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Full text of "Syllabus (second year) Isaac Pitman shorthand"

[SAAC PITMAN t 

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2 WEST 45tk STREET, NEW 




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THE LIBRARY 
OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



SYLLABUS 

(SECOND YEAR) 

ISAAC PITMAN SHORTHAND 



SYLLABUS 

(SECOND YEAR) 

ISAAC PITMAN 
SHORTHAND 

PREPARED BY 

ELIZABETH A. ROCHE 

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT, SECRETARIAL STUDIES 

AND 

ELIZABETH RIORDON 

INSTRUCTOR, DEPARTMENT OF SECRETARIAL STUDIES, 

WASHINGTON IRVING HIGH SCHOOL, 

40 IRVING PLACE, NEW YORK. 




NEW YORK 
ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, THE PHONOGRAPHIC DEPOT 

2 WEST 45TH STREET 
TORONTO: 70 BOND STREET 

AND AT LONDON, BATH AND MELBOURNE 



WHOLESALE CANADIAN AGENTS 
The Commercial Text-Book Co. 

AND 

The Copp, Clark Co., Limited 
TORONTO 



The study of phonography trains the mind to 
exact thinking, to precision of expression, to 
energy of attention, to the habit of seeking in 
its proper place the principle according to which 
a word is written. 

While the study of phonography trains for 
practical ends, by the employment of the very 
same mental processes required to accomplish 
the work in other secondary school courses, it 
trains for life. The teaching of phonography 
conforms with the highest doctrine in pedagogy 
that theory should not be separated from 
practice. 



CONTENTS 

TERM III 

CHAP. PAGE 

I. INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS 

1. THE AIM OF INSTRUCTION . . 1 

2. MATERIALS ..... 2 

3. THE TEACHER'S DAILY LESSON PLAN. 5 

4. TEACHING STUDENTS How TO STUDY . 8 

5. STUDENTS' HOME WORK . . .16 
w 6. SENTENCE STRUCTURE, PUNCTUATION, 

ETC. 17 

7. THE CONDUCT OF THE DAILY RECITATION 20 

8. ATTAINING SPEED .... 21 

as 

22 9. CLASS DICTATION . . 24 

10. TRANSCRIPTS . . . 28 
^ 11. CAUSES OF ERRORS IN TRANSCRIPTION 

WORK : REMEDIES . . . . 32 

z 12. TESTS AND THEIR VALUE ... 40 

a: 

13. FREQUENT TESTS .... 42 

14. MARKING FREQUENT TESTS . . 43 
y 15. STUDENTS' RECORDS .... 46 

16. DEFICIENT STUDENTS ... 47 

17. THE MID-TERM TEST . . .48 

18. THE END-TERM TEST ... 49 

19. TESTS GIVEN AFTER THE END-TERM 
TEST ....- . . . 50 

20. DOUBTFUL STUDENTS. 51 



448327 



VI CONTENTS 

CHAP. 

II. THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE 



1. TIME SCHEDULE .... 
2. TEXT BOOKS 
3. THE OUTLINE ..... 


52 
52 
53 


a. 


SCOPE OF TEXT BOOK WORK 


53 


b. 


THE PRINCIPLES OF SHORTHAND . 


54 




1. REVIEW OF THEORY 


54 




2. VOCABULARY DRILL 


54 




3. ENGRAVED SHORTHAND EXER- 






CISES 


55 




4. GRAMMALOGS .... 


56 




5. SIMPLE PHRASES . ... 


56 




6. BUSINESS PHRASES. 


57 




7. GENERAL CONTRACTIONS 


58 




8. VOWEL INDICATION 


58 




9. SPECIAL CONTRACTIONS . 


59 




10. ADVANCED PHRASEOGRAPHY . 


59 




11. INTERSECTIONS 


60 




12. STATES AND CITIES 


60 




13. DISTINGUISHING OUTLINES 


60 


c. 


CLASS DICTATION .... 


61 


d. 


TRANSCRIPTION WORK . 


61 



III. REQUIREMENTS FOR PROMOTION 

1. SCHOLARSHIP IN TECHNIQUE . . 62 

2. RATE OF SPEED . * .62 

3. SCHOLARSHIP IN TRANSCRIPTION WORK 63 



CONTENTS Vll 



TERM IV 

1AP. PAGE 

I. INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS 

1. THE AIM OF INSTRUCTION. . . 67 

2. MATERIALS 68 

3. THE TEACHER'S DAILY LESSON PLAN. 68 

4. TEACHING STUDENTS How TO STUDY . 68 

5. STUDENTS' HOME WORK ... 68 

6. SENTENCE STRUCTURE, PUNCTUATION, 
ETC. ,69 

7. THE CONDUCT OF THE DAILY RECITATION 69 

8. ATTAINING SPEED . . . .69 

9. CLASS DICTATION .... 69 

10. TRANSCRIPTS . . . . .69 

11. CAUSES OF ERRORS IN TRANSCRIPTION 
WORK : REMEDIES .... 73 

12. TESTS AND THEIR VALUE . . 73 

13. FREQUENT TESTS .... 73 

14. MARKING FREQUENT TESTS . . 73 

15. STUDENTS' RECORDS .... 73 

16. DEFICIENT STUDENTS ... 73 

17. THE MID-TERM TEST ... 74 

18. THE END-TERM TEST 75 



Vlll CONTENTS 

CHAP. PACK 

II. THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE ... 

1. TIME SCHEDULE .... 76 

2. TEXT BOOKS 76 

3. THE OUTLINE 77 

a. SCOPE OF TEXT BOOK WORK . 77 
MISCELLANEOUS DICTATION . . 77 

b. THE PRINCIPLES OF SHORTHAND . 79 

c. CLASS DICTATION .... 79 

d. TRANSCRIPTION WORK ... 79 

III. REQUIREMENTS FOR PROMOTION 

1. SCHOLARSHIP IN TECHNIQUE . . 80 

2. RATE OF SPEED .... 80 

3. SCHOLARSHIP IN TRANSCRIPTION WORK . 81 



SYLLABUS 

(SECOND YEAR) 

ISAAC PITMAN SHORTHAND 



CHAPTER I 

INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS 

1. THE AIM OF INSTRUCTION 

THE chief aim of the teacher should be to train the 
students to write correct shorthand from dictation and 
to transcribe the same accurately. Emphasis, therefore, 
throughout the term should be placed on the following 
points : 

a. The correct application of the theory taught in 
terms I and II. 

b. The formation of outlines correctly, legibly, and 
rapidly. 

c. The acquisition of a large vocabulary of shorthand 
words and phrases. 

d. Mastery of the grammalogs, the common con- 
tractions, the common distinguishing outlines, and 
the term's vocabulary. 

e. The need of concentration on the subject matter 
which is being dictated. 

l 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

f. The accurate reading or transcription of the 
matter dictated. 

g. The artistic placing of typewritten transcripts. 

h. The attainment at the close of the term of a 
minimum speed of sixty (60) words a minute on 
business letters and articles of regents' difficulty, 
with a minimum accuracy of sixty (60) per cent, in 
transcription work. 



2. MATERIALS 

Shorthand Text Books 

At the time the text books are distributed, the teacher 
should request the students to record, in ink, the 
following data on the inside cover of the text book : 

a. The student's name, section, and section room. 

b. The student's home address. 

c. The date on which the book is received. 

d. The name of the stenography teacher. 

All shorthand text books should be neatly covered with 
strong paper on the day of their receipt. 

Teachers should inspect the text books regularly, both to 
see that they are covered and to ascertain whether any 
books have been lost. Lost books should be immediately 
replaced. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

Teachers should follow up the return of text books issued 
to students who have since been discharged from school. 

Pencils 

Students at all times should have three or four long, 
well-sharpened pencils suitable for stenographic work. 
The pencils should be round, of ordinary diameter, and 
without nickle or rubber at the end. 

Metal point protectors should be removed from the 
pencils while students are taking notes. 

Note -books 

The class note-books should either be enclosed in a 
pasteboard cover or be neatly covered with strong paper. 

Note-books should be ruled vertically about 1 inch from 
the left edge ; a f inch ruling at the right edge is also 
desirable. 

Shorthand notes should be written clear across the page 
within the confines of the marginal lines. 

Students who prefer to use pens should provide them- 
selves with Pitman " Fono " Series note-books, which 
contain smooth paper with a hard surface which is not 
too highly glazed. 

Blackboard 

The blackboard should be freely used by teachers so that 
students may have the opportunity of visualizing the 
shorthand outlines. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

Students with weak eyesight should be assigned to the 
front seats. General permission should be given the 
students to walk to the board at any time and examine 
shorthand outlines that may not be perfectly distinct 
to them from their seats. 

The chalk should be sufficiently soft to indicate clearly 
the proper shading of the heavy strokes. 

The Teacher's outlines should be models for the class 
to imitate. 

Students assigned to do board work should follow the 
method of practice required in note-book writing. Both 
teacher and students should cross out, not erase or patch, 
incorrect or imperfectly formed outlines. 

Vocabulary Note -books 

Each student should provide herself with a memorandum 
book with ruled lines in which to record, in ink, the 
following : 

a. The longhand and the shorthand of the special 
words contained in the vocabulary list of the 
current term. 

b. The longhand and the shorthand of words or 
phrases to which attention has been directed in 
class and the outlines of which have been tempor- 
arily recorded on the left margin of the class 
note-book. 

c. The correct longhand and shorthand of words 
written incorrectly in class dictation. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

d. The correct longhand and shorthand of words 
written incorrectly on tests. 

e. The correct spelling of words misspelled in 
transcripts. 

f. The dictionary definitions of unfamiliar words or 
terms contained in assignments. 



3. THE TEACHER'S DAILY LESSON PLAN 

In order to complete the work outlined, it is necessary 
for the teacher to prepare very carefully a lesson plan 
for each recitation. 

At the beginning of the term, the teacher should ascertain 
the number of school days in the current term in order 
to include in each lesson assignment a proportionate 
part of THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE. 

As various parts of THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE may be 
practised concurrently with other parts, lessons should be 
planned so as to include selections from the several 
text books. 

All dictation matter should be edited before it is dictated 
in class. 

The teacher should list the difficult words and phrases in 
the new lesson in order to acquaint the class with the 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

correct outlines immediately after the lesson assignment 
has been given. 

After transcripts have been corrected and returned to 
the students, the home assignment should always include 
a careful comparison of the original shorthand notes 
with the transcript, and again with the shorthand notes 
of the second dictation of the same matter. 

The review work should be systematically planned so 
that students may drill daily on the principles of short- 
hand, grammalogs, phrases, common contractions, 
common distinguishing outlines, and the vocabulary of 
the current term. Selections from each of these groups 
should be made. 

All assignments should be possible of accomplishment 
by the students. Careful consideration should be given 
to the amount of time required for a student to complete 
an assignment in a scholarly manner. 

The lesson assignment should be planned under two 
heads : 

a. THE NEW LESSON. 

b. THE DAILY REVIEW ASSIGNMENT. 

Both assignments should be definitely written in the 
lesson plan so that they may be readily given to the 
students. 

a. THE NEW LESSON 

In addition to contractions and phrases, the new lesson 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

should include straight matter selected from the several 
text books. 

The difficult words and phrases taught in class and 
contained in the particular exercise assigned should be 
required to be repeatedly practised. 

Outlines recorded in the margins of students' note-books 
during the day's recitation should always be included 
in the lesson assignment for the following day. 

As often as possible a dictation of one hundred (100) to 
one hundred fifty (150) words should be given for home 
transcription. This should be read and corrected in 
class the next day. 

From time to time students should be required to record 
in shorthand an article of about two hundred words on 
a subject of general interest selected from a newspaper, 
pamphlet, or magazine ; the clipping should be attached 
to the shorthand notes. 



b. THE DAILY REVIEW ASSIGNMENT 
1 . The principles of shorthand. 

As the basis of speed is found in the correct application 
of the principles of shorthand, students should be 
required to review, in regular order, all the principles 
of shorthand. The engraved shorthand examples illus- 
trating the text, and the engraved shorthand exercises, 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

should be assigned for home drill. The longhand should 
precede the shorthand outlines of words. 

2. Grammalogs. 
Phrases. 

Common contractions. 
Distinguishing outlines. 

Each day throughout the term a proportionate number 
of grammalogs, phrases, common contractions, and 
common distinguishing outlines should be assigned for 
home drill so that within the course of two weeks all 
of these signs will have been practised to the extent 
needed by each individual student. The word in 
longhand, correctly spelled, should precede the shorthand 
character. 

3. Vocabulary. 

The outlines of five words selected from the vocabulary 
of the current term should be assigned for home drill. 



4. TEACHING STUDENTS HOW TO 
STUDY 

a. Comparison with blackboard outlines 

A student's success in phonography depends very largely 
upon his ability to make accurate decisions when com- 
paring his own outlines with the correct outlines which 
have been placed on the blackboard for the purpose of 
comparison. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

Notable loss in scholarship results from false judgments, 
for the reason that the outlines of undiscovered errors 
are practised repeatedly in the same way in the home 
assignments. 

As the mental processes involved in forming a judgment 
call for the exercise of the highest faculties of the mind, 
it is suggested that the students who are unable to 
make an accurate judgment at a glance compare the 
parts of an outline in the following order : 

1. The position of the outline. 

2. The consonants : form, shading, length. 

3. Any initial, medial, or final hook, circle, or loop. 

4. The vowels : their signs and places. 



b. Practising the home assignment 

In order to accomplish satisfactory results in the study 
of stenography, it is necessary for students to con- 
centrate closely while practising the home assignments. 
Scholarship in technique can be secured in no other way. 
When students are impressed by their improvement in 
scholarship attained through close concentration, this 
consciousness of progress is a strong incentive to further 
effort and begets courage and confidence qualities 
essential for successful work in stenography. 

Experiments have proved that the concentration of the 
average student begins to diminish before one line of 
the same shorthand outline has been completed, and 
that the practice of writing in succession two or more 

2 (438) 



10 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

lines of the same shorthand outline too often results in the 
last outline being the most poorly formed of the series. 

In a subject like stenography where shorthand characters 
have to be practised repeatedly before the writer attains 
skill, it is important that the teacher devise a pedagogical 
and interesting method of practice that will lead steadily 
to scholarship in technique. It is therefore recom- 
mended that the following method of practice be adopted 
and that the teacher explain the method clearly to the 
students and demonstrate it on the blackboard. 

The teacher should try to inculcate in the students the 
habit of examining their home assignment critically upon 
its completion in order to discover and correct any 
violations of the principles of the system. 

1 . Grammalogs. 
Contractions. 
Phrases. 

Distinguishing outlines. 
Vocabulary drill. 



a. The home work paper should be ruled vertically 
for four columns of work ; no margins are 
required. 

b. The longhand of all items assigned should be 
written above the red line and close to the 
preceding line so as not to interfere with the 
outlines of first position words. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 11 

TERM III 

c. After the longhand of review words, contrac- 
tions, etc. has been written, the student should 
close the text book and write once from memory 
the shorthand outline of each longhand item. 
This should be followed by verification and the 
correction of any errors that may have been 
discovered. 

d. Students should now write as many shorthand 
outlines of each word or phrase as the allotted 
space permits, saying aloud the name while 
writing the form. 

The specimen on the following page illustrates the 
method of practice. 

2. New words. 

The outlines of new words assigned from printed 
copy which contain consonantal sounds which 
may be represented in two or more ways should 
be written by the students only once until the 
form has been verified. 

The outlines of new words, contractions, or 
phrases assigned from engraved shorthand 
should be copied once at the time the longhand 
is written. After verification, the outlines 
should be practised as illustrated. 

3. Engraved shorthand exercises. 

Students should be able to read engraved short- 
hand exercises fluently before they drill on the 
outlines. 



12 Name Section Date 



CcvnsQjjUiLG^ 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 13 

TERM III 

Two excellent methods of practice are described 



below : 



Intensive drill may be secured if each outline 
is written three or more times in succession, the 
student saying aloud each word 6r phrase while 
forming the character. The more difficult out- 
lines should be written over and over again, 
provided the student continues to practise with 
concentration. 



The specimen on the following page illustrates the 
method of practice. 



b. After copying a complete line of engraved 
shorthand matter, the student should leave 
the following four lines blank for purposes of 
repetition. Each word or phrase should be said 
aloud while the character is being formed. 

The specimen on page 15 shows the method of preparing 
the page for practice. 



4. Other straight matter. 

Straight matter dictated in class and corrected 
should be practised in exactly the same manner 
as the engraved shorthand exercises. 



14 Name Section Date 

Exercise 103 
Shorthand Instructor 



MUM 



Name Section Date 15 

Exercise 103 

\ 

/"*\ s 



<-\ rf <. N 



16 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

5. STUDENTS' HOME WORK 



Each student should write on the top line of her home 
work paper her name, section, and the date on which 
the work is due. 

The regular assignment and the review assignment 
should be credited in the teacher's daily record book. 

Students who were unable to do the assignment on 
account of personal illness should present notes of excuse 
signed by a parent. This work should be made up as 
soon as possible. 

Other students who fail to bring their home work should 
write a note of explanation and hand it in in lieu of the 
assignment, which should be brought the next day. 

The teacher should see that the home work corresponds 
to the assignment and that it is performed according 
to the directions given. 

Home work which bears evidence of carelessness should 
not be credited but should be returned to be rewritten. 

The home work of weak students should receive 
particular attention. 

Students who return to school after an absence of two 
or three days should first do the regular assignment 
for the succeeding day and later make up the back 
work. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 17 

TERM III 

6. SENTENCE STRUCTURE 
PUNCTUATION 
SPELLING 
THE USE OF A DICTIONARY 

An examination of students' transcripts will usually 
show that the errors in English greatly outnumber the 
errors caused by lack of knowledge of the principles of 
phonography. 

Too many students fail to comprehend when a group 
of words deciphered from stenographic notes should 
be a sentence by itself or form part of another sentence ; 
consequently, fragments of sentences are frequently 
presented. as expressions of complete thought. 

The grammatical errors and the senseless transcripts 
which result from the transcription of with for that, 
all for of, so for us, him for may, quite for act, their for 
they are, etc., can scarcely be excused on the ground of 
similarity of shorthand forms. Students may not place 
absolute reliance on the perfection of all their shorthand 
characters. Slight mistakes in form, shading, or position 
are practically inevitable under the pressure of rapid 
note-taking ; but it is expected that the high school 
student's knowledge of English will aid him in selecting 
the correct word when two words of different parts of 
speech are represented by the same shorthand outline 
or by forms which are similar. 

The comma fault and the period fault the despair of 



18 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

teachers spring from one fundamental deficiency 
failure to recognize the distinction between the integral 
syntactic unit and constituent, or subordinate, units. 

While students, as a rule, use commas superfluously, at 
the same time they often fail to insert commas when 
needed to separate clauses, to set off a parenthetical or 
independent element, to mark a series of words or 
phrases, to introduce a quotation, or to indicate a pause 
for the sake of clearness. The semicolon is seldom 
employed, the comma or the period being used instead. 

Other errors in English include the misspelling of many 
common words which high school students should be 
expected to spell correctly ; wrong syllabication ; the 
improper compounding of words ; the omission of 
required hyphens ; the incorrect use of capital letters ; 
unauthorized abbreviations ; and violations of the 
fundamental principle of paragraphing. 

/\ 

/As the teacher of stenography is responsible not only 

for the correct interpretation of the shorthand notes, 
but also for the grammar, sentence structure, and the 
mechanics of writing employed in transcripts, the 
chairman deemed it advisable for the department of 
stenography to prepare a syllabus in English for the use 
of the students in terms III and IV of the secretarial 
course. 

At the beginning of the term, each student should be 
provided with the English text book and a list of the 
home assignments 'to be studieoTcturing the term. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 19 

TERM III 

The teacher should explain in detail to the class the scope 
of the work outlined in English, carefully instructing the 
students in the use of the text book and the method of 
practising the home assignments. 

After an exercise has been assigned for home study, it 
should be dictated in class, transcribed, and corrected, 
in order to afford the students an opportunity to apply 
the rules. 



The Use of a Dictionary 

One of the most valuable services the teacher can render 
to the students of the secretarial course is to train them 
to a competent and ready use of the dictionary and 
fix the habit of consulting it. 

A stenographer should be sure that every word in a 
transcript is spelled correctly, that the syllabication is 
proper, that the use or non-use of the hyphen is author- 
ized, etc. These points can be ascertained only by 
frequent reference to a dictionary. 

The dictionary must also be frequently consulted for 
pronunciation. The symbols used in the phonetic 
spelling for pronunciation should be understood by 
the students. 

The best dictionaries are Webster's International Dic- 
tionary, The Century Dictionary, The Standard 
Dictionary, and Murray's New English Dictionary. 



20 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

7. THE CONDUCT OF THE DAILY 
RECITATION 

The conduct of the daily recitation should include the 
following : 

a. The record of attendance. 

b. The collection of the home assignment. 

c. The assignment of the next day's lesson ; the 
dictation and correction of the difficult words 
and phrases contained in the new assignment 
and listed in teacher's lesson plan ; explanation of 
the method of practising the assignment. 

d. Presentation of the new lesson. 

e. Drill on the difficult words and phrases con- 
tained in previous day's assignment in order that 
the exercise may be dictated later without 
interruption. 

f . Review of theory to the extent possible ; drill on 
the shorthand outlines of five words in the current 
term's vocabulary ; drill on grammalogs, phrases, 
contractions, and distinguishing outlines. 

g. Blackboard illustrations of outlines ; phonetic 
analysis of difficult words ; careful comparison 
by students ; correction of errors ; inspection of 
note-books by teacher while students are making 
comparison and correction. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 21 

TERM III 

h. Dictation of straight matter. 

i. Close observation of students' notes during the 
process of note-taking. 

j. The reading aloud by individual students of a 
portion of the matter dictated. 

k. Close observation of the notes of the student who 
is reading aloud. 

1. Cultivating in students the habit at all times of 
correcting their shorthand errors. 

m. Occasionally a student should read from her home 
assignment the shorthand notes of the article 
copied from a newspaper or magazine, the teacher 
holding the clipping for purposes of comparison. 
The remainder of the class should take the dicta- 
tion as the student reads. The correct forms 
of difficult outlines should be placed on the 
blackboard. 

n. The accomplishment, so far as possible, of the 
amount of work planned. 



8. ATTAINING SPEED 

There should be nojieliberate attempt on the part of a 
teacher to " sp_ed-^' a class, that is, to dictate at a rate 
considerably faster than the majority of the class can 



22 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

record and at the same time apply the principles cor- 
rectly. If such a practice were adopted, accuracy 
would be sacrificed to speed and scholarship in technique 
would be impossible ; our AIM OF INSTRUCTION could 
not be accomplished. 

/ ^ 

The mind and the hand should be trained to work 
together harmoniously. Speed and accuracy depend 
chiefly upon 

^a. An accurate knowledge of the system of 
shorthand practised. 

b. The cultivation of a good pen or pencil 
movement. 

c. A sound system of phrasing familiar groups 
of words. 

d. A thorough knowledge of distinguishing 
outlines. 




e. Systematic study and practice. 

The basis of speed is found in the correct under- 
standing of every principle of the system of 
shorthand practised. Unfamiliar words retard 
speed, therefore a vocabulary of correct short- 
hand outlines is the first essential to speed. The 
fundamental principles of shorthand should be 
mastered at the same time that an extensive 
vocabulary is being acquired. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 23 

TERM III 

(b) The pencil should be held as lightly as possible 
between the thumb and the forefinger, the point 
being at least one inch from the tip of the 
forefinger. 

A light touch is conducive to speed. In shading 
it is not necessary to make a deep stroke ; the 
shading should be only sufficient to show the 
distinction between light and heavy strokes. The 
lighter the touch on the unshaded characters the 
better the chance of distinguishing those which 
are shaded. 

(c) Judicious phrasing increases speed. Phrases 
should be limited to groups of words which occur 
constantly in ordinary usage. 

The principle on which a phrase is built should 
be understood by the students. Good phrases 
are those where the junctions are made easily 
and without undue turning from the regular 
course. 

(d) There are numerous conflicting words, therefore 
mastery of the common distinguishing outlines 
is necessary. 

(e) Systematic study and practice cannot be dis- 
pensed with if new outlines are to be added to 
the students' vocabulary. 

The method of practice described under the 
caption Teaching students how to study should be 
followed. 



24 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

9. CLASS DICTATION 

As students are expected to acquire a large working 
vocabulary of shorthand outlines, the teacher should 
devote to dictation work as much of the class period 
as possible. 

The term's work cannot be accomplished if only a few 
minutes' time is allowed for dictation and the balance of 
the period spent on the oral description of outlines of 
words contained in the exercise dictated. The oral 
description of outlines and the quotation of rules have 
their place in the recitation period, but too much time 
cannot be spared for those phases of the work ; dictation 
should have precedence. Blackboard illustration is 
better than oral description, and should always accom- 
pany the latter. Students should be required to respond 
quickly to questions on theory. 

Before starting the dictation, the teacher should see 
that the students assume a correct writing position. 
The students should sit erect. The feet should be flat 
on the floor. The left elbow should rest on the desk ; 
the middle of the right fore-arm should be at the edge 
of the desk. While taking notes, students should have 
the edge of the note-book parallel with the edge of the 
desk. The note-book should never be doubled, but 
should lie flat on the desk. 

Students should be taught how to shove up the page of 
a note-book skillfully while taking notes. Mr. Nathan 
Behrin, an Isaac Pitman writer, holder of the world's 
speed and accuracy records, and official court reporter 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 25 

TERM III 

in the New York Supreme Court, under date of 
December 3, 1921, very kindly sent the head of depart- 
ment the following description of his method of shoving 
up the page : 

" In my daily court work I use Pitman's No. 5 
note-book, which is end opening. Before using a 
new book, I rustle the leaves and bend the book 
backward and forward so as to loosen the leaves 
and make sure that they will not stick. 

" Opening the cover, I commence writing on the 
top line of the first page. The left hand lies palm 
downward at the top of the page, the thumb resting 
against the left hand edge of the book, the other 
fingers extended across the page. After I have 
written on six or seven lines, with the under side 
of my left thumb I begin to raise the left edge of 
the page until I can take hold with my forefinger 
and thumb. I now start the page on its upward 
slide. The thumb straightens and lies flat on the 
left margin of the page, and the forefinger resumes 
its former straight position, but now rests lightly 
against the fold created by the upward movement 
of the page. Keeping pace with the writing, the 
thumb feeds the page upward to the forefinger, 
which holds and steadies the fold of the page and 
aids in the work of feeding the page to the other 
fingers. As the writing reaches the last line, the 
bottom of the first page is even with about the 
sixth or seventh line of the second page. A quick 
shove of the first page sends it over, and my right 
hand is writing on the top of the second page. 

3 (438) 



26 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

" The book lies flat all the time. The right elbow 
remains in practically the same position on the 
table. The writing hand travels from left to right 
on a fixed plane. The page moves to accommodate 
the writing hand. The transition from page to 
page is unnoticeable, as we have practically a 
continuous page. 

" When writing on the knee, the left thumb and 
forefinger turn the pages in the same manner as 
when writing upon the table, but the remaining 
fingers are under the book, palm facing up, firmly 
holding the book from slipping." 

The shorthand notes should be about the size of the 
text book characters. 

The habit of pausing until a picture of the correct out- 
line presents itself to the mind is impracticable, and 
students should be warned agains~cuitivatmg such a 
practice. 

Students should never trace " trial " outlines on the 
desk, the air, or on a separate piece of paper. 

Students should be trained to record immediately in its 
correct position the first consonantal stroke in a word, 
and to complete the balance of the outline without 
hesitation. 

Shorthand notes should never be erased. Incorrect 
outlines should be rapidly crossed out and replaced by^ 
the correct forms. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 27 

TERM III 

Students should be warned not to introduce longhand 
in their shorthand notes either during the process of 
note-taking or later when transcribing the notes. 

On the left margin of the note-books, students should 
record the correct outlines of words written incorrectly, 
and also the outlines of any other words to which the 
teacher has directed special attention during the 
recitation. 

In the early weeks of the term, the" attention of the 
students should be concentrated on the form and accu- 
racy of the outlines. As students add to their vocabu- 
lary of shorthand outlines, less concentration is necessary 
on outlines and more concentration is required on the 
subject matter and on the grammatical construction of 
the sentences. 

Throughout the entire term it is necessary for teachers 
to give students a great deal of assistance on outline 
formation and to remind them frequently to insert 
necessary vowels and to phrase simple groups of words. 

Students should be trained to insert only the necessary 
vowels even though there be ample time to insert all 
the vowels. The teacher should explain that the 
accurate interpretation of shorthand notes depends 
largely upon well formed outlines written in their correct 
positions. 

The same matter should be dictated several times in 
succession in order that the vocabulary contained 
therein may be mastered. 



28 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

Reading the Dictation 

At every recitation some of the matter dictated should 
be read aloud in class. Students called upon to read 
should be required to complete at least one sentence, 
and should state when a period occurs. The definitions 
and spelling of unfamiliar words or terms should be 
discussed. 

As many pupils as possible should participate in the 
reading. Every member of the class should be called 
upon within two days, if possible.] 

The reader should read slowly so as to enable the other 
members of the class to follow and to correct their 
shorthand notes at the same time ; the reader should 
correct her own notes as she reads. 

When a reader halts, she should at once analyse aloud 
the puzzling outline. The teacher should make every 
effort to have the reader decipher her notes. 

Other members of the class should not indicate that the 
reader has made a mistake, or supply missing words 
unless called upon to do so. 

Students should exchange note-books occasionally and 
read aloud one another's notes. 



10. TRANSCRIPTS 

Transcription work should commence during the third 
week of the term (after the review of the theory is 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 29 

TERM III 

completed) in order that students may early see the 
relation between the taking of notes and the transcribing 
of the same. 

All transcription work should be done in the shorthand 
period without encroachment on the typewriting period. 

Transcriptions should be typewritten (touch method) 
unless a class recites in a non-typewriting room. 

Pen transcripts should be written on 8 by 10 ruled paper ; 
the handwriting should be neat and legible. 

Throughout the term, the sentences designated in the 
syllabus outline in English prepared especially for our 
department should be dictated, transcribed, and cor- 
rected. The transcription drill on each kind of exercise 
should be sufficient to enable the students to transcribe 
correctly miscellaneous matter containing similar 
sentence structure, punctuation, etc. 

From the third to the sixth week inclusive, a short test 
of one hundred (100) to one hundred fifty (150) words 
should be transcribed each week. The matter should be 
simple, and the dictation should be given slowly. 

Beginning the seventh week of the term, and con- 
tinuing to the close of the term, new matter of 
regents' difficulty (a letter or an article) should be 
dictated at a definite rate of speed and transcribed 
each week. The scope of the tests should gradually be 
increased to two hundred (200) words. 



30 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

Students should be allowed a reasonable length of time 
to read their notes before they transcribe them. 

In order that students may have no misapprehension as 
to their scholarship in transcription work at the various 
rates of speed, and also to enable weak students to 
recognize early in the term the need of improving their 
scholarship, it is recommended that classes be informed 
of the definite rate of speed at which the weekly test is 
given. Students should record the rate in the upper 
left hand corner of the transcript in the following form : 
Dictated at words a minute. 

The teacher should establish and maintain in the class 
room the standards required by first class business 
concerns; therefore students should not be permitted 
to strike keys over, to start words the second time, to 
indicate the elision of words, to interlineate omissions, 
etc. The teacher should explain to students that the 
business man desires his dictation typed correctly the 
first time, and that he is unwilling to suffer the loss of 
time and material in having work recopied. 

One duplicate copy should be made of all typewritten 
transcripts. Both the original and the duplicate copies 
should be collected. The shorthand notes should 
always be attached to the transcript. 

Students may correct in pencil on the carbon copy any 
stenographic or typographical errors which they may 
have made. No corrections of any kind may be made 
on the original copy. On pen transcripts, errors may 
be corrected by erasure. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 31 

TERM III 

Throughout the term students should have practice in 
transcribing both articles and business letters. 

Before commencing the transcription of articles, the 
student should write her name and section, and the 
date, about two inches from the top edge of the paper. 
This should be followed by several double spaces. 

When a dictation includes two or more business letters, 
each letter should be transcribed on a separate sheet 
of paper. The multigraphed letterheads printed by our 
department should be used. The student's name, 
instead of being typewritten at the head of the sheet, 
should be rilled in as a signature. 

All letters, whether typewritten or pen written, should 
be written according to the approved forms described 
in our Typewriting Syllabus. Particular attention 

should be paid to margins, Attention of M , 

signatures, enclosures, the dictator's and the typist's 
initials, etc. Attractive form should be the aim. 

An envelope (commercial or legal size) should be 
addressed for each business letter. The address should 
be typed in the form approved by the post office depart- 
ment. Students should have practice in folding letters 
properly for envelopes of both sizes and in enclosing 
them correctly, with and without attached enclosures. 
The return address should appear on each envelope. 

The importance of accurate spelling and syllabication 
should be emphasized. It is recommended that students 
be permitted to consult the dictionary excepting when 
the mid-term or the end-term test is being transcribed. 



32 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

11. CAUSES OF ERRORS IN 
TRANSCRIPTION WORK : REMEDIES 

Students' errors in transcription work should be traced 
to their causes by the teacher in order to enable him to 
prescribe suitable remedies. 

Knowledge of each student's scholarship in technique 
can best be ascertained through the examination of the 
shorthand notes of dictated matter. A portion of the 
shorthand notes of many of the transcriptions should 
therefore be corrected. 

Some of the chief causes of errors in transcription work 
are listed below with suggested remedies for overcoming 
them. 

Cause 

Habitual violation of the principles of phonography 
while note-taking, and subsequent inability to decipher 
the notes accurately. 

Remedy 

In a private conversation with each pupil whose work 
is unsatisfactory, the teacher should point out clearly 
the nature of her deficiencies, and encourage her to 
believe that she will overcome them if she will faithfully 
follow directions. Impress her with the necessity of 
preparing herself for promotion. 

Give a definite review assignment of the theory, starting 
at the point you consider necessary. Require the student 
to master one principle thoroughly before proceeding to 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 33 

TERM III 

the next. Caution the student to represent all of the 
consonantal strokes in a word and to verify the same 
by repeating the consonantal sounds aloud while forming 
the strokes and again when inserting the vowel signs. 
Require the complete vocalization of words ; have 
vowels inserted in the order of their occurrence. The 
longhand of words should accompany the shorthand 
outline. 

Additional word selections and dictation exercises may 
be chosen from Shorthand Writing Exercises and 
Examination Tests. 

Require the student to examine this review work several 
times in order to see that the particular principle is 
properly applied ; that the words are written in their 
proper position ; that the vowels are in their proper 
places ; that the strokes are made the proper length, 
and are shaded correctly. Explain to the student the 
advantage to her of discovering her own mistakes. 

After this review work has been inspected and credited 
by the teacher, it is suggested that it be returned to 
the student for further practice. 

b. Cause 

Failure to record an outline for each word dictated because 

1. The rate of speed is beyond the capability of 
the student. 

2. The notes are large and sprawling. 

3. Unnecessary vowels are inserted. 



34 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 
Remedy 

Dictate very slowly during the class recitation and aim 
to have every student produce a legible shorthand 
outline for each word dictated. 

Require the engraved shorthand notes in the text books 
to be read and copied repeatedly so that students may 
imitate the size and style ; require compactly written 
notes. 

Require the insertion of only necessary vowels. Empha- 
size the fact that clear outlines and correct position 
writing should result in the accurate reading of notes. 

c. Cause 

Illegibly written notes because the dictation is too fast 
for the student, who is consequently unable to pay 
sufficient attention to form. 

Remedy 

Dictate slowly enough to make it possible for the 
students to complete in good form the consonantal 
representation of each word dictated and at the same 
time to insert all necessary vowel signs. 

d. Cause 

General carelessness in writing the shorthand notes as 
evidenced by 

1. Failure to write words in their proper positions. 

2. Failure to represent all of the consonants in a word. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 35 

TERM III 

3. Failure to represent the final s or z sound. 

4. Too much pressure on light strokes and subsequent 
inability to distinguish them from heavy strokes. 

5. Not making the proper distinction in length 
between tick strokes, regular strokes, half length 
strokes, and double length strokes. 

6. Not sufficiently distinguishing in size between the 
large and the small initial and final circles ; the 
large and the small initial hooks on curves ; the 
large and the small final hooks ; the circle s and 
the st loop ; and the st and sir loops. 

7. Violation of the Sh, L, R, or H rules. 

8. Failure to vocalize judiciously. 



Remedy 

1. Train students to note the sound of the vowel or 
the accented vowel in each word uttered, and to 
start immediately to write the word in its correct 
position. A little class practice in pronouncing 
quickly words of two or more syllables should 
enable students to overcome any deficiency in 
this respect. 

2. In practising the home assignments, and in writing 
slow dictation in class, the students should say 
the sounds mentally while forming the strokes. 



36 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

3. Caution students to listen attentively to the final 
s-z sound in words, and to represent the circle in 
their shorthand notes. 

4. Require light strokes made with the least possible 
pressure so that the slightly heavier strokes may 
be easily distinguishable. 

5. Have the class practice under your supervision 
tick strokes, regular length, half length, and double 
length strokes. Advise each student to adopt 
for her own characters a definite size for each of 
the four different lengths and not to vary these 
sizes while note-taking. 

Show the need for half length strokes to be made 
about one third the length of regular strokes, and 
double length strokes considerably longer than 
double the length of regular strokes. 

6. Require the small hooks and circles to be made as 
small as possible, and the large hooks and circles 
generously large. There should be no medium 
sizes. 

7. Give intensive drill on words containing Sh, L, R, 
or H initially, finally, and medially, in order to 
enable students to select the proper form without 
hesitation. 

Explain the principle of vowel indication with 
regard to the forms of L and R ; illustrate the 
essentials of good outline formation when the 
stroke L or R occurs medially. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 37 



TERM III 

8. Inform students that j udicious vocalization requires 

a. The insertion of the vowel in words containing 
only one stroke. 

b. The insertion of the initial vowel when the first 
stroke does not indicate that a vowel precedes. 

c. The insertion of the final vowel when the last 
stroke does not indicate that a vowel follows. 

d. The insertion of a medial vowel when necessary. 

e. The insertion of a diphthong, a triphone, or a 
diphone, when necessary. 

e. Cause 

Misreading correctly written shorthand notes, as 
shown by 

1. Transcribing a for the and vice versa. 

2. Adding or omitting final S-Z sounds. 

3. Misinterpreting the shading of strokes. 

4. Selecting the wrong homonym. 

Remedy 

Acquaint class with errors in transcripts directly trace- 
able to carelessness in reading shorthand notes which 
have been correctly written. 

448327 



38 . Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III , 

Train students to read their transcripts critically (in 
the light, as it were, of recipients) in order to discover 
any errors which they may have made. 

Assign for study the homonym exercise in the 
English syllabus of the stenography department. 

f. Cause 

Deficiency in English, as shown by 

1. Improper sentence structure and punctuation. 

2. Misspelling, wrong syllabication, incorrect com- 
pounding of words, etc. 

3. Lack of knowledge of common words contained 
in the dictation, such words either being omitted 
altogether from the transcript or incorrect words 
substituted for them. 

Remedy 

1. Repeated drill on the classified series of exercises 
in the elementary principles of English writing as 
outlined in the English syllabus prepared especially 
for the use of our department. 

Inform students that in addition to concentrating 
on the subject matter while taking dictation, they 
must note the grammatical construction of the 
sentences and insert a period in their shorthand 
notes at the completion of an integral syntactic 
unit. 

Require students when reading aloud in class to 
state when a period occurs. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 39 

TERM III 

2. Train students in the habit of consulting 
the dictionary. Inform them that accurate 
transcriptions cannot be obtained otherwise. 

Require the correct spelling of all words assigned 
for home work. 

3. Advise students to consult the dictionary for the 
meanings of all unfamiliar words or expressions, 
to copy the definitions in their vocabulary note- 
books, and to use the words in their conversations 
and writings. Bring to the attention of the class 
errors in transcripts caused by deficiency in the 
knowledge of English words or expressions. 
Cooperate to the fullest extent with the teacher 
of English. 

g. Cause 

Failure to concentrate on the subject matter when 
taking dictation. 

Remedy 

Inform students that in addition to writing shorthand 
outlines, a stenographer must concentrate on the subject 
matter while taking notes. Explain to them that even 
though an experienced reporter may appear to be 
recording notes mechanically, he is, nevertheless, 
constantly following with an alert consciousness the 
speaker's thought. 

Occasionally, test the students' power of concentration 
by calling for an oral abstract of a brief dictation 
exercise. 



40 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 
h. Cause 

The alteration of the original shorthand notes to 
correspond to the student's hasty interpretation. 

Remedy 

Students should be advised not to substitute other 
shorthand notes for any original outlines which may 
at first be undecipherable. 

Inform them that skill in transcription work will be 
acquired with continued practice, and that it is necessary 
for the original notes to be retained without alteration 
or substitution. 

i. Cause 

Failure to verify each word in the transcript with each 
shorthand outline. 

Remedy 

Require students to verify their transcripts word for 
word with their original shorthand outlines. 



12. TESTS AND THEIR VALUE 

Tests have a twofold value : 

a. To disclose to each student her scholarship in 
the subject matter. 

b. To disclose to the teacher the scholarship of 
each member of his class. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 41 



TERM III 

For these two reasons, therefore, frequent tests are 
necessary. The tests should be brief and not unduly 
severe. The results of the tests determine the promotion 
of students. 

Students who pass tests should be commended in class, 
not only to stimulate them to further effort, but to 
show to the students who failed that intelligent study 
and faithful practice always secure good results. 

All test papers, with the percentages plainly marked 
thereon, should be returned to students at the recitation 
following the test, if possible, so that the value of the 
test may not be diminished by delay. 

Class time will be saved if students work overnight on 
the word test papers returned to them, and come 
prepared the following day with the correct outlines. 

After returning transcript tests, the teacher should read 
the matter dictated while students make a comparison 
with their transcripts. 

After the correct forms of the difficult outlines have 
been illustrated on the blackboard, the teacher should 
dictate the matter again in order to enable the students 
to compare these outlines with the notes of the original 
dictation. 

Students should find out for themselves why they mis- 
transcribed their notes. They will profit by their errors 
only in so far as they may make careful comparisons. 

4 (438) 



42 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

13. FREQUENT TESTS 

As the rules of promotion require students to apply the 
principles of phonography while note-taking, it is neces- 
sary for the teacher to test the students frequently on 
the following phases of THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE : 

a. Grammalogs 
Contractions 
Phrases 
Vocabulary 

Short tests (25-35 items) should be given fre- 
quently (once a week, if possible) throughout 
the term. 

Where this practice is followed, it will be unneces- 
sary to test students further on these points at 
mid-term or end-term. 

b. Transcripts 

The directions under this caption in the syllabus 
of the current term, Chapter I, Instructions to 
teachers, should be carefully followed. 

c. The Shorthand Notes of Dictated 

Exercises 

A portion of the shorthand notes of matter 
dictated and transcribed should be examined 
and rated separately from the transcription. 
There should also be occasional tests on straight 
matter dictated and not transcribed. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 43 

TERM III 

14. MARKING FREQUENT TESTS 

At the beginning of each term, the teacher should explain 
to the students the standards of the department and the 
schedule of marking errors on the various kinds of tests. 

It is especially important that students understand the 
points for which deductions are made on word tests, 
as most of the errors are due to carelessness and would 
probably be avoided if the students were familiar with 
our schedule of marking. 

Minimum Deduction 
for each Error 

a. Grammalogs (25-35) . . 10% 

b. Contractions (25-35) 

1. Common contractions . . 10% 

2. Other contractions . . 5% 

c. Phrases (25-35) 



1. Simple phrases . . . . 10% 

2. Other phrases .... 5% 



d. Words (25-35) 

1. Review words .... 10% 

2. Other words .... 5% 



44 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

Full deduction should be made for each of the 
following errors : 

1. Incorrect outline. 

2. Incorrect position of outline. 

3. Improper shading of strokes. 

4. Improper placing of vowel or diphthong. 

5. Improper shading of vowel. 

6. Failure to join an initial or final diphthong 
when required. 

7. Improperly formed strokes. 

8. Strokes disproportionate in length. 

9. Omission of a necessary vowel, diphthong, 
triphone, or diphone. 

e. Transcripts 

The following schedule for marking errors in transcripts 
corresponds proportionately to the regents' schedule. 

On tests other than mid-term or end-term, repeated 
words, misspelled words, and incorrect sentence con- 
struction are classified as major errors in order to con- 
form to the standards of the business world. Deduction 
is also made for each minor error instead of allowing a 
maximum charge for all minor errors. 

Deduction for each Deduction for each 
Scope of Tests : Major Error Minor Error 

100 words . 10 credits One-half credit 

200 words 5 

300 words . 3 

400 words . 2| 

500 words . 2 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 45 

TERM III 

MAJOR ERRORS : 

1. Omitted word. 

2. Added word. 

3. Substituted word. 

4. Transposition of words. 

5. Use of longhand in notes except for proper names 
and figures. 

6. Erasure of longhand in notes and replacement by 
shorthand. 

7. Repeated word. 

8. Misspelled word. 

9. Incorrect sentence construction. 



MINOR ERRORS : 

1. Error in capitalization, paragraphing, or punctua- 
tion other than sentence construction. 

2. Incorrect division of word at the end of a line. 

3. Omission of hyphen when required. 

4. Unauthorized abbreviation of words. 



f. Allowance for Corrections made by 
Students 

Half credit may be allowed for corrections made 
by students on pen transcripts or on the carbon 
copy of typewritten transcripts. 

All credit for corrections may be withheld if there 
is evidence of careless transcribing. 



46 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM III 

g. Marking the Shorthand Notes of 
Dictated Exercises 

When tests consist of straight matter dictated but 
not transcribed, the deduction for errors in short- 
hand is the same as for major errors in transcripts, 
and varies according to the scope of the test. 

Full deduction should be made if simple groups of 
words are not phrased. 

When both the shorthand notes and the transcripts 
are corrected, teachers should give students two 
ratings, one for scholarship in technique and the 
other for scholarship in transcription work. 



15. STUDENTS' RECORDS 

As the requirements for promotion prescribe a minimum 
degree of scholarship in technique and the attainment 
of a definite rate of speed at which shorthand notes are 
taken down and transcribed satisfactorily, the teacher 
should keep a percentage record of each student's work 
under the following heads : 

a. Scholarship in Technique, which shall 

include 

1 . Grammalogs. 

2. Contractions. 

3. Phrases. 

4. Words. 

5. The shorthand notes of dictated matter. 

b. Transcription Work 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 47 



TERM III 



16. DEFICIENT STUDENTS 

The scope of the tests given during the first three weeks 
of the term should be sufficiently comprehensive to 
enable the teacher to ascertain the SCHOLARSHIP IN 
TECHNIQUE of each individual member of the class. 

Students who are grossly deficient in the theory and who 
are therefore unable to sustain themselves satisfactorily 
should be reported to the head of department at the 
beginning of the fourth week of the term. 

Specimens of each student's work should accompany 
the report. 



48 .Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

17. THE MID-TERM TEST 

a. Scope of Test : 

Four hundred (400) words of new matter of regents' 
difficulty to be divided as follows : 

200 words one letter : TOTAL VALUE 
200 words an article : 100% 

b. Rate of Speed : 

Forty (40) words a minute. 

c. Time Allowed for Transcription : 

One shorthand period for each test of 200 words. 

d. Schedule of Marking Transcription : 

(Regents) 

Deduction for each MAJOR error : 2| credits. 
Deduction for each MINOR error : credit. 

e. Final Percentage : 

Add the major errors on both papers and multiply 

by 2i 

The maximum deduction for all minor errors is 
eight (8) credits. 

f. Shorthand Notes : 

The shorthand notes should be attached to the 
transcripts. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 49 

TERM III 

18. THE END -TERM TEST 

a. Scope of Test : 

Four hundred (400) words of new matter of 
regents' difficulty to be divided as follows : 

200 words one letter : TOTAL VALUE 
200 words an article : 100% 

b. Rate of Speed : 

Fifty-five (55) words a minute. 

c. Time Allowed for Transcription : 

One shorthand period for each test of 200 words. 

d. Schedule of Marking Transcription : 

(Regents) 

Deduction for each MAJOR error : 2| credits 
Deduction for each MINOR error : ^ credit. 

e. Final Percentage : 

Add the major errors on both papers and multiply 
by 2|. 

The maximum deduction for all minor errors is 
eight (8) credits. 

f. Shorthand Notes : 

The shorthand notes should be attached to the 
transcripts. 



50 .Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

19. TESTS GIVEN AFTER THE 
END -TERM TEST 

Because the end-term test is held some weeks before the 
close of the term, the rate at which the dictation is 
given is reduced to fifty-five (55) words a minute, 
although the requirement for promotion is sixty (60) 
words a minute. 

In order to determine the promotion of students, trans- 
cription tests at sixty (60) words a minute should be 
commenced about six weeks before the close of the term. 

The following directions should be followed : 

a. Scope of Test : 

Two hundred (200) words of new matter of regents' 
difficulty (a letter or an article) : VALUE 100%. 

b. Rate of Speed : 

Sixty (60) words a minute. 

c. Time Allowed for Transcription : 

One shorthand period. 

d. Schedule of Marking Transcription : 

(Regents) 

Deduction for each MAJOR error : 5 credits. 
Deduction for each MINOR error : \ credit. 

(Maximum charge for minor errors : 4 credits.) 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 51 

TERM III 

e. Shorthand Notes : 

The shorthand notes should be attached to the 
transcripts. 

The shorthand notes of doubtful students should 
be corrected and rated. 



20. DOUBTFUL STUDENTS 

The transcription tests at sixty (60) words a minute 
commenced six weeks before the close of the term and 
continued to the end should enable the teacher to 
determine positively whether or not doubtful students 
are fit for promotion to term IV. 

Experience has proved that students who apply in 
term III the general principles of phonography while 
note-taking have no difficulty in writing at the higher 
rate of speed required in term IV, while, on the other 
hand, students who turn out satisfactory transcripts 
in term III but who write inaccurate shorthand are 
unable to sustain themselves satisfactorily in term IV, 
where the rate of speed is considerably higher. 

The shorthand notes, therefore, should be carefully 
examined and should be the chief factor in determining 
the rating of doubtful students. 

It is inadvisable to give special tests to the doubtful 
students. 



CHAPTER II 

THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE 

1. TIME SCHEDULE 

a. Nineteen weeks. 

b. Five periods each week. 

c. Length of period : 40 minutes. 

2. TEXT BOOKS 

a. Student 

1 . Pitman's Shorthand Instructor. 

2. Pitman's Shorthand Writing Exercises and 
Examination Tests. 

3. Pitman's Dictation Instructor. 

4. Century Handbook of Writing. 

5. Webster's Secondary School Dictionary. 

b. Teacher 

1. Students' Text Books. 

2. Memory Drills on Grammalogs and Contractions. 

3. Commentary on Pitman's Shorthand (Taylor). 

4. Methods of Teaching Shorthand (McNamara). 

5. Pitman's Shorthand Dictionary. 

52 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 53 

TERM III 

3. THE OUTLINE 

a. Scope of Text Book Work : 

1. Shorthand Instructor 

pp. 160-308 (omit pp. 259-267). 

2. Shorthand Writing Exercises and Examination 
Tests. 

Start with exercise 14 and dictate in the 
regular order of the principles two or more 
dictation exercises under each principle. 

t 

3. Pitman's Dictation Instructor. 

Supplementary dictation book chiefly for 
students' home use ; vocabulary in engraved 
shorthand to be mastered. 

Special selections assigned from time to 
time for home preparation to be dictated 
in class. 



4. Century Handbook of Writing. 

Follow the detailed syllabus in English 
based on the above named text book and 
prepared especially for the use of students 
in terms III and IV of the secretarial course. 



54 . Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

The syllabus reviews the work in English 
under the following heads : 

a. Sentence structure. 

b. Punctuation. 

c. Spelling. 

d. Syllabication. 

e. Compound words. 

f. Use of capitals. 

g. Authorized abbreviations. 

h. The representation of numbers. 

i. The definitions of words which bear 

a superficial resemblance in sound or 

appearance, 
j. Homonyms, 
k. Paragraphing. 

b. The Principles of Shorthand 

1. REVIEW OF THEORY. 

The first ten lessons of the term should be 
devoted solely to an orderly review of the 
theory taught in terms I and II. 

Throughout the term, the students should 
be required to review the principles as 
explained in THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE under 
the caption Teachers' daily lesson plan. 

2. VOCABULARY DRILL. 

Each day throughout the term the short- 
hand outlines of five of the words contained 
in the vocabulary list of the current term 
should be drilled on in class and assigned 
tor home work. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 55 

TERM III 

3. ENGRAVED SHORTHAND EXERCISES. 

Instructor : Exercises 99, 101, 103, 105, 107, 
109, 111, 114, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 127. 

Pitman's Dictation Instructor : 

1. Pages 27-40. 

2. Outlines at top of pp. 41-226. 

The reading of engraved shorthand contributes so 
materially to scholarship in technique that after the 
contraction exercises 104, 106, 108, 110, 112 and 113 in 
the Instructor have been dictated in class and practised 
by the students, the engraved shorthand exercises 
containing such contractions should be assigned for 
home reading. 

The teacher should explain to the students that steno- 
graphers are expected to read engraved shorthand with 
the same fluency with which they are able to read printed 
matter, and that this skill is attained only by repeated 
readings of the same exercise. 

After the engraved shorthand exercises have been read 
by the students, the matter should be practised according 
to the method described in THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE 
under the caption Teaching students how to study. 

From time to time five or ten minutes of a period should 
be devoted to the reading of engraved shorthand 
exercises previously assigned for home reading. Students 
who are unable to read fluently should analyse the 
puzzling outlines. 



56 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

Students should be encouraged to read the engraved 
shorthand books in the library of the school, a list of 
which should be posted on the class bulletin boards. 



4. GRAMMALOGS 

The logograms which express complete consonantal 
representation and which are also written in correct 
position (up, by, out, way, must, through, down, etc.) 
should be excluded from the list of grammalogs and 
should be taught as unvocalized words. 

After sufficient drill has been given on the grammalogs 
as separate words, grammalog sentences should be 
dictated from Memory Drills on the Grammalogs and 
Contractions. 

Before dictating selections from Shorthand Writing 
Exercises and Examination Tests, teachers should drill 
on the grammalogs listed under the particular principle 
being reviewed. 

Teachers should aim to have students attain an accuracy 
of 100% on grammalogs, 



5. SIMPLE PHRASES 

Students who neglect to phrase words while note-taking 
frequently make correction later by adding to the 
original outline the stroke or strokes not previously 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 57 

TERM III 

joined. This practice should not be permitted, as it 
would prevent students from ever acquiring the habit of 
phrasing, i.e., writing groups of words without lifting the 
pencil. 

Students should be required to phrase simple groups of 
words, as this practice will not only promote skill in 
note-taking, but will also result in the shorthand notes 
of such groups being more quickly interpreted than if a 
separate outline were written for each word. 

Students should be cautioned against phrasing outlines 
that do not give good angles (to say, etc.). 

The use of the tick the should be secured to the fullest 
extent. 

Over-phrasing should be avoided. 



6. BUSINESS PHRASES 

Careful attention should be given to the phrasing of 
business terms in general use. 

The business letters in the Instructor and in Shorthand 
Writing Exercises and Examination Tests should be 
drilled on systematically in order that the business 
phrases contained therein may be mastered. 

Exercises 177, 178 and 179 in Shorthand Writing Exercises 
and Examination Tests contain the common business 
phrases, and from time to time selections therefrom 
should be dictated in class and assigned for home drill. 

5 (438) 



58 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

7. GENERAL CONTRACTIONS 

The general principle underlying the formation of con- 
tractions should be thoroughly explained and illustrated 
on the blackboard. Students should understand the close 
relation between the sign and the word. 

Exercises 156, 157, 158 and 159 in Shorthand Writing 
Exercises and Examination Tests contain the general 
contractions, and from time to time selections therefrom 
should be dictated in class and assigned for home drill. 



8. VOWEL INDICATION 

Students should be frequently warned to insert the 
necessary vowel, diphthong, triphone or diphone 
immediately after completing the consonantal outline. 

The vocalization of one consonant words (pay, age, end, 
need, etc.) should be required. It is suggested that the 
teacher prepare a list of such words and drill on them 
occasionally in class. 

Exercises 162 and 163 in Shorthand Writing Exercises 
and Examination Tests contain excellent examples of 
words requiring vocalization, and from time to time 
selections therefrom should be dictated in class and 
assigned for home drill. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 59 

TERM III 

9. SPECIAL CONTRACTIONS 

Some of the special contractions are in more general use 
than others. Extensive drill, therefore, should be given 
only on the contractions which have been designated 
by our department as " common " contractions and 
which are indicated in each teacher's copy of the text 
book. 

Should the less common contractions occur in dictation 
exercises, the text book outlines of such contractions 
should be drilled on to the extent necessary before the 
dictation is given. 

Exercises 164, 165, 166, 167 and 168 in Shorthand Writing 
Exercises and Examination Tests contain the special con- 
tractions, and from time to time selections therefrom 
should be dictated in class and assigned for home drill. 



10. ADVANCED PHRASEOGRAPHY 

Extensive drill should be given only on the phrases 
which have been designated by our department as 
expressions or idioms in general use and which are 
indicated in each teacher's copy of the text book. 

Groups of words which the average student would not 
be apt to decipher readily should not be phrased. 

Exercises 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174 and 175 in Short- 
hand Writing Exercises and Examination Tests contain 



60 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM III 

examples of advanced phraseography, and from time to 
time selections therefrom should be dictated in class and 
assigned for home drill. 

11. INTERSECTIONS 

The general principle of intersection, or approximation 
when intersection is impossible, should be explained and 
applied when practicable. 

Extensive drill should be given only on the miscellaneous 
intersected phrases and contractions which have been 
designated by our department as expressions in general 
use and which are indicated in each teacher's copy of 
the text book. 



12. STATES AND CITIES 

All business letters dictated should be furnished with 
addresses so that students may learn the shorthand 
outlines of the principal cities and the States in a 
practical way. 



13. DISTINGUISHING OUTLINES 

The words listed among the distinguishing outlines 
which are written strictly in accordance with the prin- 
ciples involved need no especial drill, i.e. , patron, trifle, etc. 

Emphasis, therefore, should be directed to the words 
which are differentiated in form, i.e., pattern, travel, etc. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 61 



TERM III 

Only the most frequently occurring words should be 
drilled on extensively. 



c. Class Dictation 

The teacher will please follow the instructions under 
this caption in Chapter I, Instructions to teachers. 

d. Transcription Work 

The teacher will please follow the instructions under the 
caption Transcripts, Chapter I, Instructions to teachers. 



CHAPTER III 

REQUIREMENTS FOR 
PROMOTION 

Note : Only students who have frequently demonstrated 
that they possess the following qualifications 
should be recommended for promotion to term IV. 

1. SCHOLARSHIP IN TECHNIQUE 

(Ascertained by the teacher through correcting the 
frequent tests and some of the shorthand notes of 
matter dictated and transcribed.) 

a. Proficiency in current term's vocabulary. 

b. Proficiency in the grammalogs. 

c. Proficiency in the common contractions. 

d. Proficiency in phraseography. 

e. The ability to apply the general principles of 
phonography while taking dictation at the rate 
of speed required. 

2. RATE OF SPEED 

The ability to take the dictation of letters and articles 
of regents' difficulty at the rate of sixty (60) words a 
minute. 

62 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 63 

TERM III 

3. SCHOLARSHIP IN TRANSCRIPTION 
WORK 

a. The ability to transcribe the above dictation with 
a minimum accuracy of sixty (60) per cent. 
(Regents' schedule of marking tests.) 

b. Proficiency in English, as shown by sentence 
structure, spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, etc. 

c. The ability to place typewritten matter artistically. 



STENOGRAPHY SYLLABUS 

TERM IV 

Chap. Page 

I. INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS .... 67 

II. THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE 76 

III. REQUIREMENTS FOR PROMOTION ... 80 



65 



CHAPTER I 

INSTRUCTIONS TO TEACHERS 

1. THE AIM OF INSTRUCTION 

The chief aim of the teacher should be to have students 
write correct shorthand from dictation and transcribe 
the same accurately. 

Emphasis throughout the term should, therefore, be 
placed on the following points : 

a. The correct application of the principles taught 
in terms I, II, and III. 

b. The acquisition of a large vocabulary of short- 
hand words and phrases. 

c. Mastery of the grammalogs and common 
contractions. 

d. Training students to form outlines correctly, 
legibly, and rapidly. 

e. Training students to concentrate on the subject 
matter while taking notes. 

f. The accurate reading or transcription of the 
matter dictated. 

67 



68 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM IV 

g. The artistic placing of typewritten transcripts. 

h. The attainment at the time of the mid-term 
test of a speed of seventy (70) words a minute 
on business letters and articles of regents' 
difficulty, with a minimum accuracy of sixty 
(60) per cent, in transcription work. 

i. The attainment at the time of the end-term 
test of a speed of eighty (80) words a minute 
on business letters and articles of regents' 
difficulty, with a minimum accuracy of sixty 
(60) per cent, in transcription work, which 
corresponds to the minimum standard of the 
regents of the University of the State of New 
York. 

The teacher is referred to Stenography Syllabus, 
term III, for instructions under the following captions : 

Page 
2. MATERIALS 2 



3. THE TEACHER'S DAILY LESSON 

PLAN 5 

4. TEACHING STUDENTS HOW TO 

STUDY . , . . . . .8 

5. STUDENTS 1 HOME WORK 16 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 69 

TERM IV 

Page 

6. SENTENCE STRUCTURE, 

PUNCTUATION, Etc. ... 17 

7. THE CONDUCT OF THE DAILY 

RECITATION 20 

8. ATTAINING SPEED . . . 21 

9. CLASS DICTATION 61 



10. TRANSCRIPTS 



Transcription work should begin during the first week 
of the term. All transcripts should be typewritten ; 
the touch method should be employed. 

During the early weeks of the term, new matter of 
regents' difficulty (a letter or an article) containing 
two hundred (200) to two hundred fifty (250) words 
should be dictated at a definite rate of speed and 
transcribed each week. 

As the term advances the scope of the tests should be 
gradually increased. Towards the end of the term, 



70 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM IV 

tests containing five hundred (500) words should be 
given in preparation for the end-term test. 

Students should be allowed a reasonable length of time 
to read their notes before they transcribe them. 

In order that students may have no misapprehension 
as to their scholarship in transcription work at the 
various rates of speed, and also to enable weak students 
to recognize early in the term the need of improving 
their scholarship, it is recommended that classes be 
informed of the rate of speed at which the weekly tests 
are given. Students should record the rate in the 
upper left hand corner of the transcript in the following 
form : Dictated at .. .. words a minute. 



The teacher should establish and maintain in the class 
room the standards required by first class business 
concerns ; therefore students should not be permitted 
to strike keys over, to start words the second time, to 
indicate the elision of words, to interlineate omissions, 
etc. The teacher should explain to students that the 
business man desires his dictation typed correctly the 
first time and that he is unwilling to suffer the loss of 
time and material in having work recopied. 

One duplicate copy should be made of all typewritten 
transcripts. Both the original and the duplicate copies 
should be collected. The shorthand notes should 
always be attached to the transcript. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 71 

TERM IV 

Students may correct in pencil on the carbon copy any 
stenographic or typographical errors which they may 
have made. No corrections of any kind may be made 
on the original copy. 

During the last month of the term, students should be 
instructed how to make neat erasures on original and 
carbon copies while the work is in the machine or after 
it has been removed and replaced. 

Throughout the term students should have practice in 
transcribing both articles and business letters. 

Before commencing the transcription of articles, the 
student should typewrite her name, the number of her 
section, and the date, about two inches from the top 
edge of the paper. This should be followed by several 
double spaces. 

When a transcription includes two or more business 
letters, each letter should be typewritten on a separate 
sheet of paper. The multigraphed letterheads printed 
by our department should be used. The student's 
name, instead of being typewritten at the head of the 
sheet, should be filled in as a signature. 

All letters should be typed according to the approved 
forms described in our Typewriting Syllabus. Particular 

attention should be paid to margins, Attention of M , 

signatures, enclosures, the dictator's and typist's initials, 
etc. Attractive form should be the aim. 



72 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM IV 

In transcribing letters containing two or more pages, 
the following information should be recorded about 
one-half inch from the top edge of the second and 
succeeding sheets : the correspondent's name, the 
number of the page, and the date. 



An envelope (commercial or legal size) should be addressed 
for each business letter. The address should be typed 
in the form approved by the post office department. 
Students should have practice in folding letters properly 
for envelopes of both sizes and in enclosing them cor- 
rectly, with and without attached enclosures. The 
return address should appear on each envelope. 



The importance of accurate spelling and syllabication 
should be emphasized. It is recommended that 
students be permitted to consult the dictionary except- 
ing when mid-term or end-term tests are being 
conducted. 



Special attention should be paid to the typewriting work 
of students who recited Stenography III in non-type- 
writing rooms and who are therefore transcribing notes 
on the typewriter for the first time. 

So that the element of memory may be largely elim- 
inated, it is suggested that the shorthand notes of brief 
tests be occasionally retained by the teacher for a day 
or two and then returned to the students for transcription 
purposes. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 73 



TERM IV 

The teacher is referred to Stenography Syllabus, 
term III, for instructions under the following captions : 

Page 

11. CAUSE OF ERRORS IN TRANS- 
CRIPTION WORK : REMEDIES 32 



12. TESTS AND THEIR VALUE . 40 

13. FREQUENT TESTS . . . 42 

14. MARKING FREQUENT TESTS . 43 

15. STUDENTS' RECORDS . . 46 

16. DEFICIENT STUDENTS 47 



6 (438) 12 pp. 



74 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 



TERM IV 



17. THE MID-TERM TEST 

a. Scope of Test : 

Five hundred (500) words of new matter of regents' 

difficulty to be divided as follows : 
250 words two letters : TOTAL VALUE 
250 words an article : 100%. 

b. Rate of Speed : 

Seventy (70) words a minute. 

c. Time Allowed for Transcription : 

One shorthand period for each test of 250 words. 

d. Schedule of Marking Transcription : 

(Regents) 

Deduction for each MAJOR error : 2 credits. 
Deduction for each MINOR error : | credit. 

e. Final Percentage : 

Add the major errors on both papers and multiply 
by two (2). 

The maximum deduction for all minor errors is 
ten (10) credits. 

f. Shorthand Notes : 

The shorthand notes should be attached to the 
transcripts. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 75 



TERM IV 

18. THE END -TERM TEST 

a. Scope of Test : 

Five hundred (500) words of new matter of regents' 
difficulty to be divided as follows : 

250 words two letters : TOTAL VALUE 
250 words an article : 100%. 

b. Rate of Speed : 

Eighty (80) words a minute. 

c. Time Allowed for Transcription : 

One shorthand period for each test of 250 words. 

d. Schedule of Marking Transcription : 

(Regents) 

Deduction for each MAJOR error : 2 credits. 
Deduction for each MINOR error : f credit. 

e. Final Percentage : 

Add the major errors on both papers and multiply 
by two (2). 

The maximum deduction for all minor errors is 
ten (10) credits. 

f . Shorthand Notes : 

The shorthand notes should be attached to the 
transcripts. 



CHAPTER II 

THE SYLLABUS OUTLINE 



1. TIME SCHEDULE 

a. Nineteen weeks. 

b. Five periods each week. 

c. Length of period : 40 minutes. 



2. TEXT BOOKS 
a. Student 

1. Pitman's Shorthand Instructor. 

2. Pitman's Twentieth Century Dictation Book. 

3. Pitman's Shorthand Writing Exercises and Exam- 
ination Tests (when required by individual 
students). 

4. Eldridge's Shorthand Dictation Exercises. 

5. Century Handbook of English. 

6. Webster's Secondary School Dictionary. 

76 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 77 

TERM IV 
b. Teacher 

1. Students' text books. 

2. Pitman's Shorthand Writing Exercises and 
Examination Tests. 

3. Pitman's Shorthand Rapid Course. 

4. Reigner's Dictation Book. 

5. Business Letter Practice (Opdycke). 

6. Commercial Letters (Opdycke & Drew). 

7. Commentary on Pitman's Shorthand (Taylor). 

8. Methods of Teaching Shorthand (McNamara). 

9. Pitman's Shorthand Dictionary. 

3. THE OUTLINE 

a. Scope of Text Book Work : Miscellaneous 
Dictation 

1. Twentieth Century Dictation Book. 

Selection of letters from each of the various 
subjects listed in Contents, Part I, page 2. 

Selections from Miscellaneous Selections, Short 
Talks with the Amanuensis, and Practical Talks, 
Part II. 

6x (438) 



78 Isaac Pitman Shorthand 

TERM IV 

2. Eldridge's Shorthand Dictation Exercises. 

The teacher's selections of letters and articles. 

3. Shorthand Writing Exercises and Examination 
Tests. 

Selected review assignments for backward 
students. 

. 4. Century Handbook of Writing. 

Follow the detailed syllabus in English based 
on the above named text book and prepared 
especially for the use of the students in terms 
III and IV of the secretarial course. 

5. MISCELLANEOUS DICTATION. 

a. Letters 

1 . Business. 

2. Formal and informal social notes. 

3. Letters of introduction. 

4. Letters of application. 

b. Addresses or proclamations by 

1 . The President of the United States. 

2. The Governor of the State of New York. 

3. The Mayor of the City of New York. 

4. Other distinguished citizens. 

c. Patriotic addresses, editorials, articles, etc., 
tending to promote good citizenship. 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 79 

TERM IV 

d. Articles relating to the personality, the quali- 
fications, the duties, etc. of stenographers 
and typists and of private secretaries. 

e. Articles from histories, books on economics, 
etc. selected for their educational, informa- 
tional, or cultural value. 

f. Selections from American and English 
classics. 



b. The Principles of Shorthand 

Systematic review, concurrently with the dictation 
and transcription work, of the theory, grammalogs, 
contractions and phrases taught in terms I, II, 
and III. 

(The teacher is referred to the instructions under 
this caption in Stenography Syllabus, term III.) 

c. Class Dictation 

The teacher should follow the instructions under 
this caption in Stenography Syllabus, term III. 

d. Transcription 

1 . The transcription and correction of the dictated 
sentences illustrating correct sentence structure, 
punctuation, etc. ' : } 

2. The transcription of letters and articles as 
explained in this term's syllabus under the 
caption Transcripts. 



CHAPTER III 

REQUIREMENTS FOR 
PROMOTION 

Note : Only students who have frequently demonstrated 
that they possess the following qualifications 
should be recommended for promotion. 

1. SCHOLARSHIP IN TECHNIQUE 

(Ascertained by the teacher through correcting the 
frequent tests and some of the shorthand notes of 
matter dictated throughout the term.) 

a. Proficiency in vocabulary. 

b. Proficiency in the grammalogs. 

c. Proficiency in the common contractions. 

d. Proficiency in phraseography. 

e. The ability to apply the general principles of 
phonography while taking dictation at the rate 
of speed required. 

2. RATE OF SPEED 

The ability to take the dictation of letters and 
articles of regents' difficulty at the rate of 
eighty (80) words a minute. 
80 



Isaac Pitman Shorthand 81 

TERM IV 

3. SCHOLARSHIP IN TRANSCRIPTION 
WORK 

a. The ability to transcribe the above dictation 
with a minimum accuracy of sixty (60) per cent. 
(Regents' schedule of marking tests.) 

b. Proficiency in English, as shown by sentence 
structure, spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, 
etc. 

c. The ability to place typewritten matter 
artistically. 



Printed in Bath, England, by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. 
X (438) 



BUSINESS LETTER 



i= PRACTICE i= 

By JOHN B. OPDYCKE 

First Assistant, Department of English, Theodore Roosevelt High School, New York City 

The Last Word on the Business Letter 

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ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, Publishers 

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1 

7 (438) 



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THE PHONOGRAPHIC TEACHER. 48pp., 30c. 

A Guide to a Practical Acquaintance with the Art of Phonography. 

KEY TO THE "TEACHER." 30c. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND EXERCISES. 24pp., lOc. 
A series of graduated exercises. 

PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE STUDY OF ISAAC 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. f55c. 
A simple and extended exposition of the Art as presented in 

" Course in Isaac Pitman Shorthand," and specially adapted for 

mail correspondence. 

CONCISE RULES OF ISAAC PITMAN SHORTHAND. 16pp.. 25c. 
By WILLIAM BAIRD. For use with " Course." 

BRIEF RULES OF ISAAC PITMAN SHORTHAND. 25c. Compiled 
by CHARLES MILLER, LL.M., Instructor in Stenography and Type- 
writing, Columbia University, New York. 
Primarily, the work is intended as a companion to the Isaac Pitman 

shorthand texts, and will prove to be a help to students, teachers, 

and experienced writers. 

GRADED SHORTHAND READINGS. Elementary, 30c. Intermediate, 
Series 1 and 2, each 30c. Advanced, 30c. 

GRADUATED TESTS IN ISAAC PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 80 pp., 25c. 
A series of revisionary exercises, arranged on an entirely new plan, 

with the object of testing the student's knowledge of the system. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND READING LESSONS. No. 1. 38 pp., 30c. 
Furnishing reading practice and word-building from the beginning. 

KEY TO SHORTHAND READING LESSONS." No. 1, in ordinary 
type. 12c. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND READING LESSONS. No. 2. 36 pp., 30c. 

KEY TO SHORTHAND READING LESSONS." No. 2, in ordinary 
type. 12c. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND READING LESSONS. No. 3. 40 pp., 30c. 

KEY TO SHORTHAND READING LESSONS." No. 3, in ordinary 
type. 12c. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL READERS IN SHORTHAND. Four 
volumes. Each 48 pp. Price, each, 30c. 

PHONOGRAPHIC WORD-BUILDING. 60c. 
A series of 103 Graded Exercises. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND DRILL. 8 by 10^ in., 472pp., superior 
quality writing paper, $3.00. By CHARLES L. FRANK, B.Sc., LL.B., 
and JOSEPH JACOBS, B.Sc. 
The most complete and educative exercise book for shorthand 

students ever published. 

" Pitman's Shorthand Drill " seeks to correct many of the short- 
comings of the ordinary dictation book by first recognizing the fact 

that speed comes only as the result of drill ; first a drill on the short- 
hand principles, then on the grammalogs, contractions, and phrases. 

No amount of shorthand writing from dictation can take the place of 

such drill. 

Nathan Behrin, holder of the world's record for speed and accuracy, 

says : ' ' Pitman's Shorthand Drill ' is as far superior to any other 

dictation book that I have ever seen as Pitman's Shorthand is superior 

to any other existing system of shorthand." 



PITMAN'S DRILL EXERCISES. 65 pp., 35e. 

A Series of Revision Tests in ordinary type covering the whole of 
the Theory of the System. 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND MANUAL. 176 pp., Sl.OO ; cloth, $1.20. 

Being a condensed edition of Part I of the " Instructor." 
KEY TO "MANUAL." 30c. 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND REPORTER. 150 pp., Sl.OO ; cloth. $1.20. 

Being a condensed edition of Part 2 of the " Instructor," and an 
adaptation of Phonography to Verbatim Reporting. 
KEY TO THE "REPORTER." 30c. 
REPORTING EXERCISES. 25e. 

Intended as a companion to the " Reporter " ; containing exercises 
on all the rules and contracted words in this book. 
KEY TO THE REPORTING EXERCISES." 45e., cloth, 60c. 

In which all the Exercises are presented in Shorthand. 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND GRADUS. 8c. 

A series of Writing Exercises for use with the " Instructor " or 
" Manual." 
A COMPEND OF PHONOGRAPHY. 8e. 

Containing the Alphabet, Grammalogs, and principal Rules for 
Writing. 
PROGRESSIVE STUDIES IN PHONOGRAPHY. 50e. 

A simple and extended exposition of the art of Phonetic Shorthand. 
TALKS WITH SHORTHAND STUDENTS. Illustrated with Shorthand 

examples. 80e. By JAMES HYNES. 

LECTURETTES ON PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 60c. By JAMES HYNES. 
CHATS ABOUT PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. Cloth, gilt, 80c. 

Contains a series of 35 " Chats " on the system. 
SUMMARIES FROM PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 46pp., 12c. 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND CATECHISM. 132 pp., 85c. 



GRAMMALOGS AND CONTRACTIONS 

THE GRAMMALOGS AND CONTRACTIONS OF PITMAN 1 * 

"REPORTER." 12e. 
THE GRAMMALOGS AND CONTRACTIONS OF PITMAN'S 

" REPORTER," Vest pocket size, cloth, 12c. 
3IEMORY DRILLS ON THE GRAMMALOGS AND CONTRACTIONS 

OF PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 90pp., 70c. By D. J. GEORGE. 
A very unique book. No teacher or student can afford to be without 
a copy. A new and practical way of memorizing the Grammalogs and 
Contractions. The book contains 350 sentences for Memory Drill and 1 80 
letters for Speed Practice. Every Lesson except the first has sentences 
composed of nothing but grammalogs, phrases, and contractions. 
HOW TO PRACTICE AND MEMORIZE THE GRAMMALOGS. 

32pp., 2oe. By D. J. GEORGE. 

An extremely useful exercise book, arranged sectionally in the order 
in which they appear in the " Course " and the " Instructor." 

GRAMMALOG AND CONTRACTION DRILL CARDS. 

A Series of 14 cards printed in two colors. 



EXERCISES ON THE GRAMMALOGS AND CONTRACTIONS. 40 pp., 

limp cloth, 30c. By J. F. C. GROW. 

The feature of this useful book, which is specially adapted for the 
revision of the Grammalogs and Contractions, is that the exercises 
are arranged alphabetically. 

SHORTHAND DICTIONARIES 

ISAAC PITMAN'S SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. 336 plus xlvii pp., 

cloth, $2.50. 

Tenth Edition, revised and enlarged, containing the Shorthand 
Reporting Outlines, beautifully printed from engraved characters, of 
over 62,000 words, with parallel Key in ordinary type. A separate 
list of proper names of persons and places, and alphabetical lists of 
the Grammalogs and Contractions are given. The work also contains 
a valuable analytical Introduction, with Index, which explains at 
length the treatment of particular classes of words, and contains over 
1,000 illustrative examples. 
ENGLISH AND SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. 835 pp. " Library 

Edition," strongly bound in dark-green buckram cloth, colored 

edges, $3.50. Being an edition of the above work with the 

addition of the definition of each word. 
ISAAC PITMAN POCKET SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. 3 by 4 in. 

232pp., cloth, gilt, $1.00. 

Contains over 22,000 words, with their shorthand characters, and a 
complete list of the Grammalogs and Contractions. 
ISAAC PITMAN POCKET SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. 3J by 5 in. 

Bound in French Morocco, gilt, $1.50. 

Being an edition of the above work especially suitable for presentation 
purposes, etc. 
CUMULATIVE SPELLER AND SHORTHAND VOCABULARY. 145 pp., 

cloth, gilt, 70c. For further particulars of this work see page 15. 
THE REPORTER'S ASSISTANT. About 216pp., cloth, $2.00. 

A Key to the reading of the Reporting Style of Phonography. All 
the words in the dictionary, not exceeding three consonants, were 
written in Shorthand, and from this extensive list of outlines has been 
drawn all words that contain the same outline, and they have been 
classified according to their forms. Of great aid in reading one's notes. 

PHRASE BOOKS AND GUIDES 

THE PHONOGRAPHIC PHRASE BOOK. 138 pp., 60c. ; cloth, 75c. 

Containing about 2,000 useful phrases in Phonography, with Key 
and an exercise occupying 43 pages, containing all _the phrases as 
they occur in the book. 

MEDICAL REPORTING IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 87 pp., cloth, 
$1.00. By H. DICKINSON. 

This work has been specially prepared by one of the most experienced 
medical shorthand writers, and contains a valuable introduction dealing 
fully with medical note-taking, lists of phraseograms, outlines, and 
abbreviations, and includes numerous exercises for dictation practice. 
TECHNICAL REPORTING. 128 pp., cloth, $1.35. New Edition. 

Phonographic Abbreviations for words and phrases commonly met 
with in Reporting Legal, Medical, Scientific, and other Technical 
Subjects, with type Key. 

5 



PITMAN'S SHORTHAND WRITER'S PHRASE BOOKS AND 

GUIDES. Cloth, each 1.00. 

Each includes about 1,500 Technical Terms and Phrases, with 
Shorthand equivalents. 

DRAPERY STOCKBROKING AND FINANCIAL 

ELECTRICAL AND ENGINEERING COMMERCIAL 

SHIPPING LEGAL 

RAILWAY MUNICIPAL 

ESTATE AGENTS, ETC. IRON AND STEEL TRADES 

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING CIVIL ENGINEERING 

INSURANCE NAVAL AND MILITARY 

BANKING BUILDER AND CONTRACTOR 

CHEMICAL AND DRUG TRADE PROVISION TRADE 



SPEED PRACTICE AND DICTATION 

PRACTICE LETTERS FOR BEGINNERS IN SHORTHAND. 64 pp., 
36c. By D. J. GEORGE. 

A new dictation book on novel lines. The need felt by practical 
teachers of a book which presents dictation matter in the form of 
letters beginning with the first principles and developing in harmony 
with the textbooks is filled by this handy little book. 
PRACTICAL BUSINESS LETTERS IN SHORTHAND. 64 pp., 35c. 

A series of 76 Business Letters in engraved Isaac Pitman's Shorthand, 
with Key in ordinary type. 

Every letter in this book is adapted from an original commercial 
letter. 
GRADUATED DICTATION BOOKS. 47 pp., 20c. each. 

Divided for speeds of 50, 80, 100, and 160 words per minute. 
No. 1 Commercial. No. 2 Political. 
KEY, IN SHORTHAND, TO THE GRADUATED DICTATION BOOK, 

Nos. 1 and 2. 30c. each. 

PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SHORTHAND. 
224pp., cloth, $1.35. 

A series of model Business Letters in engraved Phonography. 
COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE AND COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. 
272pp., cloth, $1.35. 

A practical manual of Commercial Correspondence, forming a Key 
to " Commercial Correspondence in Shorthand." All the letters are 
counted for shorthand and typewriting speed practice, and editions 
are published in Spanish, French, and German. 
THE SHORTHAND DICTATION INSTRUCTOR. 240 pp., cloth, $1.00. 
By EDWIN H. GRAVER, High School of Commerce, New York. 

Teachers feel the need of an exercise book that will have a direct 
bearing upon the student's progress from the time he begins dictation 
until he finds employment. This book supplies the needs of the 
intermediate student by presenting a variety of letters, articles, and 
suggestions for his advancement, arranged with vocabularies of engraved 
shorthand outlines containing words and phrases sufficient for every 
ordinary requirement of the stenographer. The review lessons on 
difficult shorthand principles, the facsimile letters and engraved short- 
hand plates, the hints about how to do business by letter, how to 



apply for a position and get it, what the employer wants his steno- 
grapher to know and to be able to do, how to prepare for examinations 
and high-speed contests all will aid the ambitious student to reach 
the goal of stenographic efficiency. 
PITMAN'S PROGRESSIVE DICTATOR. 220pp., cloth, gilt, $1.00. 

By H. W. HAMMOND, F. R. BEYGRAU, and W. L. MASON. 
A complete manual of Dictation, comprising selections of letters 
originating in actual business dictation and are intended to illustrate 
the use of English in commercial literature. The most up-to-date 
methods of presentation and correct English will be found. The letters 
have been drawn from 27 different trades and professions, each selection 
being preceded by a shorthand vocabulary and list of phrases. 
tfPITMAN'S THEORY PRACTICE BOOK. Part I, stiff paper covers, 

80c. Part II, stiff paper covers, 80c. In ordinary type. By 

EDWIN W. SMITH, North Side High School, Denver, Colo. 
This work is designed to save the time of the pupil as well as the 
teacher. It is not mere theory, but is the outgrowth of successful 
teaching experience, and proved its value in the results achieved by 
pupils who have followed its teachings and who have made good. 
PITMAN'S 20th CENTURY BUSINESS DICTATION BOOK AND 

LEGAL FORMS. 294 pp., stiff boards and cloth back, 85c. ; 

cloth, $1.10. Eighth Edition. 

Containing an up-to-date collection of genuine letters (in ordinary 
type) which have been used in the transaction of actual work in large 
American business houses. 

A Iso published in two parts, as follows 
Part I. BUSINESS DICTATION. 168pp., stiff boards and cloth 

back, 70c. Containing fifty distinct lines of business. 
Part II. LEGAL FORMS AND MISCELLANEOUS SELECTIONS, Etc. 

103 pp., stiff boards and cloth back, 4oc. 
THE STUDENT'S PRACTICE BOOK. 241pp., cloth, $1.00. By 

K. E. WILEY. 

A Collection of Letters for Acquiring Speed in Writing Shorthand. 
PITMAN'S ADVANCED SPEED PRACTICE. 185 plus xviii pp., cloth, 

$1.00. By ARTHUR M. SUGARMAN. 

Contains articles on " How to Obtain Speed," written by experts, 
and instructive and interesting articles on a great variety of subjects 
culled from the daily newspapers, periodicals, magazines, books, etc. 
The whole is counted for speed. 

SPEED TESTS AND GUIDE TO RAPID WRITING. 240 pp., cloth, 80c. 
FIVE MINUTE SPEED TESTS. 252 pp., cloth, $1.00. 
PITMAN'S REPORTING PRACTICE. Cloth, gilt, $1.50. 

Provides teachers and students with suitable matter for reporting 
practice. 
BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE IN SHORTHAND, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 

5, 6, and 7. 40 pp., each. 30c. each 

A series of valuable books containing actual correspondence in various 
branches of business. Each book Keyed in ordinary type and the 
matter counted for speed practice in either shorthand or typewriting. 

LIST OF CONTENTS. 

No. 1. Subjects treated : Railroad Correspondence Law (General) 
Law (Patents) Law (Pensions) Banking Stock Brokers Hard- 
ware Lumber Boots and Shoes Miscellaneous Power of 
Attorney, Form, etc. 

7 



No. 2. Subjects treated : Real Estate Correspondence Financial 

Legal and Law Hardware Dry Goods Insurance Electrical 

Boots and Shoes Lumber Publishing Miscellaneous, etc. 
No. 3. Subjects treated : Advertising Correspondence Agents 

Automobile Bicycle Boiler Appliance, etc. 

No. 4. Subjects treated : Boiler Appliance Correspondence Book- 
binding Builders Collections Copying Office Cotton Desks 

Dry Goods Drugs, etc. 
No. 5. Subjects treated : Dry Goods Correspondence Electrical 

Construction Express Financial Standing Fire Insurance Flour 

and Feed Furniture, etc. 
No. 6. Subjects treated : Groceries Hardware Hotel Investment 

Legal Life Insurance, etc. 
No. 7. Subjects treated : Life Insurance Lumber Municipal 

Paper and Envelopes Patents and Trade Marks Patent Foods 

Pensions Pianos Pottery, etc. 
* # * This work is also published in the following convenient forms in 

cloth binding 

Nos. 1 and 2, in one volume, 80 pp., cloth, gilt, 65c. 
Nos. 3 and 4, in one volume, 80 pp., cloth, 65c. 
Nos. 5 and 6, in one volume, 80 pp., cloth, 65c. 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, in one volume. Special Shorthand Edition without 

Type Key. 88 pp., cloth, gilt, 85c. 
ADVANCED REPORTING EXERCISES. 78pp., 60c. 
BRIEF REPORTING EXERCISES. 86pp., 60c. 
HOW TO OBTAIN SPEED IN SHORTHAND. 20pp., lOc. 

Containing practical advice from the best known reporters throughout 
the country. The whole of the matter is counted for dictation. 
THE ACQUISITION OF SPEED IN PHONOGRAPHY. 24pp., 30c. 

In ordinary type. 

SPEED TRAINING IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 48pp., 20c. By 
T. F. MARRINER. 

Contains a twelve weeks' Course, setting out a definite scheme of 
study and speed practice. 



ADAPTATIONS OF ISAAC PITMAN'S 
PHONOGRAPHY TO OTHER LANGUAGES 

TAQUIGRAFIA ESPANOLA DE ISAAC PITMAN. 119pp., cloth, 
gilt, $1.30. 

Adaptaci6n a la Lengua Espanola del Sistema de Fonografia del 
Autor. Para uso de Escuelas de Comercio, Institutes y tambien para 
Estudio Personal. 

Being an Adaptation of Isaac Pitman's Shorthand to the Spanish 
Language. 
KEY TO "TAQUIGRAFIA ESPANOLA." Cloth, gilt, $1.00. 

With additional Exercises. 

SPANISH PHONOGRAPHY. $1.25. By G. PARODY. 
SPANISH SHORTHAND COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 56 pp., 
75c. 

A series of business letters in Spanish Phonography, with the Key 
in ordinary type. 

8 



FRENCH PHONOGRAPHY. Cloth, 80c. By T. A. REED. 

Third Edition, revised and enlarged. An adaptation of Phonography 
to the French language. 
STENOGRAPHIE PITMAN. Cloth, $1.25. Par SPENCER HERBERT. 

An adaptation of Isaac Pitman's Phonography to the French language. 
fMETHODE DE PHONOGRAPHIE PITMAN. 57pp., $1.26. By 

H. DELAJOUX. 
LESSONS IN FRENCH PHONOGRAPHY. By " STENOS." In 

preparation. 
FRENCH SHORTHAND COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 89 pp., 

cloth, 75c. 

A Series of Business Letters in French Phonography, with type Key. 
GERMAN PHONOGRAPHY. 64 pp., crown 8vo, cloth, 85c. 

An adaptation of Phonography to the German language. 
DUTCH PHONOGRAPHY. $2.50. By F. DE HAAN. 

An adaptation of Phonography to the Dutch language. 
PITMAN'S PHONOGRAPHY ADAPTED TO ESPERANTO. Limp 

cloth, 50c. 
JAPANESE PHONOGRAPHY. Complete. $1.25. 



SHORTHAND READING BOOKS 

The student, to increase his speed, and to improve his knowledge 
of Phonography, cannot read too much well-engraved shorthand. One 
advantage of studying the Isaac Pitman system and one which 
cannot well be over-estimated is, that the shorthand literature in 
that system is far in excess of all other systems combined. 

ELEMENTARY STYLE. 

AESOP'S FABLES. 30c. In words of one syllable. 
EASY READINGS. 25c. With Key. 
THE LEARNER'S SHORTHAND READER. 25c. 
STIRRING TALES. 56pp., 30c. 

PERILS OF THE BUSH, AND OTHER TALES. 30c. 
SHORT STORIES. 30c. 

INTERMEDIATE STYLE. 

PITMAN'S PHONOGRAPHIC READER, No. 1. 30c. 
THE RUNAWAY AIRSHIP, AND OTHER TALES. 96 pp., 70c. 
THE THIRTEENTH HOLE, AND OTHER TALES. 70c. 
SUBMARINE X7, AND OTHER TALES. 91 pp., 60c. 
THE DIAMOND APE, AND OTHER TALES. 96 pp., 60c. 
THE HINDOO IDOL, AND OTHER TALES. 87 pp., 70c. 
SELECT READINGS, No. 1. 48pp., 25c. 

Partial list of selections : " A Rill from the Town Pump " (NATHANIEL 
HAWTHORNE) ; " The Heart of London " (CHARLES DICKENS) ; " The 
Man in Black " (OLIVER GOLDSMITH) ; " Household Superstitions " 
(JOSEPH ADDISON) ; " Caught in the Quicksand," etc. 
SELECT READINGS, No. 2. 48pp., 30c. 

Containing " A First Night at Sea " (RICHARD H. DANA) ; "Niagara " 
(DICKENS) ; " The Candid Man " (BULWER LYTTON), etc. 
TALES OF ADVENTURE. 88pp., 60c. 
THE BATTLE OF LIFE. 120 pp., cloth, 80c. By CHARLES DICKENS. 



THE SILVER SHIP OF MEXICO. 132 pp., cloth, Sl.OO. By J. H. 

INGRAHAM. 
THE BOOK OF PSALMS. 174 pp., roan, gilt, $1.25. 

GULLIVER'S VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. 88pp., cloth, 80e. By 

DEAN SWIFT. 
TALES AND SKETCHES. 96 pp., 80c. ; cloth, $1.00. With printed 

Key. By WASHINGTON IRVING. 
THE VICAR OF WAKEFIELD. Illustrated. 280pp., 80c. ; cloth, 

$1.00. By OLIVER GOLDSMITH. 
ONE IN A MILLION, AND OTHER TALES. 70c. 

ADVANCED STYLE. 

THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW. 62 pp., 30c. With printed 

Key. By WASHINGTON IRVING. 
RIP VAN WINKLE. 32 pp., 30c. With printed Key. By WASHINGTON 

IRVING. 

PITMAN'S PHONOGRAPHIC READER, No. 2. 30c. 
THE RETURN OF SHERLOCK HOL3IES. Vols. I, II, and III. Cloth, 

each $1.00. By A. CONAN DOYLE. 
SELECTIONS FROM AMERICAN AUTHORS. 112pp., 60c. ; cloth, 

75c. With Key in ordinary type at the foot of each page. 
Containing selections from the works of Washington Irving, Mark 
Twain, Bret Harte, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Benjamin Franklin, 
Edgar Allan Poe, W. E. Channing, and Nathaniel Hawthorne. 
SELF-CULTURE. 91 pp., 60c. ; cloth, 80c. By J. S. BLACKIE. 

Intellectual, Physical, and Moral. 
SHORT CUTS IN SHORTHAND. 48 pp., 45c. 

Contains 800 abbreviated phrases and short cuts in engraved shorthand. 

THE SIGN OF FOUR. 171 pp., 60c. ; cloth, 80c. By A. CONAN DOYLE. 
TALES FROM DICKENS. 147 pp., 80c. ; cloth, $1.00. 

Containing " The Tuggs's at Ramsgate," " The Bloomsbury Christen- 
ing," " The Great Winglebury Duel," and " Mr. Watkins Tottle," 
from " Sketches by Boz." 
AROUND THE WORLD IN EIGHTY DAYS. 160pp., 85c. ; cloth, 

$1.00. By JULES VERNE. 
A CHRISTMAS CAROL, lllpp., 60c. ; cloth, 80c. By CHARLES 

DICKENS. 
HOW TO OBTAIN SPEED IN SHORTHAND. 20 pp., lOc. 

Containing practical advice from well-known reporters. The whole 
of the matter is counted for dictation. 

THE BIBLE IN SHORTHAND. Cloth, beveled boards, red edges, 
$4.00 ; roan, gilt edges, $5.00. 

Each style has a silk marker and comes boxed. Containing the Old 
and New Testaments. 
THE CHURCH SERVICES (ENTIRE). 935pp., roan, $3.50 ; morocco, 

$4.50. In an Easy Reporting Style. 

GARDEN OF THE SOUL. In Pitman's Shorthand, freely vocalized, and 
beautifully reproduced. In leather, gilt, 202 pp., 5 by 3 in. $1.00. 

Compiled from authorized sources, and containing a selection of 
recognized Prayers and Devotions in General Use, Devotions for Mass, 
Various Litanies, Instructions on the Sacraments, etc., etc. 

10 



WORKS ON SHORTHAND 



A COMMENTARY ON PITMAN'S SHORTHAND, or The Teachers 

Vade Mecum. 384pp., cloth, 2.00. By J. W. TAYLOR. 
This work takes rank as the most authoritative analysis of the basic 
principles of Phonography yet published. The author, James William 
Taylor, has crystallized in this work the results of many years of 
experience in successfully teaching the Isaac Pitman system. Engraved 
shorthand examples are given which cover the whole of the principles, 
and the Commentary contains what practically amounts to a classi- 
fication of the words in the " Shorthand Dictionary " under their 
respective rules. 

THE METHODS OF TEACHING SHORTHAND. Cloth, gilt, $1.50. 

By EDWARD J. MCNAMARA. 

Containing a plan of instruction for shorthand classes that will 
furnish practical solutions to many of the problems that confront the 
teacher in the classroom. The wide experience of the author has 
enabled him to make the treatise pre-eminently practical. 
THE TEACHING OF SHORTHAND IN INTERMEDIATE OR JUNIOR 

HIGH SCHOOLS. Parts I and II. Each, 35c. By W. L. MASON. 
This work is not intended as a textbook in any sense of the word, 
but as a teacher's manual for working out in a practical way the 
lessons presented in the " Course." Doing the work in the manner 
indicated will inevitably arouse not only interest but enthusiasm on 
the part of the young people taking up the study of Phonography. 
HISTORY OF SHORTHAND. 258 pp., cloth, gilt, $2.50. By SIR 

ISAAC PITMAN. Fourth Edition, revised and enlarged. 
THE LIFE OF SIR ISAAC PITMAN, INVENTOR OF PHONOGRAPHY. 

392 pp., cloth, gilt, gilt top, $2.00. 

With 50 illustrations, including photogravure and many other 
full-page plates, consisting of portraits, views, and facsimiles. 
NOTES OF LESSONS ON PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 109 pp., cloth, 85c. 
PREPARATION FOR A SHORTHAND TEACHER'S EXAMINATION. 

Cloth, 65c. 
DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND WORDS IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. 

71 pp., 80c. 

ttTHE STENOGRAPHIC EXPERT. 264pp., cloth, $2.25. By 
WILLARD B. BOTTOME and W. F. SMART. 

Contains 96 pages of Isaac Pitman engraved shorthand notes. 
The desire of every ambitious stenographer is " to sit in the reporter's 
chair " in court, and to reach the object of his ambition it is absolutely 
necessary that he familiarize himself not only with the best methods 
of acquiring speed and accuracy, but the forms, technical practice, 
and procedure of the court room. This can be done only in two ways : 
by slowly and laboriously learning through the few opportunities for 
practice work that present themselves from time to time, or to profit 
from the experiences of others. 

" The Stenographic Expert " is the embodiment of the experience 
of its authors in every step of shorthand work from the humblest 
commercial office to the reporter's chair in the Supreme Court. 
Nothing is omitted and no detail is left unexplained. 

11 



PITMAN'S EXAMINATION NOTES ON SHORTHAND. 48 pp., 

cloth, 65c. 
Containing valuable information for teachers. With shorthand 

illustrations. 

tfSHORTHAND TEACHER AND CLERICAL ASSISTANT EXAM- 
INATION.' 180pp., cloth, $1.00. By MEYER E. ZINMAN. 

fTHE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SHORTHAND. 256pp., cloth, $2.00. 

By DR. WESTBY-GIBSON. 
Comprising a list of all known printed Works and Manuscripts on 

Stenography. 

A STEREOPTICON LECTURE ON SHORTHAND. Paper covers, 32 pp., 
lOc. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND AND TYPEWRITING YEAR BOOK AND 
DIARY. 65c. 

MOTOR TRADE PHRASE BOOK. 

DUTCH GRAMMALOGS. 30c. 



STATIONERY 

REPORTERS' NOTE-BOOK. For pen or pencil. 

Isaac Pitman & Sons' " Fono " Series. Specially made ELASTIC 
BOUND (unless otherwise stated), opening PERFECTLY FLAT. The paper 
contained in these note-books is expressly manufactured, and is of a 
very superior quality, the peculiar fibre of same permitting of a high 
rate of speed in shorthand writing. The old style note-book, on account 
of its cheap stiff binding, has a constant tendency to close, and when 
forced open will not lie flat. Liberal discount by the dozen. 

END OPENING. 

No. 6 FONO " SERIES, 200 pp., 5 by 8 in 35c. 

" 5 " " 200pp., 5 by 8 in., marginal line . 85c. 

" 5 " " 200 pp., 5 by 8 in., marginal line 

and pages numbered 1 to 

200 40c. 

" SA " 200 pp., 5 by 8 in., narrow ruling . 35c. 

" 5s " " 200pp., 5 by 8 in., marginal and two 

additional faint blue lines 40c. 

" SB " " with pages numbered 1 to 200 . 40c. 

" 6c " " 200pp., 5 by 8^ in., six vertical 

lines . . . . 40c. 

" 5c " " with pages numbered 1 to 200 . 45c. 

" SE " " 200pp., (pencil paper), 5 by 8 in. . 35c. 

" SF 200 pp., 5 by 8 in., one center line 35c. 

" 6c " 200 pp., 5 by 8 in., one center line, 

narrow ruling . . 36c. 

" 6n " " 200 pp., 5 by 8 in., five vertical 

lines, pages numbered . 40c. 
" 5j " " 5 by 8 in., eight marginal lines 

and pages numbered . 45c. 
" 7 " 200pp., 4J by 8Jin., stiff board 

covers, three marginal lines 35c. 

12 



No. 7 "FONO" SERIES, 200pp., 4J by 8Jin., with pages 

numbered . . . 40c. 

8 " " 100pp., 4J in. by 8 in., stiff board 

cover and numbered pages 40c. 

" 8 " " 100pp., 4f by 8in., stiff board 

cover, numbered pages 
and one marginal line . 40c. 

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cover, one marginal line 
and pages numbered . 40c. 

" 10 " " 200pp., 5 by 8 in., marginal line 

and pages numbered 
(stitched) . . . 40c. 

20 " " 200pp., 5J by 8fin., stiff board 

covers, blue narrow ruling 
and red marginal line and 
numbered pages . . 45c. 

SIDE OPENING 

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lines 35c. 

6s " " 160pp., 5J by 84 in., line down 

center .... 35c. 

STUDENTS' NOTE-BOOKS 

No. 2" FONO " SERIES, 140 pp., 4 by 6 in. ... 18c. 

" 3 " " 200pp., 4 J by 7 Jin. . . . 22c. 



TYPEWRITING 



PRACTICAL COURSE IN TOUCH TYPEWRITING. Fifteenth Edition, 
revised and enlarged, 70c. ; cloth, $1.00. By CHAS. E. SMITH, 
Author of "Cumulative Speller." 

A Scientific Method of Mastering the Keyboard by the Sense of Touch. 
The design of this work is to teach touch typewriting in such a way 
that the student will operate by touch will have an absolute command 
of every key on the keyboard, and be able to strike any key more 
readily without looking than would be the case with the aid of sight. 
A separate Chart containing Keyboard and Diagrams printed in five 
colors, on a heavy double-calendered cardboard, accompanies each 
copy. The best course of instruction in typewriting ever published. 
Adopted by the New York, Boston, and Baltimore Boards of Education. 

It is an interesting fact that George L. Hossfield, who won the World's 
Typewriting Championship in 1918, Miss Rose L. Fritz, four times 
winner of the Championship, and Miss Margaret B. Owen, also four times 
winner (in 1913, 1915, 1916, and 1917) learned touch typewriting from 
this textbook. 

PRACTICAL COURSE IN TOUCH TYPEWRITING. Special Underwood 
Edition for Models 3, 4, and 5. 80c. ; cloth, $1,20, 

13 



tHIGH SPEED IN TYPEWRITING. 108 pp., 90c. ; cloth, $1.15. 

By A. M. KENNEDY and FRED JARRETT. 

Complete in Fifty Lessons. Each Lesson is divided into four exercises. 
The fourth exercise of each of the fifty lessons is graded in such a way 
that the operator commences the work at a speed of 4.7 strokes per 
second, or 50 words in the minute ; and finishes the fiftieth lesson with 
a speed of 9.3 strokes per second, or 102 words a minute. 
ADVANCED TYPEWRITING AND OFFICE TRAINING. 136 pp., 50c. 

Practice book for advanced students. 
A TYPEWRITING CATECHISM. 150pp., size 8 by 10 in., $1.50. 

By Mrs. SMITH-CLOUGH. 

The aim of this work is to make the study of typewriting as vitally 
interesting as possible. 
fTHE RAPID LETTER-CENTERING CHART. With 16-page booklet 

of Instruction. 25e. 
fHOW TO TEACH TYPEWRITING. Size 8 by 10 in., 94pp., cloth, 

82.00. By KATE PICKARD. 
A DICTIONARY OF TYPEWRITING. 276 pp., $3.00. With numerous 

plates and examples. By H. ETHERIDGE. 

A standard work of reference on all matters relating to typewriting 
and typewriters, for the use of students, typists, teachers, and others 
interested in typewriters. 

MECHANICAL DEVICES OF THE TYPEWRITER. 88 pp., 46 
illustrations and 28 diagrams, cloth, $2.50. 

BUSINESS ENGLISH, OFFICE 
PRACTICE, Etc. 

HOW TO BECOME AN OFFICE STENOGRAPHER. Cloth, $1.50. 
By WILLIAM L. MASON. 

A complete course intended for the untrained shorthand student who 
is ambitious to secure a good position without previou* experience, 
and adapted for use as a textbook in business schools and high school 
commercial departments. The Course is thoroughly up to date, and 
follows the actual practice of the best houses in America. Many 
genuine forms and illustrations are included. 
SUPPLEMENTARY FORMS FOR " HOW TO BECOME AN OFFICE 

STENOGRAPHER." 75c. 
tf STENOGRAPHER AND TYPIST. 315 pp., $1.00. 

A book of preparation for Civil Service Positions. 
HOW TO BECOME A LAW STENOGRAPHER. 168pp., boards, 
$1.00 ; cloth, $1.25. By W. L. MASON, a Law and Convention 
Reporter of 30 years' experience. 

For Stenographers and Typists. Fifth Edition, revised and enlarged. 
A Compendium of Legal Forms containing a complete set of Legal 
Documents accompanied with full explanations and directions for 
arranging the same on the typewriter. 

A large number of legal words and phrases have been added to the 
new edition, together with engraved shorthand outlines. 

Explanations of the meanings of the technical terms employed and 
a carefully compiled list of the Latin phrases in common use are given. 
A useful feature is the very complete Index with cross references. 

14 



INSTRUCTION IN LEGAL WORK. 40pp., 25c. 

In ordinary type. For Court Stenographers and Law Students. 
Reprinted from " Pitman's Twentieth Century Dictation and Legal 
Forms." 
STYLE BOOK OF BUSINESS ENGLISH. 234 pp., cloth, gilt, $1.10. 

Seventh Edition, revised. By H.W. HAMMOND & MAX J. HERZBERG. 
For Stenographers and Correspondents. This new treatise will 
especially appeal to the teacher of English wherever it is seen. Teachers 
of this subject using this work can feel assured of vastly better results 
than they have ever before secured. The new edition contains a special 
chapter on Card-Indexing, Letter-Filing, and the Duties of a Private 
Secretary. In every instance the usage indicated has been based on 
actual correspondence, but the material has been so arranged as to be 
pedagogically most effective. The book will be found of more than 
ordinary helpfulness to students preparing for the Regents' and 
Teachers' Examinations. Adopted by the New York High Schools. 
KEY TO " STYLE BOOK." 25c. 
PITMAN'S CUMULATIVE SPELLER. 1 12 pp., cloth, 50c. By CHARLES 

E. SMITH, Author of "A Practical Course in Touch Typewriting." 
A modern and practical speller for Commercial Education. As the 
title indicates, the plan is cumulative. 

A special edition of " Cumulative Speller " is also issued with a 
SHORTHAND VOCABULARY for schools teaching the Isaac Pitman 

system. Cloth, gilt, 145pp., 70c. 
EXERCISES ON CUMULATIVE SPELLER. 56pp., 35c. 

A series of Graded Exercises on the words in the various lessons. 
In ordinary type. 

BOOK OF HOMONYMS. 192 pp., cloth, $1.30. By B. S. BARRETT. 
PITMAN'S POCKET COMMERCIAL DICTIONARY. 384pp., stiff 

boards, oOc. The latest and best pocket dictionary. 
BOOKKEEPING SIMPLIFIED. 272 pp., cloth, gilt, $1.50. By FRED 

J. NEY. 

The object of this new work has been to supply the wants, not only 
of the examination room, but also of the modern American office, 
embodying, as it does, all the essentials of bookkeeping. 
KEY TO "BOOKKEEPING SIMPLIFIED." Cloth, $1.30. 



LANGUAGES 



" Like all Pitman publications in modern languages, the book is 
practical and sensible, and on the mechanical side attractively printed 
and bound." Journal of Education, Boston, on " A New German 
Grammar." 

Books marked f authorized by the New York Board of Education. 
Books marked * are used in the College of Business Administration of 
Boston University. 

(For dictionaries in several languages, see p. 22.) 

SPANISH 

PITMAN'S PRACTICAL SPANISH GRAMMAR AND CONVERSATION 
FOR SELF-INSTRUCTION. 112 pp., 60c. ; cloth, 75c. 

15 



f*PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAM31AR. 166pp., cloth, 

$1.50. By C. A. TOLEDANO. 

This book contains in its exercises and conversations an abundant 
commercial phraseology, and at the same time a thorough treatise on 
Spanish Grammar. Those rules and illustrations which would be too 
cumbersome in the body of the book are given in appendixes which 
the student will find of extreme use for reference. A synopsis of Spanish 
conjugations compiled on an original plan, will be found of great aid 
in mastering the Spanish irregular verbs. It is both a practical com- 
mercial grammar and a complete grammar of the Castilian language, 
written by a competent master as well as a commercial man of long 
experience. 
KEY TO "COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR." 85c. 

EASY SPANISH CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. 32pp., 25c. 
With literal interlinear translation and imitated pronunciation. 

ADVANCED SPANISH CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. 32 pp., 25c. 

SPANISH BUSINESS LETTERS. Series I, 25c. Series II, 30c. 32 pp. 

With Vocabulary. 
SPANISH COMMERCIAL PHRASES. 32 pp., 25c. 

t*PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SPANISH. 

267pp., cloth, gilt, $1.35. 

An edition of " Commercial Correspondence " (already published in 
English, French, and German) in Spanish. The work gives all the 
letters contained in the other editions, and there is, in addition, a full 
account of the Spanish Weights and Measures and the Spanish Coinage. 

" In view of the present relations with Spanish-speaking people and 
of our enlarging prospects in this direction, this manual should prove 
most helpful to all exporters and their correspondence." Scientific 
American (New York). 

*MANUAL OF SPANISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 360 pp.. 
cloth, gilt, $1.65. By G. R. MACDONALD. 

Contains an extensive selection of commercial letters in Spanish and 
in English, with footnotes, carefully graduated, explaining commercial 
terms with which the reader is likely to be unacquainted. Besides the 
large number of letters and exercises in both languages, there have been 
included market reviews of all kinds, and Stock Exchange and financial 
reports, exhaustive lists of textiles, countries, numerals, colors, technical 
and mechanical terms, and a very comprehensive vocabulary in both 
languages. 

" However fluently one may speak Spanish, this manual will prove 
invaluable in the transaction of business with the other Americans. It 
also contains exhaustive lists of textiles, countries, numerals, colors, 
technical terms, and a very helpful vocabulary combined to make the 
work the most helpful book of reference for any shipping office. "- 
South American (New York). 

*SPANISH BUSINESS CONVERSATIONS AND INTERVIEWS. 

114pp., cloth, 85c. New Edition. 

" There has been a very decided need for a book of this character. 
The collection of letters which conclude the volume is especially strong 
in conveying the spirit of Spanish correspondence as well as the form 
and special vocabulary," American School Board Journal (Milwaukee). 



PITMAN'S READINGS IN COMMERCIAL SPANISH. 79 pp., 

cloth, 70c. 
SPANISH TOURISTS' VADE MECUM. Cloth, 60c. Everyday 

Phrases. With Vocabularies, Tables. 

f*SPANISH C03D1ERCIAL READER. 250pp., cloth, $1.35 By 
G. R. MACDONALD. 

These commercial readings in Spanish are specially adapted for 
students preparing for examinations or for a commercial career. 
Guided by a long experience of teaching, and knowing the special 
requirements of such examinations, the author has arranged a selection 
of some 70 articles dealing with commercial subjects of every descrip- 
tion. Extensive market reviews, financial and industrial reports, as 
well as a vocabulary of the words and expressions employed in the 
articles, form a useful part of the volume. 

fENGLISH-SPANISH AND SPANISH-ENGLISH COMMERCIAL 
DICTIONARY. 820 pp., cloth, gilt, $3.00. By G. R. MACDONALD, 
Author of "Manual oj Spanish Commercial Correspondence," etc. 

A complete work of reference for students and teachers of Spanish, 
and for those engaged in foreign correspondence ; containing all the 
Words and Terms used in Commercial Correspondence which are not 
contained in the Dictionaries in ordinary use, Compound Phrases, 
Idiomatic Expressions, etc. 

For the purpose of easy reference, the names of countries and their 
corresponding adjectives have been grouped together, and the names 
of the days of the week, the months of the year, the cardinal and 
ordinal numbers are also given, together with tables of Spanish money, 
weights and measures, and of abbreviations commonly used in Spanish. 
In this new edition a large number of words and definitions have been 
added and extensive improvements have been made throughout in 
order to bring it completely up-to-date. 

%* The only authorized edition of this valuable work. In order- 
ing through a bookseller insist upon having the edition bearing the 
imprint oj Isaac Pitman & Sons on the title-page. All other editions are 
reproductions from old plates and are completely out of date. 
SPANISH VERBS. 180 pp., cloth, $1.00. By G. R. MACDONALD. 

A complete treatise dealing with Spanish verbs in a manner that 
will make the subject interesting and help the student to remember 
what is necessary. Regular and irregular verbs are dealt with, including 
an analysis of the chief irregularities, the correct use of the tenses, 
the uses of verbs in many idiomatic forms, and short cuts or easy rules 
to commit to memory. 

SPANISH IDIOMS, WITH THEIR ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. Crown 

8vo, 102 pp., $1.25. By R. D. MONTEVERDE, B.A. 
An indispensable work to all taking up the study of Spanish, or 
those interested in Spanish literature. 
LESSONS IN SPANISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 107 pp., 

85c. By G. R. MACDONALD. 
COMMERCIAL AND TECHNICAL TERMS IN THE ENGLISH AND 

SPANISH LANGUAGES. Crown 8vo, 120pp., $1.50. By R. D. 

MONTEVERDE, B.A. 

Together with weights and measures for the use of schools and for 
self -instruction . 

17 

8 (438) 



FRENCH 

HITMAN'S FRENCH COURSE. Part I. New Edition. Limp cloth, 

60c. By V. F. HIBBERD. 

This book contains an outline of the Grammar to the end of the 
regular verbs, together with conversational phrases and sentences, 
short stories, and double vocabularies. The rules are stated concisely 
and clearly, and the lessons are very carefully graded. 
PROGRESSIVE FRENCH GRAMMAR. Part I, 336 pp., cloth, $1.45; 
Part II, 225 pp., cloth, $1.00. By Dr. F. A. HEDGCOCK, Officier 
de I' instruction publique ; Officier d' Academie, and the only English 
Docteur-es-lettres of the University oj Paris. 

The method is a combination of the direct with the indirect, and 
by means of phonetic type, a closely approximate idea of French 
pronunciation is conveyed. 
KEY TO PARTS I AND II OF PROGRESSIVE FRENCH GRAMMAR. 

Si 35 
*FRENCH-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-FRENCH COMMERCIAL 

DICTIONARY. 576 pp., cloth, gilt, $2.00. By F. W. SMITH. 
Contains the words and terms used in Commercial Correspondence 
which are not given in the dictionaries in ordinary use. Compound 
Phrases, Idiomatic and Technical Expressions, etc. 

Practically every word that most people are likely to require is 
included, and the work abounds in terms and phrases specially employed 
in commerce. 
*PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL FRENCH GRAMMAR. 166pp., cloth, 

$1.00. 

A thorough treatise on French Grammar containing in its exercises an 
abundant commercial phraseology. The grammar is taught on normal 
lines ; accidence and syntax have been, as far as possible, blended. 
PITMAN'S PRACTICAL FRENCH GRAMMAR. 128pp., paper 

boards, 45c. ; cloth, 55c. 

And Conversations for Self-Instruction, with copious Vocabulary and 
Imitated Pronunciation. 
A CHILD'S FIRST STEPS IN FRENCH. 64pp., cloth, SOc. By 

A. VIZETELLY. New Edition with tinted illustrations. 
" This little book really ' is different.' It is a child's book, dealing 
with things dear to the child heart. There are 64 lessons, the subject 
matter well chosen, the exercises well graded, and almost every page 
illustrated." Sierra Educational News (San Francisco). 

" The illustrator has caught the pose and expression of children 
intent upon work or play." American School Board Journal. 
fPITMAN'S FRENCH COMMERCIAL READER. 208 pp., cloth, gilt, 

$1.50. 

Deals in an interesting manner with the leading Commercial and 
National Institutions of France. 

The reading matter is most carefully selected, and while the student 
of French is improving his mastery of the language, he is at the same 
time getting a good insight into French commercial methods. Accuracy 
is assured, as the Reader has been prepared under the supervision of 
well-known masters in modern languages. 
COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN FRENCH. 240 pp., cloth, 

$1.35. 

Gives all the letters of the " Commercial Correspondence in English " 
translated into French. 

18 



GRADUATED FRENCH-ENGLISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPON- 
DENCE. 160 pp., cloth, 85c. By MAURICE DENEVE. 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON FRENCH. 50pp., cloth, 60c. By F. 
W. M. DRAPER. 

FRENCH BUSINESS LETTERS. Scries I, 31 pp., 30c. Series II, 30c. 
With many notes in English. 

EASY FRENCH CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. 32pp., 25c. 
With literal interlinear translation and imitated pronunciation. 

ADVANCED FRENCH CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. 32 pp., 25c. 

PITMAN'S READINGS IN COMMERCIAL FRENCH. 90 pp., cloth, 50c. 

*PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS, ENGLISH- 
FRENCH. 250 pp., cloth, gilt, '$1.35. 

JUNIOR FRENCH COMMERCIAL READER. Cloth, 80 pp., 50c. By 
F. W. M. DRAPER. 

Treats of industry, commerce, distribution, and production. 
MODELS AND EXERCISES IN COMMERCIAL FRENCH. 180pp., 
cloth, $1.00. By E. T. GRIFFITHS. 

Students and teachers of Commercial French will find in this book 
an exceedingly useful collection of commercial passages in French for 
unseen translation. 

GRADUATED LESSONS IN COMMERCIAL FRENCH. 159 pp., cloth, 
85c. By F. MARSDEN. 

This book may be used with advantage right from the early stages of 
the study. 

TOURIST'S VADE MECUM OF FRENCH COLLOQUIAL CONVERSA- 
TION. 91 pp., cloth, 65c. 

A careful selection of every-day Phrases in constant use. 
fFRENCH BUSINESS INTERVIEWS. 114pp., cloth, 85c. 

With Correspondence, Invoices, etc., each forming a complete 
Commercial Transaction, including Technical Terms and Idiomatic 
Expressions, with copious vocabulary and notes in English. 
FRENCH COMMERCIAL PHRASES AND ABBREVIATIONS. 30 pp., 

30c. 

RAPID 31ETHOD OF SIMPLIFIED FRENCH CONVERSATION. 
192pp., cloth, $1.00. 

A valuable aid to anyone teaching or learning by the direct method. 
FRENCH VOCABULARIES AND IDIOMATIC PHRASES. 128pp., 
cloth, 85c. By EDWARD J. KEALEY, B.A. 

This collection of idiomatic phrases and words suggested by them is 
intended for the student who is anxious to learn to think and to express 
his thoughts in French. Regular and systematic effort in the matter 
in this book will enable him to have the 3,000 phrases in it at his 
fingers' ends well within a year. 

FRENCH FOUNDATION BOOK OF VERBS, ACCIDENCE AND 
SYNTAX. 91 pp., 50c. 

This little book provides the indispensable information in French 
Verbs, Accidence, and Syntax, without a thorough knowledge of 
which a pupil cannot speak or write simple French correctly. It is 
not supposed that French can be learnt from it alone, but it is hoped 
that it will prove useful to masters who teach their pupils by some 
well-developed Direct Method, and yet find it necessary to fix the 
rules of the language by some definite learning and exercise. This 
book is a Memory Aid and Drill for that purpose. 

19 



ENGLISH-FRENCH AND FRENCH-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF 
BUSINESS WORDS AND TERMS. 

With a List of Abbreviations in General Use. Vest-pocket Edition. 
2Jin. by 6 in.,-540 pp., cloth, $1.35. 

GERMAN 

A NEW GERMAN GRAMMAR. 295pp., cloth, $1.50. By JOHN 

KEEGAN, M.A. 

A complete and reliable up-to-date Grammar for use in high schools 
and for study without a master. 

" This attractive new German Grammar not only provides a carefully 
graduated approach to German, but also contains all the essentials of 
the language, so that it may be retained as a reference work after the 
learner has mastered the elements. The author has sensibly not 
assumed a knowledge of English on the part of the student, and has 
frequently taken the trouble to explain principles underlying English 
usage as well as German." Journal of Education (Boston). 
PITMAN'S PRACTICAL GERMAN GRAMMAR. New Edition. 

112pp., cloth, $1.00. 
PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL GERMAN GRAMMAR. 182pp., cloth, 

$1.00. 

A companion volume to " Spanish Commercial Grammar," teaching 
the rules of German Grammar on the basis of a commercial vocabulary. 
PITMAN'S GERMAN COMMERCIAL READER. 208 pp., cloth, gilt, 

$2.00. 

Is prepared on similar lines to the " French Commercial Reader." 
PITMAN'S READINGS IN COMMERCIAL GERMAN. 90pp., cloth, 

50c. 

With many notes and translations in English. 
COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN GERMAN. 240 pp., cloth, 

$1.35. 

Gives all the letters of the " Commercial Correspondence " translated 
into German, with useful notes at the foot of each letter. 
PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. ENGLISH- 
GERMAN. 250pp., cloth, gilt, $1.50. 
GERMAN BUSINESS INTERVIEWS. Series I and II, each 100 pp., 

each 65c. 

With Correspondence, Invoices, etc. 
ELEMENTARY GERMAN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

143 pp., cloth, 85c. 
GERMAN-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-GERMAN DICTIONARY OF 

BUSINESS WORDS AND TERMS. Pocket Edition, 6 by 2 in., 

$2.00. 
EASY LESSONS IN GERMAN. 116 pp., cloth, 85c. By J. 

BlTHELL, M.A. 

Twenty-six interesting graduated lessons are given, each of which 
is followed by exercises. 

GRADUATED GERMAN-ENGLISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPON- 
DENCE. 212 pp., cloth, $1.50. By M. DENEVE. 

In this handbook the student will find a thorough vocabulary, 
together with specimen letters introducing special words and showing 
how they can be handled. 

20 



GERMAN GRAMMAR FOR SCIENCE STUDENTS. Cloth, $1.25. 
By W. A. OSBORNE and E. E. OSBORNE. 

Written to enable students to read scientific articles and treatises 
published in the German language. 
EASY GERMAN CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. 32pp., 30c. 

With literal interlinear translation and imitated pronunciation. 
ADVANCED GERMAN CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. 32 pp., 30c. 
TOURISTS' VADE MECUM OF GERMAN COLLOQUIAL CONVER- 
SATION. 65c. 
GERMAN BUSINESS LETTERS. 43pp., 25c. First Series. 

With numerous marginal vocabulary and notes in English, and 
letters in German script characters. 
GERMAN BUSINESS LETTERS. Second Series. 48 pp., 25c. 

ITALIAN 

NAVAL DICTIONARY. ITALIAN-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-ITALIAN. 

356 pp., cloth, $4.00. By W. T. DAVIS. 

A dictionary of Naval and Mercantile Ship and Marine Engineering 
Terms and Phrases. For the use of ship's libraries, naval architects, 
and marine engineers, etc. 
PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 154pp., cloth, 

$1.35. By LUIGI RICCI, Professor at the University of London. 
" Professor Ricci, an Italian with the advantages of English residence 
and experience, has brought together in about 70 lessons the main 
principles of Italian Grammar and Syntax, illustrating them with over 
1,400 useful commercial phrases and idioms, and providing abundant 
material for practice in the 116 exercises scattered through the book. 
The volume also contains a complete list of irregular verbs, a vocabulary, 
and an index. It is invaluable to the prospective user of Italian in 
business." Journal of Education (Boston). 

TOURIST'S VADE MECUM OF ITALIAN COLLOQUIAL CONVER- 
SATION. 96pp., cloth, 60c. 
With Vocabularies, Tables, etc. 

PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. ENGLISH- 
ITALIAN. Cloth, gilt, $1.50. 

BARETTI'S DICTIONARY OF THE ITALIAN AND ENGLISH 
LANGUAGES. In 2 vols. : Vol. I, 796 pp. ; Vol. II, 758 pp., cloth, 
gilt, $7.50. Edited by J. DAVENPORT and G. COMELATI. 
ITALIAN BUSINESS LETTERS. 48pp., 30c. By A. VALGIMIGLI. 
The book should be of great practical value to students of Italian 
commercial letter writing. As is known, the tonic accent in Italian 
generally falls on the penultimate syllable, and words deviating from 
this rule have been accented throughout in the present manual. 

PORTUGUESE 

A PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF THE PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE. 

325 pp., cloth, $2.00. By C. A. and A. TOLEDANO. 

PITMAN'S INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE LETTERS. ENGLISH- 
PORTUGUESE. Cloth, gilt, $1.35. 

LESSONS IN PORTUGUESE COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

120pp., cloth, 85c. 

21 



A NEW DICTIONARY OF THE PORTUGUESE AND ENGLISH 

LANGUAGES. In 2 vols., cloth, gilt. Portuguese-English and 

English-Portuguese. 6.00 each. Each volume sold separately. 

Based on a MS. of JULIUS CORNET. By H. MICHAELIS. Second Ed. 

Enriched by a great number of technical terms used in Commerce, 

Industry, Arts and Sciences, and including a great variety of expressions 

from the language of daily life. 

ABRIDGED DICTIONARY OF THE PORTUGUESE AND ENGLISH 
LANGUAGES. In 2 Parts : I, Portuguese-English ; II, English- 
Portuguese. Both parts in one vol., $7.50. By H. MICHAELIS. 
Including technical expressions of Commerce and Industry, of 

Science and Arts. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

DICTIONARY OF COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SEVEN 
LANGUAGES. 718pp., cloth, gilt, $3.00. New Edition, enlarged 
and thoroughly revised. 

A standard work containing thousands of expressions used in Com- 
mercial Correspondence in English, French, German, Italian, Portu- 
guese, Spanish, and Russian, and many of the terms are not to be 
found in ordinary dictionaries. It also contains a considerable number 
of model letters. A book' indispensable to the modern business office. 
INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL DICTIONARY IN FOUR LANGUAGES. 
English, Italian, French, and German. 16mo. 921 pp., cloth, 
$4.00. By E. WEBBER, Engineer. 

The words included are those likely to be needed by the electrical or 
the mechanical engineer ; by the manufacturer, the chemist, and the 
physicist ; by the importer and the exporter. 
A RAH, WAY TECHNICAL VOCABULARY. Crown 8vo, 220pp., 

cloth, $2.50. By L. SERRAILLIER. 

Comprising over 5,000 French, English, and American Technical 
Expressions relating to Railway Management. 
PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL TERMS AND PHRASES IN FIVE 

LANGUAGES. 3 by Sin., 118pp., cloth, 85c. 
PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL ESPERANTO. 80pp., cloth, $1.00. By 

W. M. PAGE. 

A Handbook of the International Language for World Traders. 
AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF IDO. 24 pp., 25c. By L. DE 

BEAUFRONT. 

The Natural International Language, with the simplest Grammar 
and Vocabulary, resulting from the survival of the Fittest Elements 
in the principal Historical Languages. 
IDO COMPLETE MANUAL. 300pp., cloth, $2.50. 

Consisting of Grammar, Grammatical Exercises, Key, and 
Vocabularies. 

HUGO'S SYSTEM 
Grammars 

Cloth. Cloth. 

FRENCH SIMPLIFIED $2.00 ITALIAN SIMPLIFIED $2.00 

DUTCH " $2.00 PORTUGUESE $2.00 

GERMAN $2.00 SPANISH " $2.00 

RUSSIAN SIMPLIFIED. Cloth, $2.00 

22 



Phrase Books, Etc. 

Cloth. Cloth. 

FRENCH PHRASE BOOK 60c. FRENCH VERBS 70c. 

GERMAN " " 60c. SPANISH PHRASE BOOK 60c. 

ITALIAN " " 60c. SPANISH VERBS SIMPLIFIED 85c. 

RUSSIAN READING MADE EASY. Cloth, $1.70. 

FRENCH READING SIMPLIFIED. Cloth, $1.70. 

FRENCH CONVERSATION SIMPLIFIED. $1.70. 



VOCATIONAL and ART WORKS 

THE ART OF PAINTING IN PASTEL. 189pp., and 40 full page 
colored plates and 15 other illustrations, cloth, gilt, $5.00. By 
J. LITTLEJOHNS, R.B.A., and L. RICHMOND, R.B.A. 

A book which has the special advantage of having been written and 
illustrated by two artists of repute who have a thorough knowledge of 
pastel, and use it habitually with power and distinction. Their 
technical directions are practical and intelligible, and are calculated 
not only to assist the student greatly in his work, but to enable the art 
lover to grasp surely the principles by which all pastel painting that is 
to be reckoned as sound and legitimate should be directed. The 
sections into which the book is divided cover adequately the whole 
ground over which the pastel-painter is likely to travel, and the 
explanatory text is ample for all educational purposes ; and the 
illustrations deserve high praise for their artistic merit and quality. 
THE ART OF BASKET-MAKING. 154pp., with 74 illustrations, 
cloth, $2.00. By THOMAS OKEY. 

" This is a well-written, excellently illustrated book, and the work is 
described clearly and in details. The book will be of great service to 
anyone interested in this line of work. Industrial Arts Magazine 
(Milwaukee). 

BUSY WORK FOR NIMBLE FINGERS. 128 pp., 15 colored plates, 
14 black-and-white, and 91 diagrams, cloth, $1.85. By ANNIE 
GAWTHORPE. 

A Course of Handwork for Infants and Juniors. 

CANE WEAVING FOR CHILDREN. 40 pp., 30c. Nineteenth Edition. 
By LUCY R. LATTER. 

An educational method of hand training. 

CHILDREN'S GARMENTS. Their Planning, Cutting, and Making. 
142pp., with 141 diagrams and illustrations, cloth, $3.00. By 
EMILY WALLBANK. 

" This book fills the need for simple drafts and directions for cutting 
garments. There is an excellent table of measurements and all through 
the book the most explicit directions are given. The book will be 
very helpful for those making a specialty of children's garments, and 
particularly interesting and helpful to an instructor who expects to 
teach the making of garments. It should be added to all libraries of 
art textbooks." Journal of Home Economics (New York). 

" With the present high cost of clothes of all kinds it will be welcomed 
by home demonstration agents and other social workers who help 
mothers to spin out adequate work." The Survey (New York). 

23 



*CLAY MODELLING FOR INFANTS. 128pp., 80 practical and sug- 
gestive illustrations, cloth, $1.00. By F. H. BROWN, A.R.C.A. 

" This is a book of a variety of models beautifully illustrated with 
adequate suggestions, and is an admirable guide to the teacher."- 
Journal of Education (Boston). 

CLAY MODELLING FOR SCHOOLS. With 29 half tone illustrations 
and 54 diagrams, cloth, $2.00. By STEWART TAYLOR. 

A suggestive course for teachers of modelling, which will provide a 
progressive scheme of study, and should be easily referred to when 
guidance upon any particular aspect is needed. 

CLAY MODELLING FOR JUNIORS. 160 pp., 100 illustrations, cloth, 
$1.25. By F. H. BROWN, A.R.C.A. 

The methods suggested in " Clay Modelling for Infants " are here 
further developed. 

DRAWING. From Drawing as an Educational Force to Drawing as 
an Expression of the Emotions. Bound in buckram. 6| by 8 in. 
102 plus xii pp. plus 32 full-page plates, $3.50. By A. S. HARTRICK. 

" His book is a plea for sound teaching : it may be called in the best 
sense, Academic. He states his views clearly and buttresses his 
position by the authority of many eminent artists whom he has known, 
as well as by that of the great masters of the past ; and his conclusions 
are not likely to be challenged. . . Mr. Hartrick rightly desires to 
bring to the study of drawing, and also to the schools, something of the 
free outlook with which we face the world in daily life, so that there 
shall be real impulse and search for expression behind the work done."- 
GEORGE CLAUSEN, R.A., in the Foreword. 

fDRAWING AND DESIGN. 10 by 7in., 224pp., 18 plates in color, 
and 148 other illustrations and diagrams. Cloth, $5.35. By 
SAMUEL CLEGG. 

A School Course in Composition. This book should be particularly 
useful in a girls' school or in a mixed school, for special attention is 
paid to design in needlework. Art and craft work are linked together. 
The subject of lettering and manuscript writing is treated suggestively 
as part of the course in Art. 

DRAWING FROM MEMORY AND MIND PICTURING. 6| by 8 in. 
60 pp., plus 43 full-page plates, $3.00. By R. CATTERSON-SMITH, 
M.A. Edited by F. MORLEY FLETCHER. 

" All who are concerned with the teaching of art have become aware 
that accomplished studies in drawing or painting may be made and yet 
leave the student with little or no increase of artistic power. Studies in 
mere representation seem to exercise only a superficial faculty, and may 
be carried on without stirring deeper perceptions. They frequently add 
nothing to the memory that is of use, and may lead to no increase of 
the store of remembered form upon which inventive design depends. 

" Mr. Catterson-Smith has given many years of labor and research to 
the study of memory training for artistic purposes, and in this book 
gives his matured opinions and a series of remarkable results gained by 
methods he has devised. His pioneer work covers new ground 
untouched by earlier authorities. His results and his ingenious methods 
provide a new resource in art teaching, and increase our knowledge of 
latent powers that may be trained to great uses in the art of the 
future." Prefatory Note by the Editor. 

This is the only work in the English language dealing with the 
subject. The eminence of the Author in the world of art makes the 

24 



book of first importance, and it should find a place in the library of 

everyone concerned with art, if only for the beauty of the illustrations 

and the innate excellence of the book as a whole. 

AN EMBROIDERY PATTERN BOOK. 179 pp., with half tone illus- 
trations, cloth, gilt lettering, $3.00. By MARY E. WARING. 
Embroideresses who will begin by adapting the elements given in 

this Pattern Book, and gain interest and confidence in so doing, will 

go forward insensibly to varying the elements themselves, and to taking 

flowers and animals direct from Nature. 

DRESS CUTTING AND MAKING. For the Classroom, Workroom, and 
Home. 271 pp., with 265 diagrams and illustrations, cloth, $3.00. 
By EMILY WALLBANK. 

EMBROIDERY AND DESIGN. 103pp., over 100 illustrations, cloth, 

$2.00. By JOAN H. DREW. 
The writer endeavors to arouse in her readers a desire for better 

designs, and greater individuality and thought in the home embroidery 

of to-day. The difference between decorative and undecorative work 

is clearly explained with the aid of many illustrations, and these are 

of the right size for tracing and working. 

'KNITTING FOR INFANTS AND JUNIORS. In foolscap 4to, about 
64 pp., with over 40 plates and other suggestive illustrations, cloth, 
$1.30. By ETHEL M. DUDLEY, L.L.A. 

fSIMPLE LESSONS IN COLOR, COMMON OBJECTS. 160 pp., with 36 

full-page colored plates, cloth, gilt, $3.00. By H. A. RANKIN. 
A Practical Manual of the elementary principles of color as applied 

both to animate and inanimate objects. 

LESSONS IN COLOR, II. FLOWERS. 183pp., with 40 full-page 
colored plates, cloth, gilt, $3.00. By H. A. RANKIN, Author of 
"Simple Lessons in Color," "Pencil Drawing," etc. 
An extension of the principles of Vol. I. 

NEEDLEWORK FOR STUDENT TEACHERS. 259pp., illustrated 
with 200 diagrams, cloth, $3.00. Ninth Edition. By AMY K. SMITH. 

THE OPEN-AIR SCHOOL. In crown 8vo, 188 pp., with 50 illustra- 
tions, cloth, $1.00. By HUGH BROUGHTON, B.Sc. (London). 

PAPER CUTTING AND MODELLING FOR JUNIORS. 176pp., and 
250 illustrations, cloth, $1.70. By J. E. TOLSON, L.L.A. 

PAPER FLOWER MAKING. A Kindergarten Occupation for Girls 

and Infants. 74 pp., 4 colored plates, 150 illustrations, cloth, 85c. 

By Miss F. E. MANCHESTER. 
PASTEL WORK FOR THE STANDARDS. In three books, Junior, 

Intermediate, and Senior, each containing a two years' course. 

Vol. I, 85 pp., 19 colored plates ; Vol. II, 84 pp., 21 colored plates ; 

Vol. Ill, 81 pp., 16 colored plates. Each volume in demy 8vo, 

cloth, $1.85. By ALBERT G. TOMPKINS. 
PASTEL WORK, or COLOR WITH CRAYONS. Vol. I, Common 

Objects. 160pp., 32 full-page colored plates, cloth, $3.40. By 

H.' A. RANKIN. 
PASTEL WORK. Vol. II, Flowers. 188pp., 36 full-page colored 

plates, cloth, gilt, $3.40. By the same Author. 
PENCIL DRAWING. 220 pp., with 153 illustrations, cloth, gilt, 

$3.10. By the same Author. 

This manual is addressed especially to teachers learning the art of 
teaching Drawing, and should prove of great assistance in removing 

25 



practical difficulties, and also give considerable insight into the 
principles underlying the rules and conventions of the subject. 
RAFFIA WORK. 96pp., and 134 diagrams and 6 full-page plates, 

cloth, gilt, $1.70. By ALFRED H. BOWERS. 

SIMPLE PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATION. 190pp., and profusely 
illustrated with more than 20 magnificent full-page colored plates 
and about 60 black-and-white illustrations, many of which are full- 
page, and all will be found both novel, suggestive, and instructive. 
Cloth, $3.50. By F. H. BROWN, A.R.C.A., and H. A. RANKIN. 
" This book has already proven its merits by being officially listed 
by the New York Board of Education for use in the schools. To the 
teacher who knows that drawing of much illustrative material enlivens 
the lesson, this book will prove very suggestive and practically 
helpful." The School (New York). 
SIMPLE DRESSMAKING. 200pp., 750 plates, cloth, $4.00. By 

E. R. HAMBRIDGE. 

This book deals exhaustively with the various stitches and fastenings 
used in Dressmaking and their applications, Pressing, Making-up 
Processes, Taking Measurements, Cutting-out ; and also contains some 
notes on Fitting. 
SONGS AND GAMES OF BABYLAND ABROAD. 100pp., cloth, 

$1.50. By LOUIE JESSE. 

THE TEACHING OF COLOR. 178 pp., and 55 color plates and black- 
and-white illustrations, cloth, gilt, $3.00. By H. A. RANKIN. 
TOY-MAKING FOR INFANTS. In demy 8vo, 120pp., with 20 full- 
page colored plates and 32 black-and-white illustrations, cloth, 
$1.35. By BERTHA EDEN. With a Foreword by P. B. BALLARD, 
M.A. D.Lit. 

THE HANDICRAFT OF WOOD CARVING. With 27 half tone 
illustrations and 49 diagrams, cloth, $2.00. By JAMES JACKSON. 
Not merely a reference book showing how the student may avoid 
difficulties, but explaining how he may master them. A manual on 
which he may safely rely for guidance in the early stages, and which 
will enable him to grasp thoroughly the method of working, the par- 
ticular uses and characteristics of wood, and the adaptability of tools. 
It will teach the student how to carve, not merely how to cut wood. 
WOODWORK FOR INFANTS AND JUNIORS. In demy 8vo. With 
28 full-page illustrations, about 64 pp., cloth, 80c. By ETHEL S. 
MORLAND. 
WEAVING FOR BEGINNERS. 114pp., with 62 illustrations, $2.00. 

By LUTHER HOOPER. 

A simply written book explaining making, mounting, and working 
a handloom. 

* These works have been authorized by the New York Board of 
Education for the Day and Evening High Schools, the Day and Evening 
Elementary Schools, and the Intermediate Commercial Schools. 

THE ARTISTIC CRAFTS SERIES 

BOOKBINDING AND THE CARE OF BOOKS. 352pp., with 122 
drawings by NOEL ROOKE, 8 pp. collotype reproductions, $3.00. 
Fourth Edition. By DOUGLAS COCKERELL. 
A capital proof of the reasoned thoroughness in workmanship, which 

26 



is the first article in the creed of those who are attempting to carry 
into practice the industrial teaching of Ruskin and William Morris. 

DRESS DESIGN. An Account of Costume for Artists and Dressmakers. 

A Handbook on Historic Costume from early times, containing 
over 600 figures, 35 collotype reproductions for 100 specimens of 
Genuine Dresses, besides 80 Scaled Patterns, taken from Antique 
Apparel, together with over 400 illustrations of Head-dresses and 
Footwear, 4.00. By TALBOT HUGHES. 

" This is indeed a trustworthy textbook of workshop practice with 
the objective to set up a standard of unquestioned quality, and to put 
artistic craftsmanship before people as furnishing reasonable occupa- 
tions for those who would gain a livelihood. ... A most important 
and practical book for all interested in the designing of dresses and 
costumes." Jewish Tribune. 

EMBROIDERY AND TAPESTRY WEAVING. 420pp., 178 diagrams 
and illustrations by the Author. 16 pp. of collotype reproductions, 
$4.00. Third Edition. By Mrs. A. R. CHRISTIE. 
Mrs. Christie has performed her task to admiration and her lucid 
explanations of various kinds of stitches will be of value to all workers 
at embroidery or tapestry weaving, and to novices anxious to learn. 

HAND-LOOM WEAVING. 368 pp., 125 drawings by the Author and 
NOEL ROOKE. Colored and collotype reproductions, $3.40. By 
LUTHER HOOPER. 
Every phase and process in Weaving is described with so clear and 

careful an exactitude that, helped as the text is by the Author's 

sketches and diagrams, the reader should have no difficulty in 

conquering with its aid the rudiments of the craft. 

MANUSCRIPT AND INSCRIPTION LETTERS. 12 by 9J in. With 5 
Plates by A. E. R. GILL, 16 Plates in all. Full notes and descrip- 
tions by the Author, $3.00. Second Edition. By EDWARD 
JOHNSTON. 

STAINED GLASS WORK. 392pp., with 73 diagrams and 16pp. of 

collotype reproductions, $3.40. By C. W. WHALL. 
It provides an exposition at once instructive and interesting of the 
workshop practice of the craft of Stained Glass, animated throughout 
by an encouraging and cheerful sense of the dignity and the elevating 
influence of such an occupation. 

WOODCARVING : DESIGN AND WORKMANSHIP. 320 pp., 79 
drawings by the Author, 16 pp., of collotype reproductions, 
$3.00. Second Edition. By GEORGE JACK. 

" Undoubtedly the best guide to Woodcarving extant. ... A 
practical work, written with clearness and literary power by a practical 
man . . . of great artistic talent. . . . The illustrations are excellent." 
The Builders' Journal. 

WOOD-BLOCK PRINTING. A description of the craft of Wood- 
cutting and Color-printing based on the Japanese practice. With 
an Original Print in color, designed and cut by the Author, printed 
by hand on Japanese paper, together with working diagrams and 
23 full-page collotype reproductions of Wood-block Printing and 
Process, $3.00. By F. MORLEY FLETCHER, 

27 



WRITING AND ILLUMINATING AND LETTERING. 512pp., 227 

illustrations and diagrams by the Author and NOEL ROOKE. 8 pp. 

of Examples in red and black. 24 pp. of collotype reproductions, 

$3.40. Tenth Edition. By EDWARD JOHNSTON. 

"... This book belongs to that extremely rare class in which 

every line bears the impress of complete mastery of the subject. We 

congratulate Mr. Johnston on having produced a work at once original 

and complete." The Athenaeum. 



ft THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA AND 
DICTIONARY OF EDUCATION 

THIS great English Encyclopaedia, which has taken nearly ten years 
to prepare, is being published in four handsome volumes of about 
500 pp. each, and contains 2,250 separate articles by specialists in all 
parts of the world on the various subjects. The price of the complete 
set is $25.00. Separate volumes, $6.50 each. 

The general Editor, Professor FOSTER WATSON, M.A., D.Litt., is 
one of the most distinguished scholars of the day, and a well-known 
contributor to various important standard works, and a writer of 
great repute. Under the Editor's personal direction, every care has 
been taken to make the Encyclopaedia as comprehensive, up-to-date, 
and reliable as possible. 

During the last few years the evolution of educational theory and 
practice in all branches has been particularly rapid, and educationists 
of all countries have made enormous and important contributions to 
the literature on Education. The very mass of such literature makes 
an educational gazetteer of wide information imperative. An ency- 
clopaedia is not only a gazetteer of types and movements, it is also, 
within certain limits, so to say, a series of descriptive maps, of theory, 
practice, methods, organization, and administration of education. It 
is, further, a vast domain of modern civilization. It is a guide-book 
on a large scale, but it also contains the outline of a great inheritance, 
the tradition from the past and tradition in the making in the present, 
the guarantees of the hope for the future of the world. 

It is the manifest business of all on whom the education of the 
nation in any measure devolves to keep pace with educational progress. 
All concerned with teaching, those connected in any way with educa- 
tional organization and administration, publicists, parents and students, 
simply cannot afford to do without this great work, which will give 
them vital information concerning education as it is to-day. Authors 
and compilers of educational textbooks, and writers on educational 
subjects generally, will find it a reference book of inestimable value. 

The educational systems of not only the English-speaking countries, 
but of practically every country in the world, have been outlined, in 
most cases by educationists whose spheres of work have lain in those 
particular countries. Clear, accurate, and succinct accounts by those 
foremost in educational circles are given of all types of teaching 
institutions in the British Isles and Dominions ; among the American 

28 



contributors appear such well-known names as Paul Monroe, Ph.D., 
LL.D., John Dewey, Ph.D., LL.D., and C. H. Judd, Ph.D., LL.D. 

An important feature of the work is the illuminative list of articles 
on the scientific theory of education, embracing the. psychological, the 
medical, and other rapidly changing aspects on which well-known 
educationists and other experts from all parts of the world have made 
up-to-date contributions. 

While considerable space has been devoted to the theory and practice 
of education, the historical aspect has also received careful attention. 
Due prominence has been given to the lives and teachings of great 
educationists and others who have made important contributions, 
although less directly, to education. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



COMPLETE GUIDE TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE MEMORY. 

116 pp., cloth, 65c. By Rev. J. H. BACON. 

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF CONTINUATION TEACHING. 

364 pp., cloth, gilt, $2.40. By C. H. KIRTON, A.C.I. S. 

CATS FOR PLEASURE AND PROFIT. 126 pp., $2.00. By FRANCES 
SIMPSON. With 25 half -tone illustrations. New and Revised Edition. 

GREAT ASTRONOMERS. 372 pp., cloth, $3.00. By Sir ROBERT S. 
BALL, F.R.S. With numerous illustrations. 

IN THE HIGH HEAVENS. Cloth, $3.00. By Sir ROBERT S. BALL. 

IN STARRY REALMS. 370 pp., cloth, $4.00. By Sir ROBERT S. BALL. 
With numerous illustrations. 

ROSES AND ROSE GROWING. $3.00. By ROSE G. KINGSLEY. 

With a chapter on " How to Grow Roses for Exhibition," by the 

Rev. F. PAGE-ROBERTS. With 28 full-page colored plates, and 9 

half-tone illustrations. 

" The book is one that can be thoroughly recommended to all rose 

growers . . . and as a gift book its illustrations alone make it worth 

the buying." The Garden. 

NEW ROSES. 35c. Supplement to " Roses and Rose Growing." 

FURS AND FURRIERY. 9 by 6 in. 370 pp., with 183 illustrations, 
cloth, gilt, $10.50. By C. J. ROSENBURG. 

A practical work on furs and the fur trade, and the making-up of 
fur garments. 

" This excellent work will prove to be of unusual interest and value 
to the practical furrier. It is profusely illustrated, and goes into the 
practical end of the fur industry in a most thorough and illuminating 
manner. It fills a long-felt want, and should prove invaluable to 
manufacturers, designers, workers, and students. It is one of the few 
practical books on the Furriers' Trade, and is quite up to date. 
Fur Trade Review (New York). 



29 



AUTHORIZED PUBLICATIONS 

For 1920, 1921, and 1922 for the Day and Evening High Schools, 

the Day and Evening Elementary Schools, and the Intermediate 

Schools of the CITY OF NEW YORK 



DAY AND EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS 

Books on High School List may be ordered for Intermediate Schools, 

LIST NO. SHORTHAND 

3745 Aesop's Fables in Isaac Pitman Shorthand. 

3748c Practice Letters for Beginners in Shorthand. 

3748H Memory Drills on the Grammalogs and Contractions. 

3748: Review Lessons in Isaac Pitman Shorthand. 

3748j Self-Culture in Isaac Pitman Shorthand. 

3748L Tales and Sketches in Isaac Pitman Shorthand. 

3748M Gulliver's Voyage to Lilliput in Isaac Pitman's Shorthand. 

3752 Grammalogs and Contractions in Pitman's Shorthand. 

3781 Pitman's Dictation Instructor. 

3782 Key to Shorthand Writing Exercises and Tests. 

3783 Business Correspondence in Shorthand, 1 to 4 in one volume. 

3784 Pitman's Shorthand Rapid Course. 

3785 Selections from American Authors in Shorthand. 

3786 Business Correspondence in Shorthand Nos. 1, 5 & 6 as ordered. 

3787 " " " Nos. 1 & 2 in one vol. 

3788 " " " No. 2. 

3789 " " " Nos. 3 & 4 in one vol. 

3790 Course in Isaac Pitman Shorthand. 

3791 Progressive Dictator. 

3792 Isaac Pitman Shorthand Instructor. 

3793 Shorthand Writing Exercises and Examination Tests. 

3794 20th Century Business Dictation and Legal Forms. 

3798 Pitman's Graded Shorthand Readings, Elementary. 

3799 " " " " Intermediate. 

3800 " " " " Advanced. 

3801 Supplementary Exercises in Pitman's Shorthand. 

3802 Vicar of Wakefield in Pitman's Shorthand. 
4227 Taquigrafia Espanola de Isaac Pitman. 
4285 Shorthand Dictionary (Complete). 

6057c Brief Reporting Exercises. 

6117 Commentary on Pitman's Shorthand. 

6118 Methods of Teaching Shorthand. 

6119 Notes of Lessons on Pitman's Shorthand. 

6120 Pitman's English and Shorthand Dictionary. 

6121 The Sign of Four in Pitman's Shorthand. 

6158 The Students' Practice Book. 

6159 Pitman's Advanced Speed Practice. 
8664 French Phonography. 

TYPEWRITING 

3812 Practical Course in Touch Typewriting (Charles E. Smith). 

5869 Advanced Typewriting and Office Training. 

30 




SPANISH AND FRENCH 

Pitman's Commercial Spanish Grammar (Toledano). 
French-English and English-French Commercial Dictionary. 
Spanish Commercial Reader (Macdonald). 
Manual of Spanish Commercial Correspondence. 
Spanish Commercial Correspondence (Monteverde) . 
Spanish-English and English-Spanish Commercial Dictionary. 
French Commercial Reader. 
French Conversations and Business Interviews. 

VOCATIONAL 

5245A Drawing and Design. 

5261 Simple Lessons in Color. 

6017 Principles and Practice of Continuation Teaching. 

6062G The Art of Painting in Pastel. 



DAY AND EVENING ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

LIST NO. SHORTHAND 

6475 Course in Isaac Pitman Shorthand. 
6474 Isaac Pitman Shorthand Instructor. 

6476 Smith's Cumulative Speller and Shorthand Vocabulary. 
6561 Isaac Pitman Shorthand Dictionary. 

TYPEWRITING 

3748N High Speed in Typewriting (Kennedy & Jarret). 
6468 A Practical Course in Touch Typewriting (Chas. E. Smith), 
Balanced Hand Method. 

BUSINESS ENGLISH 

6483 Style Book of Business English (Hammond & Herzberg). 

Note. Works on the Elementary List are also available for Day 
and Evening High and Intermediate Schools. 

OFFICE PRACTICE 

3748K How to Become an Office Stenographer (W. L. Mason). 



PERIODICALS 



PITMAN'S JOURNAL. An American Magazine for Isaac Pitman 

writers. 

Per year in advance, 75c. ; Canada and foreign countries, 80c. 
Special club rates on application. Volumes I, II, III, and VII, f $3.00 ; 
other volumes, $1.60. 
PITMAN'S (ENGLISH) JOURNAL. Founded by Sir Isaac Pitman in 

1842. 

The oldest and only weekly periodical (in any system) in existence 
devoted to SHORTHAND, TYPEWRITING, and kindred subjects. Each 

31 



number consists of 24 pp., and comprises EIGHT COLUMNS OF PRINTED 
SHORTHAND. Terms of subscription, payable in advance 
12 months, 52 weekly issues . . . $4.50 
6 " 26 " " ... S2.50 
3 " 13 " ... $1.40 
Bound volumes of the JOURNAL from 1842 to 1875 are out of print. 
Volumes from 1876 to 1890 f 2.50 each, post free. Volumes from 1891 
to 1917 f$2.25 each, post free. Volumes for 1918 $2.75, 1919 S4.80. 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND WEEKLY. 16pp. 

Beautifully printed in the Advanced, Intermediate, and Elementary 
Styles, and illustrated. The contents consist of stories and tales, serial 
and complete ; interesting extracts, amusing paragraphs, phonographic 
jokes and anecdotes. Terms of subscription 

12 months, 52 weekly issues . . . $2.60 
6 " 26 " " ... $1.50 
3 " 13 " ... 0.75 
fBound volumes (half-yearly) of PITMAN'S SHORTHAND WEEKLY 
as follows : Vols. 1 to 10, out of print ; Vols. 11 to 56, $1.75 each. 
Vol. 57 to date, $2.00. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND BUDGET. The monthly edition of P.S.W. 
Each issue contains 64 to 80 pages of Engraved Phonography, and 
fully illustrated. Twelve months, $2.60 ; six months, $1.50. Sample, 
25c. 

REPORTERS' JOURNAL. Sample copy, 15c. Yearly subscription, 
post paid, $2.00. 

REPORTERS' MAGAZINE. Sample copy, 15c. Yearly subscription, 
post paid, $1.50. Founded by E. J. NANKIVELL. 

THE PHONOGRAPHIC MONTHLY. Sample copy, 15c. Yearly 
subscription, $1.25. 

THE PHONOGRAPHIC OBSERVER. Sample copy, 15c. Yearly 
subscription, post paid, $1.25. 

BUSINESS ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT. 

An English monthly magazine for the Accountant, the Secretary, 
the Manager, and all engaged in Commerce or Industry. Published 
monthly, single copy, 50c. Annual Subscription, $5.40. 



Printed in Bath, England, bu Sir Isaac Pitman <t Sons, Ltd. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

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