the corporation to appoint two representatives 
to a conference on the subject of a proposed small-pox 

Halifax T.C. — The question is under con.sideratiou 
(jf |)rovi(liiig <-oiitral offices for the gasworks and elec- 
tricity dei)artnients. 

Rothwell U.D.C. — The council have adopted the 
suggestion of the county surveyor that each of the 
three authorities concerned in the repair of Newbottle 
Bridge — viz., the Kettering Rural District Council and 
the Desborougli and Jiothwell Urban District Councils 
— should bear a third of the cost. 

Spenborough U.D.C. — It lias been decided to appeal 
to the inhabitants for a subscription of £oOO, repre- 
senting the ))r(>p(>rti<in rcMjuired for the district towards 
L(),(MX) wanted for the adaptation of the Dewsbury 
Union infirmary as a base iiospital for wounded 
soldiers. The Local Government Board have ruled 
that the expenditure cannot be charged to the rates. 

Tamworth T.C. — The town council are aj)pealing to 
tjie Local Gov«M-nmeiit Hoard for authority to jjurchase 
jtroperty in Upper (Juiigate for the erection of a new 


Doncaster T.C.-— .Vuthority has been received by the 
town couiu-il for the preparation of a town planning 
-ciieiHc lor Annthorpe and Kirk Sandall. 

Dudley T.C. — The whole (juestion <if a housing 
scheme for Netherton is recommended by the Public 
Works Committee to be referred to the Housing Sptn;ial 
Sub-Committee for < onsideiation and report. 


East Grinstead R.D.C.~it i- ju-ojiosed to convert 
one of tii<- steam rollers into a traction engine for 
tile i)ur|)ose of hauling road materials. 

Harrogate T.C. — Tiie corjioration have j)urchas<'d a 
."J-ton Daimki- chassis, fitted with a tii)ping frame and 
interchangeable lorry and tank bodies. The iron 
tip|)ing frame is fitted witii hand tipping gear, by 
means of which a tip|)iiig angle of 10 tjeg. may bo 
obtained. Tlie tipping frame, completi' with the frain*-- 
shaped lorry b(xly, was supplied by .^lessrs. Lockwood 
A: Clarkson, Leeds. The tank, which has an approxi- 
mate capa<ity of (ioO gallons, is built of mild steel, 
and nioiint<'(l on an underframe of English oak (it ted 
with .Messrs. Wadsworlli's improved s|)rings. 

Portsmouth T.C. — The corporation have accepted 
the tendi-r of Messrs. Foden, of Sandbach, for the 
supply of two steam motor wagons, at L'HOO each. 

Rotherham T.C. — It has bc<en agreed to purcha,M' a 
two-seater motor car for the electricity and tramway 

Tynemouth T.C. — TIk town council, having failetl 
to obtain authority for a loan, have resolved to pur- 
chase a motor fire engine and other fire appliances out 
of revenue, at a cost of £1,500. 


Birmingham T.C. Ih. I'uI.Ik \\..i1<s Comniitlee 
have effe<ted the purciiase of land and buildings in 

Grove-road, King's Heath,- for £1,800. There is a 
large clay pit on the property, and it is intended to 
make use of this for tipping house and street refuse. 


Aberdeenshire C.C. — The load surveyor, Mr. Nicol, 
reported to the Huntly District Committee that a great 
deal of damage had Ix-en done to tlie district roads 
by heavy timber hauling. The chairman, Mi*. 
II. H. N. Sellar, stated that ii the war were to con- 
tinue much longir it would become a serious matter 
for them to keep their roads in proper rejiair, and it 
would mean a vei-y large expenditure of money. Mr. 
AVilson : If tlie war is to continue much longer, let 
us get the Germans to kei>p the roads in rei)air. The 
committee decided to confer with the parties respon- 
sible for the damage with a view lo obtaining com- 

Argyll C.C. — The council have resolved to borrow 
€4,000, free of interest, from the Koad Board for the 
Ballachulish-Kinlochleven road. 

Barnard Castle U.D.C. — Plans have been ajiproved 
fcji- widening the main load near the workhouse, at an 

estimated cost of £220. 

Birmingham T.C. — With respect to the proposed 
iiiiprovement works in Drews-lane, which are estimated 
to cost £7,481, the lload Board have agreed, subject 
to the sanction of the Treasuiy, to lend the coi-])ora- 
titin £(i,4Sl free of interest, the repayment to be 
spread over five years. The Government have already 
promised a contribution of £1,(HK) towards the cost 
of the scheme. 

Bispham U.D.C— A sum of £.i(HJ has been estimated 
for the repair of Blackpool-road, and the council are 
seeking for authority to incur expenditure in repairs 
to Red Bank-road. 

Crediton R.D.C. — Notification has been received 
from the county council of their intention to take over 
the ()4 miles of main roads which have hitherto been 
)e[)aii-cd and maintained by the rural council. The 
roads will be taken over as from March ;Ust lu-xt. Tlu* 
(luestion of the conditions of tlie ap|)ointiiieiit of the 
surveyors, IMr. 8. Pridham and Mr. L. E. Sharland, 
as affected by the altered circumstances was con- 
sideivd, and, in oi"der to i)ut the matter on a proper 
basis as it may arise on March .'list, it was agreed 
formally to giv<- them three months' notice to terminate 
their ap[)oin(iiients. 

Greenwich B.C. — It is proposed to make up Bishop's- 
buildiiigs, I iiames-street, as a new street, at an esti- 
mated cost of £;j.-)0. 

Hailsham R.D.C— Tenders for steam rolling have 
been accepti'd at 27s. per day, all inclusive, for the 
districts of Hove and N infield, and .'JOs. |)er day for 
the remaiiuU-r of the district. An intiiiiation has b*-*'!! 
r<<ceived that the Itoad Hoard have agrwd to pay £720 
towards the cost of the repair of roads damagitl by 
military traltic. 

Taunton R.D.C— The surveyor, .Mr. T. (;. Crumi). 
has submit led an estimate for road maint<'nance for 
1!)17-1H amounting to t:4.0")<t.— The council have 
decided to apply for a contingent of (Jeinian prisoni'is 
for (]uariTing and breaking stones. 


Birmingham T.C I hi Public' Works Committee 
are advised that the conditi<Jii of a length of the 
Hockley main s<.'Wer is giving rise to serious apj)rtv 
lieiisiou. The sewer is <-gg-shape<I, o ft. !) in. by 
:i ft. () in., and is in parts threateiu-d with collapse. 
It is essential that thc^ length betwivn Avenue-road 
and a point about SO yds. below Thimble .Mill-lane 
.should b>^ forthwith reconstructed. Detailetl estimates 
of the works immediately ne<-essary are in coiii-se of 
preparation, and these will pi-obabiy amount to about 
£12,000. It is rtroinmeiided that, siibjet't to the con- 
sent of the JMinistry of Munitions and the Local 
Government Board, tlii' necessary works <>{ rwonstnic- 
tion be carrietl out. 

Blean R.D.C— The engineer and surveyor, Mr. F. A. 
Ward, submitted the apportionment of exi)endituro on 
the Heme and lleculver sewerage and sewage disposal 





s<hfm«? Ix'twct-n iIk- twi' parisht«s. This was as 
ft.llows: Hfrni>, tl4.7.".S; i;,-<-.ulver, l;5,71.i. The loans 
j;ram<-<l wort-: Ht-nu-. LlI.oTH; lUiulvor, io.SOS. 
rin' adiiitioiial loans n^juued were: lleiiie, l*18l); 
Ki-^ iil\«r. I'.'l'il. 

Chorley T.C. — The Sanitary Coromitiee have received 
aiitJiurit..v to eany out stwer nwunstruction in HindK-.v- 
street. ' 

Glutton R.D.C. — The Ltxal (jovernnuiit lioard have 
suggest. ■(I t" the roiiniil lh<- disirability of preparing 
and snlmiitting sewerag*' silmaes for the parislies of 
High Littleton. Paulton, Famiboii.iigh, and Tinis- 
biirj-, in order t«> avoid luUKressary delay in priM-eed- 
ing witli the w«>rk when tile restrictions upon 
borrowing are withdrawn. 

Nuneaton T.C— The town council are rc<oniniended 
by the Sewerage C\>niniilt«-e to apply for a loan of 
L'.">,l<<i(l for sewerage works in the Coton-roiul district, 
and 11,700 for completing the conversion of the con- 
tact beds into filters at Hartshill. 


Aylesbury U.D.C. It i- pp'posvil t.. v.lay an elec- 
tricity ni:iiu at an estimat'-<l cost of i.150. 

Barking U.D.C.-^It has Ix^en decided to take up a 
loini of l-.").()(X) for electricity mains e.xtensions. 

Barrow T.C. — The town couacil are promoting a 
Bill in Parliament to increase the quantity of water 
which they are authorised to take from the river 
Duddon and its tributaries. 

Bedford T.C. — The town council are considering 
r«.romjuendations by the eh-ctrical enginei-r for elec- 
tricity extensions, including the installation of new 
plant, estimate! to cost t.'J-l.OOO. 

Eastbourne T.C. — It was rei>oited on Monday that, 
owing to the large increase in tht' price of coal, and 
a diminution of the consumption of private and public 
light, there was a deficiency of £1,200 upon the work- 
ing of the electricity undiHaking during last year. 

Glasgow T.C. — In connection with the decision to 
lomphte the new generating stAtion of the electricity 
department at DalmarniM k. the Secn-tai-y for Scotland 
has sanctioned the borrowijig by the corporatifMi of a 
further sura of £;.j00,0(XI for tlie execution of cajiital 
works, raising the total sum authorised to be bonowed 
for that purpose to £3,(t00.0(X). 

Halifax T.C. — The Water Committee propose* to 
effe. t various water main e.xtensions, at an estimated 
cost of t;».ooo. 

Hereford T.C. — It! is miw stated that the j)roi)osed 
extensions U* the eh-ctricity undertaking will cost 
approximately i;63,.300, instead of £45,000 as originally 

Llandudno U.D.C. — The electrical engineer has been 
insinict<-d to loftort on the provision of a batterj' 
available for small loads. ^ 

Luddenden Foot U.D.C.^.\n agreement has been 
rea<h«l with liie Halifax Town Council for a supply 
«)f el.-«tricity for stniet lighting. 

Middlesbrough T.C. — The town council last week 
resolv^i to borrow from private sources £12.5,000 for 
waterworks purposes. 

Morecambe T.C— The <ias Committee recommend 
the council to instal mechanical stok^g plant at the 

Nottingham T.C— The town «-ouncil on Monday 
la*-! a'lopt4'd a re«;oinmendation of the Gas Committee 
to increase the price of gas for power and " ga.ssing " 

Nuneaton T.C. —The Water Committ4-e recommend 
th«- installation of a wat4-r softening plant at tIrifT, at 
a <ost of £l..'ttJO, and the provision of new distributing 
main<>. at an estimal^'d r/»st of £1,20'). 

Rotherham T.C- Dr. Houston, of the .Metropolitan 
Water ttonrri, liaH been a^ked to report on the utili- 
sation of the water at Llhy. 

Southend T.C— The provision of two 7.')(j-kw. st^-am 
;.-. (1. .It Chalkwell I'ark is being consideri'd by 

a sill) < "iiiiMitlee. 

West Ham T.C— The Kleciiicity Committee recom- 

rn. ' •' • ^al a turbo-generator of 

:( ' of £ili.7(s, aiirj alvj a 

1,. It a cost of tl'J.KKI. 

Wivenhoe U.D.C— It haH been agn^ed to purchaM* 
!i Tantrv H-ii [, yiM engine and starter, at a cost of 
ilKiut tl80 for the waterworke. 

Worthing T.C. — Tiie town council on Tuesday 
resohed to iiici-ease the charges for electricity from 
10 to 30 |HM- cent on pre-war charges, with the excep- 
tion of slot nielers. 


Bristol T.C. — TIk' Saniiary t'oiniinlloe liave agrwd 
to the proposal of Sir George l{. Ascjiiith, Chief 
In<lustrial Commissioiu r, that the matter of the wages 
of the road swt^ejiers and ushraeii should go to arbitra- 
tion. The Ve«juest of tlio men was that their wages 
should be regulated by the trade union rates, and in 
this coiine<'tion it was reiJortA-d that the wag«'s of 
builders' labourers jivtMaged 31s. !)d. ))i'r week for 
full time all the year round, but that in normal times 
they lost a sixth, which made their average wt-okly 
wages 27s., and for the four winter months 2(;s. 2d. 
A sub-committeo de<idod that they were iiiiablo to 
grant the request. At. tlie same, time they would con- 
tinue to keep the actual average ejirnings of the 
sweejiers to the amount at least of the ju-tual average 
earnings of the builders' lalxmrers working according 
to the trade union wages and conditions as agr«'t"d by 
the employers and wi>i-kiuen of the Uristol district. 

Midhurst R.D.C — It has been agreed to grant a 
war bonus of 2s. per wei»k to employ<.H?s engaged in 
road iiiaiiit<-iiance. 

Worthing T.C. — Tlu' General Turiioses Committee 
r<']>orte<l that Councillor Jackson had submitt*>d a 
suggestion to experiment on the foreshore with a view 
to increasing the d<^posit of dry sand by moans of 
low terraces of planks to be erei'ted betwcx'n groyntis 
below high-water mark. It was rt>solved that a sub- 
committ<'*> be appointed to consider the jiroposition, 
and that an experiment, be made if deemed advisable, 
at a cost not exr<x^diiig .C30. 


.Mr. Johu Morgan, who ha.s l>een aetinjr as deputy 
surveyor, has licen appointed surveyor to theBlaen- 
avon Urban District Council. 

Mr. W. Hayne, of Frinton, has been ajipoiiited 
surveyor and inspector to the Wallon-oii-tiie'Naze 
Urban District Council for the duration of the war. 

Mr. J. Macdonald. Kingussie, has been appointed 
interim road surveyor to the Badeiioch district of 
Inverness-shire during; the absence of Mr. Grant on 
military service. 

Mr. Lionel D. Lewis, engineer and surveyor to the 
.Miertillery Urban District Council, has accepted a 
commis.sion in the Koad Service Battalion, attached 
to the Royal Engineers. 

Mr. Erne-st A. Mill.= , as.soc.m.inst.c.e., of Birming- 
ham, was on Wednesday appointed chief engineering 
assistant in the electricity department of the Leeds 
Corporation, at a salary of £350 per annum. 

Mr. James Johnson, borough surveyor of Rawten- 
stall, has accepted the position of Captain in one of 
the companies now hoins; formed by the county sur- 
veyor of Lancashire for road service in France. Mr. 
Percival Holt, chief as.<i-tant to the borough surveyor. 
will act as deputy diirinL,' Mr. Johnson's absence. 


Mr. Edgar Colling, deputy surveyor to the Myrhvd- 
dislwyn Urban District Council, died recently, we 
regret to state. 

Mr. F. E. Weaver, for over forty years surveyor, first 
to the Gloucester Highway Board and then to the 
(iloueester Rural District Council, died last week, we 
regret to report. He was seventy-four years of ape, 
and <luring liis final illness remarked that, until the 
last meeting an Deceml.. r Uth he did not think he 
had missed a nieetiiii; o( the alxive-nained authorities 
sinc<f 1872. He leave.- a widow, two .sons, and two 
dauuhters. One of his two sons is Mr. Henry J. 
Weaver, m.inst.c.k.. of (iloucester. 

Prevention of Cellar Flooding.— Mu(h inconvenience 
is annually iaiis<-d to wh(t |)ossess a cx-Ilar and 
cannot um- it on account of winter flooding. A case 
in point is the cellar of the Hope and Anchor Inn at 
Hanworth. Middlesex, whicli was form<-rly flooded 
evei-j- year to a considerable depth. In (he summer 
of 1!M3 it was decid<-<i to prevent (his continual 
nuisance, and a treat imiit of Piidhx-d C4rnr-iit was 
given to the floor and walls. We learn that the cellar 
tias been perfectly dry since, and is now used for 
storage in b«»th winter and summer. 

Jaxttaev 5, 1917. 




The Editor invites the co-operation of Sdkvbyor readers 
with a view to making the information given under this 
head as complete and accurate as possible. 


Cork R.D.C. (D>><x-inlxi- 'iOfli. Mr. A. D. Trioo).— 
CI, 000 for the improvoiiHiit of the wat-er supply to 
I'assage West, OlenbicKik, and Monkstown. — The 
iiumey. it was stat^'d, was rc(iuire<:l in order to improve 
llin Tarkgarriffe supply and prevent the influx of 
surface water and other (l<4etorious matters. About 
2,000 people were depending on that water supply, 
and the couniirs rent roll from that supply of water 
was about L2H() per annum. The (council had samples 
of water from that supply analysed, and the analyst's 
repoi-t was as follows: "This water, in its present 
condition, is loaded with organic matters, mostly of 
vegetable origin ; the reservoirs need very badly to bo 
cleaned, and filter beds need renewal. As regards 
(juality, there is vei-y little difference between this 
samjile and the sample taken from the Pembroke 
i>ui)ply. In its present condition this water must be 
ranked of moderate quality among second-class waters. 
Its constant use for drinking cannot be recommended." 
;\Ir. B. O'Flynn, engineer to the council, gave par- 
ticulars of the scheme tliat he had prepared. Th<' 
hcJieme would supply water to 2,000 people, and would 
give them 20 gallons per head each day. 

Arklow U.D.C. — 1;1,0(X) for the completion of the 
housing scheme. 

Aldershot U.D.C. — llJdiO for jniblic conveniences. 

Blackburn T.C. — Cl.tHUi for the installation of a 
lar-distillatioii plant at the gasworks. 

Greenock T.C. ^£6, 000 for the gas undertaking. 
Preston T.C. — £-500 for shingling at the Alston 

New Houses in Manchester. — The number of new 

dwelling-houses in ^lancliester certified an fit for 
luiinan habitation in the year ending October, 1916, 
is the lowest on record. It amounts to 119, as against 
410 in 1915. 782 in 1914, 563 in 1913. 615 in 1912, 964 in 
1911, 1,590 in 1910, and 2,.344 in 1909. In the ten pre- 
ceding year.< the average was over 2,000. 


See End of Paper. 

"^ Applications are invited for the appointment of 
Temporary Surveyor's Assistant, subject to a month's 
notice on either side. 

Applicants must be ineligible for military service, 
a good Draughtsman and Surveyor, and should have 
had experience in a Municipal Engineer's Office. 

Applications, stating age, experience, salary re- 
quired, and when able to commence duties, accom- 
panied by copies of three recent testimonials, to be 
delivered at my Office not later than Tuesday, January 
23rd, 1917. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor. 

To\m Hall, Avlesbury. 

January 5," 1917. " , (3,225) 


The Council invito applications for the above 
appointment during the alxsence of their Surveyor. 
Inspector and Collector on military service. Popu- 
lation, 3,628; {icreage, 2,478 acres; mileage of main 
and district roads, al)0ut 9^ miles. Total salary, 
.C2 5s. ))er wec^k. 

Applicants must bo ineligible for tlie Army, and 
nuist hold the Certificate of the Royal Sanitary 

Applications, accompanied with copies of two recent 
testimonials, to be forwarded to me not later than 
the 10th instant. 



January 2, 1917. (3,227) 

WANTED, Temporary Assistant, for sliort 
period, ineligible for ArD»i-, able to level, good 
draughtsman, tracer, &c.;- keep wages and other 
surveyor''s accounts, and be experienced in routine 
duties of suiveyor's office., 

Wages, 3(Js. i)or week. Applications, in own hand- 
writing, statini: experience, with copies of threo 
recent testimonials, to be sent to the undersigned. 

Borough Surveyor, 
{■■i.2-2^> " Tenby. " 


The Council invite Tenders for the following froui 
the 1st April next: — 

1. Veterinary Attendance. 

2. Horse Hire. 

3. Supply of Materials for Cart and Van Covers. 

4. Supply of Material and Fittings. 

5. Supply of Paints, &c. 

6. Supply of Special Paints, Enamel.-. &c. 

7. Supply of Paint<-rs' Sundries. 

8. Supply of Varnish, &C. 

9. Supply of Tools, &c. 

lu. Supply of Ironmongery, &c. 

11. Supply of Granite, Macadam and Chi|)pings. 

12. Supply of Tar-macadam, Tar Paving, &c. 

13. Supp'y of York Paving. 

14. Supply of Thames Ballast and Sand. 

15. Supply of .Stoneware Pipes. 

16. Supply of Tiinl)er, &c., for Carpenters and 

Jomers' Work. 

17. Supply of Tinil)er, &c., for Wheel wright.s' Work. 

18. Supply of Bricks, Cement, Lime, Slates, &c. 

19. Supplv of Iron Castings (Side Entrance Covers. 


20. Supply of Iron Bars, &c., for Blacksmiths' 


21. Removal of House and Street Refuse and 

Manure from the Council's Stables. 

22. Supply of Disinfectants. 

23. Supply of Coal and Coke. 

24. iSupply of Soaps, Oils. &c. 

Forms of Tender, containing full i)articulars, may 
be obtained at the Towni Hall, between 10 and 4 
(Saturdays 10 and 1), or by sending me stamped 
addressed envelope under cover, endor.sed " Tender 
Form," and no Tender will be considered unless made 
on such Forms. 

Tenderers must pay the Trade Union rate of. wages 
in all departments. Tenders, in separate envelopes. 

sealed and marked on the outside " Tender for ," 

must lie delivered to me by 3 p.m. on Wednesday, 
24th January next, together in the of Nos. 11, 
13, 14 and 15, with Samples, carriage paid. 


Town Clerk. 
Town Hall, Battersea. 

January, 4, 1917. (3,229) 



The above Coiuicil are prepared to 
receive Tenders for the following 
Materials for the year ending March 
31st, 1918: — 
Setts, Kerbs and Flags. 
Granite Macadam. 
Pitch and Tar. 
Slag Dust. 

5. Tar-macadam. 

6. Limestone Macadam. 

7. Brushes. 

Specifications and Forms of Tender can be obtained 
from Mr. O. Holmes. Surveyor to the Comicil. and to 
whom the Tenders must be sent not later (ban 
Wednesday, the day of January, 1917. 

The Council do not bind themselves to accept the 
lowest or anv Tender. 

(3,226) Clerk. 

years' experii-nce. desires spare time employment ; 
tracings. &c., neatly executed; edging and colouriiitr 
carefully done; terms moderate.— Box l,.i97. office oi 
The Survkvop, 24 Hriile-lane. Fleet-street. E.C. 




Januaky 5, 1917. 


It will l>e recollected tliat at the meeting of the 
IiM^titution of Miinii-ipAl and County EnginetT^ held 
at Watford on Octoln-r 7th a pajier de.-HTiiitive of the 
new water .-iiipply and other munici|>al works of that 
town was presented l)y the engineer and surveyor to 
the urhan district (.-ouiu-il, Mr. David WaterhoHso. 
The {.'atherinj; was rei>orte<l in our issues of ()ctol>er 
13th and 2Uth. hut our a<-i-ount of the discussion 
which took place did not inchide Mr. Wiiterhonse's 
reply to tl»e nuiiu'rou.s questions which were jnit to 
him in tlu' course of the jiroceedings. .\s we stat<><l 
at the time, it w;us arranged that tJiis should ho 
furnished in writin'j. an'd it has just l)eeii made 
availahle in the Institution ■" Journal " for D(ceiul>cr. 
in which the official report of the nicetin;: appears. 

Mr. Waterhoise. in answering the many ipiestions 
asked hy the meml>ers. has found it more convenient 
to group his replii's under the headings of the .-iih- 
jects in the order in which they ai>pear in the paper. 

Il'o/rr i'uii'iimjitiiin. — In reply to Messrs. K. Y. 
Harri.son. Bennetts and Marshall, the consumption of 
water was 2') ;.'allons i»er head per day, and the a<tual 
waste in this amount was considerably less than 7 
gallons' p«-r head ]>er day. Tlie Deacon waste detec- 
tion met«'r system was the one which they had in 
<>perati<ui. and the water supply area was laid out in 
fourt«-en wasl<' inspection districts. 

With regarjl to the wa.sheriug of the t^ips. the water 
insj>ectors always carried a supply of washers, and 
they were put on free of charge. 

KlrrfriraJ TtirhiiK I'liiii/i. — In reply to Mr. E. Y. 
Harrison, the electrical pump was of the tnrltine 
ty|>e, and no violent alterations of i)ress\irc were 
l>o.s««ihK'. unless, of course, a very lariie draw-off of 
water took place either on the inlet or outlet side of 
the juimp. Such chan^.'es of pressure would not he 
due to the jiump it.'-elf, for a.« long as this runs at 
tlie same .speed the pressure remain,s constant between 
the suction and delivery sides, so that no troulile <-an 
r>o.ssihly he experiefK-ed when using a ptim|i of this 
type for this jiurpo.s*-. 

nV//«. — In reply to Mr. K. S. Henshaw. the rising 
columns Were susjiended directly from a flange 
arranged inside the pump-head. The top i-n<l of each 
rising <-olumn wa.'- fitted with a special ca>t-st<-el .sup- 
porting' pie<-e providt'd with lifting; rings: the opt'iiirig 
in the pump head wa.- made sufhciently large. 
wlierehy the flanges on the ri.sing coluiiui may easily 
pa.s.-s throuL'h. Xo other support was provided, so 
that the whole wei'.'ht of the rising column was taken 
In the manner explained, and at any time <an be 
easily withdrawn. 

The rising <oliimn- were nwde of laicwelded .^tecl 
pi|H's haviiiL' the flanges welded. They were grum- 
meted and the flamres faced and turned in tin- lathe, 
so that, all the pij»es Itcin-^' machined perfectly true 
at their <onne<tions, no flifficulty was exiierienced in 
keeping them vertical. 

The dislaiieo from the floor to the end 
of tlv suction pipe was 1,')7 ft. 3 in., but the whole of 
the i>ump-work was made stron'^' enouirh -o that, 
should it Ik* necessary, it would l>e |)Ossiblc to lower 
thi.^ and obtain a maximum lift of '.UMi ft. 

In reply Ui .Mr. Collins, the bottom of the 
lining tul>e« was fixed on the l)Ottom of the 1uIk;8, 
and wa.^ composed of thr.-o layers of wood sufficiently 
strong to withstand the ualcr pressure for the deptli. 
After the tiiU.-* had l>cen .-unk to th<' refpiired posi- 
tion, the wood bottom wa, broken out with th»' chisel. 
the piecefl floating to the '<urf«<-«. The annular spac<' 
between the fiilies njid the chalk was filled with 
cement let down by a fiiniwl pipe after th<'. tnl.e> had 
l»eeu driven into the solid chalk to the required 

I'umjiinfj Plant— In reply fo .Mr. Harrison and Mr. 
Wakelam. the actual coM of fuel for rai-ing I.tKHi 
gallons of water l(li» ft. was not ytit available, but. 
estimating <oal at CI per ton delivered at the pump- 
ing station (from which the cost for oth' r price, of 
coal would be directly jiroportionab. and allowing 
for the ."team through th. engine cyfinder and jackets. 
and the necessary fuel n-.-d in hanking the Ixiiler.- 
over-night. tUh cost of <oa! for I.WMI gallonc of waf^r 
raised 100 ft. wa.., 004.1 of a jwnny. 

Under the sirf'<»fi<-ati<.ri in Ihe contra<t. the makers 
guaranteed a .*1eam con-nmption of not more than 
IH Ih. for ^team passing through the engine 
nlinderf! per pump-hor'-c-power per hour, with the 

<ondens«tioii from the cylinder jackets in close cir- 

In reply to Mr. Collins, the effect of cutting off the 
"-team in the intermediate and low pres.sure cylinders 
utwssarily causes back pressure on the high and 
intermediate cylinder.s respectively, and the object 
of the cut-off valves on the intermediate and low 
pressure cylinders was to enable these back pressures 
to l>e controlled, and so reduce free expansion to a 
minimum when the exhaust valves were opened to 
the. <'xhaust and whereby the maximum useful work 
was obtained from the steam, an<l consequently the 
hiirhest i>ossible economy. 

The compensating device is fully explained in the 
paper under the heading " Pmnping Plant.'" 

Ill the event of a l)iirst. main, the liy<lraulic accu- 
mulator o|M'rates in conjunction with the compeii'saf- 
im.' device; the top cylinder of this was in direct 
communication with the delivery main, and imme- 
diately the jiressure in the delivery main falls, from 
whatever cau-se. lh<' pressure in the oscillating 
cylinders was at once reduced, destroying the coin- 
pen.sation in jiroiiortion to this reduction, and the 
engiiM?. at once shortened the length of the stroke 
and was prevented from running away or doing itself 
any daniaue. as would most lik(>ly happen in the case 
of a flywheel engine which was not proi)erly con- 

In rejdy to Mr. Marshall, as stat.ed in the paper, 
there were two (X)m|)lete engine sets, one of which 
would always act as a stand-by. 

W'atir Softciiin;/. — ^In rei>l.v to Messrs. Wakelam and 
Harri.son, the pre-war estimated cost of softening, 
based on the cost of lime at £1 |M'r ton, and im'luding 
maintenan<-e and labour, but excluding any cajdtal 
charges, was id. per 1,(H)0 gallons. The 'estimated 
amount of lime required was. IJ lb. jier 1,0<K) gallons, 
but this amount may vary with the character of the 
water and the (juality of the lime. 

The pressure available for cleaning the filter cloths 
was the old reservoir jnessure of 62 II).. but this ))res- 
siire would be eon.^iderably increased with the new 
reservoir. The cleaniii!.' of a filt^'r was done in one 
o|)eration, which occujiied about three minutes. The 
.average life of a filter cloth was about twelve months. 

In reply to Mr. Collins, the water passing tlirough 
the inlet fo the filter was de|le<-ted to the bottom of 
tlie tank, and. rising up between each ])late, ensures 
uniform filtration. 

In repl.v to Mr. Henshaw, it is not the intention 
at i»ro.sent to <'onvert the deposit from the softening 
plant into (piicklime. 

/fr.-'irfoir.— In reply to 'S\v. Wakelam. the pre-war 
estimated cost of the 2.'Hio,(XK)-gallons service reservoir, 
exclusive of the cost of land, was C12,10fl. 

,Siira;ir Disrhar;/'. —In reply to Mr. Marshall, the 
discrepaiH'y betwe<'ii the amount of sewage discharge 
and the water con.sumption was explained hy tlie 
fa<'t tliat the waste from three large breweries, which 
have their own water supply, and a certain 
amount of rain water from roofs at the rear of houses, 
was discharged into the sewers. 

In reply to Mr. Wakelam, the sewage farm is in 
the area under the control of the Thames Conser- 
vators, and is visitefl '■>%■ their inspectors. 

<'nriliff-riiail Snua-i/i- I'liinpini/ Slalitm. — In repl.v to 
.Mr. Willis, the stati<- head on the sewage pump.", at 
the Cardiff-road pumping .station wa.s ry6 ft. When 
the screening tank at thi.-^ station was cleaned out 
the sludge was gravitated to the low-level ejectors, 
which .send it forward to the high-level eje<'tors at 
Willow-lane, and on to the farm. 

Kjirior Sintiim .—\n nply to Mr. Marshall, the 
alternating valves were put on the Willow-lane 
ejectors be<'au.«e they were not able to deal witli the 
sewago as it <-ame down to that st.iition. The esti- 
mated additional quantity dealt with since the altera- 
tion was made was '£> per cent of the volume raised. 
The advantage of the niternating arrangement wa.s 
that the work was ioritimioiLs and not intermittent, 
and the air main and .-ewage delivery main were 
utili.^'d to their fullest capacity. 

//c'riirfor.— In reply to Messrs. Harri.son. Collins 
and Cutler, the coal bill for sewago pumping in IfWS. 
when the destructor was built, amounted t/i C740 per 
annum; the jKipulation at that time wa.s about ,'tt. 000. 

In earlier years wlu'ii the destructor was shut 
down for week-ends when they had no, and 
quarterly when it was shut down for cleaning, they 
luriHd over on to - fired boilers; Imt in 
re<enl .vears. by an arrangement, they obtained 
steam from the eleclri<ity department. In the 
event of destructor steam failing this supply was 

January 5, 1917. 



always available, but they could at any time go back 
to coal-fired boilers, one of which had )>een retained. 

In working the de.structor they were heli)ed con- 
siderably in past years by a refuse heap near by, 
from which they obtained fuel when they ran short 
from the town; tliis wa^; e.specially useful in summer- 
time, when refuse was of less calorific value thaai in 
the winter. They had never used coal in the 

The war had considera))ly affected the quality of 
the town refuse, its calorific value had decreased, 
and this sununer they liad only sufficient to keep 
going sixteen hours each day out of the twenty-four. 

In reply to Mr. JNIarsliall, the destructor had four 
grates, each canalde of Inirning 10 tons of refuse per 
day. There had l>een no necessity for them to use 
more than three grates. 


By T. Robinson, 

Sanitary Inspector and Cleansing Superintendent, 

[In a report which he has recently issued, and from 
which we make the subjoined extracts, Mr. Robinson 
deals with the cost of cleansing the differ-ent types of 
receptacles for, and its relation to the question 
of converting privy middens to the water-carriage 

The liouses in flie district of Bolton-upon-Dearne, 
numbering 2,028, are fitted with three types of re- 
ceptacles — viz., dustliins, 806; ash])its, 168; and 
l)rivies, 1,054. The <'ost for cleansing during 1915-16 
amounted to i^23 15s. 9d., or an average cost jier 
house per annum of 5s. 2d. The average cost i>er 
privy and ashpit per annum was 5s. 8kl-. ; that for 
dustbins being 4s. 4d. per annum. 

A comparison for tlie last three years sho\\s a veTy 
satisfactory reduction in the average cost of cleansing 
the receptacles jjer aninnn of from 7s.' to 5s. 2d., not- 
withstanding that during 1915-16 the advance in wages, 
including war bormses, amounted to £42 5s.; besides 
which there were KXJ additional new houses with dust- 
bins to 1)6 cleared, and this, calculated on the basis 
of 4s. 4d. perliouse per annum, would mean an extra 
cost of £^ 19s. 4d.; making the tfital extra expendi- 
ture during the year £65 4s. 4d. 

The increased prices of food, tools, &c., also 
affect the total saviiitr adversely, but these items- can- 
not l>e estimated. Tlie real saving when allowing for 
increa.scd wages and additional houses was for 1914-15. 
C150 14s. lid.; and for 1915-16, £220 12s. lOd.; .making 
a total for the last two years of £371 7s. 9d. 

It will l>e seen that it is much less costly to cleanse 
dustbins than other tyjies of rece|)tacles. With the 
l)resent nunil)e"r of houses, if all privies were con- 
verted and dustbins substituted it is estimated that 
the wliole of the scavenging could be done in five days 
instead of six. This would enable the present staff 
to deal with lefu.-^e from an additioinil 400 houses 
weekly. Thus, if <-onversions were to take jilace co- 
incident with building o|)erations it would obviate 
the necessity of an increase in the staff, which in the 
ordinary will be necessary l)efore long. 

At the pr. sent time <'onversions are made entirely 
at the property owneis' expense, and it is a ([uestion 
for the consideration of the council whetlier the 
l)enefit to l>e derived to the i)ublic health would more 
than compensate for the incurred if the 
coun<'il were to adopt a general scheme of conversions 
under the Public Health .\mendment Act. 1907, 
whereby half the cost of each privy and waste-water 
do.set conversion would be Iwnie by the coinicil. 

Tlie to tlie council would ])robably not exceed 
£3,000 for privy conversions and £.500 for waste water 
closet conversions, .\lthough this may .seem a large 
exi)ense to incur, yet by tlie substitution of dustbins 
for j)rivy middens, on the basis of this year's costs a 
perpetual saving of £72 9s. 3d. per annum would be 
effected This is based on 1,054 privies at Is. 4id. 

A Deat-ne Valley Water Board Scheme. — The Hoy- 
land Urban District CounciJ have passed a resolution 
declaring it expedient for the rouncil, in conjunction 
with the Bolton-on-Deame (and any other council 
whose district, is wholly or partly within tlu' limits of 
supply of the Deaiiic Valley Waterworks Conii)any). 
lo fonii a water board and purcliase the water com- 
pany's undei-taking. and to proniot*' a Bill in Parlia- 
ment in connection with tlie scheme. 



.\t the meeting recently of tlie Cliepstow Ruial 
District Council, the clerk, Mr. F. Evans, read letters 
from the Tintern Parva and Chapel Hill Parish 
Council declining to accept the Crown water scheme, 
and also a communication from the clerk to the 
county council askini; for information as to the 
present position of the Tintern water supply, as the 
matter was receiving the attention of the county 
medical officer. The clerk said that the matter had 
assumed an imjjortant position. It seemed to him 
that that council was wholly responsible, and they 
had nothing to do with the parish councils. It was 
only a matter of sentiment that prompted them to 
consult the parish councils. The time had now come 
for them to act, and it was their plain duty to do so. 

Mr. Williams wished to know if Mr. Hohbs Iiad 
been written to in re.u'ard to the " Crown scheme " 
since the last meeting. 

The clerk replied that he had had no instructions 
to do so. 

Mr. Williams observed that he did not think the 
]>eople would have the water at the price Mr. Hobl>s 
quoted before. 

Mr. Heath : Unless it is a very urgent case, I think 
it had better stand over at a time like the present. 

The clerk : It cannot stand over. 

In reply to questions, Mr. Harri.son (surveyor and 
sanitary in.spector) stated that the school and several 
cottages were without a pro|)er water sujjply. 

Mr. Price said that Tintern was well supplied with 
water, but it was a cruel shame that there should not 
1)6 a supply of water at the school. That matter had 
been under discussion for four or five years. 

The clerk: You'll look very small indeed if the 
Local Government Board come down and force it 
upon you. 

After further discussion it was decided on the 
motion of Mr. Price that a letter should bo written 
to the school managers asking them to provide a 
water sui)ply at the school, and the question of the 
water supply for the district was deferred for three 

The clerk characterised the resolution as one of the 
most ridiculous ever passed, and, speaking as one 
who knew the Local Government Board, he warned 
the council that they were " runnini.' into a charging 
bull." If they nerrlected to do what the Crown pro- 
posed they were accepting a .serious responsibility. 
He only wanted to say that to clear himself. 

rriie <'hairman: That's quite clear. 



The Public Works Committee of the Birmingham 
Town Council state in a recent report that conditions 
brought al)out by the war luiving led to a cessation 
of executive work in connection with large .schemes, 
advantaire has heen taken of this to carry out a re- 
oriranisation in the administration of the public works 
department. For this purpose the city lias lieen 
divided into three administrative divisions, known as 
the Central, Western, and Eastern Divisions, and 
each of these has i)een jilaced under a chief .surveyor. 
It is hoped, the report proceeds, that as a result of 
this reorganisation a greater efficiency in the working 
of the department will be attained, and the city sur- 
veyor relieved of the constant attention to detail 
administration wlii<-h has hitherto enf^atred a con- 
siderable proportion of his time. In this connection 
the committee draw attention to the fact that, owing 
to the .scarcity of lalxiur and the impossibility of 
securing materials, a consideral)le number of the 
roads of the city are falling into a bad state of repair, 
and that some day a large ex|)enditure will be re- 
quired to bring them up to modern requirements*. 

During the past summer 347 miles of streets liave 
been tar-sprayed, as compared with 177 miles sprayed 
in 1915. In selectiu'.' the macadami.sed streets to be 
tar-s[)rayed preference was given to the motor-omnibus 
routes and main roads, and to the poorer class of 
-streets where the houses are built right up to the side 
of the street. Of the last-mentioned class 405 streets 
were treated. 

Welsh Housing. ^Th.' Welsli Housing Association has 

asked the Government to all(Kate not les- '' 

i;5.0iMt.(Khi to Wales for housing after the war. 



Jantary 5. 1017. 


Prrsidriil—^yiR. Hk.NRY C. AdaMS, M.INST.CK.. 

M.I.MKCH.E., K.U. SAN. I. 

Prftidenl-Elrct— Mr. Edwaud WhITWELL, F.I.S.E., 

M.S.A.. Engineer anil Surveyor, Abersychan 
Urhaii DUtriot Council. (.Lieut. R.N.V.R.) 


The eighth annual general moetini; will lie held in 
London to-uiorrow (Siitnnlay). 

11.30 a.m. — Council ineelini;. 
11.43 a.m.— Meet in the council chamber, No. 4 

Southampton-row. W.C. 
12 (noon).— Annual general meeting. 

Miuute^ of last annual general meeting. 
Presentation of aiuiual report of council. 
.\nnounconient of result of ballot for elec- 
tion of president and council for the year 
Installation of president. 
.Any other business. 
12.45 p.m.— .\djourn for lunch. 
2.30 p.m.— Reassemble in council chamber. 
Presidential address. 

Discussion on the following papers to l>e 
presented to the nieeting: — 

" A Rtnurnt of Public Health Matters," by 
G. Belson Chilvers, u.s.san.i. (Member). 

" Practical Road Work," by Gleo. Rodley 

" Notes on the Use of Electricity in 
Municipal Engineering." by Horace Boot, 
M.I.E.E., M.i.MECH.E. (past-presidcnt). 
B. Wyand, 

.!;> Vietiiria-street, P.W. 



but thote reiponiihle for their despatch are recommended 
to arrange that they shall reach Tsi Sdbtbtob office iy noon 
on WIONBSDATS to ensure their inclusion in the weekly list of 
summaries. Such advertisements may, in cases of emergency 
only, be telephoned (City No. lOiB) subject to later con- 
Armation by letter. 

CHIEF WATER IN.SPECTOR.— January 8th.— Don- 
«-a^ter Town Council, tl.'io per annum. — Mr. R. E. 
Ford, actinjr water engineer. Mansion House. Doii- 

January Htli. — Cheritoii I'rbaii District Council. -^Mr. 
.\rtluir .\tkinson, juiir., acting clerk, Publi<- Offices. 
Clw-riton, Kent- 

.SURVEYOR AND INSPECTOR. - January 9tli.- 
Knighton Urban Distri<t Council.— ^Mr. W. A. C(>lliii>. 
clerk. Council Office*. Knighton, Radnor.'^hire. 

fJANITARY IN.SPECTORS. -January 9tb. - Ber- 
iii'iii<l-'-y Borough ('oun<-il. Cl.'di |>er annum.— .Mr. K. 
Hvall, town clerk. Town Hall. .Spa-road. Beriiiondsev. 

12th. — (fiiiUlford Town (Viuix-il. Miniiiiinii wage.- 
33s. [M-r week, and a bouse, rent and rates free, .\ver- 
age wages 40s. to 43s. jier week'. — Mr. E. Y. Hairi.son. 
iHiriiugh surveyor and water enpin<'er. Tuim Gate. 

l.'Jtb. — Di-rbysjiire C'lunty C'.niHil. i;230 per annum. 

— .Mr. J. W. Morton, i-rinntv -nrvevor, Couritv Ofliee.-, 

I3th.— CoriK>ration of Middleton.— Mr. J. P'. Walni.- 
\ey, fown clerk. Town Hall, Middleton, Lane.". 

Dorkiiit' Urban Distri<t (V.uneil. £250 per annum. 

— Mr. W. J. Hodgec, clerk. G4 Houth-streot, Dorking. 
.\.HSISTANT KNGINKKKS .Mawh 31irt.-Indian 

Public WorlcH and St;it/' KailwayB Department. Not 
1<M« than twenty-one and not more than twenty-four 
y^ar* of aire on July lat— Th« Secretary, Public 
"' ' T' tment, India Office, London, 8.W. 


■ • •■ ■ I .... I, . . . „, Federated .Malay 

Stal... C»> ^1 .-ingle.- 

.Me^,.rr.. Pf II * Ridei'. H Queen 

Anne'n-gate, iius.tiii;: Mjl'.M.H., jj,130. 



hut those responsible /or their despatch are recommended 
to arrange that they shall reach Thb BuRTBtOR office by noon 
on WBDNBSDATS to ensure their inclusion in the weekly list of 
summaries. Such advertisements may, in cases of emergency 
only, be telephoned {City Ko. 10i6) jubject to later con- 
firmation by letter. 


HliUWICLLTY. — Foi a .second-hand temporary 
Imildini; ol wood framing, lined with niatehboarding 
and cosered with <-<)rrugate(l iron she«ts. Dimensions 
2i> ft. I.y IG ft., or tlieieal.oiits.— .Mr. D. H. Price, sur- 
veyor, .Mierbargoed. ^bui. 

Engineering: Iron and Steel. 

WIC AN. .January 8tii. For tlie supply of a 30-h.p. 
motor tower wagon, lor the Tramways Committee. — 
.Mr. F. Bxickley, general manager. Corporation Tram- 
ways, Market-place, Wigaii. 

.VJjNWIOK. — Jajuiary 8th. — ^For providing and fix- 
ing four sluice valves, for the rural district council. 
—Mr. H._W. Walton, clerk, Alnwick. 

SYDNEY.— January 8th.— For the supply and erec- 
tion of pumping machinery in two units, driven by 
suction gas or by steam, for the Iverell water supply, 
for the New South Wales Department of Public 
Works. — Department of Commercial Intelligence, 
Basinghall-street, E.G. 

WEST HAM.— ^January lltli.— For the supi)ly of one 
water-tnbe boiler, and one ,'5,0t)0-k\v. tnrljo-alteniator, 
for the town council. Mr. J. W. Bea\ichami), 84 
Hoiii ford-road, Stratford. 

CARRICK-()N-SHAN.N'0.\. — January 11th. — For 
pumjiing a supply of water, ahout Gtl.'HMt gallons daily, 
from tlie Shannon into a reservoir, and lighting the 
town with elex'tric light, for the rural district council. 
—The Secretary, Waterworks Committee, Town Hall, 
( .'a rrick-on-Shannon . 

-MEKTHYR. — January 17tli. — For aupplying and 
iayini: 7G<» yds. of 12-in. and 9-in. stoneware pipes, for 
tlie -Merthyr and Al>erdare Joint Farms Management 
Committee. — Mr. W. B. Harris, clerk, Town Hall, 
.Mertbyr. ' 

AUCKLAND (New Zealand).— January 21st.— For the 
-up])ly of mild-steel or iron gates and fenoing, for the 
Harbour Board.— Me.ssrs. W. & A. McArthur Canljerra 
House, 18-19 Silk-street, Cripi)legate, London, E.G. 


1J;WI.SHAM.— January !)th.— For the supply of 
about y.OOO suj)er. yds. of wood paving on concrete, 
for the borough council. — The Borough Survevor. 
Town Hall, Cat ford, S.E. 

NORTH RIDING.— January 10th,— For team labour 
and hauling (day work and by tonnage), and for 
macadam and steam rolling, for the county council. — 
.Mr. W. G. Bryning, county surveyor. County Hall, 

.SPILSBY.— January 12l]i.-For the supply of 4,000 
tons of broken granit<-, tons of broken slag, and 
.'((M) tons of slag chippin^'s. for the rural district 
council.— Mr. W. ('ooke Biackenridge, district .sur- 
veyor of highways, Spilsby. 

DURHAM. — Janiuiry l.'Jtli.— For tar-si)raying on the 
main roads, for the county council. — Mr. Albert E. 
Hr<«)kes, c"ounfy .surveyor. Sliire Hall, Durham. 

BRENTFORD.— January l.ith.— For the snpply of 
2,'M yds. of il-in. (Jiiernsey irranitc cliippings, for the 
urban district council.— .Mr. .1. W. Croxford, surveyor, 
Clifdeii HoiL^ie, Boston-road, Brentford. 

HERTS.— Jaiiuaiy i;5th.— For the sn|)ply of broken 
:.'ranite. slag and tar-maeadaiii, for the county council. 
- .Mr. J. 8. Killi<-k, <'Ouiity ...urveyor, Hatfield. 

WOODBRIDGE.— January 13th.— For the supply of 
u'raiiite or basalt broken to pass through a 2J-in. 
gauge, and to \>e reje<'led by a l^-in. gauge, whole 
i-lialk flints, washmill flint, pit flint, Ki-ntish rag, and 
any otiier ioa<l material, tor llie rural district council. 
- .Mr. (i. Cook, district surveyor, Ip«wicli-road, Wood- 
liridge. , 

HOMEIiSET.— January 2(>fh.— For steam rolling and 
-earifying, for the county <'ouncil. — Mr. Gordon R. 
Folland, acting county surveyor. Wells, Somerset. 

Kf>MERSET.— January 2<)tli.— For the nupply t.f 
broken granite or ba.»alt, lor the county council. — 
.Mr. fjordon R. Folland. acting county surveyor. 
Well.-, Somerset. 

Januaey 5, 1917. 



WORCESTERSHIEE.— January 20th. — For the 
supply of granite, bla.'^t-furnace slag, and tar-mac- 
adam, for the county council. — Mr. C F. Getting.?, 
county surveyor, 30 Foregate-street, Worcester. 

ESSEX.— January 20th.— For the supply of team 
labour, stoneware pipe.s, Norwegian granite kerb and 
setts, York kerb, and distilled tar, for the county 
council.— Mr. Percy J. Sheldon, county surveyor, 

ESSEX.— January 20th.— For tar-spraying on main 
roads, for the county council. — Mr. Percy J: Sheldon, 
coimty surveyor, Chelmsford. 

AtlDHURST.— January 21st.— For the supply of 
broken granite, for the rural district council. — Mr. A. 
G. Gibbs, surveyor. Council Ofticps, Midhurst, Sussex. 

SUJIBITON.— January 22nd.— For the supply and 
delivery of refined or di.stilled tar, for the urban dis- 
trict council.— The Surveyor, Council Offices, Ewell- 
road, Surbiton. 

DORSET.— January 24th.— For the supi)ly of granite, 
basalt, limestone, and tar-macadam, for the county 
<-ouucil. — ^Ir. E. H. Hal)good, acting county survoyoi'. 
County OfHccs, Dorchester. 

RAMSBOTrrOM.— For laying 1,000 sq. yds. of loukcy 
setts on concrete foundation, for the url^an district 
council. — Mr. T. H. Bell, surveyor. 


HALIFAX.— January 8tli.— For the construction of 
2,500 lineal yds. of 15-in. and 12-in. iron and earthen- 
ware pipe sewers, and manholes, for the corporation. 
— Mr. J. Lord, borough engineer. Town Hall, Halifax. 

ANNFIELD PL.VIN.— January 8th.— For the re- 
moval of refuse, for the urban district council.— Mr. 
, T. J. Trowsdale, acting sanitary inspector. Council 
Offices, Hare Law, Annfield Plain. 

BULKINGTON.— January 9th.— Fof the removal of 
nightsoil, for the uri)an district council.— Mr. H. W. 
Wilson, smveyor, Attlei)orough, Nuneaton. 

BURNLEY.— .January 12th.— For the supply of men 
and harnessed horses for machine sweeping and 
watering of streets, and for the supply of men, carts 
and harnessed horses for the removal of refuse, for 
the corporation. — Cleansing Superintendent. Aqueduct- 

• COULSDON.— January 13th.— For the supply on 
hire of horses and men for the removal of refuse, for 
the urban district council.— Mr. E. J. Gowen, clerk, 
Council Offices, Purley. 

WILLESDEN.-^January 15th.— For the removal of 
refuse, for the urban district council.— Mr. S. W. Ball, 
clerk, .Municipal Office.^, Dyne-road. Kilburn, N.W. 

CHELMSFORD. -Jaiuiary 16th.— For the construc- 
tion of a surface-water drain and other drainage 
works, for the corporation. — Mr. P. T. Harrison, 
l)orough engireer, INlunicipal Offices, Chelmsford. 

HAMBLEDON.— January 16th.— For scavenging the 
district, for the rural distri<.-t council.— Mr. F. Snuill- 
piece, clerk, 138 High-street, Guildford. 

NORTHWICH.— .January 22nd.— For the collection 
and removal of refuse, for the urban district council. 
— Mr. J. A. Cowley, clerk. Council House, Northwich. 


DESBOROUGH.— January 8th.— For the supply of 
tar-maeadani, broken granite, .slag, gravel, sanitary 
pipes, blue bricks and i)ayors, and I^ortland cement, 
for the urban district council. — Mr. W. Marlow, sur- 
veyor. Council Office.-^, Deslx)rough. 

HORNSEY.— January 8th.— For the supply of road 
materials, paving, granite and general nia.son's mate- 
rials, mason's and pavior's work, Portland cement, 
forage, iron and steel, disinfectants, and cartage, for 
tlu' corporation. — Mr. E. J. Lovegrove, Iwrough engi- 
neer and survevor. Town Hall, Southwood-lanc, 
Highgate, N. 

ST. PANCRAS.— January 8th.— For the reifioval of 
sweepings and gully soil, hor.sing water vans, horsing 
road swee])ing and other machines, cartage, timl)er 
and joinery, harrows, trucks, handles, jmints, oils, 
tools, Yorkshire .stone and artificial paving slabs, 
granite kerbs, f)aving setts, liroken ;.'ranite. Kentish 
rag, gravel, lime, cement, .stoneware pipes, ba.-^s 
brooms, horse-brusii sto<-ks, pit-ch, tar, and creosote 
oil. for the iwrough council. — Mr. W. N. Blair, 
borough engineer and surveyor. 

HAMPSTEAD.— January lOtli.— For slo|)ping, (cam 
work, Yorkshire and other natural footway paving, 
artificial footway paving, broken granite, basalt. 

gravel, hoggin, .shingle, ballast, sand, pitch, tar, creo- 
sote oil, tar paving, tar-macadam, ironmongery, tools, 
iron castings, brooms, sorting - liouse refuse, disin- 
f(x,tants, and electrical engineer's stores, for the 
borough council. — Mr. A. P. Johnson, town clerk. 
Town Hall, Hampstead, N.W. 

PLYMOUTH.— January lotli.— For the supply of 
paints, varnishes, ironwork, petroleum oil, broom- 
heads, household brushes, rope, iron and steel, pitch- 
pine, deals, flooring, carbolic powder, Portland 
cement, lubricating oils, tar and pitch, painter's 
brushes, explosives, .soap, wood blocks, creosote, dis- 
infectant fluid, granite kerbs, setts, white lead, red 
lead, linseed oil, turpentine and turi^entinc substi- 
tute, refilling machine revolving brooms, benzoline 
and motor spirit, tools, indiarubber goods, hose, and 
ship chandler's goods, for the corporation. — Mr. 
James Pa ton, borough engineer and surveyor. Muni- 
cipal Offices, Plymouth. 


S.VLFORD. — For the supply of brushes, for the 
Lighting and Cleansing Conunittee. — The Super- 
intendent, Willmrn-street Depot, Salford. 


Secretaries and others will oilige by sending early notice of 
dates of forthcoming meetings. 

3. — Institution of .Sanitary Engineers : Presidential 

Address. Caxton Hall, Westminster, 7.30 p.m. 
5. — Town Planning Institnte : Prof. P. Abercrombie and 
Mr. S. A. Kell.v on ' A New Town Plan for the City 
of Dublin." 6 p.m. 
G. — Institution of Municipal Engineers : Annual Meeting, 

4 Southampton-row, London, W.C. 
11. — Institution of Electrical Engineers : Messrs. F. Gill and 
W. W. Cook on " The Principles Involved in Com- 
puting the Depreciation of Plant." S p.m. 
25.— Concrete Institute : Mr. C. K. Peers on " The Care of 
Ancient Monuments." 





The Urban District Council of Cheriton invite 
applications from gentlemen willing to act during the 
war as Surveyor and Insi>ector of Nuisances, subject 
(as to the latter office) to the approval of the Local 
Government Board. 

Applicants (who will understand that they are asked 
to take the place of the Official who is away on 
military service) must 1)6 ineligible for military 
service. They have efficient knowledge of 
Sanitary matters and Sewerage Works, and l)e fully 
competent to carry' out the duties visually appertain- 
ing to the respective offices, including those of a 
Hackney Carriage Inspector, and those specified in any 
By-laws in force within the Urban District, and also 
the duties under the Dairies, Cowsheds and Milkshops 
Order, the Factories and Workshojis .\ct, the Housing 
and Town Planning Act, and the duties of Petroleum 
Inspector, &c. 

The area of the District is al>out 1.179 acres, with 
about 5 miles of roads, and a population of 7,577. The 
Main Roads are not under the Council's jurisdiction. 

Applicants must be prepared to spend their whole 
time, if appointed, in the duties of their office. 
Private practice might be allowed with s|)efial leave 
of the Council. The successftd candidate will lie re- 
quired to give the usual bond, the premium on which 
will bu j)aid by the Council, and to enter into a 
written agreement with the Council. 

.\pplications (endorsed "Surveyor"), stating age, 
experience, and salary required, with copies of not 
les.s than three recent testimonials (which will not l>e 
returned) as to character and competency, nuist be 
made in candidate's own handwriting, and sent so as 
to reach the undersiL'ned not later than the 8th day 
of January, 1917. 

Canvassing Members of tlie Council will disqualify. 

Note. — The .salary at present autluuised by the 
Local Government Board for Inspector of Nuisances 
is £105. 

(By order of the Council) 


Acting Clerk. 

Public Offices, 

Cheriton, Kent. (3,201) 



Jantary 5. 1917. 


Wanted, immediately. l(>r the period of tlic war, 
(Temporary District Surveyor, Ineligihle for military 
>ervioe. to take charye of Main Koads in a district 
under direct niaintenanoc 

Salary at the rate of C230 per annum, to include 
provision and mainttMiaiU'e of motor bicycle. An 
additional allowance of i;iO per annum will be made 
for provision of oflico. 

Particulars of duties. \o.. and Form of .\pplication 
can l>e obtained from tlu' undersignetl. to whom 
applications must l)o sent on the .'peeial Form not 
later than Saturday. January 13. 


County Surveyor. 

I .Minty Offices. Derby. 

January 2. 1917. ' (3.223) 


■pXtUXEEP AND SlRVEYOirS Chief Assi>it- 
-'-* ant. under 40 years of aire, ineliirible for military 
service, is open to sul>sti1ute for similar enLMgemcnf 
with important lv<K-al Authority. .\dvertis<r is fully 
qualified, and has considerable exjierience in all works 
in connection with the Surveyor's Dei>artment of 
larire Local .\ufhorities.— Box i.59!». ofhce of Tuk 
SORVEYOR, 24 Bride-lane. Fleet-street. B.C. (3,22<() 




The County Works Committee are prepared to ic- 
ceive Tenders for the .Supply of Granite. Basalt. Lime- 
stone and Tar-macadam. (Ielivere<l to Railway Stations 
and Wliarves in the County during the vear ending 
31st .March. 1918. 

Particulars and Forms of Tender may be obtained 
from the undersigne<l. 

Sealed Tenders, marked " Stone Tender," must \>e 
delivered to me not later than Wednesday, 24th 
January, 1917. Samples must accompany Tender. 

.\cting County Surveyor. 
County Offices, 

January 2. 1917. (3.221) 

Tenders are invited for the Sup|)ly and Delivery of 
Refine<l or Distilled Tar, required for use on the 
Roads in the District under the control of the above 
Council, for the period from 1st April to 3<)tli 
Septemlier, 1917. 

6pe<-ification.s and Forms of Tender can be obtaine<l 
on application to the Surveyor to the Council. 

Tenders must I* delivere<l to me at or before noon 
on Monday, January 22iul, 1917. 

Tlie Council do not bind flieniselve» to accept the 
lowe«t or anv Tender. 


Clerk to the Council. 
Counoil Offi<. 

Ew<ll-roiifl, ."^iirliiloii. 

Dec«ml>er ;>». 1910. (3.222) 


The Essex County (Viuncil are prepared to receive 
Tender.-* for the year endint: 3lBt March, 1918. for the 
Supply of Materials, Team Lalwur, fiC, as set out in 
th«' 8<-liedule l)elow: — 

1. Team Laliour. 

2. fitoncwaro Pifxs. 

3. Norwegian Granite Kerb and ScttB. York 

Kerb, Ac. 

4. Distilled Tar. , 
Fortn- f'f Tf-ndr-r. '.vi'h the special envelo(>e in which 

Teii'i I and all other information 

a'l'l obtained at the County 

Snr, -lord. 

TenfUrs to ix, deiivererl on or U-fore Batnrdav, the 
3f)th Januarv, 1917. 

PBRCT J SHELDON, m.inst.c.e., 
County Surveyor. 

December 29, 1916. (3,218) 



TI;o Highways Committee invite Tendeis lor Tar- 
spraying on the Main Koads in the County of Essex 
during the year 1917. The area to be si)rayed will be 
api>roximately 750,0()0 super, yds. 

Si>ecification and Form of Tender may be obtained 
on application to the imdersigned, to whom sealed 
Tenders, endorsed " Tender for Tar-si)raying." are to 
1h' delivered on or before Saturday, 20th January, 

rriie Council do not bind themselves to accept the 
lowest or any Tender. 


County Surveyor. 

Uec'eiiiU'r 28. 1916. (3.219) 

Notice is hereby given that after 
the ixjiiration of 10 days from the 
ilate hereof the Corporation intend 
to enter into Contracts for the 
8iiiii)ly of the following Goods and 
^latorials for one year: — 
Schedule No. 3.— Section A. — Paints. 

Section B. — Varnishes. 
5. — Ironwork. 
7.— Petroleum Oil. 
8. — Broomheads. 
9. — Household Brushes. 
., 10.— Rope. 
., 11.— Iron and Steel. 
.. 13.— Pitchpine, Deals, Flooring, &c. 
,. 14. — Carbolic Powder. 
., 15. — Portland Cement. 

16.— Section A. — Lubricating Oils 
(Samples to be 
submitted by 
Section B.— Fuel Oil. 
,. 17.— Tar and Pitch, includes refined 
tar for use in the construction 
of tarred macadam roads and 
for tar-spraying. 
.. 18.— Painter's Brushes. 
., 19. — Explosives. 
,. 22.-^oap (Yellow, Carbolic, Toilet, 

,. 23.— Wood Blocks, Soft. 
,. 24. — Creosote. 
,. 28.— Disinfectant Fluid. 
., 29.— Granite Kerbs, Setts, &c. 
.. 30.— White Lead. Red Lead, Linseed 
Oil, Turpentine and Turpentine 
.. 31.— Refilling Machine • Revolving 

,. 33.— Benzoline and Motor Spirit. 
,, 34.— Tools. 

,, 35.— Indiaruhbcr Goods,, &c. 
,. 36. — Ship Chandler's Goods (Sundry 
Oils, Waste. Grease, Metal 
Polish, Matches, &c.). 
With the exception of Schedules 4, 17, 19, 21, 23 to 
29 inclusive, 31, 32, 37, :«, the Schedules include for 
the Supply and Delivery of Materials to Wrangaton 
Station, Great Western i.'ailway, about 13 miles from 
Plymouth, for the Plymouth Borough Asylum. 

Tenders be based on the whole of a Schedule 
(with the exce|)tion of S<hedules Nos. 3, 4, 16, 21, 22, 
26, 2f), and 36), and not on anjr particular item con- 
tained therein. 

(Sejiarato Tenders w^ill be considered for Sections A 
and B of Schedule No. 3. ahso Sections A and B, 
Sch<-diilc 16. and Sections A, B, C, Schedule 26.) 

Schedules may Ihj obtained on jiaymcnt of a deposit 
of CI in cash for ea<h 8<liedu!e. The deposit* on the 
Schedules will be returned, provided hma./idi: Tenders 
are re<:eived on or bef<ii(> the l.'ith Jarniary. 1917. 
Should the Contractor withdraw his Tender,' or fail 
lo send in one, the amount of his deposit will be 
forfeited, and the Contriu;tor who applies for the 
Schedules must do .«o on the distinct under.«.tanding 
tliat he is willing to abide by the terms of this 

The low<'st or any Tender will not necessarily be 

Tenders to be deliver<'d not later than Monday. 
January 15th, 1917, addr-sKed to the undersigned. 
Borough Engineer and Surveyor. 
Municipal Offices, 

December 15, 191G. (3,207) 

The Surveyor 

Hnb flDunfcipal anb dountig Engineer. 

Vol. LT. 

JANUARY 12, 1917. 

No. 1,304. 

Minutes of Proceedings. 

A New Year's 

1}\ w av of a Nl'W" Year's 
^n-eotiiig we print tin- following 
liii-s. wiiipli arc anoiiv luous, l)vit 
irobably Aiuurican : — 

I know, a.s iny life grows older 

And mine eyes have clearer sigiit, 
That under etieh i-ank wrong soniew here 

Tlit-re li-'s the root of right ; 
That each soiTow lias it« purpose, 

]3y the soiTowiiig oft unguessed ; ' 
Tiiat, as sure as the siui brings morning, 

A^'h;ltl•\•er is, is hes't." 

As indicated in our last issue, 
Rural Housing, tlu' recently-issued report of the 
special coumiittee ai)pointed by 
the Survey(as' institution to consider after-war 
problems was divided into two j)arts, dealing 
rcspwtivelv with urban and riu'al as|)ects of the 
(juestion. We tlicu dciilt at some length with the 
reconunendations of the committee so far as urban 
ilrea.s are concerned, and tlu.s weok we i)ropo,sc to 
discuss shortly tiic rm'al report on the recon- 
struction of agriculture and forestry. This pari, 
of the report is diiectcd mainly to making sugges- 
tions for securing prosperity to agriculture after 
the war, and, aitliough much that is said does 
not affc;-t munici[)al engineers professionally, the 
u liole is of great general interest. The serious 
nature of existing agricultural conditknis. is shown 
by a tabular statement, the figures in which 
indicate tliat, without any aj)preciable increase in 
the amount <jf liv;; stoclc kept, this country ])ro- 
duced h'ss wheat by upw ards of 7, t)(M), ()()() (|uaiteis 
in 11)14 than in' 187 i, and nearly ;},()()(),00U 
quarters less barley. The W'ar has amply demon- 
strated that this serious reduction in the home 
production of grain mny become a real menace 
to our national seciuity. Among the suggestions 
])ut forward for meeting the situation is one in 
regard to rating. The committee consider that 
the complaints which are made against the exist- 
ing system of rating iire due mainly to the increas- 
ing burden of the rates, and to the fact that a 
large proportion of the cost of national services, 
such as education and the niainteiiance.of main 
roads, to which the incrcafee is chicily due, falls 
disi)roportionately up(;n farmers, wlitj obtain no 
commensurati- advantage. Tliey therefore sug- 
gest that relief should be gi'antod from the 
Exdicrjuer in regard to these services — a recom- 
mendation which is in entire accord with the 
views we ourselves have frequently expressed. 

In discussing the amelioration of rural con- 
ditions, it was, of course, inevituble that the com- 
mittee should deal with the rural housing problem, 

and it is t.lie pari d tlie re|>o'L wiiieli treats of 
this subject whicii will probably be of the mf«t 
direct interest to oiu- readers. It is evident that 
agriculture Ciuniot be revived unless some means 
(■an be devised of attracting labom- to the land. 
To do this involves (i) a rea.son.iblc standard of 
wages, (2) the provision of suitable arrangements 
for housing the labourer and his family, and ('•>)■ 
reasonabl(! prosjjccts of advancement. The fii-st 
two of these factors are so interdepL'udent that 
tliiy must be considered together. ' h\ stating tliat 
in rural districts there is "' on tJie whole " a. 
shortage of cottages at the present time, the com- 
mittee use words which are scarcely ade<piate to 
describe the gi'cat scarcity which exists in every 
part of the country. It is apparent therefore that 
any attempt to secure a large in the rural 
population nuist be preceded by cottage building 
on a large scale. .V general rise in agricultural 
wages, so as to enable the labourer to pay an 
economic rent for his cottage might attract the 
capital of t!u! speculator for building purposes. 
On the wiiole, howe\er, we feel with the com- 
mittee that it would be imwise to jilace t<K> 
sanguine a reliance upon the a.ssistance likely to 
be obtained from outside investors in solving tlie 
jirobleui of housing in iiiral districts. The ques- 
tion then arises as to whether the landowner will 
do what is necessary. There can i)e little doubt 
that he will do nnich if he can secure a rather 
better return on his capital tluni is possible in 
])resent circumstances. In so far, however, as he 
fails to meet the need, it must, as the conunittce 
point out, be met by the local authorities, who 
should have conqjulsory powers with regard to 
the purchase of sites. In this coimection the 
reconniiendalion of the committe<' is that where, 
after inquiry by the Board of Agriculture, a 
shortage of houses for the natural requirements 
of a parish or district' is found to exist, the pi-o- 
visions (xf'the Housing (No. 2) Act, 1014, should 
be put into force, and if the landowners do not 
tlicmselves erect the necessary houses, the sites 
should be ol)tainable at .the market price of the 
I.hkI. if neeessary under conqiulsory powers. 

The Organisation 
of Forestry. 

N'l scheme of rural reorgani- 
-iili' n iifter tlie war would be 
■oniplete if it did not include an 
af tempt to place atl'orestation on a more satis- 
factorv footing. It has been estimated that tlien^ 
are about n,(K)(),tHX> acres of land in the United 
Kingdom suitable f'.r planting with trees, and if 
only a fraction of thi'- vast area were dealt with 
a good deal of luiillliy outd'")or work would bo 
provided. The di p. ndeuce itf llie countn- on 



Jan»'arv IJ. 1917. 

foreign sources of tiinher supply is shown by the 
fact that in the hvst conijilet« year l>efore the war 
over ll,(XV>,tH>0 Kxtds <■( tinil)er were, imported. 
Tliis was largely st«^)pi>ed by the advent of war 
coudit'ous, which impc^sed other necessaiy work 
upon our shipi)ing, and it- "at ouce became neces- 
sary to organise home supplies as far as possible 
to meet the i^esidting <hcH-tage. The result hi\s 
beieu aa immediate ci msumptiou of home-gi'own 
timber out of all proportion to the amount which 
might properly be looked upon as {unuially avail- 
able. The supplies for the future have thus been 
very seriously dejtleted and the need for a 
natioual s<'hemo of i»iToi-est«tion aocoi-dingly 
emphasised. If. as is feared, the war should be- 
followed by a i>eri<xl of acute unemployment, the 
inception of afToiestatiou schemes would be a 
most useful method of ivlieving the situation, 
inasmuch tvs, apart from the value of the land, 
from two-thirds to tive-sixths of the initial cc>st of 
new plantations would be expended on labour. As 
far as hx-al authorities are immediately concenied, 
however, projxieals for afforej?tation would be 
confined princii»ally to the planting of catchmoiit 
iu\'as in eonuection \^ith water scliemetj. The 
commit tt-e express tire opinion that eveiT 
i-ncouragement should be offered to numici}iaJ and 
Mtlier authorities t<i prepare and eaiTv out cai'C- 
fuUy cousideivd schemes for the ])lautiug of these 
areas, as l>eiug tvd\ antageous (//) to ratepayei^s, in 
view of tho value of M(x>dlands for conservir.g a 
water supply and preventing the silting ujt of 
reservoii-s, aud in the gradually accumulating 
rapital represented by the growing trees; and {!>) 
to the nation, by providing a further somco of 
emplo\ to the jiopulntiou, and creating a 
reserve of timber against a time of need. 


Apropos of the discussion 
at a re«ent meeting of the 
."^tokesley Rui'al District Council 
(r«feiTed to in our issue oV December '22nd last , 
at p. 570) with reference to the subsidence of tlu- 
Held forjtpath l>etween Stokesley and Great Ayton, 
we think it may l)e of interest to our readers to 
consider briefly the duties and rfglits of highway 
autiiorities with respect to subsiding highways. It 
may be st-ated as a gcueral |)rinciple tl^at, in 
ordinary circumstances, it is the duty of a high- 
wax authority to keeji all their highways (both 
roaids and f<j'jtj>atlis) in such re])air and condition 
as to i)e reiisonably jiassable for ordinary traffic 
at all seasons of tiie y«ar. and to do wiiatever may 
be nec^-ssai'v to that »nd. Where, however, a 
liigh«ay Iiils been rendered impassal)le, wlietlier 
by natural cuuses or otherwise, the (luestion may 
arise whether repairs are reasonably praeticable, 
witli referfiice either to the nature and situation 
of the highway oi- t<» the character of the aceident 
or operation wlii<'li has rendered it impassable, en- 
whether it lias Iwen wiiolly destroyed (in illicit 
rase the liai)ility to repair it is at an end). Where, 
f<ir instaiwe. a road (I'lsscd the l)ed of a river, 
which floiided it at f\cry tide, washing away the 
maf+TiaJx of whieli it \\ iis coinjiosed and leaving 
a d<[io«it of mud, the authority Mere relieved of 
till- liability to do repairs whieh, in the nature of 
thing.", nuist alwaxs l)c ineffectual {Ber, \ 
f^nul„f/,f,, 1 Mvi. A H., 393). But where, on 
tin- oth»'r hand, a road luid been cairied away b.\ 
a landslip, imd lh<- x\'<rl< of restorat ion involved no 
i-uonitoun diftictiil \ or unreusotiable ex]>«Mise, it 
was lield that it must bo carried out (R. v. 
f.'rrrnhoir, 1870, 1 Q H . 7(«). 

.\pplying tlioKC prin<iph»6 to the case of a sub- 
siding highwi.v It -. , iM. /-lofir that, prima farir, 
nnd in the :•.' il eireumstances, it is 

the duty of • 'do wluitever may be 

ncr. -iMirv to make it as comni'xiiouK m it was 
In-for' the sulwidon<-.-. This need not iiwehnarily 
involve the raisiog of tiie way to its original iovol, 

and indeed there may be circumstances in whieh 
this would be iinidvisable, as, for instance, where 
tlie subsidence is the result of mining oi)eratious, 
and the i-osl of raising it would bo considerable. 
In Walne-shurij Cor/jomfioii v. Ijxhje llohs CoUtery 
Company, Limited (72 J. P., 417), a road had sub- 
sided in consetiuenci' of the working of the com- 
pany's coal mines, and the cwporation restoi'ed it 
to it« foinner level, and claimed- to be repsud tlie 
expense by the company. But it was held bj- the 
House of liOrds that the company were not bound 
to jiay more than the cost of making the road 
as commodious to the i)ublic, within reasonable 
limits, as it was before. But, although the autho- 
lity are not necessarily bound to restore the 
original level of every or any subsiding highway, 
it is cleai' tJiat the\' have the right to do so, eveil 
aUh(JUgh this may -obstruct the access to the 
premises of a frontager . (Atherlou v. Clie^hirv 
County Vouticif, IjO J. P., 6). 

Water Mains. 

'I'iiere can be no doubt that 
tlie. general rule of law that, 
ai'aii> from the provisions of 
special statutes in certain cases, damages cannot 
be recovered from water imdea-takers in respect 
of injuries caused either to roads or to pinvate 
property by the bursting of mains unless negli- 
gence can be jnoM-d operates veiy imjustly. In 
the memorandvnu on tho subject submitted at 
the December meeting of the Association of Muni- 
cipal Corporations two specific instances \\'ere 
cited. The first occurred in C'luswick a few years 
ago, when a main belonging to the Metropolitiui 
Water Board burst, causing damage to the higli- 
way which cost some £120 to rcpau-. The board 
denied liability, init ultimately repaid the amoimt 
ns an act of grace. In the second case, wliich 
occuiTcd at Ealing, the board were not so 
graciously inclined, and, resting on their strict 
legal rights, they declined to repay a sum of 
iipwards of £y<H) ^pent by the local authority in 
similar circumstances. The hardship really aiises 
from the fact that it is usually quite impossible 
to prove negligence in the laying or maintenance 
of old mains. In one case, however, within our 
knowledge, the phiintift, in an action against a 
water authority, \\hose property had been 
damaged by tho liursting of a main, succeeded 
in the early stages of the proceedings in getting 
an order for ins|ieclion of the main at the point 
of fracture, which had be^'u removed to the offices 
of the authority. This inspection was made by 
an expert on i)ehalf of the plaintiff, and revealed 
a flaw in tlu' main in the nature of a iiole which 
had been filled in wi'ii foreign metal. The result 
w (US that the action w as compromised l)y the water 
authority, who paid damages i-ather than take the 
matter into court. We merely mention tlys in 
order to show that it is certainly worth while to 
end<avour t<^> find some evidence of negligence, 
.•dtlxjugh such a la-.k niay not ap|)eiu" to be a very 
hopeful fjuc. It wi.iild work more ei|uitably on 
the whole, )>erhaps, if the law were to presume 
negligence from the fact of the burst, and put 
uj)on the water un<li rtakei-s the burden of rebut- 
lint' ^iicli H )iri'-.niiiiii if>n. 

Dublin Workshops: 
How Not to do it. 

The cirtnidaints made 

n 1 rutly with respect lo tho 
hublin Corporation numicipal 
w(^-ksho|is have had a sequel which will n<^t come 
i«s u »ur|)rise to tli'isc \cho appreciated tiie position 
!LS it was then dixiosed. Mr. I{ice, law agent 
in the c<»i-pr»2tition, has made inquin' into tho 
status (4 the woiksho|.s, and his report constitutes 
a wiiole-lieiwt<^-d condemnation of tlicse concerns, 
alike in their incepliou and management. It 
appears that the workshops, although a corpora 
tion department and a corporation undertaking, 

January 12, 1917. 



" financed and maijitaincd oufc of tlie rat<is," ai'e 
lo a larg€' extent, treated by the corix-A-atiou itself 
as ah institutioii liaving no relation to ci\ic autlio- 
ril.v, and dealt with in all business transactions 
in tJio same niaivnev as if they were a firm of 
(■r)ntractors altogo-tlier out side and independent of 
liie corporation. W^hilc the Worksliops (V>ni- 
niiltee's estimate's are placed in close competition 
with the estimates of outside firms, the corjioni- 
tion at tJie same time coinjifls the connnittee to 
give to the men t«rms of employment, leave, 
liolidays, and sick leave which are not imposed 
ujion outside enii)lo\ers, and which exemjjtion 
<-nal)les outside eniploveis to compete witli the 
Worksliops Committee on the most favourable 
terms. The result was such as. might have been 
anticii)ated by the merest tyro in business affairs. 
The committee, in-<;arrying out tJie city council's 
orders, were forced to cpiote liigher ])rices than 
the outside firms, with tlie result that compara- 
tively little work was executed by the dei)artnient.. 
And all this time the connnittee have ke|)t nun 
■ standing idle and reciiving pay out of the 
lates "! 

Surely futility could li;a:dly go further than 
this. With a candoui- wliicli is more than justified, 
Mr. "Rice asserts that "it is an insane proceed- 
ing for the connnittee or tor the coinicil to retain 
on the basis of permanent enii)loyees any men for 
whom it cannot guarantee continuous work, and 
on tlie other hand it. seems to me to be a vei-y 
foolish ])roceeding to eiideavoui: to establish cor- 
poration workshops u))on any basis but that of 
carrying out. through tlie corporation worksliops all 
tlie corporation works which arc; not already in the 
hands of established departiiients, so far as the 
same can Ik- carried out by the Workshops Com- 
mittee." He proposes to cut down the staff to 
the absolute minimum, but we should say that 
a better remedy forsuch an extraordinary exani])le 
of niunici))al iiieplitude \\<iiil(l In- to .aliolish tlie 

delialtllient allnu(.|li,.|.. 

matter into serious eonsidwation at a very early 


The Metric 

The extreme trade competi- 
tion — 1^> avoid a liarsher phrase 
— in which this country will l)ft 
eiigai^'i'd after tile \\ iir renders it imperative that 
<-v«ry possible step slioiild be -taken which will 
<'nable as m(jri^ etticieiitly to discharge; the task 
which we shall have to undertake. Fn this con- 
nection there is a strong ciin-ent of opinion tlial 
tlie adf)ption of tlie metric system of money, 
weights, and measuics would-l)e of material assist- 
ance to the mercantile community. As is pointed 
out in a ciicular recentlv iKSued by the Decimal 
.\ssocialion, cair custonuMs in foreign countries 
do not easily understand (juotations and sp<'cili- 
cations based upon tiie British syst<'ni, and as 
time can ill be spared for the calculation of 
ecpiivalents, there is a strong temptation for them 
to go to other markets where the system to which 
they are iu-custonii'd is in use. In any event, 
the retention of the present system must in- 
evital)l.\' involve many calcvdations, with the con- 
se(pient risk of error and wa«tc of time. At ))re- 
sent the liritish manufat-liu'er who sells goods 
in metric-using countries must work on _ one 
sxstem of weights and measures for his home 
trade and another foi" his fd'eigu business. In 
merchants' offices the pritU'lpals, clerks, and 
others associated with the work are compelled to 
use both systems of mea.sureiuents. As few men 
can think clearly in two systems and truly esti- 
mate values or dimensions, it is difficult to com- 
jtele with countries which are not i>urdened with 
weights and measuies unintelligible to theii" 
neighbours. Thus the war provides strong addi- 
lioiifd reason:? for urging a refoiiiT which many 
believe to lie long overdue, and /it is to be hoped 
that the Government mav lie induced to take the. 

In oiu" issue of August 4tli 

»w u-„u. hist we mivde a few observations 

on the Highway. . \ ■ . t i . 

on till' subject of animals stray- 
ing oil the highway, and we refeiTod to several 
cases in which the (juestion of the liability of the 
owner of such animals for accidents due to their 
presence had been de<-ided. It may be remem- 
l)ered that in one case fowls, in another cows, and 
ill the third sheep, were the cause of an accident, 
and that in ear-h instance the owner of the animals 
was absolved from liability to the injured paii.y; 
albeit that in the case of the sheep the owner 
had been fined under see. 25 of the Highway Act, 
1864. In each of these cases the animals had 
atraytd on to the road, and were unattended. But 
in the recent case <^)f Turner v. Goales {Times, 
November 24th last) an accident was caused by 
an unbroken colt belonging to the defendant which 
was being led by a boy from one farm to another, 
the defendant himself following it. The plaintiff' 
(a nurse) was c\cling along the road, and the colt, 
taking fright at the bicycle lamp, dashed across 
the road and knocked her over. In this case the 
couil. held that the defendant was liable, drawing 
a somewhat fine disthiction between " hamiless " 
animals, such as sheej) and fowls, and an un- 
broken colt, which is likely to be dangerous on 
the highway. We should think tliat to most users 
of the highway there is not much (if a.ny) less risk 
in the presence of " hiuniless " animals wander- 
ing about at their own sweet will, than there is 
in tiiat of a" dangerous " animal luider some sort 
of control; and this decision, satisfactory as t 
may be in some aspects, does not appeal* to us 
to go very far towards removing what we cannot 
but regard as the anomalous state of the law on 
this subject. For our own ])art we confess that 
we cannot see on what jirineiple the owner should 
be considered less culpable in the case of stray- 
ing animals than in the case of a led animal 
brought on to the highway for the legitimate 
j.'urpo** of passage. If finesdistinctious are to be 
drawn, we should have tliought that the former 
was the more culpable of the \\\u. 

The Institution 

of Municipal 


The Institution of Municipal 
Engineers enjoys the honour of 
having as its president this yeai* 
one who is on service, and who 
was consequently unable (<> be present, at the 
aiiiuial meeting to deliver his uiaugural address, 
it would be idle to suggest that ^ir. Whltwell's 
ai)seiice wa.s not ke(Mily felt, but as far as possible 
it was atoned for by the very able presidential 
address wiiicli he had ])repared. This was a model 
of w hat such an address should be, in that it com- 
prised a. survey of the whole field of municijjal 
engineering work without enteruig into to<j much 
detail in regard to any section. Considerations 
of space prevent us from reviewing the jiddress at 
any length, but there are one or two iioints to 
w liicii attention may perhaps be specially directed. 
His remarks with regard to security of tenure 
were very sound. Our own view has always been 
that this question is inextricably bound up with 
th<rse of qualification and pay, and to this Mr. 
Whitwell assents. It is only by strenuous united 
effort, however, that anything is ever likely to be 
achieved. In regard t<> housing, the situation was 
well summed up. Onci- turn to the reiU aspect, 
said Mr. Whitwell, once understand tlitit collect 
and sensible housing ivcconnnodation — which 
must include all the e^•~enlials for health and all 
liie securities from disease — is as vital to the well- 
being of tlie nation as it is tt» the indi\ idual, then, 
and then oiil.v , will it l>c realisL-d that, intteiul of 
building to Ht the means, it is necessiU'y t<> fit 
the meaiLs to the building. 




.Taxiarv 12. 1;M7. 

New York City Water Supply. 


Hv W. .1. E. BINXIE, l:.A., M.INST.C.K., K..;.<.* 

ICoacluded from last week."] 

The jiivvsun- timin'K. whiVh haw ali.-ady l>ct»n 
ivft-rred to. woiv C'in)>lini<l fur a lolal l«Migili i>f ."tj iiiilos 
at sevi'ii diflftM-fiit jioim--. and it i-^ an oxpiMisiv<- typ«> 
of rtinst I Ill-til >n. costing iii-aily trif j>cr frnil run. Owing 
t«> tlif fact thai ilii'so iiinii.-ls aro sultj.-cti'tl ii. iiiicinnl 
|iivs-.niv. tlio \vai«T\vay i-- eirrular. II ft. (i in. in 
iliamc'ttM-. giving a (•ic>-.s--,ttional avoa of Kio si|. ft., 
till' liy<]i'aiili<- gradient luijig arranged so as to givo 
tlu- higluT vi'lcH-iiy ih-<-. — -ary to disrliarg*^ tlio saiiu> 
i|iiantity of wator as tli<- rut-atid-covor tyi>e. The 
huigt-st |iivssinv tiiiiiKl is that iiiuKr N<\v York it,s«lf. 
where the length is ahout 15 miles. 

The -enormous jiipes necessary to carry .such large 
Volumes of wat»-r were out of t4ie <iiiestion uiid<-r the 
str«H'i- of New York, already taken U)> with iiij)es, 
cables, trainways. suhways. and s<-wers. and this 
pr«-s,sui-e tunnel diH'ji in ihe rork was really the only 
feasible method of solving the luoblem at anything 
like a l■<^a.sonable cost. The wat«'r is conv.-yed to the 
surface ihroiigh pij)es cnneiiiiig with the tunnel b*-low 
at various points, there being tweiily-six coiint-ctioiis 
■1 ft. ill diameter and six couneotions 72 in. in diameter, 
the pressure in the main- at street level In-ing froni 
{<(l lb. to 1(K) lb. i>er s(|uar.- inch. 

Th«« Crotoii aipiefluci is a j)ressure tunnel .W miles 
long, hut the maximum internal jiressuve to which it 
was siibjiM i.hI was only about 18<) }b. per scpiare inch. 
The lew maiiiieiiance diarges of this acpu^iiut wtsie 
an imiHutant fa< tor. and determined the um' of pressure 
tunnel instead^ of pijies when the. conditions wei.> 

In addition u. the tunnels under water ](iessure, 
lliefe Were twenty-four tunnels through muuntains 
constructeil on the hydraulic gradient, and called giade 
tunnels, the longest Ixing a little over 2 miles and 
their total length being II miles. They were con- 
struct.fl of hors«>sh<«' section, having a waterway of 
!!»!» s<|. ft., and cost about t22 per foot iiiii. being 
tlu-refoie lu-arly twice as expensive as the cut-and-cov»r 
and aUiut thret'-ipiarters as costly as the ]>ressure 

Pipe syphons are used 1<. the extent of about tl'miles. 
and cost about C17 |>er fo..i run. fJeiuiaily speaking, 
oidy one line of pipe, of i IveL-d st<el !) ft. () ill. in 
diameter, (o delivt-r 2."yi.(KKi,(KKl gallons per diem, was 
laid in the first inslanc<>, provision being niad<' for two 
other- to be added when i.ipiired. It would thus 
appear that, for a syphon io carry the same amount 
of water, there would be very little difference belwx-en 
the cost of the |)ressure tunnel and the stjvl pi|H>s. 

The maximum head to be carrie<l was .'J(M) ft. of wat<r, 
and the st<el varii-<l from ,'» in. to J in. in thickness. 
the maximum stress being rather over ■'> tons per 
.s<|iiaie inch of the st«<l. A pijH- so tbin in relation 
t<i its diameter re<piir«-. of course, additional siipj.oii, 
which was pii>vided by means of conciet*- backing vai-j- 
ing from (i in. to IM in. in thickness, and this con- 
crete also prot«-ets the outside of the i»ipe from 

This ipiesiion of rorii^ion gave tlie enginwis much 

conreni. and invi-siigations weiv caniwl out which 

showed the great Value of Portland cement as a pro- 

t«Ttive covering, and the pi|„«. w»-re accordingly line<l 

inside with 2 in. of Portland cement mortal . Owing 

to distortion of the pipe under varying loads, it is, 

r»f courw. inip<j«sible to obtain perfect contact between 

the steel and the mortar lining, but ex|xrimenls 

Vitwed that even with the nn.ilar seoaiat.d from the 

Ltnuliilfnt, I U-nl of ] 2"i in., jH-icolaiing wat«r lost 

the f>tlier liHiid,**'* corr<»sive power. The remainder 

II liiiidslip, mid tlie *'"*l jiortion whi(h terminates 

eiu.niioiis flifticiiit V v"i' -consists of cast-iron pipes 

«-,»,. held ti.iit it i.i.i:"'. I'*'. *•>:'""" '""'^•.' "v 

/'_ / \u-c I f\ \i t"<'"'»' J""d was designed. 

f.rrr„ho,r, \H,C, 1 QH . .ti,,,,^.^. ,.nterc-<| into 

Al-jdviii^ tli08C pnneiple..,as finally determined. 

sidinp; hij^liMd' 
hikI in the hI' 
the dulv of tl 
iiiTessarv to iimke 
iK'f'ire tlie suhnidi-ii 

- clet^jas been satisfactory. 

■fial c'l ,B. 

■ to do M • £.-, , . 

\ ,mg feilvei Luke 
i.s com>ii<Kl.,,j t„,, ,„(^r^. 

This Heed ii- 

involve the raising of the way to its t "' Hanitiiry 

seivier reservoirs were con.strueted. the lirst I'allcii the 
Kensioo re.servoir, .situated about 75 miles from the 
eoinnienoeineni of the aqueduct, and the scoond. Ihe 
Hill View reseivoir. at Mile 92, just before the city i.s 

T!ie Keiisieo reservoir is on the Bronx River, which 
is alrea<ly utilised lor the siipiily of New York, and 
consists in an eiihu.^'cnu'nt of the ixisting reservoir 
.so as to hold 29,O0(i.O(H),O(Kl gallons, or fifi.v-ei^'bt days" of the flow of tlie aqueduct, an unusually laru'c 
provision. .Mthouirb only a service reservoir, it holds 
more than twice ns much as the Vyrnwy reservoir foi 
the sii|>ply of LiviTpool. The water is to be ini- 
jionnded by a inasoiiiy dam 170 ft. in lieisht above the 
river lied, Ihe fouiidatif^ns beiiiLr carried to a maxi- 
iniim depth of VM) ft. below the river, bed. and its 
total leny;th is 1.830 ft. Its maxiiniiiu tbicknes.-. 
where founded on the solid rock, is 228 ft., so that it 
IS a much larger .«trnclure than the Olive Bridge 
dam. and it is generally 'of similar con.struction to 
that dam. exceiit that the downstream face is to be 
finished with frraiiite. 

The reseivoir will lir of irre.trnlar .shape, dotted with 
islands, and iiiiuli ilidiight has been yiven to its 
feslhetie trealiucnt. As it wa.s biiili in.side and up- 
sireani. of the existinjj Kensico embankment, the 
headwork of the Bronx aqueduct, the existinsx reser- 
voir had to be drained and two large temporary lakes 
formed, having a total capacity of ."),t)i)0.0()0.000 gallons, 
in order to keep up the Bronx sujiply. These lakes 
were formed by iiuaiis of earth embankments with 
timber core walks from -10 ft. to ,5(1 ft. hiffh. and each 
about 470 ft. in leii.uth. • There is a good deal of 
swamiiy t;ronnd wliicli will lie within the reservoir 
area, and tliese areas arc to be covered with clean soil 
and sand. Tt is expected that this work, which was 
let in ,Se|)tember, 191(1, will lake ten .vears to com- 
plete, and therefore the Catskill aqueduct is so 
arrantfed that the water can either be discharged into 
the re.servoir or can flow strait;lit to the city by means 
of a by-pass. 


" The Hill View secvice re.servoir will' hold OOO.Ono.OfHi 
callous, and is for the purpose of eciualising the 
flticl nations in demand for water. The Catskill water 
can either enter this reservoir or can be carried 
thioiijjli it by means of a conduit 12 ft. in diameter 
cotistnicted in a wall, which divides Ihe reservoir into 
two jiartitions. 

The reservoir is entirely artificial— Ihal 1.*^ it is dug 
out— and the excavated material deposited in the 
siiiroiindiiiL' enibankm.iils, the dejitli of excavation, 
which is ill L'lacial lidiilder till reachiiiir a maximum 
of A') ft., and the total excavation amoiinlim,' to about 
2.<)(H».(MM) cub. yds. The banks have no core walls, and of an inner eiiilMiikment of carefully selected 
material rolled in l-in. layers brou^rhf up" to above 
water-level, and an (Jiitci embankment restiiijr against 
and covering this spc( cmbankinenl. 

The absence of con walls is nnusiial. but no doubt 
the nature of the, the way in wlii;h it was 
-liread and tolled, and the care taken in stripjiing 
and in inakiii!.' a gooil <cimieclioii between the bank 
and the o,ii;jnal •.■rouiid was eoiisideied to lie a 
miurantee of its waterliLhtness. si'cimr that the depth 
of water was only 45 ft. 

"The complete cost of this gi-anlic scheme caiiiiof 
yet be determined, but iliere is no doubt that it will 
bo carried cut at a vei> rea.sonable figure, considering 
its ma^'iiiliide. .MtlKniirh the aqueduct ,carries 
.VMj,(K»o,iMN) ijalloiis a day. whereas the Croton aqueduct 
carried only 3(M»,(J0(),(MN) -allons a day, it ha.s only cost 
about 10 per cent iikmv |„.r foot run than the Croton 

The number of men eniplo.ved on the cunlractors' 
forces reached a iiiaxiiniini of between 15.000 and 
iO,<JUO in the year mm This does not seem a large 
figure, considerin,;; the :/,e of the work, and it is to 
be accounted for by tin uiet that machinery was ii.sed 
wherever po.s.-ible to .-iiper.-ede hand labour. The 
wages varied from alj.nit 8s. 6d. paid to general 
labourcTn to IOp. )>er day for skilled labour, and the 
act nal contract j.rices at whi<'li Ihe work was hi do 

January 12, 1917. 



not differ materially from those obtaining in this 
country just before the war. 

A very large engineering staff was employed, work- 
ing under the direction of Mr. Waldo Smith, the chief 
engineer, reaching a total of over 1,300 men in the 
year 1910. Mr. Waldo Smith had al.<o a board of con- 
smiting engineers to assist him with their advice. 



At the la^t meeting of the Association of Municipal 
Corporations, held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, a 
memorandum by the town clerk of Ealing, on the 
subject of the bursting of water mains and the legal 
position of highway authorities in the matter of the 
reinstatement of damaged roadways, was presented in 
a report by the Law Committee. The injustice of the 
existing law within the area of the Metropolitan Wat*r 
Board, having regard to the fact that that authority's 
obligations outside the county of London differed from 
those within the county, was commented upon by the 
committee, and the opinion was expressed that the 
same principle should operate throughout the whole 
of the board's area. The memorandum is as follows :— 

(1) The position of wat<^r undertakers and local 
authorities outside the London Metropolitan area who 
act as surveyors of highways has recently been brought 
into prominence in the western part of Greater London 
by incidents which have occurred in the urban district 
of Chiswick and the borough of Ealing respectively. 

(2) In Chiswick a few years ago a wat-er main of the 
Metropolitan Water Board burst, causing damage to 
the highway that cost £119 12s. to repair. After a 
great deal of pressure had been brought to bear the 
board eventually repaid this amount to the urban dis- 
trict council, but as an ait of grace only, the engineer 
to the board infonning the engineer to the council 
that " no further payments would be made in ^-espect 
of similar damage in the future." 

(3) In the early part of this year a 30-in. main of 
the Metropolitan Water Board burst where it passes 
under the main road in PJaling, leading from London 
to the West of England, known as the U.xbridge Road, 
tearing up the highway and the tramway track and 
dislocating the traffic. 

(4) The cost of repairing this amounted to 
£304 4s. 8d;, including £29 3s. 8d., the cost of open- 
ing and reinstating a part that was opened for the 
board at their request to enable them to get at a part 
of the main requiring repair that had not been exposed 
by the action of the w'atcr bursting forth from the 
main. This latter amount only the board has agreed 
to pay, though an endeavour was made to get them 
to pay the whole of the amount, as they did in the 
case of Chiswick, thej- decline to do so. They state that 
they do not see their way " to depart from their statu- 
tory position that, where damage to the roadway results 
from burst mains, and the board are not guilty of 
negligence, the board will reinstate so much only of 
such road as they are by law liable to repair." 

(o) It is, however, considered that in such a case the 
local authority should not be at the mercy of .the water 
undertakers, who in the area of the Metropolis are 
liable to a penalty if they do not repair damage to 
a highway caused by the bursting of a main. 

(()) This liability arises under sec. 112 of the Metro- 
polis Management Act of 18.55, which is as follows: — 

" In case any i)art of the pavement of any stre<>t be 
sunk, broken, injured, or damagtxl by reason of the 
breaking, bursting, or want of repair of any pipe 
belonging to any water, gas, or other company, it shall 
be lawful for the vesti-y or disti-ict board of the parish 
or district in which sucli i>avement is situated, if they 
deem it exi)edient so to do, to cause notice to be given 
to the company, to whom such pipe is supposed to 
belong, forthwith well and sufiBciently to repair and 
make good such pavement, and if the company to whom 
sucii notice is given do not within forty-eight hours 
n<>xt after such notice take up sucli pavement and well 
and sufficiently repair and amend such pipe, and caus<i 
the ground to be well and sufficiently filled in and 
rammed down, and the said pavement to be relaid and 
repaired to the satisfaction of the vestry or district 
board, then such company so offending shall for every 
such offencx) forfeit arid pay any sum not exceeding 
twenty pounds." 

(7) It is obvious, however, that a ijenalty of £20 is 
inadequate to meet such a case as either of those 
before alluded to, and a clause such as appears in many 

private Acts with reference to damage done by burst- 
ing of waterworks, but applicable only to damage done 
to highways by bursting of pipes or mains, is what is 

(8) An opinion is quoted that without special enact- 
ment a claim for damage to a highway by a local autho- 
rity against a water undertaker caused by the bursting 
of a main would not succeed unless negligence could 
be proved. (^'/-c/i v. Chelsea Walertourks Company, 
70 L.T.N. S., 547; Siwok v. Grand Junction Wa/ertPtrrl-M 
Companii [1886], 2 T.L.K,, 308; and Diro,, v. Meim. 
polilan Wafer Bnard <,f Works [1881], 7 (^.B.D., 1,418.) 

(9) Even if there had been any negligence when the 
main was laid, or in the maintenance thereof, in 99 
cases out of 100 pr<x>f would be impossible. 

(10) Precedents for the recovery of damage done hy 
the bursting of reservoirs, aqueducts, pipes, or other 
works constructed or maintained for the of 
the special Act within the locality where the construc- 
tion of a reservoir has been authorised, are contained 
in the following Private Acts — viz.: — 

Manchester Corporation Act, 1879. 
Birmingham Conjoration Act, 1892, section 46. 
Newcastle and Gateshead Waterworks Act, 1894. 
Sheffield Waterworks Act, 1853, sec. 58. 
Agreements scheduled to the Sheffield Corporation 
Acts of 1896 and 1907. 
Barnsley Corporation Waterworks Act. 1896, .«ec. 33. 
Bury Corporation Waterworks Act, 1889. 

(11) A precedent providing for compen.sation to the 
coimty council and district committees thereof for all 
damage, &c., in consequence of the bursting or giving 
way of the reservoir, " or of the conduits of lines of 
pipes by this Order authorised, and of the flooding 
that may be thereby occasioned," is contained in 
sec. 31 of the Arbroath Corporation Water Order Con- 
firmation Act, 1905. 

(12) As regards a county council, it is difficult to 
conceive that they could tje damaged otherwise than 
in respect of injury to highways. 

A similar provision is contained in the Dundee 
W'ater Order Confirmation Act, 1905; .sec. 17; also sec. 
14 of the Stockport Corporation Act, 1905 ; sec. 39 of 
the Lincoln Corporation Act, 1908: and the Ponty- 
pridd Waterworks and Tramroads Act. 1908. 

(13) A clause somewhat as- follows is sugge.sted : 
Any person, company, or other body authorised to lay 
and maintain aqueducts, mains or pipes for the 
supply of water, or mains or pipe-s. for the supply of 
gas along, over or under any highway within the area 
of a local authority in whom the said highway is 
vested, shall make full comijensation to the said 
authority for all damage and injury, losses and ex- 
penses whatsoever which the said authority may 
sustain by reason or in consequence of the bursting 
or giving way of any such aqueduct, main, or pipe. 

It was moved — (o) That the recommendation of the 
Law Committee relative to damage to highways out- 
side the Metropolis caused by the bursting of mains 
belonging to water, gas and other undertakings be 
deaK with by the council after they have had a report 
upon the matter from a .special committee to be con- 
stituted of representatives of local authorities who are 
members of the council, but are not themselves under- 
takers for the supply of water or gas. (6) That the 
said committee be now selected." 

The motion was declared not carried. 

A Surveyor's Dilemna. — At last Saturday's meet- 
ing of Retford Rural District Council the surveyor 
re]5orted that for the parishes of Biibworth, Bothani- 
sall, and Elksley, he had not a single roadman left, 
and he had to bring in labour from other j)laces. The 
contractors for the su])ply*of road material had given 
notice that, as the War Office had taken over their 
wagons and the railways would not convey slag at the 
present time, they were unable to supply material. It 
was decided to a|)peal for exemj)tion for roadmen who 
were doing half time on fann w-ork. 


The Special Annual Issue of "The Surveyor" will 
be published on January 26th, and readers who pro- 
pose to accede to our request for a short statement, 
for inclusion in the number, of the works projected 
by their authorities for 1917, will greatly oblige by 
making their return as early as possible. All other 
material, and particularly matter accompanied by 
illustrations, should likewise be forwarded without 
delay to ensure its appearance. 




.Tani-aev J:i. 1917. 

A Survey of Municipal Engineering. 

By EDWARD "WIIITWELL, v.i..>.t., m.s.a., Engineer aiul Surveyor to the Abersychan Urban 
Disti-ict Council, Lieut. R.N.V.R., President of the Institution of Municipal Engineers. 

[Inaug^ural address to the Institution of Municipal Engineers.] 

It is iuciunbent upon nie to make my apology to yon 
lor uiy absence from the meeting at which the 
announcement is made of my election, by the members 
of tho institutijn. to the petition of pi(,>ident for the 
ensuing year; and my ab-ence abroad, l)cing one of 
.-pecial duty in the service of my country, will, I am 
sure. l)e excused. 

In accepting the office of jiresident of this iiio>t 
important institution, let me liastcn to .<a.y how ic- 
luctant I was to allow my nomination for tliis premier 
place; ho»v difficult I realised it would lie for jne to 
follow in the wake of the past-presidents, the flr^t 
: -;:ioer . of the cay— and no institution has been so 
:i;Ue iu its .-election of presidents ».- this has 

.• . rto— and how deepl.v sensible I am of the very 
bijih honour whicli has tliis day been conferred upon 
me. I only wi-^h that I could have hud the pleasure 
(.f l>eing with you and of participating in the discus- 
.-ion of the ver.- valuiible iiai)ers which are to be read 
during tho meeting; but. ike most men of my a}.'e. I 
have responded to tlie call of my couikry. 

For the third time you are to receive a ijresidtiitial 
address duriiiL- tiie i:reat war, and, as on each occa- 
^io^ previously, .so now is l>reathed the irreat hope 
that l^fore a fourth occasion occurs a means will liavo 
l.een (cmid to .-^ecure a just and lasting peace Like 
other great institutions, you have contriljiited to 
Britain's wonderful and mighty Army men vitlionl 
wlioni -ucces.-; could never be achieved : men who in 
civil life were leaders of h'.r engineering faculties, and 
vho arc now, from private to general, silently, nohly, 
and heroically striving together to reach the inevitahle 
goal .)f victory, a' victory which shall remove from 
Kurope the poV-ibilities of that menacing militarism 
which always finds its l>eginning in peacefid k fence, 
l.ut its end in frightful offence. Your Roll of Honour 
carri':>s a great percentage of the names of yovir mcm- 
hers, probably a greater percentage than any other 
institution iu the land; and, sad to «ay, there are 
upon it the names of men who have sat by our side^, 
mid who havr laboured with us for the advancement 
of the M.-iei)ce.- of tiiuincering. who to-day lie cold on 
the field of battle. We mourn with those who mourn 
for ;hem. we pray that they may find comfort, knowing 
Miat they have not died in vain. Our brothers are 
iiumbend among the nationV heroes, and they would 
no? have ch'-en a less nohle end while England'.- 
honour wa:- at -take. Wr mips them from our 
• ounsel^, and a^ England i.- richer by their noble sac- 
rifice, we realise that she is poorer by their early 
death, for they counted among our mo.-t brilliant and 
learne<l meiiil>er.-. Some of thein, had they been fl^cd 
to Ijetter ptiriK).-e, might have serx'ed England to Letter 
.-ucce.-i; — the greatest les.s'in of the war. 

Wc are now passing throuL'h the third year of lios- 
lilities, hostilities K-ominenced to right a great wrong. 
u wrong wjiieb no nation in honour ever committed , 
and the-e lio-tilities oontiinie while the accumulating 
wrongc, which <-oiiim<>nced with the sacrifice of a coin- 
I arativeiy defen<ele-s Jiatioii. au'.'iiiented l>y the 
(.'avell, Fryatt. and "Lusiania" crimes, cry more 
loudly U,T vcii.-eaiu-e day l>y day, and strengthen the 
nation'- d' t< rniiiiatioii to exact full reparation and 
•■ b-troy lor ever the iii-atiable god ot militarism 
V I . li our enemie.-^ have worshipped for -o many 

It idee. And the heart ■.( every member <d this 
iiiiporlant iii.-titution i.- with (he Government in this 
liiiid.ible and li'iiiuurablc aim. 


MiK f.f 'h<- irti'infi'ii •• ' • -h marked the inception 

■ Im-tion of it.- valuable 

il.ition by th«- hohling 

•.; midst, the annual 

III- town from which the new 

• 1. . , ,.q|. ^„ (>x<'<'])iion has had 

•• from the 

- held in 

I • I, . , .fford^ the 

'o lilt gieat majority 

■ minor conscouen<e» 
f.j !; 1 1- a loyal ini>titutioii we 


A- in-'DMiion since its inception, 1 

have observed with increasing pride the healthy 
growth of its mambership list. In the early days kceii 
was the antagonism and .<cathing the criticism brought 
to hear against the new body of men whicli appeared 
to rise from t!ie sea of engineering, men ranking with 
the first engineers of the day, and men iiithorto un- 
known in the world of professionalism, men who were 
silently and efficiently steering the h'?alth destinies of 
important municipalities, but whose eminence and 
efficiency were over^hadowed by the apparently 
greater and iiore obvio\isly .successful i)rothei who 
was largely responsible lor guiding the destinies of a 
kindred community. 

Some of the criticism levelled at the in.stitution at 
its birth was justifiable; jiart of it arose from a spirit 
of antagonism onlv, and had no healthj- basis; part 
of it — though very little— arose from petty jealousy; 
but all of it lias been experienced at the birth of every 
institution, and lias been just as applicable to each of 
them as it has been to our.selves. It has been of great 
moment in shaping the destiny of this body, and has 
done more to produ<-c the present healthy list of loyal 
and able members than any silent antagonism could 
have done. To-day a^ great a care is taken in the 
selection of its memljers as is taken by any other 
institution ot ecpuil iniijnrtance ; its examinations arc 
the most practical in the municipal world, and in the 
result it is becoming rocogni.sed in the engineering 
world as a valuable training ground for coming engi- 
neers and the home of many of the most eminent. 
That there was a need foi- its existence has been iiroved 
l\v the great work its members have achieved; that it 
continues to exist after so many years is proof of its 
utility; and that it will continue to fill a void in the 
sphere of engineering is certain so long as every mem- 
lier constantly aims at the same high standard of 
efficiency, to carry out the aims and objects for which 
the institution was created, and to remenilier that his 
quota, however great or however small, is just as 
essential to its u.-eful existence as it is to himself. 

The institution continues to grow in usefulness and 
lirestige; its membership list is even more satis- 
factory than it was a year ago; the. council month by 
month scrutinises ntore closely the applications for 
admission to its ranks; Uie nifinibers contribute more 
loyally their papers and subscriptions; its past- 
l>residents most faithfully continue their keen interest 
and very valuable n.-si-tiince ; the .secretary pursues 
his tasks assiduously and faithfully; all im- 
portant factors are <-onil>iuing in building together an 
iininence in the eni.'ineering world which ranks in 
impirtance and utility with other institutions of a 
kindred character. To strengthen the institution, to 
make more firm it- jiurposes, to bind the meml>ers 
more t.ghtly into one great body, having for its obje<'l 
the welfare of its fellow-nien, should Ih' the aim of 
every member. No iiembcr should fail in these duties, 
if the institution is to pursue its healthy growth, 
increase its g.-eat u-efuliK'ss, and add to its already 
enviable prestige. 


No presidential addre.-> can be complete whicli omits 
from its remarks the one vital theme, security of 
tenure. Just as it is ii' ces.sary that a fruit-bearing 
trc/ should have its root- securely and liimly s))read 
at the spot in which it Icis to grow and be fruitful, 
to prevent sudden s<pMll- from limiting or abruptly 
ending its life of usefuim -> before that life has passcfl 
that stage, so should the engineer, who yearly con- 
tinues to grow in usefulness and knowledge, to the 
beii-'fit of tl^e communit', he .-erves, be protected from 
the siid<ie''. lo<-al storui of indiscretion— and often 
mali<-e aforethought— by having his office shielded 
arid his position firmly f '.ed in the soil of permanent 
government. A tree «bi' h is insecurely rooted must 
always fail to yield it- lull measure of fruit, 
of its strugvh'b to retain i'- grip on the soil, and so it 
!.- with the enuineci "In m all that is best in him is 
crushed by th> unscrupuiousness of slandering and 
libelling members who, tlioiigh really not numerous, 
are generally very .-<ri')iis and determined in tlieir 
animosity, on account of i fancied grievance, bci-ausc 
the engineer has had t., pursue unflinchingly the 

Jandary 12. 15)17. 



straitrht path of duty. It is because this in.-^titution 
Ijelieves that men can give their l> services wlien 
removes or protected from these vitality-.sapping and 
incentive-lowering elements that it .stands for security 
of *enure; because it too surely realises the inability 
of an engineer, however honest, liighly intellectual, 
and accomplished he may be, to survive the really 
determined municipal oiiponent; and because it knows 
that this ab.sence of security to one health official 
in the public service is quite as illogical as security 
tor the remaining health officials is logical. Only one 
real argument has e\er been advanced against the 
consummation of this ideal — that is that there are 
some appointed to pul)lic positions who lack coni- 
l)etence — and ])rote'Ction for them would he injurious 
to the service; to whi<-ii 1 would reply that every 
authority under the present system offers its api)oint- 
ment, at a salary it fixes itself, to the best applicant, 
and where it has failed to secure comijctence it will 
only he by reason of (a) offering such all inadequate 
salary a- not to tempt a gontleman with any ooni|)e- 
tence; (h) .'^electing a jiopular candidate instead of a 
competent one — two oft-recurring instances, to judge. 
l)y the news of appointments. There is only one way 
to .^-ecuic the removal of this public health incon- 
sistency—namely, for every niuniciijal engineer to 
unite in an effort to sec'in-c the passing of a Bill which 
will place appointnnnt. the payment, and the dis- 
missal of officials connected with the p\d>lii- health in 
the han'ls of a central authority, and toward thi.s ideal 
it is the duty of this iu-titution and every member 
lo ,iiiii. 


It i> ni'cessary to make -ome reference to the gallant 
menil>er-s who have goin- forth (o battle for their 
country. I am not aware of there being a single mem- 
ber of the institution who failed to respond at the 
earliest opportunity to his <'ountry's call, and though 
few. like the majority of Ibitons, iiossessed any inili- 
tarv instinct, they all possessed tliat love of country 
which i)romi)ts men to sav," Who lives if my country 
dies ? " And the institution has great rea.son to be 
proud 01 them, their authorities are proud of them, 
and the tJmpire thanks them. But what of their 
liomcs. their mothers, tlnir wives anrf their children ? 
In every instance a loyal loniniunity said, " Go, and 
you shall not suffer; your income shall be as before, 
and your place will await your return." That was two 
years or more ago. and still the war goes on. This 
institution api)reciatt's to the full the dee]) loyalty of 
the municijial authoritic- of this country, and it 
helieves that as the war lengthens in time so will the 
determination of the municipalities grow in intensity 
to keep faith with those wlnj will icturn. .\s England's 
pledge to others was honourably kept, solet the autho- 
rities' pledge to those Knglishnien who went to keep 
England's pledge he honourably kept. 


Like til other dejiartments in which the engineer his activities, this is furnislving an ever- 
changing state in wliieh his originality, research, and 
assiduity find ample .-cope. A few years ago the lead- 
ing question w IS animal traction i-'-r.?!/--- steam traction, 
Init the woiid-M-ful developuientsr which have taken 
place in the me<-hanical world have changed this coin- 
pletelv. and now the controversy is entirely related 
to the form that mechanical traction shall take, 
whether it shall be steaiu, internal coinhustion. or 
electrical power. Like all other very old institutions, 
the use of the horse die's very hard indeed, and one 
fully exjiects to .see. in aniither decade or two, a few 
authorities still using this animal for all classes of 
work with a much concentrated Rii> ^'an Winkle air. 
That at the present moment there are many works in 
which the horse is more e<-ononiical than the motor is 
very evident; but. one hy one, with increasing cxpe- 
lien^e. and with the numerous inventions tending to 
improve the power unit, they are fast appreciahly 
lessenin--', and in all pruhabjlity iii a few years' time 
not many authorities will be found with unqualified 
allegiance to animal dart ion. .\t the present stage 
the consensus of opinion ir that for very short journeys 
the horse still reigns supreme economically— though 
the electric vehicle is rapidly overhauling it — while for 
long journeys the power wagons are admittedly more 
efficient and economical. 

.\s one who has made ;i keen study of this question, 
and has carried out numerous experiments with 
internal combustion and other engines, I am Oonvinced 
that mechanical traction, both in theory and i)rac- 
tice. ha.- more than justified its being preferied to 
other forms of traction, and should lie much more * 
general than it i? to-day; only the conservatism of the 

Lnghsh character has prevented its full application. 
To those eng;nters who are about to chan^'a from the 
old system to the new, let me emphasise how neces- 
sary It IS to be careful in selecting that tvpe of vehicle 
which h«.st suits the district. Do not be influei.ced by 
first cost when considering the power, and remember 
a hilly district requires a vehicle considerably more 
I owerful than a flat district if its work is to be equally 
well done. Again, if the motive power is a petrol 
engine, an increa.-^e in the number of cyiinders is far 
more preferable to an increase in their size, and will 
lead to smoother running, better hill climbing, less 
gear changing, and. r.f <our.<e. reduced wear and tear. 
Tothose who have muiiieipal electrical supplies, electric 
vehicles are well worthy of consideration, as, with the 
uiier improvements in this department, electric pro- 
pulsion is i)roving to he a very keen rival to the best 
known other forms of traction. Th.' initiil cost of an 
electric vehicle is higher than that of the other forms, 
and the available spcixl is less, though the latter will" 
he found ample and (juite .sufficient having rei.'ard to 
public safety, while at the Same time q'lite equal to 
legal limits, los running costs are found to he 'ower; 
. it is noi.seless; it 'witlis'.ands the strain of start.-, and 
stops l)etter; has fewer mo\nng and wearing parts; is 
quick in acceleration without the sudden jar on gears. 
iS:c.. while in control and inaintenance it possesses 
none of the difficulties of the petrol engine. Of course, 
great advances are heiutr made in the petrol-engine 
vorld. resulting in the production of types of engines 
which are revolutiontii y in character'; and this has 
been <'liiefiy due to the exigencies of aerial warfare. 
Comparing it with i>re-war clays, we find the weights 
about one-half of those which held previously, the 
efiiciencv nearly do\ihlcd, and the difficulties (if con- 
trol and maintenance con-iderahly reduced. 

Other developments are taking place. wi*h which I 
nm identified, to wlii<di it is not possible to refer at 
this s1;age, but of which .some mention will be heard 
later wheji the re~ults of mucli experimental research 
are disclo.sed. 

While I do not wish to dogmatise, T venture the 
opinion that the traction vehicle of the future is more 
likely to have electrical power by reason of its being 
cleaner, less noisy, and more simple to maintain than 
any other; and there is cver.v probability that it. will 
be equally cheap. Its only rival will iie the petrol 
engine, wliich. owing to the requirements of the war, 
has increased in efficiency by leaps and bounds. The 
steam tractor, to my mind, already has little place on 
the highway, and w II in all likelihood soon be a relic . 
of the past. 


I'rohalily oneof the most imiiortaiit matters exer- 
cising the municipal mind is that of town planning. 
Jn the past the iirevailing .•selfishness of the great land- 
owner lias .so permeated the mind of the lesser owner 
that the most minute exercise of public control or 
.•irection of ))rivately owned land has b<>en regarded 
as a wicked interference with the right - of the free- 
boin Englishman, and in the result villages, small 
towns, and great cities have been laid out in a manner 
unworthy of the traditions of a great people, and still 
ihore unworthy of an intellectual community. Fortu- 
ratcly, a great changj; is taking place; the i^eople arc 
beginning lo awaken to the value of beautiful sur- 
roundings, ipiick transport, and social amenities, and 
in place of the narrow, sunless thoroughfares, the 
gloomy environment, and the selfish disregard of the 
neighbour's welfare, is springing uj) thj national 
realisation — alike in the landowner and the landless— 
that the happiness and prosperity of a nation lie in 
.-ecuring to its people tiie full measure of Nature's 
gift. That we are far from reaching this high-water 
mark is .still lamentahly apparent. howev.3r. and thi.- 
is chiefly due. 1 think, to the inaccurate per-pective of 
the municiiialities in general, who. with limited vi.-ion. 
see only the immediate capital outlay, and are blind to 
the fact that the principal and interest are returned a 
thousandfold in the shape of health, happinc.->. and 
prosperity of future venerations. The full, proper and 
necessitous solution to the consequent )>roblems is 
only to he' found hy generally ajiplying the i>owers 
already in exi.-tence on this subject, by swcepini: a\va.\ 
the adoptive clauses, simplifying the procedure, grant- 
ing greater powers to the local authorities and -eeinu 
that full advantage i^ taken of them. 


Year by year great strides are being made in this 
direction, and already one is inclined to be mystified 
by the reflection that .-o much has been done in the 
last decade and so I it lie for generations previou-ly. 
Slowlv. hut surely, th' conviction i* growing that the 



January IJ. 11)17. 

provi?ion of liealtliy aiul plt-asant environment about 
the home, with alllhe re<iuisites for the good health 
of the people, i:? not to-day an act of beneficence on the 
part oi the nwre fortunate brother, but a Christian 
and couimmial duty, which cannot help but be pro- 
ductive of marked improvtinents in the moral, phy.*i- 
> ;il and intellectual well-being of the nation. That no 
iihividual should liave a le^al right, for his personal 
iii.h. iar\ profit, to cM>ndemu liis less fortunate fellow- 
luan to live in a home and surroundings inimical to 
that mans and his family's well-]>eing is now lieing 
more cliarly recogni.*ed— yes. being recognised just as 
lUarly a> that the individual is really by his action 
not onl> ht-'junj; to sap a future generation's vitality, 
but is iLibbini; his nation of a robujit, virile manhood. 

That >Iumdom e.\istv< after so many generations of 
civilisation is creditable to neither civilisation nor the 
countrv which possesses it. and that this country is 
at last awakening to the great canker in its midst 
.iiarks thf most commendable discovery of our day. 
Too loni; ha< the false ideal of providing a man with 
these necessities of life, according to his means, been 
clung to. instead of the ideal conveyed by its converse. 
Lot the converse lie the ideal of the nation, and the . 
procp'-s made during the last decade, great as it has 
i"vii. will be infinitesimal compared with that of ihe 
II. X'. The welfare of a nation depends on the health 
of its people; hence, to permit of the existence or en- 
couragement of that which is inimical to the people's 
health is tantamount to race suicide. One hears so 
nuK-h of the so-called housing problem, a problem 
wh'.ch is not so much one of housing as of means, and 
io long as the genius of the property owner, whether 
municipal or private, is expended on how to erect 
dwellings according to the means of tJie tenant, so long 
shall we have this housing problem; it will never be 
solved on these lines. Once turn to the real aspect, 
onee understand that correct and sensible housing 
accommodation— which must include all the essentials 
for health and all the securities from disease— is as 
vital to the well-l)eing of the nation as it is to the 
individual, then, and then only, will it be realised 
that, instead of ''uilding to fit the means, it is neces- 
sary to fit the means to the building, to see that every 
individual has the means and the ri^t to healthy 
and bright surroundings. In other worcre, the housing 
problem as we know it can only be solved by either 
enlargiri: the means of the workers or by the State 
contributing sufficient sums to make up the difference. 
As the former is, for economic reasons, almost impos- 
.-ible of attainment without social upheaval, it is evi- 
dent that the latter is the only way, and the sooner 
the nation realises it the better it will l>e for the well- 
being oif the English race in general. 


How much the growth and really healthy expansion 
of a town depends upon its transit facilities is seldom 
realised in a municipal sense, and consequently in 
almost all district* these are left at the mercy — or shall 
we - . ■ ' *' ■ prize ? — oi the speculative instuicts of 
cur y fellow-men. In the result we see 

eomi! \ond;ng themselves from the centres of 

indubtrv in a much restricted manper, each indi- 
vidual mentally measuring the distance from the site 

of li-- : ' rlwelling to the nearest transit point, 

and h landowner crowding as many pro- 

mi?:: •> an acre of ground as will tempt the 

ifr»-atc-t iiUiiil.K-r of clients. to hi.sown monetary advan- 
1 i.e "That there is something radically wrong in our 
-y^teiii of municipal expansion is strikingly evident; 
that the vision of our inevitable growth of population 
in lamentably re.''trict<d i- perfectly clear; and that 
the rt-'ultti are iKjlh wa-'.fnl and costly, mea.aured in 
the wealth of our iiiiujIi' od and the virility of our 


w hat 


•t admit of the flightest doubt. If 

r and more extended view were taken, 

•I of H d-'rict were as carefully pro- 

'■• done when preparing 

'licr ne<,-es.'^ities of life, 

1 ij'Tue. Ik not thi.- just 

■I'.li.r - 

irLMitripntx can readily be advanced 

fi of Irarwit facilities, such 

• .wth of communities, the 

ind tJie expectancy, often, 

•^ partly providing them ; 

•■i. and do not remove the 

'• vi.'ion. but only lend to 

'l.( t that lack of their 

■ !li. authorities in 

and we real i Be 

hat the need is 

..,^. j.;- .. . -iiaiii .. .-efore taking the 

step, we must conclude that nothing has lent itself 
more to the neglect of the healthy suburban and rural 
life and promoted the growth of the cramped, confined, 
sunless and airless existence than this mistaken policy 
of municipalitios leaving .-peculative capital to prov"ide 
that which is essent'al. Surely those things which 
help to build up a strong, healthy nation of contented 
people it should be the nation's obligation to provide; 
it should not be left to the speculative tendencies of 
a few. There was some municipal excuse for inaction 
a few years ago, but now when an authority can con- 
trol the future development of its district, can allo- 
cate its sectional usages, restrict its malformation, and 
secure its correct design, there is none. It is only 
when an authority realises that that which benefits 
the nation as a wiiolc is that which, under our present 
system of local administration, lienefits its own people, 
that real progress is being made. 


This very important part of the engineer's work 
looms more and more largely in the people's mind, 
and is one for which in its present transitory stage it is 
not so easy to lay down immutable laws as most lay- 
men imagine. With tlie ever-changing and varied 
types of vehicb, whicli now use almost every kind of 
highway, it is found that it is impossible to lay on any 
one highway that kind of surface which is suitable to 
all, and it is fast becoming an accepted' fact that a 
highway must be constructed with a surface that will 
suit best the major portion of the "traffic which it lias 
to carry. Again, it is found that this solution of the 
problem is not in itself conclusive, for other diflBcult 
factors immediately present themselves in the form 
of po-sition of the highway, the physical character- 
istics of the district over which it passes, &c.; w'hile 
the question of cost generally closes the door, in the 
municipal mind, on tlSe best and most suitable forms. 
One thing is really most evident, although often over- 
looked by the carping critic of highways, a.nd that is, 
that unless an adequate foundation is provided to any 
form of hishway, good surfaces are the exception and 
not the rule ; and how many of the ex;.sting highways, 
unless they have been constructed or reconstructed 
during very recent years, possess this adequate foun- 
dation ? Another fact which must be understood is 
that the best forms of highway surface, given that 
ether conditions are complied with, are undoubtedly 
the most satisfactory andthe most economical, though 
much more costly than the old forms in initial outlay. 
Of course, it must be realised that the best form does 
not necessarily mean the most costly, but rather the 
most efficient,' having regard to durability, imper- 
viousness, noiselessnoss, and self-cleanliness. Per- 
sonallv, I regard the keeping of highway statistics as . 
being "as essential as the knowledge and us? of the 
hest materials, for without the former the use of the 
latter depends too much on mental observation and 
memory ; but how many authorities realise the 
importance of this sufficiently to provide staffs ade- 
qiiate for effer-tively keeping such data ? 

Much controversy ari.=es from time to time as to 
whether the main liighways of the country should not 
l>e nationallv controlled. There is much more to be 
.■,aid in favour of this than there was a few years ago, 
before the advent of the automobile, and when traffic 
was almost entirely local. Without doubt there are 
n.any arguments to be advanced in favour of this pro- 
I-osal now, jiarticularly from those who use the roads 
in a national sense, and one is inclined to agree that 
if any change is made this should be the one. At the 
present time many urban authorities and all 
larger municipalities control the highways in their 
district which carry the through traffic; while, as is 
well known, the countv councils control the romamdcr. 
In manv instances the view is held that the <'oniity 
authorities are the proper authorities in any event. I 
do not think that aiiv <liaiHyg- should be made in this 
-mallor .<, but ratluT in a national sen.'^e. as by 
that means the whole tr.:itnicht of the main highways 
would be free from lo> ;il influence; they would bo 
more uniformly kept; their state, conditions and 
Ftatifitic< more generou-lv noted than when the Ux-al 
rate provided the mcaii:^ and so they would, as is only 
right and reasonable, br ome a national charge. 

In view of the ever-ii. creasing shadow of national 
control. I think the contribution of a paper by some 
memlier of the in.MitutK.,, on the anruments for and 
again.»t the suggestion^ would be timely and a most 
valuable addition to lb- institution's records. 


One of the most striking lessons of municipal shorl- 
sightednees is provided by the realisation of the enor- 

Januaev 12, 1917. 



Jiious sums which have lo be spent annually to widen, 
straighten and generally improve our existing high- 
ways, or to make new ones through congested areas. 
There is not a .single community in the country which 
is not having to pay most heavily for the lack of fore- 
sight or the niggardline.-^s of a past generation— and 
in many instances for the present one— and in .some 
eases the sums having to he paid for properties which 
previously could have been acquired for a trifle are 
almost staggering. In the writer's own experience, he 
has found authorities having to provide 30 per cent of 
their revenue for this purpose, and when one realises 
tl is and looks to the experiences of large towns like 
Liverpool and Sheffield, one is surprised to find any 
sign of lethargy in seizing upon the provisions of the 
Town Planning Acts in order that future generations 
may be spared the enormous waste which is now being 

Of course, it is evident that some sums must always 
be provided to remedy that which human judgment 
could not foresee, but there is no excuse for an autlio- 
rity which neglects to provide for a futuie generation 
that which the future generation will need in its turn, 
and as there is r.o surer, easier, or more economical 
way of doing this^han by the preparation of a town 
planning scheme— a scheme which will in the present 
generation justify its execution a hundredfold— one 
must conclude that it is nmnicipal folly not to take 
advantage thereof, and dei)lore the national blindness 
which prevents it from being demanded. 


Everyone knows that dirt and infectious disease are 
synonymous terms, and although it was only during 
the conclusion of the last century that this became 
an accepted fact, some wonderful strides have since 
been made in the efforts to obliterate them from our 
vocabulary. That we shall never be perfectly free 
from all forms of infectious disease is almost an 
axiom, but that it can be reduced from the enormous 
proportion of human ailments which it forms is per- 
fectly clear; in fact, were it within the province of this 
address to produce figures showing the progress made 
during the last forty years, their inclusion would pro- 
vide some very striking contrasts. 

Disease prevention is one of the departments in 
which the authorities are far ahead of th3 people in 
their knowledge of its importance, and have enacted 
by-laws and regulations which, if sensibly followed, 
would do much to stamp out entirely almost all pre- 
ventable Unfortunately, the people are far 
behind ; .some of the lower classes are living in a sense 
far behind the Middle Ages, while others appear most 
reluctantly to drag themselves along far from the 
realm of precaution. It is not that they do not suffer 
for it — they do ; and, sad to say, many others too who 
would do those things which are best. The authorities 
cannot be blamed, they are performing their 
tasks often in the face of a diametrically opposing 
obstinacy which regards public interference as some- 
thing akin to despotism ; and is not an Englishman's 
home his castle ? Much i)rogress will have to be made 
in the education of the nuisses before infectious disease 
is practically stamped out, and I am rather inclined to 
the opinion that the most economical way of achieving 
the latter object is for the Education Committees to 
give sanitation an important place in their curriculum. 
If as much care were taken to instil into the youthful 
mind how to maintain health as is taken to instruct 
it in much less vital matters, hundreds of thousands 
of pounds would not be wasted in remedying that 
which could have been avoided, and more than that 
gained ))y the better health of the people. As is well 
known, many thousands are wasted in disinfectants to 
satisfy the sentiments of people who are in the habit 
of crying " wolf " at all times, and there is hardly a 
sanitary engineer but who is amazed at it. But what 
can be done ? Public sentiment must be satisfied, 
and sf) tons of disiufet^tants are thrown annually in 
the drains and sewers of the country on the off-chance 
that there may be a disea.'^e germ with its mouth open 
waiting to )>e poisoned therein; and yet infectious 
disease is almost unknown among the .sewerinen of 
our great town? and cities ; further, wo know how the 
presence of disinfectants interferes with the natural 
processes of sewage purification, and makes tliat puri- 
fication more costly and difficult. 


The effective advances that liave been made in thi^ 
department during ro<cnt years call for much con- 
gratulation ; but, great as the advances have been, many 
more are neces.sary l)efore we can rest content in the 
_belief that the problem has been fina'ly solved. In 

the matter of sewerage, I think it may generally be 
conceded that we are nearing the final disposition of 
all doubtful problems, and if other departments of 
public service, which are equally vital to the welfare 
of the dwellers, were on as satisfactory a basis, our 
death, infectious disease, and kindred" rates would 
show a much more satisfactory condition of things. 

Perhaps the most oft-debated matter in connection 
with sewerage is the disconnecting trap, the evolution 
of a day of royal and national grief, and which, though , 
eminently effective in its primary purpose, is woefidly 
dangerous in other directions, and responsible for 
more than 90 per cent of the evils in connection with 
modern drainage. Some day we shall discover that at 
last bureaucracy has bowed its head to the consensus 
of profe.ssional opinion, and. then, a few years after- 
ward, we .shall pause to wonder how such an illogical 
contrivance, in which the remedy intensified the 
troubles, could have survived so long. 

While in the department of sewerage great improve- 
ment has been effected, it is unfortunate that so much 
real progress remains to l)e recorded before the problem 
of sewrige disposal is proi>erly solved. Experiments 
extending over long periods have been made ; com- 
missions have sat for years and reported years later, 
largely with good results— although without full effect, 
because some of the information was almost out of 
date by the time it appeared, and also because some of 
it lacked the definiteness which a national commission 
should provide; statistics have been compiled vhich, 
owing to the varying circumstances in each case, lose 
much of their value when setting standards therefro'n. 
And yet, in spite of the.<e things, we seem to be far 
from effecting the purification of sewage satisfactorily, 
and at the .same time economically, on lines applicable 
to all districts. The absence of standard degrees -jf 
purification is another fruitful source of'difficulty, and 
in my own experience, difference of opinion among 
engmeers, the weakness of a county comicil, and the 
indecision of the Local Government Board, led to the 
useless expenditure of many thousands of pounds in 
the promotion of rival Bills in the House by different 
local authorities for the drainage and sewage disposal 
of the same area. It is when one realises these things 
that one has the truest conception of how far we 
are from accurately defining the correct lines for 
success, and, further, it is such instances as the one 
given that do more to call professional attention tc 
the unsatisfactory condition of the question, with its 
consequent wa.stage of public money, than the multi- 
plication of costly experiments can ever do. The 
engineering world, however, owes much to the 
courageous pioneers of sewage treatment, and thoigh 
the war has set back the clock for a period, one is 
inclined to the belief that their successors are 
approaching th3 question from much more satisfactory 
standpoints than formerly, and that more gratifying 
results will accrue in the near future. 
(To be concluded.) 

Women and Road Work. — Women are being employed 
on highway work at Walton-on-Thames. 

Substitution Scheme for Municipal Tramways.— 
The Municipal Tramways Association announces that 
arrangements have l)een made with the War Office for 
the establishment of a .substitution scheme applicable 
to tramway undertakings for dealing with employees 
of military age. 

Water Supply from Melted Snow — A project is being 
vuidcrtakeii in the State of Arizona by which an arid 
desert district is to be watered with the melted snows 
of a neighlx)uring mountain range. The scheme in- 
volves a collecting ditch situated in an impermeable 
clay stratum to intercept the water flowing down the 
mountain slopes, with two storage basins evolved 
from old volcanic craters. Pipe lines totalling 90 
miles are to be laid to serve the area. The cai)acity 
of the two reservoir:} amounts to 920,(HKI.00() gallons, 
and the total annual supply will be 2,000.000,000 gal- 
lons. The distribution will take place entirely by 
gravity. The pipes are of sheet iron, each length 
having a bead or ridge stamped around each end. 
The end of one pipe is heated to enable it to slip over 
the adjacent pi[>e, with the hollow bead of one fitting 
over the raised ridge of the other. On cooling, the 
pil)es are locked together. The total cost of the instal- 
lation is e.stimated at £25,000. This will .«olve the 
difficult problem of supplying water in the district, 
where all potable watir has to l)e drawn in by rail 
in tank cars. So little water was available that in 
s^une towns the effluent from treated sewage was ii~e<l 
to sprinkle lawns and in boilers. 



.1 ANUARV 12, 1917. 

Practical Road Work : A Day Out of the Office/ 

Bv LlEO. ];oL'LEY. l)i.<uici SmvcVur, Nuil'olk Cuuutv Council, Xoiili \\':ilsluiin. 

T\w wiitvr of iliis, liis first I'aix^r, liopps that tho 
opinions and idoas set forth therein will, if not iiuitc 
meeting witl> gen«ral approval, be of some littlo 
prartical s»rvi(v t^i a («w of the mombci-s and students 
of onr institution. 

Most of my details are given from an " outside " 
rather than from an '•olTm'" point of view, and thus 
n>ay Ik", as I hoix-. of gnat use to tliose assistants 
among us who get very lare opportunities of seeing 
the artual work carried out. In many ofTires the 
assistant surveyor and puj'ils have tlie bulk of their 
time taken up with work for wiiich an oftire boy should 
have bei'ii engagt^l. such as correspondence, wages 
accounts, i^c. It is a re<l-letter day if they can go 
round the work occasionally. To such I would say : 
■'Come along; let's go round the'' jobs to-day— lenve 
your booking for anotber day." 


Now, the first work w«' come to is a piece of new 
fiMitpath flagging — one sido of the street with natural 
flags and tht- other side with artificial flags. We will 
see the artificial flagging first, because a gang of men 
is at work on «>ach sid«-. The flags are set up in stacks 
on their edge, and the sizes are 2 ft., 2 ft. 3 in., 
2 ft. fi in.. 2 ft. SI in., or 3 ft., according to the width 
of fcK.tpath. but all the Hags are 2 ft. wide. The usual 
crossfall from back or building line in this class of 
work is i in. to the f<K>t. so that if the path was (> ft. 
in width the back line would be l^in. above the level 
of the kerb, .\fter the crossfall has been determined 
a chalk line is strung along the back showing the level 
of the finished flagging there, and the tradesman 
c-omniences laying flags on a i)repared betl of good 
hard, fine boiler a>.hes. His first flag is laid against 
the kerb, with ^in. lip above the kerb, and at such 
a level that a straiglit-e<lge placed on it will just touch 
on it>- underside the chalk litie on the back, aft<'r the 
flag has b<-en consoliilatnl with a beetle, or mall. 
Thi" is doiK- until that roniM' of flags is laid. Then 
tile next cours4- is laid su tiiat there is at least (i in. 
of break in tin- joints. That is to saj', starting from 
the kerb, the first flag ill tlie first course may U- 
2 ft. <i in. Ill length. Then the first flag in the .s<cond 
.ouiM- should be either 2 (i. or 3 ft. in length. The 
b«->t work is oblaiiKH) l»y arranging the joints so that 
they are ruiitinuous •' liii and miss." This is most 
pleasing to the eye. fii b<-<lding the flags it is usual 
to place a Jrow<-i of mortar iiiirler each coiiur, and 
then beetle till' flag down carefully — more with a nil) 
of tiie lie«-tle than with .-i blow— until it is lonsoliilaleil 
and true with the bark line. In some towns the 
joints are afterwards grouted with cement and shikI, 
and in other*, they are •.imply groutivl with sand. For 
m.iny rea'-on- 1 prefer the latter system. «-specially 
III large, towns where services <-xist for gas, water. 
«-lectrie light. Ac. If the joints are groutt>d with 
lenient and sand it often means that in taking up 
oiii- flag five or si\ an- broken. 

We will now rrov'. the road to the other men. who 

are laying the natural stone flagging. The bi<d is 

prepar«i(l in the usual way, and the bai-k line is s(^t 

out III the ■•aim- iiiaiiiier. e\c<-j>t that it is usual to 

allow a ciosvfill ,,( ^ in. to the ffxjl, so that a foot- 

[•ath <■> fl. wid«- Would b<' given .'{ in. of crossfall. 'i'lie 

ino>.t eciiiioniical way of buying natural flags is. in my 

o|.imi.ii. to buy tliem III tile rough— '.'■.. not tooled 

or ^<|iiare«l. The councils' masons can s(|uan' them on 

•' — ^ '<> whatever dimensions are re<iiiired. and iir 

iirs (o a railiiis a great saving is «-ffecl<'<l. 

i~ riipiired. the flags being laid according 

dge. \iiy that av twist«-d on the 

: afteiuaids by an apprentice sitting 

"11 the path. 


'I he »i. \i w«»rk vi«ite<l uill be the sleaiii- roller gang 

on dry maeiulaiii. In this i-am* the old surface may 

be worn inf" wh'-*-! (ra'4: and then the tracks are 

II iiiateiial put in to bring 

ii the surrounding surface, 

I. By common material I 

1 iiui old granite belts broken 

> L'laiiite Hpalls roughly broken. 

111. »ii'- I- ti, I lare-i'oated, being spread 

* Paper nmd at th« uidiuI inc tinir "( Ihr In<l iiiilion of Uiioicii<«l 
Engiartn lut iteiiinlay. 

shovelful by shovelful— not dumped down in cart- 
loads and levelled ha|>hazard. No binding material 
should be added until the surface material is well 
rolled and interlock<>il. The binding mati'iial should 
be clean, but not too sharp. Only suflicient wat<'r 
should be used to work up a " lather." After the 
road has btvn left for a few days it should be sjiread 
thinly with chipjiings and dry-rolled. In my opinion, 
nothing less than a 2-iii. stone should Ix- put on in 


It many limes happeii-s that, either because a roller 
is not available, or because the patches are not large 
oi- numerous enough to warrant a roller being sent a 
long distance, j)atchiiig has to be done and the work 
consolidate<l by the I rathe. I n'fer chiefly to jiot- 
holes. Unless a k<'en watch is kept many men have 
a tendency to dump the patching niat<'rial into the 
de|)ression without scarifying it. Ry scarifying the 
old surface is toothed and will belter allow the new 
material to lock into it. The ]>ijtch should be left 
very little higher than the old surrounding surface, 
but in any case the edges should be feathered to tin- 
surrounding surface. 


The success of this depends on securing the proper 
Weather when carrying out the work. I have in mind 
a length of road I treafetl a few years ago near a 
railway station. Trains were running at very short, 
intervals, and there was in consequence almost a con- 
tinuous stream of taxicab traffic ovei- this jiarticular 
piece of road. The usual procedure had Ix'eii to a])pl.y 
the tar over half the road, and as it was ai)|)lied to 
follow uj) with chii)iiings, and let the traffic over 
immediately. Hut when I treated it I jiut barriers 
across each end of linlf llie road and l)an<'ls along tho 

.Vfti-r horse-brooming and sweei)iiig with soft brooms 
1 commenced a))]ilying the hot tar on a warm day and 
treated about thre<'-fiftlis width of the road by about 
5 ji.m., but ajiplied no cliippings during the day. I 
left the tar to " boil in " with the sun. When the 
men had finished ajiplying tar their work was abso- 
lutely dull black— no shine whatever. I then told off 
four or five men to a])pl.v cliippings. In the mean- 
time that tar lia<l jieiietrated. In my opinion, by 
ai)iilying chijijiings immediately after the tar, and 
opening to traffic, that tar has no chanc*' to penetrat-*-, 
:ilid the wluvls of Vehicles pick up the cliippings and 
lar and h-ave a bare jiatch or streak. 

Warning notices should be set out al least KH) yds. 
from i'aih end of the work, with inteiniediate warn- 
ings at junctions to give suflicient titiU' to enable fast 
I laHii- to slow up. Til" writer has seen many noti<'^'s 
\\lii<h even a pt'desi i iaii could only read by stojiping 
a few wconds. fn lluse times we must cater for 
the fast tradic in the matter of road signs and warn- 
ings by having them |iiiiited in bold letters and to 
the jifiint. and in as few words as legally necessary. 
Inst«'ad of the usual waiiiing, "Tarring in I'rogress — 
t'yclists Advisi'd to Walk,"- 1 strongly advocate some 
such wording as "Bi'ware! Wet Tar," in large white 
h'tlers on a red ground, 

Heffjre tar-jiainting i^ commenced tlie roatl should 
he examiiuHl, and all depressions made good, either 
with tarred chipjiings. or tiioroughly dry chipjiings 
rammed into a flu\ of lai. and then wash(><l over with 
lar. This should be (jnnc two or three days before 
the actual work of tar-painting tlu' whole surface is 
commeiicx-d. .V great saving is etTecled by tarring all 
sharji U'lids or curves on dry niacadam roads. When 
motors take these sharp bends there is always a 
certain amount of side-scrub with the tyres, and I 
have jdove*! this tarring to br a great a<lvaiitage and 
saving to the roads. Ilic Norfolk County Couni-il 
liavi- doiK' this for some years, an<l I would strongly 
advocate their system. 


This is one of tlu- most important branches of the 
iiigliways dejiartmenl, and unless under systematic 
control complaints will !><• constantly coining in from 
Iradesnien. The town should be divided into routes, 
so as to a\oid overlajipiiig. .V list of these routes 
should b»- Kejit in ihe ollne, and also a cojiy jiosled in 
III.- stables. Th.- rjiivi 1 ooii " jiick u|> " tli<s.. i.-^ 

January 12, 1917. 



and instead of having always to give tho driver a list 
of streets, it is only necessary after a little time to 
say to him: "Oxford-street route," or " Borongh- 
load route," as the case may be. 


Til tills, too, tlic town is divided into routis. But 
ill the rase of crossings near railway stations, works, 
\«-., tile men required are given to understand before 
winter sets in that they are to go direct to those 
])oiuts instead of going as usual direct to the depot 
for instructiojis. Thest- men should be allowed to 
ktH-p a shovel, scraper, or broom at liome during wiiiti-r, 
so that they can go straiglit to work. From the dejiot 
the permanent workmen are sent to different points 
with one or two " casual " men, and ea^h gang starts 
in the most important streets and works outwards. 
Tile channels should be kept clear, so that in case of 
a (|uick thaw the water can get speedily away. The 
snow-ploughing routes should also l)e posteil in tli<> 

A rotary broom is of no use in snow ch-aiiiig, but 
\\lu*n a good tiiaw has sot in, if it is set to work at 
the right tinu-, has excellent results. Care must be 
taken that no further brooming is done if there is tho 
least sign of a frost. It is much better for a horse 
to travel over frozen snow-broth cut up with the 
previous days' traffic than to face a load whicli has 
frozen on a smootli surface. 

.\11 snow ploughs and snow-clearing tools should be 
overhauled before the end of October, so that repairs 
<-an be carried out and renewals obtained before the 
snow comes. 

GltlTllNi: ItOADs l.V ritOsTV WEATJtER. 

Ill this matter, loo, a system is of supreme import- 
aiue. Certain places in tho town are always more 
susceptible to frost than others. Certain paths lead- 
ing to works arc unfit for work men and women to 
walk upon at 6 a.m. Koadways over bridges or near 
stations and wharves are not fit for a horse to be 
driven along. Where these places are known certain 
men should have instructions before the winter sets 
in as to their routes. Before November the job- 
masters, Ac, in these localities are approaclied for 
permission to store a small quantity of grit on their 
premises (under cover). Certain of the workmen who 
live close by have instructions to go to these, the 
worst points, and commence gritting as early as 
|)ossible. If for footpaths, he carries a pail full of 
grit and spreads it from his hand on the jjatli. If 
for roadways, he uses a barrow and shovel. IiV tlie 
ease of roadways very little grit is required; in many 
instances just two tracks for horses are sufficient. 1 
have never experienced difficulty in obtaining per- 
mission to store tlie grit on private premises, because 
the job-masters feel assured theii- hors<-s will have a 
good start otit (ui a bad morning. 

Instructions should be given to the foreiiian that 
if a severe frost threatens during the afternoon, one 
or two carts should be filled with grit and set up 
under a shed overnight, thus saving loading time in 
llu- inoi-ning. 


These are to a great extent governed by the locality. 
Ill tlu- ironworks districts slag is the best and cheapest 
material obtainable, and in the neiglibourhood of stone 
(|uarries, rubble. All foundation jnaterial should be 
" paved " in by a sensible labourer by hand. The 
writer has seen tons of foundation thrown in witli 
the shovel, and it has all had to come out again. 
Each stone should be jiaved resting on its broadest 
side and " tooth up." The interstices can be filled in 
various ways. The jji-ojecting teeth are nobbled off 
by one of the men and are knocked into the inter- 
stices. If more material is required to lock the 
foundation togetlier. I find one of the best materials 
is old macadam, either ordinary or tarred, whidi 
should never be wasted, but ke[)t in tlK' depot for 
such |)urposes as tliis. 

A good steam loller siiould be used and kept con- 
tinually on the move. -V good coat of liard boih-r 
aslu's sliould Ix- spread over and brushed in. In all 
cases, wlu^ther the road is to be jiaved with setts or 
coated with macadam, the foundation should be 
finisiied to the samo coiilour as the finished surface. 

This walk round the work will, I hope, have been 
interesting to those who, in imagination, have accom- 
panied me, and although there are one or two moie 
works in [jiogress time will not allow of a visit to-day. 
Perhaps some other time we will have ;iiioliiei- d;iy 
out together. 

Wlicn this war is over tlieiv will no doubt be such 
■I great amount of work to be done on our higliways 

tliat more opportsnity will be given the assistant to 
get among it. 

Since writing my paper I have noticed a " bull." I 
have jiresumably visited a tai'-painting gang and the 
other gangs on the same day that snow-ploughs are 
out ! This, I think, you will overlook. My idea in 
bringing snow clearing and gritting into the paper was 
because the season for this work is close upon us. 



Is it not cnfloiis t<> notice liow Nature .so often tries 
to thwart liian's efforts to inij)rove his surroundings ? 
Do. we not fiiul an exanii)le of this when we read that 
leeeiitly the Legislative Couiieil of Burmah has been 
obliged to i)romote a Bill in an endeavour to eradi- 
cate the water hyacinth, a plant, or weed, which 
threatens to choke all the rivers and waterways in 
that country ? Is not the same evidence of Nature's 
desire to override everything observable in a smaller 
way when we see how on many of the waste pieces 
of ground, where buildings had formerly .stood, in 
the heart of London, or in otlier large cities, wild 
flowers, weeds, and grasses Ijegin in a very .short time 
to spring up and grow profusely, if left alone ? Where 
do tile weeds come from ? 

.* * » » 

Cannot most engineers truthfully say when they 
have executed some work, " If the job were done over 
.lyaiii nuiny improvements could be introduced ? " 
Was it not very bold of Mr. Kand to this 
in a paper he gave on " The Oregon City Water Pipe 
I,ine." recently, and is it not evident to an observant 
engineer that this must 1)e a fact in nearly (ivery work 
that is carried out ? Should we ever make much ]mo- 
u-ress if this were not so ? 

* * * It 

Did not Mr. Biniiie, the new president of the Insti- 
I lit ion of Sanitary Engineers, delight his audience the 
other night with his inaugmal address — which dealt 
in detail with the ancient water supplies of Rome and 
the inodeni water supply of New York ? Was not tlie 
subject well chosen by an engineer whose firm is so 
world-renowned in connection with water engineering, 
• iiid wa.s it not full of information which will be 
interesting lor all time ? 

it- * * "* 

]s it quite fair to expect, that all the money required 
for the necessary sei.ntific research work in this 
country shouhl be supplied by the Government, or, in 
other words, from the pocketd of the already over- 
burdened taxpayers ? Do not tlu' manufacturers an<l 
traders derive enormous benefits financially whenever 
seientilic research discovers some better or more eco- 
nomical method- of i)roduction or manufacture, and 
would it not be more rea.sonable to expect that the 
manufacturers and producers should conduct their 
own researches at their own expense rather than 
look- to the taxpayers for assistance ? 

* » » # 

Is it not rather interesting to note that in the defini- 
tion of a civil engineer in the charter of the Institu- 
tion of Civil I'higineers of the year 1828, the construc- 
tion of roads comes first in importance on the list, 
and is placed before bridges, aqueducts, canals, and 
so forth .' Is it not acknowledged that this old defini- 
tion of a civil engineer holds good at the present 
time ? If this is so, should not the road engineer be 
very proud that he should thus be placed in tln' front 
iMiik of the profession ? 

» * ♦ * 

.Vie not some very ((iieer and original things done 
in .\nieiica ? .Vs an instance of this, is it not iuterest- 
iii;; to read that in California a young live aligator is 
used to drag a rope thiougli the choked sewers, and 
thus enable a chain to 1)e dragged through afterwards 
ill order to scorn- and cleanse them ? 

* * * * 

Is it not evitient from the extracts given in Tin; 
.SiruvKvoi! of the .'(til iiist. of -Mr. Robinson's reiiorl on 
seaveiigiiiL' in Bolton-upon-Dearne''tliat privy middens 
are not only insanitary, but exi)ensive to empty and 
cleanse ? Is it nut surprising that these insanitary 
abortions should still be allowed in some of our cities 
and towns ? .\nd now that. Mr. Robinson has so 
<'leaily shown that they are expen.sive to the rate- 
payers 'as well, is it not to be hoped that the con- 
tinuation of such monstrosities will not be allowed 
and that their coiisi ruction is doomed 'f 



.Taniary 12. 191". 

Some Notes on the Uses of Electricity in IWunicipal 


By HORACE BOOT, m.i.e.k., m.i..mi:ch.k. 

The object of these notes, which cover only a general 
ground of the subject, is for tlie purpose of promoting 
a discussion uj>on the use.- of electricity by municipal 
engineers and surveyors, as during my professional 
career I have been somewhat struck with the lack of 
general knowledpe *hown on several occasions; but 
when one leniemliers the multifarious duties that a 
town surveyor and engineer has to carry out, it is 
not surprising. 

Some of the uses to which electricity can be put to 
for the service of the public, and which affect the 
Itorough surveyor, are: — 
Electric tramways. 
Street lighting. 

Telephone and telegraph poles and wires. 
Street fire alarms. 

Electric power for all kinds of mechanical work 
required in municipal engineering, such as — 
Waterworks pumping; 
Sewage pumping; 

Electric lifts in municipal buildings; and 
Electric vehicles for dust carts, fire engines, 
and other nuMiicii)al requirements. 
Electricity for jiower jiurposes in farming, which 
in rural districts will probably play an important 
part in the future. 
The sterilisation of water, and the production of 

The jirotection of chimneys and high buildings 
against lightning discharges. 
It nnist be apparent from this list that a borough 
eneineer's and surveyor's knowledge on the above 
^subjects can only l»e general ; at the same time, he is 
oft«'n called upon to advise his council, and i)robably 
they expect him to erect works and to carry out any 
of the above duties in his department. 

In the case of a large borough, many of these duties 
can l>e undertaken by the electrical engineer; but 
when- H lK>rough employs no electrical engineer, the 
surveyor would be well advised to consult some expert, 
just as the town clerk always obtains counsel's 
opinion on difficult legal questions or problems ,some- 
what outside hi.-^ sphere. 

I have on .-icveral fK-casions heard of cases where the 
•(orouph engineer has been blamed by his council for 
.starting certain works which have been a failure; and 
in conver-iation with that engineer I have suggested — 
why did he not a<loj)t Ou' town clerk's method, and 
call in exi>ert advice •• His reply has usually Ijeen 
that the lK>rougli or distri<-t would not pay for such 
advice. If the council are of such a parsimonious 
character that this is the ca.'ie, then it is grossly unfair 
to blauic the iKjrough engineer and surveys ''t -h'Ii 


Dealing iirst with tramways, in large boroughi« and 
cities it is usual to employ a special tramway 
manager and engineer, but even then the borough 
eiisrineer -bould niMl-r-laiid a certain amount al)out 
trarnu.i.- in orrler that the two of them may work 
har." • 'gether. Tramways in large towns are 

a p- -ity. although it would often \>e better, 

ins-t...! .., . „,i,iiii.' thiiii into remote parts of the town, 
it a rnotor-'bus or raill' -:- traction .service were started. 
Capital wr.ulfl U- .naved .iti'l the remote districts would 
t»e -■ ■ IS well. In .small towns and in some 

rur-' tramway.- are run by companies, in 

wbi- '•■••■' L. •,, „ i,.f|[,e of the working of 

trn'i •'! the roads, the extra 

co(-* the iKirough surveyor's 

r^'j" . ly i)0[)ulated districts 

of • )><.• tramways, railless 

tra<.'-. 1.- l>e.4t left to the deci- 

Mon of Iraeii'in expert.s, who would l>c* aa.sisted by the 
boroutrh «iirv«vor fnr it i- too much to expect the 
»<ur-. • • •• l.onslbility upon 

biij 11. he receives 

liltl'- ■ iiL' It often co-ts 

him hin ifOritlOIl. 


In dtreet lighting the wurveyor ha.n two choices of 

* Papar rrti at tbi kiniaal in>*tlnK of tba lutitutlon of Muoloipal 
* — * 1 last Hatordaj ,J 

illuminan't, as a rule, to deal with— electric light and 
gas— and tliere is no doubt that, for many purposes, 
electric light is superior to gas for street lighting. 
On the other hand, electric light in a town may be 
too dear and gas may be reasonable, in which case 
the surveyor would naturally reconunend his council 
to use gas. From the point of illumination, candle- 
power for candle-power, there is little to choose ; but 
jt nuist be l)orne in niiiul that when adopting incan- 
descent gas the cindle-i)<)wcr rapidly deteriorates, as 
well as being unsatisfactory 'in windv weather. It is 
also affected by insects, so that tliere is likely to be 
a more normal illumination under all weather con- 
ditions obtained in streets lighted by electricity. 
Where, however, the town owns electricity works, and 
not gasworks, then there should be no hesitation 
which to adopt. For the lighting of inside premises, 
electric light is undoul)tedly superior and safer, 
and for that reason nearly all municipal buildings are 
lighted by electricity. 

With regard to heating by electricity, the same does 
not api)ly, and, unless the rooms are confined and 
l)adly ventilated, gas heating is cheaper than elec- 
tricity, and more satisfactory for municipal buildings. 
The lighting of i)ublic signs and street names might 
receive nuich more attention than it does at present. 
As far as possible, private interests should not l)e 
allowed to render tlie streets and buildings unsightly 
by ugly signs,, and it was noticeable that just liefore 
the war there was a tendency for this class of adver- 
tising to increase rapidly. 


W^ith the unsightliness of telephone poles and wires, 
surveyors have been troubled for years, for the Post 
OfTice never seem to consider the beauty of the i)lace, 
and often i)lac« their ))oIes without considering the 
convenience of anybody. Beyond guiding his council 
in this respect, the survejor has, unfortunately, little 
|)Ower; for often, what with the powers posses.%ed by 
the water company, the electric power company, the 
Post- Office telegrai>lis and telephones, it is impo.-*- 
sible for him to keep tlie roads in proper condition, 
for .someone is always taking tip the road for one 
purpose or another. It has often appeared to me that 
there is a shocking waste of money and want of 
organisation in this resi)ect. I feel that some i)Ower 
ought tcj be given to the borough engineer and sur- 
veyor to prevent this. and. except in great emergency, 
to only allow the roads to be disturbed at certain 
times, and then only after giving proper notice, in 
order to, as far as possible, open the road for several 
purposes at the same time. 

The question of nninicipal telejihones, unfortu- 
nately, .seems to have been killed by the Post Office 
authorities, for if one refers to the Treasury " Minute." 
"dated May », 1899, it was then the intention of the 
Government, on accotint of the unsatisfactory .service 
given by the Niitional Telephone Company, to i)erinit 
municipalities to establi.-li their own telephone under- 
takings, and with the < .\e<ption of Portsmouth, Hull, 
Tunbriclge Wells, Brighton, Glasgow, Huddersfield, 
few of the towns seem to have taken these ))Owers 
.seriously. In my opinion this is unfortunate, for 
tele|<hones are distinctly a local business, inasnuich 
as it ha.'i l>een iiroved tli;it 95 per cent of the calls in 
any town arc Icx-al, the remaining 5 per cent being 
triuik calls. Where' i\ut nuinicipalities did establish 
telephone systems, subsciibers got lower rates, a better 
and more "etlic-ieiit service, with the natural result 
that a much larger i)er(ijitage of ratepayers became 
telephoin- sul..-(ril)crs. It is, unfortunately, too late 
to rejuve-iate this qiie-tioii again, for the Post Office 
see t'liat it would have probably ruined their own 
telegrAph department, ami have always looked with a 
jealous eye upon it, .-'i have made the telephone 
business a Offiee concern, with the result that 
the telephones were iic ver more unsatisfactory than 
they are to-day; that the rates were never higher than 
they are to-day; that the inattention to the com- 
plaint* and difficulties were never more apparent 
than they are now; aii<l, finally, that what might 
have been a most snccessfid chea[) telej)lioiie 
system for every town has l)een done away with. 
When the Post Office took over the telephones we were 

-January 12, 1917. 



The Surveyor 

'>' Bnb Aunidpal anb Count; Cnglneec 


A New Year's Creed 25 

Animals on the Highway 27 

Appointments Vacant 47 

Burst Water Mains 26, 29 

Correspondenco ' 47 

Dublin Workshops : How not to do it 26 

Forthcoming Meetings 48 

Institution of Municipal Engineers: Annual Meeting 27,39 

Local Government Board Inquiries 37 

Metric System 27 

Municipal Contracts Open 47 

Municipal Work In Progress and Projected 43 

New York City Water Supply 28 

Organisation of Forestry 25 

Personal 44 

Practical Eoad Work : A Day out of the Office 34, 41 

B^sum^ of Public Health Matters ... 41, 45 

Boad Beinforcemen^ 38 

Bural Housing * 25 

Saskatoon Public Services 38 

Subsiding Highways 26 

Survey of Municii>al Engineering 27,30 

Surveyors and Cottage Design 47 

The Surveyor's Bonus 38 

Things One would Like to Know 35 

Town-Planning Institute 46 

Uses of Electricity in Municipal Engineering 36, 42 

promised all kinds of improvements. Experience has 
shown that it would have been far better to have left 
the telephone industry with the old National Tele- 
phone Company than to have handed it over to a 
Government Department! It is to be hoped that 
some future time after the war a Tele'phone Sub- 
scribers' Protection Association will be formed, and 
that it will do really good work in making the tele- 
I)hone department realise their responsibility to the 
nation and to their subscribers. 


.'ihould be installed in every large town, for they are 
<'fficient, not costly, and can be placed under the 
control of the borough engineer and surveyor. 


forms such a verj' big branch of electrical engineering 
work that I can only mention a few of the uses in 
which electric jjower would seive the borough surveyor. 
One of the advantages of the utilisation of the electric 
power is that it can be controlled at a distance, which 
for waterworks and sewage pumping is often invalu- 
able. For waterworks pumping it is admirably adapted, 
and has been extensively used by several engineers ; 
for sewage pumping it is also admirably adapted, and 
is more largely used to-day than the average man is 
aware of. 


Electric vehicles are likely to increase, and for such 
purposes as dust-carts, fire engines, motor lorries for 
town use, they are hard to beat, either in the expense 
of running or depreciation. They are coming into 
much more general us<' in America, and I am of the 
()[)iniou they will do the same here when their good 
(jtialities are appreciated. 


It may intei-est you to hear that in America and 
on the Continent the use of electricity on the farm is 
making rajjid strides. In a farm near Grand Forks, 
since 1911 ele<tricity has been used for lighting and 
power jiurposes. Sixty cows are milked twice a day, 
the ma<-hine for it being driven by ekx^tric motors. 
Motors are also used for threshing, feed grinding, 
wood sawing, water pumping, and a 3.5-h.p. portable 
motor is so arranged that it can be pluggwl in at many 
places on the farm to j)erf()rm various duties. 

.\nother instance, according to the American Kleclriral 
llfview, states that 40,()(X) acres are cultivated with 
the electric plough, and that on this farm there are 
no less than 180 motcns and 5,000 lamps connected. 
In the purely agricultural State ol California statistics 
show that per head of population electric power is 
used in larger proportions than in anv other American 

In Hereford (England) the city electrical enginei-r 
has been encouraging the use of ehrlricity for agri- 
cultural puii)oses with satisfactory results. Ho finds 
that the cost of supplying power, in spite of the dis- 
tances, is not prohibitive. The power works are 
supplying a farm .'J, 400 yds. distant from the e].-<-- 

tricity woi-ks, oi which 1,200 yds. is by overhead lines, 
and the cost does not exceed £110 per mile capital 
outlay, including wire, poles, and labour. On this 
farm, which is supplied by the Hereford Coii^oration, 
milking is done by an electric motor, which drives the 
vacuum machine; the plant has a capacity for milking 
eighty-eight cows, and requires about 1^ h.p. 

In this district, for agricultural purposes alone, the 
following horse-power are required : — 

Cider making 160 h.p. 

Milling 142 h.i). 

Farmer's supply 106 h.j). 

Water pumping ... 1.57 h.p. 

Saw milling 130 h.p. 

The motors for which are situated on various fanns. 

As fanning is likely once more to become an import- 
ant industiy • in this countiy, eveiything should be 
done to promote its success, and the serious increase 
in the prices of food should convince us as a people 
that no agricultural land should be left idle, and 
steps should be taken to put it all under the plough 
or to some other useful puiijose. 


The sterilisation of water and the production of 
disinfectants has not been taken up very much, but, 
the medical officer of health for Poplar is a strong 
believer in it, and has from time to time written a 
number of papers on. the subject, in which he claims 
that it is cheaper than ordinary disinfectant and more 


The protection of chimneys and high buildings from 
lightning discharge does not come within the powers 
of the borough engineer and sui-\-eyor, unless ho can 
show that there is danger, and that that danger is 
apparent. It is quite true that tlie number of acci- 
dents due to this are not many. At the same time 
these could be prevented if the borough sui-veyor had 
the powers to occasionally inspect and see that the 
lightning conductors on high buildings were in' good 
order. However, far be it from me to add any further 
duties to the borough sui-\'eyor and engineer, for in 
my municipal experience he is one of the most over- 
worked servants of a corporation. 

In conclusion, I must apologise to the members for 
only dealing in generalities; but to go into detail in 
any of tlie above uses of electricity would involve a 
very long and technical pajjer, which I have, un- 
fortunately, neither the time to write nor the courage 
to inflict upon your patience, but I hojje some of the 
topics mentioned will lead to a useful and interesting 


The Editor invites the co-operation of Spbvbtob readers 
with a view to making the information given under thii 
head as complete and accurate at possible. 


Edinburgh T.C. (Januai-y 8th. Mr. David Ronald). 
— This was an adjourned inquiry with reference to 
the proposed town jtlanning scheme for the Duddings- 
ton area. — The commissioner heard evidence in support, 
of the case presented in opposition to the scheme by 
the Mid-Lothian County CouncU. Mr. P. K. Jl'Laren, 
sanitary inspector for the county, stated that there 
was no foundation for the suggestion that there would 
be building activity after the war. All the conditions 
were against it. Mr. W. Ellicott, county road sur- 
veyor, stated Ills oj)inion that generally the roads in 
the area were sufficient for the [iresent traffic. The 
county had not put in operation their conipulsoi-y 
powers of acquiring land for roatl widening. Mr. 
A. G. G. Asher, county clerk, said the view of tlie 
county council was that the area was not ripe for 
town i)lanning. Mr. .John Ramsay, general manager 
of the Niddrie and Benhar Coal Company (Liinit«>d), 
said they would be liandicapiwd in theii- business if 
the local authority were to dictate to them whern 
they were to put tlieir houses. Counsel then<I 
the tribunal. 


Hereford T.C.--l-6.},.)(Ht for addili.-nal electriciiy 
jilant antl niaiii'-. 

Paul U.D.C.— II.IMMI f.,1- the Newlyn water supply. 


Willesden U.D.C.— L.").ikm) for a new fe«der electric 

Glasgow T.C— Co'Ml.UfKi for el.M-tricity extensions. 



.lANiAitv 12, 1917. 


I>\ L'. J. VfKvrJI. AS>0. .M.IN.-T.i .K.. 
t'ity Commissioner^.* 
Tin- llii»-»- iililitu-^ .i\wit«l ami i.poraK<l by lli<- lilv 
«»f SaskMmiii. (.'niindii- '.'.. (n) fU'<trif light and jioww. 
(<•) \kal»-rwi>rk^. ami (■ ) »invt tramway — art- run upon 
Mrirt bu-iino— i jiiiinii'li'-;. Th»- ii>\m<'il vcfiaiii from 
allowing any linal |"'liii<al ron^idi-raiiims i<i militato 
against thvir siirco<-iful o|>i'fatioii. and in coiist'inuMico 
lli»« citizens are given a t-heap and efficient service. 
The )M>lirT of the administration is not to build up 
large profits. b\it to place each utility upon a paying 
ba^is after allowiiii; i'>y all charges, including sinking 
fund, interest, and dejuiH-iation. 


Thi» utility wa-< established in the yeai liHis, and 
has steR<iily progressitl since that date, lu-cessiiating 
the commencement of a new plant in IJill. which was 
completed in April. l!>12. The total output in 1912 
wa> 4.l»iH;.147 kw. Ii(.ui>. which incnaswl to S.loti.OK) 
kw. hours in VJ]'>. 

The following is a summary of operating costs, fixed 
chargc-s, and revenue for tli«' years 1S»1;1 to 191.') : — 

1!«1:! iwn l•l.^ 

Operating expenses ... s_>43,()01 59 :;itir),SK;-39 $IC7,418(»1 
Depreciation, inten^l 

and sinking fund ... 74,C4500 96,041-75 99,692-68 


I'rofit .. 

-^316,6 16. ->9 .S302,02914 S267,110 70 
:!47,2ol-76 340,028-08 275,130 11 

.s3t.>5o.')17 $38,.'J98-94 


It will be seen from the above that the operating 
e.\iK'nM-s have been rtiluced from $242,001 .59 in 191.*) 
to Sil<)7. n^<tll in 191.'). a reduction of $7.j,18.'{ o.',. or 
.'tl jH-r cent. 

The smaller revenue in 191.'>, compared witli 1914, 
was jirincipally due to the reduction in the rates 
chargeil consumer- for lighting i)uri)oses, the old and 
new rates Ix-ing 9. S and 7 cents, and 8. 7 ajid <) cents 
|H-r kili>watt hour, respectively. 


Tlie city is extremely fortunate in obtaining su( h an 
excellent and inexhaustible supply of water from the 
Saskatchewan Kiver. and while in this res])ect it is 
better off than its sister cities of Hegina and Moosejaw, 
it is not so fortunate as other cities in the. east, which 
are able t4> obtain their supply by giavitation. In 
Saskatoon the water has t<) be piini|)ed from the viver 
to se«liinenlatioii basins, i)asse<l through mechanical 
filters, and tiien pumpe<l to the di'stribuiion mains. 
In cf>nM-<|Uenci- of this, the cost to the consumer is 
-lightly higher than that charged in cities which have 
a gravitation sy-tein. 

Howi-ver, during tin- pa-l threi- years the system ha- 
be«-n reorganis«-d. and the ojieraling costs reduc(-d to 
a minimum, with th«' result that the charge for water 
-iipplii-d to dome-til- consumers has been n-ducetl from 
■V) c.-nts to 2') rent- per HM) cub. ft., ami the jneter 
rent <if .'i'2 has been discontinued. 

.\ summary of the operating costs for the yeai- 19|;{. 
1911. and 191.") i- a- follows:— 

I<il:t 1!>H l:il,-i 

Operating exi)enM-H ,s97,375-65 .■<«,';,29C-30 .<^)4,02r)-31 

Depreciation, inten-ni 

and sinking funil ... 23,133 66 26,506 36 24,241-45 

Kevin 111- 


-120,.'-.09 31 
,2l.6li3 01 

Si)l,80r66 .«:78,266-70 
UJ8,0Or26 87,517.59 

.S4,113-70 .■i'W.lS'.teo S9,2.i083 

It will Ix- iio|e<l fioni the above figures thai the 
o|H-rating iosi> ha\e be«*n re<luced from ^7,S7'yV>-'j in 
I91.J toJ^5»,<r2.j.ll in 191-5. a rwluction of if4:i,.'1.50.14, oi 
4t jH-r cent. 

Till- large reduction in uperaling costs has been 
made principally by : (") Stopping leaks and jiivveiit- 
ing Waste; ('/) amalgamating the pumping and filtra- 
tion plants; ('-) providing an electrical instead of a 
steam Vtand-by for tin- puiupb. 

Tile sire^-l tiaiii' ■iiipleted in the latter jiart 

oi 1912. and tomn. - iiion in tiie early jjart of 

1913. The total t i^c on a -ingle track basis 

i- 10^ mile-, and tin- axerage numlK-r of vavb onerating 
is twvlve. The original fares were sis tickets for 

' Kxtract fii>ni Annual Jtei><>rt 

I?') cents, but those wore altered in 191o to a uniform 
live-cent fare. The alt<?r«tion has undoubtedly meant 
an increase in revenue ratlier than a decrease in the 
number of jmsseiigers carvietl. 

-V summary of the operating costs, lixed charges, and 
revenue for "the y.-.n s 1913-191') is as follows:—. 

191^1 l:>ll 1:il.'> 

Opoi-atingexiicnses .. };l:t7,334Il Sl26,l2!»27 f;lO»>,93S-26 
Depreciation, inl crest 

.ind .«inkiiiR fnnil ... 40,81805 5I,87(>-35 .50,.55S 16 


SI 78,'. 52- 16 .si78,.105 62 $l.-.7,490 42 
l'iS,487-33 144,990-93 12'j,522-,50 

Loss S 19,664-83 S 13,477-56 5:30,973-92 

The operating expenses have been reduced from 
.'sl37.;{;lril -in I9I.{ t.. !i>10(),9.-18 2() in 1915, a rediictaon 
of !?;)0,.'19.") S"). or 22 per cent. In spite of the reduction 
ill operating costs, however, the loss has incre^iscd from 
!|!l9,(U)4-8.-l in 191.-) to iii.S0,973-92 in 191."), due to the 
falling off in revi'iiiic during tlu- first six months of 
the latter year. The revenue during the current year, 
however, lins so greatly increased that the street tram- 
way is now bring operated al ;\ |irofil. 



Ill the Xoveiiiiiui is-iie ot the ailistii- ImoUlel '■ Koad 
Keinfiireeinent," piililishwl by the Biitisli lieinforoed 
t'oiierele Enpiiieeriiv-; Company. liiniitod, 1 Diekin.son- 
-lieet. Maiichestei . and 20 Vietoiia-slrect, West- 
minster, particulnr- are given of an instructive test 
iiiuler static conditions of a coiien te slab reinforced 
with wire fabric similar to that ii.sed in road founda- 
tions and Poiierete roads, showiiii: to what extent a 
slab of this kind iiiny l>e bent before breaking takes 
place. .The lentrth of the slab was 18 ft., being 12 ft. 
between the siiiiimits, and having an overhang of 
;{ ft. at each end; the width was 4 ft., and the thick- 
ness of concrete only 4 in. It is not suggested that 
this is a siifficieiit thickness for main road traffic, 
although a reiiiforciHl foundation 4 in. thick ooii- 
strncted on the main road carryiiiL'- London 'bus- 
traffic at Chadwell Heath is aotinjr a|>parently as well 
as an adjacent 6-in. fouiidafion similarly reinforced. 
The test slab is shown in a iiliotoprapli oarryiny; a 
load of 21 tons of eeiiient. " This," states the article. 
" is not an exceptional test for a slab reinforced with 
wire fabric, and if the lest load is removed- before 
breaking', the slab, owing to the high elastic limit of 
steel wire, recover^ the tircater part, of its sag. \ 
slab similar to that show-ii in the photograph, but 
reinforced with iilaiii steel rods in jilace of w-ire 
fabric (and of eipial weight) broke with a load of l."} 
tons. -V slab enliiel.\ luireinforced, even if 1.5 in. 
thick. Would, over ;i similar sjian, barely carry the 
same load as the latter. Siieb is the conii)arisoii 
between concrete iciiilorced with wire fabric and 
<-oiicrete tinreinfoiceii under the test of a static load; 
but a static load tc-t does not bring out the coni- 
jiarison to the full. It is only under shock loads, such 
as of fast-mo\ im; traffic, that the tensile strength 
of the reiiiforceiiniu has its liiphest value, and the 
advantaife of the \uiv faliii<' i.- most marked." 



\\ the lil.-t incetiii'j ol the Kllcsmere, Salop, Kural 
District Council, the -iirveyor. Mr. W, H. Owen, made 
an appli<'atioii for an increase of salary, or ii war 
bonus. He pointed oiil thai be had been surveyor for 
nearly tweiity-l«o \i'ars, anil as he had to pay his 
own e.\|)en.-es, iiielmiiiig the keeping of a horse and 
trap, it wa.- iuipossible for him to liv<' on liis jjreseiit 
salary of i:i4<l. 

The matter was considered in committee, and after 
a loii^.' disciis-ioii it was decided by a majority of one 
to L'raiit Mr. Owen a war bonus of 1:6 a .\ear iiiilil six 
month- after the war. 

.\s Mr. Owen re-entered the room (the Monlijonn ri/ 
t'-iuiih/ TimiK rejiort-i, a member, Mr. Darlington, 
exejainied: " I don't <are who know;s; I voted against 
it. I think it is monl^trons: " 

.\s the '-'raifl reiJiesent.- an Jiddition of .-lighlly 
under two .-liilliiivrs a week to the siirveyor'i salary, 
we iinugiiie there will l>e lew who will disn'o--- <Mtli 
the worlliv councillor in hi- final ninaik. 

Januap.y 12, 1917. 



Institution of Municipai Engineers. 


liic fiiilitli annual MRiMinu' o£ Ilio ln>tilutiun nl 
.Municipal Eiii^ineer.-- \va.< held on Hatniday last in Ihc 
Council Ciianilicr. Soutlianiplon-rovv, under tlio <-liHir- 
niansliij) of the retirin>: |)if.sicl<*nt, Mr. Henry C. 
Adams. 'The attendance included;. A. W. Broker 
(North Witoliford). Geo. Hodley (Norfolk County), 
G. Sinicox (South Minnn-), .1. Raixierson (Sevenoak.*), 
T. C. Barraiet ((Jodst/^)nc). FI. Pickerini; (Liiton), A. J. 
Kl.son (Penge). A. N. ITud.-well (Woohvioh), T. Mundy 
(Woolwich), and II. C. JI. Slienton (We.stniinster), 
toiifther witli several visitor.s. 

The pKKsinKNT rt'niarked that at the i)resent lime 
the diffi<-ulty of travellins; wa.s so enormous that they 
must not he snrpri.-'od at the smallness of tlie meeting, 
though it was to la' regretted. He had leceived from 
Air. .Matliiews .Jones, past-president, a letter stating 
that this would he the lir.~t annual meeting he 
had missed, hut that he could not attend, as 
he was ill in hed. ^Mr.j Finch, senior viee- 
jiresident, was detained in Cumberland, and Mr. 
Cutler wrote that he had heen ordered to rejoin tin- 
Royal Engineers. He was called up early in the 
year, and after tliiee niontlis' strenuous training, wliicli 
reiluced his hulk considerahly, he was sent hack to 
his office; hut now they liad called him up again. 
There were a niimher of letters from other members 
regretting tliat they could not attentl, owing cliiefly to 
illness and the <lifTiculty of travelling. 


The PitKsiDK.NT then pidceeded lu read the aniuuiJ 
re|>oit, extracts from whi<h lire appended. 

On .June ."it), I'.llf), the mil of the institution was 
842, consisting of U72 mend)ers, 127 associate meni- 
her.s. and 43 students. On June 30, 1916, the roll was 
827. consisting of GG2 members. 12.5 associate mem- 
bers, and 40 students. D\iiiiig the year twenty-three 
nicmlKirs, si.\ associate members, and three students 
were elected, while two associate members were 
transferred to membershii). and three students trans- 
ferred to associate membership. Tlie losses resulting 
from deatb, resignation, erasure by cbange of 
appointment, and other causes mnoimt to thirty-five 
memlwrs, eight assfn-iatc' memlKMs, and llijce 


The council aie again able to report an excess of 
iiicome over expenditure on the year's working, 
amouiitiiiL' to C4G I8s. '4d., and making an accumu- 
lated balance of C4«(> 5s. Id. Following the practice 
of last year, .i;i7r) has been laid aside as a provision 
against " irrecoverabtes." It will be seen that the 
■■ subscriptions oTerdue, " item bulks very largely, 
hut it nuist l)e remembered that a large i)ro- 
portion of this is in respect to coij)orate 
members and students who are on .iictivc service, 
upon whom no claims for subscri|)t j.ns have been 
niade, altiiough a certain proportion of them have 
■paid wiih customa.ry regularity. A ]>roportion of 
these overdue subscriptions v/ill, doubtless, have to 
be \yritten off at the teirmination of the war. 


One general meeting, eleven coinicil meeting.*, and 
six district meetings were held during tlie financial 


The Piesideut's premium (pre.sented by Mr. Hcniy 
C. .\(iams) for the year 1015-16 for papers read 
Iwfore meetings of the institutiou has been awarded 
to Mr. John H. Mole for bis j)aper, "" S<jme Oljserva- 
ti«ns on Municipal Housing." 


The amount standing to the ciedit of this fund at 
the end of the financial year is £116 3s. 2d. One 
application was madcfor assistaix'e from the fund. 
I)ul the council decided that the was not one 
whicli fell within the j.urpose for which the fund 
was created. 


Having regard to the spread of the inember.-hip of 
the institution to all part.- of the woihj, invitations 
have been extended to the meuil)ers in the Colonies 
and abroad tn appoint lu<al Imn. di-1rict -....le- 

laries.. A.- a rcsiili of thi.-, lion. di~iricl >rcretaries 
have already heen appointed in Canada, and other 
appointjnents are under consideration and will 
sluv.tly be made. The appointment of gentlemen to i)ositions will, it is felt, result in increased 
vinilance in the inspe<tion of applications for cor- 
porate meinbi-r-hip. while the formation of district 
<<>mmiiiees, where possibli;. must assist materially 
in the welfare of members of the institution in over- 
sea cfiuntries. 

The Prtsidknt movrd that the rei)ort and balance- 
sheet be a(l..|)te<l. ami in doing so said [xyrhajis he 
might refer again to the l.alnnce-sheet. It would be 
seen that, compared with previous ones, it showed a 
very great improvement in the financial position of 
the institution. They expected this year that the 
income would show a very great do<-rease, or 'rather 
that the receipts would be considera})]y below the 
ex|)endilure, but economies had been effected in every 
possible way, and although they had lost a good inany 
mend)ers by death <in active service, they managed 
to keep the expenditure within the receipts, and had 
been ahh' tv) hand over a sum to the accumulated 
balance, which now stood at the high figure of C486. 
During the year they had not gone in for any new 
develoi)ment— very naturally. The greatest thing Ihey 
had dom- w-as to formulate and pul)lish the regulations 
for the -Mutual .\id Defence Fund. Many di.scussions 
were held over the details, and the institution's 
solicitor was consulted three or four times at different 
st.iges, and assisted in jiutting the regidations into 
legal phraseology. The fund, he (the president) 
thought, shoidd be of great value to the meni1)ers in 
the futuie, lie might issue a word of warning, and 
that wa> that the war was not yet over. A large num- 
ber of members were away, and wlieii things sorted 
themselves out again they would probably have to 
record greater losses than, unfortunately, they liad 
had to record up to the pre.'ient. Members on active 
service had not heen asked to pay their subscriptions. 
They thought that was the least they could do. When 
that was decided upon they thought the war might l>e 
over in a few months, and it had gone into the third 
>iar now. iTlie amount lost in this way would loom 
lather a large item, and while in ordinary peace <-oii- 
ditions the members would be asked to i)ay uj) the 
arrears, many wouhl not he in a jmsition to do that. 
Therefore the council woidd have to face a certain 
loss, which would be put down to the war; but, look- 
ing at the finances broadly, there was no doubt they 
Would recover their ])o,-ition very shortly after the 

-Mr. SiMCox seconded the adoption of the report and 
balance-sheet, and. the i>rojiosition was agreed to. 

Mr. Randkkson moutiomd that one of their mem- 
bers, J.,ieutenaiU Fry, been awarded the ^Military, a fact which he thought wo\ild lie interesting 
to the members. 

The Prksidknt .-aid that information was decidedly 
of interest, and it would be duly noted in the next 
issue of the ■fminial. 

thanks to TilF, RETIRING COUNCIL. 

Air. Ci. RouwELL (Norfolk County Council) moved a 
vote of thanks to the retiring council, which was 

Mr. J. Ranukrson (Sevenoaks), in .-econding, said 
that, in ,-i)ite of the considerable distances which 
members of the council had to travel, and the diftic\d- 
ties under which everyi»ody had suffered, the attond- 
abces at the meetings had been good. * 

tue new council. 

The President stated thai, in actord;incc with the 
powers vested in his office, he had aijpointed Mr. 
Boot and Mr. Sheiitou scrutineers of the ballot, and 
had received their report giving the name- of the 
mcndjers elected. 

The list of the new council iss as follows: — 

President: Mr. Edward Whitwell, f.i.s.e., m.s.a.. 
engineer and surveyor, .Vbersyclian Url>an District 

Vice-president^ : Messrs. \. R. Bleazard, borough 
engineer, Clilheroe; .Arthur Bowes, Assoc. .m.i.nsT.c.e.. 
surveyor. New ton - in - .Makerlield Urban District 
Council; H. J. Farmer, borough .-urveyor. Chri.-I- 

.lllllell Willl.llll l-'ill, I, .ouritv -Ml V,.V,.|' :,n,l l,l.,l-, . 



January 12, 1917. 

master, (.imiliorlrtna . Frank A. Pratley, engineer and 
surveyor. Ep.-oni Rural Distrk-t Council : H. C. H. 
Shenton.oonsultins: onirineer. 28 Victoria-.^troet, SAV. ; 
and William Wallin, consulting inuniiipal engineer, 

Honorary Tr.asuror: Mr. Thos. Mundy, deputy 
l>orough euKineer, \Joohvich. , 

Ordinarv Menil)er.-: Messrs. Jolui Bailey, surveyor. 
Spalding "Urban District Council; C. Owen Baines, 
town surveyor and oni:ii)e«r, Paignton Urban District 
Council; Alfred H. Carrell, county road surveyor, 
Leicestershire County Council; G. Belson Chilvers, 
surveyor, Oundle Urban District Council; Frank S. 
Cutler, deputy boroutili surveyor. Deptford, S.E. ; 
E. Pluniiner Davies. engineer and surveyor, Tisbury 
Rural District Council : Jolin Davison, borough sur- 
veyor, Morpeth ; Frank E. Ehnals. surveyor, Bille- 
ricay Rural District Council; Douglas C. Fidler, engi- 
neer and surveyor. Hayes Urban District Council ; 
W. J. Grant, surveyor, Romford Rural District 
Council; Arthur Harford-Stevens, engineer. Blaby 
Rural District Council; Ernest W. Hearn, thorough 
eiiirineer and waterworks engineer. Chard; R. W- 
Jones, county surveyor, Carmarthen (Western); H. W. 
Marsden. borough surveyor, Richmond, Yorks; Jolin 
T. Pegge, city surveyor. Durham; Harold Pickering, 
surveyor.' Luton Rural District Council; John T. 
Shield, dii)uty l>orougli and water engineer, Black- 
burn; G. Sinicox. engineer • and surveyor, South 
Minims Rural Di.-trict Council; G. Synion, surveyor, 
Blavdon-on-Tvne Urban District Council; Jolin 
Taylor, sanitary surveyor, Uckfield Rural District 
Council; W. T. Unwin. engineer and surveyor, March 
Urban District Council; Arthur D. Barron, acting 
borouL'h engineer and surveyor, Douglas, Isle of Man ; 
A. J. Elson, deputy engineer and surveyor, Penge 
Urban District Council; A. P. Horsley, borough engi- 
neer and surveyor, Hartlepool; and G. A. Penwill, 
surveyor, Peterl)orough Rural District Council. 

The following members hold office as meml^ers of 
council: — 

Past-presidents: Messrs. Horace Boot, m.i.mech.e.. 
M.i.E.E.. Westminster; W. H. Matthews Jones, city 
engineer and surveyor, Chester; and Henry C. Adams, 
M.iNST.c.E., M.I.MECH.E., F.R.SAN. I., congulting niuni- 
cii)al engineer, 60 Queen Victoria-street, E.C. 

Chairmen of District Committees: Messrs. A. W. 
Booker, surveyor. North Witchford Rural District 
Council ; Walter Louis Carr, engineer and surveyor, 
Ruislip-Xorthwood Urban District Council; William 
Finch, county surveyor and bridgemaster, Cumber- 
land; Frank Latham,, borough engineer 
and surveyor, Penzance; Colin H. Macfarlane, 
a.<sistant superintendent, Glasgow Corporation ; 
Ernest Alljert Stickland, assoc.m.inst.c.e., borougli 
surveyor, Windsor; and H. J. Weaver, m.inst.c.e.t., 
con^ulting engineer, Gloucester. 


The President then .said that the new president. 
Lieutenant Whitwell, had written to him expres.«ing 
his great regret that he was detained out of the 
country by service for the Government, and that he 
could not get+wmk for the meeting. Lieutenant Whit- 
well had Ixen abA>ad for some time, and he hoped he 
would be in ICnglVnd for the now year. He was ex- 
tremely di.sapjKjir^ed at l)eing ab.sent. It was rather 
an unusual .■^ituaHpn, but everything was unusual 
nowadays, and tlK-" president hoped the meml)ers 
would forgive him. He had asked him (Mr. Adam.-;) 
to fulfil his duties, and also to read the very able 
address which he had prepared -axuL^^nt over to 
England. He might say that he had r^twm-d from 
the fk-rk t'> the new president's council a lettei^tating 
tli ■ ijl had passed unanimously a res<Hution 

>■•■ ifir fijipn-ciation of the honour donXto 

M:. -'. and tliroiigh him to the district, by If 

proposed election as preaideiit of the Institution 'i 
Municipal Engineers. He (Mr. Adam») did not think 
Lieutena'it Wliitwell w<Hild need much introduction to 
them from liiin. He had had a very long airi)rentic('- 
Hhip in imini<-ipal wttrk, and very early in his career 
wa* surveyor to the Preesall Url>an Distrrct Council, 
)tcinv at that time the youngest man holding a chief 
111 ' -[ipointiin'tit. His present i)Ost at ,\ber- 

■I held for eight years. Although lie luul 
(1 lot of w<*rk there he had found time 

to wnle many pai)er.- for the technical societies, and 
the <hief subje<t lir- had dealt with of recent years 
h'l ' 1 • ' i-ing, on which he Wa.- certainly an autho- 
r, d a jiHp'T last year (he thought) which 

*r ■ :it deal of di.viusion. because lie showed 

III loiild )<iii]d decewt liou!«e» with a rent suitable for 
workmen in pre-war days, if not at the preeent day. 

It ajipeared to hini (Mr. Adams) that the working man 
would oust the middle classes out of their houses., and 
that the Stale or municiinility would have to initiate 
housing schemes for the middle classes. jVs showing 
the experienced man Mr. Whitwell was, he was also 
an engineering export, and had i)atentod more than 
one recent imjirovcnient in internal combustion 
engines. Thai was to some extent outside the duties 
of the municipal engineer, and emphasised the saying 
that the busiest men have most time to spare. A 
large numl>er of public buildings stood to his credit, 
ajid among them were several swimming baths. He 
mentioned that because swimming was another art in 
which ;\Ir. WhitweU had attained prominence. He 
had won outright the Northern Life-saving Challenge 
Cup, and also the swimming championship of Bristol 
City, while he was invited to swim in the Inter- 
national swimming races in 1907. It was said that the 
engineer was a man of many parts, and they certainly 
had a man of many parts in Mr. Whitwell. He (Mr. 
Adams) had every confidence that that gentleman 
would uphold the importance and carry out the duties 
of the high office he had been called upon to fulfil in 
the most able manner. 


Mr. T. Barralet (Godstone) said it was his pleasing 
duty to have to propose somewhat unexpectedly a vote 
of thanks to tlie retiring president, Mr. Adams. He 
had had the pleasure of knowing that gentleman as 
a member of the institution for a considerable period, 
and it had been to him a source of instruction and 
satisfaction to admire the manner in which he had 
carried out the duties of his exalted office. These 
duties he had carried out with dignity and impartiality 
at a period when tlie difficulties of the office were much 
moix' onerous than in the times of peace. Mr. Adams 
was the distinguishetl son of a distinguished father — 
whom also he had the pleasure of knowing in years 
gone by — and as president he had i)rovtKl an asset to 
the institution of no little value. Mr. Adams stood 
exceedingly high in ])rofessional life, and he had been 
a source of considerable Mai to the institution, in 
whose proceedings he had taken a prominent part. He 
condo'ed- with him in the difficulties of his position, 
but the record he had made showetl that even in war 
time the Institution of Municipal Engineers had been 
able to hold its own. Ho had followed a worthy line 
of past-presidents, and if the gentlemen who was to 
follow him approached even the high character that 
Mr. .•\dains had given him in the short re.-nimc of his 
career that had just been delivered, he (Mr. Barralet) 
ventured to think that Mr. Whitwell would have a 
somewhat difficult rolr in filling the chair in a more 
excellent manner than the gentleman who had filled 
it during the past year. 

Mr. E. J. Elson (Penge), m seconding the proj)08i- 
tioii, observwl that, owing to stress of work, he had 
unfortunately not been able to attend many m<eetings 
of the council, therefoic ho was not elected a member 
of the council last yeai-, but he might say that he had 
been a member of the council since its formation, and 
had had many ojiport unities of judging the value of 
Mr. Adams' work. Having been fortunate enough to 
have Ix'cn elected a iiieinber of the council on the pre- 
sent occasion he had much jileasure in seconding a. 
hearty vote of thanks to the retiring president. 

Mr. Adams, in reply, said his services had been 
referred to in far too flattering terms. When he 
accejited office, much against his will, he said ho would 
do what lu' could for the institution, and this he had 
done, but all the same he T<'lt that what he- had done 
was really very little, and certainly far short of what 
he would like to havi- done. He attendttl the meet- 
ings ho could get to in the vicinity of London, and he 
also att<-nd«-<l a iiK'cling at Newcastle — a v«>ry large 
meeting, where he had the jjleasurc of meeting fifty or 
sixty of the Northern members. The members were 
spread all over tlu^ country, but ther<' were large 
numbers congregated in tlu' North and South. Of 
iirse, the member in the South could not very con- 
veniently go uj) Noiili, while the Northern member 
fotind a difficulty in going South, therefore it was very 
jik^sant to have the pleasure of meeting so many 
geiiJllemen at Newc.istle. The North<-in members 
woroie*! hard for the interi'sts of th»^ institution. They 
helcl frecjuent meetings, and altogether they were a 
vei-j-1 energetic body oi men. Of course, they had all 
had ^i(fi';ulti<-s to coiitind with during the ju'eseiit year, 
and {jt seemed to him that they were all more ()r less 
out i^ th<'.ir own litth- brtats on a rolling sea. On the 
tip <il the wave they cmight a glimj)s<! of a friend, but 
in tne trough of tlie sea they might not catch sight 
of hini for months. Jt was (juite difTerent to old times, 

Januahv 12, 1917. 



when they used to know wliat their friends were doing. 
His time had been fully occupied during the past year. 
Early in the year he took cliarge of the engineering 
department of a local college to relieve a man on 
military duties. He had also had chai-ge of an engi- 
neering shop engaged in war munitions, the whole of 
the arrangement of which he had to cari-y out. Of 
course, he had also to carry on his own work, and his 
fimi had been selected by tlie War Office to cany out 
works for them. He had also had the institution work 
to attend to, and the only explanation of the fact that 
he had been able to cany it on was that Mr. AVyand, 
tlie secretaiy, had to a great extent helped him. Eveiy- 
thing^liat had required his attention had been pre- 
pared by him in such a form tliat he could s<^ at 
()nc* what was wanted!, and deal promptly with tlie 
matter, and that, as they knew, was a very great 
assistance to a busy man ; whereas hours might have been 
consumed he found everything cut and dried, and as 
a consequence they were able to transact business in 
record time. He had to thank Mr. Wyand for his 
help, and he knew tliat the members of the committees 
also appreciated that gentleman's services. He was 
afraid that, owing to Mi-. Whitwell's absence, they 
would not get rid of him (Mr. Adams) all at once, but 
as long as he had the ability he should be pleased to 
do all he could for tlie interests of the institution. 

The members adjourned for lunch, and on re- 
assembling listened to Mr. Edward Whitwell's presi- 
dential address — i-ead in his absence by the chairman. 
The addi'ess is reproduced elsewhere in this issue. 

The meeting afterwards jiroceeded to the considera- 
tion of a paper* by Mr. ('•. Bel son Chilvers, entitled 


The C«AIEMAN (Mr. Henry C. Adams), in proposing 
a vote of thanks to the author of the paper, dealt first 
with the question of open windows. He personally 
believed in moderation in all things. The closed 
window was bad, and the ever-open window was likely 
to be almost as bad. If they want-ed to have open 
windows, they must go into the open country, 
away from the haunts of man, and from the dust of 
tile roads, because he questioned whether it was healthy 
to have tliat dust blown into houses and polluting the 
air they breathed. It was much more dangerous to 
have a window open and breathe undiluted fog than 
it was to have it closed. In the modern room there 
was a constant interchange of air ereated by the 
draught of the chimney, the cracks in the windows and 
the doors, and unless there was a large number of 
jjeople present and gas burning one could sit in com- 
jjarative comfort. With regard to the insanitaiy 
arrangements known as middens, in a report of a 
medical officer of health, recently, statistics were given 
of infectious disease's classified under the lieadings of 
houses provided with water-closets, pail-closets, and 
middens, and the percentage of cases occurring was 
much greater with pail-closets than with middens. Of 
course, the percentage in relation to water-closets was 
very low. Except in small villages the middens were 
now very much better tlian fonnerly. 

Mr. T. C. Barealet (Godstone) remarked that one 
could not do too much to <'mphasise the importance 
of the health of the i>eople. It was of prime necessity 
to see that the wastage of war was made good, and 
to ensure that the coming generation would be 
physically, mentally, and morally of the best, and, 
inasmuch as one could not have a sound mind in an 
unsound body, the foundations of the body must be 
laid in the homes of the j)cople. The efficacy of an 
Act of Parliament de|)ended on those wlio administered 
it. 07ie might have excellent Acts of Parliament, but 
out of the hands of persons who had sympathy with 
their obje<;ts they were useless. In rural districts the 
local councils consist-ed to a large extent of land owners, 
property owners, and fanners, who had very little 
syinpatliy with the objects of the Public Health Acts ; 
consequently, unless an oflicer was with a type who 
was prepared to take the lisk of ninning counter to 
those; who employtd him, it would bo very difficult 
to bring the standard of h.alth of a district up to the 
|)oint it should be. The author of the paper appeared 
to favour the use of disinfecting powders. On that 
jioint he would only say where there, were noxious 
odours use th(-m by all means, but when people spread 
j)owders arouml gullies or put them down water-closets 
th<-y were on the wrong track altogeth<>r. It wa.s a 
relic of (he old times, when it was the practice to 
burn all, sorts of abominations to drive away the 
plague. Such " remedies" would never do away with 
the necessity of using the best workmanship in the 
• See page 45. 

construction of drainage, and so forth. He thought 
all of them recognised the advantage of having a bath 
attached to a house. He used to be a very finn 
advocate of the provision of baths for workmen's 
cottages, but after observing the use to which in a 
number of cases they were put, he had come to the 
conclusion that such bathing facilities as were pro- 
vided should be more or less of a public nature. His 
view was that the extra room was of far more use as 
cubic space than as a bath-room. He thought they 
could all sympathise and agree with the recommenda- 
tion that the time had come when local authorities 
must more seriously consider their duties as regards 
the provision of houses for the people. If it was worth 
while to retain a strong and healthy body of labourers 
on the soil it was worth while to pay for it. Even 
supposing the amount they obtained in rents was in- 
sufficient to meet the interest on a loan for cottages, it 
was better to pay a ^d. or Id. rate on a scheme, becaus*^ 
the provision of decent accommodation would in many 
cases render hospitals more or less unnecessaiy. The 
best investment for a local authority after the war — private enterprise in this connection would be 
practically wiped out, owing to the cost of labour and 
niaterials — would be to see that eveiybody in their 
district had a decent, proper, and sanitaiy home. 

Jlr. H. PiCKERTXG (Luton) stated with' regard to 
middens that when he went to his district first he 
found that the closets were chiefly of that type, but 
since then he had persuaded the owners of projierty 
to render them impenious and more sanitary. In the 
1909 Act, powers were lacking to make tenants of 
houses have proper regard for cleanliness, and he 
hoped that in any new Act that was passed that point 
would be dealt with. 

Mr. Reginald Brown (Southall-Nonvood) contended, 
as regarded housing, that the whole thing rested u])on 
the proper education of the people. Better housing 
accommodation was impossible unless they educat<>d 
the people to use the houses provided for them in the 
way they should be. His view was that there should 
not be more than ten houses to the acre in working- 
class schemes. As regarded baths, he warned them 
that they would not get anything through the Local 
Government Board unless they provided baths — either 
in the sculleries of the smaller houses or in separate 
rooms in the larger dwellings. It had often occurred 
to him that the extra cost was the chief thing which 
prevented a good many i)eople providing this absolute 
necessity, but he thought some simple, inexpensive 
arrangement might be devised to get over the difficulty. 
Housing in r'ural districts was a much more trouble^ 
some matter than in the urban districts. The housing 
of the rural population throughout Great Britain — and 
Scotland in particular — was a national scandal. The 
amount of disease in these districts was appalling, and 
it would be a revelation to many to know how much 
of this arose from bad housing accommodation. Either 
they must give a man a sufficient wage to enable him 
to j)ay a reasonable rent, or they would be compelled 
to bring into force some form of State- assistance to 
Ivelp tlie local authorities who were responsible for the 
])ublic liealth. In regard to the disposal of refuse in 
rural areas, it was for engine<.»rs to devise some simple 
means by which this material could be got rid of in 
an manner. As an example of what could be 
done in this direction, they had before tliem the work 
of the militaiy authorities ; it was absolutely surprising 
what perfect methods of dealing with slop water and 
excreta could be introduced into rural areas at little 
or no cost, and to all interested in tin- provision <>f 
these inexpensive systems of disposal of refiis<- ho would 
recommend a visit to the exhibition at the Duke of 
York's School at Chelsea, arrange<l by the Loiuhm 
Sanitary Companies. 

The vote of thanks was passed. 

Mr. Chilvebs, senr., in replying on behalf of his 
son, said there was, of course, a great deal in what 
had been said as to open windows and dust. At the 
same time, unless windows were kept open the air in 
rooms — particularly small rooms — could not be kept 
pure. He, personally, did not quite agr«x> with the 
writer of the pap<-r in regard to tlie codification of tlie 
Public Health Acts; he thought, however, it would bo 
a good thing to have theses Acts consolidated into two 
or three Acts dealing with water, sewerage, and stowage 
disposal, and so on. 

The next paper,* contrilMit«»d by ^fr. Georjo RoHlev. 
was entitled 


Mr. G. SiMcox (South Miaiin.-), in propo.-in- a vote 
of thank? to the author, inquired how the spraying of 
* See pas* Si. 



Janxiarv 12. 1917. 

\he roads was done. ;iiiil wlietlier there was any advan- 
tage in allowing the tar to boil all day in the sun 
before gritting. ^^r. Rodley favoured gravel for 
gritting, but it .<eenioil to him that sharp sand was 
the most .«orvioeablo material, and particularly on 
hilly portions of road-. In such situations it was his 
practice to leave it alouL' the sides of the roads with 
a notice inviting »-annen to sprinkle it tiiemselves. 
The result was that the council's workmen wen> not 
required to do the work. 

Mr. J. Randerson ^Sevenoaks). dealing with the 
author's advocacy of the use of 2-in. stone, pointed 
out that in these (lay> material of that size could not 
alway.s l>e obtained. His experience was that tluy 
could more easily •:ct a smaller material. He had 
recently used more i>f this tiuialK-r material, which he 
had found, after tar-|iaiiiting. made an excellent road. 
He did not. personally. >ee the necessity for keeping a 
road closed for tar-painting. Was there any better 
wear in Mr. Koilley'- ease ? 

Mr. H. Pi( KERixi (Luton), referring to dry rolling, 
remarked that the practice was to do too little of this 
ill many rural districts, and to put on the stone too 
early. Generally it was the first six months that 
determined the life of a road. In many rural districts 
surveyors had to deal with roads with jioor stu-faces. 
over which par-sod fast and often heavy traffic, and 
they were expected to kccj) down the expense. The 
cost of putting in t,'oi>d foundtitions was i>rohibitive. 
It was his own practice to put down a layer of 3-in. 
stone, which he fomul mo.-t cflective ; on ^oft roads it 
made a gooil foundation and a fairly good Kurfaee. 
Two or three year.s afterwards it, was coated, and he 
obtained a good road. The practice in regard to road 
drainage varied in different part.s of the country. In tho 
far North it wa.-% always the j)ractice for the roadmen 
to clear otit the ditches at the .-ides of the highways. 
He had fomid that wa- often left, to the farmers and 
other.-<. but he thought it would pay the highway 
authority to take the vork in hand and do it effec- 
tively. It paid to keep the water off the roads. 

Mr. l{Er;iNAi,i) Brown (Soutliall-Noi wood) men- 
tioned, in regard iu the subject of footpath flagging, 
that tho u.•^lUll crossfall for artificial stone in the 
Sotith of England wa- i in. 

-Mr. T. MuNiDV (Woiilwioh) stated that he had fre- 
quently laid artificial stone w-ith a crossfall of J in. 
with fpiitc sati.'sfactory results. With natural York 
^tnne he had used a crossfall of J in. Thai. also, was 
satisfactory, so that he did not think it was alway,- 
advi.-jible to have too great a crossfall. but just sufti- 
<-ient to throw the water into tho road channel. In 
any case, it did ii"! make for comfort. .Vs regarded 
the IxvJding of flags, he had a preference for solid 
Itedding. which made a far bettor job. It Mas pre- 
fernblc, of course, in gritting operations, to use a 
machini', but the materia] one used must not be of too 
loamy « nature, otherwise tlie machine was apt to 

Mr. KoDLEV. rejilying, said his view was that the 
tar-painting of roads in outside districts and county 
road* away from villages should l>e done by machine. 
In towns the work .-hould J>e done in half-widths; but 
in the case of -ingle-track roads tli'\\ had no alterna- 
tive but to deal with the whole width in one opera- 
lion. For gritting he u.-ed gravel at 3s. 6d. a load— 
^'<kkI. clean travel. He fotmd no difficulty at all in 
oMuining 2-in. granite. His ex|.erience, had taught 
him that when he wnnlcd 21-in. Leice.'-tershire stone 
ho niui«t order 2-in. ; but that when ordering from over- 
sean In- must order what ho wanted. Gritting in 
large town.* should be done by machine. With regard 
to tlie cleaning of ditches and watercourses, in his 
district they niado a practice of issuing to farmerr 
MOticcj. re<juirin(r tbe-e to l>e cleaned out whom 

The third and lai-t paper* was contiibnted bv Mr. 
Hor.ic B'.ot, and d.HJ* with the 

The CliAiHMAN (Mr H' irry C. .\dams). in moving a 
rote of thank.- to Mr Bool, ob.-erved that the object 
of th<; paper Ma<- to driw attention to the im|>ortHnce 
of a knowledgo of electricity among municipal engi- 
neers. He found him-elf, after .'ervinc his article.-. 
that nich « knowb^Ji^r was essential trj an engineer. 
and it was an ab.'-olut*; necesrity in these days. Mr. 
Boot had given a fairly eompreben.-ivc list of tiling? 
to «hich ch-drioity niight be applied. One war 
-p\»3L'e In -uiall K-heme.- tlic cost of lalxjur 
had alwavB Ken a great trouble, but he had got over 

* 8m pan* 96. 

the ditfictdty in recent works with which he had been 
concerned l>y adojiting automatic electric pumping 
nuicliiiiery. He knew it was tried a good many years 
a;ro and proved a faihirc, but the apparatus that wa,s 
obtainable to-day was infinitely superior to that sold 
ten or twelve years ago. In the matter of electric 
tramways, the i>ermanent way came under the borough 
surveyor, but the electrical equipment was. of course, 
a sjH'cialised jiart of the work that he would advise 
no one to dabble in unless they were expert electrical 
engineers. There was no dotii)t that the installation 
of electric generatiuj.' stations by nnuiicipal authori- 
ties and the distribution of electricity for power pur- 
poses wovdd l(e of very great IvneJit in many diwtricts, 
and would, with proi)er management. ]>rove renntne- 
rativc inidertakiugs. 

-Mr. H. C. H. SuKNTON (Westminster), .^^^eeonding, 
-aid he had been impressed for some time i)ast with 
the importance of inakiiig use of electrical niachinery 
for sewage pumiiing. He cotdd say from exi)erience 
that sewage could be ininii>cd very satisfactorily in 
either large or small (piantitics by leutrifugal jiumps 
run by a motor. It -eeiiied to him that the fact that 
a very small pinni> would lift sewage (piite as 
efficiently as a large one was not propefly grasped. 
It was extraordinary when it. was j)0ssiblc to a 
.-mall automatic electric pump that ejectors, with the 
uece-sary air coMipros.sing stations, and .so forth, 
should be put down. 

Mr. HhXiiNALO Brown (Soulhall-Norwood) said Mr: 
Boot was to be connnended on a highly instructive 
paper. The subjei't was one whi<-h must <'ome to the 
front, especially in those places «licre there was an 
electricity undertaking,'. He agreed as to sewage 
pumi)ing. He could not understand why it should lie 
necessary to construct large storage tank acconnno- 
<lation and then put in innnense centrifugal jiumps to 
Lift the .sewage to aii"tiier part of the works for treat- 
ment, instead of litijng the .sewage u|) gradually 
throughout tho day. Electric vehicles for municipal 
work had a very gr( ,it future, but it remained yet to 
be .-een whether the |ietrol was better than the electric 
machine. But he thoucrht the electric vehicle had 
shown itself to be a very useful machine indeed. He 
saw no reference in the paper to the treatment of 
sewage by clccfricit\-. That might be considered by 
souie to have been an'ab.selute failure, and it had 
been in a great iiian.\ cases, but it did n<>t follow that 
methods would not be brought into use by which the 
-ystcm would V)e a snc<'ess, bt)th in the jioint of cost 
and etliciency. He belicve<l himself that it was i)0s- 
.-ilile to use electricity for this particul;ir iiurpose. 

The vote of thanks was passed, and ilie procecding.- 
ilien terminated. 

Flash-lamps Without Batteries .\ practicable tlash- 

laiiip \ntlioiit a l>a(tci\ -either primary or secondary 
— .sounds almo.-t too ;^uod to l)e true, yet. according 
to J/ 1 iitlunirif KliriiiqiK'. the feat has been accom- 
plished in Germari.\ by utilising a tiny magneto- 
generator driven liy a sjiring and clockwork. The 
mechanism is provided with an e.'^<-apement which 
ensures con.-iUinl -peed of revolution for the generator 
armature, and hence constant voltage. Nothing (the 
Kl<riricttl /friiiir observes in noting this interesting 
innovation) is said about the initial cost of the appa- 
ratus, which mu.-t lie much greater than that of the 
battery huiip; but l>,\ manufacturing in great cpianti- 
ties it should be pos>ib1e to bring it down to reason- 
able limits. 

Standardising Scottish Municipal Wages.— Hcprc- 

seniatives of the biiigli- of .\irdrie. Coatbridge, Hamil- 
ton. .Motherwell, and W'isliaw ha\o met in lonfercnee 
for the piirjiosc of com-jilcring the wages paid and hours 
of duly, and in the outdoor departments of the 
respective town i-ouri<ils with tin- view of securing 
greater uniformity in dealing with applications for 
ijirrease of wages or bonus. CJciierally (says the 
(nw'/iiii- H<rnl<l), the ( "uferenco rcsohwl that the hours 
of labour, the renin ji. -ration jK-r week, tho overtime 
and Sunday ]>ay. tho holidays |Kr annum, and tho sick 
|)ay be standardis<:<l. In the matter of increase of 
wages, the confercu" reconiinend a uniform wage in 
the bt reels and ch-aii'-iiig departments, th<' figures being 
equal to the higlusi .ii present being paid in any of 
tlie burelis. ProviMon was made f'>r a Standing Cnni- 
mitt*-*' oeing appointed, to whom would be submitte<l 
applications inr in'n.jses of wages, and wIk> would 
df^ide wheth4r any (|ucbti'>n so affccti-fl tho common 
interests of the burgli-- as i'> call for a joint conference 
being held. 

jANUAny 12, 1917. 



Municipal Work In Progress and Projected. 

Tlic Edi'or invite? tlir co-oprration of SURVEYOR Tcadcra u-ith a vicu- 
- dead as complete and accurntc 

mnlcinu thn informntinn Qit'en undrr this 

The following are among the more important pro- 
jected works of which particulars have reached us 
during the present week. Other reports will be found 
on our " Local Government Board Inquiries " page. 


Barnsley T.C. — Tlie borough surveyor, Mr. J. H. 

Taylor, in his annual report, states that only seven 
dwLlling-hovi.-^os were erected in the town last year, 
and that fewer cottages were erected than in any of 
t]ie preceding twenty-five years. He estimates tliat 
to make up for the decreased number of cottages 500 
to 600 ought to l>e provided. 

Exeter T.C. — Plans of a teni|>orary smallpox hospital 
which tho borongli surveyor. Mr. T. .Moulding, has 
prepared, have been referred l)ack to tlie Sanitary 
Committee to provide a smaller scheme. Mr. 
.Moulding's plans jtrovided for a six-bed block, an 
administrative block, laundry, mortuary, disinfectqr. 
drainage, ffncing. road making, apd water sui)ply, at 
a'n estimated cost of £3,729. 

Manchester T.C. — The Parks Comnutlee have 
fornuilly sanctioned a scheme for erecting workshops 
for the benefit of the convalescent .soldier.'^ in Hcaton 
Park. The materials liave already been obtained by 
the military authorities, aiid tli^ work of erection will 
be proceeded with innnediatcly by the soldiers them- 
selves on a suitable site in the Hall camp. The inten- 
tion is to teach tiie .soldiers various trades during the 
period of convalescence. 


Aberdare U.D.C. — ConsKk-ratiou is being gi\*«u lo 
a liDUsiiig srluiiic, to take effe<'l after the wai-. 

6hesterfield T.C, — The medical officer of health, Dr. 
U. Frascr. having ivported that at least 200 liDUses 
should be erected by the corporation, the Housing 
< '(iiimiittee have been authorised to go into tlic matter. 

Geliigaer U.D.C— It is [iroposed aflei- tlu- war to 
build working-class houses at Oilfach, Bargo«.'<l. 

Glasgow T.C. — The nie<lical officer of health, the 
master of works, the sanitary inspector, and the 
manager of the city improvements de])artment have 
received instructions to send to the town clerk. Sir 
John Lindsay, all the reports, plans, and other infor- 
mation in their possession referring to the rpiestion 
of bousing and general town improvement, with a 
view to a synopsis of the reports being prci)arcd for 
the Si>ecial Committee on Housing and General Town 

Nuneaton T.C. — The Local Governnuut Board have 
asked the council lo submit to them their proposals 
with resiH'ct to the housing scheme, with a view to 
obtaining sanction to a loaji as soon as circumstances 

West Hartlepool T.C. — The Local (ioveinrueiil 
Board have, under the Housing and Town Planning 
Act, sanctioned tlu- corporation's control over .'{,778 
acivs in various parts of the borougli. Tlie original 
application ref< in'(l to '>.'.i'-i2 aires. 


Cheltenham T.C. — It has been agreed to i)urchase 
an electiic v^iliicle for i'l.U.JO for the collection of 
lu;usc refuse. It was stated that, at a charge of !)d. 
[ler mile for electricity, the new vehicle would cffecti 
a --aving of L'lO ]>er aninuu on the present charges. 

Glasgow T.C— The superintendent of cleansing 
reports that the first of the two Edison electric 
vehicles for refuse collection was delivered on 
Deeeml)er 4th, and is giving entire .satisfaction. 


Chapel-en-le-Frlth R.D.C.- Ihc coun. il ha\o mmU- 
ai ramremeiits to release the .-urveyor of highway.-. 
Mr. E. J. Hunter, for road service in France, and 
have agreed to pay him the difference between his 
salary and his Army pay. Mr. J. Lomas, road fore- 
man, has been appointed Mr. Hinitcr's deputy during 
liis absence. 

Colchester T.C— Provision is to be ma<le in t.he 
next estimate for the um' of tarred clinker on certain 

Derbyshire CC — A proposal of the county surveyor 
to establish a central depot and tar-macadam mi.xing 
plant, at an estimated cost of £7,000, was before the 
council on Wednesdaj-. Authority was given for the 
scheme to be luoceeded with. 

Dublin T.C — Schemes for the widening of Chancery- 
street and Lower Liffey-street have been j)repare<l for 
submission to the city council. 

Ellesmere Port U.D.C— The surveyor, Mr. .1. M. 
Hudson, lias been instrucle<l to prepare a specifica- 
tion of the wi>rk required to complete the Noi-th-road. 

Keynsham R.D.C — .\n intimation has lxH>n received 

from the Somerset County Couticil of their intention 
to fake over the whole of the main road tarring and 
deal with it direct from the county surveyor's office 
by the coun.ty contractors, the work to be paid for 
direct by the county council. The surveyor, .Mr. J. 
.Johnson, said tlic work of tarring would he extended, 
and he iielieved it would tend towards economy in 
road maintenance. The rural council would have 
some control as to how much was done, as they could 
make recommendations to the coruity council. 

Penrith R.D.C — The Highways Committee reported 
that tiie\- hail Considered a letter from tho county 
(•oiuuil with reference to tho Emergency Provisions 
.\ct as to prohibiting the use of certain roads by motor 
omnibnscs, dtc. It was decided that the county 
council be informed that this council does not desire 
to prohibit the u.-e of any district roads under the 
.\ct, whiA is only a temporary measure. Mr. Bolton 
asked what was the object of closing roads to oninibu.* 
traffic ? Tiie clerk said ho supposed it was »eally 
meant for localities where there was an enormous 
traffic for Government purposes. 

Perthshire CC— The Western District Commit Iw 
have decided again to approach the tJlasgow Corpora- 
tion on tlu' subject of tin- Trossachs road. Their pro- 
posal is that the corporation should construct a light 
railway alongside the road, and that the district 
coniiiiillct- should bottoiu the road— which has an 
avt-rage width of II ft. — and make il suitable for 
motor t raffic. 

Sheffield T.C— Th.. city surveyor, Mr. W. .1. 
lladfield, has been aulhorised to negotiate with the 
.'\liilland Uaiiway Company for the construction of 
isl.inds or refuges for the bett<'r protection of foot 

trallic at the station approach. 


Newport (Mon.) T.C — Iho .Manncsmann Tube Com- 
pany liavo written to the corporation stating that 
about 3<H) men would shortly be employed at their 
Newport works, in addition to 12<) by the Ignited Tube 
Cor|)oratioii. and suggesting that the sanitary arrange- 
ments be complied with. The Health Conimittce re- 
coiiimeiid that ;i deputation should wait on the com- 
pany to urge that the construction of the jiroposetl 
sewer, at a cost of C36,tMXJ. should be diferred 
for the time being, and that a temporary arrangement 
should be madi' to deal with the sewage. 

Wantage R.D.C— The Local Government Board 
ha\t' written, with refereiico lo. the council's appli- 
latitui for .a loan to carry out a drainage scheme at 
lA'tconil)!', Regis, that the jiarish was in greater need 
of a water supply, and suggesting that tho sewerage 
.seheine shoiihl Iw deferred until a watt-r supjily had 
been )irovi(leil. 


Burton U.D.C. — ^The council have acceptetl the tend«r 
ol .Messrs. 1{. .V J. Dempster, Manchester, for the 
installation of a benzol i)lant at the gasworks. The 
tender of Messrs. Tangyes. for piunjjs. and the tender 
of the Ciadley Biriler Company, for two oil storage 
tanks, are also lecominendcd for acceptance. 

Derby T.C. — The Ekxtricity Committee propose to 
effirt main extcnsi<uis at an estimated cost of fJ-'jO. — 
The council have approved the rwommendation of the 
Lhctricily Cominitt*'*' for the extension of the gene- 
ritiiig station, iii'liidiiig the installation of new 

Eastbourne T.C — Owing to official lighting restric- 
tions, a deliiieiiiy of £'2.100 in the municipal elec- 



jANrAKV 1-J, 1!»17. 

tri.iiv account f.-r llu- paM. half-year is ivport*^. 
Therv is. howfwr. a Mibst«ntial reserve, aocuiuulated 
under pre-war cimditions. 

Kirkcaldy T.C.— ^Vitll reference to a report of the 
l.iirjtli .lecirical oni:iii.tT with rcs|>e<'t to the present 
-eneratiii;; station an. I tlie applications for additional 
["n.wer supply. Sir Joim Snell, who was consulted in the 
matter hv tiie town couneil. states that it would not 
Ik- -ouiui po!icv to al.;indon the rre'^^n* generating 
wurks now and l.iundi into the jrreater expenditure 
which a new station «.iild entail. He consider.'; the 
only pro|>er alternativ. to a hulk supply is the re- 
moval ot the existing station, and he .-iuhniits a pro- 
irraninie of extensions -pread over ten years, which he 
ihiiiks would m.-et th.- requirements in Kirk.aldy for 
,,• '.-i-t that i»eriod. He states that Mr. B^ilfonr. the 

lir.-otor of the Fife Power Company, would 

1 to reconutund his company to acquire the 
,,.-;.,._ , wer station at the amount of the pre.'^nt 
eapital indebtedness, which is ai>proximately ,t38.()0n. 
his conijianv to supply all current power in hulk for 
th.- ).ris. nt'aiid future requirements of the corpora- 
ti. n T'.- .(i'-poration paying a certain sum per annum 
t.iwards the exi>eiiditnre. and to retain control of the 
distrihution of electricity within the hurgh. Failing 
*»,♦» arjnption of that suggestion, he thinks the next 

itivc would lie to extend the present works. 

!iditure of £61.300. .spread over a period of 

Manchester T.C.— The Electricity Committee recom- 
mend the city council to apply to the Local Govern- 
ment Board for borrowing powers to the extent of 
£3U.a)(>. The last sanction for a similar amount, the 
i-onimittee state, is fully earmarked for sub-stations 
now l>eing equipped, and before any further necessary 
c<>ntra<ts can l>e placed it is imperative that further 
,„,wvr-. »lu'uld l>e obtained. • 

Newport (Men.) T.C.— The Waterworks Committee 
have-inr-pectcd a site in the Caerfanell Valley, near 
TalvU.nt, with a view of constructing a reservoir 
there. The landowneis are to V»e asked for permission 
to make trial holes at certain given points. 

Plymouth T.C.— The Water Committer have given 
a sub-committee full authority to make aiTangements 
with the proper (Jovenunent department for the 
employment of CJerman prisoners of war on the con- 
>tuction of the new j)i|»e line. 

Port Glasgow T.C. — The council have presented a 
Provisional Order to (he of Commons for the 
purpo.-^- of augmenting' the existing water supply. It 
is propo.sed to raise the embankment of .\uchendores 
reservoir 6 ft. and to divert the waters of Cunston 
Bum into this re.«ervoir. giving an increased supply 
equal to six weeks for the whole community. 

Walsall T.C. — It was stated in the report of the 
F.l«-«tricity Committer (hat. owing to the Ministi-y of 
Munitions having romniand«'eried certain plant at the 
new eU-c-tricity work*, it had be<'n decidi-d temporarily 
to inrreat-c the iharg«-s for current by 2() per cent in 
order partially tc iii'-«-i the |iro>«p<-<tiv.- (l.-(u it on tin- 


Halifax T.C. — The nett profit of the tramway under- 
takiiiK la-t year was £19,055. as against £16,211 in the 

previous yc?r. 

Shillield T.C— The city surveyor, Mr, W. .1. 
lisdliclil, re|M>rting <yi the litate of his stafT as afTec(4-<l 
by niililary ninire, stateH that sinc<» .Inly, lOll, the 
nuniU-r of workmen lias l}4>en r^luc*-*! fif>m 1,-1.")(( to 
7.'<l, He r<t<-nlly np|i<;iiiil Ix-fore tli<- hwal tribunal 
in i<-*|M-< I o( two t |.-iks and twenty-four workmen. 
' >ii.- man w.i- -i.-n one month's furtlwr 4-xemption, 
•-•-vi'iiti-«'ti wii>- i:i:>si llin-*" months' exemption, and 
••igli" • I • ■ I ,„. Thre<^ others had alr<-ady 

•iiption, and tlKf^e, together 
'•■<t4<l, wen- the whole of the 
►1"' I In- avtirage age r)f thoM- now 

• '"I ' \ five y<iarh. A suggestion had 

Ix'" ' ■ "tight Im (iniployed and more 

»"' ' work. 'I'he sluirtage. how- 

•"■•' ■•• I/oiIikI labouront. 'I'heim 

l>I- 1!'\ '■( ■ : i liy men for Hw<'«i)ing and otlier 
It, If tlh f should be a scarcity in this 
• vu .. ,..t.,,,|,,l t„ intr'Kluce female labour, 
M.- Highway rommi(te<- (hat, in 
• ■ of ilie work now being carri*-*! 
■ •I'.ii would not b«- asked at the jirewnt 
■■•■ the tity Kurveyor for road work in 


«lt ' 




Mr. F. Dowling has been appointed temporary sur- 
veyor to the Clare Urban District Council. 

Mr. .James Domielly has been api)oiiited surveyor 
to the Enniskillen Tiban District Council. 

Mr. H. Vickery. surveyor to the Totnes Rural Dis- 
trict Council, has lH>en appointed surveyor to the 
Mailing (Kent) Rural District Council. 

Mr. J. R, Wright, of Redcar, has l>een appointed 
as.sistant surveyor to (he Blackwell Rural District 
Council for the duralioii of the war, at a salary of 
ei30 a year, 

Mr, H. A, Eiid.sor. formerly district stirveyor at 
Keynsham, has been appointed surveyor of (he Long 
Ashton main roads by the Somerset County Council, 
at a salary of C'2(X) a year pnd £30 travelling expenses. 

^Ir. H. C. K. Rayiier, borough surveyor of South 
Molton, has joined the Forces, and the town council 
have decided to pay him the difference l)etween his 
.Army pay and separation allowance and the amount 
he received as salary. 

Mr. G, Plummer, surveyor to the Hayward's Heath 
Urban District Council, has been voted £40 in respect 
of extra work done by him in the preparation of 
surveys, plans, specifications and supervision of the 
private street works in Western-road. 

Mr, Leslie Roseveare, m.inst.c.e., borough engineer 
of South Shields, has taken up duty as Corps Road 
Officer, with the rank of Captain in tlie Royal Engi- 
neers, in the recently*formed. battalions for service in 

Mr. W. Davey, surveyor to the Brandon Rural Dis- 
trict Council, has joined the Army for road work in 
France, and the <'0iuK-iI have agreed to eniploy Mrs. 
Davey to keep the books in his absence, allowing her 
£28 per annum for this work. !Mr. Froud will carry 
out Mr. Davey's i)rofessional work. 

Mr. S. W. A. Carter, city surveyor of Gloucester, 
has accepted service with the Road Corps in France, 
with rank of Captain in the Royal Engineers, and 
-Mr, R, Read, consulting engineer to the city council 
(the former city surveyor), has been appointed tem- 
porarily city surveyor and waterworks engineer, with 
an extra allowance at the rate of £1(X) a year, with 
(he necessary clerical assistance. 

Mr. F. J. Hurley, surveyor and sanitary inspector 
to the Crickhoweli Rural District Council, has been 
appointed deputy road surveyor to the Breconshire 
County Council, in the place of Mr. W. L. Harpur, 
who has accepted a commission as. Captain in the 
Royal Engineers for road .service in France. Mr. 
WiJfred Watkins, Llangynida, has been appointed 
deputy surveyor to the Crickhoweli Rural District 

Mr. George Rodley. district surveyor to the Norfolk 
County Council, who was one of the readers of papers 
at last Saturday's annual meeting of the Institution 
of Municipal Engineers, commenced his career in the 
Sheffield highways and sewerage department. At the 
age of twenty-five he was general foreman to the 
Ripley, Derbyshire. Urban District Cotincil, and three 
years afterwards to(jk up a similar position under the 
corporation of Li-amiiigton. Later he became district, 
and subseqtK'ntly chief, foreman under the borough 
engineer of Birkenhead. His next position was that 
of clerk of works on Road Board improvement works, 
inider the West Suffolk County Council. He was 
appointed (o his [jresi-nt post in June, 1914. It may 
Im- mentioned that iiis father has for about twenty- 
five years filled the position of liighways supei- 
inteiKkiit under the Sheffield Corjioration, 


Lieutenant Waiii.^ Coales, R.E., son of Mr. Herlxrt 
G. Coales, engineer and surveyor to (he Market Har- 
l)oroui.'h Urban Di-trict Council, has la-en awarded 
(he .Military Cro.-s. 

Government Grant for Dublin Rebuilding.— The 

Dublin Ca-tU; aulhorities have reccivid £|(HI,lKH( as 
an iii-'talment of tin Government's ex-gratia grant for 
the rebuilding of house property deJ?troyed in Dublin 
during the rel>ellion. In the absr-noe of information as 
(o the amount ofcijiniK-nsation, build inf.' work has not yet 
been commenced in the jiriiK-ipa! thoroughfares. Two 
or tlire<' ha\e been rebuilt in (he .side streets, 
but while tlie nuiiilxr of wooden shops in the main 
streets is being constantly increased there is no sign 
of the erection of any permanent structure. 

JANUAR): 12. I'M': 



A Resume of Public Health Matters.* 

1'>I':T.S0X ( HITA'RRS, l'',H^iiiLLr uiul Smv<'.\.,r, Oiiudl.' rrl.aii iJi^uin (oim 


Hi-alth is i)ioljal<ly the gnatest -iind tlie iiicst souglit- 
lor tiling in our lives. I teol that the liealthy nation 
is the most progreasive. Without healtli nations and 
men must deteriiorate. Haj>|iiness and oomfoit aie 
hound up in it, and tlniet'orc if wo desire to pro- 
!;re!5.s and live oomtortal)ly and hai)pily we must con- 
tinuiiUy seek after it and do our part in all re>i>ect.= 
to secure it for ourselves and others. 

We often hetir it said that cleanliness is next to 
frodliness, and I woidd in all sinoerity say it is akin 
in many cases. Godliness goes with cleanliness. 
Insanitary .and unhealthy condition.s the devil 
and all his works, and many iieoitle leave the squalor 
of tlieir homes to seek what they call [dcasure and 
enjoyment in the haunts of vice and sin. Social 
reforms in health and sanitation, I believe, assist to 
make people better morally and .spiritually, although 
these reforms cannot of tliemselve.s give the true 
spirit aixl make a devil a saint. Insanitary and "un- 
healthy conditions imi>air long life, lower vitality, 
and render .people living in them prone to niany of 
the di.seas0s and ailments of mankind. 
. Doctors' medicine and faith may go a long way in 
curing us oi*ill-health, but we need to remeinber the 
old saying. " God he'lps tho-e that help themselves." 
and the securing of liealthy conditions is one of the 
foremost lieli)s we can render. It is surprising how 
ignorant or how nejrligent many people are of the 
ordinary laws governing hygiene. Soap and water, 
freedom from dust and dirt are rarely s^sught after, 
and would appear to be at a great premium. 

In my inspection of various liouses I have seen 
many cases where people seem to glory in their dirt, 
from the living-room to the bedroom. Fresh air and 
suidight only accidentally gain access to their 
dwellings. It is very certain that none need live in 
fdth or be dirty in their person. 

Dust, dirt and fdth are the bpeeding-ivkices for flics, 
fleas, microbes, disease germs, &c. Insects aic spre^iders : they travel from filth to food aiul 
dejiosit infectious fuatter thereon. 

Ventilatison, with a boundless supply of fresh air 
aind sunlight. «re wonderful cures for many dre«nd 
diseases, ])urifying and cleansing the air we breathe; 
yet we find windows closed and blinds <lrawn to .shut 
out the i)ure air and stinlight. The sun must not 
shed its nays uijon our furniture, carpets, &c.. for 
fear of makiiig them fade I We had far better oiily 
have thinss w-'liich -do not fade than slnit out the 
glorious sun's rays. What is the use of by-laws coni- 
pclliug builders to provide windows of at least one- 
tonth the floor area, half of which must l)e made tb 
open, if we defeat the object for which they were 
made ? 

Many peojile, too, have an unnecessary amount o>f 
hangings and draperies, ornaments, knick-knacks, 
and other harbourers about their houses; rooms 
have too many ornamental mouldings, crooks, 
crannit^s. and corners about tlieni ; and all these 
harbour dirt and dust, and time will not allow them 
to l)e cleaned except on quite rare occasions, whi<-h 
may \>q annually at the time called " spring 
cleaning." Carpets may he very well in their way. 
and n>ake a room more cosy, but it is certain they are 
not so cleanly as linoleiun or stained and polished 
floors, with a few rugs or mat.-* plaiced where recpiired. 
and i'asily taken up and freed from dust. 

Wallpa|)ers often leave much to be <leRired, more 
'■-pecially when a new paper is put directly. over an 
(lid one. I have found as many as six pajiers, each 
I'M toj» of the other — a most insanitary arrangement. as 
ilecoiuposition must take place. Why can we not L'et 
our.-elves used to distempered or painted walls ? 
They can be made to look very nice by a proper 
airan.L'ement of coloius and forming dado and frieze, 
and are cerUiinly more sanitary and lu'althy. 

We are all agi-eed that dust, dirt, garhage. aiKl 
other rubbish should l>e kept ais fur as possil)le froui 
the dwelling-house, yot it is surprising how often we 
find the rubl)ish receptacle as cftose as possible to the 
doors and windows of the house. It is to be re- 
gretted that in so many town.s those receptacles a^re 
open wood boxes, pail.s or old. baths. We find a 
grand selection, but it i^ a difficult mutter to secure 

* t'a]>er leaJ at tlie uunuul ineetiu); of tlie IiisitilutioD of Mtiiiici[<al 
l^iiifinrerH InHt Satiinlii.v, 

the provision oi a proper bin, and the official uiii-n 
does not obtain the support he should. If only we 
could pivss upon peojile the necessity to seciue for 
themselves a proper galvanised bin with cover, which 
:«ppears to me to be the most satisfactory it properly 
used ! We have recently had brought to our notice 
a contrivance which, although inigenious, leaves. I 
tlunk. nuich to l>e desired. We 'have all been to the 
open lubbish tox, and know that it Irtirbours flies, 
and gives off a mo.s't unpleasant odour; this would 
not be experienced with a proper bin. What is the 
use of baving fly pape.vs and catchers in the house if 
we surround ourselves with breeding-grounds ? 

Tlie drainage and s'anitar.y arrangements to our 
houses need constant attention, and should be 
I)eriodically cleansed and flushed. .\ liberal use of 
disinfecting powder or fluid may lie allowed, but it is 
always better to give our attention firstly to the 
cau'Se lof offensive emanations, aaid then we may find 
that no disinfecting agent is needed. Esi>ecial care 
needs .to be taken in<-onnection with those 'antiquate<l 
and most insanitary arrangements called middens, 
although these are giadually disappeariiiL'. and the 
.sooner they are ai>olishcd the better. 

In the majority of towns there are now efficient 
drain'age and sewerage systems, and proper means 
of disposal. There are yet sti'll towns without an 
efficient system. .Many hu-ge country villages 
have no system, and the conditions are most unsati.s- 
' factory. These jilaces do not bother about it; they 
seem t'ontent to go on in their own "sweet way." 
They will not hear of any scheme. Those respon.sible 
look upcn themselves >as economists; yet their 
economy is but false, and their interest a " pocket 
one." the welfare :and well-being of the people l)eing 
the ilast consideration. A pm-e and efficient water 
sujiply is another essential for jill j)l'aces, yet we 
l;'ave many small towns aild yiHages " without it. 
Water is t-iken from detfec-tive ajid impure sources, 
while wells are close to oessjiools and drjiinage from 
cattle yards, and other flovtled surfaces have access to 
them. This is often due to the 'faulty construction of 
the well or cesspool. What appears to have happened 
is this— two holes were dug, and lined with dry-laid 
bricks, one being called the well and the other the 
cesspool.' Can we wonder at diiiease lieing raitipant ? 
We also find the water supply taken from an open 
jiond, full of mud and growth, and often a drain pijie 
disolni-rgiing its contents into it. Many small towns 
and villages view with grwit <lisfavour and are U|) in 
arms if an eflicient system of sew.erasre. sewage dis- 
posal, or water supply is suggested. They will tell 
you that their arrangements have sufficed for the 
jiast and no ill results have occurred; the in- 
habitants, they say. live a.s long as they like ; and yet 
facts prove otherwise. A like this occurred 
during the -past few weeks in .the district adjoining 
mine. In places where pro[)er systems have been 
ins'talled tie ■dcaith-rate is lowered, infantile mor- 
tality reduced, infc<'tif;us disease eradi<'ated, or 
nearly so, aiul the general health l)ettere<1. 

Slum dwellings land houses ]>acked together in .-my 
corner, withoiit suflieienl air space round about thi'u'i, 
are another factor conducive to ill-hea.lth, although 
such arrangements are now practicudly inj|iossible. 
and those in existence will luidoubledly be done 
aw'ay with before many years. - 

It is to be regretted that so iuany of the smaller 
hoiLses have no jiropcr pantry or •cuplioard for the 
storing of food. .V dry a<id well ventikitid i>antry 
shoitld be a sim- ijtia ii->i( if food is to be kept in a 
wholesome condition. 

A bath land bath-n/om should also In- provide*.! ; or. 
in the case of very sma'U property, why coidd not a 
"sn*all iiuildi'ni: be erected for the use of alwiit si.\ ? While ii|>on this niatter, I shouhl like In 
ask why s<."me wati'r aufboritieo, wlio are also tin' 
.sanitary authority, iifake an extra charge for w.iter 
used for a bath i' It is what I call taxing ckimliness. 
and shoidd iw)t 1x3. 

It is ;tlA? necessary that ihe premDse^ wlierc people 
are employed should he well ventilated, lighted and 
(.'lean, and tluit only a limited nund>er of |»er-on- 
sliould work in ;i Lvrtain sp;u.^e. 

The Govennneirts of the iMidrt und lueseni have been 
alive to the majority oi these matter-, and hav. put 



.1 AMARY 12. 1917. 

in loroe At'ti*. and liave o'inpeMed, and are oompel- 
iii>g. .<wnirary autlioritics to cany out works, and to 
L-aHsi' indivi<luaU i«» do works, to make the conntry 
healthier to livo in and to j^revent the spread oi 

The nu..<t ini|K.rtant A.l Ls the PuMic He»»Ul» A<«( 
of 1875. amended in |s!ki and 19n7, wliieh desils with 
iifcitter.-i of sewerajie. .-i<-w;iire di.-iiKisal. drainage and 
.^uinitatiion. water -n|i)>ly. sirt<et anil Junise swu'eng- 
inp. nnis;inoe.<, «iver(-,r«v\vdinc. offensive trade.'^, infeo- 
tioii.< dis«i,<os. food inspection, <:•on^=t motion of new 
liii:l<linf;~. sl.iuglrtvr-lnni-is. common lodginf{-luin.<ies, 
;kn<l other matter.-;. We have aL<o either Aet.-< rof'iitinj; 
to tile milk .-snitply. iMiU>dyii>g reguJations as to 
liglitiiM.'. ventilati<in ;ind <'leanlines.* of cowsheds. 
dairie.s and milkshups, as to infections di.soase 
iiiiKin;; iuniinals. Kont-, c<aravan dwellings, fao- 
hiries and workslu'i's. We havt* also other Acts 
amending liinil extend iiii; Acts, and new ones 
eiitiroly <le»ling with important liealth .miatters, «n<l 
I find that since lf<7;'» over sixty Act.s liave been jiiiissed 
d«»aling with matters allied to thi.s suhjecl. The 
Lov-.d Govarnment Bi^.-inl Ivave great piuver'l>os'1owe<l 
npon tiheni to wake u]i dofanlting aiithnril.ies to their 
responsibilities, oonijidling tlieiii to carry out 

The most imjiort<i.nt Act of r(-ceid ye;irs is without 
donht the Housing and Town Pl-anning Act of 15M)!). 
whk-li makes it conijiulsury for idl .-Sanitary authori- 
ties to oan.'se to Ik> ma^le from time to time a 'Syste- 
matic insj)e<-tion of all dwelling-houses in their dis- 
fri<t. ai»d to tahulate the conditions foimd as to 
.sanitation, general repaiir. lighting and ventilation of 
the pr«'mises. and as to the nunilx-r of iid/a hit ants of 
eacli lioMse. Owners nuay be compelled to j-emedy 
any (h-fec'ls, an<l in i^itses of general dilapidation to 
clo.-ie tlie house for huiiuin Ivihitiation, and if neces- 
sary to demolish the jiri^mises. 

Tliis is a most inqwrtant Act, and will undoiditcdiy 
improve tlie lioiising r<uiditrono; of the poorer peoi>le. 
T)ie Lo<-a] Governmen't Bf»ard are striujzcntly enforc- 
intr its t-irrying «<ut. 'and require annua.lly a full 
reixiit iis to work done. It is to he regretted that 
owners of jirf'perty sh<ruLd so often need forcing rto 
<lo necessary -work. Locial authorifios have al.^o 
liower he.-tirtved Ujion tliein to erect in tlieir <listricl 
houi4<\s fur the working classes, aiwl the IxK:al Govern- 
ment Board can coni|>el authorities to cairy out 
sdiemes where there is a sca-rcity of houses. 

.\nother import.'i/nt matter wliich can )»e carried 
out \inder this Act is the preparation h.I town plan- 
ning ^-eheincs. sliowing how the di.s'tric't is to be kiid 
out in the future, .the line or course of any new 
.-'Ir4-ets, the InyJng out (rf estate*:, .sile.s for open 
.«I>aces, recreation grounds. 'puhrie Imildings, &c., and 
the iiundier of Ifouse.-^ that irwy be erected on a 
certiiin a.rea. 

I feel that it would be a gf>od thing if all districts, 
especially ll»f»se urlVin in ch«raeter, large and small, 
prrpare<l a s«-hcme. In many towjis we find nilsnlr- 
f'-, JK*<-cs.-itatin{.' the taking of cireuitous routes, or 
the travelling over ground twice when once woulil 
suffice. Tliese .streets are likely to rennun as such. 
owing to the action of the owner of the land 

I mentioned previously the nundier of Acts there 
are m force dealing witli public liealtli and kindred 
nmtters. Ik it not itime these were all endjodied in 
•rue .\ct ? Of loursi-, during the jvresent crisis is not 
an. opportune time to t'o into the nnitter, although I 
feel tliai as Mion u? jiossible consideration should !«• 
given t<» it, ami muni<ri]ial engineers «nd fcaliitary 
hiirveyors giv«^l a chance t(j air their views. Amenti- 
ments and addftions .krc needed still; there- are 
many lo<»pl»ole.s , .ukI some se<'t ions are certainly not 
clear. Probably a < '.nnnission might be api)f>inted, 
<r>m|.<»-e«l <if town <lerks, surveyors, medical officers 
.ind oilurs. wtlh powi~r to receive evidence. Probably 
Me -I, all in due .course Jiave a MitiiHtry of Public 
Health, or .-wme other dopartment. whose duty it will 
W to deal witJi this subject. 

We Ciu-li liave our individual resj<ons.ibilitie8 in 
thii« great matter, ai:d can make our town.s or our 
oountry villages better to live in from a liealth point 

"f ^i"^' Fniii 'ons will bletfe lis for our 

' " 'I,' nvr • .:ion. and we slrall become 

' ! ' i!':m ■ • ionj-'er lived nati*jii. 


Cout Sand Dunes (By Gerald O. Case, St. Bride's 
Press, Limited, 2-1 Brirle-Iane, E.G., price Gs.). — Mr. 
Case has done a valiiablf; work in the writing of this 
book. — tSouthp'trt Guarrlian, 


-Mr. J. W. t'..<kiill. .M.i.NsT.i .E.. |)r<>.iiKtl on Friday 
last at a meeting of ilu- Town Plannint; Institute, held 
at the r<K>nis of the In>tituiion of Municipal and 
County Engineers. 112 Victoria-slrect, S.W., when 
papers were suhiiiillcd by Pnif. P. Abeicronibie,\.. and Mr. .S. A. Kelly, F.s.i., on the town 
plan for l)id)lin, jirepartyl by the authors which was 
awarded I he prize olYered by the Manpiis of Aberdeen 
to the municijialiiy of Dublin. 

Prof, .\bercroiiibie said the plan was based Hj)on 
(hrtH- main factors— sociological, gt-ographical, and 
hivtorical. Otlu'i- coUNiderations entered naturally 
into the course of IIn elaboration, but. these llire<' WeU- 
the determining factors which shajietl its physical con- 
formation. The sociological basis took the form of an 
in\perative re<]uireinent — the lUH-d for some schem*- 
upon which to piovide new houses for GO.tXM) pel-sons 
who wer<' living in sub-luunan conditions. The two 
other factors relai»-d to transjioriation. The geological 
factor was the conformation of the valley of the Liffcy, 
by which it was evident that a tunnel could be made 
without excessive cost along the valley to conne<'t 
Amiens Station with Kingsbridge Station, and a cross 
connei'tion could !)<■ devised' to conn«^t Westland Row 
Station with .\micns Station, or with the east and west 
tunnel, and join Kingstown witJi Kerry and the North. 
The geological factor, then, suggest«»d the feasibility of 
complete railway luiKication and a ceidral Ujiion 

The historical factor referretl to the road system. 
particularly on the north bank, wheie the traffic aims 
of the country loads, making for the one bridge across 
the Liffey to the walled medi.eval town on the south, 
Were sufficiently a])|)ari-ni. A restoration of this natural 
web provided an objective, at jirescnt thwarted, for the 
radial roads, with a > rossing, not by the original 
bridge, as flu- block of the Four Courts intervened, but 
imme<liately to tlu' <asl, duplicating Kic.limond Bridg<>. 
On the sit«^ of the old Ormond Market, then,' was tlit^ 
new traffic centr^^ of llio city, the roa<l and railway 
centre coinciding, as they should wherever this was 
possible. The south bank was less simple to treat, 
l>nt by Ilu- owilion of a sidjsidiart road cenlie tlu^ 
ditficiilty had been oM-rcome, and by this arrangement 
.Sackville-stre<'t was fr<-ed of the incubus of the. tram 

The silling up of a large part of Dublin Bay had 
Migg«-sled (") the met hod uj)on which dwk extension 
should ])roceed ; ('') two areas for re<'lamation. the. 
northern iiiduslriai ami the southern resideidial ; and 
('■) the utilisation of the North Bull bank, already 
naturally re<-laim<'d. for a great sea-froading park. At 
I lie mouth of the haibom- a colossal power station was 

Dublin ineseiiled a most att^ractivo ground for the 
town planner lo work upon — its jiossession of a series 
of public buildings of great nobility, whose s<Hting was 
fre()u<'ntly marred by tlu' juxtajjosition of deepiest 
sipialor or brutal ut iliiarianisiu ; its famous Sackville- 
street, now about to be i-.'biiilt; its fine series of radial 
roads; its individual wide strtH'ts, teiienu-nt ridd«-ii 
and isolat«-d from full city life; its north ami south 
circular roads; Pli(eiii\ Park, w<-dge.-shape the 
most meticulous laiidscMpe architect could not improve; 
and the Liffey, a stream <:apable of the most beautiful 
treatment. These and many other fine features were 
waiting lo lie worked into a consistent and coherent, 

Prof. Abercrombie proceeded to point out how some 
of the Very misfortunes of Dublin in the jiast now gav<> 
it opportunities in tin- way of town planning denied 
to other towns. Ther<- was a dense |)opulalioii in the 
centre, but in o|)eniiig up outside fireas there was not 
a vast accretion of by-law suburbs to face. There were 
also a great numbi-i o) derelict sites about the centl•<^ 
aiea, which iireseiit* il an unrivallwl oj)poit unity for 
central imju-ovements. The proposals by his jiarlners 
and himself had been pjott^xl in three |)eriods, accord- 
ing to their degree of uigeiicy, and inodifiiations could 
be introduced as the work i)roceeded, without destroy- 
ing the general coiK .ption. It also illustrated how 
the main objec-ts of tin- plan could be put into opera- 
lion at an early stage, so that the (ommercial improve- 
ment might ensue, while their final comidetion would 
conie about naturally as prosperity rose high. If tin- 
III. -t hod of u jieriodic (l.veloj>meiit was clearly grasped 
there was no need lo be daunted by the magnitude of 
the proposals. Knoiriious ivsults could be obl.ained if 

January 12, 1917. 



only evei-j-thiiig that was done, liowever small, was part 
of a thought-out organic scheme. 

A paper had also been j)repared by Mv. Sydney A. 
Kelly, who collaborated with Prof. Abercronibie in }nt:- 
paring the scheme. Tlie pajwr dealt more in detail 
with the proposals of the authors, and these were 
explained by Prof. Abercronibie with the aid of a fine 
series of lantern slides. 


EiV iyrjp 6v ndvff opa 

{One man does not see every tliiiiu.) 

— Euripides. 


To the Editor of The Surveyor. 

Sir — In the lectnre by Prof. S. D. Adsliead, which 
is reported in your issue of Friday last, there appears 
what is, to my mind, a most unjust attack and slandi^r 
upon the general body of surveyors to local autho- 

Tlie worthy Professor says in plain terms that we 
should not be trusted witli. and are incapable of, pre- 
l>ariug plans of houses under town planning schemes. 
If -this is so, then heaven help us; at any rate, if 
some of the houses one has seen at various garden 
cities are to Vie taken as models, it will be difficult to 
rcali.<e what we are aiming at. 

Among many of the above models wr. may i)ar- 
ticularly note the followini; : Pantry or larder stuck 
under the stairs, or jjerhups in some corner, and 
about 4 ft. square; then, more often than not. the 
water-closet, or pan privy, immediately adjacent to 
larder, and separated therefrom by a 4J-in.wall. Then 
comes the living-room oi- kitchen, still in the liapi)y 
company of the above water-closet or pan — and the 
sanie4i-in. wall. Tiien there is usually a kitchen oi 
living-room of about 10ft. I)y 9ft., containing about six 
doors, sink, washing copper, &c. — all this to make a 
family comfortable. 

On one occasion I had the privilege of ))rej)aring a 
housing scheme of al)Out fifty cottages, and I took the 
plans to an eminent architect at the head of a certain 
Government Department. All went well until I was 
asked: "What provision do you suggest for the re- 
moval of the smell from cooking of meals ?— the smells 
of tliis should not jiervade the bedrooms." I sug- 
gested that the smell of cooking w'ould be very wel- 
come in many artisans' homos. But it was insi.stcd 
that sometbinj.' must l)e done, and the arrangement 
accepted was th<Mt the usmil trap or door giving access 
to the roof shoukl be of i)erforated zinc, and an addi- 
tional flue provided in the upper part of the chimneys, 
with entrance to same, l)y an air-brick, the said flue, 
air-brick and iierforatetl zinc together bein;: intended 
to carry off the fragriint. bnsdvfast fumes. The .■scheme 
tlK'u went through, the houses were built, but no flue, 
no zinc. No; we like to smell the cooking. 

When will architects and housing companies iiro- 
diice a sound, comfortable cottage for the working 
<' ? Villadom can look after itself; it is <'heap, 
good cottages are wanted, not (h-corafed sunmier, 
shelters at lOs. or 12s. [ler week.— Yours, Ac, 

Local Suhvevoi!. 
Janiiarv '.). I!ti7. 


Official and similar adtertisehents received up to 4.3U p.m. 


but those responsible for their despatch are rscommcnde(' 
to arrange that they shall reach The Sdrtbyor office by noon 
on WBDNB8DAI8 to ensure their inclusion in the weekly list ol 
summaries. Such advertisements may, in cases of emergency 
only, be telephoned (City No. 1046) subject to later con- 
firmation by letter. 

I3th. — Dcrby.ihire County Council. C23<t per annum. 
— Mr. J. W. Ilorton, county surveyor. County Offices, 

i.'jtli.— Corporation of Middleton.— Mr. J. P. Walms- 
ley, town clerk. Town Hall, Middleton, Lanes. 

Dorking Urban District Council. C250 per annum. 
—Mr. W. J. Hodges, clerk, 64 South-strcut, Dorking. 

23rd.— Corporation of .\yleslniry. — Mr. \\. Harold 
Taylor, Ijorough engineer and surveyor. Town Hiill, 

30s. per week.— Mr. B. Motley, borough survevor, 


Official and similar adtbrtisbmhnts beceited cp to 4 30 f m 
on thdrsday8 will be inserted in the following days isspb 
but those responsible for their despatch are recommended 
to arrange that they shall reach The Surybyor office by noon 
on WEDNESDAYS to ensure their inclusion in the weekly list of 
summaries. Such advertisements may, in cases of emergency 
only, be telephoned (City JVo. 10i6) subject to later con- 
firmation by letter. 


EAST L.WCING.— January 16th.— For the erection 
of a timber barrier and a timber wave screen on the 
.sea front, -for the commissioners.— Mr. Kenneth 
Loader, deputy clerk. Town Hall, Southwick, 

Engineering: Iron and Steel. 

JOHANNESBURG.-February 15th.-For the supply 
of machinery for extension of by-products plants at 
the municij'al abattoir, for the town council.— The 
Town Clerk,. Munici|)al Offices, Johannesburg. 

MERTHYR.— January 17th. — For supplying and 
laying 760 yds. of 12-in. and 9-in. stoneware "pipes, for 
the Jlerthyr and .M>erdare Joint Farms Management 
Committee. — Mr. W. B. Harris, clerk. Town Hall, 

AUCKLAND (New Zealand).— January 21st.— For the 
supply of mild-steel or iron gates and fencing, for the 
Harbour Board.— Messrs. \V. & A. McArthur Canl)erra 
House, 18-19 Silk-street, Cripplegate, London, E.C. 

HALIFAX. — January 22iid.— For the supply of an 
efficient 65 per cent <rud<' benzol recovery i)lant at 
the gasworks, for the corporation.— Mr. Percy 
Saunders, town clerk, iTown Hall, Halifax. 

Mechanically Propelled Vehicles. 

LONDON.— Januaiy 24th.— For the supply of one 
.j-ton steam tractor and four 6-ton trailers, for the 
-Metropolitan A.«ylunis Board.— The Clerk. Asylums 
Board Offices, Thames Embankment, London, E.C. 


WooDBRIDGE. -January I5th.- For the supply of 
granite or basalt broken to pass through a 2J-in. 
gauge, and to be rejected by a l^-in. gauge, whole 
chalk flints, washniill flint, pit flint, Kentish rag, and 
any other road material, for the rural district council. 
— Mr. G. Cook, district surveyor, Ij)swich-road, Wood- 

REIGATE.— January 17tli.— For tar-washing alwut 
137.0<MJ yds. super, of roads, for the corporation.— Mr. 
Fred. T. Clayton, l)orougb surveyor, Municijjal Build- 
ings. Ixeigate. 'j- 

BERKS.— January 19th.— For day work, carting of 
macadam and other materials, for the county council. 
— i\[r. ,\. Lang>toii Yockney. acting county surveyor. 
Shire Hall. Reading. 

SOMERSET.-January 20tli.-F()r Avmu n>lling and 
scarifying, for the county council.— Mr. Gordon R. 
Folland, acting county surveyor. Wells, Somerset. 

SO.MERSET. -January 20th.— For the supply of 
broken granite or basalt, for the county council. — 
Mr. Gordon R. Folland, acting county surveyor. 
Wells, Somerset. 

WORCESTERSHIRE.— January 2(Jth. — For the 
supply of granite, blast-furnace slag, and tar-mac- 
iKlani, for the county council. — Mr. C. F. Gettings, 
county .surveyor, 30 Foregate-strcet, Worcester. 

ESSEX.— January 20th.— For the sui)ply of team 
labour, stoneware pipes, Norwegian granite kerb and 
.<etts, York kerb, and distilled tar, for the county 
<-ou'ncil. -ilr. Percy J. Sheldon, county surveyor. 

ESSEX.— January 20tli. — For tar-spraying' on main 
roads, for the county council.— Mr. Percy J. Sheldon, 
county surveyor, Chelmsford. 

NORl':i)LK.— January 2<Jlh.— For the supply of flints, 
gravel, chalk, team lal)oiir, tools, barrows, and hand- 
<'arts, for the county council.— Mr. W. W. Gladwcll. 
county survcy<ir, Shire House. Norwich. 

MIDHUHST. -January 21st. -For the su[.ply of 
broken ;.'raiiile, for the rural district council. — Mr. .\. 
G. CJibbs, surveyor. Council Oflices, Midiiurst, Sussex. 
SLEAFORD— January 22nd.— For carting ■.'ranilc 
and slag, for the rural district council.— Mr. Ernest 
H. God.-'on. clerk. 27 Xorthnate. Sleaford. 

SURBITON.— January 22nd.— For the supply and 
delivery of refined or distilled tar, for the urban dis- 
trict council.— The Surveyor, Council Offices, Ewdl- 
road, Surbiton. 

DORSET.— January 24fli.— For Ihc supply i.fgrunile, 
basalt, limestone, and tar-iiiHcudain, for the county 
council. -Mr. E. H. Habgood, acting county eurvcyor. 
County Oflices, Dorchester. 



J ANi \)n 12. 1!M^ 

STRATFORD-OX-.\VOX.-Jaiuu»ry 2711i.-For tlio 
supply of 2-i!i. ami i-iii tarred >la£r. 3-in. and »-in. drv 
slac. 2-in. and 1-in. Lraniif. and iJ-in.. J-in.. and i-in. 
limestone, for the ooi porafion— >rr. F. W. Jones, 
Iwrough surveyor. Town Hall. 

SOUTH STONEHAM. -January •i'tth. — For the 
.supply of Briti-h nuuMdani, to )>e delivered at various 
railway stations, fcr liio rural district council.— Mr. 
F. Heatiur. district su vrvni, Chevin Side. Old Ports- 
"iiod. Southanii>tt<n. ., 

XEST<^N.— January .il-t.— For the suj)ply of l.ioken 
r-loiie. chippings. and tarred macadam, for the urban 
<listrict council.— The surveyor. Town Hall. Neston. 

HERTS.— February 1st.— For the supjily of refined 
tar ^to conii)ly with tlir terms of the Road Board 
Spet^ification. No. 1). for the county council.— .Mr. J. 
S. Killick. county survevor. Countv Survevor'~ OfHco 

HERTS.— February 10th. — For surface tarring 
approximately l.ffiu.iHtu sq. yds. of main roads with 
refiaed tar. for the county council.— Mr. J. S. Killick, 
county surve.vor. County Surveyor's OfRce. Hatfield 


\V1LLE.SDEX.— January loth.— For tlie iv.,,..w,i ^.i for the urban district coinicil.— Mr. S. W. Ball. 
rlerk. Municipal Office^. Dyn<-road, Kilburu. N.W. 

CHELMSFORD.— January 16th.— For the construc- 
tion of a surface-water drain and other drainage 
work.-, for the corporation. — Mr. P. T. Harri.son, 
Ixirougli eniriti-er, jAluiiicipal Offices, Chelmsford. 

HAMBLEDOX.— January 16th.— For scavenging the 
district, for the rural di.-trict council.— Mr. F. Small- 
piece, clerk. 138 HiL'h-.-treet. Guildford. 

.MANCHESTER.- January I'Jth.-^i'or the execution 
of L'cneral contracli>i.-' afifl plumbers' work in connec- 
tion with drainage, for tlie.sanitary department.— The 
Sii|>erinteiident, Sanitary Department. Civic Build- 
ini.'s, Mounf-str'ct. Manchester. 

NORTHWICH.-Junuary 22iid.— For the collection 
and rciii'tval of refuse, for the urban district council. 
-Ml I \ ...-)..- -i...! c.-iiiicil House, Northwich. 


PLYMuLTii.— January Ijtli.— For the supjtly of 
l>aints. varnishes, ironwork, latroleuni oil, broom- 
lieads, hou-sehold brushes, rope, iron and steel, pitch- 
pine, deals, flooriiiL,'. carbolic powder, Portland 
cement, lubricating oils, tar and pitch, painter's 
I rushes, explosives. soaj>, wood blocks, creosote, dis- 
infectant fluid, granite kerbs, setts, white lead, red, lin.--ee<l oil, turpentine and turpentine substi- 
tute, refilling machine revolving brooms. Ix-nzoline 
and motor spirit, tools, indiarubbcr goods, hose, and 
.-hip chandler'.s goods, for tlie corporation. - Mr. 
James Paton, borough engineer and surveyor, ^luni- 
cipal Offices, Plymouth. 

OXLEY— January .'il.-t.— For the sujiply of sitt.-, 

kerbn, fra:.'s. ^.-ranite macadam, pitch and tar, slag 

dust, tar-macadam, limestone macadam. an<l brushes. 

, for the urban <listrict council.— Mr. O. Holmes. 


BATTEIifiEA.- January 24th.— For the supply of 
Veterinary attendance. hire, materials for carl 
and van cover.-, harness material and fittings, i)ain1s. 
.-pi'cinl paint-, enamels, painters' sundries, varnish. 
^'>"' - -iry. ;.'ranite. macadam and cliipfiinirs, 

'■" • >r paving. York j.aving. Thames Ijal- 

'»■' ' -toiicware pii>es, timber for carpenters 

and join.rn w«,rk. timlwr for wheelwrights' work, 
brick.*. ccn.cnt. lii,u-. elates, iron caistings (side 
^"'" " 'for blacksmiths, work, re- 

'"' ■ 'cfust- and manuri'-froni the 

'""' ' tant-, coal and coke, and 

soap» aii.l i.ji the Itorough <ouncil.— Mr. W. 
Marcus Wilkins. U.wn clerk. Town Hall. Bafl<rsea. 
I»ndoii. S W. 

MIDDLESBKOI(;H.-February l«t.-For the sup- 
I>ly of .iiineakd scoria- (broken), bricks, caxtings, con- 
crete flav- and kirl.H, Portland cement. |>itch and lar. 
hanitarv pijH- iriilli... junction-, .sla;.' (broken), coal 
<''*'■ ' ke. timber, whinslonc and 

j?'-' 1" and granite setts and 

'^'^" nuts, disinfectants, electric 

lamp,.. (<.in.r.. , -, hardware. India rubber 

coo<l-. irou aiiM ^r Iwjiing, oiN, painfo and 

•as«u*i'e-. I.I -hoveltt and ohafl^. 

Prew, Limited .' i -, „nd rop.-, for the 

Caw has done a ■■ . ,.ri t<,wn rliik Miim. 

brick. — Southport (JuaT 


BANBRIDGK.— Fcltruary 3rd.— For the public light- 
ing of the urban district with gas or electricity, for 
the urbai; district council.— The Surveyor. Municipal 
Offices. Banbridpe. 


Secretaries and others will oblige hv sending early nodVc o/ 
dates of forthcoming meetings. 

2.S.— I'oncrete Iiislitiitt : Mr. C. 1{. Peers on • Tlie Care of 
Ancient .Moiiiiiiieiits." 



-Applications are invited for the appointment of 
Tem|)orary Surveyor's .\ssistant, subject to a month's 
notice on either side. 

-Applicants must be inelifiible for military service, 
a good Draughtsman and Surveyor, and should have 
liad experience in' a Jlunicipal Engineer's Office. 

Applications, stating age. experience, salary re- 
quired, and when able to commence duties, accom- 
panied by copies of three recent testimonials, to be 
delivered at niv Office not later than Tucsdav, January 
2-3rd, 1917. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor. 
Town Hall, .\ylesbury. 

January 5. 1!)17. (3.22o) 


The above Cuuiicil invite Tenders for the following 
Supplies, delivered at Xorthoit Junction (G.W. and 
G.C. Joint Station), oi- Ruislip Jletropoiitan Station, 
lespeclively, and lor the Haulage thereof: — 
in) 1.51)0 tons Tarred Slag Macadam and Slag Dust 
in ))roper proporticms, at per ton e^ieli 
liKi tons Hand-picked Brick or good Coiurete 
Hardcore, 4J-in. gauge, at per ton. 
1.2i)() tons Coarse Gravel. 2-in. .ijauge, at ])ir ton. 
Clean Clinker, not less than 2-in. gauge, at per ton. 
Certain delivi'ry must be guaranteed. 
('<) The necessary Te:un Labour or Haiila-e by Tractor 
"f the above Materials from cither Stations, at per 
ton for the l.-t mile and 2nd miles res|)ectively. 

Tenders, sealed and endorsed " Tenders for Tarred 
Slag .Macadam." or " Tenders for Haulage." Iiuist be 
delivered to the uiKlcisitined no! later than 10 a.m. on 
January 22nd. 1!)17. 

Separate Tender- fur the Siipj)lies or Haulage will 
be considered. 

The Cotmcil do not bind tlieni>clves to accept the 
I'lwest or any Tender. 


Clerk In the CoUllcil. 

Council Offices. 

Northwood. .Middlesex. (.3,2.10) 


'lenders are inviteil for the Supply of abfuit 7,500 
Ions (more or less) ol 2-in. and IJ-in. Hand-broken 
Basalt for road construction, and 5<M) tons (more or 
less) of 2-jn. Clean Ciiippings. to be delivered from 
the various Stations in Middlesex. 

Particulars, with Specification and Form of Tender, 
may be obtained at my Offices after Monday, the 
15th instant. 

Tenders nniBt be -. nt fo the Clerk of the County 
Council. Middlesex (Miildhall. WcHtminster. S.W.. b> 
12 o'clock (noon) on Wednesdav. the 7th Februaiv, 

The lowest or arjc Tender will not necessjirilv be 


County Engineer. 
( "uiiiN Eiijinci I I tllicc. 
Mi.ldle-ex Guildhall. 

We.'^tminster. S.'W'. 
January 9, 1!)17. (3,237) 

The Surveyor 

Hnb flDunicipal anb Counti? Enoineer* 

Vol. LI. 

JANUARY 19, 1917. 

No. 1,305. 

Minutes of Proceedings. 

P\)i- \aiious reasons the term 
Water Filtration, water filtration is very often 
taken a> ineluding a niinibe'- of 
Mtiier processes, sucli as storage, settlement, co- 
agulation, aeration and sterilisation. Hence, 
when a paper is written upon, tlie filtration of 
water it will often be found that tiie greater pait 
of the description refers to iirejiaratory treatment 
and after treatment. The cases in which filtra- 
tion alone will economically purify a water up to 
a proper standard are either those in which the 
water is of a ])eculiar quality or those in which 
tlie system of filters is very elaborate. The 
l)0|)ular idea. that tlie mechanical filter is a self- 
contained device, whereby any raw water may be 
inanediately jjurified without further tre-<itment, 
ought to be removed, and it would be well if tluwe 
who write ])apers could make this niattuLr clearer 
in the title. 

Elsewhere in these pages we give an account 
of a pai)er entitled "" E.xperiences in Water Filtra- 
tion," read before the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers by Mr. 11. G. Hunter. The paper deals 
with the subject fully, giving an account of pre- 
]iaratory treatment, and coagulation, the construc- 
tion, working and washing (rf filters, and also of 
sterilisation. As resident engineer in Montreal 
for the New York Continental Jewel Filtration 
Company, Mr. Hunter's remarks have a s])ecial 
application. It is to be noted that, with regard 
(o tlie cleaning of the filters and to the use of 
strainers at tlie bottom of tlie filters, tlie author 
is not altogether in agreement with the opinions 
of other American engineers. He refers to tlie 
use of air to agitate the sand for washing, and to 
revolving rakes as being the ordinary method, but 
it sliould be remembered that in later jjractice the 
washing water is very often forced iij) through the 
gravel and sand at such a rate that tlie sand is 
floated, thereby iigitating and cleansing in one 
operation. Neither does the author mention the 
fact that a jiroperly graded layer of gravel will 
act as a distributor of rising wa.s^b water, render- 
ing screens and strainers unnecessary. This leads 
to simj)lification and cheapness in the pipe under- 
(jiainage system. One may refer to the papers 
of Messrs. Ellms, P\iertes, Spun- Weston, 
H<iover, Sperry, Lovejoy, Burgess, and Siddons, 
and notably to a i)aper written by Messrs, Ellms 
and (Jettrust, all of which have been dealt with 
in tliese pages. These papers clearly show that 
the oi)inion of the .American engineeis is in a 
great measure against the cleaning devices 
described by the author, and it is to be regretted 
that ho. did not deal with this oi)inion. On the 
other hand, the paper is full of valuable ditail 
and advice such as we are accustomed to get from 

the otiier side of the .V.tlantic, and such as .\\i> 
do not receive from engineers in this country, who, 
although they have very large filtration ])lants 
under their control, do not seem ready for an 
interchange "of opinions and e.xperiences such as 
would without doubt throw new light on the 
subject and be extremely useful. 

It is only natural that the author should be 
in favour of the use of chlorine gas for sterilisa- 
tion, having regard to the new plant at ^lontreal 
for making this gas in enormous. quaiuities. It 
should be remembered that tliere is a great differ- 
ence, of o})inion f)n this point, and that Dr. 
Houston has in a recent rej)ort described experi- 
ments made with chlorine gas and with chloride 
of lime, and reported in favour of the use of 
ciiloride of lime for the sterilisation of the London 
water. The claims made for the quick actioir of 
chlorine .gas were not sup])ort<>d by the tt-sts made 
bv Di-. Houston. 


In view of tlie exceptional 
importance which attaches at 
the present time to evei^y piiase 
of the ])robleiii of national reorganisation after the 
war, a ]>ai)er on " The Repopulation of Our 
Rural Districts," which was read by Mr. Theodor<^ 
Chambers at the last meeting of the Surveyors' 
Institution, is of special interest. While it is true 
that, broadly speaking, the subject is one which 
does not directly affect municipal engineers as 
such, yet, as ^Ir. Chambers was able to show, 
they must be concerned in it to some extent, 
inasmuch as it involves a. consideration of the 
problems of overcrowding and rui-al bousing. 
Indeed, if the object l)e to get more peopli^ on ti) 
the land, to increase our liome-giown food supplv, 
and to remedy the evils of crowding 'hito cities, 
then it will be necessary so to impiine. the con- 
ditions of rural life as not only to retain the pre- 
sent rural populatif>n, but also to attract peopK- 
from the towns. Mr. Chambers' main idea was 
Tiot directed to an increase in the number of 
j)eople in rural areas who are directly engaged in 
agricultural pursuits — impratant as this end is in 
itself- — but rather to secui'iiig what he described 
as a bold policy of industrial i)enctiation of the- 
country . In otht»r words, he desires to break 
down the |)iesent artificial division of the popu- 
lation into two camps, town and counti-y, with 
completely different and often hostile economic 
conceptions. 'Hie fact is that we have iicver ()uito 
got away from the tradition of the time when 
cities were clearly and definitely bounded liy walls 
and fortifications. In those days the distinction 
between town and cnimt^v was an tssential <in<-. 



.Ian VARY 19, 19T7. 

The tuwii st<x>ci fi-ir ivjuimercc and indu.str\ . and 
the country foi' a-^rirultiuv, and iiyriculturo onlv. 
Now, liowoviT, \Vf luive a lai-ge rural i)c>i)ulation 
not directly enji^agod in agritultiu-al |)iu-suits. a 
population uhich would be increased to the-benefit 
of both town and countrv if the " industrial pene- 
tration " adVixated bv Mr. Chambers were to 
take place on any considerable scale. Hi;* thesis 
is that society has it in its power, if it chooses to 
exert itself in certtun directions, to modify the 
present conditions, and to pix)duc<^' other condi- 
tions which will eausi- men otJier tlum a^icultural 
workers to renniin in tlie rural districts for prefer- 
enc<^, and even attract people away from the towns 
into the coiuitry. In tliis connection tlic"Xjuestion 
of improved transp(»rt facilities becomes c)f great 
inijjortance. If fiwtories are established in the 
\ icinity of railways in country districts, it at once 
bee<<mes jiossible to avoid tlie biu-den of high 
rents and high rates and tlie hindrances to rapid 
expansion which exist m the congested couditiou-s 
of the city, wliere, indeed, expansion of an_\ kind 
is often a matter«^f impossibility. 

We obsene w ith jileasure that towai'ds the end 
of his paper Mr. Chambei-s had a good ^\ord to 
say for tlie dignity of municipal work and tlie 
st-atus of municipal otficials. Town management 
iu the future, he says, shoidd be one of the gi'eat 
professions, requiring a training in economics, 
civil welfiu*e, town planning, and social work of 
every description. "J'he position of town manager 
(or civic engineer) should be coveted i)y men of 
high attalnmejits and great skill. By t&is means 
the wiiole tone of local self-government would be 
raised. With this, of coui^se, we coixiialiy agree. 
Once the public importance of the work is recog- 
nised, as it ought to have been yeai-s iigo, we 
may i)erhaps lioj^e to see that impro\ement in tlie 
conditions of the municipal service, as regai-ds 
pay, statas and security oi tenure, whicii we have 
been consistently advocating for manj- yeai-s past. 


At the hist meeting of tiie 
•Junior Institution of Engineei-s 
the subject of industrial re- 
ft-iUili, which is sfj much to the fore jast i.ow, 
was under discussion, being introduced by a \er\- 
able paper by Mr. A. 1'. M. Fleming, of Man- 
chester. The national importance of industrial 
research may be stated as a syllc^ Industrial 
progress de])ends on the acquisition and use of 
new knowledge ; re.seai-cli is the acquisition and 
application (A new knowledge ; therefore industrial 
progress depends on reseiu-ch. Mr. Fleming 
showed that projK-rly organised reseai-ch is of 
bt-nefit not only to the manufacturer, but also 
to the manual worker, the financier, the «'duca- 
tionist, and tlie community generally. The 
worker is bound to feel any increa.sed prosjjerity 
in his industry caiL>c-d by the intrcxluetion of new 
and imfMXived methrxls, while to the financier 
reiiettrch is. of importance in that it j)rovide« him 
with new fields for the jirofitable employment of 
capital. Tlie educational advantages of research 
are so obvious tliat they hardly need emphasis, 
and tlie community as a whole mast ultimately 
benefit by the discovery of new seeret« of Nature 
and their application U> industrial puq>oseK. In 
considering the question (,{ i-esearch, it is not 
without interest to reflect that sf>me of the 
researches most Jnipf*rtiint to industry, and 
e,si>ecially U. engineering projects, have been 
carru-d on in contemporary sciences, as, for 
mstance, the cane of the prevention of malaria 
juid the construction of the Panama Canal, the 
dev.-Ioj,ment« in aviatirm dependent upf/n the 
petrol niot^/r, 4 c. In other direct if >ns the reseimh 
efffH^ IhiU have been made to cure, for example, 
tubercuJottis. will, if successful, have marked effect 
m consorting the man-i>ower, and therefore the 

[•roductive capacity of the community, whiht 
jihysiological resetuches concerning fatigue and 
etiicieucy of \vorkers may luivo f!U--reaehing 

As com))aivd with America, industrial rescarcli 
in this country is still in a condition wliicli cflii 
only be described as embryonic. Much progress 
has been made in the laboratories of univexsities 
by individual scientists who have devoted their 
attention hu'gely to pure science investigations. 
In many castas individual finns have secured the 
assistiuice of the luiiversity laboratories in cann- 
ing out. reseairhes to meet tlicir particuUu- require- 
ments. Ill the futiu'e, however, it will be inoif- 
and more nocessaiy ior the firms of each industry 
to consider wliat pi-ocesses, tools, and methods 
lu-e common to all of them, and to co-operate in 
jiroducing the greatest possible improvement in 
connection therewith for the benefit of all. It 
seems probable that tlie plans j)rovided by the 
(iovernment dm-ing the past two >ears for the 
assistiuice of indiustriaJ research, now merged into 
the undertaking known as the Imperial Trust foi*. 
the Encouragement of Scientific and Industrial 
Research, will be directed to co-operation witli 
industrial grou])S rather than with individual 
firms. In process of time, however, it is to be 
hoped that reseaix-h work may be merged into 
one institution, which would centralise reseai'ch 
for all industries. Such an institution would have 
the additional advantage of serving as the centre 
for the collection and distribution of information 
from all sources that could be turned to account 
in industr\. 

The Burgh 

Au__ important case with 

of Buckle and ^^Pf ^ I'' ^^^ ''^^^ .^^ T^"" 
their Contractors. ^^'^^t^^J ^.^ ^l^^^^^'^ t^heir plant 
Wcus decided recently in an 
ajjpeal heard in the Court of Session at Edin- 
burgh. The ijluintiffs were the Corporation of 
Buckie, and the appellants^, Messrs. Cliai'ies 
Brand & Son, of Glasgow, were contractors tV:i' 
works of hari)om' extension, now approaching 
com])letion. They had i-emoved some of their 
plant, and had intimated thch intention to remove 
such additional plant as was no longer required 
for the remaining work to be done. Tlie terms 
and conditions of the contract provided that all 
\essels, plant, and material j)rovided by the con- 
tractors should liecome the absolute projjerty f>f 
the town council, and should not be removed 
from the site w itlioub the writteu-sanction of the 
engineer, whose firm had been apjjointed by the 
corporation. A]Ji)lication was made to him tar 
his sanction to the removal of certain plant, and 
he informed the town council of the application, 
whicli he v,iu> of ojjinion ought to be gi-anted. IIk- 
to\vn council infoi-med the engineer that he was 
their servar.t in this matter, and instructed liim 
to withhold his consent. In pursuance of these 
instructions the engineer rej)lied to the defend- 
ants that he was imable tf) grant permission. At 
a later stiige, however, and again on the in- 
structions of the town council, he told the defend- 
(ints that they were at liberty to remove cei-t-ain 
wagons pro^ ided tlie price w as deposited with the 
town council as security, in addition to £4,000 of 
retention money idready held by them. The con- 
tention of the defendants on ajjpeal was that tlu* 
town council's cliange of front came t<-x> late, and 
that they were not bound to accept the decision 
of tlie engineer on tJie ground that he was dis- 
qualified by ha\iiig already decided tiie (juestif ii 
in dispute against them. 'J'hey argued further 
that the towii council in controlling the enginec-r 
had broken their contract, and had no title to 
rely upon the abs<-ncc of information which tluy 
caused him to withhold. The Divisional Court 
virtually upheld the view of the sherifF-substitute 
that, aH the town foimcil had renounced the po>>i- 

January 19. 1917. 



tion that they were entitled to control the 
engineer, and since the latt«r had merely 
acted on a wrong vie^\• of his legal position, there 
was no reason for the contractors thinking he was 
biassed against) them, nor why he should not pro- 
ceed to consider an application for the removal 
of the plant. The whole trouble, the Coiu't 
declared, had be-en caused by the wrongful atti- 
tude talcen up by the town council, who were 
found liable in costs. ' The decision~is ehiei\y in- 
stnictive as determining the legal position of the 
engineer and the illegality of the position of the 
burgh council in interfering with him in the 
exercise of his discretion. They had obviously 
dropped into the common eiTor tJiat, as tliey had 
ap])ointed him, they were therefore entitled to 
control him in their own interests. 

Right to Inspect 

Is a member of a Icxjal autho- 
rity entitled a« of right to see 
all books aiid documents in the 
custody of the council and relatmg to official 
business ? This interesting question was asked^— 
and answered — in the course of certain Higli Court 
])roeeedings on Monday last, when an aldennaji 
and e.v-mayor of a Metropolitan borougli sought 
a mandamus to compel the production .to liim of 
certain documents, inspection of which had been 
refused by the town clerk acting on the instruc- 
tions of the Public Health Committee. It appears 
from the arguments that were addressed to the 
Court that both parties agi'ced that, in the absence 
of sixicial circumstances, the alderman would 
have been entitled bo the inspection which he 
desired. It was alleged, however, tiiat in asking 
to see the documents in question he was not 
actuated solely b\ motives connected directly with 
the proper dischai'ge of his duties as a member 
of the council, but tluit lie had, consciously or un- 
consciously, another indirect motive. The docu- 
ments had reference to a closing order which had 
been made by the council in 1911 under the 
Housing, Town Planning, &e., Act, 1909, and 
which had been the subject of appeals to the liOcal 
Government Board and litigation ever since. It 
appeju's that the aldennan had com© to the con- 
clusion that the closing order ought now to be 
determined, as in his opinion, fonned after seeing 
the house to which it refeired, the house was now 
fit foi" habitation. He thereupon gave evidence 
for the owner at a Local Government Board 
inquiry, and also in the course of a Chancery action 
that had been commenced by the owner against 
the council. Of course, as the Court made per- 
fectly clear, he was acting quite within his rights 
in doing so, but the\^ held that he had so identified 
himself with the owner that in the circumstances 
his common law right to see documents ought not 
to be enforced by the discretionary wnt of 

A Record 

The limit in small salaines 
appears to have been reached 
by the Nai'berth, Carmarthen- 
shire, Urban District Council, whose surveyor 
tendered his resignation at the last meeting, one 
of the. gi'ounds being that " the salai-y (sic) ho 
recreived for doing all the work pertaining to the 
office of sm'veyor amounted to only 4d. a day, and 
tliere was a good bit of work to be done." What 
would happen, we ai'e tempted to ask, if he were 
called up for militfii-y sen'ice? Would the coimcil 
o.xpecfc him to pay them the difference l)6tween 
his military pay and his civil remuneration, as 
other authorities make up such differences to 
their officers absent on seiwice ? We can almost 
believe that they would. At all oventii, Iiis plea 
for an increase, on the ground that the price of 
all necessaries had risen abnormally, was met by 

one member with the remai-k that evei'ything had 
gone up for the ratepayers too. Another reason 
put fon\-ai-d for the resignation was that, as the 
council did not advance the necessaiy money with 
whicli to pay wages, the surveyor had to i-un all 
over the town to bon-ow it. It may be that the 
council expected him to advance the wages out 
of his " salai-y, " but unless other wages were on 
equally princely lines this was cleai-ly impossible. 
As a result of discussion, some account of which 
will be found in another column, it was resolved 
to ask the suiweyor to continue in office and to 
let the question of salary remain in abeyance until 
after the war. He asked to be allowed a month 
in which to consider this suggestion, and this 
request was granted. 

A Famous Well. 

At, the recent monthly meet- 
ing of the Holywell (North 
Wales) Urban District Council 
the members liad before them a laconic report 
by the surveyor in the following terms: " I very 
much regi-et to rei)ort tliat on Friday last St. 
Winef ride's Well ran dry. " The reference was, of 
coui-se, to. the famous curative spring, supposed 
to be of miraculous origui, and the town of Holy- 
well owes its prosperity in no small mcasiu-e to 
the numbers of j)ilgi-ims who resorted annually 
to the " Holy well." The alleged cause of the 
failure is, in the circumstances, a little prosaic, 
as it is supjjosed to be due to the boring opera- 
tions of, the Halkin Drainjige Company and tho 
Holywell Halkin Tuimel Couq)any. Be tiiis as 
it may, there c^an be no doubt as to the serious 
results to the town of the stoppage of the flow 
of water, and the council no doubt acted ^\'isely 
hi appointing a committee fo take the necessary 
steps to ascertabi the legal position. Our con- 
temporary the Manrhe.xter Guardian suggests' that, 
with a little imagination, the failui-e of the spring 
might even be laid directly to the war's evil 
account — inasmucli as the custodian of the well 
was recently given a month to prepai'e himself for 
entrance into the Anny, and a well with a 
miraculous origin might not inconceivably have 
its own method of registering disapproval of inter- 
ference with its aft'aii-s by a military repre- 
sentative. If this be so, it may be that, as one 
member of the council suggested, the water may 
retmii as suddenly as it has disappeared. 

Fence Walls ^^ '"^^^^ occasions the West 

„ . _ . Riding County Council have 
on Mam Roads. . " , ^ „ , • , 

received requests from iiigliway 

authoritiis in tho Riding to build or repair fence 
walls adjoining main roads, but have Iiitliei-to 
refused to undertiiJve any responsibility in respect 
thereof unless their liability could be established. 
In the official gazette for Januai'y of the County 
Councils Association it is stated that the question 
has now been reconsidered, and inquiries made 
from several county councils show that tho 
practice vai-ies. The coiuicil have come to the 
conclusion that ihey ought to take into considera- 
tion certain cases where tlic absence of a fence 
is likely to be a source of dafiger to the public, 
and therefore arc prepai'ed to consider the ques- 
tion of paying for, or contributing to, the main- 
tcTiance or building of fence Wiills in such ciuses, 
and where it cannot be asoert^ained that local 
authorities or private owners are responsible. 


The Special Annual Issue of " The Surveyor " will 
be published on Friday next, and readers who pro* 
pose to accede to our request for a short statement, 
for inclusion in the number, of the works projected 
by their authorities for 1917, will greatly oblige by 
making their return not later than Monday next. 


January 19. 1917. 

Specifications for Highway Bridges. 

[The following: proposed spccificationa for highway bridges, prepared by a committee of the Canadian 
Society of Ciwil Engineers, were discussed at a recent meeting of the Mechanical Section of that body. 
Copies of the proposed specifications have been sent to the various branches of the society for their 
observations and when these have been received the committee will make their final recommendations 
to the annual meeting;.] 

These specifications arc intended to apply to steel 
highway bridges carrying ordinary highway traffic 
with or without electric street cars. Thoy will not, 
liowever, cover bridges which carry electric railways 
only, as these will be designed under the specification 
for steel railway bridges. 

In the case of combination bridges, carrying both 
railway and highway traffic, the responsible engineers 
on ea^h individual project will be ex])ected to issue 
particular .spvtifications governing the questions of 
loading and unit stresses. Turther, insomuch that 
modern practice has adopted riveted structures for all 
ordinary highway work, the specifications will not 
cover pin bridges, .so that in the instance of long and 
important struct\ires, where eye-bar? and pin connec- 
tions might i>ossibly l)e u.scd to advantage, special 
clauses covering lliis class of work will need to be 
drawn up by the responsible engineer. 

The range of service to l>e accommodated under the 
general head of highway traffic is. ne<essarily, ex- 
tremely wide, but the following are the i)rincii)al con- 
.'^Iderations which will enter fundamentally into the 
design of those structures covered by this specifica- 
tion: — 

(I) The amount of money available for the construc- 
tion and its effect on the question of the ])eriiianency 
or semi-i)emianency of the bridge and upon the ques- 
tion of providing for probable future increase in 

<2) The location of the bridge and the character of 
the roads in its neighbourhood with the probal^ility of 
their b</ing subject to improvement 

(3) The situation witli respect to traffic as affecting 
the character of the flooring and the nature and mag- 
nitude of the superimposed loads. 

With a view to meeting the whole range of condi- 
tions the specification classifies bridges according to 
the requirements of service and permanency under the 
following head>: — 

Class 1 is intended to provide for first-class per- 
manent structures situated on main arteries of traffic 
in hirge towns and cities where heavy concentrated 
load?, due to transportation of machinery and build- 
ing material frequently occur. Bridges as designed 
under this cla.«s will bo equal in reaped to per- 
inaneiicy. rigidity, thicknes.s of metal, and all details, 
i<> those built under the l>est railway practice. 

Class 2 is intended to provide for city bridges in 
residential district.-, where general traffic regulations 
limit Ijoth the loads carried on the highway and the 
.-pe'-d of ."Street ear trafhc. Bridges designed under 
this «lar.s will l>e equal to tho.>*e designed under 
(MajMi ). in re.'*po<t of general fftiffness and constrtic- 
tioiial details. 

C'la*.-< '-i i.'^ intended to provide for hiuhway bridges 
ill t<iwni. wher«> heavy manufacturing is not eonducti d 
and for bridges on main country liighways. The need 
of providing for actual or possible street car traffic 
iinil thf issuinif of ^specifications regarding the street 
<-ar loadr. are matters wjiich will be left to the respon- 
sible engineer. 

Cla.ts -I is intended to govern roadway liridges 
serving fanning <ominunilies and situated <>n unpaved 
roadi* where it is unlikely that the character of the 
loading will change. during the normal life of the 

Clasn .0 is intended to provide for bridges in r<inole 
or inounlainoii- districts difficult of acce.-s, where 
liglitu'-' and first cost are prime considerations in 
det^M < haracter of the proposed bridge. 

T^' f the cla.ssification ie not rigidly to 

i:r<»i\ ' - -i sjjecific head, but to guide 

"'^ ' ■ purchasint' authority in 

' "■ ■ i"!)- n :.'iirdinfc' loads, unit 

■ '|uenee whereof 
• nlial questions 

' ■--•-= m^.-K'-'-ied. The engi- 
neer on iiii(,f.ri.irit I,ii(|-...k will still bo exf.eefed to 
«.<*e hi."* prof...-i<.ii.i! jn-k-ment and hi.-, knowledge ..f 
local condition». either .>! which may justifiably lead 
liim to a combination ^-r modification of the claguee 

here outlined or of the clauses in the specification 
referring thereto. 


The specifications cover the design of the structural 
work for all kinds of movable spans, and include 
clauses governing tlie dessign of the machinery and 
macliined parts of liand-operated swing bridges. In 
the ca.^e of i)ower-opc rated .swing spans, bascule or 
vortical lift bri(lg< s. where the machinery is an all- 
important feature of the construction, it is recom- 
mended that the design of these features be referred 
to an engineer spe<in Using in this work. 


For bridges built under Classes 1 and 2 a careful 
description of tlio floor system to be employed should 
be supplied by the responsible engineer, preferably 
by drawing or detail sketch. Special care should be 
taken to indicate the )<l method of carrying 
street car tracks. 

.V ■■ i)erinanent "' floor .shall l)e understood to signify 
a floor where the base consists of either— 

(n) Reinforced concrete slabs. 

('*) Concrete or brick jack arches. 

('■) Buckle or trough plates carrying the concrete 

.\ floor wIh re (he ba.H' is wood, wliether creosoted 
or not, will not be considererl permanent. 

Under Class 1 a permanent type of floor is every- 
where demanded, and the pavement ur ujii^er course 
shall he of granite setts, brick, asphalt, macadam, or 
treated wood bloe'ks, as determined by the engineer. 

Under Classes 2 and 3 the character of the floor will 
l)e specified directly by the responsible engineer, but 
it is stipulated that, the stringers shall be of steel, 
and the structure shall be designed to carry at the 
spe<-ified unit stresses a floor consisting of a rein- 
forced concrete base with a pavement of 4-iu. wood 
blocks, or any other heavier' type whi<'h may subse- 
quently bo laid. 

Under Class 4 a wooden floor is 2)ermitted, but tin 
adoption oi steel .-tringers is recommended. 

Under Class .'» tin- lightest type of wooden floor is 
.dlowed, but even here an inquiry into the probable 
ultimate economy of longer panel-, with steel stringers 
is suggested. 


Under jGla-s 1 sidewalks shall also be i)ermanent. 
and shall have a cement finish to the slab or a spe<'ial 
wearing surface of a>phalt c)r granolithic paving. For 
the reniainiinr classe- sidewalks may be of wood at 
the discretion of the rcsi)Onsihle engineer. 


Wooden stringers >\\a]\ not Vie used on greater S))aii> 
than 1.5 ft., and .>-linll havt^ a width of not less than 
3 in. or one-fourth of their depth. They shall lap l)y 
each other on the floor beams to give each a full 
bearing, and shall be bolted together, using washer 
separators not less than \ in. thick, in order to secure 
free circulation nf air. 


On wooden floors \\heel guards, of (i by J timber, 
shall bo provided ;tt each side of the roadway, and 
shall be supfiorlcd on 2-in. blocks spaced not over 5 ft., 
held in jilace by a ^-in. bolt through the guard, the 
blockini.' piece and the tindjcr floor. The splices in 
wheel L'uardw shall be half-lap joints (i in. lonji. and 
.-.hall iieeur over the blocking jiieces. 

For permanent doors the wheel guard will gene- 
rally be formed of loncretc effectively |>rofected by 
steel angle rubliinj; pieces. 


On permanent floors of any de.«cri|>lion suitabli' 
scujipers shall be piovided not less than 2iJ ft. apart. 
.*o arranged to <'arr\ .ill drainage char of steelwork. 


The varied character of the loads applied to high- 
way bridges render- it impossible to include in a 
general specification a statement of the precise loading 
to b«.' u^ed on every luidgc, and any table of suggested 

jANrARV 19, 1917. 



typical loads must be recognised as necessarily having 
the following limited purposes: — 

(a) To guide the responsible engineer in his choice 
of a structure in regard to capacity and efficiency. 

(h) To indicate to non-technical officials or to engi- 
neers not specially experienced in bridge work what 
constitutes accepted good practice. 

(c) To guard against the possibility of a structure 
being provided which is insufficient to meet the innne- 
diate requirements or those reasonably certain to 
occur in the future. 

On the other hand, the specifications should not 
prevent the building of very light bridges, whicli, 
while .sufficiently strong to withstand the vertical and 
vil)ratory loadintrs, should Ije able to compete success- 
fully in the matter of first cost and maintenance with 
tiie alternative wooden construction. The majority of 
• •xistiug light structures, wliich would fall under the 
fifth class, al>ove indicated, have not been built to 
any "of the recognised standard .'specifications, and, 
indeed, no present .'Specifications in vogue in Canada 
|)ermit of this, ni'verthele-.-^ necessary, class of bridire. 
With the idea of meeting' both tlie financnal and 
service requirements of such cases, the i)ermissii)le 
loadings under Class 5, as well as certain other limi- 
tations, are less exacting than in the existing 
standard specifications. 


The loading on a highway bridge naturally falls 
under two main divisions, the assumed uniformly 
distributed load and concentrated wheel loads. The 

^a OOO /ocr oi^lc 


fl. <i±-...Mj^ „ n 

-7^" To 

y <o' s' zq: .i. 

'SO 00 pc ax/c 


'' • 1 

/5 ^7~ ">' ^ ^jT e2 fS~ 'O ^ 75 r 

Diagrams ok Wheel Loaus Applvinc; to Stdei, 
Hic.HWAV Bridges. 

(irct division will consist, generally, of crowd.-; of 
people, animals in drove*, or a large number of light 
vehicles. Crowds of people, such as quickly gather at 
accidents or for sight-seeing on city bridges, arc 
.seldom productive of 100 lb. sq. ft. average load, and 
for moving loads this figure would undoubtedly cover 
all cases to be provided for at ordinary imit^stresses. 
Classes 1 and 2 are likely to experience such loads at 
frequent intervals and for almost unlimited lengths, 
wliile Classes 3 and 4 may receive the .same intensity 
of loadim:. but far less often, and over smaller areas. 
Animabs in droves will never cxjceed 60 lb. per sq. ft., 
and for Class 5 this would represent the maximum 

The second division will include all classes of heavy 
veliicles, such as street cars, auto trucks, horse-drawn 
lorries, and road-making machinery. JiOcal condi- 
tion? alone can determine the type and magnitude of 
loading for which .-tcel should be proportioned. 

In bridges of Classes 1 and 2 the proximity of fac- 
tories, wharves, railway yards, the nature of the street 
car service, the possibility of loads, due to building 
materials, cable spools, heavy gune, steam rollers, or 
traction engines, must all b« duly considered in 

specifying the applied concentrations. It may also 
be noted here that the authorities owning these classes 
of bridges are also generally empowered to regulate 
traffic, and it will devolve upon their executive engi- 
neer to consider the. principle of equity involved in 
the question whether the publicly owned bridge 
.should be capable of accommodating some unusual 
" freak " load, avoidable at a certain cost to the 
transportation company, or whether^ the traffic regu- 
lations, should not control the use of the Ijridge for 
such purposes on the basis of engineering economics. 

Tlie figures given in the following tables are con- 
sidered safe maximums for usual cases, and are re- 
commended for adoption only in default of specific 
information from the responsible engineer. 

The function of the so-called impact allowance is 
twofold. First, to take care of actual increases in the 
magnitude of the applied load liable to occur at in- 
frequent intervals. Secondly, to make provision for 
the increa.sed stresses due to dynamic application of 
tlie loads. To the uniformly distributed loads described 
aiiove only the first aspect of impact will apply, and 
in so much as same maximum figures arc recom- 
mended for adoption, no further increment for use at 
normal unit stresses is considered necessary. To con- 
centrated wheel loads both aspects of impact may be 
presumed to apply, and a simple percentage of the 
static load is suggested as the increment. It is 
l>elieved that the effects of the dead load and the 
length of the span affected are suitably provided for 
in this percentage, in so nuich as the concentrated 
loa<ls will in general govern floor members only, and 
the type and weight of floor will bear some sensible 
relation to the raagnitiKle ftud ferocity of the wheel 


U) For floor stringers^ cross beams, hangers, and 
any members of trusses and girders where concen- 
trated wheel loads govern the ."sections. 

Trucks, ic. 
See diagruui D. 
13 ton alongside ur 

CUss - 100 11). per sq. ft. Diagram B 1-15 ton 

C'lacs-j ICK] 11). per S'l. ft. Diagram B or C 110 ton 

(if an.T) 
Class 4 80 lb. per sq. ft. None 1-6 ton 

Class 5 <J0 lb. per sq. ft. None 1-4 ton 

'.'. For trusses and girders. 

Uniform load. Street cars. 

Class 1 IW lb. per sq. ft. Diagram A 

Uniform load. Street cars. 

Class 1. 

Vfs lb. per sq. ft. up to 200 ft.,theuce 2,400 lb. per ft. per track for 

diminishing arithmetically (o a freight ears. 2,000 lb. per ft. 

minimum ut 75 lb. at 400 ft. per track for passenger cars 

Class 2. 

100 lb. pur sq. ft. up to 100 ft. .thence 2,"C0 lb. per ft. per track. 

diminishing arithmetically to a 

minimum of C>0 lb. at 30" ft. 
Class 3. 

SO lb. per sq. ft. up to 100 ft., thence 1,600 lb. per (t. per track (if 

diminishing arithmetically to a any) 

minimum of 50 11). at 200 ft. 
Class 4. 

so lb. per sq. ft. up to 80 ft., thence Koue 

diminishing arithmetically to a 

minimum of 50 lb. at 200 fr. 

Class 5. 
60 lb. per sq. ft. up to 60 ft., thence None 
dimmishing arithmetically to a 
minimum of 40 lb. at 100 ft. 


Uniform live load shall be applied to full width of 
road surface between wheel guards and on sidewalks 
to the maximum clear width available for trafilc. 
The assumed equivalent uniform live load for street 
cars shall be applicable to the whole length of the 
trackage on the sjian or any portion thereof. Each 
street car track shall lie assumed to occupy 10 ft. 
width of roadway. The following combinations shall 
be considered possible. 

Street car loads and other concentrated or uniform 
loads for floor lieams and liangers. 

Street car loads and half uniform load on remainder 
of floor surface for trusses of Classes 1, 2 and 3. 

When sidewalks are carried on brackets outside oi 
the main trusses, provision shall be made in the 
trusses for the cantilever effect of loading one side- 
walk and the full road surface between trusses with 
75 per cent of the .specified uniform loading. 


The percentages of the live load from wheel con- 
centrations 1o lie added for impact will be as 
follows: — 

To stringers 4<i per cent. 

To floor beams and hanc""^ -"■.! ..ii.. . tn,,,. niem- 
l)ers affected, 20 per cent 




.Jamakv lit. i!ii; 

A Survey of Municipal Engineering. 

By EDWARD WHiTWELL. f.i.s.e., 
District Council. Lieut.' K.N.V.R., 

M.S.A., Engineer and Surveyor to tlie Abersyclian Urban 
President of the Institution of Municipal Engineers. 

[InauKuraJ address to the Institution of Municipal Engineers— concluded from last week.] 

- Ill xiw e;irl> clay.- im.-.M-.-.-i-d tlK-iii- 
i wash-houses, and financially met 
« -.<. Latterly the tendency has been to 

K-purau- the i»o, and in the rer-ult we find that many 
more Imth* arfe erected than wash-houses, and that, 
\^' ' ■' ■ 'iner are rapidly in<leasinj,' in popularity, 
just as fa?t declining:. Prohahly the ex- 
) - to l)e found in the fact that housin? con- 

U;;.* ..>, which are fast improving, include better 
I r(i\ .-ion (or family washing than was the case a few 

"id thai greater a'ttention is being paid to 

welfare of the young thiui formerly. 
iiinn hath has generally not )>een in great 
iavuu.', tl.Kfly Ijecause swimming has l>eeii so little 
encouraged as to result in charges in order to 
try and reduce the expectant amount of loss on the sea- 
sons working, and in the result for many years pro- 
i;res^ ha~ l>fon stagnated. Now a different view is being 
• I- Aliile the authorities are discovering that 

i! provided by this form of sport 

1': mpensjites for the slight loss of working, 

they are c-oncurrently finding that its popularity con- 
verts Hie loss into a profit, and are inclined to >vonder 
why the art of natation has l>een 90 reluctantly en- 
couraged. In my own case I found an authority 
.seven years ago just decidi"Vig by a single majority vote 
to provide a swimming bath for a population of 25,000, 
wliich within five years builds a second, and would 
liave erected a third by now Init for the war. 

In the particular instance referred to I may state 

that, on my advice, the maximum charge for adniis- 

>ion is one |>enny, and that I prevailed upon the 

. 'luntv authorities to uiclude swimming in their cur- 

■ —'nil, ,ind that in^the result every child (boy and 

V-nding the elementary schools in Standard I. 

;irds has the opportuijity to attend the swim- 

iiijii:,' baths once weekly absolutely free of charge. I 

made the arrangements quite complete by ])roviding 

■■- .■....'..r- ,vho specially follow the progress of 

-aging it in every possible way, and 
• re are nearly 3,<XK3 children learning 
or pru'. "vi.-ing sw:niining. As may l)e conceived, the 
baths are really a financial asset, but were it other- 
wise the district would be more than amply repaid by 
the lietter physique of manhood and womanhood, and 
by 'hr vn'iinli'f asset pos.sessed by each of being able 
1. "' ;! doubt the provision of facilities for 

; be as obligatory as many of the 
. ._ li are in municipal life, since the 

iient i.s really one in which the dividend is to 
:id in a better and healthier people. 


On- "i tlie verv earliest enactments for the good of 

thf piiKl:. •' • Hoction and removal of house 

r.-fu-<-, :.ii' -•nil-, in the matter of collec- 
tion. V. . ' — has heon m.-ule since the law 


w- crude, distast^-ful and iin.sightly 

::nc piles of refnse which are either 

in bins, ashpits, or heafis, and are 

I out for removal periodically ; and 

unenviable i.'i the task of the col- 

it a valuable step was taken in the 

I ■■nu| l,y the water carriage system 

••ffioient means remains to be 

rily with the remaining crud<3 

■ '.vn« an exchange of sanitary bins is made 

;.r 1 till -vslem to dat*-. while still 

I red, is the cleanly. 

\ io«l oostly, and generally 

'■id Ihat the collectors 

living-rooms of the 

! - -a tuiM mi.«crable 

i-r an undesirable one 

.'laintnnce be calling upon 

' ■ • 1 ■' ' itter acci- 

.• - on the 

I I'lvantage.f 

. though I believe 

■.vhi.-h requires the 

no 1- ij. ...1. I ..,....-,..-■ I,,- ..,....,-ii receptacle on the 

kerb in the street oil certain days— a disagreeable task 

wiiioli a.- often as not falls to the lady of the liouse; 
(he receptacle which is the happy luiiiting-ground of 
all the four-footed animals in the neighbourhood — the 
same animals are generally most affectionately em- 
braced by the householders or their children within 
the same hour — and the delight of the mischievous 
schoolboy who explores it for treasures or empties it 
into the street, as the mood takes him. Probably the 
most crude, insanitary and unsightly of all methods 
of storage and collection is that which is prevalent in 
seme towns I have .seen. There huge cast-iron bins 
are provided, capable of holding- from 36 to 100 cub. ft. 
of household refuse, and are placed alongside the main 
and other thoroughfares, or on the open spaces, where 
their putrefying contents are investigated by every 
dog and oat in the neighbourhood, and where the bins 
are nsed^very often as excellent hiding-places by the 
children in their many games. In these big recep- 
tacles the refuse is allowed to stand, generally for a 
week, before collection, and in the re.siilt it is found 
that every wind or gale provides a storm of flying 
dust, ashes, or paper for the assimilation of any luck- 
less i)asser-by. Could anything more ghastly, crude, 
or unsatisfactory be conceived in this the twentieth 
century ? 

I have been in a district where this system was 
a<-tually extending, and, needless almost to state, my 
advent heralded a change in the procedure, a stop on 
the extensions, and a rapid deviation from it to some- 
thing much more satisfactory. Its displacement by 
the bin system led lo much better results, and, by the 
introduction of bells lo the collecting carts, reduced 
the animal and mischievous boy's evil to a minimum. 

The most economical and satisfactory system of 
storage is, to my mind, however, that provided in the 
.=everal large housing schemes for which I have Ijeen 
responsible. Here the occupant places the refuse into 
a receptacle hooked on to a door built with its frame 
into the wall of the back street, and so arranged that 
the receptacle cannot be removed from the door unless 
it is opened. As the only person with the key is the 
collector who calls and empties the bin three times 
per week, and as it is protected from cats, dogs and 
children, it is obvious that, for cleanliness and 
economy, the system is hard to beat. Personally, 
however, I am looking forward to the solution of the 
problem on different linos, and, given the co-operation 
of the liou.seholdcr (o properly limit his refuse to the 
legal definition, to finding that the model city of the 
future will l>c provided with a system of conduits 
V. hich, having endless travelling floors and openings 
at all piemises, will convey the refuse to definite col- 
iectiii'.' centre.--, from whence it can be conveyed, still 
underground, to the place of its disposal. Such a 
system may or may not appear to be more costly, but 
whpther it be so or not, we must realisejjiat those 
systems which arc essential to the full and proper 
safeguarding of tlir public health are the most eoo- 
nrniical in the end. 

To the question of disposal there can be but one 
answer, and that is. by burning. A few years ago the 
remedy, by providing dust destructors, was almost than the disease, but with the experience gained 
and the improvements effected, there is now no doubt 
that this is the only satisfactory way of disposing of 
the waste matters. Various patent processes, by 
which the wastes may be utilised in various forms, 
may now and atfaiti eat<'h the public eye. but a calm 
consideration of llu' whole question, and a full reali- 
sation of the amount of latent power contained in the 
refuse, at once of them all. 

As yet the public mind has not thoroughly grasped 
the potentialities <if the waste matters of a community, 
and is rather iiK-lined to regard them as a costl.v 
iiuisan<-e which luiist now be dealt with in some more 
effective fashion than that of dumping on waste lands, 
but gradually the experience and foresight of muni- 
cipalities like Bbiekpool is reaching it. and In conse- 
qui'nce we are slowly, but surely, approaching the 
subject in a more resolute and determined manner. 
Many authorities, however, do not yet grasp the 
.situation properly, f.nd, while not unfavourable to the 
election of these institutions, are opposed to utilising 

January 19, 1917. 



the latent power therein on the grounds that the 
destruction of tlie refuse is the only object, and that 
this shoidd not be the excuse for a type of nuiiiicipal 
trading. And yet the same authorities will i)lant 
vegetables on their sewage farm and sell them to those 
who will buy ! 

That any authority would permit the latent power of 
municipal refuse to go to waste is, to my mind, almost 
unbelievable, and yet in the experience of the members 
of this institution it is known to be the case. At the 
same time I think evei-y member is convinced that it 
is his duty to influence his authority for the public 
good by persuading it otherwise. 


This is a department which falls to the lot of many 
engineers to control, and, outside the construction of 
the great bases of supply, chiefly takes the form of 
admiiiistration. With the provisions made to safe- 
guard the purity of the water, which is probably the 
first essential to human existence after air, most mem- 
bers are well acquainted, while hard-and-fxst rules are 
generally in exi.stence to secure uniformity of distri- 
bution. In any event, it is fully recognised that the 
greatest dangers to the pure supplies of water lie in 
the di.-itributing channels rather than at the base; 
hence every precaution should be taken to prevent 
pos-^ible sources of contamination being contiguous 
thereto. — 

In many districts the regulations will not permit of 
the drains, gas pipes, and water pipes being laid in 
the same trench, and yet in others you will find an 
absolute disregard of this elementary precaution. In 
many other matters some authorities are similarly 
lax in their control, especially in districts where the 
supply is intermittent, and they may Ix; said to be 
courting grave danger. Generally, however, this is a 
department which leaves little to be complained of. 
From the public point of view but few of us recognise 
how really cheap this essential to existence -is, how 
lightly we value it, and how freely we waste it. 

As is well known, one of the greatest troubles of dis- 
tribution in some districts is that traceable to cor- 
roded mains, and while ingenious contrivances have 
been found by means of which periodical cleansing 
can take place, yet none of them safeguard the smaller 
pipes from the same evil, and consequently an enor- 
mous expense is annually incurred in replacements. 
That some means of actually arresting the corrosion 
would ])e infinitely more satisfactory is evident, and I 
am rather looking to the introduction of some prepara- 
tion, by a treatment of the conveyers, to bring this 
about on the principle that prevention is better than 


The controversy as to the relative merits of gas and 
electricity is still being keenly waged with contra- 
dictory proofs from various districts as to which is 
really the most economical. To the engineer who may 
have both under his control the keenness of the com- 
petition hardly appeals, but to one who only lias one 
of them, while a private company owns the other, it 
is clear that he must keep himself fully alive to all 
the improvements and devices which will tend to 
popularise and cheapen the commodity he is dealing 
in if he is not to be left behind in the race for 
supremacy. Of course, the limitations to this address 
prevent one from entering into their respective merits, 
though I am inclined to the opinion that at present 
gas appears to hold the sw'ay economically, while elec- 
tricity leads in every other field. 

For public lighting, electricity is rapidly overhauling 
gas, in cpite of the impetus given to gas by the incan- 
descent mantle; and when one reflects on the grave 
difficulties attending incandescent lighting during 
great storms, storms in which the electric lamp glows 
unmoved, one does not wonder at it. 

For domestic work, lighting, cooking, and heating, 
electricity is becoming more in favour by reason of its 
greater cleanliness, readiness, and safety; though to 
realise this fully one must visit a town where elec- 
tricity is supreme. With a greater economy of produc- 
tion and distribution it is quite evident that its 
application cannot help but soon be universal. 


The reference to this has been dissociated from the 
question of security of tenure because, I believe, the 
two possess no actual relation, and Ijecause engineers 
have a much be<tter prospect of getting tliem sepa- 
rately. At the present moment it is fully reali.«ed 
that thi.s is a question which must of necessity stay in 
abeyance until the more pressing problems of the war 
have l)een dealt with, but it is timely to refer to the 

matter with a view to its claims being considered just 
as soon as circumstances permit, and in the hope that 
the illogical position of the only public department 
without adequate provision for superannuation, 
whether by self-contribution or otherwise, shall be 


There are many other departments in which the 
municipal engineer is interested, and concerning 
which he has to be more or less of an expert, — namely, 
building, private street work, public vehicle control, 
pleasure grounds, allotments, &c., of w-hich the two 
former require the exercise of more diplomacy, with 
firmness, than the rest. In the matter of building by- 
laws, everyone knows how difficult it is to secure 
exact or uniform compliance when some of them', 
which an unbending bureaucracy insists on retaining, 
are as absurd as it is possible for them to be, and 
when, on the other hand, a weak authority permits of 
the occasional disregard of the most essential, I think 
it may be safely said that building by-law enforce- 
ment has placed the public official more often in an 
unenviable and regrettable position than all the other 
departments together, and this enforcement alone has 
fully justified the official claim for Government pro- 
tection in the way of security of tenure. Whether the 
simplification of the by-laws on sensible lines will 
lead to more co-operation on the part of the builder 
is a matter of doubt, while to permit of building with- 
out by-laws would lead to his return to the erection of 
the slumdom which is the blot on the present day, 
and which is being in many districts granted attenu- 
ated life by generous, though oft shortsighted, autho- 
rities. One of the most frequently repeated arguments 
that the surveyor meets with is that these are " by- 
laws made in London largely to suit London, and conse- 
quently it is absurd to build as if you were in London." 
A remodelling on sensible minimum lines, with an 
inclusion of other requisite provisions, would greatly 
assist the official responsible for the present difficult 


I do not think that this address would be complete 
without some reference to this very important matter. 
Time and time again the matter has been brought to 
the notice of the professional world that it is as 
important to jirovide the future engineer with a 
thorough base on which the structure of his profes- 
sional attainments can be built as it is to provide 
proper foundations for a heavy edifice ; and the general 
conclusion is that the stronger the foundations are the 
more it is possible to build upon them. All thi.s is 
perfectly true, for it is inconceivable to think that all 
engineers without this preliminary preparation would 
be as fitted as they are to-day if this had been denied 
them ; but it is perfectly true that many engineers 
fail to build upon the foundation given them the 
structures for which the foundation has been pre- 
pared, and this is a great matter of regret. The 
lackadaisical syttein which still prevails of selecting 
a profession for the child without regard to its fitted- 
ness or loent has led in the past to many failures, 
while, on the other hand, some of the leading engineers 
of the day are men whose early training was not 
strictly confined to the sphere in which they have met 
with so much success. In other words, men without 
that early academical and professional training which 
would without doubt have greatly facilitated and 
accelerated their progress have outstepped many who 
have had every facility given them and every oppor- 
tunity open to them, because of their greater fittedness 
for their ijrofessions, and because of the general in- 
adaptability of the less successful man. UndoubtetUy 
the first step in the making of an engineer is to see 
that his natural bent is inclined to that end ; the 
second, to commence at the earliest possible moment 
to encourage that bent ; the thitd, to provide acadcnti- 
cal and professional training by attractive, efficient, 
and effective niethotls. If then the budding engineer 
has the courage, the tenacity, and the personality, he 
will succeed, and be an asset to the engineering world. 

To the engineer in the embryo .stage I would eiiiphu- 
sise the great need of his pursuinc his studies until 
he is capable ot taking the institution's examination, 
and then of diligently continuing to keep pace with the 
Ijrogrcss l)eing made in the departments in which he 
is interested until he has attained all the success of 
which he is capable in the sphere in whi<h he works. 
He may have many years to run. but all the time iio 
runs he approaches nearer and nearer the goal of 
success, he leaves further and further behind the 
starting point, and he finds fewer competitors to vie 
with him for tlie best that the ijrofessiou holds, and 


i\i \K\ i!i. i;u; 

all the 'AUtf ilie eniiine-etiiis; wurld i« profiting l.iv lii^: 


Before coiKludinij lli:-f address I sliould like again 
To expre&J my deep appreoiation of the very liiifh 
honour wliieli has l>een l>o~to\ved upon n»e and on the 
important looal authority it i< my ]^lea<ure' to serve, 
and to exi>res> to you my dt termination to further the 
aims and objects of tlie institution )n- all means that 
lie in my power during my term of offioe Durinj? the 
I eriod of my member-hip of the .council and of my 
vice-presidency, my piillal;«<>ratioii with tlu' presidents. 
tl»e fellow vice-presidents, and .<eoretan- has afforded 
me unlKiiinded pleasure, aiul I am looking forward to 
continued happy associations in fnlfillinp the aims 
u«d objt.-cts of the institution. Particularly have I 
to express my sincere appreciation of the cordiality 
and assistamv given me by the retiring president, 
Mr. H. C. Adams, the geniality and helpfulne.*s of the 
past-presidents, Mr. Matthews Jones, Mr. H. Sticklond, 
.Mr. H. Boot, and nthers, and to the happy and co- relations with our excellent and pain.^taking 
~ecretary, Mr. W.vaiul. gentlemen are the 
pillars ot the institution, and it is to them that the 
institution owis so much of it.s splendid success. 

I must again alsti express the fervent hope that 
before another annual meeting we .«hall exiicrience that 
happy leimton with our brothers who are fighting side 
by .side for the honour of Old England, and that it 
shall mark the dawn of a lasting and honourable peace 
which shall know no end. 

Following the leading of the foregoing addivr-N ai 
the annual niet-ting of tin- Institution of ^liuiii ipal 
Kngine«-rs. a vot.- >•[ thanks t<> the i)residen( was pvo- 
|)(>sed by Mr. H. C. H. Slieuton. In .'H-conding, Mi'. 
T. C. Barralet r.-iiiaik«-<l that there were evidently 
many other excellent thuig> loniing out of AVah^s than 
a r«-i-tain distinguished gentleman who would be 

The i<i->«positi>in was imrit-d with acclauial ion. 

Ystradgynlais Souncil Offices. — The Ystnulgynlais 
Uiiral Di^trid roiMuil- new offices in (ilanley-strwt 
wfiv opt-ne*! on the 11th inst., the cei-emony being 
pevfonned by Mi-. Thos. Watkins, who has occui)ied 
tlic post of siineyor lo ilu- council and their pre- 
de<-essoi-s. the Ystradgynlais District Highway Board, 
for a pf-riofl of iliirty years. 

The Rainfall of 1916. — M the lasi nuH-ting of ilu- 
riianii.-- Consi-rvamy, Lord Di-sborough. th<^ chainiian. 
said li<- had re<vived fignics as to the rainfall from 
the i-nginei-r, which had bt*n corrected by cimijiaiison 
with Dr. Milne's records, with whiih tln-y substan- 
tially agreefl. Their own figures were lakeii at ten 
difTeivnt stations in the Thames Valley, and were very 
interesting. During tin- year Ktlfi they had almost 
exactly the same amount of i-ain as ihey hail in 15)1.') — 
viz., 3.j8 in. It was rather interesting to note iliai 
the last five years had b<en very wet years, the 
average rainfall being ;W is in., which compared with 
272 in. for the pi.fediiig Iwenty-nine years. It would 
l>e Men theref<»re that for the past five years th<' 
e\ces« of rain had Ix-en very large. Last year, in 
i<-gard to the volume of water uitli which they had lo 
deal in the Thames, ilu-y louchwl record figures. The 
year Illlo was ii|i to that time & re<'urd year in thai 
r<".p.Tf. but it was tx-ateii last yrav wlu-n the volume 
'at Tcddinglon was far great»-r, and sur- 
liing that had Ix-eii known since (he rwords 

1^1 pt. That «i!cc*.-ssivi' flow was. he thougiit, 

laigely accoiinled for by the fact that the soil was 
alnndy heavily chargefl with wet wlieii some v<-iy 
iieavy rains iHcunvil. and tlier<> was vei-y little 
evaporation. For e.vaniple, there was in three dnys 
during December a fall of 2 in. of rain, but owing to 
ihe fact he liad alluderl to — of the s«jil Ix-ing alnady 
h-iv'ly '•hargefl with moistun* — it had the eff<-<t of 
'he flow at T«-<ldingtoM weir from l.<)(Mi lo 
•II gallons. What was going to hajijieii in 
he did not know. {Some tinie ago Sir 
Norman Lockyer suggest«d tliut rainfall and drought 
ran in eleven year cycles. Then- was no doubt that 
I un<-s of wet years ran down to a luinimum, and then 
« IimbH to a iiiaiCiujum. They migiii have lo fac45 a 
drought, but h« did not think it wa.s possible that 
they could go on with these extraordinary rainfalls 
for many more yoars. The tot«l flow ol water at 
Teddingt<jn lai.t yeax ivnched tho <o|o<«stil figures r>f 
'»74.r,»7 million gallons. 



.\re not the iei»>rts of the meetings in the January 
issue of the Jdiiinal of the Institution of Municipal 
and County Engineers rather Kdated when we find 
that these rejinrts are of meeting's which took ])lace 
in Sei)leniber of last year ? Is there much licnetit to 
be (h-rived from sui-h reports, which were duly ]>ul)- 
lished in certain professional journals directly after 
the meetings had been held H 

* * * * 

Was it not rallicr di.saf)i»ointin^' to liiul in last 
.Suiiilav's Ohsiiiu- thai the leaifing article, which was 
head.Vl ill large leiuis " DOW.N WITH THE DUST." 
did lu.l refer to soiiU' improved method o( street 
eleansiiii;. but mcivlv to the new War Loan ? 

Will the Cornwall County Coiin<-il be able to per- 
suade ■■ the authorities " to let them employ German 
pri.soiiers iiiiheir load stone (piarrie* in order to free 
men for other work ? If this ct)niicil is successful in 
their api)eal, is it not to be hoped that other looal 
authorities will follow their example ? Would not the 
prisoners themselves be only too glad to be emiiloyed 
in useful work, and thus find relief from the terrible 
nionotoiiv of i(lleiu>s :- 

If. as stated in I lie piil)lie Press, the Northamiiton 
Cuiinly Council are confronteil with an estimated 
ex|(enditnie of .t2<Ki.0i'X) on load works after the war, 
what is the estimated total anioiint which wilt" l>e 
ii(|iiiretl throuj:hoiit the Ignited Kingdom to put our 
sadly neglecletl roads in order after iiejice has be«Mi 

• leclaied? 

* * «■ * 

.\re not the " suggestions lor the [jrepaiatioii of 
specifieations for concrete roail.s," which appears in 
this inonth'.s issue of CuihtiU. ami Ciiiii>lnii lional Eni/i- 
ifiriifj. exce|>tioiially good ? If the detail.s there set 
forth Could be scrujmlously followed, ought we not to 
find that good concrete roads can be-t)roperly con- 
structed in this country as well as in America ? 

* # * * 

Was not llio article in the ArrhilifU' and huihlira' 
Journal of the 3rd inst., entitled " A Forgotten Town 
Planning S<'heme for Westminster," an object-le.sson 
lo the present t'eneialiim of how an-ex<-ellent scheme 
by an engineer or an architect may be muddled and 
sjioilt by officialdoiii ? Does it not seem grievous to 
contenij)late that the sad-looking Victoria-street might 
have been a magnilirent boulevard, practically bring- 
ing St. .lamci's Park into touch with it. and that all 
this was spoilt beeaii^' the Govei iinieiit of that day 
in.sisted on buildiriL- the liideons Weliiiitjlon Barracks 
where Ihey diil ? 

« » * » 

Does it ikjI seem as if theie is '" .something wrong 
somewhere " when wt' find that, although there is a 
shortage of lal)Our tor growing vegetables and other 
foodstuffs, a traiig of men are takiiiv u)) and relaying 
turf in Baltersea Park, and this on a jiart of the park 
where the public are not allowed to walk ? 

* » « « 

Where do the people of Tintern Parva and Cluijiel 
Hill, in the rural rlistrict of Chej)stow, now obtain 
their water ? Is it not evi<lent from the rejiort given 
of a recent ineelini.' (if the rural district council that 
there must be something very wioiiu indeed with that 
supply when we find that a school at Tintern Parva 
was without any water supply whatever, ami " that 
the matter had been under di.-cussion for five years " ? 
Is it not rather a.-ioiiishing to find in many rural 
di.-tricts an entire alisriice of any ap|>reciation of that adage. " Penny wise and poiiml foolish " ? .\nd 
does it :iot make u.- wonder sometimes whether flic 
promotion of parish <-ouiKils was a wise measure ? 
» » « # 

.May the writer ol paragraphs be permitted to 
draw altention to a iirinter's error in his first jiara- 
graph of last week with leforeiice to the manner in 
which Nature is alwuxs trying to override .ind efface 
man's handiwork ? In referring to the wild flowers, 
weeds and graspet which Hjiriiig up like magic on sites 
of old buildings, it is Klate<l. " Where do the wr-iJ^ 
come from r " The woid should, of course, have been 

Ja.ntakv 19. 1917. 


\'>\ )i. 

Experiences in Water Filtration/ 

(i. nrXTER. M.cA.\.suc.L.F.., Resident Eagiin-.-r in .\f.-.imv-:il foi- Uic- X.-w Yoik 
Continental Jevrell Fill ration Compajiy, 

Rapid r^and Idlers i= a yeneric terni; implying two 
o->eiitirtl types of filters, tlu- gravity and the pressure. 
The gravity filter i.s one wherein tlie water i.s pa.ssed 
tlirough the fdtering medium hy the force of gravity. 
Siioh filters an- eontained in open tanks, and the raw 
water always passt.s thruugh a coagulating period 
l)efoit reaclnng the filter". The pressure filter is en- 
closed in a strel tank, and operutt-s under pressure. 
The arrangement of the underdraining systems is quite 
similar in Iwth iy]>es of filters, and each has a l>ed of 
filtering material of about the same kind and depth of 
sand. The chief difference is, as Vtefore stated, in that 
one operates under pressure and the other by gravity. 
The pressure fdter requires less space than the gravity 
filter, and is particularly applicable in certain cases 
where it is desired to avoid double [lUinping of the 
water, the filler then fornnng a part of the continuous 
jiiping system between tl)e raw water pumps and the 
(ostribution .system. 

The gravity filter is of far wider usage, since it 
appears to be somewhat l>etter suited to all-round 
conditions: but it must not be forgotten that there are 
numero\is cases wher? the pressure filter will prove 
distinctly better." 


In preparing raw water for -gravity filtration it is 
always essential that it first be freed of a substantial 
jfcrcentage of the impurities it contains in order not to 
unnecessarily overload the filter, and thus imneces- 
sarily decrease its reserve capacity and increase the 
cost of its operation. Tins preparatory treatment may 
be effected by long storage, whereby the suspende<l 
matters are separated out of the water l»y sedimen- 
tation, or by coagulation and sedimentation, in rela- 
tively small basins. The latter procedine is the one commonly followetl. since its effect is quicker 
and far more thorough, and its cost far less. 

In the preparatory treatment last mentioned an 
iron or aluminum salt is used as a coagulant, and 
sometimes a mixed salt of these two bases. 

In Canada .sulphate of alumina is used chiefly. The 
action which is brought about by adding the aluminum 
salt to water was discovered thou-sands of years ago 
in China, and results in the release in the water of a 
flocculent, neutral hydrate of ahwninum, which 
attracts and enmeshes the suspended and colouring 
matters in the water, including the bacteria, and thus 
forms relatively large aggregates, which settle out 
rajiidly in ba.^ins designed for that purpose. Such of 
the coagulated matter as pas.*es the coagulating and 
settling basin is strained out by the filters, and a clear 
and colourless filtered water results. 

The basins in which tlie raw water i.s prepared for 
filtration are of various types. Some are rectangular 
in plan, .-ome square, some circular their shape and 
size depending chiefly ujion the character and volume 
of the water to be treated and sometimes upon the 
to|X)graphical conditions met with. 

The <lesiErn embodies well-known and es.sential 
features. First, the ba.-in is divided into two coiii- 
I)artments. so that one lialf may Ik- cleaned while the 
other is in u.-e. It is important that the water enter 
the basin evenly throughout its width, and we find 
that to deliver the water at or near the surface is 
good practice. The effluent should be taksn from 
near the surface and evenly over the width of the 
basin. In a straight-flow ba-^^in it is not found that 
baffles are necessary, other than that it is well to 
.-I range to stop a ".short cut " surface flow with a 
liaffle near the inlet end. 

In other basin.s where baffles are used, sudden and 
violent fluctuations in velocity of flow are avoided so 
far as possible, in order to prevent the breaking up 
of the forming coagula. Baffles are advisedly placed 
here and there in the.<e basins to i)revent the unde- 
sirable short-circuiting, an! the cros.— sections of the 
1/as.^ages under and around these baffles are com- 
puted to u considerable degree of nicety in order to 
avoid .-udden inor2dses in the velocity of flow, wijich 
would not only tend to bieak up the forming floes 
of hydrate, but sweei> along with the flowing ciu'rent 
matters already brought to rest on the bolfoin of the 

' Ki-om paiiur read before tlie Cuuudian Society of Civil 
Engine* r>*. 

It is necessary to have drains of ample size Iroin 
a sump in the basin, and gates on these located in a 
dry chamber. There should ahso be arranged an over- 
flow of adequate dimensions. It is very convenient to 
provide water under i>ressure, inside of the basin, 
where a may be attached for washing out the 
deposits. In this climate the basins must be decked 
over and covered with earth to prevent freezing, which 
necessitates manholes properly located for access and 


No department of the purification process ia more 
important tiian tliat wherein the coagidant solutions 
are applied t<j the raw water as it, enters the coagu- 
lating and .settling basins. As the- character of the 
raw water changes, the dose of coagulant must bo 
changed accordingly, and unless this is done intelli- 
gently, not only are jwor filtration residts to be antici- 
pated, but a material waste of coagulant i- unavoid- 
able. This coagulant costs money. Probably all ot 
one-third of the cost of operation of a filter plant is 
represented by the cost of the coagulant. InsuSicient 
coagulant means poor results, and too much coagulant 
means unnecessary waste. If the filtration result is 
unsatisfactory through the use of insufficient coagu- 
lant, its cost has been largely thrown away, since no 
better than a poor result has come from its employ- 

Where the devices for preparing coagulant solu- 
tions and the application" of the same are clumsy, 
primitive, or require a great deal of manual attention, 
the dose is liable to fluctuate sliarply from time to 
time. This means alternate under and over dosing, 
which rxnis into considerable waste money. Our com- 
pany has centered a fair .share of the efforts of its 
designing staff on endeavours directed specifically to 
the perfection of appliances whereby the preparation 
and application of coagulant may lie made sul)- 
stantially automatic and fool proof, and where a con- 
stant known quantity of solution can l)e fed, and 
the quantity conveniently and quickly changed as 

There must be arranged in the plant a chemical 
^torage room, chemical solution tanks, and chemical 
feeding devices. The storage room should be arranged 
for convenience in getting material, into it and in 
moving tlie material. The solution tanks, if possible, 
should be arranged so that the top of the tanks comes 
at the level of the storage room floor. There should 
))e two solution tanks. The capacity of one of these 
tanks should be figured to suffice for at least twelve 
hours' supply, under the maximum quantity of solu- 
tion needed. The tanks are arranged with dissolving 
racks, in which the; snlphate of alumina is placed, 
si)ray pii)es for directing the water on to it, and 
agitators for keeping the solution agitated and of uni- 
form strength. Various arrangements for these solu- 
tion tanks aie satisfactory, and from experience I 
would avoid only agitators operated from counter 
.-haft, where belting and gearing is required. It is 
do>il)tful if it i.~ good i)ractice to electric motor-; 
for driving the agitators. .V water-motor driven agi- 
tator for each tank is in every way a satisfactory 
arrangement. Where concrete tanks are used, some 
arrangement for protecting the concrete must be pro- 
vided. A solution of sul))hate of aluminum will 
attack concrete. aiKl in a short time eat away the 
surface of the concrete to a considerable extent. 
Pre.sent exi)erience indicates that if the surface of tlie 
eoncrete, when dry, is treated with creosote oil and 
" Barrett specification pilch," it will renwin unim- 
paired for years. 

The piping from a solution tank will, of course. 
I)rovide for drainage and al.<o for taking the .solution 
from the tank to the chemical feeding device. The 
solution on iKissing from the tank should lie filtered. 
This filter should have an area, ^o that the rate of 
filtration will be about 160 im|>erial gallons |>er 
square foot per minute. It may 1m? arranged in the 
bottom of the solution tank or out-side of the tank 
Provision to wash back with clean water must be 
made. The filtering material is gravel, raiiginc in 
size froiji J in. to i in., and the thickne-.- of tli.' 
material from 4 in. to (i iu. This littl. Mrrnii-emeiii 
for filteriiiL- ahiiu i- iiio-t imi>ortant. iiiiiticul;ir!\ "U 



Janl'au\ 1!I. 1917. 

the small plants, and has been brought about entirely 
through experienoe. 

The nu-asuring devices for feeding the coagulant 
solution aftff tilteriiig can l>e any arrangement 
whereby a constant known quantity of solution can be 
fed. and by whioh this quantity can be conveniently 
and quickly changed. The solution from the feeding 
devices can l)e conducted to the point of application 
in lead pii>e, or chemical hose, either by pumping, so 
as to feed by gravity, or through a pump suction Iwx 
to feed to the suction of the low-lift pumps. 


The rate of filtration adopted for mechanical filters 
is 104,(XiO,t)00 imj>erial gallons per acre per day, or 
1'66 gallons per square foot per minute. The general 
arrangement of modern filters is well known. The 
filter shell is usually made of reinforced concrete, 
rectangular in shape, and 7 ft. or 8 tt. deep. It is 
eqnipi>ed with a strainer system at the bottom, about 
36 in. of filter sand and gravel, and wash-water gutters 
at the top. Out.«ide of the filter in the pipe gallery are 
located the pipes and valves for operating the filter. 

The strainer system may be the combined or 
separate air system. On the design of the strainer 
system largely dei)ends the uniform rate of filtration. 
This is so for two reasons — first, it must collect the 
water passing through the sand in uniform quanti- 
ties over the whole area of the bed ; secondly, it must 
dL«tribute the wash water at a uniform rate over the 
wliole l>ed. The distribution of the wash water is the 
most important detail to have correc-t in the filter. 
If this is defective, or the waterways are too small, 
the washing of the l>ed is not uniform, and in a short 
time there will l>e alternate areas of clean and dirty 

The design of a strainer system for a bed having 
an area of 150 sq. ft., or less, should not te used for 
a l>ed of greater area — that is to say, a central mani- 
fold casting from which lateral pipes branch each 
way to the sides of the bed can be supplied with 
water from one end, while in beds of greater area 
the manifold pipe should receive its supply at the 
centre, or in very large beds, at two points. It is 
prol)able that a bed having an area of 420 sq. ft., 
which would, equal a million imjjerial gallon unit, 
should be designed with a manifold at each side and 
the lateral pipes laid Ijetween them, thus effecting a 
pij>e system without dead ends. The manifold and 
lateral jiipes should be of cast iron. In filters of 
small area, however, genuine wrought-iron pipe is 
ti.sed for laterals. 

The strainer caps or strainer heads, sometimes 
called sand valves, are of numerous and widely vary- 
ing design.s. !Many of them are covered by patents. 
They are made of brass or bronze, and .so designed that 
the flow of water through them is broken up and 
equally distributed. Where the combined air and 
wash-water system is used a brass trap .tul^ is usually 


The placing of the strainer system in the bottom of 
the filter should be done with great care, particularly 
if the combineif system is used. It is very important 
that the strainer caps be practically level throughout 
the area of the Ijcd, and a variation of over i in. is 
pot permissible. Strainer caps should be spaced not 
more than 6 in. on centre^;. After the strainer system 
in in jilace, the whole should l<e embedded in lean 
<-oii<T<-ti- and the surface finished off with a layer of 
g»Kjd cement mortar alwut i-in. thick. This surface 
should \>e brought level with the lowest waterway to 
the strainer head. 

Nine inches of properly graded gravel placed in the 
bottom of the bed ii apparently suffi<'icnt. This 
gravel should be t'raderi in size from J in. tfi J in. (Jn 
top of this 27 in. of carefully selected silica .Mand 
should l>e placed. The grading and the size of the 
sand is irr • - -'- * ' an economical point of view. 
If (I .sano >■ graded— that is, containing too 

large a )>■ i (iuf particles — is used, the fine 

particles .... ;.;iially be waiihed out, and it will be 
necessary t') r<iila<e the material so lost. On the 
other hand, if the s-ize f»f the .sand is not larger than 
•60 millimetre, and .^mailer than .'l? millimetre, with 
a uniformity coefticient of 1-65, jiracfically no waste 
will occur from fine particles being wa.><)ied away. 

Wafh - water guttern are con.'-tructed of concrete, 
nhf.pi ir,.r, .1..,! ..,,,1 of cast iron. The writer'** expe- 
riei. ca.-t-iron gutters, and they have 

be« I. • ry. The top edges of the gutteis 

should I't j.laii'-d :<» a -traight line, so as to permit 
the lip of all the ifutters in the I^ed to l>e set at one 
l,.v..l T).. -l,-t:,ri,-. •.!.-,■ . ti.,. -nrf:"'" '■< the saud at 

which these gutters should be placed depends upon 
what the rate of application of wash water is to bo. 
If filter-washing is to be aided by compressed-air 
agitation, then a vertical rise of wash water of 13 in. 
per minute will suffice. If no air is used, but de- 
pendence laid upon what is known as the " high 
velocity wash," as used at Cincinnatr, Ohio, and else- 
where, then a vertical rise of wash water of 30 in. per 
minute is not uncommon. Naturally, the whole sand 
l>ed is floated when wash water is forced upwards 
through it, and the higher the velocity of upward 
flow of this water the higher the sand layer will rise. 
Consequently, to avoid loss of sand, the wash-water 
gutters must be placed sufficiently high so that, what- 
ever rate of application of water is employed, the 
filter sand will not be washed out of the tank and 
so lost. The capacity of the gutter should be such 
as to carry off the flow when running within IJ in. of 
full. It is important that the drain be so hiid that 
air will not trap and cause a back-flow. 


The washing of the bed by first applying air to 
agitato the sand and then the water can successfully 
be done with a quantity of water that will equal a 
vertical rise of 13 in. per minute. In filter beds where 
air is not used for agitating the sand, but where 
revolving rakes are used for agitating, a vertical rise 
of 12 in. per minute is sufficient. 

Air for agitating the sand previous to washing 
should be supplied under a pressure of from 3J lb. to 
4 lb. per square inch. The quantity of air .should be 
not less than 3 cub. ft. of free air per square foot per 
minute. A proper wash of a filter bed is often accom- 
plished by agitating with air for two minutes and 
washing with water for four minutes. 

Where air and \\a*er is adopted to wash filters, the 
wash water and air agitating equipment must be 
arranged to meet conditions. On small plants — that 
is, beds having an area of 65 sq. ft. or less — the wash 
water may be obtained direct from the mains without 
dropping the pressure too much to Ciiuse annoyance. 
On plants larger than this and up to filters having a 
capacity of 1,000,0(X) gallons, a wash-water pump is 
usiKilly used. This pump should have sufficient 
capacity to furnish the required amount of wash 
water, and be able to lift this water against a head 
equal to 16 ft. above the lip of the gutter. The most 
convenient power to drive the pump i^s electricity, 
and where electricity is used the starting device 
should be installed at a convenient point on the 
operating floor. Where units of 1,000,000 gallons 
capacity or more are used, and particularly in plants 
of 10,000,000 gallons or grwter capacity, it is probable 
that a wash-water tower will work out to l)e more 
economical in operation and more eflicient in service. 
The capacity of a wash-water tank should be sufficient 
to wash one quarter ol tlie filter units in succession. 
The storage capacity necessary for this quantity of 
water shoidd l)e above a point 16 ft. alwve the lip of 
the gutter. In connection with the storage tank there 
should Be a regulating tank, or regulating device, that 
will drop the pressure of the water above the 16-ft. 
level to 16 ft., and maintain it at this level. Another 
factor that may work in and make a wash-water tank 
de.sirable is the load that can be thrown on to the 
power available. A centrifugal wash-water pump for 
1, (X)0,lH JO - gallon unit will usually require a 50-h.p. 
motor. This load of bO h.p. may l^e thrown on at any 
time during the day for a matter of four or five 
minutes. When using a wash-water tank a very 
small |)ump and motor is required. Tliis pump and 
motor should have a capacity to restore in six hours 
the amoimt of water estimated for washing. Tliis 
pump is started and stopped automatically by the 
pressure of water in the wash-water tower, or by a 
float. Filtered water sliould always be used for 

The air for agitating in all plants up to 1,000,000- 
callons capacity may be supplied direct from a rotary 
blower. Electric current is the most convenient for 
the motive power. The blower should deliver the air 
against a pressure of H lb. to 4 lb. A blower of 
sufficient capacity to agitate a l.OOO.OfKj-gallon unit 
will require practically a .W-h.p. motor, and it may l>e, 
as stated above, that the available i)Ower w'ill not 
permit of throwing nn great a load as this on to the 
power. In connection with the wash-water tower an 
air-storage tank can be arranged. This tank is simply 
an inverted tank, siudlar to the arrangement for a 
gasometer, in the wash-water tower. Tlie air is 
8upi)lied to this lank by rotary blowers of small 
capacity, working the same as the smaller wash- 
water pumps. The storage capacity should be for 

January 19, 1917. 



The Surveyor 

\ Bnb n>unlcfpal atib County Cnsineet. 


A iipointments Vacant 

Burgh of Uuckie uud tlieir Couti actors 


Design and Cost o{ Beservoirs 

Famous Well 

Fence Walls on Main Boads 

Fly Nuisance in South Africa 

Forthcoming Meetings 

Industrial Besearch 

Institution of Municipal Engineers i Presidential Address 

Local Government Booxd Inqaiiies 

Metric Syeteni 

Municipal Contracts Open 

Municipal Work in Progress and Projected 

Notes from Ireland 


Becent Publications 

Bestrictions on Municipal Expenditure 

Bight to Inspect Documents 

Bural Eepopulation 

Specifications for Highway Bridges ... 

Survey of Municipal Engineering 

Tenders for Municipal Works or Supplies 

Things One would Like to Know 

Water Filtration 

Welsh Surveyor's Salary 

... 51, 61 

. 49, 57 

. 51, 62 


sufficient air to wash one quarter of the filters in 
.succession. Tlie required air pressure is easily 
obtained by loading the tank with concrete. 

A coml)ined water and air tank, as described 
above, is used at the Montreal Water and Power 
Company's plant. In fact, this_was the first combined 
air and wash water tank ever constructed, and the 
outfit as installed is satisfactory. 


Almost every filter plant in operation to-day is 
treating the filtered effluent witli a sterilising agent, 
hypochlorite of lime, or liquid chlorine l>eing used. 
Hypochlorite of lime, however, is being replaced^ by 
the use of liquid chlorine. There are liquid chlorine 
feeding devices on the market which are operating 
satisfactorily. The author's experience has been 
altogether with the Wallace and Tiernan chlorinators. 
Their solutioit feed machines are entirely satisfactory, 
and for small plants the machine operating with a 
pulsating motor is particularly satisfactory. The 
feeding of chlorine gas to the effluent passing from 
the filter plant, projiortional to the amount of water 
flowing, is a prol)lem requiring a good deal of study. 
There is no question but what the ideal way to 
chlorinate would be to chlorinate the effluent from 
each filter, or to collect the effluent of all the filters 
into a comparatively small area and chlorinate the 
water as it passes to the storage in the clear-water 
basin. Any such arrangement as this, however, runs 
into so many complications that it does not seem 
feasible. Where a Venturi meter can be arranged on 
the discharge line from the high-service pumps, the 
velocity head through the motor can be used for 
operating the chlorinator, and the chlorine solution 
fed to the suction of the pumps. Where such a meter 
canrot be arranged, a special Venturi tul)e can be 
installed at the outlet of the clear-wak-r basin, and 
the velocity head at the throat titilised, feeding the 
solution through a distributing pipe, directly in front 
of the outlet. It is, however, important, and much 
to be preferred, that an automatic proportional feed 
machine be u.sed on plant.s of large capacity. On 
smaller jilants satisfactory results can be obtained 
with manual-control machines. 

Workmen's Houses for Dunbar. — The Town Council 
of Dunbar have decided to inquire into the question 
(it securing sites for workmen's houses. 

Municipalities and Housing. — Dr. D. Axwell 

Williamson, medical officer of health for Edinburgh, 
.speaking at the Labour housing conference at Glas- 
gow recently, said tlie authorities were only wasting 
air on the housing question. No solution need l>e 
looked for through the operation of private enterprise. 
Housing .schemes should \>e undertaken by munici- 
palities with financial assistance from the Govern- 
ment. Much greater control over land in and around 
cities should be vested in the municipalities for that 


An illustration of the difficulties which are being 
experienced by public lx)dies at the present time in 
obtaining official sanction to expenditure on even the 
most necessary nuitters is afforded by a discussion 
which took place at the last meeting of the Surbiton, 
Surrey, Urban District Council. 

The Sanitary Committee presented a report of the 
proceedings at a special meeting held to consider 
further the proposed purchase of electrically propelled 
vehicles for the collection of house refuse in the 

The clerk (says the Surrey Comet) reported that Sir 
•lohn Snell, with the surveyor and himself, attended 
at the offices of the Local Government Board, and 
urged the necessity of the council being permitted to 
purchase two electrically propelled vehicles for the 
collection of house refuse, and to pay for them by 
instalments spread over three years. The board's 
representative said -it would be necessary for them to 
consult with the Treasury, aiid that formal applica- 
tion should be made by the council in writing, setting 
out the details. This application had accordingly 
been prepared and forwarded to the Local Govern- 
ment Board. It was also reported that the sanction 
of the Ministry of Munitions would also be required 
for the manufacture and delivery of the vehicles, and 
Sir John Snell had assisted in drawing up an appli- 
cation to them in this behalf. The clerk further re- 
ported, in his opinion, the committee must con- 
sider the possibility of the board refusing the appli- 
cation, as it was quite apparent from the interview 
that they were unwilling to grant any application of 
this nature at the present time. 

After consideral^le discussion the committee came 
to the conclusion that if the Local Government Board, 
or the Treasury, were to refuse their sanction to the 
proposed purchase of two vehicles by means of instal- 
ments, the following alternative might be adopted — 
i.e., to purchase one vehicle for cash this year, and, 
if possible, to hire a second vehicle for the period of 
one year, giving the nuikers an undertaking that such 
vehicle would be purchased by cash at the exjiiration 
of J;hat period, or, in the event of .the makers^being 
unable or unwilling to lend a vehicle on hire, that 
the collection of house refuse should be done by one 
vehicle purchased for cash, with hired horses and 

From the figures placed before the committee by 
the clerk, it appeared that the financial effect of this 
arrangement would ultimately be more economical 
than the purchase of two vehicles by instalments, but 
in the first and second years the cost might be slightly 
higher, though this would depend largely on the terms 
upon which an electric vehicle could be liired. In 
any event the difference would not be large enough to 
require any increase in the rates, beyond such increase 
as would Ije required if two vehicles were purcha.sed 
by instalments. If the course suggested was adopted 
the sanction of the Local Government Board or the 
Treasury would not be required, although the permi.«- 
sion of the Ministry of Munitions fould still be 

It was mentioned that, as the council would soon 
have to consider the question of renewing the dust- 
removal contract, the committee thought it wise to 
have an alternative scheme ready, in case their 
original scheme did not go through. 

■The chairman said he understood that the makers 
of the vehicles were quite agreeable to the council 
purchasing one and liiring another. The cost of hire 
for one year would l-)e £60. Either of the alternative 
schemes was good, providing the original scheme did 
not go through. 

Mr. Packhani asked if the £60 paid for hire would 
be taken off the purchase price. 

The chairman: No; it represents 6 per cent interest 
on the outlay. 

Mr. Willcocks asked whether a careful and conser- 
vative estimate had been made as to the cost of this 
new departure. 

Mr. Kavanagh rei)lied in the affirmative. Every- 
thing that could be thought of. with the exception of 
insuring the vehicles, had been done. Properly 
worked, he had no hesitation in saying the new dust- 
removal .s^'heme woidd lie a success. 

In reply to Mr. Willcocks. the chairman .said it was 
hoped to acquire the new vehioies without raising the 

Mr. Shaw expressed the fear that the purchase- 
money would find its way out of the country, but was 



.Tantary lit. 1917. 

informed that they liail the assurance that tlio inaiiii- 
laclnrers \ve;<- an Engli.*h firm. 

In tlie end the following rei-onuiieftdaHon*. siil>- 
niitted l>y tin- ooniniittet-. liut .^lightly modified l.y the 
i-ottnoil. wen- adojited : "That, in the evoni of tlie 
LfH-al Ciovermiient Board or the Treasury reliisins to 
.-•anctiun the iiiircha-e i>f two electrio dust vans hy 
means of instahui'nt-i spread over a pi-riod of Iliree 
years, thi' txmneil purchase one eleefric dust vnn this 
year; that tlie S:iniiary Connnittto he authorised to 
i;ive Edison Aocmnnlators. Limited, an orih-r lo pro- 
«-ee<l at onoe with the manufacture of one electrie dust 
van. and to inform them that if the council do not 
ohtain the saiKtion ni the Local (Jovernment Board 
to iiurduise two vehieh s l.y instalments, the coumil 
will pur«-liase one vehicle for cash, and take another 
electrie van on liire tor the period of twelve months, 
from April 1st next, upon the understanding that the' 
<-ouncil will i>urcliase the veliicle for the .sum named 
in their specification at the exjuration of Ihc twelve 


Fi< ajTjfj iv ndi-O' dpo 
{Oiu mail iloes lU't .'i-c ciciytUinu.) 

— EURll'IDES. 


7'- //<- /■;./,'..,■ ./ TnE Surveyor. 

."^IK. I liiive r<:td with interest tin- letter >ii:iied 
" Water ■' whieli appeared in your issue of the 2!)th 
ultimo criticisiiii; tlie paper which was recently read 
hy Mr. Biniiie'Wfore the Institution of Water Enpi- 
neers on the C'ro-^- Hill service reservoir, which is 
heiiif; construettil for the Birkenhead C'orjjoration. 

As an old jtupil of the late Dr. G. F. Deacon. I aiu hi 
iiL'reenient with " Water " in admiring liis work, 
which was always hold and ori.<.'inal, and as resident 
engineer on this scheme I am glad to . Jiave the 
privilege of carrying out work designed hy Messrs. 
Sir Alex. Binnie, Son <S: Deacon, which is in .some 
re.spet'ts a> original as any of Dr. Deacon's designs. 

•Tiie criticisms are chiefly directed towards showiiiLr 
that the work could have been otherwise designed so 
as to l»e clieajier, and the writer of the letter affirms 
thai Jlr. Priestley \\as on solid ground when he Htaled 
in the discussion' which took place that the rooifing 
of su.-h reservoirs added bO per cent to the cost. 

Now. the actual faets are that fix- entire roof of the 
re.servoir, including the pillars which sup|jort it, cost than ffi per cent of the total exjienditure. 

It is obviou.s that the roof can he designed so as 
to add to the slahility of the side walls, as the over- 
turning moment when the reservoir is emiity. due to 
the Mnhankhient hehind the .*ide walls, can he taken 
throusli the roof, and it was brought out in the pajier 
how full advantage was taken of tin.s fact to economise 
with regard to the design of the side walls. 

I stated in the discussion that the economy was >o 
u'reat that the .iddition of the roof did not, in fact, 
incrca-e the cost of construction, and in making that I assumed that, owing to the large radius for 
a circular res<'rvoir of this capacity, it woidd not he 
safe to reK onjhe horizontal arch for anv increase in 

'* Water " further criticises the roof because of its 
ecclesiastical character, and a|»pears to suggest that 
appearance, and not economy, was considered in its 
desitrn. He gives, however, the co.-t of a flat rein- 
forced concrete roof to cover a circidar reservoir of 
>iniilar area as 1.. ing t21 .WW. As the actual roof cost 
considerably ]'•-- tiian that figure, it is diflTicuH to sec 
what advantage could have been obtained in adopting; 
that form of con?truction. and it must Imj borne in 
mind that the roof is an e^-ential ])art of the design of 
lb.- re-ervoir {or .iddiiiL- to the liability of the side 
w.ill-. a-» already explained. 

■ Wafer " further .-ugi/e.-ls that tlie reservoir could 
have lieen more de.'igncd if made circular in 
plan, and gives an c-timate of the cost of a circular 
re«iervoir of e<|ual cajiacity to establi.-b tiiis conten- 
tioii. Now. in onhr to c<niipare Die co.-t of the two 
deitigns. the same unit price,- bhould be adopted in 
eat-h In *'Very, liowever, tlie unit i»riue.- 
which " Wai.-r " adopts are far below wliat were 
•'* ' -phalt on tho floor, which he 

I' yard, actually co:t as.; the 

<■'-■' -. , . : at 22ii. and 2Jr.per cub. yard, 

hu9 utiuuiij co.-i ao.-. and 2lHs. ; similarly, the soiling 
aiKl wwini' and lb- draina-_'.\ for which "he put,- down 
•'j 'I . -pecfiv. ly, actuall.v cohI 

*'"' lii.- unit pric" .-, the cost 

ot .1 , lit at UilKMUl l.iit takilifc' 

the actual rates paid at Cross Hill, the £69.000 is 
increased to about CSa.OtW, as against C73,000, the cost 
of the actual reservoir, and it is therefore ajtparent 
that the structure as designed is more economical 
than a circular reservoir, 

■' Watvir " raises questions as to expansion joints in 
the walls, and also as to a.sphalting the whole of the 
roof. Mr. Binnie dealt with these jioints in the 
pajier. and eX.ohiiucd the arrangements desigiU'd for 
locaJising .and d- .iling with tempeiature <-racks if they 
occur in the walls, and the inovision made to locate 
temperature cracks at the groins, and how siuli 
cracks are dealt w ith so that there is no leakage. 

The figures of the costs of reserv-oir.s quoted by 
" Water " are interesting, but such coninarisons must 
only be ap)>lie(l when the local conditions are similar. 
Oni' of the main factors which enters into the (juestiou 
of the cost of these works is the facility for .getting 
materials to the site. 

I must apologise for taking np so much of your valu- 
able space witli this letter, but some of the points 
raised by " Water " appean;d likely to mislead if they 
lemained unchallenged. — Yours, \-c., 

K. V. B. Mil-: It. 

Ui'sideiii Engineer's Office. 
laiiiiarv .S. I!tl7, 

To the Editor of ThF, SURVEYOR. 

SiK, — The writer wishes to point out two jirinter's 
errors in his letter in your issue of the 29th ult.— viz., 
■'.1. F. Deacon" should he " G. F. Dc.-icon," and 
" slim roof " should be " thin roof." 

With regard to Mr. Dixon's tttcr, tlu' writer quite 
appreciates his irony. As I^Ir. Dixon suggests, the 
writer is an ob.s<uie individual, but he holds the view 
that .scientific institutions entirely fail in their pur- when they hecoiiie mutual admiration centres, 
and he has. accordingly, ventured lo put forward a 
few facts relating to reservoirs. 

Mr. Dixon rightly praises the description of the 
work, btii. he abstains from giving his rea.soned views 
on some of the fmula mental considerations. 

With reference to I\[r. Dixon's last j)aragra|ih, the 
writer instanced a recent estimate of ,111, !KK) ))cr 
1,<I00,(X)0 gallons for an open masonry reservoir on a 
hard rock .site, and Mr. Dixon is no doubt aware that 
the two largest masonry reservoirs in this country — 
Long Newton and Frankley — were constructed for 
very considerably less than that figure, although they 
arc not circular, and thev have dividing walls of the 
full depth. 

In view of this. 'Sh. Dixon's remark " that the cost 
of the covered reservoir (Jl2,625 per l,000,Of)0 gallons) 
justifies its adojition," is not quite clear. 

It is inferestiiiK to note that in "The American 
Civil Engineer's Pocket-book " (1911), p. 951, :\lr. Allen 
Hazen, one of the ablest living hydraulic engineers, 
gives the following: — 

Cost oi Covkreu M.tso.vay Kkskrtoiks, 

£ per iiiilliiiii 
Small reservous ami rpserv<)ira on ditticult kbIIods. 

sites :i,750 — 5,000 

Large reservoii'B ami reservoii-s on fiivour- 

able sites l,75i)— 2,0(0 

Conuiion figures arc ... . .. ... 2,500 — 3,000 

Cost of OritN Distbiihtini; Rkskrvoiks. 

Comninn cost ... ... ... .,, ... 025 — 2,500 

Common ligurc for a rnedium-fcized reser- 
voir on rf favourable site ... ,,, ,., 1,000 

As a recent example of a large o|)en concrete reser- 
voir with gravit>- retaining wall, we have the 
Rochester reservoir. com))leted in 1908 (consultant, the 
well-known engineer, F. P. Stearn.s); capacity, 
I20,0«X),<K)0 gallons: cost per 1,(JOO,000 gallons groEs 
eajiacity, Jl88<i. 'Ibis is an oblong reservoir, on a 
favourable site (KmiuKirunj .\Hv*. October 27. 1910), 

Briefly. Mr. Biimic ;ipp.-ars to contend as follows: • 

£ i>er inillioii 
Co.-^l of onliiimy nia.iKiiry covered reservoir... 5,000 

Cost ot Cro88 Hill rcgcrvoir 2,625 

Cost of masoury uncovered reseiToir ... 2,025 + 

The writer contends at follows: — 
Cost of or'inary maiioury covered reservoir, ulmut 2,450 
Oobt of ordinary masonry uncovered reservoir ,, 1,0.50 
(KW flt;uri-!i K.lato to tlie CruHv Uill itile in ll'13.) 

—Yours, &c.. 


.laiiuarv l.'i. 1917. 

January 19, lOi: 




To the Editor of The Sdrvevor. 

yiR. — My attention lias been attracted by youi 
article on tlie metric system in your issue of the 12tli 
inst. As pointed out l)y me in your issue dated 
Octoliei- 13, 191C, p. 33(1, we already possess a native 
metric systiin and decimal coinage, nnd need no 
other. No otlier system, indeed, can ever ))e an 

Our teaoliin.ii ot Britisii weislits and measures and 
iiuretK-y is had. We mix u)) the units, and produce 
an artificial and unneccsary <'ontu.sion. Until this i- 
remedied the system will always present undue difli- 
culty to students. T^nfortiuiately. national education 
is largely controlled hy decinuU or metric advocates, 
and in their enthusiasm they cannot think in aiiy- 
^ thing hut tens, mucli in the same manner that a 
<ohhler thinks there is " nothing like leather." 

There is nothing to pieveiit. in wholesale and 
loreiKU trade, in all calculations and paper checks, 
and in accounts, tlu> immediate use of — 

(fi) Tons, sacks, and decimals of sacks. 

(/)) Metres of 1^') y:ii'tt?, and decimals of metres. 

('■) Pounds .sterling, florins, and deciuials of florins. 

It i*; unnecessary to disturb any per.son emiiloyinj? 
p<umds avoirduj)ois, shillings, ])ennies, and farthings, 
or yards, feet and inches. There is no system so 
democratic as the British, because it helps ccpially 
the poor with the rich, the inanual with the brain 
worker, retail with wliolcsale trade, the cvistomer with 
"the dealer, decimal as well as vulgar fractions. 

.\s regards our coinage being decimal, we can con- 
sider the florin as divided into KM) cents of .ucoimt 
(not coined). Then— 

The shilling = 50 cents. 

The sixpenny-piece = 20 cents. 

The threepenny-bit = 124 cents. 

•Vnd the threepenny-bit (the practical limit in wIkjIc- 
-ale trade, if cpiotations are made by the British 
kilogram of 22-1 lb.) is, ■f''>r tlie practical convenience 
of retailers, the proletariat, and the middle class con- 
sumed, subdivided into 3 j)enuies, or 12 farthings, 
instead of a very awkward and uniiractical 12.1 i)arts. 
A coined cent in our currency would be an incum- 
brance and hindrance. — Yours, &c., 

E. \. \V. PniLMPS, M.INST. O.K. 

January 12. 1917. 






.V. Divisional Court oi the King's, Beiu-h. consisting 
of the Lord Chief Justice and Justices Ridky and 
I.u.-^h, was on Monday asked to decide whether or not 
a member of a municipal body is entitled to exercise 
his right to inspect ajfd make copies of documents 
leJating to matters of local administration with the 
view presumably of assist iiii.' a ratepayer in fios'-'ible 
liti'-Mtion with the inuuicijial authority. The action 
was brought by ^Uderman Wootlward, of the Hani))- 
-tead Borough Council, and the matter arose out of 
a closing order made in res)>ect of 83 Palmcrston-road, 
owned by a Mr. Arlidge. Air. .Woodward had taken 
iif) the position that he might properly assist Mr. 
.\rlidge. The question was, however, whether in so 
doing he had not so far identified himself with Mr. 
Arlidge's case as to make it undesirable that docu- 
ments such as tho.-;e referred to should be disclosed 
to him, the probability being that they would be used 
hy and on l)ehalf of Mr. .\rlidge in his pending liti- 
-ration with the council. 

-Mr. !Macmorran, k.c. and Mr. Sydney G. Turner 
appeared for the borough, council, and Mr. Clavell 
Salter, k.c. and Mr. Brooke-Little for Mr. Woodward. 

The Lord Chief Justice, in giving judgment, said 
tlio question involved was only a question of fact. 
J'rlnid faric, Mr. Woodward had the common law right 
to the i)roductiou of the document*. Itwas contended, 
however, that Mr. Woodward required to sec the 
dociuneuts for the purpose of assisting Mr. Arlidge 
in litigation with the borough council. On the facts 
he had no hesitation in coming; to the conclusion that 
Mr. Woodward's proceedings in the matter were not 
dictated solely i>y the public interest. Lu these cir- 
<iimstanccv the C<jurt oucht to refuse to exercise it.s, 
discretion in favour of !Mr. Woodward b>' ordering 
the council to produce the documents. The rule would 
he dischnrged. Justices Kidley and J-ush agreed. 

[In the Kope of making: these notes as practically 
useful as possible the writer invites readers to - 
favour him with communications thereon from time 
to time. They might be constructively critical, or 
helpfully supplementary, mig^t indi<.atc new points 
upon which information is desired, or might merely 
convey information, Connmunications will reach 
the writer if addressed "Irish Notes." 14 Bride-lanc, 
Fleet-street, E.G.] _^_____ 

-Municipal and roiinty < iigiiieeis in 
Institution lielaiul are at a great ilisadvantagc 
Meetings. ms (Dinpaied with their fellow »<iigi- 
neev>. in England and Scotland, owing 
to the f<w t)pp(irtiinities attonled in the connlry for " 
visiting works in progress and for discussing subjoots 
dealing specially with municipal and {■oiiniy work. 
Some twenty years ago the meetings of llie Irish branch 
of the Institution of .Municipal and County KngiiKfi> 
we)e well attended both by English and Iri-^ii members, 
and very successful meetings were held at Dublin, 
Belfast, Cork, and Derry, but after the passing of the 
Local Governnienl Act in 1^99 a iminbcr of county 
suni-yors retired, and others became so engrossed in 
work, owing to the incieased duties thrown on thciiir 
thai it was fi>und difficult to induce members to prc- 
jiare ])apers for discussion or to attend meetings. In 
reciiit years a change has occurred in the Irish secre- 
taryship, and Mr. Sellars, town surveyor of Dundalk, 
the new secretai-y, seems to have doiu' his best to 
])romo|e meeting-^; but- the meetings held have Ixt-ii 
sparsely attended, and it is evident that givater iii- 
ducenieiits must be offered to members, both in the 
way of opportunities for inspecting iin])ortant works 
in' j)rogress and in the preparation of interesting 
papers, in order to (ibtain a good atlxMidani-i' at 

* i!- * * 

One great drawback to tlie holding of district meet- 
ings in Ireland is the long distances many members 
would have to travel to the town' s<^lecte«.l for a meet- 
ing and the feeling that it would not pay to trav«-l a 
long distance for a one-day nu^eting. Sot long ago 
two road congresses hold in Dublin in succ<>ssivo years 
]jroved veiy j)opulai', and were well attendt'd both by 
Iiish and English surveyors, as well as by county and 
district councillors and the geneial ])ublic. but theso 
congresses, of c<>urs<*, only dealt with subjects j)ar- 
licularly connected with the construction and main- 
tenance of roads and the ti-affic conveyed over them. 
It is to be regretted that, after the second of these 
iipngr«-sses, steps were not taken to hold an anniuil 
congress dealing not oidy with roads, but also with 
the many other technical subjects with which iiiuiii- 
ci|)al and county engineers are concerned. If the 
Roads Congress Committee, which the writer believes 
is still in existence, the County Snrveyois .\ssoci-ition 
of Ireland, and the Irish District branch of the Insti- 
tution of Municipal and County Engine<-rs would co- 
o|)erato and arrange f(U- the holding of, say, a thn<e- 
days' congress at some imj)ortant centre in Ireland 
each year f<u- the purpose of discussing matters relating 
to county and municii)al work, and for visiting works 
of interest, it would undoubte<lly i)rove vei-y success- 
ful. Possibly the Institution of Civil Enginwrs of 
Iieland. and other engineering societies, might bo 
induced to take part in the congre*<s, and this would 
add still further to its success. A <-ongress of this 
kind would have it in its power to help materially 
in the advaiiceiiuMil find prosi)erity of the count n. 
* * * * 

There is in parts of Irehind a great 
Apathetic lack of initiative and a disposition 
Councils. on the i)ait of the general public to 
ht things alone inlhe matter of town 
iniprovenients. water supply, sanitation, and so forth. 
Tlio result is that municipal work in many of the 
smaller towns i-, in a vci-y backwaid state, and somo 
of tho towns, instead of in<reasing iu pros])crity from 
year to year, show signs of further de< ay with a 
declining population. -Ml these towns have then town 
surveyor.s, and the rural di^lrict councils have usually 
their own a|)poiiUed oiigiiu-er or surveyor, but. owing 
to the apatliy of many of these councils, ihes.- men 
can do littlo to improve the condition of their towns 
ami district.s. Tile holding of a large congress 
annually, however, iu central places in tlio country, 
and the discussion of matters relating io i-oad luaiii- 
teiiance, water su)iply. sauit«ry work, and cognate 



January 19, 1917. 

Mibjt^t> WKuKl .-iiUiiit attention, and tlic pioteediiigs 
wuiild m« di>ubt be fully report*^ in the public Press. 
Local couiuilh>rs and other visitors could also be 
invited to take part in the i>roieedings. and the result 
would be a desire on the part of many of tliose taking 
part in the congn'>s. and reading the papers dis- 
cussed, to try and advance some of the reforms and 
improvtHl metliuds advo«at<>d in tiieir own district. 
^ « * * 

rile present time is perhaps not 

k Suggested Mutable for holding a congress, but 
Congress. it s<vms an excellent time to discuss 
the practicability of liolding such a 
congress annually, and of appointing a committee to 
go fully into the question, and if the scheme is found 
feasible to draw up a report and preliminary pro- 
gramme. There should be no difficulty in calling a 
meeting to consider tlie proposal if tlio president of 
the last road congivss. the chairman and secretary of 
the Irish District of Municipal and County Engineers, 
and the secretarj- of the County Surveyors' Associa- 
tion of Ireland would take u]) the matter. If it should 
be decided to hold a congress on the lines suggested, 
it should be quite possible to arrange that a meet- 
ing of the Irish District of the Institution of Muni- 
cipal and County Engineers should constitute the first 
day's priK-et-dings. At this meeting the more technical 
papers dealing with the work of municipal and county 
engineers could be discussed, while at the congress 
proper on the succeeding days pajx-rs of a more general 
and popular character could be dealt with. 
* ♦ * * 

The assembling in congi^ess of a large number of 
Irish c-ouncillors and surveyors, as well as many 
members of the general jmblic in. Ireland, besides 
visitors from England and Scotland, for the purpose 
of discussing the best means of improving their high- 
ways, as well as their water supplies, the sanitary 
condition of their towns and villages, and similar 
subjects, would assuredly be followed bj' good results. 
Will some<;>ne start the jiroject? 

out the rear portion of closets beliind tlie riser of the 
soat, and then to sprinkle- the ehloride of lime. The 
appointment of this native on this work lias niininiised 
tlie filth nuisaiu'e of that portion of the closet that is 
not seen by the occupier. 

While not deprecating the use of disinfectants, I 
am of the opinion that the best method of fighting 
the fly nuisance is on the following lines: — 

{a) The jiroper conserving of refuse in fly and rain 
proof receptacles. 

(h) The frequent removal of refuse at least once in 
seven dpys. 

('■) The pavinf: of stables and the provision of fly 
and rain proof iiiumire middens. 

((/) The enforcing of the council's sanitary regula- 
tions, with a view to ensuring a high standard of 


We propose to commence next week the publication 
of a "Scottish Notes" column. 


By C. E. Hall, 
Chief Sanitary Inspector to the Biilawayo Municipality.' 

In dealinL' with this nuisajice, while it is pos.sible 
for the council, with the cxj-operation of the residents, 
greatly to minimise it, I submit that the total elimi- 
nation of the nuisance in Bulawayo is impossible. 
This will readily be understood when it i.s remembered 
that there are within the municipal area 2,300 night- 
Boil pails and numljers of receptacles con.serving dry^ 
and liquid refu.-«. These are essential to a town not 
having a drainage sy>tem. but at the same time attract 
flies and provide a feeding ground for them. 

The installation of a drainage system would do much 
for It^tt'T -HTiitary conditions in this town. 

T' xDeriinented with l>orax as a sul)- 

hti' '.f lime wlien disinfecting refuse 

bii!- I Ixen scavenged, and I carefully 

watched ili.: results. The produced on the 
f>remi!«»M under observation included refuse from, a 
fi.-l fruit and vegetable .stores, hotels, 

re- 'I tea-rooms, and consequently of such 

a < to provide an ideal bre<»ding and feed- 

inn ground U.r flie.-. It was found that the borax did 
not compare with chloride of lime for general 

effi' ■ 1 it was di.'wontinued, and the use of 

<ir •• again instituted. 

'I -or the failure of borax is that the de- 

pii- "uly dihinfect a refuse bin at the time 

it iptied, and the lx>rax acts only on the 

fM. ,.,...... ,.i.i. .'r-.-qnently the refuw 

th • '1. Had the occn- 

pi. ■ ',n- reftise each time 

tl:e nfii.-c hj.-. d'-po.-ited, the- rc^iult miglit have Ix-en 

Ti . ..... ,j ,.i,i/.ri,i. -.. lime has this advantage over 

Ik.t r applicatif»n .chlorine gas is 

lil" throng}] the refuse deposited, 

di- lie refuse, and at 

th. iller." 

.\ .. ... duty i.s to clean 

' Eitract from anniul report. 



Tlie Narberth, Carinarthenshiie, Urliaii District 
Council considered at their last meeting the resigna- 
tion by Mr. W. G. Mathias of the post of surveyor. 
On being asked for his reasons for tendering his resig- 
nation (the Wehldiian reports) Mr. Mathias replied that 
they were three in number— viz. : (1) That the council 
did not advance him the necessary money to pay 
wages, He had to run over the town to borrow 
money with which to pay the wages. (2) The salary 
he received for doing all the work pertaining to the 
office of surveyor amounted to only 4d. a day, and 
there was a good bit of work to lie done. (3) There 
was more troiil)le in carrying out the w-ork of dealing 
wiUi U miles of streets than in dealing witl) .101 miles 
of j-oads in the rural district. 

The clerk asked if the surveyor would let them 
know how many hours he worked for the council 
during the year as surveyor ? 

The surveyor replied he did not have his books 
there and could not tell tlieni. He asked for an in- 
crease of wages when he started work for the council, 
and he was promised definitely that when the Housing 
and Town Planning survey was completed the matter 
would be considered, but nothing had been done. 

Mr. Eynon said the appointments of sanitary in- 
spector and surveyor were not separate appointments. 

-Mr. Henry Lewis said the difficulty connected with 
•Mr. W. G. Mathias' first reason for resigning could 
easily be got over liy getting the necessary cheques 
signed at the erul of each meeting. 

The clerk agreed that that could l>e done, and Mr. 
Lewis' suggestion w-as adopted. 

The chairman then asked the surveyor wliat he had 
to say with regard to the wages question. 

The surveyor replied that the council could afford 
to give him something more, as there was a lot of 
work and worry connected w^itli the office. 

The surveyor was asked tff withdraw while th« 
council considered the salary question in juivate, and 
on his return the chairman said the council had in- 
structed him to ask him (the surveyor) to allow the 
wage question to stand over until after the war, when 
it would be duly considered. The council would deal 
honourably with him, and would no doubt accede to 
hia request. 

The surveyor replied that everything had gone up 
in price. He would agree to carry on the work until 
the end of the financial year, and he asked to be 
allowed a month to consider what they had asked hiui 
to do. 

Mr. T. Williams (to the surveyor): Say you will 
drop tlie wage (piestion until after th© war. 

The surveyor replied that everything had gone up. 

Mr. Eynon said that everything had gone up for the 
rate [layers too. 

The .surveyor'.^ request to lie allowed a month to 
consider the conrnil's suggestion was acceded to. 

An Idle Refuse Destructor. — At the last meeting of 
East (irinstcad I'lban District Council, tho sun'eyor, 
Mr. W. E. Wool lam, reported that, in consequence 
of his men being railed up for military servic^^, he 
had ix^'n r<'!uf:taiilly compelle<l t^-mpoiarily to shut 
down th<' refuM- distructor, but the collection of house 
and trade refuse would go on as usual. It was hoped 
that liousehold<Ms would reduce the Quantities of 
refuse as much as possible, and utilise all they could 
on their own gardens, and burn as much as was con- 
Miiiiable of the rest. 

Jam ARV lil, 1!J17. 



Municipal Worl( in Progress and Projected. 

The Editor invites the co-operation of Sorveyok readers with a view to makino the information given under this 

head as complete and accurate as possible. 

The following are among the more important pro- 
jected works of which particulars have reached us 
during the present week. Other reports will be found 
on our " Local Government Board Inquiries " page. 


Birmingham T.C. — Consideration is being given to 
the qiie.--tion of providing additional accoinniodation 
lor the iieatiiient of tuberculosis. 

Burnley T.C. — The Carnegie Trust have offered a 
trrant of £15,(1W towards a central public library, the 
l.uildins of which, it i^ suggested, should be deferred 
till after the war. 

Derbyshire C.C. — The Bridges and Highways Com- 
iiiitleo have l)een authori.'^ed to carry out works at the 
Eckington depot, at a cost not exceeding £200. 

Hawick T.C. — The town council are seeking for 
.■sanction to a loan for the extension of the Anderson 

Leeds T.C. — It is proposed to adapt Fairfield House, 
Ariidey, as a training home for uientjilly defective 

Surrey C.C.^Consideration has been given to 
lencwed representations of the Richmond Town 
Council as to the inadequate and dangerous condition 
of l?i(limond Bridge, but the county council have 
decided not to move further in the matter during the 


Burry Port U.D.C. — The council are applying to 
the (ioveniiiieiit for a grant of 20 per cent towards the 
cost of a t<)wn-])laiuiing scheme. ^ 

Camberwell B.C. — In view of the retirement in 
April of Mr. .1. E. Burkmer, manager of the borough 
council's housing estates, it has been agreed to place 
the management of the properties in future, under the 
control of the borough treasurer. The repairs to pro- 
perties will in future be under the control of the 
borough engineer, and executed through his depart- 

Carshalton U.D.C. — The Local Government Board 
liave asked the council to supply details of the pro- 
jiosed housing scheme, which is estimated to co.'^t 

Dumbarton T.C. — A committee has been appointed 
to prepare a housing scheme to be put into operation 
when the time is opportune. 

Dundee T.C. — It was announced last week that a 
|)ri>p(>sition oil housing would be submitted to the town 
counciJ at an <'arly daU\ 

Wrexham R.D.C.^The engineer reported that he 
had prepared estimates of several housing schemes 
which it is intended to carry out after the war. The 
e.-timates are as follows:^ To complete scheme No. 1 
at Rhos by tlie erection of forty-three houses, streets, 
£12,600; scheme No. 2, 100 "houses at Broughtoii 
£.'50,000; .scheme No. 3, sixty at Cefn, £18,000; 
scheme No. 4, sixty houses at Rhos, £18,000; total, 
£78,600. The engineer was instructed to proceed with 
the preliminary work of preparing plans and detailed 
estimates with a view to the council being in a posi- 
tion to carry out the s<-henies after the conclusion of 
the war, and also to obtain particulars of suitable 
building sites in the selected areas. 


Ashton-under-Lyne T.C. TIk- Tramways Com- 

mitte*? have agreed to purchase an electric tower 

Barking U.D.C. — .\ small covered motor car is to 
hv puicli.iscd for the use of the electricity department. 

Bournemouth T.C— The Local Government Board 
have i-cfuM'd to sanction at the present time an appli- 
cation by tin- town council for a loan of £1,200 for 
the purchase of' a motor fire engine. 

Clevedon U.D.C. — The council aie consid<'iii)g th<> 
piir(ha>-c of a motor fire «>ngine. 

Pontefract T.C— The purchase of a .'l-ton motoi- 
lorry is under consideration. 

Sheffield T.C — The corporation are recommended 

by the Health Committee to purchase five electric 
vehicles for refuse collection. 

Surrey C.C. — The War Agricultural Committee 
have been authorised to purchase motor tractors and 
implements to let to fanners, at a cost not exceed- 
ing £2,t)00. 


Bognor U.D.C. — It was reported that there were 
47.'5 houses not provided with proper dustbins, and the 
council decided to require the owners or occupiers to 
provide these within twenty-eight' days from the 
senice of the notice. 


Ballymoney R.D.C. — It has been agreed to increase 
the Local Government Board' statutoiy limit of road 
expenditure by £800 annually, and a proposition was 
also passed adopting direct labour in the rural district. 

Barnstaple R.D.C — The surveyor of highways, Jlr. 
A. A. Richards, has been asked to report upon the 
coast road between AVoolacombe and Moi-tehoe, which 
is said to be in danger of slipping into the sea. 

Bideford R.D.C. — It has been agreed to pay con- 
tractors for manual labour, not included in their con- 
tracts, at the rate of 3s. per day (instead of 2s. 6d.), 
and for a man working with a horse 7s. per day. Some 
suri^rise was expressed at the receipt of a tender for 
road work from a man who had obtained conditional 
exemption under the Jlilitary Service Act as a fann 
bailiff. Another tender was accepted. In accepting 
the other tenders, regard was paid to the age and 
military classification of the contractors, as it was felt 
that would have some bearing upon their likelihood 
of being able to remain to carry out the work. 

Cheriton U.D.C. — The council have referred to the 
Highways Committee a proposal bj' the Road Board, 
on behalf of the War Department, to widen Church- 
road West to 24 ft., constructing a pavement, fencing, 
and laying a sewer, at an estimated cost of £1,000, 
the board to cari-y out the scheme with their own 
labour. The Road Board, it was stated, would be 
prepared to consider an application for a loan for the 
council's contribution. 

Chippenham T.C. — The borough sui-veyor, Mr. A. E. 
Adams, has bc^n authorised to notify householders 
to remove snow from their forecourts, and to warn 
them that if they refused they would be reported to 
the town council. 

Colchester T.C— The Sub-Committee of the Roads 
and Drainage Committee reported that they had pur- 
chased a horse for £94. 

Cornwall C.C. — The county sui-veyor, Jlr. L. D. 
Thompson, has submitted an estimate of .£-59,811 for 
the financial year 1917-18. In this sum is includi-d 
t800 for tar-spraying and grouting. It was reporte<i 
that Gemian prisoners would be available for quarry- 
ing and road work. 

Falmouth T.C. — .\ letter has been received from the 
Local Government Board setting out amendments 
required in respwt of the Swan Pool improvement 
scheme. The borough surveyor, ilr. H. E. Tresidder, 
stated that these amendments would cost about 
£2,000. It was agreed that inquiries should be made 
as to borrowing money to cany out the corporation 

Gillingham (Kent) U.D.C. — Plans and estimates are 
being prepared of the proposed widening of Park-road, 
but it is not proposed to carry out the work till after 
the war. 

Hailsham R.D.C. — \t\ intimation has been receiv^tl 
of the intention of the Road Board to contribute £720 
towards the repair of tJie highways damaged by 
military trallic. 

Surbiton U.D.C — The council have been informal 
of the decision of the County Highways Committee to 
contribute one-third of the cost of carn'ing out an 
i.iiiprovement in the Brighton main road where certain 
premises cause the footway to project into the carriage- 

Southmolton R.D.C— It was reported by Mr. W. S. 
Gardner, one of the highway surveyors, that he 



.Tantarv lit. 1917. 

i«H-ontlv engagi^i two mon whose ratt- of pay was not 
arrang»>d. Thoy l\.-ul now ?^nt in hills, aiul wanU>d 
to be paid 4*. *id. a liay. Both weie gt>od men. Suit- 
able men roiild not be got for less in his district. 
becaus*' superior pay was obtainable for work in tlie 
woods. Mr. Jones : Fanners can't oomiiete with K. (kl. 
a day. It was agreed to pay the bills. 


Cillingham (Kent) U.D.C. -It lla^ biMi docid.d to 
prepare plans and estimates for a sewerage scheme in 
Pier-road, wiiich. it i^ -uggesU'd, rould be put in hand 
after the wnv. 

Molywell R.D.C.TIh- Holywtll>e<tor has In-i-n 
instrurte<l to |«r.|>an' a report on the eff<"rt upon the 
rural di>trict, from a sanitary standpoint, of the 
stoppage i>f the flow of SI. Winefrides Well. It wris 
stated that eventually the stream down the valley 
would Ix-ionie dry, and it was v«ry important, in tlie 
int»n-is of iMiblii- litalth, that precautions should be- 

Nuneaton T.C.-riie town touncil are asking the 
Lo<al (iovernim-nt lioard for sanction to a loan for 
conipK-ting the convi-rsion of the contact beds at Harts- 
hill into filters. A proposal was also Mibmitled to 
a-k for sanction to a loan of io.lHMl f,.i- the M>\verage 
of the (."oton-road di-tiict, but it was withdrawn witli 
the explanation that Captain F. C. Cook (borough 
eugine*«r) when home on furlough thought it would bo 
1^-st to )"i>ipon»- the work for various reasons. 

Woking U.O.C.— Mr. d. Midgley Taylor submitted 
a i<')>orl to tiio Drainag«- and Fann •C'onimittw on the 
AVokinj; s.-wage disposal srh<'ine. He enclosed a 
<«ilificato for lo21 in favour of ilessrs. Hardy \ Co.. 
which left api)roximately K' per cent retention on tiie 
value of works oxevuted. The amount )neviously j'aid 
to the contractor was £12,8(X>. Mr. Ta.\i<>r stated that 
the work authorise'l by the Ministn- of Munitions was 
coinplet<-iI. ixcept tile erection of the lime mixers, air 
compressor, sludge jmnips, and new presses. Tlu' 
sludge pumps had been delivered, and the manul^rclu^«^ 
of ih<- ri'iiianiing ma"-liiiu-ry was well in hand. Messrs. 
.loJinMin. who bad to erect the machinery, informed 
him that. «'ven if all tiie niachinen- were deliv<'r4«l. 
thon- was little prospect of their being allowed to 
s»-nd an erector to Woking for some lime. 


Colchester T.C. '"n the ]pivstnlali"ll of tin- Kle<- 
Iricity Coiuniitt«*s report. .4klerman Barritt said the 
i-onditious under whiih current was now Ix-ing geni'- 
iat«-d and distribute<l were much more serious, and 
might Itei'fime critical. He attribulc(l this to tlio 
rhiivas.' Ill tin- staff, and remarked that they might 
IiaM- temporarily t*> suspend tiie supply of current. 
.^Il•. Wright sugges.|ed that tlie (XJiumittee might send 
out a warning l<» tin- inliabitants to discontinue I ho 
nst! i.f high-voltage lamps, and iist^- those of lowfi 

Denby and Cumberworth U.D.C— A scheiuo is 

beiiiy I •■ii-id. f..i ill.. iiii|iiii\ement of the water 


Hebburn U.D.C. Ilie d' puly suneyor has leeeivi.l 
in>iiii< tioiis (.. prepare «n »-!»tinial<> of the c<isl of 
liKiitiiiK till- ti>«n by gas. — 

Louth T.C. — Tile iinpro\<-nieiit of iju- water siipj>ly 
ban U-^-ri referred to a siib committee for consideration 
and repoin. 

Newcastle (Co. Limerick) R.D.C.— Tlie lender of tlu- 
N.w.asil. \V. -I Lie. I II. Light CoHipaiiy has l>e«ii 
iir.-,pt,^\ (,,, ,)„. liniiijiijr ,,f (h,. („«.„ hy ele«tricity. 

Newton Abbot U.D.C- As the result of complaints 
■'' I ligliling tlie <>>uncil have d(.-<ided 

•I'.i^ III i|||. sanie, way as ihe main 
It was s|!it<d tliat one laiii]i at 
ga-' as iiiiirh light as lwelv«- lamps at Newton 
Ablet, and that iln-re was no eeononiy in iiaving tiio 
'p. !h dark H-the .iin.-nf «a« Wing coiiNinnefljust 

■■ s:i|j|, . 

8t. Andrew* T.C- rrov..s( Aikman. reporting on 
th.- c<n.t ..f the waterworks, .said that .Mr. James 
Wat-M-n Hffidf^rd (nri .^t-d that lie had acpiaint- 
'^' I r ;,i,d. Scotland, and 

' It St. Andrews liad 

- 1 'lis than aiiv other 

!•'*«■ '"■ »'"•« ' 'ire for tlie water- 

works at Camero., , .j;]. riie amount 

authorised to l,e borpwe-l v at 1:11.'J.J0. It wa» agreed 
ihat the amount of tho oxc«» expenditure Hhould b« 


borrowed under the Burgh Police Acts, although this 
would entail repayment in a shorter period than if 
borrowed under the i>owers of the Provisional Orders. 

Wellington R.D.C.— Tho council are asking tor a 
Local (iovermiuni Hoard inquiry into the question of 
the Hadley water suiiply. The cost of the supply has 
been guaranteed hitherto by a number of residents who 
iKiw s,H^>k to be relieved of this responsibility. 

Wolverhampton T.C. — It is projiosed to effect an 
cMeiision of tile el<itricity main, at an estimated cost 
of 11.-)!. 


Ashton-under-Lyne T.C— A Bill will be prepanxl 
foK the luxt r.irlKinu nt;uy session for the purchase of 
the Oldliam. Aslitoii and Hyde Electric Tramway Com- 
pany, anil also to construct connecting traiii lines. 

Camberwell B.C.— <^wing to the ditTiculty of obtain- 
ing grave-digg» 1 s, the Public Service Committwi are 
i'ligaging for I lie work ex-cavators from the btnough 
engineer's dej>arlment at 9d. per liour. At tho same 
time, it iias been decided to pay the regular grave- 
diggers at the same rate, with time and a-half for all 
overtime work«(l, including Saturday afternoon. 

Morpeth T.C— Heference was made at the last meet- 
ing lo the furtlier erosion of the river banks at the 
entrance to tlui Castle Wood, and it was agreed that 
the borough surveyor, Mr. J. Davison, should inspect 
tlie banks and submit a detaile<l report, as to the best 
means to prevent tile furtlier erosion, together with 
an estimate of tiio cost. 

Portsmouth T.C. — A proposition for the enlarge- 
ment of the town boundaries has been referred to the 
Finance Commit t<;<-. Tlie suggestion is to extend the 
boundaries as far as Purbrook on tho north, Bed- 
liamploii f>u the east, and Portehester on the west, and 
develop on garden city lines. 


The Editor invites the co-operation of Bcrvbtob readeri 
with a view to making the information given under this 
head at complete and accurate- a» possible. 

Boston T.C. LI. 001) for refus<.'.-crushing plant. 
Heywood T.C. f.iMo for the Botany sewage works. 
Nuneaton T.C- CI, .'100 for a water-soft*ning plant, 

aii'l LI.L'ixi foi new distributing mains. 
Sheffield T.C. '-s-jso f,,r n.w ebctricity ).laiil. 


•2^'>. Stoke-on-Trent. For the purchase of a 
iiMiti'i file . iigiiu' and equiimieni (Mr. 

P. M. ("r..sthwaite) , ... ' — 

Women and Road Work. — Smaller barrows and 
ii'jliter liiooiii- Ml., to be provided by the GtiiklfonI 
Coiiiicil for woiinii scavenger."'. 

" Safety First " Suggestions. — At tlio first meeting 
ol the London Safety " Council, held on 
Monday at Cuxtoii Hali, We.stminstcr, eonsidcration 
was linen to the following. ainonK other matters: A 
i'oloiir sehcnic for street luini)s. and coloured lighting 
for .«tre<'t refuse.'' and oli.-triictions ; the production of 
an effective hmiiiioiis paint, and more effective 
\\liitening mixture for kerbs. &c. ; tiie standardising 
of the rule <d the road for both vehicles and pedc*:- 
trians. ,so that both should keep to tlie left; the isstie 
of a wliite .iniiiet [■■r u-e at iiiglit-tiiiie l)y pedcstriant;. 

Control of Agricultural Machinery. — An agricultural 

iiiaeliiiiery braneli lias been set up in conjunction with 
the Board of ALrm ulliirc an<l Hie Food Controller lo 
dc.'il with the control of tiie iiianiifnctiire of agricul- 
tural iiiadiinery .nul iiiiideiiieiits. It is intended lo 
ebif.s tlie nianufarture of all such machinery and 
iiiiplenients as nmiiitioiis work. An advisory com- 
mittee of n'pie.senlatives of the agricultural machinery 
'trade, to advise the iiraiuh generally, has been estab- 
li.slied. and the following gentlemen have consented 
to .serve: Mcpsrs. .\. Bornomann (Rueton. Proctor fi 
Co.. Limited. Lincoln): R. H. Fowler (I. Fowler & 
Co.. Lcedp). W. Harrison (Harrison. Macgregor A- 
Co.. Leigli); f. Howard (G. & F. Howard. Bedford); 
E. C. RanMuiie (Ransomes, Sim.- & Jefferics, Ipswich); 
.1. Segar (B. Ilornsljy fc Sons, Limited, Grantham): 
with representative- of the Ministry of Munitions, tiio 
Board of Agriculture, and the Food Controller, 

.Taniahv 1;i. 1017 




Mr. J. W. Doughty, chief inspector of Lincoln water- 
works, has been appointed to a similar position under 
the. Doncaster Corporation. 

Mr. Rotert Grieves, engineer and surveyor to the 
Blyth Urban District Council, lias resigned after 
twenty-threo years' service. He intcnd.s to retire into 
private life. 

Mr. J. B. L. Meek, city surveyor's dcpartuieiit. 
^[a^chester, ha.s been transferred from tlie class of 
associate member to that of member of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers. 

Gunner R. H. Oxtoby, .son of the borough engineer 
of Camberwell, Mr. W. Oxtoby, m.inst.c.e., has been 
awarded the D.C.]\I. for distinguished conduct in the 
field, and tlio i)orough council have conveyed their 
heartiest congratulations to father and son. 

Lieutenant A. W. Edmett, Royal West. Kcnts, 
assistant surveyor to )!u^ Slough Urban District 
Council, who was wounded in the first advaTice on the 
.Sonune, and is .still an inmate of Guy's Hospital, i.s 
;ei)Orted to be making voiy satisfactory progress. 

Captain M. E. Fitzgerald, highway surveyor to flie 
Warmley Rural District Council, has been warmly 
<-ongratulat«;f by the council upon having l>een men- 
tioned in Sir Douglas Haig's dispatch. The officers 
of the urban cwHwil associated themselves with the 
resolution passed by the members., 

:Mr. Edward Wjiitwell, the new president of (lie 
Institution of Municipal Engineers, has been a member 
of that body since its inception, and during the past 
four years has bet^n a vicc-iuesideut. He is the author 
of several papers dealing with mechanical and civil 
«-nginc>ering matters, and last year was awarded the 
president's prize of the institution for the best contri- 
initiou during the year. Educated at public and 
private schools, and at tin-. L'nivcrsity College, Bristol, 
ho supplemented his pupilage and training by serving 
as an assistant at Dalton-in-Furness, whence he became 
engineer to the Freesall Urban District Council. .\t 
that time he was the youngest official holding a chief 
appointment. After four years he was (-lectfd froni 
120 ajjplicants to be chief engineer <o tlio Kingswood 
(Bristol) Urban District Council, and two years latci- 
was the successful api)licant for the position of engi- 
neer to the Abersychan Urban District Council, a ))ost 
for which 137 other ajiplicants applied, and a position 
which ho has now held for neajdy eight years. Among 
his many works mention should be made of tho 
Kucrc'ssful design of some of the most nuKlern public 
buildings, including swimming baths; one o{ the latter 
IS considei'ed to be the finest in the soutlieni counties, 
and in it, by special request, he gave a display of tho 
art of nafatiiui on the occasion of the official opening. 
He is an ardent housing refoniier, and has been 
lesponsible for tlie creation of some very extensive 
si-hemes, one of which he outlined on the occasion of 
the last annual meeting, and for which ho has received, 
not only the eulogies of his authority, but of tlu- muni- 
cipal world in general — even the nw-sl sceptical must 
acknowledge the gemus that juoduced a scheme which 
inclvuled allotments, open spaces, recreation grounds, 
gas, wafer, and baths for a weekly rent of Is. !»d. lo 
•")'•. bd., and which shows a profit, of C2-jl) on a year's 
working. Mr. Wlutwell is also responsible for the 
design and erection of ojk; of tho earliest f«-rro-concret<i 
road bridges in South Wales, and at, the present 
moment is the responsiblo engineer for a very large 
'ounty scheme, including the design and erection of 
thre<' large span bridges an<l some miles of highway. 
-Mr. WhitweU's forte lies in mechanical enginwring. 
He has made a special study of int<'rnal combustion 
• nguies, and is i-esponsible for more than one useful 
luiprovement, and some jiatents. Only a short, time 
before the war he prepared an excellent treatise on tlxi 
" Possibilities of Mechanical TracTion," a copy of which 
was sui)pli«l to the Local Government Hoard at their 
own reqiK-st,. As was to bo expected, he offered Jiis 
services to his country immediately at the outbreak of 
war, and it was not long Ix'fore liis abilities were 
recognised, and he was chosen U> undertake a special 
duty. A portrait of Mr. Whitwell appears in flu- fonti 
of an inset to this issue. 


Mr. .Jaiue.-, Harwood, who for many vear>> previous 
to his retirement was borough surveyor of Launeesf,,|,, 
died week, we regret to state. 

County Road Surveyors' War Bonuses.— On Satur- 
day last the Eastern Highways Connnittee of the 
Norfolk County Council had before them an applica- 
tion of the district road surveyors for a war bonus. 
The surveyors based their application on the increase 
in travelling expenses and the increased cost of 
living, and claimed that the effects of the war were 
more keenly felt by them than by any other officials 
in the service of the county council. They pointed out 
that out of their salaries they had to find the means 
of locomotion and Ijear the cost of office acconnnoda- 
tion. Their salaries were £140 On appointment, and 
ei80 maximum was reached in eight years. After 
deducting expenses the amount left was inadequate. 
The chairman said the county surveyor had ascer- 
tained what increases had been allowed in other 
counties, and it vas found that in Herts a 20 per cent 
increase was allowed, tha salaries there rangini: from 
£120 to C180. In Kent, wliere they were £180, a \<ar 
bonus of £15. with £10 extra for travelling ex|)enses, 
was allowed. In the North Riding of Yorkshire, 
where the salaries were £160 and £170, a £22 increase 
towards expenses was granted. In tlie North Holland 
Division the salaries were £150, and the increases 
given were £20 for war bonus, and .£15 for expenses, 
nie chairman said the Bills Committee had come to 
the conclusion fliat it woidd be reasonable to give 
£10 as a war bonus and £10 towards the in This proj)osal vas-nnaniniously adopt.d. 


See Kutl of I'ai)ei-. 

The Willcsilen District Council are prepared to 
receive Tenders from persons willing to enter into 
Annual Contracts, conunencing April 1st, 1917, to 
execute the following Works or to supply the following 
Matcrial.s — viz. : — 

1. Ma.sons' and Paviors' Works. 

2. Supply of Artificial Slab Paving. 

■J. Supply of Tar Paving and execution of Taj- 

pavLng Works. 
i. Supply of Gravel, Flints, Burnt Ballast, iS;c., for 

repair of roads, &c. 
r>. Stipplv of Bniken Granite for repair of roads, 

i>. Supply of Lime. Cement, Salt-glazcd-ware 

Pipes, <.tc. 

7. Supplies of Oils and Chanfllerw 

8. Supply of Coal and Coke. 

'■>. Barging of Road Slop, &c., from Fciuion \\ liari. 

1". Supply of Horse Provender. 

11. Sui)ply of Ironmongery and Too!.-. 

12. Supply of Timber. 
I'J. Wood-paving Works. 

M. Supply of Horse*, Carts and Drivi-i.-, [or eartaKC 

of varioTis descriptions. 
Specifications antl Forms of Tender may Ih» obtained 
upon receipt of 5s. for each Tender Form, on ajid 
after Monday, .lanuary ^nd, 1917, upon application 
to Jlr. O. Claude Robson, m.inst.c.e., Engiiu^er lo the 
Council, Jrunicii)al Offices, Dyne-road, Kilburn. N.W. 
The deposit for Tender Forni will be returne<l upon 
receipt of Imna-firlc Tender. 

Tenders to hi delivered to the undersii;ned not later 
than 4 p.m. on Tuesday. .January 30th. 1917. 

The Council do not biiul themselves to ac<-c|it the 
lowest or any Tender. 

(By order* 


Clerk of the Conueil. 
Muiiieiiial Offices. 

Dyne-road, Kilburn, N'.W. 

.Tanuary 17, 1917. (3,2:><t> 

The. Battersca Boroii^di Council invite Tenders for 
the Removal of House and Street Refuse from the 
3].-t March. 1917. 

Forms of Tender, containing full particulars, may 
be ohtaini'd at the Town Hall, and must be re- 
turned to me, sealed and endorsed " Tender for 
Removal of Reftise." liv 3 p.m. on Wednesday, the 
24tli Januarv. 


Town Clerk. 
Town Hall. 

Lavender-iiill, S ^^". 
January, 1017. v'<,252) 



Jantary 19. 1917. 


The AkiH1tf.iT> and Strveyoks Diary for 1917. 

In half-ialf. 6?. 6il.: clotli silt, 4s. London: 

Messrs. Waterlow Bros. & Layton. 
We have received a copy of " The Architects' and 
Surveyors" Diary for 1917." and find that, notwith- 
standing war conditions, it is still a well-made, 
serviceable volume, full of useful matter for the iiro- 
fe^.Mons it appeals to. Sections dealing with the 
Building Act. with Jt.« numerous amendments and by- 
laws, the various profe.*sional societie.'; and their 
councils, the county and nnuiicipal surveyors and 
enjrineers of the country, the Housing and Town Plan- 
ning Act. Regulations of tlie London County Council. 
the Board of Airriculture. and the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners, the professional newspapers, and an 
abundance of v'cneral information and tables are 
features which all help to make the present year's 
issue as complete as any of its thirty-five predecessors. 
and we can safely recommend it as a most useful desk 
companion. . 



but those retpontible for their despatch are rccommcndec 
to arrange that theu shall reach Thb Sdrtbtor office by noon 
on WBDSBSDAI8 to ensure their inclusion in the weekl]/ list o) 
summaries. Such advertisements man, in cases of emergencv 
onlv. be telephoned (City No. 10i6) tubject to later con- 
firmation bv letter. 

23rd.— Corporation of Aylesbury. — Mr. W. Harold 
Taylor, l>orough engineer and sqrveyor. Town Hall, 

TE.MPORARY ASSISTANT.-^anuary 29lh.— West 
Hartkpool Town Council. £120 per annum. — Mr. 
Xel.-on F Dennis l)orouph engineer. Municipal 
BuildiuL's, West Hartlepool. 

TEMPORARY ASSISTANT.— January 29th.— Somer- 
set Count v Council. C12(). with £20 for motorcycle.— 
Mr. Gordon R. Folland. acting county surveyor, Wells,' 

February 6th.— Riii.-lip-Xorthwood Urban District 
Council. £200 a year.— Mr. Edmund R. Abbott, clerk, 
(■(.iincil Oflice-s, Oaklands Gate, Northwood. Middle- 

.VSSISTANT ENGINEERS.— March 31st.— Indian 
Public Works and State Railways Department. Not 
less than twenty-one and not more than twenty-four 
years of age on July 1st.— The Secretary, Public 
Works Department, India OflSce, London, S.W. 

CLERICAL ASSISTANT.— Laml)eth Borough Coun- 
cil.— Borough Engineer, Lambeth Town Hall, Brixton, 
London, S.W. 

mouth. Three guineas per week.— Mr. .Samuel Hutton, 
enjiiiK-cr. Pulilic Hall, Exiiiouth. 

DR.\rGHTSME\.— Two required ifor Government 
work.— B.O.T., EmplovPKnt Exchange. Quote No. 



but thoie rfrponiihle tor their despatch are recommended 
to arrange that thny shall reach Thb Bubtbtor office by noon 
on WBUXESOAia to ensure their inclusion in the weekly list of 
rummariei. Such advertisements may, in cases of emergency 
only, be telephoned {City So. 10i6) tubject to later con- 
jlrmation by iett«r. 


N' 1 1 [ (VMIA.M.— January 22nd.— For pulling down 
.1 .iway preiiii.'^es and houses, for the tor- 

I y Architect, Guildhall, Nottingham. 

" <.). February 16th.— For building 

mated cost of £7,000, for the autho- 

"i thf " Junta de ServicioH -. Kliiaii. or the Morocco Section of the 

Mini-try of State. Madrid. 

Engineering: Iron and Steel. 

M'l M '\ 1 tnii.iry •i.'rid— For the Hupply of an 
lit 'Tilde benzol recovery plant at 
r the <'orporation.— Mr. Percy 
1 Tr.wn Hall. Halifax. 

rn reviewed, or referred to aa 
)» the Hi. Bride's Prein, Limited, 

■ ,u r>'<-<.|t,T t,i piiMi>i<<"i price, pitii po«tftf« In the case of 

Mechanically Propelled Vehicles. 

LONDON.— January 34th.— For the supply of one 
.Vton steam tractor and four 6-ton trailers, for the 
^letropolitan Asylums Board.— The Clerk, Asylums 
Board Offices, Thames Embankment, London, E.G. 

WIG.\N.— For the supi)ly of a combination motor 
vehicle to servt> as ambulance and prison van, for the 
coriKiration.— The Chief Constable, Town Hall. 


DORSET. — laiuiary 24th.— For the supply of granite, 
basalt, limestone, and tar-mai'adam, for the county 
eouncil.— Mr. E. H. Habgood, acting county surveyor. 
County Offices, Dorchester. 

STRATFORD-ON-AVON.— January ■27th.— For the 
supply of 2-in. and i-in. tarred slag, 2-in. and i-iii. dry 
slag, 2-in. and i-in. granite, and 2-iii., i-in., and i-in. 
limestone, for the corporation.— Mr. F. W. Jones, 
borough surveyor. Town Hall. 

SOUTH STONEHAM.— January 29tli. — For the 
sujiply of British macadam, to be delivered at various 
railway' stations, for the rural district council. — Mr. 
F. Heather, district surveyor, Chevin Side, Old Ports- 
wood, Southampton. 

WARRINGTON.— January 29th.— For the supply of 
road and sanitary requirements, for the corporation. — 
Boroui:h Surveyor. Town Hall. 

MIDDLESBROUGH.— January 30th.— For the sup- 
ply of broken and unbroken vkhinstone, limestone, and 
tarred slag and whiiistone, for the rural district 
council. — Mr. W. H. Dixon, district surveyor, Kirkby- 
in-C!eveland. near Stokesley, Yorks. 

OTLEY.— January 3Ist.— For the .supply of .setts, 
kerbs and flags, granite macadam, pitch and tar, slag 
dust, tar-niacadaiii, limestone- macadam, and brushes, 
for the urban district council. — Mr. O. Holmes, sur- 
veyor. , 

NESTON.— January 31st.— For the supply of broken 
stone, chippings, and tarred macadam, for the urban 
district council. — The surveyor. Town Hall, Neston, 

STOKESLEY.— February 1st.— For the supply of 
broken and unl)roken whin.stone, tarred limestone, and 
tarred slag and whinstone, for the rural district 
council.— Mr. W. II. Dixon, district surveyor, Kirkby- 
in-Clcveland, near Stokesley, Yorks. 

L.\RNE.— February 1st. — For the supply of broken 
whinstone. for thn urban district council. — Mr. W. G. 
Younge. clerk. Town Hall. 

CANTERBURY.— February 1st.— For the supply of 
broken granite, granite chippings, granite dust, granite 
channelling, granite kerliing, and stoneware sewer 
pipes, for th& corporation.— Mr. A. C. Turley, city 
surveyor. Municipal Offices. 

HERTS.— February 1st.— For the supply of refined 
tar (to comply with the terms of the Road Board 
Specification, No. 1), for the county council. — Mr. J. 
S. Kiliick, county surveyor, County Surveyor's Office, 

BATH.— February 3rd— 7th.— For the supply of 
black rock, granite, flint, or other approved road stone, 
lilack rock gravel, Portland cement; fine and coarse 
sea sand, and hibricatiug oils, for the corporation. — 
City Surveyor. 

EAST RIDING.— February 5th.— For the supply of 
about 8,000 tons of .stone for macadamising the main 
roads, for the county council.— The County Surveyor, 

LITTLE HULTON.— February .5th.— For the supply 
of liroken granite. 4 liy 5 granite setts, tar-macadam, 
granite, limestoin- and slag chippings, grit, kerb.s, 
stoneware pipes and gullies, and steam road rolling, 
for the urban district council.— Mr. J. H. Heyes, 
<'lcrk. Council Oflices, Little Hiillon, Bolton. 

SUNBURY-ON-THAMES.— February 5th.-For the 
sujiply of about lO.rtW) gallons of refined tar, for the 
urlian district council.- Mr. H. F. Coales, surveyor, 
(,'ouncil Oflices. 

SUTTON-IN-ASMFIELD.-February .5th.— For the 
supply of tar-ma< adain and broken slag, for the urban 
district council.— Mr. W. Burn, surveyor. 

RUGBY.— February 5th.— For supplying horses and 
carts for road repairs, watering streets, and scaveng- 
ing, for the urban disfrict council. — Mr. J. H. Sharpc. 
-iirveyor, Bcnn Hiiilflings, Rugby. 

LITTLEHAMPTON.— February 7tli.— For the supply 
of distilled tar, tor the urban district coun<il.— Mr, 
W. A. Clegg, engineer and surveyor. 

January 19, 1917. 



EASIIS'GWOLD.— February 7th.— For the supply of 
whin.5tone and s\-Ag, for the rural district council.— 
JNIr. F. J. H. Robinson, clerk. 

BEXHILL.— February 9th.— For the .supply of dis- 
tilled tar, iTarvia, or other compounds for use in tar- 
sprayinjf, for the corporation. — Mr. T. E Rosers, town 
clerk. Town Hall, Bexhill. 

UXBRIDGE.— February 9th.— For the supply of 
granite, tarred granite and slag, gravel, flint.? and 
hogcin, and haulage, for the rural district council. — 
^Ir. J. \V. Harrison, engineer and surveyor, Corn 
Exchange, Uxbridge. 

HERTS.— February 10th. — For surface tarring 
approximately 1,250,000 .sq. yds. of main roads with 
refined tar, for the county council. — Mr. J. S. Killick, 
county surveyor. County Surveyor's Office, Hatfield. 

CORNWALL.- February 10th.— For the hire of 
steam rollers, not exceeding ten, for a period of one 
year, for the county council. — Mr. L. D. Thompson, 
county surveyor. County Hall, Truro. 

HERTS.— February 12th. — For the hire of steam 
and i>etrol rollers, for the county council. — Mr. J. S. 
Killick. countv .'^urvevor. County Surveyor's Office, 


•SEDGEFIELD.- January 26th. — For scavenging 
various districts, for the rural district council. — Mr. 
J. W. Tweddle, inspector of nuisances. The Avenue, 
Coxhoe, Durham. 

WEST BROMWICH.— January 26th.— Fo^ the re- 
moval of nightsoil .and emptying cesspools, for the 
corporation. — Inspector of Nuisancer, Sanitary Ofiices, 
High-street, West Bromwich. 

BRADFORD.— January 31st.— For the .supply of 
20,0<X) cotton double filter press cloths, for the cor- 
poration. — Mr. F. Stevens, town clerk. Town Hall. 

ROWLEY REGIS.— February 6th.— For emptying 
and removinir house refuse, for the urban district 
council. — Mr. D. Writht. clerk. Council Offices, Old 
Hill. Staffs. 


BATTERSEA.— January 24th.— For the supply of 
veterinary attendance, horse hire, materials for cart 
and van covers, harness material and fittings, paints, 
special paints, enamels, painter's' sundries, varnish, 
tools, ironmonsery, granite, macadam and chippinps, 
tar-macadam, tar paving, York paving. Thames bal- 
last and .sand, stoneware pipes, timljer for carpenters 
and joiners' work, timber for wheelwrights' work, 
brick-s, ceiiient, lime, slates, iron castings (side 
entrance covers, iron bars for blacksmiths' work, re- 
moval of house and street and manure from the 
council's stables, disinfectants, coal and coke, and 
fioaps and oils, for the Ijorough council. — Mr. W. 
Marcus Wilkins, town clerk, Town Hall, Battersea, 
London, S.W. 

OHELSEA.— January 24tl).— For the supply of 
various articles and works, for the borough council. — 
The Town Clerk, or :Mr. T. W. E. Higgens, borough 

MBRTOX.— January 26th.— For the supply of horse 
hire, flints and gravel, tar paving, Portland cement, 
stoneware pipes, brooms, tools, .sewerage ironwork, 
broken granite, cartace of road materials, tar, grit, 
tar-macadam, and the surface tarring erf roads, for the 
urban district council. — Mr. C. J. Mountfield, clerk. 
Council Offices, Kinaston-road, Merton. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND.- January 27th.— For the sup- 
ply of sanitary pipes, manhole and lamphole covers, 
gully grates and frames, channel boxes, cement, 
.-pades, picks, brooms, bru-hes, whinstone, slag, flags, 
kerbs, .setts, disinfectants, iron pipes, valves, and 
]iydrant(5 for the urlian district council. — The Sur- 
veyor, iTown Hall Buildincs, Bishop Auckland. 

OXLEY. — January 31st. — For tlie supply of setts, 
kerl)s, flags, granite macadam, pitch and tar, slag 
dust, tar-macadam, limestone macadam, and bru.shes, 
for the Ttrban district council. — Mr. O. Holmes, 

MIDDLE.SBROUGH— Feliruary 1st.— For the sup- 
ply of annealed-.s^'oriffi (broken), bricks, castings, con- 
crete flags and kerbs, Portland cement, pitch and tar. 
.-anitary pipes, gullies, junctions, .slag (broken), coal 
(for domestic use only), coke, timber, whinstone and 
granitf (brokent, whiiiPtone and granite setts and 
kerl)s, brushes, l)olts and tu\U, disinfectant«, electric 
lamps, general stores, glass, hardware, india rubber 
U'oods, iron and steel, leather belting, oils, paints and 
varnishes, packincs, picks, shovels and shafts. 

polishes and cleansing materials, and ropes, for the 
corporation.— Mr. Preston Kitchen, town clerk. Muni- 
cipal Buildings. 

GILLINGHAM (Kent).— February 2nd.— For the 
supply of road materials, Portland cement and lime, 
requisites for precipitation works, sewer ironwork, 
bricks, oils, general stores and ironmongery, and dis- 
infectants, for the town council.— Mr. J. L. Redfern. 
borough engineer and surveyor. Corporation Offices, 
Gillingham, Kent. 

SWANSEA.— February 2nd.— For the supply of 
gullies, lamp pillars, lanterns, paving, kerbing, chan- 
nelling and pitching, disinfectants, broken syenite, 
broken limestone, chippings, gravel, tar-macadam, 
refined tar, manhole covers, ventilating gratings, char- 
coal baskets, and step irons, for the corporation.— 
Borough Surveyor, Guildhall, Swansea. 

GRLMSBY.— February 2nd.— For the supply of 
whinstone macadam, slag, artificial flags, Yorkshire 
flags, Yorkshire kerbs, granite setts, granite kerbs and 
channel, pitch, coal-cas tar, Buxton quicklime, blue 
lias lime, dog-kennel lime, Portland cement, drainage 
pipes, miscellaneous brushes, scavenging brushes, 
drysalteries, lubricating oils, oils, paints, bottles and 
corks, carbolised oil. disinfectant fluid, disinfectant 
powder. Formalin, and Formalin tablets, for the cor- 
poration.— Mr. H. Gilbert Whyatt, borough engineer 
and surveyor. Municipal Buildings, 170 Victoria-street, 

ACTON.— February 3rd.— For the supply of road and 
sanitary requirements, and hire of steam roller, for 
the urban district council.— Mr. W. Hod.son, clerk. 
Council Offices, Acton, London, W. 

SALISBURY.— February 9th.— For the supply of 
brushes, refined tar, oils, and disinfectants, for the 
corporation.— City Engineer and Surveyor, Endless- 
street, Salisl)ury. 


, BAXBRIDGE.— February 3rd.— For the public light- 
ing of the urban district with gas or electricity, for 
the urban district council. — The Surveyor, Municipal 
Offices, Banbridge. 


Secretaries and others will obliae by sending early notice of 
dates of forthcoming meetings. 

23.— Concrete Institute; Mr. C. R. Peers on "The Care of 
Ancient Monuments." 

9.— Town Planning Institute : Prof. S. D. Adshead on 
" Monumental Memorials and Town Plaunins " 6 p. IB. 


The Editor invites the co-operation of Surveyor readers 
with a view to making tlie information given under this 
head as complete and accurate as possible. 

* Aooepted. t Seoommended for acceptance. 

CAMBERWELL. — For slop and refuse barpine. for the 
borouuh council : — 

Per ton. 
s. d. 

C. Burley, Limited 6 TJ 

W. R. Cunis, Limited 5 11 

Flower & Everett, Limited ' 5 9 

ROMFORD.— Accepted for the supply of broken i,M'anit«, for 
the rural district council : — 
W. Griffiths & Co., Limited. Bishopsgate, E.C.. £966 


wanted for the period of the War. Mu:-t be 
ineligible for military service. Knowle<lge of prime 
costs essential ; shorthand and typewritiuL' desiral)lo. 
Apply, statincr aire, qualifications, experience, and 
salary required, to Borough Engineer, Lambeth Town 
Hall," Brixton. L ondon. S.W. n.2fet> 

WANTED, imniedintely. a Resident En^ine^-r 
for Soa Defence Work at Sidmoutli. The 
a])pointment will be for 6 to 9 months. 

Preference will l)e given to candidates with expe- 
rience in heavy sea defence works, and tiie salary 
offered is 3 guineas per week. 

Applications, with three copies of testimonials, 
should be sent at once to the Engineer, Mr. £«ainuel 
Hutton. Public Hall, Exmouth. <-3,2-in 



.1am A in i;». 1917. 


The aliovo Couiioil rt quiio the temporary .*ervice> of 
;» comiuteut Surveyor aud Inspector of Nuisame:?. at 
n <a!arv '^f €9"" I'er anmiiii. 

\ A ill nnilerstand that they are asked 

t,. \he ottii-ial who may l>e falltil up 

1,, ••! iini>t l>e ineligible lor military 


Candidate's must l>e experienced in surveying, pre- 
paration of plans and estimates, road niaking, drain- 
ace, .-i. waee treatment and sanitary matters, and )»' 
able to satisfv the requin-ments of the Local Govern- 
ment Board a- an Insi)eitor of Nuisances (the appoint- 
ment oi Insi>eitor bt-ing subject to the approval of 
such Board*. The Inspector's duties will include tho-e 
under the Public Health Acts, t4ie Orders of the Local 
Governm- nl Board, the By-laws of Ihe Council, the 
Dairie-. Cowsheds and Milkshojis Orders, the Factory 
and Workshops Act. 1«<91. the Housing.' and Town 
Plannin-^ Acts, the duties of Insi)ector of Petroleiun. 

The successful candidate will be required to devote 
his wiiole time to the si rvice of the Council, to ;_'ive 
satisfactory security in the sum of t3(l0, and to reside 
within the district. 

Canvassing, either directly or indirectly, will dis- 

Selected candidates will have notice to altcnd on the 
day of election, and will be allowed third-class rail- 
way fare. 

.Applications, endorsed " Surveyor and Inspector." 
stating age. exi>erience. and qualifications, with copies 
of npt more than three recent testimonials, nuist be 
sent to me. the xmdersipned, not later than the 6th 
Februarv. l'J17. 


Clerk to the Council. 

Council Offices, 
Oaklands Gate, 

Northwood. (3 ■•238) 

P< )OL. 
Wanted, .\.--i^tant Surveyor in the Borouirh En(;i- 
neer"- Dejiartnrent. The person appointed, who nuist 
lie ineli'.'ible for military service, will be principally 
en^'a-.-ed upon work in connection with Town Plan- 
ninj. Salary at the rate of tl2n i)er annum. 

.\ppli<'ations and testimonial.- to be forwardod to 
the undersigiied not later than the 29th instant. 

, NELSON F. DENNIS, m.tnst.c.k., 
Boroufih Ensineer. 
Municipal Buildings. 

January l.i. 1917. (3:144) 


Wanled. Temporary Assistant in County Sur- 
veyor'- Office. Mu>t have a good knowledjre of 
modern road and bridge construction, be an active 
motor cydi.-t. and ineligible for the Army. Salary 
lian. and allo«hnce of £3) i)er annum for the njtkeep 
of a motor cycle, which will 1>€ provided. Ajjplica- 
tions, giviii'^' age and full particulars of experience, 
mu-i b<- flelivered not later than first Monday, 
the -JlMb Januarv. 1917. to — 


Actina Comity Surveyor. 
Wells, Somerset. (3,L'-«i) 


pOi:N\VAl,L ( (JUNTY ,( OUNCIL. 

"> invited by the County CourM-il for the 
H II Rollcrs-not exceeding fen — for a i)eriod 

■ • the l-t April. 1917. 

••rs are to lie fully equij)ped 12J-ton 

ri 'vp. , fitted with 8pprovc<l wari- 

• provided and delivered when 

'■ I places in the County as may 

I : ity Surveyor. 

Til' ' provide eflj<-ient drivers, also 

oii. V If, and each enirine must Im.* 

ie I oiMpaiii- -I i.y .1 iisinjf-van, capable of acconuno- 
d I'in-,/ at lea-t three men. and a water-cart filte<l with 
Tenders muH cont<iin prices, both indudins and 

excluding lud, ami must state if tin Kijllers offered 
are >implc or conu)ound. 

The engines, scarifiers, livinir-vajis. water-carts, and 
all tackle to be entirely to the satisfaction of the 
County Surveyor. 

The Contractors to keep and maintain the hired 
Steam Rollers and their appliances in ))roper and 
thorough working order diuin- the whole jieriod of 

The Contractors will be required- to enter inio ;i 
Contracf^vith the County Council 

The County Council do not bind them.eelve> lo 
accept the lowest or any Tender. 

Sealed Tenders to be forwarded to the undersi'.'ned 
not later than Saturdav. 10th Februarv. 1917. endorsed 
■■ ,<,,,>., i;..ners." 


Counlv Surveyor. 

Countv Hall. Truro. 

".lamiarv 1.'). 1917. 


The Council of the County Borough of Swansea 
invite Tenders for the undermentioned Stores, Stone. 
Ironwork. &c., during the year to end 31st March. 
1918— viz. ; — 

Gullies. Lamp Pillars, Lanterns^ Paving. Kerbinj.'. 
Channelling and Pit<'hinii, Disinfectants, Broken 
Syenite, Broken. Limestone, Chipping?. Gravel, Tar- 
macadam, Refined Tar, Manhole Covers, Ventilating 
Gratings. Charcoal Baskets, and Stej) Irons, as may 
l)e necessary. 

Forms of Tender and further particulars may be 
obtained at tlie Office of the Borough Sinveyor, Guild- 
l-.all, Swansea. 

Sealed Tenders. endor.«ed " Tender for — -." to be 
<lelivered at the Town Clerk's Office not later than 
12 noon on Friday, the 2nd February. 1917. ■ 

The lowest or any Tender will not necessarily be 


Town Clerk. 
Guildhall, Swansea. 

.Linuary 15, 1917. (3,245) 

Tenders are invited for the Sujiply of about 7.M) 
tons (more or lessi of 2-in. and H-in. Hand-broken 
Basalt for road construction, and 500 tons (more or 
less) of 2-iii. Clean Chippings, to be delivered from 
the various Stations in ^Middlesex. 

Particulars, with Specification and Form of Tender, 
may be obtained at my Offices after Monday, the 
15th instant. 

Tenders must be sent to the Clerk of the County 
Council, .Middlesex Guildhall. Westminster, S.W.. by 
12 o'clock (noon) on Wednesday, the 7th Febrnaiv, 

The lowest or any Tender will not necessarily he 


County Engineer. 
County En'jjnei i'> Office. 
Middlesex Guildhall. 

AVestminsfer, S.AV. 
January 9, 1917. (3,237) 


for the Year Ending March 31st, 1918. 

The Stratford-iiiion-.Avon Town Council invito 
Tenders for the Supply of 2-iii. and ^-in. Taned Slag ; 
2-iii. and i-iii. Dry Slag ; 2-in., i-in.. and i-in. Granite ; 
2-in.. 2-in., and J^-iu. Limestone, in accordance with 
Specification to be oblain<.'d. with Form of Tender, on 
application t<> the undersigned. 

Tenders, with samples of the materials to bo 
siipplit-d, to bo bKlged with the Borough Surveyor, 
M-ab-d and endorsed " Tender for Maradaiii," not later 
than .Saturday, .lainiai^ 27lh iiist. 

The Town Council does not bind itself to accept the 
lowest or any Tend' r, 

F. w. JONES,, 

Borough Surveyoi-. 
Town Hall, 

Stratford-iijjon- Avijii. 

January I, 1;M7. (3,230) 

The Surveyor 

Hnb flDunfcipal anb County Engineer. 

Vol. LI. 

JANUARY 26, 19] 7. 

No. 1,306. 

Municipal Engineering in 1916. 

Our Special Annual issue once more takes the 
form of a re-mine. of municipal engineering work 
during the twelve months preceding its jniblica- 
tion. Wo have retained this form not only 
becauiie of its convenience, but also because of 
the appreciation witli which it has. always been 
received. Once more the war dominat<^s every- 
thing. Its effects upon municipal engineering arc 
very direct because of the rigid economy tliat is 
l)eing enforced and also because of the exception- 
ally heavy demands which military movements 
have made upon the roads of the country. As 
regards bridges, very few have l)ecn built during 
the year, fndecd, if we allow our survey to extend 
to the Continent of I'AU'opc the record is one of 
destruction rather than construction. Oiu- home 
bridges have generally bot'n called upon to beai" 
greatly increased weights, especially in tiie 
removal of heavy guns and munitions. Pre- 
sumably, arrangements have been or will be nuide 
i)y the Government to secure their safety, or for 
the payment of ('oni))cnsation in ease of damage. 
With regard to electricity supply, the \var has, 
on the whole, had a stimtilating eft'ect. It is 
true that there have been difficulties, due 
principally to the high cost of materials, especially 
fuel and labour, and (he difficulty of obtaining 
plant for extensions. But, as last year, there 
lias been a fiu'ther phenomenal growth in the 
power load. The most notable development has 
probably been in connection Mith the liiiking-up 
of neighbouring undertakings with a view to 
incrca-sed economy, reliability, and ef^ciency. It 
is to be hoped that tiie futiu-e will witness further 
efforts in the saane direction. With reference to 
highway administration we have once more to 
record that the economy- cry has led iViaiiy high- 
way authorities to reduce theii* expenditure to 
such an extent as to jeopardise the ver\ existence 
of the roads for \vhich tliey are responsil)le. War 
conditions have rendered it more necessiuv than 
ever that our home roads should be ke|)t in a high 
rotate of efficiency. Not only are they calked u|>on 
to bear a gi-eatly increased bui-<^en of traffic, 
especially in munition centres and near camps, 
but at the same lime the shortage of laboiu' and 
materials renders it difficult, eveu witii the best' 
will in the world, to keep them in a« good a- sta ti- 
ns they were when they had to suffer much less 
wear. It is obvious, therefore, that if the will be 
wanting, or if there be any disposition to starve 
this seiwice, disaster must ensue. As we pointed 
out last year, wat conditions hav<! produced some 
fustouishing results in regard to housing. Apiu-t 
from the special ca-sc of the great munition centres, 
tho (government have practically stopped all 
building. The result is tiiat the scarcity of houses, 
which uudoubtedly existed before the war htis 
become accent uat<>d. That Ihi.s is realised by the 
authorities is shown by the disposition to urge 
forward in every possible way the immediate pre- 
paration of housing schemes, with h ' '"•^' '-■ Hi-ir 

execution after peace is declared. Tiie disposal of 
refuse lias been considered again during the past 
year chiefly as a possible source of economy in 
municipal expenditure. No new destructor works 
have bei'U erected, but efforts have been made. 
prol)ably on a larger scale than ever l)efore, to 
convert (n-dinary town refuse into useful com- 
modities instead of destroying it by burning. 
More than <jnc scheme for this j)urpose has been 
described in oiu- cohunus, and all of them are 
referred to in the special article on tije subject. 
^^'e agree with our contributor that it is to be 
hoped tiiat the efforts in the utilisation of waste 
products, which have l)cen engendered by the 
special conditions caused by the war, will not be 
rc^laxed in peace time. As regards sewerage and 
sewage disposal, we were able last year to refer 
to the issue of the Final Report of tiie Royal ("om- 
niissiou. This year there is nothing further to 
record in this direction, but again the work of the 
past twelve months has been directly affected by 
war conditions. It has l>een suggested, indeed, 
that the waste products in sewage may l)e utilised 
for the prixluctiou of explosives. How far this is 
Ijeing or can lie practically accf>mplished we are 
not in a position to state, (lenerally, it may be 
said that only work of the most vu-gent character, 
which in most cases has i)een paid for out of 
revenue, has l)een carried out during the past year. 
It may seem a little out of place to refer to street 
lighting an a liranch of municipal work in these 
days. The ))roblem which confronts the engineer 
to-day is not so much how to light th«> streets as 
how to keep them dark. Our contributor on this 
subject, therefore, devotes most of his article to 
a discussion of the methods <>f avoiding illumina- 
tion. Town planning has during tlie past year 
been the subject of much gwd w<;rk. It is evident 
that in present conditi<;ns the a-.-tual execution 
of sehen)es is not to be expected. Interest in the 
subject ha.s, iiowever, btvn well maintained. 
Several important jiapers havt- been read, and at 
least two interesting coin] let it ions have i)eeii 
decided — namely, those at Dublin and York 
respectively. it' <>nly remains to mention twi. 
other subjetts— namely, tramways and water 
supply. As regards the formert new e<instnictioii 
has remained at a standstill, l)ut the hands of 
tramway manager-- havo been kept full in deal- 
ing with problems arising, out of the shorta;,'e (>i 
stiiff and labour. Work in connection with wat. r 
suppiv has als.. practically cea.«ed foi- the jiresenl, 
first bec-ause of the ne<vssity for economy, and, 
second, because of the shortage of labour, mate- 
rials, and mariiinerw The difficult i«s of watei- 
eugineerb have been increased o\yinc to the high 
cost of fuel. The maiutenance of a full supply of 
pure water is of such obvious imi)ortanco that 
there is i)erhaps less need in this eonnection than 
in some others to utter a warning against, tiie 
dangers of false ..eonomy. If such a waniin;,' b.- 
n.^,.H,.d if wn~i uttor.'d with great w.-ifht by Mr 



January 26. 1917. 

Boulnois, who sliowed. in tlio iiai)cr wliioh lie road 
before the Koyal Sanitarv Institut<>, that no 
diniiiuitiou in tlie (jualitv or quantity of the water 
supply sliould bo ])ractisod nieroly as a mca.siu'o of 
I'funoniy. It is iiii]K)ssible to forecast what the 
future of municipal engineering work will be. As 
the war goes ou the i>atriotism of municipal engi- 

neers becomes more and more evident. All who 
can be spared lU'c sening in the field, while the 
older ones are cheerfully undertaking more onerous 
duties at home. Our conviction is tliat in the 
future, as in the past, the public interest will be 
the guiding motive in the work of every member 
of the profession. 


Very few new bridges have been built dming the 
l>ast year, for, although it is now generally 
lidmitted that nnmy of the existmg road and rail- 
way bridges are stressed to their utmost safe limit, 
and that many now bridges are urgently required, 
the exigencies of the war are such that risks have 
to be taken, and the inconvenience and loss of 
time and money ha\e t-o be borne w ith the best 
gi'ace we can conmiand. 

A draft report, has been prepared by the Joint 
Committee 6f the. Concrete Institute, the Insti- 
tution of Municipal and County Engineers, and 
the Institution of Municipal Engineers, which was 
appointed in 1011, under the chairmanship of 
Prof. H. Adams, .m.ixst.c.k., to investigate the 
question of the loivds to bo pro\ided for on high- 
way bridges, but the report has not ^et received 
its final form, and has not been published. 

Tlie gi-eat increase in the weight of the loads 
now carried on our rf>ads, especially in the 
removal of heavy guns and numitions, or by the 
heavy motor wagons from our industrial towns, 
may make it necessary to revise this report before 
it is issued to the public. The War Office are 
bound to see that any futiu'c bridges are made 
sufficiently strong to meet all military require- 
ments, and municipal engineers throughout the 
country will lie glad to receive this re}iort to assist 
them in designing their bridges to meet these new 

The House of r.«(»rds liave recently decided thai 
the railway companies are not bound to nniintain 
highway bridges strong enf>ugli to cany present- 
day traffic, but only need to keep them u]> to 
their original standard of construction. This is 
II serious liialtcr for the county and other l<x;al 
authorities, fdr there can be little doubt that the 
traffic transferred from the railway to the road 
has come to stay, and that in many cases the e(wt 
of reconstruction or strengthening must come out 
of the pocket of tjie public instead of from the 
railway companies. 


The past year has l)een chieHy remarkable for 
an accident lor the second time to the Quebec 
Itridge, and the agitation for the removal of 
Charing Cross Uridgc and replacing it with a 
monumental road ijridge. 

On Sept..inber lllh of last year the central sjian 
of the new l,ridg<; aer««ss the- St. I.awrejice, at 
(Quebec, colhipsed uliile being hfjisted into jxjsi- 
li'ii. aiid resulted in a lf)ss oi twenty lives. The 
iciiiral span "as IVIO f(. I<,ng. HH ft. wide, 110 ft. 
high at tb»i centre, and w«'igh«'d ovvr ri.fMK) tons. 
I'nfortunatdy. this whw the second time disaster 
luid_ overtaken this bridge in recent years, for in 
1!H»7 the honthern spun fell, causing the loss of 
s. v.i)t> live- Though some doubts were felt 
about til. -ti. iigth as designed for th<' j>revious 

' I'ccnt !K-cidiiit diM's not uppcai- to 

to (aulty disigii, but owing to a 
, ;ig of one of iho In-arers. 
c'ii.\uiN(i «uoss umixii:. 

""■ '" '' of the South-Eastern liailwav 

'"" "d fcI(i7,(KK) in strengthening and 

""J" •'- <'i">^ I'.ridge iia't « ith strong 

opp'/sui'ij from i,,,,i,y qiiartorw, and Parliament 
refu-fl • -, ,•; :, ',].],- HiH f^r this pur|.f^c. 
'^"" :it it was necessary for 

I''!-" of the public that the 

bridge |„ tKugthencd 'llic opposition 

was led by Sir Aston Webb, k.a., and ]Mr. John 
Bm'ns, M.P., and they were supported by many 
other well-kno\\n men. They strongly objected 
to the eonipany's projiosal to perj)etuato this ugly 
bridge, wiiieii is admittedly an eyesore on the 
Thames, and they advocated replacing the exist- 
ing steel railw ay bridge with a monumental road 
bridge tmd placing the station on the SuiTey side 
of the Thames. 

Mr. John Burns, in his forceful and picturesque 
language, described the bridge and station as an 
abomination which should never have been per- 
mitted, and said that both should disappear, so 
that " the Thames might be relieved of that ugly 
red oxide Behcniotli that sprawls from north to 
south." He suggested a new station on the 
Surrey side, Mith a new vehicular bridge of the 
finest description connecting the north and Suney 
sides, and that the London County Council, the 
two adjoining borough councils, and possibly the 
City Corporation, ought to co-operate in pro- 
viding it. 

Sir Aston \\'ebl) m-god that the bridge and 
station were unworthy of their position, were very 
unsightly, and so poorly designed that the original 
station r(X)f had fallen down, and the bridge now 
required strengthening. It is claimed that the 
land for a new station on tlie south side of the 
Thames can be ae(|uired easily and cheaply, that 
a new road bridge with fine open spaces at each 
end Avould relieve the traffic on the other bridges, 
and would allow a great civic improvement to be 
made by laying out a boulevard similar to the 
Embankment on the north side. Municii)al engi- 
neers will f(jllow the development of these schemes 
w ith a lively interest, and it is to be hoped that 
the authorities respf)nsible for these imjirove- 
nients will secure tlie assistance of an experienced 
municipal enginerr when they decide upon the 
lay-out of the Ijridgi' and roads. 

niiSTRfCTION 0|- HKinoEH IN Tin; WAU AIlliA. 

To turn to the w ar area, the past year has seen 
the destruction of a portion of the great 
Itounumian railway bridge of Cernavoda. This 
bridge, which was completed in 1896, cost 
10,(MK),(MX) francs. It is nearly 11 miles long, luid 
ciUTies the* railw ay between Bucharest and the 
]>firt of Coustaii/.a on the Black Sea, and consists 
of two main bridges over the arms of the Danube 
and a series of \ iadncts and embankments cross- 
ing the marshes. This is the most important 
i)ridgr destroyed hi (he war area during the past 
year, but it is only one of many. This destruction 
calls for a largo amount of bridging work by the 
engineering sections of all the opposing lu-mics, 
mostly of an emergency character. The bridges 
used by the (jermans (»ii the Danube are of the 
pontorm Upe, but. on the Western Front tlu- 
MOfKlen-girdcr type, is mostly used, though steel 
and concrete are also used. Temporary bridges 
of great length have been used, but 70 ft. is as 
great as it is practicable to push into position 
with the restricted resources <»f the field com- 
|>aniis i)i engineers, 

.\ number of cr.ncrefc bridges have been 
descnbed and ilhistratvd in our columns during 
I'ilii. One of the most intrf/icsting of these is the 
reHiforced-cf>ncrefo sewer a<^|ueduct over the Biver 
Barwon and flats in Australia (January 28, 1016). 
'Hie length of the aqueduct is 2,121 ft., and it is 

January 26. inir. 



designed on the cantilever system, with .fourteen 
spans, thirteen of 176 ft. and one of 136 ft. centres. 
A footpath is constructed over the sewer, and a 
hand-rail serves as a girder 40 ft. long to bridge 
the gap between tlie cantilevers, Mhich are 136ft. 
from point to point. 

Granford Bridge, by Mr. H. T. Wakelam, 
M.ixsT.c.r,., was described in our issue of May 12, 
1916, and a very interesting set of illustrations 
and details of thirteen road l)ridges built in ferro- 
concrete to replace the bridges washed awaj' in 
Norfolk in the disastrous floods of 1912 were 
given on June 2, 1916. 

In 'Sliiy last tlie LongtO'ii liridge, Cumberland, 
one of the finest concrete bridges in Great Britain, 
was officially opened. It is 625 ft. from end to 
end, and lias three arch spans of 147 ft. 6 in. and 
175 ft. 

An interesting series of aiinal bridges is given 
in the March number of Verrn-Vnnrrefe, which 
shows how readily and economically, and with 
what variety of design this material can be used. 
The Canal ISridge at Burlington-street, Jjiverjiool, 
designed by the city engineer of Liverp(x>l, Mr. 
J. A. Brodie, M.ixsT.c.r';., hi feiTO-concretc, shows 
with what artistic effect concrete can be used 
when designed witli good taste and a i]r(>per use 
of architectural details. 

The Arroyo^eco Viaduct, Pasadena, California, 
spans a picturestjue valley, and, is 1,470 ft. long, 
of which 800 ft. is on a curve and tlie remainder 

on a tangent. It has six spans of 113 ft. each, 
two of 151 ft. 6 ill., one of 223 ft., and six ai-ched 
girder spans and abutments at each end. 

The highest arched-roadway viaduct in the 
United States is the high-level bridge recently 
constructed over the Cuyaliago River Gorge near 
Akron, Ohio. It is 190 ft. from the bed of the 
stream to the level of the road, is 781 ft. long, 
and has a 24-ft. roadway and two 4-ft. footpaths. 
Tlie five main arches are 127 ft. centre to centre 
of |)iers. 

The Keadby Bridge over the Trent, 14 miles 
north of Gainsborough, recently completed by 
tlio Great Central Railway Company, claims the 
disthiction of being the heaviest lifting bridge yet 
constructed in Europe. It is a combined railway 
and road bridge of five sjjans, the two fixed river 
spans being 185 ft. each, a lifting span of 160 ft., 
with a clear waterway of 150 ft., a track span 
of 40 ft., on which the lifting span rolls, and 
a. 7()-ft. apjiroach span on the banks of the river. 
It Ls 53 ft. 6 in. wide, 29 ft. 3 in. railway, and 
24 ft. 3 in. roadway. The weight of the lifting 
span is about 3,000 tons. It is worked by two 
115-li.p. direct-current motors, and can be oi)i.'ned 
or closed in two minutes. 

Among other interesting bridges which we have 
described are tlie Alexandra Bridge, Pieternumtz- 
biu-g (July 14, 1916), and a series of feiTO-concrete 
bridges in the Twrch Vallev, Glamorganshire 
(October 27, 1916). 


Like all other j^Tcat undertakings, the Inisiness 
of electricit}^ supply lias iieen seriously affected 
by the strenuous conditions which have obtained 
during the second year of war. The high cost of 
materials — especially fuel — and labour, tlie diffi- 
culty or impossibility of obtaining plant for exten- 
sions or funds to pay for it, the restrictions on 
lighting, and the heavy demand for power, have 
all combined to impose a burden of anxiety ui)on 
the managers of electricity works and their com- 
mittees or directors, and the loss of many of their 
skilled assistants and workmen, through the opera- 
tion of the Military Service Act, in some instances 
has strained tiieir endurance almost to tJie break- 
ing point. Under these tuying circumstances it 
redounds to the credit of the central-station engi- 
neers that they have courageously shouldered their 
ta.sks without complauit, and .without sparing 
themselves, and witii rare exceptions iiave 
succeeded in maintaining the supply of electricity 
without' intcniiption, although in many cases theu" 
plant has been heavily overloaded and has had 
to cope witli continuous demands for poxver b,v 
night as well as by day. 

I'OWliU SI'I'1M,V. 

As in the earlier stages of the war, the 
phenomenal groAvth of the ])ower load has been 
a striking feature of the year. Never i)efore ha\-e 
the advantages of a cheap and reliable source of 
motive power been so emphatically brought home 
to manufacturers, who, impelled by necessity, 
have eagerly turned to the public mains for tlie 
indispensable supply of energy. The inevitable 
consequence has followed that the demand has 
overtaken the available supply, and, \\liere tlie 
manufacture (jf munitions of wai* or other national 
work has bpen in (juestioii, the supply undertakers 
have had to invoke the sanction and assistance 
of the Government in order to obtain additional 
plant and mains. In numy instances new factories 
have been erected in the neighbourho'xl of com- 
paratively small power stations, Mhicli, probably 
to the astonishment of their managers, have 
consequently become important undertakings 
equipped with three-phase turbo-generators and 
tlie most uii-to-dato iU'cessorics. \Vc could cite 
several examples of such statirms situnt*^! in 

places where a hea\ y pow er load would never have 
been dreamt of but for the war, and others in 
small industrial areas whose output has increased 
by leaps and bounds, completely transforming the 
prospects and potentialities of the undertakings. 

But it is in certain cities already deeply engaged 
in the supply of motive power tiiat the situation 
lias presented the greatest difficulties, c)wing to 
the large size of the additional generating i)lant 
that has had to be provided and the short time 
in which it had to be put in operation. In some 
instances it has at times been found necessary 
to cut off the supjjly to the tramways, in order to 
maintain an adequate supply to the all-important 
factories; in others it has, unfortunately, been 
necessary to refuse a supply to prospective con- 
sumei-s of large blocks of jiower, thus compelling 
the latter either to obtain plant of their own, witli 
the aid of the Go\ eminent, or to choose some other 
locus where a supply of electrical energy could 
be got. 

It is not in the ])ublic interest' that details 
should be given regarding these places and inci- 
dents, but after the war there will be many dis- 
closures of veiy great interest to all who are 
concerned with electricity supply. In one imjjort- 
aht toM-n the engineer and his chau-man were 
compelled to act in advance of their committee, 
and to put through enormous transactions at the 
shortest notice in order t<; cope with the demands 
that were made upon them, trusting to obtaining 
the approval of the committee at leisure after tli;- 

While it may be pointed out tliat the present 
heavy loads a«d outputs arc recorded under war 
conditions, it cannot lie doubted that the experi- 
ence gained by new users of electrical energy, and 
the installation of motoi-s and machinery on an 
enormous scale, will result in a permanent 
increase in the utilisation of electric power, and 
will confer immense benefits upon the business of 
electricity supply, as well as upon the industries 
which profit by this wholesome and drastic jTocess 
of rejuvenation. 


The most notable development in connection 
with public electricity supply duriiiL' the year has 


.Iani'ahv •_'(!, ini"; 

been the movement towmds the Hnking-xip of 
neighbouring undertakings with a view to iucroascxi 
economy, reliiibilitA , luid efficiency. The idea was 
not new ; it recfivixl official approval when the 
Board of Tnide, sunie veal's ago, passed a Bill 
thi-ough Piuliiuiioni autliorising municipal supi>ly 
undertakei-s in tlie Metropolitan jirea to cojuioct 
their systems with i>no luiother, and, later, with 
those of supply comjianies. As the outeome of 
this Act numy such connections were made, with 
gratifying results, and many more were contcm- 
l>lated when war hroko t>ut. Wc may add that' 
gi'eat pixigress has l)cen made in tliis direction 
since that date. 

But in the piwinccs very little had been done by 
way of co-oi>erati<>n, and the view that supply 
should be given o\cr hu-ge ai'e«s from very lai'ge 
generating stations was regarded rather as a 
remote ideal than as practical politics. For this 
condition tJic sub-division of the counti-y into small 
municipal area.s, each provided with it*; own 
isolated and .-^elf-containcd ))lant and mains, was 
directly responsible. The large power supply com- 
panies, on the other hand, had always adoj)ted 
the practjce of concentrating their jilant and 
linking-up their generating stations, a policy which 
att-ained its greatest and most successful develop- 
ment in tiic Tyneside district, where some sixteen 
stations, large and small, are coimected to a 
common network of mains covering an enormous 

The question \\a.s raised early in the year b_\- 
the action of the Institution of Electrical Engi- 
neers, which discussed a papci' by Mr. E. T. 
Williams on the refonn of electricity sujtply in 
this counti-y. The matter was vigorously taken 
up in Lancashire, where a lai'ge numl>er of gene- 
rating stations me situated in close ])roximity, 
and a i>owerfui stinmlus was given to tlic move- 
ment by the Boiud of Trade, which issued a 
circular letter urgmg supply authorities to co- 
oi>erate with a \ iew to economising fuel. llie 
Incorporated Municipal Electrical Association, 
the As§ociat4>d Power (.'omjianies, and the Insti- 
tution of Electrical Engineers in June appointed 
two influential connnittees to promote the scheme, 
and with their aid local committees were formed 
in various centres to investigate the matter a.Tid 
fornmlrtte "]iro[iosals "iii accoi-dance with loc-al 

Gofjd progress has already Ixjen ma<lo towards 
organising tlu>s<- areas in which suit-able conditions 
obt«in. Some ojipr^ition has been raised to the 
scheme on teclini<al grounds, and the jiei-sonal 
element is an important foatui-e of tlu; iiroblem, 
as station engineers and managers in souk- cases 
■ are somewhat dubioas as to their prosp<^c1s tnider 
the propiised regime, seeing that the inevitalile 
tendency would be Inwards the gi-adual convt^sioii 
<>{ the smaller installations into distributing 
stations, and the concent'i-ation of geix-ratiiig plant 
in lar;.'.- station- a result highly desirable from 
tin- national point of view, but not necessaiily 
attrwlive. Uj tin- individual. The economies tbat 
would be realisi-d. however, would so materially 
rediicc the cf^-it of supply that in all iirobalnliiy 
the output would in no long time be gicatly 
increjified, and tli<- jiositions of t-liese (-ngiiieoi-s 
would Ix; corr<'spondingly improved, • while the 
financial returns erf their imdcrtakings would 
benefit, with a<^ivant4ige to themselves. 

As rr^ajxls tin- technical objections, the fiu-t 
that not f/nly in other countries, but also in this 
cotinfry, t!i' int. i.onnectioji of generating 8t«t ions 
ii.i-, i/<. n ..ID, i .lit witJi pr«;at advantage dis- 
'"'"'"'- ''•'"■ " ■ 'i • xpcrimcnts actuallv 

'■»"■'"' ^"' ' I two of the stations 

m.Sour!iL;u. satisfaet^jrv results. 

Tbo chi'-f it^-iii ot ..,. tbat will in- nec<-s- 

sary Lh tlio (-"si oi . r-tiiig cables; but Uio 

Tre«8ur\ hw proiuiood linaucial aasisUnoe, and, 

moreover, the cost' of t.he cables will be quickly 
recouped by the savuig in fuel and labour, and 
the reduction in capital cost of generating plant. 


Aparb lioiM the question of linking-up, the 
necessity of economising fuel has received a great 
deal of attention during tiic past. year. Tlie fact 
that the methods of generating electrical energy 
at present in vogue, although vastly improved 
in efficiency in compiU'ison with the conditions of 
ten years ago, are gi-eatly deficient in that they 
fail to utilise the fuel to the best advantage, ha.s 
l>een univei-sally recognistHl, and committees have 
been appointed by the British Association, the 
(lo\ eminent, and other bodies to take steps to- 
wards amendment in this respect. The funda- 
mental fact is that by the direct combusti<jn of 
coal under boilei-s the whole of the valuable by- 
j>r(xlucts are wasted. The only remedy foa- tliis 
is to gasify the bulk of the coal, preferably at a 
low temperature, and to recover the by-i>roducts, 
l)imiing the gas under t.he boilcre. Not only would 
this practice achieve the desired object, it would 
also revolutionise the oi'ganisation of the boiler- 
house, and greatly simplify the control of the 
steam-raising ))lant. New problems would, how- 
ever, have to l>e dealt wil'li in coimection wit'h 
the gasifying i>lant', and it would l)e necessiU'y not 
only to bm"n the gas obtained from the cairbon- 
ising process, but also to gasify a large pi-oportion 
of the resulting coke, and consume it in the same 
maimer, as otherw ise an immense quantity of coal 
would have to hv handled, and the output of coke 
would be vastly in excess of the re<|uirenients of 
the market. On the other hitnd, tiic soft coke 
resulting from the carbonisation of coal at a 
inrKlerate temperature, unlike the hard coke pro- 
duced in gasworks, inakes an excellent smokeless 
fuel for domestic jiurposes, and in time a large 
demand would spring up from this quiU'ter, 
especially if the use of coal in oj)en gi'ates were 
restricted by(Uivernment action. 

It will bo soien that tlie i)rol)lcm ]>resents many 
aspects, without touching upon the que-stion of ■ 
generating electrical energy at the coalfields, and 
similar j>rojects. Changes must-be tentative and 
gradual, but that changes will come at no distant- 
date ai»poai"s to be beyond question. 

l^L'ESTIO.VS OF M.\N.\<ii;MK.\r. 

The altered conditions have naturally affected 
the cost f)f production of electrical energy very 
materially, and the movement towai'ds higher 
prices, which was in progi-ess in 191/5, has con- 
tinued throughout the past year. The high cost 
of coal has especiallv alTccted the supply of enerxy 
for motive power, and the pric«'s for the latter in 
many cases have been put up 2') per cent. The 
increase in the case of lighting supply, which 
d<'i)ends to a less extent upon the co^t of fuel, 
has been in the neighbourhood of 10 per cent as 
a rule, but in every ease Kxal conditions have 
plavi'd an iiiij)oi-tant part in the matter, and wid<> 
variatifius are shown Ix'tween ditf«M-cnt niider- 
takings. The same applies to the gross and iiett 
profits rocord<'d, sonie to^vns having made larger 
profits than ever h.-forc, wliih' others show a deficit 
on the \ear's working. 

Among other bent-fits deri\<'d from tbe war has 
Ix-en the establishment of new industries in this 
country in which electrical energy plays an ess^wn. 
tial part, as in electro-chemical prfK;ess<'«, refining 
st4-el in electric fnrnat'cs, and ><> <m. There is a 
iniignificeiit field for develoj>menl in this class 
of industries, |»artieularly wheie, as has been done 
in some cases, arrangements can be inad(^ i<> cut 
off the supply during the time of peak loa/I <>n 
the generating plant. By this means it is jif^siijle 
to maint-ain tlie deniaiul at an approxiniat<'ly con- 
stant value, an ideal condition which (nablcs the 
engineer to produce elocti-icaJ energy at minimum 

JaNUarv 2C. 1917. 



C(^l. Another por^i^ihle opening for olfolcii-ity 
supply is slowly gaining appreciation — naanely, 
for agi-iculturaJ j)iirj)OSt'S. How u>;ofi)l eloftricits 
pan 1)0 made on farms is l:)ettt>r realised abroad 
than in this conservative country, hut already, al> 
TTereford, very substantial ])r<jigivss has l)een 
made, with gi"atifving lesults, and there is giKxl 
reason t-o believe that e<jually g<Hxl result^; can 
and wiJl be obtained in other districts. At the 
Jncori)orated Municipal Elecirical Assrxiation 
meeting in June a jiaper on this subjectv, read 

by Mr. W. 'J". A. Kerr, city electrical engineer ()f 
Hereford, f>n the uses of electricity in agi-icultui'e, 
together with the discussion which followed, Wius 
the outfit anduig feature oi the gathering. 

With flie informal inaugiu-ation of a ])ublic 
supply of electricity by the borough council of 
Bethnal Creen in June, that^ auMiority ha>s at. 
canned a gotod intention into effect and has ended 
the reproacli t.hat it was the only ^letropolitan 
iiorough in which electricity could not be 


The j.asi year has lu . n i.uc i.t great diMiculty 
for surveyors in all parts of the country. Staffs 
have been so further depleted that it has only 
been possible to "" carry on " by working at high 
pressure, and to a gi-eat extent it has beeii 
impossible to maintain the high .standard of 
ctiicieucy which existed in pre-wai- times. Many 
of our large towns have suffered enormously, as 
can be judged fivmi a report recently made by 
the city engineer of Javer|KX)l, Mr. J. A. Brodie, 
M.i.vsT. ('.!■;., in which he st^itcs that eigiity-five of 
ln"s staff luive either been killed or died of wounds 
or sickness at tiie Frf>nt. Not only have losses 
been suffered for military purpf>ses, i)ut the lui'e 
of the high pay to be obtained in numition works 
throughout tbe coimtry has attracted many of the 
best wmknien on the surveyoi-s' staffs. 

The ciw for '" war economy " has led ujany 
councils to cut down road expenditure to an 
extent which in some causes has brought, the roads 
to the destruction i>(«int. Even where money has 
been fortiicdming, materials have been difficult to 
f>btain, and in otiier cases where mat«-rials could 
be obtained it lias been impossiiile to olH,ain the 
lal)oiu- to them (»n tlie roads. At a time when 
tar lias been cheaper than for many years past, 
labour has been so scarce that few surveyoi-s have 
been able to use it to tbe extent they have desired. 
\\'omen have to some extent replaced men for 
tilt! work of tar-painting, but the suj)ply has not 
i)eeu equal to the demand. Coupled with the 
scaicity of labour, W(> have had an abnormally 
wet sea.son, so that the ditficiilty experienced in 
kee[)ing tbe roads t-ven in a fair condition has 
lu'come increasingly great. November, during 
whicli 9 in. of rain fell, was the wettest month 
U>v many years, and following a wet autunm many 
tur-])ainted roads liave got into a. dei)lorable 


In addition to the trouble caused,by the scarcity 
of labour and materials, and the weather, many 
roads have had to carry a greatly increased traffic, 
especially in munition centres:, near camps, and at 
our lai'ge industrial towns and seaports. The greatly 
increased use of heavy m<jtor wagons, conse<]ueiU. 
upon the connnandeering of the railways by the 
Go\erinuent, has shown the great need foi' betl<'r 
and stronger foundations than are found on most 
of our main roads, es]»ecially in the rural dis- 
tricts. Much g(X)d work had been done in this 
direction in the \ears just Ijcfore the war, and it 
was only the improved condition of these roads 
that has enabled them to eaiTv this increased 
traffic without showing serious signs of deteriora- 
tion. This is in many cases mereh living on 
capital, and, uidess st^ps are taJvcn to preserve a 
fairly high stajidard of maintenance, we nmst pay 
heavily in the near future for the repair of tiu' 
damage due t^> our present neglect. That there is 
neglect, due in most cases to cu'cunistances which 
neither tiie councils nor their surveyors can con- 
trol, is bevond dispiUe, and it is difficult to see 
how we ai'c to get our roads back to their pre-war 
condition unless the War l.oan is followed by .-i 
Road Loan. 

The Pioad Board's income has been liu'gelv 

ap])ropriated for war jiurposes, and tli.' sixiii 
aiuuial report of the board shows that ap])licalion 
for only J£31CI,2()1— of which .£297,038 was for 
impi-ovement of road crusts — was made during the 
year which ended on March yist last. Compared 
with the jirevious vear, this shows a decrease of 
£l,()91,iK);i, and of i2, 283, 544 compared with 
1913-14. Jn February last yeai- the Ketrench- 
ment Committee suggested that all grants for 
road im))rovenients sliould be entirely suspended, 
and tlie board onl_\- sanctioned loans or gi-ants tV>r 
19l(i-17 of i2(K),0b(), and that mainly for refined- 
tar treatment. The l)Oar(l have CiU-ried out a large 
amount of road making for the military autho- 
rities in the neighbourlH»od of camps, and tliey 
have also done similar work for the Admiralty and 
the Ministry of Munitions. The estimated c<jst 
of this work" up to June .3()th last is £1,809,021. 

Forced economy has led siu'veyoi's to adopt 
ma.ny uniisual shifts to maintain their roads in 
a decent, usable condition. Cheaper materials, 
especially foi- foundations, have been largely used. 
Tlu^ success with the use of tarred clinker for 
foundations has caus<!d it to be much used, and 
MJien surfaced with a harder material, such as 
Mexphalte, as at Ib^i-nsey and other places, it. has 
been very successful. It has also been u.sed for 
surfacing lightly trafficked streets more largely, 
though this can h.ardiy be considered a novelty 
when we take into consideration the munber of 
yciu-s Mr. F. lioberls has employed it at Worthing. 

Further ecf)nomy has been practised by many 
surveyoi-s by cutting their old, worn wood i)locks 
or stone setts, and tins, with tholiigh ])rice of wood 
blocks and stone setts, represents a great. sa\ ing. 
Though these methods are wise and necessaj-y 
imder j)reseut conditions, the questi(jn arises as 
to how far the use of a materia.1 liice tari'cd clinker 
for surfiu-ing roads can be justified in normal 
times. If there is a moderately heavy traffic a 
nuitcaial that vmies so greatly in its strength and 
consistency as clinker does cannot have a long 
life, and, as the quantity of tar recpiired for a 
himgry nuiterial like, clinker is nuich greater than 
that needed for tarred slag or gi'anitt', and labour 
for mixing will not be less than that lequired for 
tbe harder materials, the question of durability 
has to be carefully wtiighed against the cheaiuiess 
of clinker. True economy can only be obtained 
l)v a careful consideration of all the liX'al circum- 
stances, and the experience of the siu'veyor an<l 
a good knowledge of local circunistances nmst l)e 
the main factors in arriving at a decision as to 
whether it is true economy or nf>t to use cheap 
or more costly materials. 


\i the annual meeting oi the Institutio)i of 
Mvmicipal and County Enghieers held at Black- 
pool last year, two very interesting and practical 
])apers on roads were read by Mr. Aniall, of the 
city engineer's department, Birmingham, and 
^Ir. W. H. Schofield, comity sur\eyor of Lan- 
cashire. Mr. Arnall's paper was a departure from 
the gcnei'al run of road papej*s, and for that reason 
was the more valuable and interesting. While 
many papers have deidt with the constructive 
side of roiwl nuiking, very few have dealt with ik 


.Tani ARY 2r>. 1!H7. 

from tlie purely destructive side, as Mr. Arnalls 
paper on "" Tlie Destruction of a .Macndam Road 
does. It is very necessary that \vo should know 
till- fflotors nhich make for the destruction of our 
roads if we are to he ahle to lay tluin with a 
reasoned confidence in their durahility. 

Attention was called to the great lunount of 
interstitial wear which takes place in a road, and 
which is shown by the rounded condition of (lie 
stones found when a macadam road is picked up 
oi scarified. The dt-pth of the material at which 
the intei-stitial wear ceasis will depend \ipon the 
w«'ioht of the l<3a«ls and the oharaoter and width 
of tlie tyres. This internal attrition is found to 
he very much less in tar-macadam or l)ituminous 
roads, in which the tar or l)itumen tills uj) the 
interstices better than is the case with ordinary 
macadam, ;uid ])rovides a resilient cushion which 
absorbs the siu'fact' shocks. The imj)ortance C)f 
usinj; various sized -atones so as to prevent voids, 
and tlie ne**essity for keeping water out of Isu- 
maeadam weiv also pointed out.. Water is the 
f,'re«t enemy of the tar-painted or tar-macadam 
rimd. Dampness, on the other hand, is gO(xl for 
ordinaiy macadam i-(:>ads, but too much wet 
destroys all tin- cementing projierties of the bind- 
ing nntterial, and tiiis is esj^ecially the case witli 
stone or bindeis having day in their compfjsition. 
Clay, being greasy, moves about uJider the weight 
of heavy traffic, and K-:ids to a corrugated surface. 
Weak tar has somew hat the same effect, and wave 
action and corrugated surfaces ale iiuich more 
common in tar-niaeadam roads than in ordinary 


Potholes are a source of annoyance to most siu- 
Vfvors, for they occur in nearly all roads. They 
are generally stait<'d by the iiction of horses' hoofs, 
i-oupled with weakness in the road due to une(]ual 
density of material or imjjerfect rolling. A rr)ad 
made (d varying density, especially where the 
stoiif used is of small sizes, frequently goes into 
a series of jjotholcs sfx>n after it has been made. 
Though more oft«-n met with in macadam and 
tar-macadam roads, they are also to be found in 
wood paving and as|.halted roads, due in the ease 
of wood setts to soft or improjierly seasoned blocks 
giving way, and in the case of asphalt to de- 
pre.ssions caust-d by wave action or coiTugation. 

In Mr. Arimll's opinion it is the hammer-like 
action of wheels when they meet a depression in 
tlie road, which makes the wheels bump and jolt. 
that causes the pothol.-s. The friction of rubijcr 
tyres on roads, he says, is enonnous, causing the 
rnbl>er to grip the stone and cairy it along witli 
it. Hie stones in front are pushed forward antl 
raitwurds at the sides, until the axle comes over 
any one of them, then the movement is reversed, 
and the stones in tlie centre are gradually pulled 
bar-k. and thrjse at the sides inward; but the 
irotible is that they have all been displaced, and 
no stone i« pulled back into it« old plac«. They 
are vif>lently disturW-d, left loose, and the surface 
is disintegrated, the stone l>eing " shaketi out ' 
rather than "sucked out" by the tyres. The 
reniedy is constant attention and n-pairs to these 
boh-s an KOf.n »w they api>ear, and this can only 
be done by a cementing material rrf a bituminous 

Tlie eaw with which tar-macadam can be used 
to repair holes in ordinary maradam has led to 
■ueral adoption, but care is required in 
to see tluit the holes are well cleared 
lit, are dry. and filled with fairly laige 
' fui to avoid undiK- shrinkage or con- 
Though this methrid is easy and 
effective for a time, it is not always successful 
f»r economical. The tnr-mncadam is of a denser 
clii.r.wter than the .siiiTounding macadam, and in 
H sh,rt time the rJd miuudam goes into holes, and 
the last state is very much worse than the first. 

An interesting point brought out during the dis- 
(ussion on this paper wa* the great difference in 
the wearing vabu- of stone in the form of setts 
and broken uji a> maeadajii. Mr. GuUan, of 
Belfast, said tiiat a sett would ten times as 
long as it would if broken up as macadam, and 
fhat sealing the voids with a bituminous binder 
gave a life of five times the life of ordinary mac- 
adam. That was. liecause the stone was held uj) 
to its work. This view was endorsed by Mr. 
Arnall, who said there weie granite-paved roads 
in Birmingham which had been down for fifty 
years. They were O-in. setts, and had not worn 
half an incii. If it had been put on as broken 
stone they would liave had to i)Ut on ;{ in. to 4 in. 
every year and cart it off as mud. They would 
have had to put 10 ft. of stone on the road in 
that time in little bits, and scrape it off as mud. 


The paper b\ Mr. Schofield on " Improvements 
of Highways to Meet Modern Traffic ' was on 
somewhat diiYerent lines, but equaliy interesthig. 
•In calling attention to tlie great growth of the 
heavy mecluuiicall.v pio|ielled vehicles, he is able 
to speak with tlie weight, of his large experience 
of the heavy Lancashire industrial Iraliic. Despit*; 
the fiovernment s eonimaudcoring of all the heavy 
jnotor wagons that were being made when tlu! 
war broke out., and many of those in actuaJ use, 
or that have been Iniilt since, Mr. Schofield said 
tiiat on many of his main roads the heavy motor 
vehicles are now (U) j)er cent more than they were 
before the war (iommonced. On the Manchester 
and Liverpriol I'oad the increase during the past 
five years had i)een sevenfold. The effect of this 
increased heavy motor traffic on the rural roads 
is disftstuous, as they were never constructed t<^ 
carry such heavy loads and at such high speeds 
as tliese vehicles travel at. It is found that most 
driveis take advantage of the clearer roads in the 
country, and the less risk of detection, to try and 
make up for the rest.ricted speeds in the large 
towns by travellitig above the regidation speed 
when they get on the country roads. 

Sf>me interesting figures were given by Mr. 
Sehodeld as to the cost, of the reconstruction of 
these I'ural roads, so as to make them fit to caary 
present-day traffic. He estimates the cost of the 
hand-pitched rubi)le foundation, which is used on 
most of the main roads in Lancashire in the neigh- 
bourlK)^)d of large towns, with a 4-in. coat of tar- 
macadam. and a rj-in. bv 12-in. gritstone edging, 
at nearly i:2,()<X),000 for the 350 miles of rural 
main roads. This payment, spread over ten years?, 
\\oiild crwt £080 ]wv mile, apart from the cost of 
maintenance. Such a cost is prohibitive for most 
rural main roads, and the foundation is therefore 
disjjensed with, and a 4-in. coat of tar-macadam is 
relied on at a cost of £3,200 pea* mile. 

The millstone grit setts, which could formerly 
be relied on to carry the traffic, are now found 
fjiiite inaderiuate to cany the heavy loads on the 
main roads between the docks at Liverpool and 
Manchester and the large number of industrial 
towns in South Lancashire. Even granite setts 
on concrete are badly spallcd by the iron-shod 
wheels of these heavy vehicles, and it is necessary 
to bed the setts on a more resilient foundation than 
concrete, ashes or tarre^l chippings being gene- 
rally u.sed. The need fr.r the use of rubber tyres 
instead of iron-shr.d wheels wtis generally admitted 
in the discussion which took place f>n this paper. 


The question of the best material for tar- 
macadam again cropped up, with the usual divi- 
sion of opinion as t/> the merits (rf gi-aliite or slag. 
Mr. Schf^fiold and Mr. Hadficld, of Sheffield, both 
prefeiTcd slag, while Mr. Finch, tbe county sur- 
veyor of Cumberland, and other speakers pre- 
feiTed granite. Wc dealt with this matt«r so 

Januarv 2G, 1917. 



fully in our last. Aiuuuil Issue that we must odh- 
tent ourselves with pointing out. that the personal 
factor api) to he tlie ehief cause of success or 
failure. Koth mat^n-ials liave heen laid with the 
greatest success in all parts of the country, and 
l)oth have met with disastrous failures. 'J'o get 
the i)roper consistency of tar required in all situa- 
tions is very difficult', and when got, vuifortunately, 
it is not alwayA used intelligently. Too nnich or 
too little tar, too damp or over-heated stone, may 
cause the best of stone and tar to he a failure, 
(lood roa-ds can he made witli both materials by 
an experienced and careful man, thougli it does 
not follow that the\- will be suitable for the 
heaviest motor traffic. (Irauite or wood setts on 
a concrete foundation aiv still the best, and, on 
the whole, the most economical for our heaviest 
trafficked roads. 

At a meeting of the Institution of Municijial 
and County Engineers held at Hull, Mr. Brick- 
iiell, the city engineer, stated " that the tractive 
effort re(juired on a water-bound road is al)Out 
half that on tar-macadajn. " This statement was 
(|Uestioiied l)y several speakers who t<")ok part in 
the discussion on Mr. Bricknell's paper, Mr. 
Wakeford going so far as to, " Was that what 
Mr. Brickiiell meant, or should tlie statement he 
reversed'.'" Most surveyors wlio have had any 
great experience «-itli tar-macadam are aware 
that under certain conditions tar -macadam 
requii'es nuich greater tractive effort than ordinary 
macadam. It is, however, difficult to generalise 
without falling into error. The greater or less 
tractive effort required depends ui)on the quality 
and ([uantity of the tar used. If the tar contains 
too nuich of the lighter oils, or too much tar is 
used, it is bomid to work up under lieavy traiiic 
oi' in a hot sun, aitd this necessitates greater 
tractive effort. There are, however, many slag 
and granite tar-macadam roads which have such 
a hard and clean siu-face, and are so free from 
any tar trouble, that the tractive effort, is un- 
questionably less on tliem than on an ordinary 
macadam road. It has often heen pointed out in 
these cohunns that it is difficult to get a standard 
tar lit for all situations, and the ])ersonal factor 
is nowhere niore imjiortant than in the making of 
a tar-macadam road. 


.\nother matter oi great practical importance 
which has been discussed in our columns during 
I lit' past year is the (juestion of re]>airing roads in 
half-widths. The discussion arose on a statement 
niadf l)y Mr. W. \V. (jladwell, surveyor to the 
Norfolk County Council, who said " he had seen 
manv e.\anq)les of tlie work " (repairing roads in 
half-widths), " but liad never seen a good one. 
He hoped he should never be asked to do it, as 
good results could not be obtained." 

This opinion was challenged by a luunber of 
well-known surveyors, and, while everyone would 
prefer to i-epair the whole width of a road at once 
if it were possible to do so without causing in- 
convenience or danger to the i)ublic, most sur- 
veyors find that with ordinary care they are able 
to repair a maeadam or tar-maeadain road in half- 
widths which shows no signs of the joint, and 
di'velops no weakness where joined. ^lost sur- 
veyor leave the margin of the half-widtli in the 
centre of the road unrolled and bevelled otf until 
they are ready to join up with the other half-widtli 
of tlie road, and with care do so with perfect 
success. Even if tlu-re are occasional failuii's due 
to want of care or inexperience, the publie con- 
venience and safety will not i)ermit roads to hv 
blocked for any length of time in these motoring 


Concnlc roads do not make nuich licadway in 
ihis eountiA, though their use in .Vmerica is in- 

creasing at a Sluprising rate. Probably the war 
is largel3' responsible for tliis failure. In such a 
wet season as the past it ought to have been 
possible to make roads of this material with a 
greater chance of success than tar-macadam roads. 
Mr. Matthews Jones, who wa.s one of the first 
road engineers to use this material for surf dicing 
roads, said, in the discussion on Mr. Arnall's 
paper at Blackpool, that granite must i)e bound 
with some material that would keep it in i)osition, 
and that cement was better than tar for this pur- 
pose. He said lliere were no ])otholes in the con- 
crete roads he had constructed four years ago, but 
in rejjly to i\Ir. Wakelani he admitted that the 
traffic on these roads was very lights — some 80 to 
120 tons i)er day. This hai"dly affords a basis for 
judging the weai'ing capacity of concrete, for 
many tar-macadam roads carrying much heavier 
traffic have been down twice as long and .still 
remain in good condition. 

^Ir. (Jiiapman, whose experiments with con- 
crete roads on the London to Dover road promised 
to be so useful to engineers, said the traffic on 
this road was 1,000 tons per twenty-four hours, 
and, as they could not close the road while the 
exi)eriments were being made, the 1,000 tons 
was concentrated on tlie 10 ft. of road left open. 
As a result the concrete was badly damaged 
tlirough the lieavy traffic. " Tar-spraying, which 
^Ir. Jones applied to his concrete roads, would 
not be very successful if he applied it to a road 
carrying any traffic," was Mr. Chapman's opinion. 
Tar serves the very useful purpose of keeping 
down the dust and filling up the ugly cracks found 
in so many concrete surfaces. An interesting 
statement made by Mr. Chapman was that rough- 
graded concrete (G to 1) would not stand the com- 
jiression of exceedingly heavy traffic, and was not 
a success, but a richer concrete (8 to 1) was as 
good as when it was first laid. 

Of more than passing interest to road engineers 
is the proposal to construct a i-einforced-conciete 
causeway, 20 miles long, to connect Ceylon to the 
Indian mainland, at a cost of £740,000. Of this 
20 miles, 7 miles would be on the dry land of 
the sand baulcs or islands, and Vi miles in the 
sea, caiTied on reinforced-concrete piles. The 
])ile5 would support concrete slabs as sheet-piling, 
whicli would be filled in with sand to provide a 
causeway G ft. above high-water mark. 


The Government's appeal in November last lor 
road engineers and roadmen to join a Road 
Battalion for Service in France, under Mr. H. P. 
Maybury as Brigadier-General, met with a 
splendid response so far as the engineers were 
concerned. Many engineers who had been hitherto 
barred from giving their services to their country, 
owing to beingover military age, or through their 
councils refusing to let thein enlist, gladly offered" 
their services. Far more volunteers were found 
than it was possible to provide with commissions, 
and some disappointment and considerable in- 
convenience has been experienced by many men 
who had obtained the sanction of their councils 
to go to France, and then found that their ser- 
vices were not likely to be required. Tlie un- 
generous suggestion has been made in some 
quarters that it is owing to the Road Batt^ilioii 
being a non-combatant corps tliat so many have 
volunteered to serve in it. Tiiis is extremely 
unfair, for when we have universal service tln'iv 
must be a good reason why men, and especially 
young men, are not in the Army. It has been 
in many cases a cruel blow for a young fellow to 
find hiniself medically rejected, often on trifling 
grounds, or, what is even more galling still, to 
find his council or his chief refusing to let him 
go int<i the Army on the ground that they con- 
sidered him indispensable. We lue (juit<' sun- 
that the men wlio have joined this new biitt:di.«n. 



.Tanivry 2r.. ifir 

auii are to liave charge of the poustruction and 
inaintenauce «{ the r. .ad^ ivquired for use bv tlie 
Brithih furoes in Fiance, are as patriotic and self- 
denying Mr^ thiKc men wiio are fthoiuly fighting' 
.in the trenches, and that their \yoi-k will he as 
nece-J<;arv and important :i-; fightinj'. Tiiev uill 

have to face tlie discomfort and hard work of 
campaigning, and they deserve the sympathy and 
givxl wishes of all wlio st*y at home.' We fe^l 
snro tiioy will not only do very useful work, 
hvit will add fresh lu^nonrs t^ t.ho jirofession of tlie 
iiiunieipal enfjiiii'ei-. 


The housing prolileui lias heeii very nuich under 
discussion during the past twt»lve months, uwing 
to the conditions cre-!il<jd hy the ereotjon of so 
many nuuiitiun wurks in ditTereiit. pai'ls of tlie 
country. Large additif)ns luive he^n made to tlu- 
existing industrial populations of many of our 
towns, and in oilui' ca-es large communities liave 
had to be provided for on sites far removed from 
the old industrial areas. The Government, who 
have tludugh the Ministry of Munitions proctd- 
cally stoppecl all building, except, for munition 
works, and si<ipped. nearly all loans for public 
works, have recognised the need and importance 
of liousing schemes by sanctioning' loans for the 
\ear ini;")-l(> of £rir)4,828 for housing inuniti<)n 
workers in varitais centreij. This is practically 
lialf of the wlnU- sum sanctioned f<>r loans for all 
j)urpo«es. Tiiis su?n is, liowever, quite inadii<juale 
to meet the netnls «-ven of the nuuiition workers. 
and does not provide fur fho needs of the mining, 
wixillen, boot, clothing, and other industries, 
wliich have been extremely basy producing goods 
which aie as neoessary for the proper cam'ing on 
of the war as tiie making of numitoous. 

The reason for the scarcity of houses is too well 
known to call for nuich couunent. While recent 
legislation had for some yeius before the war been 
the most important factor in stopping speculative 
building, the greatly increased cost of laboiu- and 
materials since, and the ris«< in the rate of inte- 
rest, iiad practically given it its death-blow before 
the Minister of Mimitioiis issued orders that no 
liuilding costing (jver iiidO wa.s to be built with- 
out being sanctioned by his department. 

Whether it would be [)ossible t<j build cottages 
to-day at u j<rotil , oven if labour and materials 
were forthcoming, is very doubtful: but with 
labour and materials piactically all commandeered 
for munition works and tlio accommodation of 
nniuition workers, it is very evident that the 
provisioH of cottages must either be carried out 
as a Ciovernment measure or by a company or 
comnmnity in reveij)! of a Oovernment subsidy. 

Tlio need foi- cottages is felt throughout the 
country, though it is most pressing in nnmition 
and mining centres. In the South Wales coaJ- 
tield it is said that 2;j,(>(K) houses are wanted at 
once, and tlnit 40,0fKj will be required after the 
wai-. At Swansea there are l.fXK) persons with 
tiieir names on the houseagent«' books waiting 
for hoases which are not likely to become vacant 
until after tiie war. At W(v>Iwich, where the 
Oftir- • of Works have erect^^l houser^ to accommo 
date l,H(K) families on the Well Hall Estate-, it 
ha« Ix-en found necessaiy to Hupplement this by building 2,000 iiiits, and jno- 
viding hostels for women workers. The demand 
f'lr houses in Carhsle, caused by the Wfjrkers from 
'ii-etim, has ff.rced up the rent "for cottag«'s from 
•'!- fid. to Khi. per week. In Huddersfield, where 
I'.i tish Dvert. Limited, have erected works to 
' iiqloy from 2<»,(lOU to .'>0,(K)0 hands, it Iian be/;n 
f.,iiiid nr-rr^inry to hf>use the lat>t«r in wooden 
hufs At Slif tVi.-ld a " Box and Cox " aiTangement 
i4 -till ill \n^[u- in the lodging-liouses. mid (he 
f iMiiies f.f munitif.n workers have U> find aecom- 
■■' iiition in the adjoining towns and village*. 
1 :i Barrow, Coventry, and many other j/laces 
sill iiir reports are ref^«^ived. 

It is very evident that, iJthough tliese fniini- 
tion works are (4 a t^mjiorai-y character, many of 
them are likely to bocome permanent, and the 

(inestion uijl haxr to be faced as tf> liow tliey 
are to W dealt willi in a satisfnctoiv and 
economical manner. In Gl.isgow the city council 
have built a block of tweiit.y-four single-rooim'd 
tenements in the t'alton area, which liiev have 
furnished and let at 6s. |>er week to pivviiie t.iii- 
poraiT shelter for married couples 


The superiority of the cottage over ilie. tene- 
ment is now generally admitted in England, but 
it is still disput*>d in many influential quarters in 
Scotland. Sir .lohn Lindsay, the town clerk of 
Gla.sgow, jtresiding at a housing confereiK'c, said 
he prefeiTed tlie Scottish tenement to the English 
self-contained house, and, although he was told 
l)y a speaker who followed him 'that " if he pre- 
ferred a tenement he should live in one," and 
another speaker said they " ought to thank the 
town clerk for his very interesting and misleiulinfi 
address," he still stuck to his guns, and a reso- 
lution in favour of cottages had to be withdrawn. 
Mr. Jas. Thomson, (he city engineer of Dundee, 
said " London jieople did nob know what a tene- 
ment was. " On ilie other hand, Mr. Ross Young, 
the town planning «Migineer foi- the I\liddle Ward 
of Lanarkshire, who should know what a tene- 
ment is, considers t^he Scottish tenement " a 
national blunder, ' and says "the death-knell of 
the tenemental system should be pronounced a.s 
si)eedil^- as possible." 

In England t.he tenement or block 'system is 
confined to Ijondon and a few of our larger towns, 
but few housing experts favour it if it is possible 
to ereet cottages in the district economicalU. 
On exi>ensiv6 sites everyone I'ecognises that 
cottages cannot be erected to let at an economic 
rent. It is only dear land wliieh makes a builder 
erect these huge barracks, and we rai-ely find an 
English local authority adopting the tenement 
system in these days. The greater thickness of 
walls, the loss of floor si)ace, the increased cost 
of labour as one gets liigher, the inconvenience 
and loss of time to tenants^, and the absence of 
privacy, offset the cost of a greater quantity of 
land and the increased road charges and cost of 
fencing which aj'e necessary in the self-contained 
cfjttage or villa. Wherever land is fairly reason- 
iilile there is no excuse for tenement*. 


It is, liowever, necessary to recogni.<^. that 
private enterprise is not likely to provide a tithe 
of the cfjttages rcfjiiired for housing the workei"s 
of this country, and that the State must step in 
and build the cottages or assist the Ifx-al autho- 
rities to build them In ndvancing money either 
free for a. time or at a low rale of interest for 
a Ifvng perifKl. Mr. Walter Long, m.p., before he 
left the Lfxal (iovernmcnt Boai-d, in meeting a 
d«-putation from the Housing and Town Planning 
<'ongies8, n^'reed that the sum of £20,000,000, 
wliich the Government wa« asked to set aside for 
tJie provision of working-class houses, might not 
be Hufliciont to jirovide the decent liranes which 
ii was the duty f.f the nation to provide for oiu' 
soldiers when they came home. It is estimated 
that JOO.OtK) eottiig.s are wanted immodialel\', 
and of this number 120,000 are wanted in the 
rural districts. 

.The question of cc,sl is a very important fiutor, 
which will vary considerably according to tin 
l<K-alily in which cottages ai'o built. Thanks to 
Gfivernment assistance, the Irish cottager has a 

Januvrv -If,. l!in 


comfortable and ^<anital•y cottage provided for liiin 
at a rent of from Is. 2d. to Is. 4d. per week, and 
the buildings compare very favoiu'ably with any 
cottages provided by an I']nglisli or Scottish autho- 
ritj'. In these countries the rents vai-y fi-om 
8s. (id. to 10s. per week, but the cottages ai-e 
generally larger and better built than the Irish 
cottages, though the difference in cost does not 
represent a difference in value froni the point of 
view of accommodation. 


Many demands ha^■e been made by architects 
and builders for a revision of the building by-laws 
so that cheaper cottages may be built. While 
many municii)al engineers sympatliise with the 
deshe to cheapen building, the great majority feel 
that on sanitary and construetiona.1 grounds it is 
very difficult and somewhat dangerous to make 
any sweeping alterations in the by-laws relating 
to new streets and dwelling-houses. 

At Sheffield a committee appointed to cousider 
the revision of the by-laws have reconunended a 
immber of alterations and vai'iations for the period 
of the war and for two years after, a.nd that 
before tlie expiration of this 'period it. should lie 
.considered wliether the alterations made should 
become permanent. The nuiiii alterations whieii 
they Teconunend are to allow certain party walls 
under iJO ft. higli to have a thickness at the lowest 
fioor of Si in., insteiid of I'd in., and to reduce 
the thickness of the e,vtenial walls of water-closets 
from 8^ in. to 4^ in., if the brickwork is built in 
cement. The sizes of the timber are to be left 
to the builder; subject to the sizes being satis- 
factory', presumably to the siu'veyor or building 
inspector. Skylights in attics are iwcepted as 
windows, instead of reciuirmg a vertical dormer 
window. \\'iudows in water-closets are un- 
necessary if sufficient light and ventilation can 
be obtained otiienvise. The couuuittee suggest 
that further economies caii be made : — 

(1) By omitting cellars and substituting pantries 
and coal-houses on or near the ground-Hoor level. 

(2) By the use of reinforced-coucrete walls. 

(3) By making the height of the rooms on tho 
first floor to be 7 ft. G in. at the eaves. 

(4) By using lusbestos slates for roofs, instead 
of slates. 

The Local Government Board of Scotland are 
erecting hi the Vale of Leven tlu-ee-room-aud-, 
kitchen cottages in concrete, with external walls 
a in. thick, strengthened at intervals with 9-in. 
piers. Another experiment is the erection of con- 
crete cottages with hollow walls, consisting of 
2iV-iu. and 3-in. concrete slabs, with a 3-in. 
cavity. The slabs are rough-cast outside and 
plastered inside, and the cottages have slated 
roofs. Standardisation of doore, windows, and ■ 
iittings, and building in sufficient numbers, must 
be adopted if cheap cottages are to be erected. 
Where slag heaps or gravel pits are plentiful, con- 
crete cottages should be built cheaply, and where 
neither slog nor gi-avel can be obtained easily, 
tiiere are many places where clinkers can be used 
with satisfactory results, both from a constiiic- 
lional and economic point of view. 


In the last of the interesting lectures on town 
planning, which helms recently delivered at Uni- 
versity College, London, and which we repro- 
duced in our issue of January 5th of this yeai'. 
Prof. Adshead insists that- housing will never 
await town planning, and that local authorities, 
without waiting for the promised Government 
grant, should prepai-e a comprehensive plan of 
their areas, so that they can find sites for cottages' 
without completing a detailed town [)Ianniiig 
Kcheme. This is sound advice, and will doubtless 
be followed by the majority of the siu-veyors who 

are likely to have to prepare housing schemes. He 
proceeds, however, to have the usual architect's 
fling at tho capacity of the surve\'or and his staff 
who may be called upon to prepare such schemes. 
He sa3'S : "I presume that if permission were 
granted (he surveyor and his staff", who,are certainly 
not qualified to undertake such work-, would at once 
set about and make the plans. " He tlien proceeds 
to say that his own view is " that we want a 
standard cottage, or two dozen standard cottages, 
propai'ed by a Government depai'tment in con- 
jmiction with the big building trade manufacturers 
and builders, and with the best architectural 
advice, and adapted to gai'den city principles. 
The local authorities, most of whom are quite 
incapable of preparinff a design for a cottage, 
should only be empowered to adopt these, and 
that should be a condition of the grant." 

To deal with the last portion of the Professor's 
views (which have the tnae Teutonic autocratic 
and dogmatic ring) first, one wonders how lie will 
fare at tlie hands of his brother architects, who 
ai-c always ready to protest against anything in 
the shape of official design and standardisation as 
destroying originality, and incidentally depriving 
tliem of theh" fees. In oui' last Annual Issue we 
called attention to the heai'tbuniing caused in 
tlic ai'chitectural world by the Government doing 
the very thing which Prof. Adshead now advo- 
cates. The designs published by the Government 
in 1915 for rural cottages were met with a strong 
protest from the Society of Architects, and were 
stigmatised as " stockpot " designs in the ai'clii- 
tectural Press. The Government not onlj- did not 
lieed this protest, but administered a well-merited 
snub to the ai'ohitects by telling them that most 
rural cottages wevc designed by land agents and 
surveyors, aud they were not inclined to deter- 
mine that none but ai-chitect^ are qualified to do 
this work. 

To turn to tlie Professor's statement that the 
survejor and his staff are not qualified to design 
a cottage, we consider that the many housing 
schemes which we have illustrated in our columns 
during the past year clearly disprove such a state- 
ment. It is true that they may not possess the 
artistic merit of the Georgian houses designed by 
Prof. A3shead for the Prince of Wales at Kenning- 
ton, but a sense of fitness and a projjer regard for 
economy would naturally prevent any municipal 
surveyor from adopting the style and materials 
which the Professor thought fit to employ for his 
distinguished client. One would liardlj- expect 
the average cottager to appreciate the Ionic 
pi' asters, neo-Grec ornament, domed turret, and 
fountain and statuai-y, which rescue the Kenning- 
ton buildings from the commonplace, every-day 
type of building they otherwise would have been. 
The style is one of " studied simplicity," but a 
simplicity which is certainly not economical, for, 
like a well-cut coat or a tailor-made gown, such 
simplicity costs more than far more gorgeous 
clothes or elaborate designs. 

Circulai'-headed windows and geometrically 
curved window sashciJ, tracericd verandahs, orna- 
mental ii-onwork iialconies and doorways, and 
classic porches and lialustrades may be Prof. 
Adshead 's ideas of what is suitai)le and fitting for 
a working-class dwelling, but the surveyor who 
was foolish enough to present such a design to 
his council would soon have to look out for 
another post. 

Prof. Adslioad is generally so fair aud iirnad- 
minded that we cannot help thinking he lias 
suffered a temporar\ lapse fi'om his usual genial 
mamicr. Sm'veyurs are not constantly reminding 
him and other architects who wish to monopolise 
town planning that they would be better cmj)loyed 
on their own special work of building than talking 
vezy largo about such engineering works as roads 
and bridges. Municipal engineers lecoguisc that 



January 2C, 1917. 

t.hcio suv s.iiiie iuvliit<rt> who may know some- 
tliiiijj oftlu-so I'Hgiiioti in^' i>robleins, just as some 
siii\»'\(>rs cHU l>f jriKi<»(l .to dosigii a housuig 


Tlie rostl'frlioiis on tlie hnildin^j; iijuU- 1j;iv.' 
pitictioally pnt nn oud lo neuiK" all kinds of muni- 
cipal huildiiif;. St-veval iinpoi-taait Imildings liave 
heon romjiletfd during tlu^ juust year, but very 
little new work was starti'd, and tiuit only of an 
urgent sanitary cliara«ter, for housing, or foi- ]»ro- 
viding light or power for iniuiition woi'ks. 

Early in the year the need foi- )ii6n foi- ertxM- 
iug muuitiou works oaus.d the Ministry of Muni- 
lions to st<:»jj work ou tli<- ulw London t'ouuly Hall. 
No patriouc fitizeii ean object lo the men l>eing 
taken away, even from siicli an imptirtiuit build- 
ing as tliis, if they are required for work of so 
unich more pre>ssing luitionnJ inipoitttuee as that 
of erecting munition works. Everything else must 
l>e subordinated to winning the war, and. though 
man.\ people will regret llie stojipage oif this and 
other important buildings, such as the London 
Water lioiu'd ofiices, none will quesljon the 
wisdom of the Minister of Munitions acting a.s he 
has done at sueii a lime. 

Ilospit^ils |)n»bably come next in importduce t<j, 
even if they d'» not rival, the munition works, for 
the pro|)er treatment and housing of our sick and 
wounded soldiers must take precedence of any 
buililijtg which is merely couceriied with the civic 
amenities or the sanitajy needs of the atay-at- 
home pnl)lic. The piocess of converting some of 
oui' tinest nian.sions and largest liotels into 
lioNj«itals iia-s been continued, and tlie Duke of 
Wesiminsiers jialatial country seat, Eaton Hnli, 
and the Star iuid Garter Hotel, Hiciimond, are 
among the buildings to be used as hos])itals. 
The very fine town iiali for the Wallasey Coimcil, 
which was comi)leted during the past aut.umn, 
has also been devoted to hospit«J purj)o«es. At 
liradfoi'd a war hospital of a temjiorary character 
to lucommodaftj 1,'iUJ beds has been erected. New 
infirmary buildings, erected at a cost of £l8,tt()U. 
were r)j)ened at Arl^roath last April, and a new 
inrtrmary, accommodating with staff ITH persons, 
wiv! o|M>ned at Eye, SufYolk, in 8epteml)er 


S.-veral l>aths have been completed and opened 
during (lie jcist year. Among these may bo men- 
tioned the r<.'coust ruction of "the Koyal Baths at 
liath. which were oj)oued by Field-Marshal Lord 
I-Veneh in Eebruaiy last. These buildings include 
three deep baths, two being fitted for chairs, three 
recliniug-rooms for special douches, six for inas- 
.-iige, (wo f(»r radiant heat, and a jdrnnbieres room. 
The luiildings are splendidly fitted uj), and many 
new features have been intrfjduced. The stejts in 
the deep baths are of aluminium, the corridoi-, 
bath-nirtms, and dressing-i^^^iorns are paved with 
l«l.iek and whit.- vitreous tiles, and the walls an- 
1 .\.ied with glass mosaic. The entrances have 
b. .11 UKidernis.-fl and the lighting imprf/Ved. and 
a-^ the war has inciea-sed the numlier of jieisoiis 
iv.|iiiring medicinal ballis, while it has i-liminaled 
f r. ign com petition, the entei-prise of the cfn-pora- 
tioii will no doubt meet with the success it 

Most English inland w atering-plares have been 
very bu«y din'ing the war, largely owing to tli.- 
eliMing of (Vmtinental s|»a« (o Englinh \isitoi>< and 
the di.sinclinatjon (.. travel in such disturbed 
times, which m'>st peisons needing treatment 
ii;iMir;.ll< feel. It will be a veiT long time before 
ill- •i.Mrmn and .Xustrian span rei-over their 

J.opiiliUltS with the ]u(i],\itn of thi- .Mljed 

coiintrie»«. Our leading inland wuiering-phu-es 
have had a splendid o]i|iort unity of bringing their 
catering abilities and the. medicinal (|ualities of 
their baths before the visiting ]Hiblic, and to (lie 

scheme which will not oflend tiie artistic 
j)roprieties, and can be ivlied on (o prove con- 
venient and ecAnoiiiical 


u,'ual crcdil of ihe iuaj(>rit.y they liave not failed 
lo make gixnl use of their oj)poitunity. Not only 
has Bath reconstnicted her liaths, but she ha.s 
had prepared a splendid scheme for reeonstnict- 
ing the Centre of the city, whidi if carried out 
will greaf-ly increase (he popularity of the town as 
;i health reaoi't. 

.Baths of a soiiu-wiial ililfereut character were 
ojiened last sea.-ou at Si. .Annes-ou-the-Sea. The 
line open-air salt w. iter baths which the council 
iiave constructed on the shore have been 
immensely jtojiuiar. and nearly £3,0fK) wa.s taken 
in them during tlu- past season. The bath, which 
is described and ilhi-( rated in our issue of Jnlv 7, 
19IG, is 2-l(> ft. and 120 ft. wide. It has 
proved at times none too larg«' adequately lo 
accommcKlate the large number of bathers using 
it. Cireater dressing a<-commodation is to be pro- 
\ided in the near future, and other imi)rovements 
are to be made. It has attracted a large niunber 
of visitors t-o St. Amies, and has given a filli]) 
to the schemes of ils neighbouis to the nortii and 
south. After the war two mucii larger bathing 
pools are to be c()nsti'ucted at Blackpool, and 
JjVtham prbposes lo construct one iioO ft. long and 
120 ft. wide. 

The new I'orthuul liaths at Nottingham, wliich 
iiave been erected on the site of the old tram 
stables from plans by the city architect., Mr. A. 
Dale, have a swimming pond 100 ft. by 30 ft., 
sixteen i)rivate baths for men and seven for 
women. The di\ing stage is built, on the model 
of that in t'i^c al I lie Hoyal Automobile Club in 
London, and the si\ly-seven dressing-boxes are 
collapsible, so a.s to give more seating room at 
galas, or for ■adai)tpiiig the bath for public meet- 
ings and enfcei'tainments in the whither. 

Another interesfing building opened tliis year 
is the public erected by the Edin- 
biiigii Corporation at McLeod-street, at a cost of 
tCijoOO. It is the sixth public wa.sli-house erected 
by the corporation, and is said to be the last word 
in wash-house construction. It has a washing- 
ball Hi) ft. long by 'An ft. wide, and there are 
foity washing-stalls, w itli room for sixty more. 
I^everal features inli(Klnc<'d have a sociok^ical a.s 
well as engineering interest. The entrance hall 
hat4 a large waiting-hall for women, with space for 
perambulators, &c., and a creche is provided 
where young children will be taken ciue of wliile 
(heir mothers are washing. Eaeh washing-stall 
has a boiling- trough, Wiushing and rinsing tub, and 
drip-table, and each group of stalls is provided 
with stetuii-driveii liydro-exlraclors. Mr. -las. 
Williamson, a.u.i.h.a., (he city architect, pre- 
jiared (he plans and Supervised the erection of 
the buildings. 

The BounieiiK.uili Corporation iU"e going to 
make a IxJd bid- for public favour after the wju', 
as they liftve had jilans ajiproved by the Local 
(iovernment B(«ird for a new pavilion to cost 
.£■^,000, which they hope (/) build as s<x>n as (he 
war is end<*d. 


Very few schools Inive been laiilt or complet^'il 
during the past _\ear, bul among the largest is 
that fif the SCockpoil (liammar School, which has 
been comj.leted al a e<ist of £.'$7,(HM». 


I'liblic Aba((<»irs " was the title of a paper 
by Mr. H. A. Brown, engineer and surveyor of 
WeHt<m-«uper-Miue, presented to (he annual 
meeting of the liis(itulion of Miinici|jal iind 
County Engineers at Blackpool. Mr. Brown in 
his j)aper compared British jiud Continental 

January 26, 1917. 



jji-actice much to the dispai-agement of the British 
authorities, and his eulogy of the German 
abattoirs called forth a shai-p protest by a con-es- 
pondent in our columns. We do not in this 
countn' make such a fetish of oiu- stomachs a^s 
the Germans do, and it certainly strikes British 
engineers as being out of place to erect palatial 
buildings for pig-slaughtering. The beer-halls 
which arc to be found in the German abattoirs do 
not appeal" to be likely to be adopted in this 
country in these days of public control, oi* com- 
mend themselves to the ordinary citizen as being 
conducive to humane and careful slaughtering. 
The plajis, while having many good point-s, are 
oj)en to serious criticism both on the grounds of 
sanitation and convenience, wliile in nearly all the 
Ciermans appear to pay little regard to economy. 
The plans of the Weston-super-ilare abattoir, 
wiiich were illustrated in our last Annual Issue, 
show a great improvement on those for the 
ficrman abattoirs, and ]\lr. Brown nnist be con- 
gratulated on having a\oided the pitfalls so plenti- 
fully exhibited in the Continental plans, which 
are ap])lied as a standard in a cast-iron manner 
for all sizes of buildings irrespective of their 
actual requirements. 


In oui' columns of May 5, li)16, we illustrated 
tlie Hardinge Librai'y at Delhi, which was, opened 

in March last by the Viceroy of India. The build- 
ings, which were designed by the city engineer, 
Mr. T. Sallcield, m.ixst.c.e., ai'c of a pleasing 
character, and the avoidance, of the fussy onia- 
meut which so many architects feel it necessary 
to emplo}' enhances its chann. The style is a 
happy combination of Oriental and Classic ai-chi- 
tecture, and Mr. Salkield wiu-mly deserved the 
congratulations (offered him byithe Viceroy at the 
opening of the building. 

Much regret was felt at the destruction by fii-e 
of the Canadian Parliament House at Ottawa 
eai-ly in the year. These buildings, wliich were 
erected at a cof^t of £1,0(X),000 sterling, are to be 
reconstructed as far as possible on the same lines. 

Tile proposal to hold a competition for the 
Federal Parliamtiit House to be erected at 
Canberra for tlie Australian Govermnent called 
forth a strong i)rotost from the architects of this 
country and France. Eight prizes, ranging from 
£2,000 to £250, were oifered, l)ut it was pointed 
out to the Australian authorities that they could 
not expect to get the best schemes at such a time 
a.s this, when the ablest of the younger aix-hitects 
of all the .A Hied countries were fighting in the 
field, and the older men were liusily engaged on 
war work. Though the Australian Government 
were disposed at first to oveiride these objections, 
they ultimately agreed to po^rpon'' th'' (v,iii]..'ii- 
tion until after the war. 


The necessity which has arisen owing to the 
war of avoiding expenditui'e not absolutely essen- 
tial, and at the same time doing everything 
possible to prevent waste, has had considerable 
influence upon the work of refuse disposal during 
tlie past \ear. No new destructor Morks -liave 
been erected, so far a.s we arc aware, but in one 
case, described in our pages, where no provision 
was made in the original scheme for the complete 
utilisation of the waste heat from the furnaces, 
tlie question of installmg a steam pump for raising 
tlie sewage is now under consideration. By this 
means the day flow of sewage will be pumped 
v\itIiout cost for power, leaving the night sewage 
only to be raised by the existhig oil engine. 

This is, however, a comparativel,y small matter. 
Much greater advantages will probably be derived 
from the efforts which liave licen made in vai'ious 
directions to convert ordinary town's refuse into 
useful commodities instead of destroying it by 
l)uniing or dumping. One methcxl has lieen in 
use in a few ])laces for some veal's^ and* that is 
the con\-ersion of refuse into nianui"e by means 
of the Patent Ijightning Crushox". Tlie adoption 
of this system is extending, and we miderstand 
il is giving satisfaiction in all cases. A scheme 
foi- the reduction of tlie garbage of New York- 
indicates the ))ossibility of very favourable results, 
both financially and from the sanitary point of 
view. It is estimated tliat' the nett operating 
profits will exceed £100, (MK) ])er annum. The 
chief by-product is grease, which is extracted 
by cooking the gartiage in a closed steam-jacketed 
vessel called tlie reducer. A somewhat similar 
apparatus lias been adojited in certain jilaces in 
this country for dciiling with the contents of swill- 
tubs, sometimes known as liog-wash. In these 
cases the saleable jinxlucts include not only grease, 
l)ut crushed Inmes and p<3ultry food. We think 
tiiat more will be heard of this method of recover- 
ing vahii' frriiii waste products after tlic war. 

In a number of places local authorities lia\c 
recpiested the. houseliolders to Inirn at; much ax 
possible of tlieii- refuse in their own kitchen grates, 
and this is undoubtedly desirable in view of the 
])re.sent scarcity of hil)(>ur. On tiio other hand, it 
is evident from articles which have appeared in 
our cnjuiniis tliat town's refuse can l)e utilised in 

various ways. For a number of years past the 
clinker from the refuse destructors at Ealing has 
lieen used in the manufacture of paving slabs for 
footpaths, and these have proved thoroughly 
durable. Elsewhere the utilisation of clinker has 
been carried still further. In an article which 
appeared ui these i)ages on Deceniber HtJi last, 
Mr. Jj. D. Lewis, engineer and surveyor to the 
Abertillery I'rban District Council, referred to a 
thorouglifare in his district which is made up 
entu'cly of clinkor products. The kerbuig is 
formed of clinker concrete, the footpaths of clinker 
paving flags or taiTed clinker, and the carriage- 
way of clinker IMexpiialle, no channel stones being 
required, as the Mcxphalte is laid right up to 
the kerb. 

The arlicie in (|uestioii deals with the use of 
clinker ^lexphalte for the surfacing of roads, and 
it is interesting to note that this material was 
invented by that eminent municipal engineer Mr. 
E. J. Lovegi'ove, of Hornsey. The advaiitiige 
gained by the use of this material, wliich has a 
bearing upon the subject of refuse disposal, is 
that it affords a definite and profitable use for 
refuse destructor clinker, as 80 to 8") per cent is 
used in the process. There are other advantages 
couneeted with the use of this material, but these 
relate more to the matter of road construetioii 
than refuse disjiosal. It ma,\, however, be noted 
here tliat Mr. Lewis was particularly struck w ith 
the resilient jiroperties of tlie clinker Mexphalte. 
and he believes that time will reveal that this 
tyjio of road will he found to outlast other niori' 
costly methods of i-oad c(jnstruct.ioii adopted to 
withstand Iieavy tratiic. Similarly good resuifs 
have been obtained by the use of tiiis material at 
Wolverhatnijton, as described in an article in 
these pages on October 13th last, where it is 
stated tliat Mexpiialte is particularl.x suitable for 
use with destructor refuse, as it enables «'iigiiiirrs 
to find an outlet for the disposal of their clinker, 
which is often a trouble-some and expensive 
mutter, and at the same time eiuilile« them to 
provide a road surface which nitn-ts tin- re(|uire- 
ments of modern traffic. 

An interesting article oti the utilisation of house 
refuse, by Mr. Reginald Brown, m.inst.c.i;., engi- 
neer and siuvevor to the Soutball-Norwood Urban 


THE si'Rveyot: and muntctpal 

Janitarv 26. J9i; 

District. Council, was printed in our isfiiie of 
October 27111 last. Aftor refeiTinjj to the \vast<'- 
fiiln^s.s of disposirtl l>.v tipping and tiie us(> of 
iliuker with ^lexJ>llalto for ix>ad surfacing, tlir 
author deals with the calorific value of i-efuse, and 
describes his invention for producing fuel from it. 
The refuse is reduced to a powder by crushing, the 
powder is iniprtgnatod witJi a l>indiiig niat<nial. 
which both increases the calorific vahie and also 
debitroys all organic inattor, luid the inipngnatcd 
powder is compressed into briquettes ready for use 
as fuel. A siniihu' method of utilising a-shliin and 
other refuse was described in detail. In Mr. H. (J. 
C«K\k>s, engineer and burvcyw to the Market Ilar- 
borough I'rban District Council, in om- issue of 
December 1st last. The bi'iqucttcs, which in this 
case are given tlie name of " coalesine," are esti- 
mated to eva])orate from .'V} lb. to o^' \h. of water 
per povnid of fuel, and to leave from lOA to Ki 
j>er cent of incoml)nstil)lo residue accoixling to the 
grade, and to crxst from ^s. to 9s. per ton to majui- 
facture. If tlien-foro they coiUd be sold at from 
Os. to lis. ]K-r ton. they would provide a cheap 
form of fuel with some profit, to which must be 
jidded tlie cost for dis])06al of the refuse which 
would be incuiTcd if it were not utilised for making 

.AiiotJier source of revenue from refuse in at 
Icitxt ojie wius the convei-sion uf tish refuse 
into manure. At Bradfoi"d, Yorks. this manin-e 
was sold at prices varying between f (> and £9 10s. 
per ton. At thes<' prices sionie profit remained, 
but much bett^'r financial results are anticipated 
under n<H"mal conditions after the war.. 

In conclusion, reference muslv be made to the 
process for the utilisation of disused tins from 
refuse heai)s. wliich is being exploited by the 
British De-Tinning Company. Prior to the \\ ar, a 
considerable (|uantity of disused tins was ex))orted 
to C-iermany, and this trade ha.s now been takeoi 
in hand by tl)o above company, who have already 
enteivd into contracts with tla'(.'e large l)oroug]is 
for the erection of works within thi'ir liordei*s. 'Plie 
pure tin is extracted from the metal and the 
residue is used for the manufacttue of small 
articles of general litilify for which it is suitable. 

From the foregoing notes it will he seen that 
there is much scoj)c for the prevention of waste, 
even in connection with such an apparently un- 
|)romising material a-s house refuse, and it is t^> 
he hoped tliat the efforts in the utilisation of wjiste 
j)roduct<5 which have been engendered by the 
special conditions ca.nsed by the wrv will jiot be 
relaxed in peace time. 


(»^^lll^ [.. ilu- i-e>lritiiMiir. wliicli iia\t; In en 
jdaced upon the execution of all work which is 
not essential to the cairying on of the wm', there 
is nothing of importance to record in coimection 
with the construction of sewere, and for develop- 
ments in connection w ith sewage disposal we have 
to rely chiefly on work done in the United ^Statcs. 
It is true that a considerable amomit of work has 
been canied out in connectiori' with new camps 
and munition works, but no details of construction 
or of results obtained have l)een made i)ublic, and 
cannot therefore be discussed on the present occa- 
sion. We l'X>k forward to the time when this 
will be possible, its there should be much to be 
learnt, t^ven if only how not to do things. We 
mention this jioint for the rea.son that, from a 
report which was jmblished in tlic dail,\ I'ress, it 
aiiiK-are that the pollution of livers by sewage is 
increasing in places, and it would swm tluit the 
standards for sewage cflluent« which were pre- 
viously considered necessary have not been adhered 
to in some of the new works. It will be uiteresting 
to know in due course w hetlier this has been due 
to defe<ts in di-sign or construction, or to bad 
manageuient. or e\en lo negligence, it will not 
surprise un if it i.s eventually foimd that the lasl- 
mentioned is the cause of the trrmble in most 

Tiuj general lendmcx lias always la-en to trcal^ 
sewage disposal works with indifferenc<' and- 
neglect until sirious trouble aris<>s )uid compels 
attention. Kven when they are ik»I. left entirely 
to tJHin.Hcives, it is frerpientiy the cane that the 
iiianHgenient is left to a totally ine.\j)erieneed 
man. At the rcreni annual meeting of t-he .\sso- 
ciution of .Maiiagtm of Siwag<- Disposal Works 
it was stated lliat thni- memberH of the as.s(K-ia- 
lion had lioen appoint^td to take charge of sewage 
works under liu' tjovernnient. This is good so 
far IM it g'X's, but in our view it suggOKtH that 
inuriy lA the now works eotiKtrm-ted for tlie 
novenirnent must lack exj»erieiiced nuinageineut. 
If the numb<r of iiieml>ers of the asso<iiition 
appMJni.d to (lovernmenl M-wage wdks had bi-en 
tliirt\ instead of ihrei-. there would have Ix-en 
belter pnjspeet.s of securing satisfuclory results all 
round. We fear it will be a long timf before 
(lovorniufiit oHiciiils and members of IrM-al aullio- 
ritie* will learn lliat a modern sewage disposal 
w<jrks is eonqiaralile to a piece '*f delicate 
tnacbinery. reqtiirin;.' r.^'ular and careful attention 

on tiie |)art oi a mauayer possessing a consideral)le 
amount of technical knowledge and practical 


.\s may be inuigined, the provision of systenrs 
of drainage, sewerage and sewage disj^osal works 
retjuired for the acconaiuxiat.ion of troops and 
miuiition workers all over tlie country has created 
nuiny exceptional difficulties, and hi\s involved 
the consideration of varying conditions of aill 
kinds. The sites were not. always selected with a 
view lo the best means of dealing with the sew age. 
In some case*; the available fall has been insuffi- 
cient for gravitation and the sewage has had to 
be lifted. In others the fall has been more tluiii 
sufficient. At tlit' outset everything Was sacri- 
ficed tf) .speed, with flic inevitable result that the 
cost, of the work w as increased enormously. Then 
again there was the impression that in many cases 
tlie accommodation would be of a temporM\ 
character, and it wiis "assumed that drains and 
disposal works of a similar .nature would be suffi- 
cient for tlic purpose. When the " temporary 
acc'>mmodati(;n had been in existence a few 
nuMitlis, with every appeai'aiice of its being 
required for years, it was soon made obvious thai 

tem])orary " sanita.tion is impossible,* except for 
troops engaged in actual held operations, and 
fresh works of a permanent character had to b(! 

Sufficient is known of tJiis work to enable ns 
to Htate that, w iiile most, of tJie sewage works 
have been designed on wellO^nown jiriuciples of 
the ordinar\ kind, in s(jme cases attempts liav<' 

I n made lo appl\ the latest scienlific knowledge 

availalile with a view to ecrwiomy and w ith some 
ineasiiie fif success. From the foregoing it. will be 
seen that there have been great possibilities of 
acijuiring new e\|)erieiice under varying condi 
tioiis, and we hope that when ]»eace comes this 
will be made juiblic for the benefit of all tlios. 
wIkj jire interested in this branch f>f eiigineeriii'.'. 


While the condilions of life in the trenches and 
iinmodiately Iwhind the firing-lines ha.\e been 
described by man_\ \var coiTespondeiits aiul other 
writer's who have visited fhe various fronts, tliese 
reports have ff*r obvious reasons contained no 
iii/ormation as to tlie mclliods of sanitation in 
vogue in such places. Our readers are therefore 

.Januaky 26. 1917. 



under au obligation to Mr. N. W. Hoskins for the 
interesting particulars given in his paper, which 
we printed in our issues of December 8th and loth 
last. It will be seen that, in addition to the dis- 
comforts of exposure to all kinds of weather, the 
diflBculty of obtaining regular cooked meals, and, 
of coui-se, the danger to life fi-om many soiu-ces, 
our gallant troops in and near the firing-line have 
to submit to many inconveniences and discom- 
forts fi-om the lack of proper sanitarj- aiTange- 
ments. Evervtlnng tliat can be done under the 
circumstances is done to secure the best possible 
sanitary conditions, but at their best these are 
far removed from those to which the men were 
accustomed before they entered on militaiy 


The necessity of preventing waste, and thus 
securing the gi-eatest possible economy untier pre- 
sent conditions has had the effect of drawing 
increased attention to the utilisation of sewage. 
The difficulties of using sewage universally for 
agricultural purposes by means of broad irrigation 
are now generally recc^nised, and recent efforts 
have been devoted to the extraction of those of 
its constituents which have any value either for 
manurial or other pin-poses. 

The importance of increasing our home-grown 
supply of food, involving the proposed conversion 
of a considerable acreage of grass land into arable 
land, has raised the problem of obtaining the 
necessary amount of manure or fertilisers, and 
this again has revived the question of utilising 
sewage sludge for the purpose. The matter was 
discussed in these columns recently, when it was 
pointed out that ordinaiy sewage sludge contains 
only small quantities of ingredients of real manu- 
rial value. In spite of tliis, there is a large number 
of places where the local farmei's readily take the 
whole of the sludge produced at the sewage works 
in their districts, and in some rases they even 
])ay for the privilege of doing so. 

There still remain many places, and especially 
the larger towns, where it is impossible to dispose 
of the whole of the sludge in this manner. The 
small percentage of actual manuriaJ value in 
ordinai-y sewage sludge- renders its cost prohibitive 
when it has to be transported to any considerable 
distance. There are two ways in which this 
difficulty may be overcome. One of them is to 
add certain chemicals, and thus increase the 
manurial value to such an extent as to make it 
worth while to incur tiie cost of transport, and 
this has been done to a small extent for some 
time -j)ast, even before the war. The other 
method is to extrac^t from the sludge those con- 
stituents which are valuable and leave the useless 
matei'ial behind. Until quite recently the cost 
of doing this caused the ultimate product to bo 
tfx) expensive for practical purposes, but the intro- 
duction of the activated -sludge process for the 
treatment of sewage has given rise to hopes that 
much better results can be obtained than could be 
anticipated from past experience. The investi- 
gations made both here and in the United States 
sho\X- that the sludge produced by the activated- 
aludge process contains twice as much nitrogen 
as that produced by the ordinai-y methods of 
sewage treatment. Further, its nature is such 
that it can be more easily dried and prepared for 

The whole matter is dealt with thorouglily in 
two special articles which appeared in our issue of 
November 24th last, and the only difficulty we 
foresee is that, owing to the fact that the acti- 
vated-sludge process is in actual operation in 
only a few places in this country at present, ver\" 
little can be done in tliis direction in time for the 
cultivation of crops this season. The existing 
stocks of ordinary sludge could, however, be used 
up now, and if the matter were taken up with 

energy at oncc, a large aniouui <jt' inucli more 
valuable sludge could be prepared ready for next 
winter by adapting existing works to suit the 
requirements of the activated-sludge process. It 
is very desirable that agriculturalists should be 
made awai-e of the peculiar suitability of tliis form 
of sewage sludge as plant food. We understand 
that official tests have shown that it produces 
better crops than an equal amount of farmyard 
manui'e of the same strength in nitrogen, and we 
assume that this must be due to the fact that 
bacterial action is more advanced in the former 
than in the latter. 


Another valuable material in sewage is fat, and 
its extraction would have the double advantage of 
producing some income and at the same time 
preventing the troubles which are frequently 
caused by its presence in the sludge and in the 
filters. Up to the present it has only proved 
profitable to extract fat in places such as Bradford 
and Oldham, where it is present in the sewage 
in large quantities owing to the discharge into the 
sewers of trade effluents from wool-scouring 
works. In the case of one 'sewage works con- 
structed since the war l>egan it has been found 
possible to remove considerable quantities of fat 
in such a state that it can be sold without further 
treatment at a good price. As the removal is 
done by the man in charge of the tanks as pait 
of his regulai* duties, no extra expense is incurred, 
and the sums received for the fat are all profit. 
In this case the sewage reaches the tanks in a 
fresh state, and, further, the tank treatment is 
designed to maintain the liquid sewage in a fresh 
condition, and with this end in view the period 
of detention in the tanks is not allowed to exceed 
tlu-ee to foiu' hours' flow. As a result no scum 
is formed in the outlet comjjartment of the tank, 
where most of the fat collects on the surface and 
is easily skimmed off by hand, llie fact that the 
sludge from these tanks aftsr thorough digestif>n 
is easily dried to a spadeable condition is probably 
due to some extent to the removal of the fat, 
which is known to .\ield extremely slowly to 
bacterial action. 


A further possibility of utilising the waste pro- 
ducts in sewage was suggested by Dr. S. Rideal 
in a paper he read at the recent annual meeting 
of the Association of Managers of Sewage Dis- 
posed Works. It was suggested that our overseas 
supplies of nitrate for the manufacture of 
explasives might be augmented by extracting the 
nitrates present in sewage effluents. As it is only 
the very best effluents that contain nitrates in any 
quantity, it is evident that the idea is not appli- 
cable to all sewage works of the ordinary type. 
Here, again, however, it was shown that the very 
high percentage of nitrates in the effluents from 
the activated-sludge process might bring the pro- 
posal within the range of practical politics. 

Tlie proposal made by Dr. Rideal was simply 
that the effluents should be evaporated to dr^i-- 
ness, when the nitrates would remain behind 
ready for use. It was pointed out in the course 
of the discussion on the paper that the problem 
was one of cost, and criticism was directed to 
some suggestions made b^- the author for 
evaporating the effluents by natural methods. 
Such criticism is of little use. What is needed 
is for engineers with experience of the most 
economical metiiods of evaporation to work out a 
few calculations and state liie lo^ possible cost 
of evaporating water in large quantities. There is 
no doubt as to the presence of nitrates in sewage 
effluents, or as to the fact that this material, 
winch would be very useful either for explosiv»"i 
or as manure, is now being allowed to nm to 
waste. It is only necessary to ascertain definitely 
what it would cost to recover it, and it would 




J.AM AUY 2C. 1917. 

then at <>nce be seen wliether its recoverv wonld 
justify the ex|>ense. 


Reference hiis alreiidy been made to the fiwt. 
that for recoi-ds of developments in connection 
with sewage disposal we have to rely on the 
published reports of work done in the Vnited 
States. Some of these reports are of little prac- 
tical value, as tJiey merely describe the wwks 
which have been airangod for the purpose of 
exjieriment, and give no results, or at the most, 
a few figures obtained after only a few weelvs of 
operation. It is, however, notable that the bulk 
of the investigations and reseai-ch woik now being 
(•< inducted in America relates to the iu?tivated- 
sludge i>rf)cess, and tliose reports which describe 
investigations can-ied out for any considerable 
}>eriod are worthy C)f careful study. At the same 
time it must always be borne in mind that in 
very few ciises is. t lie sewage comparable in 
strength with the sewage in this country, where 
it varies from 20 to :{(• gallons per head per day, 
while in America it is seldom less than 50 gallons, 
and oftt-n over UHl gallons, per head per day, dry- 
vv t-ather flow. 

Although very few repf>rts-of the work which 
r~ being done in this countrA- are published, it is 
known that the activated-sludge process is ah-eady 
in o])eration in about six places, and these are 
under regular observation. One of the most inte- 
resting developments mentioned in a note printed 
on another page is the introduction of pulsating 
valves, by means of \\hich the air is delivered 
intermittently. It is obviousi that this must 
result in a great saving in the volume of air 
required. From a report, which appeai'ed in our 
issue of July 28th last, it will be seen that this 
metlirid of treatment had then been in operation 
at Worcester, dealing with 800,000 gallons i)er 

day, for some nionllis. and that tlie lesuhs wt-ro 
liiglily satisfactory. In fact, it has already been 
suggested that the hu-ge area of filters and irri- 
gation laud jH-eviously in use can be "■ scrapped," 
and that the ultimate saving to the ratepayei-s 
will be not less than 41,000 a year. We also find 
tliat in the last annual report of the London 
C"c>unty Coimcil u]>(«i the liondon main diainage 

.it was" stated that ex])eriments were being tinder- 
taken with a view to a.scertaining whetlier this 

'system is applicable to the treatment of Ijondon 
sewage. There is no doubt that when the con-- 
struction of new, and the enlargement of _old, 
sewage disposal works is taken in hand after the 
war the activated-sludge process will be adopted 
in many places, especially as it can be so easily 
adapted to existing works. 

IXECTltOIATIC sew.\(;k dispos.vl. 

With the object of providing our readers witli 
all the uiformation available in connection with 
the different methods of sewage treatment which 
have been tried from time to time, we have on 
several occasions ])ublished reports upon the so- 
called " electrolytic " system of treatment. 
Some of these were distinctly favom*able, but we 
have always doubted whether it would actually 
prove to be a practical and economical system. 
The question was, we think, definitely settled by 
the report of the cilv officials of New York, pidnted 
in these colunuis on August 18th la.^t. The City 
Board of Consulting Engineers considered six 
different methods of dealing with the sewjige in 
one district in the city ai-ea, and " dismissed the 
.electro-chemical ])rocess because of cast and the 
uncert«.inty of results M-ith stronger sewage." 
Anyone in need of further particulars would do 
well to refer to the article in question, which gives 
the conclusions of other reports as well. 


.-^ii... i lighting I ilic .-ubjecl is rather 

embarra'^sing, in view of the fact that the streets 

nKjst certainly have not been lighted dming the 

past year; " darkness made visible " would seem 

to be a mf>re apjjropriate title for this article, for 

in tnith tlKise oi us who dwell in towns have 

learnt to realise how very dai"k the streets can 

be, with a darkness that ma,y be felt. Unfor- 

tnnatt-ly, the lack of illumination has been the 

of an abii'ii-mal number of casualties, due 

Illy U) wheeled traffic, but also to falls and 

ac'cidents, and it has been seriously (jues- 

1 whether the ghxan has not been responsible 

I' loss and damage tlmn could have been 

Zeppelin raids if the lighting had been 

1 as usual. During the first ten months 

of 1910, ill the Metropolitan Police District alone, 

there \y<^rf- :VK> fatal ar;cident« luid 11,827 ntm- 

fatal due, to motor vehicles, and the 

total iucidenls of all kinds luunbered 

• iT.i""! .Much h»ss must also have been 

iiw.d by the hindrance to traffic, especially 

•'■'• winter moiilhs. when the streets are 

liy 4 p.m. On the other hand, a slight 

- lif-eu effected in the consumption (»f 

:'y, but not to anything like the 

lit he supp(j«ed, for in many cases 

ihc siu— t luni|)S are kept burning, though 

f.bHcurod, and. moreover, people prefer tf> stay 

ind .'ii-H, and thiiH incrcns. the dom<!stic coii- 


'VSCIKXTinr Mr,THOD<< of " d.vkkksim. 

'' ' ' '' ■ " ' '' ' ■' Tcsponsible autlio- 

' i to s<-ek the advice 

It the regtilationfi. 

.'irjit deal of quito 

waste lia.s bct-n 

""^" • instance, have be«n 

b(>X(.d in, whereas they niiglit liavc been replaced 
by glow lamps of small candle-power, and simi- 
larly incandescent gas burners have been kept in 
use, and a vast amount of experimental woi-k has 
been carried out in order to find the best way of 
|)reventang the i-ays from - escaping from the 
lanterns. The most successful device appears to 
be a circular metal i)late suspended beneath the 
biu'uer, which obviates the bright patch otherwise 
thrown round the base of the lamp-post. The 
lamp then becon)es a mere twinkle, barely sutfi- 
cient to indicate tiie ])osition of the post, and thus 
prevent collision with it. Many of the lamps are 
totally extinguislicd, and in these cases the danger 
of collision is very real. The diversity of methods 
employed by authorities in adjacent areas has in 
itself been a source oi omioyance, if not danger, 
to iLsors (A tlie streets, and should have been 
obviated by the issue of general instructions based 
upon expert advice at the start. Nothing is more 
troublesome to both drivers of vehicles and ))edes- 
trians than " palcliiness " of lighting, which 
greatly reduces the efficiency of the eye. 
oi;xi;k.\l I'kogrkss. 
One l)eneficial outcome of the difficulties above- 
mentioned has been the " Safety First " camj)aign 
inaugiu"ated by the Londrni General Onniibus 
Comj)any, which has alread.y had gfX)d results, 
and bids fair to exert, a lasting intlucnce upon 
traffic conditions and dangers. A C!ouncil has 
now been constituted, with, representatives of all 
the jiublie bodies mainly interested, and will 
shortly be in a i)Osilif»n to do good work. Under 
the circumstances, no notable fidvancc of a 
technical nature could be expected, and none has 
been recorded, i)ut some progress has been made 
in substituting tungsten hun|)s for arc lami)s and 
(lie adoption of " automatic " devices fon- control- 
ling gas lamps, li has been argued, with reason, 

Januarv 26, 1917. 



tliat where the street lamps are capable of being 
lighted and extinguished from a central point 
there is no justification for darkening the streets 
until Zeppelins are reported to be en route for tlie 

town concerned, but no advantage has apparently 
been taken of this possibility. It seems that we 
must await the end of the war for any retuna to 
nonnal conditions — and may it be so<in ! 


Despite the abnormal times in wliicli we are 
living, and the ditiiculties that beset municipal 
reformers, much good work has been done by 
town planners dui-ing the past year. 

How lai-gely the work of town planning lies in 
the hands of municipal engineer is shown by a 
return compiled by ilr. J. W. Cooki'ill, borough 
engineer of Yannouth, which shov\s that out of 
150 town-planning schemes, covering 250,000 
acres, 139 schemes were prepared by the officials 
of the local autlforities. In onh' five cases had 
outside experts been called in, and in only six 
cases had competitions been held. 

This statement has rather distui'bed the com- 
placency of those members of the ai'chitectural 
profession who ai*e never tu-ed of trumpeting their 
own merits and decrying those of the municipal 
engineer and surveyor as town plannei-s. They 
are now driven to the conclusion that it is only 
in the town-planning competition that any skill 
can be seen, and that whenever a competition is 
held the municipal engineer has to take a back 

This argument does not appear to be very con- 
vincing when examined. It must be remembered 
tluit the vast majority of municipal engineers are 
precluded from taking any part in these competi- 
tions both by the nature of their agi-eements ■^\'it]i 
their councils and by the fact that their time is 
fully occupied with then' own schemes. Tliey 
have neither the time, inclmation, nor need to 
take part in such competitions. No busy engineer 
would improve his position with his council by 
going in for competition work to anything like the 
extent that is done by half a dozen architects who 
s[)ecialise on this subject. But even in the small 
number of competitions which have taken place 
the younger municipal engineers have no reason 
tr) be ashamed of the figures they have cut" in 
them. Messrs. Bogle, of the Liverpool eity engi- 
neer "s staff, and Piercey, the deputy borough 
engineer of Wairington, have been successful in 
obtaining premiums in the Blackbiun, Hudders- 
field, and York competitions. Tlieir success 
clearly pro\es that, given the time and oppor- 
tunity, they can compete successfully 'with the 
best of the ai'chitects. When a municipal engi- 
neer wins a premium the ai-chitectui-al Press write 
as if they think the assessor must have been 
dreaming, or the competitor has scored by a fluke, 
and they generally manage to damn him with 
faint praise. 

Tho mimicipal engineer is too diffident witli 
regai'd to his abilities and professional status, and 
lie fails to grasp the fact tliat his undue modesty 
is a blunder by whicli otiier people j)rofit. In this 
advertising age the professional man, like the 
bvisiness man, who hides his light under a bushel 
will be certainly overlooked. The architect does 
not suffer from any false modesty as to his ability 
and rights, and whore he finds opposed to him a 
class disinclined to assert itself, he promptly 
rides roughshod over it. Municipal engineers 
nuist see that every encouragement, is given to 
their younger members to study this important 
l)nincli of their professional work by contiiuiiiig 
and enlarging the scope of the competitions, whicli 
Mr. Cockriil did so much to bring about just before 
tlie war. 

Many valuable papers on t<<\Mi planning, wliieh 
have l>een l)ublisht^d in our pages during the past 
year, have been read before tlie Town Planning 
Institute and the Institution of Municipal and 

County Engineers, and the lectiu'cs by Prof. 
Adshead have done much to focus attention on 
this subject. Of these, perhaps the most inte- 
resting to our readei-s were the three papers read 
at the annual meeting of the Institution of Muni- 
cipal and County Engineei's at Blackpool. 

" Civic Study in Civic Design " was the title of 
a short but interesting paper by Prof. Abererombie, 
the head of the town planning department of the 
University of Liverpool. He insisted that we 
earned our national habit of embarking on great 
vmdertakings without adequate prepai-ation into 
the domain of town planning, and that this want 
of study and preparation was costly and wanting 
in method. There is no doubt that we fre- 
quently take up great schemes in a very oif-hand 
manner, and without the necessan,- data and study 
to enable us to produce an efficient and econo- 
mical scheme. A more methodical study is 
desirable, and Prof. Abererombie suggests that it 
is necessarj' to do this by three stages : (1) The 
civic survey ; (2) a comprehensive town plan ; 
(3) town-planning schemes for definite ai-eas. 

In the case of small towns no elaborate civic 
sur\'ey is needed, for the borough surveyor's local 
knowledge! is generally sufficient, but in large 
boroughs or districts a civic sm"vey is not only 
useful but nece.ssai"y. In thickly populated dis- 
tricts such as South Lancashire and Birmingham 
the towns are so close together that it is, in Prof. 
Abererombie 's words, " impossible, or rather 
nuuiicipally innnoral, for one town to plan for 
itself without consulting with its neighbours, and 
such parochial town planning would prove a fatal 
blunder." This view was strongly supported by 
lilessrs. Brodie and Stilgoe, whose experience in 
Liverpool and Birmingham on the large town- 
planning schemes, for which they are responsible, 
convinces them that it is also necessaiy to plan 
for the districts adjoining our lai-ge cities. 

In liis very able paper on " Economic Town 
Planning," Mr. Eoss Young advocated the pre- 
paration of a sM'eeping and comprehensive town 
plan dealing with an area embracing a number of 
towns within reasonable distance of each other. 
Some difference of opmion naturally exists as to 
what is meant by a " reasonable distance." One 
speaker, in the discussion of the paper, said Mr. 
Ross Young wanted to start his town plan at Edin- 
bm'gh and finish at Greencxjk, and Mr. Young 
admitted that he would like to do so. He wanted 
a plan of the whole industrial area, for if confined 
to small areas it was site planning, not town 

Any satisfactcjry development of town planning 
must take into account the need for linking up 
districts in such areas as those named, and this 
can only be done by a specially constituted central 
authority, or in the case of smaller districts by 
the county councils. The improvement scliemes 
so often projected by large boroughs are frequently 
i-endered useless by the disinclination or inal)ility 
of the smaller adjohiing authorities to cairy the 
improvements into or through their districts. 

ilr. Young's paper was mainly an appeal for 
fii"st taking into consideration the economic ex- 
pansion of our industries. As was pointed out m 
the discussion on the paper by Mr. Hai-pur, wo 
must fii-st know what industries are coming to 0(u- 
towns before we can settle our plans. We want 
to know where the railways, canals, and pits are 
to be placed before we can pliui the streets for an 
industrial to\\n. Mr. Young holds that the details 
<»f town planning are better left to a later stage. 



January 2G. 1017. 

for he poiiitc'd out tliat physical science luu; clone 
much to divert our industries into entirely new 
channels. Tlie cheapening of transport, and the 
introduction of new forms of power, such as oil, 
gjis, and electricity, may divert many of our 
industries tram the ccialfields or waterways, where 
the majority of our industrial townis ai-e now 
found. This must he carefully considered hy the 
town planner at the present' time in connection 
with the vast sums of money expended on miuii- 
tion works, and tlie size and importance of the 
huilduigs and plant, and the lai'ge populations 
found in many of these munition ai-ca-s. 

While tiie opinion was expressed by several 
influential speakers that we ought to proceed 
slowly with our town-planning schemes, this 
opinion was not shai'ed by Messrs. Aldridge iuid 
Sluiwcross, who read a paper on " Obligatory 
Tt>wn Planning. " " These gentlemen wish to see 
all the districts in. the country, lural as well as 
urban, obliged to make a to^ii plan. They want 
tlie liocal Government Board to compel every 
local authority to prepsire a town plan, but the 
jirovisions should be few and simple. They would 
I)rovide for fixing building lines, the direction and 
width of new rrmds, the number of buildings per 
acre, areas of sites for dwelling-houses, spaee 
about workshops, factories and tall buildings, 
oi>en spaces, seeming amenities, prevention of 
nuisances, and waiving of unnecessai'v by-laws. 


Two interesting competitions have been decided 
during the past year at Dublin and York. Tlie 
hu-gest scheme was that for the re-planning of 
Dublin, for whicli a prize of £5fX) was offered by 
Lord Aberdeen some time back. This wa.s won 
l)y l*rf)f. Abercrombie and Messre. S. A. and 
J. A. Kell\ , of Ijiveq)ool, who submitted a very 
fine scheme. "Tliere were only eight schemes sub- 
mitted, and the winning scheme proposed to 
demolish some of the worst slums in the heart of 
the city, and provide a number of new roads 
giving quick communication with the suburbs, so 
its to lay out an industrial gai'den city at Clontarf. 
A new civic centre was to be formed, and the 
tramways were to l>e removed from Sackville- 
street to a new traffic centre further west, wliile 
Siifkville- street, with its imposing width and fine 
liiiildings, was to be converted into a monumental 
street similar to tlie Avenue de 1 'Opera, Paris. 
A very important featui'e of the winning scheme 
wae the proposal to reclaim the flats in Dublin 

Bay and lay out the land for docks and industrial 
sites. Pi-ovision for linking up the railway 
stations, which lU'e now inconvenient tmd dis- 
connected, were also made. Dublin has been 
described as " a city of fine churches and squalid 
hoiuses," and there can be no doubt that the 
damage done to the central part during the Sinn 
Fein rising makes the rebuilding of a lai'ge i)ai't 
of the city a matter of immediate necessity. 

The York town-jilanning competition wa-s pro- 
moted by the city council, and dealt with three 
areas in the city. Fifteen sets of plans were sub- 
mitted, the fii-st premium of JEIOO being awarded 
to Mr. R. Dann, the second of £50 to Mr. M. A. 
Piercey, and tlie third to Messrs. Bun'oughs and 

Outside competitions the oliief schemes pub- 
lished dui-ing the pa-st year have been the fine set 
of plans by Mr. K. Atkinson for re-building the 
central poi-tion of Bath. If carried out tliey will 
do much to restore Bath to the position of premier 
inland health resort. ]Mr. Tiiomas ilawson's 
work for the re-planning of Athens has been 
inteiTuptexi by tiie war, and the events of the past 
few months api)etu- to be likely to create a con- 
dition of things which will call for a much moi'e 
extensive scheme of re-building than IMr. Mawson 

Several schemes for the relief of mx-hitectural 
distress have led to the preparation of civic 
sm•^•eys. Of these the more important are those 
prepai'ed by the London Society and a gi-oup of 
IManchester'tirchitects.. The scheme for a TiOndon 
development plan contains imaginative proposals 
for develoi)ing tlie Metrojjolitan aix-a, and includes 
the arterial roads recommended by tlie Londo'.; 
traffic bi-anch of the Board of Ti-ade, with sug- 
gested modifications. 

The scheme adopted at Manchester deals chiefly 
witli a civic survey of south-east Lancasliire. Tlie 
plans were exhibited in Manchester during 
October, and jn-oved of great interest to a lai-ge 
number of pereons. A meeting of the North- 
western District of the Institution of Mimicipal 
and County Engineere were invited to inspect 
them, and wliile tiiey came in for a good deal of 
admiration for their novelty and artistic charac-tcr, 
they unfortunatel_\ showed the lack of prac^tical 
requirements, wiiich is so. often associated with 
fine ai'tistic qualities. A full description of the 
plans and an account of the discussion on them 
were given in f)ur columns on October 27tli last. 


\\ iiii«- II' \\ !■■ ,ii-i i iici loii iias, or course, re'iiaincd 
at a standstill, tramway managers certainly can- 
not c/>mplain that they lia\e not iiad plenty to 
fx-cupy themselves with during the past year. 
'The general shortfige of staff and labour may fairly 
Ikj i»ut first as the item which has required the 
most anxious attention. In June compulsory 
service was extended to married unattested men 
lip Ut tlie age of forty-one, and a large number of 
II If II had to join the Colf>urs. while others, tem- 
I .r.irily exempttid, are still being taken. In some 
•Umcft has been obtained from volunteer 
i c'rtiduct^^rs who are not liable to 
>\ ice, but these form but a trifling total 
vith the wfjinen, of whom some lO.fKM) 
■ ving (including about 1,000 in company 
• •lupl'i', iii.nt;. The vast majf*rity are conduct^^rs, 
but <il', '."m- ;ind ;i few otlu-r undertakings have 
! !il»ont 200 in all aw drivers, 
■ ;■', there haw been no reason 
'" " -T ■ til ""I', as tlie number of aceidents 
haM not irien a>ed rm thc-sc systems. 

^* ' 'Iiat lliere are no drawbacks 

'■ ' »iii(ii for men as conduct/>rs 

- ^- ^ dly there ure.buton Uie whole 

the innf»vation hui proved highly succeesful. 

W'itiiout tiieir aid the tra.mvvay transport facilities 
would have hcoii in many areas absolutely 
crippled. In this connection we may mention, 
with j)ride, that up to tlie beginning of August 
the numbei- of tramway employees wjio had joined 
the Colours was no less than 27,814. As long ago 
as Januai'y last the Birmingham tramways had 
Ifjst 75 per cent of their men, and Manchester was 
paying some £72,000 a year to the de])end&nt« of 
enlisted emj)loyees. In view of the importance 
of retaining a sufficient niunber of men to keep 
the cars running — many of the men being engaged 
ill work that no woman could prwsibly do — 
j)rcssure was broiiglit to beyr on the Beserve 
Occupations Coniinittee, aiidin March a measure 
r»f exeniption was granted under very strict con- 
ditions. By October forty-four tramways were 


Naturally the conditions arising out of tlie war 
have affected the tramway services at every turn. 
'Hie shortage of staff has led to an increased use 
of trailers, which at first had been Htubbornly and 
unreasonably fipjioscd by the police, hut which 
have fully, demonstrated the wisdom of their 
adoption. Over ]'50 are in use in London, and 

January 2ff, 1917. 


they are no longer restricted to the ' ' rush " houi-s, 
but ai-e permitted to run all day. Their number 
will shortly be increased to 150 on the London 
County Council tramways, and ijermission has 
also been granted to the Metropolitan Electric 
IVaniways Company to use them. The lighting 
restrictions, applying not only to the street lamps, 
but also to those cai-ried on the cars, have very 
seriously hampered the operation of . the tram- 
ways evei-ywhere; in many cases the average 
speed has had to be reduced, and, owing to the 
phvsical strain on the drivers, the services have 
been cut oii after 10 p.m. or 10.30 p.m. Never- 
theless, there has been a grave increase in the 
number of fatalities in the streets due to the lack 
of light. 

In December an excellent movement was set 
on foot by Mr. H. E. Blain, operating manager 
of the London General Omnibus Company, and 
formerly of West Ham Coii^oration Tramways, in 
the fann of a " Safety Fnst " campaign, whicli 
appeal's likely to have valuable results, A 
" London Safety First Campaign Council " has 
just been formed to caiTv on educative \\-ork, and 
to instruct botli the drivers of veliicles and the 
public generally in the ^letropolitan area with a 
view to reducing street accidents to a minimum. 
The company early in the year had started a 
campaign of this kind of its own, which had 
reduced the number of accidents due to omnibuses 
by 25 per cent. The London borough coiuicils, 
tram^\-ay authorities, and the police warmly 
responded to the proposal, the need for which 
may be gathered from the fact that in the first 
nine months of 1916 there were in London no 
fewer than >}4,.')75 accidents, of which 577 were 

Shortage of coid has at times interfered witb 
electric tramway operation, notably at Birming- 
ham, where also the lack of generating plant has 
necessitated the stojjpage of the .cars for some 
hours each day over long periods. The high cf)st 
of coal has also led to the increase of fares in 
many towns. 

As regards working results, which necessarily 
have been affected by the war, kx^al circumstances 
liave had a controlling influence^ In areas where 
there are many munition factoriss large profits 
have been made, while in others less favoiu'ed 
either a small profit or an actual deficit has been 
recorded. The heavy loss on the liOndon County 
Council tramways can hardly be ascribed to the 
war, as it is becoming the normal couditiou of 

this huge and costh undertaking. With a. capital 
of nearly £14,000,000 sterling, of which 97 
millions "^is outstanding, a total length of 150 
street miles, and a revenue of neai-ly 2'64: millions, 
there was a deficit of £73,795 to meet fi'om the 
general reserve fund, which now stands at less 
tlian this figure. It should in fainiess be men- 
tioned that tiie tramway strike caused a loss 
estimated at £100,000. 


In October the Devonport tramways, which 
were pui'chased by the Plymouth Corporation for 
about £104,000, were linked up with the Plymouth 
tramways, and a universal penny fai-e was 
inaugmated on all sections. Ashton-under-Lyne 
is seeking powere to purchase the Oldham, Ashton 
and Hyde traiTiways, A'hile on the other hand the 
Notts and Derby Tramways Company is apply- 
ing for po\\ers to iicquLre the Ilkeston Corporation 

Corporations running motor 'buses, in con- 
junction with their tramways have generally done 
well. The Binningham Council has the largest 
municipal tleet of buses, numbering forty-one, 
to which six ai-e to be added. On the other hand, 
fom- electric battery 'buses owned by tlie Cor- 
poration" of York made a loss of £450, though 
there was no trouble ■n-ith the batteries or the 
electrical equipment. 

At Brighton difficulties arose between the cor- 
poration and a company because the former would 
not grant tiie latter licences to run 'buses for hire 
in tlie borougli, but this was later settled by the 
company buying up a rival and coming to terms 
\^'ith the council. 

An anteresting report on the future of the Edin- 
burgh tramways was published" in November, 
strongly recommending the corporation, when the 
time aiTives, to substitute the trolley system for 
the existing cable system. — the last of its kind in 
this country. An important decision in con- 
nection with the Oxford Electric Tramwa.ys Com- 
pany's motor 'biises, which were declared to l)e 
in tiie class of '" extraordinaiw traffic " on country 
roads, was made, and damages were awarded to 
the local authorities for resulting injui-y to roads. 
The us© of mechanically propelled vehicles by 
-municipal authorities for removing refuse, &c., is 
steadily extending. Many of these are electrically 
driven" and have been provpd to effect a saving 
compared with horsed vehicles. In August tlicro 
were in iise or on order in this country 778 battery 
vehicles of all kind^;, compared with 150 in 1914. 


I'nder existing conditions the task of reviewing 
tlie work of the water engineer dm'ing the past 
year is not easy. Wherever it has been possible 
to do so, work has been stopped first on account 
of economy and next because of the shortage of 
labour, materials, and machineiy. It is un- 
desirable to refer to work which has been carried 
out as a direct consequence of war conditions, and 
file result is that, as far as works of construction 
in tiiis country arc concerned, there is very little 
to be said. 

Without doubt, water engineers generally liavi' 
had a very trying time, o\\-ing to tlie great cost of 
fuel, the scarcity of labour, the long delays in 
ol)taining maten-ials, plant, fittings, and so forth. 
In addition to these troubles there has been con- 
siderable danger owing to the increased jiossi- 
l)ilities of water pollution and to the sudden and 
unexpected increase of pf)pulation in vai-ioas places 
whore camps or f)tlier military establislimenfs 
have sprung up. However, it is evident tliat the 
engineer has not been found wanting in dealing 
with the difficulties preserttod, and the country 
generally is to be congratulati-d upon the manner 
in wiiicb the water supply has been maintained. 

On the other hand, the war conditions have un- 
doubtedly tended to force the members of water 
boards aiid committees to rely more than was 
formerly the case upon the advice and judgment 
of the engineer. When suddenly faced with some 
great difticulty, without the usual i-esoiu-ces for 
meeting it, the layman is apt to hang upon tho ' 
ad\ice of the engineer, as a drowning man will 
clut<'li at the object which will keep liim afloat, 
and thus in many cases the scientific adviser has 
come into his own and lias saved the situation. 
The direct result of the war has been to stinuilate 
sciejitific rese!U-ch, and in the futm-e we may 
hope to hear of much interesting work which is 
at present going fonvard which has for its object 
the treatment and purification of water. 

Seeing that engineei-s and scientific workers in 
this country have either been engaged upon war 
work directly or else indiix^tly ui)on the no less 
important work of maintaining the supplies at 
home, under extraordinary diffivi'lties, it is clear 
that they can have httd very little time to si)ar»^ 
for writing descriptions of works, hooks, r>r 
technical i)ap<'i-s, and it is not surprising to find 
that the bulk of the news of interest comes from 



Jamakv 26. 1917. 

America or fri.ui c-ouuirios less affeoled l).\ the 
wax*. It is oiilv natural tliat we should se<? 
evidences of greater intelligence in the viU'ious 
pajiei-s and reports which have been published, 
and in the general attitude of the engineer. 


Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, in his paper on the 
" Maintenance of the Standard of ^funicipal 
Sanitation Durmg the Continuance of War Con- 
ditions, " read before the Royal Sanitary Institute, 
did good \\ork in showing that no diminution m 
the quality or quantity of a water supply should 
be pnictised as a nieasm-e of economy, but that 
the engineer should l(x>k to the condition of the 
pinnping station and filter beds, to the coal and 
lubrietuit consumjition, and to leakage and waste. 
He further drew attention to the valuable service 
the public can perform in dealing with the detec- 
tion and prevention of waste. It would surely be 
well tliat tliis point shoidd be emphasised, and 
that the public should be better educated in the 
fact that waste of water is a matter of gieat 
national importance, which can best be dealt with 
by the individual. 

Much the same idea seems to be in the mind 
of Sir John Wolfe Barry, who, in a recent con- 
tribution to the Tiwex, drew attention to the fact 
that economy in the use of water by the indi- 
vidual consumer often means a saving in the con- 
sumption of coal. In the London area, foi* 
example, the Metropolitan Water Board estimates 
its coal bill for the ensuing ye^u* at £300,000 for 
pumping an average dailv supplv of 30 gidlons per 
head for 6,750,000 pei-sons. ' To the 190,000 
tons of coal thus annually consumed must be 
added the ainount of coal used by the London 
County Coimcil in punqiing this water iigain in 
the form of sewage. It would be possible to 
reduce this quantity of water materially, and thus 
to reduce the fuel bill, if the average householder 
were careful to stop all waste. There can be no 
doubt that there is daily allowed to run to waste 
in every house an enormous quantity of water 
which woidd certainly be saved if the pereon 
wasting it had to pump it up by hand from a 
well. The saving of waste such as this entails no 
hardship, but merely requires the e.vercise of a 
little thfjught. 

No better illustration of intelligent economy 
exists than that of the sterilisation of the London 
water supply. 


London has at length adopted the policy of 
water sterilisation. Tliis does not mai-k any new 
discovery-, or even the trial of a new method; it 
niereK- means that after sterilisation by means 'of 
liyfirx-blorite had been adopted on the largest 
-' t!'- at hundreds of places in America, and on a 

I' ill<.r scale in this country, the Metropolitan 
W ;ii<r Board liave at hwt recognised the obvious 
adviiiit :(!.'<••- f.f tile nutlifxi and iiave adopted it on 

' '"'litcd scale after being fwced to do .so l)y the 

'ig impurity of the Tluimes water and by the 

it n<-ed of saving the cost of pumping and 

!"■ ur, at a time when the cost of fuel is |)ro- 

liiiMiive and labour very scarce. The fact tJiat 

London has set tliis example will, when it comes 

to Ix- known generally in tlie country, « hich is not 

1 • ->arily at once, encourage otlier water autho- 

to make use (ti the process. 

Jn theM- piiges it has been urged, till readers 

niiLst be tir.d of repetition, that, as water of very 

impure quality can be made i<erfectly pure by 

'• I'ment, it is obviously pf*;sible to sujiply many 
jiu-s with grKxl Water by making use (/f the 
source near. -1 at hand, thus saving the outlay on 
large works, -nrh ,is is imj-fFssible in many places, 
I»firticularly in rural districts. Further,' that in 
very many c(w<eH the sterilisation of the water 
would nf>t onls htul u> a saving of money, but 
would prfidure ^af. t V where a risk is now run. 

The words of Dr. Houston's twolftli rcseiux'h 
report to the ^letropolitan Water Board al-o 
certainly in agreement with such statements. We 
read that the practice of the water bom-d has been 
to circidate water through the storage resen-oirs 
in oi-der to improve its quality; that this involves 
a lai-ge expenditure of money, as the water has 
generally to be pumped into the reservoii-s ; that 
the water is now allowed to,pass direct on to the 
filter beds after it has been dosed with hypo- 
chlorite ; that this treatment. — viz., sterilisation — 
purifies the water to a higher standard than is 
effected by storage in reservoirs ; and that the 
saving involved may be about 10s. per 1,000,000 
gallons. Here we get a better result and a con- 
siderable saving of money. 

During the summer 75,000,000 gallons of water 
wei'e Treated daily, and not a single complaint was 
received of taste or odour present in the water. 
There can be ver\ little doubt, however, that if 
the general public had known that their drinking 
watei' was being treated w'lih. chloride of hme 
complaints would have been ' many. Such is 
lumian nature and the powei"s of imagination. 
The immediate effect of this treatment, moreover, 
has been that tlie life of the sand filters has been 
considei'ably prolonged. It has evidently taken 
Dr. Houston, \\ho %Aas the originator of the 
method of hypochlorite sterilisation of town 
supplies, all these yeai-s to persuade his board to 
adopt the metljod. We see here an excellent 
example of the fact that, while England possesses 
scientific workers, who have the ability to discover 
and perfect new methods, the bulk of the people 
do not attach proper importance to their work 
and advice, and that we allow other nations to 
reap the reward, and even to claun credit for the 
invention in many cases. One nuiy reasonably 
ask how much money the ^letropolit-an Water 
Board might ha\o saved if tliis process had been 
adopted yeiu-s ago, and how much money the 
whole country might have saved if they had had 
an intelligent gi-asp of Dr. Houston's method. 


The report' above refeiTed to contsuns an inte- 
resting section dealing with the possibility of 
preventing the clogging of filters by chemical 
pre-treatment of the ^\•ater. Such clogging is 
due vcrv largely to algal growths in the ^^■ater; if 
these are got rid of, or if their gi-owth is pi-evented, 
the life of the filter is prolonged considerably, with 
a resultant saving of expense. -By careful 
exajnination at the water it is, moreover, possible 
to tell when any sudden increase in the algal 
gi*owth is taking place. Such an examination 
has' an anticipatory value, inasmuch as tlie know- 
ledge obtahied may precede the actual tX'currence 
of filtration and other troubles, thus allowing 
remediid measures to be jiut into operation in 


Closely akin lo this subject is the work of Prof. 
N. L. Huff and :\lr. O. G. House at St. Paul, 
described in a ])aper read before the convention of 
the American \\'aterworks Association in New 
York. By careful attention to detail, and in- 
dependent observations free from the usuiU con- 
sideration fxf precedent as a guide, it « as observed 
that, in treating the water in a resenoir with 
copper suljjhate for llie removal of organic growths, 
it was possible to effect a very great economy in 
the chemical i)y apjilying it only where it wafi 
requij'ed. It was found thafcertuin (piiet, shallow 
jirjols were bre<diiig-phu-es for vai'ious organisms, 
and that by aj)pl\ing small quantities of the 
chemical at sucli jioints the main sources of 
trouble were cheeked. Very shallow bays, fiat, 
muddy shores, and small ponds were treat<d by 
spraying the chemical over the surface with a 
hand pump. In the ordinaiw method, where a 
bag of the chemical is towed behind a boat, it is 

..January 2(j, 1917. 



to be observed that the worst places would be 
inaccessible, and would therefore receive no treat- 
ment. Fm-ther, that if a boat were taken, through 
shallow, muddy places, much of the chemical 
would be absorbed by tlie organic matter distui-bed 
from the bottom. In the old method the cleai-est 
water was over-dosed, and the worst places 
remained unaffected. The saving in chemical 
effected by the abandonment of the crude 
o)dinai\y method was such that one part of copper 
sulphate sufficed for the treatment of 10,000,000 
l)arts of water. This, again, is a striking example 
of the manner in which we may use our brains 
and obtain equally good residt« at much less cost 
if we have the faith and enei'gy to do so. 

Mr. C. P. Hoover, chemist of the Columbus 
waterworks, described a new process of water puri- 
fication in a paper read before the American Water- 
works Association. This process is an improve- 
ment on the process of coagulation by means of 
ammonium sulphate. In the new process syrup of 
alum is fed directly into the water supply. Lump 
alum, a combination of bauxite (a clay containing 
from 58 to 60 per cent alumina), is mixed with 
sulphuric acid and boiled until a basic solution of 
aluminium sulphate is obtained. The solution is 
then mixed with water, and this is then applied to 
the water under treatment. By this process five 
distinct steps in alum making are eliminated — 
\az., filtering, concentrating, crystallising, grind- 
ing, and redissolving. This process is very eco- 
nomical, and the annual saving to the city has been 
estimated at £1,200, the installation costing 

Water softening by electro-chemical methods 
lias been described by iiVIr. C. P. Landreth in a 
paper prepared for the American Society of 
Refrigerating Engineers, and attention is called to 
the important fact that electricity will hasten 
chemical reaction, and thereby improve the results 
obtained with the ordinaiy water-softening com- 


In America the question of leakage from water 
mains has received considerable attention. From 
a paper read by Mr. A. II. Smith, it appears that 
the leakage from mains in the American cities is 
very high, which may go far to account for the 
enormous quantities supplied. Mr. Smith appears 
to think that a loss of from 30 to 40 per cent of the 
total supply is common, and even goes so far as to 
consider that a loss of 1 gallon per day per foot of 
joint is satisfactory. 

Mr. C. P. Chase, in_,a paper read before the 
Iowa Engineering Society, said: "I would not be 
willing to guarantee a leakage of less than 10,000 
gallons per mile in ordinary soils "on a pipe line. 

It is clear that they do not know everj'thing in 
America, but we have much yet to learn also in 
this country as to the prevention of waste, and it 
is probable that the war conditions will lead to a 
very great saving of public money in the future, 
simply because the force of circumstances will 
compel' us to l^e more careful, and to make good 
the obvious defects in our systems before we spend 
money upon new works. 


Prof. J. A. Fleming, speaking at the conference 
on " Engineering and Scientific Research," con- 
vened by the Society of Engineers, pointed out that 
the enormous destniction during the war of the 
productions of the engineer's shop and office would 
call for reconstruction, and offer a vast field for 
eiif^ineering work. Until we produced wore men 
v'hn cnuld dn new fliinqx, and not mereJij Inov; about 
old things^, it wa^ futile for Great Britain to hope 
to gain pre-eminence over Germany in scientific 
industries. The advantages which we had in 
greater originality of mind and better workman- 
sliip were neutralised to a large pxtent by the 
want of a sufficiently thorough and broad seientific 

education to enable us to see the practical value of 
the openings given by scientific discoveries. It was 
the want of this sufficiently thorough scientific 
education which accounted for the limited faith of 
many employei's and capitalists in scientific 
research, and for the inability of the practical 
worker to take advantage of, or see the meaning 
of, facts which presented themselves to him in his 
eveiyday work. The first condition of success on 
the business side of engineering must be a.ssocla- 
tion and combination, and the second, scientific 
method in all things. Prof. Fleming's remarks are 
entirely to the point, and tend to show how great 
is the need for highly trained men. The future 
possibilities with regard to engineering, and to 
water engineering in particular, depend entirely 
upon scientific control. 

We see the growing tendency to nationalise 
various branches of engineering work ; we find that 
coal mines, railways, and so forth are thus taken 
over by the Government, and it is clear that the 
nationalisation of our water supply must follow. 
This should lead to an. enonnous saving of money, 
and if the national system is under proper scien- 
tific control, the result will indeed justify the 


The destruction of water mains due to electro- 
lysis is a growing evil, and the importance of the 
subject is well recognised. The findings of. the 
various authorities who have dealt with the matter 
in the past year are generally to the effect that 
prevention is better than cure. It cannot be said 
that very much more is to be gathered. 

In a technologic Npaper of the United States 
Bureau of Standards, methods proposed for the 
mitigation of electrolysis of underground pipes were 
discussed by iMr. E. B. Rosa, cliief physicist, and 
Mr. Burton McCollum, electrical engineer. The 
authors are of opinion that by far the greater part 
of the damage caused by electrolysis is that arising 
from the coii-osiou of underground pipes and 
cables, and that in general those remedial measures 
which are applicable to pipe systems should be 
regarded as secondary means of mitigation of elec- 
trolysis trouble, the principal resistance being proper 
construction and maintenance of the railway return 
circuit. In special cases, however, mitigative mea- 
sures may be applied to underground structures. 
Of these, the two most commonly applied are the 
installation of insulating joints and the use of pipe 
drainage. The installation of insulating joints is 
a measure which may be adopted when the pijies 
are being laid, but where isolated pipe systems ex'st 
without insulating joints, and where no other 
underground ulilities produce complications, pipe 
.drainage may be effected by the use of insulated 
feeder systems, so adjusted as to take the minimum 
possible current from the pipes at all points. These 
methods should, however, only be used as auxiliary 
means of protection after reasonable precautions 
have been taken to reduce potential drops in the 
tracks to as low value^ as are economically possible. 

Prof. Ganz, of the Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology, in a lecture upon this subject, drew atten- 
tion to the conipai-ative failure that has attended 
the use of paints or dips, and stated that no dip or 
paint will permanently protect a pipe against 
electrolysis in wet soil, and that the danger of elec- 
trolytic action may be even greater with such pipes 
than in the case of uncoated p'pes. Experience 
has shown that stray currents may leave only from 
the bare spots, with consequent liability to concen- 
trated coiTOsion. Prof. Ganz suggested surround- 
ing the pipe with a layer of asphalt, about 2 in. in 
thickness ; but, in most cases, the cost is obviously 
prohibitive. With regard to insulating joints, 
Prof. Ganz pointed out that it is sometimes possible 
to use comparatively few insulating jo-nts to break 
up the electrical continuity of the line, and that 
insulating joints are particularly useful in oases 
where small service pipes are endangered by current 



,]ANi Auv 2G. 1917. 

which flows to them either from the mains or from 
house piping. 

At the annual convention of the American Water- 
works Association there was presented by a com- 
mittee on electrolysis a report giving evidence of 
increasing damage to pipes .in cities from electric 
railwavs. As a ren>e<.ly it was not proposed to deal 
in any way with the pipes, but to connect the 
station with the track at certain critical points by 
cable. Metallic connection between the pipe and 
track was not advocated. It appears that there is 
a disposition to criticise the proceedings of the 
representative committee which has been established 
in America, and which includes representatives of 
waterworks, gas. electric light and railways, 
together with the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers and the United States Bureau of 
Standards, on the ground that the water engineers 
were practically overxvhelmed by various electrical 
interests. The United States Bureau of Standards 
reports to the effect that paints, dips, and wrap- 
pings are not of much use in themselves, and that 
insulating joints offer but an imperfect guard. 



At a mwting recently of the Barnstaple Rui-al Dis- 
trict CouncU. Mr. J. .\ndiew complained of men being 
*iiiployed cleaning tlif water tables at such a time as 
the present, and mentioned that there was a man 
engaged in such work betwt>en Chapelton and Umber- 
leigh. To his mind it was an entire waste of time, 
and the man would be much better employed on his 
farm than in doing that unnecessaiy work. There 
was scarcely a bit of stuff to dig up. A good part 
of the road had been rt'-made. and there were no water 
tables, the road being carried to the foot of the hedge. 
It was a scandalous waste to keep men* cleaning uj) 
when it was not re<juired. He did not think there 
was a butt-load of material in foity landyards. There 
he was performing this ojieration at a cost to the poor 
ratepayers, and then not helping the roads. Could the 
suneyor let this man go on the farms for a while?" 

Th«"' chairman (Mr. L. A. Alford) : You just remarked 
that we shall lose our money from the county council 
if we do not keej) the roads in repair. 

Mr. Andrew : That does not mean to say we should 
do unnecessary work. 

The sui-\eyor (Mr. A. .\. Kichards) : We cannot do 
too much cleaning of the roads, especially at this 
season of the year. They want all the attention you 
can give them. 

Mr. Andrew : I entirely disagree ; this is unneressaiy 
work. It is not re<|uired. I would like t^) ask the 
sur%eyor to give his attention to the bit of newly m;i(U' 
road ; it is getting into a very bad condition. 

Th« chairman : No doubt Mr. Richards will see to it. 
Mr. .\ndrews : Could this man be spared for tlu' 
Thi- surveyor: No; we want more. 
Mr. .1. Hobbs: If Mr. .\ndrew wants the man, all 
he lias to do is to offer him a shilling or so per week 
more tJian he is now receiving. 

-Mr. .John Baker said lu; thought the sun'cyor must 
hav«- the patienc<' of .Job to allow of his being " ran- 
Ha<'ked " and tackled by every councillor as to what 
he •should and should not do. He always looked upon 
the sur\«'yor a- a most efficient official who was U> be 
trusl<-rl. 'ni<> rriii..t all trust Mr. Itichards. He could 
\>nuj u|. ' riiiijainls as well as other members, "but 
• the man off his head if we keep on." 
•HI : Mr. Itichards fippreciat^-s any hints 

■ ... . liim. 

.Mr. haker: I do not think he like*, too much fault- 

Mr. .Andrews: What are we here for if it is not to 
U>ok after the road.- ? 


Prosperous Tramways. — Ih.- i<<l,i.tjoti m the 
num>Kr and ••).. • -1 ..|,- coupled with the advance 
in fan-K, ha<- had iIk . If. . t m Mandiesf.-i f.f; 
the reeeipts of the tiaiiiway«< department 


" On account of the continuation of the war, the 
year has been one of depression, and consequently no 
iiew works of any magnitude have been taken in hand. 
Information, however, has been obtained, as oppor- 
tunity offered during the year, for various future 
undertakings, such as water supply, sewerage, &c.. 
which will be found u.-^eful when required." 

Mr. Arthur H. Waller, assoc.m.inst.o.e., the town 
engineer of Bulawayo, South Africa, makes these re- 
marks at the outset of his report for the twelve months 
ended June last. Among the works to which special 
attention has been given is that of road upkeep, and 
in this connection Mr. Waller says: "The streets 
recently hardened with graded granite are standing 
remarkably well considering the fact that the binding 
material available is of a very gritty nature, and that 
we have not the water to give s\ifRoient street water- 
ing. New roads require daily watering for some time 
after construction, aiul it is pleasing to note that, not- 
withstanding the difficulties mentioned, only a very 
few small patches have worked loose. The approaches 
to the Naw Bridge, although well rolled Iwfore the 
macadam was added, have subsided slightly, but not 
to such an extent as was anticipated. The work 
could not be allowed to wait for soaking rains, whi<'h 
would have consolidated the filling. After next rains 
I anticipate that all settlement will have taken place, 
when any irregularity of the pre.«ent road surface can 
easily be rectified. An excess amount of binding 
)iu\terial has been recently spread on part of the 
surface in order to counteract the shortage of 


In .January last Mr. Waller placed before the Public 
Works Committee a rci)ort on the question of slop- 
water removal by means of stoneware pipe sewers. 
Some few years ago this subject was brought before 
the council, when it was proposed to use 4-in. diameter 
steel pipes, collecting the .slop-water only, from the 
various hotels, running it by gravitation to a point 
in the North Park, and pumping to the compound 
tank, where it was again to be pumped to the muni- 
cipal farm. In his report the town surveyor pointed 
out the unsatisfactory nature of this scheme,' and 
advised that stonewaro i)ipe lines, with junctions for 
future connections, should be laid in such positions 
and of such sizes as to work in with, and eventually 
form part of, a complete system of sewerage. This 
system, in addition to j)rovidiiig means of disposing 
.slop 'water and faeces from hotels and other institu- 
tions, would, he observes, considerably enhance the 
comfort and health of the community, and effect a 
considerable saving — after providing interest and 
sinking fund — on the present system. 

The estimated cost of the scheme is, in round 
figures, £10.()0(). 


In the report of the chief sanitary inspector to the 
luiniicipality, Mr. C. E. Hall, there are some interest- 
ing particulars regarding the .sanitary service charges. 

The. cost of rul)bish removals is provided for at a 
minimum charge of os. jier month from all premises, 
so that there is a regular removal of all domestic and 
trade refuse. Where large quantities of refuse aic 
retnoved a charge of lOs. per cubic yard is made. 

The cost of slop-water removal is provided for at h 
iiiininnnn charge of 7s. 6(1. per month, or 10s. per load 
of auu gallons, except where special contracts are 
nuide, and on these charges an abatement of 25 jx'r 
cent is given, provided prompt payment is made. 

Tlie cost of stercuH removal is i)rovided for at the 
rate of 10s. per i)ail ]k r month, and extra i)ails at the 
rate of Ss. per. month each (less 2.5 i)er cent abate- 
ment). For native latrines the cost is 2s. 6d. per pail 
per month (nett). For charges there is a regular 
nightly .service, clean pails being placed in the closets 
each night. 

The cost of removal of dead aninuils is at the rate 
of 1.JS. for a horse, cow or donkey. 

Edinburgh Tramways to be Purchased.— The Edin- 
burgh Town ('oiiiicil have (le<ided to ;ic<'ei)t the 
proposal of (he Tramways Committee for tho purchase 
of the Edinburgh and District Tramway Comj)any's 
undertaking. Fifty tlu/usand |)ound« is to be paid for 
20f) cars, and the company undertake U) leave the 
rails in such a condition that at tin* termination of 
the lease these would he. fit to cari-y on cable working 
for at least nix years after the termination of the lease. 

Januarv 2G, 1917. 



Ferro-Concrete Bridges on the Meuse. 

[An illustrated article dealing: with the Bouvignes, Rouillon, and Hermalle Bridges will be found 
our issue of November 24th last.] 

The town of Namur, fonneiiy the capital of a count- 
ship acquired by Burgundy in the fifteenth century, 
and now the chief town of the province of Namur, 
occupies an exceedingly picturesque situation at the 

Fig. 1.— Ruin.s of ^Iasonry Bridge at Namur 

Very little information is available as to the present 
state of the bridges across the two rivers. Probably 
they were destroyed during or after the bombardment 
of Namur, and have been partly restored for the con- 
venience of the enemy. The 
only definite knowledge in our 
possession is that conveyed by 
the photograph reproduced as 
Fig. 1. This view was taken 
from the quay in the suburb 
of Jambes, aixl shows only a 
part of the bridge on that side 
of the river. The .heaps of 
masonry in the waterway re- 
present the remains of the 
arches destroyed, and above the 
debris are electric cables, pipes 
and tramway rails. On the 
extreme left is the Donjon of 
the Citadelle above the boule- 
vard facing the river, the town 
being in the distance on the 
extreme right. 

Of the two Hennebique 
bridges in Namur, one carries 
part of a track on the Plaine 
de Jeux, to the south-west of 
the Citadelle. As shown in 

confiuence of the rivers Meuse and 
Sambre. The town is on the northern 
bank of the latter river, on the southern 
>ide of which are the Citadelle, the 
Grand Pare de la Citadelle, and the 
Faubourg de Salzinnes. 

Standing on a hill rising to a height 
of 705 ft., the Citadelle is on the site of 
an old Roman fort and of the castle of 
the Counts of Namur, two towers of 
tlie latter being still extant. The re-' 
mainder of the plateau is occupied by 
the park, which constitutes a pleasant 
resort for those in search of recreation 
and sports, and the suburb of Salzinne 
lies to the north of the park. 

Before the war, access to the plateau 
was readily obtained from the town by 
.several bridges across the Sambre, and 
from the Faul>ourg de Jambes, on the 
eastern side of the Meuse, by amasonr> 
bridge of nine arches. 

Like every other form of construction, 
the celebrated forts of Namur, once 
lielieved to be impregnable, have suc- 



Heights, Namlr. 

Fig. 3.— Bridge over the Sambre at Namur. 

ciunbed to the destructive effects of modern iiigh 
explosives, a fate afterwards shared by many formid- 
able underground fortresses constructed by the 
Germans on the Somme and the Aisne, and regarded 
by them as absolutely impregnable. 

Fig. 2, the ground is here of a some- 
what rugged nature, and is of un- 
stable character. The bridge has an 
arch-span of 132 ft., and was built 
entirely in ferro-concrete, the para- 
pets being of masonry. Although 
quite unpretentious in appearance, 
this structure is one of fairly 
important dimensions, and was com- 
pleted in the year 1911 for the Belgian 
Government under the superintend- 
ence of M. Dethy, Ingenieur-en-chef 
des Ponts et Chaussees. 

The other bridge at Namur crosses 
the river S^ibre in a single arch of 
170-ft. span and 10 ft. wide, being 
intended for -the convenience of 
pedestrians between the town and 
ihe pleasant resorts on the opposite 
.side of the river. This bridge, con- 
structed for the Belgian Ministry of 
Public Works, is of striking design, 
as illustrated"i)y Fig. 3, the slender- of the arch being a noteworthy 
feature now tolerably familiar to 
engineers, but formerly regarded as 
a rather daring illustration of the elastic 
strength posses-sed by Hennebique ferro - concrete. 
The structure wa.'? in continuous use for a long 
period of years before the outbreak of the 
present war. 




.IaKI ABl Jfi. 1917. 


Au aunouucenient wn= made nearly two years ago to 
the effect that all the bridges at Li^ge likely to be of 
future use to the Allien hod l^en destroyed by the 

FlO. 4 -i'OM DE LA BOTEaLE, LiBOt 

tK-ruiaiia. Il ii Lhefcioro jTobablc thai at loust tbrtc 
of the examples of Hennebiq\io bridge construction in 
the Walloon capital ere uo longer in oxl-uuro 

*>f the four bridgoo described bolow. 
Two cross the main stream of the rivei 
M. ;-,^. one ppans a new channel. 
a a-i the Derivation, of the rivet 
Ou.-the, \vhich flowe into the Meuse at 
Li^e, and tJie fourth ia a railway 
t>ridg© on tha outskirts of the city. 

The principal part of the city lies- 
<>u the left bank of the river Meuse. 
l>etween which and the Derivation 
there is a long island, JometimeF 
t«*rnied I'lle de la Boverie, occupied 
l>y another important part i-'f the city, 
;Mid aflf<rding excellent ^ite- for th*^ 
■Tardin flAcchmatation and the Par'" 
de 1« B'>veri»'. B^'V'iud the Derivation 
are qunrtor-i <-i>iiriifting largely of in- 
(luiitrial works and dwcUings of th'^ 
MorkiuK claiwt'i-, thi? region being tra- 
vervd by Uu' main and ?ub»idiar\ 
.•liaoiuela ot the river Ourthe. all Con 
n(v»tff] with tho Derivation. 


This brid'jo '%ccupie^ a central eitu > 
lion near Uk- UiiivoT>ity, and provides 
f'onvenient nieans of cross-river com- 
munication between the chief portion 
of tlie city and the I>r.nffdor railway etAlion. wh- nee 
tram* run to Namur. .Aix-la-ChapoUe and Maastricht. 
\. inav tw> i;.i«i'^«vl ••!! rcfpren^*- tf^ Fic 4. thi-i !■* -t 

and pedestrian traffic provided by tho original design, 
it was decided bv the city authorities about fourteen 
years ago to wid> ii the bridge, and tlie project sub- 
mitted by tiio Hcnnebiiiue organisation was Anally 
adopted and carried into effect during the 
year 1903. The essential advantages of 
the scheme w«ie that it provided for a 
sub.'.t.antial increase in effective widtli in 
a particularly economical manner, witli- 
out impairing in any way or altering the 
..'liaraoteristic appearance of tho structuro. 
By tlie simple expedient of applying 
fi'MO-'.'oiicrete oncorlK-lment for the addi- 
tion of new footwalks on enoh side, the 
wliole of the original width i>f tho bridge 
was made availnblo for tho roadway, the 
result boiim akin to that secund by t4ie 
wideninu' of Loudon BridKC, although tho 
■ ■lieialioiis were executetl in a far nioro 
ocoiiomioal manner. 

•■""^ PONT DES ABCiiEs. 

Tin: hi5;lily satisfactory wideniuy of the 
I'ont de la Boverie. was followed a few 
years latei- by a similar adaptation of 
ierro-concrete corbelling to the Pont des 
iVrches, ono of the most beautiful masonry 
bridged across th« river Meuea. Built 
some aixty years ago, tills work carries 
the main highway from Brussela to Aix- 
hi-Chapelle, ocro63 tho river, and con- 
nects the two most populous quartcr€ of Li^ge. For 
many years previous to the execution of tho widening 
work, the bridge li;).l bf^<^n found 3b?ol\itolv in<:ufh- 

t- 1"-. 

I'oM nr^ Aff-iir^ l,ij:'*-r 

Fir, 6 —Pom Mativa. Lieoe. 

ma ire of fiv* arcbec, the poles prOKCting 

<iho ay being rUndarda for the supply of 

ciirrwi 1 r .1^. trie tramcars passing over the bridge. 

Oiring to the limitH nc^Animodttion for v^hicuUr 

• icni (or the conduct of \fhicular |.l-^Ul• . ejpccially 
after the installation of three lines of tramway tracks. 
Th« lAtril width iiotween parapets was alx)ut 40 ft., 
nnd after providing for two foot- 
"alkf. each 6ft. 6 in. vide, onl.v 
3(1 ft. ,Tin. was left for the road- 

Owing to the continued growth 
<if trafflc. the work of widening at 
Inst l^ecamo a pressing necessity, 
and as it would have been highly 
inconvenient to close the l>ridg<' 
till the execution of the work. 
M. Cornet, Jngenicur - en - chef. 
Direcleur des Ponts ct Cliauss^es. 
idopted a project submitt.ed b.\ 
M. Ifennebique. and providing for 
the construction of corbelling 
"lii<ii could very easily and 
lapiilly be put in place. 
r—tir The corbelling was formed oi 

S^ (erro-concrete slab? .5 ft. ,'J in. 

wide by 16 ft. h in. long, about 
two-thirds of the length of each 
slab resting on the old masonrj'. 
and the remainin;z third project- 
ing in cantilever for the support 
of new footwalks. The slabs ar*^ 
ronncrted longitudinally by ferro-conerete beams nnd 
counterweigh ted by mass <,oncreic. while as an addi- 
tional safeguard the corbelling is anchored down to 
the original ma«.onry In all 144 slabs were required. 

Januakv 26, 1917. 



and these were moulded in advance in a contractors' 
yard close to the site. 

In order to obviate the stoppage of traffic, work was 
carried out in two longitudinal sections, the down- 
stream half of the bridge being first taken in hand, 
and completed in six weeks. The other half was 
finished five weeks later. As remodelled the bridge 
has a roadway 13 ft. 2 in. wider than before, an 
important increase which was secured at a very mode- 
rate cost, and, as may be judged on examination of 
Fig. 5, without impairing the appearance of the struc- 
ture in the slightest degree. 

The joining up of the widened roadway and the new 
footwalks of the bridge with those of the adjoining 
thoroughfares was effected by constructing approaches 
curving outwards from the bridge, thus smoothing 
away sharp corners on each side of the river. These 
approaches were formed in ferro-concrete moulded on 
centering supported from the towpaths passing 
beneath the end arches of the bridge. 

The ferro-concrete corbelling is faced at the outer 
edge by stone moulding, above which rises a stone 
parapet, the ferro-concrete l^eing visible only from the 
river and towpaths. 


This remarkable bridge was constructed early in 
1905 over the river Ourthe, and opened in time to 
afford means of communication between two portions 
of the Exposition Universelle de Liege. 

The bridge has a total length of 262-40 ft., and in- 
cludes a central span of 180-40 ft. It is 32-80 ft. wide, 
and the thickness of the main arch is only 115 ft. at 
the crown. The slender proportions of the central 
arch and its exceptionally small rise, less than one- 
fifteenth of the span, were due to the requirements of 
the specification prepared by M. Jacquemin, the engi- 
neer acting for the Comjnittee of the Exposition. 

Fig. 6 is a view of the bridge, which was constructed 
entirely in Hennebique ferro-concrete, and passed a 
number of exceptionally severe tests in March and 
-April, 1905. One of the tests was conducted by march- 
ing bodies of infantry and cavalry along the roadway 
under the superintende-nce of Colonel Algrain, repre- 
senting the Belgian War Ministry. 

It is possible that a good many practical tests of 
tlie same character have since been carried out by the 
OermanS; if the bridge was not destroyed after their 
(ic-ciipation of Liege. 


By Cloyd M. Chapman. 

To be generally acceptable, specifications for con- 
crete should fulfil two requirements — namely: (1) 
They should insure the production of suitable con- 
crete if the aggregates are properly used, and (2) they 
.should permit the use of materials found in the 
vicinity of the work, if such materials are capable of 
producing concrete of. the required quality. 

The present method of specifying /nay insure the 
f|iiality of the material, but it does not permit the of a wide choice of aggregates from which first- 
class concrete inay be made. 

Concrete is a cheap building material because it is 
composed largely of inexpensive aggregates, and for 
economic reasons these aggregates should be secured 
from deposits in the vicinity of the point of use. 
Whatever materials are locally valuable for aggre- 
gates must be u.sed in the great majority of cases, for 
aggregates which must lie transported long distances 
are no longer inexpensive. The material at hand 
(•apal)le of making concrete of fair quality will gene- 
rally be used in preference to a better material which 
must be brought from a distance at considerable cost 
lor transportation. 

It is generally true that even a very poor sand — 
that is, one which compares very unfavourably with 
standard sand when tested in 1 : 3 mixtures with 
foment, will give a suitable compressive strength if 
sufficient cement is used. Where most excellent 
inat^urials are available the present style of specifica- 
tion does not permit a variation of the proportions, 
however good the materials may be. For instance, 
some well-graded sand? give i-treiiglha 40 per cent 
Jiit'hfT than that obtained with slandard..«and ia the 
proportion of 1:3. .Yet siich. sands TeceJKe no. credit 
for quality under the present form of specification. 

•From a paper reart before the American Society for 
Testing Materials. 

Specifications serve their purpose when they secure 
the products described, but they serve the industry 
best when broad enough to cover all the materials 
capable of furnishing a product of the desired quality. 

In order to cover -and include all materials which 
are capable of producing concrete of the quality re- 
quired for the particular service it is to perform, it is 
only necessary to specify the result required instead 
of specifying the materials used. In this way it would 
be possible not only properly to safeguard the product, 
but to permit the use of such materials as are avail- 
able in each locality. 


It is also true that in many cases the local mate- 
rials of such poor quality and would require such 
a large proportion of cement to fulfil the specifications, 
that it would be economical to bring in better mate- 
rial even from a considerable distance, the saving in 
cement paying the freight. Specifications of this kind 
might take some such form as the following, in which 
all figures are purely arbitrary and in no sense pro- 
posed as a standard: — 

The materials used shall be of such quality and 
shall be used in such proportions as to produce a 
concrete which shall show a compressive strength of 
2,500 lb. (or 2,000 lb., or 1,500 lb.) per square inch at 
the age of twenty-eight days when tested in accord- 
ance with the standard methods of testing. 

This form of specification is obviously open to modi- 
fication to cover varying, coijditions. For instance, to 
insure against concrete which sets or hardens slowly, 
and consequently requires forms being kept in place 
an unusual length of time, the specification may re- 
quire a certain minimum strength to be attained in 
three days. Again, in sea wall or tunnel work, re- 
quirements as to permeability or density may be 
inserted either in place of, or in addition to, the 
strength requirement. 

It would probably be desirable to add some further 
qualifying clauses, such as the limit of size of 
particles, the character of the materials composing 
the aggregates, freedom from constituents liable to 
cause deterioration, and the like. 

The method at present most commonly employed is 
practically to ignore the quality of materials except 
the cement, and arbitrarily to specify proportions 
that will give good results with almost any aggregates. 
Wherein lies the incentive to a contractor or builder 
to use any better materials than the cheapest if he is 
compelled by the specifications to use a certain 
arbitrary mixture, regardless of quality or material ? 

Any specifications for concrete aggregates which are 
to 1)0 used all over the country must be so drawn that 
any material which will make concrete of the required 
quality will be included. 

In operating under such specifications it is of great 
importance that specimens of the concrete produced 
be regularly made and' tested. It is also of the 
greatest importance that a close day-to-day check be 
maintained on the quality of the materials used, so as 
to insure a reasonable uniformity, and to know that 
these materials are at least equal in quality to the 
materials used in arriving at the proportions requited 
to give the quality of concrete called for in the speci- 

Having once established by test the suitability of 
sand and stone for any grade of concrete, and having 
determined the proper proportions in which to use 
them to attain a certain desired result, it is only 
necessary thereafter to see that the size, grading and 
proportions of these materials are reasonably constant 
to insure uniform qualify of concrete. Such a check 
on size and grading should be had on each and every 
shipment of material, and is easily obtained with a 
small set of sieves, or, in tlte case of sand, which is 
by far the more important material, by means of a 
self-contained sand tester. 

The regular and systematic testing of the size of the 
aggregates gives data which will permit the engineer 
to tell without further tests whether the aggregates 
will produce a better or poorer concrete than that 
produced by the original or standard sample. This 
fact is based on the well-established principle that, 
other filings being equal, the aggregate wluTse granu- 
lometric-analysis curve most nearly approaches the 
line of maximum densily will produce the best con- 
crete. This makes it possible to determine with 
reasonable certainty which tWo sands of the' same 
kind and from fhft same 30tn-ce, bot dfOerihg onTv in 
fineness, will make the better concrete.' 



.Iani Auv 2t;. 1017. 

Decimal Weights, Measures and Coinage 

h\ El'WATU) C. BAKToN. k.r.c. 

[in<l>;uu-. C^iii i'IkIuihI 

The time lias (.-(.iiiu* for a dwi-uoii to l^c niaiU- as io 
the future of iiieasureiiient and its hinjiuaKe throughout 
the world. Commerce lia:^ so interlaood the nntion> 
that, even in war. they are all affe<ted. Through the 
exchange of scientific records they are keenly in- 
terested, at all times in the use of each other'> result>. 
and the scientist ha.s long ano decided in fa%-our of an 
international set of units. He has adopted the metric 
system as the only one which agreed with his require- 
ments, and it is used in every scientific process of 
manufacture in the world, whether in Lancashire or 
on the sugar plantations of Queensland. Commercial 
and industrial men are considering its ."suitability to 
their wants in this country. Australia and New Zea- 
land have long ago decided in its favour (ind only 
await the signal. 

"Ever since the Florentine philosophers wasted thtir 
lime in making experiments in heat with unstandard- 
ised thermometers it has l>een apparent to all that 
the value of a record depends upon the terms in which 
it la made. The units of measurement in regard to 
. land are particularly important in the making oi 
those priceless records that form the foundation of all 
structures, whether of masonry or agriculture, which 
are inseparable from advanced civilisation. Those 
units should lie few and correlated among themselve.- 
by one simple proportion. They should also be corre- 
lated with other measures in euch a manner that any 
lost units may be easily replaced with exactitude. 

The metric sy.-tem of measures and weights fills all 
these requirements, and no other system has ever 
done 'SO since the fall of Babylon. In the matter of 
proportion, it may be claimed that systems such as 
our " Imperial," with its vHiianIs of duodecimal and 
binary proportions, is superior to the metric, but the 
fact of 10 being tbe conmion l>asis of the- metric 
.•system and of our counting system is such an over- 
whelming advantage that it.s non-divisibility by 4 or ;1 
l»ecomes relatively unimportant. The further fact of 
tiie metric system using only one basis of projKirlion 
makes it fiUj)erior to any system with many bas<'S 
such as ours with its 15 different proportions, iiulu.d- 
ing 5i and 3<1i. 

The survt-yor is entrusted with making the most 
important records of the nation, and his work should 
be durable and accessible to all. This means that it 
should l)e written in a durable set of units. If his 
liresent tmits are doomed to disuse, his work will be 
robl»e<l of much of its value. Tlierefore it is important 
that he .'should make liis mind U)) on the subject of 
tlie oncoming l)atlle t)etwei-n the imperial and thr 
metric systems. 

When he renjembcr> that the whole of the scientific 
world is metric, and that half tin- commer<-ial world 
is also working on the same system, and when he 
further thinks of the fact of wliole industries, vsuch as 
the motor trade, tlie chemical trade, and an increasing 
niiml>er of other engineering trades which are partly 
or exclusively doing .so, he must which system 
is dying. It is needless to point to Russia with its 
180 millions and its freedom from the metric taint. 
Russia has its own measures, and no country has ever 
iil>andoned its own except to adopt the metric system. 
The great Republic of the United States also has been 
looked upon as a bulwark of our system, but that 
<'Ountry i.- h<ld by the ideas of its two Ijest customers 
— Canada and Great Brftain. It would l>e imwi.«e on 
their part to do otherwise, and yet there is a grwit 
n^'itation over there for the metric change. Even in 
our own country we find that jtractically every 
Chamljcr of Commerce which ha.-> looked into the 
mutter has re.r.olved in favour of the same change. 
Recent exumpK-a are the Coventry, Gloucester, South- 
auiptou. Woolwich ChamWre, wliile the Engineers' 
Association of Manchecter passed the resolution by a 
tenfold majority. 

Whether such progre.-s o( the metric system i.- likely 
to meet with a reverse i.-> dej)endeut on its inherent 
advantages, and so it will be well to enquire. further 
into the details of the controverey. 


Heie we find that the busiue»a aspect of the ques- 
lioQ usually hides the more important one of educa- 
tion, the mention of which leads the admirers of our 
system to praise it for its value in arithmetical g.\ ui- 

Mastiv-i. aliil III (le.-.<-iilH' tin- iiielii-In m~ ]»iur users 
(if the multipliration tables. The question is wider 
than this. On Septen>ber 3, 1910, the Tim,." rejiorted 
the comjiroiiii-t' made between the classical and the 
science nuisters of Eniiland, whereby the classical men 
agreed to an unlimited amount of science, jirovided 
that it left them with just th»» iireseiit quantity of 
classics. This means thai room must be made for 
science at the expense of some other stiliject, and nut 
by cutting down the classics. Si-ience has been 
notoriously neglected among tis, and our mathematics 
have suffered fruin the want of that life-giving force 
whieh arises troiu its appli<'atiou to the higher uses 
and prodU('es the real scientific sjiirit so necessary in 
thd world of finance and statesmanship. With the 
usual limitations to school y<-ars, there is not time for 
such a development and for the classics in their 
present strength. When the whole work is handi- 
eapped by the use vl disconnccteil weights and mea- 
sures gathered from all the neighbouring nations, 
during our march into civilisation, the task becomes 
wellnigh hopeless. If the metric sysiem were adopted, 
the work of teaching science would not only be aide<l 
directly, but. we should be able to shorten up thi- 
hours devotfd to common arithmetic, and " jjrac- 
tice " to the extent of so many hundred hours as 
would he equivalent to another year or two years at 
school. If the coinage were decimali.sed- the gain 
would lie still greater. 


Surveyors have, througli their adoption of the cliaiii 
<if KMt links and through the decimal division of the 
acre, shown their appreciation of the of thinking 
in a system whicli agrees with our sy.stem of num- 
bers, and which brings out the beauty ol that wonder- 
ful invention the " Arabic Method of Notation." Few 
can at the jiresent time the difTiculties which 
beset the originators of our " Imj)erial " measures, 
and forced them to adopt such small ))roportions as 
4 gills to on(> iiini. 2 iiints to the (juait.. 2 gallons to 
the jieck; hut, a fair idea may lie obtained from an 
attempt to make diit ;in account in the Roman 
iiunnrals which they had to use. .Addition was very 
(liHicult, subtraction was more so, and to nuiltiply 
involved the use of jiebbles or dried peas. Few could 
write, jiaper was unknown, ink was unobtainable, and 
most records were made with a knife on a stick. \ 
receipt for taxes ])aid t<i the King's treasurer was 
given in this manner, and the stick was then sjilit. 
One half was retained by the treasurer and called a 
■' tally " (from the French word " tailler "). Pajier 
was not made by ma<hiiiery until If^W. and so this 
old method of giving n'ceipis was not abolished until 
rTie lime of Najioleon, and the last ;;reat burning of 
the " tallies " took place at Westminster in 1837. It 
resulted in the de-tnictifui of the Houses of Parlia- 
ment by fire. 


The use of arithmetic as we know it was only p<i-^- 
sihle with paper at a price within the reach of all, and 
the real u.sefulness fif the " .Arabic notation " was not 
really felt i>y the many until the end fif the eiuhtecntli 
century. Men like .Ifiines Watt, of steam engine fame, 
appreciat^'d the changed situation, and it was he who 
wrote to a French savant .-uguesting a decimal system 
of weights and measures, thereliy leading to the crea- 
tion f)f the metri<' system as finally ( volved by the 
French Government of thai day. Unfortunately, the 
system was left to the Kevohiticmary Government to 
promulgate. :ind that led the other nation.- t<i look 
upoji it with disfavour. Even Xapokon had to dis- 
own it when he was trying to establish himself among 
the royaltie.- di Europe as a respectable member of 
the community. The system has outlived that "odour 
of till- guillotine," -;iii(l w<; ?ee it to-day sujirenie in 
the .-cientifi<' work of all the nations of the earth. 
Neither prejudice nor national vanity need therefore 
trouble us, and we might advantageously r<iiicmber 
that the great French nuiiou have voluntarily abau- 
doned tbe tuerjdiuu of Paris in favour of our Green- 
wich meridian, nliliough theirs was the older. 


lu ol«x;tiicaI work it is not only supicuie, but it liu> 
indiienced the whole nomenclature. The electrician 

January 26, 1917. 



•iaw that he would be-^v•asting the powers of " Arabic 
arithmetic if he adopted small proportions, such as 2, 
4, or 8, and eschewed them in spite of their 
binary qualities. He also saw that even steps of 10, 
as in the metric system, were an absurd pandering to 
the prejudices of folk that could only think in quan- 
tities of 4 gills and 2 pints. He had seen the survival 
of the tonne of 1,000 kilogrammes, each of 1,000 
grammes, each again of 1,0(J0 milligrammes, with a 
long list of defunct hectograms, decagrams, decigrams, 
centigrams, and he boldly went for steps of 1,000, but 
he adhered to the nomenclature of the metric, so that 
he now has the kilovolt of 1,000 volts, and the volt 
has 1,000 millivolts. He has his kiloampere for 
measuring heavy currents, and his milliampere for 
the small. With him, as with the metrist, kilo always 
means a thousandfold, and milli means a thousandth 

The full advantages of such interrelationship 
between all units present and future cannot be secured 
by any other than a decimal system throughout the 
world of science and industi-y, and the metric fills 
the requirenfents well. The advantages are not con- 
fined to cleai-ness of thought in ordinary commercial 
matters, such as tlie reckoning from the weight (say, 
83 kilograms for 8-gauge iron wire) per kUonieter to 
get the weight of one meter (i.e., 83 grams), or reckon- 
ing prices such as that of a litre of ale from the price 
of the hectolitre (a hectolitre at 30 francs is the same 
as a litre at 30 cents). 

It also eases the processes of calculating in per- 
centages, such as densities of liquors, exj)ansions by 
heat in measuring apparatus. A fall of 1 millimeter 
of rain on a hectare gives 100 litres of water weighing 
100 kilogram. The same fall on a square kilometer 
would give 10 tonnes of water. Then the important 
matter of tabulation and of expressing them in cui-ves 
fsmiich assisted by the fact that one system of divi- 
sion- — i.e., for ruling the papei- — will cover efficiencies 
(in percentage) and densities (in percentage) as well 
as the absolute quantities and lengths, areas, volumes, 
prices, discounts, &e. 


The troubles connected with the change of system 
have been, in countries which have adopted the metric 
system, or have introduced decimal coinage, in- 
significant, compared with those which were anti- 
cipated. Men eminently qualified to judge of the 
mental peculiarities of the Eastern mind, such as Sir 
Hercules Robinson, predicted riot and revolution as 
tlio effects to be expected from such action, and yet 
we find that the decimal coinage was brought into use 
in Ceylon without the slightest trouble. In six weeks 
the "great event" was forgotten. In the matter of 
weiglits and measures the operation is more serious, 
and therefore time is given for a more gradual change, 
usually five years. The great concerns of the countiy, 
especially the great Government depaitments, take the 
lead, because they see the danger of letting long con- 
tracts on the old measures. Slanufacturers, such as 
the tool makers, who have to make and stock two sets 
of drills, &c., press their customers to make the in- 
evitable move. The fanners, who have in this countiT' 
been clamouring for decimalisation of all weights and 
measures (vide the resolutions of the Congress of 
Chambers of Agriculture in London, 1911), may be 
(■xpecte<l to assist in bringing the new measures into 
general use throughout the countiy. 


As in all matters, there will be a considerable 
number ojjposed to the introduction of new methods. 
There will be the class of men like Lord Brougham, 
who see " paving stones flying around the heads of 
the people who ))ermit gas to be carried under their 
streets," as there were those who feared that the 
British Empire would fall with the abolition of the 
|)igtail in our .\rmy. Those people are not to be 
seriously considcr<-d, but there is a class of people who 
opj)os<- the change from more cogent reasoning — I.e., 
the <'ngineers and the tt^xtile manufacturers. For the 
niTlinary man and woman it will be a nine-days' 
wonder, like the " Daylight Bill," but the owner of 
machinery that turns out a product on the inch or 
yard measures knows that he must meet the new con- 
(iitirin of things with his 'existing plant. The retail 
dealer can retain his scales and newl only replace his 
weights, but the engineer who has all his capital in 
plant must run it many years before he can replacx:> it 
with "machines iriade to ^Ju; new measures. He has been 
tf)ld by' alai-mfsts fliat all this plant wilj be seized 
and tlirown info the'sfrap heap, an3 one engineer, Mr. 

Brougk, became so excited, .about, it. in 1907 that he 
tried -to scare the rest of the community by telling 
them that they would }xa.s& enu^vy gas pipe torn out of 
their houses unless it was made to millimeter sizes. He 
forgot that the bricks were all to inch sizes, or he 
would have had his imaginary England reduced to a 
heap of ruins by the mad metrists. 

Few engineers or other manufacturers believe such 
tales to-day, but they still feel apprehensive as to 
their being able to sell the product of such machinei-j-, 
and are only gradually becoming convincx-d that the 
change, when it is enacted, will only affect dealings 
where the money payable is the product of some weight 
or measure multiplied by a price. They will still be 
able to make and sell their product, even though it. 
be bolts of I in. diameter or cloth of 42 in. width, 
but the bolts must be sold by the kilogram or the 
tonne, while the cloth must be sold by the meter, and 
not by the yard of length. Thus the user of machinei^ 
built on the " inch " basis stands in no danger what- 
ever. Curiously enough, those who seek to scare him 
with this supposed danger know that goods are manu- 
factured on the old measures in all metric countries, 
and actually make it their chief argument as to the 
failure of the metric system. The great watch industi-j- 
in Switzerland held out for twenty years and then 
voluntarily became metric. 

As against the elements which retard the intro- 
duction of the metric system there is the necessity for 
meeting the "after war" trade conditions, and securing 
our full share of oversea trade. Here every turn 
brings fresh evidence of the advisability of not only 
making the change to metric measures, but also of 
decimalising our coinage as well. Russia is probably 
the greatest fresh market that the world offers, and 
it does not use our system, but has one of its own, as 
remarked before. It is not a metric country, but all 
those departments of its government which have 
abandoned the local system have adopted the metric — 
the surveys of the hydrographical department, and 
some others, the militai-y, both in field and in ordnance 
work — while all manufacturing is done on the metric 
system. All the rest of Europe is metric and has a 
decimal coinage. In coinage we have only Siam and 
Persia left to keep us company. The Australian 
states and New Zealand many years ago pleaded for 
drastic decimalisation through tlieir Premiers at 
Imperial Conferences, and they now have the law on 
their Statute books, only awaiting a move from this 

There is another source of pressure favourable to 
the decimalisation throughout, and that is the in- 
creasing cost of clerical assistance for our offices. 
This can only be met by the introduction of machinei-y 
for counting and book-keeping. Unfortunately, our 
coinage system calls for machines, such as cash 
registers, arithmometers, &c., of a costly and compli- 
cated type, and we n«>ed another and more costly 
machine for our weights, and another for each of our 
measures, and, although one company lias faced the 
expense of catering for our " money " machine, none 
have been so bold as to tackle the others. 


In the above it has been shown that our Imperial 
measures belong to a bygone age, to which they were 
suited, while the metric system is well suited to our 
present state of civilisation, and has already advanced 
to -the position of being the only possible universal 
system, being e.xclusively used by h<df the civilised 
world and by the scientific portion of the other nations. 
From the educational point of view it alone can bring 
relief to our over-loaded school children, and allow of 
science entering into the training of the nation. Not 
only will the children have less burdens, but they will 
cany with them through life a set of weights and 
measures which they can remember and use without 
short cuts, mnemonics or pocket tables. It has been 
shown how the metric nomenclature iulapts itself to 
the new sciences, such as elwtricity, and how it leads 
to clear thinking in the workshop and the office, while 
it pemiits, as soon as the coinage is decimalised, the 
use of reasonably pric«l macliineiy to increase the out- 
I)ut of the clerirai staff in the countiiig-liouse. and 
enhanc«'s the value of diagrammatic nK'thods of visual- 
ising indiLstrial and financial processes by curves. It 
lias boon shown that tiio textile and engineering 
industries have nothing to ft\Tr, while they and tho 
merchant have eveiTthing- to gain in bf>th ov«-rs«>a trade 
and in economy in the office from a changt* that will 
bring us into line witii other nations and with our own 
I scientific men. 



jANV.vnY 'M. 1^17. 


The abovi-ii.uiuil >u;iiner is ilu- result ol ;i long 
s<Tie> of ex|>eriinenti conduct«>d by tho paUnt^e, Mr. 
John Asliford. •:nii<>rint«-ndoni of the ivntrnl work- 
>hoi>>. Public Work* DopartniPnt, Amritsar, Punjali. 
Indin, with a vi.w t.. tlndiim.a pati.sfaotory and ,ho- 
Moinical arraiii:. in.-nt l..r <lra\vins larj;.- quantities oi 
\\nt«-r sandy soil without .hawing away sand and 
flier. l>v .ausini; cavitation .m.l sulisidence ol the soil 

The need for such a device had l^en greatly felt in 
India, not only for nnwaierinp areas watcr-losiied l>y 
s.^pftc"." from irrijiation eannU. but also for irrijiatini; 
land not serv.-d by eaiial-. and for iown and village 
«uter supplii'-. 

It is estintaied that over aO J>er cent of the wat.i 
••nterini; irrifjatjon canals is lost by seepage, with the 
result that land in low-lying dUtricts beeonaes 
awanipy and unlit for cultivation. Tho reclamation 
of such wftter-logKcd land had lieen attempted by 
punipiuL' from laru-e oikii tanks and from lon^'. dc. |. 
ditche-. but the resiilis pr..ved disappointing. 

Pumpinc from ordinary masonry wells an.l iroio 
hiIm^ wells uKi.le by wrapping woven wire mesh round 
perforated tubes had al-o been tried. With the former. 
the volume of water > ield.^d by each well was .so small 
liiat ti> obtain ev.-n a moderate quantity a lar^c 
capital outlay was n.^ee.ssjiry. while with the latter the 
volume of water fell off rafiidly, due to the choking of 
the wire m<-h round the lidw. 

The following arc ih.- condition.* that a .satisfactory 
nilie well sirain.-r must meet: — 

(I) It must lie -trous enough to resist the i>re.-..-ui 
o( tho earth surrounding it at a considerable depth. 

»2i II must e.xcludc all but the very liirest .sand, ana 
Ih; !^) made that grain.^ of .-and cannot choke it and 
prevent the admission of water. 

(3) It rauBt lx> strong enough to Ij© proof agaiIl^t 
(himage by rea5<^inable trcitmen*. lieforc and during 
the process of (^inking. 

(4) It niu«t be durabl. 

(.'.) It mu-t uiaint.-iin ii- . Oici- u. ^ ..o.lci any punqi- 
iug conditions. 

(6) The joints between successive lengths of strainer 
pipe must be strong, easily made and .sand jiroof. 
while allowing a slichi flexibility in the strainer to 
permit of deviation from Uie flraight in sinking. 

(7i The price n.ust be within the purchasing power 
ol the agricultural cla:$sc-f^. 

The claim is made that three year.-;' experience in the 
u-e of A.shford'.s patent tube well strainer has proved 
that it meets the al>ove conditionii in a satisfactory 

The -trainer con^i^•t.- of a framework upon which 
wire i!- wound at high ten.^ion throtigh steel rolls 
which give it a wedge-like shape, .s'l that when in 
II.-.- th.- wire present? a flat surface to. the surround- 
III.' wai.r-beariiu; .>-trata. with a slit iM-tweon each 
rtran.l of alHiiil l<«ith part of an inch wide. 

Tl.c i.>inting of the lengths of strainer together i- 
, rf...i...| bv iiotehin): the ends of the bars uiion which 
i| iin.l. and by bringing the notched ends 

. to I..- joined together, mi that the emls 

..! ..rlap, when a steel ring in halves, with 

a pr.jtxtioii to fuil the notches in the bars, is ajiplied. 
and the two halves of the ring .-iecurcly bound 
t. ■' •' wir.'. Th.' Ijottoin of tho .strainer i.- 

I. 'li a fie. I plate, and the top is connc<lcd 

' pi|>e by a suitable littini;. 

I I tuljc well will not silt up when ponipcil 

• ' • exclude.-i ^;ind when puuijied lajiidly. 

"liic to the filtering screen being made 
hue that iio woven material giving so 
ivj would \k- ftping enough to be ti.-ed 

II .loiie directly from an .V.-hford 

III >>l Vitciiuni without any iroubl.- 
The tul«j well in «|Uedtiou after 

! '" a centrifugal pump and 2. J 
'lid wa-j at once pinuped out 


\ till-. 1" --- - 

tivii l>-parluieiii .' 

I|,;,l :,!| III.. « |l. 


Hi i 

•d loiii ii.'iji.- 

I^T s«'' vud \ 

Vr-tr' l<UI)l)l. >oi J 


: .lunk in the Puujab Irriga- 

-uii..' ill .NiiiritKar wa.- i»o arranged 

"■I- lirri di.M-harged into a tank 

. [I. 1\ wa.- Jouud when 

' I'J cub. It. ot luinerul 

ink during the Crd run 

ol 5f3 cub. It. of «ater 

'<unt of mineral luuttcr 

I iii.m I ciil. ■■ T t\ 

.\ a-in. well that has Ijeen in use fur thre« yexivs 
fiumping daily, and lor much of it5 time night and 
day. has been completely free from any trace of sand 
lor the greater pr.rt ol the time. 

It only remains to say that Messrs. Stewarts (S: 
l.loyds. Limited, Glasgow, Birmingham, and London, 
are the makers of the strainer. 


B.iil.n.l iV l'i'ikiii> iiiolor road rull.i.- have t.cvii 
vi'ry gr.Mily in r. iiuc~i during the past twelve montlw 
tor making and repairing military roads at the 
different Fronts, Tlie size.-* that have been mostly 
iis.'d arc the y-ton and ;»-ton rollers. In almost every 

ca.->e- tin: machines have been fitted with paralhn 
engines, and very excellent reports have been received 
as to the usefulness of the rollers. Tho illustration 
shows on© of these machines at work on the shores of 
the Meditenanean. 



,\> uiihiii ilie next few months it i.s ol ilie uimu.-i 
iiiiporlance that every agricultural implement, in the 
kingdom should lie available for use on tlie land, if 
the aims of the Board of Agriculture and the Food 
Controller are to be realised, the attention of the 
farming conuuunity cannot be too strongly directed 
lo the mod'in syslciu of scientific welding, by means 
of which broken machinery (of any metal) may be 
.|iiickly re-tored equal to new. Barimar Seientifi<' 
Welding exfierts, of 10 Poland-street, Oxford-street, 
b.inlon. who hav.- sii'cessfully replaced the German 
specialists in Britain, are making special arrange- 
iiieiils to deal proniiitly with agricultural iniuhinery 
ill view of the urgency of the situation. 

During the past few years the llariinar welding 
liii>iiiesS has erown lo .~iich an extent that it has gone 
b.yond the liniil- of the motor trade, to which at the 
oii'l.<el it wa.- conlincd, with the lesult that to-day the 
linn's factories li.intlle work lor H.M. Admiralty. War 
Oflice, Crown Ageiit> for the Colonic-, Koyal Ordnance 
ami leadint; munilion works. Royal Aircraft factory, 
armament constructor.-, shipbuilding yards, railway 
companies, boilies. collieries, and Britain's 
leading eiu-'ineeriu'^' linns. Th<> company's work 
cover.- repairs of all kind.— large and small— and such 
ir their ort'aiii-iitioii that fractures in all jiarts of the 

kingiloiii e.'i'i 1 .x.'ciiii'd with .-i niinimuiii loss i.f 


Protection of Concrete in Cold Weather,— Expcri- 

imnta liavc been <ondii.lod at the Lewi:^ Institute in 
Cliica-.'o to dctcniiiii'.' tin effcciivciicBS of manure as 
u protective covering inr fre.-hly-laid eoncrcle to pre- 
vent di.»ustrous results in cold weather. In these 
tests .-labs of concrete exposed lo outdoor conditions 
were covered with 'j, j and (i in. of fie.-h manure 
obt^iiued troiij a livery .-table. The rerulis proved 
that the ^-in. and 0-iu. layers hud high protective 
•jualiticB uud were juliicicnt to afford tlie concrete a 
protection against a drop of 2j ot 'Jii demee.., in tcnipe- 
rjture. The luauur.: .-hould not be allowed to come 
in direct contact with ihe freshlv-loid concrete. 

January 2fi, 1917. 



Works Projected by Local Authorities in 1917. 

Sc-hemcs wliicii iii normal times may have been 
regarded as desirable, expedient, or even neces- 
sary, have been reduced under the stress of war 
to the position of a mere catalogue dependent for 
fulfilment upon the vision of that peace that shall 
revive industry tind re-establish progress in muni- 
cipal entei'])rise. For this reason the information 
contained in the following pages lacks the fulness 
to which we have been accustomed, and also to 
a measurable extent the interest we have hitherto 
claimed for it. Constructional works, except 
those tliat serve the purposes of the nation, are at 
;i standstill. To a large extent labour is diverted 

from the paths of peace into the field of war. So 
many municipal engineers and suu-veyors, the 
members of their staffs, and employees ai'e seiwing 
in the ^Vrmy and the Navj- that the works pro- 
jected are of necessity reduced to a minimum, 
and even these are carried out vmder constantly 
increasing difficulties. It will be unnecessaiw, 
therefore, to say more than that we Iiave used every 
effort to make the recoixl appended as complete 
as possible, and that we have received, as indeed 
we always have, a ready and heaiiy assistance 
from our coiTospondents in the com{)ilation of 
these pages. 

^^^ Aberdeen (Mr. John Goedon, 

i^" ^ ,^ ASSOC. M. INST. C.E., burgh surveyor 
and trainvvays permanent way engi- 
neer). — It is probable that no new 
schemes of any magnitude will 
be proceeded with, and that only 
maintenance and absolutely neces- 
sary works will be carried out. The 
maintenance work will include the 
ordmary -routine work of street and road repairs, the 
necessary repairs to sewers, and keeping in thorough 
working . order the tramway permanent way. This 
latter will include the repair or renewal of several 
junctions which are getting into bad condition. With 
regard to any works which may be proceeded with on 
the termination of the war, the city council have not 
yet considered the matter, but in this connection the 
following schemes nuist receive first consideration — 
viz. : Duplication of jjart of the main outfall sewer ; 
various extensions of the tramway system already 
autlioriscd by Parliament; an extension northwards 
and southwards of the esplanade along the sea beach, 
as authorised by the Act of 1907 ; repaving certain 
streets, as authorised by the Act of 1915; the con- 
struction of an improved access between the two 
northern districts of the city; and the prevention of 
coast erosion. 

Aethwy, Anglesey (Mr. J. Kershaw, surveyor to the 
rural district council). — The chief work under con- 
sideration by this council is the reconstruction of the 
sewerage of Llanfair P.G., Anglesey, including nev; 
watei-works. The present system of sewerage is for 
waste water, etc., only, but water-closets have recently 
been allowed to be connected. The matter was so 
important that a section has already been relaid, but 
a very minimum gradient is available. The council 
have also constructed a lengthy sea wall at Penmon, 
Anglesey, from the design and under the supervision 
of the surveyor. .\ large housing scheme is contem- 
plated at the termination of hostilities. 

Aldershot (Mr. Fred. C. Uren, sur- 
vcNor to the urban district council). — 
The restrictions imposed upon local 
autiiorities in regard to expenditure 
have prevented the council from em- 
barking on any works of importance. 
Appended is a list of the chief works 
•which the council contemplates carry- 
ing out on the termination of the war 
--viz.: Erection of sixty working-class; road 
widening in Newport-road, Church-lane East, and 
Ayiing-lane ; erection of preparatory school; exten- 
sion of the sewage farm ; new elementary schools ; 
town planning; and the question of provision of 

Alton, Hants (Mr. G. Bertram Hartfree, f.r.san.i., 
.M.iNsT.r.E.i.. surveyor to the urban district council). 
--The projected schemes include proposals for'further 
works of surface and spring water drainage at the 
conclusion of the war; waterworks extension; private 
street improvements and other works delayed by the 

Ardsley (Mx. J. Morley, engineer and surveyor to 
the urban district council). — During the past year con- 
siderably more surface tarring of roads was carried 
out with a view to economy, and in view of the result, 
the same method will be employed again tKis year. 
It is proposed to supersede the existing steam plant 

at Brodelley .sewage works by a complete electrical 
pumping scheme. Public and private conveniences 
are to be erected at the Stanley-road depot. 

Barnet (Mr. W. B. Chancellor, 
•M.i.M. AND co.E., engineer and sur- 
veyor to the urban district council), 
—the works to be undertaken in 1917 
include the reconstruction of the 
High-street or Great North Road. 
The works contemplated on the ter- 
mination of the war are : Refuse 
destructor^ tar-naacadam and asphalt 

works ; extension of the housing estate (fifty houses) ; 

the town planning of Totteridge and Arkley (2,4(KJ 

acres) ; the sewering of Totteridge ; and the making up 

of several new streets. 

Barrow-in-Furness (Mr. \V. C. Persey, borough 
engineer and surveyor). — With regard to work proposed 
to be carried out during the ensuing twelve months, 
owing to the depletion of men and staff, very little 
more than the absolutely necessary routine work will 
i>e done. The widening of Mill-lane, at an estimated 
cost of £3,000, will, however, be proceeded with, as this 
is required by the Admiralty. The chief works in 
contemplation at the termination of the war, and esti- 
mated cost, are as follows: New secondary school, 
£70,000; heat engines laboratory, £1,150; new ele- 
mentary schools, £30,000; painting of schools, £1,650; 
tar-macadam playgrounds to new elementary schools, 
£1,350; new police station and courts, £16,oi()0; tripe- 
dressing and gut-scraping sheds at abattoirs, £2,125 ; 
new pavilion, Biggar Bank, £3,500; completion and 
laying out of public park, including the provision of 
tennis courts, £3,450; completion of road on Biggar 
Bank, £650; fencing and laying out portion of Vicker,— 
town Park, £600; tar-macadam plant, £1,000; road 
repairs, .£8,000; private street works, £12,168; new 
roads and road widenings, £5,630; refuse destructor 
extension, £3,000; underground convenience, Corn- 
wallis-street, £850; motor garage at store-yard. £350; 
electrification of sewage pumping plant(compktion of). 
£350; laying out of roads. Devonshire-road hospital. 
£400; steel hoppers for clinker crusher, refuse de.^tructor. 
£200; street works on Risedale estate, £1,715; and 
restoration of stonework, town half, £300. 

Bedale (Mr. T. W. Metcalfe, surveyor and sanitary 
ijispcctor to the rural district council).— Beyond the 
ordinary routine work of the department, the only 
works projected for the ensuing twelve months are the 
improvements to sewage disposal works and laying 
half a mile of new sewers at Bedale, and laying addi- 
tional sewer at Aiskew. 

Belper (Mr. Thomas Fexn. sur- 
veyor to the urban district council). 
Providing that labour and mate- 
rials are available the following 
matters are intended to be carried 
out during 1917 — viz. : The sur- 
facing of part of Dorby-road and 
Derby-road bridge length with tnr- 
maca^am ; metalling of the main 
and other roads as usual ; tar-spraying of roads and 
paths ; renewal of a, portion of path in King-street : 
rounding off of Green-lane comer ; the resurfacing of 
the approach road to the swimming bath* ; painting 
of the superintendent's residence; renewal of fittings 
needed to one of the engines at the outfall works ; 
improvement to the outlet of the sedimentation tank ; 



.Ianiabv '_'«. 11117. 



aiul ilio painting of Spiingwi-oil C'olUgo. Tlio dupH- 
rating of a |K>rtion of tlio H-in. pumpiug main is 
abandonttl for tlu- pix^^vni. ns Inlxxir is not avnilnblo. 

Bilston (Mr. Vincent TrnxEii. .^ssoc.m.inst.c.k.. 
engineer and surveyor to tlie iirhan district ooiinoil). 
—The oouncil nn cutting work- down, to bare neces- 
<itie.<. and Mr. Turner liini.-elf i.« leaving in the course 
of a few days to take up a commission in the Royal 
Kngineer^ for road >i r\ ice in France. Diuiri; lii^ 
ali?(nce Mr. W. T. Edijar Fellows, .'lurveyor of llie 
Willenhall I'rban District Council, lias very kindly 
undertaken to sniicrvist^ the work of hi.« dei>nrtmcnt. 

Bognor (Mr. DswALn .\. liiiinuK.s, 
M. II. SAN. I., ciigintvr and surveyor to the 
urban district ronncil). — No public 
works of any importance will Ix* i-arried 
"lit ill tlii-- I'vogivssivc srisidc tovii unlil 
after the war. '['lie urban rouncil arc 
i.-ady to proceed with extensive ini)>ruvc- 
iiiciit sciu-iiif> wlu-ii tilings are nonnal again, and n<>t 
until tlu-n. Tli«> money market will no doubt be an 
important factor, which will decide wiieii whemes can 
1h- rarrictl out to the advantage of local authorities. 
When money is cheap again schemes can be pushed 
forward. At Bognor tho fii-st scheme to Ix; under- 
taken will 1h> the lengthening of tho sewer outfall pipe, 
and the building ••f a new jmmping station, e^timat^-d . 
to cost«.''.». Till', widening of tins Pronienado 
Marine Drive, and new sea wall, opposite tho Pier 
HoteJ, will involve, an expenditure of £8,088. Tho 
building of lo<J cottages for the'working classes is also 
"■ntemplatt^^l. as well as tho roiistriiction of a bathing 
l»x«l o|iposite. Kock (jardons, whoro bathers can enjoy 
.-i s*ia bath under ideal conditions at all states of tho 
tide. This scheme, it is anticii>at*d, will form a great 
foaturo of (ho sea front, ancl bo a good sourco of 
ineouie. The "uter wall will form a promenade, and 
in the evening*- the bathing pool will bo used as a 
lake, and l>o encircled with festooiib of electric lights. 
and elf<.-tric gondolas will ply for hire upon tho water, 
d«vorated with electric lights The winter L'ardeii. 
which will bo just behind the bathing pool on the 
north side of the rnnnenadc. will contain ;iccoiii 
ino^lation for a large concert-hall overlooking the sea. 
«ith verandahs and snii shelters for tho'-e. in delicate 
hi-alth. reading, billiard, and tea rooms. Modioate<l 
baths upon the lafosl and most up-to-da(<- principU's 
will also be pnn i<le<l. < hi the lawns in front of these 
buildings will be constructed a bandstand of elegant 
di-xjgn, which cnn be encircled with glass shelter 
s<-i«-eus to protect those wishing to enjoy the strains 
of the b<-sl music by militaiy bauds during wind.v or 
inclement weather. Nearly l'7fKi is sj^ent annually 
oil sU'h bands, wlurh have proved a source of mucli 
profit to tho town in ]>ast years. There is no place 
for its siio which caters bettA-r for the enjoyment of 
ii.* vi.sitors than Boenor. Its rinrivallod sunds arc 
another great ass,-t (r> the town. 

Boston, Lines (Mr. G. E. Clabke. 
»t iNM.f t . borongli surve.vor).— All 
"ork i.- cut down to the lowest pos- 
-ible limit, and the only project at 
present authorir-^-d aftor tho war is 
a destructor. .\? regard? tho docks. 

Iar;,'e iiiipro\eiiicnt.< wero eontemplated, but it will 

now l)o lomo time l)efoTe they can lie carried out. 

Tho 1»orongli surveyor is fully occupied with Admiralty 


Bridgend i\\t. Willi am Bevan, surveyor and 

M, J. .lor of nui.-arues to the urban district coiincili.— 
Tlie council propose after the war to build new council 
office, and « fire brigade depot. 

Buokfastleigh (Mr. L. M. Williamu, engineer and 

• iiT\'-\'>r fo the urban district council). — The council 
will continue the iiecef.-ary work to keep tho main 
and di-trict roads in order, as well as a certain 
amount of tar-fcpraying. Some of the roads- have l>een 
l^dly damaged by excessive weight of (raffle in haiii- 
inp on* tini»>er. and a.- boou ai this is finished the 
repair the road.-* and i)Ut them in 
»f*fr the war a small housing RChemo 

Burnham (Mr. Wm H Chowiks. engineer and sur- 
veyor to the urb.3n di.'-trict council).— The council have 
nothing of importance in contemplation for this year. 
Affpr ♦•^o wqr. Ir^wever, it is intended to proceed with 
'" -a new service reservoir, and fhe 

■f 12-in cast-iron main, with other 

n thrrr--. Itl, 


Bury (.Mr. .1. .\i.NbW0UTU ^i'.ttli;, 
,^us. .ssoc.M.iNsT.c.E., borough engineer 

^ijgSjmS^ and surveyor).— For the duration of 
tin- war all works of any magnitude 
arc held up. At the close of the war 
a liiisy time will be exi)erienced iti 
load and street work, as all exeejU 
ab.-ohitely necessary maintenance is 
held in abeyance. Nearly all the 
ollico staff arc with the Forces, and a' number of work- 
men and other.s from Hury have joined reoeiitly for 
road making in France. The work to l.>e tflken in 
hand at tlio termination of tho war will include the 
re.-^ewcring of a larpe district, the i)roVision of a 
housing seheiuc. and 11i(> usual liijihway and street 

Chard (Mr. Fuank Nicholson. 
iiiteriiii district surveyor to the rural 
.11 -trie! council). — Ther© are no works 
oi j)urticular interest contemplated 
more than the emijloyment of one or 
two balclies of ItX) prisoners of war, 
each for quarrying and breaking mac- 
adam. The council intend to take over 
the ((Uarries under their direct manage- 
ment. Neither i.i there anything of i)articular interest 
deliiiilely settled upon after the war. with the excep- 
tion of again taking up a Road Board scheme of 
resurfacing and improveineiit of 16i luilea of main 
road, at a cost of i:20,26C. with an alternative scheme 
costing C24,0<.Hi, both of which were put forward at the 
l>egiiiuiug of last year, but were dropped uwmg to the 
war. Other works ^^ill bo the making good of work 
•^n roads severeh' r(-~tri<fed at present through lal>oni 
short ago. 

Chelmsford (Mr. Pehcival T. Hahiii- 
soN, ASSoc.M.iNST.c.E., borougli and 
water engineer).— The only work in con- 
templation, apart from routine, is the 
completion of urgent works of water 
^ sujiply and sewerage, and the adapting 
^^5" of additional land at ttio sewage farm 
for sewage disposal purposes. The 
presence of thousands of troops largely 
iticrea.-cs the wurk of the different deitartments, 
already handicapped through shortage of labour. The 
foikiwiug list of si^hemcs has been 'forwarded in 
response to tho Local Government Board inquiry: 
Wood iiavjiig: widenings in Galleywood-road, Sand- 
ford-road, and Lady-lane ; tar-macadam resurfacing 
scheme; iniblic <'onveiiieiices in recreation ground; 
refuse destructor; new .sewerage scheme for borough; 
now waterworks pumping station : and making up 
•-n\'oral now Ktrccf^ 

Cheltenham (.Mr. .f. 8. I'lcKiiUiNii, 
MiNST.c.K.. borough surveyor and water 
engineer).— All work" which could pos- 
sibly bo sus]>(ndcd is being held over 
during the war. In comidianco with 
tho notice from tho Local (iovcmnient 
Board, particulars of works conteni- 
)>lat€d after the war have been for- 
warded in accordance with tho follow- 
ing list: .\dditirpnal watcT-liltration plant; reconstruc- 
tion of sewers in South-Eastern district; new eflfluent 
and steam-water outfall from sewugo farm; now car- 
riers at scwugo farm ; wood-block paniig— London- 
road ; reconstruction of outfall sewer to Barn sewage 
farm; cleaning out of Pittville Lake; concrete piling. 
Dowdeswell reservoir landslide, and concreting floor 
of largo service reservoir. No detinit^t undertaking 
has been given to carry out auy of the above work, 
but there is no doubt that some of tho most pressing 
will have to be put in hand when more normal condi- 
tions prevail. Owing to the .shortage of team labour, 
an electric vehicle is liciiig purchased for (he removal 
of houpo refuse. It is also proposed to purchase a 
tractor for hauling tar-macadam, the necessary 
trailers having been already obtained. The war does 
not appear, on the whole, to have so jjrejudicially 
affected Cheltenham so much as many other towns. 
Being a residential and health resort, it has attracted 
many residents, and the town is fairly prosperous. 
The corporation have continued to cater for visitors by 
giving first-class daily concerts during the winter, and 
the usual outdoor entertainments in the summer. A 
great response has been made by the townspeople 
with regard to voluntary help in connection with the 
war. Eight Red Cross hospitals have been estab- 
lished, and are continuou.sly occupied by about 1,0(K) 
wounded men. 

.January 26. 1917. 



Chepstow (^Ir. William Turner, surveyor to the 
rural district council). — Owing to economic con.-^idera- 
tion.-^, the roads have lapsed into a very bad condition, 
and it will be necessary eventually to strengthen them 
by putting in good foundations. 

Chiswiok (Mr. Edward Willis, assoc.m.inst.c.e., 
F.S.I., F.R.SAN. I., engineer and surveyor to the urban 
district council). — During the past year practically no 
capital expenditure has been incurred, but minor 
improvements have been carried out at the sewage 
disposal works, including the laying of about half a 
mile of 3-ft. gauge portable railway, the construction 
of 11-h.p. motor tractor for the same, and the fixing of a 
clinker tar-macadam mechanical mixer. It is doubt- 
ful if any permanent improvement works will be 
carried out during the continuance of the war, but 
the following is a list of works which have been 
approved b.y the council for submission to the Local 
Government Board, and it is hoped that some, if not 
all, will be started immediately after peace is de- 
clared : The erection of a new wharf, retaining w-alls, 
locomotive crarie, and portable railway, at or near the 
river depot; the provision of a river embankment, 
and promenade 100 ft. wide, from the present sewage 
disposal works at Chiswick to the Polytechnic Boat- 
house at Grove Park, including a sunken portable rail- 
way for conveying raw materials to factories, and 
raised tennis courts and gardens, facing the river. 
The provision and laying out of a pleasure and 
recreation ground at Strand-on-the-Green ; the re- 
moval of the present old properties adjoining Kew 
Bridge, and the provi.?ion of a new approach road to 
Strand-on-the-Green and Kew Draw-dock ; the wood- 
paving of Heathfield-terrace and Wellesley-road to 
form a by-pass to the Great Western Road ; the 
wood-paving of Turnham Green-terrace to link up the 
wood paving of Bath-road with Chiswick High-road. 
The improvement and widening of Sutton-lane, for 
wh'ich Parliamentary powers have already been 
obtained; the general improvement and widening of 
Strand-on-the-Green, for which various properties 
have already been purchased ; the laying out and 
completion of the existing burial ground ; the erec- 
tion of the motor-wagon shop, and facilities for the 
changing of different bodies. 

Colne (Mr. T. H. Hartley, borough 
engineer and surveyor). — The con- 
struction of new works entailing ex- 
penditure is still held up, owing to 
the restrictions of the Local Govern- 
ment Board. The staff of the 
borough engineer and surveyor's de- 
partment is still more depleted than 
even last year, owing to all men of 
military age having joined His Majesty's Forces. 
Some over military age have joined the new Roads 
Battalions in France, and those who remain are exe- 
cuting the ordinary routine work. Steady i)rogress 
is meanwhile being made in the new town ijlanning 
scheme for 877 acres of the borough. The authority 
of the Local Government Board has been oljtained to 
proceed with the further stages. Plans and estimates 
are completed for the construction of further perco- 
lating beds at the sewage works, and when the re- 
strictions on public expenditure are withdrawn a start 
will Ije made on the works proposed. A scheme long 
overdue for the duplication of certain main intercept- 
ing sewers is well in hand. The ordinary maintenance 
and construction of tar road surfaces is being pro- 
ceeded with as far as the limited supply of labour will 
permit. Steps are being taken for the' letting-off of 
certain parts of the recreation grounds to allotment 
holders for the increase of the food supply, princi- 
t)ally potatoes and other vegetables. 

Coulsdon and Purley (Mr. Robert Chart, m.i.m. 
AND co.E., surveyor to the urban district council). — 
Unless the war is over it is not proposed to carry out 
anything not absolutely necessary. The surveyor has 
prepared a schedule of works to be undertaken after 
the war, including sewer extensions, £3,349; surface- 
water outfall scheme. £25,000; making up of private 
street~s. £29,840; and highway improvements, £5,968. 

Croydon (Mr. Geokoe F. Carter, m.inst.c.e., 
borough engineer, surveyor, and water engineer). — 
The Local Government Board have agreed to the com- 
pletion of a part of the works in hand at the South 
Norwood sewage works. These include the bringing 
into operation new sedimentation tanks, sludge 
pumps, and mains. Letters have been addressed to 
the owners of nearly 100 acres of unoccupied lands for as allotments during the war, and theee are being 

l>egged out and allotted. At the Beddington sewage 
farm a large area of land is being specially dealt with 
for cultivation, and a motor plough has been pur- 
chased in connection with the work. 

Doncaster (Mr. F. Oscar Kirby,, 
ASSOC.M.INST.C.E., borough surveyor and 
water engineer). — It is proposed during the 
present year to continue the carrying out 
of street improvement work in one or two 
.special cases. A considerable amount of 
renewal of tramway track is to be under- 
taken, together with the experimental re- 
construction of some highways. The pre- 
paration of an extensive housing scheme 
is also engaging the attention of the corporation. On 
the termination of hostilities it is proposed to proceed 
with the sewerage and sewage disposal scheme, street 
improvement .schemes, additions to the refuse de- 
structor, and various other proposals of less import- 

Droitwjch (Mr. Hy. Hulse, m.i.m. and 
co.E.. borough engineer and surveyor). 
— The tar-painting of road surfaces will 
be about the only special work to be 
carried out this season. The projected 
works after the war include the clean- 
ing and deepening of the section of the 
river Salwarpe situate in the borough 
and the provision of additional working- 
class' dwellings, which will probably be the first 
works to be put in hand. 

Dublin (Mr. Michael J. Buckley, borough surveyor 
and waterW'Orks engineer). — The rebuilding of the 
destroyed area in the city, which will, it is antici- 
pated, be carried out by the property owners con- 
cerned as soon as the Government deals with their 
claims for compensation, is the most urgent work of 
the future. In conjimction with this work the cor- 
poration propose carrying out some street widenings 
in the streets abutting on the destroyed property, and 
for which a unique opportunity has now arisen. The 
<iext important work to be carried out will be that 
connected with the housing of the working classes. 
The corporation have negotiated successfully with an 
American syndicate for a loan of £250,000 for this 
purpose, and, as the Local Government Board have 
sanctioned the borrowing of £84,000 of this amount. 
the most, immediate schemes will no\v be pressed for- 
ward, and others taken up later on when the board 
sanction the balance of the loan. Next in importance 
comes the construction of the new storage reservoir 
at Roundwood (£134,000 loan), in connection with 
which more than half the work has been carried out. 
The council have various other works in view, but, 
owing to the impossibility of obtaining jggey to carry 
them out, there is no chance, so far ^^^n be seen, 
of dealing with them during the eiisfetiL' financial 
year. As to the chief works in conten>jil-ation on the 
termination of the war, the most urgent will be the 
housing of the workers. An important engineering 
work will be the completion of an extensive main 
drainage system, which has already cost about 
£600,000. A few small portions remain to be finished, 
amounting to about £30,000. Among other schemes 
which may come before the council is a proposal to 
construct a bridge across the Liffey to replace the 
present unsightly metal structure (toll bridge), the 
lease of which has recently fallen in to the corpora- 
tion. This proposal would l>e in line with the scheme, 
already decided on. for the widening of Liffey-street. 
leading from this bridge up to Henry-street, one of 
the leading business centres in the city. The erection 
of public baths and wash-houses for the north side of 
the city is also proposed 

Dundee (Mr. Jas. Thomson, city 
engineer).— There is no intention 
ot entering upon any extensive 
works during the war. but pre- 
parations are being made for the 
commencement of many important 
works at the termination of the 
war, with a view mainly to giving 
work to men returning from the Front. These works 
include business premises at High-street, under the 
central improvement scheme; housing schemes; erec- 
tion of phthisis pavilions at King's Cross Hospital : 
the completion of improvement at Seabraes; the erec- 
tion of observatory on Dundee Law, and a new road 
leading thereto; and tlie erection of a baby clinic at 
Constitution-road. The aggregate estimated cost of 
these works is £200,000. 




.TANr*HY 2(i, ini7. 

Dunfermline (Mr. P. C. Smith, 
burgh engineer). — The oominp year 
promises — as the past — to be one of 
exceptional activity. The Naval Base 
at Rosyth is within the city area, 
and for the provision of housing 
acconnnodation for the dock em- 
ployee? a' large building scheme is 
now in progress. Over 6<X» hou.«es arc either occupied 
or in the course of completion, while an additional 
l.tXX^ houses will be constructed during the year. To 
meet this development the city is extending its water 
and gas services, forniinp new and widening existing 
roadways, involvine an expenditure of £40.000. Apart 
from the works in the Rosyth area, the town council 
do not contemplate any scheme of magnitude or 

Durham (Mr. J. T.Pegge, p.a.s.i., 
city .-urveyor). — The council have sus- 
pended as nnich work as jKissible. 
and the shortage of caj-tnient and 
labour is acute. A wise policy has 
lieen adopted in view of more strenu- 
ous times ahead. ^loney »ii;spent on 
public works has lieen invested in 
War Bonds, being thus kept in reserve. Beyond 
about £2,000 to be spetit in remaking roads affected by 
abnormal motor traffic, a small street widening, a new 
urinal, the necessary part of a set of conveniences 
and shelters at the Wharton Park, temporary shelters 
for motor-'bus passengt rs. necessary sewerage \yorks 
and replacements, and allotments for food 
it i~ not intended to do more. 

Dursley (Mr. .1. G. Wenden, clerk to the rural dis- 
trict council).— The council have iu view the execu- 
tion of the followinir works at the conclusion of the 
war: The provi^ion <'f a water supply for the parish 
of Cam; works of sewerage and sewage disposal for 
tiie parish of King^wood : the completion of a .scheme 
of sewerage and .-ewatre disposal "for the parish of 
Wotton-under-Edge, which was approved by the Local 
Government Board before the war broke out; the 
erection of working-class dwellings at Wolton-under- 
Edge, for which a site has been purcha.-ed : and th(f 
provision of a new burial ground at Wotton-under- 
Edge, for which an option for thf purchase of a site 
lin~ lie>'>n acqtiired. 

Eastbourne (Mr. W. Walker, surveyor of highways 
)•! the rural restrict council). — Hampered as the 
c'luncil have I>ecii by the extreme difficulty of obf.-iin- 
ing material of any description, the highway work 
Ins lately been conducted on very modest lines, and 
it is not anticipated that any advance will be made 
during 1017. Generally, the policy of the council will 
I'e to prevent deterioration as far as possible. Jlorc 
tar-spraying will i)robably be done than usual, and 
I'M-al material utilised where available. Several .sec- 
tions of road have been seriously damaged by military 
traffic, but in each case adequate reparation lias been 
made by the authorities, and the work is proceeding'. 
As regards works in contemplation for after the war, 
nothing definite has yet been decided upon . but 
schemea of road widening and drainage are under 
«onBideration on the Sea ford side of the district, and 
it i.s hoped that the new coast road l>etwecn East- 
bourne and Bexhilt may then l>e proceeded wiili. 
There should l>e no scarcity of work in the district. 

Exeter (Mr. Thomas MorLDiNo, 
M INST. t. IS., city engineer and sur- 
\ lyor). — So far as at j)rescnl known 
P'l work will be carried out during 
tlie year other than ordinary routire 
v-ork. Should peace l>e declared. 
It i- pos.sible that eoiue of the work 

whicli ha? been delayed of the. war will lie 


Cllllngham, Kent (Mr. .Toon L. Red- 

pv.Rs, 1». rough engineer and surveyor). 
—Should the war terminate during the 
ensuing year, the council intend to put 
in hancl a con.siderable ntimber of works 
whicli have been hung up — namely: 
The construction of a .%-in. etorm-water 
ciilvpft through H.M. dockyard, the 
doiiblin:' of the Pier-road intereeptint: 
sewer, and the wirleriHik' of Park-road and Woodlands- 
lane, and making up a number of private streets. 
Until peace i» declared work will consiBt of mainte- 
nance. About ¥).('^''- •"' of dehydrated tar will 
Iw'uAed for gurfac. \ new plant for making 
tarred stone i» bei; . i 

Glasgow (Mr. Thos. Nisbet, 
.\ssoc.m.inst.c.e., master of works 
and city engineer).— It is considered 
unlikely that any works of import- 
ance will be proceeded with until after 
tlie war, in view of the policy of the 
corporation to restrict all \innecessary 
expenditure, and of the difficulty in 
olitainiiiLr the necessary laboiir and 

material. There i- no doubt that at the termination 

of the w;u a number of works will require to be under. 

taken in connection with street wideninps. hospitals, 

halls, and bath? and wash-houses. 

Codmanchester (^Ir. C. Mayfield, borough sur- 
veyor).— The best after-war work that could be under- 
taken would be to dredge the gravel beds out of the 
river, which at present form a great obstruction, and to resurface the roads which run roughly piirallel 
with the river with concrete, u.sing cither tar or 
cement as a binder, pref(>rably cement. 

Cosport and Alyerstoke (Mr. 
HivUBEnT FiiosT, engineer and sur- 
veyor to the urban district council). 
— No s))ecial work is cmtemplated to 
be carried out during the current 
year beyond really neces.sary routine 
work. Definite schemes are in 
abeyance, among the most pressing 
being a new ferry landing, Gosport — 
Portsmouth, which includes a brow and pontoon' to 
replace the old masonry " Haul "; a new road con- 
necting Forton with Hardway; making up a number 
of private streets; scheme for new sewers and con- 
nection.s for houses to sewage system ; rcii-ewal of 
destructor <'ells ; increasing steam-engine power at the 
air-coinpressirg stadou, augmented with gas engines: 
completion of a joint small hospital; and laying out 
and improving new recr<'ation grounds, fn-. It is not 
anticipated that, jircssing as some of these items are — 
some of them havi' already received the provisional 
ai)proval of the Local Governnieiit Board -any of these 
works will be actually taken in l);ini| uMtil after the 
termination of the war. 

Grantham (Mr. .1. IL Du \ . .m.inm.( .i,.i.. .m.insi. 
Ml'.N". AMI co.E., M.I!. SAN. I,, borough surveyor). — 
There are no s|>.ci;il w(u-ks e(uiteiiipl:Ued in this 
borough beyond tlu' iiKiintenanet- and rejiairs to high- 
ways, which are being very bidly damaged by tlie 
extraordinary military trafl'ic. The *sliniated ex))en- 
diture on iiinin roiiK is L't,-3!l'2 for the vear ending 
Ma nil .•)!. lOlX. 

Grays (Mr. AnTHi'R C. James, 
ASSOC. M. INST. C.B., engineer and svir- 
veyor to the urban district council). 
—Work in this district is at present 
entirely coi. filled lo ncc.fsary routine 
inatt<'rs. Works to be undertaken at 
the close of the war include surface- 
water drainage, for which Local 
Government Board a]ii)roval was 
oiilained in the Spring of 1914, and a considerable 
toad widening. The council have also resolved to 
proceed with the preparation of a sch'ine for, pro- 
viding fifty cottages, or more as may be required, so 
that it may l)e pvit into oporation as soon as possible. 

Grimsby (Mr. H. GunKUT Whyatt, 
MiNsT.c.E., borough engineer ami 
.-iirveyor).— The only work which is 
likely to be proceeded with during 
the current year is the construction 
of the tuberculosis dispensary, with 
maternity and children's clinic ad- 
joining. The contract has been 
secured by Messrs. Hewins & Good- 
hand, and orders to proceed with the work are being 
issued this month. Many other schemes are held 
over until the termination of the war, including the 
middle length of the Wcelsby-road improvement, 
together with the bridge inxlerneath the (ircat 
Northern Railway; tlie conslruetion of sewers in the 
.Mn.slie-street district ; the extension of the clectri<-ity 
works; the jinviuK with granite of certain streets 
where the traffic i- loo heavy for tar-macadam; the 
carriage bridge over the Great Central Railway at 
the Central ^Farket; a bridge (probably on the 
gcherzer rolJinu prii.ipje) over'the Alexandra Dock 
at Corporation-ro;i'l ; an elementary .'-chool in Victoria- 
street North; a shelter and refreshment room in tho 
Bradley Wood; an arlditional gallery in the Free 
Librarv; as well as other minor works. 

January 26, 1917. 



Hailsham (Mr. G. B. Fairchild, a.h.san.i., highway 
surveyor to the rural district council).^Owing to diffi- 
culties in obtaining sufficient metal for ordinary road 
repairs, the council, at present, anticipates little 
beyond ordinary maintenance. The damage by mili- 
tary traffic to the Eastbourne to Hastings road, in 
the parish of Hooe, will be made good by resurfacing 
and tarring, at an estim,ated cost of about £1,200, 
towards which the Road Board will contribute £720. 

Halesowen (Mr. G. Spxjkr, engi- 
neer and surveyor to the rural dis- 
trict council).— In response to the 
I Local Government Board's inquiry 
I as to works which are needed for the 
area within the council's jurisdic- 
tion, and which might be under- 
taken by them on the conclusion of 
the war, the following suggestions 
liave been made: Twenty-fiA'e road widenings; three 
new thoroughfares; 40,000 super. yds. footpath paving; 
new council depot and stables, with possibly refuse 
destructor; and a housing scheme. The district is of 
such a character as to make many improvements 
desirable, especially having in view the council's 
ultimate aim of obtainins; unifying urban powers for 
the whole of their area. The carrying out of such a 
luimber of constructional works would, however, in- 
volve heavy cxpendikire. Seeing that expenditure of 
this nature would be undertaken (if at all) mainly 
liecause of the anticipated unsettled condition of 
labour throushout tl;e country at the end of the war, 
and would thus be of State rather than local import- 
ance, it would have to. be clearly ascertained, before 
making any commitments w'hich would unduly 
hamper the financial resources, that the proposed out- 
lay would not be entirely regarded as devolving upon 
the council as a local authority, but would merit, as 
to finance, weighty concessions from the National 

Herefordshire (Mr. G. H. Jack, 
M.iNsT.c.E., M.S. A., county surveyor). 
— TliG energies of the roads -depart- 
ment of the Herefordshire (bounty 
Council will be taxed to the utmost 
in an endeavour to restore the high- 
ways to the good condition which 
tliey had reached prior to the war. 
There were 474 roadm^en engaged in 
the county in 1914. At the end of 
1916 this number was reduced by 
one - half. This, together with the 
difficulties of obtaining material and the scarcity of 
hauliers, has perforce reduced the expenditure from 
£44,097 in 1913-14 to approximately £35,000 in 1916-17. 
The requirements of the roads in twelve months' time 
will not be far short of £30,000 above the normal pre- 
war expenditure. The w'ork of strengthening the 
trunk roads, with the assistance of the Road Board, 
which was commenced in 1913, w-ill, it is hoped, be 
finished during tliis year, in spite of the war. The 
rebuilding of several snurtt bridges will be undertaken 
as soon as cicumstances permit. The construction of 
two new schools and repairs to many existing school 
buildings will also be proceeded with. 

Hessle (^Ir. William Coulson, surveyor to the 
urban district council). — In present circumstances the 
work.s to bo undertaken by this council will only be 
slight during the present year. The works to be 
undertaken will be a moderate amount of tar-spray- 
ing, two or three small works of road widening, and 
the cultivation of certain land for the production of 
food. With regard to works to be undertaken after 
the war, the following may be included: Eoad widen- 
ing in several parts of the district; an improvement 
scheme in the centre of the town, clearing away a 
considerable amount of old property; improvement of 
recreation ground ; the provision of working - class 
dwellings; and tlie asphalting of a considerable length 
of footpaths in the district not now so paved. 

Heywood (Mr. Jas. B. Nuttall, 
borough surveyor). — Only absolutely 
necessary maintenance works will be 
undertaken by this corporation during 
the ensuing twelve months. On the 
termination of the war the chief 
works to be undertaken, some of 
which are already in hand, but post- 
poned, are: Reconstruction of main 
roads and improvement of secondary roads ; private 
street improvement works; intercepting sewers and 
storm overflows; construction of new roads to out- 

lying districts; housing and town planning scheme; 
laying out of Hopwood Recreation Ground; under- 
ground convenience and lavatories; extensions at the 
electricity works; new bridge over the river Roch ; 
and the renewing of lengths of tramway track. 

Hinckley (Mr. E. H. Crump, 
Assoc.M.iNST.c.E., survejov and 
waterworks engineer to the urban 
district council). — It is intended to 
instal a centrifugal pump to deal 
^with sewage at the sewage works, 
and lay about 1 mile of water main. 
After the war the erection of further 
workmen's dwellings, a new destructor, the widening 
of Castle-street, and extensions to sewers and water 
mains are contemplated. 

Holland, Lines, South Division 

(Mr. A. W. Lloyd, m.i.m. and 
CO. E., surveyor). — The county coun- 
cil have approved an estimated 
expenditure of £6,500 ii: respect of 
the maintenance and repair of the 
main roads in this division. This 
sum includes surface tarring 30 
miles of road by contract, tarring 
20 inilc: of footpaths, and various road repairs. 

Horsham (Mr. R. Renwick, surveyor and water engi- 
neer to the urban district council). — No new works arc 
contemplated either during the year or, so far as is at 
present known, upon the conclusion of the war. 

Killarney (Mr. G. A. E. Hicksox, m.inst.c.e.i., engi- 
neer to the urban district coimcil). — The council are 
about to carry out a small scheme for the disposal of 
storm water in order to relieve the sewers of the town, 
and also in comiection with this to make some slight 
extension to the existing sewerage. The estimate for 
these works amounts to £600, and this is practically 
authorised by the Irish Local Government Board. 
The council obtained a loan of £6,500 for housing the 
working classes, of which there remains an unex- 
pended balance of about £3,000, but this money will 
not be available imtil after the war. 

Kiveton Park (Mr. Frank Hewitt, f.s.i., engineer 
and surveyor to the rural district council). — During 
1917 the only works likely to be attempted are as 
follows : New cells and boilers at Dinnington refuse 
destructor; small road improvements (tw-p); new 
filter bed at Anston sewage works; tar-macadam and 
tar-spraying work; small water main extensions; the 
making up of a couple of private streets; the com- 
pletion of Recreation-row 15-in. and 18-in. surface- 
water sewer; and a public mortuary at Dinnington. 
A nunilicr of important schemes, some of which have 
already l^een before the Local Government Board, are 
in abeyance until after the war, including the follow- 
ing: Sewage disposal works extensions, Dinnington 
(£5,000) ; private street works (20) ; bridge rebuilding ; 
sewerage and sewage disposal works at Wales Bar, 
Waleswood, South .\nst<^n. West Thorpe, Harthill and 
Woodall ; road improvehients (12) ; depot buildings ; 
privy conversions ; artisans' dwellings ; and sewage 
disposal works extensions, Wales (£3,400). Develop- 
ments due to new colliery workings will probably 
necessitate the preparation of a town planning scheme 
for part of the di5tri<-t in the near future. 

Leeds (Mr. W. T. Lancashire. 
M.iNsT.c.E., city engineer and surveyor). 
—In response to an inquiry from the 
Local Government Board asking what 
work could be put in liand after the 
cessation of hostilities, the following statement was 
presented: Street improvements, £17.309; reconstruc- 
tion of unhealthy areas. £25,464; private street works. 
£33.022. Sewerage, £26, 146 — only work in connection with 
military hospitals or munition works is being carried 
out at the present time. Works to be carried out by 
other departments of the corporation were included 
as follows: Electric lighting (Mr. C. N. Hefford.- 
manager, electric lighting department), £418,000: 
•Sewage disi)osal (Mr. G. A. Hart, sewerage engineer), 
£178.000; central technical .school (Mr. J. Graham, 
secretary for education), £154,000; tramway renewals 
(Mr. J. B. Hamilton, tramways manager), £50,000. 
The city engineer is engaged in preparing town plan- 
ning schemes as follows: (1) Buckingham House; (2) 
Harehills, Roundhay and Cros.'^gates ; (3) Osmond- 
thorpe; (4)Gledhow; and (5) Moortown. The sanc- 
tion of the Local Government Board has been obtained 
to prepare schemes for Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4; plans and 



January 30. 1917. 

particulars have also been deposited for Xo. 5, but the 
Local Oovernmeiit Boiitd Inquiry has not yet been 
held. It is hoped to push I'orward schemes, ?o 
that useful work may tx» providetl after the war in the 
oonstruction of new wide main roads or the widening 
of existing roads, if at any time the state uf the labour 
market requires such [.r.. vision. 

Leicester <Mr. E. Oeoroe MAsyBGY, 
.sc.iN-sT.t'.E., borough engin«ir and 
surveyor*. — It is nut possil)lt; to 
state what works will Ije carried 
out during the present year, but the 
. , I ■ _5,j following are projected works, 
T^ IC^''"* y^ which Were postponed owing to the 
~ .. ,». »v*« ^^^^ ^^j jj^^ deferring of the sanc- 
tion of loans— viz. ; Seven small sec- 
tions of tributary sewerage ami 
trade wat.r -ewers, estimated cost £10.600; widening 
and sewering of Lutterworth-rojid. £2,lX)0; widening of 
Welford-road. £3,8c»>; new sanitary conveniences. 
£630; and storm-water tewage disposal sclienn'. 
£120,000. It has been decided to proceed as 
expeditiou.sly as possible \tith tlie preliminary work 
for extensive town planning sclienies, and it is already 
in an advanced stage. 

Leigh. (Mr. Percy Morris, a.m.i.m. and co.e., sur- 
veyor and engineer to the rural district council).— The 
coiincil intend to proceed with the following schemes 
during tlie year, in addition to the usual road work.s, 
of improvement and maintenance— viz.: Sewerage and 
sewage disposal works for the to\vn.ship of Culcheth ; 
.schema for supplying the township of Astley with 
wafer from « l>orehole; and a new sewerage pumping 
scheme for Astley. 

Lincoln (..Ml. K. .\. MacBrair, 
M.i.vsT.c.E., city engineer and 
surveyor). — Immediately after 
the declaration of war all pro- 
pose<l works were put on the 
.shelf, the council being satisfied 
with finishing those they had in 
hand. Among the most ini- 
I)ortant works under considera- 
tion were the town planning 
sc'henie, and the erection of .some 8i)0 workmen's 
dwelling.s. The council were also considering the 
inclusion of some outlying townships where a large 
number of hou.-es were being erected ; while they 
had in view additions to llie electricity works and the 
public abattoir. 

Llanfrechfa, Upper (Mr. M. R. Jones, surveyor, 
inspector and waterworks manager to the urban dis- 
trict council).— The roads in this district have been 
pomewhat neglected in i>ast year.-^. The work of 
making up and the execution 91 certain improvements 
in connection therewith would have l>een commenced 
this year but for the fact that suitable macadam could 
not f>o obtained. A sewer about a mile in length is 
to be constructed immediately th<' necessary labour is 
available. Minor improvements will l)e executed to 
the reservoir, including the laying of a cast-iron main 
from a well to the reservoir. It is also proposed to 
fix in diOerent parts of the district two pressure- 
reducing valves and waste-water detecting meters. 

Llangollen (Mr. J. W. Hcohes, a.k.san.i., surveyor, 
wat<-r engineer and sanitary inspector to the urban 
district council). — At present the council are not con- 
sidering any large undertakings. For this year the 
only suggestion is for an open-air swimming bath on 
the side of the river Dee, for which the surveyor is 
preparing a scheme. As to work alter the war, the 
proposal is to provide a new reservoir for water suj)- 
ply at a considerable higher level, .so as to supply Die 
houses on the hillsides, and thereby encourage the 
building of good re8i<le;itial houses. A preliminary 
scheme was prepared, just Ijefore the war broke out, 
by Messrs. Berrington & Hon. of Wolverhampton, the 
estimated cost being al>out £16,000. This i)roject now 
stands over until after the war. 

Loohgelly (Mr. Alexander Lcmsdrn, burgh pur- 
veyor and sanitary inspector). — Owing to the restric- 
tions regarding expenditur<- no new wr)rks liave ))oen 
ncreed to during the war. It has. however, ))een 
agreed to carry out .several works immediately on the 
termination of the war. These include new outfall 
»ewers at a cost of £2.751 ; new .sewage purification 
works, £8.252; .several new street improvements. 
£7.170; total, £18,17.'!. Plans. epe<ificalions and 
schedules are at pre.sent in course.- of iirepunitiou for 
the whole ot the foregoing works. 

London, Camberwell (Mr. William Oxtobv. 
m.inst.c.e.. borough engineer).— In consequence of the 
restrictions in regard to expenditure, nothing will be 
undertaken unless it is absolutely necessary. 

London, Finsbury (Mr. P. G. 
KiLLicK, borough surveyor).— It is 
not anticipated that any extensive 
works will l>e carried out by the 
eouncil during the present year: 
."Several imi)ortant schemes, in- 
ehiding a reli\iilding scheme on the 
N'orthampton estate and the Metro- 
politan Water Board offices, are 
lumg ui> lor liio duration of the war. The iiaving re- 
newals will also be kept down i<i the miiiinuim, 

London, Woolwich (Mr. J. 
ScTCLiFFK, borough engineer 
and surveyor). — The only work 
of any moment which it is in- 
lended to carry out in the near 
future is the repaving of a 
|iortion of Beresford-struet with 
wood blocks, but only to the 
value of about £700. The 
borough engineer has received 
instructions to procoi'd, when 
o|iportiiiiity affoid.s. with the town planning of the 
borough, and with sheds for rujling stock at the 
V4irious depots. Other works in contemplation are the 
resurfacing of Footscray-road, the widening of Bexley- 
road, and a scheme for a new .sewer for the Nightin- 
gale-place district. In addition, a very extensive list 
of schemes that might be undertaken has been com- 
piled at the request of the Local Government Board, as 
work after the war; but this schedule is merely an 
embryo at the present time. 

Longford (Co. Longford) — Mr. Daniel Leary, engi- 
neer, states that tliis council have decided to provide 
for tlie following works alter the \\;ar— viz.; The com- 
pletion of the late scheme of labourers' cottages, com- 
prising about fifteen houses at a cost of £1-10 each; 
the drainage of Ardagh burial ground, at a cost of 
£123; and sewerage works at Laneslx)ro', at a cost to 
l)e estimated. The council have only in hand such 
works as are found to be urgent, such as repairs. 

Lytham (Mr. A. J. Price, engineer and surveyor to 
the urban district council). — Like most other places 
the works to be carried out at Lytham are dependent 
upon the duration of the war. So long as the war 
lasts the Local Government Board will prevent their 
being carried out, though the ])atriotism 'ft'ould also 
prevent the spending of money on municipal work.e of 
improvement when Imperial needs are so much more 
pres.sing. The list of works sent up to the Local 
Government Board, which are to be taken in hand 
when the war is ended, is as follows: Open-air bathing 
I)ool, promenade and marine lake, at an estimated 
cost of £30,000; electricity works, £30,000; assembly 
rooms, baths and public offloes, £30,000; golf pavilion, 
£2,000; street improvements, £4,975; i)ublic conveni- 
eiici-s, £700: and recreations grounds, £10,000. 

'>^ * Mansfield (Mr. Walde Thompson, 

..^„ ASSoc.M.iNBT.c.E., borough engineer 

'j^^^B^BW* anfl surveyor).— No works of any 
magnitude are proposed until the 
termination of the war. A sewer 
extension in Southwell-road, and 
t he resurfacing of Sherwood-road with 
tar-macadam will be carried out, 
and tl:e town planning scheme for 
the borough will be proceeded with. After the war a 
large amount of work will be imperative, including a 
housing scheme, new mixed school, technical school, 
extension to sewage disposal works, several street 
widenings in the centre .pf the town, and a large num- 
ber of private street improvement works. The laying 
out of new cricket ground, central fire station, new 
town liall, and the extension ot the refuse <lestructor 
are al'-o in contemplation. 

Market Harborough (Mr. IIf.rbert O. Coales. 
assoc.m.inst.c.e , r.s.j., engineer and surveyor to the 
urban district council).— The council do .not propose 
to carry out any public work,s d\iring the year, but 
.Mr. Coales i» getting on with a town planning 

Markinch (Mr. Robert W. Todd, burgh surveyor 
and s'lnitary inspector). — The town council's engineers 
have received instructions to prepare plans for an 
extension of the water storage, the work to lie com- 
nienced immediately the war is ended. (Jrouud has 
already l>een acquired for the ))Uri)Ose. 


J.VMTARV 2G, 1917. 



Middlesbrough (Mr. S. £. 

Burgess, m.inst.c.e., f.k.san.i., 
L.U.I.B.A., borough engineer and 
surveyor). — The following are the 
principal works which will claim 
attention during the year : The 
completion of the Snowdon road 
outfall _ sewerage scheme, which 
provides for the sectional drainage 
of a considerable portion of the 
borough. The total cost of the scheme is £60,000, of 
which half has been put in hand by the special sanction 
of the Local Government Board, at a cost of about 
£32,000. This work is nearing completion. It is 
expected that the pumping station, together with the 
large main interceptor sewers, will be in operation by 
early summer. A scheme for the treatment of venereal 
diseases has been inaugurated, and the borough engi- 
neer has been instructed to go into the matter and 
prepare alternative pi'oposals for hospital and adminis- 
trative requirements in connection tlierewith. The 
after-war proposals for imj)ortant arterial road con- 
struction are also in liand at the request of the Local 
Government Board, and estimates totalling upwards of 
£63,000 are being prepared, together with the necessary 
plans, so that the required consent may be obtained 
in order that, when possible, the work may be put in 
hand without delay. The maintenance and upkeep of 
the highways and footpaths, together with the main 
sewers, will, as far as possible in the circumstances of 
war time, be cari-ied on as usual, and other business 
pertaining to this department of the corporation will 
be gone on with. Tlie provision of land in suitable 
plots for cultivation under the Government scheme is 
also to be put in force at once. 

Mitchelstown (Mr. Patbick Coughlan, m.i.m. and 
co.E., engineer to the rural district coiincils). — The pro- 
jected works for the ensuing twelve months are the 
completion of the rural housing scheme and the water 
supply scheme — provision of wells and pumps, at an 
estimated cost of £1,()00. The Fermoy Board of 
Guardians will undertake the completion of .sanitation 
scheme for hospitals, at an e.~timat€d cost of aljout 
tl,5(X). The works intended to he carried out after the 
termination of the war Ijy the Mitchelstown No. 2 Eural 
District Council in<'lude the provision of additional 
f)lots to labourers' cottages and the erection of addi- 
tional cottages. 

Morley (Mr. F. Turner,, assoc.m.inst.c.e., 
borough engineer and sjm-eyor).— -During the eai'ly 
|iart of the year it is intended to extend consider- 
ably the plant for dealing witii the sewage sludge. 
.\part fiom this, the work carried out will be routine 

Newburn (Mr. Thomas Gregory, engineer and sur- 
vi-,-or to the urban district council). — After the war 
two or three road widening schemes are to be under- 
taken, and also a further housing scheme. 

New Maiden, Surrey(;\Ir. Reginald 

H. .fEFFEs, ASSOC.M.INST.C.E., engi- 
neer and surveyor to the urban 
district council).— Owing to the re- 
strictions imposed l)y the war no 
works are proposed to be executed 
during the year, except purely 
routine work, which, owing to de- 
pleted staff, is reduced to the 
lowest jtos.-iUle limits. The council have not yet con- 
sidered what works they propose carryintr out on the 
termination of the war. They have put the' Cultiva- 
tion of Lands Order in force in the district, and 
already about 20 acres of land have l)een applied for 
and allotted to v^irious applicants-. The council also 
propose to purcha.S(; seed potatoes for the use of allot- 
ment holders in the district. .Ml this work has kept 
the surveyor's department in a state of <'onsi(lorahle 

Northampton (Mr. .\i.fred Fidler. 
M.iNST.c.E., borough engineer and 
surveyor). — It is very unlikely that 
any works will be carried out ex- 
cept such as are absolutely neces- 
sary, and tlie works which may 
have been i)roJ€Cted will he post- 
poned until after the war. This 
applies to the following works: 
Storm water and overflow relief 
-ewers; Far Cotton sewage and surface water drain- 
age; Kingslhorpe main drainage; and Houghtoii-road 

Norwich {Mr. Arthur E. Col- 
lins, M.INST.C.E., city engineer). — 
In common with other towns, all 
work possible is being held up in 
Norwich, but certain schemes are 
under consideration, to be pro- 
ceeded with at the close of the war, 
notably reconstruction of Carrow 
opening bridge across the river, 
and a riverside road from Carrow to Thorpe Station. 
The probable cost will be about £20,000. \\ ork is now 
in hand for a gravel-washing and screening plant for 
the production of materials to be used for gritting 
tar-painting on carriageways and footpaths in place of 
using granite or other stone chippings, the cost of 
which, under the present circumstances, together with 
the difficulty of obtaining supplies, make their use 
almost prohibitive. Further, it is found that the 
local gravel, when properly washed and screened, is 
at least as satisfactory as the more expensive stone 
chippings. The closing of various tips around 
the borders of the city is rendering imperative the 
consideration of a proper system of refuse disposal. 
It is likely this wiU take the form of the provision of 
four or five depots, to which the ordinary wagons will 
cart, there tipping into tanks, each holding not less 
than twelve cub. yds. Motor wagons (electric or 
otherwise, of 12 cub. yds. capacity) will be loaded from 
these tanks by the opening of bottom doors, and the 
vehicles will proceed with their loads to the point of 
disposal. Much of the refuse of the city is at present 
tipped on to marsh lands about 3 miles down the 
river, with very satisfactory results except from the 
point of view of cost. The provision of proper 
machinery for dealing with this would greatly reduce 
the cost, but, apparently, a modern destructor, having 
regard to the steam-raising power, would be cheaper 
than tipping on the marshes, even with the better 
facilities necessary. In the event of there being a 
real shortage of work after the close of the war, the 
flood reduction and navigation improvement w^orks of 
the river would probably be quite sufficient to absorb 
all unemployed labour of this neighbourhood. 

Oxford (Mr. W. H. White, 
M.INST.C.E., city engineer).— The only 
special works at present in prosi>ect 
are the completion of the reconstruc- 
tion of the remaining roads on which 
the motor omnibuses run. The 
trannvays have been already re- 
moved and the roads traversed by 
them, lOJ route-miles, have been re- 
constructed during the past two years. 

Penrith (Mr. W. S. Lythgoe, highway surveyor to 
the rural district council).— The council's district 
covers an area of some 300 square miles, and lias 430 
miles of district roads. For the present the council 
have cut out all improvements, and are just carrying 
on the bare maintenance of their highways. They 
have under consideration the purchase of a portable 
power-driven rock drill to use in their various quanies 
to replace the slow and laborious system of hand- 
drilling. They also contemplate the ])urchase in the 
near future of a tractor and tipping wagons. During 
the year it is proposed to relay trial lengths of roiul, 
over which there is a medium amount of traffic, with 
tar-macadam, made with local limestone from the 
council's own quarries. The council have already 
put in water schemes in all their principal villages, 
and, naturally, sewages and disposal works are to 
follow. They had several of schemes under con- 
sideration before the war, and the works no doubt will 
1)6 carried out when things are normal again. Tlie 
council have still several waths to bridge, and this 
work will be taken up after the war. 

Portsmouth (^Mr. Arthur W. Ward. 
Assoc.M.iNST. O.K., borough engineer). — 
There is no municipal work of import- 
ance now Ijeing proceeded with under 
the borough engineer's direction, except 
the extensions to the infectious 
ii)S|)ital, which is nearing completion. 
Rochdale (Mr. S. Sydney Platt, 
M.INST.C.E.. Iwrough surveyor). — All 
expenditure on new works of a per- 
manent character is stopped by the 
Government. The staff of the borough 
surveyor, assiftants and workmen, is 
MMioiisly depleted, leaving him bnrely 
sufficient assistance to carry on the 
routine work of the borough. The con- 
sideration of works after the war is suspended until 


THE sur\t:yor axd municipal 

Jant ARY 2C. 1917. 

peace is assured, as matters will then depend largely 
on the financial state of the countrj-. 

Ri&ca (.Mr. A. J. DARDis.suiveyor and engineer to the 
iiri.uii district ooiincih — The eouiKil intend making 
up private street- at the enrlit-st possible opportunity, 
loneth a]>oul 900 yd< 

Samlown, I.W. uMr. Leslie U. Dashper, m.i.m. and 
V .1 r. . A R SAN. I., surveyor to the urban district 
. > nil I.I.— Tlie council huvu under consideration many 
Id.'S^^ and important schemes to l>e carried out on the 
I. rmination of the war, but these are as yet in a 
\ ■ ry incomplete .state. 

Skegness ^Mr. R. H. Jenkins, engineer and tuiveyor 
i^. the urban district council).— During the year the 
■.•asworks undertaking will be transferred to the 
...uncil under their Act of 1915. in accordance with 
ihe award of the arbitration tribunal. The council 
.ire to pay to the ga,^ company annually a sum equal 
t.> per cent on the amount of the award until twelve 
months after the termination of the war, or such 
other time as they may he allowed for borrowing the 
required anioum. The costs of the council have been 
excHdinely h^avy in acquiring this undertaking, 
which ii 1 the iTomotion of two Bills, oppo- 

sition, ion. and the rates will have to bear 

a ver> • burden in order to repay short- 

term loans. In consequence of this and the war no 
.•\-p<'Mditure will be incurred in new works during tlie 
' V ;h the usual amount of road surface will 
tarred. Cetiain private streets are to l>e 
r the termination of'the war. 

Stoke-on-Trent (,Mr. A. Burton, minst.c.e., f.s.i., 
I .-r.iugh surveyor*.— At the present time, and during 
the continuance of the war, only routine work will V^e 
It tempted. 

Street (^Mr. Wilfrid .1. (Joode, m.i.m. and co.e.,. 

>iirv.;yor and water engineei to the urban district 

..juucil I.— During the spring it is hoped to conmience 

protective works in connection witli the 9-in. eastriron 

uiiter supply main ir«>m the intake works, which is 

iig severely from exleriial corrosion, owing to 

.lid under e.\ce|>tional c-ondilions across peaty 

ad. Tar-sprayinii of the highways will 1.* 

; out inor» extensively. The .council are con- 

. ._ the ereotiou of a public slaughter-house, and 

ii 1.- probable that in additional housing .scheme will 

lie put forward at the teimination of the war. The 

installation of electric powir in the low-level pumping 

-tation has proved a great saving and convenience 

over rh.' oil f-nglnes. 

8 w a n a g e (.Mr. William H. 

Plakce, assoc.m.inst.c.e., engineer 

and surveyor to the urban disiricl 

council I. — The coiuicil have in view 

• luring the year the completion of a 

Well at Corfe Castle; laying .several 

mile.-, of cast-iron jiumping main, 

_^^^ and the provision of pumping 

^^^"^ machinery to supply Swanage and 

di-trict with water, suliject to the ne<."f'ss;iry loan sane- 

lif.n l>eing iibtnin>-.| 

Swinton and Pendlebury (..Mr. Henuv E.sTwisLb, 

M.I.M. AND CO.E., M.R.SAN. I., eiigfneor and surveyor to 

the urbon di«tri<»i r-nnn'^ilt — Several important works 

: :. . .rf the war. Sanc- 

.eady l>een fiiven by 

r. : ; tlie lolUiwing, and 

liitti iiie Moik will Ije proceeded with <>n 

fion of the war: Workw of s<-werage, in- 

• : t r; 1; nlverls and pipe 

' 1" ""'; tlie erection 

• >, nl an esli- 

I Re-ewering 

\i-tini; sewer 

' :. iiiiiiiii^' "tiertrtioiiH, at an 

-' piiviite street improvement 

• ! i:4,0(M»; coini>letion of 

• f DeanV-road, at an 

lo refu'e fle.-lructAir 

, IdilionMi -11. .., .,„ 

)'^iimate<l co-i .t tl,«ii»i 



ti<>n w 

■ ■' ■ "■ ' ' OU'Il -Ol \ l\ ••! '■ 

■••mplafe carry- 

ii of I iiielciMi 

' ..: al,out la.tXH. This is 

11 e.Vpe|iditUK- of H-^.i*lO. 

y the l^'K'al (lovernnienl 

<.t tlie war tile corfKjra- 

the following M-henief<: 

The lightingvof the city by electricity; the jiaving of 
the quays by a part-grant from the Road Board; 
public baths; the laying of 7 miles of cast-iron 15-in. 
diameter water mains to supplement the present water 
supply, tov'eiher with the enlarging of the existing 
leservoir and filter area. 

Wembley ^Mr. Cecil R. \V. Chapman, engineer and 
surveyor to the urban district council).— Acting as the 
luiriai authority, it will be necessary for the council, 
by some means or other, during the ensuing twelve 
months, to prepare an area- for burials, the present 
ground being almost completely filled. A field of 11 
acres was purchased at the beginning of the war, and 
it is proposed to lay out 3 acres of this, enclosing the 
ground with wrought-imn unclimbable fencing, with 
suitable entrance gates, together with the necessary 
footways and surface drainage, also the widening and 
improving of an old bridleway which forms the only 
access to the site. Plans are being prepared by the 
engineer and surveyor to the council tor submission 
to the Local Government Board. The provisions of the 
Cultivation of Lands Order, 1916, will be pursued 
vigorously. Numerous schemes, including sewage. dis- 
posal works, destructor, disinfector, and public and 
private street improvements are being held over until 
the teriniiiation .>t the war. 

West Bromwich (,Mi. Albert D. Okeatorex. 
M.iNST.c.E., M.S. A., liorougli engineer and surveyor). — 
Beyond maintaining the highways, tramways, and 
other works as far as i)Ossi)ile under the restricted 
regulations as regards men, the council do noT propose 
executing any other work this year. 

Windermere (Mr. Charles E. Hines, m.i.m. and 
CO.E., M.R.SAN. I., surveyor to the urban district 
council;.— All works, other than maintenance, have 
been suspended for the time being, but the council 
contemplate carrying out the following works on the 
conclusion of the war: (1) The completion of the 
sewerage and sewaye disposal scheme, which was 
commenced in liiKT. but suspended in 1916, when 
nearing coini)lelii>ii, owing to,.shortage of labour and 
materials.; (2) the (.instruction of a cottage for the 
manager at the new sewage disposal works, £633; (3) 
the widening of the Windermere - Patterdale main 
road, and removal of dangerous corners at Chapel 
Ridding and St. Catherines, £553; (4) the removal of 
ilangerous corner on the Rayrigg-road at The Green, 
ii^if! ; (5) the resui lacing of portions of the W'inder- 
meie-Bowness main road, t:4.166; (6) the diversion of 
the Windcrnieie-KeiulMl main road at Banncrrigg. 

Wombwell (.Mr. Wm. Quest, surveyor 
to the urban di.strict council).— It is 
not proposed to carry out any special 
work during the ensuing twelve 
uionihs. Something, however, will 
have to be done to provide additional 
ground for the cemetery; but as land 
lor this has already, been acquired, it 
i> only a question of oiiclosing part or the whole of 
this land for the purpose. Tlrere are several schemes 
to l.>e put in hand ns soon as possible after the war, 
including additions and alterations to New Scarborough 
sewage work.-, seveial new .sewers, sewer extensions, 
new mortuary, and at least three road improvements. 
Ystradgynlais (.Mr. T. Watkins, surveyor to the 
uirnl distriri <-ouncil>.— The council do not intend 
carrying out many new works during this year, as a 
good bit of HKjne.v will have to l>c spent in restoring 
the roads after the heavy traffic in connection with the 
sewerage fecheme. and the cutting up of the roads 
throughout the disliict to lay the sewers. It is pro- 
posed to reconstruct Ainon Bridge, and to widen 
Craigmaespica-roud, Cwmtwrch. After the war the 
water supply will have to lie increased to meet the 
lyqiiiienients of the sewerage scheme, and additional 
storage tanks erected; a new road will l)e constructed 
Ijetween Abercrave and Coelbren. A Provisional 
Order has been ..btuined to enable the council to 
purchase the electric liphting undertaking; but thi.- 
cannot fake effect until -ix months after the war. 

Prosperous Brighton Tramways.— Traflic receipts on 
ilie liiigliioii liaiiiways for the past nine 
inonlhf- liavo incieas. r| by Lo.TtX). which is a record in 
the liivioiy ol the iiiidei tiiking. It is the more remaik- 
able as* the previoii> year was an unprecfKlcnted 
siirrehs. Tile prosperity of the past siiiunier s*'asoii 
was one ( ontiibiitoiy eaii-^- of the advaiiiu-. bill the 
priiifipal eleiiunt wa» the large daily trafh< among 
iiiuiiilion workers employed in the district. 

Jancahv 2G. Iiy7. 





We are a conservative people. W*e needed a war 
of the first magnitude to force us to admit the neces- 
sity of cultivating -our land to the. fullest possible 
extent, and, as a corollary, the urgent need of ferti- 
lising this land of ours. But now potash and nitrates 
are scarce, the former coming from Germany, and 
freight for transport of the latter being prohibitive, 
and the motor vehicle has ousted stable manure. We 
have fertilising material in inexhaustible quantities 
in our very midst, the contents of our dustbins, our 
house and town refuse. But for years we have been 

the money necessary for erecting plants to reduce 
house refuse to manure. These difficulties notwith- 
standing, the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey 
managed during last year to erect a plant of four dust 
manipulators at their depot at Rotherhithe. The war 
has also caused a scarcity of money in our Colonies. 
Yet during the past twelvemonth two Lightning Dust 
Manipulators have been erected in Australia, one at 
Woollahra and the other at Paddington, both suburbs 
of Sydney, and one has been erected at Devonport, in 
N4w Zealand. \ number have gone to South .America, 
one having been laid down in the city of Campos, in 
Brazil, one at Ribeirao Preto, and others in other 
cities of the South American Continent. 
With the urgent need for fertilisers, inquiries for 

tj #9^"' I- »*''^"' 

Installation of Four Patent Lightning Dust Manipulators. 

(Eeceiitly erected by Bermondsey Borough Council.) 

foolishly thro\\ ing it away, tipping it down exhausted 
quarries, barging it. out to sea, burning it in our dust 

Captain Furse, of the Patent Lightning Crusher 
Company. Limited, the inventor of the Lightning 
Crusher and Pulveriser, was the first pioneer of a 
great industry. His motto was, " Give back to the 
land what came from the land," and he strenuously 
and cea.selessly advocated the vitilisation by the 
borough councils of all refuse for fertilising purposes. 
Under the name of " Dust Manipulator," a modifica- 
tion of this wonderful pulverising machine has been 
in use for some years now for reducing practically 
unsorted refuse to a fertiliser specially adapted 
for heavy soil, of which a irreat majority of our land 
is composed. 

• The first to appreciate the advantages of thi.~ inven- 
tion was Mr. Arthur Harrison, borough engineer and 
surveyor to the Southwark Borough Council, who 
courageously caused a plant of two machines to be 
erected at the Manor-place depot. Within two years 
the plant was doubled, and so satisfactorily did it 
work that the year before the war over 2(),0(X) tons of 
house refuse were sold as manure to the farmers of 
Surrey and Kent. Halifax, Bispham-Blackpool, Hove. 
Glasgow, - St. Andrews gradually and at intervals 
followed suit. 

Still, a system that .-hould have been adopted all 
over the land was limited to the capabilities of an 
enterprisirig and intellieent few. Now there is a cry 
lor the cultivation of land, a cry for manure. 
But the corporation ol Hove only last year was not 
allowed to quadruple its plant the Local 
Government Board would not sanction the necessary 
.loan! And theirs is not an exceptional case. Owing 
to the veto of the Trcasiirv, councils could not raise 

dust manipulators are now pouring in, and the demand 
for these machines may be expected rapidl> to 
" Back to the land ! " is the motto now. 

Successful Sewer Dredging.— The Eccles Corporation 
sewers and drainage inspector, Mr. James Caine, ha.s 
just received accounts of successful cleansing opera- 
tions by the use of his appliances in the towns of 
Grantham and Warrington. Mr. J. H. Drew, borough 
engineer and surveyor of the former town, writes : 
" On taking up duties here a few months ago, I found 
a section of 9-in. and ]2-in. sewer leading from a large 
fellmongery and leather-dressing works badly choked, 
and was informed there was frequent trouble with 
this sewer, which had to be constantly dredged. You 
kindly loaned me one of your 12-in. to 24-in. sewer 
ploughs and cleansers, and after a short trial my com- 
mittee decided to purchase them. The writer afterwards 
recommended that your smaller machines be sent on 
trial for the 9-in. section of sewer, and so well did 
these do the work claimed for tliem that my com- 
mittee agreed to purchase these also. No less than .") 
tons 12 cwt. 2 qr. of lime deposit and other refuse 
was removed from the 9-in. and 12-in. sewers in a 
very short time, the.-e having a length of 3,.tOO ft. 1 
can thoroughly commend your patent sewer plough 
and cleanser to my colleagues as the most efficient 
sewer dredging appliances I have yet seen on the 
'market." The ttoroueh engineer and surveyor of 
Warrington, Mr. Andrew M. Ker, writes: "Your 
machines are doing good work in this town, and are ;i 
far greater improvement on any yet adopted. The\ 
are a great success, and this corporation has decid'il 
to purchase them." 



Jancaby 26, 1917. 



In reviewing the past year, a? far n.« the mainte- 
nance of our roads has been oonoerned, one is 
impressed with the importance of surface tarring, and 
the extent to which it has relieved the difficult 
situation caused by the shortage of materials and the 
demands for economy. 

A great manv roads have been preserved for another 
voar solelv bv" this comparatively cheap and simple 
expedient," and in spite of the shortage of labour and 
haulage, and the difficulty experienced in obtaining 
speedy 'deliveries of materials, Messrs. Johnston 
Brothers, of 79 Mark-lane, E.C.. have successfully 
carried out all their contracts, and have treated some 
iiiiUinns of super, yards by means of their patent 
.o-furnace boilers with .Waithman reservoir 
: -. Their system of tar-painting by hand has 
,.....;. proved an unqualified succe.s.s, and in many 
districts where this work had Ix-eii cariied out in the 
previous year the surfaces were found to be almost 
us pood as when first treated. 

Although the ditlicultios of 1916 were great, those to 
1k> oncoutitercd in 1917 will be .still greater; but the 
need for tar-painting will iiicrease, and Messrs. 
.Tohnston are taking energetic steps to enable them to 
« urry out the contracts that may be placed witli them 
Ml their usual speedy and efficient manner. 

In addition to the above contract work, many 
eountv. citv, borougii. urban and rural district 
councils have l>een supplied with thc-^e double-furnace 
boilers and Waithman apparatus, and excellent rc- 
.-ults have been achieved. One authority, in deciding 
to purchase a machii.e that had been sent on approval, 
-tated that on tlie first day of working a .-peed of 
1.201) super, .vds. i>er hour was attained, and results 
.-till better are anticipated when the men get more 
accustomed to the work. 

When a pood surface has l>een obtained by tar- 
painting, it is economy to keep it good instead of 
allowing it to wear into potliole.*— which soon spell 
ruin— and for this purpose Smart's Midget patching 
outfit has proved very popular. One of our leading 
county surveyors who had soiue of these outfits stated 
that his onlv'ret'rot had been that he had not more of 
tlieiii. Needles.- to ray. these regrets were soon dis- 
pelled bv a further supply of Midgets. 

There has been a great demand for the \\e)sli 
granites for which Messrs. Johnston Brothers are the 
concessionaires, and until <iuite recently all demands 
liavc been met ; but of late, owing to the heavy 
demands of the Koad Board for materials for national 
purposes, some difappointmcnt has been unavoidably 
cauped; still, tho quarries are doing their best to 
fulfil all contracts. 

• « • • 

It is a striking testimony to the merits of Messrs. 
K. S. Clare & Co.';- materials, and to the sound repute 
in which they are held by surveyors and authorities 
interested inroad treatment generally, that the paet 
.season has vet again marked a big increase in sales 
.,v«r the already large figiyes attained in i)revious years. 
Constructional work has of necessity once again 
-iiffered from neglect, and motives of economy have 
ealled f'lr an incr.;ise in the palliative treatment of 
existing surfa -es. Tiii^ has cau.scd a yet greater 
quantity of Tarco to 1m> required. 

Bi-Tarco has again fully maintained its position as 
;, wtqndard binder, which it well deserves hi view of 
' vo qualities, due, it is claimed, 
u <if pure bitumen and other 
■■,•■■>■■-. which it contains. 
Meorfs Ciart. of course, also supply in very large 
qiiantitie<» a special crade of Bi-Tarco to surveyors 
■' - ■■•■■■f( method of construction, and 
,'ely l>een adojited for the con- 
imp roads, in which connection 
it lift- e<if lit 1 •Acli-iiitriied praise. 
It i» well to mention that l>oth Tarco and Bi-Tarco 
■ I - - • • ■■•h the requirements of the 

• .,f the War Office, 
i liDs again found favour 
.-ui.t;^^!.. .Ji.a • - wlifise employees 

le tar. It is a I'^i" preparation for 

fi.n.fVing all tar. gr(<^i , .... ,.;ime from thf hand-. 
without the »lighte!«» lil-effcot tipon the skin 
• « • • 

Mcs!<r! A Pouthwick. Limited, The 

Foundry. aro manufacturers of the 

■' Acme" , -iiv tar-macadam machincH, They 
have, however, oold very lew thJR y»ftr. »» they have 

had to put them on one side for special work in which 
they are engaged. 

The firm have a number of the machines at work in 
different parts of the country, and these are giving 
satisfaction. They have just received a report from 
one of the principal cities in this country in which 
cne of their machines is 1>eing used, and this states 
that it is working in an entirely satisfactory manner. 

The firm think there is not the least doubt but that 
there will be a big demand at the close of the war for 
this machine. It may be mentioned that they are 
manufacturing the machines either fixed or portable. 

• • • * 

Regret is expressed by Messrs. John Yates & Co., 
Limited, Aston Manor, Birmingham, at the recent 
decrease in road making, as it affects so many of 
their oldest friends ; ))ut, as it is generally admitted, 
it mtist of necessity be one of the first industries to 
recuperate after the war, " we hope," they say. " Hiey 
may soon experience renewed jirosperity." The firm 
are careful, so far as ever possible, to sujiply with a 
minimum of delay tlie requirements of .'^neli of their 
regular clients, liotli public authorities and contrac- 
tors, as are dcinir any work, fully realising the great 
n.eed they will liave'of their contiiniod .uoodwill when 
peace is declared. Where they are compelled to claim 
tiieir friends' indulgence as recards delivery, they 
endeavour to do so without giving umbrage by fully 
explaining the position, and so far have been met, 
without exception, with the greatest consideration, as 
everyone recognises the successful prosecution of the 
war as the paramount purpose of the day. The com- 
pany hav(> supplied consideraWo quantities of their 
manufactures in connection with military roads at 
liome and abroad, and have been careful to make all 
fossible arrangements here for coping to the best 
advantage witii the great demands for the work they 
expect to arise, at the close of the war. 

• * * * 

The Dussek Bitumen Company, Biomley-by-Bow. 
London, E., report that, although during the past year 
there has been a decrease in road making, a very 
satisfactory amount of work has been carried out witli 
their " Trinidito " lander and " Bitite " grout for 
setts during 1916. They consider this has been due to 
the reliable work previously carried out with these 
materials, as not one of the sections laid with " Trini- 
dite " have ever failed. On no single occasion, either, 
has it been necessary to relay any setts that liave 
iieen grouted with " Bitite." 

Both these materials have, the firm claim, been 
proved by practical experience to be the highest- 
qualitA-niatcrials of tlieir kind on the market. 

• * « « 

The demand for the Ames' Patent " Adaptable " 
iiorse broom, manufactured by the Ames-Crosta Sani- 
tary Engineering Company, Limited, 12 Victoria- 
street, Nottingham, has largely increased during the 
past year, owing largely to the extension of tar- 
siiraying. This broom is now recognised as being one 
of the. most efficient and economical for cleaning the 
surface of roads. Large numbers of these brooms are being sent out to France for use on the existing' 
roads and the ne\\' niilitarv and main roads under 

Highways Construction, 1. united, lin.-liury Court. 
Finsbury-pavement, E.G., report that forty-one of their 
head office and depot staff have joined His Majesty's 
Forces, in addition to which four have l>een lent to 
Government Departments. 

Owing to the war there were but few opportunitie.'= 
of securing contract.^ in 1916, but succesi^ful work 
has, however, been carried out at Barrow, Abertillcry. 
Wolverhampton, and Kensington. Full advantage 
has been taken of the restriction on the execution of 
road-surfacing work to carry out research and experi- 
mental work, and the company looks fonvord hojie- 
fully to securing a large amount of work on the 
resumption of peace 

• • • • 

During the past, year the Anglo-.Mexicaii reiroleum 
Company, Limited, Finsbury-court.. London, E.C, 
have, notwithstanding the abnormal circumstances, 
maintained its imports and deliveries of Mexphalte 
and Fiuxphalte for road making and industrial pur- 
poses. Mexphalto has now become so well known to 
surveyors and road eiigineer.s as a high-grade Mexican 
bitumen, that no further description need be giveij of 
it. Both for groutiiiK and asphalt macadam construc- 
tion it ha» proved entirely satisfactory wherever, 

lT)e development of Clinker-Mexphalte roadwork 

Januari- 26, 1017 



lias opened up a further prospect for its efiective use, 
which promises to be considerably increased at the 
conclusion of the war. 

Fluxphalte, the liquid l)itamen for road surfacing, 
has also proved successful in use, its long life and 
durability as a dressing being a notable feature of 

this material. 

» * » * 

Mersrs. Aveling & Porter, Limited, Rochester, 
iiiforui us that their output of steam rollers, tractors, 
>t.'am wagons, kc. has been much reduced during the 
past year, in consequence of the Govennnent work 
which they have been called upon to undertake, and 
that only a' portion of this reduced output has been 
availablo for th'o use of private customers. They are 
doing L'Verythiiii,' that the circumstances permit to 
supply new plant' on order for road making work in 
this country, but, of course, their deliveries are limited 
on account of Government requirements, and are suli- 
ject to the Ministry of Munitions classification of out- 


» 4 * * 

.Messrs. Engert & Rolte. Limited, of Poplar, have 
I'cen wholly engaged in meeting war requirements for 
their special roofings, and asphalt work and road- 
work have played very little part iir their year's 
activity. They are, however, pleased to say that road- 
work executed by them prior to the commencement 
of hostilities has behaved splendidly under most try- 
ing conditions of motor 'bus and military trafl&c, and 
expenses for repair have l)een conspicuous by their 
a!>sence. The " Bituvia " system of asphalt-macadam 
grouted road crusts, sjiccialised in by this firm, is 
stated to have justified all claims made for it. During 
the past year stretche.i were laid at Reading with most 
.-iiccessful results. 

Messrs. Engert & Rolfe. Limited, are working to 
their utmost cai)acity in an endeavour to meet the 
heavy demands made on them for materials for 
Government requirements, both direct by Government 
Departments or their contractors, for hospitals, hut- 
ments, airsiiip and aeroplane sheds, munition works of 
all kinds, stores, &c. Very large areas of asphalt 
work have been carried out, a considerable proportion 
ill the special gritless asphalt in which this firm 
specialise, which ensures a sparkless floor, which is 
ideal for buildings in which explosives are manufac- 
tured or handled. The demand for their " Waterp "' 
roofing (a " rubber " type self-finished roofiug felt) has 
also l)een considerable, and over 10,(X)0,OfM) sq, ft. were 
-niipliod for wi^r purposes during 1916. 
* * - » * 

In consequence of Government requirements. 
Messrs. Mann's Patent Steam Cart and Wagon Com- 
))any. Limited. Hunslet. Leeds, were obliged during 
the past year to discontinue completely the manufac- 
ture of their light rollers and road appliances. The 
above holds good as regards motor vehicles also. 
except that in a nunil>er of cases the firm have l)uilt 
wagons to replace motors or horses which have been 
requisitioned by the authorities or for other special 

^ * * -i 

During the past year Tarmac, Limited. Ettingshall. 
Wolverhampton, havt- been to a very large extent 
engaged on the supply of Tarmac for important mili- 
tary work at the various military camps and depots, 
aerodromes, national factories, and so forth, the work 
being undertaken by the Road Board, acting for the 
military authorities. Preference has, of course, had to 
be given to work of military importance, and as a 
<onsequenco there has lx>en considerable delay and 
disappointment with »upplies for the company's ordi- 
nary customers. The company acknowledges with 
gratitude that the various county councils and local 
authorities whom the company have been obliged to 
disappoint and put off have very kindly accepted the 
situation and agreed that absolute preference has been 
neceseary to work of military importance. 

During the year 1916 the new works at Brymbo, 
near Wrexham, have been completed and put into 
operation. The company has now therefore, three, 
works in operation— viz., at Ettingshall, Wolverhamp- 
ton ; Denby, near Derby; ,ind Brymbo. near Wrex- 

The new works in another town, despite delays 
caused by war conditions, would have been completed 
and available for the supply of Tarmac in the North 
<if England for 1917-18 contracts, but the Road Board 
have taken these works over entirely for important 
military work, and until the works are released to the 
company again no material can l>e supplied from 
>fiddle8brough to county councils or loc^il authorities 



Messrs. Dennis Brothers, Limited, of Guildford, 
have the distinction of being the oldest established 
firm of motor manufacturers in Great Britain, and in 
the wonderful record of success that has always 
attended their productions, vehicles in municipal 
service play no inconsiderable part. This, indeed, is 
only what might be expected with a firm that has 
been so closely associated with the most notable 
developments in connection with self-propelled fire 
appliances. The turbine motor-pump fire engine, now 
an adopted standard almost everywhere, is cssentiall\ 
a Dennis speciality, for it was by the enterprise oi 
Messrs. Dennis Brothers, Limited, that— like another 
well-known innovation, the worm-drive — it was first 
introduced. Since then many scores of machines 
have been acquired by corporations, public authori- 

Dennis Turbine MoTOR-prMf Fire Engine. 

ties, ■ and Government and other establishments 
throughout the world. Nearly all of the large fleet of 
motor-pump fire engines operated by the London Fire 
Brigade are of Dennis build, and of the total of about 
15<) vehicles of all kinds used by that organisation 
more: than, two-thirds have come from the famous 
Guildford factories. The machine shown in the illus- 
tration is a standard type as supplied to the Birming- 
ham Corporation, being of 60 h.p., and having a pumji- 
ing capacity of 400 gallons per minute, with a road 
speed of nearly 40 miles an hour. 

In various other directions, too, Messrs. Dennis 
Brothers, Limited, have made a special feature of 
vehicles intended for public services, and the side- 
tipping lorry, also illustrated, is only one of a very 
large number of public service lorries of every possible 
ty]ie--iimnibuses, prison vans, street-cleaning vehicles. 

Dennis tSiDE-iirpiNG Motor Lobby. 

lower-wagons. &c.— built in the Dennis work?, and 
c'istributed among more than a hundred county and 
municipal councils in this country and overseas. 

For some considerable time past the whole of 
Messrs. Dennis Brothers' output, which has very con- 
siderably increased since the war, has been taken !)>• 
the Government; nevertheless, due preparations are 
already being made for a return of more normal con- 
ditions, and in the firm's future plans it will be found 
that careful study has been made of the needs of 
municipal engineers. It is recognised that their re- 
quirements are quite distinct and apart from those of 
ordinary commerce, and that the municipal vehiclf 
rri the future must be specificall.v designed for its 
work, and readily adapted to varying purposes. In 
due cour.'o it will be found that Messrs. Dennis 
Brothers. Limited, have dealt with this parflcular 
problem with ihcir characteristic resource and 



.lANlARV 2(). 1917. 

The Legal Precedents of 1916 in Relation to 
Municipal Engineering. 

Bv J. B. REIGNIER CONDEB, a Solicitor of the Snpreme Court. 

During the i>a*t jvar (juestiont. hav(> btvii decided 
by the Courts in conmn-tion with claims fur damages 
against local authorities, contracts, highways and 
bridges, isolation hospitals, workmen's compensation, 
and waterworks. Among the localities concerned were 
.Vbingdon. Basluw, Beverley. Chertsey, Crouch End, 
Derbyshire. Halifax, Hornsey, Liverpool, Leiston- 
cum-Sizewell. Marylebone, Oxford, Ramsgat-e, Raw- 
tenstall. and Teddington. Among the statutes con- 
sidered were the Highways and Locomotives Amend- 
ment Art. 1S7S. the Riot (Damages) Act. 188G, the 
Isolation Hospitals Acts, 1893 and 1901, the Public 
A thorities Protection Act, 1893, tlie Rawtenstall Cor- 
poration Act, 1907,. and the Defence of the Realm 
Acts. Of the cases noted five are decisions of the 
House of Lords, three of the Court of Appeal, eight 
of the King's B<>nch Division, and one of a County 

Claims for Damages. 
In Andnw v. Iiam<ijal( Corporat'u'ii (vol. xli.v.. 
p. 284) the proprietor of the Paragon Baths, Rams- 
gate, claimed damages against the co)-poration for 
alleged injurj- to his business and premises. The 
corporation had bt^un to construct a concert -hall and 
Italian garden on the cliff adjoining the baths, and 
had excavated a quantity of chalk, which was thrown 
over the cliff, fonning a heap in front of the baths. 
Mr. Justice Lawrence gave judgment for the corpora- 
tion, on the ground that, although the plaintiff might 
have the right to take water across the foreshore, that 
gave him no claim against the coii)oration, who were 
not the owners of the foreshore. 

In Baldirin and Partners^ Limiled, v. Halifax Cor- 
]H/ration (vol. xlix., p. 6.57) the plaintiffs claimed 
damages for injury to their goods by flooding, durinq 
an exceptionally heavy rainfall. It was contended 
that the corporation had been guilty of negligence in 
the construction and maintenance of certain roads, 
catchpits, and sewers, ilr. Justice Atkin held that 
no negligence was prov<»d with respe<'t to the sewers, 
but that there had been negligence both in the con- 
struction and maintenance of-the i-oads and catchpits, 
and he gave judgment for the plaintiffs for £500, 
being the amount at which it was agreed that the 
damages should be fixed in the event of the coi-pora- 
tion being held liable. 

In I'lo'r V. IfavsliiiitaU Corporation (vol. 1., p. 217) 
the corporation gave notice to the plaintiff to convert 
his pail-closet into a water-closet, and to connect 
same with a sewer. The notice not having been com- 
plied with, the corporation did the work themselves, 
for whicii purpose they constructed a combined drain 
to carry the sewage of the plaintiff's house and several 
• other buildings, at a total cost of £54, of which the 
plaintiff's share was £11. He refused paynitiiit, on 
th. (ground that, in the c^nying out of the work, his 
\\',n^f had be«'n injuriously affected by subsidence, for 
wjych he claimed damage*. The matter was referred 
1.0 arbitration, and the arbitrator awarded the plaintiff 
£40 damages, with costs. The corporation, however, 
deniefl liability, on the ground that, under sec. 257 
of the Rawtenstall Corporation Act, 1907, they were 
not liable (in the absence of negligence) to pay any 
damages consequent upon the execution of work done 
" in d<fault of the owner." But it was held by the 
Court of Apjieal (affii-ming Mr. Justice Ridley) that, 
inasmuch as the work done included more than that 
which the plaintiff was required to do by the notice, 
the section did not apply, and the corporation were 


In Toulon Ca' Compai,;/ v. Li'itton-rum-SlzfwII Urban 

Di^irirt Counril (vol. xlix., p. 1.5.5) the company con- 

tr«'>ted with the council to erect and maintain gas 

l.irds in the streets and to supply gas 

ame. The contract was to remain in 

. -ill cei-uin from August 1, 1911, being 

determinable by six months' notice, expiring July 31, 

lOlfl, or .Inly 31«t in any subsequent j-ear. In conse^ 

>a Order of the military authorities, under 

of the Realm Acts, only twenty-six lamps 

^ d from JanuaiT 1 to Januan* 26, 1915, and 

none during the remainder of the year. " The company, 

however, claimed for thi-ee quarter!}' payments to 
;March 31, June ;», and September 30, 1915. Mr. 
Justice Low held that the contract was not determined, 
nor its p>erfonnaiice made unlawful or impossible, by 
the Order of the military authorities, and that it was 
impossible to say how much of the charge was deferred 
payment for furnishing plant, and how much for gas 
consumed. He therefore gave judgment for the com- 
panj' for the amount claimed. This decision was 
affirmed by the Court of Appeal. 

In Mclropolitan Water Board v. Dich, Kerr <fc Co., 
Limited J the defendants, in July, 1914, contracted • to 
construct some reservoirs for the board. The work was 
dulj' commenced, and was continued until Februai'y, 
1916, when notice was sensed on the defendants by the 
Minister of ^Munitions requiring thorn to discontinue 
the work, and to comply with the requirements of the 
^linistiy with regard to the plant and labour at their 
disposal. The work was accordingly stopped, and 
some of the plant was disposed of in accordance with 
the instructions of the Ministry. It was held by Mi-. 
Justice Bray (I) that the contract was not abrogated ; 
(2) that under tlio terms thereof the plant, on its 
arrival at the site, became the limited property of the 
board ; but that (3) tlie defendants were not bound to 
repay the money received for the plant sold, inasmuch 
as they were acting as agents for the Ministry of 
^lunitions. But he granted an injunction restraining 
the defendants from removing or receiving the proceeds ' 
of sale of any machinery excej)t under the order of 
the Ministry. 

Highways, Streets, and Bridges. 


In Crane v. South Siihurhan Gas Comiiany (vol. xlix., 
p. 134) the conij)any's workmen, while rei^airing a gas 
main in a public highway, left some molten lead in 
a ladle, which was placed in a fire-pail on a piece of 
ground, adjacent to the paved footway, on which the 
plaintiff (a young child) and other children had been 
playing. A passing boy accidentally knocked tjie pail 
over, and some of the molten lead was spilt on the 
plaintiff. It was held that the company were liable 
in damages for the injuries to lie latter. 

In Hewlett v. Creal Centred Ifailwa!/ ComjMny (vol. 
xlix., p. 471) tho company were authorised by a special 
Act of Parliament to maintain gates and posts at the 
entrance to their IMai-ylebone station. The Act did 
not expressly impose on them any duty to light the 
place. Tlie lighting of the street was carried out by 
the Mai-ylebone Corporation, but by li(^gulatiolls under 
the Defence of the Realm Consolidation Act, 1914, the 
lighting of the approach was so diminished that the 
l)Iaintiff, a taxicab driver, failed to see one of the 
jjosts, and drove his cab into it. The case was tried 
by Mr. Justice Darling and a special jury, who 
awarded the plaintiff £50 damages. This decision was 
affirmed by the Court of Appeal, who held that tho 
special Act did not absolve the company from the duty 
to act with reasonable care for the safety of the public, 
in the circumstances which might from time to time 
be existing. Tho House of Lords, however, allowed 
the company's juipeal. 

In Turner v. Coaie.< file defendant was a farmer, and 
had occasion to transfer an unbroken colt from one 
farm to another. .\ boy was loading it along a high- 
way connecting the two fanns, the defendant follow- 
'"K- -Tlio plaintiff (a nur.s<^-) was riding a bicycle on 
the foad, and, the colt taking fright at the bicycle 
lamj), dash<d across the road and knocked her over. 
It was held by the King's liench Divisional Court 
(affii-ming a County Court judge) that the defendant 
was liable in damages, on the ground that an unbroken 
colt is likely to be dangerous on a highway, and suffi- 
cient care must be taken to prevent its doing damage. 

In Abingdon Ifural Dijitrict Council v. Citi/ of Oxford 
Elerlrif, Tramwn ip ^ Limited (vol. ]., p. 45.5), judgment, 
was given for the council for £.3-50 for cxtraordinai7 
expenses incurrefl in repairing two roads between 
Oxford and Abingdon, in consequence of damage done 
by the company's motor omnibuses between September 
2« and October 4, 1915, during which period 1.36 omni- 

,1 ANUARV 20, 1917. 



buses liad used ihe roads, the other motor traffic of 
I'omparablt? weight consisting of uleven covered motor 
vans, eiglit motor lorries, and two traction engines 
witli trailers. It was contended on belialf of the com- 
])any that a service of omnibuses run to sen-e the needs 
of a district could not be extraordinary traffic. They 
also denied tlie damage, and allegoti that the roads 
had not been properly maintained. 

In Beveilei/ Rural District Coumil v. WalLir (vul. 1., 
p. 532) the surveyor's ccrtificato contaimxl no reference 
to any expense, average or otherwise, of repairing higli- 
ways in the neighbourliood, with the result that the 
rouncil's claim for £.500 for extraordinai-y traffic 
expenses failed, and judgment was given for tlie 
defendant with costs. 


In Altornty-GeHtral v. Great Xortlnin Itailivay Cum- 
/lanij the House of Lords affinned the decision of the 
Court of Appeal reversing that of Mr. Justice Wamng- 
ton (noted in vol. xliv., p. 1059). The point at issue 
was the extent of the company's liability to repair the 
bridge carrying the highway from Hornsey-road to 
Crouch End over their line. Mr. Justice Wanington 
thougiit that the standai'd of rei)air was on the basis 
"f the present-day traffic, but botli the Court of Appeal 
and the House held tliat the standard was to be fixed 
accoi'ding to the traffic that might i-easonablj' bo 
<'.xpected to use tlio bridge at the time of its con- 
struction. It will bo remembered that, as regards 
canal bridges, an " up-to-date" standard of repair was 
fixed in Altovhtii-Gtniral v. Sliarpnen^ New Dorhf^ ,ir,, 
<'om2Miiy (vol. xlv., p. 234). 

Isolation Hospital. 

The decision of the Court of .\ppeal in Aitonui/- 
dtnifal V. Derhi/ihiri: C'lunty Counrii (refened to in 
vol. xlix., p. 124) was affirmed by the House of Lords 
'(vol. 1., p. 149). This case had reference to an isolation 
iiospital established in 1897 for the Haddon Joint 
Hospital District by order of the county council, which 
order determined the rei^resentation on the committtHi 
of -the county council and the local authorities within 
the united district, including (among others) the 
liaslow Urban District Council. In 1914 differences of 
opinion arose betweeji the latter council and the county 
council DU (]uestio7)s of policy. The county council 
thereupon made an order altering the constitution of 
the committee by increasing the number of tlieir own 
representatives from two to nine, and reducing that of 
th<> urban district council to half a member, thus 
giving the county council such an absolute majority 
Oil the commillee tlmt they could entirely control its 
j)olicy. It was held that, subject to their directly 
contributing to the hosjiital funds, the county council 
had power to vaiy Ihe lepresentation in the way lliey 
had done. 

Public Authorities Protection. 

In Kutifl inaiin llrothi r.< v. Liverpoul forininilioii (vol. 
xlix., [). 471) the |)laintiffs' premises were damaged by 
liots, and they made a claim against the corporation 
under the Riot (Damages) Act, 1886. The corporation 
made an offer, which was refused, and more than six 
months later tlie plaintiffs commenced an fiction. Th<» 
cor|>oration iileaded the Public Authorities Protection 
Act. 1893, which limits the time for the commencement 
of proceedings in respect of any act, iic*glect oi- default 
in pursuance or execuiirm of any Act of Parliam<-nt, 
public duty, licc, to six months after IIk' act, Ac. 
complained of. But it was held that tiiis was not a 
claim for damages for any "act, neglect or default" 
within the meaning of the Act, and the decision of a 
County Couit judge in favour of the plaintiffs was 


In M<ln>iH,lilaii Watr,- n„(ud v. Chcit.oij I' ni,i, .1. ■..<-..„■- 
uv.nt Committvit (vol. xlix., p. Joti) it was held by the 
lloust^ of Lords that, in assessing to the poor-rate a 
piece of land on tlu^ bank of the river at Walton-on- 
Thanies, usi'd by the board as an " intake." no 
"' eiiiianced value" ought to be put u|)on the laiul on 
aoount of its "special fitness" for the purpose for 
which it >yas used ; but tliat, on the otiier hand, no 
reduction in the usual basis of assessment (viz.. 4 per 
cent on the piece of land and 't per cent on tlie c<>st 
of buildings) 'should be made owing to the board being 
able to borrow at less than 4 per cent. 

Workmen's Compensation. 

In haij V. T'tJdiiifjtoii Urban Diftrirt Cuuiuil (vol. 
xlix., p. loti) a fccav^nger employed bj-tlie council went 
(during workuig hours) to the lavatoiy of a imblic- 
lioitse, and on returning to resume work fell an(I broke 

his thigh. It was held by the judge of the Kingston 
County Court that the accident was not an accident 
' ' arising out of and in the course of the employment, ' ' 
and judgment was given for the council. 



Our iliu-strations show an entirely remodelled and 
modern design of roaa roUer recently placed on the 
market by Messrs. Marshall, Sons ■ & Company. 
Limited, Britannia Ironworks, Gainsborough. It is 
made throughout from new patterns, in conformity 
with the be^t practice, and embodies patents and 
mechanical features exclusive to its manufacture. 
The object has been to produce an engine higldy eco- 
nomical in fuel, in water consumption, of correctly 
distiibuted weiglit. and capable of thoroughly con- 
solidating road surfaces on steep inclines and levels. 
Tlie feature of conveilibility from roller to traction 
eiiuiiie. or r/'f (•.;•-/(, has l)eeii seientifienllv achieved 

ViKws (If N'i;\v Tvfi'; of ■" .M.vusjiaj.l " Boaii Itrx.i.Kit. 

ill tile desisfu, without impairing the characteristics 
of trrcat constructional strength and durability. The 
accurate proportions of engine and boiler promote 
liieh inechnnical eflficiency. and ensure great tractive 
and driving power when the engine is employed for 
traction purposes, or for driving stationary machinery. 

The cylinder base, is planed and fixed on a pressed 
steel niountiiiR with planed face., and the cylinder 
liotjy, covers and steam chest are lieavily lagged. The 
piston, adjustable crosshead, connectinp rod and 
erank.shaft follow <>lose]y on standard practice, but the 
crankshaft bearing's are made of excei)tional width, 
and are adjustable. They ftre uLso fitted with self- 
oilers of the latest " ring " pattern. 

The boiler, which is of the usual locomotive-mult i- 
tiibular type, incorporates a " Marshall " patent 
cambered crown firebor, and is suitable for a con- 
tinuous working: pressure of 18(J lb. per square inch. 
The boiler feed is maintained l)y a continuous action 
seared down feed-pump, and an automatic feed-wafer 

The powc-r traii.-mirsion is arranged ou the four- 
shaft principle. The speeds obtainable are about IJ 
and 3 miles per hoar for road rolling, and 2 and 4 
miles per hour when the engine is converted (or trac- 
tion work. The ehaii-jo apeed ueur wheels have 
uiacUine-cut teeth. ThH lirst intermediate shaft is 
uia<.-hined square between its bearings to carry the 
slirliiig portion of the two-speed gear. The bearings 



Janiary 26. 1917. 

are lubricated by coniiiuunis-aotion oiling rinj;s, aiul 
all shafu are aoi-urately uiacbiiied and aligned. 

The hind axle is made of a large diameter, and the 
kejnng for the winding drum centre and the bevel 
wheel of the four-pinion differential gear is arranged 
so that the axle can be easily withdrawn without 
removing the tender. 

Several improvements combined in the fore-carriage 
ensure absolute freedom of movement for the front 
rollers, and allow them to accommodate themselves 
to uneven road in either forward or backward travel. 
By these means, and also the differential gear on the 
main axle, the roller is capable of lieing easily 
steered and manoeuvred, and there is no tendency for 
the front rollers to " backlash." All the rollers have 
special castriron renewable rims, and the back rollers 
are fitted with patent spring scrapers. By the inser- 
tion of a pin the scrapers can he thrown out of action, 
so that frost spikes can be used- if required. The 
track of the front rollers overlaps the tracks of the 
hind rollers by about 3 in. on either side. The front 
rollers are fitted with spring scrapers, front and back. 

■■ Pickering " type governor, swivelling guide pulley 
for winding drum rope lead, and awning, are optional 
equipment, as are also a tubular feed water heater, 
barrel water tank, and fuel rack around tender top. 

Several of these rollers have been put into commis- 
sion in various parts of the country, and from the 
report-5 received from the users, there is evidence to 
show that the type is all that the makers claim it to 
be, and that it is a distinct improvement in this 
particular class of road engine. 



As a consequence of the continued restriction of 
municipal activities, there has been a further decline 
in the demand for sewage di.-;posal and sanitary appa- 
ratu.-- and ironwork for municipal works. 

.Several important contracts for sprinklers and 
sewage disposal appliances and sanitary ironwork have, 
however, been secured from municipalities. Some of 
these, by the .\mes-Crosta Sanitary Engineering Com- 
pany, Limited, 12 Victoria-street, Nottingham, are 
being cairied out under difKculties, but many are in 
abeyance until the close of the w-ar. 

Good contracts have also been secured in the 
Dominions, among which may be mentioned a large 
contract for sanitary ironwork for Port Elizabeth ; 
also one of the largest contracts for sewage distributors 
so far given out in the Dominions has been obtained 
from the City of Cape Town for the patent " Simi)iex " 
sewage distributors. 

The efficiency of these distributors has been further 
demon.-itrated by their adoption and installation, 
together with other apparatus and ironwork, in mili- 
tary and internment camps, hospitals and convales- 
cent homes, ammunition works, shell-filling factorie.*, 
aerodromes, and otlur works carried out by the War 
Office, the Admiralty, the Office of Works, and other 
Government department.-i. 

The carrying out of these contracts has to a large 
extent compensated for the temporary suspension of 
municipal work. 

• • • • 

During the past year Messrs. Tuke & Bell, Limited, 
the Carlton Engineering Works, High-road, Totten- 
ham, N., have again V^een mainly occupied in the 
manufacture of filtering apparatus for the Govern- 

The firm have carried out a very consideral)le 
ntimK<»r r>1 «**wage purification schemes, but the bulk 
of •" "* l«-en either for camp.'*, munition workH, 

or ■ f-ludinu' an in-iitallation for Lord Derby, 

lh< ~ for War. They have supplied a con- 

Aideralile nuiiiljer of their " Ideal " revolving dis- 
tributor- in various size.n, of which a proportion have 
lic'-n for India, where this type of di.stributor is much 
apprf-'iafed. Thc-j' have also .^iiipplied their water- 
»oft<.-riing plant and sewage ejectors, bot.h for domestic 
Iiiirifose." and, in larger «ize.«, for various factories. 

• • • • 

During 1916 the Pul9^>mft'^T Engineering Company. 
Limited. Nine Elm.^, Reading, were par- 
McTi'""' ' ■■ • in Stereophagns pirmps (Hon". R. C. 
Pfi- -t) for pumping crude sewage. 

!■■ ;■-' have l>een in special demand for 

9«»age work.-., military oamps, national factories, &c.. 
both in this country and abroad. The large number 

of orders received is an indication of the great need 
of a simple pump capable of elevating unscreened 
sewage, and of the success with which the Stereo- 
phagus pump has filled this want. 

• • • * 

The activities of Messrs. Jones & Attwood, Limited, 
Stourbridge, during the past twelve months embrace 
a large amount of work in sewage treatment and 
ejector plants for camps, munition factories, military 
hospitals, &c., and, when sanctioned by the Ministry 
of Munitions, for corporations also; also in the de- 
velopment of the activated sludge system of .sewage 

As regard the activated sludge process, five large 
plants have been installed and two others are in 
course of construction, while schemes for many parts 
of the world are designed and under consideration. 
Difficulties have l>een overcome, and the main fea- 
tures have been thoroughly proved and established. 

The collaboration of Dr. Fowler's staff in the Frank- 
land Laboratory of the Manchester University with 
tlie firm's engineering staff has enabled great progress 
to he made on thoroughly scientific lines. The 
problems already solved enable them definitely to 
announce that^-(l) Aeration with the necessary cir- 
culation and mingling of the sewage and activated 
sludge is l>est secured by means of compressed air 
and diffusers ; (2) very porous diffusers of great 
strength and uniform porosity can be supplied that 
will not choke with ordinary treatment; (3) by means 
of pulsating valves the volume of air required has 
been considerably reduced; (4) the sludge can be 
satisfactorily settled, returned to circulation, or with- 
drawn for treatment while the plant is in continuous 
operation without risk of septic action ; (5) the sludge 
when treated is a valuable fertiliser, rich in nitrogen, 
and easily handled. This has been fully demonstrated 
by many experiments on agricultural and horticul- 
tural produce from delicate hot-house plants to root 
crops. Further particulars, illustrated by photo- 
graphs, will be published in the near future. 

Coast Sand Dunes (By Gerald 0. Case, St. Bride's 
Press, Limited, 24 Bride-lane, E.G., price 5s.). — Mr. 
Case has done a valuable work in the writing of this 
book. — Southport Gxtardian. 

State Expenditure on Housing. — A Treasury return 
which has been iss^ud. giving particulars of State 
expenditure under the Housing Act of 1914, shows 
that the amount expended by the Commissioners of 
Works on the Woolwich housing scheme up to March 
31st last was £806,660. Under an agreement made 
with the Scottish National Housing Company, £20,700 
was advanced for the erection of dwelling-houses for 
Admiralty employees at Rosyth. The total authorised 
issue from the Con.solidated Fund under the Act is 
C2,000,000, and the balance remaining at the end of 
the hist financial year was £1,154,716. 

Refuse Destruction in 1916.— During the year Und 
it has been almost iiiijiossiblo to make any appreciable 
headway as regards iiiiiniciiial destructors, and bej'ond 
clearing up the following contracts and handing them 
over to the nuuiicipalities concerned, Messrs. Hughes 
& Stirling, 6 Stanley-street, Liverpool, makers of the 
" Sterling ' destructor, have not carried out 
any large municipal work. (1) The borough of Widnes 
— 3-cell back-fed destructor, with tar-macadam i)lant, 
buildings, chimney, engine, dynamo, mortar mill, 
stone crusher, &c., <'omplete; (2) the borough of 
Sutton Coldfield— 3-cell back-fed destructor in connec- 
tion with the borough electricity works; our contract 
included for the complete plant, boiler, buildings, 
chimney, piping, accessory macliinery, &c.; (3) the 
borough of Luton — f5-c«ll back-fed destructor in 
connection with tho borough sewage pumping 
station ; (4) tho urban district council of Tedding- 
ton — 4-oell front-f(<l destructor in connection with 
the council's sewage puiniiing station. In addition 
to the above work, however, the firm have carried 
out a large contract for Turin, Italy. This plant 
consists oif twenty-four cells, top fed, with full 
sf4am-raising plant, elwtric fans, pumps, &c., the 
whole for supplying steam at high pressure to a large 
industrial factory. The entire plant was completed in 
t)clobi'r, 191fi, and has a capacity of at least 360 tons. 
With reference (o Canada, the company's licensees, 
Messrs. the Griscom Rus.'Wfll Company, of New York, 
have been engaged upon a 12-cell top-fed destructor 
for the city of "Toronto, and have recently completed 
various other destructor plants, notably for the cities 
of Halifax, Pitt.sburg, Berkeley, Cal., and Columbus. 

jA.NnAHV 2(i 1!I17, 



The Legislation of 1916 in Relation to Municipal 

^ Engineering. 

Hy J. 15. UKIONIRR CONDER, a Solicitor of the Supreme Court. 

Tile only Acts tluii iieetl he noticed in dihiil art! tli(> 
Local GovernineJit (Ernoryency Provisions) Act an<i 
tlie Nrtval and Military War Pen.sions, &c. (Exjienses) 
Act. The first of tliese (a."; will be seen) deals with a 
ureat variety of matter.-^, and contains an important 
qualification of some of the provisions of the second, 
whicli miglit equally well (if not better) have been 
incorporated in the latter it.self. There are olivious 
disadvantages in the " referential " method of legis- 
lation, and it might surely have been avoided in the 
case of two Acts of the same Ses.sion pa.?se(J (as these 
were) witliin two month.s of each other. 

Only ))ricf reference will be necessary to the Con- 
solidated Fund, Expirinji haws ("ontinuancc, and 
Public Works Loan.s Acts. 

Local Government (Emergency Provisions). 

The full title of the Local Gov'ruini-nf (Emi-rgtnry 
I'rovisinns) Art is " An Act to make provision with 
respect to officers and servants of local authorities 
.serving in or with His ^Fajesty's Forces, and to make 
various administrative i)rovisions with a vi<-w to 
economy in money and labour in connecticjii with the 
I)resent war," and it is a veritable miscellany of 

With exceptions, which we shall indicate, it is to 
have effect only during the continuance of the war, 
and afterwards for such period or periods (if any), not 
exceeding one year, as the Local Government Board 
may fix. 

It is diviiled into three i)arts, each dealing with a. 
variety of subjects, arranged somewhat promiscuously, 
some of whicli it will l)e sufficient merely to indicate. others call for more detailed notice. 



Any local authority may grant leav(! of absence to 
any officer or servant for as long a period as may be 
necessary to enable him to serve in or with His 
Maje?ty's Forces for the purpoi;es of the war; and 
may (c() while he is so .serving pay to him, or to his wife, 
or other dependants nomina1ed4iy him, a sum which 
shall not, without the sanction of the Local Govern- 
ment Board, exceed his civil remuneration after de- 
ducting therefrom the amount of his naval or military 
))ay and allowances; and (h) in the event of his death, 
for a jieriod not exceeding twenty-six weeks after the 
date on which he is notified to his widow or other de- 
pendants as dead or missing, pay to her, or them, 
sums calculated at the same rate previously 
|>aid to him. hei'. or them. In fixing the sum to bi- 
paid to the widow or other dependant, regard is (o be 
had to any pension or other sum payabh' out. of any 
charitable furul ; and it is not to be incumlietit on the 
.local authority to reduce any ])aynient maile to an 
officer or servant fiU the ground that during his service 
with the Forces he has become or becomes entitled 
to increased naval or military pay in conseciuence of 
receiving a commission or promotioji in rank. The.-^e 
l)rovisious are to apply retro.spectively to the case of 
any officei- or servant who before the passing of the 
Act (May 17, 191G» took sen'ice in or with His 
-Majesty's Forces with the sanction or permis.~ion of 
file local authority; and any resolution, iiromise, 
sanction, or permission jiassed or given l)y a local 
authority to any such officer or servant, with a view- 
to his so serving, is to be binding, but only to the 
extent to which it could have been pas.-^d or given 
if the Act had been in force. Where, however, before 
the passing of the Act a local authority resolved, 
promised, sanctioned, or agreed to make payments in 
excess of the amounts authorised by the Act. any such 
excess payments, up, to the date of the passing uf the 
Aot, or such later date as may be determined by the 
Local Government Board, are to bo d'-cined to have 
been lawfully made, and that board are to sanction 
their contiuuance iu any case where it appears to 
them that the man joined His Majesty's Forces in 
reliaqce on such resolution, promise, sanction, or 
agreement, and that the amount of tlie exce^5 is not 
unreasouable. But wUeie the scale of paymeuts 
adopted, by a local uuthority does jiot exceed the 
scale of payments for the time l>eing laid down for 

officers and servants of His Majesty's Civil Service 
serving with His Majcsty'vS Forces, the sanction of 
the ))oard is aot to l>e necessary; and any payments 
made in accordun<-e witli such scale are to bo deeinf-d 
to have been lawfully made. 


If an offiotM' or servant of a local authority dies 
while serving in or with His Majesty's Forces, or in 
consequenci' uf wounds or disease received or con- 
tracted dining such service, which i)revented him 
from returning to the service of the local authority, 
the latter are to have, and to be decinwl to have 
always' had, power to make to his widow and other 
dependants such payments as could have been made 
to them imdor any superannuation scheme (whether 
established l)y stattUe or otherwise) in force in the 
district, had he been actually serving the local autho- 
rity at the time of his death. All .service by an officer 
or si^rvant fif a local authority in or with His Majesty's 
Force's for the [)urposes of the war is, for the purpose 
of any enactment providing for the sujierannuation of 
such officers and servants applicable to his case, to 
be aggregated and reckoned with his service as an 
officer or servant of the local authority; and, unless 
an agreement to tln' contrary has been made before 
the passing of the Act, he is to contribute to the super- 
annuation fimd (if any) the same amounts (if any) as 
he would have contributed if he had continued in 
their actual service, and received the normal remune- 

(<■) Foi- the puri)Oses of calculating the amount 
of su<'h contriliutions and superannuation allowances, 
the amount of the salary or wages and emoluments 
during the jieriod of service in or with His Majfisty'.s. 
Forces is to !)(,■ deemed the amount which the officer 
or sen'ant would have received during that period 
had he remained in the actual service of the local 
aufjiority. Nothing in the foregoing enactments is to 
affect tiie jirovisions of the Elementary Teachers 
(Superannuation) Acts, IHtW to lfU2, or of the Ele- 
mentarv Teachers '(War Service Superannuation) y\ct, 




I'his part contains provisions with respi'Ct to allow- 
ances to i)ersons appointed as temi)orary substitutes, 
the notification of (liseases, and the use of institutions, 
buildings, or other j)remises lielonging to local autho- 
rities for the accommodation of sick or wounded sailors 
or sokliers, or for other purposes in connection with 
the war. and the euiploymeut of servants of the local 
authority in or about any institution so used, or other- 
wise (with the consent of the local authority) in con- 
nection with tlu> war: also with respect to the ex- 
lienses ui ihe .Metroi>olitan Asyhuns Board, the <al- 
culatioii of sums repayable lo guardians out of the 
Metropolitan Common Poor Fund, and the amounts 
payable or transferable by the London County Council 
on account of paui)er lunatics. 


If a tcMiporary substitute is appointed with the 
sanction of the Local Government Board to replace 
any medical oflicer of health or of nuisances 
who has been granted leave of absence in accordance 
with the provisions of the Act to serve in or with His 
Majesty's Forces, the county council are to be liable, 
luuier the Local Government Act, 1688, sec. 24, su)>- 
.-ection 2 ('), to pay half the aggregate amount of the 
sum paid l<y the local authority to the medical officer 
or inspector so replaced, or his wife or other de- 
pendants under the present Act, and of the salary of 
the temporary substitute. 


Sec. J of the Li/cvmotivLi Jet, laSftS, is to have effect as 
if for suh-section (1) theicof (which provides for the 
number of attendants for locomotives) were substi- 
tuted sub-sectiou (1) of !>eo. "2J of tli© Local Govern- 
ment (Scotland) Act, 1908. Sec. of the Locomotives 
Act, ItiOJ. and rec. 2 of tho Locomotive ThresUJDg 
Enijiuea .kt, 1«'>J, ard to have effect as if the proviso 
to each of those section^ were oiKitt<iiL Sec (i of the 
.\ct of leKi.* permits the. use of sleam engines for 



•J A.N I Akl jrj iil< 

ploughing wi:;'.in 25 yd;, of a highway, with the pro- 

VI?:. that a j er-on niuit be stationed in the road to 

?•;-•■ • - driver to stop, when necessary,. »nd to 

.. - and carriages, and that the driver must 

T riTiie Sec '2 of the Act of 1894 relieves* 

: d machinery used for 

iiighway from the obli- 

-_ . _■ or behind a fence, with 

a simitar proviso. 


Orders, &c., of the Local Government 

i .1 rf *v:rr ?e3!ed. may be ffi^^n, altered 

nting, signed by a secre- 
: •lie board; but this pro- 

Vi-. .. .J - - ..• . ... . .- , • ^^- ".land or Ireland. 


'- - -^ — • to lay a summary of local 

- Parliament, instead of the 
: le Loatl Taxation Jtelurns .4 <•/•?, 
iMaU o: ■■' .VL.i,iripal Corporafions Jrf, 1882, and 

the Z »t Aci, 1888; and local authorities 

«re noi .• i-r i-^'^'i'*'! ^^ report to the Local Govern- 
ment Board the proceedings of Assessment Com- 
m'.'.'^T. r t" rr:akc 'o that board any return of the 
•:es and gratuities paid vmder 
~ iperannuation Act, 1896. The 
;he London (Equalisation of 
} -c. 1 (7t need not be made out. • The 

:: II. of the Housing of the Working 
-leed not be presented to the Local 
i, as required by sec. 44 of "that 
• Aericulture and Fisheries are re- 
•-ions, including the obligation 
•rough, district and parish 
->..—.; of their proceedings under the 
i'nd Allotments Act, 1908. Metro- 
:>uncils need not make annual re- 
eedings, or lists of their members, 
lis Management Act, 1855. 


The p^-'-er? riven to the Local Government Board 
by sec . cal Government Act, 1894, to modify 

the e; to publication of notice of audit of 

•ecou:. ..ct and parish councils are extended 

to all accounts of local authorities, subject to audit 

hj- 1 ^i*«rv>+ aviitor; and the board are to have power 

•rriod for which the accounts of any 

which sec. 5 of the DUtrict Audiorri 

-:: -. , --_ r, are to be made up and audited. 


T. . .„ provisions with respect to the filling of 
-oie.-i on c-ouncils, boards of guardians, 
■ JlC. and the EUctions and Rfyietration Act, 
I'jVi, iz a;ucnded. These provisions are permanent. 


•:5 made by locaj authorities towards 

■• expenses of local district com- 

f the Xacal and Military War 

Art (referred to below* are to 

•ion of the Local G^vernnient 

Board. liiio prvvi-ion is permanent. 


r« are given to sanitary authorities to make. 

't\r>n'^ or in conjunction with other such 
.'it.s for the storage of furniture 
' > i<ersons serving in or with 

0) 01C9IBUS ROL-TS«. 

Omnibii-.^ .ir»- n..» fr. use any route which has not 

omnibuses plying for hire 

'" >riMi 1, 1916, except with 

•.. or, if more 

i>!e for the re- 

_ L....- route runs. 

.'iven upon .such conditions as 

miy oonaH*^r fit. If. in. the 

:. consent 

- are un- 

i without 

ard- Any one who drives an 

to h^ rlrivon a>nne !«ny route 

- ' • • ' .,,, 3 

■ iOh 

• "t-tiie iiJKiiway 
v«^-a y>Tovi'<o 

a road, or in pursuance of the directions of any police 
authority^ or other directions lawfully given; nor to 
any omnibus in any case where- the Admiralty, Army 
Council, or Minister of Mimitions are of opinion that 
an omnibus service is necessary for, ^nd is to be used 
by, munition-workers or other persons engaged on 
Government war service. It is al^o provided that the 
section is not to be deemed to detract from any exist- 
ing powers of highway authorities in regard to omni- 
buses. " Omnibus " includes every omnibus, char-a- 
banc, wagonette, brake, stage-coach, or other carriage 
plying for hire or u.~ed to carry passengers at^eparate 



■ ■' Local authority " means any person, or body of 
persons, who receive or expend the proceeds of any 
local rate, and any other public body which the Local 
Government Board may determine to be a local autho- 
rity; but overseers of the poor are not to \>e included 
except by direction of that board. And where any 
such authority is a police authority, it is not, as such, 
to be deemed, for the purposes of Part I., to be a 
local authority. Except where the context otherwise 
requires, " allowances " means the sepaw^ation allow- 
ances made to the wives and families and dependants 
of sailors and soldiers, and includes family allow- 
ances for soldiers living at their own houses in 
the United Kingdom. "Civil remuneration" iiK-ludes 
the salary or wages and other emoluments which the 
oflBcer or servant would have been receiving if he had 
remained in the actual service of the local authority. 
There are also provisions for bringing teachers, 
oflBcers and servants in eWmentary non-provided 
schools, and in .institutions aided by the local educa- 
tion authority within the Act. For the purposes of 
the Act, or such of them as may be specified by the 
Local Government Board, service in connection with 
naval or military operations which the board consider 
may properly be treated in the same manner as actual 
naval or military service is to be deemed to be service 
with His Majesty's Forces. 


Provision is made for the application of the Act to 

Scotland and Ireland, with suitable modifications. 
including an amendment (which is permanent^ of the 
Poor Law Belief (Ireland) Act, 1914. 

Naval and Military War Pensions. ..^ 

The Xaval and Military War P<nnont (Exptnt^) Act 
provides that £1.000,000 shall l>e charged on and issued 
out of the Conaolidated Fimd in the year ending March 
31, 1916, towards meeting the expenses of th- "■ 
Committee constituted under the Naval ai. 

Pensions, kc. Act, 1915 (.referred to as " th- , , 

Act "). The council of any county, borough, or tirban 
district for whose area a local committee has been 
established under the principal Act may make such 
payments as they think fit towards the administrative 
expenses of any such local committee, and of any 
district committee appointed under that Act in their 
area. Power is also given to' the council of any 
borough (including Metropolitan boroughs and the 
City of London), or urban or rural district which is. in 
pursuance of any scheme made under sec. 3 of the 
principal Act, a septarate district, or is wholly or 
partly included in a separate district, for which a com- 
mittee is appointed, to niak'- such payments as they 
think fit towards the administrative expenses of the 
district committee. (.\s already stated, however, th^ 
Local Gcvemment (Emergency Provisions) Act pro- 
vides that such contributions are to b^ subject to the 

approval of the Local Government Board.) P ■■•- 

may be made out of any fund or rate out o: 
expense.* of the council are payable, aii ■. 
made subject to any conditions as to the appiicatiou 
of such payment- which tho council think fit to 
impose. The Act i- »r. !•• r-n-trued i- ■ -^ " ■■'■ '*••> 
principal Act. 

Consolidated Fund. 

There axe four Acts authorisi: ot money 

mit nf tho f?ntLtdJkdntfd Fund '\ •.> dmnimt 


Expiring Laws Continuance. 

The Brjnriny Bawt i'-nunuanor Act ; 
/»rtntinii«no<» urHfl Dpo*»TnhPT .?) 1917. 

Tanuaey *. 1917 



cuutinued Acts are, in so far a; they are temporary, 
fontinued t<> tlie -am^ dattf- 

Public Works Loans. 

Tbe PuUic \Yorl< L-xim Art provides for the ie^u*; 
by the National D>-bt Commissioners o£ £i,jOO,0»X) for 
the purpose of loans by the Public Works Loan Com- 
missioners, and £2i».iT<«) for the purpose of loans Vjv 
the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland; £2(J0 
of the loan of €l<>.i)r»i to the Eyemouth Harbour 
Trustees, and portions oi cert-ain loans by the Corn- 
Uiissioners of Public Work- in Ireland '> variou-' 
1>orr»»wersi arc wrifteu off. 


Mr. C. H- C'j'-'itrr, M.ix.'^T.c.E., the borough engineer 

: Wimbledon, ha- invented a weather-tight map ca-e, 

;.r which he ha.- taken out ftill patents. Tlie maps 

are in-strips on roller-, a- -hown in the illustration. 

Each -^rip f-^n'.-'-:- f •-'JTT-parem portion, through 

'ith can lie read. To 

■ !ti© to several trans- 

- . — .'• een the map 

- the oteerver's eye, the 

;. i; T- far a« possible 

"enes >>elrweeu 

.' eic*=-pt tb^ 

. . »j. .\ cros^r^ 

:m the map strip- 

■ '>T*frriivir frorrt 


.<'j>iK .Moi>KRx MkTuoj)^ rtv Vh^iLxlJox, with ipetial 

reference to Public Bnildinss. By R, Oriwion, 

A.M.T.if.E., A.K.T.E.K, Pric*^ *i, «d, nett, hoir- 

don: Con^^blf- % f^ft 

Mnn. „ 

for so 

to ws . ,. 

subje^ • 





veh map 

i }'^ »be 

nie^ in vie» 

* r^ iisp.13 ^'^ n * 

"virh the fai»naie- 

lap .,!rfip 

i-oH mux. 

oa to a HOW 

re^'l T!j« 

j»jUXIiey. iiafr* 

1 inch, f-f^^vin-j 

-»fr. iiu|*S z-lcOnLj »LMt t&ia 

•■ill be aTsfiaM* to Tffe 

•^z ^i-i'-'ji<iiin a"3 S'*-* B«rro«5' 


in*» :rv«'. -o< tben prsr.ii-.- T 

-he W9rk were nodertafcea by the r-yw-n cjon- 
- e-xua men vonld be BH|ined. and tbe o. 
:«4 beas lead* £1^. Tb^chnrnMn of th^r ^nita- 
ivteee aatd il wa* wrt o< tbe qTie«r: ;:- ^-r -» 
^aeB *> «lft tfas^ work ader exir'ir.u -'.r;-; 

fifer m 

■fcorek u.^ 

-lb* im of W. E. Horsm^ 

e«t - Sfaiti-Saipiri 

.'ihiie badK3 ; 
.^-^.r.r-„- The i«reenr.. 
rA. imm 35 to IS j<ii. per 

i»n jr-r^ 



•Tani-ary 2C,. l<n' 



The luanufacturt' vl specu\\ wat^r inirification plant 
lor Government inirjioses has occupied much of tlie 
attention of Messrs. Bell Bros., Calder Iron Works. 
Ravensthorpe, Yorks. and this has of necessity greatly 
curt-ailed possibilities for work in any other direction. 
In spite of such drawbacks the firm have, however, 
constructed the large plant for the Nottingham Cor- 
poration, which is just about to undergo erection. 
Further plants have l>een supplied to the Holyhead 
Water Company, to the Al>eravon Corjwration, and a 
few smaller places. A special point that will interest 
our readers is the fact that the Leicester Corporation 
have placed an order with the company for plant to 
treat 6.100,0n0 gallons per twenty-four hours of the 
Derwent water supply, thus falling into line with the 
decision arrived at l)y the Nottingham Corporation. 
A considerable number of municipal orders which 
have l>een placed with the firm will not be executed 
for an indefinite period. In these times manufac- 
turers' requirements are greatly increased, owing to 
the need of river and other water supplies being puri- 
fied in great quantities in connection with special 
Government work, and they have been receiving 
special attention. Tlie largest manufacturer's order 
goins tlirough ha.s a capacity of 8,000.000 gallons per 
twenty-four hours. 

• • * • 

United Water Softeners, Limited, of Imperial House, 
Kingsway, the well-known makers of water purifica- 
tion and softening plant, have, during the past year, 
been almost exclusively occupied in the supply of 
these plants for Government purposes and use in 
munition factories. A large number of their i)Iaiits 
are in use on the various Fronts, and their specialities 
have l>een prominently to the fore in the equipment 
of the large national factories erected in this and 
allied countries. 

The firm have considerably developed their bu.*iness 
in wattr filters, and are now suijplying a very com- 
|)act and powerful type of improved filter suitable for 
u.-^ in the purification of public and private water 
.-upplies. works' effluents, &c. 

"The war has brought the question of water sterili- 
.sation into the forefront of water purification 
problems, and United Water Softeners, Limited, have 
developed several important processes for the rapid 
and effectual sterilisation of contaminated or sus- 
pected water supplies. 

We referred in a recent issue to the increasing 
attention now being paid to the use of chlorine gas in 
water sterili.fation in the United States, and the suc- 
i-ess which has attended its use in many large instal- 
lations, not.ibly those of New York City, Newhav<n. 
Conn.. Ne*- Brunswick, and New Brighton. The pro- 
hibitive price of hypochlorite has given an 
impetus to the adoption of direct chlorination, and 
many hundreds of such plants are now at work in the 
States. Messrs. United Water Softeners have secured, 
the sole British rights in a unique chlorine control 
apparatu.". at last, it is claimed, solving the i)roblem 
which has hitherto barred the way to the universal 
adoption of direct cliloriue treatment in preference to 
indirect methods — viz. ..the difficulty of controlling the 
do(>e. The new apparatus is exceedingly simple and 
compact, and the working costs are stated to be l>elow 
thoge of the hyfKK-hloritc method. 

• • • • 

Tlie filter plant which the " Turn-over " Filter Com- 
pany, 39 Chichester-.«treet, Belfast, installed towards 
the latter end of 1914 for the Morley Corjxtration 
Wat^-rworks has now been at work alwut sixteen 
months, and the period of guarantee expired last 
<)ctolM-r. The analy.-t appointed to make the bac- 
tcri' l":^*fnl nrr) eh<nii'al examination on the water 
'ho conditions of the contract were 
< 1." and in other respects the work- 

ii.- • ...1- given complete satisfaction. 

A-s recarfl- the firm's special plant for filtration of 
watf-r in -vinimif? Vinths, only one installation was 
' in this line expenditure has, 

'•■ pped. This was an installa- 

ti' ;. ijiiilt by the Motherwell Cor- 

fiortition. The di.ttrict i? one in which there are a 
very larg*' nuvnV^r of munition workers, and the 

■>^' ' * ■' -ery large. During 

•i in<^e amounted to 

"I . . • ' k. and for .=^everal 

month.- an average oi ^.(jint jjer week. In spite of thi? 
large attendance, the water hag been kept in satis- 

factory condition, and the last report received stated 
that it was perfect in every way. On the strength of 
such re|>orts as, the system should be popular 
when the war is over. 

• • • • 

The Kansome-ver.Mehr ^lachinery Company, Ltd., 
Brunswick House, Westminster, have been exceed- 
ingly busy during the past twelve months on the 
manufacture of their Ransome drifting-sand filters for 
the British War Office, these filters lieing destined for 
purifying water for the troops of the Expeditionary 
Forces. They have also supplied ihese filters to the 
French and Eumanian Governments. 

In addition, it may be mentioned that the first units 
of the large purification plant that the firm are instal- 
ling for the city of Toronto (60.{)(K).(KM) gallons of water 
per day) have been successfully operating for the past 
three months. Further, they have in hand an order 
for filters for the Brazilian Government for treating 
4.500,000 gallons of water per day. 

* • » » 

The Pulsometer Engineering Company, Limited, of 
London and Reading, have not carried oiit any large 
contracts for a waterworks plant during the past 
twelve months, but they have supplied several of 
their turbine pumps as auxiliaries to the main water- 
works plant for the purpose of supplying an additional 
quantity of water to places where military canijis have 
been built, or where the demand has increased owing 
to increase in population due to the erection of muni- 
tion factories. 

For obvious reasons it is not advisable to mention 
the localities where these pumps have been fixed. 
The pumps have all been of the company's standard 
make, direct-coupled to electric motors or high-speed 
petrol engines. When the pumps have been put down 
for the i)urpose of supplying camps they have gene- 
rally l>een arranged to deliver into a new main, but 
in villages and small towns, wliere the demand has 
increased owing to increase in ijopulation, the extra 
quantity lias been obtained by fitting turbine pumps 
to act as boosters — that is, to increase the pressure 
in the existing mains so as to enable a greater 
quantity of water to l)e forced through the mains into 
the particular district. 

This is a very useful application of the turbine 
pump, as it can be placed in small houses or under- 
ground chambers, so that the cost of the installation 
is very small, and as the Pulsometer Company's 
turbine pumps are very efficient, the running costs 
are comparatively light. These pumps require very 
little attention, as they will run for weeks without 
any lubrication, and as the maximum pressure can 
never be exceeded there is no risk of causing an 
excessive pressure on the mains. 

m » ' • • 

The water purification department of Messrs. Mather 
& Piatt, Limited, London and Manchester, has during 
the past year l>een busily employed in the construction 
of mechanical filters for H.!M. factories and other war 
purjwses, some of which have been exceptionally large 
contracts. The restrictions imposed by the Government 
on all classes of engineering manufactures, and also 
the curtailment of loans l)y the Local Government 
Board, have naturally had a large influence in causing 
a dearth in puljlic water supply installations at home. 
Nevertheless, Messrs. Mather & Piatt have been able 
to execute another order for the Sheffield Corporation, 
whidi completes the Kivelin installation of twenty- 
four filters, dealing with a total of 4,500,000 gallons per 
day. They have also several other contracts in hand 
for public water supplies abroad, including Japan, 
India, Malay States and Egypt. 

• • • • 

The Candy Filter Company, Limited, 5 Westminster 
Palace Gardens, S.W., have been engaged during the 
past year sppjilying their well-known mechanical 
filter plants. to various municipalities, as well as 
Governnient estaijlishments, cami)S, munitions and 
explosive factories, &c. A large installation recently 
completed comprises chemical plant and mechanical 
filters for dealing with the whole of the water supply 
of Falmouth, and a further repeat order has just l>een 
placed with the company for an extension of the i)lant 
to meet the increa.'-ing demand for filtered water at 
this favourite Cornish Riviera health resort, which, 
in adopting Candy filters, has followed the example of 
such well-known watering-places as St. Loonards-on- 
Sea ; Hythe, Kent; Hasting.?, Paignton, Harrogate; 
Cowes, Isle of Wight, and Torquay. 

The Candy " Doclor " filter system continues to be 
extensively adopted by authorities who have to deal 
with bacteriologically .suspicious water supplies, in- 

Januauy 26. 1917. 



.stallation.s having been laid down at some of the most 
important military stations in the country. The 
" Declor " system, it i.s claimed, ensures, by the use 
of chlorine, the absolute destruction of the B. coli, 
cholera vibrio, and typhoid bacillus, and also after- 
wards removes from the water any excess of free 
chlorine, so that the purified water is not only abso- 
lutely safe and pure, but also palatable and quite free 
from the inii)lea.-<ant odour and taste often found in 
waters thai liave been treated with chlorine without 
tht^ " Declor " system. 

A large municipality in South Africa, which has 
u.«ed Candy Filters for the past six years, has just sent 
a repeat order for more filters. 

Several installations of Candy iron removing filters 
have been laid down, and although many filtration 
plants for municipalities are being held over until the 
end of the w-ar, the large number of Candy filter 
l)lants required for Government use and for abroad 
have kept the company very busy, during the past 
twelve months. 



In addition to the emptyins of cesspools, the appa- 
ratus illustrated herewitli will be found useful for 
council purposes in • a 
variety of ways, for they 
will pump water, empty 
"sludge tanks, or trenches, 
and a pulley can be fitted to 
the engine, and arrange- 
ments made for easily dis- 
conneofcing the pump, so 
that the set can be taken to 
different depots. It is 
always ready for any sort of 
work, and is a real labour 

The pump is of special 
design for dealing with thick 
sludge, having large area 
valves of the hinged flap 
type with rubber fares, and 
a detachable cover is pro- 
vided over each valve, so 
that tliese are easily acces- 
sible. The plunger is .5-in. 
diameter, 8 - in. stroke, 
leather jJacked, with forged 

steel rod, and crankshaft, with substantial gun-metal 

metal bearings are fitted, and with proper adjust- 
ment of lubrication these engines will run con- 
tinuously over very long periods without attention. 

The power from the engine is transmitted through 
Renolds' cliain and machine-cut gears, forming a 
reliable drive. 

The set is mounted upon a steel under-frame, having 
tour wheels with steel axles, springs swivelling fore 
carriage, and forged draw liandle. The machinery 
is totally enclosed in a neat steel-plate cover, built 
upon' an angle iron frame with large . detachable 
doors, so that easy access is given for cleaning down, 
oiling, &c. The petrol reservoir and circulating water 
tank are carried over the engine inside the casing 
with screwed plugs, for filling from outside', so that 
this can be done while engine^ is working, if necessary. 

The engine can be readily started,-and the set could 
be run by a youth. 

■^The whole is made by Messrs. George Waller & Son, 
at the Phoenix Ironworks, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 
and prospective clients are invited to inspect 
sets in course of manvifacture and under test. 


During the year 1916 Messrs. Merryweather & Sons, 
the well-known fire engineers, of Greenwich-road, 

Hatfield " MoroR Fire Engine Supplied to Grimsby. 

London, S.E., supplied a number of their " Hatfield " 
motor fire engines to various Government Depart- 
ments, including the Admiralty, War 
Office, Ministiy of Munitions, India 
Office, and Crown Agents for the 
Colonies. Being extremely busy on 
war work of an urgent character, their 
output of vehicles for municipal re- 
quirements did not reach anything like 
its normal level, bui. " Hatfield " 
engines were supplied to Edinburgh, 
Rochester and (jrimsby, these orders 
going through under a priority certifi- 
cate. The well-known firm of Messrs. 
Brunner, Mond & Co., Northwich, also 
received delivei-y of a second engine of 
this design, and orders were received 
from Leeds, Margate, Hoylake and 
West Kii-by, Uipon, Selby, &c. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
the " Hatfield " motor fire engine 
supplied to Grimsby, this being tho 
second of its t.yi>e for the well-known 
East Coast port, and tlie fourth Merry- 
weather motor machine to be pla<e<l in 
commission there. It has a pumping 
capacity of 400 gallons |)er minute, 
and is mounted on steel wheels, tho 
rear wheels being fitt<<l with cross- 
ribbt^ pattern solid rubber tyres. 

Waller's Power-driven Portable Sludge Pimi 

The engine is of a high-class expert design, having 
electric magnet^i igniticjn for running on petrol, and 
will develop full load at the moderate speed of 400 
revolutions per minute. The cooling water flows to 
the cylinder jacket by gravity, thus avoidinj^ the cir- 
culating pumj), which is a feature of some other 
types of portable engines. Hiclwlass anti-friction 

Water Purification and Softening. 

— At a meeting of tho InsiuutiDU of 
Civil Engineers of Ireland to be held in Dublin on 
February 5th, a paper entitled " Recent Practice in 
the Purification and Softening of Public Water 
Supplies" will bo read by Mr. Fred. C. Uren, 
M.iNST.c.E.r., engiiu,>er and sui-veyor to the .\ldorshot 
Lrban District Council. The chair will be taken 
at 8 p.m. 



.Iam Auv -jti, iim 

Literature of Municipal Engineering in 1916. 

[Any book included in this summary will be forwarded, post free, on application to the St. Bride's Press, 
Limited. 24 Bride Lane. Fleet Street. London, E.C. The published price must be enclosed.] 

In Hocordanoe with our usual custom, we publish 
l>elow A summary of the books dealing with subjects 
of interest to niunicip:il engineers which have lieen 
issued during the past. year. In doing so we may. 
perhaps, direct the attention of our readers to The 
SrRVEVOR Book Department, throucrh wliich technical 
l»ooks, issued by various publishers, may l>c obtained 
from a single source with tlie niiniinuiu amount of 
trouble. Orders by post re<HMve careful and prompt 
attention, and particulars and lists of books on any 
desired subject may be obtained on ai)plication. The 
references in jiarentheses are to the volume and page of 
Thb Surveyor in wbiili a review has appeared. 

Annuals and Year-books. 

" Gas Works Directory and Statistic;». 1915-16." Price 
lOs. 6d. nett. Loiidon: Hazell, Watson & Viney, 
Limited. (Vol. 49. p. 264.) 

•' Hazell's Annual. 1916." Price 3s. 6d. nett. London: 
Hazell. Watson & Viney. (Vol. 49, p. 234.) 

" The Eini>ire Directory of Municipal Authorities and 
Officials and Year-book." Price 5s. nett. Lon- 
don : The Sanitary Publishing Company. Limited. 
(Vol. 49. p. 3<»2.) 

■ Willing's Press Guide, 1916." Price Is. London: 

James Willini;. Limited. (Vol. 49, p. 334.) 

Architecture and Building. 

" .\rchiteftural Biiildin- Conslruition." Vol. 1. By 
W. R. .laggard, f.r.i.b.a.. and F. E. Drury. Price 
6s. neit. Cambridge: The University Tress. (Vol. 
.tO. p. 5<i9.) 
• Layton's Builders' Price-lK)ok for 1916." Price 4s. 
London: Kelivs Directories, Limited. (Vol. 49. 
p. 390.) 

■■ Lockwood's Builders' and Contractors' Price-book. " 
Price 4s. London: Crosbv Lockwood & Son. 
Vol. 49. p. 234.) 

" Spon's Architects' and Builders' Pocket Price-book." 
Price 2s. 6d. nett. I^ondon : E. & F. N. Spon. 
Limited. (Vol. 49, p. 179.) 

•' The Orders of Architecture." By A. B. Greenberg. 
Price 2s. 6d. nett. New York: John Wiley & 
Sons. Inc. I»ndon: Chapman k Hall. Limited. 
(Vol. 50. T'. 561 ) 

Applied Mathematics. 

" Arithnu'tic f<.i EuL-iiif i i -. ' By C. B. Clapliam. 
B.8C.EN0. Price 5s. 6fl. nett. London: Chapman 
& Hall, Limited. (Vol. 5<». p. 5<)9.) 

" Graphic.- and Structural Design." By H. D. Hess, 
U.K. Seidnd edition. Price 12s. 6d. nett. New- 
York: Jiihn Wil. V & Sons, Inc. London: Chap- 
man & Hall. Limited. (Vol. 49. p. 615.) 

■ Mathematic- for Maehinist.s." By R. W. Burnhani, 

M.A. Price 5s. 6d. nett. New York: John Wiley 
& Sons. Inc. London: Chapman <Sc Hall. Limited. 
(Vol. 49, p. 264.) 


I 1.1 ...;,. Power Stations: Their Design and 

II." By Dr. G. Klingenherg. Price 
I>ondon : Cro-tiy Ijockwofid & Son. 
iVol. jo. ji. 394.1 

" Ele|nenl.^ of Highway Engineering." By Arthur H. 
BLanchard. Price 'l2i'. 6d. nett^ New York : John 
Wiley Ac Sons. I/uidoii : Cha|>man & Hall. 
Limited. (Vol. 49. \i. .•»4.» 

■ Pn^'^nl Koadwork. ' By H. T. Wakelain, 

M • -T CE.. p. O.K. Price So. 6d. nett. I>mdon : 
A A Sour. Limited. (Vol. 49, p. 472.) 
I Iff t;oni»triiction of Roadf and Paveinentn." By 
T. R. Agg. Profesfor of Highway Engineering. 
I ,w;i .State College. Price r2s. 6d. nett. 
I.'.iid'jn: Hill Piibli-hirg Company, Limilerl. 
'V'.l. stU, p. 4t^l.f 

' The Te«ting ol Tarn and Pit<-he» for KoadR: A 
Practical Guide for Kngineers and Rurveyor.>!." 
Price In. 6d. John HiitehiiiHon. II Tothill-street, 
WVrtminxter. (\'i>\. 49. p. 027.) 

Hygiene, Public Health and Sanitation. 

Elementary Sanitary Engineering." By,G. Biansby 
Williams, m.inst.c.e.. Price Rs.5. Calcutta: 
Thacker. Spink <^ Co. (Vol. 50. p. 509.) 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal. 

Sewerage; The De.-ii^ning. Construction and ilainto- 
nance ot Sewerage Systems." By Prof. A. P. 
Folwell. (Seventh Edition.) Price 12s. 6d. nett. 
I.rf>ndon: Chajjinan & Hall, Limited. (Vol. 49. 
p. 560.) 

The Operation of Sewage Disposal Plants." A 
manual for tlie practical management of sewage 
dispo.sal works, with siipgestions as to improve- 
ments in design and construction. By Francis E. 
Daniels, director of water and sewerage inspec- 
tion. Board of Health of the State of New Jersey. 
Price $-50. Published bv Muuid/ial Journal, New 
York. U.S.A. (Vol. 50. p. 169.) 

Structural Engineering. 

Bridge Foundation.-^." By W. Burnside, assoc.m. 

iNST.c.E. Price 4s. nett. London : Scott, Green- 
wood & Son. (Vol. 49, p. 264.) 
Elements of Railroad Track and Construction." 

2nd Edition. By W. L. Wilson. Price 10s. 6d. 

nett. New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

London: Chapman & Hall, Limited. (Vol. 49, 

p. 390.) 
Field Engineering " (17th Edition). By W. H. 

Seales, c.e. Price 12s. 6d. nett. New York : John 

Wiley & Sons, Inc. London: Chapman & Hall, 

Limited. (Vol. 49, p. 334.) 
Tlie Stability of Arches." By Ernest H. Sprague. 

ASSOC. M.INST. C.E. Price 4s. nett. London: Scott, 

Greenwood & Son. (Vol. 50, p. 561.) 

Steam and Mechanical Engineering. 

Elements of Hoal-iiuwer Engineering." By C. F. 
Hirshfield, m.m.e., and W. N. Barnard, me. Price 
21s. nett. New York: John Wile.y k Sons, Inc. 
London: Chapman & Hall, Limited. (Vol. 49. 
p. 302.) 

.Afachine Design." Bv A. W. Smith and G. H. 
.Marx. 4th Edition. Price 12s. 6d. nett. New 
York: John Wilev & Sons. Inc. London: Chaj)- 
man & Hall. LimUed. (Vol. 50. p. 169.) 

Properties of Steam and Ammonia." By G. A. 
Goodenough, M.E. Price 5s. 6d.'nett. New York : 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Loudon: Chapman & 
Hall, Limited. (Vol. 49, p. 20.) 

Steam Boiler E<onomy." By W. Kent, m.e. 2nd 
Edition. Price 19s. nett. New York: John Wiley 
& Sons. Inc. London: Chapman & Hall, Limited. 
(Vol. 49, p 615.) 

The Mechanical Handling and Storing of Material." 
By G. F. Linimer. assoc. m.inst.c.e. Price 42s. 
nett. London: Crosby Lockwood & Son. (Vol. 50, 
p. 169.) 

Valves and Valve Gears: Vol. II., Gasolene. Gas 
and Oil Engines" By F. D. Furman. m.e. New 
York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Loiuion: Chap- 
man <S: Hall. Liiii"ite<l. (Vol. 49. p. ,"J90.) 


Geodetic Surveyiii-. By E. H. Cary. Piice 10s. 6d. 

nett. New York: John Wilev & Sons. Inc. I^on- 

don: Chapman <ft Hall. Limited. (Vol. 50, p. 481.) 
Tacheonieter Surveying." By M. E. Yorke Eliot. 

AKSOC.M.IJ4ST.C.E. Price 5s. nett. London: E. k 

V. N. Si.on. (Vol. A'.l. p. 121.) 

Town Planning and Housing. 

The Housing of tin- W-.rking Classes Acts, 1H!)0-I909, 
and the Housing Acts, 1914, Annotated and 
Explained." 4tli Edition. By C. E. Allan, m.a.. 
i.L.B. barrister-at-law, assisted as to the practice 
by F. J. Allan. M.n.. d.p.h., medical officer rif 
health to the City of Westminster. Price 12s. (id. 
nett. London: Biilterworth & Co.. and Shaw & 
.Son*. (Vol. 49. p. 434.) 
' The Planning of the Modern City"." By Xel.-;on P 

Janm-arv 26, 1917. 



Lewis. Price $3.50 nett. New York ; John Wiley 
dt Sons. (Vol. 50, p. 111.) 
' The Welsh Honking Year-book." Edited by Edgar 
L. Cliappell. Price Is. nett. Cardiff: The South 
Wales Garden Cities and Town Planning Associa- 
tion, (Vol. 49, p. 49.) 

Valuation. - 

' Value for Rate-making." By H. Floy. Price iTs. 
nett. New York and London: The M'Graw-HiU 
Book Company, Inc. (Vol. 50, p. 481.) 

Water Supply and Hydraulics. 

• Hydraulic Flow Reviewed." By Alfred A, Barnes, 

^. C.G.I.,- ASSOC. M. INST. c.E. London : E. & F. N. 
Spon, Limited. (Vol. 49, p. 319.) 

■ Transactions of the Institution of Water Engineers, 

1915 " (Vol. XX.). London: The St. Bride's Press, 
Limited. (Vol. 50, p. .509.) 
Waterworks Handbook." By Alfred Douglas Flinn, 
Robert Spurr We.ston, and Clinton Lathroji Bogert. 
1st Edition. Three hundred and eleven tables and 
411 illustrations. Price $6. New York: M'Graw- 
HIU Book Company. (Vol. 50, p. 269.) 


The .Vnierican Civil Engineers' Pocket-book." 
Edited by MauBfield .Merrinian and others. Price 
21s. nett. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. 
London: Chapman A: Hall, Limited. (Vol. 50, 
p. 561.) 

The Architects' and Builders' Pocket - book." Bv 
the late Frank E. Kidder, T. Nolan, editor-iii- 
chief. 16th Edition. Price 21s. nett. New York: 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. London : Chapman & 
Hall, Limited. (Vol. 50, p. 394.) 

The Mechanical World Electrical Pocket - book for 
1916." Price 6d. nett. Manchester: Emmott & 
Co., Limited. (Yol. 49, p. 214.) 

The Mechanical World Pocket-diary and Year-book for 
1916." Price 6d. nett. Manchester: Emmott & 
Co., Limited. (Vol. 49, p. 214.) 


■ A Student's Book on Soils and Manures." By E. J. 

Rus.?ell, Price 3s. 6d. nett. Cambridge 
University Press. (Vol. 49, p. 264.) 
Construction, Equipment and Management of a 

• General Hospital." By D. J. Macintosh, si.v.o., 
M.B., LL.D., F.R.s.E. Price 15s. nett. Edinburgh 
and London: W. Hodge & Co. (Vol. 50, p. 561.) 

Determinative ^lineralogy." By J. V.Lewis. Price 
6s. 6d. nett. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 
I.,ondon: Chapman & Hall, Limited. (Vol. 49. 
p. 234.) 

Directory of British Manufacturers for Russian 
Trade." Edited l)y R. A. Lenski. (Vol. 49, p. 214.) 

Clays and Clay Products." By A. B. Searlc. Price 
Is. 6d. nett. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons. 
Limited. (Vol. 49, p, 264.) 

Manuring for H:<;her Crop Production." By E. J. 
Russell, Price 3s. nett. Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press. (Vol. 50. p. 561.) 

The Civil Ergineer's Cost-book." By Lieut.-Colonel 
T. E. Coleman. R.E. Staff. Price 6s. nett. Lon- 
don: E. <& F. N. Spon. (Vol. 49, p. 121.) 

The Railway Swindle." By Henry Murray. Price 
2s. 6d. nett. London: Grant Richards, Limited. 
(Vol. 50, I). 309.) 

The Tithe Rentchar-e Table for 1916." By P. W. 
Millard, ll.b. Pricp Is. London: SIkiw'a- Sr.iis. 
(Vol. 49, p. 264.1 

House Refuse Removal at Newcastle-on-Tyne. — In 

view of the shortiigc of labour, and witli a view to 
securing the consumption in dwelling-hous<'s of mate- 
rials deposited in dustbins having a value for fuel, the 
Xewcastloon-Tyne Improvement and Streets Coni- 
niitttx! have given notice that, a.s from February 1st 
next, rorpoiation enii)loyecs engaged in removal of 
ho se refus«» will have instructions to remove from 
dustbins and ash]jits. and Ut leave on the premises of 
houst-holders f(n- consumption as fuel cinders, small 
coal, and other coinbu>tible lyaterial which ought to 
be burned. -AH luuischoldirs are earnestly enjoined in 
the interests of public health to bum all vegetable 
and animal refuse, and not to deposit it in dustbins 
and aslipits, and further to refrain from depositing 
therein any wet refuse calculated to ."set up fermentation. 


Is it a fact that both the Manchester and the Salford 
Corporations have declined to employ women sweepers 
for .street work, notwithstanding that an important 
deputation of ratepayers desired them to do so .' What 
is the reason for this refusal ? Is it because these 
corporations are under the impression that their 
streets are models of cleanness, or that they have 
.sufficient ntale labour for the purpose ? 

Is it. not satisfactory to hear that the town council 
of Aberdeen have at last decided as to the source of 
their proposed new water supply, and that, thanks to 
the researches of Dr. Houston, they will be able to 
make use of the waters of the river Dee for this 
purpose ? Is it not rather remarkable that the recent 
introduction of " chemicals " for the sterilisation of 
water has so wonderfully revolutionised water puri- 
fication, whereas for sewage purification chemical 
treatment, for this purpose, has practically been 
abandoned ? 

Shall we obtain our future supplies of nitrogen from 
.sewage, as suggested by Dr. S. Rideal, or from the 
atmosphere, as promised by an American engineer, 
whose name has not yet been divulged ? Are we not 
more likely to be infliienced by Dr. Rideal in his sug- 
gestion than by this engineer, whose pronouncements 
savour of " wonder-mongering " ? 

Why does the Canadian town planning engineer 
api)ear to shirk curved streets and roads in his 
designs ? Is it because the streets of nearly all 
American and Canadian towns are laid out in 
monotonous straight line^, crossing each other at 
right angles ? Is it because of a suppo.sed difficulty 
in constructing the sewers, or is it because of the 
real difficulty in measuring and laying out the 
building, plots ? 

What is going to be done about the serious earth 
slides which are constantly taking jjlace on the 
Panama Canal ? If, as is stated, the engineers have 
tried, without avail, colossal schemes of drainage, 
asphalting the surface of thousands of acres of land 
to prevent infiltration of rain, the erection of huge 
retaining walls, and other works to prevent these 
slides, what is left for them to do except to dredge 
and dredge, and dredge, at an exceedingly heavy 
annual cost ? 

Is it a fact that the transport of some of our muni- 
tions and heavy ordnance is being seriously 
hampered by the rickety condition of numy of the 
bridges over our derelict canals ? Does it not seem a 
grievous absurdity that, owing to legal quibbles as to 
what body is resjjonsible for their repair, the trans- 
port of military and civil goods should be thus 
hampered ? Who will deliver us from this mighty 
burden of legal entanglements with which we are 
surrounded ? 

* * » # _ 

Will it not be a long time before the Englishman 
gives up his cherished open fireplace and cheerful 
<'oal fire, and suT)stitute the tame. Unattractive, gas 
fire? Does not the grate and fireplace, with its 
chininey-))iecc, give also the designing arcliite<-t a 
<'hanco to improve the a|)pearancE of a room, and is it 
possible to do this when a ga^ fire is substituted ? 
Has anybody yet clearly demonstrated what is the 
real monetary .saving effected by sui)stituting gas fires 
for coal fires, except for cooking purposes ? 

Are elaborate experiments on earth pressures of 
nnich pra'ctical value ? Is it not more important tn 
be al>le to ascertain quite correctly what is exa<-lly 
tlie nafiire of the .-ioil, or formation, on which the 
foundations <if a heavy structure will rest ? Have 
there not been a large number of cases in the 
courts arising out of the difficulties of corre<'tl.\- 
ascertaining this, and if some more relial)le and om- 
nnmical method than that of boring, or shaft sinkiuL', 
could be introduced, would it not l>e of more value 
than mere academic experiments on earth pressures ? 



.IvNiAitv 2(), 19n 

Law Notes. 

Edited by J. B. REIGNIER CONDER, Solicitor of the Supreme Court. 

Tht KditOT will be pleased to ansiccr any qxieitions affecting 
the practice o] enQincera and lurvevoTS to local authorities. 
Querict (urhich Bliould be written legibly on foolscap paper. 
on one iida only) should be addressed to " Die Late Editor, 
at tht offict o/ Thi ScEvrvoR. occompanied by the writer t 
name and addrcBi. bt-t corrcapondents who do not wish their 
names to be published should also furnish a - nom de 

In order to avoid confusion querists are requested to i:c; 
distinctive words as noma de plume. The letter X. com 
bination* such as X.V Z.. and words such as " eneineer " 
and "Burveytr," shjuld never be used. 

Extraordinary Traffic.—"?. D. North" writes: 
Extraordinai V traffic is being carried out in various 
part* of the (li.-^trict. and additional expenses are 
I>eins incurred ih«-rtl)y. The traffic consists of the 
removal of tiinl>er by means of steam traction. 
Will vou Kindly furnish in your valuable paper a 
;:ener!il form of Certificate of Surveyor with re.'siiect 
to such expenses : also general particulars as to how 
the atcount.-i should be kept by local authorities ? 

Two forms of cerlific.Tte are triven in the Appendix to 
•■ The Law of K.xtraor(linary Traffic on Uigrhways." by 
Barnard Lailev (published by Sweet & Maxwell. Limite<l, 
3 Chancery-lanei. Thev are too lengrthy to he set out here, 
but the following is an outline form suggested by a com- 
parison of the two :— 

In the maft-er of the Highways and Locomotives 
(.Vmendment) Act, 1>*T8. and the Locomotives Act, 1898. 

To the ( ; District Council, being the highway 

authority which is liable to repair the highway leading 
from I ) to I I. . ^ ^ , , . , 

I, the undersigned, surveyor of the above-named high- 
way authority, hereby report and certify that, having 
regard to the average expense of repairing highways in 
the neighbourhood, extraordinary expenses have been 
incurred bv the said authority during the year ending 

, 19 , in repairing the said highway (which is 

about I 1 in length i by reason of the damage caused 

by excessive weights passing along the same, and extra- 
ordinary traffic thereon, namely ; — 

IHere set out the nature of the traffic in detail.) 
The cost per mile of repairing the said highway during 
the said year was £1 ■. The cost of repairing all other 
highways of the like class, repairable by the said high- 
way authority during the same period, was £1 J per 
mile, and the average cost of repairing those highways 
and the highway in ciuestioii during the preceding I 1 
years was £1 I per mile. In my judgment there was 
nothing but the damage caused by the said weight and 
traffic by which the increase above referred to in the 
cost of repairing the said highway can be reasonably 
accounted for. 
Dated this day of -, 19 . 


Surveyor of the above-named ( ) Council. 

In the above work (p. 69) it is suggested that a separate 
account shoulil be kept of each road, breaking uii long 
roatls into two or more sections, and that the account 
books should enable the cost, during each year, of mate- 
rials, cartage, labour, steam rolling, Ac, on any given 
length of road, to be readily arrived at. 

The .\doption of Private Streets.—" A. P. S." 
writer; About ten year.s ago an estate owner laid out 
and formed a road on hi.s estate. Buildings were 
erected on both sides of the road, and about six years 
ago an arrangement was come to between the estate 
owner and Ihe urban di.strict council that the road 
."houid be made iij) by the frontagers auA kept in re- 
pair by them for .six months, at the end of which 
period it was to l)e taken over by the council as a 
highway repairable by the inhabitants at large. The 
road was jiccordingiy made uji and kept in repair for 
xix month- liy the frontagers. It has never Ix-en 
formally takifi over by the council, However, and has 
now l>ecome t'reatly out of repair. The Private Street 
Worko Act. 1H02, lias licen adopted in the district. I 
hhoiild 1* greatly oliliced if you would inform me, 
through the mediiuii of The Surveyor, whether the 
road lia..* InH-oine a " highway repairable by the'antH at large," or whether it is now open to 
ibi- < ' iincil to make it up at the expena© of the 
froniat'er.", under the Act ? 

Thin ilejtendii «|K>n whether the arrangement with the 
fta'r f.wrrrr wri' trintnnioiint, in cllecl, Uj a binding agre*. 
ni' ■ ' ■' 'to take over the road, under sec. 146 

.if Act. 1K7.-). I think it is highly |)ro- 

b;i .lould holil that, the frontagers having 

r.i ■ ■ ' "I the agreement, it wan, and is,' 

bini,ii„- 'II '.' I tliiit the roa<l in a highway 

repairable bv • - at large. See Hromlru ImcuI 

h"iiril v. I.iiK hi'-embcr 5, 1K94); Fotkr.stonr 

('•jTiioriition >. .i;., •. ., ,1.1'., 11U>. 

Highway Pi Footpath: Scbridence; Kk- 
PAiB.— I' ! " writes: There is a public foot- 
path in district ikhicli forms a short <iit 
between ; ■• .■.■-. Thf iiafb -kirts a hedge dividini.' 

plume." H7icTc necessary copies of local Acts or documents 
referred to should be enclosed. AH explanatory diagrams 
must be drawn and lettered in black ink only, and in such 
style as to be Bt for direct reproduction — i.e., without 
re - drawing or amendment. Vnless these conditions 
ire complied with we cannot undertake to reply to 

two fields formin.L' part of a large farm, and there is a 
luitiiral stieam or \««tercourse running alongside it. 
Owing, as is supposed, to the undermining action of 
this strea.u, a.trgravated by heavy floods, a larp' jioi- 
tion of the path has subsided to a considerable deptli. 
and is iiraetically iiiipassalile. The cost of reiiistatii.i; 
the path at its original level would be very heavy. 
I shall be very grateful if you will let nie have your 
opinion on the following points: (1) Is the rural dis- 
trict council, iis hi'-'hway authority, bound to raise 
the footpath to its original level, or what is the extent 
of their liability ? (2) Is the owner of the land under 
any, and (if any) what liahility ? (3) Have the i)ul)lic 
a right to deviate along the other side of the hedge 
while the path is im|)assable ? 

(1) Unless the i)atli has been completely destroyed the 
council are bound, in my opinion, to do what is necessary 
to render it as commodious to the public as it was before 
the subsidence took i)laee, if repairs are reasonably 
practical. But tliey are not necessarily bound to restore 
it to its original level if it can be made eciuall.y commodious 
without doing so. If, however, it has been completely 
destroyed, and having regard to its position, and the pro- 
pinquity of the stream, repairs must, in the nature of 
things, always be ineffectual, the liability to rei)air it would, 
in my opinion, be extinguislied. .See /^ r v. Linidiilpli (1 Moo. 
and B.. 39:^). (2) No. 1 think not. C!) No. unless there is 
also a public right of way along, that side. 

Private Street Works: -Apportionment. — 
" Access " writes: In this (urban)'district the council 
have decided to make up a certain private street under 
the Private Street Works Act, 1892 (which has been 
adopted). About mid-way between the two ends of the 
street there is a private road joining it at right angles, 
which is in process of formation. There are a few 
liouses abutting on this road, at the end next the 
street to be nuide iij), and which houses will un- 
doubtedly be benefited by the proposed works. 1 
shall be obliged if you will inform me, through the 
cohunns of your valuable paper, whether, in your 
opinion, these houses can legally be included in the 

Under sec. 10 of this Act the council may, if they think 
just, include in the api)ortionment any premises access to 
which is obtained from the street " through a court, 
passage, or otherwise," and which, in their opinion, will be 
benetited by the works. In my opinion, if the i)rivate road 
is being formed solely for the purpose of giving access to 
the houses abutting on it from the street which is to be 
made up. the house-s can lie included in the appt>rtionment. 
But if. on the other hand, the road is in process of develop- 
ment as a public street, the section would not apply, and 
the houses could not be included. See .Vcuvyuou i'rhiin 
District Ctinncil v. Uisl;i'ard and Another (1911, 2 K.B., 846). 

Extraordinary Traffic. — "Cambria" writes: A 
colliery company in this district were in the habit for 
many years of carting coal along a by-lane, about J 
mile in length, to a railway station. The carting was 
done by means of horse-drawn wagons, travelling 
singly or in pairs. About two years ago they discon- 
tinued the use of horse-drawn vehicles, and substi- 
tuted large trucks, drawn by heavy traction engines, 
which have cut up the lane very badly, necessitating 
heavy increased ex|)en(litiire in its repair. Will you 
oblige me by stating whether, in your ojjinion, the 
hitrhway authority ca.i legally claim jiayment of ex- 
traordinary traffic exjienses from the company ? 
There was no other heavy motor traffic on the Jane 
during the two years. 

In my opinion the highway authority are legally entitled 
to recover from the company the additional expenses 
incurred in rejiairiiig the lane by reason of damage done 
liy the traffic in <|uestiori within twelve monttiN liefore the 
coniniencement of pioce-dings. In order to enable them 
BiiccesHfiilly to maintain their claim, however, it will be 
neces;<ary for their surveyor to give a certiltcate, stating 
that, having regard to the average expense of repairing 
highways in the neigliboiirliood, extraonlinary expense: 
have been incurred by the authority in repairing the lane 
tiy reason of damage canted b.v the traffic referred to. The 
certificate should net out all the facts in detail. It is a 
necessary preliminary to the proceeilings, and should be 
very carefully prepared. 

Ff)OTPATH Crobsim; Stream: Floodisc. — " E. M." 
wrife-s : .An f>ld publie frKdpath crosses a stream, ami 
an earthenware jiifie lias be<-n laid to convey the watei 
iindf-r fix o-itli 111 I 1"" - "f li<-:ivv r-'iin ilo- «;il.i flowv 

January 26, 1917. 



The Surveyor 

an^ flDunldpnl •ln^ Connt? Cnglneet. 

AllMetal Bundling Press 

Auglesey Sea Wall ... 

Appointments Vacant 

Ashford Tube Well Strainer 

Cesspool Emptying 


Decimal Weights, Measures, and Coinage 

Disposal of Destructor Waste Scrap ... .,— Councillors and Boad Work 

Ferro Conciete Bridges on the Meuse 

Forthcoming Meetings 

Hudderslield Municipal Projects .. 

Laud Fertilisers irom House Refuse 

Law Notes and Qaeiies ... 

Legal Prece lents of 1916 in Ee^ation to Municipal Engineering ... 

Legislation of 1916 in Relation to Municipal Engineering 

Literature of Municipal Engineering in 1916 

Local Government Board Inciuiries 

" Marshall " Road Rollers 

Metal Welding 

Motorists' Map-Holder 

Motor Fire Engines 

Motor Road Boilers 

Municipal Contracts Open 

Municipal Engineering in 1916 .- 

Bridges ' 

Eleitricity Supply 



Municipal Buildings 

Betuse Disposal 

Sfweraee and Sewage Disposal 

Street Lii?litiug 

Town Planning 

Tramways ■ 

Wat -r Supply 

Municit<al Work at Porthcawl ' 

Municipal Work in Bulawayo ... ' ... 

Municipal Work in Progress and Projected 

Personal ... 

Pigsties: Their Erection and Control 

Public Service Vehicles 

Becent Publications 

Road-Making Materials and Appliances 

Scotlish Notes 

Sewerage .-ind Sewage Dipposal Appliances 

Specifications for Concrete 

Surveyors and Cottage Design ... , 

Trnders for Municipal Works or Supi)lies 

Tbingi* One would Like to Know 

Waterworks Plant 

Works Projected by Local Authorities for 1917 ... 






ow-i- tlio path, owing to the Stream becoming silted ii]) 
and (or) the pipes being too small. The owner of land 
higher up the stream has suffei'cd damage by flood- 
ing. Will you please say if the owners or occupiers 
of land abutting the stream are liable to cleanse the 
silt from the bed of the stream and put in a larger 
\n\>(i under the path, also for damage caused to the 
owner of land flooded, and for damage to the path, or 
are the council liable ? 

In order to express a decided opinion as to this, it would 
be necessary to know by whom, when, and under what 
circumstances the pipe was laid under the footpath, and 
whether the floods are due to its interfering with the natural 
flow of the stream. Upon the bare facts stated in the query, 
I think it is verr doubtful whether either the owners or 
occupiers or the council are liable. 

Birmingham Town-planning Schemes.— An amend- 
ing scheme for a portion, 247 acres in extent, of the 
East Birmingham area (1,443 acres) has been drifted 
and submitted for the approval of the Local Govem- 
ment Board. A revision of the draft map and scheme 
of' the North Yardley area (3,176 acres), which 
embodies an area within the Meriden Rural District, 
is in preparation, and it is hoped veiy shortly to be 
able to submit the final scheme to the board. The 
tentative proposals of the committee with reference to 
the South Birmingham scheme (8,400 acres) have been 
submitt<xl to all owners concerned and interested, and 
the draft scheme map and ownership map are nearing 
completion for early submission to the board. A 
reference of ownerships and revision of the Ordnance 
Suri'ey of the South-Wost Birmingham area (9,200 
acres) is well in hand, in view of an early application 
to the board for permission to prepare a scheme. The 
future improvement of the arterial roads and other 
main thoroughfares of the inner area of the city, and 
a possible remodelling of these with a view to their 
ultimate reconstruction, together with the consideration 
of all kinds of traffic facilities, will receive considera- 
tion during the year. 


(One man does not see everything.) 

— Edripides. 


To the Editor of The StiRVEYOR. 

8iH,— .\n article in The Surveyor on " Pigsties " 
would at the present moment not only be interesting 
but nseful. 

" We must relax our by-laws with respect to pig- 
sties," -said my eluiirnian over the 'phone, and he 
was considerably surprised that the word " pigsties " 
could not be found in those by-laws. Some sets 
certainly do deal with nuisances caused by the keep- 
ing of swine. 

If a pigsty be a " domestic building " within the 
meaning of the by-laws, the question of " sit« " and 
"sufficiency of air space" would appear to be 

Unles.s proper drainage can be provided, the ques- 
tion of " cesspools " arise. By-laws usually require 
them to be placed 50 ft. to 75 ft. from dwelling-houses, 
well, &c.; their method of construction is definitely 
set out — a wicked waste of good material where a 
piped water supply exists. 

" There is no prohibition in law as to pigstie.s," we 

" The keeping of swine in a city is a nuisance at 

common lavi-." 
" In urban districts by-laws may l)e made regu- 
lating pigkeeping." 
" Rural authorities, even though armed with 
urban powers, (?) may not attempt the regula- 
tion, generally, of pigkeeping." 
" A by-law prohibiting the keeping of swine in a 
rural district was held to be unreasonable and 
bad " 
^ Sec. 91 (3) of the Public Health Act of 1875, says: 
" Any animal so kept as to be a nuisance or injurious 
to health " shall be deemed to be a nuisance, liable to 
he dealt with in manner provided by the Act." Sec. 
47 prohibits the keeping of swine in any dwelling- 
house within an urban district, but there appears to 
be no such restriction with respect to a rural district. 
The fact remains, however, that no. person jias any 
legal right to commit a nuisance, and if he does com- 
mit or permit one, he can be punished. 

In order efiiciently to control the erection of pigsties, 
plans should bo demanded, otherwise they will occa- 
sionally be erected under a neighl)our's bedroom 
window, or actually abutting on the highway, on 
ground the configuration of iwhich is such as must 
permit an overflowing cesspool to cau.«e a nuisance. 
They might be classed as " temporary buildings," 
thus permitting their construction of wood. An 
imi>ermeal)le floor of hard brick or concrete, and a 
small watertight cesspool, should be a minimum 

The Board of Agriculture leaflet, No. 121, contains 
many useful hints, and No. 298 gives a plan. 

Better not build at all than face them north or east. 

Pigs do not ilirive unless you can keep them warm. 

They should not l)e in pairs; the warm corner 
should in every case back north and east. 

A few headers left out of the wall during construc- 
tion gives ample ventilation, and a handful of straw 
stuffed in the holes during bad weather prevents 

Three feet is not high enough for the walls— they 
should be 3 ft. 6 in. to 4 ft. 

Troughs should l>e accesible from the outside; but, 
w^hen a split drain-pipe, set in concrete, makes the 
best type, why purchase fireclay ? 

Why the extra cost of brick on edge, when even 1-in. 
thick quarries, of wastrel quality, make an excellent 
floor ? 

If concrete is used, herring-bone it with grooves to 
assist drainage. 

Two inches fall in 7 ft. I would double it. 

Keep the floor well above outside ground level. I 
prefer a 3-in. step-up into the bed, and a few old 
boards for a mattress— a well-behaved pig seldom 
fouls the bed. 

A bit of spouting, if only of wood, along the eaves 
of a lean-to roof prevents half the rain-water from 
entering the cesspool. 

The rail for the breeding-sow may be provided for 
by leaving out headers at each corner ; through the 
holes a wooden rail can be inserted and withdrawn. 

For a cesspool, obtain an old iron druriiora defective 
12-in. or 15-in. fanit-ary pipe, set on a 3-in. bed of 



jANrAHv 26, 1917. 

oonorete, with a similar l>and round the outside, 
socket up, wooden lid roughly fitted. The frost will 
crack the pipe, the iron drum will soon rot away, Init 
the concrete i* practically everlasting. 

Much inoTC might be said. All sounds ver.\' exacting, 
but it all tends to simplicity, cheajmess and 
fffiriencv. — Yours, &o.. 

T. H. Negus, 
District S\irveyor, Meridcu K.D.C. 



.Tnnuarv !<>. 1".'17. 


To the Editor of The Sueveyor. 

Sir,— Your correspondent, " Local Surveyor," in 
your issue of the 12th inst., accuses me of having made 
u most unjust attack ui)on the general body of sur- 
veyors and local authorities in stating in a recent 
lecture that the surveyor to a local authority is not 
(jualified to undertake the design of cottages. 

Should I lie elevating the architectural profe.«sion 
if I said that its members foxind \he practice of archi- 
te<'turc so easy of attainment that they were also able 
to undertake road construction, and the design and 
6ui>erintendence of all the works attendant upon the 
laying of a big sewer ? To do so would mean that I 
attached more importance to the opinion of a jack-of- 
all-trades on a specialised question than to the ojunion 
of an expert. 

I see no reason for detracting from what 1 have 
said, and this in view of the very high opinion I have 
of the professional qualifieations of the surveyor. 

The i>ractice of cottage building, viewed from its 
constructive, economic and artistic, aspects, is ono 
tliat demands a special training, and thus the training 
of an architect; and to tJie survej'or, versatile as hie 
peculiar office tends to make him, work demanding 
a knowledge of the details of architecture mnst neces- 
sarily be more or less obacure. 

No doubt there are a few survej'ors, and your corre>- 
pondent may Ix; one of them, who are better architK^cts 
than ."iurveyors ; there are certainly architects who