(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Swahili Basic Course"

EIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE 



S W A H I L I 



BASIC COURSE 




ARTMENT OF STATE 




Duqufsne (Iniufrsilyi 




Gift of 
Pastor Leonder J. Scoles 



X * 




"WW^ 



U.S. Fa}re\(^f^ Se-k-x/ice ZTNy^t itut eu 



SWAHILI 



BASIC COURSE 



ft 
ftft.ftft 
ftftft 




"^ A A ft ft ^. 

#llllllt" 

This work was compiled end pub- 
lished with the support of the Office 
of Education, Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare, United States 
of America. 



E. W. STEVICK J. G. MLELA F. N. NJENGi« 

FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 



1963 



DE-.PARTMENT 



O F 



STATE 



SWAHILI 






FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE 
BASIC COURSE SERIES 

Edited by 
CARLETON T. HODGE 






For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, VVa.sliint;ton 2.S, D.C. - Price S3. 00 



ii 



BASIC COURSE 



PREFACE 



This text is a part of the Foreign Service Institute's program in the preparation of 
teaching materials for certain of the most important languages of Sub-Saharan Africa. It has 
been produced under an agreement with the Office of Education, Department of Health, Edu- 
cation and Welfare, under the National Defense Education Act, The course is intended for 
general use by speakers of English of many occupational backgrounds who are living or 
expect to live in the areas were Swahili is used. 

The Swahili sentences in this course were provided by E. J. Kazi and Johannes G. 
Mlela of Tanganyika, and by Frederick H. Njenga of Kenya. The linguist in charge was 
Earl W. Stevick, Coordinator of the Special African Language Program. Anicet Nkwabi and 
Daudi Ballali of Tanganyika, and John Ngumbi of Kenya assisted in the teaching and 
checked the original version of the manuscript. The original was also sent for verification 
to United States Foreign Service posts in Swahili-s peaking areas, and Unit 1-80 were 
kindly checked by a representative of the East African Swahili Committee. 

Suggestions from all the above mentioned sources have been used in the preparation 
of the present edition. Where there appeared to be clear disagreement among two or more 
critics of the original draft, the alternative wordings have usually been indicated in the 
text. The Foreign Service Institute, while gratefully acknowledging the generous help of 
the many readers of the earlier version, takes full responsibility for the present edition. 

The recordings which accompany the text were made in the Foreign Service Institute 
Language Laboratory, under the supervision of Gabriel Cordova. 



Howard E. Sollenberger, Dean 

School of Language and Area Studies 

Foreign Service Institute 

Department of State 



iii 

APR 13 1966 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/swahilibasiccourOOfore 



SWAHILI 



Introduction 

Swahili Basic Coiirse aims first of all at assisting the student to 
develop ability in understanding and speaking everyday Swahili of a standard 
variety. On the basis of well-established speech habits, he can then go on 
with relatively high efficiency to the further skills of reading and writing. 

The course is designed for use in any of three general types of study 
situation: (i ) a full-time language program of thirty or more hours per 
week, (2) a language program in which one or more part-time students attend 
class for three to six hours per week, and (3) (much the least desirable) 
individual study in the absence of ar^ speaker of the langixage. 

In any of these situations, the class should be guided in such a way that 
it concentrates on one small task at a time. For this reason, the 150 units 
of the course are comparatively short. Each unit is in turn divided into a 
brief dialogue (with notes) and a series of short exercises. The dialogues 
and exercises are further broken up into individual lines. In most of the 
exercises, there is a further division into two or three columns. The word 
or phrase at the left is called the »cue,* The sentence in the next column 
is the 'desired response' to that cue. In those exercises having a third 
colvann in Swahili, the sentence in the second colximn is intended to serve as 
a secondary cue, and the corresponding sentence in the third col\nnn is the 
desired response to it. 

In teaching with these materials, it is suggested that the instructor 
emphasize the following activities: 
With dialogues: 

1* Individual and group repetition of the dialogue line- 
by-line, immediately after the instructor. Books should 
be closed at first, so that the students may become 
accustomed to depending on their ears. The instructor 
may correct errors by repeating the mispronounced word 
as it should have been said* 



BASIC COURSE 



2« When the students are able to repeat the lines 

of the dialogue correctly, they should open their 
books. The instructor reads the dialogue and the 
class repeats, line-by-line, at the same time 
following with their eyes the printed words, 

3. After going through the dialogue two or three 
times in this way, students should take turns 
reading aloud. 

U. Finally, students should close their books, and 
practice assuming one of the roles in the dialogue 
until they are able to do it from memory— ^thout 
mistakes. 
With exercises: 

1, Students repeat after the instructor the 'desired 
response' sentences of the exercise, 

2. The instructor gives only the 'cue* for each line. 
Individual students give the desired responses. 

It should be noted that very little English is needed in any of these 
activities. In fact, the instructor or the student who finds that more than 
aoVo of the words he uses in class are in English, may be sure that he is 
proceeding with less than maximum efficiency. 

For individual study, tape recordings of the dialogues and the exercises 
are available. It is ailso suggested that while practicing the exercises, the 
student make use of a notched card which can be slid down the page as he goes 
along. As soon as he has given his own response to a particular cue word or 
phrase, he slides the card down to reveal the answer, thus receiving immediate 
confirmation or correction of his own reply. At the ssune time, the next cue 
word or phrase appears in the notch: 

kahawa Kahawa kinatosha. 



(cf. Unit i7» 
Exercise aB.) 



chai 









vi 



SWAHILI 



Rate of progress and total achievement, then, should be measured in terms 
of answers given to the following questions: 

Concerning each dialogue: 

Level i# Can the student regeat the dialogue accurately, line- 
by-line, after the instructor, with book closed? 

Level 2. Can the student read the dialogue aloud independently 
of the instinictor, with excellent pronunciation and 
intonation? 

Level 3. Can the student take anj role in the dialogue, without 
hesitation or mistakes, book closed? 

Concerning each exercise: 

Level i» Can the student regeat the Swahili sentences of the 

dialogue accurately, line-by-line, after the instructor? 

Level 2, Can the student give the Swahili sentence after hearing 
the Swahili cue word, or the English translation, with 
his book closed? 



General Hints to the Instructor 

i» When you speak to a student, look directly at him, and insist that 
he speak directly to you when he replies. 

2* Don't spend too long with one student; if a student continues to 
make the same mistake after three or four tries, go on to another student. 
Later, come back to the student who made the error, 

3, The students should learn to understand and speak Swahili at a normal 
rate of speed. For this reason, do not speaJc to them more slowly or clearly 
than the slowest and clearest style in which you might speak with another 
speaker of Swahili, 

U, The students' books should be closed about 8oVo of the time in class, 

4 

5« Don't try to explain how the language works: teach the language, not 
the grammar, 

vii 



BASIC COURSE 



6. Emphasize: 

hearing before vmderstanding, 
hearing and Understanding before regetition, 
rsgetition before i^degendent E£2^Ii*^ii22» 
speaking before reading and writing. 

The Pronunciation of Swahili 

The pronunciation of Swahili varies slightly from one geographical area 
to another. In addition, since most speakers of Swahili have learned it after 
first learning some other language, there are noticeable discrepancies among 
the speech of persons with different national or tribal backgrounds. The 
following notes do not attempt to set forth any of these variations but only 
to indicate those points vrtiich are essential to an intelligible and widely 
acceptable pronunciation of the language. 

The standard treatment of this subject is A. N. Tucker and E, 0, Ashton, 
Swahili Phonetics (Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand Press, 19U2), 
It consists of bound reprints of two major articles which appeared originally 
in African Studies for that year. 

Vowels, There are five vowels. 



Letter Description 

a VJhen stressed, similar to a in 

father, or o in (American English) 
odd* Technically: a low central 
unrounded vowel. 

When unstressed, between a of 
father and u of up. 
Technically: a slightly raised 
low central unrounded vowel. 
Speakers of English must still 
take care not to ' reduce ' the 
quality of unstressed /a/ as 

viii 



Examples 

basi 'only' 
kitabu 'book' 



kusoraa 'to need' 
birika 'water vessel' 



SWAHILI 



much as they would in English. 

Letter Description 

e . Similar to e in bet. 

Technically: a lax IcwerHnid 
front vowel* Other varieties 
of this sound have been reported 
in certain environments, but 
those allophones are absent 
from the speech of the two 
spesJcers who served as principal 
sources for this investigation, 

i Roughly similar to the vowel 
of English eat. 
Technically: a high front 
unrounded vowel, unglided, and 
less tense than its nearest 
English counterpart. 

o Between the vowels of English 
boat and bought. 
Technically: a lax, lower-mid, 
back rounded vowel, unglided. 

u Reminiscent of the vowel of 

English too, but lying sc»newhere 
between that vowel and the vowel 
of took. 

Technically, a slightly lowered 
high-back rounded vowel, unglided. 



Examples 



kuleta 'to bring' 
kujenga 'to build' 
embe 'mango' 



vita 'war' 
rafiki 'friend' 



mtoto 'child' 
ng'cmbe 'ox' 



bure ' free • 
kuruhusu 'to permit' 



Consonants 

b, d, j, g These sounds may be pronounced 

' as in English bow, dough, Joe, go respectively. 



ix 



BASIC COURSE 



Technically: Bilabial, alveolar, 
palatal, and velar voiced stops. 
When not in combination with a 
nasal consonant, these sounds are 
pronounced implosively by most 
speakers. The sound represented 
by the letter ^ has little or no 
affrication. 

p, t, ch. These sounds may be pronoxinced as 
, in English peas, tease, cheese, 
kejs respectively. 
Technically: Bilabial j, alvealar, 
palatal, and velar unvoiced stops. 
The palatal stop has strong affrica- 
tion. The degree of aspiration 
associated with these sounds varies. 
None of the speakers consulted in 
the preparation of this course has 
■ a contrast of aspirated vs. unaspir- 
ated unvoiced stops, however. 



m, n 



ng' 



These sounds may be pronounced as 
in English, 

Technically: There is no notice- 
able difference between these sounds 
and the corresponding nasal sounds 
of English, 

This sound is pronounced like ng in 
English sing. But in English, this 
sound never occurs at the beginning 
of a syllable, while in Swahili it 
always occurs there. 
Technically: A dorso-velar nasal 
resonant. Before vowels this sound 



baba 'father' 
dada 'sister' 
jambo 'matter' 
gogo 'lag' 



panga 'large knife' 

tisa '9' 

chache ' few ' 

kaka 'elder brother' 



mama 'married woman' 
nene 'fat' 



ng ' ombe ' ox ' 
ngozi 'leather' 



SWAHILI 



ny 



th, dh 



sh 



is spelled ng', but before 
other consonants, it is spelled 
n« 

As in Spanish canon, 
Portuguese nenhurti, 
French gagner. 
Technically: A palatal 
nasal* 

Before vowels, this sound 
is spelled ny, but before 
other consonants, it is 
spelled n. 

These sounds are like the 
initial sounds of English 
thin and then, respectively. 
Technically: Unvoiced and 
voiced ungrooved dental 
fricatives. 

Like the initial sounds of 
English sue, zoo, respectively. 
Technically: Alveolar grooved 
unvoiced fricatives. 

Like the sound spelled the same 
way in English she, with accompany- 
ing lip-rounding. 
Technically: An unvoiced 
palatal grooved fricative. 
(Note the lack of a voiced 
counterpart.) 

Like the initial sound of 
English how. 



nyuinba ' house ' 

nchi 'land, country' 

nje ' outside ' 



thelathini '30' 
kadhalika 'likewise' 



saa 'hour' 

kuzaa 'to produce offspring' 

shamba 'farm' 

kurusha 'to cause to fly' 



kuhama 'to change residence' 



BASIC COURSE 



f, V 



1» w, y 



^ 



Like the initial sounds of 
English fine, vine, respectively. 
Technically: Unvoiced and 
voiced labio-dental fricatives. 

This sound is pronounced like 
the sound written with the same 
letter in the standard British 
pronunciation of very. It is 
thus not very different from the 
sound written tt in the common 
American pronunciation of witty. 
Technically: A voiced apico - 
alveolar flap. 

These sounds may be pronounced 
as in English, 



This is the only Swahili sound 
that is likely to cause noticeable 
difficulty for speakers of English. 
It is made with the back of the 
tongue against the soft palate, in 
the same position as for English 
'golly.' For English 'g', however, 
the tongue makes momentary contact 
with the soft psGLate, completely 
cutting off the flow of air. For 
Swahili gh, on the other hand, the 
back of the tongue does not make 
contact all the way across the soft 
palate. Instead, it comes so close 
to it that the flow of air from the 



kuficha 'to hide' 
vivu 'idle' 



kuCTika 'to fly' 



kulala 'to lie down' 
sawa ' equal • 
haya 'these' 



ghali • expe ns i ve ' 
gharama 'amount of money' 



xil 



SWAHILI 



lungs is constricted. This gives 

rise to audible turbulence, or 

'friction.' 

Technically: A voiced dorso- 

velar fricative. 



Syllabic Nasals. 

In sOTie words in which they precede other consonants, the nasal sounds 
may be pronounced as separate syllables. In these materials, syllabic nasals 
are indicated by a grave accent. This seems to be true for n, ny and ng' only 
when they are at the beginning of a word and when only one vowel cranes after 
them in the word. It is also true of these three nasals that the consonants 
before which they occur are those which are formed at the same position of 
articulation as the nasal; 

n nne 'four' 
vy nchi 'land' 

ng' nge 'scorpion' (pronounced ng'ge) 
The sound m, on the other hand, may be syllabic in words of any length: 

mgeni 'stranger' 

mlet^e 'bring to him' 

hamjui 'he doesn't know him' 

Syllabic and non-syllabic m contrast with one another in: 

mb6vu 'bad' (personal class singiilar) 

mb6vu 'bad' (N class) 

These are not distinguished from one another in the customary spelling 
of Swahili. 



Accent 

In general, the next to last syllable of a Swahili word or phrase re- 
ceives an accent, which consists of a slight increase in loudness, usually 
with -some increase also in length. In those instances where the accent falls 

xiii 



BASIC COURSE 



on some other syllable, its location is indicated in these materials by an 
acute accent: lizima 'necessary,' 

In Swahili, each vowel counts as a syllable, and in addition, pre-con- 
sonantal nasals are sometimes syllabic. These facts must be taken into account 
in calculating which syllable is the next-to-last. Examples: 

simlet^i 'I don't bring to him' 

kukia 'to stay' 

nilimpa 'I gave to him' 

ku(5mba 'to request' 

n&nna 

or: , 'kind, sort' 

namna 

hamna 'you don't have' 

Word Juncture. 

In Swahili, there exist, at least for some speakers, two distinct pro- 
nunciations for a number of pairs of expressions which are identical with 
respect to their vowels and consonants. One such pair of expressions is 
spelled with the letters : 

wafanyaghasia 
One of the proniinciations corresponding to these letters means 'they create a 
disturbance,' while the other means 'rioters.' The most conspicuous difference 
between them is that in the first, the syllable fa is more prominent than it is 
in the second. In neither pronunciation is fa as prominent— as heavily 
stressed—as the syllable si. We may attribute the differing degrees of 
stress on fa to the presence or absence of word boundary, writing the two pro- 
nunciations respectively: 

wafanya ghasia 'they create a disturbance' 

wafanyaghasia ' rioters ' 

In so doing, of course, we have introduced into our inventory of the Swahili 
sound system an entity which might be called word jiinctura. 

Some linguists may prefer to do without the word juncture, introducing 
instead an intermediate degree of stress, which might be called 'secondary.' 
Morphological word boimdaries (for almost all words) would then fall after the 
first syllable following a primary or secondary stress. A strictljr Ehonemic 

xiv 



SWAHILI 



transcription of utterances would then contain no word spaces, and each stress 
would be marked explicitly. 

The lessons in this book do not emplcy that kind of transcription. 
Instead, they make use of a gedagogical 2^^2i£SE^Z» which is thought to be 
most suitable for the use of foreign learners of the language. In it, word 
space sets apart units (words) which have been established on a non-phono- 
logical basis; stress is written only when it does not occur on the next-to- 
last syllable of a word which has been established on this basis. 

A practical writing system, unlike either the phonemic transcription or 
the pedagogical orthography, can afford to do away with the marking of any and 
all stresses. It is important not to confound these three types of graphic 
representation of a language. 

Pitch Phenomena, 

Swahili, unlike other Bantu languages, is not a tone language. That is 
to say, there do not exist in the language pairs of words which are identical 
in their vowels and consonants, but different in musical pitch patterns and 
in meaning. Swahili does make use of a system of sentence intonation which is 
comparable to the intonation systems of Indo-European languages, although the 
details of Swahili sentence intonation are, of course, peculiar to Swahili. 
This aspect of the language has been discussed in some detail by Mrs. Ashton, 
and will not be described further here. 



E. 0. Ashton, Swahili Grammar (including Intonation) (London: Longmans, 
19UU). 

anr 



SWAHILI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Unit 1 'Routine greeting sequence,' 

Unit 2 'Mdday greetings,' 

Unit 3 'Routine evening greetings,' 

Unit U 'Greetings to a lady,' 

Unit 5 'Some variants on the greeting routine,' 

Unit 6 'One more conmon variant in routine greetings,' 

Unit 7 'Test' 

Unit 8 'Breakfast in the dining room of the hotel, ' 

A, Je at the beginning of a yes-no question, 

B, The subject prefix slot: ni (i sg,) vs u (a sg,) 

C, Tafadhali, 

D, Ni as subject or object prefix. 
Unit 9 'Breakfast at the hotel, revisited,' 

Unit 10 'Aramian enters the dining room, in comparer of his friend 
Beltrano, who speaks no Swahili,' 

A, Subject prefix m (2 plu,). 

B, Subject and object prefix tu (1 plu,). 

Unit 1 1 'Aramian brings his children into the dining room between 
meals , ' 

A, Subject prefixes with -na, 

B, Subject and object prefix wa (3 plu,). 
Unit 12 'One of the hungry children,' 

A, Subject prefix a (3 sg.), 

B, Object prefix m (3 sg,). 

Unit 13 'Luncheon or dinner at the New Africa,' 

A, Negative prefix ha-, 

B, Combinations of ha with a-, u- and ni-, 

C, The linking wo3?d -a. 



Page 

1 
3 

U 

5 
6 

7 

e 



12 

iU 



16 



19 



21 



xtL 



BASIC COURSE 



D, Negative present forms, including change of final a 
of affirmative stem to i. 
Unit ^k 'Afternoon tea,' 

A. Independent subject pronoun mimi, 

B, More concerning negative counterparts of the 
na - tense. 

Unit i5 'Bread and butter with the tea,' 

A, B Concord: Various classes of third person subjects. 

Unit 16 'Preparing to buy food at the door,' 

A, 'Applied' or 'prepositional' stem. 

B, The N class singular, 

C, Affirmative vs. negative forms of a verb vdth vowel- 
final root, 

D, Concord shown in object prefix, N class. 

E, Object prefix for singular of WA class, 

F, Concords: N class singular vs. plural, 

G, Table of animate subject and object prefixes, 
H, Literal meaning of hapana. 

Unit 17 'How are the oranges 2' 

A, (1 ) A verb with stem final i in the affirmative, 
(2) An example of the a-tense, 

B, Concord exemplified in possessives, 

C, Concord exemplified with certain adjective stems, 

D, Table of concords encountered in preceding lessons, 

E, Si as negative of ni. 
Unit 18 'What do we need?' 

A* Concord exemplified in 'objects' of na, 

B, Details of concord with certain adjective stems, 

C, N concords with adjective stems beginning in a 
consonant, 

D, The VI class. 
Unit 19 'Buying at the door, ' 

, A, Use of WA class concords for all nouns denoting 



Page 



27 



31 



35 



Ui 



ue 



52 



xvli 



SWAHILI 



living beings. 
B» Contrast between mb- and mb. 
Unit 20 '"irJhere do you live J' 

A. Adjective used, without antecedent, in a noun 
position, 

B, Demonstratives in h- -o« 
Unit 21 'Where is Morogoro from here?* 

A, Polite yesHio replies in Swahili and English, 
Unit 22 'In a village,' 

A, Danonstratives in hYr-V • 

B, The locative stems -ko, -po. 

C, Phrases with linking -a used without antecedent, 

cm 

D, Special form of 3 sg, animate subject prefix with 
the locative stems. 

Unit 23 'iA/here are you going?' 

A, The locative suffix -ni, 

B, ku- as 'sign of the infinitive. 

C, Use of kw in inflected forms with the stem -enda. 
Unit 21+ . 'VJhere has Juma gone2' 

A, Adjectives which do not take concordial prefixes. 

B, Adjective stems preceded by subject prefixes, 

C, The me -tense, 

D, Use of kw in inflected forms with the stem -isha. 
Unit 25 'jone to pay taxes,' 

A. -mekwisha plus verb stem, 

B, The -i^a- negative coxmterpart of the me-tense. 
Unit 26 'Where has Hamisi gone2' 

A, Regular formation of applied stems. 
Unit 27 'Who is that?' 

A. Use of ku in certain inflected forms of verbs with 
monosyllabic stems. 
Unit 28 'An introduction.' 

A. Bwana used with given names. 



Page 



63 



66 



72 



76 



82 



86 



91 



9k 



xviii 



BASIC COURSE 



B, Me-forins of certain verbs translated into English 
with present tense, 

C, Na with personal pronoiin stems. 
Unit 29 'Do you know Mr, ?• 

A, Difference between concords used with mji and ni^ini, 

B, Some prepositions, 

C, 'Animate' and 'personal' subdivisions of the N class 
of nouns, 

D, Difference between mji and kijiji. 
Unit 30 'Mr, Ochieng,' 

A, Special form (mw) of 3 sg, object prefix before a 
verb stem that begins with a vowel. 
Unit 31 'What kind of work do you do?' 

A, Noun plus -a plus infinitive. 
Unit 32 'You're a farmer, aren't you2' 

A. Complete sentence consisting of absolute personal 
pronoun plus noun, 

B, Contrast in meaning between -panda and -otesha. 
Unit 33 'What do you do with your crops?' 

A, The adjective "ingine as an equivalent for both 
•some' and 'other,' 
Unit 3U 'I'm a cook nowadays,' 

A, Complete sentences consisting of first or second 
person subject prefix plus noun. 
Unit 35 'He's a day laborer,' 

A, Hu -tense, 

B, 'VI -animate' nouns, 

C, The word ^uu. 

Unit 36 'Where were you yesterday? • 

A, Id -tense, 

B, Locatives with -ni corresponding to 'at' 'to* 'fron' 
depending on the context, 

C, Literal translation of saa ngaplg 



Page 



96 



101 



10U 



108 



112 



115 



118 



123 



xix 



SWAHILI 



Unit 37 'Irfhat is your tribal background?' 

A, Articulation of ^, 

B. Past negative forms with -ku-. 
Unit 38 'Where have you been?' 

Unit 39 'Do you speak Luo2' 

A. The prefix ki- in the names of languages. 
Unit Uo 'Planning a holiday tiap»» 

A. Ta -tense. 
Unit Ul 'Getting ready for church,' 

A. Peke y- 

B. Use of ijapokuwa, 

C. Negative of ta-tense, 

D. The mahali class, 

E. "o "ote, 
'Trouble in the kitchen,' 

A. Subjimctive forms, 

B, L^zima plus subjunctive, 
'More trouble in the kitchen,' 

^^ ■ A, Neuter stems. 

B, Afadhali plus subjunctive, 

C, Negative subjunctive with -si-. 
Unit kk 'Bicycle trouble,' 

A, Some additional pairs of simple and neuter stems. 
Unit US 'Trouble with a pen.' 

A. An additional pair of simple and neuter stems, 

B, -lazimu plus subjunctive or infinitive. 
Unit U6 'I've lost a letter,' 

A, Causative stems. 
Unit U7 'Broken dishes.' 
Unit 1+8 'Lighting the lamp.' 

A, Imperative of one verb, followed by subjunctive 
of a second. 
Unit U9 'lighting the lamp,' 



.:.::.f 



Unit U2 



Unit U3 



Page 
129 



133 
135 

139 

1U7 



153 



158 



163 
167 

171 

176 
181 

186 



XX 



BASIC COURSE 



Unit 50 'I'm not hungry, ' 

A. The phrase sasa hivi. 
Unit 51 '"What grade are you in?' 

A, Juu with no possessive folloxdjig it, 

B, First and second person subject prefixes used with 
locative stems. 

Unit 52 'If you don't drink too much,,,' 

A, The distal demonstratives (-le), 

B, The ki-tense. 
Unit 53 'Juma hurt his leg,' 

A, Passive stems, 

B» Passive stems formed on roots which contain vowels, 

C, Difference in meaning between -umwa and timia, 

D, The reflexive prefix -ji-. 
Unit 5h »\Vhere have you been recently?' 

A, Huko with names of places, 

B, Verb phrases in which the first verb is -wa. 
Unit 55 'How's the family?' 

A, Nvunerals which take concordial prefixes, 

B, Stating the ages of persons. 
Unit 56 '"When are you coming to see us?' 

A, The days of the week, 

B« The noun baada. 
Unit 57 '^ilhere will you go after your leave? • 

A, Statements in indirect discourse. 
Unit 58 'Inihy didn't you cone to see us?' 

A, Concordial agreement in'volving numeral phrases. 
Unit 59 'Is yovir wife feeling better?' 

A, -po- as an equivalent for 'when,* 
Unit 60 'The children have coughs,' 

A, -faa with 'impersonal prefix,' 

B» The phrase -pa gole. 
Unit 61 'I don't feel too well,' 



Page 
190 



195 



199 



2oU 



210 



21U 



218 



223 



227 



230 



23U 



2hh 



xx± 



SWAHILI 



Page 
Unit 62 «You've hurt your f ingeri • 2U7 

A. Grammatical subject vs. logical subject. 
Unit 63 'Late to class,' 250 

A, Plural imperative,' 

B. Kitako. 

Unit 6I4, 'Classroom routine,' 25U 

A, The prefix -ka- with subjunctives. 
Unit 65 'A letter from a student abroad,' 258 

A, The prefix -ka- with indicatives, 

B, -tuma and -peleka. 

Unit 66 'i^ parents are going to night school,' 263 

Unit 67 'What is it like at night school? » 267 

A, Relative counterparts of the na and li-tenses. 
Unit 68 ''^at about the fees?' 272 

A. Relative counterparts of forms with the stem -na-. 
Unit 69 'A shortage of professional people,' 276 

A, Relative counterparts of the a-tense. 
Unit 70 'A day off,' 280 

Unit 71 'Let's visit the farm.' 286 

A, Further example of the meaning of -ka-, 

B, Hi^ 'about'. 

Unit 72 'The farm needs rain and fertilizer,' 290 

A, The MU, KU and PA locative concords. 
Unit 73 »3hould I get a crop loan?' ^9k 

A, Relative affixes in agreement with the objects of 
verbs, 

B, Ndi- plus relative affix, 

C, Combination of the constructions described in 
Notes A and B, 

D, Concords of VI (plu,) class in expression of 
manner. 

Unit 7k 'Farm implements.' 299 

A, Locative concord plus possessive stem, with no 
antecedent, 

xxii 



BASIC COURSE 



Unit 75 
Unit 76 

Unit 77 

Unit 78 
Unit 79 



Unit 80 



Unit 81 

Unit 82 
Unit 83 
Unit 8U 
Unit 85 
Unit 86 
Unit 87 
Unit 88 
Unit 89 
Unit 90 



Unit 91 

Unit 92 
Unit 93 



B, The spelling of -ki(i)sha, 
'Times for planting and weeding,' 
'Boy or Girl2' 

A« Wala between negatives, 
'Prenatal care,' 

A, Sequence of verbs joined by na, 
'Post-natal care,' (cont'd from Unit 77) 
'"When are you getting married?' 

A, Relative future forms with -taka-, 

B, Two verbs that are followed by subjunctive forms, 
'Come along to the weddingP 

A, Relative phrases with amba-, 

B, Object affix (es) for second person plural, 
'Getting into town from the airport,' 

A, Tlie stem ~enye, 
'A trip to Tanga,' 
'How much is the basket?' 
'Settling on a price,' (continued) 
'Settling on a price,' (concluded) 
' Buying trousers . ' 

'Settling the price of the trousers,' 
'"Where is the consulate?' 
'Where is the consulate?' (concluded) 
'Clothes for the laundryman, ' 

A, Abstract noxms of the U class, 

B, U class singulars, 
'Doing the wash, ' 

A, Relative counterparts of the a-tense, 
'A good-looking uniform,' 
'Making a bed,' 

A, A verb with two objects, 

B, -uliza plus subjunctive, 

C, -li as a verb stem. 



Page 

303 
307 

311 

31U 
317 

321 

331 

335 
338 

3Ul 

3UU 

3U7 

350 

35U 

356 

357 

365 

369 
372 



xxiii 



SWAHILI 



Page 
Unit 9k •The mosquito net,' 376 

A, Pa as a subject prefix. 
Unit 95 'A guest is coining for dinner I* 38o 

A, Concord with a noun having the prefix ku. 
Unit 96 «At the table,' 383 

A, Concord with two or more nouns, 

B, "ake with an inanimate plural antecedent. 

Unit 97 'Washing dishes,' 387 

A, The subjxmctive with ili« 
Unit 98 "Caring for the lawn.' 391 

A, The reciprocal suffix. 
Unit 99 'Trials of a baby-sitter,' 395 

A, The verb -ruhusu with infinitive or subjunctive. 
Unit 100 'Trials of a baby-sitter,' (continued) 398 

Unit 101 'Riding a bicycle on the streets,' ^07 

A, 'Next' and 'last' with units of time. 
Unit 102 'Conditions of employment,' Uio 

Unit 103 'Conditions of employment,' (continued) UlU 

A, The stem ~ote 'all,' 
Unit loU 'Rearranging tiie ftirniture,' ^"'8 

A, Negative relative present verbs, 

B, The 'reversive' suffix, 

TJnit 105 'Planning a trip by car,' U22 

Unit 106 'Planning a trip by car,' (continued) U26 

Unit 107 'In a shoe store,' ^29 

Unit 108 'In a shoe store,' (continued) '+32 

Unit 109 'In a shoe store,' (continued) ^36 

A, The negative word wala. 
Unit 110 'I live in the country,' Uko 

Unit 111 'I live in the country,' (continued) UU5 

A, Further examples of pa concords, 

B, The verb prefix -nga-. 

Unit 112 'You'd better not go himting without a license,' U5i 



xxiv 



BASIC COURSE 



Unit ^ 


M3 •" 


Unit 


nU • 


Unit 


115 » 


Unit 


116 • 


Unit 1 


117 ' 


Unit ' 


118 » 


Unit 1 


119 ' 


Unit 1 


I20 • 


Unit 1 


121 ' 


Unit 1 


122 I 


Unit 1 


123 « 


Unit 1 


I2U • 


Unit 1 


r25 • 


Unit 


126 • 


Unit 1 


27 « 


Unit ■ 


128 « 


Unit - 


r29 • 


Unit 1 


30 » 


Unit 1 


131 ' 


Unit 1 


132 ' 


Unit 1 


133 » 


Unit 


I3U » 


Unit ■ 


135 • 


Unit 1 


r36 « 


Unit 1 


37 • 


Unit 


138 « 


Unit 1 


139 • 


Unit 1 


lUo « 


Unit - 


lUi » 


Unit 


\kz * 


Unit 


iU3 • 


Unit 


lUU ^ 


Unit 


iU5 »^ 



•You'd better not go himting without a license,' 

Time to get up,' 

Time to get up, ' (continued ) 

Time to get up,' (continued) 
•V/here does the highway go 2' 

Footpaths can be dangerous , • 

Footpaths can be dangerous, • (continued) 

Footpaths can be dangerous,' (continued) 

Fetching water,' 

Planning a hunting expedition,' 

May I go along?' 

Hunting, ' 

Htint ing , ' ( c ont inued ) 

Hospitali za mjini,' 

Kospitali za mjini,' (continued) 

Hospitali za mjini,' (continued) 

Uuzaji wa vyakula sokoni,' 

Uuzaji wa vyakula sokoni,' (continued) 

Uuzaji wa vyakula sokoni,' (continued) 

Uuzaji wa vyakula sokoni,' (continued) 

Uuzaji wa vyakula sokoni,' (continued) 

Mabadiliko mjini Dar es Salaam,' 

Habadiliko mjini Dar es Salaam,' (continued) 

Mabadiliko mjini Dar es Salaam,' (continued) 

ifebadiliko mjini Dar es Salaam,' (continued) 

Mabadiliko mjini Dar es Salaam,' (continued) 

Duka la nguo,' 

Duka la nguo,' (continued) 

Duka la nguo,' (continued) 

Duka la nguo,' (continued) 

Duka la nguo,' (continued) 
•liVatu wazima na maendeleo,' 
'Watu wazima na maendeleo,' (continued) 



Page 
(continued) kSh 
U57 
U6o 
U6U 
U68 

U71 
U75 
U78 
U82 

ues 

U89 
U93 
U97 
5oU 
5o5 
5o6 
5o7 
5o8 
5io 
511 

512 

513 
5iU 
5i6 
517 
519 

520 
521 

523 
52U 
525 
526 

528 



XXV 



SWAHILI 



Unit 1U6 
Unit 1U7 
Unit 1U8 
Unit 1U9 
Unit i5o 
Glossary 



•Watu wazima na maendeleo,' (continued) 
'Watu wazima na maendeleo.' (continued) 
' Safari ya kwenda bara , • 
•Safari ya kwenda bara,' (continued) 
'Safari ya kwenda bara,' (continued) 



Page 
539 
531 
532 
53U 
536 
533 






or • 



'» 



r ' 



xxv± 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 1 



Unit i_ 

1. Basic Dialogue. Routine greeting sequence. 

Mutisja 



jambo (M) 
bwana 
Jamb o J bwana. 

Jambo. 

habari (N) 

-a 

asubuhi (N) 
Habari za asubuhi? 

"ema 
Njeina. 

or 
Habari njema. 



matter, affair 
master, sir, Mr. 
Hellol (said to a man) 



Sangai 



Hellol 

news 

of 

morning 
How are you this morning? 



Mutisjra 



good 
Fine, ('good') 

Fine . ( ' good news ' ) 



Notes 



A. This is an exchange of greetings between two men between the hours 
of daybreak and noon. Mr. Mutisya is a member of the Wakamba tribe, of 
Kenya. Sangai is a member of the Wabondei tribe, of Tanganyika. 

B, Note that the first sound of ^arabo is not quite the same as the 
usual English pronunciation of the first consonant in Jim. 



UNIT 1 SWAHILI 



C. Note that in each word it is the next-to-last syllable that is 
accented. For that reason, we will not need to mark accented syllables 
in Swahili except in the very few words which violate the rule. 

D. The symbols (MA.) and (N) which follow certain words in the build- 
ups will be explained in Unit ^5• 



i'^n :: 



-vrr^ 



V /:;'-;'-«r. /■-■)•->:') .^j^-fq 



<»*WJ!-' 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 2 



1 • Basic Dialogue . 

hujambo 
Hujambo, bwana. 

sijambo 
Sijanibo. 

nichauia 
Habari za inchana? 

Njema, 



Unit_a 

Jfl.dday greetings. 

Sangai 



you have no affair/troubla? 
Hellol (said to a man) 



Mutisja 



Sangai 



I have no affair/trouble 
(reply to H)i^2i]ibo. ) 

daytime 
How are you today? 

Fine. 



Notes 



A, Greeting at any time of day may begin either with ^ambo or with 
hujambo* The replies to each are as shown in Units i and a. £^i<i^o is an 
abbreviation of hujambo, 

B, In pronouncing the word Achana, do not produce a vowel sound either 
before or immediately after the m, 

C, The greeting with rochana may be used at any time during the day- 
light, but particularly in the middle part of the day. 



UNIT 3 



SWAHILI 



Unit_3 

1* Basic Dialogue. Routine evening greetings. 

Sangai 

Jambo, bwana. Hello (sir) I 

Mirainbo 



JambOy bwana. 

usiku(U) 
Habari za jionil 

or 

Habari za usiku? 

Habari njema. 



Hello (sir) i 

night 
How are you this evening? 






Sangai 



Fine I 



Notes 



A. These simple perfunctory greetings (Units 1-7) are those which 
would be used by people who see each other almost every day, 

B. Be sure you have not been pronouncing the last a in bwana and 
n^ema, and the first a in habari, like the last vowel sound in English 
sofa or the first in English above. Tlie quality of both vowels in bwana 
and the first two vowels in habari should be practically identical. 
Speakers of English are particularly likely to 'reduce' such vowels when 
they are in unstressed syllables. 

C. Mr. Mirambo is a member of the Nyarawezi tribe (Western 
Tanganyika ) • 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT k 



Unit_U 

1, Basic Dialogue. Greetings to a lady. 

Hamisi 



mama 
Hujan±)04 mauna. 

Sijambo. 

Habari za asubuhiS 

Njema. 



mother 
Hello (ma 'am) I 
Mrs, Kirambo 



(reply to Hu^ambo) 

How are you this morning? 



Hamisi 



Fine I 



A, Sane people may use bibi 'lady' in place of mama in the above 
exchange. Mama is used only to middle-aged or older women j its basic 
meaning is 'mother.' Bibi is a more general word, but in some parts of 
the Swahili - speaking area, it has lost its flavor of respectability. 



UNIT 5 



SWAHILI 



Unit_5 

1. Basic Dialogue. Scane variants on the greeting routine. 

Mirambo 



Jambo, bwana. 

Sijanbo. 

Habari za Achanal 



"zuri 
Nzuri* 

or 
Habari nzuri. 



Hello (sir) I 



Sangai 



(another reply to iainbo) 

How are you today? 
('News of dasrtime? ' ) 



Mirambo 



good, beautiful 
Fine, ('good') 



;>j »- -■;-H '■^' ."'•«' 



Fine, ('good news') 



Notes 



A, The new expressions in this exchange are interchangeable with their 
counterparts in the preceding units. In some parts of East Africa, the 
word nzuri is preferred to n^eraa in these contexts. 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 6 



Unit^e 

i« Basic Dialogue, One more common variant in routine greetings* 

Sangai 

Uujambo, bwana. 

sana 
Sijambo sana. 

ganil 
Habari gsmil 

Habari njema. 



Hellol 










Mirarabo 










very much 










(Another reply) 










what kind < 


3f1 








How are youl ( 


'Vfliat 


kind 


of news?' 


') 



Sangai 



Fine. 



Notes 

A, The questions in Units 5 and 6 may be combined to give: 
Habari gani za inchana? ( 'V/hat kind of news of daytime? ' ) 

The answer of course remains the same. 



UNIT 7 



SWAHILI 



Unit_7 

Test. Listen to the following dialogues. After each, sxaninarize it by 
specifying the sex of the person spoken to, and the time of day or night. 



Hujaunbo, bwana. 

Sijambo, 

Habari za mchanal 

Nzuri. 



Janboy bwana* 
Sijambo bwana. 
Habari gani za asubuhil 
Nzuri, bwana. 



JambOy inaiDa« 
Jambo, bwana, 
Habari za asubxihi? 
Kjema. 



Janiboj bwana. 

Jambo. 

Habari za usiku? 

Habari njeraa. 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 8 



Unit_8 

1* Basic Dialogue. Breakfast in the dining room of the hotel* 

Waiter 



-taka 
Tuiatsika 
chakula (VI) 
Je, unataka chakula^ 

ndlyo 
Ndiyo, bwana, 

kuna 

gani? 
Kuna chakula ganil 

tunda (MA) 
matunda 
na 

uji (U) 
yai (MA) 
mayai 
Kuna matunda na uji na mayai. 



welll/tell mel (used here to 

introduce the yes-no question) 
to want 
you want 
food 
Would you like [some] food? 



Aramian 



Waiter 



that is it 
Ye 3} please. 

there is 

\diat kind*? 
What kind of food is there? 

a piece of fruit 

fruit 

and 

thin porridge/gruel 

egg 
eggs 
There is fruit, gruel, and eggs. 



UNIT 8 



SWAHILI 



Aramian 



tafadhali 
-Istea 
niletee 
Tafadhali, niletee mayai. 



please 

to bring for/to 
bring me 
Please bring me [sane] eggs. 



Notes 



A, Je at the beginning of a yes-no question. 

The word ^e is used at the beginning of a question to focus the 
hearer's attention. In this way it is somewhat comparable to English Sajrl 
Je is not necessaiy in yes-no questions. 

B, The subject prefix slot: ni (i sg.) vs. u (2 sg»). 
Compare the forms: 



unataka 
ninataka 



'you want' 
'I want' 



The syllables u- and ni- are 'subject prefixes' partly corresponding to the 
English subject pronouns you (sg. ) and I» 

C, Tafadhali, 

Though we have given please as a rough English equivalent of tafadhali, 
the latter is used in Swahili less often than glease is used .In English. 

D. Ni as subject or object prefix. 
Compare the forms: 



ninataka 
niletee 



'I want' 
'bring me • 



In both forms, the syllable ni- is a first person singular prefix standing 
for I or me. In the form which ends with -e it stands for the object (me ). 

E, The form kigo is used in some parts of East Africa where in this 
dialogue we have used kuna, 

2. Substitutions in single sentences. 



10 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 8 



A. Je^ unataka % 
chakula Je, unataka chakula? 
mayal Je, unataka mayalj 
matunda Je, unataka matunda^ 
chakula Je, unataka chakula? 

B. Tafadhali, niletee _.„• 

mayai Tafadhali, niletee mayai. 
matunda Tafadhali, niletee matunda. 
mayai Tafadhali, niletee mayai, 
uji Tafadhali, niletee uji, 
chakula Tafadhali, niletee chakula, 

3, Substitution in sets of sentences, 
ujl Kuna chakula ganil 

Kuna uji. 

Unataka uji? 

Ndiyo, Niletee uji. 



matunda 



mayai 



Kuna chakula ganl? 
Kuna matunda, 
Unataka matunda? 
Ndiyo, Niletee matunda, 

Kuna chakula gani? 
Kuna mayai, 
Unataka mayai? 
Ndiyo, Niletee mayai. 



Do you want food? 
Do you want eggs? 
Do you want fmit? 
Do you want food? 

Please bring me eggs. 
Please bring me fruit. 
Please bring me eggs. 
Please bring me porridge. 
Please bring me food. 

What kind of food is there? 
There is gruel. 
Do you want gruel? 
Yes, Bring me gruel. 

What kind of food is there? 
There is fruit. 
Do you want fruit? 
Yes, bring me fruit. 

What kind of food is there? 
There are eggs. 
Do you want eggs? 
Yes, bring me eggs* 



11 



UNIT 9 



SWAHILI 



Unit 9 



1* Basic dialogue* Breakfast at the hotel, revisited* 



Waiter 



Je, unataka inatundal 



Kdiyo, bwana, 
Kuna matvmda ganil 

ndizi (N) 
Kuna ndizit 

cbuogva (M) 
machungwa 
embe (M) 
maembe 
Kuna ndizi na inachungwa na 
maembe • 



Would you like ('do you want' ) 
some fruit? 



Aramian 



Waiter 



./tS." I 



res, [I would] (sir). 

What kind of fruit is there? 

banana/bananas 
Are there [any] bananas? 

orange 
oranges 
mango 
mangoes 
There are bananas and oranges and 
mangoes* 



. c..: V( 



Aramian 



one 



moja 

Tafadhali, niletee chungwa moja* Please bring me one orange* 

Notes 

N. B» In some parts of East Africa, the plural of embe 'mango' is 
embe (N)« 



ia 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 9 



2« Kuna 


2 


A. 


Kxina machungwa? 


ndizi 


Kuna ndizil 


maembe 


matunda uji 


B. Kuna 


na .«_«• 




Kuna ndizl na maeinbe. 


uji 


Kvma maembe na uji. 


matxuida 


Kuna matunda na nayai* 


Ddizi 


Kuna mayal na ndizl. 



Are there any orange si 
Are there any bananas? 
chakula majail 

There are bananas and mangoes < 
There are mangoes and gruel* 
There is fruit and eggs» 
There are eggs and bananas* 

3* Substitutions in sequences of sentences* 

Kuna matunda ganil 
Kuna maembe na ndizi* 
Niletee ndizi* 

Substitute various combinations of names of finiits in this conversation* 



13 



UNIT 10 



SWAHILI 



Unit_i^o 

1, Basic dialogue. Aramian enters the dining room, in conpaniy of his 
friend Beltrano, who speaks no Swahili, 

Waiter 

karibu 
Karibu. 



I'/i ■ 



-starehe 
asante 
Starehe, starehe, asante* 

ronataka 
Mnataka chakulal 





near 








Come 


in. 








Aramian 












to be 


at rest 






thank 


you 






Dcm' 


t trouble. 


Thank 


you. 


Waiter 











you (pi.) want 
Do you want f oodl 



Aramian 



tuletee bring us 

Ndiyo, tafadhali tuletee matunda. Yes, please bring us SOTie fruit. 

Notes 

A. Subject prefix m (2 plu. ). 
Compare the forms 

ninataka I want 

unataka you (sg.) want 

mnataka you (pi. ) want 

The subject pronoun for second person plural is ni-. Be careful not to 
pronounce a vowel between the m and the n in mnataka. Be careful also not to 
pronounce a vowel before the m. 



BASIC COURSE UNIT io 



B, Subject and object prefix tu (i plu,), 
Ccxnpare the forms: 

niletee bring me 

tuletee bring us 

The object (and subject) pronoxm for first person plural (we, us) is tu-, 

2. >^tching parts of paired sentences* 

A, First vs. second person, singular and plural, 

Unataka chakula? Ndiyo. Niletee matunda, 

Mnataka chakulaj Ndiyo. Tuletee matunda, 

B, Unataka matunda^ Ndiyo, Niletee ndizi, 
^ataka matunda! Ndiyo, Tuletee ndizi. 

C, Ninataka chakula, Unataka chakula gani? 
Tunataka chakula, Mnataka chakula gani? 

D, Niletee matunda, Unataka matunda ganil 
Tuletee matunda, Mnataka matunda gani? 

3, Free conversation. A goes into the dining roan for breakfast. Bis his 
waiter, A is joined by his friend C, 



15 



UNIT 11 



SWAHILI 



i« Basic dialogue* Aranian brings his children into the dining rocin 
between meals* 

Aramian 



vatoto 




Children 


Atoto (WA) 




child 


"angu 




«Br 


wangu 


.''•', J ■' 


HOT 


wana ' - '"'■■' -''' ■«.^''»'; 


;■■ ..::h.: 


they have 


njaa (N) 


~:xJ^- 


hunger 


Watoto wangu wana njaa* 


- 


Jfy- children are hvmgry* 


',:■-.■:■ ;> -I C ^' i 




you have 


fina chakula? ^^ ,,.,:. 


' ,*" J '-'"'""' 


Have you anything to eat? 


• ^0^ .:k; 


.y' '■ - 


( 'do you have food' ) 



Waiter 



tuna 

i^ate (HI) 
Ndlyo. Tuna matunda na inkate* 



we have 
bread 
Yes, we have [s<ane] fruit and [some] 
bread* 



Aramian 



waletee 
Tafadhali, waletee iSlkate* 



bring them 
Please bring them some bread* 



1« 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 11 



Notes 



A, Subject prefixes with -na, 

Cwnpare the forms: 
na 
tuna 
mna 
wana 
kuna 



and, with 

we have 

you (pi, ) have 

they (animate) have 

there is 



A more literal translaticai for tuna is we with* 

B. Subject and object prefix wa (3 plu,)« 

The prefixes tu- and A are familiar from Unit 10, The prefix wa- is 
used for third person plural, animate subjects and objects. 



2. Matching parts of paired sentences. 
A, Watoto wana chakula gani? 

Wana mkate* 



What kind of food do the 

children have? 
They have bread. 



fina. chakula ganiS Tuna mkate. 

Una chakula ganiS Nina mkate. 

(etc., the above to be repeated in random order as long as needed.) 

B, Nina njaa. Nile tee chakula. 

Tuna njaa. Tuletee chakula. 

Watoto wana njaa. Waletee chakula. 
3. Substitution in sequences of sentences. 
A, Wana njaa. 

Wanataka chakula ganil 

Wanataka matunda. 
For the first word in this conversation, substitute nina, and continue the 



17 



UNIT 11 SWAHILI 



conversation accordingly. Do the same with tuna. Use other words in place 
of matunda* 



18 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 12 



Unlt_i2 
1* Basic dialogue. One of the hungry children* 

Muti^^ 

Hamisi given name (male ) 

ana he/she has 

Je, Hamisi ana njaa{ Is Hamisi hxmgryi 

Aramian 



Ndiyo, 



Anataka mkate na uji? 



tu 
basi 
Hie tee mkate tu, basi* 

vizuri 
Vizuri. 



Yes, he is* 



Mutisya 



Would he like [some] bread and 
porridge? 



Aramian 



only 

that is all (an interjection) 
Just bring him some bread* 



Mutisya 



good (things) 
Very well* 



Notes 



A. Subject prefix a (3 sg.)* 

Compare the forms: 

una njaa you are hungry 

ana njaa he/she is hungry 

The subject prefix for third person singvilar of animate nouns is a-, 

19 



UNIT 12 



SWAHILI 



B» Object prefix m (3 sg. )• 

Compare the forms: 

tuletee mkate bring us some bread 

mletee mkate bring him/^er scsine bread 

The object prefix for third person singular of animate nouns is A-» 
2* Matching parts of paired sentences. 

A. Hamisi ana machungwa. Hamisi has some oranges* 
Watoto wana machungwa. The children have some oranges* 

B. Hamisi ^ anataka inkate. Hamisi wants some bread* 
Watoto wanataka mkate* The children want some bread* 

C. Ana njaa. ^etee chakula* 
Wana njaa* Wale tee chakula* 
Nina njaa* Niletee chakula* 
Tuna njaa* Tuletee chakula* 

3. Free conversation* 

Aramian brings his hungry children into the dining roOTi, He orders food 
from the waiter. The children chime in, but Aramian knows that their eyes 
are bigger than their stomachs* 



so 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 13 



Unit_23 

i« Basic dialogue. Luncheon or dinner at the New Africa* 

Waiter 



supu (N) 
Unataka supu2 



soup 
Are you having the soup? 
( 'Do you want soupl' ) 



Aramian 



Ndiyo, tafadhali niletee* Tes* Flease bring me [it]« 

(after the soup) 
Waiter 



samaki (N or N-anijnate) 
Unataka sanakiZ 



Aramisin 



sitakL 

la 
La, sitaki* 

cyaina (N) 

sasa 
Tafadhali niletee nyama sasa* 

leo 
Kuna nyama gani leo? 



fish 
Will you have the fish? 
('Do you want fish?' ) 

I do not want 

no 
No, I don't want [it]* 

meat 

now 
Please bring me the meat now* 

today 
What kind of meat is there today? 



81 



UNIT 13 



SWAHILI 



Waiter 



ng ' anibe (N-animate ) 
Kuna nyama ya ng'(xnbe« 

hakuna 

nguruwe (N-animate) 
Hakuna nyama ya ngviruwel 

La, bwana. Tuna nyaina ya 
ng'cMnbe tu, basi. 

A, Negative prefix ha-, 
Canpare the forms: 
kuna 
hakuna 



Aramian 



cow, ox 
There is beef. 

there is not 

pig 
Isn't there any pork? 



Waiter 



No, we have beef only. 



Notes 



there is 
there is not 



Most negative verb forms in Swahili begin with the negative prefix ha-» 
Whenever this prefix is used, it always stands at the very beginning of the 
word, before other kinds of prefixes like tu=, 

B, Combinations of ha with a-, u- and ni-. 

Compare the forms: 



Affirmative 


kuna 


tuna 


wana 


mna 


Negative 


hakuna 


hatuna 


havana 


hamna 



ivi In these, the negative is simply ha-, followed by the corresponding 
affirmative form. The affirmative forms all begin with consonants. 
Affirmative ana una 
Negative hana huna 



28 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 13 




Here, the affirmative forms begin with vowels. The negative forms con- 
sist of h- followed by the affirmative forms. The -a of the negative prefix 
is said to have been elided* 

Affirmative nina 

Negative sina 

Here, where one might expect a negative Jjwji"* "the form which actually 
occurs is si-. 

C, The linking word -a. 
In the form 

nyama ya ng'onbe beef (lit. cow-meat) 

the word jg is used to link the main word {^[aKa and its satellite n|'anbe. 
Note that the main word ccones first. Ya is sometimes translated by English 
of. 

D. Negative present forms, including change of final a of affirmative 
stem to i. 

Conpare the forms: 

ninataka I want 

sitaki I don't want 

Again, the negative of a form that begins with ni begins with si. 

Note also that where the affirmative ends with -a, the negative ends u 



with -i. 

2. Substitution in single sentences* 

A • Hakuna leo. 

supu Hakuna supu leo. There is no soup today. 

nyama Hakuna nyama leo. There is no meat today, 
mkate samaki maembe 

B» Watoto hawana _______• 

supu Watoto hawana supu. The childz*en have no soupi 



83 






UNIT 13 



SWAHILI 



njaa Watoto hawana njaa« 

ndizi chakula nyaitia 

C. Hamisi hana ^ • 
natunda Hainisi hana matimda. 
machungvra. Hamisi hana machiingwa, 

^ate njaa ndizi 

D. Hafeia ^^% 

nyama Hamna nyama? 

irikate Hanina mkate? 

samaki maeirbe chakula 

£• Ha tuna . 

ndizi Hatuna ndizi* 

chakula Hatvma chakula, 

njaa matunda uji 

F, Huna ? 

njaa Hvina njaa? • 

i^kate Huna nikate? 

inachungwa chcikula ndizi 

G, Sina ._...„• 

ndizi Sina ndizi* 
nyama Sina nyama* 

samaki irikate chakula 

H. Sitaki • 

chakula Sitaki chakula. 



The children are not hungry. 



Hamisi has no fruit* 
Hamisi has no oranges* 



Don't you have any meat? 
Don't you have any bread? 



We have no bananas* 
We have no food. 



Aren't you hungry? 
Have you no bread? 



I don't have any bananas, 
I don't have any meat* 



I don't want any food* 



2k 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 13 



uji 


Sitaki uji. 


roatunda 


nyama samaki 


I. Hatutaki _ 


• 


samakl 


Hatutaki samaki. 


mkate 


Hatutaki mkate* 


maenbe 


ndizi machungwa 



I don't want any porridge. 



We dcai't want any fish. 
We don't want any bread. 



J, Negative of -na vs. negative of -taka, (1-2, z-i) 



Ha tuna machungwa. 
Hawana inacbungwa. 
Hana machungwa. 
Sina machungwa, 
Huna machungwa^ 



Hatutaki machungwa. 
Hawataki machungwa. 
Hataki machungwa. 
Sitaki machungwa. 
Hutaki machungwa^ 
Haintaki machungwa? 



Hamna machungwa? 

K, Affirmative vs. negative, -taka, no person change. 

Tunataka nikate. Hatutaki uji. 

Wanataka mkate. Hawataki uji. 

Anataka mkate. Hataki uji. 

Ninataka mkate. Sitaki uji, 

L. Affirmative vs. negative, -taka, with person changeo 

Wanataka samaki? La, hawataki. 

Anataka samaki? La, hataki. 

Unataka samaki? La, sitaki. 

}toataka samaki? La, hatutaki. 
3« Substitutions in sequences of sentences. Replace any of the imderlined 
parts.' 



25 



UNIT 13 



SWAHILI 



A. 



X. Watoto wana nyama? 
Y. Havana nyama* 
Wana su]^« 



B. 



X* Hand si anataka inkateS 
Y. La, hataki ^ate. 
Anataka n2;ama« 



26 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT Ik 



Unit_iU 

1* Basic dialogue. Afternoon tea* 

Waiter 

chai (N) 
kahawa (N) 
au 
Mnataka chai, au kahawa? 



Aramian 



Tafadhali, tuletee chai, 

sukari (N) 
niazlwa (plu. MA) 
Mnataka sukari na maziwa? 

rafiki (N-personfiQ. ) 

yangu 

-tumia 

anatunia 
Ndiyo. Rafiki yangu anatumia 
sukari na maziwa* 

lakini 

mimi 
Lakini mind, ninatumla maziva tu, 
basi* 



tea 
coffee 
or 
Do you want tea, or coffee? 

Please bring us some tea* 



Waiter 



sugar 
milk 
Do you want milk and sugar? 



Aramian 



friend 

my 

to use 

he uses 
Yes> please* Ity friend uses milk 
and sugar* 

but 

I 
But I use only milk* 



27 



UNIT 1U SWAHILI 



Notes 

A, Independent subject pronoun aini. 
Compare the sentences: 

Ninatuinia sukari. I use sugar* 

Kimi, ninatumia sukari. [as for me], I use sugar* 

Swahili has a set of subject pronouns which are separate words, and not 
just prefixes* Mini is one of them* But these pronouns are used as subjects 
of verbs for emphasis* They are also used when the verb fonr. is in a tense 
that does not have subject prefixes* The ccsigjlete set is as follows: 

sge plu, 

1 * mind sisi 

2. wewe ninyl 

3« yeye wao 

B. More concerning negative counterparts of the na-tense* 
Ccwipare the forms: 

tunatumia anatumia ninatumia 

hatutumii hatumii situmii 

The combinations of ha- with the subject prefixes are represented in 
exactly the same way as in the fonns studied in Unit 13* 

The affirmative fonrjs in this tense have the tense-sign -na- between 
the subject prefix and the root* In the negative forms, the root follows 
directly after the subject prefix: 

tu - na - tumi - a 

ha - tu - - tumi - i 

Again, the affirmative forms end with "^^ while the corresponding 
negative forms end with -i* 



28 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT iU 



Hamlsi uses sugar* 
HaHiisi wants sugar* 
}^ friend wants sugar* 
Ity friend wants milk. 



2* Substitution in single sentences* Substitute each item, in^^the^order 
given, in the sentence that precedes* 

A. Na - present, 3 sg, subject, 

Hamisi anatumia sukari, 

anataka Hamisi anataka sukari. 

rafiki Rafiki yangu ajiataka sukari* 

maziwa Rafiki yangu anataka maziwa* 

sukari Rafiki yangu anataka sukari* Ity friend wants sugar* 

anatmnia Rafiki yangu anatumia sukari. Ity friend uses sugar* 

watoto Watoto wanatumia sukari* 

B. Negative present, 3 sg, subject* 

Hamisi hataki sukari* 
hatumii Hamisi hatumii sukari. 
maziwa Hamisi hatumii naziwa* 
rafiki Rafiki yangu hatumii maziwa* 
sukari Rafiki yangu haturaii sukari* 
hataki Rafiki yangu hataki sukari* 



I 



The children use sxigar* 



I 



Hamisi doesn't want sugar* 
Hamisi doesn't use sugar* 
Hamisi doesn 't use milk. 
My friend doesn't use milk. 
Ify friend doesn't use sugar* 
}fy friend doesn't want sugar* 



3* Matching parts of paired sentences, affirmative vs. negative* 
A. No change of person, 

•I use sugar' 
Ninatumia sukari* 
Tunatumia sukari* 
Hamisi anatiiinia sukari* 
Watoto wanatumia sukari. 



'I dcu't use milk' 
Situmii maziwa* 
Hatutumli maziwa* 
Hatumii maziwa* 
Hawatumii maziwa* 



89 



UNIT iU 



SWAHILI 



B, With change of person. 

• Do you use milk? • 
Unatuinia maziwa? 
Anatuoiia maziwaj 
Hamisi anatunia maziwal 
Watoto wanatumia maziwal 

C. Negative vs. af f innative , with 

'I don't use milk' 
Situmii maziwa. 
Hatutunii maziwa. 
Hamisi hatumii maziwa* 
Watoto hawatumii maziwa. 



'No, I don't use [it],' 
La, situmii* 
La, hatutumii* 
La, hatiomiia 
La, hawatmnii* 
change of person* 

' Do you use sugar? ' 
Unatumia sukari? 
Mnatvunia sukari? 
Anatumia sukari? 
Wanatumia sukari? 



I4* Free conversation* • j--: 

Arareian brings his children down for their afternoon tea* 



30 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 15 



Unit_i5 

i« Basic dialogue* Bread and butter with the tea« 

Waiter 



-tosha 
Kkate unatoshaj bwana^ 



Aramian 



sana 
Ndiyo, unatosha sana. 

siagi (N) 
kwa 
Lakini siagi haitoshi kwa inkate* 



to be svif ficient 
Is there enough bread, sir2 
( ' does the bread suffice? • ) 

very much 
Oh, yes, there 's plenty, 
(•it suffices very much' ) 
butter 

by, with, at 
But there's not enough butter for 

the bread. 
Please bring me [some] butter. 



Tafadhali niletee siagi. 

Waiter 
vema good 

Vema. Very good, [sir]. 

Notes 
A, Concord: Various classes of third person subjects. 
Compare the phrases: 

Hamisi anataka ... Hamisi wants • • • 

Akate unatosha the bread is sufficient 

nyama inatosha the meat is sufficient 



31 



UNIT 15 



SWAHILI 



The subjects of all three verbs are 'third person singulsir', but the 
subject prefixes are all different. The subject words, with the subject pro- 
nouns that follow them, are: 



Hanisi 

mkate 

nyaina 



a- 
u- 
i- 



and other ccxnbinations like nyama unatosha or Hamisi inataka are forbidden. 
This obligatory relationship between subject and subject prefix is an example 
of 'concordial agreement', or 'concord'. 

B, Concord: Various classes of third person subjects. 
Here is a list of most of the nouns used so far, together with the 
subject prefixes which agree with them: 



mkate 


u- 


bread 


uji 


u- 


thin porridge 


matunda 


ya- 


fruit 


maembe 




mangoes 


mayai 




eggs 


machungwa 




oranges 


maziwa 




milk 



Note that all words in this group begin with ma-, and that the first four 
are plural or collective in meaning, while the last is the name of a liquid, 



chakula 


ki- 


food 


slagi 


i- 


butter 


nyama 


i- 


meat 


chai 


i- 


tea 


kahawa 


i- 


coffee 



3a 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 15 



Note that these words have no obvious prefix In coRunon. In meaning, none is 
a plural. 

ndlzi zl- bananas 

This word is a plural. 

2o Substitutions in single sentences. (Concord of noun subject and subject 
prefix, ) 



A. natosha sana. 

nikate ^ate unatosha sana. 

siagi Siagi inatosha sana. 

sukarl Svikari inatosha sana. 

nyama Nyairia inatosha sana. 

kahawa Kahawa inatosha sana. 

samaki Sanaki inatosha sana. 

chal Chai Inatosha sana. 

supu Supu inatosha sana. 

uji UJi unatosha sana. 

B. 

matunda Matunda yanatosha sana. 

inaeinbe Maembe yanatosha sana. 

or: Embe zinatosha sana. 

roachungwa Machvmgwa yanatosha sana, 

maziwa Maziwa yanatosha sana, 

ndlzi Ndizi zinatosha sana, 

chakula Chakula klnatosha sana. 



There is plenty of bread. 
There is plenty of butter. 
There is plenty of sugar. 
There is plenty of meat. 
There is plenty of coffee. 
There is plenty of fish. 
There is plenty of tea. 
There is plenty of soup. 
There is plenty of porridge* 

There is plenty of fruit. 
There are plenty of mangoes. 

There are plenty of oranges. 
There is plenty of milk. 
There are plenty of bananas. 
There is plenty of food. 



33 



UNIT 15 




C. 




mkate 


Mkate hautoshi. 


maziwa 


Maziwa hayatoshi. 


roatunda 


Matunda hayatoshi* 


machiingwa 


Machungwa hayatoshi. 


maembe 


Maembe hayatoshi. 




or: Embe hazitoshi 


chakula 


Chakula hakitoshi. 


D. 


'■ ■ I*; f '■ " 


siagi 


Siagi haitoshi. 


nyama 


Nyama haitoshi. 


chai 


Chai haitoshi. 


kahawa 


Kahawa haitoshi. 


uji 


Uji hautoshi. 


ndizi 


Ndizi hazitoshi. 



SWAHILI 



There is not enough bread. 
There is not enough milk* 
There is not enough fruit. 
There are not enough oranges. 
There are not enough mangoes. 

There is not enough food. 

There is not enough butter. 
There is not enough meat. 
There is not enough tea. 
There is not enough coffee. 
There is not enough gruel. 
There are not enough bananas. 



3. Free conversation. '"'.J.' 

Aramian and his family are back again for tea. They have trouble 
getting enough butter for their bread, and enough milk and sugar for their 
tea or coffee. 



3U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 16 



Unit_i6 
1. Basic disilogue. Preparing to buy food at the door. 

Mitisjra 

-leta bring 

Hamisi analeta matunda? Is Hajtiisi bringing fruit? 

Aramian 



nazi (N) 
nanasi (MA) 
mansmasi 
Ndiyo, anatuletea nazi na 
mananasi* "^^^ 

Ahi Vizuri sanal 
Hatuna mananasi leo* 

-jua 

bei (N) 
Unaijua bei ya mananasi? 



hapana 
Hapana, siijui. 



coconut/coconuts 
pineapple 
pineapples 
Yes, he is bringing us coconuts and 

pineapples. 



Mutisya 



Ah I Very good I 

We don't have any pineapples today, 

know 

price 
Do you know (it) the price of the 
pineapples? 



Aramian 



no 



No, I don't (know it), 



Notes 



A. 'Applied' or 'prepositional' stem. 
Cojipare the forms: 



35 



UNIT 16 SWAHILI 



analeta matunda he is bringing fruit 

anatuletea matunda he is bringing us fzniit 

In the second verb, the syllable -tu- is of course the i plu. object 
prefix. The stems of the verbs in these sentences are respectively -leta 
and -letea* Both are translated with English hringe 

The stem -letea is used to indicate that the action of bringing is per- 
formed with reference to someone or something* A possible gloss would be 

The stem -letea is called the 'applied', or 'prepositional' form of the 
simple stem -letae 

B. The N class singiilar* 

The word bei is in the same concord class as n^ama. That is, when it 
is used as the subject of a verb, then that verb has the subject prefix i-. 
Likewise, both words are followed by ^as 

nyama ya ng'ombe meat of cow 

bei ya mananasi price of pineapples 

The word nazi 'coconut' is also in this class. This class of nouns in 
Swahili (and in Bantu languages generally) is called 'the N - class'. We 
indicate membership in this class by the symbol (N), 

C. Affirmative vs. negative present forms of a verb with vowel-final 
root. r 

The forms 

unataka you want 

unajxia you know 

are parallel to one another, as are the forms 

sitaki I don't want 

sijui I don't know 



36 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 16 



D« Concord shovm in object prefix, N class* 

In the form 

unaijua? do you know it? 

the syllable -i- is the object prefix used in agreement with a singular noun 
of the N-class (bei). It is possible to use either the object prefix with- 
out the noun object, as in the above example, or the noun object without the 
object prefix, or - as in the basic dialogue - both object prefix and noun 
object in the same sentence. The object prefix is used alone without the 
noun object in the reply siijjui. 

E, Object prefix for singular of WA class. 

In the exercises we find the sentence 

Unamjua Hamisi? Do you know Hamisi? 

Here, -A- is the 3 sg. animate object prefix, agreeing with the noun object 
Hamisi* 

Unlike the other inanimate object prefixes, the animate object prefixes 
-A- (sg.) and -wa- (plu. ) roist be used when there is a noun object* 

Some people prefer the verb -fahamu to the verb -^ua in this context* 

F* Concords: N class singular vs. plural* 

In the translations of the sentences in 16*2, the N-class words were 
translated either as singular or as plural, with no change in the form of 
the Swahili word* 

nazi coconut/coconuts 

ndizi bananaA^inanas 

bei price/prices 

and, for some speakers: 

embe mango/mangoes 

All nouns of the N-class are identical in singular and plural, but the ccn- 
cordial px^fixes that agree with them differ. 



37 



UNIT 16 SWAHILI 



ndizl Inatosha the bansuia suffices 

ndlzi zinatosha the bananas suffice 

The noun habari is a noun of the N-class^ used here in the plural. Note the 
difference in concords with the linking -a: 

i^ama ^a ng'oinbe 

habari za asubuhl 

G. Table of animate subject and object prefixes* 

The animate subject and object prefixes, in tabular form, are: 



singular plural 





s«p« 


o.p. 


s»p. 


o.p« 


1* 


nl- 


-ni- 


tu- 


-tu- 


2. 


u- 


-ku- 


m- 


-wa-(stem)-enl 


3. 


a- 




wa- 


-wa- 



H* Literal meaning of ha^ana* 

The literal and original meaning of hagana is 'there is not.' It is, 
however, often used as a reply equivalent to English 'no'. Another equiv- 
alent for 'no' is lae 

2, Matching parts of paired sentences. 

A. Subject in first sentence z*elated to object prefix in second. 

'We have no bananas.' 'Hamisi is bringing us bananas.' 

Hatuna ndlzi. ' v Hamlsl anatuletea ndlzl. 

Slna ndlzi. Hamlsl ananlletea ndlzi. 

Watoto hawana ndlzi. Hamisi anawaletea ndlzi* 

Daudi hana ndlzi. Hamlsl anaj&Letea ndlzi* 

(Daudl Is another proper name.) 

Huna ndlzl? Hamlsl anakuletea ndlzi* 

B, 

'We have no coconuts.' 'He is bringing us coconuts.' 

38 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 16 



Hatuna nazi. 
Havana nazi. 
Hana nazi. 
Huna nazi. 
Sina nazi. 



Anatuletea nazi. 
Anawaletea nazi. 
Anai^etea nazi. 
Anakviletea nazi. 
Ananiletea nazi. 



C. Root of verb in first sentence vs. object prefix plus applied stem 
in second* 

'Hamisi is not bringing 'He is not bringing us coconuts.' 

coconuts.' 

nazi Handsi haleti nazi. 

£kate Hamisi haleti iokate. 

nyama supu natunda 

D. Varying subject prefixes before an object prefix. 



Hatuletei nazi. 
Hatuletei nkate. 



£. 



'do you know (it) the 
price of coffee 2' 

Unaijua bei ya kahawa? 

Hamisi anaijua bei ya 
kahawa^ 

Watoto wanaijua bei ya 
kahawal 

^aijua bei ya kahawat 

'do you know Hamisit' 
Unanjua Hamisi? 
I'fnaiiijua Hamisi? 



'no, I don't know it.' 

Hapana, siijui. 

Hapana, haijui. 

Hapana, hawaijui. 
Hapana, hatuijui. 

'no, I don't know him.' 
Hapana, simjui. 
Hapana, hatunljui. 



39 



UNIT 16 



SWAHILI 



Daudi anamjua Hamisi? 
Watoto wamamjua Handsil 



F. 



•do you know our children?' 
UnawaJTia watoto vangul 
Mnawajua watoto wangu? 
Daudi anawajua watoto wangul 
Daudi na Hands i wanawajua 
watoto wangu? 



Hapana, hamjui, 
Hapana, hawamjui* 

'yes, I know theoi very [well],' 
Ndiyo, ninawajua sana, 
Ndiyo, tunawajua sana, 
Ndiyo, anawajua sana, 

Ndiyo, wanawajua sana. 



3. Substitution in sequences of sentences. Run through the entire dialogue, 
using various foodstuffs and modifying the dialogue appropriately. 



l»o 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 17 



i« ^slc dialogue* Hov are the oranges? 

Mutisj^a 

"ako your 

RaflkL yako analeta natiuida ganlj What kind of fruit is your friend 

bringing? 
Aramian 

"dhani to think 

nadhani I think 

Sijui. Nadhani analeta machungwa* I don't know* I think he's bringing 

oranges* 
Mutisja 

his/her 

good 

is/are 
Are his oranges good? 
Aramian 

custom 
They are usually very good* 

time 

some/other 

is not/are not 

ripe 
But soitietimes they are not ripe* 



"ake 
~zuri 
ni 
Machungwa yake ni mazuri? 

kawaida (N) 
Kwa kawaida, ni nazuri sana* 

wakati (U) 

"ingine 

si 

"bivu 
Lakini wakati nwingine si mabivu. 



Ul 



UNIT 17 SWAHILI 



Notes 

A* The -verb farm nadhani 'I think' Is different in two respects from 
the verbs we have met previously* 

(i ) A verb with stem final i in the affirmative* 

Its final vowel is -1 in both affirmative and negative fonns: 

nadhani - I think 

sidhani I don't think 

(s) An example of the a-tense* 

Breaking the form down alongside ninataka, we have: 

£lE£ ^SSS.S^bS stem 
ni- -na«> -taka 

n- -«■> -dhanl 

We will say that nl^^taka is an exaaple of 'the na-tense of the verb -taka»' 
In the same way, nadhani is an example of 'the a-tense of the verb dhanl*' 
Other persons and nusibers of the a-tense will be met in later iinits* 

B« Concord exenqplifled in possessives* 

Caaspare the phrases: 

maembe yake his/her mangoes 

or: embe zake 
ndizi zake his bananas 

ndizi yake his banana 

kahawa yake his coffee 

chakula chake , . , his food 

Akate wake his bread 

uji wake his gruel 

The stem of the possessive pronoun that con^sponds to English hlsAer 
is "ake* Like the verbs, possessives also take concordial prefixes to agree 
with the nouns that they go with* 

hi 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 17 



Note that Akatg and uji, i^iich are followed hy identical subject pre- 
fixes, also have identical concords with possessives* (They are assigned to 
different classes, however, for reasons that go beyond the evidence so far 
presented* ) 

Note also that the plural of the HA-class (e.g. ^aembe) and the singular 
of the N class (e.g. k^»fa), which require different subject concords, re- 
quire identical possessive concords* 

C« Concord exes^lified with certain adjective stems* 

CoD9}are the sentences: 

Maenibe yake ni mazuri* His mangoes are good* 

Ndizi zake ni nzuri* His bananas are good* 

Ndizi yake ni nsturi* His banana is good* 

Chakula chake ni kizuri* His food is good* 

Mkate wake ni dsuri* His bread is good* 

UJi wake ni Jizuri* His gruel is good* 

The stem of the adjective that corresponds to English go^ in these 
sentences is '^uri* Like the verbs and the possessives, most adjectives must 
agree with the nouns that they refer to, but the respective forms of the 
prefixes are different* 

D* Table of concords encountered in preceding lessons* 

Here is a chart of the noun classes which have been net so far, show- 
ing characteristic prefix (if any) of the noun itself, and the prefixes 
Inquired with adjectives, possessives, and verbs (subject and object pre- 
fixes)* The numbers are those used for these classes in many scientific 
discussions of Bantu languages* 



ki 



UNIT 17 



SWAHILI 



noun 



adi. 



£OSS< 



s\^j|ect 



^^ect 



WA 


sg. 


(1) 


Bt- 


la- 


w- 


a- 


-m-/-BW' 




pi. 


(2) 


wa- 


wa- 


w- 


wa- 


-wa- 


MI 


sg. 


(3) 


»- 


m-Aw- 


w- 


u- 


-u- 




pl. 


(ur 


nd- 


mi-/iny- 


y- 


i- 


-i- 


hk 


sg. 


(5) 


(none ) 


(none) 


1- 


li- 


-li- 




pl. 


(6) 


na- 


ma- 


y- 


ya- 


-ya- 


VI 


sg. 


(7) 


ki-/ch- 


ki-/ch- 


ch- 


kl- 


-ki- 




pl. 


(8)- 


vi-Ay- 


vi»/vy- 


vy- 


vi- 


-vi- 


N 


sg. 


(9) 


(none, see 


Note i8C) 


y- 


i- 


-i- 




pl. 


do) 


(none, see 


Note i8C) 


z- 


zi- 


-zi- 


U 


sg. 


(lU) 


u-/w- 


m-Zaw- 


w- 


u- 


-u- 



"Hot yet encountered in the lessons. 

Some details have been omitted from this chart, but it is complete for the 
forms that will be met in the early units. 

E« Si as negative of ni* 

The negative of ni 'it is' is si 'it is not'. Cou^jare this with note 
13B, 



2. Substitutions in single sentences* 
A. Concord: Noun and possessive, 
machungwa Sltaki machungwa yake. 
matunda Sitaki mat\inda yake. 
mananasi Sitaki mananasi yake. 
maeoibe Sitaki maembe yake. 
ndlzi Sitaki ndizi zake. 



I don't want his oranges. 
I don't want his fruit. 
I don't want his pineapples i 
I don't want his mangoes. 
I don't want his bananas. 



kk 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 17 



nazl 


Sltaki nazl zake. 


I don't want 


his coconuts. 


oanasi 


Sitakl nanasi lake. 


I don't want 


his pineapple. 


B« Concord: Noun, possessive, and 


subject prefix. 




ndlzi 
nazl 


Ndlzi zangu hazitoshi* 
Nazi zangu hazitoshi. 


I don't have 
(*i^ bananas 
I don't have 


enough bananas. 

do not suffice » ) 
enough coconuts. 


machungint 


Machungwa yangu hayatoshi. 


I don't have 


enough oranges. 


matundft 


Hatunda yangu hayatoshi. 


I don't have 


enough fruit. 


oiaembe 


Maenibe yangu hayatoshi. 


I don't have 


enough mangoes. 


mayai 


Mayai yangu hayatoshi. 


I don't have 


enough eggs. 


C« Concord: Noun, possessive, and 


subject prefix. 




kahawa 


Kahawa yangu haitoshi. 


I don't have 


enough coffee. 


chai 


Chai yangu haitoshi. 


I don't have 


enough tea. 


slagi 


Slagi yangu haitoshi. 


I don't have enough butter. 


Blkate 


Mkate wangu hautoshi. 


I don't have enough bread. 


chakula 
nachungwa 


Chakula changu hakitoshi. 


I don't have 


enough food. 


Hachiingwa yako yanatosha? 


Do you have 


enough oranges? 


mayai 


Hayal yako yanatosha? 


Do you have 


enough eggs? 


mazlwa 


Mazl-^a yako yanatosha? 


Do you have 


enough milk? 


kahawa 


S&mMSi yako inatosha? 


Do you have 


enough coffee? 


sukarl 


Siikai*l yako inatosha^ 


Do you have 


enough sugar? 


chai 

E. 
ndlzi 


Chai yako inatosha? 


Is your tea sufficients 


Ndlzi zako zinatosha? 


Do you have > 


enough bananas? 


nazl 


Nazi zako zinatosha? 


Do you have 


enough coconuts? 



kS 



UNIT 17 



SWAHILI 



chakula 

mkate 

uji 



Chakula chako kir.atosha? 
Mkate wako unatosha^ 
Uji wako vinatoshal 



F» Concord: Noun, possessive, and 
roachungwa Machungwa yako ni mazuri? 
Maembe yako ni mazuri? 
" Mananasi yako ni mazuri? 
Ndizi zako ni nzuri? 
Nazi zako ni nzuri? 



Kaembe 
icananasi 
ndizi 
nazi 

Q. 
nyama 
chai 
kahawa 
chakula 
nkate 
uJi 
chungwa 

H. 
machungwa 
msLembe 
mananasi 
ndizi 
nanasi 



Nyama yangu si nz\iri. 
Chai yangu si nzuri, 
Kahawa yangu si nzurl. 
Chakula changu si kizuri* 
Mkate wangu si mzuri, 
Uji wangu si mzuri. 
Chungwa langu si zuri. 

Machungwa yake si mabivu. 
Maembe yake si raabivu. 
Mananasi yake si mabivu. 
Ndizi zake si mbivn. 
Nanasi lake si bivu. 



Do you have enough food? 
Do you have enough bread? 
Do you have enough porridge? 
adjective. 

Are your oranges good? 
Are your mangoes good? 
Are your pineapples good? 
Are your bananas any good? 
Are your coconuts any good? 

Hy meat is not good. 
My tea is not good. 
My coffee is not good. 
Ky food is not good. 
Jty bread is not good. 
Vy grael is not good* 
My orange is not good. 

His oranges are not ripe. 
His mangoes are rstit ripe. 
His pineapples are not ripe. 
His bananas are not ripe. 
His pineapple is not ripe. 



k6 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 17 



3» Substitutions in sequences of sentences. 

A, Use other words in place of those that are underlined, 
X. Unataka matundal 
Y, Ninataka matiuida mazuri tu basi. 
X. Matunda ^^ngu ni mazuri sana. 



U7 



UNIT 18 



SWAHILI 



1 • Basic dialogue • What do we need? 

Aramlan 



-hitaji 
Tunahita;5i ndizil 



(to) need 

Do we need any bananas? 



kwa for 

sababu (N ) reason 

kwa sababu because 

tunazo we have them 

"chache few 

Ndiyo, kwa sababu tunazo chache tm. Yes, we have only a few of them, 

Aramian 



kiazi (VI) 
viazi 
Tuna viazil 



potato 
potatoes 
Do we have potatoes? 



Matisya 
~ixigi many 

Ndiyo, tunavyo vingi. Yes, we have a lot of them. 

Notes 
A, Concord exemplified in 'objects' of na« 
Compare the following forms: 

Tunazo, We have them. (e.g. bananas) 

Tunacho. We have it. (e.g. food) 



U8 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 18 



Tvinao. We have it. (e.g» bread) 

Corresponding to the English object pronouns thera and it is a suffix con- 
sisting of a concordial element plus -o. 

B, Details of concord with certain adjective stems. 

Tuna machungwa mengi* We have many oranges* 

Tuna sukari nyingi. We have much sugar. 

Tuna ndizi nyingi. We have many bananas. 

Tuna viazi vingi. We have many potatoes. 

Tuna uji mwingi. We have much gruel. 

Here, the forms of the adjective stem and of the prefixes themselves are 
less clear than they were in 17C. It will be simplest to regard the basic 
form of the adjective stem as ^ingi. Then, in the Mft. class, where one mi^t 
expect 

ma \ ingi the form that occurs is mengi 

In the N class, which has no uniform shape for prefixes, the form is: 

The other forms are given in the exercises. 

C. N-concords with adjective stems beginning in a consonant. 
The adjective stem -chache 'few' is usually used with plurals. 
Compare the forms : 

M maembe mazuri maembe machache 

ndizi nzuri ndizi __chache 

ndizi mbivu 

ndizi njringi 

With the N class, the stem -zuri takes a prefix n-, while '^ chaehe takes 
no prefix at all. 



U9 



UNIT 18 



SWAHILI 



Adjectives whose stems begin with ch, f , k, ra, n, £, s, t act like 
-chache in this respect, in that they have no prefix at all for the N class. 

Adjectives whose stems begin with d, g, ^, z act like -zuri in this 
respect, in that they have as their N class prefix a syllabic nasal hem- 
organic with the initial consonant of the stem. These nasals are written 
with the letter n* 

Adjectives whose stems begin with v or b act like -bivu in this respect, 
in that they too have as prefix a syllabic nasal consonant, honorganic with 
the initial consonant of the stem, and written m. 

D, The VI class. 

A new noun class, the VI class, is represented by viazi 'potatoes', 
the singular of which is kiazi. The concords for the VI class plural (cf • 
Note 17D) are: 



noun ad^, E2§£» 

vi-/vy- vi-/vy- vy- 
2, Substitution in single sentences. 

A, Concord: Noun and adjectivei 

viazi Tuna viazi vi chache. 

chakula Tuna chakula ki chache. 

ndizi Tuna ndizi chache. 

nyama Tuna nyama chache. 

matunda Tuna matunda machache. 

B. 

viazi Analeta viazi vingi. 

ndizi Analeta ndizi nyingi. 

nyama Analeta nyama nyingi. 

machungwa Analeta machungwa mengi. 



sub^, gref. 
vi- 



ob^._£ref. 



-VI- 



We have a few potatoes. 
We have a little food. 
V/e have a few bananas. 
We have a little meat. 
We have a little fruit. 

He's bringing a lot of potatoes. 
He's bringing a lot of bananas. 
He's bringing a lot of meat. 
He's bringing a lot of oranges. 



50 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 18 



chakula 
C. 
niaembe 
naziwa 
mananasl 
kahawa 
svikari 
chal 



Analeta chakula klngi. 

Tunahitaji maembe mengi sasa, 
Tunahltaji mazlwa mengi sasa. 



He's bringing a lot of food. 

We need a lot of mangoes now. 
We need a lot of milk now. 



Tunahitaji mananasi mengi sasa. We need a lot of pineapples now, 
Tunahitaji kahawa nyingi sasa. We need a lot of coffee now, 
Tunahitaji sukari nyingi sasa. We need a lot of sugar now. 



Tunahitaji chai nyingi sasa. 



We need a lot of tea now. 



5^ 



Matching parts of paired sentences, 

A, Concord: Noun and object suffix* 

'do you have potatoes?' 
Aia viazi? 
Itoa chakula? 
Ana ndizi? 
Mna nyama? 
^a machungwa? 
Nna mkate? 

B, Concord: Noun, object suffix and 

'do you have mangoes?' 

Una maembe? 

Una nyama? 

Una nazi? 

Una chakula? 

Una viazi? 



'yes, we have [them]' 
Ndiyo, tujiavyo, 
Ndiyo, tunacho, 
Ndiyo, tunazo, 
Ndiyo, tunayo. 
Ndiyo, tunayo, 
Ndiyo, txinao, 
adjective. 
*I have only a few of them,' 
Ninayo machache tu« 
Ninayo chache tu, 
Ninazo chache tu, 
Ninacho kichache tu, 
Ninavyo vichache tu. 



51 



UNIT 19 



SWAHILI 



Unit_i9 

1, Basic Dialogue. Buying at the door. 

Arandan 

-uza 
nini 
Unauza nini{ 



njugu (N) 
mahindi 
muhindi 
Nina njugu na mahindi. 

V . ■ 

- o 

"bovu 
Njugu zako ni mbo-vu} 



siyo 
Siyo, si mbovu. 

"zina 

kabisa f^f 

Ni nzima kabisa. 

Unauzaje rauhindil 



c ' '-•=l'li. 



(to) seU 
whati 
What are you selling? 



Hawker 



Arandan 



ground nuts 
maize (off cob) 
ear of maize 
I have peanuts and com. 

bad (i.e. spoiled) 
Are your ground nuts bad? 



Hawker 



Aramian 



(negative of ndiyo) 
No, they're not bad. 

good (i.e. not rotten), whole 

quite 
They're quite good. 

howl 

How much is the maize? 

( »How do you sell the maize? • ) 



5s 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 19 



Hawker 



~moja 
senti 
kurai 
Mmoja sent! kumi 



one 

cent (E. African) 
ten 
Ten cents apiece* 
('one, ten cents' ) 



Notes 

A. In the reply 

Mmoja senti kumi. Ten cents apiece. 

(One-ten cents. ) 
the adjective mmoja agrees with imihindi, 'ear of maize. • 

B. Use of WA. class concords for all nouns denoting living beings. 

The words ndizi 'banana' and nazi 'coconut', as N-class singulars, are 
found in the phrases 



ndizi moja 
nazi moja 



one banana 
one coconut 



The words n|'(anbe 'ox' and i^g^iruwe 'pig', which in some respects may be re- 
garded as belonging to the N-class, behave differently with adjectives: 

ng'ombe ramoja one ox 

nguruwe Amoja one pig 

In this respect they are like the singular of the WA-class: 

mtoto mmoja one child 

Indeed, nouns of any class, when they stand for animate beings, require 
that the adjectives which accompany them have concords of the animate (WA) 
class* 



53 



UNIT 19 



SWAHILI 



Thus saraaki 'fish', when it stands for a live fish, is 

samaJci mmoja 

but when the fish has been cooked ready to eat, it may be called 

samaki moja 

(Some speakers, however, use samaki always as a member of the WA. class, never 
as a member of the N class* ) 

C, Contrast between mb- and mb-. 

In the phrases usually written in standard spelling: 

Nazi yangu ni mbovu. My coconut is bad. 

.^..^ J Muhindi wangu ni mbovu. ¥^ ear of corn is bad* 

the words spelled nibovu are not pronounced alike. Accordingly, we shall 
write mbovu (N-class) and Abovu (WA, MI, U classes). In the latter, the A 
constitutes a separate syllable, irfiile in the former it does not. 
2. Matching parts of single sentences. 



A, Concord: Noun and adjective, 
chungwa , „ Nina chungwa lao^a, tu. 
embe Nina embe moja tu. 

tiinda nanasi yai ndizi 



I have only one orange. 
I have only one mango, 
nazi kiazi samsiki 



I have only one child. 
I have only one ox. 



B. 

mtoto Nina mtoto mmoja tu. 

ng'ombe Nina ng'ombe mraoja tu, 

nguruwe muhindi mkate rafiki 

C. Concord: Noun and two adjectives, 

chungwa Chungwa moja ni bovu. One orange is spoiled, 

embe Embe moja ni bovu. One mango is spoiled, 

nanasi Nanasi moja ni bovu. One pineapple is spoiled. 



5U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 19 



yai 

ndizi 

nazi 

D. 
kiazi 
samaki 
muhindi 
timda 

E. 
einbe 
nanasl 
yai 
ndizi 
nazi 

F. 
kiazi 
samaki 
samaki 
muhindi 

G. 
machungwa 
chxingwa 
mananasi 
nanasi 
mayai 



Yai moja ni bovu. 
Ndizi moja ni mbovxi. 
Nazi moja ni mbovn* 

Kiazi kimoja ni kibovu, 
Samaki moja ni mbovu. 
Muhindi mmoja ni mbovu. 
Tunda raoja ni bovn. 

Embe moja tu ni zima, 
Nanasi moja tu ni zima* 
Yai moja tu ni zima* 
Ndizi moja tu ni nzima, 
Nazi moja tu ni nzima. 

Kiazi kimoja tu ni kizima, 
Samaki moja tu ni nzima* 
Samaki mmoja tu ni mzima* 
Muhindi mraoja tu ni mzima, 

Machungwa yangu si mabovru* 
Chungwa langu si bovu. 
Mananasi yangu si mabovn* 
Nanasi langu si bovu, 
Mayai yangu si mabovu* 



One egg is spoiled* 
One banana is spoiled* 
One coconut is spoiled* 

One potato is spoiled* 

One fish is spoiled* 

One ear of maize is spoiled* 

One piece of fruit is spoiled* 

Only one mango is good. 
Only one pineapple is good* 
Only one egg is good* 
Only one banana is good* 
Only one coconut is good* 

Only one potato is good. 

Only one fish is good, (dead) 

Only one fish is good, (live) 

Only one ear of maize is good, 

fty oranges are not bad* 
My orange is not bad, 
f^ pineapples are not bad* 
Ity pineapple is not bad* 
Hy eggs are not bad* 



55 



UNIT 19 



SWAHILI 



yai 

maerabe 

embe 

H. 
viazi 
kiazi 

ndizi (pi,) 
ndisi (sg.) 
nazi (pi . ) 
nazi (sg.) 
muhindi 
ndhindi 



Yai langu si bovu. 
Maembe yangu si mabovxi. 
Embe langu si bovu. 

Viazi vyako ni vibovu, 
Kiazi chako ni kibovri* 
Ndizi zako ni mbovu, 
Ndizi yako ni mbovu, 
Nazi zako ni mbovu. 
Nazi yako ni mbovu, 
Muhindi vako ni mbovu. 
Mihindi yako ni mibovu. 



3, Matching parts of paired sentences. 

A. Concord in multiple slots, 
•ny potatoes are badj 
viazi Viazi vyangu ni vibovu; 
kiazi Kiazi changu ni kibovuj 
ndizi Ndizi zangu ni mbovu j 
ndizi Ndizi yangu ri mbovu; . 
nazi Nazi yangu ni mbovu j 
mi-hindi Mihindi yangu ni mibovu; 
nvihindi Muhindi wangu ni mbovu; 

B. 



Diachungwa 



'your oranges are good; 
Machungwa yako ni mazima; 



}fy egg is not bad. 

My mangoes are not bad. 

Hy mango is not bad. 

Your potatoes are spoiled. 
Your potato is spoiled. 
Your bananas are spoiled. 
Your banana is spoiled. 
Your coconuts are spoiled. 
Your coconut is spoiled. 
Your maize is spoiled. 
Your maize is spoiled. 

. ';■'■;:'='•"' i:\ 'J: 

his are good' 
vyake ni vizima, 
chake ni kizima, 
zake ni nzitria, 
yake ni nzima, 
yake ni nzima. 
yake ni mizinia. 
wake ni mzima, 

mine are bad' 
yangu ni mabovu. 



56 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 19 



chungwa Chungwa lako ni zima.; 
maembe Haembe yako ni mazlmaj 
eicbe Embe lako ni ziiria; 
mayai Mayai yako ni maziniaj 
yai Yai lako ni zimaj 

C. Correspondir.g singular and plural 

'are the potatoes goodi ' 

Viazi ni vizima? 

Ndizi ni nzima? 

Samaki ni nzimaS 

Nazi ni nziina? 



viazi 
ndizi 
samaki 
nazi 

D. 
natunda 
nachungwa 
maembe 
nihindi 



Matunda ni maziira? 
Machvingwa ni mazima? 
Maembe ni mazima^ 
Mihindi ni mizimal 



langu ni bovu. 
yangu ni mabovu, 
langu ni bovu. 
yangu ni mabovu. 
langu ni bovu. 
concords. 

'one is bad' 
Kimoja ni kibovu. 
Moja ni mbovu. 
Mo;)a ni mbovu. 
Moja ni mbovu. 

Moja ni bovu. 
Moja ni bovn. 
Moja ni bovu. 
Mmoja ni mbovu. 



57 



UNIT 20 



SWAHILI 



Unit 20 

1, Basic dialogue. Where do you live? 

Aramian 
-kaa (to) live (reside) 

wapi? wherel 

Unakaa wapil Where do you live? 

5:azi 



NinsJcaa Morogoro, 



Aramian 



, ., mji (KI) 

~kubwa 

~dogo 
Morogoro ni mji inkubwa, au mdogo? 



Mgagazi 



Ni nikubwa. 

Akubwa (WA) 
nani? 
huo 
Mkubwa wa mji huo ni nanil 

Ki Sultani Kimambi. 



I live in Korogoro« 

town 
large 
small 
Is Morogoro a large town, or a small 
one? 

It's large. 



Aramian 



the chief 
who? 
that 
Who is the chief of that town? 



l^gazi 



[He]'s Sultan Kunambi. 



58 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 20 



Notes 

A* Adjective used, without antecedent, in a noun position. 

The word mkubwa is used in two different ways in the dialogue: 

fiji ni inkubwa. The city is big. 

Here, rokubwa represents an adjective in agreement with a singular noun of the 
Ml-class ( si^i ). 

Akubwa wa mji the big [man] of the city 

Here, the same written and spoken form represents a singular noun of the WA- 
class or, if one prefers, it may be regarded as an adjective agreeing with 
an 'understood' antecedent in the singular of the WA-class. 

B« Demonstratives in h- -o» 
Compare the phrases: 

viazi hivyo those potatoes 

mji huo that city 

yai hilo that egg 

In each phrase, the second vrord is a 'demonstrative' which corresponds 
partially to English that. All such demonstratives begin with h- and end 
with -oj what comes in between the h- and the -o depends on concord class. 
The meaning is approximately 'that one that we were talking about', rather 
than 'that one over there within view,' 

WA 



MI 



HA 



sg. 


h - uy - 


pi. 


h - a - 


sg. 


h - u - 


pi. 


h - iy - 


sg. 


h - il - 


pi. 


h - ay - 



59 



UNIT 20 



SWAHILI 



VI 


sg. 


h - ich - 




Pl. 


h - ivy - 


N 


sg. 


h - iy - 




pl. 


h - iz - 



U sg, 



h - u - o 



Compare these forms with the final syllables of the forms discussed in 
Note 16A, 



2. Matching parts of single sentences. 

A, Concord: Noun and demonstrative, 
ndhindi Unajua bei ya mihindi hiyol 

matunda Unajua bei ya matunda hayo? 

machungwa Unajua bei ya machungwa hayol 

chakula Unajua bei ya chakula hichol 



B» • I J ■ , 

;rfK ,vn A.,'-' ,.---^'^r .■■-■•rt. \ 

viazi Sijui bei ya viazi hivyo. 



ndizi 



Sijui bei ya ndizi hizo. 



nazi Sijui bei ya nazi hizo, 

c - c " si 
kahawa Sijui bei ya kahawa hiyo. 



chai 



Sijui bei ya chai hiyo. 



Do you know the price of that 
inaize^ 

Do you knew the price of that 
fruit? 

Do you know the price of those 
orange si 

Do you know the price of that 
foodi 

I don't know the price of those 
potatoes. 

I don't know the price of those 
bananas. 

I don't know the price of those 
coconuts. 

I don't know the price of that 
coffee. 

I don't know the price of that 
tea. 



60 



BASIC coimsE 



UNIT 2o 



c. 

ng'canbe 
nguiniwe 
Ktoto 

D. 
viazi 
kiazi 
icaembe 
embe 
mayal 
yai 



Concord: Noun, demonstrative and adjective. 

ftji huo ni mkubwa? Is that city large? 

Ng'ombe huyo ni mkubwa? Is that ox bigl 
Nguruwe huyo ni mkubwa? Is that pig big? 
Mtoto huyo ni mkubwa? Is that child big? 



Viazi hivyo si vikubwa sana, 
Kiazi hicho si kikubwa sana. 
Maembe hayo si makubwa sana. 
Embe hilo si kubwa sana. 
Mayai hayo si makubwa sana. 
Yai hilo si kubwa sana. 



Those potatoes aren't very large. 
That potato isn't very large. 
Those mangoes aren't very large. 
That mango isn't very large. 
Those eggs aren't very large. 
That egg isn't very large. 



3. Matching parts of paired sentences, 

A. Concord: Noun, demonstrative, and two adjectives. 
'are those potatoess large?' 
viazi Viazi hivyo ni vikubwa? 
kiazi Kiazi hicho ni kikubwa? 
machungwa Machungwa hayo ni makubwa? 
chungwa Chungwa hilo ni kubwa? 
ndizi (pi.) Ndizi hizo ni kubwa? 
ndizi (sg.) Ndizi hiyo ni kubwa? 

B. 
watoto Watoto hao ni wakubwa? 
intoto Mtoto huyo ni mkubwa? 



'no, they are small' 
La, ni vidogo. 
La, ni kidogo. 
La, ni madogo. 
La, ni dogo. 
La, ni ndogo. 
La, ni ndogo. 

La, ni wadogo. 
La, ni mdogo. 



61 



UNIT 20 



SWAHILI 



ng ' canbe 
(pl.) 

ng ' ombe 
(sg.) 

nguruwe 
(pl.) 

nguruwe 
(sg.) 

C. 

watoto 

Atoto 

ngiiruwe 
(pl.) 

nguruwe 
(sg.) 

ng ' ombe 
(pl.) 

ng ' ombe 
(sg.) 



embe 

maembe 

ndizi 
(sg.) 

ndizi 
(pl.) 

chungwa 
machungwa 



Ng'cmbe hao ni wakubwal 

Ng'ombe huyo ni mkubwa? 

Nguruwe hao ni wakubwa? 

Nguruwe huyo ni mkubwal 
. ... . * I .. - . - 

Watoto wake ni wazuri? 
Mtoto wake ni mzuri? 
Nguruwe wake ni wazuril 

Nguruwe wake ni mzuri? 

Ng'ombe wake ni wazuri? 



La, ni wadogo. 
La^ ni nidogo* 
La, ni wadogo. 
La, ni Adogo. 

Ndiyo, ni wazuri sana. 
Ndiyo, ni mzuri sana. 
Ndiyo, ni wazuri sana, 

Ndiyo, ni mzuri sana. 

Ndiyo, ni wazuri sana. 



Ng'ombe wake ni mzuri? oi.m..> Ndiyo, ni mzuri sana. 

„- .. -' 'S63 



' is that mango ripe? ' 

Embe hilo ni bivTi2 

i 

Maembe hayo ni mabivu? 

i, 

Ndizi hiyo ni mbivu? 

Ndizi hizo ni mbivu? J 

Chungwa hilo ni bivu? 
Kachungwa hayo ni mabivul 



•no, it is not ripe' 
La, si bivu. 
La, si mabivu. 
La, si mbivu. 

La, si mbivu. 

La, si bivu. 
La, si mabivu. 



62 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 21 



Unit_2i^ 

i« Basic Dialogue. Where is Morogoro from herel 

Arandan 

uko it is there 

Mji wa Morogoro uko wapi? Where is (town of) Morogorol 

Kis_friend 

-elewa understand 

Sielewi, bwana« I don't vtnderstand (sir), 

Arasjian 

upande (U) direction 

ft 

Fiji wa Morogoro uko upande gani wa What direction is Morogoro from 
Dar es Salaam? Dar es Salaam? 

( ' city of M, is there which side of 
D,?') 
His^friend 

magharibi (N ) west 

Ahl Uko magharibi ya Dar es Salaam, Ahl It's west of Dar es Salaam, 

Ararcian 

kusini (N) south 

Je, mji wa Utete uko kusini ya Is Utete south of Dar es Salaam? 
Dar es Salaam? 

His_friend 

Ndiyo, bwana. Yes [it is] (sir). 



63 



UNIT 21 



SWAHILI 



Aramian 



kaskazlni 


(N) 








north 


mashariki 


(N) 








east 


hapa (FA) 










here 


Na m.ii wa Bagamoyo, 


uko 


kaskazini 


And 


Bagamoj'-o 


au mashariki 


ya hapa? 




of 


' here? 








His_ 


_friend 





- is it north, or east 



Uko kaskazini. 



North. 



Notes 



in 



A, Polite yes - no replies in Swahili and English. 

Note the lack of exact parallel between the Swahili and the English 



Yes [it is] (sir). 



Ndiyo, bwana. 

In either language, the shortest possible answer (respectively ndi^o 
and ^es) would be abrupt in this context. It is softened in each language 
by the addition of something. In Swahili it is the honorific title bwana, 
while in English it is the clause fragment it is. 

2. The meanings of the four direction-words: Questions on the map. 





Bagamoyo 

Dar es Salaam 


Magh. 




a. 


Mash. 


jgoro 


X 


u. 



Uteta 



61; 



BASIC COURSE 



imiT 21 



Morogoro uko magharibi ya 

Bar es Salaam2 
Bagamoyo uko magharibi ya 

Dar es Salaam? 
Utete uko magharibi ya Dar es 

Salaam? 
Utete uko mashariki ya Dar es 

Salaam? 
Utete uko kusini ya Dar es Salaam? 
Utete uko kaskazini ya Dar es 

Salaard? 
Dar es Salaam uko kusini ya 

Bagamoj'o? 
Utete uko kaskazini ya Bagamoyo? 
Dar es Salaam uko magharibi ya 

Morogoro? 



Is Morogoro west of Dar es Salaam? 

Is Bagamoyo west of Dar es Salaam? 

Is Utete west of Dar es Salaam? 

Is Utete east of Dar es Salaam? 

Is Utete south of Dar es Salaam? 
Is Utete north of Ear es Salaam? 

Is Dar es Salaam south of 

Bagamoyo? 
Is Utete north of Bagamoyo? 
Is Dar es Salaam west of 

Morogoro? 



[N. B, In some parts of East Africa, igo would be used in these sentences 
in place of uko,] 

3» The four direction words: Completion, (The tutor shoiald pause at the 
point indicated, allovang the student to finish the sentence for him, ) 

Dar es Salaam uko kusini ya — - Bagamoyo, 

Bagamoyo uko kaskazini ya - — Dar es Salaam, 

Morogoro uko magharibi ya - — Dar es Salaam, 

Dar es Salaam uko kaskazini ya — Utete, 

Dar es Salaam uko mashariki ya — Morogoro, 
Utete uko kusini ya - — Dar es Salaam, 

65 



UNIT 22 SWAHILI 



Unit_22 

1* Basic Disilogue* In a village* 

Mirambo 

kijiji (VI) village 

Kijiji hiki kiko upande gani wa What direction is this village frcm 
Dar es Salaam^ Dar es Salaam^ 

Hasani 

Kiko kusinx, ,;rj ©y It's south, 

v .■ .-i-.VM, r-.- ?•*>/'. Kirambo 

njruraba (N) house, houses 

mawe stones 

jiwe (ma) stone 

Nyumba za kijiji hiki ni za mawel Are the houses of this village [made] 

of stone? 
' " Hasani 

La. Nyuniba za kijiji hiki si za No, (the houses of this village) 

mawe. they aren't (of stone), 

udongo (U) soil 

Nyingi ni za udongo. Many are [made] of mud. 

Notes 

A, Demonstratives in hV. - V, 

In the phrase kijiji hiki 'this village' the word hiki is a demonstrative 
which correspcaids very closely to English 'this/these.' It may be called a 
•proximal demonstrative.' 

The 'proximal demonstratives' agree with the nouns to which they refer, 

66 



BASIC COURSE UNIT aa 



Th\is: 

kijiji hiki this village 

vijiji hivi these villages 

chiingwa hili this orange 

The proximal forms for the noun classes that have been met so far are to be 
found in the exercises* 

B. The locative stems -ko, -go. 
Compare the phrases: 

Kijiji kiko wapi? Where is the village? 

Aji uko wapil Where is the town? 

The locative stem -ko, takes concordial prefixes ki-, u-, etc. 

If the answer contains the word haga 'here', then -po must be instead 
of -ko. For details, see the exercises. 

C. Phrases with linking -a used without antecedent. 

rqrumba za mawe houses of stone (s ) 

Nyuinba ni za mawe. The houses are of stone. 

Phrases which consist of the linking -a + noun need not follow immediately 
after the nouns to vAiich they refer, and may even be used alone: 

Za mawe ziko wapi? Where are the ones (i.e. the 

houses) [made] of stone? 

Za udongo zipo hapa, [The ones made] of mud are here. 

D. Special form of 3 sg. animate subject prefix with the locative stems, 
Note that the 1 sg. animate subject prefix used with -ko and -go is 

^u- and not a-: 

Daudi yupo hapa. Daudi is here. 



67 



UNIT 22 



SWAHILI 



2* Matching parts of single sentences. 

A, Concord: Noun, demonstrative and 

kijiji Kijiji hiki ni kizuri. 

vijiji Vijijl hivi ni vizuri. 

kiazi Kiazi hiki ni kizuri. 

viazi Viazi hivi ni vizuri. 

chakula Chakula hiki ni kizuri, 

vyakula Vyakula hivi ni vizuri. 



B. 
chungwa 
machungwa 
embe 
maembe 
nanasi 
mananasi 
yai 
mayai 

C. _. 

nazi 
(sg.) 

nazi 
(pl.) 

ndizi 
(sg.) 

ndizi 
(pl.) 



Chungwa hili ni kubwa, 
Machungwa haya ni makubwa. 
Embe hili ni kubwa, 
Kaembe haya ni makubwa, 
Nanasi hili ni kubwa, 
Mananasi haya ni makubwa, 
Tai hili ni kubwa. 



)!? 4 ®- 



Mayai haya ni makubwa. 



»^ , ,.vr„ 



«C1*T il iT^T^I^^^ 



Nazi hii ni ndogo. 



Nazi hizi ni ndogo. 



Ndizi hii ni ndogo, 



Ndizi hizi ni ndogo. 



erff] 



adjective. 

This village is nice. 
These villages are nice. 
This potato is nice. 
These potatoes are nice. 
This food is nice. 
These foods are nice. 

This orange is large. 
These oranges are large. 
This mango is large. 
These mangoes are large. 
This pineapple is large. 
These pineapples are large. 
This egg is large. 
These eggs are large. 

This coconut is small. 
These coconuts are small. 
This banana is small. 
These bananas are small. 



68 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 22 



D, 

mtoto 

watoto 

ng'ombe 
(sg.) 

ng'OTibe 
(pl.) 

nguruwe 
(sg.) 

ngviruwQ 
(pl.) 

samaki 
(sg.) 

samaki 
(pl.) 

samaki 
(sg.) 

samaki 
E. 

chai 

kahawa 

sukari 

siagi 

nyama 

ihkate 
F. 

Daudi 

watoto 



Mtoto huyu ni mdogo. 
Watoto hawa ni wadogo. 
Ng'ombe huyu ni mdogo. 

Ng'OTibe hawa ni wadogo. 

Nguruwe huyu ni mdogo. 

Nguruwe havrai ni wadogo. 

Samaki hujru ni mdogo. 

Samaki hawa ni wadogo. 

Samaki hii ni ndogo. 



This child is small. 
These children are small. 
This ox is small. 

These oxen are small. 

This pig is small. 

These pigs are small. 

This (live ) fish is small. 

These (live) fish are small. 

This (cooked) fish is small. 



Samaki hizi ni ndogo. These (cooked) fish are small. 
Concord: Noun, possessive, location. 



Chai yako ipo hapa, 
Kahawa yako ipo hapa, 
Sukari ipo hapa. 
Siagi ipo hapa. 
Nyama ipo hapa. 
Mkate upo hapa, 

Daudi yupo hapa. 
Watoto wapo hapa. 



Your tea is here. 
Your coffee is here. 
The sugar is here. 
The butter is here. 
The meat is here. 
The bread is here, 

Daudi is here. 

The children arB here. 



69 



UNIT 22 



SWAHILI 



ng ' ombe 
(sg.) 

ng'onibe 
(pl.) 

nguruwe 
(sg.) 

nguruwe 
(pl.) 

G» 

chakula 

vyakiala 

kiazi 

viazi 



Ng'ombe yupo hapa, 
Ng'ombe wapo hapa, 
Nguruwe yupo hapa, 
Nguiniwe wapo hapa, 

Chakula chako kipo hapa, 
Vyakula vyako vipo hapa, 
j;i^ Kiazi chako kipo hapa, 
Viazi vyako vipo hapa. 



»or 



The ox is here. 
The oxen are here. 
The pig is here. 
The pigs are here. 

Your food is here. 
Your food is here. 
Your potato is here. 
Your potatoes are here. 



;0t: 



3, Matching parts of paired sentences, 
A, Concord-: Noun and -ko or -po. 



chai 



X?i= 



kahawa 



sukari 



siagi 



nyama 



^ate 



Chai yangu iko wapi? 

Ipo hapa, '■ :" " 
Kahawa yangu iko wapi? 

Ipo hapa, 
Sukari iko wapi? 

Ipo hapa, 
Siagi iko wapi? 

Ipo hapa, 
Nyama iko wapi^ 

Ipo hapa, 
Mkate uko wapi? 

Upo hapa. 



'k&eooL 



J eriT 



jfT 



Where is my tea? 

It's here. 
Where is my coffee? 

It's here. 
Where is the sugar? 

It's here. 
Where is the butter. 

It's here. 
Where is the meat? 

It's here. 
Where is the bread? 

It's here. 



70 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 82 



B. 



Daudi 


Daudi yuko wapil 




Yuko Norogoro, 


watoto 


Watoto wako wapi? 




Wako Morogoro. 


ng ' ombe 
Tsg.) 


Ng'ombe wako yuko wapi? 
Yuko Morogorc. 


ng • ombe 
(pl.) 


Ng'ombe wako wako wapi? 
Wako Morogoro. 


nguruwe 
(sg.) 


Ngujruwe wako yuko wapi? 
Yuko Morogoro. 


nguruwe 
(pl.) 

C. 
chakula 


Nguruwe wako wako wapi? 
Wako Morogoro. 


Chakula changu kiko wap: 



Kipo hapa. 
vyakula Vyakula vyangu viko wapi? 

Vipo hapa. 
kiazi Kiazi changu kiko wapi2 

Kipo hapa, 
viazi Viazi vyangu viko wapi? 

Vipo hapa. 



Where is Daudi? 

He ' s at Morogoro, 
"Where are the children? 

They are at Morogoro. 
Where is your ox? 

It's at Morogoro. 
Where are your oxen2 

They are at Morogoro, 
Where is your pig? 

It's at Morogoro. 
Where are your pigsl 

They are at Morogoro, 

Where is my food? 

It's here. 
Where is my food? 

It's here. 
Where is my potato? 

It's here. 
ViTiere are my potatoes? 

They are here. 



71 



UNIT 23 



SWAHILI 



Unit_23 

1. Basic Dialogue. Where are you going? 

Sangai 
-enda 
Unakwenda wapi? 



go 



Adija 



soko (ma) 
-ni 
Ninakwenda sokoni. 



-J-t-Cv 



'^ ■ 



Where are you going? 

market 
in, at, on 
I'm going to the market. 



Sangai 



'■'^.1'0 ':;•'': 



-fanya 
kufanya 
Kufanya ninil .- 

-nunua 
kitu (VI) 
Kunvmua vitu. 

Kiinunua vitu gani? 

Kununua vyakula. 



; make, do 

to do 

t» ... ■■ 

To do >rtiat? 
^:p ^f: sit ^iiS 

.: -f: iv,i;i^/ thing 

■'■-■■■-' --tl "^o ^^ scHne things. 

■' 'J^ What kind of things? 

Adija 



Groceries, ('to b\iy foodstuffs' ) 



7* 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 23 



Notes 

A. The locative suffix -ni, 

Ninakwenda Morogoro, I>m going to Morogoro, 

Korogoro iiko wapi? lAere is Morogoro? 

Ninakwenda sokoni. I'm going to the market. 

Soko Iiko wapi? Where is the iriarket? 

The 'locative suffix" -ni 'at, to, in' is added to many words, but not 
to the names of cities. 

As noted in Unit 21, the form igo is sometimes used in place of uko in 
sentences of this kind. 

B. Ku- as 'sign of the infinitive.' 

Ninanunua vitu. jibi buying things. 

Ninataka kununua vitu. I want to buy things. 

The prefix ku- used alone before a verb stem corresponds partially to 
the English word 'to' used as 'sign of the infinitive.' Forms like kununua, 
kufanya are called 'infinitives.' 

C. Use of kw in inflected forms with the stem -enda. 
Ninataka kwenda. I wart to go. 
Ninakwenda. Iij„ going. 

The stem of this verb is -enda. It begins with a vowel. The infinitive 
prefix is written kw- instead of ku-, 

D. 

Ninataka kwenda. I want to go. 

Ninakwenda, Hm going. 

Ninataka kununua ... I want to buy . . . 

Ninanunua ... Iijii buying ... 

73 



UNIT 23 



SWAHILI 



The ku-/kw- of the infinitive form is missing from the personal forms of 
most verbs, including -nunua. But for -enda, kw- is retained in most forms. 
This is true for a few other verbs as wall» 

2. Substitutions in single sentences, 

A, Simple noun vs. noun with -ni» 



soko Ninakwenda sokoni, 

ryumba Ninakwenda nyumbani, 

mji Ninakwenda mjini, 

kijiji Ninakwenda kijijini, 

Morogoro Ninakwenda Morogoro, 

Bagamoj'-o Ninakwenda Bagamoyo. 



'lU .V 



I'm going to the market. 
I'm going home* 
I'm going to the town. 
I'm going to the village, 
I'm going to Morogoro. 
I'm going to Bagamoyo. 



,evx I 



Juma wants to buy food. 



B. Infinitive after -taka, 
vj'akula Juma anataka kununua vyakula. 
machungwa Juma anataka kununua machungwa. Juma wants to buy oranges. 

muhindi nyama sukari mkate 

C. Direction words plus ^a. ' ■ 

luisini Juiria na Hasani wanakwenda -■ '- 
kusini ya Bagamoyo. 

kaskazini Juma na Hasani wanakwenda 

kaskazini ya Bagamoyo. 

■I- ' 

mashariki magharibi 



Juma and Hasani are going to 
the south of Bagamoyo. 

Juma and Hasani are going to 
the north of Bagamoyo. 



A, Concord: Noun and -ko. '• I 
soko Soko liko wapi? 
masoko Masoko yako wapi? 
vitu vyangu Vitu vyangu viko wapi? 



Where is the market? 
Where are the markets? 
Where are my things? 



7k 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 23 



kijlji 



Utete 



Juma 



vratoto 



Njoroge 



Juma na 
NJoroge 



Kijiji kiko wapi? 
Mji wa Utete uko 
wapil 
B. -ko: affirmative vs. negative 
Juma yuko sokoni? 
Hayuko sokoni, 
Yuko nyumbani. 
Watoto wako sokoni? 
Hawako sokoni, 
Wako njrumbani, 
Njoroge yuko sokoni? 
Hayuko sokoni* 
luko njrumbani. 
Juma na Njoroge wako 
sokonil 

Hawako sokoni* 
Wako nyunbani* 



Vfliere is the village? 
Where is the town of Utete? 

forms* 

Is Juma at the market? 
He is not at the market. 
He is at home* 
Are the children at the market? 
They are not at the market. 
They are at home. 
Is Njoroge at the market? 
He is not at the market. 
He is at hcane. 
Are Juma and Njoroge at the 
market? 

They are not at the market. 
They are at home. 



75 



UNIT 2U 



SWAHILI 



Unit_2U 

1. Basic Dialogue* Where has Juma gonel 

Abasi 



amekwenda 
Jvuna aoiekwenda wapi? 

Ainekwenda sokoni* 
Kufanya nini? 



Adija 



he is gone 
Where has Juma gone2 

He's gone to the market* 



Abasi 



What for? 



Adi^a 



-ona 
kana 



«v.r;'i? s rj Sl-T'^' f^.^ 



see 

if, whether 

-patikana be available 

Kuona kama machungwa vanapatikana. To see vrtiether there are any oranges 

to be had. 
Abasi 



tayari 

-isha 
Miitii nimekwisha kwenda tayari, 

"bichi 
Kuna inachache tu znabichi* 

"tano 
Ninenunua matano* 



ready 

finish 
I've already gone [there]* 

unripe 
There are only a few green ones* 

five 
I bought five. 



76 



BASIC COURSE UNIT zk 



Notes 

A, Adjectives which do not take concordial prefixes, 

Nyama ni tayari. The meat is ready. 

Nyaina ni nzuri. The meat is good. 

Chakula ni tayari. The food is ready. 

Chaloila ni kizuri. The food is good, 

Watoto ni tayari. The children are ready. 

Some adjectives, of which t^ari 'ready' is one, do not take prefixes to 
show agreement with the nouns to which they refer. 

B, Adjective stems preceded by subject prefixes, 

A more correct way of saying the same thing is as follows: 

Nyama i tayari. The meat is ready. 

Chakula ki tayari. The food is ready. 

Watoto wa tayari. The children are ready. 
The list of 'subject prefixes' used in this construction is identical with the 
list used before -ko, -go, in that the Class i (singular of WA class) prefix 
is ju, and not a-. 

The adjective tayari, as illustrated in Note A, is one of a list of 
adjectives which never take concordial prefixes. But after subject prefixes, 
even those adjectives which do on occasion take concordial prefixes, appear 
without those prefixes. Compare this example from Ashton (p. 9U): 

Mkate huu u tamu. This loaf is sweet. 

Mkate huu ni ratamu. This loaf is (a) sweet (one). 
In the Dialogue, talari is 'used adverbially.' That is, it does not 
modify any noun, and does not occupy a slot usually filled by nouns. It is 
used here as a counterpart of English 'already.' This usage of tayari after 
the me- tense is not fully accepted as standard, 

C, The me-tense, 

Juma anakwenda wapi2 Where is Juma going? 
Juma amekwenda wapi? Where has Juma gonej 
The tense prefix -me- occurs in the same slot as -na-, -me- indicates 
completion of am action or process. The -me- forms of some verbs are generally 

77 



UNIT zk SWAHILI 



translated into English by using an English 'present perfect' tense. 
D. Use of kw in inflected forms with the stem -isha. 
Nimekwisha. I have finished. 

Kimekwenda, I have gone. 

Nimenunua. I have bought. 

The verb -isha, like -enda, keeps the kw- after certain tense prefixes 
including -me- and -na-. 

E« Some speakers use ikiwa «it being' in place of karoa where that word 

appears in the basic dialogue for this unj.t. 

A, Numbers 1-5 with MA class. 

raoja Niinenunua chungwa moja, I have bought one orange, 
mawili Nijnenunua machungwa mawili. I have bought two oranges, 
matatu manne matano ■• ^J: 

B, Numbers 1-5 with N-class. ^'' ' ^'^^ 

moja Nimenunua ndizi moja. I have bought one banana, 
riili Nimenunua ndizi mbili. I have bought two bananas, 
tatu fine tano '-'"* 

C, Numbers 1-5 with MI class. 

Anioja Nimenunua iSkate ^oja. I have bought a loaf of bread, 
miwili Nimenunua mikate miwili. J have bought two loaves of bread, 
mitatu raiAne mitano 

D, -patikana; concord of noun and subject prefix. 

ndizi Ndizi zinapatikana sokoni Are bananas available in the market 
1®°^ today? 

chai Chai inapatikana sokoni I3 tea available in the market today? 
leoS 



78 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 2U 



mkate Mkate unapatikana sokoni 
leot 

maembe Maenibe yanapatikana sokoni 
leo? 

nyama Nyama inapatikana sokoni 
leo2 



Is bread available in the market 
today? 

Are mangoes available in the 
market today? 

Is meat available in the market 
today? 



A, Concord of noun in first sentence with '6b;Ject' of na, 
machungwa 



mayai 



sukari 



nyama 



ndizi 



nazi 



Juma amekwenda sokoni 
kuniinua machungwa, 

Hatunayo nyuitibani, 

Jvuna amekwenda sokoni 
kunimua mayai. 

Hatunayo nyumbani. 

Juma amekwenda sokoni 
kununua sukari, 

Hatvmayo nyumbani, 

Juma amekwenda sokoni 
kununua nyama, 

Hatiinayo nyumbani, 

Jma& amekwenda sokoni 
kununua ndizi, 

Hatunazo nyumbani, 

Juma amekwenda sokoni 
kununua nazi, 

Hatunazo nyumbani. 



Juma has gone to the market to 
buy oranges. 

We don't have any at home, 

Juma has gone to the market to 
buy eggs. 

We don't have any at home, 

Juma has gone to the market to 
buy sugar. 

We don't have any at home, 

Juma has gone to the market to 
buy meat. 

We don't have any at home, 

Juma has gone to the market to 
buy bananas. 

We don't have any at hcane, 

Juma has gone to the market to 
buy coconuts. 

We don't have any at home. 



79 



UNIT zh 



SWAHILI 



B. 

mawili 

raatatu 

minne 

matano 



Tunahitaji mananasi? 

La, tunayo mawili tayari. 

Tunahitaji mananasi? 

La, tunayo matatu tayari, 

Tunahitaji mananasi? 

La, tunayo ra^ne tayari. 

Tunahitaji mananasi? 

La, tunayo matano tayari. 



Do we need pineapples? 
No, we have two already. 

Do we need pineapples? 

No, we have three already. 

Do we need pineapples? 
No, we have four already. 

Do we need pineapples? 
No, we have five already. 



•ft 



[N, B. Some speakers prefer tunataka to tunahitaji in this sentence,] 
C. '" 



mayai 



ndizi 



watoto 



D. 

mayai 



ndizi 



watoto 



E. 



mayai 



ndizi 



Mnayo mayai? 

Ndiyo, tunayo mawili, 

Mnazo ndizi? 

Ndiyo, tunazo mbili, 

teao watoto? 

Ndiyo, tunao wawili, 

Mnayo mayai? 

Ndiyo, tunayo matatu, 

Mnazo ndizi? 

Ndiyo, tunazo tatu, 

>5nao watoto? 

Ndiyo, tunao watatu. 



Mnayo mayai? 

Ndiyo, tunayo m^ne, 

Mnazo ndizi? 

Ndiyo, tunazo Ane, 



Do you have eggs? 

Yes, we have two of them. 

Do you have bananas? 

Yes, we have two of them. 

Do you have children? 

Yes, we have two of them. 

Do you have eggs? 

Yes, we have three of them. 

Do you have bananas? 

Yes, we have three of them. 

Do you have children? 

Yes, we have three of them. 



Do you have eggs? 

Yes, we have four of them. 

Do you have bananas? 

Yes, we have four of them. 



80 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 2U 



watoto 



F. 



ma3rai 



ndizi 



watoto 



G. 



Mnao watoto? 

Ndiyo, tunao w£nne« 



Mnayo inayai? 

Kdiyo, tunayo matano. 

ttoazo ndisi? 

Ndiyo, tur>azo tano, 

Mnao watoto? 

Ndiyo, tunao watano. 



Hamisi analeta inachiingwa mabivu? 
Kdiyo, amekwisha leta mabivu, 

Analeta inabichi sasa. 



Do you have children? 

Yes, we have four of them* 



Do you have eggs? 

Yes, we have five of them. 

Do you have bananas? 

Yes, we have five of them. 

Do you have children? 

Yes, we have five of them. 



Is Hamisi bringing ripe oranges? 

Yes, he has already brought 
ripe ones. 

He is bringing unripe 
ones now. 



In the above conversation substitute for i"££'2U{Jg^^* 11SSS22--' --22J-2' 
ndizi. 

Conversation Starters 

1, A asks B where C has gone, and what he has gone there for. 

2, A is selling fruit, B, a prospective customer, asks about the 
condition of one kind of fruit after another. 



81 



UNIT 25 



SWAHILI 



Unit_25 
1. Basic Dialogue. Gone to pay taxes. 

Magese 

Unakwenda wapi? 



t>..j. 



^Vhere are you going? 
Abasi 

District Office 
I'm going to the District Office. 
■i JJlagese 

tax 
pay 

rent/house tax 
To pay [your] house tax? 
Abasi 
La. Nimekwisha lipa kodi ya ^°^ " No, I've already paid [rny] house tax. 
nyumba, 

head 



. boma (ma ) 
Ninakwanda bcanani. 

kodi (N) 
• -lipa 

kodi ya nyumba 
Kulipa kodi ya nyumba? 



kichwa (VI) 
ada (N) 

shula (N) 



i dBii^tf b: 



fee 



school 



(skuli (N) is used in many parts of Bast Africa) 

Ninakwenda kulipa kodi ya kichwa, I'm going there to pay [iny] poll tax, 

na ada ya shule. and [ray] school fees. 

Umelipa kodi ya kichwa? Have you paid [your] poll tax? 

Mageso 

bado not yet 

Hapana, sijalipa bade. No, I haven't (paid yet). 



82 



BASIC COURSE 



imiT 25 



Notes 



A, -mekwisha plus verb stem, 
Nimekwisha kwenda, 
Nimekwisha lipa. 



I've already gone, 
I've already paid. 



Almost any verb stem can be placed after -mekwisha. The English trans- 
lation of such constructions is usually ' has already finished 



ing, 



B, The -Ja- negative counterpart of the me-tense. 



nimelipa 

sijalipa 

hatujalipa 

hatulipi 

hajaenda (or hajakwenda) 



I have paid 
I haven't paid 
we haven't paid 
we don't pay 
he hasn't gone 



One set of negative forms corresponding to the affirmative -me- forms 
contains ha plus subject prefix plus the prefix -^a-. Note that the final 
a of the stem does not change in forms containing -^a-. 



A, Umelipa . • , ^ 

ada ya shule Umelipa ada ya shule? 
kodi ya kichwa Umelipa kodi ya kichwa? 

kodi ya nyumba shule nyumba 

B, -^a- negative of me-tense, 
kichwa Bado hatujalipa kodi ya 



shule 



nyumba 



kichwa, 

Bado hatujalipa ada 3ra 
shule, 

Bado hatujalipa kodi ya 
nyuBiba, 



Have you paid the school fees? 

Have you paid the poll tax 
(head tax)? 

kichwa 



Not 3"9t, we have not paid the 
poll tax. 

Not yet, we have not paid the 
school fees. 

Not yet, we have not paid the 
house rent. 



83 



UNIT 25 bWAHILI 




C. 




nyuniba Juma na Hamisi bado hawajalipa 


Juma and Hamisi have not yet 


kodi ya nyumba. 


paid the house rent. 


kichwa shule 




D. 




kichwa Abdallah bado hajalipa kodi 


Abdallah has not yet paid the 


ya kichwa. 


poll taxa 


shule nyumba 




E. 





shule 



Bado hujalipa ada ya shule^ 



Haven't you paid your school 
fees yet? 



kichwa nyumba 

F. ' "" ■' ^ 

kichwa Bado sijauLipa kodi ya kichwa, 



I haven't paid the poll tax 
yet. 



shule 
F. 
nyumba 



nyumba 



-V n .V- rt 



Bado hamjalipa kodi ya nj-iunba? 



shule 



Haven't you (pi.) paid the 
house rent yet? 



kichwa 

3* 

A, Me-tense: affirmative vs. (-^a-) negative, 
(wewe ) 



Umelipa kodi ya kichwa? 
Hapana, sijalipa, 

(ninyi) Kmelipa kodi ya kichwa? 
Hapana, hatujalipa. 

(yeye ) Amelipa kodi ya kichwa? 
Hapana, hajalipa. 



Have you paid the poll tax? 
No, I have not paid it. 

Have you (pi. ) paid poll tax? 
No, we haven't paid it. 

Has he paid poll tax? 
No, he hasn't paid lt« 



8U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 25 



(wao) 


Wamelipa kodi ya kichwa? 




Hapana, hawajalipa. 


B. 




(wewe ) 


Umeuza nyxunba? 




La, sljauza. 


(ninyi) 


Mmeuza nyumba? 




La, hatujauza. 


(yeye ) 


Ameuza njounbal 




La, hajauza. 


(wao) 


Wsimeuza nyumba? 




La, hawajauza. 



c. 

Juma Juma amekwenda sokoni^ 
La, hajaenda* 

Tvatoto Watoto wamekwenda sokoni? 

La, hawajaenda. 

Daudi Daudi amekwenda sokonit 
La, hajaenda. 

Daudi na Daudi na Hand si wamekwenda 
Hamisi sokonil 

La, hawajaenda. 



Have they paid poll taxi 
No, they haven't paid it. 

Have you sold the house? 
No, I haven't sold it. 

Have you sold the house? 
No, we haven't sold it. 

Has he sold the house? 
No, he hasn't sold it. 

Have they sold the house? 
No, they haven't sold it. 

Has Juma gone to the market? 
No, he hasn't gone yet. 

Have the children gone to the 
market? 
No, they haven't gone yet. 

Has Daudi gone to the market? 
No, he hasn't gone yet. 

Have Daudi and Hamisi gone to 
to the market? 
No, they haven't gone yet. 



85 



UNIT 26 



SWAHILI 



Unit_a6 
1, Basic Dialogue. Where has Hamisi gonel 

Ochieng 
Hamisi yuko nyumbani? 



Is Hamisi at homel 



La, amekwenda Kagomeni* 

Kufanya ninil 

-tazama 
mzazi (Wi) 
Kuwatazama wazazi wake, 
baba (N. pers. ) 
mgonjwa (WA) ,-.. ,r,... 

4) 'f ! 1,1. l."l' 

Baba yake ni mgonjwa, \;t'ur <oM 



No, he's gone to MagcMneni, 



Ochieng 



Adija 



-.^>li 



-nuTulia 
dawa (N) 
Amekwenda kumnunulia dawa. 



:^fiH 



OVtf 



!-; 



What for? ('To do what^ ' ) 

look at 

parent 
To see his parents, 

father 

a sick person 
His father is ill. 

buy for 

medicine 
He's gone to buy hin some medicine. 



Notes 



A, Regular formation of applied stems, 

Amenunua dawa. He has bought some medicine, 

Ametununulia dawa. He has bought us some medicine, 

Ameleta dawa. He has brought some medicine, 

Ametxiletea dawa. He has brought us some medicine. 

In this discussion, the 'root' of the verb corresponding to English 
'bring' is -let-, and the affirmative indicative 'stem' is -lets. 



86 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 26 



The verbs in the second and forirth sentences both contain instances of 
the 'applied,' or 'prepositional' suffix. If the last vowel of the verb root 
is -u- (as in nunu-) or i or a, then the 'applied' sioffix is the vowel i. 
If the last vowel of the root is -e- (as in -let-), then the 'applied' sviffix 
has the vowel -e-. 

If the last sound of the root is a vowel (as in nxinu-) then the vowel 
of the applied siiffix is preceded by -1-, If the last soxmd of the root is 
a consonant (as in let-), then the applied suffix consists of a vowel only. 

[Note that in the stem -letea, the root is -let-, the applied suffix is 
-e- and the final vowel is -a^] 

To put the same information in a different form, the applied stems of 
the Bantu verbs in Swahili may be predicted on the basis of the simple stems 
as follows? 

Applied stem: 



Simple 


stem: 


root ending in 


consonant 


vowel 


-kuta 






-nunua 


-lipa 






-tia 


-pata 





-soma 



-leta 



-zaa 



-toa 



-pokea 



-kutia 
-lipia 
-patia 
-somea 
-letea 



-nunulia 



-tilia 



-zalia 



-tolea 



-pokelea 



2. 

A. Words with and without -ni, follo>n.ng yuko, 
wapi2 Hamisi yuko wapi? Where is Hamisi? 



87 



UNIT 26 



SWAHILI 



nymnba Hsjiisi yuko nyumbani, 

mji Kamisi yiiko Ajini, 

soko Hamisi jruko sokoni. 

Korogoro Hamisi yuko l-iorogoro. 

Utete Hamisi yioko Uteta. 

B. 

wapiX Hamisi na Juma wako wapi? 

nyvimba Hamisi na Jima wako nyumbanil 

kijiji Hamisi na Juma vako kijijini? 

shule Hamisi na Juma wako shuleni? 

Utete Hamisi na Juma wako Utete? 

Morogoro Hamisi na Juma wako Morogoro? 



C. 

wazazi 
wake 

rafiki 
zake 

Hamisi na 
Juma 

watoto 
wake 

D. 

rafiki 
yake 



Daudi amekwenda mjini 
kuwatazama wazazi wake* 

Daudi amekwenda mjinl 
kuwatazama rafiki zake* 

Daudi amekwenda mjini 

kuwatazama Hamisi na Juma* 

Daudi amekwenda mJini 
kuwatazama watoto wake* 



Hasani amekwenda kijijini 
kumtazama rafiki yake* 



Hamisi is at h(xae» 
Hamisi is in tovm* 
Hamisi is at the market* 
Hamisi is in Morogoro* 
Hamisi is at Utete* 

Where are Hamisi and Juma? 

Are Hamisi and Juma at home? 

Are Hamisi and Jvma at the 
village? 

Are Hamisi and Juma at school? 

Are Hamisi and Juma at Utete? 

Are Hamisi and Juma in 
Morogoro? 

Daudi has gcoie to town to see 
his parents* 

Daudi has gono to town to see 
his friends* 

Daudi has gone to town to see 
Hamisi and Juma* 

Daudi has gone to town to see 
his children* 



Hasani has gone to the village 
to see his friend* 



baba yake 



Daudi 



88 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 26 



baba yangu NimeAnunulia baba yangu 
dawa* 

iHoto wangu Daudi 

F, 



dawa 



Wazazi wangu wameniniuixilla 
dawa« 



chakula Wazazi wangu wameninunulla 
chakula* 

vitu vingl Wazazi wangu wameniniuiulla 
vitu vingi. 



I have bought my father some 
medicine* 



My parents have bought me 
some medicine* 

>ty parents have boioght me 
some food* 

Viy parents have bought me 
many things. 



A. Simple vs» applied stems* 

mlhindi Baba amenunua mihindi^ 

Ndiyo, ametununulia miwili, 

mananasi Baba amenxinua mananasij 

Ndiyo, ametununulia mawili, 

Baba amenunua ndizi^ 

Ndiyo, ametununulia mbili* 

Baba amenunua nazil 

Ndiyo, ametiJT-unulia mbili* 



ndizi 



nazi 



Has father bought some maize? 
Yes. He has bought us two 
of them. (i.e. two ears) 

Has father bought sane pine- 
apples? Yes* He has 
bought us two of them. 

Has father bought bananas? 
Yes* He has bought us two 
of them. 

Has father bought coconuts? 
Yes. He has bought us two 
of them* 



B* Me-tense: affirmative vs* (-ja-) negative; change of person from 
question to answer* 



69 



UNIT 26 



SWAHILI 



(wewe ) 
(sisi) 



Watoto 
wake 



C. 



D. 



D. 



Baba amekunvmulia nini? 
Hajaninunulia kitu. 

Baba ametununulla ninl2 
Hajatianvmulia kitu, . 

Baba amewanunulia watoto wake 
nini? Hajawanimulia kitu. 



Unaninurulia nini? 
Sikunxinulii kitu, 

Ihneninunulia nini? 
Sijakununulia kitu. 



<}S.i' 



Wanatununulia nini? 
Hawatununulii kitu, 

Wametununulia nini? 
Hawajatununulia kitu. 



Haanisi anamnunulia Daudi nini? 
Hamnunulii kitu, 

Hamisi amemnimulia Daudi nini? 
Hajamnunulia kitu, 

< ■■'Off. J '■ ' 



What has father bought youl 
He has not bought me anything. 

What has father bought us? 

He has not bought us anything. 

What has father bought his 
children? He has not bought 
them anything. 

What are you buying me? 

I am not buj'ing you anything. 

What have you bought me? 
I have not bought you 
anything yet. 

What are they buying us? 
They are not buying us 
anything. 

What have they bought us? 
They have not bought us 
anything yet. 



What is Hamisi buying Daudi? 
He is not buj-lng him anything. 

What has Hamisi bought Daudi? 
He has not bought him anything 
yet. 



Conversation Starters 
1, A is looking for C. B explains that C has gone to town to get some 
things for his child, who is ill. 



90 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 27 



1, Basic Dialogue. Who is that? 

Nani huyo? 

Huyo ni Bwana Aramian. 

-toka 

Anatoka wapi? 

Anatoka Amerikae 

Amekuja kufanya niniS 

-tumwa 
serikali (N) 
~etu 
-eleza 

mambo (pi. MA) 
nchi (N) 
AEietiunwa na serikali, kueleza 
mambo ya nchi yetu. 



Unites? 

Abasi 

Who is that? 
Butler 

That is Mr. Aramian. 
Abasi 

come frcxn, go from 
Where does he come from? 
Butler 

From America, 
Abasi 

come 
What has he come to do? 
Butler (American ) 

be sent 
government 
our 

explain 
matters 
land, covmtry 
He has been sent by his government, 
as an information officer, ('he 
has been sent by the government, to 
explain matters of our countiy' ) 



91 



UNIT 27 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A. Use of ku in certain inflected forms of verbs with monosyllabic 

stems* 

amekuja he has cone 

The verb -^ 'come' is like -enda and -isha in that ku is used between 
the tense prefix -me- and the root. This is, in fact, true of all verbs 
whose root consists of a consonant only, and iriiose stems are thus monosyllabice 

2« -toka with place expressions. 

A. . 
wapi? Bwana Hasani anatoka wapi? 
kusini Bwana Hasani anatoka kusini» 
Nairobi Bv:ana Hasani anatoka Nairobi. 



Where does Fir. Hasani come from? 
Mr. Hasani comes from the South. 
Mr, Hasani comes from Nairobi. 



rcashariki Bwana Hasani anatoka mashariki. Mr, Hasani comes from the East. 
B. Concords with some new nouns. 



vitu Ametueleza habari za vitu 
hivi. 

mambo Ametueleza mambo haya. 



habari Ametueleza habari hizi, 

C. -jua plus infinitive. 

vitu Sijui kukueleza habari za 
vitu hivi. 

mambo Sijui kukueleza mambo haya. 
habari Sijui kukueleza habari hizi. 



He has explained to us the 
details of these things. 

He has explained these affairs 
to us. 

He has explained this news to us. 



I don't know bovr to explain to 
you the details of these things. 

I don't know how to explain 
these affairs to you. 

I don't know how to explain this 
news to you. 



92 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 27 



A. Person change frcm question to answer, me-tense« 



(yeye) Amekuja kufanya nini? 

Ametuaivra na serikall yake. 



What has he cone to do? 

He has been sent by his 
goverranent. 

What have you crane to do? 



(wewe) Umekuja kufanya nini? 

Nimetuitiwa na serikali 
yangu, 

(ninyi) Mmekuja kufanya nini? 

TuiTietumwa na serikali 
yetu. 

B, Person agreement between subject prefix and possessive stem. 



I have been sent by my 
government. 

What have you (pi.) come to do? 

We have been sent by our 
govemm.ent. 



yangu 



yake 



yako 



yetu 



Nimetumwa na serikali 

kueleza mambo ya nchi 
3'-angu. 

Ametumwa na serikali 

kueleza mambo ya ilchi 
yake. 

Umetumwa na serikali 

kueleza mambo ya nchi 
yako, 

Tumeturawa na serikali 

kueleza mambo ya fichi 
yetu. 



I have been sent by the govern- 
to explain the affairs of my 
country. 

He has been sent by the govern- 
to explain the affairs of his 
country. 

You have been sent by the govern- 
ment to explain the affairs of 
your country. 

We have been sent by the govern- 
ment to explain the affairs of 
our country. 



N. B. The second verb in each of these sentences is in the infinitive form. 
An alternative and possibly more correct way of saying the same thing wovild 
use subjunctive forms instead (See Units Ua-US). 



93 



UNIT 28 



SWAHILI 



Unit_28 
1* Basic Dialogue. An introduction. 

Abdallah 
Huyu ni Bwana Hasani. This is Hassan. 

Aramian 



siku (N) 
Habari za siku nyingil 

Njema, (or: Nzuri.) 

-furahi 
Niiriefurahi kukuona. 



day 

r! .1 Whet news of many daysl 
Hasani 

Fine. 
Arandan 

be happy 
I'm happy to know ('see' ) you. 



■iS':,o 



Hasani 



■^S:c[y.-:' 



pia also, too 

Na mimi pia, nimefurahi kukuona. And I'm happy to know you too, 

■ • Aramian 
■n^J • .- : 

Nyumbani hawajambo? , Is everyone all right at your house? 

;•• !e .o 8Vi:-.'i -^nX ('At home they have no trouble?' ) 

J a Abdallah 

Havjajambo. [Yes], they're fine. 

"'-^ovQv. - . Aramian 

Watoto nao hawajambo? And your children? 

( ' children and they, they have no 
trouble? ' ) 



9U 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 28 



Abdallah 
salama with peace 

Salama, They're fine. 

Notes 

A, Bwana used with given names. 

Huyu ni Bw. Hasani, This is Hassan. 

Unlike English, Swahili uses the title Bwana before given naraes as well 
as before sumair.es • 

B, Me-forms of certain verbs translated into English with present tense, 

Nimefurahi kukuona, I'm glad to see you. 

The -me- forms of the verb -furahi 'be happy' are translated into English 
with the present tense, and not the present perfect. 

C, Na with personal pronoun stems. 

The set of forms which includes nao 'and they'/''rfith then' is: 

sg. plu. 

1 . nami nasi 

2. nawe nanyi 

3. naye nao 

2. This dialogue is a concatenation of social formulae. Practice it until 
you can go through it without mistakes in 13 seconds or less. 

3. A and B have just sat down to order lunch. C joins them and is intro- 
duced by A to B. They then proceed to order lunch. 

A and C discuss the whereabouts of an absent friend, D. D has gone to 
his hone town to take care of official business and to visit friends and 
relatives. 



95 



UNIT 29 



SWAHILI 



Unit_29 
1. Basic Dialogue. Do you know Mr. _ __? 

Aramian 
V/amjua Bwana Hasani? Do you know Hasani? 

Abdallah 

Ndiyo, namjua sana. Yes, I knovr him very well. 

Aramian 

hmtiu in here 

Akaa wapi? Akaa mjini humu? v-r Where does he live? Does he live 
(or: Anakaa.*.) ^^ ^^. ^ ^^^^ 

Abdallah 
katika in 

jimbo ' : • province 

La. Hapana, bwana, akaa katika No, he doesn't* He lives in Tanga 
jimbo la Tanga. .^ Province. 

Aramian 
tangu ,.j>j:: .. since 

Sijamwona kwa siku nyingi. ^ - . j haven't seen him for several daysi 
(or: tangu siku nyingi) 

Abdallah 
yeye he 

mke wife 

mkewe his wife 

~ao their 

jaunaa fami]^', associate 

96 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 29 



Yeye na rakewe wamekwenda Tanga He and his wife have gone to Tanga 
kuwatazama Jamaa zao* to visit their families* 

Notes 

A. Difference between concords used with rajji and m^ini. 

Akaa (or:Anakaa. • •) mjini hvumi. 

He lives in this city, 
Akaa (or:Anakaa. • «) kataka mji huu* 

The words humu 'in here' and huu are both 'proximal demonstratives'© 

Huu agrees with the Ml-class noun m^i« But when the ssune noun m^i appears 

with the locative suffix -ni, it is for concordial purposes transferred out 

of the MI-class» 

B. Some prepositions. 

katika mji huu in this city 

kwa siku chache for a few days 

The words katika 'in' tangu 'since' and kwa 'by, for, with' are pre- 
positions. 

C. 'Animate' and 'personal' subdivisions of the N class of nouns. 

ordinary N-class _nyumba ^ake iko wapi? 

N-personal _rafiki g^ce '^^'^ wapil 

N-animate _ng'Qmbe wake yulco wapi? 

ordinary WA-class nrtoto wake juko wapi? 

Ordinary nouns of the N-class singular have no class prefix syllable 
(although from a historical point of view the nasal consonant with which many 
of them begin is a relic of a prefix which existed in an earlier stage of the 
language). They require the prefix ;^-. . . They require the prefix g- with 
possessive stems, and the prefix i- with -ko. They stand for inanimate objects i 

Ordinary nouns of the WA-class singular have the class prefix A- (roj- 
before vowels). They require the prefix w- with possessive stems, and the 
prefix jni- with -ko. They stand for animals or people. 

In addition, there are a number of nouns that display some of the char- 
acteristics of each of these classes. We shall call them 'N-personal' nouns 

97 



UNIT 29 



SWAHILI 



(e,ge rafiki 'friend') and 'N-animate* nouns (e.g. nilSSjbe 'ox, cow' )• As 
indicated in the diagram, 'N-personal' nouns are like the ordinary N-class 
nouns in that they themselves contain no prefix syllable and in the possessive 
concords which they require. They are like the ordinary WA-class nouns in 
all their other concords « 

•N-animate' nouns, which stand for animals, are like VJA-nouns in this 
respect, and also with respect to the possessive concords* They are like the 
N-class only in the form of the nouns themselves. 

The above treatment of 'N~personal' and 'N-aninate' nouns covers the 
principal facts, but further details may be found in Ch, XV of Ashton's 
Swahili Grammars As pointed out there, speakers of coastal as well as up- 
country types of Swahili show a certain amount of latitude in use of concords 
with these hybrid noun classes® 

De Difference between m^i and kijijie 

^ji and ki^i^ie One of the readers of the original version of this 
course has pointed out that 'The distinction between mji and ki^i^i is not 
so clear cut as between 'town' and 'village'. ^iii^i ^^ ^°'^ much used ex- 
cept in a comparative sense » Kiambaa, for example, would certainly be called 
mji except when it is being cOTnpared directly or indirectly with a much 
larger collection of dwellings such as Nairobi. ' 



A© Concords with N-personal vs. WA nounsi 



jamaa Wamekwenda Tanga kuwatazama 
jamaa zaoe . . 

rafiki Wamekwenda Tanga kuwatazama 
rafiki zao, 

watoto Wamekwenda Tanga kuwatazama 
watoto wao. 



They have gone to Tanga to see 
their relatives. 

They have gone to Tanga to see 
their friends. 

They have gone to Tanga to see 
their children. 



B. 



rafiki 



Mkewe amekwenda Malindi 
kumtazama rafiki yake. 



His wife has gone to Malindi to 
see her friend. 



98 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 29 



baba 

jamaa 

C. 
jimbo 

nchi 

kijiji 

A. 
(wewe ) 

(ninyi) 



Rafiki 
yako 

Rafiki 
zako 



Mkewe amekwenda Nalindi 
kumtazama baba yake» 

Mkewe amekwenda Malindi 
kumtazama jamaa yake* 



His wife has gone to Malindi to 
see her fathers 

His wife has gone to ^felindi to 
see her relative* 



Concords with names of place categories* 

Bwana Fulani akaa katika 
jimbo la Tanga, 

Bwana Fulani akaa katika 
Schi ya Tanganyika® 

Bwana Fulanj. akaa katika 
mji wa Nairobi, 

Bwana Fulani akaa katika 
kijiji cha Kiambaa, 



Mr. So-and-so lives in Tanga 
districts 

Mr. So-and-so lives in 
Tanganyika* 

Mr. So-and-so lives in Nairobi, 



Mr. So-and-so lives in Kiambaa 
township* 



Change of persons fran question to answer: a - tense* 



B, 



Wakaa wapil 
Nakaa hapa. 

Mwakaa wapi^ 
Ttrakaa hapa. 

Rafiki yako akaa wapi? 
Akaa hapa« 

Rafiki zako wakaa wapil 
Wakaa hapa« 

Affirmative vs. negative, with person change • 



Where do you livel I live here. 



Where do you (pi.) live? 
We live here. 

Where does your friend live? 
He lives here. 

Where do your friends live? 
They live here. 



baba 



Baba yako akaa Morogoro? 
Hapana, hakai Morogoro, 
akaa Utete. 



Does your father live in 

Morogoro? No, he doesn't live 
in Morogoro o He lives in Utete. 



99 



UNIT 29 



SWAHILI 



(wewe ) 



(ninjri) 



Rafiki 
zako 



Wakaa Morogorol Hapana, 
slkal Korogoro, nakaa 
Utete • 

Mwakaa Morogoro? Hapana, 
hatuksd Morogoro, twakaa 

Utete • 

Rafiki zako wakaa Morogoro? 
Hapana, hawakai Morogoro, 
wakaa Utete, 



Do you live in Morogoro? 

No, I don't live in Morogoro, 
I live in Utete, 

Do you (pi,) live in Morogoro? 
No, we don't live in Morogoro. 
We live in Utete, 

Do your friends live in Morogoro? 
No, they don't live in Morogoro, 
They live in Utete, 



[Ne Be 

(wewe ) 

baba 

rafiki 

(ninyi) 



Sane speakers prefer anakaa or anaishi to akaa in these sentences.] 



Wamjua Bw. Abdallah? 
Hapana. Sijijui, 

Baba yako amjua Bw» Abdallah J 
Hapana. Hamjui, 

Rafiki zako wamjua 6w, 
Abdaillah? Hapana . 
Hawamjuie 



Do you know Abdallah? No, I 
don't know him. 

Does your father know Abdallah? 
No, he doesn't know him. 

Do your friends know Abdallah? 
No, they don't know him. 



Mwamjua Bw« Abdallah? 
Hapana, Hatumjui, 



Do you (pi,) know Abdallah? 
No, we don't know him, 

[N. B, Scane speakers prefer unamjua or unamfaharau to ^m^ua in these 

sentences,] 



100 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 30 



Unit 30 



1 • Basic Dialogue. Mr. Ochieng. 

Ochieng 
Wanijua Bwana Ochieng? 

La, siinjui* 
mara (N) 
zamani 
-anza 



Hamisi 



Adya 



(a Luo surname ) 
Do you know Mr. Ochieng? 

No, I don't know him. 
time 

formerly 
begin 



Sikumwona zamani j leo ndiyo mara ya I've seen him for the first time today. 



kwanzaa 

kazi (N) 
Afartya kazi wapi? 

Kiambd. 

lugha (N) 
-sema 
Asema lugha ya Kikuyu? 

-endelea 
Asema kidogo, Isdcini aendelea 
vizuri. 



('I didn't see him formerly j today 
is the first time . ' ) 
work 
Where does he work? 



Hamisi 



In Kiambd. (a town in a Kikuyu area) 



Adi^a 



language 
speak, say 
Does he speak Kikuyu? 



Hamisi 



to continue 
He speaka a little, but he gets along 
very well. 



101 



UNIT 30 



SWAHILI 



[N. B. Some speakers prefer a^HS-S *° asgaa in these sentences.] 

Notes 
A, Special form (mw) of 3 sg, object prefix before a verb stem that 

begins with a vowel o 

siAjui I don't know him, 

siflwoni I don't see him. 

Before a verb stem beginning ■with a vowel, the 3 sg« object prefix has 
the fonn mw-. 



A, Swahili versions of names of languages. 



Swahili 
English 
Nyamwezi 
Luganda 



H 'PfU 



Masai 



Bwana Kamau asema 
•Kiswahili vizuri sana. 

Bwana Kamau asema 

Kiingereza vizuri sana. 

Bwana Kamau asema 

Kinyamwezi vizuri sana. 

Bwana Kamau asema 
Kiganda vizuri sana, 

Bwana Kamau asema 
Kimasai vizuri sana. 



Mr. Kamau speaks Swahili very 
well. 

Mr. Kamau speaks English very 
well* 

Mr. Kamau speaks l^amwezi very 
well. 

Mr. Kamau speaks Luganda very 
well. 

Mr. Kamau speaks J&sai very well. 



Aa Noun in agreement with two subject prefixes, affirmative verbs. 



Miffii 



MLmi nasema Kiswahili 
kidogo tu, lakini 
naendelea vizuri. 



I speak veiy little Swahili, but 
I get along well. 



Rafiki 
yetu 



Rafiki yetu asema Kiswahili Our friend speaks very little 



kidogo tu, lakini 
aendelea vizuid. 



Swahili, but he gets along 
well. 



102 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 30 



Rafiki 
zetu 



Daudl 

[N. B. 
B. 

Mini 



Rafiki 
yangu 

Rafiki 
zangu 



Rafiki zetu wasema Kiswahili 
kidogo tu, lakini waendelea 
vizuri, 

Daudi asema Kiswahili kidogo 
tu, lakini aendelea vizuri. 



Ovir friends speak very little 
Swahili, but they get along 
well* 

Daudi speaks very little 
Swahili, but he gets along 
welle 



Some speakers prefer the -na- forms of the verb in these sentences.] 
Same, with negative verbs* 



Sisemi Kiswahili j siendelei 
vizuri » 

Hasemi Kiswahili | haendelei 
vizuri* 

Hawasemi Kiswahili) hawaendelei 
vizuri* 



I don't speak Swahili | I 
don't get along well* 

He doesn't speak Swahilij 
he doesn't get along well* 

They don't speak Swahilij 
they don't get along well* 



C« Nchini as an equivalent for katika j^chi* 



Kiambil Kiambi! ni mji mkubwa nchini 
(or: katika nchi) 

nwa Weikikuyu. 

Tanga Tanga ni jimbo kubwa katika 
nchi ya Tanganyika* 



Kiambu is a large town in 
Kikuyu Country* 

Tanga is a large province in 
Tanganyika* 



U. Describe a real or imaginary person. Tell where he is from, where he 
works, etCa 



103 



UNIT 31 



SWAHILI 



1. Basic Dialogue. What kind of work do you do? 

J^tis^a 



Wafacya kazi ganiS 

ukarani (U ) 

Nafanya kazi ya ukarani* 

Wapi? ''■■'■■ ■ '■'■" ■ 

idara (N) 
eliJnu (N) 
Katika Idara ya Eliinu* 

-pata 

nshahara (KI) 

Wapata mshahara wa kutosha? 
(or: IMapata,.,) 

-saidia 

mahitaji (pi, MA) 
Hapana, lakini hunisaidia kwa 
mahitaji yangu. 



V/hat kind of work do you do? 

the work or status of being 
a clerk 
(I do) clerical (work)* 



Mutisja 



Where? 



Sangai 



department 
education 
In the Department of EducatiOTi* 



Mutisya 



get 
pay 
Do you get adequate pay? 



Sangai 



help 
needs 
No, but it helps toward my everyday 
needs* 



loU 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 31 



Mutisja 



-penda 

Waipenda kazi jako% 
(or: Ifoaipenda* • •) 



Kivyo hivyoo (or: Vivi hivi, 
or: Hivi hivi.) 



like, love 
Do you like your work! 



Sangai 



So<^o« 



Notes 
A« Noun plus -a plus infinitive® 

mshahara vb. kutosha adequate pay 

Note that the word-for-word equivalent would be 'pay of to suffice % 



A, Concord: Possessives with N-personal nouns© 



baba 



rafiki 



rafiki 
(pl.) 

watoto 



Namsaidia baba yangu 
katika kazi yake* 

Namsaidia rafiki yangu 
katika kazi yake« 

Nawasaidia rafiki zangu 
katika kazi yao« 

Nawasaidia watoto wangu 
katika kazi yao« 



I help my father in his work« 

I help my friend in his work© 

I help ny friends in their work, 

I help ity children in their 
work* 



rafiki 
yako 

mtoto 
wako 

rafiki 
zako 



B» Concord: Possessives and adjectives with N-personal nouns# 
Rafiki yako ni mbaya sana. Your friend is very bad. 



Atoto wako ni mbaya sana. Your child is very bad, 
Rafiki zako ni wabaya sana. Your friends are very bad, 



105 



UNIT 31 



SWAHILI 



watoto Watoto wako ni wabaya sana, 
wako 

C» Concord: N-sniBiate nouns* 

Dg'osnbe Ng'anbe huyu ni mbaya sana, 

ngumwe Nguruwe huyu ni mbaya sana, 

kitu Kitu hiki ni kibaya sana, 

chungwa Chungwa hili ni baya sana, 

ft * * 

rckate Mkate huu ni mbaya sana, 

rg'ombe Ng'canbe hawa ni wabaya sana, 

saifiaki Samaki hawa ni wabaya sana a 

vitu Vitu hivi ni vibaya sana, 

viazi Viazi hivi ni vibaya sana, 

maembe Maembe haya ni mabaya sana, 

mikate Mikate hii ni mibaya sana. 



Tour children are very bad. 

This con is very bad. 
This pig is very bad. 
This thing is very bad. 
This orange is very bad. 
This bread is very bad. 
These cows are very bad. 
These fish are very bad. 
These things are very bad. 
These potatoes are very bad. 
These mangoes are very bad. 
These loaves of bread are 



very bad. 
Repeat the above exercise using si in place of ni. 



A, Subject in negative statement correlated with object in imperative. 



mimi Siijui kazi hii, 

Tafadhali nisaidie, 

yeye Haijui kazi hii, 

Tafadhali msaidie, 

sisi Hatuijui kazi hii, 

Tafadhali tusaidie, 

watoto Watoto hawaijxii kazi hii« 
Tafadhali wasaidie. 



I don't know this work. 
Please help me. 

He doesn't know this work. 
Please help him. 

We don't know this work. 
Please help us. 

The children do not know this 
work. Please help them* 



106 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 31 



GoncordJ Noun, possessive and adjective. 



Tuna vyakula vya kutosha? 
La» Tuna vichache tu. 

Tuna viazi vya kutoshaj 
La. Tuna vichache tu» 

Tuna siagi ya kutosha? 
La. Tvma kidogo tu. 

Tuna chai ya kutosha? 
La. Tuna kidogo tu. 

Tuna mikate ya kutosha? 
La. Tiuia michache tu* 

Tuna matunda ya kutosha? 
La. Tuna machache tu» 

Tuna mayai ya kutosha? 
La» Tuna machache tu. 



Do we have enough food? 
No, we only have a little. 

Do we have enough potatoes? 
No, we only have a few. 

Do we have enough butter? 
No, we only have a little. 

Do we have enough tea? 

No, we only have a little. 

Do we have enough bread? 
No, we only have a little. 

Do we have enough fruit? 
No, we only have a little. 

Do we have enough eggs? 
No, we only have a few. 



107 



UNIT 32 



SWAHILI 



Unit_32 
1. Basic Dialogue. You're a fanner aren't you? 

Sangai 
wewe 

inkulima (WA) 
Wewe u mkulima, an sivyol 



Ndiyo, mind inkulima. 

-panda 
-otesha 
mmea (MI) 
Waotesha miinea gani? 



you 
fanner 
You're a farmer, aren't you? 



Mirambo 



Yes, I'm a farmer* 



'angai 



raise 
raise 
plant 
What kind of crops do you raise? 



Mrambo 



muhogo (mi) 

maharagwe (pl» MA.) 

kitunguu (VI) 

mpunga (MI) 
Kwa kavaida, napanda muhogo na 
kuotesha maharagwe, vitunguu na 
mpunga* 

mwaka (MI) 

mvua (N) 
Lakini mwaka huu hakuna mvua ya 
kutosha kuotesha mpunga. 



cassava 
beans 
onion 

rice (growing in field) 
I generally grow cassava, beans, 
onions and rice* 

year 
rain 
But this year there isn't enough rain 
for growing rice* 



108 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 32 



kwa hivyo therefore 

Kwa hlvyo nlnapanda nuhogo, maharagvre For that reason j I'm growing cassava « 
na Titunguu* beans and onions* 

Notes 

A, Complete sentence consisting of absolute personal prcoioun plus noun* 

mimi miculima I'm a farmer 

wewe inkuliroa you are a farmer 

Note that this cooiplete sentence in Swahili is litersilly 'I farmer', 

B, Contrast in meaning between -ganda and -otesha, 

hatupandi muhogo we don't grow cassava 

hatuoteshi mp\inga we don't grow rice 

Different verbs are used for 'growing* cassava and 'growing' rice, 
-ganda is the word ccoanonly used for the planting and raising of all crops, 
-otesha (lit, «catise to sprout*) is used particxaarly of the sprouting 
of grain in a seed-bed (for transplanting) or on, e»g,, a sack, for beer- 
making. It is also used for the effect of rain or other form of moisture on 
seed already plsmted. 



A, Concord: Nouns with "ingi. 

mjLmea Wakulima wa nchi hii waotesha 
(or: vanaotesha) mimea mingi, 

maharagwe Wakulima wa nchi hii waotesha 
maharagwe mengi* 

mpunga Wakulima wa fichi hii waotesha 
mpunga mwingi* 

vitunguu Wakulima wa nchi hii waotesha 
vitunguu vingi* 



The farmers of this country 
grow many plants. 

The farmers of this country 
grow a lot of beans. 

The farmers of this country 
grow a lot of rice. 

The farmers of this country 
grow a lot of onions. 



109 



UNIT 32 



SWAHILI 



6« I^aka huu. 

inuhogo Mwaka huu, hatupandi 
muhogOa 

naharagwe Mvaka huu, hatupandi 
maharagwe • 

mpunga vitunguu 

C, Concord: Noiins with ~zuri# 



muhogo 



nmnea 



mpunga 



vitunguu 



Mkulima huyu apanda 
muhogo rozuri sana. 
(or: . e . anapanda, 

Mkulima huyu apanda 
roimea mlzuxd sana« 

Mkulima huyu apanda^ 
s^unga nzuri sana* 



.) 






Mkulima huyu apanda 
vitunguu vizuri sauia. 



This year, we aren't planting 
cassava* 

This year, we aren't planting 
beans* 



This fanner plants very good 
cassava. 

This farmer plants very good 
plants • 

This fanner plemts very good 
rice* 

This fanner plants very good 
onions • 



A, Comparison of a-tense with na-tense« 

mimi Kwa kawaida, napsmda (or: 
hupanda) muhogo na 
maharagwe, laklni mi^aka 
, huu ninapanda muhogo tu« 

Kwa kawaida, mkulima huyo 
apanda mugogo na vitiinguu 
lakini mwaka huu anapanda 
mohogo ifU« 



mkulima 
huyo 



Usually, I plant cassava and 
beans, but this year I am 
only planting cassava. 

Usually, that farmer (i.e. one 
alreadj' mentioned) plants 
cassava and onions, but this 
year he is only planting 
cassava* 



110 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 32 



wakullma 
hao 



Kwa kawaida, wakulima 
hao wapanda mvihogo 
na maharagwe lakini 
iiiwaka huu wanapanda 
muhogo tu. 



Usually, those farmers (i.e© 
caaes already mentioned) plant 
cassava and beans, but this 
year they are only planting 
cassava* 



111 



UNIT 33 



SWAHILI 



Unit_33 

1. Basic Dialogue, What do you do with your crops? 

Sangai 

inazao (pi. M) crops 

Waf anya nini na mazao yako? What do you do with your crops? 

(or: Unafanya, , ,) 

Mirambo 

"ingine some , other 

Kengine natumia kwa chakula, na Some I use as food, and the others 



mengine kwa kuuza« 



Wauza mazao yako wapi? 
(or: Unauza, , ,) 



for selling, 
Sangai 

Where do you sell them? 



Mirambo 

At the market, 

wife 

take, send 

My wife takes them to laell, 

active, energetic, brave 

She's very clever in selling. 

Notes 

A, The adjective "ingine as an equivalent for both 'some' and 'other', 

mengine . , , kwa chakula, na mengine kwa kuuza, 

. . , sCTae as food, and other for selling. 
The adjective ~ingine corresponds equally to English 'some' and 'other(s)' 



Sokoni, 

mke 

-poleka 
Mke wangu huyapeleka kuuza, 

hodari 
Yu hodari sana kwa kuuza. 



112 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 33 



2. 

A, 
Mke wangu 

3aba yangu 

Hainisi 



Hanisi na 
Juna 

Watoto 



Mke wangu yu hodari 
Sana kwa kuuza* 

Baba yangu yu hodari 
sana kwa kuuza. 

Hainisi yu hodari sana 
kwa kuuza* 

Haraisi na Juma ni hodari 
sana kwa kuuza* 

Watoto wetxi ni hodari sana 
kwa kuuza. 



My wife is very active in 
selling. 

tty father is very active in 
selling. 

Hainisi is very active in 
selling. 

Hamisi and Juma are very active 
in selling* 

Our children are active in 
selling. 



B, Simple noun vs. noun with locative -ni. 



mji 



soko 

kijiji 

Morogoro 



Wauza roazao yao mjini, 
(or: Wanauza, . . ) 

Wauza mazao yao sokoni. 
Wauza mazao yao kijijini. 
Wauza mazao yao Morogoro. 



They sell their crops in town. 

They sell their crops at the 
market. 

They sell their crops in the 
village. 

They sell their crops in 
Morogoro. 



C. Concord: Noun, possessive, and adjective. 



nazao 



viazi 



ndizi 



Mazao yangu mengine 
natumia kwa chakula. 

Viazi vyangu vingine 
natumia kwa chakula. 

Ndizi zangu nyingine 
natumia kwa chakula. 



I use some of ny crops for food. 

I use some of my potatoes for 
food. 

I use some of my bananas for 
food* 



113 



UNIT 33 



SWAHILI 



mahindl Mahlndi yangu mengine natumia 
kwa chakulae 

D« Animate plural nouns with "ingine, 

watoto Watoto wengine hawana chakula 
cha kutosha mwaka huu. 

ng'ombe Ng'orabe wengine hawana chakula 
cha kutosha mwaka huu, 

wakulima Wakxilima wengine hawana chakula 
cha kutosha mwsika huu. 



I use some of my maize for 
food. 



Some of the children haven't 
enough food this year. 

Some of the cows haven't 
enough food this year. 

Some of the farmers haven't 
enough food this year. 



3« Aramian interviews a farmer about his crops and about the part that his 
wife and children play in growing and marketing them. 






:'io; 



,'.' '.'lii'rT' fii,'-U>jA 



T. ^> 



IL'feW 



u "H-J i 



iiU 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 3U 



Unit_^3U 

i» Basic Dialogue* I'm a cook nowadays* 

Hands i 

Unafanya kazi gani? What kind of work are you doing? 

Mutis^a 

upishi (U) work or status of a cook 

Ninafanya kazi ya upishi* I'ni working as a cook* 

Hamisi 

kunibel (expressicai of surprise) 

Apishi (WA) a cook 

Kumbe u %)ishi siku hizii So you're a cook these daysi 

(ors • • • wewe ni mpishi. • •) 

Mutisja 

Ndiyo bwana, Mimi ni %)ishi* That's right* 

Hamisi 

Unafanya kazi kwa nanij Who are you working for? 

Mutisya 

mzungu (WA) a European 

jina (KA) name 

Kwa mzungu inmoja, Jina lake Bwana For a European named Aranian* 

Aramian* 

Notes 

«f«<«i««* 

A* Complete sentences consisting of first or second person subject 

prefix plus noun* 

u mpishi you are a cook 



115 



UNIT 3U 



SWAHILI 



ni mkulima I am a farmer 

tu wapishi we are cooks 

m wakulima you are farmers 

In these sentences, the first and second person subject prefixes are 
used before nouns denoting occupations, and the combination is treated as a 
ccwiplete sentence. 



A« Subject prefix plus noun. 



Apishi 

mkulima 

karani 



U mpishil - — - Hapana, bwana, 
Mimi ni Akulima, 

U mkulima? °-— Hapana, bwana, 
Mimi ni karani. 



Are you a cook? No, I am a 
farmer. 

Are you a farmer? No, I am 
a clerk. 



Are you a clerk? No, I am 
a cook. 



U karani? — '» Hapana, bwana, 
Mimi ni mpishi, 

R, Derivation: Abstract vs, animate nouns with the same stem, 

mpishi Yeye ni mpishi, — — Afanya 
kazi ya upishi, 

mkulima Yeye ni mkulima, Afanya kazi 
ya ukulima. 



karani 



C, 



mpishi 



mkulima 



karani 



Yeye ni karani, Afanya kazi 
ya ukarani, 

Daudi na Juma ni wapishi, 
Wafanya kazi ya upishi, 

Daudi na Juma ni wakulima, 
Wafanya kazi ya ukulima, 

Daudi na Juma ni makarani, 
Wafanya kazi ya ukarani. 



He is a cook. He does 
cooking. 

He is a farmer. He does 
farming. 

He is a clerk. He does 
clerical work, 

Daudi and Juma are cooks. 
They do cooking, 

Daudi and Juma are farmers. 
They do farming, 

Daudi and Juma are clerks. 
They do clerical work. 



116 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 31* 



3* 



A. 



Daudi 
mpishl 

Hand si 
mkulima 

Abdallah 
karani 



wewe 



wao 



yeye 



ninyi 



Daudi ni mpishi muri sana, 
Hafanyi kazi ya ukulima, 

Hamisi ni mkulima mzuri sana, 
Hafanyi kazi ya upishi, 

Abdallah ni karani mzuri sana, 
Hafanyi kazi ya upishi, 

B, Subject prefixes with nouns, 

Wewe u inpishij Hapana. Mimi 
si mpishi, mimi ni mkulima, 

Wao ni wapishi? Hapana, Wao 
si wapishi, wao ni wakulima, 

Yeye ni i^ishi? Hapana, Yeye 
si iftpishi, jreye ni mkulima, 

Nir^yi m wapishi? Hapana, Sisi 
si wapishi, sisi tu wakulima. 



Daudi is a very good cook. 
He doesn't do farming, 

Hamisi is a very good farmer. 
He doesn't do cooking, 

Abdallah is a very good clerk. 
He doesn't do cooking. 



Are you a cookS No, I am 
not a cook, I am a farmer. 

Are they cooks? No, they are 
not cooks, they are farmers. 

Is he a cookl No, he is not 
a cook, he is a farmer. 

Are you (pi,) cooks? No, we 
are not cooks, we are 
farmers* 



117 



UNIT 35 



SWAHILI 



Unit_35 
1, Basic Dialogue. He's a day laborer, 

Hasani 
ki jfiina (VI-anim« ) a youth 

Yule kijana hufanya kazi gani? What kind of work does that young 

fellow do2 
Abdallah 

casual labor 
He is a day laborer. 
Hasani 

,„ porter 

Oh, he's a porter, theni 
• ^ period of time 

How long has he done this kind of 
work? 
Abdallah 

For four years, 
Hasani 

Does he like his work? 
Abdallah 

to complain 
on, concerning 
He doesn't ccmplain about it. 



kazi ya kibarua 
Yeye hufanya kazi ya kibarua, 

i?ypagazi (WA) 
Kumbe yeye ri mpagazii 

muda (N) . t .' 
Amefanya kazi hii kwa muda gani? 



Kwa miaka mfnne, 

Yeye apenda kazi yake? 

-nung 'unika 
juu (N) 
Hanung'uniki juu ya kazi yake. 



lie 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 35 



Notes 



A. Hu-tense* 



mimi huuza mazao yangu I sell n^r crops 

sisi huuza mazao yetu we sell our crops 

yeye huuza mazao yake he sells his crops 

wao huuza mazao yao they sell their crops 

The hu-tense of a verb has no subject prefix to indicate the class of 

the subject. The subject is therefore made explicit, either as a noun or as 

a pronoun, unless the identity of the subject is clear from what precedes the 

sentence. 

The hu-tense is used where habitual or recurrent action is implied, 

yeye huenda sokoni he (regxilarly) goes to the 

market 

wao huja asubuhi they (regularly) come in 

the morning 

In the hu-tense, the verbs -enda and -isha, and verbs with monosyllabic 

stems like -ja, do not have -ku- or -kw- as they do in the other tenses that 

have been studied* 

B, 'Vl-animate ' nouns. 

Kijana wao amekwenda. Their young fellow has gone. 

Vijana wao wamekwenda. Their young fellows have gone. 

Compare Note 29.0 concerning the 'N-animate' nouns. 'N-animate' nouns 
acted like ordinary N-class nouns only with respect to the shape of the 
singtilar and plural foims of the noun itself. The word kijana, which we may 
call a 'Vl-animate' noun, is like an ordinary Vl-class noun with respect to 
the singular end plural forms of the noun only. Otherwise, it is like a 
WA-class noun, even in the possessive concords which it requires. 

C. The word ^uu. 

Hanung'uniki juu jra kazi yake. He doesn't complain about his work. 
The word juu is a noun, the approximate translation of which is 'the top'. 
This noun, however, has two characteristics which set it apart from other 
nouns: (1 ) it is seldom used without being followed by ^ plus another noun, 
or by a possessive (jrake, ^ako* ^^^•)t 

119 



UNIT 35 



SWAHILI 



(2) it is seldoir used as the subject or object of a verb. It may be used 
('adverbially' ) vdthout a possessive or another noun, (3) it does not occur 
in the plural. 

For these reasons, ^uu is most comnonly translated into English by a 
preposition, such as 'on, over, above, concerning '• 

D, S£ecial_Note_on_the_^£resent_tenses^_^of_Swahili, 

Swahili possesses three sets of affirmative indicative verb forms which 
in some sense may be called 'present.' These are typified by tuNAsema, 
t-wAsema, and (sisi)HUsema, In the preparation of the original draft of this 
course, and in ccmparison of the changes suggested in draft by various 
authorities, the choice among the three 'present tenses' displayed a greater 
degree of uncertainty than did any other point of grammar. 

Accordingly, alternative tensR forms have been indicated ir. rany, 
though not all of the sentences concerning which Swaliili speakers disagree 
ajtiong themselves. 



A. Hu-tense. 

wewe Wewe hufanya kazi gani? 

Juina Juma hufanya kazi gani? 

yeye Yeye hufanya kazi gani? 

Juina na Juma na Daudi hufanya kazi 

Daudi .^ 
gani? 



wao 

wews 
Juma 
;reye 



B. 



Wao hufanya kazi gani? 

Wewe hupenda kazi yakoX 
Juma hupenda kazi yake? 
Yeye hupenda kazi yake? 



Juma na Juita na Daudi hupenda kazi, 
^^^^ yaoj 



What kind of work do you do? 

What kind of work does Juma doj 

What kind of work does he do? 

What kind of work do Juma and 
Daudi do? 

What kind of work do they do? 

Do you like your work? 

Does Juma like his work? 

Does he like his work? 

Do Juma and Daudi like their work? 



120 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 35 



wao 


Wao hupenda kazi y&o? 


c. 


Juu ^a ^__^. 


ks.7.1 


Hanung 'uniki juu ya kasi ] 




yake# 


ryuir.ba 


Hanimg 'uniki Juu ya nyujnba 1 




yake. 


inpishd 


Hanving 'uniki juu ya mpishi ] 




wake. 


chakula 


Hanung 'uniki juu ya chakula 1 



chake, 

rice Hanung 'uniki juu ya mke 
wake* 

watoto Hsinung 'imiki juu ya watoto 
wake* 

D. Concord: Noun plus demonstrative. 

kazi SitakL kunung 'unika juu ya 
kazi hii* 



Do they like their work? 



He doesn't complain about his 
work* 

He doesn't complain about his 
house • 

He doesn't complain about his 
cook. 

He doesn 't ccciplain about his 
food* 

He doesn't complain about his 
wife* 

He doesn't complain about his 
children* 



chakula 


Sitaki kunung 'unika 
chakula hiki. 


juu 


ya 


vyakula 


Sitaki knnung 'unika 
vysdcula hi.vi* 


juu 


ya 


nyuiriba 


Sitaki kunung 'unika 
njnunba hii. 


juu 


ya 


fichi 


SitaJci kunung 'unika 
Achi hii. 


juu 


ya 


vitu 


Sitaki kunimg 'unika 
vitu hivi. 


juu 


ya 



I do not want to 
this work, 

I do not want to 
this food* 

I do not want to 
these foods, 

I do not want to 
this house* 

I do not want to 
this countrj"-, 

I do not want to 
these things. 



con.-plain about 
complain about 
complain about 
complain about 
complain about 
complain about 



121 



UNIT 35 



SWAHILI 



A, Me-tense with a characteristic time expression. 



kibarua AmefarQra kazi ya kibarua 
kwa muda gani^ 

ukarani Araefanya kazi ya ukarani 
kwa c:uda ganit 

ukuliiria Amefanya kazi ya ukulima 
kwa muda gani? 

upishi Amefarya kazi ya upishi 
kwa muda gani? 

B« Cumulative, 

Yeye hufanjra kazi ya upishi. 
Kiunbe yeye ni mpishil 

Teye hufs^ya kazi ya ukulima, 
Kurabe yeye ni mkuliroaj , 

Teye hufanya kazi ya ukarani. 
Kumbe yeye ni karani? 

Yeye hufanya kazi ya kibarua. 
Kumbe yeye ni mpagazi? 



Hcfw long has he worked as a 
laborer? 

How long has he worked as a 
clerk? 

How long has he worked as a 
farmer? 

How long has he worked as a 
cook? 



He works as a cook. 
So he is a cook? "= 

He works as a farmer. 
So he is a farmer? 

He works as a clerk. 
So he ivS a clerk? 

He works as a laborer. 
So he is a porter? 



km A and B discviss the occupations of their friends C, D and E, 



122 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 36 



Unit^36 
i» Basic Dialogue. Vtliere were you yesterday? 

Hairdsi 



-wa 
jana 
Jana ulikuva wapi? 

Nllikuwa sokoni* 

saa (N) 
"ngapiS 
UD.ikwenda saa ngapi? 

-ondoka 
sita 



be 

yesterday 
Where vere you yesterday! 
Adi^a 

At the market* 
Hairlsi 

hour 

how many! 
What time did you go? 
Adija 

to leave 
six 



Nillordoka nyumbani saa sita mchana* I left home at noon* 

Hamisi 
Ulirunvia ninij What did you buyj 

Adi^a 



mboga (K) 



(general word for leafy 
vegetables ) 

salt 



chumvi (K) 

pilipili (K) pepper 

Kilinuntia mboga, chumvi na pilipili* Green vegetables, salt and pepper* 



123 



UNIT 36 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A, Li -tense, 

\3linunua nini? what did you buy? 

ulikwenda wapi? where did you go? 

The li-forms of a Swahili verb are formed in a manner exactly parallel 
to the na- forms and the me-forms. As with the latter, monosyllabic stems and 
-^da and -isha are preceded by ku-/kw-» 

The meaning of the li-tense is similar to that of the English 'simple 
past' tense, , " 

B, Locatives with -ni corresponding to 'at' 'to' 'frcm' depending on 

the context. . ■ _ 

nilikwenda sokoni I went to the market 

niliondoka sokoni . I left the market 
Note that noun plus locative -ni (e.g. sokoni) is translated either 'to' 

or 'frctii' depending on the identity of the verb, . , 

C, Literal translation of saa ngagi? 

. The literal translation of saa nga^i? 'at what tiirie?' is 'hours how 
many? • . 



A, Hours of the day, 

ngapi Hamisi alik-vrenda sokc»ni 
saa ngapi? 

moja Hamisi alikwenda sokoni 
saa moja? 

mbili Hamisi alikwenda sokoni 
saa mbili? 

tatu Hamisi alikwenda sokoni 
saa tatu? 



What time did Hamisi go to the 
market? 

Did Hamisi go to the market at 

7 o'clock? 

Did Hamisi go to the market at 

8 o'clock? 

Did Hamisi go to the market at 

9 o'clock? 



12l^ 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 36 



&ie Hand, si alikwenda sokoni 
saa nnel 

tano Haitiisi alikvienda sokoni 
saa tanol 

sita Haiiiisi alikwenda sokoni 
saa sita^ 

B» -wa plus locative expression, 

wapi Ulikuwa wapi saa sita 
]%chana2 

soko Ulikuwa sokoni saa sita 
mchanaf 

bcana Uliktiwa bomani saa sita 
mchana? 

shule Ulikuwa shuleni saa sita 
mchana? 



Did Hand si go to the market at 

10 o'clock? 

Did Hamisi go to the market at 

11 o'clock? 

Did Hamisi go to the market at 

12 o'clock? 



Where were you at 12 noon? 

Were you at the market at noon? 

Were you at the District Office 
at noon? 

Were you at school at noon? 



C. 
ryumba 

soko 

shule 

boma 

D. 
chumvi 
mboga 



-ondoka plus locative expression, 

Mliondoka nyumbsmi saa ngapi 
Jana? 

Mliondoka sokoni saa ngapi 
Jana? 

Mliondoka shuleni saa ngapi 
Jana? 

Mliondoka bomani saa ngapi 
jana? 



What time did you leave home 
yesterday? 

What time did you leave the 
market yesterday? 

What time did you leave school 
yesterday? 

What time did you leave the 
District Office yesterday? 



Concord: Noun, demonstrative, possessive; 'whose?' 
Chumvi hli ni ya nani? Whose salt is this? 
Mboga hizi ni za nani? Whose vegetables are these? 



125 



UNIT 36 



SWAHILI 



pilipili 
vitu 
kiazi 
ng ' cmbe 
E. 
mpishi 
nyumba 
kijiji 

vyakula 

shule 
Raembe 
F. 



wapishi 

hodari 

watoto 

~baya 

matunda 



Pilipili hizi ni za nani? 

Vitu hivi ni vya nanil 

Kiazi hiki ni cha nanil 

Ng'ombe huyu ni wa nani? 

Concord: Noun, possessive, verb, 

Mpishi wao alikuwa mzuri sana, 

NyuBiba yao ilikuwa nzuri sana. 

Kijiji chao kilikuwa kizuri 
sana, 

Vyakula vyao vilikuwa vizuri 
sana» ^' ^"' i 

Shule yao ilikuwa nzuri sana. 

Maembe yao yalikuwa mazuri 
sana* 

Mpishi wao alikuwa mzuri 
sana. 

Wapishi wao valikuwa wazuri 
sana, 

Wapishi wao walikuwa hodari 
sana. . .- 

Watoto wao walikuwa hodari 
sana. 

Watoto wao walikuwa wabaya 
sana. 

Matunda yao yalikuwa mabaya 
sana. 



Whose pepper is this? 
Whose things are these! 
Whose potato is this? 
Whose cow is this? 
adjective. 

Their cook was very nice. 
Their house was very nice. 
Their village was very nice. 

Their food was very nice. 

Their school was very nice. 
Their mangoes were very nice. 

Their cook was very nice. 

Their cooks were very nice. 

Their cooks were very energetic. 

Their children were very 
energetic. 

Their children were very bad. 
Their fniit was very bad. 



126 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 36 



"bichi Matunda yao yalikuwa mabichi 
sana* 

~bivu Matvinda yao yalikuwa ruabivu 
sana» 



Their fruit was very green. 
Their fruit was very ripe. 



A, Concord: Object prefix, noun, demonstrative. 



mboga Ulizinunua mboga hizi wapi? 

Nilizinunua sokoni* 

chuirrvi Uliinunua chxunvi hii wapil 

Niliinunua sokoni. 

nyama Uliinunua nyama hii wapi? 
Niliinunua sokoni. 

chakula Ulikinxinua chakula hiki wapi2 
Nilikinunua sokoni, 

viazi Ulivinunua viazi hivi wapil 

Nilivinunua sokoni. 

B, Times of day. 

moja Ulikwenda sokoni saa moja 
usiku? 

Hapana. Nilikwenda saa moja 
asubuhi. 

tatu Ulikwenda sokoni saa tatu 
usiku? 

Hapana, Nilikwenda saa tatu 
asubuhi. 

tano Ulikwenda sokoni saa tano 
usikut 



Where did you buy these 
vegetables? 

I bought them in the market* 

Where did you buy this salt? 
I bought it in the market. 

Where did you buy this meat? 
I bought it in the market. 

Where did you buy this food? 
I bought it in the market. 

Where did you buy these 
potatoes? 
I bought them in the market. 



Did you go to the market at 
7 o'clock in the evening? 

No. I went at 7 o'clock in 
the morning. 

Did you go to the market at 
9 o'clock at night? 

No. I went at 9 o'clock in 
the morning. 

Did you go to the market at 
11 o'clock at night? 



127 



UNIT 36 



SWAHILI 



Hapana, Nilikwenda saa tano 
asubuhi. 

saba Ulikvenda sokoni saa saba 
iisikul 

Hapana. Nilikwenda saa saba 
icchana* 



No. I went at 11 o'clock in 
the morning. 

Did you go to the market at 
1 o'clock in the morning? 

No. I vent at 1 o'clock in 
the afternoon. 



128 



. i;-.- 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 37 



Unit_37 
1* Basic Dialogue. - What is your tribal background? 

Butler 
kabila (MA) tribe 

Kabila lako husema lugha gani? What language does your tribe speak? 

Abasi 

(language of the WaZaramo) 
Kizaramol 

again 
hear 
Would you repeat it please? 
I didn't hear well, 
Abasi ' 

I said 'Kizaramo. • 
Butler 
V/atu hawa wanakaa katika nchi gani? What territory do these people live 

in? 
Abasi 
-ishi (or: -kaa) dwell 

sehemu (N) section 

Waishi katika sehemu ya Dar es They live in the vicinity of Dar es 
Salaan, (or: Wanaishi. . •) Salaam, 



kizaramo 
Kizaramol 

tena 

-oikia 

Tafadhali, sema tena. 
(or:,,.rudia tena.) 
Sikusikia vizuri. 

Nimesema 'Kizaramo, ' 



129 



UNIT 37 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A, Articulation of gh. 

The middle consonant in lugha 'language' is not like anything -v^ich is 
used in standard pronunciation of English, The back of the tongue is near 
the soft palate, almost in the position which it occupies for the g in English 
gone. But the g in gone requires mOTientary complete stoppage of the air 
stream, while in lugha this stoppage doesn't quite get made. 



B. Past negative forms with -ku-« 
nilisikia vizuri 
sikusikia vizuri ' '••^ ' 
hatukusikia vizuri 



I heard well 

I didn't hear well 

we didn't hear well 



The second amd third examples above contain verb forms with past negative 
meaning. They are constructed as follows: 



^ ^ 2H-Ji_EE2-i? ^ Sh/^ ^ 



stem 



a»M 






"•■"*••■ 


ha- 


-tu- 


-ku- 


-sikia 


ha- 


' -tu- ' 


-kw- 


-enda 


ha- 


-tu- 


-ku- 


-Ja 



These negative forms are sometimes used as negative counterparts of the 
affirmative li-tense, and scanetimes as counterparts of the me-tense. 



a. 



A, Vizuri as a modifier of verbs. 



•sikia 


Sikusikia vizuri. 


■sema 


Sikusema vizuri. 


■ona 


Sikuona vizuri. 


•clewa 


Sikuelewa vizuri. 


•eleza 


Sikueleza habari vizuri. 


habari 





-fanya kazi Sikufanya kazi vizuri. 



, ^ 11- J ■' 

I did not hear well. 

I did not speak well. 

I did not see well. 

I did not understand well. 

I did not explain the matters welli 

I did not work well. 



130 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 37 



B. Past negatives with -ku-. 



-anda 

-furahi 

-tumwa 

-ondoka 
nyuinbani 

-taka 
chakula 

C. 

-enda 
kazini 

-fanya 
kazi 

-tuinwa 
ryjmbani 



Juma hakuja jar?a. 

Juma hakwenda jana* 

Juma hakufurahi jana, 

Juma hakutujm>ra jana* 

Juma hakuondoka nyumbani 
Jana, 

Juma hakutaka chakula jana. 

Wapagazi hawakwenda kazini* 

Wapagazi hawakufanya kazi* 

Wapagazi hawakutuimra 
nyumbani* 

Wapagazi hawakufurahi* 

Wapagazi hawakuja hapa. 



Juma did not come yesterday* 
Juma did not go yesterday, 
Juma was not happy yesterday* 
Juma was not sent yesterday* 
Juma did not leave home yesterday* 

Jijma did not want food yesterday. 

The porters did not go to work* 

The porters did not work* 

The porters were not sent home* 



The porters were not happy* 
The porters did not come here* 



-furahi 
-ja hapa 

A, Present affirmative and negative vs* past affirmative and negative, 
Unahitaji chakula? 



Hapana* Sihitaji* 

Ulihitaji chakula? 
Hapana* Sikuhitaji* 

Unakwenda sokoni2 
Hapana, siendi* 



Do you need food? 

No, I don't need any* 

Did you need food? 

No, 1 didn't need any* 



Are you going to the market? 
No, I am not going* 



131 



UNIT 37 



SWAHILI 



Ulikwenda sokoni2 
Hapara, sikuenda, 

C. 

Una njaa? 

Hapana, sina, 

Ulikuwa na njaaX 

Hapana 4 sikuwa na njaa* 

Knna nyamal 

Hapana, hstkuna. 

K'oliJcuwa na nyamail 

Hapana, hakukuwa na nyama* 

E. ■•■/■■ ;■ 

Tuna sukari ya kutosha? 
Hatuna, 

Tiilikuwa na sukari ya kutoshai 
Hapana, hatukuwa na ya kutosha, 

F, 

Analipa kodi ya kichwa? 
Hapana, halipi, 

Alilipa kodi ya kichwa? 
Hapana, hakulipa. 

G. 

Anauza njmmba yake? 
Hapana, hauzi, 

Aliuza nyumba yake? 
Hapana, hakuuza. 



Did you go to the market? 
No, I did not go# 



Are you hungry? 
No, I am not* 

Were you hungry? 
No, I was not. 



Is there any meat? 
No, there is not any» 

Was there any meat? 
. No, there was not any. 



Do we have enough sugar? 
We don't. 

Did we have enough sugar? 
No, we did not. 



Does he pay poll tax? 
No, he doesn't. 

Did he pay poll tax? 
No, he didn't. 

Is he selling his house? 
No, he isn't. 

Did he sell his house? 
No, he didn't. 



132 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 38 



Unit_38 
I* Basic Dialogue* Where have you been? 

Magese 
Bwana Dodge, unatoka vrapi? 



pwani (N ) 
Ninatoka pwani. 

-ogelea 
Ulikwenda pwani kuogelea? 

-tembea 
-punga hewa 
Hapana, Nilikwenda kuteiribea na 
kupunga hewa. 

Atu (WA) 
Kuna watu wengi pwani 2 

-jaa 
huko 
Ndiyo, bwana, watu wengi wamejaa 
huko* 



Where are you coming from, Mr. Dodge? 
Dodge 

beach 
From the beach, 
Magese 

to swim 
Did you go there to swim? 
Dodge 

to go for a walk 
to change air 
No« I went to waUc and get a change 
of air, 
Magese 

person 
Are there many peqple at the beach? 
Dodge 

to fill up 
there 
Yes, there arej the place is crowded, 
("Yes, sir. Many people have filled 
that place up, • ) 



133 



UNIT 38 SWAHILI 



Notes 

This tinit contains no new grammar. The students should experiment to see 
what variety they can give to conversations that begin with the line, 'Bwana 
Fulani, unatoka wapil' 

Listen to the conversations given on the tape. Try to write down the 
few unfamiliar words that they contain. 



13U 



BASIC COimSE UNIT 39 



Unit_39 

1, Basic Dialogue. Do you speak LuoS 

Sangai 

Jel Wajua kusema Kiluol Say, do you know how to speak Luo? 

(or: . . .Kijaluo?) 

Abasi 

bar^bara thoroughly, very well 

Ndiyo, Nasema Kiluo bar^ara. Yes, I speak Luo fluently, 

Sangai 

-^Jifunza to study 

lini? when? 

Ulj jifunza lini kusema Kiluo? When did you learn to speak Luo? 

Abasi 

Nilikaa katika mji wa Kisumu kwa I lived in Kisumu for a period of 

muda wa miaka mitano. five years* 

Sangai 

ukifanya you-doing 

Ulikuwa likifanya nini huko Kisumu? What v:cre you doing there at Kisumu? 

Abasi 

mwandishi (liiA) good writer 

-kuu big, principal 

chama (VI) vmion, association, club 

Afanyakazi (WA) worker 

Nilikuwa nwandishi mkuu katika Charaa I was General Secretary in the 

cha WafaiTyakazi, Labor Union, 



135 



UNIT 39 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A, The prefix ki- in the names of languages. 

Wasema Kiluol Do you speak Luo2 

The name of the Luo language, in that language, is 2^2i-2» ^"*^ *^® people 
are called Luo. But in Swahili, the prefix ki- is applied to the (Swahili) 
nsune for any people in order to indicate the style of life or speech of that 
people. So the Baganda call their language Luganda, but in Swahili it is 
called Kigandaj the Mashona call their language Chishona, but in Swahili it 
is called Kishona, 



A, Concord: Noun and demonstrative. 

Aji Ulikaa katika mji huo 
kwa muda gani? 

dchi Ulikaa katika fichi hiyo 
kwa muda gani? 

jimbo Ulikaa katika Jijnbo hilo 
kwa muda ganiS 

kijiji Ulikaa katika kijiji hicho 
kwa muda ganil 

sehemu Ulikaa katika seherau hlyo 
kwa muda ganil 

B. Kwa muda wa • ~ 



Nilikaa huko Dar es Salaam 
kwa muda wa mwaka mmoja. 

Nilikaa huko Dar es Salaain 
kwa muda wa miaka miwili* 



How long did you live in that 
city? 

How long did you live in that 
country? 

How long did you live in that 
province? 

How long did you live in that 
village? 

How long did you live in that 
secti(»}? 



I lived there in Dar es Salaam 
for a period of caie year. 

I lived there ^n Dar es Salaam 
for a period of two years. 



136 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 39 



Swahili 

kazi ya 
iikarani 



lugha 
mbili 



c. -^i£ii255» 

Juma anajifunza Kiluo? 
Juma anajifunza Kiswahili? 



Juma anajifunza kazi ya 
ukaranil 

Juma anajifun-ja lugha mbili? 



Is Juma learning Luo? 

Is Juma learning Swahili? 

Is Juma learning clerical work? 

Ig Juma learning two languages? 



A, Present affirmative and negative. 

Hamisi anajifunza Kiluo sasa? 
Hapana, hajifunzi, 

Wewe unajifunza lugha ya 
Kikayu sasaX 
Hapana, sijifiinzi. 



Is Hamisi learning Luo now? 
No, he isn't* 

Are you learning Kikuyu language 
now? 
No, I'm not. 



TaDajiftmza kazi ya ukarani 
sasa? 
Hapana, hatujifunzi, 

Ninajifunza Kizaramo sasa? 
Hapana, hujifvinzi. 

B, A-tens«, >ri.th person change, question to answer. 



Are we learning clerical work 
now? 
No, we aren't. 

Am I learning Zaramo now? 
No, you aren't. 



Wasema Kj.swahili vizuri? 
Ndiyo. Nasema barc^bara. 

Twasema Ki swahili vjzuri? 
Ndiyo. Mwasema bar^ara. 

Watu hawa wasema Kiswahili 
vizuri? 
Ndiyo. Wasema bar^ara. 

l^tu huyu asema Kiswahili? 
Ndiyo. Asema barcCbara. 



Do you speak Swahili well? 
Yes, I speak it fluently. 

Do we speak Swahili well? 
Yes, Ycni speak it fluently. 

Do these people speak Swahili 
well? 
Yes, they speak it fluently. 

Does this man speak Swahili vrell? 
Yes, he speaks it fluently. 



137 



UNIT 39 



SWAHILI 



C. 



MwaseiRa Kiswahili vizuri2 
Ndiyc. Twasema barctbara, 

Wajua kusema Kinjrariwezi? 
Nasema kidogo tu. 

Watu hao wajua kv.sema 

Kinyanivezi? 
Wasema kidogo tu. 

i?itoto hxiyo ajua kusema 
Kinyaniwesi? 
Asema kidogo tu. 

Watoto hao wajua kusera 
KinyamweziX 
Waseir,a kidogo tu. ' ■' 



Do you (pi.) speak Swahili well? 
Yes, we speak it fluently. 



Do you know how to speak Nyaniwezil 
I speak just a little. 

Do those people know hew to speak 
NyamweziS 
They speak just a little. 

Does that child know how to speak 
NyamweziJ 
He speaks just a little. 

Do those children know how to speak 
NyamweziX 
They speak just a little. 



138 



BASIC COURSE UNIT Uo 



Ifeit_4o 
•J, Basic Dialogue. Planning a holiday trip, 

Mutisya 
kesho tomorrow 

"■pya new 

Kesho ni Sikukuu ya Mwaka Mpya, TonorroH is the New Tears holiday, 

-shinda spend the day 

Wewe utashinda wapi? ^iJhere are jou going to spend the day? 

Njoroge 
matembezi (pi. MA) outing 

KLmi, ifike wangu na watoto tutakwenda My wife and children and I are going 
Voi aatembezini. to Voi for an outing. 

Mutisya 
motokaa (K) (or: motakaa) autcanobils 

gari (MA.) car 

Kioshi (mi) smoke 

Mtakwerda kwa motokaa, au kv;a gari Are you going by car, or by train? 
la moshi? 

Njoroge 
-panda mount, climb 

-kusudia plan 

Tunakusudia kupanda gari la moshi. We are planning to take the train. 
Na wewe je? And what about you? 

Mutisya 
inchezo (MI) game 



139 



UNIT Uo 



SWAHILI 



farasi (N-anim« } 
Sijuii Pengine nitakaa nyumbani 
tuj au nitakwenda kuona michezo 
ya farasi, 

A, Ta-tense, 

Utashinda wapi? '" 
Tutakwenda Vol. ■ ' ^' 



horse 
I don't know. Maybe I'll just stay 
at heme. Or iraybe I'll go to watch 
the horse races* 



Motes 



Where will you spend the day? 
Vfe will go to Voi. 



The future tense is formed with the tense prefix -ta-. There are, then, 
five tense prefixes, anj' one of which may fill the slot imrriediately after 
the subject prefix: 



subj, - tense - obj. 



ni 



-zi- 
-- me '— etc. 




stem 
-ona 



(kti/kw) 



Vj'ith the last of these tense prefixes, of course, the subject prefixes have 
special forma. Also, the ku/kw before -enda, -isha and monosyllabic stems 
is not used in the a-tense. 



il»o 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT Uo 



kusinl 
ya mji 

pwani 



A, The ta-tense« 

Voi Nimi na mke wangu tutakwenda 
Voi kesho, 

sokoni Mind na inke wangu tutakwenda 
sokoni kesho. 

Mind na mke wangu tutakwenda 
kusini ya mji kesho. 

Mild, na mke wangu tutakwenda 
pfwani kesho. 

kazini Mind na mke wangu tutakwenda 
kazini kesho. 

£. Ta- tense. 

wewe Utakwenda wapi kwa matembezil 

karani Karani atakwenda wapi kwa 
matembezi? 

wapagazi Wapagazi watakwenda wapi 
kwa matembezi^ 

yeye Yeye atakwenda wapi kwa 
matembezit 

wao Wao watakwenda wapi kwa 
matembezi? 

C. 



^fy wife and I will go to Voi 
tomorrow. 

My wife and I will go to the 
market tomorrow, 

ffy wife and I will go to the 
south of the city tomorrow, 

}ty wife and I will go to the 
beach tomorrow. 

My wife and I will go to work 
tcjnorrow. 



Where will you go for a walk? 

Where will the clerk go for a 
walk? 

Where will the porters go for 
a walk: 

Where will he go for a walk? 



Where will they go for a walk? 



Ta- vs. li- vs. me-tenses with -shinda, 
Wewe utashinda wapi kesho? 



yeye 



Yeye atashinda wapi kesho? 



Where will you spend the day 
tomorrow? 

Where will he spend the day 
tomorrow? 



iUi 



UNIT Uo 



SWAHILI 



jana 



wao 



Yeye alishinda wapi Janat 



Wao walishinda wapi jana? 



kesho Wao watashinda wapi kesho? 



leo 



Wao wameshinda wapi leo? 



yeye Yeye simeshinda wapi leol 
kesho Yeye atashinda wapi kesho? 



mind 



K±si± nitashinda wapi kesho? 



3» Li-tense vs. ta -tense. 

kwenda Jana nilikwenda Morogoro,— 
na kesho nitakwenda tena, 

kununua Jana tulinunua ndizi, — 

na kecho tutanunua nyinginei 

kuuza Jana aliuza ng'ombe, — - 

na kesho atauza wengine. 

kulipa Jana nililipa kodi ya 
nyujnba, — — na kesho 
nitalipa kodi ya kichwa. 

kupanda Jana txilipanda gari la 
moshi, — na kesho 
tutapanda tena, 

kuona Jana tulimwona Bwana 

Hasani, — na kesho 
tutanwona tena. 



Where did he spend the day 
yesterday? 

Where did they spend the day 
yesterday? 

Where will they spend the day 
tomorrow? 

Where did they spend the day 
today? 

Where did he spend the day today? 

Where will he spend the day 
tomorrow? 

Where shall I spend the day 
tcaiorrow? 



I went to Morogoro yesterday, — 
and tomorrow I'll go again. 

We bou^t bananas yesterday, — 
and tomorrow we'll buy some 
more* 

He sold cows yesterday, — and 
tomorrow he'll sell sane more, 

I paid house rent yesterday, — 
and tomorrow, I'll pay poll 
tax. 

We took a train yesterday, — 
and tomorrow we'll take it 
again* 

We saw Hasani yesterday, — 
and tomorrow we'll see him 
again. 



1U2 



BASIC COURSE UNIT ko 



L, Begin a number of conversations with the opening line, 'Utafanya nini 
kesho? • 



143 



UNIT Uo 



SWAHILI 



Review Sentences, Iftiits i - 2*o« 



1 • Nitakwenda sokoni kununua nyama 
na irachungwa, 

2* Kesho asubuhi, tutakuletea dawa 
ya kichwa, 

3. Watu wa kabila la Wakikuya wanakaa 
katika Jimbo la Kiambu* 

U, Mwandishi huyo alikuja kutoka nchi 
ya Amerika. 

5. Tafadhali tukapiinge hewa huko 
upande va inashariki ya mji, 

6« Maziwa ni chakula kizuri saua kwa 
watoto, 

7, Sitaki kukaa hapa kwa muda wa 
siku nyingi. 

8* Je, utadcaa nyirmbani au utakwenda 
kazinil 

9e Mananasi na machungwa yalikuvxa 
maz\iri« 

10, Tuliyala, 

11, Sijambo bwana, nawe hujambo? 

12, Sijambo, lakini mtoto wangu ni 

mgonjwa, 

13, Vfepagazi wananung ' unika juu ya 

mishahara yao. 



I'm going to the market to buy 
meat and oranges. 

Tomorrow morning we will bring you 
a headache remedy. 

People of the Kikuyu tribe live in 
the province of Kiambu, 

That secretary came from America, 

Let's take a walk to the east of 
the city. 

Milk is a very good food for children. 



I don't want to stay here for many 
days. 

Are you going to stay at hcsr.e, or 
are you going to go to work? 

The pineapples and oranges were 
good. 

We ate them (i.e, the pineapples 
and oranges), 

I'm fine (sir). And you? 

I'm all right, but my child is ill. 

The porters are conplaining about 
their wages. 



Mtk 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT Uo 



iU« Mtauza ndizi, machungwa na 
mananasi matano, 

i5, Mji wa Nairobi uko upande gani 
wa mji wa Mowbasa? 

•;6, Watu wengi hupenda kutembelea 
pwaci sana, 

i7» Mwaka huu baba yangu atarilipia 
ada ya sh\0.e« 

16» Bibi Mariamu husema Kizaramo 
baretbara • 



19. Unataka samaki wangapi? 

20. Watashinda nyumbani siku ya leo. They vdl]. spend today at hc«ne, 

21* Chakula hiki kina pilipili 
nyingi sana. 

22 • Kwa kawaida wakulima hupata 
inazao mengi* 

23. Maetnbe hayo yalikuwa mabivii au 
mabichi? 

2U« Nadhani masiwa ya shilingi moja 
yatatosha* 



You (pl» ) will sell bananas, oranges 
eind pineapples. 

What direction is Nairobi fron Mcjnbasa? 



Many people are very fond of going to 
the sea shore. 

This year, my father is going to pay 
my school fees for me. 

Kiriamu speaks Kizaramo fluently. 

Kow many fish do you want? 

They wil]. spend today at he 

This food has a lot of pepper [in it«] 

Usually fanners get large crops, 

V7ere those mangoes ripe or green? 



I think a shilling's worth of milk 
will be enough. 



25, Wapagazi hawakufanya kazi vizuri. The porters didn't work well. 

26, Pilipili hazipatikani sokoni yetu. Pepper is not available in our market. 

Many jjeople work as clerks and cooks. 



27, Watu wengi hufanya kazi ya 
ukarani na ya upishi, 

p. 8, Hapana, sitaki kula maembe. 



No, I don't want to eat mangoes. 



39, Bwana Juna aliondoka leo asubuhi Juma left this morning for Voi. 
kwenda Voi, 



3o, Tafadhali tumia dawa hii mara 
tatu kwa siku. 



Please take this medicine three times 
a day. 



1U5 



UNIT Uo 



SWAHILI 



21, Asubuhi ya leo tutakula mayal, 
matunda na maziwa, 

32, Kwa kawaida vibarua hupata 
mshahara kidogo tu. 

33 • Uinelipa kodi ya kichwa? 

3U» Wazazi wetu hawakuondoka 
njrumbani jana, 

35. Vitu hivi ni vya nanil 

36. Nataka kvuiinunulia ititoto Wcingu 

ndizi, 

37. Siku hizi ninaotesha muhcgo, 

39 « Chakiila chake kilikuwa kizuri 
Sana. 

39, Wao si wapishi, wanafanya kazi 
ya ukarani. 

Uo« Watu wengi wa Afrika ya Hashariki 
husema lugha ya Kiswahili. 



This morning we vrill have eggs, fruit 
and milk. 

Ordinarily, day laborers get only very 
low pay. 

Have you paid your poll tax? 

Our parents didn't leave home 
yesterday. 

Whose things are these? 

I want to buy my child some bananas. 

These days, I'm raieing cassava. 
His food was very good.. 

They are not cooks j they are clerks. 

Many people of East Africa speak the 
Swahili language* 



■r ;• .J 



Mii 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT Ul 



Unit_»4i 
1. Basic Dialogue. Getting ready for church. 



-vaa 
nguo (N) 
safi 
Baba, kwa nini ur.avaa nguo safi? 



sababu (N) 

kanisa (N) 
Kwa sababu ninakwenda kanisani. 

twende 
Daudi, unataka twende kanisani? 



peke (N) 
Hapana, baba. 
Sitaki leo, 
Nitakwenda kesho peke yangu. 

mama (N-pers.) 
Lakini mam? yako anakwenda pia. 



Dau^ 

to put on clothes 
cloth, clothes 
clean 
Father, why are you putting on clean 
clothes? 
Yohana 

reason 
church 
Because I'm going to church. 

that we should go 
Do you want to go to church with me, 
Daudi? 
Daudi 

solitude 
No, father. 
I don't wajit to today. 
I '11 go by myself tomorrow. 
Yohana 

mother 
But your mother is going too. 



1U7 



UNIT Ul 



SWAHILI 



Daudi 



ijapokuwa 
mahali (PA) 
-o "ote 
Ijapokuwa nitakaa nyurabani peke 

yangu, 
sitaJcwenda mahali popote siku ya 
leo« 

A, geke j- 

nitakwenda peke yangu 



even if, although 

place 

any at all 
Even if I'm going to stay ('be») at 

home by i^yself , 
I'm not going any place at all today. 



Notes 



I'll go by myself 



The noun geke, like ^uu (Note 35.C), is seldcm used as subject or 
object of a verb, and it is used only with a possessive follov/ing it, 

B, Use of i^agokuwa. 

The word i^agokuwa is used in this dialogue, with an English translation 
of 'even so'. It is actually a rather complicated form of the verb -wa 'be', 
but its internal structure need not concern us here. It is sometimes used 
to introduce a clause: ijapokuwa mama atakwenda nitakaa nyumbani, 'even if 
mother is going I shall stay at home.' 



C. Negative of ta -tense, 

sitakwenda 
hawataondoka 



I won't go 

they won 't leave 



The negative counterparts of the affirmative ta- forms discussed in 
Unit Uo are formed simply by placing the negative prefix ha- before the 
affirmative. 



D, The mahali class. 

mahali po pote 



anywhere at all 



lue 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT k^ 



This phrase introduces two new features of Swahili grejnmar. One is the 
inahali concord class, which contains only this one word. The adjectival con- 
cord and the subject prefix >diich are a.ssociated with it are both ga-, and 
the possessive concord is £-• 

E, "o ~ote. 



inahali po pote 
kitu cho chote 
mtu ye yote 



anywhere at all 
anything at all 
anyone at all 



The form ~o ~ote contains a double occurrence of some one concord. Sv.ch 
a form is pronounced as one word, but written as two. Note in the last ex- 
ample that the special form of the concord for singular animate nouns is ^s* 

a. 



A. Concords with "o ~ote. 



ndizi 

niaziwa 

kahawa 

nyama 

samaki 

chai 

uji 
mkate 
watu 
mtu 

B. 
michezo 
nikate 



Sitaki ndizi zo zote. 

Sitaki maziwa yo yote. 

Sitaki kahawa yo yote. 

Sitaki nyama yo yote, 

Sitaki samaki zo zote. 
(or: ... wo wote, ) 

Sitaki chai yo yote. 

Sitaki uji wo wote. 

Sitaki mkate wo wote. 

Sitaki watu wo wote. 

Sitaki mtu ye yote. 



I do not want any bananas at all, 
I do not want any mjlk at all, 
I do not want any coffee at all, 
I do not want any meat at all, 
I do not want any fish at all, 

I do not want any tea at all, 
I do not want ar^ gruel at all. 
I do not want any bread at all. 
I do not want anybody at all. 
I do not want anyone at all. 



Hatukuona michezo yo yote. We did not see a single game. 
Hatukuona mikate yc yote. We did not see a single loaf. 



1U9 



UNIT Ui 



SWAHILI 



chungwa 


Hatukiiona 


soko 


Hatukuona 


kijiji 


Hatukuona 


kitu 


Ilatukuona 


viazi 


Hatukuona 


watoto 


Hatukuona 


mtu 


Hatukuona 


C. 


r.n I'/ -- '.'' ■ N" 


jajnaa 


Yeye hana 



nyumba 
kazi 
rafiki 
vatoto 



chungwa lo lote. 
soko lo lote, 
kijiji cho chote, 
kitu cho chote. 
viazi vyo vyote, 
watcto wo wote. 
mtu ye yets, • 



10 



Jamaa ye yote. 



Yeye hana nyumba yo yote. 
leye hana kazi yo yote, 
Yeye hana rafiki ye yote, 
Yeye hana watoto wo wote. 



3« 

A, Future affirmative vs. negative. 

Nitakwenda sokoni mchana. Na wewe 
je2 

La, mimi sitakwenda, 

Nitanunua nyumba mpya, Na wewe je? 



La, mimi sitanunua. 

Juma atalipa ada ya shule. Na 
Ilamisi je2 

La, yeye hatalipa. 



We did not see any orange at all. 
We did not see any market at all. 
We did not see any village at all. 
We did not see anything at all. 
We did not see any potatoes at all. 
We did not see any children at all. 
We did not see anybody at all. 

He does not have any relatives 
at all. 

He does not have any house. 

He does not have any job. 

He does not have anj"" friend. 

He does not have any children. 



I shall go to the market this 
afternoon. How about you? 

No, I will not go, 

I shall buy a new house. How 
about youj 

No, I will not buy one, 

Jijara will pay school fees. How 
about HamisiX 

No, he will not pay them. 



ISO 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT Ui 



Juma atawasaidla rafiki zake. Na 
Hamisi je? 

La, yeye hatawasaidia, 

Rafiki zangu watalifunza Kinyamwezi, 
Na wako ie2 
La, wao hawatajifunza* 

B, Peke j • 

Utakwenda sokoni na Juma? 
La* Nitakwenda peke yangu* 

Juma atakwenda sokoni na Hasani? 

La. Atakwenda peke yake. 
Watoto vatakaa nyunibani na mama yao2 

La* Watakaa peke yao* 
Wapagazi watakuja na bwana wao? 

La* Watakuja peke yao* 

C* ""o "ote in reply to a question* 

chungwa Wataka ch\ingwa hiliZ 

Hapana, sitaki chungwa 
lo lote* 

enibe Wataka embe hilit Hapana, 
sitaki embe lo lots* 

nyama Wataka nyama hii? Hapana, 
sitaki nyama yo yote* 

samaki Wataka samaki hiit Hapana^ 
sitaki samaki yo yote* 



Juma will help his friends. How 
about Hamisi? 

No, he will not help them* 

My friends will learn Nyaniwezi* 
How about yours? 

No, they will not learn it* 



Will you go to the market with Juma? 
No, I shall go alone* 

Will Juma go to the market with 
Hasani? 

No, he will go alone* 

Will the children stay at heme with 
their mother? 

No, they will stay alone* 

Will the porters COTie with their 
master? 

No, they will cOTie alone* 



Do you want this orange? No, I don't 
want any orange at all* 

Do you want this mango? No, I denH 
want any mango at all. 

Do you want this meat? No, I don't 
want any meat at all* 

Do you want this fish? No, I don't 
want any fish at all* 



iSi 



UNIT Ul 



SWAHILI 



rokate Wataka ihkate huu? Hapana, 
sitaki mkate wo vote* 

ujl Wataka uji huul Hapana^ 
sitaki uji wo wote. 

maziwa Wataka maziwa haya? Hapana, 
sitaki maziwa yo yote. 



Do you want this loaf of bread? No, 
I don't want any bread at all. 

Do you want this gniall No, I don't 
want any gruel at all. 

Do you want this milk? No, I don»t 
want any milk at all. 






';fl 






tVi.-i* 



„(^ :■>.■■- X.. 



t-fi^.- < .;«*^ 



r-A~.^'\^ t- od vLu 



152 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT ua 



Unit_U2 
t, Basic Dialogue. Trouble in the kitchen I 

Hand si 



Kuna nini? 

-ungua 
Nyama yaungua, 

-jaribu 
-toa 

Jiko (plu,: meko) 
Jaribu kuitoa ^ikoni. 

maskini 

Oh I Maskini i 
Tufanyeje sasa? 

l^ziina 
tuile 
-la 
Ni lizima tuile* 

A, Subjunctive forms, 
unataka waende 



What's the matter? 



Adi^a 

to bum 
The meat is burning. 
Hainisi 

to try 
to take away 

stove, oven, kitchen, hearth 
Tiy to take it out of the oven, 
Adija 

a poor man 
(she takes it out) 

Ohl Too badi 
What shall we do now2 
Hamisi 

necessity 

that we should eat it 
to eat 
We'll have to eat it. 
Notes 

do you want them to go? 



153 



UNIT Ua 



SWAHILI 



ni lizlma. twende 
tufanyeja^ 



it's necessary that we go 

what shall we do? 

( ' that we should do howl • ) 



In each of the above sentences, the last word is a 'subjunctive' form. 
They are formed as follows; 



SubJ._£ref. 


objj.^gref. 


root 


if':2 


wa- 
tu- 


m!J<i oi 


-cnd- 
-sem- 


-e 
-e 


ni- 


:< B.t TOW 


-on- 


-© 


a- 


etc. 


-ish- 


-i 


a- 




-jarib- 


-u 



If the indicative stem of the verb ends in -a, then the subjunctive stem 
ends in -e. Otherwise, the final vowel is the saire as in the indicative, 

A generally workaVjle first approxiiration to an English translation of 
waende is 'that they should go'. In any given context, however, this trans- 
lation seldom sour.dG like idiomatic English, See the examples at the head 
of thj-s Note, 



B, l^zima plus subjunctive, 
ni lizima tuile 



we'll have to eat it 

( 'it is necessity that we 
should eat it' ) 



The woi-d lizima 'necessity' is commonDy followed by a subjunctive verb. 



kula 
kunimua 
kuleta 
kutoa 



A. Lizima with subjunctive, 
Ni l£zima tule nyama, 
Ni lizima tununue nyama, 
Ni l^ziina ti0.ete nyama. 



We have to eat meat. 
We have to buy meat. 
We have to bring meat. 



Ni lizima tutoe nyama ^ikoni. We have to remove meat from the 

stove. 



i5U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT kz 



B. 

asubuhi 

mchana 

usiku 

C. 
kichwa 

nyumba 

shule 

D. 

kukaa 

kufanya 
kazl 

kwenda 

kuja 

3. 

A. 
nyama 



Ni lizixna wapagasi waje 
kesho asubuhi, 

Ni l^zima wapagazi waje 
kcsho mchana* 

Ni lizima wapagazi waje 
kesho usiku. 



The porters have to come tonorrow 
morning. 

The port-ers have to come tcmorrow 
afternoon. 

The porters have to come tanorrow 
night. 



Ni l^zina ulipe kodi ja. 
kichwa. 

Ni l^zima ulipe kodi ya 
nyuinba. 

Ni lizima vilipe ada ya shule. You have to pay school fees. 



You have to pay poll tax. 
You have to pay house rent. 



Ni l^zima mama akae nyumbani. 

Ni li[zima mama afanye kazi 
nyumbani, 

Ni l^ziira majra. aende nyumbani* 

Ni liziiria mama aje nyumbani. 



Mother has to stay hcxne. 
Mother has to work at home. 

Mother has to go home. 
Mother has to come home. 



Imperative vs. liziiaa. plus subjiuictive. 

Remove the meat frcrni the stove. 
You have to remove it now. 



Toa nyama ^ikoni, 
Ni lizima uitoe sasa. 



mboga Toa mboga ^ikoni. 



mkate 



Ni lizima uzitoe sasa. 
Toa mkate jikoni. 



Rem.ove the vegetables from ths 
stove. 
You have to remove them now. 

Remove the bread frcm the stove. 



155 



UNIT 1*2 



SWAHILI 



Ni l^zina uutoe sasa* 
inikate Toa mikate jikoni. 

Ni 1^7ilina ultoe sasa. 

uji Toa uji jikonl, 

Ni l^zima uutoe sasa, 

chai Toa chai jikoni. 

Ni l^ziraa uitoe sasa, 

chakula Toa chakula jikoni. 

Ni Idzima ukitoe sasa, 

viazi Toa viazi jikoni. 



.•»a-: 



You have to rer.ove it now. 

Remove the loaves of bread from the 
stove. 
You have to remove there now. 

Remove the gruel from the stove. 
You have to remove it now. 

Remove the tea frOTi the stove. 
You have to remove it now. 

Remove the food from the stove. 
You have to remove it now. 

Remove the potatoes fran the 
stove. 
You have to remove them now. 



B. 



mama 



Ni lizima uvitoe sasa. 
Subjunctive, and present negative forms of a verb with final -u. 

Mother is working in the kitchen. 



mama na 
Asba 



TOOJia 



C. 

kxzkaa 

nyuinba 

kutoka 



Mama anafanya kazi jikoni, 
Jaribu kumsaidia, 
Kwa nini hujaribu kumsaidia? 

Mama na Asha wanafanya kazi 
jikoni, 

Jaribu kuwasaidia, 
Kwa nini hujaribu kuwasaidia? 

Ninafanya kazi jikoni. 
Jaribu kunisaidia, 
Kwa nini hujaribu kunisaidial 

Imperatives and locatives, 

Nenda jikoni, 

Kaa jikoni, 

Kaa nyumbani, 

Toka nyumbani. 



Try to help her. 

Why do you not try to help her? 

Mother and Asha sire working in the 
kitchen. 

Try to help them. 
VJhy do you not try to help them? 

I am working in the kitchen. 
Try to help me. 
Why do you not trj' to help me? 



Go to the kitchen. 
Stay in the kitchen. 
Stay at hone. 
Come from home. 



156 



BASIC COURSE UNIT Ua 



shvQe Toka shuleni. Come from school, 

kwenda Nerda shuleni. Go to school. 

Conversation Starters 

1, A asks B whether certain articles are available in the market, and 
whether they are of good quality. B replies. For scnne articles, he says 
that he didn't see any at all in the market. 



157 



UNIT U3 



SWAHILI 



Unit_U3 
1. Basic Dialogue. More trouble in the kitchen. 

Father 



Kuna nini, bibi? 

ina;5i (pi. MA) 
-inwagika 
Maji yamemwagika, 

Wapi? 

kiti (VI) 
Juu ya kiti. 

-inwaga 
Nani ameyamwaga? 

afadhali 

-angalia 

-pangusa (or -futa) 
Si afadhali ayapanguse basi. 
i'.ngalia, Juitial Usinrwage tenai 



What's the matter, dear? 
(•What is there, lady?' ) 

Mother 

water 

to beccipe spilled 

Sane water has got spilled. 

Father 

Wherel 

Mother 

chair 

On the chair. 

Father 

to spill 

VJho spilled iti 

Mother 

Juma. 

Father 

it is better 

to pay attention 

to wipe up 

[Then] hadn't he better wipe it up? 

Careful Juinal Don't spill [it] again i 



158 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U3 



maji yamemwagika 
miiTil nimeyainwaga 



Notes 
A, Neuter stems. 

I the water is spilled 
J>he water has been spilled 
I spilled it 

This dialogue contains two related verb stems: ^^^gi^S '*° become 
spilled' and -iswaga 'to spill'. Both stems contain the root -JJSfag-* The 
first contains, between the root and the final vowel, a non-final suffix -ik-. 
This is the 'neuter' or 'stative' suffix. It indicates that the subject has 
gotten into some state, without saying anything at all about the means or the 
agent responsible. 

The 'stative' suffix has a number of slightly different forms, largely 
parallel to those of the 'applied' suffix (Note 26JI). 

-vunja -vunjika 

-rarua -raruka 

-pita -pitika 

-cikia -sikika 

-Kwaga -mwagika 



-ona 
-lata 
B. afadhali plus subjunctive, 
afadhali ayafute 



-oneka 
-leteka 



he'd better wipe it up 
('it is better that he 
should wipe it up' ) 



The uninflectable word afadhali is commonly followed by a subjunctive 



verb. 



159 



UNIT U3 



SWAHILI 



C* Negative subjunctive with -si-, 

usimwage tenal don't spill [it] again I 

usiendel don't goi 

msiyafute don't wipe it up 

Negative subjunctive forms consist of: 



Subject gre 


ifix 


-si- 


u 




si 


Di 






tu 






etc* 







ya 



TBU&g 

fut 



e 
e 



D. The word ma^i, which in its fom and its concords is exactly like a 
plural noun of the MA class, has no singular counterpart. Compare also the 
noun mafuta ' oil • • 

2. 

A. Negative subjunctive, 
maji Usimwage majil 
maziwa Usimwage maziwal 
kahawa Usimwage kahawal 
chai Usimwage chail 

B. Afadhali plus subjunctive, 
kwenda Afadhali twende, 
kufuta Afadhali tufute maji. 
kusaidia Afadhali tumsaidie mtoto. 
kulipa Afadhali tulipe kodi zetu. 



Do not spill water I 
Do not pour milki 
Do not pour coffee I 
Do not pour teal 

We'd better go. 
We'd better wipe up the water. 
We'd better help the child. 
We'd better pay our taxes. 



160 



BASIC coimsE 



UNIT U3 



C, A 'neuter' stemj juu ya ^ ^_, 

[ Maji yamemwaglka juu ya kiti* 

vyakula Vyakula vimewwagika juu ya 
kiti. 

mazlwa Maziwa yaroemwagika Juu ya 
kiti. 

kitambaa Maziwa yameinHagika juu ya 
kitanbaa* 

chai Chai imeinwagika Juu ya 
kitambaa* 



Jiko 



Chai imeirmagika Juu ya Jiko* 



chuBivi Chumvi iroeuiKagika Juu ya Jiko, 



Some water has been spilled on 
the chair* 

Some food has been spilled on 
the chair* 

Scane milk has been spilled on 
the chair e 

Some adlk has been spilled on 
the tablecloth* 

Some tea has been spilled on 
the tablecloth* 

Some tea has been spilled on 
the stove * 

Some salt has been spilled on 
the stove* 



A* Neuter vs. simple stems; concord of noun, subject prefix, object 
prefix* 



maji Maji yamemwagika* Nani 
ameyamwagal 

maziwa Maziwa yamemwagika* Nani 
ameyamwagal 

kahawa Kahawa imemwagika. Nani 
ameimwaga^ 

chai Ch«d imemwagika* Nani 
ameimwaga? 

chumvi Chumvi imemwagika* Nani 
ameiiDwaga? 



Water has gotten spilled* 
Who has spilled it? 

Milk has gotten spilled* 
Who has spilled iti 

Coffee has gotten spilled* 
Who has spilled it? 

Tea has gotten spilled* 
Who has spilled iti 

Salt has gotten spilled* 
Who has spilled it? 



I6l 



UNIT U3 



SWAHILI 



sukarl 



viazi 



Sukari imenivfaglka. 
ameinwaga? 



Nani 



Viazi Tiinennfagika. Nani 
amevimiiraga? 



Sugar has gotten spilled. 
Who has spilled it? 

Potatoes have gotten spilled. 
Who has spilled theml 



B. Ms-tense ts. ta-tense; object prefixes* 



roaji 



Maji yanemwagika. Nani 
atayafuta? 



Sane water has been spilled. 
Who will wipe it up? 



maziwa 



kahawa 



chai 



•^ Soms milk has been spilled. 
Who will wipe it upl 

Some coffee has been spilled. 
Who will wipe it upl 

Some tea has been spilled. 
Who will wipe it up? 

C. Ms-tense vs. negative subjimctive; object prefixes. 



>kziwa yamemwagika. Nani 
atayafuta? 

Kahawa imemwagika. Nani 
ataifuta? 

Chai imemwagika. Nani 
ataifuta2 



maji Uroamwaga maji. Usiyamwage 
tenal 

maziwa Ibaerawaga maziwa. Usiyamwage 
tenal 

kahawa Umemwaga kahawa. Usiimwage 
tenai 

viazi lAnemwaga viazi. Usiviniwage 
tenal 

maharagwe Umemwaga maharagwe. Usiyamwage 
tenal 



You have spilled some water. 
Do not spill it again I 

Tou have spilled sons milk. 
Do not spill it again I 

You have spilled scxne coffee. 
Do not spill it again i 

You have spilled some potatoes. 
Do not spill them againl 

You have spilled the beans* 
(lit.) Do not spill them 
again i 



162 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT Uh 



Unit_^UU 
1. Basic Dialogue. Bicycle trouble* 

Sangai 
-sukuma to push along 

baiskeli (N) bicycle 

Kwa riini wasukuna baiskeli yako? Uhy are you pushing your bicycle? 

Mutisya 

to get broken 
It's brc^en, ny friend* 
Sangai 

to repair 



-haribika 
Jainaa, imeharibika* 



-tsngeneza 
siyo 



Afadhali uitengeneze basi, siyol 



-weza 
Siwezi kuitengeneza. 

fundi (MA animate) 
Naipeleka kwa fundi* 

kwa heri 
Kwa herif bwana* 

Asante* 



it is not it (used here as an 
equivalent of English 'wouldn't 
it?') 
Wouldn't it be a good thing if you 
fixed it, then? 
Mutisja 

to be able 
I can't fix it* 

skilled worker of ary kind 
I'm taking it to the repaiman* 

to happiness, with good fortune 
Well, good-bye* 
Sangai 

Thanks* 



163 



UNIT hk 



SWAHILI 



Motes 

A. Scsna additional pairs of simple and neuter stems* 

The stative verb stem -haribika is related to the sioqple stem -haribu 
'to damage > destroy'* The veib -ondoka 'to depart' is related to -ondoa 
'to start off, take away', and -t^ca 'to ccme from' is related to -toa 'to 
supply, take out, offer'* 



A* -weza plus infinitive* 

-sukuma Watoto wadogo hawawszi kusukuma 
baiskeli kubwa* 

-tengeneza Watoto wadogo hawawezi 

kutengeneza baiskeli kubwa* 

-nunua Watoto wadogo hawawezi 

■~' " kununua baiskeli kubwa* 

-lata Watoto wadogo hawawezi kuleta 
baiskeli kubwa* 



Small children cannot push a 
big bicycle* 

Small children cannot repair 
a big bicycle* 

Small children cannot buy a 
big bicycle* 

Small children cannot bring a 
big bicycle* 



B* Jfeaning of me-tense with a neuter stem* 



baiskeli Baiskeli iroeharibikaS 

nguo Nguo imeharibika? 

kiti Kiti kimeharibika? 

chakula Chakula kimeharibika? 

motokaa Motokaa imeharibika? 

jiko Jiko limeharibika? 

C. Concord: object prefix and object. 

baiskeli Tafadhsdi, uitengeneze 
baiskeli yangu. 

nyumba Tafadhali, uitengeneze 
nQTumba yangu. 



Is the bicycle damaged? 
Is the cloth damaged? 
Is the chair damaged? 
Is the food damaged? 
Is the motor car damaged? 
Is the stove damaged? 

Please repair ny bicycle* 
Please repair my house* 



^6k 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT Uk 



kitl TaTadhali, ukitengeneze 
kLti changu. 

vitl Tafadhall, uvitengeneze 
viti vyangu. 

vitu Tafadhall, uvitengeneze 
vitu vyangu, 

motokaa Tafadhali, uitengeneze 
motokaa yangu* 



Please repair my chair* 



Please repair my chairs. 



Please repair my things* 



Please repair ray motor car* 



A. 
mayal 

mboga 

pilipili 

inuhogo 

B. 
second* 
"etu 

"angu 

"ake 

-ao 



Concord: Noun, subject prefix with locative stem object prefix* 

Nayai yako wapl? 

Nlmeyapeleka sokonl* 

Mboga ziko wapi? 

Nimezlpeleka sokonl* 



VQiere are the eggs} 

I took them to the market* 

Where are the vegetables? 
I took them to the market* 



Pilipili ziko wapl? 
Nimezlpeleka sokonl* 

Muhogo uko waplt 
Nimeupeleka sokonl* 



Where is the pepper? 

I took it to the aarket* 

Where is the cassava? 
I took it to the market* 



Agreement of possessive stem in first sentence, subject prefix in 



Jiko letu llmeharlbika* 
Hatuwezi kulitengeneza* 

Jiko langu llmeharlbika* 
SiwBzl kulitengeneza* 

Jiko lake llmeharlbika* 
Havezl kulitengeneza* 

Jiko lao llmeharlbika* 
Hawawezl kulitengeneza* 



Our stove is damaged* 
We can't repair it* 

Ity stove is damaged* 
I can't repair it* 

His stove is damaged* 
He can't repair it* 

Their stove is damaged* 
They can't repair it* 



165 



UNIT UU 



SWAHILI 



C* Neuter vs. simple stems* 
baiskell Baiskell yangu Imehariblka. 



chakula 



motokaa 



kiti 



Nemi ameiharlbu? 

Chakula changu kimeharlblka. 
Nanl ameklharibu2 

Motokaa yangu imeharlbika« 



Nanl amelharlbul 

Kitl changu kimeharlblka < 
Nanl ameklharlbu^ 



>ty bicycle Is in bad working 
condition* 

Vfho damaged ±t% 

K^ food is spoiled* 
Vftio spoiled lt2 

fty motor car is in bad working 
condition* 

Who damaged ±11 

Ity chadr is damaged* 
Vlho damaged It? 



D* Affirmative vs* negative subjunctive* 

kusiikuma Nlisuk\ime baiskell*! 

Hapana . Usll sukume * 

kutengeneza Niitengeneze baiskell? 

Hapana. Usiltengeneze* 

kununua Nllnunue baiskell? 

Hapana . Usllnunue * 

kuuza Nlluze baiskell? 

Hapana . Uslluze • 



Should I push the bicycle? 
No, don't push It* 

Should I fix the bicycle? 
No, don't fix it* 

Should I buy the bicycle? 
No, don't buy lt« 

Should I sell the bicycle? 
No, dcn't sell it* 



Conversation Starters 
i« A asks B Aether he can acccanpany him to town* B replies with a 
list of things that he must do first. A offers to help him* 



166 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U5 



Unit_U5 
!• Basic Dialogue* Trouble with a pen* 

Abasi 
kalamu (N) pen 

Tafadhali nisaidie kalamu* Please lend me a pen* 

-andika to write 

Tangu haiandiki* Mine doesn't write* 



wino (U) ink 

Lakini una wino2 But do you have ink? 

Abasi 
-vunjika to become broken 

NdiyOj lakini kalamu imevunjika* Yes> but 117 pen is broken* 

Sangal 
Wapi? What part? 

Abasi 
nibu (N) nib 

"enyewe -self 

Nibu yenyewe* The nib itself* 

-lazinu to be necessary 

Yanilazimu ninunue nibu ropya kesho* 1 must buy a new nib tomorrow* 



167 



UNIT U5 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A. An additional pair of simple and neuter stems* 

The stative verb stem -vunjika 'to get broken' is related to the simple 
stem -vun^a 'to break'. 

B, -lazimu plus subjunctive or infinitive. 

The verb -lazimu 'to be a necessity [to]' may be followed either by an 
infinitive or by a subjunctive form: 

yanilazimu kununua rnpya"] . I've got to buy a new one 

yanilazifflu ninunue mpyaj 
The subjunctive is considered better* In these examples, we have the a- 
tense of the verb. The subject prefix is that of the singular of the N- 
class, used here with no antecedent. This subject prefix used in this way 
is sometimes called 'impersonal.' 



A, Concords with 'gja* 

kalamu Nilinunua kalamu mpya jana* 
kiti Nilinunua kiti kipya jana* 
viti Nilinunua viti vipya jana* 
baiskeli Nilinunua baiskeli mpya jana* 
nguo Nilinunua nguo nipya jana* 
jiko Nilinunua jiko jipya jana* 

B. -lazimu plus infinitive* 

-tengeneza Yanilazimu kutengeneza 
kalamu hli* 



I bought a new pen yesterday* 
I bought a new chair yesterday. 
I bought seme new chairs yesterday* 
I bought a new bicycle yesterday* 
I bougjht some new clothes yesteztiay* 
I boo^t a new stove yestorday* 

I must repair this pen* 



-nunua Yanilazimu kununua kalamu hii. I must buy this pen. 

-uza Yanilazimu kuuza kalamu hii* I must sell this pen* 

-peleka Yanilazimu kupeleka kalamu hii I must take this pen to the 
kwa fundi* repairman* 



168 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U5 



C. -lazlmu plus subjunctive* 

mini Yarrilazlmu nillpe kalamu. 

wao Yawalazimu walipe kalamu* 

yeye lamLazinu allpa kalamu. 

si si Yatulazimu tulipe kalaimi. 

wowe Yakulazimu ulipe kalannie 

ninyi Yavalazimuni &Lipe kalanu. 

mimi Mind mwerorewe nilikwenda. 

vewe Wewe onrenyewe ulikwenda* 

yeye Yeye nwenyewe alikwenda, 

sisi Sisi wenyewe tulikwenda. 

ninyi Ninyi wenyewe ihlikwenda. 

wao Wao wertyewe walikwenda* 
3. 



I most pay for t^e pen. 

They must pay for the pen* 

He must pay for the pen* 

We must pay for the pen* 

You must pay for the pen« 

You (pi*) must pay for the pen* 

I n^self went* 
You yourself went* 
He himself went* 
We ourselves went* 
You yourselves went* 
They themselves went* 



A. Agreement in successive sentences among subject, object, and 
possessive stem* 



mimi Nahitaji kalamu* 

Tafadhali nisaidie* 
Yangu haiandiki* 

Juma Juma ahitaji kalamu* 
Tafadhali msaidie* 
Yake haiandiki* 

sisi Twahitaji kalamu* 

Tafadhali tusaidie* 
Zetu haziandiki* 



I need a pen* 

Please lend me one* 
Hine doesn't write* 

Juma needs a pen* 
Please lend him one* 
His can't write* 

We need pens* 

Please lend us scane* 
Ours don't write* 



169 



UNIT h5 



SWAHILI 



watoto Watoto wahitaji kalamu* 
Tafadhali wasaidie* 
Zao haziandikl* 

wino Una vino va kutosha? 

Hapaca, wino xunekwisha, 

uji Una uji wa kutosha? 

Hapana, ujl lunekwisha* / 

siikari Una sukari ya kutosha? 

Hapana, svikari imekwisha. 

chai Una chai ya kutosha? 

Hapana, chai imekwisha • 

maji Una maji ya kutosha? 

Hapana, maji yariek»d.sha. 

inaziva Una maziwa ya kutosha? 

Hapana, maziva yainekwisha* 



The children need pens* 
Please lend them seme* 
Theirs don't write. 



Do you have enough ink? 
No, ink is all gone* 

Do you have enou^ gruel 2 
No, gruel is all gone. 

Do you have enough sugar? 
No, sugar is all gone* 

Do you have enough tea? 
No, tea is all gone* 

Do you have enough water? 
No, water is all gone* 

Do you have enough milk? 
No, milk is all gone* 



170 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U6 



Unit^U6 
i« Basic Dialogue* I've lost a letter* 

Hanisi 
barua (N) 
Bieza (N) 
Un»iona barua Juu ya ineza? 



Kutoka wapif 

mufauri (MI) 
(or: chapa ya posta, 
alama ya posta) 

Ilikuwa na muhuri wa Afrika 

Magharibi* 

Sijaiooa* ImepoteaJ 

-kunbuka 

-veka 
Siwezi kukumbuka niliivreka wapi* 

•poteza 
Fengine nineipoteza* 

-kata 
tanaa (N) 



letter 
table 
Did you see the letter on the table? 
Adi^a 

Where fraro? 
Hainisi 

postmark 

It had a West African postmark* 

Adija 

I haven't seen it* Is it lostl 
Hainisi 

to remember 
to put 
I can't remember where I put it* 

to lose 
Maybe I've lost it. 
Adi^a 

to cut 
desire 



171 



UNIT U6 



SWAHILI 



'Usikate tamaa*' 

-tafuta 
Nltakusaidia kuitafuta* 



Don't despair* 

to look for 
I'll help you lock for it» 



Notes 



Ui:, 



A* Causative stems* 

inepotea 
nimeipoteza 
niinerudi 
ninteirudisha 



is it lost? 
I've lost it 
I have returned 
I have returtied it 



The stem -£oteza 'to lose' is a 'causative' stem vhich is related to the 
applied stem -gotea 'to get lost'* The vowel of the causative suffix follows 
the same rule as the vowels of the applied and stative suffixes: it is -i- 
after u, i or a> and •«- after e or o. For this verb and sone others , the 
consonant is -z-* The final vowel of causative Infinitives is -a, regardless 
of the final vowel of the simple stem* ^ 



-pend- 
-pot- 

-ja- 
-temb- 

-pelek- 

-UBl- 



'to like' 

(Simple root no 
longer in use in 
this sense.) 

'to become full' 
(Simple root no 
longer in use in 
this sense.) 

'to go, send, 
take' 

•to bite, hurt' 



-pend-cz- 
-pot-CB- 

-ja-z- 
-tenib-ez- 

-pelek-ez- 

-um-iz- 



For many other verbs, the consonant is -sh-: 

-end- 'to go' -end-esh- 

-sem- 'to speak' -sem-esh- 

-ot- 'to grow, sprout' -ot-esh- 



'to please' 

'to lose, 
throw away' 

'to fill' 

■to cause to 
walk about' 

'to cause to 
send, etc*' 

'to cause to 
hurt' 



•to cause to go' 

'to cause to speak' 

'to raise (vege- 
tables)' 



17^ 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U6 



-rud- 
-furah- 



•to retiim' 
'to rejoice' 



-rud-ish- 
-furah-ish- 



'to cause to return' 
'to cause to rejoice' 



Many verbs have -sh-, without a siiffixLal vowel, where a related sten 
has -k-: 



-wak- 


'to bum' 


-wash- 


•to ignite' 


•anguk- 


'to fall' 


-angush- 


'to drop' 


-kvmibuko 


'to renenber' 


-kunbush- 


'to rejjiind' 


-andik- 


'to write' 


-andik-ish- 


'to dictate 


-wek- 


'to put' 


-wek-esh- 


'to cause to put' 



but 



For more details, see Chapter XXKIV of Ashton's Swahili ^ESSSS^* While 
the above generalizations will be of great help in organizing and remembering 
the facts, it is safest in the beginning to learn each causative fozm separate* 

ly. 



A, Concord: Noon and demonstrative; -ku- as object prefix* 



bax\ia 

barua 
(pl.) 

kalamu 

nguo 
(sg.) 

nguo 
(pl.) 



kitu 
vitu 



Nani alik\iletea barua hii2 
Nani alikuletea barua h±z±1 

Nani alikuletea kalamu hiit 
Nani alikuletea nguo bill 

Nani alikuletea nguo hizi? 



Nani alikuletea kitu hikit 
Nani alikuletea vitu hivi? 
B* -weka, jjuu ja- .^_,_„_» 
I Niliweka kiti Juu ya meza* 
barua Niliweka barua Juu ya meza« 



Who brwi^t you this letter? 
Who brought you these letters? 

Who brought you this pen? 
Who brought you this cloth? 

Who brought you these clothes? 

Who brought you this thing? 
Who brought you these things? 

I put a chair on the table. 
I put a letter on the table* 



173 



UNIT U6 



SWAHILI 



kalaom 

nguo 

kiti 

matunda 

nyaata 

Jiko 

maji 

C. 
nguo 
kalanu 
Edlzl 
-vlazi 

3* 

A. 
prefix* 
kalajRu 

inayai 

chungwa 

mkate 

B. 
kalanu 



Nlliveka kalainu Juu ya meza. 
Nlliweka nguo Juu ya meza. 
Nillweka nguo juu ya kiti* 
Niliweka matunda juu ya kiti* 
Niliweka nyasA juu ya kiti* 
Niliweka i^ana juu ya jiko* 
Niliweka naji juu ya jiko* 
-weka plus locatives* 
Weka nguo mezani* 
Weka kalainu mezani* 
Weka ndizi mezani* 
Weka viazi mezani* 



1 put a pen on the table* 
1 put some clothes on the table* 
I put scane clothes on the chair* 
I put sane fruit on the chair* 
I put seme meat on the chair* 
1 put some meat on the stove* 
I put some water on the stove* 

Put the clothes on the table* 
Put the pen on the table* 
Put the bananas on the table* 
Put the potatoes on the table* 



Agreement of subject and object prefixes; concord of noun and object 



Nimepoteza kalamu* ' 
NitJikusaldia kuitafuta* 

Nimepoteza mayai* 

Nitakusaidia kuyatafuta* 

Nimepoteza chungwa* 

Nitakusaidia kulitafuta* 

Nimepoteza mkate* 

Nitakusaidia kuutafuta* 



1 lost a pen* 
I'll help you to look for it* 

I lost some eggs* 
I'll help you to look for them* 

I lost an orange* 

I'll help you to ioc& for it* 

I lost a loaf of bread* 

I'll help you to look for it* 



Causative stem; concord including object prefix* 



Kalamu yangu imepotea* 
Nani ameipoteza? 



Ity pen is lost* 
Who lost itt 



17U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U6 



barua Barua yacgu ijnepotea. 
Nani ameipotezat 

barua Barua zangu zimepotea* 
Nani anezipotezat 

nguo Nguo yangu inepotea* 
Nani amsipotezal 

C. 

kalainu Kalainu zetu zimepotea* 
iWzipoteza lini2 

barua Barua zetu zimepotea* 

iWzipoteza lizil? 

Dguo Nguo zetu zinepotea* 

tkezlpoteza linit 

D« Agreement of subject prefix 

vewe Unatoka wapi2 

Sillkumbuki Jina lako* 

yeye Anatoka waplt 

Silikiunbuki jlna lake* 

ninyl Hnatdca wapi? 

Slyakumbukl ma jlna yenu* 

wao Wanatoka wapi) 

Slyakumbukl majina yao* 



Ity letter Is lost* 
Who lost ±U 

>^ letters are lost* 
Who lost them? 

Ity cloth is lost* 
Who lost it? 



Our pens are lost* 
When did you lose themj 

Out letters are lost* 
When did you lose them? 

Our clothes are lost* 
When did you lose them? 

and possessive stem* 

Where are you from? 

I don't remember your name* 

Where is he from? 

I don't remember his name* 

Where are you all from? 

I don't remember your names* 

Where are they from? 

I drai't remember their names* 



1* A (an employer) gives directions to B (a domestic servant )» and 
answers B's questions about details of his duties* 



175 



UNIT U7 



SWAHILI 



Dnit^Uj 
i« Basic Dialogue. Broken dishes* 

(Loud crash off stage*) 
Mother 



Nini hicho kimevunjika? 

(or! Kitu kimevunjika ninij) 



-angusha '^''"' ' ••,"-• 
chombo (VI) 
-pakua 
Mariamu aneangusha vyombo vya 
kupakulia chakula* 

-pil 
Vipi vimevunjika? 

sahani (N) 
kikorobe (VI) 
kisahani (VI) 
bllauri (N) 
"ote 
Sahani inbili, vikombe vitatu. 



Vlhat's that that broke? 

Daughter 

to cause to fall 

vessel 

to divide 

Mary dropped the dishes* 

('••• the vessels for dividing 
out the food*' ) 

Mother 

which? 
V/hich ones are broken? 
Daughter 

plate 

cup 

saucer 

glass 

all 
Two plate Sf three cupsj one saucer, 



kisahani kinoja, na bilauri zotel 



and all the glasses! 



176 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U7 



Bilauri zilikuwa ngapi? 



-fikiri 
Mama, nafikiri zilikuwa nne* 



Mother 

How mary glasses were there? 
('Glasses they-were how-many?') 

Daughter 

to think 

Four, I think. Mother* 



2« 

A. 

sahani 

sahani 
(pl.) 

kikonibe 

vikcmbe 

bilauri 

bilauri 
(pl.) 

nguo 

B. 
sahazii 
vikombe 
visahani 
bilauri 
nguo 

C, 
vikombe 
kikonbe 



Si as negative copula; the invariable adjective safi. 

Sahani hii si safi sana* This plate is not very clean* 
Sahani hizi si safi sana* These plates are not very clean* 



Kikonibe hiki si safi sana* 
Vikcnbe hivi si safi sana» 
Bilauri hii si safi sana« 
Bila\iri hizi si safi sana. 

Nguo hii si safi sana. 

Concord with "ote, 

Sahani zote ni safi sasa* 
Vikombe vyote ni safi sasa* 
Visahani vyote ni safi sasa* 
Bilauri zote ni safi sasa. 
Nguo zote ni safi sasa* 

Concord with ~gi* 

Vlkcahbe vipi si safi? 
Kikcsnbe kipi si safi? 



This cup is not very clean* 
These cups are not very clean* 
This glass is not very clean* 
These glasses are not very clean* 

This cloth is not very clean* 

All the plates are clean now* 
All the cups are clean now* 
All the saucers are clean now* 
All the glasses are clean now* 
All the clothes are clesm now* 

Vlhich cups are not clean? 
Which cup is not clean? 



177 



UNIT ^7 



SWAHILI 



sahani Sahanl zipi si safll 
(pl.) 

sahanl Sahanl Ipl si safl? 

nguo Nguo Ipl si s&fll 

D» Concord with "ote. 

bllaurl Marlamu amevunja bilauri zote* 

vyombo Marlaimi amevunja vyoihbo vyote. 

visahanl Marlamu amevunja vlsahanl 
vyote. 

vikorabe Marlamu amevunja vlkombe 
vyote, 

sahanl Marlamu amevunja sahanl zote* 



Which plates are not clean? 

V/hlch plate Is not clean? 
Vlhlch cloth Is not clean? 

Marlamu broke all the glasses* 
Marlamu broke all the dishes, 
Marlamu broke all the saucers. 

Marlamu broke all the cups* 

Marlamu broke all the plates* 



A. 


Concords In successive short 


sentences* 


sahanl 


Sahanl moja Imeanguka, 


One plate has fallen* 


moja 


Ipl? ---- 


Which one? 




Yako. 


Tours* 




Nanl aroeiangusha? 


Who made It fall? 


sahanl 


Sahanl mblll zlmeanguka* 


Two plates have falle: 


mblli 


Zipl? 


Which ones? 




Zako* 


Yours* 




Nanl amezlangusha? 


Who made them fall? 


klkoafobe 
klmoja 


Klkanbe klmoja klmeanguka, 
Klpl? 


One cup has fallen* 
Which one? 




Chako* 


Yours* 




Nanl aneklangusha? 


Who made It fall? 


vikombe 
vlwlli 


Vlkombe viwill vimeanguka* 
Vipl? 


Two cups have fallen. 
Which CBias? 



178 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT k7 



B. 
kalamu 

bilauri 

kisahani 

kikombe 

C. 
vikaabe 



Vyako. Yours, 

Nanl ameviangusha? Who made them fall? 

Neuter vs. simple stems; concord including object prefix. 



Kalamu yangu imevunjika# 
Nani ameivunja? 

Bilauri yangu imevTinjika, 
Nani aroeivunja? 

Kisahani changu kimevtmjika* 
Nani amekivunjal 

Kikombe changu kiroevunjika* 
Nani anekivunjat 

-kuwa "ngagi?; concord with ~£gagi» 

Vikombe saf i vilikuwa vingapi? 
Vilikuwa vinne. 



visahani Visahani safi vilikuwa vingapi? 

Vilikuwa vinne. 
sahani Sahani safi zilikuwa ngapi? 

Zilikuwa nne* 
bilauri Bilauri safi zilikuwa ngapi? 

Zilikuwa nne* 

D« Concord: Noun and two adjectives* 

vik<anbe Kuna vikoitibe vipya vingapi? 
Kuna vitano* 

visahani Kxma visahani vipya vingapi? 
Kuna vitano* 



My pen is broken* 
Who broke it? 

Ify glass is broken* 
Who broke it? 

ffy saucer is broken* 
Who broke it? 

f^ cup is broken » 
Who broke it? 



How many clean cups were there? 
There were four* 

How many clean saucers were 
there? 
There were four. 

How many clean plates were 
there? 
There were four* 

How many clean glasses were 
there? 
There were four* 



How many new cups are there? 
There are five* 

How many new saucers are there? 
There are five* 



179 



UNIT U7 



SWAHILI 



kalainu Kuna kalajnu mpya ngapij 
Kuna tano* 

nguo Kuna nguo mpya ngapi? 
Kuna tanoa 

nyumba Kuna nyuraba mpya ngapil 
Kuna tanoe 



How many new pens are there? 
There are five. 

How many new cloths are there? 
There are five. 

How many new houses are there? 
There are five. 



f^l 



■i «.' 



n-f/. 






;-Ti-/. 3 •:'■ 



180 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT he 



Unit^Ue 
!• Basic Dialogue* Lighting the las^, 

Haraisi 



giza (MA.) 
-ingia 
Giza laingia* 
taa (N) 

mafuta (pi. MA) 
-washa 
Tafadhali, nipatie taa ya jnafuta, 
niwashe* 

-chukaa 
Chukua taa* Nimeileta* 



Inayo mafuta ya kutoshal 

-tia 

chupa (N) 
jioni 
Ndiyo, tulitia chupa nbili jana 
jioni. 



darkness 

to enter 

It's getting dark, 

a lighting device 

(lamp, li^t bulb, etc.) 
oil, grease 
to cause to light up 
Please get me the laii^3 so I [can] 
light [it]. 
Adija 

to take, cany 
Here it is. 

(•Take it. I've brought it. » ) 
Haraisi 

Does it have enough oH% 
ia 

put, pour 
bottle 
evening 
Yes, W8 put in two bottles yesterday 
evening* 



161 



UNIT U8 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A* Imperative of one verb, followed by subjunctive of a second* 

nipatie taa niwashe get me the lamp so that I 

[may] light [it] 

After an imperative form of one verb, the subjunctive of a second verb 

is used to show the purpose of the action of the first* 

2. 



i,;0 



^T- ' 



A, -ingia plus locative* 

nyumba Ingieni nyumbani* 

kanisa Ingieni kanisani* 

shule Ingieni shuleni* 
bona '•"* ' Ingieni bomani* 

B* Adverbial use of usiku* 

nani Nani aliwasha taa usikul 

Juma Juma aliwasha taa usikul 

Mama Mama aliwasha taa usikul 






Baba na 
Juma 



Baba na Juma waliwasha taa 
usikul 



Go into the house* 

Go into the church* 

Go into the school* 

Go into the District Office* 

Who lit the lamp last night? 

Did Juma light the lamp last night? 

Did Mother li^t the lamp last 
night? 

Did Father and Juiaa light the 
laanp last night<| 



G. Subject and object prefixes with -na=** 



[ Taa inayo mafuta ya kutosha 

usiku huu? 

sisi Sisi tunayo mafuta ya 
kutosha usiku huu? 

wapagaai Wapagazi wanayo mafuta ya. 
kutosha usiku huu? 



Does the lamp have enough oil 
for tonight? 

Do we have enough oil for tonight? 



Do the porters have enough oil 
for tonight? 



18S 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT ue 



chakula 
ainyi 
waAoto 
D. 

shupa 

naji 

£lk<^be 

}ilauri 

nazlwa 

:hupa 

£. 
nafuta 

nazlwa 

naji 

iflno 



Wapagazi wanacho chakula 
cha kutosha usllcu huu2 

Ninyl innacho chakula cha 
kutosha usika hxaxl 

Watoto wanacho chakula 
cha kutosha uslku huuS 

-tia. 

Tutatia maftita katika taa» 
Tutatia mafuta katika chupa. 
Tutatia naji katika chupa. 
Tutatia maji katika klkcxnbe* 
Tutatia maji katika bilauri, 
Tutatia nazlwa katika bilauri. 
Tutatia maziwa katika chupa. 

IiJ5>erative plus subjunctive* 

Lete mafuta nitie katika 
chupa hli« 

Lete Btaziwa nitie katika 
chupa hii. 

Lete majl nitie katika 
chupa hii* 

Lete wino nitie katika 
chupa hiia 



Do -Uie porters have enough food 
for tonightl 

Do you have enough food for 
tonight? 

Do the children have enough 
food for tonight? 



We will put oil into the lamp* 
We will put oil into the bottle* 
We will put water into the bottle* 
We will put water into the cup* 
We will put water into the glass* 
We will put Biilk into the glass* 
We will put ndlk into the bottle* 



Bring oil for me to put into 
this bottle* 

Bring milk for me to put into 
this bottle* 

Bring water for me to put into 
this bottle* 

Bring ink for me to put into 
this bottle* 



A* Imperative plus subjunctive* 

% 
kalamu KLetee kalamu aitengeneze* 



Bring him the pen so that he can 
fix it. 



183 



UNIT U8 



SWAHILI 



kalamu 
(pl.) 



Hletee kalainu azltengeneze* 
baiskell KLetee balskell altengenezee 



viti 



Hletee viti avitengeneze* 



motokaa KLetee motokaa aitengeneze* 



t£ia 



KLetee taa aitengeneze* 



Bring hisi the pens so that he 
can fix them* 

Bring him the bicycle so that 
he can fix it* 

Bring him the chairs so that 
he can fix them. 

Bring him the car so that he 
can fix it* 

Bring him the lamp so that he 
can fix it* 



B. Second person plural object prefix, 

vikombe Juma aliwapatieni yikombe 
vingapi J ana jioni? 
Hakutupatia kikombe cho 
chotel 



viazi 



nayai 



maembe 



mikate 



Juma aliwapatieni viazi 
vingapi jana Jionit 
Hakutupatia kiazi cho 
chotel 

Juma aliwapatieni mayai 
mangapi Jana Jioni? 
Hakutupatia yai lo lotel 

Jxuna aliwapatieni maembe 
mangapi Jana Jionif 
Hakutupatia embe lo lotel 

Juma aliwapatieni mikate 
mingapi Jana Jioni? 



How many cups did Juma get you 
yesterday evening? 
He didn't bring us any cup 
at all J 

How many potatoes did Juma get 
you yesterday evening? 
He didn't bring us any at alll 

How msmy eggs did Juma get you 
yesterday evening? 
He didn't bring us any egg 
at alll 

How many mangoes did Juma get 
you yesterday evening? 
He didn't bring us any 
mango at alll 

How many loaves of bread did 
Juma bring you yesterday 
evening? 



18U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT ue 



taa 



chupa 



ng'ombe 



Hakutupatla inkate wo wotei 

Jtuna allwapatienl taa ngapl 
jana jlonl? 
Hakutupatla taa 70 yatel 

Junta allwapatienl chupa ngapl 
Jana jlonl? 
Hakutupatla chupa 70 70tel 

Junta allwapatienl ng'onbe 
wangapl jana Jlonlf 
Hakutupatla ng'ond)9 70 7otel 



He didn't bring us an7 loaf 
of bread at all( 

How man7 lanps did Juma bring 
70U 7esteix[a7 evening? 
He didn't bring us an7 
lamp at alii 

How Bian7 bottles did Juma bring 
70U 7Bsterda7 evening? 
He didn't bring us an7 
bottle at alii 

How nian7 cattle did Juma bring 
70U 7esterda7 evening? 
He didn't bring us an7 
cattle at all I 



Conversation Starters 

i« A (an employer) returns from a trip, and discusses the trip with 
B (a domestic servant)* 

2* A then questions B about the state of the house, the dishes, etc* 
in his absence, and about the adequacy of supplies for the immediate future* 



165 



UNIT k9 



SWAHILI 



Unit_U9 

i» Basic Dialogue* Lighting the lan^* 

Son 

kibariti (VI) 
(or: kiblriti) 



Tafadhall, nlpatle klberitl. 

V 

Viberitl vyote vlmekwisha, 

. pesa (N) 
Unazo pesa za kununua vlnglne? 

sentl (N) (or: pesa (N)) 

sanduktt (N) 
Ndiyo. Chukua sentl kutoka 

sandukxml* 
• haraka (N) 
Na ufanye haraka* Glza laingla* 



match 



Ndiyo > Biama* 



Please get me a match* 
Mother 

They're all gone* 
Son 

coins 
Do you have money to buy some more? 
Mother 

small change 
box 
Yes, take some change out of the 
box* 
haste 
And hurry, it's getting dark* 
( ' Darkne s s ente rs • ' ) 
Son 

Tes, Mother* 



A* Concords with ~g2!i« 

klberitl Tafadhali, nlpatle klberitl 
kipya* 



Please get me a new matcht 



186 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT k9 



viboriti Tafadhali, nipatie viberiti 
vipya, 

sanduku Tafadhali, nipatie sanduku 
jipya, 

nguo Tafadhali, nipatie nguo 
mpya. 

chupa Tafadhali, nipatie chupa 
ffipya, 

taa Tafadhali, nipatie taa mpya* 

B» Meaning of me-tense of -(kw)isha« 

viberiti Viberiti viuiekwisha, roarna, 

rikonibe Vikwtibe viniekwisha, maira, 

siagi Siagl iinekvisha, mama, 

sahanl Sahani ziBiekwisha, mama, 

pesa Pesa zimekwisha, mama, 

mafuta Mafuta yaitiekwisha, mama. 

majl Ha;}i yamekwisha, loaina. 

rjugu NJugu ziniekwisha, mama* 

C, "a plus infJLnitive* 
-nunua I^azo pesa za kununua naftita? 

-lipa Mnazo pesa za kulipa kodi? 

-tosha Mnazo pesa za kutoshaj 

D* -chukua. 

I Nani allchukua senti kutoka 
sandukiuiiS 



Please get ine some new matches* 
Please get me a new box* 
Please get me some new clothes* 
Please get me a new bottle* 
Please get me a new lamp* 

The matches are all used up, 
mother* 

The cups are all gone, mother. 

The butter is all gone, mother* 

The plates are all gone, mother* 

The money is all gone, mother* 

The oil is all gone, mother. 

The water is all gone, mother* 

The ground nuts are all gone, 
mother* 

Do you have money to buy oil? 
Do you have money to pay taxes? 
Do you have money enough? 

Who took the change from the box? 



187 



UNIT k9 



SWAHILI 



kalanu 



ineza 



viberiti 



nyvunba 



motakaa 



bilauri 



mafuta 



taa 



■■*?•>■■<■ 



Nani allchukiia kalarou Icutoka 
sandtikunl? 

Nani £ilichukua kalasiu kutdca 
mezanit 

Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka 
inezani? 

Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka 
nyunbanit 

Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka 
motokaanil 

Nani alichukua viberiti kutoka 
bilaurinil 

Nani alichukua mafuta kutoka 
bilaurini? 

Nani alichvikua mafuta kutoka 
taanil 



>lho took the pen fron the box? 

VQio took the pen from the table 
(drawer)? 

Who took the matches from the 
table (drawer)? 

Who took the matches from the 
house? 

Vlho took the matches from the 
car? 

liftio took the matches from the 
glass? 

Vlho took the oil frctri the glass? 
Vlho took the oil from the lamp? 



A. Multiple concords* 

pesa Dnazo pesa za kutosha? 
Sina pesa io zote* 

senti Unazo senti za kutosha? 
Sina senti zo zote* 

mafuta Unayo mafuta ya kutosha? 
Sina mafuta yo yote* 

maji Unayo maji ya kutosha? 
Sira maji yo yote* 

mikate Unayo mikate ya kutosha? 
Sina mikate yo yote* 



Do you have enough 
1 don't have ai^r 

Do you have enough 
I don't have any 

Do you have enough 
1 don't have any 

Do you have enough 
I don't have Buy 

Do you have enough 
I don't have axay 



money? 
money at all* 

change? 
change at all* 

oil? 

oil at all* 

water? 

water at all* 

bread? 
bread at all* 



188 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT U9 



ii^i Unao uji wa kutosha? 
Sina uJi wo wote. 

oyama Unayo nyama ya kutosha? 
Sina nyama yo yote. 

B» Li- tense vs. past negative vlth 



ioichukua 



mweka 



Iruona 



Ulichukua senti ngapi 
kutoka sandukunil 
Sikuchtikua nyingi* 

Ulivekft senti ngapi 
sandukuniS 
Sikuweka r^lngi. 

Dliona senti ngapi 
sandukimit 
Sikuctna nyingi* 



C. 



inichukua Hlichukua viberiti vingapi 
nyumbani^ 
Hat\ikuchukua vingi. 

icuweka Mliweka viberiti vingapi 
nyuinbani2 
Hatvtkuweka vingi* 

Icuona Mliona viberiti vingapi 
nyumbani? 
Hatxikuona vingi* 



Do you have enough gruel? 

I don't have any gruel at all. 

Do you have enough meat? 

I don't have any neat at all* 

-ku-» 

How many cents did you take out 
of the boK? 
I didn't take many* 

How Bjany cents did you put into 
the box? 
I didn't put many. 

How many cents did you see in the 
box? 
I didn't see many* 

How many matches did you (pl«) take 
out of the house? 
We didn't take mary* 

How many matches did you (pl«) put 
in the house? 
We didn't put mary. 

How many matches did you (pi,) see 
in the house? 
We didn't see many* 



189 



UNIT 50 



SWAHILI 



Unit 50 

^■•i «■ «k «■ 4Ba ^ 

i« Basic Dialogue • I'm not hungry. 

Mother 
Unakitaka chakula hikif 



L It. . •■«••, 



Hapana, sikitaki asante* 
Kwa nini? 

-icaliza 

Kwa sababu sina njaa. 

Niinenaliza kula sasa hivi. 



kinyvaji (VI) 



Do you want this f ood2 
Son 

No, thsmk you* 
Mother 

Why [not]? 
Sc5n 

to finish 
Because I'm not hungry. I've just 
now finished eating* 
Mother 

a drink 



Pengine wataka kinywaji. ^ t.ii- Maybe you'd like a drink. 

^ . ■ , ■'■ r. Son 

Ndiyo. Tafadhali nipatie bilauri les, a glass of orange Juice would 
moja ya maji ya machungwa. be fine. 

Mother 
-nywa to drink 

Basi chukua. Mind nitakunywa soda. Here you are. ('Then, take'} I'll 

have some soda. 
Notes 

A. The phrase sasa hivi. 

Note the use of hivi, which has the fonn of the proximal demon strative. 



190 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 5o 



plriral VI class, as modifier of sasa 'now' to produce sasa hivi 'just new,' 
The phrase Myi sasa is also used in this sense* 



2* 

A. 
chakula 
njugu 
mkate 
kjrywaji 
siagi 
nyana 

B, 
-la 

-leta 

-tuletea 

-fanya 



C, 



chai 



kahawa 



iraziwa 



soda 



Concord! Noun and demonstrative. 

Unataka chakula hichof 

Unataka njugu hizo? 

Unataka inkate huot 

Unataka kiiQivaji hicho? 

Unataka siagi hiyo? 

Unataka nyama hiyot 

-me-isaliza plus infinitive* 

Juma amenaliza kula sasa 
hivi. 

Juma ameinaliza kuleta 
kii^ywaji sasa hivi* 

Junta amemaliza kutuletea 
vinywaji sasa hivi* 

Juma amemaliza kufanya 
kazi sasa hivi* 

hu-tense| concord with "ingi* 

Watu vote wa i^chi hii hunyva 
chai nyingi* 

Watu vote wa ilchi hii hunywa 
kahawa nyingi* 

Watu wote wa nchi hii hunywa 
maziwa mengi* 

Watu wote wa nchi hii hunywa 
soda nyingi* 



Do you want that food? 

Do you want those ground nuts 2 

Do you want that bread? 

Do you want that drink? 

Do you want that butter? 

Do you want that meat? 

J\una has just now finished eating* 

Juma has just now finished bringing 
a drink* 

Juma has just now finished bringing 
us drinks* 

Juma has just new finished working* 



Everyone in this country drinks a 
lot of tea* 

Everyone in this country drinks a 
lot of coffee* 

Everyone in this country drinks a 
lot of milk* 

Everyone in this country drinks a 
lot of soda* 



191 



UNIT 50 



SWAHILI 



maji ya Watu wote wa nchi hii hunywa 
* ^^ ms-ji ya machxmg^a mengi. 



nyama Watu wengi wa fichi hii hula 
nyaina nyingi* 

Watu wengi wa nchi hii hula 
njugu nyingi, 

Watu wengi wa richi hii hula 
inuhogo rawingi* 

Watu wengi wa nchi hii hula 

mahindi nengi* 

,. _-&r •■OX ■,- 



njugu 

inuhogo 

mahindi 

3. ' " 

A, te-tense vs. negative with -^-« 

wewe Umemaliza kula sasa? 

Hapana, sijamaliza bade* 

ninyi Mmenaliza kula sasal 

Hapana, hatujamaliza bado. 

watu wote Watu wote wamenializa kula 
sasaS . 
Hapana, hawajamaliza bado. 

B. Present affirmative vs. negative, 

chakula Unakitaka chakula hiki? 

Hapana, sikitaki, asante* 

n!ikate Unautaka nUcate huul 

Hapana^ siutaki, asante* 

nikate Unaitaka mikate hii? 

Hapana, siitaki, asante* 



Everyone in this country drinks a 
lot of orange juice. 



Many people in this country eat 
a lot of meat* 

Many people in this country eat 
a lot of ground nuts* 

Many people in this country eat 
a lot of cassava. 

Many people in this country eat 
a lot of Diaize. 



Have you fini^ed eating now2 
No, I haven't finished yet. 

Have you all finished eating now? 
No, we haven't finished yet. 

Has everyone finished eating new? 

No, they haven't finished yet. 

with object pipefix. 

Do you want this food? 
No, I don't want it, thank you. 

Do you want this bread? 
No, I don't want it, thank you. 

Do you want these loaves? 

No, I don't want then, thank you. 



192 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 50 



embe Unalitaka enibe hilll 

Hapana^ silitaki, asante* 

maembe Unayataka maeitibe haya^ 

Hapaiia, siyatsdd., asante* 

ndizi Unaitaka ndlzi hiit 

Hapana, siltaki, asante* 

ndizl Unazitaka ndizi hizi? 

^ •' Hapana, sizitaki, asante* 

kiazi Unskitaka kiazi hiki? 

Hapana, sikitakL, asante* 

Yiazi Unavitaka viazi hivil 

Hapana, sivitaki, asante* 

C* Negative present of monosyllabic 

Kariainu Mariaoiu anakula viazi? 

La, hali viazi, anakula 
mkate* 

watoto Watoto wanakula viazi? 
La, hawali viazi, 
wanakula nikate* 

Unakula viazil 
La, sili viazi, ninakula 
mkate* 

Mnakula viazi? 

La, hatuli viazi, tunakula 
mkate* 

D, 

Daudi Daudi anakurQrwa kahawa? 
La, hanywi kahawa, 
anakunywa chai* 



wewe 



ninyi 



Do you want this mango? 

No, I don't want it, thank you* 

Do you want these mangoes? 

No, I don't want them, thank you* 

Do you want this banana? 

No, I don't want it, thank you* 

Do you want these bananas? 
No, I don't want them, thank youe 

Do you want this potato? 

No, I don't want it, thank youo 

Do you want these potatoes? 

No, I don't want them, thank youe 

verb stem, with loss of ku-* 

Is Mariamu eating potatoes? 
No, she isn't eating potatoes* 
She's eating bread* 

Are the children eating potatoes? 
No, they aren't eating potatoes* 
They are eating bread* 

Are you eating potatoes? 

No, I'm not eating potatoes* 
I'm eating bread* 

Are you all eating potatoes? 
No, we aren't eating potatoes* 
We're eating bread* 



Is Daudi drinking coffee? 
No, he isn't drinking coffee, 
He's drinking tea* 



193 



UNIT 50 



SWAHILI 



wote 



wewe 



ninyi 



:Ki:i J.nBtLi 



Wote wanakunywa kahawal 
La^ hawanywi kahawa, 
wanakunywa chai* 

Unakunywa kaJiawa? 
La, sinywi kahawa^ 
ninakunywa chal* 

Mnakunywa kahawa? 

La J hatunywl kahawa^ 
* tunakunywa chai. 



Are they all drinking coffee? 
No, they aren't drinking coffee. 
They're drinking tea. 

Are you didnking coffee? 

No, I'm not drinking coffee, 
I'm drinking tea. 

Are you (pi.) drinking coffee? 
No, we aren't drinking coffee. 
We're drinking tea. 



Conversation ^^^E^S^S 

^^r,.,. 1, A inquires of B about what the people of his country custcwiarily 
eat and how they spend their leisure time. B replies, smd asks similar 
questions about the people of A's country, 

2, Within the limits of the vocabulary that has been met up to this 
point, give an account of a typical day in your own life. Do the same for 
a day in the life of a dosfnestic servant. 



.n-.' *»" » 



iP^C- 



19U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 51 



Unit_^5i. 
1* Basic Dialogue. What grade are you in? 

Magese 
-scma. 

darasa (M) 
Unas<»na darasa gani intotol 



Niko katika darasa la tano* 

sooio (ma) 
Vapenda mascano gani shuleni? 

hesabu (N) 
dini (N) 
Napenda hesabu, KUngereza, dini 
na historia* 

-endelea 
-tuinaini 
Watuinaini kuendelea katika mas (Mao's 



to read, study 
class 
What class are you in, [child]? 
JuDia 

I'm in Standard 5* 
Magese 

an academic subject, a lesson 
What subjects do you like in school? 
Juma 

arithmetic 
religicm 
I like arithmetic, English, religion 
and history. 



Magese 



to continue 
to hope 
Do you hope to continue in your 
studies? 



195 



UNIT 51 



SWAHILI 



Juina 



Mungu (MI) 
-Jalia 

mpaka 
chuo (VI) 
Mungu aklnijalia nitaendelea 

katika loasonio mpaka chuo cha juu* 

rnvd-showe 
MMlshowe utafanya kazi ganll 



God 



slasa (N) 

(or: utetezi (U)) 

Nitafanya kazi ya siasa. 



to assist (ordinarily in the 

sense of God's help) 
to, until 
school, collage 
If God helps me, I will go on in ny 
studies to college* 
Magese 

finally 
What kind of work will you do after 
that? 
Juma 

politics 

I'm going into politics. 



Notes 

A« Juu with no possessive following it. 

- chuo cha juu higher school 

Here, ^uu is used without a possessive or a linking -a following it. 
cf. Note 35. C. 

B. First and second person subject prefixes used with locative stems. 

niko katika darasa la tano I'm in Standard 5. 
The first-person and second-person subject pronouns as well as the third- 
person pronouns may be used before the stem -ko, and before -po and -ao: 



196 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 51 



yuko i^-ijibani he's at hone 

yupo ^jmsabani he's at the house 

yumo nyumbani he's in the house 

The difference in meajiing between -go and -ko is not sharply defined. 
Cienerally speaking, -go implies a more definite idea of the location, while 
-ko has to do more with the mere existence of something regardless of place, 
-no implies location of soraething within something else. 



A. -en^elea plus infinitive; mpakSs 

-soma Utaendelea kusana mpaka 
saa ngapi? 

-fanya Utaendelea kufanya kazi 
mpaka saa ngapiS 

-tembea -ogelea 

B. -^ua plus infinitive, 

-ogelea Watoto wote wanajua 
kuogelea? 

-soma -andika -sema 



How late are you going to read? 



How late are you going to work? 



Do all the children know how to 
swim? 



A, Nouns with the same stem but different prefixes. 



npishi 



nkullma 



itetezi 



Baba yake ni mpishi, 

Yeye afainya kazi ya upishi, 

Baba yake ni mkulima, 
Yeye afanya kazi ya 
ukulima, 

Baba yake ni mtetezi, 
Yeye afanya kazi ya 
utetezi. 



His father is a cook. 
He does cooking. 

His father is a farmer. 
He does farming. 

His father is a politician. 
He does political work. 



197 



UNIT 51 SWAHILI 



mpagazi Baba yake ni mpagazl* His father: Is a porter* 

Yeye afanya kazl ya klbarxia. He does casual labor* 

niwandishi Baba yake ni nwsmdishi* His father is a secretary. 

Yeye afanya kazi ya uandishi* He does secretarial woric* 

B* Personal subject prefixes with locative stems* 

wewe Uko wapi2 Nimo iiyumbani* Where are you? I am in 

the house* 

ninyi fiko wapi? Tumo nyunibani* Where are you (pl*)2 Wo 

,,, _^., , .,,^ are in the house* 

yeye Yuko wapi? Yumo nyumbani* Where is he? He is in the 

house * 

wao Wako wapil Wamo nyurabani* Where are they? They are 

in the house* 

U* A asks B, a child; about his school work and about his chores at hone* 



A ...T.'pM" ■ 



sonoe- 



F. <:!% 



196 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 52 



Itoit_52 
1* Basic Dialogue. If you drink too much. • • 

Miranbo 
Hacme, yule mtu hawezi kutembea Look at himl That inan can't walk 
vyema. properly. 



pombe (N) beer 

Yeye amekwisha kurywa p<Mnbe* He*s been drinking beer* 

(•he has finished drinking beer* ) 
Mirambo 
Wewe unapenda kunywa pcmbel Do you like to drink itt 

Sangal 
wakati (U) (pi. nyakati) time 

Nyakati nyingine mini huuywa kidogo ScHne times I drink just a little© 
tu. 

Mirambo 
«lewa to become drunk 

Pombe ni nibaya kwa sababu inamfanya Beer is bad because it makes a person 
mtu alewe* (that he should become) drunk. 



Ndiyo* Htu akinywa ryingi atalewa. Yes$ anycxie ^o drinks much will get 

drunk. 



199 



UNIT 52 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A, The distal demonstratives («»le), 

yule mtu that man over there 

A third series of demonstratives are fonued on the stem -le» The general 
meaning is 'that/those over there'. These may be called 'distal' demonstra- 
tives. The three series of demonstratives may be 'compared in the fdlowing 
table. 

' neutral • ' proximal ' ' distal ' 

1 

h u y o 

sg. huyo 
pi* hao 

sg* huo 
pi* hiyo 

sg* hilo 
pi* ^^70 

sg* hicho 
pi* hivyo 

sg* hiyo 
pi* hizo 

U huo 

PA (•mahali')hapo 



m. 



MI 



MA 



VI 



N 



J.r.M 



?x i. fc 



KU 



MU 



huko 



huimi 



h u y u 

huyu 
hawa 

huu 
hii 

hiU 
haya 

hiki 
hivi 

hii 
hizi 

huu 

hapa 
huku 
humu 



y u l__e 

yule 
wale 

ule 
ile 

lile 
yale 

kile 
vile 

ile 
zile 

ule 

pale 

kule 

£le 



200 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 52 



B. The kl-tense» 

mtu akinywa nyingl atalewa 

Ifongm akinijalia • • • 



if a person drinks much he will get 

drunk 
if God helps ids • • • 



These sentences contain verb forms with the prefix -ki-. This prefix 
stands between the subject and object prefixes,, and in this respect resenibles 
the tense prefixes -na-, -li-, etc. A crude but serviceable kind of transla- 
tion equivalent for the ki- form is 'he drinking', 'he helping', 'I being', 
etc# Forms with -ki- in this slot do not ordinarily serve as the main verb 
in a complete sentence* 



A* -wesa plus infinitive | -le« 

-tembea Wale watu hawawezi kutembea 
vyema* 

-soma Wale watu hawawezi kusona 
vyema* 

-seroa -andika 

B« Kidogo after mass nouns* 

ponibe Nyakati nsringine mimi htinywa 
pombs kidogo* 

kahawa Niyakati nyingine mimi hunywa 
kahawa kidogo* 

chai Nyakati nyingine mimi hunywa 
chai kidogo* 

maji %akati nyingine mimi hunywa 
maji kidogo* 

C* Two examples of the ki-tense* 

akienda Htoto akienda shuleni 
hujifunza kusoma* 



Those jjeople cannot walk well* 
Those people cannot read well* 



Sometimes I drink a little beer* 



Sometimes 1 drink a little coffee* 



Sometimes I drink a little tea* 



Sonetimes I drink a little water* 



If a child goes to school, he 
learns how to read* 



201 



UNIT 52 



SWAHILI 



vikifanya Ukifaniya kazi vizuri sana 

utapata mshahara wa kutosha* 

D« Mara* 

Icuona Ulimwcna nara ngapiS Mara 
mbili, 

kusaidia Ulimsaidia nara ngapl? Mara 
mbili. 

kusikia Ulimsikia mara ngapi^ Mara 
mbili. 

kutazama Ulimtazama mara ngapi? 
Mara mbili. 

£• -fanjA plus subjunctive. 

chai Chai haimfanyi Atu alewe. ,*, 

kahawa Kahawa haimfanyi mtu alewe. 

maji Maji hayamfanyi mtu alewe. 

maji ya Maji ya machungwa hayamfanyi 
machungwa ^^ ^^^^^ 



A. Concords; Noun and adjectives. 

ponibe Pombe ni nzuril Hapana, ni 
mbaya. 

vyakula Vyakula ni vizuri? Hapsuia, 
' ni vibaya. 



nyama 



maembe 



Nyama ni nzuri? Hapana, ni 
mbaya. 

Maembe ni mazuri? Hapana, 
ni mabaya. 



If you woi^c very well you will 
get enough pay. 



How many times did you see him? 
Twice. 

How many times did you help him? 
Twice. 

How many times did you hear him? 
Twice. 

How many times did you look at 
him? Twice. 



Tea does not make one drunk. 

Coffee does not make one drunk. 

Water does not make one drunk. 

Orange juice does not make one 
dinink. 

»■ 
Is the beer good? No, it is bad. 

Are the foods good? No, they are 
bad. 

Is the meat good? No, it is bad. 

Are the mangoes good? No, they 
are bad. 



S02 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 52 



machxingwa Machungwa nl mazurl? Hapana, Axe the oranges good? No, 

ni mabaya* they are bad. 

ndizi Ndizi nl nzuri? Hapana, nl Are the bananas good? No, 

rcbaj'a, they are bad* 



203 



UNIT 53 



SWAHILI 



Alipelekwa hospitalini na mama, 
(ors . . .hospital! « . « ) 



ynit_53 
i» Basic Dialogue. Juma hurt his leg* 

Asha 
ndugu (K-pers») kinsmar. of same generation 

Baba, ndugu yangu Juma yuko wapi? Father, where is my ndugu Jvxna.% 

Hamisi 

He was taken to the hospital by [his] 
mother, 
^sha 
Kwa ninil " ''^'' Whyl 

■ '" ^ Hamisi 

-umia be hurt 

imkono (M) arm, hand 

£guu (MI) leg, foot 

Kwa sababu alixmiia &ono na ragua« Because he hurt [his] arm and [his] 
^ foot. 

Asha 

How did he get hurtt 
Hamisi 

knife 
He hurt himself with a knife* 
Asha 

a sick person 
Is he very ill? 



Aliiuciaje? 

kisu (VI) 
Alijiuiciza mwenyewe kwa kisu. 

mgonjwa (WA) 
Yeye mgonjwa sana? 



20U 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 53 



Hamisi 
Eapana, lakini alUcuwa akiuiram* No, but he was in pain* 



Notes 



A* Passive stems* 



Ndugu yangu aliniuraa, Ify brother bit me, 

Niliumwa na ndugu yangu* I was bitten by my brother. 

Ndugu yangu aliniumiza* Hy brotiier hurt me* 

Niliumizwa na ndugu yangu* I was hurt by my brother* 

Passive stems may be derived from simple stems, or from other derived 
stems, by use of a suffix vAiose most common form is -w-* When the passive 
suffix is used in the same word with another derivational suffix, it follows 
that suffix* 

In sentences containing passive verbs, the word for the agent or means 
by which the action is performed follows the word na* 

B* Passive stems formed on roots which contain vowels* 

Wapagazi walikula cyama* The porters ate the meat* 
Nyama ililiwa na wapagazi* The meat was eaten by the porters* 
Maziwa yamenywewa na watoto* The milk has been drunk by the 

children* 
Passive stems derived from monosyllabic verbs do not have ku-, and the 
passive siiffix itself is -iw-or -ew-* For details see the exercises* 

C* Difference in meaning between -umwa and -umia* 
NiliTimwa (na) kichwa* 1 had a headache* 
Niliumia kichwa* I hurt my head* 

Note the difference in meaning between the derived verb stems in the above 
examples* The underlying simple stem -uma means 'to cause pain, injure, bite** 

The word na is used by some speakers after -umwa^ but is omitted by 
others • 

D. The reflexive prefix -^i-* 



205 



UNIT 53 



SWAHILI 



Ninajifunza Kiswahili. 
NilJjgRumiza Daudl« 
NiliJluBilza. 
Walijiumiza. 



I'm studying Swahili. 
I hurt Daudi. 
I hurt myself. 
They hurt themselves • 



The prefix -^i- occupies the same slot as the other object prefixes* It 
is a 'reflexive* prefix, which indicates that the object of the verb is the 
same as its subject* It has the invariable shape '^i~ regardless of the 
person, class or number of the subject* 

The stem -funza means 'to teach'* -jifunza 'to study, learn' is literally 
'to teach oneself* 



am 
siiT 



A* -^umia* 

Kguu Juma aliumia mguu* 

icignu Jiuna aliumia niguu* 

mkono Juma aliumia mkono* 

mikcDO Juma aliumia mikono* 

kichwa Juma aliumia kichwa* 

B« •>u9iwa* 

kichwa Juma anauai»ra na kichwa* 

mguu Juma anaumwa na mguu* 

niguu Jama anaiimwa na miguu* 

mkono Juma anaumwa na nkono* 

C* -jiumiza* 

kisu Nilijiumiza nwenyewe kwa kisu. 

kiti Nilijiumiza nwenyewe kwa kiti* 

bilauri baiskeli kalajmi 



Juma hurt his leg* 
Juma hurt his legs. 
Juma hurt his hand* 
Juma hurt his hands* 
Juma hurt his head* 

Juma has a headache* 
Juma has a sore foot* 
Jvuna's feet hurt* 
Juma has a sore arm* 

I hurt iryself with a knife • 
I hurt myself with a chair < 



206 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 53 



tttu 



D« Kuna plus locative. 

Kuna wagonjwa wengi hospitalini? Are there many patients in 

the hospitals 



mji 
^igonjwa 

nitoto 

shule 



Kuna watu wengi hospitalini? 

Kuna watu vengi mjini? 
Kuna wagonjwa wengi mjini? 

Kuna watoto wengi Ajinll 

Kuna watoto wengi shulenil 



£«. -wa plus ki-tense* 



kufanya 



kula 



kusoiria 



Ulikuwa ukifarya nini saa 
sita mchanai 

Ulikuwa ukila chakula saa 
sita mchana? 

Ulikuwa TikLscnna saa sita 
mchana? 



kuteinbea Ulikuwa ukitembea saa sita 
mchanaf 

kuandlkft Ulikuwa uklandika barua saa 
sita mchana? 



Are ther« many people in the 
hospital? 

Are there many people in tovm? 

Are there many sick people 
in town? 

Are there many children in 
town? 

Are there many children in 
the school? 



What were you doing at twelve 
noon? 

Were you eating at twelve 
noon? 

Were you reading at twelve 
noon? 

Were you walking at twelve 
noon? 

Were you writing a letter at 
twelve noon? 



F, Concord: Noun, adjective, subject prefix* 
nguo inpya Nguo mpya zilipelekwa New clothes were taken to the 



hospitali. 
mayal Mayai yalipelekwa hospitali* 
maziwa ndizi vyakula vyote 



hospital* 
Eggs were taken to the hospital* 



207 



UNIT 53 



SWAHILI 



mahindi Mahindi yote yalipelekwa 
sokoni* 

ipvihogo Muhogo vote ullpelekva 
sokoni. 



All the maize was taken to the 
market* 

All the cassava was taken to the 
market* 



The tax was paid yesterday by mj 
father* 



mayai njugu nguruwe maembe mazima 

H. Passive plus na* 

baba Kodi ililipwa jana na baba 
yangu* 

mama ndugu 

I. -wa plus na-tense* 

kichwa Jana nilikuwa ninavunwa kichwa* Yesterday, I had a headache « 

Jana nilikuwa ninaumwa raguu* Yesterday, I had a sore foot» 

Jana nilikuwa ninaumwa mkono. Yesterday, I had a sore arm* 



mguu 

mkono 

vitu 



Vitu hivi vyote vlmeletwa 
na ndugu yangu* 



All these things have been brought 
by ray brother* 



visu 



viti 
mikate 



Visu hivi vyote vimeletwa All these knives have been brought 
na ndugu yangu, by my brother* 

machungwa mayai njugu ndizi nyama siagi 



3* 



A, Passive of verbs whose roots contain no vowel* 



ponbe Pombe yote imenywewa* 
Nani ameirywa? 

chai Chai yote imenywewa* 
Nani ameii]ywa2 

kahawa Kahawa yote imenywewa* 
Nani ameinywa? 



All the beer has been drunk* 
Vlho has drunk it? 

All the tea has been drunk* 
Uho has drunk it? 

All the coffee has been drunk* 
Who has dznink ±%Z 



xoe 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 53 



B. 



Soda vote Isiei^Qrwewa. 
Nani anelnywa? 

Jbji yote yainenywewa» 
Nani ameyarywa? 



Viazi vyote vimeliwa. 
Nani ainevila? 

Haenibe yote yameliwa* 
Nazii aneyalaS 

Hkate wote uineliwa* 
Nazd ametila? 

Mikate yote imeliwa. 

Nani ameila? 

Nyana yote ineliwa* 
Nani ameilal 

Samaki yote ineliwa* 
Nani ameila? 



All the soda has been drunk* 
Uho has drunk it? 

All the water has been drunk* 
Xho has drunk it? 



All the potatoes have been eaten* 
Who has eaten them? 

All the mangoes have been eaten* 
Who has eaten them? 

All the bread has been eaten* 
Who has eaten it? 

All the loaves of bread have 
been eaten* 
Who has eaten them? 

All the meat has been eaten* 
Who has oaten it? 

All the fish has been eaten* 
Who has eaten it? 



Conversation Starters 
L 1* A and his friend B, who are parents, discuss the things that they do 
for their children, related to their needs for food, clothing, education* 



809 



UNIT 5U 



SWAHILI 



Unit_5U 
la Basic Dialogue. Where have you been recently? 



Habari za silcu nyingit 



joa^Be £a9t-> 



NJeinat 



5 at-.. 



How have you been all this time? 
( ' News of many days? ' ) 
Mirambo 

Finel 
S^gai 

Vlhere have you been all these days? 
Mirambo 

1 was at Mbeya* 



Ulikuwa wapi siku hizi zote? 



Nilikuwa huko Ibeya, 



Ulikuwa ukifanya nini? What were you doing? 

Miranibo 
Nilikuwa nikifanya kazi ya ukarani. 1 was doing clerical work. 

Notes 

A* Huko with names of places* 

Tulikuwa nyumbani. We were at hone. 

Tulikuwa huko Mbeya, We were at Mbeya. 

The locative sviffix -ni is used with such words as njfuinba 'house' and 
soke 'market'. With names of cities the word huko 'there' or haga 'here' may 
be used. The literal translation of the second sentence is thus 'we were 
there [at] fbeya'. 



aio 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 5U 



B. Verb phrases in which the first verb is -wa« 



Nilikuwa nikifai^a kazi. 
Atakuwa akifai^a kazi. 

Alileva. 

Alikuva amelewa* 

Amelewa* 

XLikuwa imevimjika. 



I was working* 

He will be working. 

He got dn.mk« 

He was drunk* 

He is dnank. 

It was broken [when I saw it]. 



Verb phrases of this kind lend great flexibility to the expression of 
time and aspect with Swahili verbs. Basically, the action as a whole is 
located in past or future time by the use of -li- or -ta~ as prefix with -wa. 
The shape of the acticai, whether continuing or completed at that time, is 
indicated by the use of -na-, -^-, or of -me- as prefix for the second verb, 

A. Huko with names of cities* 
Mbeya Tulikuwa hviko Maeya. 

Tulikuwa huko Utete* 
Tulikuwa sokoni* 
Tulikuwa kanisani. 
Tulikuwa huko Nairobi. 

B. -wa plus ki-tense* 
kwenda Nilikuwa nikienda nyumbani. 

Nilikuwa nikila chungwa. 



Utete 
soko 
kanisa 
Nairobi 



k»jila 



kujifunza Nilikuwa nikijifunza 
Ki swahili. 



kuondoka 



Nilikuwa nikiondoka 
shuleni. 



kuogelea , Nilikuwa niklogelea* 



We were at Maeya* 
We were at Utete. 
We were at the market* 
We were at the church. 
We were in Nairobi* 

I was going heme. 

I was eating an orange* 

I was learning Swahili. 

I was leaving school* 

I was swimming. 



S11 



UNIT 5U 



SWAHILI 



kusaldla Nllikuwa nikiwasaldia 
wazazi wangu* 



I was helping 1^7 parents* 



3* 



A. Lini? 



wao Waendelee kusoioa liipaka saa 

saba. 
Wallanza lini kuscmaj 

yeya Aendelee kuacxna inpaka saa 

saba* 



tawv i;j"."« 



Alianaa lini kuscHnal 



wao Waendelee kuogelea mpaka saa 
saba. 
Walianza lini kuogelea? 

yeye Aendelee kuogelea %)aka saa 
saba* - . 

Alianza lini kiiogelea? 

wao Waendelee kutusaidia mpaka 
saa saba* 
Walianza lini kutusaidia? 

yeye Aendelee kutusaidia mpaka saa 
saba. 
Alianza lini kutusaidia? 

B. -wa plus ki-tense: negative vs. 

wawe Ulikuwa ukisoina? 

Hapana. Sikuwa nikiscana, 
nilikuwa nikiandika, 

ninyi filikuwa mkisoma? 

Hapana* Hatukuwa tukisoma, 
tulikuwa tukiandika* 



Let them go on reading till one 
o' clock* 
When did they begin reading? 

Let him/her go on reading till one 
o'clock* 
When did he/she begin reading? 

Let them go on swimming till one 
o'clock* 
When did they begin swimming? 

Let him/her go on sid.mming till one 
o'clock. 
When did he/she begin swimming? 

Let them go on helping us till one 
o'clock. 
When did they begin helping us? 

Let him/her go on helping us till 
one o'clock. 
When did he/she begin helping us? 

affinnative* 

Were you (sg*) reading? 

No, I was not reading, I was 
writing* 

Were you (pi,) reading? 
No, we were not reading, 
we were writing* 



212 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 5k 



karani Karani alikuwa akisona? 

Hapana, Hakuwa akisoma, 
alikuwa akiandika» 

C. 

wazungu Wazungu hao walikuwa 
wakinywa chai? 
Hawakuwa wakinywa chai* 
Walikuwa wakinywa pocibe. 

Azungu Mzungu huyo alikuwa akirywa 
chail 

Hakuwa akin3?wa chai, 
Alikuwa akinywa pcrnibe, 

wakulima Wakulima hao walikuwa 
wakiiiywa chait 
Hawakuwa wakinywa chai« 
Walikuwa wakinywa poinbe* 

ninyl Mlikuwa mkinywa chai) 

Hatukuwa tukirywa chai, 
Tulikuwa tukinywa pombe. 



Was the clerk reading? 
NO} he was not reading , 
he was writing* 



Were those Europeans having tea? 

They were not having tea, they 
were drinking beer. 

Was that European having tea? 

He was not having tea, he 
was drinking beer. 

Were those farmers having sane tea? 

They were not having some tea, 
they were drinking beer, 

Wers you having sane tea? 
We were not having scaae tea, 
we were drinking beer* 



213 



UNIT 55 SWAHILI 



Unit_5S 
i« Basic Dialogue. How's the family? 

Hasani 
Kabari gani za watoto wako? How are your children? 

Adi^a 
HawaJanbOa They're all right* 

Hasaoi 
kwell true 

Kweli, una watoto wangapi sasa? Really, how many children do you 

have now? 

,;«'ji.* or',-;f, ■-■'■■'.-■ ? V' - .x" •■ "f : ^'~'': '""■■ 

Adi^a 

Nina watoto watatu. :--' '■■'""'" I have three. 

Hasani 

kiume (VI) the male sort 

kike (VI) the female sort 

Watoto hao ni wa kiume au wa kike? Are they boys or girls? 

Adi^a 

mwanaiiike (pi* wanawake) woman 

rawanamxune (pi* wanaume) man 

Mmoja ni mwanaiiike na wawili ni One is a girl and two are bqys. 

wanaijune* 

Hasani 

umri (U) age 

Mtoto wako ^ikubwa ana umri gani? What is the age of your eldest? 

(••••your big [one]') 

2lU 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 55 



Adi^a 

Ana mlaka kuml na initatu sasa* Thirteen* 

Notes 

A. Numerals which take concordial prefixes* 

Ana niaka mitano. He is five years old* 
Ana niaka sita* He is six years old* 

The numerals from i - 5» and also 8, take concordial prefixes. None of 
the other numerals do so* 

B* Stating the ages of persons. 

Note that the way of stating ages, as in the above examples, is literally 
'he has (five) years'* 

2* 



A. Numbers and ages* 

5 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka 

mitano sasa* 

6 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka 

sita sasa* 

7 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka 

saba sasa* 

e Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka 
minane sasa* 

9 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka 
tisa sasa* 

io Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka 

kumi sasa* 

* 
11 Mtoto wangu mkubwa ana miaka 

kumi na mmoja sasa* 



My eldest child is five years 
old now* 

My eldest child is six years 
old now* 

My eldest child is seven years 
old now* 

}fy eldest child is eight years 
old now* 

Ify eldest child is nine years 
old now* 

Hy eldest child is ten years 
old now* 

W(y eldest child is eleven years 
old now* 



215 



UNIT 55 



SWAHILI 



12 Mtoto wangu inkiibwa ana mlaka 
kiuni xia niwili sasa. 



13 



iU 



15 



i6 



17 



Jty eldest child is twelve years 
old now* 

i8 19 



A, The double plurals; subjunctive, 

I Wanatune waende shulenij 

wanawake wakae nyunbani* 

soko Wanaiune wakae nyumbanij 

wanawake waende sokoni* 



kanisa Wanaume wakae sokoni; 

wanawake waende kanisani. 

boma Wanaume wakae kanisani; 

wanawake waende bcHnajni* 

shule Wanaume wakae bcxnani; 

wanawake waende shuleni. 



The men are to go to school, the 
women are to stay home* 

The men are to stay home, the 
wOTien are to go to the market. 

The men are to stay at the market, 
the wOTien are to go to church. 

The men are to stay at church, the 
women are to go to the District 
Office, 

The men are to stay at the District 

Office, the women are to go to 
school. 



B, Double singular vs. double plural, 

mwanamke Kuna mwanamke mmoja nyumbani. There is one woman at h<xne, 

K\ina wanawake wengi shuleni. There are manj'- wOTien at school, 

mwanamujne Kuna mwanaraume mraoja nyurabani. There is one man at hone. 



Kuna wanaume wengi shuleni. There are many men at school. 



mkulima 



mtoto 



karani 



Kuna mkulima &iioJa nyumbani, 
Kuna wakulima wengi 
shvileni, 

Kvina mtoto irtaioja nyumbani, 
Kuna watoto wengi shuleni. 

Kuna karani mmoja nyumbani. 
Kuna makarani wengi shuleni. 



There is one farmer at home. 

There are mary farmers at school. 

There is one child at home. 

There are many children at school. 

There is one clerk at home. 

There are many clerks at school. 



216 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 55 



Conversation Starters 
1* A and his friend B, who are parents, exchange information about the 
ages of their respective children, the grades that the children are in at 
school, and their favorite subjects. 



217 



UNIT 56 



SWAHILI 



Unit_56 
i« Basic Dialogue, When are you coming to see usi 

Mirambo 



-ankla 
Utakuja lini kutuamkia? 

nafasi (N) 

Jumatano 

pamoja na 

Dike (WA) 
Nikipata nafasi, nitakuja siku ya 
Jumatano pamoja na mke wangu na 
watoto* 



to greet, visit 
When are you coining to visit us? 
Magese 

opportunity 
Wednesday 
together with 
wife 
If I get a chance, I'll come on 
Wednesday along with ray wife 
and children* 



Mrambo 
baada (N) after 

livu (N) leave time 

Baada ya livu yako, utakwenda wapi? Where are you going when your 

leave is over? 
Magese 
Dabda perhaps 

-rudi to return 

hakika (N) certainty 

Labda nitarudi tena Mbeya, lakini I may go back to Mbeya agedn, but 
sina hakika* I'm not sure* 



218 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 56 



Notes 



A. The days of the week* 

Junamosi 

Juinapili 

Jumatatu 

Junasne 

Jumatano 

Alhamisi 

Ijumaa 



Saturday 

Simday 

Monday 

Tuesday 
Wednesday 
Thursday 
Friday 



Given above are the days of the week in Swahili, When naming them in 
series it is custcanary to begin with Jumamosi, The terminations 'Wosi, -£ili, 
etc* are related to forms meaning respectively tone* and *two* Saturday is 
thus »day-one», and Tuesday is »day-four», 

B* The noun baada* 

The no\m baada, like ^uu, does not serve as subject or object of a verb, 
nor occvir in the plural* 



A, -a^a* 

wazazi Umekuja hapa kuwaaSkia 
vazazi wakoS 

rafiki lAnekuja hapa kumwankia 
rafiki yako? 

jainaa Umekuja hapa kumwamkia 
jamaa yakoS 

baba lAnekuja hapa kvunwamkia 
baba yako? 

ndugu Umekuja hapa kijnwaikia 
ndugu yako? 



Have you cooie here to visit your 
parent s? 

Have you ccsno here to visit your 
friend? 

Have you come her« to visit your 
companion? 

Have you come here to visit your 
father? 

Have you cane here to visit your 
brother? 



ai9 



UNIT 56 



SWAHILI 



B« -gata nafasi, 

kusoma Sikupata nafasi ya kusoma 
darasa la saba. 

kusema Sikupata nafasi ya kusema 
na Kwandishi Mkuu. 

kuendelea Sikupata nafasi ya 

kuendelea na masoniOa 

kujifunza Sikupata nafasi ya 
- . kujifunza hesabu. 

kuona Sikupata nafasi ya kuona 
mi Chez o ya farasi, 

C. pamo^a na *""' 

nke Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja 
na mke wangu* 

ffitoto Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja 
na mtoto wangu mkubwa, 

Mwandishi Nilikwenda Mbeya psjnoja 
na Mwandishi Mkuu* 

rafiki Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja 
na rafiki yangu, 

wapagazi Nilikwenda Mbeya pamoja 
na wapagazi wengine* 



I did not have the qpportimity of 
studying the seventh grade, 

I did not have the opporttmity of 
speaking to the General Secretary, 

I did not have the opportunity of 
continuing with [iry] studies, 

I did not have the opportunity of 
learning arithmetic, 

I did not have the opportunity of 
watching the horse races. 



I went to Mbeya together with my 
wife, 

I went to Mbeya together with my 
eldest child, 

I went to Mbeya together with the 
General Secretary, 

I went to Mbeya together with my 
friend, 

I went to Mseya together with some 
porters , 



D, 'Fature progressive,' -ta- plus ^^•- 



mimi 



eisi 



yeya 



Baada ya mwaka huu> 

nitakuwa nikiishi Kenya, 

Baada ya mwaka huu, 

tutakuwa tukiishi Kenya, 



After this year I shall be living 
in Kenya, 

After this year we will be living 
in Kenya, 



Baada ya mwaka huu, atakuwa After this year he will be living 



akiishi Kenya, 



in Kenya, 



220 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 56 



wao 

wewe^ 

niryi? 

A. 
kurudi 

lT-»anza 



Baada ya nivraka huu, watakuioa 
wakiishi Kenya. 

Baada ya mwaka huu, utakuwa 
ukiishi Kenya? 

Baada ya invraka huu, mtakuwa 
mkiishi Kenya? 

Me-tense, affinnative vs, negative. 



After this year they will be 
living in Kenya, 

After this year will you (sg.) 
be living in Keriya? 

After this year will you (pi. ) 
be living in Kenya? 



Daudi amerudi rgrumbani? 
Hapana, hajarudl bade* 



Daudi ameanza kusona? 
Hapana^ hajaanza bade. 

kvnaliza Daudi amemaliza kusoma? 

Hapana, hajanializa bade. 



kula 



kwigha 



Daudi amekula maharagwe? 
Hapana, ha Jala bade. 

Chumvi imekwisha? 

Hapana, haijalsha bade. 



B, 



vewe 



ninyl 



wave 



Has Daudi gone back hcsne? 
No, he hasn't gone back yet. 

Has Daudi begun reading? 
No, he hasn't begun yet. 

Has Daudi finished reading? 
No, he hasn't finished yet. 

Has Daudi eaten beans? 
No, he hasn't eaten yet. 

Is the salt all gone? 

No, it isn't all gone yet. 



Ta-tense, affirmative vs, negative. 
Utapata nafasi ya kutuamkia? 

Hapana, Sitapata nafasi. 
Mtapata nafasi ya kutuairkia? 

Hapana. Hatutapata nafasi. 
Utaendelea katika masomo? 

Hapana. Sitaendelea. 



Will you have a chance to come 
to see us? 
No, I will not have a chance. 

Will you (pi.) have a chance to 
come to see us? 
No, we will not have a chance. 

Will you contin\ie with your 
studies? 
No, I will not continue. 



221 



UNIT 56 



SWAHILI 



ninyi Mtaendelea katika masomo? 

Hapana, hatutaendelea* 

wewe Utalipa vitu hivyo? 

Hapana, sitalipa, 
(or: Sitavilipa) 

ninyl Mtalipa vitu hivyo? 
Hapana, hatutalipa. 



Will you (pi.) contintie with your 
studies? 
No, we will not continue. 

Will you pay for those things? 
No, I will not pay for them. 

Will you (pi.) pay for those things? 
No, we will not pay for therc. 



aw?:' 



r-id 



8V.' 



«0i. ird 



sas 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 5? 



ynit_57 

1, Basic Dialogue. Whei^ will you go after your leave? 

Ittrambo 

-rudishwa to be caused to return 

Unadhani utarudishwa tena hapa? Do you think you will be sent back 

here? 

Magese 

maana meaning, significance^ because 

-ahidi to promise 

kwamba that ( ' saying • ) 

-hama to move from one place to 

another 

Sidhani, maana nimekwisha ahidiwa I don't think so, because I've already 

kwantoa nitahamishwa, been premised that I'll be moved. 

Mirambo 

ungependa you would like 

Unadhani ungependa kurudi hapa? Do you think you would like to return 

here? 

Magese 

Ndiyo. Ningefurahi sana. Yes, I would be very happy. 

Hirambo 

-kosa to lack, err 

Asante sana, Na tafadhali usikose Thanks very much. And please don't 

kuja siku hiyo ya Jumatanol fail to ccane on [that] Wednesday 

[that we talked about]. 

283 



UNIT 57 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A, Statements in indirect discourse* 

Unadhani kwamba utarudishwa? | 

Unadhani kuwa utarudishwa? V Do you think you will be returned? 

Unadhani utanidishwal ^ 

These three sentences are freely interchangeable with one another. That 
is, a statement in indirect discourse may follow the preceding verb directly, 
or it may be introduced by kuwa or kwamba. 



■ ,-':^ Ai' .' ' 



A. -hama. 



Mbeya Nwaka jana tulihama (kutoka) 
Mbeya, 

kaskazini Mwaka jana tulihama (kutoka) 
kaskazini. 

kusini •' Mwaka jana tulihama (kutoka) 
■ -'' - kusini. 

mashariki Mwaka jana tulihama (kutoka) 
nashai*iki. 

magharibi Mwaka Jana tulihaina (kutoka) 
magharibi. 

B, -liamisha. 

Tanga Serikali ilitiihamisha rapaka 
Tanga. 

mji mpya Serikali ilituhamisha mpaka 
mji %)ya, 

kijiji Serikali ilituhamisha mpaka 

kidOgO j^^j^j^ j^^^^g^^ 



We moved from Mbeya last year. 

We moved from the north last 
year. 

We moved trasa the south last 
year. 

We moved from the east last 
year. 

We moved frtan the west last 
year. 



The government moved us to 
Tanga. 

The government moved us to 
a new town. 

The government moved us to a 
small village. 



22U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 57 



jJbrJbo 
Jipya 


Serikali ilituhamisha mpaka 
jlmbo jipya. 


C. - 


■kosa plus infinitive. 


loija 


Msikose kuja siku ya 




Jamatano* 


kuamkla 


Msikose kmraankia wazazi 




wenu. 


kusama 


Msikose kuscana barua hii. 


kurudisha 


Msikose kurudisha visahani 




vyote. 


knendelea 


% 

Msikose kuendelea katika 



kazi yenu, 
D. -kosa plus noun, 
mvua Mwaka huu tumekosa mvua. 

matunda Mwaka huu tumekosa matunda. 



nazi 



Mwaka huu tumekosa nazi. 



mboga Mwaka huu tumekosa mboga. 



The goveminent moved us to a 
new district. 

Don't fail to come on Wednesday. 

Don't fail to welcane your 
parents. 

Don't fail to read this letter. 

Don't fail to return all the 
saucers. 

Don't fail to continue with 
your work. 

We have been short of rain this 
year. 

We have been short of fruit this 
year. 

We have been short of coconuts 
this year. 

We have been short of vegetables 
this year. 



A, Adjective vs. related causative stem. 



chakula 



nguo 



Chakula ki (or: ni) tayari? 
Hapana. Nitakitayarisha 
sasa hivi. 

Nguo i (or: ni ) tayari? 
Hapana, Nitaitayarisha 
sasa hivi. 



Is the food ready? 
No, I will prepare it right 
away. 

Is the dress ready? 
No, I will get it ready right 
away. 



ta5 



UNIT 57 



SWAHILI 



kahawa 



uji 



ng'anbe 



Kahawa i (or: ni) tayari2 

Hapana, Nitaitayarisha 
sasa hivi. 

UJi u (or: ni) tayari? 
Hapana, Nitautayarisha 
sasa hivl. 

Ng'ombe yu (or: ni) tayari? 
Hapana, Nitamtayarisha 
sasa hivi. 



B. 
vycmbo 

vikonibe 



Vyombo vyote ni safi? 
Hapana, Hitavisafisha 
sasa, 

Vikonibe vyote ni safij 
Hapana, Nitavisafisha 
sasa. 



Is the coffee ready? 
No, I will get it ready right 
away. 

Is the gruel ready 2 

No, I will get it ready right 
away. 

Is the cow ready? 

No, I will get it ready right 
away. 

Are all the dishes clean? 
No, I will clean them now. 

Are all the cups clean? 
No, I will clean them now. 



sahani bilauri taa 

C, Causative vs. causative plus passive, 

vycmibo Rudisha vyombo nyumbani 
sasa, 

Vimekwisha rudishwa 
tayari, 
Nani amevi rudisha? 



':',.~y.' 



Return the utensils to the house 
now* 
They have been returned already. 



Who returned them? 

vitunguu Rudisha vitunguu nyumbani Return the onions to the house novr, 
sasa. 



Vimekwisha rudishwa 

tayari. 

Nani amevirudisha? 

njugu maharagwo nuhogo 



They have been returned already. 
Who has returned them? 



226 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 58 



Unit^SS 
i« Basic Dialogue, Why didn't you ccwie to see us2 

Mirambo 
mbona? why^ 

Mbona hukuja siku ile ya Jumatano? Why didn't you come that Wednesday? 

Magese 
-slkitika to be sorry 

home (N) fever 

Ahi Nasikitika sana. Mke wangu Oh, I'm very sorry, Ity wife got a 
euLipata homa. fever* 

Nir?inbo 
Homa gani? What kind of fever? 

Magese 
Sijui kwa hakika, lakini nadhani ni I'm not sure, but I think it is 
malaria. malaria. 

Mirambo 
Ulimpeleka hospitali? Did you take her to the hospital? 

Magese 
kidonge (VI) tablet, pills 

-piga to hit 

sindano (N) needle 

-pigwa sindano to get an injection 

Ndiyo. Alipata dawa ya vidonge, Tes, she got some pills and also was 
na pia alipigwa sindano. given a shot. 



227 



UNIT 58 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A« Concordial agreement involving numeral phrases. 

mananasi kumi na mawili twelve pineapples 
watoto kumi na wawili twelve children 

In numeral phrases which end with the numbers 1 - 5, or 8, the word for 
1 - 5 or 8 must agree concordially with the noun to which the whole phrase 
refers. The first numeral in the phrase (kuaii 'ten' In these examples) takes 
no concordial prefixes. 



A, Concord; Nouns with number over ten. 



ng'asibe 



watoto 



ndkate 



nazi 



B. 
vikombe 

sahani 

nguo 
samziki 



Bwana Sangai ana ng'onbe 
kumi na wawili. 

Bwana Sangai ana watoto 
kumi na wawili. 

Bwana Sangai ana mikate 
kumi na miwilie 



Mr* Sangai has twelve cows. 
Mr. Sangai has twelve children. 
Mr. Sangai has twelve loaves. 



Bwana Sangai ana nazi kumi Mr. Sangai has twelve coconuts* 
na mbili. 



mananasi Bwana Sangai ana mananasi Mr. Sangai has twelve pineapples. 
kiomi na mawlli« 



Mkewe ana vikcanbe kumi na His wife has fourteen cups, 
vinne. 



Mkewe ana sahani kumi na 
nne. 



His wife has fourteen plates. 



Mkewe ana nguo k\imi na nne* His wife has fourteen dresses. 

Mkewe ana samakl kumi na His wife has fouz*tder fish, 
nne. (or:«.*watme.) 



228 



BASIC GOUESE UNIT 58 



sindano Mkewe ana sindano kiuni na His wife has fourteen needles* 
nne» 

rafikl Mkewe ana rafiki kvuni na His wife has fourteen friends, 
wanne* 

vidonge Mkewe ana vidonge kumi na His wife has fourteen pills* 
vinne* 

3» Devise short conversations giving ten different reasons why Miranibo didn't 
go to see Sangai on Wednesday* 



229 



UNIT 59 



SWAHILI 



Unit_59 
Basic Dialogue, Is your wife feeling better? 

Mirambo 



ulipoondoka 
hali (N) 
namna^ nanma (N) 
Ulipoondoka leo, hali yake ilikuwa 
namna gani? 

-onekana 
Leo anaonekana hajambo kidogo* 



-ambukiza 
ugonjwa (U) 
Unadhani aroeambukizwa ugonjwa 
huo huko Mbeya au hapal 

mbu (N-aniin. ) 
Nadhani ni hapa, kwa sababu hakuna 
mbu wengi huko Mbeya, 



when you left 
condition 
kind, sort 
When you left today, what was her 
condition like? 
Magese 

to seem 
Today she seems to be a little better. 
('Today she seems she has no trouble 
a little.' ) 
Mirambo 

to infect 
illness 
Do you think that she cau^t the disease 
there in Mbeya, or here? 
Magese 

mosquitoes 
I think it was here, because there 
aren't many mosquitoes there in 
Mbeya, 



230 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 59 



Notes 

A. -go- as an equivalent for 'when. ' 

uliondoka you left 

ulipoondoka when you left 
utaiwona you will see him 

utapcxnwona ^ 
utakapOTiwona J 



•vdien you see him 



The relative prefix -go- is commonly used as an equivalent for the 'when' 
of an English adverbial clause. It stands between the tense prefix and the 
object prefix. The form with -takapo- is considered more standard than the 
form with -tago-, but both are widely used* 



There are no onions in the market. 



A* Huko with locative, 
vitunguu Hakuna vitunguu huko sokoni* 
maharagwe Hakuna maharagwe huko sokoni. There are no beans in the market, 

pilipili samaki nazl 

6« One use of namna, 
ugonjwa 



homa 



Hali ya ugcaijwa wake 
ilikuwa namna gani? 

Hali ya homa yake ilikuwa 
namna gani2 



mguu 



watoto 



motokaa 



kazi 



Miat was the condition of his 
sickness^ 

■What was the condition of his 
fever? 

Jamaa 



3« 



A, Concord J -onekana, 

machungwa Hali ya machungwa haya ni 
namna gani2 

"bichi Yanaonekana mabichi sana. 



What is the condition of these 
oranges? 

They look very unripe. 



831 



UNIT 59 



SWAHILI 



ng'ombe Hali ya ng'ombe hawa ni 
namna gani? 



zun 


WanaonekaDa wazuri sana. 


nguruwe 


Hali ya nguruwe hawa ni 




namna gani? 


"\)aya 


Wanaonekana wabaya sana. 


njugu 


Hali ya njugu hizi ni naroia 




ganil 


"^ora 


Zinaonekana mboTu sana. 


mahindi 


Hali ya mahindi haya ni 




nairina gani? 


~bichi 


Yanaonekana mabichi sana. 


chakula 


Hali ya chakula hiki ni 




nainna gani? 


~zuri 


Kinaonekana kizuri sana. 


vitiinguu 


Hali ya vitunguu hivi ni 



"baya 



namna ganil 

Vinaonekana vibaya sana. 



What is the condition of these cows? 

They look very good. 
What is the condition of these pigs? 

They look very bad. 
What is the condition of these nuts? 

They look very spoiled. 
What is the condition of this maize. 

It looks very unripe. 
What is the condition of this food? 

It looks very delicious. 

What is the condition of these 
onions? 
They look very spoiled. 



B, Verb forms with -go-, 

kumaliza Nilimaliza kazi, 

Nilipomallza kazi, 
niliondoka nyumbani, 

kuona Jliliona motakaa, 

Nilipoona motakaa, 
niliondoka nyumbani. 



I finished working. 
When I finished work, I left the 
house, 

I saw a motor car. 
When I saw the motor car, I left 
the house. 



kusikia Nilisikia gari la moshi, I heard a train, 

Niliposikia gari la moshi. When I heard the train, I left 
niliondoka nyumbani. the house. 



232 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 59 



kupata NiMpata taa na mafuta* I got a lamp and oil* 

Nilipopata taa na mafuta. When I got the lamp and oil, 
niliordoka nyumbani, I left the house. 



233 



UNIT 60 SWAHILI 



Unit_6o 
i« Basic Dialogue. The children have coughs. 

Mutis^a 
Watoto wako hawajarabo? Are your children all right? 

Hamisi 
-kohoa to cough 

Hawajambo, lakini wanakohoakc^oa. They're all right, but they have 

light coughs. 
Mutisja 
Umewapeleka hospitalij ^, . , Have you taken them to the hospital? 

Hamisi 
-shughulika to be busy 

Bado sijawapeleka, kwa. sababu I haven't taken them yet because 
ninashughulika na ugonjwa wa I'm kept buy ('I'm busied') with 

mama yao. the illness of their mother, 

Mutisya 
-faa to be suitable 

Je, huoni ingefaa kuwapeleka But don't you think it would be a 

hospitali pamoja na mama yao? good idea to take them to the 

hospital along with their mother? 
Hamisi 
Ndiyo, nadhani nitafanya hivyo. Yes, I think I'll do so, 

Mutisja 
-salimia to convey regards to 



»3k 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 60 



-pa 

wape 
"pole 
Usikose kufanya hayo, na unisalimie 
na kuwapa (ort«««jU»ape) pole* 



to give 
give to them 
kind, gentle 
Don't (fail) to do it, and convey my 
regards, and my condolences* 



Notes 

A, -faa with 'impersonal prefix.' 

Itafaa kuwasaidia« 

It a faa tuwasaidie* 

Ingefaa kuwapeleka 
nyuribani» 



It will be a good idea to help them. 

It would be a good idea to take them 
home. 



The verb -faa with subject prefix i- is followed by an infinitive, or by 
the subjunctive. The translation is usually 'it is/will be/would be suitable 
to,..' or 'it is a good idea to...'« There is no noun subject 'implied' for 
the verbs in these sentences; the N-class prefix with -faa is said to be used 
' impersonally, • 



B, The phrase -ga gole, 
Wape pole. 
Wamekuja kutupa pole. 



Condole with them. 

They have cane to condole with us. 



A. -faa plus infinitive, 

kueleza Itafaa kueleza mambo haya 
yote. 

kuelewa Itafaa kuelewa mambo haya 
yote, 

kula Itafaa kula dawa hii yote. 



It will be a good thing to explain 
about all these affairs. 

It will be a good thing to under- 
stand all these affairs. 

It will be a good thing to take 
all this medicine. 



835 



UNIT 60 



SWAHILI 



kusafisha Itafaa kusafisha vyombo 
hivi vyote, 

kuuza Itafaa kuuza inboga hizi 
zote* 

P, Pamo^a na, 

baba Tulikwenda pwani paraoja 
na baba yetu. 

rdugu Tulikwenda pwani panoja 
na ndugu yetu, 

rafiki Tulikwenda pwani pamoja 
na rafiki yetu, 

mpishi Tulikwenda pwani pamoja 
na mpishi wetu# 

wazazi Tulikwenda pwani pamoja 
na wazazi wetu. 



It will be a good thing to clean 
all these utensils. 

It will be a good thing to sell all 
these vegetables. 



We went to the beach together with 
our father. 

We went to the beach together with 
our brother. 

We went to the beach together with 
our friend. 

We went to the beach together with 
our cook. 

We went to the beach together with 
our parents. 



C, -salimiaj WA. noiuis vs. N-personal nouns. 



wazazi Tusalimie wazazi wako, 

baba Tusalimie baba yako, 

ndugu Tusaliraie ndugu yako, 

watoto Tusalimie watoto wako, 

rafiki Tusalimie rafiki yako. 



Give our regards to your parents. 
Give our regards to your father. 
Give our regards to your brother. 
Give our regards to your children. 
Give our regards to your friend. 



A, Me-tense: affirmative vs. negative. 



kupeleka Umewapeleka watoto 
hospitalini? 
Bado sijawapeleka. 

kufuta Itaepangusa roaji? 

(or: Umefuta roaji?) 



Have you taken the children to the 
hospital? 
I haven't taken them yet. 

Have you wiped up the water? 



236 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 60 



kutla 



kupatia 



B, 



Bado sijapanguaa. 
or: Sijafuta, 

Umetia mafuta katika taa? 
Bado sijayatia, 

Umerdpatia viberiti? 
Bado sijakupatia» 



kusafisha Mpishi amesafisha jiko? 
Bado ha^asaflsha. 

kuwasha Mpishi amewasha taal 
Bado hajawasha, 

kununua Mpishi an^nunua mafuta 
menginel 
Bado hajanunua* 

Inipa Mpishi amewapa watoto 
mkate? 
Bado hajawapa* 



kutayarisha 



l^pishi ametayarisha chakula 
cha nchana? 
Bado hajatayarisha. 



I haven't wiped it yet. 

Have you put oil in the lamp 2 
I haven't put it in yet. 

Have you gotten me seme matches? 
I haven't gotten you any yet. 

Has the cook cleaned the kitchen? 
He hasn't cleaned it yet. 

Has the cook lit the lamp? 
He hasn't lit it yet. 

Has the cook bought any more oil? 

He hasn't bought any yet. 

Has the cook given the children 
some bread? 
He hasn't given them any yet. 

Has the cook prepared food for 
the day? (or: the midday meal?). 
He hasn't prepared any yet. 



Conversation Starters 

1, A went to see C on Thursday, He tells B what C and the various 
members of C's household were doing when he got there, 

2, A is debating whether to take his child to the hospital. He seeks 
advice from B, 



237 



UNIT 60 



SWAHILI 



READING SELECTION I 



Dar es Salaam 



Dar es Salaam ni mji mkubwa lojliko yote nchini Tanganyika, pia ni m^i 
inkuu wa serikali. Kuna watu wa makabila rabsiimbali, lakini vote husema 
Kiswahili, Lugha ya Kiswahili inaseiriwa na kila mtu hata Wazungu, Wahindi na 
Waarabu. 

Upande wa mashariki ya Dar, kuna ^ahari, Bahari hii huitwa Bahari ^ 
Hindi ♦ Katika sehem^u ya magharibi ya mji kiina JJia^umba maarufli ya shughvili 
iRbalimbali, kama vile, shule, bona, hospital!, na mengineyo, Bwana Gavana ni 
Etu mkubwa na niaarufu sana mjini. Jiimba lake zuri liko karibu na pwani, Pia 
ofisi za idara za serikali ziko karibu na pwani, 

Wakati wa Achana watu huwa wengi katika hoteli, Wengine huenda kula 
chakula, na wengine hupenda kmiywa kinywaji tu kfuna soda au maji ya machiingwa. 
Katika hoteli vyakula vingi huuzwa. Katikati ya mji kuna madiika makubwa na 
madogo« Maduka haya yanauza vyakula, nguo, vyanbo vya nyumbani, na vingine 
vya aina rabali mbali, Vingine vinauzwa ghali kuliko vingine, pia vingine 
vinauzwa rahisi. 

Soke liko katikati ya mji vile vile. Huko kunapatikana samaki wa 
baharini, machungwa ya Utete na Morogoro, vitung\m, pilipili na muhogo wa 
Bagamoyoe Unajua wakulima wa Bagampyo hupanda sana muhogo, kwa hivyo hupenda 
kuuza mazao yao katika soko hili maarufu* 



kuliko 
mbalimbali 
kila 

bahari (N) 
hata 

jumba (MA) 
maarufu 
shughuli (N) 



'than' 
'various' 
' each ' 
'sea, ocean' 



even 



'building' 
'famous' 
' business ' 



kama vile 

gavana (N-pers») 

kama 

katikati (N) 

duka (MA) 

aina (N) 

ghali 

rahisl 

vile vile 



'for exainple' 

' governor • 

•as» 

'in the midst' 

'shop' 

'kind' 

'expensive' 

'cheap, easy' 

'also' 



238 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 60 



Questions and Answers over Reading Selection 



Questions 
1« Car es Salaam ni mji mkubwa? 

ft . 
2* Mjl nkuu wa serikall ya 

Tanganyika ni mji gani? 

3« Katika mji wa Dar es Salaam, 
kuna kabila moja tut 

k» Watu wote wa Dar es Salaam 
husema lugha gani? 

5« Kiswahili kinasemwa na watu 
wengi wa Dar es Salaam? 

6. Kuna nini upande wa mashariki 
wa Deir? 

7» Bahari hii huitwaje? 

6* Kuna nini katika sehem ya 
ms-gharibi ya mji? 

9* Jumba la Bwana Gavana like wapi? 

io« Mtu gani ni i^bwa ^jinil 

11* Kvma ma jumba gani mengine 
karibu ya pwani? 

12. Watu huwa wachache katika 
hotelil 

13* Watu wote huenda hoteli kula 
chakula? 

^U^ Vyakula huuzwa katika hoteli? 



Sample Answers 

Ndiyo, ni inkubwa kuliko miji yote 
nchini* 

Ni Dar es Salaam* 

Hapana, kuna makabila mengi mbalimbali* 

Husema zaidi Kiswahili. 

Ndiyo, Lugha hii inasemwa na kila mtu» 

Kuna bahai<i* 

Bahari hii huitwa Bahari ya Hindi, 
Kuna ma jumba niballmbali* 

Liko karibu ya pwani, 

Bwana Gavana* 

Kuna ofisi za idera za serikali, 

Hapana, huwa wengi. 

Hapana, wengine huenda kunywa kinywaji 

tUa 

Ndiyo, bwana, Vyakula vingi huuzwa 
katika hoteli. 



239 



UNIT 60 



SWAHILI 



i5« Kuna maduka makubwa katikati 
ya mji2 

i6» Maduka haya yanauza nini? 



17, Vingine vinauzwa ghali? 

18, Soke liko karibu ya pwanil 



Ndiyo, Kuna inakubv/a na madogo pia, 

Msngine yanauza nguo na vycsnbo vya 
nyumbani, na mengine yanauza vyakula, 

Ndiyo, lakini pia vingine ni rahisi. 

La, liko katikati ya m;ji« 



■; .u- ■-" S'\f.:'^ 



': :■ j:-;.'1c 



2U0 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 60 



Review Sentences, Units i - 6o» 



la Afadhali uondoke sasa usilikose 
gari la moshi* 

2. Ijapokuwa sikuja jana nilizipata 
habari* 

3» Unataka kupuihzika sasaj 

U> Una nguo za aina ngapi^ 

5» Ukija leo Jioni tutakwenda 
kuwatazama Jamsia zetu* 

6» Unaweza kusoina na kuandika? 

7« Nikipata pesa za kutosha 

nitamtembelea ndugu yangu. 

8» V7atapewa chakula na maina yao. 

9* Usijiumize kwa kisu hicho. 

io» ^Juma, iwashe taa sasa* 

11, Nina tamaa ya kunywa ponbe 
kidogo* 



12. 



Ndugu yangu, usikate tamaa, 
Mungu atakusaidia. 



13» Sijiii kwa hakika, lakini nadhani 
atakuja leo jioni, 

iU* WakLpata nafasi, watakuja kesho? 



i5» Ningefurahi sana kaina wangekuja 
hapa. 

16* Itafaa sana uiTipe pesa zake* 



You'd better leave now so as not to 
miss the train. 

Although I didn't come yesterday, I 
got the news* 

Do you want to rest nciw% 

How many kinds of clothes do you have? 

If you come this evening, we will go 
visit our relatives* 

Can you read and write? 

If I get enough money, I will visit 
my brother. 

They will be given food by their mother* 

Don't hurt yourself with that knife* 

Juma, li^t the lamp now, 

I feel like drinking a little beer. 

Don't give up, brother, God will help 
you, 

I don't know for sure, but I think he 
will come this evening. 

If they get a chance, will they come 
tomorrow? 

I would be very glad if you would ccane 
here. 

It would be a very good idea for you 
to give him his money. 



2Ul 



UNIT 60 



SWAHILI 



17, Itanilazimu kvenda Dodwna 

kiijRWona rafiki yangu. 

18, Mji wa Nairobi uko kati ya 

>ioshi na Kisianu. 

i9» Vikonibe vyote vimevtmjika. 

20. Vimevurijwa na ntoto, 

21* Ameangusha vikonbe chini • 

22. Je, sahani pia zimevunjika? 

23» Nipatie vyombo vya kupakulia, 

2U» Mtoto hataki maziwa hata kidogo* 

25* Baada ya kufika waliscma 

vitabu. " ^ 

26. Nguo zake zilikuwa chafu sana, 

?7, Tafadhali unisalimie Hasani 
ukiinvrona* 

28» Nasikitika kwa sababu ya hayo 

yametokea, ., ,. ,^^ _. . ?; 

29, Akirudisha vitabu mpe barua hii. 

30, Nisaidia kwa baiske]i yako, 

tafadhali. 

31, Kwa heri, nitarudi baada ya siku 

Chache. ,yv ■■■-;■:, :. --r-^l v^;v ,1 

32, Miguu yangu yauma sana. 
33 • Nitakwenda kuinwona bwana daktari. 
3U. Watoto wangu wawili wanakohoakohoa, 
35, Wapishi hao walikuwa wakila i^'-ama. 



I will have to go to Dodcgna to see 
my friend. 

The city of Nairobi is between Moshi 
and Kisxnnu. 

All the cups are broken. 

They were broken by a child. 

He has dropped the cups. 

Were the plates broken too? 

Get me the dishes. 

The child doesn't want any milk at all. 

After arriving, they read some books. 

His clothes were very dirty. 

Please give my regards to 
Hasani if you see him, 

I am sorry because of what has 
happened. 

When he returns the books, give him 
this letter. 

Please lend me your bicycle. 

Good bye, I'll be back in a few days. 

Ity feet hurt very much. 

I'll go see the doctor. 

Viy two children have light coughs. 

Those cooks were eating meat. 



2U2 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 60 



36, Pengine zitarudishwa nyuinbani 

kesho* 

37. Leo asubuhi nitatengeneza 

motakaa yangu, 

38 » Habari za nyuiribani, wot 9 
hawajambol 

39, Havrajanibo, asante. 

Jto, Mume wangu ameambukizwa ugonjwa 
wa malaria* 



Maybe they (N plu, ) vlll be returoed 

to the house tomorrow. 

This monning I will repair ray car. 



How's everything at heme? Is everyone 
all right? 

They're fine, thank you. 

Ity husband has contracted malaria. 



21*3 



UNIT 61 



SWAHILI 



Unit^6l 
1, Basic Dialogue. I don't feel too well, 

Ahamed 
mwalimu (WA) 



Tafadhali, irwalimu, naumwa, 
(or:..., Bimi ni mgonjwa.) 



Wewe mgonjwa? Waumwa ninit 



teacher 
Please, teacher, I'm ill. 



^§222 



Are you ill? What are you suffering 
f roin'2 



Ahamed 



shir.go (M) 
jino (MA: plu, meno) 
Kichwa, shingo na meno, 

mafua (or: kamasi) 
Pengine una mafua? 

pua (N) 
sawa 
Hapana, kwa sabsbu ninapumua sawa 
sawa. 



Magese 



neck 
tooth 
[Ify] head, neck and teeth. 

cold in the head 
Maybe you have a cold? 



Ahamed 



nose 

like, equal, level 
No, because I'm breathing all right. 



Magese 

tabibu (MA-pers ) doctor 

(or: daktari, mganga) 

Jitayarishe, tutakwenda kwa tabibu. Get yourself readyj we will go to the 

doctor. 



zUh 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 61 



A. WA nouns vs. N-personal nouns, 

watoto Watoto wetu wengi waiunwa 
meno* 

walimu Wallmu wetu wengl waumwa 
mono. 

ndugu Ndugu zetu wongi waumwa 
meno* 

rafiki Rafiki zetu wengi waumwa 
meno* 



Many of our children have tooth- 
aches* 

Many of our teachers have tooth- 
aches* 

Many of our brothers have tooth- 
aches* 

Many of our friends have tooth- 
aches. 



A. -a plus infinitive; personal object prefixes* 



watoto Hakuna ntu wa kuwafunza 
watoto hesabu* 
Wafunze hesabu. 

mtoto Hakuna mtu wa kumfunza 
mtoto hesabu. 
dfunze hesabu. 

niini Hakuna mtu wa kunifunza 
hesabu. 
Nifunze hesabu. 



There is no one to teach the 
children arithmetic* 
Teach them arithmetic* 

There is no one to teach the child 
arithmetic* 
Teach hjijm arithmetic* 

There is no one to teach me 
arithmetic* 
Teach me arithmetic* 



B* Concord: Noun in first sentence, object prefix in second; adjective 
vs* related causative verb* 



nguo Nguo si tayari* 

Nitazitayarisha * 

raimea Mimea si tayari* 
Nitaitayarisha. 

mayai Mayai si tayari* 

Nit ayat ayari sha * 



The dresses aren't ready* 
I will get them ready* 

The plants aren't ready* 
I trill get them ready* 

The eggs aren't ready* 
I will get them ready* 



ak5 



UNIT 61 



SWAHILI 



The porridge isn't ready. 
I will get it ready. 



uji Uji si tayari. 

Ni tautayarisha • 

mirai Mind, si tayari. 

Nita j itayarisha . 

C, Object prefixes, including the reflexive -^i-. 



I am not ready. 
I will get ready. 



watoto Vatoto ni wagon jwa. 

»r .'- Baba hawezi kuwasaddia. 

Hamisi Hamisi ni i^onjwa. 

Baba hawezi kumsaidia. 

ng'OBibe Ng'ombe ni Agonjwa, 

Baba hawezi lounsaidia. 

baba Baba ni i&gonjwa, ._..... .^' 

Hawezi kujisaidia. ,., 

D. Verb phrases with -wa, 

ninyi Mlikuwa nikiuiiiwa shingo^ 

Hapana, hatukuwa tukiuinwa 

shingo. 

Tulikuwa tukiumwa kichwa. 

W9we Ulikuwa ukLumwa shingo^ 

Hapana, sikuwa nikiuinwa 
shingo. . - H I. ^ , 
Nilikuwa nikiumwa kichwa. 



The children are sick. 
Father can't help them. 

Hamisi is sick. 

Father can't help him. 

The cow is sick. 

Father can't help it. 

Father is sick. 

He can't help himself. 

Did you have stiff neckst 
No, we didn't have stiff necks. 

We had headaches. 

Did you have a stiff neck? 

Ho, I didn't have a stiff neck. 

I had a headache. 



rafiki yako 



rafiki zako 



;> 'i ^<i»^ •.'! 



2i»6 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 62 



Je uliumial 



Ucit_62 
i« Basic Dialogue, You've hurt your fingerl 

Sangai 
kidole (VI) finger 

damu (N) blood 

Kidole chako chatoka dsumil There is blood coming frcan your 

fingerl ('your finger is coning- 
froin blood' ) 
Are you hurt? 
Mutim 

to bruise, wound 
door 

Ndiyo, bwana, nilijeruhiwa na mlango. Yes, I was bruised by a door, 

Sangai 
-vimba swell 

Hata kimevimba sana* It is even swollen quite a bit* 



usaha (U) 
Ndiyo, jana kilitoka usaha kidogo* 



-jeruhi 
mlango (MI) 



isiaivnniB 



Ashipa (MI) 



Natumaini mishlpa salania. 



pus 
Yes, yesterday a little pus came out 
[of it] ('out of it a little' )• 
Sangai 

vein, artery (or any thin, 
elongated tissue, such as a 
nerve or tendon) 
I hope the blood vessels £ire all right* 



aU7 



UNIT 62 



SWAHILI 



-pona 
Kitapona tu, asante* 



Mutisja 



to recover from illness or injury 
Oh, it will get better, thanks. 



Notes 
A, Grammatical subject vs. logical subject • 

Kidole chake kilitoka damu. j^ 

T^ -1 -^ , .-o-i • 1 1 Some blood came out of his finger. 
Damu ilitoka kxdoleni mwake^ 

These two sentences are synonymous. Note that the verb stem remains the 
same. The subject prefix agrees with whichever noun precedes it. 



A, Ml-class with numbers a - 12. 



2 Jumba hilo lina milango miwili. 

3 Jumba hilo lina milango mitatu. 
U < 6 7 8 9 

11 Juniba hilo lina milango kumi 
M^ na moja, 

ia Jxunba hilo lina milsmgo kumi 
na miwili. 

B, Vl-class with numbers 1 - io» 

1 Nimejeruhiwa kidole kimoja, 

2 Nimejeruhiwa vidole viwili, 
k Nimejeruhiwa vidole vinAe. 
5 Nimejeruhiwa vidole vitano. 
7 Nimejeruhiwa vidole saba. 



That large building has two doors. 

That large building has three doors. 

10 

That large building has eleven 
doors. 

That large building has twelve 
doors. 

I am hurt on one finger. 
I am hurt on two fingers. 
I am huirt on four fingers. 
I am hurt on five fingers. 
I am hurt on seven fingers. 



2U8 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 62 



9 
10 



C. 



daniu 

mishipa 

n^guu 

pua 

3« 

A, 
kidole 

mguu 

pua 

klchwa 

shingo 

U* The 
ly. He 



Nimejeruhiwa vidole tisa, 

Nimejeruhiwa vidole kund.. 

Graimnatical subject >rt>ich is 

Kidole chake kinatoka usaha 
kidogo. 

Kidole chake kinatoka 
damu kidogo. 

Mishipa yake inatoka 
daimi kidogo* 

Kguu wake unatoka damu 
kidogo* 

Pua yake inatoka daimi 
kidogo* 



I am hurt on nine fingers. 

I am hurt on ten fingers* 

different from logical subject. 

His finger is discharging a little 
pus. 

His finger is bleeding a little. 

His blood vessels are bleeding a 
little. 

His foot is bleeding a little. 
His nose is bleeding a little.. 



Interchange of grammatical and logical subjects with -toka. 



Kidole chake kilitoka daoiu, 
Damu ilitoka kidoleni mwake. 

Kguu wake ulitoka damu. 
Damu ilitoka mguuni mwake. 

Pua yake ilitoka damu. 
Damu ilitoka puani mwake. 

Klchwa chake kilitoka damu. 
Damu Ilitoka kichwani m>fake. 

Shingo lake lilitoka dama, 
Damu ilitoka shingoni mwake • 



His finger bled. 
His finger bled. 

His foot bled. 
His foot bled. 

His nose bled. 
His nose bled. 

His head bled. 
His head bled. 

His neck bled. 
His neck bled. 



members of A's family have been having all kinds of misfortunes recent- 
tells B about then. 6 inquires about details and expresses synrpathy. 



8U9 



UNIT 63 



SWAHILI 



Unities 
i« Basic Dialogue. Late to class* 

Ahamed 
-chelewa to be late 

Nasikitika, nijnechelewa. I'm sorry, I'm late» 

Magese 
neno word 

Si neno* Tumeanza sasa hivi* No matter. We've Just now begxm* 

-kaa kitako , to sit down 

Tafadhali nenda ukakae kitako. Please go sit down. 

uJturasa (U) (plu. in N class) page 

Tazaneni xikurasa wa kunl na mbill* Look at page 12. 



-ongea 
-funika 
kitabu (VI) 
Sasa funikeni vitabu vyenu tuongee, 



to converse 
to close 
book 
Now close your books, and we will 
converse* 



Notes 



A. Plural imperative* 

Zltayarishe sasa hivil 

2titayarlsheni sasa hivil 

Njoo nyiimbanii 
Njooni nyumbanii 



Get them ready right now* 
(said to one person) 

Get them ready right now. 

(said to more than one person) 

Come to the house, (cffie person) 
Ccane to the house, (more than cxae) 



aso 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 63 



The plTiral imperative in Swahili ends with Hii« The preceding vowel is 
-e for those verbs whose singular imperative ends in -a, 

B. Kitako. 

-kaa kitako is commonly used in Zanzibar and Tanganyika, but kitako is 
regarded as redundant and somewhat vulgar on the Kenya coast. 

2. 



Why were you late [to come] to class2 
Vhy were you late to come to church? 



A, -chelewa plus infinitive, 

darasa Kwa nini ulichelewa kuja 
darasani? 

kanisa Kwa nini tilichelewa kuja 
kanisanij 
shule chakula 

B, Negative imperative, 

kurudi Usichelewe kurudi nyumbanij Don't be late in returning home, 
kufanya Usichelewe kufanya kazi yako. Don't be late in doing your work. 



kutayarisha 

Usichelewe kutayarisha 

chakula, 

kuwasha Usichelewe kuwasha taa, 

kuletea Usichelewe kutuletea kahawa, 

kuamkia Usichelewe kuwaamkia wazee. 



Don't be late iji preparing food. 

Don't be late in lighting the lamp. 
Don't be late in bringing us coffee. 
Don't be late in welcoming the old 



This book has only one page. 



C, N-class with numbers, 

Kitabu hUd. ktna ttkurasa 
BDBOja tm, 

2 Kitabu hiki klna kurasa mbill. This book has two pages, 

3 Kitabu hiki fctna kurasa tatu. This book has three pages, 
11 Kitabu hiki kina kurasa kumi This book has eleven pages, 

na moja. 



251 



UNIT 63 



SWAHILI 



12 Kitabu hiki kina kurasa kumi 

na mblli. 

13 Kitabu hiki kina kurasa kumi 

na tatu* 

21 Kitabu hiki kina kurasa 

ishirini na moja, 

22 Kitabu hiki kina kurasa 

ishirini na inbili, 

23 Kitabu hiki kina kurasa 

ishirini na tatu* 



This book has twelve pages. 



This book has thirteen pages. 



This book has twenty-one pages. 



This book has twenty-two pages. 



This book has twenty-three pages, 



J. 



A, Negative -Ja- tense vs. plural imperative. 

kutayarisha Bado hamjawatayarisha Haven't you got the children ready 
watoto? yet 2 

Watayarisheni sasa hivij Get them ready right now. 



kumaliza 



kuenda 

kuja 

kupa 

kuanza 



Bado hamjamaliza kufanya 
kazi yenu? 
Malizeni sasa hivil 

Bado haAjaenda nyunibani? 
Nendeni sasa hivil 

Bado hamjaja hapa? -,' .:;:-; 
Njooni sasa hivii 

Bado hamjawapa watoto 
vitabu? 
Wapeni sasa hivil 

Bado haxjaanza kujifunzal 
Anzeni sasa hivil 



Haven't you finished doing your 
work yet? 
Finish it right away. 

Haven't you gone heme yet? 
Go right away. 

Haven't you coine here yet? 
Come right away. 

Haven't you given the children 
books yet? 
Give [thera to] them right away. 

Haven't you started learning yet? 
Start right away. 



252 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 63 



ku^jifunza Bado hamjajifunza kusomal 
Jif'iTi'.eni sasa hivil 

B, Imperatives: singvilar vs. plural, 

Irupata Pata taa» 

Pateni taa, 

kuleta Lete majl. 

Leteni maji, 

kiitengeneza Tengeneza kahawa» 

Tengenezeni kahawa* 

kula Kula ndiai hizi, 

Kuleni ndizi hizi, 

kuenda Nenda shuleni. 

Nendeni shuleni, 

kunj'wa K\mj'wa chai hii, 

Kuryweni chai hii, 

kuona Oca farasi. 

Oneni farasi. 



Haven't you learned hew to read yet? 
Learn right away. 

Get the lamp, (you sing, ) 
Get the lamp, (you pi,) 

Bring sane water. 
Bring sane water, 

Ifeke sane coffee, 
KfeJte sane coffee. 

Eat these bananas. 
Eat these bananas. 

Go to school. 
Go to school. 

Drink this tea. 
Drink this tea. 

Look at the horse. 
Look at the horse. 



0, Imperatives: affirmative vs, negative. 



kiLLeta Lete vitabu vingine, 
Usivilete vyote, 

kuuza Uza vitabu vingine, 
Usi'^duze vyote, 

kununua Nunua vitabu vingine, 
Usivinunue vyote, 

kusafisha Safisha vitabu vingine, 
Usivisafishe vyote, 

kusona Soma vitabu vingine, 
Usivisome vyote. 



Bring some of the books. 
Don't bring them all. 

Sell sane books. 

Don't sell them all. 

Buy sane books. 

Don't buy them, all. 

Clean some of the books. 
Don't clean them all. 

Read some of the books. 
Don't read them all. 



253 



UNIT 6U 



SWAHILI 



1* Basic Dialogue. Classrocan Routine, 

Magese 
ubao (U) blackboard 

Tafadhali, Bwana Aramian, nenda , ^.. Mr, Aramian, please go to the black- 
ubaoni ukaandxke roaneno haya, •' boazxi and write these words. 



Bwana Butler, tafadhali anza 

kuscma. 
Basil 

maana (KA) 
Unajvia maana ya neno 'alasiri'l 



ffeigese 

Mr, Butler, please begin to read. 

That's enough. 

meaning 
Do you know the meaning of the word 
'alasiri'? 



Magese ' •• 

to open 

Now let's open [our] books and read 

Lesson Nine. 

a mistake 

Don't make mistakes as you read I 

('don't make mistakes you-reading' ) 

Notes 

A. The prefix -ka- with subjunctives. 

Funua kitabu usome Somo la Nane. Open [your] book and read Lesson 

Eight* 



-funua 
Sasa tufunue vitabu tusone Somo la 

kosa (MA) , , .,^ 

Msifanye makosa mkiscana, ' f-' ' " 



z5k 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 6U 



Nenda ubaonl ukaandlke maneno haya« Go to the board and write these 

words* 

In a ccjiimand or request involving two verbs, the seccaid is in the sub- 
JTiDctive. If the first verb involves going sranewhere, the prefix -ka- is used 
after the subject prefix of the second verb. 



2* 

A. 
kuscina 
kijisema 
kula 
kufanya 

kupanda 



Word order with linij -anza plus infinitive. 



Juma alianza lini kusoma^ 

Juma aljanza lini kusenat 

Juma alianza lini kula? 

Juma alianza lini Icufanya 
kazi? 

Juma alianza lini kupanda 
mahindi? 



When did Juma begin reading! 

When did Juma begin speaking! 

When did Jviina begin eating! 

When did Juma begin working! 

When did Juma begin raising com! 



B. Ka-tense with the second of two verbs* 
kuandika 



kusoma 

kueleza 

kusema 

C. 
vitabu 

vitu 



Nenda ubaoni ukaandike 
maneno haya* 

Nenda ubaoni ukasome 
maneno haya* 

Nenda ubaoni ukaeleze maana 
ya maneno haya* 

Nenda ubaoni \ikaseme 
maneno haya* 

Nenda nyunibani ukalete 
vitabu vyako vyote* 

Nenda nyumbani ukalete 
vitu vyako vyote* 



Go to the board and write these words* 

Go to the board and read these words* 

Go to the board and explain the 
meaning of these words* 

Go to the board and speak ('pronounce*) 
these words* 

Go hcgiie and bring all yanxr books* 
Go hcane and bring all your things* 



255 



UNIT 6U 



SWAHILI 



nguo Nenda nyurabani ukalete 
nguo zako zote. 

senti Nenda nyumbani ukalate 
senti zako zote. 

machungwa Nenda nyuinbani ukalete 
machungwa yako yote. 

masomo Nenda nyuinbani ukalate 
masomo yako yote. 



Go home and bring all your clothes. 

Go home and bring all your small 
change • 

Go hOTie and bring all your oranges. 
Go home and bring all your lessons. 



watoto Nenda nyumbani ukawalete Go home and bring all your children, 
watoto wciko wote. 



wagonjwa Kenda nyumbani ukawalete 
-. wagonjwa wake wote, 

D. 

kutazama Nendeni sokoni mkatazame 
nazi. 

kununua Nendeni sokoni mkanunue 
•^' '" ■ nazi. 

kuleta Nendeni sokoni j^alete 
nazi* 

kutafuta Nendeni sokoni nkatafute 
nazi. 



Go home and bring all your sick 
persons • 

Go to the market and see if there 
a-Te any coconuts. 

Go to the market and buy coconuts* 

Go to the market and bring coconuts. 

Go to the market and look for 
coconuts • 



■T '■ ■ -,-,;t.- 



3* 



A, Subjunctive without -ka- vs. subjunctive with -ka- after -enda. 



kusaidia Njoo umsaidie mwalimu. Ccwie and help the teacher, 

Nenda ukamsaidie mwalimu. Go and help the teacher, 

kuandika Njoo ubacmi uandike maneno Cone to the board and write these 

haya, words, 

Nenda ubaoni ukaadike Go to the board and write these 

maneno haya, words. 



256 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 6U 



kahawa Njoo jikoni utengeneze 
kahawa . 

Nenda jikoni ukatengeneze 
kahawa. 

kuogelea Njoo pwani yogelee, 

Nenda pwani ukaogelee, 

B, Negative ^a-tense vs. subjunctive, 

kijondoka Hawajaondoka shuleni. 

Sasa wafunike vitabu, 
waondok*? shioleni, 

kusaidia Hawajatusaidia. 

Sasa wafunike vitabu ,- 
watusaidie. 



Come into the kitchen and make 
coffee. 

Go into the kitchen and iriake 
coffee. 

Coma to the beach and swim. 
Go to the beach and swim. 



kula Hawajala chakul?. 

Sasa wafunike vitabu, 
wale* 

kuenda Hawajaenda n^'umbani. 

Sasa wafunike vitabu, 
waende . 



Tlriey haven't yet left the school. 
No?'? let them close the books, 
and leave the school. 

They haven't yet helped us. 
Now let thein close the books, 
and help us. 

Tliey haven't eaten food yet. 
Now let them close the books, 
and eat. 

They haven't gone home yet. 
Now let thern close the books, 
and go. 



Conversation Starters 

1. Describe a typical class hour. 

2. Fron this point on, all class sessions should be conducted entirely 
in Swahili. Add to the content of Units i - 6U whatever words and phrases 
are necessary to make this possible. 



257 



UNIT 65 



SWAHILI 



Unit_65 
i« Basic Dialogue, A letter from a student abroad. 

Asha 
dada (N-pers ) sister 

Dada yako anafanya kasi ganil What work is your sister doing? 
■•'••«-■■ "■ , % ■'■ Maina 



-shinda 
rctihani (M) 
Ulaya 
i^aka jana aid shinda mtihani wa 
juu akaenda Ulaya kusoma. 



Asha 



-safiri 
Alisafirije? 



-ruka 

ndege (N), ndege Ulaya 
Aliruka kwa ndege Ulaya, 
juzi '• ■''■ 
-tuma 
ya kwamba 
chuo (VI) 






Maina 



'-...'iri■J^ 



to be first, win 

a school examination 

Europe 
Last year she passed the Higher 
Examination and went to Europe to 
study, 

to travel 
How did she travel? 

to fly 

bird, airplane ('European bii^' ) 
She flew by plane, 

day before yesterday 
to send 
that • • , 
school 



258 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 65 



J\xz± alitujna barua kwa mama akasema Recently she sent a letter to Mother 
ya kwaiaba yuko katika Chuo cha and said that she is in the 
London, University of London, 

Asha 
Asante sana. Kwa heri. Thanks veiy much. Good bye. 

Notes 

A. The prefix -ka- with indicatives, 

Alitiiletea barua akasema.,. He sent us a letter saying 

(•and said' ),., 
The prefix -ka- which was discussed in Unit 6U is used also with indica- 
tive verb forms, Ashton states (p. 133) 'The prefix -ka- may occur in the 
ladicative Mood, also in the Subjunctive, Wherever it occurs, it expresses an 
action or state which follows another action. Therefore its time implication 
is consecutive to the time expressed in the preceding verb,' 

B, -tuma and -geleka, 

Juma alituma barua, Juma sent a letter, 

-tuma is often used in this way nowadays but is by some speakers considered 
incorrect. A more standard word in this context is -^eleka, -tuma, strictly 
speaking, applies only to persons. 



2 



, 



A, Kwa plus modes of transportation, 

ndege Dada yangu alikwenda Dar liy sister went to Dar es Salaam 
es Salaam kwa ndege, by plane, 

gari la Dada yangu alikwenda Dar Jty sister went to Dar es Salaam 
moshi „ T 

es Salaam kwa gari. la by train, 

moshi, 
motokaa miguu 



859 



UNIT 65 



SWAHILI 



B» Indirect ct? tenants. 

kuwa na AlitiJ.etea barua akasema 
ya kwamba ana vitabn 
vingi, 

kuhitaji Alituletea barua akasema 
ya kwamba anahitaji 
vitabu vingi. 



She sent us a letter saying that she 
has many books. 

She sent us a letter saying that she 
needs many books* 



kusosna kununua kupoteza 

C, A-tensej -tumaini plus infinitive. 



mimi Nat'jr.aini kushinda mtihani 
wa Juu na kuenda Ulaya, 

sisi Twatuiraini kushinda 

mtihani wa juu na kuenda 
llaya. 



I hope to pass the Higher Examination, 
and go to Europe, 

We hope to pass the Higher Examination, 
and go to Europe, 



Mariamu ndugu yangu 
2, halafu plus ka- tense. 



ndugu zangu 



kwenda Mwaka jana nilishinda 

mtihani wa juu, halafu 
nikaenda Ulaya, 

kupata Mwaka jana nilishinda 

mtihani wa juu, halafu 
nikapata kazi, 

kurudi Mwaka jana nilishinda 

mtihani wa juu, halafu 
nikarudi nyumbani, 

kuordelea Mwaka jana ni3ishirida 

mtihani wa juu, halafu 
nikaendelea kuscjna. 



Last year I passed the Higher 

Examination, then I went to Europe, 

Last year I passed the Higher 
ExarrJ nation, then I got a Job, 

Last year I passed the Higher 

Examination, then I returned home. 

Last year I pavSBed the Higjier 
Examination, then I continued 
studying. 



260 



BASIC GOUESE 



UNIT 65 



A. Kulilco 



ndege 



Itoapenda kusaflrl kwa 
ndege au kwa gari la 
moshtl 

Ninapenda kusafirl kwa 
ndege kuliko kwa gari 
la moshl* 



Do you like to travel by plane, or by 
train? 

I prefer traveling by plane to 
traveling by train. 



nichezo 



ndizi 



Unapenda laichezo au mascsno? Do you like playing, or studyingS 
Ninapenda niasomo kuliko 1 prefer studying to playing, 
michezo* 

Unapenda ndizi mbichi au 
nibivul 

Ninapenda nbivu k\iliko 
oibichi. 



Do you like green banana% or ripe 
ones^ 
I prefer ripe to green ones. 



nazi Unapenda nazi, au mananasi? Do you like coconuts, or pineapples} 
Ninapenda nazi kuliko I prefer coconuts to pineapples, 
mananasi* 

B« A-tense: affirmative vs. negative* 



kusafirl 



kuruka 
kwa ndege 



Wasafiri loara nyingi? 
Hapana, sisafirl mara 
nylngi, nasafiri mara 
chache tu. 

Waruka kwa ndege mara 
nylngl2 

Hapana, slrukl kwa ndege 
inara nylngi, naruka mara 
chache tu» 



Do you travel often2 

No, I do not travel often, 
I travel only a little. 

Do you fly often? 

No, I do not fly often, I fly only 
a Uttle. 



s6i 



UNIT 65 



SWAHILI 



kusona Wasooia mara ^ylngi} 

Hapana, sis(»nl mara 
i^tyingi, nasoma mara 
chachd tu* 



Do you read often? 

NOf I do not i^ad often, I read 
only a little. 



kunu- Wanung'unika mara nyingi? Do you grumble often? 

* Hapana, sinung'uniki No, I do not grumble often, I 

mara z^ngi, nanung'onika grumble only a little* 
mara chache tu* 



- f -a : 



'.■:!■ :. ■ 



« -T^.'^ 



•i ■ /.*> 



^.^ ; . , A i. 



:M •:,■ -v t ' <;t 



LKV ;:'■ 



. :; ^- ,-M 



862 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 66 



Unit_66 
i« Basic Dialogue • Vy parents are going to night school* 

Maina 
Wazazi wako wanajua kusooia na Do your parents knov how to read and 
kuandikal Krite? 

Juna 
NdiyOj wanajua kusoma kidogo tu» Yes, they know how to read Just a 

Uttle. 
Maina 
Na kuandika Je2 And what about writing? 

Juma 
-hudhuria to attend 

Wamsanza ktihudhuria snasomo ja jioni* They've begun to attend night school* 

mna 
Wanafunzwa masomo gani2 What subjects are they being taught? 

Junta 
-anibia to tell 

Walinianibia wanajifvmza hesabu, na They told me they are learning 
kuandika Kiswahili na Kiingereza. arithmetic, and to write Swahili 

and English* 
Maina 
aina kind, sort 

Hesabu za aina gani? VAiat kind of arithmetic? 



263 



UNIT 66 



SWAHILI 



Juina 



-Jufillsha 
-toa 
Za kujunlisha na kutoa* 



to add 

to take away 

Addition and subtraction. 



A. Alna* 

matunda Mneleta matunda ya alna 
gani? 

vltabu ttasleta vitabu vya aina 
gani? 



vyakula nguo 
B. -hudhiiria, 
Biasomo 



nyama 



Twapenda kuhudhurla masomo 
ya jioni. 



What sort of fruit have you brou^t? 
What sort of books have you brought? 



We like to attend the evening 
classes* 



shule 
kanisa 



Twapenda kuhudhuria shuleni. We like to attend the school* 
Twapenda kuhudhuria kanisani. We like to attend the church. 



nrLchezo Twapenda kuhudhuria michezo We like to attend the horse races* 
ya farasi* 



A. -aoibia plus indirect statement* 
kuanza Bwana Sangai alianza lini 



When did He, Sangai start the evening 
classes? 
He told me that he began recently* 



inas(»no ya Jioni? . ^ 
Aliniaoibia ya kwaniba 
alianza Juzi* 

kuhitimu Bwana Sauigai alihitimu lini When did Mr. Sangai complete the 
masomo ya jioni? 
Aliniambia ya kwaniba 
alihitimu Juzi* 



evening classes? 

He told me that he completed them 

recently* 



26U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 66 



Icuchelewa Bwana Sangai allchelewa 
linl nasono ya jlonil 
Aliniainbla ya kwanba 
allchelewa juzl. 

U» Extra vocabulazy. 

matuisda Sdconl kuna matunda 

mballnibaliy kama vile 
Biachungway maenibey na 
kadhalika* 

nguo Madukanl kuna nguo 

mbalimballf kama vile 
mashatif kanzu, suruall, 
na kadhallka* 

vlnywajl Hobeltni kunauzwa vlnywa;)! 

nbalimbali, kama vile chai, 
kahawa, pombef na 
kadhalika* 

makabila Nchini Tanganyika nna watu 
va makabila mballmbali, 
kama vile Wanyamwezl, 
Wabondeiy Wazaramo, na 
kadhallka* 

niboga Sokoni kuna mboga mballmbali, 
kama vile mchicha, k^ijij 
na kadhalika. 



Vlhen did iic, Sangai conte late for 
the evening classes 2 
He told me that he came late 
recently* 



At the market there are various 
fruits such as oranges, mangoes 
and so forth* 

At the shops there are various 
kinds of clothing such as shirts* 
kanzus, trousers and so forth. 

At the hotel there are sold various 
beverages such as tea, coffee, 
beer and so forth* 

In Tanganyika there are people of 
different tribes such as the 
%amHezi, Bcndei, Zaramo and so 
foirth* 

At the market there are various 
vegetables such as Achicha, 
cabbages and so forth* 



Conversation Starters 
1* Describe your own high school or college* Where was it located? How 
did you get to it2 What did you study? Use the dictionazy to add specialized 
vocabulary for the names of the various academic disciplines* 

s65 



UNIT 66 SWAHILI 



2. Tell about a letter which you have sent or received recently* 



^-r.ni? ■-. Ai -'■■f 



i .'.-IT 



<£■: 



■•I.J.' '•• 



--.'i 



r::ii 



■i- •■,...■.■? 






266 



.\S 



-,|».0' .. .. 



^,'. ' 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 67 



Unit_67 
i« Basic Dialogue* What is it like at night school} 

^kina 
-^Ddesha to run, cause to go, drive [a car] 

Nani anayeendesha shule hizi za Who [is it] that is ruiming these 
Jioni? night schools? 

Juma 
Bsaada (HI) assistance 

-tolewa to be put forward, be produced, 

be taken away 
Naflkiri sehemu ya msaada hutolewa I think a part of the support is 
na Serikali* supplied by the government* 

Maina 
-kubali to accept 

Ni watu wa unri gani wanaokubaliwat Vlhat age people are accepted? ('It 

is people of what age who are 
accepted?' ) 
Junta 

necessity; what is urgent 
I don't think the age is important* 
Maina 

to make known, inform, cause 
to know 
0.K*, I'm going to tell a lot of 
people* 
S67 



hoja (N) 
Sidhani uinri ni hoja* 

-Julisha 

Basi, nitawajulisha wengi* 



UNIT 67 SWAHILI 



(•I'm going to cause many people to 
know.') 
Juma 
Hata ada yenyewe nl ndogo sana. And besides > the fees themselves are 

very low, 
Haina 
Kwell? Asantel Kwa heril ReallyS Thanks 1 Good-bye I 

Notes 
A* Relative counterparts of the na- and li-tenses* 

Anaendesha shule* He runs the school* 

• ••irtio runs the school. •• 

• ••anayeendesha shule.** u j. xu 1. 1 

^ he who runs the school. •• 

Wanakubaliwa, . ^ They are accepted. 

...wanaokubaliwa... ...trtio are accepted*. • 

The verbs in the two cosiplete sentences above are 'indicative' forms. 
An 'indicative' form is one that can sexve as the only verb in a complete 
statement. 

The verbs in the second and fourth examples are 'relative' counterparts 
of the indicative forms. In general, thei^ is a relative counterpart for any 
indicative verb form in Swahili. These are generally translated into English 
by relative clauses beginning with ^o or which. 

For the na and 11 tenses, the relative forms are like the indicative 
forms except for the presence of a relative affix, which occupies a slot 
between the tense prefix and the object prefix. 

The relative affixes are identical In form with the set of suffixes 
found in Unit 16, Note C» 



268 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 67 



A* Relatives, li-tense« 
Inikuballwa Mtu alijekubaliwa jana 



kuja 



kvilii)a 



kutuinwa. 



B. 



kuJa 



The person who was accepfted yesterday 
will begin tomorrow. 

The person 1^0 came yesterday will 
begin tomorrow* 

The person who paid fees yesterday 
will begin tomorrow* 

The person who was sent yesterday 
will begin tomorrow* 
Relatives, li-tense, monosyllabic stem* 

The porters who cane in the morning 
have gone home* 



ataanza kesho* 

Mtu aliyekuja Jana ataanza 
kesho* 

Mtu aliyelipa ada jana 
ataanza kesho* 

Mtu aliyeturawa jana 
ataanza kesho* 



kuanza 



Wapagazi waliokuja 
asubuhi wamekwenda 
nyumbani* 

Wapagazi walioanza 
asubuhi wamekwenda 
nyunibani* 

kukubaliwa Wapagazi waliokubaliwa 
asubuhi wamekwenda 
nyuBdbani* 

kutumwa Wapagazi waliotunwa 
asubuhi wamekwenda 
nyumbani* 



The porters \^o began in the morning 
have gone hcsie* 

The porters who were accepted in the 
morning have gone home* 

The porters idio were sent in the 
morning have gone hCHne* 



C* Relatives, li-tense, stative verb stem* 
vikomba Vikonbe vilivyovunjika The broken cups are on the table* 



viko mezani* 

kikonbe Kikombe kilichovunjika 
kiko mezani* 



The broken cup is on the table* 



269 



UNIT 67 



SWAHILI 



visahani Visahani vilivyovunjika 
viko mezarii* 

kisahanl Klsahani killchoTunJlka 

kiko mezanl* 

visu Visu vilivyowinjlka viko 

mezani* 

kisu Kisu kllichovunjika kiko 

inszaiil* 

sahani Sahani iliyovunjlka iko 
(sg») 



sahani Sahani zote zilizovunjika 
^° ® aiko snazani, 

kalanu Kalasiu iliyovunjika iko 
^®8*^ mezani, 

kalanrn Kalanu zote zilizovunjika 
® ziko mezani. 

D. Relatives, na- tense* 

upishi Watu wanaofanya kazi ya 
upishi vfaitwa vapishi* 

TikxillBsa Watu wanaofanya kazi ya 

Tikulima waitvra wakulijna* 

iikarani Watu wanaofanya kazi ya 

ukarani waitwa makarani* 

kufunza Watu wanaofanya kazi ya 
kufimza waitwa waalijnu* 



The broken saucers are on the table* 

The broken saucer is on the table* 

The broken knives are on the table* 

The broken knife is cm the table* 

The broken plate is on the table* 

All the broken plates are on the 
table* 

The broken pen is on the table* 

All the broken pens are on the table » 



People who do cooking are called 
cooks* 

People vrtio do farming are called 
farmers* 

People who do clerical work are 
called clerks* 

People who do teaching are called 
teachers* 



A, Li-tense: indicative vs. relative* 

vikcBibe Vikranbe vipi viliviinjika? Which cups got broken? 

Vilivyovtinjika viko jikoni* The broken ones are in the kitchen. 

270 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 67 



kikcnbe Kikombe kipi kilivxiiiJlkaS 

Kilichcminjika kiko Jikoni, 



vlsu 



kisu 



sahanl 
(sg.) 

sahani 
(pl.) 



Visu vipi villvunjika? 

Vilivyovtmjika viko jikonl* 

Kisu kipi kili-mnjika? 

KHichowmjika kiko jikoni* 

Sahani ipi ilivunjikal 
Iliyovunjika iko jikoci, 

Sahani zipi zllivunJikaS 
Zilizovunjika ziko Jikoni. 



Which cup got broken? The broken one 
is in the kitchen* 

Which knives got broken? The brcdcen 
ones are in the kitchen* 

Which knife got broken? The broken 
one is in the kitchen* 

Which plate got broken? The broken 
aae is in the kitchen* 

Which plates got broken^ The broken 
ones are in the kitchen* 



B* Relative, na~tense, in question and answer* 
kuendesha Nani anayeendesha sh\ile hii? Who runs this school? 



Mtu anayeendesha shule 
hii anaitwa 6w* Hasani* 

kufunza Nani anayefunza hesabu 
shuleni humu? 
Mwalimu anayefunza hesabu 
shuleni humu anaitwa 
Bw* Abdallah. 
kutenge- Nani anayeweza kutengeneza 
" * kalamu yangu? 

Fundi anayeweza kutengeneza 
kalanm jako anaitwa 
Bw* Juma* 



The person who runs this school is 
Mr* Hasani* 

Who teaches aidthnetic in this school? 

The teacher 1^0 teaches arithmetic 
in this school is called Mr* Abdallah* 

Who can repair my pen? 

The repairman who can repair your 
pen is called Mr, Jiana* 



271 



UNIT 68 



SWAHILI 



Unit_68 
1* Basic Dialogue* Vlhat about the fees? 

Maim 
nwezi (MI) 
Je, ni kiasi gani kwa Mwezi? 



month 
How much is it a month, by the wayl 



Juna 



shilingi (N) 
Ni kama shilingi tano tu» 

haki (N) 
Haki? (or: Kweli?) 

Kdiyol ' 

Wanahitaji vitabu vipil 

bure ' 



Kaina 



shilling 
It's only about 5 shillings, 

justice 
Is that right! 



Jvuna 
Haina 

Jxna& 

<'iif 



Yes I 



Which books do they need! 



fen* nothing 

Ukiisha lipa ada, vitabu utavipata Once you have paid the fee, you get 
bure* the books firee* 

Maina 
hamu (N) desire, longing 

Jamaa. Walio na hamu ya elimu, Brotherl Those who have a desire for 
sasa wanayo nafasi* education, now [they] have the 

opportunity* 



272 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 68 



Jiuna 



Tenal 



Right, ('[you can say that] againl') 



Notes 

A* Relative co\uite]*parts of forms with the stem Hsia* 

Wana vitabu. They have books* 

^•••who have books* •• 
•••wallo na vitabu*.* 



• ••aliye zia njaa... 



they %rtio have books. «• 
•••who is hungry^.* 
he who is hungry^** 



The present relative affiroiative forms corresponding to past ^i^^kuwa^ 
waliokuwa are fomted on a special stem -li-, to which we may assign the 
English translation 'be'* The relative affix is placed after this stem, not 
before it. Note that this stem is identical in sound with the prefix for the 
li-tense, but for practical purposes the two elements should be regarded as 
distinct* 



2* 



A^ Relative counterparts of forms with the stem -oa* 



vitabu 



The children 1^0 have books should go 
home* 



kalamu 



Watoto walio na vitabu 
waende nyuinbani* 

Watoto walio na kalamu 
waende nyunibani* 

chakula Watoto walio na chakula 
waende nyumbani* 

rjaa Watoto walio na njaa 
waende i^nimbani* 

B. Relative counterparts of indicatives in -wa na -, (past tense)* 

vitabu Watoto walidcuwa na vitabu The children who had books went heme* 
' walikwenda nyumbani* 



The children who have pens should go 
home* 

The children idio have food should go 
home* 

The children vho are hungry should go 



273 



UNIT 68 



SWAHILI 



kalama 



chakula 



njt 



C. 



dava 
bona 
mafua 
malaria 

dawa 
homa 
mafua 
malaria 

3* 

A. 
kichwa 



Watoto waliokuwa na kalaani The children who had pens went hone* 
walikwenda CQnunbani* 

Watoto waliokuwa na chakola The children >dio had food vent home* 
walikwenda nyumbani. 

Watoto waliokuwa na njaa The children who were hungry went 

walikwenda nyumbani* hone* 



Mgonjwa aliye na dawa akae 
hospitali* 

flgODJva. aliye na hona akae 
hospitali. 

Mgonjva aliye na mafua akae 
hospitali* 

I^onjwa aliye na malaria 
akae hospitali* 



Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na dawa 
alikaa hospitali* 

Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na hone 
alikaa hospitali* 



Have the patient who has medicine 
stay in the hospital* 

Have the patient vrtio has a fever 
stay in the hospital* 

Have the patient vho has a chest 
complaint stay in the hospital* 

Have the patient who has malaria 
stay in the hospital* 



The patient who had medicine stayed 
in the hospital* 

The patient who had a fever stayed 
in the hospital* 



Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na mafua The patient who had a chest complaint 
aliicaa hospitali* stayed in the hospital* 

Mgonjwa aliyekuwa na malaria The patient who had malaida stayed 
alikaa hospitali* in the hospital* 



^-tense, indicative ys* relative* 

Wagonjwa wengine wanaunwa Some patients have headaches* 
kichwa* 
Wanaoumwa kichwa waje humu* Have those who have headaches come in* 



27k 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 68 



shingo Wagcxijva wengine uanaumwa Some patients have stiff necks* 
shingo* 

Wanaoumwa shingo waje huaiu* Have those who have stiff necks 

cane in here. 

meno miguu 

B. IdL-tense: indicative vs* relative* 

Seme patients had headaches* 



kichMa Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa 
wanaumwa kichwa* 
Walicdoiwa wanavonwa kichwa 
walipata dawa j& vidonge* 

shingo Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa 
wanaumwa shingo* 
Waliokuwa wanaunva shingo 
walipata dawa ya vidonge* 

meno Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa 
wanaumwa meno* 
Waliokuwa wanaumwa meno 
walipata dawa 7a vidonge* 

miguu Wagonjwa wengine walikuwa 
wanaumwa miguu* 
Waliokuwa wanaumwa miguu 
walipata dawa ya vidonge* 



Those who had headaches got pills* 

Scroe patients had stiff necks* 
Those with stiff necks got pills* 

Some patients had toothaches* 
Those ^o had toothaches got pills < 

Scane patients had sore feet* 
Those idio had sore feet got pills* 



1* Discuss adult education as it is carried on In the part of Africa 
in idiich you are most interested* 



275 



UNIT 69 



SWAHILI 



ynit_69 
i« Basic Dialogues A shortage of professional people* 

^IS^e 
haba few 

Nchi yatu ina walimu haba sana, 
Hata matabibu wachache pia* 



tangu 
-zidi 

imfanafuczi (WA) 
Lakini tangu juzi juzi 
wanafunzi wainezidi* 

Biia 
[Haikuwa] Si iwaka jana mia tatu 
walipolofenda Amerika? 

zaidi (N) 
Natumaini nnraka ujao wataruka 
zaidi ya hao* 



Our country has very few teachers. 
('Even doctors [are] few like- 
wise.' ) 
since 

to increase 
student 
But (since) recently students have 
increased [in number]. 



Butler 



hxmdred 
Wasn't it last year that 300 went to 
America^ 



Sangai 



more, excess 
I hope next year ['the year which 
cones'] more will fly than that. 



Sangai 



gumu 
gharama (N) 
Kumbuka ni vigumu sana kupata pesa 
za kulipa gharama. 



hard, difficult 
expense, outlay 
ReBieraber it is very hard to get the 
money to pay the expenses. 



a7« 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 69 



Notes 
A* Relative counterparts of the a-tense* 

mwaka ujao the year which comes 



ndezl ijayo 

mtu allye na njaa 



months iriiich c<xoa 

a person ^o is hungry 

These z>elative forms (cf« Unit 68} are all formed with subject prefix, 
plus stem (-^a or -li)> plus relative affix. The first two examples illustrate 
relative counterparts of the a-tense • 



20 



A* Multiples of ten* 

10 Wanafonzi kumi walikwenda Ulaya 
mwaka jana* 

Wanafonzi ishirini walikwenda 
Ulaya mwaka jana. 

30 Uo So 60 70 

B* 

}6fallmu mkuu wa shule amsnunua 
vikonibe kumi na viwili. 

Mwalimu mkuu wa shule amenunua 
vikombe ishirini na viwill* 

32 U2 52 62 72 



12 



22 



Ten students went to Europe last year* 

Twenty st\]dents went to Europe last 
year* 

80 90 100 

The head teacher has bou^t twelve 
cups* 

The head teacher has bought twenty- 
two cups* 



82 92 102 

C* Relative counterpart of the a-tense* 

I want to read many books next year* 



mwaka Ninataka kusoma vitabu vingi 
mwaka ujao* 

niaka Ninataka kusona vitabu vingi 
mlaka ijayo* 

mwezi Ninataka kusoma vitabu vingi 
mwezi ujao* 



1 want to read many books in the years 
to come* 

I want to read maiiy bocks next month* 



277 



UNIT 69 



SWAHILI 



nidzl Nlnataka kusona vltabu ytngi 
mlezl ijayo* 

siku Ninataka kusoma vltabu vlngl 
siku zijazo* 

P. 

15 Klla niftranafunzi atapata zaldl 

ya vltabu ktnal na vitano. 

25 Kila onfanafunzi atapata zaldi 

7a vltabu ishlrini na vltano* 

35 U5 55 65 75 

105 Kila nnranafunzl atapata zaldi 
ya vltabu mla (moja) na 
vltano* 

125 Klla mwanafunzl atapata zaldi 
ya vltabu mla (moJa) na 
Ishlrlnl na vltano. 



I want to read many books in the 
siODths to come. 

I want to read many books in the 
days to coaae* 



Eveiy student will get more than 
fifteen books* 

Bvexy student will get more than 
twenty-five books* 



85 



95 



Every student will get more than a 
hundred and five books* 

Every student will get more than a 
hundred and twenty-five books* 



A* 



chupa 



taa 



mayal 



Concord, Including the last word in a numeral phrase* 

Leo tumeuza chupa ishirlni 
na tano za soda* 
Jana tulluza zaldi (ya hlzo)* 

Leo tumeuza taa ishirlni na 
tano* 
Jana tulluza zaldi (3ra hlzo}* 



Today we have sold twenty-five 
bottles of soda* 
Yesterday we sold more than that* 

Today we have sold twenty-five lamps* 



Leo tumeuza mayal ishirlni na 
matano* 
Jana tulluza zaldi (ya hayo)» 

mananasi Leo tumeuza mananasi ishirlni 
na matano* 
Jana tulluza zaldi (ya hayo)* 

878 



Yesterday we sold more than that* 
Today we have sold twenty-five eggs* 

Yesterday we sold more iham that* 

Today we have sold twenty-five pine- 
apples* 
Yesterday we sold more than that* 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 69 



mikate Leo tumeuza aiikate Ishlrlni Today we have sold twenty-five loaves 
na Biltano* of bread* 

Jazia tulliiza zaidi (ya hiyo}* Yesterday we sold more than that* 

vlsu Leo tuneuza vlsu ishirinl na Today we have sold twenty-five knives* 
vitano* 
Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hivyo)* Yesterday we sold more than Idiat* 

vitabu Leo tvuneuza vitabu ishirini Today we have sold twenty-five books* 
na vitano* 
Jana tuliuza zaidi (ya hivyo)* Yesterday we sold more than that* 

B* Li-tense: affirmative ys» negative* 



kuingia Hasani aliingia i^rvimbani* 
Daudi hakuingia* 

kukata Hasani allkata tamaa. 
^"''** Daudi hakukata tamaa* 

kuaiAkia Hasani alituamkiae 

Daudi hakutuamkia* 



kaendelea Hasani aliendelea na masomo* 
na 
masomo 



Daudi hakuendelea* 



kuhudshwa Hasani alihamishwa na 
serikali* 
Daudi hakuhamishwa* 



Hasani entered the house* 
Daudi didn't enter* 

Hasani despaired* 
Daudi didn't despair* 

Hasani welcomed us* 

Daudi didn't welcome us. 

Hasani continued with school* 
Daudi didn't continue* 

Hasani was moved by the government* 
Daudi wasn't moved* 



279 



UNIT 70 SWAHILI 



Unit_70 
i« Basic Dialogue* A day off* 



furaha (N) rejoicing 

Leo ni Juiaamosif siku ya furahal Today is Satiirday, a day of rejoicing* 

Abasi 

i^pango (mi) plan, isanner, method 

Tenal Una mipango yo yote2 Right I Do you have ai^ plans? 

sinema (N) (or: senema (N)) cinema 

Twende sineiaa leo jioni* Let's go to the movies this evening* 

Abasi 
ngona (N) dnaa 

Haya. Halafu tutakwenda ngomani* O.K., and then we'll go to watch the 

dances* 

Ndiyo, mimi napenda ngc»na sana* Yes, I like the dances very much* 

Abasi 
-cheza to play 

dansi (N) dance 

Mmi pia, ijapokuwa siwezi kucheza % too, even though I can't dance 
vizuri. well* 



2 80 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 70 



A. Days of the week* 

Sat* Tutajaribu kukutenbelea 
Junamosl IJayo* 

Sun* Tutajarlbu kukutesibelea 
Jvraaplll Ijayo* 

Monday- JuBiatatu Tuesday-Jixma^e 

Thursday-Alhamlsl Friday-IJumaa 

B. 

Fri* Haiolsi anekxnra (po) hapa 
tangu IJumaa* 

Sat* Hanlsl amekuva (po) hapa 
tangu Jumasiosi* 

Sunday Monday Tuesday 



We'll try to visit you next 
Saturday* 

We'll try to visit you next 
Simday* 

Wedne sday- Jumatano 



Hanisi has been here since Friday* 

Hamisi has been hez^ since 
Saturday* 

Wednesday Thursday 



A* Ta-tense: affirmative vs* negative, with person change* 



Utakwenda sinena Jumanosi 
ijayol 
Hapana, sitakwenda* 

Utaai^usha sahani zotel 
Hapana, sitaziangusha* 

UtaiiBfaga mafUtai 

Hapana, sitayarowaga* 

Ikfuta yatajBwagikal 
Hapana, hayatanoragika* 

Utahazdbu kalanu yangul 
Hapana, sitaiharibu* 



Ai*e you going to the cinema next 
Saturday^ 
No* I won't go* 

Tou will drop all the plates* 
No* I won't drop then* 

You will spill the oil. 
No* I won't spill it* 

The oil will be spilled* 
No* It won't be spilled* 

Tou will spoil jay pen* 
No* I won't spoil it* 



261 



UNIT 70 SWAHILI 



Kalamu Itaharlbikal The pen will be spoiled* 

Hapana, haitaharibika* No* It won't be spoiled* 

U» A is a student in night school* B is thinking about attending, and asks 

A about it* 

C is the father of three children who are of school age* D has five* 

They discuss the problenis involved in the elemsntary education of their 

children* 



•J .'■ I . 



, ;< "' < ^ 



28a 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 70 



Reading Selectlcm II 

Katika Afrika ya Mashariki vyakula vltatu hutu^va sana zaidl ya ylngine 
na wsn^ji* I^iande wa Ugaixla, '^toke' ndicho chakula kikuu* Ndizi 
huchemshwa halafu hugondwa kwa ondko i&paka zive kama viazl vill'vyopondHa* 

Ugali, ni unga wa nahindi au wa ntana unaochanga^^wa na najl yanayochenka* 
Huu hufanana na uji laktni ugali nl nkavu zaidl kuliko ujl. lAiga hupatikana 
kutoka katika mahindi 2^i£2sagwa« gi chakula chenyewe kiwe ^tam, ugali 
huliwa na kitoweo cha nyama au iiiboga na ^chuzi* Wajaluo ndio walioanza 
kupika ugali* 

Kaoia vile wenyeji wa bara wanav^osifti ugali, vivyo ndivyo watu wa pwani 
wanavyosifu wall, Waarabu wanajulikana sana kwa kula wali. Mchele ukiwa 
na naganda huitwa oipunga, na bila maganda kabla haujapikwa, ihchele, lakini 
ukisha kuwa tayarl kwa kula ni wall. 



mwenyeji (WA) 


the regular 


-changacya 


to mix 




possessor; 










inhabitant 


-fanana 




to resenible one 
another 


matdke 


name of a type 








(pi. MA) 


of food 


"kavu 




dry 


ndicho 


that is it, (sg* 
VI class) 


-saga 
ili 




to pulverize 
in order that 


-chensha 


to cause to boil 


"tamu 




sweet, pleasant 


-ponda 


to crush by 
pounding 






delicious 






kitoweo 


(VI) 


a relish 


mwiko (ME) 


a large wooden 










spoon 


mchuzi 1 


(MI) 


gravy, soup, 
sauce 


ugali (U) 


stiff porridge 


ndio 




it is th^, (plu* 


unga (U) 


flour, meal 






WA class) 


mtama (MI) 


millet 


-pika 




to cook 



883 



UNIT 70 



SWAHILI 



bara (N) the hinterland 
-slfu to praise 
-julikana to be known 



wall (U) cooked rice 
naganda (MA.) husks 
kabla (N) before 



Questions and Answers 
Questions 
1 • Vyakula vingapl hutumiwa sana 
katlka Afrlka ya Masharikil 
2* Vyakula hivyo ni vipi? 

3« Nanl wanaotumla vyakula hlvi 

zaidil 
U* Matoke hupatikana wapit 

5. DtatiuBla nlni kuponda ndlzit 
6* Ni unga ganl unattmlwa kwa 

kupika ugali2 
7* Unga na maji yanayocheihka 

hufanywaje? 
e« Ugali hufanana na ujlt 

9* Unga hupatikana kutoka wapil 



over Reading Selection 

San^e^Answers 
Vyakula vltatu. 

Vyakula hivyo ni mat eke, ugali na 

wall. 
Wenyejl hutunla vyakula hlvi zaidi, 

Matoke hupatikana katlka lichi ya 

Uganda* 
Nitatuniia inwiko* 
Unga wa soahindl) wa mtama, au wa 

mpunga. 
Unga na maji yanayocheaka 

huchanganywa • 
Ndiyo, lakini ugali ni ftkavu zaidi 

kuliko uji* 
Unga hupatikana kutoka katlka 

nahindl* 



28U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 70 



to* Kwa naBina ganl2 

11. Ugali ni chakula kltanat 

12* Ugali hullva na ninll 

13* Weziyejl wa pwanl wanasifu nlni? 

ili» Nl watu ganl wanaojulikana sana 



Mahindl husagwa* 

NdlyO) ugali ni chalnila kitamu. 

Ugali huliva no. kitoweo na mchuzi* 

Wanasifu wall* 

Waarabu* 



kva ktila walll 
i5* fichele ukiwa na saganda hiiitwaje? Achele ukiwa na naganda shanibani 

huitwa npiuiga* 
i6* Wall ni nchele va naiiSna gani? Wall ni mchele uliopikwa. 



285 



UNIT 71 SWAHILI 



1* Basic Dialogue* Let's visit the fann* 

Mirambo 
shanba (KH) farm 

Tafadhali tvende tukatembee Please let's go take a walk around 

shambani, the faim* 

Hasani 
baada (N) after 

Ndiyo* Tutakwenda baada ya saa noja Fine* We'll go in about an hour* 
hivi* 



Hasani 

-pita to pass 

Saa moja loepita* U tayari? (or: An hour has passed* Are you ready? 
Uko tayaril) 

Mirasibo 

Ndiyo, ni tayari* (or: niko tayari.) Yes, I'm ready. 

Twende basi* Well, let's go* 

Hasani 

-tangulia to lead 

njia (N) path 

-fuata to follow 

Tangulia. Nitakufuata* Unaijua [lou] lead [the way]* I'll follow 

njia kuliko mini* you* Tou know the way better than 

I do* 

886 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 71 



Haya, tvende basl* 



Mraoibo 

O.K., let's go then* 



Notes 
A. Further example of the meaning of -ka-» 
Tutenbee shanbani. 



Tukateinbee shanbani* 



Let's take a walk on the farm 

[beginning zlght where we are now]* 

Let's [go] take a walk on the faim 
[beginning from some point away 
from here]* 

The abo7e examples provide another instance of the meaning of the 
prefix -ka-. 



B* hivi 'about' 



baada ya saa moja 
baada ya saa moja hivi 



after an hour 
after about an hour 



The word hiyi, which in its shape is identical with the proximal demon- 
strative of the plural of the VI class, is in this sentence a modifier of saa 
moja, with the translation 'about'* 



A* 'last' with days of the week* 
Sun* Ulikuwa wapi Jumapili Where were you last Sunday? 



iliyopita? 



Men* 



Vlhere were you last Monday^ 
Friday Saturday 



Ulikuwa wapi Jumatatu 
iliyopita? 
Tuesday Wednesday Thursday 
Bg" Verb phrase with -waj (last year?' 
wewe Ulikuwa ukifanya kazi gani What type of work were you doing last 
mwaka uliopita2 year} 



887 



UNIT 71 



SWAHILI 



nlnyl Ankuwa nkifaxya kazi ganl 
nwaka ulloplta2 

Bw« Sangal Bv« Sangai allkuwa aklfanya 
kazi gani invaka ulioplta? 



wanafunzl 
hawa 



Wanafunzl hawa wadlkuwa 
vakifanya kazi ganl nwaka 
uliopita2 



C, Hjjia ja plus infinitive* 

sdko .-; Tafadhali, nionyeshe ni±& 
ya kwenda sokoni. 

hospitali Tafadhali, nionyeshe njia 
ya kwenda hospitalini* 

bona Tafadhali, nionyeshe njia 
ya kwenda bomani* 

kanlsa Tafadhali, nionyeshe njia 
ya kwenda kanisani, 

hoteli Tafadhali, nionyeshe njia 
ya kwenda hotelini* 

nyuBiba Tafadhali, nionyeshe njia 
ya kwenda nyunbani. 



What type of work were you (pi, ) 
doing last year? 

What type of work was Mr. Sangai 
doing last year? 

What type of work wei^ these 
students doing last year^ 



Please, show me the way (to go) 
to the market* 

Please ) show me the way to the 
hospital* 

Please, show me the way to the 
administrative office* 

Please, show me the way to the 
church* 

Please, show me the way to the 
hotel* 

Please, show me the way to the 
house* 



A. Infinitive vs. past negative* 

kuja Juma na Hasani waliahidi 
kuja mwezi uliopita, 
lakini hawakuja* 

kwenda Juma na Hasani waliahidi 
kwenda masomo ya Jionl 
mwezi uliopita, lakini 
hawakwenda* 



Juma and Hasani promised to come 
last month, but they didn't* 

J\una and Hasani prcxnised to go to 
the evening classes last month, 
but they didn't* 



288 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 71 



kviletea Juma na Hasanl waliahldl 
kunlletea barua mvezi 
ulioplta, laklni 
hawakuniletea • 

kusalinda Juma na Hasanl waliahldl 
kunlsalimla nmaliinu vao 
mwezl ulloplta, laklni 
hawakunisallinla* 

B. Simple vs. applied stemj 'every' 

Sat* Naandika barua kwa wazazl 
waxigu klla Jumainosl. 
Nillwaandlkia bainia 
Jumanosi iliyopita* 

Mon* Naandika barua kwa wazazl 
wangu klla Juinatatu. 
Nlllwaandlkia barua 
JuBatatu lliyopita. 



Juma and Hasanl promised to send 
me a letter last month, but they 
didn't, 

Juma and Hasanl premised to convey 
my best regards to their teacher 
last month, but they didn't, 

vs. 'last' Saturday, 

I write to my parents every 
Saturday, 
I wrote them last Satvirday. 

I write to my parents every Monday, 
1 wrote them last Monday. 



Wednesday 



Thursday Friday 



«89 



UNIT 72 SWAHILI 



Unlt_7a 
1* Basic Dialogue* The farm needs rain and fertilizer* 

Mirambo 
-nyesha to rain 

mavuno (MA.) harvest 

J^Tua ikicyesha nitapata navuno If it rains, I'll get a large harvest* 
mengi. ,, 

^.■i-'- Hasani 

Umepanda mimea gani shanibani mvakot What kind of plants have you planted 

on your f arm? 
Mirambo 
Viazi ulaya, Irish potatoes* ('European potatoes') 

ningalikuMa if I were 

nibolea (N) fertilizer 

Kama ningalikuwa na nibolea If I had had fertilizer, I would have 

ningalipanda vitunguu* planted onicais* 

Hasani 
-agiza to order 

Unaweza kuiagiza kutoka Idara ya You can order it from the Ministry 
Ukulima* of Agriculture* 

MLrainbo 
robo (N) i/U 

L^zima ulipe robo ya gharama kwanza* It's necessary that you pay a quarter 

of the amount at the begiiuiing* 



890 



BASIC COURSE 



imiT 72 



Kama huna pesa, utapanda nixii? 



Nitapanda njugu karanga. 



Hasanl 

If you don't have money, ^rtiat will 
you plants 
Mrambo 

I will plant groundnuts* 



Notes 

A. The MU, KU and PA locative concords* 

shambani mwako <m ('in*) your farm 

The nor- prefix belongs to the mu- class of locatives (cf« Unit 29, Note A)« 
A general first-approxiiaation translation equivalent for this class is 'in'* 
For the ku- class of locatives, ^ose first-approximation eqiiivalent is 'to'., 
the prefix used with possessive stems is kw-, and for the ga- locatives, it 
is £-, 

The corresponding subject prefixes used with verbs are A-ZrajJ-* lSi"/^"» 



A* L^zima plus subjimctive* 

kutumia Lizima utunie nibolea kwa 
vitunguu* 

L^zima uagize mbolea kutdca 
Idara ya Ukulima* 

L£zima ulipe robo ya gharama 
kwanza* 



kuagiza 
kulipa 



kumaliza L^zina unalize kazi yako 
kesho* 

B* Relative of the na-tense* 

kutumia Wakulima wanaotumia mbolea 
watapata vitunguu* 



You must use fertilizer for onions* 

You must order fertilizer fron the 
Agric\ilture Department* 

You must pay a quarter of the 
e^qjensss at first* 

You must finish your work tomorrow* 



The farmers who use fertilizer will 
get anions* 



291 



UNIT 72 



SWAHILI 



kuaglza 

kutaka 

C. 
muhogo 

mlmea 

%)unga 

vltunguu 

muhogo 
mlmea 
^\inga 
vltu 

E. 

I 

soke 
vlsu 
sanduku 



Wakullma wanaoagiza nibolaa 
watalpata. 

Wak\ilima wanaotaka mbolea 
watalipa robo ya gharama. 



The farmers >rtio order fertilizer 
will get it. 

The farmers who want fertilizer will 
pay a quarter of the expense. 

MU locative concord with a possessive stem. 

We plant a lot of cassava in our 
garden. 

We plant a lot of crops in our 
garden. 



Twapanda muhogo mwingl 
shambani mwetu. 

Twapanda mimea mingi 
shambani mwetu. 



Twapanda mpunga mwingi 
shambani mvetu. 



Twapanda vitunguu vingl 
shambani anretu. 



We plant a lot of rice in our 
garden. 

We plant a lot of onicais in our 
garden. 

KU locative concord with a possessive stem. 

Walileta muhogo mwingl They brou^t a lot of cassava to 
shambani kwetu. our garden. 

They brought a lot of crops to 
our garden. 

They brought a lot of rice to our 
garden. 

They brought a lot of things to 
our garden. 

W smd KU locative ccncords as subject prefixes. 

Sandukunl mna chumvl. There is salt in the box. 

Sokoni kuna chumvl. There Is salt at the market. 

Sokosii kuna vlsu. There are knives at the market. 

Sandukunl mna vlsu. There are knives in the box. 



Walileta mlmea mingi 
shambani kwetu. 

Walileta Apunga mwingl 
shambani kwetu. 

Walileta vltu vingl 
shambani kwetu. 



292 



BASIC COURSE 



WIT 7a 



A. MU locative concord with possessive stem and subject prefix* 



taa Nyunibani mwako mna taa^ 
NdiyO) nna mbili* 

neza Nyunibani mwako mna wez&i 
Ndiyo, mna sibili* 

saa Nyumbani mwako mna saa? 
Ndiyo, mna mbili* 

Kino Nyunbani mwako mna wino? 
NdiyOf mna chupa mbili. 



Is there a lamp in your house? 
les, there are two* 

Is there a table in your house? 
Yes, there are two* 

Is there a clock in your house? 
Yes, there are two* 

Is there ink in yoiir house? 
Yes> there are two bottles of ink* 



B* KU locative concord with possessive stem and subject prefix* 

baiskeli Nyunibani kwako kuna Is there a bicycle at your house? 
baiskeli? 

Ndiyo, kuna moja* Yes, there is caie* 

rootokaa Nyumbani kwako kuna motakaa? Is there a car at your house? 

Ndiyo, kuna moJa* Yes, there is one* 

mgonjwa Nyumbani kwako kuna Is bnere a patient at your house? 
mgonjwa? 

Ndiyo, kuna mmoja. Yes, there is csie* 



Conversation Starters 
1* A and B are from different parts of Africa (or the United States)* 
A asks B about vha.t things are like where he is from (jcw^o)* 



293 



UNIT 73 SWAHILI 



Unit_73 
1* Basic Dialogue* Snould I get a crop loan? 

Hasani 
-kopa to borrow 

mahali (PA) place 

Ukitaka, nitakuooyesha mahali pa If you like, I'll show you a place to 
kukopa pesa* borrow money* 

MLrambo 
Bioyo (m) heart 

Sina moyo va kukopa pesa* I've no liking for borrowing money* 

desturi (N) a custom, practice 

Hli ni desturi mbaya* It's a bad practice* 

Hasani 
nwisho (mi) r . end 
Hivyo ndivyo nilivyofanya, na (or: That's how I did, and I will pay it 
— nami) nitazilipa mwisho wa mwaka* [back] the end of the year* 

Mirambo 
Unajuaje kama utapata mavuno mazuri? How do you know whether you will get 

good crops 2 
Hasani 

wasiwasi (U) doubt 

-angalia look at 

jibu (ma) answer, reply 



29U 



BASIC COURSE tTNIT 73 



Sina vasiwasl* Ukiangalia shanbani, I don't have any doubts* If you look 
utapata majlbu* at the farm, you will get the 

answer* 

Notes 

A. Relative affixes in agreement with the objects of verbs* 
kiti ulicholeta (or:...ullchokileta) the chair that you brought 
karanga tutakazopanda the groundnuts that we will plant 

(or: tutakazozipanda) 
The relative affix (-cho- and -zo- in these examples) may stand for the 
object of a verb, instead of for its subject. Where it stands for the subject, 
it must be of the same class as the subject pz^fix; 

(mtu) ali^esikia a person who heard ••* 
Where it stands for the object, it is in the class of the object: 

(kitu) alichonunua (the thing) irtiich he bou^t.** 
(motokaa) aliyosikia (the car) vrtiich he heard* •* 
The relative affix may then be followed by the object prefix, thou^ many 
speakers cndt the latter* 

B* Ndi- plus relative affix* 

Ndicho* That is the one (e.g* kitu, kiti, kisu) 
Mdiyo* That is the one (e*g* lachi, motokaa, ndizi) 
Ndizo* Those are the ones (e.g. ndizi, nyumba) 
Ndivyo* Those are the ones (e*g* vitunguu, vitu) 
A combinaticm of ndi- plus the relative affix is translated approximately 
as in these exassplea* 

C. Combination of the constructions described in Notes A and B. 
Ndlye niliyemwona* He is the one I saw* 
Ndicho ninachotumia* That is the one (e.g. the thing) that 
(or: ...ninachokitumia. ) I am using* 

The constructions of Notes A and B are combined as shown above* 



i 



895 



UNIT 73 



SWAHILI 



D* Concords of VI (plu*) class in expression of inanner. 

Hivyo ndivyo nilivyofanya. That is how I did. 
The concords of the plural VI class are used without antecedent to refer 
to manner. Conqpare the use of these same concords in the ' adverbial ' forms 



A. Mojo wa plus infinitive. 

Icukopa Sina mayo wa kukopa pesa* 

kuandelea Sina mayo va kuendelea na 
Btasano* 

kujazi.bu Sina nayo va kujaribu tena. 

kuenda Sina mqyo wa kuenda kwa 
tabibu* 



I have no desire to borrow money* 

I have no desire to continue with 
studies* 

I have no desire to try again* 

I have no desire to go to a doctor* 



B. 
kufanya 
kusema 
kufikiri 
kuja 
Icuanza 

C. 
kufanya 

kusena 

kuanza 



VI plu* concords in expression of manner* 
Hivyo ndivyo nilivyofanya. That's how I did it* 
Hivyo ndivyo nilivyosema* That's how I said it* 
Hivyo ndivyo nilivyofikiri* That's how I thought* 
Hivyo ndivyo nilivyokuja* That's how I came. 
Hivyo ndivyo nilivyoanza* That's how I started* 



Nataka kufanya kama 
ulivyofanya* 

Nataka kusema kama 
vilivyosema* 

Nataka kuanza kama 
ulivyoanza* 



I want to do as you did* 



I want to speak as you spdce« 



I want to start as you started* 



296 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 73 



kweoda Nataka kwenda kama 
ulivyokwenda* 

D« Concords with oiahalia 

kinreka Sionl mahall pa kuweka 
nguo, 

kuingia Sloni mahali pa kuingllla 
nyumbani. 

kukaa Sloni mahali pa kukaa. 

kununua Sioni mahali pa kunimulia 
viberiti. 



I want to go as you went* 



I can't find a place to put clothes* 

I can't find a place to get into 
the house* 

I can't find a place to sit down* 

1 can't find a place to buy 
matches* 



The first and third sentences in this exercise use simple verb stems, while 
the second and fourth use applied stems. In the first sentence, inahall ^ 
kuwekea nguo would also be correct, but it would have a different meaning* 
Generally speaking, in contexts of this kind, the applied stem is used yAion 
talking about a place especially set aside or especially suited for the pur- 
pose indicated* 



A* Li-tense: indicative vs. relative* 



1* mbolea Uliagiza mbolea nzuri? 

Ndiyo* Mbolea nlliyoiagiza 
ilikuwa nzuri sana* 



sindano 



dawa 



nguo 



2. mafuta Uliagiza mafuta mazuri? 

Ndiyo* }iafuta niliyoyaagiza 
yalikuwa mazuri sana* 

mayai 

3* kitabu Uliagiza kitabu kizuril 



Did you order some good fertilizer? 
Yes, the fertilizer that I 
ordered was veiy good. 

Did you order some good oil? 
Yes, the oil that 1 ordered 
was very good* 



Did you order a good book? 
Ndiyo* Kitabu nilichokiagiza Yes, the bo(dc that I ordered 
kilikuwa kiziiri sana* was very good* 



897 



UNIT 73 SWAHILI 



kimyvaji 

U. vyakula Uliagiza vyakula vlziiri? Did you order good food? 

Ndiyo, Vyakula nilivyoviagiza Yes, the food that I 

vilikuwa vizxiri sana* ordered is very good. 

viberiti 

5* nikate Uliagiza mikate nizuzdl Did you order soote good 

loaves 2 

Ndiyo* Mkate niliyoiagiza Yes, the loaves that I 

ilikuwa Biizuri sana« ordered are very good* 

ndmaa 



• ,/,'"■ 



298 



BASIC COURSE UMT yU 



Unit_7U 
1. Basic Dialogue. Farm iieplements. 

Hasani 
-lima to ciativate 

kwenu at your place 

Je, kwenu mwatunia vyonibo gani kwa Say, what tools do you use in far»- 
kullmial ixig i^ere you live 2 

Mirambo 
jenbe (Kk) hoe 

UBia (U, N) rake 

Tunatumla ma Jenbe na iiyuma. We use hoes and rakes* 

Hasani 
Kuna wakulima wanaotumia plau2 Are there farmers lAo use plows? 

Hiraaibo 
Kdiyo, wale walio na mashamba Yes, those who have large farms, 
makubwa* 

Hasani 
Ati (MI) tree 

kijiti (VI) small tree, underbrush 

-kata to cut 

flklsha angusha mitl mnakata vijiti When you have finished felling trees, 
na nini? v»hat do you cut the brush with? 

tttraa^o 
panga (MA) large knife 

Wengi hukata vijiti kwa mapanga. Many cut the brush wi«i pangas, 

899 



UNIT 7U 



SWAHILI 



laini 
Na kwa kulajnisha udongo? 
(or: na kwa kutifua udongo?) 

Panga latosha* 



Hasanl 

s ort> ) smooth 
And for softening the ground? 

Mirajnbo 

A panga is all right t 



Aa Locative concord plus possessive stem, with no antecedent* 

Kwetu tunatumia majenbe. At our place « we use hoes* 

The concord kw- plus possessive stem is used where English would have 'at 
your place', 'where we live', etc* 

B, The spelling of -kiCijsha. 

The forms which in Standard Swahili are spelled ^)^isha, nikiisha, etc* 
are conunonly pronounced with only one i* 



A* Concords with oAhali, 

"ema Tumeona mahali pema leo* 

"ngapi Tumeona mahali pangapi leol 

kupanda Tumeona mahali pazuri pa 
kupanda muhogo leo* 

kuogelea Tumeona mahali pazuri pa 
. kuogelea leo* 

B* 

kuweka hhhali pa kuwekea taa ni 
wapi? 



We have found a good place today* 

How many places have we found today? 

We have found a good place for 
planting cassava today* 

We have found a good place for 
swimming today* 

Whei^ does the lamp belong? 



300 



BASIC COURSE 



UMIT 7k 



kupata Mahall pa kupatia dawa ni 
wapi? 

kununua }&ihali pa kununulia ponibe 
ni wapi? 

kuvaa Mahall pa kuvalia nguo nl 
vapi^ 

C. -klsha plus verb stem* 

kuangusha Ukisha angusha ndti hli, 
rudl nyuBibanl* 

kulainisha Ukisha lainisha udongo 
huU} rudi nyusibazii* 

kufuta Ukisha futa maji haya, 
rudi nyranbani* 

kusafisha Ukisha safisha majenibe 
h&ya, rudi nyumbani* 

kupigwa Ukisha pigwa sindano, 
rudi nyumbanL* 



yjhere is the place to get siedicine? 
Whe3?e is the place to buy beerl 
Vlhere is the dressing rooml 



When you finish felling 'tiiese trees* 
return hojne. 

When you finish breaking up the 
earth, return hcane. 

When you finish wiping up the water, 
return home. 

When you finish cleaning these hoes, 
return hcioe* 

When you fiiiish getting your in- 
jection, return hone* 



A* Na-tense: indicative vs. relative* 



kutunia 



kujua 



Wakulina wengi wanatumia 
plau? 

Hapana, vanaotuinia plau 
ni wachache* 

Watu wengi wanajua 
kutengeneza motakaa^ 
Hapana, wanaojua 
kutengeneza Biotakaa ni 
vachache* 



Do many fanrers use ploughs? 

No, those who use ploughs are 
few* 

Do many people know how to repair 
cars? 

No, those who know how to repair 
cars are few* 



301 



UNIT Ik 



SWAHILI 



kuangusha Watu wengl wanaangusha niti 
kwa riavii 

Hapana, wanaoEUigusha miti 
kva Tisu nl wachache* 

kuhudhuria Wanafunzi wengi wasabudhurla 
vyuo vya juul 

Hapana, wanacdiudhuria vyuo 
vya Juu nl wachache. 

B* Relative counterpart of a-tense» 

majoBibe Wako wapi wanatune walio na 

najembe? 

Wale walio na majembe 
wamekvisha kwenda shanbani. 



Do many people fell trees with 
knives? 

No, those who fell trees with 
knives are few* 

Do many students attend 
\iniversities? 
No, those vAio attend 
universities are few* 



Where are the men with hoes? 

Those who have hoes have already 
gone to the garden* 



una 



mapanga 



ioz 



BASIC COURSE ^ U^'-' -^' 75 



Unit_75 
i« Basic Dialogue. Times for planting and weeding* 

Hasani 
nibegu (N) seed 

Utapanda nibegu zako linit VJhen are you going to plant your seeds 2 

Hirainbo 
Mvua ikinyesha nitazipanda nibegu I'll plant them when it rains* 
zangu* 

Hasani 
-palilia to weed 

Umenunua vyondao vya kupalilia{ Have you bought the tools for weeding? 

Mraoibo 
kitambo a short period of tiise, 

a piece (of tine) 
Kitambol Mapanga sita na majembe Long agol Six pangas and five hoes* 
matano* 

Hasani 
Lakini, ni wakati gani mzuzd wa But idiat tins is a good one for 
kupalilia? weeding? 

Mirainbo 

Tuseme^ kajua miinea ikisha pata inchi Let's say, when the plants have already 
sita hivi* gotten [to] about six inches* 

Hasani 
-mea to grow 



303 



UNIT 75 



SWAHILI 



-Bieza (or: -meleza, -iceleshA} 
jani (MA) 
Haana yake ikisha nteza najanil 



Ndiyo* 



to shoot out 
leaf 
That is to say, irtien they put out 
[their] leavesl 
Mrambo 

Yes* 



A. wakati wa plus infinitive* 

kupanda Wakati gani mzuzd wa 
kupanda nbegut 

kupalilia Wakati gani mzuri wa 
kupalilia shanbat 

kuaogusha Wakati gani inzuri wa 
kuangusha vijiti? 

kulainisha Wakati gani mzuri wa 
kulainisha udongot 

A, Me-tense (affirmative) vs» -jja- 

kupalilia Unepalilia mahindi yako2 
Bade sijapalilia* 

l^panda muhogo wako? 
Bado sijapanda* 



kupanda 
kupeleka 



Unepeleka kalamu yako kwa 
fundi? 
Bado sijapeleka* 



When is the best time to plant 
seeds? 

When is the best tine to weed a 
garden? 

When is the best time to fell trees? 

When is the best time to break up 
the soil? 



negative* 

Have you weeded your maize? 
Not yet, I haven't,. 

Have you planted your cassava? 
Not yet, I haven't* 

Have you taken your pen to the 
repairman? 
Not yet, I haven't* 



yek 



BASIC COURSE 



ITNI T 75 



B. 



kupaztda 



kutenge- 
neza 



Wakulima wameYuna mtana? 
Hapana. Bado hawajavima* 

Wakulima wainepanda nitama? 
Hapana. Bado hawajapacda* 



kuYUXia Wakulima wameyuna mtana? Have the farmers harvested millets 

No, the haven't yet* 

Have the faziaers planted millets 
No, they haven't yet* 

Has the pen repairer repaired 
your pen? 
No, he hasn't yet* 

C« Infinitive vs. affirmative subjunctive vs. negative subjunctive* 



Fundi ametengeneza kalamu 
yako2 
Hapana* Bado hajatengeneza* 



i^unga %)unga huo unahitaji 
kupaliliva* 
Tuupalilie kesho* 
Tusiupalilie leo* 

mtaaia Mtama huo unahitaji 
kupaliliva* 
Tuupalilie kesho* 
Tusiupalilie leo* 

mahindi Kahindi haya yanahitaji 
kupaliliwa* 
Tuyapalilie kesho* 
Tusiyapalilie leo* 

maharague Haharagwe haya yanahitaji 
kupaliliwa. 
Tuyapalilie kesho. 
Tusiyapalilie leo« 

njugu NJugu hizi zinahitaji 
kupaliliwa. 
Tuzipalilie kesho* 
Tusizipalilie leo. 



a 

I 



That rice requires weeding* 

Let's \fee6. it tcroorrov* 
Let's not weed it today. 

That millet requires weeding* 

Let's weed it tcmarraw^ 
Let's not weed it today* 

This maize requires weeding* 

Let's weed it tomorrow* 
Let's not weed it today* 

These beans require weeding* 

Let's weed them tomorrow* 
Let's not weed them today* 

These groundnuts require weeding* 

Let's weed them tomorrow. 
Let's not weed them today. 



305 



UNIT 75 



SWAHILI 



muhogo Muhogo huo unahltajl 
kupalillwa* 
Tuupalllle kesho* 



. j-^j.v 



Tuslupalille leo* ,^ 



This cassava requires weeding. 

Let's weed it tonorrcw* 
Let's not weed it today* 



>. Conversation Starters 
i« Discuss agricultiiral practices in the part of Africa In irfilch you 
are most interested* 



306 



BASIC COURSE 



iJI'iJ T 76 



Unit^76 
i« Basic Dialogue. Boy or Girl? 

Adija 
Bibiye amepata mtoto wa kivone au wa Did his wife have a boy or a girl? 

kikel 

H£unisi 
Mtoto wa kiume* A boy. 

Adya 
Je, hawajainbo? Are they all ri^tl 

Hamisi 
mgongo (mi) back 

Hawajainbo, lakini mama auinwa mgongo* They're all i*ight> but the mother's 

back is hurting her* 
Adi^a 

to release oneself 
Maybe it's because of delivering the 
baby* 
Hamisi 

advantage 
She'll recover* 
Adija 

How is the baby hlmselfj 
Hamisi 
fujo (ma) disturbance 



kujifungua 
Pengine ni kwa sababu ya 
kujifungua* 

nafuu (N) 
Atapata nafuu tu* 

Mtoto Biwenyewe ana matata? 



30? 



UNIT 76 



SWAHILI 



wala 

matata (pi, MA) 
Mzuri sana. Hana fujo wala matata. 



nor, neither 
cojnplications 
Very fine. He has no trouble or 
ccHuplications • 



"-.•i 



.M. ;•-. 



Notes 



A. Wala between negatives. 



Wala either is both preceded and followed by a negative verb, or it joins 
two nouns which are in parallel relation to the same negative verb. See the 
exercises for further examples. 



A. Some special forms for possessives with family relationships. 



Ake Akeo anapata nafuul 

bibi Bibi yako anapata nafuul 

mtoto fttoto wako anapata nafuu? 

baba Baba yako anapata nafuu^ 

mama Mama yako anapata nafuuS 

mume Mumeo anapata nafuu? 
(or: Bwana wako.,.) 

ndugu Nduguyo anapata nafuu? 

dada Dadio anapata nafuu2 
(or: Dada yako.,.) 

B. Wala 

taa Sina taa wala mafuta. 

chai Sina chai wala kahawa. 

baiskeli Sina baiskeli wala motakaa. 



Is your wife recovering? 
Is your wife recovering? 
Is your child recovering? 
Is your father recovering? 
Is your mother recovering? 
Is your husband recovering? 

Is your brother recovering? 
Is your sister recovering? 



I have neither lamp nor oil» 

I have neither tea nor coffee. 

I have neither bicycle nor 
automobile. 



308 



BASIC COURSE 



m-; 



76 



c. 



Wanafunzi hawana viti wala 



kiti 



kltabu Wanafunzi hawana vitabu wala 
kalaxmi* 

inwaliimi Wanafiinzl hawana mwalimu 
wala shule* 

kusoma Wanauine hawa hawajul kusGsoa 
wala kuandlka. 

Kiingereza Wanauine hawa hawa;jui 

Kiingereza wala Kiswahlll, 



The students have neither chairs 
nor tables* 

The students have neither books 
nor pens* 

The students have neither teacher 
nor school* 



These men know neither reading 
nor writing* 

These men know neither English 
nor Swahlli* 



3* 



A. Concords, including relative forms of verbs* 



kitabu Nilinunua kitabu Juzi* 

Kitabu nilichonxmua juzi 

ni kibaya, 

( or s e « «,nilichokinioiua , , . ) 

baiskeli Nilinunua baiskeU juzi* 

Baiskeli niliyonunua juzi 
ni mbaya* 

visu Nilinunua visu juzi* 

Vlsu nilivyonunua jual 
ni vibaya* 



I bought a book the day before 
yesterday. 

The book idilch I bought the day 
before yesterday is bad* 

I bou^t a bicycle the day before, 
yesterday* 

The bicycle vrtiich I bought the 
day before yesterday is bad* 

I bought knives the day before 
yesterday* 

The knives which I bou^t the 
day before yesterday are bad* 



309 



UNIT 76 



SWAHILI 



mafuta Nilinunua nafuta Jiizi. 

Mafuta niliyoniinua juzi 
ni mabaya. 

Jeaibe Nillnunua jembe Juzi* 

Jembe nilllonunua juzi 
nl baya« 

nanasi Nllinunua nanasl J\izi. 

Nanasl nilllonunua juzi 
ni baya, 

ndizi Nillnunua ndizi juzi. 

Ndizl Tiilizonunua juzi 
ni mbaya. 

wino ' Nillnunua wino juzi. 

Wino nllionunua juzi 
ni mbaya. 

taa vitunguu maharagwe 



I bought oil the day before 
yesterday. 

The oil which I bou^t the day 
before yesterday is bad. 

I bought a hoe the day before 
yesterday. 

The hoe which I bought the day 
before yesterday Is bad* 

I bou^t a pineapple the day before 
yesterday. 

The pineapple which I bou^t the 
day before yesterday is bad. 

I bought bananas the day before 
yesterday. 

The bananas which I bou^t the 
day before yesterday are bad. 

I bought some ink the day before 
yesterday. 

The ink which I bought the day 
before yesterday is bad. 



-^f, 



.-n 



■^ riA 



310 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 77 



Ifait_77 

1* Basic Dialogue. Prenatal care* 

HLrambo 

&Ja mzlto a pregnant person 

-tunza to care for 

Haina mja inzlto hutunzwajet How is a pregnant woman cared fort 

Mohamed 

Hupelekwa hospitalini akiwa karibu She is taken to the hospital trtien she 

kujifungua* is about to deliver* 

MLranbo 

Ale anafanya ninit Vlhat does she do is theret 

M^amed 

-pima to measure f examine 

Bwana daktari hu^ima na kun^ The doctor examines her and gives her 

dawa* medicine* 

-lisha to feed ('cause to eat') 

Pia humpa chakula cha kumlisha She is also given food for nourishing 

iiitotOa the child* 

Mirambo 

tunzo (Kk) care 

Wanapata natunzo safiS Do they get good care? 

fl^amad 

-pujDZika to rest 

Sana, hata napuniziko* Very much so* [They] even [get a lot 

of] rest* 

311 



UNIT 77 



SWAHILI 



Notes 

A, Sequence of verbs joined hj na, 

daktari hvu^lma na kumpa dawa the doctor examines her and gives 

her medicine 

Here, the single subject word d^tari is followed by two verbs, the stems 
of vrtiich are -gima and -ga. Where the acticai of the second verb is not clearly 
the goal or jresult of the action of the first, the seccaid is in the infinitive 
fom, following na 'and'* 



A, Causative stems based on -la and -nywa, 

I UsiittHshe Atotol Don't feed the child I 

kunywesha Usimnyweshe mtotoi Don't give the child anything to 

- J - ■ ■ :' • drinkl 



watoto Usiwanyweshe watotol 



Don't give the children anything 
to drink t 



kulisha Usiwalishe watotol Don't feed the childrenl 

B. Subjunctive vdth -ka- after -enda. 



kukaa Eaa kitako upumzike* 

kwenda Nenda nyumbani ukapumzike» 

kuingia Ingia nyumbani upumzike. 

C« Passive stem based on -pa* 

kalamu Wanafunzi walipewa kalamu 
zao* 

vltabu Wanafunzi walipewa vitabu 
vyao* 

vltl Wanafunzi walipewa viti 
vyao* 



Sit down and rest* 

Go home and rest* 

Get into the house and rest* 

The pupils were given their pens* 
The pupils were given their books* 
The pupils were given their chairs* 



312 



BASIC COURSE 



UWIT 77 



neza Wanafunzi wsdipewa meza 
zao* 
D. -tunza* 

watoto Kazi yangu ilikuwa kutunza 
watoto. 

ng'onibe Kazi yangu ilikuwa kutunza 
ng'oinbe* 

nguruwe Kazi yangu ilikuwa kutunza 
nguruwe, 

taa zetu Kazi yangu ilikuwa kutunza 
taa zetu zote* 



The pupils were given their 
tables. 



1^ job was to care for children. 

Jty job was to care for cows. 

fty job was to care for pigs. 

ty job was to care for all our 
lamps. 



A, l-IU and KU locative concords with subject prefixes and demonstratives. 

What is done in the hospital? 



hospitali Hospitalini ranafanywa nini? 
Ale wagonjwa wanatunzwa. 

shule Shuleni mnafanywa nini? 

MLe wanafunzi wajiasomeshwa. 

soko Sokoni kunafanywa ninil 
Kule vyakula vinauzwa. 

pwani Pwani kxmafarywa nini? 
Kule watu wanaogelea. 



There patients are cared for. 

What is done in the school? 
There pupils are taught. 

What is done at the market? 
There (foodstuffs) are 
sold. 

What is done at the beach? 
There people swim. 



I 



313 



UNIT 78 



SWAHILI 



Unit_78 
1* Basic Dialogue. Post-natal care, (cont'd frcan Unit 77) 

Mirambo 
Wakiisha kuzaa wanakaa hospitalini? V/hen they have finished delivering, 

do they stay in the hospital? 
Mohaned 

Yes, for just a few days. 
Hirambo 

to cry 
When the baby cries, is it given food? 
Mohamed 

young 
. to suck 
If it is very young, the mother nurses 
' it. 
Mraiobo 

exactly, very much 
Just what food do babies like? 



Ndiyo, kwa siku chache tu. 

-lia 
Atoto akilia, hupewa chakula? 

/ - 
"changa 

-nyonya 

Akiwa nlchanga sana, mama 

humnyonyesha. ' 



hasa 
Hasa, ni chakula gani watoto 
hupenda? ., - . 



Kwa kawaida, maziwa. 

-beba 
Kwenu mama hubeba watoto? 



Mciiamed 

In general, milk. 
Mirambo 

to carry a child on back or hip 
At your place does the mother carry 
the children on her back? 
31U 



BASIC COURSE 



UMIT 78 



mbaviini 
nibeleko (N) 

Ndiyo, hxiwabeba nigongonlf au 
nibavuiii katlka mbeleko. 



Mohamed 

by the ribs 

cloth or sling for carrying 
a child 
Yes, they carry them on [their] 
back[s] or on [their] hip[s] in 
a sling* 



A. -lilia. 

ninil 6toto analilia ninit 

Mtoto analilia chakula. 
Mtoto analilia maziwa. 
Atoto anamlilia mama. 

baba sukari Hamisi 

B. Negative imperative, 
kuliza Usiinlize mtoto I 

Usimnyonyeshe mtoto. 



chakula 

maziwa 

mama 

chai 



kunyo- 
nyesha 

kulisha 

kupa 



Usimlishe mtoto* 
Uslmpe nktoto kisul 



Whiit is the child crying for? 
The child is crying for food. 
The child is crying for milk* 
The child is crying for the mother* 



Don't make the child cry. 
Don't nurse the child. 

Don't feed the child. 

Don't give the child a knife* 



C. KU locative: concords vrith various possessive stems* 

ninyi Kwenu ni wapi? Where is your (pi.) home? 

wewe Kwako ni wapi? Where is your (sg. ) home? 

yeye Kwake ni wapi? Where is his/her hone? 

wao Kwao ni wapi? Where is their home? 



315 



UNIT 78 



SWAHILI 



D. PA locative concord with various possessive stems, 

sisi Hapa ni petu. This is ovir horne* 

Biimi Hapa ni pangu* This is my home* 

wao Hapa ni pao. This is their hone, 

yeye Hapa ni pake* This is his home* 



A* -kvri.sha plus verb stem vs. negative imperative. 



kulisha 



kunywesha 



kuliza 



kupa 
chakula 



UsiALishe mtotol 
Amekwisha lishwa na 
dada yake* 

Usimnyonyeshe mtotol 
Amekvd.sha nyonyeshwa . 
na mama yake. 

Usimlize mtotol 
Amekwisha lizwa. 

Usimpe mtoto chakula, 
Amekwisha pewa na mama 
yake. 



Don't feed the childi 

It has already been fed by its 
sister. 

Don't nurse the childi 

It has already been nursed by its 

mother. 

Don't make the child cry I 

It has already been made to cry. 

Don't give the child foodl 

It has already been given food 
by its mother. 



Conversation Starters 
1, A and B ccwipare notes on the problems of pre- and post-natal care 
in Africa and in the United States, 



316 



BASIC COURSE 



79 



Unit_79 
i« Basic Dialogue, When are you getting married^ 

Ilagese 
-oa to marry 

Utaoa lini, Ochieng? When are you going to get married 

Ochieng? 
Ochieng 
Achumba boy/girl friend, fiance (e) 

Wakati Achuaiba wangu atakaporudi. At the time when ny fiancle returns. 

Magese 
Kwani yuko wapil Oh? Where is sheX 

Ochieng 
Alikwenda kusomesha huko upande She went to teach in the region of 
«a Kisiumi* Kisiumi. 

Magese 
maharl lobola, dowry 

Umelipa maharl au bado2 Have you paid the dowry or not (yet) 2 

Ochieng 
-ngoja to wait 

Bade* Namngoja arudi* Not yet. I'm waiting for her to 

(return. 
Magese 
-kubali to agree 

'Wazazi wako na wake wamekubali? Have your parents and hers given their 

consent? 

317 



UNIT 79 



SWAHILI 



-zula 
Hawawezi kunizula nisimwoe* 



Ochieng 

to prevent 
They can't prevent me fran marrying 
her. 

'".■\ .. f -.r, -u: HOteS 

A. Relative future forms with -taka-» 

The future tense in its non-relative forms uses -ta- as its tense prefix, 
but in relative forms uses the disyllabic prefix -taka-« 

B. Two verbs that are followed by subjunctive forms. 

Note that subjunctive verb forms often follow the verbs -zuia 'to prevent 
from' and -ngoja 'to wait'. The former is followed by the negative sTibjunc- 
tive. 



2« 

A, 
kusema 
kwenda 
kulewa 

kurudi 



-zuia plus negative subjunctive. 
Huwezi kunizuia nisiseme. 
Huwezi kmiizuia nisiende. 
Huwezi kunizuia nisilewe. 

Huwezi kunizuia nisiinidi. 



kula 



You can't prevent me from talking. 

You can't prevent me from going. 

You can't prevent me frcsn being 
drunk. 

You can't prevent me from coming 
back. 



kuendelea Huwezi kunizuia nisiendelee. You can't prevent me from moving 



B. 



kusema Hansfezi kuwazuia wasiseme. 



Haoiwezi kuwazuia wasile* 



oni 



You can't prevent them fron 
talking. 

You can't prevent them troBi 
eating. 



318 



BASIC COURSE 



79 



kuelewa kujlfunza kusikitika 
C. 
kuona Hatuwezi kuwazuia wasiimfone* 

kusaidia Hatuwezl kuwazuia wasimsaldie* 

kusikia kupenda kupiga 

D« -ngoja plus subjiuictive* 
kusema Hatutakungoja useme* 
kwanza Hatutakungoja xianze. 

kwenda kujitayarisha kurudl 

E. Verb phrase v/ith -wa, 
kusema All alikuwa akinlngoja niseme* 
kuja All alikuwa akiningoja nije. 

kufuata kutangulia kujnaliza 



We can't prevent them fron 
seeing hjjn* 

We can't prevent them from 
helping him. 



We'll not wait for you to speak. 
We'll not wait for you to begin. 



Ali was waiting for me to speak* 
Ali was waiting for me to caae» 
kulngia 



A. -ja- negative ys» affirmative subjimctive. 



Bado hajasema. 
Tutamngoja aseme. 

Bado sijasema. 
Tutakungoja useme« 

Bado hawajasema. 
Tutawangoja waseme* 

Bado hajaenda, 
Tutajingoja aende* 



He hasn't spoken yet* 
We'll wait for him to speak, 

I haven't spoken yet. 
We'll wait for you to speak. 

They haven't spoken yet. 
We'll wait for them to speak. 

He hasn't gone yet. 
We'll wait for him to go. 



319 



UNIT 79 



SWAHILI 



B. Infinitive vs. negative subjunctive. 



kisu Nataka kukinunua kisu hiki. 
Usijaribu kunizuia 
nisikinunue. 

vitabu Nataka kuvinunua vitabu hivi, 
Usijaribu kunizuia 
nisivin\mue« 

icbegu Nataka kuzinunua nibegu hizi* 
Usijaribu kunizuia 
nisizinunue. 



sanduku 



ng ' ombe 



nguruwe 



I want to buy this knife. 
Don't try to prevent me from 
buying it. 

I want to bTiy these books. 
Don't try to prevent me from 
buying them. 

I want to buy these seeds. 
Don't try to prevent me from 
buying it. 

mkate mikate mmea mimea 



i-'i ?i 'fii 



ji,j--. . V <■- 



320 



BASIC COURSE 



TJk. 80 



Unit_8o 
1* Basic Dialogue* Come along to the weddingl 

Ochieng 
wiki (N) week 

Je, ndugu yangu, wajua kwaniba nitaoa Say, brother, do you know I'm going 



wiki ijayo? 

Kweli? Hiyo sijasikia bado. 
haznsi (N) (or: arusi) 
Harusi itakuwa siku ganil 

kutwa 
Kesho kutwa, bwana. 

-unga 
(-ungana ) 
Nani atakayewaunganishenij 



kasisi (ma pers*) 
Kasisi Kamau* 

-fika 



to get married next week? 
Magese 

Really? I hadn't heard (yet), 

wedding 
VOiat day will the wedding be? 
Ochieng 

to set (of the sun) 
The day after tomorrow, 
Kagese 

to Join 

to join one another 
Who is going to marry you? 
('•••to cause you to Join one 
another' ) 
Ochieng 

clergyman, priest 
The Reverend Mr. Kamau, 
Magese 

to arrive 



321 



UNIT 80 



SWAHILI 



-shangilia 
Nitaflka kuwashangllienl* 

-simana 
Nani anbao watawasimanlenll 

mume (pi. waujne) 
Dada yangu na munteve* 



to make rejoicings for 
I'll be there to cheer for you, 

to stand up 
Who will stand up with you? 
Cchieng 



."u . U ^ \ 



husband 
My sister and her husband* 



A. Relative phrases with amba-. 

Certain tenses do not take the relative affix at all* Instead they form 
relative phrases in the following manner: 

araba plus rel, affix, plus indicative verb 
vitabu ambavjo hujaviuza the books that you haven't sold yet 
Even tenses triiich may take the relative affix sometimes form relative phrases 
in this way. See the exercises for fxirther examples. 

B« Object affix(es) for second person plural. 

The object pronouns for first and third person singular and plural, and 
for second person singular, are siii5)le in form and are used all over the 
Swahili speaking ai^ea. The second person plural object prefix is different 
in both ways: it is variously represented in different forms of Swahili 
(see Ashton, p, Uz for details )j it also involves both a prefixial element 
(identical with the 3 plu. or z sg. object prefix) and a suffixed element. 
For examples of one variant, see the exercises. 



A, Second person plural object, 
kupa Haruna hataki kuwapeni kalamu 



zenu. 



Haruna does not want to give 
your pens to you. 



322 



BASIC COURSE 



80 



kuletea Hanma hataki kuwaleteenl 
kalamu zenu» 



kuonyesha 



kupatla 



kutengenezea 



B. Relative forms with auiba- •^. 

kusoma Nitaviscsna vitabu ainbavyo 
sijavi\iza« 



kuleta 


Nitavileta vitabu ainbavyo 




sijaviuza. 


kupa 


Nitakupa vitabu ambavyo 




sijaviviza. 


kuonyesha 


Nitavionyesha vitabu 


vitabu 


ambavyo sijaviuza. 


Nenda i±avichukue vitabu 



ainbavyo hujaviuza, 

vitu Nenda ukavichukue vitu 
ambavyo hujaviuza, 

wino Nenda ukauchukue wino 
anibao hujauuza. 

kalamu Nenda ukaichukue kalamu 
ambayo hujaiuza* 

Jembe Nenda ukalichukue jembe 
ambalo hujaliuza* 

mazao Nenda ukayachukue mazao 
ambayo hujayauza* 

inkate Nenda ukauchukue mkate 
ambao hujauuza« 



Haruna does not want to bring 
your pens to you. 

kurudishia 



I'll read the books which I 
haven't sold* 

I'll bring the books lAiich I 
haven't sold. 

I'll give you the books trtiich 
I haven't sold* 

I'll show the books which I 
haven't sold* 



Go and get the books which you 
haven't sold* 

Go and get the things which you 
haven't sold* 

Go and get the ink which you 
haven't sold* 

Go and get the pen which you 
haven't sold* 

Go and get the hoe which you 
haven't sold* 

Go and get the crops which you 
haven't sold* 

Go and get the loaf of bread 
which you haven't sold* 



323 



UNIT 80 



SWAHILI 



raimea Nenda ukaichnime mimea 

ambayo hujaiuza. 

3. 

A. 

vikombe Nimeleta vikombe. 

VjJconbe ambavyo umelata 
ni vingapi? 

visahani Nimeleta visahani. 

Visahani ainbavyo uroeleta 
ni vingapiX 



kalamu sindano 
wanafunzi 



majembe 



Go and get the plants which you 
haven't sold. 



I have brought cups. 

('The cups vdiich you have brought, 
how many are they? ' ) 

I have brought saucers. 

How many saucers have you brou^t? 



mikate 



mimea 



wapagazi 



Conversation Starters 
i» What kind of woman (man) would you like to marry? (This topic is 
one which allows ample opport\mity for the use of the relative forms of verbs.) 



';'"'' 



32U 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 80 



Reading Selection III 



Nchini Tanganyika mlikuwa shule za namna tatu hasa, Zile zilizoendeshwa 
na serikali, misheni, na pia wenyeji, Shule hizo zote zilikuwa na madarasa 
kutoka ya chini kabisa mpaka ya juu, Lakini zile za wenyeji zilifikia 
madarasa ya katikati tu, kwa sababu baadaye wanafunzi waliingia zile nyingine, 

Watoto walianza masomo yao yote katika lugha ya Kiswahili, Hawaku- 
jifunza katika lugha za makabila yao, VJalipofika darasa la tano, yaani baada 
ya kusoma kwa muda wa miaka minne, walianza kujifunza Kiingereza, Lugha mbili 
zilianza kutimiiwa, Baadaye masomo yalikuwa katika Kiswahili na Kiingereza j 
halafu mafunzo yote yalikuwa katika Kiingereza tu mpaka mwanafunzi alipohitimu 
na kuendelea na masomo ya Juu katika chuo kikuu. 

Katika shule za chini, watoto walianza kuhudhuria shule walipokuwa na 
umri wa miaka sita au saba, Lakini sasa wengi huanza kusoma wakiwa na umri wa 
miaka mi tano hivi, Shule nyingi za chini hazikuwa za serikali kwa kawaida, 
Zamani kidogo watoto wachache walipata nafasi ya kusoma na kuandika, lakini 
sasa kwa ajili ya juhudi kuu iliyofanywa na wakuu wa Idara ya Elimu watoto 
wengi wanaelimishwa kila mwaka, Wingi wao unazidi sana mwaka kwa mwaka kwa 
jinsi ambayyo hata shule za juu zinashindwa kuwapokea wote, Skuli hizo ndogo 
ndogo, ambazo wakati mwingine ziliitwa 'shule za vijijini' zilikuwa na 
madarasa ya kwanza manne tu, Akuu wa walirau waliofundisha humo aliitwa 
Mwalimu ^kuu, na ndiye aliyesimamia na kuendesha shule za vijijini. 



yaani 
juhudi (N) 
-elimisha 



Jinsi (N, 
but often 
used with 
concords of VI) 



that is to say 
effort, exertion 
to educate 
way, manner 



wingi (U) 
funzo (MA) 

zamani 

-shinda 

-pokea 

-simamia 



majority, number 

(course of) 
instruction 

time past 

to overcome 

to accept 

to oversee, 
supervise 



325 



UNIT 80 



SWAHILI 



Questicais and Answers over Reading Selection 



Questions 

1. i5chini Tanganyika inlikuwa na 

shule za nanina ngapi2 

2, Shule hizo ni zipil vr, 

3* Je^ shule hizo zilikuwa na 

madarasa mpaka ya juu? 
U* Je, wanafunzi katika shule za 

wenyeji waliingia zile nyingine? 

5, Watoto walianza nasomo yao katika 

lugha za makabila yao? 

6. Je, Kiingereza? 

7* Lugha gani zilituroiwa katika 

Hiafunzo baada ya kujifunza 

Kiingereza? 
8* Watoto valianza shule wakiwa j'^ 

wakiwa na umri gani? Jr. 
9* Skuli zote za chini zilikuwa . 

za serikall? 
lOo Watoto wachache wanapata 

nafasi ya kusoraa na kuandika? 



Sajnple Answers 
KLikuwa na shule za nanina tatu hasa« 

Zile zilizoendeshwa na serikali, 

misheni, na wenyeji, 
Ndiyo, lakini za wenyeji zilikuwa na 

madarasa ifipaka ya katikati tu. 
Ndiyo, waliingia, 

Hapana, bwana, mafunzo yote yalikuwa 

katika Kiswahili. 
Kiingerezal Watoto walijifunza 

walipofika darasa la tano* 
Kiingereza. 



Miaka sita au saba, lakini sasa 
wengi huwa na miaka mi tano hivi» 

La, nyingine zilikuwa za misheni na 
za wenyeji. 

La, zamani kidogo, Lakini sasa 
wanaelimishwa wengi mwaka kwa mwaka. 



386 



BASIC COimSE 



80 



11 « Skull ndogo ndogo ziliitwaje? 

12a Shule za vijljini zilikuwa na 

madarasa mengi? 
13* Akuu wa waliinu aliitwa }^aliinu 

iU* Mwalirou Mkuu allsimamia shule 
za vijijini? 



Wakati invdjiglne zlllltwa 'shule za 

vijijini' . 
Hapana, zilikuwa na madarasa ya kwanza 

manne tu» 
Ndiyo. 

Ndiyo, pia alizlendesha. 



387 



UNIT 80 



SWAHILI 



Review Sentences. Units 1-80 



1* Juma aliwapatienl pesa ngapil 
2* Watu wengl wa nchi hii hunywa 

kahawa nyingi, 
3« Unaweza lodtenganeza baiskeli 

hiil 
U* Siwezi, lakini nitaipeleka kwa 

fundi. 
5« Maduka mengi huuza nguo na 

Diengine huuza vyakula. 
6* Afrika ya mashariki ni nchi 

nzuri sana* 
7« Wanyeji wa nchi hiyo huongea 

lugha mbali nibali. 
8* Wanajenga nyuinba zao kwa miti 

na udongo. 
9* Akifika Jioni ya leo, tutamrudisha 

nyumbani kwao* 
io« Katika mji wa Dar kuna ofisi 

za Serikali* 
11* Mpatieni nguo za kutosha* 
12* Nenda ukainwambie ya kwamba 

mimi siji. 



Hew niuch money did Juma get them2 
Many people of this country drink 

a lot of coffee. 
Can you fix this bicycled 

I can't, but I'll take it to the 

repairman. 
Many shops sell clothes, and others 

food. 
East Africa is a very beautiful 

country. 
The natives of that country speak 

various languages. 
They build their houses of sticks 

and mud. 
If he arrives this evening, we will 

have him go back home. 
In the city of Dar es Salaam there 

are government offices. 
Get him enough clothes. 
Go tell him that I'm not coming. 



328 



BASIC COURSE 



80 



i3« >Wanafunzi aklsoma sana 

anahitiinu mltihani* 
iU* Hawapendi nyama wala mazlwa. 
i5* Atakaporudi atahudhuria 

kanisanl* 
i6» Txikatembee huko pvraxtl* 
17. Umepanda nini shambsmi rawako2 
i8» Nguo ambazo iilinunua ;)uzi 

zimefika leo* 

19» Kitabu ndicho ninachotaka, 
20* Mwamble kwamba inatata 

yaroekwisha, 
21, Harusi yake itakuwa siku ya 

Jnmamosi* 
22 • Niklpata pesa nitanunua 

motakaa* 
23* Huo ulikuwa imrLsho wa dansl* 
2U« Walimu walifika shiilenl kltambo* 
25* Uslchanganye unga na maji* 
26* Nataka msaada wa pesa. 
27, Watu waiiaofai^a kazi ya upishi 

wanaltwa wapishl* 
26* le yote atakayenluliza tiMamble 

aningoje. 



A student, if he studies a lot, 

passes the examinations. 
They don't like milk or meat. 
When he gets back, he will attend 

church. 
Let's go walk eilong the beach. 
What have you raised on your farm? 
The clothes you bought the day 

before yesterday have arrived 

today, 
A book is ^*iat I want. 
Tell him that the trouble is over. 

His wedding will be on Saturday. 

If I get the money, I'll buy a car. 

That was the end of the dance. 
The teachers got to school early. 
Don't mix the meal with water. 
I want financial assistance. 
People who do culinary work are 

called cooks. 
Whoever asks for me, tell him to 

wait for me. 



329 



UNIT 80 



SWAHILI 



29* Alikaa hapa kwa muda wa saa 

iDoJa hlvi* 
30, Kama akija, atatupigia simu. 
31* Kiunbuka kumsalimia Bwana Hasani* 
32 • Watakapofika tutasafiri rapaka 

Mbeya, .. 

33» Pole, utapata nafuu, 
3U« Waldjiishangilia mkubwa wao 

alipofika, 
35* Baba yake amejxmaf sasa hajanibo* 

36, Mtoto anapolia anataka kunyonya, 

37, Ana wasiwasi juu ya mguu wake 

uliovimba. 

38, Yafaa kuzuia magonjwa kwa 

kutxunia dawa, 

39, Wapatieni vitu wanavyotaka ili 

waondoke. . ^ 

Uo« Kile ndlcho kitabu nlnachoklsonia* 



He stayed here for about an hour. 

If he cones y he will call us up* 
Renienber to say hello to Hasani* 
VJhen they get here, we will make 

a trip to Mbeya, 
Take it easy, you'll get better. 
They greeted their leader noisily 

>dien he arrived. 
His father recovered; he's all 

right now. 
When a child cries, it wants to nurse. 
He's worried about his swollen foot. 

It's a good idea to prevent diseases 
through the use of medicine. 

Get them the things they want, so 
that they may go. 

That one there is the book I am 
reading. 



n-y 'r,':^'- 



r^ '>,v'-,- ..,. ,-' 



330 



BASIC COURSE 



la:'' ■; 81 



Unit_8i^ 
1* Basic Dialogue* Getting into town from the airport* 

Abasi 



inzigo (mi) 
MLzigo Tangu ni tayari sasa* 

kwenye 
Tafadhali, ichukue inpaka kwenye 
teksi* 

piga 

simu 
Kwanza, nataka kupiga simu* 



load 
Ky luggage ('loads' ) is ready now* 

vrtiich has/where there is 
Please take it to the taxL stand* 

to strike } hit 
telephone ) telegraph 
First J I want to make a phone call 
(or: to send a telegram) 



Bwana, unataka teksi 2 



Hamisi 

Do you want a taxi, sir? 
Abasi 
Ndiyo* Bei gani kutoka hapa mpaka Tes* How much from here to downtown^ 
mjini? 

Hamisi 
Itaonyeshwa na mita* Una mizigo It is shown by the meter* How many 
mingapit bags have you? 

Abasi 
"eusi black 

"ekundu red 



331 



UNIT 81 



SWAHILI 



Nina miwili mikubwa n^reusi, na 

ininoja nwelomdu* 
"zito 
Mwekundu ni mdogo, lakini ni 

rozito sana* 



I have two big black ones, and one 

red one. 
heavy 
The red one is small, but it is 

very heavy. 



Notes 



A, The stem 'enje. 

mahali penyt teksi a place where there are taxis 
kahawa yenye sukari coffee with sugar in it 
kijana mwenye mchumba a young fellow who has a financle 
The stem "enge is used as in these examples. With the ku concord it is 
frequently used without an antecedent, as in the basic dialogue for this unit. 



A, "en^ej concords with ~wili 'two' 

nyumba . Tulifika kwenye nyumba 
mbili, 

Etti Tulifika kwenye initi 
miwili. 

shule Tulifika kwenye shvile 
mbili. 



We arrived where there were two 
houses. 

We arrived where there were two 
trees. 

We arrived where there were two 
schools • 



j\unba shamba hoteli 
B. Concords with "ingine ajid ~eusi, 
vitabu Vitabu virgine ni vyeusi, 
kitu Kitu kingine ni cheusi, 
meaa Meza nyingine ni nyeusi, 
baiskeli Baiskeli nyingine ni nyeusi, 
nguo Nguo nyingine ni nyeusi. 



Some books are black. 

Some thing is black, (or: the other 
thing . , . ) 

Some tables are black. 
Sojie bicjycles are black. 
Scone clothes are black. 



332 



BASIC COURSE 



6i 



wino Wino mwingine ni mweusi. Scree ink is black. 
C, Concords with "ingine and ~ekundu» 



kitabu Vitabu vingine ni vyekundu. 
tunda Tiinda jingine ni jekundu, 

baiskeli nguo wino 

D. Concords with "ingine and "zito, 
mzigo Mizlgo mingine ni mizito. 
barua Barua nyingine ni nzito. 
jeicbe Majembe icengine ni mazito, 

meza jiko kiti kitabu 
3. 

A. -go- as an equivalent for 'when. • 

kusema Alikuwa akisenao 

Nilifika alipokuwa 
akisema* 

kvisoma Alikuwa akisoma* 

Nilifika alipokuwa 
akisoina* 

kufanya Alikuwa akifanya kazi. 
Nilifika alipokuwa 
akifanya kazi. 



The other books are red* 

The other piece of fruit is red* 



Seine luggage is heavy. 
Some letters are heavy. 
Some hoes are heavy. 



kula 

B. 
kurudi 



Alikuwa akila. 

Nilifika alipokuwa akila. 

Bade hajarudi. 
Atakaporudi, 
nitakwenda naye. 



He was speaking. 

I arrived while he was speaking. 

He was reading. 

I arrived when he was reading. 

He was working. 

I arrived when he was working. 

He was eating. 

I arrived >^en he was eating. 



He hasn't returned yet. 
When he returns I'll go with him. 



333 



UNIT 81 



SWAHILI 



kumaliza 



kvilngia 



kuondoka 



giza 



teksi 



nrrua 



Bado hajanializa kazl yake* 
Atakapcanallza kazi yake 
nitakwenda naye. 

Bado hajaingla i^yunibanl* 
Atakapolngia nyumbanl 
nitakwenda naye. 

Bado hajaondoka* 
Atakapoondoka, nitakwenda 
naye. 

Qlza halljaingla, 
Giza litakapolnglaf 
tutawasha taa« 

Teksi haijafika, 
Teksi itakapoflka, 
tutakwendaa 

Hwjbl haijanyesha. 
Mma itakaponyesha 
tutapanda nibegu* 



He hasn't finished his work yet. 
When he finishes his work I'll 
go with him* 

He hasn't entered the house yet. 
When he enters the house, I'll 
go with him. 

He hasn't left yet. 
When he leaves I'll go with him. 

It is not dark yet. 
When it gets dark, we will 
light the lamps. 

The taxi hasn't arrived. 
When the taxi arrives, we will go. 

It hasn't rained yet. r\ 
When the rain falls, we will 
plant seeds. 



33U 



BASIC COURSE Ub: ■ 8a 



Unit^ea 
1* Basic Dialogue* A trip to Tanga* 

Sangai 
Ninakusudia kusafiri Tanga kesho* I'm planning to make a trip to Tanga 

tomorrcw* 
Magese 
naiili (N) fare 

kiasi (KI sg* only) amount 

Nauli ya kutoka hapa j^^aka Tanga How much is the fare from here to 
ni kiasi ganit Tanga) 

Sangai 
Ni shilingi thelathini na mbili. It's 32 shillings. 

Magese 
Utakapofika Korogwe utashuka) Are you going to get off (to disembark) 

when you get to Korogwe? 
Sangai 
La. Nitakwenda moja kwa moja* No, I'm going to go strai^t on. 
abiria (N-an.) passenger 

"refu long, tall 

mwendo (MI) journey 

Kwa gari ni mwendo wa siku moja tu. By bus it is a trip of only one day. 
Si mrefu. It's not long. 

Magese 
Vema. UJaliwapo kufika nisalimie Goodl If you are helped (i.e. by 
Jamaa* God) to arrive, give my regards 

335 



UNIT 82 



SWAHILI 



to (your) family. 



2* 

A. 
kufika 

kuhitimu 



Some sentences containing "i^allvago. 



kupata 



Nijaliwapo kufika Tanga 
nitakuwa na furaha. 

Nijaliwapo kuhitimu 
masomo nitakuwa na 
fur aha. 

Nijaliwapo kupata inavuno 
mazuri nitakuwa na 
fur aha* 



If I am helped to arrive at Tanga, 
I will be happy. 

If I am helped to finish ny 
education, I will be happy. 

If I am helped to get a good 
harvest, I will be happy. 



B. 


"Shuka katika-, , .. .• 


4 '' 


gari 


Shukeni katika garii 


Get off the train I 


motakaa 


Shukeni katika motakaa i 


Get out of the carl 


baiskeli 


Shvikeni katika baiskeli I 


Get off the bicycle I 


mti 


Shukeni katika nitil 


Get down from the treei 


C, 


Things that can be ~refu. - 


. ■ ' 


mwendo 


l^endo ule ni mrefu. 


That is a long joum:9y. 


oiKate 


Mkate ule ni ^efu. 


That loaf of bread is long. 


mtoto 


fltoto yule ni Arefu. 


That child is tall. 


mwanamke 


Itjanamke yule ni mrefu. 


That lady is tall. 


jembe 


Jenbe lile ni refu. 


That hoe is long. 


gari la 


Gari la moshi lile 


That train is long. 


moshl 


ni refu. 





ndizi 



Ndlzi zile ni ndefu. 



Those bananas are long. 



336 



BASIC COURSE 



82 



D» Sentences containing another form of -^alia» 



kufika 
kupata 
kuhitinu 

kupona 



Ujaliwe kufika Tanga. 



May you be helped to reach Tanga, 



Ujaliwe kupata mimea mizuri. May you be helped to get good crops. 



UJaliwe kuhitimu 
ntihani wako« 

UJaliwe kupona homa yako* 



May you be helped to pass your 
examination* 

May you be helped to recover fvoia. 
your fever» 



3* A and B discuss a trip that one of them has taken recently^ to see a 
friend of his get married. 



337 



UNIT 83 SWAHILI 



Unit_83 
1* Basic Dialogue. How much is the basket? 

Adi^a 
kikapu (VI) basket 

Kikapu hiki kidogo ni bei gani? Hov much is this little basket? 

Mr._Patel 
Shilingi mbili na senti hamsird. Two shillings and fifty cents* 

Adi^a 
-punguza to make less 

Nakitakaj lakini nipungtizie kidogo* I want it, but reduce it a little 

for me* 
f&;._Patel 
Ahl Hiyo ndiyo bei yake. Ahl That is its price* 

Adija 
Ndiyo, lakini nitakupa shilingi Yes, but I'll give you Just one 
moja tu« shilling* 

Mr._Patel 
Shilingi moja ni kidogo sanai One shilling is very low* 

Adi^a 
-dhuru to harm 

Haidhuru* Nitakupa shilingi No matter* I'll give you i*io* 

moja na senti kumi* 

(to be continued) 



338 



BASIC COURSE 



UJfIT 



83 



2« This entire series of exercises, involving the compazdson of nunibers, 
should be done orally with books closed. The exercises are printed chiefly 
as a guide to the tutor* 

A, Which of the prices is greater - the first or the second's 



a. is 


- 


3s 


shilingi moja 


shilingi tatu 




tatu 


as 


«» 


3S 


shilingi mbili - 


shilingi tatu 




tatu 


3s 


- 


6s 


shilingi tatu - 


shilingi sita 




sita 


6s 


•* 


3S 


shilingi sita - 


shilingi tatu 




sita 


Us 


- 


6s 


shilingi fine 


shilingi sita 




sita 


f. Us 


- 


5s 


k. 8s - 


10S p. 


8s 


- 78 


7S 


- 


Us 


7s - 


5s 


78 


- 98 


7S 


- 


6s 


6s - 


Us 


38 


- 5s 


es 


- 


98 


9s - 


108 


5s 


- 98 


9S 


_ 


6s 


103 - 


IIS 


8s 


- Us 



A* Of each set of three numbers, which is greatest? 
a. 3-5-7 tatu - tano - saba 

U-2-3 nne - mbili - tatu 

6-7-5 sita - saba - tano 

1-3-2 moja - tatu - mbili 

8-U-5 nane - fine - tano 



saba 

fine 

saba 

tatu 

nane 



339 



UNIT 83 SWAHILI 



f. 3-6-5 k. 9-10-11 p. U-3-5 

9-8-7 7-6-8 8-9-7 

U-8-3 5-3-U 6-9-7 

2-U-8 2-6-9 8-U-6 

7-6-5 6-U-7 3-5-1 



a^' 






.^■. '- 



■>'■• i •'■• . ', i. 



3i»o 



BASIC COURSE 8U 



ynit_8U 
1* Basic Dialogue, Settling on a price, (continued) 

Patel 
Ah I Siuzi. Ukitaka tea shilingi Ah, I won*t sell, but if you want 
mo;]a na senti ishirini na tano*.* to pay i«25**« 

Adi^a 
ghali expensive 

Ndiyo lakini naona ni ghali, bado* Yes, but it seems to me it is still 

high. 
Patel 
mwisho (hi) end 

Utatoa kiasi gani, mwisho wako? Vlhat amount will you give, your 

last pricel 
Adija 
Nitakupa shilingi moja na senti I'll give you Ji.iS. 
kumi na tano* 

Patel 
rahisi cheap 

Vema, Kwako tu. Lakini ni rahisi All right. Only for you. But it's 
sana. very cheap. 

Adi;|a 
-shika to grasp, hold fast 

Vema. Shika shilingi nibili na Fine. Take these two shillings and 
nirudlshie =/65 cts. give me back 85 cts« 



31*1 



UNIT 8U SWAHILI 



A. Practice in imitation, reading, and dictation. 





5 


cts. 




U5 cts. 




85 cts. 




10 


cts. 




50 cts. 




90 cts. 




15 


cts. 




55 cts. 




95 cts. 




20 


cts. 




60 cts. 




IS 




25 


cts. 




65 cts. 




1.10 




30 


cts. 




70 cts. 




1.25 




35 


cts. 




75 cts. 




1.30 




ko 


cts. 




80 cts. 




1.50 


B. 


\.t 


■ri r^ cv' ^ 


t' '.«.■!■ ::?x &ijd 


s*59l. 






shs. 


1.: 


J5 


shs. 


2.80 


shs* 


U.oo 


shs. 


1.! 


;o 


shs. 


3.00 


shs. 


U.ao 


shs. 


1.' 


75 


shs. 


3.15 


shs* 


5.U0 


shs. 


2.( 


30 


shs. 


3.35 


shs. 


6.6o 


shs. 
shs. 


2.30 
2.U0 


shs. 
shs. 


3.55 
3.75 


shs. 
shs* 


7.80 
6.25 


shs. 


2.( 


50 


'" shs. 


3.95 


shs. 


9.50 



In each part of these exercises, two prices are given^ followed by a 
third. In most instances, the third is between tha first and the second. Try 
to pick out the instances when it is not. In subsequent use of the exercise, 
listen to the first two prices and try to quote & Hiiddl© price. 



A. 


Higher, lower. 


split 


the 


difference : 






shs. 10 






shs. 


8 


shs. 9 




9 








7 


8 




8 








6 


7 




7 








5 


6 




6 








U 


9 




5 








3 


k 




k 








2 


3 



3U2 



BASIC COURSE u; eu 



k. 



ShS» 3 Shs» 1 ShS* Oa30 

10 7 8«5o 

8 5 6.50 

6 3 U.50 
U 1 2.50 
5 a 6 

7 U 5.50 
2 1 1 .50 
i«5o o*So 1.00 

B* Lower, higher, split the difference: 

sh» 1*00 shs. 3 shs* 2 

shs* U*oo 6 6 

6.00 10 6 

0*10 cts« o»3o cts* 0*20 cts< 

0*20 cts. 0.30 cts* 0*25 CtSi 

0.50 cts* 1*00 1*75 

i*oo 2«oo i*5o 



Simulate bargaining involving several exchanges of quoted prices, for: 

(usTial selling price) 

a large basket shs* 3*00 

a pair of trousers shs. U5*oo 

3 yards of cloth shs* i5*oo 

a pair of shoes shs* U5*oo 

a shirt shs* 2U*oo 
a loaf of bread o*6o cts* 



3U3 



UNIT 85 



SWAHILI 



Unities 
t« Basic Dialogue* Settling on a price (concluded)* 

Patel 
-vunja to break 

Nasikitika, sina senti za kurunja* I'm sony^ I can't change (it)* 

Adija 
Tutafanya nini sasa? What shall we do nowl 

Ikiwa huwezi kuvunja utaniuziaje Inasmach as 70U can't change (it)} 
kile kikapu kikubwa? how (much) will you sell me that 

big basket (for)? 

Kwako wewe, toa hizo shilingi mbili* For you, pay those two shillings* 

Adija 



VCr. f 



haya 



Haya, bwana* Nitatoa hizo shilingi 
mbili* Lakini kesho nikija tena, 
14[zima unipunguzie zaidi* 






Patel 



mnunuzi (WA) 

bila shaka 
Bila shaka I Ibiekuwa mnunuzi 
wangu mkubwa. Nitakuuzia kwa 
bei nafuu* 



o.k* 
O.K. (sir) I'll give the two 
shillings* But if I cone again 
tomorrow, you've got to reduce 
(your prices) for me more* 

customer 
undoubtedly 
No doubt I You've becoroe my great 
customer* I'll sell to you at a 
reasonable price* 



ikh 



BASIC GOimSE 



UFfT 8S 



2. 



Try to give the sum of the first two numbers before it is given on the 



tape, 



A. 



2 •(- 1 


= 3 


14}ili na moja ni 


tatu 


3 ♦ 1 


« U 


Tatu na 


moja 


ni 


nne 


U ■♦ 1 


= 5 


tine na moja ni 


tano 


5 •* 1 


K 6 


Tano na 


moja 


ni 


sita 


6 * 1 


■ 7 


Sita na 


moja 


ni 


saba 


7 ♦ 1 


s 8 


Saba na 


moja 


ni 


nane 


8 4 1 


s 9 


Nane na 


moja 


ni 


tisa 


9 ♦ 1 


s 10 


Tisa na 


moja 


ni 


kumi 


10 t- 11 


1 s 11 


Kumi na 


moja 


ni 


kiami. na moja 


2 « 2 


= 4 


6 -e 2 s 


8 




2 ♦ 3 s 5 


3*2 


= 5 


8 •» 2 s 


lO 




U ♦ 3 s 7 


5 •» 2 


= 7 


9 t a s 


11 




6 ♦ 3 s 9 
9 ♦ 3 = 12 



A. 



20 r io s 3o 
30 «• 10 = Uo 
Uo r io r 50 
5o f io : 6o 
60 ♦ 10 : 70 
70 ♦ 10 s 80 
80 * 10 s 90 
90 * 10 s 100 



Ishlrini na kumi ni 
Thelathini na kumi ni 
Arobaizd na kumi ni 
Hamsini na kumi ni 
Sitini na kumi ni 
Sabini na kumi ni 
Themanini na kumi ni 
Tisini na kumi ni 



thelathini 

arobaini 

hamsini 

sitini 

sabini 

themanini 

tisini 



3U5 



UNIT 85 



SWAHILI 



B. 



iS ♦ 5 r 20 
25 ♦ 5 : 3o 

35 4 5 - Uo 
75 ♦ 5 = 80 



Kunl na tano^ 
na tano ni 

Ishirinl na tano, 
na tano nl 



ishirini 
thelathini 



U5 * 5 r 50 
85 •» 5 s 9o 



55 ♦ 5 s 6o 
95 t 5 = 100 



65 ♦ 5 = 70 



C. 



i5 4 i5 = 30 Kiuni na tano na kuiai na tano ni thelathini 

25 -t 15 r Uo Ishirinl na tano na kuml na tano nl arobainl 

U5 •» 15 s 60 75 1- i5 a 90 i5 * 25 a Uo 25 «■ 25 s 50 

50 ♦ 25 r 75 75 ♦ 25 - 100 

D. 



3 ♦ 


2 a 5 


Tatu na mbUi ni 


tano 


50 ♦ 


10 s 60 


Hamsini na kuml nl 


sltlnl 


25 ♦ 


5 B 30 


Ishirini na tano. 








na tano ni 


thelathini 


7 ♦ 


2 s 9 


Saba na mbill ni 


tlsa 


75 ♦ 


15 = 90 


Sablni na tano na 








kuml na tano ni 


tisinl 


25 ♦ 


15 s Uo 


Ishirini na tano 








na kiiml na tano nl 


arobainl 


35 ♦ 


2 = 37 


Thelathini na tano 





* ■*^' na Biblll ni thelathini na saba 

6«2-l0 5«2s7 90«io = 100 U ■» 2 s 6 25 « 25 s 50 

65 * 15 s 80 25 ♦ 50 s 75 85 ■♦ 5 s 90 



3U6 



BASIC COURSE 



^;:. 86 



Unit_86 
1* Basic Dialogue. Buying trousers* 

Hamisi 
suruali (N) a pair of trousers 

Nataka kununua suruali* I want to buy a pair of trousers • 

Patel 
kipande (VI) a piece 

Suruali ndefu au suruali kipande? Long trousers, or short? 

Handsi 

Lcmg (trousers)* 
Patel 

color 
Vlhat color trousers do you want? 
Hamisi 

white 
Vlhite ones* 
Patel 

measurement 
And your measurements? 
Hamisi 

length 
waist 
Waist 32 inches, and length 3U» 
na urefu thelathini na nne* 



Suruali ndefu* 

rangi (N) 
Wataka suruali ya rangi gani? 



eupe 




Nyeupe* 




kipimo (VI) 




Na vipimo vyako? 




urefu (U) 




Muno (VI) 




Kiuno inchi thelathini 


na mbili. 



3i*7 



UNIT 86 



SWAHILI 



•snea 
Hil Inakuenea* 

Asante* 



Patel 

to fit 
These fit your measurements* 
Hamisi 

Thanks* 





Which is 


greater? 






A. 












32 


- 3U 










thelathini na mblli 


UU 


- U2 










arobaini na j^ne 


32 


- kk 


■,.,■■ , 


"-■'^■'v 


t *,,'■ 


„ ' 


thelathini na iribili 


U2 


- 3U 










arobaini na mbili 


5U 


- kz 










hamsini na nne 




35 - 


33 




73 - 


65 


65 - 73 8U - 92 




B. 












31 


- 31 










ishirini n%. moja 


U5 


- 53 










arobaini na tano 




27 - 


16 




81 - 


Ui 


55 - 65 1»6 - U3 




26 - 


27 




97 - 


96 





thelathini na dne 
arobaini na mbili 
arobaini na dne 
thelathini na nne 
arobaini na mbili 
77 - 66 

thelathini na moja 
haiisini na tatu 

87 - 86 63 - 65 



21 * 



A. 

Try to giye the sum before it is given on the tape* 
3 s 2U Ishirini na moja, na tatu ni 



ishirini na ^le* 



3U8 



BASIC COURSE miJT 86 



31 * 3 = 3U Thelathlnl na moja, na tatu ni thelathinl na &ie» 

61 « 3 r 6U Sltini na moja, iia tatu nl sltlni na dne. 

91 ^ 3 = 9U Tisinl na moja, na tatu nl tisini na nne. 

9U ♦ 3 = 97 76 ♦ 3 = 79 52 ♦ 3 = 55 U7 ♦ 3 = 5o 

35 ♦ 3 = 38 

B. 

38 'f 3 s Ui Thelathinl na nane, na tatu nl arobalni na moja 

i8 « 3 r 21 Kuml na nane, na tatu nl Ishlrlnl na moja 

19 ♦ 3 = 22 17 ♦ 3 s 20 58 ♦ 3 s 61 57 ♦ 3 = 6o 

72 ♦ 3 = 75 89 ♦ 3 s 92 99 ♦ 3 s 102 97 ♦ 3 s lOO 



3U9 



UNIT 87 SWAHILI 



Unit 87 
1. Basic Dialogue* Settling the price of the trousers* 

HaMsi 
£ei yake ni pesa (or: shilingi) Inlhat is the price (of it}1 
ngapi, Bwana? 

^tel 
Bei yake ni sh* j/m na senti 75* It's 7*75* 

Hairdsi 
Ohl Hii ni ghali sanal Ohi That is very highi 

Patel 
maarufu famous 

Si ghali sana, Hiyo ni suruali It's not very expensive those are [a] 

maarufu* well known [brand of] trousers, 

Ni ngumu sana. They're very tou^, 

kitanbaa (VI) cloth, material 

kisasa (Sg. VI) modem style 

Kitambaa chake ni cha kisasa* The material (of it) is modem* 

Hajtiisi 
Hapanal Hii ni suruali rahisi tu* Nol These are Just cheap trousers I 
-raruka to get torn 

-vqjesi quickly 

Itararuka upesi* They'll get torn quickly* 

Patel 
Lete sh. t/n basic Just pay six shillings* 



350 



BASIC COURSE 



87 



Hamisi 
Hiyo afadhali. Chukua sh. 6/-. That's more like it. Here's the six 

shillings* 



A. Concords with the demonstrative stem *l.e« 



masomo Yale masomo ni rahisi sana, 

sc»io Lile somo ni rahisi sana. 

kazi He kazi ni rahisi sana* 

naxili He nauli ni rahisi sana* 

kitabu Kile kitabu ni rahisi sana* 

nguo He nguo ni rahisi sana* 

machxmgwa 

Yale machungwa ni rahisi sana* 

bei He bei ni rahisi sana* 

lugha He lugha ni rahisi sana* 

B* Concords with the demonstrative 

bei Bei hiyo ni ^ali sana* 

natili Nauli hiyo ni ghali sana* 

kitabu Kitabu hicho ni ghali sana* 

nguo Nguo hiyo ni ghali sana* 

C* Concords with ~g|^* 

kitaoibaa Kitambaa chake ni kigumu sana* 

kichwa Kichwa chake ni kigumu sana* 
kitabu Kitabu chake ni kigumu sana* 



Those lessons are very easy. 
That lesson is very easy* 
That work is veiy easy* 
That fare is very cheap. 
That book is very cheap* 
That dress is very cheap* 

Those oranges are very cheap. 
That price is very cheap. 
That language is very easy. 

That price is very expensive* 
That fare is very expensive. 
That book is very expensive* 
That dress is very expensive* 

Her handkerchief is very heavy 
material* 

His head is very hard. 

His book is very difficult. 



351 



UNIT 87 



SWAHILI 



kazi Kazi yake nl ngvrniu sana* 

ffitihani Atlhanl wake ni d^giumi sana* 

mayo Moyo wake nl mgtmiQ sana* 

lugha Lugha yake ni nguaiu sana* 

D. Concords with "g^a. 

suruali Suruali yake i^jya ilikvtwa 
imeraruka* 

nguo Nguo yake iSpya ilikuwa 
imeraruka* 

kitainbaa Kitainbaa chake kipya kilikuwa 
kimerainika, .. ^;. 

vitambaa Vitanibaa vyake vipya vilikuwa 
vineraruka* _ 

jsbeleko t^seleko yake mpya ilikuwa 
imerai*uka* 



shati 

3* 

A. 
suruali 

nguo 



Shati lake jipya lilikuwa 
limeraruka. 



-raruka vs. -rarua, 

Suruali yangu imeraruka* 
Nani ameiraruaS 

Nguo yangu imeraruka, 
Nani ameirarua? 



kitambaa Kitambaa changu kimeraruka* 
Nani amekiz^rua? 

shati Shati langu limeraruka* 
Nani amelirarua? 



His work is very hard* 
His examinaticm is very hard* 
His heart is very hard* 
His language is very hard* 

His new trousers were torn. 
Her new dress was torn* 
His new handkerchief was torn* 
His new handkerchiefs were tomi 
Her new nibeleko was torn. 
His new shirt was ton:i* 



" V'.-.>: .v'XC. 



ity trousers are torn* 
Who has torn them? 

Ify dress is torn* 
Who has torn it? 

J^ handkerchief is torn* 
Who has torn it? 

Ify shirt is torn. 
Who has torn it? 



352 



BASIC COURSE 



UK IT ' 87 



B. -raruka vs. -raruliwa* 

sumali Suxmall yangu imeraruka. 
Imerarullwa na naniS 

nguo Nguo yangu iinerarvika, 
Imerarullwa na nanil 

mbeleko Itieleko yangu imeraruka. 
Imerarullwa na naniS 

shatl Shati langu llmeraruka. 
Limeraruliwa na nanll 

kltambaa Kitambaa changu klmeraruka. 
Kimerarullwa na nanil 



>ty trousers are torn. 
5y whcan? 

^ dress is torn* 
By whcan was It tomi 

Ify 'mbeleko' is torn. 
By vticaD.! 

Ify shirt is torn* 
By i^om? 

r^r handkerchief is torn» 
By vticml 



U. 

A goes to a shop to buy a pair of trousers. He ends by buying two, but 
at a reduced price* 

C buys a table and four chairs, starting with the table and two chairs* 



353 



UNIT 88 



SWAHILI 



Unities 
1« Basic Dialogue* Where is the consulate? 

Maina 
balozi (MA. pers) consul 

Unajua ofisi 7a Balozi wa Amerika? Do you know the American Consulate? 

Arainian 
Ndiyo, iko karibu na Post Office. Yes, it's near the post office. 

^^na 
Nitawezaje kufika hukol " How will I be able to get there? 

Arainian 
njia panda (N) -,r . ^.. .--ev; -. intersection (N) 
Fuata njia hii rapaka penye njia Follow this road to whei*e there is 
panda. ,, /. ,,^ ,.,-...- r^ nc^i vr ^ ■>:if:i' ^^ intersection, 
mkono wa kulia right hand 

Halafu fviata barabara ya mkono wa Then follow the road on the right. 



kulia. 

mtaa (ME) 
mkono wa kushoto 
Ufikapo penye njia panda nyingine, 
fuata istSia. wa Suleman, mkono wa 
kushoto, na nenda moja kwa moja. 
-ita 
Baadaye utaona hoteli inaitwa 
•Cosy Caf^,» 



street 
left hand 
When you get to the next intersection, 
follow Suleman Street, on the left, 
and go straight ahead, 
to call 
Then you will see a hotel called 



'Cosy Cafe.' 
(to be continued) 



351» 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 88 



2. 

A, Talking about the map. 

Using maps, practice pointing out places and giving their names, using 
the following frames: 



Sehemu hii ya 


Africa 
Tanganyika 
Kenya 
Uganda 


inaitwa „__^„ ^ 




Njia 


hii 










Jimbo 


hili 


(i )naitwa 






Mji 


huu 












Sehemi 


I hii ya 


_^__^inaitwaje2 







I Use this as an occasion to become familiar with the geography of East 
Africa, 



355 



UNIT 89 



SWAHILI 



Unit_89 
1* Basic Dialogue. Where is the consvilatel (concluded) 

Aramlan 
Hapo nibele yako pana hoteli ya There in front of you is the 'Cosy 

'Cosy Caf^.' Cafe Hotel,' 

lipite, . . ^ . Go past it. 

>33ele kuna barabara ya Acacia, ) Ahead there is Acacia Avenue, 
Nenda inoja kwa moja tu. Just go straight ahead, 

nje (N) outside 

Na roara utaona Jumba kubwa mkono And immediately after, you will see 
wa kulia, nje pameandikwa 'Cable a big building on the right, out- 
and Wireless,' side (of which) is written 'Cable 

and Wireless,' 
orofa (N) - — - - story 

Orofa ya pili ndio ofisi ya Balozi The third floor, that is the American 
wa Aiuerika, --r -r Consulate, 

2a Y^ 'U'' L) ' ■ . ■■''■J 

A, Talking about a street map. 

Practice giving directions from a number of points in Dar es Salaam to 
various other points, using a simplifiea map, Scsne of the words and phrases 
that will be most useful are: 

utafika kwenye _ _ karibu na _ .___^._ 

moja kwa moja mkono wa kulia/kushoto ,____ 

mbele ya ________ utaona 

356 



UNIT 90 SWAHILI 



Unit_90 
1* Basic Dialogue* Clothes for the laundzTnan* 

Nagese 
Unabeba nguo, wazipeleka wapij You are carrying clothes on your back. 

Where are you taking them? 
Sangai 
"chafti dirty 

dobi (ma. pers) latrndrynan 

Hizi nguo chafu, nazipeleka kva These dirty clothes, I'm taking them 

dobi* to the laundryman. 

Magese 
Dobi yupi? Which laundrymanS 

Sangai 
ng'ambo (N) on the other side 

lule aliye na duka kule ng'ambo* That one who has the shop there on 

the other side. 
Magese 
jilunla son 

Unazo ngapi kwa jumla? How many do you have altogether? 

Sangai 
koti (MA) coat 

Zote ni suruali tatu na makotl Altogether there are three pairs of 
mawili* trousers and two coats* 



357 



BASIC COURSE 



u^: ■ -' 



Atakutoza pesa ngapi? 

thunini (N) 
Kama shUingi ihblli na thuninle 



Magese 

How much will he make you pay? 
Sangal 

So ct. place 

About 2,50, 



Notes 

Ae Abstract nouns of the U classs 

"^chache few 

uchache paucity 

safi ^ clean 

usafi cleanliness 

A large number of abstract nouns are members of the u class. Frequently, 
except for the u prefix j they are identical in form with adjective stems. 



■-/ ' •, -J-rv 1- 



Ae ng'aiViboi concords with -koo 

duka Duka lake liko ng'ambo ya mji. 

soko Soko liko ng'ambo ya mji, 

hoteli Hoteli iko ng'ambo ya mji, 

kanisa Kanisa liko ng'ambo ya mji, 

shule Shule iko ng'ambo ya mji. 



His shop is on the other side of 
town* 

The market is on the other side of 
town. 

The hotel is on the other side of 
town. 

The church is on the other side of 
town. 

The school is on the other side of 
town. 



358 



UNIT 90 



SWAHILI 



shaoiba 



laaduka 



Shaniba lake liko ng'ambo 

Maduka yaka yako ng'ambo 
ya Aji, 



mashamba Mashamba yake yako ng'ambo 
ya Aji, 



His plantation is on the other 
side of town* 

His shops are on the other side 
of town* 

His plantations are on the other 
side of town* 



B* Concords with "ngapi; U-class singulars with plurals in the N-class* 



nguo 



jembe 



Itoazo nguo ngapi kwa 
jumla? 



ngcffiia 



una 



Unayo majembe mangapi kwa 
jumla? 

kidole Unavyo vidole vingapi kwa 

jtmla? 

mzigo TMayo mizigo mingapi kwa 

jvanla? 

Unazo ngoma ngapi kwa 
jumla? 

Ihiazo nyuma ngapi kwa 
0urola2 

ubao Unazo mbao ngapi kwa 
jtanla? 

ukurasa Unazo kurasa ngapi kwa 
jumla? 

C* Kiasi gani? 

wino Una wino kiasi gani'S 

naji Una maji kiasi ganiS 

pcBnbe chum:vi Scheie 



How many clothes do you have 
altogether? 

How many hoes do you have 
altogether? 

How many fingers do you have 
altogether? 

How many loads do you have 
altogether? 

How many drums do you have 
altogether? 

How many forks do you have 
altogether? 

How many boards do you have 
altogether? 

How many pages do you have 
altogether? 

How much ink do you have? 
How much water do you have? 



wali 



359 



BASIC COITRSE 



mu 



90 



3* Adjective vs« U-class (abstract) noun* 

"ziari Ule mji ni mzuri. 

Walituambia juu ya uzuri 
wa mjl* 

"chache Walimu ni wachache nchini 
nnratu* 

Walituambia juu y& uchache 
ira walimu* 

~refu Gari la moshi lilikuwa refu* 
Walituambia juu ya urefu 
wa gari la moshi* 

~eupe Shuka zote zilikuwa nyeupe 
sana* 
Walituambia juu ya weupe 
wa shuka* 

"ingi Wanafunzi wa shule ni wengi 
sana* 
Walituait^ia juu ya wingi wa 
wanafunzi* 

safi Jikoni mwa hoteli ni safi 
sana* 
Walituambia Juu ya usafi 
wa jikoni* 

"gumu Masomo yao ni magumu sana* 
Walituambia juu ya ugumu 
wa masQDio* 

hodari Watoto wake ni hodari sana, 
Walituambia juu ya uhodari 
wa watoto. 



That city is beautiful* 

They told us about the beauty 
of the city* 

Teachers are few in our country. 



"Hiey told us about the scarcity 
of teachers* 

The train is long* 
They told us about the length of 
the train. 

All the sheets wei^ very white* 

They told us about the whiteness 
of the sheets* 

The school pupils were very many. 

They told us about the [large] 
number of pupils. 

The inside of the hotel kitchen 

is very clean* 
They told us about the cleanness 

of the inside of the kitchen* 

Their lessons are very difficult* 
They told us about the difficulty 
of the lessons* 

His children are very clever* 
They told us about the cleverness 
of the children. 



360 



UNIT 90 SWAHILI 



Conversation Starters 

1 • A asks B to go pick up his laundzy for him, B asks directions for 
finding the place* 



36t 



BASIC COURSE ^^^'^^' 90 



Reading Selection IV 

Nainna ^^ Eulima 

Katika irilaya yetu Serikali iineanza kuwasaidia wakulima kwa kuwaonyesha 
jinsi ya kupata mavuno siengi* Wakulima wengi wanayo nashaniba yaliyotawanyika 
inahsuLi mbali nbalie Hawa ndio wanaoonyeshwa vile wawezavyo kuyaunganiaha 
mashaniba yao* 

Katika Idara ya Ukulima wako watu walio hodai*i kwa ukulima ambao 
wanasimamia mipango hii« Watu hawa huenda mashanbani pamoja na wakulima na 
kufanya kazi kwa roikono yao* Hii huwasaidia wenyeji kuona na kujizoeza kulima 

vizurie 

Shamba hugawanywa katika sehemu tatuj ya kwanza, ni kiwanja cha nyuiiiba; 
ya pili ni boma la ng'cHnbe» kuku^ labuzi^ nguruwe na kadhalika; na ya tatu ni 
ya kupanda ndrneae 

Hii sehemu ya tatu^ yaani ya mimea, hugawanywa katika visehenu vidogo 
vingi aaibavyo miisea fulani hupandwa na kubadilishwa kila mwaka* 

MLmea ikibadilishwa, haichoshi udongo, na hivi nkxxliiaa aweza kulima shaihba 
lake kila mwaka. Hii ndiyo faida ya kupanda mimea tofauti kila mara baada ya 
kuYuna* 

la Ni wapi Serikali imeanza Serikali imeanza kuwasaidia wakulima 
kuwasaidia wakulima} katika wilaya yetu* 

2* Serikali imeanza kuwasaidiaJeS Kwa kuwaonyesha Jinsi ya kulima vizuri* 

3* Wenyeji wakilima \rizuri hupata Hupata mavuno mengi* 
faida gani? 

U* Ma shamba ya wakulima wengi yako Hapana, yametawanyika mahali mbali 
pamojat mbali* 

5* Mashaoiba yatafanywaje? Hashamba yataunganishwa* 



362 



UNIT 90 



SWAHILI 



6« Kuna wakulloa hodarl katika 

Idara ya kfy&l 
7« Kazi yao nl nini? 
6 a Vasinainizi hava hufanya kazi 

shanbanlt 
9. Hll ni faida gani2 
io* Shanba hugawanywa katika sehenu 

ngapi? 
11* Seheimi ya kwanza ni ya nini? 

12. Na ya pill? 

13* Na ya tatu Je? 

iU. Kuna faida katika kubadlli 
miBiea? 

15* Uklwa mkulima utabadili ndmea 
yakol 



Hapana. Watu hodari kvra kullina wako 

katika Idara ya Ukulijna* 
Kusimania ndpango hila 
NdiyO) wanafanya kazi mashambani 

kua nikono. 
Wenyiji huona na kuzoea kullna vizuri* 
Tatu, 



Sehemu ya kwanza ni kiwanja cha 
nyuniba. 

Seheimi ya pili ni boma ya ng'onbe, 
kuku, mbuzi na kadhalika* 

Sehesiu ya tatu ni ya kulima* 

Ndiyo* Udongo hauchoki. 

Ndiyo, nikiwa nkulinia nitabadili 
mimea yangu. 



363 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 90 



wilaya (N) 
jinsi (N) 
-tawanya 
-sinainla 
-zoea 
-gawanya 
kiwanja (VI) 
kuku (N-anim) 
mbuzl (N-anim) 
kadhalika 
klsehemu (VI) 
fulani 
-badili 
-chosha 
falda (N) 
tofauti (N) 



Sii^ 



district, province 

way, method 

to scatter 

to stand by, to oversee 

to becOTte familiar with 

to di-vide up, distribute 

a plot of ground 

chicken 

goat 

likewise, similarly 

a small section 

such-and-such 

to change 

to make tired 

profit, advantage 

difference, discrepancy 



36U 



UNIT 91 



SWAHILI 



Unit 91 



la Basic Dialogue* Doing the wash* 



Maina 



-fua 



to launder 



Nani afoaye nguo zakoS 



VQio washes your clothes? 



Juna 



Kama hunisaidia* 



Mother helps me. 



I^ina 
Yeye hufua kwa ^ono au kwa mashine? Does she wash [them] by hand or by 



machine? 



Juma 



sabuni (N) 

(ya) uvuguvugu (U) 



soap 
lukewarm 



Anatumia mikono, sabuni na maji ya She does them by hand ('uses her 



uvuguvugu* 



hands') [with] soap, and lukewarm 



water* 



Maina 



-ondoa 



to get rid of 



Unafikiri mikono huondoa uchafu 



Do you think that [washing- by] hand(s) 



kweli? 



really gets rid of the dirt? 



365 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 91 

Juna 
Sanai Definltelyl 

Maizia 

— iW ■» ^ ^ 

wanga (U) starch 

Lakinl anatla wanga liziit But yiben does she pour in the starch? 

Juma 

-loweka to wet something 

Kwa kawaida, nguo iki^ia imelowekwae Ordinarily^ when the clothes are wet* 

Notes 

A* Relative counterparts of the a-tense* 

Nani afuaye nguol Vlho washes the clothes? 

Nini kiondoshacho uchafu? What gets the dirt off 2 

The relative countszparts of the indicative forms of the a~tense are 
formed as follows: 



Sttbj«_gref, 


Stem 


Rel,^affix 




nl 
u 


jua 
jua ^ 


ye 
ye 


•I who know' 

'you (sg») who know' 


a 


J«a ,^^i 


ye 


'he who knows' 


wa 


jua 





'they who know' 


>.- li ua, a 


ondosha 


lo 


'(that) which removes' 



0(.iii 



etc* 



atuniaye*** he who uses*** 

atunialo* * • which he uses (referring to something 
in sg. MA class)* 
As in other relative forms » the relative affix may refer to and agree 
with the subject or the object of the verb* 



366 



UNIT 91 



SWAHILI 



I 



i 

f A. Relatirs counterparts of the a-tense. 

kofoa Nanl af^ye nguo zakol \i/ho washes your clothe s2 

ki^iga pasl Nani apigaye past nguo zakol VDio irons your clothes? 
ktinunua Nanl anunuaye nguo zakol Vho buys your clothes? 

kulioa (Hatu) vallmao shamba hill 
uako wapi? 

kuhudhuria (Vatu) vahudhurlao mascmo 
I haya vako vapil 

kutaka (Wiatu) vatakao kvenda vako 
wapl? 

kujua (Watu) wajuao Kiswahili vako 
wapi? 



Vlhere are the people Uho cultivate 
this farm? 

Uhere are the people ^o attend 
these lessons? 

Where are the people \iho want to 
go? 

Vbere are the people vho know 
Swahili? 



kufua 



(l^tH) wafuao nguo vako vapi? 



C. -ondoa. 



uchafa 



vino 



Tutaondoaje uchafu katlka 
nguo hizi? 

Tutaondoaje vino katika 
nguo hizi? 



Vlhere Slto the people who vash 
clothes? 



How shall ve remove the dirt from 
these clothes? 

How shall ve remove the ink froa 
these clothes? 



wangf 



damu sabuni 

D* -ond^a* 

uchafu Uchafu umeondoka katika 
nguo sasa* 

vino Wino umeondoka katika 
nguo sasa* 



The dirt is off the clothes now. 
The ink is off the clothes now. 



367 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 91 



daiBU 



sabunl 



wanga 



kiifua 



A. Indicative vs. relative (relative subject). 

These clothes are washed every veek« 



kupalilia 



kuzuia 



Nguo hizi zinaf^iliwa kila 
viki. 
Nani aiiazifuaS 

Shaniba hili linapaliliwa 
mara kwa loara* 
Nani analipalilia 2 

Unanizuia nisipurozike* 
Nani anakuzuiaj 



Be Indicative vs* relative (relative 

sabvini Trmatiunia sabuni. 

Sabuni gani ^layotiJiDiaS 

nafuta Tuna mafuta* 

Mafuta gani nnayotumia? 

kalaau Tuna kalamu. 

Kalanm gani miayotviinia? 

jambe Tuna jembe, 

Jenbe gani dnalotunda? 

vanga Tuna wanga* 

Wanga gani ^laotuoda? 

wino Tuna wine. 

Wino gani :linaotuioia? 



Who washes them? 
This farm is weeded often* 

Who weeds it? 

Tou prevent me from resting* 
Who prevents you? 

object)* 

We use soap* 
What kind of soap do you use? 

We use oil* 

What kind of oil do you use? 

We use pens* 

What kind of pens do you use? 

We use a hoe* 

What kind of hoe do you use? 

We use stardi* 

What kind of starch do you use? 

We use ink* 

What kind of ink do you use? 



368 



UNIT 92 



SWAHILI 



Unit_92 
la Basic Dialogue* A good-lotddzig uniform* 

Maina 
Borenzi i\ik) 
(mfenzangu) 
-ng'aa 
Mwenzangu, nguo zako zang'aa* 



cqapanion 
(nirenzi wangu) 
to shine 
Your clothes are veiy bright va^ 
friend. 



Juna 



kabla ya 
pasi (N) 
Ndiyo. Zilitiwa vanga kabla ya 
kupigwa pasi* 
BOtO (MI) 
Hata pasi yenyewe ilikuifa ya moto 
kweli* 

I -kauka 

Ndiyo> nguo zikisha kauka vizuri 
■ zapigika pasi vizuri* 
\ kifungo (VI) 

Na hivi vifungo vyang'aa* Viaietiwa 
wanga pla) 



Maina 



before 

iroD (for pressing) 
TeS) they were starched before being 
ironed* 
fire 
Besides, the iron itself was really 
hot* 

to get dry 
Yes, when clothes have dried to the 
right point, they iron very well, 
button 
And these buttons shine* Have they 
also been starched^ 



369 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 92 



Juna 



-sugua 
Hapana, lakLni ▼llisuguliwa na 

'Brasso'* 
a. 



to polish 
NO) but they've been polished with 
'Brasso'* 



A* a moto* 
kahawa Kahawa hii ni ya moto* This coffee is hot* 

chai nyama 
uji UJi huu ni wa moto* This porridge is hot* 

vali 

B* -£0- in first verb, followed by verb phrase with ali^uwa ha|Ja-« 



kunaliza Hasani alipofika, AH 

alikuwa hajainaliza kazi 
yake* 

kwanza Hasani alipofika, Ali 

alikuwa hajaanaa kazi 
yake* 

kusema Hasani alipofika, Ali 
alikuwa hajasema* 

kufunga Hasani alipofika, Ali 
alikuwa hajafunga 
nlango* 



When Hasani arrived, Ali had 
not finished his work* 

When Hasani arrived, Ali had 
not started his work* 

When Hasani arrived, Ali had 
not 8p<^en* 

Vlhen Hasani arrived, Ali had 
not closed the door* 



A* Concord: Subject prefix in the first sentence, with object prefix 
in the second* 



nguo 
(pl.) 



Nguo hizi zinekauka* 
Usisiloveke. 



These clothes are dry* 
Don't vet thaaii- 



370 



UNIT 92 



SWAHILI 



shati Shati hlli litnekatika* 
Usililoweke* 

siashatl Kashatl haya yamskauka, 
UsiTalcweke • 

suruall Suruall hii ifflakauka* 
(sg«) Usiiloweke. 

suruali Suruall hizi ziotekauka* 
^P^») Usiziloweke. 

kotl Kotl hlli limekauka. 
Uslliloveke* 

nakoti Makoti haya yamekaukaa 
Uslyaloweke* 



This shirt is dry. 
Don't wet it. 

These shirts are dry« 
Don't wet them* 

This pair of trousars is dry* 
Don't wet it. 

These pairs of trousers are dry. 
Don't wet them. 

This coat is dry® 
Don't wet it. 

These coats are diy, 
Doa't wet them. 



B, "i*- negative verb vs, affirmative subjunctive verb 



kukauka Nguo hizi hazijakauka, 
Yafaa zikaushwe, 

kupigwa Nguo hizi hazijapigwa pasi. 



These clothes have not gotten dry. 
It's a good idea to dry them. 



kutiwa 
wanga 



Yafaa zipigwe pasi, 
Nguo hizi hazijatlva wanga* 

Yafaa zitiwe wanga. 



These clothes have not been ironed. 
It's a good idea to iron them. 

These clothes have not been 
starched. 
It's a good idea to starch them* 

These clothes have not been 
washed. 
It's a good idea to wash them. 

Conversation Starters 

1, A is a laundryman, B discusses with him the way he wants his shirts 
done. He doesn't want his drip-<iry shirts ironed* 

2, B checks through the returned laundry with A and finds some articles 
missing. 



kufuliwa Nguo hizi hazijafuliwa* 
Yafaa zifuliwe. 



371 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 93 



1* Basic Dialogud* Making a bed* 

Adi^a 
-tandika to spread 

mgeiii (W&) guest 

kitanda (VI) bed 



Asha, mtandikie ^ani kitanda* 



Asha make the bed for [our] guest* 



■t .; ■-■ i ,'.' 



■Mv 



Asha 

shuka ' sheet 

Uliweka blanketi na shuka ^^apit Where did you put the blankets and 

sheets? 
Adija 

inside of 
They're inside ay cabinet* 
Asha 

mattress 
I can't find the mattress for the bed* 
Adlja 

to ask 
Ask JuBia to show you where it is* 
Asiia 



ndani ya 
Zimo ndani ya sanduku langu* 

V - ■' 

godoro (ma) 
Si<xii godoro* 

-uliza 
Mwulize Juma akucsiyeshe liliko« 



Juma, tafadhali niletea godoro up«si* Jujto.. please bring me ihe mattress 

qui.ckly. 



372 



UNIT 93 SWAHILI 



foronya (N) pillowcase 

Bado foronya tu. Asante, Juma, And now just the pillowcase. Thank 

you, Juma, 

Notes 

A, A verb with two objects. 

fitandikie Ageni kitanda, Mfike the bed for the guest. 

This verb has two objects. The first of then is translated as vihat we 
would call an 'indirect object', 

B» -uliza plus subjunctive. 

Mwiilize akusaidie. Aak him to help you. 

The verb -uliza may be followed by subjunctive forms, with the meaning 
'to ask someone to do something', 

C, -li- as a verb stem. 

Atakuonyesha liliko. He will show you where it (the 

mattress) is. 

In the word liliko, the first li- is the subject prefix, the second -li- 
is the stem usually translated 'be', and ko is a suffix with the concord of 
the ku- class, 

A. Number agreejnertt, 
mgeni Mtandikie mgeni kitanda. Make the bed for the guest. 

mwalimu baba 
wageni Watandikie wageni vitanda, Make the beds for the guests, 

waalinu 

■ B, -onjesha plus a clause) concords subject noim and -like* 

godoro Juma atalmonyesha godoro Juma will show you where the 
liliko* mattress is, 

373 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 93 



kitanda 
shuka 

roito 
blai^keti 

C. 

i 

shuka 

sanduku 

nlto 

nito 

shatl 

nashatl 



Juina atakuonyesha kitsuida 
kiliko. 

Juma atakuonyesha shuka 
iliko, 

Jiuna atakuonyesha n^to 
ullko. 

Juma atakuonyesha mi to 
iliko, . ;=> 

Juma atakuonyesha blanket! 
iliko. 

Concord: noun subject and locative 

Vitanda vimo ndanl ya nyuniba* 

Shuka zirao ndani ya nyuiaba« 

Shuka zlmo ndani ya sanduku* 

Mto iino ndani ya sanduku* 

Mto luno ndani ya sanduku* 

Shati limo ndani ya sanduku* 

Mashati yamo ndani ya sanduku* 



Juma will show you where the 
bed is* 

Juma will show you where the 
bedsheet is* 

Juma will show you where the 
pillow is* 

Juma will show you where the 
pillows are* 

Jvma will show you where the 
blanket is* 

stem HBio* 

The beds are in the house* 

The sheets are in the house* 

The sheets are in the box* 

The pillows are in the box* 

The pillow is in the box* 

The shirt is in the box* 

The shirts are in the booc* 



A* Imperative with object prefix vs. subjunctive with object prefix* 



kusaidia 



kupiga 
pasi 



Tafadhali, nisaidie* 
Mwombe Juma akusaidie* 

Tafadhali, zipige pasi 
suruali hizi* 
Mwanbe Juma azipige pasi* 



kupalllia Nenda ukapalilie inahindi* 
Mwonibe Juma aende 
akapalilie inahindi* 

37U 



Please > help me* 
Ask Juma to help you* 

Please ; iron these trousers* 

Ask Juma to iron there* 

Go to weed the maize* 

Ask Juma to go to weed the 
maize* 



UNIT 93 



SWAHILI 



kutunza 



Kaa i^jrunbani uMatunze 
vatoto* 

Mtronibe Juma akeie nyuinbani 
awatunza. 



Stay at horns and look after the 
children* 
Ask Juna to stay and look after 

them. 



B. 
kutaka 



A-tense: indicatlye vs. relative* 



Vatoto vataka chakxila ganiS 

Nitawauliza chakola 
watakacho* 

kufanya Watoto vanafanya nini? 
Nitawauliza kazi 
vafanyayo* 

kuseisa Watoto wanasema ninit 

Nitawatiliza wasemalo* 
(cf. ^ambo (M) 'matter') 

kula Watoto vanakula ninil 
Nitawauliza vyakula 
walavyo* 

kusoraa Watoto vanasona vitabu ganiS 
Nitawauliza vitabu 
vasoanavyo* 

kupumzika Kwa nini watoto wanapumzikaS 
Nitawauliza sababu 
wapumzikayo* 

kucheza Kwa nini wanachezaS 

Nitawauliza sababu gani 
wanacheza* 



What kind of food do the children 
want? 

I will ask them the kind of food 
they want* 

What are the children doing? 

I will ask them (what) [work] they 
are doing* 

What are the children saying? 
1 will ask them vdiat they are 
saying* 

What are the children eating? 

I will ask them (the kinds of food) 
they are eating* 

What books are the children reading? 
I will ask them the type of books 
they are reading* 

Why are the children resting? 
I will ask them the reason for 
their resting* 

Why are they playing? 

I will ask them tAij they are 
playing* 



375 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 9k 



./VIJ 



2nit__9l» 

i« Basic Dialogue, The mosquito net, 

Maina 

Hapa katika jimbo hili pana mbu Hare in this province there are very 

wengi sana« many mosquitoes. 

chandalua (VI ) mosquito net 

(or: chandarua) 

Hivi yatulazimu kuwa na chandalua. Thus it's necessary for us to have a 

mosquito net, 

Butler 

How many tiiMs a weak do you change 

the bed linsnsl 
Maina *^- ».,- 

Mother changes thera every Friday, 
Butler 

sleep 
^„. to annoy, tease, trouble 

V/hen you are asleep, do the mosquitoes 
bother youS 
Maina 

noise 
They make a lob of noise at night, 
Butler 
Nasikia kuwa abu wa hapa waleta I hear that the mosquitoes (of) here 
malaria? carry malaria, 

376 



Mnabadili nguo za kitanda mara 
ngapi kwa wikil 

Mama huzibadili kila Ijumaa, 

usingizi (U) 

-sumbua . .,,■.,,; . ,.^ 
Mkiwa usinglzini, hawa mbu 
wawasumbueni? 

kelele (N) 
Wapiga kelele sana usiku. 



UNIT 9U SWAHILI 



Maina 
NdlyOf bwand; tvasxinbuliwa sana nao* Tes^ indeed. We are bothered a lot 

by them. 

Notes 
A. Fa as a subject prefix* 
Not© the subject prefix ga- agreeing with the word haga, 

B, 

The use of the na tense (^Sa^fjd^i) followed in the next sentence by the 
hu tense raises questions about the adequacy with which the published i-ules 
concerning these tenses i*eflect actual usage, 

a. 

A, Various objects used with -badili. 

kitanda Siwezi kubadiJJ. nguo za I can't change the bed linsn now, 
kitanda sasa. 

nguo Siwezi kubadili nguo zangu I can't change lay clothes now, 
sasa, 

shilingi Siwezi kuvunja shilingi I can't change five shillings now, 

tano . 

tano sasa, 

meza Siwezi kubadili kitambaa I can't change the tablecloth now* 
cha iRSza sasa, 

B. Various verbs used with mbu as subject, 

kusmnbua Mbu husunibua watu. Mosquitoes bother peopl«. 

kuuina Mbu huuma watu. Mosquitoes bite people, 

kudhiuni dbu hudhuru watu. Mosquitoes harm people, 

kuletea Mbu huwaletea watu malaria. Mosquitoes bring malaria 

to peoples 



377 



BASIC GOimSE 



UNIT 9U 



3* 



A, Various tenses in reported speech. 



kuumia Nilisikia kuwa ulitpaa 
mkono wako* 
Ndiyo, Niliutania Juzl, 

kujiuniza Nilisikia kuwa ulijiumiza 
mkono wakoe 
Ndiyo. Nilijiiuniza juzi, 

J . . .s 

".' r. ; . 

kuchelewa Nilisikia kuwa wewe 

huchelewa kila siku. 
Ndiyo* Nilicheleua juzi. 

kupalilia Nilisikia kuwa utaupalilia 
ua» 
Ndiyo. Niliupalilia juzi. 

B. Kama in indirect questions. 

kusafisha Mama amesafisha vyc^nbol 
Sijul. Nitamvntliza 
kama amevisafisha. 

kutandika Mama anetandika kitaixia? 

Si Jul. Nitanwuliza kama 
amekitandika. 

kuchemsha Msuna amechemsha maziwa? 

Si Jul. Nitamwuliza kama 
ameyachemsha« 



I heard that your hand was hurt. 

Yes. I hurt it the day before 
yesterday. 

I heard that you hurt your hand* 

Yes* I hurt n^self the day 
before yesterday. 
I heard that you are always late. 

Yes. I was late the day before 
yesterday, 

I heard that you were to weed the 
yard* 

Yes. I weeded it the day before 
yesterday. 

Has mother washed the utensil s2 
I don't know. I'll ask her if 
she has washed them* 

Has mother made the bed? 

I don't know. I'll ask her if 
she has made it* 

Has mother boiled the milk? 
I don't know, I'll ask her if 
she has boiled it* 



378 



UNIT 9k 



SWAHILI 



koita 



kulipa 



kutengS" 
neza 



kuenda 



>knia amewadta watotol 
Si Jul « Mitaitiwuliza kama 

Mama anielipa mafutal 

Sijvd. Nitaaofullsa kania 
sneyallpa* 

Mana an^tengeneza chakula 
cha jionil 

Si Jul • Nitaanraliza kasia 
amekitdngene za » 

y^iMBi ainskwenda kuBuniia 
sukari? 

Sijiiio Nitarnmiliza kana 
aigskwenda* 



Has mother called the childreni 
I don't knowa I'U ask her if 

she has called the^g 

Has mother paid for the oill 
I doQ't know* I'll ask her if 
she has paidd 

Has Biother prepared supperl 

I don't know, I'll ask her 
if she has prepared it« 

Has my mother gone to buy some 
sugar? 

I don't knwTo I'll ask her if 
£11© has gon®« 



Conversation Starters 

la A (a housewife) discusses with 5 (a dosnestic servant) the way in 
which she wants the bedrooms to be maintained. 

2« C and D discuss the furniture that will be needed for C's house in 
Tabora» 



379 



BASIC COimSE 



UNIT 95 



Unit_95 
i« Basic Dialogue. A guest is coming for dinneri 

Hajnisi 



-tembelea 

mashuhuri 
Leo Jioni tutatembelewa na mgeni 

mashvihuri* 
Kwa hivyo Adija, tandika meza 



to visit 

famous 
This evening we're going to be visited 

by a famous guest* 
Therefore^ Adija^ set the table well* 



vizuri, . '_^^<v .,^,i ,„j,-;,. .;; ■ 
Weka kitambaa na nyuraa mbili upanie Put the serviette and two forks on 



wa kushoto. 
kijiko (VI) 
Kulia kwa sahani, visu viwili na 
vijiko vitatu, '■" 
-sahau 
Usisahau kuleta maji, bilauri, 

pilipili na chumvi, 
Kwa kupsJculia, tutahitaji vijiko 
vikubwa. 

Nikixnaliza hayo yote nitakuita. 



the left* 
spoon 
[To] the right of th© plate, two 

knives and three spoons. 
'-■1' to forget 
Dai't forget to bring water, glasses, 

salt and pepper* 
For dishing up the food, we will need 

scHne big spoons* 



Adi^a 



When I finish all those [things] I'll 
call you* 



380 



UNIT 95 



SWAHILI 



Notes 
A, Concord with a noun having the prefix ku. 
In kulia kwa sahani, the prefix kw agrees with the ku of the preceding 



worde 



A, Location of one object relative to another. 



kijiko-sahani Kijiko kiko ktilia kwa 
sahani. 



The spoon is to the right of the 
plate . 



sahani -kijiko SsJiani iko kushoto kwa 
kijiko. 



The plate is to the left of the 
spoon. 

kijiko-kisu Kijiko kiko kiilia kwa kisue The spoon is to the right of the 

knife* 



kisu-kijiko Kisu kiko kushoto kwa 
kijiko, 

visu-vijiko Visu viko kushoto kwa 
vijiko. 



The knife is to the left of the 
spoon. 

The knives are to the left of 
the spoons* 

'Jina-sahani Uma iko kushoto kwa sahani* The fork is to the left of the 

plate • 

sahani-uma Sahani iko kulia kwa umsa The plate is to the right of the 

fork. 



nyuma-sahani Njusia ziko kushoto kwa 
sahani. 

kijiko cha Kijiko cha supu kiko 
^ " mbele ya sahani, 

bilauri-visu Bilauri ya niaji iko 
mbele ya visu, 

kikcsnbe-nyuma Kikonbe kiko kulia kwa 
nyuma. 



The forks are to the left of the 
plate. 

The soup spoon is in front of the 
plat©. 

The glass of water is in front of 
the knives. 

The cup is on the right of tha 
forks. 



381 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 95 



kltambaa-sahani Kltanbaa kiko kushoto The napkin Is on the left of the 

kwa sahanio plate* 

kikonbeokltanibaa KikcHzibe kiko mbele ya The cup is in froirb of the 

kitanibaa* napkin o 

3* 

A« -sahau and -kunbuka* 

wewe Usisahau pilipili. D<»i't forget the pepper* 

Bila shaka nitakunibuka* I will certainly reBtember* 

ninyi Asisahau pilipili* Don't forget the pepper* 

Bila shaka tutakmnbuka. We vill certainly resember* 

ysye Asisahau pilipili * He must not forget the pepper e 

Bila shaka atakumbi^ka,* He will certainly remember* 

vac Wasisahau pilipili* They must not forget the pepper* 

Bila shaka watakumbuka* They vdll certainly remsmber* 



r .,' :- i H. 



^1.1,7, . : ':r? i^> 



■'^ ..-' •IS, r ■'•tot 



38a 



JNIT 96 SWAHILI 



Unit_96 
1* Basic Dialogue* At the table* 

Adija 
Karibu nazani^ Wasibua* CcHne to the table, Waitibua. 

Wanibua 
Starehe* You're very kind* 

""tamu sweet J delicious 

Kweli leo mna -syakula vitarcu sana. Really, you have some verj-^ delicious 

dishes today. 
Adi^a 
A^sante, lakini tuneishiva siagi* Thank you, but ve*ve run out of 

butter* 
Wainbua 
5i kitu. Don't worry* ('It's nothing*') 

-sogeza to bring near 

Tafadhali nisogezee maziwa* Please pass the nilk* 

Adi^a 
Juma, tafadhali ondoa vycanbo mezani; Jujna, please clear the dishes frcsn 
tunekwisha maliza kula* the table; we have finished eating* 

JuBia 
Kdiyo, naBia* Yes, mother* 

Chai na kahawa viko (or: iko) tayari* The tea and coffee are ready* 



383 



BASIC COURSE . UNIT 96 



Adi^Ja 
bakuli (M) bowl 

blrika (MA) pot (tea) 

Leta vikwribe na vlsaliani vyake. Bring the cups and saucers, the svigar 
bakuli la sukari na birika la chai, bowl, and the tea pot» 

Juma 
Ngo.ja kidogo. Wait a bit, 

A, Concord with two or more nouns. 

Whei^ two inaniKiate nouns (e.g. chai and kahawa) are the cubject of the 
same verb, the question arises which subject prefix to use. The question is 
further ccwiplicated when the two nouns happen to belong to different classes 
(e.g. uma and ^o*''^®^* Speakers differ in their practice in such situations; 
a final resolution of the problem must await further study. 

B, ~ake with an inanimate plural antecedent. 

vikombe na visahani vyake 

Hitherto we have translated "ake as either 'his' or 'her'. It may also 
correspond to the English possessive forms its and their(s). Note that ~ake 
is the stem used whether the inanimate antecedent of the stem (yikOTjbe in 
this example) is singular or plural. Contrast, with animate nouns, ~ake when 
the antecedent is singular and ~ao when it is plural: 

mkulima na watoto wake 

wakvilima na watoto wao 

A. Verb phrase with me-tense in second verb# 
siagi Jana tulikuwa tximeishiwa siagi. Yesterday we were shoi't of butter. 



38U 



JNIT 96 



SWAHILI 



chuimri Jana tulikuwa tumeishiwa 

chumvl. 

stikari Jana tuliJcuwa tumeishiva 

srikaid. 



wxno 



Yesterday we were short of salt* 
lesterday we were short of sugar. 



Jana tiilikuwa tumeishiwa wino. Yesterday we were short of ink. 

Yesterday we wore short of soap. 



sabuni Jana tulilruwa ttuneiahiwa 
sabunl. 

niafuta Jana tulikuwa tumeisliiwa 
mafuta. 



Yesterday we were short of oil* 



B, -;3a- negative I -o£doa with locative, 
vyombo Kwa nini hujaondoa vycanbo Why haven't you removed the utensils 



mezaniS 

sahani Kwa ninl hujaondoa sahanl 
mezani? 

vijiko vikojnbe kitambaa 



from the table? 
Why haven't you removed the plates 
from the table 1 



A. Concord: Subject prefix with two noun subjects, 



chai Chai iko tayari. 

kahawa Kahawa iko tayari, 

Chai na kahawa viko (or: 
iko) taj'ari. 

bilauri Bilauri ziko tayari. 

sahani Sahani ziko tayari. 



B. 



The tea is ready. 

The coffee is ready. 

The tea and coffee are ready. 



The glasses are ready. 

The plates are ready. 

Bilauri na sahani ziko (or: The glasses and plates are ready. 
viko tayari) tayari. 



suruali Suruali iko tayari. 
(sg.) 



The trousers ai^ ready. 



365 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 96 



koti 

Yusa 

suruall 
(pl.) 

aiakoti 

sttruali na 
Biakoti 

kaiLami 
(pl.) 

wiao 



bakuli 

birika 

vyakula 

kalamu na 
wino 



Koti liko tayaris 

Una uko (or: iko) tayari* 

Suruali ziko tayaria 

Hakoti yako tayari« 

Suruali sm makoti vlko (ors 
yako) taysri« 

Kalamu ziko tayari. 

Wino uks tayari 9 

Kitanda kiko tayari « 

Bakuli liko tayari. 

Birika liko (ors iko) tayari* 

Vyakula viko tayari e 

Kalasru na vino viko (ors upo) 
tayari. 



The coat is ready. 
The fork is ready* 
The trousers are readye 

The coats are ready. 

The trousers and coats are ready. 

The pens are ready. 

The ink is ready. 

The bed is ready. 

The bowl is readj* 

The kettle is ready. 

The food is ready. 

The pens and ink are ready. 



. v'/ 






1-, 



386 



UNIT 97 SWAHILI 



Unit 97 
Is Basic Dialogue* Washing disheso 

Adija 
N&ni atakayesafisha vyc^&o leol Who is going to wash the dishes 

today? 
JuBia 
Miici, mssB&f Asha atanisaidiae I [will], motbere Asha tdJLl help ne* 

Adi^a 
Nitawapatieni maji ya moto« I'll get you s<mb hot water® 

Juna 
Asha; tafadhali lete sabuni na Asha, please bring soap and cloths a 
vitambaa* 

Adi^a 
Hi so that 

-cheisha to boil 

Nimecheilsha mji ili yaondoe mafuta I've boiled the water so that it will 
katika vyaabo® remove the grease frcm (on) the 

plates e 
Jvuna 
Asante, mama* Thank you. Mother* 

Adi^a 
kabati (N or MA.) cupboard 

Asha, weka vyonibo irUivyokauka Asha, put the dry plates in the cup- 
kabatini* board* 



387 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 97 



Juma 
-ng'ang'ania here? to stick to 

Mayai yajneng'ang'ania katika sahard. Some egg is atuck to the plate* 

Adlja 
Irudishe majini ili uisafishe Put it back into the water so that 
vizuri. you [can] get it good and clean. 

Notes 
A. The subjunctive with ili« 
Note the use of the subjunctive after ili 'so that'. 



s • 



A, Relative and locative suffixes on the same verb. 

vycanbo Vyombo vilivycmo kabatini The utensils that are in the 

vimekaukao cupboard are dry. 

vikonibe 

sahani Sahani zilizomo kabatini The plates that are in the cup- 

ziniekauka* • board are dry. 

bilauri nguo kisu kijiko ujna nyuma 

B, -■ ^- ■'••■ ■■ ■" ■ 



vyombo Vycsnbo vilivyoko mezani 
vina majimaji, 

vi sahani 

sahani Sahani ailizoko mezani 
zira majimaji, 

nguo kisu kijiko uma 



The utensils that are on the 
table aire wet. 



The plates that are on the table 
are wet. 



nyuma 



388 



UNIT 97 



SWAHILI 



C« Concord: noun object in first clause and su^oject prefix in second. 

Put the utonsils on the table to 
dry. 

Put ths forks on the table to dry. 



vyonbo Weka vyc»nbo iiDezanl ili 
vikauke. 



nyuina Weka nyuica mszani ili 
zikauke. 



bilaurl Weka bilauri inezani ili 
zikauke* 



una 



Put the glasses on the table to dry, 
Weka uma mezani ili ikavike. Put the fork on the table to dry. 



maji 



chai 



kahawa 



naziwa 



-na- tense affirmative vs. -ja- negative* 

MaJi yanacherakal 

Hapana, hayajachemka 
bado, 

Chai inachemka^ 

Uapana, haijachenka bado* 

Kahawa inachenka^ 
Hapana, haijacheraka bado. 



B. 



viazi 



nyama 



nboga 



Maziwa yanachemka? 

Hapana, hayajachemka bado. 

Concord in multiple positions, 

Viazi hivi havina moto, 
Virudishe ndani ya jiko 
ili vipate moto, 

Nyama hii haina moto, 

Irudishe ndani ya jiko ili 
ipate moto* 

>ft)oga hizi hazina moto, 

Zirudishe ndani ya Jiko ili 
zipate moto* 



Is the water boiling? 
No* It hasn't boiled yet* 

Is the tea boiling? 
No» It hasn't boiled yet. 

Is the coffee boiling? 
No. It hasn't boiled yet* 



Is the milk boiling? 
No, It hasn't boiled yet. 



These potatoes are not wsirm. 

Put them back on the fire to get 
wazTu, 

This meat is not warm. 

Put it back in the kitchen to 
get warm. 

These vegetables are not wars:. 
Put them back on the fire to get 
waxm* 



389 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 97 



wall Wall huu haiana moto. This rice is not i^arau 

Urudishe ndani ya Jiko ili Put it back on the fire to get 
upate motOe warm* 

Conversation Starters 

1, A (a mother) discusses with B (a domestic servant) B's duties in 
setting the table and caring for the dishes* 

2o C and D discuss the differences between British and American customs 
relating to the setting of a dinner table a 



390 



UNIT 98 



SWAHILI 



Unit^98 
la Basic Dialogue • Caring for the lavn, 

Hamisi 
mkasi (KL) scissors 

ua (U) hedge 

nwiba (HI) thorn 

Nipatie nkasi va kukatia ua va Get ma the clippers for cutting the 
ndibaa thorn hedge* 

Juna 
njasi (N pi*) grass 

Chukua* mdjoaliza^ uje tukate nyasi Hers you are ('take')* Vilhen jou 
uani* finish j come and we'll cut the 

grass in the yard* 
Hamisi 
Hapana* Wewe kata nyasi peke yako. No* You cut the grass by yourself « 
mind nina kazi nyingine* I have other work* 

Juma 

Uhat worki 
^rolsi 

flower 
The flowers need to be weeded* 
Juiaa 

to grow 
weed 
Vlhy? Have the weeds come up2 



K&si ganil 

ua (MA) 
Maua yanahltaji kupaliliwa* 

-maa 

gugu (m.) 
Kwani magugu yamemea? 



391 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 98 



Tanai 

Usisahau kuswagllia maua majl* 

-onana 
Haya. Tutaonana baadaye* 



Haralsl 

Of coiirsei 

Juna 

Don't forget to water the flowers. 
Hand si 

to see one another 

O.K. See you later. 

Notes 



A, The reciprocal suffix. 

The 'reciprocal' suffix -an- corresponds roughly to English '...one 
another' # , -. . r-r ■-, 

a. - ■■ • ■'-■'' 

A. Concord: subject prefixes with sane new nouns, 
muhindi Muhindi uineinea upesi sana. The maize has sprouted very soon. 
Mpunga umemea upesi sana. 



mpunga 

magugu 

ua 
(flower) 

maua 



The rice has sprouted very soon. 
Magugu yamemea upesi sana. The weeds have sprouted very so<»i. 



Ua limemea uj^esi sana. 



Haua yamemea upesi sana. 



nyasi Nyasi zimen»a upesi sana« 

B. Reciprocal stems* 
kuona War^onana kila siku. 
kupiga Wanapigana kila siku. 
kusaidia Wanasaidiana kila siku. 
kuamkia Wanaaraklana kila siku. 



The flower has sprouted very soon. 

The flowers have sprouted very- 
soon. 

The grass has sprouted very soon. 

They see each other every day. 
They fLght each other every day. 
They help each other every day. 
They greet each other eveiy day. 



39a 



UNIT 98 



SWAHILI 



kungoja Wanangojearm kila siku. They wait for each other every day a 
C, A sentence which contains three examples of reciprocal stems. 



kufuata, 

kupotezai 

kuona 



Hajnisi na rafikiye (on Hainisi and his friend went together 

rafiki yake) walifuatana to the market in the inomingj 
sokoni asubuhi, wakapotezana they lost each other over there, 
hiiko, wakaonana tena and then saw each other again in 
alasiri* the afternoon* 



A, Plural imperative: negative vs. 

kiiDiwagilia Msisahau kuinwagilia roaua 
maji, 

Hapana, Ninyi riwagilieni 
inaua peke yenu« 

kukata Msisahau kukata nyasi* 
Hapana. Kinyi kat^ni 
nyasi peke yenu. 

kuchemsha Msisahau kuchemsha laaji ya 
kusafis'aia vyonibo. 
Hapana. Ninyi chemsheni 
maji pake yenu. 

kutandika MsisaJb-ra kutandika kitanda 
cha mgenl. 

Hapraia. Ninyi tandikeni 
ky^nda pake yenu. 

Be -ta- tense vs. -ki- tense. 

kukata TJtakata ual 

Ukikate. ua, nitakata 
nyasi. 



affirmative. 

Don't forget to water the flowers. 

No. Water the flowers by 
yourselves. 

Don't forget to cut the grass. 
Noe Cut the grass by 
yourselves. 

Don't forget to boil water for 
washing the dishes. 
No. Boil the water by 
yourselves. 

Don't forget to make the guest's 
bed. 
No. Make the bed by yourselves. 



Will you cut the hedge? 

If you cut the hedge, I'll cut 
the grass. 



393 



BASIC COURSE 



UWrT 98 



kuKwagilia UtaEwagHia maua aajil Will you water ths flowers? 

UMrawagilia maxia, nitakata If you water the fl.owers, I 

will cut the grass* 



\t''(i$xif£Q-iMa shasiba kusafisha Tjombo Imfua nguo 



•■■0'.3 



;;>ir A ,i •.■ ssn I'- 






iiJJ&i'K 



X!'!i&. -fiff^qyfipr?:..,/' 



.■C.-)>-,, 



39U 



UNIT 99 



SWAHILI 



Unit_99 
« Basic Dialogue » Trials of a baby-sitter* 

Maria 



-chiinga 
Watoto wadogo wahitaji kuchungwa 
(or: kutunzwa) sana* 

-acha 
Wakiachiliva pake yao watatunia* 

-ruhusu 

-kimbia 

barabira 
Si vizuri kuwaruhusu wakinibie 
barabaraoi* 

-epa 

hatari (N) 
Havajui kuepa hatari — kama magari* 

-linda 
Wanataka kulindwa kila niara. 



to care for 
Young children need to be eared for 
very well, 
to leave 
If they are left alone they will get 
h\irt« 

to allov 
to ran 

road, highway 
It's not good to let them run around 
in the street* 

to avoid; escape 
danger 
They don't know how to escape from 
dangers, like cars* 
to protaet 
They require protection eveiy minute* 



Notes 

A. The verb -jrahusu with infinitive or subjunctive* 

The verb -ruhusu 'to peraiit' may be foUowed by Infinitive or by sub- 
junctive verb forms* 



395 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 99 



A, Vocabulary practice in a sentence with an exajraple of the use of the 
-ki- tense. 



kuumia Watoto wakiachiliwa peke 
y&o wataujnia* 



If children are left alone they'll 
get hurt. 

If children are left alone they'll 
run around* 



kukimbia Watoto wakiachiliwa peke 
yao watakinibia huko na 
huko* 

kucheza kupigana ' v*'---^*' ~'< 

B. -acha plus infinitive. ' 

Wakati gani aliacha kuscmiaS At uhat time did he stop reading? 



kusema 
kuliroa 



Wakati gani aliacha kulima? At what time did he stop 

cultivating? 



kucheza kulia 



C. 



,!: V ir;^. ? 



kusoma Acheni kusonai <: ■ 

kushangilia Acheni kushangiliai 

kupigana Acheni kupiganai :-^i 

kelele Acheni kuplga kelelei 

kuchemaha Acheni kuchsmsha raajiS 

D* -kiiBbia na • 

pesa Watoto valikimbia na pess. 
sangu. 

kalami Watoto walikimbia na kalaBm 
yangu. 

kitabu jembe kijiko 



Stop reading! 
Stop rejoicing! 
Stop fighting I 
Stop making noise 1 
Stop boiling water 1 

The children ran away with my 
money. 

The children ran away with my pen. 



396 



JNIT 99 



SWAHILI 



A, -ruhusu plus a subjunctive formi infinitive vs. subjunctive of a 
single verb* 



The children want to play in the 
roade 
We don't allOTr them to play in it. 

The children want to run in the 
road, J 
We don't allov them to run in it. 



kucheza Watoto wataka kucheza 
barabarani. 
Hatuwaruhusu wachezee 
humo* 

kukimbia Watoto wataka kukimbia 
barabarani. 
Hatowaruhusu wakimbie 
humo. 

kukaa. kwenda 

B. -acha and -«ndelea plus infinitive; rogaka* 

kusema Acha kuseatal Stop talking I 

Siachi. Nitaendelea I won't stop* I will keap on 

kusema i^naka usiku. tallcing until dark. 

kusona Acha kusonal 

Siachi. Nitaendelea 
kusooia mpaka usiku* 

kufanya kazi kuogelea kukata nyasi 



Stop readingi 

I won't stop. I will keep on 
reading until dark. 



397 



BASIC COURSE ' UNIT 100 



Unit^i 00 

i« Basic Dialogue* Trials of a baby-sitter, (continued) 

Mirambo 

kifaranga (VI - pers») chick (dim.): small child 

. ? (colloq.) 

-onja to taste, try 

Vifaranga hupends kuonja kila kitu* Small children like to taste every- 

. thing. 

:: ■■ , ■■■•■ '•;■'■■- • " -u ^ i"w 

Magesa 
-jali to give honor to 

Hata udongo na uchafu, hawajali. They don't even stop at soil and 

■, ,,!.; ■ ".t,. ' dirt« 
'"'■■"'"" ' ' Mtraasbo 

jua (ma) sun 

«»chcsna ■ to bum, apply fire to 

Tena, watoto wa kizungu wakikaa Also, European children, if they 
juani kwa imida mrefu, huchcmnra ■, ,. stay in the sun for a long period, 
na jua vlbaya, • , get badly burned (by the sun). 

Magese 
"tii to obey 

Watoto yawalazimu kuwatii wazazi It's necessary for children to obey 
wao. their parents* 

Mirambo 
-lea to rear 



398 



UNIT 10O 



SWAHILI 



-kua 

'Mtoto vunlsavyo ndivyo akuavyo, ' 

2. 

Ae tangu 

Jan* Hamisi amekua sana tangu 
Janiiari. 

Feb* Hamisi anekua sana tangu 
Februari* 

Machi Aprili Mei Juni 
Oktoba Novemba Desemba 

B, -kusudia plus infinitive* 

soko Hatukusudii kukaa sokoni 
kwa muda inrefu* 

pwani Hatukusudii kukaa pwani 
kwa rauda mrefu* 

nyumba Hatukusudii kukaa nyumbani 
kwa muda mrefu* 

kwao Hatukusudii kukaa kwao kwa 
muda mrefu* 

Morogoro Hatukusudii kukaa Morogoro 
kwa muda inrefu* 

kusini Hatukusudii kukaa kusini 
kwa muda mrefu* 

mashariki Hatukusudii kukaa roasharikl 
kwa muda mrefu* 

C. -tii 

wazazi Watii wazazi wakol 
waalimu Watii waalimu wakoi 



to grow 

'As the twig is bent, the tree's 
inclined* ' 



Hamisi has grown a lot since 
January* 

Hamisi has grown a lot since 
February 

Julai Agosti Septemba 



We don't intend to stay in the 
market long* 

We don't intend to stay at the 
coast long* 

We don't intend to stay in the 
house long. 

We don't intend to stay at their 
place long* 

We don't intend to stay in 
Morogoro long* 

We don't intend to stay in the 
south long* 

We don't intend to stay in the 
east long* 



Obey your parents] 
Obey your teachers I 



399 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 100 



Mtii mwalimu wakoi 
Mtii baba jrakol 
Mtii mama yakoV 



Obey your teacherl 
Obey your father i 
Obey your mother I 



mwalimu 

baba 

nama 

A, Concord: the word mahali and the PA locative, 
kalaiiiu 



pesa 



kofia 



kitabu 



chupa 
viberiti 



Nimepoteza kalaimi yangul 
Mahali ulipoiacha kalamu, 
ndipo ilipo, 

Nimepoteza pesa zangui 
Ifehali ulipoziacha pesa, 
ndipo zilipo, 

Nijnepoteza kofia yangul 
Mahali ulipoiacha kofia, 
ndipo ilipo. 

Nimepoteza kitabu changul 
Mahali ulipokiacha kitabu, 
ndipo kilipo. 

Nimepoteza chupa yangul 
. Mahali ulipoiacha chupa 
ndipo ilipo. ... .. .,>./, 

Nimepoteza viberiti vyangul 
Mahali ulipoviacha viberiti, 
ndipo vilipo. -y 



I have lost my pen I 

The place where you left the 
pen, is where it is. 

I have lost my money. 

The place where you left the 
money, is where it is. 

I have lost my hat I 

The place where you left the 
hat, is where it is* 

I have lost my booki 
The place where you left the 
book, is where it is. 

I have lost my bottle I 

The place where you left the 
bottle, is where it is. 

I have lost my matches I 

The place where yDu left your 
matches, is where they are. 



Conversation Starters 

1, A (a mother) discusses with B (a baby sitter) B's responsibilities in 
caring for a three year old child during the aay and putting the child to bed 
at night. 

2. A (a hom.aowner) discusses with B (a gardener) B's responsibilities 
in caring for the lawn. 



Uoo 



UNIT 100 



SWAHILI 



READING SELECTION V 



Motokaa Z& Abiria 



Motokaa za abiria zina maxiufaa sana kwa wasaflri* Ingawa ablria wapanda 
garl la moshi, motokaa ina sifa kablsa* 

Nl ajabu kuwa safari ya motokaa si ya raha kama lie ya gari la moshi, 
lakini wasaflrl wengi hupenda kupanda motokaa. Ukipanda motokaa^ utafika 
upesi zaldi kuUko kania ukiparsda gari la moshi. Sababu yake nl kwamba motokaa 
yakimbia upesi zaldi ya gari la moshi. 

Motokaa nl nyingi sana, nazo zinasaflri klla upande flchini. Katika mijl 
mlkubva kuna namna mbill za motokaa hizi. Zile zinazosaflri nje ya mjl, na 
nyinglne zile zinazozungukazunguka hi^io hvimo mjlni. Safari nyingi hiianza 
asubuhl na adbuhurl, na chache hufanywa alasiri na jioni. ^5aga^i haya hupita 
katika sehemu mbali roball^ milimani na mabondenl. Juu ya mito kuna madaraja* 
Nadaraja loengine ni membamba na mengine nl magana. Yale membamba huruhusu 
gari moja rooja kupita, polepole* Katika sehemu zilizo sawa, yaani zislzokuwa 
za mllims, magari huklmbla sana. Nl vlbaya kukinibiza sana gari la ablria kva 
sababu nl hatarl. Wenye magari hupata faida kubwa, laklnl wakatl mwinglne 
hup&ta hasara pia. Magari ya bidhaa, kama yale yachukuayo madebe ya mafuta, 
au magogo, hayachukui ablria. Hli ni amri ya serikali, 

Nl wazi kwamba ukisafiri kwa motokaa . ^saiari Dcefu huwa fupi. 



manufaa 
(pi. MA) 

sifa (N) 

raha (N) 

■"Sunguka 

bcajds (M) 

"erobaffiba 
"pana 



useful things. 


hasara (N) 


loss, damage 


toolp 








debe (MA) 


a four-gallon 


praise, reputation 




tin 


rest, comfort 


arari (K) 


a command; law 
authority, rvle 


to go around 








wazi 


open, evident 


valley, low»lyistg 






country 






narrow «• thin 






broad, (flat) 







U01 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 100 



Questions and Answers 

Questions 

Is Motokma z& ablria zina manufaa 
lam wasafirl? 

2* JO; safari ya motcdcaa ni ya raha 
kaioa lie ya. garl la moshl? 

3« Kwa nini wasafiri hupenda 
kupanda motokaa? 

ka Ni kwell ktnunba uklpanda motokaa 
utafika upesi? 

5* Motokaa zinasafirl upande nnoja 
tu nchinil 

6« Katika iniji mikubwa, kuna namna 
zipi za motokaa za abiria2 

79 Safari huanza linit 

e* Kagarl haya hupita sehemu za 
namna ganil 

9« Juu ya mlto kuna ninlS 

io» Madaraja yote ni membomba? ,, 

1 ■! o Magari hupita je juu ya madara ja 

membambal 

13. Katika sehemu gani magari 
hukimbia sana2 

i3» Ni vibaya kukimbiza sana gari 
la abiria? 

iU« Wenye magari hupata faida tu2 



over Reading Selection 

Ndiyo, zlna manufaa sana kwao« 

La, si ya raha. 

Kva sababu motokaa hukimbia upesi 
zaidl. 

Ndiyo, 

La, ni nyingl sana, zinasafirl kila 
; : upande* 

Zlle zinazosaflri nje ya mji na zile 
zinazozungukazunguka humo* 

I^ringi huanza asubuhi na adhuhurl, na 
chache alasiri na Jioni* 

Mlimaiii na mabondenl. 

Kuna madaraja* 

Hapana, mengine ni mapana. 

Hupita moja moja, polepole* 

Katika sehemu zillzo sawa, zisizokuwa 
na millma. 

di ndiyo, kwa sababu ni hatari* 
Sio faida tu, pia hasara* 



Uo2 



UNIT 100 SWAHILI 



i5a Kwa nlni magari ya bldhaa Ni ainri ya serikali* 

hayachiikul abiriat 



U03 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 100 



1 • Alinipa vitabu Tiwili, 

3a Kimoja ni cheusi na kingine ni 
chelcuudu, 

3, J^ihali peEjewe ni pazuri ssma, 

Ut Watcto walifika alipokuwa akila* 

5» Mama aliflka mtoto alipoanza 
kulia» 

6e Bado hajaiualiza kazi yake* 

7, Alivinunua kwa shiiingi haaisini 

na tano« 

8. Nijaliwapo kufika Nairobi 

nitamtenibelea Hajiiedi» 

9o Akixiipuriguzia bei nitakimiBua 
kile kikapu* 

10. Suruali yako inayo mifuko 
mingapiS 

^^9 Mbuzi wako huko kweny© nyasi 
nyingi, 

12* Bila shaka barabara za kwao ni 
nzuri sana* 

13« Unayo ndzigo mingapi kwa 
juinlal 

iU» Ataongea juu ya elijnu ya 
Waafrika, 

i5« Mimea hubadilishwa kila pwaka. 



He gave me tvo books* 

One is black and the other is red. 

The place itself is very beautiful* 

The children arrived vdien he was 
eating. 

The mother arrived *rtien the child 
began to cry. 

He hasn't finished his work yet* 

He bought them for 55 shillings. 

If God grants that I reach Nairobi, 
I'll visit Hamedi. 

If he reduces the price for me, 
I'll buy that basket there. 

How sany pockets do your trousers 
have? 

The goats are where there is lots 
of grass. 

Certainly their roads are very 
nice« 

How many pieces of luggage have 
you altogether? 

He will speak on the education of 
Africans . 

The crops are rotated every year. 



kok 



UNIT 100 



SWAHILI 



i6« Shanba langu limegawanywa 
katlka sehemu tano. 

17, Mtandikie mgeni kitanda. 

i8* Wakulina na watoto wao wallpewa 
msaada wa fedha. 

19* leys na dada yake wanafanana. 



20* Nguo avaazo huzinunoa kutoka 
Dlaya. 

31 • Mwambie akao^yeshe godoro 
liliko. 

22. Unafikiri nguo zimelowekwal 

23* Nani aplgaye pasi nguo zakel 

aU, Wat etc wachungao ng'^ibe hawa, 
wako wapi? 

25» Tutaondokaje hapaS 

26. fftapanda gari la moshi* 

27« Tutafanyaje ill tiipate msaada 
na pesa? 

29. Baba alipofika^ Hiaxna alikuwa 
hajaanza kupika.^ 

29, Maziwa yamecheinka hat a 
yakamwagika. 

30* Suruall haijapigwa pasio 

31 • Mto umo ndanl ya sanduku« 
33 o Kwaninl balozl hajafikal 



J^y farm is divided into five parts. 

Make the bed for the guest. 

The farmers and their children were 
given financial assistance. 

He and his sister resemble one 
another. 

The clothes he wears are purchased 
in Europe. 

Ask him to ahow yofu lAere the 
mattress is. 

Do you think the clothes are wet? 

Vlho irons his clothes? 

Where are the children who tend 
the cattle? 

How will we leave here? 

You will take the train. 

What shall we do in order to get 
financial assistance? 

When Father arrived. Mother had not 
yet begun cooking. 

The milk boiled over. 

The pair of trousers hasn't been 
ironed yet. 

The pillow is in the chest. 

Why hasn't the diplomat arrived? 



ko$ 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 100 



33 • Haya, twendelee basi. 

3Ue Vifungo vyote vya koti lake 
vimepotaa, 

35» Sina pesa za kuvunja notl ya 
shilingi ishirini. 

36. Duka liko kushoto kwa juniba la 
slnema. 

37» Juzi tulikuwa tuineishiwa 
chaknla chote, 

38 • Msipigane kwa sababu ya thuinni. 

39* Hawakusudll kuja kesho 
kututembelea. 

Uo. Tafaa kuwazuia watoto 

waslchezecheze barabaranl* 



O.K.; let's go on. 

All the buttons of his coat are lost* 

I don't have change for a 20 shilling 
note. 

The shop is to the left of the 
theater. 

The day before yesterday, we were 
ccanpletely out of food. 

Don't fight over a 50 cent piece. 

They don't plan to come to see us 
tomorrow. 

It's necessary to prevent children 
frail playing around in the street. 



. >.«. »^.v. 



('I IjL 



U06 



UNIT 101 



SWAHILI 



1. Basic Dialogue* Riding a bicycle cm the streets* 

Hamisl 
Unajua kuendesha baiskeli? Do you know [how] to ride a bicycle? 

Abasi 
NdiyOf lakini nilianza najusi hivi* Yes^ but I began only recently* 

Hajnisi 



-sikLliza 
sheria (N) 
Sikiliza bwana, ni hatari sana 
kuendesha baiskeli kama hujul 
sheria za barabara* 
Kila wakati endesha upande wa 
kushoto va barabara* 
kengele (N) 
Piga kengele kama kuna mtu mbele 
yako* 
-geuka 
ishara (N) 
Ukitaka kugeuka, onyesha ishara* 
Waangalie saiia vapitao kwa mguu* 



to listen 
law 
Listen, Mister , it is very dangerous 
to ride a bicycle if you don't 
the traffic regulations* 
Always ride <m the left side of the 
road* 
bell 
Ring the bell if there is someone 
ahead of you* 
to turn 
signal 
If you want to turn, give a signal* 
Watch the pedestrians carefully* 



Notes 
A. 'Next' and 'last' with units of time* 



U07 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 101 



The Swahili equivalents for 'next week', ^zmxb mcmth', etc. are in the 



form: 



noun 

smezi 

wild. 

nwaka 



( ) Ja ( ) o 



A. Relative forms of the a-tenssa 
mguu Waangalie sana wapitao kwa Watch out for those crossing on 



mguu, 

baiskeli Waangalie sana waendeshao 
baiskeli* 

motokaa Waangalie sana waendeshao 
motokaa* 



foot. 
Watch for those riding bicycles. 

Watch for those driving automobiles. 



B, Relative forms of a-tense, in time expressions. 



I Tutaanza kujifunza nwezi 
u;Jao, 

mwaka Tutaanza kujifunza mwaka 
ujao, 

wikL Tutaanza kujifunza wiki 
ijayo, 

kupanda Tutaanza kupanda mbegu 
wiki ijayo. 

kuvuna Tutaanza kuvuna wiki 
ijayo, 

mwezl Tutaanza kuvuna nwezi 
ujao. 



We'll begin studying next month. 

We'll begin studying next year. 

We'll begin studying nex^ week. 

We'll begin sowing seeds next 
week. 

We'll begin harvesting next week. 
We'll begin harvesting next week* 



Uoe 



FNIT 101 



SWAHILI 



C. 

roaneno 

:npango 

mipango 

majlbu 

rangi 

D. 
sheria 
shati 
ngu© 



Nouns usad as objects of 'gouza* 

Tugeuze maneno haya@ 

Tugeuze ^pango huue 

Tugeuze mipango h±±« 

Tugeuze najibu haya* 

Tugeuze rangi hli* 
Noums used as objects of -bad^is 

Tubadili sheria hizi» 

Tubadili shati hili, 

Tubadili nguo hiie 



S« 'fh© derived stem "^fdili^anae 
koti Tubadili Shane makoti© 
nguo Tubadilishane nguo» 

kofia kalami kitabu 



Let's change these words* 
Let's change this program. 
Let's change these programs* 
Let's change these answers* 
Let's change this color* 

Let's change these laws* 

Let's exchange this shirt* 

Let's exchange this piece of 
cloth* 

Let's exchange coats* 
I^t's exchange clothes* 



Ao Relative forms of the a-^ense^ 



vyosabo 



vitanda 



raaji 



vijiti 



Vycanbo vinahitaji 

kusafishwa» Kani 
asafishay® vyombol 

Vitanda vinahit&ji 
kutandikwa« Nanl 
atandikaye vitandal 

Maji yanahitaji kufutwa* 
Nani afutaye maji? 

Vijiti vinahitaji kukatwa* 
Kani akatays vijiti? 



The dishes need washing* Vfho 
washes the dishes? 

The beds need making. Mio makes 
the beds? 

The water needs wiping up* Who 
wipes the water up? 

The bushes need cutting* Who 
ci]ts the bushes? 



U09 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 102 



Unit_i_oa 
ie Basic Dialogue* Conditions of e!t7)l0i3ment 

Sangai 
Siku hizi wafasQra kazi va.p±t 



fedha (N) 
Katika Idara ya Fedha* 
Twafanya kazi kwa siku tano* 

^hahara ni kiasi ganit 

Shilingi mia Bibili ha^ini* 



l^ere are you working these days? 
Wasibua 

money 

In the Ministry of Finance* 

We work five days [a week]* 
Sangai 

How much is the pay? 
Wainbua 

250 shillings [per month]* 



Tunafanya kazi kwa muda wa saa sabae We work a seven-hour day* 



Hnaanza lini asubuhi? Whan do you begin in the inomingi 

Waitibua ' 
adhuhuri - nocan 

Saa Bibili mpaka adhuhuri tupumzikapo* Ssoo \mtil noon, when we rest* 

Sangai 
Halafu? Then? 

Wainbua 
alasiri early afternoon 

Halafu, tiuiaanza tena alasiri inpaka Then^ we begin again in the afternoon 
saa kumi* [and work] until U* 



U10 



UNIT 102 



SWAHILI 



A, Matching hours with portions of the day. 

Point to the appropriate hour as each sentence is practiced. Practice 



in fixed, then random order, 

moja Alifika saa moja 

asTibuhi, 

Bibili tatu nne tano 



sita 



saba 



Alifika saa sita 
adhuhuri, 

Alifika saa saba 
nichana. 



imne tisa kixni 

kumi na moja Alifika saa kurai na 
moja Jioni, 

kumi na mbili Alifika saa kumi na 
mbili jionio 



He airrived at seven o'clock in the 
morning. 

He arrived at noon. 

He arrived at one o'clock in the 

afternoon e 

Ha a;.'rived at five o'clock in the 



He arrived at six o'clock in the 
evening* 



Uit 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 102 




Saa kuitii 
na moja 



V U \ Saa ktani 

5 \Saa ktoni 
na moja 



Saa kumi 
na mbili 



7 /Saa moja 



Uia 



SWAHILI 



A. What are the following in SwahiliJ (Assvune that the sun is up.) 



A. 





D. 





G. 





J. 





kl3 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 103 



Unit 103 



t* Basic Dialogue* (continued) 



Kazi yenyewe ni ngumu? 



Is the work itself hard? 



Waitibua 



afisi (N) 
Haparta, ukiwa umeeliinika, unafa^^a 
kazi afisini. Lakini wengine 
wanafanya kazi cgunrue 
bidhaa (N) 
kadhalika 



office 
No, if you are educated, you work in 
an office* But some do hard work* 

merchandise 
etc* 



Wanabeba bidhaa kama sabvoii, mafuta They carry merchandise like soap. 



ya taa, na kadhalika* 
opaka 
(-pakia) 
Wanazipakia katika motc^aa* 

Jasho (MA) 
Kweli ni kazi ya Jashol 

mapumziko 
Lakini sote twapewa nguo bure, na 
chakula saa ya napuniziko* 



kerosene, and so forth* 
to apply 
(to pile up) 
They load them into a lorzy* 



Sangai 



sweat 
[That] is really sweaty work* 



Wanbua 



place/time of resting 
But wa all are given free clothing, 
and food during the rest hour* 



1»1U 



UNIT 103 



SWAHILI 



Sangal 



bahasha (N) 

karatasi (N) 

-coiba 
Nitakwenda kununua bahasha na 
karatasi ya barua ya kuombea 
kazi kwenu* 



envelope 

paper 

to request 
I'm going to buy an envelope and 
letter paper for applying for work 
at your place I 



A, The stem "ote 'all'. 



Notes 



As we have seen, the stem "ote takes a fxall set of class concords« It 
also takes prefixes for first person and second person plural: 



sote 
nyote 



we all 
you all 



A, Subjunctive with object prefixes. 

bidhaa Ziweke bidhaa karibu na 
mlango* 

bahasha Ziweke bahasha karibu na 
mlango* 

jembe Liweke jembe karibu na Put the hoe near the door, 
inlango* 



Put the goods near the door. 
Put the envelopes near the door. 



majenibe Yaweke majembe kaidbu na 
mlango. 



Put the hoes near the door. 



meza Iweke meza karibu na mlango. Put the table near the door. 

B, Relatives of me-tense and a-tense. 

kuelimika Wote walioelimika wafanya All those who are educated work 
kazi afisini. in the office* 



ln5 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT t03 



kujua Wote wajuao icuandika 

na kuscma wafanya kazi 
afisini. 

kusena Wote wasemao Kiingereza 
wafanya kazi afisini, 

kujifunza Wote waliojifunza Ulaya 
wafanya kazi afisini, 

kuhitimu Wote walidiitimu wafanya 
kazi afisini. 

C« Sote 'we all', 
kucbelewa Tutachelewa sote* 
kufurahi Tutafurahi sote» 

kusaidia kwenda 

D» J^ote 'you all', 
kuenda . Nendeni nyote, 
kuja NJo<»i nyote, 

kungoja kuanza kuandika 



All those iirfio know how to read 
and write work in the office. 

All those who speak English work 
in the office. 

All those who studied in Eiirope 
work in the office. 

All those viio qualified work in 
the office. 



We'll all be late. 
We'll all be happy. 



All of you go. 
All of you cone. 



3. 



kuwa 



A, Relative with i plu. s.p, 

Sote tulikuwa kanisani, 
Sote tuliokuwako tulipata 
hotna kesho yake. 

kuenda Sote tulikwenda kanisani, 
Sote tuliokwenda huko 
tulipata hcsna kesho yake, 

kula Sote tulikula chakula 
kanisani. 



We all were in the church. 

All of us who were there got a 
fever the following day. 

We all went to church. 

All of us who went there got a 
fever the following day. 

We all ate food in the church. 



UK 



UNIT 103 



SWAHILI 



kushinda 



Sote tuliokula chakula 
huko tullpata hc»na 
kesho yake* 

Sote tullshinda mjioi* 
Sote tulioshlnda huko 
tulipata homa kesho yake* 



All of us >dio Ato food tli«rf 
got a foTsr the fOUowlBg day* 

We all spent the day in toim. 
All of us who spent the day 
there got a fever the following 
day. 



B* Relative with 2 plu* s*p* 

kuwa Nyote lollkitHa shuleni* 

Nyote iiiliokuHako nilipata 
hona. 

kuenda Nyote nlikwenda sokoni* 
Ity-ote inliokwenda huko 
nlipata hona* 

kula Nyote mlikula mjini* 
I^ote Biliokula huko 
mlipata homa. 

kushinda I^ote mlishinda Morogoro* 
Nyote ralioshinda huko 
mlipata homa. 



You all were in the schoc^* 
All of yon «aho were there got 
a fever* 

You all went to market* 
All of you who went there got 
a fever* 

You all ate in town. 

All of you 1^0 ate there got 
a fever* 

You all spent the day in Morogoro* 
All of you who spent the day 
there got a fever* 



Conversation Starters 
1. A is looking for a good job. His friend B advises hijn. 



U17 



BASIC COURSE UNITioU 



1* Basic Dialogue* Rearranging the furniture. 

Abasi 
chuinba (VI) room 

Chuinba hiki kimejaa vyombo vingi This room is full of furniture ^ich 
Tlsivyohitajiwa upesi* idiich will not be needed soon* 

paaibo (ma) furniture j ornament 

Mutisya 
Ni Kiapambo ya nyuroba, ^ They are pieces of furniture for the 

house* 
■ . J ■ ./ ; ;> V 4 ■ Abasi 

Tafadhali viondoe ukipata wakati« Please remove them when you have time* 

Mutis^ 
Nitaviweka wapiS . Where shall I put them? 

Abasi 

rafu (N) ; shelf 

* 

dari (N) upper floor 

Chukua rafu na kabati ndani ya chumba Take the shelf and the cupboard into 

cha Hamisi, darini. Hamisi's room, upstairs* 

kinanda (VI ) stringed instrument, gramophone 

Kile kinanda, weka upande wa kitanda* That musical instrument, put [it] by 

the bed* 

kufuli (N) padlock 

ufunguo (U-N) key 

-funga to lock 

Ul8 



UNIT loU 



SWAHILI 



-fungua to unlock 

Kisha, chukua kufuli na funguo hizi [Vlhen jon] finish, take this padlock 
ufunge ili watoto wasiveze kufungxia* and key and lock [the room] so that 

the children aren't able to unlock 
[it]. 

Notes 

A. Negative relative present verbs. 

vi^vyohitajiwa [things] which are not needed 

The negative illative forms corresponding to the present tense have -si- 
in the slot between subject prefix and relative affix« 

B, The 'reversive' suffix* 



kufunga 
kufungua 



to lock 
to unlock 



The 'reversive' suffix -u- is found in the word kuf\in|uae Compare also 
kuvaa 'to don'j kuyua 'to doff a 



A. Object before the verb« 

kitanda Kile kinanda, weka upande That (stringed) instrument, put it 
wa kitanda* beside the bed. 

meza Kile kinanda, weka upande That (stringed) instrument, put it 
wa meza* beside the table* 

&Lango kiti jiko 

B, "^ 'which' followed by relative* 

vyombo Vyombo vipi visivycdd-tajiwa Vihich cQ.shes ai*e not wanted nowl 
sasa? 

kikapu Kikapfa kipl kisichdhitajiira Vlhich basket is not wanted now? 
sasa? 

Ui9 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT loU 



birika Birika lipi lisilcMtajiwa Which kettle is not wanted now? 
sasa2 

inagodoro Magodoro yapi yasiyohitajiwa Which mattresses are not wanted 



sasaZ 



na»2 



wino Wino upi usiohitajiwa sasa2 Which ink is not wanted now? 

^asi i^asi upi usiohitajiwa sasaS Which pair of scissors is not 

wanted now2 

mito Mito ipi isiychitajiwa sasa? Which pillows are not wanted now? 



sabuni Sabuni ipi isiyohitajiwa 
sasa2 



shuka 
(pl.) 



Shuka zipi zisizohitajiwa 
sasa? 



Which soap is not wanted now? 
Which sheets are not wanted new? 



vijiko kitanda godoro inapanga ubao mimea pasi 
nguo (pl.) 



C* Negative relative , present tense* 

kupiga Wasiopiga kelele watapewa 
pesa« 

kukinkia Wasiokimbia watapewa pesa. 



Those who do not make noise will be 
given money. 

Those \iio do not run will be given 
money. 



Those who are not given leave will 
given money. 



kupewa Wasiopewa livu watapewa 
pesa. 

kusumbua Wasiotusumbua watapewa pesa. Those who do not bother us will 

be given money. 



kuchelewa Wasiochelewa watapewa pesa. 
kucheza Wasiocheza watapewa pesa. 



Those idio are not late will be 
given money. 

Those who do not play will be 
given money. 



Uso 



SWAHILI 



Wasiolirus. njugu watapewa 
fedha na. serlkali« 



Those irtio do not grow peanuts 
will be given money by the 
government. 



A. The reversive stem -vua. 

I Vaa kofia hii, 

Usiivue npaka adhuhuri* 

Vaa sTiruali hii. 

Usiivue mpaka adhuhuri. 

Vaa nguo hizi. 
Usizivue mpaka adhuhuri, 

Vaa mashati haya. 

Usiyavue mpaka adhuhuri. 



B. 



Vua kofia ilel 

Ni yangu. Kwa nini uliivaa2 

Vua suruali ile4 

Ni yangu. Kwa nini uliivaa? 

Vua nguo ile» 

Ni yangu, Kwa nini 
laiivaa? 

Vua shati lile, 

Ni langu. Kwa nini 
ulilivaa? 



Put on this hat. 

Don't take it off till norai. 

Put on these trousers. 
Don't take then off till noon. 

Put on these clothes. 
Don't take them off till noon. 

Put on these shirts. 

Don't take them off till noon. 



Take off that hat I 

It's mine. Why did jou put it 
ceat 

Take off those trousersl 

They're mine. Why did you put 
them an% 

Take off that cloth I 

It's mine. Why did you put it 

Take off that shirt I 

It's mine. Why did you put it 
<xi1 



U21 



BASIC COURSE • UNIT 105 



i» Basic Dialogue* Planning a trip by car. 

Butler 
Nataka kwenda Bagamqyo kwa motokaae I want to go to Bagamoyo by car, 

Jej njia ni nzuril . Is the road good? 

Hamisi 
Kjia ni nsuri, lakini si sana. The road is good, but not very good. 

Butler 
Kwa ninil , Why? 

Hamisi 
daraja (MA) bridge 

Kwa sababu jiizi ilinyesha nivua kubwa^ Because the day before yesterday 
na daraja moja limevunjika, there was a big rain, and one 

bridge was washed out, 
Butler 
Sasa nitafikaje Bagamoyo? Now how shall I get to Bagamoyo? 

Hamisi 
gogo (MA) log 

Utaweza kufika kwa sababu watu You will be able to get there because 
waraeweka magogo, na motokaa inaweza they've put logs [there], and a car 
kupita hapo polepole, can cross there [by going] very 

slowly* 

A« N-class forms of scsne adjectives. 
"zMTl Njia hiyo ilikuwa nzuri. That road was good. 



UNIT io5 



SWAHILI 



"refu Njia hiyo ilikuwa ndefu. 

"Tcubwa Njia hiyo ilikuwa kubwa. 

"pya Njia hiyo ilikuwa nipya. 

B, Ll-class forms of some adjectives, 

"zuri Bakuli hilo lilikuwa zuri. 

*l)0vu Bakuli hilo lilikuwa bovu, 

"kubwa Bakuli hilo lilikuwa kubwa, 

"pya Bakuli hilo lilikuwa jipyae 

~chafu Bakuli hilo lilikuwa chafu. 

"eusi Bakuli hilo lilikuwa jeusi. 

~zito Bakuli hilo lilikuwa zito. 

Ce M-class forms of some adjectives, 

'zuri fito huo ulikuwa mzuri. 

"kubwa Mto huo ulikuwa mkubwa* 

"bovu Ato huo ulikuwa mbovu. 

"pya Mto huo ulikuwa mpya. 

"chafu Mto huo ulikuwa mchafu. 

safi m.0 huo vilikuwa safi, 

"eup© Mto huo ulikuwa raweupe. 

D. Ml-class forms of some adjectives, 

"zuri Mito hiyo ilikuwa mizuri. 

"bovu Mto hiyo ilikuwa mibovu. 

"pya Mito hiyo ilikuwa mipya, 

"chafu Mito hiyo ilikuwa michafu. 

"eupe Mito hiyo ilikuwa myeupe. 



That road was long. 
That road was big. 
That road was new. 

That bowl was good. 

That bowl was unfit for use. 

That bowl was large. 

That bowl was new. 

That bowl was dirty. 

That bowl was black. 

That bowl was heavy. 

That pillow was good. 

That pillow was big. 

That pillow was in a bad shape. 

That pillow was new. 

That pillow was dirty. 

That pillow was clean. 

That pillow was white. 

Those pillows were good. 

Those pillows were in bad 
shape. 

Those pillows were new. 

Those pillows were dirty. 

Those pillows were white. 



U23 



BASIC COURSE 



' UNIT 105 



Ee U-class forms of some adjectives* 
"ziori Ubao huo ulikuwa irizuri, 

"zito Ubao huo ulikuwa nizito. 

"l)OVu Ubao huo ulikuwa rabovu, 

"pya Ubao huo ulikuwa mpya» 

~eusi Ubao huo ulikuwa iiiweusi* 



That board was good. 
That board was heavy. 
That board was rotten* 
That board was new. 
That board was black. 



A, Switching tense, 

I Watu wameweka magogo, 

kesho Watu wataweka raagogo kesho, 

sasa Watu wanaweka magogo sasa, 

J ana Watu waliweka magogo jana, 

bado Watu hawajaweka magogo bado, 

A. 

wsianbie Waambie watu waweke magogo, 

B, Switching tenses, 

I Atafika Bagamoyo kesho, 

jana Alifika Bagamoyo jana, 

tayari Ainekwisha fika Bagamoyo 
tayari, 

bado Hajafika Bagamoyo bado. 



People have put logs in place. 

People will put logs in place 
tomorrow. 

People are putting logs in 
place now. 

People put logs in place 
yesterday. 

People haven't put longs in 
place yet. 

Tell people to put logs in 
place. 



He will sirrLve at Bagamoyo 
tomorrow. 

He arrived at Bagampyo 
yesterday. 

He has arrived at Bagamoyo 
already. 

He hasn't eurrived at Bagamoyo 
yet. 



k2k 



UNIT io5 



SWAHILI 



jama Hakufika Bagainoyo jana* 



C. Switching tenses* 

I Atajaza chumba mapambo 
* kesho. 

sasa Anajaza chumba mapambo sasa* 



jana Alijaza chumba mapambo jana* 

wapi Aliyejaza chumba mapambo 
yuko wapi? 

sasa Anayejaza chumba mapanibo 
yuko wapi? 



He didn't arrive at Bagampyx) 
yesterday. 

He will fill the roan with 
furniture tomorrow. 

He is filling the room with 
furniture now. 

He filled the room with 
furniture yesterday. 

Where is the one who filled the 
room with furniture? 

Where is the one who is filling 
the rocKo with furniture? 



kzS 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 106 



Unit_io6 
i« Basic Dialogue (continued) 

Butler 
Je, nbele hakuna hatari nylngineS Say, is there any danger ahead? 

Hamisi 
ajabu (N) a surprise 

Sijui, lakini si ajabu daraja la I don't know, but I wouldn't be 
Mapinga pia limeharibikae surprised if the Jfepinga bridge 

is out as well* 
Butler 
Naweza kupata mtu imnoja wa kufuatana Can I get someone to go along with 



naye? 



iwapo 
shida (N) 
NdiyOg MLrai nwenyewe nit awe za 
kufuatana nawe na kukusaidia 
iwapo utapatwa na shida. 

Vema. Asante sana* 

hali (N) 



net ('one person to travel with 
him') 
Hamisi 

in case, if 
difficulty 
Yes, I myself will be able to go 
with you and help you if you meet 
difficulty. 
Butler 

Good I Thanks a lot I 
Hamisi 

condition 



U26 



UNIT 106 



SWAHILI 



Kabla ya kuandoka Inafaa uangalie 
kama gari llmo katika hali 
nzTiri* 



Before leaving it's a good thing for 
you to check whether the car is in 
good shape* 



Butler 
Bila shaka^ hata petroli nitaangalia By all means* I'll also see to the 
pia, petrol* 



a* 



A. Si ajabu.** 



kuharibu Si ajabu gari lake 
limeharibika, 

kutengeneza Si ajabu gari lake 
limetengenezwa * 



kuuza 



hali 



Si ajabu gari lake 
limeuzwa* 

Si ajabu gari lake limo 
katika hali nzuri. 



B, "s^yswe. 



mimi 



yeye 



sisi 



wao 



Mimi mwenyewe nitakwenda 
nawe* 

Yeye mwenyewe atakwenda 
nawe* 

Sisi wenyewe tutakwenda 
nawe* 

Wao wenyewe watakwenda 
nawe* 



C. na with personal pronouns* 

sisi Baba mwenyewe atafuatana 
nasi • 



It's no wcaider his vehicle is 
broken down* 

It's no wonder his vehicle is 
repaired* 

It's no wonder his vehicle is sold* 

It's no wonder his vehicle is in 
good condition, 

I nyself will go with you* 
He himself will go with you* 
We ourselves will go with you. 
They themselves will go with you* 



Father himself will go along with 

U3* 



4s7 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 106 



wewe Baba mwenyewe atafuatana 
nawee 

yeye Baba nwenyewe atafuatana 
nay 8. 

ninyi Baba nwenyewe atafuatana 
nanyi. 

wao Baba nwenyewe atafuatana 
nao« 

miini Baba nwenyewe atafuatana 
nami* 



Father himself will go along with us» 

Father himself will go along with 
her. 

Father himself will go along with 
you (pi). 

Father himself will go along with 
them. 

Father himself will go along with 
me* 



i 

jana 
hapana 

bado 



gari 

vifungo 

hatari 
miiba 



Switching tenses. 

Mbele naona magari. 

Mbele niliona magarl jana, 

Mbele sikuona magari jana. 



I see vehicles ahead. 

I saw vehicles ahead yesterday. 

I didn't see vehicles ahead 
yesterday, 

I haven't seen any vehicles ahead 
yet. 

Questions included in a larger sentence. 

Gari lirao katika hali nzuril Is the vehicle in good condition^ 



Mbele sijaona magari bado. 



Inafaa uangalie kama gari 
limo katika hali nzuri. 

Vifiingo vimo sandukunil 
Inafaa uangalie kama 
vifungo vimo sandukuni. 



You'd better check whether the 
vehicle is in good condition. 

Are the buttons in the boxl 

You'd better check if the buttons 
are in the box. 



Kima hatari nyingine mbele? Is there other danger ahead? 



Kuna miiba mingi njiani? 



Are there many thorns on the road? 



has 



UNIT 107 SWAHILI 



Unit 107 
t • Basic Dialogue. In a shoe store* 

Patel 
Karibu, bwana* Come in, sir I 

Je, unataka viatu vya aina gani? What kind of shoes do you want? 

Butler 
Ngoja niangalie kwanza. Wait and let roe look first. 

Je, ^a viatu vya Batal Do you have Bata shoes? 

Patel 
Oh, ndiyo, timavyo katika rangi Oh yes, we have them in two colors; 

mbili: nyeusi na nyekundu. black and brown » 

Unataka vipi, basi? Which do you want? 

Butler 
hebu ' 'well, theni* ' 

Diwundo (mi) shape, form 

chini (N) below, under 

Hebu nione inwundo huo chini ya Well, then, let me see that style 
viatu vyekunduj pia inwundo huu under the brown shoes; also this 
hapa. style here. 

Patel 
Kitakuonyesha, bwanal I'll show [them] to you, siri 

A. Chini 
kucheza Watoto wanacheza chini. The children are playing on the ground* 



kz9 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 107 



kuanguka Mcasi umeanguka chini. 

kuangusha Hamisi aliangusha sabuni 
chini, 

kiko Kikapu kiko chini. 

B. Negative relative, present tense, 

shati Nataka shati lisiloranaka 
upesi. 

inashati Nataka ma shati 

yasiyoraruka upesis 

suniali Nataka suruali isiyoraruka 
upesi* 

nguo Nataka nguo isiyoraruka 
upesi. 

chandalua Nataka chandalua 

kisichoraruka upesi. 

vyandalua Nataka vyandalua 

visivyoraruka upesi. 



A pair of scissors has fallen 
down. 

Hamisi dropped soap on the ground, 



The basket is on the ground. 

I want a shirt that doesn't get 
torn easily. 

I want shirts that don't get 
torn easily. 

I want trousers that don't get 
torn easily. 

I want a dress that doesn't get 
torn easily* 

I want a mosquito net that 
doesn't get torn easily. 

I want mosqxiito nets that don't 
get torn easily. 



A, Switching tenses. 
i Tunavyo katika rangi tatu. 

jana 



kesho 



Tulikuwa navyo katika rangi 
tatu. 

Tutakuwa navyo katika rangi 
tatu. 



sasa Tunavyo katika rangi tatu. 



We have them in three colors. 
We had them in three colors. 

We will have them in three 
colors. 

We have them in three colors. 



U30 



UNIT 107 



SWAHILI 



B. Switching tenses* 

j, Wana viatu vya Batae 

kesho Watakuwa na viatu vya Bata, 

jana Walitoiwa na viatu vya Bata, 

hapana Hawakuwa na viatu vya Bata. 

C. Switching tenses. 

I hiariamu anataka viatu 

vyekundu. 

kesho Kariamu atataka viatu 
vyekxindu kesho. 

hapana Mariamu hatataka viatu 
vyekundu. 

J ana Mariajnu hakutaka viatu 
vyekundu. 

D. Switching tenses. 

i Sanduku hili limejaa viatu. 

jana Sanduku hili lilikuwa 
limejaa viatu jana. 

kesho Sanduku hili litakuwa 
liinejaa viatu kesho. 

Sanduku hili limejaa viatu 



sasa 



wapil 



sasa« 



Sanduku lililokuwa limejaa 
viatu liko wapil 



They have Bata shoes. 
They will have Bata shoes. 
They had Bata shoes. 
They didn't have Bata shoes. 

Mariamu wants brown shoes. 

Mariamu will want brown shoes 
tomorrow. 

Mariamu will not want brcwn shoes. 
Mariamu did not want brown shoes. 



This box is full of shoes. 

This box was full of shoes 
yesterday. 

This box will be full of shoes 
tomorrow. 

This box is full of shoes now. 

Where is the box that was full of 
shoes? 



1. 

2. 



Conversation Starters 
A and B discuss preparations for a cross-covmtry trip. 
Improvise several conversations beginning with the question 'Utafanya 



nini keshol' 



1*31 



BASIC COURSE . UNIT to^ 



Unit^ioS 
•3 e Basic Dialogue (continued) 

Butler 
jozi (N) pair 

soli sole 

"embamba narrow, delicate, thin 

Bei gani jozi hii yenye soli How iffuch [is] this pair nith thin 
nyembamba? sole si 

Patel 
Shilingi thelathini na tisa tu« Onlv 39 shillings. 

Butler 
Na hii jozi nyingine? And this other pair? 

Patel 
kuliko irtiere there is, than 

Hii ni shilingi arobaini na sita. These are U6 shillings, sir, because 
bwana, kwa sababu jozi hii ni this style is more attractive than 
nzuri zaidi kuliko hii, this [other], 

Butler 
imo much 

Lakini, bwana, bei yake ni ghali mno. But sir, their price is very high. 

Patel 
hafifu poor in quality 

bora best 



tf3a 



JNIT 108 



SWAHILI 



Ndiyo. Unajua, kitu bora siku zote Yes, you kncfw the best (thing) is 
ni ghali zaidi kuliko kitu hafifu* always more expensive than the 

low-quality stuff. 



A, Kinds of soles • 

"embamba Nataka viatu vyenye soli 
nyembamba. 

""gumu Nataka viatu vyenye soli 
ngunu. 

laini Nataka viatu vyenye soli 
laini. 

"zito Nataka viatu vyenye soli 
nzito* 

ropira Nataka viatu vyenye soli 

ya iSipira, 

ngozi Nataka viatu vyenye soli 
ya ngozi, 

B. Comparisons with kuliko, 

migo ^igo huu ni inzito kuliko 
huu« 

mizigo Mizigo hii ni ndzito kuliko 
hii, 

kikapu Kikapu hiki ni kizito 
kuliko hiki, 

vikapu Vikapu hivi ni viz it o 
kuliko hivi. 

gogo Gogo hili ni zito kuliko 
hili. 



1 want the shoes with thin soles. 



I want the shoes with hard soles* 



I wsuit the shoes with soft soles. 



I want the shoes with heavy soles. 



I want the shoes with rubber soles. 



I want the shoes with leather soles. 



This load is heavier than that. 



These loads are heavier than those. 



This basket is heavier than thisc 



These baskets are heavier than these. 



This log is heavier than this. 



U33 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT loe 



niagogo Magogo haya ni mazito 
kuliko haya. 

ndege Ndege huyu ni ilzito kuliko 
huyue 

meza Meza hii ni nzito kuliko 
hii. 

ubao Ubao huu ni ^ito kuliko 
huu* 



These logs are heavier than these « 



This bird is heavier than this. 



This table is heavier than this. 



This board is heavier than this. 



C. Comparison with zaidi kuliko. 

irdmi Juroa asema Kiswahili vizuri Juma speaks Swahili better than I, 
zaidi kuliko roimi. 

wewe Juma asema Kiswahili vizuri Juma speaks Swahili better than you. 
zaidi kuliko wewe. 

Daudi sisi ninyi wengine 



A. Switching tensesc 
i Bei ya viatu ni ghali mno. 



nwaka Bei ya viatu itakuwa ghali 

ujao a , . 
*^ mno rawaka ujao. 

En-7aka Bei ya viatu ilikuwa ghali 

uliopita » , T J . J. 
"^ mno mwaka uliopita. 

hapana Bei ya viatu haikuwa ghali 
rawaka uliopita, 

B, Switching tenses. 

i Niko katika darasa la tano. 

mwaka Mwaka ujao, nitakuwa katika 
^"^^ darasa la tano. 



The price of shoes is exceedingly 
high. 

The price of shoes will be exceed- 
ingly high next year. 

The price of shoes was exceedingly 
high last year. 

The price of shoes was not exceed- 
ingly high last year. 



I am in the fifth grade. 

Next year, I will be in the fifth 
grade. 



k3k 



UNIT 108 



SWAHILI 



nnraka >&raka ulloplta, nilikttwa 
^ katika darasa la tano, 

bado Bado sijawa katika darasa 
la tano* 

C. Switching tenses. 

i Alikuva Kbeya. 

ni nani Ni nani aliyiskuwa Mbeya^ 

ujao Ni nani atakayekuwa Mbeya 
mwaka ujaol 

\iliopita Ni nani aliyekuwa Mbeya 
mwaka uliqpita^ 

sasa Ni nani aliye Mbeya sasa? 



Last year, I was in the fifth grade. 



I'm not in the fifth grade yet. 



He was at Mbeya, 

■Who was at Mbeya? 

Who will be at Mbeya next jearZ 

Who was at Mbeya last year? 

Who is at Mbeya now? 



., .■ .^^ 



k35 



BASIC COURSE UI^IT 109 



Unit_io9 
la Basic Dialogue (continued) 

Butler 
Hivi hapa jet What about these here? 

Patel 
sawa - like 

Bei ya viatu hivi ni sawa na bei ya The price of these shoes is the same 
jozi hii, as the price of those. 

Butler 
Hivi si ghali karia vile I Unavyo These are not so expensive as those, 
vyeusil Do you have them [in] black? 

Patel 
Ndiyo. Yes [we have]i 

Butler 
Aha, hivyo ndivyo viatu nivitakavyol Aha I These are the shoes that I want. 
LsJcini, nipunguzie bei kidogo bwana. But reduce the price a little for me, 

sir. 
Patel 
Tuna bei moja tuj hatupunguzi wala We have only one price; we don't 
hatuzidishi. lower or increase [our prices]. 

Butler 
Haidhurui Nipatie kwa bei hiyo hiyo. No matter. Give it to me at that 

price • 
Patel 
Vyemal Finei 

U36 



UNIT 109 



SWAHILI 



Notes 
A. The negative word wal&* 

hatupunguzl uala hatuzidlshi we neither lower nor raise [prices] 
The word wala between two negative verbs corresponds to English 'neither 



•nor 



• ••IJUJ. • • • 



2. 



viatu 

kitainbaa 

infuko 
nifuko 

panga 
mapanga 

sabuni 

shuka 

wino 

B. 
vifungo 

kitabu 

inpango 



A. ndi( ) plus noun plus relative of a-tense« 

Those are the shoes that I want* 



Hivyo ndivyo viatu 
nivitakavyol 

Hicho ndicho kitambaa 
nikitakachol 

Huo ndio mfuko niutakaol 

Hiyo ndiyo niifuko 
niitakayoi 

Hilo ndilo panga nilitakalol 

Hayo ndlyo mapanga 
niyatakayol 



That is the handkerchief that I 
want* 

That is the bag that I want* 

Those are the bags that I want* 

That's the panga that I want. 
Those are the pangas that I want* 



Hiyo ndiyo sabuni rAiitakayol 
Hiyo ndiyo shuka niitakayoi 
Huo ndio wino niutaka-ti 



That's the soap that I want* 

That's the sheet that I want* 

That's the ink that I want. 

ndi ( ) plus noun plus relative of a- tense* ' 

Hivi ndivyo vifungo These are the buttons that we like* 

tuvipendavyo* 

Hiki ndicho kitabu This is the book that we like* 

tukipendacho* 

Huu ndio npango tuupendao* This is the plan that we like* 



U37 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 109 



mahall 



godoro 



natunda 

urefu 
nibegu 
shuka 

3* 



Hapa ndipo mahall 
tupapendapo* 

Hili ndilo godoro 
tulipendalo, 

Haya ndiyo matunda 
tuyapendayo, 

Huu ndio urefu tuupendao. 



This Is the place that we like. 



This Is the mattress that we like. 



These are the fruits that we like. 



This Is the length that we like. c, 
Hlzl ndizo mbegu tuzlpendazo. These are the seeds that we like. 
Hll ndiyo shuka tuipendayo. This is the sheet that we like. 



A. wala 

kupunguza Wanapunguza bel^ 

Hawapunguzi wala 
hawazidishi. -' - 



■&d1 



kuTiza Wanauza maharagwe^ 

Hawauzi wala hawanunui. 

kwenda Wanakwendat y 

Hawaendi wala hawaji, 

kulima Wanalimal tcf?r 

Hawalimi wala hawapalilll, 

B, Switching tenses. 

I Wamezldlsha nauli ya gari 
* la moshi. 

inwezl Walizidisha nauli ya gari 
^ la moshi niwezi ulioplta. 



ujao 



Watazidisha nauli ya gari 
la moshi mwezl uJao. 



Do they reduce the price? 

They neither lower nor Increase. 

Do they sell beans? 

They neither sell nor buy. 

Do they go2 

They don't go nor ccsne. 

Do thej cult-i^5-^ie2 

Thsy don't cultivate nor weed« 

They have increased the train fare. 

They Increased the train fare last 
month* 

They will Increase the train fare 
next month. 



'hi6 



UNIT 109 



SWAHILI 



hapana Hawatazidlsha nauli ya 

gari la inoshi mwezi ujao* 

bado Bado hawajazidisha nauli 
ya gain, la inoshi « 

C« Adjective antoi^ms* 

ghall Viatu hivi ni ghali kama 
vile? 

Hapana, vile ni rahisi 
zaidi kuliko hivi* 

"guinu Viatu hivi ni vigvunu kama 

vilel 

Hapana, vile ni laini 
zaidi kuliko hivi. 

"zuri Viatu hivi ni vizuri kama 
vile? 

Hapana, vile ni vibaya 
zaidi kuliko hivi. 

"chafu Viatu hivi ni vichafu 
kama vile? 

Hapana, vile ni safi 
zaidi kuliko hivi. 

"zito Viatu hivi ni vizito kama 
vile? 

Hapana, vile ni vyepesi 
zaidi kuliko hivi. 



They will not increase the train 
fare next month. 

They haven't yet increased the 
train faj^e. 



Are these shoes just as expensive 
as those? 
No, those are cheaper than these* 

Are these shoes just as tough as 
those? 
No, those are softer than these. 

Are these shoes just as beautiful 
as those? 
No, those are uglier than these* 

Are these shoes just as dirty as 
those? 
No, those are cleaner than these. 

Are these shoes just as heavy as 
those? 
No, those are lighter than these* 



Conversation Starters ^'* 

1, Buy a pair of ^oes or a hat. Discuss the price, and also the 
qualities of the merchandise. 



J-Tf 



k39 



BASIC COURSE UNIT no 



Unit_tio 
1, Basic Dialogue, I live in the country. 

Abasi 
Bwana Mrambo, siku hizi unaishi (Mr.) Mirambo, where are you living 
wapi? these days? 

Mirarobo 
Ninaishi shaiaba, bwana. I'm living on a farm (sir). 

Abasi 
Nyumba yako iko mahali gani huko Miere is yo\ir house there on the 
shambaS faxml 

Mirambo 
mlima (Ml) mountain 

inpaka (MI) ^ boundary 

kati between, among 

Ikiwa watoka mjini, iko chini ya If you leave the city, it is below the 
mlima kati ya mpaka wa Jlmbo letu mountain between the boundary of our 
na lenu, province and yours, 

Abasi 
nyuma (N) after, on far side of 

mwitu (MI) forest 

into (MI) river 

Nyuma ya mlima huo kuna mwitu na On the far side of that mountain are 
into vile vile? there also a forest and a river? 

Mirambo 
Hasal Right; 



UNIT 110 



SWAHILI 



A. Kati 

nyumba Mpaka uko kati ya nyuinba 
yetu na yao, 

shaniba Mpaka uko kati ya shanba 
letu na lao. 

kijiji Apaka uko kati ya kijiji 
chetu na chao* 

ihji Mpaka uko kati ya mji 
wetu na wao. 



The boundary is between our house 
and theirs* 

The boundary is between our shamba 
and theirs* 

The boundary is between our 
village and theirs* 

The boundary is between our town 
and theirs* 



A, Relative forms, past tense, agreeing with object of verb* 

poihbe Alikunywa pombe* 

Ponibe aliyoinywa ilikuwa 
nibaya* 

maji Alikunywa roaji* 

Maji aliyoyanywa yalikuwa 
inabaya* 



He drank beer* 

The beer that he drank was bad* 

He drank water* 

The water that he drank was bad* 



chai Alikunywa chai* 

Chai aliyoinywa ilikuwa 
nibaya* 

maziwa Alikiinywa inaziwa* 

Maziwa aliyoyanywa 
yalikuwa mabaya* 

kinywaji Alikunywa kinywaji. 

Kinywaji alichokinywa 
kilikuwa kibaya* 

uji Alikunywa uji. 

Uji aliounywa ulikuwa mbaya* 



He drank tea* 

The tea that he drank was bad* 

He drank milk* 

The milk that he drank was bad* 

He took a beverage* 

The beverage he took was bad* 

He drank gruel* 

The gruel that he drank was 
bad* 



UUl 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 



110 



B. Relative past, agreeing with object of verb. ^s 

He bought a knife yesterday. 
Today, he hiirt himself with the 
knife >daich he bought yesterday. 

He bought a panga yesterday. 
He hurt himself with the panga 
^ich he bought yesterday. 



kisu Alinunua kisu jana, 

Leo amejiumiza kwa kisu 
alichokinunua jana, 

panga Alinunua panga jana. 

Leo amejiund-za kwa panga 
alilolinunua jana. 



jembe Alinunua jeiribe jana, 

Leo aioejiuiniza kwa jembe 
alilolinunua jana, 

xima AQJjiunua uma Jana, 

Leo amsjiumiza kwa uma 
alioununua jana, 

kalamu Alinunua kalamu jana, 

Leo amejiumiza kwa kalamu 
aliyoinunua jana. 



Sid tS;...-.. 



■'1 'f^i qY\ 



He bought a hoe yesterday. 

He hurt himself today with the 
hoe which he bought jresterday. 

He bought a fork yesterday. 
He hurt himself with the fork 
which he bought yesterday. 

He bought a pen yesterday. 
He hurt himself with the pen 
which he bought yesterday. 



srv-.Ai.i ,t3':r^'« t^i; / 



kk» 



UNIT 110 



SWAHILI 



READING SELECTION VI 
Chama cha Waf an^ Kazl 

Kama tunavyojua, wafanyi kazl hunung'unika katika kazl zao* Penglne 
wananuiig*uiilka kwa ajlll ya mshahara au penglne juu ya saa za kazl* Waklpeleka 
au wakltuma mashtaka kwa bwana nkubwa wao, kwa kawalda lajunibe huwa taabuni* 

Katika mlaka kuml au kuml na mltano lllyc^lta, wafanyl kazl wa Kenya 
walljlunga katika v^ana mball mball. Madereva vote wallanzlsha chama chao* 
Waplshl, waalimu, wapagazl, na kadhalika, wote wallfanya vyama vyao. 
Wallwachagua viongozl wao wenyewe, kama. vilej mwenye kiti, rwandishl mkuu, na 
imreka hazina. 

Wallchanga pesa hata waka^^enga afisl zao wanyewe—niahali pa kukutania, 
Wanachama wa vyama hivl mball mball wallkusan^lka wakachagua mkubwa wao, 
ambaye ndlye allyekuwa mtu wa kuwaongoza waksti wanapogoma, 

Paklwa na mablshano juu ya mshahara kati ya wafanyl kazl na wakuu wa kazl^ 
yule mkubwa wao hurawendea mkuu wa kazl na kuwasemea wafarya kazl woteo 

Sasa tunacho chama klkubwa sana cha wafanyl kazl wa klla aina katika 
nchl ya Kenya, 

Maswali ^ii^H 

i« Wafanyl kazl hunung'unika juu ya Juu ya mshahara au juu ya saa za 

vltu ganl2 kazl* 

2« UkltaUca mshahara zaidi utamwambla Utamwambla mwenye kazl, 

nanll 

3, Wajunibe wako taabunl? Ndlyo, wakubwa wa kazl hawawapendl 

wajunibe, 

U, Tangu llnl wafanyl kazl wa Tangu mlaka kund hivl lllyqplta, 

Kenya wakajlunga pamoja? 

5» Walljlungajel Wallfanya vyama niball niball. 



kk3 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 110 



6* Nl watu ganl wallofanya vyama^ 

7. Walichanga pesa za ninl? 

8. Wanao wakubwa vaol 

9* Wafaiayi kazi waslpopata maongezo 

ya mshahara wanafanya jel 
10* Kwa muda ganl? 

11, Wafanyi kazi wa Ainerika hugosna? 
i2« Nani sikubwa wa Idara ya Kazi 
katika Ainerika? 



Watu kama, madereva, waplshi^ 

makarani na. kadhalika. 
Za kujengea afisi na vyoinbo vya 

kuandikia. 
Ndiyo, wa3d.wachagua viongozi wao* 
Wanagona. 

Mpaka viongozi watvdize 

manung'unikOc 
Ndiyoo 
Bwana • 



Vocabulary 



(ina)biBhano (MA.) 

-chagua 

chama (VI) 

-changa 

— gco»a 

-Jenga 

kiongozi (VI pers) 

-kusanylka 

-ongoza 

(ina)shtaka (MA.) 

taabu (N) 



dispute, quarrel 

to choose, elect 

club, union, party 

to collect 

to strike (woric) 

to build 

leader 

to be gathered together 

to lead 

accusation, complaint 

trouble, distress 



uuu 



UNIT 111 SWAHILI 



Unit_2,12, 
1 • Basic Dialogue (continued ) 

Aba si 

Napajua mahali hapoj I know that placet 

Miraitbo 

zajnani time^ ancient times 

ovyo at randcra, carelessly 

ardhi (N) soil 

Zamani, pale pcilikuwa pa ovyo, ingawa In early times, that place was a mess, 

ardhi yake ilikuwa nzuri. even though the soil was good* 

Abasi 

ajili (N) cause, reason, sake 

akili (N) ability, intelligence 

~erevu shrewd, clever 

Sasa bwana ni pazuri kabisa, kwa Now, it's quite lovely, because of 

ajili ya akili na werevu wa the intelligence and cleverness of 

wenyeji wa pale, the inhabitants of the place, 

Mirambo 

Wamefanya nini? What have they done? 

Abasi 

~vivu lazy 

wivu jealousy, envy 

Unajua, wao si wavivu, pia hawana You know, they are not lazy, nor are 

wivu, they envious. 



kkS 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 111 



fitina (N) 
heshima (N) 
Ingawa wana fitina, wanayo heshima. 



Hall ya hewa, jel 

baridi (N) 
ila 

barafu (N) 
Huko kuna baridi, ila Mimani 

hakuna barafu. 



discord 
respect 
Although they have discords yet they 
respect one another, 
Abasi 

How is the weather! 
Mirambo 

coldness 

except, unless, but 
ice 
There it is cold, but there is no 
frost in the mountains. 



Notes 

A, Further examples of ga concords. 

Pale palikuwa pa ovyo» 
Napajua mahali hapo. 

Note the example of ga-class concords in these sentences • 

B« Concessive verb forms with -nge-. 



Ingawa wana fitina, 
wanayo heshima. 



Although they have discord, 
they have respect [for one 
another] « 



Kama ningekuwa na maji ya 
moto, ningesafisha vyombo, 

Kama ningejua, ningemwambiao 

The prefix -nge- occurs between the subject and object prefixes. Its 
meaning, however, is not related primarily to time, but to the fact that the 



If I had hot water, I would 
wash the dishes* 

If I knew, I would tell hijn. 



kk6 



UNIT 111 



SWAHILI 



condition described by the verb is not realized. Verb forms with this prefix 
thus correspond to English phrases beginning with ai];though, even thou^, etc. 

Negative counterparts of the above forms may be formed with the prefix 
-si°: 



Kama nisingejua •.« 



C. Concessive forms with -ngali-, 

Kama ningalikuwa na maji ya 
moto, ningalisafisha vyonibo* 

Kama nisingalijua.,* 



If I didn't know ••• 
[but I do know]* 



If I had had hot water, I would 
have washed the dishes* 

If I had not known ••• [but I 
did know]* 



Parallel to the affirmative and negative forms with -nge-, there exists a 
set of forms with -ngali-* The latter set of fontis are supposed to refer to 
contrary-to-fact condition in the past, while the -nge- forms are supposed to 
be used only for contrary-to-fact condition in the present. It is recommended 
that the student observe this distinction, vrtiich is a part of Standard Swahili, 
even though Ashton (p. 187) states that 'in actual practice there is consider- 
able laxity in the use of -nge- and -ngali-,' and Perrott (p. 53) goes further, 
saying that 'in actual practice, few natives make this distinction ccnsistentlyj 
they are as uncertain about the use of -nge- and -ngali- as many English people 
are about the use of should and would* 



A. 


heshima kwa 


wazazi 


Inafaa kuwa na heshima 




kwa wazazi wetu* 


yeye 


Inafaa kuwa na heshima kwaka* 


serikali 


Inafaa kuwa na heshima kwa 




serikali yetu* 


valimu 


Inafaa kuwa na heshima kwa 


t 


walimu wetu* 



It's proper to show respect to 
our parents* 

It's proper to show respect to him* 

It's proper to show respect to our 
government* 

It's proper to show respect to our 
teachers* 



Ukl 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 111 



kanisa Inafaa kuwa na heshima kwa 
wakuu wa kanisa* 



B, fitina na. 



rdmi 
wewe 

nama 



Juina alikuwa na fitina nami, 

Juna alikuwa na fitina naye* 

Juma alikuwa na fitina na 
mama yake* 

mchumba ,^4; Juma alikuwa na fitina na 
mchuinba wake« 

C • wivu juu ya 

Hasani alikuwa na wivu 
juu yangue 

Hasani alikuwa na wivu 
juu yetu, 

Hasani alikuwa na wivu 
juu ya nyumba yetu. 



miird 



sisi 



nyumba 
mchumba 



motokaa 



Hasani alikuwa na wivu juu 
ya mchumba wa rafiki yake, 

Hasani alikuwa na wivu juu 
ya motokaa ya rafiki yake. 



D, ila 

-ita Nimewaita watoto wote ila 
Daudi, 

-saida Nimewasaidia watoto wote 
ila Daudi. 



It's proper to show respect to 
the church elders. 



Juma had a quarrel with me. 

Juma had a quarrel with him, 

Juma had a quarrel with his 
mother. 

Juma had a quarrel with his 
fiancee* 

Hasani was jealous of me. 

Hasani was jealous of us. 

Hasani was jealous of our house. 

Hasani was jealous of his friend's 
girl friend. 

Hasani was jealous of his friend's 
car. 



I have called all the children 
except Daudi, 

I have helped all of them except 
Daudi. 



-ona -piga 



kkB 



UNIT 111 



SWAHILI 



A. i^g^wa. 

werevu Haruni ana werevxi mkubwa. 
Ingawa Haruni ana wereru 
nikubwa, hawezi kusooia, 

chal Hanini anywa chai nyingi. 
Ingawa Haruni anywa chai 
nyingi, hanywi kahawa, 

maembe Haruni apenda maembe sana, 

Ingawa Haruni apenda maeitibe 
sana, hawezi kuyala. 

vipimo Shati hili halinieneie 
Ingawa shati hili 
halinienei, nitalinunua* 



B. 


2U. 




kulima 




Jrnna alima vizuri sana. 
Tu niwerevu kwa kulima. 


kuotesha 




Juma aoteaha vitunguu 
vizuri sana. 
Yu hodari kwa kuotesha 
vitunguu. 


kupanda 




Juma apanda viazi vizuri 
sana. 



kutengeneza Juma atengeneza baiskeli 
vizuri sana. 

C. The -nge tense. 

kusafisha Kama ningekuwa na maji ya 

moto, ningesafisha vycanbo. 



Haruni has great shrewdness. 
Though Haruni has great 
shrewdness, he can't read. 

Haruni drinks a lot of tea. 
Though Haruni drinks lots of 
tea, he doesn't drink coffee. 

Haruni likes mangoes vexy much. 
Though Haruni likes mangoes very 
much he can't eat them. 

This shirt does not fit me. 
Though this shirt doesn't fit 
me I will buy it. 



Juma cultivates very well. 
He is clever in cultivating. 

Juma grows very good onions. 
He is clever in growing onions. 

Juma plants very good potatoes. 

Juma repairs bicycles very well. 



kufua 



Kama ningekuwa na maji ya 
moto, ningefua nguo zangu* 



If I had hot water, I would wash 
the dishes. 

If I had hot water, I would wash 
my clothes. 



UU9 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 111 



kutengeneza Kama ningekuwa na majl ya 
BiotO) ningetengeneza 
kahawa* 



If I had hot water, I would make 
coffee. 



De. The -ngali tense. 



mind 



Sikujua kuwa utakuja jana. I didn't know that you would cane 

yesterday, 
Kama ningalijua kuwa utakuja. If I had known that you were 



weire 



■n 



mvTia 



nisingaliondoka nyumbani. 

Hukuja jana. 

Kama ungalikuja, 
nisingaliondoka nyumbani. 

Mvua haikunyesha jana, 
Kama ingalinyesha, 
nisingaliondoka nyumbani. 



coming, I would not have left 
the house. 

You didn't come yesterday. 
If you had come, I would not 
have left the house. 

The rain didn't fall yesterday. 
If it had rained, I would not 
have left the house. 






1 . A and B discuss a mountainous area that A has visited recently, 

2, Talk about the topography and climate of an area where you have 
lived for some time. 



.iX« 



USo 



UNIT 1 1 2 



SWAHILI 



Unit 11 a 
1. Basic Dialogue. You'd better not go hunting without a license, 

Abasi 
feiafanya kazi gani huko shambal What kind of work do you do there on 

the fATml 
l-iirambo 
biashara (N) 



vilevile 
-winda 
bundufcL (N) 
Tunalima na kufanya biashara, 

Vilevile kuwinda, kwa sababu wengi 
tuna bunduki* 

Abasi 



trade , c oramerce 

just the same, likewise 

to hunt 

gun 
We hunt and carry on trade. Also 
hunting, because many of us have 
guns* 



cheti (VI) certificate 

Nadhani ni l^zima ukate cheti ufcLtaka I think it's necessary that you get a 



kuwinda, au sivyo? 



Mirambo 



-shtaki 
baraza (N) 

Hakika, Ukiwinda pasipo cheti 
utashtakiwa barazani. 



license if you want to hunt. Or 
isn't that sol 

to accuse, prosecute 

verandah, place of public 
coimcil 

Certainly, if you hunt without a 

license you will be prosecuted in 

court* 



U5i 



BASIC COURSE 



UNITiia 



Abasl 
Lakini, nani atajua kuwa huna cheti? But, >riio will know that you don't have 

a licensed 
Kirambo 



ajabu (N or M) 

askari (WA) 
Askaril Ni ajabu kwamba wanajua 
nani amekata cheti na nani 
hakukatae 

Ao pasigOe 

;3embe Ukijaribu kulima pasipo 

jembes utapatwa na shida, 

uma Ukijaribu kulima pasipo 
uma, utapatwa na shida » 



amazsment 
policeman 
A policeman I It's amazing that they 
know who has gotten a license and 
Trtio hasn't e 



mbolea 
B. bila 



mbegu njema 



baiskeli Huwezi kununua baiskeli 
hii bila fedha nyingi. 

motokaa Hvtwezi kununua motokaa hii 
bila fedha nyingi. 

vitabu jiko kitanda 



If you try to cultivate without a 
hoe, you'll find it difficult. 

If you try to cultivate without a 
rake, you'll find it difficult. 



You can't hvy this bicycle without 
a lot of money. 

You can't buy this motor car 
without a lot of money. 



A. Switching tenses. 

i Mama alipelekwa hospitali 
jana. 



>5y mother was taken to the hospital 
yesterday. 



U5a 



FNIT 1 1 2 



SWAHILI 



kesho 



Mama atapelekwa hospital! 
kesho. 



tutafanya Mama akipelakwa hospital! , 
"^^ tutafanya nini? 

l^zlma N! lizima mama apelekwe 
hospital ini» 



jana 



Mama alipelekwa hospital! 
jana. 



ndiye Mama ndiye aliyepelekwa 
hospital! jana, 

kesho Mama ndiye ataJ<ayepelekwa 
hospital! kesho. 

B. Switching tenses. 

i Yeye ni mgonjwa sana, 

tutafanya Yeye akiwa mgonjwa sana, 
"^^ tutafanya ninil 

jana Yeye alikuwa mgonjwa sana. 

sasa Yeye nl mgonjwa sana sasa. 

ndiye Yeye ndiye aliyekuwa 
mgonjwa sana. 

C, Switching tenses. 

I Anattimaini kuendelea katika 

masrano. 

mwaka Mwaka iiliopita, alitumaini 
°P^ * kuendelea katika masomo. 

hapana Mwaka uliopita, hakutumaini 
kuendelea katika masomo. 

ndiye Yeye ndiye ambaye hakutumaini 
kuendelea katika masomo. 



My mother will be taken to the 
hospital tomorrow. 

If my mother is taken to the 
hospital, what shall we dol 

Wy mother must be taken to the 
hospital. 

}iy mother was taken to the 
hospital yesterday. 

It was my mother who was taken 
to the hospital jresterday. 

It ' s my mother who will be taken 
to the hospital tomorrow. 

He is very sick. 

If he is very sick, what shall we 
do? 

He was very sick. 

He is very sick now. 

He is the one who was sick. 



He hopes to continue with his 
studies. 

Last year, he hoped to continue 
with his studies. 

Last year, he didn't hope to 
continue with his studies «, 

He is the one who didn't hope to 
continue with his studies. 



U53 



BASIC GOimSE 



UNIT 113 



io Basic Dialogue, (continued) 

mjomba (WA) 

bahati (N) 
Mwaka jana, mjomba wangu alipata 
bahati mbaya, bwana. 



Ipil 






badala (N) _, ^,. 

mnyaina (WA) 

-vua 

bahari (N) 
Badala ya kupata cheti cha kuwinda 
wsmyama mwituni, alipewa cha ^.X 
kuvua samaki baharini* 

Ilikuwaje? 

hati (N) 
Kwa sababUy hakuwa na hati y^ 
lcmnwej;'93liia kukata cheti cha 
kuvdndao 



Unit 113 

Mirambo 

kinship term used reciprocally 
by brother and son of a wOTian 

luck (good or bad) 

, Last year, my mjomba had some bad 

luck a 

Abasi 

What kind? 

^lirambo ,. 

^j; a substitute 

animal 

;■ ■j.-L 

s to fish 

,»I* sea 5 ocean 

Instead of getting a license for 
--' hunting game in the forest, he was 

given one for fishing in the sea, 
Abasi 

How did that happen! 
Mirambo 

document 
Because he didn't have the document 
to enable him to get a hunting 
license. 



k5k 



UNIT 113 



SWAHILI 



Abasi 



Kama akija kuishi kwetu atafiirahi, 
kwa sababu ni vyepesi kupata 
cheti cha kuwinda hxiko. 



If he comes to live at our place, he 
vrill be glad, because it is easy to 
get a hunting license there. 



A, Ki -tense; l^zima with subjunctive* 

kuwinda Ukihitaji cheti cha kuwinda, 
llzima upate hati kutoka 
bomani* 

kuvua Ukihitaji cheti cha kuvua, 
l^zima upate hati kutoka 
bomani* 

njia Ukihitaji cheti cha njia, 

l^zima upate hati kutoka 
bcmania 



B. badala ja 



una 



Uineleta uma badala ya kijiko. 



bakuli Umeleta bakuli badala ya 
kikapu. 

panga Umeleta panga badala ya kisu* 

sh\ika Umeleta shuka badala ya 
kitambaa* 

thilmni Umeleta thiinni badala ya 
shilingi. 



If you need a hunting license, 
you must get a written note 
frcm the District Office, 

If you need a fishing license, 
you must get a written note 
frcan the District Office, 

If you need a road license^ you 
must get a written note fr<M 
the District Office, 



You have brought a fork instead 
of a spoon© 

You have brought a bowl instead 
of a basket. 

You have brought a big knife 
instead of a knife (ordinary). 

You have brought a sheet instead 
of a piece of cloth» 

You have brought a fifty cent 
piece (Ee African) instead of 
a shilling. 



U55 



BA.SIG COURSE 



• UNIT 113 



C. Location with -ni, 
bsJiari Niliangusha ufunguo baharini, 
mwitu Niliangusha ufunguo mwituni. 
chini Niliangusha ufunguo chini. 

mto roaji ua nyasi 

3. 

A. Switching tenses* 

I Anakuja kuishi kwetu* 

uliopita Alikuja kuishi kwetu nwezi 
uliopita, 

ujao Atakuja kuishi kwetu mwezi 
ujaoe 

ndiye Yeye ndiye atakayekuja kuishi 
kwetu mwezi ujao. 

uliopita Teye ndiye aliyekuja kuishi 
kwetu mwezi uliopita* 

Be Switching tenses. 

I Unapata bahati mbaya siku hizi, 

jana Ulipata bahati mbaya jana, 

hapana Hukupata bahati mbaya jana. 

kesho Hutapata bahati mbaya kesho. 

sasa Hupati bahati mbaya sasa» 



I dropped the key into the sea, 
I dropped the key in the forest, 
I dropped the key on the ground. 



He is coming to live at our place© 

He came to live at our place last 
months 

He is craning to live at our place 
next month. 

He is the one v4io is coming to 
live at our place next month. 

He is the one who came to live at 
our place last month. 



You are unlucky these days. 
You were unlucky yesterday. 
You were not unlucky yesterday. 
You will not be unlucky tomorrow. 
You are not imlucky now. 



1(56 



UNIT 11 U SWAHILI 



Unit_i^i^U 
i» Basic Dialogue. Time to get up, 

Asha 
-cha to dawn 

-a:lika to wake up 

Juma, Juma) kumekucha bwanal A^al Juma, Juma, it's daybreak, Misterl 

Get upi 
Juna 
napema early, soon 

Sitaki kuajUca mapema hivi. I don't want to get up so soon as all 

this. 
Asha 
dirisha (MA) window 

Hebu angalia dirishani, jua lawaka. Please, will you look out the windowl 

The s\m is shining. 
Juma 
Tafadhali usiniaAshe sasa. Please don't get me up nowj I'll get 

nitaainka baada3re. up later. 

Asha 
-lala to sleep, lie down 

Wewe Juma u mvlvu kweli, wapenda You're really lazy, Juma. You really 
kulala sana. like to sleep. 

Juma 
-kasirika to be angry 

U57 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT nu 



Unat«ika kunikasirisha biire tu. You just want to make me angry for 

nothing* 
Asha 
-uso (U-N) face 

-nawa r to wash face/hands 

Utanawa uso kwa maji moto au baridi? Are you going to wash your face with 
lieic- . - '. ■" hot water, or cold? 

' Juma 

Kwa maji ya uvuguvugu. With lukewarm water* 

A, Three verbs with subject prefix ku-» 
kupambazuka Kiunepauribazuka, ^stdS Morning has come* 

kucha Kumekucha. 
kuchwa Kumekuchwa, 

^* J2i» H» 2» is* £l plus adjective* 
Juma Juma yu ravivu kweli. ■£fT 
Wewe u mvivu kweli. 
Mimi ni mvivu kweli* ssr? 
Sisi tu wavivu kweli* . 



It is dawn* 

The sun has set* 



wewe 

mimi 

sisi 

ninyi 

wao 



Ninyi m wavivu kweli* 
Wao ni wavivu kweli* 
C* -wa na wivu 
Juma Juma sina wivu sana* 
wewe Wewe una wivu sana. 
ninyi Ninyi mna wivu sana. 



Juma is really lazy* 

You are really lazy* 

I am really lazy* 

We are really lazy* 

You are really lazy* 

They are really lazy* 

Juma is very jealous* 
You are very jesuLous* 
You are very jealous. 



kS9 



UNIT 111* 



SWAHILI 



slsl 



Bdmi 



wao 



A, Stative vs. causative stems* 

Kwa nlnl umekaslrikal 

Kwa sababu umenikasirlsha* 

Kwa nini nmekaslrika? 

Kwa sababu umetukasirlsha. 



Miy are you angryt 

Because you have annoyed me. 

Why are you (pi) angry? 

Because you have annoyed us. 

Why is he angry? ■^'^\. 

Because you have annoyed him. 

Why are they angry? 

Because you have annoyed them. 

B« Causative vs. causative-passive stems. 



Kwa nini amekasirika? 

Kwa sababu umemkasirisha. 

Kwa nini wamekasirika? 
Kwa sababu umewakasirisha. 



mini 



yeye 



sisi 



wao 



Sitaki kviamshwa mapema 
kesho. 

Usiniai^he mapema* 
Sitakuamsha mapema. 

Hataki kuamshwa mapema 
kesho. 

Usimwamshe mapema. 
Sitamifamsha mapema. 

Hatutaki kuamshwa mapema 
kesho. 

Usituamshe mapema. 
Sitawaa^sheni mapema. 

Hawataki kuamshwa mapema 
kesho. 

Usiwaamshe mapema. 
Sitawaamsha mapema. 



I do not want to be awakened early 
tomorrow. 

Don't wake me up early. 
I'll not wake you up early. 

He does not want to be awakened 
early tomorrow. 
Don't wake him up early. 
I'll not wake him up early. 

We do not want to be awakened 
early tomorrow. 
Don't wake us up early. 
I'll not wake you (pi) up early. 

They do not want to be awakened 
early tomorrow. -.^ .=. — ~c^ 
Don't wake them up early. 
I'll not wake them up early. 



US9 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 115 



Ifeit 115 



1, Basic Dialogue, (continued) 

udevu (U-N) 
-nyoa 
Utanyoa ndevu leo? 

kioo (VI) 
wembe (U-N) 
Ndiyo, nipatie kioo na wembe. 

-fagia _ ^^,,y , . „,.,. 
Ukimaliza kunyoa utanisaidia 
kufagia? 



Asha 



Juina 



Asha 



a hair of the face 
to shave 
Are you going to shave today? 

mirror 
razor 

Yes, get me the mirror and a razor, 

to sweep 
VThen you finish shaving, will you 
help me sweep? 



Jxuna 
Hapana, anza kufagia sasa. No, begin sweeping now, 

Asha 
vumbi (N) dust 

Hujali vumbi? Don't you mind the dust? 

Juma 
Kwanza mwaga maji kidogo, kisha First, sprinkle a little water, and 
ufagie, then sweep. 

Asha 
-oga to bathe 



U60 



UNIT lis 



SWAHILI 



BiMili (MI) 
"ziina 
-kawla 
Ninakwenda kuoga rawili Azima, 
sitakawla, 

mawaki (MI) 
Ma miitii nltaplga mswaki. 



Jiuna 



body 
whole 

to take a long time 
I'm going to take a bathj I won't 
be long. 

twig used as toothbrush 
And I'm going to brush my teeth. 



A. -kawia plus infinitive, 
kuoga Kwa nini ulikawia kuoga? 
kunyoa Kwa nini ulikawia kunyoa? 
kuongea Kwa nini ulikawia kuongea? 
kutembea Kwa nini ulikawia kutenibea? 



kulala 



Kwa nini ulikawia kulala? 



kupiga 


Kwa nini uJikawia kupiga 




mswaki? 


B. 


'whole/all' 


ng'ombe 


Walikula ng'cmbe mzima. 


kuku 


Walikula kuku mzima. 


mbuzi 


Walikula mbuzi mzima. 


nguiniwe 


Walikula nguruwe mzima. 


nanasi 


Walikula nanasi lote. 


kabiji 


Walikula kabiji yote. 



Why did it take you long to bathe? 

Why did it take you long to shave? 

Why did it take you long to converse? 

Why did it take you long to take a 
walk? 

Why did it take you long to go to 
bed? 

Why did it take you long to brush 
your teeth? 

They ate the whole cow. 
They ate the whole chicken. 
They ate the whole goat. 
The ate the vdiole pig. 
They ate the whole pineapple. 
They ate the whole cabbage. 



U61 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 115 



kiaiyoa 

kuoga 

kupiga 

knandika 

kulima 

3. 

A. 
kioo 

wembe 



ovyo-ovyo 
Alijinyoa ovyo-ovyo. He shaved himself carelessly, 

Alioga ovyo-ovyo. He bathed himself carelessly, 

Alipiga n»no ihswaki ovyo-ovyo. He brushed his teeth carelessly, 
Aliandika ovyo-ovyo« He wrote carelessly, 

Alilima shamba ovyo-ovyo. He cultivated his farm carelessly. 



Plurals. 

Nilipata kioo kipya, 

Twahitaji vioo viwili zaidi, 

Nilipata wembe mpya. 



ufagio 



kengele 



kitanda 



cheti 



.ffl 



Twahitaji nyenibe mbili 



zaidi. 



■ ..ti bxb rrf.-' 



Nilipata uma mpya. ' ' '"' 
Twahitaji njoima mbili iV/ 
zaidi. 

Nilipata ufagio mpya» - •,.:' 
Twahitaji fagio mbili 
zaidi. . ^ . ,, 

Nilipata kengele mpya, 
Twahitaji kengele mbili 
zaidi, 

Nilipata kitanda kipya, 
Twahitaji vitanda viwili 

zaidi, 

Nilipata cheti kipya, 
Twahitaji vyeti viwili 
zaidi. 



I got a new mirror. 

We need two more mirrors, 

I got a new razor blade. 

We need two more razor blades, 

i/.i:^v,aL. 

I got a new fork. 
We need two more forks, ' 

I got a new broom, ."^ 
We need two more broons, 

I got a new bell. 
We need two more bells, 

I got a new bed. 
We need two more beds, 

I got a new certificate. 
We need two more certificates. 



U62 



UNIT 115 



SWAHILI 



bunduki Nilipata bimduki mpya. 

Twahitaji bunduki nibili 
zaidi. 

raswaki Nilipata mswaki inpya. 

Twahitaji miswaki miwili 
zaidi* 



I got a new rifle. 
We need two more rifles. 

I got a new tooth brush. 
We need two more tooth brushes. 



U63 



•u-.;!,- 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 116 



i« Basic Dialogue, (continued) 



-ng'ca 



Unit 116 



Hamisi 



to uproot 



ChtLkua kofia yako tung'oke bwana. Take your hat and let's be off, 

(colloquial) 

Adya 

niende haja ) (^^^ ^g 

niende msalani ) offensive to toilet 

nikimbie chooni) ^^^^ speakers.) 

niende uani ) 



Ngoja kidogo niende uani. 

Nimesahau kupiga viatu rangi. 

Viache, vyenyewe vyang'aa. 

kiko (VI) 
Kiko changu kUco wapi tena? 

-nuka 

Waniuliza? Rata sikipendi. 
Cbanuka. 

-nukia 

-fahainu 



Wait a bit while I go to the toilet* 
HaMsi 

I forgot to shine my shoes. 
Adijja 

Leave them alone, they're shiny i 
Hamisi 

pipe 
Now vrtiere is my pipe? 
Adija 

to smell bad 
(Why) do you ask me? I don't even 
like it. It stinks. 
Hamisi 

to smell good 

to know, bear in mind 



U6U 



UNIT 116 



SWAHILI 



Hakinuki, kinanukia, wafahamu? 
Miini nsdwenda kazlni, Ewa heri« 



It doesn't stick. It smells goody 
imderstandl I'm going to work. 
Goodbye, 



Adi^a 



Usiniache, nakuja. 

A. ka-tense 

viatu Alirudi nyumbani akapiga 
viatu rangi. 

vidonge Alirudi njnunbani akapata 
vidonge Tya dawa. 

nyama Alirudi nyumbani 2Lkapata 
kipande cha nyama, 

chupa Alirudi nyumbani akapata 
chupa ya pombe* 

B. -ahidi kwamba plus future verb, 

viatu Aliniahidi kwamba atanipigia 
viatu rangi. 

nguo Aliniahidi kwamba atanipigia 
nguo pasi* 

simu Aliniahidi kwamba atanipigia 
simu. 

sindano Aliniahidi kwamba atanipiga 
sindano. 

C. ni-locatlves 

^to Twende tukasukume motokaa 
kutoka nitonl. 



Don't leave me. I'm coming. 



He went back hon© and shined his 
shoes. 

He went back home and got pills. 



He went back home and got a piece 
of meat. 

He went back home and got a bottle 
of beer. 



He promised me that he would shine 
my shoes. 

He promised me that he would iron 
ray clothes. 

He premised me that he would call 
me on the phone. 

He premised me that he would give 
me an injection. 

Let's go and push the car from (in) 
the river. 



k6S 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 116 



matope Twende tiikasukume motokaa 
kutoka matopeni. 

bonde Twende tukasiikume motokaa 

kutoka bondeni. 

barabara Twende tiikasukume motokeia 
kutoka barabaranl. 

D, ki-tense followed by ta-tense, 

insaada Ukihamla huko, utapata msaada. 



nafuu 



Ukihamia huko, utapata nafuu* 



matata 



kazi 



shamba 



S-Beiii 



4..H 



A, -nuka vs. -nukia, 

machungwa Machxingwa mabovu yananuka, 
^zima yananukla. 

maembe Kaembe mabovu yananuka. 
Mazima yananukia, 

ndizi Ndizi mbovu zinanuka. 
Nzlma zinanukia. 



»H 



mananasi Mananasl mabovu yananuka. 
Mazima yananxikia, 

B* -nukia vs. n\ika« 

chungwa Chungwa hili zima linanukia. 
Bovu linanuka. Silipendi. 

embe Embe hili zima linanukia 

Bovu linanuka, Silipendi, 



Let's go and push the car from the 
mud* 

Let's go and push the car from the 
valley. 

Let's go and push the car from the 
highway. 

If you move there, you will get 
help. 

If you move there, you will 
recover. ^ 



... .> — 1 . g^ 

Rotten oranges smell bad. 
Good one smell good. 

Rotten mangoes smell bad. 
Good ones smell good. 

Rotten bananas smell bad. 
Good ones smell good. 

Rotten pineapples smell bad. 
Good ones smell good. 

This good orange smells good. 
The rotten one smells bad. I 
don't like it. 

This good mango smells good. 
The rotten one smells bad, I 
don't like it. 



U66 



UNIT 116 



SWAHILI 



nanasi Nanasi hili ziraa linanukia. 
Bovu linanuka, Silipendi. 

ndizi Ndizi hii nzima inaniikia, 

Mbovu inanuka. Siipendl. 



This good pineapple smells good* 
The rotten one smells bad. I 
don't like it. 

The good banana smells good. 
The rotten one smells bad. I 
don't like it. 



1. Talk about the routine activities of getting up and getting ready 
for work. 



U67 



BASIC COURSE ■ UNIT 117 



Unit^ii_7 
1. Basic DiaQ-Ogue. Where does this hi^way go2 

Hamisi 
Barabara hii inakwenda wapi^ Where does this highway go? 

Hasani 
Inapita Nairobi, Naivasha i^jaka It goes past Nsdrobi and Naivasha 
Kisvmiu, to Kistunu. 

Hamisi 
-nyoka to be cane straight 

Yaonekana imenyoka sana. It seems very straight. 

Hasani 
Ndiyo, imenyoka ihpaka Naivasha, Yes, it is straight as far as Naivasha. 

Hamisi 
Ka kutoka Naivasha kuendelea mbele And how [is it] from Naivasha on? 

Hasani 
-pinda to bend 

Imejipinda hiiku na huku. It winds here and there, 

Hamisi 
Hivi ni l^zima kuendesha polepole? So it's r»cessary to drive slowly? 

Hasani 
"pana broad, flat 

Ndiyo, lakini barabara yenyewe ni Yes, but the road itself is broad and 
pana na laini, smooth. 



U68 



UNIT 117 



SWAHILI 



A, Relative of me-tense. 

kunyoka Nakusudia kufuata njia 
iliyonyoka, 

kupinda Nakusudia kufuata njia 
iliyojipinda, 

~refu Nakusudia kufuata njia 
iliyo ndefu. 

"pana Nakusudia kufuata njia 
iliyo pana, 

~embamba Nakusudia kufuata njia 
iliyo nyembamba, 

B. -nung'unika_jjuu, •• 

njia Mwandishi Mkuu anuEg'unika 
juu ya njia afuatayo. 

* 
matata Mwandishi Mkuu anung'unika 

juu ya matata apatayo. 

fujo Mwandishi Akuu anung'unika 
juu ya fujo afisini, 

Ashahara Mwandishi Mkuu anung'unika 
juu ya inshahara apatao. 

motokaa Mwandishi Mkuu anung'unika 

Juu ya motokaa aendeshayo. 



I intend to follow a road which is 
straight. 

I intend to follow a road which is 
winding, 

I intend to follow a road which is 
long, 

I intend to follow a road which is 
broad, 

I intend to follow a road which is 
narrow. 



The General 
about the 

The General 
about the 

The General 
about the 
office. 

The General 
about the 

The General 
about the 



Secretary grumbles 
road he follows. 

Secretary grumbles 
complications he faces. 

Secretary grumbles 
disturbances in the 

Secretary gnunbles 
pay he gets. 

Secretary grumbles 
car he drives. 



A, -onekana 

pua Pua yake imeumia2 

Inaonekana imeumia sana. 



Is his nose hurt? 

It appears to be seriously 
injured. 



U69 



BASIC COUESE 



UNIT 117 



mgongo Kgongo wake umevunia? 

Unaonekana umeumia sana, 

shingo mkono kidole 

B. afadhali plus sub jiinctive » 

kunyoka Tufuate njia iliyonyoka au 
iliyopindapindal 
Afadhali tufuate iliyonyoka. 



pana 



nweusi 
au 

inwekundu 



mabivu 

au 
mabichi 



Txifuata njia pana, au 
nyambamba? 
Afadhali tufuate pana, 

Tuchukue mzigo mweusi, au 
rawekundu? 
Afadhodi tuchukue mweusi. 

Tule nachungwa mabivu, au 
mabichil 
Afadhali tule mabivu. 



yote au Tupeleke gharama yote, au 

nusu r, 
nusut 

Afadhali tupeleke yote« 



Is his back hurt? 

It appears to be seriously 
injured. 



Shall we take a straight road, or 
a crooked onel 
We'd better take the straight one. 

Shall we take a wide road, or a 
narrow one? 
We'd better take the wide one. 

Shall we take a black bag, or a 
brown one 2 
We'd better take the black one. 

Shall we eat ripe oranges, or the 
green one si 
We'd better eat the ripe ones. 

Shall we send the whole amount, 
or half? 

We'd better send the whole 
[thing]. 



U70 



UNIT 1 1 8 



SWAHILI 



Unit iiS 
1, Basic Dialogue* Footpaths can be dangerous. 

Hamisi 
Unajua, hizi njia za miguu ni hatari You know, these footpaths are very 
sana, dangerous. 

Hasani 

Why? 
Hamisi 

mud, mire 

cause to come down, be slippery 
Isn't it true that when it rains, 
there's a sea of mud, and the road 
is slippery? 
Hasani 

dry, barren 

Ndiyo, lakini wakati wa jua njia hizi Yes, but during the sunny season they 
ni kavu na zenye vumbi. are dry and dusty. 

Hamisi 
(mbao) (pi. of ubao) 

Nyingine zina madaraja ya mbao. Sane have wooden bridges. 

msumaid (MI) nail 

Madaraja hajra yametengenezwa kwa These bridges are made with boards 
mbao na misumari. and nails. 



Kwa ninil 

tope (MA) 
-teleza 
Mvua ikinyesha, mat ope hujaa na 
njia huteleza? 



'kavu 



kit 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 118 



Hasani 



-tumbukia 
kijito (VI) 
Ndiyo, na yakivunjika utatumbukia 
katika kijito. 



to break, cut into, to fall into 
dim. of mto 'river' 
Yes, and if they get broken, you'll 
fall in the stream* 



Hand si 
(-vua) (to save, get out of difficulty) 

-vuka to pass safely over 

Lakini njia nyingine hazina madaraja Some have no bridges to (enable one 
ya kuvukia. to) pass safely over the streams* 



2« 

A. 
vumbi 
natope 
mawe 
miiba 
daraja 



B, 



njia 
ubao 



Sipendi njia zer^ vumbi nyingi, 

Sipendi njia zenye matope mengi. 

Sipendi njia zenye mawe mengi, 

Sipendi njia zenye miiba mingi. 

Sipendi njia zenye madaraja 
mengi* 

-tele z a 

Njia hii inateleza sana, 

Ubao huu unateleza sana. 



barabara Barabara hii inateleza sana. 
mahali Mahali hapa panateleza sana. 
jiwe Jiwe hili linateleza sana. 



I don't like very dusty roads* 

I don't like very muddy roads* 

I don't like very stony roads* 

I don't like very thorny paths* 

I don't like roads with many 
bridges* 

This footpath is very slippery* 

This piece of board is very 
slippery* 

This road is very slipperyc 

This place is very slippery* 

This stone is very slippery* 



k7» 



UNIT 1 1 8 



SWAHILI 



daraja Daraja hili linateleza sana, 
3« 

A, Switching tenses* 

I Mvna inanyesha sasa. 

kesho Mvua itanyesha kesho* 

alasiri Mvua itanyesha alasiri. 

usiku huu Mvua itanyesha usiku huu, 

Jana Hviia ilinyesha Jana* 

walipofika Mvua ilinyesha walipofika, 

tutafanya Mvua ikinyesha tutafanya 
'^^ nini? 

B. Switching tenses* 

i Alipigwa sindano na tabibu. 

usiku huu Atapigwa sindano usiku huu« 

kesho Atapigwa sindano kesho* 

Juzi Alipigwa sindano Juzi* 



This bridge is very slippery* 



ndiye 



bado Bado hajapigwa sindano* 

C, -angalia plus ki-tense* 

kimyoa Nilimwangalia akinyoa* 

kulina Nilimwangalia akilima. 

kuvua Nilirawangalia akivua* 

kugeuza Nilimwangalia akigeuza 
motokaa* 



It is raining now* 

It will rain tomorrow* 

It will rain in the afternoon* 

It will rain tonight. 

It rained yesterday* 

It rained when they arrived* 

If it rains, what shall we do? 



Ndiye aliyepigwa sindano juzi* 



He was given a shot by the doctor* 

He will be given a shot tonight* 

He will be given a shot tomorrow* 

He was given a shot the day before 
yesterday. 

He is the one who was given a shot 
the day before jresterday* 

He hasn't yet been given a shot* 

I watched him shave* 

I watched him plow* 

I watched him fishing* 

I watched him turn the car* 



U73 



BASIC COURSE .UNIT 118 



kufagia Nilimwangalia akifagia. I watched him sweeping. 

kutumbukia Nilimwangalia akitmnbukia I watched him fall into the river, 
mtoni* 



U7U 



UNIT -119 SWAHILI 



Unit_ii9 

1. Basic Dialogue, (continued) 

Hasani 

-teleAka to descend 

ihsitu (m) land covered with bushes, 

small trees 

Kiile Asituni kuna njia nyembamba There in the forest, there are some 

sana, very narrow paths, 

Zinateleroka chini ya milima. They lead down the mountains* 

Hand si 

shimo (N) pit, hole 

Lakini nyingine zina raashimo mengi. But some have a lot of holes (in them) 

sivyol don't theyl 

Hasani 

siafu (n pers.) army ants 

(kind of red ant) 

Hasa, hata siafu wapitapita njiani Yes, indeed, (and) even army ants pass 
humoe back and forth over the path, 

Hamisi 
tundu (MA) nest, hole 

Je, unaweza kuyaona mat\indu ya Can you see the nests of the ants2 
siafu? 

Hasani 
Pengine, ikiwa kama unatembea Scsnetimes, if you walk very slowly 
polepole utayaona, you'll see them, 

U75 



BASIC COURSE 



, UNITn9 



Hamisl 
Wanyama wanapitia njia hizi vile Do wild animals pass along these 
vile 2 paths? 

Hasani 
Ndiyo, wanapotaka kuwinda. Yes, >Aien they want to hunt. 



Ae hu-tensee 

Siafu hukaa matunduni, 
Siafu hula wanyama wadogOe 
Siafu hupitapita njiani« 

Siafu ni hatari, 

B. -gitia. 

wanafunzi Wanafunzi wapitia njia hii. 
wengi Wengi wapitia njia hii, 
wanyama ng • onibe siafu 

C, -po- 'whan' 

kuwinda Twapita njiani hvmi 

tunapotaka kuwinda, 

kuvua Twapita njiani hurau 
tunapotaka kuvua. 

kuoga kuogelea kwenda msituni 

3. 

A. ku class* 

mbu Kuna mbu kwenul 

Ndiyo bwana, kuna wengi. 



Red ants live in holes. 

Red ants eat small animals. 

Red ants pass back and forth on 
the path. 

Red ants are dangerous. 

Students pass along this way. 
Many pass along this way. 



We use this path when we want to 
hxmt. 

We use this path when we want to 
fish. 



Are there mosquitoes at your place? 
Yes, there are many. 



U76 



UNIT 119 



SWAHILI 



siafu Kuna siafu kwenu? 

Ndiyo, bwaiia, kuna wengi. 

chuo mawe vijito ma tope 

B, Switching tenses, 

Nilimpeleka hospital! pamoja 

na mjomba. 
Yeye ndiye niliyempeleka 

hospitali pamoja na mjomba, 
Nitampeleka hospitali pamoja 

na mjomba. 
Sasa ninampeleka hospitali 

pamoja na mjomba. 



Are there ants at your place 2 
Yes, There are many. 



i 

ndiye 
kesho 
sasa 



C, Switching tenses, 

I fttoto huyu alipigwa sindano, 
hapana litoto huyu hakupigwa sindano, 
ndiye Mtoto huyu ndiye aliyepigwa 

sindano, 
kesho Huyu ni mtoto ambaye atapigwa 

sindano kesho, 
bado Huyu ni mtoto ambaye hajapigwa 

sindano bado. 



milima 



wanyama 



vumbi 



I took him to the hospital together 

with my xincle. 
He is the one I took to the hospital 

together with my uncle. 
Tomorrow I will take him to the 

hospital together with my uncle. 
Now I am taking him to the hospital 

together with my uncle. 

This child was given an injection. 
This child was not given an injection. 
This child was the one given an 

injection. 
This is the child who will be given 

an injection tomorrow. 
This is the child who hasn't been 

given an injection yet. 



Conversation Starters 
1, Discuss medium-distance travel within Africa, 



U77 



BASIC COURSE UNIT 120 



1. Basic Dialogue* Firewood* 

Hamisi 
-pika to cook 

Utaanza kupika lini? When are you going to begin cooking? 

Adiia 
kuni (N) firewood 

Nitaanza hivi upesi, nikipata k\mie I'll begin z'ight soon now, ^en I 

get firewood* 



Utapata kuni wapi? Inlhere will you get it? 



Nitakwenda msituni kuziokota* I'm going to the forest to gather it* 

Haaiisi 

Huwezi kukata miti ya kuni? Can't you cut trees [suitable] for 

firewood? 

Adi^a 

shoka (ha) axe 

Ninaweza, nikiwa na shoka na panga* I can, if I had an axe and a panga* 

Hamisi 

Chukua shoka hili na panga* Take this axe and panga* 

Adi^a 

kamba (N) rope, cord 

Asante. Na kainba ya kufungia kuni Thanks* And what about a rope for 
Je? tying the firewood up? 

U7e 



UNIT 120 



SWAHILI 



Hamisi 



"fupi 
-aziraa 
Kamba yetu ni fupi sana. Nitaaziroa 
nyinglna* 



short 

to borrow, lend 
Our rope is very short, 
another^ 



I'll borrow 



A, msu 

kunl Nipe nusu ya kxmi zako> 
nitazillpa* 

kamba Nipe nusu ya kamba yako, 
nltailipa. 

dawa Nipe nusu ya dawa yako» 
Ditailipa* 

misumarl Nipe nusu ya misumari yako, 
nitailipa« 

kipande Nipe nusu ya kipande chako, 
nitakilipa. 

nibegu Nipe nusu ya nibegu zako, 
nitazilipa. 

Ba -gasuka 
shati Shati langu limepasuka* 
nguo Nguo yangu imepasiika* 

ngoma shuka chandalua 

C* robo 

mafuta Alinitilia robo ya mafuta 
yake* 



Give me half of your firewoodj I 
will pay for it« 

Give me half of your ropej I will 
pay for it» 

Give me half of your medicine} I 
will pay for it. 

Give me half of your nails | I will 
pay for it. 

Give me half of your piece j I will 
pay for it. 

Give me half of your seeds j I will 
pay for them* 



Jty shirt is torn. 
Ky dress is torn* 



He poured me out a quarter of his 
oil. 



U79 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 120 



He poured me out a quarter of his 
millet* 



mtaroa Alinltilla robo ya mtama 
wake* 

mchele dawa kinywajl chuniTi 

D. Imperative plus negative subjunctive* 

Take care of these drums so that 
they don't get lost* 

Take care of these drums so that 
they don't fall. 

Take care of these drums so that 
they don't get split* 

kuharibu Lindeni ngoma hizi zisiharibike* Take care of these drums so that 

they don't get spoiled* 



kupotea Lindeni ngoma hizi zisipotee* 
kuangioka Lindeni ngoma hizi zisiangvike* 
kupasuka Lindeni ngoma hizi zisipasuke* 



A. -enda plus ka-tense* 

shoka Shoka liko barazani. 

Nendeni ^alichiikue* 

kamba Kamba iko barazani* 

Nendeni mkaichukue* 

kuni Kuni ziko barazani* 

Nendeni mkazichukue. 

kikapu Kikapu kiko barazani* 
Nendeni mkakichukue* 

viti Viti viko barazani. 

Nendeni mkavichukue* 

B. Switching Tenses* 

1 Anaokota kxuii Asituni. 

utamwona Utamwona akiokota kuni 
insitxini. 



The axe is aa the veranda* 
Go to get it* 

The rope is on the veranda* 
Go and bring it* 

The firewood is on the veranda. 
Go and bring them* 

The basket is on the veranda* 
Go and bring it* 

The chairs are on the veranda. 
Go and bring them* 

He is collecting firewood in the 
forest* 

You will see him collecting fire- 
wood in the forest* 



U8o 



UNIT 120 



SWAHILI 



nillinHona Nilinmona akiokota kuni 
iftsltitni. 

ndiye Ndiye niliyemwona akiokota 

kunl msi tunic 

C. 

I Alikwenda imd-timi akaangusha 
miti» 

kesho Atakwenda mvdLtuni kuangusha 
mitia 

hapana Hatakwenda mwituni kuangusha 
mitis 

jana Hakuenda mwituni kuangusha 
mitie 

bado Hajaenda inwituni kuangusha 
miti. 

nilimzuia Nilinzuia asiende amituni 
kuangusha miti* 



I saw him collecting firewood in 
the forest* 

He is the one I saw collecting 
firewood in the forest* 



He went in the forest to fell trees* 

He will go in the forest to fell 
trees* 

He ^11 not go in the forest to 
fell trees* 

He didn't go in the forest to fell 
trees* 

He hasn't gone in the forest to 
fell trees* 

I prevented him froan going in the 
forest to fell trees* 



U8i 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 121 



1, Basic Dialogue, Fetching water* 

Hamisi 
-chota 
kisiDia (VI) 
Hfambie Adija akachote naji 
kisiioani* 



to take a little water/firewood 
well) water hole 
Tell Adija to go draw seme water at 
the well* 
Asha 

earthen pitdier/water jar 
to bore a hole in 
Our water jar has a hole in it« 
HaMsi 

Does it have a big holel 
Asha 

to leak 
Yes, it leaks quite a bit» 

bucket 
She said she will use a bucket* 
Handsi 

ditch for carrying water 
to draw water 

Viziud, pengine anaweza kuteka naji Good, f&ybe she can get scnte water 
pale mferejini, there at the ditch* 



Atungi (MI) 
-tobca 
Mtungi wetu umetoboka* 

Unalo tundu kubwa2 

-vuja 
Ndiyo, lavuja sana. 

ndoo (N) 
Amesema atat\unia ndoo* 

Afereji (ME) 
-teka 



l»8s 



UNIT 121 



SWAHILI 



Asha 



mstari (M) 
Naona kuna watu wengi ]%fere jiiii 
waliofarya mstarl* 



line 
I see there is a line of people at 
the ditch, ('there are many people 
the ire iriio formed a line*') 



A. ga-class concord 
maji Pale Aferejini hapana maji, 

£tu Pale roferejini hapana mtuo 
Astari ndoo mtungi 
B* ka-tense 

kuchota Kwaaibie Adija akachote ii!aji» 



There at the d itchy there is no 
water* 

There at the ditch ^ there is nobody* 



Tell Adija to go and take up water 
(a little at a time). 



kuchukua Jkambie Adxja akachukue pasi» Tell Adija to go and take the iron* 

Tell Adija to go and open the door. 



kufungua Hwanibie Adija akafungiie 
mlango* 

kufunga K»;aM)ie Adija akafunge 
dirisha. 

kisima Wapagazi wanakungojea 
kisiicani* 

baraza Wapagazi wanakungojea 
barazani* 



Tell Adija to go and close the 
windGWe 



The porters are waiting for you at 
the well. 

The porters are waiting for you on 
the veranda* 



barabara daraja £Liina bonia 



U83 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 121 



A. 



Atungi Mtungl wako \unetoboka2 



ndoo 



Ndiyo, unalo tundu kubwa. 

Ndoo jako iujstobokal 

NdiyOj inalo tundu kubwa« 

b^culi taa 

Be laipsrativ® plus ka-tensa* 



sisi 



Nendeni jtikaiiitekea maji 
bcHnbanis 

Twataka inajis 

Nendeni rakatutekee maji 
bombanio 



Is your water- Jar leaking^ (Has 
your water- jar a hole? ) 
Yes, it has a big hole* 

Is your bucket leaking? 
Yes, it has a big hole* 



I want seme wat@r» 
Go and bring me sosne water fran 
the water tap. 

We want some water « 

Go and bring us scane water from 
the water tap* 



U8U 



UNIT 1 22 SWAHILI 



Unit_iaa 
1* Basic Dialogue* Planning a hunting expedition. 

Butler 
tarehe (N) date 

safari (N) Journey 

Mwezi ujao tarehe kuni nitakwenda On the tenth of next month, I'm going 
safarini* to go on a trip* 



-elekea to be directed towards 

Utasafiri kuelekea wapi? Which way are you going! 

Butler 
Nitasafiri kwenda mwituni I'm going to make a trip to the forest 

kuwinda wanyama* to hunt game* 

Sangai 
Unakusudia kuwinda wanyaina gani? What kind of game do you plan to 

hunt? 
Butler 
kifaru (Vl-an.) rhino 

nyati (N-an.) buffalo 

simba (N-an. ) lion 

tenbo (N-8Q*) elephant 

Kama kifaru, nyati, simba, terabo na [Things] like rhino, buffalo, lion, 
wengineo* elephant and such like* 



"Icali sharp, fierce 

U85 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 122 



Hao ni wanyama wakali sana. Those are very fierce animals* 

Butler 
"nene thick, stout 

Ndiyo, tena ni wanene sana, Tes, and moreover, they are very big» 

Sangai 
mkuki (MI) spear 

Utawawinda kwa bundviki au kwa mkuki? WiH you hunt with a gun, or with 

"■■■", ■ , 1. 

spears? 

Butler 

risasi (N) lead, tin, solder, bullet 

Kwa bunduki* Hata risasi With a gun* I've even bought bullets, 

nimenunuae 

2» 



A, ~i2|i2t2 
kifaru Niliona kifaru, nyati, 
simbaj na wenglneo* 

waliaiu Niliona walimu, wanafunzi, 
inakarani, na wengineo. 

loinazi Niliona minazi, ndchungwa, 
mienbe na ndngineyo* 

nguo Niliona nguo, suruali, 
kofia na nyinginezo. 

sahani Niliona sahani, vikcmbe, 
bilauri na vinginevyo, 

B» Various translations for "kali 

kifaru Kifaru huyo ni Akali sana, 

kisu Kisu hicho ni kikali sana, 

U66 



I saw rhino, buffalo, lion, and 
such. 

I saw teachers, students, clerks 
and such. 

I saw coco palms, orange trees, 
mango trees and such, 

I saw cloths, trousers, hats and 
such, 

I saw plates, cups, glasses and 
such. 



That rhino is very fierce. 
That knife is very sharp. 



UNIT 122 



SWAHILI 



poDibe PoBibe hiyo ni kali sana« 

jua Jua rd kail sarta* 

niHalimu Mwalimu huyo in ^ali sanae 

maneno Maneno hajo ni makali sana« 

C» "nene 

intoto Stoto huyo ni innene sanae 

mnyama Hnyama huyo ni mnene sana. 

ilti Mti huo ni sbene sana* 

inkono ^ono huo ni innena sana, 

ng'csnbe Ng'asnbe huyo ni mnene sana« 



That beer is very strong. 
That sun is very hot* 
That teacher is very severe. 
Those words are very harsh. 

That child is very fat» 
That aniojal is very fat« 
That tree is very thick o 
That arm is very thick. 
That ox is very fat. 



3. 

A« The root b-d-1: badala and -badili. 

Give me your pen in place of mine. 



kalainu 



I want to exchange your pen for 
mine. 

Give me your book in place of mine. 

I want to exchange yoxir book for 
mine. 



Nipe kalamu yako badala ya 
yangu, 

Nataka kubadili kalamu 
yangu na yako. 

kitabu Nipe kitabu chako badala ya 
changUe 

Nataka kubadili kitabu 
changu na chako. 

shati kijiko foronya 

B. The root s-f-r: safari and safiri. 

aimi Nilisafiri mpaka Merika. 1 traveled to America. 

Safari yangu kwanda Amerika. Ity trip to America todc two weeks, 
ilichukua muda wa wiki mbili. 

sisi Tiillsafiri ^aka Merika« We traveled to America. 

Safari yetu kwenda Amenka Our trip to America took two 
ilichukua muda wa wiki mbili. weeks. 



U87 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 1 22 



yeye 



wao 



C, The root z-d: zaidi and -zidit 

kxiku Nina kuku wengi zaidi 

kuliko wako* 
Kuku wangu wamezidi 
kushinda wako* 



nqpunga 



Nina i^unga Ditringi zaidi 
kuliko wako. 
ftpunga wangu umezidi 
kushinda wako* 



I have more chickens than you, 

Ity chickens have increased more 
than yours* 

I have more rice than you. 

My rice has increased more 
than yours. 



pesa 



watoto 



matata 



ues 



UNIT 123 SWAHILI 



ynit_i^23 
i« Basic Dialogue* May I go along? 

Sangai 
Nikiazima bunduki, utakubali niende If I borrow a gun, will you let me go 
nawel with you? 

Butler 

Ndiyo, ningependa rawenzi wa kwenda Tes, I'd like a companiosi to go with* 

nayee _ . 

Sangai 

Kuwinda kvangu si kuzuri laklni ^^ hunting isn't so good} but at least 

tutakwenda tu* we'll go along* 

Butler 

umasklni (U) poverty 

Kama si tmaskini tungekwenda kwa If it weren't for poverty, we^d go by 

motokaa* car* 

Sangai 

mpumbavu a fool, a dupe 

Usinifanye Apunibavu bwana, pesa Don't take me for a fool, mister, 

unazoi you've got the mcsieyl 

Butler 

-sadiki to believe 

Htznisadiki? Don't ('can't') you believe me? 

Sangai 

-danganya to cheat, deceive 



U89 



BASIC COimSE UNIT 123 

mdanganyifu a cheat, deceiver 

Hapana, Adanganye nwinginel No, cheat someone else* 

Butler 
Usisahau, tutaondoka baada ya juma Don't forget, we're going to leave in 

inoja, a week, 

S^gai 
Xwa heri, bwana, Qood-bye, 

A. A common way of using applied stems. 

chupa Nataka chupa ya kutilia I want a bottle to put soioe oil in* 

mafuta* 

sanduku Hataka sanduku la kuwekaa I want a box to put some money in* 
pesa* 

birika Nataka birika la kutengenezea I want a kettle to make sorae tea 
chai* iBa 

mtungi Nataka mtungi wa kuchotea I want a water-Jar to put some 
majio water in. 

mshahara Nataka mshahara wa kutosheleza I want pay sufficient for my needs* 
mahitaji yangu* 

nafasi Nataka nafasi ya kufanyia kazi I want a chance to do my work* 
yangu* 

karatasi Nataka karatasi ya I want a sheet of paper to write 

kuandikia barua* a letter [on], 

B« Infinitives in a noun slot* 

kuwinda Kuwinda kwake si kubaya* His hunting is not bad* 

kusona Kuscxna kwake si kubaya* His reading is not bad* 

kuandika Kuandika kwake si kubajra* His writing is not bad* 



U90 



JNIT 123 



SWAHILI 



kuliisa Kulina kwake si kubaya* 



His cultivating is not bad* 



kusezoa Kusema kifake kumenikasirisha* His talking has annoyed ine* 
kufika Kufika kwake kumenikasirisha* His arrival has annoyed me* 
kulewa kuongea kulia kushangilia kuingia 



hatari 



A» kama si 

magugu Pana magugu mengi hapa* 

Kama si magugu, maua yako 
yangeonekana vizuri* 

Njia utakayofuata ni hatari 
Sana* 

Kama si hatari, ningekwenda 
pamoja nawe* 

Nauli ya kvrenda Nairobi ni 
kubwa* 

Kama si hivyo, ningekwenda 
huko* 

miiba Njia hii ina niiba mingi* 
Kama si miiba, ingekuwa 
nzuri* 

B* Numbers between 20 and loo* (Add 
sentence*) 



nauli 



28 



37 



Nijnesonia kurasa ishirini na 
nane* 

Mimi nimesoma thelathini na 
tatu* 

Nimesoma kurasa thelathini na 
saba* 



There are a lot of weeds here* 
If it were not for weeds, your 
flowers would be seen clearly* 

The road you'll follow is very 
dangerous* 

If it were not for danger, I 
would go with you* 

The fare to Nairobi is much* 

If it were not for that, I would 
go there* 

This road has man^r thorns* 
If it were not for thorns, it 
would be good* 

5 to the number in the first 

I have read twenty-ei^t pages* 
I have read thirl^-three, 

I have read thirty-seven pages* 



1*91 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 123 



U6 



59 



66 



77 



88 



Mjmi nimesona arobalnl na 
nbiU, 

Nimesoma kurasa ardbalni na 
sit a* 
Miml nimesona hamslnl na moja. 



Nine soma kurasa 
Mind niinesoina 

Nimesofna kurasa 
Mimi niinasonia 

Ninssoma krirasa 
Hiiiii nimesona 
mbili. 



hasisini na tisa* 
sitini na nne* 

sitini na sita* 
sabini na moja. 

sabini na saba. 
themanlni na 



Nimesoma kurasa themanini na 
nane« 
hjiini ninescsta tisini na tatu. 



I have read forty-two, 

I have read forty-six pages, 

I have read fifty-one, 

I have read fifty-nine pages. 
I have read sixty-four. 

I have read sixty-six pages, 
I have read seventy-one # 

I have read seventy-seven pages, 
I have read eigh1gr-two« 

I have read eighty-ei^t pages, 
I have read ninety-three. 



k92 



UNIT 12U 



SWAHILI 



Unit 12U 



1* Basic Dialogue. Hunting* 



Sasa, &}Qraina akLja nlfaijQrejeS Now, if any game ccanes, how do I act^ 

Bu^er 
•ficha to hide something 

-sikiliza to listen 

Sikiliza, l&ina kwanza ujifiche Listen « first you have to hide 
asikuone* [yourself] so that it can't see you. 



-toroka 
Na akitoroka Jel Ninpige risasit 



to zoin away 
And how about if it runs away{ 
Shall I shoot it{ 



Butler 



-lenga 
Ukisha Jificha, lenga bundukia 

-changa 
-changa^ika 
-chagua 
B3t!SL ••• ama 
Wakiwa v^schanganyika mchague 
u&takayej kama cyati ama tembo. 



to aim 
When you've finished hiding yourself , 
aim the gun* 
to collect 
to be mixed together 
to choose 
either ••• or ••• 
If they are all mixed up, choose the 
one that you want, whether a buffalo 
or a elephant* 



U93 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 12U 



Sangai 

HalafttJ Then? 

Butler 
shabaha (N) target 

sawasawa equally, Just the same 

Kama umelenga shabaha sawasawa, piga If you've aiiwd at the target just 
risasl* ri^t, shoot* 

Sangai 
-fa to die 

I^nyama akLanguka naana yake amekufa? If the animal falls, does that mean 

it is dead? 
Butler 
Kwa kawaida, laklnl uslfiklmbilie. Generally, but don't run up to him. 



A. Affirmative subjunctive followed by negative subjunctive, 
kuficha Ilikuwa lizina wajifiche 



ili wasipigwe risasi* 

kulala Uikuwa lizima walale 

chini ili wasipigwe risasi, 

kutorcdca Ilikuwa l^ima watoroke ili 
wasipigwe risasi. 

kuangalia Ilikuwa l^zima waangalie ili 
wasipigwe risasi. 



It was necessary for them to hide 
so that they would not be shot. 

It was necessary for them to lie 
down so that they would not be 
shot. 

It was necessary for them to escape 
so that they would not be she*. 

It was necessary for then tc ^>dk. 
out so that they would not be 
shot. 



U9U 



UNIT 12U 



SWAHILI 



kukinbia Illkuwa llzlma waklBibie ill 
waslpigwe risasi* 

kugeiika Illkuwa l£ziina wageuke ill 
waslpigwe rlsasl* 

kupinda Ilikuwa l^zlma waplnde 111 
waslpigwe rlsasl. 

B« "S^^^g^ 

Bw. Sultard aimtaka kuchanga 
fedha kwa Bwana Hassaiii* 

askari Sultani anataka kuchaiiga 
fedha kwa askari* 

wapagazl makarani vyakula 

C* "Changanja 

mchele Usichanganye mchele na 



maji 



mtaina* 

Usichanganye maji na 
petrolic 



machungwa Usichanganye machungwa na 
maembe • 

vitabu Usichanganye vitabu vyako 
na vyangu. 

maua Usichanganye maua na 
magugu, 

risasi Usichanganye rlsasi na 
misumari* 



It was necessary for tham to run 
away so that they would not be 
shot* 

It was necessary for them to turn 
around so that they would not be 
shot* 

It was necessary for them to make a 
turn so that they would not be 
shot* 



The chief wants to collect money 
for Jfr, Hassani* 

The chief wants to collect money 
for the soldiers* 



Don't mix rice with millet* 



Don't mix water with petrol® 



Don't mix oranges with mangoes* 



Don't mix your books with mine. 



Don't mix flowers with weeds* 



Don't mix bullets with nails* 



U95 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 12U 



vijiko UaichanganyB vijiko na 

nyvuna. 



Don't idjc spoons with forks* 



A. kama ••• £una ••« 

ndizi Pana ndizi nyingi, 

Ichague uitakayo, kama 
hii ama hii* 

vyumba Pana vyvunba vingl. 

KLchague ukLtakacho, kama 
hikl ana hiki* 



iki 


Pana bunduki nylngi. 




Ichague vdtakayo, kama 


- 


hii ana hii* 


kamba 


kengele kufuli 


mash oka 


maua 



Thei^e are many bananas* 

Choose the one you want, whether 
this or that* 

There are many rooms* 

Choose the one you want, Aether 
this or that* 

There are mary guns* 

Choose the one you want, vrtiether 
this or that* 



miundo 



nito 



funguo 



nyenibe 



U96 



UNIT 125 SWAHILI 



Unit^iaS 
1* Basic Dialogue* (continued) 

Butler 
-chungulia to exaitiine carefully 

Kitu cha kwanza ni kunchungulia The first thing is to take a good 
kwanza* hard look at hioi. 

Sangai 
-jongea to move, make motion 

-kamata to seize 

Nikiona hajongei naweza kunkamatal If I see that he isn*t stirring » can 

I take hold of him? 
Butler 
dakika (N) a minute 

Ndiyo, baada ya dakika chache* les, after a few mcnentsa 

Sangai 
Kama si wewe, ningemkimbilia If it weren't for you, I'd have run 

akiamguka* up to him when he fell* 

Butler 
-chcdca to become tired 

Unawaona wale wamechoka, watendbea You see those are tired* They are 
polepole* walking slowly* 



-fukuza to pursue 

>ua to kill 



U97 



BASIC COURSE ' WIT 125 



twiga (N-pers) giraffe 

Tuwafukuze, sitaki kuwavia twiga. Let's go after them. I don't want 

to kill giraffe, 
Butler 
mbio (N) speed, running 

Unafikiri unaweza mbio za twiga? Do you think you can [duplicate] the 

speed of a giraffe? 
Sangai 
Siwezi, lakini napenda kuwwona I can't, but I like to watch him run. 
akikimbia* 

Butler 
sauti (N) voice 

Unasikia sauti za tembo? Do you hear the trumpeting of the 

elephants? 



-nguruma to rumble, roar 

Ndiyo, wananguruma kwa sauti sana. Yes, they are roaring with a great 

voice. 



U98 



UNIT 1 25 



SWAHILI 



Review_Sentences^^Units^_-_i25 



1* Ungependa tubadillshaiie kalaimi? 

2. Bilauri iliyohitajiwa iko hapa 

Juu ya meza* 

3. Magari ya abiria yaliflka saa 

nane leo alasiri* 

U. Htoto batakl naziva wala maji 
ya machungwa, 

5* Illk\3wa l^zima wajifiche 
wasishlkwe na askari* 

6, Pale ng'ambo ya mto pamepatUkana 
siniba wengl* 

7« Kabla ya kuondoka tutachiikua 
pesa za kutosha, 

6. Choma karatasi zote 
zlsizcdiltajiwa. 

9« Mwaka ujao tutahamia huko 
Unguja, 

io« Wanafunzi wote waliojifunza hvko 
Ulaya wamerudi inakwao* 

11. Je, wadhsmi ataradi hapa tena? 

12* Itamlazlmu kurudl hapa mapema 
sana. 



Would you like to trade pens [with 
me]? 

The glass that was needed is here on 
the table* 

The passenger lorries arrived at 
2 p.in* today* 

The child doesn't want milk or orange 
Juice* 

It was necessary for them to hide so 
as not to be seized by the police- 
man* 

Lots of lions have been found over 
there on the other side of ihe 
river* 

Before we leave, we'll take 
enough money* 

Bum all the papers that aren't 
needed* 

We're going to move to Zanzibar next 
year* 

All the students who studied in 

Europe have returned to their homes* 

Do you think he will return here 
again^ 

He will have to return here very 
soon* 



U99 



BASIC COURSE 



TOTIT 125 



13. Chakula hicho kilikuwa kiineiva 
sana* 

iU« Inafaa uangalie nibele unapoendesha 
motokaa* 

i5« Juina allsema ya kwamba, anataka 
nguo isiyotiunlwa* 

i6« Watu wa Ufaransa wanaongea upesi 
kuliko watu wa Kenya. 

17. Nyumba aliyoniinua ilikuwa haina 
mapainbo mengl* 

i8« Rafiki yangu amejliuniza kwa 
kisu. 

19» Watu wengi walikusanyika katika 
iiwanja wa niplra* 

20. Allfunga nyuihba kwa ufunguo Hi 
watoto wasiweze kufungua, 

21* Amekwisha tenibelea nchl zote za 
Afrika ya Mashariki, 

22* Anaweza kuongea lugha zote za 
Afrika ila Kiswahili, 

23. Ukijaribu kutor<*a askari 
atakupiga risasi, 

2k • Mletee mchele badala ya nyana 
ya nguruwe, 

25* Wao wana pesa nyingi sana* 

26 » Usimkiinbize nrboto kwa mbio hivyo. 



That food was quite thoroughly cooked* 

It's a good idea to look ahead when 
you drive a car. 

Jxma said that he wants brand new 
clothes* 

The people of France speak more 
rapidly than the people of Kenya. 

The house that he bought didn't have 
much furniture. 

Jfy friend hurt himself with a knife. 

Many people were assembled on the 
football field. 

He locked the house with a key so 
that the children wouldn't be able 
to unlock [it]. 

He has already visited all the 
countries of East Africa, 

He can speak all African languages 
except Swahili. 

If you try to run away, the policeman 
will shoot you. 

Bring him rice instead of pork. 

They have a very large amount of 
money. 

Don't make the child run so fast. 



5oo 



UNIT 125 



SWAHILI 



27* Wafanyl kazi wa Idara ya KLimu 

wananxing'unika Juu ya ndshfihara 
yao. 

28* Fuata barabara iliyonyoka mpaka 
kwenye nrbo* 

29* Anakljiilla Kiswahili barabara, 

30* Twendeni sokoni, au mjini? 

31* Afadhall twende mjini* 

32. Safari yangu ya kwenda Afrika 

ilichukua ntuda wa siku tano tu* 

33* Wazazl wake ni maskini sana* 

3U* Anataka kalainu ya kukuandikia 
barua. 

35* Wasingalxfanya hivyo^ 

nlsingaliwaambla waondoke* 

36* Ukitaka kazi ni lizijna 
kuitafuta* 

37* Kama si wewe, ningempiga yule 
mtoto* 

38. Chagua nguo utakayo, kaina hii 
ama hiyo* 

39* Ningejif^tnxa Kiswahili ningejua 
kukiongea* 

Uo, Hayo ndiyo niliyokuwa nikiongea 
juu yake. 

I41 • Wakati wa joto unektidsha fika. 

U2* Alitxilngilia tulipokuwa tukila. 



The workers in the Ministry of 
Education are coanplaining about 
their wages* 

Follow the straight road to where 
there is a river* 

He knows Swahili perfectly* 

Shall we go to market) or to town? 

It will be better if we go to town* 

My trip to Africa took only five days* 

His parents are very poor* 

He wants a pen to write a letter with* 

If they hadn't done like that, I 
would not have told them to leave* 

If you want work, you have to look 
for it* 



Choose whichever cloth yon want, 
whether this or that* 

If I studied Swahili, I would know how 
to sp>eak it* 

That is what I was saying about him* 

The hot season has already arrived* 

He burst in on us while we were 
eatii^* 



501 



BASIC COURSE ■ UNIT 125 



U3« Njruinba yake imejaa mapanbo ya. His house is full of furniture* 
nyumiba* 

itita Allpokuwa ametenbelea Jimbo la While he was visiting Indiana, I 

Indiana nilifanya kazi peke worked on noy own, 
yangu, 

U5* Fenye moto hapakosi moshi* Uhere there is fire> there is no lack 

' " . of smoke • 



.><:• , 



..~t': 



5oa 



UNIT 126 SWAHILI 



The last 25 units of this ccmrse are based on a series of spontaneous 
conversations recorded by Swahili speakers in Dar es Salaam* The editing of 
these texts iriiich was done by speakers of Swahili in Washington, B. C, has 
been limited to the breaking up of long sentences into short ones, preserving 
insofar as possible the words which appear in the original* A free transla- 
tion into English has been provided in lieu of grammatical notes* 

It is suggested that the student listen several times to the unedited 
version before looking at the simplified version and translation which appear 
in the book. Having done so, the student may practice saying the sentences 
of the printed text after a tutor, with his bocdc still closed* 

Up(xi opening his book, the student should underline those Swahili words 
which are new to him, and also write them in the left-hand margin, if they do 
not already appear there* He should not write the English equivalent under or 
over the Swahili word in the body of the text* 

At the next stage, the student should try to give each Swahili sentence 
in response to a cue taken either from the list of new words in the margin, 
or from the English translation* This in turn should lead to tenporary 
memorization of 6 - 6 consecutive lines at a time* 

Going beyond memorization, the student should collect, with the help of 
a tutor, several useful sentences containing each new word* Next, the student 
should listen again to the original unedited dialogue* 

Finally, student and tutor may engage in a conversation which covers the 
same subject matter, but with no attempt at verbatim reproduction of the 
original* 



503 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 126 



Unit_i^2 6£__^Ho3£itali_2a_m^ini • 



tangu 



-jisikia 

-choka 

kiile 



Islpokuwa 

-fikLri 

mbu 
-vah± 

-peleka 



unayo 

gharama 
saa hlzi 



Naan, Bwana lusiifu* 

Naam bwana. 

Habari za tangu Janal 

Nzuri sana. 

Habari za nyumbani? 

Salama tu* 

Ja> wasikLaje imrenzangu^ 

Oh, nlinechoka sana. 

Nasma gani kule nymnbanl? 

Hawajanjbo vote? 
Watoto vote hawajambo* 

Islpokuwa mftranangu mdogo 

ana homa. 
Unafikiri ni homa gani hiyo? 

Blla shaka rd homa ya mbu. 
Je, un^wahi kuonana na 

daktari? 
Sasa hlvi naiq>eleka 

hospitalini. 
Mnakwenda hospitall gani? 
Tunakwenda hospital! ya 

Mnazljmo^a, 
Je, unayo shilingi moja? 
La, sina. 
Hujui kuwa kuna gharaina ya 

shilingi moja saa hizi? 



Hello, Yusufu. 

Hello, 

How are you today? 

Very fine. 

How are things at home? 

Just fine. 

How do you feel, my friend? 

Oh, I'm very tired. 

How are things there at home? 

Is everyone all right? 
All the children are fine 

except that my youngest 

has a faver* 
What kind of fever do you think 

it is? 
It is undoubtedly malaria. 
Have you seen the doctor 

at all? 
I'm Just now taking him to the 

hospitals 
V/hich hospital are you going to? 
We're going to Mnazimoja 

Hospital, 
And do you have one shilling? 
No, I haven't. 
Don't you know that there is a 

one-shilling charge at this 

time of day? 



Sou 



UNIT 127 



SWAHILI 



mfanyakazi 



huwa 



Minii ni nfanyakazi wa 

Serlkali. 
Huwa sitol gharama ya 

hospital! • 



I'm a government employee, 

I don't generally pay the 
hospital fee* 



l]hit_i^27__(lnaendeleaj 



Hivi wafanya kazi va 
-tozwa serikali huwa hawatozwi 

pesa? 
Hawatozwi 1 

Kumbe mimi nimedanganywa 
-dangargwa siku nyingi. 
-pata Hujapata kwenda hospitali 

hata siku mojaj 
mara Nimepata kwenda mara 

nyingi. 
kila Lakini, kila wakati 

nimekwenda saa tatu* 
ndio Najua saa tatu ndio 

wakati eunbao hawatozi 

pesa« 
ye yote Mtu ye yote anayafanya 

kazi serikalini ni 

l^zima aende hospitali 

saa moja na nusu asubuhi. 
-andikiwa Akiandikiwa karatasi yake 

hupata dawa bila gharama 

yo yote. 
-jitahidi Nitajitahidi siku ryingine. 



That is to say that government 
emplqyaes are not made to payl 

They are not charged. 

Then I've been cheated for a 

long time. 
Haven't you ever been to the 

hospital even oncel 
I've had the occasion many times. 

But I've always gone at 9 o'clock. 

I know that 9 is the time when 
they don't charge. 

Whoever works in the government 
is supposed to go to the 
hospital at 7:30 a.m. 

If his sick sheet is signed, he 
gets medicine entirely free of 
charge. 

I'll tiy SOTie other day. 



S05 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 128 



ratuinishi 



-wahi 



_■»• 



egemea 



-lalia 
thamanl 

kawaida 



Lakini) Bwana Yusufu kwa 
rdni hata ukiva rotumishl 
wa sex*ikall xuiatozwa pesal 

Mlmi nimewahl kiilipa mara 
nbill au mara tatu hivi* 

Inategeinea hali ya mtu 
mwenyewe* 

Kuna wenglne wanataka 
kxilalia vitanda vya 
thamanl* 

Wenglne hulalla vitanda 
vya kawaida. 



But, Yiisvifu, why Is one charged 

even when one Is a goverimient 

eiiQ)loyee? 
I 've already paid two or three 

times* 
It depends on the [financial] 

condition of the Individual 

himself* 
There are many [who] want to 

occupy the most expensive beds* 

Others occupy ordinary beds* 



224i« 1£2__ ii2S22-2i2Si 



Vitanda vya kawaida ndlo 
vitanda vya namna ganl? 
Vitanda vya kawaida nl 
vile anibavyo vile anfcavyo wanalala 
watu wote waslokuwa na 
pesa* 
kama Kama watu ganl? 
vale Nl wale wanaotoka mashamba* 

wagenl Wako wenglne wagenl wasl- 
okuwa na pesa. 

wale wale Laklnl, kumbuka, wale wale 
washamba wanaweza kulalla 
vitanda ghoQ.1. 

iklwa Wanaweza Iklwa wana pesa* 



What are the ordinary beds like? 

The ordinary beds are those which 
are occupied by anyone who 
lacks money* 

For instance? 

They are those who come from 

rural areas* 
There are some transients who 

have no money. 
But remember that some rural 

people are able to occupy 

expensive beds* 
They can If they have money* 



506 



UNIT 1 29 



SWAHILI 





Oh, Mimi nilidhani mtu ye 


-dhani 


yote anayetoka shaniba 




halipi pesal 




La, bwanai 




Vile vile nakumbuka kule 


wenye 


shamba kuna watu wenye 




pesa nyingi. 




Wana pesa nyingi kuliko 


tuliopo 


hata sisi tuliopo hapa 




mjini. 


hivyo 


Bila shaka ni hivyol 




Asante sana Bwana Tusufu* 


-potezea 


Sitaki kukupotezea wakatio 




Mtoto wako ni mgonjwa. 


-faa 


Sasa yafaa uchukue karatasi 




hi.l Tunkiinbilie Bwana 


mganga 


Mganga, 


•^ezekana 


Ilkitnbilie upesi iwezekanavyo. 



Vyema* Nitakavyosikia 
nltakuja kukuambia. 
Kwaheril 

Asante, kwaheri bwanai 



Ohi I had the impression that 

anyone from the country didn't 

payl 
Nol 
I also remember that out there 

in the countryside there are 

people with lots of jncaiey. 
They have more money than even 

those of us who are here in 

town. 
No doubt about it I 
Thanks a lot, Tusufu. 
I don't want to waste your time* 
Your child is ill. 
Now it's best that you take 

this paper and get to the 

doctor in a hurry. 
Run to see him as fast as you 

can. 
All right, I'll come and tell 

you viia.t I find out. 

Good byei 
Thanks I Good bye I 



ysii_li2i-S^~4i-S-^2iSJiS-£2^22i 



Karibu Bwana Jumal 
Oh, asante sana I 
Je, unataka nini leo2 
Leo nataka machungwa 
bwana. 



Welcc^e, Jumai 

Thanks I 

And iriiat do you want today2 

Today I'd like some oranges. 



507 



BASIC COURSE 



■UNIT 130 



Leo machxuigwa ni ghali 

sana« 
Chxingwa moja ni senti 

kuinl, bwana. 
wakati Unajua, siku hizi ni wakati 

wa imnia* 
gari Magari mengi huwa hayafiki 

hapa upesi* 
Tjhaba Kwa hiyo tuna uhaba wa 

machungwaa 
mlimaji Lakini walimaji wa machungwa 

ni wengi sana sehemu za 
kwenu kwenua 

Kwanini yanakuwa ghali hivil 
Kwa sababu gharama za 
uchukuzi uchukuzi ni kubwa mnol 
ingawaje Lakini, ingawaje gharama za 

uchukuzi ni kubwa mno, 
-chukua huwezi kuchukua chiingwa 

mo^la kwa gharama ya senti 

tanol 
Aaaa, wewe ni rafiki yangu. 
zamani Wewe ni mnunuzi wangu wa 

zamani. 
-fajiyia Nitakufanyia chungwa raoja 

senti tano. 



Oranges are very high today. 
Oranges are -/10 apiece. 

You know, this is the rainy 

season* 
Not mary lorries get here on 

schedule* 
For that reason, we're having 

a shortage of oranges. 
But there are a lot of orange 

growers in the vicinity I 

Why are they so expensive? 
Because the transport charges 

are excessive* 
But even though the cost of 

transportation is too high, 

you can't sell a single orange 

for five cents I 

Oh well, you're my friend* 
You've been my custcwier fran 

way back* 
I'll make you [a special price 

of] 5 cents an orange. 



HSii - 112- _ 1 I22® rdelea 2 



Je, unataka nini zaidi - 
Unataka ndizi au viazi 
ulaya? 



And what else do you want? 
Would you like bananas, or 
(Irish) potatoes? 



5o8 



UNIT 130 



SWAHILI 



Oh, napenda sana viazl 
ripo ulaya kama vlpo* 
hebu Hebu nitazaine 
aabona Lakini sibona vingine vidogo 
"embainba na vyembamba sana* 
"nene Vlnglne slo vlnene kaina 
kavaida* 
Ah, bwana, sisi tuendapo 
madukani ktmunua, tunanunua 
gunla katika magunla* 
-chagaa Hatuwrezl kuchagua kuua 
guuia hill lina vlazi 
vikubva au vidogo. 
Lakini viazi hivi vinalimwa 
sehemu za kwenu* au 
vinatoka mbali sana{ 
Ah, watu wengi wanadanganyika* 

Wakisikia 'viazl ulaya, ' 
wanadhani vinallBOfa Ulaya* 

Hivi havilimwi Ulaya, bwana, 

wenyewe Tunavilima sisi wenyewe 
hapa hapa Tanganyika* 
Vingine vyatoka karlbu tu 
pande hapa pande za Morogoro* 

Hivi Morogoro pla kunalimwa 

viazi ulaya? 
Naaial 



kwenu 



-dangaiiyika 



-dhani 



Well, I like potatoes very much, 

if there are some* 
Let Bie have a look 
But some are small and very 

irregular in shape* 
Some are not nice and round as 

[they] usxialLly are]* 
Ah, iqy friend, when we go to 

the shops to buy, we h\xy [them] 

in sacks* 
We aren't able to select whether 

this sack [or that] has large 

potatoes [in it]* 
But are these potatoes grown 

nearby, or do they come frcwi 

quite a distance} 
Ah I Lots of people are fooled 

[by that]. 
When they hear 'Europe potatoes', 

they think they are grown in 

Europe* 
These aren't grown in Europe, 

my friend* 
We grow them ourselves right 

here in Tanganyika* 
Scane come from right nearby, 

right around Morogoro* 
You mean that Irish potatoes are 

grown at Morogoro too? 
Certainlyi 



S09 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 131 



^"^i-l^l— i&ssG^sissi 



Kijnbo 



harufu 



Je, wataka nazl2 
Nazi, nataka sana, kwa 

sababu mke wangu 

suiazlpenda sana» 
Mind, nllldhanl unatxunia 

Kimbol 
Kimbo sltaki, kvra sababu 

harufu yake hainlpendezi 

sana. 





Sasa wasemaje '■■ ' 


-fucga 


Nifunge, au unataka kunuBua 




nyama pial 


kifaa 


Nitanunua nyama na vifaa 


^ 


• vidogo vidogo. 




Nadhani vinauitosha aiaana 


,.• • / ,- 


kikapu changu si kikubwa 




sana. 


-kaanga 


Je, ssunaki wa kukaanga, 




unatakat 




Siwapendi, napenda samaki 


kopo 


' wa makopo tu» 




Miml naona labda hutaki 


-pa 


kumpa kazi nylngi blbl 




yako nyvunbani. 




Bila shaka, kwa sababu 




Juzi juzi hapa amepata 




rotcto* 


-paa 


Kupaa samaki itakuwa 




kazi kubwa. 



Do you want some coconuts! 
YeS} I do want sooie coconuts, 

because my wife likes them 

very much. 
But I thought you used Kimboi 

I don't like Kimbo, because I 

don't particularly care for 

its smell e 
Well, ^at do you say. Friend 

Juma? 
Shall I wrap [it] up, or do you 

want to buy some meat, too? 
I'll buy some meat and a few 

little items. 
I think that will be enough, 

because my basket isn't very 

big. 
And do you want some fried fish? 

I don't like them; I only like 

canned fish* 
I see periiaps you don't like to 

give your wife a lot of work 

around the house* 
Quite right, because Just a few 

days ago she had a baby* 

Cleaning fish would be a big 
chore* 



Sio 



UNIT 132 



SWAHILI 



"l)ichi 



-faa 



-tiwa 
haja 



Unajua kuva sainakl vablchl 

wana vitamin^ 
Pia unajua kuva ni chakula 

cha kxifaa kwa watotot 
Niliainblwa na mzuzigu iranoja 

kuwa wale samaki wa 

makopo hutlva vitamin. 
Sina haja ya kumstunbua 

sana oike wangu* 



Do you know that fresh fish 

have vitamins { 
And do you also know that it 

is good food for children? 
I was told by a European that 

that canned fish has vitamins 

addeda 
I have no need to put vay wife 

to a lot of trouble. 



Unit 132 (inaendelea) 



~bichi 



-chukua 

ulicho 

wewe 

ratli 



taabu 



Je, maharagwe mabichij 

hutaki? 
Napenda maharagwe mabichi, 

nitachukua* 
Lakini, siwezi kuchukua 

mengi* 
Nitachukua kila ulicho nachoy 

kidogo kidogo* 
Nitachukua kwa sababu wewe 

ni rafiki yangu. 
Haya bwana. Sasa nifunge 

maharagwe ratli ngapi? 
Ratli mbili tu zinatutosha* 

Wewe huoni kuja huku kila 

siku ni taabul 
Ungechukua maharagwe ya 

kutosha kwa siku kumii 
Hapana, bwana, haya yana- 

tosha kwa leo* 

511 



And you don't want any [nice] 

fresh beans? 
I like fresh beans; 1*11 take 

[scanejv 
But I can't take many, 

I'll take just a little bit 

of everything you have. 
I'll take it because you are 

my friend, 
O.K. How many pounds of beans 

shall I wrap up? 
Just two pounds will be enough 

for us. 
[But] don't you find that ccwdng 

here every day is tiresome? 
You could take enough beans for 

ten days I 
No, my friend, these are enough 

for today. 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 133 



zaidl 
haja 



Nini tena zaidi, Bwana Juma? 
Basii Sina haja ya kitu 

kingine zaidi j asant© 

sana* 
Haya, lete kikapu chako 

sawa sawa tufvmge. 



And what else 2 

That's all, I don't need any- 
thing else. Thank you very 
much* 

All right, bring yonxr basket 
[hold it level] and we'll 
tie it up. 



Unit 133 (Inaendelea) 



hapa 

kaniba 
pikipiki 



kumbe 
-tarajia 



kwenye 



-onana 



wee 



nymna 



Kikapu changu hiki hapa, 

Funga viziiri sana, 

Weka kaniba chini na juu, 

Nitakapofunga kwenye piki- 
piki yangu, kikapu 
hakitawesa kuanguka 
njiani. 

Kumbe una pikipiki, bwana? 

Mimi nilitarajia kumpa 
mtoto akuletee nyurabani. 

Oh, asante, sina haja ya 
mtoto, pikipiki ninayo. 

Haya basi nitamwambia mtoto 
akuletee kwenye pikipiki 
yako ufunge. 

Tutaonana kesho, bwana, 

Asante , 

Wee mtoto, funga vizuri 
hapo, 

Nyuma kusiwe na matata. 



Here's wy basket. 

Tie it up very carefully. 

Tie it below and above. 

When I tie it to my motorcycle, 
the basket won't be able to 
fall off in the street. 

Oh, you've got a motorcycle? 
I was intending to give it to 

a boy to carry heme for you. 
Oh, thanks a lot, I don't need 

a boy, I've got a motorcycle. 
I'll tell the boy to take it to 

your motorcycle so that you 

can tie it on. 
See you tomorrow I 
Thank you. 
You, bpy, tie it well there 1 

There mustn't be any trouble 
back there I 



5ia 



JNIT 13U 



SWAHILI 



Unit_i^3U;__Mabadiliko_m^ini_Dar_es_Salaam 



-ongoza 



tangu 



-fuata 



mwaka 



xihamisho 



kuiribe 



-alikwa 

kufunguliwa 

jengo 



Bwana Yusufui 

Naam bvanal 

Loo, nl bahati yangu nzuri« 

Nilidhani sltampata mtu 

wa kuni ongoza. 
NlDakwenda Ksinibazi} 

bwana. 
Siku nyingi zimepita tangu 

nltoke hapa« 
Sikumbuki vyema ni bara- 

bara gani nitafuata. 
Unaweza kuniongoza? 
Ulikuwa wapi siku zote? 

Bwana, kwa muda wa 

miaka mitatu iliyopita, 

nilikuwa Nairobi. 
Unajua nilipewa uhaniisho 

kutoka hapa inpaka 

Nairobi I 
Ahaa, kuitibel 

Unataka kwenda Msimbazi, 

sivyo2 
Naam bwana. 
Nimealikwa kwenda kule 

kuhudhuria kufunguliwa 

kwa jengo jipya. 
Jengo Jipya hilo ni la 

COTnrainity Centre. 



Yusufui 

Hellol 

I'm lucky. 

I thought I wouldn't find 

aryone to direct me. 
I'm going to Ksimbazi. 

Many days have passed since 

I left here* 
I don't remember very well 

which road to take. 
Can you dii^ct me? 
Where have you been all this 

time 2 
I've been in Nairobi for 

the past three years. 

You know, I was given a transfer 
frcan here to Nairobi i 

Oh, is that sol 

You want to go to Msimbazi, 

don't you? 
Yes. 
I was invited to go there to 

attend the opening of a new 

building. 
The new building is (of) the 

Community Center. 



513 



BASIC COURSE 



WIT 135 



nje Ulikuwa nje kwa muda rarefu, 
kiasl cha miaka mltatu. 

viguBiu Nadhani itakvwa vigumu sana 
kwenda peke yako, 

-elekeza Nitakuelekeza namna ya 

kxifika huko. 
-shukxiru Nitashukuru sana, Bwana 

Yusufu* 



You've been outside the country 

for a long time— three years, 
I think it would be very 

difficult for you to go by 

yourself. 
I'll show you the way to get 

there* 
I'll be very grateful, Yusufu, 



Unit 135 (Inaendelea) 



forodha Hapa ulipo ni forodhani. 
Forodhani-^apa najua« 

-itwa Barabara hii inaitwa Azania 

Front. 
Ukitoka hapa Azania Front 

utakwenda moja kwa moja 

mpaka Main Avenue. 
Naam bwana. 
mwisho Halafu utafika mwisho wa 

Main Avenue, 
pale Pale mwisho utaona pana 

najumba mawili. 
paheili Jumba moja lina pahali 

pameandikwa 'Railway 

Station,' 
Jumba Jingine lina psihali 
-andikwa pengine pameandikwa 

'Police Station.' 



Here where you [now] are is 

the customs house. 
The customs house— I know 

this place. 
This road is called Azania 

Front, 
When you leave here, you go 

straight ahead as far as 

Main Avenue. 
Yes, 
Then you get to the end of 

Main Avenue, 
There at the end you will see 

where there are two buildings. 
One building has a place [where I 

is written 'Railway Station.' 

A sign on the other says 
•Police Station.' 



SiU 



UNIT 135 



SWAHILI 





Naam Bwana. 


-shika 


Pale Police Station utashika 




barabara inayoelekea 


machweo 


machweo ya jua. 




Utakwenda moja kwa moja 


penye 


mpaka penye 'Keep Left.' 


kibao 


Hapo pana klbao kilichoandikwa 




•Keep Left.' 


hapo 


Hapo napakumbxika bwana. 




Ehee, pale penye 'Keep 




Left' pamebadilika. 


sura 


Sura yake imekuwa mpya.. 



-chukua 
kuwa 

ipo 

hapo 
inpya 

-tengenezwa 
kupendeza 



Utachukua barabara hiyo 

moja kwa mo J a mp>aka 

Ring Street. 
Ulipoondoka, pale Ring, 

hapakuwa na 'Keep Left.' 
Ah, hivi siku hizi pale 

ipo? 
Ndiyo, ipol 
Baada ya hapo, endelea tu 

mpaka ^dsimbazi Street. 
Pale Msimbazi Street pana 

'Keep Left' mpya, 
Hapo barabara iiretengenezwa 

vizuri sana, 
Barabara hiyo ni safi ya 

kupendeza. 



Yes. 

There at the Police Station 

you will take a road which 

runs west. 
Go right ahead to where there 

is a traffic circle. 
There, there is a small sign 

with the words 'Keep Left.' 
I remember that place. 
That place at the circle has 

changed. 
The place lodes different, 

(•Its face has become new.') 
You take that road straight 

ahead to Ring Street. 

When you left, they didn't 

have a traffic circle at Ring. 
Oh, there is one there 

nowadays? 
Yes, there is. 
From there, just continue 

on to Msimbazi Street. 
There at Msimbazi Street there 

is another 'Keep Left.' 
There the road has been 

surfaced very nicely. 
That road is delightfully 

smooth. 



515 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 136 



Iftilt 136 (Inaendelea) 



matokeo Loo, Bwana Yusufu, matokeo 
hayo yote yametokea 
katika miaka hii mitatu? 
Matokeo nakubwa sana 
nyuma yametokea hapa nyuma, 
orofa Zipo nyxunba za orofa nyingi 
na kubwa* 
Nyumba hizo, kidogo kama 
uzuri Amerika, kwa uzuri wake» 

Kwelil 
kabisa Kweli kabisal 
pale Na nasikia pale Mnazimoja 
pamejengva najumba. 

-kubwa Jfeijuiiiba hayo ni makubwa 
ya orofa. 
Kabisai 

Sasa ukisha toka Msimbazi 
-zidi Street utazidi kwenda 

mo J a kwa moja* 
kwenye Baadaye utafika kwenye 
barabara inayokwenda 
Kigogo. 
pana Hapo pia pana 'Keep Left,' 
Vizuri sana Bwana Yusuful 
kushoto Kwa mkono wa kushoto wa 

barabara ya Kigogo kuna 
nyumba kubwa* 



Say, Yusufu, all this progress 

has come about in these three 

years? 
Great progress has taken place 

lately. 
There are many and large [multi- 
story] buildings. 
Those buildings are a little 

like America [n buildings] 

with respect to their beauty. 
You don't say? 
Yes, indeed. 
And I also hear that buildings 

have been put up there at 

I4iazimoja. 
Those buildings have marQr 

stories. 
That's quite true. 
Now, after you get past 

Msimbazi Street, you continue 

straight ahead. 
Then you will come to where 

there is a road that goes to 

Kigogo. 
There's another circle there. 
Very goodl 
On the left side of the Kigogo 

road, there is a large 

building. 



5i6 



UNIT 137 



SWAHILI 



Ityumba hiyo kubwa iliyo- 
Boma jengwa ni Boraa. 

-acha M>ona Boma hllo nllillacha 

Acacia Avenue 1 
-hamishwa Imekuwa kuwaje llkahaiidshwal 

-hama Oh, Uroshamlshwa huko kwa 
sababu siku hizl mjl 
lunekuwa nkubwa sanal 



That large [recently bxiilt] 

building is the District 

Office. 
('Why, I left that Bona on 

Acacia Avenue 1' ) 
How did it happen that it got 

moved? 
It was moved there because 

nowadays the city has 

beccHne very large. 



Unit 137 (Inaendelea) 



-fanya 


Wanafanyia kazi gani katika 1 




jxunba lile kubva kule 




Acacia Avenue 2 




Unajua, kazi za serikali ni 




nyingl sana. 


-gawanya 


Kazi hizo za serikali zime- 




gawanywa kwa ma - B.C. 




Sasa ukltoka pale Kigogo, 1 




nenda moja kwa moja 


-karibia 


mpaka ukarlbie daraja 




la Kigogo. 


-pita 


Halafu pita mkono wa 




kushoto wa daraja hllo. 


-andika 


Utaopa pahali pameandikwa 




•rfeimbazi.' 


-kuta 


Pale bila shaka utamkuta 


mlinzi 


mlinzi atakayekuelekeza 




njia. 



What kind of work do they use 
that large building on 
Acacia fori 

You know, the work of the 

government is very extensive. 

These duties have been divided 
among the D.C.'s. 

Now, vhen you leave Kigogo, 
go straight ahead ointil you 
get near the Kigogo Bridge. 

Then bear left past the bridge. 

You will see a sign sajdng 

'Msimbazi.' 
There, you will no doubt run 

into a watchman who will 

show you the way. 



517 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 137 



ugenl Tafadhali mwonyeshe kadi 
-karibisha yako ya ugeni na 
utakaribishwa, 
Asante sana, Bwana Yusufu. 



-Kahi 


Je wewe uinewahi kufika katika 


jengo 


jengo hilo, likojel 


-penda 


Oh, ni zuri la kupendeza '•' 




zuri sana« 


-onekana 


Je, linaweza kuonekana kwa 


Diball 


mbali kidogo? 


vunbali 


Naami Hata mnbaili wa 




maili moja unaweza 




kuliona* 


"llngana 


Je, Bwana Yusufu, unalilinga- 




nishaje na Amautoglu 




Ccaranuraty Centre? 


kva 


Kwa kweli siwezi kulilingani- 




sha sana. 




Siwezi kulillnganisha kwa 




sababu Amautoglu ni la 


siku 


siku nj'ingi* 


mazoea 


Watu wamekuwa na mazoea 




nalOa 


Jipya 


Hilo la Ksimbazi ni jipya. 


iTiatokeo 


Hatujui matokeo yake 




yatakuwa namna gani. 




Asante sana Bwana Yusufu, 


-ona 


Nadhani tutaonana kabla 


-ondoa 


sijaondoka kurudi 




Nairobi. 



Show him your visitors card 
and you will be made welcome. 

Thanks a loti 

And you, have you ever been 

in that building? What is 

it like? 
Oh, it's lovely - very 

beautiful. 
And is it visible from any 

distance? 
Yesi You can even see it 

from a mile off. 

How do you compare it with 
Amatoglu Community Center? 

I can't really ccmpare it, 

I can't compare it because 

Amatoglu has been there for 

sOTie time. 
People have become accustomed 

to it. 
The one at Msimbazi is new, 
('We don't know what will come 

of it,«) 
Thanks! 
('I'll see you before I go 

back to Nairobi, • ) 



518 



UNIT 138 



SWAHILI 



Unit 138 (Inaendelea) 



"Shukuru 



-fika 
Jambo 



"•kawia 

-hama 

mtaa 



mwenyewe 

orofa 

tajiri 
mara 



-hama 

hasara 
-fxirahi 



Ningeshukuru sana kama 

ungefika nyuunbani 

kvrangu. 
Hivyo tafadhali fika, 
Hilo ni jambo zuri sana 

Bwana Yusufu. 
Lakinij kama vmavyojiia sisi 

watu wa mjini hatukawii 

kuhama^ 
Hivl wakati huu iiko mtaa 

gani? 
Himl sasa ninakaa Msimbazi 

Street* 
I^rvmiba yangu nimejenga 

mwenyewe. 
Nyumba hiyo ni nzuri na 

ina orofa moja, 
Loi Bwana Yusufu umekuwa 

tajiri sana, 
>&ra umekwisha jenga 

nyiinibai 
Ehe, kwa sababu ya 

kiilimal 
Aaa, kumbe sisi ambao 

tunahanishwa kutoka 

hapa kwenda hapa 

tunapata hasara tu« 
Nitaftirahi sana kuiona 

nyumba yako. 



I'd be most grateful if you 
would drop by the house. 

So please do come. 

That's very kind [of you], 

Yusufu I 
But as you know, we city 

dwellers change our 

residence frequently. 
So what street are you living 

on right now? 
Right now, I'm living on 

Msimbazi Street. 
I built my own house. 

The house is very nice, and 

it has an upstairs. 
Heyi You've been doing all 

right for yourself I 
You've already built a house. 

Yes, because of fanning. 

Ah, [yes], so those of us who 
are transferred hither and 
thither Just lose out J 

I'll be very glad to see your 
house. 



519 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 139 



oipango 



VyemaJ Na nitakuelaza 
nrLpango mingi. 



Finel ("I'll fill you in on 
all the details I) 



Unit 1 39£___Duka_^la_n|UO 



-fvmga 

duka 

nibali mbali 
kuna 

aina 



kanga 

fiilana za 
ndani 



-toka 
-agiza 
kaptura 
mini 



Habari Bwana Salmmi? 

Oh, nzuri sana, Bwana Juma, 

Karibu bwana i 
Asante sana, bwana I 
Karibu bwanal Siku hizi 

nimefungua duka kubwa 

sana* 
Ni duka la nguo, vitu vya 

kula, na vitu vingine 

mbali mbali. . 

Kuna nguo gani imauza? 

Kuna nguo za aina nyingi 

ambazo ninauza* 
Ninauza kanga, shuka za 

kitanda, mashati fulana 

za ndani, na fulana ndogo 

za watoto* 
Pia ninauza nguo nyingine 

nyingi. 
Nimepata nguo hizo kutoka 

Mombasa, 
Nguo hizo niliziagiza, 
Nataka nguo za watoto - 

kaptura na shati. 
Tena ningependa mashati mawili, 

yangu mimi mwenyewe. 



How are you, Mr. SaluDiu^ 
Oh, very well. 

C(xne inl 
Thanks very much, 
Gcsne in I In the last few 

days I've opened a large 

store. 
It's a [combination] dry 

goods store, grocery, and 

general emporium. 
What kind of clothes do you 

sell? 
There are a lot of kinds that 

I sell. 
I sell kangas, bed linens, 

shirts, undershirts and 

baby clothes. 

I also sell many otiier [kinds 

of] clothes. 
I've gotten these dry goods 

from Mcmbasa. 
I ordered those goods. 
I want some children's clothing- 
shirts and shorts. 
I'd also like two shirts for 

nyself. 



520 



SWAHILI 



khaki 



-shona 
icwenyewe 



-fanya 



taabu 



kwisha 
hebu 



Vile vile ningependa suruali 

mbili za khaki ya Amerika, 

na koti moja. 
Je, una fundi anayeweza 

kushona kotiS 
Ah, raimi rawenyewe na mke 

wangu tuna shona, 
Baada ya kufunga duka, 

huzifanya kazi hizi 

sisi wenyewe. 
Huwa tunazi fanya bila ya 

kupata taabu ya kuiiipa 

fundi. 
Lakini kumbuka kuna 

nyingine ambazo 

zilikwisha shonwa kabisa. 
Hebu jaribu moja katika 

hizii 



I'd also like two pair of 
trousers [made] of American 
khaki, and a coat* 

Do you have a tailor who can 
make a coati 

Ohl Ky wife sews, and so do I. 

We do this work ourselves 
after hours. 

We ordinarily do it without 

the bother of giving [it] 

to a tailor* 
But bear in mind that we also 

have other [clothing] which 

is ready-made* 
Try one of these* 



Unit il+o (inaendelea) 



-stiri 
-penda 
-pima 



Bwana, wasema 'nguo iliyo- 
shonwa haistiri mtu*' 

Nisingependelea kuchukua 
nguo iliyokwisha shonwa, 

Ningetaka kupima mimi 
mwenyewe* 



[But] they say that a ready- 
made ganrent does not cover 
one properly, 

I wouldn't like to take a 
ready-made garment* 

I'd like to be measured in 
person. 



521 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT lUo 



niawazo Oh, kumbe bado una inawazo 
kizamani yale yale ya kizamanil 
-vaa Tazama shati nililovaa mimi. 



Japan 


Shati hili limetengenezwa 




Japan. 




Shati hili ni zuri na la 


-penda 


kupendeza sana. 


-chukua 


Kushona kwaike kuna chukua 




wakati mrefu. 




Shati, kama unavyohltaji 


wewe 


wewe, hulipati nrpaka 


-pata 


kesho. 




Lakini, ukitaka lililoshonwa 


tayari 


tayari, unanunua na kuvaa 


pale pale 


pale pale. 




Kweli, lakini kabla 


-enda 


hatujaendelea mbele. 


-ona 


waonaje Bwana Salviraul 


ile ile 


Bei hii ni ile ile kama ya 




rawezi jana? 


-panda 


Au bei hii imepanda kidogo. 


ushuru 


Nasikia kuwa ushuru wa 


forodha 


forodha umepanda siku 




hizi. 




Kwa kuwa ushuru umepanda 


kuwa 


bei ya nguo imekuwa ghali 




sana. 



Je, vipil 

-angalia Usiangalie hayoj ni maneno 
maneno ya watu tu. 



Oh sol You still have old- 
fashioned ideas 1 

Look at the shirt that I'm 
wearing. 

This shirt was made in Japan, 

This shirt is nice 

and very good-looking. 
Sewing it takes a long time. 

A shirt, as ^2^ want it, you 
won't get before tomorrow. 

But if you want a ready-made 
shirt, you buy it and put 
it on right on the spot. 

True, but before we go any 
further, what do you think? 
[ ' how do you see? ' ] 

Is this price the same as 
last month's? 

Or has it gone up a little? 

I hear that the oust cans duty 
has gone up recently. 

Because of the fact that the 
duty has increased, the price 
of clothes has becone very 
high. 

What about that? 

Don't pay any attention to 
that I It's only a rumor. 



52a 



UNIT lUl 



SWAHILI 



Watu wengine hawakuweza 
hotuba kuelewa ile hotuba ya 

Waziri Mkuu, 



Soma people misunderstood that 
speech of the Prime Minister's. 



Unit_iUi_ lj55f2^®i2Si 



Waziri Mkuu alisema »Bei 

ya vitu itapanda,' 
Lakini watu wengine hawa- 
maana kuelewa maana ya 

maneno hayo. 
maadaro Maadam Bwana Waziri alisema 
-panda bei itapanda, walianza 
-panda kupandisha bei, 
kila mara Lakini mimi kila mara 

nilikuwa nikienda kwenye 

Baraza la Taifa« 
-sikia Nilikuwa nikienda kusikiliza 

wanasema nini juu ya 
mapato mapato* 

Kwa sababu hiyo sikuweza 
-panda kupandisha bei yangu, 
wakati Wakati huu bei ni ile ile* 

faida Napata faida ndogo sana* 
Napata senti ishirini na 

kwa tano au thelathini kwa 
kila shati. 
Kumbel Nadhard hii ni mara 

kwanza yangu ya kwanza kuingia 

humu humu dukani. 



He said, 'The price of things is 

going to rise,' 
But some people didn't understand 

the meaning of those words. 

Because the minister said that 
prices would rise, they began 
to raise prices. 

But I was attending the National 
Assembly regularly. 

I was going [in order] to listen 
to what they say about income. 

For that reason I couldn't raise 

my price [s 3 . 
At the present time the price 

is the same. 
I make a veiy small profit. 
I make 25 or 30 cents on each 

shirt. 

Really, I think this is iry first 
time to be in this shop. 



523 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT ikz 



mwananchi Hili ni dvika la inwananchi 
ambaye mpaka sasa - 

-panda hajapandisha bei. 

-fahamu Nafahaimi, Bwana Saliim, kuna 
wanamchi wachache sana 

wenye wenye maduka, 

Hivyo basi, wawe iilikuwa 

kutopandisha mtu wa kwanza kuto- 
pandisha bei. 

Waarabu Waiarabu wamekwisha pandisha 
mahali bei kila mahali. 
hebu Habu, Bwsma Salumu, kiina 
nguo za wanawakel 



This is the shop of a fellow 
African who up to now hasn't 
raised prices* 

It seems to me, Salum, that there 
are very few Africans who have 
shops. 

And so you were the first person 
not to raise prices, [-to- is 
used to form negative infinitives, 
It stands immediately after ku-»] 

The Arabs have already raised 
prices everyvrtiere. 

Well, then, Bwana Salumu, do 
you have women's clothes? 



Unit ^l^2 (inaendelea) 



Nguo za wanawake ni hizi 

hapa. 
Nyingine unaweza kuvaa 
hivi hivi hivi hivi kama kanga. 
Siku hizi bwana tunataka 
mavazi ya nchi za 
magharibi, 
Ningependa gauni mbili kwa 
bibi yangu, 
itakiwavyo Je, fundi wako anaweza 

kushona vizuri itakiwavyol 
Oh, kabisal Pia kuna 
mshono mishono mingi. 



vazi 



kwa 



The women's clothes are these 

« 

here. 
Soma you can wear Just like a 

kanga. 
Nowadays we like Western clothing, 



I'd like two dresses for my wife. 

And can your tailor sew as nicely 

as reqiiired? 
Oh, by all means I Besides there 

are many styles. 



52U 



SWAHILI 



Kuna nshono wa kibwebwe na 

ml ngine nlngi ya kila aina. 
Mshono gani tnkeo anapenda? 
Naona kama anapenda nchinjo* 

Waelewa mchinjo ni nini 

bwanal 
Naelewa sana, maana mahitaji 

ya watu wengi nayapata 

hapa. 
Ahal Basi nataka mchinjo* 

Mpinie, bwana. 
Nasipiina kifua thelathinl na 

slta. 
Pla nampina kiuno ishlrinl 

na slta* 
Pia nampima mabega kuml 

na nane. 
Urafu wataka, tuserae, kama 

arobainl na moja? 
Tuseine mpaka hapa. Ina- 

tosha« 



There is the kibwebwe style, and 

many others of every kind. 
What style does your wife like? 
I think she likes the mchinjo 

style. 
Co you understand what nichinjo 

is? 
I know very well, because I 

(«deal with') the needs of 

many people here* 
Ahal Then I want mchinjo. 

Measure her, please. 
I measure [her] bust [at] 36. 

And [her] waist at 26« 

And [her] shoulders at t8. 

The length you want, let's say, 

about i+i1 
Let's say to here. This is 

all right. 



Hsi*-'' ii2— il2S22-2i2Si 



-fuata Je, lini atazifuata nguo 

hizi? 
Leo ni Jvimatatu. Nadhani 
-kuta , Jumatano ijayo atazikuta 

tayari. 



And when shall she come for 

these clothes? 
This is Monday. I think they 

will be ready next Wednesday. 



525 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT lUU 



Asante sana, Saluimi* 
wakati Hivi sasa naona kuwa wakati 
wetu wa kuondoka uineflka. 
kwenda Tutakwenda na nguo, 
-funga Tufungie fungie zile nguo. 
-fuata Hizo nyingine tutazifuata 

baadaye. 
-sahau Asante. Laklni unesahau 

kitu kimoja, 
mbona Mbona pesa bado hujanipa* 
hizi Aha, pesa hizil Kiasi gani, 
bwana? 
Ni shilingi thelathini na 

saba na senti hamsini. 
Haya bwanal Hizi ni shilingi 
ishirini; hizi sh.j sh* saba| 
senti hamsini. 
Oh, asante sana, bwana, 
V asante • 

Haya, kwaheri bwanal 



Thanks very imich. 

Well, now, I see it's come time 

for us to leave* 
We'll take the clothing with us* 
Could you sort of wrap it up? 
We'll come after those others 

later. 
Thank you. But you've forgotten 

one thing. 
You haven't paid me yet. 
Oh, of course, the money! How 

much, sir? 
It's Sh. 37.50. 

0. K.l Here's a ao, a 10, seven 
shillings and 50 cents. 

Thank you very much. 

Well, good bye! 



Unit iUUj Watu wazima na maendeleo 



safari 
kazi 



Naam Bwana Tusuful 
Naam, bwanal 
Habari za siku nyingi? 
Nzuri sana bwana. 
Ulikuwa wapi siku hizi J 

Ulikwenda shamba au 

ulikuwa safarini kazinil 



Hello, Yusuful 

Hellol 

How have you been? 

Very well [thank you]. 

Where have you been these [last 

few] days? 
Did you go to the farm or were 

you on a business trip? 



526 



UNIT lUU 



SWAHILI 



sehemu Nlllkuwa sehemu za Kilosa. 
Habari za Kilosa? 
Habari za Kilosa nzurl 
sana. 



jamaa 


Hawajambo jamaa wote^ 




Hawajanibo wote. 


-nylma 


Wanatunyijna nini kule? 




Huko wanatunyima mpunga 




sasa* 


kidogo 


Je, namna gani, luneleta 


vipi 


mpunga kidogo au vipi? 




Nimeleta kidogo; kiasi cha 


-tosha 


kuwatosha watoto wangu 




na mimi mwenyewe. 




Watoto wako tu? 




Naainl 




He I Sisi rafiki zako je2 


-karibisha 


Ninyi ntakaribishvra siku 




moja. 


hata 


Mimi ningependa hata watoto 




wako pia waje. 




Wanaweza kuja siku ya 




Jumapili saa sita* 


-karibisha Ninaweza nikakukarlbishenl 


chakula 


chakulani. 




Asante sana, bwana. 


tena 


Nini tena umeleta? 


jambo 


Mimi sikuleta jambo jingine 




lo lote. 


-tazama 


Nilikwenda kutazama pahali 


' 


pa kulima« 



I was around Kilosa. 
How are things at Kilosal 
Fine. 

Is everybody finel 

[Yes], they're fine. 

What do they have more of there 

than we havel 
They've got more rice than we 

have. 
Well, what about it? Have you 

brought a little rice, or what? 
I've brought a little j an amount 

sufficient for my children and 

myself* 
Your children only? 
Yes. 

Heyi What about us, your friends? 
You'll be invited one day. 

I'd even like for your children 

to cc^ne also. 
They can come Sunday noon. 

I can invite you (pi.) for food. 

Thank you very much. 

What else have you brought? 

I didn't bring anything else at 

all. 
I went to look at a field. 



587 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 1U5 



Unit_iU5__(lnaendeleaJ 



ukulima 

pamoja 
mbaazl 

-acha 
nbona 

siyo 
hivyo 



-tegemea 

-toaha 

nanna 

hiyo 

-anda 

-zima 



kile 

-anza 

hicho 



Ukullina wa alna ganll 

Eee, nataka kiilima mahindi, 

ititama, rapimga pamoja 

na mbaazl. 
Je, Bwana Yusxifu, unataka 

kutuacha ninil 
M)ona una mipango 

mikubwa ndkubwal 
Siyo kukuacheni, 
NinafajQra hivyo kwa sababu 

nina watoto wengi. 
Sasa nina watoto watano, 
Nikitegemea tu mshahara 

ninaopata, hauwezi 

kunitosha, 
Bwana Yusufu, namna gani 

habari ya kazi huko 

Kilosa sasa^ 
Hiyo Ccrainunity Centre 

inaendelea vizuri? 
Inaendelea vizuri sana. 
Watu wazima wanasc«na. 
Wanatvunia kitabu kile cha 

'Twende Tusome Sote,' 
Kile kitabu kinachoanzia na 

'baba mama.' 
Kitabu hicho kinaeleza sana 

mambo mengine vile vile. 
Je, Kiswahili na Kiingereza? 



[For] what kind of farmingl 
Oh, I want to raise maize, millet, 
and rice, along with peas. 

Then I take it you're planning 

to leave usi 
You seem to have great plans I 

It's not a matter of leaving you. 
I'm doing this because I have a 

large number of children. 
I have five children now. 
If I depend entirely on the salary 

that I'm getting, it won't be 

enough for me. 
Say, what about the work at 

Kilosa now? 

Is that Community Center getting 

along well? 
Very well. 

Adults are studying* 
They're using that book called 

That book that begins with baba, 

mama [and so forth]. 
That book also contains other 

subject matter. 
And what about Swahili and 

English? 



sae 



UNIT iU6 



SWAHILI 



namna 
maendeleo 



mwanamke 



-staajabu 



-kimbilia Wengi sana wanakimbilia 

kwenye Kiswahili kuliko 
kwenye Kiingereza, 

Maendeleo 3ra wanawake 

namna ganit 
Nasikia maendeleo ya 
wanawake yamekuja juu 
sana. 
Wanawake wanaendelea 

vizuri sana, 
Kisha inastaajabisha 
kuona ya kuwa wanawake 
wanafanya kazi sana, 
Wanawake wanafanya kazi 
mwanaimune sana kuliko 

wanaume* 
hapa hapa Basi ni kama hapa hapa 

Bar es Salaam, 
darasa Yale madarasa yetu 

ysmaendelea viz\iri sana. 
bidii Wanawake wanaonyesha bidii 
kuliko wanaume. 
Wakati wa mtihani, wanawaike 
-tangulla wanawatangulia wanaume. 



A lot of people are flocking 
into the Swahili [classes], as 
compared with the English 
[classes]* 

What kind of progress are the 
women making? 

I hear that the level of achieve- 
ment of the women has risen 
sharply. 

The women are progressing very 
nicely. 

In fact, it is astonishing to 
see that the women are working 
hard. 

The women do a lot more work 
than the men. 

So it's just like here in 

Bar es Salaam. 
Our classes are getting along 

very well* 
The women display more energy 

than the men. 
At exam time, the women lead the 

men. 



Unit iU6 (inaendelea) 



Je, kuna sababu yo yote? 
marabo Kwanini roambo yanakuwa hivi, 
Bwana Yusufu? 



Is there any reason [for that]? 
Why is this so, Yusufu? 



529 



r 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT m6 



sababu 


Ndiyo, kuna sababu kubwa 




nibili: 




Kwanza, wanawake wana 


nafasl 


wakati sndjigi zaidl 




kiiliko wanaume. 


pili 


Pili, wanawake wanafikiri 


-fikiri 


nambo machache zaidi 




kuliko wanavune. 




Wanaume wanakwenda kazini. 


huwa 


Wanaume huwa wamechoka 


-rudi 


warudipo kutoka kazini. 


pengiBe 


Pengine husema, 'Mimi leo 




siwezi kwenda shuleni. 




Nitakwenda kesho,' 


kunibe 


Kiunbe wanachelewal 


namna 


Je, namna gani mpango ule 




kama huu wa hapa 




Dar es Salaaml 


vita 


Mpango ule wa vita vya ku- 


ujinga 


pigana na ujinga. 


huo 


Mpango huo bado haujasmza 




huko Kilosal 




Tunasikitika sana, bwana. 


kule 


kwa sababu kule kuna 




Community Centre tu. 


ingawaje 


Ingawaje kuna jumba hilo. 


jumba 


vita hivyo havijaanza. 


-tazana 


Je, wanatazsunia kuanza 


karibu 


hivi karibuni? 



Bila shaka. Nimemsikla 
Bwana Shauri Bwana Shauri wa huko 
-zungumza akizungumza na wenyeji. 



Yes J there are two important 

reasons* 
In the first place, the women 

have more free time than the 

men* 
In the second place, they have 

fewer things to worry about than 

men [have]* 
The men go to work* 
The men are generally tired when 

they come back from work* 
Sometimes they say, 'I can't go 

to school today, ' 
'I'll go tomorrow* • 
In that case, they fall behind. 
Say, what about that plan like 

the one (of) here in Dau: es 

Salaaro? 
That plan for a war against ['of 

fighting against] illiteracy? 
Hasn't that plan gotten xmder 

way there in Kilosa? 
We very much regret that there's 

only a Community Center there* 

Although that building is in 

existence, that campaign has 

not yet started* 
And are they thinking about 

starting in the near future? 
Definitelyl I've heard the D. 0. 

of that area discussing it 

with the local people* 



530 



UNIT iU7 



SWAHILI 



-anza 



Waitiezungumza juu ya 
kuanzlsha mpango huo« 



They have discussed getting that 
plan under way. 



Unit 1U7 (Inaendelea) 



wo wote Watataka msaada wo wote 
kutoka hapa^ 

Msaada ni lazima 
-pata upatikane kutoka hapa, 
-weza Bila msaada haivezekani. 
najnna Haiwezekani^ namna gani? 

Jambo lo lote linataka 
uongozi uongozi. 
-weza Bila uongozi haiwezekani. 

-fikiri Wanafikiri hatuwezi kupata 
kule viongozi kule Kilosal 

Viongozi tunaweza kuwapata, 
kiongozi 

Viongozi wanaweza kti^a hapa 

waf unzwe • 
Wakisha onyeshwa watarudi 
kule kule kule kule kuwaonyesha 
ndugu ndugu zao. 
n^jango Sasa Bwana Yusufu, mpango 
wako unaonyesha kwenda 
kulima. 



Will they want any kind of help 

from here? 
It is necessary to get aid from 

here. 
Without aid it is lii^ossible. 
How do you mean, iinpossible? 
Anything at all requires leader- 
ship. 
Without leadership, it's 

impossible • 
Do they think we won't be able 

to get leaders there at 

Kilosa? 
We'll be able to get leaders, 

all right. 
Leaders can ccnne here to be 

trained. 
Once they have been shown [how], 

they'll go right back to show 

their fellow townsmen. 
Now, then, Yusufu, your plan 

indicates [that you are] 

going to farm. 



531 



r 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT lue 



-tazama 


Unatazaraia kwenda kuwa- 


Jamaa 


ongoza Jamaa wa Kilosa, 




au vipil 


-oinba 


}^paka nlombwe. 


bila 


BHa kuombwa nitasaidia 




kldogo sana. 




Haya, Bwana YuBufu. 


-tazama 


Natazania baada ya muda 




infupi watu wataf ika 




huko Kilosa. 


mawaldha 


Utawapa mawaidha ya kutosha 


ule 


Bila shaka mpango ule wa 


-piga 


vita vya kupigana na 


mbele 


ujinga utaendelea iiibele. 


-shukuni 


Nitashukuru ikiwa wataf ika. 



tu 



Natumaini watafika tu, Bwana 

Yusufu, 
Haya bwana, asante sana, 

kwaheri. 



Do you anticipate going to lead 
the people of Kilosa, or what? 

If I'm asked. 

I will be of very little assistance 

if I am not asked. 
Fine, Tusufu. 
I anticipate that people will get 

to Kilosa within a short time. 
You'll [be able to] give them 

adequate advice. 
I'm sure that the literacy 

canpaign will move forwaixl. 

If they get there, I'll be 

grateful. 
I think they'll get there all 

right, Yusufu. 
Well, thanks a lot. 

Good bye. 



22i*.li*2l-.2S£2£Llf_iS22^5_^^r§ 



Habari za siku nyingi, bwana? 

Habari nzuri Bwana Yusufu. 
-funga Mjona unafunga funga 

mizigo, unakwenda wapi? 

Nafunga funga mizigo nataka 
bara kwenda bara. 



How have you been? 

Fine, Yusufu. 

How come you are packing [your] 

bags? Where are you going? 
I'm packing [my] bagsj I want 

to go up coTintry, 



53« 



JNIT ll*8 



SWAHILI 





Baral Sehemu gaxill 


Ziwa 


Bukoba, hviko Jinibo la Ziwa 




la Magharibi* 




Nimeambiwa kuwa kumetokea 


fulani 


kazi fulani ya ghafla 


ghafla 


hxiko. 




Hivi kutoka hapa rapaka 


kutoka 


Bukoba ni maili ngapi? 




Bwana Yusufu, siwezi kusema 


hakika 


kwa hakika ni maili ngapi. 


-pata 


Lakini yapata kama maili 




mia saba na hamsini hivi. 


-chukua 


Unachukua muda wa siku 




ngapi kutoka hapa mpaka 


hiiko 


hukol 


chombo 


Unakwenda kwa, chombo gani 




mpaka hukol 


muda 


Nitachukua muda wa siku 




tatu hivi. 




Nit at oka hapa kwa gari la 




moshi mpaka Morogoro, 




Dodoma, Tabora na fkanza. 


-ingia 


Nikifika Mwansa nitaingia 


meli 


melini. 


rale 


KLe nitalala siku mojs» 


-lala 




yake 


Asubuhi yake nitafika 



Bukoba. 

mote Humo mote utakamosafiri 

kutoka hapa mpaka Mwanza 
kwa gari la moshi, utakaa 

daraja chximba daraja gani^ 



The country? Which parti 
Biikoba, in West Lake Province. 

I've been told that there has 

come up some kind of unexpected 

opening there. 
So how many miles is it from 

here to Bukoba? 
I can't say for sure how many 

miles it is. 
But it's about 750 miles. 

How many days do you take [to get] 
from here to there? 

By what means [of transport] are 

you going there? 
I'll take (a period of) about 

three days. 
I'll go from here by train to 

Morogoro, Dodoma, Tabora and 

K^anza. 
When I get to Mwanza, I'll take 

a steamboat. 
I'll be on it over one night. 

The next morning I'll get to 

Bukoba. 
In all that traveling that you 

will do from here to Mwanza by 

train, irtiat class of coach will 

you take? 



533 



BASIC COURSE 



UNIT 1U9 



-safiri Utasafiria daraja la pili 
au la kwanza au la tatu? 
Bwana Yusufu, siwezi kuku- 
-hakikisha hakikishia ni daraja 
-safiri gani nitakayosafiria« 
-jua l^aka wakati huu sijajua 

kwa hakika. 
kwsimba Lakini ninalojua ni kwamba 

^,'ixyiTi nitasafiria daraja la 
yaani pili* yaani 'second class •• 



Will you travel by second class, 

or first or third? 
I can' t tell you for sure which 

class I'll travel [lay]. 

Up to this moment I'm not yet 

sure. 
But what I know is that I'll 

travel [by] second class. 



u 



Unit <\k9 (Inaendelea) 



e-c/* i 
kitanda 
vimo 
chandalua 

kwa 

sharti 

-toa 



-safiri 
-pa 



huna 



-ajali 



Aha, sasa katika 'second 
class' mnapata vitanda2 
Vitanda vimo, Bwana Yusufu, 
Hata ukitaka chandalua 
jTjutapata, ^:^!0^i os i'X'I 
Chakula je2 Ci ,o'i;'9C'/oM 
Chakula unapata kwa pesa, 
Ni sharti ulipe, bwana, 
Alal Nauli nayo uliyotoa 

i^'i .?ci I.C'I 

Nauli hiyo unayotoa ni yaku- 

kusafirisha tu na kukupa 

kitanda. 
Je, wanaweza kukuacha ukiwa 

huna pesa za kununua 

chakula? 
Hiyo, bwana, wao hawajali. 



Ahal Now in second class do 

you get berths. 
There are berths in [second class]. 
You even get a mosquito net if 

you want one. 
What about food? 
You pay for the food. 
You have to pay, 
Ala J. And what about the fare 

tliat you paid? 
The fare (that you pay) is only 

for transportation and berth. 

Tell me, can they leave you 
behind if you don't have money 
to buy food? 

For that, they don't care. 



53U 



UNIT 1U9 



SWAHILI 



hali 


Sasa ufikapo Bukoba, hali 


sawa 


ya huko ni sawa ya 




Dar es Salaam? 




Aaa, Bwana Yusufu, hapo 




naweza nik£Lkuhadithla 




hata kvfa siku nzlma. 


maana 


Naweza kufanya hivyo kwa 


ndiko 


maana huko ndiko kwetu. 


hewa 


Hali ya hewa ikoje hukol 


baridi 


Kuna baridi nyingi? 


sio 


Huko baridi sio nyingi sana. 


joto 


Kvile joto hakuna wala hali- 


-jua 


jnlikani kcima hapa 




Dar es Salaam. 


jani 


Kule majani ya miti na 


mgomba 


migcanba ni ya kijani 


kijani 


kibichi tu kwa mwaka 


~bichi 


mzima« 




Kwa hiyo kila kitu kule ni 


rangi 


cha rangi ya kijani 




kibichi tu, sivyo? 




Naaml 




Kwa hiyo nirQri hamna njaa 


sisi 


zaidi kama sisi. 


kuja 


Bwana, kule njaa inakuja 


bahati 


kwa bahati mbaya tu. 


hasa 


Hasa mnatumia chakula 


kwenu 


gani huko kwenu? 


loile 


Ktile chakula kikubwa hasa 




ni ndizi, maharagwe. 


♦ r 


nyaina, na samaki. 


kula 


Harali wali kama tuna- 




vyokula sisi huku? 



Now when you get to Bukoba, is 

it similar to Dar es Salaam 

then? 
Ah, Yusufu, about that I can tell 

you a story [that would last] 

even a whole day, 
I can do that because that is 

where I am from. 
What is the climate like there? 
Is it very cold? 
It's not very cold there. 
There there is no heat, and it 

isn't known, the way it is here 

in Dar es Salaam. 
There, the leaves of the trees 

and bananas are green all year 

round. 

Thus, everything there is green, 
isn't it? 

Yes, it is. 

And so you don' t have more 

famine than we [have]. 
We have famine there only in the 

case of very bad luck. 
Just what kind of food do you 

eat there where you live? 
There, the really important 

food[s] are bananas, beans, 

meat, and fish. 
Don't you eat rice as we do here? 



535 



BASIC COURSE 



imiT 150 



wa 



tele 



Kule wall tunakula lakini 

wa njaa tu* 
Kwa nini? 
Kwa kuwa kule ndizi ni 

tele sana. 



We do eat rice there, but only 
(»when we can't get anything else,') 

Why? 

Because there bananas are very 
plentiful. 



Unit 150 (inaendelea) 



majani 

mnyama 

uongo 
~tupu 
-elewa 
maana 

-pata 
-staajabu 



hiyo 
hata 
Mangu 

-tembelea 
-shuhudia 



Nimesikia kuwa hajnli mboga 

za majsmi kwenu, 
Mnasema kuwa ni chsJcula 

cha wanyama. 
Je, hii ni kweli? 
Huo ni uongo mtupu Bwana 

Yusufu, 
Kule watu wanaelewa, 
Wanajua maana ya vitamin 

ni nini. 
Usipokiila chakula cha 

majani huwezi kupata 

vitamin, 
Mimi nilistaajabu sana, 
Nilistsiajabu niliposikia 

kuwa kweli watu hawali 

mboga za majani, 
Hiyo si kweli hata kidogo, 

Omba Mungu uitembelee 
nchi hiyo siku raoja, 
Wewe mwenyewe utashuhudia. 



I've heard that you don't eat 
green leafy vegetables. 

You say that it is food for 
animals. 

Is that so? 

That's nothing but a liei 

The people there are not so dumb. 
They know what 'vitamin' means. 

When you don't eat leafy foods, 
you can't get vitamins, 

I was quite surprised, 

I was surprised when I heard that 

people really don't eat leafy 

vegetables. 
That's not true at all. 

Ask God that you may visit that 

country some day. 
You'll see it for yourself. 



534 



UNIT i5o 



SWAHILI 





Bwana Yusufu, sasa naona 


-karibia 


wakati vinakaribia. 


budi 


Sina budi nikimbilie gari la 




moshi, Vema, Nangefurahi sana 


-andika 


kama luigeniandikia 


mara 


barua nara tu ufikapo 




Mwanza, 


habari 


Unieleze habari zote za 




safari uliyosafiri. 




Safari ya kutoka hapa 




Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, 




Kilosa, Dodcsna, Tabora 




mpaka Mwanza, 


jinsi 


Unieleze jinsi utakavyopanda 


stima 


stima kutoka pale Mwanza 


pale 


mpaka Bukoba. 




Kwaheri bwana, Safiri 




salamal 




Kwaheri bwana, asantel 



I see that the time is approach- 
ing, Yusufu. 
I must huriy [to catch] the train. 
Fine. I'd be very happy if you 
would drop me a line as soon 
as you get to >kanza. 

Tell me all about the trip 

you've made. 
The trip from here in Dar es 

Salaam, Morogoro, Kilosa, 

Dodoraa, and Tabora, as far 

as Mwanza, 
Tell me how you take the steamer 

from Hfanza to Bixkoba, 

Good bye, and safe trip, ['travel 

in peace ' ] • 
Good bye, and thanks. 



S37 



BASIC COURSE 







SWAHILI 






JL 


Vocabularj^ 




abiria 


-A- 
passenger 


62 


-ambia 


to tell 66 


-acha 


to leave 


99 


-ambukizwa 


to become infected 59 


ada 


fee 


25 


amekwenda 


he is gone 2U 


adhuhuri 


noon 


102 


-amka 


to wake up iiU 


afadhali 


it is better 


U3 


-amkia 


to greet, visit. The 56 
essential meaning is 


afisi (N) 


office 


103 




'greet' J it can be used 
for 'pay a friendly 


afya(N) 


health ,; . 


jn. •::-|? 




call' but for a visit 
more formal than one of 


-agiza 


to order 


72 




friendly greeting, as 
for business etc., -zuru 


-ahidi 


to promise 


57 




is coOTnonly used. 


aina (N) 


kind, sort 


6oR 


amri (N) 


a command J authority, looR 
rule 


ajabu 


amazement 


112 






(N or 






-andika 


to write U5 


MA) 






-angalia 


to be careful 73 


-ajabu 


to be surprised 


lo6 


"angu 


my 11 


ajili (N) 


cause, reason. 


8oR 








sake 




-angusha 


to cause to fall, drop, U7 
even accidentally 


~ake 


his/her/its 


17 


-anza 


begin 30 


akili (N) 


ability. 


111 








intelligence 




"ao 


their 29 


-ako 


your 


17 


ardhi (N) 


soil 1 1 1 


alasiriCw) early afternoon 


102 


asante 


thank you 10 


-alika 


invite 


13U 


askari 
(WA) 


policeman 1 1 2 


ana.,* 


either,.,cr,,. 


12U 






ana* • • 






asubuhi(N) 


morning 1 



538 



SWAHILI 



au 

-aziioa 


or 

to borrow/lend 


120 


baraza 
(N) 


verandah, place of 
public council, court 


112 








baridi 
(N) 


coldness 


111 




-B- 




barua 


letter 


U6 


baada 


after 


71 


basi 


nothing more 


12 


baada ya 


after 


56 


"Taaya 


bad 


31 


baba 


father 


26 


-beba 


to carry a child on 
back or hip 


78 


badala 
(N) 


a substitute 


113 


bega (MA) 


shoulder 


1U2 


-badili 
bado 


to change, 
exchange 
not yet 


90R 

25 


bei 

biasbara 
(N) 


price 

trade, commerce 


16 
112 


bahari 
(N) 


sea, ocean 


60R 


bibi 


lady 


33 


bahasha 
(N) 


envelope 


103 


-bichi 


unripe 


2U 






bidhaa 


merchandise 


103 


bahati 
(N) 


luck (good or 


113 


(N) 






bad) 




bila 


undoubtedly 


85 


baiskeli(N) bicycle 


UU 


shaka 






bakuli 
(MA) 

balozi 


bovfl, basin 
consul 


96 
88 


bilauri 

(N) 
biidka 

(MA) 


glass 
pot (tea) 


U7 
96 


bara (N) 


the hinterland, 70R 
'up-country', 
country (of)j thus 
Bara Hindi, 'India,' 
5ara |rabu, 'Arabia,' 


"bivu 

bona 

bonde 
(MA) 


ripe 

District Office 

valley, low-lying 
country 


17 

25 

100R 


bar^ara 


thoroughly 
very well 


39 


bora 


best 


108 


barabira 


road, highway 


99 


"*bovu 


bad (i.e. spoiled) 


19 


barafu 
(N) 


ice 


111 


bunduki 
(N) 


gun 


112 



539 



BASIC COURSE 



bure 


for nothing 


68 


-chosha 


to make tired 


9oR 


bwana 


master, sir 


1 


-choma 


to burn, apply fire 
to 


100 








chombo 


vessel. Used of 


U? 




-C- 






utensils and ships at 
sea 










-chota 


to take a little 


121 


-cha 


to dawn 


iiU 




water/firewood 




~chache 


few 


18 














chumba 


room 


loU 


~chafu 


dirty 


90 


(VI) 
chuicvi (N) 


salt 


36 


-chagua 


to choose 


12il 














-chunga 


to care for 


99 


chai 


tea 


tk 














-chungu- 


to examine carefully 


125 


chaktila 


food "^'^'' --''-' 


8 


lia 






chama 
(VI) 


union, party 


iioR 


chungwa 
(MA) 


orange 


9 






chuo 


Alone usually means 


51 


chandalua 


■'■1 *•' i';- . 

mosquito net 


9i» ' 


(VI) 


'school,' chuo kikuu 
'college or""univers£ty 




(VI) 


['■ '■ i " *' "^-."-1 






1 


-changa 


to collect 


isU 


/ . X 






o 




Vk 


chupa (N) 


bottle 


U8 


"changa 


young ,,,^ 


78 


chweo (ma) 


appears in plu. 


135 


-changa- 


to mix 


70R 




machweo 'simset, west' 




nya 


-, -1 •- ' a 


. ;;..-.S. 


b. A. 






cheche 


a small slice 


120R 








(N) 




"m] 


■' ?,fv 


-D- 




-chelewa 


to be late 


63 


. ... 












dada 


sister 


65 


-chemsha 


to heat 


70R 














dakika 


a minute 


125 


cheti 


certificate 


112 


(N) 






(VI) 


















damu 


blood 


62 


-cheza 


to play 


70 














-danga- 


to cheat, deceive 


123 


chini (N) 


below, under 


107 


nya 






-choka 


to become tired 


125 


dansi 


dance 


70 



5Uo 



SWAHILI 



daraja bridge 
(MA) or (N) 

darasa class 

dari (N) upper floor 

dawa (N) medicine 



io5 

51 

loU 

26 



debe (MA) a four-gallon tin looR 
desturi (N) a custom, practice 73 



embe (MA) mango 9 

or (N) 

-enda go : 23 

-endelea to continue 30 

endeleo appears in plu, 1U5 
maendeleo 'progress' 

-endesha to run (cause to go) 67 

-enea to fit 86 



-dhani 


to think 


17 


"enyewe 


-self 


US 


-dhuru 


to harm 


83 


-epa 


to avoid, escape 


99 


dim.(N) 


religion 


51 


"erevii 


shrewd, clever 


111 


dirisha 
(MA) 

dobi 


window 
laundryman 


90 


"eupe 
"eusi 


white 
black 


86 
81 


"dogo 
duka (MA) 


smal 1 
shop 


20 

60R 




-P- 










-faa 


to be suitable 


60 




-E- 




-fa 


to die 


12U 


ee 


a casual way of 
saying 'yes' 


10 


-fagia 
-fahamu 


to sweep 

to know, bear in mind 


115 
116 


"ekundu 


red 


81 


faida (N) profit, advantage 


90R 


-elekea 


to be directed 
toward 


122 


-fanana 


to resemble one 
another 


70R 


-elewa 


understand 


21 


-fanya 


make, do 


23 


-eleza 


explain 


27 


farasi 


horse 


Uo 


-eliinisha 


to educate 


80R 


fedha (N) 


money 


102 


elimu (N) 


education 


31 


-ficha 


to hide something 


12U 


~embamba 


narrow 


IOOR 


-fika 


to arrive 


80 



5Ul 



BASIC COURSE 



-fikiri 


to think 




k7 


gani? 


what kind? 


e 


fitina 

(N) 


jealousy, dis( 


cord 


111 


gari la 
moshi 


train 


i|0 


forodha 
(N) 


customs house 




135 


gavana 


governor 


6oR 


foronya 
(N) 


pillowcase 




93 


-gawarya 


to divide up, 
distribute 


9oR 


-fiia 


to launder 




91 


-geuka 


to turn 


101 


-fuata 


to follow 




71 


ghali 


expensive 


6oR 


fuJo(MA) 


disturbance 




76 


gharama 


expense 


69 


-fukuza to pursue 
fulana (N) imdenrept 
fulani such-and-such 
fundi skilled worke: 


:s.0' 
r of 


125 
138 
90R 


giza(sg« 
of MA) 

godoro 
(MA) 

gogo (MA) 


darkness 
mattress 

log 


U8 
93 

105 


-funga 
-fimgua 
-funika 
-funua 


any kind 
to lock 
to unlock 2 
to close ; 
to open 


ad Oc"" 


loU 

loU 

63 

6U 


-goma 

gugu (MA) 
""gumu 
gunia (MA) 


to refuse; to 
strike (work) 

weed 

hard, difficult 

gunny sack 


iioR 

98 

69 

130 


funzo 

(MA) 


course of instruction 


8oR 




-H- 




~fupi 


short 


q '. . 


ISO 








furaha(N) 


rejoicing 




70 


haba 


few 


69 


-furahi 


be happy 




28 


habari (N) 


news 


1 


-futa 


to wipe up 




U3 


hafifu 
haja (N) 


poor in quality 
need 


108 
131 




-G- 






haki(N) 
hakika(N) 


Justice 
certainty 


68 
56 



5U2 



SWAHILI 



hali (N) 


condition 


59 


hoja(N) 


necessity 


-haina 


to move from one 
place to another 


57 


homa(N) 
hotuba 


fever 
a speech 


Hajnisi 


given name (male) 


12 


(N) 




hairai (N) 


desire, longing 


66 


-hudhiiria 


to attend 


hapa 


here 


21 


huko 


there 


hapana 




16 


huo 


that 


haraka (n) 


haste 


U9 


huwa 


generally 


-haribika 


to get broken 


1+U 






-haribu 


to injure 


uu 






harufu (N) 


scent 


131 




-I- 


harusi(N) 


wedding (see 
arusi ) 


8o 


idara (N) 


department 


hasa 


exactly, very 


78 








much 




ijapokuwa 


even so, even if, 
although 


hasara 


loss, damage 


looR 






(N) 






ikiwa 


if, whether 


hatari 
(K) 


danger 


99 


ila 


except, unless, but 






ili 


in order that 


hati (N) 


docximent 


113 


"ingi 


many 


haya 


O.K. 


85 


-ingia 


to enter 


hazina(N) 


treasury 


iloR 


~ingine 


some, other 


hebu 


•well, theni' 


107 


-isha 


finish 


hesabu (n) 


arithmetic 


51 


ishara(N) 


signal 


heshima 


respect 


111 






(N) 






-ishi 


dwell 


-hitaji 


we need 


16 


isipokuwa 


except that 


-hitimu 


to finish 
training 


65 


-ita 

itakiwavyi 


to call 
as is desired 



67 

58 
lUo 

66 
38 
20 

iU6 



31 

1*1 

2U 
111 

70R 
i8 

he 

33 

21+ 
101 

37 
126 

86 
1^2 



hodari 



clever 



33 



5U3 



BASIC COURSE 



.J. 



jina (MA) name 

jino tooth (pl« meno) 



3U 
61 



-ja 


come 


27 














jinsi 


way, method (often 


eoR 


-jaa 


to fill up 


38 


(N) 


used with concords 
of VI class ) 




-jali 


to give honor to 


ICO 














jioni 


evening 


ue 


-Jalia 


to assist, enable. 


51 










show favor to, of 




-jitahidi 


try hard 


127 




God's will 




jiwe (MA) 


stone (pi, mawe) 


22 








-jongea 


to move, make a 


125 


jamaa 


family 


29 




motion 




(N, pers. 


) 










jambo 


matter, affair. 


1 


jozi (N) 


pair 


loe 


(MA) 


trouble (pi. manibo) 
















jua (MA) 


sun 


100 


jana 


yesterday- 


36 














-jiia 


know 


16 


jani (MA) 


leaf 


75 














juhudi 


effort, exertion 


8oR 


-jaribu 


to try 


U2 


(N) 






jasho 


sweat 


103 


-julikana 


to be known 


70R 


(MA) 


.. [ydy .J.^ 
















Jumamosi 


Saturday 


70 


Je 


(used to introduce 


8 










a yes-no question) 




Jumatano 


Wednesday 


56 


-je 


how? how about? 


19 


.iumba (ma) Generally used of very 












large buildings, mansions 


jembe 


hoe 


7U 




(Government House or the 


(MA) 








Sultan's Palace) etc. 




-jenga 


to build 


iioR 


jumla 
(kwa) 


altogether 


90 


J ergo (MA) building 


13U 


jumla 






-jerxihi 


to bruise, wound 


62 


-jumlisha 


add 


66 


jibu (MA) 


answer, reply 


73 


juu (N) 


on, concerning, top 


35 


-jifunza 


to study 


39 


juzi (M-A) 


day before yesterday 


65 



jiko (ma) stove, oven, kitchen, U2 
cooking place (pl« meko) 



jimbo (ma) province 



29 



5UU 



SWAHILI 



-kaa 

-kaanga 

kab^ti 

kabila (MA) 

kabisa 

kabla 
(N) 

kadhalika 

kahawa (N) 

kalamu (N) 

~kali 

kama 

"kamata 

kaira vile 

kamba 
(N) 

kanga (N) 

kanisa (MA.) 

kanuni 
(N) 

kaptura (N) 

karatasi 
(N) 

karibu (N) 

-kasirika 



-K- 

live (reside ), 

remain 
fry 

cupboard 

tribe 

quite 

before 

likewise, 
similarly 

coffee 

pen 

sharp, fierce 

as 

to seize 

for example . 

rope , cord 

woman's garment 

church 

a general rule 

shorts 

paper 

near 

to be angry 





kasisi 


priest 


80 




kaskazini 


north 


21 




(N) 






20 


-kata 


to cut 


U6 


131 


kati(N) 


between, among 


110 


97 


katika 


in 


29 


37 


katikati 
(N) 


in the midst 


6oR 


19 










-kauka 


to get dry 


92 


7oR 










"kavu 


dry 


70R 


90R 


kawaida (N)custom 


17 




-kawia 


to take a long time 


115 


iU 










kazi (N) 


work 


30 


U5 










kelele 


noise 


9k 


122 


(MA) 








kengele 


bell 


101 


6oR 


(N) 






125 


kesho (N) 


tomorrow 


Uo 


6oR 


kiasi (VI) 


amoiont 


82 


120 


kiazi (?I) potato 


ie 




kibarua 


day labor, one day 


35 



139 

Ui 

102 

138 
103 

10 

iiU 



kibao 
(VI) 



laborer (VI anim. ) 



a small board 



kiberiti match 

(VI) 
kibwebwe style of women's dress 

(VI) 



kichwa 
(VI) 

kidole 
(VI) 

kidonge 



head 

finger, toe 
tablet 



135 

k9 

1I4.2 

25 
62 
58 



5U5 



BASIC COURSE 



kifaa 


a household 


131 


kisahani 


saucer, small 


U7 


(VI) 


necessity 




(VI) 


plate 




kifaranga 


chick (dim, ) 


100 


kisasa 


modern-style 


87 


(VI anim, ) 










kifaru 


rhino (also faru 


122 


kisehemxi 


a small section 


90R 


(VI anim 


,) (N anim,)) 




(VI) 






kifua (VI) 


chest 


1U2 


kisima 
(VI) 


well, water hole 


i«i-= 


kifungo 


button 


92 








(VI) 






kisu (VI) 


knife 


53 


kijana 


young fellow 


35 








(VI anim 


.) 




kitabu 


book 


63 


kijiji 


village 


22 


(VI) 






(VI) 






kitambaa 


cloth, material 


87 


kijiko 


spoon 


95 


(VI) 






(VI) 






kitambo 


early 


75 


kijiti 


small tree, under- 


7U 


(VI) 






(VI) 


brush 




kitanda 
(VI) 


bed 


93 


kijito 


dim. of mto 'river' 


118 








(VI) 






kiti (VI) 


chair 


U3 


kikapu 


basket 


83 


kitoweo 


a relish 


70R 


(VI) 


1 L ,-■■ .• ■ 




(VI) 






kike 


femininity (see 


55 










Unit 55.) 




kitu (VI) 


thing 


23 








kitiirguu 


(VI) onion 


32 


kiko (VI) 


pipe 


116 


kiume 


masculinity (See 
Unit 55.) 


55 


kikombe 


cup 


U7 








(VI) 






kiuno 


waist 


81 


-kirriiia 


to run away 


99 


(VI) 












kiwanja 


plot of ground 


90R 


kinanda 


stringed instrument. 


10U 


(VI) 






(VI) 


gramophone 




kizaramo 


(language of the 
WaZaramo ) 


37 


kinyvraji 


a drink 


50 








(VI) 






kodi(N) 


tax 


25 


kiongozi 


leader 


11 oR 








(VI amiTti^ 


.) 




-kohoa 


to cough 


60 


kioo 


piece of glass. 


115 


-kopa 


to borrow 


73 


(VI) 


mirror 
















kopo (MA) 


metal vessel 


131 


kipande 


piece 


86 








(VI) 






kosa (MA) 


a mistake 


6k 


kipimo 


measurement 


86 








(VI) 






•fJcosa 


to lack, err 


67 



Sk6 







SWAHILI 






koti 


coat 


90 


*kuu 


big, principal 


39 


-kua 


to grow 


100 


kwa 


by, with, at 


15 


-kubali 


to accept, to 
agree 


67 


kwa heri 


with peace, to, with, 
in happiness 


hk. . 


~kubwa 


large 


20 


kwa 
hivyo 


therefore 


32 


kufuli 

(nM) 

kuku (N 
anim, ) 

kuliko 


padlock 1 oU 
chicken 90R 

than. Lit. 'where 60R 
there is/are' used 
particularly in 
comparisons 


kwamba 

kweli 
kwenye 


that. Lit, 'to say J ' 
also 'ya kwcimba' 

true 

where there is 

-L- 


57 

55 
81 


kumbei 


(expression of 
surprise ) 


3U 


la 


no 


13 


-kumbuka 


to remember 


U6 


labda 


perhaps 


56 


kuini(MA) 


ten 


19 


laini 


soft, smooth 


7k 


kuna 


there is 


6 


lakini 


but 


15 


kuni (N) 


firewood 


120 


-lala 


to sleep, lie down 


11U 


-kunja 


to fold, wrap 


120R 


-laza 


to cause to lie 


120R 


-kusa- 
nyika 


up, crease 

to be gathered 
together 


IIOR 


lizima 
-lazimu 


necessary 

to be necessary 


1+2 

U5 


kusini (n) 


south 


21 


-lea 


to rear 


100 


-kusudia 


plan 


ko 


•rlanga 


to aim 


12U 


-kuta 


to find 


88 


leo 


today 


13 


-kutania 


to meet one 
another 


110R 


-leta 
-letea 


bring 

to bring for/to 


16 

8 








-lewa 


to become drunk 


52 



SU7 



BASIC COURSE 



-lia 

-lima 
-linda 



to cry, weep, 
roar 

to cultivate 

to protect 



-lingana be alike 

lini? when? 

-lipa pay 

livu leave time 

-loweka to wet something 



lugha (N) language 



^,J« 



■■■^.'.^ ,5' 



maadam since 

maana (MA) because 

maana (N) meaning (sometimes 
MA pi.) 

maanifu famous 

mabishano dispute 

(MA) 

mafua cold in the head 

(MA) 

mafuta kerosene | ai^ oil 

(MA) or fat 



magharibi west 

(N) 
mahali place 

(PA) 
maliaragwe beans 

(MA) 



78 

7k 
99 
137 
39 
25 
56 

91 
30 



iUl 
57 
6U 

6oR 
iloR 
61 
U8 

21 

Ul 
32 



mahari Nowadays used for 
(N) 'bride price' as well 
as Islamic 'dower, 
dowry* 

maize (more than 
one ear) 



79 



mahindi 
(MA) 

mahitaji 

(MA) 
makaa 

(pl. MA) 

maji (MA) 

-maliza 

mama 

(N pers e ) 
narabo 

manufaa 
(MA) 

maperaa 

(MA) 
mapumziko 

(MA) 

mara (N) 

mashariki 

(N) 
mashtaka 
(pl, MA) 

mashuhuri 
maskini 

matata 

(MA) 
materabezi 

(MA) 
matoke 
(pl. MA) 

mavuno 
(MA) 



needs 

coal, charcoal 

water 

to finish 

mother 



19 
31 

120R 

U3 
5o 
Ul 



matters (pl« of jambo) 27 
useful things, tools 100R 



early, soon 

place/time of 
resting 

time 

east 

accusations 

famous 



11U 
103 

30 
21 

I10R 
95 



misfortune, a poor man U2 

complications 76 

outing ko 

type of food 70R 



harvest 



72 



5U8 







SWAHILI 






mawaidha 


advice (also. 


1U7 


mchumba 


bqy/girl friend 


79 




mavidlia) 




(WA) 


fiance (e ) 










mchuzi 


gravy, soup, sauce 


70R 








(MI) 






mazao 


crops 


33 








(MA) 






mdanga- 


a deceiver 


123 


maziwa 


milk 


1U 


nyifu 






(MA) 






(WA) 






mbaazi (N) 


peas 


1U5 














-mea 


to grow 


98 


mbali- 


various 


6oR 








mbali 






meza (N) 


table 


U6 


mbawmi 


hy the side 


78 


•flieza 


to shoot out 


75 


mbegu 


seed 


75 


mfereji 


ditch for carrying 


121 


(N) 






(MI) 


water 




mbele (N) 


ahead 


88 








mbeleko (N) 


cloth or sling 


78 










for carrying a 




mganga 


doctor 


128 




child 




(WA) 






mbio (N) 


speed 


125 


mgeni 
(WA) 


guest 


93 


mboga (N) 


(general word 


36 










for leafy 




mgongo 


back 


76 




vegetables ) 




(MI) 












mgonjwa 


a sick person 


26 


mbolea 


fertilizer 


72 


(WA) 












mguu 


leg, foot 


53 


mbona? 


why? Lit. 'do 


58 


(MI) 








I observe' and 




mia 


hundred 


69 




should only be 












used when this 




miuii 


I 


1U 




sense fits* 
















mjKMI) 


town 


20 


rabu 


mosquitoes 


59 








(H anim.) 






mjOmba 


kinship term used 


113 


mbuzi 


goat 


9oR 


(WA) 


reciprocally by brother 




(N aniin«) 








and son of a woman 




mchezo 


game 


Uo 


mjumbe 


messenger. 


tioR 


(MI) 






(WA) 


representative 




mchinjo 


style of womens 


1U2 








(MI) 


dress 




mkasi 
(MI) 


scissors 


98 



5U9 



mkate 

(MI) 
mke 

(WA) 
irkono 

(MI) 
mkono wa 

kulia 


bread 
wife 
arm, hand 


right hand 


mkono wa 
kushoto 


left hand 


mkubwa 
(WA) 
mkuki 
(MI) 


the chief 
spear 


mkulima 
(WA) 

mlango 
(MI) 

mlima 
(MI) 


fanner 

door 

mountain 


mlima ji 
(WA) 


grower 


mlinzi 
(WA) 


gusrd 


mmea 

(MI) 
mno 


plant 
much 


mnunuzi 
(WA) 

mnyama 
(WA) 


customer 
wild animal 


"moja 


one 


moto (MI) 


fire 


motokaa 
(N) 

moyo 
(MI) 

mpagaai 

(WA) 
mpaka 


automobile 
heart 
laborer 
to, until 



1O&0 0-fc 



iaB'Jii 



3it;s.: 



ieae- 



BASIC 


COURSE 






11 


mpaka 
(MI) 


boundary- 


110 


89 










mpango 


plan, arrangement 


7o 


53 


(MI) 


system 




89 


rapishi 
(WA) 


a cook 


3U 




mpumbavu 


a fool, dupe 


123 


88 


(WA) 






.: J 


mpunga 


rice 


32 


20 


(MI) 








msaada 


assistance 


67 


las 


(MI) 








mshahara 


pay 


31 




(MI) 






3a 


mshipa 


vein, artery. 


62 




(MI) 


nerve, tendon 




62 










mshono 


sigrle, cut 


lU2 


110 


(MI) 








msitu 


land covered with 


119 


129 


(MI) 


bushes, small trees 






mstari 


line 


121 


137 


(MI) 








msumari 


nail 


118 




(MI) 






32 










mswaki 


twig used as tooth 


115 


108 


(MI) 


brush 




85 


mtaa (MI) 


street 


138 


113 


mtama 
(MI) 


mi.llet 


7oR 


t9 


mti (MI) 


tree 


7U 


92 


mtihani 
(MI) 


a school examination 


65 


Uo 


mto (MI) 


pillow 


93 


73 


mto (MI) 


river 


110 


35 


mtoto 

(WA) 


child 


11 


51 


mtu (WA) 


person 


38 



550 







SWAHILI 






BitTunishi 


emplc^ee 


127 


mwenyeji 


the regular possessor. 


70R 


(WA) 






(WA) 


inhabitant 




mtungi 


earthem pitcher. 


121 


mwenzi 


companion 


92 


(MI) 


water jar 




(WA) 






niuda (MI) 


period of time 


35 


rawezi 
(MI) 


month, moon 


68 


muhogo (MI) 


cassava 


32 


mwiba 


thorn 


96 


muhuri 


postmark Also 


U6 


mwiko 


large wooden spoon 


70R 


(MI) 


'seal,' For 'post- 




(KC) 








mark' generally alma 










Zf E°SH» '^^^p^ y^" 




mwili 


body 


115 




gosxa. 




(MI) 






mume (WA) 


husband 


80 


mwisho 
(MI) 


end, last (price) 


73 


Mungu 


God 


51 


mwishowe 


finally 


51 








mwitu 


forest 


110 








(MI) 






mvtia (N) 


rain 


32 














mwvindo 


shape, form 


107 


-Biwaga 


^ spill wc 


U3 


(MI) 






-rawagika 


to become spilled 


U3 


mzazi 
(WA) 


parent 


26 


nmaka 


year 


32 


mzirngu 


a Etiropean 


3k 


(MI) 






(WA) 






mwallBni 


teacher 


61 








(WA) 












iinrana« 


membttr 


IIOR 




^. 




chama 












(WA) 












mwanao 


student 


69 


na 


and 


8 


funzi 

(WA) 
mwananike 


woman 


55 


nafasi 
(N) 


opportunity 


56 




(pi, wanawake) 




nafuu 
(N) 


profit, gain 


76 


mwana- 


man 


55 






aame 


(pi, wanaume) 




namna 
(N) 


kind, sort 


59 


mwananchl 


citizen 


11*1 


nanasi 


pineapple 


16 


(WA) 






(MA) 












nani? 


whoS 


20 


mwandishi 

(WA) 
mwendo (MI) 


secretary 
journey 


39 
82 


nauli 

(N) 
-nawa 


fare 

to wash faceAands 


82 
IIU 



551 







BASIC 


COURSE 






nazi (N) 


CO contit/co conut s 


16 


nini 


what? 


19 


nchi (N) 


land, country 


27 


njaa (N) 


hunger 


11 


ndani (N) 


inside of 


93 


nje (N) 


outside of 


89 


ndege 


bird, airplane 


65 








(N pers. 


) 
















njia (N) 


path 


71 


ndizi 


banana/bananas 


9 


njia 


junction 


88 


(N) 






panda 






ndoo (N) 


bucket 


181 














njugu (N) 


groundnuts 


19 


ndugu 


kinsman of same 


53 








(N pers. 


) generation 




-nuka 


to smell bad 


116 


"nene 


thick, stout 


122 


-niikia 


to smell good 


116 


neno (MA) 


woixl 


63 


<-jiung *u- 
nika 


to complain 


35 


-ng'aa 


to shine 


92 














-nunulia 


buy for 


26 


ng'ambo 


on the other side 


90 








(N) 






-n\uiua 


buy 


23 


-iig»a» 


to stick to 


97 








ng^ania 




\ •'"■ 


nyama 


meat 


13 


"ngapij 


how marsy'i 


36 


nyasi 
(N pi.) 


grass 


98 


-ng'oa 


to uproot 


116 














nyati (N 


buffalo 


122 


-ngoja 


to wait 


79 


anim.) 






ngoma 
(N) 


drum 


70 


-nyesha 


to rain 


72 






-nyima 


withhold, deprive 


lUU 


ng 'ombe 


cow, ox 


13 








(N anim. 


) 




-nyoa 


to shave 


115 


nguo 


cloth, clothes 


h^ 














-nyoka 


to become straight 


117 


-ngurvana 


to rumble, roar 


125 














-nyonya 


to suck 


78 


nguruwe 


pig 


13 














nyiimaCN) 


after, on far side 


110 


ni 


is /are 


17 




of 




-ni 


in, at, on 


23 


nytunba (N) 


house 


22 


nibu(N) 


nib 


U5 


-nyva 


to drink 


5o 



55a 



SWAHILI 



-0- 



-p. 



-o ~ote 


any at all 


Ui 


-pa 


to give 


60 


•oa 


to marry 


79 


-paa 


scrape off 


131 


Ochieng 


(a Luo surname) 


30 


pahali 
(PA) 


dialect variant of 
mahali 


135 


-oga 


to bathe 


115 




" 










-paka 


to app]y 


103 


-ogelea 


to swim 


38 














-pakulia 


to divide 


U7 


-okota 


to pick up 


120 














-palilia 


to weed 


75 


•■oniba 


to request 


103 














pambo 


furniture. 


10U 


-ona 


see 


2U 


(MA) 


ornament 




-onana 


to see one 
another 


98 


pamoja 


together 


56 








'pana 


broad, flat 


100R 


-ondoa 


to get rid of 


91 














-panda 


take 


Uo 


-ondoka 


to leave 


36 














-panda 


raise 


32 


-onekana 


to seem 


59 














panga 


large knife 


7k 


-ongea 


to converse 


63 


(MA) 






-ongeza 


to increase 
something, to 


120R 


pasi (N) 


iron (for pressing) 


92 




add to 




-pasua 


to split something 


120 


-ongoza 


to lead, cause 
to go right 


110R 


-pata 


get 


31 








-patikana 


be available 


2U 


-onja 


to taste, try 


100 














pato (MA) 


income (appears in 


iUi 


orofa(N) 


story 


89 




plu, magato) 




-ote 


an 


U7 


peke 


solitude 


U7 


-otesha 


raise 


32 


-peleka 


take 


33 


ovyo 


at random, 
carelessly 


111 


-penda 


like, love 


31 








pengine 


sometimes 


17 








pesa (N) 


coins 


U9 



553 



BASIC COURSE 



-pi? 


which? 


U7 




^- 




pia 


also, too 


28 








-piga 


to hit, strike 


58 


rafiki 
(N pers.) 


friend 


iU 


-pika 


to cook 


70R 


rafu (N) 


shelf 


10U 


pikipiki 


motorcycle 


133 


raha (N) 


rest, comfort 


100R 


(N) 


















rahisi 


cheap 


ek 


pilipili 


pepper 


36 








(N) 


u^vrlb c 




rangi (N ) 


color 


86 


-pima 


to measure 


77 










■■-.. ---■ . 




-raruka 


to get torn 


87 


-pinda 


to bend 


117 














ratli (N) 


1 lb. 


132 


-pita 


to pass 


71 














-refu 


long, tall 


82 


-pole 


kind, gentle 


60 














risasi 


bullet 


122 


-pokea 


to accept " f-,t <,- 


80R 


(N) 






pcanbe (N) 


beer 


52 


robo (N) 


iA 


72 


-pona 


recover from illness 
or injury 


62 


roho or 
tamaa 


spirit 


U6 


i»* 






(N) 






-ponda 


to crush by pounding 


70R 


-rudi 


to return 


56 


-poteza 


to lose ^_.\ „,, 


U6 


-rudishwa 


to be caused to 
return 


57 


pov\2 (MA) 


froth, lather, r 


120R 










suds 




-nihusu 


to allow 


99 


pua (N) 


nose 


61 


-ruka 


to fly, jump 


65 


-pvunzika 


to rest 


77 


■* 






-pvuiga 


to change air 


38 




-S- 




hewa 












-punguza 


to make less 


83 


saa (N) 


hour 


36 


pwani 


beach 


38 


sababu 
(N) 


reason 


Ul 


"pya 


new 


Uo 


sabuni 
(N) 


soap 


91 








-sadiki 


to believe 


123 



55U 







SWAHILI 






safari 


Journey 


122 


-shangi- 


to make rejoicing 


8o 


(N) 






lia 


for 




safi 


clean 


ki 


sheria 
(N) 


law 


101 


-safiri 


to travel 


65 














shida 


difficulty 


io6 


-saga 


to pul-verize 


7oR 


(N) 






sahani (N) 


plate 


U7 


-shika 


grasp, take 


BU 


-sahau 


to forget 


95 


shilingi 
(N) 


shilling 


68 


-saidia 


help 


31 


shimo 
(MA) 
-shinda 


pit, hole 


119 


salama (N ) 


with peace 


28 


spend the day 


ko 


-salimia 


to convey regards 
to 


6o 


-shinda 


to surpass, overcome 


8oR 








shingo 


neck 


61 


samaki 


fish 


13 


(N) 






(N anim.) 






shoka 


axe 


120 


sana 


very much 


15 


(MA) 






sandiiku 


box 


U9 


-shtaki 


to accuse. 


112 


(N or MA) 








prosecute 




sasa 


now 


13 














shughuli 


business 


6oR 


sauti 


voice 


125 


(N) 






(N) 


















-shughu- 


be busy 


60 


sawa 


like 


61 


lika 






sawa-sawa 


equally, just the 
same 


12U 


shuka 
(N) 


sheet 


93 


sehemu (N) 


section 


37 


-shuka 


to disembark 


82 


-sema 


speak 4 sacy 


30 


-shukuru 


thank 


13U 


senti (N) 


cent (E, African), 
small change 


p 19 


shule 
(N) 


school 


25 








si 


is not/are not 


17 


serikali 


government 


27 








(N) 






siafu 


•didver ants' 


119 


shabaha 
(N) 


target 


12U 


(N anim. 


, )(kind of red ant) 








siagi 


butter 


15 


shamba (MA) 


farm 


71 


(N) 







555 



BASIC COURSE 



sifa (N) 


praise, reputation 


100R 


STifuria 


a metal cooking pot 


120R 








(N or MA) 




-sifu 


to praise 


70R 














-sugua 


to polish 


92 


sijambo 


I do not have 


1 










trouble 




s\ikari 
(N) 


sugar 


iU 


-sikia 


hear 


37 


-svikuma 


to push along 


kk 


-sikiliza 


to listen 101, 


12U 


-sumbua 


to annoy 


9k 


-sifcLtika 


to be sorry 


58 


supu(N) 


soup 


13 


siku (N) 


•^ ■ .t^- 


26 


sura (N) 


appearance 


135 


-simama 


to stand up 


. 80 


suruali 


pair of trousers 


86 




...'era 


■''-" 


(N) 






-simamia 


to stand ly. 


80R 










". • 0." 


sr-:- !:e - 


^0 C 








oversee 






-T- 




simba (N 


lion ^? '■ 


122 


; r 






anim.) 






f, * 






simu (N) 


telephone. 


81 


taa(N) 


a light 


US 




telegraph 




taabu (N) 


trouble, toil 


IIOR 


sindano 


needle 


58 








(N) 
sinema 

(N) 
sita 




^^^ 


tabibu 


doctor 


61 


cinema ^rm'l^^ic 


-fij?^- 


(daktari) 




six 


36 


tafadhali 


please, I ask you 


8 


siyo 


(negative of ndio) 


19 


-tafuta 


to look for 


U6 


-sogeza 


to bring near 


96 


tajiri 


rich 


138 


soko (MA) 


market 


23 


-taka 


want 


8 


soil (N) 


sole 


106 


'tamu 


sweet, pleasant 


70R 


-soma 


to read, study 


51 


-tandika 


to spread 


93 


somo (ma) 


an academic 


51 


tangu 


since 


69 




subject 




-tang\alia 


to lead 


71 


starehe 


welfare, comfort 


10 








(N) 


* 




"tano 


five 


2U 


-stiri 


to conceal 


1U0 














-tarajia 


to expect 


133 



556 







SWAHILI 






tarehe 


date 


122 


tokeo 


results (appears in 


136 


(N) 






(MA) 


plu« matokeo) 




-tawanya 


to scatter 


9oR 


-tolewa 


to be put out, be taken 
out, produced 


67 


tayari 


ready 


2U 














tope 


mud, mire 


lie 


-tazama 


look at 


26 


(MA) 






-tegemea 


depend 


127 


-toroka 


to run away 


12U 


-teka 


to draw water 


121 


-tosha 


be sufficient 


15 


-telemka 


to descend 


119 


-toza 


make to pay 


127 


-teleza 


cause to come 
down J be 


118 


tu 


only 


12 




slippery 




-tuma 


to send 


65 


-tembea 


to go for a walk 


38 


-tiunaini 


to hope 


51 


-tembelea 


to visit 


95 


-tumbuka 


to have a cut or hole 
made in 


lie 


tembo (N 


elephant 


122 








anlin.) 






-tumia 


1x) use 


14 


tena 


again 


37 


-tianwa 


be sent 


27 


-tengen- 


to repair 


kk 


tunda 


a piece of fruit 


8 


eza 






(MA) 












-tundika 


to hang up, suspend 


120R 


thamani 


price, value 


127 








(N) 






ttindu 


nest, hole 


119 








(N or MA) 




thumni 


5o<t piece 


90 


-timza 


to care for 


77 


(N) 












-tia 


pour 


1*8 


tunzo 


care 


77 


-tii 


to obey 


100 


(MA) 






-toa 


to take away 


kz 


*.twa 


to set (of the sun) 


80 








twiga 


giraffe 


125 


-toboa 


to bore a hole 


121 


(N anim,) 






in 










tofauti 


difference. 


90R 








(N) 


discrepancy 






-U- 




-toka 


come from, go 


27 










from 




-ua 


to kill 


125 








ua (MA) 


flower 


98 



557 



BASIC COURSE 



ua (U) 


hedge, yard 




98 


-ungua 


to bum 


U2 


ubao (U-JJ) 


blackboard, 
plank 


board. 


6U 


upande 

(u) 

upesi 


direction 
quickly 


21 

87 


udevu 


a hair of the face 


115 


(u) 






(U-N) 








upishi 

(u) 


work or status of 
a cook 


3U 


udongo 


mud 




23 


urefu 


length 


86 


ufunguo 


k^ 




lOU 


(u) 






(U-N) 




-; -'f/ 


, ^., 


usaha 

(u) 


pus 


6Z 


ugali 


stiff porridge 


7oR 


ushuru 


tax, duty 


lUo 


(u) 




V^':- 




(u) 






ugonjwa 


illness 




59 


usingizi 


sleep 


9U 


(u) 






. ,. 


(u) 






uji (U) 


porridge 


:.<i<:.- <■>;■ 


8 


uso 
(U-N) 


face 


1lU 


ujinga 


ignorance 




1U6 








(u) 








utetezi 

(u) 


politics 


51 


ukarani 


the work or 


status 


31 


"•vuguvugu 


lukewarm 


91 


(u) 


of being a clerk 














L^*i/.W*il -il'd 




-uza 


sell 


19 


ukurasa 


page Zj 


J woaX't? « 


63 








(U - N) 














Ulaya 


Europe ,q: 


S y'-^iff 05- 


65 


■,,f«.- 






(u) 








•rs. r 


-V- 




-uliza 


to ask 




93 


f^ 






uma 


rake, fork 




7U 








(U-N) 


(gardening) 


Q'TB-^- 




-vaa 


to put on clothes 


Ui 


umaskini 


poverty 




123 


vazi (MA) 


garment 


1U2 


(u) 














vrnibali 


distance 




137 








CJ) 








vile-vile 


also 


6oR 


-umia 


be hurt 




53 


-vimba 


swell 


62 


vunri (U) 


age 




55 


vita (VI) 


war 


1U6 


unga (U) 


flour, meal 




7oR 








-unga 


to join 




8o 


"vivu 


lazy 


111 



558 



SWAHILI 



-vua to fish 113 

-vunjika to become broken k5 

-vuja to leak 121 

-vuka to pass safely 118 
over 



vumbi (N ) dust 



-*;- 



115 



wembe 


razor 


113 


wewe 


you 


32 


-weza 


to be able 


Uk 


wiki 
(N) 

wilaya 
(N) 

-Hinda 


week 

district, province 

to hunt (game) 


80 
90R 
lis 


wino (U) 


ink 


U5 


wivu (U) 


jealousy, envy 


111 



-wa 


be 


36 








-wahi 


be in time, be 
ready 


126 




-y- 




wakati 
(U-IS) 


time, occasion 


52 


ya 

kwamba 


that.a* 


65 


-wala 


neither, nor 


76 


yaani 


that is to say 


80R 


wali (U) 


cooked rice 


70R 


yai (M) 


egg 


8 


T7anga(U) 


starch 


91 


yeye 


he 


29 


wapij 


where? 


20 








-washa 


to ignite 


U8 




-Z- 




wasiwasiCu) 


doubt 


73 








wazi 


open, evident 


100R 


-zaa 


bear (fruit, seed) 


77 


wazo 


thoughts - 
appears in plu, 
mawazo 


il*o 


zaldi 
zamani 


many 

time, ancient times 


69 

80R 


wee 


you 


133 


-zidi 


to increase 


69 


-weka 


to put 


U6 


"zima 


good (i,e, not rotten) 


19 



559 



BASIC COURSE 



-zito 


heavy 


81 


-zoea 


to become familiar 
with 


9oR 


zoea 


habit - appears 
in plu, mazoea 


137 


-viuia 


to prevent 


79 


-zungvika 


to go around and 
around 


lOoR 


-zungumza 


to converse Jsu: 


iU6 


-zuri 


good 


17 



.1- 






t^T- 



:6> 



S.^ V 



tc 



OS 



56o 



ft U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTENG OFFICE : 1963 O - f 52216 (74) 





Date Due 




IVIf-^ 


ftT" 














m-^Q-^ 






1 
























i 
















































1 








1 








/ 








/ 

/ 








/ 








/ 



Demco 293-5 



1 ■' ■ ■'' wv.. ':■:>;;■■"■ 



U.S. Foreign Service 
Institute, 



Swahilj 



AFRICAN CSllECTION 



iPli8702 

JU54. 



ISSUED TO 



e ^- rV- ViAxQ^ jyxt^'^"^ 



-b — ^ 



m\m COLLECTION 
DUaUESNE ONJVEitSJU 



PL8702 




/ 



STACKS PL8702.U54 c. 3 

Foreign Service Institute (U.S.) 

iwahlli basic course 



3 5282 00215 9823 



mi 



Ak« 






^/J kl 



r id 



in 



If* itk 



, Ji *■