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Dcpt. of Anthropology 

THIS Dictionary is an attempt to bring together in a con- 
venient form materials for the study of the language most 
widely known throughout East and Central Africa, and to 
combine them in the light of a long, though in various ways 
limited, experience. 

It would be more accurately described as an annotated 
vocabulary of the dialect of Swahili commonly spoken in 
Zanzibar city. It cannot lay claim to the formal completeness, 
especially in the treatment of verbs, which attaches to the idea 
of a dictionary, and it deals with a dialect which in respect 
of a large number of words is distinguished by the Swahilis 
themselves from the Swahili dialect of the coast. It is based 
on the lists of words, singularly accurate and relatively com- 
plete in themselves, furnished by Bishop Steere's Handbook 
of Swahili and scattered throughout his collections and trans- 
lations, and on Krapfs Dictionary of Swahili works issued 
more than twenty years ago. Later sources have also been 
drawn upon, especially Pere Sacleux's Dictionnairc fran<;ais- 
swahili, 1891, and the ever-increasing volume of Swahili litera- 
ture (chiefly documents, letters, stories and poetry) due to the 
industry and scientific enthusiasm of German colonists and 
scholars. No work, however, at s (1903) which 

attempts the same object as the present. It was beyond the 
scope of Bishop Steere's plan to supply more than full I 

words. As to Krapfs monumental work, it may be 
enough to express a h< pe that it will never be re 
remains in ie to every student of Swahili, and has the 


permanent value and charm of genuine philological pioneer 
work by an .honest and able researcher. It deals almost entirely 
with the dialect of Swahili used at Mombasa, and revision might 
make it more practically useful by the removal of inaccuracies 
and repetitions, and by modifying 1 the spelling and arrange- 
ment, but such treatment would be analogous to re-writing 
Schliemann's Troy or Livingstone's Journals. The many first- 
hand explanations and examples are too precious, however, to be 
left unused, and it is especially on these that the present Editor 
has ventured freely to draw. 

As to the use made of these and other materials, this 
Dictionary makes no claim to be encyclopaedic, or to include 
more than the commoner technical terms of arts, crafts and 
commerce, or to represent fully the flora or fauna of Zanzibar. 
Like other dictionaries, it presupposes an elementary acquaint- 
ance with the grammar of the dialect dealt with, in this case 
a very simple one. But (apart from imperfections due to 
ignorance or oversight) it will probably be found to provide 
sufficiently for the ordinary wants of officials, missionaries, 
travellers, teachers and translators, especially when used in 
connexion with the English- Swahili Dictionary (also published 
by the Oxford University Press, second edition, 1901) by the 
same Editor. 

Reasons for attempting to provide a Dictionary of this kind 
may be briefly stated. The common language of Zanzibar 
has hitherto been the best known and most widely useful 
form of Swahili. And Swahili is still by far the most im- 
portant member of the Bantu family of language, i. e. of the 
solid block of dialects, closely related among themselves and 
clearly differentiated from all others, which are spoken through- 
out about a third of the African continent, i. e. over nearly the 
whole of it from Nigeria and the Soudan on the north to the 
Hottentot region on the extreme south. Hence Swahili has 
been ranked not unreasonably among the twelve most important 


languages of the modern world, and the position of Zanzibar as 
till lately the undisputed commercial capital and chief political 
power of Eastern and Central Africa has determined the form 
of Swahili still most useful as the key to that entire region. 
It is not necessary to enlarge on its characteristics, but one 
special feature of it may be more fully referred to here. 

The term Swahili represents, ethnologically as well as lin- 
guistically, the mixture of African and Arab elements on the 
East Coast of Africa. The proportions of the mixture in the 
race and the language vary indefinably, but its main character- 
istic is constant, viz. that the language remains always African. 
and by African in this connexion is meant Bantu in all its 
leading grammatical and phonetic features, however largely 
Arabic, and in a small degree other foreign elements figure in 
its vocabulary. How largely they figure appears in this book. 
The Editor is not well acquainted with Arabic, Hindustani, or 
indeed other dialects of Bantu, but he has made an attempt to 
discriminate between the Bantu and foreign element throughout. 
All words believed to be of non-Bantu origin are marked with 
an asterisk (*). Such words are mostly Arabic, or introduced 
through Arabic channels, and an Arabic scholar could no doubt 
add considerably to the number. As it is, a glance will show 
the numerical importance of the foreign element. A close study 
is needed to realize its full significance, to detect it (often 
strangely disguised) in all stages of phonetic and even gram- 
matical assimilation, and to recognize its subtle power of permea- 
tion, even to the absolute displacement of some of the commonest 
Bantu words, and almost a monopoly of the connectives of 
and sentences except in the simplest relations, and to unfold its 
.uince as a record of successive invasions of Arab 
infiuc-ncc, warlike and peaceful, to which the East coast has 
for centuries subjected. Here two or three results may 
cd briefly. The Arabic element is so large and 
trating as i ic of the Swahili dialect 


for the purposes of comparison with other dialects of Bantu, 
simply from the displacement of Bantu roots elsewhere general. 
On the other hand, the very opportunity and power of assimila- 
tion is and has proved to be a most valuable one. It enables 
the African to draw on the rich resources of the Arabic vocabu- 
lary for the expression or better expression of new ideas, while 
providing an easy, and as it were, natural channel for the ger- 
minant seeds of culture, taste, and enlightenment of all kinds, 
wherever Swahili penetrates throughout the continent. There 
is a third consideration of practical importance. Bantu, and 
especially Swahili, is easy to pronounce and even to represent 
in writing with the ordinary alphabet, and the tendency of 
Swahili is to make Arabic also easy to pronounce and even (in 
a degree) to spell. 

As to the always difficult subject of spelling and transcription 
of a language only lately reduced to writing, the present Editor 
is content to adopt generally the remarks made by Bishop Steere 
(in his Handbook, at the end of the Introduction and in the 
chapter on the alphabet), corroborated as they are in principle 
by Professor Max Miiller in his little-known Introduction to 
the Outline Dictionary for Students of Language by John 
Bellows (now long out of print). He would also avow his own 
tendency to Bantize rather than Arabize, i. e. to simplify rather 
than refine upon Arabic sounds uncongenial to the African, 
so far as their representation in writing is concerned. There 
seems no ground for deliberately contributing to their perpetua- 
tion. The principle just referred to is, that it is a practical 
necessity in the transcription of languages to indicate sounds, 
not depict them, and that for this purpose the ordinary English 
alphabet should be used with as few modifications as possible. 
Happily in Swahili there are no sounds commonly heard which 
are not sufficiently indicated by Roman characters. The only 
real difficulty is one inherent in all phonetic transliteration, 
viz, actual or supposed differences in the pronunciation of the 


same word, whether locally or by individuals, and consequent 
impossibility of a spelling both accurate and uniform. Such 
differences are partly natural and universal, few individuals 
pronouncing the same word in exactly the same way. I:i 
Swahili they are aggravated by the disturbing effect of Arabic, 
leading to strange but common transpositions of vowels and 
inversions of consonants in the effort of the African to imitate 
or assimilate its difficult characteristic sounds, and also by 
varying dialectic tendencies among the Africans themselves. 
English achieves uniformity of spelling by resigning all pretence 
to phonetic accuracy. In Swahili phonetic exactness at present 
would make uniform spelling impossible. Hence in this 
Dictionary, words will be found given in various forms, repre- 
senting the word as heard by different and differently qualified 
transcribers. The consequence may be sometimes baffling, but 
seems unavoidable. 

Only students need attend to the brief notes appended in 
brackets to many of the articles. They are mainly meant to 
supply hints for further study, by bringing together under each 
word, others which seem to throw light upon it as to origin or 
meaning especially cognate words from the same root, words 
worth noting from similarity of form, synonyms in the wide sense 
of similar in general or in a special meaning, also 
illustrative by contrast and opposed meaning. There are but 
few notes on life and customs, 4 nzibar. The fact appears 

to be that under the outward forms of a purely Mohammedan 
regime, only modified on the surface as yet by European 
civilization, and slightly disturbed in its depths by the leaven of 
Christianity, there exists a medley of tribal customs and 
itions, as varied ing as tin p j ul.iti<>n itself, 

which do not admit of disentanglement on the spot, and could 
only be profitably s D the places from which they arc 


For Arabic words Steingass' Diet: been ( 


relied on, and Palmer's and Tien's Grammars. As to the mani- 
fold imperfections of this book, competent critics may be trusted 
to recognize and perhaps to allow for them. Every one who 
has experience of Zanzibar will find words which seem wrongly 
inserted or omitted. The prefaces of Johnson and Murray 
catalogue the difficulties which beset more or less the making 
of even a small dictionary of any language. The lexicographer 
is no doubt rightly defined as a drudge, but perhaps doubtfully 
as ' a harmless drudge.' The present Editor knows the Swahili 
of Zanzibar well enough to know that he does not know it well. 
But his work may (it is hoped) help others to know it as well 
and better. 

OXFORD, Jitly, 1903. 



To find words and ascertain their meanings in a dictionary 
too limited in size to allow a full enumeration of either, attention 
is needed to the following directions. 

i. To find words. 

All Swahili verbs, many nouns and adjectives, and some 
particles vary at the beginning, and will not commonly be found 
under the letter (sound) which comes first. As a rule, verbs 
and adjectives are to be looked for under the first letter of the 
root, and nouns under the form of the singular number. The 
variable formative elements, as distinct from the radical, are 
called in this Dictionary prefixes (pfx.), an( * for convenience 

is often arbitrarily used to include infix, and a; 
suffix. Prefixes are usually agglutinative elements, but some 
have a limited use as independent words. A glance at the 
Tabular Consj>cctus of the noun and \X'rb which folio- 
Introduction will be practically suliicirnt, with a knowledge of 
ments of the simple Swahili Grammar, to enable the root 
to be distinguished. Thus : 

(a) A Noun beginning with wa-, mi- t : /-, ;/>-, m*i-, which 
are common plural prefixes, may be looked for HIM 

ponding singular form. 
Obs. The declension of each noun (which colours gram- 

.lly the \\hule of a Swahili .-. : - as a rule shown l>y 


placing immediately after it the plural prefix in brackets. This 
method sufficiently distinguishes declensions i to 5. Declen- 
sion 6 does not change in the plural, and is shown by the 
absence of a prefix following, or by ( ). Nouns of declension 8 
should be looked for under the letter following ku, i. e. the verb 
from which they are in almost all cases formed. The declen- 
sions are commonly referred to as D i (S), i.e. First Declension 
Singular Number, D i (P),i.e. First Declension Plural Number, 
D 2 (S), D 2 (P), and so on. 

(d) An adjective beginning with any one of the common 
adjectival prefixes (see Conspectus II (c)) may be looked for 
under the letter (sound) following it. Variable adjectives are 
written with a (-) before the root, e.g. -ema, and the more 
important variations of forms 'corresponding to different declen- 
sions are appended to each. 

(c) Conspectus I both illustrates the difficulty of finding the 
root of a Swahili verb and also supplies a key. Combinations 
of any of the six classes of prefix, which may precede a root, 
must be recognized and removed, and then the letter following 
will be the first letter of the root. 

2. To ascertain meanings. 

Nouns and verb-stems are so readily developed from a 
root in Swahili, by a regular and almost mechanical process, 
i. e. by the use of certain prefixes, that it is impossible to give 
more than a selection -from them. Their meaning may, how- 
ever, be gathered as a rule from the known meaning of tH 
prefix, and the root when recognized will usually be found 
independently or in some cognate word. The rarer the com- 
bination, the more certain the meaning to be simply the normal 
meanings of root and prefix combined. 

(a) The commonest formative noun-prefixes are M- (Mw-}, 
Ki- (Ch-\ U- (W-\ at the beginning of a word, often with a 
variable but significant ending, -o, -ji, or -zi. The characteristic 


force of each of these elements may be gathered from the 
notes on them in their places in this Dictionary. 

(3) The Swahili verb-root is capable of such a rich and 
varied development in the form of additional verb-stems, each 
with its complement of conjugations, moods, tenses, &c., that 
only a few have been fully treated in this Dictionary, hardly any 
completely. Shades of meaning are so numerous and their 
differences so delicate, that appropriate renderings in English 
suited to each particular case have to be left very largely to the 
student's appreciation of each form separately. Only examples 
and suggestions can be given within reasonable limits of space. 
But the following considerations may enable him better to infer 
for himself the meaning of verb-forms not stated under the verb 
itself. And if he is still inclined to complain of vagueness and 
inadequacy in their interpretation, it may be remembered that 
language unwritten (like Swahili) is the speech of a living 
person, and so carries its own simultaneous commentary of 
look, gesture, and tone, as well as sound appealing thus to 
four senses in sympathetic and intelligent relation to the speaker, 
and not only to the eye interpreting a written character. The 
full meaning of any written statement has at best often to be 
guessed, and a Swahili, if he writes, writes as he speaks, assuming 
a hearer and not a reader. 

Subject only to the limitations imposed by common 
(i. c. by the meaning of the root itself) and common usage, all 
Swahili verbs may exhibit, beside (i) a simple or primary form 
>even derived forms, here called (2) Applied (Ap.), (3) 
^.), (4) Reciprocal (Rp.), (5) Rcversive (Rv.). (6) 
Stativc (St.), (7) Reflexive (Rf.), and (8) Reduplicated (i 
each (under the above limit c, Passive, and 

Neuter Voices, and Positive and Negative Conjugations, and 
eacli of them with its cot; of Moods, Tenses, 

1 . nouns and adjectives, beside an in<i .umber 


of other forms or stems formed by combinations of those just 

The characteristics by which each main form may be recog- 
nized, and the chief meanings of each, from which choice must 
be made, are briefly as follows : 

1. Primary (Pr.), in which the root is followed by a, the 
simplest form of the verb and conveying its simplest meaning, 
but generally capable of both transitive and intransitive con- 
struction. (Obs. verbs of non-Bantu origin may end also 
in -u, and -i.) 

(a) The Passive Voice in this (and in all the verb-forms follow- 
mg)is distinguished by w before the final vowel, and (d) the Neuter 
by k (ik, ek}. The Neuter has three common uses, indicating 
(i) the same as the passive, but with less definite reference to 
any agent or instrument, (2) what is usual, (3) what is practic- 
able, e.g. njia hii yaendeka may mean (i) this road is as a 
fact passed over, (2) this road is a regular thoroughfare, (3) 
this road is passable, open, safe. Obs. meaning (3) is also 
regularly indicated by -kana, for ka, e. g. yaendekana, i. e. a 
combination of the Neuter and Reciprocal forms (see below, 4). 

2. Applied (Ap.), in which i or e is inserted between the 
root and final a, and choice has to be made among all the 
meanings usually expressed in English by a preposition following 
a verb, e. g. from, to, at, by, with, in, out of, for, against, about, 
&c. Only the sympathetic interpretation referred to above 
can determine the choice rightly in many cases. Obs. the 
Passive of the Ap. form is often used as the Passive of the Pr. 

3. Causal (Cs.), in which z (sh, s, and sometimes y] is 
inserted between the root and final a. The meaning conveyed 
is (i) Causal, (2) Intensive or Emphatic. But the Causal 
sense includes at least six varieties of causation, needing often 
delicate discrimination and totally different translation, according 


as it is (i) simple, a causing to do (or be), (2) compuls; 
forcing to do, (3) permissive, allowing to do, (4) suasive, inducing 
to do, (5) passive, not interfering with doing, (6) consequential, 
resulting in (tending to) doing. 

4. Reciprocal (Rp.), in which an is inserted before the final 
a. Here again the form expresses several distinct aspects of 
common action, e.g. (i) reciprocal, e.g. pigana^ 'give and 
return blows' action and reaction, (2) connected action, e.g. 
tokana na, * come out of,' fuatana na, ' follow,' (3) combined 
(mutual, joint) action, e.g. endana, ' all go together/ liana, 'cry 
together,' (4) interaction, of what affects all parts or different 
parts of the same single object, e. g. shikana, ( hold together, be 
compact (firm),' kazana, ' be tight, be pressed together,' (5) in 
connexion with the Neuter sign ka (see above), -kana indicates 
commonly what is practicable, possible, probable, &c., e. g. one- 
kana, 'be visible, be within the range of vision, come into 

5. Reflexive (Rf.), in which the syllable ji is prefixed to the 
root itself. The many shades of meaning thus conveyed may 
be gathered from the article on// in the Dictionary. 

6. Reduplicated (Rd.), in which a verb-stem is repeated twice 
and used as a single stem to indicate emphasis, frequency, or 
continuance, e.g. piga piga, ' beat soundly,' or ' keep on beating.' 

;. Rcversive (Rv.), in which u (sometimes o) is inserted 
between the root and final a, indicating the reverse of the simple 
Pr. form, but also (when the general n ientical) sometimes 

the same. Cf. pinda and pindua, kama and kamua, zima and 

8. Stative (St.), in which am is inserted before the final ,;. 

indicating a <1 state or permanent condition. It 

occurs also combine- 1 with an, i.e. -,iman. u kc shika- 

mj>. in its place. 


Of the above forms, the four first (Pr., Ap., Cs, Rp.) are given 
under almost every verb, Rf. and Rd. only occasionally, while 
Rv. and Rs. are treated as separate verbs in this Dictionary 
Combinations of them are to be found under a few verbs, 
e. g. penda, piga, toa^funga, ona, &c. The brief enumerations 

t given shows the difficulty of complete treatment of the 
Swahili verb, and it must never be inferred that because a verb- 
form is not to be found in this Dictionary it does not exist, and 
cannot be readily employed. 


o 9<itj3unCqns 




uv puv p*tn 

o Kjyoi 

j ! <4 

- i *^TK 

*y u^m. t4"**) 

pnn tf ft tsnfoi -ft 

t*4f . .r^poo/f'9fp 
sV't"U //*<">/ 



Illustrating the nsual Prefixes which distinguish the various Declensions 
and Numbers, and also the chief Verbal and Adjectival Prefixes and Pronoun 
Forms corresponding to each. There is no distinction of Gender in Swahili 









Sing, m 
Plur. wa 



(e.g.) tu 



m, mw 
wa, w 

wema, good, (c 


huyu, yule 
hawa, wao 

huyu, this, (e 


ist. and. 3rd. 
Sing. Subj. ni, u, a 
Obi. ni, ku, m 
Plur. Subj. tu, m, wa 
Obj. tu, wa, wa 
1 ampenda, he loves him. 

Sing, m 
Plur. mi 

e.g. (a, 

(e.g.) ti 

V) mti, tree, (c} 

m t mw 
mi, m 

mdogo, smalt 

huu, ule 
hii, ile 

\ (d) huu, Mw, 

Sin *- s $i.}~" 
"""*$.}>. i 

(e) waota, it grows. 


Sing, ki 
Plur. vi 

e.g. (a, f>) ki 


tu, thing, (c) k 

ki, ch 
vi, vy 

izuri, pretty, (c 

hiki, kile 
hivi, vile 

1) hiki, this, (e] 


Plu "- s Sj.} " 

chapendeza, it pleases. 


Sing-, u, w 

Plur. ny 

e.g. (a, b) ui 

(e.g.) imbo 

mbo, jow^-, (c) 

m, mw 
n (with 
mbaya, bad, (c, 

huu, ule 
hizi, zile 

huu, //// j, (e) 

Si " f ' S oj.}. w 

p ""-- s 'ttj.\ - 

wachukiza, // disgusts. 



the usual Declension of living beings, 2, of plants. Diminutives belong 
to 3, Amplificatives to 5, Abstracts mostly to 4, Foreign words to 6, and in 
some cases 5, 7 is Local only, and 8, Verbal. The (so-called) Possessive 
Adjectives and a few others follow the Pronominal Prefixes. 





Sin?. - 
Ptur. ma 



(e.g) kasha 



ma, m 


hili. lilR 

haya, yale 


'. (a, b) kasha, box, (c) kubwa, large, (d) hili, tkit, (e) latosha, it suffices. 




hii, ile 

hizi, rile 

e.g. (a, 6) kazi, wort, (c) ngumn, hard, (d) hii, MM, it) yachoaha, it wearies. 


mahali pa, p 

(only tun it 

in this 
: (a, b) mahali, place, (c) pembaroba, 

hapa, pale 

Sing. Subj. 


(^.) kufa 

ko, kw 

haku, kale 

, (d) huku, this, (e) kwatifiwa, 


EASILY recognized abbreviations are used for the common grammatical 
names of parts of speech and their varieties-conjugations, moods, tenses &c. 
The eight Declensions given in Conspectus II are distinguished 
D i GS) i.e. First Declension Singular Number, D I (P), i.e. First 
Declension Plural Number, D * (S), D a (P}> D 3 (S), and so on. 
The eight principal forms of verb-stem are distinguished as Pr 
or Simple, A P . Applied, O. Causal, */. Reciprocal, St Sta ive, **. 
Reversive, Vf Reflexive, JW. Reduplicated. A. denotes Passive, ^rf. 
Active, JW. Neuter, Pos. Positive, Neg. Negative. 

Pfx Prefix, includes (for convenience) infix, suffix, and affix- 
formative element being often medial or final as well as initial. 

Kr Krapf, Sac. Sacleux, S/n Steere, the principal authorities relied upor 
throughout are only cited in connexion with particular words or statements 
Thf chief languages referred to are : B. Bantu, Ar. or Arab. Arabic, Swa. 
Swahili, Z. Zanzibar, Hind. Hindustani, Ar,. Parian, A, French A* 
English, <*n. German, Port. Portuguese. Obs. ^*, and not . 
denotes Arabic words but little used or assimilated in the common 
of Zanzibar. 

The following may also be noted : 

a. = adjective, 
adv. = adverb, 
amplif. - amplificative, denoting large (relative) size. 

conj. = conjunction, 
conjug. = conjugation. 

cf. = compare, 
conn. = connect, connected, 
contr. = contrast, Contrary in meaning, 
dim. = diminutive, denoting small (relative) size, 
dist. = distinguish, distinct in meaning, 
esp. = especially. 

fig. * figurative, in a figurative sense, 
follg. = a word or article immediately following. 

int. interjection. 

intens. = intensive, with intensive force, emphatic, 
lit. = literally, in a literal sense. 


n. = noun, 
obs. observe. 

opp. = opposed to, of opposite meaning, 
perh. = perhaps. 

prec. = a word or article immediately preceding, 
prep. = preposition, 
pron. = pronoun, 
pronom. = pronominal or possessive of adjectives, &c. 

syn. = synonymous, in a wide sense, illustrative of the general. 
a special, meaning of a word. 
-.1, usually. 


(Words marked * appear not to be of Bantu origin.) 


A represents generally the broad 
sound of a in ' father.' It also in- 
cludes (chiefly in non-accented sylla- 
bles) the lighter sound of a in ' man.' 
And there is a modification of it 
which is noted under certain words 
of Arabic origin, being heard and 
written sometimes as e. See Elfu, 
Hewa, and E. 

A is far the commonest vowel sound 
.'..ili, and with the consonants k 
and m gives a distinct phonetic colour 
to the spoken language as a whole. 
Though comparatively rare as an 
initial sound of Bantu roots, it is 
the regular terminal sound of most 
Swahili verb-forms, appears in many 
of the formative prefixes of the verb, 
in the plural prefixes of two declen- 
sions, and in most of the common 
conjunctions and prepositions. 

Aa is used to represent a long a 
sound, which usually indicates (i) 
in the case of Bantu words, a really 
double syllable with an / or r sound 
slurred or elided between the 
in the case of Arabic words, the Bantu 
effort to express the sounds of Alif, 
Ain, or combinations of them. 

A as a simple uncombincd sound 
is us' 

(i) As an interjection, whose 
:' depends on the mode of 

utterance and intonation. Thus : 

'i ! expresses 
simply wonder, pleasure, pai: 

l-aa or A-haa (also ,-l-hee and 
the sounds dj 

rising intonation, and stress on the 
last, ' yes, just so, exactly, I under- 
stand,' i. e. assent, affirmation. 

(c) Aa-a or A-a-a the sounds dis- 
tinct, with falling intonation, and 
stress on the first, 'no, oh no, not 
so, 'by no means,' i.e. dissent and 

(2) As a preposition, but only, oc- 
casionally as a slurred or shortened 
form of the full prepositional wa, 
ya, &c., after a vowel preceding. 
(See below.) 

(3) Not (like the other personal 
prefixes, ni, u, tu, ni, wa) as 

form ' (he, she) is,' its place being 
taken sometimes by yu, other v. 
the general verb- form ni, e.g. mfalme 
yu (or ni) rnwema, the king is good. 

A in verb- formation is : 

(I) The Pers. Pfx. of 3 Sing, in all 
Tenses, agreeing with D i (S), e. g. u- 
tapcmia, he will 1 

(a) The Tense Pfx. of Pres. Indef., 
e.g. wapenda (u-*-penda}, you love, 
Uescing or dispensing with the 
Pcrs. Pfx. wholly or in part) naptnda 
(ni-a-pcnJa )% 1 love, afxnda (a-a- 
pendd), he loves. 

(I) Part of one form of the Past 
Tense Pfx. ali (otherwise // 
e.g. naliptnda (n-ati-ftttJa, othcr- 

N.yf: .1 lowed 

by , disappears regularh 
wa, /a, some t 

in the Neg. Pfx. Aa, c. g. akfttda (a- 
ka-enda), and he went, /Y*/V (/a- 

a white ] 

followed by . it t 

form e, e.g. aktta (a-ka-ita 

'(1, utfs* (wa-iu), thieves, 
mtngi (ma-iHfi), many. 


-a is the invariable element, which 
combined with a prefix forms the 
various prepositions wa. ya, za, (ha, 
la, pa, kwa, mwa. In meaning these 
all correspond generally to the English 
' of,' and (with the noun following) 
to the Genitive Case in the classical 
languages, and include all such adjec- 
tival relations as ' belonging to, pro- 
ceeding from, consisting of, of the 
class or kind of, relating to, qualified 
by,' &c. 

Each of the above forms will be 
found in the Dictionary, but here it 
may be noted that : 

(1) With a noun following, they 
supply the lack of adjectives, and, 
with an adverb preceding, the lack 
of prepositions, in Swahili, e. g. nyu- 
mba ya -waive, a stone house, sumu 
ya kufisha, deadly poison, baada ya 
hay a, after these things, kando la mto, 
beside the river. 

(2) Where the reference is general, 
or the noun easily supplied, they are 
sometimes used without a noun pre- 
ceding, e.g. ya kwanza, in the first 
place, iva vita, warriors, cha kula, 
food. And by a curious idiom the 
preposition is sometimes referred to 
the person concerned and not to the 
thing qualified, e.g. alimpigawajuho, 
and he struck him a blow in the eye 
not (pigo) lajicho. 

(3) After some common nouns th< 
preposition is often omitted, e. g 
bind All, the daughter of Ali 
mwana chuoni, the schoolboy, kim 
bili, ladies. And it is sometime 
slurred, if not elided, after a preced 
ing, e. g. saa a tano, or saa tano (sai 
ya tano}, the fifth hour. 

*Aali, a. superior, excellent, ex 

alted. (Arab. Cf. taala and Ah 

Aa here represents the combinatioi 

Alif, Ain, Alif.) 

*Aasi, v. See Asi. (Ar.) 

*Abadan, adv. always, constantly 
ever. Mwanamke a. harithi, 
woman is never contented. (Arab 
for common siku zote, daima.} 


*Abedari, n. ( , or ma-*) and 

Bedari, a large block or pulley used 

n hoisting the main-yard of a native 

ailing vessel. (? Ar. or Hind. Cf. 

or pulley, kapi, gofia?) 

*Abiri, v. cross, cross over, pass 
ver, esp. of river or sea. A. kwa 
katika} chombo, cross in a vessel. 
>s. abir-iwa. Nt. -ika, -ikana. Mto 
ivaabirika, the river can be crossed. 
Ap. abir-ia, -twa, -ika. Mtumbwi 
iva kuabiria, a canoe to cross in. 
Fetha ya kuabiria, fare for passage 
across. Cs. abir-isha, -ishwa, -ishana, 
send over, put across, ferry over. 
(Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. B. vuka, 
kiuka, pita.} 

*Abiria, n. ( , and ma-*), person 
crossing (a river, sea, &c.), passenger 
(in a boat, vessel, &c.). (A"r. Cf. 

*Abudu, v. worship, adore, vene- 
rate, prop, of religious worship and 
service, both outward and inward. 
A, Muungu (sanamu\ worship 
God (idols). A. sola, perform a 
service of prayer. Ps. abudiwa, be 
(in fact) worshipped. Nt. abudika, 
be an object (generally, or a proper 
object) of worship. Ap. abud-ia, 
-iiva, -ika, offer worship to, worship 
in (for, on account of, &c.). Cs. 
almd-isha, -ishwa, cause to worship, 
convert. (Ar. Ci.ibada,mwabudu, 
maabndu, and, of external worship, 
sty tutu.) 

Acha, v. the main idea is, ceasing 
or breaking off connexion with some- 
thing, and may be rendered in many 
ways, with many shades of meaning, 
e. g. (i) < leave, leave off, leave be- 
hind, let go, let pass, let be, go 
(part, depart) from; (2) abandon, 
desert, neglect; (3) acquit, release, 
pardon; (4) allow, permit, give 
leave ; (5) separate from, divorce. 
Acha I (imper.) Let go i Give over ! 
Hands off ! Sikuachi, I will not 
let you go. Akamwacha agenda 
zake, and he left him and went away. 
A. mtumwa huru, let a slave go 


free (set him at liberty). Colloquially, 
a. is used somewhat as an expletive, 
e.g. Acha (or, wache, for -wcuuhe} 

ifawaU kwa ti^ 

alone Europeans for strong govern- 
ment, i e. trust them for it. Acha 
i ifie, just let the cannons 
fire, i.e. the cannons did make a 
noise. Ps. afhwa. Many derivative 
verb-stems are used, with their 
characteristic meanings. Ap. ach-ia, 
-:'-':a. -tana. Also -ilia, -iiiwa, 
-ilika, -iliana. Kuachia mloto maJi, 
to bequeath property to a child. 
Ameachiwa, he has had money left 
him. Kumwachilia makosa, to par- 
don his offences. Thambi hii inaach- 
ilika, this sin is venial. li\i!u 
wacuhiliao nyama, human beings 
who are quite distinct from animals. 
Cs. ach-isha (sometimes as/uz), 
isAwa, -isAia, -ishika. Achisha 
mtoto (with or without ;;. 
wean a child. Ulimwcuhisha mkewt, 
you caused him to desert (divorce) 
:c. Kj>. ach-atia, -ania, 
anisha, leave each other. 

, be different, be inconsistent. 
Wameathana, they have taken leave 
of each other. Njia zinaa. , the paths 

incno yam fa., th 

mcnts do not agree. Achana na, 
part from. (Cf. saza, ba&isha.) 
*Achali, n. pickle, sauce, relish; 
c serve. Usually of an acid mix- 
ture, made of lemon juice, salt, pepper, 

also of sweet ones. 
*Ada, n. ( , and ma-\ (i) cus- 
tom, habit, manner, and esp. (2) cus- 

. ommission 
as to a 


in casli ive variou 

f/i/o, stick, 

opener, :,<lshaker, &c. 

A. ya bicuhara, ! trade. 

;ny fee. 

;/*, customs proper 


j to be observed as to a chief. (Ar. 
fun', mila, and for presents 
generally bakshishi^) 

*Adabu, n. good manners, proper 
behaviour, politeness.courtesy.civility, 
etiquette. A. yakc Arabu ;. ; 
kuliko Waswahili, Aral 
often different from Swahili. Jlunx 
a., you do not know how to behave 
i,a very insulting expression). Tin 
a., teach good manners. Fanya a., 
behave well, show cour 
used, like many nouns in Swahili, as 
an adjectival predicate. M;.- 
a. sana, this person behaves like 
a gentleman. (Ar. Cf. adibtt, 
taadabu, and dist. athabn* punish- 
ment, sometimes written adabu.} 

*Adamu, n. Adam. Mu 
Ad., mwana Ad., bin Ada 
commonly used for ' member of human 
race, human lx:ii (Ar. 

Cf. rntu, //;/. 


*Adawa, n. enmity, hostility, 
strife, quarrel. (Arab. Cf. more 
common wad. 

*Aden, n. and Adtu 
Eden. J>ust<ini ya Aden, (larden of 

*Adi, v. cause to pass, let pass on, 
allow a guest to depart 

a sly accompanying him to 
the door, or a s nee on 

his journey. Wakatusindikiza hatta 
mtoni wakatnadi, they accompanied 
us as far as the ri\ 

of us. (Arab., udikiza 

mmonly used.) 

Adi ; manners t 

catc. Ps. ; 
Mtoto yak h . 

a rn to behn \ tidifia t 

Cs. adib-isha, -sA-oj, uswi 
::i -nnu- MOM U the 1':. I ' ' -'! 
more commonly. 
taadabu, and 
tcrnal behaviour, wjtl. 
moral conduct. Also B. /ca, bring 

'Adilt, n. right, right conduct, 

i: i 


morals, morality. a. right, 
righteous, just. Hukumu a., a right 
judgement. Mfalme a., a just king. 
v. behave rightly, act morally. 
Cs. adil-isha, -ishwa, teach rightcon- 
duct to, give a moral training to. ( Ar. 
Cf. -adilifu, and contr. adibu, adabu} 

*-adilifu, a. as adili, a. upright, 
honourable, respectable, moral. (Ar. 
Cf. adili.} 

*Adui, n. ( , and ma-}, enemy, 
foe, opponent. (Ar. Cf. adawa, 
waduij and syn. B. mtesi,mshindani.} 

A-ee, int. also A-hee, E-hee, with 
second syllable accented and on a 
higher-note, expressing assent, affirma- 
tion, ' yes, just so, exactly.' (Cf. a as 
int. and note.) 

*Afa, n. (ma-}, person or thing 
causing fear, a terror, horror, bug- 
bear, enemy. (Arab. Cf. -hofu, 
mwafa, and B. kioja, kitisho.} 

*Afathali, adv. better, rather, 
preferably, as the best course, more 
correctly. A. uenende, you had 
better proceed. Hivi a., it is best 
so. (Ar. Ci.fathili, (u}tafathali^ 

*Afia, n. See Afya. (Ar.) 

*Aflkana, v. See Aflki. '(Ar.) 

*Afiki, v. agree with, correspond 
to, be same as, fit. Tarihiya mwaka 
iliafiki hamsiashara 'Desember, the 
date corresponded to Dec. 15. The 
most used forms are the Rp. afikana, 
agree together, make an agreement 
(contract, bargain), come to an under- 
standing, be reconciled, and Cs. 
afikanisha, 'bring to terms, reconcile, 
pacify. (Ar. as if wajiki. Cf 
maajikano, mwafaka, and syn. B 
patana, lingana.} 

*Afiuni, n. opium. (At. 'Cf. syn 


Afu, n. blossoms of the wild jas- 

mine, inwafii, growing in Z. and 

alued for the perfume. (Ci.yasmini.} 

*Afua, v. See Afu, v. 

*Afya, n. also Aria, good health, 
sound condition, safety, preservation, 
nd also ' general condition, state of 
icalth,' with qualifying adj. Sina a., 
[ am not in good health. A. njema 
(mbayd), good (bad) health. Bora a. 
^also borafya), good health. (Ar. 
"f. afu, v. and hali, also B. syn. 

*Afu, v. also Afua, 'Save, de- 
liver, preserve, cure, pardon, acquit 
Muungu amemwafu, God has pre 
served'him. n. (ma-}, preserva 
tion, pardon. (Arab, not common 
and deriv. stems rare. Cf. afu, n 
and afya, also common B. syn 
pony a, okoa.} 

Afya, v. cause to swear, put on 
oath. (Cs. from -apa, \. = apisha. 
See apa, and for interchange of / 
and/, see under-/:) 

Aga, v. (i) agree (with"), promise 
(to), engage; (2) say good-bye (to), 
take leave (of), dismiss, let go. 
Aga (agand) buriani, say a last fare- 
well, take solemn final leave (of). 
Fig. of sunset, j^la linaaga miti, the 
un is taking leave of the trees. Ps. 
agwa. Wameagwa, they have been 
told (received permission) to go. 
Ap. ag-ia, -iwa, -ilia, -iliana. Uli- 
niagia kofia, you promised me a cap. 
Niagie babangti, say good-bye to my 
father for me. Maneno ivaliyoa- 
giliana yeye na rafiki zake, the terms 
which he and his friends agreed 
upon. Cs. crg-iza, -izwa, usually 
Intens., charge, commission, order, 
appoint, give strict injunctions. Kua- 
giza ni kuweza? Does ordering 
mean it can be done ? Rp. ag-ana, 
-ania, -anika, -anisha, (i) make 
a mutual agreement, come to terms, 
conclude a bargain; (2) exchange 
farewells, say good-bye to each other. 
Cs. aganisha, bring to terms, recon- 
cile. (Cf. etg'iso, agano, and syn. 
wasia, ahidi^} 

Agano, n. (/-)> C 1 ) agreement, 
promise, contract, mutual under- 
standing; (2) leave-taking, farewell. 
(Usu. in plur. Cf. aga, and syn. ma- 
pat ano, maafikano, ahadi, mkataba^) 
Agizo, n. (ma-}, charge, injunc- 
tion, commission, order, appoint- 


rnent ; (2) commission for executing 
orders, fee. (Cf. aga, agano.} 

Agua, v. predict, foretell, pro- 

phesy, divine, presage. Ps. agu- 

Xt. agulika. Ap. agu-lia, 

lika. Cs. agu-za, -zwa, 

and Intcns. Bao Ice kuagulia, 

a divining board. (Cf. mwaguzi, 

maaguzi, and for various kinds of 

divination, bao, ramli,fcli.} 

Agua, v. treat medically, supply 
medicine, operate (on). Killa an- 
gnaye, humwagua, every one who 
was sick he treated with medicine. 
A I itague uganga wa vita, let him 
supply us with war-medicine. Chukua 
ndimu aagulu jngongo wake, take a 
.nd let him apply it to his 
back. (Dcrivs., &c, as prec. Cf. 

Ahaa, int. yes, just so (see A, as 
interject sound, and cf. A-ec,'\\\\. note . 

*Ahadi, n. ( ), also Wahadi, 

promise, engagement, agreement. 

Toa (funga, -pa) a., make a promise. 

z., break a promise. 7 inuza 

(fikitha, shikd) a., keep (fulfil, &c.) 

a promise. A kadi yeiu, .tupeleke 

mzigo Tabora, our engagement is, 

load to Tabora. (Ar. 

*Ahali, n. ( ),jelations, '. . 
kinsman. Used comprehensively. 
and often in contrast with near rela- 
tives. Wazct na ndugu na a., parents, 
S and relations. Ndugu na a., 
> and (other) kinsmen 
katika a. take, one of bis r 

f. akrabajamaa , utani % ukoo.} 
Ahora. n. and Akhera, Aheri, 
(i) that \vhuh is last (or behind, 
or beyond), the end, the last stage; 
(a) cs'i world, fun 

last day, grave (as end of present 
itwali katta ah, 
from beginning to end. 
i . toka mwamo hatta mwixko.} 

kwenda ahtra (or . . even a 

king must die (will come to his end). 


(Ar. Cf. a/tin', and syn. B. mwisho. 

kikonio, end, and ku 


*Ahi, n. See Akhi. 

*Ahiri, v. and Akhiri, stand over, 
be behindhand, be put off (deferred, 
adjourned), remain behind. 
ahiriwa (as ahiri). Ap. -ahir-ia, 
-iwa, -ika. Cs. ahir-isha, -ishwa, 
postpone, delay, adjourn, defer, cause 
to wait. Mantua haya yanaahirika, 
this business can be adjourned (taken 
afterwards). (Arab. Cf. ahera^ 
and syn. usiri, 15. ngoja.) 

*Ahsante, and Ahosanta, Asant, 
used as an expression of thanks and 
gratitude, 'thank you, you a: 
kind.' ( Ar. ' you have done well,' 
cf. kisani. Usually a kindness or 
gift is acknowledged, if at all, by 
vema, or ngerna, it is well, good.) 

Aibu, n. (that which U a) dis- 
grace, shame, scandal, reproa 
lamy, dishonour, shame. 
not used). \p.aib-i.:. 
be put to shame, be dishonoured, 
be disgraced, &c. Cs. <: 
-is/iwa, disgrace, bring 
&c. on. (Ar. < fftkcka, 

haya, and contr. Acskima.) 

*Aili, v. take on oneself, make 
oneself respo: ncur a debt. 

A. derti, charge oneself with 
person's debt. Ap. ai/-ia f -iwa, 
-tka. Cs. ail-isha, -iskma, put 
responsibility on, declare 
hold culpable, condemn. a. 
responsible*, guilt >. HM\H 
yeyt t this one is not responsible, it is 
that one. (Arab, not common. Cf. 


class, sort, v 
Aini, v. sj>ecih . 
distinguish, show, classify. 

:(Ha t 'iskwa. 

Aitha, conj. i reover, 

,cn. (Arab. Cf. katkalika, 
tharna, and common tovo.) 


*Ajabu, v. also Taaj. and Staaj., 
wonder, be astonished, feel surprise. 
Ap. ajab-ia, -iwa, -ika, wonder at. 
Cs. ajab-isha, -ishiva, surprise, as- 
tonish, &c. ' n. ( , and ma-}, 
(i) wonder, amazement, admiration, 
astonishment; (2) a marvel, surprise, 
a wonder, &c. Ona a., feel wonder. 
adv. wonderfully, extraordinnrily. 
Ktihua a., marvellously great. Often 
used to strengthen mno, and sana. 
Nyingi mno a., exceedingly many. 
(Ar. Cf. shangaa v., tosheiva v., and 
syn. mwujiza, &c.) 
" *Ajali, n. fate, doom, destiny, ap- 
pointed end, death. Leo imetimia 
a. yako, to-day your hour is come. 
Kusalimika ajali, to be finally* de- 
livered up, to meet one's fate, to 
come to the appointed end. (Ar.) 

*Ajara, n. and Ijara, Ujira, hire, 
wages. (Ar. Cf. ajiri, and ujira, 

*Ajazi, v. be weak, be slack, 
be remiss. (Arab. Cf. ajizi, and 
syn. B. legea, choka.} 

*Ajili, n. cause, reason, com- 
monly in the phrase kwa ajili ya, 
because of, on account of, for the 
sake of, by reason of. Also conj. 
and kwa ajili, because, in order to. 
( Ar. and cf. syn. sababu, maana, hoja.~] 
*Ajiri, v. hire, engage to work 
for wages. Ps. ajiriwa. Nt. ajirika, 
-kana. Wanaajirika, men can be 
hired, they are procurable for wages 
Ap. ajir-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. ajir- 
isha, -ishiva, cause to work for 
wages, get for hire. (Ar. Cf 
ajara, ujira, and syn. msliahara!) 

*Ajizi, n. weakness, slackness 
remissness. (Arab. Cf. ajazi, anc 
common B. legea, choka.} 

*Ajjem, n. Persia. Also Uajj. 
Persia. Mwajj. (zwz-) a Persian 
Kiajj., the Persian language, in Per 
sian style.' (Ar. ; the word meaning 
not Arab, barbarian, then Persian.) 
Aka, v. sometimes also Waka 
especially if a vowel precedes, ' build 
construct with stones and mortar 


vork as a mason.' Aka nytimba, 
uild a stone house (jenga being 
commonly used of native construc- 
ion, i.e. with poles, sticks, and earth). 
D s. akwa. Ap. ak-ia, -iwa, -ika. 
>itu vya kuakia, mason's tools 
x materials, &c.). Akisha (as/id], 
cause to build, have mason's work 
done, order to be built. (Cf. 

mwashi, uashi, and contr. jcn^i 
and unda. In other dialects aka 
means 'build,' without reference to 

*Akali, n. and a., a few (of), some. 
A. ya vitu, vitu a., a few things. 
(Arab. Cf. common haba, and 13. 
-chache.} also a verb-form, 
'and he is, he being' (a, Pfx. 3 
Pers. S., ka connective, li = is, being, 
which see). 

-ake, a. of pron. 3 Pers. S., his, 
hers, her, its, of him (her, it). 
Additional emphasis and precision is 
given by adding yeye, niwcnye-we, or 
both, e. g. kili chakc, his chair, kiti 
chake yeye, his chair, kiti chakc 
mwenyewe, his own chair, kiti chake 
yeye mwenyewe, his very own chair. 
The various prefixes, connecting -ake. 
with different classes of nouns are 
w-,y-, ch-, vy-, /-, z-,p-, kw-, mw-. 

*Akhi, n. brother. (Arab, for 
common B. ndugu^) 

*Akiba, n. store, reserve, stock, 
what is laid by for future use. 
Weka a., put by, store up. (Ar.) 

*Akida, n. (ma-), leader, com- 
mander, esp. of soldiers, ak. wa 
asikari, captain. (Ar. with article 
prefixed ?) 

*Akidi, v. suffice (for), be enough 
(for). Chakula hiki chaakidi watii 
waliopo, this food is enough for those 
present. (Arab, for common B. 
tosha. Cf. kifu.} 

^Akika, n. an Arab domestic 
feast, e. g. on first hair-cutting of a 
child. (Ar.) 

*Akiki, n. a red stone, red coral, 
cornelian. (Ar.) 

*Akili,n.(i) intellect, intelligence, 


consciousness, understanding, reason, 
sense; (a) ability, cleverness, judge- 
ment, discretion; (3) a trie. 

, 'Ian, happy thought ; (4) also 
used of what is abstract ami im- 
material, ' pure thought.' liana a., 
a fool (simpleton, madman). 
A. zakt chache, he is dull 
deficient. A. nyingi, great intelli- 
gence, plenty of sense. Fanya <z., 
use the brains, exercise intelligence. 
A. yako haikitongoka, your device 
did not succeed. Katika a. yangu, 
according to my view, so J 
understand. Jambo la a. tupu, si 
la kiwiliwili, something wholly ira- 
mateiial, not of the body. Fuata a. 
yako, follow your own judgement. 
(Ar. Cf. busara, ttfahamu, uta- 
mbuii, HJuzi, rnoyo, weUkevu.) 

Akina. Sec Kina. 

-ako, a. of pron. a Pers. S., your, 
yours, of you. (Cf. -ake for pre- 
fixes, and use of wcwe, mwcnyewe, 
for emjihn 

*Akraba, n. kinsman, relation,con- 

. family. A. za kuunicni 

, relatives on the father's 

(mother's) side. (Ar. Cf. ahali, 

j'amaa, ittatti, B. ukoo.} 

*Akram, a. also il akram, 
honoured, respected. (Ar. occurs 
only in letters opening in the Arabic 
.vith other a. Cf. dibaji.) 

*A1 (and Eli, the Arab, article, is 
not used independently, but is in- 
corporated with various Arabic words 
.;se among Swahilis, e.g. 
ursday, assn&uAi, morn- 
<*/!, governor, and sometimes 
as possessive, ras il r/iafi, capital sum 

*Ala, n. ( , ma-, and ny-\ sheath, 
scabba: ,.nifc (sword, &c.). 

*Alafu, n. an-1 a., thousand. See 

ar. of.-///) 

Alama, n. sign, mark, 
a mark on, mark. 
&C., and syn. ishara, 


*Alaairi, n. afternoon, and esp. of 
one of the regular Mahommedan 
hours of prayer, about 3.30 p.m. 
(Ar. al asr. Cf. alfajiri, athuuri, 
&c., and note on Al?) 

*Alfu, n. and a., thousand. See 
Elfu. (Ar.) 

*Alfajiri, n. dawn, daybreak, and 
esp. of one of the Mahommedan 
hours of prayer, about 4 a.m. (Ar. 
alfajr. Cf. alasiri and note.) 

*Alhamdu lillahi, a common 
reply to a salute among soni- 
hilis, ' praise<l be God.' (Arab. Cf. 
al, and himidi.} 

*Alhamisi, n. Thursday. (Ar. 
Al hams, i.e. the fifth' day of the 
week, according to the old oriental 
reckoning preserved by the Arabs, 
which regards the Sabbath as the 
last and Sunday as the first day of 
the week, making Thursday thus the 
fifth day. The name has been taken 
over by the Swahilis, though Junta a 
taw, also meaning ' the tilth day ol 
the week,' is also regularly used, and 
this denotes the day before Alhamisi, 
inesday, because the fifth day 
from (but not including) fjumaa, 
Friday, the Mnhommcdan Sunday. 

All, (i) a verb-form, he (she) is, 
he (she) being (a, Pfx. of 3 i 
S), and //. 
&c.) ; (a) a common n 

All-, sign of 3 1'ers. S. of Past 

Tense < oniug., e.g. 

alipenda. (a-li-pfttdd), he (she) loved. 

Mgn of Past Tense 

of the ing or 

coalescing w r \ ., e, g. noli- 

penda >. 
penAi '.<&), we U>\ 

*Alia, v. make a mark on. - 
Kakora ittumwali.i 
the stick has made a mark on the 

Alika, v. immon, call, 

. and in pn 

of a doctor's orders, i.e. 'treat (a 
patient)'; (2) make a short sharp 


sound, click, snap, crack. Ps. 
alikwa, e.g. be treated medically. 
Ap. alik-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. alik- 
isha, alisha, -shwa. (i) A. mbele 
ya wall (kazini, knchcza ngoma'), 
summon before the governor (to 
work, to a dance). Humwalika 
kwenda kwake kula, he used to in- 
vite him to dinner. A, vita vikubwa, 
summon (for) a great war. Mwa- 
likwa, an invited guest. (2) A. is 
used of the crackling of roasted grains 
of Indian corn (mbisi}. Alisha vi- 
dole, crack the finger-joints. Alisha 
mtambo wa bunduki, make the trigger 
of a gun click, cock the trigger. 

*Aliki, v. hang, hang up, suspend. 
(Arab, for common B. tundika, tu~ 
ngika, angika.} 

* Allah, n. God, seldom used ex- 
cept (i) in Arab, formulas; (2) as a 
common expletive, with or without 
other words. (i) La ilahi ilia 
Allah, the 'first clause of the Mahom- 
medan creed, 'there is no God but 
God' sung as a monotonous chant 
at funerals. Allah bilkheri, a com- 
mon salutation, ' God prosper you.' 
Alhamdu billahi, a common rejoinder, 
' praised be God.' Allah dlam, God 
knows, i.e. I do not know. (2) 
Allah, expressing wonder, disgust, 
&c. Allah allah, in letters, to call 
special attention, ' remember, be care- 
ful to note.' And cf. Inshallah, bis- 
milla, ee walla, wallai. (Arab. 
Cf. Rabbi, Mola, and common 

*Almaria,n. embroidery. (?Hind. > 

*Almasi, n. diamond. (Ar., used 
also as a proper name.) 

*Ama, conj. (i) either, or. Ama 
ama, either or. (2) (or is it not ? 
and so), surely, moreover, however 
Wa ama, and further, yet. Ama 
' sizo ? Or is it not so ? Do you no 
admit it ? (Ar. Cf. ao, and negat 

-ama, Stative termination of some 
verbs in Swahili, often denoting a 
(relatively) permanent condition o 


tate, e. g. simama, be standing, 
uama, settle down, kingama, lie 
cross, and sometimes combined with 
'p. termination, -na, i.e. -mana,e.g. 

*Amali, n. (i) action, act, thing 
done; (a) practice, occupation, busi- 
ness. Mtu wa a., a man of action, 
,n energetic practical man. A.yakc 
kutega mitego, his business was trap- 
ping. (Ar., plur. of ami. Cf. B. 
'endo, mtendaji.) 

*Amana, n. pledge, deposit, thing 
entrusted. Weka a., make a deposit, 
jledge. (Ar. Cf. amini, amani, 
? imani^} 

*Amani, n. peace, safety, security, 
confidence, trust. Amani ? Is it. 
peace? Is all quiet? a common 
inquiry on meeting in a journey. 
(Ar. Cf. amini.} 

Amba, v. speak against, denounce, 
slander, abuse. Ps. ambwa. Only 
the Pr. form in this sense. Ap. 
ambia, --iwa, the common word for 
say to, speak to.' See Ambia. 
Amba is used, but not commonly in 
Z., (i) with Rel. Pfx. added, in the 
sense of a simple Rel. Pron. * who, 
which', being followed by a finite 
verb, sometimes with a kwamba in- 
serted between, sometimes with the 
verb itself in the Relative form, e.g. 
Vyakula ambavyo havimo katika 
ulimwengu, (such) food as does not 
exist in the world. Watoto ambao 
kwamba wataka kwenda, children 
who wish to go. Killa mtu na mzigo 
wake ambao umtoshao, every man with 
a load which is sufficient for him. 
(2) as a conjunction = kama, that, 
saying that, e. g. wakamsema amba 
amefanya mabaya, and they accused 
him, saying that he committed crimes. 
Also in the Infinitive form kwamba, 
(saying) that, that is to say (ya 
kwamba, that, is also used), and 
kwamba also means ' if, though.' See 
Kwamba. (Cf. syn. tukana, suta, 
sema, mwambi, andAama, conj. Amba 
is used for 'say, speak' in poetical 


Swahili, and in other B. dialects. Cf. 
jambo, i. e. ji- ambo.} 

Araba, v. for Wamba, which see. 

Ambaa, v. means passing near to, 
but without actual contact, and has 
various shades of meaning, according 
as such contact is or is not desirable, 
(i) pass by, pass along, pass with- 
out touching (without affecting) ; (a) 
avoid contact with, escape, not to 
salute (recognize, hurt, &c.) ; (3) 
miss contact with, fail to see (salute, 
recognize \ A.pwam(m,napwani), 
coast along, hug the shore. A. na 
maovu, escape evil. Afaovi* yaku- 
ambaf, may evil not touch you. Nali- 
mwambaa, I avoided seeing him cut 
him), or, I failed to see him. Deriva- 
tives seem rare. Cs. am baza, cause to 
pass near. A nibaza chombo napwani, 
t along the shore. (Cf. mwa- 
mbao, and perh. for close juxtaposition 
and contact, ambo, ambisha, ambilfa, 
wambiso, ambuka, ambata, &c.) 

*Ambari, n. ambergris, found at 
times off the east coast of Africa. 

Ambata, v. be close to, come in 

contact with, stick (to), adhere (to), 

be attached (to), cling, cbsp. Ps. 

am' t. ambatika. A. inchi 

inchi, katika inchi}, come close 

to (strike on, cohere with^ the ground. 

Afayayi yamtambata kikangoni, the 

eggs have stuck to the frying-pan. 

KM linaambata katika inchi, the sun 

fci fiercely on the ground. Moto 

ita, the heat scorched me. 

1'imho zimtmwambata, the blows of 

made him feel. Ap. 

t'wa, -ika. Cs. ambat- 

is/ia, -ishwa. Rp. aml>,i 

isha, 8cc. Mbau < irnea- 

iki, these 

boards have stuck together, they can- 

llcd apart.' Cf a'mbaa, 

ambit a, amba, amt>ika t wamba t wa- 

mbata, kattuita^ vuata, kumbatia, 
Also syn. nata.) 

A p. of amba, bnt 


ing 'say to, report to, tell to, in- 
form by word of mouth, speak to' 
always with an objective prefix, 
and the words of the communication 
expressed or implied. Not used for 
' talk to, converse with.' Often fol- 
lowed by kama, ya kuwa, ya fava- 
mba, that, with Oblique or 1 >ircct 
narration. Akamwambia, nj'oo ukalt t 
and he said to him, Come and eat. 
Ps. ambiwa, e.g. asiyejua maana, 
haambiwi maana, he who does not 
know the meaning, will not be told 
it. Ap. amb-ilia, -itiwa, -ilika. 
Aftu wa kuambilika, an affable, 
courteous, meek person. Mtotp huyu 
haambiliki, this child cannot bear 
being spoken to. Cs. amb-iana. 
Nyote ambiancni, all of you tell each 
other. (Strictly the Ap. form of 
Amba, which see. Cf. stma, ncna*') 

Ambika, v. be brought into con- 
tact, hold together, be firm (tight, 
coherent). (Cf. ambaa, and follg.) 

Ambisha, v. and Ambisa 
to be in contact, bring (force) to- 
gether, make cohere. Rp. atnbi* 
shana, e. g. Intcns. of things cohering 
or cemented together. (Cf. ambaa, 
and follg. Also wambiso.) 

Ambo, n. (ma-\ (i) any glutinous 
substance, gum, glue, i.e. something 
which causes coherence. Ambo la 
tnkuyu u<a kufungia nyaraka, gum 
made from the sycamore to fasten op 
letters with. (Cf. ambaa, and 
chambo, \. c. ki-ambo ?) ( a) the cord- 
ing of a native bedstead (also nam- 
''o, which see, and cf. wamba'). 

Ambua, v. break contact, remove, 
separate, take off (something 
ing), often of removing husk, peel, skin, 
I. e. peel, husk, clean, flay. Ps. am- 

Intka, the skin has peeled off, after an 

illnc^. T c.-i^t ].\ n Uttlce. A",v-/ ),; 

the skin of the lion was difol 

! finally cleaned. C*.am/>u~ 

i*a, fswa t see fnllg. Ap. am,'<- 
<.iwa, -ulika. (Cf. ambaa, 


aithful, honest, trustworthy, &c. 
Cf. -aminifu. (Ar. Cf. amana, 

*-aminifu, a. same as Amini, a. 
Ar. Cf. uawinifu.} 

*Amiri, n. (ma-}, commander, 
eader, officer, esp. of soldiers. 
Arab. Cf. amri, amuru, and syn. 

Am'ka, v. also Amuka, awake, 
ouse oneself, rise up from sleep, 
regain life (consciousness, strength, 
&c. ). Ap. amk-ia, -iwa, ( i ) wake 
up at (in, for, &c.), (2) in particular, 
)ay a morning visit to, make an early 
call, visit formally, the customary 
duty of dependents to patrons and 
superiors, and of children to parents, 
(3) in general, greet, accost, salute, 
address, pay respects to, also (4) 
fig. of the dawn, jtimaa most kwa 
usiku kuamkia jumaa pili, on Satur- 
day late in the night as it dawned on 
Sunday. Cs. a?n-sha, -shwa, 

awaken, rouse up (from sleep, leth- 
argy, &c.). Anisha kanwa, take 
breakfast. Cf. chamsha hanwa. 
(Cf. uka, muka, v. rise up, &c., 
in other dialects. Amkua^ Ps. 
amkuiva, is found in Swa. poetry = 
am/da, rouse, accost, visit. Cf. 
maamkizi, and umka, also, for 
evening visit tuesha.} 

*Amri, n. (i) a command, order, 
rule, regulation, direction, (2) author- 
ity, supreme power, rule, government, 
law. Miaenyi a., ruler, chief, respon- 
sible head. A.ya Muungu, the will 
of God, providence, chance. Sina a. 
nayo, I have no power (responsibility) 
in the matter, it is not my affair. 
Too. a. , issue an order. Shika (Juata) 
a., obey (execute, carry out) an order. 
A. nyingi, strict discipline. (Ar. 
Cf. amuru, amiri.) 

*Amru, Amria, Amrisha, &c., v. 
See Amuru. 

*Amu, n. also Ami, fathers 
brother, paternal uncle. (Arab. 
Cf. B. baba mdogo, baba mkubwa, and 
dist. injomba.} 

anibo, &c., and chambua, menya, 
paa, &c.) 

Ambukiza, v. (i) cause to be 
peeled off (removed, cast), and so 
^2) 'give a disease to, infect, carry 
contagion to, be contagious/ peeling 
of the skin being an obvious effect of 
some diseases. (Cf.. follg. and 
ambaa, ambua, &c.) 

Ambukizo,n.(w#-), infection, that 
which causes infection. (Cf. prec.) 

*Amdelhan, n. a particular fabric 
of fine silky texture. (? Hind, see 

*Amerikani, n. (ma-, wa-) and 
a., (i) America, (2) American. Ma- 
futa Am., common petroleum _for 
lamps, stoves, &c. Nguo Am., calico, 
esp. (3) stout, unbleached cotton 
cloth or calico, as largely introduced 
from America. 

*Ami, n. See Amu. (Ar.) 
*Amili, v. manage, effect, bring 
about, work at. (Arab. Cf. amali, 
mwamale, and '&.syi\.tenda,fanyiza.} 
*Amin, and Amina, Be it so, 
Amen. (Arab. Ci.amini,amani.} 
*Amini, v. believe, trust, have 
faith (in), put confidence in. Ps.awz- 
niwa. Nt. aminika. A. Mimngu, 
believe God, trust God. A. kw 
Muungtt, believe in God, have faith 
towards God. Sultani akamwa- 
mini sana, the Sultan had great con- 
fidence in him. Amini mlu na kitu 
entrust a person with a thing. Ap 
amin-ia, -i-wa, -ika. Aminiwa, havi 
a thing entrusted to. Haaminiki, h< 
is not deserving of confidence, he i 
untrustworthy. Cs. amin-isha, -ish 
wa, -ishia, &c., (i) cause to believe 
inspire faith (confidence, trust) ; (2" 
entrust to, commit to care of, entrus 
\vith. A minis ha mtu mali, entrust a 
man with money. (3) Intens., have 
trust (about), feel confidence. Haku 
aminisha kwenda kulala, he did no 
venture to go to sleep. n. fide 
lity, trustworthiness, honesty, in 
tegrity, faithfulness. (Cf. uamini 
uaminifu.} a. and -amini 




Amua, v. judge, be umpire, arbi- 
cttle dispot M). I's. 

Nt. arnuli&a. Ap. 
amtt fia, -/iwa, e. g. act as judge for, 
arbitrate between, and </ ///////:< 
a case settled, be judged (decided), 
.re) aunt ska, -shwa. (Cf. 
mu'dHiuzi, maamuti, and Ar. syn. 

*Amuru, v. also Amru (and so 
commonly the derivatives), order, 
command, direct, exercise authority, 
be the supreme power. Ps. amu- 
: Urn n <a m it m kwenda ufxsi (or, 
aendd upesi), he ordered him to go 
quickly. Ap. amr-ia, ~iwa t give 
orders about (for, at, &c.). Atncamr- 
iwa kazi, he has had orders as to 
work. Cs. amr-isha, -ishwa, usu. 
:^ive strict orders, have orders 
issued. (Ar. Cf. 13. syn. agisa, 
from ago.} 

Ana, verb- form, he (she) has (a, 
Pfjr. of 3 Pers. S. agreeing with D I 
(S), and na, which see). 

Ana-, at the beginning of verbs, is 

D of 3 Pcrs. S. of the Present 

Definite, agreeing with D I (S), e.g. 

anakwetuia (a-na- kwenda) , he is 


ana, as a verbal termination, is 

the si<: dprocal Conjuga- 

.'. hich includes a wide and 

subtle variety of meanings noted 

under ,, e.g. (i) 

ity of act or feeling, action 

and re.-, .ve each 

'igana, bc.v 
(a) community, collective &c 

//a, 'weep together, 

as well as lizana, excite each other 

to weep, /ana, eat together, (as well 

. Tokana na mtu t 

part with a person. Tokana na 

lose blood. 

of -ana 

be possible, be able (under co:. 
to be done, fxtiikana, lx- in.- 
be to be had. (4) coherence, com- 

bination, perhaps underlies such uses 
as kazana, \>c hard plight, close), 
pindaniana.fioi-aniana, &c. (Cf. 
uses of Prep. na. -ana is also a 
widespread root in Bantu dialects. 


-anana, a. (anana with D 5 (S) 
and D (> (S), anana or nyanana with 
D 6 (P) ), soft, thin, gentle (in action 
or effect). Upepo mwan., gentle 
breeze. Maji moan., quiet, still, 
slowly moving water. Ngtw art., soft 
clothes (fabric). (Not common, 
restricted in meaning, of things rather 
than persons. Cf. syn. A. laini t \\. 

*Anasa, n. (i) pleasure, enjoy- 
ment, luxury, convenience, often (2) 
in bad sense, over-luxuriousne- 
indulgence, sensuality. AY/A: 
it contains every luxury. Kaa a., 
live in comfort (.or, self-indulgcntly . 
Ar. Cf. anisi, and syn. ra/ia, fu- 

Andoa, v. (i) prepare, provide, 
get ready, put in order, arrange; (2) 
esp. of cooking, prepare food. Ap. 
amta-lia, -liwa y -lika. Andalia 
vita, prepare for war. (Cf. //.- 
si, maandaliOy and for the root 
perh. andika, atuiama.) 

Andarna, v. follow, accompany, go 
after), follow up, 
come next to, succeed. 
umeandania, the moon has followed 
the new month has began. 
'i west mwandawo.) Ap. 
andam-ia, -i, -ika. At. 
tcmbo, follow up (panne) an ele- 
phant. Cs. andam-iza, -intAO, 
cause to follow, &c. Mvua hii 
imisa mwesi, this ra 

ill last 

;ith begins. 1 
;. follow one another, go all 
r, form a process 

mana na, associate with, take the 
side of, be companion to. Siyt mttt 
wa kuandamana nayt, he is 
person to associate 




Andamano, n. (w-), a following 
(of people), train, procession, retinue. 
(Cf. prec. and mwandamano .} 

Andamizi, n. (ma-},; following. 
(See Mwandamizi, and cf. andama.} 

-andamo, a. following, succeed- 
ing. Mwezi mwa., moon (month) 
following, new moon. (Cf. prec. and 
andarna, mwandamo} 

Andao, n. and Mwandao, prepara- 
tion, arrangement. A. la math, 
preparation of corpse for burial, 
funeral arrangements. (Cf. anda, 
and mazishi.) 

Andasi, n. usu. ir* plur. maandasi y 
confectionery, pastry, &c. (Cf. andaa, 

Andika, v. (i) set in order, lay 
out, set straight, give definite arrange- 
ment to; (2) write (i.e. make an 
orderly arrangement of letters) ; (3) 
register, enrol, make an entry, put on 
paper ; (4) (of a ship), steer, keep on 
a course, set the course; (5) (andikia, 
andika httru), register as free, give 
freedom (to). A. meza, arrange 
(lay, set) a table, prepare a meal. 
A. barua (warakd), write a letter. 
A. asikari (jeshi), enlist soldiers 
(a force). A. chombo, keep a vessel 
on a course. A. tanga, arrange a 
formal mourning. Ps. andikwa. 
Limeandikwa (na Muungii), it is 
written (by God, and therefore finally 
settled, destined). Liandikwalo hali- 
futiki, what is written cannot be 
wiped out. Ap. andik-ia, -iwa^ 
-ika, -tana, write for (to, at, &c.) 
Tafathali uniandikie barua, please 
write a letter for me. Andikia 
mlumwa, set a slave free. Andikiana, 
correspond (by letter). Cs. andik- 
isha, -ishwa, -is/ria, &c., e. g. cause 
to write, dictate a letter to, inspire 
writing, have set in order, have a 
meal laid. Nalimwandikishia cha 
kula, I had a meal laid for him 
Rp. andik-ana, -anya. Waliandik- 
ana wapagazi wote, they all entered as 
porters together (by common con- 
sent). Andikanya sahani, set plates 

n rows (piles, one on the other), 
make a row (pile) of plates. Cf. 
panganya. (Cf. andiko, mwa- 
ndiko, mwandiki, mwandikaji, mwa- 
ndishi, uandishi, &c. Cf. also andaa, 
and derivs. and syn. in some senses 
tandika and tengeneza.} 

Andiko, n. (/-)> something 
written, a writing, letter, book. Sio 
andiko lake, it is not his writing 
(written by him). (Cf. andika, 

(2) upper air, sky, bright expanse of 
the atmosphere; (3) fig. enlighten- 
ment, illumination, inspiration. Nde- 
ge za a., birds of the air. A. la 
fua, sunshine. Mwezi waleta a., the 
moon brings light. (Chiefly of 
sun and moon. Otherwise mwanga 
and wangafu, which see. A root 
ang- or nga seems traceable in 
many words relating to light, sight, 
and sky, cf. angaza, angalia, -angafu, 
mwanga, mivango, mwangaza, maa- 
ngazi; wangafu. Also cf. ng*aa, 
ngariza, and possibly angaika, anga- 
ma, angamia. Also anga, mwanga, 
of witchcraft.) 

Anga, v. use sorcery, bewitch, 
perform incantations, &c. > Watu wa 
Donge humwangia uehawiwao waka- 
miia, the people of Donge practised 
their enchantments upon him, and 
killed him. (Not often in Z., 
where tiganga, uehawi, and loga are 
usual. Cf. mwanga, wanga.} 

Angaa,v. See Ng'aa. (Cf. ang- 

-angafu, a. (angafu with D 5 (S), 
D 6), (i) bright, shining, luminous, 
radiant, polished, emitting (trans- 
mitting, reflecting) light; (2) enlight- 
ened, intellectual, clever, quick-witted. 
Maji maangafu, gleaming (glassy, 
clear) water. (Cf. anga and 


Angaika, v.bein suspense (anxious, 
confused, distressed, excited, &c.). 
Cs. angaisha, -shwa, make anxious, 
&c. (Cf. angana, and perh. 




angaa, anga, and syn. fathaika, su- 
tnbuka, taharuki.^ 

Angalia, v. (i) have the eyes open 
(to), pay attention (to), observe, 
notice; (2) be careful, beware (of), 
take care. Angalia! (Imperat.), 
see! observe! take care! Haangalii, 
he does not attend (is careless, is 
unobservant). Ps. angaliwa. Nt. 
angaJika. Ap. anga-lilia, -liliwa, 
lilika. Cs. (seldom ) angaliza, -i*wa. 
(Specialized from same root a 
and its derivatives. Cf. -angaftfu, 

-angalifu, a. careful, observant, 
attentive. '(Cf. augalia, uangalifu.} 
Angama, v. be in mid-air, be sus- 
pended, hang. A. tnnazimi, be left 
hanging in a cocoanut tree. A.junya 
/*, be caught in the boughs of a 
tree, when falling. (A St. form, 
atigika, and Rv. angua, and 
poss. anga. Also follg.) 

Angamia, v. be ruined, be lost, 
be utterly undone, perish. Watu 
wengi wameangamia vitani, many 
perished in war. A. mwiluni, he- 
lost (perish N in the forest. Nt. (sel- 
dom) angamika, e.g. Mali yangu 
:mika, my property is ruined. 
:zwa, ruin, spoil, 
destroy. (Apparently Ap. of an- 
gama, which see, with generalized 
meaning ; cf. uangamizi.} 

Angaza, v. (i) be light, give li^ht, 
be bright, shine, e.g. macho y a ktta- 
ngasa, bright (sharp, observant) eyes. 
Mwanga wa taa unaangaia > 
yotc, the li:;lit of the lamp gives light 
to the whole house ; (a) look . 
x attention (on), soi 
with mat ho, e.^'. .ntgaza macko, keep 
s open (lit. make the eyes 
. Angaza mali yaJto> keep a 
ye on vour property; (3) re- 
i wake, keep watch at 
k^aza nsiktt kmha > 
awake the who 1 
witljrtr (4) fig. o; 

MM. Ap. ang-asia, -asiwa, 

-azika, e. g. kwan it kuniangazia ma- 
cho? \Vhy look - at me? 
Cs. ang-azisha, ishwa. Rj . 
zana. -. of (angaa) ngaa, 
also Intens., cf. anga, angalia, ng'aa^ 
mwangaza, -angafu, &c. And cf. 
syn. common in Z., (i) kaza macho, 
kodoa, gaze, stare ; (2) mulika, give 
light ; (.V' kesha, keep awake, and 
kaa macho?) 

Angika. v. hang up, hang, sus- 
pend, esp. against a wall on a peg or 
hook or on a branch. Ps. at. 
Ap. ang-ikia, -ikiiva, -ikika. Cs. 
ang-iJtisha, *ikishwa. (Cf. anga~ 
ma, angita, change, i.e. / 
mwango, ? anga. Also syn. tungtka, 
tundika, both Nt. forms with act. 
meaning, as anika,fnnika, &c.) 

-angu, a. of pron. i 1 
mine, of me. (Cf. -ake for 1': 
use of mi/ft t, mu'cnycive for emphasis.) 

Angua, v. (i) let fall, drop, take 
down, throw down, e.g. fm 

2) let out suddenly, utter, 
vent, e.g. a. embe (nazi, &c.), thiow 
down mangoes (cocoanuts, &c.). 
Sttltani akaangua kilio, the Sultan 
: it to a cry. Also (3) hatch, 
e.g. a. tnayai, hatch eggs, a. tvaana, 
hatch out young birds (not 'lay. 
is zaa, taga). Ps. anguliv . 
anguka, which see. A p. angn~lia, 
-Hwa, -lika. Cs. angu-sha, -shwa> 
-shia, -shiwa, often intens., i 
make fall, throw do\v 
(a) fig. bring to rain, send as a blow 
(corse, disaster). Afuungu am*- 
mwangushia mabaya, God has sent 
of root 

found in an$ika t anganta, which see, 
also anguka, and syn. shua, shusha. 
Dist. hvangua.} 

Anguka, v. (i) fall, fall down, 

drop, have a downward movement 

n, tendency); (a) fig. meet 

istcr, be ruined ; (3) happen, 

(l) fall on, before, &c.); 

(l) come upon, fall in with. 
mwangukiamiguu, : I down 


before his feet, they submitted to him. 
Kuatigukiwa no, msiba, to be the 
victim of a calamity. Akaangitkia 
mji mgeni, and he lighted upon a 
strange city. Ukaangitka msiba 
tnkulnva mno, and a very great 
mourning took place. (Nt. of angua, 
cl.anguko, also angika, angama, and 

Anguko, n. (ma-\ C 1 ) a fa\l,drop 
(downward), a down ward movement, 
&c. ; (2) ruin, fall; (3) something 
fallen, a ruin. Maanguko ya majt 
(ya into), waterfall (also maporo- 
moko). (Cf. anguka, maangatmzi, 

*Ania, v. intend, resolve, set the 
mind on, desire. No deriv. common. 
(Arab. Cf. syn. Kusudia, azimu, and 
B. taka. Nia seems a different 

Anika, v. set out to dry, expose 
to sun (or air), air> dry. A. nguo 
(mchele, &c.), dry clothes (rice, &c.) 
Ps. anikwa. Ap. anikia, -iwa. 
dry for (at, with, &c.). Kamba 
ya kuanikia nguo, a clothes-line 
Cs. anik-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. anua 
and syn. kausha.) 

*Anisi, v. please, give pleasure to 
gratify the desires of. IVanapigt 
ngoma kiva ajili kutuanisi, thej 
are drumming in order to please 
us. (Arab. Cf. anasa, and syn 
rithisha. B. pendeza.) 

*Ankra, n. invoice, account, bil 
of sale, reckoning. (Hind, used in 
commerce. Cf. Arab, orotha) 

*Anna, n. one-sixteenth of a rupee 
value 12 pies, or 4 pice, i.e. on 
penny. (Hind.) 

Anua, v. take out of the sun (c 
air, or rain), put under cover (i 
shade, in the house). Ps. anuliwt 
Nt. anuka, (i) be taken out of th 
sun, be dry, have done airing ; (2 
(of weather) be dry, have done rain 
ing, clear up. Kumeanuka, it ha 
cleared up, it is fine again. Ar 
anu-lia, -liwa, &c. Sina mtu w 
kunianulia nguo, I have no one t 

14 APA 

o and bring in the clothes for me. 
Iv. of same root as anika.) 
*Anwani, n. heading, title, ad- 
ress (of a letter), direction, general 
ascription. Andika a. ya banta, 
rite the address of a letter. Tu- 
aingia katika anwani ya vyakula, 
re are entering on the subject of 
ietetics. (Arab.) 
Anza, v. begin, commence, start, 
e the beginning, be the first. Anza 
azi, begin work. Kazi yaanza, 
vork begins. Anza kusema, begin 
o speak. Kivanza, Infin., and ya 
wanza, used as adv., 'first, firstly, 
n the first place, to begin with.' -a 
wanza, first (ordinal of most, one). 
J s. anzwa. Nyumba imcanzwa ku- 
enga, or imeanza kujeng-wa,\hz house 
las begun to be built. Nt. anzika. 
Ap. anz-ia, -iwa. Also anz-ilia, 
ilhva, -ilika, make a beginning of, 
make an attempt at. Cs. anz-isha, 
ishwa, -ishia, &c.,set on foot, insti- 
ute, found, see put in hand, start. 
Also anz-ilisha, and -iliza, which can 
je used of special earnestness, effort, 
or occasion. (Cf. mwanzo, kwanza.) 

*Anzwani, n. Johanna (island). 

*Ao, conj. also au, or; aoao, 
either or. (A. Cf. ama t and dis- 
unct. wafa.) 

-ao, a. of pron. 3 Pers. P., their, 
theirs, of them. (Cf. -ake for prefixes, 
and use of woo, ivenyewe, for em- 

Apa, v. swear, take an oath, utter 
an oath. A. Korani, swear by the 
Coran. Sisadiki, apa yamini, I do 
not believe, swear by your right hand. 
Ps. apwa. Ap. apia, swear to 
(about, with, in, &c.). Akaniapia 
na kiapo, and he swore to me with 
a formal oath. Cs. (i) apisha (also 
afya\ -ishwa, cause to swear, put on 
oath, administer an oath to, adjure, 
conjure; (2) ap-tsa, -iziua, usually 
Intens. with special sense, swear at, 
imprecate against, denounce, curse, 
abjure. Apizana, curse each other. 
Rp. apiana, take an oath together, 




oin in swearing. (Cf. uafo, wafto, 
kiapo y afi 

Api, or attached to a word ending 
with -ch -pi, same as waf>i t where? 
(which sec). 

Apizo. n. (wa-) curse, impreca- 
(Cf. afa, and syn. /a<: 

*Arabuni, n. (i) earnest-money, 
deposit, advance, payment to secure 
future service ; (2) with -ni locative, 
in Arabia. (Ar. For Uarabuni, 
see Afwarabu.} 

*Ari, n. scandal, shame, disgrace, 
dishonour. .Yikiona ari, ulimwengu 
wanifhitkiza, if I feel dishonoured, 
everything is hateful to me. (Ar. 
Cf. aibit, fcththa, haya?) 

*Aria, n. part, section, party, fol- 
lowing. (? Hind.) 

*Arifu, v. inform, report, let know, 
give instructions about, csp. in writ ing, 
by letter, e.g. baada ya salaam, na- 
i, after good wishes, I 
proceed to inform you as follows. 
Ps. arifiiva. Ap.arif-ia, -twa, &c. 
11-informed, ingenious, know- 
ing* (Ar. Cf. niaart/a, taarifu, and 
syn. hubiri?) 

*Aroba, n. and a., also Ar*ba, 
Arboa, four. (Arab., used mainly 
;;nction with some other Ar. 
numeral, as aroba mia, 400. 

crwise usually the 
B. syn. nne, -tint.} 

*Aro . forty. Used 

also in technical senses, irrespective 
of numlicr, e.g. (i) of a chief's body- 

of a ceremonial interval, sometimes 
\\ of the four weeks after 
. Alipotoka katika arobaim, 
weeks old. -a aro- 
(Ar. See Aroba. 

irobatashara) fourteenth, 
i tlroba. B. 

fa) laii 

' soil ' as a substance, barra, 
to bahari, sea ; nlaya antl -filaya, of 
territorial divisions ; ituhi, the com- 

*Arusi, n. also Harusi, 

je ceremony, a wedding, nuj>- 
tials ; (2) the marriage fen- 
bride, bridegroom. (A. ni mantbo 
yateridwayo, nninie akiptlekwa kwa 
mkc, Arusi is all that is done when 
a man is conducted to hi 
;// a> usi, leo ataingia nyu 
yonder is thr in, to-day he 

Will enter the bride's house. 7V/- 
memUta arusi kwa mumewc, we 
have brought the bride to her hus- 
band. (Ar. the initial Ain being 
often heard as a faint h in Swah, Cf. 
nikaha, and syn. B. ndoa, m,; 

*Asali, n. sweet syrup of several 
kinds, (i) a. ya nyuki, from bees, 
'honey' ; (2) a. ya MIM, from sugar- 
cane, ' treacle, molasses ' ; (3) a. ya 
Umbo, made by boiling 

Asha, v. (i) for akisha, Cs. of aAa, 
build, which see; (a) for aekisha, 
Cs. of acha, which see. (Also in 
Ar. a woman's name. Dist. washa, 
Cs. of ivaAa, burn.) 

*Ashara, n. and a. , ten. (Arab, for 
the com n. Appears 

in edasham, thenashara^ tishuru, 
&c. and fullg.) 

*A8horini.n. and a., and IK: 

-a ash. 

(Ar. Cf. dshara, and B. makttmi 

Aahekali, a. better (after sick- 
ness), improved in com 

1. (Ar. for comi: 
sijambo, kujamho. &c.) 

Aaherati, n. also Huh., Uoh., 
:aqr, debauchery, 

fornicati- a. also 

ah., dissij 
kuyu a<- : \ <rson lead H 

:i/lsat/a t and B. /^ 




*Ashiki, v. have a passion for, be 
enamoured of, be in love with. 
(Arab. Cf. shauko.) 

*Ashiria, v. Ap. make signs to 
(with, for, &c.), signal (to), indicate 
by signs (to). Ps. ashiriwa. (Ar. 
Cf. ishara, and B. syn. onya, onyesha^ 
*Asi, v. rebel (against), disobey, 
mutiny, neglect duty (towards), quar- 
rel (with). Asi Muungu (mfalme, 
mke\ fail in duty towards God 
(king, wife). Ps. asiwa. Ap. 
asi-a, -wa t -ka, rebel against (at, on 
account of, &c.). Cs. asiska, -shiva, 
cause to rebel, abet in disobedience, 
&c. Asisha mume na mke, make a 
man quarrel with his wife. a. 
(also -asi), rebellious, quarrelsome, 
undutiful. (Ar. Cf. uasi, maasi, 

*Asikari, n. ( , **-, and ma-) and 
Askari, soldier, policeman, guard, 
armed attendant. Andika (tia, 
changd] asikari, enlist soldiers. 
Cheza a., be drilled. (Ar.) 

*Asili, n. (i) origin, source, root 
stock; (2) inborn temperament, na- 
ture ; (3) essence, fundamental prin- 
ciple, ground; (4) ancestry, family. 
Watu wa a., original inhabitants, 
aborigines. A. yafullani mtumwa, 
such and such a man is by origin a 
(born) slave. A. yake, atoka -wapi? 
Where is his original home ? A. ya 
malt, capital (of money). Huyu a. 
yake ni mjinga, this man is a born 
fool. Hana a. wala fasili, he has 
neither root nor branches, i. e. ancestry 
or connexions, standing or prospects. 
Hdkufanya kwa a., he did not act 
rightly (according to principle, pro- 
perly). adv. originally, by na- 
ture, in old times. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
B. mwanzo, chanzo.) 

Assububi, n. also Subuhi, TJssu- 
btti, morning (in general), time of 
morning, earlier part of the day. 
As adv., * in the morning,' and often 
emphasized by na mapema. _ NJOO 
assubuhi na mapema, come in the 
morning early. (Ar. with Article 

prefixed. Cf. sabalkheri, and ala- 
siri, alfajiri, athituri and B. kucha.) 
*Asusa, n. something sweet or 
pleasant, used to correct an un- 
pleasant taste or effect, e.g. something 
taken and chewed after a drinking 
bout, a corrective, comfort, relief. 
(Ar. CL/ara/a.) 

-ata, a verbal formative termina- 
tion, seeming to convey an idea of 
close contact, holding firmly , clasping, 
compressing. Cf. ambata, kamata. 

Atamia, v. sometimes tamia, 
? otamia, sit on eggs, brood (of a hen). 
Cs. atamisha mayai, put eggs under 
a hen, get a hen to sit on eggs. 
(An Ap. verb-form, ?a variant of 
otama, sit on the heels, squat on the 

*Athabu, n. punishment, torture, 
chastisement, correction. Tia a. 
kali, punish severely. (Ar. Cf. 
athibu, and dist. adabu, good be- 

*Athama, n. (i) greatness, gran- 
deur, glory, exaltation; (2) (also 
azama), nose-ring. (Arab. Cf. a- 
thimu, and B. utukufu, ukuu.*) 

*Athana, n. the cry of the muez- 
zin, the Mahommedan call to prayers. 
(Arab. Cf. athini, mwathini.} 

*Athibu, v. punish, torment, 
chastise, physically and otherwise. 
Usijiathibu bilashi, do not worry 
yourself for nothing (be a self-tor- 
mentor). Ps. athibiwa. Nt. athi- 
bika. Ap. athib-ia, -iwa, -ika. 
Cs. athib-isha, ishwa. Also intens. 
Ath. vikali, punish severely, inflict 
condign punishment. (Ar.) 

*Athima, n. a charm, spell, in- 
cantation, e. g. against evil spirits, to 
bring back runaway slaves, &c. 
(Arab. Cf. follg. and talasimu, 
hirizi, dawa.} 

Athimia, v. Ap. make a charm 
rspell. incantation) against (for, with, 
&c.). (Arab. Cf. prec. and dist. 
Athimia, Ap. of Athimu, exalt.) 

*Athimu, v. honour, exalt, make 
much of, celebrate, glorify. Ps. athi- 



N't. athimika. Ap. athim- 
:, -ika. Siku ya kuathimika, 
a day to be kept (celebrated), a me- 
morable day. Cs. athimisha, 
cause to honour (be honoured), and 
intens., honour highly. (Arab. 
Cf. athania, and B. syn. tukvza.) 

*Athini, v. call to public prayers, 
of the muezzin, according to Ma- 
hommedan universal custom. 
sikia mwathini akiathini, njoo, 
when you hear the muezzin calling to 
, come. (Arab. Cf. mwa- 
thini, athana. In Z. the call is usu. 
from the steps at the door of the 
Mosque, or from the roof, as only 
one mosque has a minaret, and 
many are only thatched houses.) 

*Athuuri, n. noon, midday, one 

of the regular Mahommedan hours of 

with Article pre- 

' 'f. alasiri, assubuhi, &c., and 

K syn. jua kichwani, jua kati t saa 

sita mfhana.) 

*Ati, a common int. or expletive, 
;ng surprise, or calling atten- 
tion, ' I say, come now, look here, 
you see.' Unaniumiza a//, you are 
hurting me, I tell you. Ati wtwe 
uliopo, u mtii gani ? I say, you there, 
what is your tribe? 

*Atia, n. also Hatia, present, 
free gift, and as adv. gratis, as a gift, 

'hing. I'ittt h. 

mtoto U'ake atia, these things he has 
given to his child as a free gift. 
(Arab., one of the less . 
words for 'present.' Cf bakshishi, 
%awadi t and notes. In the form ha- 
represents A in.) 

Atua. v. split, crack, e.g. of split- 

ti n g logs for firewood. Nt. aluka. 

-ifatuka kwa juctj the ground 

is cracked by the heat of the son. 

(Cf. chanja, pasua, tcma.} 

*Au, conj., also Ao, or. Auau, 
. a ma, and 
the disjunct, wala.} 


trace, track out. A. shamba. survey 
an estate. , follow up 

tracks of men or animals. Ps. ow/i- 
wa.>6a. ShambalotelitncaukA, 
the whole plantation has been in- 
spected. Ap. an-lidi -/iu-a, -lika, 
sun-ty for (with, by, &c,). Vipand* 
vya kuaulia, surveying instruments. 
Cs. au-sha, e. g. cause (employ, send) 
to survey, show about, show the 
sights of. (Cf. kagua, angalia^ 
tazayiia. Aua is sometimes used for 
Eua, which see.) 

*Auni, v. also Awini, assist, 
help. n. assistance, help. (Ar. 
Cf. more usual nisaada, saidia.) 

*Aushi, n. endurance, permanence, 
durability, wear, quality of lasting. 
A't'tu cha a., a tough lasting material 
or substance. Yuna a., he has lived 
long, he lasts well. (Ar. CL 
ishi, maisha, and s)-n. uduntu.) 

*Awala, n. See Hawala. (Ar.) 

*Awali, n. beginning, start, first 
place. Also a. first, and adv. (i) 
firstly, at first; (2) just, nearly, al- 
most. A.waincki, border, boundary 
of a country. Awali ni awaJt, 
a-wali mbovu hapana, first is first, 
there is no bad first. Toka awali 
hatta ahtri, from first to h^ 
stan to finish. Awali Muungu, 
Here goes I Here's for luck ! a work* 
man's rejoinder to the overseer's call 
Kaul Work hard, or Jembel Dig 
away. (Ar. for common li. mwa- 
n*o t kwatua.) 

*Awas, v. distribute, allot, ar- 
range, dispose. (Arab, for com- 
mon B. gawa, tatgnuM. Cf. Arms* 

Awesia, n. one kind of native 

ailing vessel, having perpendicular 

stem, high rodder head, and sharp 

Cf. chombo % 


Ay a, n. a short section or division 
of a book, esp. of the Conn. 
(Arab. Ct/**) 

Ayari, n. (i) impostor, impudent 
cheat, knave, rogue (Ar. 
naut., shroud, roue supporting the 
roast of a shij >. 1 Ar. ur I Imd.; 




*Ayika, v. for yeyuka, which see. 

Aza, v. for waza, which see. 

*Azama, n. See Athama (2). 

*Azima, v. also Azima, and 
Azimu, resolve, purpose, propose, 
intend, decide on. Akaazima safari 
kwenda barra y and he determined on 
a journey up country. Ps. azimwa. 
Nt. azimika. Ap. azim-ia, -iwa } 
-ika, decide about (for, against, &c.). 
Cs. azim-isha, -izhwa. Also Intens. 

n. resolve, purpose, plan, design, 
proposal. (Ar., and for n. cf. 
mradi, and shauri. Dist. azima for 
athima, and azima, as follg.) 

*Azima, v. lend, borrow, in mo- 
ney or kind. Ps. azimwa. Ap. 
azim-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs. azim- 
isha, -ishwa. Rp. azimana. 

n. loan, debt, advance, money or 
credit. (?Hind. Dist. azima prec., 
and athima. Cf. deni, kopa.} 

*Aziri, v. slander, bring into dis- 
repute, disparage. (Arab, for com- 
mon B. singizia, chongea, and cf. 

*Azizi, n. a rarity, wonder, curi- 
osity, treasure. Azizi ni kitu kisi- 
choenea watu> azizi means something 
uncommon, not widely known. Also 
a., precious, rare, valuable. Pame- 
ingia mjini kitu azizi, a great curio- 
sity has arrived in the town. (Arab. 
Cf. tunu, ajabu^) 

, *Azur, n. perjury. See Zuri. 


B represents the same sound as 
in English. 

B in some words is not distin- 
guished from p in common talk, e.g. 
bofu and pofu, babua and papua, 
bogoa and pogoa, boromoka and poro- 

Words not found jinder B may 
therefore be looked for under P, and 
vice versa. 

B in some words appears as z>'in 
kindred words (cf. interchange of 
p and /), e.g. gomba and ugomvi, 

iba and itivt, omba and maomvi or 
mao mbi, jambia andjamvia, kumbi 
and kumvi. 

B as initial sound of a root, when 
preceded by an n prefix, causes a 
euphonic change of n into m, e. g. 
ubavu, plur. mbaini for nbavu, and 
mbek for nbele from ubele.^ Also 
when an n prefix precedes initial w of 
a. root, mb takes the place of nw, 
e.g. uivingu, plur. mbingu for 
rnvingu. (n, b and iv appear to be 
alternative sounds in some words. 
Cf. uwinda and ubinda!) 

*Baa, n. (i) evil, trouble, disaster, 
plague, nuisance; (2) a reprobate, 
villain, bore. Baa pia 'hutokana na 
vijana na watumwa, all troubles 
proceed from children and slaves. 
Baa la kujitakia, a self-caused evil. 
(Ar. Cf. shari, msiba, ukorofi.} 

*Baada,adv. or Bada, Badu, after, 
afterwards, of time, and only of 
space ' behind,' so far as it is some- 
times involved in the idea of suc- 
cession, following after, coming next 
to or behind. Contr. nyuma. 
Seldom used alone, but commonly 
(i) with ya, forming a preposition, 
after, in succession to, next to. 
Baada ya salaam nakuarifu, after 
good wishes, I beg to inform you, a 
phrase introducing the substance of 
a letter after the formal complimen- 
tary opening ; (2) with yake, often in 
combination, baadaye, and general 
reference, ' after it, thereafter, after- 
wards, then, next.' (Ar. CLbado, 

Baamwezi. See Mbalamwezi. 
*Baathi, a. some, a portion of, 
generally with ya, e.g. baathi ya 
wdtu, some of the people,-like 
watu wangine, nussya "watu. (Ar.) 
*Bab, n. kind, sort, class, use 
sometimes in commerce of goods, 
e g. bob ulaya, European goods, 
i.'e. for or from .Europe. Panga 
bab-bab (or babu-babti}^ arrange in 
classes, according to kind. (Arab. 
Cf. atna, namna, ginsi.} 




*Baba, n. (i) father; (a) uncle on 
father's side ; (3) ancestor ; (4) pa- 
tron, .protector, guardian. Baba 
haswa is used to denote and em- 
phasize actual paternity. // 
baba yanga haswa, this is my real 
father. Paternal uncles are. distin- 
1 as mkubwa, if older, and 
mdogo, if younger, than the father. 
baba wakubwa wawili na 
mmoja mdogo, I have two uncles 
older than my father and one younger. 
Baba wa kambo, step-father. Baba 
is treated grammatically as D i , in 
respect of the agreement < : 
and of all adjectives except the Pro- 
nominal. These latter are used in 
the forms agreeing with D6, com- 
monly in the sing.J almost al 
the plur. for the sake of 
ness, and these forms often coalesce 
with baba. Baba mwema, a kind 
father. Baba hataki kwenda, my 
father refuses to go. Baba -wake (or 
babake}, baba yakc (or babayc), his 
father. Hut baba zoo (or babazo], 
rather than the ambiguous baba woo, 
their fathers. Baba ya watoto, a 
kind of owl. (Cf. babu, and syn. 
aniu, and (list, nt/omba.) 

Babaika, v. stutter, stammer, hesi- 
tate in speaking, talk as in sleep. 

Babata, v. tap, strike lightly, as 
* smith on thin ir 

Babu, n. :her; (a) an- 

cestor, ancient. (For grammatical 
treatment cf. baba. Also cf. bibi, 
grandmother, and mzte, ancestor.) 

Badala, n. and Badili, (i 

change, or for barter, 

a substitute, an equivalent, a swop; 

(a) a person filling the place or 

f another, substitute, rcpre- 

f, successor. Hadala ya, in 

lead of. Cf. badili, 

and mahali 'pa, in place of.) 

Badani, n. the front or back 

rning the body of 

n native dress, tun-it, also called 

time. (?A:. 

*Badili, v. change, become 
changed, exchange (whether by 
giving or taking), interchange, alter- 
nate, act reciprocally, exhibit suc- 
cessive changes. Esp. of exchange 
of goods, i. e. barter. Used both 
act. and neut. B. mali, baiter 
goods, B. fetha, change money, 
whether for other coin or its equiva- 
lent. B. zamu, relieve guard, take 
an appointed turn or spell of work, 
&c. B. ngw, change clothes, put 
on another suit. Ps. badili^ 
badilika, change, be changed, be 
capable of change, be fit for ex- 
change, be liable to change, &c. 
A p. badil'ia, -t'tva, -iba. Cs. 
badil-isha, -ishwa t -ishanc.. 
badilishana, of several persons, 
cause each other to exchange, agree 
upon terms of barter, wrangle over 
a sale. Rp. badi liana, e. g. of 
several persons engaged in a 
of exchange or barter. Sometimes 
Redupl. badili-l>adili, of frequent, 
rapid, or vex 

As contr. with B. geuka, geuta, &c., 
both imply change, alteration, and 
so far can often be usod com 
but change in bcuiili properly im- 
plies only anothtr thing or state, 
in geuka, another and a different 
thing or state, i.e. a change of 
quality, condition or form, altera- 
tion as well as substitution, succes- 
sion, Ac. Thus badili nguo would 
properly mean, put on another suit 
of clothes, gtuta nguo, put on a suit 
of a different kind (m a 
dition). Badtli mali, exchange 
goods, gtuia mali, make goods 
better or worse.) n. (ma*\ 
change, 'exchange, . suc- 

cessive change, rei*titi<>n. I'su. in 
Ar. Cf. badala, -bad*. 
rws/, &C.) 

-badilifu. a. (i) changing, 
(a) of 
character, whim- 

B i 

Bado. ndv. i of time, sttCOC** 

c a 


sion, subsequence, ' yet, as yet, (not) 

yet'; (2) of accession, addition, 'still, 

still more, further, moreover, as well, 

to boot.' Very common after a 

negat. verb, and esp. in the deferred 

tense, e. g. amekuja ? Has he come ? 

Ans. Hajaja 6., he has not yet come, 

or merely bado, i. e. (not) yet. Yuko ? 

Is he there? Ans. Yuko b. y He is 

still there, or hayuko b., he is not 

there as yet. Often too with an 

infin. loosely, with negative force, 

b. kujua, there is no knowing as yet. 

Vita b. kwisha, the war is not yet 

over. Bwana b. kuantka, my master 

is not yet awake. B. analala, he is 

still asleep. B. -ngine, still (yet) 

another. B. kidogo, yet (still) a little, 

i. e. soon, presently, wait a bit 

Utapata 6., you will get it presently 

Mtujamaayao na b. mtti wa serkali, 

a kinsman of theirs and moreover 

a government official. (Ar. Cf. 

baada. Bado implies succession, 

futurity, and so, expectation, and by 

implication, negation, i.e. the not- 

Bafe, n. a venomous kind of snake. 
(Cf. nyoka.} 

*Bafuta, n. also B&futa, a thin 
kind of bleached calico, used esp. 
for lining a kanzu (which see). Dif- 
ferent qualities are distinguished as 
B. ingereza (fine), B.fransa (thicker) , 
B. dondo (dressed), B. maradufu 
(heavy), &c. (Hind. See Nguo.) 
*Bagala, n. also B&gala, a kind 
of native sailing vessel, large, 
square stern, high poop, and long 
prow, used esp. in trade with India. 
Sometimes double - masted. See 
Chombo. (? Hind.) 

*Baghala, n. also Bagbla, a 
mule. (Ar. Cf. B. nyumbu, used 
as syn. in Z.) 

Bagua, v. separate, put apart, 
divide off. B. yaliyo yako, pick out 
what is yours. Nt. baguka, be sepa- 
rated, be at variance, quarrel. Ba 
gukana, be in hostile parties, quarrel 
together. (Cf. the common tenga.} 


*Bahari, n. (i) sea; (2) fig. of 
what is of vast extent. B. knit, the 
high seas, ocean. B. ya Sham, Red 
Sea. B. il all, Persian Gulf. B. 
Rum, Mediterranean, i.e. Sea of 
Constantinople. Watu ivanaozama 
katika bahari ya maneno, people who 
plunge into the ocean of words, i. e. 
embark on etymological studies. 
(Ar. Cf. bakaria. Also opp. barra, 
B. inchi Aavu.) 

*Baharia, n. ( , and ma-), sailor, 
one of ship's company. > .( Ar * ^ 
bahari, and B. mwana maji.') 

*Bahasha, n. ( , and ma-}, case, 
satchel, bag, packet, paper box (or, 
cover). Bahashaya nguo, a bundle 
of clothes. Sometimes used to de- 
scribe an envelope.' (? Hind.) 

*Bahati, n. (i) fortune, chance, 
luck; (2) esp. good fortune, good 


luck. Kwa b,, by chance, by good 
luck. B. njema (mbaya), good (bad) 
fortune. Ndio 6. yake, that is his 
good luck. Tumia b., do a thing at 
random, take the chance, risk every- 
thing, make a plunge, speculate, trust 
to luck. (Ar. Seefollg. Cf. syn. 

*Bahatisria, v. guess, make a ven- 
ture, speculate, trust to luck. Ps. 
bahatishwa. (Ar. Cf. bahati, and 
syn. kisi.) 

*Bahili, n. and a., also Bakhili, 
and -bahili, a miser, miserly, cove- 
tous, grasping, parsimonious, i. e. 
mwenyi kuweka malt, one who hoards 
his money. Mali ya bahili huliwa 
na dudu, a miser's wealth gets 
worm-eaten. (Ar. Cf. ubahili, 

-kabithi, and for the idea, roho, choyo, 

*Baina, n. clearness, clear know- 
ledge, certainty. Hapana b., there 
is no certainty (clear evidence). (Ar. 
Cf. baini, follg. and uthahiri, ha- 

*Baini, v. and Bayini, (i) see 

clearly, know, distinguish, recognize ; 
(2) make clear, prove, show ; (3) be 
clear, be manifest, be plainly shown, 




this sense more usual with the Nt. 
bainika, Ps. baini 
amebainiu>a t the thief has been de- 
tected. Nt. bainika, be shown, be 
made clear. A p. / 
-ika^ -ikia , - ikatta. C s. bain-isha, 
-ishiva, &c., intens. make very 
plain, clearly distinguish, demonstrate. 
a. and -bainifu, clear, plain, de- 
monstrable, evident, well-known, 
notorious. n. also Baina, which 
see. adv. See Beina. (Ar. 
Cf. bayini, ubainf, bayana, mbayana, 
v&ayanaf and syn. thihiri, ivazi.) 

*Bajia, n. a small cake of ground 
beans and pepper (Sir.). (? Hind.) 

Bajuni, n. (ma-}, native from coast 
north of Mombasa. See Mgunya. 

*Baki, v. remain over, be left, stay 
behind. Ap. baki-a, -iwa, remain 
over to (for, in, &c.). Walibakitva 
rrta/i, they had property remaining 
over to them. Cs. baki-sha, -shwa, 
-sXtia, or bakiza, leave behind, cause 
to remain. Kp. bakiana, of several 
persons or things, remain behind all 
together (by consent). n. ( , 
and ma-, also bakia (ma-) and -0), 
(i) that which remains o 
mainder, residue; (2) in Arithm,, 
subtraction. Baki ya vihr<. 
remainder of the men-servants. (Ar. 
>yn. saa (ma-), salio, &c.) 

Bakora, n. a walking-stick, usu- 
ally of a white wood (the bt 
mtobwe, which see) with to] 
an angle, a: ir^er at the 

lower end. Alipigwa b. JL-umi, lie got 
kes with a stick. (Various 
kinds of sticks are/wAtf, ujtto, (*i)- 

. mpweke, Kipigi, mtobw*.) 
'Bakahishi, n. gratuity, \\ 

ggar's dole, fee. (A great 

rds and expressions de- 

oiats of 

,11 be found in t!.. 
Some are of a general kind, e.g. aJa, 

his hi, ma- 
..tiwadi, /; 
daya, Into , other* of 

special character, for various occa- 
sions of charity, congratulation, affec- 
tion, briber)', &c., e.g. 
kumbit) kisalama, kifukusa, 

mlungiila, rushwa, kijiri, 
o, or taken from a common 
form of present, e. g. nfto, kilemba, 
pesa, or from the sen-ice n \ 
uongozi, ttchukuzi, makombozi, n:ao- 
kozi (and many words of similar 
formation), or from the immediate 
effect in view, e.g. kipa mkono, ki~ 
nyosha mgongo, fcifungiia mlango, 
and many others.) 

*Bakuli, n. ( , and ma-}, a large, 
deep basin, dish, or pan of earthen- 
ware. Dim. kiba&uli. (Ar.) 

*Balaa, n. sorrow. (Arab, for 
common httzuni, &c.) 

Balamwezi, n. also Baamwezi, 
moonshine. See Mbalamwezi. 

Balanga, n. a disease producing 
light-coloured patches on a dark skin, 
? a form of leprosy. 

*Balari, n. a kirid of chisel. 

*Balaai, n. (ma-\ a very large 
kind of jar (of stone or earthenware, 
with narrow mouth), used esp. for 
storing water. Said to come from 
the Persian Gulf. (? Pcrs. Cf. *a- 
siki, which is smaller. Balasi also 
means ' leprosy ' in Arab., and is 
used so in Z. Cf. ukcma.} 

*Balehi, v. grow up, come to 
(sexual) maturity, become marriage* 
able. AmebaUhi sasa, aptwe mx* t 

; Mbalehe 

(TWJI-), boy or girl growh: 
ing on manhood or womanhood, 
developed, marriageable. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. kornaa, pcvuka and ubalthe, 
-pant, -zima.'} 

Bali ?, nay, rat! 

the contrary. (Arab. Cf. more 

Balor.i. n. ";<:-, also Barosi, 
which see, and Balyoni, consul, 

1 agent (? '1 




*Balungi, n. (tna-\ citron the 
fruit of mbalnngi. (Hind.) 

Bamba, n. (ma-}, a flat thin piece 
(esp. of metal), a sheet, plate, or 
strip of metal. Mabamba ya chuma 
hoop-iron. Also of card-board, mill- 
board. Dim.kibamba. (Cl.mbamba, 
-embamba, and follg.) 

Bambo, n. (i) an iron instrument 
grooved and pointed, used for draw- 
ing a sample from a sack of gram ; 
fa) (ma-}, long cord-like strip of 
plaited grass, used for making coarse 
mats and baskets, and for- cording a 
native bedstead. (Cf. shupatu, also 
ubambo, mbamba, bamba.} 

*Bamia, n. same as Binda, n. 
(which see). 

Bamvua, n. (ma-}, spring tide 
(Cf. syn. maji makuu.} 

Bana, v. hold as in a vice, press 
squeeze, pinch. Also in neut. sense 
stick fast, jam. Ps. baniwa. Nt 
banika, be fixed, e.g. between two 
sticks, for roasting by a fire. Also 
used act., set to roast at fire. Ap. 
ban-ia, -iwa, -ika, press to (with, in 
&cA Jibania nguo, gird oneselt 
tightly, fasten one's clothes tight, as 
for work, a journey, &c. Cs. ban- 
iza, ban-za. Jibanza ukutam, squeeze 
oneself up against a wall, to allow 
something to pass. Rp. banana. 
(Cf. danua, bano, mbano, banzt, 
kibanzi, and syn. kaza, songa, &c.) 

*Banada, n. also Banaderi, the 
ports on the Somali coast north of 
Zanzibar, esp. Barawa, Marka, Mag- 
desh, Warsheikh, &c., now in the 
Italian Protectorate (1902). (Ar 
Cf. bandar i.} 

*Banagiri, n. ( , and ma-}, also 
Banajili, armlet, bracelet, in Z. 
usually of silver a broad band orna- 
mented with blunt projecting points. 
(Hind. Cf. kikuku, and for such 
ornaments generally, urembo.} 

Banda, n. (ma-}, large shed, work- 
shop, factory covered, open at the 
sides. B. la frasi, stable. 

*Bandari, n. harbour, anchorage, 
roadstead, port. B. ni mahali pa 
piuani watu ivashukapo, a bandan is 
a place on the shore where people 
dfsembark. (Ar. Cf. banada.} 
*Bandera, n. See Bendera. 
Bandi, n. (ma-}, stitching, A row 
of stitches, a stitch, esp. of the coarser 
kinds of sewing. Fanya (piga, shona} 
bandi, baste, tack, run (m sewing). 
(Ci.ponta, shuJiu, and see Shona.) 

Bandia, n. puppet, toy-figure, doll. 
Mtoto wa bandia, a doll, often made 
of plaited grass, stuffed with rice. 

Bandika, v. put on, stick on, 
fasten on, apply, attach, esp. of caus- 
ing something to adhere to a surface, 
also ' add , place in addition to.' Some 
times fig. and neut., e.g. Amewa- 
bandika, he has attached himself to 
them, he sticks to them, of an un- 
pleasant companion. B. dawa, apply 
a plaster (in medicine). Ps. ba- 
ndikwa. Ap. bandik-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
bandik-isha, -ishwa,-iza, -izwa. Ba- 
ndikisha vyombo,^ on an extra load 
add to a load. (Cf. kandika, and 
follg., and n. pandika, pandtkiza.) 

Bandua, v. take off, detach, re- 
move, strip off, peel off, relieve of. 
Nt banduka. Hawambanduki M- 
zitngu, they never leave (part com- 
pany with) the European. Umsugue 
hatta nibandttke maganda, rub me, 
till my shell comes off of a tortoise. 
(In form and sense a Rv. form of 
Bandika, but no deriv. or cogn. forms 
common. Cf. mbanduko^ 

*Banduru ; n. bilge, place in ship s 
hold from which water is baled out, 
ship's well. 

*Bangi, n. bhang, leaf of mbangi 
or Indian hemp, often chewed and 
smoked, and used in various sweet 
preparations. A strong intoxicant. 
[Hind. Cf. mbangi, paru, boza, ma- 
\ itini, afyuni.} 

*Baniani, n. (ma~\ a Banyan. 
See Banyani. 

*Baniya, n. the Caaba at Mecca. 
(Arab, a building.) 




Banja, v. crack, break, e.g. a nut. 

Bano, n. (ma-), a carpenter's tool 
for holding work in position, cramj>, 
holcllast. (Cf. bana, mbano.) 

Banua, v. loosen, unfasten, slacken 
pressure, e. g. open the jaws of a vice. 
:nka. Ban-ulia, -uliwa. (Rv. 
of bana.) 

*Banyani, n. (ma-"), Banyan, hea- 
then Indian, usually track: 

Banzi, n. ( , and ma-), thin strip 
of wood, or split stick, used for 
holding fish, meat, &c., to toast by 
a fire. (Cf. bana, and ' dim. ki- 

Bao, n. (ma-}. See Bau. 

Bapa, n. also TJbapa, used of a 
broad flat, or slightly rounded, sur- 
face, e.g. b. la ufanga, the flat blade 
of a sword, the flat side as opp. to 
the sharp edge (ma&ali). B. la uso, 
broad forehead or broad cheek (face). 
B. la h'su, knife blade. (Cf. &- 

*Bara, n. See Barra. 

*Bara-bara, a. also Baraba, just 
as it should be, quite right, exact, 
proper, without a flaw. Ndipo matnbo 
yawe baraba, so all may be well. 
J*etha hii ni baraba, this is the exact 
sum. Athuuri baraba, just noon. 

*Barafu, n. ice. Tukakuta barafu 
juu ya trteza imeganda, and we found 
ice formed on Oic table. (Ar.) 

Baragumu,n.( ,and ma-), 'horn' 

used as a musical instrument, 'trumpet, 

war-horn,' blown through a hole near 

the small end. (Cf. panda, p<mbc, 

. . for similar instruments.) 

Baraji, n. rope attached to the 
after end of the yard-ana in a native 
rd. (CL hamarawi, and 

Baraka, n. ( , and ma-), also 

Mbaraka (mi-), (i) a blessing, gencr- 

2) (special forms of blessing, 

as) prosperity, progress, ad- 

vanta^ of food, abundant 

harvest, &c.; (3) a favour, gilt 

Tuna b. bo, we are getting on well 
to-day. (Ar. Cf. bariti, mbarata.) 

*Barakoa, n. a mask, covering the 
face down to the mouth, all but the 
eyes, worn in public by Arab and 
Mahommedan women generally of 
the upper class. (Ar.) 

'Barathuli, n. See Barazuli. 

*Barawai, n. a swallow. 

*Baraza, n. (i) place of public 
audience or reception. In Z. a stone 
seat in the entrance hall, or against 
the wall outside a house, or a raised 
platform with stone seats and some- 
times roofed over in front of the 
house, for receiving strangers, hold- 
ing audiences, and transacting busi- 
ness. Hence also (a) a meeting, 
reception, public audience, coui 
(3) members of a council, cabinet, 
committee. (Ar. Cf. barizi.) 

*Baraculi, n. a dull-witted heavy 
man, simpleton, dupe, one wh 
made a butt of by his companions. 
Ar. Cf. mjinga, msuzu.) 

*Baridi, n. (i) cold, coldness, 
chill, dampness ; (a) wind, air, draft ; 
(3) coolness, refreshnu rom 

heat and exhaustion (4) 

fig. coldness of manner, dullness, lack 
of interest, repelling aspect or tone. 
(Thus baridi may imply both pleasant 
and unpleasant sensations, but the 
verb burudisha, &c, is always used 
of what has a pleasant effect) B. 
nyingi, high winds, or great cold. 
ya 6., (i) cold water, opp. to 
majiya moto, hot water ; or (a) fresh 
water, as opp. to majiya ckumvi (ya 
bahari), salt (sea) water. (Cf. maji 
ya mvua, maji matamtt % 5cc.) B. 
yabis, rheumatism. Mane*o ya 6., 

ides, or chilling remarks. 
Cf. burudiska, tmntda, uba> . 

Bariki, v. (i) bless, COIISCCM 
(a) grant wealth (favour, protpci 
&c.) to; (3) knock dowo lo (ft 
bidder), accept the bid of at an 

tion. Ps. barittHM. Ap. ban 

-iwa, give a blernng 

& c .). Cs. barik-itka, Intcns. load 


with favours. (Ar. Cf. baraka, 
mbaraka, taburuku, and the common 
name Mabniki^} 

*Barizi, v. (i) hold a reception, 
give an audience, summon a council, 
receive guests, sit in state ; (2) attend 
an audience, go to a council (meeting 
reception, &c.) ; (3) sit out of doors, 
sit together in a garden, &c. See 
Baraza. Sultani anabarizi ho, the 
Sultan is holding a court to-day. 
Tivabarizi kwa Mzungu, we attend 
meetings at a European's house. 
(Ar. Cf. baraza.y 

*Barra, n. or Bara, (i) 'land in 
general, as opp. to sea, b. na bahari, 
land and sea ; (2) land as most known 
to Swahili, i.e. wild, uncultivated 
country, b. tupu, b. nyeupe, bare, un- 
occupied land ; (3) the region of the 
coast, . ya Waswahili, the Swahili 
coastland; and also (4) the hinter- 
land as contr. with coast, tangu 
pwani hatta b., from the coast to the 
interior. B. il asili, mainland, con- 
tinent. B. al Hindi, India. Bara- 
bara is used descriptively of a bare 
open locality, of a broad road or 
clearing. Barabarani, out in the 
open, on the high road. (Ar. Cf. 
Zanzibar, i. e. Zanji-bara, negro 

*Barua, n. written form, note, bill, 
ticket, letter, esp. of formal official 
communications, but also generally of 
ordinary correspondence, like waraka. 
(Ar. Cf. waraka, cheti, hati, and 

*Baruti, n. gunpowder. (Ar 

*Basbasi, n. mace, the inner husk 
of nutmeg (kungu manga). (Ar. 
for fennel ?) 

*Bashiri, v. (i) bring tidings, re- 
port news, announce (esp. of first 
tidings, and so) (2) tell in advance, 
announce beforehand, predict, fore.- 
tell. Ps. bashiriwa. Ap. bashiria, 
iwa. Common in the expression 
Bashiri heri! May it be good 
news! Umbashirie heri, predict 


good luck for him. (Ar. Cf. 

*Bassi, Bass, (i) conj. very com- 
monly used as a connective in narra- 
tives, often heading each succeeding 
paragraph in a story, * Well, and so, 
accordingly, and then'; (2) interj. 
generally expressing contentment or 
resignation, It is enough, very well, 
that will do ' ; but also often an order 
or decision, ' Stop that ! That's all 1 
Have done with it.' (Hind. Bassi 
is one of the commonest and most 
characteristic interjections in Swahili, 
and capable of conveying very dif- 
ferent shades of meaning according 
to the tone of voice and expression, 
from the highest gratification to the 
extreme of mortification and disgust. 
In fact, a whole series of distinct 
ideas may be conveyed by the same 
word, e.g. at the close of a bargain 
a dialogue may be heard carried on 
with it alone. Bassi? (interroga- 
tively and doubtfully), Is that really 
all that you can give me, your lowest 
terms? Bassi (with decision), 
Those are my final terms. Bassi 
(with reluctant resignation), Well, I 
suppose I must accept it. Bassi (with 
an air of satisfaction), Very well ; that 
settles the matter. Bassi (final con- 
sent), Be it so ! Done ! Agreed ! 

*Bastola, n. pistol (? same word, 
through Arab.). 

*Bata, n. (ma-}, a duck. B. la 
Bukini, a goose, lit. Madagascar 
duck. B. la mzinga, a turkey, pern, 
from its note. Kwenda batabata, 
walk like a duck, waddle. (Ar.) 

*Batela, n. also Betela, a kind of 
sailing vessel common at Z., smaller 
than bdgala, cut-water sligh'tlv curved 
like a boat, square stern and usually 
a small quarterdeck. See Chombo. 

*-bathiri, -bathirifu, a. extrava- 
gant, prodigal. (Ar. Ci.ubathirifu, 
and bat Hi, ubatili.') 

*Bati, n. (i) tin, block tin, sheet 
tin. Also used of (2) corrugated 




iron sheeting (ma-). Tia bati, tin, 
cover a copper vessel with tin. 

*Batili, v. make worthless, reduce 

to nothing, cancel, annul, abolish, 

treat as of no use, defy, transgress. 

fs.batiliwa. Kt.batilika. Ap.&z/*'/- 

Cs. batil'isha, -ishiva, &c. 

-batili, a. and -batilifu, worth- 
less, invalid, of no use (force, oreffect). 
Hoja batili, a futile argument. 
iU batili, that marriage is null and 
void. (Ar. Cf. ubatili, and 13. syn. 
z, v.) 

*Batli, n. log, in naut. sense, i. e. a 
ship's record or journal. (? Hind.) 

Batobato, n. (i) open place 
where dancing takes place, dancing- 
yard (more commonly kiwanja cha 
ngoma in Z.) ; (a) markings, coloured 
spots or stripes, of animal or insect. 
Also adv. (as if batabata) of waddling, 
flat-footed gait. Yule ana batobato, 
lie walks Hat-footed. Also kibato- 
bato, with various spots (markings). 
(Cf. kipaku, and madoadoa.) . 

Bau, n. ( , and ), also Bao, 
a board, and as contr. with ubau 
(ml>au) t a large board ; usually of a 
board of special kind or foi 
purpose, e.g. a bench or table; and 
i a playing-board, for chess, 
cards, but most commonly (a) for a 
favourite game called Bao simply, or 
Bao la mtaji, like a chess-board with 
64 (sometimes 32) holes for squares, 
and seeds or pebbles for <. 
Chcza boo, play the Bao game. 
ban is also used of (3) a game, gener- 
ally , or victory in a game. Twaliwa- 
funga (or twaliwatid) mat' 
we won six games. Tia bau, mark 
a game, win ; (4) a diviner's board, 
esp. bau la nuhanga, a board covered 
and, called also ramli (Ar. 
for sand) and (locally) kibun 

omens. (Cf. ufiau.) 

*Baura, n. anchor of European 
pattern and make, with tw< flukes 
(tnaJ^ombt\ Also called nanga y'a 
baura. (Cf. syn. nanga.) 

Bavunl, adv. loc., alongside, at 
the side. See Ubavu. 

Bawa, n. (ma-\ wing of bird or 
insect. Dim. kibawa. (Cf. utawa, 
wing- feather.) 

*Bawaba, n. ( ,and ma-}, hinge. 
(Hind. Cf./a//a.) 

*Bawabu, n. (wa-), door-k 
house-porter, chamberlain, turnkey. 
B. iva kifungOy gaoler. (Ar. Cf. 
mngojt mlango.) 

*Bawasiri, n. piles, haemorrhoids. 

-baya, a. (mbaya, with D 4 (P), D 6, 
baya with D 5 (S)), bad, in the widest 
sense, i. c. possessing the quality of not 
approving itself or being acceptable, 
whether materially, morally, intel- 
lectually, or aesthetically, i. e. a 
quality which is offensive (in what- 
ever degree or way) to feelings, 
conscience, reason, or taste. It may 
therefore be rendered in a great num- 
ber of ways in English, e.g. painful, 
unpleasant, inconvenient, defective, 
ugly, erroneous, wrong, wicked. 
(Cf. ubaya, -ovu, -bovu, and the opp. 
-tma, -zuri, -zinta,} These and other 
words in Swahili express qualities, 
the degrees and kinds of which are 
not differentiated or clearly 
nized. It is impossible, tin 
to enumerate the rich variety of Eng-. 
lish words, which find their readiest 
and sometimes their only mode of 
rendering in 'them. 

*Bayana, a. and Beyana. See 
Baini. (Ar.) 

*Bayini,v.anda. See Bain i. 

Boeaii, n. (ma-) and Mbaaaai 
(wa-\ trader, tradesman, shopkeeper. 
!. ubazazi, to/in', mtkt* 

Beba, v.* carry on the back, as 
native women do their children in 
a cloth. I's. betwa. Ap. btb-ta, 
-ewa, carry for (in, to, &c.). 
beb-csha, -cshwa, place (a child) on 
the back (of i). Anyc 

na mtoto na abcbc Jiwe, if n 
has no child, let her even bring a 
stone on her back. 




Bebera, n. (ma-}, also Beberu, 
(i) "he-goat ; (2) a strong man. (Cf. 
mbuzi. Beberu, or beru, also means 
an extemporized sail, made of loin- 
cloth, handkerchiefs, &c.) 
*Bedari, n. See Abedari. 
*Bedawi, n. (ma-}, a Bedouin, 
wanderer, outcast. Mfano wao kama 
Mabedawi, they looked like Bedouins. 

*Bedeni, n. a kind of sailing ves- 
sel 'from Arabia cut- water and mast 
perpendicular, sharp stern, and high 
rudder-head. See Chombo. (? Ar.) 
*Bse, int. also Ebbe, for Lebeka, 
which see. n. See Bei. 

*Beek, int. for Lebeka, which see. 

Bega, n. (ma-\ shoulder of man 

or animal. Chukua mzigo begani 

(kwa bega,juuya bega}, carry a load 

on the shoulder. 

*Behewa, n. inner court sur- 
rounded by buildings and open to the 
air, as in all large stone houses in Z. 

*Bei, n. also Bee, trade, commerce, 
bargain, sale, business transaction. 
Piga (pigana} bei, drive a bargain. 
Bei hiyari, mortgage with option oJ 
realizing by sale. Bei rehani, mort 
gage with right to amount of debt only. 
(Ar. Cf. biashara, ubazazi.} 

*Beina, adv. also Baina, in the 
midst, between. Beinaya, amongst, 
between. (Ar. for more usual 

Bekua, v. keep off, ward off 
parry, strike aside, divert, receive 
and return a ball (blow, &c.), defend 
oneself, counteract. B. mainzi, keep 
off flies. B. mchele katika pishi, 
knock off the overflowing rice in a 
full measure. Ps. bekuliwa. Nt 
bekulika. Ap. beku-lia, -liwa 
Cs. beku-lisha, -lishwa. Rp. be 
kuana. (Cf. kinga, epa, linda.} 

*Belghamu, n. phlegm. (Arab 
for B. kohozi, or kipande cha kohozi 
i. e. expectorated matter.) 

Bemba, v. wheedle, cajole, fawi 
on, coax, caress, solicit, try to in 

fluence, win the favour (consent) of. 
>s. bembwa. Nt. bembekq. Ap. 
>eml>-ea, -ewa t -elea, -elewa, -eleza, 
&c., usu. with Intens. force. Cha- 
kula cha kubembelezea njaa, food 
cooked to take the edge off the appe- 
tite. Amenibembeleza nimfanyizie 
kazi, he has coaxed me into making 
a job for him. Bembeleza macho, 
Dut on a coaxing expression. Hence 
bembelezana. Cs. bemb-eza, -ezwa. 
(Cf. bembe, -bembe, ubembe, nbe- 
mbelezi, &c.) 

Bembe, n. pastry, confectionery, 
sweetmeats, esp. of a lover's presents, 
dainty dishes sent during Ramathan, 
&c. (Cf. bemba.} 

-bembe, a. enticing, coaxing, 
wheedling, coquettish. (Cf. bcmba, 
bembe, ubembe.) 

*Bendera, n. and Bandera, (i) 
flag ; (2) (the Arabian flag being red), 
red cotton cloth, Turkey red calico. 
B. maradufu, red cotton drill or 
twill. Twcka b., hoist a flag. 
Shusha (tud) b., lower a flag. Be- 
ndera hufuatapepo, the flag goes with 
the wind. (Ar.) 

Benua, v. cause to project, stick 
out, bulge, protrude, put forward, 
expose to view. Ps. benuliwa. Nt. 
benuka, bulge, stick out, be convex. 
(Cf. mbinu, and syn. toa nje, tokeza^} 

*Bereu, n. a sticky black stuff, 
black paint. (? Hind.) 

*Beti, n. ( , and ma-\ (i) small 
pouch, pocket bag, case. B. ya 
kiasi, cartridge pouch. Mabeti kiu- 
noni, cartridge belt round the waist 
(possibly from Eng.'belt'); (2) verse 
or couplet of a poem. Uimbo 
huu una beti tatu, this song has 
three verses. (Ar.) 

*Betili, n. and Batili, a kind of 
sailing vessel from the Persian gulf- 
long projecting prow, sharp stern, 
high rudder-head. (See Chombo, 
and dist. batela.} 

*Bi, prep, by, with, in, &c. 
(Arab., used in a few phrases, e. g. 
bi nafsiyake, by himself, and appears 




in a few words such as bilaski, bi- 

Bia, n. used, with various verbs, of 
joint action,co-operation, partnership, 
association, in business or pleasure. 
Fanya bia, do in common, act as a 
company, go shares in. Changa 6., 
make a joint contribution. Gcrtva b. t 
divide into shares. Saftri b. t travel 
together, each paying his own ex- 
penses. Kula b., dine together at 
the expense of all. Xtinna />., pur- 
chase jointly. (Cf. shariki, and 
contr. kikoa.} 

Bia, n. (*<*-), a large cooking 
pot. (Cf. kiHa.) 

*Biashara, n. buying and selling, 
trade, commerce. Fanya b., engage 
in trade. B. t/e, trade is brisTc. 
Mfanyi b., trader, merchant (Ar. 
bay wa shira, sale and purchase. 
Cf. / 

*Bibi, n. C , and ma-}, term of 
respectful reference and address to 
women (i) in general, 'lady, my 
>'; (2) used of the 
V of a household, by or in 
reference to its members, slaves and 
others, ' the mistress, my mi 
(3) also grandmother, and (4) used 
wife,' by or in reference to the 
husban urteous than wXr, 

When there are several 
ladies in a household, they are dis- 
tinguished at bil'i ntkubwa, the mis- 
tress, and hibi mdogo of other 
Sometimes the phrase kina bibi, the 

.k, the ladies, is us- 
courteous vagueness of one or more 

(Hind. Cf. Aral 
rarely heard.) 

Bibo, n. (ma-\ cashew ap| 
of the mbibo. (C'f. mbibo, korotho % 

mbichi with P 
(P)), (i) not full-grown, unri 

; (a) raw, fresh, newly gath- 
ered, e.g. of eggs, gnus, men 
kaa ynbif 
lime, fresh plas: 
raw flesh, underdone meat 

Majani mabichi, fresh, green grass. 
(Contr. -bivu, and cf. uhehi.) 

*Bidi, v. put pressure on, make 
obligatory on, compel, oblige, esp. 
of moral pressure, duty , honou : 
lege. Akanibidi kuleta washahidi, 
and he bound me to produce wit- 
nesses. Frequent as an impersonal 
verb. Ikabidi, ,it was necessar 
was an obligation. Ikambidikukatwa 
mkono, he was compelled (sentenced) 
to have his hands cut off. Imcni- 
I'idi, I feel bound to. Fs. bidiwa % 
be under obligation to. Ap. bidia, 
Cs. bidisha, and Intens. 
jibidisha, take special pains. (Ar. 
Cf. follg. and pasa, lazima, shuru- 

*Bidii, n. effort, energy, exertion, 
exercise (of strength or will), moral 
force, willingness to work. Fa- 
nya 6., work hard, take pains, show 
energy (interest, earnestness). Affu 
wa b., a man of energy, willing 
worker. (Ar. Cf. bidi t and B. 
syn. utettdaji.) 

*Bikari, n. pair of compasses, 
compass for drawing. (Arab.) 

*Bikira, n. (ma-\ a virgin. (Ar. 
rnwanamwaJi, and follg.) 

*Bikiri, v. deprive of virginity, 
deflower. Ps. bikirirva. (A: 

Bila, prep, and Bill*, without, 
except by, apart from, with n 

:. or ya. Sitoeti kukaa bit la 
umot remain without a wife. 
Billa ytye kutoa fikira* without his 
disclosing his idea. Billa tttkuru, 
without excuse. Also with ya, 
b. ya amri. except by order. B.ya 
kujua maatt^ knowing the 

meaning. (Ar. Cf. a syn. fa- 

BilMhi, adv. without (Retting) 

gratuitously. L'turttdi / 

use your t (Ar. 

bila thai, for the commooer farrf.) 
Bilouri. n. (i) crystal, glass; (a) 



glass, tumbler, wine-glass. Jiwe la 
6., rock crystal. Kikombe cha b., a 
glass cup, tumbler. Lete b., bring 
a glass. (Ar.) 

*Bildi, n. plummet, sounding-lead, 
i. e. lisas I ya kupimia ma/i, lead for 
measuring (the depth of) water. Tia 
6., plumb, sound. (Ar. Cl.chubwi, 

*Bilingani, n. (ma-}, and Bili- 
nganya (ma-), a dark purple vege- 
table of the tomato kind, fruit of the 
Mbilingani (which see), sometimes 
called ' mad apple.' 

*Bilisi, n. (ma-), devil, the devil, 
Satan. (Arab, for common shetani. 
Cf. ubilisi.) 

*Bilula, n. a tap, turncock. 
*Bima, n. insurance against loss, 
accidents, &c. Lipa b., too, b., pay 
(effect) insurance of goods in com- 
merce. Fanya mashartiya b. } draw 
up a deed of insurance. Also 
as v., insure, effect insurance on. 

*Bin, n. son (of). (Arab, for 
common B. mzuana.) 

*Binadamu, n. member of human 
race, human being, man. Hence 
kibinadamu, of a human kind, human, 
natural to man, and ubinadamu, 
human nature, humanity. (Ar 
bin Adamu. Cf. B. mtu.) 

Binda, n. an Indian vegetable 
a kind of hibiscus also known a; 

Bindo, n. (ma-), fold of the loin 
cloth, used as a pocket, bag, recep 
tacle for carrying things, pocket 
purse. Peso, largu nimelipiga b., ". 
have fastened my farthing in my loin 
cloth. Kinga ., hold out a fold o 
the loin-cloth to receive something 
Iliyo bindoni, what is in the pocket 
safe, secure. (Cf. pinda, upindo 
&c., which is perh. the same word, 
also uwinda, ubinda, and for ' bag 
bundle ' tf.furushi, bahasha.) 

Bingwa, a. and -bingwa, clever 
knowing, shrewd, capable. Fund 
huyu mbingwa, he is a good work 

28 -BISHI 

man. (Cf. ubingwa, and syn. 
stadi, waria.) 

*Bini, v. =Buni, which see. ( Ar.) 
*Binti, n. daughter, young lady. 
Vhen followed by the father's name, 
vithdut preposition, forms the usual 
lesignation of all women in Zanzibar 
xcept of the lowest class slaves, 
beggars, and freed slaves, e. g. binti 
Alt, binti Abdallah, binti Sulemani. 
Not used by itself in address, except 
n a familiar way to young persons', 
my daughter.' (Ar. Cf. POT, and 
syn. mwana.) 

*Birika, n. ( , and ma-, according 
o size), (i) large metal vessel for 
lolding water, large kettle.; (2) cis- 
ern, tank, bath of masonry, such as 
are found in all the better houses of 
Zanzibar, either for holding rain- 
water or for bathing purposes. Some- 
times (3) of ordinary European bath. 

*Birinzi, n. a particular dish of 
cooked food meat, rice, pepper, &c. 
(Cf. pilau.) 

*Bisbis, n. ( ), and Bisibisi, 
screwdriver. (Hind. Dist. bisi.) 

Bisb.a t v. (i) strike, knock, beat, 
bit against. B. mlango, knock at a 
door. B. hodi, knock and ask leave 
to enter by saying 'hodi,' the rule of 
courtesy universal in Z. (2) Oppose, 
resist, strive against, argue with, 
quarrel with; (3) joke, jest (cf. 
ubishi); (4) (of a ship), beat, tack. 
B. chombo, work a ship to windward. 
(Cf. bisho.) Ps. bishwa. Ap. 
bish-ia, -iwa, -iana. Mtu huyu 
amenibishia hatta tumeteta, this man 
opposed me, till at last we quarrelled. 
Rp. bisk-ana, -ania, -any a. Bishana 
maneno (or kwa maneno), joke to- 

f'ther, argue together, wrangle. 
ishanya, shake together, mix by 
shaking. (Cf. bisho, -biski, ubishi, 

-bishi, a. of one who is always 
opposing, whether (r) goodhumour- 
edly, 'joking, jesting,' or more com- 
monly (2) captious, argumentative, 


combative, contradictory, obstinate 
. >'killii urnwambialo hakubali, 
finds fault with everything you say. 
(Cf. fiisAa, ubishi, bishop 

Bisho, n. also Mbisho, working 
to windward, beating, tacking. Upepo 
wa b., head wind. Piga b., beat to 
windward. (Cf. bisha, mbisho, &c.) 

*Bisi, n. also Mbiai, parched 
grains of Indian corn, described as 
mahindi yaliyokaangwa, a favourite 
preparation, cried in the streets of Z. 
as bisi mofo, hot t>isi. There is also 
bisi la nitama, made of millet. 

*Bitana,n. lining. Nguoyabitana, 
clothes made with two thicknesses of 
material. (Ar. C. bafta, used as 
lining, and tabaAa, maradufu^ 

"Bithaa, n. goods (for trading), 
merchandise. Fetha no. bithaa, cash 
and goods, money and kind. 

;, a. mbiru, with D 6, D 4 
uured, ripe, well cooked, opp. 
'./. Etnbe mbivu, ripe man- 
goes. Nyamambivu, well-done meat. 
(Cf. tia, ubiru, and the less common 
forms -wivu, or -ivu, uivu, but dist. 
. jealous.) 

Biwi, n. (,/wa-), heap of plantation 
or garden rubbish, sweepings, refuse, 

Bizari, n. small seed such as 

pepper, caraway, and other condi- 

>cd in making curries. Hence 

sometimes ' curry powder.' B. tune, 

* Ar.) 

*Bizimu, n. a buckle, brooch, 
clasp, fastening. (Ar.) . 

*Bobari, n. en renter's rounded 
chisel, gouge, also known as nrabn. 

Bofu, n. (MM-), a Urge bladder. 
(Also heard as variant of pofu, froth, 
and -born. '. kibofu.) 

Boga, n. (ma-), pun 

vegetables in general.) 

Bohari, n. ( , and **), store- 
house, warehouse, large shop, maga- 
zine, go-down, described as nyumba 
(ya ktfexkea vi/u , house for 
goods (for storing things). Mabokari 


ya makuti, thatched store-houses. 

*Bohora, n. (ma-\ also Bohra, a 
member of one of the two chief sects 
or divisions of Mahommcdan Hindoos 
in Z., the other being Khoja. 
sect has its own mosques, club, bury- 
ing ground, &c. 

*Boi, n. (///a-), house servant, 
personal attendant, domesti 
/any a boi, be servant. Taka boi t 
apply for service. (From Eng. boy. 
Cf. mtumishi, mwandishi, and see 

*Boko, n. (nta-\ hippopotamus, 
esp. of a large size, the dim. kiboko 
being the common name 

Bokoboko, n. a particular dish of 
cooked food (Str.), and hence to de- 
scribe other things of a soft, jelly-like 

Boma, n. (mo-), any kind of raised 
structure for defensive purposes, (i) 
earthwork, outer wall, rampart, 
mound, palisade, stockade, fence, and 
hence (a) fort, redoubt, castle. (Cf. 
bomoa, and syn. ngomc, fort, and dist. 
ua f fence of yard or garden, uJtuta, 
wall of house, partition wall.) 

Bomba, n. (i) pump. Bombay* 
maji, a pump for drawing 
water. Also used of (a) chimney of 
a steamer, or any large pipe. 


Bomb wo, n. (ma-), cut figure, 

carved pattern, carving, sculpture. 


7 \pv-j' ** / 

lown, break/ 
in, cause to ' 

terns). (Also tifiomtw (vt-). 
more usual tkoro, maJkski.) 

Bomoa, v. break down, 
through, make a breach 
fall down. esp. of a wall or fence, or 
other artificial structure. 1't. AMW 
leva. Nt. bomoka, fall down, be 
broken through, collapse. A p. 
wa k*b*- 


molea, a crowbar to break down a 

Ca. bcmo-ika* -sJhfa. 

(Cf. boma, and /vrvm^ka, /n*m*Aa, 

sometimes heard as fomotka or bo- 




Bomu, n. (ma-), boom, sound of 
a drum, esp. of the larger, deep 
sounding kind, or of a cannon. Bo 
mu la gogo, a long drum with low 

Bonde, n. ( , and ma-}, valley, 
hollow between hills, low -lying 
country. (Cf. -Bonder, the country 
between the Usambara hills and the 
coast near Tanga and Pangani, Ger 
man East Africa.) 

Bonge, n. (ma-}. See Donge. 
Bongo, n. (/-), brains, marrow 
(Cf. ubongo.) 

*Bonth, n. bridge, rarely heard 
(Cf. Fr. pont, and syn. daraja, ulalo) 
Bonyea, v. yield to pressure, give 
way, sink in, be crushed, e. g. of soft 
ground, ripe fruit, &c., and other 
inanimate objects. Nt. bonyeka. 

Cs. bony-esha, -eza, press in, make 
impression on, examine by feeling 
and pressing. (Cf. syn. tomasa, of 
animate objects, and bopa) 

Bopa, v. (i) be soft to the touch, 
. soften, feel soft, as of ripe fruit, an 
abscess, &c. ; (a) sink in, become 
hollow (concave). Ap. bopea. 
' Mashavu yake yamebopea, his cheeks 
are sunken (hollow). Cs. bop-esha, 
-eshiva (and possibly bobya, bofya, cf. 
apa,afyaiorapisha) , press with finger, 
make impression on, feel. (Cf. 
bonyea, bonyesha (which implies 
greater force and effect), tomasa, and 

Bopo, n. (ma-), soft place, mud- 
hole, pit. (Kr.) 

*Bora, a. of special quality (im- 
portance, or value), fine, high class, 
first-rate, excellent, good, noble, &c., 
often with implied comparison,' better, 
the better, best.' Tumbako bora, 
there is nothing like tobacco. Asi- 
kari ndume bora, magnificent fighting 
men. (Ar. Cf. afathali, better, 
superior, and -ema, -zuri) 

*Bori, n. (i ) clay bowl of a tobacco 
pipe. See Kiko, Tosa. (2) Tusk of 
ivory. See Buri! 

*Boriti, . n. also Borti, pole oi 

the kind used for rafters in East 
Africa. (These poles are still an 
important article of trade on the 
African and Arabian coasts. They 
are a kind of mangrove, straight, 
hard, and (if kept dry) very durable, 
and carry the heavy concrete ceilings 
and roofs of all stone houses, inci- 
dentally limiting the dimensions of 
rooms and arrangement of the whole.) 
*Borohoa, n. a native dish, beans, 
&c., pounded into a paste or thick 
broth and flavoured. 

Boromoka, Boromoko. See Po- 
romoka, &Q. 

Boronga, v. make a mess, muddle, 
fuss, bungle, mix. B. kazi, do a job 
badly (in a muddling, unworkman- 
like way). Sometimes Redupl. boro- 
nga-boronga. Ps. borongwa. (Cf. 
follg., also buruga, -vuruga.) 

Borongo, n. muddle, mess, bungle. 
Kaziya b., a badly done job. 
Borotangi, n. See Buratangi. 
Boruga, v. See Buruga. 
-bovu, a. (mbovu with D 6, D 4 
(P)), bad, chiefly of physical con- 
dition, i. e. rotten, unsound, unhealthy, 
spoilt, decomposed, putrid: Matunda 
mabovu, rotten, unsound fruit. Sa- 
maki mbovu, stale fish. Hence also 
(2) worthless, unfit for use or service. 
Mtu mbovu, an ill-conditioned, un- 
sound, worthless man. (Cf. the 
more comprehensive word -bay a, and 
note, and the apparently cognate 
word -&vu, which indicates usually 
bad moral .condition. Mtu mwovu, 
an evilly disposed, unprincipled, bad- 
natured man. Contr. -zima, -zurt, 

Boza, n. an intoxicating prep 
tion of bhang. (See Bahgi.) Hence 
peril; bozibozi, idle, dull, incapable of 
work. (St.) 

Bu int. descriptive of the thud < 
a heavy blow or fall. Anguka bu, 
fall heavily. Piga bu, give a heavy 

Bua, n. (ma-), stalk, stem, of the 
larger grasses, e.g. of mtama, millet, 




or muhindi, Indian corn. Used for 
house walls, fencing, and firing. 
(Cf. nbita, of smaller kinds.) 

Buba, n. a bad skin disease, of 
a persistent and contagious kind. 

Bubu, n. (ma-), a dumb person, 
mute, dumb. Stma kwa bibubu, 
speak in dumb language, i. e. by signs. 

Bubujika, v. bubble out, burst 
forth in a flood. B. mac Ac 
into a flood of tears. />'. maneno, 
come out with a torrent of words. 

*Buddi, n. escape, way out, alter- 
native, means of avoiding. Seldom 
used except with negative parts of 
kutva na, to have, in such phrases as 
hakuna b. t necessarily, undoubtedly, 
it must be so ; sina b n I must, I can- 
not avoid it. Ilaina b. kuniambia 
habariya&o, there is no escape from 
telling me about yourself. Bitta 
b., inevitably, surely. Bassi mimi 
nina b.ya kulia ? What ! Can I help 
crying? .(Ar. Cf. labuda, Buddi 
is sometimes heard as bundi?) 

Buhuri, n. incense. (Arab. Cf. 
and vuHza.} 

Bugu, n. (ma-}, a thick kind of 
withy, used as cord for binding. (Cf. 
mbugu, nbugu.} 

Buibui,n. ( , and ma-\ (i) spider. 
Tando la (utando u>a) b. t spider's 
web; (a) a kind of large veil, cover- 
ing the whole figure entirely, worn 
by some women (Arab, Comoro, and 
others) in Z. when out of doors. 

Buki. n. Madagascar. Often in 
i tint. Also -butt, a., of 
scar. cf. Mhiki, a Malagasy. 
Bata : a goose. A dis- 

trict of Ng'ambo in Z. is called A'wa 

Buku, n. ma- , the very large, 
long-tailed rat common in town ana 
u is also some- 
time* used of 'a book/ from the 
ut cf. kitabu t (ktto, msa- 


Bukua, v. hunt out a v- 

reveal. Cf. mb*k*lia^ 
Bulangeni, a. used of coloured, 

striped, variegated objects, 

vessel painted in two or more colours, 

a coloured wall, Sec. (? Ar.) 

*Bulangeti, n. also Burangiti. 
blanket, rug. B. magongoni, blan- 
kets at their backs, of a soldier's kit 
(From the Eng.) 

*Buli, n. ( , and ma-\ teapot. 
Also b. ya kahawa, coffee-pot, 
which is commonly mdila or deli. 

Bumba, n. ( , and ma-\ also 
Pumba, lump. B. la tumbako, 
plug, or packet, of tobacco. B. la 
udongo t clod of earth. B. 

cluster of bees, when swarming. 
Dim. kibumba. (Cf. bumbwi, and 

Bumbuazi, n. utter perplexity. 
helpless amazement, confusion of 
senses. Kupigm* (ktuhikwd) ttd 6., 
to be dumbfounded, to lose one's 

Bumbwi, n. grain (rice, millet, 
&c.) pounded and mixed up with 
grated cocoanut. 

*Bumia, n. beam forming stern- 
post of native vessel, fastened to the 
keel (mut:u\ and carryiag the rud- 
der-post (/as'Ainf). 

Bumurida, n. ( , and v. 
kind of dumpling or soft cake 

Bundi, n. ( , or ma- t aci 
to size), an owl. (Dist. bundi, as 
a variant of bttd*.) 

Bundlka, v. nlait the hair, msed 
of a simple kind of plaiting in three 
(Cf. aria, of more el 


*Bnnduki, n. gun, rifle, 
Pig* >., fire a gun. Eltkn* 

bunduki, keep up a fusillade 

are described at b. ya. jiwt, or ya 

gttmtgumt, a flint gna ; b. 

a matchlock gun ; b. ya 

or yafataki, a muzzle-loading gun; 

b. ya kuvunja, or ya k****ja, a 

porting (hinged) gon (rifle). 

3K a Irr^h-'.^iun: rrv. /, ,., 
mwmtmi-r.j,. ,,r ,.ix,,,,/,i W /-,/,. n 
double - l.aircllc.1 


trade guns are sometimes called 
bwiduki ya kindoro, or ya makoa. 
( Ar ^ ' 

*Bungala, n. Bengal. Used of 
a species of rice, and of banana. 
(Cf. mchele, ndizi.} 

Bungo, n. (ma-}, fruit of mbungo, 
a kind of medlar. (Cf. mbungo.) 

Bungu, n. (ma-), (i) fruit of 
mbungu, an india-rubber producing 
plant (cf. mbungu}', (2) a large 
earthenware dish. B. la kupozea ujt, 
a dish to cool rice-gruel in. Dim. 
kOungu. (3) A kind of caterpillar 
*Buni, v. sometimes Bim, (i) 
copstruct, contrive, compose, invent, 
make for the first time ; (a) fabri- 
cate make up (what is false), imagine, 
write fiction, &c. Ps. buniwa. 
Nt. bunika. Ap. bun-ia, -iwa, 
-ika. -ikana. Cs. bun-isha, -ishwa, 
&c.' B. mjt, found a town. B. 
kitabu, be the author of a book. 
B. kitu kisichotambulikana, invent 
an unheard-of contrivance. Maneno 
haya ya k^lb^^n^wa, these are purely 
imaginary statements. Alibunineno 
asilottimwa, he invented a message 
he was not charged with. (Ar. 
Cf. zua, tunga, vumbua.} 

*Buni, n. (i) fruit of mbum 
(which see), coffee berry, raw coffee. 
B. ya kahaiva, coffee beans. B. 
iliyotwangwa, pounded (ground) 
coffee berries. (2) An ostrich. (Ar.) 
Bunju, n. a poisonous fish of the 
Diodon (Globe-fish) kind. 

Bunzi, n. (ma-}, a large stinging 
fly, building a clay nest. 

Bupu, n. (ma-}. Bupu la dafu, 
used of the cocoanut, when full of 
milk, and just forming a soft layer of 
nutty substance in the shell. (Cf. 

Bupuru, n. (ma-}, an empty shell 
(external case). B. la kichwa, skull. 

*Bura, n, a kind of Muscat cloth. 
See Nguo. 

*Burai, v..make a peaceful sett 
ment (with, about), give up claim to 


resign, let off payment. B. mahari, 
not to claim a dowry. Ps. buraiwa. 
Ap. bura-ia, -iwa. Cs. buraisha. 
(Ar., not common. Cf. syn. samehe, 

*Buratangi, n. also Borotangi, 
Portangi, Burutangi, a toy kite of 
paper, Indian make, causing a whirr- 
ing sound. (Cf. skada.} 

"*Buri, n. (ma-}, and Bori, ete 
phant's tusk, tusk of ivory, larger 
than kalasha. (Cf. pembe, kalasha.) 
*Buriani, n. used of final arrange- 
ments, esp. on parting company, last 
, words, farewells, &c. Kuwapa ra- 
\fiki yao !>., to give their friends a 
farewell (send-off). Takana (agana) 
b., 'exchange final farewells. (? Cf. 
Ar. burai.} 

*Burre, adv. (i) gratis, gratui- 
tously, for nothing, without payment ; 
(2) uselessly, vainly, in vain, for no 
rood cause or result, idly, fruitlessly. 
Kazi burre, labour for nothing, i.e. 
wasted, or unpaid. Tukana watu 
burre, abuse people without cause. 
Also as n. maneno ya burre, i< 
(frivolous, foolish) words, 
of Oman?) 

*Buruda, n. prayers for sick 
dying, Mahommedan ' Visitation of the 
Sick ' Chuo cha buruda, service for 
the sick. (Arab. Cf. baridi, buru- 
disha, &c., and for other services 
fatiha, hitima, soma.) 

*Burudi, v. be (get) cool, be cold, 
but usu. in the neut. form burudika, 
be cooled, refreshed, relieved, com- 
forted. Ps.burudiwa. Ap.l'urudta. 
Cs. burud-isha, -ishwa, cool, refresh, 
& c . (Ar. Cf. baridi, buruda, and 
B. syn. poa, get cool.) 

Buruga, v. (i) stir up, mix to- 
gether, beat up together, e. g. m pre- 
paring food ; (2) put into confusion, 
disorder, muddle; (3) stir the soil, 
prepare a bed for planting, by hoe- 
ing, removing weeds, &c. 
burugiwa. Nt. burugika. Ap. bu- 
rtig-ia, -iwa. Cs. burug-tsha, 
-ishwa. Rp. buruganya, stir up 




together, mix together. (Cf. bo- 
"iburugo, and koroga, vuruga^) 

*Buruji, n. fortress, fort, castle. 
. Cf. ngome, boma.} 

Burura, v. pull, haul, drag along 
on the ground. Ps. bururiwa. Nt. 
bururika. Ap. burur-ia, -tu-a. Cs. 
burur-isha, 'ishwa, e.g. bururisha 
ndoo kisimani, haul a bucket up from 
a well. (Cf. mbururo, and syn. 
kokota, vuta.} 

*Busara, n. (i) good sense, prac- 
tical wisdom, prudence, sagacity, 
skill, &c. ; (a) plan, device, strata- 
gem. Leta &., employ a device. 
(Ar. Cf. akili.) 

*Buaati, n. a kind of matting, 
made at Muscat. (Str.) 

*Busha. n. gun- wad, tow (for 
cleaning gun or cannon). 

Bushaahi, n. a kind of muslin. 

Buahuti, n. thick woollen stuff, 
blanket. (Ar. Prop, of Arab burn- 
ous, black cloaks of woollen cloth or 
camel's hair.) 

*Buatani, n. a garden. (Ar. or 

*Busu, v. kiss. Ps. busiu 
busika. Ap. but-ia, -iwa. 
Busiana mikono, kiss each other's 
hands. Cs. bus-isha, -ishu\: 
bwana. n. (ma-~) t a kiss. (Ar.) 

'Buthara, n. prodigality, lavish 
outlay. (Arab. Cf. -bathirifu, 
gharama, and B. syn. upetevu wa 

Buu, n. (ma-}, maggot, grab, 
larva. B. la nyuki, bee grab. B. 
likamea mbawa, the grab grew wings. 

Buyu, n. wa-; , fruit of the baobab 

tree (mbuyu, which tee), calabash. 

edible, and the bosk is 

used to draw water -> 

buyu often means 'a native bucket, 

n. Jibuti, 

Bwaga, v. throw off, thr..w down, 
relieve oneself of (as t 

mztgo, tip a load off one's shoulders, 
throw it on the ground. /> 
throw down cocoanuts (from a tree). 
B. moyo, rest the mind, be cheered. 
/>. uimbo, give a lead in singing. 
B. matitkano, let off a volley of 
abuse. Ps. bwagwa. Nt. bwagiJka. 
A p. bwag-ia, -iwa. Jibwagia moyo t 
relieve one's mind. Cs. bwag-iut t 
'tbwagasa, throw oneself down, 
sprawl on the ground. 

Bwana, n. ( , and ma-\ used (i) 
in reference,' master , owner, possessor ' 
of slaves, house, plantation or other 
property, and generally 'great man, 
dignitary, worthy, personage ' ; (a) in 
address, 'Master, Mr., Sir. 1 Often 
bwana mkubwa, to show special 
respect, and contr. bwana mdogo of 
the next in rank, or inferior. Bwana 
is also used by women of and to their 
husbands, and in Z. is a common 
designation of the Sultan as supreme. 
(For the root -ana, cf. mttxxwa, 

Bweta, n. small box, such as a 
desk, work-box, cash-box, jewel-case, 
&c. (?Portug. or French, or Ar. 
dim. of bet. Cf. syn. kasha, sa~ 


O is used only in com) 
H, to represent the sound of ck in 
Knglish or ty, i. e. a sound between 
/ and ch % as in Mature. 

OH (i) represents the \ 
(which see) (a) regularly before ad- 
jectives (including the Prom 

rise-signs beginning with a 
vowel, e. g. kit* changu (for ki-angu\ t 
mylhing; kim ckakata(S<n K*'kata\ 
the knife cuts; kikao 

ma ki-o kt-ott), any good 
dwelling whatever; (b) sometimes 
before other than adjectival roots 
beginning with a vowel, c. g. (hangs 
(for ki-angch, (huo (for ki-uo\* book ; 
chombo((oi foomt*), a vessel ; ehumba 
(for ki-umba}, room in a house. 




In all these cases the correspond- 
ing plural pfx. is vy-. 

(2) Is a vulgar pronunciation of 
ki often heard among the poorer 
class and slave population of Zan- 
zibar, e. g. chitu for kitu t thing ; chende 
for tende, dates. 

(3) In the Zanzibar dialect oiten 
represents a / or ty at Mombasa, as 
chupa for tupa, bottle ; chungwa for 
tungwa, orange ; inchifor nti, country. 

(4) Is practically often not dis- 
tinguished from sh or /, except in 
words where the distinction is neces- 
sary to make the meaning clear. 

Hence words not found under Ch 
may be looked for under ki,j, t, or sh. 
Words beginning with ch are with 
very few exceptions of Bantu origin. 
Ch-, (i) = ki. (See prec. and Ki-) ; 
(2) is the pfx. corresponding to D 3 (S) 
in all adjectives and tense-prefixes in 
verbs, when they begin with a vowel. 
(See prec.) 

Cha, prep, form of -a (which 
see), agreeing with D 3 (S), meaning 
'of.' &c., e.g. kisu cha chuma, a 
knife of iron ; chumba cha Invana, the 
master's room ; and with kitu under- 
stood, cha kula, food ; cha kuogea, a 

Cha, v. (also kucha m some forms. 
For use of ku before monosyllabic 
verb-roots, see Ku-, i (</).) (i)fear, 
be apprehensive of, reverence. Not 
often heard in Z. except in reference 
to God. Kuntcha Muungu, to fear 
God. ?s.chewa. Jinalakolichewe, 
may your name be feared. (Cheka 
is usually quite a different word, 
which see.) Ap. chea, chelea, chele- 
wa, &c. Mchea mwana kuha, hulia 
yeye he who fears for his child's cry- 
ing, will cry himself. Mchelea bahari 
si msafiri, he who is nervous about 
the sea is no traveller. See also 
Chelewa. C*.cheska. Rp.chana. 
(These derived forms must be dis- 
tinguished from identical forms with 
different meaning, see (2) follg. 
Cf. -cha, uchaji, and syn. hofu, oga, 

o%opa). (a) Dawn, change to dawn, 
be morning. Kunakucha, it is dawn- 
ing. Kumekucha, dawn has come. 
Hajacha, it is not yet dawn. Killa 
kukicha, also killa uehao,i.e. ussu- 
buhi, every morning at dawn. Au- 
kacha mwanga, and the light (of 
morning) dawned. Usiku na uche 
hima, I hope the night will soon be 
over (turn to dawn). The Infin. 
form kucha is regularly used as an., 
dawn, morning. Kucha kucha, just 
dawn, early morning. Also com- 
monly, with or without usiku, of the 
whole period of darkness ending with 
dawn. Usiku kucha, all night long, 
till dawn of day. Hakulala kucha, 
he had no sleep all night. Cf. Ps. 
form kuchwa follg., with which it i 
also combined, kuchwa kucha, all 
day and all night. Kucha hatta 
kuchwa, from morning till evening. 
(Cf. mchanajicho, niacho,\.e.y(ijua, 
and for 'morning' alfajiri, assubuht, 
mapampazuko, weupe, and for 'rising 
of *\UL panda, chomoza.} Ps. -chiva, 
set (of the sun), end (of daylight) . (The 
root idea connecting the Act. and 
Ps. is not yet clear.) Ktimekuchwa, 
it is past sunset. Mchunautakuchwa, 
the day will come to an end. Jua 
limekuchwa, the sun is setting. 
Kwachwa, evening is coming on. 
Like kucha (see above) kuchwa is 
used as a n. for whole preceding 
period of the day. Kuchwa, a whole 
day. Nimeshinda leo k., I have 
stopped all day to-day. Robo k., a 
shilling a day. Pesa ya k., a day s 
wages (for which k. alone can be 
used, e. g. k. yake rupia moja, his 
wages for the one day are one rupee). 
Kuchwa kucha, all day and all night. 
Mchana kuchwa, all day long. Ap. 
Act chea, chewa, chelea, chelewa, 
chelesha, chelewesha, &c. Jua lime- 
nichea, the sun rose while I was still 
indoors, I was surprised (overtaken) 
by sunrise, I was caught in bed 
(asleep), also expressed by the Ps. 
form alone nimechewa, i.e. na jua. 




Hence a form of respectful morn- 
cting, not often heard in Z. 
itself, Kuchcwa, i. e. habari ya ku- 
chewa ? How does the morning find 
yon ? Are you well to-day? to which 
the reply is simply Kuchcwa, I am 
well to-day. Hence also the common 
use of cheltwa, be late, prop, of 
being belated, taken by surprise, 
shown to be late in getting up, and 
chu'clrwa in similar sense. See 
Chelewa. Ap. Ps. chwea, chwc- 
wa, chwelea, cnvxlewa, &c. Jua 
limekuchwca njiani, /a/a, the sun has 
set before your journey is over (while 
yon are still on the road), so lie 
down. Tulichwelewa, we were be- 
lated. Cs. chana, e. g. usiku una- 
chana, the night is turning to day. (Cf. 
mach-wa, mathwco, i.e. ya j'tta, and 
for * evening, ' jioni, usiku, magaribi, 
and for 'setting' of sun, shuka, tua.} 

-cha, a. fearing, having fear (awe, 
ce), esp. of religious feeling. 
Mcha Muungu, a God-fearing, reli- 
gious, devout person. Muungu 
humkirimu mcha wake, God is al- 
ways bounteous to him who fears 
him. Cf. cha, v. (i), -thaji, uthaji, 
and syn. -oga, -hofu.) 

Cha, n. See Chai. 

Chacha, v. (i) ferment, as dough, 
native beer, &c. ; (a) froth, foam, 
form a scum ; (3) turn sour, go bad, 
spoil, as stale food, &c. ; (4) fig. be 
sour in temper, cross, irritated. Ps. 
thathiua. Nt. chachika. Ap. 
chach-ia, -iwa, -tana. Wametkathi- 
ana, they are cross with each other. 
Cs. chach-ishai-ishwa, (i) make sour 
(sharp, acid); (a) provoke, exa- 
(Ct.ckathu t ckathM*a. Dist 
Chachia below.) 

Chachaga, v. wash used only of 

washing clothes by robbing in the 

hands and dabbing on a board or 

'".achafiva. Nt. (hagika. 

;:oa. Cs. chatkag- 

i'Ma, -ishwa. (Cf./wa, os>. 

-choche, n. (chache with I) 4 (P), 
D 6), (I) few in number, small (little) 


in quantity, not ir.uch, not many, 
slight, deficient; fa) (few, and soi 
rare, not easily got, scarce, (and so) 
of value. Siku chache, a few days. 
:t>achache t not many people. 
A kilt zake choc he, or me hoc he wa 
akili, he is deficient in sense. (Cf. 
syn. haba, and kidogo.} 

Chachia, v. press on, hamper, 
perplex, involve in difficulties. Ps. 
chachiwa. (Perh. same as tatia, which 
see, and cf. syn. songa,funga, Umea.) 

Chachu, n. substance producing 
fermentation, yeast, leaven, such as 
pombe, unga wa mtama. (Cf. 
chacha, uthachu.) 

Chaohuka, v. (i) turn sour, fer- 
ment; (a) foam, froth. /T,. 
chachuka Uo, the rice has gone sour 
to-day. Bahari inachachuka, the sea 
is frothy (yeasty, churning). (Cf. 
chacha, fhcuhu.} 

Chafl, n. a kind of fish. 

Chafu, n. ( , and ma-\ also 
heard as Chavu, and commonly 
Shavu, which see. 

-chafu, a. (chafu with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), dirty, filthy, unclean, 
impure, obscene. Nguo chafu chafu, 
very dirty clothes. Maneno mathafu, 
obscene language. (Cf. uckafu t 
; h rnildir meaning fAa/ua, 
uchafttko. Also syn. taka, -najisi, 
and contr. sa/S, -tnjx t -nathifu^) 

Chafua, v. ( I make dirty, soil, 
spoil ; (a) make in a mess, disorder, 
disarrange, disturb ; (3) of the sea, 
make rough. Samakt amechafua, 
maji, the fish has made the water 
muddy. Nyumba imechafuka, ya- 
taka kvfagvwa, the house is in a 
mess, it wants to be swe] 
(hafuliwa. Nt. chafuka. Bahari 
ili(hafttka sana, the sea was very 
rough. Mamtx>yamhafu***<hof**a, 
affairs n; onfution. 

fuka moyo (tumbo\ his stomach was 
upset, he was sick. Ap. </;. 

.; :. ,/. '.: ' . . '!.-! 

dirtied my clothes for me. (Ct 




Chafuo, n. a poisonous kind of fly. 

Chafya, v. sneeze. Also n. (wa>)> 

e. g.piga ch., enda fh., sneeze (the v.). 

Paa akaenda chafya, che-e-e, the 

gazelle had a fit of sneezing. 

Chago, n. (i) part of bedstead on 
which the head rests. See Kitanda. 
fa) A kind of crab. (Cf. kaa, n.) 

Chagua, v. (i) choose, select, pick 
out, make a choice ; (2) of biassed or 
partial selection, garble, give a false 
colour to, be unfair. Mchagua 
jembe si mkulinia, a man who is par- 
ticular about his spade is not the 
man to use it. Ps. chagulivia. Ap. 
chagu-lia, -liwa, -lika. Cs. chagu- 
za, -ziva, offer choice to, give an order 
(leave, right) to. choose. Rp. cha- 
guana. Rd. .chagua-chagua, of 
dainty, critical selection. (Cf. -cha 
guzi, mchaguo, and syn. teua.) 

chaguzi, a. given to choosing 
dainty, critical, &c. (Cf. prec 
and syn. rteuzt, also uchagvxi.) 

*Chai, n. also Oha, and Chayi 
tea, plant leaf and beverage. (Hind 
and Ar.) 

-chaji,a. having fear, apprehensive 
reverential, of a more fixed habit anc 
characteristic than -cha. (Cf. cha 
v., uchaji, and -cha, -oga, -hofu} 

Chaka,n. (ma-}, (i) clump of trees 
dense part of a forest,described zsgong 
la mwitu. Dim. kichaka. (2) Sum 
mer,the hot season, i. e. Dec. to Feb 
but musimu, kaskazi are usual in Z 
Chakaa, v. get old, get worn 
wear out, be used up (worn, faded 
be past work, of things and person 
Nguo zimechakaa, the clothes are 
worn out. Ap. chaka-lia, -liwa. 
Cs. chaka-za, -zwa, use up, wear out. 
(Cf. -chakafu, -kukuu, and syn.yf/fo.) 
Chakacha, v. pound, break small, 
as seeds in a mortar. Ch. menoni, 
crunch with teeth. Ps. chakachwa. 
Nt. chakachika, be pounded, be fit 
for pounding. Ap. chakach-ia, 

-iwa, -ika. Cs. chakach-isha, -ishwa. 
Chakacha-chakacha is also used as 
adv. of a rustling crackling sound, as 

f a silk dress, cf. utakaso. (Cf. 
yn. twanga, ponda, seta, vunja, &c.) 
-chakafu, a. (chakafu with D4 
P), D 5 (S), D 6), worn-out, old. 
Nguo ch., worn-out clothes. (Cf. 
hakaa, and syn. -kukttu.} 

Chake, a. pron. of 3 Pers. S. agree- 
ng with D 3 (S), his, hers, her, its, of 
him (her, it). See -ake. 

*Chaki, n. chalk, whiting, putty 

Chako, a. pron. of 2 Pers. S. 
agreeing with D 3 (S), your, yours, 
of you. See -ako. 

Cliakogea, n. (vy-\ a chamber 
bath, for kitu (chombo) cha kuogea t 
something (a vessel) to bathe in. 
(Cf. oga, v., and chakula, chamsha- 

Chakula, n. (vy-, sometimes 
zakula), something to eat, food, vic- 
tuals, provender, a meal, i.e. kitu 
cha kula. Ch. cha assubuhi, break- 
fast, i.e. chamshakinwa. Ch. cha 
mchana (cha athuttrt), midday meal, 
lunch, tiffin. Ch. cha jioni, evening 
meal, dinner, supper, ffuna chakula 
cha kttlisha mimi ivala cha kula 
wewe, you have no food to give me 
to eat or to eat yourself. (Cf. -la, 
v., and makuli.) 

Chakura, v. scratch, e.g. the 
ground like a fowl. Mwana wa 
kuku hafunzwi kachakura, a 
chicken is not taught scratching. 
(Cf. mchakuro xn&chokora, and syn. 

Chale, n. (also pi. of uchale], (i) 
cut, gash, incision, made on purpose, 
whether as tribal mark, for ornamen- 
tal tattooing, or for medical purposes, 
&c. Ch. zetu za kuchanjiana hazi- 
japona, our gashes for making blood- 
friendship have not yet healed. 
Mganga akamchanja chale thelathini 
na u'embe, the doctor made thirty 
cuts on him with a razor, e.g. to 
reduce inflammation. (2) A kind of 
fish. (Cf. syn. tojo, and chanja, 
toja, kata, terna.} 

Chali, adv. on the back, i.e. of 




the recumbent, supine position. Lala 
chali, lie on the back. Also chali- 
chali. (Cf. syn. kitani, fcca tani, 
>:ani, ktMgaKngaU^ mgongoni, 
and opp. kifulifttli, on the face.) 

Chama, n. club, guild, society, 
association. Waana chama, mem- 
bers of a club. (Many such exist in 
Z., esp. among artisans of the same 
trade, a kind of trades union.) 

Chamba, v. wash oneself (after 
calls of nature), of ordinary and also 
ceremonial washing before Mahom- 
medan prayers. (Cf. nawa, prop, 
of hands and face ; tawaza, of feet, 
and dist Jamba, &c.) n. (vy-\ 
that which adheres, esp. a film over 
the eye. Jicho lino, chamba, the eye 
has a film over it, also described as 
kiini cheupe, white pupil of the eye. 
(Chamba for ki-amba* Cf. ambaa, 
ambika, &c. and follg.) 

Charabo,n. (vy-}> bait for catching 
animals, fish, &c. Ch, cha kitvitlia 
samaki, fish bait. Ch. cha kutegea 
ndcgc, bait for luring birds. Tia 
c ham bo hatika ndoana, bait a hook. 
Cf. shimbika. (Cf. amfiaa, chamba, 
n., ambika, &c.) 

Chambua, v. sometimes heard as 
jamhtta, shambua, (i) clean, dress, 
pick over, prepare, esp. of appro- 
priate preparation of various pro- 
ducts for use, cooking, market, e.g. 
th. pamba, clean cotton, by removing 
the seeds, dirt, leaves ; ch. mbaazi, 
beans by shell ing; ch.garafuu, cloves 
King off the stalks. Also used 
(a) more generally, clean up, give a 
n prove appearance of ; 
(3) f'K- criticize, cross-examine, cx : 
pose the faults of. Ps. chambuliwa. 

.'{a. Ap. cha 
. &c. C*. cham 

i. (Cf. ambua, ambaa, diamba, 
n., \ 

Chamburo, n. plate used in wire- 

Chan in j.hrase ftpo ya 

:tla, (i) whirlwind; (. 
supposed to cause the wl. 

and propitiated as such with offer- 
ings. (Chamchela = ki-amchcla. 
Cf. kinyamkela t also kimbitnga, 

Chamshakinwa, n. (= kitu cha 
kuamsha kinwa), first food in the 
morning, morning meal, breakfast. 
(For form cf. chakula, chakuogea, and 
syn. chakula cha assubuhi.} 

Ghana, v. also Tana, slit, separate, 
part, comb. Ch. miyaa, slit leaves 
for plaiting, so ch. makuti, of cocoa- 
nut fronds. Ch. nyelc, comb hair. 
Ch. kitambaa, cut, or pull, in shreds. 
Ch. kwa fimbo, of a severe flogging 
with a stick. Ps. chaniwa. Nt. 
chanika. Ap. chan-ia, -iwa, -ika. 
Cs. chan-isha, -ishwa. Rd. chana- 
chana, cut into small bits (shreds). 
(Cf. kitana, chanua, chatnw, shamw, 
chanyata, and dist. chana. Rp. of 
-cha, v. dawn.) n. also Tana, (i) 
a bunchlet, fruit clustre, on the great 
fruit stem (mkuHgit) produced by the 
banana plant (mgornba}, the single 
fruit being dole, and the fruit generally 
tidi'zi; (2) same as Chane (which 
see). (Cf. ngomba, mkungtt, tana, 
dole, ndizi.} 

Chan da, n. (ry-\ finger, toe, 
at Mombasa. Kidolc is almost 
invariably used in Z. Chanda napett, 
finger and ring, proverb of close 
connexion, coherence, affection. (Cf. 

Chandalua, n. (?'y-\ awning, 
canopy, covering, mosquito-net, of 
any material used fc>: 
against sun, rain, insects, &c. Used 
with such verbs as/ww< r a, fasten ; /- 
.ang up ; tandaza, spread out. 

Chane, n. ( ), also Chani, ami 

Ghana, a slip of leaf, made by slitting 

it up finely or coarsely, for use in 

; mats, cord, &c. (Cf. chana, 

and nni'aa.) 

Ghanga, v. collect, gather together. 
Esp. ch. asikari (watu wa 
>oldiers, levy a foro 
fctha, c(^llcct mOMJ by way of 
voluntary contribi; 


mali kulipa dent, to collect money 
for payment of a debt. Mali ya 
kuchangiwa, money collected for a 
special (or charitable) purpose. Knla 
kwa kuchanga, hold a club-, or sub- 
scription-, feast, each person con- 
tributing. (Cf. kula bia.} Ps. 
changwa. Nt. changika. Ap. 
chang-ia, -iwa, and rp. -iana, i.e. join 
in making contributions. Cs. chang- 
isha, -ishwa, -iza, -izana, and chang- 
anya (which see). Changizana, join 
in getting contributions. Rp. chang- 
ana, of volunteers mustering for war. 
(Except in the above and similar 
senses, the common word is kusanya, 
which see. Cf. chango, mchango, 
changanya, changamana, &c., and 
perh. mchanga. Changa is some- 
times heard for chanja, v., which see.) 
-changa, a. (changa with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), young, immature, 
undeveloped, unripe, in an early stage 
of growth or experience, both of 
animal and plant life. Mtoto 
mchanga, a young child. Kitoto 
kuhanga, a baby, a very young child. 
Embe changa, half-grown mangoes. 
Mahindi machanga, maize not fully 
developed. Asikari mchanga, a raw 
recruit. Sometimes of things in- 
animate, assubuhi changachanga 
very early morning. (Cf. syn. 
-btckt, -changa, denoting esp. stage 
of growth, -bichi, fitness for use, and 
contr. -pevu, -zima, -bivu.} 

be in a mixed-up condition, often 
with na t (i) be mixed up with ; (2) 
meddle, interfere in ; (3) be adjoining 
(bordering on, next to). Shamba 
hmechangamana na pwani, the es- 
tate is adjacent to the shore. (Cf. 
changa, changanya, and -mana.) 
changam'fu, a. agreeable, 


S*vv,a.uic, CH- 

livening, good-humoured, cheerful. 
(Cf. follg.) 

Changam'ka, v. become cheerful, 
look bright and happy, be in good 
spirits, be in a buoyant mood. Ame- 
changam'ka, he has recovered his 

spirits, he is happy. Used of the sun 
coming out bright after cloud or rain. 
Also of scenery, inchi inachangamka 
the view has become bright, clear to 
the eye. Cs. changam'sha, -shwa 
cheer up, revive the spirits, gladden, 
exhilarate. (Cf. follg., also antka, 
and ^.furahi, be happy; chekdea. 
be smiling.) 

Changam'ko, n. (ma-\ entertain- 
ment, amusement, pastime, play 
anything that raises the spirits. 
(Cf. mchezo, mazungumzo.) 

Changanua, v. separate what is 
mixed, resolve into constituent parts, 
analyse, simplify what is compound. 
(Cf. changa, v., changanya, &c.) 

Changanya, v. (i) collect to- 
gether, mix, form into one mass; 
(2) make in a mess, muddle, con- 
fuse. Ch. tembo na maji, mix palm 
wine with water. Ps. changanywa. 
Nt. changanyika. Ap. changany-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. changany-isha, iza, (i) 
mix, adulterate; (2) cause confusion 
m, perplex. (Cf. changa, v., chan- 
ganua and syn. (i) kusanya, (3) 

Changarawe, n. grit, small stones, 
fine gravel, bits of stone in sand or 
rice. (Not so fine as mchanga, sand ; 
finer than vikokoto, small stones. 
With termination -we, cf. jiwe 
mbwe.} '. 

Chango, n. (ma-\ (i) contribu- 
tion, subscription, esp. of money or 
food, for a common object. Ch. la 
mchele, a contribution of rice. Killa 
nyumba ilete ch., let every house 
bring a contribution (for a sacrifice) ; 
(2) levy, muster. Ch. la watu, 
wachanganao kwenda vitani, a mus- 
ter of men, who muster together to 
go .to war. (Cf. changa, v., and 
notes ; also mchango.} n. plur. of 
uchango, which see, (i) smaller in- 
testines ; also (2) (sing, and plur.) 
chango za tumbo, round intestinal 
worms. Also chango (ma-) in simi- 
lar sense ; ch. la uzazi, the umbilical 
cord. n . (vy.} = ki-ango, i.e. kidude 


cha kuangikia vitu, something to hang 
things on (from), i.e. peg, rail, hook, 

.\kacnda changoni akc.: 
upanga, and he went to the peg, and 
took down the sword. (Cf. angika, 
. and note, also mwango.) 

Changu, n. a small kind of fish, 
common in Z. market a. pron. 
of i Pers. S., agreeing with D 3 (S), 
my, mine, of me. (Cf. angu, -a&e.) 

Changua, v. take to pieces, dis- 
connect, used of dismembering and 
cutting up animals for food. (l\v. 
form of changa, which see.) 

Chani, adv. also Tani, on the back 
(in a recumbent position). Lola chani, 
lie on the back. Also chanichani. 
(Cf. chali, and dist. chant, chana.) 

Chanikiwiti, a. green, grass green. 
(Perh. from ki-(j}ani kiwiti, for 
kibicht, i. e. fresh grass (leaves), and 
so of colour. Cf. syn. rangi ya 
majani, grass-colour.) 

Chanja, v. also sometimes changa, 

and shanga, ?chenja, (i) cut into, 

make a cut (incision, gash) in. Ch. 

uchalc, make an incision (with knife, 

razor, lancet). Ch, mti, make cuts 

in a tree (whether to obtain sap or 

remove bark). Mzichanjc tuzikaushc 

hizi nyama, slice up this flesh, so that 

we may dry it. (2) Cut up, split in 

pieces, make by cutting up. Ch. Xv/;/*', 

split logs for firewood. Ps. chanjwa. 

Ap. chanj-ia, ~iwa. 

>:jiu>a ndui, be vaccinated. 

Chanjiana t make incisions together, 

i. e. in making blood-friendship. Cs. 

ha, -ish'va, &c. Rp. chanj- 

ana, -anisha, See. (Cf. chcnga, and 

yn./ojwa, tcma, kola, toja^ and follg. 

chanjo, mchanjo.} n. used (not 

>f many objects made of 

wicker -voven twigs, osiers, 

wattk-s.V. g. a screen, a kind of hurdle, 

Ming an animal's food, a 

: sieve or strainer, n 

stand for storing grain safely in n 

house, an arbour or shelter made of 

interlacing branches, summer-house, 

a frame for smoking meat on over 


a fire, &c. Ch.ya chuma, a grid- 
iron. Ch. ya kuanikia tiyaina ma- 
shim, a frame for drying meat on in 
the smoke. Ingia nyumbani hatta 
:mi hatta juu ya ch., go inside 
the house, and look even under the 
bed and even on the store-shelf. 

*Chanjari, adv. See Sanjari, and 
Vinjari. (? Ar.) 

Chanjo, n. (ma-}, gash, cut, in- 
cision. Piga chanjo la mti, make a 
cut in a tree. (Cf. chanja, mchanjo, 
also syn. chale, tojo^) 

Chano, n. (vy-}> flat round wooden 
platter, with a low rim. Sometimes 
with a stand in one piece, forming a 
low table. Used as (i) plate for food, 
chano wanachotia fhakula, a platter 
on which they place food ; ( a ) a board 
for carrying mortar on ; (3) a wash- 

Chanua, v. (i) put out leaves (of 
plants generally). (Cf. chipuka?) (a) 
Rv. of chana, comb (with similar mean- 
ing), uncomb, comb out. (Cf. follg.) 

Chanuo, n. (ma-") and Shanuo, a 
large comb, often of wood, with long 
coarse teeth, but neatly carved. (Cf. 
kitana, comb of a smaller kind.) 

Chanyata, v. slice up (of bananas, 
cassavas, and various kinds of food). 
v Cf. chatta, v. and n., and mchanyato.} 

Chanzo, n. (vy-\ (i) the 
beginning of something, a start, a 
first step ; (a) a first principle, 
ground, reason ; (3) draught, outline, 
sketch. Chanzo cha ma/i, i 
Cf. ras il mali. ( For kianzo, cf. an*a t 
and the more general mwanzo.) 

Ohao crs. P. agree- 

ing with ir, theirs, of them. 

f. -ao, and -akc.} 

Chapa, v. beat, nit, strike, for the 
more common //.;. /v 

.1 strike you with 
Chapa r. up on the j; 

walk heavily. (Cf. chapa, 
:. and chafu.} n. 
(i) stroke, blow, but esj 

of a blow, stamp, mark, 
:ice used of various objects. 




e. g. postage stamp, stencil, printer's 
type. Akawapiga killa mtu ch. 
tnkononi, he branded each man on 
the arm. Pipa limeandikwa ch., the 
cask has a mark on it. Pi go, ch. 
kitabu, print a book. (Cf. prec.) 

Chapeo, n. hat (of a European 
kind), helmet. (Cf. French chapeau, 
and kofia.} 

Chapua, v. give a blow (to), strike 
(with). Chapua miguu, stamp, tramp, 
walk quickly. Chapua (and also the 
Cs. Intens. form chapuliza}' ngoma, 
beat hard on (get more sound out of) 
a drum. (Rv. of Chapa, v.. but 
with similar meaning.) 

Chapu-chapu,adv. and int., Quick ! 
Make haste! Hurry up! Chapu-chapu 
ni mwendo iva haraka, ' chap-chap ' 
means ' quick march.' (Cf. chapa.} 

Chapuo, n. (vy-}, a small kind of 
drum. (Cf. chapua, chapa, and see 

Charaza, v. sometimes used for (i ; 
' play, dance, play on an instrument' ; 
also (2) ' go a stroll, strut or saunter 
about the town,' but not usual in Z. 

Chatu, n. a large snake rather com- 
mon in Z., growing to over 12 feet in 
length, python, boa-constrictor. 
Chavu, n. (ma-}. See Shavu, n. 
Chawa, n. (i) a louse ; (2) a kind 
offish. Kidole kimoja hakivunji ch., 
a single finger does not kill a louse. 
*Chayi, n. tea. See Cha, Chai. 
Chaza, n. an oyster. 
Chazo, n. a sucker fish. 
Cheche,n. (i) ( ) a small reddish- 
brown animal like a mungoos, com- 
mon in Z. ; (2) (ma-}, a spark. (Cf. 

Chechea, v. be lame, walk lamely. 
(Cf. chechemea, and chopi.} 

Chechele, n. absence of mind, an 
absent-minded person. Chukuliwa 
na chechele, have a fit of absence. 

Chechemea, v. be lame. (Cf. 
chechea, chopi.} 

Chechesha, v. dandle, fondle, at- 
tend to, play with a child, help an 

Chege, n. (ma-}, bow-leg, bandy- 
leg. Ana chege la miguu, ana 
machege, he is bandy-legged. Hence 
perh. chegea, walk awkwardly, in a 
lame way (Str.). a. moist, watery, 
e. g. muhogo mchege, i.e. not dry and 
floury. (Not often in Z. Cf. chepe- 

Chego,n. (w0-),also Jego, molar 
tooth, back tooth, grinder. (Ci.jino, 
and kichego.} 

Cheka, v. (i) laugh, smile, grin; 
(2) laugh at, mock, ridicule. Tulim- 
cheka sana, we laughed at him 
heartily. Ps. chekwa. Nt. chekeka. 
Ap. chek-ea, -ewa, also chek-elea, 
-elewa, smile, smile at. Cs. chek- 
esha, -eshwa, chesha, cause to laugh, 
amuse, excite ridicule (amazement). 
Rp. chekana. (Cf. cheka, -cheshi, 
cheza, mchezo.} 

Cheko, n. (ma-}, a laugh, laughter. 
Piga macheko makubwa, utter roars 
of laughter. (Cf. cheka, &c.) 

Chelea, v. Ap. from (i) -cha 
( which see), set (of the sun). Jua 
linatuchelea, we are caught by sun- 
set, belated ; (2) -cha, fear. Nam- 
chelea zaidi ya Sultani, he inspires 
more awe in me than the Sultan does. 
(Cf. follg. and chelewa, cheleza.} 

Cheleo, n. (ma-}, (i) delay; (2) 
object of fear. See Chelea, Che- 

Chelewa, v. be late, be too late, 
remain an unusual or unexpected 
time. Sikiikawia wala sikuchelewa, 
I did not delay and I was not late. 
Ukuni huu umechtlewa moto sana, 
this stick of wood has kept hot a 
wonderful time. Maji yachelewa 
kisimani, there is still water left in 
the well. (See -cha and Chelea, of 
sunset, of " which it is apparently 
the Ap. Ps. form, the idea of over- 
sleeping, and being overtaken by 

dawn generalized to mean 'late- 
, ness' of any kind, and 'overlong re- 
maining.' Cf. cheleo, cheleza, and for 
delay, lateness, kawia, ukawa, usiri.) 
Cheleza, v. cause to remain till 




morning (i.e. all night\ and so 
cause to remain an unusual time, 
reserve, leave) for a purpose. 
Wakamchcleza mtoto shimoni, they 
let the child remain in the pit (for 
safety). Ps. cheleswa. Ap. che- 
ickuchelezea tvali 
halt a alfajiri, I have left rice ready 
for you in the morning, i. e. saved it 
from the evening meal. Cs. che~ 
lez-esha, -eshwa, cause to put aside, 
preserve, &c. (Cf. -cha, chelea, 
cAe/ewa, &c.) 

Chelezo, n. (vy-), (i) a buoy, life- 
buoy, anchor buoy, described as ki- 
gogo kifleacho kuonyesha nanga, a 
Hoating log of wood showing where 
the anchor is; 2) fisherman's float, 
to support net or line. (From 
eUa, and cf. ki-elezo with a different 
meaning.) (3) Something causing de- 
lay (cf. chfleoj chelewa, &c.). 

Chembe, n. a grain, a single 

grain, a minute separate part of a 

thin^, a single small thing, e. g. 

a grain of sand (nichanga), of corn 

(nafaka), of incense (ttbani), a seed, 

a bead ( = ushanga mmojd). Chembe 

chembe, in grains, grain by j^rain, 

granular. Chembe is sometimes 

with the meaning 'arrow- head, 

cad,' i.e. ki-embe (cf. tvembe 

and pcrh. jembe for ji-embe}. Also 

(hembc ya mayo, the place where the 

throb of the heart is frit, pit of 

the stomach. (Cf. syn. funje, also 


Chembeu, n. (vy-\ a kind of 
blunt chisel used for caulking. 

Chemchemi.n. a spring (of water). 
(Cf. chcmka, or ?Ar. tamtam.) 

Chera'ka,v. and Chemuka, bubble, 
and so of hot water, boil. Maziwa 
yachemka kwa kupata moto sarta, 
milk bubbles up when it ^cts v y 
m'ka, boiled 
eggs. Cs. chcm-sha, -shwa, cause 

Chemko, n. boiling, huh' 
alto mchctnko, nchemko. < 
Cheneo, n. See Kienoo. 

Chenezo, n. (iy-\ a measure, 
measuring-rod (line , anything to 
measure with (stick, strip of cloth, 
string, grass, &c.). Described as 
kidude cha kuenezea kit it, a thing 
for measuring anything. (For ki~ 
enezo, cf. cfolezo, and enea, and syn. 
ckeo, kipiino^} 

Chenga, v. cut, esp. of the lighter 
operations of cutting, e. g. brushwood 
for firing or fencing, stalks of ripe 
grain, ripe heads of grain, bunches of 
grapes, &c. Ps. ehengwa. Ap. 
chcng'Ca, -rwa. (Cf. chanja,pasua, 
kata, &c., nichengo.) 

Chenga, n. ( ), name of a large 
fish, ? skate, sun fish. 

Chenge, n. (vy~), for kicnge, dim. 
of mwenge (which see). 

Chenge-chenge, n. small bits, 
chips, snippings. (Cf. chenga, and 

Chenu, a. pron. of 2 Pers. P., 
agreeing with D 3 (S), your, yours, 
of you. (Cf. -ake, and -tnu.) 

Chenza, n. (ma-), a large kind of 
Mandarin orange, fruit of the ;;/ 
Some are red or blood oranges. The 
best are called chenza za kiajjemi, 
i. e. Persian, and a small kind kangaja. 
(Cf. mchcnza, mchungwa, kangaja.) 

Cheo, n. (vy-), (i) n 
surcmcnt, dimensions, size ; (-' 
degree, station. Too, ch., fix t: 
Ch. cha kuanzia kitako cha kikafo, 
measurement for beginning the bot- 
tom of the basket, and so 
the size. Kufita cA. t beyond mea- 
sure, excessively. lie is an 
ill-bred (low-born) person. Ch. 
bora (kikubwa\ high rank. < 
chentzo, kipimo ; also daraja, rank.) 

Chepe chape, a. wet, soaked, 
Cf. maji niaji, 
, leiua, Itnveka.) 

Chorehana, n. used g( : 
of small foreign machines in /... 
esp. sewing machines, which are 
n. Ch. ya kushona, a sewing 
/ ya ft., machine sewing. 
is. karhana, manufactory.) 




*Cherehe, Cheree, n. a grind 
stone. (Cf. kinoo, and prec.) 

Chetezo,n. (vy-}, a vessel to burn 
incense in, often of earthenware, 
described as kidude cha kuvukizia 
manukato, something to burn sweet 
smelling substances in, a censer, 
censing-pot. (For ki-etezo, or ?&'- 
otezo, cf. ota, otesha, of crouching over 
a fire or anything warm. Cf. vukiza, 

*Cheti, n. (vy-}, small written 
note or memorandum, note, certifi- 
cate, ticket, passport, &c. (? Hind. 
Cf. hati, banta.} 

Chetu, a. pron. of I Pers. P., 
agreeing with D 3 (S), our, ours, of 
us. (Cf. -etu, and -a&e.} 

Cheua, v. ruminate, chew the 
cud (of ruminant animals). Nt. 
cheuka, have a rising in the throat. 
Cs. cheusha, e. g. cause eructation. 
(Cheu, and mcheu, n. seem to be 
used also of rumination and eructa- 
tion. Cf. kiungulia.} 

Chewa, n. a large kind of fish. 

Cheza, v. (i) play, sport, take 
a holiday, have a game, make a move 
in a game ; (2) idle, waste time, not 
be in earnest, trifle; (3) act, work, 
move, esp. of the easy motion of 
machine running well, or a hinge, 
bolt, wheel, watch, &c. ; (4) drill, 
be drilled (as soldiers). Ps. chezwa. 
Nt. chezeka. Ap. chez-ea, -ewa, 
play with (in, for, &c.), make sport 
of, mock. Kidude cha kttchezea 
watoto, a child's plaything, a toy. 
Cs. chez-esha, -eshwa, give a holiday 
(rest) to. Chezcsha unyago, cause to 
take part in unyago (which see). 
Chezesha frasi, make a horse curvet 
(prance). Ch. mtoto, dandle a child. 
Rd. cheza-cheza. Likachezacheza lile 
jabali, and the rock swayed. (Cf. 
mchezo, chezo, and perh. cheka. Also 
of pastime, ongea, zungumza.} 

Chezo, n. (ma-), sport, game, 
play, pastime. (Cf. cheza, mchezo.} 

Chicha, n. the white nutty sub- 
stance inside a ripe cocoanut, when 

it has been scraped or grated out 
with an mbuzi, and the oil (tut] 
strained out by passing water through 
it. It is generally considered refuse, 
used for cleaning the hands with, 
and thrown to the fowls. Described 
as nazi iliyokunwa, iliyokamuliwa, 
iliyochujiwa, i.e. cocoanut grated, 
squeezed and strained. Also used 
of the residuum or lees of other 
oil-producing seeds. (Dist. mchi- 
cha, a vegetable, and cf. tui, kasi- 

Chichiri, n. (*-), commonly 
kijiri, a bribe, i.e. tnali ya kumpa 
kathi, money given to a judge (to 
secure his verdict). (Cf. rush-wa, 
hongo, mlungula.} 

Chigi, n. or Chinki, a small 
yellow bird. 

Chikichi, n. (ma-\ fruit of the 
palm-oil tree (mckikichi), containing 
small nuts called kichikichi. 

Chimba, v. dig, make (get) by 
digging, of excavation, not as lima, 
of cultivation. Ch. shimo, dig a pit, 
sink a shaft (mine), make a hole. 
Ch . kaburi, d ig a grave . Ch . udongo , 
dig out soil. Ps. chimbwa. Nt. 
chimbika. Ap. chimb-ia, -i-wa. 
Mto huu umechimbiwa na Wafransa, 
this canal was excavated by the 
French. Cs. chimb-isha t -ishwa. 
(Cf. ckimbua, chimbuka, chimbo. 
Also ct.fukua, lima.} 

Chimbo, n. ( , and ma-}, digging 
place, place dug out, a digging, pit, 
mine. Ch. ya mawe, quarry. Ch. 
ya udongo, clay-pit. (Cf. prec.) 

Chimbua, v. dig out, dig up, get 
by digging, as udongo, clay, soil ; 
unga, flour (out of a barrel) ; magogo, 
stumps, &c. Nt. chimbuka, which 
see. (Rv. of chimba, but similar 
n result. Cf. chanua, chana.} 

Chimbuka, v. used esp. of sun 
or moon, ' appear, begin to shine, 
rise,' whether from horizon or from 
clouds. Also chimbuza, Intens. in 
same sense, force its way out, make 
ts appearance. (Cf. chimbua, 




chimba, if thus used, as it seems, 
metaphorically. Also follg.) 

Chimbuko, n. (ma-}, a first start, 
a beginning, standpoint, basis, source, 
first principle. (Cf. syn. chanzo, 

Chimvi, n. See Timvi. 

Chini, adv. (i) down, below, be- 
neath, under, at the bottom, on the 
ground, downstairs, underground ; 
(a) in a lower place, on foot, at 
a lower part ; (3) in a low (in- 
ferior, subject, humble) state (rank, 
condition, &c.). Often kwa chini in 
same senses, -a chini forms an ad- 
jective bearing any of the above 
meanings. Yuko ch. t he is down- 
stairs. Lola ch., lie on the ground. 
Wangint wanakwenda ch., wangine 
juu ya nyama, some go on foot, 
some ride on animals. Kitambi cha 
kuvaa ch., a cloth to wear on the 
loins. Njia ya ch., a subterranean 
passage. Churn ba cha ch., the lower 
room, or a cellar. Ch. ya Sultani, 
in the Sultan's jurisdiction. Chini 
kwa chini, emphat., at the very bot- 
tom, wholly below, &c. (-111 appears 
to be locative, i. e. chini, on the 
ground. Cf. inchi, and opp./MW.) 

Chinja, v. (i) slaughter, cut the 
throat of, kill, esp. of killing ani- 
mals for food ; (2)of brutal indiscrim- 
inate killing of persons, massacre, 
slaughter, murder. Alimchinjaadui, 
he slaughtered his opponent. (It 
Ctnu sometimes locally used as&/a, 
i.e. cut. Ku<hinja kanzu, to cut 
out a dress.) Ps. chinjwa. Nt. 
chinjika. Ap. chinj-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
>';a t -ishwa. Kp. chinjana. 
injo. Same word appears at 
Mombasa as fine/a, also matindo, 
and poss. in Z. in tindika, and mtindo. 
For syn. cf. ua^Jisha, also chanja.) 

10. n. (act, place, operation 
of) slaughtering, slaughter-house, 
massacre, battlefield. < !. <hinja. ) 

IHI, n. a kind of spirit, sup- 
posed to drag people under water 
and drown them, swimmer's cramp. 

Chinyango, n. a piece of meat 
forming a native butcher's perquisite. 
(Perh. ki-nyango. Cf. change.') 

Chipuka, v. also Chupuka, 
sprout, shoot, spring up, of any 
plant showing signs of life and 
growth. Ap. chipuk-ia. Cs. 
chipukisha, chipuza, and Intens. 
sprout vigorously. (Cf. follg., and 
syn. ota, mea, chanua^) 

Chipukizi, n. ( , and ma-), also 
Chipuko, shoot, young plant. Dim. 
kichipukizi. (Cf. chipuka, and syn. 

Chiririka, v. also Tiririka and 
Chururika, flow, trickle, run off, 
glide, as water, or a snake. (Cf. 
mchilizi, and tiririka, churuzika, 
syn. chuza.} 

-chirizi, a. machozi ma 
trickling tears. (Cf. churuzika.) 

Cho, -cho, -cho-,a. relat. agreeing 
with D 3 (S), i. e. ki-o t which. (For 
relat. see -0.) 

Choa, n. (vy-}, mark or dis- 
coloration of skin whether (i) by 
disease, ringworm, &c., or (a) arti- 
ficial beauty spot. Choa cheusi, 
black (beauty) spot. 

Chocha, v. poke, prod, stir up, 
e.g. an animal in a hole. Ap. 
choch-ea, -ewa, -elea, -fttwa, elezea, 
-eltzrwa, poke at, stir 
or lamp. Chochca kwa kijiti utambi 
wa taa, poke at the wick of a lamp 
with a bit of stick. Chttma cha 
kuchochclca rnoto, a poker. Also 
in fig. sense, stir up, cxv 
AlimchoctuUua mamno yafi: 
stirred up discord against him. Cf. 
vumbilia. (Cf. mchocko, mchcckeo % 

Chochoro, n. (ma-), alley, pmi- 
sage, esp. of narrow passages between 
booses in a native town. ' 
commoner mchochoro, kichochoro?) 
Choka, v. become tir 

-ued (worn out, ovcnlone). 
ka, I am ; ti noun 

of things, ch. njia (jua, kazi 
be tired of travelling (weary with the 




heat, worn out by work). Ch. na 
mtu, be weary of a person's company 
Ap. chok-ea, -ewa, chokeana. Cs 
chosha,choke-za,chokc-sha, -shwa. Rp 
chokana, e. g. all be weary together. 

Chokaa, n. (i) lime; (2) white 

plaster; (3) mortar, i.e. in Z. a 

mixture of lime with sand and rec 

earth. Lime is also used for chewing 

with tobacco. See Tambuu. 

Chokea, n. a sty (in the eye). 

Choki-choki, n. fruit of the mchoki- 

choki with a deep-red prickly rind, 

sweet white pulp, and large stone 

See Mchokichoki. 

Choko, n. vyoko, also Chocho, 
oven. (See Joko, cf. oka.} 

Chokora, v. and Chokoa, pick 
at, poke, esp. of working at a hard 
substance with a pointed instrument, 
knife, or finger, e. g. clear out a hole, 
take up weeds. Ch. meno, clean 
the teeth (with a toothpick). See 
Msuaki. Ps. chokolewa. Ap. 
choko-lea, -lewa, kijiti cha hucho- 
kolea metw, a toothpick. ? Cs. 
chokoza, which see. (Cf. chocha, 
mchokoo, chokoza, and chakura.) 
n. (ma-}, dependent, follower, 

Chokoza, v. tease, bully, annoy, 
vex. Ps. chokozwa. Ap. chokoz-ea, 
-ewa. (Cf. chokora, and syn. sumbua, 
tesa, uthi.} 

Chole, n. a kind of bird, ? a jay. 
Choma, v. (i) pierce, stab, prick, 
thrust (something into) ; (a) apply 
fire to, cook, set on fire, burn, brand, 
cauterize; (3) hurt the feelings (of)j 
provoke, give pain to, excite. Ch. 
mtu kisu, stab a man with a knife. 
Ch. molo> apply fire. Ch. nyumba 
moto (or, kwa moto), set a house on 
fire. Ch. samaki, harpoon a fish. 
Ch. mkuki, run a spear into. Ps. 
chomwa. Nt. chomeka, i.e. be 
pierced (burnt, hurt, &c.), but also 
Act., e. g. chomeka mkuki, stick a 
spear in the ground. Chomeka kisu 
kiunoni, stick a knife into the waist- 
band (girdle). Ap. chom-ea, -eana, 

-elea, -elewa. Chomca majani mfu- 
koni, stuff grass into a bag. Chome- 
lea, stick pieces into, e. g. of repairing 
clothes by patches, a roof with new 
thatch, and in masonry of bringing a 
rough wall to a surface with mortar 
and small stones. ( Cf. tomea, mtomo^) 
Cs. chom-esha, -eshwa, e. g. chomesha 
mbwa, set a dog on, make him angry. 
(Cf. chomo, mchomo, chomeo, chomoa, 
chomoza, also mtomo, tomea, &c., in 
which / represents ty, ch.) 

Chombo, n. (zjy-), (i) implement, 
instrument, utensil, tool, piece of 
furniture, movable, of any kind or 
description. Vyombo includes all 
personal belongings, chattels, house- 
hold apparatus, baggage. Chombo 
cha kufanyia kazi, an instrument to 
work with. Vyombo vya seramala, a 
carpenter's tools. Chukua vyombo 
vyangii ndani, carry my things in- 
doors. (2) A cooking pot being the 
most universal and necessary utensil, 
Chombo, by itself, commonly refers 
to a vessel for containing something, 
' pot, pan, jug, jar, cup,' but still more 
universally in Z. means (3) 'a native 
sailing vessel, a dhow.' In this sense 
it includes a number of varieties, e.g. 
mtepe, betela, batili, bdgala, bedeni, 
awesia, ghangi, but is distinguished 
from others of a smaller size, e.g.dau, 
mtumbivi) galawa, mashua all of 
which may also carry sails, and from 
those of European build, commonly 
called werikebu, jahaxi, meli, mano- 
ivari, &c. (All coast and foreign 
trade being formerly carried on in 
these vessels, the dhow was at once 
he most remarkable ' instrument ' 
and also ' containing vessel ' known 
to the natives, whence prob. the use 
of chombo as its name. Hence also 
many of the words connected with 
he dhow and its parts are of non- 
Bantu origin.) Panda (ingia) chom- 
boni, go on board (embark in) a 
/essel. Shuka chomboni, land, go 
ashore, disembark. (Cf. jombo> 
nd syn. as above, also chungu.} 




Chomeo, n. (ma-\ gridiron, toast- 
ing-fork, or other similar instrument 
for cooking, anything used for prick- 
ing or piercing. (Cf. choma.) 

Chomo, n. (i) a burn, stab, prick, 
Sec. (Cf. mehomo.} (2) Burnt stuff, 
dross, slag. Ch. la chunta, iron slag, 
refuse of smelting furnace. (Cf. 

Chomoa, v. draw out, take oat, 
expose, bring to light. Ch. mkuki, 
take out a spear from a wounded 
animal. Ch. mwiba, extract a thorn. 
Ch. ki$u, unsheathe (draw, draw out) 
a knife. (Rv. form of ckoma. Cf. 
ornoa, chomoza.) 

Chomoza, v. (i) make a way out, 
come out, appear, stick out. Matta 
yanachomoza, the flowers are begin- 
ning to appear. Ras inachomoza, 
the cape juts out (comes into sight). 
Esp. of the sun, jua Kmachomoza, 
the sun bursts out. Hence (a) of the 
sun, 'be hot, scorch' (as if chonut). 
(Intens. form of chomoa. Ci.choma.) 

Chonga, v. cut to a shape, shape 
with a cutting instrument, whence a 
variety of meanings according to the 
instrument used and shape produced, 
'hack, chip, bevel, dress, square, point, 
smooth, carve, &c.' Chonga tfUi, 
trim (dres, square) a tree, ready for 
cutting into planks. Ch. boriti, trim 
(square) a pole (for a rafter). Ch. 
kijiti, cut a stick to a point. ( h. 
kalama, point a pen, make a pen. 
Ch. mtumbwi, cut out a canoe. 
Also, ch. mancno. invent (add to, 
a story. Ch. sonant*, cut 
out figures. Ch. mawt, dress stones. 
Akachonga nn-injc sura kama bin 
Adamu, and he roughly carved the 
nssjnrina into a human figure. 
Mti lililochongwa ncha kama mkuki t 
uxxi which was cut to 
, like a spear. V*. chongwa. 
Nt. chongeka. A p. (hong-fa, -twa, 
tana, (i) cut with (for, in. &c,). 
Chongta panda la rnnazi, cut a piece 
off the Mower-stem of a cocoanot 
tree, to increase the flow of .sap. Bat 

also common in (2) fig. sense, tell 
tales about, inform against, betray, 
complain of, accuse (esp. unkindly or 
falsely), slander, discredit, and still 
more emphatically chongclca and In- 
tens. chongcltza. Amenichongea kwa 
mantno mabaya kwa wali, he dis 
credited me with a shameful story to 
the governor. Mtu huchongewa na 
itlirni wake, a man is betrayed by 
his own tongue. Cs. chong-esha, 
-eza, -eswa. Rp. chongana. (Cf. 
chongo, mchongo, chonge % chonjo, 
uchongezi, chongckzo, chongoaa\so 
chanja, chenga, chinja all referring 
to cutting.) 

Chonge, n. also ? chongolt, a canine 
(pointed) tooth, cuspid. Chonge za 
meno, teeth filed to a point. (Cf. 
chongu, with pass, termination -(, 
and for teeth, jtno.) 

Chongelezo, n. (ma-) t what is 
told to a person's discredit or dis- 
advantage, tales, unkind gossip, 
scandal, &c. (Cf. chonga, ucho- 
ngezi, &c.) 

Chongo, n. absence of one eye, 
loss of an eye. Afwenyi chongo, a 
one-eyed person. Ana chongo, he has 
lost an eye. (Cf. ? chonga.) 

Chongoa, v. (i) cut to a shape, 
round off, cut to an angle (point), 
bring to a point, sharpen, point ; (2) 
be of a pointed shape, be angular, be 
jagged. Ch. kikango, round off a 
cooking pot. Nt. chongoka, be sharp, 
jagged, e. g. of craggy, prt. 
rocks. Rat imeck. kama sifui.. 
cape is as sharp as a needle, 
form of chonga, with similar meaning. 
Cf. chcma, chomoa.} 

Chongo, n. (17-), a large kind 
of fish. 

Choo, n. (ry-\ privy, water-closet, 

with stone at the sides, and closing 
gradually into a small apcm 
the centre. Usually connected with 
the bath-room in large houses. Enda 
chooni, go to the closet, go to stool. 
Wakamptlcka chooni wakamwogttha, 




they conducted him to a closet and 
gave him a bath. Also used (i) of 
the action of the bowels, &c. Pat a 
ch., have a motion of the bowels 
Funga ch., be constipated, have an 
obstruction of the bowels. Ch. soft, 
free action of the bowels. Ch. ki- 
kubwa is used of solid, ch. kidogo 
of liquid motions; (2) of (solid) 
excreta. Haifai kutia mkojo ao 
choo katika maji, it is a mistake 
to put the excreta of either kind in 

Chooko, n. See Choroko. 
Chopa, n. (ma-}, handful, of what 
can be gathered and held in the 
fingers, as sticks, ropes, bits of wood, 
&c. (Cf. konzi, n., and chopoa. Cf. 
chopa, v., trade in a small way, hawk 
goods about the country, not used 
in Z. Cf. syn. churuza.} 

Chopi, adv., enda chopi, be lame 
on one side, walk lamely. 

Chopoa, v. snatch from the hand, 
take away suddenly, seize by surprise, 
pluck away, filch. Ps. chopolewa. 
Nt. chopoka (and a variant chupuka, 
churupuka}, slip from the grasp, be 
filched away, escape, extricate one- 
self, e.g. from a snare. Sungura 
akachopoka mkottoni mwa simba, the 
hare slipped from under the lion's 
paw. Ap. chopo-lea, -lewa. (Cf. 
chopa, and syn. ponyoka.} 

Choro, n. ( , and ma-\ marks 
made with a tool, engraving, carving, 
scratch, scrawl, bad writing, hiero- 
glyphics. Also machorochoro, carved 
patterns, writing. (Cf. chora, and 
nakshi, bomlnue.} 

Choroko, n. also Chooko, a small 
dark-green pea or bean, often mixed 
with rice and other grain for food. 
Considered inferior to kunde. Huku- 
shiba mikundeni, utashiba michoro- 
koni ? If kundt did not satisfy you, 
vi\\\ chorokot (Cf. mchoroko.} 

Chosha, v. (Cs. of choka, i. e. for 
chokes ha}, make weary, be fatiguing. 
See Choka. 

-choshi, a. (choshi with D 4 (P), 

D 5 (S), D 6), tiresome, tiring. (Cf. 
choka, -chovu.} 

Chosho, n. and Josho, for ki-osho, 
ji-osho, washing, place for washing, 
bathing-place. Mahali pa choshoni, 
place for washing, e. g. of corpses, or 
clothes. (Cf. oga, osha, and fua, 

Chosi, n. and Chozi, includes two 
species of birds, one very fond of 
fresh cocoanut sap, tembo, a Necta- 
rinia (Sa.). 

Chota, v. take up a little of, take 
a pinch of, take up by bits (pieces), 
pick up with the fingers. Ch. maji, 
fetch a little water at a time. Ch. 
kuni, fetch firewood. Ps. chotwa. 
Nt. choteka. Ap. chot-ea, -eiva. 
Kazi yake kumchotea maji mwalimu, 
his duty was to supply his teacher 
with water. Cs. chot-esha, -eshiva. 
(Cf. choto, mchoto, and danga, dona, 
donoa, also chopa.} 

Choto, n. a small part (piece, bit, 
quantity, amount, a scrap, a pinch). 
(Cf. chota, mchoto.} 

-chovu, a. (chovu with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (i) weary, tired, 
fatigued, worn out, bored, exhausted ; 
(2) tiresome, tiring, wearying. (Cf. 
choka, -choshi.} 

Chovya, v. put (into), plunge 
(into), dip (into), make contact with, 
touch, finger. Ch. kidole motoni, put 
a finger in the fire. Ch. nguo katika 
maji, plunge clothes into water. 
Ch. asali, dip into (touch) honey. 
Mchovya asali hachovyi marra moja, 
ie who dips his finger in honey", does 
not do it once. Alimchovya haya, 
ic plunged him in confusion. Nt. 
chovyeka. Ap. chovy-ea, -ewa. Cs. 
chovy-esha, -eshwa. (Cf. chovyo y 

Chovyo, n. (ma-}, a dip, touch, 
what is got by a dip (touching). 
'Cf. chovya.} 

Choyo, n. avarice (shown either in 
getting or keeping), greediness, covet- 
ousness, a grasping nature, miserli- 
ness, &c. . Mwenyi ch., a grasping, 




niggardly person. KUTVO, na ch., to 
be covetous, to grudge. Lia ch., 
cry for (disappointed) greediness. 
Also as a., huyu ni ch. sana, he is 
a dog in the manger. (Cf. bahili, 
roho, tamaa.) 

Chozi, n. (ma-}, (i) a tear, tear- 
drop 5(2) anything resembling a tear, 
gum on trees, &c. Toka (lid) ma- 
chozi, shed tears. Bubujika machozi, 
burst into a flood of tears. Machozi 
yalimchuruzika ttsoni, tears trickled 
down his face. (Cf. chuza.) (3^ 
One or two species of bird. See 

Chua, v. sometimes Tua, as at 
Mombasa, (i) rub, rub down, and 
so variously, grind, file, pound, polish; 
(a) fig. of quarrelling, &c., jar, rub, 
make discord. Kuchua si kwema, 
friction is not good. Chua mtno t 
clean the teeth. Chua mafumba ya 
rub down the lumps in meal. 
Chua-chua kitwa, rub (chafe) an 
aching head. Ap. chu-lia, -/iwa, 
-lika. Chulika mafuta, have oil 
rubbed in. Jiwe la kuchulia, a grind- 
stone. Rp. chuatta, e. g. of persons 
wrestling. (Cf. saga, sugua, more 
common in 

Chub, int. (the ch being mainly 
heard), expressing contempt or im- 
patience, ' sht ! nonsense ! ' 

Chubua, v. take the skin off, 

abrade, bruise badly, flog, give a 

hiding to. A'iij/u changu kimcni- 

rrtuu, my shoe has nibbed 

the skin off my foot Ps. chubuliwa. 

(inikci. Mgcmgo umechubuka, 

k is raw. Ap. chttbu-lia, 

liwa. Alimkanyaga mtoto akamchu- 

,-ffst, he trod on the child and 

rubbed the skin off. Cf. follg.) 

Chubuko, n. (ma-), bruise, abra- 
sion, raw place. (Cf. prec.) 

Chubwi, n. n plummet, a sinker, 

attached to fishing line to assist the 

cast and sink the bait. (Cf. MMi, 

ad, timaxi, carpenter's 


Chuchu, n. ( , and ma-), a small 

hard protuberance on the skin, wart, 
pimple, small tumour, a callosity. 
Chuchu la ziwa, teat. (Cf. sugu.) 

Chuchumia, v. Ap. reach up (to), 
stretch up to, as by rising on tiptoe 
or hind-legs. Mbuzi anachnchumia, 
the goat is trying to get at (the 

Chui, n. leopard. 

Chuja, v. (i) filter, strain; (2) 
strain out, remove by filtering or 
straining; (3) cleanse, purify. Ch. 
maji yaliyo na taka, filter dirty water. 
Ch. nazi kiva kifumbu kupata tui, 
filter (grated) cocoanut in a bag to 
get the milky extract. Mitungu 
achuje taka za moyo wefu, may God 
take away the impurities of our heart. 
Ps. I'hujwa. Nt. chujika. Moyo 
tiliochitjika^ a purified heart. Ap. 
chuj-ia, -iwa. Chombo cha kuchujia, 
a filter (?chujio > ma-). Cs. chuj- 
t'sba, -ishwa. (Cf. chujo, cAujua, 
and perh. vuja.) 

Chujo, n. ( , and wo-), what is 
got by straining or filtering. Chujo 
ya asalij molasses, treacle* (Cf. 

Chujua, v. Rv. form of ehuja, 
implying an opposite result in, or by 
use of, a liquid, i.e. spoil with water, 
by washing or otherwise. Amcchu- 
jua uji ivangu, una tnaji, he has 
spoilt my gruel, it is too watery. 
Ps. chujuliwa. Nt. chujukij, e.g. 
nguo hizi zimcchujuka, these clothes 
are spoilt (in colour) by washing. 
Rangi hii haichujuki^ this colour 
does not wash out, it is a fast colour. 
Ap. chujulia, -iwa. (Cf. chuja.) 

Ohuki, n. ill humour, bad temper, 
dMikc, rcsrntmcnt. )ftu wa chuki 
(or, wa ( -hukiihuki , one who is 
<juick-tcm])crcd, easily put out, ready 
to take offence. Yuna ch. t he is 
offended, he is sulky. Ona th., be 
in a bad temper. Tia <A., offend, 
M take angry. (Cf. foil. 

Chukia, v. hate, hav 
towards (e.g. anger, resentment, 
disgust, loathing, aversion), d 




abhor. Ps. chukiwa, be hated, &c. 
Cs. chuk-iza, -izwa, e. g. cause dislike, 
offend, put out. Hence chukiz-ia, 
-iwa. But note that chukia is also 
used, Act. and Ps., as chukiza, i. e. 
cause chuki in, as well as, feel chuki 
towards. Bwana amechukiwa na 
mtiimwa wake, mtumwa wake alim- 
chukiza, the master was provoked by 
his slave, his slave provoked him. 
Jichitkiza, grow angry of oneself, 
be angry gratuitously (without cause). 
Chukizisha, cause to be annoying, 
make offensive. Chukizana, provoke 
each other. Rp. chukiana, hate 
each other. (Cf. chuki, ma- 


Chuku, n. cupping-horn. Piga ch. t 
make a false impression, exaggerate, 
tell an incredible story, draw the long- 
bow. (Cf. umika, ndumiko.} 

Chukua, v. (i) carry, bear (a load), 
take on one's back (shoulders or 
head, or in one's hands), e.g. as a 
caravan porter (inpagazi) or town 
porter (hamali, mchukuzi}. Ch. 
mzigo begani, carry a load on the 
shoulder, such load being usually 
about 60 Ibs. weight in a mainland 
journey. (2) Take, conduct, convey, 
lead. Ch. mtoto huyu kwa babaye, 
take this child to his father (ci.peleka 
in this sense). (3) Take away, carry 
off, remove, transport. Ch. taka, 
remove a mess (cf. ondod). Also of 
the feelings, carry away, transport, 
overwhelm (of joy, sorrow, &c.). 
(4) Bear up under (passively), i.e. 
endure, put up with, take peaceably, 
be resigned to (cf. vumilia, stahimili, 
shukuru) ; (5) bear the weight 
(responsibility) of, support, maintain, 
sustain. Anach. wazee wake, he is 
supporting his parents (cf. ponya, 
ruzukisha, saidia]. (6) Take (in 
capacity), contain, hold, have capacity 
for (of a vessel, measure, &c.), and 
fig. include, involve, allow of. Chombo 
hiki kitach. pishi tatu, this vessel will 
hold three pishi (tf. wekd]. (7) Take 
up, use up, require. Safari He ilich. 

situ nyingi, that journey occupied 
many days. Zawadi hizi zitach. 
ngtio nyingi, these presents will re- 
quire a lot of cloth. Chukua has 
many applications, e. g. neno hilt 
lach. mambo mengi, this word includes 
many things, i.e. has many meanings. 
Ch. mimba, be pregnant. Nguo hizi 
zinakuch., these clothes set off your 
appearance, give you a fine air 
(carriage). Ps. chukuliwa. Nt. 
thukulika (rarely chukukd). Ap. 
chuku-lia, -liwa t &c., e.g. carry to 
(for, from, &c.), feel for (towards, 
about, &c.). Nikuchuktilie, let me 
carry it for you. Chukuliwa mash uku , 
be an object of suspicion. Inachu- 
kulika, it is not too heavy to be 
carried, it is endurable. Hence chuku- 
liana, be compatible, agree, tolerate 
each other's company. Cs. chuku- 
za, -zwa, employ a person to carry, 
lay a burden on, &c. fty. chuku- 
ana, e. g. carry in turns, give mutual 
support, endure each other, agree 
together. (Cf. mchukuzi, ttchu- 

Chuma, n. ( , and vy-\ iron, a 
piece of iron. Chuma pua (or pua 
alone), steel. Mabamba ya ch. % iron 
of a flat kind, hoop iron, iron plate, 
&c. Pan (or fito} za ch. } iron rods, 
bar iron. (For ki-uma, so cf. perh. 
uma, kiuma.} 

Chuma, v. (i) pluck, gather, of 
fruit, flowers, &c. ; (2) make a profit, 
esp. in trade or business, gain in 
trade, prosper, be well paid. Watu 
huenda chuma barra, people go to 
make money up country. Ps. c hu- 
mwa. Nt. chumika. Ap. chum-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. chum-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. 
chumo, uchumi, and syn. Ar. faidi, 

Chumba, n. (vy-~), room, chamber, 
apartment, i.e. part of a nyumba, 
esp. of a store house. Nyumba hit 
ina vyumba vingi, this house has 
many rooms. Ch. cha kulala, 
bed room, dormitory. Ch. cha 
kulia, dining room, refectory. (Cf. 




nyttmba, jitmba, mchnmba y also 
tnkato. ) 

Chumo, n. (Ma-}, (l) plucking, 
gathering. Machumo ya zabibu t 
grapes plucked, vintage. (2) Profit, 
gain, source of gain, employment. 
(Cf. cAuma, v., and ttchumi.) 

Chumvi, n. (i) salt; (2) salt ness, 
pungency (of flavour or quality). 
Maji ya ch. t salt water, brine, sea 
contr. ma/i baridi, Maji ya 
Mrtta, Maji matamu, maji ya fepo, 
frohw.iur . Ch.ya haluli> sulphate 
of magnesia, Epsom salts. Maneno 
yoke ch., his remarks were pungent, 
had a flavour. 

Chuna, v. skin, flay, take the 
whole skin off. HI rnc hunt ngozi 
kwa vizuri, msikatt ivala msitoboc, 
wa/a Msithunc na nyarna, Mrnchune 
ZYma, take off the beast's hide properly, 
do not cut it or make holes in it, and 
do not take oft flesh with it, skin it 
carefully. Also <>f stripping bark off 
a tree. Chuna karnba, get (strips of 
bark for) rope. Ps. chunwa. Nt. 
chunika. Ap. chun-ia, -iwa. (Cf. 
chunua, chuni, mchuni, also chubua, 

Chunga, v. (i) tend, take care of, 

act as guardian to, but esp. of ani- 

:eeper or herdman 

attle, goats, &c., feed, 

take to pasture, graze, &c. (Cf. 

Mchunga (-;. 

Hour for 

cooking, of lime for plaster, &c., by 
shaking nn! 

pet a, and (unga. 
( ) is sometimes n., sifting?, husks, 


ChiniKu i i , .thccommonett 


nkcd earthen- 

"1 or black in colour, of vari- 

prith a h'l of same 

1. (C'f. tin.-u, jtingH, ki~ 


% waya t 
fua, kornbt, kibungu, Mkungu t ki- 

. kango, kikombt, kikango, and 
see Mtungi, Sufuria, and Chombo.) 
(2) ( , and of size, wa-), a heap. 
a quantity, a pile, a mass. ( 
chungt4, in heaps, quantities, j-ttha 
zikaiva nyingi, chitngu zima, the 
coins were numerous, a whole pile. 
(Cf. syn. fungu, j'amti.) (3) An 
ant, of a common small kind, and so 
used more generically than other 
names of species (e.g. mchwa, siafu. 
maji ya moto, which =ee\ Also 
used fig. of a poor, insignificant 
person. (4) ( ) sometimes for 
uchiytgu, of some particular kind of 
smart, e. g. naona chungu ya mwiba, 
I feel the sharp prick of a thorn. 
Cf. follg. 

-chungu, a. (chungtt with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D 6), (,!) bitter, acrid, 
sour, sharp in taste, acid ; (2) dis- 
agreeable, unpleasant. Daiva^ 
bitter, unpalatable medicine. 
r //*/?/, n., also often used as a., and 

Chungulia, v. look at (down 
upon, into), esp. of furtive or critical 
and thorough examination, i. e. peep 
(at), pry (into), cast glance (at), in- 
spect closely. Ps. chtut 
Nt. ehungnli-ka, -kana. Ap. 
chungulilia. ['fa wa htc/i., a peep- 
hole. Cs. chitnguza, e. g. Intens. 
look carefully (anxiously, thoroughly} 
into. (Cf. syn. angaJia, fasamia, 

if?wa, n. (wa-), i 

sweet orange, fruit <>f mchungwa 
(which see), abundant for mm- month-; 

>ear in /.. (Cl. for othrr 

ngaja, n ".^wO 

in ]>!. M 

process of skinning, Mayiti^ an ani- 

Chunjua, n. a small liar 
tubcrancc on the skin, a wait. (Cf. 

ua, v. scrape si- 
Alifhuntdi uso -i 
skin ' 




Nt. chunuka. Ap. chunu-lia, 

-liwa. Cs. chunu-za, -zwa. (Cf. 
chuna, chubua, and follg.) 

Chunusi, n. (i) and Chunuzi, a 
bit of skin taken off, abrasion, raw 
place; (2) same as Chinusi, which 

Chunyu, n. incrustation of salt, 
deposit from salt water. Nimeoga 
maji ya pivani nafanya chunyu, 
I have had a sea-water bath, and feel 
the salt on me. (Cf. munyu, 
chumvi, nyttnyo.) 

Chuo, n. (vy-}, W book; (2) 
school. Buni (tunga) chuo, 
write a book, compose a book. 
Chuo cha serkali, a government 
school. Mwana-chuoni, or -vyuoni, 
(i) a (boy) scholar, one who attends 
school ; (2) an educated, learned 
man, a scholar, a man of books. 
Enda chuoni, go to school. Tiwa 
chuoni, be sent to school. (For 
ki-uo, from the appearance of a 
bound book, cf. uo, and for ' book ' 
Ar. syn. msahafu, kitabu, and for 
' school ' madarasa, soma, v.) 

Chupa, v. 'get over' something by 
leap, step, hop, jump. Chupa gogo, 
step over a log. Ap. chup-ia, -iwa, 
and see follg. Cs. chup-isha, 

-ishwa. (Cf. syn. kia, kiuka, and 
vuka.} n. ( , and ma-}, a 
bottle. Ch. la kutilia marashi, 
a scent-bottle. Ch. la mvinyo, a 
spirit bottle. Also used of the 
' womb,' e. g. kuvunja chupa, of 
first stage of childbirth. Dim. ki- 
tupa (preserving the /, as at Mom- 

Chupia, v. move quickly, rush, 
dash, gallop. Frasi mzoefu wa ku- 
chupia, a horse accustomed to going 
quickly. (Conn, with chupa, v.) 

Chupuka, Chupuza, v. See Chi- 
puka, and Chopoka. 

Chura, n. (z^-)> a ^ r S- 

Churua, n. or Churuwa, and 
Shurua, measles. 

Chururika, v. See Chiririka, 
and Churuzika. 

Churuza, v. and Chuuza, keep 
a small shop, do a retail business, 
hawk goods about, be a pedlar. 
(Cf. mchuruzi.) 

Churuzika, v. and Chururika, 
trickle down, run of, be drained 
away, as water from roof, blood from 
wound, rain from a tree, &c. Anach. 
damu, he bleeds freely. Cs. chuniz- 
isha, -ishwa, drain off, carry off. 
(Cf. chirizika.) mchirizi, tiririka, and 
also chuza. 

Chusa, n. (^-)> a harpoon, used 
for large fish, such as papa, nguru, 

Chuza, v. or Chuuza, Churuza, 
trickle, glide, run down. Chozi la 
unyonge likichuuza, as the tear of 
abject misery falls. Kuvuja na 
kuchuza hakulingani na wazi, ooz- 
ing and trickling is not the same 
as open (flood-gates). (Cf. chiri- 
rika, churuzika.} 

-chwa, v. Ps. from -cha, which 


D represents the same sound as 
in English. 

Z>, as an initial in words of Arabic 
origin, is used for three Arabic 
letters, viz. Dal, and sometimes Tah 
and Dhal. See T, Th. 

D takes the place of / and r, as 
the initial of a root, if a formative n 
is prefixed. Thus kasha refu, a long 
box ; kamba ndefu, a long rope. 

D in Z. sometimes represents a j 
or dy in the Mombasa dialect, and in 
some words is not clearly distin- 
guished from /. Thus words not 
found under D may be looked for 
under J or T. 

Words beginning with D are 
mostly of non-Bantu origin. 

-dachi, a. commonly used for 
' German.' Mdachi (wa-'), Dachi 
(ma-}, a German. Kidachi, the 
German language, of the German 
kind. Udachi, Germany, also ulaya 
Dachi. (From deutsch, cf.jamant.) 




Dada, n. sister, esp. elder sister, 
a term of endearment among women. 

*Dadisi, v. pry, be inquisitive, be 
curious (about), ask unnecessary 
questions (o: -ndadisi sana 

hatta aniambie, I plied him with 
questions to get him to tell me. Ps. 
dadisiwa. Nt. dadisika. (?Ar. 
Cf. mdadisi, and syn. hoji, chungulia, 

*Dadu, n. and Dado, game, toy, 
esp. of dice in Z. Qteza d., play 
with dice. Machezo ya </., games 
with dice. (An). 

*Dafina, n. hidden treasure, trea- 
sure-trove, godsend. (Ar.) 

*Daftari, n. an account book, 
catalogue, list. (Ar. Cf. worotha, 
ya mo/f.) 

Dafu, n. (ma-), a cocoanut in the 
stage when it is full of milk, further 
described as (i) bupu la dafn,punjc 
la dafu, dafu la kukomba, dafu* la 
kulamba, \. e. when just beginning to 
form a soft layer of nutty substance 
in the shell, which can be licked or 
easily scraped off, and (2) tonga la 
dafu, when the nutty substance has 
become thick and tough. Maji ya 
dafu, cocoanut milk. Dafu is also 
commonly used for the milk itself, 
little cared for by natives. (Cf. 

Dagaa, n. (? plur. of :tdagaa\ 
very small fish, fish in an early stage, 
small fry, like whitebait, a favourite 

*Dai, v. (i) summons, prosecute, 

sue at law, accuse, charge ; (a) claim 

in court, demand as a right, claim. 

! accuse you. Nadai 

kivako haki yangu, I claim :: 

my lawful rights. Rufia amdaiyo 

Tuna, the rupee which Tuna claims 

I/I, claim for 

oncscl f martial spirit, boast of prowess. 

Ap. (fata, claim on 

of (in reference to, for, from, 

act as solicitor for. Rp. 

daiana, of counter claims, cross-suit 

n. \mar\ legal process, suit, 

claim, for the more usual' da*iva}. 
(Ar. Cf. mdai, dawa, and for 
' claim ' hu 

*Daima, adv. perpetually, per- 
manently, constantly, continually, 
always. Nam-wona d. akipita, I see 
him constantly passing. Dttmu J., 
emphat., always, for ever and ever, 
never endingly, eternally, -a daima, 
a. continual, permanent, lasting. 
(Ar. Cf. d:ttnu, and syn. siku zote, 
marra kwa marra, and for ' lasting ' 
tshi, aushi.} 

Daka, v. catch, snatch, seize, get 
hold of, with a sudden, quick move- 
ment, e.g. catch a ball thrown in 
the air, pounce on a thief, appropriate 
food greedily. Also daka inancno, 
make a smart response (quick re- 
partee, sharp reply % Ps. dakwa. Ap. 
dak-ia, -iwa. Cs. dak-iza, 
e. g. object to, rebut, contradict. 
(? Cf. dakizo, dakua, udaku, d,: 
and nyaka, nyakua, and for ' seize ' 
katnata, shika.} n. (/a-\ 
receptacle, niche in wall, cupboard. 
D. la inlango, a recess with a door, 
cupboard. Dim. kidaka. (Cf. 
dakua, and dukiza, prob. the same 

*Dakawa, n. towing line, tow- 
rope, i. e. kamba ya kufungasia. 

*Dakika, n. the smallest division of 
time, moment, minute, second. 
d. rnoja, in a twinkling, at once. ( Ar.) 

Dakizo, n. (ma-), objection, con- 
on, demurrer. (Cf. daka.} 

*Daku, n. midnight meal taken 
by Mahomraedans nathan. 

(Ar. Cf. Ramath>:< 

Dakua, v. let 01. 

'k indiscn 

A p. dak:t 

talk foolishly to (for, about, against, 
Cs. dakuliza, used as ' con- 
tradict, protest against, obje*.' 
of Ja*a. 

Dalali, n. salesman, auctioneer, 
broke:. ick. (Ar. 

. v;;/,;,//'.) 

E J 




*Dalasini, n. cinnamon, from the 
tree mdalasini. (Ar.) 

Dalia. n. a yellow mixture, used 
by women for personal adornment 
(cosmetic, scent, &c., and colour). 

*Dalili, n. sign, token, mark, 
trace, indication, evidence, signal. 
D.ya mvna ni mawingit, the sign ol 
rain is clouds. D. ya mguu, foot 
step (on the ground). With negatives, 
st hatta dalili, not at all, not a ves- 
tige, not in the least. 

*Dama, n. a game, played on a 
board like chess, a kind of draughts. 

*Damu, n. blood. Nyama no. d., 
flesh and blood. Anatoka d., he is 
bleeding. Also of the menses, ingia 
damuni, menstruate. Cf. hethi. 

Dandalo, n. a kind of dance. (Cf. 

Danga, v. (i) take up little by little, 
get a little at a time, scoop up care- 
fully (of water in a pit), i. e. d. viaji. 
(Cf. chota.} Hence (2) fig. of enforced 
and tedious delay, wait, have to wait 
(but perh. this is tanga, which see). 

Danga nya, v. elude, delude, de- 
ceive, defraud, cheat, beguile, impose 
on, belie. Ps. danganywa. Nt. 
danganyi-ka, -kana. A p. dangany- 
-ia, -iwa. Cs. dangany-isha, 
-ishiva. Rp. dangany-ana. (Cs. 
form ?conn. with danga, or Hind. 
dagaa. Cf. -danganyifu, mdanganyi, 
and syn. pimja, kalamkia, hadaa, 
kopa.) and dist. changanya.} n. 
(ma-}, trick, delusion, &c. 

-danganyifu, a. (dang, with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D 6), deceptive, delu- 
sive, cheating, &c.) (Cf. danganya.} 

Danzi, n. (ma-}, a bitter orange, 
fruit of mdanzi, which see (and for 
other varieties, chitngwa.) 

*Darabi, n. (ma-}, rose-apple, 
fruit of mdarabi. 

*Daraja, n. (ma-}, (i) step, set 
of steps, stairs, staircase, bridge ; (2) 
degree, rank, dignity, social station. 
Akashuka katika d., he descended the 
staircase. D. kubwa (bora}, high 

rank. A district of Zanzibar city 
near the bridge is called Darajani. 
(Ar. Cf. ngazi, ulalo, and for ' rank ' 

*Daraka, n. (ma-}, an arrange- 
ment, appointment, obligation, duty, 
undertaking. Madarakaya nymnb- 
ani, household arrangements, domes- 
tic economy. Chukulia d., go bail 
for, answer for, bear the punishment 
of. (Ar. Cf. diriki, tadaruki.} 

*Darasa, n. (ma-}, class, meeting 
for reading or study. Madarasa, 
school, academy. (Ar. Cf. dit- 
rusi, also chuo, soma.} 

*Dari, n. upper floor, upper story, 
ceiling, roof, roofs and upper floors 
in an Arab house being alike made 
of concrete laid on poles and rammed 
hard. Darini, juu ya dari, upstairs, 
on the roof. (Ar. Cf. sakafu, 

/ / <^ ^ J ' 

or of a.} 

*Darizi, v. See Tarizi. 

*Darumeti, n. inside woodwork 
of native vessel, joists carrying the 
deck, cross-beams, &c. 

*Dasi, n. rope sewn into the edge 
of a sail for strength, and distinguished 
as d. ya bara, on the upper (yard) 
side, d. ya chini, on the lower, d. ya 
goshini and ya dernani, on the nar- 
rower and broader ends. 

Dasili, n. a powder made of the 
dried and pounded leaves of a tree 
mkujiazi, used as a detergent (Str.) 
for a kind of skin disease. 

*Dasturi,n. bowsprit, also called 
mlingote wa maji. (Dist. desturi.} 

Dau, n. (ma-}, a large native- built 
boat, both ends sharp and projecting, 
and usually with a square matting 
sail. (Cf. chombo, mtumbwi, mas/iua, 

*Daulati, n. the ruling power, 
government, authorities. (Arab, for 
the common scrkali.} 

*Dawa, n. ( , and ma-}, medicine, 
medicament, anything supplied by a 
doctor, including ' charm, talisman, 
&c ,' used by native doctors. D.ya 
kuhara, a purgative, aperient. D. ya 




kutapisha, an emetic. D.ya kttnywa, 
medicine, for internal use. Dawa 
ya kutia (kufaka, kubandika. kujisu- 
gua\ medicine for external use. Mada- 
wa ya tt0Hfo-uongo,c\ medicines. 
(Ar. Dist. follg.) 

*Da'wa, n. or Daswa, and some- 
times Mdawa (mi-}, legal process, 
suit, litigation, legal claim, dispute. 
( Ar. , the aa representing ain. Cf. dai, 
and dist. dawa, medicine.) 

*Dawati, n. writing desk, writing 
case. Dim. kidawati. (Ar. for 

*Dayima, adv. always. See 

*Debe, n. (wa-), tin can, com- 
monly of the 4-5 gal. tin in which 
American petroleum has been im- 
ported, often used as a pail. Nat oka 
dtbe ma/n/a, I want a tin of oil. 
Nat oka debt la mafuta, I want an 
oil-tin. (Hind.) 

*Debwani, n. a turban-cloth, an 
Indian cloth, mostly of silk, with red 
or brown stripes, and worn on the 
head as a turban. 

Dege, n. (i) infantile convulsions, 
fits (cf. kifafa] ; (2) a kind of moth. 

*Deheni, n. a water-proofing mix- 
ture of lime and fat, used on the 
bottoms of native vessels. Also as 
v. of applying the mixture. ( Ar.) 

Deka, v. (i) give oneself airs, live 

in style, play the grandee ; (a) show 

be arrogant, be unpleasant. 

Also j: of a vain woman's 

gait and bearing. (Cf. syn. 

piga kiburi, jifahirisha, and 

*Delki, adv. See Telki. (Ar.) 

Dema, n. a kind of fish-trap of 
open wicker-work. (Cf. wttgo.) 

Demani, n. (i) sheet (rope) of 

mainsail of a native sailing vessel. 

(2) lee side (in navigation), 

also called upande wa tfemnni (wa 

Coo tr. 

C(3) Season of the year 
end of A (-ginning of 

November, v, uth monsoon 

slackens and gradually dies away, 
spring-time in Zanzibar. Also some- 
times of the whole season of the 
south monsoon, from April to Oc- 
tober. (Contr. Musimu, and see 

Denge, n. a mode of wearing the 
hair, a patch on the top of the head 
only. Kata denge, shave the whole 
head except the crown. 

*Dengu, n. a kind of pea imported 
from India, and usually mixed with 
grain, &c. for food. (Cf. choroko, 
mbaazi, kunde.) 

*Deni, n. ( , and ina-\ a debt, 
loan, money obligation. Fanya (in- 
gia,jipashd] d., get into debt, borrow, 
lend. Lipa d., discharge a debt, 
repay a loan. (Ar. Cf. azimu, 
also wia, wiwa.) 

*Deraya, n. armour, coat of mail, 
cuirass, i.e. vao la chuma. (Cf. Arab. 

*Desturi, n. or Dasturi, custom, 
usage, regular practice, routine. The 
usual word in Z. (Hind. Cf. 
Ar. kawaida, ada, inila, rnathehcbu. 
Dist. dasturi, bowsprit.) 

*Deuli, n. waistband, a silk 
shawl or scarf worn round the 
(Cf. ntshipi, mahazatnu.} 

*Devai, n. wine in general. 
(Perh. Fr. dii vin. Cf. mrinyo, used 
mainly of spirits.) 

*Dia, n. money paid for a 1; 
for murder, ransom. Killa nitu dia 
ya rohoyakc % every man his rn:. 
save his life). (?Ar. Cf.>/ia,/i/i.) 

*Dibaji, n. used of the ^ 1 
prefatory epithets and compli:. 
titles in Arab letter writing. ,ind more 
gcnerall n, good 

style, In 

akram % 

naspJii, azizi, hashatnti, / 
fathili, often in pure An 
with tl \ed to each. 

r, sink don 
bottom, penetrate. :-iikia t 




-iii'a, bore into, e. g. of a tool. Cs, 
didim-isha, -ishwa, cause to sink 
down, force down (into, &c.). Didi- 
misha ngiio mkobani^ft clothes into 
a wallet. (Cf. iota, zama, zizimia.} 

Difu, n. See Kilifu. 

*Digali, n. stem of the bowl of a 
native pipe. See Kiko. 

*Diki, adv. See Tiki, and Shiki. 

Diko, n. (tna-) t landing place. 

*Dimu, n. See Ndimu. 

*Dini, n. religion, creed, worship. 
Kushika chuo na kusali ndio dini, 
to follow the Goran and perform the 
prayers is (Mahommedan) religion. 

*Dira, n. mariner's compass, i.e. 
kipande cha kusafiria chombo baha- 
rini, an instrument for a ship to steer 
by on the sea. (Ar.) 

*Diriki, v. in general, have power 
(will, time, opportunity, &c., for), 
and so (i) be able, be in time (for), 
reach, succeed, attain, 'manage, ar- 
range; (2) venture, undertake, guar- 
antee, incur responsibility (for). 
Nalitakakivenda, sikttdiriki, I wanted 
to go, but I could not manage it. 
Sijadiriki kuisha kusema, before I 
could finish speaking. (Ar. Cf. 

*Dirisha, n. (ma-}, window. D. 
la vibau, a louvre window. D. la 
kuchungulilia, a window to peep 
through. {Hind. Cf. mwangaza.} 

*Diwani, n. (ma-}, councillor, 
public functionary, magnate. (Ar.) 

Doa, n. (ma-), spot, blotch, mark, 
stain. Doa la mafuta, a grease spot. 
Madoadoa, used as a., spotted, varie- 
gated, of different colours, speckled. 

Doana, n. hook, fish-hook. See 

*Dobi, n. (ma-}, one who washes 
clothes, as a trade, always a "man 
in Z. Usinifanye punda wa dobi, do 
not treat me ns a washerman's donkey. 
Cf. chombo hiki ki dobi, this vessel 
is heavily loaded. (Hind.) 

*Dodi, n. (ma-}, also Udodi, 

Ndodi, (i) fine wire, whether brass or 
iron ; (2) a bracelet of fine wire, hair, 
or thread. 

*Dodo, n. a very large kind of 
mango is called embe dodo, or 
dodo. The word is also used of 
'a woman's breast.' Yuna dodo, 
she has breasts, she is growing up. 
(Cf. embe.} 

*Dodoki, n. (ma-}, a long slender 
fruit, eaten as a vegetable, a kind of 
lufah. See Mdodoki. 

-dogo, a. (ndogo with D 4 (P), 
D 6, dogo with D 5 (S)), little (in 
condition, quality or quantity), small, 
slight, unimportant, . young. Mtoto 
mdogo, a small child. Ndiigu mdogo, 
a younger brother. Baba mdogo, 
father's brother, uncle. Mtu mdogo, 
a poor man. Adv. kidogo, a little, 
rather, not very, not much, in small 
amount. Used as adj. to denote 'small 
in quantity.' Watu kidogo, a few 
people. But watu ivadogo, poor, in- 
ferior people. Maji kidogo, a little 
water. With negat. < (not) at all, (not) 
in the least, (none) whatever ' ; esp. 
with hatta. Sikupi hatta kidogo, I 
will not give you a single bit, I will 
not think of giving you any. Some- 
times redupl. for emphasis, -vitanda 
vidogodogo,or vtdogo-vidogo,\ery small 
bedsteads. (Cf. contr. -kubwa, 
kuu, -ingi.} 

*Dohani, n. chimney, smoke-stack, 
and in Z. esp. of (i) funnel, smoke- 
stack, of a steamer. Hence merikebu 
ya d. (or ya moshi, smoke), a steamer; 
(2) a tall narrow basket of sticks and 
cocoanut leaf-fronds, used for carry- 
ing fruit to market. (Ar.) 

Dokeza, v. give a hint of, suggest, 
r oreshadow, sketch. (Perh. tokeza, 
cause to come out, make appear. 
See Toka, Toa. But cf. kidoko.} 

*Dokra, n. a cent, hundredth part 
of a dollar. (Cf. reale.} 

Dole, n. (ma-}, single banana 
ruit, f. e. one of a cluster (chana} on 
a large fruit stem (mkungu}. (Cf. 
udole, kidole, and ndizi.} 




Domo, n. (ma-\ (i) large lip, 
large beak; (2) protuberance, pro- 
jection, thing resembling a beak, 
overhanging crag, &c. ; (3) brag, 
boasting, cant. Piga domo, let the 
tongue wag, brag, boast. (Cf. mdomo, 
kidomo, and for ' boasting ' (jf}semea, 
(Ji c-una, (ji}gamba, (ji]sifu.} 

Dona, v. peck, pick at, pick op 
bit by bit. Dona mchete, pick up 
rice. Ap. don-ea, -ewa. Cs. don- 
csha,-cza,-czwa. Ap.donana. A'ukit 
wanadonana, the fowls are pecking 
each other. (Cf. donoa, dondoa, and 
of similar action chota, danga.) 

Donda, n. ( , and Ma-}, large 
sore, ulcer, so common an ailment 
as to be used as typical of sickness 
and disaster generally. 
atakupa d., God will bring sickness 
upon you. Donda Juu ya donda, 
blow on blow (i.e. calamity). D. 
ndugu, spreading, confluent ulcers. 
kidonJa, (Cf. donda, v., 
dondoa, and for 'small sores' ttfele.} 
v. fall by drops, drip, fall in bits 
(bit by bit). (Cf. more common 
tona, also dondoa, donda, n.) 

Dondo, n. tna-~), (i) large tiger- 
cowry shell, used by tailors for smooth- 
ing down seams to a good surface 
(cf. i-iiun). Hence perh. (a) dress- 
ing for cloth, starch, chalk, &c., 
used to give a good surface and ap- 
pearance to inferior material. Nguo 
ya dondo, glossy calico. (3) Some- 
times of 'twigs, chips, scraps' of 
wood, leaves, &c., e.g. for lighting 
fires. (Cf. donda, v.) 

Dondoa, v. (i) pick up bit by 
grain, &c. ; 

(a) let fall : iron, cause to 

md so perh. (3) form sores, 
cause illness; (4) make s< 

. compile knowledge (by). 
ha sarr. fdondoa 

. if you let him cat i 
will cause sores on his body. Nt. 
dondoka. Mbtgii >fa, the 

seeds dropped one by one i: 
hand. (Rv. of donda, wit! 

n fanya madongt, 

meaning. Cf. chonga, chongoa, &c. ; 
also donda, n., and follg.) 

Dondoo, 11. (ma-), selections, 
notes, extracts, quotations, choice 
bits, e.g. in an anthology. (Cf. 
donda, dondoa, &c., and for similar 
idea okota, mateuzi.} 

Dondoro, n. a kind of antelope. 
(See Paa, for the only sort seen in Z.) 

Donge, n. ( , and ma-}, also 
Tonge, small rounded mass, ball, 
lump, e.g. of a mouthful of rice, rolled 
in the fingers and put in the mouth, 
in this sense usually Tonge. A'uvi- 
ringa donge za wait na kutia ki- 
nwani, to make a little ball of rice 
and put it in the mouth. Donge la 
uzi, a ball of thread. Damn ina- 
, the blood is forming 
clots. Dim. kidonge, e.g. a pill. 
(Cf. bonge, tonge, and perh. udongo.) 

Donoa, v. peck, strike at x \\ith 
beak or fangs), e. g. of fowls and 
snakes. Nyoka ilimdonoa jitit ya. 
utosi, the snake struck him on the 
crown of his head. (Cf. dona, 
dondoa, &c.) 

*Dopa, n. (ma-}, a sail-maker's 
palm, for coarse sewing. 

Doria, n. used of ' white muslin ' 
in trade. (Hind.) 

*Doti, n. a piece of cloth suited 
for, and worn as, a loincloth, shuka, 
i. e. about a yards of full width, or 
4 yards of narrow material. 

Doya, v. go as spy, %econnoitrc, 
spy out (but in Z. pclcUza is usual). 

*Dua, n. a pray appli- 

cation, request m;i cr, ad- 

dressed to God. Oniha dita, offer 
r, make a request, to God. 
; I sala, 

which suggests the outward cere- 
monial aspect of prayer.) 

Duara, n. used of (i) wheel, 
:ounded object, and (a) any 

of which UK- ]>rinci 
tare is a wheel, e. g. era 
capstan, &c. (Ar. Cf. //. 

Dubwana, n. (ma-), a person* of 




extraordinary size, a giant, a colossus 
Also used as a. -dubwana, of any- 
thing gigantic, animal, tree, or other 
object. Mtu mdubwana, a giant 
(?Cf. bwana.} 

Dude, n. (ma-}, the vaguest anc 
most general term for referring to any 
object, = kitu usichokijina jina lake, 
* something of which you do not know 
the name, or have no word to de- 
scribe, a thing, a what-do-you-call-it 
an object. Dude gani hili? What 
in the world is this object? Dim. 

Dudu, n. (ma-, of size), large in- 
sect. See Mdudu, which is com- 
monly used. Dim. kidudu. 

Duduka, v. be disfigured (by ill 
ness or disease). Duduka uso, have 
face pitted, marked with small-pox. 
Ps. dudukwa. Nadudukwa na pele, 
I am disfigured by an eruption. (Cf. 

Duduvule, n. a stinging insect, 
which bores in wood (Str.). 

-dufu, a. (dufu with 04 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), dull, insipid, tasteless, 
flat, uninteresting, good for nothing, 
of persons and things. Tumbako 
dufu, mild, flavourless tobacco. Mtu 
nidufu, a stupid, dull person ; also 
dufu la tntu, in same meaning. 

*Duka, n. (ma-}, shop, stall. Tern- 
bea madukani, walk in the bazaar. 
Weka duka, open a place of business. 
Vunja du&afclose a shop, give up busi- 
ness. (Cf. Ar. dakkdn.} 

*Dukiza, v. and Dukisa, intrude 
oneself, listen secretly, try to overhear. 
Jidukiza, play the eavesdropper, in- 
trude where not wanted (offensively). 
(? Ar. dakas, and follg. Perh. same as 

*Dukizi, n. (wa-), eavesdropping, 
scandal - mongering. (Cf. dukiza, 
mdukizi. ) 

Dumbwi, n. See Kidimbwe. 
Dume, n. (ma-}, a male, esp. 
of animals. Frasi dume, or dunie 
la frasi, a stallion. Bata dume, a 
drake. See -ume. 

*Dumia, Dumisha. See Dumu. 
*Dumu, v. remain, continue, en- 
dure, last, abide. Dumu dnima, 
last for ever, used also as adv., 
for ever and ever. Ap. dum-ia, 
-iwa. Dumia kazi, remain at, perse- 
vere in work. Also, remain with, at- 
tend on, of service. Cs. dum-isha, 
-ish-wa. (Ar. Cf. daima, udumu.} 

*Dumu, n. (ma-}, also Mdumu 
(-), can, pot, jug, mug, esp. of 
metal. Dumu la maji, water-can. 

Dundu, n. (ma-}, large pumpkin, 
gourd, calabash, the shell used as a 
vessel to hold liquids. 

Dunge, n. (ma-} t a cashew apple 
in green, unripe stage, fruit oimbibo. 
(Cf. mbibo, korosho, bibo.} 

Dungu, n. (ma-}, a stage or plat- 
form, raised from the ground and 
often roofed over, for a watchman 
guarding crops on a plantation. (Cf. 

Dungudungu, n. used to describe 
anything of unusual shape or quality, 
' a wonder, marvel, curiosity.' (Cf. 
ajabu, kioja, tunu.} 

Dungumaro, n. (i) a kind of evil 
spirit ; (2) a drum used in expelling 
such a spirit. (? Mdungumaro, a per- 
son possessed by this spirit.) 

*Duni, a. inferior, low, mean, ab- 
ject, worthless. Mtu d., a nobody, 
an insignificant person. Halt d., an 
abject condition. (Ar. Cf. thai/it, 
-nyonge, hafifu, -dogo.} 

*Dunia, n. and Dunya, the world, 
universe, earth (as a whole). Fariki 
d., depart from the world, die. Mtu 
wa d., a worldly man. Mambo ya d., 
ar simply dunia, the way of the world, 
worldly affairs, the spirit of the age. 

r. Cf. ulimwengu.} 

*Durabini, n. and Darubini, tele- 
scope, microscope, or similar optical 
nstrument, i.e. kipande cha kuta- 
wmia, an instrument for seeing with. 
Piga d., use a glass. (Ar. or Pers. 
3f. miwani, spectacles.) 

*Duru, v. surround, be round, go 
ound, put round. (Arab, for com- 




mon B. zun-uka, zuttgusha, &c. 
;Cf. duara.} 

*Durusi, v. study a book, meet in 
ttend school. (Arab, for com- 
mon B. soma, enda chuoni. Cf. da- 
rasa. .) 

*Dusumali, n. a coloured hand- 
kerchief or scarf, often with green and 
red stripes, and of Persian manufac- 
ture, worn on the head by women. 
(Ar. or Pers. Cf. utaji, shela.} 

Duzi, n. (ma-), eavesdropper, tale- 
gossip - monger, slanderer. 
(Cf. dukizi, and the commoner mpcU- 

E represents the sound of a in 

and (esp. when unaccented) 

the lighter sound of e in ' ten.' In 

some words of Arabic origin (i) it is 

used for a sound between a and e 

(cf. Elfu, Hewa, and A) ; (a) it is 

used in Zanzibar characteristically for 

what is heard in other dialects as a, 

e.g. mcrikcbu, rather than marikabu, 

shcria (orsAaria, shtbaha for shabaha ; 

(3) it is not distinguished from /, not 

being so distinguished in Arab. 

; or common pronunciation. 

:mu, ihnit, &c.) 

Thus words not found under E 
may be looked for under A or /. 

n a in a prefix or formative 

syllable precede* an e or i, the two 

together are usually pronounced e, 

e.g. akenda for akucnda, he went; 

kuweta for kitivaita, to call them ; 

hieves; nungi for 

, many (things). 

For e as an interjection see He and 

Ehoe. The same e is used and re- 

peated at the end of a word inten- 

to express distance, c. g. 

akaenda e-e-e, and he went on a very 

, far away yonder ; 

hitc, clean surface, 

each case the inton.r 

ii.stancc indicated. 
-e is (i) the characteristic sign of 

the Subjunctive Mood, taking 
the place of the final a of a verb 
in the Indicative Mood ; (2) a pas- 
sive termination of some verbal 
nouns, e.g. kittmbe, kombe, utculc, 
ushitidc, utumc. 

-e (or -ye) (i) affixed to a noun, 
represents the pronom. a. yake, e. g. 
nyttmbae or nyumbaye for nyumba 
yoke, his house; (2) after a verb-form 
or tense-sign, represents^, the form 
of relative corresponding to 1 , 2 , 3 Pers. 
S.,e. g. m'/j^,lwhoam; umpendaye, 
you who love him, or, he whom you 
love ; (3) in combination with the 
prep, na or kwa, represents the pro- 
noun of 3 Pers. S. yeye, e. g. nae or 
naye, for na yeye y and kwae or kwayc t 
for kwayeyt\ (4) is used as the final 
sound of a common contracted form 
of the Personal Pronouns, except the 
3 Pers. P. ivao, i. e. mi(y)e for ////////, 
wt(y}e for wewe, yec for yeye, si(y)e 
for si si, nyi(y}e for ninyi. 

*Ebbe, int. also Bee, commonly 
used by slaves or inferiors in reply to 
a call, ' yes ! coming ! I hear ! ' 
(Ar. SeeLebeka.) 

Ebu, int. also Ebuu and Hebbu, 
Well then ! Come then ! often in 
expostulation or reproof. 

*Eda, n. time of customary cere- 
monial mourning, or seclusion from 
company, e. g. of a woman after 
a death or divorce. Kalia , 
main in mourning, or tti se> 
Akakaa eda a&avaa Jcaniki tniezi 
she remained in seclusion 
and wore mourning four months. 
(Ar. Cf. matanga, under Tanga.) 

*Edashara, n. and a., eleven. 
a edathara, eleventh. (Ar. Cf. 
. and dshara, also B. syn. 

Ee, i: or as- 


Ee walla, EC waa, < 
All right ! Ccitaiii. 
Yes, by God ! . 

Egamn, v. be in a r 
clining position, not lying down, 


but propped on elbow or suppor 
Also Kf. jiegama, place oneself in 
resting position, recline, prop one 
self (in a position). Ap.egam-t'a 
iwa, rest on, lean on, recline on 
Amcegamia kifuani mwake, h 
leaned upon his chest. Cs. egam 
tsha, -ishwa, cause to lean, prop 
support. (Cf. follg., also tegemea.} 
Egemea, v. (i) lean on, rest on 
be supported by; (2) trust to, relj 
upon. Ps. egemewa, be leaned upon 
be a support (to), be trusted (by) 
Cs. egem-esha, -cza, -eshwa, &c. 
e -g- (i) prop up; (2) confirm, help 
to establish, give support to, fine 
ground for. Rp. egemeana. (Cf 
egaina, egesha, tegemea^] 

Egemeo, n. (ma-}, prop (e.g 
handrail or balustrade of staircase) 
support, ground of belief or action 
(Cf. prec. and tegemeo.} 

Egesha, v. Cs. cause to rest, bring 
into close contact, make secure, &c. 
Egesha chombo pwani, bring a vessel 
to land, moor, make fast. . mashua 
ngazini, secure a boat to the gang- 
way of a ship. Sikumwegesha naye, 
I did not bring him into contact 
with him, introduce him to him, 
make him a friend of his. Ps. 
egeshwa. A p. egesh-ea, -eiva, &c. 
Rp. egeshana, e. g. moor two vessels 
alongside, bring together, come into 

Ehee. int. of assent (spoken with 
rising intonation, and stress on last 
syllable), yes, just so, I quite under- 
stand. (Contr. Ee-he, ee-e, of 
dissent, and cf. a-haa.} 

Ekerahi, n. or Ikirahi, aversion, 
disgust, horror, abhorrence,that which 
provokes aversion, &c. (Ar. Cf. ki- 
rihi, the e- or i- representing Alif.} 
-ekevu, a. having aptitude, having 
capacity, of persons. (Cf. wekevu, 
and -elekevu, of which it is a shortened 
form, -ekevu, for -eekevu, -elekevu. 
See Elekea.) 

Ekua, v. break, break up, break 
down, cause to give way. Ekua 


<fari\ break through a concrete ceiling. 
Nt. ekuka. Alaji yameekita ugazi, 
the water has broken down the steps 
(by undermining them). Mivizi 
ameekua mlango, the thief broke 
down the door. Boriti ya dari 
imeekuka, a rafter of the ceiling has 
given way. Also of breaking up a 
road, or floor. (Perh. a variant of 
wekua and tekua, with same meaning. 
Cf. tgemea and tegemea.} 

-ekundu, a. (nyekundu with D 4 
(P), D 6,jekundu withD 5 (S)), ' red ' 
of all shades and varieties scarlet, 
purple, pink, &c. Of European com- 
plexion ' fair, fresh, ruddy,' of native 
' light-coloured, reddish yellow/ esp. 
of Arabs. {-ekundu, -eupe, white, 
and -fust, black, are the only simple 
adjs. of colour in Swahili, others are 
supplied by reference to typical ob- 

*Ela, conj. also Ilia, Ila, except, 
unless, but. (Ar., < if not.' See Ilia.) 

*Elafu, n. and a., a thousand. 
(Ar. See Elfu.) 

*-ele, a. sick, ill, bed-ridden. 
;Ar. See Mwele, Uele.) 

Elea, v. (i) float, be afloat, swim 
(of things), be on the surface. 
Chombo chaelea, the vessel is afloat. 
Ijs. ele-za, -zwa, set afloat, swim. 
Cf. chelezo. (2) Of uncomfortable 
nternal feeling, moyo ivanielea, my 
leart palpitates, my stomach is upset, 
feel sick, I am nervous. Cs. eleza 
moyo, nauseate, make nervous, affect 
he heart or stomach. (3) fig. be 
:lear, be intelligible. Maneno yake 
yamenielea, his statement is intelli- 
gible to me, I understand what he 
ays. Ps. elewa. Sidewi maana, I 
o not see the meaning. Cs. ele-za, 
zwa, explain, make clear. Ntaku- 
leza habari, I will explain the 
matter to you. Also Ap. ele-zea, 
zewa, in same meaning. (Dist. 
leka, and elekea, which see.) 

*Eleka, v. carry astride on the 
ip as native women do their chil- 
ren, secured by the arm. Mama, 




niehke, mother, please carry me. 
Asio m-wana na eleke jiive hiri, who- 
ever has not a child, let her just 
bring a stone instead. Cs. form, 
elckanya, pile up one on another. 
(Ar. Cf. beba t and ntbelcko.) 

Elekea,v. A p. also Lekea,(i )point 
to, be directed towards, incline to, 
tend to, be opposite, face, correspond 
to, .agree with; (a) be rightly di- 
rected, be satisfactory, turn out well, 
succeed. Anaelekea kwenda, he is 
inclined to go. Maneno haya ya- 
meelekea, this matter has been satis- 
factory. Cs. clck-cza, -ezwa, point, 
direct, show the way to. Scrmala 
waria awalekcza ivaanafm; 
the master carpenter merely gives 
directions to his apprentices. El. 
chombo, steer a ship. E~L bundnki, 
aim a gun. EL kidolc, point the 
finger. El. njia, show the right 
course. EL nia, direct attention. 
Elckezana, come to an agreement 
among themselves. Rp. elekeana, 
be directed towards each other, or to 
a common point, be facing one 
another, be opposite (contradictory), 
agree, correspond. Obs. also elekana, 
correspond. Cs. elekc-anisha, -ani- 
(Poss. conn, with Elea, 
which see, and cf. follg.) 

-elekevu, a. also -lekevu, and 
-ekevu, han<iy, apt, having a capacity 
for or a kn.i 'u inwelekevu 

wa Aazi, a good capable workman. 
(Cf. clckea, &c.) 

Elemea, v. See Lemea. 

Elfoen, n. an< >usand. 

< 'f. syn. elfu 

*Elfu, n. ( , and wa-), alio Blf, 

./ elfu, of enormous numbers, 
thousandth. (Ar. 
aif, pi. a/a/. Cf. clfccn, and syn. 
md obs. e for a.) 

impart knowledge 
. teach, educate. Pi. 
hwa. (Ar. Cf. f limit.) 

*Elimu, n. and Ilmu, knowledge, 
learning, wisdom, science, education, 
doctrine, teaching. Elinni ndio 
mivanga uongozao, knowledge is the 
guiding light. (Ar. Cf. nncalimu, 
maalamn, tntaalamu, climisha, and 
syn. hikima, busara, maarifa^ 
a/; Hi.} 

-ema, a. (njema with D 4 (P), D 6, 
jcma with D 5 (S)), good, including 
goodness of all kinds and degrees, 
whatever commends itself to feelings, 
taste, reason, or conscience, and 
translatable in a corresponding va- 
riety of ways, ' pleasant, beautiful, 
sensible, right.' Mintngii ni mii'cnta, 
God is good. Chakula chema, nice 
food. Kazi njema, sound workman- 
ship. Uso mivema, a handsome face. 
Dawa njema lakini si njcma, the 
medicine is effective, but : 
lokuja kwa Muungit loU jema, all is 
good that comes from God. I'cnia, 
adv., well, rightly, nicely, &c. A 
common rejoinder of assent is vewa, 
also njema, ngema, very well, cer- 
tainly. Sema vema, speak clearly. 
Tengeneza --cma, arrange carefully. 
Sometimes without a noun, mema tia 
>:dio ultmwcitgUi the world is 
a mixture of good aiM evil. (Cf. 
syn. in some senses) -zuri, -zima, 
and contr. -baya, -ovu, -boi'u. Oc- 
casionally -<ma, like ~ote, fnyrttt, 
takes pronominal forms. / 
lema, a good answer. Zftna, haziozi, 
good things never go bad.) 

-embamba, a. (nyemb. \vi 

r , i - 

narrow, thin, slim, piiu '. 

Miinute (in texture, 
Mtu tmt'., a thin, 

sparr man. Mlango W7t'.,a ; 

thin nir. AV"" ' 

;auze. (Cf. bamba^ n 


Embe, n. ( , and of si/t 
mango, the fruit of the ' 

1 for three months, Dec. to 



deofrt wifh'dr / - (3) g a , Way> ""^ forward ' Endll ' >""">, go 

depart, withdraw; (4) g o on, keep back, recede, decrease &c {S\ Ton 

on, conunue; (5) move, have motion 1 ; tinue'i.definitely have no enY " 

automatic, easy, or per 




^' enda 

A m<Way ' yaWn ; 
be mad, act as a mad 

S S 

on a job. Rp 
. g . magurudumu yake yana- 
****** vizuri > its wheels all work 
together beautifully, e.g. of watch- 

-- J/ ? 
1Sg mg t0 be 

mcludmg the idea 

f r iL 

brouht h 
of SmI 
/ v v" 

sen (Ib 

sent for Mwim aenda hukumiwa, 

the thief is going to be tried. (See 
also -endapo) Enda tembea, go a 
walk. Enda kwa tniguu, go on foot, 

- enda P<>, a verb-form used, with 
Pers> Pfx " and sometimes endapo only 
for all persons, as a conj. 'in case of 
if wh <* ifc happens that,' e K nend- 
niki f* * ^gua: suppose 
I died or was taken ill (From en da 
with the generalized meaning < hap- 
pen, take place,' and -po, which see. 
Cf. huenda.-] 


, m 



{ > going 

A - SUCcess> ( 
Endea kum, go | &c.) 

on, progress, advance, 




Enea, v. be spread out (abroad, 
!>e extended over (among, in\ 
be diffused in, permeate, cover whole 
extent (of), become generally known 
(among, to, in), be distributed (to), 
be coextensive (with), correspond (to), 
be suited (fitted, adapted, for), &c. 
.a dunia yote, God per- 
.ic whole world, God is omni- 
present. Maji yameenea inchi yote, 
the water has inundated the whole 
country. Amewagawanyia ivatu 
nguo, lakini haikutnea, he distributed 
cloth to the people, but it did not 
go round. Upanga amekuenea, the 
sword is just your size. Ps. enewa. 
Cs. ene-za, -zu'a, -zea, -crt<z,&c., (l) 
spread, extend, cause to cover, dis- 
tribute, make coextensive with, adapt, 
npare, cause to fit, mea- 
sure one thing with another, take 
measure of, judge. Wait 
they compared themselves. Alieneza 
mtoto -wake, he took his son's measure. 
aza . ) Muungit arnemwenezea 
killa mtu riziki zake, God has put 
the means of living in every man's 
hands. Eneza habari, publish news, 
divulge information, advertise. Kf. 
Alijieneza mwili mzitna 
selaha, he armed himself from head 
(Cf. eneo, entzi, ettenza.} 
Enenda, v. also Nenda, same as 
. the simple senses, 'go, move, 
procet 1 nt not used by 

natives :atcly, and : 

ally in any derived lorms. 

>nji mwingine, and t! 
to anotlicr :imbo la ku- 


Eneir/a. v. and Ens*, (l) examine, 

inspect, (a) measure, take 

the measure of, compare by mcasure- 

;-ana. (Cf. cntza 

appears i 

!g., and 

Enenzi, n. (ina-}, esp. in j.Jur.. 
;>ace, gait, way of 

folepotc (ya haraka, ya utesi), slow 

(hasty, quick) going. (Cf. emnda, 
enda, mwentndo.} 

Eneo, n. (ma-} t extent, spread, 
range, reach, province, covering 
power, extent covered or affected, 
sphere of influence. E. I 
ungu, omnipresence of God. K. la 
marathi, spread of sickness, affected 
area. (Cf. enea, and follg.) 

Enezi, n. (ma-), spreading out, ex- 
tension, distribution. Cf. J//^./ 
mwenezi, God is the Great 
Afaentzi ya chakitla, dealing out of 
portions of food, making food go 
round. (Cf. enea, enezi, etieo, &c.) 

Enga, v. (i) split up, slice up, 
used of preparing cassava (inuhogo] for 
cooking. Also (2) coddle, pet, of 
treating a child with overcarelulness. 
Sometimes Rd. enga-enga mloto, spoil 
a child (by petting). Ps. engwa. 
Ap. eng-ca, -eu>a. (Cf. engiia^) 

Engua, v. skim, take scum off, re- 
move froth, &c., as of fermenting 
liquor, or in cookery. Ap. 

tilia, -uliwa. (Cf. prec.) 

-enu, a. pronom. of 2 \\ 
your, yours, of you. (For the pre- 
fixes, and use in combination with 
ninyior wcnyewe,or both, see -ake.) 

-enyewe, a. (like -enyi, follows 
the rules of the pronominal adjec- 
tives, -angu, -ako, &c., as to 
ment with nouns), used to expu 
and ;of ] 

personality. Mtu wr. 
man himsc-lf, the very person, the 
paiticular individual. A'<;J/;,/ . 
.;il box. I'itu -: 
the very things. ;;h the 

personal pronouns, mimi nm\ 
uxwe ntwcnyewe, ^ If, you 

yourself, and som 

mimi mwenyeic 

\i self. . v 

se, I will r 

i.itic reins 

mwtnyewf, ho hurt hi; 

ya mwenycu-e, tlu of the 


owner, i. e. of some one else, not mine 
or yours. (Cf. -enyi, and mwenyewe," 
Enyi, int. of 2 Pers. P., You 
there ! I say, you ! (For ee ninyi. Cf. 
ewe for ee wewe.} 

-enyi, a. (also -enye, following the 
rules of pronominal adjectives, -angu, 
&c., as to agreement with nouns), 
having, possessing, with, in a state or 
condition of. Always followed by a 
noun or equivalent, defining the ob- 
ject, state, condition, &c. referred to. 
Largely used to supply the lack of 
adjectives, in Swahili, admitting as 
it does of combination with (i) 
Nouns, e.g. -enyi malt, wealthy, 
-e. mawe, stony, -e. uzuri, beauti 
ful, -e. kuwa, self- existent, -e 
enzi, all-powerful, -e. wattt wengi, 
populous, -e. tumbo, corpulent, 
-c. mimba, pregnant. (Cf. simi- 

lar use of prep, -a.} (2) Verb-forms, 
not only Infinitive, -enyi kutawala. 
ruling, reigning, -e. kwenda, capable 
of movement, &c., but also finite 
forms and even sentences, e. g. mwenyi 
ameiba, the man who has stolen, the 
thief. Mwenyi hawezi, a sick man. 
JVani mwenyi ataka kwenda ? Who 
wants to go? Hao ndio wenyi 
hawakuwapo, these are the absentees. 
Penyi, kwenyi, mwenyi are also 
commonly used for defining time, 
place, or circumstances. Penyi 
mwitU) in a forest. Kwenyi Ijumaa, 
on Friday. Mwenyi hapo, when 
he is absent, in his absence. (Cf. 
-enyewe, mwenyeji, mwenyi, mw- 

Enza, v. See Enenza. 

*Enzi, n. also Ezi, supreme 
power, sovereignty, dominion, rule. 
Mwenyi czi Mngu, Almighty God. 
Kiti cha enzi, chair of state, throne. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. mamlaka, utawala, 
nguvu, &c.) 

Epa, v. get out of the way of, 
avoid being hit by, swerve from, 
flinch, shirk, e. g. of avoiding a mis- 
sile, a blow, or any danger of the 
sort. Epa jiwc, avoid a stone. 


Ps. epwa. Nt. epeka. A p. 
ep-ea, -ewa, -eka, -ekika. Epea is 
also used for another point of view, 
viz. fail to hit, not be in the line 
of, miss a mark, i. e. of throwing a 
missile, &c. Biniduki yaepea, the 
gun misses, does not shoot straight. 
But epeka , be avoided, be avoidable. 
Inaepeka, it is avoidable, you can 
get out of the way of it. (Cs. 
ep-esha, -eshwa. Rp. epana. Cf. 

-epesi, a. also sometimes -pesi 
(nyepesi with D 4 (P), D 6, jepesi 
with D 5 ^(8)), (i) quick, agile, swift, 
active, nimble, willing, energetic ; 
(2) overquick, hasty, rash, impa- 
tient, fiery, quick-tempered ; (3) 
light (in weight, importance, &c.), 
easily moved, light in texture, fine, 
thin, delicate, insignificant, of no 
weight or consequence. Adv. 

upesi. Njoo upesi, come at once. 
(Cf. upesi) also rahisi, light in weight, 
and contr. -zito, and as adv. hima, 
marra moja, sasa hivi.} 

Epua, v. also Ipua (which see), 
put out of the way, move away, take 
off, remove. Epua chungu vwtoni, 
take the pof off the fire. (Cf. 
contr. teleka, put on.) Nt. epuka 
(see below). A p. epu-lia, -liwa, 
-lika. Chuma cha kuepulia sufuria, 
an iron handle for lifting off a cook- 
ing-vessel. Hence epu-liza, -lizwa, 
cause to remove, allow to take away. 
Cs. epu-sha, -shwa, Iritens., reject, 
put away, avoid, keep at a distance. 
Nimepushwa, I am kept from, for- 
bidden to do (take, &c.). Rp. 
epushana, e. g. of people refusing to 
recognize each other in passing. 
Nt. epuka, used as independent verb, 
like epa, avoid, get out of the way of, 
abstain from, withdraw from, keep 
: rom. Ananiepuka, he avoids me, 
<eepsout of my way, also anaepuka 
nami. Ps. epukwa, be avoided. 
Ap. epuk-ia t -iwa. Cs. epuk-isha, 
-ishwa. Rp. epukana, be estranged, 
disunited, discordant, keep out of 



each other's way, less pointed and 
deliberate than epusjiana above. (Cf. 

-erevu, a. (nycrevu with D 4 (P), 
D 6, jercvu with D 5 (S)), shrewd, 
clever, cunning, resourceful, canny, 
crafty, not often a term of praise, 
but not always in disparagement, 
as -janja. (Perh. cf. flea, mwtle- 
wa, and follg., and contr. -jinga, 

Erevuka, v. become shrewd, be 
clever, have worldly wisdom, have 
the eyes open. Cs. erevu-sha, 

sAwa, make wise, teach prudence to, 
open the eyes of, initiate in the ways 
of the world. (Cf. prec.) 

*Esha, n. also Isha, the latest 
Mahommedan hour of prayer. Ku- 
sali esAa, to attend evening prayers. 
Used for period from 6.30 p.m. to 
8.30 p.m. (Ar. See Sola.) 

-etu, a. pronom. of I Pcrs. P., 
our, ours, of us. (For the prefixes 
and use in combination with sisi, 
or wenycwc or both, see -ake.) 

Eua, v. some-times heard as aua, 
cf. gcuza,gauza),mak.c white, whiten, 
clean, cleanse, purify, perh. only used 
in a ceremonial sense, purification 
after defilement by the usual Mahom- 
medan rites, or a sprinkling as a 
charm against disease. Miva~ 

narnkc anueuliwa ujusi, the woman 
has been purified of her unc'. 

;s(u0, and syu. taAasa, 

-oupe, a. (nycupe with D 4 (P), 

tpc with I ' white, 

hade or kind, light-coloured, 

bright, clear, transparent; (a) clean, 

clear of all obstruction, oj 

d ; (3) pure, righteous. Wat* 
people, Europeans, but 
used of light-coluuK 
Indian tans, &C. 

mwtufe, a pure, honourable, upright 

<v//v, the country is open and tree- 
less. / 
in a forest, & >wn, unoccu- 

pied ground. A'tveufe, dawn of day, 
morning light, fine weather. (Cf. 
opp. -eusi, also -ckitndu and note, 
eua, &c., and for ' brightness ' 
mint, nangafu, ntwanga.} 

eusi, a. {uyeusi with D 4 (P), 
D 6, jeusi with D 5 (S)), black (of 
any shade or kind), dark-coloured, 
gloomy, dim, dusky, dark, including 
dark shades of blue, green, red, &c., 
colours being mainly grouped accord- 
ing to relative lightness and darkness. 
IVatu weusi, natives (in general), 
i. e. non-Europeans. (Cf. weusi, 
giza, and opp. -eupe, &c.) 

Ewaa, int. or Eewaa, commonly 
used in assent, by inferiors or slaves, 
' Yes, Sir I Certainly, Sir ! ' Also 
of approval, ' Just so, that is right.' 
(Ar. - tc wallah, Yes, by God. Cf. 
Inshallah, wallai, &c.) 

Ewe, int. for ee Wfwe, You there ! 
I say, you I in calling attention or in 

Ewedeka, v. See Wewedeka. 

Eza, v. See Enza for Enenza. 

Ezeka, v. thatch, cover with thatch, 
i. e. usually with grass, reeds, or 
cocoanut leaves, makuti. E. /tin, 
cover a roof with thatch. E. ny- 
umba, thatch a house. Ps. czckwa. 
Ap. ezeha, of men or material, sina 
mtu wa (mali yd] kuniezckea, \ have 
no one (no means) to do my thatch- 
ing. (Cf. foll k -. s 

Ezua, v. take thatch off, strip a 
roof, uncover the rafters, as is done, 
e.g. in Z., when a fire is spreading. 


F represents the same sound as in 

/ and v are not distinguished 
Me, and in some Swahili 
words they are not clearly 

le, as in the ail;< 

u, and in \\oids hi, 

, fttnJa (vunja), though a 




difference of meaning is often in- 
volved. Cf. faa and vaa, fua and 
vita, &c. Hence words not found 
under F may be looked for under V. 

F before the c*usal formative -y 
sometimes represents / in the simple 
verb, e.g. ogopa has a Cs. form 
ogofya as well as ogofisha, and apa 
has afya as well as apisha, apiza. 
(Cf. similar change of v for b in 
gomba, itgomvi, iba, mwivi.} 

Fa, v. (also kufa in some forms. 
For the use of ku- before monosylla- 
bic verb-roots see Ku- 1 (</).) (i) 
die, perish, cease to be (live, act, 
work, feel) ; (2) lose strength, 
decay, fade, be benumbed ; (3) 
come to an end. Wengi walikufa 
vitani, many died in war. Kufa, 
or kufa kwa, marathi (nj'aa, maji, 
baridi, &c.), to die by pesti- 
lence (famine, drowning, cold, &c.). 
Njia imekiifa, the path is disused. 
Sheria inakufa, the law is falling 
into abeyance, becoming obsolete. 
Ap.Jta,jiwa, esp. (i) in local sense, 
fia barra (bahari), die up country 
(at sea), and (2) in a pathetic sense, 
lie to the loss or sorrow of, e. g. 

amefia matnaye, he has died to his 
mother's sorrow, he has died and 
left his mother to mourn him. 
Matta yamenifia kwa jiia, the sun 
has killed my poor flowers. Kufa 
jna and kufia jua are used of sun- 
stroke. Esp. common in the Ps., 
i. e. Jlwa, have a death in one's 
family or among one's friends. Ku- 
mefiwa, there has been a death. 
Alifwa na mtoto, he lost his child. 
Nakimbia pafiwapo , nakimbilia pali- 
ivapo, I run from a house of mourn- 
ing, I run to a house of feasting. 
Cs. fisha, fishwa, fishia, fishiwa, 
fishana, cause to die, put to death. 
Amemjishia kazi yake, he has ruined 

his work. Jifisha, destroy oneself, 

of suicide. (Cf. -fu, rifu, kifo, 
fufua, ?fifia.} 

Faa, v. be of use, be good of its 
kind, help, be enough, do (i. e. suf- 

fice). Zawadi yako ilinifaa sana, 
your present was of great service to 
me Itafaa, it will do. Ilaifai, it 
is of no use, nonsense, rubbish. Ma- 
neno yasiyofaa, improper language. 
Kttfaa hakuthnru, being of use does 
no harm. P s . fawa (not usual). 
Ap. falia, fatiwa, faliana. Rp. 
\faanaj give mutual assistance, &c. 
(Cf. mafaa, kifaa. Fana is some- 
times used for faa. Cf.famh'a.} 

Fafanisha, v. also Fafanusha, 
liken, compare, explain (i.e. use 
comparison and illustration), make 
clear. Nifafanishenanini? What 
shall I liken it to ? Fafanisha tna- 
neno, explain a statement, make a 
clear statement. (Cf. mfano, fa- 
nana, and follg.) 

Fafanua, v. (i) explain ; also (2) 
recognize, understand, see clearly. 
Nt.fafanuka, be clear, be known be 
intelligible. With Ap. fafanukia, 
be clear to. Nyumba ya Sultani 
imefafanukia, the Sultan's place is 
clearly in view. Ap/afanu-A'a, -Hwa, 
make clear to. Cs.fafanu-sha, -shwa 
t make clear, explain. (Cf. mfano, 
fanana, fafantsha, and syn. tambua, 
pambanua, eleza) 

Fagia, v. sweep (with brush, 
broom, besom). Ps. fagiwa. Ap. 
fagi-ha, -liwa, sweep at, sweep away 
(for, with , in, &c.). Sinaya kufagilia, 
I have nothing to sweep with. Fame- 
\fagiliiva vizuri, the place is beauti- 
fully swept. (CLfagio, ufagio^ 

Fagio, n. (ma~\ a large brush, 
broom, besom, for sweeping floors, 
&c. (Cf. common ufagio.) 

*Fahali, n. (ma-}, bull, seldom in 
Z. of other male animals. Mafahali 
wawili hawakai zizi moja, two bulls 
cannot live in the same farmyard. 
But used descriptively of men, of 
special manliness, vigour, courage, 
&c. (Ar. of male horse or camel.) 
*-fahamifu, a. intelligent, acute, 
with quick comprehension, having a 
good memory. (Ar. Cf.fahamu.} 
*Fahamu, v. (i) know, perceive, 


comprehend, understand ; (2) remem- 
ber, recall to mind, bear in mind ; 
(3) be conscious, have one's senses. 
Often in Imperat. as a kind of ex- 
pletive. Fahamu ! or merely Fa- 
ham ! Take notice ! Observe ! Lo 
and behold ! I tell yon ! Ps./aAami- 
wa. "Kt.fahamika. hp.faham-ia, 
iwa. Cs. faham-isha, tshwa; cause 
to know, inform, instruct, remind, 
put in mind. n. sense, conscious- 
ness. Kupata fahamu, recover con- 
sciousness, come to one's senses. 
Hana fahamu ya moyo, he has lost 
consciousness. (Ar. Cf. tambua, 
jua, sikia, and for ' remember,' ku- 
mbuka ; also ufahamu, ufahamifu?) 

*Fahari. n. (i) grandeur, glory, 
pomp, sublimity, magnificence ; (2) 
display, show, ostentation. Sultani 
anakaa fava fahari kubwa, the Sultan 
L^reat state. Pigafahari, play 
the grandee, make a vulgar show of 
wealth. Sofanyaf.,jifanyaf. v. 
Rf. jifaAarisAa^akc a display, show 

*Faida, n. and Fayida, profit, 


Fanikia, v. turn out well for, 
succeed. Ps./artiAiwa, have (a thing 
turn out well, succeed, prospei . 
fanik-isha, -ts/iwa, -is/u'a, -ishiwa, 
(Cf.fanya, and /ana, faa.} 

*Fanusi, n. lantern, lamp. (Ar.) 
Fanya, v. make. One of the com- 
monest verbs in Swahili, always im- 
plying some result, purpose, or ob- 
ject, oeyond mere act, for which 
tenda is used. Its many applications 
may be distinguished as (i) make, 
make to be, produce, manufacture. 
F. kasha {nft'a, sharnba), make a 

j:ain, advantage, interest. 

(Ar. Cf. 

*Faidi, v. get profit (from), derive 
, turn to good ac- 


'iska. (A: 

ika, v. be delayed, be kept 
back, be hindered (from going, &c.). 

*Fakiri, n. a poor person, 
am, and syn. t>. 

*Falaki, n. astronomy, astrology, 
rase//X'a/, i. e. (i) take 
' ns, by observing the stars or 
ays. Also (2) fig. tak' 

:ga bao t una- 
'idfge, &c., and follg.) 
like, be 
resemble, with N 

syn. l 

Cs. fananishti 
compare. (Cf. mfano, and 


box (road, plantation). '/.ifa> 
manufactured articles. /'. ndege, make 
a (model of, picture of, an artificial) 
bird. (Cf. ttfijba, and huluku, of 
actual creation-.) F. may at, produce 
eggs. F. mali, ama^s wealth. /'. 
shauri, make a plan, consider. (2) 
Do, work at, engage in (of the opera- 
tion rather than the result . . 
work, labour. /'. biashara, carry on 
trade. F. shughuli, attend to busi- 
ness. Nifanytni . ? What steps am I 
to take ? F\ vyovyotc, act recklessly, 
at random. (3) Bring about a result, 
cause, compel. F. acndc, take steps 
to make him go, make him go. (This 
sense is usually expressed by the 
Causative form of verbs, or by another 
word of definite compulsio: 
/azirnn, shurntisha,Jnzn,} (.\ 
into play, allow to hapju 
taneous vent to, csp. of the K 
' feel, 
F. hofu (Aasira), be afraitl 

vc oneself .1 
grandee. 15) Make in 
M:pp<,sc. as. Cm,-nif\in\.i 
nnmi r (made 

out) that I was ill (when I was not). 
o oneself, pretend to be, 
disguise oneself as. Usifanyt mtaha t 

suppose it is a joke. 

make fun of it. Ps. fanyti 

be done, be al : 

ione for \\< 
of, &c.), tarn out well for ; 



and also 'be favourable to, favour 
give prosperity to.' Nimefanyikiwa, 
have prospered, things have gone 
\vell with me. Ap. fany-ia, -iwa, 
-jana, e. g. do for (to, with, at, &c.). 
Cs. fany-iza, -izwa ; also fanza, 
fanzwa. Hence fany-izia, -iziwa, 
-izika, fanzia, fanziwa, cause to 
make, cause a making of, cause to 
be made, repair, put in order, mend, 
have (a thing) done (by giving or- 
ders, personalattention,& c .), provide, 
get ready. Nifanzie nyumba hii, 
have this house put in order for me. 
Ntafanyiza, I will have it done (see 
to it). Fanza ehakula, get a meal 
ready. Sometimes intensive, e. g 
wakamfanza killa namna, they did 
all sorts of things to him (of ill- 
treatment), ^.fanyana, of mutual, 
concerted action, co-operation, e g 
with kazi, work ; shauri, delibe'ra- 
tion ; Inashara, trade. (In some of 
the denv. forms, the>/ sound is often 
not distinguishable, e.g. faniza, 
fanika, and cf.fanikia,v. Cf. tenda, 
which can sometimes be used con- 
vertibly with fanya.} 

*Fara, n. brim, brimful, j^tsfa 
yafara, a i\A\ pishi (see Pishi), about 
6 oz. weight. Fara ya pishi is also 
used for 1 2 tishi, i. e. fara, a dozen. 


part of a weaver's loom. (Ar. Cf. 

*Farakana, v. become parted, be 
estranged, be separated.. Kufara- 
kana hakuvunji kujuana, separation 
is not the end of acquaintance. ( Ar. 
Cf. faraka, fariki.) 

*Faranga n. (ma-\ young bird, 
nesthng, and esp. chick, chicken. 
(? Ar. faruj. Cf. syn. kinda, mtoto 
wa kuku.} 

-faransa, a. and Fransa, Farasa, 
French. Mfaransa, a Frenchman. 
Aifrausa, the French language of 
the French kind. Ufransa^^ansa, 
or Llaya Fransa, France (homFran- 

_ ^ j~*-'y **' "^ uvAdit 

v fara, or farafara, e. g. kitjaa 
farafara, to be full to the brim, be 
quite full. (Ar. Cf. Jurifuri, 
furika, and perh. fura.} ' 

*Faragha, n. privacy, seclusion, 
leisure, retirement, secrecy. Sina f. 
leo, I have no time to-day, I am en- 
gaged. Faraghani, in seclusion, in 
secrecy. Kwa faragha, and as adv. 
faragka, secretly, privately. (Ar. 

. sin, upweke, utawa, eda.} 

*Faraja, n. comfort, relief, cessa- 
tion of pain, ease, consolation. Pata 
/, be relieved. (Ar. Ci.fariji, and 
olig., and syn. baridi, utiilizo ) 

*Farajika, v. Nt. See Fariji. 

*Faraka, n. a comb- like instru- 
ment for keeping threads apart, 

Farasi, n., commonly Frasi 
norse. Enda kwa frasi, ride, go 
on horseback (contr. enda kwa 
miguu}. Mpanda frasi, a horseman, 
trooper (in cavalry). Panda frasi 
(or, juu ya frasi), mount a horse. 
Shukajuu ya frasi, dismount. Also 
used in joinery, cross-bar, tie-beam 

*Farathi, n. (i) a matter of neces- 
sity, obligation, prescribed duty, esp. 
of religion. Nina farathi ya kula, 
I am bound to have some food (cf 
lazima, shartt). (2) Place of resort,' 
haunt, usual abode. Chakula pale 
ulapo, ndio faralhi yako, where you 
take your meals, that is your abode 

*Fariji, v. comfort, console, re- 
lieve ease, bless. P s . farijiwa. 
Nt. farijtka (and farajika). Ha- 
farijiki kabisa, she is quite incon- 

(Ar. Cf. faraja, mfariji, and syn! 
burudisha, tuliza.} 

*Fariki, v. (i) depart (from), part 
company (with), but esp. ( 2 ) die, de- 
cease. Hawezi kutnfariki mkewe, 
he cannot bear to leave his wife. 
Amefariki dunia, he has departed' 
this life (lit. from the world). Ap. 
\farik-ia, -iwa, -iana. Amefarikiwa 
1 na mumewe, she has lost her hus- 
band (by death or desertion). Cs. 




-ishwa, separate, set 
apart, put :. ;>. see Fara- 

kana. (Ar. Cf. faraka, and syn. 
ondoka, teriga, and for 'die,' fa.) 

*Faro, n. See Kifaro. 

*Faroma, n. or Faruma, a block 
or mould to put caps on after wash- 
ing* t prevent shrinking and pre- 
serve shape. (Ar.) 

*Farumi, n. ballast in a ship. 
Chombo kalina kitu, utie farumi ki- 
patt kuwa kizito, the dhow is empty, 
put some ballast on board to give it 
weight (Hind.) 

*Fashini, n. a block of wood 
fastened to the stern post 
in a native-built vessel, and carrying 
the rudder (msuf. . 

*Fasihi, a. correct, pure, elegant, 
lucid (in taste or style), esp. of utter- 
ance or writings. Kif. wa kusema, 
he has a good style of speaking. 
^\r. Cf. ufasiAi, and syn. swafi.^} 

*Faaiki, n. an immoral, profligate, 
vicious person. (Ar. Cf. ufasiki, 
and syn. asAerati, mfisadi.} 

*Fasili, n. sprout, shoot. Hnna 
asili tvala fati/i, you have neither 
root nor offshoot, i.e. family or con- 
nexions, position or prospects. 

* plain, interpret, 

translate. Ps. fasiriwa. 

Ap.fasir-ia, -iwa. Cs. 

fasiri-sAa, -shwa. (Ar. Cf. ufa- 

'izfsiri, and syn. fafanua, 

Futaki, n. gun cap. Also used 
of crackers, and other small fireworks. 

'Fiithaa, n. and Fasaa, dismay, 
confus; trouble, dis- 

quiet, bustle, agitation. Muungu 
hana fathaa, yuna safari, God is 
.t patient. .' ; ;ikwa ma 
/., be t. >ion. (Ar. 

. follg. and syn. ghoste, 


*Fathaika, v. be trouble 
turbed, confused, &c., sec Fnthaa. 
wAa-isha, -isAwa, abash. 


found, startle. (Ar. Cf. fathaa, 
and syn. angaika, stuka.} 

*Fathili, v. do a kindness (to), 
confer a favour (on), put under an 
obligation, esp. as the act of a su- 
perior. Ps. fathiliwa. Nt. fa- 
thilika, receive a favour. Muungu 
hafathiliwi, there is no such thing as 
doing God a favour. Cs. faihili- 
sAa, -shwa, put under an obligation. 
n. also Fathali, favour, kindness, 
benefit, privilege. Akili ni f. aliyo- 
fathiliwa bin Adamu, intellect is a 
special privilege conferred on man. 
A'irnekula f. yao, I have experienced 
kindness from them, I am under an 
obligation to them. Hana (or Aajui} 
/., he has no sense of 'favour, he is 
ungrateful. Lipa /., return a kind- 
ness. (Ar. Cf. afat/iali, tafathali^} 

*Fatiha, n. and Fdtiha, a Ma- 
hommedan office, or form of service, 
usually a reading from the Coran, 
used at various ceremonies, e. g. 
marriage, a funeral, visiting a grave, 
occupying a new house, starting on 
an expedition. (Properly, but not 
only, of an opening or introductory 
service, cf. hititna similarly of a 
closing service.) Somaf., toaf., per- 
form a service, usually the office of a 
tirjialimu. Junibc akawaombca fa- 
tiha wavuvi, the chief had a dis- 
missal service for the fishermen. 
(Ar. Cf. sala, hitima, buruda t hu- 
tuba, &c.) 

*Fatiishi, v. prey, search, be in- 
r. (Ar. Cf. tafiti.) 

*PavUu, v. (i) of a vessel, get 

round (a point), get past, weather, 

and hence (2) succeed, obtain one's 

he has made his 

lie lias scored. (Ar. Cf. 

s\n. ft'la, shiiitiii.fantkiwa.) 

Feka, v. also Fyoka, clear away 
trees and bnish\v<><>d, clr.u forest 
land. /</:,; ntwitu, make a d 
in a f< . 

Folofele, n. an inferior k 
millet (wtama). 

ji, n. or Fereji, steel of a 




good quality. Upanga waf., a long 
straight double-edged sword, often 
carried by Arabs. (Ar. Cf. /.) 
*Feleti, v. discharge, let go, re- 
lease, procure release of, esp. of 
discharging an obligation or debt for 
some one. (Arab. C r 

*Feli, n. act, deed, way of acting. 
Ndio feli ya yule mtoto, that is what 
the boy did, the way he went on. 
Umrudi aachefeliyake, reprove him 
that he may leave off his (bad) ways. 
(Arab. Cf. syn. B. tendo, kitendo, 

*Fenessi, n. (/-), jack-fruit. See 
Mfenessi. F. la kizungu is used of 
both durian, and bread-fruit. 

*Fereji, n. (ma-}, a large ditch, 
channel. Cf. more usual mfereji. 
(Ar. Cf. handaki, shirno.} 

*Feruzi, n. turquoise, a common 
name among the lower classes, like 
Almasi, diamond. (Ar.) 

*Fetaa, v. commonly Fetwa, give 
a legal decision, judge a point (of 
Mahommedan) law, give judgement. 
Ps. fetiwa, be judged, be sentenced. 
(Arab, for usual hukumu, amna.} 

*Fetha, n. (i) silver ; (2) money, 
coin, cash, in general. Mkufu wa 
/., silver neck-chain, often of great 
length, as a convenient means of 
investing and storing money. Ana 
f. nyingi, he is very wealthy. F. 
layari (or, mkononf], ready money, 
cash (cf. taslimu, nakudi}. F. ya 
kuchwa, a day's pay. (Ar. Cf. 

for ' coin,' sarafu, f 

*Fethaluka, n. marijani ya /. , 
the true red coral. Ushanga wa f., 
?a shiny semi-transparent kind of 
bead. (Cf. marijani, and akiki.} 

*Fetb.eha, n. disgrace, a disgrace- 
ful thing, shame, scandal. (Ar. 
Cf. follg. and syn. aibu, hay a) 

*Fethehe, v. disgrace, bring shame 
on, dishonour, put to shame. Ps. 
fethehewa. Nt. fetheheka. Cs. 
fetheh-esha, -eshwa. (Ar. Cf. 
aibisha, lahayarisha, tweza.} 

*Feuli, n. baggage compartment, 
in stern of native vessel. 

*Fi, prep, on, with, in such 
phrases as saba fi saba, seven by 
seven, seven times seven; also ex- 
pressed by saba marra saba, seven 
times seven. (Arab.) 
Fia, v. Ap. See Fa. 
Fiata, v. See Fyata. 
Ficha, v. hide (from), conceal 
(from), disguise, take shelter (from), 
give shelter (to) , cover. With double 
obj. Amenificha habari, he concealed 
the news from me. Alimficha kofia, 
he hid his cap from him. 
\fichwa, (i) be hidden from (some- 
thing) ; (2) be kept from seeing 
(knowing, hearing something). Nt. 
\juhika. K^.fich-ia, -iwa. Alim- 
\fichia kofia, he hid his cap for him 
(at his request), or from him, i.e. 
to his loss or sorrow, like the Pr. 
\_ficha. Cs.fah-isha, -ishiua. Rp. 
\fickana, conceal (or, hide) from each 
other ; fahamana, hide themselves 
away all together (or, by common 
consent). Rf. jificha, &c. Kuji- 
ficha mvua, take shelter from ram. 
Kihema cha kujifichia, a tent to take 
refuge in. Bandar i hii imejificha 
kwa upepo mbaya, this port is shel- 
tered from dangerous winds. (Cf. 
kificho, mfichifichi, mfichaji, and syn. 

Ficb.0, n. usually in plur., i. e. ma- 
\ficho, hiding-place, concealment, dis- 
guise. (Cf./^a.) 

*Fidi, v. ransom, pay ransom for, 
deliver by payment. Mali yake 
imemfidi katika kifungo, his wealth 
got him out of prison. Ps./^zwa. 
Ap. fidia. Amemfidia babaye kwa 
reale mia, he has paid ransom for his 
father with a thousand dollars. (Ar. 
Cf. dia, fidia, kifidio, and common 
syn. komboa, ukotnbozi^] 

*Fidia, n. ransom, fine, money paid 
as composition or reparation. Httyu 
hawi fidia ya gidamu ya kiatu cha 
babangu, he is not worth my father's 
shoe-lace. (Ar. Cf. dia, and prec.) 




Fifla, v. be dying away, fade, pine, 

dribble away, disappear, e.g. of a 

flower, an ink spot, a scar, &c. 

~6wa. Ap. jifi-lia, -liwa. 

Rangiyakc imejifilia mbalt, its colour 

has completely faded away. Cs. 

fifi-liza, -tizwa, e.g.jua limefifiliza 

-,i u>a mwili, the sun has taken 

all the gloss off the body. Also of 

money disappearing gradually, ' filch 

(Cf./<z, die, and//wtf.) 
Figa, n. esp. in plur. rnafiga, i. e. 
three stones used as a tripod to sup- 
port a cooking pot over a fire. Also 
called mafya (see Jifya), but the 
common word in Z. town is mtho 
(for majiko, see Jiko). 

Figili, n. (*-)> and Fijili, a kind 
of radish, both root and leaves being 
used as vegetables. See Mfigili. 

Figo, n. (wtf-) kidney, but in Z. 
usually nso, which see. 

Fika, v. arrive (at), reach, get to, 

come (to). F. Unguja, arrive at 

ir. F. mji, or mjini, arrive 

at a town. F. kwake, reach 

his home. Ap. fik-ia t -iwa, -ika, 

-iana. Waraka wako umenifikia, 

your letter has reached me. Hkika, 

be accessible, be approachable, be 

\. jika,karibika). Also 

fik-ilia, -iliwa. Nimefikiliwa, I have 

had an arrival of guests, I am engaged 

with \ ikiliza, see below. 


i further dcriv. fikishia, 

i. &c. Chakula hiki kitanifi- 

kisha favf/u, this food will take me 

: 'tiftHsha tnbcli 

I will conduct him some way on the 
road. Alimfikishia. n; 
ad ahead f- 

//' za a ; p rom ise , carry 

out an engagement. Fikilishi . 

ibote. //''/ :na and other 
rms, see below. Kp.yf/6owa, 


h'ana, these statements converge on 
the same point, come to the same 
thing, coincide. (Cf. mfiko, and 
syn./a (j id), pat a (patio), &c.) 

*Fikara, n. and Fikira, thought, 
thoughtful ness, meditation, considera- 
tion, reflection, esp. in the plur. Ana 
f. zake, he is thoughtful. Yttko 
katikaf. zake, he is buried in thought. 
Wamepata f. ya kujenga, they have 
got an idea of building. (Ar. Cf. 
fikiri, ufikira.) 

Fikicha, v. crumble in the fingers, 
rub to pieces, e. g. of lumps in flour, 
clods of earth, and husking grain by 
rubbing. fs.fikichwa. Nt.yWv- 
chika, -kana, be crumbly, easily 
crumbled, friable. Ap. fiki-chia, 

*Fikiri, v. think (about), ponder 
(over"!, meditate (upon), consider, 
reflect (about). Also Kd. of deep or 
repeated thought. Ps. fikirhva. 
Nt. fikirika. Ap. fikiria , 
Cs.jfikir-isha, -ishwa, cause to think, 
make thoughtful, sober. (Ar. Cf. 
waza, tia nioyoni, and dist. thani, 

Filia,v. Ap. from fa, fia (which see). 

*Filiflli, n. ( ), a carpenter's 
square. (Hind.) 

Filimbi, n. a kind of flute. 
gajilimbi, a flute-player. 

*Filisi, v. sell up, declare bank- 
rupt, distrain on goods of, make 
bankrupt, min. Wali a.'. 
Abdallah, the governor sold up 
Abdallah. Ps. filial 

of person or goods. Ab- 

dallah amtfilisika, Abdaflab is bank- 

rupt, has lost all his money. A p. 

Cs.yf/fJ- is Aa, -is/i ;</. 


I'O, n. a stick, esp. a li-ht 
stick carried in tin Ik ing- 

stick, a switch. (C'f. l^ikora for 
various kinds of stick, and nfito.) 

Finesai, n. See Feneaai. 

Fingirika, v. also occurs as 
binicirika, and so in d 
go by rolling (by turning roui. 




round, berolled along, as alog not as 
a stationary revolving wheel (cf. zu- 
, but implying movement, e. g. 
of a wounded snake. Cs. fingir- 
isha, -ishwa, push along something 
round, roll (something) along. Usi- 
choweza kuchukita, tifingirishe, what 
you cannot carry, move by rolling. 
(Cf. viringa, viringika, mviringo, 
where v seems a variant for/. Also 
cf. zttngiika, &c. of circular motion, 
and duara, dunt.} 

Finya, v. (i) pinch, pinch np, 
press with fingers or nails, nip ; (2) 
make (or, be) narrow (pinched, con- 
tracted). Alinifinya nikalia, he 
gave me a pinch, and I screamed. 
F. jicho, half close the eye, as in 
dozing. F. use, wrinkle the face, 
frown. Kiatu chanifinya, the shoe 
is tight (pinches me). Rd. fnya- 
finya, used of pinching up, or crumb- 
ling small, as food for children. (Cf. 
vinya.) Tbp.fnyana, (i) be pinched 
together, be wrinkled, be creased, be 
folded ; (2) be narrowed, contracted 
cramped, confined. Uso umefinyana 
his face is frowning (wrinkled) 
Mlango umefinyana, the door 
narrow. Adui sharti afinyane, the 
enemy must certainly shrivel up 
(Cf.jfnyt wAfinyanga ; and for pinch- 
ing, nyakua, and for making folds 01 
creases, kunja, kunjamana.} 

Finyanza, v. also Finyanga 
Finyanja, knead clay, with hand: 
or feet, as potters do, and hence ' d( 
potters' work, make vessels of clay, 
i.e. fanya vyombo vya udongo 
(Cf. mfinyanzi, and finya, of whicl 
finyanza seems to be a derivative 
equivalent tojinyanisha.} 

Finyo, n. (ma-}, crease, fold 
narrow place, narrowness. Mafiny 
ya nso, wrinkles on the face, whethe 
of a frown or grimace. Njiayafinyo 
a narrow road. (Cf. finya?) 

Fira, v. commit sodomy, adulterj 
fornication. Rp.jprana. 

*Firaka, n. penis. (Arab. C 
syn. B. mboo. 

Firigisi, n. gizzard. 

*Firuzi, n. See Feriizi. (Ar.) 

*Fisadi, n. (tna-\ a corrupter, 

sp. a corrupter of women, a seducer, 

n immoral person. (Ar. Cf. 

fisadi, fisidi, and syn. fasiki, mto- 

Fisha, v. Cs. of fa, which see. 
Fisi,n. the common kind of hyaena. 
Cf. kingubwa.} 

*Fisidi, v. also Fisadi. corrupt, 
educe, esp. of corrupting women. 
Ar. Ci.fisadi.} 

*Fithuli, a. and -flthuli, arro- 
gant, insulting, officious, self-assert- 
ng. (Ar. Cf. ufithuli, mfithuli, 
and follg.) 

*Fithulika,v. be arrogant, bluster, 
use insulting language, swagger, be 
nsolent. Ap. fithuli-kia, -kiwa, 
be insolent to. (Ar. W.fithuli, 
and kiburi.*) 

*Fitina, n. (i) discord, variance, 
antagonism, quarrelling, misunder- 
standing. Fanya /, tia /., cause 
discord, slander, be cause of discord. 
(2) Tumult, mutiny, insurrection ; (3) 

source of discord, an agitator, a 
fire-brand. Akatokea mtu mmoja 
fitina, a certain mischief-worker 
appeared on the scene. (Ar. Cf. 
follg. and ufitina, ugomvi, tfOft.) 

*Fitini, v. cause discord (among\ 
make mischief, set at variance, cause 
to quarrel, make mutinous. 
fitiniwa. Nt. fitinika. Ap. 
fitin-ia, -iwa, -ika. Cs.Jitin-tsha, 
-ishwa. K^.fitiniana. 

*Fitiri, n. alms and presents given 
at the end of Ramathan, the Mahom- 
medan month of fasting. (Ar. Cf. 
futari, futuru^) 

Fito, n. plur. of uflto, which see. 

Fiwa, v. Ps. Ap. of fa, which 

Fiwi, n. a kind of bean used as 
food in Z., Cape bean. (For others, 
cf. kunde, choroko, mbaazi, dengu^) 

Fo-fo-fo, adv. kufafo-fo-fo, to die 
outright, sudden death. (Cf.fa, -fu, 




*Foromali, n. yard 'of a ship), i. e. 

: fan fa, the spar 

that carries the sail. It is controlled 

by braces fore, baraji, and aft, hama- 

nd hoisted by the henza, which 

see, and cf. tanga. 

*Forsadi, n. fruit of the mulberry 
tree (mforsadi). 

*Fortha, n. and Forotha, custom- 

house. The locative formforthani is 

commonly used in Z. for the place , and 

also for the district (nitaa), in which 

.tnated. (Ar.) 

*Frasi, n. also Farasi, horse, 
mare. (Ar. See Farasi.) 

-fu, a. (rarely in any forms except 
rn/it, -ura/u, kifu, ntafii), dead. Affu, 
a dead person. A'ifu, a dead thing. 
Maji mafuy neap tides. (Cf.fa, ufu, 

Fua, n. ( , or of size ma-}, (i) 
a round wooden tray with raised rim, 
used for washing clothes on, a shallow 
wooden bowl for hand-washing, &c. 
(cf. fua, v. and chano, and for 
other kinds chungu). (2) Only in 
the plural maftta, chest, chest com- 
(See Mafua, and cf. kifua, 
andyW, v.) 

Fua, v. beat, strike, hammer, but 

usually limited to certain operations, 

viz. (i) of smith's work, work at 

(a metal), make (of a metal). !'. 

fhuma (thaba, fetha), work in iron 

(brass, silver), follow the trade of 

blacksmith (silversmith, &c.). /'. 

icmbe\ make a knife-blade 

(hoe). Cf. tnfua (chutna, fetha, &c.), 

lundry work, 

wash clothes in the native way, 
; them on a stone or board. 
Mfna nguo, a washerman n 
making a profession of washing 
;ily called dobi in 7 
ifhaga.} (3) Of ! 

cocoanuts, by dashing them on a 
pointed stnk clean a 

cocoanut. Nt./- 

lika. Madini hii hnifuliki, this 
metal : Me. Ap./M-/m, 

/, e.g. work metal for 

(with, at, &c.), wash for. Cs. 
fu-liza, -lizwa, e.g. (i) set to work 
as smith or washerman, employ, have 
work done by them. Also (2) of the 
artisan, procure work. Fuli . 
get clothes for washing, i.e. take in 
washing. (3) Keep on at, hammer 
at, cause to hammer or keep on, 
continue doing, in a general sense, 
for which see Fuliza. Rp./Hatia, 
work together as smiths, Sec., help 
each other, or actually ' beat ( hammer) 
each other.' (Cf. ntfua, fttau'a, 
fuawe, kifua, mfuo, ufuko, fito, and 
for striking,//^!, chapa, nienya, &c. 
Dist. vua.) n. see Mafua, and 
cf. kifua. 

Fuama, v. lie on the face not 
often in Z. Cs. fuamisha. (Cf. 

Fuasa, v. copy, imitate, follow 
a pattern. Cs. fuas-isha, -ishwa. 
Fuasisha santi Xtt'a kinanda (in 
music), accompany singing on the 
piano. (d.fuata and mftiasi.) 

Fuata, v. (i) follow, come next 
to, succeed, come behind, pursue ; 
(a) imitate, copy, accompany (in 
music), do like, be like; (3) obey, 
keep to, abide by, be follower (ad- 
herent) of. Fttata maji ya<:ndak<.\ 
swim with the stream. Bcndtra ya- 
fuata pcpo, the flag follows the- wind. 
Ntafuata, mbio tia pembc hizi ndogo, 
I will accompany the tune with these 
little horns. Often/, nyiima, follow 
behind. /'. sheria, kcrj) the law. 
idi, be a M 
A p. J; 


copy carefully also Fuasa, \\hu-! 
see. mpnny, 

foll(.w in a crowd. J-natani>ha % send 
>ne) to ae ' : 

/</, tnafuatano.} 

FuaUno, n. (ma-}, 
succession, esp. in jilur., c. . 

,nc, melody. (Cf. 

Fuawft, v. be beaten, hammered. 
e.g. of a vessel aground, and < 




to the full force of the waves. (Seems 
seldom used. Perh. Ps. form of 
fua, v., cf. follg.) 

Fuawe, n. anvil, i.e. something to 
be hammered upon. (Ci.fua,\., 

Fudifudi, adv. on the face, face 
downwards. Lola fudifudi, lie on 
the face. (Cf. ///>#, and follg.) 
Pudikiza, v. turn upside down 
(inside out, face downwards), turn 
over, e. g. of cards in playing. (Cf 
fudifudi, and syn. pindukiza.} 

Pufua, v. cause to revive, bring to 
life again, resuscitate, restore, revive. 
F. maili, bring a dead man to life. 
F. mgonjwa, give strength to an 
invalid. F. deni, bring up a for- 
gotten debt. Nt. //&*. Ap. 
fufu-lia, -liwa. Cs. fuful-tza, 

-izwa. (Cf. fa, fifia, ufufuo, ufu- 
fuko, and syn. huisha, amsha.} 

Puga, v. (i) keep in confinement, 
rear, breed (of tame animals, stock, 
poultry, &c.) ; and (2) tame, domesti- 
cate, break in (of wild animals). 
Fuga ngombe (mbuzi, kuku\ keep 
cows (goats, fowls). Ps. fugwa. 
Nt. fugika. Frasi huyu hafugikt, 
this horse is not (or, cannot be) 
broken in. h?.fug-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
fugi-sha, -shwa, e. g. of professional 
horse-breaking. (Cf. fugo, mfugo. 
Perh. clfunga.} 

Fugo, n. (ma-}, breeding, rearing, 
domestication, &c., of animals. (Cf. 
fuga, and mfugo.'} 

Fuja, v. make a mess of, dis- 
arrange, bungle. F. kazi, bungle 
work. F. mali, squander money. 
(Cf. fujOj and syn. boronga, chafua. 
Dist. vuja.} 

Fujo, n. disorder, mess, bungle, 
disturbance, uproar, tumult. Nyu- 
mba ya /., a disorderly, much fre- 
quented house. Kazi ya /., work 
badly finished. Fujo-fiijo, an utter 
mess. (Cf..) 

Fuka, v. (i) emit, throw out, 
smoke, &c. SeeVuka. (2) Fill up 
(a hole). See Pukia. n. a 

thin kind of porridge (of rice flour, 
with sugar, honey, spice, &c.), served 
to guests at an entertainment or 

*Fukara, n. a poor man, beggar. 
Fukara hahehohe, of extreme destitu- 
tion. (Ar. Cf. fakiri, fukarika, 
and syn. maskini, mwotnbaji.} 

*Pukarika, v. become poor. (Ar. 
Ci.ftikara, and opp. tajiri, tajirika.} 
Puke, n. SeeVuke. (Clf***, 

Pukia, v. fill in (a hole, grave, 
&c.), dig in, cover in. F. kaburi, 
fill up a grave. Akaifukia sakafu 
yote kwa mchanga, and he filled up 
all (the holes in) the floor with sand. 
Alifukia kitabu kaiika sanduku, he 
covered up the book in the box. 

Nyumba ilimfukia, the house (when 
it fell) buried him. Ps. fukiwa. 
Nt. fukika. Ap. fuk-ilia, -iliwa, 
-ilika. Tundu linafukilika kwa 
udongo, the hole can be filled in with 
earth. Cs. fuk-iza, -izwa, -isha, 
-is kwa. "Rp.fu&iana. (Ci.fuka, 
which is seldom heard, and fukua, 
also mfuko.} 

Fukiza, Fukizo. See Vukiza, 

Puko, n. (i) (ma-}, a large bag 
or pocket, saddle-bag. (Cf. for 
various kinds, mfuko.} (2) Hole, 
place dug out. Kuku cuhimbafuko, 
the fowl is digging a hole. (3) 
? A burrowing animal, mole. (Cf. 
\fuka t \.,fiikia, ufuko, mfuko.} 

Fukua, v. dig out, dig up, mak 
a hole, burrow, get out of a hole. 
Fist amemfukua mtu, a hyaena has 
dug up the (buried) man. F. mawe, 
get stones by digging. Ps. fukit- 
liwa. Nt.fukuka, be dug out, be 
hollowed, be concave. Ap. fuku- 
lia, -liwa. Cs. fuku-lisha, -hshwa. 
Up. fukuana. (Cf. fuka, fukia, 
and perh.fu&uza. Also syn. (him6a.) 
Fukuta, Pukuto. See Vukuta, 

Fukuza, v. (i) force out, drive 
out, esp. in hunting or war, and hence 




both (2) drive off, chase away, banish, 
go in pursuit of, hunt, try to 
catch. Mbwa -wakazifukuza >: 

*ata, the hounds chased the 
pigs and caught them. Wamefukiizia 
mbali adui, they have chased the 
enemy quite away. Ps. fukuzwa. 
Ap. fukuz-ia, -iwa. Cs. fuktiz- 
isha, -ishwa. Rp. fukuzana, e.g. 
of children chasing one another. 
(Seems to be Cs. form of fnkua, with 
intensive force, and specialized mean- 
ing. ,{.fnka.ifitkia,fukna., mftiktizi, 
and syn. kimbiza, win<ia y fuata?) 

Full, n. lesser rainy season. See 

Fulifuli, adv. (i) also Fudi-fudi, 
on the face, face downwards, of posi- 
tion ; (a) for ^farafara, in 
in quantities, brimful. See 

Fuliza, v. keep on at, keep going, 

keep doing, quicken, hasten. /'". mi- 

fuu, walk quickly. F. mwendo, go 

speedily. Alsofu/u/iza znAfululiza, 

an emphatic Rd. form. Ps. fitli- 

Ap./uti-zta, -ziwa. Rp. 

''i. (C(./ua, of which it is 

an Intcns. form with generalized 

meaning, aw 1 tnfulizo, mfululizo.} 

*Fullani, n. >uch a one, a certain 
one, so and so, such and such (things), 
; indefinitely to persons or 
things, for reference only. /'. ante- 
setna, somebody has said. 
bithaaf., I wont such and such goods. 

Furna, v. (i) weave, and also of 
: ming a fabric, 

by sewing, &c. Ps. fumwa. Nt. 
Ap. fum-ia, -;. 

sewing clothes. ( .ishwa. 

. a weaver, mfumo, weav- 
ing.) (a) Shoot, pierce (with a sharp 
wcapo: '..'wa is usual. (CF. 

fit mo, and t- 

he root, 
and for weaving mfumo.} 

Fumania, v. come on suddenly, 
Like in the act, intrude in the house 

of, surprise. Ps. fumanhi 
funianika. Cs. fumaniza, and 

Intens., e.g. alimwua miuanaumc 
aKyemfumaniza na mkc-we, he killed 
the man whom he surprised with his 
wife. (Cf. syn. gtmdua.) 

Fumba, v. (i) shut, close, by 
bringing things, or parts, together. 
/'. macho, close the eyes. F. kinwa, 
shut the mouth. F. mkono, close 
the hand. F. tnikono, clasp the hands 
together. F. yiiguii, bring the legs 
together, (a) Mystify, make a mys- 
tery about, disguise, use in an obscure 
way. F. maneno, use unintelligible, 
difficult language. Fumbo humfumba 
mjinga, a parable mystifies a fool. 
Vs.fumbwa, "Nt.fumbika. Jliiua 
yanafumbika, the flowers are closing. 
See also Vumbika. Ap./umb-ia, 
-iwa, e.g. shut up in (for, by, &c.), 
talk darkly about, Sec. Cs./um6- 
tsAa, -ishwa. Rp. fumbana, e. g. 
hatta macho yakafumbana, till his 
eyes closed. Rf. jifumba, shut 
oneself up (in meditation, study, &c.). 
(Cf. fumba, kifumba, also fumbo, 
fumbita,fnmbata, and ? vumbika^] 

Fumba, n. (ma-}, (i) a matting 
sleeping bag, a mat doubled length- 
ways and the ends sewn up, used 
sometimes for burying. /. 
maiti katika fumba (mkeka 
mha), hushonwa mithili ya mfttko, 
the body is put in z. fumba, m 

HI a bag. Also ff r <lim\ning 
criminals. Wakatiiva katika tnafu- 
tnba, wakatonca baharini^ th 
put in bags and thrown int.. 
2) Lump, clod. F. la unga 

;, a lump in \\^\ 

caked. millet. 

(Cf. fumba y lumj>. For tnakuti 

ya fumba, * ya kumba. 

Fumbama, v. lose one's senses, be 
fumbama akili yakc^ this man is not 

. and 

Fumbata, v. tncloM- \\ith 



or; arms\ grasp, clutch, encompass. 
ttwezt kuufunibata mli hnu kwa 
mttomo yangu, my arms will not go 
round this tree. Amefumbata fetha 
. mkononi, he has grasped the money 
with his hand. P s . fumbatwa. 
Nt . fumbatika, e.g. konzi ya maji 
liaifumbatiki, water cannot be grasped 
m the fist. Ap. fumbat-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. fumbat-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. fu- 
"il>a, and syn. ambata, kumbatia, 

Fumbo, n. (ma-), anything puz- 
zling, hidden, mysterious, and so 
puzzle, problem, dark saying, hint 
proverb, parable, riddle.' Sema kwa 
wafumbo, speak in an unintelligible, 
limcult way. Maneno ya Jumbo 
and fumbo la nianeno, mysterious 
language. (Cf. Jumbo, also syn. 
w, methali, mfano, kitendawili 
mat at a.} 

Fumbua, v. Rv. offuwda, unclose, 
open, lay open, reveal, disclose, by 
separating things or parts which were 
close together, e.g. fumbua nkono, 
open the closed hand, and so of the 
eyes, mouth, &c. F. maana, unfold 
the meaning. F. majani, make open- 
ings in high grass, for air or planting. 
Ps. fumbuliwa. Nt. fumbuka. 
^.fumbu-lia, -lika. Cs. fumbu- 
lisha -hshwa. R p . fumbuana. 
U.fumba, ufumbulio, and for simi- 
ir meaning vumbua (perh. same 
word) ; funua, uncover ; fungua un- 
fasten fumua, unravel; fundua, 

Fumo, n. (ma-), (i) a spear; (2) 
a chief, but seldom heard in Z for 
the usual mkuki, mfalme. (Cf 
fit ma.} 

Fumua, v. Rv. of fuma, undo 
(what is woven, matted, sewn, con- 
nected together), and so (i) unravel 
unpick, take to pieces, unstitch, &c. 
(2) reveal, disclose, make clear ex- 
plain. (Cf. fumbua.) F. uzi, un- 
stitch. F. nyele, let down hair. F. 
nfjuo, rip (pull in pieces) calico! 
ft moto, pull a fire to pieces, take 


sticks out the fire. F. maknti, take 
out (decayed) thatch. F. mali 
squander money, be prodigal. Also' 
in Nt. sense, mtama unafumua tlie 
millet is coming into ear. ifaita 
yafumua, the flowers are coming out. 
Mfumua nianeno nje, of a spy or 
tale-bearer. Vs.fumuliwa. Nt. 
fumuka, e.g. nguo imefumuka, ushone 
my dress is come undone, sew it up. 
Mashua inafumuka, the boat opens 
at the seams, leaks, is coming to 
pieces. Rp.fumu&ana, e.g. of people 
separating after a meeting, 'disperse ' 
Ap fumut-ia, -iwa. (See Fuma 
and & fumbua, funua, fungua ) 

Fumukano, n. (*,.), separation, 
breaking up, dispersal, e.g. of people 
after a meeting. (Cf. fnma, fumua .) 
Funda, v. pound, bruise, triturate 
pulverize, e.g. rice, pepper, ginger, 
&c., in a mortar (Mnu), also ' pound 
up together, mix with other ingredi- 
ents, e.g. ondokeni nifunde unga get 
up and mix the meal. Ys.fundwa. 
Nl.fundika, be pounded, be mixed, 
and also in act. sense. (Perh. a 
form of vunfa, retained in this special 
sense in Z. For the operation cf. 
ponda, twanga, saga, chakacha,paaza 
For a root/unaa, teach, and also 
make a knot, not itself used in Z 
cf. fundi and fundo. But/iamb n 
seems different from all.) __ n . 
(ma-), a large mouthful, of liquid or 
solid, distending the cheeks, cl.funda 
la shavu, esp. common of liquids. 
Piga mafunda, take large mouthfuls, 
gulps, draughts, either to be swal- 
lowed, or for rinsing the mouth out 
after a meal and to be ejected. 
(Perh. cf. fundo, a knot, as fumba 

Fundi, n. (ma-), a person skilled 
in any art, craft, or profession, and so 
able to instruct others in it, a skilled 
workman, one who has learnt his trade 
a trained artisan or craftsman, e.g.' 
mason, carpenter, tailor, smith, wash- 
erman, &c., mwalimu being com- 
monly used of the higher professions, 




csp. teaching. (Ci.fitndisha,fiinza, 
mkitfunzi, t/unda.) 

Fundika, v. make into a knot, 
tie up. Usually piga fundo, funga. 
See Fundo. 

Fundisha, v. teach, instruct, edu- 
cate, thework ofa/ww<#or micalirmi. 
Vs.fundish-ua. Ap./unt/isA - ia, -iwa, 
e. g. vittt vya kiifundishia, aids to 
teaching, school accessories. Kp. 
fundishana. l&t.jiftindisha, leain. 
(An Intens. form, cf. fundi, funza, 
ntkufunzi, and follg.) 

Fundisho, n. (wa-), teaching, 
what is taught, instruction, doctrine. 
({. fundisha.) 

Fundo, n. (nta-\ (i) knot, any- 
thing resembling a knot; (a) fig. a 
difficulty, grudge, esp. (3) ill feeling, 
resentment. F. la mti (mua\ a 
knot in wood or a tree. F. la uzi, 
knot in thread. /'. la nguo, clothes 
tied in a knot. /'. la utepe, a rosette. 
F. la chombo, cross-beam in a dhow 
(cf. ntwashiri), securing the mast. 
F. la Hshanga, consists of ten strings 
(kete) of beads. See Kete. Also (4) 
a purse, usually consisting of a knotted 
piece of the waist cloth. Situ ya 
mashaka, fitndo, for the day of ad- 
versity, a purse. F. la ntgmt, the 
ankle, also At/undo. J'iga /., tie a 
knot. t'. t untie a knot. 

A/aji yalinifiga fundo, th 

: me. (Cl./// ;/<////, kifunJo, 

Fundua, t knot, untie, 

.[lain (a difficulty,), 
get ovt: uncork 

a bottle. (< f. zil>na.\ 

' funditka. A p. 

Cs. fund-usha, 
-us/iiVi.-. \. fundush 

of a tree flowering. (Cf. /undo, 
and for similar words/" 


a, v. (i) fasten, make fast, 

tmish pac! 

shut close (fasten) the door. (Cf. 
shindika mlattgo, put to, close the 

door.) F. luaraka, seal up a letter. 
F. fhoo, constipate, be constipated. 
Fung'i kamba (or, na kamba}, fasten 
with a cord. (2) Shut in, enclose, 
imprison, put in fetters. /'. g, 
(niinyororonij kifungonf), put in 
prison (in chains, under arrest'. 
(3) Overcome (in a game or contest), 
win, checkmate, put in difficulties, 
convict. Tuliivafunga inabao sita, 
we won six games against them. 
Neno lake lilimfunga mwenyewe, his 
own statement convicted him. (4) 
Decide on, embark on, begin, take 
decisive steps towards. Fttnga bia- 
s/iara, conclude a bargain. /. rv'A:, 
begin operations in war. F. shauri, 
resolve on a plan. F. safari, set out 
on a journey. (5) ///<; is nlso 
used as Nt. in various senses, c. 
Leo sisi tuna/un^a, to-day we are 
fasting. Ramatmami ni //<: 
kufunga, Kamathan is the month of 
fasting. Alma inafunga, it is a 
settled rain. Cf. mfta^ff, mfnngno. 
Alito imcfntiga, the rivers are im- 
]>a^>al)le. Rf. jifunga, as above, 
and esp. (i) devote oneself, engage 
oneself, give special attention. Ji/n- 
n^a knsoma, apply oneself to study 
(kwa kazi, to work, na adui, with 
an opponent, in strife). (2) Get one- 
self into a fix, contradict oneself, 
1 1 a in j K- r onesel f. A me 
ulinii wake, he is convicted by his 

(3) /(>' 

~i'ii. llnna 
buddi /;, 
tied t<> a tree. V 

Moor is not 
">r will not shut. 

would ; up for? arc you 

:o tease me 
kunibi), and lie i 

the horse to him by a cord. ^ 

/ww.,. ./, I am lot 

tftgiwa deni, be 

prisoned for debt. ( 

. &c., cause to 


cause to be fastened, and Intens. bind 
tight, confine, close. Ntamfungisha, 
I will have him put in prison. Mvua 
inakufungisha ndani, the rain keeps 
you indoors. Fungisha mji (njid), 
blockade a town (road). (Cf. mfu~ 
ngizo. Cf. also fungasa.) Kp. 
fungana, (i) fasten together, or with 
na, fasten to; (2) be fastened to- 
gether, e.g. of clouds, forest,' be dense, 
be thick.' Alsofttnganya, of a work 
of common interest and co-operation. 
Funganya mizigo, join in a general 
packing up of loads. Also funga- 
nisha, c.g.jahazi najiwe, make fast 
a vessel to a rock. Cf. also /- 
mana. See Fungama. (Cf. fungu, 

Fungama, v. be in a fixed, tight, 
dense, &c. condition. Rp.fungu- 
mana, e.g. of interlacing branches. 
Mwitu umefung-amana kabisa, the 
forest is hopelessly dense, impene- 
trable. Hapa pamefungamana na 
miiba, here is a dense mass of thorns. 
(Cf. funga, and for form, -mana, 
andamana, changamana.} 

Fungate, n. honeymoon, period 
of seven days after marriage, during 
which food is supplied by relations 
(Fungate = seven, in some Bantu dia- 

Fungo, n. (i) fast, period of fast 
ing. (Cf. funga, mfunguo.} (2) A 
kind of speckled civet cat, smalle 
than the ngawa. 

Fungu, n. (ma-}, (i) portion 
part, piece, share, lot. Fungu If 
nyama, a portion of meat. Fungi 
zima, a large share. (Cf. kipande 
sehemu.} (2) Heap, pile, and esp. o 
sandbanks, shoals, reefs, &c. in th 
sea. Chombo kimepanda fungum 
the dhow has run on a sandbank 
Also of pile of stones over a grave 
Vunja fungu, used of customary 
visit to a grave after forty days, wit 1 
a valedictory offering. 

Fungua, v. Rv. of funga, (i) un 
fasten, undo, untie, unbind, let loose 
release, set free, open, &c. 


ilango, unfasten a door (cf. shindua 
ilango, set a door open). F. mkono, 
pen the hand (like fumbua}, give a 
[ft. Jifungua, give birth to a child, 
e confined. (2) Cease fasting. 
Nipe kidogo nifungue kinwa, give 
me a morsel to break my fast with. 
So funguka, funguza.} Ps. fu- 
guliwa. Nt. funguka. Shikiza 
mlango, usifunguke wala usifungike, 
x the door so that it will neither 
pen nor shut. Amefunguka mtoto, 
he has given birth to a child. Ap. 
c ungu-lia, -liwa, -lika. Nifungulie 
mzigo, relieve me of my load. Fu- 
ngulia mtumwa, give a slave freedom. 
F. ng'ombe, turn out cattle to graze. 
Cs.fung-uza, -uzwa, e. g. force (in- 
duce, allow, &c.) to open, cause to 
indo, &c. Akawafunguza ivale 
wa/tt, and he had those people set free. 
Also ' give a meal to ' after fasting. 
Alitufunguza, he caused us to break 
our fast. Rp. Funguana. (Cf. 
funga, mfunguo, mafungulia, ufu- 
nguo, also as similar fumua, funua, 
fumbua, fundua.} 

Funguo, n. plur. of Ufunguo, 
which see. Also ' breaking of a fast.' 
:>ut usu. mfunguo. (Cf. funga, 

Funika, v. (i) cover, cover up, 
put a covering on ; (2) fig. conceal, 
disguise. F. chungu, put a lid on 
a pot. F. kitabu, close a book. 
F. maneno, speak obscurely. F. 
inchi maji, cover the land with water, 
make an inundation. Jifunika 
mkeka, cover oneself with a mat. 
Ps. funikwa. Nt. funikika. Jua 
limefunikika na mawingu, the sun is 
concealed by clouds. ^.funik-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. funik-isha, -ishwa, 
-iza, cause to cover, cause to be 
covered. Maji yamefunikisha inchi, 
the water has flooded the country. 
Rp. funikana. (Cf. funua, ki- 
funiko, and syn. setiri,ficha.} 

Funua, v. (i) uncover, lay open, 
undo; (2) disclose, reveal, explain, 
show. F. chungu, take the lid off 




a pot. F. (huo, open a book. F. 
rnnbawa, spread wings. Ps. fumt- 
liwa. Nt. _///&!, e.g. man 
funuka, the flowers are opening, 
coming out. Mu<itii unafunuka, 
the forest is getting more open, is 
passable. Ap./unu-tia. .-Ikam- 
f it nn! ia w liana, and he explained 
to him the meaning. (Cf. fuitika, 
ufttntto, and similar fungua'fumua, 

Funza, v. same as fundisha, 

teach, instruct, educate. Jifunza 

'am a trade, from a fundi. 

Ps. fitnz-i\i. Nt. ftinzika, e. g. 

mtoto hnyu hafunziki, this child is 

unteachable, is too stupid (or, ob- 

stinate) to learn. Ap. fitnz-ia, 

Cs. funz-isha, -ishwa. 

(Cf. fttftdi, fu- 

ndisha, and follg.) n. (ma-}, 
grub, maggot, worm. 

Funzio, n. ('na-\ teaching, in- 
struction. (for more MUi/itfMftnitf 

Fuo, n. (i) (ma-}, washing-place, 
:ifnlia nguo, for washing 
clothes. (Cf. fua, oga, chosho, ki- 

( 2 ) Scum, froth, foam. 
nfuo, nfukoifua, and syn. /<?/}/.) 
Fupa, n. (ma-), a large bone. 
'ichwa, the skull. F.jororo, 
a (large) cartilage. (Cf. mfupa, 
kifufxi, tifupa.} 

..a. (///// withD 4 (P), D 5 
6), (i) short, low (in stature, 
length, or height); (2) I 

(Cf. follg. and opp. 

ka, v. be shortened, be lest- 

ened (in height, length, stature), be 

i ted, &c. Cs. fup'isha^ 

c. (Cf. 

: ;se up, swell, be puffed 
.il sense only). 

. . : ' ','.: 


swell i r, boil over, over- 

flow (over), make an ini;: 

Cs.fnrik-isha, -ishwa, cause an over- 
flow, inundate. Maji yakafurikisha 
inchi, the water overflowed the coun- 
try. (Ar. Cf. far a, Ju 
furiko, and syn. ' flood,' gharikisha.} 

*Furaha, n. joy, pleasure, happi- 
ness, bliss, delight, gladness, mirth, 
merriment. Funya /., ona /., be 
happy. Pokea kica /., welcome. 
Also adv. gladly, with joy. Titka- 
fttda fttraha, and we went joyfully. 
Furaham, in a state of happiness. 
(Ar., no B. SJTI. Cf. fura/it, and 
Ar. raha (higher but more j : 
bliss, and such words as nichczo, 
wazungutnzo, mapetidezi. ) 

*Furahi, v. rejoice, be glad, feel 
pleasure, be happy, be pleased, enjoy 
oneself. Ps.furaAiwa, be pleased 
(with), be made happy (by), be re- 
joiced (at). Tulifitral: 
baruayako, we were delighted at your 
ktur. A p. furah-ia, -t'atia, rejoice 
(at, in, for, &c.). Cs.furah-isha, 
ishivay -ishatut, gladden, cheer, re- 
joice, delight. AtnctufuraJiisha satin, 
he caused us great amusement. (Ar. 

*-furahifu, n. (Jurahifu with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D 6), joyous, chcx-nn-, 
:it. (Ar. Ci.furaha.') 

*Furika, v. See Fura, and cf. follg. 

*Furiko, n. usu. in plur. me. 
overflowing, flood, inundation. (Ar. 

tja, Furugika. See Vu- 
ruga, Vurujika. 

Furukombe, n. a large 1 
prey, a kind of eagle or Mil; 

Furukuta, v. move about, be rest- 
less, toss about on a bed, as when 
ill, excited, unable to sleep, also 

n. (///</-),(!) sha 
ungu; (a) anklet (usu. 
r other 
oman ''<?.) 

package. (Cf. kifurushi, bahasha.) 




~^.is,. (Arab. \^r. KHO. \ 
Fusho, n. or Vusho, something 
used for fumigation, something to be 
burnt, as a charm, or sanitary medi- 
cine. (Cf. mvuke, vukiza, vukizo, &c.) 
Fusi, n. rubbish. See Kifusi 
Fusia, v. lay down a bed 

.g. onng to light, make known, ex- 
pose. F manyoya ya kitku (ya 
ndevu) pluck off the feathers of a 
fowl (hairs of the beard). F. kibofu 
cha ng ombe, take out the bladder of 
ox RLjtfutua, make a show of 
oneself, boast, brag. p s . futuliwn 


\ ^ - f y-~*,wJ 

Futa, v. (i) wipe, wipe out (away, 
n); (2) remove, obliterate, abolish 
cause to be forgotten. F. vumbi 
nguont, wipe dust off clothes. F. 
vibaya vya waraka, scratch out the 
mistakes in a letter. F. kamasi, wipe 
e nose. Muungu anifute thambi 
zangu may God wipe away my sins. 
Ltandikwalo halifutiki, what is writ- 
ten cannot be effaced. -a kufuta is 
often used of what is plain, common, 
of inferior quality, e.g. mkeka wa 
totfuta, a common white mat. Ka- 
nzu ya kufuta, a plain white kanzu 

be angry Ap. fututia, be in a 
passion with. Henoe/,*-/w, -liwa, 
&futuktsha t provoke. Cs futu- 
sha t -shwa. Jua Knafutusha ma- 
hindi, the sun is making the maize 
P /^ ut ' Rp./utuana. (Cf. 

*Futuri, n. short span, as a mea- 
sure from tip of thumb to tip of 
forefinger, as dist. from shibiri full 
span from thumb to little finger. 


*Futuru v. take the first meal 
after a days fast. Ap. futur-ia, 



not (but see Futika)' Ap.//-,a, 
e. g. kttambaa cha kitfutia, a cloth to 
wipe with, duster. Cs. fut-isha 
u&wa, set to wipe, wipe hard! 

\\ n Tijfs***,* S/~*r t 

*p. jutana. (Cf. pangusa, sugua, 
tua. Aboyfcte, as for vuta, which 
see and as a rarely used sing. n. 
see Mafuta.) 

. *Futari, n. first meal in the even- 
ing after a day's fast, usually rice- 
gruel (uji\ ( Ar . Cf. fitiri fu- 
turu. T>\st.futuri.) 

^Futhuli,n. SeeFithuU. (Ar.) 
Futika, v . put in the pocket, 
stick m waist-cloth, tuck into tlie 
girdle, as a native does his knife, 
money, or any small aiticle. P s 
fvtikwa. Ap. futik-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. futik-isha. (Cf. futua. and 
dist./z^vz, as Nt. offuta.) 

Futua, v. (i) open out, undo a 
bundle (or girdle), take out (of a 

berry, edible fruit of" 
Mfuu, dist. kifuu.) (a 
kichwa, skull (see Fuvu). 

Fuvu, n. (ma-\ also Fuu, empty 
shell, husk. F. la kichwa, skull 
/-. la nazi, shell of a cocoanut (but 
generally kiftm). F. la yai egtr- 
shell (but generally kaka}. 

Fuzi, n. See Ufuzi, Mafuzi. 
Fyata, v. put (or, hold) between 
the legs. F. nguo, tuck the loin- 
cloth between the legs (see TJwinda). 
F. mikono, grasp the hands between 
(i. e. by closing) the thighs. F. mkia 
put the tail between the legs. CCf 

Fyatua, v. and ?Fyua, let go 
suddenly, let off (of something which 
is holding, a spring, a trap, &c.). 
Nt.fyatuka. ^.fyatu-lia, -liwa 
Cs fyatusha, fyatuli-sha, -shwa. 
(Cf. prec.) 
Fyeka, v. also Feka, clear away, 




clear off, make a clearing in, of 

ig away trees, grass, jungle. /'. 

. make a clearing in the forest. 

Ap. fytk-ca, -ewa. 

; esha, -cshwa. (Cf. follg. 


Pyeko, n. esp. in plur. mafyeko, 
clearing operations, thing cleared 
away, clearings. 

Fyoa, v. (i) cut. F. masuke ya 
mlarna-, cut ears of millet ; (a) fig. 
use cutting or abusive language, re- 
ply insolently. Ap. fyo-/ea, -lewa, 
abuse, jibe. (Cf. fyeka, and follg. 

.zih.fyonya, and fyonza.) 
Fyonya, v. make a chirping sound 
with lips, expressive of contempt, 
or disgust. (Cf,/yoa, and follg.) 

Fyonza, v. also Fyonja, Fy- 

onda, suck, suck at, suck out. /'. 

suck sugar. /'. ziwa la 

suck the mother's breast. 

.//, suck out blood. (Cf. 

.-, and nyonya.) 

-fyozi, a. abu>ive, scornful. (Cf. 
fyoa, and ztfyozi.} 


G represents the same sound as 

in English ' go.' This hard g. is used 

in Swahili for the Arabic consonants 

ne words of Arabic 

origin ;yptian dialect for 

j elsewhere), and also sometimes as 

a variant of j and k in other words 

rh. through an intermediate 

tiy sound) of d. 

e words not found under g 
may be looked for under j or , and 
sometimes undc : 

Obs. that the sound written njf in 

ctionary is heard and 
sometimes as gn t esp. at Mombasa. 
Ch is used to represent the sound of 
few words in 
ic las a deep 

guttural. It is more- often pronounced 

as a deep slightly rolled r, or as 

i A, and is in some words 

slurred and hardly heard at all, or 
pronounced by Swahilis as g. (Cf. 

ali, haintij orofa, gubari.} 

Gaagaa, v. also Garagara, (i) 
roll from side to side, turn restlessly, 
sprawl, as on board a ship, or a sick 
man in bed, or an animal wallowing 
on the ground ; (2) fig. be lazy, 
listless, indifferent, have nothing to 
do, loll. Cs. gaagaaza. (Dist. 

*Gadi, n. (wa-), prop, shore, e.g. 
to keep a vessel upright, when 
stranded, or a tree inclined to fall. 
Tia niagadi, shore up. (Cf. follg.) 

*Gadimu,v. prop, shore up, with 
gadi, which see. Ps. gadimiwa. 
Nt. gadimika. Ap. gaditn-ia, -iwa, 
prop up with (for, on, &c.). Cs. 
gaJiw-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. 

Ugcmea, cf. ftguzo, and ? shiku.} 

Gae, n. (wa-), a large potsherd, 
a large broken piece of metal, <,'lass, 
earthenware, &c. Dim. X 
bovu limekuwa. niagae, the cracked 
dish is all in pieces. 

Gaga, n. (wa-\ See Kigaga. 

Galawa, n. sometimes Ngalawa, 
a small dug-out canoe, with out- 
riggers (tnatcHgo) and sail, much 
used by fishermen. Galawa Jttit, 
wimbichini, the canoe on the 

cs beneath, tod 
voyage. (Cf. ntiuwfafi.) 

Galme, n. also Kalme, /. 
iva galrtu, small second 
a large dhow, mizzen mast, carrying 
its own sail. 

Gamba, v. on! :. form 

jigamba, vaunt oneself, brag, boast. 
(C f. jtvutia,jisi/M t iic > 

Gamba, n. (ina-\ scale (of 
Also sometimes of any small de- 
part of outer skin of an 

v& mafanda, till n, 
comes off. (Cf. ngaruba, and 

*Gan. nbleached cotton 

cloth from India, Indian grey sheet- 
ings. (Cf. nguo.) 




Gana, n. or Kana, rudder-handle, 
tiller. (Cf. msukani,shikio.} 

Ganda, v. become hard (fixed, 
congealed, curdled, frozen), get thick, 
coagulate, of a liquid. Maziwa ya- 
tnegandn, the milk is curdled. Mito 
imeganda kwa baridi, the rivers 
were frozen with the cold. (2) Stick 
to, cleave to, embrace closely, clasp. 
Alimganda shingoni, he clasped him 
round the neck. Ps. gandwa. 
Nt. gandika. Ap. gand-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. gandi-sha, -shwa. (Cf. gand- 
ama, gandamana, and ganda, n.) 
n. (ma-\ husk, rind, shell, outer 
covering of trees, plants, fruits, &c. 
G. la yai, eggshell. G. la mchtmgwa, 
orange peel. G. la mkate, crust of 
bread. Maganda ya maziwa, curds 
of milk, flakes. Maganda ya 

mahindi, the sheath enclosing the 
cob of Indian corn. (Cf. gamba, 
also gome, kaka, kifuu, and (husk) 
kapi, kumvi, kumbi.*) 

Gandama, v. stick together, get 
stuck, get hard, set, freeze, curdle, 
coagulate. Asali imegandama na 
chombo, the treacle sticks to the 
vessel. Chungu zimegandama sam- 
lini, the ants are stuck in the ghee 
Ps. gandamwa. Naligandamwa nc 
kupe, I had ticks sticking to me 
Nt. gandamika. Ap. gandam-ia 
-iwa, stick to, adhere, cling to, be 
true to. G. chungu, stick to a cook 
ing pot. G. rafiki, hold fast t< 
a friend. Cs. gandam-iza, -izwa 
e. g. G. mtu chini, pin a man to th 
ground. Also Intens. gandamiz* 
ulimwengii, cling to, take to one' 
heart, the world. Rp. gandan 
-ana, -anisha, e. g. maji imegandc 
niana, the water is frozen hare 
(St. of ganda, cf. simama, tuamc, 
&c., and for similar idea shikatnanc 
kazana,*shupana, pindana.) 

Gando, n. (ma-), claw of lobste 
(kambd) and crab (kaa\ (and perh 
of the cuttlefish (pweza], but < ' 
mnyiri). Kaa akiinua gando m 
mbo yamekafika,\f}^tn the crab raise 

is claw, there is an end of the 
matter. (Cf. ganda, v., and of 
nimals, ukucha!) 

Gandua, v. Rv. of ganda> (i) 
nfasten, pull away, separate some- 
ling adhering closely ; (2) fig. 
escue from danger, save in a crisis, 
;et out of a scrape. Ps. gandu- 

iwa. Nt. ganduka. Ap. gandu- 
ia, -liwa. (Cf. banduka, anilmka.} 
Ganga, v. bind up, fasten to- 
gether, splice, mend (what is injured 
:>r broken). Hence esp. of doctors' 
vork generally, ' apply remedy, cure, 
ieal.' Ganga mguu, put a leg in 
plints. G.jeraha, bandage a wound. 
G. tumbo, attend to the stomach. 

gangwa. Nt. gangika, i. e. be 
cured, be curable. Ap. gang-ia, 
iwa. Cs. gang-is ha, -ishwa. 

\^.gangana. (Cf. mganga,uganga t 
mgango, gango, kigango, and of treat- 
ment, alika, uguza). 

Gango, n. (ma-}, appliance for 
aolding together what is separate or 
severed, cramp, brace, splint, splice, 
oining, patch. Dim. kigango. 

(Cf. ganga.} 

Gani, a. interrog. of what sort, 
what kind of, what? never used 
without a noun preceding. Kitti 
gani? What is it? Sababu ganiJ 
Why? Ginsigani? How? Wakati 
gani? When? Mahaligani? Where? 
Habari gani? What is the news? 
How are you? Mtu gani always 
suggests primarily ' a man of what 
tribe (place, or country).' 

Ganzi,n. ( , and ma-\ deadness, 
numbness. Mguu imekufa g., my 
foot is asleep (benumbed). Often of 
the teeth, tia (fanya) g. la mcno, 
set the teeth on edge. Meno yafanya 
ganzi, my teeth are set on edge. 

*Garafuu, n. (also written garo- 
fuu, karafwi), cloves, the flower-bud 
of the mgarafuu, the most valuable 
and abundant article of commerce in 
Zanzibar and Pemba (except cocoa- 
nuts). (Ar. karamful.} 

Garagara, v. See Gaagaa. 




*Oari, n. (wa-) an y vehicle on 
\\ heels,cart,waggon , carriage, barrow, 
ulator, bicycle. Also g. la 
tnoshi, locomotive (or other 
engine. G. fa pcpo, bicycle. Hind. 
"Gasia, n. See Qhasia. (Ar.) 
Gauka, Gauza, v. See Geuka, 

Gawa, v. place in parts (pieces, 
portions, shares), divide up, dis- 
tribute, deal out. G. chakula, appor- 
tion food. G. karat a, deal (playing) 
1' -. gawiwa. Xt. gawika. 
u'-ia, -iwa. Cs. gaw-isha, 
Rp. gawana, e. g. nta- 
kachopata ttttagatvana sawasaicu 
tnimi naive, whatever you get, we 
will go halves in, you and I. Also 
gawanya, which see. (Cf. gawio, 

Gawanya, v. place in parts, ap- 
portion, divide, share, distribute, 
prop, of mutual arrangement or 
equal rights, gawa rather of the act 
iticial, superior, or benefactor, 
s^iwanye; gawa wee, let us 
have a division; do you act as 
^awanywa. Nt 
-ika, -ikia, -ikiwa, be divided, 
Rp. gaivanyikana. 
Ap. ga: ::i'a, -iana. Cs. 

gawany-isha, -ishwa, -isht 

<'a, kigawanyo, and 
lfng t j, put apart.) 

Gawio, n. ma-), division, appor- 
n maga- 

thc critical point is in the- 
>n (of spoils). (Cf. gawa, 
gaittanya, mgawo.) 

Gema, v. get palm-wine. 

. gema mnati, of cut- 
ting the growing flower sten 

lit tree, from which the sap 

flows into a calabash fastened to it. 

Also used of getting india-rubber by 

cutting a plant or tree, gem 

A apt. is used (kotama). 

Ap. gem-ta, -wa. 

Cs. gem-cshi: mploy (allow, 


trees. (Cl ,-tama. tcmbo. 

Krapf quotes a native description of 
the whole process.) 

Genge, n. (ma-), cliff, precipice, 
ravine, deep ditch. Ukijika gengcni, 
jihathari, when you come to the 
steep place, be careful. 

-geni, a. (ngeni with D 4 (P), 
D 6, geni with D 5 (S)), strange, 
foreign, novel, outlandish, extra- 
ordinary, queer, curious. Jambo geni, 
a strange occurrence. Maneno ya 
kigeni, a foreign language. (Cf. 
. and syn. -f>ya, ajabu.'} 

*Gereza, n. prison, fort used a> 
a prison, barrack. Tia (weka,fun^a, 
peleka) gtrezani, put in }>rison. Toa 
(JtiHgiia, ondoa] gerezani, let out of 
prison. (?Portug. Cf. syn. /;- 
fungo, minyororo^) 

*Gesla, n. also Gezla. See 

Geua, v. change, make different, 
alter. Ndiye ajigeuaye nyoka, it is 
he who changes himself into a 
The Cs. gfuza (see below is usual 
in /. in this sense. Ps. geuliu-a. 
Nt. geuka, (i) be changed, be change- 
able, be alterable, alien (2) change 
po>ition, turn oneself, turn round ; 
(3) change in appearance, be trans- 
formed, be disguised. Aligeuka aka- 
mivona, he turned round and saw him. 
Amegeuka rnivngirii \ lu- has Income 
another pers^ P.. Hence 
~iwa, turn to from, for, at, &c.). 
Ap. geu-h'a, -/iwa. Cs. gfu-*a, 
-swa, -:/'a, -ziwa, -tana, cause to 
change, alter, make tlilit: 

ill, &C. 

c of geuta and badili, 
-ec Badili. Cf. -gcuti, -geu, ma- 

-geugou, a. changeable, 
wayward. Mambo ya kigt*gtu, con- 
'unges. (Cf. geua.) 

Geu/ iigntti, 

change, alteration, s!.. 

settled, always changing. (Cf. 




except apart from without r 

theprow - 





I found the house empty, there was 
no stir or hum of people inside. 
i^Ar. Cf. syn. rnchafuko, rnashaka.} 

'Ghathabika, v. be furious, be 
enraged, be in a passion. Cs. 
ghathabi-sha, -shwa, exasperate, en- 
rage, provoke. (Ar. Q.ghathabu, 
and syn. kasirika?) 

*Ghathabu, n. rage, fur}-, passion, 
anger, exasperation, used with such 
verbs v& fanya, ana, ingia, also in- 
gitua (na , shikwa (na), fmtwa (no). 
Ana gh. ya kwenda, he goes at a 
furious rate. Mwtnyi gh. mMe yoke 
amesimama shttani, a man in a pas- 
sion has a devil before him. (Ar. 
Cf. syn. hasira^ uchungu!) 

*Ghoflra, n.fw/7-), pardon, forgive- 
ness of sins, absolution, used only 
of God. Gho/ira ya thambi, pardon 
of sins. (Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. 
in a more general sense, usatnehe, 
masamaha, ondoleo, maachilio.) 

*Ghoflri, v. forgive, pardon, ab- 
solve. See Ghoflra. Y&.ghofiriwa. 
Nt. ghofirika. A p. ghofiria^ grant 
:icss to. Afttungu amtmgko- 
firia thambi zake, God has absolved 
him from his sins. Cs.ghofin-sha, 
(Ar. Cf. ghofira, setiri, 
. achilia, fungitlia, ondolea?) 

*Gh6rofa, n. upper story, 
room. See Orofa. (Ar.) 

Ghoahi, v. adulterate, falsify, 
debase. Amtghoski fetha k 

nya na kit. he has 

debased the silver by mixing it with 
something else, a common practice 

Ps. ghoshiwa. A 

choghoshiwa, an adulterated article. 

Ghubari, n. ma-' , rain cloud. 
.< whole 

sky is oks rainy. (Ar. 


*Ghubba, n. (ma-), a ba> 
sea, also of the ' sweep, cun 
of a river, the concave aspect. 
(Ar. Cf. for curve, tm , 

*Ghumia, v. be overwhelming (to), 


tx perplexed (at), be taken aback, 
lose presence of mind. Ps.ghnmi- 
wa, in same sense. Ametokewa na 
wain atncghnntiwa, some people 
came on him suddenly, and he v 
taken aback. Cs.ghnm-isha,-ishwa. 
Ar. Cf. ghawmu, or hem it, grief, 
and syn. shangaa, tckewa?) 

*Ghururi, n. and Ugh-, arro- 
gance, self-conceit, infatuation, folly, 
blindness. Mtu kuyu amcpat-wa na 
gkururi ya Mlimwcngu, this man is 
the victim of worldly delusion. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. kibnri\ ufithuli.} 

*Ghurnrika, v. also Ghurika, 
be proud, be arrogant. (Ar. Cf. 

*Ghusubu, v. deceive, cheat, 
swindle, betray. Sultani alighusubu 
haki ya tnaskini, the king betrayed 
the rights of the poor man. (Ar. 
Cf. common danganya, kopa, funja t 

*Gidamu, n. small leather thong 
in a sandal, passing between the toes 
from sole to cross-piece, and holding 
it on the foot. (?Ar. Ct.tft&*.) 

*Gilgilani, n. coriander seed, 
used in curry powder. (Hind.) 

*Ginsi, n. also Jinsi, and Jisi, 
kind, sort, quality, (i) often com- 
bined with gani, as a general in- 
terrogative. Gituigan: Iiy? 

} What is the meaning of it ? 
(i) Also often followed by -vys intro- 
ducing a dependent n-lvcrhial 
tence, i. e. as a conjunction, ' the 
r in which, thr way in which, 
how, in what way.' Alimwainbi.j&nsi 
alivyofanya, he told him what he 
had done, or, how he had acted. 

(3) Also often as an interj. with 


ginsi . wonderfully good. 

(4) (ii- ii also used wit: 

ful, nondc--. .^otis, extrava- 


these statements are quite absi 
there is nothing to be made of t! 





(Ar. the Egyptian dialect, viz. g for/ 
Cf. syn. namna, aina.} 

Gisi, v. guess, &c. See Kisi. 
Giza, n. (used as D 5 and D 6, and 
also kiza as D 3), darkness, gloom, 
blackness (but not, like wettsi, used 
of the colour black). Tia giza, 
darken. Giza ya (or, Id} usiku, the 
darkness of night. Macho yake yaona 
giza, his eyes are dim. Kiza kikubwa 
(kipevu), deep darkness, utter dark- 
ness. (Cf. kiza, and syn. weusi} 

Goboa, v. also Koboa, break off 
with the hand, a cob (kibunzi} of 
Indian corn, pluck the ears of maize. 
Also of cleaning cotton, and of re- 
moving the stem of a clove bud, 
leaving the kiini or seed, i. e. gara- 
fun hugobolewa. *>. gobolewa. Ap. 
gobo-lea, -/ewa. (Cf. konyoa,chambua, 
fujua, and muhindi.} 

*Godoro, n. (ma-}, a mattress. 
Gofla, n. pulley, such as is at- 
tached to the rope (henza} which 
hoists the yard in a native sailing 
vessel. (Cf. kapi, abedari.} 

-gofu, a. (gofu with D 4 (P), D 5 
(S), D 6), emaciated, broken down, 
in ruins, skin and bone. Kigofu, in 
an emaciated, &c., state. Nyama 
gofu or kigofit, a wretched, starved 
animal. Also as n. in such phrases 
as gofa la mtu, an emaciated person ; 
gofu la nyumba, a tumble -down, 
ruinous house. (Cf. follg.) 

Gofua, v. emaciate, wear out the 
strength of, reduce to a skeleton (or, 
to ruins). Also Cs. gofusha in same 
sense. Marathi imemgofusha, illness 
has broken him down. (Cf. gofu', 
and syn. kondesha, ^onda.} 

Gogo, n. (ma-}, (i) log, trunk of 
a tree when felled, e.g. gogo la 
mnazi, of a cocoanut tree. Also 
fig. lala kigogo, sleep (lie) like a log, 
i e. motionless, in a dead sleep. 
Dim. kigogo. (2) Used of a large 
and long drum (ngoma}. 

Gogota, v. knock at, tap, hammer 
at. G. mlango, knock hard at a 
door. G. vijili, hammer pegs (redupl 

form of Gota, which sec. Cf. gongn, 
bisha.} n. a kind of woodpecker. 
Also kigogota. 

Gole, n. (ma-}, small pellet of 
opium (afiuni) prepared for smok- 
ing (Cf. gole, expectorated matter, 

Goma, n. (ma-}, a large drum. 
(Cf. ngoma, kigoma} 

Gomba, v. (i) gainsay, contradict, 
forbid ; (2) argue (with), quarrel 
(with), wrangle. Anagomba na 
mkewe, he is squabbling with his 
wife. Ap. gomb-ea, -ewa, -eka, 
argue (for, against, at, &c.), press a 
claim. Gombea ngazi, quarrel over 

the gangway. Gombea daraja, stand 
up for one's rank (position, status". 
Alitukamva kwa sababu wewe kuku- 
gombea, he was abused, because he 
stood up for you. Cs: gomb-eza, 
-ezwa, -ezika, (i) strictly forbid ; 
(2) make quarrel, make a quarrel, 
scold. Gombezika, be blameworthy, 
deserve scolding. Tumegombeziva 
tusiende (or, kwenda}, we are for- 
bidden to go. Rp. gomb-ana, quar- 
rel with each other, squabble. 
ugomvi, -gomvi, ngombezi, mgombezt, 
and syn. teta, bisha, nenea, and 
'forbid' kataza.} n. (ma-}, leaf 
of the banana plant (mgomba}, i. e. 
\jani la mgomba. See Mgomba. 

Gombo, n. (ma-}, leaf (sheet) of 
a book, gombo la chuo. 

Gome, n. (ma-} and perh. Kome, 
the hard external covering of trees 
and some animals, bark, shell. Am- 
bua (tod} magome, take off strips of 
bark. Used of shell of crustaceans, 
lobster, &c., also of mollusca (cf. 
home], and as a colloquial word for 
half rupee, or shilling, ' bob. (Cf. 
ganda, generally of soft outer cover- 
'ing, ngozi, \.,1kome.} 

Gonda, v. grow thin. See Konda. 
Gonga, v. beat, strike, knock. 
Gonga mlango, knock at a door. Ps. 
eongwa. Ap. gong-ca, -ewa, -eana. 
' Kugongeana bilatiri, to strike glasses 
together in drinking healths. 




Rp. go. 

: srnbo rinagongana, the 
dhows are colliding. (Cf. gongo, 
mgongo, and syn. goto, bis ha, fua, 
piga, chapa, &c.) 

Gongo, n. (ma-"), (i) a thick, 
-tick, cudgel, club, bludgeon 
(for other kinds, see Bakora). Also 
of other thick things, e. g. (2) seam 
(in a dress) ; (3) hump (of a camel), 
of. nundu ; (4) dense wood, thicket, 
gongo la rnwt'tu, where trees are 
thickest in a forest (Cf. mgongo, 

Gongoja, v. See Kongoja. 

Gongomea, v. hammer, give blows 
to, drive with blows, as rivets, nails, 
pegs, stakes, &c., and so 'nail up.' 
Ps. gongomtwa, fasten up. Akazi- 
gongomca nguo katika bwcta, and he 
nailed up his clothes in a box. 

gonjwa, a. sick, ill, unwell, in- 
disposed. U mgonj-wa ao rnzima '.' 
Are you ill or well ? Huyu ni 
mgonjwa sana, this man is very ill, 
a great invalid. (Cf. ugonjiva, gonj- 
and cf. -weli.} 

Gonjweza, v. Cs. cause to be 

ill, make ill or sick. Jigonjweta, 

pretend to be sick, sham sickness, 

behave as if sick. Ps. gonjwezwa. 

Cf. follg.) 

Gora, n. (ma-), also Jora, and 

commonly Jura, .1 length of calico, 

..i the piece (of about 30 to 35 

Gorong'ondwa, n. a kind of 
lizard (Str.). Cf. mjusi. (There U 
perh. alto a verb gorongonda, work 
about with a zigzag moven 

*Oos ndward 

or weather side, in navigation ; also 

called upandc wa juu t upper side. 

side. Upandc wa 

, weather side, windward. 

. (chombo) Inva gosh;< 

about, bout ship. Enda got At, sail 

near the wind. Coshi la tonga, the 

forward part of the sail in 

>ce Tanga. A".;//,i 

gosfli, (i) be and so 

(2) fig. have an advantage over, have 
the best position as to. Huyu 
kalia goshi, this man has the better 
position, menaces your safety. 

Gota, v. knock, tap, rap, strike. 
Goto, mlango, tap at a door. Also 
Gotagota, of drumming on an instru- 
ment, and Gogota, which see. Ps. 
gotwa. Nt. goteka. Ap. got-ea, 
-ewa. Cs. got-cza, -ezwa, cause to 
knock, e.g. goteza maneno, of ill- 
pronounced, broken speech, the oppo- 
site of fluent speaking. Gotagota 
rnaneno, of jumbling words of diffe- 
rent dialects together. Rp.gvtana, 
like gongana, e. g. vyombo vina- 
gotana, the dhows are knocking to- 
gether. (Cf. tngoto, and syn. gonga, 
piga.fua, bisha, &c.) 

Goti, n. (nta-}, knee. Piga magoti, 
kneel down. 

Govi, n. also Ngovi, but in /.. 
Ngozi, which see. Cavi mbco, pre- 
puce, condition of being uncircum- 

Guba, n. (wa-), packet of aromatic 
leaves (of mkadi, and other kinds\ 
sold for their perfume. Cf. kiguba. 
(\V\s\. ghubba, kuba^} 

*Gubari, n. (ma-}. See Ghubari, 
and Wingu. 

*Gubeti, n. prow of a native ves- 
sel ; head, figure-head, often project- 
ing far in front, and ornamentctl with 
il>ed as kikono (ha 

omo, as being like a hand held out 
from the bow. (Cf. omo, /*,. 
and contr. shetri, stern.) 

Gubi, n. (ma'), leaf stalk of cocoa* 
nut tree (mnazi). ^, 

ma-), doc-'.. 

(Cf. gadi, and rnajahafra* lit. sup- 
ports, props.) 

Gudulia, n. (w<2-), pitcher, po- 
rous water jar, water-cooler of car t hen - 
ware. Dim. 


wild plant nl no value. < 
a plant irsc-mMing con: 
magngHtti, sleep in the busl. 




a!so as indeclin. adj. (like inwitii), 
wild, uncultivated, from the jungle. 
(Cf. kigitgu.) 

Gugumiza, v. gulp, gulp down, 
swallow with a gurgling sound, splut- 
ter in the water, as a swimmer in 
rough water, or man out of his 
depth ; also of defective utterance. 
Mgonjwa amegugumiza maji kwa 
shidda, the sick man has swallowed 
some water with an effort. Agugu- 
miza maneno, he talks in a jerky, 
spluttering way. (Cf. goteza^) 

Guguna, v. (i) gnaw, bite at; 
(2) carp at, annoy, molest. Panya 
ameguguna muhogo, a rat has gnawed 
the cassava. Ps. gugunwa. Mtu 
aniegugunwa na jisi, the man has 
been gnawed by a hyaena. Nt. gu- 
gunika. Ap. gugun-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
gugun-iza, -izwa. (Cf. tafuna, 
? guna, and perh. a verb gug-unua, 
carp at, annoy, molest.) 

Gugurusha, v. also heard as 
gumgiisha, of movement, producing 
a rustling or scraping sound, as of a 
rat, rustle about, shuffle along, rattle 
about. (Cf. syn. piga mtakaso and 

Guguta, n. cob or ear of Indian 
corn, with the grains removed. (Cf. 
nnthindi and kigunzi?) 

Guia, v. and Guya, seize, catch, 
hold. Guia nyama, catch an animal 
in a trap. Ps. guiwa. Cs. gtti- 
za, -zwa. Rp. gut-ana. (Cf. 
shika, nasa, kamata, all more used 

Gumba, n. kidolc cha gumba, 
thumb. (? Mtu gumba, a solitary, 
childless, or sterile person.) 

Gumegume, n. bundukiya gume- 
gume, a flint-gun. (Cf. bunduki, 
and perh. -gumu.} 

-gumu, a. (tigttmu with D 4 (P), 
D 6, gttmu with D 5 (S)), (i) hard, 
tough, firm, solid, strong. (Contr. 
-ororo, laini, thaifu.} Boriti hii 
ngumu kama c/iuma, this pole is as 
hard as iron. (2) Hard to deal with, 
difficult, laborious, puzzling. (Contr. 

rahisi, -epesi.} Kazi n^nnm, hard 
work. (3) Brave, resolute, stout- 
hearted, courageous, obstinate, self- 
willed, fixed, unyielding. Mbona 
wewe mgumu sana . ? Why will you not 
change your mind? (cf. syn. hodari, 
thabiti, -kali). (4) Inexorable, cruel, 
hard-hearted. (Contr. -ema, -pole, 
-a huruma.} 

Guna, v. (i) grunt, grumble, mur- 
mur; (2) express disapproval, indig- 
nation, contempt, ' protest, complain, 
sneer at.' Boat hi ya watu wana- 
mguna, some of the people sneer at 
him. (Cf. mguiw, guno, tiling u- 

Gunda, n. (ma-), a horn used for 
blowing. Dim. kigunda. (In Z. 
commonly pembe, baragumu,} 

*Gundi, n. gum-arabic. 

Gundua, v. come upon unexpect- 
edly, take by surprise, catch unawares, 
startle, start (a wild animal from its 
lair). Ps. gunduliwa. Nt. gu- 
nduka. Pvp.gundu-lia, steal upon, 
approach secretly, stalk (cf. nyc- 
melea). Cs. gundu-lisha, -lishwa, 
-liza. Rp.gunduana. (Cf.stu- 
sha, stuka, and fumania, nyentelea.} 

Gunga, v. use (native) medicine 
(uganga, dawa) to secure health, 
safety, well being. Jigttnga, secure 
oneself, take precautions for safety 
by charms, medicine, &c., i.e. native 
form of life insurance. 

Gungu, n. (ma-"), a mode of danc- 
ing, a figure in a dance, e. g. gungu 
la kukwaa, the stumbling figure ; 
gungu la kufunda, the pounding 

*Guni, n. (tna-~), (i) a matting 
bag used for dates. Dim. kiguni. 
Also used to describe unrhymed or 
blank verse, mashairi yenyi gttni, as 
opp. to rhymed poetry, mashairi 
yenyi vina. (2) A carpenter's spoke- 
shave. (Hind. Guni of poetry 
may come from the name of a 
famous Pemba poet, Guni.} 

*Gunia, n. (ma-\ (i) a coarse 
bag or sack used chiefly for rice im- 



ported from India, &c. Also (2) the 
material of which it is made, sack- 

Quno, n. (ma-), grunt, grumble, 
sound expressive of indignation or 
contempt. (Cf. guna, mguno.} 

Ounzi, n. (ma-), full-grown ear, 
or cob, of Indian com (nmhindi). 
(Cf. kigunzi, and kibunzi.) 

Quru, n. Sttkali guru, a coarse 
unrefined kind of sugar made from 
the cane, as in Z., and sold in large 
dark -coloured lumps. 

*Gurudumu, n. ( , and ma-}, a 
wheel. Used in the plur. of any 
vehicle of which the wheels are con- 
spicuous. (Cf. gari.) MaguruJutnu 
ya mzinga, a gun carriage. 

Ouruguru, n. (ma-}, and Mguru- 
guru, a large kind of burrowing 
lizard. (Cf. m/usi, kenge.} 

Qurugusha, v. a variant of Gugu- 
rusha, which see. 

Ouruta, v. smooth with a press, put 
through the rollers of a mangling ma- 
chine, mangle, of clothes and linen 
generally. Guru fa nguo hi~ 
mangle these clothes properly. Ps. 
a. Nt. gurutika. Ap. 
,;, -two, Sina cha kugunitia, 
I have no mangling machine. Cs. 
gurut-isha t -isAwa. 

Guaa, v. touch, finger, handle with 
the fingers. Ts.guswa. Nt.^w- 
sika. A p. gus-ia t -iwa. Kp. 
Cf. t omasa, papas a, bo- 
ny e 3 ha) 

Outa, v. bawl, shout, cry out. 

1 . 
(Cf. syn. /fa, figa kelele.) 

Outu, n. (wa-), stum; 
G. la tnkono, stumj <>f mutilated arm. 
/:/', trunk of 

cocoanut tree with the crown broken 
off. Also dim. kigulu. (Cf. sHiku, 
baki t salio.} 

Outua, v. or Kutim, startle, 
surprise. Nt gutuka. 
e common 

Quu, n. 'w<j-'., used of any object 
resembling a leg (foot), or of a leg 

(foot) of large size, but in 7 . 
is always used of the leg (foot) of an 
animal or man. Ubau wa maguu 
matatu, a three-legged stool, tripod. 

Gwanda, n. also Bwanda. a 
short kind of kanzu (which see), 
sometimes worn by men, reaching to 
the knees. 

*Gwaride, n. (ma-\ one of the 
words used in Z. for the 'native 
police,' and esp. their military band, 
called also mdundo, niatarumpcta. 
Kiuheza gwaride, to drill. (Cf. 
Engl. guard.} 


H represents generally the same 
sound as in English, a sound which 
is of great importance in verb-forms 
in Swahili, as being the main charac- 
teristic of the negative conjugation. 

In words of Arabic origin, this 
sound represents both forms of Arabic 
//, and also in most words the 
Arabic A'A. The tendency in Swa- 
hili is to soften down all gutturals to 
the point of disappearance, though 
they are learnt and retained in M>UH 
words of comparatively recent intro- 
duction and by persons brought into 
close relations with Arabs. // also 
represents in a few words an initial 
Alif or A in in the Arab v: 
and when an h sound in Ara 
\owel closely, the temi 
Swahili is to pronounce it before the 

A word not found under // ma\ 
therefore be looked for under A7/, or 
under the first vowel of the \\ 

H- (i) is the characteristic of the 
a. and adv. dcmonstrat. of r, 
this, thU i ' 

nch appears 

(followed always by the same 
as occurs in the t liable 

in huyu, Aw<i, HHH, Ait, hizi, Aiti, 
.7, Auj'a, huku, 
corresponding forms 




huyo y &c. (See esp. Huko, and 
Huyu, and cf. the other characteristic 
demonstr. letter Z.) (2) As a nega- 
tive prefix, is found only in the 
2 and 3 Pers. S. of verb-forms. See 
Ha- and Hu-. 

Ha, a verb-form, he (she) is not, 
negative prefix used in agreement 
with Mtu. Yeye ha mwema, he is 
not good. Si is usually preferred to 

Ha- is the characteristic negative 
prefix of all verb-forms, except (i) 
where si is used, i. e. in the I Pers. S. 
of the Indie. Mood, in the Subjunc- 
tive, and in verb-forms containing a 
relative, e. g. si-pendi, I do not like ; 
asiende, that he may not go ; yasi- 
yopendeza, things which do not please. 
(2) Where it becomes h- only, i. e. in 
the 2 and 3 Pers. S., e.g. h-u-pendi 
for ha-upendi, you do not like, and 
h-a-pendi for ha-apendi, he does not 
like ; ( 3) when an additional sign of the 
negative is required, viz. the change 
of final a to z, in the Present Indica- 
tive only, e. g. hawapendi, they do 
not like. Ha-, as Negative Prefix, 
is always initial. 

Ha- is also a contraction for nika-, 
the sign of the First Person Singular 
in the ka or Narrative Tense. Ha- 
mivona for nikamivona, and I saw 
him. (Confusion with the negative 
is barred by the change of final a to i 
in the Present Tense, see above, e. g. 
ham-wont, he does not see him, or 
you (plur.) do not see.) 

*Haba, a. (i) little (in quantity), 
few; (2) rare, scarce ; (3) not enough, 
deficient, too little, short (in amount). 
Chakula h., not enough food. Mtu 
h., a rare kind of man. Siku h., a 
few days, insufficient time. Maji h., 
shallow water, not enough water. 
Sometimes used as a n., 'a little' of 
anything. (Cf. kidogo.} Haba na 
haba hujaza kibaba, grain upon 
grain fills the measure. (Cf. Ar. 
haba, a grain, and syn. B. -chache, 
kidogo, kitambo?) 

*Habari, n. and Khabari, (i) 
news, report, message, information ; 
(2) events, matters, proceedings, 
things. Common in salutations, of 
persons meeting, e.g. Habari ? or 
Habari gani? How are you? How are 
you getting on ? or Habari ya siku 
nyingi? How have you been of late? 
Niambie h. yake, tell me about him. 
Kwa h. ya jambo lile, as to that 
matter. H. zangu zilizonipata, things 
that happened to me. Ginsi gani 
kutufanya h. He? What did you 
treat us like that for? (Ar. Cf. 
hubiri, and syn. maarifa, tarifu, 

*Habba, n. (ma-}, and Hubba, 
(i) love, fondness, affection ; (2) 
love-token, souvenir, gift. Of natural 
affection of friends and relatives, as 
well as of the sexes. Tia habbani, 
take a fancy to. Ana habba nami, 
he is in love with me. Hanifitnulii 
habba, he does not open his feelings 
to me. Amenitoka habbani, I have 
ceased to care for him. (Ar. Cf. 
common address in letters, muhebbi, 
and syn. fendo, mapenzi, shauku.') 

Habeshia, n. (ma-}, also Mhabe- 
shia, Habushia, an Abyssinian. 
Used also of female domestic slaves 
of the suria class, of whatever race. 

*Hadaa, v. cheat, deceive, outwit. 
Ps. hadaiwa. Nt. hadaika, be 
deceived. n. deception, cun- 
ning, trickery, &c. (Ar. Cf. 
danganya, punja, kalamkia, &c., 
also hila, ujanja, werevu.} 

*Hadimu, n. (ma-\ servant, at- 
tendant, slave. In Z. usually Mha- 
dimu, which see, i.e. one of the 
original inhabitants of the island. 
(Cf. hudumu, Mhadimu, and syn. 
mtumishi, mtumiva, mngoje.) 

*Hadithi, v. narrate, tell stories, 
relate, describe, recount, report. 
Ps. hadithiiva. Ap. hadith-ia, 
-iwa, tell to (for, about, in, &c.), e. g. 
pamehadithiwa vingi, there^ are 
many stories told about the place. 
Tumehaditkiwa, we have been told, 




history relates. n. story, tale, 
account, report, history, legend, 
fiction. Ni hadithi tu, it is only 
. mere fiction. (Ar. Cf. 
sumutia, and habari, kisa, ngano.) 

*Hafifu, a. trifling, insignificant, 
poor in quality, valueless, frivolous. 
Mtu h., a person of no consequence. 
Nguo h., calico of inferior quality. 
Koho h., a light, flighty, wayward 
disposition. (Ar. Cf. syn. -nyonge, 
dunij -dogo, rafiisi.) 

*Hai, a. or Hayi, alive, living, 
having life, animate. Yu hai, he is 
alive. (Ar. Cf. uhai, huika, 
huisha, and syn. U. -zima.) 

Hai, a verb-form, it is not, they 
are not, Negat. Pfx. with Pers. 
Pfx. agreeing with D 2 (P) or D 6 
See Ha-. 

*Haiba, n. beauty, adornment, 

decoration. Mwanamkt ana h. uso 

he woman has beautified her 

face. H. inaingia sasa nyumbani, 

the house is becoming decorated now. 

' i,/>amt>o, nrembo.} 

10, verb-form, it has not (is 

not), they have not (are not), the 

Xegat. Pfx. with Pcrs. Pfx. agreeing 

with D a (P) and D 6 (S), and na. 

ila-, Na. 

*Haini. n. traitor, betrayer, de- 
reiver. Also rarely as v., betray. 
Ar. Cf. hiana, and for deceiving, 
.see Danganya.) 

*Haithuru. v. often used as, it 
does not matter, never mind, it is all 
the same. (Sec Thuru, and syn. 

*Haj, n. pilgrimage to Mecca, 

where possible, and often undci taken 

haj, to go as a 


to Mecca. 


*Haja, n. (i) need, want, appeal 

i, request; (a) reason, cause, 
I, excuse, ' Mt ; (3) 

what is needed, necessaries, belong- 
ings, engage; Is of nature. 
Toa h. hva, taka h. kwa, make a 

request to, request something of. 
Stna h. naye, I have no need of him, 
he is of no use to me. II ana h,, he 
is not wanted. Haina /;. ya ku- 
gombana, there is no reason for 
quarrelling. Mabdghala ya kttpakia 
h. zake, mules to carry his baggage. 
Kwa h. ya kntcmbca, for the sake of 
a walk. Fanya h , attend to the 
calls of nature. (Ar. Cf. hitaji, 
hoji, hoja or huja, and syn. for 'need,' 
&c. mahitaji) maombi, ukosefu, for 
'reason, &c.' sababu, ajili, maana, 
sharti, for ' necessaries ' riziki, 
ma/aa, vyombo, &c.) 

Hajambo, verb-form, Negat. Pfx. 
of 3 Pers. S. combined with 
jambo, thing, affair, matter, he is 
not (affected by) anything, there is 
nothing the matter with him. See 

*Haji, n. (i) also Haj, a pil- 
grimage to Mecca, see Haj; (2) 
(ma-), a pilgrim, one who is on his 
way to or has been to Mecca ; and 
(3) more generally of an adherent of 
any religion. Mahaji ya kizungn, 
people who follow the European 
religion. v. also Hiji, Heji, 
make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Ap. 
haj-ia t -iwa. Atanihajia mahali 
pangu, he will make the pilgrimage 
for me. Cs. haj-isha, -ishwn, send 
as a pilgrim, allow to go, : 
means for, &c. (Ar. Cf. haj. 
Dist. haji, he does not come, i.e. 
IroinyW, v.) 

*Hajiri, v. remove (from), leave, 
emigrate, m 
the common B. syn. hania.) 

Hakali, n. or Hikali. payment 
for privilege, e.g. kushika ha&ali, 
force to make a deposit, or pay foot- 
ing, at a stranger intruding, &c. 
(Arab, higdl.) 

Haki, n. (i) justice, right, law- 
fulness. Mtu wa h., a just man. 

;//y) /4., be jus 
justly, (a) In general, absoh 
tier, righteousness. .' ' 




mwenyi h. , G od is the Righteous One. 
(3) In particular, a claim, a right, a 
privilege, a just share. Nipe h.yangu, 
give me my wages, what I have a 
right to. Killa myenyi h. amwiaye 
fitllani, any one who has a claim as 
creditor of so and so. Enda hakini, 
appeal to the law. Nakuuliza kwa 
haki, I have a right to ask you. (Ar.) 
Haki, verb-form, it is not. (Cf. 

*Hakika, n. certainty, reality, gen- 
uineness, fact, truth. Mambo haya ni 
h., these are facts. H. yako, truth 
as to you, you certainly, e.g. h. yako 
umek'osa, you are certainly wrong. 
Sina h. na/o, I am not sure about 
it. As adv. truly, certainly, really. 
(Ar. Cf. hakiki, halisi, kweli.} 

*Hakiki, v. make sure about, as- 
certain, investigate, prove, know for 
certain. Ps. hakikiwa. Nt 

hakikika, e. g. haihakikiki, certainty 
is unattainable. Ap. hakik-ia, -iwa 
inquire into (about, for, at). _ Cs 
hakik-isha, -ishwa, cause to inves 
tigate, make a strict inquiry, have a 
matter gone into. (Ar. Cf. ha 

"Hakirnu, n. (ma-}, judge, ruler 
chief. H. wetu anayetumiliki, ou 
chief who rules over us. H. hapen 
delei mtu, the judge favours no one 
(Ar., not often used in Z., cf. hukiunn 
and Ihekima, and syn. sultani 
mfalme,jumbe, fumu, kathi.} 

*Hakiri, v. treat with contempt 
despise, abase. Cs. hakir-isha 
-is/iwa, e.g. as Intens., vilify, scorn 
(Arab, for common tharau, tweza 

Hako, verb- form, also Hayuko 
he (she) is not there (is away, 
absent), Negat. Pfx. of 3 Pers. S 
ha agreeing with D i (S), and Loca 
Pfx. ko. (So hayuko, hapo, ham 

Haku-, as first part of a verb-form 
is the Negat. Pfx. with ku, which 
this combination may be (i) sign 
Past Tense Negat., e.g. hakupendez 

e did not please, or (2) pfx. agreeing 
ith Infin. Mood, e. g. kulala haku- 
endezi, lying down is not pleasant, 
r (3) pfx. of general reference, e. g. 
akupendezi, the circumstances are 
npleasant, or (4) Pers. Pfx. of 2 Pers. 
. object, or P. object (with -em}, e.g. 
akttpendi, hakupendeni, he does not 
ke you. 

Hakuna, verb-form, often used as 
mple negative no, not so, it is not, 
Negat. Pfx. ha-, with ku of general 
eference or agreeing with an Infin. 
Mood, and na, which see. 
amna, hapana, and for Negat. la, 

*Hal, n. Hal waradi, otto of 
oses> one of the favourite and most 
ostly perfumes in Z. (Ar.) 

*Halafu,adv. afterwards, presently, 
not yet, after a bit. Also commonly 
lalafu yake, afterwards. Always of 
ime. (Ar. Cf. baada, baadaye, 
bado kidogo, and nyuma} 

*Halali, a. lawful, permissible, 
allowed, rightful, optional, avail- 
able, ceremonially clean. Mke wake 
h., his lawful, wedded wife. //. 
kwenda, you may go if you like. 
Kwiba si h.,\\. is unlawful to steal. 
Also as a n., h. yako, it is right for 
you, you may. Kichwa changu h. 
yako, my head is at your mercy. 
(Ar. Cf. halalisha, and hiyari. 
Contr. haramu, and dist. verb-form 
halali, he does not lie down, from lala.} 
*Halalisha, v. Cs. make lawful, 
legalize, declare right, free from legal 
or ceremonial objections or disabili- 
ties. Muhammadi haktthalalisha 
nyama ya nguruwe, Mohammed did 
not sanction pork (as food). Ps. 
halalishwa. (Ar. a. halali.} 

*Halasa, n. sailor's wages, i.e. 
ujira iva waanamaji. 

*Hali, n. state, condition, circum- 
stances, case. A common form of 
address is Ilali gani? or U halt 
gani? How are you? (Cf. Habari, 
Jambo, Salaam.} Kwa killa h., in 

any case. H. moja na, on same side 




>ame views as, a follower of. 
}'u h. yetu, he is one of us. If. ya 
kttwa ukiwa, a state of desertion, 
desolation, of a woman abandoned 
by her husband. (Ar. Cf. mahali, 

Hali, verb-form, it is not, Negat. 
agreeing with D 5 (S). Cf. hai. 
(Dist. kali, he does nor eat, Negat. 

:it, from /a.) * 

*Halifu, v. (i) oppose, contradict, 
rebel (against), disobey. //. nifalwc, 
or kwa nifaltne, rebel against the 
king. H. sheria, transgress the law. 
Amenihalifu sana, he violently op- 
posed me. (a) Leave behind, esp. at 
death, i.e. taqueath. Andika mali 
yote aliyohalifu fullani, make an in- 
ventory of all property left by So-and- 
So. Ps. halifitva. Ap. halif-ia, 
ite to disobedience, &c. a. 
rebellious, disobedient, headstrong. 
(Ar. Cf. for (i) -halifu, uhalifu, 
;:. asi, kaidi, and B. pinga, 
bisha, teta, &c., for (2) Aa/afu, and 
Of ha, ri this ha.} 

Halili, Halilisha. See Halali, 

*Halisi, a. real, genuine, true, 
rate. Myaohalisi, 

a true genuine Yao. Ndio halisi 

. ', that is exactly what I want. 

lv., exactly, perfectly, really, 

of the 

very best quality. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
haswa, sawojawa, kweli.} 

*Halua, n. a common sweetmeat, 
made of flour, egg, sugar, ghee, &c., 
rought by Arabs from 

*Hal ya haluli, 

sulphate of magnesia, Epsom salts. 

Ham, verb-form, you (plur.) are 
not, v 

Hama, v. change habitation, emi- 
grate, flit, remove (fri)m, to). H. 
nyumi ; ;f), move from (or, 

'use (town, country). Ap. 
ham-ia Cs. ham-is/ia, -ish- 

wa, e.g. cause to remove, eject, 
banish, transport. (Cf. -hamc, 


*Hamaki, v. be confounded, lose 
one's wits, act foolishly. (Ar. Cf. 
shangaa, toshewa, puwbaza, 

*Hamali, n. (ma-}, porter, carrier, 
coolie, the professional town carrier 
in Z. Cf. mchuknzi, any carrier of 
a parcel, or load ; mpagazi, a caravan- 
porter. Merikebuya h, ,a freight vessel, 
merchant ship. Gari la h., a trolley, 
goods-van. (Ar. Cf. hamili, hi- 

'/i, stahitmli, and syn. mpagazi, 

*Hamami, n. a public bath, bath- 
ing establishment. (Ar. Cf. for 
room bath, birika ya knogea, kiogco.^\ 

"Hamarawi, n. rope attached to 
lower or forward end of the yard in 
a native vessel, to steady it an 
in shifting, when tacking, a fore- 
brace. See Foro.niili. 

"Hamaya, n. protection, guardian- 
ship. Usually in formal documents, 
e. g. Ji hamayat al Ingercza, under 
British protection, for the common 
chini ya mkono wa, or mkononi niicii. 
in the hands of. (Ar. Cf. syn. 15. 

*Hamdu, n. praise usually in 
Arab formal exj : 
hamdn illahi, praise to (loci. (Cf. 
hitnidi, hcnidi, and syn. .r*/a.) 

-hame, a. deserted, abandoned, 
of place, e.g. tnahanir, pah 
Mi, and syn. -kiwa.} 

Hami, v. proles 
Cf. hamaytt, and the comni. 

Hamila, Hamili. SccHimilu. 

lira, n. Icnvcu. y< a^: 

<> turn sour. (St.) (Arab. 
:;tnon syn. H. thafhu.} 

migratory, homeless. 


Hamna, verb-form, (i) there is not 
inside, there is not, no same as 
hakuna, hapana, but with m of 
reference to interior, for ku, pa ; (2) 
you (plur.) have not, in which m is 
the Pers. Pfx. of 2 P. subject. See 

Hamo, verb-form, also Hayumo, 
he is not within same as Hako 
(which see) with mo, locative of in- 
terior, for ko. 

*Hamsi, n. and a., five. Rarely 
used alone, for the common B. tano. 
Hamsi mia, five hundred. (Arab. 
Cf. hamsini, hamstashara, alhamisi."} 
*Hamsini, n. and a., fifty, -a 
hamsini, fiftieth. (Ar. Cf. hamsi^ 

*Hamstashara, n. and a., fifteen. 
-a hamstashara, fifteenth. (Ar. 
Cf. hanisi, ashara, and syn. B. kumi 
na tano.} 

*Hamu, n. grief, sorrow, distress. 
Tia hainu, grieve. Fanya (ingiwa 
no) hamu, he grieved. (Ar. Cf. 
ghammu, and syn. huzuni, sikitiko, 
majonsi, &c. Dist. hamu, haste 
hurry, not often heard, cf. hima, 
Tuna hainu ya kwenda zetu, we are 
in a hurry to go, &c.) 

*Hana, v. also Hani, mourn (with), 
pay a visit of condolence (to), join in 
a formal mourning. Ap. han-ia 
-i-wa. Cs. hani-sha, -shwa. Rp 
haniana. (Ar. Cf. matanga.) 

Hana, verb-form, he (she) ha 1 
not Negat. Pfx. with na, which see 
Hana hitu, he has nothing. Ham 
kwao, he has no home, he is a vaga 

*Hanamu, a. oblique, aslant, side 
ways. Kata h., cut obliquely. (C; 
syn. mshathali, kombo, upande^) 

*Handaki, n. ditch, trench, chan 
nel (artificial). (Ar. Cf. shim 

*Hando, n. a copper vessel, simila 
to the earthenware mlungi, wit 
narrow circular opening at the top 
used chiefly for carrying and storin 
water. (For other metal vessels c 
snfuria, kitasa, kalasia.} 

02 HAPO 

*Hangaika, v. See Angaika. 

*Hani, v. also Hana, which see. 

Hanikiza, v. Cs. talk down, bear 
own with loud talking, drown an 
pponent's voice, bluff, prevent hear- 
ng. Rp. hanikizana. 

*Hanisi, a. impotent (sexually), 
ffeminate, weak. (Ar.) 

*Hanithi, a. ribald, foul, shame- 
ess. Acha netw h. wee, stop that 
ad language, will you? (Arab, 
or more usual -najisi, -chafu, -baya^) 

*Hanzua, n. a kind of sword 
ance, commonly played after Rama- 

Hao, a. pron. of reference, 3 Pers. 
\ agreeing with D i (P), those 
eferred to, those there. See Huyu, 

Hapa, a. pron. of place, this place, 
agreeing with D 7, seldom of time 
or circumstances, and generally used 
alone as pron. or locative adv. //. 
pazuri, this is a nice place. Toka h. 
hatta mjini, from here to the town. 
Njoo h., come here. H. pana watu, 
acre there are people. Sometimes 
papa hapa, just here, on this very spot 
(cf. papa). See Huyu, and cf. follg. 
Hapale, a. pron. for hapa-pale, 
,ust there, at that very place. (Cf. 
'huyule, hivile, &c., and see Huyu, 

Hapana, verb-form, there is not 
there, there is none, no same as 
hakuna, katnna, but with pa, agree- 
ing with D 7, of place. Commonly 
as a simple negation, like hakuna, 
la, siyo. 

Hapo, a. pron. of reference, agree- 
ing with D 7, and like hapa com- 
monly used alone, but unlike hapa, 
of time as well as place, and also 
more generally of circumstances. 

Toka hapoi get out of that! go 
along ! //. kale, in the days of old, 
once upon a time, often at the begin- 
ning of a story. Tangu h., tokea h., 

from long ago, ever so long. Hapo, 

in that case, under the circumstances. 

//. mbali, that was a different case. 




Also papo hapo, just there, at that 
very place (time, crisis). (Cf. hapa, 
huyo, papa.} 

Hapo, verb-form, also Hayupo. 
he (she) is not here, same as huko, 
hamo, with locative -po for -ko, -mo. 
*Hara, v. have looseness of the 
bowels, suffer from frequent purging, 
have diarrhoea, &c. //. damn, have 
dysentery, pass blood with the stools. 
Datva ya kuhara (also, ya kuha- 
risha), an aperient medicine, a laxa- 
tive, a purge. Cs. har-isha, -ishwa. 
Chakula hiki chaniharisha, this food 

me diarrhoea. (Ar.) 
*Harabu, n. ( , and nta-\ one 
who is destructive, a spoiler, a ruffian, 
a vandal. ^hvarabit h. usiende 
tftrima, the Arab is a destroyer, so 
do not go to the mainland. A'azi 
mbai'it h. ya nzima, bad cocoanuts 
spoil the good ones. Also a. -harabu, 
destructive, violent. (Ar. Cf. 

haribu, uharabu.} 

radali, n. mustard. (Ar.) 
*Haraja, n. cost, expense, outlay, 
t. (Ar. Cf. harijia, and 
common syn. gharama.} 
"Haraka, n. haste, hurry, bustle, 
excitement, fun. Fanya h., mak<- 
Eiida kwa h., foe in a hurry. 
.-, haraka, haina baraka, hurry 
has no blessing. Also as adv., in 
a hurry, hastily, Hurriedly. (Ar. 
'1 for haste, syn. 
/. and for flurry, angaika, 

*Harakiha, v. Cs. and Hari- 
kiaha, cause haste (bustle, excitc- 
vc.). (Ar. Cf. haraka, ta- 
! syn. Aim isa.) 

utlaw, pirate, bri- 

, highway robber. (Ar. 

g. and syn. mtoro, pakacha, 

niiu. a. forbidden, \\\ 

. //., an illc- 
i bastard. (Ar. 

: cl.gombcM, 
' u, and c<>; 

*Harara, n. heat, warmth, (i) of 
the body, high temperature, inflam- 
mation, prickly heat, rash produced 
by heat. Arneshikwa na //., he is 
hot, feverish. Yitna h. ya mapaja 
kwa jua na nj't'a, he has a rash on 
the thighs from the heat and walking. 
(2) fig. hot temper, rashness, pre- 
cipitancy. //. ya rnoyo, moyo wa h., 
moyo h., a passionate disposition, 
quick temper. (Ar. Cf. hari, and 
syn. moto, wukitto.} 

*Hari, n. heat in general, and esp. 
perspiration, sweat. //. ya jua, the 
heat of the sun. Mwili wangit una 
A., my body is hot. Toka h. t perspire. 
H. zanitona, sweat drops off me. 
(Ar. Cf. harara, and syn. motojosho.^ 

*-haribifu, a. (haribifu with D 4 
(P), D 5 (S), D 6), destructive, 
wasteful, prodigal, doing harm, spoil- 
ing. Mharibifu wa ma/i, a spend- 
thrift. (Cf. haribu, harabu, nhar- 
abn, and syn. -potcvu, -bathirifn.') 

*Haribu. v. injure, destroy, 
damage, ruin, demoralize. //. MM*, 
spoil work. //. safari, break up* an 
expedition. //. inchi, devastate a 
country. //. mimba, cause mis- 
carriage. Jf. moyo, pervert, corrupt. 
Ps. haribiwa. Nt. haribi! 
several derived forms. Ajx harib- 
ikia, be ruined, in respect of, suffer 
loss of, and Ps. //.'/> /////:.,;, be the 
victim of violence, be robbed of every- 
thing, he uttd 

isha, -isAit'a, inflict ruin on. 
haribi kann, be liable to desn 
Ap. harib-ia, -t'wa, -tana. Cs. 
^hwa. (A 

angamiza, pottta.) 

incur o. 


;'l the more u^r 
ni, and cf. kifintn, /,/ 
Harimu, v. make illegal, 
A p. harimia, forbid to, 




wrong for, &c. Cs. harvn-nlia 
ishiva, often Intens. and so instead 
of the Tr. Jiarimu, declare illegal, 
according to Mahommedan law. 
Harimisha mtn kitu, interdict some 
one from something. Tnmeharinii- 
shwa kileo, we are forbidden intoxi- 
cants. n. (ma-), person or thing 
forbidden. Maharimu, persons 
within the prohibited degrees of con- 
sancminity and so forbidden to each 
other. (Ar. Cl.haramu,haramta, 
and for forbidding, gombeza, kataza, 
piga, mamfitku) 

*Hariri, n. silk. (Ar.) 

*Harisha, v. Cs. cause free ac- 
tion of the bowels, produce diarrhoea. 
(Ar. See Hara, and cf. syn. endesha 

^Harufu, n. (i) a letter (of the 
alphabet), a written character, figure. 
H za kiarabu, Arabic writing char- 
acters. (Ar. Ci.tarakimu) (a) 
Scent, smell, odour, of any kind, good 
or bad. (Cf. nuka, manukato, 

*Harusi, n. wedding, bee Arusi 
(Ar. the h representing Ai**\ < 

*Hasara, n. loss, damage, injury. 
Fata h., lose. Tia h., cause loss to. 
Lipa h., pay damages, repay, make 
amends. (Ar. Cf. hasiri, thara, 

*Hasha, int. certainly not, by no 
means, impossible, God forbid, 
a very emphatic negative. (Ar. 
Other negatives are la, sto, hakuna.} 

*Hasherati, n. profligacy, vice 
See Aslierati. (Ar.) 

Hasho, n. a piece of wood used 
as a patch, let in or fixed on, to 
close a hole, &c. 

*Hasi, v. castrate, geld. 
hasiwa. Also n. (ma-), a bullock, 
a gelding. (Ar. Cf. mhasi, mak 
saL and syn. taivasht) 

*Hasibu, v. also Hesabu, count, 
reckon up, calculate. (Ar. For 
derivatives, &c., see Hesabu.) 

*Hasidi, v. also Husudu, envy, 
grudge, be jealous of. Unamhasidi 

ngito zake, you envy him his clothes. 
(For derivatives, &c., see Husudu.) 
n. (i) envy, jealousy, spite ; (a) 
an envious, spiteful person, and in 
general, enemy, foe. Tukaona huyu 
ndiye hasidi, and we see that he was 
indeed our enemy. (Ar. Cf. uha- 
sidi, uhusuda, and syn. B. uivivu.) 

*Hasimu, n. antagonist, rival, op- 
ponent. (Arab. Cf. husuma for 
common adui, and cf. mdai, mtesi, 

*Hasira, n. anger, wrath, passi 
Kuwa na h., to be angry. Kutta 
h., to enrage. Used with many verbs, 
e. g. fanya, ona, piga, shikwa na, 
ingia, ingiwa, patwa na, &c. (The 
common word in Z. Cf. kannkOj 
and syn. ghathabu, uchungu, chuki. 
Dist. follg.) 

*Hasiri, v. injure, damage, hurt, 
inflict loss on. Paka anahasiri 
watu, the cat is doing injury to 
people. Mbau zimemhasirt, 
planks have been a loss to him. 
Ps. hasiriwa. Nt. hasirika. Ap. 
hasir-ia, -iwa. Cs. hasir-tsha, 

-ishiua, and Intens. injure. Rp. 
hasiriana. (Ar. Cf. hasara, and 
syn. thara, shari. Dist. hasira, 

a "*Hassa,adv. alsoHaswa, exactly, 

wholly, completely, very much. 

(Ar. Cf. halisi, barabba, kabisa, 


*Hatamu, n. bridle, i. e. ugwe wa 

mdomoni, the mouth strap, to guide 

or fasten an animal with. 

The bit is lijamu.) 

*Hatari, n. danger, peril, risk, 

jeopardy, ffatari k-wenda, it is dan- 
gerous to go. Jitia hatarim, run 
a risk, imperil oneself. _ (Cf. ha*ir- 
isha, and dist. hathan. Cf. ma- 

*Hathari f v. exercise care, be 
cautious, act with prudence. Ha- 
thari kwa adui, be on guard against 
I (be on the look-out for) an enemy. 
khathari is a common cry of warn- 
ing, Mind yourself ! Lookout! Take 




care ! like bismilla. n. caution, 
care, prudence. Common in such 
phrases as kuu'a na A., to be on one's 
guard ; kutia h., to put on one's 
k r uard, to caution. A\so fanya h., 
jipasha h., pata h. (Ar. Cf. syn. 
angalia,jilinda, ku-<va macho?) 

*Hati, n. written note, memoran- 
dum, document, certificate, writing, 
esp. of an official or formal kind, 
e. g. andikia hati t emancipate, write 
a freedom-paper for. (Ar. Cf. 
:, a news letter, of ordinary 
correspondence, and barua, cheti,} 

Hatia, n. See Hatiya, and Atia, 

*Hatibu, n. (ma-}, a preacher. 
H. anapanda ndani ya mimbara 
apate kuhutubu, the preacher is 
mounting the pulpit to give his ad- 
dress. (Ar. Cf. hutubu, hotuba.} 

"Ilatima, n. end, conclusion. 

Akakaa raha hatta hatima, and he 

nppily to the day of his death. 

Iltitimaye, for hatima yake, used as 

adv., finally. adv. fiAally, at 

: the end, and somf 

prep, after, e. g. hatima kit/a 
after his death. (Ar. Cf. hitima, 
hitirnu, and syn. I>. mwisho^kikomo.'] 
Hatirisba, v. Cs. put in danger, 
endanger, risk, imperil. Amehatir- 
isha mali katika chombo, he has 
' >ods on a dhow. Ps. 

halirishtua. Rf. jihatirisha, risk 
oneself, i.e. jitia hatarini. (Ar. 
Cf. hatari) 

*Hatiya, n. and Halt*, (i) fault, 
transgression, crime, sin; (a) guilt, 
blame, culpability. 7 
find fault with, accuse. 

'-.a (mfu) may mean either to 
>ne a wrong to, or, to have a 
charge against. (Ar. Cf. thambi, 

Hatta, (i) prep, until, up to, 
as, as much as, in 
t , degree, or con< 
Toka ha pa> 

:i as sub it hi h. jwni, 

moja, I will not give him as much as 

one (even one). Often with kidogo, 
after a negative, i. e. not in the least, 
not even a little, not at all. 
without kidogo, but in same sense, 
habari hii si kweli hatta, this report 
is not true at all. Sometimes even 
with negative only implied, e. g. 
Awehvenda . ? hatta, Has he gone 1 
Not he. (2) conj. (a) connective, 
so, then, next, often merely tran- 
sitional and not requiring translation, 
h. assubuhi, so in the morning. 
H. siku mo/a, one day, once upon a 
time, (b) subordinative, so as to, 
even if, though. Ntafanza akili 
gani, h. tugawe sawasaiva ? What 
plan shall I follow, so that we may 
divide equally? H. aje na nikuki, 
usikubali, even if he come with a 
spear, do not consent. (3) adv. //. 
' will even beat him, 
I will o so far as to beat him. Ba- 
hati yako h. nimekuja, Thanks to 
your good luck, I have even come, 
I am positively here. (Ar.) 

Ilatu. verb-form, we are not, 
Negat. Pfx. with Pfit, of i Pers. P. 
See Ha-, and Tu. 

*Hatua, n. step, pace, in walking, 
also footstep, mark left by the foot. 
Z-wa h., measure by paces. 
I'uta h. hapa na hapa, go a step 
in either direction. Safari h., a jour- 
ney on foot. //. mbili mbele, two 
steps to the front. (Ar. Cf. 

Hau, verb-form, it is not, Negat. 
Pfx., and Pfx. agreeing with D a (S), 
and D 4 (S). See Ha-, and TJ. 

Hauna, \- is not (does 

-t), it has not, Neg.v 
and Pfx. agn D a (S), D4 

(S), and na (which see). 

Negat. Pfx. and Pfx. agreeing with 
Da(P). See Ha-. 

Havina, fi hey are not, 

they have not, Negat. Pfx. and Pfx. 
.; with Da P), and na 

Haw a, n. (i) lor 
strong inclination, lust, passion. 


Hiiytt ytina h. ya moyo, this man 
is deeply in love. Usifanye h. nafsi, 
do not show bias, do not be partial. 
(Ar., withjyrt final. Cf. syn. shauko, 
habba, mapenzi, itgoa, tamaa, roho, 
maelekeo, uchu.} (2) Air, the air. 
//. ya kulc tizurt sana, the air there 
is delightful. Badili //., take a 
change of air. (Ar., with alif final. 
Cf. anga, upepo, baridi, tabia, cli- 
mate. Hawa is also sometimes 
written heiva, the first a having a 
light sound like a short e. Cf. alfu, 
effu, mzvalimu, elirnu, &c., and e.} 
(3) Eve, the first woman. (Ar., 
not the same h as (i) and (2). (4) 
See follg. 

Hawa, pron. these, plur. of huyu, 
agreeing with D I (P). 

Hawa, verb-form, they are not, 
Negat. Pfx. with Pfx. agreeing with 
D i (P). 

*Hawa, Hawaa, Hawai, n. also 
Hawara, a paramour, a woman 
living with a man who .is not her 
husband. (Cf. suria, kinyumba, 
mivandani, kahaba.} 

*Hawala, n. also Awala, money 
order, cheque, draft, bill of exchange. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. hundi, hati.} 

Hawana, verb-form, they are not 
(do not exist), they have not, Negat. 
Pfx. and Pfx. agreeing with D I (P), 
and na (which see). 

Hawezi, n. 3 Sing. Prcs. Indie 
Negat. of weza, he is unable, he has 
not strength, he is sick. So com- 
monly applied to the condition o 
sickness, as to be sometimes used as 
an indeclinable adj., sick, ill, e.g. 
nalikuwa hawezi, for siwezi, 1 was 
ill. Walikuta watti wengi hawezi 
they found many people sick. Anc 
even as verb, e. g. amehawezi, he ha 
become sick, he is ill. See Weza 
. and Siwezi. 

Hawi, v. 3 Pers. Sing. Pres. Indie 
Negat. of -wo, (kuwd], he is not 
he does not exist. See -wa. 

*Hawili, v. (i) change, transfer 
//. chombo, change ship, trans-ship 

06 HAZI 

Ts. hawil-isha, -ishiva. (2) Give se- 
urity for, guarantee, undertake re- 
ponsibility for. H. deni, become 
esponsible for a debt. (Ar. Cf. 
hawala, and syn. (i) badili, (2) 

*Haya, n. (i) shame, modesty, 
>ashfulness, shamefacedness ; (a) 
cause of shame, disgrace ; (3) hu- 
mility, respect, reverence. Tia h., 
make ashamed. Fatty a (pna) A., feel 
shame, be shy. liana h., he is a 
shameless (impudent, brazen) person. 
'Ar. Cf. syn. aibu t fetheha t tahayari. 
Dist. follg.) 

Haya, (i) int. as call to action or 
effort, come on ! now then ! work 
away ! step out ! make haste ! &c. ; 
(2) a. these, plur. of huyu, agreeing 

with D 5 (P) ; (3) verb-form, they 

, Negat. Pfx. 
ing with D 5 (P). 

are not, Negat. Pfx. and Pfx. agree- 

Hayale, a. for haya-yah, those 
very (things), agreeing with D 5 (P). 
(Cf. huyule, huyii,yule.} 

*Hayamkini, v. it is impossible. 
See Yamkini. (Ar.) 

Hayana, verb-form, they are not 
(do not exist), they have not, Negat. 
Pfx. and Pfx. agreeing with D 5 (P), 
and na (which see). 

*Hayawani, n. a brute, a beast, 
like a brute, and so of persons, fool, 
idiot, brute. (Ar. Cf. tihayawani, 
and syn. mjinga, mpumbafu.} 

*Hayi, a. alive, living. See Hai. 

Hayo, a. of reference, agreeing 
with D 5 (P), those referred to, those 
yonder, those. (Cf. kuyo.) 

Hayuko, verb-form, he (she) is 
not there, Negat. Pfx., Pfx. yu 
agreeing with D i (S), and locative 
Pfx. -ko. (Cf. ha-, -ko.) 

*Hazama, n. also Azama, or 
Athama, nose-ornament, pendant. 

*Hazamu, n. (ma-}, girdle. Com- 
monly in the plur. (Ar. Cf. ma- 
hazamu, mshipi, masombo.} 

Hazi, verb-form, they are not, 




Pfx., with Pfx. agreeing with 
D 4 (P), D 6. (Cf. ha-.} 

"Hazina, n. treasure, deposit of 
money, exchequer, privy purse, ff. 
ya mali, nyumba ya h., treasury. 
Cf. dafina, mali, akiba.} 

Hazina. verb-form, they are not 
(do not exist), they have not, Negat. 
ith Pfx. agreeing with D 4 (P), 
D 6, and na (which see). 

*Hebbu, v. like, be pleased with, 
take a fancy to. Baba aliuhebbu 
unyoya ule, his father took a fancy 
to that feather. Ap. hebb-ia, -iwa. 
(Arab, seldom used. Ct.habba,hiba.} 

*Hedaya, n. gift, present, usually 
of something rare, costly, or wonder- 
ful. Kitu cha h., a costly thing. 
(Arab. Cf. atta, zawadi, bakshishi, 
tttnu, &c.) 

*Hekalu, n. (ma-}, a large build- 
ing, a palace, a temple, the temple 
at Jerusalem. (Ar. Cf. syn. B. 

*Hekima, n. wisdom, knowledge, 
judgement. (Ar. Cf. hakimu, hu- 
and syn. elimu, busara, akili, 

*Hekiraiza, v. Cs. cause to know, 
give instructions to, inform, direct. 
Amttuhekimiza tukutunzt, he di- 
rected ns to take care of yon. Ps. 
hckimizu'a. (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

*Heraa, n. ( , and wa-), a tent. 
Piga (simikisha) h., pitch a tent. 

*Hemdi, n. also Hiraidi, praise, 
esp. in ascription to God. (Ar. 
Cf. hamdu, follg. and syn. si/a.) 

Hemidi, v. and Himidi, praise. 
Ps. htmitfiwa. (Ar. Cf. hamdu, 
and syn. si/u.} 

*Henza, n. halyard, the thick 
v which the heavy yard and 
sail of a native vessel is hoisted. It 
passes over a sheave at the masthead, 
and carries a doable or treble pulley 
( Sofia} connected with another (abe- 
mailer rope 
ccessary pur- 
chase. (Cf. tango.) 

*Henzarani, n. a cane, canework. 

*Heri, n. happiness, blessedness, 
good fortune, luck, success, advan- 
tage. //. yako ni yetu, your happi- 
ness is ours. Mtu wa A., a fortunate 
(happy, enviable) man. Kitjaliwa 
h. , to be granted good fortune. Kufu- 
nuliwa h., to make a lucky guess, 
hit on a happy idea. Common in 
formula of leave-taking, kwa heri, 
good-bye, or ku>a heri ya kuonana, 
good-bye till we meet again. Also 
he.ri, it is well, it is best (like afa- 
thali), e. g. heri uendc, you had 
better go. (Af\ Cf. subalkhcri, 
masalkheri, in which the kh is more 
distinctly heard as a guttural.) 

Hero, n. a small wooden dish, 
sometimes on legs, used for serving 
food on. (Cf. chungtt.} 

*Hesabu, v. also Haaibu, Hi- 
sabu, count, calculate, reckon up. 
Ps. hesabiwa. Nt. hesabika. Flazi- 
hesabiki, they are not counted, or, 
they are not to be counted, i.e. worth- 
less, or, they are past counting, i. e. 
numberless. Ap. htsab-ia, reckon 
with (to the credit of, against, &c.). 
Rp. hesabiana, settle accounts to- 
gether. Cs. hesab-isha> -ishwa, 
e.g. ntahesabisha, I will h. 
account taken. n. (i) reckon- 
ing, calculation, enumeration ; (a) a 
bill, an account (of money, measure, 
value); (3) tlu- art of counting, 
numeration, arithmetic. Chtto cha 
A., an account book, like a 
Toa A., give an account. Andika, 

h., put down to an a 
/titty,! h. , reckon up, calculate. Taka 
h., demand an at count. (Al 
idtuii, ftima, kadiri.} 

Heshima, n often Hoshima, 
(i) as a quality or condition, 

tion, rank; (a) the cor- 
m others, respect^ 
^y ; (3) as 
shown in act, a pres< 
ledgcmcnt, fee. Ilann 

is disrespectful. 
Wekea (wekeana} h., treat (each 




other) with honour. H. kwake tele, 
he is full of due consideration for 
people. (Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. 
(i) utukufu, daraja, cheo\ (2) hofu, 
adabu ; (3) bakshishi, &c.) 

*Hefihimu, v. honour, pay respect 
to, treat with courtesy, give a present 
to. Ps. heshimiwa. Ap. he- 
shim-ia, -iana. (Ar. Cf. tukuza, 
jali, stahi, hashitmi.} 

*Hessi, n. ( , and ma-}, a screw. 
Also msomari wa hessi. (Ct.para- 
fujo, msomari?) 

*Hethi, n. menses, menstruation, 
more commonly niwezi or damn, 
Kuwa na h., to menstruate, also 
ingia mwezini (damuni). (Ar.) 

Hi-, as first syllable of a verb- 
form, is (if not part of the root) a 
contraction for niki-, i.e. Pfx. of 
I Pers. Sing, of the Pres. Partic., 
e.g. hipenda, for nikipenda. (Cf. 
ha for nika, and see Ki.) 

Hiana, a. sometimes -hiana, (i) 
tough, hard, strong. Mti huu ni h., 
or una h., this wood is hard. (2) 
Hard, unyielding, domineering, op- 
pressive, arrogant. (Cf. uhiana, and 
syn. -gumu.) n. (i) hardness; 
(2) oppression. Mtu hamfanyi mwe- 
nziwe h., a man is not hard upon his 
friend. (Hiana, uhiana, is also 
sometimes used as a variant of haini 
treacherous, deceitful.) 

*Hiari, n. and Hiyari, choice 
option, power of deciding, control 
Hiari yako, just as you like. Kichiva 
changu h. yako, my life (head) is in 
your hands, you may kill me if you 
like. Killa mtu ana h. katika ny 
umba yake, every man is master in 
his own house. Kazi ya h., voluntary 
labour. v. choose, prefer. Waa 
nake wakahiyari kukabili risasizetu 
the women deliberately faced ou 
bullets. (Ar. Cf. ihtiari, and syn 
chagtia, fanya kiva moyo.} 

*Hiba, n. gift, present, keepsake 
souvenir, given as sign of affection 
hence also bequest, legacy. (Ar 
Cf. habba, muhebbi, hebbu, and fo 

present' generally bakshishi, ada, 
aivadi, &c.) 

Hicho, a. of reference, that, that 
onder, agreeing with D 3 (S). 
Cf. huyo and -0.) 

*Hidima, n. also Huduma, ser- 
ice, employment, ministration. M- 
ungu atia watu katika h. yake, this 
white man takes people into his 
ervice. (Ar. Cf. hudumu, mha- 
dimu, and syn. ututnwa, utumishi, 

*Hifathi, v. sometimes Haflthi, 
preserve, keep, protect, save. Muu- 
igu amhifathi, may God keep him. 
Ps. hifathiwa. Nt. hifathika. Ap. 
hifath-ia, -iana. Cs. hifath-isha, 
-ishwa. (Ar. Cf. linda, tunza, 
pony a, okoa, &c.) 

Hii, a. dem. this, there, agree- 
ing with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). (Cf. 
Auyu.) Also hiile (of emphasis, 
i. e. hii-ile), that (those) very. (Cf. 

*Hikaya, n. and Hekaya, story, 
anecdote, remarkable incident. Nna 
h., I have something to tell you. 
Tumeona h. leo, we have seen a 
strange thing to-day. (Ar. Cf. 
kisa, ngano, hadithi, habari.} 

Hiki, a. dem. this, agreeing with 
D 3 (S). Also hikile (of emphasis, 
i. e. hilt Hie), that very. (Cf. huyu, 

*Hila, n. device, trick, stratagem, 
craft, cunning, deceit. Fanya h., use 
cunning, try to circumvent. Mtu wa 
h.,a. wily, sly man. (Ar. Cf. ha- 
daa, madanganya, iverevu, ujanja.} 

Hili, a. dem. this, agreeing with 
D 5 (S). Also hilile (of emphasis, 
i. e. hili Hie), this very. (Cf. huyu, 
huyule.') Similarly hilo, of reference, 
that, that yonder. (Cf. huyo, -o.} 

Hima, adv. quick, quickly, hastily, 
in a hurry. Fanya h., make haste. 
Twende h. , let us go quickly. Hi ma ! 
himal quick! quick! (CLhimtza, 
hamu, and syn. upesi, haraka, mbio.} 

*Himidi, v. praise, extol, magnify, 
esp. of praise to God. Ps. himi- 




n. praise. (Ar. Cf. 
hamdu, hemdi, and syn. sifu+sifa.} 

*Himila, n. (i) load, burden ; (2) 
pregnancy. Mke wangu ana A., 
amechtikua mimba, my wife is with 
child, she has conceived. (Ar. for 
the commoner (i) mzigo, (2) mimba. 
Cf. follg.) 

*Himili, v. (i) bear, support, 
carry, take away; (2) bear, endure, 
accept, be equal to ; (3) be pregnant. 
tiuhusa kuhimili mizigo, leave to 
carry the loads. Himilijtia, endure 
the heat of the sun. Ps. hi mi I iwa. 
Nt. himilika. Ap. himil-ia, -iwa, 
-iana. Cs. himil-isha, -ishwa. 
(Ar. Cf. himila, hamali, stahimili, 
and syn. chukua, vumilia, kuwa na 

Himiza, v. Cs. hasten, hurry, cause 
to be done (to go) quickly. Himiza 
watu kazi, make men work quickly. 
Himiza chakula, hurry on a meal. 
Ps. himiz'va. Ap. himiz-ia, -iwa. 
Rp. himizana. (Cf. hima, and 
syn. kimlnza, endesha, harakisha.} 

Hina, n. henna, prepared from the 
plant nthina, a very favourite red 

*Hindi, n. (nta-\ (i) a single 
grain of Indian corn, a seed of the 
plant niuhitnii, which see ; (2) India, 
also Ulaya Hindi, Uhindi. (Dist. 

//, a Hindoo.) 

*Hini, v. refuse to give (to), with- 
hold (from), keep back (from 
nihim ' fctlm y<in^u, he has k( 
;iey. J/atanihini ,ug<i: 
: refuse me medicine. Jihini 
chakula, deny oneself food. I'- 
. Ap. hin~ 

a, -tana. Cs. hin-isha, 

Ji hints ha, practise self- 
Cf. syn. nyinia, 

n. ( , and wa-), (i) 

age, period of life, and esp. of youth, 

he same 

ontcmporn: i na h. 

: people of the same age. 
Mahirimu yake ya kijana, t: 


panions of his youth. (Ar. Cf. 

*Hirizi, n. charm, amulet, i.e. 
nganga wa kuvaa mwih'ni, uvaliwao y 
medicine worn on the person, which 
is put on, round the neck or at the 
side. Often a small leather case, 
containing a sentence from the Coran. 
(Ar. Cf. itganga, dawa, talasimu.} 

*Hisa, n. (i) part, portion, share 
(cf.fungu, sehemu} ; (2) ? indulgence, 
permission, pardon. (Ar.) 

*Hisani, n. kindness, favour, good- 
ness. Kiva h. yako, by your kind- 
ness. (Ar. Cf. ahsante, and syn. 
fat hi H, we ma.} 

*Hitaji, y. need, require, be in 
need of, lack, want, feel want of, 
desire. Nahitaji chakula, I need 
food. Often impersonal, e.g. yahi- 
'taji mashahidi wawe watu wa kweli, 
witnesses need to be truthful. Yahi- 
taji ult sana, you should eat heartily. 
Sometimes ' be wanting, be wanted,' 
e.g. vitu vitiavyohitaji katika ma- 
zishi, requisites for burial. Ps. 
hitajiwa. Nt. hitajika. Ap. 
hitajia, like hitaji, e.g. ahitajia 
kitpigwa, he wants a beating. Ahi- 
tajia kuwapo hafa, he needs must 
be here. Rp. hitajiana. n. 
(ma-}, need, want, petition. (Ar. 
Cf. haj'a, rnhitaji, and syn. taka.) 

*Hitari, v. choose, select, prefer. 
Ps./; ita riiva . A'a la m u iliyoh ; .' 
a choice, selected pen. Cs. hitar- 
isha, -ishwa, e. g. cause to choose, 
give choice (of). (Ar. Cf. follg., 

*Hitiari, n. also Ihti 
selection, preference. //. yako, as 
you like, i. e. nptndaiyo. Nnthari 
ion and 
lie with 

.'Van, nathari.} 

Hitilafu, "n. aUo Ihtilafu, (i) 
e, something "lit of 
I. of special interest, critical) j 
(a) defect, 1>1< <? ntoja 

wain hafiana /;., their design 
same and there is no difference. A ka - 


ona h. kidogo, he noticed a sma 
variation. (3) Difference, discon 
variance, quarrel, quarrelsomencss,- 
of persons. Also of musical sound 
Hana h., there is nothing wron 
about him, he does not give troubL 
cause discord. v. be differen 
make a difference. Sometimes im 
pers. imehitilafu, there is a diffe 
ence. Rp. hitilafiana, be differen 
distinct from each other, e. g. lugh 
hizi ziwehitilafiana, these language 
(Swahili and Arabic) are quite dis 
tinct. (Ar. Cf. tafauti, mbah 
moatt, achana.) 

*Hitima, n. a Mahommedan ser 
vice, or office, in conclusion of som 
event, i. e. a reading of certain por 
tions of the Goran, esp. (i) a funera 
service ; (2) service at a housewarm 
m g; (3) a feast given at such a 
ceremony, e. g. siku ya tatu hufanya 
h.,yaani hupika wait, after three day 
(of mourning, matanga) a feast i 
made, i.e. rice is cooked. Kusonu 
h. katika kaburi, to hold a service a 
a grave. (Ar. Cf. hitimn, hati 
ma, and for other services, buruda 

*Hitimu, v, finish, end, come to 
an end, be completed. Most common 
in the special sense, ' finish education 
complete a course of reading or in- 
struction, end an apprenticeship, be- 
come a qualified teacher or workman/ 
equivalent to ' pass, take a degree, be 
out of time.' Mwalimu amehitimisha 
chuo mtoto, naye mtoto amehitimu, 
the teacher has taken his pupil 
through the whole course of reading, 
and the pupil has passed. Ap. 
Wtm-M, -iwa. Cs. hitim-isha, 
-ishwa. Kulihitimisha jambo letu, 
to complete our business. (Ar. 
Cf. hitima, hatinia, and in general 
syn. isha, maliza, timiza, kamilisha.} 
Hivi, a. dem. these, agreeing with 
D 3 (P). Also commonly as adv., 
thus, in this manner, accordingly, so. 
Sasa hivi, at this very moment, im- 
mediately, on the spot. Leo him, 



this very day. Also hivile, for 
emphasis, i.e. hivi vile, those very 

Hivyo, a. dem. of reference, those, 
those yonder. Also adv., in that 
manner, in the manner described, so. 
Often vivyo hivyo, just so, exactly so. 
(Cf. huyo, -vyo.} 

Hiyana, Hiyari. See Hiana, 

Hiyo, a. dem. of reference, that 
(those), that (those) yonder, agree- 
ing with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). (Cf. 
huyo, -o.} 

*Hizi, v. disgrace, put to shame, 
dishonour, insult, inflict punishment 
on. Mtoto amemhizi babaye, the 
child has disgraced his father. Ps. 
hiziwa. Nt. hizika. Ap. hiz-ia 
-iwa. (Ar. Cf. syn. aibisha, 
fethehesha, tahayarisha, tweza.} 

Hizi, a. dem. these, agreeing with 
D 4 (P), D 6 (P). Siku hizi, some 
days ago, lately, modern times, now- 
adays. Also zizi hizi, just these, 
these very. Also hizile, for emphasis, 
i. e. hizi zile, those very. Hizo, as 
the form of reference, those, those 
yonder. (Cf. huyu, huyo.') 

*Hodari,a. (i) strong, firm, stable, 
solid ; (2) active, energetic, brave, 
earnest, strong-willed. Used of 
strength generally, in substance, 
construction, character, 8cc. Boriti 
h., strong poles. Ukuta h., a solid 
wall. Mtu h. wa kazi (wa vita, wa 
naneno}, an effective, able mechanic 
soldier, orator). (Perh. Hind. 
Cf. thabiti, and syn. B. -a nguvu, 
gumu. Contr. thaifu.} 

*Hodi, n. used in Z. invariably 
and only as a polite inquiry before 
ntering a private house or room, 
May I come in?' and, unless an 
nswer is given, usually the same 
ford or karibu, come in, good 
manners forbid entry. (Prob. a word 
ntroduced by Arabs from Muscat, 
neaning ' safety, well-being,' and so 
quivalent to ivokovu, salamu. Hence 
s an interrogative, Is all well? all 




well? and the answer, ' all well,' by 
the same word, or by karibu, which 

*Hofu, n. (i) fear, apprehension, 

2) cause of fear, danger. 

na h., to be afraid. Fanya 

na, ingia, ingiwa, patiya na, 

: na) h., be frightened, be 

seized with fear. Sometimes also 

adj. -to/it, timid, fearful. v. feel 

fear, be afraid of. Ps. hofiwa. 

Nt. hofika. Ap. hofia, fear for 

(about, in, &c.). Cs. hof-isha, 

-ishwa, terrify, frighten. (Ar. 

Cf. a/a, mu'a/a, and common syn. B. 

ogopa, oga, kitisho, uchaji, -cha.} 

*Hogo, n. (ma-), a very large root 
of cassava. See Muhogo. 

*Hohe bahe, n. a solitary, destitute, 
outcast person or state. Cf. such 
phrases as maskini (Jukara) hohe 
hahe, utterly poor and destitute. 
Ni hohe hahe /, he is quite forlorn. 
*Hoho. rilipili hoho, red pepper, 
. from pilipili manga, black 
pepper. Alkatewa /*., a cake favoured 
with pepper. 

necessity; (2) what is urgent or 
-mess, concern; (3) ur- 
gent request, argument, logical de- 
monst: a h. ya, on account 

of, for the sake of. A wa h. yangu, 
at my need, at my earnest request, 
also, on my account, for my sake. 
J/aknna h., there is no objection. 
Jambo hili Una h. nyingi, this is a 
very troublesome affair. //. ya 

tuishe h. hit mimi mi-cc, let us even 
up this matter together, yon 
:. haja, and follg. 
Also hitaji.) 

*Hoji, v. and Huji, give- 
to, apply pressure to, urge, annoy, 
cross - 

ply with arguments. S<> 
knsfrnd neno alilo unfa, he 

, till the man said whnt he 
Ap. hoj'ia. 

-nua. Rp. hojiana. (Ar. Cf. 
hoj'a, haja, and hitaji. Also syn. 
dadisi, u/iza, /aftt/a, sitrnbua, lemeaS) 

*Homa, n. fever, esp. of malarial 
or ague-fever, described as marathi 
ya baridi, or ya baridi, or ya kitapo 
cha baridi, i.e. the chilly or shiver- 
ing sickness. Shikwa na honia, have 
an attack of fever. Jfotna ya vipindi, 
intermittent fever. (Ar. Of. ki- 
dingapopo, dengue fever, mkunguru.} 

Honga, v. make a payment, not 
as of debt, but to secure an end, 
hence bribe, pay toll, pay one's 
way, pay a footing. Mhongc ndio 
mpafe kujenga, give him a present, 
and so get leave to build. Ap. 
hongta, pay for, secure an end, 
advance a stage, get past a crisis, 
be acquitted, get cleared of a charge. 
Thus fig. of a woman after childbirth. 
Leo nimehongea (or, fwngeld], 1 was 
delivered to-day. Also of a stage of 
recovery after circumcision. Cs. 
hong-eza, -czwa, (i) cause to pay 
toll, blackmail ; (2) cause (help, 
allow) to advance a stage, or, to se- 
cure an end, e.g. procure acquittal. 
Kiapo kinihongczt, may the ordeal 
be favourable to me, let me 
Also of congratulations after some 
event or crisis, e. g. after a journey, 
child birth, &< itlri nk />//<//, 

huja watu knmhongcza, when a man 
returns from a journey, people come 
to congratulate him. Akam 
mtoto wake kuzaa, he congratulated 
on her safe delivery. 
(Cf. hongo. These words seem little 
used in Z., being appropriate to 
>d usages and ideas 
rf. rusnwa, mlitr. 
uptnye: : >r congmf. 

pukusa, -pa mkono, 

u'O, n. toll, tribute, 
mail, used of customary presents 

to native chiefs for leave to 
pass through the country. (Cf. 

and for presents g< 




*Hori, n. (i) creek, inlet, gul 
arm of the sea. (Ar. Cf. gubba 
(2) (ma-}, a kind of canoe, wit 
raised stem and stern, usually from 
India, and employed on the cree 
at Z. 

*Horji, n. a thickly padded quil 
used as a saddle for donkeys. (A 
Cf. seruji.} 

*Hotuba, n. See Hutuba. 
Hu, verb-form, you are not, 
Negat. Pfx. combined with Pfx. o 
2 Pers. Sing, .i.e. ha-u, e.g. hi 
mrefu, you are not tall. (Cf 
/ia-, u.~) 

Hu-, (i) verbal pfx. denoting ens 
tomary or repeated action, withou 
distinction of tense, person, or num 
ber. Huenda, my (your, his, her 
its, our, their) custom (habit, prac 
tice, usual plan) is (was, has been 
will be, &c.) to go. In narrative 
often followed by -ka-, hufikia pah 
uwanjani akalala, he would arrive 
in the courtyard and go to sleep 
Sometimes cynically, vita huja, wari 
will happen, (a) Negat. Pfx. oi 
2 Pers. Sing., e.g. huendi, you do 
not go. (3) A formative element in 
several pronominal ad vs. and ad is 
See Huku. 

Hua, n. a dove. (Cf. pugi, 
ninga, njiwa.} 

*Hubba, n. affection, desire. See 
Habba. (Ar.) 

*Hubiri, v. give information (to, 
about), inform, bringnews(to, about), 
announce, report, relate. Roho yake 
ikamhtibiri kuwa ndiye mmda, his 
heart told him that was the wild 
beast. H. an/Hi, preach the Gospel. 
Ps. hubiriwa. Ap. htibir-ia, - iwa. 

Cs. hubir-isha, -ishwa. n. 

(/-). that whj ch is related, report,' 
announcement, &c. (Ar. Cf. 

habari, cf. syn. arifu, sumulia, 

*Huduma, n. also Hudumu, 
Hidima, service, attendance, wait- 
ing on a person, ministration. (Ar. 
Cf. follg.) 

*Hudumu, v. serve, wait (on), 
attend (on). Mmhudumu kwa 
uzuri, see that you wait on him 
properly,. Ps. htidumiwa. Nt. 
hudnmika. Ap. hudum-ia, -iwa, 
serve, be in attendance upon, serve 
for (at, with, &c.). Cs. hudum- 

ts/ia, -ishwa. (Ar. Cf. hiiduma, 
mhadimu, uhadinm, and syn. tu- 
mikia, ngojea, andikia^) 

Huenda, used as adv., sometimes 
Hwenda, it happens, sometimes, 
at times, and so ' possibly, perhaps, 
it may be, there is a chance.' (Enda 
with pfx. hn- of customary or re- 
peated action. Cf. syn. kwenda, 
huwa t labuda, yamkini.} 

*Hui, v. become alive, revive, rise 
from the dead. Ps. huiwa. Nt. 
huika. Ame huiwa na Mitungu, 
naye amehuika, he was restored to 
ife by God, so he revived. Cs. 
hui-sha, -shwa, restore to life, re- 
suscitate, save, keep alive. Hui is 
also used in this act. sense. (Ar. 
Cf. hai, andfufua, amka, is/ii.} 

*Hvija, Huji. See Hoja, Hoji. 
But dist. huj'a, and huji, as parts of 
he verb -ja, come. See Hu-.) 

Hujambo, v. are you well ? you 
.re well. The commonest form of 
alutation in Z. Often jambo only, 
ee Jambo. 

Huko, adv. dem. of general refer- 
nce, in that case referred to, with 
lose circumstances in view, in con- 
exion with that environment, but 
ommonly of place and time, * from 
:o, at, in, &c.) that place (or, time), 
here, thither, thence, then, &c.' h. 
a h. y hither and thither, here and 
lere. H. uendako, where you are 
oing to, your destination. H. uto- 
ako, where you come from, yonr 
arting-point. H. nyuma, (i) yon- 
er in the rear; (a) meanwhile. 
'uko htiko, just yonder, just there, 
nder those precise circumstances. 
luko is also used to suggest the 
orld beyond, the other world, the 
orld of spirits. (Huko includes 




three formative elements, //;/, ku, 
and ~o, for which see Huku, and -o. 
For similar adv. with meanings often 
hardly distinguishable cf. humo, 
hapo, kule, pale?) verb-form, 
you are not there, Negat. Pfx. of 
2 Pers. Sing., with -ko (see Huko, 
with which it is sometimes used, 
e, g. huko huko, you are not there). 

Huku, ( i ) adj. dem. this, agreeing 
with D 8, e. g. kufa huku kuzuri, 
this (mode of) dying is admirable, or 
with a locative form in ~ni, from, to, 
e. g. nyitmbani huku, to (from) this 
house. (2) adv. usually of place, 
here, near, in this place, but also of 
environment generally. H. kuzuri, 
it is pleasant here (in our present 
circumstances). //. no, A., this way 
and that, hither and thither. Kuku 

.;st here. (ffu~ is a demon- 
strative prefix, in huyu, huu, huku, 

and the corresponding forms 
ending in -o, agreeing with D I (S), 
D 2 (S), D 8, and local, in -/, 
the h alone being the characteristic 
demonstrative element throughout, 
as / is of other demonstratives. See 

Huku-, at the beginning of a verb- 
form may be (i) hu of customary 
action with ku, Pfx. of 2 Pers. Sing, 
objective, e.g. hukupenda, there i-. 
a general liking for you ; (2) hu the 
Negat Pfx. of 2 Pers. Sing, with ku 
of general reference, e. g. hu/ 
you do 'not like the place (circum- 
stances); (3) hu, Negat. Pfx. as in 
(a), with ku, sign of Negat Past 
Tense, e. g. hukupfttda, yon did not 

*Hukumu, v. give an official (or, 

pronouncement (on), 

e, pass sentence (on), 

o authority (orer), l>- 

Regularly used of the characteristic 

>f a supreme power, or judge, 

: ice of other formal decisions, 

orders, auawe, to be put to death, 

ho passed sentence of death upon 

him. So of other verdicts, apigwe, 
afungwe, alipe, auzwe, &c., or ku- 
pigwa, &c. Ps. hukumiwa. Ap. 
hukitm-ia, -iwa, give judgement, &c. 
on (for, at, &c.). Cs. hukum-iza, 
-izwa, n. judgement, (i) (in 
general), jurisdiction, authority, su- 
preme power; (2) legal process, 
trial ; (3) sentence, verdict, decision, 
order. Mwenyi hukitmu, the 

supreme ruler, sovereign. Peleka 
hukuimtni, send for trial, cause to 
be tried in a law court, or before 
a chief. Anasikia hukunni yako, he 
obeys your order. Hukumuya kufa, 
capital sentence. (Ar. Cf. hakimu, 
hekima, also syn. amua, and for 
ruling, tawala, amuru?) 

*Huluku, v. create, usually of 
original creation, by act of God. 
Ps. hulukiwa, be created, be a crea- 
ture (created being). Ap. huluk-ia, 
(Ar. Cf. mhuluku, and 
syn. H. MBtv.) 

Humo, (i) adv. dem. of reference to 
an interior, in that place (referred to), 
inside yonder, in there. //. 
in our house yonder. Mumo h., just 
in there, in that very place. (2) verb- 
form, you are not in (there . 
Huko, and Hu-, Mo-, &c. 

Humu, (i) adj. dem. this, agree- 
ing with locative forms in -;//', e. g. 
nyumbani hutnu, in this house. (2) 
;i. in this ]il:icc-, inside here. 
Afurnu //., ju-it in lu-ir, in t 1 
place. See Huku, and Mu . 

Hun i ; n, you have not, 

i' 2 IVrs. Sing., and na 

*Hun<ii, n. draft, (In-quo. 
order, bill of exchange. (Hind. Cf. 

Huo, a. dem. of refcrcm 

S), D4(S 
H Huko, and -a 

Hum, n. (wa-), and a. (also 
-huru), a freed man, a frecm.v 
not a si 
Acha (tveka, andika), huru, s 


f\r Cf uhuru 1 fully. Kumhusudu mail yake, to 

IS w"*->/^, "T"5''~"- "- 

=^s ,,f: 
';-, b '.rs,b. * /'iSiESS 2T.-M, 

mercy on. Ps. hiirumiwa. \*u , ad a res s to an audience, All 






every day as a rule they go ; (2) per- 
haps, it may be, possibly, sometimes. 
(Cf. syn. labuda, huenda, k^venda^ 

Huyo, a. dem. of reference, that 
there, that yonder, that referred to, 
agreeing with D I (S). Huyo! httyo! 
there he is! That is he! in a hue 
and cry after a thief, or chase after 
animals. (Cf. huyu, and -0.) 

Huyu, a. dem. this, agreeing with 
D i (S). (It includes the character- 
istic letter h, with the variable vowel 
u, and^w. See H and Yu.) Also in 
the emphatic form huyule, for huyu 
yuU, that very, that. See Yule. 

*Huzuni, n. grief, sorrow, distress, 
mourning, calamity, disaster. -e- 
nyi huzuni, sorrowful, depressed, 
downcast. So -a huzuni. Kiwa 
na A., to be sad, to be sorrowful. 
ona, ingia, shikwa na, &c.) 
h. t leel sorrow, be distressed, &c. 
(Ar. C'f. follg. and syn. hamu, tna- 
jonsi, sikitiko, msiba, and for formal 
mourning, tnatanga, maombolezo!) 

*Huzunia, v. Aj>. grieve at (for, 

about, in, &c.). I's. huzuni~i'a, 

be grieved, be caused grief. Nt. 

: isha,-ishwa. 

( \r. C 1. prcc. and syn. sikitikia, 

resents the sound of t in /r, 
and also that of i in in, i.e. of both 
vowels in /v 

i difficult, esp. in un- 
accented syllables, to decide whether 
e or i beat represents the sound heard, 
csp. in words of Arabic or: 
which they arc not distinguish* 
rttniu or ////;///, cli <u 

irahi or ikirahi, sftfini or 
. &c. 

ound before a vowel is gener- 
ally consonantal, heard and 

/ best represents the vowel sound 

is a tendency to 

pronounce n as a distinct syllable. 

Thus the pfx. of the i Pe*rs. Sing, is 
either n- or /'-, e. g. ninaftnda or 
nniipttida, nitalala or ntalala. The 
tendency is decidedly commoner in 
Z. than in the Coast Swahili, e.g. 
ingia not ngia, ingine not ngine, 
inchi not nchi, wingi not ungi, itizi 
nut nzi. 

Hence words not found under / 
may be looked for under E, or K, 
or N. 

The numeral nne, four, is a dis- 
syllable beginning with a faint * 
sound, represented by a double n, 
and not wholly lost in the adjectival 
forms of the numeral. / has been 
used as the initial of imlni, mosquito, 
because in this word m does not seem 
to keep its usual affinity for a u 

The a in certain pfxs., chiefly : 
ma-, and ka-, when followed by an /, 
as a rule coalesces with it to form an 
e sound, e. g. waivi becomes wevi, 
mat no meno, akaingia akengia (but 
not in /w-, ha-, -fa, -na, -nga, &c.)- 

Final i always takes the place of 
final a of a verb in the Pres. Indie. 

I, verb- form, is, are, agreeing with 
D a (P), and D 6 (S). 

I- is a Pers. 1'fx., siibjectiveandob- 
jectivi hDa(P), 

ami D 6 (S). This pi\. Mm 

used for general reference, and snpj 
ing an impersonal form of tlu- \ 

no good, nonsense. 
/mfkntshii, all is over. 

I- (or B-) before the final a of a 
verb lorms the characteristic of tin 
so-cal' / verb-stems, and 

gives the simple root-meaning <>i the 
.1 verv varit i ca- 

tions usually cxpressetl in Knglisl 
different prepositions following. 

Iba, v. steal, thieve, 

is used as the root-form id some 
tenses. See Isha.) P*. ibwa, and 
. he stolen. Nt. ibita. be stolen, 
be capable of being stolen 




ibia, steal from, rob, e. g. amemwibia 
mali yake, he has stolen his money 
from him, ibiiva, be stolen, be stolen 
from, lose by theft. Thus tumcibiwa 
may mean ' we have been kidnapped,' 
or, ' we have been robbed.' Ibiana, 
steal from each other. Cs. ib-isha, 
-ishwa, e.g. cause to steal, incite to 
theft. (Cf. uizi, mwizi, mwibaji, 
and syn. nyanganya!) 

*Ibada, n. (i) worship, divine 
service. Ameacha i., he has left off 
attending the mosque. /. ya sanamu, 
idolatrous worship. (2) Practical 
religion, a religious life, religious 
practices. Mtu wa i., a devout man. 
Iblisi akamharibia i. yake, the devil 
corrupted his religion. (Ar. Cf. 
abudu, maabudu, and syn. dini, 
tit aw a, usttjii.'} 

*Iblisi, n. the devil, Satan. (Arab, 
for usual shetani.} 

*Idadi, n. reckoning, counting, 
number, computation. Billa z., with- 
out number, numberless. Desturi za 
adabu nyingi, hazina i., rules of eti- 
quette are numerous, in fact past count- 
ing. (Ar. Cf. syn. hesabu,hasibtt.'} 

*Idi, Idili. See Ada, Adili. 

Ifu-ifu, a. ash-coloured, grey. 
See Jifu, Kijifu. 

Iga, v. (i) imitate, copy, but com- 
monly (2) in the sense, ape, mock, 
counterfeit, mimic, caricature. /. 
maneno ya kiswahili, try to talk 
Swahili. /. kwa maneno, use mock- 
ing expressions to. Hodari wa kuiga, 
a clever mimic. Ps. igwa. Nt. 
igika. Ap. ig-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
ig-iza, -izwa, and Intens. of copying 
with effort, trying to imitate. (Cf. 
mivigo, mwigaji, thihaka, and syn. 

*Ihtaji, Ihtiari, Ihtilafu, Ihti- 
mu. See under Hitaji, &c. 

*Ijara, n. pay, hire, salary, wages, 
rent. Mtu iva i., a hired servant, 
not a slave. (Ar. Cf. ujira, ajiri, 
and syn. mshahara, and rent, kodi.} 

"Tkirihi, n. also Ekerahi. See 

Ikiza, v. Cs. lay across, set in 
position (from side to side), spread 
over. /. nyumba boriti, set up the 
poles (or rafters) in a house, to cany 
a concrete floor or roof. Also i. 
waive, i. dari, of same operation. 
Also used of cookery, ikiza na sukari, 
spread with sugar, and kuku ya 

Iko, verb-form, it is (they are) 
there, Pfx. agreeing with D 2 (P), 
D 6 (S), and locative -ko (which 

*Ila, n. defect, blemish, drawback, 
disgrace, stain, blot. Mtu mznri 
lakini ana ila, a good man but he 
has his faults. Also for conj. ilia, 
which see. (Ar. Cf. syn. kipu- 
nguo, hitilafu, kosa, waa. Dist. 
hi la.} 

He, a. dem. that, those, agreeing 
with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). (See I and 
Yule. Dist. He as 3 S. Subj. from 
la, eat.) 

*Iliki, n. cardamom. 

*Illa, conj. also Ela, Ila, except, 
unless, but. Hana ilia mke mmoja, 
he has but one wife. Havai kilcniba 
ilia amekwenda Makha, he does not 
wear a turban, unless he has been to 
Mecca. (Ar. Cf. illakini.} 

*Illakini, conj. but, nevertheless, 
notwithstanding. (Ar. Cf. ilia, 
and lakini.'} 

*Illi, conj. in order that, that. 
Used with Subj. and Infin. Moods, 
e. g. amekwenda mjini illi kununiia 
(or, aminue) chakula, he has gone 
to town to buy food. (Ar. Cf. 

*Ilmu, n. See Elimu, knowledge, 
learning, &c. (Ar.) 

*Ima, conj. See Ama. 

Ima, v. be erect, straight, &c. 
a. B. verb, rare in Z. (Cf. sirnama, 
simika, mwima, mwimo, ima-ima.} 

Ima-ima, a. and adv., upright, 
erect, steep, perpendicular. (Cf. 

*Imamu, n. the minister of a 
Mahommedan mosque, who conducts 




the prayers and gives an address 
"(Ar. Cf. mualhini, 
:ti, kathi.} 

*Imani, n. (i) faith, trust, confi- 
dence, trustworthiness, uprightness. 
Maskini hana i., a poor man cannot 
be relied upon. Upanga wa ., a 
kind of double-handled sword, (a) 
Religious faith, belief, object of belief, 
creed. Imani kwa Mitun^u, faith 
towards God. (Ar. Cf. aniini, 
awani, arnana, &c., and for creed, 

*Imara, n. firmness, compactness, 
hardness, strength, stability, solidity, 
material and moral. L'kuta huu 
all is not strong. 
Mtu -?a /., a resolute, brave, strong- 
willed man. a. firm, strong, hard, 
unbreakable, solid, courageous, brave. 
(Cf. follg. and syn. -gumu, thabiti, 

*Imarika, v. Nt., be strong, be 
firm, be solid, &c. Cs. imar-isha, 
-ishwa. See prcc. 

Iraba, v. sing, sing of. Ps. 

imbwa. Nt. imbika. Ap. imb-ia, 

Cs. imb-isha, -ishwa, 

cause to sing, instruct in singing, 

i singing, strike up a song. 

(Cf. uimbo, uimbaji, &c.) 

Imbu, n. a mosquito. (Also 
written mbu, but in this word m 
does not appear to have its usual 
affinity for a u sound, though sounded 
as a di !(.) 

In*, have, 

Pfx. n K . D 2 (P), D 6 (S), 

and na, which see. 

Inama, v. stoop, bend d< 
lower, bow, slope, 
press. Used Neut. . 

':,ima, this wall has 

:-cs downwards. Inama 

, bow the head. Mji wott 

city is de- 

to. incline towards, h 

rests on 
me. .. (St. 

form of a root tna, cf. inika, imta, 
and cf. syn. shusha^ tua.) 

Inchi, n. (i) country, district, land, 
region.* 7. yetu, inchi ya kwetu, our 
countr)', fatherland. /. za barra, the 
regions of the continent. /. sa ( 'Itiya, 
the countries of Europe. (Cf. ulaya, 
wilaya, upande.} (2) Land, ground, 
dry land, i.e. i. kavu, as opp. to the 
sea, bahari. Piga katika i. (or 
chini), throw to the ground, dash 
clown. Chini ya i., ndani ya '., 
underground. /. sawa, level country, 
a plain. (Cf. barra.} (3) The earth, 
the inhabited world. Pembi ~a /., 
the corners of the earth, i. e. remotest 
parts of the world. (Cf. dunia, 
ulimwengu.} (Cf. chini. Never of 
the actual substance or materials of 
the ground, i.e. soil, earth, \vhich is 
u don go. Cf. art hi. Obs. inchi is 
sometimes heard for English 'inch,' 
as////* for a ' foot,' by measure.) 

Inda, Inga. See Winda. 

*Ingercza, n.and a., also Ingreza. 
Ingrezi, -ngereza, an Englishman, 
England, English. Mfalmc /., the 
king of ICngland. Harozi /., the 
Uriiish Consul. Ulaya Ingereza, 
Uingeza, Ittgreza, England. Wa- 
ngercza, the English. A'.-; 
English language. Unawesa > 
kiingcreza? Can you speak English ? 
i. a. sometimes -ngi 
1 4 (P), D 6 (P}, 

i D 5 (S), wenri 

with 1) i (i>), pengi with D 7)), 
many, much, large (in <jt 
Of person 
is used 

in altundance. M'^ingi wa baraka, 
giving many bletsinps. (Cf. wimgi, 
and sy i/Aawa.') 

Ingia, v. sometimes Ngia, (i) go 
in (to), come in (to), < 

. (a) share in. take ; 
engage in; (3) penetrate, pass into 
state, &c.) ; (f 

umba, or katika nyuniba), ., 




a house. /. chomboni, go on board 
a vessel, embark (also panda cho- 
mbont). /. safari ni, join an expedi- 
tion, or, start on a journey. /. baridi, 
become cold. /. kutti, get rusty. 
Esp. common of the feelings, e.g. 
i. hofu, be affected by fear, feel fear, 
be alarmed, and so with kiburi, fu- 
raha, hasira, hazuni, uchungu, &c. 
The passive construction is common 
in same sense, ingiwa na, or ingiwa. 
Ps. ingiwa. Nt. ingika. Ap. 
ing-ilia, -iliwa, -ilika, -iliza, -itizwa, 
-iana, -ilizana, esp. of entry with 
a purpose, e.g. go in for, pry into, 
&c. Alimwingilia mwanamke, he 
went in to see the woman, hence 
live with, cohabit with. Ingiliza 
kazini, introduce to work, instal in 
office. Waingiliani maneno haya? 
What are you prying into these matters 
for? Cs. ing-iza, -izwa, -isha, 
-ishwa, the latter forms being usu, 
intensive, i.e. ingiza, of causing, 
allowing, procuring entry, ingisha 
of special effort' or force in entry 
Vitu viingizwavyo, imports. Hence 
ingizana. Rp. ingiana. (Cf 
enda ndani, -ja ndani, penya.) 

-ingine, a. (but with some pfxs 
commonly -ngine. Thus with D i 
(S), D 2 (S), D 4 (S) mwingine 01 
mngine, with D i (P) wangine, with 
D 4 (P), D 6 ny ingine or ngine o~ 
zingine, with D 5 (S) jingine o 
lingine, with D 5 (P) mangine, with 
D 7 pangine, with D 8 kwingine) 
other, another, different, some, a 
second. Wangine wangine, some 
some, some others, -ingine-ingine 
of different kinds, assorted, miscel 
laneous, of all sorts. Vingine, a 
adv. variously, in another way. Vt 
ngine-vingine, in different ways (de 
grees, classes, sorts), in all sorts c 
ways. Vinginevyo, in some othe 
way, in any other way, and so wit 
relative affixed to other forms, e. g 
mtu mwingineo, some other person 
any one else. 

Ini, n. (ma-) , the liver. Sometime 

g. of inmost seat of feelings, like moyo, 
g. maneno yale yaliinkata moini, 
lose words cut him to the heart. 
Inika, v. (i) give a downward 
irection to, lay over on one side, 
*ive a cant (tilt, downward bend or 
urn) to, let hang down, turn down 
t the edge, &c. ; (2) fig. humble, 
ring low, depress. I. choinbo, ca- 
een a vessel (for repairs). Usininike 
izigo, do not let your load hang 
own. /. kichwa,jiinika, hang down 
he head (in grief or shame). Also 
iinika, make a bow, bow oneself 
Tacefully. /. niti, bend down a tree 
to get at the fruit). Nani awezaye 
'umwinika mfalme? Who can hu- 
miliate a king ? Ps. inikwa. Ap. 
ttik-ia, -iwa. Cs. inik-isha, -ish- 
wa, -zza, e.g. mwalitmt ameimki'za 
ivatu kwa kusali, the minister taught 
he congregation to bow down at 
>rayers. (Cf. inama, iwia, and 
>yn. laza, laza upande.) 

*Inshallah, adv. Used as the 
commonest and most trivial form of 
assent, ' oh yes, certainly, of course.' 
(Ar. = if God wills, God willing. 
See Allah. Cf. syn. vetna, naam, 

Inua, v. (i) set up, raise up, build 
up, pile up, lift up, raise, hoist; (2) 
fig. inspirit, cheer, restore, cure, set 
up. /. mzigo, raise a load (cf. 
twika}. /. mtoto, lift up a child. /. 
macho, raise the eyes. /. mgonjwa, 
restore an invalid. Ps. innh 'wa. 
Nt. inuka, e.g. inchi yote imeimika, 
the whole country is elevated, is a 
table-land. Ap. inu-Ha, -liwa. 
Cs. inu-liza, -lizwa, e.g. inuliza 
mzigo, help a man up with his load. 
(Cf. inama, inika, and syn. pandisha, 

Inzi, n. (ma-), a fly, in general, 
the common house-fly. 

Ipi, a. intern which? what?- 
agreeing with D 2 (P), D 6 (S). See 
-pi. Also generally, kama ipi? of 
what sort? how? (Cf. -pi, waft.) 

Ipua, v. same as Epua, which 




see. But this form seems in some 
degree specialized, as meaning ' take 
off the tire' (a cooking pot, &c.). 
t-ka and t~vika. 

*Irabu, n. a vowel sign in \\riting 
Arabic. (Arab.) 

*Iriba, n. usury, money-lending. 
See Biba. (Ar.) 

*Iriwa, n. also Chiriwa, Jiriwa, 
a (screw) vice. 

*Isa. n. a proper name, not un- 
common in Z. Also the only name 
for Jesus Christ known to Mahom- 
medans, often with the addition bin 

Isha, v. end, come to an end, 
bring to an end, make an end of, 
finish, close, complete. (The infini- 
tive form kwisha is frequently used 
after some tense pfxs. of the indie, 
mood, ts].. nn, /<;, nit, and after the 
relative in a verb-form, e.g. ame- 
kwisha, alipokwisha. On the other 
ie initial * of the root often 
coalesces with preceding a in other 
pfxs. and forms the usual c sound, 
e.g. wakes ha for ivakaisha, they 
finished, and with a preceding * is 
often hardly heard, as in pumzi 
limenisha, my breath has come to 
an end, and akisha, upon his finish- 
ing. It is preserved, however, after 
/*, e.g. aJtisAa, not alish> 

use of the infin. form cf. ita, 

iva, t'6a, oga, uza.) Mancno yatne- 

. the debate has come to an 

end. Akala akesha akaenda take, he 

ate and when he had done he went 

Akapigana nao akawaisha, 

he fought with them and killed them 

all. fai'ishti kazi, to finish a job. 

Isha is constantly nsed as a semi- 

y of time, expressing com* 

emphatically than the 

tense pfx. me. Thus used it is com* 

monly followed by the root-form of 

the principal verb, without th 


has already done it, he has com- 
pleted it. Alipokwisha ku; 
he had actually arrived, -a kwisha, 

last, extreme, worst. Ps. ishwa. 
Nt. ishika. Aimeishwa na fctha, 
my money has come to an end. Jlai- 
ishiki, it cannot be completed. Ap. 
ish-ia, -iwa. Mke wangu ameni- 
ishia mali, my wife has used up my 
money. Nimeishiwa wait, my dish 
of rice has come to an end. Ngoje 
nikuishit maneno, wait till I finish 
my message to you. Also a further 
Ap. form ish-ilia, -iliwa, -t'/izti, 
-i/izwa, marking completion for some 
special purpose or of a particular 
kind. Wakaishiliza tnu'czi, they 
waited for the month to come to an 
end. So of mwaka, kazi, ntaneno, 
when there is a particular object in 
view. (Cf. ingilia, toshclea^pigiliay 
&c.) Cs. ishiza, ishisha (seldom 
heard). (Cf. mivisho, and >\u. 
tiniiza, kamilisha, kotnesha. 
Dist. ishi, in some forms identical, 
e. K. haishi.} 

*Isha, n. See Esha. 

*Ishara, n. sign, token, signal, 
mark, omen, indication, warning, 
hint, crucial case, remarkable fact, 
a wonder. Tumeona i. mwaka him , 
we have seen a wonderful thing this 
year. Tia i., put a mark on. Toa /., 
make a signal. (Ar. Cf. ashiria, 
'.. dalili, a/arna.) 

*Ishi, v. last, endure, continue, 
live, remain. Aishi rniltlf, may he 
live for ever. Mti huu kauishi sana, 
this wood does not last long. (Ar. 
Cf. anshi, ntaisha.} 

laivyo, verb-form, used asa general 
Negat. Conj., as (in a way that) is 
rresj.dnding {<* aclvcrbial USC 
of forms in vi, vyo (kin . 

lalamu. n. (i) (wa- and ma-), a 
Mahommedan; (a) the Mahomme- 
. Islam. 

M (kind). (C. 
:it, Mwislamti. 

also salarnu, salintu. &c.) Also 

latiaka, n. dropsy. (A: 




Ita, v. call, call to, summon, invite, 
name. (For use of kwita &c. in 
some forms see notes on Isha.) 
Awukmtnda ktimwifa, he has gone 
to call him. Ps. itwa. Unakwit- 
wa, you are summoned, somebody 
wants you. Amek-wenda kwitwa, 
some one has gone to call him. 
ISt. itika, be called, obey a summons, 
answer to a call, respond, acknow- 
ledge a salute, reply. Alikwitwa 
akaitika, he was called, and replied. 
Nyote mivaitika Vuga, you all ac- 
cept the supremacy of Vuga. Itika 
rathi, give a favourable reply, assent. 
Hence itik-ia, -iwa, answer for, 
reply to, correspond to, and in music 
accompany, follow the lead of, chime 
in, and fig. correspond to, harmonize 
with, suit, agree with. Itikiza, 
cause to reply, teach harmony to, 
also Intens.,' assent to, give a reply. 
Itikizana, reply to each other, all 
shout together in response, acclaim, 
correspond, harmonize, sing (play) 
in harmony. Ap. it-ta, -iwa, call 
to, summon for (by, in, &c.). Aka- 
taaye kuitwa, htikataa aitiwalo, he 
who rejects a call, rejects what he is 
called for. Cs. it-isha, -ishwa 
(seldom used). Rp. if ana. (Cf. 
mwitOj and syn. alika. Also taja, 
name, mention by name.) 

*Ita, v. cast in a mould (Str.). 
(? Wita. Cf. Ar. su6u, and kiwita.} 
*Italassi, n. satin. (Arab.) 
*Ithini, v. sanction, allow, au- 
thorize, assent to. Ps. ithiniwa. 
Nt. ithinika. Ap. ithin-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. ithin-isha, -ishwa. n. sanc- 
tion, permission, authorization, leave. 
Akataka i. ya hupandajuu, he asked 
for leave to go upstairs. Too. i., 
sanction, authorize. (Ar. Cf. 

syn. ruhusu, ruksa, kubali, rithia, 

Iva, v. alSo Wiva, (i) become 
ripe, get ripe, mature, become cooked 
(done, fit to eat), come to a head; 
(2) fig. come to a point, be ready 
for action (or, execution), be fully 

prepared. Etnbe zittaiva, the man- 
goes are ripening. Nyama irneiva, 
the meat is cooked. Ap. ivia. 
Cs. iv-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. -bivu, 
-pevu, and tayari.} 

-ivu, a. also -wivu, jealous, en- 
vious.' (Cf. uwivu, and hasidi. 
N. -ivu sometimes for -bivu, ripe, 
and dist. ifu-ifu.} 

Iwapo, verb-form, when (where) 
it is, when (where) they are, Pfx. i- 
agreeing with D 6 (S) and D 2 (P), 
-wa, from the verb Jkuwa, and rela- 
tive -po, of place, time, or condition 
generally. Used as a conj. when, if, 
in case, supposing, even if, although. 
Iwapo una akili, tikae, if you have 
sense, wait. See -wa, v., and po. 

Izara, n. slander, disparagement, 
backbiting. (Ar. Cf. aziri, for 
common masingizio, &c.) 


J represents (i) in words of Arabic 
origin the same sound as j in jar. 
As in different Arabic dialects, J and 
G are sometimes interchanged (cf. 
ginsi,jinsi). (a) In words of Bantu 
origin, a very similar sound in Zan- 
zibar, which elsewhere may be better 
represented by dy (of. ch for ty, and 
t at Mombasa), and is used for d, y, 
and a, in some words common in 
neighbouring dialects, and so par- 
tially current in Zanzibar. 

The sound of /is often practically 
indistinguishable from that of Ch. 

Hence words not found under J 
may be looked for under Ch, or G. 

J-, for ji-, in nouns and adjectives, 
before roots beginning with a vowel. 
See Ji-. 

Ja, v. (i) come; (2) of events, 
happen, turn out, result. As in other 
monosyllabic verb-roots the Infini- 
tive form kuja is used as the root 
form in some tenses (see Ku-), and 
yu is commonly prefixed to 3 Pers. 
Sing, of Pres. Indie., i. e. yuaja for 
aja. The Imperative in this verb 
only is irregular, viz. njoo, njooni, 




for a Pers. Sing, and Plur. Alikuja 
nyumbani, he came to the house. 
Naj& kwako na barua hii, I approach 
you with this letter. Umekuja ku- 
shtakiwa, some one has come to accuse 
you. Atakuja kttuawa, he will come 
to be killed, he will some day be 
killed. Ap.jia, Jiwa,Jika,Jiana, 
come to (for, about, at, in, &c.). 
Mancno tuliyojia kwako ni hayo t 
that is the errand on which we came 
to you. Siku ttliyojia, the day on 
which you came. Mgeni amtnijia 
leo, a visitor has come to me to-day. 
The passive is used by itself of re- 
ceiving visits, e. g. nimejiwa, I have 
had a visitor, I have a friend with 
me. Jika, be approachable, be 
accessible. Mji huu haujiki, this 
town is not to be entered. Rd. 
Jiajia, and ? jajia, of repeated or 
troublesome arrivals. \Vananijiajia 
tu, they keep on bothering me with 
visits. Also Rf.ji/ia, e. g. nikawa 
knjijia "zangu hatta chini, and I just 
fell anyhow (helplessly) to the 
bottom I lence a further 

A p. jih'a, Jiliwa, Ji liana, Jiliza, 
come to (at, for, &c.) with a special 
purpose, in a special way. Cs. 

,;se. Ja (like isha, and tod) 

if occasionally used as a semi-auxiliary 

followr rb in its root-form, 

e.g. amekuja twaa, he has come to 

. he actually takes (or, has 

:kuja ua watu, ' 

come to killing people, he will posi- 
tively commit murder. And it regu- 
larly furnishes the formative element 

ree forms of the Swahili verb- 
system, viz. {a) in the Deferred 
Tense, with a N tix pre- 

hajaja, he has not yet 
come, and '/>) in its Subjunctive form, 

hout his )< 
Obs. alsoyVz for/V sometimes 

'.liter case, e.g. 

\'<-). Also Ja is traceable 
without a negative preceding, e.g. 
ujaonapi? where have you yet seen? 

Also there is a semi-auxiliary use of 
-sija, -sijc, e. g. wasijc kuthurika, 
lest they come to be hurt. Asije 
knja mitt mwingine akatuthunt, lest 
another man chance to come and hurt 
us. (c) In the ' tense of Possible 
Condition ' (Str.),i. e. with the relative 
-po, of time, place, or condition, e. g. 
nijapolala, siivczi kugcnka t even if I 
lie down, I cannot turn over, ll'a- 
Japo kuja, even if they come. Wajapo 
hawaji, though they do not come. 
And n. ijapo, and even Japo, used as 
conjunctions simple, even if, sup- 
posing that, although. (Cf. nj't'a, 
uj't'a, majilio, of arriving, fika, wasi/i, 
and contr. enda, go. Ja appears to 
be one of the few roots occurring 
very widely in Bantu from Uganda to 
Zululand, and also in Arabic.) 

Jaa, v. (i) become full (of); (2) 
fill up a given space, be plentiful, 
abound, swarm. Used of any vessel 
or space, and of its contents. Mtun^i 
umejaa niaji, the pitcher is full of 
water. Maji yamejaa mtungini, the 
water fills the pitcher. Inchi imejaa 
///;'//, the country abounds in trees. 
Nzige walijaa kotekote, locusts swarm- 
ed everywhere. Alaji ya knjaa (ya 
kupwa), high (low) tide. Ps.yawa, 
be filled, be full, like Act. but esp. of 
what are not the natural, suitable, 
usual contents. Jawa na hofu (wa- 
zirmi, kibttri), be filled with fear 
(frenzy, conceit). Ap./a-//<.' 
be full up lo,Jalia Mattii Ju 
usual; dist. Jalia from Jali\ Ja- 
nil up, 

cause to fill (or, be filled), mak 
full. Cs. jaza, j'astoa, make full, 
fill (the 

eating a step further, a more complete 
(or additional tilling). (Cf.u/a/i/u, 

Joa, n. rubbish heap, <h 
place where dust and refuse are 
thrown. Mkttu ni Jaa, ? a great 
man is a dust heap. (Ar.) 

*Ja, n. ti c. point of 

the compass (Arab.). (The north- 




ward direction is in Z. kaskazini, 

*Jabali, n. (ma-}, (i) a rock, hill, 
cliff, mountain ; (2) rock (as a sub- 
stance), stone; (3) raised line of 
needlework across the back in a native 
dress, kanzu. (Ar. Cf. mwamba, 

*Jabari, n. Supreme Ruler, Ma 
hommedan title of God. (Arab.) 

*Jadiliana, v. Rp. argue together, 
reason with each other. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. hujiana, bishana, semezana.) 

*Jaha, n. honour, glory, prosperity 
Mtu alioshiishiwaj., a man who was 
granted good fortune. Kilango cha 
j., the Gate of Paradise. (Ar.) 

*Jahazi, n. ship, vessel, of any 
description. (Ar. Cf. chombo, 

*Jahili, a. reckless, foolish, rash, 
precipitate, unthinking. (Arab. 

Cf. mjinga.*) 

*Jalada, n. and Jelada, (i) cover 
of a book, binding; (2) whip. 
(Arab, leather. Cf. mjehdi,jehdi.} 
*Jali, v. give honour to, heed, 
respect, reverence. (Ar. Cf. syn 
heshimu, sikia, hofu.} 

*Jalia, v. Ap. grant (to), give 
power (opportunity) to, enable, be 
gracious (to), esp. of God's favour 
and help. Muungu akimjaha, if 
God helps me, God willing. Ps. 
jaliwa Ntakiuenda nikijaliwa, J 
will go, if I can (if I am allowed, 
if all is well, God willing). Lijali- 
-walo kuwa, halina uzuio, what is 
allowed to happen, there is no pre- 
venting. (Ar. Cl.sayidia,banki, 
w&zesha. Dist. jalia from jaa, v. ) 

*Jaluba, n. small ornamental box 
of metal. (Ar. ? Turkish. Cf. 


*Jamaa, n. a number of persons 
gathered or connected together, family, 
society, company, assembly, gather- 
ing, meeting. Mtu wa j., member 
of a family, kinsman. Enyij. waho- 
huthuria hapa (on addressing an 
audience), my friends here present. 

Also of a single person, one of a 
family, friend. Huyu ni /, this 
person is a connexion (friend) of 
mine. - v. See Jamii. (Ar. 
Cf. jamii, junta, and syn. ndugu t 

*Jamala, n. courtesy, good man- 
ners, elegance, grace, gracious (kind, 
obliging) behaviour. J. yako haiku- 
potei, you will not lose by your kind- 
ness. (Ar. Cf. syn. adabu, ma- 
daha, fathili.} 

*Jamanda, n. (ma-'), a round 
basket of plaited grass, usually with 
a cover. Used as a blinker for camels, 
hence macho yangu yametiwa maje- 
manda, kama ngamia, my eyes have 
got blinkers like a camel. (Cf. 
kijamanda, kidoto, and for baskets 
generally kikapo^) 

Jamani, a. also Jaman, Jerman, 
German. See Dachi, which is more 

Jamba, v. break wind with noise. 
n. (ma-}, breaking wind. (Cf. 
shuta, shuzi.} 

*Jambia, n. also Jamvia, i 
curved broad-bladed dagger, worn in 
the belt by Arabs, often highly orna- 
mented. /. lameta kumoja, the dagger 
is bright on one side. / kiunoni na 
bakora mkononi, dagger at waist and 
stick in hand. 

Jambo, n. (mambo), (i) matter, 
affair, circumstance, business, thing 
(never of a concrete kind, which is 
kitu\\ (a) matter of importance, 
difficulty, trouble; (3) for sijambo, 
hujambo, see below. /. hili gumu 
sana, this matter is a very difficult 
one. Amenitenda killa j. la wema, 
he has treated me with every possible 
kindness. Mambo ya serkali, political 
(public, official) affairs. Ulimwengu 
una mambo, the world is full of 
troubles. Jambo (sometimes ya- 
mbo) is the commonest form ot 
greeting for all classes in Z. * How 
do you do ? ' and also the commonest 
form of reply, ' I am quite well, 
/aw^thususedrepresentsmthe gree 




ing hujambo (or strictly hunajambo, 
though this is never heard), and hu- 
jambo is the more correct and respect- 
ful form, spoken interrogatively, i. e. 
You have nothing the matter with 
you? Nothing the matter? You are 
well? Similarly in the reply, jambo 
is for the more correct sijambo, i. e. 
sina jambo, I have nothing the matter, 
I am quite well. Jambo with the 
Negat. Pfx. of the Pres. Tense is used 
as a verb, with the special sense of 
being well or improving in health or 
general condition, both of persons 
and things, e.g. sijambo, I am well, 
I am better, matters are improving 
with me. Inchi yote sasa haijambo, 
the whole country is now in a good 
state, ffaijambo, it (the weather) is 
fine. Cf. the corresponding use of 
the Negat. Pres. of wtza, i. e. siwfzi, 
huwezi, &c., I am ill. Somt times 
jambo is thus used with other tense 
t'tntoa rtyoka, hukujambo 
lolott, you got the snake out, but you 
were none the better for it. Jla- 
jambo, like hcrwczi, is sometimes used 
adjectivally, e.g. nikapata hajambo, 
I got well. 7'nkawa sote hajambo, 
rc were all getting on well. 
(Cf. arnba, orig. speak, ji-ambo, 
jambo , a subject of speech, thing 
talked of, affair. Cf. ntti, 

. thing. Contr. kitu, a con- 

*Jamdnni, n. white brocade, 
c Nguo.) 

*Jamli, v. (i) collect together, but 

commonly Cs. jami-isha, -ishwa, in 

same sense ; (a) copulate. n. 

and Jamia, a collection of objects, 

group, company, number, mass, body, 

./ watoto, a lot of 

:i. J. ya trial i, the whole of 

of money. /. ya M 
bench of judges. J. ya n 
mass of men, most people, the public. 
J. ya m ant no, the words t 
the whole sentence, 
Also as adv., in a mass, coll< 
as a whole, all together. ll\ : 

all the lot, the whole lot. (Ar. 
CLjamaOtfttmOj and syn. kusanyu.) 

Jamvi, n. (ma-}, a piece of floor- 
matting, of the common coarse kind, 
made of plaited strips of leaf, used in 
houses, mosques, shops, &c. J. la 
kutandika chini tiyurnbani, matting 
to spread on the floor in houses. 
>ikeka, ntsala.} 

*Jamvia, n. See Jambia. 

Jana, n. and adv., yesterday, day 
before the present, period preceding 
ihe present. Siku ya jana. yester- 
day. Mioaka iva jana, last year. 
(Cf.juzi, teo, &c.) 

Jana, n. (ma-), (i) a fine, large 
child, e. g. jana dume, a very fine 
boy. (Cf. mivana.) (a) A youth, 
lad (cf. the common kijana in same 
sense). (3) Grub, larva, young (of an 
insect). Majana ya nyitki, bees in 
the grub stage (cf. butt). Ilamna 
asi/i, twajitafunia majana, there is 
no honey (in the comb), we are just 
munching grubs. (From same root 
as mwana, which see.) 

Manaba, n. pollution, defilement, 
esp. ceremonial, according to Ma- 
hommedan rule. (Ar. Cf. una- 
jisi, ujusi, uchafu.) 

Jangwa, n. (ma-), desert, wilder- 
ness, waste, barren groumi. 
(desolate) country. (Yorji-angwa 
cf. wangwa, and syn. nyika t poli, 

n. (ma-), leaf, blade of grass. 
. , leaves, grass, h< 

. green, as a col 

Japo, conj. also IJapo, even if, 
-.{* as a tense sign, 
and auxiliary, see -jo. (Cf. syn. 
iwapo, kwamba.} 

*Jarari, n. or Jerari, hall 
a rope running through a j-ulK-y 
(abfdari) on < : 

attached to the thicker rope (hcnsa), 

by which the mam yard and sail of a 

rssel are hoisted. SecTanga, 





*Jaribu, v. (i) experience, make 
trial of, attempt, try, test, .prove, 
only incidentally with any idea of 
tryi'ng, in the sense of ' do one's best,' 
'make an earnest endeavour' (for 
which see jitahidi, kaza, fanya, bi- 
dii, shikd} ; (2) in moral sense, test, 
tempt. Akajaribu kuuiikisa mti, 
he tried shaking the tree. /. safari, 
attempt a journey. /. upanga, make 
trial of a sword. Ps. jaribiwa. 
H\..jaribika, be liable (open) to test 
(or, temptation). Ap. jarib-ia, 
-iwa, -tana, make an attempt on, 
have a try at (for, with, in, &c.) 
Cs. jarib-isha. n. (ma-}, (i) 
trial, proof, test, attempt; (2) that 
which tries (tests, proves the nature 
or mettle), a trial, trouble, difficulty. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. onja, angalia, ta- 

Jarifa, n. (ma-}, drag-net, seine, 
of European make. (Cf. juya, 
kimia, wavu.} 

Jasho, n. (i) sweat, perspiration; 
(2) high temperature, sultriness, 
heat, causing perspiration. Haku- 
laliki nyumbani kwaj., it is too hot 
to sleep indoors. Fanya (toko} j., 
perspire, sweat. (Cf. hari, moto 

*Jasi, n. (i) a kind of soft friable 
stone (chalk, gypsum, pumice) 
rubbed on the fingers when plaiting 
mats. (Ar. Cf. chaki.} (2) (ma-}. 
ornament worn in the lower lobe o 
the ear, often a round silver plate 
(Cf. kipuli, kipini, and for orna- 
ments, urembo.} 

*Jasiri, v. be bold, dare, venture 
risk, make a brave (foolhardy, ven 
turesome) effort. Amejasiri njia 
peke yoke, he risked travelling alone 
Ps.jasirzwa. ~N\..jasirika. Ap 
jasiria, venture on, make a try at 
Cs. jasir-isha, -ishwa, and Intens 
a. brave, venturesome, foolhardy 
(Ar. Cf. ujasiri, and syn. thubutu 
-gttmu, shujaa,jahili.} 

Jawa, v. Ps. of Jaa, v., which see 
*Jawabu, n. (ma-}, (i) answer 

eply, cf. jibu\ (2) affair, matter, 
:oncern, cLjatnbo. J. Ihve lote, be 
he matter what it may. Amefanya 
'. knu, he has done a great thing. 
J. la kesho huandaa leo, the business 
f to-morrow one gets ready for to-day. 
*Jaza, v. and Jazi, reward, make 
a present to, grant favour to, give 
maintenance (to), supply (to), re- 
quite, punish. Muungu amemjaza 
mengi, God has been bountiful to 
lim. Ap. jaz-ia, -iwa, -izilia, 
iziliwa. (Ar. Cf. tuza, lipa, -pa 
lhawabu, &c.) n. (ma-} and 

jazi,jazo, gift, reward. (Ar. Cf. 
bakshishi, zawadi.} 

*Jaza, n. Cs. of Jaa, which see. 
*Jazi, a. sufficient, plentiful, com- 
mon. Kitu hiki ni j. mjini, this 
article is common in the town. 
Vyombo mj\, the vessels are nume-. 
rous. ( Ar. Cf. syn. -ingi, tele, mari- 
thawa, Scc.) - n. also Juza, 

which see, and Jazo. 

Je, interr. particle, How? Well? 
What now ? Answer me ! Tell me ! 
Je, bwana, hujambo ? Well, sir, how 
are you ? Je? ni halali ? Tell me, 
is it lawful ? Often affixed to verbs. 
Amejibuje? How did he answer? 
What is his reply? Kumekuwaje 
huko? How did matters go there? 
What happened? Nifanyejel How am 
I to act ? What shall I do ? (Cf. 

*Jebu, n. (ma-}, an ornament 
worn by women hanging under the 
chin, often from the veil. (Cf. 

Jego, n. See Chego. 

*Jelidi,v.bind, a book, esp.with 
leather. Ps. jelidiwa. (Ar. 
Cf. jalada, mjeledi.) 

Jema, a. form of -ema, good 
(which see), agreeing with D 5 (S). 

*Jemadari, n. (ma-\ command- 
ing officer (of soldiers), general. 
(? Hind. Cf. amiri, afsa.} 

Jembe, n. (-), hoe, of native 
make, the common instrument of cul- 
tivation, a flat pear-shaped piece of 




"hammered iron with a spike (msuka) 
passing through, and fixing it to, 
a short stout wooden handle (kipinf). 
J. la ktzitngu, a spade. Piga /, 
hoe, use a hoe (or, strike with a hoe). 
Dim. kijembe. (Cf. wemfo.} 

*Jeneza, n. a bier, i. e. kitanda 
cha kuchuRulia tutu aliyekitfa, abed- 
stead for cam-ing a dead person (to 
the grave). Jt has handles and a 
frame to support a covering. Or an 
ordinary kitanda is used, turned up- 
side down. (Ar. Cf. machela, 

Jenga,v. construct, build a house 
in the native way, of poles, sticks, 
mud, grass, &c., not of masonry (see 
Aka, TJashj), but also extended to 
building in general. J. nyumbaya 
miti na udongo, build a house of 
poles and clay. Also j. merikebu, 
build a ship but this is more usually 
undo]. Ps. jengwa. Nt. jeng- 
eka. A p. jeng-ea, -ewa, build 

for (with, in addition to, at, &c.). 
Nyttmba hii imcjengtwa, this house 
has been added to, enlarged. Cs. 
jeng-esha, ~eshwa, cause to build, 
have built (Cf. jengo, mjengo, 
(;/:/, also aka, 

Jengo, n. (wtf-), a building, a 
building op< rial for build- 

ing, a house, shed, enclosure. Ton 
/., design, draw, make a plan of 
a building. J. la mawe na chokaa, 
a structure of stones and 

o, building materials. (Cf. 

Jengtia, v. Kv. of Jcn^ 
a building to pieces, demolish, pull 
down. (Cf. jcnga y and the more 
usual syn. MMM, 

Jen/: building, mode of 

building. \dio majenti yao Wo- 
dot, that is the way the Doc tribe 

i. (Cf./V/lfB, W/VWSI.) 

Jeraha, n. ( , a: 
wound , a sore, ulcer. 1 - 

! . Pataj. , be wounded. 
(Ar. Cf. follg.) 

*Jeruhi, v. be wounded. (Ar. 
Cf. jeraha^ majeruhi.') 

*Jeshi, n. (ma-}, a great company, 
assemblage, host, troop, army. J. la 
asikari, an army, usually a larger 
body than kikosi, or kundi. 
(changa, kusanyd} J., muster (levy, 
enrol) an army. 

*Jesila, n. See Jizla. 

Jetea, v. rely on, trust to, be con- 
fident in, be puffed up by. Jetea 
ulimwettgu, rest the hopes on this 
world, of a worldly person (;////- 
inwengit). Rf. jijetea, be self-con- 
fident, be self-reliant, be arrogant. 
Mwananike httyu anajetea iijana 
wake, this woman relies on her youth- 
fulness, as her stock-in-trade. (Cf. 
ttgemca, egernea, tumaini.jivttna^] 

*Jethamu, n. a kind of leprosy, or 
elephantiasis. (Arab.) 

"Jeuri, n. violence, outrage, bru- 
tality, assault, injustice, oppression. 
Mtvenyi j., a tyrant, oppressor, ruf- 
fian. tanya (piga, toa)J., act in a 
violent (brutal, outrageous) way. 
a. and -jeuri, violent, tyrannical, 
&C. (Ar. Cf. tijt'iiri, an<l syn. 

uthalintn, thulunnt. shuri, nkoroji, 
and opp. upole, haki, odiH.} 

Ji (before vowels often j-) a prefix 
used as I. formative only, (a) initial, 
before roots of (i) noun of D -. 
when they would be otherwise 
syllabic in the Singular, e.g. jiu*c 
(plur. mawf, not rn>: 
(plur. rntiJu\ n. , jino 

^plnr. tnftto, for tna-ti: 
nn i in the root),/'i&> (j)lur. ". 
niaiko). (a N Ikvlinalil- 

or be- 

gins with a vowel, to mark agree* 
th 1> 5 - s , 

>ia, Ac. (6) 
, lietween ki- iliminut! 
the root of i 

plur., esp. when con fusion niig! 
wise arise with a different win 

thing), kijiti. dim. of tnti (not kiti, 
a seat), kijiko (not kiko t a 

I 2 




kijiwe (noikiwe), kijibwa.(rif>t kibivd). 
It also occurs in dim. of neno, kiji- 
ncno for kineno. (3) Terminal, at- 
tached to nouns directly formed from 
a verb, and commonly conveying the 
notion of habitual, customary, general 
action or condition, e. g. from iga, 
imitate, mwiga, one who imitates, 
and mwigaji, a regular imitator, 
caricaturist, from omt>a,beg, mwomba, 
one who begs, prefers a request, mw- 
ombaji, a professional beggar. (Cf. 
ulaji, gluttony, as a quality, habit, 
and obs. such words as kinywaji, 
that which is drunk, a beverage, in 
contr. with kinywa, mouth, where ji 
is mainly distinctive). 2. Amplifica- 
tive, i. e. denoting relative largeness, 
before any suitable monosyllabic 
noun, and some dissyllables, e.g. 
jitu,jibwa, jisu, jiguu, jumba (Ji- 
umba, cf. nyumba), jombo (ji'-ombo, 
cf. chomb6},jivuli,jinywa. (Contr. 
ki, as corresponding diminutive pre- 
fix.) 3. Reflexive, in verbs (often 
strengthened by a nafsi following) 
and verbal nouns (e. g.Jisifu, maji- 
sifu, jivuna, majivuno, &c.), and 
either (a) simple, jiua, commit sui- 
cide, jifi cha, hide oneself, jihathari, 
guard oneself, jiweka vema, behave 
oneself, or (/;) with a range of mean- 
ings both wide and delicately shaded, 
mostly centring on such ideas as in- 
dependence, wilfulness, selfishness, 
interested action, personal aims and 
objects, or again, carelessness, in- 
difference, random or chance action, 
&c., and capable of conveying alike a 
gross insult, or a subtle inuendo. 
A few examples are :jienda, of easy, 
automatic, perpetual motion. Ji- 
endea, take a walk (for pleasure), 
run amuck (like a madman). Jijia, 
come on one's own concerns (inde- 
pendently), jog along. Nikawa ku- 
jijia zangu chini, so I simply fell 
helplessly to the bottom. Jikohoza, 
give a significant cough. Jigonjw- 
eza, feign sickness, sham. Jiona, 
be conceited. Jikalia, lead a life of 

ease and idleness. Jupiiia, go about 
one's own devices. Kizee ajipitie 
impendezav'yo, the old lady can go 
about her business as she likes. Ji- 
being a prefix of such common use 
and wide application, words not 
found under ji- may be looked for 
under the letter following/*-. (Obs. 
sometimes a simple objective person 
pfx. is used for the reflexive /*'-, e. g. 
nikanyiva mvinyo nikanilevya, and 
I drank wine, and made myself 
drunk. Umtkttepuka na rehcma ya 
Muungu, you have shut yourself out 
from God's mercy.) 

Jia, v. Ap. of Ja, which see. 
*Jibini, n. cheese. (Arab.) 
*Jibu, v. answer, reply, respond, 
retort. Ps. jibiwa, be answered, 
receive in answer, &c. Nt.ji&ta, 
be answerable, admit of an answer, 
&c. (also jibikana. in same senses). 
Ap. j'ib-ia, -iwa, -tana, e. g.Jibiana 
kwa waraka, correspond (by letter). 
Cs. jib'iza, -izwa, -isha, -iskwa. 
-izana. Akamjibisha majibu, and 
he compelled him to reply, or, and 
he caused an answer to be given to 
him (the other person). Jibizana, 
e. g. of a class conducted by method 
of question and answer. n. (ma-}, 
answer, reply, retort, response. 
Commonly in plur. leta majibu > 
bring an answer. Pa (toa)j., give an 
answer. (Ar. Cf. jawabu, ma- 
jibu, rarely jib'ile^jibio. Dist. jipu. 

Jibwa, n. (ma~\ a very large dog. 
(Cf. mb-wa, kijibwa^) 

Jicho, n. (macho), (i) eye. 
Fumba /., close the eye. Fumbua 
/., open the eye. Finya j., half 
close the eye. Kazaj., look fixedly, 
rivet the eye. 7 "upaj. t cast a glance. 
Ngariza /., glare, stare. Pepesa 
(jicho), wink. Macho is often used 
of wakefulness, or being awake, and 
fig. of vigilance, as n., a., and adv. 
Ana macho, or yu macho, he is 
awake. Kaa macho, remain awake, 
keep watch at night (cf. kesha).. 




:nua macho, they were awake. 

(3) Spring, place where water bub- 

m the ground. Jit ho la, 

ninji, a spring of water. (Cf. chem- 

chemi.} (3) Bud of a flower, when 

n ing. ^C f. ttimba , c h ipukizi. ) 

Macho ya ////<7wa(?), husks of millet. 

. Pcrh. cf. -cha, v. dawn, and, for 

conditions of the eye, upogo, upofu, 

. maktngeza, chambachajicho^) 

Jifu.n. (w<7-),usu. in plur. ashes, 

of burnt material. ( I'erh. d,jifya.} 

-jifujifu, sometimes used as ' grey, 

ash-coloured, ashy.' (Cf. ifu-ifu.} 

Jifya, n. (mafya}, cooking 

stone, one of the three used to sup- 

port a cooking-pot over the fire. 

Not usu. in Z. town. (Cf.jifu, and 

Jigamba, v. Rf. of gamba (which 
is not used), vaunt oneself, boast, 
brag, show off. Ap. jigambia. 
Other forms rare. (Cf.syn.jisi/u, 


Jijiri.n.orchichiri. SecKijiri. 
Jika, v. go to stool, in Z. tnda 
chooni. See Choo. 

Jike, n. (wa-), female animal. 
Punda /., an ass. Bat a /, a duck. 

. kijikc, and contr. ndtitnc. 
Jiko, n. (meko\ fire-place, 
kitchen. * Often in the locat 
ikoni, the kitchen. Mtoto wa 
jikcni, under-cook, scullery boy. 
Mkaa jikoni, a stay-at-home. The 
plur. mfko is used most commonly in 
Z. for the (three) stones which sup- 
port a t over the i 

mawe \ ! ittngu chu 

rnots. (Cf. figa* an 

jifya, and/i-.) 

Jilio, n. (ma-"), coming, approach, 
plural. (Cf. jio, 

' ./") 

Jim; , (i) a male fowl, 

/. i '-n . the 

ootpora.) (a) A plant, 
of "In aves and roots are 

eaten (Colocasia edulis, Sac.). (Cf. 

Jimbo, n. (ma-), inhabited coun- 

try, district, province. (Cf. wilaya, 
which is used of the administrative 
divisions of Zanzibar Island.) 

Jina, n. (w#-), name, i. e. proper 
name. J. lako nani! What is your 
name ? J. la kupangwa, nickname 
(borrowed name). Tin (-/a) /., 
give a name (to). Taj a mtu /., 
mention a person by name. 

Jinaraisi, n. (tna-\ (i) bending 
(oneself) down, bowing down, e.g. 
mahali pa jinamisi, a place where 
you must bend down, (a) fig. hu- 
mility, self-humiliation. (3) Night- 
mare. J f limenilemea, I am op- 
pressed by a nightmare. (Cf. inama t 
and ji'. ) 

Jingi, n. (ma-\ one of the two 

upright posts of a native frame for 

rope-making, supporting a cross 

board (bau lajingi). Also a form of 

^rct-ing with D 5 (S). 

*Jini, n. (/////-), a spirit, genius 
a supernatural (created) being, 
powerful and capricious, but not 
always like shetani, malignant. 
(Ar. See Pepo.) 

Jino, n. (tncno\ (i) tooth; (2) 
various objects resembling a tooth, 
as projecting, gripping, catching, 
e -E- CO K (f a wheel), ward (of a 
lock), strand (of a rope), plug (of 
tobacco), battlement (on a wall), &c. 
K a mini ya meno mo tat it, a rope of 
.'<; tttmbakO) 

si kifandc, a whole plug of tobacco, 
ut a tooth, 

of a child. Ngoaj., extract a tooth, 
have a tooth out Nau 
a tooth-ache, also j. .' 
la mtwlt, incisor, front tooth. J. la 
. back tooth, molar. Toa 
meno, show the teeth. 
mtno, gnaw, nibble, chew with the 
teeth, -a meno-mtno, bnulcmcntcd, 
jagged, serrated. (Cf. ckonp, 
fmbe, kibogoyo.} 

*Jinsi, n. sc: 
class, also commonly ginsi, 
see. (Ar.) 

Jinywa, n. (ma-) t a large month, 




esp. as an insulting term, e. g. ziba 
jinyiva lako, stop that great mouth 
of yours, shut up. (Cf. common 
kinywa t kamua, and nya} 

Jio, n. (0*0-), coming, approach. 
Seldom used. Jio la ustku, approach 
of night, evening. (Cf. follg. and ujio, 
jilio, njia, also/zVz, Ap. form oija.} 

Jiona, Jipevua, Jipotoa. See 
Ona, Pevua, Potoa, and Ji-. 

Jioni, loc. form of jio used as n. 
or adv., evening, in the evening. 
Jioni hivi (or, hii, or, led], this even- 
ing. (Cf. jio, and syn. kuchwa, 
mshuko wajua, magaribi, and contr. 

Jipu, n. (ma-}, boil, abscess. J. 
laiva, the boil is coming to a head. 
J. limetumbuka, the boil has burst. 
/. litatoka usaha, the boil will dis- 
charge. (Cf. upele, kidonda.} 

Jipunguza, Jipurukusha. See 
Pungusa, Purukusha, and Ji-. 

Jipya, n. new, agreeing with 
D 5 (S). See -pya. 

*Jirani, n. (ma-}, (i) neighbour, 
one living near ; (2) anything near, 
adjacent, adjoining, on the boundary. 
Nyumba yangu ni j. ya nyumba 
yake, my house is next to his. 
Shambaj., adjacent estate. (Ar. 
Cf. ujirani, mpaka mmoja, pakia.} 

*Jiri, v. come to pass, take place, 
take effect. Haikujiri neno, it has 
no effect. Cs.jirisha. Mfalme 

akaijiirisha s/ieria, the king gave 
effect to the laws, enforced the law. 
( Ar. for common tukia, tokea,ja, wa,} 

*Jiriwa, n. (ma-}, also Iriwa, a 
screw vice. 

Jisifu, v. Rf. of sifu (which see), 
boast, brag, vaunt oneself, sing one's 
own praises, advertise oneself. n 
usu. in plur. majisifu, self-praise, 
boasting. See Ji. 

Jisingizia, v. Rf. of Singizia 
(which see). 

.Jisu, n. (ma-}, a large knife 
(Cf. kisu, kijisu.} 

*Jitahidi, v. make an effort, exert 
oneself, try hard, strain at. Cs. 

jitahidisha, in intens. sense, make a 
threat effort. n. effort, endeavour, 
exertion. Jitahidi haiondoi amri ya 
Muungu, human effort is powerless 
against God's will. (Ar. -ji not 
reflexive, cf. juhudi from same root, 
and syn.fanya bidii, kaza, shifca.} 

Jiti, n. (ma-}, a large tree, a trunk 
of a tree, a large piece of wood. 
Unapoikamata ngoma, kamata jiti 
'ake, when you get hold of a drum, 
see you get hold of its wooden part. 
(Cf. mti, kijiti, and dist. kiti.} 

*Jitimai, n. grief, sorrow, affliction. 

Jito,n. (ma-}, also Juto, as from 
a root tito, large river, lake. Lake 
Nyassa is sometimes spoken of zsjito. 
(Cf. mto, kijito, and zi-wa, lake.) 

Jitu, n. (ma-}, a very big man. 
Anakuwa j. zima, he is becoming a 
perfect giant. (Cf. mtu, kijitii, and 
syn. pande, ov pandikizi, la mtu, and 
dist. kitu, a thing.) 

Jivi, n. (ma-}, (i) a great (notori- 
ous, famous) thief. (Cf. mwivi, iba}. 
(2) A wild hog (Str.). 

Jivu, n. (i) (ma-}, ash, also Jifu, 
which see ; (2) wooden socket in 
which the handle of a native drill 
turns. (Cf. keke.) 

Jivuli, n. (ma-}, great shadow, 
shadow of large object. Jivuli la 
mvurno, shadow of borassus palm. 
(Cf. mvu/i, kivuli, &c.) 

Jiwa, v. Ps. ap. of -ja, be ap- 
proached, be visited, have guests. 
See -ja. 

Jiwe, n. (mawe, or to indicate large 
size majiwe}, a stone, a large stone, 
a piece of stone, stone (as material). 
Nyumba ya mawe, a stone house. * 
J. la thamani, a precious stone. 
Mawe is used as a contemptuous ex- 
pletive, Rubbish ! nonsense! humbug! 
I don't believe you ! /. la kusagia, a 
mill-stone. J. la manga (see Manga), 
a hard close-grained stone, used as 
a whetstone (kinoo}. Piga, or pigia, 
mawe, throw stones at, stone. Mtupo 
waj'iwe, a stone's throw. The stone 
of Zanzibar is coral limestone of 




different ages. (Cf. mini' 

: :ik<ju'e. kij'iwe, and for different 
sizes of stone, mwamba,jabali, kokolo, 
char ichanga?) 

*Jizla, n. also Jesila, Gesla, a 
measure of weight, viz. \ofrasila or 
60 pishi, about 350-60 Ib. (Ar.) 

Jogoo, n. (ta-} t a male fowl, a 
cock. Jogoo lawika, the cock crows. 
J. la favanza, first cockcrow, about 
2 a.m. J. la pili, second cockcrow, 
just before dawn, 4 p.m. Majogoo 
ndio saa la shamba, the cock is the 
clock in the country. (Cf. jimbi, 
fora, kuku.) 

*Johari, n. a jewel, a gem, a 
precious stone, e. g. zumiiriJi,yakuti, 
almaii, feruzi, lulu. Also fig. j. za 
mtii ni mbili, akili na haya, the 
most precious qualities are these two, 
intelligence and modesty. (Ar. 
Cf. kilo.) 

* Joho, n. ( , and ma-\ (i) woollen 
cloth ; (a) a long loose cloth coat or 
cloak, open in front, and often richly 
embroidered, worn by Arabs and well- 
to-do people. (Ar. Cf./focw,and 

Joka, n. (ma-) y a very large snake, 
in general, a serpent. (Cf. nyoka, 
n. ar. '. choka.} 

Joko, n. (ma-}, oven, kiln, esp. of 
potter's work, a place for baking 
earthen vessels, i.e. mahali pa kuokca 
vyungv. //', which see, and 

oka. Cf.josho, and choko.) 

Jombo, n. (ma-), ampl. of chombo, 
i. e. ji-ombo, a large utensil, a large 
vessel or s (Cf. chombo, ki- 


Jongea, v. move (pass) on, make 

a move, move, approach. Jongea 

ve into shade. Jonget 

ove aside and 

let me pa&s. :-elea, -(Java, 

move to, ap- 

; - t n . & i- . . / /;-, .- // ijongelea 

hat tii nilipo, and he came close up to 

where I was. s. jong-e-.a, -fzwa, 

'ttana. (Cf. enda. pita, sogea. 

Jongo, n. (/-)> ( ! ) a 
back, a ridge, high projection; (2) 
a seam, in sewing. J. nene, a large, 
projecting seam. (For ji-ongo cf. 
ntaongo, or maun go, and gongo, 
mgongo (elsewhere mongo\ back, 
dorsal ridge, kijongo, kibiongo?) 

Jongoo, n. (nia-\ a very large 
black millipede, common in Z. and 
destructive to crops. Mtupa jongoo 
hutupa na ntti wake, he who throws 
away a millipede, throws away the 
stick it is on as well. 

Jororo, a. soft, form of -ororo, 
agreeing with D 5 (S). (See -ororo, 
and ji.) 

Josho, n. (ma-}, for ji-osho, or 
same as chosho, i.e. ki-osho, a bathing- 
place, a place for washing. (Cf. 
oga, osha, and see Chosho.) 

Joto, n. (wa-), tot ji-oto, or same 
as choto, i.e. ki-oto, great hint, in- 
flammation, pyrexia. Pata joto (or 
jotojotd)) get hot. (Cf. ota, moto.} 

Joya, n. a white spongy substance 
sometimes found filling the shell of 
a cocoanut, instead of being deposited 
as the usual lining of nutty hard 
substance on the inside, also the 
nut thus filled. Joya la nazi, either 
the substance or the nut. Hntc. 
nazi, knma . >,ya ndani, 

a cocoanut is examined to see if it is 
spongy inside. Kama j., t\ 
porous, full of holes. .Aj 
ni j., atakaye huingia, my h 
like a- spongy cocoanut, any < : 
likes goes into it. (Cf. nazi.) 

*Joei, n. (i) a walnut ; (a) a pair, 
i ouple, of anything. (Ar. 
' nut ' in general. Cf. lozi 
consonants are transposed of the Ar. 
word for ' pair.') 

Jua. n. (w<j-\ (1^1 the sun, sun- 
Bather; (a) time of day 
(as judged by the position of the sun), 
hot weather. 
rich-want), time of son 
overhead, noonday. /. ku t ha (ku- 
panda, kutoka, kuthoni 
/. kuchwa (/Ma, sHuka), sunset. J. 




linaaga mill, the sun is taking farewell 
of the trees, ' i. e. is setting. Macho 
ya /., sunrise, the Orient, the East. 
Machweoyaj., sunset, the West. J. 
limekiiiaa alasiri (athuuri, ma- 
garibi, &c.) the time of day is after- 
noon (noon, evening, &c.). Katika 
j. saa nioja, at 7 a.m. 

Jua, v. know, know about, under- 
stand, be acquainted with. Najua 
jambo hilt (nitu huyu}, I know this 
affair (this person). Sijui maneno 
ya kiunguja, I do not know the 
Zanzibar language. Nojiia kufua 
chtttna, 1 know smith'swork. Namiua 
aliko, I know where he is. Ps. 
juliwa. Nt.y/*/&0, be known, be 
knowable, be intelligible, and juli- 
kana, in the latter sense. Ap.j'u- 
ili'.i, -iliwa, know about, &c. Ali- 
mjuilia kama amekasirika, he recog- 
nized that he was angry. Cs. 
(rarely juza), ju-liska, -lishwa, -li- 
shana, cause to know, make known, 
inform. Also juvya, jtwisha (some- 
times meaning 'make impertinent, 
provoke to or teach impertinence.' 
Cf. -j'uvi). Rp. ju-ana, -ania, 
anisha. JVimewajuants/ia, I have 
introduced them to each other. 
(Cf. -juzi, -juvi, ujtizi, &c., and syn. 
fahanm, tambtta.} 

*Juba, n. ( , or ma-}, (i) a kind 
of coat, vest, or jacket, open in front, 
with collar and wide sleeves of cloth 
or (unlike the joho) of calico and 
linen. (Arab. Cf. joho, kanzu 

nguo} (2) A mortising chisel. (Cf 
patasi, chembeu} 

*Juhudi, n. effort, exertion, strain 
ardour, zeal, painful stress, agony 
Anaj.ya kazi, he is a zealous worker 
Fanya /., take great pains. J. s 
pato, trying is not the same as sue 
ceeding. (Ar. Cf. jitahidi, an< 
cf. syn. bidii, kazi, nguvu.} 

*Jukum, n. trader's risk, paymen 
for taking risk, insurance. Lipa / 
insure (goods, in trading). Ckuku t 
j., take the risk, guarantee. (Hind, 
used in commerce, cf. syn. bima.) 

*Jukwaa, n. (ma-}, also Jukwari, 
caffolding, staging, stage, scaffold. 

*Juma, n. (i) also Jumaa, 
Friday, and more fully Ijumaa, i. e: 
he day of assembly, e.g. Kivenyi 
iwapo] Jjtimaa, on Friday ; (a) 
ma-\ a week. J. moja, one week. 
T. zima, a whole week. The days 
"ollowing are named from it, i.e. 
Tumaa (for Junta yd] most, Saturday, 
Tumaa pili, Sunday, Jumaa tatu, 
Monday, Jumaa 'nne, Tuesday, 
fumaa tano, Wednesday. But Alha- 
<nisi, Thursday. See Alhamisi. 
^Ar. Cf. jamaa, jamii, junila, and 
see Siku. Junta seems also some- 
imes used for nj'umu.) 

* Jumaa, n. See Juma. Moskiti 
wa jumaa, the mosque of the con- 

regation. (Arab.) 

Jumba, n. (/-), a large house, 
mansion, palace. t (For ji-wnba' 

f. nyumba, chtiniba, kijumba, &c.) 

Jumbe, n. (/-), king, chief, head 

man, also called locally dhvani, 

shomvi,pasi. (Peih.ji-umb&, from 

iimba, cf. kiumbe, and syn. sultani, 

falme, ntwinyi, mkuu, and dist. 

*Jumla, n. (i) the sum, total, a 
lot, all together; (2) in Arithm. 
addition. Also adv. wholesale, in 
lots. (Ar. Cf.juma,j(imaa, and 

n.jamii, shelabela) 

*Jumlisha, v. Cs. add up, sum up, 
put all together. Ps. jumlishwa. 
(Ar. Cl.jumla, and syn. jamiisha, 

Jungu, n. (ma-\ a large coc 
pot, usually round, of red or black 
earthenware, and with a cover. (For 
ji-ungu, and cf. kijungu, kichungu, 
ungu with pi. nyungu, and for other 
vessels, see Chungu, Chombo.) 

*Jura, n. (ma-}, also Jora, Gora, 
a length of calico, calico in the piece 
(of 30 to 35 y<*s). ( ? Ar O , 

Juta, v. regret, feel the loss of, 
miss, be sorry for, feel remorse for, 
referring to something past. Najuta 




mi mi nafsi yangu kufanya nctio hilt, 
I am sorry myself for doing this 
thing. Jttta tnaovit, feel remorse for 
wrongdoing. Ps. jutwa. Nt. 
jutika, whence jtttt 'kan a. Ap.jttt- 
Cs. jut-isha, -ishwa. 

Rp.//tfawa, join in regretting. 
juto, also toba, titbit.} 


Juto, n. (ma-\ (i) regret, remorse, 
sorrow for what is past. Fanya ona, 

: na, &c.) majttto, feel remorse. 
Shikwa (JxUivd) na majuto, have n fit 
of remorse. Wakajiita sana majuto 

, they very bitterly regretted it. 
Majuto ni wjukttu, mwishowe huj'a 
kinyumc, remorse is a grandchild, it 
comes at last, (a) A form of jito, 
a large river. (Cf./w/Vz, toba, and 

Juu, adv. and (with ya} prep., (i) 
of position, above, high up, over, 
on, upon, up (to) above, from above. 

S on the top (of). /. ya 
nyutnba, on the top of the house. 
Aliyoko juu, mngojce ch /;//, wait be- 
low for the man who is above. 
randa j., go upstairs. Shuka j. 
ya frasi, dismount from a horse. 
Angenda j., hafikilii nif 
though he soars high, he does not 
get to the sky. Also of rank, dignity, 

liye j. ni J., i.e. a great man 
\-o juu, 

palipo ike, is user! 

top of a thing. /><? juu, 

here is the top, the highest point. 
(2) Resting on, dependent on, obli- 
gatory on, morally binding 
business of, the duty of, &c. /. yako, 
you, are res; Icpcnds upx>n 

wfalmc k:. 

and above, in addition to, beside. 

haya, besides nil this. 

him a rupee in n<! . wage*. 

4 A! 
spect of. with regard to. Mtotc 

ni mwa/trnu 
'. trrnts his teacher with nil 
respect. .- safari 

yako, make plans for your journey. 
Alisctna mengi j. yake, he talked 
a great deal about him. (5) Against, 
in opposition to, to the prejudice 
(harm, loss) of. Htina nguru j, 
yangu, you have no power against 
(over) me. Wakaleta vita j. ya 
adtti, they made war upon (against) 
their enemies. (6) In an excited, per- 
plexed, fluttered, alarmed state or 
condition (of mind and feeling). 
Moyo wake ni j., yuna tnoyoj., he is 
excited, has taken offence, is angry, 
has lost his head, &c. The Rd. 
form jinijtnt is also often u-eil, 
with different shades of meaning, 
e.g. (i) high up, very high, exalted. 
Tazatna kijuujiiu, take a birdseye, 
synoptic, general view ; (a) proud, 
arrogant, supercilious ; (3) super- 
ficial, foolish, shallow, excite 
plexed , &c. IVakaulizwa ya junjuii , 
they were asked the usual formal 
(civil) questions. Mamboyajuujmi, 
indifferent matters, gossip, topic of 
the hour. Tukasemezana juujuu, 
we had a chat together. (Contr. 
(h ini.} 

Juvisha, Juvya, v. Cs. See 
Jua, v. 

Juya, n. nc, drag-net, 

made of native materials. (CL/arifa, 
want, kimia.} 

Juea, v. Cs. See Jua, v. 

Juai, n. (wa-}, the day before 
yesterday. J. na jana si Xv 
Ito, yesterday, and the day before, 
are not like matters of to-day. 
/., or wa j. t the year before 
last. Also used : 

.1 few days ago. 

the king's business to rule. (3) Over /. /;/>/, tlu- other <lay. Tangu 

vale, some time ago. Mtu 
wa /, a new oung person. 

three days ago. 

Juzu, v. be permissible, be allow- 
able, be suitable, be fitting 

esc clothes do not suit 
< not proper for 

;is matter 


for me, is my duty. Ap. juz-ia, 
-iwa, be right for, be allowed to, be 
obligatory for. Mwanamkt huyu 
anijuzia kwnwoa, it is right for me 
to marry this woman. So nime- 
juziwa kumwoa. Also n. and a^., 
of what is allowable, within one's 
duty, and so (often) morally binding, 
obligatory. (Ar. Ct.pasa,wajibit.} 
*Juzu, n. (ma-"), division, section, 
chapter of a book, esp. of the Goran. 
Anasomaj.ya thelathini, he is read- 
ing the thirtieth chapter. (Ar. Cf. 
kitabu, chuo.} 


K represents the same sound as in 
English. The two different k sounds 
in words of Arabic origin are not 
commonly distinguished in Swahili. 
For the sound of Arabic kh see 
remarks on Kh- below. 

K is often pronounced ch in Zanzi- 
bar, esp. among the slave class and 
new-comers from mainland tribes. 

A' is one of the commonest sounds 
in Swahili speech, entering as it does 
into the formatives ka, ki, ko, and 
ku (which see), and the preps, kwa, 

Words not found under K may be 
looked for under Kh, H, or Ch. 
For words beginning with ki- see 
remarks on Ki-, below. 

K-, before a vowel, sometimes 
represents ka or ki, which see. 

Ka, i. is a verbal connective pre- 
fix, except in the cases noted below. 
In general, it connects two or more 
verbs together in such a way as eithei 
(a) to carry on the construction (mooc 
and tense) of the first verb to those 
following with ka-, or (3) to suppl} 
in those verbs the construction ap 
propriate to the context. But mos 
commonly it is used (i) to connec 
a verb in the Past (Narrative) Tens 
Indicative with others following, o 
else (2) to connect a verb in th 
Imperative Mood with another in th 
Subjunctive, or Imperative. Thus th 

122 KA 

/pical form of a narrative in Svva- 
ili begins with a verb in the Past 
/*-) Tense, and proceeds with verbs 
aving ka for It, e.g. paliondokea 
ermala akaenda kuoa mke, there 
/as once a carpenter and he went 
nd married a wife. Palikuwa nitu 
kawa tajiri, there was once a man 
nd he became rich. Hence ka- 
nay be said commonly to carry the 
orce of ' and ' before a Past (Narra- 
ive) Tense. Similarly, the common 
orm of Imperative sentence with 
more than one verb is njoo kaone, 
jr njoo nkaone, or njoo kaona, come 
And see. Nenda kalete (ukalete, 
kahta\ go and fetch (it). 

Beside these uses, ka is regularly 
^mployed (i) with a single Impera- 
ive as a semi-connective, i. e. with 
eference to something implied or. 
understood, e. g. leta, bring it ; kaleta 
kalete], bring it then. So kaseme 
ati ! speak then ! Also nikaivete ? 
Am I to call them then? (2) 
D refixed to a verb -root, without 
?ers. Pfx. with the force of the 
3 Pers. Sing. Perf. Indie., e. g. 
kafa, he is dead. Kenda take, he 
has gone away. Alikwenda mjini 
kapanda punda, he went to town 
on a donkey, i.e. amepanda punda. 
(3) Affixed to the sign of the Future 
fa, when ta would otherwise be re- 
quired to bear the accent, as in 
relative forms, e.g. atakapokwenda 
for atapokwenda, when he shall go. 

In (2) and (3) ka has no connective 

There remain a number of cases 
in which ka is less commonly used, 
e. g. with a Present Tense, nikah, 
and I am ; with or following the hu 
tense, hujikia pale akala. he used to 
go there and eat ; hutoka assubuhi 
hukarudi, he used to go out in the 
morning and come back ; with a 
Future Tense, ntaenda nikapata 
baraka, I will go and win a bless- 
ing ; with a subordinate verb, nime- 
kwcnda kwake nikamtazame, I have 




been to his house to see him ; intro- 
ducing a supplement especially to 
negative expressions, e. g. asijcakafa, 
that he may not first come and die, 
for asijc knfa or asijafa, before he 
die ; usinifigc ukajiita, do not strike 
me and then regret it (i.e. or you 
will regret it) ; tusiende tukaruJi, do 
not let us go and then have to come 
back again ; kwenda akaja leo, per- 
haps he comes to-day. 

A'a coalesces commonly with e or 
o following, e. g. akenda, akoga, and 
with * following forms e, as akesha, 
for akaisha. Nika is often con- 
tracted into ha. 

2. is a Diminutive Prefix of nouns 
and adjectives, more emphatic than 
ki, e. g. katoto, a tiny child ; kajiwe, 
a very small stone ; kagongo kafupi, 
a very short little clnb ; paka kadogo, 
mall kitten. Kadogo is used, 
like kidogo, as adv., in a very small 
degree, infinitesimally, to a very small 

Kaa, v. ( i stay, stop, rest, remain, 
own, take a seat; 

(3) dwell, live (in), inhabit, reside 

4) continue, last, endure. 

; u'a/'i ? nakaa shamba (tnjini , 

Where do you live? I live in the 

country (in the town). Kaa kitako, 

he haunches, squat, sit down. 

ia, I am seated, often .1 polite 

icther seated or not) to 

i karibu, walk in. Nguo 

his dress has lasted 

. has worn well. 

<z/w, this country is in- 

' aliiva na watu. 

Ps, kaliwa (rarely kawa). Nt. 

kali ka, and kalikana, be habitable, 

&c. Ap. ka-Iia, -h's/ui, -/isAwa, 

y f &c,). 

loses in 

'// matangdi 

-ii ing for a person. 

Inumf , it has i> 

agreeable- to him. ,-lkakalia nytU 

sate, and be waited with (for) his 

hair, i.e. he let it go untrimmed. 
\Vakakalianakaribn , and they settled 
near each other. Cs. ka-lisha 
, -lishwa. (Cf. ukao, 

kikao, makazi, mkaa, &c., and syn. 
keti, shinda, ngoja t is/it, Jumu.) 

Kaa, n. (wa-) % (i) a piece of char- 
coal, also extended to mean 'a lump 
of coal.' Alakaa, charcoal, coal, 
embers. Mineral coal is sometimes 
distinguished as makaa, ya tnau'C, 
stone coal. Makaa ya moto, live 
embers. Makaa zim-we (ya zirnwc, 
MHHMMM), slaked embers, cinders, 
dead (burnt out) coal. Makaa moshi 
(}'am0sJti) t sool. (Cf. wasizi.) Choma 
(o&a, pikd) makaa, make charcoal. 
(2) ( ), a crab, the most generic 
term, including many varieti< 
kaa makoko (ya pwani}, 
ngadu, mwanamizi. (Dist. follg.) 

Kaaka, n. also Kaa, the palate, 
also kaa la kinwa. 

Kaanga, v. fry, braze, cook with 
fat, i. e. oka, kwa samli (or, kwa 
mafuta}. A', nyama, cook meat 
with fat. A', ttioto, heat, warm. 
Mayai ya kukaaitga, poached (fried) 
eggs. K. ngoma, warm a drum at 
a fire to tighten the skin. Ik-ncr 
ngoma ya kukaanga, fig. for delay, 
i.e. a pause in a dance. (Cf. 
kaango, kikaango, ukaango, and for 
cooking, pika.} 

Kaango, n. ( , and ma-}, a cook- 
ing pot, of carthenwa 
for cooking with fat, a frying-pan. 
(Cf. kaanga.) 

Kaba, v. press tight, squeeze. 

are too tight for him. Kaba roho, 
seize by the throat, throttle. 
Wakamkaba roho hatta ox 
.-jttlnl him till he : 
(?Ar. Cf. syn. l>ana, songa, kasa, 
sati, sAita, kamata.} 
*Kaba, n. or Kaaba, (i) lining of 

'.- on neck and sh< 
See Kansu. Also (a) a kind 

: ( -eves. (Ar. Cf.yWAt.) 
*Kabari, n. ( , and ma-) t a wedge 




(of wood or iron), e. g. to split logs 

*Kabila, n. (ma-\ tribe, clan, 
a smaller division than taifa, and 
larger than itfungu,jatnaa. 
J *Kabili, v. (i) be in front, be 
opposite, face (towards), front, point 
to, correspond to, be directed towards, 
be exposed to ; (2) incline towards, 
tend to, be inclined to, be likely to, 
have a propensity for; (3) confront, 
brave, defy, oppose, be contradictory 
to. Nikamkabili uso kwa tiso, I met 
him face to face. Mahali palipoka- 
bili baridi, a place exposed to the 
wind. Hakabili kuiiza, he is not 
inclined (likely) to sell. Ulitnwengu 
unakabili mvua, the weather por- 
tends rain. Hatuivezi kukabili ba- 
hari He, we cannot steer for (navigate, 
face) that sea. Wakakabili risasi 
zetu, they boldly faced our bullets. 
%. kabiliwa. N\.. kabilika. A p. 
kabil-ia, -iana, be opposite, face each 
other, have a mutual attraction, 
correspond . Cs. kabil-isha, -ishwa. 
Ntakukabilisha na wali, I will con- 
front you with (present you to) the 
governor. Kabilisha mtu, send a 
man in a given direction. Kabilisha 
barua, dispatch a letter, forward a 
letter to its destination. Kabilisha 
inoyo, set the heart on, resolve. 
(Ar. Cf. kubali, kabla, kibula, and 
syn. tekea, simamia, -wa mbele ya, 
ktitana na, shindana na, lingana na, 

Kabisa, adv. utterly, altogether, 
quite, wholly, exactly. Njema kabisa, 
as good as can be. Sitaki kabisa, I 
absolutely refuse. (Cf. syn. kamwe, 
haswa, halisi.} 

*Kabithi, v. also Takabathi, (i) 
take in the hand, receive, hold, lay 
hands on, seize, keep. Also (a) Cs. 
(for kabithishd], cause to hold in the 
hand, put in the hand (of), deliver 
(to), hand over (to), give (to). 
Amemkabithi mwenyi deni, he has 
seized the debtor. Kabithi mali, 
hoard, economize. Ulitakabathi tha- 

mani, you received the price. I 'na- 
kabithi watoto mali yao, hand over 
this property to the children. Nika- 
wakabithi fetha wale ivatumwa, I 
gave the money to the slaves. Cs. 
kabithiwa* Ap. kabilh-ia, -iana. 
Cs. kabith-isha, -ishwa, cause to re- 
ceive, hand over (to), deliver (to). 
(Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. (i) pokea, 
kamata, shika\ (2) salimu, toa, po- 
keza, lipa.} 

*-kabithi, a. economical, grasping, 
close-fisted, miserly. (Ar. Cf. ka- 
bithi, ukabithi^) 

*Kabla, conj. and (with^a) prep., 
before, almost exclusively of time, 
previously, antecedently, in advance 
of. Followed by a verb in the nega- 
tive, usu. the /a tense and often with 
bado, or else a relative. A', hajaja 
bado, before he arrived. K. ha^k^l- 
tiwa nangct, before casting anchor. 
K. atakapohuja (ajapo\ before he 
shall come (comes). K. ya ktija Y 
before arrival. K. ya siku chache, 
before long, or, a lew days before. 
(Ar. See Kabili, and follg. Cf. 

*Kabla, n. purpose, object, ten- 
dency, direction. Tukaona kabla 
yao, we saw what they were going to 
do. (Arab, seldom used. Cf. 
kabili, kibula, kibla.} 

*Kabuli, n. (i) acceptance, sanc- 
tion. (Ar. Cf. the more common 
kibali,ukubali}. (2) An Indian dish 
of rice, curry, &c. (Hind. Cf. pilan.} 

*Kaburi,n. grave, tomb, sepulchre, 
place of burial. Makaburi, or maka- 
burini, a cemetery. Chungulia ka- 
burini, have one foot in the grave. 
(Ar. Cf. siara, kuzimu.} 

*Kadamu, n. (/-)> also M ka- 
damu, foreman, used of the third 
in authority of the men superintend- 
ing work on an estate, the head man 
being msiniamizi, the second nokoa. 
(Ar. Cf. iakadamu, and follg.) 

*Kadimisha, v. Cs. cause to go 
before, send in advance. (Ar. Cf. 
kadamu t and tangulia^} 




*Kadiri, v. also Kadri, (i) esti- 
mate, reckon, calculate, fix the value 

n limit on ; V 2 form an opinion 
on, consider, weigh, judge. A", mali, 

I valuation of property. X<i- 
kadiri maneno haya ni kwcli, I judge 
that this statement is true. Ps. 
kadiri-i'ii. Nt. kadirika, e.g. be 
limited, be measurable, be moderate 
(in amount, behaviour, Sic.}, be finite. 
A'if/ii ni farathi ya iliyokculiri-wa, 
death is a necessary condition of what 
is finite. Anatakabari nino, haka- 
diriki, he shows great arrogance, he 
has no moderation. Mantno yasiyo- 
kadirika, unmeasured (or, unintelli- 
gible) language. Ap. kadir-ia, 
-iwa. Cs. kadir-isha, -isJtwa, e. g. 
put limit to, restrain, cause a valua- 
tfapfastimate'; to be made, &c. n. 
^l)ainount, measure,extent, capacity, 
value, rnnk ; 2) moderatu ; 
control, temperance. A", ya watu 
kuini wamekuja, as many as ten 
people have come. A'.gani? What 
amount ? How much ? A'aa mahali 
pa k. yako, remain in a place suited 
to your condition. as adv. cooj. 
and (with ya) prep, in various senses, 
(i) about, nearly, up to; (2) as much 
as, as long as, as oft r:i as, whilst, when, 
as; (3) moderately, on an average, 
in a certain degree, e. g. k. utakafo- 
fanyiwa maai-u imiite, whenever you 
are badly treated, call me. A', akitia, 
hukaza, as soon as he plac< 
fastens it. A', ya kukaa kitako, just 

ijjdown. ( 

also with ~vyo following, e. g. k. awe- 
zaiyo, as far as he can, to the best 
ibility. (Ar. Cf. ukadiri, 
and yn. gmtt, kitui.) 

Kodogo, a. invar, dim. of -dogo, 
and more emphatic than^ kidogo, 
small, mintit*. 

-o adv.. in a very 
small degree. (Cf. -dogo, ki- ana 

*Kafara, n. (ma-) t an ofl< 

charm,-- 1> 
Toa A., make an offering, M 

Chinja k., kill (an animal) as an 
offering. (Ar. cover, atone. Cf. 
kafiri, kufuru, and syn. sadaka, 

Kafi, n. (ma-}, paddle, small 
steering oar. Piga k., use a paddle, 
paddle. (Cf. karia.} 

&fila, n. a caravan. (Arab. 

rarely heard, for common msafara, 

*Kafini, v. cover up, wrap. Mtu 
aliyckufa hukafiniwa kwa sattda, a 
dead man is wrapped in a fchroud. 
(Ar. kofani, a pall ; rarely heard, for 

mmonyi/ttwtf, vika.) 

*Kaflri, n. (-), one who is not 
of the Mahommcdan religion, an 
infidel, an unbeliever, an atheist, 
a pagan, an apostate. (Ar. Cf. 
kttfuru, ukafiriC) 

*Kafuri, n. camphor. (Arab.) 

Kaga, v. protect by a charm, j>ut 
a charm on (in, near, &c.), e. . 
shamba (mwi/i, kaburf), protect by 
charm a plantation (person, grave). 
Cf. follg. 

Kago, n. (makago and ;/. 
charm (for protection or preservation). 
K. la Jisi, charm against a ! 
(Cf. kaga, and syn. kafara^ dawa, 

Kaguu. v. in-pect, survey, examine. 
K. shamba, inspect a plantation. 
A', (isi&iri, inspect, hold a parade of, 
troops. Pa. kaguliwa. Nt. 

kagulika. Ap. kagu-lia, -liwa. 
(Cf. mkaguzi, and syn. .. 

*Kahaba, n. (w<?-), pr- 
(Ar. Cf. ukakaba.) 

Kahawa, n. coffee, i.e. the 
beverage, the berry b< i 
bunt y , and the plant 

Ar. Cf. mkaha 

KaJ -), also Xubani, 

soothsayer, and sometimes in 

bad sense, <1< (Ar. 

;ohani, an : 
*Kahn . (Arab.) 

la, n. fundamental nilc,canon, 
pattern, standard, method, same as 




(Ar. Cf. 

kawaida, which see. 
syn. kanuni.) 

*Kaidi, v. be obstinate, be head- 
strong, rebel, refuse to obey, con- 
tradict. Usimkaidi baba akisema 
neno, do not contradict (disobey) 
your father, if he says anything. 
Cs. kaid-isha, -ishwa, e. g. incite to 
disobedience. (Ar. Cf. follg. and 
syn. halifu, ast.} 

*-kaidi, a. obstinate, refractory, 
disobedient, rebellious, &c. (Ar. 
Ct, prec.) 

*Kaimu, n. (ma-\ superintendent, 
guardian, vicegerent, viceroy. Ha- 
kirnu atakuwa k. wa shughtili tie, 
the chief will undertake that business. 
(Arab. Cf. waziri, wakili.} 

Kajekaje, n. small cords used to 
fasten the sail to the yard, in a 
native vessel. (Cf. chombo, and 

Kajia, n. an extremely small path 
or passage. Dim. of njia. (Cf. 
njia, ujia, and ka-.} 

Kaka, n. (tna-), (i) used occa- 
sionally of an empty shell, e.g. of 
an egg, or of the rind of a fruit, e. g. 
of an orange, k. layai, k. la chnngwd. 
(But ganda is more usual, cf. fuvu, 
/.) (2) Elder brother, generally 
used playfully or colloquially, as 
dada. (3) A disease affecting the 

Kaka-kaka, adv. in a hurry, in a 
rush (press, bustle). (Cf. kikaka.} 
Kakamia, v. strain after, make a 
sudden or violent effort to do, or get 
something, e. g. k. maji, of a thirsty 
man. (Cf. follg.) 

Kakam'ka, v. make a muscular 
effort, strain, as in lifting a load, 
breaking a stone, or in travail. Obs. 
aXsOtRi.jikakamua, in same sense. 

Kakawana, v. be strong, athletic, 
well knit, muscular. (Cf. syn 
shtipaa, -wa na maungo.) 

*Kaki, n. a thin hard-baked bis- 
cuit or oake. (Cf. mkate>) 

*Kalafati, v. caulk (the seams of a 
wooden vessel), the tool used being 

chembeti. Described as tin famba 
na niafnta ynsingie maji, apply 
cotton and grease to prevent water 
getting in. Ps. kalafatiwa. n. 
caulking, material used for caulking. 

Kalala, n. also Karara, Ukalala, 
the tough leathery sheath of the cocoa- 
nut flower stem. 

Kalam'ka, v. be quick witted, be 
wide awake, be sharp (intelligent, 
on the alert), have one's eyes open. 
Ap. kalamkia, -iwa, (usually) be too 
sharp for, outwit, deceive, cheat. 
(Cf. kalavfzi, and am'ka, and syn. 
danganya, punja, hadaa.} 

''Kalamu, n. pen (made of reed). 
Also any pen. Chonga k., point a 
pen, make a pen. K. na wino, pen 
and ink. (Ar.) 

Kalam'zi, a. crafty, cunning, 
sharp. (Cf. kalam'ka, and syn. 
-janja, -erevu, ayari^) 

*Kalasha, n. tusk of ivory, smaller 
than Iwri. (Cf. pembe, hurt.} 

*Kalasia, n. small brass vessel 
with narrow neck, often used for 
milk. (Hind. Cf. kopo, sufuria, 
for metal vessels.) 

Kale, n. old times, antiquity, the 
past, former ages. Watu wa k., the 
ancients, men of old. Zamani za ., 
old times, past ages. Hapo k., once 
upon a time, long ago. Kikale, of 
the old style, old-fashioned, anti- 
quated, -a k., old, ancient. -a 
kikale, antiquated. (Cf. zamani, 
and dist. uzee, old age.) 

*Kalfati. See Kalafati. (Ar.) 

-kali, a. (i) sharp, having a sharp 
edge, cutting, e.g. kisu kikali, a 
sharp knife, makali ya upanga, the 
edge of a sword, opp. to butu ; (2) 
sharp to the taste, acid, sour, bitter, 
e.g. siki kali, sour vinegar, opp. 
to laini, tamu, and cf. chungu ; (3) 
sharp in temper, severe, stern, cross, 
cruel, fierce, e. g. ngombe mkali, a 
fierce cow, opp. to -pole, -a huruma ; 
(4) keen, intense, vehement, brave, 
jua kali, tembo kali, strong palm- 




wine, scorching sun, u>atu wakali, 
warlike people, opp. to -legevti, -vizw, 
-oga. (Cf. ukali.} 

-kali, verb-form, used with Person 
prefixes, nikali, tit kali , &c., and I am 
(was), and we are (were), &c. (Cf. 
1 /.) 

Kalis, Kalika, v. See Kaa, v. 

*Kalibu, n. a mould, e. g. for bul- 
lets, i. e. kidudt cha kusubia tisasi, a 
thing for casting bullets in. Also of 
that in which metal, &c. is heated, 
a heating pot or furnace. (C subu t 
ita t joko, tanttu.} 

*Kalima, n. word. (Arab, for 
common mno. Cf. mkalimani?) 

*Kalme. See Galme. 

Kama, v. squeeze, but esp. of 
milking, e.g. kama tig'ombe rnazi-ca, 
milk a cow, or simply kama. 1's. 
kamwa. Nt. kamika, kamikana. 
Ap. kam-ia, -iwa. (Dist. kamia, 
threaten.) Cs. kam-isha, -ishwa, 
nbe za watu, act as 
milkman, undertake milking. (Cf. 
katntta, kamata, and songa y kaba, 

*Kama, conj. also Kana, (i) as 
a particle of comparison in general, 
(a) as, such as, like, as if, as though, 
f kama niinri, be like me. 
Ruka k. ndege, fly like a bird. Mtn 
mfupi k. wfwf, a man as short as 
you. K. hivi (vile), as tin 

this way, for instance. With 
a noun, often supplies a lack 
c. g. X-. ///<///, like wai- 
fluid, also fluent, easy. AT. 
u. With tt i fit, forms 
an expletive or adv. of emphasis, 
e.g. kubwa k. r ierfully 


,1, or in the form kamani! 

ul ! marvellous ! With a verb, 

commonly followed by ~vyo t 

ndavyo, as you please, 

sterna, as you said, but also 

t>) Like, as it 

comparison, c. g. of numbers, asikari 
k. mt'a, about a hundred soldiers. Ny- 

ingi k. si 9tyingi, a moderate number. 
(c) In the definite comparison of two 
or more objects, ' as compared with, 
rather than, and not' (cf. kziliko), 
e. g. afathali kuweka mali k. ku- 
tutnia yote, it is better to save money 
than to use it all up. Yeye mkubwa 
k. wewe, he is big as compared with 
you, i. e. bigger than you. //.// 
knpotea nikafa k. kuwa hai, better I 
should be lost and die than live. 
Bora thahabu k. fetha, gold is more 
valuable than silver. (2) As a . snb- 
ordinative particle, (a) that, of re- 
ported speech, &c. Nasenia k. 
ndivyo, I say that it is so. Nimesikia 
k.hajiti, I understand that he does not 
know. Aliamnni k. aendt, he ordered 
that he should go. (Cf. similar 
use of^a kuwa, ya kivamba, kwatnba, 
and kama kwarnba.) (b) If, sup- 
posing that, though, i. e. conditional, 
e. g. k. una homa ncnda kwa //. 
if you have fever, go to the doctor. 
A', hutaki, bassi, if you do not want 
to, there is an end of it. Also often 
with Pres. Partic. , X-. ukifcnJa, if 
you like. A', fetha ikipatikana, 
ntalipa, if the money is forthcoming, 
I will pay. (0 Whether, if, e.g. 
A///// k. yuko, I do not know whether 
he is there. Alintuliza k. ;;</. 
asked me whether it was so. (Ar. 
For comparative use cf. w. 
mfano wa r mithili ya, kuliko. Kor 
couditi'inal u>c cl. i(-i 
endapo, and the use of -ki- and 


*Kamali, n. a game played by 
chucking small coin into a hole 

Kamamanga, n. Src 

*Kamani, a<K rfully, 

strangely, exceedingly. (Fi 

what! see Kama.) 
Kamaai, n 

nose, catarrh. .s/:r, / ',.. I have a 
v head. (Cf. mafua, 
i maAamasi, wipe the 




Kamata, v. take forcible hold of, 
catch hold of, seize with the hands 
(arms, claws, a trap, &c.), grasp, 
clasp, make a prisoner of, arrest. 
Chid alimkamata kuku, the leopard 
got hojd of the fowl. Ps. kamatwa. 
Nt. k&matika, e.g. maji hayaka- 
matiki, water cannot be grasped in 
the hand. Ap. kamat-ia, -iwa, 
e. g. seize with, grasp at, get a partial 
hold of, &c. Cs. kamatisha, also 
In tens, hold fast. Rp. kamatana, 
grapple, e. g. in wrestling. (Implies 
some effort, difficulty to overcome. 
Cf. shika, habit hi, guia, nasa. For 
the termination cf. ambata,fumbata, 
nafa, pata.} 

Kamati, n. ball of wheat flour, 
leavened with tembo, i. e. palm-wine 

Kamba, n. cord, rope, the most 
generic term, properly of the native 
kind, but made of twisted cocoanut 
fibre (niakumbi). Hence k. ya 
kumbi, kamba ya nazi, to distinguish 
it from k. ulaiti, European, hempen 
rope, and k. ya miwaa, rope of 
plaited leaf strips. See Ukambaa. 
Ukukuu wa kamba si ^^pya wa ukam- 
baa, in a rope old fibre is better than 
new leaf strips. Piga (fungd) k., tie 
with a rope, cord (a load), but also 
like songa k., suka (sokota) k. , make 
a rope by twisting or plaiting. The 
ropes of a native sailing vessel have 
various names, all of non- Bantu 
origin, e. g. amari,baraji, hamarawi 
dasi, henza, jarari, demani, goshi 
dakawa, mjiari, or ujari. Various 
materials for binding are ubugu 
ugomba, ung'ongo, ununu, ukindu 
and miwaa. (Cf. ukambaa, also 
ugwe, kitani.} 

Kamba, n. a .lobster, crayfish 
prawn, shrimp, sometimes distin 
guished as k. ya pwani, k. ya bahari 
also mkamba, the common lobster 
and k. ya mtoni, crayfish. (Cf. m 
kamba, uduvi, kaa.} 

Kambali, n. (ma-\ also Kam 
bari, freshwater cat fish, with broad 

at head and fleshy feelers, the only 
reshwater fish common in Z., and 
ometimes of large size (15 lb. to 

Kambi, n. (ma-\ encampment, 
sually on enclosure occupied at 
ight in travelling on the mainland. 
? Eng. camp, Cf. kituo, boma.} 

Kambo, n. baba (mama} wa 
'ambo, step-father (-mother), mtoto 
wa kambo, step-child. (Perh. cf. 
\ambo, used (Kr.) for the shoot 
prouting from the -roots of the ba- 
lana (tngomba), near but separate 
rom the chief stem.) 

Kame, n. (ma-}, barren land, 
wilderness, desert, waste, unculti- 
vated ground. (Cf. nyikajangwa, 

Kamia, v. reproach, threaten, 
dun (a debtor). Amemkamia sana 
kumpiga, he threatened to beat him. 
Mkamia maji hayanywi, he .who 
finds fault with the water will not 
drink it. Jikamia, reproach oneself. 
?s. kamiwa. Nt. kamifya. Rp. 
kamiana. (Cf. kamio, and ogofya, 

*Kamili, v. complete, finish, make 
perfect, also be complete, be finished. 
But these meanings are usually taken 
by the Cs. and Nt. or Ps. forms. 
Ps. kamiliwa. Nt. kamilika. 

Ap. kamil-ia, -iwa, e. g. end off, 
finish off. Alipokamilia nyumba He, 
when he finished off that house. 
Cs. kamil-isha, -ishwa, e. g. nime- 
kamilisha mweziwangu, I have com- 
pleted my month.- a. complete, 
perfect, whole, entire, unimpaired. 
( Ar. Cf. maliza, timia, timiliza, isha.} 
*-kamilifu, a. same as Kamili, a., 
which see. 

Kamio, n. (ma-\ a reproach, a 
threat. (Cf. prec.) 

*Kampani, n. also Kumpani, 
a commercial house, a trading asso- 
ciation, a company. (From Eng. 

Kamua, v. Rv. of kama with 
similar meaning, squeeze, wring, 




compress, squeeze out, e. g. k. nguo t 
wring wet clothes ; k. chungwa, 
squeeze the juice out of an orange. 
K, make an abscess discharge. 
K. mafuta, extract oil by pressure, 
imtiliu'a. Nt. kamulika. 

Ap. kanni-lia, -/iwa, e.g. akam- 
kamulia ndimu nrarilini, and he 
squeezed lime juice over his body. Cs. 
kamu-lisha, -lishwa. (Cf. kama, v. ) 

Karausi, n. a lexicon, a dic- 
tionary. (Arab. ' ocean.') 

Kamwe, adv. always with a nega- 
tive preceding, (not) at all, (not) in 
the least, (not) ever (i.e. never, by no 
means). Si kitu kamtvc, it is nothing 
at all. Sitaki kamwe, I will have 
nothing to do with it. (Cf. kabisa, 
halt si, hatta kidogo.} 

Kan a, v. also Kanya, deny, nega- 
tive, say ' no,' disown, refuse, e. g. 
kwanza mwivi amekana, sasa au- 
ngarna, at first the thief denied it, now 
he confesses. Baba alimkana mtoto, 
the father disowned the child. Ps. 
kaniwa. Nt. kan-ika, -ikana, e. g. 
aniekaniwa na watu si tniuivi, it 
was denied by the people that he was 
a thief. Jfaikanikani kabisa, it is 
absolutely undeniable. Ap. kan-ia, 
\ to, refuse to, deny to 
about, for, on the part of, by, at, 
Ace.). Baba antemkania mtolo kutba 
(or, asiibc], the father had forbidden 
the child to steal. Cs. kan-isha, 

isAwa, also . kan-usha t -yusha, 
-ushwa, -ishia, -ishiwa, -ishana, 
also Intens. deny emphatically, e. g. 
anuniktinttihni haki yangu, he has 
wholly denied me my rights. Afw- 
ukanisha mtoto wako, 
the woman has induced you 

.nr child. (Cf. kanyo, ki- 
kano, kataa, kalata.} 

Kana, n. rudder han-i 
mkono wa usukam. 

Kann, c<>nj. Sec Kama. 

Kana -//a-), a projection 

Barter or stern of native vessel, 
used as a closet (choo) % also quarter 

Kanda, v. knead with the hand, 
press and work with the fingers, 
shampoo. A', unga, knead flour 
(dough). A", udongo, knead clay, as 
a potter. K. mwili, of a kind of 
massage, to give relief in pain or 
weariness, or merely as a luxury. 
Ps. kandwa. Nt. kandika. Ap. 
kand-ia, -iwa. Cs. kand-isha, 
-ishwa. (Cf. kandika.} 

Kanda, n. ( , and ma-}, (i) a 
bag of native (plaited) matting, often 
used for grain, broader at the bottom 
than at the mouth. Dim. kikanda. 
(Cf. kikapo.} (a) Leather thong, 
strap, also plur. of ukanJa. 

Kande, n. and Kandi, stores, 
supplies, for a journey, &c., esp. 
provisions. Not usual in Z. (Cf. 
masarufu, akiba, riziki.} 

*Kanderinya, n. kettle, tea-kettle. 

Kandika, v. of the operation of 
covering the wooden framework of 
a native hut with clay to form the 
walls. Women bring water, while 
men dig and knead the clay, and 
apply it in lumps with the hand, 
between the sticks and inside and out. 
A', nyumba kwa udongo, plaster a 
house with clay. Ps. kandikwa. 
(Cf. follg. and kanda, kando, paka, v.) 

Kandiko, n. (tna-\ material for 
native plastering, i.e. earth or clay. 
(Cf. prec. andyV//.) 

*Kandili, n. "/a-), lamp, candle- 
.andelier. (Ar. Cf. 
.'i;./, mcshmaa.} 

Kando, n. ( , and ma-}, side, 
edge, margin, brink (csp. of : 
sea), bank, coast. A", ya (or la) 
margin of the river. Used 
:ily as adv. and (with la, ya) 
prep., on one side, ns 

the verge or edge, e. ; 
kando, haangukiu'i na mti, he who 
is on one side is not fallen 
a tree. K. yettt, in otn 
hood, near us. Sawasawa k., parallel. 
Wtka. k. (or, kando-kando) .1 
by the s; .-,<>/<, on all sides. 

(Cf. ukingo, upandt, and ukando.) 




Kanga, v. See Kaanga. 

Kanga, n. (i) kanga la mnazi, the 
fruit stem or stalk bearing the nuts 
on a cocoanut tree, when stripped of 
the nuts, the bare stalk, dry stem. 
(The same when growing, and with 
nuts on it, is utawi, cf. mnazi.} (2} 
Common speckled guinea-fowl (cf. 
korord}. (3) In co'mmerce, scarf, 
piece of calico of all patterns and 
colours, worn by native women and 
men . Described as lesoya upande m- 
moja. (Cf. shiti, kisuto, leso, ngtw.} 

Kangaja, n. (ma-}, (i) small man- 
darin orange, fruit of the mkangaja ; 
(2) a sea-fish, with a disagreeable 

Kango, n. (ma-}, a frying-pan. 
See Kaango. 

*Kaniki, n. in commerce, blue 
shirtings, a dark blue calico, worn 
by the poorer classes commonly as 
an undergarment, or at work. See 

*Kanisa, n. (ma-}, synagogue, 
temple, church. (Arab. Cf. msi- 
kiti, hekalti.} 

*Kanju, n. (ma-'}, fruit of the 
cashew tree, mkanju, which in Z. 
is called mbibo. See Mbibo. 

Kano, n. (ma-}, large sinew or 
tendon (of animals). (Cf. mkano.} 

*Kantara, n. a bridge. (Arab. 
Cf. daraja, bonth, ulalo.} 

*Kanuni, n. that which is regular 
(necessary, indispensable), a funda- 
mental rule, a necessary condition, 
a sine qua non. As adv. undoubtedly, 
certainly, truly. (Ar. Cf.farathi, 
sharti, kawaida, kakika, yakini.} 

Kanusha, v. Cs. from Kana, which 
see. Other forms are kanyusha and 

Kanya, v. same as Kana (which 
see), refuse a proposal, give a negative 

Kanyo, n. (ma-}, denial, refusal, 
contradiction, negative answer. (Cf. 
kanya, kana, mkano, and syn. katao, 

Kanwa, n. (ma-}, also Kanywa, 

mouth (of man, and animals in 
general). K. juinbe la maneno, the 
mouth is ruler of speech. (Dim. 
from nywa, see -nya, and cf. kin-wa, 
which is usual in Z.) 

*Kanzi, n. what is kept in store, 
a treasure, a hoard, also treasury, 
store-room. 'Aweke mail kanzini y 
let him put his belongings in the 
store-room. (Ar. Cf. tunu, ha- 
zina, and kandi, ghala, akiba.} 

Kanzu, n. the usual outer garment 
of men in Z., a long-sleeved calico 
gown, reaching from the neck to 
the ankles, usually plain white or 
yellowish-brown (huthurungi], with 
or without lines of silk stitch-work, 
red or white, on the neck, wrists, and 
front, and fastened with a small button 
or tassel at the throat. Worn over 
a loincloth, often with a light doublet, 
or under a coloured sleeveless open 
waistcoat (kisibau}, or a cloth cloak 
(joko}. Worn also by women, but 
then shorter, of coloured and varied 
materials, and with red binding. 
Kanzu are distinguished as ya ku- 
futa, plain, common, ya ziki, with 
white cotton stitching at the neck, ya 
kazi, with ornamental stitching, and 
according to material, ya bafta, ya 
huthurungi, &c. (? Cf. Ar. kasd, 
clothe. For parts, &c., of the kanzu 
see badani, taharizi, sijafu, kikwapa, 
jabali, mhalbori, kaba, tiki, mrera, 
kiboko, kinara, tarizi, mjusi, &c., 
and for tailoring, shona, mshoni.} 

Kao, n. (ma-}, place of residence, 
dwelling, habitation, commonly in 
the plur. makao. Also of mode or 
act of remaining, residing, &c., situa- 
tion, position, way of living, but thus 
more often ukao, kikao. (Cf. kaa, 
v., ukao, kikao, ukazi, makazi.} 

*Kaoleni. See Kauli. 

Kaomwa, n. and Kauma, ca- 
lumba root, mainly procured from 
East Africa. Described as ' the root 
of a creeping plant, like a sweet 
potatoe, a tonic of bitter taste ' (Kr.). 

Kapi, n. ( , and ma-}, (i) a 




pulley, consisting of a sheave (rvda), 
enclosed in a block (niakupa). (For 
various sorts see Gofla, Abedari.) 
.aff, husks. (Cf. kitmvi, 

u'isAwa, kttnunu, niacho ya mtama.} 

Kapo (><z-), and Kapu, a large 
basket (of plaited leaf-strips). See 

*Karaha, n. provocation, (giving} 
offence, (causing) aversion. Mambo 
ya k. t provocation, cause of ill-feeling, 
repulsion. (Ar. Cf. kirihi, also 
ckcrahi, ikirahi.) 

*Karakoli, n. and Karakoni, 
prison. Not usual in Z. (? Turkish, 
introduced by Soudanese. Cf. gertza, 
kifungo. ) 

*Karama, n. (i) an honour, privi- 
lege, valuable possession, gracious 
act, generous behaviour ; (i) gracious 
gift, esp. a gift of God in answer to 
prayer. (Ar. Cf. karimu and 
follg., and for gifts generally bak- 
shish i.) 

*Karamu, n. a feast, banquet, fes- 
tive entertainment. (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

*Karani, n. (wa-)> clerk, secretary, 
amanuensis, supercargo. (Ar.) 

Karara, Karasia.' See Kalala, 

*Karata, n. card, playing card. 
(? charta, card.) 

Karataai, n. paper, a piece of 
paper. (Ar.) 

*Karatha, n. money on loan, ad- 
vance, credit. A", ya fctha, a cash 
:c. (Arab. Cf. follg.) 

Karathi, v. and Karithi, (i) 
lend money, esp. make an advance 
irposcs. accommo- 
date with money or goods; (a) also 
as Cs. borrow, get an advance. 
f. prec. 
am oner kopa, kopuha, 

*Karibia, v. Ap. come near (to), 

go near (to), approach, move clow 

to, err 'iwa. Ci. 

ha, -ishwa, bring near, move 

invite as guest, welc*" 

tertain. A'.iriHsha (hakula 

invite to a meal (offer a seat to). 
Tulikaribish'wa z'izurij we were hos- 
pitably treated. Rp. karibiana. 
(Ar. Cf. karibu, and sogea.} 

*Karibu, n. near relation, kins- 
man. Watu kmva k. zangu, these 
people are relations of mine. Also 
mtu wa k., a relation. adv. and 
(with ya and no) prep, (i) of 
space, near, close (to) ; (2) of time, 
presently, shortly, lately, recently ; 
(3 in general, nearly, almost, about. 
Ilivi A., just lately. Aliktija k., he 
came near, or, he arrived recently. 
K. yangu, near me. Common as 
reply to the inquiry Hodi ? i.e. Come 
in, walk in, you are welcome. (Ar. 
Cf. karibia.) 

*Karimu, a. and -karimu, liberal, 
opcnhanded, generous. Also v. 
Sec Kirimu. (Ar. Cf. karama, 
baramu, and syn. -/<7/V.) 

Karipia, v. Ap. use harsh lan- 
guage to, reprimand, scold, chide. 
ifiiva. (Cf. /aurriu, kemea, 
shnturnu. The Pr. form Xv 
also used.) 

*Kariri, v. repeat, say over again 
and again, recite, rehearse. Ps. 
kaririwa. Nt. karirika. Ap. 
k<irir-ia t say over to (for, at, &c.). 
Cs. karir-isha t -ishwa. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. H. sema (sown) tena, or mam 
ya pili, or marra nyingi). 

Kaaa, n. a sea turtle. (Cf. 
njfamba, kobe^) 

*Kaa, adv. also Kasaa, less, lest 
by, short by, usually in connexi 
nbo, themuni, or similar wonK e.g. 
rufia mbili k. themuni ^ two rupees 
less four annas ; san situ /. robo, a 
quarter to twt' lit. six hours 

less a quarter). A*. robo t three quar- 
ters (of a dollar), one rn|>ee and 
1 f. kasiri, n. and 

Kaaarani, Kaaaai. n. See Kl- 
Irani, Kisaai. 

Koaha, n. (ma-\ box 
board, packing case. Kasha I 
(i) a silver box; (a) a money box, 

K 2 




safe. (Cf. sanduku, 
Ital. cassa, Yr.'catsse.') 

*Kashabu, n. a wooden rod, which 
draws the threads of the web apart 
in native weaving. (?Ar. Cf. 


*Kashifu, v. (i) reveal, disclose; 
(2) show up, discredit, disparage, tell 
stories of, slander. Ps. kashifiwa. 
(Ar. for more usual changed, s'ingizia, 

Kasia, n. (ma-\ an oar. Piga 
(vuta) k. , row. (Cf. kaji, a paddle.) 

*Kasib/i, n. barrel (of a gun). 
Mdomo kama k., small round mouth, 
a point of beauty. (Ar. ' reed.' 
Cf. mwanzi, mdomo.} 

*Kasidi, n. Also Kusudi, which 
see. (Ar.) 

*Kasiki, n. ( , and ma-\ large 
earthen jar (for water, ghee, treacle, 
&c.). (Cf. balasi, which is larger.) 

Kasimele, n. cocoanut cream, the 
thick oily juice squeezed from the 
grated nut by a strainer, before any 
water is mixed with it, i. e. maji ya 
nazi yaliyokamuliwa mbele katika 
kifumbu,z\so called tut la kasi- 
mele, or tut halisi. The same nut, 
when mixed with water and strained 
again, produces tui la nyuma, tui la 
kupopolea, a white milky fluid. See 

*Kasiri, v. cause to be angry, vex, 
provoke. Hayo ndiyo maneno yali- 
yokukasiri, these are the words which 
annoyed you. Sultani alimkasin 
mkewe, the Sultan vexed his wife. 
But the Cs. is more common in this 
sense (see below). Ps. kasiriwa. 
Nt. t kasirika, be angry, be excited, 
whence kasirik-ia, -iwa, be angry 
with. Ap. kasir-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
kasir-isha, -ishwa, enrage, provoke, 
exasperate, stir up violent feeling in, 
incite, inflame. Rp. kasiri-ana. 
(? Ar. Cf. hasira, and syn. ghathabu, 
uchungu. Dist. hasara, hasiri and 
also kasiri, n.) 

*Kasiri, n. end. Alasiri k., late 
afternoon, 5 p.m., i.e. mwisho wa 

alasiri. As adv. less. K.ya,k.kuliko, 
less than. (Arab., seldom heard. 
Cf. kasa, kasoro, and the commoner 
hatima, mwisho^) 

*Kaskazi, n. (i) northerly wind, 
north monsoon. K. inavuma, the 
north wind is blowing. Cf. kusi, 
south wind, and upepo. (a) Season of 
the north monsoon, i.e. December to 
March, the hottest part of the year in 
Zanzibar, i. e. ivakati iva jasho na 
kukaiisha mid, also called musimii, 
and sometimes chaka ; (3) northerly 
direction, the north. Also called 
Kibula Kibla. Kaskazini, in the 
north, northwards. (Cf. shemali, 
the Ar. word for 'north,' and/0a.) 

*Kasoro, adv. less (by), short (by). 
Kasoro nussu, less by a half. Some- 
times as n., defect, blemish. (Ar. 
kasr. Cf. kasa, kasiri^) 

*Kassa, adv. See Kasa. 

*Kassi, adv. of intensity, used with 
verbs, much, very, with energy (vehe- 
mence, violence, &c.), e.g. enda k., 
go with force, go quickly. Mto 
unapita k., the river runs quickly, 
has a strong current. Also as a 
noun, tia (piga) k., apply force, 
tighten. Sokota kwa k. , twist forcibly. 
(Prob. Ar. ? Cf. Mast, or kaza, kazi.} 

*Kastabini, n. a thimble. (Per- 
sian, for more common subana?) 

*Kasumba, n. opium. (Hind. 
Cf. syn. Ar. afiuni.} 

*Kata, v. (i) cut, cut off, cut away, 
cut short, cut up, or in pieces ; (2) 
fig. divide, reduce, bring to an end, 
decide, frustrate. The noun follow- 
ing may define the thing cut, the 
nature of the cutting, the effect 
produced, or the instrument used. 
K. mitt, cut down trees. K. maji, 
go up stream. K. kisu (or kwa 
kisu), cut with a knife. K. nguo, 
cut calico, often in the sense ' buy 
a piece of calico, order a new dress 
or suit. K. nakshi, carve (in wood or 
stone). K.pesa, reduce (or, withhold) 
a sum due. K. maneno, conclude 
(break off, decide, settle) a discussion. 




. decide a suit, give sen- 
tence. A', tamaa, bring hopes to an 
end, despair, despond, be desperate. 
t, quench thirst. A', shanri, 
frustrate a plan. Ps. kativa, im- 
plying an agent, as present or promi- 
; the mind. Nt. katika, in 
which the fact rather than the agency 
is in view, e.g. hukumu imekatwa, 
the judge has decided the case. Hu- 
kumit imckatika, a verdict has been 
given. A'usi imckatika, the south 
wind is coming to an end. Hence, 
katik-ia, -iwa, be cut off, &c. at 
(for, in, &c.), e.g. muhogo ulikatikia 
mumo, the cassava broke off where it 
stood. Ugwe hukatikia pembamba, 
cord breaks at the thinnest part. 
Also katikana, be capable of being 
cut, &c., be possibly cut. Ap. 
kat-ia, -i-va, -tuna, cut at (into, off 
from, a part of, &c.), e.g. katia 
Jusabu, cut off from (deduct from) 
an account. Katia mti, cut a piece 
from, chop at, make a cut in (not, 
cut down). Katia nji'a, cut into 
'strike on) a road. Ni kiasi changu 
kama nalikatiwa rnitni, it fits me 
exactly, just as if it was made for me 
;or, I had been measured for it). 
Tulikatiioa nutneno, we hare had 
our matter settled. Katiana, settle 
accounts together, strike a balance, 
i.e. by striking out items on both 
sides. Cs -izwa, -izt'a, 

-izitva, -izana, cause to cut (be cut, 
&c.), or Intens. cut (end, decide) 
abruptly (vigorously, sharply, &c). 

rrak off (interrupt, 
stop, apply closure to) a discussion. 


:(-atnna kwa risu t 


itn, jikatin, jikiitiza, &c,, 

isis, katak 

to pieces, make mincemeat of. (Ar. 
Cf. rnknta, mkalo, kato, > 

! follg. Alsosyn. 
tema, (hanja, fasua, chonga, (homa, 

*Kata, n. also Kataa, a cutting, 
piece, part, portion, section, fraction, 
not of a literal cut or cutting, but fig., 
e.g. (a) part of a house, k. ya nynmba^ 
a room, an apartment, one of the 
screened-off divisions in a native hut, 
or k. ya chumba, an alcove, recess, 
part of a room ; () k. ya kitabu, 
part of a book, section, leaf, page 
(c{.juzu,ukarasa}\ also of a country, 
' quarter, district,' k. ya inchi (? cf. 
wtaa, kitaa) ; (c) lengths of rope, 
string, silk, &c., as sold in shops, 
i.e. hank, skein, coil. (Ar. Cf. 
kata % v., and kato, rnkdto, &c.) 

Kata, n. (wa-), (i) a ladle, dipper, 
scoop, used for drinking, or dipping 
water from a hole, usually a cocoa- 
nut shell, with one end cut off, and fixed 
to the end of a stick. (Cf. // 
(2) A round pad, usually of loaves, 
grass, or a folded strip of cloth, worn 
on the head when carrying a load, 
water-jar, &c. (Dist. mkata, nkata.} 

Kataa, v. refuse, reject, decline, 
say 'no.' Ps. kataliwa. Nt. kata- 
lika. Ap. kata-lia, -liwa, -liana, 
e.g. refuse, refuse credence to, de- 
cline acceptance from, say 'no' to, 
&c. Cs. kola-za^ -zwa t -zatia, 
prohibit, forbid, deter, cause to re- 
fuse, refuse peremptorily, &c. Also 

by, &c.). (Cf. katazo, kana, go- 
, dakiza, Ma, marufn 

Kataa, a. final, decisive, con- 
clusive. Neno h. state* 
ment is decisive. (A: 

*Katabahu, lit. he 
usually at the end of 
the name of the writer, ami some* 
times v the hand of. 

(Aral <s batata.) 

Katani, n. also Kitam 
and what is made from it, 
string, strong thread, twine. Uri 
wa X-., thread made of flax or 
from uri wa pamtxi 
(Ar. Cf. irti, ttgwt, kigwt, 




Katazo, n. (ma-}, prohibition, 
contradiction, objection. (Cf. kataa, 
and syn. kindatto, dakizo, teto.} 

*Kathalika, adv. in like manner, 
likewise, similarly, in the same way. 
(Ar. Cf. ait ha, thamma, and follg., 
and syn. 13. vile vile, vivyo hivyo.} 

*Kathawakatha, a. and adv., thus 
and thus, and so on, et caetera, many 
other such, many more. Watu k., 
lots of people. (Ar. Cf.kathalika.} 

*Kathi, n. (ma-}, judge, the 
official term, magistrate appointed by 
the Sultan to decide questions of law. 
(Ar. Cf. hakimu, and mwanntzi.} 

Kati, adv. and (with ya) prep., 
among, between, inside, in the middle 
of, amidst, surrounded by. K. ya 
nyumba, in the middle of the house. 
Kata k., cut asunder (through the 
middle). Also as n., the middle, 
the centre, and -a kati, central, 
middle ; ivakati wa k., the inter- 
vening period, interval; pa k., the 
centre. Sometimes redupl. katikati 
(ya), between, among, in the very 
middle (of), also kati na kati. (Cf. 
katika, prep.) 

*Katiba, n. ordinance, custom, na- 
tural (or original) constitution, des- 
tiny, doom, from the idea of binding 
and permanent force of Mahommedan 
law as written in the Coran. (Ar. 
Cf. follg.) 

Katibu, n. a writer, scribe, amanu- 
ensis, clerk. (Cf. karani, mivandi- 
shi, katabahu.) v. write, seldom 
used, e.g. in Rp. tukatibiane, let us 
draw up a written contract. (Cf. 
mkataba, kitabu, kitaba, and com- 
mon syn. andika.} 

Katika, prep, among, in, whether 
(a) of place, in, at, to, towards, into, 
from (in), out of, away from; (b} 
of time, in, at, during; (r)in general, 
in, engaged in, to, in the direction of, 
from ; (of) in the matter of, in refer- 
ence to, concerning, as to, about. 
Very common in all senses. In local 
use, equivalent to -ni. Sometimes 
with kwa, when kwa with the word 

following indicates a single idea or 
object. Kufika katika kwa mfaltne, 
to Arrive in the king's court or 
presence. (Cf. kati, and the equally 
common kwa.} 

Katikati, adv. and (with ya} prep. 
See Kati. 

*Katili, n. a murderous person, a 
bloodthirsty man, a ruffian. (Arab. 
Cf. syn. B. mwuaj'i.} 

*Kato, n. (ma-}, a cutting, frag- 
ment, thing cut or broken off. (Cf. 
kata, mkato.} 

*Katu, n. a kind of gum, imported 
to Z., and sold in small dark -red 
lumps chiefly for chewing with betel. 
See Tambuu, Uraibu. 

Katua, v. polish, brighten, clean 
by rubbing. K. bunduki, clean rust, 
&c. off a gun. Ps. katuliwa. 
Nt. katuka. Ap. katulia. Majifu 
ya kukatnlia visu, ashes to clean 
knives with. 

Kauka, v. become dry, dry up, be 
parched. Inchi imekauka, the earth 
is parched. Sauti imemkauka, his 
voice is dried up, he is hoarse. Ap. 
kauk-ia, -iwa. Sakafit imekankia 
maji, the water has dried off the roof. 
Cs. kau-sha, -shwa, dry, cause to dry 
up, parch. (Cf. -kavu,yabis, and 
of drying clothes by exposure to sun 
and air, ant&a.} 

*Kauli, n. (i) sentence, expression ; 
(2) expressed opinion, narrative, ac- 
count. K. tatu zilizosemwa, three 
accounts were given. Tufnase k. ya 
waalimu ivetu, let us follow the 
opinion of our teachers. K. He ika- 
muthi, the expression vexed him. 
(Ar. for the common neno. Cf. ka- 
lima and kauleni, double tongued, 
untrustworthy, i. e. a man of two 

Kauma, n. calumba root. See 

*Kauri, n. a cowry (shell). For 
various kinds cf. dondo, kululu, kete. 
Kauri is also used to describe china, 
vitu vya kauri, as opp. to earthen- 
ware, vitu vya udongo. 




-kavu, a. (kavu with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), also -kafu, (i) dry, 
parched, waterless, barren. Inchi k,, 
dry land, terra firma y as opp. to 
bahari, sea. A'uni k., dry firewood. 
Nguo k., dry clothes. Prov. maji 
mafu, m-citvi'mkafu, at neap tides the 
fisherman gets little. ( 2) I >ry, humor- 
ous, satirical, amusing. AItu mkavu, 
a witty person. Maneno tnakavit, 
witticisms. (3) Brave, fearless, un- 
concerned. Cf. the phrase -kavu wa 
mocha, -cnyi macho makavu, of a 
nonchalant, intrepid, dauntless look. 
(Cf. kauka.) 

Kawa, v. be delayed, tarry, linger, 
delay, loiter, take a long time, be 
behind time, be late. Ap. kawia, 
same as kawa ; also kawilia, delay for 
(on account of, at, about, &c.), and 
so kaw-ilisha, -ilishwa, cause to 
delay, keep back, make late. Cs. 
kaw-isha, -ishwa, put off, make stand 
over, adjourn, e.g. kawisha koJi, ^ct 
in arrears for rent. (Cf. usiri, 
ahiri, chttoua, and ? cf. kaa.} 

Kawa, n. ( , and of size ma-}, 
(i) a dish cover, conical in shape, 
made of plaited grass. Sahani isiyo 
na k., a dish without a cover. /'////- 
ngatu satva sawa, kama sahani na k., 
lit each other (i. e. agree . like 
a dish and its cover. (2) .'' 
mould (Sir.). 

Kawodi, n. (ma-), a procurer. 

Kawaida, n. also Kaida, regu- 
n.'iciplc, fundamental rule, 
usage, custom, system, and so ' 
standard, ma kama sJteria, 

customary usage is like law. . 
k. ya we arc not used to 

a person coming, we do not allow it. 

Kawe, n. a very small stoi 
of/itt*, kijiwe. (<C{.jiwe t mbw* t 
and ka-.} 

Kawift, Kawilia, Kawiaha, &c. 
See Kawa. 

Kaya, n. (ma-), a kind of shell- 

Kayamba, n. (i) a sieve; (2) a 
rattle resembling a sieve, dry grain 
shaken inside a flat case of reeds. 

Kaza, v. (i) fix, make fast, fasten, 
tighten ; (2) grip, hold tight, fit 
tightly; (3) use force (in), exert 
energy, act with a will, emphasize, 
accentuate. A', kamba, make a rope 
fast. K. nibiO) run hard. K. kuimba, 
sing with a will. Nguo ya kukaza, 
tight clothes. Ps. kazwa. Nt. 
kazika. Ap. kaz-ia, -tzva, e. g. 
kazia macho y rivet the gaze upon. 
Cs. kaz-isha t -ishwa. Rp. kazana, 
(i) hold each other, make a mutual 
effort ; (2) hold together, be compact, 
be firm (stiff, hard). Kazana na, 
adhere to, stick to. (Cf. kazi, 
kazo, rnkazo, and perh. kaa, v. Also 
similar Ar. words denoting effort, 
work, firmness.) 

Kazi, n. (i) work, labour, em- 
ployment, occupation, profession, 
, function, a job; (2 X hard 
work, toil, strain, effort, exertion ; 
(3) normal action, regular duty, 
routine. Mchezo htto ni k. burrc, a 
game like that is labour thrown away, 
a native view of athletics. 

. that is what he always does, 
or, he is responsible for it. Fanya. 
(/enda) k., work, he a labourer. 
Nguo hii ni k.ya ll'ahin<ii, this stuff 
is made by Hindoos. A', ya maka- 
taa, contract work , task work . (CC 

Kazo, n. pressing tight, ! 

Also as a. -ka*o t tight. 
(Cf. kaza, mkato!) 

Kacoakaaoa, n. a term of abuse 
l>crh. from soa and ka-, which see), 

- tehcd gutter-scraper. 
ke, a. (i) (also -a / 

nalc sex, female, feminine; 
- like a woman, timi-l. stupid. 
Mk* (PL wake\ mtu mke (PI. wot* 
wake\ mtu wa kike (PI. watu wa 
kike), and most commonly mwana 
ike, or - t v<ia*ake\ 
are all used of 'w. 
resix:ct of sex simply. In rel 




the male sex, mke has the definite 
meaning 'wife, married woman/ and 
is then clearly distinguished from 
mwanamke, which denotes an irregu- 
lar connexion, e.g. mkewe waziriali- 
kuwa mwanamke wake Abunuwasi, 
the vizir's wife was Abunuwasi's para- 
mour. Mke ni nguo, a wife means 
(the cost of her) dress. Wake, as 
a noun, plur. of mke, often takes for 
distinctness pronouns of the form in 
z-, i.e. -wake zake, his wives, rather 
than wake wake. Watoto waanake, 
or wa kike, girls. Batajike, a female 
duck. Moyo wa kike, a womanly 
(i.e. usually ' timid, stupid ') character. 
(Cf. jike, kike, kuke, uke, and opp. 

Kefu, int. also K6fule, expressing 
disgusted surprise, indignation, aver- 
sion. K. mimi killa siku, think of 
me (being so treated) every day. 
Mtu hamfanyizii hiana mtu asio- 
amini, kefu aliomwamini, a man 
does not act treacherously towards one 
he distrusts, much less one he trusts. 

Kefya-kefya, v. tease, annoy, nag 
at, depress, discourage, put out of 
heart. (Cf. sumbua, tesa, chokoza, 

Keke, n. a drilling tool, a drill, 
consisting of a steel bit (kekee}, fitted 
into a wooden handle (msuka, m- 
sukano], which is turned in a wooden 
socket (jivu~) by a bow and string 
(nt a). Described generally as ki- 
dude cha kuzulia mti, a tool for bor- 
ing wood. 

Kekee, n. (i) a boring tool, see 
Keke ; (2) a kind of silver bracelet, 
usually broad and flat, fastened by a 
clasp or bolt. (Cf. kikuku, bana- 
giri, and urembo.} 

Kekevu, n. hiccup. (Cf. kikeu- 
keu, and more usu. in Z. kwikwi^) 

Kelele, n. (ma-\ a shout, shout- 
ing, uproar, noise. Piga k., shout, 
five a shout. Nena kwa k., or, 
ikelele, make a loud remark. Ma- 
kelele, as an int. ordering silence, 
i. e. Too much noise ! Be quiet ! Si- 

lence ! (Cf. chub ! Jmss I Imu ! nya- 
mazal (or, Plur., nyamazeni! 
kimya ! Also cf. ukelele, kikelele.} 

*Kem, interrog. adv. How much ? 
How many ? e. g. in inquiring price, 
kern ? wauzaje ? kiasi gani ? all 
meaning ' How much ? ' (Arab. 
Cf. kima.) 

Kemea, v. scold, rebuke, speak 
loudly (roughly) to, snub. Ps. 
kemewa. (Cf. karipia, laumu, 

nenea, ambilia.} 

Kenda, n. and a., nine. -a 
kenda, ninth. (Cf. syn. Ar. tissia, 
tissa, equally common.) 

Kenda, v. for kaenda, he has 
gone. See Ka-. Also for Infin. 
kivenda, e.g. kendapi? for kwenda 
wapi ? a general inquiry Where are 
you (he, they, &c.) going ? 

Kenge, n. a large water-lizard, 
common in Z. (For other kinds 
cf. mj'ust, guruguru.} 

Kengee, n. andUkengee, the flat 
part of a cutting instrument, blade of 
knife, sword, spearhead, &c. (Cf. 
bapa, and contr. makali, edge, and 
kipini, handle, of such instruments.) 

Kengele, n. ( , and of size ma-) t 
a bell. Piga k., ring a bell, ring. 
(Cf. njttga.) 

Kera, v. worry, tease, annoy, vex. 
(Cf. kero, and syn. kefya-kefya, su- 
mbua, tesa.~] 

Kereketa, n. cause an irritating 
sensation, esp. in tongue or throat, 
have a rough taste, cause a choking 
feeling. Koho yangu yanikereketa 
kwa sababu ya kula tumbako, my 
throat is irritated from chewing to- 
bacco. Tumbako yanikereketa, the 
tobacco has a harsh taste to me. 
(Cf. syn. was ha.} 

Kereza, v. (i) saw into, cut into 
with a saw (rasp, file, &c.), make 
a cut or notch in ; (2) cut in a lathe, 
turn. Zikerezwazo, turned articles, 
turnery. (Cf. follg.) 

Kerezo, n. also Keezo, a ma- 
chine for turning, a lathe. 

*Keriruu, v. See Kirimu. 




Kering'ende, n. '0 a kind of 
dragon-fly; (2} a red-legged part- 
ridge (Str.) ; (3) ? a cricket. 

Kero, n. trouble, annoyance, dis- 
turbance, vexatious conduct. (Cf. 
kcra, and syn. ghasia, niasumbtto. 

Kesha, v. remain awake, keep 
awake, stay up at night, not to sleep, 
watch, keep watch! Ngoma ya vi- 
jana haikeshi, a children's dance 
does not last all night. Kesha 
kwha, stay awake till the morning. 
Ap. kesh-ea, -ewa, stay up for, keep 
night watch with, nurse all night. 
Cs. kfsh-esha, -eshwa, -fza, -c^-wa, 
keep a person awake. Rp. ktshana, 
remain awake together. (Cf. 

kesha, n. and kesho, and syn. keti 
na macho , kaa macho.') 

Kesha, n. night watch, vigil. 
j\'na k. yangu usiku kucha, I have 
my watch all night long. Sikti ya 
k. ya mwisho, the last night of a 
formal mourning (tnatanga). (Cf. 
kesha, v., kesho, and dist. kcsha for 
kaisha, he has finished.) 

Kesho, n. and adv., to-morrow, 
the next day, the day after. A'. 
kuchwa, the day after to-morrow. 
K. yoke, the following day. A't<- 
kesho knfh-ua, the third day 
(also called mtondo). 

Koto, n. (i) a small kind of 
cowry. Also a game played with 
these shells. Meno kama k., teeth 
like cowries, a 

CCf. kauri.) (2) (ma-), a string (of 
beads, &c.). Two makete one 
timba ; ten makete five timba 
'undo. (?Cf. kata, n.) 

Keti, v. (i) (in poet. Mtti), sit 
take a seat ; (a) d\v< 

stay, reside. Tafathali 
please take a seat 
meaning strictly, squat in the 
Ps. ketivta. Ap. 
' idttdt cha kni'ftia, 
something to sit npon. Cs 

sAa, -shwa, e. g. cause to rcmr. i 
preserve. (Cf. Mi, and syn. kaa.) 

Kh-. Many Swahili words are 
taken from Arabic originals begin- 
ning with the sound of A'//-. These 
will be found under H in this Diction- 
ary, representing the simple aspirate 
to which they all become assimilated 
in proportion as they become natural- 
ized among Africans. On the other 
hand, the Kh sound is often more or 
less retained by persons imitating 
or influenced by Arabic pronuncia- 
tion. Some of these words are : 
khabari, khadaa, khadimu, khafifu, 
khaini, khaliftt, khamsi (and deri- 
vatives), khara, kharadali, khatari^ 
khati, khatia, khatima, khazina, 
khema, khcri, khcza, khorji, khoftt, 
khubiri, khutuba. 

*Khoja, n. a member of one of 
the two chief sects of Mahommedan 
Hindoos in Zanzibar, the other 
being Bohora, which see. (Hind.) 

Ki. verb-form, (it) is, ;\ 
with 1 > 3 (S), e. g. Mi hiki ki ghali, 
this chair is expcr. 

Ki-, as an initial syllable, is in far 
the greater number of words a forma- 
tive prefix, and one of the commonest 
formativcs in the Swahili language, 
so common that no attempt . 
here to enumerate all the words be- 
ginning or regularly formed with ki-. 
Words not found under /.- 
be looked for (i) under tin 

itely following ki-, or (2). 
under Ch-, since ki- usually (though 
not always) becomes <//- before a 
vowel (e. g. chungu for 

ki- in any word is 

among the lower classes 
in Zanzibar. AY as a f<> 
prefix is nsed (i with \ 
form verbal : 

c embodiment or special 
manifest :hc root-id 

non-personal kind. < 
characteristic use of ;/ 

t, and of m~ in forming per- 
sonal (1 : 

n.iy re- 




tain its final -a. In this case, which 
is not common, the verbal noun is 
often followed by another noun de- 
pending directly on it, e.g. kipa 
mkono, kif ungua mlango (denoting 
presents given on special occasions), 
also kif a uwongo, and cf. kinywa, 
mouth, kidonda, kifaa. (6) Changes 
final a to o, si, zi, or is followed 
by -ji, e.g. kitendo, kifungo, kituo, 
kicheko, kiongozi, kikohozi, kinywaji, 
kipaji. Obs. also kiumbe, and chum- 
ba. This form (ki- with a verbal root 
and termination -o] is not only com- 
mon, but may practically be formed 
at pleasure from any suitable root. 
In some cases the word becomes 
specialized and limited in meaning 
(e. g. kifuo, a stake used for husking 
cocoanuts), but seldom loses alto- 
gether the power of including any 
of the following meanings, act, pro- 
cess, time, place, method, instrument, 
instance or case, i. e. some particular 
embodiment of the idea conveyed by 
the root. Instances of all kinds fol- 
low in their place in the Dictionary, 
e. g. kiango, limited to a kind of 
lamp-stand ; kicho including a feeling 
of fear, and an object feared ; kipendo, 
meaning love, but strictly loving in 
connexion with some occasion or 
particular case either of the feeling 
or of the object ; kikao, kifungo, with 
a wide range of meanings. Ki- is 
also used with other than verb-roots 
with the same general (concrete non- 
personal) meaning, e.g. kitu as 
comp. with mtu, kivuli with mvuli 
and uvuli, and even with reference to 
persons in such words as kizee, kipofu, 
kiziwi, kibeti, but see below (3). (2) 
To form diminutives with noun-stems, 
and as such may be used before any 
suitable noun whatever, often dis- 
placing an initial m or u, e. g. ki- 
toto, kipande, kivuli, and sometimes 
followed by a ji- or /-, especi- 
ally with monosyllabic roots, e.g. 
kijiti, kijibwa t kijiji t kijana,kijumba, 
kijineno. Obs. that ki- may convey 

the idea, not only (a) of relative small- 
ness, but () of relative unimportance, 
e. g. kishughuli, a small trifling 
business ; of endearment, e. g. kipenzi, 
darling ; and of secrecy or contempt, 
e.g. kishauri, a plot, kijumbe, a 
secret (or private) messenger, kijitu, 
a raannikin. Obs. that relative degrees 
of size may be conveyed in the case 
of some words by placing them in 
different declensions, D 3, D 5, or D 6, 
e. g. kipete, a small ring ; pete, a ring 
of ordinary size; pete (pi. mapete}, 
a large ring. (3) With noun-stems 
and adjectives, to give them an ad- 
verbial use, and also a peculiar use as 
nouns, denoting the sort or kind 
which the noun itself expresses. 
E. g. amevaa kizungu, he is dressed 
in European fashion ; alilia kisimba, 
he roared like a lion ; asema kigeni, 
he talks in a foreign way, like a 
stranger. Kaa kitako, sit on the 
haunches. Kiti cha kifalme, a royal 
throne. Manibo ya kisasa, modern 
ways. Vitu vya kikale, antiquated, 
old-fashioned things (but vittt vya 
kale, antiquities, ancient things). 
When used independently, this form 
often denotes the language of a place 
or country, e. g. kiunguja, the lan- 
guage of Zanzibar. To this use may 
also be referred words like kizee, 
kipofu, kilema, &c., commonly used 
of persons, but meaning ' one of the 
old generation, one of the blind sort,' 
&c., and perhaps kinyozi, kiongozi 
(see above (i)). Ki is also used as 
follows: (i) as the pfx. of all ad- 
jectives and verbs (both subjective 
and objective) corresponding to D 3 
f&\ e . g. kitu kiki changu kizuri 
lhakipendenza kitoto kile, this pretty 
thing of mine pleases that little child. 
(2) In verbs, ki is (a) the character- 
istic of the Pres. Partic. corresponding 
to the Eng. Partic. in -ing, and may 
be translated according to the con- 
text by such words as, ' if, supposing, 
as, when, while, though, &c.' Obs. 
that niki- in this use is often con- 




traded into hi, as nika~ into ha. (ft) 
mes inserted before the root in 
. ense to denote an imperfect, 
or continuing action or state, e.g. 
alipokisema, while he was still talk- 
ing; alikingoja, he was waiting. 
(c) Sometimes used for ka as a con- 
nective particle in narrative. So 
strongly is the ki- sound identified 
with its use as a prefix in Swahili, 
that even when it belongs to the root, 
as esp. in words of Arabic origin, it is 
constantly treated as a pfx., and 
changed to vi- in the Plur. of such 
nouns, e. g. in the case of kitabu, 
kiasi, kilele, kibtriti, and others. 

Kia, n. (via), door bar. (Cf. ki- 
wi, pingo, komeo.) Also as v., step 
over. (Seldom in Z. Cf. kiuka, 

*Kiada, adv. in an orderly, dis- 
tinct, intelligible way. Scma k., 
speak slowly and distinctly. Niclezc 

lain to me distinctly. (Ar.) 
Kialio, n. (f/-), stick laid across 
f a cooking pot inside, 
to prevent what is cooked from being 
burnt. Dim. of wa/io, or perh. for 
kilalio. (Cf. ulalo, /a/a. 

Kiambaza, n. See Kiwambaza- 
Kianga, n. (OT-), and sometimes 
Kiangazi, a burst of sunshine, ray of 
light, reflected brightness, in: 
brightness, or fine weather. (Cf. 
anga, mwanga, angalia, &c.) 

Kiango, n. (v*-), a nall sus- 
pended stand, carrier, or support (for 
a lamp, &c.). Dim. of mwango. 
-a, angika, and change, a peg.) 
Kiapo. n. (vi-), an oath, an ordeal, 

by oath or ordeal, 
sworn by, or used in ordeal. Fanya 

.IT an oath. 

'., to submit to an ordeal. 
husadiki, tuU kiapo, if you do 
not Ixrlicve, let us try ordeal, 
aths. Pelf 

! to rr.jiiire to 
an ordeal. \ 
of ordeal are kiapo cha moto, cha 

mkale, cha sindano, cha mibano, cha 
tnchtle,' cha kibao, &c. (Cf. apa, 
ttapo, apiza, $\so yamini, zitnt.} 

Kiarabu, n. and adv., the 
language, something of the Arabic 
kind, in the Arab way. (Cf. 
Mwarabu, and ki-.} 

Kiasi, n. (vi-) and adv., also 
Kassi, (i) measure, quantity, amount 
(cf. kadiri, kipimo) ; (2) moderation, 
self-control, temperance (cf. kadiri, 
kujizitid) ; (3) a little, a small 
(moderate) amount (cf. kidogo) ; (4) 
the charge of a gun, cartridge. 
Common in inquiring price, K.gani ? 
How much? What is the price? 
Aftu wa k., a temperate person, a 
man of moderation. Alimpa k., he 
gave him a little. As adv. of 
quantity, time, or space, 'a little,' 
e.g. nen0hililimeanzak.,\h\s business 
began some time ago. Alikwtnda k., 
he went a little way. (Ar., the 
radical ki being treated as formative, 
as in kitabu, &c. See Ki, and cf. 

Kiatu, n. (vi~) , native shoe, sandal , 
and used of any kind known in Z. 
A', cha ngozi, leather sandal, flat 
sole with cross strap and small thong 
git/amu) between the toes. 
bazi.) A', cha ////;', a kind of wooden 
clog, worn indoors, and held on by 
a peg (msuruaJki) between the toes. 
Known as mtafawanda, from the 
wood used . A", cha kihindi (ki. 

l>can) shoe. Mshmta 

viatu, or mshoni wa viatu, a 

Kiaai, n. (w-) f a weet potntoe, 
root of a kind of convolvulus. 
Different kinds are known ; 
stna (white), k. kindoro (red). A". 
cha kizungu, the common (European) 
potatot. //, yam, also k. 


Kibaba, n. (i'i-), (i) a c 
dry measure, about a pint bn 
or a pound and a half of gra 
kibaba is half a kixaga, and a quarter 
of a fishi. A', cha tele, a full, heaped 




up measure. K. cha mfuto, a measure 
full to top only. (2) Dim. of baba. 

*Kibakuli, n. (/-), small basin. 
Also a kind of millet (tntama). 
(Ar. Cf. bakuli, and chungu.'] 

acceptance, sanction, favour, assent. 
(Ar. Cf. kubali, and syn. urathi, 
it hint.}. 

Kibanda,n. (w-), small hut, hovel, 
shed, workshop, usu. covered, and 
open at the sides. Dim. of banda, 

Kibano, n. ('-), small forceps, 
split stick (for holding fish, &c. over 
a fire to roast). (Cf. follg.) 

Kibanzi, n. (w-) and Kibanji, 
splinter, chip. K. cha ukuni chali- 
ruka, a chip from the firewood flew 
up. Vibanzi vya shoka, chips made 
by an axe. (Cf. banzi, bana, ki- 

Kibao, n. See Kibau. 

Kibapara, n. (), a pauper, des- 
titute person. Used in contempt. 
(Cf. bupuru, an empty shell, and syn. 
maskini, fiikara?) 

Kibara, n. dim. of l>ara, a small 
wilderness, a small patch of waste 
land, &c. See Bara. 

Kibarango, n. dim. of mbarango, 
a short thick stick, cudgel, club. 
Also of a stumpy, thick-set person. 
(Cf. bakora for different kinds of 

*Kibaraza, n. small seat, bench. 
See Baraza. 

*Kibarua, n. (z*-), (i) a small 
written note, letter, ticket. Hence 
commonly (2) a day labourer of any 
kind, from the ticket on presentation 
of which each is paid. Dim. oi 
barua, which see. 

Kibata, n. dim. of (i) mbata 

which see ; (2) data, i. e. a duckling. 

Kibau, n. (w'-) a small board 

shelf, &c. K. cha ktiezekea, roofing 

shingle. Dim. ofu&au, which see. 

Kibawa, n. (#/'-), little wing, smal 

feather, fin. Dim. of bawa, ubawa 

*Kiberiti, n. (*'-), sulphur, a 

match, a firework. Washa kiberiti 

itrike a match. Rusha viberiti, let 
>ff fireworks. (Ar. Cf./ataM.) 

Kibete, n. (/-), undersized crea- 
ure (man, beast, bird), a dwarf, a 
bantam, &c. (Cf. mbilikirno.} 

Kibia, n. (OT-), a small cooking 
x>t or pan, or its lid, an earthenware 
cover. Seldom in Z. (Cf. bia, and 

Kibibi, n. (i) dim. of bibi, a little 
ady ; (2) cramp (cf. kiharusi). Mguu 
wangu umefanya kilnbi, I have cramp 
in the leg. (3) A name for the pea- 
cock (tausf). 

Kibindo, n. mode of securing the 
loincloth round the waist, by 
crossing the two upper (opposite) 
corners, and folding them back under 
the cloth itself. This is described as 
piga (Junga, kaza) kibindo. Futika 
kibindoni, tuck into the fold of the 
waistcloth. (? Cf. kipindo, pinda, 
pindo, upindo, and dist. ^lb^nda ) 

Kibinja, n. (-), a whistle (in- 
strument). (Cf. tibinja.) 

Kibiongo, n. (z/z-), a person bent 
by age or infirmity, bowed, round- 
shouldered (Str.). (Cf. jongo, ma- 

*Kibla, n. north. See Kibula. 
(Ar. Cf. kabili) 

Kibobwe, n. (m-}, a broad strip of 
calico, wound tightly round the 
waist for support during work or 
exercise, esp. by women. 

Kibofu, n. (z>/-), a bladder. 

Kibogoshi, n. (vi-), a small bag 
made of a skin, a leather bag, used 
to carry miscellaneous articles on a 
journey, money, powder, &c. 

Kibogoyo, n. a person who is 
toothless, or has but few teeth. 

Kiboko, n. (-) a hippopotamus, 
also Boko. Viboko vya shingo, small 
zigzag ornament embroidered in silk 
on a kanzu round the neck. See 

Kibonde, n. (vi-\ trench, deep 
furrow, hollow between ridges. Dim. 




of bonde. Kibondcbonde, uneven, 
undulating, rolling country. 

Kibua, n. (vi-), a small kind of 

*Kibula, n. also Kibula, and 
Kibla, Kebla, the direction of 
Mecca, the point to which Mahom- 
medans turn in prayer, in Zanzibar, 
the north. (Ar. Cf. kabili, and 

Kibumba, n. (vi-) , also Kipumba, 
small packet, parcel, bunch, lump, 
cluster, e.g. of earth, tobacco, thread, 
flour. Dim. of bumba. Also adv., 
in lumps, in bunches, &c. 

Kibungu, n. (vi-), small earthen- 
ware dish. Dim. of bungu. See 

Kibunzi, n. (vi-), a sanded board, 
nsed for predicting future events. 
(Cf. re. 

*Kiburi, n. pride, arrogance, con- 
ceit, haughtiness. Piga (fanya) k., 
show on, be ostentatious, play the 
grandee. Aftu asiye na k. na watu, 
one who does not treat people in a 
discourteous (contemptuous, off-hand) 
way. (Ar. Cf. tdkabari, and piga 
rttakuu, majivitno.) 

Kibuyu, n. (vi-), (i) a small cala- 
bash, nut of the tree mbuyu, used as 
a jug or bucket. Dim. of buyu. (a) 
A kit. 

Kibuzi, n. (vi-}, a small goat, 

Kibwana, n. (vi- , young master. 
Dim. of tnuana. 

Kibwe, n. (vi-), small pebble. 
>f mbvx. (Cf. kijiwt.) 

Kibweta, n. (vi-), small box, 
small case, e.g. writing-desk, jcwel- 
: cssing-case. Dim. of trweta, 
ia, n. (vi-), k. cha u; 
palm leaf as sold in bundles, before 
being slit into strips : 
(Cf. chana, and i 

Kichaa, n. craziness, lunacy, mad- 
ness. Ana k., he is crazy. Umaxi- 
. his poverty 

has driven liim mad. (( 

Kichaka, n. (vi-}, small clump of 
trees, thicket, clump (or, heap) of 
brushwood, bundle of sticks. Dim. 
of chaka. 

Kichala, n. (#*-), bunch, cluster 
of fruit. A', cha mzabibu, a bunch 
of grapes. (Cf. uchala, chana, 

Kichalichali, adv. on the back, 
of a supine position, i. e. mgongoni. 
See Chali. 

Kichane, n. (vi-)i small splinter 
of wood. See Ghana, v. 

Kichangam'ko, n. (vi-}, display 
of gaiety, joyous outburst. (Cf. 
changam ka,} 

Kicheche,n. (vi-),dim. of cheche, 
which see. 

Kichego, n. also Kigego and Ki- 
jego (which see). 

Kicheko, n. (vi-}, a laugh, smile, 
giggle, grin. (Cf. c/uka, chcko.} 

Kichembe, n. (vi-), (i) dim. of 
chembe, which see. Kichembe cha 
moyo, the pit of the stomach. Also 
(a) for kitembe, which see. 

Kichikichi, n. (vi-), small nut or 
kernel contained in the fruit chikichi 
of the palm-oil tree (mchikichi). 

Kichilema, n. (vi-), the heart of 
the growing part at the top of a 
cocoanut tree, a soft nutty substance 
nsed as salad and also cooked. 
Called also moyo wa mnazi, kilcU 
cha mnazi. See Mnazi. 

Kicbinjo, n. act (mode, operation, 
&C.) of slaughtering, or sacrificing 
an animal. 

MI'S sacrifice (of Isaac). 
chinja, fhinjo.) 

Kicho, n. (vi-), cause { 
act) of fear, danger, alarm, show of 

panic saved 

-cha, i< 'to.) 

Kichochoo, n. (vi-), act, method, 
; ;iiR-nt of fining up, e.g. 
(i) a p , stok- 

ing; (a) also fig. provocation, 
provocative sjx (Cf. 

chocha, chochta, and follg.) 




Kichocho, n. (vi~), sensation, ex- 
citement, stimulus. Mwenyi k., in 
an excited state. (Cf. prec.) 

Kichochoro, n. (vi-), a narrow 
alley or passage between native huts 
as in Zanzibar city, leaving room all 
round for the projecting eaves and 
for scaffolding if necessary. (Cf. 
chochoro, mchochoro.) 

Kichomi, n. (vi-), stabbing pain, 
pricking sensation. (Cf. choma, 

and follg.) 

Kichomo, n. (vi-), act (process, 
method, instrument, &c.) of stabbing, 
burning, &c. Used of cautery. 
(Cf. choma, mchomo, kichomi.) 

Kichungu, a. bitter, of a bitter 
kind. Majanikichungu, bitter herbs. 
(Cf. -chungu, uchungu.) 

Kichupa. n. (vi-) also Kitupa, 
small bottle, phial, flask. Dim. of 

Kichwa, n. (vi-), also, but less 
commonly in Z., heard as kitwa, (i) 
the head ; (2) the upper part, top ; 
(3) principal thing, important part or 
person, prime mover, leader, author, 
beginning, chief point, source ; (4) 
anything resembling a head ; (5) 
pain in the head ; (6) obstinacy, pride, 
neadiness. K. wazi, bare head, bare 
headed. Una k. ? tufunge tngomba, 
Have you a headache ? let us apply 
a banana leaf. Kuiva no. k., kufanyd 
k., to be headstrong (presumptuous, 
refractory). K. kikubwa, big head, 
swelled head, pride, arrogance, ob- 
stinacy. Jipa k. y pata k., be proud, 
&c. Mwenyi k., a proud, obstinate 
person. Kwa k. ktkubwa, in a pre- 
sumptuous, headstrong way. Kichwa 
kichiva, topsy turvy, upside down. 

Kichwa-ngomba, n. (vi-} , turning 
head over heels, a somersault. (Cf. 

Kidaka, n. (vi-}, (i) a cocoanut 
in the first stage of growth on the 
flower stem, before it becomes kitale 
(see Nazi) ; (2) a recess in the wall 
of a house, a niche, cupboard (cf. 
kishubakd) ; (3) of the uvula, called 

kidaka tonge . (Cf. dak a , a n d s i m i 1 a r 
name kinywa mchuzi, imperial.) 

*Kidamu, n. front part of vessel, 
bow, but more usual omo, gubeti, 
which see. v. go before, go in 
front. (Ar. Cf. takadanni, ka- 

Kidanga, n. (vi-} and a., of fruit in 
a very early stage of formation, before 
it is even changa, e.g. limau ki- 
danga, embe k. 

Kidani, n. (vi-}, a neck ornament, 
necklace, collar of gold or silver, 
often chain work, with large open 
links. (Cf. mkufu, and tirembo.) 

Kidari, n. (vi-}, breast, chest, 
of men and animals. (Cf. kifua, 
of man only.) 

Kidau, n. (vi-}, (i) a small kind 
of native boat (see Dau) ; (2) a 
small containing-vessel, pot, e.g. 
kidau cha ivino, an ink-pot. (Also 
kidawa from Arab, dawat, ink-stand. 
Cf. dawati, and follg.) 

*Kidawati, n. small box of writing 
materials, writing case. Dim. of da- 
ivati (which see, and prec.). (Ar.) 

Kidevu, n. (vi-}, chin. Ndevu 
zamwota kidevuni, a beard is grow- 
ing on his chin. (Cf. udevu, and 
? -/.) 

Kidimbwi, n. (vi-) also Ki- 
dumbwi, small pool, puddle, e.g. 
on the shore at low water. 

Kidinga, n. Kidingapopo, dengue 
fever. (Cf. homa.) 

Kidogo, from -djogo, which see. 
Very common as (i) n. a small piece, 
a morsel, a bit, a little. Nipe k. cha 
mkate, give me a morsel of bread. 
(2) adv. a little, in a small degree, 
on a small scale, moderately, not 
much, and of time ' presently, soon.' 
Alifanya nguvu kidogo, he exerted 
himself slightly. (3) a. in a small 
degree, in a small quantity, a few, 
a little, e.g. iuatu kidogo, a few 
people. Mchelt kidogo, a little rice. 

Kidoko, n. (vi-), also Kidokezi, 
(i) a click, smack. Piga k,, give a 
click with the tongue, smack the lips. 




(a) A hint, sign/ secret suggestion. 
(Cf. t/otfta.) 

Kidole, n. (z>/-), one of the ex- 
tremities of the hand or foot, a finger, 
a toe. Distinguished as k. cha mgun, 
a toe, and k. cha mkono, a finger ; 
and these further as k. cha gumba, 
thumb ; k. cha shahada, fore-finger ; 
k. cha kati or kikubwa, middle finger ; 
k. cha kati ya kando, fourth finger ; 
k. cha mwisho, little finger. (Cf. 
dole, udole, rarely used in Z.) 

Kidomo, n. (w-), dim. of mdomo, 
'.ittle lip (beak, mouth); (a) 
daintiness in food. Yuna kidorno, 
he is dainty. 

Kidonda, n. ('), dim. of donda, 
a small wound, sore, ulcer, breaking 
out. (Cf. donda, ? dondoa.} 

Kidonge, n. (vi-} and Kitonge, 
a small round mass, a small lump, a 
little ball, a small mouthful (of food). 
K. cha uzi, a ball of cotton. A', cha 
dawa, a pill. Dim. of donge. (Cf. 
donge, tonge?) 

Kidoto, n. (vi-\ blinker, a small 

patch or bandage of cloth, fastened 

camel's eyes while working 

a mill. Fiinga vidolo, blindfold. 

(Cf. kijamatida^) 

Kidude, n. (-), dim. of dude 

(which sec /t a little what-do-you-call- 

ript thing. Kidude gani 

\\ hat sort of a thing do you 

call tl 

K I'ludu, n. f ?<*-), dim. of mdudu 
(which see), a small insect. 

Kidugu, n. and adv. (i) 
ndugtty little brother (cf. kibuzi and 
mbuzi, kigao and nguo)\ (a) in a 
1 1 way, like brother*. Kupend- 
idugu, to love as brothers. 

so, n. (w-), act (process, 
manner, means) of showing or ex- 
..;, explanation, pattern, model, 
illustration, comment. Fuasa A., 
copy a patter -iclczo. (Cf. 

clezo, fhflfzo, eUa.) 

Kiembo, n. (vi-\ arrow, not 
often in /. (Cf. chembe and note, 
and syn. m shale.) 

Kiendeleo, n. (vi-\ making a 
fonvard movement, progress, process. 
(Cf. etuta, tndelea, &c.) 

Kieneo, n. (vi-\ extending, extent, 
extension. (Cf. enta, eneo.} 

Kienezo, n. (OT-), something* to 
measure with, &c. See Chenezo. 

Kienge, n. (yi-}, dim. of mwenge, 
small torch, kindlings, any small 
thing burning or to burn. 

Kifa, n. (i) (w-), kifa uwongo, 
the sensitive plant, lit. the death- 
shammer (cf. fd}-\ (2) nipple of a 
gun, pan of a matchlock. 

Kifaa, n. (*-), a useful thing, a 
thing for use, personal belongings, 
household necessaries, utensil. (Cf. 
faa, v., and faa, mafaa, also riziki, 
vyombo, pambo.} 

Kifafa, n. fits, convulsions, epi- 
xepsy. (Perh. cf. -/a, kifa, i.e. a 
a sort of dying.) 

Kifalme, n. and adv., also Ki- 
faume, (i) (**-), dim. of nifalmc, 
a petty king; (a) royal state, of a 
royal sort, e.g. kiti cha k., iiguo za 
/., a royal seat, royal robes; (3) in 
a royal way, as a king. 

Kifani, n. (vi-}> and Kifano, a 
similar thing, that which matches, a 
fellow, n parallel, a match, an equal. 
Haina kifani, it is unique, it is un- 
equalled. (Cf. m/ano,/iin<jfta.} 

Kifaranga, n. (w-), young bin!, 
chicken. (Cf. 


ro, n. (w*-), a rhinoceros, 
faro being seldom heard. Also (i) 
a stick of thick hide, used to beat 
slaves with, and (a) a blow uith 
such a stick, c. ;; 
sifa, I will give him six cuts. (Cf. 

Kifaume, n. (see Kifalme), royal 
i-gal dignity, cScc. JHga *., 
play the king. 

Kiflcho, n. (fi-)i net (process, 
manner, place, Ac.) of hiding. ]>lace 

raiment, a stea 
hand) manner. A'wa kifich 
secret way. Mambo ya kiftihofitho, 




intriguings, underhand ways. (Cf. 
ficha,ficho, and syn. setiri, siri.} 

*Kifldio, n. (z^-), ransom, fine, 
redemption money. (,{.fidi,fidia) 
and dia, iikombozi.*} 

Kifiko, n. act (time, manner, place, 
circumstances, &c.) of arriving, arriv- 
al, point arrived at, stage of journey, 
destination. (Cf.y^a.) 

Kifo, n. (w-), act (circumstances, 
place, manner, &c.) of dying, death. 
Haivakuona k. chake alikofia, they 
did not see where his death took 
j^ace. (Cf. -fa, -/, kifa, kifafa, 
a thing dying, kifu, a dead thing, ufu, 
the state of being dead, and syn. 

*Kifu, v. be sufficient (for), suffice, 
satisfy. Wanne hawakukifu^ four 
were not enough. Ap. kif-ia, -iwa, 
e. g. amenikifia hajayangu, he satis- 
fied my wish. n. a sufficient 
quantity, a full amount, abundance. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. tosha, ritkisha.} 

Kifu, n. and adv. (i) (vt-), a dead 
thing ; (2) as if dead. (Cf. -fa and 
syn. maiti.} 

Kifua, n. (*-), (i) breast, bosom, 
chest, pulmonary region, usu. of 
man only (cf. kidart] ; (2) any chest 
affection, cough, consumption, pleu- 
risy, pneumonia. Hawezi kifua, he 
has a chest complaint. (3) A small 
round wooden platter, used like 
chano for washing things on, and 
other purposes. (Cf. fua, beat, 
thump, and mafua, pafu^) 
' Kifudifudi, adv. on the face, face 
downwards, of position. (Cf. 

fudifudi, fudikiza, kifulifuli, and 
contr. kitanitani, kichalichali?) 

Kifuko, n. (#*)> dim. of mfuko 
fuko (which see), small bag, pocket, 

Kifulifuli, adv. on the face, face 
downwards. (Cf. kifuctifudi?) 

Kifumba, n. (m-} } dim. otfumba 
(which see), a matting bag, sleeping 
sack. (Cf. follg.) 

Kifumbu, n. (W-), small round 
basket or bag used for squeezing 

grated cocoanut in, and straining 
out the juice (/*') a strainer. (Cf. 
fumba, kifumba, &c.) 

Kifundo, n. (w-), (i) a knot. 
Piga k. cha nguo, make a knot of a 
piece of calico, tie up in one's clothes. 
^2) Protuberance, joint, as resem- 
bling a knot. K. cha mguu, the 
ankle. K. cha mkono, the wrist. 
Mwili wa kifundo kifundo, i. e. with 
small knot-like swellings on the 
body. (Cf. fundo, fundua, and 
perh. funda, and for ankle, wrist, 

Kifungo, n. (vi-), a fastening, act 
(process, method, &c.) of fastening, 
something which fastens. Hence a 
wide variety of meanings (see 
Funga), defined by the context, or 
by another word, e.g. (i) button, 
stud, brooch, buckle, clasp, chain, 
cord, or other contrivance for fast- 
ening; (2) prison, place of confine- 
ment, whether chain (nrinyororit) t 
fetters (pingu), stocks (tnkatale), en- 
closure or cell. Peleka kifungoni, 
send to prison. (3) fig. bond, charter, 
that which binds (seals, cements, &c.), 
e. g. Mahomet is called k. cha dini, 
i. e. the force which holds religion 
together, the corner stone of the faith. 
Kifungo may also mean (4) a puzzle, 
a poser, a dilemma; (5) an act of 
fasting, &c. ; (6) bondage, slavery. 
(Ci.funga, and for binding materials 

Kifungu, n. (w-), dim. of fungu, 
a small heap (portion, part, &c.). 

Kifungua, n. (vty, an opener, an 
unfastener. A verbal noun governing 
the word following, e.g. k. kopo, a 
tin-opener. K. mlango, a present for 
opening a door. K. kinwa, break- 
fast. (Ctfungajungua, mfunguo, 
and follg.) 


a small key (cf. prec.). Also of a 
private key, a thief's key, skeleton 
key (for which special meaning, see 




Kifuniko, n. (z//-), anything which 

.1) top, lid, cover, case, &c. ; 

(2) fig. concealment, hiding. A', cha 

siri, concealment of a mystery. (Cf. 


Kifunuo, *n. (*-), unfolding, un- 
covering, revealing, &c., that which 
unfolds', reveals, &c. (Cf.funua.) 

Kifuo, n. a stake fixed in the 

off the husk of cocoanuts. Also dim. 
of tnftif, a small groove (line, mark, 
(Cf./wa, ufuo, ufuko^} 

Kifupa, n. (z*-), dim. of fupa, a 
small lx>ne. 

Kifupi, adv. and n. of a short, 
abbreviated kind, in a brief way, 
a short piece. (Cf. -//*) 

Kifurushi, n. (w-), dim of furu- 
shi, a small parcel, packet, bundle. 

Kifusi, n. rubbish, and esp. of 

old materials fit for further use, old 

and mortar, &c., not used 

like mawe in contempt. (Cf./usia.} 

Kifuu, n. (*') (i) an empty 
cocoanut shell ; also (2) a cuttle-fish 
bone, i.e. kifuu cha ngizi. (Cf. 

Kifya, n. (z*-), dim. form oijifya, 
which see. 

Kigae, n. (w-), piece of broken 
pottery .are, china, glass. 

&c., potsherd. K. cha paa, used of 
a roofing tile. (Cf. gae^) 

Kigaga, n. (z/i-), dry hard scale, 
scurf, scab. Ac. (Cf. kikoko, ukoko.} 

Kiganda, n. (n'-}, dim. of ganda. 
K. cha mkate, outside crust of bread 
(opp. to nyama, the crumb.) 

Kigawanyo. n. that which 
ft divisor, fiistributimi. <Hvi,ion. So 
kigavjanyiko < that which is divided 
ibuted, share, dividend. (Cf. 

i. SeeKijego. 

Kigelegelo. n. (ft-), a ; 
high-pitche<l trill, shrill scream, used 
by women esp. as a sign of joy or 
triumph, welcome on return, at a 
birth. &c. (Cf. ktUU, and shfr 

Kigereng'enza, n. (vt-), a very 
small splinter, broken piece, frag- 
ment, chip. (Cf. kigae.} 

Kigeugeu, n. a. ami adv., change- 
able, fickle, unstable, wayward thing 
or person, of a changeable kind, in 
an uncertain fluctuating way. (Cf. 

Kigoe, n. (*-), instrument for 
extraction, hooked stick, small hook, 
crook, claw. (Cf. ttg'oa, ugoe.} 

Kigogo, n. (*-), dim. of gogo, a 
small log, a block of wood, a lump. 
Also adv. lala &., sleep like a log. 

Kigogota, n. (f*-), a woodpecker. 
(Cf. gogota.) 

Kigoli, n. (vi-}, a girl, of one just 
growing up, almost marriageable, 
between mtoto and niwali. Not often 
heard in Z. 

Kigomba, n. '(vi-), dim. of mgO' 
mba, small banana plant, banana 

Kigongo, n. (t/-), dim. of 
and gongo, (i) small club, cudgel ; 

(2) hump, hunch, ridge, projection. 
Hence kigongo, or mwenyi kigongo, 
a hunchback, a deformed person. 
Kigongo cha ntlima, mountain ridge. 

(3) A seam, in sewing. 
Kigosho, n. (vt-) t bend, crook, 

curve, esp. when abnormal, a de- 

formity. Nimtteketta moto nikafanya 

k. cha mkono, I burnt myself, and 

got a t>ent arm. M(:< 

(cha miguu], a knock-kneed man. 

Fimbo hii ina k., this 

crook in it. (Cf. kombo, kikombo, 


*Kiguba, n. (fi-), dim. of guba 
(which see), a small bunch of ai 
leaves, containing often > 
basil) sprinkl i (a fragrant 


Kigudulia, n. (r-/-\ dim. - 
fia, a small jar or pitcher, smn! . 
cooler of porous c 

Kigugu. n. and adv. (T: a 
weed 05 wild plant (d.g*gu) ; (2) like 




a weed, like weeds, in a wild unculti- 
vated way, e. g. nyumba hizi zimc- 
jengwa ., these houses are built like 
weeds, all huddled together. Panda 
k., plant too close together. 

Kigugumizi, n. stammering, stut- 
tering, speaking in jerks or gulps, &c./ 
described as kigugumizi cha maneito, 
or maneno ya kigugumizi. (Cf. 

Kigunda, n. (vi-\ dim. of gunda, 
horn, war-horn. 

Kiguni, n. (vi-}, dim. of guni, a 
small strong matting bag, often used 
for bringing dates to Z. 

Kigutu, n. (z>z-), stump of a tree, 
also of a human limb, injured or 
deformed. (Cf. kikono, kiguu.} 

Kiguu, n. (z>*-), dim. of mguu, 
(i) a leg or foot disabled or shortened 
by injury or disease, &c., a stump, a 
clubfoot ; (2) a person so disabled 
or disfigured, one who is lame, 
crippled, unable to walk;. (3) any- 
thing like a leg or leg-shaped, e. g. 
one of four ' little feet ' or projections 
worked on either side of the mjusi 
(lizard-ornament) on the front of a 
native kanzu, also called kipaji. 
See Kanzu. (Kijiguu is also dim. 
of mguu?) 

Kiguzo, n. (vi-\ dim. of nguzo, 
(i) small post, pillar, stake, palisade, 
prop; (2) anything serving a similar 
purpose, literally or fig. support, 
prop, comfort, assurance, &c. 

Kigwe, n. (vi-}, dim. of ugwe, 
small cord, string, braid, piping on 
the edge of a dress, a rein. (Cf. 
kitani, uzt, kamba.} 

Kihame, n. (vi-), a deserted house 
(village, district). (f. hama, ma- 
hame, -e being a passive termination.) 

Kiherehere, n. (i) palpitation, 
confused movement, e.g. k. cha moyo, 
palpitation of the heart ; (2) trepida- 
tion, bustle, anxiety. 

*Kihindi, n. and adv. (i) the 
Hindoo language, Hindostani ; (2) of 
the Hindoo kind, -a kihindi, Indian. 
(Cf. Mhindi.) 

*Kihori, n. (*'-), dim. of hori, 
(i) small gulf, inlet; (2) small 
(Indian) canoe. 

Kiinamizi, n. bending, stooping 
down, as for work. Nyamaya /., 
i.e. a butcher's perquisite of meat. 
(Cf. j'nama, jinamizi?) 

Kiini, n. (vi-\ innermost part of 
a thing, and so (i) kernel or stone of 
fruit, e.g. the inner part of a clove 
(garafuu\ when the outer skin is 
removed after soaking in water; (2) 
the yolk of an egg, kiini cha yai ; 
(3) the heart or hard core of a tree, 
called also moyo wa rntt, esp. if soft, 
nutty, or pithy ; (4) pupil of the eye, 
cf. mboni. (Cf. ini, and syn. 

Kiini-macho, n. (*-), also Mk., 
a conjurer, a conjurer's trick, sleight 
of hand, jugglery. Distinguished 
from uganga, e. g. huyu si mganga, 
ni k., this man is not a real medicine 
man, but a juggler. Mganga ame- 
fanya k., the medicine man used a 
juggler's trick. (Perh. cf. prec., 
also inika for root, m&jicho.} 

Xiinua, n. that which raises up, 
verbal governing a word following, 
e. g. kiinua mgongo, that which raises 
the back, gratuity to one who has 
been bending over his work. (Cf. 
kinyosha mgongo, and ki.} 

Kiisha, adv. for Ikiisha, also Ki- 
sha, this ended-, afterwards, next, 
moreover, and besides, in fine, finally. 
Huyu ni mbaya k. mchaivi> this 
man is a scoundrel and moreover a 
wizard. ( From is ha, v. Cf.mwisAo, 
hatima, baada.} 

Kiitiko, n. (z'z-), and Kiitikio, 
response, musical refrain. (Cf. 
ita, v.) 

Kijakazi, n. ('-), a young slave 
girl, a poor slave woman. (Cf. 
mjakazi, and mtumwa.} 

Kijaluba, n. (vi-}, small narrow 
metal box, often used for aromatic 
substances, and carried on the breast 
by women. 

Kijamanda, n. (vi-*), small box 




:et of thick stiff plaited work, 
made .of leaf-strips dyed various 
colours. Many come from Mada- 
(3) A small basket-work 
blinker, or cover fastened over the 
eyes of a camel while at work. (Cf. 
kidoto and kinga?) 

Kijamba, n. (09-), a small rock. 
Pirn, of mwamba, which see. 

Kijana, n. (vt-), dim. of mwana, 
meaning generally, a young person 
male or female, but also with special 
meanings, as youthfulness is viewed 
in reference to (i) age, (2) relation- 

}) physical development, (4) 
social position. (i) As to age, the 
kijana has ceased to be an mtoto 
mchanga, and is not yet mfu ntzima, 
though still an mtoto. Mtoto akipata 
*aba. amckitwa k. tnwenyi 
akili, when a child is seven years old, 
he is a kijana and come to years of 
discretion. Amekuu<a /., aweza ku- 
sfma, he is a kijana, he can speak 
for himself. Wewe k., sisi ivatu 
-vazirna, you are a kijana, we are 
grown-up people. (2) As to re- 
lationship, kijana means merely son 
or daughter. Wakaomba ktua Afu- 
ungu kufwta k., nnd they prayed to 
God that they might have offspi ing (a 
child). K. cha Sultani, the Sultan's 
son. (3) As to physical development 
k. means any one in full vigour and 
capable of bearing arms, i.e. from 
boyhood till past the prime of life, 
as contr. with rntoto on one side, and 
muc on the other, and practically 

:nous with miima. (4) As to 
social relations, /. means a depen- 
dent, servant, slave. It is also used 
of the 'master of the hoti^ 
reference to his own property (cf. 

mwana for ' mistrcs 
house,' i.e. txrrhaps heir of the house 

; ightful owner). (Cf. mwm* 9 
. bwana.} 

Kijego, n. (vi-\ also Kichego, a 
>ps its upper teeth 

first, and therefore considered un- 
lucky, and often exposed or put to 

death by the relations. Alikutva k., 
alitanguliza knot a mcno ya jitn, he 
was an unlucky child, his upper 
teeth grew first. (Cf. chego, and 
jino, also syn. timw, titrifi.} 

Kijembe, n. (vi-\ dim. of jetnbe, 

1 i ) small cuttinginstrument, penknife, 
lancet (cf. kijisit, andjemfo, kiembi) ; 

(2) ?fig. of cutting, sarcastic, ironical 
language, i.e. man en o ya kijembe, 
sema kijembe. 

Kijia, n. (vi-} y also Kinjia, dim. 
of nj'fa, little path, track, &c. (Cf. 


Kijiboio, n. (vi-*), dim. of kiboko 
(boko being seldom heard in Z.), a 
small hippopotamus. 

Kijicho, n. (-), dim. of jicho, 
(i ) a sly (sidelong, envious, malignant, 
evil) glance; (a) envy, malice, ill 
will. Fanya k. t be envious, be 
jealous. Yuna k. rohoni, he feels 
envious, he is jealous, ffana k. nawe, 
he bears you no malice. War 
ivana vijicho sana, their eye 
with envy and hate. (Cf. uwivu, 
hasidi, roho, tamaa!) 

Kijichwa, n. (rr-), dim. otkich-wa, 
a small head. 

Kijiguu, n. (), dim. of mgutt, 
a small foot. (Dist. kiguu.~) 

Kijiji, n. (w-), dim. of mji, a 
small town, village, hamlet. (Cf. 
syn. kitongoji.} 

Kijike, n. (w-), a young female, 
human or other. (Cf. -ke, nd/filr.) 

Kijiko, n. (f/-), dim. ct 
(i) a small spoon ; (a) a small stove, 
or fire-place. (Cf./ito.) 

Kijineno, n. (i-), : 

pccoh, child's prattle. 

*Kijiri, n. (vi-\ also Chiclnri. a 

bribe, } \. (?Ar. Cf. 

and syn. mlttngula, 

Kijiti. n. :-/'-\ dim. <>1 
small tree, bush, shrub, smn 
piece of wood, peg, stick. . (Cf. 
/, a seat.) 

, dim. <> 
small river, brook, stream, rirulet. 

L a 




(Cf. rnto, jito, juto, and dist. kito, a 

Kijitu, n. (z;z-), dim. of //, a 
little man. Also in contempt, man 
nikin, or in disgust, e.g. Ewe kijiU 
kiovu, Oh you wicked wretch. (Cf 
mfu,fffu, and dist. kitu, a thing.) 

Kijivi, n. (vi-}, n. and adv., i 
thievish person, thief, brigand; and 
in a thievish (sneaking, underhand 
way. (Cf. mwivi, iba, and/z'z>z.) 
Kijiwe, n. and adv. (vi-}, dim. o 
jiwe, a small stone, like a stone. 

Kijogoo, n. (vi-}, dim. of jogoo 
(O a small cock, a bantam cock; 
(2) a kind of shell-fish (Str.). 

Kijoli, n. (vi-}, set of slaves be- 
longing to one master, establishment, 
domestic staff, domestics as a body. 
(Cf. mjoli, njoli, and mtumwa.} 

Kijombo, n. (vi-}, dim. of chombo, 
a small sailing ship, a small vessel. 
(For ki-ji-ombo, chombo being for k'i- 

Kijongo, n. (z/z-), a hump-backed 
person, &c., like kigongo. (For 
ki-ji-ongo. Cf. jongo, mgongo, ki- 
gongo, kibiongo^) 

Kijoyo, n. (vi-}, dim. Ifaekimoyo, 
small heart, slight inclination, han- 
kering. (For ki-ji-oyo, kimoyo. Cf. 
moyo with plur. mioyo, and nyoyo, 
indicating a form uoyo for moyo.) 

Kijukuu, n. (vi-}, great-grand- 
child, dim. of mjukuu, which see. 

Kijumba, n. (vi-}, a small house, 
dim. of jumba. (For ki-ji-umba. 
Cf. jumba, nyutnba,- chumba, i. e. >^?- 
umba, kinyumba?) 

Kijumbe, n. (z>z-), a special or 
secret messenger, a go-between, a 
matchmaker. (Cf. mjumbe,jumbe, 
-e being a passive termination. Cf. 
m turned) 

Kijungu, n. (vi-}, a small cooking 
pot. (For ki-ji-ungu. Ci.jungu, 
chungu, &c.) 

Kijusi, n. (z/z-), an act (case, in- 
stance, &c.) of defilement, a particular 
(legal, ceremonial, physical) impurity. 
(Cf. -jusi, ujusi.) 

Kijuto, n. (z/z-), for usual kijito, 
dim. of tnfo, a small river. (For ki- 
ji-uto. Cf. kijoyo, for kimoyo?) 

Kijuujuu, n. and adv. See Juu. 

Kijuvi, n. (z/z-), an impertinent 
child, a bit of impertinence, a saucy 
remark. (Cf. -juvi,u/uvi,jua,\.) 

Kikaango, n. (vi-}, small frying- 
pan. (Cf. kaanga, kaango.} 

Kikaka,n. and adv. (w-), (i) dim. 
of kaka, a bit of rind or peel ; (2) 
hastiness, bustle, hurry, in a hurry. 
Mbonajvafanya k. .? Why are you in 
such a hurry ? (Cf. kaka) 

Kikalasha, n. (z/z-),dim. oikalasha, 
small tusk of ivory. (Ct.pembe, bori.} 

Kikale, n. and adv., old style, an- 
tique fashion, an antiquated thing, out 
of date, of the past, -a kikale, old- 
fashioned. (Cf. kale, and contr. 
kisasa, up to date.) 

Kikambo, n. the relation of step- 
parent and child, e. g. babayakikambo, 
step-father. (Cf. kambo.} 

Kikao, n. (vi-}, act (place, time, 
ityle, form) of sitting, dwelling, &c. 
See Kaa. Hence various meanings, 
e.g. (i) sitting, seat, dwelling-place, 
labitat (cf. makao, makazi, masikani}\ 
(2) stay, duration of residence, season 
of residence; (3) posture, position, 
office,d igni ty (cf. mahali, cheo,darajd) ; 
(4) style of living, social standing, 
place in society, conduct (cf. maisha, 
mwenendo} ; (5) society, club, mess, 
set (cf. chama, jamad}, e. g. k. chake 
Unguja, he lives in Zanzibar. K. cha 
mizinga, the place where cannon are 
kept, battery. Katika k. chao wali- 
hokaa, in their company, at their 
meeting. Sipendi k. chake, I do not 
ike the way he goes on. (Cf. kaa, 
and syn. as above.) 

Kikapo, n. (vi-}, a wide-mouthed 
lexible basket of plaited leaf-strips or 
^rass, with two small handles, used 
or all purposes in Z., made mostly 
}y Sheheri Arabs. (Other kinds 
re kapo, kanda, jamanda, tiinga, 
3ohani,pakacha, ungo,kiteo, kunguto, 
ifumbu, and cf. mfuko.} 




*Kikariri, n. and adv., repetition, 
repeated action, saying over and over 
again, repeatedly. (Cf. kariri, and 
for adv. marra kwa marra, inarra 

: na tena.} 

' -Kikasiki, n. (OT-), dim. of kasiki, 
small pitcher. 

Kikawe, n. (vi-}> a very tiny stone. 
(Cf. kijiwe,jiwe, kawe, mbwe.} 

Kikaza, n. (w-), a thing which 
tightens, strengthens, holds together, 
but esp. of a board, pole, or beam 
over a window or doorway. . (Cf. 
JL'aza, kazo.} 

Kike, n. and adv. (seldom vikt in 
plur., for usual -a kike, or vijike), a 
female of any kind, anything of femi- 
nine style, womanly behaviour (usu- 
ally meaning weakness, timidity, fool- 
ishness), like a woman, in a feminine 
way, e. g. ivatoto iva k,, girls. Mtu 
wa k. t a womanish, weak, unmanly 
person. Fanya k., act like a woman. 
Saitli ya k., a shrill, treble voice. 
a. from -/<?, agreeing with D 3 (S), 
e.g. kijana kike, a young woman. 
(Cf. ~ke, jike, kuke, uke, kijike, and 
contr. -unit, kiume.} 

Kikebe, n. (w-), dim. of mkebe, 
small pot, mug, canister. 

Kikeukeu, n. convulsive sobbing, 
hiccup. (Cf. kekevn t and I :. 

Kikingo, n. (r/-), something to 
parry or defend oneself with, means 
of warding off, screen, defence, fender. 
(Cf. kinga, ukingo.} 

Kikisa, v. speak in a hesitating, 
!, broken way, be unintelli- 
gible or half -understood, puzzle, 
mystify. Stma kwa kukiJHsa, talk in 
i in way. Maneno 
yak( yamcmkiki sa, he cannot 
:ds clearly. Jambo 

>s is difficult, hard 
at (Cf.kigugumhi,gugU' 
- . fofa, goteta.) 

tobacco pipe of 
the so: 

the ki c. a cocoanut shell 

partly filled with water, and two 
tubes of wood or reed (dig*:. 

tati),one leading from the bowl (bori) 
holding tobacco (tumbakd] into the 
water, the other (shilamtt) from the 
kiko to the mouthpiece through which 
the smoke is drawn. The bubbling 
of the water is^called tnalio ya kiko. 
Other simpler pipes consist of a hollow 
reed and earthenware bowl only, e. g. 

Kiko, verb-form, (it) is there, 
agreeing with D 3 (S), the pfx. ki 
and locative -ko, which see. 

Kikoa, n. (?'-), (i) a meal eaten 
in common, provided by each of those 
who join in it by turns, a common 
table, a mess, boarding together. 
Kula k. t to have meals in common, 
also kula chakula cha shitika, as is 
done when food is scarce, weather 
unseasonable, &c. Watu tvala kikoa 
majira ya rnasika, people mess to- 
gether during the rainy season. Leo 
k. changu y it is my turn to ; 
the meal to-day. Nikila k., ntalipa 
nini mkata mno ? If I join the mess, 
how shall I pay when I have not a 
penny ? (Contr. kula bia, where each 
person provides a share at each meal. 
(2) dim. of koa, small flat ring or 
band of metal, used of the orna- 
mentation of scabbards, also of anklets 
nnd bracelets. (Cf. koa, ukoa, and 
pcfe, kikukit.} 

Kikofl, n. (7-1-), the inside of the 
hand, what would lie on the upturned 
hand, a handful. (Cf. koji, ukofi, 
also chopa, konsi.) 

Kikohoei, n. (vi~), a cough, lit of 
coughing, also of consm 

(Cf. kokoa, ukohozi, kohoo.) 

Kikoi, n. (-), white cnli 
coloured boi 'ton silk or 

both, used for loincloths i: 
umlcr many nnmr>. 
'>ordered shirtings, it. 
ka, n. (/-) blade or il 
ft grass used as for Ukoka, 

Kikoko. r 

wkoko, and nkoko (which see), a bit 
so of a scab, 
or scurf. (Cf. kigaga.) 




Kikomba, n. (i) njaaya kikomba, 
or ya kukomba, ravenous hunger, 
that, makes a man scrape up and 
sweep off everything (cf. komba). 
Also kikomba cha njaa, i. e. makazo 
ya njaa, intense hunger. (2) Dim. 
of komba, a small galago. 

Kikombe, n. (z>z-), dim. oikombe, 
a small dish, used commonly of a 
cup or basin, or mug of any material, 
k. cha chai, tea-cup. K. cha bilauri, 
tumbler, wine-glass, also k. cha nuru, 
i. e. transparent, bright, polished. 
K. chafetha, silver goblet. (Cf. 
komba, kombe, i. e. a vessel scraped 
or hollowed out, -e being a passive 
termination, also kopo, kikopo, and 
for such vessels generally chombo.) 

Kikombo, n. and adv., a small 
crooked, hook-shaped, or curved 
thing, e. g. a small curved gouge- 
shaped tool ; also, a small bend, 
curve, irregularity, deflection, defect, 
fault, flaw. As adv., in a crooked, 
irregular way. (Cf. komba, v., 

kornbe, ukombo, and syn. pindo, 
mzingo, tao.} 

Kikomo, n. (vi-\ (i) stop, stop 
ping, stoppage, place or time of 
stopping, cessation, end ; (2) k. cha 
uso, forehead, brow, i. e. uso ulipo- 
koma, pasipomea nyele, mbele ya uso, 
juu ya macho, where the face ends, 
the hairless part in front over the 
eyes. (Cf. koma, ukomo, &c., and 
syn. mwisho, kiisimama^} 

Kikondoo, n. and adv. (i) a small 
sheep, lamb; (2) like a sheep, un- 
resistingly, meekly, calmly. Kufa 
kikondoo ndiko kufa kiungwana, to 
die like a sheep is to die like a hero. 
(Cf. kondoo.} 

Kikongwe, n. (w-), a person benl 
and bowed with age, a very old per 
son, esp. (like kizee) an old woman 
Sometimes used, as intensive and 
descriptive , with kizee . (C f. konga 
kongwe, kongwa, and kibiongo^) 

Kikono, n. (vi-\ dim. of mkono 
(i) small arm or hand, short or defec 
live arm, stump of the arm, e.g. ana k. 

he has lost a hand (arm) (cf. kiguu) ; 
2) anything resembling a small 
land, e.g. projecting prow of a ves- 
el, guard of a sword-handle, small 
talk or tendril of plants and flowers, 
entacle or feeler of fish or insect.' 

Kikonyo, n. (vi-), like kikono, 
e. g. of a stalk, vikonyo vya garafuu, 
clove- stalks. 

Kikope, n. (m-\ eyelid. (Cf. 
ikope, hope, kopesa.} 

Kikopo, n. (ztf-), dim. of kopo, 
small vessel, pot, jug, mug, esp. of 
metal. Used of spouts for carrying 
off water from a roof, &c. 

Kikorombwe, n. (z/z-), signal cry, 
call, made by blowing into the 
hand or through the fingers. 

Kikosi, n. (z/z-), (i) the back of 
the neck, nape, i. e. nyumaya shingo, 
below the kishogo, nape, and kogo, 
back of the head; (2) also kikozi, 
company, band, troop, esp. of sol- 
diers or armed men. (Cf. ukosi.} 

Kikotama, n. (*'-), dim. of ko- 
tama, small curved knife, garden- or 
pruning-knife. (Cf. shembea, and 
for knives generally kisu.} 

Kikoto, n. (vi-\ and Chikoto, 

(1) a whip of plaited grass, leaf- 
strips, or bark fibre, used by school- 
masters, overseers, &c. (cf. mjeledi}\ 

(2) plait of hair. Piga (songa) vi- 
koto, plait. 

Kikozi, n. (vi-\ and Kikosi, 
company, band, troop, esp. of sol- 
diers or armed men. (Ci.jeshi!) 

Kikuba, n. (*'-) (0 see Kiguba ; 
(2) dim. of kuba, small vault, dome, 
cupola, arched roof. Also as adv., 
like a dome, &c. 

Kikucha, n. (vi-}, also Kikuchya, 
Kikuchia, dim. of ukucha, a bit of 
the nail, a little projection of the 
nail, nail-paring. 

Kikuku, n.(W-), (i)ring, usually 
of metal, worn on arm or wrist, arm- 
let, bracelet. Also used of an ank- 
let of same kind. K. cha kupandia 
frasi, a stirrup. K. cha pingu, a 
handcuff. (Cf. furungu t banagiri, 




ktkce, and urcmbo!) (2) Dim. of 
small fowl, chicken, ban tarn. 

Kikukuu, n. and adv., a thing 
old, worn out, past work, use- 
less, -a kikukuu, worn out. See 

Kikulia, n. (*-), a thing or person 
that "has grown up at a place, not 
born at a place, which is kizalia. 
(From ki and Ap. form of kua, 
kulia, C f. ki me/ea.) 

Kikumbatio, n. (#*-), embrace. 
(Cf. kumbatia, and syn. ambiso.} 

Kikumbo, n. (vi-\ thrust, shove, 
jostling. Piga k. y thrust away, shove 
aside, push by, nudge with the elbow. 
Pigana vikumbo, of rough hustling. 
horseplay. (Cf. kumba, and songa.) 

Kikimdi, n. (OT-), dim. of kundi, 
small company, group, knot, herd. 
(Cf. kikosi.) 

Kikundu, n. (vi-}> rump, dim. of 

Kikungu, n. (*-) di m - of niku- 
ngn t small earthenware cooking pot, 
also the lid of such a pot. (Cf. 
chombo, chungu.} 

Kikuta, n. (wi-), dim. of ukuta, 
small stone wall, parapet, masonry, 
parti 1 

Kikuti, n. (vi-\ dim. of kuti, the 
tip of a cocoanut leaf, i. e. ncha ya 
kuti. See Kuti. (2) Chance, hap, 
luck, an incident, event, accident, oc- 
currence. Kikuti chcma, a happy 
chance. (Cf. kuta, v., and syn. tu- 
kio, nasibu, bahati.} 

Kikwapa, n. (*-), (i) armpit. 

Also various things connected with, 

or resembling the armpit ; (a) the 

smell of the armpit ; (3) the per- 

;i of the armpit ; (4) the gore 

dress (sansu) under the 

nee kisibau cha 


at the armpit. Kikwapa cha tanga, 
part of a sail. 

Kikwata, n. and adv. (vi- 
ol kwata, small hoof, damaged or 
maimed hoof. As adv. colloquially 
' on foot.' Enda k., go on foot. Sa- 

fari k., a journey on foot, i. e. kwa 

Balalo, n. (z/z'-), (i) camping- or 
sleeping-place on a journey (cf. kituo, 
kambi) ; (2) a sleeping-shelter, e. g. 
a few sticks resting on forked up- 
rights, and carrying some grass as a 
covering. (Cf. /a/a, ufalo.} 

Kilango, n. (#*'-), dim. of m- 
lango, a small door, narrow entrance, 
small opening, pass, strait. A', cha 
bahari, a strait. K. cha jaha, the 
strait gate of Paradise. 

Kile, a. dem. that, agreeing with 
D 3 (S). (Also Imperat. form of 
-la, e. g. kitoto kile ktkik kile kileji, 
let that little child eat that cake.) 

Kileji, n. (f*-), a round flat 
wheaten cake (Str.). 

Kilele, n. (i-), top, point, peak, 
pointed end, pinnacle, e.g. k. cha 
mlima, the top of the mountain. 
Also of plants and trees, k. cha 
ninazi kikachanua, the shoot of the 
cocoanut blossomed. (Dist keUlf.) 

Kilema, n. (vi-\ (i) a deformity, 
defect, blemish ; (2) a deformed or 
disfigured person. Si vema kttchcka 
k. , it is not well to mock at deformity. 
K. wa jicho, a one-eyed man, i. c. 
chongo. (Cf. kiwetc, kiziwi, ki- 
po/u, kibiongo, &c.) 

Kilemba, n. (01*-), (i) a cloth 
worn as a wrapper round the head, 
a turban, the style of folding mid 
wearing being according to the rank, 
, &c. of the wearer, often of 
silk, and costly. /V^z *., wear a 
turban. (2) fig. gratuity at the end 
of a job, apprenticeship, co-> 
teaching. &c. (cf. ada, bakshishi, 
ufito). (3) Crest, e. g. k. cha iogoo, 
cock's comb. (Cf. shuitgi, ki- 

J//.VM.CI. I 

nbwe, n. (vi-\ great-great- 
grandchild. (Cf. kiningiu.:. 

Kiloo, n. (w-), (i) itmte or case 

ication, stagger 
&c. ; (2) air. 
narcotic, e.g. pombc t mvinyo, tembo, 




bangi, kasumba, &c. K. kimempata, 
he is under the influence of liquor. 
(Cf. iilevi, levy a.} 

Kilete, n. (vi~\ (i) metal row- 
lock, crutch, for an oar (cf. ki- 
shward) ; (2) stick used for twisting 
in native ropemaking. (Cf. kisongo.) 
Kilicho, verb-form, which is, 
agreeing with D 3 (S), i.e. pfx. ki-, 
li, is, and relative cho, agreeing with 

Kilifu, n. (vi-\ also sometimes 
Kidifu, and Ndifu, the cloth-like 
envelope of fibre binding the young 
leaves of the cocoanut round the 
growing stem. (Cf. mnazi, and 

Kilili, n. (vi-}, dim. of ulili, a 
small bedstead. (Cf. kitanda.} 

Kilima, n. (vi-\ dim. of mlima, 
hill, eminence, rising ground, mound, 
ascent. Also name of a kind of evil 

Kilimi, n. (w-), dim. of ulimi, 
(i) a little tongue; (2) bad or 
abusive style of speaking, -ki being 
here depreciative as in kidomo. Ana 
k., he uses abusive language. (Cf. 
mlimi, mwambi.} 

Kilimia, n. the Pleiades (con- 
stellation). K. ikizama kwajua hu- 
zttka kwa mvua, if the Pleiades set in 
fine weather, they rise in rain. (For 
stars cf. nyota, sayari.} 

Kilimo, n. (vi-'}, (i) hoeing, and 
so the care of a plantation generally, 
i. e. cultivation, agriculture ; (2) pro- 
ducts of cultivation, produce, crop. 
Mwaka huu watu wameongokewa na 
kilimo, this year people have suc- 
ceeded well in their cultivation. 
Vilimo mnasongana, the crops are 
too crowded, are planted too close. 
(Cf. lima, mlima, mkulima, &c.) 

Kilinda, n. (#&-)> verbal noun of 
linda, guard, protector, governing a 
noun follg., e. g. kilinda chozi, the 
tear-guard, i. e. the pendulous end of 
a cluster of banana fruits, with a 
pearly drop of moisture at the tip. 
(Cf. linda, mlinzi, and kilindo.} 

Kilindl, n. (vi-\ a place of deep 
water, a deep channel, a deep. (Cf. 

Kilindo, n. (vt-), (i) act (process, 
means, &c.) of guarding, protection, 
[uard, charge, care. Tu katika 
. cha Muungu, we are in God's 
keeping. (2) A watchman's platform 
in a plantation ; (3) a shelter (from 
rain, sun, &c.). (Cf. linda, mlinzi, 
Undo, and Ar. syn. hamaya.} 

Kilinge, n. (vi-\ mystery, puzzle, 
trick. Maneno ya k., dark, unintel- 
ligible utterances, i. e. maneno ya 
f umbo, orya mifano. K. cha tnganga, 
hocus pocus. 

Kilingo, n. (vi-\ (i) a notch cut 
as a mark, a blaze on trees to show 
the way ; (2) (? for kilindd] a watch- 
man's platform, a shelter ; (3) a car- 
penter's shed for shaping timber, logs, 
&c. (Cf. linga, ulingo.} 

Kilio, n. (-), (i) sounding, a 
sound, crying, weeping, mourning, 
a cry, scream, shout, dirge ; (a) 
a subject for mourning, a sad thing. 
Also dim. in contrast with mlio, Ho, 
i. e. kilio kidogo. Nyamazisha k., 
put a stop to mourning. Tia k., 
cause lamentation. Amepekka k. 
matangani, he has contributed a wail 
to the mourning. 

*Killa, a. also Kulla, every (as a 
rule with a singular noun only, and 
unlike all other adjs. in Swahili with 
its noun following it). K. mtu, 
every one. K. siku, daily, day by 
day. K. aendako, wherever he goes. 
K. atakapo, whenever he likes. Occa- 
sionally with Plur. k. watu wakaenda 
zao, all the people went away. 
*Kiluthu, n. velvet. 
Kima, n. a kind of monkey. 
(For other kinds cf. nyani, tumbili, 
mbega, ndegele^) 

*Kima, n. (vi-\ (i) price, value, 
e.g. .kima chake kadiri gani . ? How 
much is it? and cf. kern. (2) Mea- 
sure, stature, height, and cf. kimo. 
(Ar. Cf. (i) kimo, kadiri, kiasi, 
thamani ; (2) kipimo,urefu, 




Kimacho, adv. wide awake, in 
a wakeful condition, on the watch. 
La/a (kaa) ., lie (remain) awake. 
(Cl.jifko, macho, kesha.) 

Kimaji, adv. and a., like water, wet, 

damp, watery, swampy. Also -a ki- 

maji. (C f. niaji, majimaji, ruttfba,} 

Kimanda, n. (*'-) an omelette 

(of eggs, &c.). (Cf. maandasi.} 

Kiraandu, n. (-), a strip of 
wood, fixed inside a native door- 
frame at top and bottom, with holes 
in which the pivots of the door- valves 

Kimanga, n. and adv., something 
Arabian, of the Arab kind. Hence 
(i) the Arab language, (a) a particu- 
lar kind of grain. Sema (jua) k., 
speak (know) Arabic. Jiwe la k., 
a hard stone used for sharpening 
tools on or grinding corn, &c., a 
whetstone, a grinding stone, also 
jiwe la manga, and ki mango. (See 
Manga, and cf. syn. JrftflMM.) 

Kimashamba. n. and adv., some- 
thing of a country kind, rustic vulgar 
dialect, in a countryfied (nide, un- 
polished) way. -a k. t couniryfied, 
vulgar. (Cf. shamba.) 

Kimbia, v. run, run away, make 
haste, fly (from), escape (from). 
i ye hawazi gi*a, wala haoni 
jua, one who runs does not think of 
the dm see the sunlight. 

, the enemy fled. 
Mtoto amtmkimbia simba, \ 
ran away from (escaped from) the 
!e oneself away, be 
. be out of view, e. g. mji 
a village concealed from 
I's. kinibiwa. \>c run from, 
be escaped from. '<!, e. g. 

t running (escape, &c.). Ap. 
;, run to for, in, after, 8cc. t 
as a rule, run away /row), 
have re- 
course to, fall back upon, go on an 
mbuzi hao wo/a- 
mama yao t these 
:11 run off to find tin 
Kimbilia roho, run for (to save) one's 

life. Kimbilia pesa, run races for 
money. So Ps. kimbiliu<a, be nm to 
(for, after, &c.).be a refuge (asylum, 
resource), and Nt. kimbilika. With 
//', e. g. watu ivakajikimbilia, the 
people took to their heels, of a 
promiscuous, shameful flight, every 
one for himself. Hence kimbil-iza, 
-izwa, cause to run on, make go 
fast, hurry, hasten, do in a hurry, 
do rashly (precipitately, carelessly) 
like endcleza, but more emphatic, 
e. g. kimbiliza mancno, talk too fast, 
talk recklessly (foolishly, at random, 
without thinking). Kimbiliza jipn, 
open an abscess too soon, treat it 
prematurely. Kimbiliza itJongo, be 
quick with the clay, before it D 
dry and hard to use. Kimbiliza kazi, 
hurry on the work. Cs. kimb-iza^ 
-tzwa, cause (encourage, allow, &c.) 
to run, put to flight, allow to escape, 
help in escaping, drive away, pursue. 
Alikimbiza roho yoke, he saved his 
life. Akimbiza mtoto asije /:. 
he saves the child from being put 
to death. Kimbiza punda, run in 
front of a donkey, as a si a. 
before his Arab master, when riding. 
Hence kintbiz-ia, -iwa, e. g. amctti- 
kimbizia ivat arnica wangn, he has 
got all my slaves to run away from 

Also kirn': 
wakakimbizana kncntmia, the people 

;^ed each other to \\ 
quickly. (Cf. mbio, on which kimb- 
ia appears to be formed, rn- 

Kimbio, n. and adv., at a running 
pace, with speed, at full speed, 
<nbio. Sec Mbio, 
and Kimbia. 

Kimbiei, n. and adv.. similar to 
Maji ya kimbizi, a swift 
current. ^Cf. prec.) 

Kimbunga. n. r-i-), typhoon, 
hurricane, esp. the famous ai 

ar on 

April 15, is;^, often used as an 
kikaan&tnha minasi na ni 




yote, the typhoon threw down all the 
cocoanut trees and houses. (Cf. 
thdruba, tufane, chamchela.'} 

Kimelea, n. (#z'-)i a plant which 
grows of itself, a self-sown plant, an 
indigenous plant, a parasitic plant 
(growing on to some other). Jamii 
ya vimelea, the whole flora (indi- 
genous plant-life) of a place. ' (Cf. 
mea, mmea, also kikulia, kizatia.) 

Kimeta, n. (-), also Kimete, 
sparkling, sparkle, glitter, lustre, 
shining. E.g. k. cha jua, sparkling 
radiance of the sun. K. cha t upanga, 
the glitter of a sword. Also in the 
form kitneti, kimetimeti, kimerimeti, 
of anything sparkling, spangle, tinsel, 
and esp. of fire-flies, glow-worms. 
(Cf. meta, and kimulimuli, kianga.} 

Kimia, n. (vi-\ a circular casting 
net of light fine twine. Also used 
to describe 'netting, network, lace, 
cambric,' &c., i.e. nguo ya kimia. 
-a kimia, of network, -netted. (For 
nets cf. zvavti,jarifa.} 

Kimio, n. (vi-\ something in the 
throat, and so (i) uvula; (2) a 
throat affection, used to describe 
quinsy, croup, abscess in the throat, 
enlarged uvula or tonsils, &c., as 
kifua, of chest affections generally. 
(Cf. unrio, and roho, koo.} 

*Kimo, n. (vi-}, (i) measure, 
stature, height, depth ; (2) a measur- 
ing rod, tape, foot rule. K. cha mlu, 
a man's height. Aktipita k., he is 
taller than you. Maji ya k., deep 
water. K, cha mti, a piece of wood 
to measure with. (Ar. Cf. kima, 
of which kimo is a modified form. 
Dist. kimo, as verb-form, it is in (with- 
in, inside), pfx. ki agreeing with D 3 
(S), and locative -mo, which see.) 

Kimoyo, n. also Kimoyo-moyo, 
something affecting the heart, e.g. 
(i) heart ailment, heart disease; (2) 
a feeling, esp. fear, indignation, 
passion ; (3) term of endearment, 
favourite, sweetheart (cf. kipenzi, 
mchumbd). (Cf. moyo.} 

Kimrima, n. the dialect QfMrima, 

i.e. the dialect of Swahili spoken 
on the coast adjacent to Z. (Cf. 

Kimulimuli, n. (vi-\ fire-fly, 
glow-worm. (Cf. mulika, and ki- 

Kimwa, v. become wearied, get 
cross, be disgusted, lose one's temper. 
Kimwa kwa chakula (njia, kazi, &c.), 
be put out by one's food (travelling, 
work, &c.). (Cf. syn. more usual, 
kinai, choka, sumbuka, chukiwa?) 

Kimwitu, n. dim. of mwitu, small 
forest, patch of forest, jungle. (Cf. 
mwitu, kichaka^) 

Kimwondo, n. (Z7-), a shooting 
star, i.e. nyota ya kuanguka,^^- 
posed to be fiery darts thrown by 
spirits of the air (jini] (Str.). 

Kimya, n. and adv. (i) silence, 
stillness, absence of noise; (2) quiet- 
ness, calm, reserve. As adv. silently, 
without noise. K. kingi kina mshindo 
mkuu, deep silence makes a loud 
noise. Nyamaza k., hold one's tongue, 
be perfectly silent. Salt k., pray in- 
secret. Mtu wa kimyakimya, a very 
quiet, reserved person. Akasikia k., 
and he heard no reply. 

Kina, pfx. or n. used as pfx. 
(see note below) which with the noun 
following denotes a person or persons 
of a certain class, connected with 
another person by resemblance, de- 
pendence, or other social relation, or 
a person with others so connected 
with him. It is often heard as akina 
(see note), and in plur. form wakiha. 
E. g. kina szsi, a kind of generalized 
plural, ' such as we, people like us, 
the lot of us, we.' Akina nahi huyu ? 
Who is this? implying ' What arc his 
connexions ? ' whether as master or ' 
dependent. Akina Abdallah may' 
mean (i) Abdallah's following gene- 
rally, his people or dependents, or 
(2) Abdallah himself alone, or (3) 
Abdallah with his retinue. So Akina 
bwana anakuja, the master is coming. 
Kina mwinyi mkuu, the chief and 
his court. Kina is also used (with 




a noun) as a generalized mode of 
address, as well as reference, a polite 
substitute for direct mention of several 
orone, e.g. akina bibi, the lady- folk, 
us, my ladies, my lady. So 
akina Inuana, a slave's address to his 
master's son, akina baba, a master's 
address half-playful to his slaves. It 
may also be used with contemptuous 
generality. Watnekwit-wa watu. wale 
toakina Turi, those people were 
known as Turi's lot. (Perh. general- 
ized from Ar. gan, pi. agina, slave- 
born, a slave, or connected with the 
pfx. *.) 

Kina, n. (vi-\ a rhyme, a terminal 

assonance,* a similar final syllable. 

na vina, to have rhymes, of 

lines of poetry. 7'ia vina, make 

, rhyming endings. Mashairi 

, rhyming verses. (Cf.gurti, 

for absence of rhyme, blank verse.) 

Kina, n. kina cha bahari, a deep 
place in the sea. Bahari ina k. 
sana, the sea is very deep. (A'i/iudi, 

:-,ual in Z.) 

*Kinai, v. (i) be content, be self- 

!, be independent, want no 

sympathy or help, be self-sufficient, 

be self-contained. Hence often (a) 

in a bad sense, of conceited, offensive, 

independent, or active dislike, i.e. he 

disgusted, be surfeited, dislike, have 

of food, amekinai, 

be has had enough, he has had a full 

or of a sick man) he has no 

-, he revolts from food. Ji- 

uitc satisfied or secure, 

be boastful, vaunt oneself. Sullani 

a nguvu, the Sultan 

his pride of power. Cs. 

kinaisha, satisfy, surfeit, glut, disgust, 

nausea' Chakula h; 

this food revolts me. 
Alakukinaisha siku rnoja, 

:i of him in one day. 
. : ul>ora, to vaunt his 
perfections. (A : 
naya, and syn. si. 

:, and for boasting,y/>//, 

*-kinaifu, a. one who has enough, 
does not desire or need anything, and 
so (i) moderate, self-controlled, sober, 
independent ; or (2) self-sufficient, 
contemptuous, cold, supercilious, un- 
sociable. (Cf. kinai t and kiasi, 
upweke, baridi.} 

Kinamasi, n. mucilage, slime, 
slimy substance or fluid. Mafuta ya- 
fanya k,, the oil is getting thick and 
sticky. Also of a wet slippery soil 
(cf. utopt). 

Kinanda, n. (z>-), a stringed in- 
strument of the kind commonest 
in E. Africa, a kind of banjo or 
guitar. Extended to include piano, 
organ, and almost any similar Euro- 
pean instrument of music. Piga k. , 
play the banjo. (Cf. ngoma for 
other instruments.) 

*Kinara, n. (vi-), dim. of ninara, 
(i) small pillar, column ; (2) candle- 
stick ; (3) small ornament in the 
embroidery worked in silk on the 
collar of a native dress (kanztt), i.e. 
vinara vya shin go. (Ar. Cf. 


*Kinaya,n. self-content, independ- 
ence, selfish isolation, a superci- 
lious air, insolence. Neno la >6;, 
a contemptuous remark. (Cf. 


Kinda, n. (nta-\ young one, esp. 
of birds, a chick, but also of animals, 
c. g. k. la frost, a foal, k. kibwa, 
a young dog, cub, whelp,not of 
man. Sometimes a., e.g. mnasi 
mkinJa, a young cocoanut tree. 

Kinda,- kindani, Kindano. See 
Kinza, &c. 

Kindu, n. (wa-), fruit of .the 

:<, a kind of wi 1 . 
See also Ukindu. 

Kinena, n. (w-),' middle of the 
body bt ;rons (nianctta). 

King a, \\ is used of the effect of 
what is interposed between t 
jects, and which acts offemr 
the one and defensively as to the 
cc (i) act as screen 
against, ward off, parr}', check, stop, 




interpose, get in the way of, intercept, 
catch ; and (2) fig. contradict, op- 
pose, obstruct. Also (3> act as 
screen to, cover, be a defence to ; 
(4] fig. help, assist, protect. Kinga, 
jiwe hili litaangiika, guard (your- 
self), or, ward it off, this stone is 
going to fall. Nimekinga mwili 
wangit kwa Jigao, I interposed my 
body as a shield. Mtnmgu ameni- 
kinga, God has protected me. Ki- 
nga mvua (jua), keep off the rain 
(sun). Ps. kingwa, (i) be screened 
(warded) off; (2) be used as a 
screen ; (3) be screened (protected). 
Nt. kingika. Ap. king-ia, -iiva, 
e. g. ngao ya kukingia selaha, a 
shield to keep off weapons. Cs. 
kingiza, usually protect, defend. 
Kingiza na mvua, protect from rain. 
Jikingiza, defend oneself. Rp. 
kingana, (i) protect each other; 
(2) oppose each other, with argu- 
ment, force, &c. (Cf. follg.) 
n, ( , and Vinga), something in- 
terposed, and which has different 
effects accordingly, e. g. (i) a check, 
a stopper, a fender, a fence, a guard, 
a screen, a shelter, and so either 
(2) protection, defence, assistance 
or (3) obstruction, difficulty, mis- 
fortune, limitation. E. g. k. cha 
moto, or k. only, a fireguard, i.e. 
commonly a firebrand, brand used as 
a guard, rather than ' a fender.' Cf. 
kinga na kinga , ndipo moto uivakapo^ 
firebrands make the fire burn. K. 
cha maji, or k. alone, a long blade o 
grass or leaflet tied round the stem o 
a tree to collect the rain trickling 
down and direct it to a water jar 
K. ya jicho, a blinker. Cf. kidoto 
also kijamanda. (Cf. kingama 
mkingiko, kinda, pinga, and efusha 
bekua. For kinga = kunga, see 
Kunga. ) 

Kingaja, n. (#*'-), armlet or brace 
let of seeds, beads, &c. (Cf. kekee 
kikuJxi, banagiri, and urembo.} 

Kingalingali, n. on the back 
face upwards. Lala k. t lie on th 

iack. Angiika ., fall backwards. 
Cf. kilanitani, kichali.} 

Kingama, v. (i) be interposed, 
ie across, be in the way, act as a 
creen ; (2) obstruct, baffle, thwart. 
Gogo limekingama njidni, a log 
clocks the road. Njia ngine inaki- 
tgama njia ya mbele, another path 
:uts across the road leading straight 
m. Ap. kingam-ia^ -iwa, e. g. 
tyoka amenikingamia iijiani, a 
nake stopped me on the road. Cs. 
kingam-isha, -ishwa, -iza, -izwa, 
ntens. frustrate, stop altogether, 
)lock. Rp. kingamana, e. g. 

'umekingamana mimi naye, he and 
! had a (friendly or stormy) inter- 
iew, we encountered each other, 
ftence kingaman-isha, -ishwa, cause 
o get in each other's way, make diffi- 
culties among. (St. form of kinga, 
i. e. be in an interposed position. 
Cf. -ama, simama, tuatna, &c. Cf. 

Kingio, Kingo. n. screen, hand- 
screen, shade, lamp-cover. (Cf. 

Kingoe, n. (vt-}, dim. of ngoe, 
a small hook. See Ngoe. 

Kingojezi, n. (*-), similar to 

Kingojo, n. (*-) act ( time > 
place, &c.) of watching, watch, 
guard, guard-station, post, sentry-go, 
turn of watching. E. g. linda k., 
keep watch. Keti k.^ remain on 
watch. (Cf. ngoja, kilindo, zamu.} 

Kingozi, n. the old dialect of 
Swahili, esp. as formerly spoken at 
Melindo, Patta, and the northward 
towns of the Zanzibar coast, now 
only poetical and hardly intelligible. 
Hence now used of * difficult, half- 
understood speech.' Manenoyak., 
antiquated, meaningless terms. 

Kingubwa, n. (vi-}, spotted 
hyaena. (Cf.Jisz.) 

*Kini, Kinika, v. be sure, be 
certain, be ascertained, apparently 
from Ar. yakini (which see), treated 
mistakenly by Swahilis as a form 




of a vt . '. g. yamkinika (or, 

yamkini) Sultani kitsafiri kcsho, it 
.in as to the Sultan that he 
will set out to-morrow. (Ar. Cf. 
yakini, and dist. yamkini.} 

Kiuing'ina, n. (*-)> great-great- 

grandchild. (Cf. kijuktm, ki- 

. and nin^inia, rock, dandle.) 

Kinjurinjuri, n. a particular way 
of cutting the hair, leaving one long 
tuft, i. e. kukata kinjurinjiiri (Str.). 

Kinofu, n. ('-), a scrap of meat. 
(Cf. mnofu.} 

Kinono, n. (fi-), a fatted animal, 
a falling. (Cf. iwna, -nono, and 

Kiuoo, n. (z>i-), a whetstone, i. e. 
jiwc la kunolea, a stone to sharpen 
things with. . noa, noo, noleo, 

and chtrthe, a grindstone.) 

Kinu, n. (vt-}, a wooden mortar, 
made of a hard block of wood hol- 
lowed out in the centre, used for 
pounding and cleaning grain, and 
crushing and mixing vegetable food 
generally. Also for extracting oil. 
The wooden pestle is called mchc, 
and the operation usually kutwanga. 
See Mche, Twanga. It is t 
to metal mortars, e. g. k. cha chutna, 

mortar, and also is used of a 
mill of any kind, e.g. k. cha tnosAi, 
a steam mill, k. cha !.: 
crushing mill, whether of oil seeds or 
sugar-cane. K. cha tnkono, hand 
mill. A', cha kusagia, grinding 
(flour) mill. 

ibi, n. (w-) and adv. (i) a 

kind of harp, used in their dances by 

c. Soudanese (or 

il settled in Zanzibar. 

lanese language; (3) in 
;:dancse style, -a k:>. 
the Soudanese \. 

ndu, n. (OT-), cli:. 
a little him 

kitl tin.: > describe a rough, 

lumpy surface, as of plaster, &c. 

wa, n. (ri-), also Kiny wa and 

i. the mouth (as organ of 

k ') of man, animals, insect*, 

&c. (of birds, usually mdomo). Also 
' something to drink, a beverage,' but 
this is usually kinwaji. A", nichuzi, 
the hair on the under lip, the im- 
perial, place where the imperial 
grows, lit. gravy drinker. A 
open mouth, with open mouth, open 
mouthed. (Cf. nya, kinivaji, ka~ 
ttwa, and follg.) 

Kinwaji, n. (vi-\ also Kinywaji, 
and rarely Kinweo,Kinwewa, some- 
thing to drink, a beverage, liquid for 
drinking purposes. 

Kinweleo, n. (#*'-), a pore (of the 
skin). (Cf. nya, nyweleo.} 

Kinytia, n. (w-), excretum (liquid 
or solid), urine, excrement, dung, 
filth. (Cf. nya, nyesi, kinyesi, 

also tikojo, mavi.) 

Kiuyago, n. (vi-), anything used 
at an unyago (which see), but esp. 
a dressed-up grotesque figure, mock- 
ghost or scarecrow. C/i< 
lit. play at unyago, play at ghosts, 
dress up, of any kind of acting, 
theatricals, farce. ' 

Kinyoma. n. (f/-), dim. of nyawa, 
small animals. Vinyatna vya mwi- 
tu wakaona Xr/w, the lesser wild 
animals grew thirsty. 

Kinyamkela, n. (*-)> (0 a ^ mt ^ 

i)t evil spirit, to be propitiated at 

- ) of a 

whirlwind, i.e. pepo za 
(Cf. <-/. 

Kinyefu, n. (vi~), and Kiuye- 

nyefu, a tic! :;li"g scnsa- 

Frora nyca, cf. 


Kinyegele, n. (vt-), name of a 
small animal, skunk (S 

Kiuyerai, n. and a., something 
good, pleasing, acceptable, h'ipya 
kinycmi kingawa kidonda, a novelty 
has its charms, even a new sore. 
(Cf. Ar. ntema.) 

Kinyeai, n. (fi-), excu 

vaa. Also in plur. manytsi. 

onga, n. (fi'-) (i) hip-corn - 
. &c.). 




(2) Chamelion. (Perh. both from 
nyonga, wriggle, twist.) 

Kinyonge, n. and adv., from 
-nyonge, state of wretchedness, ab- 
ject destitution, degradation, &c. 

Kinyongo, n. (z'z-), of a mental or 
moral twist, (i) fancy, scruple, fad; 
(2) ill-feeling, grudge, bitterness, 
spite, resentment. Usifanye kazi 
kwa L, do not work unwillingly, 
as if against the grain.. Mpenzi 
liana k., a lover has no scruples 
(doubts, hesitation). Mwenyi k., 
a hypochondriac. (Cf. nyonga, ki- 
nyonga, unyonga, also syn. mfundo, 
kikombo, chuki, uchungu} 

Kinyozi, n. .(vi-) t a barber, one 
who shaves. (From nyoa.~) 

Kinyuma, n. and adv. (also Ki- 
nyume commonly), the back part, 
the rear, behind, backwards, after 
time, late, in a contrary way. Kwa 
kinyume, backwards, to the rear. 
Habariya L, later/subsequent news. 
Kinyume changu, behind me. Kuja 
k., to arrive late. Maneno ya k., a 
kind of puzzle -language, the last 
syllable of each word being made the 
first. (Cf. nynma, and baada.} 

Kinyumba, n. (m-\ an unmar- 
ried woman, living with a man as 
his wife. (Cf. nyuntba, mchumba, 
suria, hawaa^) 

Kinyumbu, n. (vi-\ dim. of 
nyumbu, a small mule. 

Kinyunya, n. (-), a little cake, 
a bit of a cake, a sweetmeat. (Cf. 
nyunyiza, sprinkle, and nyunyo^} 

Kinywa, Kinywaji, Kinyweleo. 
See Kinwa, Kinwaji, Kinweleo. 

Kinza, v. object, contradict, deny, 
oppose, rebel. Rp. kinzana, objectj 
stand in the way, oppose, contradict, 
Kinzana na mtu, dispute with a per- 
son. (Not often heard. Cf. follg 
and kinga, kingana, pingana.} 

-kinzani, n. refractory, combative, 
obstructive. (Cf. prec. and ukinzani.} 

Kinzano, n. (ma-), objection, ob 
struction, contradiction. (Cf. prec 
and kinzana.} 

Kioja, n. (#-), something that 

astonishes or terrifies, an oddity, a 

uriosity, a portent, a bugbear, a 

monster. (Cf. kitisho, shani, ajabu, 


Kiokozi, n. (OT-), act (means, way, 
&c.) of recovering, and so, reward 
or finding something lost or in 
danger. Also of persons, one who 
saves, rescuer, preserver. (From 
okoa. Cf. mwokozi, uokozi.} 

Kiolezo, n. (#*'-), a pattern, 

sample. (Cf.oteza, and syn. namna.} 

Kiongozi, n. (*'-)> act ( means > 

way, &c.) of directing ; but usually, 

uide on a road, director, leader of 

a caravan. (Cf. mkuu iva genzi.} 

Also, reward for such service, guide's 

"ee. (From ongoa. Cf. mwongozi, 


Kiongwe, n. (/-), a kind of 
donkey from the mainland, mostly 
from the Unyamwezi country ; used for 
carrying loads, i. e. ptmda kiongwe. 
(Also as a., obstinate, refractory (Kr,). 
Cf. mbishi.) 

Kionja, verbal noun from onja, 
governing another noun, ' that which 
tastes.' K. mchuzi, the imperial, or 
under lip, i. e. gravy taster, like 
kinwa mchuzi. (Cf. on/a, and follg.) 
Kionjo, n. (vi-}, a little taste, 
a small sample, a trial. (Cf. onja.} 

Kionyo, n. (OT-), secret warning, 
hint, suggestion. (Cf. ona, onyo.) 

Kioo, n. (w-)i a P iece of glass, 
looking-glass, mirror. K. cheupe, 
clear, white glass. K. cha kiwna, 
transparent glass. K. cha kiitazamia 
uso, a looking-glass. (Perh. conn, 
with ona, i.e. kiono?) 

Kiopoo, n. ('-), anything used' 
for taking up, fishing up, as from 
a well or pit, a pole, stick with 
fork, hook, gaff. (From opoa.} 

Kiosha, verbal noun from osha, 
that which washes, e.g. k. mig'uu, 
that which washes the feet, name of 
a wedding fee for particular service. 
(Cf. kifungua mtango.} 

Kiosho, n. (*-), act (place, means, 




&c.) of washing. (Cf. osha, and 

Kiota, n. (/-), also Kioto, sitting- 
place of a bird, nest, roost, fowl's 
laying place. (Cf. ota, oteo, moto.} 

Kioteo, n. ('), ambuscade, am- 
bush, lurking-place. (Cf. ota, oka.) 

Kiowe, n. (OT-), shout, cry for 
help. See Kiyowe. 

Kioza, n. state of a putrid thing, 
putridity, gangrene. Mttt httyu yuna 
k. ndani, this man is rotten inside. 
(From oza.) 

Kipa, n. verbal of /a, act of giving, 
that which gives, e. g. k. mkono, 
a fee given at a wedding lor special 
attendance (cf. kifungua m/ango, 
kiosha migiiu). A", imara, that 
which gives strength. (Cf. pa, kipaji, 

Kipaa, n. (M-), dim. of faa, (i) 
a small roof, roof a shed, &c. ; 
(2) one of the sides of the four-sided 
roof of a native hut, usually one of 
the smaller slopes, overlapped by the 
ones (mapaa}. K. cha mbele 
(cha nyuma), the front (back) slope 
of a roof; (3) also kipara, which see. 

Kipaji, n. (w-) (i) a pr 
tion, a present, donation, gift. A", cha 
'. God. (From -pa t 
, upaji, -paji?) (2) Part of the 
forehead (//*), brow, eyebrow, e. g. 
kunja vipaji vya uso, knit the brows, 
frown. Also (3) a sweet-scented 
cosmetic, applied to the brows, an 
ornamental patch bf colour, a brow 
ornament (cf. urembo}. (4) A small 
projection on the side of the mt'ust 
worked on the front of a native drew 
(kanxti), also called kiguu 

Kipaka, n. (OT-), dim. of paka, 
a small cat, a poor cat, a kitten. 

Kipakacha, n. (f-), dim. of 
pakafha, a small kind of basket, of 
plaited cocoanut . (For 

Kipaku, n. (vi-] t small spot, 
speck, patch. of colour or coloured 
stuff, c. g. used of the mottled or 

speckled colouring of animals and 
birds, -a ., or k. alone, mottled, 
speckled, e.g. kuku *., a speckled 
fowl. Also kipdkupaku, in same 
sense. (Cf. paku, and perh.-/o^a, 
v., also waa, doa.) 

Kipamba, n. (*-) dm 1 - from 
pamba (cotton), a small bit (tuft, 
plug, patch) of raw cotton (cotton 
wool, lint), e. g. for medical applica- 

Kipambo, n. (/-), an ornament, 
ornamental work, a fitting, furniture 
of a house. Nyumba hit haina X-., 
this house is unfurnished, e.g. of a 
poor man's dwelling. (Cf. paniba, 
v., pambo, also syn. kifaa, chotnbo, 
urembo, uzuri.) 

Kipande, n. (OT-), (i) a small bit, 
piece, slip, part, of anything (cf. 
fungu,schemu t kit ant bo, kidogo, kato}\ 
(a) an instrument, tool, utensil (cf. 
chotnbo, kitu, samani). K. (ha 
nyama, a scrap of meat. A", cha 
m/u, a diminutive man, a mnnnikin 
(contr. fande la mtit, fandikizi}. 
Vipande vya kupimia, surveying 
instruments. (3) Used esp. of a 
light wooden rammer, used in harden- 
ing a concrete floor or roof. (Cf. 
pande, upande y tnpande, pandikizi , 
? all conn. with/aW*?, v. plant, the 
constant common oca 

Kipanga, n. (vi-\ (i) dim. of 
upanga, a small sword ; (a) a large 

Kipango, n. (w'-), dim. of pang?, 
a small cave, den, hole, mouse-hole. 

Kipao, n. (vt-), act (means, way) 
of mounting up. (Cf. faa, v.) 

Kipapatiko, n. (M*-), little flap- 
ping object, feathery wa\ 


Kipara, n. (ri-)> and Kipoa, a 

cleanshaved patch, a bald place on 

// r<-rt kikoa 

:fura (hfupe, a member 
of a mess, if he does not pay, has 
a bald patch, i. e. is a marked man. 
(Cf. upaa^ ufara, and ?/oa, roof.) 




Kipato, n. (w-)i dim - of 
small metal gong, usually of brass, 
with edges turned in, a metal tam- 
bourine, or dish of similar shape. 

Kipawa, n. (vi-), (i) dim. oipawa, 
small ladle; (a) gift (but not so in Z.). 

Kipele, n. (vi-), small pimple, 
pustule, sore, breaking-out. Vipele, 
skin eruption, erysipelas. (Cf.uJeU.) 

Kipendi, n. (vi-), like kipenzi, a 
beloved object, a favourite, darling. 
(From penda^) 

Kipendo, n (vi-), act (trait, mani- 
festation, &c.) of affection, kindness, 
love. (Cf. pendo, ^tpendo^ 

Kipengee, n. (vi-), (i) side-path, 
by-way, way round, side-channel, out 
of the straight or usual course; (2) 
evasion, subterfuge, shift, indirect 
means of obtaining an object. Ma- 
neno yake haya vipengee, these state- 
ments of his are evasive (shuffling, de- 
ceitful). (Also ptnffte.) 

Kipenu, n. (vi-), a shed or side- 
room built against the side of a wall 
or house outside, a lean-to, a cabin 
in a ship. (Cf. upenu.} 

Kipenyo, n. (vi-\ a hole through 
which something is passed, a thing 
which is passed through, e.g. the 
peg of a top, axis of a globe, &c. 
(Cf. penya?) 

Kipeo, n. (vi-), (i) highest or 
furthest point, apex, top, end, cul- 
mination; (2) ideal, best example, 
standard of excellence, chef-cCceuvre, 
K. cha macho, furthest limit of vision ; 
horizon. (Cf.pea, upeo, pevuka.) 

Kipepeo, n. (vi-), (i) dim. o: 
pepeo, a small fan : (2) a butterfly 
(3) a kind of flat fish. (Cf. tipepo 

Kipete, n. (vi-) t dim. of ptte r 
small ring, ferrule, circlet. 

Kipeto, n. (*-), bag (with flap o: 
cover) , case, receptacle, cover, parcel 
packet. K. cha barua, letter case 
envelope. (Cf. peto, peta, pete, and 
syn. bahasha^) 

Kipi, n. (vi-) , or Kipia, cock's spur 
i. e. kucha la (or mwiba wa) nyuma 

katika kisigino cha jogoo, the spur 
behind at the cock's heel. 

Kipigi,. n. (vi-}, also Kipiki, a 
ittle stick to beat with or throw. 
Cf. piga, and follg.) 

Kipigo, n. (vi-), stroke, blow, shot. 
Tcmbo alianguka kwa kipigo cha fieri, 
.he elephant fell by a lucky shot. 

Kipila, n. (vi-), a curlew. (Also 
called sululu.) 

Kipilipili, n. and adv., like black 
pepper-corns. Nyek za k., hair of 
i short woolly kind, growing in small 
tufts. (Cf. pilipili, and uele.) 

Kipimo, n. (vi-), , thing for measur- 
ing, a measure, a weight, amount mea- 
sured. (Cf. pima, and for measures 
mkono, shibiri, ivari, wakia, ratli, 
pishi, frasila, kibaba, kisaga, &c.) 

Kipinda, adv. Kufa kipinda, die 
a natural death. (Cf. pinda, n.) 

Kipindi, n. (vi-\ (i) a portion of 
time, period, e.g. kitta k., k. chote, all 
times, at all times, constantly, always. 
K. cha athuuri\ noon. Kwa vipindi, 
at times, periodically ; also, by fits 
and starts, irregularly, -a vipindi, 
periodical, regular, irregular, -a ki- 
pindi, temporary. Also adv. kipindi, 
for a time, for a short time. (Cf. 
kitambo, kidogo, and kipande.) (2) 
A fixed time, a regular hour (cf. 
sad). Tangu assubuhi hattajionim 
vipindi kumi na mbili, from morning 
to evening there are twelve hours. 
Vipindi vya kusali, the five regular 
Mahommedan hours of prayer. (Cf. 
sata.) (3) Fit, turn, attack, paroxysm 
of sickness, anger or emotion gener- 
ally. Homa ya vipindi, recurrent 
(or, intermittent) fever. K. cha hasira, 
a fit of anger. (Cf. pinda, v., turn, 
and pindi, upindi, kitambo, saa.) 

Kipindo, n. (vi-), a wrapper, esp. 
a folding cloth for a corpse before 
placing it in the shroud (saandd). 
Also, a fold (in a garment), pocket, 
purse, &c. (Cf. pinda, upindo, and 

Kipindupindu, n. (pi-\ descrip- 
tive of a violent seizure, convulsions, 




cholera, or other disease, from its 
effect. (Cf. pinda, kipindi, and 

Kipingili, n. (:/-), ring marking 
a knot or joint in a plant, e. g. in 
sugar-cane. Also the part between 
two knots or joints, e. g. part of the 
leg between the knee and ankle, the 
shin. (Cf. fingili.) 

Kipingo. n. (f*-)> bar, pin, peg 
(keeping something in place), barrier, 
obstruction. (Ct.pittga, kipingwa, 
and follg.) 

Kipingu, n. (*'-), dim. of pingu, 
.11 fetter. 

Kipingwa, n.(z>*-),adoor-bar, bolt 
nga, and syn. komco, kiwi.) 

Kipini, n. (w-), (0 handle, haft, 
holder, of tools, knife, sword, &c. 
(cf. mpini, and for other handles 
mkono, utambo)\ (2) small stud or 
button-like ornament, worn on the 
nose or ear. (Cf. kipuli, jasi, and 

Kipipa, n. (i-) f dim. of pipa, 
small barrel, small cask. Kipipa 
(ha bamti, barrel of gunpowder. 

Kipira, n. (:/-), dim. of mpira, 
> ? (2) a carpenter's 
ri^-plane, k. cha //; 
iuia), and (3) a projecting 

,'o, n. (w-), a passing by or 
through, a way through, passage. 

/i/a, v.) 

Kipofu, n. and adv. (i) blindness, 
a blind person, in a blind state or 
way, blindly. Mtoto k. , haon i 
yoke yamtpofuka, the child i 
he does not see, his eyes are sightless. 
K. wa macho, bereft of sight 
Mtn /:/ this man is blind. 

Also ( a) for kibofu, a bladder. (Cf. 
-pofu,pofuka, an<l >ia.) 

>kee, adv. by turns, b\ 
turns, e. g. thukiia (hvad) kipokee, of 
a corpse to the 
vc. (From/oAf/.) 
Kipolepolo. n. (vi-) and adv. (i) 
'y; (a) from -pole, 
slow (calm, gentle) way. 

Kipondo, n. (z 1 /-), dim. of fondc, 
small pole, esp. of pole for punting, 
propelling a canoe in shallow water. 
>;/</#, mpondo, and follg.) 

Kipondwe, n. (f-), food consist- 
ing of something pounded or crushed, 
a mash, e. g. of cleaned grain and 
grated cocoanut mixed together in a 
mortar (kintt) . (From ponda, with 
pass, term in. -we.) 

Kiponya, n. (vi~\ verbal oiponya, 
something which preserves or cures, 
a remedy. A', cha nj'aa, the remedy 
of hunger, i.e. food. 

Kipooza, n. (#/-), verbal of pooza y 
paralysis, deadness, a paralysed per- 
son, a withered, dried-up thing. Also 
adv., in a withered (dead, helpless) 
state. (Cf. mapooza.) 

Kipopo, n. (*'-), dim. of fopo, a 
small bat (the animal). 

Kipopoo, n. (vi-), dim. of popoo, 
a little ball, a round lump, e.g. of 
tobacco, sweets, bonbons, &c, 

Kipora, n. (^'-), dim. of fora, a 
young cockerel. 

Kipuku, Kipukupuku. adv. in 
showers, in numbers, wholesale, like 
leaves falling, e. g. of the effect of an 
epidemic in killing people, i.e. niara- 
thi ya kipuku \iikuuku\. }\\itit 

wanakufa kipuku, people ar 

like sheep. (Cf.pu&usa, and follg.) 

Kipukuaa, n. (vi-), also Kipu- 
kuba, (i) something shed 
dropped, e.g. horns, but esp. of leaves 
or fruit self-detached or early shed. 
Also (a) dim. of pukusa, a small 
present, esp. of congratulation. (Cf. 

Kipukuta, n. and a. A' 
pukute, also kipukusa, a la 
spedes of banana. See Ndisi, and 

Kipuli, n. (ri-), a small trinket, 
often crescent-shaped, worn 
ear as a pendant, ear ornament. (Cf. 
alsoyoji, shamili, kipini } puliki t and 

K i pumba, n. ( I ) (ri-\ also Bumba, 
dim. of pumba (bumbo), a small clod, 



lump (perh. same as kibumba, 
which see) ; (2) n. and adv., a foolish 
act, a fool, folly. Kuwa k., to be a 
fool. Fanya k., to act as a fool. 
(Cf. pumbaa, -pumbafu, upumbafu, 
which are usual in Z.) 

Kipumbu, n. (vi-), scrotum. (Cf. 
pumba, piimbu?) 

Kipumziko, n. (vi-}, act (place, 
time, means, &c.) of taking rest, 
resting-place, recreation time, refresh- 
ment, relief. (From pumzika, pu- 
muzi,pumu. Cf. baridi, mabtirudu^ 
Kipungu, n. name of a fish, and 
also of a bird of prey. 

Kipunguo, n. (vi-\ act (case, 
means, &c.) of lessening, diminution, 
defect, deficiency, short allowance. 
Cf. -pungufu, 


Kipupa, n. and adv., unseemly 
haste, greediness, over-eagerness. K. 
cha kula, and kula k. (or kwa k.), 
voracious eating. (Cf. pupa.} 

Kipupwe, n. the cold season, i.e. 
June, July, and August (when the 
barometer in Z. falls at nights to 75 
or even 70), cold weather. See 
Mwaka and Pembe. 

Kipusa, n. (), same as kipu- 
kusa, which see. 

Kipwa, n. (m-} } rock, dry patch 
(left by receding tide), a shallow 
place. (C{.pwa,pwani,mapwaji.} 
*Kirahi, n. also Ekerahi, Ikirahi, 
being offended, disgust, aversion, 
causing offence, provocation, insult 
(Ar. Cf.kirihi.} 

Kiraka, n. and adv., a piece, spot, 
patch different from the rest or the 
surroundings, colour in spots or 
patches, e.g. nguo ya k., patched, 
ragged clothes. Mapwaji ya k., 
patches left by receding tide. Kira- 
karaka, anything variegated, mottled, 
dappled, speckled, spotted, e.g. of 
birds and animals. (Cf. raka, doa 

Kirembo, n. ("-), anything orna- 
mental, esp. of personal adornment. 
(Cf. nrembo, remba, 

i, v. acknowledge, admit, ac- 
cept, assent, state formally, confess 
allow, aver, ratify. Often in legal 
documents, e.g. nimekiri nimekubali 
kwamba, I do hereby formally ac- 
knowledge and agree that, &c. K. 
makosa, confess offences. K. deni, 
admit a debt. Ps. kiriwa. Nt. 
kirika. Ap. kir-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
kir-isha, -ishwa, e.g. obtain formal 
consent, extract confession, allow 
ratification, &c. Rp. kiriana. 

(Ar. Cf. kubali, ithini, ungatna.) 

*Kiriba, n. (vi-\ water-skin, i.e. 
the skin of an animal made into a 
bag, and used for carrying water. 
(Ar., the ki belonging to the root, as 
in kitabu.} 

*Kirihi, v. (i) loathe, hate, abo- 
minate, feel aversion (disgust, dislike, 
&C 0; (2) give offence, provoke, in- 
sult, disgust, treat disrespectfully, &c. 
Ps. kirihiwa. Nt. kirihika. Cs. 
kirih-isha^ishwa, e.g. offend, aggra- 
vate, exasperate. (Ar. CLekerahi, 
kirahi, makeruhu, and syn. chukia, 
chukiza, kasirisha.) 

Kirimba, n. (vi-\ cage (for bird 
or animal). Also describes a meat- 
safe. (Cf. kitundu, twidii, kizi- 

*Kirimu, v. also Kerimu, Kari- 
mu, treat hospitably, entertain, feast, 
give a present (to). Tiimkirimu 
mgeni, let us entertain our guest. 
Amemkirimu ngombe, he has made 
him a present of an ox. ' Ps. kiri- 
miwa. Nt. kirimika. Ap. ki- 
nm-ia, -iwa, e.g. make a present to, 
be generous to. Cs. kirim-isha. 
-ishwa. (Ar. Cf. karatnu, kara- 
ma, -kariniUidsQ karibisha.pokea^ 
Kiroboto, n. (vi-), flea. Formerly 
used as a nickname for irregular 
Arab soldiery at Z. 

Kiroja, n. (zv-), same as kioja, 
which see. 

Kirukanjia, n. (w-), name of a 
kind of mouse. (Cf. panya.) 

Kirukia, n. (z/z-), name of a climb- 
ing plant. 




Kirungu, n. (t7-}> dim. of rungu ! 

. , a small club, knob-kerry. 
*Kisa. n. :i-\ (i) story, account, 
report, history, narrative; (a) state- 
ment of case, reason alleged, cause, 
explanation ; (3) affair, matter, busi- 
ness, subject of report. E.g. nipe k. 
chako, tell me your story, i.e. all 
about yourself. Visa vingi, many 
stories, a complicated business, end- 
less difficulties. Hakumfanyiza k. 
hatta kitnoja, he did nothing what- 
ever to hurt him. (Ar. Cf. hadithi, 
habari, neno.) Also (4) like kiini, 
the innermost part, e.g. kisa cha koko, 
the kernel inside a stone (of fruit). 

Kisaga, n. (vi-}, a dry measure of 
about a quart, equal to two kibaba 
or half a fishi. Ximempimia ki- 
saga cha mahindi, I have measured 
uart of maize, (a) ? a weevil. 
(Cf. saga.) 

*Kisahani, n. (), dim. of sa- 
hani, a Miiall dish, saucer. (Ar. 

omboy chungu.) 

Kisasa, n. and adv., a thing of the 
present day, a modem fashion, what 
is up to date. Vao la k. , fashionable 
dress ; manenoya k. , current phraseo- 
logy- (Cf. sasa, and contr. kikalc, 

*Kisaai,n. (7-/-), also Koaaai, ven- 
geance, revenge, retaliation, requital, 
sation for harmdone, damages. 
Toa (lipa) ., suffer vcngean 
(for harm done). Toza (lipiza, tvtaa) 
k., take revenge on, retaliate upon, 
compensation for. Twaa k. 
nf^u, avenge a brother. 
'Kiaetiri, n. (w-), and Kinitin. 
: , screen, screening wall, para- 
pet, pn; ing place, 
place, closet. (Ar. Cf.setiri.stara, 
, <///, ho, kiwambaza.) 

adv. and Kiiaha, after- 
reo\cr. in tine. See Kl- 

'Kishada, n. (ri ), dim. of shada, 

(i) tassel, bow, rosette; (a) a small 

<>r bunch, e.g. of beads on 

strings, bunch of flowers, or fruit, 

nosegay, &c. ; (3) a tailless kite. 

Kishaufu.n. (w-), anything showy, 
bit of finery, trinket, personal orna- 
ment. (Cf. sAaua, kifambo, ki~ 

Kishenzi, n. and adv., anything of 
a barbarous, rude, uncivilized kind, 
esp. barbarous language, up-country 
dialect, -a k., barbarous, uncivilized. 
(Cf. -shtnzi, ushenzi, and contr. ki- 

Kishiku, n. (M-), stump of a tree, 
log. (Cf. shiku, kisiki, kigogo.) 

Kishimo, n. and adv. (#*'-), dim. 
of shimo, a little pit, hole, under- 
ground passage, sudden fall, precipice. 
(Cf. gtnge, tundu, chimbo.) 

Kishiua. n. name of a dance 
(ngomd). Also dim. of shina. 

Ki shin da, n. (vi-), verbal from 
shinda (which see) in various senses, 
(i) that which conquers, baffles, is 
too much for another, e. g. watu 
hawa ni vishinda waganga, these 
people are a match for the medicine 
men. (a) A residue, a remainder, 
esp. of what is left in a vessel, dry or 
liquid, a quantity less than half of 
the content, e.g. kishinda cha maji 
mtungini, of a water-jar less than 
half full. Also a vague measure, 
a suitable amount for pounding in 
a mortar (/;>/), e.g. vishinda vi- 
ngapi umetia ? How many measures 
have you put in? A'inu tele ni ki- 
(imoja, one measure makes 
a full mortar, i.e. enough t.. 
at one time. (Cf. shir. 

.'./ is the same word.) 

Kishindo, n. and adv. (vi-), dim. 
of s/u'ndo, shock, blow, outburst, 
sadden noise, sound of steps (guns, 
blows, &c.), an agitation, a sensation. 
Habnri ina A., news always comes 
with .1 kind ..fsh.. hinda, 

. mshindo.) 

Kiahogo, n. (n'-), nape 
ack of the hcatl. . 
karibit, ni kiskogoni mwako> death is 
is close behind you. Akn~ 

M a 

Kisinda, n. (-), and ? Kishinda, 
Kizinda, hymen. Weka /'., preserve 
/irginity. Tomoa k. t deprive of vir- 
inity. (Cf. bikira.} 

Kisirani, n. also Kisarani, Kasa- 
rani, used of what is awkward, un- 
pleasant, causing difficulty, &c., e.g. 
i) mishap, unfortunate incident, 
iitch, awkward meeting, &c. ; (2) 
11-humour, awkward temper, grudg- 
.ng, rancour, caprice, spite, &c. Piga 
k., make a hitch, cause a difficulty. 
Sina k. moyoni mwangu, I am quite 
agreeable. (Cf. kifundo^ hitilafu y 

Kisiwa, n. (vt-), an island. (Cf. 
stwa, a large island.) 

Kisombo, n. (w-), a dish of beans, 

cassava, &c., beaten or mashed up 
kipondwe, kibumbwi, mseto.} 

into a thick soup or paste. (Cf 


paye kishogo si mwenzio, he who Kisimi, n. (vi-), clitoris. (Cf. 
turns his back on you is not your 
friend. (Cf. kogo, kikosi.} 

Kishoka, n. (z/*-), dim. of shoka, 
a small axe. 

Kishoroba, n. (vi-\ dim. of sho- 
roba (which see). 

*Kishubaka, n. (yi-\ dim. of shu- 
baka, a small recess, niche, pigeon- 
hole, loop-hole. 

Kishungi, n. (z/z-),dim. oishungi, 
(i) a small tuft of hair, crest of 
feathers, plume ; (2) ends of a cloth, 
lappet, fringes. (Cf. matamvua.} 

Kishwara, n. (vi-\ a loop of rope, 
used to hold an oar (like a rowlock) 
in a boat, or to lift by. (Cf. ki- 
tanzi, and shalaka.} 

Kisi, v. (i) also Gisi, consider 
critically, estimate, calculate, make 
a guess, form an opinion on, guess. 
K. maneno, weigh a statement. K, 
mtama, set a value on (judge the 
price of) millet (cf. fikiri, kadiri, 
bahatisha, hesabu}. (2) As nautical 
term, shift, make a change in. K. 
mtanga, shift the sail over, tack, put 
about. (Cf. pindua, bisha^} Seldom 
in deriv. forms. 

Kisibau, n. (-), a waistcoat, 
worn open in front. Described as k 
cha mikotw, i.e. sleeved; k. cha ki 
kwapa, or cha kwapa, i. e. sleeveless, 
the usual kind, k. cha vitana, i.e 
lined; k. cha kufuta, i.e. in common 
plain style. Made of all kinds o 
materials and colours, and worn over 
the kanzu. 

Kisigino, n. (-), heel, elbow 
further distinguished as k. cha mguu 
and k. cha mkono. (Cf. kifundo 

Kisiki, n. (#*'-), log, stump, trunk 
of fallen tree. (Cf. kishiku, gogo 

Kisikusiku, adv. and n., at night 
in the dark. (Cf. usiku, siku.} 

Kisima, n. (z-), well, water 
hole, water-pit, place where wate 
is drawn. (Perh. altered from Ar 

Kisongo, n. (#*'-), act (mode, 
means, &c.) of twisting, esp. an 
instrument for twisting, whether 
wood or metal, tourniquet, also 
that used in rope-making, turned by 
the kileti, and itself attached to the 
rope. (Cf. songa.} 

Kisonono, n. gonorrhoea, 
various phases being distinguished as 
k. cha mkojo (urine), k. cha usaha 
(pus, matter), and k. cha damn 
(blood). (Cf. sononeka.) 

Kisozi, n. (#*'-)> name of a small 
bird (Str.). 

Kisu, n. (vi-\ a knife, of any sort, 
often used with such verbs as toa, take 
out, draw, tia, apply, ttoa, sharpen, 
futika, stick in the girdle, put 
up, and a. -kali, sharp, butu, blunt, 
dull. IVewe kisu, sisi nyama, you 
are the knife, we are the victims, i. e. 
do what you will with us. K. cha 
kukunja, a pocket-knife, a clasp- 
knife. (Cf. j'tsu, kijisu, also ja- 
mbia, shembea, kotama, kijembc.} 

Kisua, n. (i) a kind of fine cloth, 
used as a turban, a kind of kitambi, 
also called bur a. Nimekwisha ku- 




jipamba kiva kisua na selaha. I have 

arraying myself with a turban 

apons. Also (2) to describe 

a person well dressed, of striking 

appearance, yeye ni kisita kutvako 

ditniani, he is a fine figure, if there 

is one in the world. 

Kisugulu, n. (TO*-), mound, heap 
of earth. (Seldom heard, ? a Yao 
word for ant-hill.) 

Kisuli, n. and adv., also Kizuli, 
giddiness. See Kizuli. 

Kisusi, n. (f/-)> one of the smaller 

slopes of a thatched roof, running up 
ge of the larger. (Cf. 
paa, kipaa.) 

Kisusuli, n. (i) a kind of kite 
(cf. shada, buratangi, tiara) ; (a) 
anything whirling about, and dazing 
the eye, a whirling gust, a windmill. 
(Perh. a redupl. form = kisulisuli, 
and so cf. kisuli, sulika, masua.) 

Kisutu, n. (*-), a large piece of 
printed calico, forming a woman's 
. Z. In commerce, ' scarves,' of 
plain colour, red, blue, white, &c. 
A'. cha Afombee, of Indian manu- 
facture, k. cha Ulaya, of European. 
(Cf. shift and nguo.) 

Kitaa, n. 7-1-), dim. of m/aa, dis- 
trict, r juartcr, parish. A*. cha imamu, 
the district allotted to a Mahommedan 

ibu, n. (i-), a book. (Ar., 
the ti being part of the root. Cf. 
mkataba, katila, katabahu, and syn. 

tit, chuo.) 

Kitakataka, n. (/-). a particle of 

dost, a speck of dirt, a very small 

ft rid mg, worthless) thing, a mote. 

.'alka, n. Cf. takasa,takatifu. 

Kitakizo, n. end-piece, at head 

and foot of a native bedstead (ki> 


Kitako. n. and adv. (i) pmrt of 

the body between the buttocks (ma- 

hc fork of the legs; (a) as adv., 

on the base, or 1< g. weka 

' the barrel on its end. 

wn, take a seat, in 

y , the usual expression, 

also (2) remain settled, settle, 
reside. (Cf. tako ) 

Kitale, n. (vi-), a young cocoanut 
in the second stage of development, 
between a kidaka and a dafu. See 

Kitalu, n. ('-), a stone fence, 
walled enclosure, wall (of a yard, 
court, &c.). 

Kitambaa, n. (*-)> a piece of cloth 
or calico, a strip or scrap of any kind 
of textile fabric for any use, a small 
cloth, e. g. napkin, towel, duster, 
handkerchief, bandage, tablecloth, 
often with a defining phrase, k. 
cha meza (cha kufutia mikono^ cha 
kupangusia, &c.). (Cf. kitantbi, 
utamln, tambi, kitambo, tambo, tam- 
ba<i, iitambaa, mtambo, tatnba, and 
others, which however do not seem 
referable to one root-meaning. See 

Kitambi, n. (vi-\ (i) a length or 
piece of cloth, usually of the kind 
used for head-wear, as a kind of 
turban, defined as k. cha kilemba, 
also worn round the waist, and as 
a loincloth. (2) A", cha tambo, the 
mesenteric membrane. (Cf. lollg. 
and kitambaa.) 

Ki tambo, n. and adv. (i) a piece, 
a little often of time, a short 
period, e.g. alikaa k. or nntda &, 
he remained a short time. A*, kidogo, 
after a little, soon, presently (cf. 
kipancUt kidogo, and kit am baa). (2) 
Also of stature, length, a certain 
length or height, mtu wa k. t a man 
of some height, a tall man. (Cf. 
tambo, pande^) 

Kitana, n. (ri-), a small comb. 
(Cf. /;' , shanuo.) 

Kitanda, n. (t'<>), a wooden frame 
; on, esp. a 

native bedstead, i.e. a frame con- 
f two side-pieces (tnfttmbali), 
two end-pieces (kitakino], res 
ndtgn, w<i-), at 
cord of cocoanut fibre or 
grass-strips interlaced acron it. UK 
head is called mfhago, the space 




underneath (2 ft. to 3 ft. from the 
ground) mvungu. Usually a mat 
only (mkeka) is spread on it, some- 
times a mattress (godoro] and pillows 
(into). Kitanda cha nifumi y a wea- 
ver's frame, a loom, parts and instru- 
ments of which are mdoshi, faraka 
or mfariki, marufaa, kashabu, mladi. 
(Cf. tanda, tandika, and for other 
kinds of bedstead, nlili, samadari.} 

Kitandiko, n. (zrc-), a spreading, 
a thing spread, a mantle, anything 
worn as a covering. (Cf. tanda, 

kitanda, tandiko.} 

Kitanga, n. (*-), (i) a small piece 
of matting, usually circular, used as 
a praying mat (cf. msald), to lay out 
food on, or goods for sale. Muungu 
hufufua nyama kitangani, God saves 
even animals at the place of slaughter. 
(2) The palm of the hand, k. cha 
mkono. (3) The scale or pan of a 
balance, k. cha mizani. (4) A kind 
of dance, k. cha pepo (cf. ngoma). 
(Cf. tanga, n. and v.) 

Kitango, n. (f*-), (i) gadding 
about, idling, loitering (c.L tanga, \.}, 
e. g. hana ki tango, he is no idler, he 
sticks to his work, he is steady. (2) 
Dim. of tango, a kind of small cucum- 
ber. (3) A bit of string, lace, shoe- 
lace, tuft on a mattress, used for fas- 
tening things up or together. (? Cf. 
ckanga, mchango.) 

Kitanguo, n. (vt-\ act (means, 
way, &c.) of abolishing, doing away, 
bringing to nothing. (Cf. tangua, 

*Kitani, n. flax, string, linen. 
(Ar. See Katani.) . 

Kitanitani , adv. on the back , back - 
wards, of position. (Cf. tanua, 
stretch out, spread out, and kichali.} 

Kitanzi, n. (vi-\ dim. of tanzi, 
small loop, noose, halter, snare, gin, 
e.g. loop for a button, snare for ani- 
mals or birds. (Cf. tanzi.} 

Kitao, n. (vi-\ dim. of tao (which 
see), a small curved (arched, bent) 
thing. K. cha pingu, the ring of 

Kitapo, n. shivering, shaking, 
trembling, quivering, from cold, 
fear, illness, &c., e. g. the cold stage 
of fever, kitafo cha homa. (Cf. 
tapa, e. g. m-wili wanitapa, my body 

Kitara, n. (#/-), a curved sword, 
scimitar. (Cf. upanga, sime,jatnbia.} 

Kitasa, n. (*'-), (i) a box-, door-, 
or cupboard-lock (cf. kufuli, a pad- 
lock), a buckle, fastening of a belt ; 
(2) dim. of tasa, small metal pot. 

Batata, n. (vi-\ (i) tangle, com- 
plication, mess (cf. tatd) ; (2) a splint 
(for bandaging a broken limb, &c.). 
(Cf. kigango.} 

Kitatange, n. a bright-coloured 
sea fish with spines, a sea porcupine 

Kitawa, n. and adv., devout life 
(act or character), in a religious way. 
Nguo za k., dress of a devotee, habit 
of a monk, &c. Fanya k., act as a 
devotee. Kaa k., lead a secluded 
life. (Cf. tawa, utawa^) 

Kitawi, n. dim. of tawi, a small 
branch, twig, cutting, bunch or cluster 
of fruit on a stem ; (2) a kind of 
weed ; (3) a tool used in weaving. 

Kitaya, n. jaw (cf. toy a). Hatamu 
yatiwa kitayani,\hz bridle is attached 
to the jaw. 

Kite, n. (i) a cry of pain, a moan, 
a groan. Piga kite, give a groan. 
(a) Trust, liking, affection. Hana 
kite naye, he has no liking for him, 
he does not trust him. 

Kitefutefu, n. also Kitetefu, 
sobbing, as before or after crying. 
(Cf. kikeukeu^ 

Kiteku,n. an iron tool, for break- 
ing up floors, digging up stones, &c., 
a pickaxe. (Cf. tektia.} 

Kitembe, n. and adv., a defect in 
speech, a lisp, thick utterance. Piga 
(semd) kitembe, speak with a lisp, in 
a thick indistinct way, as if there 
was something in the mouth. (Cf. 

Kite mb we, n. (vi-}, a vegetable 




fibre. (Cf. utembu'c, also ttzt . 
Hgornba, uttanasi, flee.) 

Kitendawili, n. (vi-\ riddle, 
enigma, puzzle, charade, conundrum. 
The common word for propounding 
a riddle is tega, e.g. Kitendaivili! 
Here's a riddle! Tega! Out with 
:imbayangu ktibwa, haina taa, 
my house is large, but has no lamp. 
( Ans.) Kaburi, the grave. (? From 
ki-ttnda-wili, i. e. pili, acting in two 

Kitendo, n. (f-), act, deed, ex- 
ploit. (Cf. ttnda, tcndo, utendaji, 

Kitengele, n. t'/-),al>o Kichen- 
gele, stripe, band of colour, &c. 
(Cf. more usual tnfuo, m/ia.) 

Kitengenya, n. (t f /-), ? name of a 

Kiteo, n. (vi-}, dim. of uteo, a 
small flat basket used for sifting. 
(Cf. ungo, and tunga, more usual 
in Z.) 

Kitete, n. (w-), small hollow reed, 
small pijx?. . (Cf. ufetf.) 

Kitetemo, n. (vi-\ trembling, 
::g, shaking, quaking. (Cf. 
tttcma, and fcitapo, tikisika.) 

Kithiri, v. get to be more, do in 
addition, cause to be more, increase, 
grow. Mttndt umekithiri kuzaa, the 
date tree has borne more than ever. 
A p. kithir-ia, -iwa, c. g. kukithi- 
be loved more 
than others. Cs. kithiri-sha, -shwa, 
make more, increase, &c. (Ar. 

re usual in /.) 

n. (ri-j. a native stool, teat. 
Hence a seat or chair of any kind. 

::me, a throne. 

frost, a saddle (cf. seruji). (Cf. 

ml pcrh. M //I.) 

Mibi, n. (w-), also K 

a mischievous act, trick, artifice, 

stratagem. (Cf. timfi, and syn. 

) name of the dog 
in the Seven Sleepers story; . 

The consonants are 
sometimes written as a kind of charm 

on letters to ensure safe deliver)'. 

Kitinda, n. (f-), verbal of tinJa 
(i.e. the root of tindika). Kitinda 
mitnba, the last, youngest child, lit. 
the ending of conception. 

Kitisho, n. (w-), terrifying, some- 
thing terrifying, a terror, a menace, 
a fearful thing, an overwhelming 
danger. (Cf. tisha, tisho, utisho, 
and syn. afa, kioja?) 

Kititi,n. and adv. (i) dim. of////, 
nipple (of the breast) ; (2) a small 
hare, leveret; (3) kititi cha bahari, 
the depths of the sea. As adv. (i) 
fully, wholly, altogether, all at once ; 
(2) straight up, upright, in an erect 
position. Gfttge limtsiniama k., the 
cliff rose up perpendicularly. Mti 
umesimika k., the tree stood straight 
up, was perpendicular. 

Kitiwanga, n. chicken-pox, also 
called titiwanga, and tete kwanga. 
(Cf. ndui.} 

Kito, n. (vi-), a precious stone, 
gem, jewel. (Cf.joAari,fusfus.) 

Kitobwe, n. (w-), hole e. g. one 
bored by an insect or tool, dimple on 
the chin. (Cf. toboa, pass, form 
in -c, and syn. kititudu.) 

Kitoraa, n. (/-), a small round 
pumjikin, the outer rind or shell of 
which is dried, hollowed out, and 
used as a vessel for liquids ; (2) de- 
scriptive of orchitis, hydrocele. (Cf. 
boga, pumpkin, usual in Z.) 

Kitono, n. (?-), dim. of 
small drop (of liquid), a smn! 
Kanga m ndtge wa vitone-tont, the 
n-fowl u a speckled bird. 

Kitongo, adv. sideways, ob- 
liquely. Tasama kiton&otonqo, look 
askance ' ; ongtyi^ 

/->, small village, 
.-.'/<' HJC mashamba 
vitongojini, all who were out 

. tottgota, 
kitongo, and syn. kijiji.) 

, edible fruit of 
the mtoria (a kind of Landolphia). 




Kitoto, n. and adv. (z-7-), dim. of 
mtoto, a small child, baby, like a 
child, foolishly. 

Kitovu, n. (z>*-), the navel, the 
umbilical cord. 

Kitoweo, n. (#z-), and Kitoeo, 
anything eaten as a relish with other 
food, meat, fish, curry, &c, the 
third common ingredient being m- 
chuzi, gravy. (Cf. toweza, and 

Kitu, n. (vi-), (i) a thing, esp. 
a sensible, material object, but also 
what is an object to the mind ; (2) 
substance, what a thing is made of, 
matter. Mtu ni k., lakini si k., a 
man may be regarded as a thing, but 
he is not (only) a thing. Pana k. 
hasira ? Is there such a thing as 
anger ? Si k., it is nothing, no mat- 
ter (cf. hait hunt, mamojd). Ha- 
pana k,, there is nothing, nothing at 
all, nought. K. gani hicho ? What 
is that? K. choke ni chuma, its 
substance is iron. (Cf. //, and 
utu. The idea of ' substance ' is 
often conveyed by the abstract forms 
beginning with -u, and nyama is 
also used, chiefly of organic sub- 

Kitua, n. (z/j-), (i) a small tree, 
shrub, bush, branch; (2) shade of 
a tree, shaded spot. Tuketi kituani, 
let us sit in the shade. (Not usual 
in Z., cf. kijiti, kivuli, which are the 
common words.) 

Kituko, n. (#*-), a feeling (object, 
cause, &c.) of fear, a terror, horror, 
fright, alarm. E.g. inatia walu 
vituko vya hofu, it causes people 
alarm. Mtu ytina (ameingiiva no) 
kiluko, the man is frightened. Vi- 
tuko vikittishavyo, terrors which 
alarm you. (Cf. tukia, ttikio, of 
incident, accident, and so special 
sensational alarming occurrence. Or 
cf. shtuka (stuka, sittika), shtuko, 
of what is startling, alarming. For 
syn. cf. kiiisho, kioja, a/a.} 

Kitulizo, n. (vi-~) t a quieting in- 
fluence, a soothing force, a comfort, 

relief, anodyne. (From fua, tuliza. 
Cf. iitutidivu^faraja, baridi.} 

Kitumba, n. (vi-}, dim. of m- 
tumba, tumba, (i) a small bag, case, 
cover ; (2 ) a small bud. Gunia ni k. 
cha Hindi, a gunia is an Indian bag. 

Kitumbo, n. and adv. (i) dim. of 
tttmbo, small stomach, protuberance, 
swelling ; (2) obesity, a large abnor- 
mal stomach (cf. kikono, kiguu, of 
malformation or maiming); (3) as 
an adv., lala k., lie stomachwise, on 
the stomach. (Cf. tumbua, m- 
tumba, Imtumbwi?) 

Kitumbua, n. (vi-\ a small pan- 
cake, a fritter. (Cf. prec.) 

Kitumwa, n. and adv. (vi-\ d) 
dim. of mtumwci) a little slave ; (2) 
service, what is servile or degrading. 
Fanya k., act as a slave, -a /&., of a 
slavish, servile kind. (Cf. tuma, 
mtumwa, &c.) 

Kitunda, n. (vi-\ (i) dim. of 
tunda, a small fruit; (2) a chess 
pawn (Str.). 

Kitunga, n. (vi-\ dim. of tunga, 
a small round flat basket. 

Kitunguu, n. (vi-\ an onion. 
Kitunguu somu, garlic. (Sum is 
Ar. for garlic.) 

Kituo, n. (vi-\ (i) stopping, 
resting, cessation, respite, remission, 
quiet ; (2) a stopping-place, encamp- 
ment, time for rest, stage in a journey ; 
(3) a stop, a pause (e. g. in talking, 
music, &c.), a note of punctuation, 
end of a sentence. Roho yake haina 
/'., his spirit is always uneasy. Hana 
k., he is always on the move (cf. opp. 
kitango}. Maneno yasiyo na k., talk 
without breaks or pauses. Piga 
kituo, form an encampment. Ki- 
swahili hakina k., the Swahili lan- 
guage has no fixed standard. (Cf. 
tiia, utulivu, ttto, and simama, pu- 

Kitupa, n. (vi-\ dim. of (i) tupa 
(i. e. chupa in Z.), a small bottle, 
phial, flask; also of (2) tupa, a 
small file. 

Kitwa, n. (/-), usually in Z. 




sounded more as kichwa (which 

Kit wans, n. (01*-), a boy or youth 
of the slave class. Dim. of mtwana, 
and contr. kijakazi, a slave girl. 

Kiu, n. absence of water, drought, 

want of water, thirstiness, thirst. 

na ., kitona k., to be thirsty. 

Kotnesha k., quench thirst. K, ya 

ntaji, lack of water. 

Kiua, n. (vi-), (i) verbal from 
;/.;. v.. that which kills; (2) dim. of 
na, a small enclosure, or, a small 
flower. Also (3) name of a fish 
(perh. from (i)) ; (4) an eyelet-hole 

Kiuaji.n. (zi'-),somethingthat kills, 
a fatal, deadly thing, i.e. kitu cha 
kufisha, e. g. beast of prey, snake, 
poison, fire-arms. (Cf. ua, v.) 

Kiuka, v. step over, get (leap, 
pass, jump) over, surmount. (Cf. 
kia, chupa, and more usual in Z. 
ruka, vuka.) 

Kiuma, n. (vi- t contr. vynma, as 
plur. of (Jtuma), (l) anything that 
bites, pierces, stings, hurts (cf. k. 
the goat-biter, as name of 
a kind of lizard ; k. inzi, the fly-biter, 
name of an insect) ; (a) esp. a small 
pointed or pronged instrument, a 
fork, an insect's sting. (Cf. uma, 
n. and v.) 

abe, n. (w'-)i a created thing, 

a creature, but usually limited to the 

!, or at least animate creation. 

E. g. pana nyama wawili na k. ki- 

icre are two animals and one 

man. Mti umeumbwa kuwa k., la- 

k. t na nyama si k., 
A., a tree is a creature like a kiunibe, 
but it is not strictly a kiumbc, nor 
is an animal a kiumbe^ but only num. 
.-/////<<?, maum/>i/e,and 
pass, termin. -t.} 

.), name of a kind 
*. (Cf.ngoma.) 
no. M. ami adv. (seldom 
in phir. for usual -a kiume and 
ndume], a male, something 
male kind, manly behaviour (bear- 

ing, fashion; way, proceeding, &c.), 
courage, strength, prudence, spirit, 
heroism. Watoto it/a k., boys. 
Fanya /., act like a man, show 
spirit, be brave. Sauti ya k. t a bass, 
deep voice. Vaa k., wear a man's 
clothes, dress as a man. a. 
from -unify agreeing with &'///, e. g. 
kijana kiume, a young man. (Cf. 
-urne, kuunie, ndiime, urne, and contr. 

Kiunga, n. (vi~\ (i) suburb of 
a town, suburban residence, out- 
skirts, place adjacent. Ana k. chake 
na nyumba yoke mjini, he has an 
estate (garden) in the suburbs, and a 
house in the town. Akaa kiungont, 
he lives in the outskirts of the town. 
The kiunga is often an orchard, 
fruit or pleasure garden (contr. sha~ 
mba which is general, and more in the 
country), (a) Name of a fish. (Cf. 
ungv, kiungo.) 

Kiungo, n. (vi-), (i) act (method, 
means, &c.) of joining, a joining, 
link, connecting part, connexion, 
amalgamation. Hence (a) a joint of 
the animal frame, a member of the 
body, i. e. kiungo cha mwili. Vi- 
ungo vimeachana, the joints have 
come apart. Also achana I 
loosen the joints, of a man lying at 
ease, so too jitupa viungo, of a 
sprawling attitude-. Makuti ya ki- 
ungo, or ya viungo, cocoanut leaves 
prepared for use as thatch. Si. 
K 1 1 1 i . (3) Something which seasons, 
gives a taste or relish to, food, e. g. 
sauce, pickle, salt, vinegar, &c., 
i.e. mthuzi, achali, chunn.. 
(Cf. unga, v.) 

Kiunguja, n. and adv., the dialect 
' cl in Zanzibar city and 
neighbourhood, as contrastc 

id red dialects of the coast 
v<i) f of Mombasa (kr 
and Lama (kiamu). 
also used in contrast wit 

rcncc to points in \\ 
Zanzibar use is different !mm all or 
most of the kindred dialects. (A 




native will often say Kiswahili hi fa, 
si kiunguja, that word is Swahili, 
but it is not used in Zanzibar, e. g. 
the word chaka for 'hot season.') 
As adv., ' of the Zanzibar kind.' (Cf. 
Vngiija, and the Preface to Sacleux, 
Dictionnaire Fran fats- Swahili. ) 

Kiungulia, n. stomachic disorder 
causing eructation or belching, heart- 
burn, also k. cha moyo. (Cf. 
ungua, and for the symptoms, 

Kiunguza, n. (*-), and similarly 
Kiunguzo, something which burns, 
causes the sensation of burning, as 
fire, acid, &c. (Cf. ungua.} 

Kiungwana, adv. of a gentle- 
manly, civilized, educated kind 
(style, fashion, character, &c.), in 
a way becoming a free man. Mw- 
anamke wa k., a lady (by birth 
or manners). -a kiungwana, gen- 
tlemanly, courteous, &c. Cf. phrase 
hajambo ya kiungwana, i. e. he is 
quite well enough to work, if he 
chooses. (Cf. -ungwana.} 

Kiuno, n. (*'-), loin, flank, waist, 
the part just above the hips (nyongd], 
and groin (nena). In building, an 
abutment. Jambia kiunonina bakora 
mkononi, dagger at waist and stick in 

Kiunza, n. (-), a board laid 
over a corpse, when placed in a 
grave, also called ntlango iva maiti, 
the dead man's door. Sometimes 
bamboos or sticks are so used. 

Kiunzi, n. (z>z-), a wooden frame 
or structure, esp. of shipwrights' 
work, the hull of a vessel, the chie 
native example of construction in 
wood. (Cf. unda, mwunzi.) 

Kivi, n. (*'-) elbow. (Cf 


Kivimba, n. (vi-), and similar^ 
Kivimbe (or -i), a swelling, a pro 
tuberance, girth, circumference, big 
ness of anything round. K. ch( 
mti, girth of a tree. (Cf. vimba 

and mzingo?) 

Kivukizo, n. (yi-\ act of burnin 

ncense, fumigation, substance used 
n fumigation. (Cf. vukiza!) 

Kivuko, n. (*), act (place, time, 
neans, &c.) of crossing (e. g. a river, 
marsh, &c.), crossing - place, ford, 
erry ; also, fee for crossing. K. 
ikavu, an isthmus connecting two 
>ieces of land. (Cf. vuka>) 

Kivuli, n. (vi-\ (i) a shade, a 
hady place, a shadow; (2) a ghost. 
Cf. mvuli, uvuli, mivavuli.} 

Kivumbasi, n. a strong-smelling 

erb, used by the natives to keep off 

mosquitoes, a kind of basil. (Cf. 


Kivumbi, n. and adv. (vi-}, a 
article of dust, like dust, dusty ; 
also, a dust -cloud, sand-storm (?). 
Cf. vumbi.} 

Kivumi, n. (/-)> also similarly 
Kivumo, (i) a rumbling (humming, 
)uzzing, or roaring) sound, rumble, 
mm, buzz, &c. ; (2) a rumour, a 
eport, bit of gossip, hearsay. (Cf. 
'junta, uvunii.} 

Kivunjo, n. (w-), dct (means, 
way, &c.) of breaking. (Cf. vitnja, 
mvunjo, &c.) 

Kivuno, n. (vi-}, a harvest, profit, 
something worth having. Ganda la 
mua chungu kaona kivuno, a bit of 
chewed sugar-cane the ant thought 
a prize. (Cf. vuna, and syn. chumo, 

-kiwa, a. solitary, alone, desolate, 
abandoned, outcast (with pfx. ;//-, 
and wa-, of persons, pa- of place, 
and u- of things, nyutnba itfa'tva, 
shamba ukiwd). (Cf. tikiwa, and 
upweke, peke yake, -hame.} 

Kiwaa, n. (vi-\ dim. of ivaa, 
small spot, blotch, patch, stain, 
blemish, blot. (Cf. kipaku, ila.} 

Kiwamba, n. (*-), a little frame, 
support, prop. Watoto wanaotambaa 
na wanaokwendea viwamba, chil- 
dren who crawl and who walk with 
something to hold to. (Cf. wamba, 
and follg.) 

Kiwambaza, n. ("), also Kiya- 
mbaza, Kiambaza, a wall as made 




by natives, i.e. a screen of sticks 
fastened to upright poles and filled 
up with kneaded earth and stones. 
(Cf. wamba, kiwambo, and ukuta.) 

Kiwambo,n. (z//-),alsoKiyambo, 
Kiambo, the act (process, means, 
&c.) of making one thing cover 
another, and esp. of the thing which 
covers, overlays, or is stretched over 
another, e. g. the k. of a drum 
(ngoma} is the skin strained tightly 
over it, ngozi iliyowambiwa ngoma. 
K. cha mokuti, a screen of cocoanut 
leaves. K. cha kitanda, the lacing 
of a bed-frame with cord. (Cf. 
wamba, kiwambaza.} 

Kiwanda, n. (vi-} t also Kiwanja, 
a plot of ground, used for occupation 
rather than cultivation, whether open 
or enclosed, i. e. a yard, premises, &c. 
uncovered or covered, i.e. a shed, a 
workshop, e. g. Htiifatic k., nataka 
kujcnga nyumba, get me a piece of 
ground, 1 want to build a house. 
Hii ilikuwa nyumba, imevunjika. 
sasa ni k. /it, this was a house, but 
it was taken down, and now it is only 
a piece of ground. Akatiwa kiwa* 
naatii kushona nguo, he was put in 
a workshop to learn tailoring. (Cf. 
uwatuia, uwanja.) 

Kiwango, n. (r*-), (i) number, 
a number (cf. wanga, and cheo. 
Kiwango is the B. word, but in Z. 
represented almost entirely 
Ar. hesabu and daraja.} (2) Im- 
portance, account, dignity, posi- 
.>) behaviour or duties proper 
n, province, sphere of 
'tangu kusema, it 

is nay duty (it is proper for me) to 
speak thus. K. cha mtun; 
position of a slave. 

ivi, n. (OT-), m nettle, sea 

Kiwe, n. (vi-), pimple, vesicle, 
the hair. (Cf. /&.) 

Ki weko, n. ftrf-J, also Kiwiko (cf. 

:\ (i) act, &c. of 

placing (sec Ki- and Weka), place 

for putting, placing, resting, position ; 
(2) pedestal, base, rest, socket. Used 
of wrist, k. cha mkono, and ankle, 
k. cha mguu. (Cf. weko, kisigino, 

Kiwele, n. (vi-\ milk-gland of 
a female animal, udder. 

Kiwembe, n. (/-), dim. oluwtmbe, 
a small razor, a knife. (Cf. Msu, 

Kiweo, n. (vi-\ thigh, ham, esp. 
of animals. (Cf. /a/a, more usual 
in Z.) 

Kiwete, n. and adv. (i) lameness, 
crippled condition ; (a) a crippled 
person, a cripple ; (3) in a lame, 
halting, crippled way. Kwenda k., 
walk lamely, -a /., crippled. Yu 
k., ana k., he is lame. (Cf. kilema, 
kiguu, chcchemta?) 

Kiwi, n. (OT-), (i) stout stick, bar 
of wood, set against a door, inside, as 
a fastening, &c. (cf. komeo, / 
(2) state of being dazzled, dazed, 
unable to see clearly, i.e. k. cha 
macho. Jit a I of any a k. cha macho, 
the sun blinds me, dazzles me. Haoni 
usiku, ana k., he does not see at 
night, his sight is defective. 

Kiwiko, n. (vi-\ See Kiweko. 

Kiwiliwili, n. and adv. (*-), vari- 
ously used as (i) the body in general, 
of man, animals, birds, &c., like 
mwili; (2) the main part of the body, 
the trunk, i.e. not with the head or 
limbs or both ; (3) n 
body, member, limb ; (4) bulk 
size (cf. kivimba, untne). Kunkwa 
kwa fisi, si k. tut to be burin 1 by 
a hyaena, is not that just lea v in- tl.'c 
body as it is, no grave at all ? 

ingu vyot< .ill my 

members are whole. A", chakc chapa- 
tajef What does its bulk come to? 
What does it measure round ? As 
tin. (Cf. mwili. 
Dist. -tri'/i, two, X-M ;/'///, &c.) 

Kiwimawima, adv. in ni 

e.g. of a steep hil! . (Cf. 

simama, irrta,1wima.) 




Kiwimbi, n. and adv. (vi-}, dim. 
of ivimbi, wavelet, ripple, eddy. As 
adv., like a wave. Kama viwimbi, 
undulating, with ridges, hillocks, &c. 

Kiwingu, n. (vi-}, dim. of -wingu, 
a small cloud. 

*Kiyama, n. the general resurrec- 
tion of the dead, as conceived by 
Mahommedans, lit. standing up, rising 
up. (Ar. Cf. ufttfuo.} 

Kiyambasa, n. (vi-}. See Kiwa- 

Kiyoga, n. (vi-}, a mushroom. 

Kiyowe, n. (vi-}, cry, shout, 
scream, esp. of a call for help. Piga 
k., cry out for help. (Cf. ukelele, 
killo, ktgelegele, shime.} 

Kiza, n. (vi-}, more usually giza 
in Z., darkness, gloom, dimness, night. 
See Giza. 

Kizalia, n. (vi-}, that which is 
born in a given place, home-born, 
indigenous, native, e.g. of home-born 
slaves. Huyu k. Unguja, this man 
was born in Zanzibar. (Cf. mzalia, 
zaa, and kikulia, kimelea.} 

JKizao, n. (vi-} } a product, produc- 
tion, offspring. (Cf. zaa, zao.} 

Kizazi, n. (vi-\ any part or step 
in causing birth, or being born, pro- 
creation, generation. Usually (i) 
birth, production of offspring, being 
born. Haya niliyoandika ya k. cha 
Buge, this is my account of the cir- 
cumstances of Buge's birth. Ana k., 
he has birth, he is a man of family. 
(2) That which is born, a birth, off- 
spring, whether individually ' a child, 
a young one,' or collectively ' a gene- 
ration.' K. hiki, the present genera- 
tion. (Cf. zaa, uzazi, mzazi.} 

Kizee, n. (vi-} and adv., (i) an 
old person, or thing, esp. an old 
woman, crone, hag ; (2) in antiquated 
style, old-fashioned. -a kizee, an- 
tique, old, old-fashioned (cf. -a kikale). 
Enda kizee, walk like an old person. 
(Cf. -zee, mzee, and perh. zaa.} 

Kizembe, n. and adv. (vi-}, idling, 
slack (remiss, negligent) conduct or 
act. (Cf. -zembe, uvivu, ulegevu.} 

Kizibo,n. (vi-}, (i) anything used 
to stop a hole or opening, a stopper, 
plug, cork, bung, &c., and (2) fig. of 
what is used merely for filling a hole, 
i.e. stop-gap, padding, temporary ex- 
pedient. (Cf. ziba, mzibo.} 

Kizimba, n. (vi}-, also Kizimbi, 
a cage with bars, coop for fowls, &c. 
(Cf. kirimba, tnndu.') 

Kizimwe, n. (vi-}, also Kizimwi, 

1 i ) something dried up , dead , withered . 
Nazi kizimwe, a cocoanut without 
milk or nutty substance, dry and 
empty (cf. zima and -zimive). 

(2) smut, blight (on cereals, &c.) ; 

(3) a fairy, an evil spirit. (Cf. 
zimwi, mzimu.} 

Kizinga, n. (vi-}, dim. of mzinga, 
which see. 

Kizingiti, n. (vi-}, top or bottom 
piece of the frame of a door or 
window, threshold, sill, lintel; (2) 
bar of a river, reef of rocks, natural 
dam, weir. Mlango wa k., opening 
in a bar or reef, sluice, floodgate. 
(Cf. mlango, kimandu, mwinio.} 

Kizingo, n. (vi-}, turning, wind- 
ing, curve, bend, e.g. of a river, road. 
-a k., sinuous, winding, roundabout. 
Also kizingozingo. (Cf. mzingo, 
zinga, ztmguka.} 

Kizio, n. (vi-}, a half of a cocoa- 
nut, i. e. kizio cha nazi, and of other 
fruit, cut in halves. 

Kiziwi, n. (vi-}, a deaf person. 
(Cf. ukiziwi, and possibly ziba. For 
form cf. kipofu, kizee, kibiongo, kile- 
ma, &c.) 

Kizizi, n. (vi-}, small stall, &o. 
Dim. of zizi, which see. 

Kizua, n. See Mazua. 

Kizuio, n. (vi-}, and Kizuizo 
(and -zi), restraining, keeping back, 
restraint, obstruction, hindrance, 
stopper. (Cf. zuio, zuia, pinga, 

Kizuka, n. (vi-}, (i) something 
which appears suddenly, thing seldom 
seen, an apparition, phantom, ghost, 
portent. Hence (2) fairy, evil spirit, 
ghost; (3) and also a widow living 




in seclusion after her husband's death. 
(Cf. sttka, kizushi.} 

Kizuli, n. also Kisuli, giddiness, 
mental confusion. (Cf.' zu/u, ma- 


Kizungu, n. and adv., a European 
language, in European style. Senta 
k. t speak a European language. Vaa 
k. y wear European dress, -a k., 
European. (Cf. mzungu (wa- and 

:;d perh. zunguka and follg.) 

Kizunguzungu, n. (*-), gicldi- 

ness, whirl, i.e. kizunguzungu cha 

kichwa, vertigo. Mkondo wa k., an 

eddy, whirlpool. Mzungu mambo 

yake ni kizunguzungu, a European's 

makes one's head go round. 

(Cf. kizna, mazua t and zunguka, 


Kizushi, n. (z/*-)> a person or 

-uddenly appearing, i.e. (i) 

newcomer, intruder, heretic, revolu- 

; (a) novelty, phenomenon, 

sensation, apparition. Mwana wa 

mitt ni kizushi, akizuka zuka naye, 

i. e. there is no knowing what a man 

may do, best follow all his movements. 

ua, zuka, kizuka, uzushi.} 

Kizuu, n. ,2/1-), a kind of evil 

spirit, capable of being employed to 

enter houses in the form of rats and 

kill people by devouring their livers. 

cc. and zua, also see Uchawi.) 

-ko is a form of the D< 

Pfx. ku, the o (a) either denoting 

reference or relative distance, ' there' ; 

(Ih or else giving it the force of a 

re' (see Ku). 


ko and kuko, which see; (2) 

affixed to ndi- and I'crs. I'fx. and the 

verb -wa or its equivalents, has a 

demonstrative force usually local, 

- g.yuko, he is 

Y>, that is where he 

is. (3) In verb-forms genera 

pronoun agreeing 

with t od, and nouns ana 

Ajth tlic Pfx. ku. 

Iluko attakokti'fnda, there where he 

is go: nt; A///CZ kiilikompata, the 

death which overtook him. Ko as 
a separate word only appears in such 
a phrase as ko kote, wherever, under 
whatever circumstances. (Cf. hiiko, 
ku, mo,po.} 

Koa, n. (i) (/a-), a band of thin 
metal plate, esp. as worn for orna- 
ment on the neck or arm, e.g. k. la 
fetha, a silver armlet ; k. la shingo, 
a neck ring (sometimes broadened 
into a crescent shape in front) (cf. 
ttkoa, ktkoa, also furungu, kikukii, 
and for ornaments generally iirembd). 
(a) ( , and ma-), a snail, slug. Ute 
wa k., the slime of a snail. (Cf. 

Kobe, n. (ma-}, a land tonMbe. 
(Cf. kasa, ng amba. Dist. mkobe, a 

Koboa, v. See Goboa. 

Kobwe, n. a kind of bean, like 
kundi. sold in X. 

Koche, n. (wa-), the edible fruit 
of a kind of palm. See Mkochi. 

*Kodi, n. rent, tax, customs. 
(? Hind. Cf. Ar. ushuru.') 

Kodoa, v. esp. with macho, open 
the eyes wide, stare, glare. A. . 
kodolea (macho), -cwa, stare at, <;aye 
at fixedly with eyes wide open. 
Kwani kitnikodolea macho .' Why are 
you staring at me? (Cf. ngariza, 
kaza macho?) 

Kodwe, n. small stone, used as 
a marble in games, as are korosho 
and konni'f. (Cf. /mv, mbwe.} 

Kofi, n. (wa-), (i) flat of the hand. 

the palm extended or upturned ; (a) 

a blow with the open hand, slap, 

box on the ears ; (3) as much as can 

II the palm of the upturned 

i ^ slap, box 

ear, (a) clap the hands. 
mkono, and for handfull ukuj-.. 
chopa, konsi.) 

Kofla. n. cap, in 
fez of red cloth, or of whit 
iborately stitched, t' 
of any foreign head -cover. I'aa k., 
put on a en , take off a 





Koga, n. mould, blight, mustiness. 
Fanya (ptd) k., get mouldy (blighted). 
(Cf. kutu, kizimwe, and dist. ukoga.} 
Also v. for kuoga, bathe. See 

Kogo, n. the part of the skull 
which projects at the back, the back 
of the head, occiput. (Cf. kikosi, 

Kohoa, v. cough. Cs. koko-za, 
-zwa. Jikohoza, cough on purpose (as 
a sham, to attract attention, to de- 
ceive a person, &c.). (Cf. follg. 
and boo.} 

Kohooi, n. (ma-} and Kohozi, ex- 
pectoration, sputum, phlegm coughed 
up. (Cf. prec., and ukohozi, ki- 
kohozi, belghamu.) 

Koikoi, n. (ma-}, a kmd ^ evil 
spirit. (Cf. pepo} 

Koja, n. (i) a neck ornament, a 
ring with disks or coins attached worn 
round the neck (cf. koa, and urembo) \ 
(a) a kind of metal pot (cf. kopo, 
sufurid) ; (3) see Khoja. 

Kojoa, v. urinate, make water. 
Ap. kojolea. Kopo (chombo, bakuli} 
la kukojolea, chamber-pot. Cs. ko- 
josha, e.g. dawa ya kukojosha, a 
diuretic. (Cf. follg. and mkojo, 
also nya, and Ar. tabawali} 

Kojozi, n. urine (for common 
mkojo} . Also, that which causes mic- 
turition. (Cf. prec.) 

Koka, v. set on fire (or ? heap up, 
e.g. kokeni mabi-wi ya moto, of burn- 
ing rubbish). Seldom in Z., for 
common tia (or, choma} moto, waska. 
Also koka for knoka, bake (see Oka, 
and cf. koga for kuoga}. (Perh. cf. 
choc ha, and obs. kokoa.} 

Koko, n. ( , and ma-}, (i) stone 
of a fruit, the kernel being kiim 
(cf. kok-wa) ; (2) bush, underwood, 
jungle. Mbwa koko, a bush-dog, i.e. 
in a semi-wild state. Kaa makoko, 
small mud crabs (cf. mkokd). (Dist 
koko for, or plur. of, ukoko.} 

Kokoa, v. sweep up, collect to- 
gether in a heap, of dust, rubbish, 
&c., i.e. k. matakataka, Ps. koko- 

lewa, e.g. mchanga unakokolewa na 
maji, the sand is swept away by the 
water. (Cf. zoa,fagia.} 

Kokomoka, v. belch, vomit vio- 
ently, and fig. blurt out, burst out 
with. (Cf. btibujika, and tapika.} 

Kokota, v. drag, haul, tug at, 
pull along, draw. K. gari, draw a 
:art (carriage). K. roho, used of 
slow painful breathing. K. maneno, 
of slow dragging speech, difficult 
articulation. K. kazi, work slowly. 
fikokota, move slowly (reluctantly, 
&c.). Ps. kokotiva. Nt. koko- 
teka. Ap. kokot-ea, -ewa, e.g. 
kamba za kukokotea, cords to draw 
with. Cs. kokot-eza, -eziva, e.g. 
kokoteza kazi, work slowly (whether 
from care or laziness). (Contr. ki- 
mbiza, and cf. endeleza.} (Cf. -ko- 
kotevu, kokoto, and syn. vuta.) 

-kokotevu, a. (same with D 5 (S), 
D 6), dragging, dilatory, slow. (Cf. 

Kokoto, n. (ma-), usu. in plur. 
small stones, esp. with reference to 
use as material (e.g. makokoto ya 
kupigilia, for use in concrete, m. ya 
kutomelea, for use in plastering), and 
classed according to size, as compared 
with common fruits, e.g. makokoto 
ya ndimu (lime size), m. ya malimau 
(lemon size), m. ya nazi (cocoanut 
size). (Cf. kokota.} 

Kokwa, n. ( , and ma-\ stone 
of a fruit. See Koko (with which it 
seems connected). 

Kolea, v. (i) put something into 
food to give it a taste, season (with), 
flavour (with), give a relish to; (a) 
be properly seasoned, have a flavour; 
and (3) fig. have point (force, mean- 
ing)* K. samli katika chakula, fla- 
vour food with ghee. Ubishi wake 
haukukolea, his joke fell flat. Obs. 
Cs. form in koleza moto, make up 
a fire, make it burn up (with oil, 
shavings, &c.) (? cf. koka}. (Cf. 
follg., also syn. unga, kiungo, and 
kitoweo. Also cf. in Kr. koleza, v., 
seize person or property.) 




Kolekole, n. name of a large 
tish, ? dolphin. 

Koleo, n. ( , and ma-}, a smith's 
tool for handling his work, i.e. kidude 
cha kushikia chuma, a pair of tongs, 
e. ^- kuzima koleo si rnwisho wa 
nhunzi, cooling the tongs is not the 
end of the job. Also (i) any similar 
instrument, pincers, &c. ; (2) notch 
in an arrow (held on the string with 
the fingers). (Cf. prec.) 

*Koli, n. and Kol, a ship's papers. 
(? Ar. /.) 

Koma, v. cease, come to an end, 
stop, decease. Also sometimes act., 
bring to an end, close. Lisilo m- 
koma, hujikoma ti/o, what has no 
one to end it, ends of itself. H'ali- 
pokoma nussu ya /*<*, when they 
ended half the journey. Yalipo- 
koma magrebi, when evening set in. 
Koma usije, stop coming further. 
Cs. kom-csha, -tsAwa, make stop, 
bring to an end, thwart, forbid, kill, 
usually implying some force or 
abruptness. A'omesha rnatuno, stop 
conversation, cut short a debate. 
(Cf. kikorno, ukomo, lukonia, and syn. 
tsAa, nyamaa, tindika?) n. 

(wa-), the edible fruit of a kind of 
palm, mkotna (same as koche, a local 
name . 

Komaa, v. (i) be fully ripe, be full 
grown (developed, matured), and so 
(a) be past the prime, fall off, begin 
to lose powers, decline, become de- 
moralized. Cs. komaza, unduly 
stimulate, over-excite, make game of, 
mock. .ikukomaza, do not 

say I am talking improper; 

(Cf. pcvuka, balchi, -SIOTO.) 

Koraofl, n. (wa-;, fruit of t 
Mkomafl, \vhich see. 

Komaraanga, n. (wa-), pomc- 

iruit of the mkoma- 

manga. (Cf. mkoma, and manga.) 

Komba. v. scrape out, hollow out, 

cleanout. K. g. X-.w^w/;, mnkeadrum 

t). A'. aa/u, scrape 

out the nutty part of a cocoanut. 
Cf. dafu la kukomba, a cocoanut full 

of milk, but beginning to form the 
soft nutty substance inside. A', chu- 
ngu, clean out a cooking pot. A'. 
taka (niaji, vutnb?^ clean out dirt 
(water, dust). A', mtu malt, clear a 
man out of his money, ruin, im- 
poverish. Ps. kombwa. Nt. ko- 
mbcka, be cleaned or cleared out. 
Ap. komb-ea, -ewa, also komb-elca, 
-elcwa, -eleka, -elcsha, -eleshwa, e. g. 
amckombelcka niali, he has lost every 
penny he had. Kombelesha mchnzi 
kwa wait, sop up the gravy with the 
rice. Cs. komb-esha, -eshwa. (Cf. 
ukombe, kombo, konibe, kikombe, 
komba, kikomba, kombeo, kotnboa, and 
? kumba?) 

Komba, n. a small racoon-like 
animal, galago, common in Z. and 
very destructive to cocoanuts. (Cf. 

Kombamoyo, n. (wa-), a long 
thin straight pole. Used as rafters 
in constructing the roof of native 
huts, resting on the side poles 
and carrying the cross-pieces (Jito} 
and thatch. 

Kombe, n. ( , and wa-), (i) any- 
thing hollowed or scraped out, flat 
and slightly curved, and also (2) an 
instrument suited for scraping or 
hollowing. Hence various meanings, 
e.g. (i) a large dish, pan, or platter 
of earthenware, charger (cf. kikontbf}. 
(2) bivalve si ; their shells, 

such as oysters, &c., k. ya pwani 
(cf. kome> konokono, kauli '. 
Shoulder blade, k. la Ixga, or la 
mkono, also of an empty sknll, k. la 
kichiva (cf. kichwa, buf>uru>fuvu or 
/). (4) Like ukombf, a gouge, 
scraper, e.g. miiba na kombc ta 

hurting me. Also of the fluke of an 
baura ya makombc man/i/i, 
can anchor with two flukes. 

(Cf. komba, v. and note, and ukombe*} 
Komboo, n. (wa-), a sling for 

Kombo, n. (ma-), (i) a scrap, a 
scraping, a bit ot lood remaining 




over. (2) Like kikombo (which com- 
pare) (a) twist, turn, crook, crooked- 
ness, () deviation from the straight 
or standard, defect, fault, ill temper, 
awkwardness, difficulty, sticking 
point. Mti huu ni kombo kombo, 
or una kombo, this tree is all crooked. 
Hapana k., there is no difficulty, it is 
all straightforward, plain sailing. 
Mimi, ni k. nayo, as for me, I just 
cannot do it. (3) Escape, acquittal, 
pardon, e.g. omba k., ask for pardon, 
-pa k., grant pardon. (Cf. komboa, 
and komba, v. and note.) 

Komboa, v. (i) scrape out, and 
so (2) ransom, redeem, deliver, make 
compensation for, pay for. Nita- 
komboa mtu aliyeuzwa, I will re- 
deem the man who was sold. K. 
deni, pay a debt, compensate a credi- 
tor. (3) Make crooked, warp, put 
out of the straight, or out of shape, 
give a turn (or twist) to, and so fig. 
cause difficulty to, thwart, hamper, 
give trouble to. Ps. kombolewa. 
Nt. komboka, e.g. (i) be crooked, 
(2) be redeemed. Ap. komlo-ha, 
-leza, -lezwa, e. g. maliya kukombolea, 
money for a ransom. Cs. kombo-za, 
-zwa, (i) make crooked, (2) cause 
to ransom. (Cf. komba, v..and 
note, also mkornbozi, ukombozi.} 

*Kombora,n. a bomb, a shell, also 
a mortar for throwing bombs. (Ar.) 

Kombozi, n. (ma-}, generally 
ukombozi, ransom, redemption-money, 
payment, compensation. (Cf. prec.) 

Kome, n.( , and via-}, also Gome, 
a kind of shell and shell-fish. K. za 
p-wani, univalves. (Cf. kombe, and 

Komea, v. bolt, bar, fasten with a 
komeo. Ps. kome-wa. Nt. komeka. 
Ap. kome-lea, -lewa, e.g. ufunguo wa 
kukomelea, a key to move a bolt. 
Cs. kom-eza, -ezwa, cause to fasten 
a door. (Cf. komeo, komoa, kiwi, 
funga, pingo.} 

Komeo, n. (ma-}, bar, bolt, latch 
(of wood), for fastening a door or win 
dow, a kind of native lock. (Cf. prec. 

Komoa, v. unbar, i.e. remove the 
komeo. Ps. komolewa. Ap. komo- 
lea, -lewa. (Cf. komea.} 

Komwe, n. (ma-}, seed of a plant 
mkomwe, used as counters in playing 

Konda, v. also Gonda, grow thin, 
become lean, be emaciated, get into 
low condition of health or body, pine. 
Cs. kond-esha, -eshwa, cause to get 
thin, wear out, dispirit, cause to pine 
(languish). Jikondesha, worry one- 
self by brooding, taking a matter too 
much to heart. 

Kondavi, n. (ffia-}, a broad belt 
of beads worked in patterns, worn 
by women. (Cf. ushanga, ^ltunda.} 

Konde, n. (ma-}, (i) fist, closed 
hand. Piga k., strike with the fist 
(knuckles of the closed hand), i.e. 
kwa nyuma ya vidole. Piga moyo k. t 
take courage, cheer up, make a bold 
resolve (cf. ngumi, konzi}. (2) A field, 
clearing, cultivated piece of ground. 
Lima k., till a plot of land. (Cf. 

Kondo, n. Kondo ya nyuma, 
after-birth. (Cf. mkottdo. A'ondo, 
war, is not used in Z.) 

Kondoo, n. ( , and ma-}, a sheep. 
Chunga k., keep sheep, act as shep- 
herd. Manyoya ya k., wool, fleece. 
K. mume (or, ndume], a ram. K. 
jike, ewe. (Cf. kikondoo. Sheep, 
mostly of the fat-tailed kind, are 
imported to Z., but not kept or bred 

Konga, v. grow old, get feeble with 
age. Mzee huyu amekonga, hawezi 
kufanya kazi, this old man is weak 
with age, he cannot work. Cs. 
kong-esha, -eshwa, make old, add to 
the age of, wear out, e. g. with nagging 
or abuse. (Cf. -kongwe, kongoja.} 

Kongo, n. plur. of ukonge, fibres 
of a kind of Sansevieria (mkonge), 
used for making string and cord. 
See Mkonge. 

Kongo, n. also Koongo. See 

Kongoa, v. draw out, cut out, 




extract, disengage. A". mismari, draw 
a nail. K.jino, extract a tooth (com- 
monly ngoajino). Walikongoapembe, 
they cut out the (elephant's) tusks. 
A'. unyele, draw out a hair. Ap. 
kongo-Ua, -kwa, take to pieces, break 
U P e - g- a frame of any sort, a box, 
a boat. Mashua yote ilikongolewa 
vipandc, the whole boat was taken 
to pieces. KongoUa sanduku, open 
a case, by extracting the nails, &c. 

\->a, kongomana.) 

Kongoja, v. walk feebly (with 
difficulty), totter, stagger. Ap. 
kongoj-ca, -nva, e. g. fimbo la kuko- 
ngojea, a stick to steady one's steps 
with. Jikongojea, prop oneself, 
steady oneself, as with a stick. 
ingo langu mkongojo nipatc 
kvjikongojea, give me my staff that 
I walk with, so that I may steady 
myself. (Cf. konga, -kongwc, mko~ 

Kongomana, v. meet together, be 
united, be joined, be assembled, be 
heaped (gathered, piled) together. 
Cs. kongorrianisha, gather, assemble, 
unite, weld, heap together, agglo- 
merate. (Cf. mkongomano, kongoa, 
and the more common kuta> kutana, 
kutanisha, kusanya, &c.) 

Kongoraca, v. fasten up, nail up, 

put together. Akazikongomca nguo 

tangu katika tnveta, and he nailed up 

clothes in a trunk. (Cf. 


Kongomeo, n. (ma-), * fastening, 
also ? larynx, Adam's apple. (Cf. 

Kongwa.n. (ma-), a forked stick, 

a slave stick, i. e. a stick or pole with 

.ich the slave is se- 

cured by the neck with an iron cross- 

pin. (Cf. mpanda, panda . 

Kongwe, n. a lead in 
Tea k. t start a song, give a lead, lead 
off. (Cf. bwaga uimbo.) 

-kongwe, a. old, worn-out, aged, 
past w< ' mkongwe, a feeble 

old man. (Cf. konga, kikongu* t 

Konka, v. take a sip of, get a drop 
of, used of water enough to allay, 
not quench, thirst, i.e. konka maji. 
(Cf. onja.) 

Kono, n. (ma-}, something that 
projects, sticks out, e.g. a handle, 
a shoot or sprig of a plant. (Ci. 
mkono, kikono, ukono.) 

Konoa, v. See Konyoa. 

Konokono, n. (rna-\ a snail. 
(Cf. koa.) 

Konyeza, v. make a covert sign 
to, i. e. in order to attract notice, to 
warn, to give a hint to, e. g. k. kwa 
macho, raise the eyebrows, wink ; k. 
kwa mkono, make a significant gesture. 
Ap. konye-zta, -zewa. (Cf. follg. 
and ashiria, onya. Kr. has konya, 
deceive, hoodwink, not usual in 


Konyezo, n. (mo-), a sign, hint, 
suggestion, warning. (Cf. prec.) 

Konyoa, v. break off, pluck off, 
tear off, esp. with some instrument, e.g. 
of removing the grains frotn a cob of 
maize, by pounding, i. e. k. mahindi. 
K. (tube, peel a mango with a knife. 
Also k. tnaungo, dismember, quarter. 
Ps. konyolewa. Nt. konyoka. Ap. 
konyo-Ua, -lewa. 

Konzi, n. ( , and w<z-), (i) closed 
fist. Piga k. t rap with the knuckles, 
with the back of the hand, (a) A 
fistful, as much as can be taken up 
in the closed fingers, i. e. riJole rili- 
ryofumlnva, e. g. teka konzi mbili za 
rnchele, take two fistfuls of rice. 
(Cf. kondt, ngumi, also kofi, i 

Konzo, n. (ma-), large stick, stake, 

or pole, with the end pointed and 

hardened with fire, used as weapon, 

.falls set for 

large animals. (Cf. nikonzo, 

Koo, n. (wa-), (i) throat ; (a) ail- 
ment of the throat ; (l>) mucus from 
throat, expectoration (cf. kohoa, as if 
MM and M 

ing animal or bird, e.g. k. la kuku % 
a breci A", la >r. 

breeding goat (an idiom 
of tuku wa koo, cf. pann 



&c.). (Dist. mkoo, ukoo, and cf. 
umt'o, roho.} 

Kopa, n. (ma-\ a slice of dried 
cassava (mhogo\ (Cf. mhogo, 


Kopa, v. (i) get food or money on 
credit, borrow for trading purposes, 
i.e. on promise to account for accord- 
ing to agreement, negotiate a loan on 
cred it. K. mail (nguojethd) , borrow 
goods (cloth, cash). (2) Swindle, 
cheat, defraud, get on false pretences. 
Ps. kopwa, i.e. (i) (of things) be 
borrowed ; (2) (of persons) be swin- 
dled. Ap. kop-ea t -ewa, borrow 
from (for, with, &c.), cheat by (for, 
with, &c.), e.g. nimckukopea nguo 
kwa Baniani kwa reale mbili, kwa 
muda wa miezi miwili, I have bor- 
rowed cloth for you from the Banian 
for two dollars on a credit of two 
months. Cs. op-esha,-eshwa,-eshea, 
-eshewa, lend, supply goods on credit 
(to), advance as a loan, e.g. mlipe 
mtu kadiri akukopes heavy o, pay him 
as much as he advances to you. 
(Cf. Ar. azz'mu, karithi.} 

Kope, n. ( , and ma-}, (i) burnt 
end of the wick of candle or lamp, 
snuff, i. e. kope la taa, kope la utambi ; 
(2) eye-lid, e.g. nje ya kope chozi 
likichuuza, outside the eye-lid a tear 
was trickling. Kwa kope la juu 
na chint, in the twinkling of an eye. 
(Cf. ukope, kikope, kopesa.} 

Kopesa, v. kopesa > macho, wink. 
(Cf. kope,pepesa macho,finya macho.} 
Kopo, n. ( , and ma-), used very 
generally of any vessel of metal (esp. 
of tin, zinc, sheet iron), can, mug 
pot, jug, cup, &c., -the size being 
relatively indicated by the declension, 
e.g. kikopOj a small jug, makopo, 
very large jugs. Used also of other 
metal articles, e.g. kopo la maji, 
a gutter, rain spout. (Cf. tasa, 
sztfuria, and for other vessels gener- 
ally chombo, chungtt.} 

*Kora, v. please, satisfy, be on 
good (comfortable, confidential) 
terms with, be loved by. Chakula 


hiki kimenikora, this food has satis- 
fied me. Ps. korwa, c. g. be loved 
by, have one's wishes met by, be 
pleased with. (Ar. Cf. syn. 

\pendeza, rithisha.) 

*Korani, n. the Coran, the Ma- 
hommedan Bible. (Cf. sura, 
chapter ; juzu, aya, short section ; 
soma and hitima for reading.) 

*Korija, n. and Korja, a score, 
a lot of twenty, twenty together. 
Used m selling poles, strings of 
beads, lengths of cloth, &c. 

*Korodani, n. sheave of a tmllev 
(?Ar. Cf. roda.) 

-korofi, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (i) evil-minded, 
tyrannical, destructive, malignant, 
brutal, savage; (2) inauspicious, of 
ill omen, unlucky. Mkorofi sana 
huyu, he is a monster of cruelty. 
Ndege korofi, an evil (inauspicious 
unlucky) omen. (Cf. follg. and 

Koroflka, v. be treated brutally, 
be ruined. Also Cs. korof-isha, -ish- 
wa, treat with cruelty, bring to ruin. 
(Cf.prec.,and syn. haribika, angamia. ) 
Koroga, v. stir, stir up, mix by 
stirring (of liquids). K. maji, make 
water muddy by stirring. P s . 
korogwa. Ap. korog-ea, -ewa, stir 
with (in, for, &c.). Cs. korog- 
esha, -eshwa. (Cf. buruga, vurttga, 
pigtsha, mkorogo.} 

Koroma, v. snore, snort, groan, 
and of similar sounds. Amesikia 
wamekoroma, he .has heard them 
snoring. _ n . (ma-\ (i) a snore, 
snoring, snort (cf. mkoromo, mkoro- 
maji, msono). (2) A cocoanutjust 
becoming ripe, the milk drying, the 
nutty part formed and hardening, 
between the stages of dafu and nazi 
See Nazi. 

Kppongo, n. (ma-), (i) a hole 
dibbled or dug in the ground for 
planting or sowing. Mamlaka ya 
kupiga makorongo na knpiga mrabba, 
the office of making the holes and 
marking out the plots. (2) Name of 




a crane, and so fig. used of a lean, 
lanky person. 

Kororo, n. (wa-), a crested 
guinea-fowl, the common sort being 

Korosho, n. (wa-)> a cashew nut, 
produced by the tree mbibo or m 
kanju. (Cf. bibo, dtingc.} 

Koru, n. also Kuro, a water-buck. 

Kosa, v. (i) make a mistake (as 
to), do wrong (to), offend (against), 
go astray (in), blunder, err; (2) fail 
to get (hit, find, attain), miss (a 
mark), fall short, be' deficient, be 
defective ; (3) lack, be without, lose, 
suffer loss of. E.g. nimekosa, I 
have failed, done wrong, sinned. 
Ifamkunikosa neno hatta siku moja, 
yon never treated me badly (failed in 
duty to me) in any particular. Mttt 
akikosa mali hawi mtu rnbcU ya 
man without money is not 
a man in the sight of men. Anieni- 
kosa nduguye, he has lost his brother. 
A', njia, miss the road. A", nyama, 
miss (shooting) an animal. K. sha- 
baha, miss the mark. Kosakosa, 
make a scries of blunders. Ps. 
koswa. Nt koseka, e. g. be done 
wrongly, with Rp. kosekana, e.g. 
cd, be wanting, l>c not to be 
had, fr; isekani wala 

hafi, God never fails (is absent) or 
.Vena hili limekosekn, this 
affair has been bungled. Ap. kos~ 
to, *tfva, offend (against, about, &c.). 
A'osea sheria, commit a legal offence. 
Cs. kos-tsha, -esfiwa, cause to do 
mislead. Kp. kotana, e. g. 
miss each other, qu.iml, treat each 
r<-e. (Cf. -kosefu, 
ukostfu, ukosekano.) n. 
mistake, a miss, error, fault. 

kosa lake, it is not his faul' 

ctisc. Sahihisha 
maAosa, correct mistakes. 

-koaefu, a. (same with I - 


cous, defective, &c. 
<,Cf. prcc.) 

Kosi, n. or Kozi, (i) name of a 
large bird of 'prey, vulture, eagle 
(cf. tai,furukombt) \ (2) like kikosi, 
back of the neck, nape, i. e. nyuma 
ya shingo. Vunja tost, break the 
neck. (Cf. kogo, kishogo.) 

Kota, n. (ma-), (i) a crook, bend, 
crooked condition, e. g. k. la miguu, 
crooked legs (cf. more usual kombo) ; 
(2) sweet stalks of a kind of millet, 
chewed like sugar-cane (cf. bua, and 

Kota, v. kota ntoto, warm oneself 
by the fire. (See Ota, with Infin. 
kuota, kota, and tn-oto.*} 

Kotama, n. a thin curved broad- 
bladed knife, used in getting palm 
wine (tcmbo), esp. for cutting a thin 
slice from the growing shoot to en- 
able the sap to flow more freely. 
(Cf gcma, and for knives, kikotama, 
kisuijambia, kijembe.) 

Koto, a. form of -ote, all, agreeing 
with D 8. As adv. kole, kotckott, 
under all circumstances, everywhere, 
on all sides. 

Kovu, n. ( , and tna-\ scar, 
mark of a wound or injury. 

Ku (also kw before a vowel, and 
sometimes k before o and u, e. g. 
kwenda, koga, kote\ beside its inde- 
pendent use, is a pf.x. used in verbs, 
adjectives, a few nouns, and in the prep. 
kwa (ku-a). (See follg/) Used indc- 
ly, ku means ' is, are,' either 
with purely general rt-ft 
cumstances or cnvironmc : 
there is,' or referring to an Ii 
or noun beginning with kit-, e. g. 
ku kwtma Uo, it is nice to-day; 
kufa ku raAiri, dying is easy. 

Ku-, >s ku- is used as 

md as a sign of mood, 
and of tense, (a) As a Per 
ku (i) may have a purely 
reference, c. g. kunani (kun<i 
What is there? What is the t. 


day). Ktttokc watu wast ma \vatn- 
enck, let the grown-up people start 
to go. Kulikuwa mtu, there was a 




man. Kuna safari leo, there i 
a journey to-day. (2) May refer to 
an Infinitive or noun beginning with 
ku-, e. g. kusafiri kumekivisha 
travelling is over. (3) Is the objec 
tive Pfx. of 2 Pers. Sing., e. g. naku 
penda, I love you. .Kwenda hukc 
kulikufaa, going there did you good 
And, with -eni following, the root ku 
supplies one form of the objective 
Pfx. of 2 Pers. Plur. Nakuambieni, 
I tell you (people). (6) As a sign 
of tense, ku, with the Negat. Pers. 
Pfx. preceding it, is the sign of the 
Past Tense of the Negat. Conjug. 
e. g. sikujua, 1 did not know 
Hazikupendwa, they have not been 
liked. Kuja huku hakukukuku 
mbusha, coming here did not remind 
you. ' (c) Ku is the sign of the 
Infin. Mood in all verbs, e. g. kuwa, 
kwenda, kupenda, &c. (d~) Ku is 
inserted, without specific meaning, 
before the root of all monosyllabic 
verbs (i. e. -fa, -cha, -la, -pa, -nya, 
-j'a, -iva), and of some disyllabic 
verbs occasionally (e. g. isha, uza, 
oga, ota}, after all tense signs, except 
a, ja, ka, ki, ku, nga (which alone 
are capable of bearing an accent), e. g. 
aliktifa, amckufa, ataptija, not alifa, 
amepa,ataja. Obs. ku as Infinitive 
sign is sometimes dropped, esp. when 
a verb preceding and governing the 
Infinitive is a semi-auxiliary, e. g. 
nimekwisha pata (for kupata}, I have 
got. Ataka fanya, he wants to do 
it. Aenda tafuta, he goes to search. 
2. In adjectives, ku- is the pfx. agree- 
ing (a) with D 8 ; (b) like pangu 
and mwangu, with nouns of the 
Locative form, ending in -#*, e.g. 
k-ukwaa kwdke nyumbani kwangu, 
his sojourn in my house. 3. Ku is 
also used, but only in connexion with 
a few roots, to form (a) nouns, e. g. 
kuzimu, the world of spirits, the state 
or place of departed souls, k.umoja, 
one kind, e. g. kazi zetu hazina kit- 
moja, our work is not all of one 
kind ; kushoto, the left-hand, as indi- 

cating position generally ; kuume, the 
right-hand position, also, the male 
sex, kufce, the female sex, e. g.jamaa 
ya kukeni, a relation, in the female 
line, or, on the mother's side. Also 
n. kule, that place (case, condition, 
&c.), huku, and kwetu, our country, 
home, as virtual nouns. (V) Ad- 
verbs, e. g. upanga unakata kuwili, 
.the sword cuts on both sides, is 
double-edged. Kaa kushoto, sit on 
the left. Also kule, there, huku, 
here, kuku huku, just here. It is in 
these advs. and in its use as a person- 
pfx., that a positive demonstrative 
meaning of ku appears, viz. as an 
element denoting general reference 
to circumstances, condition, state, 
but esp. to locality, i.e. indicating 
'circumstances under which ' or ' place 
where ' something occurs. (c) The. 
prep, kwa, i. e. ku-a. See -a. (Cf.' 
ko, also /<z,/0, and mu, mo.} 

Kua, v. grow, grow up, get large, 
increase, become great, used of the 
growth of men and animals (but ota, 
mea, 'usual of plants, and similar 
growths). Mtoto umhavyo ndivyo 
akuavyo, as you bring a child up, 
so he grows up. Ap. ku-lia, 

-liwa, e.g. (i) grow up in (at, by, 
for, &c.). E. g. mtoto huyu amekulia 
hapa, this child has grown up here 
(cf. kikulia). Also apparently (2) 
be (too) great fox, be heavy to, 
burden, be hard for, e. g. amekuliwa 
kufanya kazi hit, he has found the 
job too hard for him. Neno hili 
limemkulia, kubwa, zito, the thing 
is too much for him, it is big 
and weighty (cf. -kulifu}. Cs. 

kuza, kuzwa, make great, enlarge, 
magnify, increase, glorify. E.g. 
kuza Sultani, make the Sultan 
aowerful. Muungu amekuza umri 
wake, God has prolonged your life. 
'Cf. -kuu, kubwa, tukuka, tukuza, 
kikulia, ukulifu.} 

Kuaheri, Kuaherini, good-bye, 
adieu ! for kwa heri. See Heri. 

*Kuba, n. vaulted roof, arched 




structure, cupola, dome. Dim. and 
adv. kikuba. (Ar. Cf. zegc. Kuba 

- >metiraes used for kubwa, great. 
. guba, ghubba.} 

*Kubali, v. accept, approve, ac- 
knowledge, assent (to), agree (to), 
welcome. Ps. kubaliwa. Nt. 
kubalika, e.g. be acceptable, be 
capable of acceptance. Nt. kubal- 
ia, -iwa, accept from (about, at, &c.).< 
Cs. kubali-sha, -thwa, force to accept, 
procure acceptance by, win over, 
persuade, &c. Rp. kubaliana, 
e.g. be on good terms. (Cf. 

kibali, ukubali, and syn. kiri, rithia, 

Kubazi, n. (ma-), a plain kind of 
sandal with no ornamental work. 
(Cf. kiatu, nttatawanda.} 

-kubwa, a. (kubwa with D 4 (P), 
D5 (S),D6), sometimes pronounced 
kuba, (i) great, big, large, spacious, 
extensive, e.g. nyitmba k., a large 
house; shamba k., an extensive estate, 
large garden. A'tsu kikulnva, a large 
knife. (2) Great in power (influence, 
rank, importance, &c.), .important, 

uificant. Bwana mkubwa, bibi 
mkubwa, is a usual term of respectful 
address or reference. Neno limeku~i>a 
kubiva, halikataliki, the matter has 
become urgent, it cannot be met with 
a negative. Asiosikia mkubwa, huona 
maJkubwa, he who disregards a 
superior, generally finds serious con- 
sequences. (3) Elder, oldest. /. 
yangu mkubwa, my elder brother. 
(4) -kubwa is used with a noun or 

i another adjective simply to in 1 
its meaning, as having a qua!: 
a marked way or high degree, like 
the adv. sana, c. p. twivi mkubwa, 
a regular thief. Min huyu ni mlevi 
mkubwa, this fellow is an utter 
drunkard. Ob*, mkubwa (wa-} is 

n used as a noun, superior, 
manager, master, director, &c. (Ct 
i and note on the comparative 
meaning, also kua, tukuza, &c) 

Kucha, v. (i) Infin. Act of -cha, 
(a) fear, (4) dawn. See -cha. (a) 

Verbal n. of cha, the dawn, morning, 
all the night. See -cha. (3) Plur. 
of ukucha, nails, claws, and some- 
times sing, kucha (ina-\ of size. 

Kuchewa, Kuchwa, Ps. forms 
from kucha. See -cha, v. 

*Kufuli, n. ( , and ///a-), a pad-, 
lock. (Ar. Cf. kitasa.) 

*Kufuru, v. (i ) treat with mockery 
or contempt, revile, curse, and esp. 
(a) with reference to religion, become 
an unbeliever, apostatize, blaspheme, 
commit sacrilege, renounce God. 
Ps. kufuriwa. Nt. kufurika. 

Ap. kufur-ia, -iwa. Cs. kufur-isha, 
-tsA-wa,makc (consider, treat as, force 
to be, urge to be, &c.) an unbeliever, 
cause to blaspheme. (Ar. Cf. 
ukufurui uka/iri, -kajiri.} 

Kuguni, n. a hartebeest. 

*Kuhani, n. (ma-}. See Kahini, 
Mkohani. (Ar.) 

Kuke, n. and Kuuko (from -ke t 
like uke and kike, of sex, but more 
generalized), the female kind, feminine 
status or condition, used only in 
a few adjectival phrases. J/> 
kukf, the left hand, as the (usually) 
weaker, also wa kike, but commonly 
wa kushoto. Opp. to mkono iva 
kuume. Kukeni, on the female side, 
by the mother. Ujamaa wa kukcni, 
relatives on the mother's side, in the 
female line. Contr. 
kike, female relatives. (Cf. -Xv, 
and *.) 

Kuko, (i) n. a. and ad- 
there, that, there, e. g. bu 
that is nice there. Kufiik . 
kwafxndcsa, that way of coo. 

<>ry. Kwcnda kuko, to go 
yonder. So kwa kuko, -a kuJko. 
Kuko h;, icre, on that spot. 

:. form from ku, the ko 
l>cing the form of reference, (t 
kuko, and rttt, ,vc.) (a) 

rm, there is there, theie is, it 
is there. 

Kuku, (i)n.afowl.n 
wa (mwana wa, kinda Az) k., a 
, also faranga, kifaranga. 




Koo la k., a breeding fowl. (Ci.posa, 
jogoo, jimbi. Dist. mkttku, keel.) 
1^2) n. a. and adv., this here, this, 
here, e. g. in the phrase kuku huku, 
just here, in this very place. (Cf. 
kuko, and ku-.} 

-kukuu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), I) 6), also -kuukuu, worn 
out, old, past work, useless from age 
or wear. (Cf. -kongwe, -chakafu, 

*Kulabu, n. a hook, hooked in- 
strument, grapple, of various kinds. 
Used for holding work in position, 
e. g. by a tailor, blacksmith, and on 
ship board, for fastening clothes, &c. 
Akapeleka k.yake chini, he let down 
his hook. Ulimi wangu umetiwa k., 
hauwezi kunena, my tongue has had 
a hook put in it, it cannot speak. 
(Ar. Cf. ndoana, kiopoo, upembo, 

Kule, used as (i) n. 'that' used 
indefinitely, kule ni mbali, that is a 
long way off. (2) A form of -le, 
agreeing with Infin. or noun in ku~. 
(3) adv. there, in (from, to) that 
position, &c. Sometimes reduplicated 
kule kule, just there. Also pronounced 
knle-e-e-j the final vowel raised in 
pitch and prolonged in proportion to 
the distance indicated. (Cf. ku, 
yule, and kuku, kuko, &c.) 

Kulia, v. be great (too great) for, 
be hard to, weigh on, depress, over- 
whelm, &c. (Prob. appl. form of 
kua, which see, and follg.) 

-kulifu, a. (i) in Ps. sense, of 
one who is easily tired, discouraged, 
beaten, one who lacks grit (spirit, 
perseverance), i.e. remiss.weak-kneed, 
poor-spirited , &c. (Cf. kulia, kua, 
and syn. -legcvu, -zembe.} But also 
(a) in Act. sense, oppressive, burden- 
some, tiresome, fatiguing. (Cf. 
ukulifu, and ukatifu.} 

Kuliko, relative verb-form, (i) 
that which is, which is, referring to 
D 8, e. g. knfa kuliko bora, the mode 
of dying which is noble ; (a) where 
there is, the ku of general reference 

(see ku), e. g. peponi kuliko raha, in 
Paradise where there is rest ; but (3) 
esp. common in comparisons, ' than ' 
alter an adjective, ' where there is ' be- 
ing equivalent to 'as compared with,' 
e.g. yeye mkubwa kuliko ndtiguye, 
he is bigger (taller, older) than his 
brother ; also (4) in the general sense, 
' as to, as regards,' e.g. kuliko bei ya 
watunnua, as regards the slave traffic. 
(See Ku, Li, Ko.) . 

*Kulla, a. every, always preced- 
ing its noun. (Ar. See Killa.) 

Kululu, n. (ma-}, a large kind of 
cowry, a tiger-cowry. So little valued 
by the native that kupata kululu 
means ' to get nothing worth having.' 

Kulungu, n. a species of antelope. 

Kuma, n. vagina. (Cf. uke.} 

Kumba, v. (i) push, shove, press 
against, jostle. Ps. kumbwa. Nt. 
kumbika. Ap. kutnb-ia, -iwa. Cs. 
kumb-iza, -izwa, -izia, e. g. push 
off on to, transfer to. Adamu 
alimkumbizia mkewe, Adam put it 
off on his wife. Rp. kumbana, 
jostle each other, hustle (cf. piga 
kikumbo, and sukuma}. (2) Clear 
out, take away all, make a clean 
sweep (of), glean. Same derivatives 
as above. E.g. walikumba biashara 
yote ya tumbako, they monopolized 
the whole traffic in tobacco. Mwivi 
amenikttmbia malt, a thief has car- 
ried off everything I had. Kumba 
maji, bale out water. (Cf. komba, 
and follg.) 

Kumba, n. (i) -a kumba ktiniba, 
miscellaneous, promiscuous, of all 
and any sort. Safariya kumbakumba, 
a caravan of any who could be got 
together (a scratch lot) (cf. kumba, 
v.). (2) Kuti la kumba, a whole 
cocoanut leaf with the fronds plaited 
all along each side of the central 
rib. Used for light fences, and 
enclosures, -back yards, &c. See 

Kumbatia, v. clasp in the arms, 
embrace. Ps. kumbatiwa. Nt. ku- 
mbatika. Cs. kumbat-isha t -ishwa. 




'ibatiana, embrace each other. 
(Cf. shika, kamata, pambaja.} 

Kumbe, adv. expressing astonish- 
ment, pleasant or unpleasant sur- 
prise, Lo and behold ! What do you 
think ? For a wonder, all of a sudden. 

Kurabi, n. (tna-} t also Kumvi, 
Kumfi, the fibrous husk or sheath 
of various plants, esp. of the cocoa- 
nut, areca-nut, &c. Kumbi is used 
collectively (i. e. of the material gene- 
rally), but the plur. is commonly 
used. Single fibres are called uzi 
(pi. nyuzi . The husks are com- 
monly buried in pits on the shore or 
in a wet place, till the fibres are 
loosened. They are then taken up, 
beaten out, and cleaned, and called 
makumbi ya usurnba. (Cf. kumvi, 
ukumvi, prob. the same word, like 
jambia, and jamvia^ &c.) 

Kumbi, n. plur. of ukumbi, which 

Kumbikumbi, n. white ants in 
the flying stage, when they first issue 
in swarms from the ground. Used as 
food. (Cf. nuhwa.} 

Kumbo, n. devastation, depopula- 
tion, wholesale destruction. (Cf. 
kurnl>a, mkunibo^) 

-kumbufu, a. having a good 
memory, thoughtful. ((^{.kumbuka, 
and -fahan: 

Kumbuki, v. call to mind, re- 
member, think of, bear in mind, 
brood over, .til attention 

directed usually to the past, or a 
subject connected with it. 
mbuha ulimwcngu, I am cor. 
the situation. \\.kumbukwa. Ap. 
t'a, -izua, direct the memory 
(or, attention) to. Sikurtihu 
not recall it. Amenikumbu . 
cktutgu, he recollected my book for 
i me of it. Cs. kumbu- 
sha, -sh , put in mind (of). 

(Cf./ahamu, of memory, and tambua, 
\lso, kumbukumbu, 

Kumbukumbu, n. (wa-), men- 
tion, remembrance, men. 

gift, souvenir, anything that recalls 
another thing to mind. (Cf. prec.) 

Kumbusho, Kumbuu. See 
Ukumbusho, TJkumbuu. 

Kumbwaya, n. a kind of drum 
standing on feet. (Cf. ngoma.) 

Kumbwe, n. (ma-\ a snack, a 
mouthful of food, colloquial, kti- 
rnbwe na kinyweo, something to eat 
and drink. (A pass, form in e-, 
from kumba^) 

Kami, n. and a. (pi. ma-}, ten, 
the highest simple numeral of B. 
origin used in Swahili. Used of the 
three divisions of a month, a decade. 
kumi la kwanza (la katt, la kivisha), 
the first (middle, last) decade, -a 
kurni, tenth. (Cf. Ar. ashara.} 

Kumoja, n. one kind. A'azi zetu 
hazina k., our occupations are not 
all of one kind. (Cf. umoja, and 

for ku, kuzimu, kmhoto, kuke, &c.) 
a. form of -tnoja, agrecii 
D 8. adv. on one side, from 
one point of view, i. e. fcva upande 
mmoja, -kali kumoja^ with one 
sharp edge. 

Kumunta, Kumunto, n. in Z. 
more usually kung'uta, kung'uto, 
which see. 

Kumvi, n. (rna- t also plur. of 
ukumvi), husk or sheath of various 
vegetable products, of maize, rice, 
&C., i.e. k. la muhindi (enclosing the 
car, suke), k. sa mpunga. 
: h:t>a t kunttnu.} 

Kuna, v. scratch. Used of allay- 
ing irritation rather than of 
tion or wounding (cf. papura, piga 
maku(ha\ e. g. K. kichwa, scratch 
the head ; k. ngcui, scratch tlu- s,kin. 
Also of coarse grating, c. g. 
.;--/, ^rate a cocoanut. 

at from the shell with 
the instrument calle<l r; 
kunwa (dist. Xx/wyr/'a, to 

Ap. tun-ia, -iwo, 
e. g. mbuzi ya kunia nasi, a cocoa- 
nut grater. Cs. kun-isha, -ishwa. 
<;<ina. (Cf. mi-tin, . 




Kuna, verb-form, (i) there is, 
there are (ku of general reference, 
cf. ku, mna, pana) ; (2) it has, they 
have, ku agreeing with D 8. The 
negative form hakuna is one of the 
commonest expressions for a simple 
negative, ' there is not, nothing, no.' 
Kuna nini (or kunani} ? What is 
there ? What is the matter ? Kunako, 
there is (there), that is so, in refer- 
ence to the query kuna ? Kufa kuna 
maumivu, death involves suffering. 
Kuna supplies one way of expressing 
abstract existence. Kuna muungu ? 
Is there a God? Does God exist? 
Kunaye, He exists. Also kunaye 
may mean ' it depends on him (it is 
with him).' (See Ku and Na.) 

Kunazi, n. (ma-), the small edible 
fruit of the tree mkunazi, which see. 

Kunda, n. (ma-), a green vege- 
table like spinach (Str.). 

Kundaa, v. be short, stunted, 
small of stature. (Cf. via.") 

Kunde,n.plur. oiukunde, a kind of 
bean, produced by the plant mkunde, 
which see. 

Kundi, n. (ma-\ a number of 
things (usually living things) together, 
crowd, troop, group, flock, herd, 
swarm, &c. Makundi makundi, in 
troops, in large bodies, in masses. 

Kunga, v. used of various pro- 
cesses of sewing, hem, make a border, 
trim, embroider, e. g. kunga mshono, 
make a stitched seam on band; 
k. nguo, put a border, trimming, or 
stitched edge to a cloth. K. utepe, with 
similar meaning. Ps. kungwa. Ap. 
kung-ia, -iwa. (Cf. shona,pinda.) 

Kunga, n. sometimes Kinga, 
(i). a secret, wile, subterfuge, trick, 
device, e. g. k. za moyo, secret 
thoughts, private reflections. Mtumi 
iva k. haambiwi maana, he who con- 
veys a secret message is not told 
its meaning. Kazi haifai ilia kwa 
k., work is no good, unless you have 
been taught the art. (2) Esp. 
of confidential and private instruction 
on matters unfit for open mention, 

e. g. sexual subjects, called some- 
times malango, rudiments, or kunga 
za mwituni (za nvumbani, za ja- 
ndoni, and ngungwi, ? nkungwi). 
Hence (3) shameful things, what 
causes shame. (Cf. mkunga, 
some, siri, msiri, and perh. bun/a.) 

Kungu, n. (i) also Ukungu, mist, 
fog, haze (cf. ukungu, uwande, 
wingu). (2) An edible stone-fruit 
from the tree mkungu. The stone 
contains a kernel, of which children 
are fond (cf. mkungu}. Kungu 
manga, nutmeg, lit. the Arabian kungu 
(cf. manga), fruit of the mkungu 
manga. (3) Confidential adviser, 
esp. an older friend who gives advice 
to unmarried women, and makes all 
arrangements for them at the time of 
marriage, receiving various fees and 
presents from the bridegroom for so 
doing. (Cf. kunga, mkungwa, 

Kunguni, n. a bug. 

Kunguru, n. (ma-'}, (i) a carrion 
crow, black, with white on the neck 
and shoulders ; (2) a kind of calico, 
made at Cutch. 

Kung'uta, v. (i) shake out, 
shake off sift, winnow ; (2) test 
severely, scrutinize, examine. E. g. 
k. mavumbi (mvua), shake off dust 
(rain). Jikung^uta, shake oneself. 
K. mabawa, shake out the feathers, 
of a bird basking in the sun. Waka- 
lipeleka jamvi uani wakaikunguta, 
they took the carpet to the yard, 
and gave it a shaking. Ps. kung"- 
ut-wa. Nt. kungutika, Ap. 

kungut-ia, -iwa. Cs. kung'ut- 
isha, -ishwa. (Cf. kung'uto, 

chunga, pepeta. The word kumunta 
is also heard, but not usual in Z., and 
kumutika, fig. be shaken, be alert, 
expectant, agitated, e.g. roho yake 

Kung'uto, n. (ma-), a basket 
used as a sieve, strainer, or for tossing 
and winnowing grain. (Cf. kikapo, 
and kiteo, tunga.} 

Kungwe, n. (ma-). See Mkunga. 




Kuni, n. plur. of ukitni, firewood. 
(See TTkuni, and cf. kumt.) 

Kunja, v. fold, wrap up, crease, 
wrinkle, tumble, make a mess of. 
E. g. k. :;', wind up thread. Kunja- 
kunja uzi, tangle the thread. A', uso, 
knit the brow, frown. K. mabawa, 
fold the wings. Jikunja, shrink, 
cower, flinch (cf. kunyata . AY- 
su cha kukunja, a clasp-knife. 
Ps. kunjwa. Nt. kunjika, e.g. 
be folded, be easy to fold, admit 
of folding. Ap. kunj-ia, -iwa, 
e.g. wrap up for (with, in, &c.). 
Cs. kunj-isha, -ishwa. Rp. ku- 

njana, e. g. nguo imekunjana kwa 
ufcfo, the calico (which was laid out 
smooth) has been ruffled up by the 
wind. (Cf. follg. and kunjua, 
finya, and perh. kunga.) 

Kunjamana, v. be folded, wrinkled, 
creased. E. g. k. uso, knit the brows, 
frown, so uso umekunjamana. 
(Cf. prec. and -mana.) 

Kunjo, n. (ma-), fold, wrinkle, 
crease. E. g. makunjo ya tnshipi, 
the folds of a fishiug-linc. (Cf. 
kunja, and /*//<#.) 

Kunjua, v. Rv. of kunja, unfold, 
unwrap, smooth out, spread open. 
A', nguo, lay out clothes. K. mt'guu, 
stretch the legs out. K. uso, smooth 
the brow, smile, look pleased. Ji- 
kunjua, IK- cordial, be n; 

Nt. kunjuka. 
(Cf. -kunja, kunjufu.') 

-kunjufu, a. (same with I) 4 (P), 
>), open, serene, un- 
clouded, genial, amiable, merry. 
. m kunjufu, a genial man. So 
uso (face), moyo (temper). 
(Cf. kunjua, kunja, ukunjufu.) 

Kuno, n. (ma-), what is ]>roduced 
:ng, scrap. Ma- 
' ya tiazi, grated cocoannt. 
:ma v., mkuno.} 

Kunrathi, v. a common phrase of 
polite apology, pardon me, excuse 


Often strengthened by sand. Ku- 
nrathi sana, with your kind 

sion, I humbly beg pardon. ( Arab. 
Imperat. kun rathi, be content, but 
in conimon use. Cf. equivalent uwe 
(or mive) rathi, and rathi, rithi, 

Kununu, n. (n;a-\ kununu la 
mawelt, an empty husk or spike of a 
kind of millet. (Cf. fcumvi, kapi t 

Kunyata, v. draw together, cause 
to shrink, compress. Seldom occurs 
except with Kf. j'i, in the sense, 
cower, shrink together, esp. as an 
attitude of fear, pain, or supplication. 
Jikunyata katna maskini, humble 
oneself like a beggar. Jik. kwa 
baridi, be doubled up with cold. 
Jik. uso, have an offended, disgusted 
look. (Cf. kunja uso.) 

Kunyua, v. (i) scratch at, give 
a scratch to, e. g. to hurt, or to 
attract notice; (a) call by a secret 
sign, give a private hint to, &c. 
K. kidolc, hurt the finger by a 
scratch, implying more than the 
simple kuna, scratch. Ps. kunyu- 
liwa. Nt. kunyuka, c. g. kunyuka 
na tnti, get scratched by a tree m 
passing by it. (Cf. kttna,papura, 
piga mtai.} 

Kuo, n. (ma-), (i) furrow, trench, 
hollow, hole, i.e. made by hollow- 
ing out. Makuo ya kanku, holes 
scratched by fowls. Usually (2) 
a bed or row of seedlings, &c. (3) 
A plot of ground marked CM 
furrow or line drawn on the :; 
and given to a man to cultivate (cf. 
nfwe, same marked 1 
Hence nyosha k., mark out a ; 

; oMfftM (pungu&a) k., enlarge 
(reduce) a plantation. (Cf. mkuo t 
and syn. shimo, handaki, m/uo.) 

Kupaa, n. (ma-}, also Kupa, (i) 

the two side-pieces : 
a policy (kapi, gofia) < 
sheave (roda) (cf. korodani 
? cheek-bone, cheek-piece. 

Kupo, n. a tick, on cattle. 
&C. A'r/w.J /-w/r .'<J ^- 

ombc, like a tick and a cow's 




.of things adhering closely. (Cf. 
kama pete na kidole, like a ring and 
a finger.) 

Kupua, v. shake out, shake off, 
throw off, let fall, drop on the ground 
(by a push, jerk, &c.). E.g. k. nguo, 
throw off clothes. K. imbu, drive 
off mosquitoes. Ps. kupuliwa. 
Nt. kupuka, e.g. fig. be cast off, be 
a fugitive (outcast). Hence kupukia. 
Ap. kupu-lia,-liwa. Cs. kupu-sha, 
-shwa. (Cf. kung'uta, nikupuo.) 

*Kura, n. a lot, i.e. as in casting 
lots. Piga kura, cast lots. (Ar.) 

Euro, n. also Koru, Kuru, a 

*Kurubia, Kurubisha, v. See 
Karibia, Karibisria. 

Kusa, v. Cs. of kuta, i. e. kutisha 
or kusha, kusa, cause to meet, bring 
on. Nimemkusa mashaka, I have 
got him into trouble. See Kuta. 

Kusanya, v. collect, gather to- 
gether, bring together, assemble, 
amass, make a pile or heap of. E.g. 
k. watu, collect people. K. jeshi, 
form an army. K. mail, amass 
wealth. Ps. kusanywa. Nt. ku- 
sanyika. Ap. kusany-ia, -iwa. 
Rp. kusanyana, e.g. meet together 
by common consent. (Cf. kusany- 
iko, mkusanyo, kuta, kttsa.} 

Kushoto, n. and adv., the left side, 
the left-hand position. Mkono wa 
k., the left-hand, as opp. to mkono 
wa kuume (wa kulia]. Kaa kusho- 
toni, sit on the left side. (Cf. ku, 
and kumoja, kuzimu, kuke, &c.) 

Kusi, n. southerly wind, south 
monsoon, prevailing at Z. from May 
to Oct. Hence also of the season, 
and of the southerly direction. Ku- 
sini, the south quarter, to (from, in 
the south, -a kusini, of the south 
southerly. Contr. kaskazi, the north 
wind, &c. (Cf. Ar. suheli, coast 
used of Africa, i. e. south of Arabia 
and hence ' south.') 

*Kusudi, v. also Kasidi, intend 
purpose, propose, design, aim at 
usually in the Ap. form kusudia 

vith same sense. Kusudia safari, 
resolve on an expedition. A". 
kwenda, intend to go. Ps. kusud- 
'wa. Nt. kusudika. Cs. kusitd- 
'sha, -ishwa. n. (ma-} } inten- 
ion, purpose, aim, object, end. A'-wa 
k., on purpose, intentionally, de- 
iberately, wilfully (cf. kwa moyo, 
kwa nafsi\ Also as adv., kusudi, 
and makusudi, like kwa kusudi. And 
as conj. with Infin. or Subjunct., ' on 
purpose to, in order that (to), with 
lie object of,' e. g. akaondoka kusudi 
aende (or, kwenda} Ulaya, he started 
with the intention of going to Europe. 
(Cf. syn. shauri, maana, nia, mradi.} 

Kuta, v. come upon, meet (with), 
chance on, hit on, find. Nalimkuta 
hawezi (hayuko), I found him ill 
(absent). Kuta mashaka, meet with 
^experience) difficulties. Ps. kittiva. 
Nt. kutika. Ap. kut-ia, -iwa, e. g. 
mauti imemkutia, death came upon 
him, or amekutiwa na mauti. Cs. 
kutisha, or kusha, kusa, cause to 
come on, bring upon, involve in. 
Hence kut-ishia, -ishiwa,kushia, &c. 
Rp, kutana, meet together, assemble, 
gather, collect, hold a meeting, be 
crowded (cf. kusanya, songa, bar- 
izi). Jeshi limekutana, the crowd 
is dense. Hence kutanika, be as- 
sembled, meet. Also kutan-ia, -iwa, 
meet for (at, by, in, &c.). Cs. 
kutanisha, cause to meet, hold a 
meeting (of). (Cf. mkutano.} 

Kuta, n. plur. of ukuta (which 
see), walls. 

Kuti, n. (ma-}, (i) a cocoanut 
leaf, whether green or dry; (a) a 
cocoanut leaf prepared for use in 
different ways, e.g. (a) kuti la kumba 
(and fumba], the whole leaf, with 
the Ironds on either side simply 
plaited together, used in forming 
light fences, enclosures, shelters of 
any kind ; () kuti la pande, with 
the fronds all plaited together on one 
side, similarly used ; (c) kuti la viungo, 
lengths of the leaf -rib (upongoo) 
(or of stick) about three feet long 




with all the fronds attached to it and 
brought to one side. These form 
the usual roofing material of native 
houses in Z., and are a regular article 
of sale. (Cf. mnazi, and kikuti, 

Kutu, n. rust, or anything re- 
sembling it, a discoloration, &c. 
K. ya shaba, verdigris. K. ya mwezi, 
the shaded or darker parts of the moon. 

Kutua, v. give a jerk to, pull 
suddenly, cause a shock to. K. 
kamba,}tiV a rope. Nt. kutuka, e.g. 
fig. be shaken, startled, frightened, 
shocked, &c. Cs. kutu-sha, -shwa, 
startle, frighten, &c. (Cf. kupua, 
also situka, tuka, &c.) 

-kuu, a. (same with D 4 (P), D 5 
(S), D 6}, great. Seldom simply 
' big,' i.e. of merely physical size or 
material greatness, but implying some 
moral or sentimental element of pre- 
eminence, authority, and excellence. 
-kubwa, on the other hand, means 
' big, large, extensive,' though also 
used to include and denote the natural 
effects of great size, i.e. authority, 
weight, influence, impressiveness. 
Thus (i) 'great, powerful, having 
natural or representative authority,' 
&c. /-' a com- 

mon contrast, ' old and young, great 
and small ' (also wakubwa kwa wa- 
dogo}. Cf. mkuu as n., chief, master, 
king (as also mkulnva, n., and in 
: stories the rabbit (sungura) 
is called the mkuu wa nyama, or 
nyama mkuu, king of I>eas, 
theelc; i be described as the 

nyama mknbwa, largest of animals. 
Bustani kuu, a great (grand, fine) 
i. Obs. kiazi kikuu, yam, 
often of great si?c in Kast Africa, (a) 
eminent, high- claw, ex- 
.' (3) Ov< 

;, excessive, 

unnatural, outrageous, beyond the 
proper bounds of decorum (self-con- 
trol, human nature).' K.g. mancno 
oast ful words. 
Taka ma kuu, aim too high, be over- 

ambitious. Piga makuu, give one- 
self airs, be arrogant, make a great 
show. Hana makuu, he is an un- 
assuming, civil spoken, humble per- 
son, sometimes in contrast to -kuu 
in other senses, e.g. makuu mcngila- 
kini hana makuu, he has many great 
qualities, but he never makes too 
much of them. (Cf. -kubwa, kua, 
kuza, &c.) 

Kuume, n. (from -me, like ume, 
and kiume, of sex, but more genera- 
lized), (i) the male kind (status, con- 
dition) ; (a) right-hand side, right- 
hand. Used (like kuke) only in a 
few adjectival and adverbial phrases. 
Mtu hnyu ni ndugu yangu wa kuu- 
:mi, this man is a relation of 
mine on the father's side. Mkono wa 
kunwe, the right-hand (also mkono wa 
kulia, the hand used in eating, opp. 
to mkono wa kusholo'}. A'uii knit- 
meni, sit on the right-hand side. 
Wa kuume haukati wa kushoto, the 
right hand does not cut the left. 
^Cf. ku, and kushoto, kumoja, ku- 
zirnu, and follg.) 

Kuvuli, n. mkono wa kuvuli, the 
right-hand, for mkono wa kuume, 
which is usual in Z. (Cf. prec.) 

Kuwa, v. Infin. of wa, be (which 
l>e, being, existence. Can be 
nsc(l of pure existence cf. J 
kuwa, as a title of (io-1, the 1 
One, the Self-existing.) 

Kuwili. n. and adv., the double 
kind, in a double way, in l\v 
A'isn kikali kuwili, a knife with two 
edges. Ana: .as two 

names. (Cf. kit, and kumoja, 

kuume, &C.) 

Kuyu, n. See Mkuyu 

Kuea, v. Intin. (i) Cs. < 
make great (a) C/sa, sell, for kuuta. 
(3) Uza for ultza, ask. 

-kuaa, a. (same with D 4 fP), 
D 5 (S), and D 6), well 

1, of things capable of 

v fine cat. (< 




Kuzi, n. (rna)-, also Kusi, an 
earthenware pitcher or jug, larger 
than gudulia, with handle or handles 
and narrow neck. (Cf. mtungi, 

Kuzimu, n. state (place, condition) 
of departed spirits of the dead, the 
grave, the lower world. Enda kuzi- 
muni, die and be buried. Chungulia 
k., look into the other world, i.e. be 
at death's door, have one foot in the 
grave. K. kuna mambo, the world 
of spirits has its wonders. (Cf. 
mzimu, and perh. wazimu, also 
zima, zimwe, and for the form ku, 
and syn. ahera, peponi, huko.} 

Kw-, as a pfx. before vowels, is 
for ku-, which see. 

Kwa, prep, (ku combined with 
the variable prepositional element -a, 
which see). This is the most com- 
mon and comprehensive of the few 
Swahili prepositions, so compre- 
hensive as to cover most of the 
meanings of the % other common 
prepositions, i.e. -a, na, and katika. 
Subject to the few limitations charac- 
teristic of each of these (see -a, Na, 
Katika), kwa can be represented ac- 
cording to the context by ' to, in, at, 
from, by, for, with, on account of, in 
respect of, as to,' and indeed almost 
any preposition denoting relations of 
time, place, motion, object, instru- 
ment, and condition generally. Kwa 
is seldom used, however, of the Agent 
proper, or of comparative nearness 
or distance (see Na), nor of relations 
which may be called adjectival 
(see -a). E. g. toka kwa, come 
from (or, out of) ; kaa kwa, remain 
at ; enda kwa, go to. Ua kwa mkuki, 
kill with a spear. Kwa nini? For 
what? Why? Kwa sababu ya, be- 
cause of, by reason of. Kwa habari 
hizi, at (about, on account of) these 
news. Wait kwa mchuzi, rice with 
gravy. Mia kwa tano, five per cent. 
Wangwana kwa watumwa, gentry, 
slaves and all. Andika kwa ki- 
swahili, write in Swahili. Kwa 

haraka, in haste, hastily. Kwa kivi, 
thus. Kwa with a noun, commonly 
a name, following, often denotes a 
single object or idea, e.g. kwa 
Mponda, Mponda's town. Kwa 
mfalme, the chief's house. Hence 
katika is sometimes used with it, e.g. 
katika kwa nduguye, from (at, to) 
his brother's house. Kwa is rarely 
used with Personal Pronouns, the 
corresponding form of the adjective, 
i.e. kwangu, kwako, kwake, &c. , being 
substituted, unless some special 
meaning is intended, e.g. asiycona 
kwa yeye, akionywa haoni, he who 
does not see of himself does not see 
if he is shown. (Cf. -a, katika, na.} 

Kwa, form of the prep, -a (which 
see) agreeing (i) with D 8, (2) with 
locatives ending in -ni, e.g. nyu- 
mbani kwa nduguye, in (to, from) his 
brother's house. 

Kwaa, v. (i) strike the foot 
(against an object), stumble, knock, 
be stopped by a sudden obstacle ; 
(a) fig. falter, hesitate, be brought to 
a stop or check, get into a difficulty. 
K. najiwe, orjiweni, knock the foot 
against a stone. Heri kukwaa kidole 
kuliko kukwaa ulimi, better to 
stumble with the toe than the tongue. 
Ap. kwalia, kwaia, rarely heard. 
Mkwaia nyoka, aonapo ukuti hushi- 
tuka, a man who has stumbled over 
a snake, starts if he sees a switch 
(cocoanut frond). Cs. kwa-za, 

-zu>a, cause to stumble, make diffi- 
culties for, &c. Also intens. dau 
limekwaza mawcni, the boat struck 
hard on the rocks. (But ? cf. kwa- 
za for kwaruza.} Kp. kwazana, 
knock against each other. (Cf. 
kwaza, kwama } kwao or kwayo, 

Kwaje, adv. interrog. (kwa je ?) 
How? In what way? 'By what 
means? What do you mean? 
Kwaje hufanya hivi? How is it you 
do this? i.e. why, or in what way. 

Kwake, (i) n. (ku-ake) his (hers, 
its) circumstances (position, house, 




&c.). (a) adv. idiomatic equivalent 
of kwa ycyt, to (from, at, with) him 
(her, it), to his house, &c. (3) Form 
of a. -ake, agreeing with D 8 and 
locatives in -ni. (Cf. ku t -ake } 
and kwangu^) 

Kwako, n. adv. and adj., same as 
kwake, but relating to 2 Pers. Sing., 
i. c. U'l-'cc, you. (Cf. -ako.) 

Kwale, n. partridge, including 
several species. 

Kwama, v. St. of kwaa, (i) become 
jammed, stick fast, come to a dead- 
lock, be gripped, be squeezed ; (a) fig. 
be in a fix, get into a difficulty. Ap. 
kwam-ia, -iwa. Cs. kwam-iska, 
-ishu'a, cause to jam, make stick fast, 
put in a difficulty, &c. J//i huu 
umenikwamisha mkono, this tree has 
pot my hand fixed in it (Cf. kwaa, 
kwaza, kwamua, and syn. shikika, 
i, naswa, kamatwa.) 

Kwaraba, conj.(>fr-aw&z, saying), 
of very general meaning, and trans- 
latable according to the context de- 
fining the particular sense of ' saying,' 
intended, e.g. (i) (stating) that, so 
to say, also ya kwamba; (a) (sup- 
posing) if, as if, suppose, even if; 
jecting) though. It is also 
used, though not commonly in '/,., 
after the relative formed with amba, 
c. g. ambaye kwamba, who, ot a 
person, ambalo Awamba, which, &c., 
and with similar indefinite D 
in the phrase Kwarnbaji { H ow is it ? 
A'wambajt kwako? How are you? 
(Cf. kama, ya kuwa, and ice Amba, 

Kwamua, v. Rv. of kwama, kwaa, 
get out of a tight place, set I: 

i. ( C f. kwama, kwaa t and 

< i, tatua.} 

Kwangu, u angu\ my 

circumstances (coi. 


rosperous, my sur- 

ngs are beautiful, &c. (a) 

adv. (! '/!), to (with, from, 

c, at (in, to, from, 3cc.) my 

house. Twende kiuangu, let us go 
to my house. (3) a. agreeing with 
D 8, and locatives in -;;*'. Kufa 
fcwangu, my dying. Nyumbani 
kwangu, to my house. (So kwako, 
kwake, kwctu, kivtnu, kwao?) 

Kwangua, v. scrape, remove a 
coating, crust, or anything adhering 
(solid or liquid), e.g. k. matope, clean 
mud off (boots, &c.). K. chun^u, 
scrape the burnt rice off the bottom 
of a cooking pot. K. kucha, pare 
the nails. A', tna/t, scrape up a 
remnant of water in a pit. Ap. 
kwangu-lia^-liwa. (No v. kwanga 
in use. Cf. komba, paruza.} 

Kwani, (i) adv. interrog. for Kwa 
nini? What for? \Vhy? For what 
reason ? (cf. mbona, kwaje). (a) conj. 
for, because (cf. kwa sababu, kwa 
maatta, kwa ajili, kwa kuwa.) 

Kwanua, v. and Kwanyua, tear 
down, rip (split, strip) off, e.g. of 
branches, leaves, fruit. Ps. kwanu- 
liwa. Nt. kwanyuka, e.g. panda 
ya mti imekwanyuka kwa mtii mzito, 
the fork of the tree was split down 
by a heavy man. Ap. kwanyu-lia, 
liwa. (Cf. nyakua^pasua^ rarua, 

Kwanza, Infin. of an 
but often as adv., at the beginning, 
at firt, firstly, in the first place. 
Also ya ., often followed by ya 
/i/i, secondly, ya tattt, thirdly, -a 
k. t first, best. Ngoja i 
(before actii;. (Cf. 

wanto, chanzo, and syn. Ar. 
a wali.} 

Kwao, (i) n. (ku-ao), th< 
cnmstanccs, their place (c 
home), &c. 

waza kwao, this woman is thinking 
about her native country, is ho; 
(a) adv. to (from, with) them. 
kuswa kwao hana pa kwenda, an out- 
cast from his own people has i. 
to go. (3) a. their, form of HW, 
agreein. 9 and local 

(Cf. kwangU) and X-M, woo.) 

Kwao, n. (ma-j, also Kwayo, 




stumbling-block, obstruction to the 
feet, difficulty. Njia ya kwao, a 
rough road, stony path. (Cf. kiuaa, 
mgogoro, zuio, kwaruza.} 

Kwapa, n. (ma-\ armpit. Futika 
(chukua} kwapani, tuck (carry) under 
the arm. Kisibau cha kivapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. (Cf. ki- 


Kwaruza, v. (i) scrape, grate, 
whether of action, movement (scrape 
along, move with difficulty), or sound 
(be harsh, be grating) ; (2) grate, be 
of a coarse, gritty, rough kind. E. g. 
chombo kimekwaruza mwamba, the 
vessel has grazed a rock. Mchele huu 
unakwaruza watu,'ihis rice is gritty 
to the taste. Njia ya kukwaruza, a 
rough, stony road. (Cf. mkwaruzo, 
paruza, para, kwangua, and perh. 
kwaa,kwaza, and contr. lainikajaini. 
K-waza appears sometimes to be a 
short form of kwaruza, \fiih kwazana 
for kwaruzana, e.g. madau yana- 
kwazana, the boats are colliding, 
scraping against each other.) 

-kwasi, a. rich, wealthy, opulent. 
(Cf. ukwasi, and syn. tajiri, mivenyi 
malt, contr. maskini,f^lkara.} , 

Kwata, n. and Kwato, Ukwato, 
hoof. Piga k., kick, of an animal. 
(Cf. piga teke.} 

Kwayo, n. (ma-}. See Kwao, n. 

Kwaza, v. Cs. of kwaa, and ? for 
kwaruza (which see). 

Kwea, v. go up, get on the (op of, 
mount, climb, ascend, rise, e.g. k. 
ntnazi, or mnazini, climb a cocoanut 
tree; k. mlima (frasi), mount a hill 
(a horse) ; k. chombo, get on board a 
vessel. Ps. kwelewa. Nt. kwe- 
leka. Ap. kwelea, e. g. kamba ya 
kukwelea, a cord to climb with. So 
kwel-eza, -eziva. Cs. kweza, cause 
to go up, set up, raise, put one thing 
on another. Kweza mashua, haul 
a boat high on the beach. Kweza 
bei, raise the price of an article. 
Vitu vimekwezwa, things have been 
- raised in price. Kweza maturuma 
ya duara, set the spokes in a wheel. 

Kweza nguo, lift the dress. Jikweza, 
boast, vaunt oneself. Hence kwezana. 
Rp. kweana. (Cf. 'kwezi, ukwezi, 
and follg., and syn. panda, also tnua, 

Kwelea, n. kwelea ya mawimbi, 
mawimbi ya kwelea, a swell, rolling 
waves, as dist. from breakers. (Cf. 
kwea, and wimbi.'} 

Kweli, n. and adv., truth, truthful- 
ness, reality, genuineness, certainty. 
Kwa kweli si kwa ubishi, seriously, 
not in fun. Kweli iliyo uchungu si 
uivongoulio tamu, an unpleasing truth 
is better than a pleasing falsehood. 
-a kweli, true, truthful, genuine. 
As adv., truly, really, certainly, 
genuinely (cf. hakika, yakini, halisi}. 

Kweme, n. seed of a plant 
mkweme, very rich in oil. 

Kwenda, (i) v. Infin. of enda 
(ku-endd], to go; (2) used as adv., 
perhaps, possibly, I dare say, it may 
be. Kwenda akaja leo, perhaps he 
comes to-day. (Cf. enda, huenda, 
and syn. labuda, yamkini.} 

Kwenu, (i) n. (ku-enu\ your cir- 
cumstances, place, country, home. 
(2) adv. (for kwa ninyi}, to you, to 
your house. (3) a. form of -enu,- 
agreeing with kupenda and nouns in 
-ni. (Cf. kwangit, and ku, -cnu.} 

Kwenyi, form of -enyi, which 
see. Often used as equivalent of 
kwa, e.g. of time, kwenyi Ijnmaa, 
on Friday. (So mwenyi, penyi.} 

Kwetu, n. adv. and a., in same 
uses as kwenu, and kwangu, i.e. our 
circumstances, to us, our. The com- 
mon expression for ' my (our) country, 
my home.' (Cf. kwangu, ku, -ctu.} 

Kweu, n. sometimes for the usual 
kweupe, clearness, dawn , light. Mbele 
kweu na nyuma kweu, brightness be- 
fore and behind. (Cf. follg.) 

Kweupe, n. (ku-eupe), brightness, 
whiteness, clearness, dawn, light, clear 
space, fine weather. Kuna kweupe, 
it is dawn, it is fine. (Cf. -eupe, 
eua, weupe, and kweu, and syn. kitcha, 
dawn, contr. kweusi, giza, ttsiku.) 




-kwezi, a. creeping, climbing, e.g. 
of a plant. (Cf. kwca, ukwezi, 
also tambaa, -tambaazi.) 

Kwikwe, n. hiccup. Kwikwe wa 
kulia, convulsive sobbing (cf. kite- 
futefu, kikeukeu). 

Kwisha, Infin. of isha, used as 
(i) n. ending, the end, extreme; (2) 
adv. finally, at last, in the end. -a 
kwisha, last, extreme, best, worst. 
(Cf. mwisho, isha, kiisha, and simi- 
lar use of kwanza. Syn. for end, 
kikomo, hatima, ahfri.) 

"L represents the same sound as in 

This sound is interchangeable in 
most Swahili words of Bantu origin 
with that of a smooth untrilled r, and 
often in words from Arab sources. 

Hence words not found under L 
may be looked for under A'. 

On the other hand, the indiscrimi- 
nate use of /and r makes many words 
of different meanings indistini;ui*h- 
able, and in some cases is carefully 
avoided, e.g. in the case of the initial 
sound of any word, and especially of 
/-, /a, / as a formative syllable or 
prefix, and the dcm. a. -le. 

The / sound is generally latent in 
the long sound denoted by a vowel 
written twice, and sometimes heard 
(as in kindred dialects). In some 
words it is evanescent, e. g. mlango or 
-, a door ; ufalme or ufaumc, 

After a formative , / (and r) are 
represented by d, as in ndtfu, for 
nlefu (nrtfu). 

as a pfx. of verbs a: 
. Ijs. agrees with D 5 (S), e.g. 
kasha lililo lake li zito, his box is 
. (a) is the characteristic letter 
of the 
tance, yule, 6cc. (Cf. ~U, n: 

La, v. (i) eat, consume, of food 
generally (cf. chatula); (a) use, use 
as ma- 
terial, time, &c.,cf. tumia, chukua); 

(3) wear away, diminish, spend (ma- 
terials, means, money). (The In- 
finitive form kula is used as the root 
form in certain tenses, as is the case 
with other monosyllabic verb-roots. 
See ku, i. (</) and ja.) Mlajini mla 
ho, mla jana kalani? The eater of 
to-day is the man who eats, the eater 
of yesterday, what has he eaten ? 
Rarely la is used as the imperative, 
e.g. vyakula hivi la, eat this food. 
Itakula fetha (saa nzima, siku 
nyingf), it will take money (a whole 
hour, several days). Ps. li'wa, be 
eaten, &c. Nt. lika, be eaten, &c., 
be eatable, be fit for food. Jhvt 
limeli-wa na kamba, the stone has 
been worn away by the rope. Kitu 
hiki hakiliki, this substance is not 
edible. Chuma inalika, iron rusts 
away. Ap. /ia, liana, tr\t. \-c. for 
(with, in, &c.), e.g. mkono wa kulia, 
the eating hand, the right hand. 
Chumba cha knlia, a dining room, 
refectory. Kijiko cha kulia, a spoon 
to eat with. Amemlia 
wake, he has eaten up his friend's 
rice for him. Jilia, eat selfishly (for 
his own purposes, &c.), e. g. mwana 
anifjilia mali ya babayc, the son has 

:ns tathci's ^i.ods (like a fool, 
wilfully). Tumcliana siku zotc, we 

ways had our meals together. 

'i, e.g. eat each other, all join 

in eating. Cs. lisha, lish-^ 

(i) cause to ( rp 'animals, 

c, i.e. liiha kuku 

(ngombe, mbuzf\, keep fowls (cows, 

cows on grass. Lisha ufxinga viungo, 
glut the sword with (dead 
limbs. Wanalisha miwa kinunt, 
they feed the sugar-cane* into the 
mill. wse, feed 

kulungu alisha majani^ the .n 
browses on grass ( 
malisho, thunpi)- 'it-ska, 

make to cat, feed with, e.g. 
liskisha mmit. n<l 
(Cf. mh, mla, mhji, ulaj,, 




*La, int. no, not so, by no means. 
(Ar. Cf. la ilaha ilia Allah, no 
God but the God, and syn. sio, sivyo, 
hakuna, hapana, kasha.) 

-la, a. eating, feeding on, con- 
suming, verbal a. of /a, v. 

*Laana, n. (ma-), a curse, impre- 
cation, oath. (Ar. Cf. uapo, 
kiapo, apizo.) 

*Laani, v. curse, swear (at), damn. 
Ps. laaniwa. Nt. laanika. Cs. 
laani-sha, -shiva, cause to curse, get 
cursed, bring a curse on. (Ar. 
Cf. -laanifu, laana, apa.) 

*-laanifu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (i) given to cursing; 
(2) accursed. (Ar. Cf. ulaanifu, 
laana, maletmi.) 

*Labeka, int. See Lebeka. 

*Labuda, adv. often Idbuda, labda, 
perhaps, it seems so, no doubt, 
probably, possibly. (Ar. la-bttddi, 
there is no escape. Cf. buddi, and 
syn. yamkiniy yawezekana, huenda, 

*Ladu, n. a sweetmeat made up 
in balls, consisting of flour or fine 
grain mixed with treacle, ginger, 
pepper, &c. 

Laika, n. (ma-), also Ulaika, 
a short, downy hair, as on the hands 
and human body generally. Also 
' down ' of birds. (Cf. uele, ttnyoya, 
and dist. Ar. malaika, an angel.) 

*Laini, a. and -lainifu, (i) of 
things, smooth, supple, soft, pliable, 
of delicate texture, thin, delicate, 
fine (cf. -ororo, -embamba). (2) Of 
persons, facile, gentle, good-hu- 
moured (cf. -pole, taratibu). Nguo 
/., smooth, fine cloth. Mchanga /., 
fine sand. (Ar. Also as v., 

smoothen, but usu. as follg.) 

*Lainika, v. (i) be smoothed, 
be made smooth ; (2) fig. be soft- 
ened, be appeased. Ps. lainiwa. 
Cs. laini-sha, -shiva, make smooth, 
&c. (Ar. Cf. taint.) 

*Laiti, int. Oh that, if only, would 
that, esp. of regret for what is past or 
impossible, and then used with verbs 

in the Past or Conditional Tenses. 
But also of hope, with the Present. 
E.g. laiti safari ingalikwisha ! 
would that the journey had come 
to an end ! Laiti (kwambd) tivali- 
fikajana ! would that we had arrived 
yesterday ! (Ar.) 

Lake, a. form of -ake, his, hers, 
her, its, agreeing with D 5 (S). 
Sometimes in the form -le affixed to 
a noun, e. g. nenole, his word. 

*Laki, v. meet, go to meet, esp. 
in a friendly, complimentary, way. 
(Ar. Cf. pokea, kuta.) 

*Lakini, conj. but, yet, however, 
nevertheless. (Ar. Cf. walakini.) 

*Lakki, n. and a., a hundred 
thousand, a lac. (Ar.) 

Lako, a. form of -ako, your, 
yours, agreeing with D 5 (S). Some- 
times in the form -lo affixed to a noun, 
e. g.jtnalo, your name. 

Lala, v. (i) lie, lie down, go to 
bed; (2) sleep, go to sleep; (3) 
settle down, fall, collapse; (4) lie 
flat, be spread out, be horizontal. 
Also lala usingizi, go to sleep. 
Nyumba imelala chini^ the house 
has fallen down. Inchi yote yalala 
sa-wasawa, the whole country is a 
flat plain. filala, rest oneself, take 
a siesta. Chumba chake cha kulala 
(or alicholala), his bed-room. Ap. 
lalia, laliwa, lalika, laliana. Lalia 
matanga, sleep in the house of mourn- 
ing. Hakulaliki nyumbani kiva 
hari, there is no sleeping indoors 
from the heat. Mtu wa kulalia 
nyumba, a night-watchman, a care- 
taker. Mkeka mpya usiolaliwa, a 
new mat which has never been slept 
upon. Hence falisha, lalishwa. 
Cs. taza, laziva, lazia. E. g. cause to 
lie down, put to bed, lay flat or hori- 
zontal. Rp. lalana, sleep at each 
other's houses, be on familiar terms. 
Lala (with objective pfxs., i.e. as 
act.), laza, and lalana are used of 
sexual intercourse. (Cf. for sleep, 
sinzia ; for tt& t pumzika, jinyosha.) 

Lalama, v. ask for mercy (of), 




make an appeal (to), cry out. M- 
mlalama ivali apate kupona 
nafsi yakf, the thief throws himself 
on the governor's mercy to save his 
life. Ps. lalam-iwa. Nt. /a/a- 
mika, be made to appeal for mercy, 
be reduced to submission, be beaten, 
and so, beg for mercy, cry out for 
quarter. Ap. lalamia, e. g. mdeni 
alimlalamia mwenyimali, the debtor 
threw himself on the mercy of the 
money-lender. Cs. talam-isha, 

-ishwa, make cry out, bring to terms, 
force to confess. (Cf. omba, kiri, 

Lamba, v. also Ramba, lick, lick 
up with the tongue. L. makombo 
ya saJiani, lick up the scraps on the 
plate. Ps. laminva. llaulambwi 
mkono mtupu, an empty hand is not 
licked. Nt. lambika. Ap. 

i, -iwa. Lambiiva damu 
mkononi, have the blood licked off 
the hand. Cs. lamb-isha, -iskwa, 
Rp. lambana. (Cf. ulambilambi,} 

*Lami, n. pitch, tar. 

Lango, n.(wa-), (i ) city gate, large 
fitc. gateway ; (2) malango is used 
of secret instruction given to ^irls 
and hoys on growing up. (Cf. 
mlango, kilango^ and ki< 

Langu, a. form of -angu, my, 
mine, agreeing with D 5 (S). (Cf. 
/- and -angu.) 

Lao, a. form of -ao, their, theirs, 
X with D 5 (S). (Cf. /-, 
and -ao.) 

Lap a, v. finish off hastily, eat up 

ismiss promptly. (Not 

common in Z. Cf. kula kwa pupa!) 

Laurnu, v. reproach, find fault 
with, reprove, upbraid, blame 
with a crime, accuK. Ps 

Cs. lattm-ishii, -ishwa, 
ke sharply. Rp. 
n. (ma-), reproach, 

rtea, rw<#.) 

Laaimu. v. lc obligatory (on), 
be a necessity (to), be binding (on), 

bind, make responsible, put pressure 
on. Sheria, imemlazimu tnfaltnc, the 
law has bound (condemned) the king. 
Tunakiitazimu wee, we make you 
responsible. Ps. lazimiu<a, be 

bound, be under obligation, be re- 
sponsible, &c. Ap. tazim-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. lazini'iska, -ishwa, intens. put 
strong pressure on, force, compel. 
Jilazimisha na, devote oneself to, 
accept full responsibility for. n. 
also Lazima, Lazim, necessity, 
obligation, engagement, surety, bail, 
responsibility. E. g. chukua /., bail, 
go bail. A"i l.juuyako, it is obliga- 
tory on you. Si I., commonly means 
an absolute prohibition, i.e. it is im- 
perative (obligatory, &c.) not to. 
Si 1. kuiiigia tidani, usipopiga hodi, 
you must never enter a house without 
saying ' hodi.' (Ar. Cf. shard, 
farathi, bidi, JH 

-le, final, (i) characteristic of a. 
demonstr. 'that' (see Yule) ; (a) 
sometimes a contraction for lake, 
e. g. jinale, his name (cf. -lo for 
lakd)\ (3) subjunct. mood of -/a, 
v. eat. 

Lea, v. bring up, rear, nurse, edu- 
cate. Mtoto itmUavyo, ndivyo akua~ 
vyo, as you bring up a child, so he 
grows up. Ps. Inva, c. g. ame- 
lewa vema, he has been well brought 
up. (Cf. mlfzi, nialezi, and dist. 

i e drunk.) 

Lebasi, n. and Libasi, clothes, 

. wearing apparel. 
Ifbasi ya kiarabu, all kinds of Arab 
clothes. (Arab. Cf. nguo, ma- 

Lebka, int. and Label 
your senrice, Yes, sir (madan 
answer to a call, Coming ! I am 
A common reply of a slave 
o a master's call, and 
: onounced ebbt, or simply &/. 
I am at your ter- 
inshallah, tt. 
bismilla, &c.) 

Legea, v. Bagea is .-.' 
(i) be loose (slack, relaxed, soft, 




pliable) ; (a) be faint (weak, remiss 
flag, yield, give in. E.g. of th 
body, effect of illness, hunger, ex 
haustion, &c. or of a rope, &c 
Cs. leg-eza, -ezwa, -ezea, loosen 
slacken, exhaust, cause to yield, &c 
(Cf. -legefu, mlegeo,fungua, thoofika 
and dist. Ar. regea or reject, return, 
unless legea is orig. go back.) 

-legefu, a. (same with D 4 (P) 
D 5 (S), D 6), slack, relaxed, weak 
soft, yielding, remiss, inattentive 
idle. (Cf. legea, ulegefu, and cf 
thaifu, -zembe, -vivu.} 

*Lehemu, v. solder, apply solder 
repair with solder. Ps. lehemiwa 
Nt. lehemika. Ap. lehem-ia, -iwa 
Cs. lehem-isha, -ishwa. n. also 
Lihamu, solder. Tia /., appl\ 
solder. (Ar.) 

Lekea, v. also Elekea, which 
see, also for derivatives, lekeza, le- 
keana, &c. 

Lema, n. (i) a variant of dema 
a wicker fish-trap (see Dema). (2) 
a. occasional form of -ema, good, 
agreeing with D 5 (S), i. e. following 
the analogy of the pronominal adjec- 
tives (like -ote, -enye, and a few 
other adjectives). 

Lemaa, n. defect, deformity, dis 
figurement, blemish, mutilation. 
enyi lemaa, deformed, maimed, 
crippled, &c. (Cf. follg. and 


Lemaza, v. Cs. maim, mutilate, 
disfigure, &c. (Cf. lemaa, kilema.} 
Lemea, v. sometimes Elemea (cf. 
lekea, eleked], (i) press forward, go 
on steadily, push on ; (2) press upon, 
rest heavily on, lie on the top of; (3) 
oppress, be burdensome, discom- 
mode. E. g. ttizidi kulemea mbele, 
let us press on faster. Mzigo una- 
mlemea, his load is a heavy one. 
Kasha lililemea juu ya kasha, one 
box rested on another. Nalilemea 
njia, I pressed hard on the road, 
i.e. I walked fast. Ps. lemewa, 
be burdened, be oppressed, &c. Cs. 
lem-eza, -ezwa, e. g. pile up, place a 

load on, and so, oppress, burden. 
Hence lemezana. Rp. lemeana, lie 
on (lean on, rest against, press) each 
other. (Cf.pagaa.} 

Lenga, v. Lenga muhogo, cut cas- 
sava in slices. 

Lengelenge, n. (ma-}, a blister. 
Fanya (toka, tokwa no) malcngelenge, 
to get blistered. 

Lenu, a. form of -enu, your, 
yours (plur.), agreeing with D 
(S). (Cf. -/and-*;/*.) 

Leo, n. and adv., to-day, this day, 
the present time. Also siku ya leo, 
to-day. Leo hivi, this very day. 
Si leo, not to-day, long ago. Si -a 
leo, old, out of date. 

Lepe, n. (ma-} , or Leppe, Lepee, 
drowsiness, faintness, a heavy slum- 
berous condition. Z. la usingizi, 
sleepiness, drowsiness. Fanya /., be 
drowsy. Huyti ni lepee, this man is 
drowsy, hard to rouse. 

Leso, n. ( , and ma-}, handker- 
chief, of printed calico, often worn 
round the neck or on the head. L. 
ya upande mmoja, the ' scarf of com- 
merce, one piece forming a kanga, 
.e. a woman's dress. Z. ya ktt- 
shona, handkerchief, two pieces of 
hree handkerchiefs each being sewn 
ogether to make a kanga. 

Leta, v. bring, fetch, supply, cause 
o come to where a person is, thus 
upplying a Cs. of -ja, come. Ps. 
a. Nt. rarely heard, leteka. 
Ap. let-ea, -ewa, -eana. Letewa, 
have (a thing) brought to. Wali- 
etewa chakula, they were brought 
ood. Leteana barua, exchange let- 
ers, correspond. Cs. let-esha, 
eshwa, -eza, -ezwa. Rp. letana. 
f. chukua, peleka} 
Letu, a. form of-etu, our, ours, 
greeing with D 5 (S). (Cf. / and 

-levi, a. drunken, intoxicated, 

iven to drinking. (Cf. levya, 

"wa, levuka, ulevi, kileo, and -lafi 

om -la.} 

Levuka, v. get sober, become 




sober, become steady in manner, 
gait, &c. a Rv. Nt.'form. (Cf. 
prec and Uwa.} 

Levya, v. make drunk, intoxicate, 
cause to reel, make stagger, make 
giddy. Jilevya, make oneself drunk, 
get intoxicated. Also Rd. levya- 
Icvya. a Cs. form in -ya t cf. ponya. 
(Cf. prec.) 

Lewa, v. be drunk (giddy, intoxi- 
cated), stagger, sway, reel, wave to 
and fro. Lrwa k-wa pombe, be drunk 
on native beer. Lewa kwa bahari, of 
the effects of sea-sickness, be giddy. 
Dau lalewa, of a boat on a rough 
sea, roll and pitch. Also Rd. letva- 
lewa, reel and stagger. (Cf. Itvya, 
Uvuka, -fan, ulevi, kileo, and dist. 
lew a, Ps. of lea, rear, educate.) 

Li, verb-form, (it) is, agreeing 
with D 5 (S), c. g. kasha li zito, the 
box is heavy. 

Li-, -li, (i) verb- and pron. a. 
pfx.,- agreeing with D 5 (S), e.g. 
ulichukue kasha tile, carry that box. 
(2) sign of Past Tense Affirmative, 
and also with a-, i. e. -a/*'-, and 
forms part of the Past Conditional 
Tense sign, -ngali-. (3) verb- form 
representing sometimes (and in some 
other Uantu dialects regularly) the 
present Tense of wa, be, with or with- 
out a prefixed, bat not used to denote 
absolute existence, c. g. nili (na/i), I 
am, nikali, and I am. AH, he is. 
It is regularly used in connexion with 
the relative, i.e. aliye, he who is, not 
awaye -ca/t\i, they who are, not 
wawao\ /i/i/0, that which is, not 

Lia, v. (i) sound, make a sound 
(the most general word for sound 
of any kind, in animate or inanimate 
nature) ; (a) utter a cry, cry ont (for 
joy, sorrow, pain, &c.) ; (3^ monrn, 
weep. Chutna yalia, iron has a 
rin. Panalia wast, the place sounds 
hollow. Ndege ana/ia, the bird is 
singing. Bunduki zalia, guns are 
>fT soumlinp . Lia machoti, 
shed tears, c -'ca (uvrivu), 

cry from passion (jealousy). Ap. 
lilia, liliiva, cry to (for, at, with, 
&c. , sound in harmony with, &c. 
Liliwa, be mourned for, &c. Jililia, 
l>ewail oneself. Cs. liza, lizwa, 
tizana, cause to sound, make cry, 
cause (or, be the occasion of ) crying. 
Lizana, weep together, weep over 
each other. Liza bwiduki, fire off a 
gun. Jiliza, pretend to cry, sham 
sorrow, shed mock tears. Rp. 
liana, e. g. of harmonious, concerted 
sounds, or general mourning, &c. 
(Cf. mlio, kilio, and sauti, vuma, 
imba, n^tiruma, &c.) 

*Libasi, n. See Lebasi. (Arab.) 

Licha, conj. and licha ya, prep, 
let alone, not to say, much more 
".. g. sikupata robo nwja, 
licha realf, I did not get a shilling, 
not to mention (much less) a dollar. 
Licha ya haya, hatta : 
baya, apart from these, there are 
other bad points. Licha taivi lilio- 
iva, hatta bichi liko, not to mention 
ripe bunches, there are unripe too. 
Licha ya ndege moja, hatta tvote 
ntakupa, one bird is nothing, I will 
give you all of them. 

*Lihamu, n. solder. Sec Le- 
hemu. (Ar.) 

*Lijamu. n. bit (of a horse). 
Scruji na lijamu na vigwe, saddle, 
hit, and reins. (Ar.) 

Lika, v. Nt. of la, eat (which see). 

Likisa, v. ( i) give leave (respite, 
relief, holiday) to, release, 1' 
(2) dismiss, send away, make go, not 
allow to stay. Thus //</. 
may mean (i) give a boy a holidny, 
or (a) wean a child (cf. a, his ha}. 
:~.wa. A: . -iwa. 

. i<ha, -i<fi:,\j. K; 
ana. (Cf. ondcsha, nthusu, achi- 
sha, chtus ha.} 

Lima, v. hoe, the only 
mode of cultivation, hence ^ 

>. ork land.' Ps. limwa. 
Nt. limika, e. g. be fit for cult 

arable. A 

jtmbt la kulimi\i, a hoe to <l 

o a 



Cs. lim-isha, -ishwa, -ishia, &c., 
e. g. of the overseer (msimamizi), get 
hoeing done, or of the Mahommedan 
minister (mwaUmu), give permission 
to begin hoeing. (Cf. follg. and 
mlnno, mkulima, kilimo.} 

-limaji, a. engaged in agriculture. 
Mlimaji, same as mkulima. (Cf 

Limatia, v. be delayed, remain 
behind, be late, be too long. Safari 
inalimatia, the expedition is delayed. 
Ps. limatiwa. Cs. limat-isha, -ishwa. 
(Seldom in Z. Cf. syn. kawia, che- 
lewa, siri} 

Limau, n. (ma-}, a lemon, fruit of 
the mlimau. 

Limbika, v. (i) allow time for, 
wait for; ( 2 ) keep from, let remain, 
reserve, economize, put aside (in 
store) ; (3) bear with, be patient to, 
show consideration for. E.g. li- 
mbika maji, wait for water, at an 
exhausted or slow-running well. Z. 
ndizi (faint), wait for bananas (coffee) 
to ripen. Z. nyele, let the hair grow. 
Z. maneno, to answer slowly, de- 
liberately. Z. watzt, not to overwork 
people, treat with consideration. 
Ps. limbikwa, e. g. nazi hulimbikwa 
juu ya mnazi hatta zikakauka, the 
cocoanuts are left on the tree till 
quite dry, i.e. when wanted for seed. 
Ap. limbik-ia, -iwa, e.g. amelimbikia 
ivaloto malt, he has reserved (laid up) 
money for his children. (Cf. follg.) 
Limbiko, n. (ma-}, anything re 
served, put away in store, hoard, 
reserve. (Cf. limbika, and follg., 
and syn. akiba.} 

Limbuka, v. come to an end of 
waiting for, get the result of waiting 
(care, consideration, prudence), enjoy 
a looked-for advantage, have a first 
taste of pleasure deferred, enjoy the 
first-fruits, get the benefit of, use for 
the first time. E.g. watu wanali- 
mbuka leo vitu vya mwaka, people 
are now beginning to enjoy the year's 
produce. Kwenda kulimbuka katika 
shamba lake, go to enjoy the first- 


fruits of his estate. Ps. limlmkiva. 
Ap. hmbuk-ia, -iwa. Cs. limbit-sha, 
-shwa, e.g. reward waiting, give a 
foretaste of, satisfy hope deferred, 
yield the wished-for result, answer 
expectations. (Cf. limbika, and 

Limbuko, n. (ma-}, first-fruits, 
reward of waiting, fulfilment of hope, 
foretaste of reward. (Cf. prec.) ' 
-limi, a. talkative, chatting, long- 
winded. (Cf. ulimi, tongue, and 
mwenyi domo.} 

Linda, v. (i) defend, protect, 
guard, watch, keep safe ; (2) keep off, 
fend off, guard against, watch for. 
E.g. angeuawa, lakini Muungu ame- 
mlinda, he would have been killed, 
but God protected him. Jilinde, 
nami ntakulinda, defend yourself and 
I will defend you. Linda kingojo 
ndege wasile matunda, keep watch 
lest birds eat the fruit. Mlinzi hu- 
linda ndege, the watchman watches 
against the birds. Mke mzuri hali- 
ndwi, a pretty woman is not driven 
away, or, is not (easily) kept safe. 
Ps. lindwa. Nt. Kndika. A p. 
hnd-ia, -iwa, e.g. nimemlindia sha- 
mba lake, I have guarded his planta- 
tion for him. Cs. lind-isha, -ishwa. 
Rp. lindana. (Cf. mlinzi, Undo, 
uhnzi. ) 

Lindi, n. (ma-}, a deep place, 
deep channel, hole, esp. in water, 
the sea. Also /. la choo, cesspool. 
(There is a town called Lindi on the 
coast south of Zanzibar, another Ma- 
lindi (or Melindi} north, and a dis- 
trict of Zanzibar city is also called 

Lindo, n. (ma-}, a watching-place, 
station, post (to guard). (Cf. linda, 
and kingojo} 

Linga, v. (i) make equal, put side 
by side, match, compare, suit, level, 
smooth, straighten, harmonize; (2) 
be equal, be like, suit, harmonize, fit. 
Z. bunduki, level a gun, take aim 
(cf. elekeza}. Z. nguo, try on clothes, 
be measured for clothes. L.kichwa, 




of a movement in dancing, bending 

the head forward and sweeping round. 

pia wamelinga kiatu hiki y 

:ie has tried on this shoe, of 

Cinderella's slipper. Ps. lingtua, 

Nt. lingika. Ap. ling-ia, -t'wa. 

Kp. littgana, e.g. match, be like, 

be level, harmonize, also, make a 

suitable reply. Also linganya, li- 

nganisha, ? linganyua. (Cf. -/*- 


-linganifu, a. (same with D4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), agreeing, matched, 
similar, suitable, harmonious, regular. 
(Cf. linga, ulinganifu?) 

Linganya, v. Cs. of Linga (which 
see , e.g. suit, match, harmonize, tune 
(an instrument). 

Lini, adv. interrog., When? At 
what time ? -oakatigani 1 

saa ngapi ? siku ipi .') 

Lio, n. (ma-', sound, loud cry, 
shout, roar, loud wailing. Malio ya 
kiko, the bubbling sound of a native 
pipe (with a water-bowl). (Cf. Ha, 
m/io, kilio.) 

Lipa, v. (i) pay, give in payment, 

repay, make a return for, recompense, 

sate, reward ; (2) have to pay, 

tor). Lipa deni, pay a debt. 

Nikulipc numa yako uliyonitendta, 

let me pay back your kindness to 

me. Lipa kisasi, suffer vengeance, 

also, take vengeance, i.e. pay back. 

lifika. A p. lip- 

-ia, -iwa, pay to (for, on behalf of, 

Ac.), avenge. Cs. lip-isha, -isAwa, 

wa, -izana, make pay, exact 

:i from, (Jvc. I ipiza kisasi, 

take vengeance on. Jilt pita, pay 

oneself by force, take as one's due, 

- h tisaji, avenge oneself on. 

'Cf. Hpo, It; 

Li pi/ , forced payment, 

exaction, vengeance. (Cf. Ufa, 

Lipo, n. (ma-), payment, recom- 
pense, reven^ /'A>0 

*Lisani. n. tongue, flap, used of 

the Map under the owning of a ' 

in fro: 

*Lisasi, n. ( , and ma-), also 
Risasi, (i) lead (the metal); (a) 
a bullet. (Cf. malisaa, popoo.) 

Liwa, n. sweet-scented wood 
brought from Madagascar, like san- 
dal-wood. It is giated, mixed with 
water, and used as a perfume. (Cf. 
sandali, mliwa.) 

*Liwali, n. (ma-), also "Wali, 
governor, headman, i.e. the Arab 
official representing the Sultan of 
Zanzibar, or supreme government. 
(Ar. il wali, changed to liwali, cf. 

Liza, v. (i) cause to buy, induce 
to buy, sell to, e.g. mbona rcatu 
utunoaliza . ? Why are you getting 
people to buy? (seems to be conn. 
with nza, sell, as if for nliza, see 
uza). (a) Cs. of //a, cause to sound, 
make cry. 

Liza, n. ( ), door chain. See 

Lo, a. relative, agreeing with D 5 
rS), 'which, that.' Seldom used in- 
dependently except in such a phrase 
as kasha lo hte, any box whatsoever. 
Hakufanya (ticno) lo lote, he did 
nothing at all. (Cf. /, and -<?.) 

-lo, a. (i) short form of lako, 
appended sometimes to D 5 (S), e.g. 
jinalo, your name, i.e. jina lako. 
Also (2 -vhich,that. 

ing with D 5 (S), netts 
the word which he spoke. 

Lo, Loo, int. of pleasure, \\ 
horror, &e., the r feeling 

by the ii 
prolongation of the vowel sound. 

Loa, -loefu. Sec Lowa, -lo- 

Loga, v. bewitch, use enchant- 
ment oo, place under a spell or charm. 
P. logwa. (Cf. ugattga, nchawi, 
mwanga, and pagata.) 

Loo Lo. 

Lowa, v. and Loa, get v 
soaked (drenched, saturated), be 
damp. Nt. lowtka, (i) get 
same as Iowa, and (a) make wet, 
drench, souse, e.g. loweka ,<,.-. 




clothes to soak. Ps. lowekwa, be 
wetted, drenched, soaked, &c. Cs. 
low-esha, -eshwa. Rp. lowana, i. e. 
all get wet together. (Both the 
and w sounds are evanescent, and so 
oa, oeka, oana may be heard. Cf. 
follg. and tia maji, rutubisha, cho- 

Lowama, v. be in a wet condition, 
be soaked, &c., and Ap. lowamia. 
Cs. lowamisha. (A St. form. Cf. 
Iowa, and follg.) 

-lowefu, a. and -loefu (same with 
D 4 (P), D 5 (S), D 6), wet, moist, 
damp, soaking. Fanya gundi ilo- 
weke katika maji hatta ilowame, let 
the gum be steeped in water, till it is 
thoroughly soaked. (Cf. Iowa, and 
syn. maji maji } chepe chepe, -a ru- 

*Lozi, n. (ma-), an almond, from 
the tree mlozi. 

Luba, n. a leech. See Mruba. 

*Lugha, n. language, speech. Z. 
ya kiunguja na kimvita ni mbali 
kidogo, the language of Zanzibar and 
Mombasa differ slightly. (Ar. Cf. 
syn. maneno, and use of *-.) 

Lulu, n. a pearl. Kuzamia /., 
to dive for pearls. Bora kama /., as 
beautiful as a pearl. As a type of 
perfection, /. is playfully used in salu- 
tation. Hujambo kama lulu? Are 
you as well, as a pearl (is beautiful)? 
(Cf. for gems, kito, almasi,firuzi, &c.) 

Lungu, n. (ma-). See Kungu. 

Lungula, v. and Rungula, treat 
with violence, extort money from, 
blackmail, threaten, rob. Not often 
heard in Z. (Cf. mlungula, hongo, 
ny an/ any a.) 

*Luth.tha, n. taste, flavour, savour. 
(Ar. Cf. utamu.) 


M represents the same sound as in 
English. But beside this purely 
consonantal sound, it includes also 
a semi-vowel sound, very common in 
Svvahili, capable of bearing an accent 
and so of being treated as a distinct 

syllable. This semi-vowel sound 
might be represented in many words 
by writing m with a tt preceding or 
following, i.e. mu-, urn-. But the 
vocalization of m is in Zanzibar so 
slight, and yet so characteristic, that 
mw- is best written for mu- before a 
vowel, and m written m\ when it is 
necessary to indicate its distinct 
syllabic character, a necessity, how- 
ever, which does not occur very often 
in practice. Thus the m is strictly 
the same in mtoto and mtu, mtini 
and mti, but as in Swahili the accent 
always falls on the last syllable but 
one, the m in mtoto and mtini has 
little more than a consonantal force, 
and the words may be scanned as 
disyllables, while in mtu, mti, m 
has a distinct syllabic force suffi- 
ciently shown by the form of the 
word and ordinary rules of Svvahili 
pronunciation. On the other hand, 
m may well be written ni in words 
like amka, alinfpa, &c., and mu in 
words like muhogo, muhindi (which 

M (like k, and the vowel a) is one 
of the commonest and most character- 
istic sounds of the Swahili language, 
owing to its wide use as a formative 
in Swahili generally, and also , in 
Arabic words adopted and adapted 
for Swahili use, and though some- 
what un-English it is not difficult 
for a foreigner to become accustomed 
to. In the Arabic words common in 
Swahili, m, mti, and ma generally 
point to verbal nouns of time, place, 
&c. or to the participles formed with 
m, their accidental similarity to 
common Bantu forms helping to their 
adoption and adaptation, even when 
the original force of the Arab, for- 
mative is disregarded. E.g. the 
names Muhamadi (or Mhamadi}, 
Mabruki, and mathbuha, mathbahu, 
&c. It is so common as a formative 
of verbal nouns, that it is impossible 
to give in this Dictionary all such 
nouns, actual or potential, in Swahili. 



Many must therefore be looked for, 
if not found under #/, tnw- (or the 
other common pfxs. ma-, nib-}, under 
the letter next following, where at least 
the root-meaning may be indicated. 

M, as a simple independent sylla- 
ble, is a verb-form '(you) are,' used 
like other person prefixes for *, 
agreeing with the Pronoun of a 

ur. e. t;. ninyi m watu wazuri, 
you are fine people. 

M (or mw- before a vowel, and in 
some words mu-} is, as a formative 
A. of nouns, (i) the characteristic 
initial sound (properly semi-vocal, 
but often practically consonantal, as 
noticed above) of D I (S), D 2 (S), 
and of adjectives agreeing with them 
other than pronominal (which as a 
role begin with w, Le. , not mu, 
e. g. mtu wangu, mti wenyewe). The 
omission of m before words of these 
declensions has the effect of trans- 
ferring them to D $, usually giving 
them an amplificative meaning, 
(a) a formative of verbal nouns, 
prefixed at pleasure to any verbal 
stem, act. or pass., and forms a noun 
denoting I. a personal agent (or 
patient) and (a) if the final vowel of 
the ver changed, the noun 

is so completely verbal as usually 
to govern a noun following, e. g. m/a 
watu, a cannibal, but (!>} if such 
final Towel is changed to -t, -i, ur 
has -ji affixed, the noon is a true noun, 
-< often indicating a passive force, 

habitual agent, e.g. mneni, 
mkate. a. If the final 

.s -o, the noon denotes an 
action or thing acting, not a personal 

Cf. mshindo, mwansa, mtu- 
*g*ko % &c. 

i adjectives, a prefix agreeing 

(i) with D 3 (S), D 4 (S), e.ff. mtu 

i (but obs. that in 

adj. attjfu, -ako, &c., 

w (for ) takes the place of m 

and also in the adj. -off, 

i agrcemci 
Da(S . 

and (2) with nouns ending with the 
locative -ni, when indicating place 
or circumstances within which some- 
thing happens, e. g. nyumbani mwa- 
ngu, in my house. It is also prefixed 
to adjectives (3) with the same 
general force as ku, e. g. mzuri humo, 
like kuziiri huko, it is nice there. 
Afwenyi (or kwenyi) saa mo/a, at one 
(seven) o'clock, in one hour. 

C. In verbs, (i) subjective pfx. 
of the 2 Pers. Plur., and occasionally, 
with -ni affixed to the verb, objective 
of the same, e.g. mwapenda, you 
love, ampcndani, he loves you, (2) 
objective pfx. of 3 Pers. S. agreeing 
with D i (S), and also (3) subjective 
of the same, when the reference is to 
environment generally or place in 
particular, like ku and pa, e.g. 
mnamo, there is (in) there, and mna, 
there is (in) there. Mnanuka humo, 
there is a smell in there. 

Obs. adjectives are as a rule in this 
Dictionary placed under the first 
letter of their root. But a number 
of adjectives practically confined by 
their meaning to I) i are also for con- 
venience given under m, as their most 
common singular form, and as often 
used of persons without any noun, 
and so practically nouns themselves. 
(Cf. mo, mu, mwa, and ku,pa?) 

Ma-, as an initial syllable i. is 
in most words of Arabic origin the 
Arabic formative of verbal nouns and 
participles, but from its idem. 
:s sometimes treated I 
M the B. formath 

plur. of D 5 (cf. same tendency as to 
the formative i, e. g. ' 
vitabu). a. as a formative proper 
.li, ma- is (a) tl. 
and of adjectives n. 
with them (other than pronominal 

i-s these having y- foi 
(6) a plur. jfx. denoting what is 
large of it* kind. Thu> 
have practically two plurals, express* 

rent degrees of sixe 
portancc, e. g. fete, as D 6, is a ring 




of moderate or ordinary size, plur. 
pete ; but pete, plur. mapete, rings of 
unusual size (cf. the dim. kipete, a 
small ring, plur. vipete). (c) the 
plur. pfx. of most foreign words, 
even when the singular is treated 
as D i, e.g. sultani, plur. masultani. 
(d) used with some adjectival roots 
with the meaning usually conveyed 
by the prefix u, e. g. makali ya 
upanga, the sharpness (or, edge) of 
a sword ; mapana ya mti, the thick- 
ness (girth, diameter) of a tree ; 
makuu, pride ; and cf. usumbuo, (ac- 
tive) annoyance; masumbuo, annoy- 
ing acts, and, when these are regarded 
collectively, ' annoyance ' in general, 
like the sing. (e) as the plur. pfx. 
of nouns, which in the sing, usually 
occur as D 4, and some of these 
nouns have accordingly two plurals. 
In this case, ma- (i) often denotes 
concrete instances of what is in the 
sing, usually abstract, e. g. uamkizi, 
visiting in general ; maamkizi, par- 
ticular visits. (2) as a plur. pfx. of 
verbal nouns from an act. or pass, 
stem, e.g. masifu, masifiwa,matakwa, 
but the corresponding sing, is not 
used. It may also (3) refer to rela- 
tive size, cf. (/>) above. Obs. (i) 
the prefix ma- when followed by e, i, 
or o, coalesces with it to form, an e 
sound, e. g. makasha mettpe(ina-etipe), 
mengi (ina-ingi), meroro (ma-eroro). 
( 2) the words given under ma- in this 
Dictionary are mainly either (a) of 
Arabic origin and form, or (6) used 
only or mostly in the plur., or (c) 
used in plur. with a meaning some- 
what different from that of the sing., 
or (d} of unusual meaning. Words 
beginning with ma-, not found under 
ma-, may be looked for under the 
letter following ma-, or under u fol- 
lowed by that letter. 

-ma (-ama) is the characteristic 
termination of what may be called 
the Stative form or conjugation of the 
Swahili verb, denoting a relatively 
permanent state or condition, e. g. 

kwama, simania, fumbana, tnama, 
&c. See also -mana, -ama. 

*Maabudu, n. an object (objects) 
of worship. (Ar. Ci.abudu,ibada.) 

*Maadam, conj. (i) when, while, 
since ; (a) since, if, seeing that, be- 
cause. E. g. maddam amtaka, when 
(as long as) he wants him. Maddam 
ya kufika wewe huku, since your ar- 
rival here. (Arab., not often heard. 
Cf. wakati wa, and -po.) 

*Maafikano, n. plur. (i) agree- 
ment, contract, bargain, settlement; 
(2) mutual understanding (respect, 
esteem). Nina maafikano naye, I am 
on good terms with him. (Cf. 
afiki, mwafaka, and syn. maagano, 

*Maakuli, n., and Makuli, vic- 
tuals, food. (Arab. Cf. syn.^a/C-w/a.) 

*Maalum, a. well-known, recog- 
nized, true. (Arab. Cf. elimu.} 

Maamkio, Maamkizi, n. plur., 
visits, acts of visiting. (Cf. am'ka, 

*Maamuma, n. an utter fool, 
blockhead, simpleton, ignoramus. 
(? Ar. Cf. syn. mjinga, mshenzi, 
kafiri. ) 

Maamuzi, n. plur., and Maam'zi, 
judgement, arbitration, verdict. (Cf. 
amua, mwamuzi, and syn. hukumu.} 

*Maana, n. (i) cause, reason, 
sake, consideration ; (2) meaning, 
import, purpose, intention ; (3) rea- 
sonableness, sobriety, sense. E. g. 
kwa maana (ya}, because (of), on 
account of, for the sake of, consider- 
ing (that). Tia maanani, keep in 
mind, ponder, reflect on. Maneno 
ya m., statements of importance. 
Waume wenyi m., manly, sensible 
persons. Asiojua maana, haambiwi 
waana, he who does not know the 
meaning will not be told it. Often 
(4) as conj., because, in order to (that). 

Maandalio, n. plur., preparation, 
esp. of food, cooking and serving 
a meal. (Cf. andaa, iiandao, ma- 

Maandamano, Maandamizi, n. 




plur., a following, train, procession. 
(Cf. andamana.} 

Maandasi, n. plur., used of any 
kind of confectionery, and sweet 
cooked dishes, e. g. pastry, pies, 
tarts, puddings, jams, cakes, buns, 
&c. Various kinds are bumunda, 
ladtt, kitiimbna, mkate wa kuntimina 
(tea kttsonga, wa sinia, tva tambi, 
tva rrw/a}, nyang'amba, &c. M. 
ya rnayai, an omelette. Sinia ya 
maandasiy a tray for sweetmeats. 
(Cf. andaa, and prec.) 

Maandikio, n. plur., place (time, 
manner, &c.) of putting ready, pre- 
paration, arrangement, esp. of serving 
up meals. (Cf. andika, mwandishi^ 
&c., and follg.) 

Maandiko, n. plur., (i) setting in 
order, arranging, putting ready ; (a) 
things set in order, arrangements, &c. ; 
(3) **? things written, writings, re- 
port, description. (Cf. andika, 
mwandiko, and mkono.} 

Maandishi, n. plur., like maand- 
iko, but esp. of preparing and serv- 
ing food, food served, &c. Also of 
writing, handwriting. (Cf. prec.) 

Maanga, a. Maji niaanga, clear, 
transparent water. (Cf. -angafu, 
anga, &c.) 

Maangaliei, n. plur., careful at- 
tention, //a.) 

Maangamisi, n. plur., utter ruin, 
destruction, collapse. M. ya kesho, 
ruin in the next v. il dam- 

(Cf. anffamia.') 

Maanguko, n. plur., fall, collapse, 
fallen remains, ruins. A/, ya ma/i, 
cataract, cascade, waterfall. (Cf. 

Maao, n. plur., and Maawio. 
Maao ya jtta (i. e. ntawao, cf. waa), 
sunrise, the orient, east (cf. macho ya 
/Ma). (In Z. mashariki is usual.) 

Maapizo, n. plur.. imprecations, 
curses, denunciations. (< 

*Maarifa, n. knowledge, i: 

tclligence, news. Mambo ni 
maarifa, si ngtevu, the world is ruled 

by knowledge, not by force. (Ar. 
Cf. arifu, taarifu, and follg., and 
syn. elimu, busara, a&ili.} 

*Maarufu, a. kno\vn, celebrated, 
famous. (Ar. Cf. prec,) 

*Maasi, n. any repudiation of obli- 
gation (duty, right), i.e. disobedience, 
rebellion, mutiny, disloyalty, apos- 
tasy, desertion of wife or children, 
&c. (Cf. asi, uasi, and syn. halifit, 

Maawio, n. plur. See Maao. 

*Maazimu, n. a loan, a debt. 
(Ar. Cf. azirnti, kopa, and syn. dent, 

*Mabruki, n. a common Swahili 
name, meaning blessed. (Ar. Cf. 
bariki) mbaraka?) 

*Maburudisho, Maburudu, n. 
recreation, refreshment, relief. (Ar. 
Cf. baridi, buntdisha!) 

*Machela, n. litter, palanquin, 
sling or hammock for carrying a 
person. (Cf. /.) 

Macheleo, n. plur. objects of fear 
(reverence, awe). (Cf. cha> \ 
and a/a.) 

Macheo, n. plur. for machwco. 
Macheo ya jtta, sunset, the west. 
(In Z. magaribi is usual. Cf. c ha, v., 
and tnachwa.) 

Machinjo, n. plur. slaughter, 
massacre, place of slaughter. Also 
machinjioy slaughter-house. (Cf. 

Macho, n. plur. (i) eyes (sing, 
jicho, which see), and as a. awake, 
on the alert ; (2) macho ya jtta. son- 
rise, east. (Cf. (ha, v., dawn, and 

Machubwichubwi. n. pi. n 

Machukio. n. plur., (i) objects of 
hate, abomination, offence; (a) and 
Machukizo. feeling of 

disgust, aversion, loathing. 
mchukia ma(kukio maktttt, I 
detest him. (Cf. ^K 

Maohunga, n. plur. pasturage, 
pastures, feeding-places for animals. 
(Cf. chunga. % and m 

, Us ha.) 
Machwa, n. j-lvr. Mathwa ya 




jua, sunset, west. (Cf. cha, v., and 
macheo for machweo, follg.) 

Machweo, n. plur. Machweo ya 
jua, as machwa. 

Madadi,n. a preparation of opium 
made up in pellets for smoking 
(Cf. afyuni, kasumba, bangi.} 

*Madaha, n. plur. airs, graces : 
fascinating manners. Fanya (pigd) 
m., show off, make a display, ol 
personal attractions. 

Madai, n. plur. occupation or 
profession of an advocate. Also 
lawsuit, legal claims. (Cf. dai, 
daw a?) 

Madanganya, n. plnr. tricks, im 
posture, deception, illusion, cheating. 
(Cf. danganya, hila, ujanja, werevu.} 
Madaraka, n. plur. arrangements, 
responsible management, care, direc- 
tion. M. ya nyumba, house-keeping. 
(Cf. diriki, and syn. matengenezo, 

Madende, n. plur. Sauti ya ma- 
dende, an affected style of singing, with 
trills, quavers, protracted notes, &c. 
Madevu, n. plur. beard, beard-like 
appendage or growth, e. g. of plants, 
maize, &c. (Cf. udevu, plur. ndevu, 

Madifu,the fibrous envelope which 
binds the young cocoanut leaf to the 
parent stern. (Cf. kilifu.} 

*Madini, n. metal, of any kind. 
( Ar. For metals known in Z. cf. chuma, 
iron ; shaba, copper, brass ; bati, tin ; 
risasi, lead; lhahabu, gold; fetha, 

Madoadoa, n. used as a., spotted, 
speckled. (Cf. doa, and maraka- 

Maelezi, n. plur. floating, being 
afloat, anchorage, roadstead, moder- 
ately deep water. (Cf. elea, chelezo, 
and follg.) 

Maelezo, n. plur. explanations, 
descriptions, comment. (Cf. elea, 
eleza, and prec.) 

Mafa, n. plur. place of burial, 
cemetery. (Cf./a. In Z. makaburi, 
maziara are usual.) 

Mafaa, n. use, utility, profit, ad- 
vantage, e.g. ngombe hizi hazina 
mafaa, these oxen are no good. (Cf. 
faa, vifaa,faida, and syn. uc/nimi.) 

Maflcho, n. plur. concealment, 
place of concealment, hiding-place. 
Amefanya kwa majicho, he has acted 
secretly, i.e. kifichoficho. (Cf. 


Mafu, n. death, dead things. Also 
as adj., maji mafu, neap tide. (Cf. 
fa,ktfo, ufu, -fu. In Z. mauti (Ar.) 
is usual for death.) 

Mafua, n. plur. chest symptoms, 
chest complaint (cold in the chest, 
bronchitis, pneumonia, phthisis, &c.). 

Mafungulia, n. plur. unfastening, 
esp. mafungulia ng'ombe, as a mark 
of time, grazing time, about 8-9 a.m,, 
when the dew is gone, and sun not 
too hot. (Cf.fungua.) 

Mafusho, n. See Mavusho. 

Mafuta, n. plur. oil, fat, grease 
(of any kind). M. ya nyama, fat, 
lard, dripping (also shahamu, 
animal fat. Butter is commonly dis- 
tinguished as siagi, or samli, ghee). 
Mafuta ya taa (ya kizungu, ameri- 
kano), common petroleum. Vegetable 
oils are mafuta ya ^lta, semsem oil ; 
>n. ya mbdrika, castor oil ; m. ya nazi, 
cocoanut oil. (Cf. fata, ufuta, 

Mafuu, n. plur. craziness, silliness, 
half-witted state. (Cf. kichaa, wa- 

Mafya, n. plur. (sing./y^a), stones 
used to support a pot or kettle in 
cooking. (Cf.mqfiga,meko.} Also 
name of an island (Momfia), S. of 

"Magadi, n. soda. Also plur. of 
gadi (which see). 

*Magaribi, n. also Mangaribi, 
Magrebi, (i) time of sunset, Ma- 
lommedan evening prayers or vespers ; 
'2) place of sunset, the west ; (3) 
Vforocco (as the western land). (Ar. 
Gf. mashariki.} 

Mageuzi, n. plur. change, changes, 




changeableness. Also mageuzo, i.e. 
changings, the process rather than 
the fact or effect, and cf. gcua. 

Mago, n. plur. of kago (which see). 

Magombezi, n. plur. quarrel, op- 
position , prohibition. Also magombe- 
20, quarrel lings, of the action, rather 
than the fact or effect. (Cf.go/noa, 
gombeza, ugcmvi.} 

*Mahabba, n. affection, fondness, 
luvc. (Ar. Cf. habba, muhebbi.) 

'Mahali, n. also Mahala, cf. 
pahali, pahala, (i) place, position, 
situation, and fig. place of honour; 
(2) region, district, country (cf. in- 
cht) ; (3) room, space, interval (cf. 
nafasi). Mahali (pahali) is the only 
noun in Swahili meaning ' place,' the 
only word with which the pfx. p- 
(/a-, po) in reference to space is 
regularly associated, and as a rule 
means * place, position,' only. 1 ..; 
mahali hapa, this place. M. hapo 
(pale), that place. M. pott, every 
place, everywhere. Mahali pa, in 
the place of, instead of. Waka- 
mwtttdea pale pahali pake, and they 
went to him at his place there. Ani- 
tueka mahali, he puts me in a place, 
i.e. treats me with distinction. (Ar. 
Cf. pahali, a form assimilated to 
the B. pfx. of place. Dist. mahari, 

Maharaei, n. a shoemaker's awl, 
titching leather. (Arab.) 

Mahari, n. a marriage settlement, 
money or property ]-ail t<> the wife's 
relations, or settled on the wife. 
Tumepatana na mahari ya> 

have agreed 
dowry, viz. sixty rupees. (Ar. 


*Mahati, n. a carpenter's gauge 
for marking lines. Also, a marking jolt 

ddta ii: 

*Mahazamu , n. a shawl or wrapper 
worn round the waijt as a girdle. 
(Ar. Cf. mshifi, masombo, utu- 

Mahindi, n. plur. single grains of 
Indian corn, maize, i.e. seeds of the 

plant muhindi. (Cf. hindi, mu- 

*Mahiri, a. and Maheli, skilful, 
clever, quick. Fundi mahiri, a clever 
craftsman. (Ar. Cf. umahiri, and 
syn. mbingwa, mstadi, wan a, &c.) 

Mahoka, n. plur. (i) (a kind of) 
evil spirits ; (2) frenzy, mania, mad- 
ness. (Cf. shetani, pepo.) 

Maisha, n. (i) continuance, dura- 
tion, permanence ; (2) life (in respect 
of length and duration), period of 
living, mode of life. E.g. mti huu 
una in. sana, this wood is very dur- 
able. M. maovu, evil living J/. 
mengi, long life. Also as adv., ma- 
isha na milele, for life and for ever, 
i.e. for ever and ever. Utufiin^c 
maisha yettt, imprison us for liic. 
Mpaka maisha, till life ends, the 
whole life long. (Maisha is treated 
sometimes as D 6, sometimes 
though there is no sing. isha. \Vhile 
maisha mengi means (see above) 
' long life,' maisha nyingi would 
rather mean 'many lives,' i.e. life- 
periods. Maisha is life in respect of 
length and content ; umri, time of 
life, age; uzima, life as manifest 
in the living condition, state of living ; 
roho, the life- principle, soul, spirit. 
(Ar. Cf. ishi, atishi, uzima, roho, 

*Maiti, n. a dead body, corpse, 
usually human only. Also, a dead 
person, i. c. mtu maid. J/uku: 
na Wawemba, we kept coining on 
the bodies of dead Wawemba. ( Ar. 
Cf. manti, also msoga,pin>; 

Majababa, n. a dock for ships. 

Majaliwa, n. what is granted, aid, 
help, favour, grace of God. (Cf. 

Majani, n. plur. grass, leaves, in 
general. See Jani. 

Majeruhi, a. wounded. (Ar. 

Maji, n. water, or what res 
water, (i) in general, liquid, (luid, 
moisture, damp; (a) in particular, 




secretion, juice, sap, &c. Usuall} 
treated as D 5 (P), no singular 
E.g. teka m., draw water (from 
a well, water-hole, &c.). M. baridi 
(matamu, ya pepo, ya mvtta), fresh 
water, M. ya chumvi (ya bahari) 
salt water. M. bamvua (makuu} 
spring tide. M. mafu, neap tide 
M. ya mofo, (i) hot water, (2) a 
kind of light red or yellow ant 
Kama maji, (i) fluid, liquid, (2) fluent, 
flowing, of ready speech. Usec 
also in virtual compounds, mja maji 
one who arrives by sea, a stranger 
newcomer. Mwana maji, a sailor, 
sea-faring man. M. ya shahada, 
water poured (by Mahommedans) 
into a small hole at the head of a 
grave, when filled in. Also as a., 
maji, maj'imaji, wet, damp. (Cf. 
Ar. md, water, maj, bitter, salt, briny, 
or better perh. uj'i, rice gruel, and 
? j'a, v. Other Bantu dialects have 
madzi, amanzi, matsi, mezi, medi, 
mesi, mas hi, &c.) 

*Majibizano, n. teaching by ques- 
tion and answer, catechetical instruc- 
tion. (CLjibtt.} 

*Majibu, n. an answer, reply, 
response, also as a plur. form, an- 
swers. (Ar. Cf.jibu,jawabu.) 

Majilio, n. plur. time (place, 
manner, &c.) of coming (to), ap- 
proach, arrival, advent. (Cf. j'a, 

Majilipa, n. also Majilipo, Ma- 
jilip-izi, -izo, -isho, repayment, re- 
quital, revenge. (Cf. lipa, malipo, 
and syn. kisasi.} 

*Majira, n. time, period, season. 
Kwa m. haya, at this time. M. ya 
mvua, rainy season. As conj. ' when, 
while,' e.g. m. akilinda shamba, 
while (he is) watching the plantation. 
(Ar. Cf. wakiti, pindi.} 

*Majira, n. course of a ship, in 
navigation. Twaa mdj'ira, get bear- 
ings, find the course. (Ar.) 

Majisifu, n. plur. self-praise, boast- 
ing, brag, conceit. (From Rf. of 
stfttf cf. follg.) 

Majivuno, n. plur. boasting, brag- 
ging, self-laudation. (From Rf. of 
vuna, cf. prec. and kujiona^ 

Majonsi, n. sorrow, grief, mourn- 
ing, sadness. Fanya (ona) m., be 
sorrowful, sad. (Cf. hamu, huzuni, 
simanzi, sikitiko, &c.) 

*Majuni,n. a preparation of opium, 
Indian hemp, &c., with sugar and 
other ingredients made up into a 
sweetmeat, strongly intoxicating. 
(Cf. madadi.} 

Majuto, n. plur. and Majutio, 
regret, repentance, remorse. Majuto 
ni mjukuu, remorse is like a grand- 
child, i. e. comes at last. (Cf.jttta, 
and toba.} 

Makaa, n. plur. coal, charcoal. 
See Kaa. 

Makalalao, n. nickname of the 
Madagascar settlers in Zanzibar. (M. 
means cockroaches, in Z. commonly 

Makali, n. the sharp part, edge, 
point, of a thing, e.g. makali ya 
upanga, the edge of a sword, as 
contr. with bapa, the flat. (Cf. 
-kali, ukali, and mapana.} 

*Makani, n. dwelling, dwelling- 
place, residence, home. (Ar. Cf. 
masikani, makazi, kao, makao.*) 

*Makasi, n. a pair of scissors, 
sometimes mkasi, also treated as 
D 5 (P). (Ar.) 

*Makataa, n. binding agreement, 
contract, final settlement, engage- 
ment. (Ar. CLkata,kataa,mka- 
'aa, and syn. mkataba, sharli.') 

Makatazo, n. plur. prohibition, 
Ejection, refutation. (Cf. kataa, 

Makazi, n. plur. dwelling, dwell- 
ng-place, mode of dwelling. (Cf. 
kaa, v., kaoj &c., and syn. makani, 

Makengeza, n. plur. squinting, a 
quint, i. e. m.ya macho. Mwenyi m., 
ne who squints. Kuwa na m., to 
ave a squint, so angalia kwa m. 
Cf. upogo, kifongo.} 

*Makeruhi, a. offensive, in bad 




taste, wrong. (Ar. Cf. kirihi, 
ikirahi, and syn. machitkizo.} 

*Maki, n. thickness, stoutness. 
Ngtw za M., thick clothes. ^ 
una ///., the wall is thick. (Ar. 
amag, deep, depth, and cf. umw, 

*Makini, n. quiet, docile, amen- 
able, well behaved, gentle, composed. 
Roho makini, a quiet disposition, 
e.g. of a child who stays at home, 
and does what it is told. (Ar. Cf. 
-pole, -tulivu.) 

*Makiri, n. a cleat on the side of 
a native vessel, for fastening a rope 

Makosekano, n. plur. failure, lack, 
defect, deficiency, want. M.ya imani, 
want of faith. M. ya bithaa, no 
supply of goods. (Cf. hosa, kose- 
kana, and syn. upungufu?) 

Maksai, n. a castrated animal, 
bollock, gelding. Ng'ombe niaksai, 
a bullock. (Ar. Cf. hast, and 

*Makubazi, n. plur. a pair of 
leather sandals with ornamentation. 
(Cf. kiatu, ndara, mlalawanda.) 

*Makufuru,n. infidelity, sacrilege, 
blasphemy. (Ar. Cf. kafiri, kit- 

Makuli, n. and Maakuli, food, 
victuals, provisions. (Ar. Cf. cha- 
kula, riziki, nafuu.} 

Maknlima, n. plur. implements or 
operations of agriculture agriculture, 
tillage. (Cf. lima, mkulima, kili- 

Makungu, n. plur. signs of dawn, 
daybreak. (Cf. ukuttgu.} 

Makupaa, n. plur. Sec Kupa. 

Makupwa, n. plur. shore, rocks, 
&c., left uncovered at low tide. 
'wa,pwani, ktpwa.} 

Makusanyiko, n. plur. gathered 
people or things, a gathering, crowd, 
ting, assembly, collec- 
tion. (Cf. Icusanya, kutana> and 

*Makuaudi, n. plur. ami Maka- 
sidi, purposes, intentions, objects. 

Also as adv., on purpose, intention- 
ally, voluntarily, and as conj. that, in 
order that, to. (Ar. Cf. kusudi, 
and conj. '//.) 

Makutano, n. plur. gathered people 
or things, a gathering, assemblage, 
meeting, crowd, collection. (Cf. 
kuta, mkutano, and syn. makusanyiko, 

Makuti, n. plur. used commonly 
of cocoanut leaves prepared for use 
as thatch in Zanzibar. See Kuti. 

Makuu, n. (strictly plur. of a. 
-kuti), (i) pride, ambition, ostenta- 
tion, show (cf. fahari, kiburi, maji- 
stfu}. Also (2) presumption, which 
ignores human conditions of depend- 
ence and limitation, defiance of divine 
law, blasphemy, sacrilege (cf. tna- 
kufuru). (Cf. -kuu.} 

Makwa, n. plur. notches, cut in 
the top of an upright post, to carry a 

*Malaika, n. (i) a messenger, an 
angel ; (2) a baby (cf. kitolo, incha- 
nga). (Ar., and dist. malaika^ 
down, from laika.} 

Malaji, n. j>lur. greediness, glut- 
tony, voracity (as shown in nets or 
habits, while ulaji is rather of the 
quality or character in general). 
hakitlii, ulaji, ,) 

Malalo, n. plur. sleeping things, 
i.e. place, arrangements, bedding, 
:<i lie on. (Cf. /a/a, /a/<, 
and follg.) 

Malaai, n. plur. also Malato, (i) 
things to sleep on, beddim; 
malalo, e.g. nguo njema tta 
memo, fine clothes and fine things to 
sleep on; (a) marriage bed, sexual 
intercourse. (Cf. /aea, /aja.) 

Malelo, n. orchilla uccd, used as 
a dye, and a regular article of com- 
merce in Ea&t Africa. 

Malelemi, n. plur. the season of 
i and changing winds, be- 
tween the monsoons and dm 

c. about April and Novem- 
/. Also called tonga mtili. 
.uimti, kusi, 




Malenga, n. a professional singer, 
employed to lead the singing in 
dances, concerts, &c. (Perhaps at 
first the name of a well-known 

*Maleuni, a. accursed. (Arab. 
Cf. laana, -laanifu.} 

Malevi, n. plur. of ulevi, 
drunkenness, i. e. drunken habits, 
acts, &c., -ulevi, rather of the quality 
or condition. (Cf. lewa, levya, 
and m aloft.} 

Malezi, n. plur. of ulezi, rearing, 
bringing up, both of nurture gener- 
ally, and of education, training. 
Malezi maztiri, good breeding, good 
education. (Cf. lea, ulezi.} 

*Mali, n. (treated indiscriminately 
as D 6 or D 5 (P)), property, goods, 
wealth, riches, possession. Thus 
mail yake nyingi, niali mengi, mali 
zake chache. Ni mali ya, it is the 
property of. Mali ya watu (or ya 
mwenyewe), it is some one else's 
property, it is not mine. There is a 
game called maliya ndimu, guessing 
at an unseen striker. (Ar.) 

Malidadi, n. one who makes a 
show, esp. of dress, a showily 
dressed person, fop, dandy, coxcomb. 
(Cf. umalidadi, urembo, mlimb- 

*Maliki, v. make a beginning of, 
set to work on, start a job, e. g. 
of construction, cultivation, &c. M. 
nyumba, begin to build a house. 
M. shamba, begin to clear, or hoe, a 
plantation. M. kuunda chombo, 
begin to construct a ship. Ps. ma- 
likiwa. Ap. malik-ia, -iwa. 

Cs. malik-isha, -ishwa. (? Ar. 
Cf. miliki, and syn. anza^ shika.} 

*Maliki, n. See Malki. 

Malimwengu, n. i. e. mambo ya 
ulimwengu, worldly matters, mun- 
dane affairs, the concerns of men. 
(Cf. ulimwengu, mlimwengu.} 

Malindi, n. (i) plur. of lindi, 
deep places, channels ; (2) a district 
of Zanzibar city; (3) an ancient 
town on the coast north of Mombasa ; 

(4) (Str.) the flap or small apron 
of beads worn by a string round the 
loins by native women on the main- 
land (but ? in Z.). 

Malipizi, n. plur. causing to pay, 
retaliation, revenge, dunning for 
debts, distraint, extortion. Malip- 
izo (and -isho\ what is exacted, ex- 
torted, and so vengeance, fine, &c., 
but also as malipizi. (Cf. lipa, 
and follg., also kisasi.} 

Malipo, n. plur. payment, reward, 
atonement, vengeance suffered or 
inflicted. (Cf. lipa, and prec.) 

*Malisaa, n. shot, i. e. small shot, 
for firearms, &c. (Cf. lisasi, 

bullet, and kiasi, cartridge.) 

Malisha, n. and Malisho, pastur- 
a S e > g raz i n g ground, paddock, for- 
age, food for cattle, &c. (Cf. la, 
lisha, and machunga.} 

Maliza, v. (i) complete, finish 
off, bring to end, conclude, wind up ; 
(2) abolish, kill, destroy. M. kazi, 
finish a job. M. dent, pay off a 
debt. M. adui, annihilate an enemy. 
Ps. malizwa. Nt. malizika. Ap. 
maliz-ia, -iwa. Cs. maliz-isha, 
-ishwa. Rp. malizana. (Ar. 
Cf. timiliza, and syn. kamilisha t 
is ha.} 

Malizano, n. plur. mourning of 
many together, a general wailing. 
(Cf. lia, and Cs. liza, lizana.} 

Malizi, n. plur. things causing 
a sound, things rustling, making a 
noise. E. g. nasikia malizi nyasini^ 
I hear things rustling in the rushes. 
(Cf. lia, and prec.) 

Malki, n. also Maliki, a king, 
ruler, sovereign. (Arab., not 

usual in Z. Cf. follg. and miliki, 
also syn. sultani, mfalme, jumbe?) 

Malkia, n. {ma-}, queen, female 
sovereign. (Cf. prec.) 

Mama, n. mother, female ancestor 
or parent, of all kinds. Mama wa 
kambo, step-mother. Mama mkub- 
wa (mdogo}) mother's elder (younger) 
sister. Mama wee, an African's 
most natural cry in pain, sorrow, or 




surprise. Kr. quotes Mama ni Mu- 
ungu wa pili, one's mother comes 
next to God. Mama is treated 
grammatically like Baba, which see- 
Mwana is used in polite reference or 
address to one's own mother (cf. 
mivana, bibf). 

Mamba, n. (i) a crocodile; (a) 
a name of a very dangerous kind 
of snake. 

Mambo, n. plur. of Jambo, 
which see. Used independently 
mambo often means, affairs of im- 
portance, difficulties, problems, hard- 
ships, e. g. nlimwengu una mambo, 
the world is full of wonders (or, 
strange things, mysteries, difficulties). 
Mambo mengi, like visa vingi, com- 
plications, puzzles, perplexities. So 
used as int., i.e. wonderful ! very awk- 
ward ! a poser ! 

"Maralaka, n. (i) authority, do- 
minion, rule, rights of ownership ; 
(2) property, possession, dominions. 
In the latter sense, milki is more 
usual. Sina m. na kilu hie ho, I have 
no right to (power over) that thing. 
iki, milki, and syn. 
>;ri, hukumu, nguvu, uwezo.} 

Mamoja, a. form of -moja, agree- 
ing with I) 5 (P), i.e. of one kind, 
treated as one. Often used indepen- 
dently, c. g. mamoja kwangit, it is 
all one (all the same) to me, I do not 
care, I have no choice. Mamoja, 
as yon like. (Cf. -moja, and syn. 

-mana, as a termination of verbs 
is a combination of the Stativc and 
Reciprocal suffixes, ma-na, c 
ngamana, shikamana, ungamatta. 
(Cf. ma-(/). 

Manane, n. only in the phrase 

usiku wa manane, the dead of night, 

ht. Usiku huu umtkuwa wa 

mana, midni K ht. (Cf. 

nant, eight, of which manant is 

perh. a plural. Thus usiku wa 

manattf means ' the night at about 

a' See 8aa, and syn. kati ya 

usiku wa kati.) 

Mandasi, n. plur. See Maanda- 
si, and Andaa. 

*Manemane, n. myrrh. 

Manena, n. groin, between 
thigh and belly. (Cf. kinena.} 

Manga, n. a name of Arabia, esp. 
the region of Muscat in the Persian 
Gulf. It is used to describe various 
objects connected with or derived 
from Arabia, e. g. pilipili manga, 
black pepper. Mkoma manga, 
pomegranate tree. IVjiwa manga, 
a variety of pigeon. Jiwe la manga, 
a kind of whetstone (but cf. mango). 
(Cf. mwarabu, Arabuni.} 

Mangi, Mangine, a. same as 
Mengi, Mengine, many, more, 
formed from -ngi, -ngint, instead of 
-ingi, -ingine, these latter being 
rather more usual in Z. (Cf. /.) 

*Mangili, n. a kind of cat-head 
or cross-piece, for securing a cable, 
anchor, or repeat the bow of a native 

Mango, n. a hard, black, rounded 
stone used for pounding, smoothing, 
and polishing. 

Mangwaji, n. plur. finery, fop- 
pery, showy dress or appearance, 
foolish di>])lay. (Cf. syn. umati- 
dadi, ulimbwcnde?) 

Mani, n. semen. (Ar. syn. ska- 

Manjano, n. turmeric, used as a 

yellow colouring material for orna- 

ment, and also in curry powder, an 

Han vegetable product. A*a- 

ngi ya rn. t yellow colour. 

Manowari, n. a man-of-war, 
one of the earliest and most estab- 
lished adaptations of an English 
word in Swnhili. 

more or less 

boi, kola, sh<:: <itoki, 

kabati, bira. burashi, daktari, sfirna, 
melt, a/so, dazin, inche, sfita/i. posta> 

Mansuli, n. a kind of woollen 
material, used for dress and as a 

Manuka, n. plur. smell, scent 




odour. (Cf. nttka, and follg., also 
syn. harufu.} 

Manukato, n. plur. sweet scent, 
perfume, sweet-smelling substance. 
(Many such are used in Z., as liquids, 
in powders, for fumigation, &c. 
E. g. marashi (a general term for 
liquid scents), meski, hal waridi, sa- 
ndali, dasili, nndi, ubani, dalia, ma- 
guba, rihanij garafuu, garafuu 
maiti) itvumba, liwa, buhuri, tibu, 
kivumbasi, afu, &c. Cf. mika t 
and -to, which is not common as 
a suffix in Z. except in this word.) 

*Manuku, n. a copy, transcript, 
translation, imitation. (Ar. Cf. 


Manyiga,n. a kind of hornet (Str.). 

Manyoya, n. plur. of unyoya 
(which see). 

Manyunyo, n. plur. showers, 
sprinkling, drizzle, light rain. (Cf. 

Maokozi, n. plur. saving, rescue, 
means of saving. (Cf. okoa, mw- 

Maombi, n. plur. also Maomvi. 
(cf. iba, mwivi), prayers, entreaties, 
requests, intercessions. (Cf. omba, 
and syn. kaja, dua, sala.} 

Maombolezo, n. plur. loud wail- 
ing, lamentations, mourning, dirges. 
(Cf. omba, ombolcza, malio.) 

Maondokeo, n. plur. (i) depar- 
ture, going away, taking leave ; (2) 
rising up, respectful salute. (Cf. 
ondoka, ondokea.} 

Maondoleo, n. plur. taking away, 
removal. M. ya thambi, remission 
(forgiveness) of sin. (Cf. ondoa, 

Maongezi, n. plur. talk, conver- 
sation, gossip, amusement, pastime. 
Weka m., prepare for a long chat. 
(Cf. ongea, and syn. mazungumzo^) 

Maongezo, n. plur. addition, in- 
crease, supplement. (Cf. ongeza 
and ny ongeza, and syn. mazidisho.} 

Maongo, n. plur. back (of men or 
animals), but in Z. usually mgongo 
(which see). 

Maongozi, n. plur. direction, 
superintendence, management, ad- 
ministration, arrangements. J7. ya 
Muungu, Providence, divine dis- 
pensation. (Cf. ongoa, and syn. 
madaraka, matengeneo.) 

Maonji, n. plur. tasting, testing, 
trial, experiment. Maonji ya mta- 
mbo, testing a machine, to see if it 
works. (Cf. onja, and maombi 
from omba, and syn. jaribu.} 

Maozi, n. giving in marriage, 
arrangements for bringing about a 
marriage. (Cf. oa, oza, and mazi- 

Mapaji, n. present, gift. (Cf. 
pa, -paji, upaji, mpaji, and dist. 
paji la liso, forehead.) 

Mapakizi, n. (i) ' arrangements 
connected with shipping and dispatch 
of goods, conveyance on board, pay- 
ment of freightage, &c. Also (2) 
goods shipped, cargo, freight. Simi- 
larly mapakio. (Cf. pakia.} 

Mapalilio, n. plur. also Mapalilo, 
Mapalio, time (place, process, &c.) 
of hoeing, i.e. not the first hoeing 
(lima}, but the cross-hoeing, cleaning 
the ground among trees or crops 
already planted. (Cf. paa, palia, 

Mapambano, n. plur. contact, 
comparisons, collisions. (Cf./a- 


Mapana, n. plur. the wide or 
broad part of a thing, flat side, 
breadth, width, diameter. Meza hii 
ina mapana, this table is broad. 
Njia mapana thaifu, a road of in- 
significant width. (Cf. -pana, 
upana, and -nene, and for the form 

Mapatano, n. plur. agreement, 
contract, understanding, conspiracy, 
alliance. (Cf. pala, patana, and 
syn. maafikano, mkataa.) 

Mapema, adv. in good time, early, 
soon. Assubuhi na mapema, early in 
the morning. 

Mapenda, n. plur. loving another, 
love. Other nouns of similar form 




from penda may be enumerated here, 
but most of them will be found also 
under a sing, form beginning with u 
or /, i. e. as D 5 or D 6. See also 
Fenda. Mapendano (sing. -), 
mutual love. Mapendefu, love, from 
the side of its object, i.e. being loved, 
love as experienced. Maptndtlefu, 
mapendeleo, favour, bias, self-ingra- 
tiation, from the side of recipient or 
giver. Mapendezi, things that please, 
engaging manners, amiability, affec- 
tionateness. Mapendo, acts of love, 
loving - kindness. Afafvnzi, love, 
liking, inclination, desire, will, wish, 
purpose. E.g. afuata mapenzi ya 
moyo tvako, he follows his own 
I (whims, fancies, ideas, &c.). 
Mapcnzi hayana macho^ love is 

Mapepeta, n. plur. a preparation 
of immature rice (pepeta za mpunga). 
(Cf. /*/*/.) 

Mapinduzi, n. plur. turning things 
upside down, revolution, disorder. 

Mapishi, n. j>lur. things (materials, 
, &c.) for cooking. (Cf.pika.) 

Mapiswa, n. unmeaning nonsense, 
drivel, silliness. 

Mapokeo, n. plur. things received, 
as. See Pokea. 

Maponea, n. plur. means of sub- 
sistence, livelihood, food. (Cf. pona t 
ami follg. Also syn. t 

Maponyea, n. plur. means of cur- 
ing (rescuir /// na 

matan s .fonyea tijaa, water 

and cucumbers are what save 
from s; \ c. as the last re- 

source in drought. (Cf. fwna, 

Maponyo. n. plnr. (i) healing 

things, drags, medicines, means of 

.1 cure, 

rescue, preservation. (Cf. fotta t 

Mapooca, n. plur. nnd Mnposa, 

!, not 

matured, useless, e.g. of fruit dropped 

in an unripe green stage. (C 

Maposo, n. plur. proposals or 
arrangements for marrying, wooing. 
(Cf. posa.} 

Mapoza, n. plur. remedies, means 
or appliances for healing. (Cf. 
poa,pona,poza, and syn. dawa.} 

Mapwaji, n. plur. coast, foreshore, 
part affected by tides. In Z. usually 
pwani. (Cf. pwa, h'pwa.) 

*Maradufu, a. double, extra thick, 
of two thicknesses. (Ar. radaf, or 

*Marahaba, int. used as a common 
rejoinder to the salute of an inferior, 
or on receipt of a present or favour, 
thank you, very well. ( Ar. ' it is 
welcome, I am pleased.' Cf. ah- 

*Marakaraka, a. with patches, 
stripes, spots, and so of colour, 
mottled, speckled, variegated, &c. 
(Cf. raka, kiraka, and syn. madoadoa.') 

*Mara8haraaha, n. sprinklings, 
showers,' drizzle, of rain, sprinkled 
perfume, &c. (Ar. Cf. mras/ti, 

*Maraahi, n. scent, liquid perfume. 
Marashi mawaridi, rose water. 
(Ar. Cf. prec. and tibu, manukato.} 

"Marathi, n. sickness, disease, in 
general. (Ar. < /<?, and 

H. ugonjwa. For particular dis- 
eases, cf. homa, ;/w,z. 
i, titiwanga, ukoma, baridi 
yabis, stkcmko, kisono9U> % &c.) 

Marathi.n. also Murathi, MaU- 
rithi, well-content, acquiescent, 
agreeable, willing. 

*M*rdmli, n. repudiation, rejec- 


Maregeo. n. and Marojeo, com- 
ing back, return, and fig. rot 

nee. (Ar. Cf. rtj 
Marehemu, n. and a., one " 
used as a cup) 
term of reference to a deceased ; 
the late, the departed, the defunct. 
(Ar. Cf. rthema.} 




*Marejeo, n. See Maregeo, and 
Kejea. (Ar.) 

Marembo, n. plur. ornaments, 
personal, architectural, &c. articles of 
finery, carved work, bas-relief. (Cf. 
urembo, remba, and syn. pambo, 
nakski, chore.} 

*Marhamu, n. ointment, unguent, 
plaster, scented, medicated, &c. 
(Ar. Cf. lehemu, tthamu, and syn. 
mafuta, bandiko.} 

*Marigeli, n. a large metal caldron, 
chiefly for cooking rice in great 
quantities. (Ar. Cf. chombo, 

chungu, su/uria, &c., for vessels of 
different kinds.) 

*Marijani, n. coral, but in Z. 
not of the stone, or coral rock (cf. 
tumbawt), but of the red coral im- 
ported and used as ornament. Called 
also marijaniyafethaluka. 

Marika, n. plur. of rika, con- 
temporaries, of same age, i. e. ^^mri 
saiva. (Cf. hirimu and rika. There 
is a town called Mdrika, or Marka, 
on the Somali coast, north of Z.) 

*Marikebu, n. ship. See Meri- 
kebu. (Ar. Cf. rekebu, and syn. 
jakazi, and B. chombo.) 

Marindi, n. See Malindi. 

*Marini, a. pleasing in appearance, 
bright, smart, blooming. Vijana 
marini, fine young people. (Cf. 
syn. -zuri.*) 

*Marisaa, n. also Malisaa, shot, 
i.e. for firearms. (Cf. rzsast, 

*Marithawa, a. in abundance, 
plenty, sufficient. ' (Ar. ' to one's 
heart's content, as much as one would 
wish.' Cf. rithi, rathi, and syn. 
-%*, tele) 

*Marra, n. and adv. (i) a time, 
a single time, a turn, an occasion, an 
occurrence; (2) at once, immediately. 
M. moja, (i) once, (2) at once, im- 
mediately. M. mbili, twice. M. ya 
kwanza, the first time. M. nyingi, 
of ten, repeatedly. Marra kwa marra, 
time after time, often. Marra marra, 
at intervals, at times, occasionally. 

M. hii, at once, on the spot. Marra 
chako, marra changu, now yours, now 
mine, a riddle to which the answer 
is malt, wealth. (Ar. Cf. safari, 
zamu, which are sometimes syn.) 

*Marudi, n. plur. also Marudio, 
(i) a return, a recompense, a paying 
back; (a) punishment, discipline, 
correction. (Ar. Cf. rejea, and 
malipo, athabu, zuio.} 

*Marufaa, n. plur. part of a native 
loom, small boards between which 
the warp is stretched. See Kitanda 
cha mfumi. 

*Marufuku, a. forbidden, pro- 
hibited. Piga m. (or rufaka\ give 
public notice of prohibition, proclaim 
as forbidden, forbid officially. ( Ar. 
Cf. mfaka, and syn. kataza.} 

Marugurugu, n. and a., small 
swellings, lumps, e.g. mtu akijikuna, 
hufanya m. ya mwiti, if a man 
scratches himself (as when stung), he 
raises swellings on his body. 

Masaa, n. See Masalio, Masazo. 

*Masafl, n. purity, cleanness, cor- 
rectness. (Ar. Cf. safi, usafi, 
which is seldom used, utakatifu, 
ufasaha, tohara.) 

*Masahaba, n. plur. the special 
friends and companions of Ma- 
hommed. (Ar. Cf. sahibu!) 

*Masaibu, n. accident, calamity. 
(Ar. Cf. msiba, from same root. ) 

Masalio, n. plur. also Masalia, 
Masaa, remains, remnant, what is 
left over. (Cf. salia, sazo, baki.} 

*Masalkheri, the common Arabic 
evening salutation, good evening, 
as subulkheri for the morning. (Ar. 
masaa, evening, and heri.} f 

Masango, n. wire, esp. thick brass 
wire, one of the commonest articles 
of exchange and barter in East Africa. 
Called also sengenge, masoka, and a 
fine kind udodi. Different kinds of 
material are distinguished as m. ya 
chuma, 'ya shaba nyeupe, ya shaba 
nyekundu, ya fetha, i. e. iron, brass, 
copper, silver wire. 

*Masarifu, n. also Masurufu, 




Masruf, supplies for an expedition 
or journey, provisions, outfit, goods 
and money. (Ar. expenses, out- 
lay. Cf. sarifu, gharama,) 

'Mashairi , n. plur. oishairi, verses, 
a poem, poetry. Tunga mashairi, 
compose poetry. (Ar.) 

*Mashaka, n. plur. of shaka, 
doubts, trouble, difficulties, danger. 

Mashapo, n. plur. dregs, lees, sedi- 
ment, e.g. of squeezed fruits, grains, 
herbs, &c. (Str.). (Cf. masira, 
mas at to.) 

*Mashariki, n. the East, -a ma- 
shariki, eastern, easterly, oriental. 
(Ar. Cf. magaribi, and syn. matlai, 
matokta {macho, maao) yajua.) 

Mashendea, n. plur. rice cooked 
as a kind of pudding, used for invalids, 
not dry like wait, nor gruel like 
uji. Mashindta ya mchcle, rice- 
pudding. Also m. ya mtama. 

Mashindano, n. plur. contest, 
race, competition, struggle, athletic 
sports. M. ya rnbio, racing ; m. ya 
kuruka, jumping competition; m. ya 
kushikana mbavu, wrestling. (Cf. 
shinda, mshindani.) 

Maahtaka, n. plur. (seldom in 

sing. shtaka, cf. mshtaka), charges, 

ions, rcproachc^. Sec Shtaki. 

Maahua, n. boat, boats, built 
of boards, &c., not hollowed oat 
in native fashion. Jlf. ya moshi, 
a steam launch. (Cf. shua, and 

*Maahuuri, a. famous, renowned, 
celebrated, well-known, notorious. 
' f. syn. maarufu, -enyi si/a, 

Maahuzi, n. plur. breaking \\ 
without noise. (Cf. shuta, ushuzi, 

Masia, n. walking, a walk, gait. 
Enda masia, go out walking. (Arab., 
usual ten; rf.) 

*Maaiflwa. n. plur. things praised, 
imended, advertised, 
passive from si/n, cf. follg. and 
noun mapendwa, &c.) 


*Masifu, n. plur. praises, con- 
gratulations. (For more usual si/a, 
cf. si/u, v.) 

*-masihiya, a. Christian. (Cf. 
Ar. masiha, Christ, and masiya.) 

Masika, n. the season of the 
greater rains (niajira ya rnvua ny- 
ingt) in Zanzibar, i.e. March, April, 
and May, when the hot north mon- 
soon gives way to the cooler south. 
Corresponds to autumn in northern 
latitudes. (For seasons generally 
see Mwaka.) 

*Masikani, n. dwelling place, 
abode. (Ar. Cf. rnakani, and 
syn. B. kao.} 

*Masikini, n. (i) a poor man, 
beggar, used descriptively, and also 
(a) in pity or contempt, a hapless, 
luckless, miserable individual. (3) 
a freed slave, who has no protector, 
home or belongings, i.e. ///. wa 
Muungu, one who picks up a living 
as he can. (Ar. Cf. fukara, 
tnwotnbaji, tnnyonge^ 

Masimango, n. plur. ill-natured 
remarks, reproaches, of a patroniz- 
ing contemptuous kind. (Cf. si- 
manga, and tnashutttrnu, masuto, 
mat u si.) 

Masingizio, n. plur. (i) slander, 
calumny, false insinuation, misrepre- 
sentation. Ili-ncc [] pretence, dis- 
guise, make-believe, belying facts. 
;isia, ncni\: amfia.) 

Maaiwa, n. large islands, -r used 
to describe the Comoro, or Sey- 
chelles islands. (Cf. kuiwa, usi- 

*Maiya, n. (ma-), t 
One, Christ. Ar. masiha.) 

MaaUi, n. plur. soot. 
masizi ya moshi meusi yaliyoganda~ 
<*gu, the black smoky grime 
i as on a cook ing pot. ( Dist. 

(1 rnazizt, 

Maaoka, n. thick iron or brass 
(Cf. masanj^o, and /< 

Maaombo, n. girdle, c<> 
of a long piece of cloth wound round 




the waist, like (Ar.) mahazamu. 
(Cf. ukumbun, which is shorter, and 

Masongo, n. plur. plaits, e. g. of 
hair, tresses, wreaths of flowers, gar- 
lands. (Cf. msokoto, and stika, songa?) 

*Masri, n. and Misri, Egypt. 

Masua, n. plur. and Mazua, giddi- 
ness. (Cf. zulu, zulika, kizuli, 
and syn. kizttnguzungu.} 

Masuguo, n. plur. rubbing, some- 
thing to rub with, a whetstone, 
knife-board. (Cf. stigua, noa, ki- 

Masuko, n. plur. #.nd commonly 
Masukosuko, (i) shaking, wagging, 
tossing, moving to and fro quickly, 
and so generally (2) agitation, dis- 
turbance, a restless state of affairs. 
Used of the rolling or pitching of 
a vessel at sea. (Cf. suka, and 

*Masululm, n. reconciliation, 
peace after quarrelling. (Ar. Cf. 
suhihisha, selehisha.} 

Masumbuo, n. plur. acts of annoy- 
ance, annoying habits or character. 
Kijana kidogo kina masumbuo, a 
small child is a nuisance. (Cf. 
sumbua, -sumbufu, usumbuo.} 

Masuto, n. plur. reproaches, accu- 
sations, critical remarks, fault-finding, 
sarcasms. (Cf. suta, and syn. lau- 
tmt, shuttimu, shtaka.} 

Mata, n. plur. of uta, native 
shooting weapon, bow and arrows. 
(Cf. upindi, mshale.} 

*Mataajabu, n. plur. wonders, 
marvels, surprises. Also of wonder, 
as felt, e.g. ona m., feel aston- 
ishment, wonder. (Ar. Cf. aja- 
bu, staajabu, and syn. mwujiza, 

Matabwatabwa, n. plnr. rice 
cooked with a great deal of water, 
rice gruel, called matabwatabwa ya 
wall, wait ulio mashendea membamba 
sana t i.e. a thin porridge, uji mive- 
fesi, uji wa majimaji, a very thin 
watery gruel. (Cf. wait, utabwa, 

Matafuni, n. plur. chewings, nib- 
blings, things chewed. (Cf. ta- 

Matagataga, adv. enda m., walk 
with long striding steps, straddle 
along. (Cf. taga or tagaa.} 

Mataka, n. plur. wantings, desires, 
inclination. (Cf. taka, v., matakwa, 
and syn. haja, maelekeo. Dist. 'mata- 

Matakata, n. plur. (i) cleansings, 
sweepings, scrapings, offscourings, 
and so (2) refuse, rubbish. (Cf. 
takata, taka, and follg.) 

Matakataka, n. plur. dirt, filth, 
refuse, rubbish. (Cf. taka, n., kita- 
kalaka, takata, kifusi?) 

Matakatifu, n. plur. pure living, 
holy life, holiness (i.e. perb, holiness 
not only considered as an attribute 
(utakatifu^j but exemplified in acts. 
See Ma-, 2 (d) (i). (Cf. -takata, 
-takatifit, utakatifu.} 

Matakwa, n. plur. (i) things 
wanted, needs, desires, requests ; (2) 
being wanted, being in request, e.g. 
matakwayangu kuwa mtumishi killa 
mtu ayajna, every one knows how 
I was wanted as a servant, how my 
services were in request. 

*Matana, n. used sometimes of a 
form of leprous disease. (Cf. ba- 
langa, ukoma^) 

Matanga, n. plnr. oftanga (which 

Matangamano, n. plur. a mixed 
crowd, medley, miscellaneous as- 
semblage, promiscuous collection. 
(Cf. tangamana, also syn. makutano, 

Matata, n. plur. tangle, complica- 
tion, complex affair, troubles, diffi- 
culties, &c. Tia m., complicate, 
involve. (Cf. tatiza.} 

Mate, n. plur. of ute (cf. uta, 
mata}, spitting, spittle, saliva. Mate- 
mate, light spitting rain, drizzle (cf. 
manyunyd], Tema mate, spit, ex- 

Mateka, n. plur. (i) booty, prey, 
plunder, and esp. (2) captive in war, 





slave, used as sfng. and plur. 
Uka, v.) 

Matembezi, n. plan (i) a walk 
taken for pleasure or business, a 
ramble, a tour, a round ; (2) also 
idle strolling, street walking. Nali- 
kwenda kulc matembezi, I went there 
for a walk. (Cf. tetnbta, rnasia.} 

*Mathabahu, n. and Mathbahu, 
place of sacrifice, altar. (Ar. Cf. 
mathabuha* thabihu^} 

*Mathabuha, n. and Mathbuha, 
thing sacrificed, ' victim, offering. 
;Cf. prec.) 

*Mathahabu, n. nnd Mathehebu, 
<>ms, ideas, tenets, usages ; (a) 
sect, denomination, party, persuasion. 
Hf. ya mantno, uses of words, for- 
mularies, idi< in-. M. ya mambo, 
usages, ceremonies, rites. (Ar. Cf. 
. kaivaida, kanuni. Dist. 

*Mathali, conj. also Mdthal, 
Methali, Mithili, Mizli, as, like, 
^ee Methali, and cf. katna.} 
*Mathubuti, n. and a., also 
Mathubutu, (i) evidence, proof, 
confirmation, support (cf. ushahidf) ; 
(3) trustworthy, honest, reliable, 
effective, decisive. E. g. makarani 
the clerks are not to be 
trusted. Hoja /., a strong, con- 
clusive argument. (Ar. Cf. thu~ 

'i, and syn. imara.) 
Matiko, n. hardening or tempering 

; m. t harden, 
amttilia m. shoka langu, the 
smith has trrnj>orcd my av 

; i matiko, of the 

Matilaba. n. desire, wish, pur- 
pose. Matilaba t:a mradi, desire 
nnd intention. (Arab., n< 

' imaa, matamani^ mat a- 
twa t shauri, shaitko.} 

Matilo, n. and Mantilo, a rope 
from the nft' iic yard to the 

masthead, to give greater security in 

Matimutimu. n. nyelc :a m. t dis- 
hevelled, disordered hair. 

Matindi, n. half-gTo^vn Indian 
corn (ntuhindi!}. 

Matiti, n. tnda m., trot, go at 
a trot, of an animal. (Cf. /*/i, 
mbio, and dist. ////', Aifiti.} 

*Matlaa, n. and Matlai, sunrise, 
the east, east wind, morning wind. 
Ar. Cf. mashariki^} 

Matongo, n. discharge from the 
eyes. Mwenyi m. ya macho, a per- 
son whose eyes run from weakness or 
disease. (Cf. utongo, tongo, and 
perh. chottgo.) 

Matukano, n. plur. insulting 
words, abuse, bad language, insults. 
(Ci.tukana, and syn. tnatusi, ttiasuto.} 

Matumbawe, n. plur. coral stone 
in the intermediate stage, between 
actual formation and complete fos- 
silization, a white, light, compact 
stone, used esp. on account of its 
lightness in concrete roofs; and, being 
comparatively soft, it is also cut to 
form a projecting support for plaster 

Matumishi, n. plur. service, a ser- 
vant's work. (Cf. follg. and nitu- 

Matumizi, n. plur. (i) acts of 
using, use, using, employment ; (2) 
things used, requisites, conveniences, 
e.g. food, clothes, firing. ADC I 
hana m. nayo, he has no use for them. 
/f,'. I am quite destitute at 
present. (Cf. /wnz,and syn 

Maumbile, n. plur. created state, 
original condition, natural c 

. :. \ hut umbo is usual in X. 
(Cf. umba, kiuml*.) 

Maungo, n. plur. of ungo (which 

Maunzi, n. plur. a structure, frame, 
rlc, esp. one of wood and of 

'he hull or fi 
of a vessel. (Cf. unJa, tnwufui.) 

Mauthiko. n. j-lur. annoyances, 
(feeling of) annoyance. A'tr.; 


(Cf. ////;/, utkia, and 
syn. rnasuml'uc.) 




*Mauti, n. death. Patiwa na 
(kutiwa na, patikana no) mauti, die. 
(Ar. Cf. maitij and syn. B. ufu, 

Mavi, n. plur. (no sing.), (i) 
dung, excrement; (2) dross (of 
metal), scoria, e. g. m. ya chuma, 
iron-worker's refuse ; m. ya nyota y 
star droppings, used of bright, 
metallic, sparkling stone, mica, &c. 
(3) a coarse term of abuse and con- 
tempt, like mawe, rot, humbug, non- 
sense, trash. 

Mavunde,n. plur., and Mavunde- 
vunde, broken, scattered, ragged 
clouds, a cloudy overcast sky. (Cf. 
vunja, and pass, terrain, -e.) 

Mavune, n. plur. that which is 
harvested or reaped. Sometimes used 
fig. of outcome, result, consequences, 
effect. (Cf. vuna, and pass, terrain. 
-<?, also follg.) 

Mavuno, n. plur. (i) time 
(place, process, results, &c.) of har- 
vesting, reaping crops*; (2) fig. 
generally profit, gain, exploitation. 
M. ya nyuki, bee harvest, i.e. honey. 
(Cf. vuna, and prec., and for profit, 
faida, uchumi^) 

Mavusho, n. plur. (like mavukizo}, 
fumes, exhalations, fumigation, &c. 
(Cf. vukizo, vukiza?) 

Mawe, n. plur.. of jiwe (which 
see). Often used contemptuously of 
things common or worthless, rub- 
bish, nonsense, trash. 

Mawele, n. plur. a very small 
species of grain, a kind of millet 
{Penicillaria spicata, Sac.). 

*Mayiti, n. See Maiti. 

Mayugwa, n. plur. leaves of the 
plant jimbi, a green vegetable like 
spinach when cooked. 

Mazao, n. plur. natural produce, 
products, offspring, fruit. (Cf. zaa, 

*Maziada, Mazidi, Mazidio, 
Mazidisho. See Ziada, &c. (Ar. 
Cf. zidi.) 

Maziko, n. plur. process (time, 
place, &c.) of burial, funeral, inter- 

ment. (Cf. zika, mzishi, maziski, 

Mazinga-ombwe, n. juggling 
tricks, conjuring, puzzles. (Cf. 
kiini-macho, miztingu, and follg.) 

Mazingazinga, n. plur. going 
round, revolutions, rounds, e. g. of 
a patrol, police, &c. (Cf. ztnga, 

zunguka, mzinga.} 

Mazishi, n. plur. preparations for 
burying, attendance at a funeral, 
things used at a burial (e. g. sanda, 
kiunza, pamba, ub'ani, &c.). (Cf. 
zika, mazikoj mzishi.} 

Maziwa, n. (i) as a collective 
noun, milk of man or animal; (2) 
plur. of ziwa, i.e. (a) breasts, suck- 
ling organs ; (b] pools, lakes. M. 
mabivu, curdled milk. (Cf. m- 
tindi, butter-milk.) M. ya ivatu 
ivawili, dragon's blood (sap of a 

Mazoea, n. plur. habitnation, 
practice, familiarity, use, habit, cus- 
tom. Sina m. ya kusema naye, I 
am not used to talking with him. 
Fanya m., settle down, become 
sociable, get contented. (Cf. 


Mazoezo, n. plur. and Mazoezi, 
habits, customs, usages, practice, 
wont. (Cf. zoea, -zoefu, and syn. 

Mazu, n. local name for a kind of 
banana, not in Z. (Cf. ndizi, 


Mazua, n. plur. and Masua, giddi- 
ness, confusion. (Cf. zulu. zu- 

Mazuka, n. plur. apparitions, 
ghosts, spirits. (Cf. zuka, kizuka, 
and syn. kivuli, pepo.} 

Mazungumzo, n. plur. social 
intercourse, conversation, amusement. 
(Cf. zungutnza, and syn. maongezi, 

Mb-, a common plural prefix of 
nouns beginning with , zv, uw, ub 
in Singular, usually representing a eu- 
phonic change from original n sound. 
Words not found under Mb may 




therefore be looked for under U, Uw, 
W, L'b. 

Mba, n. a kind of skin disease, 
causing irritation and subsequently 
scaling. (Cf. choa, dasi, rupia, 

Mbaamwozi, n. See Mbala- 

Mbaazi, n. (mi-), ( r ) a shrub 
bearing a yellow laburnum-like blos- 
som, and pods containing an edible 
pea or bean; (2) the beans of this 
shrub, ? Angola pea (Cajanus In- 
dicus, Sac.). Tundu la mibaazi, a 
cage made of twigs of the tnbaazi. 

*Mbaharia, n. (w-\ commonly. 
Baharia (mo-), a sailor. (Cf. 
bahari, and syn. mwana maji.) 

*Mbahili, n. (twz-), a miser, 
f. bahili, ubahili, mkabithi.) 

Mbalamwezi, n. also Mbaa- 
mwezi, Balamwezi, moonshine, 
bright moonlight. (Mbala- isperh. 
a plur. form connected with ivaa, 
v., shine, i.e. u(w)a(l)a, ua(l)a-, 
;-, combined with mwezi, 

Mbalanga, n. also Balanga, a 
form of leprosy. (Cf. ukorna, ba- 

*M bale he, n. (wet-) and a., boy or 
girl growing up, developed, marriage- 
able. (Ar. Cf. baUhe, and syn. 

., mpei>u.} 

Mbali, adv. (i) far, far off, dis- 

tant (in place or time), long ago, 

long after; (2) distinct, separate, 

v, opposite ; (3) 

with the Ap. form of verb. 

iiplctcly, quite.' E.g. 
walio mbali xwa mbali kuotuma kwa 
nyaraka, people who are far apart 
meet by means of letters.' Wtka 

t aside (apart). .V..- 
mbali. a long journey. Hakuja m. 
not very long since he 
came. Somcti: ran ft 

ibali, (of) different 
many-coloured, variegated. Mambo 
ibisa, these 
are diametrically opposed. 

With verbs, ulia mbali, kill outright. 
Potetea mbali ', perish utterly, a com- 
mon imprecation, ' go and be hanged.' 
Tupia mbali, throw quite away. 
With ya or na, mbali is used as 
a prep., far from, distant from, in 
time, space, or quality. (Cf. 

u6a/i, of which mbali is a plur. form, 
as mbelc of ubele. Opp. karibu, 

*Mbalungi, n. (mi-}, a citron tree, 
its fruit being balungi. ;For other 
varieties of orange see Mchungwa.) 

Mbamba, n. ('-), (i) thin, flat 
piece (of stone, metal, or other ma- 
terial), plate, layer, sheet, strip, chip, 
&c. Mbamba iva j'iwe, ji-we la 
mbamba, a flat stone. Also (a) a 
plant, a kind of Euphorbia. (Cf. 
bamba, bambo, -embamba,} 

Mbandiko, n. (wt-), a sticking 
on, application (e.g. of a plaster, 
&c.) (Cf. bandika.} 

Mbanduko, n. (w*-), a taking off, 
removing (e. g. of a plaster, covering, 
clothes), a stripping off. (Cf. 


Mbangi, n. (/*-) the Indian hemp 
plant, from which the intoxicant 
bangi is made. (Cf. afiuni, ma- 

jnni, bangi.) 

Mbango, n. a kind of wild \<\ 
with projecting tusks. Hen< 
person with projecting teeth. (Sel- 
dom in Z. ' ".ituruwc.) 

Mbano, n. an instrumt 
grasping and holding, force] 
cers, a hand-vice, stick part'.-. 
(Cf. bano, bana, t>an:i, kibano.) 

Mbaraka, n. (mi-), also Barak*, 
a blessing, in Z. more usual form 

than />tir t tt\i. .S/MMM' ni rn.. taking 
counsel brings a blessing. (Ar. 

Mbarango, n. (wi-), also Ba- 
rango, stout club, cudgel. Dim. 
kttarango. (Cf. bakora.fimbo.) 

Mbarika, n. (mi-), the castor-oil 
plant, elsewhere on the coast called 
mbono. Mafuta ya mbarika, castor- 




Mbaruti, n. (-), a thistle-like 

*Mbashiri, n. (wa-}, one who 
brings news, one who foretells, a 
prophet. (Ar. Cf. bashiri.} 

Mbasua, n. or Mbazua, giddiness, 
craziness. (Cf. mazua, kizua, zulika.} 

Mbata, n. a cocoanut in the final 
state of ripeness and dryness, when 
the nutty part inside gets loose from 
the shell. Commonly used for copra. 
(Cf. nazi, mnazi.} 

Mbati, n. (perh. plur. from a sing. 
uiuati}, the poles laid along the top 
of a wall, or of side posts, supporting 
the rafters on which the roof rests. 

Mbatili, n. (wa-}, prodigal, spend- 
thrift, gambler. (Cf. batili, and 
bathiri, and syn. mharibifu, or mpo- 
tevu, wa mali.} 

Mbau, n. ('-), (i) a plank, a 
board. Also (2)plur.of#fo,aplank, 
i. e. timber generally, sawn wood. 

Mbavuni, adv. by the side (of), 
alongside, on the sides (skirts, flanks). 
Mbavuni mwa mlima, on the flanks 
of the mountains. Alimganda mba- 
vuni, he stuck to his side, kept 
close to him. (Plur. of ubavu, 
with locative suffix -;'. Cf. kando, 

Mbawa, n. plur. of ubawa (which 

*Mbayani, n. (wa-), a well-known, 
notorious person. (Ar. Also 

baini, which see.) 

*Mbazazi, n. (wa-}, trader, dealer, 
pedlar. (Ar. trader in calico, 

draper. Cf. ubazazi, and syn. tajiri, 

Mbega, n. a monkey with long 
black silky hair, white on the shoul- 
ders. (Cf. kima.} 

Mbegu, n. (i) seed, germ, that from 
which a plant grows ; (2) breed, 
race, stock. A wider term than 
ehembe,punjc (a single grain, a sepa- 
rate small thing), and including what 
is planted and set to grow, i. e*. 
bulbs, roots, seedlings, cuttings, &c. 
Fig. of the germ of a disease. 

*Mbeja, n. (wa-}, a person who is 
neat, smart, well dressed, careful of 
personal appearance. Mbeja wa 
kano, a fine muscular man, athlete. 
(? bxtbahaj. Cf. umbuji.} 

Mbeko, n. perh. the same as 
mbeleko (which see). 

Mbele, adv. and n. (i) of place, 
before, in front, on the near side, 
on the far side, forward, beyond ; (2) 
of time, long ago, previously, in the 
past, in the future, hereafter; (3) 
fig. in the front, in a prominent 
place (as to rank, quality, value, 
&c.). Mbele is often used with ya 
or za (never no) in the above senses, 
and also (4) in the presence (of), in 
view of, and so, as compared with. 
E.g. as a noun, 'something before,' 
huna mbele huna nyuma, you have 
nothing before or behind you, no 
prospects or resources, you are utter-: 
ly destitute. Neno hili ntaktielezea 
mbele, I will explain this matter to 
you presently. Tuendelee mbele , let 
us go forward. Alikuja mbele, he 
arrived previously. Haivi mume-we 
mbele ya sheria, he is not her hus- 
band in the eye of the law. Dunia 
si kitu mbele yajua, the world (earth) 
is nothing compared with the sun. 
Akiba ya mbeleni, a provision for the 
future. (Mbele is a plur. form from 
ubele, orwele. Henceits prepositional 
use with za, as well as ya. The seem- 
ing vagueness of mbele, as meaning 
' on the near side ' and ' on the further 
side,' and also ' before ' and ' after ' 
in time, is generally removed by the 
context suggesting the point of view. 
If the idea of movement onward, pro- 
gression, is suggested by the circum- 
stances or only present in the mind, 
then mbele is usually ' on the further 
side, further on, after,' e.g. mbele ya 
mlima, beyond the mountain, mbele 
ya siku kuu, after the festival. 
Otherwise mbele may equally well 
mean ' in front of, before.' Alisi- 
mama mbele ya mlima, he stopped 
on this side of the mountain, in front 




of it. Hufunga mbelt ya siku kim, 
there is a general fast before the 
feast. Cf. kabla, nyuma, baada.} 

Mbeleko, n. also Mbeko and 
Ubeleko, a piece of calico used by 
women for carrying a child on the 
back while at work or walking. Such 
a cloth is a usual wedding present, 
made to the bride's mother. Ondoa 
(vunja) mbeko, put to shame. (Cf. 

Mbembe, n. (wa-), a coaxing, in- 
sinuating, flattering person, a coquette, 
a flirt. Also, a procurer. (Cf. 
bentbeltza, ubembe, btmbt, and follg.) 

Mbembezi, n. (wa-\ similar to 
Mbembe. (Cf. ubcmt> 

Mbibo, n. (m*-), the cashew-nut 
tree also known as mkanju), bearing 
the cashew apple (bibo) with the 
attached nnt (korosho). (Cl.dunge, 

Mbigili, n. (mi-\ a thorny brier- 
like shrub. 

Mbili, a. two, the form of -/// 
agreeing with D 4 (P), D 6 (P). (Cf. 

Mbilikimo, n. (wa-), a name by 
which the pigmy races of the central 
African forest region arc- known on 
the coast, a dwarf. 

Mbilingam.n.nnd Mbilingahya, 
a plant producing the edible 
able bHirtgani (of the tomato class), 
sometimes called the mad-apple or 

Mbingu, n. j-lur. of uwingu, the 
the heavens, heaven. 

Mbinja. n. j.lur. of uwittja, whist- 

ling. J'iga m. t give a whistle 
eltsa m., make a long whistle. 
fa, and ? wimfa, 
i.e. of hunting-calls imit 
birds, &c. Also niiunzi, msonyo.) 

Mbinu. n. ( ), roundness. 
ness, protuberance, a curve. 
mtono, a plump, well-shaped arm. 

Mbio, n. and adv., act of running, 
running, with speed, fast, Piga 

ike kimbia. En da m., go 

Rd. nibio-mbio, at full 
(Cf. kimbia, and syn. upesi, 




Mbirambi, used only in the semi- 
Arab. expression of condolence to a 
mourner, or bereaved person, or after 
any great personal loss, viz. mbirambi 
zako. Also in the form bi rabbi zako, 
e.g. hunena bi rabbi zako. Hujibu t 
zimepita, the usual words are ' thy 
(sorrows) be with the Lord/ and the 
usual reply, ' they are over.' (For 
rambi and rabbi cf. bundi and buddi,} 

Mbisho,n.iw*-), (i) act of striking, 
knocking against ; (2 ) opposition, con- 
tradiction ; (3) in navigation, beat- 
ing to windward, tacking. Mbisho wa 
pefio, the winds being contrary. (Cf. 
bisha, bishoj ubishi.} 

Mbisi, n. also bisi (which see), 
parched Indian com. (Dist. tnbizi, 

Mbiu, n. (i) a buffalo's horn, 
sometimes beaten as a musical instru- 
ment ; (a) also blown to call public 
attention, and so meaning .1 proclama- 
tion. riga ;;/., give public notice, 
announce. Ilipoku>isha /., when 
the proclamation had been made. 
(For horn cf. pembe, for^proclama- 
tion httbiri, fangaza habari!) 

Mbizi, n. a dive, diving. 
(endd] m., dive. Hodari sana kwe- 
. a first-rate diver. (Afbizi 
is used mainly of the plunge itself. 
Professional diving is described by 
zama, which see.) 

Mboja, n. (i) (mi-), the plant 
which produces the boea, pumpkin. 
.g. ukaota tnboga, uJeataa maboga 
mengi, and 1 1 

duced a number of pumpkins. (a) 
when treated as I) 6, is a general 
term for garden produo- 
tables of all kinds, inchu' 
above. Afboga ya fnvani, an 
plant growing like a ^ 

. Sesuvium fc> 
strum (Sac.), purslane. ' 
' getables arc do>j 





kiazi, tango, uwatu, mchicha, yugwa, 
and several described as majani.) 

Mboleo, n. manure, dung. (Cf. 
syn. samadi) 

Mbomoshi, n. (wa-), one who 
throws down (demolishes, destroys, 
ruins, &c.), a destroyer, a revolu- 
tionist. (Cf. bomoa, bomosha.) 

Mbona, adv. interrog., why? what 
for? for what reason? (Cf. syn. 
kwa nini, kwa sababu gani.) 

Mboni, n. mboni ya jicho, the 
seeing part of the eye, i. e. the apple 
or pupil of the eye, also described as 
mwana wa mboni. (Cf. ona.) 

Mbono, n. (mi-}, (i) the castor-oil 
plant, known usually in Z. as mbd- 
rika, also (2) plur. of ubono, the seed 
of this plant. 

Mboo, n. (mi-), penis. (Syn. 
Arab . firaka.) 

Mbu, n. also imbu in Z. (rather 
than wnbu) % mosquito. 

Mbuai, a. invar, -savage, wild, 
rapacious. Nyama mbuai, beasts of 
prey. (Cf. ua, mwuaji. Peril, for 
mbuaji. Cf. syn. -kali, -a mwitu.) 

Mbugu, n. (mi-), a creeper, creep- 
ing plant. (Cf. ubugu, bugu, and 
mbungo.) . 

Mbukulia, n. (iva~), one who gets 
hold of and tells secrets, a gossip, 
scandal-monger, tell-tale. (Cf. bu- 
kua, and syn. mdaku, mdakizi.) 

Mbungo, n. (mi-), a. creeping plant, 
bearing an edible fruit resembling a 
medlar (bungo), and producing india- 
rubber, a kind of Landolphia. (Cf. 
mtoria, and mbugu.) 

Mbuni, n. (i) (wa-), an ostrich; 
(2) (wa-), verbal noun of buni, i. e. 
an inventor, author, originator, deviser, 
e.g. mbuni kitabu (or, wa kitabu), 
the author of a book; (3) (mi-), a 
coffee plant, the berries being buni, or 
buni za kahawa, whence the beverage 
coffee (kahawa). 

Mburugo,n.(w*-), and Mvurugo, 
a stirring up, a mixing, a muddling, 
disorder, mess. (Cf. buruga) 

Mbururo, n. (mi-), (i) a pulling, 

hauling, dragging ; (2) track or marks 
made by pulling something along. 
(Cf. bttrura, and mkokoto.) 

Mbuyu, n . (mi-) , the baobab or cal- 
abash tree, often of enormous girth 
in proportion to the height, producing 
a large nut (buyu), the hard shell of 
which is used for drawing water, and 
the kernel (ubuyu, a dry biscuit-like 
substance with an acid taste) for 
flavouring food. Siogopi unene wa 
mbuyu, I am not afraid of a baobab's 
size, i.e. appearance of strength with- 
out reality, the wood being soft and 

Mbuzi, n. ( ), and Mabuzi, of 
size, (i) a goat; (a) an instrument 
for grating cocoanut, i.e. mbuzi ya 
kukuifia nazi, a piece of iron with 
serrated edge fixed in a board. (Cf. 
kibuzi. Next to fowls, goats are the 
usual and often the only feasible in- 
vestment for a native. The next is a 
cow, or slave.) 

Mbwa, n. ( ), a dog, an un- 
clean animal to Mahommedans. M. 
wa mwitu, a jackal, or wild dog. 
M. koko, a bush-dog, the common 
pariah or half-wild dog of Zanzibar, 
of a reddish fox-like kind, living in 
the plantations near the town in a 
semi-domesticated state and invading 
it in troops at night. (Cf. jibwa.) 

Mbwai. See Mbuai. 

Mbwe,n. ( ), small stone, pebble, 
shingle, larger than changarawe. 
(Cf. jiwe, kijiwe, kibwe.) 

Mbweha, n. ( ), a fox, jackal. 

Mbweu, n. ( ), also Mbweo, 
belching, eructation. Pigct (enda) 
mbweu, belch. (Cf. syn. Ar. 


Mchafuko, n. (-) disorder, 
disturbance, chaos, confusion, mess. 
M. wa watu, riot, tumult. (Cf. 
chafua, and syn. ghasia.) 

Mchago, n. (mi-), the end of a 
bedstead, where the head rests. (Cf. 

Mchakacho, n. (i) a crushing, a 
pounding, and so (2) a crackling, 




rustling sound, e.g. of feet on dry 
grass and leaves. (Cf. chakacha, 
and perh. mtakaso?) 

Mchakuro, n. (i) a scratching; 
(a) the sound of scratching. (Cf. 

Mchana, n. (no plur.), day as op- 
posed to night (usiku), daytime, day- 
light. Mchana and usiku together 
make one day, or period of twenty- 
four hours. The mchana or period 
of daylight at Zanzibar varies little 
more than an hour in the course of 
the year, so little that sunset, when- 
ever it occurs, is taken as 6 p.m., 
the point from which the next twenty- 
four hours are to be reckoned. An 
evening salutation is Za mchana , ? 
i. e. Habari za mchana . ? How have 
you been to-day? with the invari- 
able response, njcma, quite well. Also 
used in Z. as a kind of challenge 
word, e. g. Mchana usiku .? Are you 
friend or foe? (lit. day or night). 
Mchana kuchwa, the whole day long, 
like usiku kucha, the whole night 
long. Mchana is also used in a more 
limited sense, midday, noon, also 
mchana tnkuu, i. e. the height of day 
ommonly athuuri, and jua 
kichu\:> ;0, the 

period before and after the midday 
noun. Chakula cha mchana, the mid- 
day meal, lunch, tiffin. The com- 
monest divisions of daytime are al- 
fajiri, when the first signs of it ap- 
pear; kucha, dawn; assubuf. 
noon including mafungulia njombe, 
between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m.) ; <;.' 
noon ; alaiiri, afternoon, about 3 p.m. ; 

vening, till dark. I 
conn, with .//,/, v. and kucha, kuchwa. 
Cf. saa, siku, usiku.) 

Mchanga, n. (no plur.), sand. M. 
coarse sand. M. mwtmba- 
Y w/i/W, loose, dry, 
dust-like sand. Chtml<c ya mthanga, 
. of sand, and pern, uchanga. 
hanga, a., i.e. in a small un- 
developed stage, or f- 

MchanganyikQ, Mchanganyo, 

n. (mi-), mixture, promiscuous ming- 
ling, adulteration. (The two forms 
only differ in voice, Act. and Xt. 
'a mixing, a being mixed,' both being 
covered by ' mixture.' Cf. chang- 
any a.} 

Mchango, n. (0**-), (i) collecting, 
getting together, joining in an under- 
taking, contribution, e. g. m. u>a 
asikari, mustering soldiers ; m. wa 
mali, raising funds from different 
sources, (a) Intestinal worms, w.u<a 
tumbo. (Cf. changa, chango, u- 

Mchanjo, n. (mi-), a cutting, a 
lopping, &c. (Cf. chanja, chanjo.} 

Mchanyato, n. a native dish, 
bananas, cassava, &c., sliced up 
and boiled with fish. (Cf. cha- 

Mchawi, n. (wa-), a wizard, a 
witch, one of either sex who pi 
the black arts, a sorcerer, a magician. 
Contr. mganga, whose art is in 
the main under the control of, and 
allowed by, the community. E.g. 
hnyu ni tn^in^a, kisha ni 
tnchawi, wala haicczckani, he's n 
medicine-man, and what's more, a 
wizard, and we cannot put up with 
him. (Perh. conn with cha, v.. 
fear, as a passive form, ' a drraded one.' 
For syn. cf. mwcinga, nnc 
mlozi, i. c. mlogaji!) 

Mohe, n. (mi-), seedling, slip, 
shoot, cutting, young plan-. 
Me he huu ni mtigam ? What tree is 
this a cutting of? (Out. mchi, 

Mchekeahaji, n. (wa-), an amus- 
ing droll person, a wag, a clown, a 
merry smiling person. (Cf. chtka, 
and follg.) 

Mohekeahi, n. (wa-), and Mohe- 

Mcheko, n. (mi-), act (mani 
cumstanccs) of laughing, &c. (Cf. 
md prec.) 

Mchelo, n. (mi-), rice, collec- 

ic grain as gathered andcleaned 

of the husk. Plural seldom heard, e. g. 




wakala michele pia, they ate up all 
the rice. Mchele has also a wider 
sense, i.e. 'cleaned grain' in general, 
hence mchele wa mtania, millet grain, 
and mchde wa mpunga defining it as 
' rice-grain.' Different sorts of rice 
are known as sena, bungala, shi- 
ndano, garafttu,kapwai, ktfungo, ma- 
devu, mwanga, sifara, nchukwi. 
(Dist. mpunga, the rice-plant, grow- 
ing rice, and the various kinds of 
cooked rice, wall, uji, ubwabwa.} 

Mchengo, n. (mi-}, a cutting, esp. 
of -wood, trees, bushes, stalks, &c. 
(Cf. chenga, chanja, and kata} 

Mchenza, n. (mi-}, a tree bearing 
a large mandarin orange (chenza}. 
(For other kinds cf. mchungwa.} 

Mcheshi, n. (wa-}, a merry, 
laughing, genial, amusing person. 
(Cf. cheka, mchekeshi.} 

Mchezi, n. (wa-}, one who plays, 
a gay sportive person, a player, an 
actor. (Cf. cheza, and follg.) 

Mchezo, n. (mi-}, game, pastime, 
amusement, sport. (Cf. cheza, 

and prec., and syn. maongezi, ma- 
zungumzo. For games cf. tinge, bao, 
sataranji, karata,'tiabu, dama, ki- 

Mchi, n. (mi-}, a pestle, a pole of 
hard wood used for pounding grain 
&c. in a wooden mortar (kinu}. . 

Mchicha, n. (mi-}, a common 
plant with edible leaves, used as a 
vegetable, like spinach. (Dist. 

Mchikichi, n. (mi-}, the palm-oil 
tree, bearing the fruit chikichi. (For 
other palms see mnazi.) 

McMnjaji, n. (wa-}, a butcher, 
a slaughterer. (Cf. chinja, and 

Mchinjo, n. (mi-}, act (place, 
manner, &c.) of slaying, slaughter, 
butcfhery, massacre. (Cf. chinja.} 

Mchirizi, n. (mi-}, anything for 
collecting or draining away water, a 
gutter, a channel, a stick or leaflet 
or blade of grass for leading rain- 
water from the trunk of a tree to a 

pail. Also, the eaves of a house, 
from which rain drips or trickles. 
(Cf. churuzika.} 

Mchiro, n. (wa-}, but better 
ng'chiro, a mungoos. 

Mchocheo, Mchocho, n. (mi-}, 
a poking up, a ro'using, stimulation, 
from ehocha (which see). 

Mchochoro, n. (mi-}, a narrow 
alley, or passage between houses. 
(Cf. kichochoro.} 

'Mchokichoki, n. (mi-}, and 
Mchokochoko, a tree bearing the- 
fruit ckokichoki (which see) (Nephe- 
lium Litschi, Sac.). 

Mchomo, n. act or process of 
burning, &c. See Choma, Chomo. 
Also irritation, smart, pricking, stab- 
bing, &c., and of cooking. (Cf. 
mkaango, mtokoso, mwoko, &c.) 

Mchonge, a. mchonge wa jicho, 
a one-eyed person, i. e. mwenyi 
chongo. (Cf. follg.) 

Mchongo, n. (mi-}, a cutting, act 
of cutting, making a cut, with axe. 
knife, &c. Mchongo wa kalamu, cut- 
ting a pen. (Cf. chonga, change, 
chongo. } 

Mchongoma, n. (mi-}, a thorny 
shrub, with white flowers, and a small 
black edible fruit (Str.). Used for 
fences. Also ? a kind of Euphorbia. 

Mchoro, n. (mi-}, carving, en- 
graving, making a scratch or scrawl. 
(Cf. chora, and follg.) 

Mchorochoro, n . (wa-} , a scrawler, 
scribbler, bad writer. (Cf. chora, 
and prec.) 

Mchoroko, n. (mi-}, the plant 
which produces 'the edible bean 
choroko (which see). 

Mchoto, n. (mi-}, a small bit, a 
scrap, a sample, a taste,' e. g. of a 
delicacy or sweetmeat, sent as a 
present. (Cf. chota, cholo.} 

Mchovyo, n. (mi-}, a dipping, 
plunging in a liquid, and so used of 
tempering metals, process of plating 
or coating with a substance or colour. 
(Cf. chovya.} 

Mchu, n. (mi-}, a kind of man- 




grove, with tough whitish wood. 
-:. niche, me hi.) ' 

Mchukuzi, n. (wa-), a bearer, 
carrier, porter. (Cf. chukua, and 
mfagazi, ha ma I i.) 

Mchuraba, n. (wa-), one who 
seeks or is sought in marriage, suitor, 
lover, sweetheart, fiancee. (Cf. 
chumba, kinyumba.) 

Mchunga, n. (wa-), one who has 
the care of animals, shepherd, herds- 
man, groom, &c., with or without 
a preposition. M. (wa) ng'ombe, a 
cowherd. Albuzi was to m. t goats 
without a goatherd. Also m. wa 
gari, coachman, driver. (Ci.chunga, 
Us ha.) 

Mchungaji, n. same as Mchunga 
(which see), the ji suffix denoting 
a professional or habitual occupation, 
shepherd, &c. 

Mchungwa, n. (mi-), an orange 
tree, bearing a sweet orange (chungwa) 
of the common kind, plentiful during 
nine months of the year in Z. (Cf. 
chungwa, and for other varieties 
mchenza, mliinan, tnbalitngi, nnidi- 
mu, mkangaja, mdanzi, mfurungu.} 

Mchuruzi, n. (wa-), small trader, 
shopman, retail-dealer, pedlar, stall- 
keeper. (Cf. chuntza, and syn. 
mbazazi, mfanyi biashara, mwenyi 

Mchuei, n. (mi-), any kind of 
gravy, tonp, sauce, broth, esp. as 
used to flavour a dish of rice or other 
cooked grain. Prov. mthuzi i 
gravy means water, of something 
indispensable. (Cf. <huza, and 
kitvwto, kiungo.) 

Mchwa, n. ( ), white ants, of 
a small but destructive- 
(For other varieties cf. chungu. sia/u, 
maji ya moto, sisimisi, kun. 

Mda, ,lso Muda (which 

see), a space of time, period. 

Mda*. n. (mi-), a plant used for 

Mdadisi, n. (wa-), one who ques- 
tions, a 

(Ar. Cf. dadisi.) 

Mdago, n. (mi-), a kind of weed. 

*Mdai, n. (wa-), a claimant, plain- 
tiff, prosecutor, creditor. (Ar. Cf. 
dai, dawa, mdawa, and mwii.) 

Mdakizi, n. (wa-), similar to 
Mdaku, and Mdukizi (which see), 
eavesdropper, gossip-monger, &c. 

Mdaku, n. (wa-), one who catches 
up news, slanderer, tale-bearer, &c. 
(Cf. prec. and daka.) 

Mdalasini, n. (mi-), a cinnamon 
tree, also the bark. 

Mdanzi, n. (mi-), the tree bearing 
the danzi, or bitter orange. (For 
other kinds cf. ntchungwa.) 

*Mdarabi, n. (mi'-), also Mtarabe, 
the rose-apple tree, bearing the fruit 

*Mdawa,n. (i)(wa-), claimant, ac-* 
cnser, prosecutor, opponent, assailant. 
Sometimes (a) (mi-), a claim, suit, 
legal proceedings. ( Ar. Like rndai, 
cf. etai, dawa, and mshtaki, r. 

*Mdeki, n. (mi-), a ramrod, ^hind- 
ilia bunduki kwa mdeki, to load a 
gun with a ramrod. (Ar.) 

*Mdengu, n. (mi-), a plant pro- 
ducing the small edible bean or pea, 
dengu (which see). 

*Mdeni, n. (wa-), a debtor, a 
fXTson in debt. (Ar. C't 
and mwii, wia, wiwa.) 

*Mdila, n. (mi-), a coffee-pot. 
f. buli, tc.-; 

Mdimu, n. (mi-). See Mndimu, 
the tree which bears the hn 

Mdiria, n. (wa-), a '. 

Mdo-l '.milling 

plant producing the edible vegetable 
dodoki, a kind of 1 

Mdomo, n. (mi-), \\ 
mlomo, muotno, mwotno, (i) a lip; 
(a) beak, bill (of a bird); (3) fig. 

a projcc in K' n g P n: 

wapandt, a hare-lip. Pigam.,\ 
also, make a long speech, be garni - 
lous, but usually dome i: 
sense. (Cf. dotno, and omo.) 

Mdoahi, n. (mi-), a kind of pedal 




or treadle, working the part of a 
native loom which raises the threads 
of the warp alternately. (Cf. mfu- 
miifuma, kitanda.} 

*Mduara, n. (mi-} t and Duara, 
a circular thing, circle, round heap, 
wheel, like duara (which see). 
(Ar. Cf. mviringo, gurudumu.} 

*Mdudu, n. (wa-),the most general 
word for ' insect,' including ants, flies, 
fleas, grubs, worms, and all small 
creeping and flying creatures. Also 
used of various diseases caused by, or 
attributed by the natives to, parasites 
and other insects in the body. (Ar. 
Cf. dtidu, kidudu, and dist. dude.} 

Mdukizi, n. (iua-}, eavesdropper, 
gossip-monger, slanderer. (Perh. 
the same as mdakizi, cf. daka, mdaku, 
dakiza, dukiza.} 

Mdukuo, n. (mi-}, a tap, push, 
poke, thrust, given with stick, finger, 
or open hand, e. g. mtie mdukuo 
iva jicho, poke him in the eye. So 
pigo la kidole. 

Mdumu, n. (mi-}, commonly 
dumu (which see), pot, mug. 

Mdundo, n. (mi-}, used of a roll- 
ing, rumbling sound, as of drums or 
a band. (? Hind. dund. Cf. vuma, 

Me-, (i) as a tense-sign, marks 
the completion of an action or pro- 
cess, or the consequent state and 
condition, and so supplies a Perfect 
and Pluperfect Tense. This form of 
the verb also often supplies the place 
of a Past Participle. It can never be 
combined with a relative-pfx., the 
necessary forms being supplied by 
the -/i- (Past) Tense. It is rarely 
used with a negative pers.-pfx., sime- 
kwambia ? Have I not told you ? 
its place being supplied by the Past 
Tense Negative with ku-. E.g. ame- 
fika amechoka, he has arrived in a 
tired state. Tukamkuta amekufa, 
we found him dead. Amevaa nguo 
nzuri, he is wearing fine clothes. (2) 
as an initial syllable, sometimes 
represents ma- combined with an -*', 

e-, or -o following, e.g. makasha 
mengine mengi, for ma-ingine, ma- 
ingi, many other boxes ; mavazi me- 
roro, for ma-ororo, soft clothes. 
See A, E, I. 

Mea, v. ' grow ' as a vegetable or 
plant, of plant life, but also of parts 
of the animal organization, which 
resemble plants in growth, i.e. hair, 
teeth, nails, &c. Also in a quasi- 
active sense, e. g. butt likamea mbawa, 
the grub grew wings. A p. melea, 
grow in (on, by, &c.), grow as a 
parasite of, and also in a quasi-passive 
sense, be grown over, be overgrown, 
e.g. shamba langu linamelea, my 
plantation is overgrown (with weeds, 
c.). Cs. meza, cause to grow, 
e. g. Muungu antenimeza meno, God 
has caused my teeth to grow. (T)ist. 
meza, swallow.) (Cf. mmea, umea, 
mmelea, kimelea, and syn. ota, kua.} 

Mega, v. break off a piece, take a bit, 
esp. with fingers or teeth, of taking 
a share of food, a help from a common 
plate or dainty. Ps. megwa. Nt. 
megeka. Ap. meg-ea, -ewa. Cs. me- 
gesha, e. g. invite to take a bite, 
ask to help himself. Rp. mcgana, of 
general consent or common action. 
(Cf. follg. and tonge, mmego.} 

Mego, n. (wa-}, a piece, a bit, 
a morsel, a bite, a helping, esp. of 
food. (Cf. mega.} 

Meka-meka, v. a variant of meta- 
meta, merimeta, memeteka, sparkle, 
glitter, shine, be bright, fiery, &c. 
(And cf. mulimuli^) 

Meko, n. plur. of jiko (i. e. 
majiko, maiko, meko} (which see), and 
cf. figa, jifya, stones for supporting 
a cooking-pot over the fire. 

Memeteka v. also Memetuka, 
sparkle, shine. (Cf. melameta.} 

Mende, n. ( ), a cockroach. Also 
a slang term for a rupee. 

Mengi, a form of -ingi agreeing 
with D 5 (P), i. e. maingi, mengi. 
So mengine, from -ingine. 

Mono, n. plur. oijino (i.e. majino, 
maino, mcno}, teeth. Meno rneno, 




battlements, usually arched or pointed 
in Z. See Jino. 

Menya, v. (i) shell, husk, peel, 
e. g. sugar-cane ; (a) beat, pound 
(not usual in Z.). (Cf. ambua, 
chambua. faa, v.) 

*Merikebu, n. ( ), also Marike- 
bu, Marekabu, a ship, esp. of foreign 
construction, as contr. with the native 
vessel chombo. Various kinds are dis- 
tinguished as merikebu ya matanga, 
sailing vessel ; m. ya ttioshi, steamer 
&\so ya do/iani; m.ya kazi or ya 
serkalij a freight vessel, as contr. 
with melt for passenger traffic ; m. ya 
milingote miwili (tniwili u nussu, 
mitatn , a brig or schooner (a barque, 
a full-rigged ship). Ingia (panda) 
mtrikebuni, go on board a vessel. 
Shuka merikfbuni, disembark. (Ar. 
Cf.jaAazi, chombo.) 

Merimeta, v. sparkle, shine (cf. 

*Meshmaa, n. ( ), a candle. 
(Ar. shamaa, sometimes changed to 
mshumaa (mi-).) 

*Meski, n. and Miski, musk. 
Also similar scents. (Cf. marashi, 

*Meskiti, n. also Msikiti, Mo- 
kiti, a mosque. (Ar. changed from 
mesgidi, masjidi, cf. sujudu.) 

Meta, v. also Metameta, shine, 
sparkle, glitter, be bright, &c., e.g. 
of polished metal, t "in- flits, stars, &c. 
meteka, e.g. ufxwga hu meteka 
kotekote, the sword is bright all 
Cf. mettiha, make shine, polish. 
(Cf. memttuka, 

mekameka,*\\ perh. variants of 
similar sound. Also mm: 
mulika, and (of steady light) ttg'aa, 



Methali, n. and conj., also in 
'tali, mat ha I, 

methili, mithili, mizli, \ a . 
resemblance, em II lc,pr- 


ya t like, resembling, a likeness of, in 

the likeness of, and so (a) as, like, 

instance, same as the 

commoner kama. Mithili ni kuiva 
amena mtu, as for instance (it is as if) 
he has committed a murder. (Ar. 
Cf. syn. B. wfano, and conj. kama.) 

Meza, v. (i) swallow, swallow up 
(perh. a Cs. of mega (which see), i.e. 
megesha, meta ; (2) Cs. oimca, cause 
to grow. 

*Meza, n. ( ), a table, raised 
wooden bench, school form. Mtzani, 
(of Europeans) at a meal, at dinner, 
also a dining-room, mess-room, i. e. 
ihumba cha kulia. (Portug. Cf. 
Lat. niensa.) 

Mfaa, n. (mi-), centre-piece of 
native door, fixed to one valve, 
the other closing against it. (Cf. 

Mialme, n. (wa-).king, chief,ruler, 
sultan. (Cf. ufalme, and syn./wwfo, 
sultani, mkuu.) 

Mfano, n. (mi-), likeness, re- 
semblance, similitude, emblem, sam- 
ple, pattern, parable. Mfano iva 
maneno, an allegory, parable. Kiva 
mfano wa, or only mfano na, like. 
Also mfano alone, as con . 
mfano nguoyapili, it acts as another 
garment. (Cf. fanana, kifano, 

and syn. Ar. methali, and conj. 

Mfanyi, n. (wa-\ a doer, a maker, 
one who practises, usually as a ver- 
bal noun k'oviTiiing another noun, 
e. g. mfanyi biashara, a trader, a mer- 
chant ; mfanyi viatu, a shoemaker. 

Mfaranaa, n. (wa-), also MfVa- 
naa, Mfaraai nan. (From 

J'rartfais. -:sa.) 

Mfariji, n. (wa-), one who com- 
forts, a comforter, a consoler. (Ar. 

Mfarika.n. (iva-), a yonng animal, 
goat, sheep, &c., grown 1 
yet breeding. (A *i'and 

Mfariki,n.alivuirr,csp. acomb- 
-sed in weaving. 
Same as faraka (which see). 

Mfasiri, n. (wa-), an expounder, 




interpreter, translator. (Ar. Cf. 
fasiri, and mfcalirnani.} 

*Mfathili, n. (wa-}, a benefactor, 
helper, akind, liberal, generous person. 
(Ar. a.fathili.} 

Mfenessi,n. (wz-), a jack-fruit tree, 
a single fruit of which often weighs 
over 20 Ib. (Ct.fenessi.} 

Mflchaji, Mflchifichi, n. (wa-}, 
one who habitually conceals, a very 
reserved or retiring person. (Cf. 
Jicha, and -nyamafu.} 

Mflgili, n. (mi-}, and Mfljili, 
kind of radish-plant, with an edible 
root, figili. 

Mfiko, n. (mi-}, arrival, reach, 
range. Mfiko tva lisasi, range of a 
bullet (gunshot, rifle). (Ci.fika.} 

*Mfilisi, n. (wa-}, one who forces 
another into ruin, bankruptcy, &c., 
a distrainer, defrauder, embezzler. 
(Ci.jfilih, and follg.) 

*Mfilisika, n. (wa-}, a ruined per- 
son, bankrupt. (Cf. prec.) 

Mflnessi, n. See Mfenessi. 

Mfinyangi, n. (wa-}, alsoMflnya- 
nzi (and -ji), a worker in clay, a potter. 
Mfinyanzi hulia gae, a potter eats 
off a potsherd, i. e. is no millionaire. 
(CLfinyanza.finya, ufinyanzi.} 

Mfisha, Mfishaji, n. (wa-\ one 
who kills, a slaughterer. (Cf. /a, 
fisha."] ' . 

*Mfithuli, n. (wa-}, an insolent, 
rude, overbearing, insulting person. 
(Ar. Cf. fit hull, ufithuli) and syn. 

*Mfltini, n. (wa-}, one who causes 
discord, a quarrelsome person, brawler, 
agitator, disturber of peace, mutineer, 
conspirator. (Ar. Cf.fitina,fitini.} 

Mfiwi, n. (mi-}, plant producing 
theyfa/i, Cape bean. 

Mfo, n. (mi-}, torrent, rain-fed 
stream, flood, also the channel or 
bed of a torrent. Mfo mkavu, dry 
bed, of a torrent. Leo kumeshuka 
mfo, hakupitiki, to-day a flood has 
come down, it is impossible to cross. 
Mto alikuwa na mfo, the river was 
in flood. (CLfuriko, and mto.} 

*Mforsadi, n. (mi-}, a mulberry 
tree, bearing the fruit forsadi. 

Mfu, n. (wa-), a dead person. 
(See -fu. Cf. /a, v., kifo, ufu, and 
syn. maiti.) 

Mfua, (i) (wa-), one who beats, 
esp. of one who works in metal with 
hammer, &c.. a smith. A verbal- 
noun from fua, governing a noun 
following, e.g. nifua chuma(thahabu, 
fetha, &c.), a blacksmith (goldsmith, 
silversmith, &c.). Mftta nguo, one 
who washes clothes, a washerman 
(commonly dobj. in Z.). (2) (mi-}, 
mifua (or mifuo), bellows. Vukuta 
mifua, blow bellows. (Cf. /IM, 

Mfuasi, n. (wa-), (i) a follower, 
adherent, retainer, disciple ; (2) a 
pursuer, tracker. (Cf./uata.) 

Mfufuzi, n. (wa-), one who raises 
from the dead, restorer of life. (Cf. 

Mfugo, n. ('-), taming, breed- 
ing, rearing of birds or animals. 
M. wa nyama, cattle breeding. M. wa 
frasi, keeping a stable, breaking-in 
horses. Nina mifugo mingi, I rear 
many kinds of animals. (CLfuga.} 

Mfuko, n. ('-), a bag, a pocket, 
a general term, with dim. kifuko, and 
fuko (ma-}, a large bag, travelling 
bag, saddle-bag. (Cl.fukia,fukua. 
Various kinds of bags are fumba, 
kifumba, gunia, kiguni^ kanda, 
kikanda, mbatu, mkoba, mtumba, 

Mfukuzi, n. (wa-}', (i } homfukuza, 
pursuer, persecutor ; (2) homfukua, 
gS er > miner, pitman. 
Mfulizo, n. (mi-}, causing to go 
on, giving an energetic impetus, a 
pull, tug, haul, thrust, shove, &c. 
Kwa mfulizo mmoja, all pulling to- 
gether. (CLfua'fuh'za, and follg.) 
Mfululizo, n. (mi-}, also Mfufu- 
lizo, a Rd. form of mfulizo, a going on 
and on, a regular progression, series, 
succession. Siku tano ya mfululizo, 
five consecutive days. (Cf. prec.) 
Mfuma, Mfumaji, Mfumi, n. 




(wa-), one who weaves, a weaver. 
Mfuma nguo, a weaver of cloth. 
mfumi, a weaver's loom. 
Mfumaji wa Aariri, a silk weaver. 
(Cf. /w///a, and kitanda.) 

Mfumbati, n. (>/'-), side-piece of 
the frame of a native bedstead. See 

Mfumi, n. See Mfuma. 

Mfumo, n. (mi-\ (i) art (act, 
process, &c.) of weaving ; (a) tex- 
ture, fabric. Mfumo tuake mzuri, it 
is a well-woven stuff. (Cf. fuma, 
M/uwi, kitanda cha m/umi, mtande 
(warp), mshindio (woof).) 

Mfungizo, n. (#'-), a fastening 
up, an investment, blockade, siege. 
(Cf./un?a,/nfi^tza, and wazingiwa.) 

Mfungo, n. (-), (i) a fastening, 
shutting, closing, tying, &c. (see 
Funga . and (a) esp. fasting, used 
both of such fasts as the month Rama- 
than and of the carnival immediately 
preceding it. Mfungo wa Ulaya, 
European mode of fastening. (Cf. 
funga, kifungOy and follg.) 

Mfunguo, n. (#'-), unfastening, 
;, loosing, releasing, &c. (see 
Fungua). Used to describe the 
nine months following the month of 
fasting, Ramathan, vi/. mfunguo wa 
most, wa /i/i, wa tatu, &c., the 
remaining three being called by t he- 
Arabic names Rajabu, Shaabani, Ka- 
mathani. (Cf./ungua, and prec.) 

Mfunza, Mftinmaji, Mfunzi, n. 

(wtf-), a teacher, instructor, tutor. 

: ia t and tyn. mwali- 

mu, mk*fun*i } fundi. Dist. funta, 


Mfuo, n. (///), (i) beating, 

hammering, &c., verbal of 

(2) a groove, crease, mark made by 

;pe, band of colour, 

i ya mi/no, ruled 

paper. Nguo ya mi/uo, stnped cloth, 
cllows ; 

(4) infuo wa :hc Ixraling of 

waves on the shore, and also, the beach, 
i the sea. (Cf. ufuo, ttfuko, 

Mfupa, n. (///-), a bone. Mifufa, 
a skeleton. Mifupa miluptt, a mere 
skeleton, i. e. very emaciated. Dim. 
kifupa. (Cf. ufupa, fupa.} 

*Mfuria, n. also kanzu ya 
'/ifun'a, an Arab garment, a sort 
of loose cloth coat, with a collar, 
but no sleeves. (Perh. Ar., meaning 
fur coat.) 

Mfurungu, n. (wi-), the tree 
which bears the shaddock, furungu. 
(Cf. mchungTva.} 

Mfuto, n. (we-), (i) a wiping, 
sweeping, clearing off, erasing, aboli- 
tion, absolution ; (2) used to denote 
a common, plain, rough, inferior 
article of any kind, e. g. mlango wa 
rn/uto, a plain door, without carving 
or ornamentation. Mkeka wa tnfuto, 
a plain, cheap mat. (Cf. futa.) 

Mfuu, n. (#'), a tree bearing 
a small black edible berry ( ; 

Mfyozi, n. (wa-}, an abusive, 
scornful, insolent person. (Cf.fyoa, 
and syn. mfithuli.} 

Mgauda, n. (wi-), (i) a bundle, 
a sheaf, e.g. of rice or other crop; 
(a) a kind of drum (cf. ngoma). 
(Cf. ganda, and follg.) 

Mgandisho, n. (tni-\ causing to 
coagulate (set, curdle, thicken), co- 
agulation. (Cf.ganda, and follg.) 

Mgando, n. (mi-). Mgando wa 
iron smelted and run out 
to cool, pig iron (cf. mktto . 
chuma mgando^ make wrought iron. 
(Cf. gunda, and prec,) 

Mganga, n. (wa-) t a native doc- 
tor, medicine man, the recognized 
representative of superior km 
on all subjects mysterious to the 
nind, and regarded with ic- 
spect, fear, or toleration accordingly. 
The mchawi is, on the other hand, 
not recognized or tolerated as a rule 
ommumty. however useful 
hit services may be to individuals. 

ous medicine man. (Cf. gang a, 

, and w./' 
Mgango, n. ('//*-), a binding up, 




splicing, mending. (Cf. ganga, 
gango, kigango.} 

Mgawanya, Mgawanyi, n. (wa-}, 
a divider, a distributor. (Cf.gawa, 
gawanya, and follg., also mwenezi.} 

Mgawo, n. (mi-}, and Mgao, a 
dividing, division, distribution, par 
tition. So also Mgawanyo. (Cf. 
gawa, and prec.) 

Mgema, n. (wa-}, and Mgemi, a 
man who climbs and taps cocoanut 
trees to get palm-wine (tembd). This 
business (mgemo, kugemd} is a regu- 
lar profession, and in Zanzibar is often 
carried on by Digo men from the 
coastland a little north of Z. Cf. 
Prov. mgemi akisifiwa tembo hulitia 
moji, if the tapper hears his tap 
praised he waters it. (Cf. gema, 
and tembo.} 

Mgemo, n. See Mgema. 

Mgeni, n. (wa-}, (i) a stranger, 
new-comer, foreigner; (2) a guest. 
Mgeni na aje mwenyeji apone, let the 
foreigner come that the native may 
be the better off. (Cf. -geni.) 

Mgereza, n. See Mwingereza. 

*Mghalaba,n. competition, rivalry. 
Bei ni mghalaba, commerce is com- 
petition. (Ar. Cf. gkalibu, and 
syn. B. shindana.'} 

Mgogoro, n. (mi-}, (i) an obstacle, 
obstruction, e. g. a stone or tree in a 
road; (2) a difficulty, nuisance, 
trouble, worry. (Cf. syn. zuizo, 
tatizo, kwao.} 

Mgoja, n. See Mngoja. 

Mgomba, n. (i) (mi-}, the banana 
plant, plantain tree, bearing the 
fruit ndizi (which see), and pro- 
ducing a strong fibre (ugombd); (2) 
(a/a-), verbal noun of gomba (which 
see, and cf. follg.). 

Mgombwe, n. (mi-}, bull's-mouth 
shell (Cassis rubra, Str.). 

Mgomvi, n. (wa-}, a quarrelsome 
person, brawler. (Cf. gomba, 

ugomvi, and nifitini.'} 

Mgongo, n. (mi-}, (i) the back, 
back part, back-bone, of man or 
animal ; (a) of things resembling the 

back, anything raised, ridge, hump, 
edge. Geuka (elekeza, pd} m., turn 
the back, in fear, contempt, &c. 
(Cf. pa kishogo}. Lala mgongoni, 
lie on the back (cf. kichalichali, 
kitanitani). M. iva nyurnba, ridge 
of a roof. Nyumba ya m., a house 
with ridge-roof (cf. pad}. Njia ya 
m., a raised path, causeway. M. 
wa mwitu, a thick line of trees, a 
forest ridge. Kinyosha m., a back- 
straightener, i. e. a gratuity after a 
hard job. (Cf. jongo, kijongo, ki- 
biongo, maongo, all of which point 
to ongo, a form not used in Z. but 
occurring in mongo, mwongo, a back, 
in other dialects. Congo, a thick 
stick, is different, cf. gonga, strike, 

Mgonjwa, n. (wa-}, a sick person, 
an invalid, used of any bodily 
ailment, serious or slight. Cf. 
mwele, bedridden, crippled, of more 
serious illness, disablement, e. g. mgo- 
njwa aweza kutembea kidogo, mwele 
amekazwd na marathi, hawezi ku- 
tembea, a mgonjwa can (at least) 
just move about, a mwele is gripped 
by his malady and cannot move. 
(Cf. -gonjwa, gonjweza, ugonjwa, and 
use of hawezi, as a semi -noun, and 
contr. mzirna, sound, in good health.) 

Mgoto, n. (mi-}, (i) act of beat- 
ing, knocking together, blows, strokes, 
clashing, sudden meeting, conflict, 
and (2) commonly of the sound of 
such beating, e. g. m. wa makasia, the 
beat of oars, both act and sound ; 
m. wa maji, the sound of meeting or 
falling water. (Cf. gota, andfigo, 
shindo, mbisko.} 

Mgunga, n. (mi-}, a kind of acacia 

Mguno, n. (wz-), a grumbling, 
grunting, murmuring, complaining, 
discontent. (Cf. guna, nung'u- 

Mgunya, n. (iva-\ a native of a 
coast district between Mombasa and 
the river Juba. They use the sailing 
vessel called tepe. 




Mguruguru, n. (wa-}, a large 
kind of lizard, living in holes and 
feed ing on insects. (For other varie- 
ties cf. mjMsi, kenge.) 

Mguu, n. (mi-\ (i) the leg, of 
man or any kind of living "creature, 
and esp. the lower part of it, the foot ; 
(a) anything resembling a leg, in 
shape or function. Enda kwa miguu, 
go on foot, walk. SHika miguu (ya), 
make obeisance (to), become a sub- 
ject or dependent (of). Pamia (tarnta) 
miguu, take long strides. (Cf. 

*Mhabeshi, n. (a-tf-\ an Abyssi- 
nian, esp. of the female, valued 
as a slave from the light complexion. 
(Cf. Habcshia.} 

*Mhadirau, n. (wa-) t a Hadimu, 
one of the earlier inhabitants of the 
islan<l of Zanzibar, living mostly on 
the east and south of the island, re- 
their own dialect and customs, 
and till latterly some independence. 
Mostly fishermen. (Ar. Cf. ha- 
dimu, hudumu.} 

'Mhajiri, n. (wa-), an emigrant, 
settler, colonist, also one who travels 
a as a pilgrim. (Ar. Cf. 
hajiri, and haj.} 

*Mhalbori, n. a strip of lining 
under the ornamental silk stitching 
down the front of a kanzu (Sir.). 

Mhamiahi, n. (w-) a wandering, 
unsettled, homeless person, a nomad, 
pilgrim, tramp, vagrant. (Cf. 

hama, mahamf.) 

'Mharabu, n. (wa~\ a destructive 
person, a destroyer, a vandal. (Cf. 
haribit, and syn. mwau 

*Mhaahiri,n. (mi-),orMwathirl, 
a strong beam, by which the mast is 

position in a native 
vessel. (Cf. mlingoti^) 

Mhassi, n. (wa-). a castrated 

r animal, a eunuch. (Ar. 

:tsai, and s)n. fuwashi.) 

*Mhenaerani, n. rni-), a plant 

producing a small kind of cane, h<n- 

*Mhimili, n. (i) (-), that which 
carries (bears, supports), a beam, 
girdle, post, prop, bearing. Also 
(2) (wa-), a patient, enduring person. 
(Ar. Cf. Himili, Hawaii, hirnila, sta- 
himili, and for ' patient ' nnmmilivu.) 

Mhina, n. (tni-\ the henna plant, 
the leaves of which steeped in water 
produce a red dye, much used for 
ornamental staining of fingers, feet, 
and often donkeys. (Cf. hina.} 

*Mhindi, n. (i) (wa-\ also com- 
monly Muhindi, a native of India, 
but in Z. usually restricted to the 
Mahommedan Hindoos, who are 
divided into two chief sects, the 
Bohoras and Khojas, each with their 
own mosques, burial grounds, clubs, 
&c. The heathen Hindoos are called 
Baniani (ma-). (Cf. Hindi t ki- 
Hindi.) (a) (mi-\ also commonly 
Muhindi, the plant bearing maize, 
or Indian corn also called Muhindi^ 
in its natural state and collectively. 
Single cobs are called gunzi, / 
and the grains when separated tna- 
hindi. (Cf. Hindi, gunsi, bisi, 
kumvi, ganda.) 

*Mhitaji, n. (wa-), (0 a person 
who wants (needs something), a 
candidatc,.applicnnt, petitioner 
one who is needy, in want, poor. 
K.g. mimi si mhitaji tiawe (or 
kwako), I want nothing fror 
Bwana alikuwa tajiri, sasa mhitaji, 
my master was once rich, m-u 
poor. (Ar. Cf. hitaji, nHttaji, 
Haja, and syn. n: 

Mhogo, n. (wi-) Also com 
Muhogo, the cassava or manioc 
plant, producing the edible roots, 
also called in their natural state 
.Actively mHogo, muHogo. 
Very large roots are called hogo, 
mahogo. The roots are cut in strips 
(cf. kopa % ubale) and dried; then, 
anted, pounded and boiled. 
There are s< tics, m. wa 

bungala and m. Murusi, with 
stems, sweet and cat a 
cooking ; m. wa kindoro, m. nangwa t 



m. mclnmgu, with green stems 
bitter, and requiring (excepting in one 
variety) to be dried before eaten 
E. g. siuchezei mhogo mcJnmgu, I do 
not play with bitter cassava. Enga 
muhogo, cut cassava in slices for 

Mhunzi, n. (wa-}, a worker in 
metals, or stone, a smith, a stone- 
cutter. Usually defined by a word 
following, e.g. m. wa chuma (fetha, 
bati}, a blacksmith (silversmith, 
tin-worker). M. wa mawe, a stone- 
cutter, carver in stone. (Cf. mfua, 
and fun di.) 

Mi-, Plur. Pfx. of D 2, e.g. mti, 
a tree, miti, trees. 

*Mia, n. and a., a hundred, one 
hundred, -a mia, hundredth. Mia 
kwa moja, one per cent. Mia mia, 
hundreds, in hundreds, of a large 
indefinite quantity. (Ar. Cf. dual 
from miteen.} 

Miaa, n. plur. also Miyaa. See 

Mikambe, n. Piga m., in bath- 
ing, duck down and throw one 
leg over so as to strike the water 
with it. 

*Mila, n. ( ), custom, habit, pro- 
pensity, usage. (Ar. Cf. desturi, 
tabiaj ada.} 

'^jiil^le, n. and adv., eternity, 
perpetuity, -a milele, continual, never 
ending, everlasting. As adv., always, 
perpetually, for ever. Mai'sha na 
milele, for life and for ever, for ever 
and ever. Also Umilele. (Ar. 
Cf. syn. daima, siku zote.} 

Milhoi, n. one kind of evil spirit. 


Milia, n. plur. of mlia, but used 
as a., striped. Punda milia, zebra. 
(Cf. mlia.} 

*Miliki, v. possess, be owner 
(ruler, king) of, rule, exercise au- 
thority over. Ps. milikiiva. Ap. 
milik-ia, e.g. hold in trust for, be 
regent for, rule in (for, with, &c.). 
Cs. milik-isha t -ishwa, put in posses- 
sion, make king or ruler. (Ar. Cf. 

maliki, malkia, mamlaka, and follg. 
Also syn. tawala.} 

*Milki, n. ( ), sometimes also 
Mulki, and treated as if D 2, posses- 
sion, property, dominion, kingdom. 
(Ar. Cf. prec.) 

Mimba, n. ( ), conception, preg- 
nancy, embryo. Shika (chukua, 
tunga,-wa no] mimba, be (or , become) 
pregnant, conceive. Tia /., cause to 
be pregnant. Haribu w., cause mis- 
carriage, miscarry. Also of plants, 
mtama unafanya mimba, the millet 
is just forming the ear. (Cf. /- 
mila, uzito.} 

*Mimbara, n. ( ), pulpit, in a 
mosque. (Ar.) 

Mimi, pron. of i Pers. S., I, me. 
Also often miye. Mimi mwenyewe, 
mimi nafsi yangu or bi nafsi yangu, 
I myself. -angu mimi, my own. 
(All the personal pronouns are re- 
duplicated forms, except the third 
plural, mimi, wewe, yeye, sisi, ninyi, 

Mimina, v. (i) pour out, pour, 
spill, of anything in a fluid state, and 
so (2) run into a mould, cast. Ame~ 
nimiminia samli chomboni mwangu, 
he has poured me out some ghee in 
my vessel. Mkate wa kiimimina, a 
kind of confectionery. Ps. mimi- 
mwa. Nt. miminika, e.g. be 

poured, out, overflow. Ap. mimin- 
ta -iwa. Cs. mimin-isha, -ishwa. 
. follg., and mwaga, pour away, 
subu, cast.) 

Miminiko, n. (ma-\ something 

poured out, a casting. (Cf. prec.) 

Minya, v. press, squeeze, squeeze 

out. Rp. minyana. (CLjtnya y 

and syn. kama, kamua.} 

Mio, n. plur of umio (which see), 
2) (ma-}, amplif. form of umio (cf. 
kimio), e.g. mio la mnyama, the 
*hroat-passage of an animal. 

Miongoni, plur. locat. form from 
'nwongo (which see), number, account, 
reckoning. Used in miongoni mwa, 
as a prepositional phrase, in the 
number of, among, from among, on 




the side of, in the party of, i. e. ka- 
tikn hesabu ya. Hawa si miongoni 
.-:/, these are not among my 
people, in my sen-ice. 

*Mirathi, n. inheritance, heritage, 
for more usual urithi. (Ar. Cf. 

*Miski, n. and Meski, musk, or 
similar perfume. 

*Misko, n. Moscow, and used for 

*Misri, n. Egypt. (Ar.) 

*Miteen, n. and a., two hundred. 
-a nriteen, two-hundredth. (Ar. 
dual of tnia, i. e. inia mbili?) 

*Mithili, n. likeness, resemblance, 
similitude, same as Methali (which 
see). Usually (i) in prepositional 
phrase mithili ya, like, just as, or 
only mithili. (2) as conj., for (or 
with kama), as, like, like as. A r a- 
taka kasha mithili ya Ait, I want 
a box of this pattern. IVakaonana 
mithili kama auwali, and they met 
like as at first. (Ar. Cl.methali, 

Miunzi, n. plur. of nncunzi, 
which is seldom used, whistling, 
miuHzi, whistle. 
nja y mbinja, msonyo) 

Miwa, i). plur. of muwa ) or mwa, 

Miwaa, n. plur. of mwaa (which 

*Miwani, n. a pair of spectacles, 
eye-glasses. Commonly described 
as mat- ho mawili, double eyes. (Ar.) 

Miyo, pron. i I'crs. S., same as 
:ac. (Cf. vxye, yeyc, 

*Mieani, n. (i) weighing machine, 

balances, scales, i called 

. and the beam of the scales 

mtangt. Also (a) the pendulum, or 

balance, regulating a machine, clock, 

&c. (Ar. Cf. :/ 

Mja. n. (-) verbal of ja t one 
who comes, and so (i) a nc\\ 
foreigner, . 

.not usual iu /., 

for mtumwa. Ada ya mja, httnena ; 
rnngwana ni kitendo, a slave talks, 
but a free man acts. 

Mjakazi, n. (wa-), a female slave. 
(Cf. kijakazi, and mtumwa. Perh. 
mja, and kazi, work, but kazi, mxazi, 
in some dialects means a woman.) 

Mjane, n. (wff-), a widowed, 
bereaved person, male or female, 
a widow, a widower. (Cf. njatie.) 

Mjanja, n. (wa-) t cheat, impostor, 
knave, sharper. (Cf. -janja t u- 
janja, and syn. ayari, mkopi.) 

Mjeledi, n. ('-;, whip (of 
leather), thong, strap. Piga (tia) 
mijeltdi, beat with a whip. (Ar. 

leather. Ci.jelidi, jalada, and nka~ 

Mjengo, n. (#'-), (i) act (pro- 
cess, style, method) of building, 
architecture, also (2) thing built, 
erection, structure, e. g. encampment, 
hut. (C(.j**g*,MXgi mjfMzi.} 

Mjenzi, n. (wa~), a builder, esp. 
in native style, i. e. of wooden struc- 
tures. (Cf. mwashi, of stone work.) 
Kwcnyi mid hakuna tnjcnzi, \\lcic 
the trees are, there is no one to use 
them. (Cf.jtnga, and prec.) 

Mji, n. (/*'-), (i) village, ham- 
let, town, city, i. e. a collection of 
human dwellings irrespective of num- 
ber, 5 or 5,000. (Cf. kijijfi ki- 
tongoji.) Used with and without 
preps. Toka (pndoka, &c.) kntika 
mjt, or mjini, or mji only. So fttJa 
(fika^ &c.) katika vtji, or m 
mji. (2) middle of a piece of cloth ; 
(3) after-birth, j-lacmta, and some- 
times of the womb itself. (Afji is 

r Hantu di 
:^tant, as also maji, water.) 

Mjiari, n. (OTI-), tiller-rope 
fStr.). Alsow/,. 
for other ropes.) 

*Mjibu, n. an affable, pleasant, 
accessible person. (Aral 


*Mjiguu. n. (tta-), a large- 

tcet (or 
long-legged). (Cf kij: 




Mjiko, n. (mi-}, lower bowel, rec 
turn (Kr.). (Ci.Jika.} 

Mjima, n. (wa-}, one who co 
operates, or gives friendly help, an 
assistant. (Cf. ttjima.} 

Mjinga, n. (wa-}, a fool, simple 
ton, ignoramus, dupe, and esp. o. 
innocent ignorance, inexperience, anc 
so, new-comer, raw slave, greenhorn 
tenderfoot. Akawa mjinga, kama 
mbuzi ilia kasoro, he was a fool, like 
a goat and even worse. Mjinga nt 
mtu, usinette ni ngombe, a simpleton 
is a human being, do not call him a 
cow, a native type of silliness 
(Cf. mpumbafu,barazuli, mzuzu.} 

Mjio, n. (mi-}, coming, arrival. 
Verbal of ja, v. (Cf. majilio, 

Mjoli, n. (wa-}, fellow slave, mem- 
ber of same establishment, fellow 
servant. (Cf. mtumwa.} 

Mjbmba, n. (wa-}, (i) uncle, 
nephew, the term being used by 
each of the other. But mjomba also 
is used especially of the uncle on the 
mother's side, who is also called 
baba mkubiva or mdogo (according as 
he is older or younger than the 
father). Contr. amu (Ar.), uncle 
on the father's side. (2) a native 
name for a Swahili, the Swahili 
region being called Ujomba, and lan- 
guage kijomba. 

Mjukuu, n. (wa-}, grandchild, or 
other relation of the second genera- 
tion, grand-nephew (or -niece), second 
cousin (male or female). Fig. as in 
majuto ni mjukuu, remorse is a 
grandchild, i. e. comes at length. 
(Cf. kijukuu, kilembwe, kiningina.} 
Mjumbe, n. (wa-}, messenger, go- 
between, deputed person, ambassador, 
delegate, representative. Mjumbe 
hauawi, a messenger's person is 
sacred. (Cf. jumbe, kijumbe, u- 

Mjume, n. (wa-}, a skilled work- 
man who executes ornamental work, 
engraving, inlaying, &c. on weapons, 
and personal ornaments. M. wa 

visu, a high-class cutler. (Cf. 
ujume, mj iitnu.} 

Mjumu, n. or Njumu, inlaid 
work, ornamental decoration with 
various materials. 

Mjusi, n. (wa-}, (i) a lizard, of 
the smaller sort, of which there are 
many varieties. (For larger kinds 
cf. guruguru, kenge.} (2) a lizard- 
shaped ornament worked in silk 
stitches on the front of a kanzu 
(which see). 

Mjuu, n. used of wind, as blow- 
ing, above or overhead. (Cf./#.) 

Mjuvi, n. (wa-}, a saucy, impu- 
dent, inquisitive, prying, intruding 
person. (Cf. jua, ujuvi, and 


Mjuzi, n. (wa-}, one who knows, 
a well-informed, large-minded, saga- 
cious, wise person. Mwenyezi Mngu 
ni msikizi na mjuzi wa killa kitu, 
Almighty God hears and knows 
everything. (Cf. jua, ujuzi, and 

Mkaa, n. (i) (wa-}, one who sits, 
remains, lives, &c., an inhabitant, 
a resident, an occupant. Mkaaji- 
koni, a kitchen maid, a Cinderella. 
(Cf. kaa, and follg.) (2) (mi-}, 
a tree, the bark of which is used 
medicinally as an astringent. 

Mkaaji, Mkaazi, n. (wa-}, an 
nhabitant, regular occupant, a stay- 
at-home, not a traveller, contr. to 
mpitaji, mhamishi. Ukiwa mkaazi, 
'ehga, if you are come to stay, 
mild a house. (Cf. kaa, v. and 

*Mkabala, Mkabil, adv. mostly 
n prepositional phrase, mkabala wa, 
n front of, facing, opposite, corre- 
ponding to, fronting. Also, in front, 
uture. (Ar. Cf. kabili, kabla, 
kibula, &c., and lekea.} 

*Mkabithi, n. (wa-}, verbal of 
'abithi, one who holds, keeps, &c., 
nd so (i) a trustee, one who holds 
)roperty or money; (a) a miser, an 
conomizer, a thrifty person. (Cf. 
abithi, and bahili.} 




*Mkadamu, n. (wa-), and Muka- 
damu. See Kadamu. 

Mkadi. n. (/*-)> a pandanus tree, 
with strongly scented leaves used" in 
perfumes, and large fruits like pine- 

Mkaguo, n. (mi-), inspection, 
visitation, review. (CL kagua, and 
follg., also angalia, tazamia.) 

Mkaguzi, n. (wa-), an inspector, 
examiner, reviewer. (Cf. kagua, 
and prec.) 

Mkahaba, n. (wa-), also Kahaba 
(ma-), prostitute. 

*Mkahawa, n. (mi-), coffee-house, 
restaurant, cafe\ . A square containing 
several of these in Z. is known as 
Mkahawani. (Cf. kahawa!) 

Mkaja, n. (mi-), cloth worn by 
women round the body, esp. after 
child-birth, one of the presents usu- 
ally made to the bride's mother at 
marriage. (Cf. mbeleko, and follg.) 

*Mkalimani, n. (wa-), interpreter, 
i. e. in a professional sense, one who 
is employed to translate into and from 
an unknown tongue. (Ar. kalitna, 
a word, cf. syn. nifasiri. Mkalimu 
is also used for teacher.) 

Mkalio, n. (mi-), a customary 

wedding fee, one of several given 

to the bride's attendants, lit. sitting 

by, like kiosha miguu, kifa mkono, 

:ia tnlango, &c. 

M kamba, n. (mi-), a larger species 
of sea crab. (Cf. kamba, and tea.) 

Mkamshe, n. (mi-) t a i 
wooden spoon (Sir.). (Cf. mw*&>.) 

Mkana, n. (wa-), verbal of kana, 

!io denies, repudiates, &c. 

Mkana Afuuneu, an atheist. (Cf. 

t anus hi, ttkanyo, uAani, Sec.) 

Mkandaa, n. (mi-), a k 

owing abundantly on the 
coast in East Africa. The bark is 
used for tanning, and furnishes a red 
dye. 'I aight trunks supply 

of commcr 

poles used for carrying concrete roofs 
in house-building. (Cf. mkoko, and 

Mkangaja, n. (mi-), a tree bear- 
ing a small kind of mandarin orange 
(kangajd] in thick clusters of bright 
orange-red colour. (Cf. mch:> 
for other varieties.) 

Mkanju, n. (mi-), a cashew-nut 
tree, known in Z. usually as mbibo 
(which see). 

Mkano, n. (mi-), tendon, sinew, 
muscle, of cattle and animals general- 
ly. (Cf. kano, ukatw, and mshipa.) 

*Mkasarna, n. (i) division, part, 
portion ; (2) in mathematics, division. 
(Arab. Cf. mgawo.) 

Mkasasi, n. ;w-) t a fine tree, use- 
less for timber (Str., who quotes a 
couplet, uzuri wa trikasasi ukipata 
maji basi, the m&asasi is a fine tree, 
but all it yields is sap). 

Mkasiri, n. (//-), a tree, the bark 
of which is used to dye nets black 

Mkata, n. (wa-), (i) one who cuts, 
verbal otkata, v. (cf. mkate t tnkati) ; 
(a) a poor man, seldom heard in Z. 
city. Ni mkata, sina mbci 
nyuma, I am a poor man, with noth- 
ing before or behind me. Mkata /uina 
kinyongo, a poor man cannot afford 
fancies. (Cf. ukata, and syn. masi- 

'Mkataa, n. and adv., also Maka- 
taa, (i)what is settled, final decision, 
end of an affair; (a) in a fixed, firm, 
decided, final way, c. g. ///. ncno hili, 
sitakwenda, this is my final \ 
will not go. Tunua/Utana 
made a final contract. Scuta kwa m., 
make a final statement. (A 

Mkataba, n. (////-), what is 
wiiitcn, book, statute, contin. 
gagement. (Ar. Cf. kitabu, and 
.'i, sharti, maagano.) 

Mkatale, n. mi- , stocks, 
mcnt for confining a prisoner 

a piece of wood shaped and 
with holes bored in it. (Cf. kifungo, 

*Mkate, n. (mi-), sometliing cut, 




and so, (i) any kind of lump, o 
separate piece, m. wa tumbako, a plug 
or cake of tobacco, m. wa nyuki, a 
piece of honey-comb, but esp. (2) a 
loaf, cake, bun, biscuit, or anything 
similar, and used commonly o 
European bread. Various kinds are 
distinguished as m. wa ngano, breac 
made of wheat flour ; m. wa mofa, or 
mofa only, a cake of millet mea 
baked in an oven ; m. wa kumimina 
a cake of batter, fritter; m. wa 
kusonga, &c. When mkate is used 
of ordinary bread, the crust (ganda la 
mkate} is distinguished from the crumb 
(tiyamaya mkate}. (Ar. Cf. kala 
v., and follg.) 

Mkati, n. {wa-}, one who cuts, 
cuts up, cuts out, cuts down, &c. 
(Cf. kata, v., mkate, mkato.} 

*Mkato, n. (mi-), (i) a cutting, 
incision, amputation, cut ; (2) effect 
of cutting,- a slit, crack, crevice ; (3) 
a fraction, piece, esp. a separate part 
of a native house, a division, apart- 
ment, room, made by a partition or 
screen only, kiwambaza ; (4) fig. a 
cutting down or away, cutting short, 
reduction, retrenchment ; (5) a short, 
abrupt, decisive act or method. 
Fanya kwa mkato, like mkataa, act 
quickly, decisively, at a word. (Ar. 
Cf. kata, and prec.) 

Mkazi, n. (wa-}, (i) for Mkaazi 
(which see), an inhabitant; (2) 
Muungu ni mkazi wa ulimwengu, 
i. e. perh. from kaza, upholder, firm 
supporter. (Cf. follg.) 

Mkazo, n. (mi-}, using force, ten- 
sion, effort, energy, pressure, exertion. 
(Cf. kaza, kazi, and syn. bidii, ngu- 

Mke, n. (wa-} for mtu mke, a 
woman, a female, also mwanamke. 
Used alone, mke means distinctively 
' wife,' in contrast with mwanamke. 
Mume ni kazi, mke ni ngiio, the 
husband works, the wife dresses. See 
-ke. (Cf. mume.} 

Mkebe, n. (mi-}, pot, canister, 
mug (for drinking and other pur- 

poses). Mkebe wa ubani, a pot for 
keeping or burning incense in. (For 
other kinds cf. chungu, chombo.} 

Mkeka, n. (mi-}, a mat (usually 
of the kind used for sleeping on). 
Hence kama kitanda kupata mkeka, 
like a bedstead getting a mat, i. e. of 
natural completion, the final touch. 
These mats are oblong, made of 
certain leaves (ukindu), slit into strips, 
plaited, and stained various colours. 
The strips (ukili) are sewn together, 
and bound round the edge. The 
commonest in Z. are plain white, or 
with transverse stripes of colour. 
Their manufacture is the ordinary 
occupation of women when not en- 
gaged in cookery or other household 
work. Mikeka are described as ya 
kulalia, for sleeping on ; ya rangi, 
with coloured stripes ; ya kufuta, of 
common cheap make ; ya kazi, plaited 
in patterns. (For other kinds cf. 
jamvi, msa/a, kitanga, randa.*) 

Mkereza, n. (wa-}, one who turns 
with a lathe, a turner. (Cf. ke- 

Mkewe, n. for mke wake, his wife. 
So mkevuo, mkeo, your wife, i. e. mke 

Mkia, n. (mi-}, a tail. Suka m., 
wag the tail. M. wa mjusi, lines of 
silk stitching running up the front of 
a kanzu from the ornament called 

Mkilemba, n. (wa-}, one who has 
earned a turban, i.e. by completing 
a job or a course of instruction, and 
50 denotes a successful candidate, 
Drizeman, graduate. (Cf. ki- 


Mkimbizi, n. (wa-}, (i) one who 
runs, e.g. the slave who runs in front of 
lis master's donkey, but also (2) one 
who runs away, fugitive, runaway, 
deserter, truant ; (3) one who causes 
o run, pursuer, hunter, persecutor, 
also a robber, a highwayman (cf. 
'itoro}. (Cf. kimbia, mbio.} 

Mkindu, n. (mi-}, the wild date 
>alm, producing an edible fruit (ki- 




-.I leaves which furnish material 
(ukindu) for weaving fine mats, and 
a fibre used for string. (For other 
palms cf. mnazi.} 

Mkinga, n. (-), anything that 
stops, obstructs, or diverts something 
else, e.g. mkinga nuiji, a strip of 
leaf or stick used to catch the water 
running down a tree, also ntchilizi, 
(Cf. kinga, v., and follg.) 

Mkingamo, n. (w*-), a crossing, 
being athwart, obstructing, in the way. 
Njia ya mkingamo, a cross-road. 
(Cf. kinga, kingama, and follg.) 

Mkingiko, n. (*'-) a cross-pole 
laid on the top of uprght posts to 
carry the lower ends of the rafters in 
building a native house. (Cf. kinga, 
and prec.) 

Mkiwa, n. (wa-), a solitary, desti- 
tute, friendless person, a poor man. 
(Cf. -ki-wa, ukiwa.) 

Mkizi, n. (wa-), a kind offish. 

Mi. ^a, n. (w-), bag, pouch, 
*l/, tJbm9D.yfr r made of the entire 
sk'^rw nguru, 1 ai/idial. Wimbi la 
mkoba, bu y i,i c ^ waves, i.e. smooth 
swelling w^ftcr not like breakers, 
irious ne ids of bag, &c. cf. 
mjuko, kikapo.) 

Mkoche, n. (wf-) t one name of 
a kind of palm (Hyphaene}, known 
also as mkoma, but in Z. commonly 
as niu'aa, or mnyaa (which see). 

Mkohani, n. (wa-\ and Mku- 
hani,Kuhani,Kahini, priest, sooth- 
sayer, magician. (Ar. Cf. kahini, 
tost si.) 

Mkojo, n. (mi-), micturition, urine, 
also choo (ha tnbtle, (hoc kidogo. 
(Cf. <(vy<*z,and follg., also nya, choo.) 

Mkojozi. n. (?fa-); one who cannot 
or does not control his urine, one 
who wets his bed. (Cf. kojoa, and 

Mkoko, n. (""'-), a kind of man- 
much used as firewo* 
with a red bark used for dyeing. 
(Other kinds are mkatidaa, and 

Mkokoto, n. (OTI-), (i) a dragging, 

a hauling, a pull ; (2) the mark or 
trail of something dragged along. 
(Cf. kokota, and dist. tnakokoto.) 

Mkoma, n. (i) (/-), verbal of 
koma (which see), one who stops, 
ceases, comes to an end; (2) (wa-), 
a lepe', one suffering from ukoma 
(which see) ; (3) (/*-), one of the 
names by which the Hyphaene palm 
is known on the East Coast, others 
being mkoche, mwaa (which see). 

Mkomafl, n. (mi-), name of a 
tree (Carapa moluccensis, Sac.). The 
wood is red, and was formerly much 
used in Z. 

Mkombozi, n. (wa-), one who 
ransoms (buys back, gets out of 
pawn, recovers a deposit), a redeemer. 
(Cf. komboa, ukombozi.) 

Mkomwe, n. ('-), a kind of 
climbing plant, the seeds of which 
are used as counters in playing various 
games. (Cf. komwe.') 

Mkondo, n. (>-), current, flow, 
rush, passage, run, e.g. of water in 
a river or poured on the ground ; of air 
through a door or window, i. e. draft ; 
of the wake of a ship, of an animal, 
i. e. track, run. Cf. mkondo wa tirasi, 
a track through rushes, showing where 
people have passed. (Cf. kondo.) 

Mkonga, n. (w*-), trunk of an 
elephant, in Z. commonly mkono 
wa tembo. 

Mkonge, n. (mi-\ (i) a fibre- 
producing plant, a kind of hemp or 
Snnscvicria, i.e. s/;. tfanyia 

the fibre being called .. 
or uzi wa mkongt ; (a) a kind of fish. 

Mkongojo a staff used 

as a prop or crutch, for an. old or 
weakly person. (Cf. kongc 
ngojo, and for sticks bakora,jimbo?) 

Mkongwe, n. (wa-\ an aged, 
feeble, infirm person. (Cf. konga, 
kikongwt, and syn. mttt.) 

Mkono. n. (wi-)i (0 the arm of 

n human being, esp. of the lower arm, 

and the hand, e.g. mkono hukatwa 

no na mkono t his arm is 

cut off between the elbow and hand. 




Mkono wake watoa sana, his hand 
gives freely. Pelekea mkono, lay 
hands on, arrest. Then (2) of a 
corresponding member in animals, 
front paw. Simla akamkamata mko- 
noni, the lion seized him with its paw. 
(Cf. mkono iva tembo, an elephant's 
trunk, and mkono (or kikono, kond], 
of the tendrils of a plant.) (3) of what 
resembles an arm, e.g. as projecting, 
mkono iva sufuria, the handle of a 
European saucepan, as spreading, 
mikono ya mto (bahari}, branches of 
a river, creeks of the sea, as grasping, 
&c. (4) as a convenient measure, 
from finger tip's to elbow, a cubit, 
same as (Ar.) thiraa, 18 inches, 
i.e. double of a span, and half a yard. 
Also in various figurative senses, e.g. 
mwcnyi mkono mrefu, a thieving, 
mischievous, cunning person, a rogue. 
Mkono wake mzuri, he is a liberal, 
'open-handed person. Chuo cha 
mkono, a handy book; manual. Kupa 
mkono, to give the hand, i. e. greet, 
congratulate, condole with, assist, 
take leave, take an oath, &c. Mkono 
wa msiba, condolence in grief. (Cf. 
kono, kikono.} 

Mkonzo, n. (mi-}. See Konzo. 

Mkoo, n. (wa-}, a slut, slattern, a 
dirty untidy person, male or female. 
(Cf. syn. mchafu, and dist. ukoo, koo.} 

Mkopeshi, n. (iva-}, one who 
supplies goods or capital on credit 
for commercial purposes, a lender, a 
usurer. (Cf. kopa, v., and follg.) 

Mkopi, n. (iva-}, (i) one who 
borrows goods or money, e. g. to 
trade with on the mainland; (2) a 
swindler, impostor, knave. (Cf. 
kopa, ukopi, and prec.) 

Mkopo, n. (mi-}, act (process, 
method, &c.) of borrowing, swindling, 
&c. (Cf. kopa, ukopi, and prec.) 

Mkorofi, n. (iva-}, an evil-minded, 
malignant, brutal, tyrannical person, 
a monster, a brute. (Cf. -korofi, 
ukorofi. ) 

Mkoroga, n. (iva-}, a stirrer, i.e. 
(i) a maker of discord, an agitator, 

firebrand ; (2) a blunderer, bungler. 
(Cf. koroga, and follg., and syn. mfi- 

Mkorogo, n. (mi-}, (i) a stirring, 
mashing, mixing of ingredients, &c. ; 
(2) a causing discord, agitation, dis- 
turbance of peace, blundering, bung- 
ling. (Cf. koroga, and prec., also 
syn.y?/m#, sukosuko} 

Mkoromaji, n. (wa-}, a regular 
snorer. (Cf. koroma, and prec.) 

Mkoromo, n. (mi-}, a snoring, 
snorting, or similar sound. (Cf. 
koroma, and follg., and msono.} 

Mkubwa, n. (wa-}, (i) a great 
man (in wealth, dignity, power, &c.) ; 
(2) chief, director, responsible head, 
master, owner. Huyu ni mkubwa 
wetu, here is our master. (Cf. 
kubwa, and syn. mkuu, msimamizi, t 

Mkuchyo, n. name of a town on 
the Somali coast, north of Mor^basa, 
also called Mukdisha ^nnd c<u.) ">nly 
Makdesh or Magje^x-^), e V vho tu 

Mkufu, n. (Affj, er. <Tf, x. ,- 

metal, of a light kiij n as an 

ornament. (Contit iva, >. *oro, and 
for ornaments cf. urar v .) 

Mkufunzi, n. (w ), a teacher, 
more usual form for mfunzi. (Cf. 
mfundishi, mwalim^i, and for the 
insertion of ku cf. mkulima.} 

Mkuki, n. (mi-}, a spear. Cho- 
meka mkuki, to stick a spear in the 
ground. (For the iron head cf. 
chembe, kengee, for the shaft mli, 
uti, for the butt end tako.} 

Mkuku, n. (mi-}, the keel, of a 
boat or ship. (Dist. kuku, a fowl.) 

Mkule, n. (wa-}, a garfish (Str.). 

Mkulima, n. (wa-}, a tiller of the 
ground, cultivator, agriculturist, field 
labourer, peasant. (Cf. lima, mli~ 
maji, and for the form mkufunzi, 
the ku being inserted perh. to dis- 
tinguish from mlima, a hill.) 

Mkumbizi, n. (wa-}, one who 
clears up, makes a sweep of anything, 
a gleaner. (Cf. kumba, and follg.) 

Mkumbo, n. (mi-}, a complete 




clearing out, a clean sweep, a thor- 
ough removal, wholesale devastation. 
(Cf. kumba.) 

Mkunazi, n. (mi~), the jujube 
tree, bearing a small edible stone- 
fruit like a cherry, ku>: 

Mkunde, u.(mi-), the shrub, which 
produces the common bean ttkunde, 
much used in Z. 

Mkundu, n. (mi-), the anus, ori- 
fice of the boweL 

Mkunga, n. (wa-"), (i) a midwife, 
but in Z.commonly tnzalishi(c.i.kunga t 
ukunga, kungu}', (2) a kind of eel, 
or sea-snake. 

Mkungu, n. (mi-),(i) a large tree 
bearing a fruit (kungu) resembling 
a small apple, but with a large stone 
and kernel; (2) the fruit-stem or 
pedicel of a banana plant carrying 
the whole head of fruit; (3) an 
earthenware dish, used for cooking, 
and also its lid, mkungu wa kufu- 
nikia. (For other vessels cf. chu- 

Mkunguru, n. also Ukunguru, 

the fever which attacks a new-comer 

at a place, after a change of residence 

t, sickness of acclimatization. 

Mkung'uto, n. (mi-), a straining 
off, a shaking oft", a wiping off, a 
sifting. ' 

Mkunjo, n. a folding, a creasing, 
a turning over, a fold. (Cf. kutija.) 

Mkuno, n. (mi-), a scratching, 
a grating. (Cf. buna) 

Mkuo, n. (mi-), an ingot, lump 

f cast or un wrought n: 
(of iron), rough ca : 
.\ and ? m/d/p.) 


pushing off, a getting rid of, a letting 
./</, and ku 

Mkusanyi, n. (wa-), also Mku- 
sanya, a collector, a gatherer to- 
(Cf. follg.) 

Mkusanyo, n. (mi-), a c. 


Mkutano, n. (mi-), (i) n, 
gathering, assemblage, count 
mittee; (a) confluence, com 

coincidence. ./, a meeting. 

M. wa mi/o, junction of rivers. 
(Cf. kuta, kutana, makutano.} 

Mkuto, n. (mi-), (i) a meeting 
with, a lighting upon, a finding; (2) 
?a fold, like kunjo. Kunja nguo 
mkuto, fold up a dress. (Cf. kuta.} 

Mkuu,n. (wa-), (i) a great person 
(in wealth, position, power, &c.), a 
grandee; (2) ruler, head, master, 
governor, &c. Mkuu -wa gcnzi, 
leader of a caravan. (Cf. -kuu, 
-kubwa, and syn. bwana, msimamizi.) 

Mkuyu, n. (mi-), the sycamore of 
the east, fig-mulberry tree, producing 
the fruit kuyu. 

Mkwaju, n. (w/-), the tamarind 
tree, bearing the fruit nkwaju. 

Mkwamba, n. (mi-), a kind of 
thorny shrub. 

Mkwaruzo, n. (///*-), (i) a scrap- 
ing* a gT a ting; (2) track or trail of 
something scraping along, e. g. mkwa- 
: nyoka, the trail of a serpent. 
(Cf. kwaruza.} 

Mkwasi, n. (wa-\ a rich man. a 
well-to-do opulent person. (Cf. 
-kwasi, ukwasi.} 

Mkwe, n. (wakwe), used of near 
connexions by marriage, father (or 
mother) in law, son (or daughter) in 
law. (Cf. tnwamU) wtfi.} 

Mkweme, n. (mi-), a sp( 
climbing plant. 

Mkweo, n. (i) (mi-), a climbing, 
a mounting up or upon (cf. &t*aj; 
(a) for mkwc wako, sec Mkwe. 

Mkwesi, n. (wa-) , one who 
ascends, mounts up. (Cf. kwca.) 

Mkwiro, n. (mi-), n <in: 

Mia, n. (wa/a\ an eater, con 
dcvourcr, verbal of la, 
noun. .!//.; wa/u t a cai. 
Ico ni tnlaji, the man who cats to-day 
(here and now) is the real 
(Cf. /a, v., mlo, ulafi, ulaj'i, > 

Mlaanisi, n. one who curses, 
swears, uses bad language. (Cf. 

Mladi, n. (wi-) a thin piece of 




wood, used by a weaver (tnfumi), 
with which the woof is tightened 
after each thread is inserted. Also 
called upanga. (Cf. kitanda cha 

Mlafi, Mlaji, n. (iva-}, an eater, 
a consumer, and esp. a voracious 
eater, glutton, gormandizer. Mlafi 
is always an uncomplimentary term. 
(Cf. /a, v., mla, tnlo, ulafi, ulaji,} 

Mlala, n. (mi-}, one of the names 
by which a Hyphaene palm, or a 
species of it, is known. Also the 
leaf which furnishes strips for making 
mats on for tying. Kisu cha ku~ 
chania milala, a knife for slitting 
palm leaves. (Cf. m-waa, mkoche, 

Mlamba, n. (wa-}, (i) name of 
a bird ; (2) verbal of lamba, one who 

Mlango, n. (mi-}, (i) door, door- 
way, gate; (2) entrance, means of 
access, fee for entrance ; (3) anything 
resembling a door, e.g. a pass (in 
hills and mountains), a channel (across 
a bar), a strait, estuary, mouth of a 
river ; (4) fig. of a man's relation to 
his family or friends, social attitude, 
circle of acquaintances, branch of a 
family. Mlango wake mzuri, he 
is a kind, hospitable, sociable person. 
Wote walioko katika mlango wettt, 
all who belong to our circle. Penyi 
"wimbi na mlango nipapo, the channel 
and the breaker are close together, 
i. e. safety and danger. (Cf. lango, 
kilango.} Native doors are commonly 
of two kinds, (i) a single door made 
of pieces of mwale (i. e. mid-rib of a 
large raphia-palm leaf) set side by 
side with two cross-pieces passed 
through them, making a light screen, 
tied or propped in the doorway ; or 
(2) a double or folding door of two 
boards (ubau) turning inwards on 
projecting tongues of wood fitting in 
socket holes in the top and bottom 
of the frame. One board carries a 
centre strip (mfaa) to cover the 
space between the valves when closed. 

The frame consists of side-pieces 
(mwimo} and top and bottom pieces 
(kizingitt). Doors in Z. are often 
richly carved, and adorned with large 
brass studs. 

*Mlariba, n. (iva-}, a usurer, a 
money-lender. (Ar. Cf. riba, 

usury, interest, and syn. faida. The 
first syllable is perh. mla, one who 
eats, consumes.) 

Mlazi, n. (wa-), bed-attendant, 
bed- fellow. (Cf. lala.} 

Mle, (i) adv. there within, like 
kule,pale\ (2) form of the pronominal 
adj.-/<2, ' that/ agreeing with a noun in 
the locative form, e. g. nyumbani mle, 
in that house (cf. yule) ; (3) subjunct. 
2 Pers. P. of la t (that) you may 

Mleo, n. (mi-}, reeling, staggering, 
unsteady gait. Also Mleoleo, of 
uncertain wavering movement. (Cf. 
lea, and follg.) 

Mlevi, n. (wa-\ a drunkard, a 
drunken person. (Cf. lea, levya, 
and prec.) 

Mlezi, n. (wa-}, one engaged in 
the rearing or training of children, a 
nurse, governess, tutor. Also name 
of a disease, scrofula (Sac.). 

Mlezo, n. for Mwelezo. (See 
Chelezo, and cf. elea.} 

Mlia, n. (mi-}, a stripe (line, band) 
of colouring. Used in plur. as adj. 
Ptinda milia, zebra. 

Mlilana, n. (mi-}, name of a shrub. 

Mlima,n. (mi-'), a mountain, high 
hill, long steep ascent. Mi lima, 
milima mingi, a mountain range. 
Mlima mrefu (mkubwa}, a high 
mountain. (Cf. kilima, and Mrima, 
the name of the coast district opposite 
and south of Zanzibar.) 

Mlimaji, n. (wa-}, for the usual 
mktilima, cultivator, tiller of the 
ground. (Cf. lima.} 

Mlimau, n. (mi-}, the tree bearing 
lemons (malimau}. (Cf. for other 
varieties mchungwa.} 

Mlimbiko,n. (mi-}, (i) awaiting 
for something, taking turns, a turn 




(in waiting) ; (2) a store, stock, re- 
serve, treasure. Mlimbiko ~va fttha, 
a -reserve of funds. (Cf. lirnl'ika, 
and syn. mngojo, zamu.} 

Mlimi, n. (wa-}, a fluent, babbling, 
talkative person. (Cf. u/imi, and 
syn. msemi, mwenyi domo.} 

Mlimo, n. (mi-}, (i) tillage, hus- 
bandry, agriculture, cultivation ; (2) 
results of cultivation, i.e. crops, pro- 
duce. (Cf. lima, mkulima, M/UM.) 

Mlimwengu, n. (wa-}, (i) an in- 
habitant of the world, and (a) esp. 
a man of the world, a worldly man. 
Mlimwengu ni mwanawe, a man's 
hopes (chief worldly interest) are his 
child. (Cf. ulimwengu t mali- 

Mlingoti, n. (mi'-), mast, of a 

vessel. M. wa maji, bowsprit. 

: mbele, foremast, also wa 

omoni. M. wa&alme, mizzcn-mast. 

The mast rests on the false keel 

(msitamu} and is fixed by a cross- 

beam (fundd) and two longitudinal 

(mwashiri). (Cf. chombo.} 

Mlinzi, n. (wa-}, guardian, pro- 
tector, keeper, guard, watchman, 
sentinel, &c. (Cf. linda, ulinzi.} 

Mlio, n. (mi-}, a sound, in the 
-*nsc, a cry, a note, weeping. 
Used of all kinds of objects, animate 
and inanimate, yielding a sound. 
M. wa mtoto, a child's 
M. wa simba, a lion's roar. 
bunJuki, the report of a gi.- 
wa ndege, a bird's singing. Ngoma 
ya milio saba, a dram with seven 
(Cf. lia, lio, kilio.) 

Mlipisi, n. (wa-}, one who pays, 
one who causes to pay. 

, an avenger. (Cf. /if a, 

Mlisha, Mliahi, n. (wa-), one 
who feeds or has the care of animals 
or other creatures. (Cf. /a, /isha, 
malisha, and follg.) 

MUsho, n. (wi-) t (i) a feeding, 
-., supporting. Af. 
wa sa> 
rnsJitfi, putting bait on the fishing- 

line, bait. (2) native name for the 
month called in Arab. Shaaban, i. e. 
the month before Ramathan. (Cf. 
la, lisha, and prec.) 

Mliwa, n. (mi-}, a tree with fra- 
grant aromatic wood. (Cf. liwa, 

*Mlizamu, n. ('-), a spout for 
carrying water off a house-top, or 
eaves. Commonly called kopo. 

Mlizi, n. (wa-}, one who cries or 
makes a noise, a child who is always 
crying, a ranter, a loud - mouthed 
orator. (Cf. lia, ulizi.} 

Mlomo, n. (mi-}, a variant of 
radomo (which see). 

Mlongo, n. (mi-}, a variant of 
mwongo (which see). 

*Mlozi, n. (i) (mi-}, an almond 
tree, producing the almond nut, lozi. 
(Ar.) (3) (wa-}, wizard, sorcerer, for 
the more usual mchawi. (Cf. loga % 
ulozi. } 

Mlvmgula, n. (wa-\ a black- 
mailer, an extortioner, a robber. 
Also, blackmail, bribe extorted. 
(Cf. hongo t rushwa.} 

Mmea, n. (mi-}, anything possess- 
ing vegetable life, or growth re- 
sembling it, plant, shoot, sucker, 
sprout, &c. Afimea, vegetation, in 
general. ' .nd syn. ota, 


Mmego, n. (mi-}, act of breaking 
off a piece or portion of food, with 
fingers or teeth. (Cf. mfga, mcgo.) 

Mmelea, n. (mi-}, that 
grows at (in, on) some place i>i 
a creeper, a parasite shrub. (Cf. 

Mmnadi. n. (wa-} t also Mnadl, 
an auctioneer, salesman, broker, haw- 
ker of goods for sale, ]>ul>l 
(Ar. Cf. mmada, dalali.} 

Mmoja, n. one man, a man, a 
person, a certain man. Sec -moja. 

Mmumunye, n. (wi-), tin 
protlucinga kind of gourd (mumunyc), 
like a vegetable mnrrou 

i y and hard, is used as a 
vessel for fluids. (Cf. boga, buyu.} 




*Mmunina, n. (wa-), a true be- 
liever, i. e. a Mahommedan. (Ar. 
Cf. imam, amini, mwatnini.} 

Mmvita, n. (wa-}, an inhabitant 
of Mvita, i. e. Mombasa. 

Mna, verb-form, (i) there is 
(within) (cf. m, na, and mna, pand} ; 
(2) you (plur.) have. (Cf. nina, 
una, &c.) 

*Mnada, n. ( ), an auction, sale, 
public notice. Mnadani, a sale- 
room, place of 'auction. Tia 
mnadani, put up for sale. Mnada 
wa Sultani ttnanadiwa, a procla- 
mation of the Sultan is being made. 
(Ar. Cf. follg.) 

*Mnadi, v. also Nadi, sell by 
auction, put up for sale, hawk about 
the streets. Ps. mnadiwa. (Ar. 
Cf. tembeza.} 

*Mnafiki, n. (wa-}, a hypocrite, 
pretender, impostor, liar. (Ar. 
Cf. unafiki, and cf. mwongo, mjanja, 
ay art."} 

*Mnajimu, n. (te/a-),an astrologer. 
(Ar. Cf. unctjimu.} 

*Mnajisi, n. (wa-}, an unclean, 
foul person, one who is profane in 
conduct or speech. (Ar. Cf.una/tst, 
najisi, and syn. mchafu.} 

Mnana, n. (wa-}, (i) a small 
yellowish bird, building in colonies 
on cocoanuts and other palms; (2) 
a substance used as a yellow dye for 
the leaf strips (ukili) used for plait- 
ing mats. 

*Mnanaa, n. (mi-}, mint. (Ar. 
Cf. nanaa.} 

*Mnanasi, n. (mi-}, the pineapple 
plant, the fruit being nanasi. 

*Mnasara, n. (wa-} and Mnasa- 
rani, Nazarene, used of Christians 
by Mahommedans. (Cf. -masihiya.} 

Mnaso, n. (mi-\ (i) a catching, 
holding, hampering; (2) difficulty, 
hitch, trap, impediment. (Cf. nasa, 
mgogoro, kizuizo, mtego.} 

Mnazi, n. (mi-}, cocoanut tree, 
which grows in great numbers in 
Zanzibar, and the adjacent islands 

and coast, and next to cloves is the 
most important commercial product, 
as well as the most useful for local 
purposes. The tree-stem is little 
used, except for stout posts or props, 
but when cut down the soft nutty 
substance at the top, from which the 
leaves and blossoms grow, is eaten as 
a delicacy (moyo wa mnazi, kilele or 
kichelema cha mnazi}. The other 
principal parts and products are the 
leaf kttti, fruit nazi, fibre kumvi, and 
sap called tembo. (See kuti, &c.) 
The trees are distinguished as mkinda, 
i. e. young, not yet bearing, mume 
male, and mke female. (See further 
under the words mentioned above. 
Various kinds of palm are mkindu, 
mwaa y mpopoo, mvumo } mchikichi, 
mtende, mwale.} 

Mnena, n. (wa-}, one who speaks, 
or who has the power of speech. 
(Cf. follg.) 

Mnenaji, Mneni, n. (wa-), a 
speaker, a professional orator, an 
eloquent person. (Cf. nena, and 
msemaji) msemi.} 

Mnenea, n. (wa-}, (i) a pleader, 
interceder, one who speaks for or to 
the advantage of another ; (2) a 
critic, opponent, one who speaks 
against or in rebuke of another. 
(Cf. nena, and prec.) 

Mnevu, n. See Mnyefu. 

Mng'ao, n. (mi-}, (i) brightness, 
blaze, lustre, glare ; (2) fig. clearness, 
perspicuity. Mng'ao wa maneno, 
lucidity of statement. (Cf. ng'aa, 
and follg.) 

Mng'ariza, n. (wa-}, with or 
without macho, one who has glow- 
ing, glaring eyes, and so to the native- 
mind one suspected of sorcery, 
malignity, evil intent. So also 
mng'arizo, gleaming, glaring, glitter. 
(Cf. ngariza.} 

Mng'arizo, n. (mi-}, likemng'ao, 
glitter, gleam, glare, radiance, &c. 
M. wa macho, glowing, radiant look, 
or, glaring, gleaming eyes. (Cf. 




Mngazija, n. (wvz-\ a native of 
the Great Comoro Island. (A < 
Moalli, Jft.'o/u-t- are other islands -in 
the gr 

Mng'oaji, n. (iva-), one who digs 
out, roots up, extracts, &c. Mngoaji 
wa meno, a dentist. (Cf. ngoa.) 

Mngoja, n. (iva-), also Mngoje, 
and Mgoja, -e, one who waits at a 
place (occupies a station, is on guard), 
sentinel, guard, keeper. Mngoja 
mlango, hall-porter, door-boy, gate- 
keeper. (Cf. ngoja, and follg., and 
syn. ni'. 

Mngojezi, n. (iva-), keeper, care- 
taker, guardian, watchman. (Cf. 
ngoja, and prec.) 

Mng'ongo, n. (mi-), name ofa tree. 

Mnguri, n. (mi-), a shoemaker's 
mallet. (Cf. mshoni.) 

Mugrurumizi, n. (iva-), one who 
grumbles, growls. (Cf. nguruma.) 

Mngwana, n. (iva-), one who is 
not a slave, a free (civilized, educated) 
person, gentleman, lady. Mngwana 
ni kitendo, a free man can* act (while 
a slave can only talk). (Cf. 
ungwana, fciungwana, and contr. 

Mnjugu, n. (mi-), the plant pro- 
ducing the ground -nut njugu. (Also 
njugu, of the plant.) 

Mno, adv. very much, too much, 

excessively, exceedingly, beyond 

measure. Sometimes combined with 

adverbs of similar meaning, 

sana MHO, mno ajabti, very cxcced- 

. wonderfully much. 

Mnofu, n. flesh, meat, fleshy part, 
as opp. to bone, i. e. nyama tupu, all 

Mnong'onozi. Mnong'oni, n. 
(wa-) t a whisperer. (Cf. follg.) 

Mnong'ono. n. (mi-), whispering, 
a whisper. (Cf. nongona.) 

Mnuna, Mnunaji, Mnuni. n. 
(tea-), a grumbler, one who com- 
plains (sulks, is discontented). (Cf. 

Mnunda. n. (mi-), a semi-wild 
town cat. 

Mnuno, n. (mi-}, grumbling, dis- 
content, complaint, sulkiness. (Cf. 
nutia, and prec.) 

Mnunuzi, n. (iva-), a buyer, cus- 
tomer, purchaser. (Cf. nunua, 

Mnyaa, n. (mi-), one of the names 
by which the Hyphaene palm is 
known, commonly mwaa (which 

Mnyakuzi, n. (tva-), a snatcher, 
pilferer, thief, shop-lifter, pickpocket. 
(Cf. nyakua, and syn. mwizi.) 

Mnyama, n. (iva-), (i) an animal, 
a beast. Also fig. (2) having the 
characteristics of an animal, a stupid 
fool, a brute, a beast. But commonly 
nyama is used in both senses. (Cf. 
nyama, ndama. Mnyama, a riddle, 
is seldom used in Z.) 

Mnyampara, n. (iva-), head of a 
body of men (caravan, expedition, 
army), or of a part of it, head- 
man, whether of porters or armed 
guard. (Cf. mkuit iva ,. 


Mnyamwezi, n. (iva-), one of the 
Nyamwezi tribe, living on the main- 
land west of Zanzibar, and 

porters to and from the coast. 
Used as a term of contempt by coast 

Mnyang'anyi, n. (wa-), robber, 
thief, highwayman, burglar. Com- 
monly implies a larger scale of action 
than ni-t'i i. which includes mere pettv 
thieving <>r pilfering. (Cf. nyang- 
anya, unyang'anyt, an 

Mnyanya, n. (mi-), the plant 
the tomato (nyanya). 

Mnyefu, n. (mi-), and Mnefo, 
damp, wet, . dampness. 

(Cf. nya, -nyf/u, and syn. rutuba, 
ufa/u, chtpecktpe.) 

Mnyenyekoo, n. deferci 

att it ude, reverence, &c. (Cf. 
- ea.) 

Mnyeo.n. (mi-), a tickling 

craving. Mnyeo .-.. 

ks, pangs of hunger. Also 




of prurien ce. (Cf. nyea, and kinycfu 

Mnyimo, n. (mi-}, a withholding 
refusal, prohibition. (Cf. nyima.} 

Mnyiri, n. (mi-}, also Mnyiriri, 
and Mng'iri, arm, tentacle, feeler, 
of the cuttle- hshpweza (and similar 
creatures ?). Commonly -mkono iva 

Mnyofu, n. (wa~}, a straight- 
forward, honest, upright, trustworthy 
person. See -nyofu, Unyofu. 

Mnyonge, n. (wa-} t a humble, 
abject, low, debased person. Mnyonge 
msonge, name of a kind of musical 
entertainment or concert, in which 
the performers are women, forming 
a kind of club. (Cf. -nyonge, 

Mnyororo,n. (mi-}, also Mnyoro, 
Mnyoo, (i) a chain, used com- 
monly for securing prisoners, slaves, 
&c., hence (2) fetters, prison, con- 
finement, gaol. Tia mnyororo, or 
mnyororoni, imprison, put under 
arrest. Sometimes (3) intestinal 
worm, but commonly chango. (Cf. 
kifungo, pingu, mti kati, mkatale, 
and contr. mkufu, light ornamental 

Mnyozi, n. (wa-\ a barber, com- 
monly kinyozi (which see). 

Mnyunyo,n.(wz-), a sprinkling, 
of liquid, scent, &c. (Cf. nyunyiza, 
manyunyo, and marashi.} 

Mnywa, Mnywaji, n. (w#-), 
verbal of nywa (see Nya), one who 
drinks, a drinker, i.e. of any fluid. 
Mnywa maji, a water - drinker. 
Mnywapombel*. beer-drinker. (Cf. 
nya, kinwa, kinywaji.} 

-mo is the same element as mu, 
m, the o either denoting reference 
or relative distance, ' in there,' or 
else giving it the force of a relative 
pronoun, ' in which.' (See Mu, M, 
and -o.) Mo (i) forms part of the 
demonstr. adv. humo, and mumo 
(which see) ; (2) affixed to ndi- and 
person-prefixes, and the verb -wet or 
its equivalents, has a demonstrative 

force, with general or usually local 
reference, 'in there, to (or, from) 
inside there,' e. g. yumo, he is in 
there. Ndimo alimo, that is where 
he is (in). Mimi simo, I am not in 
it, i. e. I have nothing to do with it. 
(3) in verb-forms generally is the 
form of relative pronoun referring to 
1 place within which,' e.g. ndimo 
akaamo, that is the place he lives in. 
Hamna ! hamna ! ndimo mliwarno, 
Nothing in that ! nothing in that ! 
that's where there is something (to 
be) eaten. Mo as a separate word 
only appears in such a phrase as mo 
mote, in whatever place, wherever. 
(Cf. MU, tnwa, humo, mumo.} 

Moalli, n. the island Mohilla in 
the Comoro group. 

*Mofa, n. (i) a small, hard, round 
cake of millet (nitama) meal; (2) a 
cooking oven of burnt clay. 

Moga, n. (waoga}, coward, for 
muoga, mwoga (which see). (Cf. 
oga, ogopa.} 

Moja, rr., also Moji, Mosi, Moya, 
(the number) one, one as an abstract. 
A'umi na moja, ten and one, eleven. 
Moja kwa moja, straight on, con- 
tinuously, without a break. Njia 
inakwenda moja kwa moja, the road 
goes straight on. Barra na poli 
moja kwa moja, desert and forest 
without a break. Mia kwa moja, 
one per cent. 

-moja, a. (same with D 5 (S), D 6), 
i) one, a single, a certain, an indi- 
vidual ; (2) one in kind, similar, 
dentical ; (3) one in feeling, agree- 
ng, harmonious, of one mind. Mtu 
mmoja, an individual, a certain man. 
Nguo moja, the same kind of cloth. 
Moyo mmoja, concord, harmony, so 
kali moja, shauri moja. Namna 
moja na kile, the same pattern as 
hat one. Various plural forms oc- 
:ur, e.g. vitu vingi vimoja, many 
ingle, separate, single things ; watu 
i wamoja, people are not all alike. 
Mtu na mwanawe, watu wamoja 
naskini, a man and his son, both 




equally poor. Mamoja, .often with 
yote or pia added, all one, all the 
same, all alike, to express indiffer- 
ence. Mamoja kwangii, it's all one 
to me, I do not care, never mind. 
(Cf. haithuru.) -mojawafo, any one 
whatever, -moja-moja, one by one, 
singly, individually, so vimoja. 
Pamoja is used as an adv., all to- 
gether, with one voice, unanimously, 
at one time (or, place). (Cf. most, 
and Ar. tvahedi, which is also com- 
monly used in counting.) 

Mola, n. a title of God, c Lord.' 
(Ar. Cf. MUHH&I, Rabbi.) 

'Mombasa, n. the Arab name of 
the island and town of Mombasa, 
about 1 20 miles north of Zanzibar. 
The native name is Mvita. (There 
is also a village called Mombasa in 
Zanzibar near the town.) 

Mombee, n. Bombay. 

Moris, n. Mauritius. 

Moshi, n. (i-), (i) smoke, steam ; 
(a) soot, lamp-black. Moshi wa 
moto, the smoke of a fire. Moshi 
unasimama, the smoke rises straight 
Icrikebu ya moshi, a steam- 
ship. (Cf. ota, motOy and syn. 

, mastzi.) 

Moai, n. (the number) one. -a 
most, first, but -a kwanza is usual. 
Jumaa most (Junta ya most}, Satur- 
day, as being the first day after 
Friday, which is observed by the 
Mahommcdans as Sunday. See 
Juma. (Cf. mo/a, and Ar. tvahtdi.) 

Moakiti, n. also Meakiti, Msi- 
i mosque, the Mahommcdan 
place of worship. (There are great 
numbers in Zanzibar city and it- 
land, many being merely native 
houses of s' . and thatch, 

with a barrel or large vessel of water 
near the door. In the city they are 
mostly of stone, plain in architecture 
n, only one with 
a minaret, and only one of large size. 
; alimu, or official 

ithini, or 
cistern for ablutions, and 

most part a distinct congregation of 
members of the same nation, sect, or 
class. Moskiti is a form of masgidi, 
mesjidi, cf. su/ua'u.) 

Mote, a. and Mwote, form cf 
-ote, all, agreeing with nouns having 
the locative termination -ni, e. g. m 
jini mote, in the whole town. (Cf. 
-ote, kote, pote.} 

Moto, n. (mioto), (i) fire, flame, 
a fire, a conflagration ; (2) heat, 
warmth, inflammation, temperature ; 
(3) fig-\, ardour, energy, vehe- 
mence, martial spirit, fierceness. Fa- 
nya m., make a fire. Washa m., light 
a fire. Pekecha m. y light a fire by 
means of firesticks. Pata m., get 
hot. Of a (koto) ., sit by a fire, 
warm oneself. Choma (pasha) m., 
or kwa m., set fire to, heat, cook with 
fire. Chochea m., stir the fire. 
Zima (zimisha) m., put out the fire. 
Prov. da-way a moto ni moto, fire must 
be met with fire. Akajisifu moto, 
he boasted of his martial prowess. 
-a moto, hot, warm, energetic, fiery, 
&c. Kazi moto, strenuous, eager 
work. Maji ya moto, (i) hot water ; 
(2) a large red ant, living in t 
so called. (Cf. of a, moshi. lip- 
sticks are seldom seen in Z., matches 
being very cheap, and embers easily 

Moyo, n. (mioyo, also nyoyo as 
if from uoyo\ (i) the heart (the 
physical organ) ; (2) the heart, feel- 
ings, soul, n. self; (3) in- 

most part, core, ; r ; (4) 

courage, resolution , presence : 
(5) special favour U-light. 

:;e utauona moyo wan. 
me and yon will find my heart 
t.,piga m. konde, take heart. 

siniika, kuta} m,, 
encourage, cheer, heart 
m. t be depressed. M. mckeuhe, lack 

rnge, a faint 1 
moyo wangu nataAa, I really desire 

I/, ^wajipu, the core of an ab- 
scess. Moyo wa mnati, the soft 
nutty core at the top of a cocoanut 




tree, from which leaves and blossoms 
grow, eaten as a delicacy. Moyo 
wa kanzu, the part of a kanzu over 
the chest. Huyu ndiye moyo wake, 
this is his great pet. -a moyo, 
voluntary, willing. Sema (fanya} 
fava moyo, speak (acf) voluntarily, 
readily. Also senia kwa moyo, say 
by rote, repeat without a book or re- 
minder. (Cf. roho, nafstj and 

Mpagazi, n. (wa-}, carrier, bearer, 
caravan-porter. Nikawapa wapa- 
qazi upagazi wao, I gave the porters 
their wages. (Cf. pagaa, tipagazi, 
and syn. mchtikuzi, hamali} 

Mpaji, n. (wa-\ donor, giver, 
benefactor, a generous, liberal person. 
But esp. of God, e. g. mpaji wa kupa 
ni Muungu, the real (only) Giver is 
God, also called mpaji asiyepewa, 
He who always gives and never 
receives. (Cf. pa, upaji, kipaji, 
and -karimu. Dist. paji, klpaji, 
forehead, temple.) 

Mpaka, n. (mi-}, boundary, limit, 
border, term. Piga (weka} m., fix a 
boundary, lay down a limit. Ruka 
m. t trespass, break bounds. Mpaka 
mmoja, adjacent, bordering, adjoin- 
ing. Also used as prep., up to, to, 
as far as, till, until, to the time of, 
like hatta. Akafika mpaka kwetu, 
he came as far as our country. Nikae 
mpaka lini ? How long am I to stay ? 
(Cf. paka, v., pakana, also upeo. 
Dist. paka, with other meanings.) 

Mpaka, Mpaki, n. (wa-}, verbal 
of paka, a plasterer, a painter; also 
mpaka chokaa, mpaka rangi. 

Mpakato, n. (mi-}, something 
applied, stuck on, e.g. a patch, a 
bandage. (Cf. pakata, paka, v.) 

Mpakizi, n. (wa-}, a shipper 
a stevedore, one who sees goods or 
freight put on board. (Cf. pakia} 

Mpako, n. (mi-}, a plastering 
plaster. Mpako wa rangi, applying 
paint, painting. (Cf. paka.} 

Mpalio, n. (mi-}, (i) a rising in 
the throat or nostril, a choke ; (2) a 

oeing up the soil among growing 
rops. (Cf. paa, palia} 

Mpamba, n. (mi-}, (i ) the plant 
reducing cotton, pa mba ; (2) (wa-}, 
r erbal of pamba, one who adorns. 
Cf. pamba, and follg.) 

Mpambaji, n. (wa-}, an under- 
taker, one of the professional atten- 
dants who with the mwosha prepares 
a dead body for burial, using such 
things as pamba, dalia, manukato, 
mavukizo, sanda, mkeka wa pamba. 
Cf. pamba} 

Mpambano, n. (mi-}, a meeting, 
colliding, confronting, an encounter. 
(Cf. pambana.} 

Mpambe, n. (wa-}, a person 
dressed up, bedecked with ornaments, 
n a showy costume, esp. of a female 
attendant on a chief at certain cere- 
monials, maid-of-honour. (Cf. follg.) 

Mpambi, n. (wa-}, a decorator, 
of house, person, &c., e.g. a lady's 
maid. (Ct. pamba, v.) 

Mpanda, n. (wa-}, verbal of 
panda, (i) one who climbs, a climber ; 
(2) one who plants, a planter. Also 
Mpandaji, Mpandi. Also (3) (mi-}, 
a forked branch or stick, such as 
is used for a slave-stick. See 

Mpande, n. (mi-}, piece, part, 
side. Rarely used. (Cf. upande, 
kipande, pande.} 

Mpando, n. (mi-}, (i) a climbing, 
mounting up, ascent. Inchiya mpa- 
ndo, rising ground. (2) act (pro- 
cess, method, &c.) of planting, time 
or season of planting. Also of a row 
or line of plants, cuttings, seeds, &c., 
e. g. mipando kumi ya muhindi, ten 
rows of Indian corn. (Cf. panda, 

Mpango, n. (mi-}, (i) act (pro- 
cess, manner, time, &c.) of arranging, 
setting in order, placing in line, mar- 
shalling (cf. panga, and syn. andika. 
'Dizi.pango}. (2) act (terms, method, 
&c.) of hiring, renting, letting, &c. 
(Cf. panga, ktichisha.} 

Mpanzi, n. (wa-}, a planter, a 




sower. (Cf.panda, mpando. Dist. 
fanzi, grasshopper.) 

Mpapai, n. (**), the tree which 
bears papaw-fruit (papai}. The 
leaves and juices rubbed on meat 
make it tender, and are so used by 
cooks. Digestive preparations are 
now made from it. 

Mpapatiko, n. (mi-}, fluttering, 
throbbing. (Cf. papatika.} 

Mpapuro, n. (mi-), a scratching, 
a scratch, esp. with nails or claws. 
(Cf./a/wra, and mtai, m/uo, mkuno.) 

Mparamuzi, n. (mi-) t name of 

a tree difficult to climb. Mti pia 

umepanda, huu ndio mparamuzi, you 

have climbed every kind of tree, but 

a puzzler (? Bombax Ceiba). 

Mparuzi, n. (wa-) t one who does 
not work smoothly, a bungler. (Cf. 

Mparuzo, n. (mi-), a scraping, 
rough work, bungling, &c. (Cf. 

Mpasi, n. (wa-), one who gets, 
one who makes money, a rising am- 
bitious man, a prosperous merchant. 
(Cf. /a/a, pato, and syn. tajiri, 

Mpatanishi, n. (u>a-}, a peace- 
maker, reconciler, one who brings 
people to terms, settles quarrels and 
difficulties, a negotiator. (Cf. 

patana, and msuluhishi.) 

Mpato, n. (mi-), (\) verbal of 
pata, a getting, a procuring, &c. ; 
(a) a float used for showin; 
position of a fishing-net, and keeping 
it extended; (3) ? lattice, trellis- 

Mpekecho, n. (mi-), (i) a twirl- 

a stirring; (a) a disturbance, 

agitation, fomenting of discord. 

ftkccha, ufxkecho.) 

Mpekuci, n. (wa-;, <>nc who picks 
and scratches (like a fowl), an in 
ve person. (Cf. pekua.) 

Mpelekwa, n. (wa-), a person 
sent, a messen (Cf. fxltka 

and syn. tume.) 

Mpelelesi, n. (wa-), (i) one who 

nvestigates, reconnoitres, examines, 
&c. ; (2) a spy, scout, tracker, eaves- 
dropper. (Cf. peleleza.} 

Mpenda, Mpendi, n. (wa-), ver- 
xils of penda, one who loves, likes, 
ntends, &c., a lover. Mpcndwa 
(tva-\ one who is loved. (Cf. 
pctuia, mapenda, mpenzi^ npendo.} 

Mpenyezi, n. (wa-), (i) one who 
ntroduces, causes to enter or pene- 
:rate, brings in, and esp. in an under- 
hand secret way, hence (2) a traitor, 
smuggler, illicit trader, secret agent, 
one who gives bribes. Mpenyczo, 

bribe. (Cf.penya, upenyezi.} 

Mpenzi, n. (wa-\ (i) one who 
is beloved, a dear favourite person ; 
(2) one who loves, a lover, as 
niptndi. Cf. mapcnzi, active love, 
inclination, will, and see Mapenda. 
Mpenzi hana kinyongo, (i) the ob- 
ject of affection has no defect, causes 
no scruples; (2) a lover sees no 
defects. (Cf. petuia, upenti.) 

Mpepea, n. ('-), a light breeze, 
a zephyr, i.e. upepo mpepta, a breeze 
that fans. (Cf. Ar/oz, uptpo,pepeo.) 

Mpepetaji.n. (wa-),also Mpetaji, 
one who sifts or winnows grain, &c. 

Mpera, n. (/*-), tne tree that 

ic guava fruit, pera. Mpera 

wa kizungti, the rose-apple tree. 

Another variety is the nttofaa. 

Mpetaji, n. (wa-), 

Mpevushi, n. (wa-), a corrupter 
of morals, es] ;m^, lit. one 

who ripens, brings to maturity, forces 
growth. (Cf. pcoua, -ptr>u, and 

Mpiga, n. (aw-), verbal of 
all its manifold uses, one who strikes, 

Mpiganisho, n. (mi- , collision, 

Mpigo, n. (mi -), act (mode, &c.) 
of striking. (Cf./^.) 

Mpikaji, n. (-a-), a cook, a pro- 
fessional cook, head cook. (Cf. 
pika, tnpishi, and follg.) 

R a 




Mpiko, n. (mi-}, (i) stick or pole 
to carry or sling loads on; (2) act 
(process, method, &c.) of cooking, 
including mkaango, mchomo, mtokoso, 
mwoko. See Pika. 

Mpilipili, n. (mi-}, the plant pro- 
ducing capsicums (pilipili}, the red- 
pepper plant. (Cf. pilipili.} 

Mpimo, n. (;/-), (i) act (mode, 

means, &c.) of measuring ; (2) pay- 
^Cf. pima, 

ment for measuring. (Cf. pima, 

Mpindani, n. (wa-), a person bent 
or crooked by stiffness or disease. 
(Cf. pinda, and follg.) 

Mpindano, n. (mt-\ a bending 
together, a stiffening. Mp. wa mshi- 
pa, cramp. (Cf. pinda, and syn. 

Mpinduzi, n. (wa-}, one who 
turns things upside down, a revolu- 
tionist, a disturber of peace. (Cf. 
pinda, pindua.} 

Mpingani, n. (wa-}, an obstruc- 
tor, a stubborn opponent. (Cf. 

Mpirjgo, n. (mi-), the ebony tree. 

Mpini, n. (mi-\ a handle, haft, 
of an instrument, such as knife, sword, 
tool. (Cf. kipini. Other kinds 
are called (i) mkono, e.g. projecting 
handle of a saucepan ; (2) utambo, 
e. g. handle of a bucket.) 

Mpira, n. (mi-}, (i) a tree pro- 
ducing india-rubber ; (2) the substance 
india-rubber; (3) a ball of india- 
rubber, and hence a ball of any ma- 
terial, used of a cricket- or foot-ball, 
and extended to any games of ball. 
Gema mpira, draw off the sap from 
an india-rubber tree. Mpira wa ku- 
ponda, india-rubber got by boiling 
the roots of trees. The natives make 
up the sap into balls of about three 
inches diam. for sale. (Cf. mbungo, 

Mpishi, n. (wa-), a cook. (Cf. 
pika, pikisha, upishi. Dist. pisha, 
Cs. oipita, andflisAi, a measure.) 

Mpofu, n. (wa-), an eland. Also 
(from -pofu}, a blind person, blind, 

i. e. mtu mpofu wa macho. (Cf. -pofn, 
pofua. And for various antelopes 
cf. paa, n.) 

Mpokezi, n. (wa-), one who re- 
ceives, a receiver, recipient. (Cf. 
pokea, and mkabithi.} 

Mponda, n. (wa-}, verbal ofponda, 
one who crushes, breaks to pieces. 
Mponda malt, a spendthrift, prodigal. 

Mpondo, n. (mi-}, a pole for 
pushing a vessel in shallow water, a 
punting-pole. (Cf. ponda, also 
pondo, kipondo.} 

Mpopoo, n. (mi-}, the areca palm, 
bearing the betel-nut, .popoo, which is 
always in great request for chewing. 
See Popoo, Tambmj, Uraibu. 

Mposa, n. (wa-}, a suitor, one who 
makes proposals of marriage to 
parents. (Cf. posa, and follg.) 

Mposo, n. (mi-}, proposal of mar- 
riage, wooing. (Cf. posa, and prec.) 

Mpotezi, n. (wa-}, one who spoils, 
ruins, corrupts, misleads, destroys, 
perverts, &c. (Cf. potea, -potevu, 
and follg., and syn. mwangamizi.} 

Mpoto, n. (wa-}, and more com- 
monly Mpotofu, Mpotoe, wrong- 
headed, wilful, perverse, wayward, 
headstrong, unprincipled, contr. of 
mwongofu, and described as mtu 
asiyeongoka, a man who does not go 
the right way ; asiyeshika akili za 
mtu mwingine, one who never listens 
to others. (Cf. potoa, and potea.} 

Mpozi, n. (wa-}, one who cures, a 
physician, a title which is usually 
ascribed to God. Mpozi ni Muungu, 
God is the real physician. Doctors 
are usually called mganga, tabibu, 
daktari. (Cf. poa, pona, poza.} 

MTpumbafu, n. (wa-}, a fool, a 
dupe, described as mtu aseyiweza 
kufanyiza kazi ya nafsi yake, a man 
who has not the. wits to do what he 
sets himself to do. (Cf. pumbaa, 
-pumbafu, and syn. mjinga, bara- 

Mpunga, n. (mi-}, the rice plant, 
and rice while still growing or in the 
husk. (When husked it is called 




mchcle, when cooked in the ordinary 
way wait."} . 

Mpungate, n. (mi-) f a kind of 
cactns (Str.). 

Mpuzi, n. (wa-), one who is 
foolish, flippant, careless, loose, in 
conduct, conversation, &c., a gossip, 
flirt, babbler, gad-about. (Cf. 

-/-*', ttpuzi, fuza.) 

Mpwa, n. (zva-\ sister's child, 
nephew, niece, and ? cousin. (Not 
often in Z.) 

Mpweke, n. (mi-) t (i) a short 
thick stick, cudgel, bludgeon (cf. 
kibarango, and for other sticks bakora, 
fimho). (a) a. Sec -pweke. 

Mpya, a. See -pya. 

*Mraba, n. mi-} and Mrabba, 
what is fourfold, square, a square, 
a rectangle, a right angle. Also of 
squares laid out for planting, garden 
beds, -a miraba minne t rectangular. 
i wa miraba minne, a square- 
built, stout man. Piga miraba ka- 
tika shamba, lay out beds for cultiva- 
on an estate. (Ar. Cf. robo, 
droba. Also in Ar. mraba means 
jam, preserve.') 

*Mrabaha, n. (mi-), royalty, fee 
paid to a chief by a trader for right 
of trading in a place. (Ar. Cf. 

*Mradi, n. (mi-), intention, plan, 
resolve. (Ar. Cf. nia, shauri, 
azima, kits Mai.) 

*Mrama> n. also Mramma, Mra- 

man tossing, rolling, the 

: a ship at sea, e.g. m. wa 

chonibo. Enda M., roll, toss, j 

&c., of a ship. (Ar. Cf. suko- 

Mrao, n. (mi-), fuse for a gun, 

match fur lighting the powder in a 

matchlock. a small twisted bit of 

Ic fibre from a suitable tree. 

',w t a matchlock gun. 


*Mrashi, n. (mi-), a long-necked 
glass or n c or flask, used 

for sprinkling scent. (,Ar. 
mar at hi.) 

*Mrejaa, n. and Mregaa. Bei 
ya mrejaa, trading by commission, 
i.e. with goods lent for sale, and 
returnable if not sold. (Ar., lit. 
' returning.' Cf. rejea, and kopa, 

Mrenaha, n. (mi-), the thorn-apple 
tree (Str.). 

Mreno, n. (wa-), a Portuguese. 
(Cf. -rent.) 

Mrera, n. lines of ornamental 
stitching on the collar of a kanzu, 
usually of red silk. See Kanzu. 

*Mrihani, n. basil (the aromatic 
herb). (Ar. Cf. rihani, mami- 

Mrija, n. (mi-\ a small kind of 
reed, often used as a pipe (for 
drinking with, musical, &c,), and so 
(a) a pipe, tube, piping. 

Mrima, n. and Merirna, name of 
the strip of coastland opposite and 
south of Zanzibar, with its own dialect 
of Swahili called Kimrima. '1 he 
people also are described as \\ a- 
mrima. (Perh. cf. m/ima, i. e. the 
hill-country, rising from the coast 

*Mrithi, n. (wa-), an heir, legatee, 
inheritor. (Ar. Cf. rithi, urithi, 

*Mrithia, n. (wa-) t a pleasant, 
affal ile, am iable person. (Ar. Cf. 
rai 'hi ', ttrathi.) 

Mrithishi, n. (wa-), an executor, 
of a will. ( Ar. Cf. mrithi.) 

Mruba, n. (mi-), a leech. 

Mrututu, n. sulphate of copper, 
blue-stone, blue vitriol, often used 
as a caustic for sores, &c. 

Msaada, n. (mi-), help, aid, assist- 
ance, support. (Ar. 
and s ' cmco t shir. 

Msafa, n. (mi-), a lint 
series, more commonly sa/u 

Msafa wa mitima, a chain of 
mountains, mountain- i.r 
fungamana,kama kilima kimoja fcwa 
kimoja, they are joined together like 
.uous series of hills. (Ar. 
Cf. msfari, mpango, and sa/u.) 




*Msafara, n. (mi-), a travelling 
company, caravan, expedition, for 
trading, war, &c. Andika (tengeneza, 
paiiga) msafara, organize an expedi- 
tion. (Ar. Cf. safiri, safari, and 

*Msafiri, n. (wa-), a traveller (by 
sea or land), wayfarer, voyager. 
(Ar. Cf. prec., and syn. mpitaji, 
mtembezi, abiria.) 

*Msahafu, n. (mi-), a. book (blank, 
written, or printed), esp. the Coran, 
the Book, the Mahommedan Bible. 
Also page or leaf of a book, i.e. 
karatasi ya chuo kitupu, kisicho- 
andikwa, page of a blank book not 
written in. (Ar. sahifat, a page, 
layer. Cf. kitabu, chuo.) 

*Msahau, n. (wa-), one wno f r ~ 
gets, a forgetful person. (Ar. Cf. 
sahau, -sahaulifu.) 

*Msaji, n. (mi-}, the teak tree, 
teak wood, imported to Zanzibar, 
resists the attacks of white ants. 

Msakaji, n. (wa-), one who hunts, 
i.e. msakaji nyama, a hunter of 
game. (Cf. follg. and nlwinda, 

Msako, n. (mi-), hunting, a hunt. 
(Cf. saka, and syn. winda, mwindo.) 
*Msala, n. (mi-}, (i) a praying 
mat, usually oval, and hence of oval 
or round mats in general. Also (2) 
a private place, bath, closet, like 
faraghani. Yuko msalani, he is en- 
gaged. Akapelekwa msalani akaenda 
akaoga, he was conducted to the bath- 
room and went and had a bath. 
(Ar. Cf. sala, sali, and for mats 
mkeka, kitanga. Also cf. choo.) 

Msalaba, n. (mi-), (i) a cross, 
anything in the form of a cross. Also 
(2) instrument of torture, used for 
mkatale, stocks. (Ar. CLsulubu.) 
*Msalata, n. (wa-), a harsh, over- 
bearing, unfeeling, provoking person, 
(Ar. Cf. saliti, and syn. mgomvi 
msumbufu, &c.) 

Msalimina, Msalimu, n. (wa-) 
variants of Mwislamu, Msilimu, a 
Mahommedan, a Moslem. 

*Msaliti, n. (wa-). See Msalata. 

*Msamaha, n. (mi-) also Msa- 
meha, pardon, forgiveness, forbear- 
ance, respite. Nataka msamaha 
kwako, 1 beg your forgiveness. 
(Ar. Cf. samehe, and follg., and syn. 
achilio, ghofira.) 

*Msamehe, n. (wa-), a forgiving, 
merciful person. (Ar. Cf. prec.) 

Msamilo, n. (mi-), wooden head- 
rest, used by natives as a pillow. 

*Msanaa, n. (wa-), also Msani, 
one skilled in an art, artist, artisan. 
(Ar. Cf. sanaa, -sanifu. In Z. 
commoner syn. are fundi, waria, 
mstadi, mbingwa.) 

*Msandali, n. (mi-), the tree pro- 
ducing the aromatic sandal-wood. 

*Msandarusi, n. (mi-), the gum- 
copal tree. (Cf. santtarusf.) 

Msangao, n. (mi-), also Msha- 
ngao (which see). 

Msapata, n. (mi-), a kind of 
native dance. (Cf. ngoma.) 

Msasa, n. (mi-), (i) a plant or 
shrub with rough leaves, used for 
smoothing wood. Hence (2) sand- 
paper, emery paper. 

Msazo, n. (mi-), what is left over, 
leavings, remnant, remainder. (Cf. 
salia, saza, sazo, salio, and syn. baki.) 

Msekeneko, n. syphilis. (Cf. 

*Mselehisha, n. (wa-), also -ishi, 
a reconciler, a peacemaker. (Ar. 
Cf. suluhi, selehisha, and syn. mpa- 

Msema, n. (wa-), verbal of sema, 
one who says, speaks, has the power 
of speech. (Cf. sema, nena, and 

Msemi, Msemaji, n. (wa-), (i) 
a speaker, a narrator ; (2) an eloquent 
person, an orator, a fluent, talkative 
person. Msemaji wa habari,onz who 
tells news, a narrator, an historian. 
(Cf. sema, and prec., ttsemi, use- 

Msemo, n. (mi-), act (kind, style, 
&c.) of speaking, utterance, speech. 
Kilichowaftmga ni msemo wao we- 




, convicted them wa> their 
own speech. (Cf. scma, and prec.) 

Msetiri, n. (iva-}. See Mstiri. 

Mseto, n. (mi-\ and Msheto, a 
mixtureof grains and other ingredients 
cooked for food, a mash, e. g. nitama, 
choroko, kunde, viazi. (Cf. seta.) 

Msewe, n. (#-) a sort of rattle, 
fastened to the leg, to make a jingle 
in dancing. (Cf. njttga.) 

*Mshabaha, n. (mi-}, likeness, re- 
semblance, similitude. Used also like 
methali (mithili) and mfano as a 
conj. ' in the likeness (of), like,' for 
the common kama t sawa (no). Msha- 
baha mmoja, alike. ( AT. Cf. sha- 

*Mshahara, n. (-), monthly 
wages, regular salary. (Ar. shahr, 
a month. Cf. ujira.) 

*Mshairi, n. (/o-), a composer 
of verses, a rhymer, a poet. (Ar. 
Cf. shairi.) 

Mshakiki, n. (//-), (i) spit, 
skewer; (2) a bit of meat, toasted 
iibers on a skewer. (Ar. 
sikkat, and cf. syn. kijiti, kibanzi.) 

Mshale, n. (wi-), an arrow. For 

parts cf. chembe (iron head), 

wane (shaft), manyoya (feathers , 

koleo (notch). Dim. kishalc. (Other 

common weapons are tnktt 

Mshangao, n. ( ///!) also Msa- 

ngao, thrilling excitement, deep sen- 

ration, wonder, perplex- 

ity, amnzcmcnt, bewilderment, stupe- 

Ona (fanya, shikwa na, 

.?*<), be seized with wonder, &c. 

mgaa, and ajabu, bumbwui, 


Mshari, n. (wa~\ an eril , 

one who brings n 11 link, 

destruction, &c. Opp. of heri. 
(Ar. Cf. syn. mgomvi, rntrsi, mMtrqfi t 
mchokozi, < 

*Mharika, n. (wa-\ also Mshi- 
riki, p.-iitncr, ]>aiticipator, sharer, 
associate, equal, but tns/ia; 
imply the closest possible i- 
tion of interests, r 

< nature, and feeling. (Ar. Cf. 
shariki, shiriki, and syn. nm 

*Mshathali, a. and adv., also 
Mahethali, and sometimes heard as 
Msitara, crooked, slanting, oblique, 
out of the straight or level, sloping, 
on one side. (?Ar., and cf. syn. 
upandc t kikombo, kipogo?) 

*Mshauri, n.(wa-), adviser, friend, 
counsellor. (Ar. Cf. shauri.) 

*Msheheri, n. (wa-), an Arab 
from Sheher in South Arabia, usu. 
of a low class, engaged in manual 
trades and labour. (Ar.) 

*Mshemali, n. (wa-) t a northern 
Arab, i. e. one who comes from 
Muscat and the Persian Gulf. (Ar.) 

Mshenzi, n. (tt'tf-), a barbarian, 
savage, one of the aborigines, a person 
untouched by civilization. Often used 
contemptuously by the coast SwahilU 
of those who come from the interior. 
(Cf. us/ienzi, mjii. 

Msheto, n. (///<-). See Mseto. 

holds, takes hold of, grasps. Mshiki 
shikio (oT,MSuani), pilot, steersman. 
(Cf. shika.) 

Mshikilizo, n. (mi-\ lit. a causing 
to hold on to, or together, used of 
tacking or basting materials ready 

Mshinda, n. (wa-\ verbal of 
shinda, one who remains, co; 
&c. (See the various meanings of 
shinda, and follg.^ 

Mahindaji, n. (wa-)i * conqueror, 
victor, successful competitor or can- 
didate. Differs :: 
-V, only so far as th 
s that the action is character- 

nnhindo, and follg.) 

Mahindani, n. (w/i-), (i) an op- 
:ival, nntn;; 

(a) a contentious, obsti 
tious person. (Cf. st;: 

and syn. mbishi, 
*/' w .V ; ' 




Mshinde, n. (wa-}, one who is 
conquered. (From shinda, with 
pass, terrain, -e. Not often used.) 

Mshindi, n. (wa-}, a conqueror, 
winner, prize-taker, victor. (Cf. 
shinda, mshindi, mshindaji, and prec.) 

Mshindilio, n. (mi-}, a pushing, 
a pressing, application of force. 
Used of (i) loading a gun, ramming 
the charge home. Also of (2) the 
charge or cartridge itself. (Cf. 
shinda, shindilia, and kiasi} 

Mshindio, n. (mi-}, (i) the work- 
ing of the woof or weft across the warp 
(rntande) in weaving; (2) the woof 
itself. Used also of the interlacing 
of plaited leaf strips (mashupatu} to 
form a bedstead (kitanda}, mshindio 
wa mashupatu. (Cf. shinda, and 
prec., also mfwno for weaving.) 

Mshindo,n. (z#/-),used to describe 
any act (process, effect), characterized 
by suddenness, force, violence, &c., 
and so translated variously as ' shock, 
blow, stroke, explosion, noise, bang, 
sensation, burst, thump, crash, out- 
break, tumult, uproar,' &c. Mshindo 
wa nguritmo, peal of thunder. Ngoma 
ya mishindo saba, a drum with seven 
notes. Ikawa mshindo mkubwa 
katika inchi, there was a general 
rising throughout the land. Also of 
a report, rumour, news of a thrilling 
or sensational kind. Mshindo iva 
miguu, tramp of feet. (Cf. shinda, 
and prec., and dim. kishindo.} 

Mshipa, n. (mi-}, used rather 
vaguely of minor organs of the body 
not commonly distinguished by 
natives, blood-vessel, nerve, vein, 
artery, and of any pain, ache, disease 
or affection of them, ache, swelling, 
throbbing, fullness of blood. E.g. 
mshipa unampiga fundo, there is a 
knot (obstruction, clot) in his vein, 
of aneurism, &c. Marathiya mshipa, 
neuralgic pain, sciatica, and similar 
pains. Mshipa unamtambaa mwili- 
ni, of creeping shooting pains in diff- 
erent parts of the body. M. inapiga 
(inapuma t inattikutikd}, the vein, or 

pulse, beats (throbs, is irregular). 
Kanda mshipa, feel the pulse. 

Mshipi, n. (mi-}, (0 a narrow strip 
of stuff (cloth, webbing, &c.), used 
as a belt, girdle, waist-band, halter, 
also used of braces, suspenders ; (2) 
a fishing-line, a fishing-net. 

*Mshitiri, n. (wa-), customer, 
buyer. (Arab., for the common 


Mshituko, n. (mi-}. See Mshtuko. 

Mshona, Mshoni, n. (wa-), one 
who sews, always a man in Z . ,a tailor. 
Mshona viatu, mshoni wa viatu, a 
sandal-maker, a shoemaker. (Cf. 
shona, and follg.) 

Mshono, n. (mi-}, sewing, seam, 
suture. Kunga mshono, sew a seam. 
(Cf. shona, ushoni, prec., voAkuHgaf 

*Mshtaka, n. (mi-}, charge, ac- 
cusation, complaint. Fanya mshtaka, 
prosecute. (Cf. shtaki, and follg., 
and drfwa.} 

*Mshtaki, n. (wa-}, accuser, prose- 
cutor, plaintiff. (See Shtaki, and 
prec., and cf. dai.} 

*Mshubiri, n. (mi-}, an aloe. 
(Cf. also subiri, sibiri.} 

Mshuko, n. (mi-}, (i) descent* 
coming down, an incline ; (2) coming 
to end, conclusion. Used of the time 
of coming away from the mosque 
after any of the usual prayers. 
Mshuko wa jua (wa magaribt], time 
of twilight, just after sunset, 6 to 
6.30 p.m. (Cf. shuka.} 

*Mshumaa, n. (mi-}, candle. 
See Meshmaa. (Ar.) 

*Mshurutisho, n. (mi-}, a com- 
pelling, a compulsion, moral pressure. 
(Ar. Cf. sharti, shnruti.} 

*Msiba, n. (mi-}, (i) calamity, 
misfortune, untoward accident, dis- 
aster; (2) sorrow, distress of mind, 
grief; (3) formal mourning, outward 
signs of sorrow, &c. Used of war, 
famine, sickness, and minor calami- 
ties. Msiba mkuu (mkubwa, mgwmi), 
a great disaster. Fanya (ona, ingia, 
pata, &c.), m-, ^ke to heart, grieve 
(over). Muungu hushusha msiba 




kwao ivaJtnda maovu, God sends 
down calamities on evil-doers. 
A'wcnda kupa mkono u<a msiba, go 
and make a visit of condolence, offer 
sympathy, inquire after, after a 
funeral, misfortune, &c. Akakaa 
msiba iva mamaye, he observed the 
usual mourning for his mother. 
jumbe amekufa, ukaanguka 
msiba mkubwa mno wa ajabu, when 
' a chief dies, it means the occurrence 
of a very great and exceptional 
demonstration of sorrow. (Ar. 
Cf. masaibu, sibu, and follg.) 

*Msibu, n. (wa-), one who causes 
trouble, distress, &c. (Ar. Cf. 
sibu, and prec.) 

*Msifu, n. (wa-), verbal of si/u, 
one who praises, recommends, flatters. 
Afsi/u mno, a gross flatterer, toady, 
parasite. (Cf. sifu, si/a.) 

Maijana, n. (wa-), young unmar- 
ried person of either sex, from ten to 
twenty-five years of age. (Not usual 
in Z. Cf. kijana. Perh. m-si-jana, 
i.e. one who is not a child. Cf. 

*Msikiti, n. mosque. See Mos- 
kiti. (Ar.) 

Maikizi, n. (wa-}, one who hears, 
heeds, obeys, and so (i) an auditor, 
hearer, listener, one who attends a 
class or meeting ; (2) a follower, dis- 
ciple, adherent, a teachable, obedient 
person, good pupil, good servant. 
Afwcnyeti Mngu ni msik 

-ua kilLi kittt, Almighty 
God sees and hears evt 
Nalafuta ivatu wasikiii, I am 
looking for people to listen to my 
case. (Cf. -sikia, -sikifu, siJtio.) 

Maikwao, n. (wa-), one who has 
no home, a vagrant, a wanderer (si 
kpao). (Cf. mkiwa.) 

Mailirnu, n. (wa-). See Mwi- 

Maimamizi, n. (wa-), lit. one 
who causes to stand, or stands over, 
i.e. an overseer, overlooker, esp. the 
headman of a plantation, or of a 
caravan. Also generally, responsible 

head, director, manager, superinten- 
dent, steward, foreman. (Cf. 
simama, and also nokoa, kadamu?) 

Msimulizi, n. (wa-), one who 
reports, narrates, gives an account, 
tells a story, recounts news, news- 
man. (Cf. sumulia.) 

Msindikizo, n. ('-), act of 
escorting, escort, cortege, retinue. 
(Cf. siiidikiza, sindika.) 

"Msingefuri, n. (mi-), the anatta 
plant. (Cf. singefuri.) 

Msinji, n. (mi-), also Msingi, 
a trench, ditch, cutting made in the 
ground, e.g. round a house for 
carrying off water, &c., but esp. of 
the foundation for a stone house. 
Piga (we&a) msinji, lay a foundation. 
(Perh. mzingi, and conn, with 
zunguka, &c.) 

*Msiri, n. (wa-), a confidential 
(intimate, bosom) friend, confidential 
agent (adviser, counsellor). (Ar. 
Cf. siri, and mshauri, mkunga?) 

Msisimizi, n. See Mzizimizi. 

Msisimuko, n. (nti-), and Mzi- 
zim'ko, a startling, nervous excite- 
ment, irritation, stimulation. (Cf. 
sisima, zizimua, and syn. nishtuko.} 

Msitamu, n. (mi-), keelson or 
inner keel, to which the foot of the 
mast and ribs of a vessel are secured. 
(Cf. tnkuku, keel, and c horn bo.) 

Msitiri, n. (mi-), and Msetiri. 
Sec Mstiri. 

Maitu, n. ( and ? mi 
covered with thick bushes. 
growth, small trees. Son 

<z miti, forest, but 
is usual in this sense. 

Maizi, n. (mi-), a jilan- 
which a black dye or i 
Dist. mzi 

Maomari, n. (mi-), also Mau- 
mari, Miamari, a nail, lar 
or anything similar in appearance or 
use. MsomariwaparajujOin 

Maomoshi, n. (wa-), a t. 
instructor, reader, esj . 
teaches and leads Mahommedan 




devotions. (Cf. soma, and follg. 
Also mwatimu, mkufunzi^} 

Msomo, n. (//-), (i) reading, the 
act (method, means, &c.) of reading, 
repeating a lesson ; (2) study, subject 
of study, lesson, lesson-book. (Cf. 
sow a, sowo.) 

Msonde, n. (mi-), a kind of drum, 
long and of large size, also called 
gogo. (Cf. ngoma.^ 

Msonge, n. and adv. (something) 
stirred, twisted, compressed, mud- 
dled, jumbled. Maneno haya ni 
msongesonge, these words are all 
jumbled together, confused. For 
ninyonge msonge see Mnyonge. 
(Cf. songa, and follg. The -e is 
a passive ending.) 

Msongi, n. (wa-), one who stirs, 
twists, presses, &c. Msongi iva nyele, 
a hairdresser, who arranges the hair 
in folds (cf. msusi iva nyele, one who 
plaits the hair). (Cf. songa, and 

Msongo, n. (#/*-), a stirring, 
twisting, plaiting, compressing, 
muddling, &c. (Cf. songa, kisongo, 
and prec., and syn. msuko.) 

Msonyo, n. (mi-), and Msono, 
a whistling sound, made with the 
teeth as well as the lip, to attract 
notice or express contempt. Piga 
(vuta) msonyo, give a whistle. (Cf. 
sonya, and fyonya, also mwunzi, 
ubinja, and koroma^] 

Mstadi, n. (wa-), a skilled work- 
man, one who knows his trade. 
(Cf.fundi, waria, mlringwa.} 

*Mstafeli, n. (mi-), a fruit tree 
commonly called w/0//0/<?,and some- 
times mtomoko, custard-apple tree 
There are several varieties known in 
Z., e.g. mstafeli wa kizungu, bearing 
the fruit called ' sour-sop,' mst. we 
Ajjemi, bearing the ' bullock's heart 
There is also an mst. wa mwifu, or 
1 wild custard-apple.' (Cf. tope- 

*Mstaki, n. (wa-). See Mshtaki 
*Mstamu, n. (mi-). See Msi 

*Mstarehe, n. state of rest, repose, 
:alm, esp. in the phrase raha msta- 
rehe, i.e. absolute, complete repose. 
(Cf. starehe, -stare/iefu, raha, tttulivu, 
':iniya, and mstiri.) 

*Mstari, n. (mi-), a line, an ex- 
:ended stroke, a line ruled or marked, 
a row. Piga tnstari, draw a line. 
(Ar. Cf. safu, mfuo, alama.} 

*Mstiri, n. (wa-), (i) for mshtiri, 
a customer, a buyer (Arab.). (2) 
(with variants msetiri, msitiri), one 
who conceals, a hider, one who 
covers, veils, disguises. (Ar. Cf. 

*Msuaki, n. (mi-), a twig of a 
fibrous shrub, the end of which is 
chewed and used for rubbing and 
cleaning the teeth, a tooth-stick, a 
tooth-brush. Often a twig of the 
mzambarau. (Ar. tooth-pick.) 

*Msufi, n. (mi-), the cotton-tree 
(Eriodendron anfractuosuni). (Cf. 
sufi, and dist. mpamba, the cotton 
plant, a small shrub.) 

Msuka, n. (i) (wa-), verbal of 
suka, one who plaits, &c. ; (2) ('-)> 
the spike of a native hoe (jembe), 
the part of the iron head which passes 
through and is fixed in the handle 
(kipini). See Jembe. 

*Msukani, n. (mi-), also Sukani, 
Usukani, rudder, and steering gear 
in general, of a boat or ship. The 
tiller or handle is called kana ; the 
tiller-rope, rudder-line, ujart (plur. 
njari) ; the steersman, mshiki insu- 
kani or rubani\ a steering wheel, 
cherehe (or guriidunnt) ya msukani. 
(Hind. Cf. shikio.) 

Msukano, n. (mi-) and Msuka- 
wano, part of the drill (keke) used for 
boring hard woods by native car- 
penters, viz. the shaft and barrel 
carrying the iron bit or boring tool. 
See Keke. 

Msuki, n. (wa-), also Msusi, one 
who plaits, &c. See Suka. M. iva 
nyele, a professional or skilled hair- 
dresser. M. iva vikapo, a basket 




Mauko, n. (wi-) act (process/ 
style, &c.) of plaiting, a plait. Also 
oi shaking, e.g. of a ship .it sea. 
1 ot si<Ji-a, in all its meanings.) 

*Msuluhishi, n. (wa-), a peace- 

a reconciler, one who brings 

to terms, arranges a bargain, ends a 

quarrel, &c. (Ar. Cf. suluhisha, 

-suluhifu, and syn. mpatanishi.} 

Msumeno, n. (mi-), a sawing tool, 
a saw. Piga m., use a saw. Kata 
kwa m., cnt with a saw, i.e. pasua. 
Various kinds are m. wa kitanda, 
frame-saw, large ones being used 
as pit-saws, and for plank cutting. 
M. wa kamba, a fret-saw. M. -ca 
jambeni, a saw with two saw-edges. 
(Cf. Ar.jambe, two-sided. Also/ti-JM, 
ji-su, whence perh. m-su with metw, 
i.e. a toothed or serrated knife.) 

Msunobari, n. (mi-), pine-tree, 

fir-tree, deal. timber imported in 

(juantities to Z. chiefly from Norway. 

; idly destroyed by white ants. 

(Ar. and Hind.) 

Msuruaki, n. (mi-), the wooden 
peg on a kind of clog (mtalawanda} 
used by women indoors, passing 
between the toes and so holding the 
clog on the foot. 

Msuai, n. (wa) for Mauki (which 
see). (Dist. mzuzi.) 

MNUSU. n. (mi-), name of a tree. 

Mfluto, n. (mi-) and Msutu, a 
large piece of coloured call 
used as a screen or partition in a 
native house, more commonly ki- 
sittu, a piece of coloured calico worn 
as a woman's dress. (Cf. nguo, 


Msuzo.n. w/- and Mauso, handle 
of wood by which the upper stone is 
turned, in grinding grain between two 

*Mta, n. (m/-), division of a town, 

quarter, district, parish. A'aa mtaa 

mmo/a, live in the same district, 

Ljhbours. (Cf. syn. fungu % 

seh*mu, M/w./V.) 

*Mtaala, ractice, read- 

ing. (Ar. Cf. taali, and toma.) 

*Mtaalarnu, n. (wa-), an educated, 
learned, well-instructed person, a 
scholar, a sage. (Ar. Cf. 
and syn. mwana vyuo.) 

*Mtabiri, n. (wa-), one who an- 
nounces or foretells events, a prophet, 
a soothsayer. (Ar. Cf. tabiri, 
hubiri, and nabii.} 

Mtafara, n. (mi-), crupper, the 
cord used to fasten the saddle to the 
tail (*c.). 

Mtai, n. (*'-), a scratch, a slight 
cut. Piga mtai, make a scratch, 
scarify. (Cf. fapura, chora, to/a, 
piga, ukucha, also tnfuo.) 

Mtaimbo, n. (w/-), also Mta- 
limbo, an iron crowbar, lever, bar. 

Mtajiri, n. (wa-). See Tajiri. 

Mtaka, n. (wa-), one who wants, 

S, needs, &c. See Taka, v. 

Mtaka yote hukora yotc, he who begs 

for everything gets nothing. (Cf. 

mtashi, mwombaji.} 

Mtakaso, n. cleansing, a thing 
cleaned (cf. takasd). Also ? a rustl- 
ing, rustle, perh. a variant of mcha- 
kacho (which see). 

Mtalawanda, n. ('-% also Mtaa- 

wanda, (i) a tree supplying j. light 

wood, from which clogs are made in 

:ice also (a) a wooden clog, 

i.e. kiatu cha ni/i. (Cf. fciatu.) 

Mtali, n. (/i-), an anklet, bangle. 
(Cf. funtngu, and for other orna- 
ments urcmbo.} 

Mtama, n. (ii-), millet, Kaffir 
corn, sorghum, a food sta 
many districts near 7. 

young half-grown millet. 
Mtama tcff, millet 
but not fully ripe. The stal',. 
(ma-), and of a sweet kind kota (ma-). 
Various kinds are known as 
kipajc, kibak:* 

>od t corn of any k: ^l. 1 <r 
other kinds cf. ttu'flf, :, 
nguno, shayiri, ki manga, nukele.) 

Mtamba, n. (tea-), a female ani- 
mal that has not yet borne 

^mbe, a heifer. (Cf. 
. (-a.) 




Mtambaazi, n. (wa-), any crawl- 
ing creature, insect or reptile. (Cf. 
-tarnbaa, -tambaazi, utambaazi, and 
tiririka, used of the gliding of 
snakes, i.e. without feet.) 

Mtambo, n. (mi-), a trap with 
a spring-action. Hence of any simi- 
lar contrivance or machine with 
movement. Mtambo wa btmduki, 
the lock (or, action) of a gun. Tega 
mtambo, set a trap. Mtambo wa taa, 
a clock (or, watch) spring. (Cf. 
tamba, tambo, kitambo, utambo, 
tambi, tambaa, &c., differing in 
meaning, but perh. with same root.) 

Mtambuu, n. (mi-), the shrub 
which produces the betel-leaf, in 
great request for chewing at Z. See 
Tambuu, Uraibu. 

Mtambuzi, n. (wa-'}, a knowing, 
clever, well-informed, intelligent per- 
son. (Cf. tambua, utambtizi, and 

Mtanda, n. (wa-}, verbal oftattda, 
one who spreads, &c. See Tanda, 
and follg. 

Mtande, n. (mi-), lifc - something 
spread or stretched out. Hence used 
of (i) a frame of sticks, or a line on 
which clothes, &c. are hung to dry. 
Also of a weaver's loom, more accu- 
rately called kitanda cha mfumi. (2) 
strip of flesh, or fish, hung up to dry- 
in the sun or by the fire. Also of 
the threads of the warp in a loom, 
the woof being mskindio. (Cf. 
tanda, and follg.) 

Mtando, n. (mi-), a spreading, 
a stretching out, &c. Also of what 
is spread out. (Cf. tanda, and 

Mtanga, n. (wa-), one who wan- 
ders idly and aimlessly about, an 
idler, loafer, common tourist, vaga- 
bond, tramp. So also Mtangatanga. 
(Cf. tonga, mtango, kitanga, and 
syn. mtembezi, mfluzi.) 

Mtangazi, n. (wa-), one who 
makes generally known, proclaims, 
divulges. (Cf. tangaa.) 

Mtango, n. (mi-), (i) a loitering, 

strolling about, idling (see Tanga, 
and prec.). (2) the plant producing 
the tango, a kind of cucumber used 
as a vegetable. 

Mtangulizi, n. (wa-), one who 
goes before, leads the way, is pre- 
eminent or first in anything, and so 
a leader, ringleader, herald, fore- 
runner, predecessor. (Cf. tangulia, 
and syn. takadamu.) 

Mtani, n. (wa-), one of a family, 
clan, or tribe, a kinsman, a rela- 
tion, but not nearer than a cousin 
on the father's side. (Cf. utani.) 

Mtapo, n. (mi-) t name of a plant, 
a kind of Cycad. Also verbal n. of 
tapa, shivering. 

Mtasbihi, n. (mi-}, a kind of reed. 

Mtashi, n. (wa-), an earnest, im- 
portunate suppliant, one whose mind 
is set on an object, an urgent pleader. 
(Cf. taka, v., and syn. mwombaji.) 

Mtata, n. (;/'-), name of a plant. 

Mtatago, n. (mi-), a tree placed 
so as to bridge or dam a stream, i. e. 
mti wa kukingamisha magogo tntoni. 
(Cf. ulalo.) 

Mtatid, Mtatizo, n. (mi-), a coil- 
ing (of cord), winding (of thread), 
an entanglement. (Cf. tata, tatiza.) 

*Mta'wa, n. (wa-), (i) one who 
stays at home, keeps indoors, and so 
(2) one who leads a moral self-con- 
trolled life, a recluse, a devout re- 
ligious person. (? Ar. Cf. tawa, 
close up, utawa. In (2) sense, the 
sound of a seems prolonged, and is 
written sometimes mtaawa, mtaowa, 

Mtawanya, n. (wa-), one who 
scatters, and so, one who spends 
freely, an open-handed, liberal per- 
son. (Cf. tawanya, and syn. 
karimtt, mpaji.) 

Mtazamo, n. (mi-), looking, gaz- 
ing. See Tazama. 

Mtego, n. (mi-), a trap, snare, 
gin, used of all kinds of devices for 
snaring animals and birds. Tega 
mtego, set a trap. (Cf. -tega.) 

Mtema, Mtemi, n. (wa-), verbal 




oftema, one who spits, one who cuts. 
See Tema, and Mtemo. 

Mtembezi, n. (wa-), (i) from 
tembca, one who walks about for 
pleasure or exercise rather than busi- 
ness, an idler, a pleasure-seeker, a 
tourist, &c., e.g. mtembezi a/a miguu 
yoke, one who travels for pleasure, 
lives off his own feet; (2) from 
tcmbeza, e. g. mtembezi wa bithaa, 
one who hawks goods about for sale, 
a pedlar, a commercial traveller. 
(Cf. tenibea, tanga, zunguka.) 

Mtemo, n. (**-), (i) cutting; 
(a) spitting, i. e. mtemo wa mate, 
See Tema. 

Mtendaji, n. (wa-}, an active 
(energetic, enterprising, pushing) per- 
son. (Cf. tcnda, kitendo, utendaji, 


Mtende, n. (mi-), a date-palm, 
producing the fruit tend*. Not nu- 
merous in Z., dates being imported 

Mtendo, n. (mi-}, a doing, mode 
of acting, performing, accomplishing. 
Ja, kitendo, utendaji.) 

Mtenga, n. .wa-}, verbal of tenga 
(which see), one who separates, &c. 

Mtengo, n. (mi-), a separating, a 
dividing off, &c. See Tenga. 

Mtengwa, n. (wa-), one who is 
dividc<l off, separated, put aside, set 
apart, devoted (to a work or occupa- 


Mtenzi, n. (wa-), one who does 
things, carries on work, follows a 
trade or occupation, &c. M. wa 
mashairi (wa man f no), one who 
makes poetry (stories), a poet, an 
author. M. wa kasi, an active, 
h.inl-workir.g person. (Cf. 

Mtepe, n. (mi-), a native sailing 
vessel, with a very long 'projecting 
prow, upright mast, and square mat- 
ting sail. Constructed with wooden 
pegs and cord, nt coast towns ; 
Mombasa, Patta, Lamu, &c., and 
their trading 
voyages. (Cf. chombo, dan.) 

Mtepetevu, n. (wa-), a slack, re- 
miss, do-nothing person. (Cf. -te- 
pctevu, utepetevu^) 

Mteremezi, n. (wa-), a kindly, 
genial, friendly person, who sets 
others at their ease. (Cf. terema, 
and follg., -kunjufu, changant ka!) 

Mteremo, n. (mi-}, cheerfulness, 
happiness,comfort, relief from trouble. 
(Cf. terema, and prec.) 

Mtesi, n. (wa-), one who causes 
trouble or annoyance, a persecutor, 
opponent, enemy, a quarrelsome or 
litigious person. (Cf. tesa, teso.) 

Mtete, n. (mi-), a reed. (Cf. 
kitfte, unyasi, mwanzi, bua.) 

Mtetemo, n. (mi-), shaking, trem- 
bling, shuddering, shivering, quak- 
ing. Mtetemo wa ituhi, earthquake. 
Aft. wa niftto, chattering of the teeth. 
(Cf. tetema, tetemeko, and syn. mti- 
biso, msuko.) 

Mteua, n. (wa-), verbal of teua, 
one who chooses, criticizes, picks and 
chooses. Mteua mno huangitkia 
mbovu, the dainty person is sure to 
find (his food) bad. (Cf. teua, and 

Mteule, n. (wa-), one who is 
chosen, selected, picked out, and so 
choice, of high quality or character. 
(Cf. teua, -teulc, mtcuzi, and prec.) 

Mteuzi, n. (wa-), like Mteua, a 
dainty person, a critic, an eclectic, a 
COIMK >isscur, e.g. mteuzi haachi tamaa, 
i. e. a critic is never satisfied. (Cf. 
/*, and prec, and syn. mchaguzi.) 

Mthalimu, n. (wa-), an unjust, 
tyrannical person, an oppress 
pot, persecutor, defraudcr, &c. ( Ar. 
Cf. thalimu, uthalirnu, thulu 

*Mthamini, n. (wa-), a 
trustee, one who goes bail for a 
a hostage, guarantor. (A 
(ham;' >ia.) 

Mti, n. mi-), (i) a tree, of any 
kind and in any state; (2) tree- 
material, i.e. wood, timber; fj) a 
tree, or part of a tree, prepared for 
use, pole, post, palisade. Mtrikebtt 
.1 wooden ship. Xyttmbaya 




;////, a house of timber, a wooden 
house. Nyumba ya miti, a house 
built with poles. Mti kati, a post 
to which a prisoner is secured by 
fetters on his feet. (Cf. mkatale.} 
(Cf. kijiti, iiti, and ubau, plank, 
sawn timber, ngitzo, boriti. Lists of 
trees may be found in Sacleux, 
Dictionnaire Franf.-Swahili, Appen- 
dix, and for British Central Africa in 
Johnston's British Central Africa, 
p. 227, first ed.) 

Mti, n. ( ). Marat hi ya mti, 
uwele wa mti, denotes sores of a 
scrofulous or gangrenous kind. 

*Mtii, n. (wa-}, an obedient (sub- 
missive, docile) person. (Ar. Cf. 
/zY, tttii, ta'a.} 

Mtikiti, n. (mi-}, the plant pro- 
ducing the water-melon, tikiti. 

Mtima, n. (mi-}, heart, seldom 
used in modern Swahili, for moyo. 

Mtindi, n. ( ), buttermilk, also 
described as mtindi wa maziwa, or 
maziwa ya mtindi. (Cf. -ttndi.} 
Mtindo, n. (mi-}, (i) sort, shape 
size, pattern, cut; (2) a special sort, 
a good kind, extra quality ; (3) con- 
clusion, end. Nguo hii ya m., this 
is a special (unusual, superfine) calico 
(dress, fabric). Mwanangu ni m 
wa yule, my son is just like him 
M. wa kusi, the end of the (season 
of the) south wind. (Cf. kitinda 
tindika. Perh. same as chinja 
mchinjo, i. e. (i) a cutting ; (2) cut 
shape ; (3) cutting off, end.) 

*Mtini, n. (mi-}, a fig-tree, th 
fruit being tini. (The wild fig 

Mtipitipi, n. (mi-}, name of . 
climbing plant, or creeper. (Dist 
tipitipi, a bird.) 

Mto, n. (mito), (i) a river, smal 
or large, rivulet, brook, stream, &c. 
(2) creek, inlet, estuary, arm of thi 
sea, i. e. mto wa bahari\ (a) a cushion 
pillow. Mto wa kono, a branchinj 
river, delta. Mto mkavu, a river bed 
dry channel. Mkono wa z/0, affluent 
branch of a river. Mto waenda 

asst, the river runs swiftly. Vnka 
nto, cross a river. Kata mto, go up- 
tream. Fuata mto, go down-stream. 
Wo haupitiki, the river is impass- 
ble. (Cf. jito, kijito, also juto, 
and nto, mfo.} 

Mtoa, Mtoaji, n. (wa-}, verbal of 
oa, in all its senses, one who gives, 
emoves, &c. See Toa. Mtoaji 
kahawa, one who serves coffee. 

Mtobwe, n. (mi-}, a tree from 
vhich a favourite kind of walking- 
tick is made, white, and possessing 
he quality of bending and keeping 
any curve it is bent to, like lead. 
(Cf. bakora,fmbo.} 

Mtofaa, n. ('-), a fruit-tree, with 
an apple-like fruit, tofaa (Jambosa 
Malaccemis, Sac.), jamrack. 

Mtoki, n. ( ), painful swelling 
in the groin, usually accompanied by 

Mtokoso, n. (mi-}, (i) act (con- 
dition) of boiling ; (2) rice boiled 
and dried, so sold in shops. (Cf. 

Mtombo, n. (mi-}, and ? Mtembo, 
(i) the heart or centre of the sprout- 
ing shoot of a palm-tree, cocoanut or 
other (cf. kilele, moyo}. (2) painful 
cracks and sores caused by the buba 
disease, esp. on the soles of the feet. 
Mtomo, n. (mi-}, solidity (firm- 
ness, strength, good workmanship) 
in building (Str.). (Cf. tomea, and 
syn. imara, uthabiti.} 

Mtomoko, n. (mi-}, a fruit-tree of 
the same class as the custard-apple 

Mtomondo, n. (mi-}, a fruit-tree 
of the same class as the mtofaa, 
a Baringtonia, bearing the fruit to- 

Mtondo, n. (mi-}, the third day 
following, the series being leo, to- 
day, kesho, to-morrow, kesho kuchwa, 
the day after to-morrow, then 
mtondo, the third day. The fourth 
day is called mtondo goo, or kushinda 

Mtondoo, n. (mi-}, a large tree, 




bearing the fruit tondoo, with a seed 
rich in oil, Calophyllmn Inophyl- 

Mtongozi, n. (wa-}, one who tries 
to attract (allure, seduce), e.g. by 
words, signs, dress, &c., a seducer. 
(Cf. tongoza, kitongo, utongozi.} 

M tope tope, n. (mi-}, the small 
tree which bears the custard -apple, 
topctopc. Another variety is mtopt- 

Mtoria, n. (mi-}, a kind of Lan- 
dolphia, producing india-rubber, and 
an edible fruit (kitoria). (Cf. 

Mtoro, n. (wa-}, (i) a runaway 
slave, a truant; (2) highwayman, 
robber, bandit. (Cf. toroka.} 

Mtoto. n. (wa-}, implies generally 
what is (A) in an early stage of 
development, or (B) in a subordinate 
position, and includes the following 
meanings. A. child, young per- 

son, offspring) offshoot, descendant. 
E. g. m. mwanaumc jnume, wa 
kiume), male child, son, boy. M. 
mwanamke (wakike, mkt], a female 
child, daughter, girl. An mtoto re- 
mains so till the age of about 7 \ cars, 
or abr \-, next L- 

a kijana (see Kijana). M. mchanga, 

young child, a baby. I 
offsprii animal is called 

mtoto, e.g. m. wa ngombe, a calf; 
m. wa kid; m. wa kuku, 

a chicken. For offshoot of plants 

fomba, the 

shoots springing from the roots of 
' is also used of 
growths, e.g. mtoto wa 
jicho, of a growth near the c 

H. (i) dependant, sob. 
ordinate, follower, servant, ward, 
member of a household in r< : 
its head. This sense is qi 
sjxxtive of age. (a) 
extended to inanimate objects of all 
is of a sub- 
onlinatc kind, bflt in this case it is 

with plur. mitoto, e. g. m. wa tntta, 

the drawer of a table ; m. wa kasha, a 
shelf or inner compartment in a box ; 
m. wa kiiasa, a ward of a lock ; ///. wa 
mto, tributary of a river; ;;/. wa 
parafujo, the worm (thread) of a 
screw ; m. wa randa, the iron used to 
stiffen the cutting-iron in a plane. 
(Cf. kitoto, toto, kijana, and syn. 

Mtoza, n. (wa-}, verbal of toa 
(toza}, one who causes to pay, an 
exactor, &c. Mtoza ushuru, a col- 
lector of taxes. 

Mtu, n. (wa-}, (i) a person, a 
human being, an individual, one of 
the human race, a man ; (2) a depen- 
dant, servant, slave, follower, ad- 
herent. E. g. tnlu mume (or mme), 
a male, mtu ntke, a female, more 
commonly mwanaunte, mwanamke. 
Mtu wangu, one of my servants 
(slaves). Mtu wa ttani / Who does 
he belong to ? Mtu gani ? Of what 
tribe is he? Si mtu, not a man, no 
one. Hakuna mtu, there is no one, 
nobody. Mlu and u<atit are used 
to point a number of contrasts, each 
illustrating the content of the idea. 
Thus (i) mtu, si watu, one person, 
not many persons, (a) //////, si ny- 
ama, a human being, not a beast. 
(3) mtu, si kitu, a living personality, 
not a chattel. (4) mtu, a mere man, 
a man as isolated and helpless. 
Ximckmva tutu tu, of one conscious 
of his own existence only, ignorant of 
all his surroundings, ' I was a 
nonentity.' (5) mtu, a man as pot- 
sessed of int: rth, e.g. sisi 

hatukuwa watu mbele yao, \ 
not count as men in their eyes. (6) 
/:/. m an emphatic sense, a person 
of rank. cc and considera- 

tion, e.g. mtoto wa watu, a well- 
born (well-connected) child, a child 
;>le of position. (7) watu, 
n general, the average man; 
ntu kama watu, I am a com- 
mon man. (8) watu, other jxrople, 
a> distinct trum the self, esp. as to 
ownership, e.g. kwenda kwti.. 




la waiu, to go and steal other 
people's cucumbers. Fetha hii ya 
watu, this money is not mine. (9) 
watu, public opinion, society. Watu 
husema hivi, it is a common (popu- 
lar, general) opinion. (10) mtu is 
often used to denote the possession of 
a certain attribute, or condition, e. g. 
tukawa ivatH wa kufa tu, we were 
as good as dead (entirely at the 
mercy of an enemy, or mortally 
wounded). Si mtu wa kwenda naye, 
he is not a man to go with, a fit com- 
panion. (Cf. utu, Mtu, jitu, ki- 
jitUj and syn. mwana Adamu, bin 

Mtulinga, n. (mi-}, the collar- 
bone, i. e. mfupa wa bega. 

Mtumba, n. (mi-}, also Tumba, 

(1) a bale, bag, or bundle, e. g. of 
cloth or other goods, made up as 
a load for a caravan-porter, and so 

(2) in general, a load, a man's bur- 
den. (Cf. tumba, tumbo, ? tumbi, 
syn. mzigo, mfuko, robota.} 

Mtumbuizi, n. (wa-}, one who 
soothes (consoles, cheers) the pain or 
sorrow of another, esp. by singing 
(Cf. tumbuiza, and syn.fariji, tuliza.} 
Mtumbwi, n. (mi-}, a native 
canoe, made all in one piece of i 
dug-out tree-trunk, often a hollowed 
log of the mango tree, without out 
riggers, but sometimes with a smal 
mast and sail. (Cf. tumbua, tumbo 
tumba, and for other kinds of boa 
alawa, dau, mashua.} 

Mturne, n. (wa-}, one who is em 
ployed or sent, a messenger, an emis 
sary. But in Z. especially of Ma 
hornet, i. e. the Apostle, and also o 
the chief characters of the Old Tes 
tament, Moses, Job, and others 
Tume is used in the more genera 
sense. (Cf. tuma, tume, utume 
tttumwa, and follg.) 

Mtumishi, n. (wa-}, a paid ser 
vant, hired domestic, house-servant, 
not so general as tume, or so limitec 
as mtumwa. (Cf. tuma, and prec 
and syn. boi, mwandishi.} 

Mtumwa, n. (wa-}, one who is 

mployed or sent, but usually in the 

)ecial sense a bond-servant, slave, 

ne who is the property of another. 

ontr. bwana, the master, owner of 

aves, and mngwana, a freedman, or 

ne who has never been a slave 

ee Utumwa). E.g. mtumwa 

twema nakawa hesabu yake nguo 

nbili na bunduki moja, a stout, good- 

ooking slave cost two lengths of 

alico and a gun, i. e. an average 

)rice in the interior in past years. 

Mtumwa wa shamba, a plantation 

iave, mostly engaged in cultivation. 

tftumwa wa nyumbani, a domestic 

[ave, employed in his master's house. 

<^or various descriptions of slave 

ee mbwana, kitwana, mjakazi, ki- 

jakazi, surid, mzalia, mtoro, mjoli, 

kijoli, teka, mjinga, mstaarabu. 

Cf. tuma, tume, mtume, mtumishi 

mtumwaji, utumwa.} 

Mtumwaji, n. (wa-} y one who 
s regularly employed, or sent, an 
agent, a messenger, i.e. mtumwa, 
without the limitation to slaves. 
(Cf. tuma, and prec.) 

Mtunduizi, n. (wa-}, a spy, a 
scout. (Cf. tunduia, and syn. 

Mtungi, n. (mi-}, an earthen p 
cher, the commonest kind of water- 
ar in Z. of this baked earthenware, 
mostly plain and made by hand in 
the island, but also imported with 
colour and ornamentation. Water- 
jars of various shapes and kinds are 
balasi, kasiki, kuzi,gudulia. 
tunga, tungi, and follg. Also 

Mtungo, n. (mi-}, a putting t< 
gether, arranging in a row (and in 
other senses of, tunga, v.), also of 
things put together in a row. 
esp. of fish, mtungo wa samaki, 
or mtungo only, a string or stick 
of fish, i. e. fish on a string or stick. 
Mtungo mkubwa, & great lot (haul, 
catch) of fish. (Cf. tunga, utungo, 
also tanda, panga.} 




Mtunguja, n. (wi-), name of a 
shrub, a kind of Solanum, with an 
edible fruit. 

Mtupa, n. (nri-\ a kind of Eu- 
phorbia, very poisonous. (Cf. 
w/w/a.) Also verbal n. of ////a, one 
who throws. 

Mtutumo, n. (mi-\ a low distant 
roll or rumbling sound, as of thunder, 
an earthquake, waterfall, boiling 
water, &c. (Cf. tutuma, and 

perh. ttttnia?) 

Mtwaa, n. (wa-\ one who takes, 
or carries off. Ndiye mtivaa wain, 
it is he who carries off people, i.e. 
the angel of death. (Verbal of twaa.} 

Mtwango, n. (mi-}, act (place, or 
manner, &c.) of pounding with pes- 
tle and mortar. Also the pounding 
instrument, a wooden pestle, usually 
me hi. (Cf. twanga.) 

Mtweto, n. (mi-), panting, gasp- 
ing. (Cf. tweta.} 

Mu-, (i) is a prefix appearing in a 
few demonstrative adverbs, humu, 
mumu, mumo, mle (for mule), with 
the meaning ' in here, in there,' and 
corresponds generally to ku in simi- 
lar uses. (See Ku, 3. (2).) It is 
more common in the relative form 
mo, which is also a demonstrative of 
reference or relative distance. (See 
Mo, and -o.) It is also identical 
with m in forms like mna, mnamo, 
there is (in there) (see M-), i.e. 
a demonstrative ph r.-il refer- 

ence with the special idea of interior- 
ity, or being inside. (a) is used in 
some cases for the noun-pfx. m 
(which see), especially before a u 
following, as Muungn 
or before another m in mume, though 
the change represents no important 
cc of sound. Some foreign 
inhabitants of Zanzibar, however, 
e.g. the Goanese, regularly pro* 
nounce the m-pfx. as mu, e. g. mutu, 
v, mti. (3) appears at 
mwa, as kw for ku in ktoa. 
See -a. 

Mua, n. (i) (ffriwa), sugar-cane, 

better muwa( which see); (i)(waua), 
verbal form from ita, v., one who 
kills, better mwua (which see), or 

Muaa, n. (miaa, rniyaa). See 

*Muda, n. (no plur. used), space 
of time, period, set term, fixed inter- 
val. M, wa, for the space of, during. 
M. kitambo, a short time. Af. 
mzima, a considerable time, full 
time.. Baniani antempa mttda mi- 
ezi mitatu amlipe, the Bankin gave 
him a term of three months for. pay- 
ment. (Ar. Cf. follg. and syn. 
muhulla, wakati, majira, nafasi.} 

*Mudu, v. stretch, extend. Sel- 
dom except in Rf. form jimudu, 
stretch oneself, move one's limbs, 
as a sick person recovering or for 
relief. (Ar. Cf. mttda, of time, 
and syn . ji- nyosha. ) 

*Muhashamu, a. a complimentary 
title in the Arabic fashion of begin- 
ning a letter, honoured. (Ar. Cf. 
heshimu, heshima, and see Dibaji.) 

*Muhebbi, n. and a., also Mu- 
hebu, Mohebb, beloved friend, 
dear, affectionate, used like Muha- 
shamu. (Ar. (Zf.habba, and pre_.) 

Muhindi, n. (i) (Wahindi), a 
native of India, but in /. especially 
a Mahommedan from East India (as 
distinct from the non-Mahommedan 
Hindoos called Banians) ; (a) (wi-), 
Indian corn plant. See Mhi 

Muhogo, n. (mihogo), the cassava 
plant. Sec Mhogo. 

*Muhtaaari, n. ( ), abridgement, 
abstract, summary, list of 00 
precis. (A 

Muhulla, n. ( ), space of time, 
val. (Ar. Cf. syn. 

Muhuri. n. ( ), seal, signet, 
crest, armor. ,. Tia *., 

seal, set seal to, confirm, 

Mui, n. better xnuwi, miwi (which 

Mukadiaha, Mukdesha, n. a town 
on the Somali coast, north of Zanzi 




bar, formerly (with Barawa, Merka, 
Warsheikh} under the Sultan, now 
in the Italian sphere. 

Mulika, v. shine, gleam, throw 
(make, show) a light. Akumulikaye 
tnchana, hukunguza usiku,\v\io lights 
you by day, sets fire to you by night. 
Ap. mulik-ia, -iwa, bring a light for, 
make a light with, help with a light. 
E. g. nimulikie chini, light me down- 
stairs. Cs. mulik-isha, -ishwa. 
(Cf. kimulimuli.} 

Mume,n. (waume),foT mtu mume, 
mwanaume, a male, a man. Used 
alone mume means distinctively 
husband, in contrast with mw ana- 
time. (See -ume, and cf. mkel) 

*Mumiani, n. (ma-*), a mummy, 
(used in native medicine, &c .) . ( Ar. ) 
Mumo, adv. demonstr. of reference, 
also mumo humo. See Mumu. 

Mumu, adv. demonstr., usually 
with humu, i.e. mumu hwnii, just 
inside this very place (in these circum- 
stances), just in here. (See Mu, and 
cf. mumo, and adv. kuku, papal) 

Mumunya, v. also Mung'unya, 
and Munya, break in small pieces, 
esp. in the mouth, i. e. mumble, 
munch, prepare for swallowing, e. g. 
like a toothless person or donkey. 
Nt. mumunyika, (i) be broken up, 
munched, crumble away; (2) be 
friable, easily crumbled or triturated, 
e. g. like bad mortar. 

Mumunye, n. (ma-}, a kind of 
gourd resembling a vegetable marrow, 
used as a vegetable. The rind when 
hard and dry is used as a vessel to 
hold fluids, like the boga, bttyu. 
The plant is mmumunye. 

Munda, n. (niiundd] (i) a bar 
poon, for spearing large fish, i. e. 
wa kuchomea samaki kubwa. Also 
(2) a piece of planking, used in 
wooden construction. (Cf. undo.) 
Mundu, n. (miundu), a sickle, 
billhook, chopper. 

Mungu, n. (miungu). See 

Mung'unya, Munya, Munya- 

munya, v., same meaning as mu- 
munya (which see). 

Munyi, n. a variant of niwenyi, 
used in the sing, as a title, chief. 
See Mwenyi. 

Munyu, n. (no plur.), salt, in- 
crustation. (Cf. chunyu, chuwvi, 

Muo, n. (Mff*),(l) a great killing, 
a slaughter, a massacre (cf. ua, v.). 
Also (2) a wooden stake used to dig up 
stones &c. with, or as a lever, often 
with an iron point. (Cf. mtaimbo, 

Muomo, Mwomo, n. (niiomo), 
variants of mdomo, lip, which is usual 
in Z. Ndevu za muomo, or only 
muomo, moustache. (Cf. mdomo, 

*Musimu, n. (no plur.), northerly 
wind, time of the north monsoon at 
Z., i. e. Dec. to Feb., but extended 
sometimes to the whole season from 
and to the period of southerly winds, 
i.e. from October to May. (Ar. 
For other seasons cf. masika, and 

Muu-. See words under Mwu-. 
Muuaji, Muuguzi, n. See Mwu- 
aji, Mwuguzi. 

Muumba, n. (waumbd), one who 
creates, makes, fashions, esp. as a 
title of God in Z., the Creator of the 
world, i. e. Muumba yote. (Cf. 
umba, kiumbe, and syn. Ar. hu/uu.} 
Muumishi, n. (waumishi)^ a pro- 
fessional cupper. (Cf. umikt.) 

Muundi, n. (miundi). Muundi 
wa tnguu, the shin, shin bone, be- 
tween knee and ankle. 

Muungo, n. (miungo], a fastening, 
thing which fastens, esp. a tie, tie- 
beam, in wooden construction. (Cf. 
unga, kiungo) 

Muungu, n. (iniungu the sing, 
being treated as D i , the plur. as D 2). 
Also may be written Mwungu, 
Mungu, Mngu, (i) God, a god; (2) 
providence, luck, accident, used to 
describe anything unaccountable or 
unexpected. Words commonly con- 




nected with Muungu are, Mwenyezi 
<:yi enzi Muungu, 
Almighty God. Omba M., pray to 
God, also omba kwa M. , ombea being 
usually ' pray for, intercede.' Shukuru 
Jf. . be resigned, accept the inevitable, 
submit, seldom of felt or active 
gratitude. Shiriki Muungu t be 
wholly given to God, the strongest 
expression for a religious life (cf. 
shiriki) t and when pressed to its 
extreme, i. e. union or sharing the 
nature, repudiated by Mahomme- 
dans, as impious and inconceivable 
(cf. shiba M. ^ . Kumbuka M., medi- 
tate on God. Ngoja M., trust in Pro- 
vidence. Muungu akijalic. 
willing, for the common Ar. inshal- 
lah. Muungu akuweke, may God 
provide for you (bless you), is often 
used by the lower classes, also M. 
akubariki. Mbaraka wa M., God's 
blessing. Maskini wa Muungu, a 
destitute person, esp. of a poor freed- 
'leprived by freedom of all 
claim to human (i. e. his master's) 
protection and support. {Muungu 
in various forms, Mulungu, Muluku, 
Sec., occurs in most Bantu dialects on 
or near the East Coast. Swahilis 
sometimes use Mo/a, but seldom Allah, 
as an equivalent. The ideas c 
are vague, but in Z. principally Ma- 
hommcdan, whence perhaps the 
anomalous plur. (of the inferior mi- 
class), to avoid encroachment 
unity of the Godhead. Cf. Allah, 
Afola, A c;/'/'/. and various titles of God. 
angu, and ttmuungu.} 

Muwa, n. (rniwa), al>o Mua, the 

sugar-cane. Less cultivated in Z. 

i here are still a few 

roducing treacle and a coarse 

brown sugar (sukari guru). 

Muzimu, n. See Miixnu. 

Mvi, n. (no plur., sing, is treated 
;i> 1 ' 4 and also D 6), gr< 

>1 man. 

So ndcvu ta mvi t grey bear 
wele ta . nweufx 

or nycufc. (Cf. unyclc.} 

Mviko, n. (nti-\ act (style, &c.) 
of dressing, clothing, a garment, 
dress. (Cf. vika, and syn. uvao, 
vazi, nguo.') 

Mvinje, n. (mi~), the cassiorina 
tree, a kind of fir growing freely on 
rocky ground near the seashore in Z. 

*Mvinyo, n. (no plur., sing, is 
treated as D 4 and also D 6), wine, 
spirits, esp. the latter in Z. (Portu- 
guese. Cf. dtvai, tembo, pombe^) 

Mviringo, n. (mi-}, roundness, a 
round shape, anything round, a circle, 
a curve, a ring, a washer. (Cf. 
viringa, fingirisha, and syn. duara, 
duru, rnduara, mzingo, pete?) 

Mvita, n. the Swahili. name for 
the town and island of Mombasa. 
Also for Aimvita, an inhabitant of 

Mvua, n. (i) ( ), rain. 
nyingi (kubwa), heavy rain. Mvua 
ya niwaka, a slight rainfall usually 
in August. Alikwenda na mi-ua 
yake, he went in the rain. Also (2) 
(w/a-), verbal of vua, in all its senses, 
mvua samaki, a man fishing, mvua 
nguo, &c. (For the rainy seasons 
in Z. cf. masika, and mvule, and for 
light rain manyunyo.) 

Mvuje, n. a fetid gum, asafoetida. 

Mvuke, n. (mi-), vapour produced 
by heat, steam, perspiration. (Cf. 
rukiza, and follg. Also syn. moshi, 

Mvukutp, n. (mi-) f bellows, as 
used by native smiths, i.e. two leather 
bags alternately inflated and deflated 
by hand. (Cf. mfua (mi-) and 

Mvulana, n. (u-a-), a young un- 
married man, a bachelor. (Cf. 
uvulana, and syn. kijana.) 

Mvulo, n. also Mvuli, and Vuli, 
the lesser rains, the short rainy season, 
i.e. November in Z., when the north 
wind begins to set in. i "1. masika 
and follg., and for the seasons mwaJta. 
l'crl>. conn, with uvuli, sha 
clouds after clear weather, 

s a 




Mvuli, n. (mi-), a shady place, 
shade of a tree, &c. (Cf. kivuli, 
a patch of shade, a shadow, &c., and 
nvuli, shade in general, gloom, dark- 

Mvuma, n. (wa-) and Mvumi, 
verbal of viima, one who mutters, 
hums, &c. ' See Vuma and follg. 
Mvuma titi, name of a bird. 

Mvumo, n. (mi-), (i) a rumbling, 
mattering sound ; (2) a report, ru- 
mour (see TJvumi) ; (3) a rubber (in 
cards, Str.) ; (4) the Borassus palm, 
not common in Z. island. (Cf. 
vttma, and for palms mnazi.) 

Mvunaji, n. See Mvuni. 

Mvungu, n. (mi-), a hollowed-out 
place, a hollow, hole, empty space, 
cavity, e.g. a hole in a tree, the 
space under a bedstead, i.e. mvungu 
wa kitanda. Mtaka cha mvunguni 
huinama, he who wants what is 
under a bed must stoop for it. (Cf. 

Mvuni, n. (wa-) and Mvunaji, 
one who gathers in a crop, a reaper, 
&c. (Cf. vuna.) 

M vunja, n. (wa-), verbal of vunja 
(which see), one who breaks, de- 
stroys, &c. 

Mvunjo, n. (mi-), act (time, 
manner, &c.) of breaking. (See 
Vunja and prec., also kivunjo, 

Mvuo, n. (mi-) , act (time, manner, 
place, &c.) of fishing, fishing ground 
catch of fish. Also in other senses 
of vua (which see). 

Mvurugo, n. ("-) (1) messing, 
muddling, mixing up, mixture, and 
so (2) of unripe fruit in a squashy, 
messy condition, squash, jam. 
(Cf. vuruga.) 

Mvushi, n. (wa-), (i) a ferryman, 
(a) a preserver. See Vuka. 

Mvuto, n. (mi-), act (manner, &c." 
of drawing. Also in other senses o: 
vuta (which see), pulling, influence 
persuasion, perversion, &c. Mvuto 
wa maji (wa upepo), current of wate 
(air). (Cf. mkondo.) 

Mvuvi, n. (wa-), a professional 
sherman. Proverbially quarrelsome 
>ver their fish, and so nyumba ya 
wavuvi, a noisy, quarrelsome house- 
old. (Cf. vua, mvuo.) 
Mw-, as a pfx. See Mu, and M. 
Mwa, prep, form agreeing with 
he locative form of nouns in -ni, 
f (i.e. mu-a, see Mu, -a), e.g. 
nyumbani mwa Mzungu, in the house * 
if the European. 

Mwaa, n. also Muaa, Mnyaa, 

Myaa, with the plur. miwaa, also mi- 

<aa, miaa,(i) the Hyphaene, or Dwarf, 

3alm, also commonly known as mko- 

che and mkoma, furnishing the leaves, 

yhich are generally used as material 

: or mats, bags, baskets, coarse cord, 

and string, (2) a leaf-blade of this 

palm. The blade is divided into 

wo parts, chane, and each part slit 

nto three, the central piece being 

the finest material for plaiting, the 

outsides for coarser kinds. (Cf. 

ung'ong'o, utangule, ukindu, ukili, 

charia, suka.) 

K Mwafa, n. (miafa), anything 
causing fear, danger, a terror, horror, 
bugbear, enemy. (Ar. Cf. hofu, 
a/a, and syn. kioja, kitisho.} 

*Mwafaka, n. (miafaka), agree- 
ment, bargain, conspiracy, plot. 
(Ar. Cf. a/Mi, and syn. mapatano.) 
Mwafu, n. (miafu), wild jasmine. 
(Cf. afu, yasmini) 

Mwaga, v. pour out, pour away, 
spill, waste, empty out. Ps. mwag- 
wa. Nt. mwagika. Hence mwagik- 
ia, -iwa. Maji yaliyotnwagika 
hayazoeleki, spilt water cannot be 
picked up. Ap. mwag-ia, -iwa, 
pour out on (for, &c.). (Cf. mi- 

Mwaka, n. (miaka), a year. Two 
ways of reckoning years are in use in 
Z., (i) the lunar year of twelve lunar 
months, Ramathan being counted 
as the first month, and about 355 
days. This is the Arab official and 
religious year, and beginning ten 
days earlier each year has no corre- 




spondence with the seasons, (2) the 
solar year, with 365 days, the first 
day of the year being called siku ya 
nrwaka, and kept as a popular festival, 
the last kigitnzi, and the days being 
reckoned by decades (miongo). It 
is of Persian origin, and used for 
nautical and agricultural purposes. 
Mwaka wa jana, last year. Mu<. 
wa /-/, the year before last. Mw. 
wa kesho (or ujao), next year. Ahua- 
ka ku>a mwaka, killa mtvaka^ year 
by year, annually. Mwakani, in a 
year's time, but often indefinitely, 
some day or other, sooner or later. 
Mviia ya mwaka, light rains which 
fall usually in August, between the 
two rainy seasons. The seasons in 
Zanzibar are regular and well defined. 
The island lying about 7 south of 
the equator, the sun is overhead 
about October 21 and February 21. 
These dates are followed by periods 
of calm, light variable winds, and 
rains, the greater rains called nia- 
sika, chiefly in April, the lesser rains 
mvuli in November. When the sun 
is in the south, the north wind blows, 
and the heat is greatest, i.e. in De- 
cember, January, and February. This 
is called kaskazi, or musimu. When 
the sun is in the north, the south 
wind blows, and the heat is i 
from June to October. This is called 
kusi, and includes the kipupwc or 
cool period in June and July, follow- 
ing the heavy rains, and the dcmani 
in September and October 
times of calms and light winds are 
called malelczi, or tanga mbi. 

meter in the shade in Zanzibar 
seldom above 85 or below 
75 nigh* or day. For oth 
sions of time see Mwezi and Siku. 
(Perh. cf. wata, and cha- 
hot season, the latter seldom heard 

Mwake, Mwako, a. forms of -a&, 
uns in 
g. nyU" 
mbam his house. 

Mwako, n. (niiivako], blaze, flame, 
blazing, burning. Mwako wa moto 
(///a), blaze of a fire (the sun). 
(Cf. waka) 

*Mwalamu,n. (tnt'alamu^a. stripe, 
band, line of colour, esp. in a dress- 
material. (Cf. m/t'a, utepc.) 

Mwali, n. (i) (miwali) t a. Raphia 
palm, not common in Zanzibar 
island. The mid-rib of the leaves is 
very long (20 feet to 30 feet), strong 
and light, and is much used for 
doors (see Mlango), ladders, and 
other purposes, (a) (wali, for iva- 
ali), a maiden, a virgin ; usually 
with mwana, i. e. mwana rnivali, 
plur. ivaana wali. (Cf. bikira.} 

*Mwali, n. (nya/i), flame, tongue 
of fire. (Arab. Cf. ulimi ivci 

Mwaliko, n. (mta/-), (i) a crack- 
ing sound, click, clap. (2) an invi- 
tation, summons, call. (Cf. alika, 
and ntivito!) 

*Mwalimu, n. a learned man, a 
teacher, a schoolmaster, esp. the 
Mahommedan official teacher at- 
tached to a mosque. (Ar. Cf. 
etimu, alama, nitaalamn^} 

Mwalishi, n. (waal-}, one who 
calls, summons, invites, e.g. to a 
feast, wedding, &c. (Cf. 

Mwamba, n. (miamba) ,(\) a rock, 
a mass of rock, a very largr 
a reef. (2) in building, a rit: 
or wall-plate, i.e. a transverv 
resting on the top of poles ! 

la or roof of a native house. 
(Dim. kijamba.) 

Mwambao. n. (miambao\ (i) a 
passing near to, grazing past, not 
;, missing contact with; (2) 
passing along a shore (in n 
(3) coast-line, coast, edge of : 
Safari ya tnwambao, a coasting 
voyage. Safiri (vuta) mwambao^ 
make a coasting voyage. (Cf. 

Mwambi, n. (tfaaiw^O, one who 
speaks against another, a slanderer, 





a critic, a tale-bearer, a gossip. 

Mwamu, n. (waamu\ brother-in- 
law, sister-in-law. (Cf. ivifi.} 

Mwamua, Mwamuzi, n. (tvaam.) 
a judge, arbitrator, umpire, mediator. 
(Cf. amtta, maamuzi, and syn. kathi, 
which marks office rather than func- 
tion, and hakimu!) 

Mwana, n. (waana, wana\ (i) 
specifically, child, son, daughter, 
dependent, of relationship as such, 
without reference to age (cf. mtoto, 
which often connotes age). Huyu ni 
mwanangti, this is my child. Akaoa 
akazaa mwana, he married and 
begot a son. Mwana (wa} Adamu, 
a child (or descendant) of Adam, a 
human being, one of the human race. 
Mwana mwali, a maid, a virgin. 
(2) in general, without reference to 
relationship, a person, one of a class. 
E.g. Mwana mume (mke), a man 
(woman). Mwana maji, a sailor. 
Mwanafunzi, an apprentice, disciple, 
Mwana sheria, a lawyer. Mwana 
vyuo, a scholar. Wanakuwa waana 
wazima, they are becoming grown-up 
people (adults). Marra nikaona 
waana wanakuja, presently I saw 
people coming. Sometimes with 
mtoto, e. g. akakaa hattamwana mtoto 
asipate, he lived on but did not get 
a child. Mwana has also various 
special senses, e.g. (a) lady of the 
house, mistress, and in addressing 
such a one, madam, like bibi, bibi 
mkubwa. Younger ladies of the 
house are called wa kina mwana, or 
mamwana. (<5) used in polite re- 
ference or address to one's own mo- 
ther, madam, (c) a recess in a 
grave, closed by the kiunza, is caller 
mwana wa ndani (cf. use of mtoto, o 
appendages of various kinds). (Cf 
jana n., kijana, and the same roo 
ana is perh. seen in bwana, mtwana 
for mtu mwana, msijana, mvulana.} 
Mwanamizi,n. (waan.}, a kind o 
crab, a hermit crab. 

Mwandamano, n. (miand.}, a fol 

owing, procession, retinue. (Cf. 
andama, and follg.) 

Mwandamizi, n. (ivaand.}, (i) 
i follower, an attendant ; (2) a suc- 
:essor, one who comes next after. 
Cf. follg.) 

Mwandamo,n.(#<zdT.), act (time, 
manner, &c.) of following, a coming 
after, a procession. Mwandamo wa 
mwezi, the following of the moon, 
the beginning of a month, also 
mwezi mwandama, the moon suc- 
ceeding or following, i. e. the new 
moon. (Cf. andama, and piec.) 

Mwandani, n. (waand.}, com- 
Danion, associate, friend. (Perh. for 
mwandamani. Cf. andama, and 
prec., also syn. mwenzi, rafiki.) 

Mwandazi, n. (waand.), one who 
prepares food, cook, confectioner, 
pastry cook. (Cf. andaa, maanda- 
si, and mpishi.} 

Mwandikaji, n. (waand.\ also 
Mwandiki, (i) one who arranges, 
serves, waits at table, a waiter, a 
server ; (2) a writer, copyist, amanu- 
ensis, clerk. (Cf. andika, mwa- 
ndishi, and follg. Also karani.} 

Mwandiko, n. (miand.}, (i) act 
(style, &c.) of writing, handwriting, 

(2) what is written, manuscript, also 
what is printed, a writing, a book ; 

(3) arrangement, careful treatment, 
manipulation, e.g. of a doctor. (Cf. 
andika, andiko (ma-), and prec.) 

Mwandishi, n. (waand!), (i) one 
who serves (waits at table), waiter, 
house-servant (cf. mtumishi, boi) ; (2) 
a writer, clerk, secretary, amanuensis 
(cf. karant). (Cf. andika, and prec.) 

Mwanga, n. (tnianga), (i) a light, 
shining, that which gives light, e.g. 
mwango wa jna (taa, moto), the 
light of the sun (lamp, fire); (2) 
fig. (wa-}, a very wise, enlightened 
person; and esp. (3) a wizard, sor- 
cerer, supposed to go about at night, 
sometimes in the form of a rat, and 
frighten people ; (4) name of a kind 
of rice. See Mchele. (Cf. anga t 
and follg.) 




Mwangafu, n. (waang.'} , a clever, 
enlightened, intellectual,bright-witted 
person. (Cf. anga, -angafu, ua- 
ngafu, and prec.) 

Mwangalizi, n. (waang.\ an over- 
seer, manager, superintendent, direc- 
tor, administrator. (Cf. angalia, 
and syn. msimamizi.} 

Mwangamizi, n. (waang.}, one 
who ruins, a destroyer. (Cf. anga- 
tnia, maangami 

Mwangaza,n. (miang.), that which 
makes light, or enlightens, and so 
(i) light, brightness, clearness, radi- 
ance, daylight. Mw. wa alfajiri, 
the first streaks of dawn, twilight. 
Wtupe na rnw., brightness and light. 
Mwangazani, in broad daylight, in 
full view, (a) a hole admitting light 
and air, as in stone houses in Z., an 
aperture, small window, loophole. 
Akaona tundu dogo t aona mwangata 
mbali sana, and he saw a little hole, 
a light-hole a long way off. (3) fig. 
enlightenment, lucidity, shrewdness, 
prudence. (4) publicity, making 
known, showing, advertising, touting. 
Jambo hili ni katika mwangaza, this 
matter is open to all, public property. 
A'ifan\ <iza, nikione kitti 

hiki, give me a chance of seeing, that 
I may examine the article. Miangaza 
much showing off (of goods). 
(5) way of escape, way out of a diffi- 
culty, a solution, a bright idea, a ruse, 
ingaza (as from uang.} mbili, 
humponya, twofold chance of 
escape, one saves him. (Cf. anga, 
and follg.) 

Mwangasi, n. (waang.), a clever, 
shrewd, clear-headed, well-informed 
piTs-.n. (Cf. anga, mwangafu, 
mwanga, and prec.) 

M wan go, n. (miango), (i) a frame 
hung against a wall to carry a native 
lamp, and so, lamp-stand, 1. imp- 
holder, lamp-suspender (cf. anga, 
mwanga}; (2) for M tango, door 
b see). 

Mwangu, n. form of -attgtt agree- 
ing with a locati g. sha- 

mbani mwangu, in my estate. See 
Mu- and -angu. 

Mwanguzi, Mwangushi, n. (wa- 
ang.\ one who throws down, or causes 
to fall, one who overthrows (destroys, 
&c.). Miv. wa nazi, a professional 
cocoanut picker, also mfauazi, who 
charges one (or two) pice per tree. 
(Cf. angua.) 

Mwangwi, n. (miangwi), an echo. 
(Perh. cf. mwanga, wizard, mysterious 

*Mwani, n. (miani), (i) seaweed 
(in general) ; (2) an eye-glass. See 
Miwani. (Ar.) 

Mwanya, n. (mianya), a gap, 
breach, hole, notch, narrow pass, 
small opening, cleft, crevice. Mw. 
wa mguu, a cloven foot. .'-.' 
udevu, a forked bear.d. Mlima wenyi 
mzvanya, a hill with a cleft, a double- 
peaked hill. (Cf. pengo, ufa.) 

Mwanzi, n. (wianzi), a bamboo. 
Hence of other kinds of reed and 
cane, and things resembling them in 
appearance or use, e.g. a pipe or tube 
of any kind, an ear-trumpet, a musLnl 
pipe, flageolet, flute, telescope, a stick 
used for hanging things on. ." 
wa pua, the nostril. Kalamu ya 
mu<an:i, a reed pen. 

Mwanzo, n. (mianzo), (i) act 
(time, method, &c.) of beginning, a 
start, commencement, first stage; (a) 
origin, primary principle. (Cf. 

anza, chanzo, and syn. Ar. as Hi.} 

Mwao, n. (miao), (i) a piece of 
wood used as a rapp< 
strut (cf. walio}. Also (a) trouble, 
effort, both 

Mwao, a. 

with a locm nijini 

mwao, in their tr 

* M warabu , n . ( Jfrt<mj/>\an Arab. 
One from the south con- 
known as Mshchtri, from the n< 
the Persian Gall", ws/icmali. (Ar. Cf. 

'Mwdridi, n. i ' .1 rose- 

(A i. 





Mwashi, n. (waashi), a mason, 
one who builds with stones and mor- 
tar. (Cf. akiij uas/ri, and contr. 

Mwashiri, n. (miash.}, one of the 
longitudinal timbers which support 
the mast (mlingote] in a native vessel. 
See Mlingote, and Chombo. 

*Mwathini, n. (waath.}, one who 
calls Mahommedans to'prayer at the 
mosque at the regular hours, a muez- 
zin. (Ar. Cf. athini, athana.} 

Mwavuli, n. (niiavuli),- an um- 
brella, sunshade. (Cf. mvuli, uvuli, 
kivuli, and tapa.} 

*Mwawazi, n. (ivaawazi], disposer 
of events, a title of God. (Ar. 
Cf. awaza^] 

Mwayo, n. (tniayd], a yawn. Piga 
mwayo, enda mwayo, yawn. 

Mwaza, Mwazi, n. (wawaza], one 
who thinks (supposes, fancies, &c.). 
See Waza. (Dist. wazi, a.) 

*Mwazimo, n. (miaz.\ a borrow- 
ing, a lending, accommodation, ad- 
vance, loan. (Cf. azima, v.) 

Mweko, n. (miweko), a putting 
aside (off, down, away, &c.). See 
Weka, also Mwiko. 

*Mwele, n.' (i) (waele), a sick 
person, a bedridden patient, an in- 
valid, a cripple. (Ar. Cf. uwele, 
and syn. mgonjwa.} (2) (niiele\ 
the plant bearing mawele or ttwele, 
i.e. a kind of millet with an ear of 
very small edible seed (cf. mawele}. 

Mweleko, n. (mielekd), used of a 
leather sling for a gun. (Dist. 
mbeleko, tibeleko.} 

Mwelewa, n. (wael.*), one who 
understands, who is intelligent, takes 
a thing in. (Cf. elea, and follg., 
and perh. mwerevu, i. e. miuelefu, and 
syn. mtambuzi, mwangafu, &c.) 

Mwelezo, n. (miel.'}, explanation, 
sign, indication, exposition, pro- 
gramme. (Cf. elea, and elezo, and 
prec. Also syn. mafafanusi.} 

Mwembe, n. (niiembe\ a mango 
tree, bearing the fruit embe. Man- 
goes and cocoanuts are the com 

monest trees in Z. Canoes are made 
"romthe hollowed trunk of the mango. 
(See Embe, and dist. iiembe, a razor.) 

Mwenda, n. (waenda), verbal of 
enda (which see), one who goes. 
Nyati ni tmvenda pekee, the (Indian) 
buffalo is a solitary beast. Mwenda 
nguu, one who despairs. (Cf. 
iguu.} See Enda. 

Mwendeleo, n. (niiend.\ progress, 
advance, movement. (Cf. enda, 
and mwendo?) 

Mwendelezi, n. (waend.), one who 
causes to go on, one who carries 
on or forward, and so in various 
senses of endeleza (see Enda). 
E. g. (i) a persistent, persevering, 
progressive person; (2) one who 
copies, one who spells words. 

Mwendo, n. (niiendo), a going, 
moving, motion, proceeding, pro- 
gress, way (manner, style) of going, 
gait, behaviour, course, &c. E. g. 
mwendo wa siku tatu, a three days' 
journey. Vunja mwendo, prevent 
progress. Mwendo wajua, the sun's 
course, orbit. (Cf. enda, mwe~ 

nendo, and mwendeleo.} 

Mwenea, n. (ivaenea), one who 
spreads out (pervades, extends), esp. 
as a title of God, as omnipresent/i. e, 
mweneapote. (Cf. enea, mwenezi.} 

Mwenendo, n. (mien-}, going on, 
moving, &c., like mwendo, but often 
fig. proceedings, behaviour, conduct. 
(Cf. enda, enenda.} 

Mwenenzi,n.(w<?w-), (i) one who 
measures (surveys, compares, &c.) 
(cf. enenza) ; (2) one who goes, 
a traveller. (Cf. enenda.} 

Mweneza, n. (waen-}, one who 
allots (distributes, gives out), esp. as 
a title of God, the Giver of good 
to all. (Cf. enea, eneza.} 

Mwenge, n. (mienge), a torch, 
a fire-brand, a wisp of straw or grass 
for carrying fire or a light. 

Mwenyeji, n. (wenyeji\ lit. the 
regular possessor (cf. -enyi, and the 
formative -/*'). Hence (i) master of 
a house, householder, owner, occu- 




pant, citizen, inhabitant of a town, 
of a place); (2) host, in re- 
lation to guests (wageni), e. g. ku- 
tumwe mwenyeji ivetu aende kwa 
jumbe, let our host be sent to go 
to the chief. 

Mwenyewe, n. (wenyewe). See 
-enyewe. Sometimes used as 
;//', or mwenyi, e. g. yule 
simba ndiye mwcnyewe (perh. for 
mwenyi wake) asali, that lion is the 
owner of the honey. 

Mwenyezi, n. i.e. mwen\ 
usually a title of God, the Possessor 
of might, the Almighty, i. e. mweza 
yole. The commonest Swahili term 
in speaking of God is Mwenyezi 
(Cf. -enyi.) 

Mwenyi, n. \wenyf), one who 
possesses, an owner, an indepen- 
dent person. See -enyi. Not 
commonly used as a noun, ex- 
cept as a title, whether complimen- 
tary or official, and then sometimes 
/. and rnunyi. On the main- 
land mwenyi mkuu and n;~ct'nvi 
mkitinva sometimes denote the second 
and third official under a chief, the 
first being shehe or waziri. Some- 
limes also a term of respectful refer- 
ence or address, 'sir,' like bwana. 

Mwenzi, n. (wenzi), (i) a friend. 
companion, associate, acquaintance ; 
(a) of things as well as persons, 
fellow, counterpart, match, double, 
something resembling or correspond- 
ing to anoth ^ikuna, msiba 
>-f. no disaster but 
has another lik (Cf. enta, 
ft causal form of enda, i. e. cause 
to go. accompany, share the actions 
of, and syn. ro/fX-*.) 

Mwetu, a. form of -etu, agreeing 
with ! 
mjini mwctu, in our town. 

Mwewe, , a bird of 

prey, a kind of kite or hawk, * 
-ens, &c. 

Mweza, n. (wawaa), verbal of 

wt*a, one who is able, possessed 

cr over (or, to do), a ruler. 

inchi, the ruler of a country. 
Mweza mivcnycwe, his own master, 
an independent power. Mw eza yote, 
supreme over all things, Almighty, 
a title of God, also mweza kwetu, 
ruler of our world. (Cf. mu\ 

Mwezekaji, n. (waez-}, a pro- 
fessional thatcher of houses. (Cf. 
eztka, and follg.) 

Mwezeko, n. ('-), act (opera- 
tion, style) of roofing a native house, 
thatching (with grass, &c.). (Cf. 
e:t'a, and prec.) 

Mwezi, n. (miezt), (i) the moon ; 
(j) a month, i. e. a lunar month ; 
(3) menses (also tfawtt, and hethi, 
which see). (i) Mwezi mkubwa 
(mpevu, kamili, duara, u<a m; ; 
full moon. Mwezi mdogo (nu 
mfya, mwandama), new moon. 
Mwanga (rnwangaza) 
moonshine, also mbaam 
wapasua wingu, wachimbuka, waleta 
anga, the moon pierces the cloud, it 
bursts forth, it sheds light, (a) Each 
month begins when the new moon is 
first seen, or after 30 days from the 
last new moon. J/ .uJatno, 

>:mo wa mwezi, new moon, 
the beginning of the month. M. 
tnpitngufu, a month of 29 days. 
M. kamili, a full month of 30 days. 
The month beginning when K^ima- 
thani ends is considered the first 
month, and called Mfun^iio most, 
i. e. the first i. 

next are called (Mfungud) pili (or 
wa /i/O. tatu (wa tatu], &c. to 
kenda (wa kendo), the nint!i 
the remaining three h.-i\ 
imes Rajabu, Shoal 
Mlisho . mwezi wa 

Mfungo). The other Aral- 
are used in letters, and in giving 
dates, but are not commonly known. 
The month is divided variou 
(i) weeks, or quarters, i.e. four sets 
of seven days, junta (ma-). 

..<mth is four 

weeks. ecks arc reckoned 

independently of the months, the 


week and the month not necessarily 
beginning together. (a) decades, 
kumi (ma-~) or mwongo (miongo), 
i. e. three sets of ten days, called 
kumi la kwanza, la kati, and la 
kwis/ta,. the days in each being 
counted as mwezi most, the first day 
of the month, mwezi pili, the second 
day, and so on, also mwezi wa 
most, iva pili, &c. Occasionally 
mwezi mmoja is used, e.g. killa 
mwezi mmoja ukiandama, on each 
succeeding first of the month. M- 
wezi ngapi, or siku ya mwezi ngapi 
(orwa ngapi} ? Whatday ofthemonth 
is it? (3) halves, the full moon 
being the middle point, the first half 
being called mwezi nje, or mwanga 
mkubwa, the second mwezi ndani 
(mchimbu] or giza. (4) in letters, 
documents, agreements, &c. the days 
are usually reckoned straight on from 
one to thirty, and are commonly 
designated by the number only, e. g. 
ishirini Shaabani, the 2oth of 
Shaabani, most Ramathani, the first 
of Ramathani. See also Mwaka, 
Siku, Tarihi. 

Mwia, n. (wawia), a creditor, one 
who demands payment of a debt, 
a dun. (Cf. wa, v., wta, and 
mdeni, mkopeshi.} 

Mwiba, n. (miiba), (i) any small 
sharp-pointed thing, e.g. a thorn, 
prickle, spur, sting, fish-bone, spine, 
sharp splinter, nail, defined by con- 
text or qualifying word, as mwiba 
wa nyuki, a bee's sting, mw. wa 
samaki, wa nge, &c. (2) verbal of 
iba, one who steals (cf. follg.) 

Mwibaji, n. (waibaji}, a thievish 
person, a regular thief. (Cf. iba, 

mwivi, and prec.) 

Mwiga, Mwigaji, n. (waiga, 
&c.), one who imitates (or, copies), 
but commonly, a mocker, mimic, 
caricaturist. (Cf. iga, and follg.) 

Mwigo, n. (miigo), (i) imitation, 
copying ; (2) mimicry, mockery, 
counterfeit, forgery, caricature (cf. 
jga, and prec.) ; (3) (waigo), a large 


:ind of pigeon or dove. (Cf. 

Mwiko, n. (nriiko}, (i) a spoon, 
or instrument resembling it, e. g. 
a mason's trowel (cf. mkamshe, 
upawa, and kijikd] ; (2) something 
put aside, esp. food left over from a 
meal, put away from evening to 
morning, &c., i.e. chakula cha mwiko. 
Also (3) something deliberately ab- 
stained from, by order of a doctor, or 
considerations of health, &c. M. wa 
nyama, abstention from meat. M. 
wa vileo, teetotalism. Shika m., 
live by rule, diet oneself. Mshike 
miiko, msionane na wake wenu, 
keep the rules, and do not be seen by 
your wives. (Perh. cf. weka, at 
least for (2), and for the change of 
consonant cf. tweka, twika.^ 

Mwlli, n. (niiili}, a body, human 
or animal, and usually a living body, 
a whole body, including head and 
limbs. Also the trunk of the body, 
without the head. (Cf. kiwiliwili, 
esp. of the trunk only, without head 
or limbs, and maiti,pinda, of dead 
bodies. Obs. m-wili'vz a possible form 
of -wili, twofold, double, two, and so 
perh. of the body as characterized by 
pairs of limbs and symmetrical sides.) 

Mwima, n. (waima), one who 
stands erect (or, stands still). (Sel- 
dom in Z. Cf. ima.} 

Mwimbaji, n. (waimb.\ a singer, 
songster, chorister. (Cf. imba, 

and follg.) 

MwimbisM, n. (waijnb.}, one 
who teaches, or leads singing, a sing- 
ing master, a conductor. 
imba, and prec.) 

Mwimo, n. (miimo], an upright 
or side-piece of a door-frame. (See 
Mlango, and cf. ima.} 

Mwinamishi, n. (wain.}, one 
who causes to bend (stoop). (Cf. 
inama, and follg.) 

Mwinamo, n. (/'.), a stoop- 
ing, a bending down. (Cf. mama, 
and prec.) 

Mwinda, Mwindaji, n. (wa- 




, a huntsman, one who hunts, 
of any kind of game. (Cf. 
, micinzi, windo, and syn. 

Mwinyi, n. used as a title. See 

Mwinzi, n. (wwinzi), sometimes 
used for mwinJa, mwindaji which 
see, and cf. witida). 

Mwisho, n. (niiishd), act (time, 
place, manner, means) of ending, 
bringing to an end, end, result, con- 
clusion, final step, extreme limit, 
consummation, annihilation, death. 
Often as adv., finally, lastly (cf. 
hatima). -a mwisho, final, last, 
extreme. (Cf. isha, and syn. 

ukfnio, upto, mpaka, and contr. 

*Mwislamu, n. (IVaislannt), a 
Mahommednn. Also Msilimu, 
Mwaalimu which see). 

Mwita, Mwitaji, n. (waita), one 
who calls (summons, invites). (Cf. 
i/a, and alika.} 

Mwito, n. (mil to), act (time, man- 
ner, &c.) of calling, a summons, 
.in invitation, a call. Akataayc 
hukataa aitiiualo, he who de- 
a call, declines what he is 
called for. (Cf. it a, and prec.) 

Mwitu, n. ( , and miitu), forest, 
implying large trees and close to- 
gether. Mwitu mnene, a thick, dense 
forest, -a mwitu, wild, savage, un- 
tamed. Nyama ya mwitu, a wild 
animal. 6^f*fVflMfMaweedL (Cf. 
thick underwood, jangle, 
open grassy forest sparsely 
with trees, also/W/, / 
Mwivi, n. (WOT), MwUi (wtti), 

roht^r, kidnapper, s\< 
Mwivi hushikwn no mwtvi mwt- 
tight by his fellow- 
thief. (Cf. i/>a, mwibaji, uiti, and 
nyanganyi . ikacha, 


Mwoga, n. (waoga), (i) a coward, 
a timid person (cf. oga, of>opa % and 
-</) ; (2) a bather (from oga, 
bathe, cf. osha). 

Mwogofyo,n.(ww^.), threatening, 
denunciation. (Cf. ogofya?) 

Mwoko, n. (inioko), act (process, 
&c.) of baking, roasting. (Cf. 

Mwokotaji, n. (waok.\ and Mwo- 
kosi, one who picks up, one who 
finds by chance. a (C&60/a.) 

Mwokozi, n. (waok.}, one who 
saves, a saviour, rescuer, preserver, 
deliverer. (Cf. okoa, wokovu.} 

Mwomba, n. (waomba), one who 
asks (begs, prays), verbal of omba y 
governing a noun following. M. 
pesa, one who asks for money. M. 
ctua, one who makes a special petition. 
M. Muungu, a man of prayer, a 
devout person. (Cf. omba, and 

Mwombaji, n. (waomb.), a beggar, 
a professional beggar, a mendicant. 
(Cf. om6a, miuoniba, mwombi, and 

Mwombezi, n. (waomb.}, one who 
begs on behalf of (or, .- 
another, an intercessor, pleader, ad- 
vocate, also, opponent. (Cf. 

omba, and follg.) 

Mwombi, n. (waombf), one who 
makes a petition (or, prayer), a 
petitioner, a suppliant. (Cf. oniba, 
muomba, mwombaji.) 

Mworno, n. (wjorno), lip, for nuLnno (which see). 

Mwongezi,ti. (waong?) also Mwo- 

ngea, one who talks (gossips, passes 

the time, amuses, &c.). Mu'cngc*i 

haongexwi, one who amuses is not 

(Cf. ongea.) 

M won go, n. (waongo\ a 1; 
postor, inventor of falsehoods, dc- , 
|)ervcrter of truth. (Cf. 
'ifti\ and dist. follg.) 

Mwongo, n. (0110*19), (i) number, 

:g, rank. Usually in jilur. 

hamo katika miongo yao, he is not 

them, and i 

ongoni mica, used pr< 
among the number of, > 
from among; (a) 
esp. a decade, sometimes used as a 


division of the Swahili month. (See 
Mwezi, and syn. kumi. Dist. prec.) 
Mwongofu, n. (waong.}, one who 
is directed, guided, instructed, put in 
the right way, and so in religion, 
i. e. mwongofu wa dini, a convert, a 
proselyte. Mwongofu wa kazi, a 
proficient in an art, a good workman. 
(Cf. ongoa, uongofu, and follg.). 

Mwongozi, n.(w#0.),also Mwo- 
ngoshi, one who shows the right way 
(guides, leads), and so, a skilled work- 
man who can show others how to 
work (cf./undi), or a guide, pilot (cf. 
the usual kiongozt). (Cf. ongoa^) 

Mwonjo, n. (tnionjd), a tasting, a 
trial. (Cf. on/a.) 

Mwosha, n. (waoshd), also Mo- 
sha, (i) one who washes, in general, 
but also (2) esp. of one who is en- 
gaged to wash a corpse, and prepare it 
for burial, an undertaker, sometimes 
one of three, who each take a part. 
Mwosha naye htioshwa, the washer 
of corpses is himself one day a corpse. 
(Cf. osha, oga, and alsofua, dobi.} 

Mwosho, n. (miosho), act (place, 
manner, &c.) of washing. (Cf. 
oska,josho, and prec.) 

Mwozi, n. (waozi}, one who has 
to do with marrying or causing to 
marry, whether bridegroom, parent, 
or official. (Cf. oa, oza, maozi, &c.) 
Mwua, n. (waua), also Mua, 
verbal of ua, one who kills, murders, 
puts to death. 

Mwuaji, n. (fPOfM^V), also Muaji, 
a slayer, murderer, assassin, destroyer 
of life. (Cf. ua, uuaji, and prec. 
Also mchinjaji, mfishaji?) 
^ Mwuguzi, n. (waug.\ one who 
tends or has the care of the sick, 
medical attendant, nurse. (Cf. 

ugua, and syn. mlezi.~) 

Mwujiza, Q.(mtuj.) , anything won- 
derful, extraordinary, supernatural, 
a wonder, a surprise, a miracle. 
(Cf. syn. ajabu, mzungu, shani, and 
perh. kioja.} 

Mwumba, n. (wautnbd), also 
Muumba, one who creates, esp. the 


Creator of all things, God. Mwu- 
mba ndiye Mwumbua, the Maker 
the Destroyer. (Cf. umba, 

Muumba, and follg.) 

Mwumbaji, n. (wautnb.}, one who 
creates, usually of God only, the 
Creator. (Cf. umba, and prec.) 

*Mwumini, n. (wauwini), a be- 
liever, i. e. a Mahommedan. (Ar. 
Cf. aniini, mmunina?) 

Mwumishi, n. (waum-), a pro- 
fessional cupper. (Cf. umika,} 

Mwumizi, n. (waum.}, one who 
burts, causes pain. (Cf. uma, 

Mwunda, n. (wa-'), one who con- 
structs, esp. of woodwork. Also 
niwundi (wa chombo, &c.), a ship- 
wright, who does the work. Mwundi- 
ha, the person who orders, arranges, 
or contracts for the work. Mwii- 
ndiwa, the person to whose order or 
for whose trade the work is done. 
(Cf. undo, mwunzi.} 

Mwungama,n. (waung.y, one who 
acknowledges (admits, confesses) 
wrongdoing. Used as a title of 
Mahommed. (Cf. ttngama.} 

Mwungamishi, n. (waung.), one 
who invites (receives, extorts) con- 
fession, &c. (Cf. ungama.} 

Mwungamo, n. (miung.}, (i) ac- 
knowledgement of obligation, con- 
fession, admission of guilt (cf. ttnga- 
ma, and prec.) ; (2) a plant; which 
produces ungamo, a yellow dye for 
matting. . (Cf. manjano.} 

Mwungo, n. (miungo), also Mu- 
ungo, a joining together, a joint, e. g. 
mwungo wa kufuli, to describe a 
dovetail joint, lit. a lock-joining. 
(Cf. tmga v., and the more usual 
ungo, kiungo.} 

Mwunzi, n. (waunzf), also Mwu- 
nda, Mwundi, one who constructs 
(frames, builds), esp. of a carpenter's 
and shipwright's work. Mwunzi wa 
chombo, a shipbuilder. (Cf. unda, 
and see Mwunda.) 

Mwunzi, n. usually in the plur., 
i.e. miunzi, whistling (which see). 




Mwuza, n. (wauza^, verbal of uza, 
one who sells. Mwuza itguo, a 
draper. Mwuza samaki, a fish- 
monger, &c. Also mwttzrtzi, a pro- 
fessional seller, a dealer, a salesman. 
Contr. mnunuzi, a buyer, a customer. 
Cf. n 

Mzaa, n. (wa-), verbal of zaa, 
governing the word following, one 
who begets, or gives birth to. Mzaa 
bibi, great-grandmother. (Cf. zaa, 
nizazi. kizazi, rnzao.) 

*Mzabibu, n. (mi-), a vine, the 
fniit being zabilm, Taiui la mz,, a 
bunch of grapes. (Ar. zabib, raising 

*Mzabuni, n. (wa-), a buyer, a 
bidder at a sale. (Ar. Cf. zabuni, 
and the common B. syn. mnunuzi.') 

*Mzaha, n. (mi-), fun, joke, ridi- 
cule, derision. Jina la tn., nick- 
name. Fanya m., do in fun. 
izia rn. t make fun of. (Ar. Cf. 
thihaka, ubishi, nuhezo.) 

Mzalia. n. (wa-), with Ps. sense, 
one born at (or, in a place), a native 
(of a given spot), and esp. a home- 
born slave, one born in the house or 
country of his master. Such slaves 
rank above the raw slave (mjinga) 
from the interior. (Cf. zaa, and 
follg., and see Mtumwa.) 

Mzalisha, Mzalishi, n. (wa-}, a 
midwife. (Cf. zaa, and prec.) 

Mealiwa, n. (a/a-), one born (at), 
e.g. tnzaliwa huko (or, wa hitko}, 
one born there, a native. 

Mzama, n. (wa-'), verbal of zama, 
one who si:, .cs in water. 

Also Msamaji (wa-), a diver, but 
commonly msamia (//////), one who 
dives for (pearls). (Cf. sama, and 

Mzambarau, n. (mi-), a kind of 

fruit-tree, bearing 

a kind of damson or sloe, zambarau. 

Meamiflhi, n. (wa-) t one who 

vs divers. Also Meamiaho, 

causing to sink, plunging in water, 

ITS. (Cf. zama, 

zamisna, and mzania.) 

Mzamo. n. (mi-), diving, plunging 

(in liquid), drowning. (Cf. prec., 
and zama.) 

*Mzandiki, n. (wa-), a hypocrite, 
liar. (Ar. Cf. nmafiki, mwongo.) 

Mzao, n. (wa-), child, offspring, 
descendant. (Cf.zaa,wzazi. Perh. 
for mzawo.) 

Mzawa, n. Ps. verbal of zaa, see 
Mzaliwa, which is the form com- 
monly used. 

Mzazi, n. (wa-), one .who begets, 
or bears offspring, a parent (male or 
female). Used also of (i) a woman 
recently delivered, and (2) a prolific 
parent. (Cf. zaa, and -zazi, uzazi, 

Mzee, n. (wa-), (i) an old person, 
an elder, (a) a parent, (3) an an- 
cestor. Mzcc nimoja mzec sana, one 
old man was very old. An old 
woman is usually kizte. (Cf. perh. 
zaa, also uzee, kizce.) 

Mzibo, n. (mi-), (i) a stopping 
up, closing a hole (path, passage, 
&c.), a plug, a stopper, bung, &c. 
Also (2) fig. a check, a stop, a dead- 
lock. (Cf. ziba, kizibo.) 

Mzigo, n. (mi-), a load, a burden, 
esp. of such a load as a caravnn 
porter (nipagazi) carries on his head 
in East Africa, i.e. about 60 Ib. 
weight. Also fig. of a sorrow, be- 
reavement, infirmity. Mizigo\ 
futa, odd jobs of porterage. 
m., shoulder a load (i.e. usually, 
place on the head). Tua 
///., lay down a load. Funga 
prepare for a journey, pack, make 
preparations (for any und< r 
Bwaga v a load 

(Cf. mtuniba, mfagasi.) 

Msiko, n. (mi-), a 
&c.) of burial. (Cf. zika, and the 
more usual matito.) 

Mzima, n. (wa-), (i) a person in 
good health, in sound 
mind and body, whole; (2) a full- 
in adult. 

is also verbal n. 

from si ma, v., one who extinguishes, 
puts out (a light, fire, &c.)0 




Mzimu, n. (mi-), a native place 
of worship, i. e. where offerings and 
prayers are made to spirits, whether 
of ancestors or others. In Z. it is 
usually a rock, cave, tree, or ruin, 
and the offerings are rags of calico, 
cooking pots, and occasionally small 
coin. Pekka kitu mzimuni, go and 
make an offering. (Cf. kuzimu, 
the state after death, the world of 
disembodied spirits, death (as a state), 
the grave. Also zimwe, a spirit, 
ghost, demon, and wazimu, madness, 
lit. spirits. Perh. also cf. zimu, 
zimua, zimuka, meaning 'to be- 
come cold, be extinguished, put out.' 
Contr. the m of mzimu of 'place 
within which,' whh the more general 
ku of kuzimu, the whole environ- 
ment, general condition.) 

Mzinduko, n. (mi-), (i) opening 
ceremony, inauguration; (2) awaken- 
ing suddenly from sleep. (Cf. 

Mzinga, n. (mi-), anything of a 
cylindrical shape, a round hollowed 
log, a native beehive (usually a 
hollowed section of a tree, and fixed 
in a tree), a cannon (from its 
shape). Piga mzinga, fire a cannon. 
Mizinga ya salaam, a salute (by 
cannon). (Cf. zinga, mzingo, zu- 
nguka, &c.) 

Mzingile, n. (mi-). Mzingile 
mwambiji, a labyrinth, a maze, a 
puzzle (Str.). (Cf. zinga, and 

Mzingo, n. (mi-), in general, a 
rounding, curving, bending, and so 
used to denote (i) circuit, bend, 
winding (e. g. of a river), turn ; (2) 
working on a curve, making a bevel, 
making a round mat or basket; (3) 
circumference, distance round; (4) 
environment, neighbourhood, margin 
of a pool or stream, what is around 
one. Hence used prepositionally, 
mzingo wa, around, on all sides 
of. -a mzingo, around, enclosing, 
surrounding. Shona mzingo, sew in 
a curve. Mzingo ni mzunguko wa 

mviringo, mzingo means going round 
in a circle. (Cf. zinga, mzinga, 

*Mzinzi, n. (wa-), an adulterer, 
a fornicator, a t debauchee. ( Ar. 
Cf. zini, uzini, zintfa.) 

Mzishi, n. (wa-), one who has to 
do with a burial, and so (i) an under- 
taker, who manages it, or grave- 
digger; (2) a friend who attends it, 
esp. a trusted, intimate, bosom friend, 
as being relied on for securing decent 
burial. (Cf. zika, mazishi.) 

Mzizi, n. (mi-), (i) a root, rootlet, 
i. e. kishina kidogo cha mtini chini, 
the small root-fibres of a tree beneath 
the ground ; (2) perh. from the use 
of roots in native medicine, ' a doctor's 
prescription, dose, medicine,' de- 
scribed according to the way it is to 
be used, e.g. wa kuchoma, to be 
heated ; wa knsaga, to be pulverized ; 
wa kuchanjia, for inoculation ; wa 
kutafuna, to be chewed ; wa ku- 
chemsha, to be boiled, &c. (Cf. 
mwiko and shina.) 

Mzizimizi, n. (wa-), one who 
sinks, goes to the bottom, disappears 
suddenly and completely. Hence, 
an adventurer, stranger, swindler, 
who suddenly vanishes leaving no 
traces. (Cf. zizimia.) 

Mzo, n. (mizo) also Mso, a 
measure of weight or dry measure, 
viz. lofrasila, or 60 pishi, i.e. about 
350-360 lb., equivalent to jizla. 

Mzoea, n. (wa-), verbal of zoea, 
one who is used, accustomed (to), 
practised (in), familiar (with). Mimi 
mzoea sana naye, I am on quite 
familiar terms with him. (Cf. 
zoea, -zoefu.) 

Mzofafa, adv. on tiptoe, with a 
strut, proudly. (Ar. zaf, for 


Mzoga, n. (mi-), carcass, dead 
body, carrion, not usually of a hu- 
man body, corpse, i. e. maiti. (Cf. 
mwili, pinda.) 

*Mzomari, n. a kind of scent, 



? rose water. (Dist. tnsoman, a 
nail, and zomari, a pipe, flute.) 

Mzomeo, n. (mi-\ derisi\ 
cast ic, insulting noises or speech. 

Mzuka, n. (w<z-), one who ap- 
pears suddenly, and so, an ap- 
parition, ghost, spirit, goblin. (Cf. 
:t!:a, kizttka, ntzushi.} 

Mzungu. n. (i) (wa-J, a European. 
:t mweusi, a Europeanized 
native (cf. kizungu, Uzungu). 
(a) (-) something wonderful, 
startling, surprising, ingenuity, cle- 
verness, a feat, a trick, a wonderful 

or mizungu kwa Wazungu, i. e. Eu- 
ropeans are always astonishing. 
(Cf. ~*ungu, and perh. conn, with 

Mzunguko, n. ('-), in general, 
a going round, a being round, a 
surrounding, and so (i) revolving, 
circular motion, turning, whirling, &c.; 
(a) eddy, whirlpool, circular course, 
orbit, circuit; (3) enclosing, surround- 
ing, besieging (cf. mazingiwd) ; (4) 
sauntering, idling, shilly-shallying 
(cf. zHitsttka). (Cf. zunguka, 

zunguJco, and mzingo, zinga.} 

Mzungusho, n. (MJ-), a causing 
to go round, a surrounding, an en- 
closing or placing round, &c. Also 
Mzungushi (wa-}, one who causes 
to go (or, be) round. (Cf. m-.u- 
nguko, and zunguka, sungusha.) 

Mzushi, n. (*-), also Mzuzi, 
one who causes to penetrate through 
and so emerge, who causes son 
to appear suddenly. Hence (i) an 
<r, inventor, reformer, revolu- 
heretic, tScc. ; (a) tell-tale, 
r, gossip-monger, &c. (Cf. 
usushi, xua, tuka, ntzuka.} 

Mzuzu, n. (i) (wa), one who is 
inexperienced, at a loss what to do, 
and so 'a simpleton, a nc. 

orn, tender-foot), an : 
mus. Also (2) name of a kind nf 
banana (sec Ndisi). (Cf. sutua, 
and syn. mjinga, mgtni, barathuli.) 


N represents the same sound as in 
English. This sound involves more 
difficulties than any other in learning 
Swahili, its grammatical function, 
together with its peculiar phonetic 
affinities, producing the only forms 
of words which can be called excep- 
tional or irregular. 

It may be considered A. as a sound, 
B. as a formative prefix. 

A. The sound n is either (i) 
purely consonantal, or (2) semi-vocal. 

(i) As a pure consonant, n can be 
combined with any vowel, but only 
five consonants, viz. d, g, j, y t and z, 
e.g. ndio, ngoja, njaa, nyumba, 

When its function as a prefix (see 
below) would require its use in com- 
bination with other consonants, the 
effect is as follows : 

Before 6, n becomes m, e. g. mbaya 
for nbaya. 

Before w, n becomes w, but the w 
following is also changed into 6, c. g. 
mbili for nwili, mbingit for nwingu. 

Before r (or its convertible sound 
/), n is retained, but the r (or /) is 
changed into d, e. g. ndefu for nrefu, 
ndiini, plur. of itlimi. Cf. also >/</. 
in words like ndnme, ndoa, ndoto, 
&c, (perh. indicating a lost / in the 

Before >6, /, /, is represt-i 
at all, by giving an explosiv* 
to those consonants, e. g. pcfo as the 
< >f w/<yv?. 

Before <-/;,/, h, m, J.^nd v, n does 
not appear, i. e. cannot be pronounced 
as a pore consonant. 

(a) Asa semi-vowel, or sen 
pendent . with 

few exceptions, to use bcfoi< 
/', t, d t t, s or another n. I 

ncs represents the 
verbs, as in nua/vnda, ntaJrumtda, 

ifxnda, nitakwenda, .-.- 
pears in the words /. 

so t -nzi t ttn(, i: 



n inclines to the sound of f n, especially 
in the dialect of Zanzibar and in the 
words -fflgYfttf,-**^ inzi. This faintly 
vocalized use of n is sometimes in- 
dicated by writing it ' or n\ and 
accounts for the sound ny- which it 
often assumes before vowels, e.g. 
nyitmba, nyekundu, nyingi. 

(For further remarkson the n sound, 
see Ny-, Ng', Nya, and Njoo.) 

B. As a prefix, n is 

(i) In verbs a shortened form of 
/, i.e. the Pers. Pfx. subjective and 
objective of the i Pers. S. nnapenda, 
I love, amenita, he has called me. 
Cf. also ndi (for ni} in ndio, ndiwe, 
&c. See Ndi-, and obs. the irreg. 
Imperat. n-joo, fromja. 

(2} In nouns, n or ny- (before a 
vowel) is a common initial of D 6 
and the Plur. Pfx. characteristic of 
D 4, with various euphonic variants 
(see above). 

(3) In adjectives, n or ny- is the 
Pfx. agreeing with D 4 (P), D 6, 
subject to the euphonic limitations 
given above, and excepting the pro- 
nominal and a few other adjectives. 
Obs. however, the two common irre- 
gular forms njema (and ngema) for 
nycma, and mpya (for the inadmissible 
monosyllable pya], also nd for n- 
(ny-} in ndoto, ndume, ndoa, nJto, 
ndui, and nduma, as plur. of uma 
(perh. to characterize the n as prefix, 
and not part of the root). 

Na is a B. particle, used as a 
conj.,prep., and with a verbal signifi- 
cation, with the general idea of con- 
nexion, association, or the opposites 
Like kwa and katika it is one of the 
commonest particles in Swahili. 

i. As a conjunction. (a) na 
simply connective, ' and,' but con 
nective mainly of nouns, pronouns, o: 
their equivalents, not commonly o 
sentences, or adjectives, which in 
Swahili usually follow each othe 
without a separate connective par 
tide, e. g. mimi na wewe, I and you 
baba na mama, father and mother 

. g. wapikienina nyama loapeni wale 
washibe walale, cook for them, and 
give them meat, so that they may eat 
and be satisfied, and go to sleep. 
The common connectives of pnra- 
[raphs are hatta and bassi.} Even 
when beginning a paragraph, na is 
as a rule in close connexion with a 
noun. When used to connect two 
verbs, when .the verbs are quite 
distinct in mood, tense, &c., e. g. 
<ml>a, na utapewa, ask and you will 
receive, &c., the latter verb is com- 
monly in the Infinitive (i. e. noun) 
"orm, the force of the inflections of 
he first verb, mood, tense, person, 
&c., being, however, carried on to 
he second, e. g. moyo wangu wani- 
ambia, Soma na kusali, my 'heart 
says to me, Read and pray. Even 
when connecting two adjectival ideas, 
the second is often in noun form, 
e. g. inchi kubwa na uzttrz, an ex- 
tensive and beautiful country, other- 
wise inchi kubwa nzuri. (b) na 
qualifies, and corrects, ' and yet , withal, 
even,' connexion suggesting some 
difference, whether with nouns or 
verbs. Na tungoje basst, let us even 
wait then. Akala na nguruive, he 
ate even pork. . Na is thus commonly 
used with pronouns, after a verb, 
with an idiomatic force qualifying 
the verb rather than the pronoun, 
e. g. njoo nawe, do come along, I 
wish you would come, lit. come even 
you. Atakaja naye, he is sure to 
come, lit. even he will come. Kafa 
naye, he is actually dead. 

2. As a preposition, the main idea 
of na is connexion or association, 
i. e. ' with,' whether in thought, place, 
or time, but is inclusive of many 
correlative ideas, e. g. disconnexion, 
distance as well as nearness, recipro- 
cation, separation as well as union, 
subtraction as well as addition, i. e. 
' from ' as well as ' with, by, to.' E. g. 
alikwenda na babayake, he went with 
his father (also, ' he went and (so did) 
his father,' or ' his father went also,' 



ven his father went '). Thus (a} 
tta is the characteristic preposition of 
the Agent with a passive verb, aliu- 
awa na adui, he was killed by his 
enemy, the instrument being denoted 
by kwa. But na may be used of any 
active force, and also of the instru- 
ment. Alishikwa no. homa, he was 
seized with fever. Alipigwa nafimbo, 
he was beaten with a stick, also kwa 
fimbo, or fimbo alone. Also in 
other passive constructions, e. g. 
alitokwa. na damu, he bled. (t>) na 
is used with adjectives and adverbs 
in consonance with its main idea, 
e. g. sawa na, equal to ; mbali na (or 
ya), distant from, different from ; 
karibu na (or ya\ near to ; pamoja 
na, together with, (c) na is fre- 
quently connected with the Rp. form 
of verbs (which appears to be formed 
with it), shindana na, contend with, 
agana na, take leave of, tengana na, 
be divided from, achana na, depart 

'.'* has a very common and 
important tuc in connexion, and in 
combination, with the verb -wa, be, 
and those other forms, including the 
person-prefixes, which are regularly 
used with the meaning of -wa (see 
-w), especially It with- the relative. 
and the person-prefixes, ni, u, a, o, i. 
//, M, ma,ya,pa, ku, &c. With all 
these na is used (and too commonly 

.ced illustration) to express (a) 
having, (6) being, existing. Thus (a) 
wa na, &c., have, lit. be with, e. g. 
alikuwa > ic had property. 

ibu alicho nacho, the book which 
he has. Sina nguvu, \ have no 
strength. Yuna afya t anayo. Has he 
health ? he has (it). (*) -wa na. be, 
exist. Palihuwa na mtu, there was 
it ia there? 

What is the matter ? Hakun*i 
there is nothing. In some nr^ 
phrases na seems to lose all trace of 
meaning and preposi- 
:id to represent itself 
the force of a verb, e.g. hakuna, 

there is not . ( A'utta (ina, pana, &c.) , 
'there is,' is not used alone, but with 
a noun or pronoun following, or 
another element in combination, e.g. 
kunako, zinazo.} In all uses na is 
very commonly compounded with 
the pronouns (nami, na-ue, naye, 
nasui, &c.), and with the relative 
forms of other prefixes (e. g. nayo, 
nalo, nazo, napo, nako, &c.). 

-na, as a tense-prefix, is the sign of 
the Pres. Indcf., e. g. anakuja, he is 
coming. The forms ot this tense 
are constantly used in the sense of 
the Pres. Partic. ,as the forms of the 
me tense are for the Past Partic.), 
e. g. akamwona anakuja, he saw him 
coming. (For -na combined with 
person-prefixes, e. g. nina, 
namna, Anna, &c., see Na, 3.) 

*Naam, a common affirmat i 
tide, Yes, Certainly, I understand, It 
is so. (Ar. Cf. ntenia, and syn. 
ndio, verna, a-hee^) 

*Nabii, n. {ma-}, a prophet, a 
preacher of righteousness, one who 
foretells the future. Used of Adam, 
Noah, Abraham, Jesus Christ, and 
others, as well as of Mahomet. ( Ar. 
Cf. bashiri, tabiri.} 

*Nadi, v. (i) call, summon, an- 
nounce publicly, proclaim. 
wa Sultaiti ttn.Jitadiwa, the Sultan's 
proclamation i> IK; 

///' akanudia kusali, Hil.nli 
appeared and call* 
hold a sale (or public m 
W atu wananaai vitu kwa n; 
]>cojle are having a noisy salt . 
anadiyc rtguo, a man who sells clothes 
by atu (Ar. Cf. mwnia, 

mnadi, and dalali.} 

i:oni, grain, in 
. millet, 

Nafaai, n. (i) brcnthim; 
space, room, o]>; 

pare time; (i) m 

oo busy. (Ar. Cf. nafsi, 
nafusi, and syn. f>umuz; 




*Naflsi, v. usually nafisisha, 
accommodate with money, relieve, 
put in easy circumstances. Rf.ji- 
nqfisisha, make oneself comfortable. 
Nt. nafisika, get out of poverty, be- 
come well off, be relieved. (Ar. 
Cf. prec. and tanafusi.} 

*Nafsi, n. ( ), also Nafusi, vital 
spirit, breath, soul, self, person, in- 
dividuality, essence. Generally used 
to emphasize personality, e. g. mimi 
nafsi yangu (or bi nafsi yangu), I 
myself. Wakachukizwa nafsi zao, they 
were deeply offended. (Ar. Cf. 

*Nafuu, n. ( ), profit, advantage, 
gain, progress, equipment, assistance, 
e. g. in money or food, for a journey; 
esp. of improvement in health, con- 
valescence. Amepata nafuu, he has 
got better (like hajambo). (Ar. Cf. 
syn. riziki, vifaa,faida?) 

*Nahau, n. ( ), explanation, un- 
folding of meaning, and so (i) gram- 
mar, syntax; (2) excuse, quibble, 
subterfuge. N. ya maneno, an eva- 
sive statement. Killa neno Una n. 
yoke, every word has its meaning. 
(Ar. for the more common maana, 
tafsiri, ehzo. Also for ' grammar,' 
cf. sarufi.} 

*Nahotha, n. (wa-),alsoNakho- 
tha, Nahoza, captain, of a vessel. 

*Najisi, -najisi, a. unclean, dirty, 
impure, profane. v. also Najisi- 
sha, defile, contaminate, pollute, pro- 
fane. (Ar. Cf. unajisi, ehafua, 
and syn. B. -chafu, -a takataka.} 

*Nakawa, a. clear, good-looking, 
in sound condition, of fine quality, 
of persons and things. Pembe n., 
good sound ivory. Mtumwa mwema 
., a fine good-looking slave. (Ar. 
Cf. -ema, -zima, -zuri.} 

*Nakili, n. also Nakli, Nakulu, 
a copy, an imitation, a translation, 
duplicate. Nakili ya waraka, copy 
of a letter. v. copy, transcribe, 
translate. Ps. nakiliwa. Nt. 
nakilika. Ap. nakil-ia, -iwa. 

Cs. nakil-isha, -ishwa. (Ar. Cf. 
fuatisha, iga, and manuku. Dist. 
nakili, for nakirt, Arab, not often 
used, reject, disapprove.) 

Nako, for na huko, and there. 

*Nakshi, n. and Nakishi, carving, 
carved ornament, fine chisel-work, 
engraving, and used of any orna- 
mentation of similar appearance, e.g. 
embroidery, painting. Pig& (kata) 
nakshi, carve, adorn with carving 
(embroidery, &c.). v. carve, 
adorn with carving, &c. Ps. naki- 
shiwa. Ap. nakish-ia, -iwa, (Ar. 
Cf. chora, pamba^} 

*Nakudi, n. cash, ready money, 
a trifle. Nunua kwa nakudi, buy 
off-hand, buy on the spot, i. e. mkono 
kwa mkono. (Ar. Cf. sarifu.} 

*Nakulu, n. See Nakili. 

Nama, v. bend down. See Inama. 

"Nambari, n. a (single) number, 
e.g. the number which marks an 
object, person, &c. (Eng. number.} 

Nami, for na mimi, and I, even 
me. See Na. 

*Namna, n. ( ), also Namuna, 
(i) example, sample, pattern, model, 
sort, kind; (2) special sort, perfect 
example, model, a rarity, choice 
article. Wataka namna gani? What 
sort do you want? Nguohiiyanatnna, 
this calico is the best. (Hind. 
Cf. Ar. ginsi, aina.} 

Namua, v. draw away, disengage, 
get out of a difficulty, take out of 
a trap, set free. (Not common 

*Nana, n. and Nanaa, mint. (Ar.) 

*Nanasi, n. (ma-\ pine-apple, 
the fruit of the mnanasi. Common 
in Zanzibar, in two principal varieties. 
Yields a fibre, used as string. (Ar. 
Cf. unanasi.} 

Nane, -nane, n. and a. , eight, -a 
nane, eighth. (Cf. Ar. themani, 
which is rarely used, and perh. nne, 

Nanga, n. an anchor, properly, 
of the four-fluked pattern commonly 
used, a European two-fluked anchor 




being baura. Tia (fniliza) nanga, 
cast (let go) anchor. Ngoa nanga, 
weigh anchor. (Cf. baura, kombe, 
fluke, also am art, cable.) 

Nani. pron. interrog., What person 
( person s^ ? Who? Jina lako nani? 
What is your name? -a nani, 
Whose? (Cf. m'tii, lini, and -//'. 

Nao, for na hao, or na ivao. and 
these, and they. Napo, for na hapo, 
and there. (See Na.) 

Nasa. v. get hold of, catch in a 
trap, hold fast. Ps. naswa. Nt. 
nasika. A p. nas-ia, -itva. Cs. 
nas-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. tcga y guia t 
kamata, and perh. nata.} 

*Nosaba, n. pedigree, genealogy, 
lineage. (Arab.) 

*Nasibu, n. chance, fortune, luck, 
accident. Kwa nasibu, accidentally, 
not on purpose, by chance. (Ar. 
Cf. bahati.} 

Nasihi, v. give good advice (to), 
counsel wisely. Also n. a sincere 
friend, faithful counsellor, wise ad- 
viser. (Ar. Cf. mshauri.) 

Nata, v. he sticky, adhere, stick. 
Ctomvu -vafencssi -wanata sana, the 
sap of the jack- fruit is very sticky. 
Ap. natana, stick together. (Cf. 
ambata, ganda.} 

Nathari, n. (i) look, glance ; (2) 
attention, consideration ; (3) choice, 
discretion, judgement. Nathan yako 
(or, kroako), it is for you to choose. 
. I have no choice. (Ar. 
Cf. hit: 

Nathifti, a. also Nadifu, clean, 
\'yumba yoke no- 
his house was . 
good order. (Ar. Cf. sa/l , safidi.) 

Nathiri, n. vow, solemn promise. 
::ig to God. 

Weka n., make a vow. Ondoa ., 
fulfil (perform) a vow. (Ar.) 

*Nai; charge for freight 

nncc), passage-money, 
hire, pay ;>.issage 

Cs. nanliska, let 
for freight (carriage. corn- 
charter, l>c a ship's broker. (Ar.) 


Nawa, v. wash ceremonially, per- 
form ablutions, according to the pre- 
scribed Mahommedan custoi; 
wash the hands and face, tawaza 
being used of the feet, charnba of 
other parts of the body. Sometimes 
nawa mikono (nso, migutf). Ps. 
nawiwa, Nt. nawika. Ap. 

naw-ia, wash with (at, by, &c.). 
Majiya kunawia, water for ablutions. 
Cs. nawisha, e.g. nawisha watu 
mikono, i. e. bring people water to 
wash with. (Cf. also oga.fita, and 

Naye, for na ycyc, and he, even 
him. Mjinga ni mtu naye, a fool is 
after all a fellow man. (See Na.) 

Nazi, n. ( ), the ripe fruit of the 
cocoanut-palm (ntnazi}, which is very 
plentiful in Z. (as well as the neigh- 
bouring islands and coast) and one 
of the most important commercial 
products. A'azi is the most general 
descriptive name, but seven stages in 
its development are distinguished 
under the names (which see): (i) 
upunga, the first forming of the fruit 
on the flower stem ; (2) kitale, a young 
nut ; (3) kidaka, half-grown; (4 (fa/u, 
full-grown and full of milk (*uyi) 9 
aho cf. urambcrambcr and tonga ; 
(5) korowa, when the milk is de- 
creasing, and nutty part forming; (6) 
//(;:;, fully ripe, no milk, ami nut 
hardening; (7) nasi kavit. th 
pa/t dry and separating from the 
shell. < Also Joya, a nut 

full of a white spongy nut su! 
kiritmvi, without milk or nut ; tna- 
kumbi, the fibrous husk; kifttu, the 
hard inner shell ^dist. kifuo, . 
used for ripping off the husk); 

part insi 

! alf a nut (when broken 
. As a n. 

the nutty part used for cooking (cf. 

i<ha % nibuti) os 
sold as copra. Mafuta ya nasi, 

cocoanut oil. 1' 

harabit ya nzirna, a bad cocoanut 




spoils good ones. (See also mnazi, 
ternbo, gema, kuti.} 

Ncha, n. ( ), also Incha, tip, 
point, end, extremity, e. g. of a knife, 
branch, cord, &c.. Hakuna refit 
lisilo ncha, nothing so long that^ it 
has no end. Habari ya uwongo ina 
ncha saba, a false story has seven 
endings, i. e. can be told in many 
ways. (Cf. kikomo, miuisho, 

mpaka, and dist. nta, wax.) 

Nchi, n. See Inchi. 

Nd-, as an initial sound, cf. N. 
(See N, A (i), and Ndi-.) 

Ndama, n. ( ), the young of 
cattle, esp. a calf, but also distin- 
guished as ndama ya ng'ombe, calf ; 
nd. ya mbtizi, kid ; nd. ya kondoo, 
lamb. (Cf. nyama, mtamba.} 

Ndani, adv. within, inside, in the 
heart. Contr. nje. Ndani ya, prep, 
inside of, within, -a ndani, internal, 
inner, secret, heartfelt. Kwa ndani, 
internally, in the inside, in the heart, 

Ndara, n. ( ), a plain leather 
sandal. (Cf. kiatu, makubazi.} 

Ndefu, (i) a. form oi-refu, long, 
agreeing with D 4 (P), D 6 ; (2) 
n. See Ndevu. 

Ndege, n. ( ), (i) a bird ; (2) an 
omen. N. za anga, birds of the 
air. N. njema (mbaya), a good 
(bad) omen. N. akaruka juu, the 
bird flew upward. Tusimtilie n., 
do not let us obstruct him (by anj- 
thing which might be a bad omen). 
Dim. kidege. (Cf. nyuni, rarely 
heard in Z.) 

Ndevu, n. plur. of udevtt, the hair 
of the face, beard, whiskers. Also 
ndevu za mashavuni, whiskers 
Ndevu za mdomo wajuu (wa chini) 
moustache (imperial). (Cf. ki- 

Ndewe, n. ( ), a hole pierced in 
the lobe of the ear, i.e. ndewe ya 
sikio, to hold an ornament, some- 
times of great size. (Cf. toja.} 

Ndezi, n. name of a kind of rat. 

Ndi- is used as a pfx. of emphasis 

(perh. a strengthened and so em- 
phatic form of ni, and see also N), 
n combination with (i) personal 
pronouns, ndimi (for ni mimi), 
"diwe, ndiye, ndiswi, ndinyi, ndio, 
..e. it is I, yes I, yes me, &c. (2) 
with the demonstratives ending in ~o, 
i. e. ndio (ni wad), ndiyo (ni hiyo), 
ndizo (ni hizo}, &c., it is they, that is 
it, &c., and the adverbs of the same 
form, ndiko, ndipo, ndimo, there, 
it is there. Ndiko atokako, that 
is where he comes from. Often 
strengthened by repeating the de- 
monstrative after it, ndivyo hivyo, 
it is just so, exactly so. Ndiyo hiyo, 
that is the very thing. Ndio is con- 
stantly in use as a simple affirmative, 
'yes, it is so' (cf. naani). (Cf. 
n, A. (i), nd-, and perhaps the 
irregular form njoo, Imperat. of ja. 

Ndifu, n. ( ), also Kidifu, and 
Kilifu (which see). (Perh. a plur. 
n. from ulifu, i. e. nlifu, ndifu.} 

Ndilo, emphat. for ni hilo, that is 
it. See Ndi-. 

Ndimi, (i) plur. of ulimi, a 
tongue; (2) emphat. for ni mimi, it 
it I. See Ndi-. 

Ndimo, emphat. for ni humo, it 
is in there. (Cf. prec.) 

Ndimu, n. ( ), and sometimes 
Dimu, a lime, the fruit of the lime- 
tree, mndimu, mdimu. There are at 
least two varieties in Z., ndimu kali, ' 
the bitter lime, ndimu tamu, the 
sweet lime. (For kindred varieties 
see Mchungwa.) 

Ndio, Ndipo, Ndiswi, Ndinyi, 
Ndivyo, &c. See Ndi-. Ndio is 
one of the commonest forms of simple 
affirmation, ' yes, it is so.' (Cf. Ar. 

Ndizi, n. ( ), banana, plantain, 
the fruit of the mgomba. The fruit- 
stalk with the whole head of fruit 
is called mkungu, a cluster or bunch- 
let on it chana (tana}, a single fruit 
dole. There are many varieties in 
Z., green, yellow, and deep red, 




known as kistikari, kipukusa, mzitzn, 
mchenga, mkono wa tembo, bungala, 
paka, kiguruwc, kizungu, &c. 

Ndoa, n. ( ), marrying, mar- 
riage, often treated as a plur. noun, 
ndoa zangu, my marriage. (Cf. oa t 
maozi, and for the form ndoto, ndume, 
and see Nd-. Also cf. Aarusi, ni- 

Ndofu, n. ( , and wa-), also 
Ndovu, an elephant. (Rarely in Z., 
where tembo is used.) 

Ndole, Ndomo, n. plur. of udole, 
uomo (i. e. ulomo}. See EUdole, 

Ndonya, n. ( ), ring or round 
ornament worn in the upper lip, esp. 
by women from Nyasaland (where 
-o called/<r/*/V). 

Ndoto, n. ( ), a dream, dream- 
ing. (Cf. ota.) 

Ndugu, n. ( ), brother, sister, 
cousin, relation, fellow - tribesman 
(-citizen, -countryman). Further de- 
. s n. mume, brother, n. mkt, 
sister. N. baba mmoja mama 
mmoja, full brother, with the same 
father and mother. N. tumbo moja, 
brother with the same mother, half- 
brother ^at least X N. kunyonya, 
foster-brother. Donda n. t a malig- 
nant kind of ulcer. (Cf. udttgu, 
. and urn/m, mtani,jamaa.) 

Ndui, n. plur. small-pox (udui, 
a single pustule). (1'erh. from ua, 
::om its fatal effects.) 

Nduli, n. and a., a savage person, 
a killer, murderous, blood-shedding. 

Ndume, n. and a., a pit: 
from uume (i.e. ulume), used as 
both sing, and plur.,(i) a male animal, 
as contr. with man; (a) a man, in 
respect of manly charatt 
ties, rather than of sex < 

i male ass. 

Bata ndrtme, a drake. Atkari 
ndume fora, warlike hcroe*. 

hard grains of rice which 
resist pounding. (Cf. -unit, and 

Ndumiko, n. cuj>ping instrument, 

usually a hom, i. e. ptmbt ya ku- 
umikia, with which the cupping is 
done. (Cf. umika, and chuku.) 

*Neema, n. (i) ease, affluence, 
comfort; (2) bounty, favour, help, 
grace. Esp. of providential bless- 
ings, plenty, a good harvest, abun- 
dance of food. Inchi He ina neema 
nyingi y that is a favoured country, 
a good one to live in. Imemshukia 
neema kubwa kwa Mtiungu, a great 
mercy had descended on him from 
God. (Ar. Cf. naam, and follg., 
and syn. mbaraka.) 

*-neernefu, a. plentiful, abundant. 
(Ar. Cf. follg.) 

*Neemeka, v. live at ease, have 
plenty, be in comfortable circum- 
stances, possess property, get good 
profits. Cs. neetnesha, make rich, 
provide well for. (Ar. Cf. 

neema, nnccmtfu.} 

*Nejisi, a. See Najiai. (Ar.) 

*Neli, n. a tube, a pipe, the 
word commonly used being mwanzi. 
(Hind. nal. Cf. Ar. kasiba.) 

*Nerna, v. bend, give way, yield. 
Nt. nem'ka, e. g. of graceful dancing. 
Cs. nem-esha, -eshwa, cause to bend. 
(Ar. Cf. nefa, and inama.} 

Nernbo, n. ( ), a tribal mark, 
usually a kind of tattoo. < 
chalt, chanjo, and toja. Prob. a Yao 

Nena, v. (i) speak, have the gift 
of rational speech, articulate, utter, 
say; (a) speak of, mention, name, 
declare. Kinenatho na knithonena, 
that which speaks and that which 
does not, a common way 
trasting people and things, the ra- 
tional and :: 

Nt. ntntka, (i) be spoken, 1 
tioncd ; (2) be utterable, be such as 
expressed in words, I- 
i,&c. Afatnfo ya$iyontneka t 
unutter.v >cribable things. 

Neno kilo halineneki, ' 
not in use, is not a possible word. 

(for, to, with, &c.;, but in common 




usage ambia regularly takes its place 
for 'speak to, say to,' and nenea 
(when not denned by the context) 
is used for 'speak against, rebuke, 
scold,' more commonly than ' speak 
for, intercede for, recommend, praise.' 
Hence neneana. Cs. nen-esha, 
-cshiva, -eza, -ezwa, e.g. cause (pro- 
voke) to speak. E. g. wakanenezana 
kwa maneno mabaya, they exasper- 
ated each other by abuse. Rp. 
nenana, speak of each other, and so 
commonly, quarrel, abuse each other. 
(Cf. neno, uneni, mneni, mnena, 
mnenaji, mnenea, &c. Also sema, 
and ambia. Sema is used exactly 
like nena of rational speech, and in 
most other senses. But (i) with a 
person-object, nena means mention, 
sema, speak against, rebuke, abuse 
(like ambd}. (2) sema has often the 
meaning ' talk, converse/ nena rarely. 
Ambia with a person-object regu- 
larly takes the place of both nena 
and sema, when the meaning is sim- 
ply, speak to, say to.) 

Nenda, v. See Enenda. 

-nene, a. (nene with D 4 (P), D 5 
(S), D 6), (i) thick, stout, fat, plump, 
broad ; (2) full, whole, complete. 
(Cf. nenepa, unene, and nono, nona,, -zima} 

Nenepa, v. become fat (stout, cor- 
pulent) of persons, but nona, of 
animals. Cs. nenepesha, make 

stout, &c. (Cf. -nene, nona.} 

Neno, n. (ma-}, (i) a word, utter- 
ance, expression, message ; (2) asser- 
tion, objection, argument, plea, 
point ; ( 3) thing, fact, matter, affair, 
cause, case; (4) a serious matter, 
difficulty, danger, trouble. Theplur. 
maneno is also used for (i) language, 
speech, in general, and (2) con- 
sultation, discussion, argument, trial, 
debate. E.g. siknfanya n., I did 
nothing. Ukiona n., usinene n. ; 
itkinena n., litakujia n., if you see 
anything, do not say anything; if 
you say anything, something will 
happen to you. Fanya maneno, 

tiold a discussion, argue, debate. 
Mtu iva maneno mengi, a talkative, 
argumentative person. Mancno ya 
kiunguja, the Zanzibar dialect. 
Hana ., he has nothing to say. 
Mnisaidie, nisione neno njiani, help 
me that I may not find difficulty in 
my way. (Cf. nena, and_/aw$0.) 

Nenyekea, v. See Nyenyekea. 

Nepa, v. incline downwards, bend 
down, dip, drop (of a rope), sag. 
Cs. nepesha, cause to bend, bend (by 
pressure, &c.). Bakora hii inanepa 
sana, this stick bends very much. 
Kisu chanepa, the knife (blade) 
bends. (Cf. Ar. nema. Also 

inama, pinda} 

Ng', thus written, is used to repre- 
sent the only sound in Swahili not 
easy to pronounce, viz. a close com- 
bination of n and g which does not 
pass on to the vowel following, 
though forming one syllable with it. 
Thus yangoa, it plucks up, is pro- 
nounced quite differently from ya 
ngoa, of desire, in which ngoa is only 
a nasalized goa. The sound is not 
common, and only in a few words 
initial. (It is sometimes heard and 
written as gn, but Str. argues that 
words beginning with it are treated 
grammatically as of the N (i. e. D 6) 
declension, and that with pfxs. (e.g. 
ki- or ma-} the g is retained even 
if the n is dropped.) 

-nga- and -nge-, as a pfx. , is the sign 
of the Pres. Condit. Tense, as ngali 
of the Past, e. g. ningapenda, I would 
love. See Ngali-. 

Ng'aa, v. be bright, glitter, gleam, 
shine. Cs. ngaza, make shine. 
(Cf. anga, ngara, &c.) 

*Ngabu, n. ( ), a gouge, a 
carpenter's tool, same as Bobari. 

Ngadu, n. a kind of crab. (Cf. 

Ngalawa, n. ( ), commonly 
galaiva (which see) in Z., a small 
dug-out canoe with outriggers. 

-ngali-, as a pfx., is the sign of the 
Past Condit. Tense, e.g. ningali- 




fvnda, I would have loved. Obs. in 
narrative ngali and itga are used 
with the person-pfxs. of actual facts, 
past or present, e. g. angali ana- 
kwenda, he was going ; kungali na 
ma pt ma oado, it was still early. 
Mvua ingalikinya na tufant ime- 
kaza, the rain was falling, and the 
storm at its height. 

Ngama, n. ( ), the hold of a ves- 
sel, i.e. in a native vessel amidships. 
Prov. aendaye tezi na onto, hurudi 
ngamani, he who goes to the stem 
or stem comes back to the hold. 
(Cf. chombo, and bandum, tumbo.} 

Ng'amba, n. a kind of hawk's-head 
turtle, from which tortoise shell is 
procured. Piga (pindua) n. is used 
to describe pouncing on a harmless 
person and robbing him. Chuma 
cha n., the shell. (Cf. Aasa.) 

Ng'ambo, n. one of two opposite 
sides or positions, the other side, the 
farther side, e. g. of a river or creek. 
; L> ya htikn, the near side, this 
side. Ng'.ya pili, the other, further 
side. (In Zanzibar city Ng'ambo is 
the general name for all that part of 
it, including several minor districts 
(mitaa), which has grown up in the 
last 40 years on the land side of the 
creek which used to bound it.) 
(Cf. Unguja, and perh. Ar. jamb, 
side (of the body).) 

Ngamia, n. ( ), a camel. Also, 
a common term of abuse, like ngombc, 
mbuzi, i. c. idiot, fool, the camel 
being regarded as a type of stupidity. 
(Camels are used in Z. only I 
ing oil-mills, and imported for the 

Ng'anda, n. ( ), a handful, as 
much as can be held with the 
esp. of something clinging < : 
iug together, as ugali. (Cf. 

1 ganda, or chonda, and dist. kofi, 
konti, chofa.) 

Ngano, n. ( ), (i) a story, a 
Me ^cf. kisa t ha- 
t, i.e. t: fl 
Prov. amtkula ngano, he has eaten 

wheat, i. e. (?) he has committed a 
fatal error, he has done for himself. 
(Cf. fcisa, hadithi, and for grain na- 

Ngao, n. ( ), (i) shield, buckler 
(a) face, or front, of a house. Also 
of the rear, n. ya nyuma, Kifua 
cha n., a bosom like a shield, a 
point of beauty. (Cf. kigao.} 

Ngara, n. ( ), blossom (male) of 
the Indian corn-plant (Sac.). 

Ng'ara, v. also Ng'ala, Ng'aa, 
and Angaa, shine, glitter, be bright. 
(Cf. Cs. ngariza, and anga.) 

Ngariba, n. ( ),one who circum- 
cises, a professional circumciser. 
(Cf. tahiri, ukumbi.) 

Ng'ariza, v. Cs. of ngara, i. e. 
make bright, cause to shine, &c. 
Ngariza macho, glare with the eyes. 
Ap. ngarizia, e. g. glare on (at, 
with, &c.). Cs. ngarizisha, e. g. 
make glare, glare fiercely. (Cf. 
an fa, ng'aa, ng'aza.} 

Ngawa, n. ( ), civet cat, i.e. 
paka iv a zabadi. One of the few 
wild animals left in Z. (with the pig, 
monkey, and serval or leopard). 
Umekaa kama ngawa, you live like a 
wild creature. (Cf. ///, zabadi.} 

-ngawa, used with person-pfxs. to 
express 'though,' c. g. ///'. 
though I am (was) ; i ngawa, though 
it is (was). Wangawa -walikwcnda, 
though they went. (Pres. Condit. 
of -wo, v. Cf. -nga-) japo,kwamba.') 

Ngaei, n. ( ), a ladder, set of 
step, stain, i. e. ngazi ya kukwelta. 
wea t daraja.) 

Ngaaija, n. the Great Comoro 
Island. omoro 

man. Kingazija, the Comoro Ian* 

g'oblTO, n. (), alio Mchiro, 
a mangouste, mungoos. 

-nge-, sign of the Prcs. ( 
Tense. See -nga-. 

Nge, n. ( ), or Inge, a sc 
Ngedele, n. a smal 

Iso called tumbili, k\: 




Ngema, a. often used in Z. for 
njema, i.e. (i) the form of -etna 
agreeing with D 4 (P), D 6; (2) 
without a noun, as common expression 
of assent, good, very well, certainly, 
like inshaliah, ewalla. (Cf. -etna.} 

Ngeu, n. ( ), a line used by car- 
penters for marking work, a ruddle, 
so called from the red chalky earth 
applied to make the mark. 

Ngi, -ngi, n. and a., variants of 
ungi, ivingi, -ingi, which are usual 
in Z. See Ingi, &c. 

Ngia, -ngine. See Ingia, -ingine. 

Ngiri, n. ( ), wild boar, com- 
monly nguruwe wa mwitu. 

Ngizi, n. ( ), a kind of cuttle-fish. 
Wino wa n., the dark fluid emitted. 
Kifuu cha n., cuttle-fish bone. 

Ng'oa, v. root up, dig out, tear 
out, pull up. Ng'oa mti, root up a 
tree. Ng'oa jino, extract a tooth. 
Ng'oa macho, gouge out the eyes. 
Ng'oa hema, strike a tent. Ngoa 
safari, start on a journey,, Ps. 

ng'oleiva. Nt. ngoka, e. g. moyo 
ununingoka, my heart jumped into 
my mouth. Ap. ngo-lea. (Cf. 
fuktia, toa, ondoa.} 

Ngoa, n. desire, passion, lust. 
Timiza n., satisfy the passions. Tia 
., weep for jealousy. (Cf. ha'wa, 

Ng'oe, n. ( ), a forked stick or 
pole, e.g. for gathering fruit, &c. 
(Cf. ng'oa and kiopoe.) 

Ng'ofu, n. ( ), roe of a fish. 

Ngoja, v. wait, wait for, await, 
stay for, remain. Ngoja mlango, 
wait at a door, act as door-keeper. 
Ningoje, wait for me, also ningojee. 
Ap. ngoj-ea, -ewa, wait for (at, with, 
&c.), be patient with, &c.,e.g. mngo- 
jee bwana aje, wait for your master 
to come. Cs. ngoj-eza, -ezwa, 
e. g. keep waiting, delay, adjourn. 
Rp. ngojana, e.g. wait for each other, 
wait all together. (Cf. mngoje, 
ngojo, kingojo, mngojczi. The n 
sound is sometimes neglected, e. g. 
mgoja mlango, a door-keeper.) 

Ngojo, n. ( ), waiting-place, 
station, post, period of waiting, 
watch. (Cf. ngoja, kingojo, and 
zamu, Undo.} 

Ngoma, n. a drum. As the one 
universal accompaniment of all merry- 
making, and ceremonial, ngoma is 
extended to include (i) any kind of 
dance, (2) music in general. Piga 
(chapua} ., beat a drum. Cheza 
(ingia) n.^ join in a dance. N. ya 
kuchcza, dancing for amusement. N. 
ya kupunga (pepo}, dance for the 
exorcizing of a spirit. Ngoma ikilia 
sana, haikawii kupasuka, when a 
drum sounds loud, it will soon break. 
(Drums are of many sizes and patterns, 
and these as well as the accompanying 
dances and modes of beating vary 
with every tribe, and with the different 
occasions of their use. Cf. goma, 
kigoma, and see tari, msapata, da- 
ndalo, kiumbizi, msondo, vitmi, cha- 
puo, kumbwaya, kitanga, kishina, 
msoma, mganda. And for musical 
instruments, kinanda, santuri, kinubi, 
zeze, zomari, toazi, upato, kayamba, 
panda, baragumu,filimbi?) 

Ng'ombe, n. ( ), ox, cow, bull, 
cattle. Defined as n. ndume (or, mak- 
sat), ox, bullock; n. jike, cow; n. 
fahali (pxfahali only), bull. Ndama 
ya n., a calf. Kukatna ?/., to milk 
a cow. Prov. wawili hula ng'ombe, 
two can manage an ox. Dim. 
kingombe. Also used as a term of 
insult, idiot, blockhead, like ngamia, 
mbuzi. (Cf. fahali, mtamba.} 

Ngorne, n. ( ), fort, fortress, 
stronghold, castle. (Cf. syn. gereza, 

Ng'onda, v. cure, of meat, fish, 
&c., e.g. by cutting in strips, and 
drying in the sun. Ps. ng'ondwa. 
(There seems also to be a n. ng*onda, 
tring onda, i.e. a strip or slice of 
dried meat, fruit, &c.) 

Ng'ong'o, n. plur. of ung'ong'o 
(which see). 

Ngono, n. ( ), and plur. oiugono, 
(i) sleeping time, and so, night; (2) 




sleeping-turn, a wife's turn or time 
for sleeping with her husband. 
(Gona in cognate dialects means 
sleep, v., but is not used in Z. Cf. 
sinzia, /a/a.) 

Ng'oo, int. also Nyoo, expressing 
utter contempt, a contemptuous re- 

Ngozi, n. and Ngovi, skin, of any 
animal, hide, leather. Chuna n., 
take off the skin, skin, flay. 7e- 
ngeneza (fanyizd) ., tan hides. 
(Govi also occurs, but in Z. in re- 
stricted sense, in relation to circum- 
, tohara.} 

Ngumi, n. fist. Piga n., strike 
with the fist, give a cuff to. (Cf. 
syn. konde.) 

Ngungwi, n. plur. or Nkungwi, 
songs taught to boys, when circum- 
cised ; also called malango. (Perh. 
cf. kunga, kungwi.} 

Nguo, n. ( ), (i) cloth, as ma- 
terial, i.e. any woven fabric, of cotton, 
flax, silk, &c., but commonly cotton 
cloth, calico ; (a) a cloth, a piece of 
cloth, for whatever purpose, e.g. 
nguo ya rneza, a tablecloth ; nguo za 
kitanda, bed clothes; nguo za ku- 
ugulia, mourning; (3) clothes, a 
garment of any kind. Vaa n., put 
on clothes, dress oneself. Vika ., 
clothe (another). Vua ., take oft 
clothes, undress. Fuma ., weave 
cloth. Tanda n., prepare the web 
in weaving. Si/a ya nguo n: 
the merit of a cloth is the (coloured, 
:<lered) border. (Perh. cf. 
uo, chuo. Various kinds of cloth are 
known as nguo asiit, in comi 

iceting,' nguo maradufu, grey 

drilling. Amet -iioiiti, l;,iniki.btnatra % 

hufhurungi, satini, gamti, 
joho, n. i,shashi,6; 

articles of dress cf. ( i ) for men, 
kikoi, kantu, kisibau,futana, kitambi , 
kii'cniha, kofia, shuka, gwamba, joho t 
soru<t.'; . for women, 

. kangn, If so, kansu, 
. dusamali, bar a boa, ukaya, 
shela, &c.) 

Nguri, n. a shoemaker's tool 

Nguru, n. ( ), name of a fish, 
of good quality for eating and often 
of large size. (Cf. samafci.) 

Nguruma, v. make a rumbling 
or roaring noise, of any loud and 
deep sound, e. g. roar of a lion, 
thunder, roar, growl, rumble. (Cf. 
follg. and vunia^) 

Ngurumo, n. ( ), a loud roaring, 
rumbling sound, growl. Leo kuna- 
piga nguruniOj it is thundering to- 
day. Mshindo iva ngurumo, a clap 
of thunder, i.e. radi. (Cf. prec.) 

Nguruwe, n. ( ), also Nguuwe, 
Nguwe, a pig, hog, swine. N. iva 
mivittt,*. wild pig. N.jikc,*. sow. 
Nguruwe aendtalo, ndilo atcndalo* 
what a pig goes for, that he does. 
Also of a loose, immoral character, 
yule nguruwe aliyetaka kufisidi 
nyumba, that vile wretch, who wanted 
to violate a home. 

Nguruzi, n. See Nguzi. 

Nguu, n. in the phrase r: 
nguu. Kilio cha mwenda nguu, the 
cry of one who utterly despairs, of 
some irreparable calamity. 

Nguva, n. ( ), a dugong, mana- 

Nguvu, n. force, strength, power, 
in general. Thus (i) strength of 
body, muscular physical power, 
strength of mind, or character, ability, 
. or mere mechani- 
:^t n force, impetus, \\ 
turn, solidity, stability, pressure; (a) 
authority, supremacy, influence, im- 
portance, weight, earnestnc- 
exercise of force, compulsion. 
( /a) ., strengthen, consolidate, csta- 

1'anya (toa} n., use (pi 
exert) strength, exercise at 
Nen* la ., an effc*. < state- 

ommand. Kwa nguvu^ (l) 
by force (strength, al ; 
&c.), (i 

reluctantly, und 
. against the wi. 
.; nguvu t he consented under 
pressure. (Cf. bidii, uwtzo.} 




Nguzi, n. also Nguruzi, a hole 
in the bottom of a boat or vessel, for 
letting water out, i.e. tundu katika 

Nguzo, n. ( ), (i) pillar, support- 
ing column, post, prop, buttress, pali- 
sade, pale, pole; (2) fig. assistance, 
support, evidence, fundamental prin- 
ciples. Forms of prayer are called 
nguzo ya sola. Nguzo ya imani, 
articles (pillars) of faith, creed. In 
house-building nguzo are the poles 
forming the sides and supporting the 
roof. (Cf. kiguzo, and tegemeo.} 

-ngwana, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (i) of or belonging to 
the status of a free man, as con- 
trasted with a slave (mtumwa), and so 
of a relatively high social grade, and 
(2) civilized, educated, gentlemanly, 
well-mannered. (Cf. ungwana.) 

Ngwe, n. (perh. plur. of ugwe}, 
a measured plot, or patch of ground, 
whether (i) a bed or row, of young 
plants, &c., or (2) an allotment, 
ground assigned for cultivation, or 
for a task. (Cf. kuo, and perh. 
^^gwe, of the line used in measuring.) 
Ni is used simply as a copula, 
without distinction of person or num- 
ber, or definite indication of time, 
though usually equivalent to the 
present tense of the verb wa, i. e. I 
am (was), you are (were), he (she, it) 
is (was), we (you, they) are (were), 
e.g. yeye ni inwema, he is a good man. 
Ni him tu, it is just so. Nyumba 
ni tupu, the house is empty. 

Ni-, -ni,-ni-,as a formative prefix 
(i) in verbs, is the pfx. of the i Pers 
Sing, subjective and objective, I, me 
"When subjective, it is sometimes n 
or omitted altogether,e. g. ninapenda 
I love ; nnaona, I see ; takwenda, I 
will go. (2) in nouns, is suffixed to 
form a locative case, meaning c in, at 
to, from, into, near, by,' and used with 
the prep, mwa, pa, kwa (and mw-,p~ 
kw-, as the prefix of the pronom. adj 
agreeing with nouns in the locative 
case), according as the reference is to 

,) inside position, (b} place simply, 
<c) environment generally, e.g. nyu- 
nbani mwangu, in my house; sha- 
rnbani pangu, at my estate ; kuangu- 
kani kwangu, in my fall, as I fell. (3) 
ni, is subjoined to verbs as a con- 
tracted form of (a) nini? What? e.g. 
kunani ? for kuna nini ? What is the 
matter ? or (b) of ninyi, e. g. kwa- 
herini, good-bye all of you ; twende 
zetuni, come along all of you ; ame- 
kupeni vingi, he has given you many 

*Nia, n. ( ), intention, purpose, 
resolve, but extended to any mental 
activity, and can be translated 
' thought, idea, opinion^ mind, con- 
science, heart, character,' &c. Nia 
haikuwa moja, ndio usipate jambo, 
your mind was not made up, so you 
did not succeed. N. njema (swafi), 
a good disposition. N.mbovu (batili), 
bad thoughts (character, conscience). 
v. have in mind, think of, purpose, 
intend. (Ar. Cf. nut a, and syn. 
kusudi, wazo, moyo, thamiri, mradi.} 

*Nikahi, n. ( ), and Nikaha, 
marriage, esp. with reference to for- 
malities, ceremonial, &c., betrothal, 
espousals, marriage settlement, e.g. 
humfungia nikaha humwoza, he 
makes a match for her, and gives her 
in marriage. Akamwoa kwa nikaha, 
and he married her in due form. 
Fungisha n., perform the marriage 
ceremony for. Sikiliza (shuhudia) n., 
attend (attest) a marriage, said of 
the congregation present at the 
mosque. (Ar. Cf. ndoa, harusi, 

Nikali, Nili, verb-forms, and 
am (was), -ni, pfx. of i Pers. Sing., 
ka connective, li in the sense of -wa, 
v. Nikali nikienda, and I was on 
the move. See -li. 

*Nili, n. (), indigo, and esp. 
blue, as used in washing. (Ar.) 

Nina, n. (i) mother, -only in 
poetry, and a few phrases in Z. (cf. 
mama}. (2) verb-form, I have. See 




Ninga, n. ( \ a kind of green 
dove. Used also as a woman's name. 
Akakaa na Molawe, kama ninga na 
utawi, and he rested with his God, 
like a dove on a branch. 

Ning'inia, v. or Nying'inia, 
swav, swing, wave to and fro, dandle 
(a child), rock, e. g. of trees, matawi 
yaninginia, the bunches (of fruit) 
swing to and fro on the tree. Cs. 
ning'in-isha, -ishwa. (Cf. kitting'- 
ina, and syn. wayawaya, yumba- 

Nini, pron. interrog.what? often 
subjoined to verbs in the contracted 
form -ni. Wataka nini? \Vhat do 
you want? la nini, kwa nini' 
Why ? What for ? Kunani ? for kuna 
nini? What is the matter ? Hujambo 
nini? Are you well, (or) what? 
(Cf. tt ant, lint.) 

Ninyi, pron. of 3 Pers. Plur., also 
Nyinyi, you, ye. Often subjoined to 
verbs in the unreduplicated form -/', 
e.g. H/ft?m, come , ye). Kwahcrini, 
good-bye all of you. Ntakupigeni, 
T will beat you. (Cf. -cnu, your, 
as containing the same element.) 

Nipe, for unife, give me, a Pers. 
Sing. Imperative (or Subjunctive) of 

Nipo, verb- form, I am here, ni, 
person-pfx. of I Pers. Sing., and -/V, 
adverbial of place. (Cf. hapo.} 

*Nira, n. ( ), a yoke (for oxen). 

*Nih,n.( ),or Naahaa, starch. 
t. syn. uwanga.} 

*Njaa, n. ( ), hunger, cra\ 
food, lack of food, famine. 
(naona} ., I am hungry. A'.. 
.V. inauma. 

the pangs of hunger. Njaa ya Uo ni 
shiba ya kcs/io, hunger to-day means 
(i.e. hopes for) plenty to-morrow. 
(Ar. Dist.yoa, dust-heap). 

Nje, adv. outside, opp. to ndani. 
a nje, external, outside, outer, out- 
ward, outside of. 

/>, outwardly, on 
the outside. 

Njema, a. also Ngema, an irregu- 
lar form of -ema, good, agreeing \\ ith 
D 4 (P), D 6, for ny-ema. Often as 
an adv. in rejoinders, like vema, Good ! 
Very well ! Certainly ! (Cf. -cma, 

Njia, n. plur. used as sing. ( ), 
(i) path, road, way, track; (2) way (or 
means) of proceeding, method, means; 
(3) progress, effect, influence. A', kit it, 
highway. N. panda, a parting of 
roads, cross*- ways. N. ya knkata, 
a short cut. Mane no yenyi njia, 
forcible (effective, practical) sug- 
gestions. Njia ya mwongo fupi, 
a liar's career is short. Njia mbili 
zautniza, double courses bring pain. 
(Cf. ja, v., and the Ap. form -jia, 
also uj'ia, Aijia.} 

Njiwa, n. ( ), a pigeon. N. wa 
ffiwi/u, a wild pigeon. IV. > 
a tame pigeon, i. e. brought from 
Arabia and domesticated. 

Njombo, n. ( ), name of a !"ish, 
baircd with black and yellow (Str.). 

Njoo, Njooni, v., * Pers. Sing, 
and IMur. Imperat. of -y'<z,comc, per- 
haps the only really irregular forms 
which arc invariably used in Swahili. 
Other monosyllabic verbs as a iiile 
use for Imperat. the Subjunct. form, 
or else the Infm. form, and some- 
times e for a in the plur., e.g. //, 
eat, is used as an, nml !cm\ 
eat, plur. So kunyu>a t an<l ;. . 

Njoai, n. ( ), vision, apparition. 
(Cf. ndoto, ota.} 

Njuga, n. ( ), a small bell, worn 
as an ornament, and at d 

Njugu. n. ( ), ground mi? 
varieties are (i) njugu mau<(. 

1, and (a) " . soft. 

*Njumu, n. used of orn. 
work, done 1 

with metal, brass naili, &c. A'asAa 
kttbwa la njumn, a large chest orna- 
mented with metal. (Hind.) 

Nno, n. \s a n. 

always a disyllabic, and pronounced 

NOA 21 

almost as inne\ but as an a. with 
prefixes commonly heard as -ne only, 
e.g. watoto wanne or wane. Nne 
with D 4 (P), D 6. -a nne, fourth. 
Kumi no. nne, fourteen. (Cf. Ar. 
syn. droba, also often used.) 

Noa, v. sharpen, make sharp, whet, 
give an edge to, of metal tools, 
weapons, knives, &c. Ps. nolewa. 
Nt. noleka, e. g. take an edge, be 
capable of taking an edge. Ap. 
nolea, e. g. Jiwe la kun'olea, a whet- 
stone. Cs. no-lesha, -leshwa. Rp. 
noana. (Cf. kinoo, noleo, noo, and 
dist. nyoa.} 

-nofu, a., nofu with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6, lean, (of meat) i. e. all 
flesh, no fat or bone, i. e. nyama 
tupu. (Cf. mnofu.} 

Nokoa, n. (ma-}, the second man 
in authority over a plantation, under 
the msimamizi, and over the kadamu, 
sub-overseer, assistant. 

Noleo, n. (ma~\ (i) any instru- 
ment for sharpening, i. e. a whet- 
stone, grindstone, strop, knife-shar- 
pener, i. e. kitu cha kunolea (cf. 
kinoo, nod] ; (2) a ferrule, metal ring 
round the haft of a tool. (Cf. /<?/<?.) 

Nona, v. get fat, usually of ani- 
mals (ttenepa of man). Cs. non- 
esha, -eshwa. (Cf. -nono, unono, 
and -nene.} 

Nondo, n. and Noondo, (i) a 
kind of moth or grub ; (2) a kind of 

Nong'ona, v. whisper, speak under 
one's breath (in a low tone). Cs. 
nongon-eza, -ezwa, address in a whis- 
per, whisper to, e. g. mnongoneze 
baba yangu, whisper to my father. 
Rp. nongonana, nong'onezana, \vhis- 
per to each other. (Cf. mnongonezi, 
mnongono, unongonezi.} 

-nono, a. (nono with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), fat, sleek, plump, well 
fed, of animals, &c. (-nene properly 
of human beings) and things, e. g. 
maisha nono, a life of luxury. 
Ng^ombe wanono, fat cattle. Kinono, 
a falling. (Cf. nona, unono.} 


Noo, n. (ma-}, a large whetstone, 
grindstone. See Noa, Kinoo. 

Nso, n. ( ), and Inso, a kidney. 
(Figo also sometimes used.) 

Nta, n. ( ), and Inta, wax, bees- 
wax, collected by natives from 
mizinga (see Mzinga) and brought 
to the coast. 

*Nuia, v. also Nuya, have in 
mind, consider, purpose, intend, form 
a resolution. Ps. nuiwa. Ap. 
nui-lia, -liwa, e. g. resolve as to, 
form a good resolution about. Cs. 
nui-za, -zwa, cause to have in mind, 
remind, instruct. (Ar. Cf. nia.} 

Nuka, v. (i) give out a smell, 
have a smell, smell, but esp. (when 
used alone) of a bad smell, stink; 
(2) take into the nostrils, e.g. as 
snuff. N. vizuri (vema), have a 
pleasant smell. N. vibaya (or nuka 
alone), have a bad smell. But nuka 
is also used of a sweet smell, like 
nukia, e.g. akinuka meski na am- 
bari, (a person) smelling of musk 
and ambergris, and with an objective 
pers.-pfx., inaninuka ambari, I smell 
ambergris. Tumbako ya ktmuka, 
snuff. Nuka (usually nusa) tumbako, 
take snuff, or, smell of tobacco. 
Ap. nukia, have a sweet smell. Also 
nuk-ilia, nuk-iliza, smell out, follow 
by scent, e.g. mbwa hodari wa kunii- 
kiliza, excellent sporting dogs, dogs 
with a good sense of smell. Cs. 
nusa, nukiza, use the sense of smell, 
smell, smell out, and so of dogs 
hunting, scent, follow by scent, and 
of taking snuff. (Cf. follg. and 
harufu, uvundo} 

Nukato, n. (ma-*, anything having 
a sweet smell, odour, perfume, scent. 
(Cf. nuka, and see -to.) 

*Nukta, n. a dot, point, mark, 
spot, vowel sign (in Arabic writing), 
mark of punctuation (comma, stop, 
&c.) (Ar.) 

*Nuku, v. for Nukulu, copy, 
transcribe. n. (ma-}, a copy, 
duplicate. (Ar. Cf. nakili, na- 




Nuna, v. grumble, show dfscon- 
tent, complain, be sullen, sulk. Xntia 
uso, look discontented (sulky). Ap. 
nun-ia, -iwa, be sulky about, com- 
plain of (to, &c.). Cs. nun-isKa t 
-ishwa, put in a bad temper, cause 
to grumble, &c. Rp. nunana, sulk 
together, complain of each other. 
(Cf. nung'unika, guna t mnunaji, 

Nun da, n. a fierce animal, beast 
of prey, used also to describe a 
cruel bloodthirsty man. The semi- 
wild town cats are sometimes called 
nunda (tna-) y or mnunda (mi-). 

Nundu, n. a hump, protuberance, 
boss, lump, bump, esp. of the hump 
of native cattle, which is considered 
a delicacy. Achinjaye ngombe^ atoa 
nundu, akampa jumbc, when a man 
kills a bollock, he takes the hump 
and presents it to the chief. Nundu- 
tunundu, humpy, 
lumpy. (Cf. Jkigongo.) 

Nungunungu, n. (-), a porcu- 

Nung'unika, v. murmur, grumble, 
show discontent, complain. Ap. 
nungunikia* grumble at (about, to, 
&c.). (Cf. follg. and guna.) 

Nung'uniko, n. (tna-\ grumbling, 
murmuring, complaint. (Cf. prcc.) 

Nunim. v. buy, purchase, bargain 
about, make a bid for. I' 
/iwa. Nt. nunulika. Aj 
Ha, -/iwa, buy for (with, at, &c). 
, be has had 

an estate bought for him. Cs. nu- 
nu-ut, -zwa, e.g. cause (pres- 
persuade) t<> A/a (or 

. buy jointly, combine to boy. 
Ar. ivn. tabuni.) 
naha, v. Cs., cause to shine, 
make bright, give light to. (Ar. 
tza, ngari: 

*NK: . light, brightness, 

..ike. bright (clear, in- 
^)- Toa ., give 01 
shine. I'sc ;>ressioa 

or complexion, e. g. nuru za uso 

zikampotea, he lost his happy ex- 
pression. IVaanake hao nut it zao 
sawasawa, these two women are 
equally good-looking. (Ar. Cf. 
mwanga, -weupe.) 

Nusa, v. Cs. of Nuka (which 

*Nussu, n. ( ), and Nuss, a half, 
a part, a portion, a bit. A'ussu may 
denote any fraction of a whole. 
A r ussu kidogo, a little bit. Kata 
nussu nussu, cut in halves (pieces, 
bits) . Gawa nussu kwa nussu .divide 
in halves. Nussu . . . nussu, partly 
. . . partly. (Cf. Ar. nisf, middle, 

*Nu8ura, n. ( ), and Nusra, (i) 
aid, assistance, help; (2) as an adv., 
almost, nearly, within a litt, 
amcnitukatm ttusura knnipiga, he 
abused me almost to the point of 
striking me. (Ar. Cf. follg.) 

*Nusuru, v. help, assist, defend, 
preserve, esp. of God's help. Muit- 
ngu ameninusuruj Clod hns helped 
me. Tunusuru watitnnt'ti icako, 
help us your servants. (A: 

Nwa, Nweleo, N wewa, Nwesha. 
See Nywa, Nyweleo, Sec. 

Nwele, n. plur. of Unywele 
(which see), hair. 

Ny- : trie sound of ;ii in 

the word (omf.misn, but sliglitly 
thicker and more nasal (Str.), the 
sound taken by n when a pfx. 
a vowel (see N, IJ. (a), (3)), a: 
occurring in many Sw.ihili words. 
See follg. 

Nya, v. As in other monosyllabic 
verbs, th 

is used tenses. 

See Ku, i. (</). .caning 

'discharge, emit, let fall, drop/ of 
ig fluid or semi-fluid, but 
1 almost entirely to the pas- 
sage of excreta, and, when used alone, 

use is as a neuter, oi 

barged." Thus tuny a mavi 
(damu), pass faeces (, blood). 



fcunya sana ho, it has rained a great 
deal to-day. Mvua yanya, rain is 
falling. Inakunya, it is raining. 
Ps. nywa (see below). Ap. nyea, 
e. g. aisifuye mvua, imemnyea, he 
who praises rain has had it. Cs. 
nyesha, (i) of rain, Muungu ame- 
nyesha mvua nyingi, God has caused 
much rain to fall, (a) e.g. nyesha 
mtoto, attend to a child at stool. 
2. Pass. The passive form -nywa 
is the common word for ' drink, 
absorb, suck up, exhaust, consume,' 
either of liquids or figuratively of 
other things, corresponding to -la, 
eat. (Nyiua only retains a trace of 
the vowel sound of y, and is often 
heard and written as nwa.} Having 
an active meaning, nywa has its own 
passive and derivative verb-stems, 
viz. Ps. nywewa, be drunk up, be 
absorbed, dwindle, pine away, be 
consumed, dissolve away, evaporate, 
vanish. Nt. nyweka, e.g. (i) be 
drunk up, &c. ; (2) be capable of 
(fit for) being drunk, be good for 
drinking purposes. Ap. nywea, 
drink at (with, for, to, &c.), e.g. 
kopo la kunywea, a mug to drink 
with. Nywea salamu, drink to the 
health of. Sometimes also nywea 
for nywewa, e. g. killa siku mkewe 
huzidi kunywea, every day his wife 
got thinner. Nyama imenywea, the 
meat has dried up (in cooking). 
Cs. nywesha, nyweshwa, cause to 
drink, furnish drink to, supply with 
water, &c. (Cf. kinywa, kinywaji, 
manyesi, manyunyo, nyweleo, and 
for 'pour out' (a liquid), mimina, 

Nyafua, v. snatch off, tear off, bite 
off, snap up, e. g. sitnba amemnyafua 
ngfombe nyama, the lion has torn off 
a piece of the bullock's flesh. (Cf. 
follg., of which nyafua is perh. a 

Nyaka, Nyakua, v. catch in the 
hands, snatch up, tweak, pluck with 
the fingers, twitch, also filch, pilfer. 
Derivatives not commonly used. 


nyaka, which is seldom used, 
cf. daka, catch, e. g. a ball in 

Nyala, Nyali, Nyalio, plurals 
from ala ('Su-a/a^, wali, rice, and 
walio (which see). 

Nyama, n. ( , but see Mnyama), 
(i) an animal, beast, brute, mostly 
of the larger animals ; (2) flesh, meat ; 
(3) body, substance, matter, chief 
constituent, e.g. nyama ya mkate, 
crumb as opp. to crust (of bread), 
nyama ya embe, the flesh of a mango- 
fruit, nyama ya roho, the material 
part of the soul ; (4) fig. of a brutal, 
stupid, degraded person. N. ya 
mivitu, a wild animal. N. mkali 
(mbuai}, a ferocious beast. Wewe 
kisu, sisi nyama, you are the knife, 
we are the animal, i.e. at your mercy. 
In concords nyama is treated as D i 
or D 6, e. g. wakaenda nyama zote, 
all the animals went. (Cf. mnyama, 
which seems only used when there is 
special reason for distinguishing an 
animal as a living creature. Also 
perh. cf. ndama.} 

*Nyamaa, v. be silent, stop talk- 
ing, hold one's tongue, be (become) 
quiet, die away, cease, be still, used 
not only of talking and noise, but of 
anything violent, troublesome, or 
painful, e.g. of wind, bodily suffering, 
&c., e. g. kichwa chaliniuma, sasa 
kimenyamaa, my head was aching, 
now it does not ache. Ap. nyama- 
lia, e. g. be quiet to (for, in, &c.). 
Cs. nyamaza, usually Intens.,i. e. keep 
quiet, refrain from noise, repress one- 
self, and in the Imperat., Silence! 
Hold your tongue ! Hence nyamazia, 
e. g. mama amemnyamazia mtoto, the 
mother made the child quiet, and a 
derived Cs. nyamaz-isha, -ishwa, re- 
duce to silence, make quiet, calm, 
still. (Ar. namas, cf. follg. and 
kimya, tulia from tua.} 

-nyamafu, a. same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6, silent, quiet, still, re- 
ticent, reserved. Mtu mnyamafu, a 
man who says very little, keeps to 




himself. Party umafu, a quiet spot. 
(Cf. nyamaa, and -tulivu.) 

Nyambua, v. pull in pieces, tear 
into bits, take off in strips, peel off. 
imbuliwa. Nt. nyambuk'a, 
come to pieces, fall into bits, be 
peeled off, e.g. of over-ripe fruit, over- 
cooked meat. (Cf. arnbua, and 
nyumbua, nya/ua.) 

Nyamgurni, n. ( ), a whale. 

-nyangalika, a. used as an evasive 
or contemptuous epithet of what is 
difficult, impossible, or unfit to de- 
scribe, a sort of a , a what-do-you- 
call-it, a nondescript. Kitu kittya- 
ngalika, a nondescript thing. Mnya- 
ngalika gani huyu ' \Vhat sort of a 

Nyang'amba, n. a sweetmeat. 

Nyangauya, v. take by force, 
steal, plunder, rob, with the thing 
stolen, or person robbed, as object. 
Ametnnyanganya malt, he has robbed 
him of money. Alinyanganya yule 
mtoto, he kidnapped that child, or, 
he robbed that child. Ps. nya- 
nganywa. Nt. nyanganyika. A p. 
nyangany-ia , iwa. Cs. nyangany- 
tsAa, -tsAwa. Kp. nyanganyana. 
(Cf. mnyan^anyi, and iba, pokonya.) 

Nyangwa, n. plur. of wartgwa. 

( ), an ape, a baboon. 

Nyanya, v. cause to be prominent, 
protrude, put out, raise up. Aka- 
nyanya mkono, akcuhukua upanga 
tnrnoja, and he put out hi* hand, and 
took one sword. n. (ma-) , tomato, 
fruit of the! mnyiinya. (< 
nyuka, and nyanyasa.) 

Ny anyaaa, v. or Ny anyaza, tease, 

molest, treat disrespet 
rudely, hurt i of. (Not 

a common word, pcrh. Cs. of tiyanya, 

. sum fata, uthi, chokosa.) 
Nyanyuka, v. U- j.r 

ic rest, stick up, stick out. 
Also pcrh. a variant of nyambuka 
(which see . (Cf. inua, tokt~M } ont- 

Nyara, n. plur. (i) booty, spoils, 

plunder, persons or things, taken 
by war or violence. Teka nyara, 
take captive. (2^1 for nyala, plur. 
of a/a (which see). (Cf. tcka, 

mateka, and perh. Arab, ghara, raid, 

Nyaai, n. (ma-}, a reed, long 
coarse grass. Also plur. of unyasi. 

Nyata, v. go silently (quietly, 
stealthily^, steal along, slink, skulk, 
sneak, e. g. of a wild beast's stealthy 
walk, or of a hunter stalking game. 
A p. nyat-ia, -iwa, creep up to, steal 
upon, stalk (of a hunter). (Cf. 
nycrnelea, tambalia, gundulia.} 

Nyati, n. ( ), the African buffalo, 
and in Z. used of the Indian. 

Nyauka. v. dry up, be withered, 
shrivel, with heat, or drought. (Cf. 
the more common kauka, anika, 

Nyayo, n. plur. of uayo (which 

Nyea, v. cause a tickling or itching 
sensation, tickle, itch. Upele unani- 
nyea, the eruption itches. 
nynva, be made to itch, be irritated, 
tickled. (Cf. innyco, nyega, nyegi, 
kinyefti, and syn. washa.} 

-nyefu, a. (same with D 4 (P), D 5 
(S), D 6\ moist, wet, damp, humid. 
marshy, watery. Also -nyefunycfu. 
i, nywa, mnyefu, and syn. 
, che 

n'ttuba, maj't, uloefu, 

Nyega, v. cause to itch or tickle. 
excite prurient desire. Cs. (intens.) 

hwa, and 1 
(Cf. nyta, and follg.) 
tion, esp. of sexual cxcitemc 

sire; and in animals, heat. 
(Cf. prec.) 

Nyele, n. j-lur. of :inyeU (which 

Nyoleo, n. (ma-), also unyeleo, 
pore (of the skin). (Cf. nya^ v., 

Nyomelea, v. go quietly tij- to. 
steal up to, c: talk (a wild 

wa t e.g. be approached by 




stealth, be taken by surprise. (? Cf. 
nyamalia, nyatnaa.} 

Nyenje, n. a kind of cricket. 
Nyenya, v. talk a person into 
telling, talk over, extort an admis- 
sion from, extract news, pump with 
questions. Ps. nyenyewa. Nt. 
nyenyeka, be talked over, give way to 
pressure, submit. See Nyenyekea. 
Ap. nyenyeka, get at a secret, &c., 
whence nyenyeleza, introduce quietly, 
slip in secretly. Cs. nyenyesha, 
intens. Rp. nyenyana. (Cf. 


Nyenyekea, v. (strictly the Ap. 
form of Nt. of nyenya}, act with sub- 
mission (humility, reverence, respect) 
towards, be polite (obsequious, 
cringing, &c.) to, be humble, defer 
to. E. g. kijana amenenyekea babaye t 
the young man treated his father 
with due deference. Vs.nyenyekewa. 
Cs. nyenyek-esha, -eshwa, e. g. teach 
humility to, humiliate, &c. (Cf. 
nyenya, mnyenyekeo, and follg.) 

Nyenzo, n. plur. of uenzo, wenzo 
(which see). 

Nyesi, n. (ma-}, excrement, dung, 
urine, filth. (Cf. nya, kinyaa, and 
syn. mavi, ukojo.} 

Nyeta, v. be teasing (tiresome, 
hard to please, unsatisfied, never con- 
tent), be ill-mannered (disrespectful 
arrogant), swagger. Ap. nyet-ea, 
-ewa, e. g. be disrespectful to (about, 
&c.). Cs. nyet-esha, -eshwa, e. g. 
cause to be troublesome, impertinent 

Nyie, pron. for ninyi-ye, you 
( plur.), you there. (Cf. miye, weye. 
and ye.} 

Nyiga, n. (ma-} t a 'large wasp 
a hornet. 

Nyika, n. (ma-}, open, bare, tree- 
less wilderness, open forest with high 
grass, a barren, desolate region 
contr. with mwitu, e. g. tukaendi 
wee mwitu na nyika, mwitu nt 
nyika, we went on and on, through 
woods and wastes, forest and field 
(Cf. poli, pululujangwa?) 

Nyima. v. withhold (from), keep 

ack (from), deprive, refuse, not 

give, esp. of what is due, a person's 

ight, e. g. wages, a debt. E. g. 

yuna haki ya kupewa, lakini ame- 

nnyima kasidi, he has a right to be 

paid, but the other has kept it back 

>urposely. Muungu hapi kwa mvua, 

\anyimi kwa jua kali, God does not 

jive by rain, or withhold by heat. 

3 s. nyimwa. (Other deriv. rare.) 

Cf. follg.) 

Nyimi-nyimi, adv. in little bits, 
jy beggarly scraps, with a grudging 
hand. (Cf. prec.) 

Nyingi, Nyingine, a. forms of 
ingi, -ingine, agreeing with D 4 
P), D 6. 

Nying'inia, v. See Ning'inia. 

Nyinyi, pron., same as ninyi 
(which see), you (plur.). 

Nyinyoro, n. a bulbous plant 
which throws up a large head of 
red flowers (Str.). 

Nyoa, v. shave off, of hair only. 
Ps. nyolewa. Ap. nyo-lea, -lewa, 
e. g. uembe wa kunyolea nyele, a 
razor to shave with. (Cf. kinyozi, 
and perh. unyele, and nya, nyonyoa.} 

-nyofu, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), (i) straight, extended, 
stretched out; (2) usually fig. 
straightforward, honest, upright, 
trustworthy, e.g. mtu mnyofu, an 
honourable man. Maneno manyofu, 
plain, direct statement. (Cf. 

nyoka, n. and v., nyosha.} 

Nyoka, v. (i) become straight 
(extended, laid out in a straight line), 
be straightened ; (2) fig. be straight- 
forward, be honest (practical, stead- 
fast, effective), e. g. maneno ya ku- 
nyoka. Cs. nyosha (which see). 
(Cf. -nyofu, and follg.) 

Nyoka, n. a serpent or snake of 
any kind. There are not many 
poisonous varieties in Z. Pythons 
(chatu} are comparatively common. 
(Cf. prec.) 

Nyonda, n. plur. trial, testing, 
proof, experiment. In Z. nyonja 



(from onjd) would be more usual. 
(Cf. onja,jaribu.) 

Nyondo, n. See Nondb, Ny- 

Nyonga, v. (i) twist, twist the 
neck of, strangle, throttle ; (a) vex, 
harass, worry; (3) as a neut., tuist. 
wriggle, move from side to side. 
Ps. nyong-iva. Ap. nyong-ea, -ewa. 

Cs. nyong-tsha, -tshiva. 


Nyonga, n. plur. of unyonga, but 
also used as a sing. n. ( ), the 
hip, the part where the thigh (paji) 
and flank (h'uno) meet. Uchungu 
wa tntoto u katika nyongaya mam aye, 
the trouble with a child is on the 
mother's hip, native women often 
^' a child astride on the hip. 
(Cf. nyonga, v.) 

-nyonge, a. (same with D 4 (P), 
D 5 (S), D 6), of a low order (degree 
i , low, mean, base, degraded, 
servile, insignificant, vile. Lia ki- 
nyongc, cry in a feeble helpless way. 
(Cf. nyonga, unyongc, and syn. hafifu, 
duni, -bay a, thaifu.) 

Nyongeza, n. plur. of uongeza, 

addition, appendix, 
(Cf. ongfta.) 

Nyongo, n. bile. 

Also some- 

times as irrcg. plur. of tnwongo, as if 

uongo, e. g. nyongoni mwa siku, in 

course of ' (Cf. mwongo, 

!>er, reckoning, decade.) 

Nyongoa, v. straighten, stretch, 

<><?, straighten one- 

self, stiffen oneself, used of convul- 
sive stretching. (-oa here seems 
Kv.. 1 ik t - //,/. Cf. nyonga. an 

Nyongonyea, v. be langi 
weary, get slack and weak. ' (Cf. 
nyonga, the termination perh. giving 
. of leing untwisted, loosened, 

n. Ugea.) 
Nyonya, v.' suck the breast, 

ild or animal 
la mama, sack the mother's teat. 

Ndugu -ca kunyonya, fo^ti : 

mnyonya, a babe, 
suckling. Cs. nyony-csha, -cshwa, 

suckle, give suck to, put to the 

Nyonyoa, v. pluck out hair (fea- 
thers, wool, &c.), pluck a bird, shave 
unskilfully(pulling instead of cutting). 
Mninyonyoeni manyoya, pluck out 
my feathers. Ps. nyonyolcwa, e. g. 
ngozi ya kondoo, isiyonyonyolcwa 
malaika, a sheepskin with the wool 
on. Nt. nyonyoka, e. g. kima 
amtnyonyoka manyoya pia, the mon- 
key had all its hair plucked off. 
Ap. nyonyo-lca, -lewa. Cs. nyonyo- 
sha, used fig. nag, constantly harass, 
worry, tease. (Cf. unyoya, and 

Nyonyota, See Nyota. 
Nyoo, int. See Ngoo. 
Nyosha, v. Cs. Cf. nyoka, v., 
make straight, straighten, stretch, 

extend, elongate. 
Ap. nyosh-ca, -ewa. 

Ps. nyosh-wa. 
Rp. nyoshana. 

Nyosha mkono, put out the hand. 
Nyosha kamba, haul a rope tight. 
Jinyosha, stretch oneself, take one's 
ease, enjoy oneself, rest. So nyosha 
ngongo, straighten the back, on com- 
pletion of a job. (Cf. nyoka, 

Nyota, n. ( ), a star. Nyota 
haionckani mchana, a star is not 
visible in daylight. Nysta-nyota, 
or nyonyota, is used of a di 
rain, lit. drops, droppings (cf. ma- 
. In poetry nyota means 
Irought, 1 i. c. kin. 

Nyote, a common contraction for 
ninyi nyote, you all, all t>: 
Cf. sott, for mi sote. .' 
commonly for ' both of you (two).' 
See -ote. 

Nyoya, n. (ma-), also plur. of 
Unyoya (which see), a hair, a 
feather, a piece of wool, an n: 
\oya is used gc 

of the external covering, wool, hair, 

, -of the bodies of birds and 

animals, more particularly of the 

(>ody feathers of birds (contr. 

ubawa, mdawa, of the wing fc.r 




and of short hair in animals (cf. singa 
of long hair), down, both of birds 
and animals, being malaika. Nyele, 
nyele za singa, is regularly used of 
human hair. (Cf. nyoa, unyoya, 
uoya, unyele?) 

Nyoyo, n. plur. See Moyo. 

Nyua, n. plur. of ua (which see). 

Nyuki, n. ( ), a bee. Asaliya 
nyuki, honey. Nyuki huenda na 
maua yake, the bee goes with its 
flowers. Fathili za nyuki ni moto, 
a bee's thanks is fire, i.e. all the 
thanks it gets. 

Nyuma, adv. after, behind, (i) 
of place, behind, at the back of, 
whether (a) on the further side of, 
beyond, or () after, in the rear of; 
(2) of time, (a) hereafter, in the 
future, () behind, in the past. For 
the apparent vagueness of meaning 
cf. mbele, in which also the meaning 
is decided by the context and implied 
mental attitude. Watu wabaya 
ivataondoka nyuma yangu, may 
mean ' bad people will rise up after 
me ' (when I am gone, in the future, 
if of time; or behind me, in my 
rear, if of place). Mambo y a nyuma, 
may mean (i) the future, mambo ya 
baadaye, mambo ya mbele, or (2) the 
past, mambo yaliyopita, yaliyokivisha 
zamani, yaliyokuwa mbele. Cf. 
baada ya nyie hakuna wangine ny- 
uma yenu, after you there are none 
coming after you, i.e. of greater 
consequence than you, which might 
also be expressed by mbele yenu. 
Kudi n., go back. Kaa n., sit be- 
hind. Huko n., often means ' mean- 
while, to resume,' of returning to a 
point in a story, -a nyuma, behind, 
in the rear, in the past, in the future. 
Nyuma ya, after, behind, in the rear 
of, beyond. (Cf. kinyume, mbele, 
baada, kabla!) 

Nyuma, n. plur. of uma (which 

Nyumba, n. ( ), (i) a house, 
properly of a native house, made 
of poles, sticks, wattles, earth, grass, 

&c., and called n. ya miti,ya udongo, 
ya makuti,ya majani, &c., but ex- 
tended also to a house of any kind, as 
of masonry, n. ya mawe, or of corru- 
gated iron, n. ya mabati, &c., also 
called jumba (ma-}. Also some- 
times of structures made by animals, 
birds' nests, lairs, burrows, more 
commonly called tundu, kittindu; 
and fig. of objects resembling a house, 
e. g. nyumba ya randa, the stock 
of a plane. (2) household, but 
this is more commonly watu wa 
nyumbani, or simply nytimbani, as 
in the polite inquiry, Hujambo (tt 
halt gani} nyrimbani ? I hope your 
family are well? Prov. nyumba 
kuu haina nafasi, a great house has 
little room. Nyumba ya udongo 
haihimili kishindo, a house of earth 
cannot stand a shock. (For words 
connected with house-building, &c., 
cf. jenga^ aka, (materials) mti, 
udongo, kombamoyo, ufito, kamba, 
nguzo, mwamba, bati, jiwe, chokaa, 
tufali, (roof, roofing) paa, kipaa, 
kuti, jani, ezeka. And with ny- 
umba, cf. jumba, kijumba, chumba, 
mchumba, kinyumba, and umba.) 

Nyumbo, Nyumba, n. ( ), name 
of an antelope (wildebeest, or gnu, 
Str.). Used in Z. of the mule, also 
called baghala (which see). 

Nyumbua, v. used of handling 
a flexible, elastic, adhesive substance, 
bend, draw out, stretch, manipulate 
without breaking. Nt. nyumbuka, 
be flexible (elastic, bend, yield to 
pressure) without breaking. (Cf. 
pinda, kunja?) 

Nyundo, n. ( ), a hammer. 
(Cf. unda, mwunzi^) 

Nyungu-nyungu, n. ulcerous 
cracks or sores on the feet, between 
the toes, &c. Miguu yangu ime- 
fanya nyungu-nyungu kwa jasho, 
my feet are ulcerated with the heat. 
Also a name of a worm. 

Nyunyiza, v. sprinkle. Ps. 

nyunyizvaa. Ap. nyunyiz-ia, -iwa. 
Cs. nyunyit-isha, -ishwa. Rp. 



nyunyizana. (Cf. manyunyo, and 
perh. chunyu, nya. Also mimina, 
mvoaga, rasht.} 

N7unyo, n. mostly used in plur. 
form manyunyo, sprinkled liquid, 
sprinklings, drizzle, light rain. (Cf. 
prec. and marashi.) 

Nyushi, Nyuta, n. See Ushi, 

Nywa, Nywea, Nywesha, v. 
See Nya. 

Nyweleo, n. (ma-), also Nyeleo, 
pore, of the skin. (Cf. nya t 

nywa, and kinwilto?) 

Nzi, n. (mainzf), a fly (insect). 
See Inzi. 

Nzige, n. ( ), a locust. 


O, A. As a sound, represents 
the open vowel o sound, as in Italian 
and other continental languages, which 
would be written aw in English, or 
or with the r smooth, not trilled. 
The English closed vowel sound, as 
in no, is hardly pronounceable by a 

When unaccented, the o retains the 
same difference in a less degree. The 
short o sound in English not would 
be represented by a Swahili as nart, 
not as nort. The o in Swahili words 
most always be uttered with the li]>s 
open, never with a w sound at the 
-. like owe. 

and U are often not clearly 

tied in Swahili, espt 
When unaccented, and in words of 
Arab or foreign origin, perhaps partly 
under the influence of Arabic. 
has one vowel sign for both. In some 
words o and u coalesce. Thus ao 
and au represent equally well common 
of the adverb meaning 
' or/ A'uoga, kuota become kwoga, 
kwota, and toga, kota ; ku-ott becomes 
kwote and kote ; an- 

vcly few Swahili 
begin with o. 

rcfixcs, and also alone. 

as a suffix, ~o is the sound character- 
istic of the relative pronoun, 'who, 
which.' It is used in combination 
with the appropriate declension prefix 
of the noun referred to, e.g. wo,yo, /o, 
zo, cho, vyo,po, Jto, rno, but the simple 
-o is capable of being substituted for 
any of these, except in the few phrases 
when these relative forms are used as 
separate words, not affixed to a verb- 
form, e.g. lo lote, vyo vyote, &c., e. g. 
kiwe cho chote. The only exception 
is that e or ye is almost always used 
for o, to agree with the Personal 
Pronouns in the singular number, 
and with D i (S), e.g. mtu aliye 
mwcma, a man who is good ; mimi 
nipcndaye ndizi, I who am fond of 

The above relative forms cannot as 
a rule bear the accent, and therefore 
in verbs can only follow tense signs 
capable of bearing an accent (i.e. 
na,ja, It, -ka, not /a, me, &c.). 

These forms are sometimes affixed 
to the adj. -ingine, somewhat general- 
izing the meaning, e.g. vitu vingi- 
ntyyo, any other sorts of thi; 
pangitupo, elsewhere, in some (any) 
other place (cf. -mojawapo). 

An independent (uncombined) rela- 
tive form is made, regularly in Mom- 
basa and i-! .:t seldom in /., 
by affixing tin- above forms to the 
root antoa, with or without kwamba 
following, e.g. kitu ambacho (or, 
ho kwamba) nakipcnd 
I like, and so ambaye, ambato, 
ambalo, &c. See Ajuba. 

(a) Connected with the o^i rela' 
is the o of r >ccurs (a) 

in or. 

:tyo, huo, hiyo, hicho, hao, 
c pronoun of rcl.f 
ness or r< : 

already mcntionetl or rcferrctl to, 

that in question,' and m adverbs, &c, 

. huko, kapo\ (o) in 

v be 

regarded a> a sh'-rtcn-d Imtn of thr 
above demonstra : re- 





ference, e. g.yunaye foryu nayeye, he 
is, zinazo for zi na hizo, they are, &c. 

(3) -o is subjoined to nouns some- 
times as an abbreviated form of wao, 
wako, e. g. wenzio for wenzi wao, 
their companions. 

Oa, v. take a wife, marry a wife, 
of the man only. Ps. oaiva (seldom 
used), be married, of the man only. 
Also Ps. olewa, be married, of the 
woman only. Nt. oleka, of the wo- 
man only, be married, be marriage- 
able. Ap. olea, olewa, marry with 
(for, at, in, &c.), e.g. of gifts, acces- 
sories, place, &c. for marrying. 
Cs. oza (also oaza), ozwa, cause (per- 
suade, allow) to marry, perform the 
ceremony of marriage. Used of pa- 
rents, friends concerned, persons as- 
sisting, the official, &c., and even of 
the bridegroom, ' get for wife, take in 
marriage' (cf. zika, zisha). Hence 
Ap. ozea, ozewa, and ozelea, marry to 
(with, at, &c.). Hence ozesha, oze- 
skwa, e.g. uniozeshe mtoto wako, 
allow me to marry your daughter. 
Rp. oana, of the couple marrying, 
and of intermarriage generally, of 
families, tribes, &c. (Cf. ndoa, ha- 
rusi, a.ndposa,poza, and dist. oza, v.) 

*Ofsa, n. {via-}, also obsa, hobsa, 
afsa, officer, i. e. the English word as 
pronounced by a native. So 6fis, for 

Oga, (i) v. bathe, wash the whole 
body, take a bath. Koga is often 
used as the root (i.e. ku-oga, see 
Ku-), and distinguishes the verb from 
oga, fear. .Ap. ogea, ogewa, e.g. 
maji ya kuogea, water to bathe with, 
and cf. pakuogea, a bathing-place, a 
bath-room, chakuogea, a vessel to 
bathe in, a bath, i.e. of the European 
kind, otherwise kiogeo, Iririka (and 
cf. hamantu). Hence a further Ap. 
ogelea, ogelewa, ogeleka, used esp. of 
swimming, with a Cs. ogel-eza, -esha, 
-ezwa, make (cause, teach) to swim. 
Ogelesha vyombo, swim boats, as 
children do. Sometimesa/<?5^a. Hapa- 
ogeleki, you cannot swim here. Mw- 

ogehshepunda, make the donkey swim 
across. Cs. ogesha, ogeshwa, e. g. 
take (send, order) to bathe, and osha, 
oshwa (which see). Rp. ogana, e.g. 
all bathe- together. 

Oga, (2) v. fear, be afraid, be timid, 
be cowardly. Derivative stems ogwa, 
ogeka, ogea, ogewa, ogesha, ogana, 
seldom if ever heard, their place 
being supplied by ogopa, ogofya, &c. 
(See follg., and cf. hofu, tisha, stuka, 
-cha, v. As contrasted with hofu, 
oga refers more to the character and 
disposition, the mental attitude, hofu, 
to its direction and object, esp. appre- 
hension of the future.) 

-oga, a. cowardly, timid, nervous, 
easily frightened. Sometimes also as 
n. for woga (uoga) (which see). 
(Cf. oga, v. fear, and follg.) 

Ogofisha, Ogofya, v. both used 
as Cs. of ogopa (which see), frighten, 
terrify, alarm, threaten, menace. 
Ogofya, ogofyo (and mwogofyo, 
uogofyo}, is also a n. generally used 
in the plur. maogofya, menace, threat, 
denunciation. (Cf. oga, ogopa, and 
syn. kamia, hqfisha, tisha?) 

Ogopa, v. be afraid (of), fear, feel 
fear. Ps. ogopwa. Ap. ogop-ea, 
-ewa, e. g. akuta unyongt kwa ku- 
ogopea roho, he gets disgrace because 
of being afraid for his life. Cs. 
ogof-isha,-ishwa, ogofya, i.e. frighten, 
terrify, threaten, menace. (For in- 
terchange of/ and p see F, and cf. 
gomba, ugomvi, iba, mwivi. Foiya, 
as a Cs. form, cf. pona, ponya, and 
ya. Also cf. oga (2), and note.) 

Oka, v. roast, toast, bake, i. e. pre- 
pare by applying fire only, not with 
water. Of pottery, burn, bake. Ps. 
okwa. Nt. okeka. Ap. okea, 
okewa, and okelea. Cs. okesha, 
okeshwa. (Cl.joko, and for cook- 
ing pika, choma, kaanga.} 

Okoa, v. save, rescue, deliver, 
preserve. Ps. okolewa. Nt.okoka. 
Ap. oko-lea, -lewa. Cs. oko-za, -zwa, 
intens. e.g. exert oneself to save, 
rescue, &c. Rp. okoana. (Cf. 




wokovu, mwokozi, maokozi, also opo& t 
pona. Kr. connects it with oka, as a 
Rv. take off the fire, i. e. at the right 
time, keep safe and sound.) 

Okota, v. (i) pick up, take up 
with fingers, hand, &c. ; (a) light 
upon, come across, find by chance, 
get without exertion or anticipation 
E.g. of fishing, wakiokota ngitva, 
hugawana, if they come across a 
dugong, they divide it. Ps. okot-wa. 
Nt. okoteka, e. g. inaji ikimwagika 
haiokoteki, spilt water cannot be 
picked up. A.p.otot-ea,-ewa. Cs. 
okot-esha, -eshwa. Rp. okotana 
(Cf. syn. zoo, but a, vumbua, pata, 
and perh. okoa.} 

Ole, n. (no plur., but treated as 
D 4 (S), wole, i.e. uole), usually 
with a pron. adj. as an exclamation 
of woe or pity, i. e. oU wangu ! woe- 
is me ! oU wao ! how sad for them ! 
Also mwenyi ole, a melancholy, sad, 
despondent person. 

Olosha, v. also Oleza, shortened 
Cs. of oga t for ogelesha. See 
Oga (i). 

Olewa, v. Ps. of oa (which see), 
be married. 

Oleza.v. and Oleleza, make straight 
(even, level) with, and so, follow a 
pattern, copy, imitate. Oleza kitu na 
kitu x.- ;.c one thing lik'- 

another. (Cf.kioleto. Not a usual 
word in Z. Ci.fuatisha, linganisha, 
:awazisha, iga.) 

Oraba, v. beg (of), be a beggar, 
pray (to), request, a&k (of), with 
cither person asked, or thing asked, 
as object, or both. Thus omba mtu, 
.vk a person. Omba mtu kitu, ask 
a person for a thing. Also omba kitu 

v.ask a thing of a pers 
nimeomba nguo Itwa bwana, I asked 
my master for clothes (cf. ombea). 
Ndivyo tuombavyo, so we pray, a 
common rejoinder on hearing good 
Ps. ombwa. Nt cmtxka, 
e. g. be asked, be a proper request. 
Ap. omb-ca, -eiva, usually in a re* 
stricted sense, e. g. ask on behalf of, 

plead for, intercede for, or petition 
against, rather than ask for (i. e. to 
have) or ask of (i. e. from). Thus 
kumwombea kwa Muungu, to inter- 
cede for him with God, is more usual 
than kuombea baraka za Muungu, 
ask for God's blessing, or simply 
kuombea Muungu, pray to God. 
Cs. omb-esha (ombeza}, -eshwa, e. g. 
cause to beg, instruct in prayers, &c. 
Kp. ombana. (Cf. rnwombi, nt-vo- 
mbaji, maombi, mwombezi, uombezi, 
also syn. salt, sihi, uliza. In sali 
(said), however, the outward form 
(ceremonial, ritual) of praying is the 
prominent idea, in omba, the object 
in view, in sihi, the praying itself as 
an expression of felt need, an urgent 
apj eal. Uliza, is ' inquire of, or for '). 

Omboleza, v. bewail, lament, in 
a ceremonial way. Used of formal 
chanting of dirges, &c. (Cf. mao- 
mbolezo, matanga, and perh. omba.} 

Omo, n. (ma-}, forepart of ship, 
bows, prow, also called gubeti. 
Pepoza omo, winds that carry K 
a wind astern, a fair wind. (Cf. 
mdomo, mwomo, do mo.} 

Omoa, v. (i) dig up, dig out, 
break up, e. g. of breaking up soil 
with crowbars, &c. ; (a) fig. disturb, 
weaken, cause trouble in, make con- 
fusion ; (3) bring to light, 
show, begin, set on foot. E. g. omoa 
udongo, break up earth. Omoa vita, 
bring about a war. Ps. onwlema^ 
e. g. mti huomolewa na tunda zake t 
if a tree is dug up, so arc r - funts. 
Nt. omoka. Ap. omo-Ua, -Itwa. 
Cs. omo- * ha, -shwa. Rp. omoana. 
(Not often heard in Z. Cf. chimbua, 
iekua, vumbua, and perh. 

Ona. v. used of any mode 
by the senses or the 
and hence with a wide range of mean- 
ings, viz. i. of the senses, (ij of 

i 'na alone and 
context usually m- .th the 

eyes, as contr. with other sens 
knsikia si kuona, heating is ;. 




same as seeing. Ona (Imperat.), 
look, use your eyes (contr. tazatna, 
fix your gaze upon, contemplate, 
angalia, observe, attend to). By a 
curious inversion, ona also is used for 
' be transparent/ e. g. nguo hiiinaona, 
this calico is transparent, i. e. one can 
see through it, it sees. (2) of the 
other senses, e.g. naona kishindo, I 
hear a noise. Naona harufu, I smell 
a smell. Naona mti hnu mgumu, I 
feel this wood is hard. Naona uta- 
mu wake, I taste its flavour. Naona 
kitt (njaa), I am thirsty (hungry). 
(3) get to see, come on, find (cf. follg.}. 
2. of mental perception, of all kinds, 
(i) of feelings, very commonly with 
a defining noun, e. g. ona kiburi (hu- 
ruma, hasira, tiwivu,furaha, haya, 
mashaka, huzuni, &c.), I feel pride 
(pity, anger, jealousy, joy, shame, 
doubt, sorrow, &c.). (2) of other 
mental faculties, observe, think, be 
of opinion, notice, discern, judge, 
consider, expect, fancy, imagine. E.g. 
naona, very commonly alone, I 
think so, certainly, probably, possibly, 
it is likely, perhaps. Naona nyani 
kusema, I observe an ape speaking. 
Naona utaona ajabu kuona barua 
hii, I think you will feel surprise at 
seeing this letter. Ps. omva, of all