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SYLVA ANTIQUA 
ISCANA, 



OB 

ROMAN AND OTHER ANTIQUITIES OF EXETER, 

BEING 

A Description and Elucidation of the numerous Ancient Coins, 

Samian Ware, and other Relics, lately discovered in 

that venerable and interesting City. 

With Plates of the most remarkable Coins, and other curious Antiques, 

IToXXSv Kouqoi ylyverau Trat^mo; ■ Vvmixcu Aia<^* 

Ex Romanorum Hibernaculis magnam partem hujusmodi crevere urbes, Hospitia sell. 
Dlversoria, Tabemaj, officinae, villae, nliaeque domus. quae militari usui voluptatique Inser- 
vlerunt, innuraerae demum factae, et urbis nomen et dignitatem adeptas sunt. Musgravb, 
Belg. Brit. cap. xiv, p. 172. 

By W. T. P. S H O R T T, 

OF HSATITREE, NEAB BXBTKR. 

Member of the Numismatic Society of London, and B. A. of Worcester College, Oxford. 




EXETER : 
Printed and Published by W.C. FEATIIERSTONR.NewLondon Inn Square 

LONDON: 
By J. B. NICHOLS & SON, 25, Parliament Street 



'^»^ 



-^1 






PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION. X^^^J}^ 



In endeavouring to preserye the memorials of Roman Antiquity, discovered at 
Exeter, from destruction, or at least oblivion, I have, in the ensuing pages, attempted 
a few illustrations of ancient religion, rites, manners, customs, festivals, and other in- 
teresting matters, connected with explanations of numerous nummological arcana, highly- 
interesting to the antiquary. 

It is an established fact, that from the numerous vestiges of antiquity, continually 
and almost daily discovered in our Island, the real site of many Roman stations, towns, 
villas, and garrisons may be most distinctly traced ; and it is also as indisputable, 
from monuments, inscriptions and camps, that the ancient Romans conquered, at an 
early period, and kept military possession of Britain, for upwards of four centuries. 
This is also clearly proved from numerous Classic Authors, in perusing which our 
only regret is, that they have treated our Island in a vague, unsatisfactory manner, 
those parts being frequently mutilated and truncated, which are of the utmost impor- 
tance to the history of Britain. Badly off should we be indeed, were it not for the 
only good statistical account contained in Csesar's Commentaries, — for the excellent 
information preserved by Tacitus of what occurred in the days of Nero and Vespasian — 
and his masterly campaign of Agricola, against the Caledonians under Galgacus, their 
oldest prototype of Wallace and Bruce, — for the few fleeting notices of especially 
the Northern parts of tha province, in the reign of Commodus, in Dion Cassius, (" su- 
perficial, vague and fugitive" as Polwhele has designated them,) and his previoui 
campaigns of Claudius.* 

• The entire loss of the description of Britain by that excellent writer A. Marcellinus, who lived in the 
days of Julian, is great and irreparable ; so is Pliny's account of the tin trade, for which some amends 
have, however, bean made by what Diod. Siculus has left us on the mines of Dumnonium. We have 
however a great acquisition, as to Roman stations, in the Itinerary of Antoninus ( Emp. Caracalla) which 
is extremely perfect, ; in that of Richard, the monk of Cirencester ; and in the worli of the anonymous 
Ravennas. edited by Baxter. The Notitia Imperii, of the days of the sons of Theodoslus, is a mighty 
•ad Invaluable work on the Military and Civil resources of tho Empire ; and the Codex neodosianus of 
the times of the comparative decadence of the noble Mistress of the world, and the reign of the grandson 
of that great prince ( published in 3 vols, folio, at Lyons. 1665.) contains ao immense and carious mass of 
ancient Roman jurisprudence and civil polity. 

The 2nd. Book of Ptolemy's Geography, on the position of the British island Albion, is happily 
extremely well preserved and perspicuous. Pausanias merely mentions Britain two or three times, and 
tells us that the good folks of the York ridings ( Brigantes) had been well chastised for coming it too 
much " Yorkshire*' over the dear unsuspecting people of North Wales, ( Arcad. 32. 19.) and we might 
almost pardon Strabo for giving us only two chapters onGreat Britain, did he not tell us that the ancient 
Irish were cannibals who used to eat up their fathers and mothers for supper when they died; to say 
nothing of a very pretty piece of scandal about the Irish Ladies, which considering the graces and agrt- 
m/nsofthoseof the present day, we bop« for their sakes is unfounded, particularly as the Geographer 
himself does not touch for the exact truth if in iXfivtH afyonrtuiyulLftmai'-^w^. Ub 4. 

B 



748 



IV. PRELIMINARY 

The loss of ancient authors, of the Alexandrian library, of that burnt in the Capitol 
in the reign of Commodus by lightning, and its successor, unfortunately destroyed by 
St. Gregory's zeal, about 690, A.D., is great and irreparable. 

The coins alone of the Roman Emperors, •* those savages on thrones," as raoit of 
them may be styled, which are found in such great numbers in this Province, (and 
referring to present matters, in Exeter and its neighbourhood) from the earlier times of 
Claudius and Nero, to those of Gratian and Honorius, would be sufficient proof of 
locality and conquest, were even the invaluable pages of History more scant than they 
really are. They are memorials of historical facts, as Dr. Walsh observes, more 
certain, because more "permanent and unalterable" than the writings of the Historian 
— " irresistible evidences which no future historian can controvert, and not liable to 
the corruptions and uncertainties introduced by copyists (often ignorant monks) into 
MSS." The Samian ware and Potters' impresses, found in London and Exeter, are 
valuable also, as establishing locality, and therefore inestimable. An increasing 
taste for numismatic studies has sprung up of late in this country, and science, based 
on that pursuit, forms one of the firmest foundations for the historian's researches, 
while the value of discoveries made in this department, is at once apparent from every 
account of Roman coins, in whatsoever country they have been found. The greatest 
trudition is contained on the reverses of ancient medals ; they are, in fact, as a distin- 
guished numismatist, J, Y . A., observes "the gazettes which recorded the victories, 
erection of temples, celebration of games and sacrifices, and records of traditions, of 
ancient people, which have outlived the grandeur of triumphal arches, sacred fanes, 
and noble statues." The Roman bankers were good historians and found both profit 
and instruction inseparably blended together. 

The Imperial coins continually found at Exeter, and of late years so frequently 
dug up (in company with glazed pottery or Samian ware, and fragments indicative of 
urn burials or sepulchral vases,) in removing old buildings, in the course of the late 
innovations in the two great markets, and elsewhere, cannot but please and interest 
every person possessed of taste and research, as illustrating the ancient state of South 
Britain, and particularly that of our own ancestors, centuries previous to the irrup- 
tions of the Saxons and the final expulsion of the Cornish Britons by Athelstan ( the 
conqueror of Anlaf the pagan, 952, A.D.) from Exeter, or Exeancestre as then 
called. ( Malmesbury ; Speed, Chron. p. 341.) They appear among us as the ancient 
currency of this part of the Roman World ; and although the majority of them are 
far from being rare, still I must observe, that it is not always the case that the rarest 
coins are those which give us the best and most valuable information. It has been 
aptly observed by the illustrious Johnson, that whatever serves to illustrate the pre- 
sent or the past, raises man in the scale of being. The dialogues of the celebrated 
Addison are the noblest that have been written on the usefulness of ancient Medals. 
Nothing can exceed the excellence and utility of such works as that on the Roman 
coins relating to Britain, lately published by Mr. J. Y. Akerman ; his descriptive 
catalogue of rare and unedited Roman coins, (not forgetting his Manual, just pub- 
lished,) is one of the most useful of the Numismatic productions of the day. Theefforts 
of Walker, Stukely, Jobert and Pinkerton, in a past age, are also not to be slighted* 
The rarest coins are not always, however, the most instructive. Every Roman coin is 
of itself a little record, be it what it may, of historic bygone times. 



DtSSBRTATION* r« 

Amon^ these rarities, the very abundant first and second brau of Claudius, who 
(or at least his lieutenant) was the first real conqueror of South Britain, most flrrolj 
and evidently points out the formation, at a very early period, fa bout 51 A. D., 
probably,) of a hardy colony of veterans in this city. This was possibly when Ves- 
pasian conquered the South, some time after the decisive victory achieved by Osto- 
mus Scapula, on Coxwall Knoll, ( near Brampton Brian, in Herefordshire,) over the 
Britons, headed by Caractacus ; and veterans probably were then planted in thesa 
parts. It is perhaps to be regretted, that these and others are so frequently of th« 
kind found in Roman military stations and camps, and that their reverses do not 
always tend to illustrate the conquest of the south of Britain, by the Claudian legions 
under Vespasian, or to personify the island itself more particularly; as very admir- 
able ones of that Emperor, as well as of Hadrian exist, which forcibly bespeak the 
"Great of old" in South Britain. Still with " their rugged forms and front severe," 
for many of them are more or less " spoiled by the rapine of time," they mock "obli- 
vion's sway," and talk to us yet of "cohorts and turms" with their centurions "In 
long file ;" and the glorious march of a Cesar's soldiery, " red battle hurtliag as they 
pass," as at Wookey, in Somerset, where, probably, as antiquaries tell, a great vic- 
tory was gained over the Britons, Coins are also found at Cheddar, not far from thence. 
Some of these relics are even met with in the cemented mass of the ancient city bul- 
warks, lately violated by the labourers' v^eapons, though still in their last gleam of 
glory " commingling strife of grandeur and decay." Others are found in various spots, 
in a mass or rudis indigesta moles ^ and upon these the Roman Soldier stands, armed 
with his short sword and buckler, who vanquished the naked Aborigines of this Isle, 
and hurled its painted riders from their Cimbric cars, when Claudius and Vespasian 
came from Gaul, with their Golden Eagles, " to this land remote, then hid in the 
Ocean's waste." All are vanished now, like an armed spectre over a field of blood, ex- 
cept on the inscribed brass which oft " unsteady to the stamp gives up its charge." 

" 'Twas he whose all commanding yoke," 

The farthest Britons gladly took. 

Him the Brigantes, in blue arms adored, 

When subject waves cohfessed his power; 

Restrained with laws they scorned before. 

And trembling Neptune served a Roman Lord." 
No doubt every fresh coin was a kind of gazette, that published the lates newg of 
the Empire, and made the virtues and actions of the Emperor circulate.* 

• Many of the Exeter Coins are In as beautiful preservation as If fresh from the Roiran Mint*, but 
It it remarkable tbat except one of Oommodus. the small brass of the Constantines. coined at London 
(P. LON.) and those of Carausius and Allectus. which we know were struck In the Island about 
296, A. D. not one of tbem directly alludes In the slightest way to the Conquest of Britain. Others 
on the contrary as are dim as the dim finger of the goblin, " which points to dark misdeeds of yore " 
and ( LI BERT AS) the Genius of Freedom, whirh " too oft reminds who and what enthrals " seems a* 
unregarded and worn out on some of them, as the memory of Sparta and Leonidas, although (m Ift 
Cbilde Harold,) we cannot but behold 

Its wreck a glory.— and Its mln graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced. 
And although the Niobe of Nations " Ilea childless and crownless in her voiceless woe," we cannot bat 
rejoice that the Toice of Freedom's best and bravest friends was doomed to echo further Wmt, tba^ 



VI. PRELIMINARY 

The surface of the old Iscan town has been wonderfully raised by the accumula- 
tion of buildings, of adventitious soil, deposits of repeated fires, and the filth and 
debris of former ages, but that a Roman city once existed at the depth of 20 feet in 
many places, where coins and pottery are dug up beneath the streets and houses of 
modern Exeter, is indisputable. The quantity of Samian ware, and sepulchral pot- 
tery found is quite surprising. Our old antiquaries, such men as Stukely, Baxter, 
and Horsely, the last of whom (mirabile dictu,) placed the important station of 
IscA DuNMONioRUM, at Chisolboro ! ! did not live to see the mighty though mutilated 
remains of the Cohorts, who bared their " maiden steel," and upraised the eagle of 
desolation and the olive branch of subsequent raansuetude, on the shores where our 
aborigines, (in later times, so civilized by Roman Conquest,) 

** Dar'd their rudely painted limbs oppose 
To chalybean steel and Roman foes," 
issuing from a Ceesar's bold barks, "stemming a deep untried/' In those days 
the warlike legions of Rome viewed, amid the woods and tangling brakes of Britain, 

*' '— the wondering savage stand, 

Unclad and fresh from his Creator's hand," 
with the same emotions as Raleigh and Drake, or Cook, Dampier and Wallis, be- 
held the natives of the South Seas or the Spanish Main ; or, Cartier and Champlain, 
the Algonquins and Iroquois of Canada, in 1534», and I60S. All it seems were alike 
savages in their turn, whether tattooed in the one instance, or painted with the Brith 
pr sky coloured blue, in the other J— with flint heads for their spears and arrows, 
and ironwood war-maces ; or provided with javelins that rattled defiance on the foej 
or riding in war chariots to the battle fray. 

That Roman Coins existed in great numbers in ancient Devon, or Dumnonium^ i» 
evident from the large deposit of imperial denarii^ found at Poughill, near Wolfardis - 
worthy, on Mr. Melhuish's property, in 1836; the 2000 copper coins found near 
Kingskerswell, in 1839 ; those discovered on Mr. Marwood Elton's estate, at diflfer- 
ent periods, near Honiton ; in the barrows on Haldon ; at Bickley, near Tiverton 
and at Bovey Tracey. In the ancient Cornish Mines we have Borlase's testimony for 
great stores of Roman money being found at Mopas, Karn Bre, St. Agnes B^, &c.* 

♦ As long back as 1723. when Stukely visited Exeter, Y«. Itin Cur.) there were three collections of 
coins found there, one of the great Dr. Musgrave, one of Mr. Lowdham, and another of Mr. Reynolds. 
A peck of Coins bad been found under St. Martin's Church, and many hundreds in Catherine Lane 
adjoining. Mr. Reynold's Coins are in possession of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, and are very 
numerous, paiticularly those ot Posthuraus and Gallienus, besides many of earlier Emperors. 

the " deep blue sky " of Rome; and, since the glorious days of the Reformation, has dispelled the 
double " Night of Ages," and of Night's daughter, ignorance. Some few of these rarities again, are 
so Inexplicable that they occasionally require the stroke of the Enchanter, Merlin's wand, to un- 
ravel their mysteries, and are so chaotic, from lapse of ages, that all we can say of them is Ceetera 
dtsunt ! ! Ttiere were clearly greater quantities of current coin during the Roman sway and the 
flourishing state of Britain, than for 1000 years after their departure in 426, A. D. ; and the great im- 
provements in arts, agriculture, and commerce, while it changed the species, greatly increased the 
treasures of the Island, and enabled it to add from time to time to its riches, and also to pay its taxes 
and imposts. The barbarous nations who succeeded the Romans it is most likely neglected the 
copper money, as of little value, while they took care to appropriate the more precious standard of 
gold and silver to their own purposes, hence the frequency of the former. 



bissfeRTATioK. vil» 

1'he extensive excavations in progress in this city, like tliose la 'the Metropolis, in 
I834-, described by those two able Antiquaries, A. I. Kempe, and C. U. Smith, for 
sewers and ftundations of houses, bore a great similarity, particularly as respected the 
two great Markets of our ancient city: in both iho projected line of work at depths 
varying at Exeter from ten lo twenty feet, "could not fail to aflord the means for ob- 
taining some additional and corroborating information illustrative of the ancient oc- 
cupation of the soil." 

That Exeter was a chief city of Britannia Primus and much resorted to in the time 
of the Antonines, whose coins are often found there, is well established. It was one 
of the 12 Stipendiary towns, paying its taxes in money. Undoubtedly it began to be in 
repute as early as the reign of Claudius, by whose disbanded veterans, (as at Maiden* 
by the 14th Legion,) the ancient city was, in my opinion, first modelled into a Roman 
Station, and redeemed froro ancient barbarism: This is corroborated by the gieat 
number of Coins of that Emperor, many scores of which have been brought to light in 
the last few ycars^ as 1 have observed above, by the excavators, during the late city 
improvements ; all or most of them bearing the figure of Mars, as a Roman warrior, 
Minerva Promachos, oi Ceres,' in subselUo, on their reverses.* I do not mean to as- 
sert that Geoffry, of Monmouth, (who wrote about 1195, A. D.) can be trusted as an 
evidence, when he gravely tells us, that Vespasian succeeded by capitulation, in re» 
ducing this city, then under subjection to the questionable Prince Arviragus, to the 
Roman domination, when sent as Lieutenant to the Emperor Claudius, with an array 
into these parts. This Arviragus was said to be the second son of Cunobelin, and 
the same as the Prasutagus of Tacitus ; but the fact is disallowed by Stillingfleet. 
We are also told that in later days, Ordulf, son of Orgar, Earl of Devonshire, (who 
founded Tavistock Abbey, 931, A. D,as reported, by the admonishment of a heavenly 
vision,^ was a giant, who could break the bars of gates, and "go along the river ten 
feet broad stridewise," so says William of Malmsbury.t The words of Geoffrey, 
however, are " Vespasianus cum exercitu Romano, civitatem nunc vocatara Excestre 
octo diebus obsedit, sed minime prajvaluit, Arvirago rege civibus auxilium tunc praes- 
tante.'* The Roman fieets are supposed to have rendezvoused at the Totoneiium 
Litlus, or Torbay, on this expedition against the Dunmonii. 

It fell into the power of the Saxons, in 465, A. D. and appears to have possessed 
great privileges from their Kings, after Athelstan, the site of whose palace has been 
traced, it is affirmed, on the siteof a Roman edifice, in PaulStreet, near Mr. Crockett's 
Wine Vaults, on the late Mr, J. Pidsley's premises. He drove the Cornish Ikitons 
beyond the Tamar, encompassed Exeter with a stout wall, built on the old Roman 
foundations, and with a fosse and bulwarks. We read in other times that it was 
plundered by the Dane.-, in 875, and again totally ruined by Sueno, the Dane, " with 
the forked and angry beard," in 1003, and levelled with the ground from the east to 

* That this place was also greatly frequented by the Romans in the later periods of their P>nipire, 
is evident from the ^/u* of small copper money, of the Constaiitlne]. of Magnentius, Crispus, 4c, 
to say nothing of their predecessors, called the thirty tyrants. In the time of Gallienus and Aurelian. 

t The enormous thigh or shin bone of Dune Ordulph, exhibited In Tavistoclt Church, has been 
suspected to belong to an immense Moosedeer, once a native of Devon, now extinct. Dugdale tellt 
the story of his kicking open the gates of Ezeter^ and breaking th?lf bars in pieces, like another Samp- 
son. ». Monasticon, I. p. 817. 

c 



Till. PRELIMINARY 

the west gat«, on which occasiim probably all remains of its Roman magnificence 
were obliterated.* From Domesday Boojj we find that, in the time of the conqueror* 
who at first greatly devastated the town, (which held out against him,) destroying 48 
houses out of 348, after besieging it for sometime, this city did not geld, or pay 
crown dues only when London, York, and Winchester did, that was at the rate of half 
a niark of silver " for a knight's fee"+ and that in case of an expedition by land or sea 
" it served after the rate of five hides^'X During the civil wars of the rival houses of 
York and Lancaster, it was besieged, for some time, by Sir William Courtenay, of 
Powderhara Castle, in favor of Edward IV., on the retreat of the great Earl of War- 
wick, within its walls, previous to his flight from Dartmouth into France, in 1471. 

The Castle had, centuries previously, in the reign of Stephen, sustained a memorable 
siege, being defended by Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Dsvon, in favor of the Empress 
Maud, for 3 months against the King, to whom, after his expending 1500 marks 
(£145,000) in machines and arms, it surrendered for want of water, in 1140. In the 
reign of King John, Lord William de Brewer was appointed to defend the city of Ex- 
eter, of which Robert de Courtenay was governor of its castle, when besieged by the 
army of the Barons. || 

The misfortunes of Exeter, from famine and the self-devotion of the citizens, are 
well known, when leaguered by the counterfeit prince, Perkin Warbeck, in the reign 
of Henry VII, and by the rebellious Cornish. Also during the memorable period of 
1649, after the dissolution of religious houses, when again besieged by the insurgents 
of Sarapford Courtnay, Crediton,and St. Mary's Clist, aided by the Cornish insurgents, 
at which moment Lord Russell, afterwards Earl of Bedford, came to the aid of the 
city, and after defeating the rebels, led on by the disaffected monks and friars, at Vea- 
nyton bridge on the Otter, and on Clist Heath, and at Bishop's Clyst, raised the siege, 
encamping his army in the Barnfield and adjoining grounds to the Magdalen Road 
and Mount Radford, the night previous. This relief took place on the 6th. of August* 
an anniversary still commemorated by the city bells. The two sieges it sustained in 
the Parliamentary times, the first in opposition to royalty, and the other in favor of 
Charles I., have been commemorated by Clarendon, and the latter of these especially 
in the able pages of the " Anglia Rediviva", published by J. Sprigge, of Banbury, in 

• This incursion was to revenge the massacre of the Danes, by Ethelred, who wished to get rid o f 
that oppressive tax called Danegelt. 

t In Henry 3rd's time, the KnJght's fee was £15 in landed property ; it varied much both In pre- 
vious and after times. 

X The hyds: or hide of land, we are told, (r. Gent. Mag., 1839) was six carucates (each 100 acres) or 
thereabouts. What each was worth in different parts of the kingdom, of course varied extremely ; in 
some places, two carucates were valued in Domesday at 8s. ; in others, four were only worth 10s, 
The hida is by many computed at 100 acres, and was the Fatnilia, Mansa &nd Manens of the Romans — 
an estate. The £\ of the period of the conquest, was worth about £110 of our present money. A rental of 
£44 then, has been known to increase to the enormous sum of j£SOOO, at the present day. All Liverpool 
or Litherpole, ( Esmedune or Smedone) held by Edelmundus, (one carucate) was valued in 32 pence ! ! 

I To this Lord Brewer, King John, for his faithful services, confirmed we are told several manors, 
allowing him "to inclose his woods at Torre, Cadleigh. Raddon, and Ailesbeer, with free liberty to 
hunt the hare, fox, ca/and wolf, throughout all Devonshire," and to build three Castles, one at Stoke, 
In Hampshire, another at Bridgewater, and a third on his own lands in Devon. 

Royal visits were paid to this city in 1285, by Edw. I. and his queen Eleonora; by Edw. IV. 1471 
by Richard III. in 1483 ; by Hen. VII. in 1497 ; and by Charles I. and Henrietta in 1644. 



DISSERTATION. IX* 

I6i7, detailing its surrender to the Parliamentary forces under Fairfax ; and it must not 
be forgotten that in 1688, its ancient portal of Westgate was that by which, under the 
guidance of the illustrious Burnet, the champion of Protestantism, William III. 
entered the city. 

In the present little work, I have endeavoured, on a limited scale, to track the Ro- 
mans in our neighbourhood, by their camps and fortifications, the monuments of mili- 
tary glory, which, whether oval or square, were not only needful for the security and 
concentration of their warlike legions and auxiliaries, as well in the field as on garri- 
son duty ill their contubernia^ but also to fortify and entrench themselves in perma- 
nent stations, when they thought proper to advance from cantonments to more extended 
operations, so as on retiring to their regular Hibernacula, or winter quarters in the 
towns, to make good also the ground they had gained by their arms in the more genial 
months of summer and autumn. 

Julius Agricola, the conqueror of the Caledonians, was one of the first who, as 
we are informed by Tacitus, adopted this useful maxim — Non alium ducem oppoV' 
tunitates locorum sapientius legisse, nullum ab Agricold positum castellum aut vi 
hostium expugnatum ; turn (Estate atque hiemejuxta pellebantur. In Exeter our 
Roman conquerors have been already sufficiently traced of late by their sepulchral vault, 
urns, coins, bath and tesselated pavement, to say nothing of the elegant penates^ or 
little household gods, found near Broadgate in 1778, and described by Dean Milles, 
(v. Archaeol.) being their little Lares and Dii peculiares^ said to be Ceres, Mercury, 
Mars, and Apollo, probably pertaining to a sacrarium domesticum* The glazed 
terracotta, or Samian ware utensils of native or auxiliary troops, are also conclusive 
evidences of the presence of their soldiers here; — of stipendiaries attached to the 
legions, and marching under the imperial standard. Although no bas-reliefs are found, 
no inscriptions of Roman workmanship exist, but one, and few sepulchral lamps from 
sorrowing friends, such as were discovered in the subterrenes of old Rome, accompanying 
their urns, as sacred to the manes , to light them on their dreary way to the Styx — the god 
P/u/m* was, it is clear, worshipped at Isca with nearly as much assiduity as at the 
present day. In a mercantile city, the emporium of the TIN trade, the best man was 
the best pay no doubt, from the abundance of money, and it is probable the Romans bu- 
ried their cash to perpetuate the glory of their nation, out of vanity, or the memory of 
their conquests, and inclosed coins of their Emperors as little prattlers of the past, in 
the foundation of their edifices, or in their barrack stations, out of a desire to preserve 
the glories of their empire, and the memory of the imperial eagles, and to prevent 
"the iniquity of oblivion from blindly scattering her poppy"— (confounding them with 
the founders of pyramids, and the 'misnomer' of Pompey's pillar,) as an antidote 
against the opium of time and chaos ' that anarch old' who so often threatens to lose 
us all * in the uncomfortable night of nothing.' It is however very plain from the 
abundance of the circulating medium, that little was to be done in those days, any 
more than in the present, without ' tipping the blunt,* or in ordinary parlance being 
flush of the RiNo 1 1 Many things no doubt were rare, but as Don Juan aptly says 
of other matters, the Exonians of that day deemed, like their successors, in respect 
" of coming down with the Stumpy," 

** ' — — It just as true is 

A great deal might be bought for fifty Louis." 



ANCIENT EXETEH, 

IN THE ROMAN TIMES. 



The leader of this pamphlet is not to suppose that a clear and succinct account 
can be given of ancient Exeter, like Mazois' Rw/jies dd Pompeii, the works of Sir 
William Gell, of Samuel Lysons, or even the scientific little works in the Library of 
Entertaining Knowledge, on the two famous ancient subterraneous cities of Italy. 
Few vestiges remain of the numerous ancient dwellings with which the Roman Isca 
was formerly studded, and there are but trifling accidental allusions, or occasional 
descriptions, even in the historians of antiquity, to tell us anything that may be relied 
on. In fact here, as in other parts of England, the superstructures of Roman edifices 
have been more completely effaced, than in any other of their provinces. We look in 
vain, amid pur numerous excavations, although we continually find the foundations of 
ancient Koman dwellings j for the vestiges of any Roman mansion, and were we to do 
so must outstrip PaWadio, whose imagination rebuilt so many ruins ; or BiancJnni, 
the Italian antiquary, with his theoretical arrangements of the palace of the Caesars at 
Rome, and the golden house of Nero, on the Palatine Hill. We find no such monu- 
mental inscriptions as at Bath, Caerleon, or House Steeds, (the Borcovicus of the No- 
titia,) the Palmyra, as it has been called of Britain, nor any of the greater memorials 
of Chester, York, or Silchester. 

There once probably did exist, in the ancient capital of Dunmonium many speci- 
mens of Roman grandeur. Where are now the broad corridors of the ancient Prothyr a, 
or porticoes of such edifices ? the doors of the ^iWa or halls, with their courts, statues, 
and columns, their panels of marble and arabesques ? the Peristyles, or inner courts, 
with the luxurious Xystus, or Parterre, in its centre shaded by trees, the inner apart- 
ments, GyntEcea or ladies' chambers, where the matrons attended to the Lanijicia or 
working of curious garments ; the CEci or saloons, Exhedrce or assembly rooms, with 
their tesselated pavements ; the domestic chapels or St/craria, with their sacrificial 
altars, numerous lamps, and statues of deities ? How shall we trace the voluptuous 
Thermce or baths, with their various sudatories, frigidaria, piscincdf tepidaria, and 
hypocausts ? their Elceolhesia or anointing rooms; their strigils and shampooing 
instruments and theoleary ampullce, that dispensed ambrosial perfumes to the bathers ? 
The dining halls or Triclinia, of the magnificent Apicians or Gastronomes of antiquity, 
with the more stately Basilicce and Chalcidica of Isca — all these, if they ever existed 
have vanished, and we cannot even tell, with the exception of one Bath, and that quite 
ruined, whether, as Mr. King observes in his Munimenta Jntiqua (1799 vol. 3) the 
Roman houses here (as supposed in other parts of our Island) consisted of luxurious 
dwellings above, or were merely a nest or series of small chambers, containing in 
general one good room only, fitted for the accommodationof a Centurion, Military Tri- 
bune or other resident. He supposed that few remains of note or splendor, except 



IN THE ROMAN TIMES. XI 

those of a military origin, are to be traced ; and doubted if any superb structures of Ro- 
man erection ever existed in Britain. From this decision, we must of course except the 
Roman villas, or country seats of persons of distinction, of which so many beautiful 
traces remain in England. Many oCthe old houses of Exeter, nevertheless, seem to 
retain a Roman air, by the semblance of ancient Xysti or parterres, in the centre of 
their elongated and almost interminable passages. The Impluvium of antiquity, so 
often visible at Pompeii, may I think yet be traced to a great extent in their courts, 
being an open part of iho Atrium or Hall, through which the rain water fell into a 
square basin or reservoir, and was theQce conveyed by leaden or earthen pipes into 
cisterns for various domestic purposes. Ancieotly the court, surrounded by columns, 
in the centre of the ^frium, called Captprf/wm, was provided with this Impluviumt 
which was properly an open space in the centre of its roof, with curtains to exclude 
the sun or rain when not needed. These diminutive oases in the mighty waste of 
edifices, if we may so style the frequently tasteful and fanciful intervals of \.\\e Xysti 
nr little gardens, are often seen rising like fairy land even in the centre of elongated 
houses, which speak forcibly of the reigns of Elizabeth and James, with thfeir protru- 
ding gables, fantastic carved work and tracery. Some go so far back as to claim 
kindred with the civil contests of the rival roses, when this city was frequently the 
enduring victim of siege and onslaught: in the days of a Henry and an Edward, suffering 
all theextremes of famine and privation which centuries before had visited it in 1003, 
A. D., under the devastations of Sueno and his barbaric Cimbric and Runic hordes ; 
times when dense hostility harried this now highly favoured land, when Danish 
lances blushed with the best blood of the blue eyed Saxons of iscA,and in the following 
reign it was the boast and glory of Canute (or Cnut) to repair and make amends for 
the damage done by the sword and torch of his pagan and unrelenting sire. 

Ancient Exeter, in the Roman times was no doubt like Chester (their DEVA Getica 
and COL. DEVANA LEG. XX. VICT RIX) of an oblong or rhomboldal form like 
the Roman Camps, and this character it still preserves. That it was the Hibernacu- 
lum or winter quarters of the second legion, AD. (adjutrix) VL (sextum) P. (pia) 
VI. (sextum) F. (fidelis), is adduced from the testimony of Ptolemy the geographer, 
who lived in the time of Hacb ian and the Antonines, This is not however recorded 
in the Itinerary of Antonine (clearly the Emperor Caracalla, son of Severus) who 
places the second legion in its headquarters at Caerleon in Wales, or Isca Silurum. 
Their presence in that garrison is corroborated by numerous inscriptions preserved in 
Camden's Britannia, and by others communicated to me, from Bulmore near Caerleon, 
by my excellent correspondent, C. W. King, Esq. of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
This legion was also stationed, during the 400 years it was in Britain, at Aqu^ Solis 
(Bath) as well as at Caerleon ; it came into Britain A. D. 43, in the reign of Clau- 
dius, and took its share in building the walls of Hadrian, Antoninus and Severus. Of 
the turf wall of Antoninus, between the Frithsof Forth and Clyde, it built to the extent 
of 1 1,603 passus (Roman paces of five feet) or upwards of 1 1 miles, as we find by anci- 
ent monuments. It was at Rutupice (under the Count of the Saxon shore) in Kent, in 
the time of the sons of Theodosius ; and it is commemorated on the coins of billon, of 
Gallienus and the small brass of Carausius, bearing for its ensigns a Pegasus, a Centaur, 
Romulus and Remus with a she wolf, a Capricorn, and a Centaur holding a globe and rud - 

D 



Xii. ANCIENT EXETER, 

der, or a club and garland. In the time of Carausius it bore the title of Parlhica, And at 
other times of Macedonica and Italica. Probably a vexillalio or detachn:ent was at 
Exeter in Ptolemy's time, unless we suppose the Legion removed theiice in Caracalla's 
reign. There were altogether 92 cities in Britain, under the Koman government, of 
which 33 only are of chief note ; so Richard of Cirencester informs us. Exeter was 
one of the 19 stipendiary or minor cities of Britain, which paid their taxes in money* 
Such cities had not the privileges of municipal government, as St. Albans (Verulamium) 
and Eboracum (York) they were not Colonial as London, Maldon, Richborough, Bath, 
Caerleon, Chester, Gloucester, Lincoln and Chesterford, nor had they the privileges 
of theLatian law, enjoyed by ten other cities. The learned Sigonius (quoted by 
Borremans, Var. Lect., p. 197, Amst. 1676.) observes that the stij endiary cities were 
not free. — Ut earum civitatum quae servltute oppressae sunt, stipendiarice proprie 
dictae, quae aliquid populo Romano pependerunt, imwiMwe* quae nihil. — Liberty con- 
sisted in the power of using their own laws and cieating magistrates more palrio, 
according to their own established usages. 

The Hiberna, or winter stations were commonly taken up in some City or town, or 
otherwise so built and contrived as to make up a town of themselves. Hence anti- 
quaries observe that the modern towns, whose names end in cestcr were originally the 
Castra hiberna of the Romans— the ancient name of Exeter in the Saxon times being 
Exan-Ceaster ; as its previous British one was Caer Isk, and Pen-Caer, meaning the 
walled city by the water side, and a chief city on a head or elevated spot of land, — 
also Penhulgoile, which has been rendered proiperous chief city of the Wood. 

Military possession was kept of the adjoining country and territory by means of the 
Mstiva., or summer camps, many specimens of which are scattered over Devon. The 
Mstiva of IscA more particularly are considered to be the great entrenchment on Stoke 
hill, opposite Pynes, a smaller one lower down, near the river, adjoining the road 
from Cowley Bridge to Stoke Canon; and some works, supposed by Polwhele to be 
Roman, on Duryard, 

The form of the Roman camp was quadrangular, divided into two chief partitions 
or grand divisions, the upper and lower. In the former of these we may suppose, 
originally at Exeter was the principal garrison, in or near the ancient castle of Rouge- 
raont. Here stood the mansion of the commanding officer, whoever he was, the Prae- 
fectus legionis castrensis, or the Chiliarchus, perhaps the "eo: officio Magisiri Militum"^ 
and probably, also the sacred standards or vexilla of the troops, under the care of the 
Primipilus or chief centurion ; here assembled in council, the staff or chief officers 
serving under him, the tribunes of cohorts, Praefects of numeri or companies, Prtejjo- 
siti equitum or Captains of horse, &c. Coins, some of great antiquity, being found 
on this spot, seem to strengthen this hypothesis, as well as the great eligibility and 
commanding nature of the position. 

It is probable that in South Street, from the convenience of the adjacent river, and 
places adjoining Quay Lane and the Westgate quarter, as well as especially the 
Lower Market, where abundance of antiquities have been dug up, that the Contu- 
berniay Corps de Gardes^ and barracks of the subaltern officers, the centurions, 
campi-doctores and private soldiers existed. Roman Coins, utensils and pottery 
have been repeatedly dug up there, and in the adjoining streets, in great quantities. 



IN THE ROMAN TIMES. ?(111. 

Here the military hive seems to have swarmed, — on the site of this market the Roman 
British population apparently burrowed in the ground, and the dead rested in peace 
near the living, at the conclusion of their warlike toils. There were here no doubt 
" when the trumpet spake to the armed throng" private parades of Roman troops, 
under their Tribunes and Centurions, and drills of the tirones or recruits, under the 
8up3rintendance of the Primipilus or adjutant, and the campi-doctores, or Sergeant 
Majors. The Auxiliaries were probably stationed there. 

Bowers and gardens, to please the living, probably spread their umbrageous ehelter 
near these dwellings, and handsome Cippi and modest tablets recorded the stipendiary 
services, age and nations of the gallant legionaries who breathed their last in this 
remote station of the Empire ; the fountains and flowers have however long disappeared, 
the trees which then put forth blossoms on returning spring, have long fallen under 
the axe, and the laurel and cypress were also torn down ; the inscribed marbles and 
trophies have all perished in their turn by the cruel vicissitudes of time and the rava- 
ges of barbarism. 

"Ambition sighed — she found it vain to trust 

The faithless column and the crumbling bust ; 

Huge moles, whose shadow stretched from shore to shore, 

Their ruins perished, and their place no more. 

Convinced, she now contracts her vast design, 

And all her triumphs shrink into a coin. 

A narrow orb each crowded conquest keeps. 

Beneath her palm, here sad Jud.iiia weeps. 

Now scantier limits the proud arch confine, 

And scarce are seen the prostrate Nile and Rhine, 

A small EupHHATES through the piece is rolled 

And little eagles wave their wings in gold." 

Pope, on Addison's Treatise of Medals, 
The Forum Nundinarium of Isca may have stood near the spot, and probably was 
the ancient fair or market for commodities and provisions, and in my opinion the 
Queestorium, (Exchequer, or Paymasters' offices) from the quantity of money dug up 
in excavating the main sewer, may have stood near the site of Broadgate and that 
part of the city extending upwards to it from Milk Lane and the site of the present 
Lower Market, which was in course of time covered with a great number of mean 
buildings, shops and stalls, on the old foundations. There probably have existed 
in various parts of the High Street, detached habitations and villas, inhabited by 
officers and citizens connected with the official departments of the place, if we are to 
j udge from the sepulchral remains often dug up under houses there, as at Coffin's es- 
tate, the Three Tuns Inn, and other spots in making vaults and cellars, the deceased 
being generally interred in or near the houses, that the Dei Manes, or spirits of the 
dead, might be always as it were in the vicinity of their surviving friends and relatives. 
Polwhele observes that Athelstan repaired the city walls most probably on the Roman 
foundations — the lower part of which is even now a sort of massy concrete or rubble 
of the firmest kifid, and the cement is supposed to have been asphaliic or bitumen ; 
that a pavement was found in Pancras Lane, of small square white (tffji^rrr, at the 



XIV. ANCIENT EXBTEtl, 

depth of 8 feet, and another, also a tesselated one, in sinking a cellar opposite the " great 
gate'* of the Close, or Broadgate. The Penates found at Mr. Uphara's, near the same 
spot, in 1778, were found about four feet below the pavement of the cellar dug under 
those premises — and Stukely, who visited Exeter in 1723, imagined an arch of the 
Portland or Beer stone, in the old Southgate, (now taken down) perfectly round, and 
in a different style from the rest of the building, to have been of l^oman, or Roman 
British origin. Tradition also seems to hint that a Roman PrcBtorium, Proconsular 
or Preetorial judgment hall, stood on the site of the founderies in Waterbeer or Thea- 
tre street. 



ROMAN STATIONS 

INDEVON AND CORNWALL, 

And their connection with the great Roman Roads, or Military 
Ways, called the Ikenild, or Ikening Street, and the Fosseway, 

The Roman stations in Dunmonium, according to Ptolemy the geographer, 
who flourished about 138, A. D., are described in his own words thus : MeO' hq Aspo- 
rpiyag, Sv(rfiiK<i)TaToi Asfivovioi (the Dunraonians are the most southerly people, after 
the Durotriges, or inhabitants of Dorset) sv oig TroXug (among whom are these towns) 
Ovo\i/3rt, Voliba, (Grampound or Listwithiel) Ovc^tXa, Uxela, (Saltash of Baxter, 
and Listwithiel of Camden and others) Ta/zapjy, Tamare, (Saltash or Tamerton, 
Tamaris ofRavennas,)and ISKA Acyi&jv AEYTEPA "EejSaarri (Exeter, headquarters 
of the second Legion, surnamed Augusta) — the winter and most westerly s tation. 

The station of Isca recorded in the 12th and again in the I5th Iter of Antoninus, 
(or Caracal la) was dreadfully blundered in all the old manuscript copies of the 
Itinerarium. Even in those editions of this famous record published at Cologne, in 
Germany, in the year 1600 (Colonise Agrippinse in officina Birkmannica) by the 
learned Andreas Schottus of Antwerp, the station is twice named, or rather, most 
strangely nicknamed, in pages 110 and 111, Iscadum Nuniorura ! as in the Blandin- 
ian copy of the MSS. We also find that in the Neapolitan MSS, it is called Scadura- 
Imminorum (MP. XV.) — and in the Longolian, Scadum Inunciorura, quite as silly, 
tho' corrected by some wise hand to Mumiorum ! The learned Hieronyraus Suritas, in his 
emendations on the Itinerary, goes onto fix the site of the station, Isca, at Ilchester, 
in Somerset, which would be excusable, had not Horsley in later days, just as wisely, 
placed it, as I before observed, at Chiselboro 1 1 Suritas actually thought the laxaXig 
of Ptolemy (Ivelchester or Ilchester) to be the same as Exeter, and assigns it as such 
in a note. 

The station at Caerleon, in Wales (Isca Silurum) had also been blundered in a 
similar way in the MSS. into Isaeleia Augusti, Iscalegi and Iscelegie^ by the extra- 
ordinary ignorance or inaptitude of the transcribers of the Itinerary. 



noMAN STATIONS XT. 

The two great roads leading to Isca, seem to have been also strangely mixed op 
together, which may, perhaps, account for the errors in Antonine's Book, of which 
the Tarious MSS. appear to abound in strange contradictions, and hardly one alike, 
respecting the miles. Nothing can shew these wretched errors more forcibly than 
the distance assigned to Cranbourne, ( Vindogladia^ in the Itinerary) from Dor- 
chester, VIII, whereas every one knows they are 38 miles apart ; this VIII, in the 
12th and 15th Iter, would also make it only 15 miles English, from Old Sarum, 
(Sorbtodunum) to Dorchester, instead of 51. 

The learned and ingenious Dr. Musgrave, of Exeter, published in his Belgium 
Britannicum, (Exeter, 1719) some valuable memoranda on the two great military 
ways. And Hutcbins' Dorset, (Folio, vol. I.) gives also some excellent hints on the 
ancient communications from that neighbouring county. The words of Musgrave 
are, with regard to the ways, " quae cum multse numero, hac iliac quo quoversus eant, 
et in ejus ojinem fer6 angulum incursent, profecto quidem apertissim^ Romanorutn 
in hac regione multiiudinem, magnificentiam, negotia, commeatus indicant." Speaking 
of the IRENILD, he observes that it can be traced from London and Wallingford, 
by the Itinerary, from Venta Belgaruniy Winchester, to Briga, supposed Broughton, 
the way also diverging off elsewhere to Southampton and Regnum, Ringwood, or 
Chichester ; thence to Sarunit (or, Sorbiodunum, a famous old Roman station, the 
derivation of which name has puzzled many,) to Vindogladia, (Cranbourne, or 
Wimborne) from thence further west to Durnovariae, (Dorchester) to Moridunum, 
(Seaton.) He then continues this line of road "per Sidmouth et Woodbury, ad 
CUstbt. George," where the roaus (Ikenild and Foss) unite or join from Ilchester and 
proceed straight on to Exeter. In this point he differs from writers of later days 
who consider the junction to take place at Streetway Head, 9 miles from that city. 

The Fossway he considers to commence at Speen, (Spins) which the late learned 
Mr. G. Dyer, of Exeter, derives from Pen, ahead and S, prefix the inclosed head land, 
thence by the Kennet to Marlborough, to Verlucio, (Westbury or Lackham, and 
Lacock of others,) then crossing the Avon on the right, to diverge towards Aqua Solis, 
(Bath) after meeting another road from Cirencester, (Duro Corinium) where many curi- 
ous Roman Monuments and Coins are even now found. Near Bath it approaches the 
tomb of Julius Vitalis, ( SepulcretumJ where two Urns were exhumed. He then con- 
•iders it to divide, and run paitly to Abone, (Clifton orHanham) Trajectum, {Oldbury^ 
passage of the Severn) and the country of the Silures, Hereford and Monmouthshire. 
On the west to Ilchester, and Axium (Axminster) thence to Honiton (oppidum anti- 
quum) to Fair-mile, and soon after, diverging to the left, to Clist St. George, where the 
other road, or Ikenild, leading from Cirencester to Bridport (Bridae Portum) Mori- 
dunum, Sidmouth, and Woodbury, meets it and runs straight to Elxeter. The Doctor 
considers the traces of a Military Road most certain between Axminster and Honiton, 
and particularly towards the milliare aureum, or golden milestone or pillar, as he de- 
signates Fair Mile, **Far Saxon, a road." Honiton is considered to have an air of 
Roman antiquity, from its broad street, running from E. to W.t 

The following are given by Musgrave, as tables of distances. From Wallingford 
or Calleva, the NaXicua, or TaXKriva of Ptolemy, to 

Vindomin, M. P. XVIII, Silchester, chief city of Segontiaci, who with Belgse 
and Cangi, inhabited Somerset, Wilts, Hants, Ac. (Antonine says XV.) 
t My CoBBiCTiONf of the Itinerary will be found in thtaccoant of Woodbuby Camf, 4c. 

E 



XVI. ROMAN STATIONS 

Ventam Belgarum, XXIII. Winchester. (Antonine XXI.) 

Clausentura, XI. Old Southampton, (or as we now suppose Bittern) lately inspected 
by Messrs Brandreth, and C. R. Smith. 

Regnum, XIX. Ringwood, {Regnum, probably Chichester) Ringwood CCamden) 
wood of the Regni ; Rincetoed, (Domesday.) 

He then gives ws the distances from Winchester to 

Brigen, M. P. IX. Broughtou, supposed by Mr. G. Dyer, Brige, a hill, to mean 
the hill land. 

Sorbiodunum, XI. Old Sarura. 

Vindogladiam, XVII. Wimborne Minster. Boreston, (Stukely) Wimborne Minster^ 
(Gale) Hambleton Hill, near Cranbourn, CHorsley) Gussage Cow Down, (Comm. 
on Richard, Itin.) (Antonine XII.) 

Durnovariam, XVI. Dorchester. Camp at passage over a river, (Camden) Water 
Camp, (Dyer.^ (Antonine VII.) 

Moridunum, XXVI, Seadown, (vulgo Seaton) Mor-Dun, Mor, Brit, and Cornish 
for Sea ; Dun, Hill. (Antonine XXXVI.) 

Iscam Dunmoniorum, XXV, Exeter. (Antonine XV.) 

There is a great difference of opinion at the present day, about Vindogladia 
(assigned to Cranbourne more properly,) and not only as to the spot where the learned 
Doctor assigns the junction of the Roads, but also as respect^ the Fossway, commu- 
nicating to Exeter by Sidmouth, to Woodbury Hill, (the Alauna Sylva ci the ano- 
nymous Ravennas.) It is generally supposed that the intermediate, or lost station, 
between Moridunum and Woodbury, is either Sidbury Castle or Fort, (overlooking 
the vale leading to Sidmouth,) the Roman Tidortis of Ravennas, (noticed by Baxter 
and Hutchins) or otherwise the Camp on Blackbury Hill, which, as Polwhele observes, 
lies about a mile and a half from Southleigh Church to the South West, on the West 
side of Southleigfa Hill, of an oval form, 200 yards from East to West, and 100 from 
North to South. This Camp, which is on the property of C. Gordon, Esq., of Wis- 
combe Park, has a view of the sea from Portland, JEast, to Sidmouth, West 
and an extensive land prospect toward the North East. The grand earth-work is a 
single entrenchment, but there is a double ditch,* 50 yards beyond the principal or 
original earthwork. One or other of these two, Sidbury or Blackbury, was the lost 
station or mutatio, on this 25 mile line of road to Isca. Polwhele, who is the latest 
writer on these roads, informs us that the great Fcsseway from Bath, Ilchester, and 
Chard, (so called evidently from being dyked or ditched on each side, fossis munita) 
evidently points from Somerset towards Seaton, (Moridunum.) That from thence it 
proceeds to the great and mighty circumvallation or encampment, Hembury Ford, 
with its double rampart, commanding the vale of the Otter, from whence through the 
parishes of Hembury, to Fenniton, (I'VneioM Domesday, on the Tme stream) Talaton, 
en the Tale, {Talf Cornish high) or Tala stream, and Whimple, (the Wimple terra 
Willelmi Chieure of Domesday^ along the old Taunton road to Exete r ; passing 
through Layhill, Colstocks, Tale Water, rising in the Black Down Hills, (supposed 
so called because probably issuing from the end of a Lake) and Talaton common, to 
Lackbeare, till it falls into the Ikenild street, at the top of Street-way head, 9 miles 
from Exeter.— For collateral branches of the roads, v, Davidson's Antiquities of 
Axmiaster, an intelligent work by a writer of talent. 

* Ravelin, or Counterguard. 



liV DEVON AND CORNWALL. Xvil 

Th3 Ikenild street, or Via Iceniana, I may observe, as is well known, enters Dor- 
setshire near Woodyate's Inn, about a mile and a half from which are many tu7nuli 
or barrows, and on llie side of the hill to the left vestiges of extensive entrenchments, 
perhaps the memorials of some great battle ; it proceeds to Blandford, enters Dorchester 
near Trinity Church, proceeds to Bridport, and leaves that county at Peen Intij near 
Axmlnster. Polwhele remarks that it falls into the London road near the Axminster 
Turnpike Gate, runs from thence across Kilmington and Shute Hill, and turning 
away along Dalwood Down, keeps the ridge till it descends gradually to Honiton. 
This line of road is much corroborated by the great quantity of Roman coins dug up 
in 1837, in the Camp on Dalwood down, the property of Marwood Elton, Esq. of 
Widworthy House; there they were found in great profusion, and many near the sur- 
face of the soil. The Ikenild runs from Honiton 16 miles straight to Kxeler, 
through Honiton Clist parish, entering probably by the old disused road or lane, 
passing at the back of lleavitree, which also divided into the Black Boy, the Union 
Rood, or Pester Lane, and that to IMai y Pole Head, and tlie adjoining Stoke Hill 
Camps. At Honiton Clist it certainly entered the old disused road called Pin Lane, 
communicating to that at lleavitree, and a branch of it, in roy opinion, crossed the 
marshes near Hayes, above Honiton Clist, as well as the stream above the mill. The 
vicinity of Axminster probably communicated with these roads by the eight Forts or 
Camps which exist near it ; of these Musbury, of an elliptical shape, and only ac- 
cessible on the north, supposed a Roman work to defend the East of Devon against 
the Saxon pirates or invaders, is most worthy of Rotice ; Membury (or Mainbury, 
the Stone Castle, qy. ? Cornish Meinik stony, meini ywyr or gayr^ stone men) Castle, 
supposed of King Athelstan's age, is also highly interesting. These Camps are on 
the E. and N. of the River Axe, the Alcenus of antiquity, the mouths of which are the 
AXaira TTor. £K/3oXat of Ptolemy. 

I have imagined a via diverticula^ contiguous or diverging Road to exist, from the 
Fosseway to the old Broadclist Road, over Broadclist Heath, from the discovery of 
a great number of coins in 1837 near PoUimore, Greek, Egyptian and Roman. From 
the position ot this deposit of Coins directly in advance of the Roman JEstivum^ or 
summer camp ti\. Killerion {Kelli^'m Cornish and Welsh, a grove; Ar, land cr 
ploughland) there may have been an £?jrcM6i«, outlying piquet or advanced post of 
Roman troops in advance of the forts at Stoke hill, Duryard, (Dour and Dur, water; 
Herdyay Cornish, prominent) or prominent headland near the water, and Killerton, 
near Poltimore (anciently Clist Mois, and in Domesday, Pultimore, meaning the great 
house at the Pool or Pit, in Cornish) to whom these coins naay have reference. 

The origin of Ikenild has been variously tortured by etymologists, Mr. Dyer 
observes that the word Ich or Ic, which changes to Uic, Vic, and Wic, is rendered Ir 
Saxon dictionaries by Sinus and Ripa^ and that to Iken this people added yld or old 
to shew that it was a disused or old Road — that the syllable Ick was a Saxon term for 
road, and the root of Ryk in Rykenyld, the old road land. 

The Cornish iA and yk is of little service to us, as it is generally a termination of 
creeks or inlets merely. A learned correspondent writes me that the. word comes 
from ychen oxen, being the road leading to the East of England and the country of 
the Iceni ( or people of Suffolk and Norfolk) along which the oxen from the West of 



XVlll. ROMAN STATIONS 

England passed ! ! We have, unfortunately for this derivation, several other Icenfng 
streets as well as Watling Streets, and the name of the former obtains in roads not at 
all cojinected with the Iceni^ the good subjects of Boadicea and the fertile turnip fields 
and game preserves of one who in modern days was the wealthiest commoner in Eng- 
land. Ych, oich, Ytx, wt^, in the words of my correspondent, mean also ocean, as 
e. g. PAcM-oirA, people of the ocean, Phoenicians ; thence och, Ox, ox, and the animal so 
called was adopted by them and other maritime people ; and most of the coins bearing 
an ox or ox*head, were coined by a people directly or indirectly maritime. Yks, for 
Ysk, by transposition, I however allow, means water ; hence hhka, Irish— /^-^e, Cor- 
nish — ris^re, Armoric, 11 imply water, and /sea DMnmoniorwwi is the town of the 
men, living or dwelling under mountains or in vallies by the water side ; unless as 
Camden and others imagine Dun moina, hills of tin minesj for which this county 
was once more noted than on any other account, Dun and Din signifying a hill in 
many ancient tongues, and in Cornish Dunmwyn signifies a hill of metals ; in Welsh, 
mooun and moowyn^ any fusible metal. 

The Watling street is supposed from Guetheling, the high ridge or high dyke way, 
as Wadaldon in the parish of Whitstone, near Exeter, high ridge land, and Whitstone 
("Wad or Whid, a hill or ridge) hill or ridge land on a steep. 

With reference to what course the Ikenild takes to the west, after passing through 
the High and Fore Streets of Exeter, Dr Musgrave observes that it crosses the river 
at ** Kenn Ford," or near the old Eoman station, Vercenia of Baxter, supposed to 
be Kenton, and then passing over Haldon, *' superato monte nunc Haldeo nuncupato,'" 
** ad Ugbrook,*' near Chudleigh. In Lord Clifibrd's Park is an ancient entrenchment 
or camp, as well as others un great and little Haldon. A branch of this road may 
have led from Pen-hill near Haldon house, by the narrow way to Trushain, opposite 
Whiteway,* now much out of repair, and thence lo Hennock and Ilsington, by Bovey 
Tracy, where Roman coins were found in 1839. From Ugbrook the road proceeds to 
the Teign, *' ad Neapolin" to Newton *' ad Totonesium" to Totnes. Whether it went 
from Ilsington to Ashburton, and thence across the Dart to Hembury Fort, in Buck> 
fastleigh, by the aforesaid old roa d through Trushara (Trevesham, the village in the 
wood) which I well know, being a very bad one, is uncertain, as well as whether the 
DuRio Amne of the 16th Iter of Richard the monk of Cirencester, was actually this 
Hembury Fort or perhaps Totnes (TodUf Cornish, lay ground, land ©B hills or 
dowiM, /«, water) to which, as antiquaries assert, a road led through Newton, after 
Teignbridge was built, and by a ferry perhaps before. Some able remarks on this 
part of the road are given in Borlase's Cornwall, of the Roman ways, pages 331, 332. 
It appears that the intention was to carry it from Totnes to the banks of the Tamar 
and to the south coast of Cornwall, in which the Romans had bodies of troops, and 
worked the mines with great assiduity. That this plan succeeded, is evident from 
the station Cenia of Richard the monk, supposed Tregony (^Gencu^ a mouth, British) 
which was perhaps at the entrance of the Cenion (Kcviwvof £K;/3o\at of Ptolemy) the 
Giano of Ravennas ; although others assert it lay on the lake between Truro and 
Pendennis, and consider Ptolemy's Cenion to be Falmouth Haven. The mouth oi the 
Tamarus (Tarn a Rau, gentle river, or Tarn mawr, great river) Taftapa tK^oXat was 
Plymouth Harbour or Hamoaze. 

* Near Ashtoa. 



Additional Remarks on the Roads, Camps, ^c. 

The ttoraati way leading from Totnes into Cornwall, is supposed to pass near Ply- 
mouth, towards Liskeard, and another higher up, coming throughlSomersetshire, and 
by Torrington, to Stratton, Came'.ford and Bodmin. A raised track way, 'pitched with 
stones, at the West of Stratton, is supposed Roman, called the Causeway, passing al 
the header Bude Haven, towards Camelford ; and a square caipp is said to exist 
half a mile from Stratton, where Roman coins have been found. These roads are in 
many parts much obliterated at present. A chain of posts is supppsed to have com- 
municated from the garrison of ISC A, across the JUGUM OCRINUM (Dartmoor) 
to Hartland, and the triple Clovelly Dykes, or camp, by the famous entrenchments or 
camps, known as Preston Berry, in the parish of Drewsteignton, Cranbrook Castle, 
near Moreton,* and Bradberry Castle, in the parish of North Lew, perhaps to main- 
tain a co.nmunication with Cornwall — But then the Devon and Cornish Britons were 
pacific and mercantile, why therefore fortify these passes, unless to give the Roman 
troops probably something todo " in piping times" of endless peace? Another chain, it 
is said, communicated, possibly, by the Whitstone hills, to Crediton, and thence to 
Molland Botreaux, by Posberry Camp, Tedburn St. Mary, and Berry Castle, in 
Wolfardisworlhy, towards South Molton. The road frdm Mollanil is supposed to 
have diverged back again through Tiverton, to Hembury Ford, and thence to the 
Alauna Sj/lva, (Woodbury Castle) retrograding to the grand station at Exeter, by a 
different route. 

Much of this and other theories is unfortunately open to speculation. We are ob- 
liged to take these and many other Antiquarian reveries with reservation, cum^grano 
salts, and from the want of authentic records, and the absence of any documents, 
in dark ages, when not only printing, but even the very rudiments of science were 
lost and unknown, it is utterly impracticable, perhaps, to slate whether these mighty 
circumvallations were erected in the early British or ante-Roman period, and if 
they were originally intended as communications or beacons for signals from height (o 
height, across intersecting vallies, or merely as strong holds on high and secure 
ground. We are equally puzzled whether to assign them to the Roman legions, the 
Saxons, or the Danes, in the respective periods of all which nations, extensive mi- 
litary operations were carried oi; in Britain, and the shape of these military works 
themselves is oftentimes far from being a certain guide. A corroboration of the pre- 
sence of Roman occupation is indeed afforded by the very interesting deposits of 
Denariif at Poughill, near Wolfardisworthy, the Centaur of bronze, or Standard, 
(supposed of 2nd Legion) discovered near Sidmouth, and a coin of Trajanus Decius, 
found at (Crediton. The 2000 small brass coins, dug up near Kingskerswell, would 
also go a great way to make out a case for Milbourne Down Camp. The road from 
Kennford over Haldon, it is probable, turned off to the right, skirting the Park at 
Haldon House, and ascended the high crest of the old Plymouth road, passing on to Ug^ 
brook from Whiteway, and proceeding thence onward to Newton, at which place the 
bridge was originally of great antiquity, the first undoubtedly of wood, and it appears 
that there were three successively ; a Roman trackway, it is probable led across the 
grounds of Haldon House, (the elegant seat of Sir L. V, Palk) towards Penhill 

* Tumuli have been opened in the parish of Moreton, containing the hones of warriors, ancient 
«raioar, battle axes, ke. 

B* 



ADDITIONAL REMARKS. 

camp, and thence to the Trackway or vicinal road through Trusham,* and to another 
leading through Ashton to Christow, at which place a curious embossed stone or gra - 
nite sacrificial patera was found. We are however again in the dark about the 
embankments and tumuli^ on Haldon. Tradition states that when Athelstan expell- 
ed the Cornish from Exeter, (at that time an unwalled city) he engaged the forces of 
that people, under their chieftain Howel, on Haldon, and many of the remains on Ihat 
spot are probably to be traced to a contest of that aera only, and the total defeat of 
the Cornish, who were driven into their present territory, beyojid the Tamar. A 
gigantic skeleton, 8 feet long, was found in digging through a Tumulus, near Kenn- 
ford, in making the new Haldon road. It is generally thought that another branch, 
or Trackway, from the Ikenild, turning off from ISC A beyond theBonhay, to the 
right, crossed the Exe near the St. Thomas' Fields, at Gould's Hays, by a ford under 
St. David's hill, and proceeded up Greenway lane, by Ex wick, to the Whits ton e hills, and 
is traced onwards towards Drewsteington and Whiddon Down, (where Roman coins 
were found) and even to Hartland point, but, as Mr. Northmore remarks , to Stratton 
only. 

The line of road traced out in a preceding page by the celebrated Dr. Musgrave, (the 
friend of Stukely) one of the ablest and most distinguished scholars Exeter has produced, 
must be c(»nsidered as immediately referring to the Southern branches of the two 
great military ways, and those only. He of course, means only the Southern line of 
the FosswAY, when he commenced its career at Speen, near Newbury.t 

As respects the Ikenild, which appears only to visit the hill fortresses, evidently 
appearing first near Taesborough, in Suffolk, and running in a strong Westerly direc- 
tion, there is a diversity of opinion at the present day. Taking the line of encamp- 
ments on the high ground, between Beds, and Hertfordshire, and thence *' creeping 
along the hills through Berks and Oxfordshire," we are told it crosses the Thames at 
Streatly, whence a branch is thrown off to the right, into Wilts, and towards our 
Southern counties. It is now supposed that Musgrave was incorrect iu supposing 
that a branch of it communicated from London to Wallingford (Calleva;) it is how- 
ever probable, from the 12th and 15th Iters of Richard, that there was some connecting 
line, as we are able to trace a Roman road from Bath towards Marlborough, by 
Speen, Calleva^ and Windsor, to London ; and again another from London, by Cat' 
icva, to Bittern or Southampton, which went back again to London by Canterbury, 

* The great circular earthwork or embankment at Penhill, is clearly an ancient camp, and part of its 
vallum is still disoernable. The summit of this noble eminence, which is capped by that majestic and 
elegant structure, the Belvidere, commands an extensive view over the Quantock hills, Brent Tor, 
and Portland. 

t Henry of Huntingdon, who lived in 1154, observes. Hist. lib. 1, " Quartus major caeteris incipit 
in Catenes, ( Caithness) et desinit in Totenes, scil. a priacipio CornugalliaB in finem Scottiae, Hie 
callis vadit extransverso, aZephyro australi in Eurum Septentrionalem, et vocatur FOSSA, tenditque 
per LiHColniam." To use a Devonian phrase, it is " hard twisting " to believe at the present day, that 
the Foss commenced at Caithness, in Scotland, and ended at Totnes. It i s however certain that this noble 
road ran through a great part of S. Britain, and that more particularly also, it is to be traced from Leices- 
tershire into the S of Northamptonshire, and thence E. into Lincolnshire, by Willoughby, Belvoir, 
E. Bridgford, Long CoUingham and Lincoln. At Cirencester it meets the Akeman Street, which ac- 
compaoiesit to Akeman- ceaster, or old Bath, and is a consular way, very visible in Oxfordsh. and 
Gloucestersh. traversing also Woodstock Park. 



ADDITIONAL REMARtSlS. 

Vagniacce^ and Newbury, &c. The Ikenild is considered originally a frontier road 
of the ancient Keltic tribes, and decidedly British, and the difference between the roads 
of that people and those formed by the Romans, is said to be that the latter are de- 
cidedly straight, whereas the former more frequently accommodate themselves to the 
features and character of the country, for visiting stations and camps, (^c. For this 
reason we must not fall into the error of supposing every road in the Itinerary of 
Antonine or Richard, to be Roman, as an able correspondent observes, that the 
circumstance of a traveller passing through a country along different roads marked 
out in the Itineraries, would not alter the original or perhaps aboriginal designation 
of them. Many Roman vicinal ways were doubtless in communication with the old 
British ones. 

Woodbury Camp. The Alauna Si/lva a( Woodbury Hill, is from the British 
AlauH iu, evidently signifying the full river, like the Alanus or Ax, whose embou- 
chure is Axmouth in Devon ; which ostium or mouth is recorded by Ptolemy as the 
Ecbolce of the Alsenus, in his Geography of Britain. The words Llarvn Avon imply 
the same, or plenus amnis ; and the name of the Roman station at Brinkburn on the 
Coquet, in Northumberland, was Alauna Amne ; and Christ Chuich, in Hants, 
twelve miles from Lymington, was called Interamna and Twynamburne, being situ- 
ated a little above the confluence of the Avon and Stour, the former of which Camden 
infers from Ptolemy to have had the proper British name of Alaun, and not Avon, an 
appellative applied by the Britons to rivers in general. The Stirling of Baxter in 
Scotland, said to be the Alauna of Ptolemy, on the Forth, supposed by some to be near 
Falkirk, on the Roman wall, took its name from a river. Alau in Cornish, means Water 
Lilies. The Alaunus supposed by some to be the Tweed, which Ptolemy places next to 
the Frith of Forth, or estuary Bodotria, was probably the Alne, in Northumberland, 
on which its county town is now situated. There was a Woodbury Hill in Worces- 
tershire. V. Camden, p. 627.* The Woodbury of Devon was probably once a pebbly 
sea beach, upheaved by igniaqueous agency, and so were many other hills in the neigh- 
bourhood. (Domesday, Terra Regis Wodeberie.) 

The British names of towns and rivers are deduced from water, or something allu- 
ding thereto, and Lowman or Lummon from the above mentioned root, signifies a 
rapid stream j as also Llym or Llwm Avon. The Romans, on taking possession of 
our island, permitted the British names to continue, only giving them a Latin turn. 
But as to places of later date, and particularly of parishes, we often find the etymology 
to be Saxon, and sometimes partaking of both languages, including much Keltic, Cor- 
nish and Welsh. Woodbury Camp or Castle " overlooks a great extent of country, 
to the east the Quantock Hills and Isle of Portland, and to the south Berry Point and 
the rocky heights of Dartmoor." I visited it 16th May, 1836— it is of an oval or 
frying pan shape, now planted as well as its fosses with fir trees by Lord Rolle.t This 
station pointed to Hembuiy Ford, and all the eastern and north-eastern stations, and 
probably communicated with the Haldon camps, and those on the hills in the vicinity 
and overlooked as well the vales of the Otter and banks of the Exe. Its area is five 
acres, and a vicinal road coming from it, meets the two great roads from Somerset at 
* Lancaster is supposed ^d ^/auntim, and Alcester on Aln, another iKauna, Warwickshire, 
t On the W. and N. W. an^le particularly, it » fine double aggtr and vallum, but tiie defences are 
much slighter ou its other flanks. 



ADDITIONAL REMARKS 

Streetwayhead. Woodbury, as connecting the inland with the maritime camps, was, 
it is said, of most pre-eminence during the time of Constantine the Great, when the 
Saxons began to invade the shores of Britain,' and their depredations had arrived at 
such a height that it was deemed necessary to appoint an officer entitled the Count of 
the Saxon shore {Comes Saxonici Littoris,) and dignified with the appellation of 
SpectabiliSj or honourable, to guard the shores from these pirates. His office is re- 
corded in the Notitia, and was continued till the Romans quitted the island ; being 
one of the three officers in the west under the Master or General of Infantry, and 
commanding the second legion, several auxiliaries and two troops of horse. A British 
camp of a similar, (but styled a paper kite shape) occurs near Banbury, (called Nad- 
bury, ) Oxon. 

SiDBURY Castle, supposed the Tidorlis of the Romans, (v. Hutchins Dorset, vol, 1, 
from the anonymous Ravennas,) overlooks the vale leading to Sidmouth. It was 
evidently connected with the Hibernacula at Exeter, and was intermediate from Mori- 
dunum or Seaton, although no mention is made of it in the 1 5th Iter of Antoninus. This 
Iter it is well known is very carelessly and incorrectly handed down to us, and must 
be read as follows, so far as relates to Devon and Dorset. 

From Sorbiodunum (Old Sarum)to Vindogladia or Cranbourne 15 miles ; from thence 
to Durnovaria (Dorchester) 36; from which to Moridunum, 36 miles further, 
correcting the eight between Cranbourne and Dorchester, which would only give us 

15 miles English from Sar urn to the latter place. From Seaton we have here only 

16 miles to Isca ; this however is far from being correct, and ought to be 25, which 
is more probable ; and the Roman miles are shorter than ours from three to four in 
the main proportion. We must imagine the intervening stations to be lost, for 
this (15) never can answer for the distance to Exeter from the important station at 
Moridunum, to which there was a regular chain of encampments from the winter 
station, either at Dunium (Dorchester,) or Maiden Castle, to say nothing of the 
Fosseway and other roads pointing to it. Another station, Ottery, is the Odira 
of Ravennas, sup p. from Odre, Water. 

Sidbury, in Domesday, terra episcopi Exon, Sideberie, derives its name, as is 
well known, from that small stream called the S^d, and the above castle or camp, 
which is to the south-west of Sidbury church. The Sid, which originates in five 
fountains, * running through as many combes,' is supposed to take its name from the 
British Saeth, and Cornish Seth, an arrow, in which latter Sethy means to shoot, re- 
ferring to the swiftness and activity of the river,* Sidbury was, it is probable, a con- 
necting link with Moridunum, and it is likely that the Exploratores, under the 
Count of the Saxon shores, garrisoned it and other posts, having their light frigates, 
or naves lusoria, on the coast. 

The camp on Sidbury Hill is a small work consisting of a single embankment and 
ditch, on the summit of a conical eminence, one flank of which is covered with wood. 

♦ Perhaps the Romans adopted the Keltic T or Teutonic Th for S, in Tidortis, but the Cornish Tt/d, 
British Tia, and Welsh Tydhyn, all mean land. Dour or Dur is water, and Tiz or Tuz, a people, tribe 
or family, (Brit, and Cornish ; ) It might mean the people of the land Irrigated by the Sid, occupying 
Sandcombe, Harcombe, &c. 



ROMAN CAMP OF ISCA. 

If we are to suppose, as there is every reason for so doing, tliat ancient Isca 
was a winter Camp or station of tlie Romans, and that the Pr«/oriMm, Judgment Hall, 
Palace or Court of the commanding officer, as collected from tradition, stood on the site 
of the Iron Foundries in Waterbeer or Theatre Street, th<j Quaestorium, traced by the 
abundance of money found on the spots near Broadgate, may probably have occupied 
the usual space,* to the left of the prsetoriura, containing the quarters and apartments of 
the QUiBSTOR, or paymaster, and his family, with the treasury, arsenal, and provision 
stores for the artificers, pioneers, carpenters, (fabric ferrarii, ) sappers, and other ope- 
ratives under the Prsefectus Fabrflm, attached to the Legion. The Auguraculum, 
(otwvt<??jpiov) or temple, sacred to the soothsayer or augurs, and perchance, the public 
prison or career, were attached to this department. The Forum ^ of which the area was 
sometimes equal to the Quastoriutn, near the Upper Market probably, may have stood 
in its proper place, to the right of the Prtetorixtm, if the latter is supposed to front 
the Via Transversa: here the public assemblies were held, and the Tribunal stood, 
with its curule seat or chair, and here were the Oojkol (noticed by Josephus 3, cap. 6.) 
or seats of Judgment, where the Tribunes and Centurions sat to punish defaulters and 
offenders, and .to decidej the controversies or disputes between the private soldiers. 
This was a sort of military Provost Marshal for the maintenance of discipline- 
The Eagles and sacred standards of the Legion, with their ensigns or bearers, men of 
good families and well set up as soldiers, the statues of the gods and of the reigning 
Prince and his children, were also lodged in this Forum. 

The ancient Guildhall, on the site of the foundries in Waterbeer Street, in St. Ki- 
rian's parish, was an old Saxon building — the present edifice in the High Street being 
built in 1464, and much repaired in 1574. The seat of Justice was thus not far re- 
moved from that of the Roman times. The Esgles, unless when stuck up in the Co- 
mitia Bind Conventus or public Courts, were deposited in little Chapels or Saeella • 
from Dion Cassius, lib. 40, we find that in all camps was a small chapel of this kind, 
where the Eagle of gold, or Legionary Ensign was placed (acrog xP^<'^**ff cvi^pvrat.) 
The other ensigns being too long, were stuck on poles in the ground, in the open air; 
they were generally of silver and bore the effigies of the reigning Emperors. However, 
Herodian informs us, that it was customary to place them all in one Sacellum, lib. 4. 
(yntiv, £v9a ra orjfitta xai ayaXfiara TrpoffKvvdTai) where they received adoration, and 
were worshipped, and oaths taken by them as bearing the images and pictures of the 
deities and princes. The Principia of Tacitus, or centre of the camp, and tents of 
the chief officers, refer to these. The statue of S^anus we find, from the same author, 
was at one period of his grandeur, venerated aroorg other ornaments of the sacred en- 
signs. The little Temple, (erroneously called Arthur's oven, from wov an egg) near 
Falkirk on the Carron, where Carausius is said to have ratified a treaty ^ith the Scots 
and Picts, is supposed by Pennant to have been a small chapel for the Roman Standards- 
Annexed is a diagram of what the ancient quadrilateral Roman Camp or station of 
* In some Camps, 375 feet in length, by 200 in breadth. 



ROMAN CAMP 

IscA may be supposed to have been, if we adhere to the most excellent description 
given by Polybius in his treatise de Militid jRowand, in that part of his 6th Book 
which has happily escaped destruction. From the remains found in different parts of 
the city which may be supposed to have corresponded with the old camp — I have en- 
deavoured to track the various divisions and ramifications of the station, observing 
that the square, oblong, or quadrilateral formation was strictly adhered to by the Romans, 
wherever the ground permitted, and that the walls of the city in some measure, were 
probably on part of the old landmarks used on this occasion (not quite the rerpayiovov kto- 
vXsvpov.) The Eastgate was certainly near the P or taDecumana, or Qw^sioria, and the 
IkeniLD, passing through the centre of the Camp, communicated with the Porta Pree- 
toria, or Extraordinaria, at the Fore Street Hill, from whence it diverged and crossed 
the river by a ford (where the old Bridge of Walter Gervais was erected, in 12 18,) on its 
way to Vercenia (Kennford) and thence over Haldon to Newton and Durio Amne. The 
Southgate probably was not the Sinistra Principalis, nor was the Northgate 
the Dextra Principalis, as we suppose the North and South Streets to have been tiie 
Transversa via ante Pratorium, where the main guards and sentinels were stationed, 
for the safeguard of tha commanding officer and his Court, being the VigilicB or night 
guards of the garrison. One company, or Maniple (juia arj^aia) mounted guard every 
day inturn (ava fiepog t&> QQarriya) TrapaKomi) he says, to protect that officer, and also to 
add a degree of state and military pomp to his rank and station. 

Coins of Claudius are repeatedly found in the lower parts of the walls, where the new 
Dispensary stands, on Northernhay. This was evidently the N. boundary of the Fo- 
rum, which flank of the Camp was protected by the now inconsiderable stream from 
Hill's court, which meanders at the base of Northernhay, and in later days afforded 
a safeguard to the palace of Athelstan, in Paul Street, The Porta Decumana was 
that gate from which danger was least expected, and the ordinary thoroughfare for the 
common soldiers, for forage and water, which last was however here most probably pro- 
cured by the Praetorian Gate, as nearest the river at Isca, The Preetorian Gate was 
that most exposed (v. Cses. lib. 3, de Bel. Civ.) and was on the rear of the Camp {Ttjv 
oTTiaOtv TrXtvpav of Polybius) while the other was in front of the main fosse or ditch, 
{Kara TrpooiDTTOv rrXevpav th xapaKog) and called Decumana, from the Ten Or dines, 
or military Centuries near it, as it appears, of which every five companies or Maniples 
of foot consisted— as Hastati, Principes, or Triarii, * and it will be recollected that 
every three of these companies formed a Cohort along with 120 Velites, Skirmishers, 
or Light Infantry, and Ten Cohorts formed p Legion ; attached to which were ten 
troops of Horse, of 30 men each, and a number of Auxiliaries or Allies, called Socii, 
Ala of PTorse, and Cornua of foot. These last I have partly placed as Extraordina- 
rit, being a 3rd of the foreign Horse, and 6th part of their Infantry, with the elite of 
those Troops, in their proper place, on the left of the Pratorium, nearly above the 
Qucestorium, and partly in the Lower Market. The Extraordinarii were all picked sol- 
diers, tTrtXeicrot. The Via principalis I have placed In the centre of the Camp; it was 
usually 100 feet wide— -here were the quarters of the officers of rank, both Romans and 
their allies, extending in general, over a space of 60 feet towards the Pr<^foriMm. 
This spot was kept very level and neat, with abundance of cara, as Polybius tells us, 
and was apparently a sort of drill ground, for the daily exercises of the soldiers The 
Via Quintana, 60 feet in width, I suppose intersected that part of the city, which ex- 
* Distinguished by three long plumes in their helmets. 



OP I8CA. 

tended from the limits of the Bedford Circus, and Southernhay, across the main street 
through Musgrave's Ailejr towards the Castle, so called fn>m the Quingue ordines 
located towards it. In this road, as most convenient for that purpose, was the Forum 
Rerum UtensiUuntf or Market place for all necessary articles wanted by the troops 
(by the testimony of Festus) which I have placed across the main street, between the 
spot where the Roman Vault was discovered and Musgrave's Alley, The Triarii 
Pilani, or Veterans, 600 strong, are placed in the same quarter as the tttrmee or troops 
of horse; their senior captain, Centurio Primipilus or Adjutiiiit, was however lodged 
near the Pratorium, in the post of honour, and took rank above all the other Cen- 
turions, being the senior officer of the right hand sub-division, order, or front rank, 
of the leading company of the veteran soldiers of the Legion. That useful body of 
men, the gallant Velites, light companies (or ypo<T<poiJiaxoi of Polybius) was probably 
quartered along the fosse or ditch, and some of these along with the Triarii towards 
the Pofla Decumana.* They wore small forage caps of fur (r wolfskin. 

* 1 1 nwy t>« said, that by assigning the site of a Preetorium to the pla ; j above alluded to. the great 
point in the Caitrametation of Polybius has been lost sight of, (Lib . 6 , Cap. 27.) As to the rlv liri-rn- 
lulnoim Jk <rwo^t¥ ofjut mm vafayyiXMcy, Of the spot most fitted for a view )t the surrounding country, 
and for intelligence, where the tent or pavilion of the commanding officer was first pitched, we must of 
necessity select the hill on which stands the Castle of Rougemont; m; opinion, however, is that 
this was also well fortified, bat that it was the Arz or voffju^oXii, a cita«'( 1 or strong hold to retire to 
in case of necessity, like the Acropolis of Athens and other ancient cities . If we trace out the enceinte 
of the ancient Camp, by the present ground encircled by the walls, it w ill be impossible to place the 
Pratorium where the Castle stands now, for if so, how shall we, after establishing the vc^t| rfx aysjJacif 
m^iywoi-tintot. the quadrangular space round the ensign or standard, wlJch was marked oat encir* 
ding the place selected for the tent or pavilion of the General (in which the said standard was first of 
all fixed as a guide post to the rest of the troops engaged in throwing up the work) assign the Queesto* 
rium and Forum ? I therefore differ from the usual received opinion, which has been noticed page xrl. 
As they occupied an area of equal dimensions on each flank of the 1 reetorium, the form oftheRO' 
man camp must be dispensed with altogether, if we imagine that iinst essential part c fit to have 
been confined to Northemhay, out of all communication with its most needful offices aiul appendages, 
its Paymaster General's quarters, and its temple, standards and tribunr Is. The old editions of Caesar 
(especially that of Leyden, 12mo. 1684,) agree with the plan of cas' i ametation here laid down for 
liOA, so doesSir H.Savile, in his commentaries on Roman warfare (Historia Taciti. Elz. 1649) a very 
able performance. A plan is however given in Dempster's Roman Anti juities (Geneva 1632) which is 
a most extraordinary one. In this the Praetorium is placed at the North east angle of the camp, with 
a small guard of Volunteers only. The Porum and Qusestorium are close together on its left, the Roman 
Legionaries huddled together in a line with them, and the Socii cr Allies, instead of being on the flanks 
of the camp, are made to occupy the centre of the lower part of it, ei cU-cled hy the Cavalry on each 
side, and the light troops or velitu, who were by Polybius expressly appointed to mount guard at 
night by 10 companies at a time over the fosse and outworks ! ! 

These soldiers mounted in marching order, most likely, and their lentioels were posted like ours 
probably "with their packs on," being always on active service. Thu e Guards mounted at the TA- 
MIAor Quattorium, by night, as well as those over the tents of the pom nandlng officer, and also of the 
Tribunes and of the Cavalry, chosen out of each company, besides the private guards from each force- 
and two others over each of the Eldert and Counsellors, who assisted the General in all affairs, and 
commanded in chief under him. The Guard mounting was conducted with great order and regularity 
by a tessera or watch word given from one Centurion to another, till it came ba:k again to the Tribune, 
who gave it out, and officers answering to our field officer and captain of the day, went the Rounds* 
took notice of all public irregularit'es, and caused all negligence. &c. committed on guard, to be inves- 
tigated and punished, as in our moaern garrisons. Four night watches or guards were mounted by 
each company, relieved by as many others every three hours. ( Acts, 12, v. 4,) and these guards were 
visited by mounted or cavalry officers, four times in the night. 

L„- ' 



REFERENCES TO THE PLATE. 

(iSiipposinff a Legion quartered at ISCA.J 

AAA &c. Centuries or Companies of Roman Soliliers, as young, middle aged, and 
Veterans, each commanded by a Centurion, lioraan Cavalry also. 

B. Foreign Troops, Horse and Foot, or Auxiliaries. 

C. Detached bodies of ditto. 

D. Foreign Volunteeis and picked men, body Guard and Prsetorians. 

E. Quarters of Praefectus Castrorum, or Quarter Master General who superintem'ed 

the formation of the Camp, baggage of the Soldiers, and the provisional or 
medical department. 

F. Quarters of Prsefeclus Fabrfim or chief Engineer. 

G. Quarters of Foreign or Auxiliary officers of rank. (Tabernacula sex Tribunorum, 

totque Praefectorum Sociorum, ) 
H. Quarters of Roman Tribunes and other chief or field officers, (Tabernacula sex 

Tribunorum, totque Praefectorum Legionis.) 
I. Market for Troops, or Forum Rerum Utensilium, near the Via Quintana. 
K, Principia, or centre of the Camp. 
No. 1. Coins found, 1836. 

3. SamianWare, do. ^wrcMsofNero, do. 

5. Dagger of Mefitus, South Street, 

4. Tesselated Pavement and Bom an Bath, on Bel-Hill, South Street. 

6. Great Deposits of Coins, 1823. 

6. Roman Penates discovered 1778 (U[)ham's) Broadgate. 

7. Coins discovered 1837. (Banks opposite the Guildhall.) 

8. Deposits of Coins.discovered 1723, and in Catherine Lane. 

9. Subterraneous Passage: 

10. Roman Vault with Urns, behind Three Tuns Inn, 

11. Greek and Egyptian^Coins, 1840. 

12. Coins found above the New Cemetery. 

13. Coins found near Mary Arches Church. 

14. Coins found at the corner of Waterbeer Street, 1818. 

16. Tesselated Pavement and Coinsi (Rev. Preb. Dennis' House, No. 197^ 
High St reel.) 

16. Roman Pavement of white square stones, Pancras Lane. 

17. Coins found at various times. 

18. Intersectino of Musgrave's Alley, with sepulchral Tablet of Camilius Satur- 

nalis to Ulpia, and Signet of Pompeyus. 

19. Great deposit of Samian Ware, (Coffin's Estate, 1837.) 

20. Subterraneous Passage to Castle, from near the Grammar School. 

The iKENiLD turned oflF most probably into the line of the old Butcher Row, and 
Stepcote Hill, thence traversing part of the Westgale quarter, it crossed the river at 
the ford opposite, and proceeded through Alpbington on its way to Verceniay or Kenn 
Ford. 



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Roman Antiquities^ S^c. of Exeter. 



ROMAN COINS, &c. 

FOUND AT EXETER AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD.'*' 

1832. 

QuiNARius of Skvbrus, silver, in very good preservation, (Plate 1. No. 1.) — near 
West of England Insurance office, Fore street, Aug. 24. — Obverse, laureated head, fur- 
cated beard, L. SEPT. SEV. PERT. AVG- IMP. PIVS (Lucius Septiraius Severus 
Pertinax Augustus Imperator Pius.) Reverse, Fortune as an emblematical female 
figure, habited in a robe or pallium ; in her right hand a rudder, and in her left a 
cornucopia, or horn of abundance; P. M. TRI. COS, II. P. P., signifying the honors 
which this warlike Emperor had enjoyed as Pontifex Maximus, Tribune of the people 
and (Jonsul. The letters P. P. or pater patrice designate a title of honor given to 
magistrates, and usurped by the Emperors, as preservers or parental in the exercise of 
their offices with respect to the state. From history we learn that Severus reduced 
the Caledonians and Mseatae, in the North of Britain and near the Frith of Forth, to 
submission, and employed his legions to erect the celebrated Picts' Wall or earthen 
vallum^ originally commenced by Hadrian, across the Isthmus, from Solway Frith to 
Tynemouth, of turf and palisadoes, fortified with stone redoubts and turrets, and 74 
Roman miles in length. He died at York, of the gout, in his 66th year, and his re- 
mains were interred there with very splendid funeral honors, by his sons Caracalla and 
Geta A. D.21I. 

CoNSTANTiNE the second~A small copper coin : obverse, CONSTANTINVS IVN. 
NOB. (Constantinus Junior nobilis,) son of Constantino the Great and Fausta, daugh- 
ter of Maximian and Eutropia,) in the military Cuirass, or lorica,: Reverse, two 
Roman Soldiers, one on each^side of a legionary Standard, in the upper compartment 
of which appears a laurel wreath. Gf or(IA. EXERCITVS,) a sentiment often found 
on the coins of that family, who wished to ingratiate themselves with the all powerful 
legions. The soldiers have a spear in the right, and a bent bow in their left hand. 
The coin was struck while theelder Constantine was living, in honour of the younger 
Constantino, then heir apparent to the Empire, who perished afterwards at Aquileia 
in his 25th year, A. D. 340. 

Tetricus. a small coin supposed of Tetricus, one of the 80 tyrants of the Lower 
Empire, in the reign of Gallienus, about 258, A. D. Revs Hope, Spes PVBLICA. 
(3rd brass.^ 

* All Coins not fp«cified at to size are of the 2nd braas. 
F 



20 nOMAN ANTIQUITIES 

Trajan. October 23, in High Street, a very handsome and well pref^erved large 
coin, of oric/ia/cwm or yellow brass, obverse IMF. CAESAR. NER. TRAIANVS 
OPT11VI..S. AVG. GER. DAC. (fmperator, Caesar Nerva Trajanus, Optimus, 
Augustus, Germanicus, Dacicus.) Reverse, a noble figure of the Goddess Fortuna 
in handsome drapery, sitting in a chair, one foot on a small scabellum, or stool ; the 
horn of plenty in one hand and rudder of a ship in the other ; underneath is the in- 
scription FORT. RED. {Fortuna Reduci) implying a sacrifice made with great 
solemnity by the Senate to Fortune, for a prosperous journey, wl en the Prince left 
the capital on some great warlike expedition, or other public matter. The letters S.C 
or Senatus ConsuUum, shew the authority of the Roman Senate, who ordered the 
inscription, which is more fiequently found on the large brass coins than those of 
silver and gold, intimating, it is supposed, that there was some greater value set upon 
them than the others, the workmanship being often of more price than those composed 
of the more precious metals. The inscription on this reverse is much injured ..E. 
ROMAN,.. 

Trajan was born at Italica, (now Seville,) in Spain, in the 64th year' of our sera, 
and reigned 19 years and a half. There are three fine Arches still existing in his 
honour, viz. that at Merida, in Spain, and two others at Benevenlum and Ancona, in 
Italy. The famous Doric Column, erected by the Senate in honour of his Dacian 
Victories, is still one of the majestic ornaments of modern Rome, 

Two other Coins much detrited, one an Adrian, Female figure, S. C. on Reverse; 
the'other much defaced, unknown. 

Nero, Dupondius. A very handsome and well-preserved copper Coin, found near 
the Deanry Walls, South Street ; Obv. NERO. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. GER. 
P. M. TR. P. IMP. II. Nero Claudius Caesar, Augustus Germanicus Pontifex 
Maximus, Tribunilia Potestate ; Imperator 2. Reverse, a Winged Victory holding 
a Globe, on which the celebrated letters are inscribed S. P. Q. R. Senatus Populus- 
gue Romanus : on each side the letters S. C. Struck in the 2nd year of Nero, or 56, 
A. D. The Dupondius of Nero generally weighs 229 grs. the As weighing 106 grs., 
and the Semis or ^ As is a medallic gem, with various devices. 

Gallienus. Plated Coin, or washed with silver. Obv. Radiated Head, IMP. 
GALLIENVS. P. F. (Pius Felix) AVG. Korn A. D. 219, reigned 7 years with 
his father, Valerian, and 8 alone, and was slain at Milan, A. D. 268, by some of his 
oflRcers ; — a weak and luxurious Prince. This, and the 9 following Coins were found 
in South Street. 

Flavius Julius Constantius. Small copper Coin. Obv, Laureated Head, FL. 
IVL. CONSTANTIVS NOB. C. designating him as Nobilis Casar, and heir to the 
Empire, as son to Constantine the Great, and grand-son of Constantius Chlorus, 
Reverse, the Main Gate of the Praetorian Camp, or otherwise only a Building sur- 
mounted by a Star, and the inscription PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, possibly im- 
plying that he and his brother erected some public edifice of note. 

DoMiTiAN. A large coin of orichalcum or yellow brass, I.aureated Head, IMP. 
CAES. DOMIT. AVG. GERM. COS. XL CENS. POT. P, P. Rev. S. C. four 
figures, three of which are Roman soldiers, in front of a small altar, seemingly ad- 
dressed by the Emperor, attired in a robe, as the fourth ; for which reason the group 



OP EXETER. 21 

rnay be designated an Adlocutio Impevatoris. It is however supposed by some to be 
the Emp«*ror and three Soldiers sacrificing. Qy. ? the three Legions, 2nd, 9th, and 20th 
quartered in IJriiein during his reign ? No coins of Domitian positively relating to 
our Island appear, however, to have been struck. 

Magnentius. a copper Coin. Obv. D. N. (Dominus Noster) MAGNENTIVS 
P. F AVG. Bev. Roman Soldier in the tunic and Sagum, holding a spear, with a 
standard, above which n star, in the left hand; a small Victory in his right, on a 
Globe, holding a crown of laurel. FELICITAS REIPVBLICE. Exergue PSLG, 
Lyons mint mark. Defeated by Constantius, at Mursa, and on the Cottian Alps ; 
after murdering his benefactor, Constans, killed himself, A. D. 353. 

Constantius. CONSTANTIVS P. F. AVG. with gemmated or braided crown. 
Bev. a Roman soldier standing over two fallen enemies, one of whom he pierces with 
his spear ; small round parma on the left arm, FELIX TEMPORVM REPAR- 
ATIO, In exergue P CON. or Constantinople mint mark. (3rd brass.) 

Another Ditto, The same. A Horseman in the act of spearing a fallen enemy. 
Exergue MTA. 

Another Ditto. The same. A Horseman striking down another with his spear, 
ex. P. AN. Struck at ^n<iocA in Syria. 

CoNSTANTiNE the Great; Laureated Head, IMP. CONSTANTINVS P. AVG. 
Rev. a male figure standing , apparently with a petasus or hat, in a loose robe ; in one 
hand a Cornucopia, in the other a patera, POT. ROM. Exergue ALEXN. partly 
monograms ; mint mark of Alexandria, in Egypt. Probably Thoth or Mercurius 
Trismegistus, who lived in the time of Osiris, and taught the Egyptians husbandry, 
and may refer to the corn imported to Rome, which was supplied 4 months in the 
year, by ships from Alexandria. I consider it, however, to be Serapis, with the corn 
bushel on his head, and adored in the Serapium, a magnificent temple in that city. 

ViCTORiNUs or Tetricus. Small coin of the Lower Empire, probably of Victorinus 
or Tetricus, of compound metal. Rev. sacrificial instruments, gutturnium, or oblong 
oil vase, (Aul. Gell 1, 17, c. 8, and Varro) Uluus, &e. An ancient Bath, with a great 
quantity of tesselated pavement, and of white and black tesseree, irregular in shape, 
embedded in very excellent cement, was also found in South Street. Perhaps thesite of a 
Roman Exhedra, or Assembly Room to a Mansion. 

DiocLEsiAN, (Plate 1, No. 2,) Obverse, Radiated Head, IMP. C. C. VAL. 
DIOCLETIANVS, P. F. AVG. Reverse, two figures in Roman habits ; one nearly 
naked, holding a lance, seems to present a small statue of Victory to another, who 
has a sceptre in his right hand. 10 VI. CONSERVATORI AVG. That is to 
Jupiter the preserver of Augustus, of whom, it seems, assuming the name and epithets 
in his patents, he is called Jovius. Probably relates to his adoption of Maximian, as 
colleague in the Empire. Between the figures is T. R. the mint mark of Treves, in 
Germany, and in Exergue XXI, or its Collegium Undeviginti Trevirorum. Born in 
Dalmatia, and died at the age of 6S. about 324 A. D. after abdicating the throne. 
This coin has been washed with silver, and is of the 3rd brass. 

CoNSTANTiNE the Great. 8rd brass, found in Gandy Street, excavating a saw-pit, 
(Plate 1, No. 3.) IMP. CONSTANTINVS P. F. AVG I aureated bust, ina cuirass. 
Reverse, the Sun standing, rays round its head, a globe in its left hand; SOLI. IN- 



22 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

VICTO. COMITI. or that Emperor as the genius of the Sun, radious, running its course | 
the Invictus Osiris, solar fire, or Mithras, venerated at Rome, Bel of scripture and 
Beltucadder of Britain, Tyrian Hercules, &c. (A rare type) Ex. P. LN. or London 
mint mark. 

Philip the younger, son of M. Jul. Philippus, both slain by Decius, 253, A. D. 
Laureated Bust, PHILIPPVS N'OB. CAESAR. Rev. Roman Soldier with spear and 
2)arma, PRINCEPSlVVENTVnS, title given to the eldest sons of the Emperors, from 
the time of Augustus ; P. AR. on Exergue, Mintmark of Aries in France, still fa- 
mous for its obelisk and amphitheatre, and a chief town of Gaul Narbonensis (Arelate.) 

Faustina, wife of M. Aurelius, and younger daughter of Antoninus Pius, a large 
coin — hair tied up behind. FAV3TINA AVG. Rev. a tall female figure ; in one hand» 
a small image of victory, while the other reclines on a shield, (both in Gandy Street,) 

P. S. Geta, son of Severus (QuinariusJ t very handsome (base) silver coin, 
found in the Shilhay. Bust to the right. P. SEPT. GETA CAES. PONT. Rev^ 
Geta armed, and a warlike trophy alongside. PRIN. IVVENTVTIS. (Plate I 
No. 4.) Rare type when in gold. 

1833. 

Probus, small coin, found in Gandy Street, June 9. Radiated head, his hand 
holding a little standard, with an eagle surmounting it. Rev, a figure in Roman habit, 
in one hand a laurel crown, in the other a shield. XXI. Collegium undeviginti, In- 
scr. effaced. Born at Sirraium ia Pannonia, and assassinated by his soldiers, after 
7 years reign, and many glorious victories, A. D. 282. 

GttATiAN, son to Valentinian I. and Colleague of the great Theodosius, small 
copper coin, found in South Street. Head filleted ; . .N. GRATIANVS. AVG. CAES. 
Rev. Soldier with standard and parma or small oblong shield, GLORIA NOVI 
SAECVLI. Exergue S. CON. (Rare) assassinated in Gaul, 383, A. D. Built Gre- 
noble in France, called after him Gratianopolis ^ among the ancient AUobroges, a 
people of Dauphiny, Savoy, &c., and had for his tutor the famous poet Ausonius, a 
native of Bourdeaux, or Burdegala. 

Nero, of Orichalcum, a large coin, found in Friernhay Street, in very fair pre- 
servation. Laureated bust. NERO, CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GER. TR. P. On 
the Reverse are two female figures, one sitting in a chair, evidently Messalina, his 
last Empress, typified as a Ceres or Damater, the mother of mankind, the same as 
ISIS, an ear of corn in her left hand; the other stands in front, attired in a loose 
robe, and apparently sacrificing, a small altar intervening between them. Legend 
CERES ANNONA, relates to one of those largesses or donatives of corn given to 
the people by the Emperors, to secure popularity among them, and struck on one of 
those occasions, noticed by Suetonius (Cap, 10. in vita Neronis) frumentum menstru- 
um gratuitum, &c. This medal was found imbedded in solid gravel, nine feet below 
the surface. 

Tetricus, the Elder, Ctyrant of lower Empire) Radiated bust, bearded. Legend, 
PIVE (Pivesuvius) (Te) TRICVS P. F. AVG. Governor of Aquitaine, in Gaul, about 
270, A. D. (Ttrpiicof, Zosim. 1.,) and kinsman to Victoria or Victoritia, through 
whose intrigues he was chosen Emperor, and with his son, afterwards graced the 
triumph of Aurelian, against whom he rebelledt Rev. a figure with the apex or sa- 



OP EXETEtt. 23 

cerdoial cap, probably a flaiuen or priest, feeding a serpent ; in one hand a patera 
in the left a rudder, underneath a small vase, perhaps the /leraviirTpov or poculum 
sanitalis, or a aimputum to pour wine on the sacrifice, SALVS AVG. We may 
suppose this to be a supplication for health to ^seulapius, and the patera to contain 
the sacred cake, kneaded with oil and wine. (3rd Brass,) 

A Bezant, or copper coin of the Byzantine Empire, much corroded. It bears a 
capital V, or A, marking also the Epoch of some Emperor of the west, in the times 
of the Lower Greek Empire. It may be assigned to Constantius 2nd, who reigned 
about 64)1, A. D., or to Justin and Sophia, A. D. 565. 

CoNSTANTius 2nd, P. F. AVG. Two winged victories crowniog a Palm Tree with 
wreaths of Laurel. VICTORIA REDVX V. allades perhaps to his triumph over 
Magnentius ; coined at Treves. (3rd Brass) 

VicTORiNus, the Elder (tyrant of Lower Empire.) Reverse indistinct. About 260, 
A. D. (3rd Brass) 

CoNSTANTiNE the Great, P. F. AVG. Head of Mars, with helm and cuirass, 
MARTI CONSERVATORI, that is, to Mars the preserver, he bearing resemblance 
to this Emperor, as it is reported, and both born in Thrace. These last five in 
South Street. 

Nero. Two (same type) found in digging a sewer in front of the new-built houses 
in South Street, with some more Roman tesselated pavement, of small unequal white 
cubes of pottery, embedded in cement or concrete, and covered with a thick layer of 
the same. A quantity of Roman tiles was found on the same spot ; the lithostralum 
or pavement, had, by some of the modern Goths, been well covered with a lime and 
sand floor. Rev. S. C. a stately peristyle or front of a Temple, supported by 4 pillars : 
ARA PACIS underneath, evidently the Temple of the double-faced, or Bifrons Ja* 
nus at Rome, shut up, as always in peace time, but open in war, Nero closed it for 
the 7th time in the 811 th year of Rome. The only reminiscence o{ Janus, who was 
a very ancient King of Italy, (contemporary with Boaz and Ruth,) 2637, A. M. who 
received Saturn flying from Crete, is the Arch of Greek marble in the Velabrum^ 
near the liber, supposed of the time of Caracalla. 2nd. Brass ; (Plate L, No. 6.) 

Vespasian, Deiiarius or silver coin, found near the Conduit, (since removed.) 
CAES. VESPA... Rev. the sacrificing utensils, marking the mystic symbols of 
Pontifical power, viz, the Quirinal Lituus or crooked staff, aspersorium, or water- 
sprinkle, simpulufn, or little vessel for libation of wine, and lustral vase in the centre. 
Legend TRI. POT. 

Nkro. Radiated bust, (a remarkably handsome coin) Plate 1, No. 6...CLAVD. 
CAESAR AVG. GER. P. M. TR. P. IMP. II. Rev. Securitas AVGVSTL Se- 
curity as a female in an arm chair reposing on one hand, in the other a sceptre or staff of 
laurel, S. C. and underneath the numerals II, a stroke above, proving the coin to be 
the double As, or Dupondius, with the mark of the Duumvir of the mint. The impe- 
rial Sestertius (2J ases, and worth l|d. English) was a larger coin of the Ist Brass. 

Geatian, DN. GRATIANVS. N. (Nobilis) C. AVG. Rev. as before, Gloria 
Novi Saculi. (New ^Era opposed to Paganism.) 3rd Brass. (Rave.} 

Antoninus the Elder. A large coin of the elder Antoninus, of orichaleum, or 
yellow brass. (Plate 1, No. 7,) Laureated Bust, IMP. CAES. T. AEL. HADR. 

G 



24 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

ANTONINVS. AVG. PIVS, P. P. Reverse, a Female with spear and shield, but 
very indistinct and the figure worn ; underneath ROMA, and on each side S. C. He 
died A. D. 162, aged 74 years and six months, after reigning 22 years and a half. 

Claudius. A large Copper Coin of Claudius in indiflferent preservation. Reverse 
a Female figure in an arm chair, S. C. underneath ; a torch in her left, in the other a 
Discus or PatinCf evidently a Ceres. 

Romulus and Remus, (Plate I No. 8.) suckled by a she wolf, a small brass Ro- 
man Coin. Above a constellation of two stars, TR. P. (Treviris percussa,) 
Obverse, Head of Mars, Urbs Roma ; of the Lower Empire, and of frequent occurrence 

CoNSTANTiNE the Gieat. (Plate I, No. 9.) MAX. AVG. Laureated Bust. Kev. 
two Soldiers and a Standard, Gloria Exercitus. In Exergue, TRS. Treves mint 
mark. These standards or labarums, are generally composed of a round disk, 
crescent and branch of laurel (v. Bryant) and often indicate colonies of disbanded 
soldiers. (3rd brass.) 

Lower Empire, small coin of, IMP. C... Rev. Winged Victory, with a palm 
VICTORIA AVG, These last eight in South Street, 

Trajan. (Plate 1, No, 10.) Large coin or medal, found near Exeter. Laureated 

Head, IMP, CAES, NERVAE TRAIANO (DAC. P. M, T. R. CONS 

, , . . Reverse, a warlike figure seated on a quadriga, or four-wheeled chariot,* helmed, 
right hand supports his head, the left grasps a dagger; the Legend is S. P. 
Q. R, OPTIxMO. PRINCIPI. S. C. In front is a trophy, bedizened with the 
warlike spoils of various conquered nations, + Commemorates, most probably, 
Trajan's victories over Decebalus, King of Dacia, (against whom his wars lasted 15 
years,) as represented on his Column at Rome. A serai-circular Clypeus and scutum 
ovatum^ two kinds of shields, are on this trophy ; also an empty quiver of arrows 
reversed, a short bow ; a militaiy cloak, or Sagulum, perhaps of Dacia, with curious 
lappels or sleeves, surmounted by a sort of barbarian head piece, or cap, (galerus 

" The Chariot here represented, and seemingly mutilated, would appear to be one of the ancient 
Quadrigee, which often appears on the reverse of the Denarius, and was a chariot drawn by four 
horses ; the spokes of its wheels are clearly discernable. I have my doubts of this, from its size and 
length ; and also because the triumphal chariot of the Roman generals, or Im;7^a(or«. was of a cir- 
cular shape, with a little victory standing on the top of it, holding a wreath ; 1 suppose that it was a 
Dacian war chariot or wain, of the kind well known to the Greeks by the name of af/ua|ua|a and to 
the RomaBs by that of JRheda ; — and this conjecture Is greatly strengthened by the shafts which are 
ubjoiued on the troph y , and evidently fixed to the capsus rhedce. answering to our box, mentioned by 
— — PoUio, the architect in this manner : — Ad capsum rhedce loculamentum figatur; the word locuJa- 
mentum signyfyiag a box or drawer, or if you like, a book case, or any compartment. The epidium, 
mentioned by Propertlus, was peculiar to the Gauls and Britons, as was the covtnus armed with 
scythes; the pilentum was often used by the Roman matrons at the solemnities of their deities, and 
the petorritum was a four wheeled Gaulish chariot : many more might be enumerated This evidently 
therefore, was a Dacian chariot, and why should not Trajsn be as well plaased to make a parade of 
that of Decebalus, as our Countrymen of Buonaparte's in Bullock's Museum, after the victory at Wa- 
terloo ? The broken car of that unfortunate prince formed an apposite feature in the group of arms 
or armour, in the same manner as we would have added a gun carriage, or a dismounted eight pounder 
to a trophy of captured cuirasses and eagles . 

t S. Erizzo, p. 302, Ditcorso sopra le Mgdaglie Venice, 1571, says this is Decebalus himself, the 
Dacian King, and gives this Medal. 



IIOMAN ANTIQUITIES 25 

jncurvus (the letters A VG. barely visible, below the cloak. We are forcibly remind- 
ed of Childe Harold, Canto IV. V. Ul, on the dying Gladiator. 

Nero, found in digging » sewer on the Friars : the head is decorated with the laurel 
crowo, and the inscription is leniarkably plain. On the reverse is a figure sitting in 
an armed chair, playing on the lyre, evidently intended for the Emperor, who excelled 
on that instrument, and in front of him are the augural tituus and pedum^ two mystic 
symbols of the priesthood, indicating the Pontifex Maximus—lhe one being the au- 
gural staff, the other a knotted shepherd's stick, symbolical of a sacrifice to Bacchus> 
of the immolation of goats and the revels of the feasts called Dionysia : the words on 
this reverse are, Sccurilas Augusliy S. C, It is probable that this was coined in me- 
mory of some sacrifice, and the Lyre was added to commemorate the Emperor's talent 
for masic (alluded to at length in Suetonius,) the emblem of Security^ being a 
woman leaning or reposing on one hand, with a sceptre or staff of laurel in the other> 
it was for this reason he appears also in that sedentary posture. 

Vespasian, found at the same place, rather smaller in size. On the reverse an 
Eagle, with the wings expanded (and the letters S. C.) which bird is a common sym- 
bol on medals, and often connected with the consecration of the Emperors. Both 
coins are extremely well minted^ and have a strong outline. A triangular piece of 
brass was found in company with the above worthies— and being, perhaps, intended 
for a cone, orotherwise an isosceles triangle merely, might suggest an ample discussion 
to antiquaries, were they disposed to imagine that it had a mystical or occult mean- 
iog, instead of merely coming there by blind chance. The triangle has descended to 
us as a symbol of fire, and of the Deity, while the square symbolized matter, or the 
womb of things — but the cone and triangle hieroglyphically meant two very different 
things, the former being an emblem af Venus and Astarte. The Arabians of Petrsea 
worshipped a black cubic figure as their God, while the sun or deity of Helioyabalus 
■was a pyramidal black stone — so is the modern deity oi Juggernaut — so also, in former 
days, were Jupiter at Corinth, and Vulcan, and fire symbolized, although Bacchus* 
the Sun, and Apollo, were more frequently the objects of devotion in that shape. In 
general, cones were employed as jjAa/Zi, but pyramidal stones were dedicated to the 
solar fire, and the most ancient temples of India and of Java are of that shape ; and 
while it is certain that the pyramid was the symbol of fire, according to the doctrines 
of the Platonic school, that ancient Babel was of that shape, as well as the Mexican 
temple of the sun and moon, to say nothing of the mighty wonders of Egypt ; why 
may we not suppose this relic to have had some reference to fire worship, so univer- 
sally prevtilent among all the nations of antiquity, and to have been placed among 
the smiling household gods of the ancient heathen of Isca, in token of his gratitude 
for the numberless benefits derived from the presiding deity of fire?* 

On the 24th of August, a Roman Bath and Pavement were discovered en Mr, Go- 
dolphin's late premises, Bel-Hill, South Street, for which v. Part 3. 

A Roman Sepulchral Urn, with ashes, and a quantity of Flemish tiles, were found 
on the site of the Athenseum, Bedford Circus ; part of an encaustic Pavement, evidently 

* There is an angular piece or brass in the British Museum, bearing the figure of an ox, supposed 
by Mr. H. Brandretb, to be early Italian, Sicilian, or Phoenician. He also observes that oune-us, quoin, 
and coin are derived from cvm9 an angle, and pecunia as likely as Trom f^ciM, also. V.onStycasof 
JVbrlhumbria. 



26 OJ? EXETER. 

belonging to the ancient Mouasleiy of Benedictines, which stood near this spot, adorned 
with chevronels, fleurs de lis, arabesques, fishes, and the vesica Piscis, (alluding to 
the name of Christ) and the following Coins : a Vespasian and a Domilian, tolerably 
perfect — a small coin of Constantine, and a larger one of the 

Emperor Caius Julius Maximinus IMP. C. MAXIMINVS, CAES. Reverse, a 
female figure attired in loose drapery (Gloria) ROM.A'NO (rum J He was, says 
Jornandes, of barbarian extraction (genere Gothico) born in Thrace, a wretched ty- 
rant, noted for gigantic bulk, ferocity and avarice — assasinated by his own Army 
before the walls of Aquileia, with his son, A. D. 236. 

Claudius. Two were found in the houses belonging to Mr. Chappie, builder, ad- 
joining the King John, and close to the church of St. George, in South Street; on one 
a female sitting in an armed chair, in one hand a patera or sacrificing platter, in the 
other a staff. The other has a Roman Soldier in a fighting posture, right arm elevated^ 
in the other a buckler, a very frequent type at Exeter, emblematic of constancy, firm- 
ness, and hardihood. Also a 

Constantine the 2nd. (IVN. NOB. CAES.) born at Aries, 312 A. D. Rev. two 
legionaries and vexilla or standards as before — Gloria Exercitus. Exergue TRS. 
Treveris Signata, coined in his father's lifetime. (^3rd brass) Two small coins with head 
Mars, and VRBS ROMA (Lower Empire) 

Vespasian, a coin found in digging a sewei in the College of Vicars. Rev. Fe- 
male with Cornucopia, S. C. Part of a lead coffin, &c, 

Constantine, (small) Gloria Exercitus, as before, P. L. C. Pecunia Londini 
Cusa (above the Globe Inn back entrance) South Street. 

Constantine 2nd. (Flav. Claud.) another small coin, was found among some 
rubbish in Palace Gate, As before — In exergue CONS. O. or Constantinopoli 
Obsignata» 

Antoninus Pius, large brass. Obv. ANTONIN VS PIVS. PM. PP. AVG. found 
in the village of Ide. On Rev. an emblematical figure being the goddess Libertas 
holding the Pileus or Cap given to slaves that were maRumitted or made free by their 
masters (servum ad pileum vocare, Liv.) after shaving their heads— So in a play of 
Plautus, Rasa capite calvus capiam Pileum. The Pileus was also bestowed on 
such gladiators at the Amphitheatres as were slaves, in testimony of their obtaining 
freedom. In the other hand is the rod Vindicta, noted by Horace, with which these 
freedmen were struck by the Prsetor, shewiag they were now exempt from being beaten 
by their Masters. The Romans left the study of medicine, and of many of the liberal 
Arts to their slaves and freedmen, trades also. The Inscription is LIBERTAS ET 
CONSVL(atMO with S. C.and OF. in area, probably answering to Tacitus " Liber- 
tatem et consulatum L. Brutus instituit," for although the people were degenerate and 
servile, »till the show df freedom was kept up under the Emperors, although the vir- 
tues of the ancient Republic, or the " populi Romani propria libertas " of Cicero, were 
never restored. 

Allectus, found near the Black Lions Inn, South Street, under the foundation of 
the house of Mr. Downe, Plumber. (Plate 1 No. 11.) Radiated bust, bearded, IMP. 
C, ALLECTVS P. F. AVG. Rev. Peace as a female, with staff and olive branch, 
PAX AVG. In the field S. A> (Sacrum iEs) in exergue M. L. MonetariumLondi- 



OF fiXGTER. 37 

nf, coined in the I^oman Mint at London — Tyrant of Britain, 296, A D. after being 
Captain of tlie Guards, prime minister and bosom friend to Carausius, whom he 
treacherously murdered, and after three years' usurpation, perished himself in Britain, 
fighting against the forces of Constautius Chlo rus.* (Rare.) 

Also Five oiher smaller coins. Head of god Mars ; on Rev. Wolf suckling Romulus 
and Remus; In exergue S. CON. above, a crescent and star. Two others, Constan- 
tine dynasty, as before, with soldiers and standards, FIDES EXER. exergue P. L. C. 
or Pecunia Londini Cusa. A Tetricus the younger, and another small coin of the 
same Emperor, evidently with lustral vase, pontifical lituus, simpulura and pedum, or 
feeding stafi', on reverse. In making further excavations on the same spot, a quantity 
of Samian Ware or Roman Pottery was found, and the bronze guard, or hilt of the 
dagger of Mefitus the Tribune (Vide Part 3rd.) Also two coins of Claudius, in in- 
different prcaervatioa — two of tlie elder Tetricus, a Conslantine with helmet; on Its rev. 
Victory with buckler, in Kx. CONST. Small coin, oric/m/cum, of some Emperor. 
Radiated bust, VIRTVS AVGG. Another of Delmatius (rare^ nephew of Constan- 
tino the Great, who, in the division of the Empire, had for his share, Macedonia, 
Achaia, and Peloponnesus. FL. DELMATIVS. NOB. C, Rev. Two soldiers and 
standards, Gloria exercitus, estar beneath; P. S. (mint mark o( Siscia in Pannonia.) 
A coin called by Camden rare, when of silver ; placed in his list, (Introd, p. 98, Gib- 
son.) Pinkerton marks it high, even in small brass ; and Akerman (Des. Cat. vol. ii. 
p. 252.) considers it rare also. A small coin, supposed of Maximianus Hercules, 

the colleague of Dioclesian (died A. D. 310) ...C. . .MAXIM Reverse. PIE- 

TAS ROMAN, that is in the worship of idols. Ex, TRS. Treveris Signata. Some 
small coins of Valens. Part of a bronze ^6M^a or clasp. The embossed rim of a 
sepulchral urn, and many bones and teeth of animals ; the ossa innominata of a skel- 
eton, and a white stone inscribed T. HOST. (T. Hostius) Also a very fine coin of 
Allectus, 3rd brass, (Plate I., No. 12;) Rev., a galley with five oars — raostprobably 
a Li^Mrna— pirate bark or expedite ship or pinnace, fitted for cruizing along the Bri- 
tish coast and taking prizes, as we find Carausius did, whom Allectus succeeded ; 
inscription, LAETITIA AVG. ; on Exergue Q. C. Queestorio cusa, i.e. coined in 
the exchequer at London; unless we read it Queestorio Claunenti, Southampton. By 
the inscription, this coin was struck on the llth of February, a day of festivity, sacred 
to the god Pan, and the genius of the reigning emperor. There were 2 quaestors of 
the treasury or eerarium at Rome, but the provincial quaestors paid the troops in 
foreign quarters.! The site of the Clausentum of Antonine was undoubtedly at Bit- 

• To the allegorical Goddess Peace, whose festivals were on the 29th of January, the Ancients sa- 
crificed only the thigh and leg.bones of the victim, which were deposited outside her temple, where 
bloed was forbidden to be shed. She generally appears with a Cadxicfua or olive branch, a cornucopia, 
laurel, roses, ears of corn, and a Jewel on her breast, or BiUla. 

t Lb Vaillant, In his valuable work called Numismata PreBstantiora. 1743, Roma, notices tliis 
coin as being rartVa/u «in^ulari« «/ elegantia ; and particularly the rigging of the little craft — malut 
erecta cum rudenlibus, absqe antenna et velo. He also observes that the coins of this tyrant, genie non 
minut barbarut quam proditione saieUes.a Carautio pratorii prce/ecturS ionatut. are all rare ; and we 
cannot tut Join with him cordially in execrating the perfidious memory of one who by base treachery 
tooli away the life of his best friend, the nob!e and high minded Cabausius. This coin is also noticed 
Id Camden's Britannia. Introd. 98. Six similar ones were fonnd lately , near Stroud, in Kent. 

H 



28 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

(ern, on the other side of Southampton Bridge on the Portsmouth road, where many 
Boman coins have been found, and the v'wer Itchen, which runs close by, was admira-^ 
biy fitted for a haven for such light privateering vessels as then infested the neigh-' 
bouriog seas, and pillaged the ships of the Allemans and Saxons* And it was at the 
adjacent Isle of Wight (the OvrjKnq vrjcroQ of Ptolemy which he plates south from the 
Great or Partus Magnus Haven, viro de rov fityav Xifisva, supposed Portchesler.t 4 
miles from Portsmouth) that the fleet of Allectus, after his usurpation, lay in wait for 
the Romans under Constantius Chlorus, coming against him. The British navy how-' 
ever was prevented by a mist from seeing them, and the Romans landed, and setting 
fire to their own fleet that there might be no hopes of refuge but in victory, Allectus 
in a tumultuary skirmish at the head of his foreign mercenaries was killed, near Lym- 
ington, in Hampshire,! it is supposed. Seven types in gold, are known of Allecius. 

The Romans called the light frigates in their border rivers Naves Lusorioe, for 
conveying corn up the smaller streams to supply their troops, suppressing the excursions 
of a neighbouring enemy and making incursions in return, as may be seen in the Codex 
TAeorfosianMs (De Lusoriis Danubii. vii. Titulus 17.) probably At Karnuntum or 
Presburg — noticed for the Marines or Liburnarii of a cohort of the 14<th legion (Gem- 
ina) and 2nd Italica (v. in NotitiS de Pannonia et Nor. Rip.) See also Vegetius. 

The famous Cohors Aelia Classica at Tinmouth in Northumberland, and the Abnlci 
at Anderida in Sussex, were employed in these services ; so also the Marine cohort 
above called Aelia, at Tunnocelum (Boulness) on the wall of Severus, in the later 
days of Arcadius and Honorius, when the Notitia was compiled. 

On making further researches on this spot, a Nero with the temple of Janus ; on 
obverse as before, and ARA PACIS, but much defaced by time. Such medals mark 
the universal peace granted to the Empire, Pace Pop. Rom. terrS marique parta Ja- 
num clusit, as on his 2nd, brass coins ; and in Suetonius, Cap. 13, in Nerone, Janum 
geminum clausit tarn nullo quam residuo bello. Dickenson considered Janus to be 
the same as NOAH, Delph, Phoen, p. 156, 174, ( 1655.) and Bifrons or double faced, 
as having seen the world before and after the flood. 

CoNSTANTiNE the Great. Laureated bust, CONSTANTINVS P. F. AVG. Rev. 
the Sun as a young man with rays on his head, in his right a Globe, the emblem of 
power, in the other a whip ; he is attired in a short tunic and cloak. The ancients of 
that time imagined that the Sun ran his course out of the east only to gratify their 
Emperors. From the symbol of the whip, I consider the Egyptian mysteries held 
here were interwoven with the Roman. The whip with three thongs was an emblem 
borne by Osiris, who was the same as the Mithras, of Persia, Baal, of Chaldsea, and 
Beltucadder, of Britain. It was also borne by Orus, his son, the Bacchus of Egypt, 
said by some to be the most ancient Apollo, sou of Vulcan ; by others, of Isis, who 
taught him physic and divination. A star also appears, either an hieroglyphic of the 
sun, or alluding perhaps to a consecration, or the beatified soul of Constantine. 
Rev. COMITL AVGG. NN.to the sun, the companion of our two Emperors, Con- 
stantine and his son. Exergue, PLN. Percussa Londini. 

* CLA, on Coins of Carausius, supposed Clausentum. 

t Portchester, not Poole, as Horsley calls it. 

X Where there iea C»mp» and Coiai have been dug up, 13 miles- from Soutiiamptou. 



OF EXETER. 29 

CoNSTANTiNB 2nd. Small coin, IVN» NOB. C. Reverse, within a wreath, VOT, 
V. & CAESARVM NOSTORVM ; implying that solemn prayer had been made to 
the Gods, by the Senate, to grant tliis Prince and his brother C:ispus, (probably) a 
reign of 5 years, and then renew them again; alluding to the Quinqwennial Feasts, or 
public games, at their entrance into the Ccesarship. 

August 2K In digging under Mr. Godolphin's late premises, near Bel-hill, In 
South Street, behind the Deanery. Hadrian (^nd brass.) Rac'iated Bust, and usual 
inscription, Oa Rev. edigy of the Emperor standing with left leg elevated ; he holds 
the hasta or spear, pointed at both ends, and the parazonium, a sort of blunt dagger 
or sceptre, (like the biilon of a Field Marshal) supposed to signify the clemency of 
the Prince, or his moderation in inflicting punishment. AVfJ VSTI being only legible 
we may infer that Advenlus preceded. The radiated crown, as Casaubon informs us, 
was a peculiar badge of Deities, and deified princes. 

On the same spot the ancient Hath and Pavement was found, great quantities of 
coaise Roman Pottery and glass, some Samian Ware, and a number of encaustic 
Flemish Tiles, which had formed a pavement on the spot in later days. 

1834 

Silver Coin or Quinaritts, of Gordian the 3rd, (called Antoninus.) Laureated 
bust, PlVS. AVG. Reverse Military Trophy and two captives beneath, probably 
alluding to his Persian victory, PART (hicus) MAX. PONT. TR, P. HIT. The 
trophy is composed of two shields, a military cloak, or sac/um, surmounted by a 
casque, or cap, and two arrows. He was venerated as a God, at Carrhce, in Meso- 
potamia. 

Silver Coin, or Quinarius, of the usurper Maximus, (rare.) Inscription DN. 
(Dominus Nosttr) MAGNVS. MAXIMVS. PF. AVG. Reverse, Minerva, armed, 
seated in a chair, VIRTVS ROMANORViM. In Exergue TRPS Treveris pecunia 
signata, struck at Treves, in Germany, 

He was a Spaniard by nation, and after destroying Gratian by treachery, was 
ultimately overpowered by Theodosius, with whom at one time (V. Zosimi, lib. 4,) he 
had joint command in Britain. (ov^paTevaaiievog) Annoyed at noi being also in- 
vested with imperial honors, he incited the legions in the British Islands, tsq rate 
BpsTTaviKaiQ vr\(ToiQ evidpvfitvtiQ, to revolt against Gratian, who embarking in their 
ships, sailed to the Rhine, to make head against that Emperor, in Germany, where 
being abandoned by his own troops he was pursued by the master of the horse, and 
killed. Maximu« was put to death at Aquileia, A. D. 368. 

This type has at other times AQPS and MDPS in Exergue, the mint mark of 
Aquileia, on the Adriatic, and Milan or Mediolanura. 

In sinking a dry well near the entrance of Coombe Street, (Rock Lane) a Coin 
much mutilated, and reverse indistinct, supposed a Galba, but uncertain. 

Vespasian, (2nd brass,) IMP. CAESAR. VESPASIAN AVG. COS. IIII. hair 
filleted behind. Reverse, a beautiful eagle, with wings expanded, grasping a globe 
in her talons, S. C. Also part of a Sepulchral Urn. This type is often met with at 
Exeter, coined in the latter part of his reign. The wings are hieroglyphics of cele- 
rity, and the displaying of the Roman Eagles' wings is thought to signify protection 
to the obedient and the extending of hor talons, the rending and ruin of all who were 



30 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

resistant or rebellious. The Eagle is a symbol of long life and of eternity, and marks 
a consecration also, as does the peacock. (Plato 1, No. 13.) 

Near the Precentor's residence, opposite the Bishop's Palace Garden. Domitian, 
IMP. DO MIT, AVG, GERM.) a handsome Coin, 2nd brass. Reverse, a warlike 
figure, charging with a pike or lance, probably that Emperor, as Mars, alluding to 
his German victory ; S, C. in the field. 

In Deanery Place, Claudius, with usual inscription. Reverse, a fe.nale attired in 
loose drapery, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, S. C. She bears the Pileus or cap, sym- 
bolical of Independance. Libertas had a temple on Mount Aventine, adorned with 
statues and brazen columns; a representation of the victory gained by T. Sempro- 
nius Gracchus, the proconsul, over Hanno and the Carthaginians, at Beneventum, by 
the assistance of the recruited slaves, was placed in this temple, erected at his father's 
cost and charges, (V. Liv. Lib. 94,) and the slaves were manumitted for their 
gallantry. ( Plate 2, No. 14. ) 

Near the King John Tavern. Constantine the Great. Laureated bust, 2nd brass. 
Reverse, a military figure in the paludameiitum, or Chlamys, over a short tunic, 
grasping a legionary standard or vexillum in each hand, of elaborate workmanship, 
and a small banner is on the summit of each. In the field S. A. Sacrum JEs, or 
sacred money, (coins being struck in the temples ; and the Aerarium, or treasury at 
Rome, was a temple also.) Hence Sacra became the epithet of Juno, as Moneta, and 
the Jews called their money sacred, the Shekel of the sanctuary being made, kept there 
and issued therefrom. Rev. PRINCIPI. IVVENTVTIS. (Chief of Roman youth.) 

The inscription refers to the Epithet given to the heirs of the Empire, and frequent- 
ly to the Emperors themselves, and those whom they adopted ; an appellation of dig*^ 
nity, not family only. The Paludamentum, or state robe of the Emperors, was not 
only of purple, but often adoi ned with stUvls of gold, and the richest scarlet died in grain. 

CoNSTANS (small) CONSTANS. PF. AVG. (in Zosimus o Ko)v^avg) youngest 
son of Constantine by Fausta ; made Caesar 334; an active and warlike monarch, who 
inherited the provinces of Illyricura, Italy, and Africa, at his father's death. Reverse ; 
a Phoenix on the top of a rock or globe, burning itself on the funeral pyre — rays of 
light encircling its head— FELIX TEMPORUM REPARATIO, a favorite reverse, 
alluding either to the reforming of the empire, decayed by reason of the misrule of for- 
mer princes, or, as some say, marking the eternity of Roman rule, and consecration of 
the prince among the immortal gods. Pliny describes the Phoenix, in his 10th Book 
(H. Nat.) cap. 2., to which priestcraft and superstition assigned many marvels as 
the symbol of eternity, and the emblem of hope for happier times, like the sacred ox 
of Egypt. See also Mela, de situ orbis, lib. 3., c. S. It may have been a type of the 
evanescent but imperishable essence of the deity in mortal man. 

1835. 

Western Market. Nero,* (Gold) a very excellent aureus or gold didrachm of 
this emperor was found near the site of the old Three Cranes Tavern, Obverse ; 

*' In a city so abounding with Roman monej, considering that the gold coins of Neto are so nume- 
rous, it is surprising only ttoo of these should be met with ; no silver quinarii of his ever occur here. 
Camden ia Britannia (GlbsoB, p. 767.) notices one of the same description, found near a farm hou»e, 

called Thornburgh, near Cattaractonium or Catterick in Yorkshire. 

\ ■ 



OF EXETER. 31 

Bust of Nero (NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS) Reverse, Jupiter sealed, holding a 
thunderbolt and sceptre. IVPPITER CVSTOS. It was sold for £2. 

Another Aureus was found some time previous, on Northernhay ; reverse, Salus, 
seated with patera in a high bacl<ed chair — below, SALVS, (goddess of health.) 

The fust came into the possession of Mr. H, Hooper, Jun., and was presented by him, 

with 130 other coins, found here, to the Institution of Exeter, in May, 1839. The 

second belongs to Mr. Larkworlhy Jun., both excellent specimens (Plate II, No. 15.) 

Faustina, (quinarius) silver, DIVA FAVSTINA, (Plate I, No. 16.) wife of 

Marcus Aurelius, noted for her gallantries. 

Tetricus the elder, (radiated) small. Another ditto ; reverse, Fortuna with stern 
of a ship. 

Nero C2nd brass) CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GER, P. M. T, P.. Reverse, 
winged victory with laurel wreath— legend VICTORIA AVGVSTI. 

A splendid medal (or 1st brass coin) of Nero, (adlocutJo cohortium) (Plate II, 
No. 17.) NERO CLAVD. CAESAR (rare.) Reverse, an adlocutio Imper ator is ^ or 
address from the military commanders to the army, on which occasions they generally 
stood on a bank of green turf, made a grand oration, and raised the hopes of the sol- 
diers, by setting forth the glorious rewaidsS of honor and victory. The Roman army 
in Britain might be typified by the Roman soldiers on this reverse, who might answer 
to three of the Roman legions then quartered in our Island; the 2nd Augusta, whose 
headquarters were at Caerleon ; the 9th Spanish (recruited in Nero's reign with 2O0O 
Roman soldiers, and 8 cohorts of auxiliaries, after its discomfiture by Boadicea) — the 
14th, of which the Batavians were auxiliaries, and which from its courage and conduct 
earned the title of the Conquerors of Britain — the 20th, which came over with Clau- 
dius A. D. 43, was also then in the island. Le Vaillant supposes the principal figure 
to be Nero himself.* 

Antoninus Pius, bearded ; reverse, a woman naked, sitting on a rock, S. C, per- 
haps ancient Britain. Faustina (Diva) his empress, as usual, her hair wreathed on 
the top of the he^d. 

Vespasian AVG. COS. S.C. &c.and four of Claudius Cxsar AVG. &c. all 
indistinct reverses. Maximinus (the Thracian) C. Jul. predecessor of the Gordians. 
A small Constantine mutilated, and his eldest son Crispus (helmefed) Altar on reverse. 
Many small coins of the Lower Empire, of trifling value. Tetricus, &c. radiated. 
Fragments of ancient glass vases and pottery, and a sphcerula perforata, or blue ad- 
der bead, being a Glaia Naidhr, Druidical amulet, or ovum anguinum of blue clay. 
V. Borlase Antiq. Cornwall, p. 142. Camden, p. 697, found at Dolgelly, and Aberfraw, 
(Anglesey) in Wales, q. v. 

New Market, near Paul Street. Marcus Aurelius, and Rome on reverse ; a 
massy coin, with the usual titles. Also a Maximin near the same spot. One very 
perfect of Domitian. Others of Trajan, Constantine, &c. Also of Tetricus the youn- 
ger, (A, D. 260) with the sacrificial symbols, viz. the vas, (or urn) acerra (incense box) 

• Le Vaillant, Num. Prae-tautiora. Adlocutio cohortium. Nero togafus stans la suggestu, figura 
ftssistente pariter togata, adloquitur cohortes. Nummus inler rariores recenseiur. See also Amm. Mar- 
oellin. lib 23. adlocutio of Emperor Juian. Akerman notices the Medallioo and 1st brass adlocutio of 
Nero, vol. i.. Des Cat. p, 163. 

I 



32 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

eapeduncula (for taking out incense) pedum (or knotted feeding stuif or shepherd's 
crook, emblematic of a sacrifice to Bacchus) simpulum (ladle or small vessel for wine 
libation) and secespila Jlamlnis (chopping knife or hatchet) symbols of the Pontifex 
Maximus and chief augur ; the false piety of those times and heathen superstition. 

The Friars, near Colleton Crescent. In diggins^ a sewer. Titus, son of Vespasian, 
(2nd brass) with many titles, (Plate II, No 18 ) Tl. CAES. IMP. AVG. F. TR. P. 
COS. VI. (Censor &c) and in the sixth year of his consulship ; reverse memorable 
from presenting the sad emblem of captive Ilierosolyma (Jerusalem) sitting on a heap 
of arms, under a Palm tree, iier hands tied, a shield behind her, a type of Palestine, 
IVDAEA CAPTA S.C. fulfilling the prophecy of Isaiah "and she being desolate, 
shall sit on the ground." Titus being the instrument in the hands of Providence, for 
the castigation of that people. Several types with this legend are rare, also of the 
IVDAEA DEVICTA, for which see Le Vaillant Num. Prsestan. Akerman Desc. 
Cat. &c. 

Western Market, Nero (3rd brass) NERO CLAVD CAESAH. That Emperor 
performing on some musical instrument, and seated on a scabellum, or low seat, music 
being what he most delighted in, particularly a hydraulic instrument recorded in Sue- 
tonius. (Plate II, No 19.) 

M. AuRELius Carus, a warlike Enrperor, successor of Probus who defeated the 
Sarmatians and Persians. After taking Ctesiphon on the Tigris, and Seleucia, slain 
by a thunderbolt in his tent, and consecrated, 283, A, D. Reverse, a man naked, and 
S. C. in the field. A very coarsely executed Coin. 

Northernhay, under the foundation of the city wall, in the cement. Claudius, TI. 
CLAVD, CAESAR. Reverse, a female, S.C. 

During the excavations in the summer of 1835, Roman coins increased to such a 
prodigious degree as to be nearly a drug at Exeter, which no one troubled his noddle 
about at last, and this city seemed as fertile of Roman pence when dug into, as the 
teeming soil of modern Italy or Pompeii itself. We may, however, continue to notice 
the following, and hope our antiquaries have not, as yet, had a surfeit, when it is con- 
sidered that \\e\e a man cannot dig a cellar under his own house, it appears, without 
half a dozen Ceesars staring him, like so many Frankensteins, full in the face, or the 
devil Mephistophiles at his heels; he cannot lay a new floor, without trampling on the 
bones of some dead Roman, cr breaking his shins over a vase or chequered pavement; 
he is at no loss for toys for his bantlings ; his children prattle about heroes and Neros, 
instead of chuck farthing and marbles ; the labourers and stone masons become archaj- 
ologists in times like these, and rave about tesseras and other etceteras, instead of gin- 
shops and tobacco; ladies' maids prate about Venuses and Ganymedes ; builders for- 
get Inigo Jones and Palladio, and quarrel about copying the Pantheon or the Arch of 
Janus ; politicians overlook Corporation Reform ; and, to crown the whole, the elderly 
ladies, over their short whist, will in time probably, wield Roman medals and testoons 
for counters and markers. 

Western Market. I'wo coins of Vespasian j one bears on its reverse an eagle, 
with wings expanded, marking.his consecration and enrolment among the deities, as 
before. 

Claudius, with the soldier, as before, with his spear and buckler, S.C. Of this 



OF BXBTBR. 33 

type, and the Minerva Proraachos, nearly twohandfuls were found, all much detrited 
and corroded. 

New Market. Valentinian (D.N. [Dominus Ndster] Emperor of the West, P.F. 
A VG. ) Reverse, that Emperor drawing after him a youth, to show that reform of the 
times must begin with the rising generation, old men being so confirmed in their an- 
cient habits as to be irreformable. He holds a standard on which the ensign of the Cross 
is displayed. Area F. R. Flaminis Rationalis, the subaltern to the KUmen probably, 
or sacred person, who had authority to strike money ; and A. for JErarium^ the trea- 
sury. Gloria Romanoriim — I£x. P.S. S.C. — Struck atSiscia, in Pannonia, which city is 
now called Sisceck, belonging to Austria, and 40 miles from Carlstadt. A beautiful 
coin. 3rd brass. 

GiiATiAN (D.N.) Reverse, within a wreath VOT. XV. MULT. XX.— meaning 
that the public games and rejoicings were solemnly vowed by the people to be celebra- 
ted to his honor, both the 15th and 20th year of his reign, if it lasted so long a time; 
rotis quindecennalibus multiplicatis in vicenalia — in this instance futile, for he had 
only reigned eight years altogether, when cutoff by Maximus. lie was colleague of 
Valentinian in the West, and nominated the great Theodosius his successor, who sa- 
ved the empire in its decline. 3rd brass. 

CoNSTANTiNE THE Great. Rcverso, a warrior holding two of the vexillOf spread- 
ing on a staff, or cavalry standards— PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS— (to the captain of 
the young noble families and heir to the empire.) Coined at Lyons in France, (PLG.) 
(Plate II, No. 20.) Also, smaller coins of his youngest son. 

Gallienus, killed on the Pyrenees by Magnentius, noted for his victories over the 
Goths, and for his domestic voluptuousness — an exquisite of the first water, powder- 
ing his hair even with gold dust, (small.) 

A CoNSTANTios, very perfect. 3rd brass. 

CoNSTANS— small ; reverse, VICTORIA DD.AVGGORVM (Dominorum Angus- 
lorum.) Constantinople and Rome as two victories, with branches of lauiel; D. 
implying Constanlius and his brother, after celebrating their Decennaliain the tenth 
year of their reign. 

Valens (brother to Valentinian), found near the Theatre. Small. Emblematical 
figure with a wreath : SECVRITAS REIPVBLIC^. On the exergue, TESA, 
signifying that it was coined at Thessaloniea, a famous city of Macedonia, now Salo- 
nica, so called after a sister of the "great Emathian conqueror" who married Cassan- 
der; and memorable from being visited by St. Paul, &c. of high interest to the student 
of Byzantine Antiquities, and containing many Greek Marbles, Inscriptions, Sarco- 
phagi, and Statues. 

Western Market. A large Medal (or first brass coin) (Plate II, No. 21.) of Clau- 
dius, countermarked ROM. on the obverse. It was in excellent preservation, and of 
Orichalcum, or fine yellow brass. A Duplicate was also found, but in an imperfect 
or detrited state, i^everse within a Corona Civica, in large capitals, EX. S. C. OB. 
CIVKS SEKVATOS. Such medals were usually struck on the 1st of January, and 
presented to the Emperor as a new year's offering, or slrenie. The Civic Crown, 
Sdcred to Jupiter, also called Civilis Quercus, of oaken leaves, was more honorable 
tban any other Crown, and generally given by the General, to a soldier who had slain 



34 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

an enemy, and saved the life of a citizen in battle, and was placed on his head by bira 
who was rescued. Such medals as these may have been distributed among the legio- 
naries at Iscttf after their victories over the Britons ; and we find during the reign of 
Claudius, that in a great battle with the Iceni, of Norfolk, 31. Ostorius, the Lieu- 
tenant's sou, had the honor of saving a citizen. The ROM. as a countermark is very 
unusual at Exeter, among the Claudian coins. 

Tbajan, a very splendid large brass coin. Rev. a Female, attired in a thin vest- 
ment, recumbent in a chair, holding a patera. S. P. Q.R. OPTIMO PRINCIPI, 
S. C. (Plate II. No. 22.) 

Vespasian. Rev. a Female reposing on one hand, in the other a staff, Securitas 
Augusta. 

Claudius. Rev. Female in a chair, with horn of abundance, and ears of corn in 
her hand, probably a Ceres, 

BRiTANNicus,only son of Claudius, (murdered at the instigation of his stepmother, 
Agrippina.) Reverse, S.C. TI. CLAVDIVS, &c. and a genius dispensing fruits or 
offerings. 

DoMiTiAN, with the vain-glorious epithet of Germanicus at full length, PON. M. 
Reverse, female with patera, in subsellio. 

Magnentius, p. F. Reverse, that Emperor on a spirited charger, riding over a 
vanquished enemy, a buckler on the ground, Gloria Romanorum. (Plate II, No 23.) 

Gallienus, (small) and an indistinct coin, with she wolf and star as before. 

New Market. A Vespasian, but much corroded by time; also, a Magnentius, and 
aTETRicus, with Spes publica and a figure of Hope. Consiantine the Great, lau- 
relled ; reverse, on the exergue P.L.N, (coined at London.) The Sun as Constantine 
(represented as a young man) radious, he being esteemed, as I have before observed, 
to have the genius and swiftness of the sun when running its course, SOLI INVIC- 
TO COMITL* On the area is T.F. the Monetary or Mint mark, alluding to those 
who struck the coin, which may be interpreted Triumviri Fabroriim, or Fabri Offi- 
cin<:p, probably a private mark of the TViMwiriri MoMe/a^e5, or masters of the mint 
at London, who coined the piece, t There is, however, a probability of these letters 
alluding to the Terminalia Festa, which were celebrated on the 23rd of February, 
being festivals sacred to the god Terminus, and first instituted by Nuraa, with wheaten 
cakes and the first fruits of the fields (liba cerealia etfrugum yrimilice) in the open 
air.J The coin would then appear, by this clue, to have been struck on the day of the 

• Deo soli Invicto Beltucaddro. See Camden Brit. Invicti Osiris necdum sacris. V. Apul. Metam. lib. 
xi. Hercules and Isis are also styled numen Invictum. 

t Qy.? The tabularii Flaminis, wlio were public collectors of Accounts under the priests at London. 

J On the boundaries of lands or estates, which were held sacred and inviolable, and over which Ter- 
minus presided, Ubo et farina acfruge et mole salsd, incruentum sacrum. V. Alex, ab Alex. lib. 2, 

The country people met on these boundaries and offered such oblations to the god who presided 
over their limits. His temple at Rome was first erected by Numa, on the Capitol, near that of Jupiter, 
and the sacred rites were performed sex/o a6 M7 6e OTiV/ano, at the 6lh milestone from the city. Cara 
was taken that no biood was spilt— following the Pythagorean doctrines of Numa— who only offered 
cakes, flour, fruits or salt meal tJ the divinities. At the Ambarvalia, however, victims weie three 
times led round the fields, to propitiate their future harvests. Songs in honor of Ceres, libations of 
wine and milk, and the sacrifice of a sow, of a sheep and a bull, called Suovetaurilia, accompa- 



OF EXGTBR. 35 

celebration of that festival in the Roman kalen«lar, for most of the ancient coins and 
medals alluded to sacrifices, sacred transactions and deities. N". Street, near the Crown 
and Sceplre— a Claudius as before, (with the soldier) and two minute coins of some un- 
known emperor, with the helmet. On one is apparently a soldier and the word GET., 
referring, perhaps, to one of his legions, if Getee or Gelulinns — on the other, an alle- 
gorical figure, and III., from the slate of preservation, all very uncertain. 

Durham silver penny of Edward I. Civ. Dunelm. 

In August. Found near Rockfield place under Northernhay. Trajan, in large 
brass. (JEris wiaz/wO— -Head laureated — Inscription (all but IMP. CAES.) much 
defaced. Reverse, a female sitting in a chair — in one hand a patera^ but greatly de- 
faced. The inscription was probably S. P. Q. R. optima prineipi. The patera Im- 
plies a sacrifice, and is placed in the hands of all the deities, and in those of princes, 
to mark the sacerdotal power, united with the imperial. 

Tetricus the elder. Radiant (small) PIVESV. (Pivesuvius) AVG. This coin 
like a great many others found in Exeter, being of a diminutive size, and therefore 
very incommodious for carrying on commerce, could only have served to pay the Ro- 
man private soldiers, whose daily stipend was distributed among them in such small sums 
as rendered it absolutely needful for the Queestor or paymaster of every corps to be 
provided with a large quantity of small money in his military chest for that purpose.* 
From this circumstance, it is my opinion that these coins, as well as the Claudius and 
CoNSTANTios already found (directly under the important Roman fort or citadel on 
Northernhay,) must have belonged to these soldiers, t The foundations of the Castle 
walls, originally the Roman Citadel or garrison, in which walls other coins have 
been found, even so far back as Claudius, are evidently more ancient than the super- 
structure ; and consist, like those of other such parts of the city walls, of Thorverton 
stone or of tufa, and that cement for which the architects of Asia were famous, suppo- 
sed by a learned author to be bitumen. The hot lime or cement thrown into the inter- 
stices of the stones, in a boiling state, presents both now, in the solidness of a diaper 
work, not to be approached by the most elaborate attempts of any imitative builder of 
the present day ; and in South street, one of these Roman walls only yielded at last, 
when assailed by the expansive force of gunpowder. 

The walls of Exeter are in general of the Heavitree stone or breccia and the volca- 
nic Thorverton and Pocombe stone, and are faced with squared pieces of Ivfa^ ft 
substance formed by the consolidation of volcanic mud and ashes, like the Travertine 
of Italy ; also with the basaltic lava, the memorial of some great igni aqueous con- 
vulsion, produced by the gradual refrigeration of masses of fluid lava, quantities of 
which abound near Exeter, and of several varieties. 

nied theie ceremonies. A similar sacrifice was made by the Censors, beiag a solemn lustration in the 
name of the people evet^ 5th year. The tertninalia were, however, in 302, selected by Dioclesian to 
commence his murderous persecution of Christianity* 

• LiketheCentimesof France, the Cents of the United States, or the small change even now used 
In lUly. 

t Whose Ca$ira Stativa it is well known were at Exeter, and their centlnels posted no doubt ob 
Uds spot, below the agger, and on the verge of the fosse or rivulet covering that part of their outworks. 

K 



36 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

Barlholomew Yard. Victorinus, (small) reverse, Flamen sacrificing, and Pielas 
AVG. 

Northernhay, near Rockfield place. Claudius as before. (!onstantius, FL. IVL. 
NOB. C. (Plate II, No. 24) Rev. a Building or City Gate, PROVIDENTIAE 
CAESS. above, a star ; in exergue, TRcO mint mark of Treves. The gate is that of 
the Praetorian Camp, 

New Market, Silver coin or quinarius of Antoninus Pius, M. ANTON. 
Laureated bust ; PATER PATRIAE. Rev. a Female seated, probably a Ceres, 
TR.POT. XIX. COS.IIII. 

Coin of Vespasian, CAESAR AVG. COS. Rev. a female sacrificing, as in the Eleu- 
sinian mysteries, pouring a libation on the flames of an Altar, from a patera, AVG. 
in field, S, C. She bears a thyrsus, the symbol of Bacchus, and is accompanied with 
fruits and ears of corn, perhaps commemorating the Cerealia or Cereris Sacra, cele- 
brated by the Roman matrons on the 19th of April, in white vestments, in commemo- 
ration of the rape of Proserpine. This might be the Cereris Graca Sacerdos of the 
Palatine Mount, following the Arcadian rites of Evander, and perhaps the thyrsus car- 
ried the sacred basket of Ceres, tacita sacra cistarum (Apul. Met,) with torch borne 
on a pole at her festivals. 

Victorinus, AVG. (small) Rev. the sun marching, INVICTVS. (rare) 

Antoninus Pius, (large brass coin) found near the Theatre. Rev. a Trophy of 
the arms of some barbarous nation, large buckler or Scutum ovatum, &c. 

Western Market. Nero (1st Brass,) (Plate III, No. 25) rare. IMP. NERO CAESAR 
AVG, GERMANICVS. Rev. Two horsemen, both very fice figures, one bearing a 
lance, theother a labarutn or standard, DECVRSI 0. By this is meant an exercising of the 
Cavalry, ad palum or palaria, after the manner of a tilt or tournament (like the Equi- 
na of Romulus in the Campus Martins, on the 27lh Feb.) When applied to the In- 
fantry, it alluded to their exercises under arms, to make them expedite and active 
like our light troops. The Decursio was also a solemn course of the troops round 
the funeral pile of an Emperor or general officer. The JDioscmW might be intended 
here, unless Nero himself, as one of the riders. From Suetonius we learn that he 
took the greatest delight in horse and chariot races, not only at the Circensian shows, 
but also at the Quinquennial Games, at which, after the Graecian mode, the most fa- 
mous horse racers, wrestlers, &c., contended for the prize, (gymnicum equestre quod 
appellavit Neronia) and he himself rode in a chariot at the Olympic Games.* 
Equorum studio vel precipu6 ah ineunte aetate flagravit. Sueton. in Ner. 

New Market. At the depth of 90 feet, Aurelian, supposed; (small) AVRELI. 
(A.D. 270.) in his cuirass ; reverse, the Sun, to which Aurelian from attachment or 
thankfulness paid particular devotion, . .A. ROMA. ... On his head, a hat or petasus^ 
with horns as Osiris, (with his whip of three thongs) the great deity of the Egyptians 
of which the ox was the symbol* Victorinus ; reverse, a female and rudder, Fortunes- 

* The Decursio Equeslris was in fact one of the ordinary exercises at the Circensian Games, first 
instituted to commemorate the rape of the Sabines. In Le Vaillant. Numismata Praestantiora, Rome^ 
1743. this coin is thus noticed : Decursio — Duo sunt cum hac epigraphe typi, iinns cum duabus figparis 
decurrentibus— alter cum solo equite, precurrente signifero, milite snbsequente. Posterior altero ra- 
rior. Akerman, Uesc. Cat. pp. 164.5, vol. 1, considers these coins as rare, both in 1st. and seconi 
Bsass, 



OP EXETER. 37 

llEDVCI. CoNSTANS (small) P. F. AVG, Reverse, AdlocutioXo three soldiers, 

CAPTO. VI CoNSTANTius (small) laureated ; reverse, a horseman spearing 

a fallen enemy. Fblix (Temporum Reparalio) Tetricus (elder) Fortuna, &c« 

Western Maiket* Constantine 2nd (IVN. NOB) reverse, VOX. V. CAESA- 
IIUM NOSTRORUM, in a wreath. (Plate II, 2Vo, 26.) 

Heavitree Road. Magnentius ..GNENTIVS. P. F. AVG. in the field A. reverse, 
iwo victories holding a wreath, in which VOT. MVL. X. (vota multiplicata in decen- 
nalia) Legend is VICIORIAE DD. NN; AVGG. The TR. on his coins stands for 
Taporus, one of his surnames. 

New Market. Claudius, as before. A Vbspasian. Trajan, NERVA TRA. 
Also a square coin. Domitian — Radiated — GERM. COS. IMP. A female, perhaps 
Isis, holding a rudder, &c., but indistinct, Constantine, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, 
as before. Another, two victories and an altar, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRlN(ci- 
pis) PER(petui) ; exergue, O SIS.obsignata Siscia, Mintmark of Siscia in Pannonia. 
CoNSTANS, (small) two victories holding a wreath. 

Found under an old foundation. A coin of the lower empire, Radiant^ or with the 
Radiated head of Tetricus the elder, AVGG. proving his son to have been his col- 
league at the time of his usurpation, both of whom were led in triumph by Aurelian, 
with Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, and afterwards pardoned for their revolt, about 270, 
A. D. Reverse, a stone building or tower with a triangular apex, probably the em- 
blem of some colony, 01 metropolitan city in that part of Gaul, called Aquitanica 
most probably, where he at first ruled, or a castle on some passage of a river. The 
building is composed of four colossal stones of Cyclopean architecture, something like 
the polygonal Pelasgic walls of Tiryns, in Greece, in the country of the Argives. 

New Market. Nero ; (CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. T. R, P.) in ra- 
ther handsome preservation. It bears on its Reverse, S. C, a winged victory, draped, 
graceful ; holding a globe, the emblem of sovereign power; S. P. Q. R., Senatus 
Populus que Romanus. The temple of the goddess Victoria was qn Mount Palatine, 
at Rome, and said to have been erected by Augustus Her statue was strnckby light- 
ning, but only suffered the loss of its wings, supposed by Pompey to be a favorable 
omen — quod inde avolare Victoria nunquam posset — not likely to forsake: Claudius 
as before — Soldier &c. Another of Claudius — Isis and Damater, or Ceres (so called 
from bearing corn, quasi Geres a gorendis frugibus) worshipped by Britons, (so says 
Strabo) seated in a chair ; in her right hand ears of corn — a flaming torch in her left, 
(S. C. CERES AVGVSTA) as kindled by her on Mount Etna : in memory of the 
rape of Proserpine, her daughter, for which the Cereales Ludi were celebrated in 
April, (19th Prid. Idus,) by the Romans, and the mysteries of Eleusis by the Greeks, 
first instituted by Eumolpus B. C. 1356—30 years before the first Isthmian Games* 
The festivals of Ceres were celebrated by matrons, not in sorrow or grief. 

St. Mary Arches street, under the church.* Two of Claudius, as before, with the 
Roman Legionary on the reverse S. C. bearing the Scutum ovatum and pilum, 
Vespasian, AVG. COS. IIII.; reverse, an eagle with wings expanded, as before. 
S.C. marking his consecration among the Deities, that bird being sacred to Jupiter, 

• ThU church is one of the oldest in the kingdom, and coeval, perhaps, with Bow Church, London. 
Stakely thought it originally Raman, and St. John's Bow also. 



38 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

and the king among the feathered race, as he among the Gods. It is probable, from 
these discoveries, that the present church of St. Mary Arches may stand on the site of 
an ancient Roman temple, ov sacellum, perhaps a Fanum Divi Clandii, like that at 
Camalodunura, the royal seat of Cunobelin, in Essex, mentioned by Tacitus, which he 
calls the " altar of eternal dominion" and whose Priests were the Sodales Augustales 
Christian churches generally replaced the heathen temples. The name might be possi- 
bly derived from an ancient Roman triumphal arch standing on this spot, and the nar- 
row street itself might bean ancient branch of a Roman road, which went across the 
old glacis of the city, near Bartholomew Yard, and communicated with the vadum or 
ford at Gould's Hays, in the parish of St. Thomas, and went up Greenway Lane, and in- 
to Exwick, diverging thence to Oakharapton, or Stratton, and perhaps to Harlland Point, 
This arch which may have been a triumphal one, in honor of the conquests of Clau* 
dius in Britain, like those erected at Rome and Boulogne, recalls the words of Juve- 
nal — substitit ad veteres Arcus; and was probably as famous in our Isca, as that of 
Claudius or Drusus at Rome itself; under the former of which, a gold medal with the 
effigy of Claudius, and an arch with his equestrian statue, stamped its precise locality.* 
There is not the slightest doubt but that after the 32 victories of Vespasian in the 
West, Claudius placed here a hardy band of veterans for a colony, about the year 62, 
A. D. 

Western Market. Commodus; ANTONINVS PIVS. FELIX A VG. bearded; rev. 
the goddess Libertas with the pileus, and also the rod called vindlcta, S. C. the for- 
mer being such a cap as were given to those who were made free — and so enrolled 
among the freemen of Rome; the latter alludes to the ceremony of manumission. The 
words used on that occasion were, Dico eum liberum esse more Quiritum. (Large 
brass)t 

Alexander, the successor of Heliogabalus. IMP. C AES. M. AVR. SEVERVS 
ALEXANDER. AVG., laurelled bust; called before Alexianus Marcellus, born in 
Phoenicia. Reverse, the allegorical goddess Peace ; in whose temple the sacred vessels 
of the Temple of Jerusalem were preserved, after its destruction by Titus. PAX. 
AVGVSTI. S. C. In her right hand, an olive branch, in the other a caduceus. This 
prince was noted for his piety, moderation and justice. He worshipped our Saviour, 
and also the patriarch Abraham among his Lares or private Gods, and was noted for 
quoting scripture ; he also adjudged a Tavern, which was a subject of controversy, 
between the Christians and an heathen innkeeper, to the former, for a church, saying 
that it was better to serve God there in any manner, than to make it a receptacle for 
debauchery. His disposition was so mild and benign, that in fourteen years, no pre- 
son was adjudged to the punishment of death, (v. Herodian.) Large brass. 

New Market. Gratian (pupil of the poet Ausonius, A. D. 367.) who was the col- 
league of Valentinian in the western parts of the Roman empire, and the predecessor 
of the great and illustrious Theodosius, whose energy made him the last sole poten- 
tate of the vast territories of that sovereignty ; GRATIAN VS. P. F. AVG. He is at- 
tired in the chlamys. The reverse presents the figure of Gratian drawing after him a 

♦ On the Via Flaminia, with an inscription to him, (near the Palazzo SCIARR A,) where itjoins the 
Via Lata. 

t Commodus first used the conjoined epithets, Pius, Felix; after him, Caracalla ; Antoninus, never. 



OP BXBTBR* 39 

captive. This type is common on many coins of that period, and of earlier dtte, and 
lometiraes implies the subjo.ction of an enemy. In the other hand is the symbol of 
Christ, a monogram displayed in a cavalry standard, the ensign of the votaries of the 
cross — who then predominated without danger of persecution, GLORIA ROMANO- 
RVM. Also M. (Moneta) SISCI, on the exergue, proving the coin to have beea 
minted at Siscia, in Pannonia Superior, a city now called Shceck, the chief town of 
Croatia, built on an island between the Savus and the Colapis rivers,* 42 miles from 
Carlstadt, near the borders of the ancient Pannonia RipariensisA On the area, are 
the letters F.R., and the monogram AR., which I interpret Flaminis Rationalis, j^r- 
rarii or a Rationibus, the official or deputy of the priest, who presided over the mint, 
being a sacred person, and had power to coin or assay money — that is, unless we sup- 
pose he was also appointed public collector of Accounts to the emperor's revenues of 
Exchequer. These officers were under the comes largitionum in the provinces, and 
also the comes ni privata, (see Salmas, ad Scr. H. A, torn 2,) At Rome, in the 
lime of Aurelian, the Monetarii or M inters rebelled, and vitiatis pecuniis killed the 
rationatis, (see Eutropius, lib. 90 The tribunes of the Mrarium or Mint had the 
supervisal of all the monies coined in the city, and also paid the soldiers — the Quses- 
tors having the care of all the taxes coming from the different provinces, (see Calvin 
Lex. Juridic. in voc. Trib. iErarii.) The Tribuni Mrarii or Nummarii Judices were 
appointed to act as judges in minor Law cases, which were in subselliis, public seats in 
the Forum, not pro tribunal! jus dictum, pleadings in front of the judgment seat itself, 
Tribunal or High Court of Justiciary. See Alex, ab Alex, on 7th Satire of Juvenal, 
Gen. Dier. lib. 2: c: 24: 

The ^ on coins of the Ptolemies is said to have been a monogram of Tyre and no- 
thing else, and is on the silver coins of Ptolemy Soter. It means, probably, the word 
XPHMA money. But Constantino and his successors applied the monogram to a far 
diflferent purpose. He placed it both on his coins and military ensigns as the name of 
Christ, as also the star, for a like reason, as Gratian did after him. 

IntheXew Market. A Vespasian, (AVG. COS, IIII.) laureated; eagle with 
wings expanded as before. A Domitian (AVG. GERM. COS. XIIL CONS. 
P.) laureated. The effigy of the goddess Juno Moneta, or tutelar deity of the Mint, 
clothed in the stola mvliebris^ or matron's robe; her hair tressed up in a high front J 
S. C. MONETA AVGVSTI, with the balance or scales (bilanx), also borne by the 
symbolical divinity, Equity, though not always happily found in conjunction with 
monetary or minting matters. She also bears the cornucopia of fruit, or horn ot 
abundance, an emblem common to most of the virtues on Roman medals, in her 
left hand— (money being supposed to supply all things, while the balance in- 
dicates that justice is necessary in buying and selling;)— which custom is supposed to 
arise from the form of this emblem, as more seemly to the left side, and admitting 
more grace in the figure from the attitude of the right arm. Antoninus.— Fortuna, 
Obsequens, (as in Le Vaillant, Dextra temonem prorse navis impositum, sinistra cornu- 
copis, COS. IIII. see Num. Prast.) with the stern or rudder of a ship, and the 

* Saw and Kulpa. 

t Polwhele Imagined the SISC. on inch colni. to be Signata ItcS, coined at Exeter ! ! I noticed 
(Ua to him (on page 194, Cap. 2., Rom. Brit, period.) the year previoui lo hi« deceaae. as improbable' 

L 



40 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

cornucopia, S. C„ first religiously venerated by Servius TuUius (who erected a temple 
to her), and also the companion of Fides ; and it was a saying— Cwm Fortuna manet, 
vultum servatis amici ; — alluding to the conduct of mankind to those in prosperity. 

Probus, small, IMP. C. PROBVS P. F. AVG, in armour— rarf. The little god 
or genius Telesphorus, son or grandson of ^sculapius, in his frock or sagum clausum, 
tutulatuSy or with a cap. His statue at Smyrna, on a tripod, with his father and Hy- 
giea (see Aristid. Orat. Sacr. 3 and 4.) Emblematic ol health, with some herb, or the 
Caduceus, the symbol of convalescence, or recovery from sickness, either of the em- 
pire or sovereign ; SALVS AVG. Probus was a warlike emperor, and he is said to 
have planted the vine in Gaul and Britain. The temple of the goddess Salus was on 
the Quirinal Mount, at Rome. On the area a single letter or notation C. Coraitialibus 
Diebus ? Allectus, 296 A. D. small, IMP. C. ALLECTVS. P. AVG. in his cui- 
rass — radiant — bearded. Reverse — a handsome galley or Liburna (Trirevnis cum 
gubernatore ad puppimj with five oars ; so called from the Liburni, a people of Illy- 
ricum. VIRTVS AVG, A ship in full sail generally implies joy, felicity, good suc- 
cess, and assurance. I have noticed one of this type before, of Allectus, with refer- 
ence to his maritime prowess* 

September, Quinarius of Severus, greatly defaced— a female on reverse, detri- 
ted, A large copper coin of Hadrian, COS. III. bearded and laureated ; armed figure 
holding the hasta. In good preservation. Claudius 2nd (or Golhicus) radiated, 
a denarius eereus or washed with silver. Successor of Gallienus, and called Gothi- 
cus from his victories in lUyricum and Macedonia. Gothas hello adortus, incredibili 
strage delevit. Jornandes. Consecrated, and a statue of massy gold, with a shield of 
the same material erected in the senate, and another in the Capitol, 10 feet high ; on it 
an inscription, Victori ac triumph, semper Augusto Divo Claudio Gothico. Small 
Const ANTiNE as before, PXR. 

South Street, behind the Deanery. Vespasian, large brass as before— eagle. Two 
large coins of Constantine ; on one, Mars with a spear and shield, marching, MAR- 
TI PROPVGNATORI ; (Plate II, No 27.) on the other, an altar BEATA TRAN- 
QVILLITAS. Two others also, 3rd brass, on one of which two captives with their 
hands tied, at the base of a military standard, expanded— P. LON. ; on the other an 
altar (VOTIS XX.) withfire burning on it, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS. PTR. (see 
Akerman, Roman British Coins. Page 65, 1836.) 

October. Gallienus (AVG.) small— much corroded— reverse, a female (perhaps 
Salonina, his Empress, daughter of Attalus) as Peace with olive branch. (Plate II, 
No. 28,) PAX (Augusti.) 

VicToniNus, (small) Reverse, variona plants and flowers, symbols of 
a bundance, and store of provision, (Folic) ITAS AVG. Constantine, SOLI. 

• This vessel seems, by its grace, and the ease with which it floats on the waves, to recall the verses 
of the famous French poet Beranger : 

Reine des flots— sur ta barque rapide 

Vogue en chantant, au bruit des longs cchos ; 

Les vents son doux, I'onde est calme et limpide, 

Le ciel so urit— vogue reine des flots I 
We must not forget the muse of Mr. J. Burrington. our talented townsman, on the >«m« subject, the 
"Pirate Bark" set to music ; and the " Ocean Bird" also. 



OP EXETER. 41 

IN VICTO COMITI, as before. T. F. in Ihe field ; ditto of his son by Fausta, IVN. 
NOB. as before, Rev. TRS. in exergue, and Gloria ExercitQs. A large iron instrument, 
like the coulter of a plough, was found, and two foundations of walls, of Roman ma- 
sonry, as hard as stone itself, and powerfully cemented ; also an immense quadrangular 
Portland stone, with a square cut in its centre, above which was a mass of oyster 
shells, and a layer of gravel and stones. There was a great quantity of Roman tiles, 
bricks, and coarse red pottery also thrown up. An immense number of human bones, 
of later date, amounting to many waggon loads, and apparently deposited there on 
cleaning out some ancient Cemetery, were cleared away from this spot. They formed 
a complete charnel house, or Necropolis, but had nothing to do with the coins, nor 
any reference to Roman burials, sepulchres, or cremation, nor to any sacrifices to the 
Alanes (v. Part Srd.) An ancient well was also brought to light, but not of Roman 
date ; there were neither wells of chalk, nor walls of that mateiial discovered, as in 
London, in the line of King William Street. 

1836. 

January. Near the Cemetery in Bartholomew Yard, in forming the present cata- 
combs, on the crest of the ancient ^riaci* of the city fortifications. Antoninus Pids 
(AVG. PIVS. PP. TR.) lauieated bust; reverse, the Dea Si/ria or goddess Salus, 
■wife of ^sculapius, in subseUiOy feeding a serpent out of a sacred platter or patera, 
being a sacrifice for health, or " little cake kneaded with oil and wine, put into the ser- 
pent's mouth, to sanctify and envirtue it for the recovery of the sick." The serpent 
was the emblem of vigilance, needful in superintending a patient ; and the knotty club 
(bacillum nodosum) of the god, signified the difficulty of acquiring a proper knowledge 
of pharmacy and the healing art. The noble Socrates alludes to the usual sacrifice of 
a cock to ^sculapius, when he takes the hemlock at Athens. The most famous anci- 
ent schools of medicine were at Smyrna, of which Zeuxis and 9 other physicians ap- 
pear on coins. Rhodes, Crotona, Cos, ( the birthplace of Hippocrates) and Cnidos were 
also celebrated. Valerian (LlC. VALERIAN); reverse, a winged victory leaning 
on a shield in her right, her left holding a laurel or palm (alata victoria stans, dextrd 
scutum^ sinislrdlaureatn* ) A coin ill preserved of P. L Valerianus, father to Gal- 
Uenus. He commenced the 8th persecution against the Christians, A. D. 259, and is me- 
morable for his ill success against tlie Persians and being ultimately flayed alive by 
tlieir puissant monarch, Sapores. This barbarous act was revenged by Odenatus, the 
prince of Palmyra, the great huntsman of the East, and husband of Zenobia, who 
checked the inroads of that scourge of the Roman power. The legend on reverse 

VIC AVG. appears to allude to this emperor and his son, who was his colleague 

in the empire. Constantius (small) laureated (P. F. AVG.) as before— horseman. 
&c. (te)MP(orura re) PARAT (io). In possession of Mr. G. Carter. 

New Market. A minute coin of the Tetrici (PIVES) with plants and flowers 
(spica et papavera propria Cereri) emblems of the fertility of a province. 

February. An Antonine, with female in subselliOf near Fore street hill. Clau- 
dius, the second, ttadiant, and another small coin with the helmeted head of some 
emperor, both found at the depth of 20 feet, in the Mermaid Yard ; while digging for 
foundations there* 

• L«V»Ul»nt. 



42 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

New Market. At the depth of seyen feet. Claudius, venerated by the Britons as 
the Dhus Claudius (TI. CLAVD. CAfiSAR)* as before with the warlike legionary 
in a fighting attitude, S. C. Many such found here being the pay of his legions, and 
therefore coeval with A. Plautius, who was his Lieutenant in Britain, and the conquests 
of Vespasian in the West, A. D, 43. Nero (CAESAR AVG.) A victory winged, 
handsomely attired in the silken stola, or transparent female robe of his time (Coa 
vestis) holding a globe on which S. P. Q. R, in token of the empire of the world. 
Coined perhaps after 8ne of his successful contests at the Olympic games, and the 
same as his Dupondius in large brass. 

Near St. Paul's Church. Claudius, in tolerable preservation, with a military fig- 
ure on reverse, galeatm, seemingly in one hand a patera, but indistinct ; in his left a 
spear, S. C. the cloak called lacerna, or vestis militaris exterior (ad pluviae frigoris- 
que injurias propulsandas) entwined round the right arm. I consider this to be the 
emblem of Constancy^ or firmness, holding out the right hand, " as afBrming some- 
vphat." Some foreign brown pottery, with the date 1632, inscribed ICII BRINDER 
HERS LEBSTENVM,t &c. 

St. Paul's Church was rebuilt about a century ago, and is chiefly noted for a costly 
monument of white marble to the memory of Sir Edward Seaward, son of J. S.of 
Clist St, George's Court, (6curi§,Clistensi divi Georgii) who died in 1703, aet. 70; 
adorned with chubby-faced cherubs, and swelling with "sculptured stones," 

''Arms, angels, epitaphs, and bones," 
he having been Mayor of this city sometime^ as well as Alderman, The inscription is 
placed so high up, that it was evidently not intended to be read very often without a 
telescope, but it is given in Po/nj^c/e. One part of it describing the virtues of this 
Mayor, says Excellebat abstinenttd, v?hich proves even in those degenerate days 
it was not the current custom to "eat ones way into popularity by civic feasts." 
Opposite the church a Roman or British edifice formerly stood, (noticed by Stukely 
in Itin. Curios.) called in ancient times, the house or palace of King Athelstan, (on 
which stood the premises of the late Mr. J. Pidsley, extending to the city wall) and here 
it was that he held councils, and established laws, after subduing the Britons of Corn- 
wall, whom he drove beyond the Tamar, after expelling them out of Exeter, about 940, 
A. D. The western Britons thus removed, he rebuilt the city walls on the old Ro- 
man foundations, and added turrets, all of square stone, as William of Malmesbury 
has recorded. 

In digging a conduit in Lo ngbrook street, 31 feet below the surface. A small coin 
of the emperor Valent INI AN the first, (corona gemmata) who ruled the Western 
part of the Roman world, A. D, 364, VALENTINIANVS P. F. AVG. On the re- 
verse, GLORIA ROMANORVM and Valentinian in a military habit, drawing after 
him a young man, to show the necessity of reform commencing in early life ; in bis 
left hand a Labarum or standard, with the monogram of our Saviour XP on it (Chris" 
tus) being two Greek letters, the commencement of that name.| Thus, as Blair has 
observed, the Cro£« and the name of the Redeemer of mankind became the ensign of 
victorious armies, after the time of Constantino, in days when the memory of Pilate and 

• Query. Worshipped in Idol Lane f 
\ I bum the lovely heart, (tc. 
t V.Page 39. 



0!!' EXfiTfiR. 4S 

Herod was accursed, aad the ancient people of Solyma became exiles on the face of the 
globe. It supplanted the idolatrous banners of the heathen legions, and Jovian, the 
predecessor of Valentinian, first obliged the army to declare itself cluistian, forbidding 
also idolatry and magic. PS. LVO. on the exergue shews the coin to have been mint'- 
ed at Lyons (the ancient municipium Lvgdunum) in France, where there are still re- 
mains of Roman grandeur, and where I have witnessed many curious Roman antiqui- 
ties, among which, while in that oily in 1921, 1 visited the remains of the temple dedi-^ 
cated to Augustus by L. Munatius Plancus, governor of Celtic Gaul^ who had been a 
firm adherent to that emperor, after abandoning the cause of Antony at the battle of 
Actium. They are to be found in the Eglise Azsnay, which is built on its ruins ; two 
Egyptian columns which have been cut into four, still supporting the naTe, and a Mo>- 
saic pavement and inscription still exist near the altar of the church.* Lugdunensem 
prim^im Lugdunus omat. Amm. Marc. The discovery of this coin so far below the 
present surface of this city demonstrates the great congestion of substance through nu- 
merous ages above the site of the ancient Isca of Dunmonium* And it is also impor- 
tant in another point of view ; for as I have already observed in another place, a Ro- 
man road proceeded from Longbrook street over Stoke hill, by the anciect camp, and 
crossed the river by a ford near Pi/nes house ; from this another branch by the Mary- 
pole and Black Boy Lanes, communicated with the two great roads towards Heavitree, 
one of which was the Ikenild street from Dorsetshire, which at nine miles from Exe- 
ter met the great Fosseway running from Somerset to Seaton, (Moridunum) and 
Hembury Ford, and along the old Taunton road. Valentinian is noted for re-establishing 
Britain from its decayed and enfeebled state, and that part of it which was recovered 
in his time from the Scots, Attacotti, and Picts, (the last of whom Aramianus called 
Dic«/idoni7 and Fecfuriones^ by the valour of the great Theodosius, was called by 
this prince's order Valentia, after himself, being situated between the stone wall of 
Severus, (6S miles long) and the Friths of Clyde and Forth, which had been connected by 
the turf wall of Antoninus Pius, constructed by the 2nd legion, and vexillations ot the 
6th and 20lh, aided by some foreign tioops, on the track of Agricola's chain of forts* 

Valentia thus included all the Southern part of Scotland, commonly called the Low- 
lands, and was a consular government under the vicegerent of Britain. He is by Ani' 

mianus called at first the Scholce secunda scutariorutn tribunus, and was the prede- 

• Lugdunnm or Lyons, the birth place of the Emperor Claudius, was anciently famous for its rhe- 
torical contests, and for the Lugdunentis Ara, or altar of Augustus,* noted by Suetonius In his life of 
Caligula, (being an academy or Athenaeum on the site also of the church Aisnay) where the unsuccess- 
ful candidates were forced to lick off their compositions with their tongues or be thrown into the Rhone, 
( Juv. Sat. I. 44.) Its museum contains many Etruscan and Egyptian penatet. and many Roman uten- 
sils, arms, lachrymatories, and Images : one of Its mosaics represents a circus, and a quadriga with Its 
four horses, overset an d broken ; another the strife of Pan and Cupid surrounded by birds, and the fore- 
leg of a famous bronze horse taken out of the Rhone, is much admired. An adoration of the Magi by 
Rubens, with other pieces by Perugino and Snyders adorn its walls. In the gallery of inscriptions I 
saw an altar to the austere and rigid Pertinax, another to Antoninus Plus and others, commemorating 
Tauribolia or sacrifices of oxen, one of which to the Deum Matrit Magna Idaa (D. M. I. D.), or great 
goddess Cybele, for the health of Hadrian and Antonine. Another to the Nuniina Aug. totiusque domus 
dlviaae et SITVCCC. AVG. LVGVD,t by the Dendrophorl (or wood cutters or carriers) in some religi- 
ous procesiioa. 

t Civitali$ coloniw eopia Claudim AugutUf Lugdun^ntit. 
M 



44 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

cesser of Gratian; is noted by Zosimus lib iv, for his fiery and cruel disposition, which 
historian gives a detail of most of his nnilitary transactions, as well as those of his col* 
league in the East, Valens. In the vestibule of the Gallery of Paintings at Parma, 
in Italy, I transcribed an inscription to these two empeiors as follows: "iEternis vene- 
randis O (optimis) que principibus D.D. N.N. Valentin, .o el Valer.ti, victoribus ac 
triurafatoribus, semper Augustis bono R. P. Natis." This was probably after his victo- 
ries in Gaul, Germany and Africa. 

March. A small coin of the Lower Empire, found near the Western Market, at 
some excavations near a tavern, presents an emblematical figure with cornucopia and 
patera; GENIO POP(uli)ROM(ani) head mutilated, probably a Maximian, S.P. {Sa- 
ci^apecuniaj on the area. The G.P.R, or Genius of the Eoman People is generally de- 
picted with other symbols, but this was probably devised in adulation to the Emperor, 
conceiving him to be the genius of the commonwealth. The genius presiding over ci- 
ties was invoked into a statue by sacrifices and conjurations, and the astrologers found 
out a fortunate position of the heavens under which to lay the iirst stone, which may 
perhaps have led to the deposition of the coin here described. Some coarse fragments 
of sepulchral urns of black sun-baked clay, accompanied the coins in the New Market ; 
probably the funeral repositories of the ashes of Romans, or Romanized Britons, interred 
at Isca, within the city, near their domestic hearths. Also a small fragment of Samian 
pottery, part of a j;aiera, on which is depicted the water lily or lotus of Egypt, being 
the calyx of its flower above the stem, commonly dedicated by the Egyptians to Isis 
or Damater as Goddess of the Earth, and supplying the form of a column, its base and 
capital at Esneh, or Latopol is (noted by Strabo) on the 18 pillars of the portico of 
her temple in that ancient city, along with the tufts of palm-trees in bud and branches 
of the vine, papyrus, or water-reed, &c. the products of Egypt, as an homage of its 
gratitude to Isis, who presided over the entry of the Nile into the canals, which fer- 
tilized that land. The vessel was dedicated (it wou Id ajipear) to this deity, who was 
also the BonaDea of the Romans, the Sicilian Ceres, the German and British Neha- 
lennia, and indeed t he first female; pantheistic Deity of all nations — for these vessels 
as well as most medals, fiequently alluded to sacred transactions and divinities, and 
bore sacred symbols, 

A copper coin. of the Emperor Valens, the predecessor of the great Theodosius, 
dug up close under St. Paul's Church. On the obverse he appears jj>a/Mrfafws and 
with the corona gemmata,* DN (Dominus noster) VALENS. P. F. AVG,— Reverse, 
Figura slans— REST iTVTOR REIPVBLICAE— On the Exergue— P. LVG. 
(Percussa Lugduni,) struck in Celtic Gaul, at the Roman mint in Lyons. He ruled 
the Eastern World, about 371 A. D. and was deeply imbued with the Arian heresy, 
persecuting the Orthodox Christians and monks, and fell at last in battle with the 
Goths,— -as we are informed by Paulus Diaconus, .Fornandes, and others,— being burnt 
alive in a cottage, after sustaining a total defeat from the Barbarians, and receiving a 
severe wound from an arrow in the action. Called in Zosimvs 'OvoKrjg a Bamlivg 
and leaving to the noble and virtuous Theodosius the glory of humbling the Goths, 
and intimidating the enemies of Rome. 

A beautiful coin of Claudius, with the Goddess Ceres or Damater, insubscllio, 
bearing ears of corn, and in her left hand a torch. CERES. On Exergue S. C. 

• Beaded Crown. 



OP EXETER. 45 

(Plate III, No, 29.) Coinsd on the celebration of the Cereales tiuli (Prid. Idus Aprilis) 
by the Koman Matrons. Fragments of Sepulchral Urns of Coarse inaaufactuie, made 
with sand and grit, memorials of cremation. 

Friars Walk. A Quinarius (Good silver) of Dioclesian, (Plate II, No. 30.) 
Obverse, DIOCLETIANVS AVG. Reverse, four soldiers sacrificing before the 
gate of the Prsetorian Carap. Exergue R, A, Legend Victories Sartnaticcs, (43, 
Akerm. Des. Cat. Vol. 2, p. 133,) Sarmatis victis, Eutrop. alludes to his victories 
over nations beyond the Euxine. (in possession of Mr. Larkworthy, Jun.) 

At the New Market. Two small coins, one of Constans, ad pectus cumtoricd* (co- 
rona ffetnmata) Constantinople and Rome as two victories, VICTORIAE DD AVG- 
GO NN (Dominorum Auyustorum Nostrorum) T.R.S. (Treriris sigruita.) Noted 
for his victories over the Gets and Sarmatee, and his kindness to the orthodox bishops. 
The other of Gratian — (corona gemmata) as Nob. Caesar, or heir to the Empire; 
Jigura puerulum secum trahens, gestans sinistrd vexillumf GLORIA (novi) SAE- 
CULI. Struck during his minority, in the time of his father Valentinian the first ; 
famous for his victory over the AUemans, near the town of Argeniaria, (Colmar 
of Heylyn,) of whom 30,000 were slain, and whose colleague Tlieodosius, defeated the 
Huns at Constantinople, and drove the Goths from the borders of Thrace, as Zoslmus 
and others relate. Britain was allotted to him as his share, along with Spain, and the 
nations of Gaul, by Valens. 

Lower Market— -Valess (DN. VALENS. P, F. AVG.) cor. gem. Rev. Victoria 
Stans, dcxtrd lauream SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. PLN. (Percussa Lugduni.) 
Probably during the period after the rebellious Procopius was defeated, and this Em- 
peror foolishly imagined the Goths who had been driven southward by the Huns be- 
yond the Danube, and received by him, sine ulla foederis pactione^ would become 
peaceable vassals to the Roman domination — so much for security ! ! 

In digging under some old Alinhouses in Bartholomew Yard. Titus, son and col- 
league of Vespasian (9nd brass) obverse, TI. CAES. IMP, AVG. F. TR. P. COS. 
VI. CENSOR the title of Censor first adopted by Claudius, and Doraitian called him- 
self C'e«sor Perpetuus, Reverse, S. C, Rome as a female in handsome drapery 
graceful, apparently a young figure, " to shew its perpetuity and eternal vigour/ ' with 
a helmet on her head, "armed also for strength." N.B. This coin has been presented 
to ihe Atheneeum of this city by a scientific gentleman. 

April. Bedford Circus. Fl, Jul. Crispus (son of Constantine) Civic Wreath, 
VOT. V. CfiBsarum Nostrorum. 

HighJ'treet. Magnentius ; rev. Soldier with Victoriola and standard, Fe^iciias. 

Near Broadgate, laying Pipes. Four of Constantine, Wolf and children, PTR, 
Carausius (Plate III, No. 31.) Reverse, female with the hasta—'m area F, O. (Fla- 
minis ofllcialis ?) exergue, C, perhaps Catterick in Yorkshire (Calteractonium)— 
where he had a Mint. 

Western Market. Constans, Firton'a, DD. AVGG. NN, (S. T.) Also a Faustina. 

Butcherow, Lower Market, April 25. In this Forum Roartum, perha ps au ancieat 
Alacettumy we find some strong traces of the Romans. 

Claudius again appears as before in two coins, one as fitting to a corn market, 
with the goddes3 Ceres seated in the curule chair, with her Eleusinian torch and 
• guirtised. t h* VaillaQt. 



46 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

little sample of corn, as the Damater, or Is is, (yellow copper) CERES. She occu- 
pied the centre niche of the Sacrarium, or private chapel of the great, with a cane- 
phora, bearing votive basket. Another much abraded by time, with Minerva proma- 
chos and her cegis— the emblem of military prudence ; the first struck on the Ides of 
April, in memory of the famous games called Cerealia, 

CoNSTANTiNES eldcst son by Fausta, yaleatus, AVG (small) Two captives bound, 
sitting under a labarum or standard — being his father's pagan rivals, Licinius and 
Maxentius ; (virtus Ex) ERCITVS, the memorials of the victories gained in the 
fields of Hadrianople and Chalcedon, over the former, and of the overthrow and de- 
struction of the latter on the Ponte Molle (Milvius) near the eternal city, which 
scene has been immortalized by the efforts of one of the noblest artists of Italy—and 
where still roll the deep and turbid waters of the yellow Tiber, as they did then, where 
Maxentius was drowned. On the Labarum, are the characters VOT XX. (votis 
vicenaZiius) implying that the people with joyful acclamations wished the Emperor 
might flourish 20 years, or 4 lustrums^ on the anniversary of public games to be then 
celebrated by them. The coin appears to have been struck at Aries, where he was 
born, 312 A. D., (ARL) cr Arelatum, in Gaal Narbonensis, called by the poet ^u- 
soniust the Rome of France, (Sextanorum Arelate, P. Mela, lib. 2.) anciently a Roman 
colony, and now the see of an Archbishop,* which had the privilege of a mint, and 
still displays an amphitheatre and obelisk among its antiquities, being so highly prized 
that this Constantine (the younger,) after being chosen Emperor by the British legions, 
intended to have made it the imperial seat in the decline of the empire. Another coin 
of this Emperor's father, with the two little soldiers, and military ensigns and (Gloria') 
ExERCiTus, is a memorial of the elder Constantine, and seems to have been coined 
at the noted mint (RT) of Treves or Triers, in Germany, the metropolis of the Tre- 
viri of Caesar, or Tribori of Ptolemy, in Belgica Prima, (Thesaurus ; v, notit.) said 
to have been founded 130 years before Rome j and latterly the residence of the Vicar 
or Lt.-General for the whole province of Gaul. Treviricse urbis solium, imperii vires 
quod alit, Auson. Tpij3«poi Zozim, lib. 3, 

A Trajan. (Nerv) A TRAIAN AVG AES. Reverse— defaced. The 

head of Trajan is encircled by the fillet, or light chaplet, /as cia or viltay of the priest- 
hood, called «^ro;7/}u$ sacerc^ofaZzs, seen sometimes on the coins of Cos, round the 
head of the bearded Jupiter — "quod pro insigni ponebatur in capitibus sacerdotum'* 
(termed by Vossius and Scaliger funiculum) also called torulus, being often made of 
ringlets of hair — as for instance in the Prologue to the Amphitryo of Plautus, " Meo 
patri autem torulus inerit aureus sub petaso," spoken by Mercury; and in Am, Mar- 
cellinus, 1. 29. we find one who used magical incantations in aid of Theodorus, a secre- 
tary or notary who aimed at the empire of Antioch, in the reign of Valens, adorned 

* Gallula Roma Arelas per quern Roman! commercia snsclpis orbis. Auson. Clarce urbes. It is 
memorable in Ecclesiastical History for being the seat of a council, at ■which it is said in 313, that 
Restituiut, Bishop of London, and other prelates of the British church assisted— situated in a marshy 
spot on the mouth of the Rhone, and selected for the royal residence of the ancient French Kings of 
Burgfundy, hence called Kings of Aries. It is also noted for the deep channel cut by the famous C. 
Marius, for the conveyance of provisions to his camp, in his campaign against the Cimbri, by Ptolemy, 
called Fossa Marrianna. (noticed by Mela, lib. 2, cap. 5,) by the natives Catnargue, a corruption of 
the name of the illustrious Roman. Boson, £. of Ardenne» about 900 4> D. 'was created by CharU* 
U Qrot, the fint King of Aries and Bargundy.— Its arms, Anun-'tk cat, Arg, armed Qvk*^ 



OF EXETER. 47 

with this wreath — Torulo capite circumfiexo —and e\sewherOy4ilQ» Chonodomarius, 
kingof the Alleraans, who was defeated by Julian near Colmar, is decorated with 
ihc Jlammcus torulus vertici. So also on coins of Cn. D. Ahenobarbus the Consul. 
A silver coin or denarius of Sbverus (PERT. SEV.) Reverse, female in subsollio. 
A little copper weight, part of the Roman itncia (or EngMsh avoirdupois oz.) weigh- 
ing S dwts. 5 gis.; anciently divided into 7 f/e/ia»'ii and 8 drac/im^.t It is of the 
age of Carausius, and bears a galley or trireme. (Plate III, No. 32.) Postumus, a 
denarius cereus, or washed with sWsav— Radiant IMP. C. (Cassius) POSTVMVSi 
reverse, a female with two standards, FIDES MILITVM, or the military oaih of fi- 
dt'lity. Perhaps the 2nd legion, sometimes called Exercilus Iscamicus quartered at 
Caerleon, or hca Silurum^ in Wales. He was one of the thirty tyrants, about 26a, 
A, D., by nation, a Gaul. 

May 6. Nero, (Plate III, No. 33.) Found in the Wesern Market, (a coin 
considered rare) in excellent preservation, not Radiant* Ancient public monu- 
ments certainly give to the reverses of medals a peculiar beauty, particularly when 
they mark some historical eveat. The temple of Janus and port of Ostia, in Nero's 
medals for instance, are more rare than the Macellum, although their structures are 
not by any means so handsome. Of these, one denotes andrecords the universal peace 
granted by him to the empire. But the Macellum only informs us that he built a 
public shambles, or butcher market for the accommodation of the people of Rome, and 
their carnivorous propensities. The inscription is MAC. AVG, with S, C. on each 
side of the scales, or steps leading up to the stately building, which is of light archi- 
tecture, composed of a double peristyle of Corinthian columns, 8 on the second story, 
and 7 on the upper, the whole surmounted by a small bell-shaped cupola. Being 
found in the ancient Butcher row of this city, there is a striking coincidence, not in- 
appropriate to such a medal. It appears that at Rome, the church of St, Vitis, which 
is near the archof Gallienus (of which the great arcade and the two Corinthian 
pilasters are all that remain) was built on the site of the ancient Macellum Livianum, 
where meat and fish were exposed to sale. It was afterwards called Macellum Mar- 
ti/ rum ^ from the execntion o( & great number of early christians, by their heathen 
persecutors, on a stone still preserved in this church. — The name was derived from 
one Macellus whose goods had been confiscated (bonis publicatis) and himself executed 
on account of his crimes ; (nequam et criminosus, qui in ganeo et lustris vitam egerat 
propter latrocinia sordesqua vitae, capital! supplicio poenas dedisset, V. Alex. ab. 
Alex. lib. 3, cap. 23.) A public shambles was erected on the site of his house, by the 
censors Aemylius and Fulvius — ubi obsonia vendcrentur ; although the ancient 
forum olitorium at Rome for roots, sallads, &c., was said to have once been the old 
shambles, and stood near the theatre of Marcellus, (now the splendid palace of the 
OasiNi family,) not far from the old gate called Carmentalis, built by Romulus ; so 
named from Carmenta, the prophetess, mother of Evander the Arcadian, once King of 
that part of Italy. Suetonius speaks of the public works which were executed by 
Nero, whose hobby-horse seems to have been at one time a rage for building, (formam 
eedificiorum urbis novam excogitavit) and by whom many edifices and public under- 
takings were patronized. Pity he lived not in a rail-road age ! I We are therefore 

r ThU weighs 3 dwts, 18 grs., Troy—probably the Sicilius~the SextuU weighed 3 dwU. Troy. 

N 



48 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

to suppose that he rebuilt the edifice thus recorded, to please the fickle citizens, whose 
faTOur he sought in the beginning of his reign, by various public acts of imperial 
munificence, omnium aemulus, qui quoquo modo animum vulgi moverent. Svet. (Ma- 
cellaro is a butcher in Italian.) It is said that he performed this act of public service 
soon after the appearance of prodigies, which terrified him. On this medal he some- 
times appears radiated; in this instance only with the laurel. 

A prodigious quantity of Roman Pottery of various kinds was also found, including 
a great variety of very beautiful Terra cottas of the ancient celebrated red Samian, 
or perhaps Hetruscan ware— adorned with curious arabesques and subjects from the 
mythology, and of the chase ; gladiators fighting— fauns dancing — Diana, the huntress 
queen — Orpheus charming the wild beasts with his lyre — Mercury, the merchants 
deity, with his purse and cap— (the footman of the gods) the trident, emblem of aqua- 
tic fecundity — birds, hares, lions, griflins, boars, dolphins, curious scored wavy tiles, 
&c. Corns ad libitum. Const2Lntine-^ Victorice Leeta principis perpetui, Sfc, 3id brass. 

The coin of Nero with the MaceUum, is engraved in the work of Donatus de Urbe 
RomS,, p. 306, (ed, 1738.) Varro says another Macellum stood near the Via Sacra, 
ad Corneta^ or near the grove of cornel trees. la very ancient times the Romans had 
no Coqui, or cooks, at home, but procured them from the Macella. Thus in the Au- 
ZMZaria of Plautus. " Postquam obsonavit herus et conduxit coquos," and Pliny, 
lib. 18, cap. XI. Nee coquos vero habebant in servitiis, eosque ex macello conduce - 
bant. In later times they had private cooks, (v. Martial) Alex, ab Alexandro, says 
there was a forum Cupedinis, called macellum at Rome, " quod Cupedinarium 
dicunt, cujus generis in Thessalia, et omni Grsecia frequentia fu6re. It was a place 
where made dishes and -dainty fare were prepared by cooks, for the palates of the 
gastronomes of the age. 

Nero. Large brass. Rev. Decursio, in excellent preservation (as before.) 
A ntonia, mother of Claudius and wife of Drusus. (Sueton in Claud. I.) Antoni- 
nus Pius, radiated crown, Faustina, &c. A coin with youth naked, holding the 
horn of plenty, Genio Populi Romani. Obverse defaced. Claudius the 2nd. Gothi- 
cus, (3rd Brass.) The bronze crescent, or Ephippium, and a quantity of Samian 
Ware with Cupids, lotus^ and bacchanalian symbols, and ovolo mountings were found 
with these. 

Claudius, as before. Tetricus Junior ; Gratian, coined at Siscia, in Pannonia, 
small QwrnariMs, of Trajan, IMP. CAES.NERVA. TRAIAN AVG.GERM. with 
COS. nil, on Reverse much defaced. 

MAXiMiAN,in excellent preservation D.N. {Domino) MAXIMIANO FE (;2ci)S (tam- 
per) AVG(ms«o) laureated. (Plate III, No. 34.) Reverse, GENIOPOP(«Zi)ROM(anl) 
A genius naked, on his head the corn bushel of Serapis, in his right a patera ; the 
Emperor being estimated the genius of the nation, animated by the Gods. A CornU" 
copia on the left arm, in exergue, the Lyons mint mark, PLN.* Most probably Max- 
imian as Serapis, the Egyptian god, (like Severus and others) who was the same as 
the Patriarch Joseph, who preserved the Egyptians from famine, by his providence 
and intelligence, (as we read in Genesis.) His wife Asenath, the mother of Manasses, 
was indisputably Isis, and daughter of the Jnd personage in the state, (Potipherah) the 

« Sometimes London. 



OF BXBTBR. 49 

priest of ON, (the city Heliopolis,) or high priest of the sun, lie had a noted temple 
at Abydos, where Osiris was interred, and one at Memphis. From Tertullian, we 
find his worship was brought to Rome, 146, A. D. Symbolized as an ox (leader or 
teacher in Hebrew) so were Manasses and Ephraim his sons, to the last of whom the 
priests of Egypt for mysterious reasons consigned the ocean. The mysteries of Apis 
(the sacred ox, dedicated to Osiris or the Sun) as Scrapis, are said to be the most 
ancient known, and entered into all the religious dogmas o( the primeeval nations. 
The He&o of Campania and Naples, (Bacchus and Baccapeus) was the same deity, 
being the sun typified as an ox with human face. It is supposed that from ych, oich, 
och, and ox, (water, ocean,) this animal was adopted as a symbol, by the Phoenicians 
and other maritime people. 

Maonentius. — Two victories (with VOT. V. MVL. in a wreath,) (Gloria) 
EXERCITVS. 

June 5. A large medallion of Domitian ; strong outline of features, radiated 
Rev. S. C. defaced. Several large coins of Nero, with victory on Rev. and others of 
the TV^rfw, CoNSTANTiNES, &c. 

CoNSTANTius. (Plate III, No. 35.) small; Fel. Temp, (reparatio.) Exergue PLC. 
(Lyons.) Trajan, (1st. brass) IMP. CAES. NER. TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG. 
GER DAC PARTHICO on obv. The rev. presents two trophies and Trajan standing 
between, probably those of the Daciansand Sarmatians conquered by him, S. P. Q. R. 
at length. (Plate III, No. 36.) Commodus, (beautiful execution) Rad. Bust j reverse, 
a genius sacrificing before an allar— below, COS. VI.— above, S. C. TRP. XII. In 
the possession of Mr. Jenkins. Caracalla (quinarius) Nfc.Ro, Victory as before; 
Medallion of Trajan. Antoninus Pius, Mars armed descending to Rhea, who lieg 
on the ground. (See Akerman Des Cat. p. 259.) (Plate III, No. 37.) 

Leather Money. (jDe Corio, Sf^e Notit, de Rebus Bellicis, 1552. Tab.) A coin 
of Buffalo's hide, very ancient, with three wheels or stars. (See Joubert, also Alex, ab 
Alex lib.iv.cap. 15.) Plate III, No. 38. Possibly a Roman or British scorteus numtnus, 

July 25. Post Office Inn, High Street. Vespasian— Eagle on a globe, COS. IIII. 

Facing Cathedral Yard, or Close, (behind Pilbrow's Repository, now a Bank.) 
Claudius, defaced. Hadrian, laur. SALVS AVG. a priest sacrificing ; in exergue, 
CON, implying acongiarium or donation to the people.* Fragments of Samian pot- 
tery with ovolo mouldings ; with skulls and bones and sculptui ed fragments of tomb 
stones, belonging to the ancient cemetery in the Close. 

August 12. Bartholomew Yard. Valens, small, D. N. &c., Gloria Romanorum, 
Gratian, ditto, Gloria Reipublicee, Antoninus, much defaced. Faustina, AVG. 
PII. AVG. FIL(ia) (quinarius) as the goddess Concord, in subsellio, with cornucopia, 
CONCORDIA. The temple of Concord is mfentioned by Juvenal, Sat. I, 115. Quae- 
que salutato crepitat Concordia nido, alluding to the storks which used to build on its 
roof, (V. Politian.) While at Rome I have seen galley slaves employed to excavate 
on its site in the Forum, which is on the right of the temple of Jupiter Tonans. After 
being burnt, it was restored by Vespasian, and parts of its cella and handsome columns 

♦ Donations or largesies were often given to the populace, and money scattered among them, to win 
their fivor. The Congius was the 8th part of the Quadrantale of Wine, (a measure said to be of £80 
value) whence these donatives were called Conglaria. Distributions of corn were also frequent, as 
well as these Congii, and called Aodoqsi. 



50 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

have been lately laid open . Caraillus was the first who vowed a temple to this deity ; one 
entirely of brass was fabricated by Cn. Vlavius in the Greecostasis or spot allotted for 
ambassadors. Julia Domna, wife o^ Severus, hair plaited j rev. as Cybele or the great 
Mater Dcum, at the feasts called HiVarm (25th March) HILARITAS.S. C. She bears 
the cornucopia and the/r tree sacred to Gybele. (Plate 3, No. 39.) J ulian the apostate 
DN FLAV. (died A, D. 363) corona gemmata^ spear and buckler; reverse, within a 
civic wreath VOX. X, MVLT. XX. coined at Antioch (ANl'A in imo) died valiantly 
atthe ageof 33, of a lance wound received in Persia (Am. Marcellin.lib. 25.) Constan- 
TiNUS 2nd. Junior Nohilis, ad pectus cum loricd; reverse, an altar VOTIS XX, P. 
L:)N. (London mark) F. E. (area) BE ATA TR ANQVILLITAS, perhaps F. E. the 
Equiria Festa on the CB.\en<\a.i ; celebrated horse races in the Campus Martins, on 
27th of Feb, instituted by Romulus. (3rd brass) (Akerm. Rom. Brit. Coins, p, 64.) 

August 18. Western Market. Thus, son of Vespasian ; on obv. TI. CAES. IMP. 
AVG. F. TR. P. COS. CENSOR ; reverse, a victory on the prow of a vessel, and 
palm branch VICTORIA NAVALIS, supposed to commemorate his naval exploits 
and his victory over the Jews, on the Lake Genesareth (through which the Jordan 
runs, on its course to the Dead Sea) recorded in Josephus Ant. 2. (Erizzo, p. 247.) 
Rev. S. C. COS. VIII. (Aker., p. 196, vol. 1.) rare, Vespasian, AVG. Goddess FWes, 
in a loose robe, with cornucopia and patera, FIDES PVBLICA (albo velata panno 
Hor.) or public credit and allegiance. Her temple (of which the first was by Numa) 
and that of Terminus, were near the Capitol. Divinos honores meruit. V. Hor., ode 
35. Juv. Sat, i, I )5. Alex ab Alex, &c. (Plate III, No 40.) Crispus, son of Con- 
stantine by Minervina, NOB. C an altar, on which VOTIS X. MVLT. XX. Beata 
Tranquillitas. Ex. P. LON. In area C. R. Qy. ? Copiarum Rationalis, or Co- 
mes Rcmunerationum ? (3rd brass.) 

Sept. 24, A small coin of the usurper Tetricus, found masoned up in an old chimney, 
mixed up of course with mortar, originally made on the spot,) and a Constantius, 
found close to the kvel of the street, DN. CONSTANTIVS PF. AVG. paludatus : 
FEL (ix) TEMP (orum) Reparatio. Some Samian Pottery. Constantine the 
Second ( Jun. Nob.) Radiated, an altar ; Votis XX. P. LON. with F. R,. area. Beata 
Tranquillitas, struck in the London Mint, under the direction of the flattonaii* of 
the Flamen or Priest. Constantius— P. F. AVG. On Ex. PS.LG. (from the 
Lyons Mint.) Reparatio. Two other Constant ines— one, VICTORIA, TR. P. 
on Ex. (from Treves) ; the other, SARMATIA DEVICTA, defaced, a gazette of the 
defeat of the ancient Russians. Another, SOLI INVICTO COMITJ, rare. Another 
Constantinopolis, and a Victory. A Valentin ian. A, D. 364,) P. F. AVG Cor. 
Gem,, Gloria Reipublicae — OF. II (the 2nd Minting Office,) rare; made Caesar by 
the Array, after the death of Jovian. This coin is memorable from the circumstance 
of the celebrated 1 heodosius having, during the reign of this Emperor, personally 
visited our Island— when he restored the cities destroyed by barbarian incursions, 
repaired all the Forts and Camps, and re-established for a time the prosperity of 
Britain, ** Instaiirabat urbes et prasidiaria castra,'' &c, V. Amm, Marc. lib. 28, 
cap, 3, CoNSTANS P, F, AVG. small^ cor. gem. Two Victories Victorice DD. 
(Dominorum) AVGGQ. (AugustorumqueJ NN. (Nostrorum) D, area, Decurionesi* 
October, Western Market. A copper coin of Antonia; supposed to be the mo- 
* Qy, ? Minting Office, No. 4. 



Ot EXETER. 51 

Iher of Claudius, and sister-ill-law to Tiberius. Rev. — a female, or priestess, as a 
Canephora, or basket-beaier, attired in the stola mutiebris, or female garment. The 
Canephoria were supposed to be fcstirals in honor of Bacchus and Juno. — Persffipe 
velui qui Junonis sacra terret. — Horat. Serm. lib. i. 3. — And Cicero says they were 
.solemnized by the votaries of Diana,, when such women as were of nubile years offered 
small baskets of reeds to that deity, the patroness of chastity, and piobably in refer- 
ence to her functions as Lucina^ or Juno Pronuba, who presided over marriages- — 
The Panalhencea, at Athens, in honor of Minerva, are supposed to have been the same 
as the Roman Quinquatria, continuing five days, and celebrated on the 21st of March 
(quinto post Idus Martias) with sacrifices, gladiatorial combats, and processions. At 
these festivals, a party of the noblest virgins or ladies of distinction were called KAN- 
H<I»OPOI, from carrying baskets containing the sacred matters pertaining to the rites. 
While at Milan, I transcribed an inscription from the vestibules of the church of St. 
Ambrogio, recording a bequest of four (H.S.IIII.N.) *c«<cr«iiwuw»»wi (about 9d. of 
our money) to the College of Cannofori there, by the Albucia family. The inscription 
is TI. CLAVDIVS S.C. on this reverse of Antonia. Another, female— coin defaced. 
Valens, small, a victory — ReipublictB—liVG .FS, (Lyons mint.) 

November 7. In digging the foundations of the New County Bank, opposite the 
Guildhall, A quantity of Samian Ware, Potter's Impresses &c, and 15 Coins, mostly 
of Claudius, all in very bad preservation, including one of the lower Empire, much de- 
faced, PRO(videntia). Also a handsome coin of Nero, — laureated bust,— to the left, 
Rev. IMP. NEROCAESAR AVG. P. MAX. TR. PPP. Victory winged, S.C. 
Victoria, AVGVSTI.* Another Claudius, as before, defaced. A small copper 
weight, which if Roman might be the SiciliuSy or quarter of their Uncia (about 4 dwts. 
13 grs. Troy.) 

In Waterbeer or Theatre street. A Quinarius of Trajan, trophy on Reverse, 
Nine small CoNSTANTiNES. Pottery &c. Hadrian, HADRIAN VS AVGVSTVS— 
laureated bust to the right — Rev. S.C. Goddess Salus feeding a serpent out of a platter. 
Another, much detrited. 

In taking down an old house. Two of the plated quinarii, or billon coins of Pjtonus 
(Plate IV, No. 41.) Radiated Bast, paludatus, IMP. CM. AVR. PROBVS P. F. 
AVG— Rev. RESTITVT.ORBIS. In area, A. XXI. or Collegium Undeviginti, 
probably of Sisceck, in Pannonia, his birth place. The A is the mark of the quinarius 
or vicloriatuSf here clearly debased, (worth 3|d of our money) See Alex. ab.Alex. 
in Probo^ The other bears H in area, and XXI. in exergue. 

New County Bank. Copper coin of Nero, As^ (detrited) Bust to the left. .CLAVD. 
CAESAR; reverse, Nero as Apollo, playing on the lyre— S. C. and PONTIF. MAX* 
PER. This coin makes good the authority of Suetonius (in vitS.Neron. 25) Item sta- 
tuas suas citharoedico habitu: qua notS. etiam NUMMUM percussit— signifying that 
he placed his own statues in the dress of a harper or musician on the Palatine Mount, 
in Apollo's temple, and struck a coin (to commemorate his feats in music) on which he 
was represented in that habit. This coin was minted after his return from the Olympic 
games in the Peloponnesus, where he was the first to introduce premiums for those who 
excelled in MUSIC at those noble and solemn festivals. He appears dressed in the paUa 

• Vide Frontlipiece. 
O 



52 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

(a purple and variegated robe) or long garment, peculiar to musicians or citharcedi at 
feasts. Large coin of Trajan— AVG, GERM. &c. 

Copper Coins, found in laying Gas Pipes, in Fore Street. Vespasian, with eagle, 
S.C. Galerius Maximianus (about 311, A. D.) made Csesar by Dioclesian, Genio 
Populi Romani. Carausius, the great naval chieftain of Britain; near Broadgate 
(where others of his and perhaps the only ones hitherto have been found.) An excellent 
coin, IMP. C. CARAVSIVS. P. F. AVG. Radiated, Rev. The figure of Peace; in 
one hand an olive branch, in the other a spear, PAX. AVG, — S.C, alluding probably 
to his reconciliation with his colleagues Maximian and Dioclesian, after his usurpation 
of the purple in Britain, 290, A. D. by means of his powerful fleet. (Plate IV, No. 43.) 
This coin is one of those alluded to by Le Vaillant, vol. i, page 65, Mulier oled, sin- 
istrd hastam, 8fc. who considers his copper coins as very rare, Non obviisunt: This 
officer had the command of the Roman fleets against the Frank and Saxon pirates, who 
infested the British seas about the end of the 3rd Century, and was one of the most un- 
daunted of the Roman admirals ; supposed to have be^n of Irish extraction, from Jfen- 
apia, (Waterford.) Ossian has immortalised him as sovereign of the Seas, and "King 
of Ships" (vol i.) and the following line in Gaelic and Latin (Femora) alludes to him, 
(Ed. 1807, by Macfarlane.) 

Airchliu aig sruth fuaimar Charuinn. 
De ejus fama ad flumen sonorum Carronis, 
alluding to the battle of Oscar against Caros, supposed to be Carausius. Constan- 
TiNE the Great, laureatedy and with the cuirass, A Roman soldier holding two of the 
military ensigns, and the rare legend — COMMEA(lus D(atus MILIT(ibus,) commem- 
orating some largess or provision of corn to the British Legions. PLN (Mark of Lon- 
don Mint) Percussa Londini. A star in the area denoting Christ (as Julian observes) 
or the Vota Decennalia, in his tenth year probably. (Plate III, No. 43.) 
In an Alley, Postumus, (17 feet deep) 3rd brass ; Laetitia AVGG, &c. 
Westgate Quarter. Alexander Severus. Lawrca^erf bust to the right. Rev. 
S. C. Mars, a soldier with two military standards, marching. VIRTVS AVGVSTI, 
A large coin. A smaller coin, with a bust on each side, much detrited ; perhaps of 

Alex. Severus and his empress Memmia PALEX, &c. but uncertain. 

Exrvick F/^Zc?*.— Faustina the Elder. Diva Faustina, Rev. Aeternitas^ S. C. The 
Empress in the long stola or gown. 

1837. 
January. In digging to lay gas pipes in High Street. Four small Coins of Con- 
stantine, Valentinian, &c. 

February. (Annona) coin. An interesting neat brass coin, of the Emperor Nero 
was discovered near the village of Ide. (Plate IV, No. 44.) It is now in the 
possession of Mr. Larkworthy, Jun,, of this city. It commemorates a largess of 
corn or congiary, given to the people of Rome by the munificence of the Emperor, and 
bears the bust of Nero, laureated, to the right; NERO CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. 
GER. P. M. TR. P. COS. II, Rev. The Goddess Ceres or Damater of mankind in 
subse llio-— (proha.h\y one of his Empresses as Messalina so depicted,) in her left the 
torch emblematic of the Eleusinian mysteries and rape of Proserpine ; with her right 
she is in the act of dispensing corn to two persons in the Roman ordinary garb, between 



OP EXETER. 53 

whom and the deity is a cornucopia or horn of abundance. V. Virg. Oeorg. 1, 34)0. 
for honors paid to Ceres, The legend is ANNONA. AVGVSTI. CEIIES. In the 
exergue is S. C. Tiio coin is evidently of that soit noticed by Walker, p. 17., as of 
red copper, and has been silvered over, or its surface mingled with tin, as studs or 
nails sometimes are at present. The ^nnona populaiis in pane (/radii i, or aWovr- 
ance, so called from the steps from which it was received by the populace, seems to 
be the distribution of corn here commemorated. The Annonce were of Ave kinds, 
civil, to tlie civil magistrates ; military, the monthly allowance to the soldiers ; ex- 
pedilional, when the army was on its march, as rations of bread, wine, vinegar, 
bacon, and caro vervccina, or wether mutton, which Hesychius calls 2ITHPE2I0N ; 
civic, to those who were really Roman citizens, and popular, as on this medal, to the 
public in general. But there were also Palatine annonee, to the Ministers and great 
officers of State, constituting part of their allowances from the crown, if we may so 
term it. (V. Guther do domo Aug. 1672.) In Julius Caesar's time two Patrician 
€tdiles, called Cereales, superintended the Annona forensis and the management of 
the public provisions. Roman coins having been already found at Ide, in particular 
one (in my collection,) of Antoninus Pius, in 1833, (with the goddess Libertas,') it 
is probable that the communication to it can be traced from Goulds Hays, over the 
Exe, the old ford under St. David's Hill, opposite Cleeve, across the Whitstone 
road, by the lane debouching at Little John's Toll Bar, into the Moreton road. This 
is directly in the line of the chain of Posts from Exeter, by Cranbrook Castle, &c., 
towards Dartmoor (that is the Jugum Ocrinum of antiquity) to Hartland, where 
the great N. road is supposed to terminate.* In the vicinity of Ide we must not 
overlook the encampment on the borders of Dunchideock and Dunsford, called Cotley 
Wood, in Holcombe Burnell.+ Ide in Domesday, terra Episcopi Exon, was probably 
so called from a local saint of that name. It is a perpetual cure and a peculiar of the 
Dean and Chapter of Exeter . 

Digression on Roman Bread and Biscuits. — Few persons who are partial to this 
ordinary sort of nutritive diet, are aware of the real origin of it. Our round biscuitf 
or double-baked cakes {biicotto or biscoctutn) are derived from the bucellatus panis 
of the Romans, The Emperor Aureliam, who reigned in the year 270 of the Chris- 
tian sera, was the first who gave this description of bread to the people as a largess or 
donative, made up in the present circular form, to resemble an imperial crown, he 
being the first Emperor who wore a diadem. We find, however, that long previous 
to this, another Emperor, Pescennius Niger, the rival of Severus, a man of very au- 
stere habits, not only forbad wine to his soldiers, but also the bakers to follow the 
army — considering biscuits sufficient for them. To the inhabitants of a city like this, 
where so many coins of Constantinb are found, it may be interesting to remark that 
this Emperor followed a different line of conduct with respect to the soldier's rations, 
giving them biscuits (frumentum bucellatamj) every two days in the week, but on the 
third day bread. Wine was also served out to them and vinegar, each on alternate 
days, as also bacon and wether mutton. They apparently lived well — the vinegar 

* It is thought by some to pass through Drewsteignton over Wbiddon Down, (where coins have 

b«en foaod) to Stratton only. 

f Most likely Danish. 

{ BuecUa'^^ buccA, a piece or rragment of bread. 



64 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

mixed with water was called posca, and was their ordinary drink ; and the Emperor 
Hadrian was not ashamed to live, we are told, on the ordinary diet of the soldiers — 
bacon and cheese, with the addition of this to us rather unsavoury beverage; as did 
Scipio, the conqueror of Carthage, and Metellus also in former ages. The Romans 
were fond of bread baked with oysters, and called ostrearius panis. 

The Bucellatum is mentioned in Amm. Marcellinus, lib. 14, and in that useful 
work, L, Nonni de Re Cibaria, p. 23. dnrvpog diae^OoQ, also in Guther, lib. 2, of 
Dom. Aug. and Pancirolus, Rerum memor. It was called dnrvpov and "^Vajfiiov by 
the Greeks ; Zosiraus, Oxon, lib. 1, p. 61, (de Probo) alludes to the baking of bread, 
(^TTExfjavreg aprag) The panis secundanus was inferior bread, Siliginosua the whitest. 
The wheat which was grown in Campania, Varro says was the very best, V. Alex, 
ab. Alex. Lib v. Gen. Dier. 

The opsonia were military annonse or monthly rations, (v. Polyb.) O-^iavia, in 
Romans 6, v. 23, incorrectly rendered wages, 

Feb, An excellent copper Coin of NERVA was dug up while sinking foundations 
under the glacis of Northernhay, on the ground of Mr. Coleridge. Laureated bust 
to the right ; IMP. NERVA. CAES. AVG, P, M. TR. P. II. COS. IIII. Reverse— 
the Goddess Libertas holding the pileus or manumitted slave's cap — the badge of 
freedom ; LIBERTAS PUB LICA S. C. This piece of money was coined 98 A.D. 
the year that the Emperor Nerva (one of the restorers of the grandeur of Rome) died, 
-—he only reigning 28 months, and in his 72nd year. His coins are uncommon at Exe- 
ter.— (Zosim, NEFOYAS.) (Plate IV. No. 45.) 

Cathedral Yard, — A Valentinian (coronO, gemmatS,) Securitas Reipuhliccem P, 
CON. Also a little Urbs Roma, with Mars Gradivus, the tutelar Deity of Rome ; 
T, PR. (Treves) Lower Empire. Vetranio ? deposed by Constantius in Pannonia 
(small.) Tetricus (Pivs) Post Office Lane, &c. 

Ide. — The Annona Medal. — As a further illustration of the Roman Cereal or Corn 
Medal of Nero, ploughed up at Ide, and other coins before, it may be observed that 
the connection from ancient Isca may also possibly be traced from the hills overhang- 
ing Ide (to which we arrive after passing St Thomas's fields) to the entrenchment at 
Cotley Wood in Holcorabe Burnell ; both being commanding points, such as the Ro- 
mans might not neglect to seize,— in the vicinity of the great winter station at Exeter* 
The silly tradition of the Britons having attempted a city on the site of this camp, be- 
fore they built on the shores of the Exe, is not worth a moment's attention. The camp, 
with its fosse, now covered with coppice, if not thrown up by the Romans,* may have 
been a Saxon or Danish work, as almost circular ; whether or not so, it evidently points 
to Penhill, near Haldon House, from which, under the Belvidere, an ancient and a very 
bad Roman road leads through the village of Trusham, towards Hennock ; from which 
it is imagined by Antiquaries, a communication may be traced by Ashburton to the 
Camp at Hembury Fort in Buckfastleigh, supposed, unless Totnes was meant, to 
have been the Durio Amne of the 16th Iter of Richard of Cirencester. Both on 
Great and Little Haldon are various camps, and the ancient way that led from Exeter 
to Totnes, through Newton, after passing the Ford at Kenton (the Vercenia of Bax- 
ter,) no doubt communicated not only with that near Dawlish, but also with the en- 
trenchment in Lord Clifford's Park, at Ugbrook, and by the numerous cross roads and 
* Originally, and occupied in after times. 



OP EXGTERt 55 

eoombes from Raldon towards Ide and its adjoining camp or fort. Roman coins are 
sometimes found in barrows or tumuli on Haldon.* 

April 25, in the Cathedral Yard. Small leaden coin, (ancient forgery) or Quina- 
rius of Julian the Apostate, nephew of Constantino the Great, who ruled the Roman 
world after the death of Constantius, and lost his life in Persia, A.D. 3G3, in a cam- 
paign against Sapor, after passing the Tigris, FL, (Flavius) CL. IVLIANVS. P. F. 
AVG. Reverse, a civic crown, VOTIS. V. MVLT. X., signifying the solemn games 
and rejoicings vowed to be celebrated in the fifth and tenth year of his reign. This coin 
was struck at Lyons, in France, (LVG.) the ancient Lugdunum. Quinquennalia cele- 
brated at Vienna by him. 

Coffin's Estate, High Street. The old Town house of the Abbot of Newenham, 
near Axminster, (Abbey dc Novo Manso.) Above the substratum of the grauwacke 
was a solid foundation of Roman masonry, of the usual materials, near which were 
found, at nine feet deep, a coin of Domitian, DOMIT. AVG. GERM. COS. XIII.; 
and another of Vespasian ; — Reverse, with an altar, and female or priestess sacrificing 
to Peace, to which deity a famous temple was dedicated by him at Rome, containing 
the sacred vessels of the Jewish temple, and burnt afterwards in the reign of Commodus 
with its library and the works of Galen. Also, a Nuremberg token, with a griffin 
holding a book; an abbey piece, and farthing of Charles I, the first base currency, the 
latter, small coin of " poor fabric." Silver penny of Edward II. Civitas Cantor. ED- 
WAR. ANGL. DNS. HIB. The Griffin on the token perhaps imitating the winged 
Lion of St, Mark, of the Venetians — winged to show their promptness in execution, 
and holding a book, supposed the Gospel of that Saint — Siegenanl^ to shew they are 
wise and pacific. See Akerman,Num. J. 8. page 207. The Graswinckle of Delft» 
made Knight of St. Mark by the Venetians about 1660, may be the origin of this* 
Hans Krauwinkle's name occurs on many found continually at Exeter. 

A massy coin of Faustina the younger, the consort of M. Aurelius the philosopher, 
was found solidly imbedded in the cement of an old Roman foundation in the Mint, by 
labourers laying gas pipes. Cains of earlier date, particularly of Claudius, I have seen 
repeatedly found in the lower masonry of the old city walls, or " Rampiers," near 
Northernhay, which probably formed the curtains, in later days, of the Castle Towers, 
or epaulements, after Athelstan repaired the walls, on the old Roman foundations. 

* The Fitz-Bumards at the Conquest, and afterwards the Ddnnis family, as long ago as Henry VI. 
(succeeding Kaul and Brookes, about 1430.) were lords of the parish of Holcombe Bumell which 
is in the Deanery of Dunsford, and called in Domesday terra regit Holecumhe, and appears to have 
been part of th e patrimony of Walter de Dowai and Ralph de Pomeroy, two of his followers, the last 
• great favorite, who then h eld a great many lordships in Devon . The family of Pomerojf is of Norman 
origin. Ralph de Pomeroy had a grant from the Conqueror, of fifty eight lordships in Devon, and others 
In Somerset His descendants were summoned to parliament as Barons, and were possessed, for centu- 
ries, of Berry Pomeroy. In the county of Devon. A branch of this family was seated at Engesdon, in 
the county of Devon, which settled in Ireland, of whom we find Henry Pomeroy. Viscount and Baron 
Harberton. of Carbery. county of Kildare. F. S. A ., in the peerage of our own days. The ancient Denys> 
or Dennis race, was a Junior branch of the family of Sir J. Dennis, (1 Edward II.) afterwards settled 
•t Bicton. by heiresses. SirT. of Holcombe, was recorder of Exeter. Another Chancellor, temp 
UMry VIII.. 4ic. 



66 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

These would refer raost likely to the sera of the conquests of Vespasian, one of Ihe lieu- 
tenants of Claudius, Strong marks of a communication by St. Mary Arches, and the 
New Cemetery, over the ancient glacis or slope under Snail Tower, may be traced by 
coins, &c., to the ancient vadum or ford opposite Cleeve, ifnot to the temple, supposed 
from the bronze lamp found in 1757 to have been dedicated to Diana, near St. David's 
Hill. Rev. A female in the long robe or stola rauliebris, S. C, perhaps \( Acternitasj 
refers to her consecration. 

Opposite Castle Street. Constantine, Soli Invicto Comiti, This type is ordinary 
at Exeter. It proves that however this Emperor may have proscribed Paganism, 
the great veneration for Tsabaism or the Mithraic sacred fire, was hardly yet extin- 
guished at Rome. He constantly appears as the genius of the Sun, Radious, or with 
rays on his head, a mark of adulation. The S. F. in the area, which occurs on the 
coins of Carausius and Dioclesian, was supposed by Stukely and others to be sacris 
faciundisy they being struck in the temples, and by sacred persons. The meaning of 
these marks however is extremely uncertain, and often refers to days in the Roman 
Calendar when the coins were struck. This might be stativis Feriis, marked in the 
Fasti. The Sun or Solar fire, (Solem Mithren sacrum et sternum ignem, of Claudian) 
the same as the Tyrian Hercules, the Phcenician Beelsamen, the Egyptian Osiris and 
Thoth, the Baal and Bel of Scripture, and the Budha and Seeva of India, was among 
our British ancestors, worshipped as Beltucadder^ in Cumberland and other Northern 
Counties.* Camden enumerates several altars to him, one at Kirkby There, two at 
Elenboro' (p. 286, Brit.) and another elsewhere, Deo Soli Invicto Beltucaddro t Thus 
in Apul, Met lib. xi. Invicti Osiris sacris, &c., and Mithras was honored as Sol. Invic- 
tus, at Rome.§ The rites were clearly of Druidical origin, and then accompanied with 
human sacrifices, and the raost barbarous superstitions. At St. Just and Sennor in 
Cornwall, the Druid fires may yet be traced, which heathen rites were common 
among the Canaanites, anvl are proscribed by Jeremiah as referring to the worship 
of Moloch, in the idolatrous days ofalienated Judah. 

Apiil, New Golden Lion, Market Street. Licinius (a Dacian) colleague of Con- 
stantine, laureated LICINIVS P. F, Rev. a genius (of the commonwealth probably) 
Genio Pop(uli) Rom(ani) Put to death at Thessalonica by his order, after repeated 
rebellions, 324, A. D,, aged 64. Constantine, small, galeatus, much patined, Tet- 
Ricus, Rad. Two military vexilla, and female, on reverse. 

April 22nd. Domitian, much detrited, DOMIT. AVG. GER. A Nero (victory) 
excellent. Severus, quinarius. PIVS. AVG. Reverse, Libertas, AVG ; and 
two smaller coins much defaced, A sort of glass Bulla, or Amulet was here found. 

* Bel, the Sun (originally in Celtic and Irish) Dhu, (God, in many languages) Cadhr, Cornish (strong, 
powerful.) Bel Implies a Lord, and the heavens or Jupiter. Cadei. Brit, a fortress or bulwark. So 
in Irish, Kathaer. Cadur metulluk (Persian) omnipote«t. 

t '' Towov 0«ov «vo/u»Uov /Liovov oojjavou Mu^ioy, BsiXo-of-ttp' KoXcuvrtf, o $rr$ iretfa Oo<yt{> Ktfiov oufavoo, Ziu J 

ffof' E^Xjxn." Philo apud Euseb. Prasp. Evang. lib. i. c. 10. B«X»v i»xaXou« vovnv, a-t^ova-tn virts<puMi, 
Avo»Mvai uvM fdfXovTc;. Belem vocant indigense. magnaque eum religione colunt, Apollinem interpre' 
tantes. Herodian. Joseph. contiaApionem lib. i.—P Danet on Bel us. 

§ There was a statue to Jul. Caesar, in the habit of Mara or Quirinus, inscribed Deo Invicto, Walkn , 
page 162. 



OP BXBTfltl. Sy 

*Also t handsome Roman Fibula of bronze, complete and perfect, being the buckle 
with which the Ancients fastened their graceful gown or Toga ; which being serai- 
circular and without sleeTes, was thus confined over the right slioulder by the Acus, 
as in this specimen, cum (ereofilo^ with its brazen tongue or thread, a crescent at 
the top. The Chlamys or military vesti was also thus fastened, as in Virgil, — 

Aurea purpuream subnectit fibula vestem, 
as well as the Belt or Girdle of the soldier. And the Flamens or priests wore a 
splendid kind of purple Chlamys or double gown, fastened by such a clasp round the 
neck, which gown was called Lcena, Three of these FibulcB have been found here of 
late years, and all belonged to the plebeian or lower class of Romans.* Infimi ex sere 
aut ferro, says the learned Pancirolus (Hamb, 16 12, Rerum Memor.,) whose treatise 
on the Fibula and the dress of the ancients is the best of its kind. The nobility and 
rich persons used such buckles as were of gold only ; those of the second grade silver ; 
so did the soldiers, although Aurelian allowed them to use gold. The Emperors had 
buckles adorned with gems— forbidden to all others by a severe penalty : Augustus 
fancied one of these, it is said. Some Samian Ware was found in this obscure 
corner, — the hand\e o( nn Amphora or Wine Jar; and several fragments of Sepul- 
chral Urns; probably a family bury ing-place, the ^ftw/a above being buried with the 
ashes of the deceased, as a small vault was found near the spot, with ossements. Also 
a Li^«/a, spoon or skimmer of lead. V. Battely, Antiq. Rutup. P. 120. 

TiTus, son of Vespasian. Bust to the right. TI. CAES. IMP. AVG. F. (iliusj 
TR. P. COS. VI. CEN.. Rev, Judaea sitting under a Palm-tree captive; behind her 
aheap of spoils — shields, military ensigns, — typical of the Conquest of the Jews by 
him. (Juda) EA CAPTA. S.C. A memorable coin, evincing the fulfilment of the 
prophecy in Isaiah concerning that people. The palm tree is the attribute of Phoenicia, 
of which Judeea formed a part. This coin is the third relating to the subjugation of Ju- 
daea I have seen here. The lastTitus found here (last August 18) records the Victoria 
Navalis over the Jews on the Lake of Gennesareth or Tiberias. (V. Joseph. Ant. 2.) 
• In an ancient sewer. Medal of Trajan, the handsomest and most perfect type of 
Antiquity as yet found in Exeter; as fresh as if only now from the Mipt, with the 
"bloom of the die yet on it. IMP CAES. NERVAE TRAIANO AVG(w*/o) GER 
imanico) DAC(tco) P. M. TR. P. COS. V. P. P. (PatH Patriae Laureated bust to 
the right. 1 he reverse presents Trajan, javelin in hand, in a military costume and on 
a fiery courser, (shabrack and phalerts complete,) stridingovera vanquished foe, pro* 
bably a Pannonian ; for his victory over which people, and sending a crown to Nerva, 
he was by him adopted in the ten-pie of Jupiter Cflpitolinus. The coin would seem 
lo be minted on Trajan's accession, 98 A. D., being as above, in his 5th Consulship, 
which was with Orphitus, (V. the Chronicon of Cassiodorus,) and almost immediately 
preceding the death of Nerva, his patron and predecessor. But as his victories over 
Daci A and Scythia did not take place till his 6ih Consulship was past, I conjectuie 
COS. V. to be an error in the die, unless struck in anticipation • The epithet Dacicus 
seems to corroborate this. The Mintmaster was clearly in error, probably using a 
die that had not been altered* The horse is excellent, and the medal could hardly 

* Gibton'i Camden records a curious one found at Caerleon. the city of the Legion, in Wales, p. 60S. 
It was of braas, and chequered in red and blut enamel on the back. 



58 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

have circulated, from the state it is in. S.P.Q.R. OPTIMO. PRINCIPI. Exergue 
S. C. Bulla on Trajan's breast, badge of triumph. V. Macrob. 4, Sat. H. Frontispiece. 

Gandy Street, opposite the New Market.— Large Medal of Nbro — Bust to the right 
—laureated, TR. P. IMP. P. P. (Plate 4, No. 46.) Bare ; a memorial of that remark- 
able specimen of Roman industry — the Portus Ostiensis, the triumphal Arch at 
Ostia, or as some suppose the Arches over the Trench or Canal he endeavoured to 
cut between Avernus and Ostia. The Poit was begun by Claudius, but completed by 
him — thus noticed by Suetonius — Fossam ab Averno, Ostiam usque, ut navibus nee 
tamen mari iietur. — The harbour has however long been choked up with sand.* 
Erizzo calls this the arch erected for his Parthian victory, p. 219. Claudius, with 
Ceres in subsellio, &c. 

Maximianvs Galerius, (about 304 A. D.) P. AVG. laureated—GENlO, POP- 
VLl. ROMANI. As a Youth naked, with Cornucopia and Patera, the tutelar deity 
of Rome. T.R. (Treves), (Plate 4, No. 47.) 

New Market.— HER (Herennia) ETRVSCILLA AVG. (usta) Wife of Em- 
peror Decius (a coin of Billon or alloyed metal,) rare type when in gold, Aker. Vol. 
I, p. 497. (Plate 4, No. 48.) Crescent Bust, Reverse, Pudicitia AVG. or Female 
Chastity. Seated+ covered as usual with a long veil, &c. (249 A. D.) Emperor Gra- 
TiAN (small) 383 A. D. predecessor of the Great Theodoslus— Const ans defaced. 

Cathedral Yard. — Antoninus Pius (spiked or radiated Crown) Libe'ralitas Aug. 
— Memorial of a donative or public gift. 

Cemetery. Trajan. OPTIMO AVG (usto) GER (manico) DAC (ico.) This 
coin is a gazette or record of the subjugation of Parthia by this warlike Emperor, who 
appears seated in the curule chair on a tribunal or suggestum, in the act of imposing 
a sovereign on that hitherto invincible people, placing a crown on a figure personifying 
the King nominated, and Parthia kneeling before him below.— Rex Parthis Datus — 
S. C. Rare in 1st. brass, Akerm. vol, 1, p. 221. The Medals of Trajan, respecting 
his Parthian victories, relate to the taking of Susa, their chief city on the Choaspes 
(the Ulay of the prophet Daniel,) in honour of which he instituted the famous games 
called Trajanalia. He also recovered Armenia from that powerful nation, so famous 
for its horsemanship and archery, and of which the badge was the bow and quiver, 
which had often previously overpowered the chivalry of Rome. 

May 1. Laying gas-pipes in Fore Street. A large brass of Antoninus Pius. P.F. 
TR. P. COS. III., much patined* — Also a small Constantine (Constantinopolis) 
Victory ; S. T.R. Signata Treviris : both coins about 3 feet only under the level of 
the street. — Double-headed Constantine; Marti Conservatori (Market.)— Copper 
coin of Antoninus Pius, in Summerland Street, TR, POT.iJ:— Quinariw* (silver) of 

• The Porta Trigemina was the Gate on the road leading from Rome to Ostia. Aurelian walled the 
channel of the Tiber with bricks from Rome a great way towards that Port . 

t Pope Adrian I. rebiii't the Church of St. Maria in Cosmedin, 728 A. D., on the ruins of Pudicitia' 9 
temple, or sacellum, which stands in one of the ancient cattle markets at Roue, where also were a 
circular temple of Hercules, and one of Matuta, the Goddess •' of the Morning." A street is also on 
record, where stood the altar of Plebeian Chastity. Eight columns of the temple still r eraftin, of 
Greek marble and fluted. 

X Mars armed descending to Rhea. V^Akerm. p. 259, vol. 1 , Des Cat. 



OF BXBTBR. 59 

ditto ; the Emperor In the Paludamentum, PM. TRP. II. COS. II. P. P. Allec- 
Tus, a rare coin ; IMP. C. ALLECTVS, P. F. AVG., radiated crown ; Rev. PAX. 
AVG. Area S. A. Sacrum JEs ; M. L. Mark of London Mint. 3rd brass. The successor 
of the great Carausius, whom he murdered ; reigned three years, andkilled near South- 
ampton, A. D. 298. — The two last found opposite Mr. Anning's Grocer, corner of 
Mary Arches Street, undsr the shop doors. 

May 17th. Mr, Sanders', Gandy Street, opposite the New Market. A large Cereal 
coin or Annona of NERO—Bust to the left— laureated— Pont. Max.— TR. POT. P. 
P., &c. Commemorates a Congiary or donative of Corn, Rev. Annona Aug. Ceres, 
S, C. This type is nearly similar to the one found at Ide lately ; exhibiting on Rev. 
a Ceres ^ or Messatina^ his last wife as one perhaps, (a torch on left arm) dispensing 
corn to a female— probably Rome — in front of her. A Cornucopia, poppy, ears of 
Corn, all emblematic or sacred to Ceres — the great Rhea, Tellus, and Damater of 

Antiquity— introduced. Dioclesian— In the Cuirass, Rev. GENIO, POPVLl. 

ROMANI. A figure with horn of abundance— in his right apatera^ the genius 
of the commonwealth personified by him. (Plate IV, No. 49.) 

June 6th. Carausius, the great Irish naval emperor of Britain— radiated, (086 A. 
D.) P. F. AVG.* This coin records the services of the 18th Legion, then attached to 
this usurper ; it seems the Roman Legions were all distinguished by various appella- 
tions, e. g. the 4)th would be sometimes called Macedonica from its services under C. 
Metellus or Paulus Emilius in Macedonia, the 5th Parthica, the 7th Galbiana or Clau- 
diana (quartered at Gloster under Carausius) the 20th Victrix, 21st Rapax, &c. The 
ensign of this Legion appears by the coin to have been a Capricorn or fabulous mon- 
ster, half goat, half fish— the legend is LEG. IIXX. PRIMIG(enia) (Plate IV, No. 
60.) perhaps raised when the sign Capricorn or sea goat commences the winter solstice 
in the Zodiac, or alluding to the naval prowess of Carausius, and the piece was minted 
at London by the letters ML. The 18th Legion (Primigenia) was quartered in Gaul, 
(V. Itin. Antooini) and sided with Carausius in Britain. It appears on the Billon of 
Gallienus, in whose time it bore the same Ensign, with VI. P. VI. F. (Akerman. Cat. 
Vol.2, p. 28.) In 1839 Mr. C. Roach Smith, discovered a similar one to this of 
Exeter, at Strood, in Kent. The badge or ensign of the 4th Legion of Carausius 
(Flavia) was a Centaur, that of the 7th a Bull, (at Gloster,) thus of our 2nd or 
Queens, a Lamb, 3rd, or Buffs, a Dragon, 6th, an Antelope, 8th, White Horse, &c. 
The 18th Legion quartered at Durocortorum (Rheims) Sidoloucum (27 miles from 
Autun) and Noviomagus, Nizeux in Normandy, v. Itin. Antonini. Exeter lays claim 
to the first discovery of its coin. Nero, Securitas Augusti ; Security as a female 
seated reposing on one hand— A little Constantino, &c. Some Samian Pottery also 
or Roman red ware. Opposite Trehane's, 78, Fore-street, Constantius. Fel(tx) 
Temp(orum) Rep(ara£io.) In South Street, laying gas, Vespasian FoHun^? Redueit 
JuuANthe Apostate, (Gaieatus) Valentin ian (small.) Goldsmith street, Clau- 
dius ; 15 feet deep (defaced.) North Street, Bridge, Hadrian (large brass) and 
on Rev. Equitas, 

June 20. New Market. Constantine. D, V. (Divus) P. T. (Pater) AVGG. 
(Augustorum) ; Quadriga, (Plate IV. No. 61.) small. TheEmperorin a chariot, hold, 
tng up bis hand towards another out of heaven. S. N. N. S. (Sacer Nutnmus Novtu 

• Unpublished before. 

Q 



60 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

S^^Ma^ll*) generally, but on this SMKT,* This rare and interesting, though mintit^ 
type of Constantine the Great, head veiled (velato capite) perhaps to intimate the 
dazzling splendour of his actions, or the act of sacrificing, is one of those recorded by 
Eusebius in his life of that Emperor ; lib. 4, cap. 73. The coin is innch imtinatedf 
but on its reverse is a chariot as above. In Ans. Solerius (Arast. \Q72) de Pileo or 
on the hat or head covering of the ancients, this type is engraved and reference given 
to a learned note of Octavianus Sada, on A. Augustinus, a well known medallist and Abp, 
of Tarragona in Spain, Ambassador to England in 1554. It is supposed to have been 
coined by order of the sons of Constantine, in honor of their deceased parent, exhibit- 
ing hiro, imploring the aid of the Almighty (^summi quasi numinis opem) not with- 
out hope of success— (mo» caswra in irritum vota.) Unless the emblem of an ap- 
otheosis or of being called into heaven, for his support ot Christianity ; other com- 
mentators suppose the coin to represent the ordinary opinion, both of the Christians 
and Heathens (who all esteemed him for his great actions,) viz., that he was happy 
and beatified, dear to the gods, and as such taken up by Jupiter into the abodes of the 
blessed, by his hand reached out to him. He is drawn in the chariot, from the idea 
perhaps of ancient philosophers, that the Soul is the charioteer of the body, or I sup- 
pose from the doctrine of Epicurus — that which the soul declares in it, by its senses 
and affections, its acting and suffering something ; the motions by which it impels the 
members, and from within governs the whole animal substance, turns it about, trans- 
ports it into dreams, and mixes in one coaipound with the grosser matter, or what is 
termed the body. Although in itself a most tenuious or subtile substance, not incor- 
poreal, though composed of the most subtile particles. The ancients generally wenj 
bareheaded, or covered themselves with their robe or pallium (V. Plutarch) except in 
cases of grief, travelling, &c. V, Pancirolum de fibula, R, M. p. 352. The early 
christians certainly did so. In Hippocrates, Pericles, Taiquin, Augustus, we how- 
ever find exceptions to this rule, not to name many others. Idol Lane. Philip. 

Reverse, PAX. AETERN, (a plated or billon coin) spiked crown. IMP. M. IVL. 
PHILIPPVS. The figure on Reverse bears caduceus of Mercury, and an olive branch 
jn the right. An Allectus, as before, with PAX. AVG. S. P. on Reverse, 
(Sacra Pecunia) Sacred money. Four coins of Claudius, Nero, &c., defaced, from 

the Cemetery, and several small ones of Valens and Valentinian. George-street, 

Magnentius, who killed Constans his benefactor, near the Pyrenees, A. D. 354. 
Seized on Gaul and Britain. Rev. an armed man holding a little Victory and an 

Ensign, REIPVB. and R. (Rationalis) Mint Mark. Crispvs, son of Constantine. 

Altar ; VOTIS. XX. BEATA TRANQVILLITAS P. LON. London Mark. 
(Plate IV. No. 62.) small. 

June 27. A Quinarius, (uncertain) defaced, a hole through it. The Emperor 

Maximian, (about 304 A. D.) P. F. AVG. laureated, bust to the right. Reverse, 
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. A youth naked, with horn of abundance, and patera, 
Maximian as the Genius or tutelar Deity of Rome. Flowers, wine and frankincense 
were offered to the good genius. Floribus et vino Genium. Horat. lib. 2, ep. Magne 
Geni, cape thura libens, Tib,t T. R. (Exergue) mark of the Treves Mint, A. (area) 
• Mint Mark of Karnuntura. 

t The most sacred oath among the Heathens, was by the Genids of the Emperor. V. Tertull, Apol. 
fort>e Christians. 



OP EXETER. 61 

OJJicina Prima. At tho New Cemetery, M. Aukelius (the Philosopher) who 

came to tho throne A. D. 169. ANTONINVS. AVG. Rev. a Female seated, pro- 
bably Roma ; a round buckler by her side, in her right appears to hold a little vic- 
tory S. C. IM. (Plate IV, No. 63.)— Valentinian 370 A. D, Securitas Repubticce, 
Victory with Palm branch R. AR. mark of Quaestor of the mint. SCISC Mint 
Mark of ^mcia, a town in Pannouia. (small) The Hadrian found at North-street 
Bridge, near the Crown and Sceptre, was of bright yellow copper. The Reverse 
presents Equity (or Moneta) with a cornueopia in the left hand, as usual with most 
of the virtues, to represent that plenty which is their attendant or effect. A graceful 
figure and with a Balance in the left ; it being consideied that Rome was built under 
Libroy and that its people had therefore a stronger inclination to Equity than most 
other nations. The wall of Adrian across the Isthmus from Solway Frith to Tyne- 
niouth, composed of turf, (between Carlisle and Newcastle,) and completed by Severus 
from sea to sea, was built A. D. 121. S. C. and GVSTI is on the Rev. A Nero, lately 
found opposite the New Golden Lion, Market Street, bears on Reverse a winged Vic- 
tory marching to the left, which holds a globe S. P. Q. R. with S. C. The Obverse has 
IMP. miliO(sic) CAESAR AVG. P, MAX. TR. P, PP. Such coins of his, which 
are very numerous at Exeter, may hava possibly then been distributed to the Soldiery 
in Britain, to remind them of the national glory, after the notable Victory in Nero's 
reign, gained over Boadicea Queen of the Iceni, by the 14th Legion, and the vexilla- 
lions or flank Companies of the 20th near Verulam. In the commencement of her in- 
surrection, Tacitus informs us that the image of the goddess Victory, at Camalodunum, 
had without any visible cause dropped down from its pedestal, and in falling turned 
downwards, as if yielding to the enemy. A sad omen of the ensuing destruction of 
the Roman Citizens and their confederates in Britain at that period. 

Quinarius of Domitian, (found at Pocorabe, near Exeter, on the Rev. J. Colly ns' 
property.) Bust to the right, IMP. CAES. DOMIT AVG. GERM. P.M, TR. P. 
VIII. Reverse, Minerva Promachus. IMP. XVII. COS, XIIII. CENS. P (erpetuus) 
P, P (pater patrice,) A Quinarius of Trajak, was also found at Exeter about thii 
time CAES. NERVA TRAIANVS. Rev. Victory PM. TR. P. COS. 

In Fore Stieet, on pulling down an old House, Emperor Licinius, (Sen.) born in Da- 
cia, now Transilvania, A. D. 263 ; he reigned 15 years. IMP(erator) C. (Caius) VAL 
(erius) LioiN(ianus) LICIN (ius) P. F.(Pius Felix) AVG. (Augustus, small. Reverse 
Jupiter standing, naked, to the left— in one hand a little victory; at his feet an Eagle, 
bearing a laurel wreath in his beak j on the other side is a captive; JOVI CONSER, 
VATORI, i.e. Jupiter the guardian, protector or preserver of the Empire. Exergue, 
S.M. K.A. Sacra Moneta Karnutensis, Sacred Money of the city Carnuntum, in Pan- 
nonia, or Hungary, where Galerius Maximianus created Licinius Emperor. They 
sometimes appear together holding a globe, as partakers in the government, with a 
victory upon it, (Area) X.the Vota Decennalia, or solemn vows inhis tenth year — II 
(Officina Secunda) F. (Flamen or sacred person who issued the piece.) By sacred 
money is meant coins struck in the temples, the persons having authority to strike 
money being sacred persons, • as the Pontifex, Flamcn, Rex Sacrorum, Ac, like the 
shekel of the sanctuary among the Jews issued by the authority of the Priest. The 
place where the coin was struck, the Carnuntum or Carnus of Antoninus, stood near 
the Danube, and is the modern city of Presbiwg, in Upper Hungary, 38 miles from 



62 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

Vienna, and famous for its Gothic Castle on a high mountain. It is on the borders of 
Austria, and long called by the name of Posonium by the moderns, seated in a fertile 
and salubrious country on the river Lyet, which flows into the Danube. The Castle 
was the ordinary residence of the Emperors as Kings of Hungary, and after the ta- 
king of Buda by the Turks, under Solyman the Magnificent, in 1529, being protected 
by the vicinity of Austria, it was made the metropolis of Hungary. In 1618, Ferdi- 
nand H. of Gratz, afterwards Emperor and then Arch-Duke of Austria, besieged this 
place and lost Count Dampieri before its^walls, in attempting to reduce the Hunga- 
rians his subjects, to their allegiance, Licinius became Monarch of the East after the 
defeat of Maximin, and marrying the half sister of Constantine at Milan, was partne' 
in the sovereignty ; he however proved so faithless to him, that after a long series of 
wars and defeats, being overpowered at last at Chalcedon, Constantine was under the 
necessity of putting him to death at Thessalonica in Macedonia. Several of his coins 
have lately been found at Exeter. Constantine — beaded or gemmated crown. 
CONSTANTINVS MAX(imus) AVG(ustus.) Reverse, two Soldiers and Standards^ 
Gloria Exercitus, Glory of the Army. Exergue, TR. S, Treveris Signata. Treves 
mint mark. (Small.) 

In Summerland Street, September 1837. Probus. IMP. M(arcus) AVR(elius) 
VAL(erius.) Radiated or spiked crown. Denariu& eereusy or of copper washed with 
tin. He reigned about A* D. 275. This is one of his numerous coins of Billon, being 
alloyed or rather washed metal. Four of this substance have been found in Exeter 
this year, and three of these were of this warlike Emperor, who after reigning seven 
years, and performing the utmost prodigies of valor and conquest against the barbarous 
nations which infested the empire, (Goths, Scythians, Germans, Sarinsstge, Franks, 
&c.,) fell a victim to the irritation occasioned by the over strictness of discipline he 
laboured to enforce among the soldiery, at Syrmium, in Hungary. Among wine 
drinkers his name will ever flourish, from his being the fiist to plant the Vine in France, 
by the iron hands of the Legions, as well as the olive in Africa. That he quelled or 
suppressed an insurrection in our own Island, we are also informed by Zosimus, the 
historian, lib. I, EHAYSE KAI EHANASTASIN TH BPETTANIA, &c. He did 
not, however, visit this part of his dominions. Reverse, CLBMENTIA. TEMP. 
(femporum,) Two figures joining hands, one seemingly intended for the Emperor, 
the other probably Clemency, has a sacrificing dish and a sort of thyrsus, (like the 
sacred basket of Ceres,) at the end of which appear garlands of flowers ; perhaps al- 
ludes to his kindly rebuilding of ruined cities, or to the peace purchased for the Em- 
pire by his numerous victories, Magnentius, a horseman riding over a fallen enemy. 
GLORIA ROMANORVM EX .A. P. L. C, supposed Lyons' Mint Mark. 

Mermaid Inn. Carausius. PAX.* AVG. Nero, Genio Augusti. St. Sid- 
well's. Nbrva, spiked crown (ditto.) Three of Tetricus Junior, small, with Spes. 
Augg. ; sacrificial emblems ; Pietas AVG. A Trajan, &c. Red Pottery, with figures 
of wild beasts, and AVSTRI. of (ficina.) Milk Lane,Two Neros.— Of these the first, 
an excellent coin, finely patined, P. MAX; TR, P. PP. had VICTORIA AVG- 
VSTl on Reverse, and the goddess Victory ; the other more inferior, Securilas Aug- 
usti, with security seated la her arm chair, and her staff of lauisl, the passport against 
danger, in her hand. 



OF EXETER. 63 

October. St. Stephen's Church. In digging a vault near the chancel, some massy 
Norman pillars, with foliaged capitals, of Portland stone, supporting the ancient 
CRYPT, were discovered buried between five and six feet in the ground. A Nurem- 
burg token was found here. The present church was re-built in 1664, and the tower 
and crypt are all probably that remain of the old structure, except its venerable Saxon 
arch, under the chancel. The monument of James Rodd, of Bedford House, "who 
died 1678," on the South wall» records his marriage with a daughter of Sir John 
Bampfield, of Poltimore, who was, says Sprigge, '* a worthy member of the House of 
Commons," and a rigid Parliamentarian, who gave up his house at Poltimore, as an 
outpost or garrison for Sir T. Fairfax, in the Civil Wars. 

At Diiryard, a summer Camp, or Aestivum of the Romans. A copper coin of Sa- 
Bi.NA, (daughter of Matidia, sister of Trajan,) wife of the Emperor Hadrian, about 
188 A. D. Bust to the right ; hair elegantly plaited, SABINA AVGVSTA HA- 
DRIANI AyQ(usta.) Reverse somewh at defaced — a female seated, or in s«6»e//io, 
seemingly with a little image or palladium in her left hand, in the right a staff — 
probably a Vesta. S. C. — Silver coins commemorating this excellent Princess, have 
been found already in Devon, among 40 others on the lands of Mr. Melhuish, of 
Poughill, near Woolfardis worthy, in the spring of last year. Concordia^ Venus 
feliXy&c. appear on them ; which, however, seem ill to accord wiih the sequel of 
the nuptials of Hadrian and Sabina, who, although a heathen, was a virtuous and 
grave woman, and much offended with the partiality of her husband for that wretched 
favourite Antinous. 

Vespasian.— C^psar Vespasian, AVG. Rev. S. C. square gate of that noble 
structure erected by him, the Temple of Peace, in the Roman Forum. PROVI- 
DEN (lia.) 

W. Market. Two of Valentinian. (corona gemmata) ; Securitas Reipublicce. On 
Exergue, Se-cu/ida (Mint Mark.) About 370 A. D. Much patined. New Market. 
CoNSTANTiNK, much dcfaccd. Rev. The Sun, radiated, or with rays on his head, 
COMITl AVGVSTI. The heathens supposed the Sun to be the companion of their 
Emperors.-— Another coin, radiant Crown ; IMP. defaced and broken. Opposite 
Baring Crescent. Constans. Victoriae D. D. (Dominorum,) AVGGQ. (Augus- 
lorumq,) N. N. (Nostrorum.) All small brass. 

Bartholomew Yard, Domitian.— AVG(u«/t) F(ilius) DOMIT.-^S. C. Crispus 
son of Constantine, by Minervina. Rev. an Altar, supporting a Globe, VOTIS. XX. 
Beata Tranquillitas. — 41so a large Silver Coin of one of the early Edwards. Long- 
brook Street, A small Constantine. Constantinopolis, P. TR. with Head of Mars^ 
In Paris Street, Some Samian Vl^'are, with foliage, &c. Also a Nero, with a victory 
on Reverse. Constans, (small) Gloria Exercitus ; PLC. (Lyons' Mint mark,) 
Standard and Soldiers. 

December 20th. Milk Lane. In digging about eight or ten feet below the level o^ 
the pavement, three copper coins, all much defaced, and the reverses quite obliterated^ 
Nero, lauraated bust to the right.— Vespasian.... SIAN ; ditto.— Domitian.. 
MIT. AVG. GERM. COS. XI.... Struck during one of his latter consulships, of 
which Suetonius informs us there were seventeen. They seem to have been embedded in 
lime, and were much calcined. From these relics being so often found directly under 

R 



64 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

the- basements of the shops, we are led to conclude that the shape of the ancient city 
corresponded much with its present site. Some Saniian Ware, or pottery, was found 
near the same spot, but none entire. — Valens (about 370 A, D.) small; laureated and 
ad pectus cum loricd, or attired in the military cuirass ; reverse, a Victory to the 
left; OF. I. O^cina PWwia, or Minting Office, No. 1. Gloria Reipublicee, — Small 
coin of the Lower Empire, probably Victorinus, much defaced. Another coin of 
Nero, was afterwards dug up near the same spot, in a good state of preservation, 
supposed an As, The Semis, or ^ As bears a table, Vase, 2 griffins, &c. Certaraen 
quinque. Rom. Co. pillar and helmet, tree on Rev. owl on an altar. Bust to the right 
and NEHO CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERMANICVS on the obverse ; the 
reverse presents that Emperor as playing on the lyre, and dressed in a long robe pe- 
culiar to musicians, or citharcedi. His passion for music was so great, that he even 
struck such coins to commemorate his proficiency in that science. (Suetonius in vit^ 
26.) We also find in Alexander ah Alexandra (Gen. Dies. lib. iv. cap, 15) a notice 
of this coin, as follows : '* Quare Nero Casar in habitu citharcedi se nummo in- 
culpsitr The legend is PONTIF. MAX. TR. POT. IMP. P. P. (Pater Patrice.) 
It is singular in the 19th century to find Nero's money at Exeter, reminding us of his 
talents in music, or his love for singing and playing, 1770 years ago. — An oblong 
coin, supposed of Nerva, much patined , Only TR. POT, legible on reverse. 

Castle-yard. Constans (350 A. D.) at a great depth. Beaded crown, and dress- 
ed in the chlamys, DN. CONSTANS. P. F, AVG. Rev, Constans, in a small gal. 
ley or skiff, steered by a Victory, holds a labarum or standard with the Greek mon- 
ogram of Christ^ on it. FEL(i:r) TEMP(orMm; REPARATIO.— Alludes to 
the renovation ofthe Empire under the Christian Emperors, (small) Acoinof Domitian 
was found under a foundation stone ofthe Heavitree Breccia. IMP. CAES. DOMIT, 
AVG. COS. XIII. CENS. PERP. Reverse, Pallas marching to the right (S. C.) 
with spear and parazonium^ VIRTVTI, AVGVSTI. 

1838. 
February. In laying gas pipes, on Fore Street Hill. Claudius, (bust to th& 
left,) much detrited. — Rev. Pallas . Milk Lane, Hadrian of orichalcum or yellov? 
brass. Rev. defaced, Paul Street, Victorinus, the elder, (P. P. AVG.) on ReVr 
Providentia, AVG. with the globe and other symbols, (small) 260 A. D. Sun Lane^ 
Const ANTiNE the Great, (MAX, AVG.) beaded crown, (Plate 4, No. 64,) Reverse^ 
two legionaries and ensigns— between which a laurel — Gloria Exercitus. — S. CONS. 
(Constantinople Mint mark,) a small coin, great numbers of which appear to have 
been evidently distributed to the soldiers as part of their pay, inclinante Imperio f 
and of probably the same relative value as the cents of the United States, a sort of 
specie warranted probably by the urgent public neeessity-of the times, and struck out 
of small globular pieces of metal of the size of our large S.S.G, Mould or duck shot, 
(15 to 1 oz.) it is supposed. 

March. In repairing one of those beautiful and imposing ornaments, the minarets- 
of the mighty structure which adorns Exeter, & Dupondius or doubled* of Nero, 
was found imbedded in the solid masonry. How this Pagan memorial of a Roman 
Emperor, with the goddess Victory on it, came to be thus sublatus in altum, and to 
have so long held its idolatrous position on the pinnacle of a Christian fane, like the 
tempting Fiend who '* smitten with amazement, fell at fair Solyma*s holy city. 



OF EXETER. (»5 

*• where the glorious temple rear'd 

Her pile, far off appearing like a mount 

Of Alabaster, topp'd with golden spires,'*— Par. Regd. 
is matter of speculation. The wonder can only be accounted for by supposing the 
coin to have become incorporated or mix'd up with the ca/x or lime used in the origin- 
al masonry, and to have been near the sui face where it was made. In the Lower 
Market a smaller one of the Lower Empire was in like manner found in the stone work 
of a chimney. This Nera, now in the possession of Mr. Ellis, Fore-street, and in 
good preservation, is of the numerous ordinary class of Dupondii (which generally 
weighed 229 grs. ; the As weighing 106 grs. ;) and has the winged victory, with the 
globe and S. P. Q. R. frequently found at Exeter. I suppose them to have been dis- 
tributed to the troops, as mementos of the national glory, after the famous victory 
gained by Nero's Lieutenant, Paulinus,over Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, near Veru- 
tam, A. D. 61. The unlucky omen of the goddess Victory* having fallen from her 
pedestal, at Camulodunura, is well known in the beginning of the revolt of Boadicea, 
a warlike princess, who like Seroiramis in Assyria, Cleopatra in Egypt, and Zenobia 
in Syria, was of a spirit superior to her sex, and noticed by Xiphilin (in 'Nerone) 
as BovvSoviKa, yvvrj Bpcravtf , yivovg rov Ba(Ti\«iov, &c.+ and the worst foe the 
Romans ever had. The S. P. Q. R . on the Roman ensigns is considered to be the 
♦* abomination of desolation,'* as referring to the sacking of the Temple by Titus, But 
in our times, although like Satan it has, (but only " used for prospect,") as it would 
«eem *' .— on the tree of life 

The middle tree and highest there that grew 

Sat like a cormorant.'* 
The circumstance is simply a matter of numismatic interest, and we cannot but rejoice 
«t seeing the edifice survive net only those of the Polytheism of Pagan Rome, but even 
the errors of the days of munificence, in which the piety of a Leofric, a Warlewast, 
«nda Peter Quivil, contributed to erect and beautify these venerable piles. 

April 6, Ih excavating a cellar, (No. 86, Fore Street.) — Severus, 2nd brass, a 
massy coin, much detrited, 3 feet under the pavement. Magnentius, excellent, bust 
to the right ; reverse defaced. Constans, small, Victoria, DD. AVGG. NN. Small 
•CoNSTAMTiN E—Co»s<a»li»opo^ts — helmed head to the left. Some Samian Ware, on 
which a Gladiator appears, with the short apron or subligaculum^ garlands of flowers, 
>&c. Also part of a small Roman «a^'x or cup. 

April 24. Post-Office Lane, Valentiniam, corond gemmatd, (small) father of 
the Emperor Gratian, (about 370, A. D.) DN. VALENTINIANVS PF. AVG, ; 
Reverse, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Emperor drawing after him a captive, in 
the left band a La bar um or ensign, with the monogram of Christ, XP — SMAOS. 
CPlate IV, No. 55.) Signata Monela Osiice ; Mint Mark of Ostia, at the entrance 
of the Tiber. A rude Crucifix of ancient execution was also dug up: Also a Roman 
scored tile. Near Congdon's Subscription Rooms, Two small Constantines, as 
usual, with the soldiers, &c. Gandy Street, laying Gas-pipes, near Mr. Pye's, 
Coin of the usurper Decentius, (brother to Magnentius,) about 350, A. D., DN. 
DECENTIVS. (Plate IV, No. 56.) Reverse two Victories, between which is a 

• Aiiir(Mto« of Britain. (Dio.; 
t Boadicea, a British Lady of regal lace. Ice. 



66 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

wreath, VOT. V. MVL X., or vows of 5 first and many 10 years after. On the 
area, S. ; on exergue Lyons' Mint mark, thus, jSLG. Inscription as on Conslans 
above. Killed himself at Sens, in France.— Small ('onstantine, in Market Street, 
PLG. (Lyons.)— QwinariM*, (silver) of Severus, PIVS. AVG. Furcated beard. 
Reverse, helmed figure seated,,. arTaed,..VTOR. AVG. P.— Roman Acus Crinalis^ 
or bronze Crisping Pin, (sometimes of ivory or gold,) for the female toilette. Martial 
Ep. lib. 2, ^^ " Inserta non bene fixus acu."* — Perforated Coin or Amulet — Samian 
fragment, with aquatic bird, &c. — Vespasian, AVG., &c,, near Castle Street. 
Behind County Gaol, small Constans, P. F. AVG.— Ditto Valens, OF. II. CON,, 
a Victory. Sec. Reipublicce, 

June. Bartholomew Yard, Domitian, Fortuna, COS. XVII. — In the Close, 
Vespasian, radiated, paiined^ Fortunes Reduci, Shilhay, A Domitian, AVG. 
GERM. COS. XIV.— Valens. (small) &c. High Street, Valentinian, Con- 
stans, GRATIAN, 2. Market Street, Constantius, 2., Fel. Temp. Rep. (small). 
Cathedral Yard, Victorinus, SALVS. AVG. South Street, Constantine, 
Sarmatia Devicta. Gratian, AVGG. AVG(r'are). Circus, Valentinian, LVG. 
SP. (Lyons.) (Plate V. No. 57.) Market Street, Quinarius of Gallienus, much 
debased and alloyed, being of Billon^ or base silver. Reverse, a male figure standing. 

June 10. Fore Street, Faustina, (large brass,) DIVA. FAVS. (defaced Rev.) — 
Cathedral Yard, (late Chave's)— Two well preserved coins of Nebo and Vespasian, 
(2nd brass) ; also a Valens, (small.) High Street, Two of Gratian, (rare) Gloria, 
&c. on obverse, AVGG. AVG. (Plate V, No, 58.)— Domitian, patined. South Street, 
Constantine, Sarmatia Devicta. Broad Gate, Greek Coin, with Digamma, 
Shilhay, Allectus, Rev. PAX. AVG., in area S, P., well preserved. Another 
Ditto, galley and rowers on Reverse, l^irtus Aiigusti, in exergue Q. C, A Tetri- 
cus, small, &c. (Plate V. No. 59.) In Mr. Luke's Garden, near the Castle, Con- 
stantine, Soli Invicto Comilu Another, Gloria Romanorum, small. 

August* In digging up the Fore Street, (Guildhall) Antoninus Pius (2nd brass) 
laureated bust to the right— TR. P. COS. III. Reverse, S. P. Q. K. OPTIMO 
PRINCIPI S. C. within a garland, across the field (patined.) In other spots, a 
Nero much patined, female with Cornucopia. A Tetricus, the elder, (small) Vic- 
tory standing, holding a palm branch and a garland, COMES AVG. A Valentinian, 
(beaded crown) &c. Barnfield, Faustina (the younger) AVGVSTA, large brass, 
and a small octagonal earthen patine or vessel of red clay. New Market, Valen- 
tinian, small, Securitas Reipuhlicce, SMNOS, mint mark of Ostia. High Street, 
Six of Lower Empire. Potjers Impress, PRlM(itivus-) 

September: In lowering the gas-pipes in High-street, near the Guildhall, Three 
small coins of the Constantine dynasty, two galeated, Constantinopolis, the other of 
Constantius, Gloria Exercitus, TRS. (Treves mark.) A second brass coin of the 
Emperor Tacitus, who was elected in the year of Rome 1028, or of our aera 275, and 
died after a reign of about seven months. He succeeded A urelian. Radiated bust, 
IMP. Cl,{audius) TACICVS {sic, by a fault of the mint master for Tacitus) AVG. 

* The^ciw Crinalis, a Pin sometimes of ivory or gold, was much nsed by the unmarried Roman 
Ladies, to confine tlieir curls. Vide Jsidor, 16, Orig. Martial, Ep. lib. 14. Prudentius, Psychom, 
Crinalis Acus, &c. The matrons used another sort of a curved form, to keep their hair divided on 
the forehead, by which fashion they were distinguished from the " maiden " ladies. V. TertuUian, 
Ovid. Met. 5, 32. 



OP EXETER. 67 

Tho reverse presents the god Mars Gradivus, naked, with atrophy and spear, march- 
ing, in the area B and tlie legend MARS VICTOR, around liiin two sacrificing im- 
plements, the colter, knife, or secespita, and libatory vase, also the leaf of the plant, 
quich or dogs grass, sacted to him, supposed to grow on fields of battle, (gramen cani- 
num, or triticum repens, class Triandria Monogynia.) Inhis short reign, as Zoslmus 
informs us, the Scythians, who had crossed the Palus Maeotis or sea of Azoph, and. 
invaded the Roman provinces Pontus and Cilicia, were subdued. He however, it 
appears, fell by assassination at Tyana, in Cappadocia, soon after, at the age of 65, 
leaving behind him a character for prudence, wisdom, and valour. In High- 
Strcet, Aktoninus Pius, radiated crown, PP. TR. P. XVIIl ; reverse, Liberty, 
standing, S. C. Libertas COS. IIII. North Street, a Claudius Csesar, much defaced, 
A CoNSTANTius. NOB. C, and two very small coins of the same family. Opposite 
the Grammar School, Constans, small ; reverse, Victorise, in area MA monogram. 
Sept. In lowering gas-pipes in Fore-St. a small rare coin of the Empress Theodora, 
(unnoticed in Akerman.) Flavia Maxima or Maximiana, wife of Constantius Chlorus 
(about A. D. 292,) and daughter of the Emperor Maximian, who forced Constantius 
to repudiate Helena on investing him with the purple. It appsars that at her death, 
he received Helena again, and died at York, (306, A. D.) FL. MAX.THEODORAE 
AVG., on reverse, Pietas Romana; Theodora nursing a child; in Exergue TRP. 
in area a cross, probably adopted after gaining a victory over the Caledonians or Picts. 
The cross was most likely added by her husband, who is much commended for his 
piety and adherence to Christianity, rejecting the superstition and impiety of worship^ 
ing the heathen Gods, and whose good consort, Helena, suppressed idols, and erected 
a famous church at Jerusalem. Also, a Constantius 2nd, (FL# IVL.) Gloria Ex- 
ercitus, and TRS. A Const AKTius,VictorieB, DD. AVGGQ. NN. (small) Dupondius 
or double As of Nero, near the Guildhall ; goddess "Victory, S.C. (defaced.^ In 
Waterbeer Street, Constantius, beaded Crown, as above. In Barnfield, Claudius, 
with Minerva Promachus on Rev., &c. Vespasian, AVG. COS. VIII. PP. Rev 
an eagle expanded, S.C. 'volant. This is an ordinary type at Exeter, and was coined 
in the latter part of his reign. Gratian, a rare coin, (3rd brass) DN. GRATIANVS 
A VGG. AVG. Military figure with standard of the cross and resting his hand on a 
buckler, A. D, 383. Rev. Gloria Novi Seeculi. In area OF. II. in exergue CON. 
some Samian Ware, &c. Favstina the Younger, a massy coin muchjdcfaced. 

October 26, a copper coin of Const ahtine the Great, was found by a la- 
bourer in the river Exe, imbedded in gravel, behind Mr, Bodley's iron works, near 
the Shilhay. It bears the helmeted head of that Emperor, and on reverse, two victo- 
ries holding a shield or garland over a Cippus, inscribed VOT. PR. {Vota Perpetua.) 
The legend on the reverse is VICTORIiE LiETiE PRIN(cip<s) PER(petui.) In 
Exergue B. SIS. the minting house No. 2, of Siscia, in Pannonia, where the Romans 
had a well known mint for striking money. A similar type in gold is considered rare, 
by numismatists. A Dupondius of Nero, in tolerable preservation, was found in 
Guinea Street, also some remains of powerful Roman masonry. On Northernhay, 
a Vespasian ; Carausius PAX. AVG, Const antime, Constantius, and Valbns, 
small; Opposite the Guildhall, a small coin with ConstantinopolU% A Constans 
and aTxTRjcus junr. (small.) 

S 



6S ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

In lowering the pavement of Goldsmith Street, coin of Augustus, badly preserved 
and much defaced ; obverse, head of Augustus to the left, inscription efFaced ; reverse, 
an altar, over which two Victories extend their wings, (V. Akerman, Desc. cat. Vol. 
1, p. 146.) the inscription below ROM et A VG. erased. High Street, Valens ; 
beaded crown, Reipub, &c. Small Greek coin, defaced. Silver Consular coin, with 
helmed head of Pallas, and on reverse Bf^r^, or chariot, inscription defaced. (Plate 
V, No. 60.) 

October. In removing the earth near the opening in the City Wall, on Northernhay* 
opposite the Gaol, two coins in excellent preservation : one Vespasian, AVG. COS 
Illi Bust to the right. Reverse figure of Security seated in her arm chair, as usual 
SECVRITAS, below, S.C. The piece evidently minted in the 70th year of our aera^ 
The other is of Hadrian ; laureated bust, IMP. CAESAR. TRAIAN. HADRIA- 
NVS. AVG. : on Rev. a female, Inscr. PONT. MAX. TR. POT., attired as piety, 
the right arm extended ; across the field PIE. AVG. beneath S. C, supposed to per. 
sonify either Sabina his Empress or Matidia his Mother-in-law, daughter of Marci- 
ana, sister of Trajan, who both appear on medals with such attributes. The city walls 
at this spot, faced with blocks of volcanic subilance, lava and tufa, being a consoli- 
dation of volcanic mud and ashes, like the travertine of Italy, are of remote antiquity* 
A fragment of Roman Ware, inscribed CA (Potters Mark) was also found. 

December. Magnentius; Victories DD , &c. Two a*se* of Nero ; a Constans, 
Fel. Temp. Reparatio, and Constantine, altar, Deata Tranquillitas. (small) 

At Exwick Mills, Vespasian ; Victory marching. In Exeter, Trajan, S.P.Q.R. 
(Optimo Principi,) both of orichalcum, A small copper coin of the Emperor Const an. 
TINE the Second ; it is of the numerous class of those which were struck at London 
during that period, A. D. 337, and the countenance or portrait of this prince on all 
these, varies much from those of the others of the family ; CONSTANTINVS IVN 
NOB. On reverse a square Altar, inscribed VOTIS XX supporting a Globe. In 
exergue P. LON, the London Mint mark ; and the inscription is BEATA TRAN- 
QVILLITAS, shewing that peace, religion, and their concomitant blessings, then 
seemed to pervade the world, typified by the Globe. This prince reigned, however, 
only 3 years, his share being Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Britain. By a quaint old 
author he is said to have been of a peaceable disposition, ** very bold, if not rash, yet 
ambitious of honour and loving wine." In fact he is said to have been killed while 
in a state of inebriation, in a battle against his brother Constans, at Aquileia, on 
the Adriatic. 

In digging under the spot where the stiff unmeaning statue of a blue coat boy now 
appears perched on an as inflexible block of granite, at St. John's Hospital, a small coin 
of one of the sons of Constantine (3rd brass) was found, IVN. NOB, CAES., being 
Flavius Claudius Julius, who reigned about 340 A.D. Four skulls and many oss- 
ments were also found, the spot being a place of interment to the Hospital of St John, 
founded 1238, by Gilbert and John Long, merchants of Exeter, 

1839. 

January. Paris Street. Emperor Julian (IsXiavogj Zosira, lib. 3.) This ancient 
relic is the second found here of late years, of this Prince, one being dug up in our 
Cathedral Yard, April 1837, struck at Lyons In France ; he was grandson to Constan 



OP fiXGTBR. 69 

tine the Great, and surnamed the Apostate. It is a leaden Quinarius, D.N. (Domi- 
nus Noster,) FL. (Flavius) CL. (Claudius,) IVLIANVS PP. AVG. Bearded bast 
to the right. Reverse, VOX. X. MVLT. XX. within a wreath; in Exergue CONST, 
the mint mark of Constantinople. The Inscription on the reverse refers to the solemn 
TOWS and public games vowed to bo solemnised in the tenth and twentieth years of 
the Emperor's reign, (decennalia and vicennalia,) which did not always signify that 
they were fulfilled; Julian unfortunately losing his life in a skirmish with the Persians 
at the age of 83, after reigning about 6 years and 8 months, 863, A.D. He is well 
known in history for his abortive attempt at rebuilding Jerusalem, in despite of the 
prophecy which forbade it ; for although ho studied Theology and was intended by 
his father for the Church , he had Paganism in his heart, and placed greater faith in 
magic aud neciomancy, although at another period he professed Arianism, but never- 
theless restored the Heathen Altars and Temples, and tried with all his might to sow 
dissension among the early Christians* In the early misfortunes of his youth he bears 
a strong resemblance to the great Frederick of Prussia, who had also no small tinge 
of the Sceptic. His expedition against the Persians is brilliantly set forth in the 24th 
and 2dth books of Ammianus, and of Zosimus, Jib. 3, through Mesopotamia and As- 
syria, and bears with it that tincture of romance which we are accustomed to attribute 
to the exploits of a Richard, a Roland, a Dunois, or a Peterborough, and here he 
closed his hopes and his life. His route was through many noted cities of those pro- 
vinces, of wich Greek coins are found in our ancient city. 

February. Nero's Annona. A magnificent brass medallion of Nero, neatly pa- 
tined, was discovered in lowering the surface of the street near that part of Barthol- 
omew-yard, opposite the entrance arch to the Cemetery. On the obverse a laureated 
bust to the right, finely executed, and evidently from one of the best Roman dies« The 
reverse bears the legend ANNONA AVGVSTA GERKS, as before; a female seated, 

dispensing corn to another ; Statins silvce 1. 6. Hunc Annona diem superba nescis 

Two patrician eediles in Julius Caesar's time superintended the annona forensis and 
management of the public provisions. 

March. In Castle Street, a Neho, (Plato V. No. 63) with a Victory on reverse, 
and a little Constantine, vvith helmed head, a Victory also on reverse, in Exergue 
TR, a branch and E. (Treves Mint mark.) in Bartholomew Yard; CONSTANTI- 
NOPOLIS round the head. A silver Quinarius of Helena ; F. HELENA AVGVS- 
TA, Securitas republicsB, (PTR) Treves. Friars Walk, Second brass coin of Trajan, 
radiated bust, female seated with cornucopia, SENATVS POPVLVS ; in Exergue 
FORT(un«) RED(i<w). Hadrian, (Plate V, No. 64) ranch patined, radiated 
bust, SALVS AVG. ; Goddess of health with patera &c., S, C. The silver coin or 
Quinarius of Helena, is not of the mother of Constantine the Great, as at first supposed, 
but of Flavia Helena, also called Maximiana, a wife and aunt of the Emperor Julian, 
and daughter of Constantine by Fausta. She died A. D. 360, in the Christian faith, 
Akerman (Descr. catal.) notices a gold coin of this Empress which fetched 23/. at a 
sale, but no silver ones. The copper ones are common. The reverse generally as in 
the one alluded to is a woman In the stola, standing, a branch in her hand inverted- 
April 6. St.^John's.Bow, Nero, Magnentius, with Victoriee, and also VOT MVLT 
XX. Sumraerland Street, Trajan. Vespasiam, Duryard Turnpike. Constantius, 
Bartholomew Yard, (small.) 



70 ROMAN ANTIQUITIESS 

April 22. The following were dug up in various parts of this city. At Clifton 
Place, Gratian, DN. GHATIANVS AVGG AVG. ; reverse Gloria Novi Saeculi. 
In exergue 7 CON. A warrior armed, (small.) Salutary Place, St. Sidwell's, Constans 
(small) Military Standard between two Legionary Soldiers, Gloria Exercitus. On 
the standard the letter M the initial of the designation of some Legion, as Martia, 
Minervia, Macedonica, &c. 

May. Barnfield, Valens, Reipublicce. Barbarous^ coin, oval ; scored tile, Ac 
Bonhay, Hadrian and Vespasian. Near the Post-ofRce, eight feet deep in making a 
sewer, Numerianus ; a curious coin of the third brass of this Emperor, quite a 
inedallic gem. (Plate V. No. 65) Obverse, radiated bust to the right, attired in the 
cuirass or lorica ; IMP NViMERIANVS AVG.; reverse, Jupiter standing, naked, 
holding a victory and the hast a or spear, an eagle at his feet, lOVI VICTORL In 
the exergue KAB. This type is rare oh coins of the same size of his father Carus, 
and the place where this one was minted was probably the city Cadomum, or perhaps 
otherwise Karnuntura in Pannonia, which stood near the Danube, and is the modem 
city of Presburg in Upper Hungary, S8 miles from Vienna. It is noticed in the Itin- 
erary of Antonine ami in the Notitia also, as th^i place where the 14th Legion (Gemina) 
was in Garrison as marines serving in the fleet of light ships on the Danube (Libur- 
narii.) Nuraerian was the younger son of Carus, and made Augustus, after a victory 
over the Sarmatae or ancient Russians, and accompanied his father in his expedition 
against Persia. On his return from the taking of Babylon, he was murdered in his 
litter, by Arrius Aper his father-in-law, the Praetorian Prefect, in Thrace, A, D. 284. 
He was an excellent poet and orator, and gave promise of great virtues, but was a sad 
enemy to the christian converts. In the Bonhay, in levelling the ground, a Vespasian, 
much patined, radiated bust to the right, VESPASIANVS AVG. COS. ; reverse* 
Victory marching to the left, S. C. (defaced.) This relic is similar to one found at 
Exwick Mills. Small coin of Crispus, son of Constantine, by Minervina, bom at 
Aries in France, CRISPVS NOBIL C. ; helmeted head and attired in the military 
cuirass; reverse, BEATA TRANQVILLITAS ; a Globe charged with three stars 
over an altar inscribed VOTIS XX ; in the field F. R. the title of the supervising 
minting officer •, in the exergue P LON evidently the mint mark of the Roman British 
colony, and struck at London. The Bonhay was no doubt formerly a marsh or swamp, 
and afterwards part of the manor of Bxe Island. lu ancient times tradition says the 
tide flowed up as far as Pynes, near which an anchor was in later days dug up in the 
marsh adjoining. From its low situation near the river, the Bonhay was no doubt 
frequently inundated ; in fact its ancient neighbour, the old Church or Chapel of St. 
Thomas the Martyr, on the opposite bank, which is much higher, was destroyed or 
rendered useless by the floods, and soon after th6 reformation the present Church was 
built. The site of Cowick Priory, a cell to Tavistock Abbey, is opposite the Bonhay, 
and three of the venerable yew trees still remain close to the river. I was shewn in 
1838, at the Victoria Inn, in the Island (Exe Island) adjoining, a Maximian (ori- 
chalcum) a Postumus, Victoria Aug„ a Viclorinus, Spes Publica, and a Constantine, 
found there, 

June. On the Friars' Walk. A thick massy coin of the elder Antoninus, AVG, 
PIVS PP., laureated bust to the right ; reverse, a woman (perhaps Italy) standing, in 
her left hand the hasta, at her feel a globe S.C. TR, POT, XIX, the 19lh year of his 



OF EXETER. 71 

tribunitiai office, which was iu his 4th consulship, comnencing the 143rd year of the 
Christian era. If we suppose, therefore, the coin to have been struck that year, which 
it undoubtedly was, it will give us 1696 years as its exact age. (Plate V, No. 67.) 
Also, in High Street, opposite Mr. Damerel's ironmonger, in clearing a sewer of the 
depth of 8 feet, the lower part of a black terra cotta sepulchral vessel, or bowl, was 
found, probably to pour libations to the mane« of the dead, and ornamented ; many other 
fragments of black sepulchral pottery and a piece of red or Samian ware were found. 
The spot was clearly a burying place. 

July. In lowering the entrance to the New Market from the High Street, near the 
Swan Tavern. — (The ground here appears to have been very infructuous of antiques, 
and was a mere mass of bricks, filth, and rubbish, shovelled in at some remote time on 
this spot. The old Fish Market noticed by Clarendon in his rebellion, book 9, was 
probably held in the main street, opposite St Martin's Lane. He tells that when Lord 
Goring was governor for the king, the soldiers used to plunder the fishmongers, and 
when complained of, the General said that the injury was done by the citizens accusing 
bis men of great swearing, for if they swore, said he, " it was well known that they 
could catch no fish." His licentiousness and indolence here did great damage to the 
king's cause in the West, and his subsequent defeat by Fairfax, at Langport, was the 
precursor of still greater misfortunes to the Royalist party.) Valerianus, IMP. C, 
((BsarJ P(ublius) JjlC(inius) VALERIANVS AVG. Radiated bust to the right. 
A coin of billon^ or rather of copper washed with silver, being the base currency of 
the times. The reverse is much defaced and patined, but presents two figures standing, 
meant for Valerian and Gallienus, his son. The inscription now efi'aced was probably 
Concordia AVGG. This emperor assumed the purple in 2«54, A.D., and is well known 
in history for his defeat in Mesopotamia by the Persians ; and subsequent captivity, 
when taken by their powerful king Sapores the First (or Shahpour,) who flayed him a- 
live. He persecuted the Christian proselytes, and was, it appears, justly chastised. 
Zosimus, who calls him OuaXipiavof, tells us that Sapor craftily got possession of 
his person under pretence of attending a conference, lib. i. His misfortunes how- 
ever were finally retrieved by Odenatus, his ally, husband to the famous Zenobia of 
Palmyrene, called the great huntsman of the East. Constans, (very small) TRt*., 
Gloria Exercitus, struck at Treves, or Triers. 

September 2. On Fore Street Hill on the right, opposite St. John's Bow, a coin 

of Hadrian, of yellow copper ; bust to the right RIANVS AVG. ; reverse 

(much defaced.) Rome and the Emperor standing. It is of the class of those with 
Adventus Augusti, rare in gold and silver. Under Northernhay, coin of Antoninus 
Pius (fourth Consulship) ; reverse a female figure, much defaced and patined. Ex- 
cellent base silver or billon coin of Postumus ; radiated bust bearded; IMP C. 
POSTVMVS P F AVG. ; reverse a galley or Trireme, with rowers, LAETITIA 
AVG. evidently struck on the llth of February, sacred to Pan, a festive day, and to 
the genius of the Emperor reigning. This type is rare on the brass medallions and 
first brass of the usurper Postumus, who was one of the thirty tyrants, a native of 
Gaul, about 260 A. D., and is called by an old writer the most illustrious of them "a 
valiant and experienced Captain, an excellent statesman and true justicer," chiefly 
noted for his wars against the Emperor Gallienus. High Street, No. 66, a small Con- 
st antine (defaced.) 

T 



72 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

In laying gas pipes, near the Guildhall, Antoninus Pius, Radiated bust to the right, 
AN..NINVS AVG, Reverse, Goddess Salus, feeding a serpent at an altar, out of a 
patera or sacrificing dish, evidently implying a sacrifice for health ; probably also allu- 
ding to the annual custom of presenting a cake or tart in the sacred grove at Lanuvium 
to a dragon or serpent, by the Roman single ladies, about which practice there are 
some romantic stories recorded, (admitting of much latitudCj) one of which is that the 
serpent's acceptance of the cake, was a test of purity on the part of these young fe- 
males. There was no doubt abundance of room for scandal, nevertheless, even in the 
coteries of those remote times, although superstition had the ascendant. The serpents 
were no doubt beguiled in their turn, to serve the purposes of those who could best af- 
ford to fee the attendant priests . 

In laying gas pipes near St. Johns's Bow, Carausius, 293 A.D. (Plate V, No 66.) 
Radiated head of the Emperor to the right; lower part of the coin broken ofi*, IMP. 
C ARAVSIVS AV. Reverse, L AETIT AVG, a woman standing ; in her right hand 
a wreath, in her left an anchor or perhaps an inverted javelin j below C. This type 
was before undiscovered, certainly unpublished. Two Constantines accompanied 
the above coin of Carausius, who reigned over Britain for several years in great 
splendour, and was famous for his fleets and also for the general improvement he 
conferred on our island, building it is said, among other works, the city of Cambridge 
(Granta) and making the Akeman road from thence to Bath. The coins were all 
deposited in depths varying from two to four feet. A coin of Nero much defaced, and 
another Constantimb, were also dug up, on laying pipes opposite the entrance to the 
new market. There is no doubt, in accounting for the number and constant occurrence 
of these coins, that the main street of Exeter was a burial place to the Roman legion 
or colony planted here. There was also a neat coin of the younger Constantine, 
VOT V CAESARVM NOSTROKVM, found under Northernhay, and four others, 
including a Claudius, Hadrian, and a Constantine, VIRTVS EXERCIT (two 
captives seated under a labarum or standard PTR,) but all in woeful preservation. 

November 4, in re-laying the gas pipes by the new company, in the Fore and High 
Streets, Claudius C^sar, much defaced and worn. Near the Guildhall, a large 
brass coin or medallion of Hadrian, much oxidised, and imbedded in a solid mass of 
the red loamy coarse soil. This coin on being first dug out, was so incrusted with 
dirt that it appeared nothing better than a coarse pebble stone. On repeated cleans- 
ing and applying a mild solution of acid, it displayed a bust of Hadrian to the right, 
with the legend IMP. CAESAR TRAIANVS. ... and on its reverse are the letters 
(P) ON MAX.. . . the rest is covered with rust. Near the Western or Lower Mar- 
ket, a large brass coin of Trajan, beautifully patined and preserved. Bust to the 
right, IMP. CAESAR NLRVAE TRAIANO AVG(usto) GER(manico) DAC(ico) 
PM. TR, P. COS. V. P. P. (pater patriae.) Reverse a Victory winged, holding a 
buckler, probably inscribing DACIA on it ; S. C. and the famous legend S:[P. Q. R 
OPTIMO PRINCIPI. In his fifth consulship, his patron Nerva died and the coin 
was struck that year, which was the 98th of the Christian aera. His triumph over 
the Dacians and Scythians did not however take place, till the following year 
DoMiTiAN, (Plate V, No. 68) (third brass,) perhaps the only one of small size found 
here, DOMIT. AVG. GERM. COS. P. P. Reverse a bird or eagle on a thunder- 



OF EXETER. 73 

holt ; below S. C. Small coin of the third brass of the Emperor Gratian, who was 
the colleague of Valentinian I, succeeding him in the Western parts of the Roman 
Empire, A. D. 375. Reverse, Gratian, drawing after him a captive, which type is 
common on this and many others of an earlier date, and sometimes implies the sub- 
jection of an enemy ; in the right hand he holds a labarum or standard. A small 
CoNSTANTiNB much pailned, with two Victories, &c. Two others struck at Treves, 
(Plate V, No. 69) TRS., with Romulus and Remus nursed by a wolf; of the Lower 
Empire. Another ditto GONSTANTINOPOLIS, helmeled head. Reverse, Victory 
marching to the left PLC. (Mint mark of Lyons in France) in exergue. Constan- 
TINE the Great, a beautiful coin. Reverse, the Sun standing with rays on his head, 
the right hand elevated, the left holds a globe, SOLI INVICTO COMITL In area, 
S. F. (sacris faciundis) in exergue PLN. London Mint mark, (third brass.) This 
type though rare, is often found at Exeter. Small coin of Claudius IL, A. D. 270, 
(Gothicus.) Reverse an altar, CONSECRATIO (rare.) Coin of Maximianus Her- 
cules, the colleague of Dioclesian, A. D.286, patined, Reverse, a Genius standing 
with cornucopia and patera, the corn bushel or raodius of the god Serapis on his head, 
GENIO POPVLI ROMANL 

In the Island, Trajan, radiated bust to the right, inscription much defaced— OP- 
TIMO AVG GER.,.. Reverse, a female as the goddess Victory standing, at her 
feet a buckler, in the left hand the spear or hasta. Small Const antine. helraeted 
bust, &c. defaced. In laying gas pipes opposite the London Inn, small coin of Con- 

STANTius the Second, FL(auiMs) I VL(iMs) CONSTANT Bust of this Prince in 

a military habit, to the left ; reverse (Providen) TIAE CAESS ; a building or city 
gate, below PTR (Treves Mint mark.) He was born 317 A.D. being the second son 
of Constantino, and died at the age of 44; he was the predecessor of the Emperor Jul- 
ian, the idolator and apostate, to whom he gave his sister Helena in marriage, and 
whom he associated in the empire with himself during his life time to defend its west- 
ern part* against the barbarians of Germany, or Allemans, veho had invaded Gaul. 
They were most signally routed and cut to piecet by Julian, near Colmar, then named 
Argentaria, Constantius who was a weak Prince and much governed by favourites, 
was a great supporter of the Arian heresy or controversy which arose in his days. 
He disdat Mopsucrene, in Cilicia, at the foot of Mount Taurus, of fever, aged 44. 

In laying gas pipes near Summerlands, a Trajan, much patinated ; reverse a war- 
like figure marching between two trophies — (Senatus Populusque) ROMANVS, coin 
ill preserved. Paris Street, coin of Licinius (third brass) about 324 A.D., brother, 
in-law of Constantine the Great, whoso sister he espoused at Milan, IMP CVAL 
LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG ; reverse, Jupiter standing, an eagle at his feet, 
holdinga wreath in its beak, lOVI CONSERVATORI AVQJr (ustorum.) By the 
ALE in the exergue, the coin appears minted at Alexandria in Egypt, and in the 
field or area the letters Q E N are supposed to refer to the solemn festivals on the 
17th of February called Quirinalia, sacred to Romulus, as the 1st of that month was 
to the birthday of Hercules, and the 23rd dedicated to the god Terminus, who presided 
over the boundaries of lands, and received o blations of wheaten cakes and the first 
fraits of the fields on that day from the country people. The festivals of the goddess 
Fornax, who presided over ovens and the baking of bread, took place at Rome on 
the same day as the Quirimilia, with otTcriogs of barley and barley cakes, the former 



74 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

sprinkled with salt according to the Pythagorean rites of Numa, barley being the first 
grain used for food, till superseded by wheat. Whoever neglected the festivals of 
this goddess was bound to attend the Quirinalia and go through the process of expia- 
tion there. The E. N. is generally understood to signify the Endotercisi or Intercisi 
dies, which were a sort of half-holy days partly common to the gods and to men, the 
courts being then open on some hours and not on others. This type is only rare in 
gold. 

Good Eating. — Contrast of Christianity and Paganism. — The ancient Romans were 
forbidden by their king Numa from shedding the blood of animals in sacrifice ; he only 
offered cakes, flour, fruits, or salted barley meal to the gods, following the doctrines of 
Pythagoras, who only approved of the most pure and innocent oblations. What 
shall we think however of our British ancestors who were forbidden by law from 
either eating the flesh of the fowl, goose, or hare, at their tables, or offering it in sa- 
crifice 1 1 We have indeed, were it only as gastronomes, gained on our ancestors. It 
is lucky we live in an age when such fallacies are exploded. What would our gour- 
mands say were they debarred all these niceties, or the " tumult of fish, flesh and fowl" 
which now smoke on every table? 

December. In excavating a sewer behind the houses lately erected by Mr. Luke, 
in St. Leonard's parish, at the depth of seven feet, a coin of the billon or base silver, 
of the Emperor Gallienus, who reigned A. D. 253. It was probably a quinarius (at 
first equal to five Roman ases, or pieces of three farthings, afterwards to eight ) of 
the value of 3|d. English money, and is much patinated and incrusted with the green 
mantle of antiquity. It bears the bust of Gallienus, bearded to the right, AVG, and 
on reverse that sacred animal the goat, with the legend lOVI. CONS. AVG, (lovi 
Conservatori Augusti.) This coin is in the list of rare reverses in Akerman's De- 
scriptive Catalogue, vol. 2. p. 26, and the reverse alludes to the favourite goat of Am- 
althffia, daughter of Melissus, King of Crete, which is well known in the mythology, 
as having nurtured the infant Jupiter, when exposed in a cavern on the sacred recess- 
es of Mount Ida, in consequence of which the deserving animal (some say the lady 
herself as a goat^ was afterwards made a star or constellation, one of its horns the 
famous cornucopia or horn of abundance, and with its skin the Aegis or shield of Min- 
erva was covered. Strabo (lib. x.) seems however to infer that the cornucopia was 
the horn which Hercules broke off the forehead of the river Achelous, in his contest for 
the hand of the fair Deianira at the court of Oeneus, King of ^tolla, and which he 
presented to the father as a nuptial present.* Gallienus was fond of making the gods 
his preservers, for which reason we find the names of Apollo with a centaur shooting 
to preserve him from the arrows of the Parthians, Diana with her stag, the Sun with 
an ox, on his coins. The goat considered also as an animal of good omen, was adopt- 
ed by Domitian on his coins, with a crown, probably yielding to the flattery of his 
courtiers by wishing to represent himself a Jupiter. The origin of the word trage dy 
is said to arise from the Greek word for the he goat, anciently the successful actor's 
prize. The goat appears on the money of several ancient Grecian commonwealths or 
cities, viz., of Aega in Macedonia, Parium in Mysia, and of Edessa in Syria. With- 

« Rivers were supposed to have horns, from the rapidity of their cnrieots, and Virgil Aen. lib. 8, 
calls the Tiber Cokniobb, or horned, V. Turnebum, Adv. 24, on these rivers Bftcchus wfts represented 
With boms for many reasons, especially as the sun, and with its rays. 



OF EXBTBR. 7^ 

out going into all tlie mysteries connected with this useful animal in the worship of 
Bacchus and Pan, among the Egyptians and Greeks — we know it was used in sacrifice . 
to Diana, Minerva, Aesculapius and Juno, and connected with the first rude origin of 
comedy at Athens, one part of the performance of which was the dancing on inflated 
goatskins made slippery with oil, by the actors. It may be remarked that at Mendes 
in Egypt, female goats were adored and held sacred as emblems of the passive gen. 
erative attribute, and herein the reason why on Oreek monuments we find allusions to 
that extraordinary worship, originating probably from the same source. (Strabo, lib. 
17, Herodotus Euterpe 46,) On his statues the god Pan was represented for mysteri- 
ous reasons as a goat, and considered by the Egyptians as the true emblem of fecun- 
dity, for which and other remarkable qualities he was supposed to possess as the gen- 
eral principle of every thing, they devised that mysterious symbol which formed the 
monstrous combination of a being, half man, half caprine, who was also the guardian 
of the fields and shepherds, and to whom in his temple on the Palatine mount at Rome, 
the dog, the reputed enemy of the wolf, and protector of sheep, was always sacrificed 
on the I5th of February, at the famous feasts called Lnpercalia. Human victims 
were oflFered to Pan and /upiter Lycceus by the Arcadians, and in Egypt on coins of 
the Mendesian Nome or province, the goat-headed type of Amoun-Ra, is said to refer 
to the great deity Chonouphis or Kneph, the chief of the gods of that interesting 
country. 

1840. 

April 24. In St. Mary Arches Street, laying gas pipes, Carausius (third brass,) 
but in a very imperfect state of preservation, (Plate V, No. 71.) It was probably 
one of the ordinary PAX types, Rev. A.V.G. defaced and badly struck, Carausius, 
the chief benefactor of Britain, celebrated the Roman seecular games and the palilia^ 
or birth day of Rome, also, it is said, at York, about 298, A.D. In sifting or screen- 
ing the earth which formed part of the wooden and clay (vulgd rab and dab,) party 
wall of a house in North Street, a coin of Vespasian, made its appearance. Reverse 
totally defaced, but the obverse presents the bust of that Emperor to the right, IMP. 
CAESAR VESPASIAK AVG. in tolerable preservation. The coin is of yellow 
copper, and much worn. It must have become mixed up with the cob or clay 
originally. 

May 1 840, in Waterbeer Street, small coin of Const antine the Great. Reverse 
Victory treading on a captive, records his victory over the Sarmatians ; SARMA- 
TIA DEVICTA. TRO Treves mint mark. A minute coin of Constans, in 
Gandy Street, near the entrance into Paul Street (formerly Fish Street and Corry Lane. 
V. Stukely, Itin, Curiosvrm, 1724.) Reverse, two soldiers and a standard, much 
worn. At Stoke Hill, a large coin much patined and defaced, was found in a quarry 
on the right of the old road. This may probably have reference to the large circum- 
vallation or camp, with a deep Fosse , which stands opposite to Pynes, and overlooks 
the adjoining hills, supposed to have communicated with an ancient road from Long- 
brook Street, and to have been a Roman summer camp to the Exeter garrison. There 
appears to have been another field work lower down, where the road probably crossed 
the river opposite Pynes House. Milk Lane, Severus II. NOB(ilis) CAESAR. 
This coin, lately found near the Lower Market, proves to be one of those assigned 

U 



76 ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

to Flavius Valerius Severus, commonly designated the II. ; a nativeof lUyria, 
proclaimed by the Empeior Maxiraian, A. D, 306. He was sent into Italy with an 
army against Maxentius, who however as we are infoimed by Zosimus (lib. 2) bribed 
his troops, chiefly Moorish levies, and forced him to take refuge in Ravenna. Being 
cajoled from this stronghold by the treacherous overtures of Maxentius, he was cir- 
cumvented and strangled at a place called the Three Taverns* near Rome. The coin 
which is rare, is noticed in Akerman, vol.2, p. 201 ; the features bear however, a 
strong resemblance to Caracalla. 

In Gandy Street, a Quinarius of Julian the Apostate, (about363, A.D.) baso 
silver, was dug up in laying a new pavement. It is of the class of two others found, 
(one in the Cathedral Yard, in April 1837, the other in January 1840) and is chiefly 
composed of lead, being like its two predecessors, a very ancient fabrication. The 
Inscription is DN. FL. CL. IVLIANVS P. F. AVG. The one found in 1837, was 
of the Lyons mint, of which the conductors are supposed to have carried on a clan- 
destine mintage, in periods when the coin was debased, profiting by the leduction 
in silver. Caracalla issued pieces of lead, gilt, Dio. lib. 77. These fabrications were 
winked at by the later Emperors, who had greatly debased the coin and permitted 
copper washed with silver, and even tin, to pass as legal tender •' under the rose," 
in those perturbed times. Aurelian however attempted to stop the practice of falsify- 
ing the coin, in consequence of which the Monetarii or minting officers excited a 
dangerous rebellion and murdered the Raiionalis or chief officer of the Roman mint, 
Felicissimus, procurator Fisci, i^ e. of the Emperor's revenues or Exchequer, for 
which reason an army was marched against them by Aurelian, and they were after 
a severe struggle, put to the sword.t We are however told by others that this officer 
who answered probably to our master and worker of the mint and comptroller and 
assayerof the coinages, was himself the cause and leader of the tumult, and doubtless 
had great interest in debasing the ancient coin X 

In Jac. Gutheri de Procuratoribus Monetae cap, 19, of the Off. Domus Aug. lib. 3, 
Lipsiee 1672, (an excellent work,) we are informed that the Minting Officers belonged 
to the Largitiones SacrcB^ or Royal Treasury of the Emperors, and that their procura' 
tors or Rationales Monet arum^ were officers, six of whom in the train or acting in the 
bureaUf if we may so speak of the Countof the Sacrorum Largitionum, who was Treasurer 
General of the Imperial Largesses or Revenue.}] The Emperor Theodoric used to ob- 
serve that the liberal conduct or bounty of the Prince was, through the agency of those 
officials, alluding to this functionary, much enhanced and adorned ; meaning that the 
countenance of the reigning emperor should be thereby faithfully impressed on the cur- 

* These Taverns had a longrua of business, Tur we find St. Paul on his journey to Rome, there. 
Acts 28, 15y.. and again in Zosimus, the T^ Kjaim>jna. still in being two centuries and a half after the 
days of Nero. 

t Suidas. MovcT^tM 6t m^ yo/uMo-Ma rtXynau, oi v^i AvplKteant iu^ofciy ro v'oiMryut. <DlX)))(i(n/MO v aveXoyre; &C 

J Aur. Victor et Voplscus. 

jl His jurisdiction extended over the mines, the mints and public treasuries of the most important 
cities, foreign trade, and linen and woollen manufactories. A receiver general was under the one who 
served in Britain and a Prsepositus Thesaurorum Augustensium or Lord Treasurer, as also an officer 
who superintended the Oynegium at Winchester, whtre was a manufaetory for the rich clothing o 
the Emperor and his troops. 



01^ EX£TBR. 77 

rent coins, and such coins should be struck as would remind future nges of what took 
place in reigns which had passed away. V. Cassiodori, lib. 6, var.7. The Rationales 
summarum, or Receivers general of the Provinces, superintended the minora terariOy 
or provincial Kxchequers, and were also called Procurators, and the officers were 
most various, as connected with the mint and treasury, both at Rome and abroad. 
In our own mint we have had however at the present day, a master and worker, his 
deputy also, a comptroller, king's clerk of copper coinage, king's assayer, probationer 
ussayer, masters assay master, masters* 1st. and 2nd. clerk, meltcr and refiner, pro- 
bationer meller, weigher, teller and stamper of money weights, provost of the moneyers, 
&c. &c. Among them are no doubt, many officers, analogous to the grander Trium- 
viri, A.A.A. F.F.F. (ffiris, argenti, auri, flando, feriundo, faciundo) and the host of 
minting officers down to the flatuarii or Jlatores, who blew the folles or bellows of 
the melting furnaces, the mallcatores moneta, who prepared the rude masses of gold 
and silver, the optiones fahricce or monitors, exactores, who watched the workmen, 
signatores, who with the hammer stamped the coin with the Impression of the die, 
and were aided by the suppostores, who placed the metal in its prepared form, and 
withdrew the coin after being struck ; Aequatores^ who judged of its proper weight, 
and lastly the Xummularii, who decided whether the current coins were genuine, of 
proper fineness, quality, of just weight, and standard or counterfeit. 

June. An impression of the coin of Sevebus IT., found in this city, was forwarded 
to Mr. C. itoach Smith, of the Numismatic Society, a distinguished antiquary. That 
gentleman remarks they are by no means common, although there are not many differ- 
ent reverses. Their general character or design and style, resemble those of Max- 
imian and Dioclesian, and one was once bought at a dealer's in London for a Max- 
im ian among other coins. In Bartholomew Cemetery, making a walled grave, a coin 
(of the first brass) ofCoMMODus, in excellent preservation, finely patined. Bust to 
the right, handsomely bearded, U. COMMODVS ANT.. FELIX AVG. BRIT, 
Commodus was exceedingly ambitious of bearing the title of Britannicus or British, 
to which he however had no title, having never visited this province, nor performed 
the mighty works which gave that title to his predecessors Hadrian and Antoninus 
Pius. He was entirely given up to his pleasures, and to charioteering, gladiatorial 
sports, &c. In his reign, however, the Caledonians (or Scottish barbarians) who had 
broken through the turf wall of Antoninus,* were defeated and driven back by his 
Lieutenant or Propraetor, Ulpius Marcellus, an officer of great conduct and vigilance, 
inured to warlike toils by hardihood and abstinence, and who if we are to believe 
historians, lived only on stale bread brought all the way from Rome.t The reverse 
is 8. C. and Hygeia seated, offering a sacrifice for health, feeding a serpent out of a 
platter or sacrificing dish. The legend is (P.M.) TR. P. XVIII IMP. VIII C... 
by which the date may be assigned to 192 A.D., when he was strangled, this coin 
being evidently struck in anticipation of his eighth consulship, of which only seven 
are recorded, and probably commemorates the cessation of the plague which raged 
violently in his dissolute reign. In Longbrook Street, Constantinb the Great, 
PROVIDENTIiE ATG., d building &c., very perfect. In Westgate Quarter, Gal - 

• Between the Friths of Forth and Clyde in the traclr of Agricola's chain of forts (39 miles 7S6 pac«s 
long.) 

T Dlo.72. 



7S ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

MENUS ditto. The Sun standing, ORIENS AVGG (rare in gold and first brass,) 
CoNSTANTiNE II., GLORIA EXERCITVS, and coined at Treves (TRSO ; all 
three small. 

Found near the ancient Conduit by St. Lawrence's Church, a Trajan, large brass, 
(young head.) Rev. defaced — a female sitting COS. II. A Constantine II. ; 
two soldiers and standards, GLORIA EXERCITVS ; struck at Treves. The re- 
mains of the well or tank and water course or main duct, were discovered on this 
spot. They formerly supplied the citizens with water in days of siege, near three 
cecturies ago. 

August. Northern hay , In excavating for the site of the New Dispensary, opposite 
the City Gaol, two coins, the one a Claudius Caesar, of the same kind so often 
found in this city, with Minerva Promachus and S. C, the other a Vespasian, CAES 
VESPASIAN.... bust to the right, and on reverse S. C. an elegant figure of Vic- 
tory, winged, marching to the left, VICTORIA AVGVSTI, both much patined and 
detrited. AUectus (third brass) a galley with a mast and six oars, VIRTVS AVG. 5 
in exergue Q. C. On obverse, IMP....ECTVS P.F. AVG. (Plate V. No. 72.) 
From the same spot and taken out of the city wall, where its base rested on a sort of 
zigzag pitching of pebble stones, (probably to drain off the water,) two coins of 
Claudius, as above. The Roman solid concrete or rubble masonry, was visible in 
several parts, in removing the facing of volcanic or tufa stone whfch shielded the out- 
side of the wall, and was a conglomerate of chrystallized volcanic mud and scoria os 
ashes. 



Antiquities^ Sfc, of Exeter 



FOUND AT EXETER AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

It is an iodispatable fact that among many numismatic curiosities dug up in this 
ancient city, a number of coins have of late years come to light, from the autonomous 
Greek Colonial Cities, in Syria and Asia Minor, as also a very great many from Al- 
exandria in Egypt.* I was at first extremely sceptical on this point, but my doubts 
became at last entirely removed, by the repeated appearance and undoubted authenti- 
cation of these coins. 1 will not venture to assert, positively, with some old writers, 
(Izacke, &c.) that Exeter was in existence 1451 years before Christ, (and in the 
2855th year of the mundane sera) or with others some centuries later, but I firmly 
believe that it was considerably older, as a city, hamlet, or habitation, than London, 
and the primary Emporium of the tin trade in early ages. I will not pretend to swear 
roundly with the Saxon Chronicle, that the Danmonii originally came from Armenia, 
after the confusion of tongues, or with Richard of Cirencester, that the Belgce emi- 
grated here from Gaul in the year 3650, A. M. I believe there is however suflScient 
proof that the Dunmonians, who were a mercantile people, traded for ages, perhaps 
one thousand yea,rs before the Christian aera, with the Phoenician, Carthaginian, and 
Greek Merchants. A colony of Belga came from Gaul into South Britain three 
centuries and a half before the Roman Conquest. The Phoenicians and Gauls had 
traded with the Cornish previously to this. Byron says, he had stood upon " Achil- 
les' tomb and heard Troy doubted," and that time would doubt of Rome. We well 
know that many of the Roman auxiliary corps were composed of Greek levies, as the 
Thracian and Dalmatian Horse and Infantry of the Notilia sufficiently prove, and 
from the same important document (Sect.5S,) we find that the Equites Syri, who 
also spoke Greek, were in garrison in the interior of the Province, under the Count 
of Britain (who bore the title of specta6i7t* or honourable) t A Syrian Legion in* 

• What Is still most remarkable is that many Copper Coins of the Ptolemies, some of very early 
date, weie dug up hero and in the vicinity ; these were generally found at great depths, some 
twenty feet below the surface ; fourteen or fifteen of these have come under my inspection la a per- 
fect state. 

+ The 1st. Cohort of the Hamian Archers recorded on an Inscription by Camden, of Apamea, were 
from CoBle Syria and Hamah, or Epiphania, on the Orontes, near Aleppo. The detachment of Pa- 
censes (numerus Pacensium) v. Notit. 63, stationed at Pierce Bridge, Magae of the NotUia, under the 
coatroul of the Hon. the Duke of Britain, came from Develtum rCol. Flav. Pacif.) in Thrace. The 
Thracian 2nd cohort was at Newcastle and Gateshead, that of the Dalmatians at Carvoran, tiieir horse 
at Broughton and also at Brano aster, in Norfolk. 

U 



80 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

troduced the pantheistic worship of the female genius, recorded on coins of Byblus, o^ 
the great goddess Belisaraa or Astarte, (which they had probably at first in common 
with the Assyrians and Phoenicians, and the Greeks and Africans of later times,) the 
presiding male and female deity of Hierapolis. (Pausanias His.) typified as a human 
figure with the Bull's head, into Britain. She was the same as Europa and Venus at 
Sidon, and so on coins of Nero. There are two Greek Altars in the British Museum, 
found at Corbridge in Northumberland, in the Townley Gallery, one of which is 
dedicated by Pulcher to Astarte, (ACTAPTHC BQMON M'ECOPAC IIOYAXEP 
M'ANEGHKEN) and was twice engraved in the Archaologla. The other has the 
secespita, a bull's head and inscription to the Tyrian Hercules, by the Arch-priestess 
Diodora, of which Deity Herodotus records an ancient temple at Tyre. Camden re- 
cords (p. 926, ed. Gibson) from the work of Solinus, called Polyhistor, that a votive 
altar, inscribed with Greek characters, was set up in North Britain in honor of 
Ulysses, this may however be questionable, but that great writer seems not to doubt 
its authenticity, the Greeks being great travellers both by sea and land. The Mer- 
chants of Dunmoniura in particular had been long familiar to the Greeks, having 
traded, it is said, for ages to the Mediterranean, before the invasion of the Romans ; 
and in Borlase, (Cornwall, ) mention is made of a tin patera, found in 1756, at Bossens 
in that county, dedicated to Mars, with an inscription. (Livius Modestus Driuli filius 
Deo Marti) partly Greek and partly Latin characters. The former were X, ^, A, SIi 
and }}, and the other letters common to both nations, it is thought, should be ascribed 
*o the former, as the rest ** are purely Grecian property." Another patera and a vase 
or prafericuium, were found along with it, both of tin, and the discovery was made 
by a farmer, who driving his team from the field, the foot of one of the oxen striking 
into the earth, uncovered a perpendicular pit in which they were found. Mixed 
letters of this kind have been found on other inscriptions in foreign countries. I 
transcribed one in 1821, at Florence, in the Palace of the Riecardi, to Pomp. Proclus^ 
a sepulchral tablet, in which the words PROCAO MIA and SVAAIA (Longina) 
appeared. The learned Horsley, (v. Gibson's Camden, vol. 3, p. 122) has preserved 
two Greek inscriptions as found in Britain, one of which was in the county of Durham, 
Greek on one side and latin on the other ; and Pliny informs us that Britain was fam- 
ous for Greek Monuments, long before the arrival of the Romans. The Gauls used 
Greek letters in Caesar's time, in their records and registers of soldiers and their fam- 
ilies, so did the Druids, most probably, and such frequently appear on those extra- 
ordinary specimens of art, British and Gaulish coins, as may be seep by the tables 
published of these in the Numismatic Chronicle.* 

Junius, (Anim.) calls the Gauls <^iXtWTjv£g, but says the Belgians possess more 
Greek words. 

Strabo says, Geog. lib. 3, n^^oy fjuy Sv *«vi«j- luivw t»iv ufj/iro^iav IjIW^v TaOnst ex Twv raSsifuiv, 

• A great many Greek words, more in proportion Indeed than Latin ones, have been traced in our 

language, V. Camden's Remanes, p. 25, ed. 1605, and also as a learned writer observes, in that 

of the present Inhabitants of Bunmonium, Cornwall particularly ; (V. Borlase) Devon had of course 

become more mixed up with her Saxon conquerors. 

No doubt the Gauls who sent bodies sf troops into Asia Minor, to the assistance of Nikomedes 
king of Bithyma, and finally settled iu Galatia, and became Greeks, kept up some correspondence with 
their inother land from thence at times. If the Snd legion (400 years in Britain) as Ptolemy informs 



OF EXCTBR. 81 

Mfimwttt «rcwTiv»xw. The Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon, and their Spanish colonists 
did thus, we know, for three centuries B. C. at least, carry on an extensive, though 
clandestine traffic from Gades in Spain with the Cassiterides (Sygdiles or Scilly 
Isles, Sulleh, rocks consecrated to the sun,^ which Islands are supposed not only to 
have included those of Scilly, but also all Cornwall and Devon, which the more an- 
cient navigators may have, (from the Bristol Channel, partly encircling them ontheone 
side, and what is now called the English Channel on the other,) deemed one entire 
large Island ; the Start Point or promontory was probably that of Astarte.* This 
trade is indisputable, and the commerce was exclusively for tin and lead, and perhaps 
skins, hides, or wool, while their imports were salt, pottery, and brass or iron ware 
probably also such trinkets and toys as would please a barbarous nation, like the N. A. 
Indians at present. It appears that excepting from some few places in Lusitania, and 
the N. of Spain, all the tin of the ancient world was brought from our island,+ although 
Pliny, who lived in Nero's time, seemed to know very little about it, (A. D. 66.) It 
was exceedingly precious when first known, and served in later times as well as lead and 
lapis caliminariSy to temper the copper used in forging weapons, for the use of iron 
came late into the Western parts of Europe, and the ancients, particularly the eaily 
Romans, the Lusitanians, Gauls, Cimbri, &c. made their swords, arrow heads, and spear 
points of brass ; so did the Britons and Danes. It is called by Pliny (lib. 34, c. 16) 
pretiossissimum candidum plumbum, and it is supposed by learned men that the two 
vessels of fine copper, among tha treasures of the temple " precious as gold," enumer- 
ated in Ezra, (8, v. 27) were of this highly esteemed material. 1 deeply regret that 
the treatise of Polybius respecting this commerce and the preparation of Tin is lost ; 
the only document of importance known to bear on that express subject. He flourish- 
ed about 170 B. C, at which time the Greeks aresupposedto have been first acquaint- 
ed with our Island ; but all that remains of his remarks on it, is contained in one brief 
sentence. The ignorance of the people of Marseilles concerning Britain, when ques- 
tioned by Scipio, was co doubt feigned, (Strabo, 4.) Herodotus, who lived about the 

us, was quarte red ia Exeter, might not some of its auxiliaries h ave i ntroduced their native coins into 
the station and its neighbourhood ? Greelc letters had long before this been introduced by colonists, 
into Massilia (or Marseilles.) They had, by the testimony of Caesar, been taught to the Helvetians or 
Swiss, and came thence into Germany, where Greek monuments existed in early times, (v. Tac. Mor, 
G«rm.) and Marsigli found some of later date. Many coins of Athens were dug up ia Kent some years 
since, as Mr. C. R. Smith Informs me ; it is possiole students sent froiii Britain may have taken the 
tourof study of rhetoric, grammar and philosophy, to Athens, Alexandria, and Rome, this is how- 
ever merely a conjecture. Bladud, king of Britain, the founder of Bath, son of Rudhudibras. the buil- 
der of Caer Kent, on the Watling Street, is said to have studied at Athens, if we are to believe the 
chronicles ; while there he was informed of the death of his father. He was fond of literature, founded 
Uciversities at Stamford and Bath, and engaged professors from Athens. The fragments of the Tem- 
ple of Sul-Minerva, at Batii, are said to resemble the Friezes of the Parthenon. 3085, A. M., was the 
nra of Bladud. 

• I. Sam. chap. 31, v. 10, Ashlaroth. 

t The Tin collected in the sand or by stream works, on being cleared from dirt with water, was 
probably fused in rude furnaces, and beaten into cubic forms or squares, the otf^aiyaKun pAfjun ofDiodorus. 
Probably the Phoenicians used Tin as a non colouring retentive ingredieut to fix the colour given by 
the shell-fish dye to their costly and elegant purple, as our scarlet dyes in £ngland, and superfine 
broad ulothi were, by the retentiveness of the finest grain Tin dUsolved In aqua fortis. 



82 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

time of the Peloponnesian war, 446, A. D„ expressly tells us (lib. 3.) that he positive- 
ly knew nothing of the Cassiterides, from which tin was, he knew, exported into 
Greece. He was aware that there was a river in Europe called the Eridanus, (the 
Po) whence amber was brought, but had tried in vain to meet with any eye-witness who 
could swear to the truth of the existence either of the one or the other ; he therefore 
lumps both together as fables of the poets, discovers the Eridanus of Italy, 
to have a Greek name, and therefore to be suppositious, the people there being 
barbarous, and sits down contented in the belief that our Scilly Islands never existed, 
and that the Po, (well he might) that runs into the Gulf of Venice, was very unlikely, 
as he was told it did, to discharge itself into the Northern Ocean, that is, the Baltic 
coast of Germany, whence amber came. So profound a secret did the wary Phoeni- 
cians, settled in the lovely clime of Baetica, keep their intercourse with our European 
shores. The cat was, however, at last, let out of the bag, for it appears that the His- 
pano-Phoenician trade with Britain ceased, about 170 B. C. and the Greeks, probably 
those of Marseilles first, of Ionian origin, succeeded in supplanting that enterprising 
and intrepid nation in the traffic, which must have been carried on long before 450 B.C. 
by those great adventurers at sea, the first navigators and builders of ships, and the 
first that brought Astronomy and Arithmetic to proper systems and method, and are 
even supposed to have had the use of the mariner's compass, Hodogeta or Pyxis Mag- 
netica, which they kept a profound secret. In fact that learned Antiquary, Sir W. 
Betham, R. I, Academy, has by the interpretation of characters on some ancient bra- 
zen tablets, at Gubbio, 14 leagues N. of Spoleto, in Italy, thrown great light on the 
probability of their discoveries beyond the Columns of Hercules, also of their knowledge 
of the properties of the magnet, which is doubted as whether known to Solomon, to 
the ancient Egyptians, who have left no signs of it on hieroglyphics, to the Tyrians, or 
the Arabs of Mosambique, as in that very curious book of Martinus Lepenius, Navi- 
gatio Salomonis Ophiritica illustrata. (1660, Halle,) in my possession. 

Sir W. Betham, moreover, maintains in his Gael and Cymbri, (p. 426) that the 
Phoenicians after trading with the Britons for some time, finding both islands rich in 
metals and other produce, took hostile possession of thera, and drove the aborigines 
out. He also supposes that they got possession of Celtic Gaul soon after, and main- 
tains these adventurers to be Kelts or Phoenician Gael in origin. The people of Kerry 
about Killarney, where there are ancient silver mines, have certainly a Spanish air and 
appearance, and are much superior to the Milesian breed of Irish, who, however, un- 
doubtedly came from Spain also ; there was no doubt an admixture of the Phoenician 
blood settled and matured in Baetica for centuries, in both. By the 6th and 7th Eu- 
gubian tables mentioned above, and found in 1444, Sir W. B, collated the Etruscan 
with the Irish Celtic, and the little Pointer, from which the Phoenico-Etruscans de- 
rived such benefits in crossing the sea in a certain track, is distinctly recorded in 
them, by which the sea became shortened in space and trades highway. Some Islands, 
evidently Britain, are also commemorated as fertile, abounding in sheep, cattle, 
black deer and fish. The Celtic and Phoenician languages are identified, and the celebrated 
Cabiri sect, or sacred Blacksmiths' Lodge, was confined to thera and their colonies. 
These mysterious characters, who were the same as the Telchines, Idaei Dactyli of 
Phrygia, Curetes of Crete, and Corybantes, enveloped the arts of navigation, mining and 



OF EXETER. 83 

astronomy, in mystic fables and allegories, to conceal them from the vulgar, and there- 
by succeeded in securing the sovereignty of the seas and entire commerce and wealth of 
the world, by this species of Freemasonry. They certainly taught the use of tin and 
of iron and copper, feeding of flocks, use of honey, and moreover of hunting, and last- 
ly the arts of civility and polite conversation.* As these adventurers most likely 
carried on their commerce and business by barter, and were probably anxious to con- 
ceal from whence they came, it is likely they prohibited the circulation of raooey here 
for kit least tliey should be discovered by that means. Few or do authenticated coins 
indeed of the Phoenician traders are extant in our Island. Polwhele notes one as 
found at Teignmouth, which is probable, when we consider the ancient stream works. 
It is possible that, as Camden observes, both that people and the Greeks concealed the 
value and usefulnessof money, (Brit. Walker.V. Obs.) I have heard of such being found 
on Dartmoor, but have never been able to ascertain the correctness of the assertion. 
Others were exhibited by the Rev. T, Rackett, F. S, A. to the society of Antiquariet 
in London, May 16, 1839, but they were considered of suspicious appearance. 

The repeated discoveries in Exeter and its vicinity, of Egypto-Greek Coins of 
Roman Emperors, (Trajan, Adrian, Antoninus, Severus, &c.) all of the Alexandrian 
Mint, which are the most numerous, as also of many others, some coined at Antiochi 
others at Hierapolis, Sidon, Zeugma on the Euphrates, Clazomenee in Ionia ? Chalcis 
&c. have awakened a new spirit of speculative conj cture respecting the ancient world. 
These are supposed to have found their way into Britain during the great Tin travie, 
from that immense emporium of riches, Alexandria, the second city of the E.npire, and 
scarcely inferior to Rome itself, which city it supplied 4 months in the year with corn 
and the choicest mushrooms which Africa could afford. It probably had as much 
coin at one period in circulation, as Rome in its days of splendour. 

* The learned Bochart says, that the Phoenician Hercules is reported to have conquered Antsut 
the giant. King of W. Arrica, more than 300 years berore the expedition of tl;e Argonauts to Colchis* 
•bout 1263 A. D. and suspects the Phoenicians to have come as far as Tingis for Tangier,) in Africa* 
•bout the time of Joshua, which is confirmed by Eusehius about some Canaanites, who Bed along the 
Mediterranean Sea from Joshua, and settled at Tripoli, commemorating their flight by an inscription 
on two piliars at the Straits. A temple was also erected to the Tyrian Hercules at Tartessus, by some 
•apposed Gades, or, Cadiz, by others Tari^a. The Sun worship of Phoenicia, which was one of the 
earliest idolatries (for in fact the descendants of those saved in the ARK, became Tsabaists or adorers 
of the Sun,) was established in Britain by these foreign merchants. Ninus deified his father Nini- 
rod. (the Bel. SUN, or Belus of Chaldaa, aud Zohalt and Amar Pel of Persia) and was honoured ai 
the Chaldaean Jupiter and Assyrian Hercules. The intercourse between Britain and Tyre and tht 
Tyrian Colonies of Tarshisb and Carthage, caused the religion of Britain to resemble much that of 
Canaan, and Phoenicia, where the SUN was called Lord of Heaven, (v. Philo apud Euseb. praep. Evang. 
Bm^«-(4m>iv. Hercdian. lib. 8; Joseph contra Apionem.) by the comparison of idolatrous rites, sepuU 
chres and fragments of Punic Language, patriarchal pillars and altars also, and the Rock idols. Logan 
stones kc. still extant, and described by Borlase in his Cornwall. The ancient Druid* were Kelts, aud 
hftd rites common no doubt to the Priests of Egypt, Brachmans of India, astrologers of Babylon and 
disciples of Zoroaster, the fiie worshipper and King magician of Bactria. They also believed in the 
metempsychosis or Pythagorean transmigration of souls. The chief Keltic deity was the Mercury of 
Caesar. Teut of Druidism, or Teutatet, to whom as well as Hetus, human sacrifices were offered — (Lucani 
Phars. I. V. 445) the Egyptian I^otA, Latinized — originally a stone, but altered into the airy god 
Eerme* by the Greeks. The Kelts came from the Hyperborean ocean, and the Palus Maeotis or Sea 
of Azoph, communicating with the Cimmerian Bosphorus, and were the original progenitors of great 
-part of the W. World. 

X 



84 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

PoIybi«s, in a fragment of his 34tli book, gives a brief geographical notice of this 
place, and particularizes the three distinct branches of its population, the acute, witty, 
and politics-loving Fgyptian, the wealihy, insolent, and purse proud foreign merchant, 
and the less contaminated but more superior descendant of the Greeks, originally 
planted here, now blended with the dense multitude. We must also recollect that the 
Romans maintained a trade for silk, cotton, and spiceries, with /ndia, from that 
great city of Egypt, by Cosseir, (JMyos or Hormos) and Berenice, down the Red Sea, 
which employed 120 Ships yearly, of the computed freight of 1,200,000 crowns, and 
Is said to have brought in an immense and hundred-fold revenue to their treasury.* i 
What was to prevent the Romans shipping our Tin to Egypt, and thence if required \ 
to India, where we know it was actually exported by them ? Tin, except in a few j 
straggling places of Portugal and Gallicia, was never procured in a large quantity 
any where else but in Devon or Cornwall. Pliny, (de Rerum Invent.) says, Lead was 
first brought from the Isle Cassiteris by Mediacritus, who probably introduced it 
into Greece. Strabo is very perspicuous about the trade. Wilkinson, in his work on 
Egypt, never made a greater error than when he speaks of the Ancients working the 
Tin Mines of Malacca, where none exists, and those of the I. of Banca, have only been 
known for half a century. Of course, when the Vandals, Goths, Lombards, and 
. Moors combined to tear the Empire to pieces, all commerce ceased between civilized 
nations, and consequently the Tin trade with India also, for which diamonds and 
precious stones were exchanged, as Pliny informs us plainly enough, (lib. 34, Cap, 17, 
Hist. Nat.) The Tin trade with Europe was however afterwards renewed, and the 
Indian and Arabian spices and commodities were conveyed, partly by land, partly by 
water, to Caffa, or Theodosia, in the Taurica Chersonesus, or Crimea, belonging to 
the Genoese, who held that port from 1266, till 1474. Afterwards the principal 
Mart was Trebisond, in Asiatic Turkey, and in later times Samarcand, in Zagathay, 
(the mother land of Timour) where we are informed the merchants of Turkey, India, 
and Persia, met to barter their wares. The Turkish merchants conveyed their goods 
to Damascus, Beyrout, and Aleppo, from whence the Venetians transported them to 
their own city, and made that the common Emporium of Christendom, and opulent 
seat of the monopoly of commerce, till the discovery of the Cape by the Portuguese, 
under Vasquez de Garaa in 1499. The riches of the Asiatic Continent were also taken 
by another route up the Peisian Gulf, by the Tigris, to Bagdad, and across the sandy 
deserts to the ruins of the stately Palmyra, then an entrepot to the Mediterranean. 
The Passage by the ports of the Red Sea, was restored for the last time, by the Sol- 

• Ptolemy Philadelphus, 277, B. C, was the first who commenced this Navigation. Cosseir being 
the ordinary Haven from which his mariners sailed for India, and to which they returned with their 
freights, which were thence conveyed by land to Coptos (Gennah) and so along the Nile 100 leagues 
to Alexandria, at which tho Custom House yielded in the Feign of Ptol. Auletes. 51, B. C, 7 J millions 
of gold annually. The Roman Conquerors of Egypi enhanced the Customs to double that sum. In 
the time of Constantius, Batna, (v. Amm. Marc) in Mesopotamia, on Euphrates, (Zosim. lib. 3rd. p, 160, 
ed. Oxon.j was the principal place of trade with the Indi and Seres for silk, which probably indeed from 
the days of Alexander to those of Justinian, was most highly valuaole, and as well as byssus, or cotton 
wool, was brought into W. Asia, probably by caravans, into Bactriana and N. India also, the cotton 
being the Sanscrit ftarpasam or x«{ir«o"ef of Arrian, and Xa/i's Car Ja*«« of Lucretius, for covering 
th« Theatres. 



OP EXETER. 85 

dans of Egypt, of the Circassian or Mameluke race, 1300, A. D., but discontinued 
entirely soon after the discovery of the Cape. The spice trade from India to Egypt 
must have been of remote antiquity, and perhaps as early as Joseph's time, when the 
spice merchants of Midian, boidering on Arabia, traded into Egypt. In the tombs of 
Tliebes, bottles of Chinese manufacture, and with inscriptions in that language, were 
lately found. On some was the Chinese sentiment " 1 he Flower opens and behold 1 
another year." Amethysts and lapis lazuli have been found at Thebes, which, pre- 
vious to the removal of the Court to Memphis, was adorned with Temples, PalaceSf 
Colossal statues, and the tombs of the early Pharaohs, to say nothing of its 100 gates, 
its Meranonium built by Ramcses 2nd. (A. M. 2751) or of its being the royal residence 
of Busiris or Orus 2nd. who ordered the male children of Israel to be slain. Rosellini 
and Lord Prudhoe were witnesses to these discoveries. Porcelain Seals with Cliinese 
characters found in Ireland, were submitted to the Irish Academy, March 14, 1840, by 
Mr. J. Ilubard Smith. They most likely found their way there with the Buddhists of 
Persia and India, who were driven out by the followers of Brahma, and came to Erin 
or the sacred Isle. In accounting for the introduction of these Greek Colonial Coins 
into Britain, it may be observed that the Romans who were so exceedingly rapacious 
and grasping, and took such pains to drain the conquered provinces of their produce 
and revenues, would hardly permit any foreign nation to be participators with them 
in the TIN trade of Britain. They probably, however, permitted traffic of other 
descriptions. That they worked the mines themselves, is evident, from the quantities 
of Roman Coins, chiefly of the lower Empire, found at Karn Bre, in the parish of II- 
logan, and at St. Agnes Bal, and other Cornish Tin works. This profitable trade, and 
which they first aimed at, when P. Crassus was sent to explore the mines in the Greek 
times, induced them no doubt to engross it all to themselves from Italy, and to seize 
upon the mines, the sources of riches, (metalla pretium victorise) provided with such 
excellent harbours as Falmouth, Hamoaze, Helford Haven, and Fowey. They also 
worked the lead mines of Derbyshire, as is evident from the pigs of lead with the 
names of Emperors and private persons on them, found in that county.* This was 
however all under fiscal restraints, probably. Little is known unfortunately of the 
social improvements iittroduced by the Romans into Britain, or of the advance of in- 
tellect of its inhabitants, under their yoke, and unlike Spain, Africa, and Gaul, all 
fertile of literary characters, of such men as Seneca, Martial, Terence, Ausonius, Apu- 
leius, Lucan, and Mela, there is actually no Romanized British genius on record, al- 
though Agricola thought that people did more by wit, than the Gauls by study (Tac. 
in vita.) The original Tin trade into Gaul, that is to Marseilles and Narbonne, 
noticed by Diodorus, ceased probably soon after the Roman Conquest by Claudius. 
I do not mean to say, however, that there was no resort of Mediterranean merchants 
to our coasts after that period. The mutilated histories which remain, do not seem 
to furnish any direct evidence of such being the case, but the Britons we know, did 
carry on an extensive foreign trade in the Roman times (v. Henry Hist. Vol.2.) pro- 
bably under fiscal regulations to Egypt, and other provinces, as well as to Gaul.| 

• Dr. Musffrave gives a plate of a leaden Slab or Tablet to Claudius, IMP. XVI. DE BRITAN 
which be calls a Tropseum, found near Wookey, Somerset. Belg. Bilt.p. 181. 

t la the Notitia, wo find luch officers as the following, under the Comt$ $aerarum LargUionum, or 



86 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

They may have done so with Phoenicia at that period, that maritime country being 
merely reckoned as part of Syria, andof its five provinces, in the days of the Em- 
perors, to whose armies Syria furnished a Contingent of soldiers, like other tributary- 
states. Coins of Sidon were indeed found at Exeter, with a great many others in 
1810, in making the main city sewer — they bore a galley on reverse, and had the In- 
scription SIAQN02 GEA2.+ None of Tyre have however been found, which was 
thought by many authors to have been a Sidonian colony, and excelled its predecessor 
in splendour and power, and particularly so as it appears from the time of Salmanazar 
(v. Joseph Antiq. lib, 9, cap. 14.) although both aspired to the title of metropolis of 
Phoenicia. Sidon was actually in early time the mother of Tyre, as appears by a 
coin published by A, Reland (Palest, page 104) once in the French King's Cabinet, 
and a duplicate of it in others. It appears that after the Romans had settled in Britain, 
the imports became more various and valuable, the consequence of the natives' imita- 
ting their conquerors in luxury and ways of living, which increased the demand for 
the productions and manufactures of the continent. This we are told, entailed on 
them a heavy debt, the foreign imports exceeding the goods exported, in value. As 
the trade of Britain gradually increased, the shipping did consequently in the like 
proportion, as it also did in every other trading and maritime province of the Empire 
(v; Codex. Theodos. tom. 6, 1. 13, tit. 5.) The Emperor Claudius conferred privileges 
by law on such ships of burden, as could carry a freight of 10,000 Roman Moclii, or 
312 quarters of corn, English measure. From Zosimus the historian, lib. 3, we find 
that 800 British bottoms exported corn to the Rhine, and into Germany, by command 
of the Emperor Julian, 359, A. D., who had ordered these ships to be constructed 
from the forests on the Rhine, for that purpose, when the German provinces were de« 
Tastated by famine, and the vicissitudes of war. These fleets were convoyed by armed 
vessels or ships of war, command ed by an officer styled the Archigvhernus Classis 
Bri7ann*^, or Lord High Admiral, of which rank we find Seius Saturninus, in the 
reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius (V. Seldeni Mare Clausum^ 1664, in reply to 
Grotitts's Mare Liberum. Leyden 1663; in defence of the rights of British Navigation 
and fisheries,) on the British Seas. The Emperor Claudius maintained a fleet on the 
Coast of Britain, after his Conquest of the Island, 

It appears that the Frank and Saxon pirates, who swarmed on our coast at the end 
of the 3rd Century, and occasioned the throwing up of so many maritime camps and 
forts on our more exposed line of seaboard, were opposed by a powerful British fleet, 
which became very formidable, under the usurper Carausius, and his successor AUec- 
tus, giving the former power to assume the purple, and set the reigning Emper- 
ors at defiance. Roman Ships or gallies repeatedly appear on their Coins. Southamp- 
ton, (then Clausentum, and piobably Bittern,) was supposed at that time to 

Administrator of tiie imperial revenues or exchequer, viz, the Rationalis Summarum Brittaniarum, 
Deputy Receiver General of the taxes of Britain ; Praepositus Thesaurorum Augustensium in Britan- 
uls ; Registrar of the public monies there, Procurator Gynegii in Britannis Bentensis. or Superintendantof 
the manufactery of imperial vestments of silk interwoven with gold at Winchester, 

+ Two others near Broadgate in 1823. Rev. a Rhomboidal figure or Tripod Gate with fi&hes. zONIi 
(retrograde.) 



OF EXBTBR. ^7 

have been a place of considerable commerce from its excellent marine situation, its 
vicinity to tlie Tin Countries and to tiie Isle of Wight, from which, though I much 
respect the authority of Diodorus, who so very accurately describes the stream works 
of Dunmonian I5ritain in his notice of its Tin Mines, I must certainly doubt the trans- 
mission of the Tin ore into Gaul, conveyed in waggons at low water to some Island, 
(St. Michael's Mount, probably) supposed by the name Iclis to be the Isle of Wight, 
from the improbability of the Western Britons, who had excellent harbours on their 
own shores, going so far out of their way to transport their wares. Ictis was some 
Island on the Coast, not now clearly ascertained.* Richboro or Uuiupice in Kent, 
was a great Seaport and place of trade at the same period ; we have only to refer to 
Battely's admirable worlc (Antiq. Rutup.) and the observations of Camden (Britannia, 
p. 201, ed. Gib,) for particulars respecting its importance, being the Partus Trutu- 
lensis^ where the Roman fleets arrived from the Continent, and whence they sailed 
out of Britain, and for which they embarked their numerous bodies of Troops for the 
defence of the Province. It was the port in fact, from which the Romans on most 
occasions, generally departed for the Continent, and for the Portus Iccius,in Gaul es- 
pecially, and where they landed on their return ; and was a place of note even in the 
Saxon times, for it is said that Ethelbert, the first christian King of Kent, had a palace 
there. He reigned between 661 and 617, A, D, At Winchester was a manufactory 
expressly for the texture of the Imperial garments, the *' auratffi ac sericee paragaudee 
auro intextffi," inlaid with gold and silk, and those of the army. V, Notitiam, Guther, 
de Domo Aug. p. 120, ed. Lips. 1672. Camden, Brit. p. 118. London and Verulam 
were rich and populous cities (v. Tacit, lib. 14, c. 83) and the former was probably 
founded in the time of Augustus, by the merchants of Gaul and Britain. But Exeter, 
which was in the centre of the TIN trade, producing not only so great a quantity of 
the usual current coin of this island (part of the mass of treasure, needful for the pay of 
the Roman Soldiery in a long coarse of years) but exhibiting Syrian and Alexandrian 
coins, of Asia Minor, and even of the Ptolemies of a much earlier eera, bears a direct evi- 
dence perhaps of an extensive commerce with Egypt and the coasts of the^Mediterranean, 
«t a very early period, which was evidently continued by the pacific inhabitants of this 
commercial County in later times, probably by all the Western Britons. The Phoe- 
nicians of Tyre were ousted from the traffic, as I have observed, by the Greeks, about 
170, A. D., or perhaps a little earlier. Notwithstanding their acuteness, the latter 
seem to have then stepped into their shoes, and probably would have served them in the 
same style as our Drake, Raleigh, and the Buccaneers of America, did the wealthy 
settlements on the Spanish Main, to a certain degree, in spite of the severities exercised 
by Spain, on those who ventured into the auriferous Pacific, or on that famed El Dorado 
the forbidden shores of the New Continent t The Greeks clearly frequented the Island for 

• Pliny (quoting Timseus) probably meant one of the CassUerid^, where he mentions ifieft* as an 
Island, six days sail Trom Britain, producing white Lead. Strabo made no blander in saying that these 
Islands were further off from Spain than they were from the coast of Britain. 

t They were in fact superseded by the crafty Greeks, pretty nearly the same as their own Tyrlaa 
purple, the rich or royal dye of princes, procured from the murex shell-fish, was by tbecochineal insect 
of America in later times. Pennant considers the English patella or Ump9t, which produces \h9 purpl* 
dye. analogoaa to that of the ancleaU. Zool. vol. iv. p. 119 20. 

Y 



§8 6REBK ANTIQUITIES 

trade, and it is doubtful whether they made any permanent settlement, but the Romans 
engrossed the TIN to themselves, and proclaimed the first Stannary laws. The operations 
were carried on by shoding and streaming, and these ancient stream works or Moina- 
staine, noticed by Diodorus, are still to be traced on Dartmoor, at Bovey Heathfield, 
Manaton, Kingsteignton, Teigngrace, and in Ilsington, the level country through 
which the river Yealrae flows, &c. In the fissures of the granite on Dartmoor, are two 
varieties of TIN, Stannum, with black columnar chrystals, intermixed with decayed 
feldspar. The other, Stannum amorphum, rufonigricans, (Polwhele*) Gold and silver 
are also said to have abounded in those times. In St. AusteWs parish, Cornwall, are 
vestiges of alluvial operation, being diluvial beds containing TIN ore, generally met 
with in deep Tallies where rivulets flow, and in separating the ore from common peb- 
bles or stones, by its inferior specific gravity. Pentewan Streamwork has a lower bed 
consisting of pebbles, gravel or tin ore, and rests on the solid rock ; above this bed was 
a stratum of black vegetable matter, supposed remains of an ancient forest. The 
streams in Devon are of different breadths, and often (v. Polwhele's Hist. Devon, 
vol, 1.) " scattered in different quantities over the whole extent of a moor, bottom or 
valley." They are " composed sometimes of loose stones, sometimes a furlong distant 
from Iheir lodes, making a course from one to ten feet deep." Tin was originally 
found in greater quantities in Devon than in Cornwall, even to the period of the reign 
of our "good" King John, who farmed the tin of the former on Dartmoor and its 
neighbourhood, for 100 pounds sterling, the latter only 100 marks.* The Greek Coins 
came here evidently by the foreign auxiliary troops in the Roman Armies, or other- 
wise by the merchants who traded for the natural products of Britain. They did not 
certainly come by blind chance. The early coins of the Ptolemies were probably in- 
troduced either by the Phoenician sea captains, or those of the Greeks. We know that 
Ptolemy the 1st. or Soter, reigned over Egypt 323 B.C. and Philoraetor 180, B. C. 
The Phoenicians, who seem to ha^e been the general carriers of Nations,t may cer- 
tainly have introduced some of these into Britain, instead of their own, bearing horses, 
fishes, &c. ; the coasting trade of Palestine and to Alexandria, would tend to put such 
coins in circulation among the mariners of their fleets. They had however commenced 
trading with us for more than a century before the first Ptolemy, and perhaps earlier 
than 460, B. C, which was 18 years before the Peloponnesian war: this trade was 
however superseded about the period of the reign of Philometor. As coins of both 
these raonarchs are found, however, it is doubtful whether the Greeks, who as Camden 
observes, arrived here 160 years before Julius Caesar's invasion (which period was 
during the 2nd. Punic War^ and which is corroborated by Polybius, who flourished 
about 168, B. C. had not some hand as well as the Phoenicians, in introducing these 
and others of earlier date, which have also been exhumed in this ancient city, viz, of 
Agrigentum in Sicily, of Hiero I, King of Syracuse, about 460, B. C, of the city Syra- 
cuse, (of which a massy silver one was also dug up in a mine, at Truro) and several 

• In the Roman times the Tin may have been conveyed Into their Imperial storehouses or magazines 
by the Propositi Baatagarum, of which officers in the Notitia. we find one appointed to superintend 
the merchandise of Gaul, the name implying a sort of waggon train or civil commissariat. 

t We even find men of Tyre. rNehemlah 13, v. 16.) who brought fish, and " all manner of ware " io 
•ell at Jerusalem, about 454, B. C. V. Herodotum, lib. I, cap. 1. 



bF fiXETfilt. 6d 

smaller with the Capricorn and helmed head (perhaps Anazarbas) &c. of high antiquity.* 
The later Colonial coins of the Proconsular Asia, of Syria and of Egypt, uodei the 
Romans, which are Tery numerous, are accounted for either by merchants or by the 
Intercourse of the Roman Legions and auxiliaries, for it is just as likely that Syrian and 
Egyptian troops were in South Britain, as the 4th. Wing of British Horse (?. Notit.) 
in Egypt, and their 26lh Cohort in Armenia, and a detachment of Moors were also 
at Aballaba or Watch Cross, on the wall of Severus in Westmoreland, at the beginning 
of the 5th century, as well as the Syrian Cavalry in the interior of the Province. As 
Ptolemy Soter, however, conquered Pho8nicia and Syria in 320, his coins might just 
as likely have been introduced by the new Phoenician tributaries, as by their Greek 
successors. Great scepticism ensued among the literary characters of London, as to 
the authenticity of these discoveries. In the Metropolis, which was far removed from 
the Westerly Emporiums of TIN, but few of such coins had been known to be found, 
while thousands of pieces of Roman money, and quantities of their Samian Ware, and 
other pottery, were of frequent occurrence in particular spots. Two of the vast Medals 
of Ptolemy Soter had however been dug up in the Watling Street of London, which is 
well known to antiquaries as an old Roman Way, running from S. to N. from Dover 
to London, through the street bearing its name, to Holborn, Paddington, Edgeware, 
Ellestrie, St. Albans, and Dunstable, at which last place it was traversed by the 
mighty IKENILD Street, which crossed the Island from E. to W. ; is the main street 
of Exeter now, and was the 2nd great Roman Military Road in Britain, also com- 
municating with ISC A from Dorchester and Sarum. Another vast medal of the same 
prince was dug up in a field near Cirencester, the Corinium of the Romans, by a far- 
mer, and given to my Friend, Mr. J. Campbell, of Exeter, whose exertions in rescuing 
such curious matters from oblivion and ignorant hands, cannot be sufficiently lauded 
and approved. He is also in possession of two beautiful coins, commemorative of 
Alexander, found in cutting a road a few years since, at Bays hill, between Chelten- 
ham and Gloster. One of these is a silver coin, or Tetradrachmon Stater, bearing the 
bust of that Prince, strong contoui of countenance, AAEJ27ANAPOY on its Reverse, and 
the usual figure of Jupiter, seated in a peculiar kind of chair or subsellium, in front 2. 
The other, smaller, is of copper, and in front of the seated god is a sort of bayonet 
shaped symbol, t Mr. Campbell saw both of these coins dug up, and got them for a 
mere trifle from the excavator. The same Gentleman also procured five Greek copp^jr 
coins of Alexandria.^ of Probus, Dioclesian, Aurelian, Philip and Claudius Gothicus, 
at Usk, in Monmouthshire, the Burrium of the Romans ; they were dug up in the 
vicinity of Ragland Castle, and will be described in another place. A. J. K. a lear- 
ned antiquary, took up the matter in the Gent's. Magazine, in August 1837, proving 

• It must be also observed that although before the reign of Alexander, money of the coins of Persia 
was struck in Phoenicia, yet their numerals and the name of the town of Acca or Ptolemais, appear on 
certain gold and silver coins of that prince (v. L'Abbe Barthy) Also it appears that the city Laodicea 
or Ramitha (Step;« Byz.) in Syria, originally Phoenician, was rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator(StrabO, 
lib. 16.) They had, it it elter, sufficiently ample correspondence with their Greek brethren. 

t Baldulnus, de Calceo, cap. 17. tells us that these coins of Alexander were worn on shoes, not only 
for ornament, but also for good luck by the ancients, and at Antioch especially. 

X Small brass. Two of Ziuoma, one found at Oundle, (near the Nen) an d the other at Chester 
House, WeUiflgboro, Northamptonshire. [Mr. E. Pretty, (Northton) correspondence of the Author] 



90 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

the discovery of a Greek coin ia an ancient sepulchral spot, near Chatham. In Sep t , 
a long account of our Exeter discoveries appeared in the same publication, pp. 291-3, 
to which was appended a list of nearly 20 of these coins— a previous one was published 
in August and September, 1S36. The first coin that was a genuine Colonial Greek one, 
was a Julia Mammsea, found in January 1836, informing the Catacombs of the present 
Cemetery in Bartholomew Yard ; it was bought by Mr, Carter, Silversmith, in the 
High Street, who soon after procured the Greek Lucius Verus, of Amphipolis, on Eu- 
phrates, a little bronze imperialiraage, and a Roman Coinof Berylus(of Severus, with 
Caracalla) in Phoenicia, from the Westgate Quarter, about the 12th of March. 

In the year 1810. it appears, in making the great Cloaca Maxima of Exeter, or 
main Sewer (in the Fore Street which is the Ikenild,) which extends to the river, and 
is 20 feet below the level of the present pavement, in the middle of the street, an im- 
mense quantity of ancient coin was found in ground never before disturbed ; in particu- 
lar between Broadgate and Milk Lane, a great number of Greek coins of Egypt, among 
which 8 of the Ptolemies already alluded to, and a number of the Imperial ones, among 
which were some of the following autonomous cities. — Alexandria, Cyrrhus or Cyrr- 
hestica, (in Syria,) Chalcis, in Coele Syria, Zeugma on Euphrates, Amisus on Euxine, 
Antioch on Orontes, Hierapolis, Sidon, Clazomence? Cyzicus ? Samosata, Rhegium, 
(Italy, of Hadrian.) Alsoof Antiochus IX.Cyzicenus (Philopator.) There were 8 Nm- 
mismata serrata, of Syria (one with hare and ox head, anothei-. Elephant's head and 
horse) two British coins, on one awheel, the other a horse — many small brass Im- 
perial Alexandrian coins, 8 of Antioch, (A. E. S. C.,) two Roman Weights, or Asses 
LibraleSf and a small consular or family coin, washed with silver (Bigae.) Many 
Bezants or coins of the Lower Greek Empire, were also dug up, and these are found 
occasionally in Exeter, in company with Roman brass coins, which proves to me that 
most of these pieces of money were in circulation centuries after they had been intro- 
duced. For many ages, and most probably in the decay of the Empire, a coin was a 
coin, and passed for such, whatever it was, like the casks of Birmingham tokens du- 
ring the war, or in fact any circular piece of copper, were it but a button without the 
shank! in some of our Colonies, (Canada especially)— Metal was Metal, as a pair of 
shoes, whether they fitted or not, was still a pair of shoes I 

Cleverer heads than ours would be puzzled to tell by what magic they all got crammed 
20 feet under ground into this subterrene Babylonish spot, this byrsa rec^alis ot ISCA I 
Mr. Jenkins, the historian of Exeter, who was on the spot at the time, succeeded in 
preserving nearly 1000 of these rarities, Greek and Roman, now in the possession of 
his son, who takes great delight in numismatic researches, and has a noble collection. 
His book, a valuable production, appeared in 1807, three years previously, and had he 
been a numismatist of the present day, it is probable he would have published something 
which threw light on old theories and speculations, amid the mass of information which 
he collected — the truth of the matter was, that nobody gave themselves any concern 
about all this old Metal, so apparently downright useless and inexplicable, which 
nobody could]explain, and of which the legends, as Greek colonHtlcoinS) even the sage 
Erizzo in 1671, could hardly read, A great quantity of this ancient money was sold 
it appears, to brass founders and tinkers, while the silver went to the fining pot or the 
crucible. Much of the copper was of that worn out description, which never could 
J»ave been originally imported to this Country, to dignify collections which never ex- 



OP EXETER. 91 

Isied. In fact I have seen many of the Urge Imperial brass, of the Emperors, struck 
at Alexandria, which without a numismatic eye, might well be deemed only fit for 
old metal, to mend the kitchen bellows, the laundresses' old tea-kettle, or stop the holes 
in the cauldrons or saucepans which stand on kitchen ranges. So worn and 
worthless looking were the Ptolemies and Trajans, and the small brass of Alexan- 
dria. Tantum sBvi longinqua valet mutare vetustas ! Hamlet never said anything more 
appropriate than 

" Imperious Ceesar, dead and turn'd to clay. 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away.' ' 
And Alexander himself in this guise, instead of '* patching a wall " or stopping a 
bung hols, might, (thirsty soul as he once was I) be, mayhap, transformed into a 
•pigot for the beer barrel ! ! 

In June, 1838, a small copper coin with the Digamma, and which I ascribed to 
Elis, in the Morea, was offered me for sale. It was dug up near that mine of Nu- 
mismatic wealth, the site of the old Broadgate, at the entrance to the Cathedral Yard, 
in 1823, which was erected by royal charter, in Edward Ist's reign, at a gate to the 
Close, apparently on ancient foundations, in later times. The labourer who found it sold 
it to another man for a gallon of Cyder, (9d. worth ;) it was deemed, as well it might, 
something uncommon. A Caracalla, from Milk Lane, (of Antioch) was also exhum- 
ed, in .4pril, 1838, and the excellent Aurelian of Alexandria (4th size) was dug up ia 
North Street the same year. This Broadgate has produced several curious coins of 
Carausius, in my time. In excavations under the old gate, 1823, 120 coins of Constantine 
were found, and of the lower empire, and several Greek coins, two of which of the 
Ptolemies (2nd and 3rd brass) four of Hiero, one of Syracuse, two of Sidon, two bi- 
gated coins, a double headed coin (supposed of Augusta, in Cilicia) and several others 
came into the possession of the Rev, (Subdean) Barton at the time, and afterwards of 
another noted medallist, and finally into that of Mr. Carter, Silversmith, of this city. 
This spot is close to the place where the famous Roman Penates were found, in July, 
1778, by that learned Antiquary, Dean Milles, under Mr. Upham's house, and describ- 
ed in the Archaeologia, being Ceres, Mercury (2,) Mars and Apollo, accompanied by a 
bronze cock, the emblem of Mercury (of the god Lunus, and one of Rachel's teraphim) 
various fragments of Urns, Samian Ware, horns, bones, teeth, cinders, oyster shells, 
&c. An ancient Temple might have stood on this spot, like that of Saturn at Rome, 
alike devoted to piety and to public treasures. Perhaps the Roman Qucestorium ex- 
isted here, where the pay-masters of the Legions resorted, or the place of Exchange, 
the Basilica, or Forum Nundinarium, probably of ancient Exeter, for the aryentarii 
or Mensarii, cashiers and bankers, and Numtnulnrii, and Chirographi or bond hold- 
ers, rationales Summarum of S. Britain and Procuratores fisci, and all the host 
of Roman officials, connected with money matters, perhaps resorting to transact busi- 
ness.* I recollect a dozen of small Constantines being found there in laying water 

• The difference of coin might be accounted for from the money changers or Nummularii (NvLm- 
morum permutatores) who gave small change for the more precious pieces, or new coin for the old 
worn ones. In Greek they were called KoX>u^»fa» an d TfairidiTOJ (Qui majoris prctll nummls acceptii, 
mlnasculam monetam leddunt, quique vetiret nummot mutant cum recentlbus et asperis, V. Gutheri 
de off. Dom. Aug. lib. 8, Lips. 1672, quoting Gloss. Pbiloxenl et CiOacii lib. 10, cap. 14) The sum they 
rtceived for thU tort of commission was called Atperatura, the new C6ia l>eing $harp and well struck. 

Z 



92 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

pipes, in June 1S36, and one of Carausius PAX. AVG. (and F. O. in the fieldj in 
company, A great quantity of Samian Ware was carted away as useless, from this 
spot, some years before I came to Exeter. Five Roman coins were found in North 
Street, the year Broadgate was removed, under a house belonging to Mr. Arthur, of 
Northernhay j this house stands at the corner of Waterbeer Street, and is in the line 
of the Broadgate and Milk Street discoveries, which I consider the Egyptian quarter, 
and the site of the founderies adjoining is supposed to be the site of a Roman Prseto- 
rium of Isca. Mr, Flood informs me that in removing an ancient house, which stood 
(opposite the statue of St. Peter) directly at the top of North Street, several rudely 
executed Roman busts were found, many years ago; although of a period which mark- 
ed the decline of the arts, the citizens were bound to preserve them, but 40 years since 
such things created no interest, no attention was paid to them ; the only thing of the 
kind in Exeter, is the Colossal bust of Julia Domna, dug up near Bath,* in the 
portico of Mr, Luke, Solicitor, at the extremity of P»Iusgrave's Alley, looking into 
his gardens, and a Sepulchral inscription to Ulpia, a Roman matron, in the same 
place, noticed by Stukely, as belonging to the famous Dr. Musgrave, physician and 
antiquary, both preserved by being masoned into the walls, for which the proprietor 
deserves the utmost praise. 
Julia looks the proud arrogant old woman to the life, but is well sculptured never- 

The barbarians did not withdraw the currency of Rome.. It is probable that a great quantity of this 
old coin was shovelled into the vaults of the building as useless, and neglected in after times. The bar- 
barous tribes who invaded the Roman empire in its decay, neglected and despised the copper coins,, 
and only troubled themselves about the gold and silver; hence probably it remained among us in such 
quantities. It is, however, a little surprising that in both the deposits, one of 1810, in making the 
main sewer of Exeter, and that found near Poltimore, in 1838, many copper Bezants were found of the 
periods 527, 565 A. D. r Justinian) 610, (Phocas) 668, Constans 2d. and 969, (Niceph. Phocas) in the 
former. In the latter two only, one of Justin 2nd, and the other apparently of the age of Isaac Com~ 
nenus and Constantine XIII, thus giving more than six centuries circulation after the departure oE 
the Romans. 

Ruding remarks (Annals of the Coinage, Vol. 1) that the Anglo-Saxon money bears not either iiK 
form, type, or weight, the least resemblance to those coins, which at that time were the current specify 
of the Island. This must necessarily have been composed of Roman Money, with, possibly, a smali 
intermixtura of the British, neither of which could have been the prototype of the Saxon. 

The Saxons (Mr, Akerman, however observes. Num. Manual, p. 226) travestied the effigies of the- 
Lower Empire in a barbarous manner, on their "circular thin pieces of metal, previously punched 
out,' ' and that there are two of their pieces extant, imitations of the very common little brass of Con- 
stantine, with the wolf on reverse. This and many others, no doubt, circulated in the country long, 
after the Romans had quitted it. Are we not to suppose, therefore, with Messrs. Ruding and Akerman's 
guidance, that the hoards of coins found in making the sewers of Exeter, and those found near Polti- 
more, were part of the current specie which had not became disallowed as a circulating medium, when 
Cerdic and Kenbic, Ckauline, Kynegils, Ina, Aethklwaed, and Beorhtric swayed the sceptre 
of the West Saxons ? Some of these monarchs ruled in troubled times, over a fierce and insurrection- 
ary people, who heeded not their sway, and used the monies peculiar to their former conquerors, and 
no coins are known of the West Saxons, save the pennies of Aethelward and Beorhtric, in the 8th 
century. # 

* Dr. Musgrave conceived this bust to be of the Phrygian Andromache, and actually wrote an essay 
on it called " de Andromache Britanno Belgica," which appaars at the end of his work, the Belgicum 
JSri/anntcum, 1719, printed at Exeter. The seal bearing the bust and nsane ot Severius Pompeyus ,, 
was also found near this spot. The style of drsssing the hair of the Empress, seems like the Corym- 
bion, a sort of conical tower or peruke—of antiquity. V. Petron. 



OF EXETER. 93 

theless, worthy mother of such a cub as Caracalla ; her hair is twisted behind into a 
sort of conical knot.. The inscription is the only one of old Isca extant, 

D. M. 
CAMILIVS 
SATVRNALIS. CA 
MILIE. NATV. VLP. PAT. 
RONE. MERENTISSIME. 
FECIT. 
Published by Dr. Musgrave. It was found near this spot, which is close under the 
precinct of the castle.* In the garden wall are two heraldic remains of later monu- 
ments, on one a chevron, in chief alien couchant. On the other, on the Dexter quar- 
ter 6 Annulets, 8, 2 and 1, Or, the Musgrave arms, which were borne by the name also 
of Vypount, on a field gules, and quartered by the ancient Earls of Cumberland. 

Leland, who lived in the reign of Henry VIII, in his Itinerary, mentions two frag- 
ments of Roman Inscriptions, in the city wall, near where Southernhay now stands ; 
they have both disappeared, unfortunately, long since, having been, probably carried 
away by some plundering Antiquary. It appears that nobody wrote or took notice of 
these rarities. No one dreamed of Egyptian coins, and the case will not appear ex- 
traordinary, when we consider how few individuals can read even the simplest Roman 
coin correctly, or know what the letters in the areas and exergues mean ; in fact no 
person seems to have cared about them, or had any taste for the investigation. 

In Mr. Jenkins' Collection, dug up between Broadgate and Milk Lane^ in the 
Fore Street, Exeter, 1810, in making the Main Sewer , 20 feet below the level of 
the present pavement, 

Ptolemy the 1st. {Lagus or Soter. See Frontispiece, No. 8) one of Alexander's Gen- 
erals who founded the kingdom of Egypt, after Alexander's death, (as Seleucus that of 
■S^ria, Aniipater, Macedonia, and Antigonus all Asia Minor) and reigned at Alex- 
andria, 323 B. C. died aged 84, B. C. in the 1st year of the 124th Olympiad, and of 
the world 5689. Carried off the embalmed body of the *' Great Emathian Conqueror," 
his master, in Syria, on its way to interment, and transported it to his newly founded 
<:apital in Egypt, where it received divine honours, instead of allowing it to be carried 
to the Temple of Ammon, (erected as is fabled by Bacchus, and now supposed to be 
the ruin of OM-BEYDA, in the Oasig of Amun or Sivah. See note,) Fought the 
battle of Ipsns, with his 4 confederates, against Antigonus and Demetrius, 301 B. C. 
extended his power over Cyprus, into Cyrenaica, and made himself master of Phoeni- 
cia and of the city of Jerusalem. This is one of the vast Egyptian pieces noticed by 
Pinkerton, p. 240, vol. 2, and is almost equal in magnificence to that of Mr. J. Camp- 
bell's found near Cirencester, In the Bodleian Collection, at Oxford, is a similar one 
(majoris moduli, Aquila fulmini insistens cum cornucopia, v. Catal. Num.) Obr. 
head of Jupiter IIammon,or Amun-Ra, (one of the great Arkite Deities, whose Ly- 
bian oracle was celebrated in antiquity) bearded to the right, IITOAEMAIOY BA2 
lAEQ.. with Rev. eagle and thunderbolt, left wing expanded, and bearing a cornuco- 
pia, the symbol of the fertility of Egypt, The eagle and thunderbolt is a supposed 
hieroglyphic for King or Pharaoh ; this bird of Jove, as Suidas tells us (Aayog) being 
said to have protected and nurtured Lagus (an improbable story) when exposed by 
• V. Stukely'8 Itijierarium Cariosum. 1723. 



94 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

his mother, Arslnoe, on a brazen shield (trr' aff'iridog xaXfi/g) in the woods. Ptolemy 
is by many supposed to have been half brother to Alexander, and actually son of 
Philip, of Macedon. The ^eagle is, however, the supposed emblem of Orus or Bac-^ 
chus, sons of Osiris (Mwraim, of Genesis) and grandson of Cham, as the Stjrijp, or 
avenger of his father, on his restoration to the throne, (after the death of the murderer 
Typhon) by his ancle Lehabim. Herodotus tells us that Orus was Apollo, and Os- 
iris Bacchus (lib. 2.) Sebastiano Erizzo (Venice, 1671, p. 455) says that the eagle 
was the emblem of regal power and majesty, among the Egyptians, being the bird of 
Jove ; the thunderbolt also implying the far spreading reputation of princes, which 
flies with speed through the world, and gives auspices of great and illustrious deeds. 
The portrait of Alexander by A pel les the painter, m the Temple of the Ephesian 
Diana, had one of thase bolts in his right hand, perhaps alluding to his mother's dream 
recorded in Plutarch. (For this symbol see Numis. Chron., Jan. 1839, p. 187.) 
It was an ordinary device on the medals of Pyrrhus, of Epirus (v. Al. at Alex 2, 11) 
of the Antiochi, Kings of Syria, and of many cities of that kingdom or province, of 
Dia in Bithynia j on Roman coins of Nero and Antoninus Pius, and of many of the 
smaller brass of Alexandria, and of Antioch and Emesae, the eagle appears in a simi- 
lar position, though not always with the fulmen or bolt. When treading on a snake 
it implies the conquest of Thessaly, byAmyntas, (v. Jac* Wilde, Num. Ant. 1692) 
AreuSj King of Sparta, writes to Onias, the High-priest, with a seal of this impression 
(v, Joseph, 1. 13, Ant, Jud. Kirkman de annuliSf 1657) See also Cicero de Divin.lib. 1. 
Claudiao, Bellum Gildon C476 V.) on Honorius triumphing over Gildo, in Africa. 
On the enmity between the eagle and serpent, see Leon Augustin and Boissard, on 
Sicilian coins, sepulchres, &c. Of the ancient writers Pliny may be also cited, like- 
wise Homer's Iliad. 12 ; Horace, lib. 4, Od. 9, in reluctantes dracones Egit amor 
Pugn8e,&c. ; also Virg. Aen. 11, 751. Utque volans alte raptum cum fulva Draco- 
nem. See. ; Ovid. Met, 4, Silius Ital. lib. 12, B. Pun. We may also consult the The^ 
riaca,ofNicander, of Colophon, and St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, de Salomone, cap. 
4. &c. Further observations on this Rev, will be found in my notice of the coins of 
Antiochus IX, further on. 

Ptolemy VI, or Philometor (detrited) double eagle, or rather two eagles on Rer. 
(Plate 6, No. 1.) He reigned about 180, B. C. for 24 years over Egypt, being son of 
Epiphanes by Cleopatra Cocce, whose coins, as we 11 as those of his brother Physcon, 
and his own (as in the present instance) have on them two eagles, there being two 
sovereigns reigning then, conjointly in Egypt, at times. Double eagles appear also 
on coins of Ptolemy Auletes, with the lotus, crinon or coloquint flower. Noted for his 
abominable cruelties, and was made for a time monarch of Cyprus; Physcon afterwards 
being placed on the throne, while Philometor was a prisoner in the hands of Antiochus 
(Epiph.) of Syria, afterwards, for a short period reigned along with him, although 
subject to continued feud and dissension. He succeeded his brother 145 B. C. 

Another coin ; eagle ; OAEM, B A2IAEQS (Plate 6, No 2.) 

Another, ditto ; eagle ; BACIAEQC. 

Another, ditto; a Female head, uncertain, probably of Berenice, queen of Ptolemy 1 , 
(immortalized by Theocritus Idyll XVII.) which are rare ; unless of some later prin- 
cess of the LagidsB, or of Berenice, daughter of Auletes or Arsinoe^ whose fuli>faced 
busts also occur in some collections, 



OP EXBTER. 95 

Large coin or raadal ; sparrow hawk or eagle. 

Two smaller coins ; hawk or eajle ; bolh Ptolemies, but defaced. 

Small head of Hararaon ; Rev. Victory to right ; BACIA62C. 

Imperial GRBEK COINS of Alexandria. Pinkerton observes, that all Egyptian 
coins of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus, are Common; so also the small' brass of 
many Emperors struck in Egypt, which proves the immense quantities minted at Alex- 
andria, which no doubt stamped nearly as much coin as Rome itself, at one period. 

Trajan, (1st brass) C6B only, (defaced) (r6/3a«roT, or AVG. 

Another ditto ; much detrited; Rev. Cynocephalus, or emblem of truth, perfect, 
being Akubis, the Jackal or dog-headed God, the Mercury of Egypt, and supposed 
companion, with his standard, on which was painted a dog, (V. GuHlim's Heraldry,) 
of Osiris, in his Indian expedition. On coins of Hermopolis is this type, (V. Num, 
Chron. Oct. 1839, S. Birch,) said to be an emblem of the moon, and the lunar Thoth, 
having on its head a disk, (V. Lucan 8, V. 231, Alex, ab Alex. 4. &c.) also by Bruce 
considered the Dogstar, the symbol of the Niles* fertility which begins to swell when 
the Constellation Sirius appears. The class of Kvvonoptpoi, jackal, or dogheaded de- 
ities (v. Walsh) appears on many ancient gems, as on a Basalt and bloodstone in the 
collection of Lord Strengford, which is one of the Gnostic remains ; sometimes with 
two heads. Anubis was the keeper of the temples and guardian of the mighty prin- 
ciples of heat, humidity and fecundity, even as the Mercury of the Gauls, who appears 
on a com of Albinus, as such, with the trident, and on the fragment of Samian Ware 
which will be described in my account of the Pottery found in our Western Market. 
In fact be was the same deity, and therefore called by Plutarch HermanubiSy and ap- 
pears on mummies painted red, with the black jackal head, as ruling the ghosts of the 
departed. Was also supposed to guard the Tropics and prevent the sun from passing 
beyond them, to which Milton seems to allude (Par. Lost. lib. x. 671.) where the 
agency of the Angels is beautifully introduced to regulate the motions of celestial 
bodies, "some say the Sun was bid turn the reins from the Equinoctial road, np to the 
tropic crab," " to bring in change of seasons to each," Strabo lib. 16, speaks of real 
cynocephali, sphynxes, &c. in Ethiopia ! ! Sometimes he appears on sculptures with 
his foot on a crocodile and a star above, in allusion to the Nile and Dogstar, the cro- 
codile emblem of Sebek, or the Egyptian Saturn. In the new sporting Magazine for 
November 1838 (Spiers) I published a paper called " Fugitive notices of the Dog," 
in which I remarked that Procyon (or Anti-Canis) the Shepherd's dog in the constel- 
lation Gemxnit which rises in July, was the origin of dogs being consecrated to the 
Lares or household deities, the earliest of which, as Stukely observes, were the Ante- 
diluvian Jabal and Jubal, guardians of a house, of whom the first was the magna Pales 
of Virgil and god of shepherds . V. Plate 6, No, 3. 

Another ditto. Square Temple. Qy. Serapium ? of Alexandria. 

Another Ditto. AYT TPAIAN. Two Centaurs. Plate 6, No. 4. 

Hadrian. AYT KAIC (ap) AIA AAPIAN. Rev. Female to the right. L.GNNG. 
AKA (ticaroT) I9th year. 

Another ditto.. .AIAN AAPIAN. Rev. Minerva helmeted ; to the right— in one 
hand a shield, in the other some plant, perhaps olive ; Z. seventh year, in the field. 

Another ditto, Quadriga (or Chariot) AYT AlA 

2a 



9^6 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

Another ditto. AYTK. KAIC. TPAIAN AAPIANOC C GB (aQog) Rev. LiH in 
the field (I8th year) Pharos of Alexandria (Isle and Tower) A Watch Tower or 
Light House built by Ptolemy Soter on an Isla nd opposite to Alexandria, once a mile 
distant, but joined to the Continent by the craft of Cleopatra, who out-manoeuvred the 
Rhodians thereby. In front is a Female, Isis Faria perhaps, or merely representing 
that city personified, with the aKpogoXiov or Prow (or as some say, Sail, Qy, inverted 
jib or gaff top sail ?) of a ship in her hand. Plate 6, No. 13. 

Another ditto. Rev, Minerva with Palladium, armed; in the field A (year 4) the 
rest defaced. 

Another ditto., the same, 

Another ditto. Osiris or Canopus, reclining on a Crocodile^ the emblem of the Sun, so 
imagined (v. A chill. Tat,) from the supposition that it has 365 teeth and is a personifica- 
tion of time, indicating a solar revolution. On Gnostic gems, (v. Walsh) it appears a 
composite symbol with 2 heads, one that of a harvJCf also representing the sun or Osi- 
ris. It was likewise the emblem of the evil genius Typhon. Herodotus tells us that on 
Lake Moeris and at Thebes, tame crocodiles were worshipped, decorated with earrings 
of gold and precious gems, with chains on their forelegs, and interred in sacred coffins 
after death. The crocodile was the living emblem of the Egyptian Seb, Sebek Ra, or 
Saturn, father of Osiris and Isis, and worshipped more particularly at Ombos ; he 
generally appears on a pedestal or seated on a throne with two other deities. The 
famous coin with this animal chained to a palm tree, of Nismes in France, is well 
known to antiquaries.* Aelian says a tame one was the favourite of Ptolemy Auletesj 
H. An. lib. 8. The deity holds an Egyptian plant in one hand, perhaps the lotus* 
though some may designate it a bull rush. 

Two others, same type, (delrited.) 

Twelve others, much defaced, one of which is a double-headed coin of Hadrian and 
Trajan, 

Antoninus Piiis, (elderly bust) with the Rev. of the Pharo s, as in that of Hadrian 
above; The inscription on Obv. is AYTKT, AIA. AAP. ANTwNINOC CGB (agog) 
G^C (tvffe^rig) that is Pius. In the field L(annus) under the female AQAeKATOC, 
(12th year.) 

Another ditto ; L. Z. (7th year) Pharos as above. 

Another ditto; splendid Quadriga LIH, ( year 18.) 

Another, ditto ; Charioteer, Quadriga, and groom at Horse's heads ; AYTK. M, 
AY. ANTQNeiNOC C6 (^agog.) Plate 6, No. 6, LIH (year 18.) 

Another ditto ; Isis suckling Orus, on Rev. ; the Egyptian Ceres, and general 
emblem of maternal and vegetable fecundity. On coins of Hadrian she often appears, 
suckling Orus, with a waterpot behind her, water, the emblem of fecundity, consisting 
in moisture. 

Another ditto. Rev. Eagle with legs and wings expanded, as the Colossus of 
Rhodes was, K A, (year 21) in the field. On the obverse, laureated elderly bust, to the 
right. AYTKT. AIA, AAP. ANTwNINOC. 

* Very like the Boar iu Guillim's Heraldry ; armed, grilled, collared, and chained, OR, tyed to a 
Holly Bush on a mount in base, both proptr. (Arms of OWEN .) 



OF EXBTBR. 9J 

Another, daFaced. Female with trid?nt, and a long Egyptian plant, or Mub pro- 
bably, in her hand. 

Severus, bearded, and Caracalla on Rev. (Double faced coin) Obv. Ir (13th year) 
Rev.KAIC(ap) CGB(i;po<r) for Sc/Sjypof, His Egyptian coins rare. V. Pinkerton, p. 
299, vol. 2. 

Zbnobia, called also Septimia« once the unwilling vassal of the haughty Aurelian ; 
Queen of Palmyra. V. Pinkerton, vol. 2, p. 256 (small brass) Ruled over Egypt and 
Syria as well as Palmyra (the Aram-Zobah of Scripture) Her Egyptian coins RRR. 
Head of Zenobia to the right. Rev. Head of Odenatus her husband, or Gal lienusl 
AYT. Indistinct inscription on obverse ..NwBIA seemingly. Her coins are all 
rare, and all of Alexandria. For Encomium v. Gibbon, also Gent. Mag. 1776, p. 366* 
" She was descended from the Macedonian kings of Asia, equalled in beauty her an- 
cestor Cleopatra, and far surpassed that princess in chastity and valour.*' How came 
she to expose the excellent Longinus to destruction, to save herself from the retribution 
of Aurelian ? Plate 6, No. 6. 

Small brass of Alexandria and some uncertain cities. 
Sbverus and Caracalla (3rd size) Severus with unicorn's horn, CON,, ..RM,... 
on the field, Ir (I3th year) a pig and Caracalla's head on Rev. (probably a weight) 
Small coin of Caracalla, AYTK. AYP. ANT. Rev. turreted head . QNAP, 

Another. AYTKT. AYP. ANT turreted female head, QP. Macrinus ; bust 

to the right, C. M AEP. Rev. turreted head. Two coins, turreted female heads, de- 
faced. 

Claudius Gothicus, AYT, KAAYAIOC. C6B: Fortuna with her cornucopia 
and rudder. Another ditto. Sparrow Hawk LB, (2nd year) 

Probus. Rev. Eagle and Thunderbolt. Cornelia Supera, wife of Aemilianus 
(v. Eckhel) about 254, A. D. KOPNHAIA CeB(acij) Rev. Female LIB. (12th 
year) rare. Seventeen others of Alexandria, of Claudius 2nd, Dioclesian, (Hawk,) 
. . NOC. Aurelian (Fortuna.) Hadrian (female in subsellio) small, an Amazon or Di- 
ana, lEPA. Another coin ; laureated head to the right j Rev. a figure seated, some ani- 
mal alongside PHAHPO. Severus and Caracalla, the latter's head within a square or 
rotunda. Also another, (uncertain.) Pharos of Alexandria, AAEfiJAN. &c. 

Imperial Greek Colonial Coins, 

Cybrhus in Syria, (Quart) Commodus, small (join ; young head, KOMMOAOC 
CGB. Re?. Jupiter sealed; a thunderbolt at his feet. eGoC. KAT6 Cj3aroe) ev- 
idently of Cyrrhus, ox Cyrrheslica^ in Syria, of which the coins bear Kt/ppj/^wv as 
their legend. (V. Akerman, Num. Journal 8, p. 225, on stone worship of the ancients.) 
One of these was dug up near Broadgate, in 1823. 

Antioch, inSyria, (ad Orontera) built by Seleucus \{Anta1cia) Riblah, and Hamath of 
Scripture, Riblata of Josephus, Epidaphne and Theopolis of others. Elagabalus ? two 
coins. (3rd brass) On one of these (bust to the right) M. AYP. ANT. ; Reverse a 
Female turreted head to the right ,...ANAA (A & A ligature or monogram) VeX 
above, COL, MET. ANT. Colonia McrpoTroXtwc AvrC£iwX"ava.) (Qy. AV€X for 
AAGX, transposed.) Jhe other is much mutilated ; the words ANT. ... visible on its 
reverse. Plate, 6. No, 9, 



98 GREEK ANTIQUTIES 

A cofnofAntioch, among others (with the above of Cyrrhus &c.) was dug up in 1823 
near Broadgate, and came into the possession of T. Northmore, Esq. of Cleeve. I 
have seen it ; it bore the inscription ANTIOXEQN EHI KOYAaPATOY, which 
Quadratus was governor of Syria in the time of Nero — also ET A6. 10th year. Ram 
running to the right, and star. 

Massy coin of Chalcis in Coele Syria,* (Chinserin) (supp, of Trajan) Rev. across 
the field *A. XAAKIA6QN, thus, that is, Flaviensium Cfialcidensium. It was situated 
E. towards Damascus, and gave the title of King to Ptolemy Mennseus^ and his son 
Lysanias ; afterwards Herod Agrippa, 4th» King of Judea, was entitled King of Chal- 
cis. Erizzo mentions a coin of this city, which he erroneously ascribes to Euboea, 
There are some of this place in the Bodleian collection, of Trajan and Hadrian, with 
KE. &c. (year 25.) 

SiNGARA in Mesopotamia, on the Tigris (Sinjar) (Gordian 3rd.) The reverse pre- 
sents a turreted female head to the left, above a Centaur shooting (AYP. SGII) KOA 
CINrAPA. This strong fortress vras a Colony of Severus, and called Aurelia Sep- 
imia on coins. Gordian, we are told by Zosimus, on his Parthian expedition, was 
at Carrae and Nisibis, in the vicinity of Singara, This fortress was captured by the 
Persians, in the early part of the reign of Julian, after a noble defence by its garrison 
and the two legions (Ima Flavia and Ima Parthica.) V. Amm. Marc. lib. 20. Sin- 
gara also appears on coins of the Gordians, seated on a rock, veiled, holding ears of 
corn— a Centaur above. Obv. M. AN. rOPAIANOC. C6B. 

Zeugma in Syria Commagene, on Euphrates, {Zekme,} Obv. bearded head to the 
right ....ITIAKOY. Rev. Castle, tetrastyle Temple, or Tower of Zeugma, on a 
mount ; ladder or staircase each side. SGYrAIATeaN, (Coins of this City RR.Goltz.) 
Plate 6,No, 10. Zeugma is mentioned four times in the Itinerary of Antoninus, and was 
a strong city and Castle, near the borders of a vast desert, on a passage over Euphrates. 
It had a Temple on a high Rock, first built by Vespasian, and repaired by Caracalla* 
Pliny. 34), c. 16, mentions a mighty chain, with which Alexander it was said, fastened 
the bridge. V. also Ammian. Marc. 18. 8, Statius Sylv. 5. 3. v. 187. Zeugmate 
Persen. &c. Another of Zeugma, detrited, (supp. Elagabalus) Bust to the right, 
and the castle or Temple on Rev. as before. This city, well recorded by Strabo, lib. 
16, Geog. Another of ditto, M, Aurelius, Rev. within a wreath. zEYrMATEiiN. In 
the field r (year 3) within a wreath, Plate 6, No. 8. 

Amisus on Euxine,inPonto Galatia (Amid.) Plate, 6, No; 7. This city struck many 
coins, and the present one is similar to that in the Bodleian collection (gazS. BodleianS) at 
Oxford, bearing a beardless head hooded or helmeted {caput imberbe, cucullatum sive 
galeatum) and on Rev, a column or quiver, probably (cui simulachrum ut videtur im- 
positum) with an image on the top, AMISO. In silver, an Eagle, a Pegasus and 
quiver, appear on its reverses (v. Wise, nummi Urbium et Popm, Scriniis Bodleianis 
recondm. 1760.) In Arrians' Periplus of the Euxine, this city is noted as an Athenian 
Colony, IloXt? EXX»|vt^ *AdijvaiMv airoiKor, It stood 900 stades from Sinope. Stra- 
bo calls it 'A/iiflro<r a^ioXoyof, or worthy of commmemoration, lib. 12, Pliny mentions 
it lib. 6, cap. 3, and Mela 1, 19, as a city of the Chalybes, who abounded in Iron 
mines. Its mint or officina monetariaf noticed by Poly cenus 7, c. 21, Petit in his 

* Cbalcidene. 



^ ■ <.- i*TA 



OP SltBTER. 99 

excellent work on the Amazons, or warlike female tribes, on the Euxlne and Thermo- 
don, (Amsterdam, 1687) dilates largely concerning this city, and gives us a coin from 
Car. Patinus, representing it under the guise of an Amazon, with the double axe or 
tomahawk, joining hands over an altar with another female, who personates the neigh- 
bouring city Amastris, with the inscriptions AMICOC and AMACTPIC. The Ama« 
cons are fabled to have first built it. 

HiERAPOLis in Syria Cyrrhestica, Bambuk (supp. Hadrian.) Sephar-vaim of 
scripture. Rer. GEAC CYPIAC IGPAHO. Commemorative of Astarte. 

Antioch in Syria, ad Orontem (Antakia,) Obv. Jupiter seated, spear and 
thunderbolt. Rev. ANTIOXq MHTPOnOA, across the field. 

Antioch. Caracalla (Four.) Obv. AVTOKPATOP ANT.... Rev. S. C. in large 
letters within a wreath — below, Eagle ; above, A. 6. for StjfiapxiKrjg •c^ecrtac (or 
populi jussu, Trib, Pot, &c.) Implying the coin was minted by public authority. 

Another of Gallibnus, S. C, A. £. the same. Four others of uncertain Princes, (all 
of Antioch.) Clazombn^ (now Vourla, between Smyrna and Scio) or more likely An- 
tioch. (Three.) Obv. Turreted head. Rev. a Ram running to the rights • . . QN ; a star 
aboYe. (Probably of Antioch if not of this city.) Cyzicus ? {Chizico) Bust to the right. 
Rev. a Lion. Another, a cow. Sidon, male and female Bust to the right. Rev. a Galley 
(2) lAQNOS eGAS, small concave or oval coin. Another ditto. Galley.* Samosata, 
(Scempsai) capital of Syria Commagene, Aram Maachah of scripture. (Uncertain on 
what ffira) small ; head of Cybele (much detrited.) Coin of Severus or Caracalla ; Rev. 
of some Barbarian king, ally to the Romans (perhaps of Edessa or Osroene, like Ab- 
garus) in a high grenadier fur cap, or tiara, with sceptre. Rhegium in Italy, (Reggio) 
(Adrian) colonized from Messenia, 723, B. C, nine years after Syracuse was from 
Corinth. Rev. Lyre of Apollo, PHFINQN. A Cohmodus ; Rev. Female figure, (un- 
known, the legend defaced) Antiochus IX. (Cyzicenus) of Syria, Philopator, 1 12, 
B. C, uncle of Seleucus VI. (Pinkerton 2, p. 244) killed himself 93, B. C. Rev. a 
Thunderbolt ANTIOX... ^lAoHAToPoC. Another do. S above P in the field. 
A 3rd. do. Another, perhaps of Evergetes. Rev. Cap of Osiris and two horns. In 
J. Wildes' Num. Ant. (p. [37, 1692) this King of Syria, Philopator, is noted as the 
son of Antiochus Evergetes, or Sidetes, by Cleopatra, and brother of Antiochus Gry- 
phus, or Philometor ; called Philopator on medals, bat Cyzicenus by writers. He was 
conquered by Seleucus, son of Gryphus, 96, B. C. (V. Joseph. Ant. Jud. lib. 13, c. 21— 
Trogi. P. Proleg. lib. 40) With respect to the Thunderbolt, I will here add that at Se- 

* A Phoenician coin has been noticed by Poiwhele as f onad at Teignraouth. The one here noticed 
of Sidon. is a memorable one, belonging to the most ancient maritime city of Phoenicia, and the no^ 
themmost of all those which were assigned to the tribe of Asher, beyond which the country opens to 
the East into a rich and fertile valley, with mount Libauus on the North and Anti-Libanus on the 
South, and named from Sidon, son of Canaan, or as imagined by others, from Sida, daughter of Belus. 
Greek ones of this city have already been found however at Exeter, with a rude galley, the words 
XIAANOZ eSAZ, and were to be seen in another collection. Two others were found at Broadgate in 
1823. This city was the mother of Tyre, noted for the skill of its inhabitants, called (Zechariah, 
Chap. 9. V. 2) the wise Sidonlans, from whom Solomon and Zorobabel chose their ablest artificers for 
the temple. The Phoenician trade to these parts for tin, lasted for three centiwies at least, per- 
baps from 450 B. C. tiU the Greeks came here, 110. B. C., and ExeUr waa a trading city for ages before 
London. 

2 B 



100 GRBEk ANTIQlTTlES 

leqcia, a ooble city of Syria, it was the favourite symbol, appearing upon an altar, on 
its coins, and was consecrated and adored as Jove himself. Appian of Alexandria, in 
his Syriaca, (cap. 125) tells us that after Seleucus Nicator,its founder, was sacrificing 
on Mount Casius, and consulting the auguries about a felicitous spot for building a 
City, he followed that of a thunderbolt falling in a certain region, called Pieria, in the 
Mediterranean, where Jupiter was worshipped under the name of Ceraunus, in 
after times. On coins of Elagabalus, of that city, the symbol appears as above, C6- 
AeVKeON. 

Serkata Numismata, of Syrian princes ; eight ; on one is a hare head and horse's head, 
which last is the symbol of a maritime people and of Carthage ; on another. Elephant's 
head, and horse, Jobert alludes to these saw edged coins, which he calls dentelez. Calf, 
oxhead and oval weights or weight money, are known of great antiquity.* Coin, 
Imperial bearded head, laureated ; Rev. female sittiug, PHAHPO. A very ancient coin, 
with a Bull standing to the left on Rev. (Qy ? of Gela, Parium, or Euboea ?) 

British ".Coins (two) on one a wheel,t the other a horse. Roman Consular coin, of 
copper washed with silver ; Rev, Bigae, or chariot ; (uncertain of what family.) Roman 
weight or As LibraliSf as usual with the Janus Geminus, on obv., and Galley 
and 7 Roma on reverse. (V. Akerman, Descr. Cat. vol. 1, p. -3) being the J s or 
piece of 12 uncite. Another, large laureated head, inscribed on Rev. (as in the 
Plate 9, No. 1.) The characters seem to be, ist letter, Oscan ligature, R T, next, 
MAX, CI ; the 5th is the Samnite and Oscan M. ', 6th III, Oscanand Samnite ligature, 
the last, L, Etruscan, Oscan, and Samnite. Among the very many Roman coins, found 
along with this hoard of Grecian money, I shall only notice an Aelia Flacilla, 3rd. 
brass (corona gemmatS) first wife of Theodosius ; Rev. Salus Reip. ; A victory or sto- 
lated female. Rare. (V. Akerman, Des. Cat. vol. 2, p. 335.) A Tacitus, dementia 
Temp, Radiated bust, CMCL. Mars Pacifer with olive, spear &c, Carinus, € xxi. 
exergue ; Two figures. Virtus Augusti. Several of Philip, Valerian, &c. one of the 
former of which, with Milliarinm, above, COS. and S. C. (SARM. in the field.) 
Copper Bezants, or coins of the Roman Eastern Empire, from Constantinople. 

DN. IVSTINIANVS on Obv. DN, Dominus Noster. CM 

. Aera of Justinian or Phocas. (3rd brass) Effigy of Christ, full faced with the wim- 
6m* on the head IC. JXC. the Greek Initials and termination of J. Christ. Rev. Mono- 
gram of the Cross. Another do, 
Phocas, (610 A.D.) standing— holds a globe, (A,) and the hasta. Rev, C A 

A coin defaced ; CANT, XX, Rev. a Horseman galloping to the right. Nimbus round 

♦ H. Brandreth Esq. observe*, on Stycas. " The Ishekel or shekel of the Jews means a weight, such 
as were used in Egypt, in the reign of Thothmes 3rd, 1495, B. C. It also means an Ox, probably the rea- 
son why weights took the names and forms of calves and ox heads, and is the diminution of EK, TK, 
or Ych : in the Welsh tongue Eekel might mean cattle. The calf weight was a pound, ox head, half 
a pound, and oval balls, 3 oz. each, origin of As, Semi- As, and Quadrans of the Bomans. 

f Wheel Money. V. Akerraaii's Manual, p. 217. 



Justinian I., Nephew of Justin, died 565, A. D. Rev. 



OP BXETBR. 101 

Uie head. Barbarous fabric. (Phocas ?) Justin 2nd. (678 A. D.) Re?. NlV/r g 

A A O 

CoNSTANS 2nd. and his sons Heracllus and Tiberius. (Son of Heraclius and Gre- 

goria, 668, A. D.) Diadem surmounted by a Cross. Rev. ^-_"*'_.v 
Coined in the 20th year of his reign. N IV/r 

o e ^ 

CONSTAMS. I C I X C 

(Jesus Christ conquers) N I ) KA 

Coin. Large bust to the right. Rev. in large characters, IjjSUS XRISTUS, BACl- 
AGUS BACIaGwN. 



W 



t 



Some other coins thus : ^BS^ aT K I IVTk 



M E 



N icephorus Phocas ? (969 A.D.) ^ 

NIC on obv. with bust. ^ 

2 Thus, and on Rev. ^ 

50 



4t4 



1812. 
Greek Coin of Agrigentutn, in Sicilif. 

A coin of this ancient City, was dug up close to the Castle wall. It bore the usual 
type of an eagle, driving or tearing a hare, and the reverse of a Crab. Also the large 
countermark of a head, something like Mionnets ietes barbares or Gauloises^ Which 
some have, though erroneously supposed to be the head of a British Prince, when re- 
issued for circulation in our Island, whence it may have found its way to our Tin Marts 
here from Sicily, Mr. Akerman asserts, that such coins occur on the site of Agrigen- 
tum, with this countermark, (V. Corresp. Num; Chron. July, 1838.) This coin is in 
the possession of the Re/. F. V. I. Arundel 1, of Landulph, near Devonport, and was 
communicated to the Editor of the Num. Journal, at the request of T, Burgon^ Esq., 
one of our ablest Numismatists. It was not considered by Mr. A. of decided proof^ 
but other coins of Sicily v/ere dug up in 1823, near Broadgate, which prove this was 
not the only one. The Crab alludes to the steep and rugged rocks of Mount Agragasorof 
the neighbouring coast; and the eagle to the unrelenting spirit, perhaps, of the inhab- 
itants of this great City. In Lord Northwick's collettion, is a beautiful medal of this 
City, with two Eagles over the Hare. The temple of Jupiter, miscalled that of the 
Giants, is the principal Agrigentine ruin of interest remaining. The people of this 
ancient city, now Girgenti, 60 miles from Palermo, said by some to be a colony from 
Rhodes or Ionia, were so magnificent and luxurious, that it was reported of them, 
"that they built as if they should never die, and ate as if they were sure to live no 
longer." They traded with Tyre, SidoUj and Africa, as well as parts of Sicily. 

1823. 

Coins found after taking down Broadgate, acar which were also dug up 120 coins, 



102 GRBBK ANTIQUITIES 

of the lower Empire, and Constantines,&c. Dynasty of Ptolemies, kings of Egypt. 

Copper coin ; Obv. head ofa Ptolemy ; laureated, BASlAEOSto the right. Rev. Eagle, 
(uncertain which.) 

A smaller do. ( 3rd brass.) head ofa Ptolemy, to the left, laureated. Rev. Eagle, 
Hiero I. king of Syracuse, brother of Gelon, prince of Gela. Obv. bearded head fillet- 
ed, to the left. Rev, IEPQN0S;3under, a horseman curvetting, spear couched; alludes 
to his victories at the Olympic games, which inspired the muse of Pindar, He was 
unpopular with his subjects from covetousness, and died 467, B. C. 

Two others ditto, (3rd brass.) A 4th ditto, a horse pawing up the ground. 
All of Hiero. 

A double headed coin. Obv, a large head. Rev. another busf^ countermarked 
AVR. monogram or ligature, A. and V. 

Small massy coin of Syracttse ; within a wreath of ears of corn ; SYPAKOSIQN. 
Obv. female head . 

A silver coin of this city, of massy fabric, most likely a Didrachmon, was found 
at Truro, (Cornwall,) in the mines at Mopas ; in the 2nd syllable, H for A, in the 
name of Syracuse, was the difference. ( SYPHKOSIQN.) 

Sidon.' Two massy coins, one 2nd, the other 3rd Brass. Two fishes on each side 
ofa Tripod, gONQ (AI g) retrograde, A thick coin; obv. Bearded head. Rev. Bi" 
gee. C. A smaller dp. Bigcs; obv. a female head, evidently Roman Consular or Fa- 
mily coins. 

Several small coins with the helmeted head, apparently [of Pallas, and on Rev. the 
Sign Capricorn, probably of that famous city Anazarbus in Cilicia, called also Dia 
Caesarea, and Caesar Augusta, and repaired by Augustus. We are aware that this 
composite sign or symbol was the Dagon of scripture, the same as the Neptune of the 
Philistines at Ashdod or Azotus *' upwards man and downwards fish," when the " cap 
tive ark maimed his brute image.*" V. 1, Sam. cap. 5. It was the Osiris of Egypt, the 
goddess Dirceto, half 9t;omara, half Jtsh, and the Vishnu of India.f (Also is on the coin»^ 
of Augustus and Vespasian, who as well as Cosmo de Medicis and Charles V., were 
all supposed to be born under this horoscope.) Pan was changed into Capricorn- V» 
Walker, p. 245, on coins of Carausius and Gallienus, for Capricorn. 

Coins in the possession of Mr. Jos. Gard, of High Street, found in the excavations 
above St. George's Church, in Southgate or South Street in 1833. 

Trajan. Large brass coin of Alexandria; obv. AYTOK, TPAIANeiA... . , 

CGB. Rev. the River Nile as Osiris or Canopus, reclining on a Crocodile with the 
lotus, offspring of the waters, and the Cornucopia. L. AwAfiK (12th year,) V, Plate 
6, No. 11. 

Nic-EA, (supposed,^ near Sangarius River, in Bithynia? (Isnik) on Lake 
Ascanius, issuing from the Propontis, (217 A. D.) Obv. a defaced bust, (apparently.) 
Rev. C. AYT {'avrovonoq) NIK6«N KOA, The type as on coins of Samosata, occurs, 
of Cybele sitting on a rock, under her a man, as Euphrates, son of Arandax, with his 
head and arms above water, as some antiquaries assert, the river Euphrates in which 
he drowned himself, and gave name to it. A. epoch of reign. It is clearly of some au~ 

• MUton. Par. Lost, 
t Magog and Atergates ofHierapolU, PUn. H, N. 



Op BXETteR. 103 

tonoraous city, and the same reverse appears on coins of Antloch, typifying the Orontes. 
It generally represents a city sitting on the banks of a river. For Nicaea v. Strabo 

Geog; 12. Large thick coin (of bright copper.) Bust defaced, O.. , BA- 

CIAGOC, probably another coin of the Ptolemies and of Alexandria. 

DiocLESiAN, of Alexandria, (small brass) AK(IMP.) r(raioc). VA(/mu*) 
/^lOKAlTIAN (oc) Fortune with cornucopia and rudder. Aurelian, AYPHAIAN- 
OC. Rev. defaced. Claudius Gothicus, 269 A. D. AYT(Imp) M. KAAVaIOC 
C€B. An Eagle standing, L. B. year 2nd. Philip, (defaced) Rev. Dis or Pluto, 
crowned, perhaps the ludi Saculares, to Pluto and Proserpine, 1000 A. U. C. 43 
years after Severus. Mr. J. Y. Akerman says it is an emblem of the city, and a fe- 
male. L. S. in the field, year 6 ? Another, ditto ; AK. M. lOYAl. *IA. Hev. a 
victory. In the field L. r. 3d. year. 

A coin of some African colonj, much defaced. Elephant treading on a scorpion ; 
Symbolical of Africa, there being also many Numidian cities of note that were Roman 
Colonies. Samosata, in Syria, (detrited) supposed of Alex. Severus ; Cybele or Rhea 
turreted y go&t Araallhsea above, MHTPO. K0MM(ay)7Vi?C.) In the field u. E. 
and S. C. (7th legion there. V. Notit.) Coin bearing a cow, perhaps Cyzicus in Mysia 
(cow sacred to Proserpine ) A coin of some King of Syria, a Numisma serratum 
or dentel6e. There were also the following found at the same time. Copper Bezants. 
Justinian I, 666 A. D. (24th year.) The Capital I supposed to indicate the number of 
small pieces ioto which it was divided. (Jobert.) 

O 

NTX 
NlXt 

A nil 

Theophilus, 829 A. D. (probably) IjjSuS KRISTi;S. A. H. on Rer. Also 
Antoninus, (M. Aur.) S.C. Faustina, his wife, (Augusta) Hilaritas, S. C. Cybele, 
with fir branch of Atys.Constantine, Rev. the sun radiant ; also Gloria Exerciius, P. 
ARL. (coined at Aries) Constantius, P, F. AVG. Rev. Reparatio. {Fel. Temp,) 
SMNA (Sacra moneta Antiochena.) Another Ditto, Cora, gema* Glt)%\ Rom. ANIA 
(Antloch) Licioius the younger, FL. VAL. LICIN. LICINIVS, Rev. Jovi Conservato- 
ri, Jupiter with Victory and wreath. M.K, (Moneta Karnutensium)mintofCtor<re*, in 
France, (now Eure and Loire department) Constans P. F. AVG, three soldiers, 
Glor. Rem. AN T A. Antloch. Constantius, VOT. XX. and S.M. ANT. in exer- 
gue, all small brass. Three of Valcns, (cor. gem.) Victory with a wreath, and Se. 
euritas Reip. Virtus, Gloria Rom., all struck at Antioch. Theodosius, very small, 
(cor. gem.^ l^ev. supp. Concordia. Also three Arabic or Cufic coins. In April 1839, 
one of these being found in Exeter, in company with a Vespasian, I was induced to 
publish the following notice of these Arabic or Saracenic relics, some suspicion having 
been cast on the authenticity of coins found in company with them, as it appears that 
they are often met with by Coin-hunters in Syria and Asia Minor, along with Greek 
Coins.* Did these, as well as the Bezants, come over with the Crusaders 1 

* N«ar the Post Office, coin of Vespasian, much defoced. Rev. a Caduceus between two Cornu- 
copiae, or horns of abundance, a very common type, always emblematic of Felicity. Another coin 
much defaced, also with Arabic or Cuphic characters, was found In company with the preceding* 
Many such pieces of moaey havfaig l>een dug) up In Bzeter l>eloft, must hav« been introduced into 

2c 



104 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

Greek Coins found 
1834. 

Near the Cemetery, Bartholomew Yard, in January, in forming the Catacombs, on the 
ancient glacis of the city. 

Julia Mamm^ea C2nd brass) mother to the Emperor Alexander Severus, priest 
of the sun, with Elagabalus, before he accepted the purple, (V. Herodlan.) She was 
daughter to Julia Msesa, and sister to the 2nd wife of the first Severus, who was 
daughter of the Priest of the Sun, at Emesa, in Syro Phoenicia, famous for its Temples 
of the Sun, Mammaea was wife of V. Genecius, a Syrian, and by some said to be a 
pupil of Origen, and a christian convert. Obv... . .Bust of Mammsea, AIA. MAM6A. 
C6b. Rev. Female with cornucopia, holding a rudder and reclining as it appears on 
the prow of a Ship, AQN. name of the province or city effaced, all except these three 
final letters. I am unable to assign the place to which the coin belongs. Zosimus, 
lib, 1, calls her Mamaia, She was assassinated with her son, by Maximin, after hold- 
ing a principal sway in the court, for nearly 14 years. This coin was in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Carter, of High Street, Silversmith. 

March 12th, Supposed Greek coin of Mseonia, or Lydia ; New Market. A cast 
of this coin was transmitted by me to my Antiquarian correspondent, C. R. Smith, 
Esq. London. He, however, supposes it to be an attempt at coinage by the Roma- 
nized Britons. The Obverse is certainly that of Britannicus, and the Reverse, 
evidently blundered , has the figure of Mineira Promachus^ so usual on the Reverses 
of Claudius, struck retrograde, with the S. C. thus q. cc The inscription seems to 
be i\[EIO^AlQN, as far as the eff'orts of a bad Mint-master, and of a cast or molten 
coin can make any thing certain or discernable on this Reverse, The coin 
was brought to me by a labourer, of the name of Moore, with an ordinary coin of 
Claudius, found ten feet under an old foundation, 

December 10th. In the Westgate Quarter, along with a small bronze, of Julius 
Caesar, which will be described elsewhere, and some other Roman coins, one of which of 
Alex. Severus. A Lucius Verus, of Amphipolis ; (1 assigned it to that of Syria, on the 
Euphrates, or confines of Arabia, as Syrian coins abounded at Exeter, although others 
may be induced to consider it of Macedonia. The Syrian city rose out of the ruin» 
ofThapsacus, (Plutarch in Alexandro) and was opposite to the Chaluaean shores, 
near the Palmyrean desert ; KAI(SAP) A( Lucius) APYH (Aurelius.) He was 
colleague of M. Aurelius, A D. 161. Rev. AM$in(oXir«v) NEQ(K)o(pw)N— r- 

Europe about tbe year 1300, a.d., by Traders, when the Soldans of Egypt, of the fifth dynasty or Cif' 
cassian and Mameluke race, (who succeeded the Caliphs or Turkish kings) restored the oTerland 
passage by the Red Sea to India. Unless we are to imagine that they came from the Saracens, (ori- 
ginally Arabs of Petreea) who had extended their empire'over Persia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, and Spain 
before 832, ad. For in fact they had also then conquered Sicily, and introduced the pointed arch of 
architecture (falsely styled Norman) every where. Cuphic characters are traced on Churches in 
Palermo in Sicily, built of stones from Saracenic buildings, erected when Arabic was commonly spo- 
ken there; on the NUometor of Cah-o, ( 859 ) the Mosque of Teyloun. (ST9) and of Hakem, (1003.) 
The pointed arch was also carried, into Persia, Syria, India and Constantinople by the Saracens. 
Their Inscriptions are still to be seen at Palermo in Sicily, and at Pozzuolli near Naples. The coins 
with Cuphic or Arabic charaeters must have came to England from them, by traders for the Tin o 
Devon aud Cornwall, for it was found na where else. 



^fPITj. EXETER. 105 

A figare seated, or in subscttio witfi a goatskin, as it would seem, on its left arm, in 
its right a Patera' The Neocori were cities privileged to have sacred games and 
devotions to their gods end the reigning Emperors, literally in the Greek, 2Vmp/e 
Sweepers^ but really one of the highest honours ihey could enjoy, (V. Acts 19, v. 36, 
ofEphesuSfin many respects a useful Numismatic reference,) A Phceniciau coin, 
Berytus; although not wilh a Greek inscription, I have placed it here, being Colonial 
and of as great importance as any other of that description. Severus and Caracalla ; 
not Conjugate, but with the two busts fronting each other; SEPTIMIVS SEVER.,.. 
JCev. an ancient Temple or Rotunda, within is a small Victory,crowning an image, pro- 
bably Security. On each side of the steps of the Temple COL. BBR. Berytus ^as 
a colony on the coasts of the Mediterranean, near Sidon, re-edifled and called, iFelix 
Julia, by the Romans, and noticed by Pliny, and by Mela 1, 12, as Berytos. It was also 
known as Colonia Berytus, L. V. (Legio Quinta.) Pinkerton, vol. 2, p. 271, Col. 
Aug. Pel. Ber. &c. It is now well knovrn as Beyrouty or Barutti, and was originally 
Geris, from Gergeshi, 5th son of Canaan, but took its new name from Berith, a Phoe- 
nician Idol, adored by its inhabitants, (V. Heylyn Syria, 1660.)* The inscription on 
this Rev. is ANTONINI COS. Ill, alluding to Caracalla, assumed as colleague in 
the Empire, with Geta, by their father, with whom they made a campaign into North 
Britain, where he died, A. D. 211. Tryphon destroyed this city, as we are told, in 
the Maccabsean Wars, between the Syrians and Jews ; but it was honoured with the 
privileges of a Roman City, by Augustus, and both Herod and Agrippa took pains to 
bring it into notice. Berytus also struck money, in honour of Elagabalus, and became 
an Episcopal see, in the christian times, and a mercantile city. (Lately captured by 
o British force.) In Mr. Carter's collection. 

1838. 

April 6. Milk Lane. Young Caracalla, (3rd brass.) Antiocfa ; Obv. bust to 

the right CC. AYTK. M. A NOC. C Rev. S. C. within a laurel 

wreath, above A 6 for ^t^/x. c^scr. below an eagle. 

In June. Broadgate. Supposed coin of Elis, (Achaean league,) or of some city, 
bearing among other symbols on Rev. a Digamma, or double F of the ancient iEolians. 
Edm. Dickinson, mhis Delphi Phcenidzantes, 1865, has most ably explained how 
the Romans took Vesta, vinura, vesper, ver, and other words from the Greeks, chang- 
ing the aspirate for the .^olic digamma. 

April 23. Hoard of Greek and Egyptian coins, found on a spot near Poltimore, by a 
labourer, digging in a potatoe field, and collected by Mr. J. Campbell, t of St. Sidwells . 
Unfortunately several others previously found had been disposed of. They may have 
been hoarded in the Saxon times. 

* ^Judges 8, 33. 

t From the poiition of these relics, directly in advance of the Ro man summer camp at Khisbton, 
«nd poinllng towards the Black Down Hills and Hembury Ford, to which the old road ran by the way 
of Broadclist Heath, it Is clear that such memorials must refer to some subordinate oatpost or picquet 
of the Roman garrison at Exeter, in advance of their forts at Duryard and Killerton, and near to Pol- 
timore. They are also in the line of the famous Roman road called the Fossbwat, (from Somerset- 
ahlre), running by Talewater, Talaton common,, and Whimple. to which the old B roadelist road mtist 
have communicated. Some of the old villagen had preserved other coins of the above description, 
lor some years, as pocket pieces. 

The ezteosion of the Greek language all ov«r th* Roman fimpUe, is well kiioWD,.«ad the fact of its 



166 GRBEfe ANTIQtJlTrES 

Alexandria. Female Bust* (I assign these three first to Cleopatra 3rd, frotn the 
likeness of the Busts) to the right ; hair cirrated on the neck ; a stroppus or garland 
round the head ; if of Cleopatra in reality, they remind us of a Princess whose charms 
and policy, by her alliance with Julius Ceesar and M. Antony, preserved and aggran- 
dized the kingdom of Egypt. Much limed. Rev. Eagle to the left, HTOAEMAIOY 
BACIAEOC. A second ditto, much delrited; same Inscr. Eagle. A third ditto; 
on the field, 62, Same Inscr. Eagle. A fourth coin ; male bust to the right. Rev, 
Eagle; Climed,) HTOAEMAIOY, in the field ; a. Fifth year. 

Antiochus IX, of Syria. Philopator and Cyzicenus. Rev. Thunderbolt. *IAo- 
IIAToPoS; above OX. 
Two large brass Medallions, of Alexandria. — Adrian; bust to the right, 

APIAN. Rev. two soldiers or warriors with spears and the Military cloak or 

lacerna on their shoulders, probably Adrian and Antonine, after the adoption of the 
latter. Antoninus Pius ; Laureated bust to the right. Rev. Eagle with wings and 

legs expanded. AYTKT. AIA. AAP. 

Roman Colonial or Imperial Coins. 
Marcus Aurelius, Samosata in Syria Commagene, on Euphrates. (Arata Maa- 
chah) Obv. bust to the right, filleted; AVT. KAI. MAP. AVR. Rev. Head of 
Cybele, turreted to the right; in front a star; above a goat (Amalthsa) eGAC^ 
KOM (nayrfviov) K6QN (NtoKOfiwv) Another, much detrited, the same. It was Head 
Quarters of the 7th Legion in later times. Double headed coin of Severus, (small) Obv. 
bust to the right, AYTK. Rev. Head of some barbarian Ally of Rome, as Abgarus of 
Edessa, or some king of Armenia, who aided the Romans with their archers against 
the Parthians ; he wears a high fur cap or tiara, like a grenadier's cap,t and bears a 
sceptre in front : the legend is CYGGVC — but of whom is unknown. C^sarea, in 
Cappadocia (now Kaisar.) Gallus, (killed A. D. 254, at Interamna in Urabria.) 

• Similar busts are ascribed to Tryphen a, daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, by Baudelot de Bairval, 
Hist, of Auletes, p . 148, 1698. 

The Greek kings of Egypt, who succeeded Alexander, a Iways appear on their medals in the Grecian 
style, but on Egyptian monuments in an Egyptian dress, the former not always indicating the indi- 
vidual. Themedalof Clbopa.tr A is said to be of no value as a portrait. V. Rossllxni Jconografia 
Greca. 

tQy. Kuzzilbash ? of the East. 

reaching by inscriptions from the valley of the Nile and the Delta, to the obelisk of Axum, in Abys- 
sinia, and established by the works of art belonging to the Ptolemaean age and that of the Romans, 
proves how intimately that nation became blended with the Egyptians, till at last the Greeks of Egypt, 
and Romans also, mingling in Isiac worship, almost forgot their primitive character. Levies of such 
foreign troops in various parts of the Roman Empire, would probably lead to this strange amalgamation 
of Syrian and Egyptian coins in Britain, which seems to have been, except in a few instances, confined 
to our county and city. At any rate, many of them must have been long in circulation as specie from 
the difference of the epochs, even perhaps in the Saxon times. The outpost was probably kept up 
subsequent to the departure of the Romans from Britain ; and as we find that the 4th wing of British 
horse served in Egypt, under the Romans, and the 26th cohort in Armenia, we are equally justified in 
supposing that Egyptian and Syrian soldiers guarded the South of Britain at the same period, as the 
Syrian horse we find were in the interior (v. Notit.) of the province, and a detachment of Moors at 
Abaliab^, or Watch Cross, in Westmoreland, on the wall of Severus. both in the beginning of the 
5th Century. The W. Saxons may have howflver used these coins, from a paucity of their own circu- 
lating mediunt, 



OF SXBTBR. 107 

Obv. bust to the right, AYTOK. K (aioap) OYlB (Vibius) T (Taioc, Caius) TP(7B 
(onianus) TAAAOC ; Rev. Eagle with expanded wings (in exergue S. C. below.) 
Between his legs Z (off 7ma.) and the inscription is the Greek for Trib. potest. 
AHMAPX esOYCIAC. Gallus or Trebonianus reigned 3 years. Small Egyptian 
coio. Obv. Galeated head to the right; also laureated, seemingly of Constantino. 

nOAIC. Rev. Frog between a wafeMilly, and bull rush, or bi/blus, AN- 

TONIMA .MGT. Maecenas used a Krog as a Seal, (v. Plin. Alex. ab. Alex. 

Kirkmande Ann.) Its entrails used in divination by the 3/r/^t, and it was one of the Ten 
Plagues. Bryant notices the Frog worship of Egypt; it was like the lotus, emblemati- 
cal of the productive qualities of the waters. 

Found in preceding years, on the same ground and about the fields, Constantius, 
Fel. Temp. Reparatio, Horseman &c. exergue ANT. area T. Another ditto, Two 
Captives. Constaotine; .Jovi Conservatory CAESS. NN. at his feet a bird, in exergue 
PLN. Small ditto; Fel. Temp. Rep. ANA. Valentinian, Gloria Reipublicse, Va- 
lens. Gloria Rom. (Antloch) all small brass. Also Antoninus Pius. Radiated bust. 
TR. POT. XXir. COS, II. and on Rev. S. C. Female with thyrsus, on a staff, a 
wreath inscribed inside VIC. Gordian 3rd. Pius. Bust to the right, IMP. GORDI- 
ANVS. PIVS. FEL. AVG. Rev. P. M. TR. P. III. COS. P.P. Female with staff 
and pa'.era, sacrificing. S. C. (about 244 A. D.) 

Imperial Egyptian Coins ; 

Trajan (large brass) bust to the right, defaced. Nile as before, reclining on a Cro- 
codile (defaced coin.) Adrian. AYTK. KAIC. TPAIAN AAP bust to 

the right; laureated. Rev. defaced ; Female (Alexandria) with Prow of Ship to the 
right. A Coin with a sort of cinque foil on both sides. Also of Roman coins. Adrian, 

(large brass) bust to the right RIAMVS AVG, Rev. two figures, shaking hands. 

Trajan. Radiated bust to the right: A NO. AVG. GERMANICO, &c. Rev. 

S P Q R (Optimo Principi.) Carus. IMP, C. M, AVR. CARVS, P. F^ AVG. 
(A. D. 2tt3) Rev. Two figures standing, holding a victory. Clementia Temp, A in 
the field. Bezant; obv. IC, XC. Effigy of Christ, seated, wimftMs round the head. 
HA. (unknown cf whom, probably about or subsequent to the 8th century.) 

Juno. Coins found at the distance of a field from the last. Hierapolis in Cyrrhes- 
tica, (Bambuk.) of Antoninus Pius. Bearded, bust to the left, ANTwNINOC, Rev. 
within an oaken wreath, GGAC CYPlAC IGPAHO (Xtrwv) in the field B.* Ditto, 

bearded, bust to the right AYTKT. AIA. AAPI N€INOC. Rev* ditto. 

IGPOIIO in a wreath of oak. Carrh.« in Mesopotamia. (Kappai, Zosim. lib- 3.) of 
Alexander Sevfrus, (235 A. D.) AYTK. M. A. C. (Severus) AAESANaPOC. 
Rev. (KAP)PHN<.»N, A sort of Landscape, perhaps representing the Altar on which 
sacrifice was offered to Gordian, as Mars Rotnanus^ or to the Dea Syria, at Carrha^ 
which had also a famous temple to the Moon, near which Herodian tells us, Caracalla 
was assassinated. Carrhse, afterwards a colony from Macedon, near the Ur of the 
Chaldees or birth place of Abraham, was the Haran of Scripture, Mesopotamia being 
the Aram Naharaim of Psalms 60, and 1 Chron* 19, 6v. andof2adSam. 10, 16v. 
It was a frontier garrison town of the Romans, and famous for the visit of the Emperor 
* Commemoratinir the worablp ofth* great Dw Bfria AttarU, in that City. 

2d 



108 GREEK ANTIQUITIES 

Julian. V. Amm. Marc. lib. 23, and for the defeat of Crassus by King Orodes in 
earlier times. (Xappav* v. Acts 7, 2-4v,) Piin. lib. 6, cap. 24. 

CoMMODus. Antioch. AK. M. AN. Bust to the right ; Rev. S. C. in the field A, 
and in Exergue A. g. dijfi. i^ov. all in a laurel wreath. An Alexander Severus, was 
also found, C; ALEXAND. Rev. a Temple or rotunda, and within it an image, (Pro- 
Tide)NTlA. A VG. a Lozenge shaped coin. Two Bezants ; the first, Obv. two figures 
seated, Justin and Sophia. DN. |VS. Rev. 



.V 



Elected Emp. of East, A. D. 665. O^^R > 
V. Akerm. Vol. 2, des. Cat. p. 404 

Another Obv, an Emperor and the Virgin Mary, standing, holding a cross between 
thero,DNI. Rev. full-faced efligy of Christ, standing, T€M, around his head the 
nimbus f (uncertain.) Thirteen small brass, mostly of Constantine and Valentinian, 
and including two of Arcadius, were found near the same spot. 

Here ends Mr. J. Campbell's collection from Poltimore, which village is three miles 
from Exeter, near the princely domain of the Bampfylde family, settled there since 
the time of Edward I. 

Coin of AuRELiAN, found the Autumn of the same year ; 

An Imperial Greek Coin, struck at Alexandria in Egypt, (fourth size) of copper, 
in beautiful preservation, dug up by Goldsworthy, one of Mr. Harvey's men. at the 
depth of nine feet, in making the sewer under Mr. Froom's, Druggist, North Street. 
This coin was struck in the sixth year of Aurelian, or 276 A. D., and bears a sparrow- 
hawk on Reverse, standing, with the Aspic or snake, the emblem of invincible power, 
transfixed by an arrow. Inscription on Obverse ; AK (Imperator, avroKparwp) A 
(Lucius) AOM (Domitius) AYPHAIANOC CEB (SejSaffrog or Augustus.) on Rev. 
in area S, with on the internal margin, the legend, ETOYC, year, signifying the sixth 
year of Aurelian, the year he was slain by Mucapor near Byzantium. A small Greek 
coin, much defaced, was also dug up in High Street, about the same time ; bearded 
head.t 

* The people of Carrhae had the epithet ot (HKofufjuuoh lovers of the Romans. 

t The frequent occurrence of these Alexandrian coins, in this part of Britain, proves that Egypt 
more than half fulfilled the designs of Alexander, after whose settlement it became thickly peopled, not 
only with Greeka. but also with strangers from all parts of the adjacent continents, and was as famous 
for merchandize, as for wit, learning, and philosophy. From the time of this great invading luminary 
of the ancient world, the history of Egypt may be considered as confined solely to the new capital 
Alexandria, the foundation of which produced an entire change in the national character, becomint; 
as Strabo calls it. fdytfcy i/txirogioy rrit otxaixivrts, the greatest mart and mercantile emporium of the Universe 
and styled by Ammianus " vertex omnium civltatum," the birth-place of the beauteous Hypatia. noted 
for the salubrity of its climate, for its inestimable libraries, and for the learning, science, and music 
•fits citizens. In the reign of Philadelphus. Egypt was the first power by sea, and had great pre- 
ponderance by[land, V. Theocrit, Idyll 7., in praise of Philadelphus, of his father Lagus, and mother 
Berenice. The old glories of this realm fprior to the invasion of Cambyses) the memory of Rameset 
ted, and the Memaonium, the lofty car of Sesostris, and the enterprising policy of Necho, were all 
merged la the new versatile and mighty Entrepot of the Lagidas. 

The commerce of that city of infinite riches , (juKrto^weuiiy v^, xoit avie^ttycv, Polyb 34.) Alexandria, 



OP EXETER. 109 

Clouted Cream of Devon. The thickened, conspissated, or curdled cream, com- 
•moii in all our Farm-houses, is of Egyptian origin, (acor jucundus of antiquity) it is 
supposed. A late trav«ller of distinction, and an Egyptian, M^ho yisited our city, ex- 
claimed on seeing it at the table of his worthy host, '* Why that is the same as what 
we make in Egypt, and call it the cream of the Pyramids ! !" Our cob walls are also 
supposed to be of the same origin. 



was divided into three principtl branches. The land trade over Asia and Africa, and the maritime la 
the Mediterranean, which, probably, brought her seamen acquainted with the British shores, as well 
M with Rhode!!, Corinth, Carthage, and Gades, in Spain. Lastly, the maritime trade in tlie Arabian 
Ouir. and also the Indian Ocean. One or the chief routes of the first merchants was over the distant 
Ozus and Caspian, to the mighty Euxine, and their Caravans extended throngh the adust plains of 
Syria and Mesopotamia, to the busy Phoenician ports, and the numerous wealthy Emporiums of 
Asia Minor. The intercourse with Africa was by Cyrene and into Ethiopia, for the purpose of pro- 
curing elephants and ivory. That with India I have already described from Cosseir and Berenice ; 
and the total revenue averaged 4 millions sterling, exclusive of the imposts paid in grain. The city 
was situated to the West of the Delta, and on a Promontory, opposite what was once the Island of 
Pharos, the sea covering it on one side, and the lake Mareotis on the other, to which its smaller har- 
boar, the busy seat of commerce, was united by a Canal, and another, proceeding from the lake. com> 
manicated with the Nile. Steam boats, carriages, and railroads, were all that was wanting to com- 
plete its commercial developements. printing and newspapers, for its epigrammatic denizena, and 
gunpowder and rifles, to protect its commercial travellers. 

Oasis qf AmmoH, Note to page 93. 

Mr. O. A. Hoskins. in 1837. visited this part of Libya. While at Thebes he went to the propylaeum 
of Karnak and resided in the tomb of Rameses the 5th. among the tombs of the Kings. He then visited 
the great Oasis from the summit of Hazel Bel Badah. 125 miles from the valley of the Nile, and came 
to the hieroglyph ical Temple of El Khargeh. The Oasis of Alexander is that of Amun or Si wah ; in march- 
iag against it the army of Cambyses perished in the sands, and its oracle was famous in the anoient 
world. Browne discovered it in 1792. and Hornmann. CaiHand, Drovetti and Minutel penetrated 
there also. It is 6 miles long by 5 broad, bounded by mountains, and is Ailed with date trees, and 
fruits of all kinds, vine, fig. plantain, banyan. &c. Its population 8000, and its commerce to Barbary 
and Egypt, is by Caravans. The Temple of Hammon is supposed the ruin OM-BEY DA, close tft 
Ohanny. and S. E. o f Siwah-Kibur, 150 to 160 feet in length, constructed of calcareous stone and ala« 
baster blocks. The ^divinity sits with the Ram's head, (as Amun-Rah) with jackal headed staff, and 
eras aniata in bis hands, which figure is often repeated. On the W. is a grove of Palm, and a fountain 
aupposed of the Sun. Fragments of columnar shafts and capital i of the /o/a#^form, art scattered about 
«b« Temple, the inolosure of which is 390 feet long, and S30 wide. 



FigiiUne Antiquities 



The Roman Pottery and Samian fVare found at Exeter. 

THE DRAWINGS ARE FROM THE PENCIL OF MISS E. BIONELL, 
MOUNT RADFORD. 



The great quantity of fragments of Roman Red Ware, especially of tliat beautiful 
description, known to the ancients by the generic term of Samian, is not by any mean* 
the least interesting of the curiosities dug up in the city of Exeter, of late years. It 
has been remarked, with respect to Pottery, and the Potter's art, that vessels of va- 
rious kinds for containing and preserving liquids, are so needful, that they have been 
invented in all countries at an early period. In Italy, in the tombs of Peru, in Mexico, 
in Egypt, in India, Potter's vessels similar to those of the ancient Samian workmanship, 
are found. Our ancient Isca produces the same Antique Ware, of Roman origin, cal- 
led Samian, as Bath, Castor, and London, (for that found in the Metropolis, I refer 
my readers to Mr. C. R. Smith's observations, Archaeol , vol. 27.) As clay is found 
in every place, is easily moulded into form, and naturally hardens in the sun, fire or 
kiln, it has been universally adopted in making vessels for different purposes, some 
for honour, others for dishonour ; among the Romans we find some for sacred pur- 
poses only, or the tables of the great, as the Samian Ware, others for culinary prepara- 
tions, for crucibles, pipkins ; some for containing liquids, varying from one quart to 
two gallons, or congii; others again for Sepulchral Urns, for Etruscan vases, lachry- 
matories, or tear bottles, simputo, or little libatory vessels, ffutti or gutturniaf for 
oils, amphora, for wine, tnortaria, for preparing corn, or as Mr. R. Smith very 
;aptly remarks, unsuited for trituration, hut adopted for a variety of culinary uses. 
Borlase, (Cornwall, page 307,) speaks of a " plain fair Urn," of the finest red clay, 
found in an arched vault, near the Mansion House at Kerris, in the parish of Paul, and 
there are other evidences of such Urns made of that sabstance, being found under simi- 
lar circumstances. 

It is well known that the ancient Britons were provided with earthen vessels, by the 
Phoenicians, in very early and remote periods, and the same barbarous natives, it is 
probable, learnt to make rude utensils of a similar kind, for their own purposes at 
home. In our Southern Britain, Borlase (p. 236, Cornwall) records many Urns 
found in barrows ; and Polwhele, and others, bear testimony to several found in the 
Haldon* tumuli, of sun baked clay, manufactured, no doubt, by our British ancestors ; 
such indeed of the shape of rude butter crocks^ have been exhumed there, and at 
Gollwa and other parts of Cornwall. The elegant and beautiful forms of common 
* A lofty range of Hllli on tho Plymoath Rond, from Ezottr. 




/im»9nrt<mtj[^th Eimdrr 



NO J. 



FOLATE. !////. 



NO IV. 




reMif^rmic uthcc S*erf/f 




AT'fr^iHMun'* c/7J< ex^-rf^ 



or feXBTAR 111 

Utensils in pottery, are an eyidence of social refinttnent, and are niet with in the ruins 
of Egyptian ciiies. An enormous quantity of broken Pottery is found about the sites 
of old Egyitian towns, also of those of ancient cities in India. No nation, it is remark- 
ed (Egypt. Antiq. Brit. Mas.) *' can be low in the scale of social refinement, where 
the forms of their furniture and utensils are such as have obviously been designed with 
the view of giving pleasure to the age." In the tombs and sculptured monuments of 
Egypt, ample proof is gi ven ** of the beautiful form given to the common pitcher, as well 
as to more elaborate articles of luxury." Gibson's Camden, p. 607, notices the cu- 
rious earthen vessels dug up at Caer Leon, the city of the (2nd) legion, where so 
many valuable inscriptions were found in his time, as well as in our own, (for which last, 
I am indebted to the industry aad research of my correspondent, C. W. King, Esq.^ 
the same with those red patella, or plates discovered in other parts of England. Hey- 
lyn, p. 673, Cosmographie, 16G0, speaking of Samos, says the chief commodity is a 
medicinal earth, useful for chirurgery and physick, of which in former times were 
those vessels made, called Vasa Satnia, in great request among the Romans. Apicius 
(de Artecoquio.) in dressing what he calls conchicla, a savoury dish made of beans, 
tells the cook to use a clean Cumaean red earthen dish, or patella. And from Vitru- 
vius 8, cap. 7, it appears that for purity of taste, the ancients preferred earthen vessels 
to silver. The Cumana patella is celebrated by Martial in his Apophoreta. 

The Greek Island of Samos, was so celebrated for its red pottery, that it might be 
aptly termed the China of ancient Greece and Rome. It bore a high price in the Impe- 
rial city, and must have been of value, as I have seen pieces of it found at Exeter, which 
had been riveted, as too valuable to be thrown away when broken. The TeT^a Cotta 
or baked earth, as the modern Italians style many of these fictile productions, may 
be considered a suit of generic terra, and also, in my opinion, made to include the 
Samian, which at least, although fabricated in many cities. 

*' Ex luto Samio in rubrum colorem vertente.*' 
still bore a generic name, like the China or Porcelain of modern days, and included 
the Spanish, or Saguntine calices, of Martial and his ru&tcunda ^e^ta of Cnmee. It 
was known at Rome as early as the reign of Augustus,* and the manufacture was in- 
troduced into Sicily and Magaa Grscia, long before it was established in Etruria. 
Ths only authenticated Roman Pottery in Britain, is that of Potter Heigham, in the 
county of Norfolk, and was a Roman manufactory of Urns, as proved by the Archseologia 
vol. 23, p 373. The coarse Roman Rritish Ware, found at Exeter, is always of a 
rough gritty quality, and whity-brown colour, distinct from the Samian, 

On the site of St, Michael's Crooked Lane, London, (Archseol, vol, 24, p. 198,^ an 
immeraorially ancient consecrated site, antique pitchers, cups, palines, similar to ours 
at Exeter, were found in abundance in 1831, and in forming the North or City en- 
trance to the New London Bridge. Mr. C, R. Smith discovered many similar curiosi- 
ties in Wellbrook, Prince's Street, and near the Bank, subsequently. The Romans 
much affected the use of Earthen Ware, in sacrificing, and often of the coarsest kind, 
in imitation of the primitive rites of Numa, who instituted the 7th College or company 
of Potters, at Rome ; (Plin. 35, Juv. Sat. 6. Cic. lib. I, Paradox.) Great numbers of 
Potter's names, on Samian Ware, have been procured from St. Michael's site, from 

* At tibi lata trahant Samias convivia testa. FicUqu* Comaaa lubrlca inn rota. Tibnllat, tad 
OTid Fait. Ub. 3. It m Rabtai Cr»t«r, 4io. 

2p 



113 ANTiatJlTtKS 

Prince's Street, and Lothbury, and from the Pan Rock off Margate, the Kaunos of 
Ptolemy, vrhere a vessel freighted with this prec'ous Ware is supposed to have been 
stranded. Numbers also in Lombard Street and Birchin Lane, in 1781^, and others re* 
corded by A. J. Rempe, as found under London Bridge. Batleiy, in his Antiq. Rutup. 
records a Potter, Primitivus^ (whose name occurs at Exeter) Marsi M. and soma 
others, and gives a plate of Samian Ware, p. 105 ; these potters' names or marks are 
valnable, as proving dates, (Archaeo. 26, 620) the hinges of argument and almost 
a real locality. 

Pliny the naturalist, proves that the Samian Ware was much used by the Romans 
of the higher order, at their feasts, both sacrificial and social ; Samiain Esculis lau- 
antur, lib. 35, cap. 46. Per Maria terrasque ultro citro Portantur, that they were 
exported. The smaller dishes might ha^e served for plates, salt cellars, &c. Gar- 
lands were much worn by the ancients at all their feasts and festivals ; hence, probab- 
ly the prevalence of vine leaves, ivy, or myrtle, garlands of vervain and rosemary, 
(which last was the emblem of rejoicing, and in christian days of " wisdom, love and 
loyalty," in married persons, and borne at weddings,) on this ware, woven together with 
bended twigs or cords, from which acorns and festoons of grapes, or vine tendrils depends 
Many of these refer, most probably, to the Bacchanalian feasts of antiquity. Sacred 
vessels and utensils were not only made of gold and silver and brass, and of precious 
gems and porphyry, or of asbestos, as tha canf/eZa6rMm, in the Temple of Venu s, 
(Isidore, lib. 16,) and of the most valuable crystals and glass, ofthe fragrant mitr- 
rhine or porcelain, which bore enormous prices, (murrhinis crystallisque,) in the Tem- 
ples ; they were even fabricated of wood and osiers, as the sacred pipes or ti6i« were also of 
box-wood, and at the games, of silver or of mirabile dictu, the leg bone of an ass; (tibia? 
asininseosse, Gyraldus Synt. V. also Cheuliura 17, p, 499.) The vessels of fictile 
ware are alluded to in Tibullus (JEleg. lib. 1, iv. 37) and were used by poor and rich. 
Adsitis Divi ! nee vos e paupere mensS, 
Dona, nee e puris spernile fictilibus. Implying 

Be present ye Gods I despise not offerings from the poor man's table, nor the un- 
gullied purity of vessels of clay. 

And alluding to the ancient custom. 

Fictilia antiquus primura sibi fecit agrestis 
Pocula de facili composuitque luto. Or that 

The countryman first made to himself vessels of Pottery Ware, and formed them of 
easily tempered clay. 

In Persius (Sat. 2, v. 60) Vestales que Urnas et Tuscum fictile mutat. A Roman 
Amphora of yellow Pottery, the only one found, it is said, in England, of that colour, 
has been noticed in the Archaeologia, 25. 

The Simpula or Si/mpuvia (small vessels for libation) and patene or libafory 
cups and dishes, buried frequently in the Busfa of the deceased Heathens, were very 
often made of the Samian Ware, (ex terrS, Samia) prescribed for the service of the 
Roman sacrifices. Thus Plautus (Captivi) Ad Rem divinam quibus est opus, Samils 
vasis utitur. It is said •' there is this difference between the Red Pottery and the 
: .al Samian, that the one is glazed and the other uniformly unglazed, for the fine 
materialof the latter, like the French porcelain, did not re^^uire glazing, while the 



of EXETER. US 

other formed of native clay was washed and glazed with salt and a small portion of lead." 
Archseol 25. p. 19. The best certainly did come from Saraos, (V. Alex, ab Alex.) As for 
the Myirhine vases, noticed by Javenal, Sat. 6, v. 156. Martial. Apoph. III. which were 
sold among the Romans at vast prices, and gave a nobler taste to their Falernian 
wine, one of which was bought by Nero, for the enormous sum of 300 talents (Plip. 
lib. .37, cap. 2) or nearly of'00,000 of our money, being only a capis, or drinking cup 
with handles ; I will only observe that they came from the East, and if we are to 
credit Propertius (Lib. 4, Kleg. 6) were made in Parthia. This porcelain was 
odoriferous, and presented a variety of colours, white, purple and flaming, all varie- 
gated and resembling the rainbow. The fragility, as Seneca observes (de Benef. 7, 9) 
exalted its price in the eyes of opulence, and the very odour it exhaled, quite as 
much. Pliny seems inclined to think it was made in Caramania (adjoining Parthia) 
and which I consider is either the modern Beloochistan, or adjoining it, and was the 
scene of the drunken, or Bacchic revels of Alexander, on his return from India. Its 
ancient inhabitants were the posterity of Sabtah, son of Chus, who colonized the 
country from the Coast of Arabia Felix, and the Island of Sophta, in the Persian 
Galf. Their chief city was the Sabis of Ptolemy. 

The flat Samian utensils or dishes found at Exeter, were probably sacriflcial 
pater<e, or platters, and some of them of the class used to serve up meat or vegetables 
(Paropsides leguminis) mentioned by Suetonius, or the ctUini of Horace. Thus 
Juvenal, muUa magnaque paropside cenaty and Martial lib. 2, Ep. Gaudens ancilloe 
paropside rubra, Apicius p. 151, ed. 1709. The flat plates or disci, sometimes with 
figures embossed, were not palerie, but answered to the Apophoreta^ of Isidorus, 
being plain dishes, in which fruits and viands were carried to table, and were some- 
times of brass, (V. Fulvii Ursini, app. ad Ciacconium 1664, Hildebrand Ant; p. 34.) 
The cah'/iMs, we are told by Ursinus, was a fictile vase or vessel "in quo apponitur 
piscis fertlibus aliquot in antiquo marmore cenis,*' in which fish were served up at 
the feasts, in honour of the dead, as appears by ancient sculptured marbles, and lie 
bays, it was used by the poorer sort, not only for fish, but also for fowls and other 
victuals. " non tantum ad pisces, sed ad pullos etiam et alia obsonia," V. Horat. 
Serm 1, 11. Juvenal, Sat. 6, notices one of dark clay, nigritm catinnm, &c. The 
^ifphi were larger Jugs or Bowls, and the large platter for meat or mazonomum, is 
ineniioned by Horace, at the feast of the wealthy Nasidienus Sat. 2, 8. We find, in 
Ausonius Epig. 8. Fama est fictilibus coenasse Agathoclea Regem. 

At que abacum Samio, ssepe onerasse luto. 

If Kings therefore would condescend to use our Samian Ware on their tables, as ear» 
!y as Agathocles of Sicily, who reigned in the year 8653, of the mundane aera, himself 
a Potter, we may excuse the Spartans at their sacred feasts, for serving up their first 
fruits of the soil, cakes and meal, libaqne etfarra (Alex, ab Alex. lib. 4) in fictile 
vessels (fictili Urna et catino aut simpulo^ it being a principle of ancient belief that the 
gods were best pleased with such simple vessels, as looking to the piety, religion and 
sincere prayers of the supplicants, not to their wealth or circumstances. A similar 
custom is recorded of Cufius I>entatus, whose simplicity preferred a beechen^uf<K«, or 
oil vase in sacrificing, and his earthen ware to the golden bribes of the Samnite chiefs 
Terra Cotta statues were at one period more revered than golden ones {auro taneiiora 



114 ANTXQUltlBS 

Plin.) and one of them was found some few years since at Corneto^ on the site of the 
ancient Tarqidnii in Etruria. At Naples in 1821, I saw several statues in red clay, 
of Jupiter, Juno, Indian Bacchus, a masked actor, &c., in the Muaeo BorhonicOy all 
from Pompeii. The first image of Jupiter, set up in the Capitol, which was byTar- 
quinius Priscus, was of Terra Cotta and named Fictilis (v. Plin. 35. Justus Rycqui- 
us de Capitolio, cap. 18, Leyden, 1669) that of Hercules, of wood, called iWaferi- 
arius. Lastly it is to be remarked that for Emasculation, the Samia testa, or fragment 
was generally used, as practised by the Galli, or priests of Cybele. V. Gent. Mag.» 
June 1839, p. 605. Saubert de Sacrif, 1699, quoting Luci). Sat. 6, Pomp. Leet. Pliny, 
35. Juv. Sat. 6, Mart. Ep. 81, lib. 3. 

1833. 

August 24. A Roman Patera of Saniian Ware was found on Bel-Kill in South-street, 
(Qy. from God Belus ? Bel-tucadder of Britain,) on the same spot as the tesselated 
pavement, discovered some time before, and the Bath on Mr. Godolphin's premises. 
It was imperfect on one side, but what remains is curious, from its neatly fluted rim, 
concave shape, and still more from the letters (S)ILVAN within a circle in its bot- 
tom or centre. SUvanus was a potter of note, and his name appears more than once 
on the fictile vessels of ancient Exeter. The patina or patera, was not only a goblet 
or species of bowl, but sometime! also a broad platter to receive the blood of the Sa- 
crifice. 

lepidumq. cruorem accipiunt pateris. Virg. JEn. Also to sprinkle wine between 
the horns of the victim, an! perform the libatio^ Ipsa tenens dextra pateram, &c Mn, 
4 Ovid, Fast. 1. It generally appears on coins in the hands of the deities, and also of 
Princes, to mark the divine honours due to the former, and the sacerdotal office com- 
bined with the power of thelatter. This patera, is 7 inches in diameter. 

In a Roman Bath, South Street, 

Fragment of Red Pottery inscribed REGINI. M.{Manu) I had at first hoped that 
this legend referred to the Regini, who may have been auxiliary Rhetian Troops, 
quartered at Isca, and from Reginum (now Ratisbon, formerly Regensberg, in Lower 
Bavaria) or Rhatopolis, the chief city or metropole of Rhaetia Secunda, which city is 
recorded in the Itinerary of Antonine, " per ripam Pannoniae, a Tauruno in Gallias,*' 
ad Leg. XXX usque (page 55, Ed. 1600.) This Iter proceeded from near Belgrade, 
through Augsburg, Strasburg, and Cologne, to the head quarters of the 30th Legiou 
(Ulpia) at Vetera Castra, now Santem in the Dutchy of Cleves. Reyinus was how- 
ever nothing more than a potter's name, and that it was well known among the an- 
cisnts, we may gather from Le Vaillant, Num.Graec, Imp. p. 35. Reginus, vox 
Latina viri noraen, ut in Antistise fam. nummo. Antistius ^e^fmu* III Vir. Also 
*• in nummo Hadriani " EHI AYP. PHFINOY. MIAHSIQN, on a coin of Hadrian. 
Vide App. Nurara. Bodl. 

Fragment of a large Samian Vessel, either a catinus or a patera, inscribed 
RVTHENI. M. This relic was found the same month in digging under the house of 
Mr. Downe, Plumber, in South Street, on the spot where the hilt of the dagger of the 
Roman Tribune of the Frisian Cavalry was dug up, mentioned in its place among the 
bronzes. Many pieces belonging to the tame sort of vessels, were found, some with a 
handsomely worked circle in the centre, but all broken, and the ruins of a black se- 



OP EXETER 115 

pulchral Urn in baked clay, with many tiles, was also turned up along with a skeleton, 
and many coins. Like the foregoing, I had lio[)ed that the Inscription commemorated an 
auxiliary Cohort at Isca — Ruthenus was however only the name of a Potter, and had 
nothing to do, I imagine, with any vexillation of the Rutheni of Gaul, who inhabited 
what is now called Ruvergne, in the old province of Guienne ; this was in the Aveiron 
department, still retaining the ancient name of the Arverni, who were neighbours to 
the Rutheni, and conquered by Ceesar, and which still retains the name of a river flow- 
ing by Rhodez (the ancient Segodunum or Rutena) its capital city, and Villefranche, 
and meets the Garonne below Montauban, 20 miles from Toulouse. This Potter might 
however have been originally of that nation, whose city was in Aquitania Prima, and 
of whose people Camden observes that " lying farthest to the West they are most 
lusty " ; comparing them to the natives of Cornwall, and the Batavi of Germany, for 
firmness of constitution. 

Pennant observes that several fragments of Earthenware, were found at B«rre»«, 
in the north of England, bearing the impress of the Tungrian cohorts, or soldiers of 
Liege, (at Ilousesteeds) who so greatly distinguished themselves in the conflict on 
the Mons Grampius (Tac. Agric.) one of which, with part of a Boar beneath a tree, 
perhaps alluding to the Caledonian forest, (if not an emblem of ancient German super- 
stition) above which was the Inscription II.TVN, and another, SAC. EROR; (Qy. 
Sacrorum Erogationum Rationalis ?) It is very probable that the domestic utensils of 
the troops were often made by the Fabricenses or Fabri, who accompanied the Ro- 
man armies, and were the artificers of the famous tesselated pavements, found in the 
provinces. Except in a very few instances it however unfortunately happens, that I 
cannot with any degree of satisfaction, assign any of these impresses at Exeter to 
Roman soldiers quartered in the Island. Reginus, if of Reginura, may have possibly 
borrowed his name from his native city, of which the name was altered from that of 
the original colony of Tiberius, Augusta I'iberii or Tiberina. 

Rhodez, noted for its fairs and cloth manufactures, is placed in the Nomenc. Geog. 
of an edition of C«esar, Leyden 1681, in \}\q Seneschaussee de Rover gne, and called 
an Episcopal city, Rodais et Segodunum, which was its Keltic name. In Joannes 
de Laeis (of Antwerp) Comm. de Regno Galliae (Elz, 16*29) p. 65, Ruthenorum 
Provincia yu\g6 Rovergne occurs, and among the Bishoprics, p. 42:1, we find XIV. 
Rutenensis Rodes Segodunum, subject to the Tribunal Tholosanum amplissimum, or Su- 
preme Council of Toulouse. Also noticed in Cluv. Geog. P. Bertius, Brevra. Ter- 
rarum, and other authors . The Potter may have taken the name of his country, and 
I shall say more on the subject in another place. 

March 12, 1836. New Market. Some coarse fragments of black sun baked clay. 
Urns were dug up, accompanying some coins of Claudius ; probably the funeral re- 
positories of the ashes of Romans or Romanized Britons, interred at Isca, within the 
city, near their domestic hearths. Also a small fragment of Samian pottery, on which 
is depicted the water lily or ^<u« of Egypt, being the calyx of its flower above the 
stem, commonly dedicated by the Egyptians to Isis or Damater, as goddess of the 
Earth, and supplying the form of a column, its base and capital at Esneh or Latopolis* 
noticed page 44 of this work. The foliage pods of the lotus often occur on our Exeter 

2e 



116 ANTIQUITIES 

pottery, and it was the probable derivation of the Corinthian Capitals, with their delicacy 
and effeminate refinement, V. Herodot. lib. 2, p. 121, Gron. fid. The flower was 
the Egyptian emblem of immortality. 

Sepulchral Antiquities. 
Many fragments of rude Roman Sepulchral Urns, memorials of spots, where the fu- 
neral pyres of those who waved the Chalybean blades of the legions, once raged, (ubi 
ustulatum erat cadaver corpus inane rogo) were turned up in the New Market. 
The rims are generally perfect, the composition much intermixed with sea-sand and 
gritty substances. Had they contained the ashes of the Scipios, or the dust of Aemilius* 
they would be treated with the same unconcern — for here the tomb seems to have as 
usual, levelled all — ** A calm unstormy wave which oversweeps the world," 

" Varied above, but rough and gross below. 

The urn may shine, the ashes will not glow." 
Cleopatra's mummy, and Alexander's tomb, arealike uncertain and unknown, in spite 
of the "madman's wish, and Macedonian's tear!" It was customary to break the 
vessels used by the deceased, and throw them with other articles, ornaments, &c. used 
by him, into the pyres, with coins of the reigning sovereigns, (arraa, aurum, vestes 
aliaque pretiosa rogo injicere.) V. Caspar Bartholini de Inaur, 148. Roman coins 
are often taken out of urns found in Tumuli, particularly in Cornwall, for instance, at 
Karn Bre, and Illogan, in various barrows there, in the parish of Paul, and at Gold- 
vadneck. Such urns contained the remains of the veterans of Claudius and Vespasian, 
whose obsequies were celebrated at Exeter, and here sleep the relics of those who were 

fired by glory's lust, who left behind " their freed spirit, and their fettered dust," 

in Dunraonian climes ; of the conquerors of Britain, whose golden eagles glittered in 
the sun, now passed like " a meteoric gleam" and leaving not even a name behind, — 
who once dragged the rude and painted islanders to the foot of the tribunal of Vespa- 
sian, and the triumphal car of A. Plaulius, and drove the sons of Cunobelin from 
Buckingham to the Isle of Dogs. 

* Sepulchral Remains, or Vasctjla Cineraria. Sir Thomas Browne, in his Hydrotaphia 
speaking of " urnal interments, and burnt relics." which lie not in fear of worms, or to be an heri- 
tage for serpents like carnal sepulture, observes — " To be gnawed out of our graves, to have our skulls 
made drinking bowls, and our bones turned into pipes, to delight and sport our enemies, are tragical 
abominations, escaped in burning burials ; for instance, Cin E"gypt) mummy is become merchandize, 
Mizraim cures wounds, and Pharaoh is sold for balsams ! !" Also, " he that looks for urns and old 
sepulchral relics, must not seek for them in the ruins of temples, where no religion anciently placed 
them." These were found in a field according to ancient custom, in noble or private burial ; urn 
burial was copied from the eastern nations by Rome. The urns alluded to, lately found in the New 
Market, by their rims seem to have imitated, "a circular figure in a spherical and round composure.'' 
Ancient frugality was not so severe as not to permit coins to be interred with them, for " rings, coins, 
chalices," lamps and lachrymatories, are often found in such urns. Earthen pots, some containing 
two gallons, with ashes and bones in small pieces, and charcoal, are frequently found in barrowst 
(many of which in Cornwall) and in company with Roman coins and utensils of various kinds, and i' 
possible the tomb was always placed near a road. The street of tombs at Pompeii, which I visited 
in 1821, opposite the beautiful suburban villa of Diomedes, is noted for the sepulchral memorial of 
this person with two ci'ppi erected to his son and daughter; this street is paved with solid blocks of 
lava. There is also a funeral Triclinium for the celebration of feasts, in honour of the c'ead, and a 
sepulchral chamber with urns, and lachrymatories in recesses around it, called erroneously, the tomb 
of the Gladiators, to say nothing ofttie handsome ci/'f u« of Scaurus, and the monument of the priestess 



OP EXETER. 117 

On Bartlow hill, April 1833, on Lori) Maynard's property, a tumulus was opened 
containing a chest, with an urn of red clay, a glass urn with bones, and a glass vase, 
holding liquor of a straw colour, seemingly water, wine and oil mixed. There were 
also a thuribulum and lamp of bronze, 2 patera of Saraian Ware, and 2 incense dishes. 
Similar relics were found in a Tumulus at Thornboro*, Bucks, and were removed to 
Stowe House in 1839. 

Mr. Roach Smith, in observations on Roman Remains found in Lonc'on, (Archeeo- 
log., vol. 27) remarks many such vessels of the common brown and hlack earth, mostly 
in a fractured state, near St. Clement's Church, in London. He considers them of 
** general use among the Romans for domestic purposes," and of colonial manufacture, 
usually met with wherever Roman Remains are discovered. It is also to be observed 
that " wherever the ground was moist, highly impregnated with vegetable and animal 
matter, and of an inky blackness in colour," as Mr. R. Smith observes, in Prince's 
Street and Wallbrook, London, so also in Exeter, the same sort of places abounded 
with Roman remains, evidently anciently Cess pools, latrinse, &c., and here m the 
Lower Market the Samian Ware most abounded. 

It is to be regretted that a few years before I carae to reside near Exeter, a great 
quantity of Samian Ware was carted away from that spot near the Close, so replete 
with Antiquities, Broadgate, as useless rubbish, on the excavating of a cellar.! ! ! 

Such was the abundance of this ware brought me by the labourers, and also of the 
coarse black Pottery, that I was forced to keep a qoantily of it in my garden, out of the 
way, as all ray drawers and repositories, in a small house certainly, were crammed 
with it. There I also placed a large Imbrex or ridge tile, bricks, tiles, with handles of 
Amphora f Bind in fact whatever was of least i merest and bearing no maiks or em- 
bellishments. 

In the Western Market, many pieces of the ancient red Samian Ware, curiously 
figured, were found, seemingly hunting subjects — on one of which a hound in the act 
of pinning a fugitive hare ; on another is a regular Seeho {ot four legs, as we call it 
in Devon) or puss, squatting on her form — ' in some lone seat retired — the rushy fen 
— the ragged furze — the stubble plat— the thick entangled broom.* Foliage, thyrsiy 
indicative of Bacchanalia, the feast of the jolly god ' what rides ' astride the wine- 
cask at the tavern door. Also the Eagle or bird of Jove ; placed among the con- 
stellations, which nurtured the infancy of Jupiter in the caves of Crete and on the 
sacred hills of Ida, when 3fa^na Mafer Rhea, consigned him 'her prattling joy' to 
the care of the priests of Cybele. Specimens of flo/na»cA-^ue interspersed with birds 
of the duck species, and flowers resembling those of the laburnum are frequent. Tlie 
hare is well known as the mystic emblem of the god Osiris, but ths frequent occur- 



Mamia, also the Uttrina, where the bodies were burnt ; none like those are however traced at Exeter. 
All we can say here is desunt multa, respecting many of these matters, like "the ruins of Pompey," 
scattered all over the globe. 

Sir Thomas B. observes "the open magnificence of antiquity ran much in the artifice of clay, of which 
the house of Mausolus was built, and such as declined burning or funeral urns affected coffins of clay, 
according to the modaof Pythagoras, and was preferred by Vairo." Copper, silver, gold and porphyry 
urns " circttmscril)«d tlie fpirit* of the great." 



118 ANTIQUITIES 

rence of this timid animal of the chase, ' with head couched betwixt her liairy feet/ 
on pottery, would almost make us believe that the military occupants of that thickly 
populated part of old Isca, delighted in field sports, or perhaps kept a well organized 
pack of harriers in the vicinity, like some of our modern squirearchs. That the Ro- 
mans were partial to such treats at their sumptuous banquets, may be gathered fiom 
the ostentatious feast of the lich gastronome Nasidienus in Horace, given to the luxu- 
rious Maecenas, to cite one instance of many: 

Et leporum avulsos, ut multo suavius, armos, 
Quam si cum lurabis quis edit, 
the wings, strange to say, being preferred at table to other parts, and they were 
brought in here, in the last course, with the savoury titbits of a crane, and the liver of 
a white goose fed on figs, on the great dish ca.\\ed mazonomum. Hares or rabbits appear 
on Egyptian monuments and pictures, and were used for food by that people. The great 
estimation of the hare may be also deduced from Martial, who, while he considered 
thrushes the best eating birds, gives the palm to the hare among quadrupeds. 
Inter quadrupedes gloria prima Lepus, 

Also mentioned in Isidorus \\h. 12 originum^ Varro de Re Rustica, Pliny lib. 
2S, and foolishly supposed by the ancient Romans, who fattened their animals in 
leporaria or inclosed feeding places, to induce beauty inthe countenances of those who 
fed largely on them, as was said of Alexander Severus — 

Pulchrum quod vides esse nostrum regera 
Venatus facit et lepus comesus, &c. — Lamprid. 

We may commend the ancients for some taste in cookery, (V. Martialem, Xenia lib. 
13) but when we find their epicures delighting in such dishes as young puppies, the 
ubera of the pregnant sus or swine, eels dressed with beets, entrails of animals in 
ragouts, garum sauce made of the foetid entrails of fishes, we are ready to thank our 
* stars ' for the benedictions of a Glass, an Ude, a Kitchiner, or any other modern 
Apicius. Hares were exhibited at the Florales Ludi or feasts of Flora. Juv. Sat. 
On the tomb of Scaurus at Pompeii, the hunting feats practised in the Amphitheatre, 
occur on the bas reliefs of the lower frieze, and in the upper part are hares pursued 
by a dog ; beyond is a wounded stag also pursued by hounds, and a boar and bull are 
also transfixed by the 6es(iam or huntsmen, which makes me imagine these terra- 
cottas relate to the same public sports. 

Potters marks OF. RAN., VR. and OF. MOD. (officina Modesti) of which 
Modestus specimens were lately found at Langres in France, and in different parts 
of England. (V.Gent. Mag. for 1836, proving that much of the ancient pottery 
was imported.) The ancient Figuli or potters had their collegia or companies as 
other trades, {secundum artijicia sodales,) the Tibicines (pipers) sutores, (cord- 
wainers,) Coriarii, (tanners and curriers) &c, On another fragment NE^O. FEC 
(it) inverted R. This potter's name in the old Sabine, meant strong or warlike. On 
a large Patera OF. PRIML* On another OF. MVRRAN. Also— OF. AQV. (Offi- 
cina Aquitani) OF. CRESTIO. SVORNTED. OF. (the NTE monogram) pottei's 
workshops. Many coins were also found. 

♦ Frimltivus, a famous Potter. V, Battely. Ant. Rutup. 105, Archseol. 24. Also Petavium in An- 
tiq. Supellect. Smetium Ant Noviom. p. 166, 1678. A patera of his was found at Beculvw, Kent. 



Oi^ EXBTBR. 119 

W. Market, June. Ancient redSaraian Pottery, Ac. Small fragment with Priest of Isis» 
in his long white vest (cand^Jo linteaminecinctum pectorale, Apul. XI,) and close sha- 
ven head, (grege linigero et calvo Juv.) a memorial of the universal goddess, or nature 
impersonated. Another with the bestiariits or huntsman overpowered by a wolf^ 
yrho seizes him by the abdomen ; the former being of that class of combatants who 
entered the arena at the Amphitheatre, to contend with the wild beasts when let loose, 
as is now praclisedat Rome and in Spain, at the bull fights — i perilous pastime. 
Similar scenes are traced on the tomb of Scaurus at Pompeii. Other pieces with very 
rich tracery and foliage, Cupids, stags, hares, dogs ; a wild bull as hunted at the 
public games, (Martial Ep. lib. 1, 21-S3) rushing forward ; aquatic birds ; stars or 
wheels; foliage and festoons of flowers. Plate 7, No. K Plate 9, No. 4. On a large 
Patera, nearly entire, OF. NIGRI. (V. Aichtsol. Lombard Street marks.) It is 9 
inches in diameter, and was in 3 pieces, but united by the skill of the late Mr. Barbery. 
A large Sci/phus or bowl, adorned with curious tracery, rosemary, and mouldings, 
and beautifully embossed— OF. MODES+* (officina Modesti ; IT monogram.) V. 
Saubertum. p. 670, cap. 24-. Scyphi were offered to Juno and Bacchus. (Samian ware.) 
A handsome Cwjj, (calyx or cyathus) O?. MOD. I have already spoken of Mo- 
destus as a potter elsewhere. Plate 8, No. 4. On another piece of pottery aLLO RAM 
to be read from right to left like Hebrew or Punic ; ( Marcellus (3aTpo<l>r}dov.) (Samian 
mare.) Plate 10, No. 3. 

Ancient Vessels. Of the sort called sessilis^ an amphora or wine jart ; the upper 
part perfect, which may have contained "Opiraian wine or draughts of consulary date j" 
and two glass LachrymatoriesX (ampullae vitrea) or tear bottles, sacred to the manes 
of the dead, or lemures (Frontispiece, No. 4.) An unguent vase or urn of the smallest 
size, of red clay. These last v.ere evident indications of funerals, and of the manner 
in which surviving friends celebrated the obsequies of the departed, with ointments for 
their corpses, and hired or purchased tears in lachrymatories or vials, (women being 
hired to weep) which they deposited in the husta after burning or cremation ; utensils 
of mourning which had attended the funeral, with articles used during the life of the 
deceased, (among the politer nations of antiquity,) and vessels of Jiquors, such as were 
found in many ancient tombs. 1 he dii manes or spirits of the deceased, were the de- 
functorum genii, I'lato says that the souls of men were Daemones, formed after 
death into the lares of towns and cities, if their merits were good, but larvce or Im- 
mures if bad. But that they were manes , only when uncertain, whether good or bad. 
Their worship I suppose, arose from the custom of the Romans of burying in their houses, 

♦ Modestusalso occurs on the tin patera, found in 1756, at St. Erth, in Cornwall, near St. Michael'* 
Mount, (V. Gent. Mag. 1160. Borlase's Cornwall.) dedicated to Mars by Liviut Modettus DruHifiliut- 
Virtues often gave names to persons ; V. Horsley. Brit. Rom. P. E, ModestuB. pi. 15, 41. C. Muniug 
Mod, Miles, pi. 71, 11 . (Comes) Modestus. Amm, lib. 19. 

t The Goddess Abundaniia sometimes appears with an amphora. 

Juv. Sat. V. 30. In these, wines weie sometimas I'eposited far a century, the mouths being stopped 
with pitch end gypsum, and labelled at the top, diligenler gypsatee. Petron. Several of these aie in th* 
cellars of Diohkdbs at Pompeii. Amphora nigri. sed longe fracta, Falern). Mart. Lib. II.. ep. 9. 

J Recollect the Royal Psalmist— " Put thou my tears into thy bottle." These vessels are of high 
antiquity, and one «xftctly similar was found lately in the I. of Milo, In Greece. Ucaotictd by most 
clMtie writtrs. 

2p 



120 ANTiaUITIBS 

which they nndoubtedly practised to a great degree in ancient Exeter^ and the spirits 
of the dead were supposed to be continually hovering near the inmates for their pro - 
tection. V. Apul. de Deo Socratis.* 

Lamps. (Vide Nos. 1, and 2, Frontispiece.) June 5, two beautiful Roman Sepul- 
chral Lamps were found, exactly like those dug up at Herculaneum. The custom of 
burying lamps with the dead originated in Egypt. These are of brown terra cotta^ 
and of the utmost interest and importance. On one is a galley or trireme, (with three 
oars^ and the Carchesium above the sail yard, (like the ship with one mast, on coins of 
Carausius and AUectus,) nearly the same as the 6a* relief on the tomb of Ncsvoleia 
Tyche, at Pompeii, in the street of tombs, perhaps " allegorical of the arrival of the 
tossed bark of life," in a quiet haven. This ship has the formidable rostrum df a war- 
like vessel ; rudentes, clavus or rudder, one large yard, and a square sail set. On 
the other lamp a Lioness running, perhaps relating to the ga»es. The Lion was wor- 
shipped at Heliopolis in Syria, as the God Genseus or the sun. These lamps orLychni 
were found at the depth of 15 feet, in a mass of black crumbling earth, Cevidently adven- 
titious, or human mould,) and a cavity or subterraneous crypt, in which, accompanying 
them, was the blade of a Roman soldier's sword, and a quantity of pieces of ancient glass 
vessels, with the Cup and large Bowl above-mentioned. The ornaments of these 
sepulchral lamps are immensely numerous and various. They were suspended and lighted 
in tombs by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, and Eusebius says the people of Egypt 
were the original inventors. They were used in funeral processions, and the piety of 
surviving friends deposited them in the family burying-place.t The religious horror 
of these spots was increased by the glimmering liglit cf such a lamp and altars burn- 
ing ; the magical sacred rites to the Dii manes performed at night, and the dark sanc- 
tuaries of the oracles of Delphi, Dodona, and Trophonius, all abounding in secret ar- 
cane and mystic prodigies and terrors, were alike appalling and terrific. .The famous 
story of the disconsolate Ephesian matron in Petronius^ by whose appearance in the 
dismal vault while watching the corpse of her husband, even a soldier was at first ter- 
rified, as if he had seen some phantom by the light of the lamp burning inside, confirms 
this practice. Although rather a severe satire on the conjugal love and chastity of the 
fairer portion of the sex in widowhood, they are (we hope) not all so easily persuaded, 
quite so readily to throw off" their weeds as this Grecian lady, even to enjoy the com- 
pany of a gay and gallant son of Mars. Lamps it is said have been found burning in 
such tombs for centuries; that of the Athenians was said to be inextinguishable on 
their citadel ; so was that of Jupiter Ammon ; of Antioch in Venus's temple ; so of 
the Aetneeao Vulcan, of Edessa, burning for 500 years. The body of Pallas, found in 
1601, at Rome, was entire with a lamp supposed to have been kindled with perpetual 

* The Lares or Penates presided over the hearth, and were the protecting genii of every house. This 
practice was co:nmon in Egypt, and the Romans borrowed the worship of the Lares from that Country 
The Catholics in lilce maimer interred with their priests, chalices and patines. and sometimes wax 
tapers, crossed on the patine, as found at Hereford Cathedral, 1836, and in Bishop Brewer's tomb, ia 
the choir of Exeter Cathedral. 

t In the Christian tombs at Rome, Lamps in the form of a ship have been found, symbolical of the 
calling of Peter and Andrew. V. de la Chausse, Antiq. Rom. (Causeus.) 

In S»rcophae;o cum ciaeribas et urna recondite. V. Saubertum. cap. 16, p. 326— de Sacrif. 



OF EXETER 121 

fire for more than 2000 years, and the lamp in the sepulchre of TulUola, Cicero's 
daughter, on the via Appia is said to have been lighted 1500 years (V. Kircheruro. 
Licelum &c.) So also the Lamps found in the jTAcrm* of the Emperor Titus — V; 
de la Chausse/ de lucerois Antiq. But these may be fictions ; even with the agency of 
bitumen, naphtha, amia^tus and asbestos wicks, and a powerful imagination. V. Sau- 
bertura, cap. 10, p. 327. De Lucernis et Larapadibus perpetuis, Gisb. Voetium, 
Part 1, Seleclar. Disp. 

One of these eternal lamps we are told, was found burning in the Paduan territory 
by some rustics, about 1500 A. D. near Atheste, in an earthen vessel, accompanied by 
two phials.or ampuUce, one^sllver, the other gold, filled with some very clear liquor. 
Polwhele notices a bronze lamp with a crescent attached, as found on St. David's Hill, 
Exeter, Sept. 1757, similar to one represented in Montfaucon, and supposed to have 
belonged to a Temple of Diana. The bones of oxen and pieces of pottery were found 
with it. ll came into the possession of Mr. J. Treralett, of Exeter.* 

Post OSice Inn. Small sepulchral unguent Vase, or ampulla, of dark blue clay.t 
The following letters are rudely inscribed on it: NAMELIE (ME & LI monograms.) Oa 
a sepulchral urn broken — XINI VMXA (VM. monogram) of some infant, if we are 
to suppose VMX. vixit menses decern, A coin of Constans, with a Phoenix burning herself 
on a rock, and Fc/tjr Tempornm Reparatio, was found in company. Also, several frag- 
ments of Samian Pottery relating to the sports at the amphitheatre, (Venalio.) The 
Huntsman or Bestiarius, (with his veil) contending with an enormous Panther or Tiger, 
.whom, while making the fatal spring, he skilfully baffles by throwing himself on the 
ground under the enraged animal, who springs over him. Also the central portion of 
a Patera. 

* Th« origin of the use of lamps ia sacred cere monies of the ancients, arose from the rape of Pro- 
serpine (the Cora of Sicily) which gave rise to the Eleusinian mysteries, first introduced into Attica by 
Eamolpus the Hierophant, 1556 B. C. On the 5'.h day of those myaieries, lamps and torches wer« 
carried about, in memorial of Ceres, mother of Proserpine, having lighted her torch from the flames of 
Mount i£tiia, while in sparch of her daughter, carried o£f by Pluto in Sicily. This was called the sacred 
day of lamps and torches. J^imps were also used in purifications or lustrations , childbearing, mar- 
riages, triumphs after military and naval expeditions, in baths, at feasts, and especially in funeral pro- 
cessions. The early Cbristiaus. who abolished these superstitious observances, are said to have insti- 
tuted in iheir stead, the festival of the purification of the Virgin (called by the Germans iic/itmrte) 
with lamps and lighted wax tapers. Before the Council of Toledo, the us9 of these lights is said to 
have been unknown in the old Church, and for 600 years, until Pope Sergius 2nd, (\. D. 844) In- 
troduced them on the solemn procession day, in Feb., called the HyTpapantai. (V. Stochausen de 
Culto et usu Luminum ; Ant. Hunnius in Apostas. Eccles. Roman.) It appears that they were how- 
ever, used at an earlier period, on Easter Day, as early as the year 417, and this practice was con- 
firmed by Theodore, Pope of Rome, in 641. The OrcituB Nuptur. or mysteries observed by the Hea- 
thens, in memory of the marriage of Pluto with Proserpine, were celebrated at night witk lamps and 
torches. Of the different species of lamps, we find some for chambers, cukicularia, others pendulous 
or suspended in houses and temples, others made to place on the table. Some had several wicks or 
lights, and were callid «-oXuXuXv<»> others only one. A lamp called Trr^auMjicti, d with 4 burners, wa» 
carried about in the festival called pom;>a *o/*mni« Couastokuh; another with 12 burners noticed 
by Kircher, was found in a tomb or crypt, consecrated to the memory of the 12 Egyptian Princes, it if 
supposed, who were deified after death. Herodotus (Euterpe) speaks of the curious lamp of 

♦ Thucydid 'Ayy* tv^Mtra. V. Sauber(iun« Cap. 24, p. 358, 561, Perfumes were used with the 
vials. Nani'ia, a pctt«r's namt. 



122 ANTIQUITIES 

A bronze Roman Fibula^ or buckle of elegant shape and -workmanship— the 
makers initials M. on it; Infiraiex sere aut ferro, Panciroli, R. Mem. p. 314, 1612.The 
l&stjibula found here was dug iip in Bedford Circus, Sept. 20, 1834., one at Ingsdou, 
(V. Polwhele, Camden, Brit. p. 697.) Many have been found at Caer Leon, " the city 
of the Legion," and in London — they shew that the Roman toya obtained among the 
painted Britons at last, A scored tile with circles — probably the Abacus of an urn — 
detached pieces of Saraian ware, sepulchral urns, and eoruvie? of men and animals-^ 
the last, offerings to the Manes, or wandering spirits of the dead ; *' they joined them- 
selves to Baalpeor and ate the sacrifices of the dead," (as occurs in scripture) at the 
LEMVRALIA or EOPTAI THgE^TIAg.* Psal. 106, v. 28. 

Western Market. — Mortarium for preparing corn, of baked white clay, small 
gravel or grit intermixed to facilitate trituration. The Roman soldiers received an 
allowance of wheat and barley, as rations. For one of these Mortaria or oval cir- 
cular dishes, V. th«j plates of the Archaeologia, vol, 24, p. 199, found with other relics 
on the site of St, Michael's Church, Crooked Lane, "an immemorially ancient con- 
secrated site." In forming the N. or city entrance to the now London bridge, 1831, 
pottery, cups, and patines similar to ours, were found there in abundance. Cupids 
aieto be seen on walls at Pompeii making bread. The goddess Fornax presided 
oter the oven, but bread was not of early date ; corn was first sodden into a sort of 
poiridge, and eVen after its invention, the grain was pounded or brayed in mortars, 
although the use of a sort of rude stone mill was known, as seen at Pompeii. In Pro- 
Terbs chap. 27, v. 22, is an illustration of this very ancient triturating custom. 

25th July, there was found in the Western Market a small cup or chalice of Samian 
Ware, unique in its kind, most likely used for libations ; inscribed OPA .. Fragments 
of other vessels with hunting subjects, hares, dogs, a griffin, naked youth^ foliage, lo- 
tus, &c, 

6th August. Roman Patera — Aquitanus and Masculinus, potters. There was dis- 
covered a patera^ of Samian Ware, in the Western Market, in the old line of road 
leading to the Butcher Row. The inscription on it is very curious, being read from 
right to left, after the ancient bull turning or Bovgpofrjdov fashion. It is IfiQAi 
Lucius Aquitanus — the second of that Potter's found here, of these in London AQIT 
OF AQVITANI, OF AQVIT. occur. (V. C. R. Smith, Roman Remains.) By theneg- 

Mycerinus, King of Egypt; this had, probably, many lights, and it appears that others curiously 
work ed, were placed in front of the bull, in which he inclosed the corpse of his daughter, which was 
in the city of Sais, in lower Egypt, and was to be seen in the age of Herodotus. Some lamps were 
adorned with hieroglyphics, others represented funeral rites, some sepulchral ones supported an 
altar or column, on which fire was lighted to the Dii Manes. On some are the effigies of Victory in 
the chariot race, the sun, moon, and the constellation Charles' Wain ! ! Vesta with her torch, Venns 
liaked.this last chiefly in lamps pertaii:ing to lupanaria. or brothels. There were also lamps which 
bore the figure of tl:e sacred Ox, in the temple of Apis, others a Sphynx. Typhon, &c. Of phallic 
Lamps, I saw several in the Camera Oscena of the Museum, at Naples, the predominant attribute 
fashioned in the shape of a dog's head, with weights or pendants, or figured like a lion, a snail 
creeping out of his shell. &c. 

• Also called Jn/erite and Exequise, (V, B<>roaId, SchoK in Suet. Neron)and attended with numer- 
ous ceremonies. Quibut inferis, defunctisque ofScia ferebantur. Sauberti de Sacrif, cap v. and xxv. 
Sheep were sacrificed to the spirits of the deceased, and blood with milk or wine poured over the 
t*mb*~ad radioes tunnuli, to appeas* them . 



OF EXETER 123 

llgent disposition of the letters on many of these sacrificial ?essels, found at Exeter, 
it would appear that the flguline types, if not /usiVe, were at least moveable. It is 
singular that the Romans, whose foresight engraved on their coins and Pottery, fthe 
last by far more durable than the triumphal arch, temple, altar, or bas-relief,) indeli- 
ble and everlasting records of their power, declaring to latest days how "joined the 
reign of Glory and of Crime " ! and mocking *' oblivion's sway/* while princely fa- 
brics crumbled into dust — that these illustrious men, so fond of leaving colossal em- 
blems of their power, should never have thought or dreamed of a printing press, or 
stamping letters on their papyri, palimpsests, or parchments, while the slow and 
hireling profession of the scribe was the only vehicle of learning, with his clumsy and 
uncial letters. It is equally true, as here, even on the meagre showing of a potter, 
that the shortest letter which man uses instead of speech, may form a lasting link of 
ages and " make thousands, nay millions, think." — On another patera OF.MASCVI 
(MA monogram), Ihe ojfficina or workshop of Masculinus. 

August ISlh. Western Market. — Much Saraian Pottery and Roman Glass, or 
hyalus, thick and opaque, and of a silvery or opal appearance ; a lachrymator}', 
scored tiles, and sepulchral urn fragments, o n oneof which MINAY Minutius Luciusi 
On the rim of another (broken) the letter M ; portions of the names of the deceased 
whose bones and ashes they contained, after combustion by pious hands on the funeral 
pile. Greek and Roman letters are often intermixed on inscriptions of later date. 
The glass, some of which is very fine and transparent, belonged to small vases or 
unknown vessels— a valuable commodity among the ancients ; vitrum ductile, V. Pan- 
cirolum, p. 238, Apul. Met. (chrystallum impunctum.) I lament these are not entire. 
Nero is said to have given the value of df30, 000 for two small cups with handles or 
ears, of the Ampholis genus (utrinque aurita.) Quae modicos calices quos ap- 
pellabant pterotos H. S. VI. millibus venderet, Pliny lib. 36. Bibis vitro, says 
Martial of the rich Bassus. Ep. 9. Fulvius Ursinus notices these glass vessels 
(App. ad Ciaccon), and quotes Pliny to prove their value in the time of Ti- 
berius, p. 361. Gallienus however thought proper to despise glass goblets, and 
would only drink out of gold. Besides many pieces of blaclilcinerary sepulchral urns, 
and other funeral vessels, — among which at a great depth were found a maxilla and 
several bones of canine sacrifices to Proserpine and Hecate ?~a quantity of glazed 
Samian Ware, exceedingly handsome, was dug up, some of it tastefully figured with 
bended twigs or cords, from which depend acorns and oak-leaves, the convolvulus or 
nasturtium and rosemary ; a naked youth also appears, &c. Garlands were much 
used by the ancients at their sacrificial and social feasts. (V. Horace, Od. 23 and 86, 
lib. 1. Od 7, lib. 2), Decorations of this nature would tend to prove the use of 
these vessels at the table. Beechen cups were thus adorned. Virg. Eclog, 3. 

PoTiERs' Marks.— Of these there are two— ADVOCIS, a foreign name roman- 
ized. F. (Fecit)* barbarous enough and probably Gaulish, if we are to imagine the D 
to be merely a Celtic prefix, which it undoubtedly is in many ■ words, as in Dur 
water, and Dect the hill-stream. It is supposed to be the Coptic h ieroglyphic of the 

• This Potter is noticed in Wlilttaker's History of Manchesler, 1771— supposed to have been » 
master Potter to the Frisian Cohort stationed there. A bowl. Of Samian ware, found in the Cattl* 
field there bears his name— —-preserved at Worsley; 

2a 



124 ANTIQUITIES 

Delta or inundated land of Egypt. Aduatica is now the city of Tongres on the Maese, 
Ptol. ATsaKSTOv, Caesar Coram, There are many such words, as the mountain of 
Belgic Gaul, Vogesus (Caesar 4^, now the Mont de Faucilles, in tho department of 
the Upper Rhine, and that of Vosges ; Vocetius was also part of the Jura. The other 

OF, CELA Officina Cela the rest has been lost — it is arcanum cda 

indeed. 

Nov. 7, Saraiian Pottery found in High Street, in digging the foundations of the new 
County Bank, opposite the Guildhall. A quantity of this ancient red ware was found 
in a line with the street, at a great depth. Some was also dug up in excavating a 
sewer in front of the Lower Market. 

The fanciful borders of plants, ovolo moulding and garlands of various leaves and flow- 
ers, such as were used by the ancients at their feasts, as has been observed, and also 
employed to crown their Lares or household gods, and to grace the festivals in honour 
of their deceased friends, prevail as usual on all these terra cottas, with hares and 
hunting scenes. They prove that the Romans did not always affect the use of coarse 
earthen ware in sacrificing, according to the primitive rites of Numa, but preferred the 
more elegant fictile manufactures of Arezzo and Surrentium, in Italy, and of the Sagun- 
tine and Asiatic potteries, both at table, as specimens of domestic convenience, and at 
the sacrifices to their deities, on account of the purity of the taste, although gold and 
silver ones abounded. 

As affording particular evidence of the sites they occupied here, we may be certain 
that the original form of the High Street has been but little altered, and like Chester, 
ancient Exeter was of an oblong or parallelogram form, like a Roman camp, which 
form it still preserves in all the purity of the Hiberna of the 2nd Legion. Some large 
fiat Roman tiles were also dug up, inscribed with the arch of a circle, and about fifteen 
copper coins. There were also some Potter's Marks found under this Bank, one of 
which, on the bottom of a small chalice or cup, DIOCHV., was probably of some 
Grecian Artist, or of Greek origin — we may suppose Deiochus, as the I seems a sort 
of monogram compounded with E, unless meant for the JEoUc digamma (which the 
Romans adopted instead of the aspirate,) but not very likely to be so. The other 
IVIII, unless IVLLI, might be the workmanship of the j€<;wZi or potters attached to 
the Eighth Legion (1st Cohort) whose ensign was a Ram or Bull, and served under 
the Emperor Carausius, of naval memory, in our Island, about 2S8, A. D., being en- 
titled Victrix and Hispanica, as well as Classica, Pia Fidelis, and Gemina Felix. 
Another MOD. of the noted Modestus. The coins were mostly in very bad preser- 
vation, all evidently of the Emperor Claudius — with the exception of a smaller one 
(PRO WdcMtio AVG,) of the Lower Empire, but quite obliterated, excepting some 
faint remains of the types and legends. Some curious pieces of bottle* with escut- 
cheons, probably from the Vine Tavern near this spot. A skeleton, &c. 

County Bank, High Street, Potter's Mark, MAR CELLI. VIII. on the lower part 
or bottom of what had been a chalice or small bowl. Are we to suppose that this is 
the 8th Legion, and that the hardy Legionaries in peaceful times, worked at their re- 
spective trades, like the French soldiers in Cantonments, or the Foot Guards in London 
at present ? If they or the FABRI of the different Cohorts, as we from good autho- 
rities also know, made bricks and tiles, such as we find here, and tesselated pave- 



OF BXBTER. 125 

raents, why not aUo pottery? of whicli last a coarse description is often met with at 
Exeter, an imitation perhaps of the better kind imported from abroad (Pliny 35, c. 46) 
and was possibly manufactured heie. They may have know* a potters' clay much 
superior to that found in the parish of Fremington, and also near Honiton. I mention 
this, because it is stated (Archeeol., vol. 23, p. 373), that the only ancient pottery in 
Britain was Potter Heigham, county Norfolk. Pennant mentions the marks of the 
Tungrian cohorts (or soldiers of Liege) on their vessels, found at Burrens, in the 
ncrth of England ; and we may have traced similar memorials of other troops at Exe* 
ter. That in the Lower Market, IIX. V. II, M., was very probably one of the 8th 
also.— CfiBsar figuli tua castra sequantur. Juvenal, Sat. iv, 135. What a pity we 
cannot get hold of a Ro.uan Squad Roll, as we possess their Notitia. 

County Bank. — Roman Jar, Lagena, or Wine Vase. — The Roman vessel, or coarse 
Vase, found under the foundations of this house, belongs, in my opinion, to the dwarf- 
ish class of vessels called Lagena, (probably a stone bottle or flagon, for wine or other 
liquids,) which poetically were sometimes designated OsBiC, of which we find Sessilis 
066a in Persius. Thus also in Juvenal, Saguntina lagena ; and Martial, Mixto 
Lagenah ad pedes replet vino. It is of the same coarse Roman-British composition 
as the MoRTAuiUM for prepaiing corn, found in our Lower Market, and holds the 
Roman liquid measure called the Conglus or six sextaries, about seven pints, old 
English measure. 

Potter's Mark, on a fragment of a Patera. NICEPH(orus), evidently a Greek pot- 
ter, or of Greek extraction ; NIKH*0P02, means Victorious ; perhaps he was from 
one of those foreign cities ennobled by Pliny, insignibus rota officinis (lib. 35, 12), 
for their c/i^d'tswrres of figuline art. The Praenomen of Nicephorus was common 
to three of the Eastern Emperors, from 802 to 1081, A. D. Samian vessels were 
used for sacred purposes in Greece long before the subjugation to the armies of 
Macedon. 

Waierbeer Street. — A quantity of fragments of Samian Ware ; some with the usual 
alto-relievos in hunting scenes ; Diana with her bow, and the hart or stag (yenatrix 
Dea), the hare, and other animals; two bears in the act of contending under a tree 
(allusion to the public sports) ; rude figure of Venus, (or some sea nymph) perhaps 
as AnadyomenCy or rising from the sea, with her veil, &c. ; Romanesques, Cupids, 
rosemary, and other garlands— An Imbrex ^ or large Roman Ridge Tile of a Com- 
p^uvtum, or Eaves. It has two segments of a circle inscribed on it. — Two handles 
and mouth of a coarse Amphora or wine vase ; broken sepulchral urns,&c. (Mr. Snell's) 
Bedford Circus. — A large piece of a red Samian vessel. The devices and orna- 
ments were rather of coarse workmanship, but they displayed the figures of three 
sword-players or gladiators of the Samnite order, such as used to figure at the funerals 
of the great, to propitiate by their blood the departed manes, and at the public shows 
in the Circus and Amphitheatres of ancient Rome, to glut the barbarous taste of the 
fickle Quirites. 

Tier above tier, those circling seats arise, 
Whence erst 'mid shouting throngs, Imperial pride 
Look' d down unpitying— while her children died— 



126 ANTIQUITIES 

What time the white-rob'd Vestal's stern command 
Bade Hero Ruffians lift the hireling hand. — 

The Coliseum. — Oxford Prize Poem, — Ormerod. 

Between these Satnnites, on separate compartments, appear the infuriated forms of 
two wild bulls, evidently relating to the hunting-scenes at the Amphitheatres ( Venatio) 
and the feats of the Bestiarii or huntsmen, (Plin. 8. 45) in those dangerous pastimes.* 

A Potter's Mark near this spot also, on the upper part of another fragment, perhaps 
of the same vessel, bears the legend SENNIVS F (ecit) Qy. S. ENNIVS ? ; and 
might be of some city in Calabria, such as Rudice, on the Gulf of Tarento, (and claim 
kindred with the poet Ennius,) red pottery being made in those parts of Magna Grae- 
cia in very early times. Two of the Gladiators had, however, already appeared on 
a piece of Samian ware found in the Lower Market last May, which will be now 
briefly described for the first time. — These figures on the larger pocula are exactly si- 
milar to those on the frieze of the bas reliefs of the tomb of Aricius Scaurus at Pofn- 
peiif in the Street of Tombs. Combats of these fencers or swordplayers were, how- 
ever, seldom seen in the decorations of noble houses, but in dwellings of the lower 
class at Pompeii. (V. Hor. Sat. 7, lib. 2.) Our Exonian fencers both wear Iielmets 
with visors and plumed crests, and have the square shield or scutum ; the first, a 
Samnite, in particular, wears the snbligaculum or short apron fixed with a girdle 
round the waist ; on his legs are ocrece or greaves, aad he wields a crooked scymetar 
ovfalx supina. The other is armed more after the Gaulish fashion, with the heavy 
sword of that nation and the Scutum imbricatum, or oblong buckler. He is the 
MiRMiLLo of antiquity, and is making a rapid retreat from the Samnite, his antagon- 
ist, having it would seem the worst of the fight, although he bears ofi"one of the pea- 
cock's piume»[of his helmet, which marks him out as a Pinmra/zMs, or one whose 
dexterity despoiled the crest of h is adversary — Lustravitque fugS medium gladiator 
arenam.— Juv. Sat, 2, 44. (Plate 10, No. 1.) 

Those of the Bedford Circus have a sort of ccnical helmet, with the square shield 
narrowing at the base, and the short sword or Sica — not to forget the apron as above. 

Gandy Street.— Two small fragments of a vessel of Samian "Ware, en one of which 
is a candelabrum, by way of ornament. This was one of the most elegant articles of 
furniture used by the ancients, originally perhaps only a rustic reed for a light to stand 
on, then a socket for a wax candle, (cereus), or plinth for the more luxurious lucerna 
or lamp which lighted their apartments. The workmanship was carried to the high- 
est perfection, as those found at Pompeii clearly demonstrate. This seems to stand 

♦ We cannot but lament the ravages of age on all these ancient vessels of the Pagan times, very few 
of which have been found perfect : they, however, are often more interesting than even the Roman 
money, and record the rites, manners, games, and feasts of that people. The public, therefore 
must talte them as they are, after IS centuries of concealment under our streets and houses, to say 
nothing of the felon hand and barbaric sword of the Danes. Perhaps the "bigot rage" of the 
early Christians may have smashed these frequent concomitants of heathen sacrificial superstition and 
idolatry, from the same angry spirit which prompted the image-breakers or Iconoclasts , when Christi- 
anity was first remodelled, to break the Medic ean Venus, and throw its pieces into the Baths of Cara- 
calla, to deface the handsome statues of Idols, " or Devils adored for Deities," and cause the ruined 
Temple, with its " channelled triglyphs and dropping base," to nod 

O' er mouldering fragments of its prostrate Gods. 



OF EXBTBtl. 127 

on two feet» something like dolphins' heads ; the stem appears to throw out buds, and 
to be formed of a liliaceous plant, divided Into two branches, connected by tendrils. 

Orphbus. — He appears in a short tunic, and bears a long robe or paUa^ shaped 
like the palm leaf, which was sacred to Apollo, the patron of raasic. The idea, per- 
haps, alluded to Nero*s penchant for musical studies, if the vessel was of his time. 
In the 3rd Eclogue of Virgil, v. 46, we find the two cups of the noble artist AlciraedoD, 
described as bearing an Orpheus. 

Orpheaque in medio posuit, silvasque sequentes. 
This allegorical subject is frequently introduced on tessellated pavements found in 
our island, as recording the aera of music. At Withington, for instance, (nine miles 
from Cirencester,) the Corinium of the Romans, where some interesting sepulchral 
monuments were lately found. At Woodchester, in Gloucestershire, and at two 
other places in Lincolnshire, one near Lincoln {Lindum), the other Winterton, the 
Ad Abum of the Romans, or station on the Humber, (the ABOS of Ptolemy.) On 
our pottery he is evidently charming the animals, which surround him with the magic 
spell of his lyre, by which all nature seemed soothed and animated. The story of 
Orpheus and his beloved Eurydice, Is immortalized by the 4th Georgic of Virgil. 

Thee, lovely spouse, thee fated to deplore, 

He mourn'd melodious on the desart shoro ; « 

I'hee when the day-spring dawn'd, with tuneful tongue, 

Thee when night gljom'd, he solitary sung : 

But now his loye an awful proof intends, 

To hell's detested shades the youth descends — 

His wondrous lyre charm'd Erebus around, 

And raised soft raptures with the magic sound, &c. 
Hares and rabbits seem to abound among the animals introduced: The hare is 
often met with on these fragments of Samian ware — it was the emblem of Osiris, as 
seeing and hearing all things, identified in the character of Bacchus and of the 
Dionusus Luaios. V, Num. Chron. Oct, 1839, p. 103. The rabbit implied fecundity, 
(lepus cuniculus,) and was the device of ancient Spain, where these animals abounded. 
Plat* 9, No. 2. 

Angelo Poliziano (or Politian) a famous Italian poet of the sera of the great Lo- 
renzo de Medicis, in the 16th century, has left a very pretty little pastoral tragedy on 
the pathetic tale of Orpheus and Eurydice, embodying the catastrophe which befell 
the latter, as in Virgil above.* It is called " Orfeo," and is well conceived. 

Dancing Fauns. These sylvan men seem to be celebrating or assisting at the lesser 
Dionysia, or feasts of Bacchus, in the fields, called TA K AT ArPOYS, or in the coun" 
try. They are perfectly naked— one has a torch, and seems, uno sublevato pede, to 
step with his left foot on a^r tree, which, as well as the vine and ivy, was sacred to 

• Che seguendola tin giorno per amore. 
Fa cagioD del suo fato acerb e reo, 
Perche faggendo lei vicino al acque 
Una lerpe la morse e morta giacque 
Orfeo, cantando alio Inferno la tolse. Poliz. 

2 H 



128 ANTIQUITIES 

Bacchus. The Jir was also consecrated to the great goddess Cybele, *' mother of a hun- 
dred gods," to whose towered majesty Atys the shepherd is often a companion, re- 
clining on the /r, into which it was fabled he was transformed by the goddess, after 
she became enamoured of him in Phrygia. (V, Catull. de Berecynthia et Aty) A 
hdLre forming on her seat is in the next compartment. 

Hunting Scenes. Tha presence of Diana with her bow, and the hind ^r^re , the 
venatrix Dea, the Luna or Isis of the ancients, and Hecate of their infernal regions, 
indicates a variety of subjects relating to the chace (venatio ) like those also on the 
tomb of Aricius Scaurus at Pompeii, in the street of tombs, and which adorn the steps 
supporting the Cippus of Scaurus. They probably have allusion to the bestiarii, or 
that class of huntsmen, like the Carpophorus of Martial, the Van Anibergh of his 
days, (Epig. 17, de Spectaculis,) who engaged with wild beasts on the arena of the 
amphitheatres at the public shows, and slew the boar, the lion, and the pard, the buf- 
falo, bear, and bison. Among the animals we distinguish the wild boar, stag, lion, 
and different kinds of dogs; also an abundance of the more timid creatures of the 
hare and rabbit kind. Aquatic birds are frequent on the decorations, and a great 
portion of the ornaments and flowers seem clearly to allude to Bacchanalia. The 
lotus, emblematical of Isis, and a sort of water pimpernel, or aquatic leaf, is most 
abundant both on the paterce and on the ornamental parts of other vessels. A cupid 
feeding a bird, and the griffin, sacred to Apollo, are among othe r designs, with a 
priestly figure of Egyptian character, which seems to bear a lituus, or crooked augural 
staff. 

The vasafictilia^ or vessels of red ware above, were no doubt part of the furniture 
oiihQtricliniumt or chamber of some wealthy Rom an, officer at Isca in ancient days, 
possibly of his tomb. 

Mercury. The fragment of some ancient vessel also of Samianware or red clay, 
(seyphus) the workmanship of Silvanus, on which is the figure of Hermes or Mer- 
cury as a beardless youth, naked, his petasus or winged cap on his head, no talaria 
on the feet : right hand holds a loose garment or cloth over the pudenda ; left a purse, 
as tutelary god of merchants, and inventor of commerce. He has a roguish, knowing 
look, quite Egyptian (and of the slave,) and is undoubtedly the Hermes of the Greeks, 
or god Thoth of that superstitious nation the Egyptians. A bird appears in front of 
him, probably a stork, sacrificed to him in Egypt, or an ibis. We see also the Trident 
of Neptune, (stolen from that god by Mercury,) to indicate the fruit fulness derived 
from water. Plate 8, No. 2. 

On a medal of the Emperor Albinus, this god appears as the Mercury of the Gauls 
being the great genius of the world, and author of fecundity, with the trident. Inscr. 
SfBCulo. Frugifero Cos, II.* 

* Statues of Mercury, of wood or stone, called Hbrm^ by the Greeks, were placed In the high 
Roads and porticoes of houses, to keep off other thieves, (of which class he was the deity) these had no 
feet, but ended in a quadrangular base or epistyle, nor had the figure any hands, it was however as 
Herodotus has it; lyriTafxtvo? xcu offl»a?wy, that is fascino erectO' This was peculiar to the statues repre- 
senting him as an old man, by the testimony of Plutarch. Longinus alludes to the impiety of certain 
persons who had mutilated these statues. Those who had committed this piece of sacrilege at Athens 
by night, were called ErmecopicUe. (Mereurii stattta collis et veretris cireumcisa.) Thucyd. Plu- 
tarch. The origin of the name of the god was fron» mwcium curd, taking care of merchandize or guati 



OF BXETBR 129 

Two of the Roman Penates, or little household gods, in bronze, found near Broad- 
gate, Exeter, in 1778, proved to be of Mercury— one 4^, the other 4| inches long ; 
each held a purse, one had the petasus and talaria^ the other, wings between his hair, 
instead of the former, and a long loose garment. A bronze cock, the emblem of vigi* 
lance, sometimes dedicated also to the god Lunus, (supposed by Stukely one of Ra- 
chaers teraphim,) accompanied them. The Romans sacrificed to Thoth, the Egyptian 
Mercury, on the 19th Sept. 

On the other fragments appear an eagle, and divers birds of the duck or spoonbill 
tribe ; also the tail of a dolphin, and small Romanesques. The letters (Sil)VANI P. 
are also legible, as the name of the artisan. The workmanship is, apparently of the 
roost perfect eara of the arts. The dolphin, in connexion with the trident already men- 
tioned, marks liberty of trade and the empire o^ the sea. Plate 9, No. 3.* 

July 25, 1837. A Fragment of Roman Pottery and Potter's Inscription.t found near 
the Western Market, evidently belonged to a Roman bowl or vessel of the scyphus 
class, which were larger jugs or bowls, quite different from the flat dishes or platters, 
which often however answered to the Apophoreta of Isidorus, in which fruits and 
viands were carried to table and were distinct from the paterse used in the sacrifices 
for libations, &c. These bowls or hollow vessels of red ware are illustrated by the 
Terra rubens Crater of Ovid (Fast. lib. 3) and TibuUus (El. lib. 2,) Pocula de facili 
composuit luto. The vessel by its embellishments, seems devoted to the chace, being 
embossed with scenes illustrative of the sports at the amphitheatres. Such have been 
found at Exeter before, and commemorate the public games, bull fights and shows of 
gladiators in ancient Rome, Here we see an enormous wild goat,^ (probably 
the Rupicapra, with crooked horns, of Pliny) pursued by a huge animal of the dog 
or wolf genus ; a lion in the act of making his fatal spring on the other side. The 
other decorations are cinque foils, &c. and the name of the artist appears above, AVS- 



mtdiut current, because tpeeehor eloquence ii the medium of communicatioa between man and man. 
He was the same as the Ttutatit of the Gauls, the principal of the Keltic Deities and Hut of the Druidt, 
|o whom human sacrifices were offered. 

• Veneration of ancients for Earthen Vessels in Temples— /S»m/)tila. Justus Rycquius de Capito. 
lie (p. 222. ed. 1669.) remarks that In the early days of Home, it was customary to swear by theix^ctile 
gods, before going into battle. Libations were made from fictile or earthen sympula, in preference to 
those of crystal or myrrhine, which were of vast price, but from want of simplicity not so pleasing to 
tke gods. An excellent Essay on the Sj/mpulum, or Sympuvium, and Samian vessels, is in Hadr. Juni* 
nt, Anlmadv. lib. 2, (Rotterdam, 1706) and this is considered as a small vase, (often of different shapes) 
or cup, notnnlike a little pot or cyathus, for libationi of vrine, and the origin of the word from the 
Greek o^yjivivav, to drink in company with another. Capedinet were great pitchen and Jugs, with 
handles, and Cululli vases or pitchers, used in the sacred rites of the Pontifices and Vestal Virgins. 

t That the namea of the Roman Artista were often placed on thehr articles of manufacture, is clear 
from the Aretine Vase, with the figure of Fame bearing the name ofNimis the maker (v. Martial in 
Apophoretis) and of Tuscan workmanship. Thus also Wedgewood, Spode. &c. of the present day. 
Appellari enim vasa solita esse ab artificibus, ostendunt Thericlea. et quod ait Juvenalis— auctotis no. 
men habentem. V.Polv. Uriini App. ad Ciaccontum. This proves the vessels to have been also fre- 
quently called by the names of the makers. 

} Rapicapia : Roach hasehana, ^Jf^ Buccina Novl Aaai. V. RelM^ Naa- Sam. p. 2tl. 



130 ANTiaUITTES 

TRI. OF, (offlcina) the workshop or manufactory of Auster. He is the first of the 
name found here, bearing the designation of the south wind called also Notus, which 
wind is the forerunner of heavy rain and showers, and is introduced by Virgil to wreck 
three ships of ^Eneas. To propitiate these winds, altars were erected and sacrifices 
performed in various parts of Greece and Italy. (Milton Par. Lost, lib. x. Notus and 
AFER black with thunderous clouds, from Serra Liona.) In our times he would 
have been styled South. Camden in his remaincs (1605) says the first imposition of 
names was upon future good hope of the parents for their children, and their first and 
principal wishes towards them, but that if we compare the Roman names with our 
own we shall find even the great names of Fabius, Lentulus, Cicero, Piso, andStolo, 
nothing more in our tongue than Beanraan, Lentill, Chick-pease, Pease-codman, 
Branch, &c.* 

Several pieces of vases and relics of pottery, evidently, from their good workmanship, 
by tasteful artists, were again dug up on the site of the Western Market. Fanciful borders 
of a sort of ovolo or egg and tongue moulding, seemed to prevail, resembling the upper 
ornaments of a pratorium, or general's pavilion in the camp. Circles of beads, with 
flowers and festoons, or thyrsi, most of them indications of Baechanaliay were very 
frequently met with. Among these flowers, that of the lolusy as on the tripod at 
Pompeii, evidently Isiac, audits leaf, greatly prevails ; the lily, appropriate to Juno, 
as well as the poppy, sacred to Diana, Ceres, and Juno. A [plant, resembling nas- 
turtium, the convolvolus and the acorn of Jove, also appear, but the lotus ox type of 
the Nile seems universal. Vine leaves, ivy or myrtle, garlands of vervain and rose- 
mary, birds of the duck kind, probably the ibis of Egypt, sacred to Mercury, the 
dolphin, sacred to Apollo, cupids disporting, and various animals of the chace, are 
favourite subjects. Plate 8, No. 3., Plate 9, No. 4. Two of the ibis birds seem to be 
devouring a serpent, which they hold between them in their bills : that bird is supposed 
to have been a species of curlew, and has now quite deserted Egypt. Some pieces 
belong to scyphi or poculayh&ng drinking vessels : others to patera, or flatter dishes. 
There are also fragments of walls painted in fresco, gene rally of a bright green colour. 

A great quantity of Roman glass, or hyalus, was found at various times. In Pom- 
peii, glass vessels of the kind, called o^i/6opAa by the Greeks, are found — so called 
from the liquor issuing out guttatinif or drop by drop ; also glass funnels and wine 
strainers, and once also a siphon or wine taster. Quantities of pieces of black cinerary 
sepulchral urns were found in these markets ; as also of pipkins (cacdbi,) dolia and other 
vessels of coarse earth, (catiniJictHes,) which, as well as many of the coins, bore 
testimony to the ravages of the fires of the pirate Danes, under King Sueno, in A. D. 
1003. Part of an amphora or wine jar, C/avzs«a,^ being the cx)nical base of such a 
vessel, ^the pottery evidently of British clay,) generally used for libations to the infer- 
nal gods, to wash the bones, and put out the funeral fires* V. Battely, p. 108. A 
bronze urn, evidently a prafericulum, of which the ama or handle was entire, as 
also its mouth and bottom. The former of these last was trigonal or three cornered^ 
the latter orbicular, containing within itself a number of concentric circles, " orb in 

* Thus also Naso, Bottle Nose ; Pansa, Broad foot ; Crispus, Curl-pate ; Pedo, Longshanks ; Hor- 
tenslus, Gardener; Strabo, Squint-eye ; Labeo, Blobber Lip ; Varus, Bow Legged ; ScauruB, Knobbed 
Heel. 



OF EXETBR 131 

orbs." It was broken and decayed in other respects. The little god Orus, as a naked 
child, with his whip in the right hand, appears on the lower part of the ansoi The 
large fictile vessel or discus, ia red clay, being a deep broad platter or patera, ahready 
mentioned, page 1 19, was found at a short distance from this urn. It was probably the 
broad patera carried before the priests in the hands of the officialis or attendant, con- 
taining cakes, inola salsa^ (salt meal,) the Simpulum and smaller pateree. Varro de 
Ling, Latin, lib. IV., says that Liquor was carried in it on festival occasions. 
Such are generally found buried in the busta of the deceased. In its centre is the 
potter's mark. OF. \1GRI, as already mentioned. The fantastic and imaginary repre- 
sentation of animals and foliage, sometimes called Romanesque^ first brought from 
Egypt, was adopted by the Greeks, and received amongst the Romans in the age of 
Augustus : and panels of rooms with flowers, have been found even at ancient Thebes, 
in Egypt. Those of our terracottas may have been of the Neronian period. Pliny 
says that the Saniian vessels used at table by the Romans, were manufactured at Ar« 
retlum (Arezzo ;) Surrentum, Asta, Tralles, and PoUentia, in Italy;* in Spain atSa- 
guntum. V. Martial, 

Sume Saguntino pocula facta luto. Saguntina lagena, Jav* 
and in Asia at Pergamos and Mutina. 

Sept. W. Market. Part of an ancient vessel, the rim of which is adorned with lotus 
leaves — most likely a sacrificial patera, not like the larger ones, to receive the blood 
of the victim, as an offering on the altar, but probably to ofier libations of water, oil, 
and wine, or to be used at public feasts. It was no doubt, when entire, of proper pro- 
portions and beauty, indicative of ancient elegance, {Latum ac patens), and certain- 
ly not a flat plate or discus, as the Apophoreta spoken of by Isidorus, for holding 
apples at the Saturnalia, and other trifling gifts, and in which fruits and other luxuries 
were carried to the tables of the great. These seemingly trifling cups or dishes are 
sometimes found inscribed to a peculiar deity ; the lotus was, we know, dedicated to 
Venus and Apollo, and its leaf is the most common emblem on the pottery discovered 
at Exeter. The ancient Egyptians gave it a more distinguished place in their theo- 
cracy, as the oflspring of the waters, and implying generation ; and it appears from 
Herodotus, that it constituted a considerable portion of their food — the flower was 
emblematic of immortality. It is well known that this plant, which grows in abun- 
dance on the waters of Egypt, was particularly consecrated to Isis, with the vine, 
palm and papyrus, as visible on the pillars and decorations of her temple at Esneh or 
Latopolis, (in gratitude to her who presided over the entry of the Nile to fertilize their 
land) — the portico of which is still well preserved. The river Nile, (worshipped by 
them as Jupiter,) which irrigates and fertilizes the Delta, appears on a coin of Ves- 
pasian, with towers on his head and the lotus flower, (in reality a species of water lily, 
and its leaf like the water plantain,^ of which part they actually made bread, in his 
hand. So also on our Egyptian medal of Trajan, found in South Street, the Nile as 
Osiris or Canopus, which preserved the land from famine by its annual rise, appears 
reclining on a crocodile with the lotus, offspring and emblem of the fecundity of the 

* Rhegium, Cos.aad Comee were also famoui for the Samian Ware.— Plin 35, 12. 

2i 



132 ANtlQUITlESJ 

waters, and the Cornucopia, This is of Alexandria, coined in the 12lh year of Trajarii 
(L. AojAEK) Garlands of acacia, bay leaves, and lotus are found on the heads of 
mummies. Canopus was supposed to govern the viraters, and the genius of nature con- 
sisted in moisture. And on a coin of Hadrian, Isis appears suckling Orus her infant, 
(the most ancient Apollo,) the 3rd King of Egypt and advancer of Joseph, and the 
emblem of the Sun, with an Urceolus or waterpot behind her. This denotes tht fe- 
cundity of nature, which consists in moisture, derived from her the omniparens Dea, 
and her consort Osiris ; a pot of Water being always carried in their processions, like 
the Roman prcsfericula or vases which bore the holy water or other sacred liquor to 
the altar; Anacreon (Od. 4), speaks of theioius and fragrant myrtle, as forming a 
couch to the lover of wine, and calls in Cupid to act as cupbearer, like an Egyptian 
slave, his tunic fastened with a knot of the papyrus. The God Apis has a lotus^owev be- 
tween his horns. Isis and Canopus appear with a flower larger than the lily, called ABPO- 
TONON by the Greeks. The Egyptians symbolically represented the supreme divinity 
sitting on a lotus plants which attitude was supposed to signify the most sacred, im- 
mortal, and venerable of beings fore perewwiV as utterly at rest, reposing, within him- 
self. Water being supposed by them to be the first principle of all things,* they at- 
tributed great honours to this most general aquatic plant, which the father of history^ 
Herodotus, lib. 2, tells us they used for food, cooking or baking its central part in the 
fire, and using the root, which was bulbous and of the size of an apple, for the like 
purpose, as well as other water lilies, and the byhlus or water reed also. Pliny also 
relates thai bread was made of the seed of this plant, called lotometra, and its fruit 
which was of the size of a bean, was very pleasant to the taste. Its flower was the sup- 
posed distinction on coins of Auletes. Venerating this water plant, they therefore imperso- 
nated Nature as the offspring of water or moisture, and making her a distinct principle, 
deified her under the name of Isis, the most universal deity of antiquity, and the same 
as the Juno and lo of Greece : 

Cujus Numen unicum, multiformi specie, ritu vario, nomine multijugo, totus vene- 
ratur orbis. Apuleius Met. lib. xi. 

The difference of which essence from her consort Osiris, (the Bacchus Eugenes, first 
parent, or Bui-lman of Greece, and the Hiram of the Freemasons,) the mind or rea- 
son, an original, unmixed, pure and holy principle, resembled that of the Moon from 

• Cicero (de Natura Deonim, 1, cap. 25,) considers a chaos of water to be the beginning of all 
things, but that God was the master mind, by which every thing was made from water. From this 
opinion of the heathens, the theory took its rise of the origin of atr, fire, and light ; also of love, 
and an invincible or Suprbmb Wm, from the union of Oceanus and Tethys, both powerful marine 
deities. In Egypt, the precarious state of agriculture, dependent on the rise or failure of the waters 
of the Nile, gave rise to the honours paid to that river, and to watek in general. Even now, under 
the rule of the famous Mahomet Ali, the value of land in Egypt depends on its level above the Nile> 
as on that depends the cost of the cultivation, the irrigation being performed by mannal labour, and is 
of course the chief expense to the cultivator. That extraordinary man, lately so humbled by our 
arms, still sways the sceptre of the Pharaohs, and governs the kingdom of the Ptolemies : by his 
genius Egypt has again risen from Its ashes, and civil arts and political wisdom have awakened from 
the tomb, and in spite of history, and almost even prophecy, we have seen this once obscure servant 
of the Seraglio wresting the sceptre from the Sultan, and giving commerce, arts, laws, and enterprise 
to the land of Cham, of him the " serrant of lervants, to his brethren," while his revenue exceeds four 
millions yearly. 



01? BXBTBR. 133 

the Sun, "or fts the schoolmen speak," of natura naturata^ from natura naturam. 
Her diYine ladyship comprahended the pantheistic universe or centre of the arcane re- 
ligion of Egypt, understood only by its priests, who possessed all the sciences, that 
they m ight place a barrier between themselves and the people, and wrapped them in 
emblem and my^itery : being, as Denon observes, the slaves of abject and hypocritical 
despots, for which reason we see incessantly temples, but no other public edifice, in 
their now ruined cities, that could have resisted the ravages of time. !No royal palace 
is to be traced there, no circus, arena, or theatre ; for pleasures they had ceremonies, 
for luxuries, sepulchres and mummy pits, vases containing deceased cats and Ibis 
birds. Mahomet Ali in our own days only, has roused Egypt from its slumbers. 
Thus were the arts and their genius borne down, and the clariflers of these mysticisms 
are only found among a few of the moderns of our own days, such as Salt, Belzoni, or 
ChampoUion, and Wilkinson. The universe, as in the Mensa Isiaca, their general 
system of religion and superstition, occupied the centre, in Isis on her throne, of all 
their ancient secret mysteries. Her priests were in most countries, men of dignity in 
the empire, powerful and rich, dressed in white vests, (grege linigero et grege calvo, 
JuvO and eggs, (the emblem of generation, and by Pythagoras considered a symbol 
of creation, from which reason an egg-shaped vehicle may be traced on hieroglyphics 
with the first man and woman sailing through space,) were chiefly used in the expiations 
and purifications of her votaries. The Suevi, between the Elbe and the Vistula, sacri- 
ficed to her ; but Tacitus is at a loss to know how her worship was there introduced- 
Among the Romans it was very general till the time of Tiberius, when her statue was 
thrown into the Tiber, (V. Joseph. Ant.) in consequence of the young Mundus, disguised 
with a mask, or dog's head, as Anubis, having ventured to injure the virtue of a Roman 
matron of rank, (Paulina, wife of Saturninus, Governor of Syria,) in her temple. Her 
worship, suppressed from the debauchery and licence attending it, but reestablished 
by Augustus, was, however, restored in the College of the Pasthophori at Rome. 
Apuleius, the Philosopher, who was a member of it, and a priest of this deity, gives a 
full account of her religious procession at CenchrecBy near Corinth. (Met. lib. xi.)* 

When at Pompeii, I visited her temple, still very entire, and with its lavacrum or 
bath, and two altars, complete. The shrine, or secret adytum, still exists, in which 
her priests dispensed oracles, or mystic words, as of an invisible daemon, conducted 
in a tunnel by two apertures, perhaps by the potent art of ventriloquism. 

April 6, 1837. Roman PRiEFERicuLUM, or sacred Vase, found in the Western Mar- 
ket. Unless buried in the tombs or 6«s<a of the dead, this bronze vessel and others 
found here, may be said to mark the site of an ancient temple on the spot, probably to 
the universal goddess Isrs. A bronze crescent, or iunute^pne a, was dug up there, 
perhaps attached to a lamp, and alluding to Diana as Isrs, (symbolical of the moon, and 
feminine gender,) like the one recorded in Montfaucon's Antiquities, unless the cphip- 
pium or ornament for the trappings of a war horse, such as we see on the column of Tra- 
jan at Rome. Plate 7, No. 3. Battely, Ant: Rut. p. 131, gives a notice of one of these 
found on the shore at Reculver, in Kent. The prcefericulum was certainly used to carry 
the holy lustral water to the altars We are told by Cicero, (pro S. R. Amerino,) that 
the best brazen vessels, (Brea vasa, of this description, were of Corinthian or Delian 

• The Catholic procession at the Fflt Ditu is apparently a strong imiUtion of it. 



134 ANTIQUITIES 

workmanship. On coins of some Emperors, particularly of the younger Tetricus, 
this vase appears in all its beauty, with other symbols of the pontificate, the simpu- 
luniy or little vessel to pour wine on the sacrifice, water sprinkle or aspersoriuniy acer- 
ra, or incense box, and also secespita or sacred knife. 

We have it on record, (v. Borlase Cornwall, Gent. Mag., 1760, p, 322,) that one of 
these Vases, made of tin, containing four quarts one pint wine measure, was found in 
Cornwall in 1756, at Bossens, in the parish of St. Erth, ( 3 miles N. E. of St Michael's 
Mount.) 

Three bowls or paterse of fine Granite, were found also, one at Ludgvan, the others 
at St. Just ; also a Vase of the same in the glebe at Ludgvan, finely turned and po- 
lished. As the learned Varro informs us, (lib. IV.) such pater ce or flat vessels were 
used to pour out libations of wine and blood in honour of the deity to whom the sa- 
crifice was offered, and at feasts, "in publico convivio Antiquitatia retinendae causa," 

Triad, or antient Triangle Mystery. Isiac Vase (above.) What Plotinus of 
Alexandria, the Platonic philosopher, and tutor even of Porphyry, the arch enemy of 
Christian Doctrines, observes in his 5th £»mead, is correct, viz, that the doctrine of 
a Trinity (the Elohim of Genesis,) father, mind, and soul, is not a recent invention, 
but a very ancient tenet, Cujusvis est err are, the notion of a Trinity or sacred 
Triad, is found in the writings of many ancient heathen philosophers, being an idea of 
three divine hypostases. Authority, light, and life, seem to the eye of reason to sup- 
port, pervade, and animate this mundane system on the one hand, while in the micro- 
cosm here, they appear preserving soul and body, enlightening the mind, and moving 
the aflfections. This Vessel was probably a mystical Isiac Vase, as the tergeminous or 
triquetral mouth of many of the sacred vases, alluded to the triangle mystery, enter- 
tained by the disciples of the Platonic school ; Isis being nature herself, as is well 
known to every man of letters, and the most universal divinity of antiquity. The words 
*' Hffic e plurimis elementis ad unum redacta esse ; et ignem quidam et aera et aquam 
habere originem atque principium ex Trigono qui sit angulis rect is non paribus." 
(Apul. de dogm, Platonis.) imply that fire, air, and water, arose from a triangle of three 
unequal right angles; The earth from right angles, &c., " directis quidem angulis" : 
" Trigonis etvestigiis paribus esse." Xenocrates considered the Equilateral Triangle, 
an emblem of the deity : Scalene, of mortal man : Isosceles of deemons or spirits. In the 
administration ef all things, there must be authority to establish, law to direct, and 
justice to execute — viz., the first, the Fons Deitatis, or grand source of all perfection; 
2ndly, the supreme reason^ order, or AOrOS Cadmitted by Plato) ; and lastly the 
spirit, which vivifies or inspires. That is, we are imprimis^ from the Father; irra-< 
diated in our intellectual powers by the Son ; and moved or instigated by the Spirit : 
bearing analogy to the Sun, light, and heat, or principle, mind and soul. The disciples 
of Pythagoras, and the wise men of Egypt ^nd Chald«a, entertained the same tenets, 
although of course unknowing of Revelation. Many of the greatest philosophers of 
the Heathen World held a Trinity in the Godhead, being a great TO EN, incorporeal 
and pervading all nature and elements, as the universal hypostasis ox principle in the 
Divinity. Also an universal spirit, author of all life and motion ; and a mind also 
universal, irradiating and ordering all things. The first being the Soul of the World, 
and of ^hose substance they considered the souls of mankind (created in God's own 



OF EXETER. 135 

essence) were a portion. If the unenlightened Heathens, who longed in vain for 
"mightier truths than Athens ever knew," could thus set the </oc<ri»i« of Unity at 
nought, it may appear ridiculous in this enlightened age, to try to explain away by 
" traditions of men," " vain wisdom all and false philosophy," and worldly conceits, 
that which is considered as founded on the Rock of Ages, graven by words that 
shall " not pass away ;" even if the earth and the works that are therein should fade from 
sight, and reek once more on that funeral pyre which would consume all things. 

July 19, 1838. A quantity of the beautiful red Samian ware or Roman pottery, 
was lately dug up opposite Coffin's estate, Fore Street, evidently an ancient place of 
sepulture, figured very tastefully with oak leaves, garlands, and festoons of flowers, 
&c. ; a lion, figures of ^eitit, Hercules killing the Lerneean Hydra, God Pan, &c. ; 
evidently fragments of simpula and patercB^ vessels buried in the tombs or busta of 
the deceased heathens of ancient Isca, as nearly a bushel of pieces of black sun-baked 
sepulchral urns were found in the same spot, in the red clay ; and many handles- and 
pieces of their coarse awpAor^p, or wine jars. Potter's Mark, METO.. imperfect, 
with a monogram. The letters L. SL. P. and P. AV. R. are on the handles or ansa 
of two of the vases or amphorcB^ which are of Roman British fabric. The other de- 
corations of the Samian ware are — chariot race of cupids, as on the cornices of the 
frigidaria of the baths at Pompeii ; panthers, goats, thyrsi, vine, grapes, branches of 
ivy, rosemary, birds, (the magpie, sacred to Bacchus,) all memorials of the Bacchana- 
lian revels of antiquity, and the feasts called Dionysia ; stags, lions, and other wild 
beasts, &c. Genii or Cupids are numerous — they flit among the foliage like so many 
Ariels or airy spirits, wild and fantastical, so many Oberons attendant on the Queen 
of the fairies, as in sublime Spenser's fanciful poem, or the Midsummer Night's dream 
of our illustrious Shakspeare. V. Plate 7, No. 2, Plate 10, Nos. 2, 4, and 6. 

Samian Ware. Salii. Two of the Salii or dancing priests of Mars, first instituted by 
Numa^ performing their antick dance with the Ancylia, or sacred shields; so called 
a Saliendo. (Plutarch in Num.) One of these fascino ereclo^ the other has a brass 
helmet peculiar to the SaZii. (W. Market.) 

The Apollo. Two fragments of a large drinking bowl (Scyphu$ or trulla^) were 
dug up at a great depth. Apollo seated, playing on his lyre, appears on one of the 
decorations, and also a lion, (in circuitu brevibus signisj with the usual ovolo 
mouldings. 

God CABinus,on Samian ware. — A figure actively employed at the anvil, evidently 
one of the Cabiri, Cor Semones) sons of Vulcan and Cabsera, daughter of Proteus, 
who were the same as the IdiEi Dactyli of Phrygia. Sacred blacks.iiiths, whose mys- 
teries were confined to the Phoenicians and the colonies of that people, and taught 
mankind the use of fire in working metals. Sec, invented the Pyrrhic and Panoplian 
armed dances of antiquity, and were great benefactors to mankind, a sort of freemasons 
of early times, greatly venerated at Samotbrace in the Aegean sea. Do. 

In Waterbeer Street. A fragment of Samian Ware, which records a quoit thrower 
or Discobolus, who appears naked, in the act of hurling that missive— (aerias libratum 
in auras, Ovid)— immortalized by the muse of Homer and many other poets, and 
which exercise was often performed in the Roman circus. The other ornaments are 
the head of Medusa, with its serpent locks, thunny fishes^ emblematic of the productive 

2k 



136 ANl'iaUlTlE* 

qualities of the waters, and a common generative symbol of the Phoenicians ; Cis/& of 
baskets, &c. All of the era of Nero. The figure of the Athlete is stiff, and evident- 
ly not a copy of Myron, or the gladiator in the Townley Gallery. 

Northernhay, August, 1840. — Several fragments of ancient red pottery were found, 
on one of which is a beautiful Bacchanalian figure of a Faun or young male votary of 
Bacchus naked, carrying a thyrsus across his left shoulder, the right considerably 
thrown back bears a lighted torch ; a light robe of fine texture flows around him, pro- 
bably one of those transparent silk and cotton scarfs called muUicia and galbana by 
Juvenal, Sat. 2 ; in front of him a bunch of grapes. A rosemary pattern adorns the 
base of this specimen, probably a Roman drinking cup or scyphus. The scene com- 
memorates the Dionysia or feasts of Bacchus, the god of wine, celebrated in the night 
with great debauchery and licentiousness by the ancient heathens (omnis libidinis et 
lascivice seminaria) called also Orgia from the Greek word opyt] fury, because fe- 
males worked up into a state of insanity assisted at them, and Trieterica, because ce- 
lebrated with greater solemnity every third year. (V. Ovid. lib. 6, Met. fab. 8.) In 
the Roman Kalendar the feasts of Bacchus appear to have been in November. The 
thyrsus was a Bacchanal spear or pole, encircled about the point with ivy or grapes, 
the symbols of the presiding deity of wine, for that reason also called Thyrsiger, arm- 
ed with which and provided with pipes, drums and other musical instruments, he and 
his followers are said to have conquered India or perhaps Ethiopia only, in early times. 
This spot, directly outside the City Walls, appears to have been an ancient fosse or 
moat, and a landing place for rubbish, for perhaps more than a century and a half. 
(Foundations of the Dispensary.) Plate 8, No. 6. 

June 1840. The Mint, The upper part of a Roman vessel or jar was dug up, which 
if not a Praefericulum, or vase of that description used to carry the sacred lustral water 
or other liquor to the altar, was most likely used as an attendant on the funeral of 
one of the departed Roman denizens of ancient Isca. It was of black clay, of Roman 
British workmanship, and of the same materials as the ancient black sepulchral ves- 
sels continually dug up in this city in company with the red or Samian pottery. The 
handle or ansa is broken oflF, and the neck, which is exceedingly narrow, opens into a 
curious hour glass shaped mouth with two apertures of a broad leaf shape, (similar 
to the figure 8,) so that the liquid could have been poured out of either when used as 
a spout. A similar double spouted mouth piece of a vessel of the same material was 
dug up in the Lower Market, in I83d — in company with many other curious relics. 
The one now recently found in the Mint, was accompanied by a small embossed frag- 
ment of light rose coloured Samian ware, of the shape of an obtuse angled triangle, 
probably a portion of the urn which contained the ashes of the deceased or some sacri- 
ficial vessel interred with them.* The class of vessels called praefericula, not sepul- 
chral, contained wine for libation, as well as the lustral or purifying water ; from 
them it would appear the wine was poured into the broad deep vessels called paterae 
at the sacrifices. 

Vinaque marmoreas paterS, fundebat in aras. — Ovid. Met. v. 106* 

• The ancient vessels found here all relate in my opinion to burials, and (o those visionary and un- 
substantial proceedings, the ofiferings to the Manes or wandering spirits of the dead at the feasts cal- 
led Lemuralia (and also the Inferiae and Exequise or funeral solemnities) attended witli numerous 
ceremonies. Black pottery is however, at times, f^und in the Roman villas. 



of EXETER. 137 

The CRATEft, in the opinion of the learned Scallger, was a huge wine vase wliich was 
placed on the middle of the table, from which wine was dispensed in cyathi or goblets. 
A bronze vase, all in pieces, except the mouth and handle, on which was the effigy of 
a naked youth, supposed to be the god Horus, holding a whip, has been already'no- 
ticed, page 133. There were other vessels for the holy or lustral water of a differ- 
ent kind, called Favissie and Futilia, which were large mouthed, bat so designedly 
narrow at the bottom that they could not stand on end, for which reason they were 
obliged to be fastened up to the walls of the temples ; to prevent the expiatory fluid 
from being contaminated or mixing with other matters. From this ancient custom 
may have arisen the piscinae for holy water in Catholic Churches, in which the asper- 
sorium or water-sprinkle of the heathens, to sanctify the altar, vessels, and people, is 
still used. It appears on ancient coins in company with the vase, secespita or sacri- 
ficing knife, lituus, or crooked augural staff, &c. 

In 1837, a massy coin of Faustina, the younger, was found embedded in the solid ma- 
sonry of a Roman foundation in the Mint. The mouldering and shattered relics of 
those days scattered about this city, may excuse their being here recorded, "not mere- 
ly from superior excellence or long and venerable age, but as the creations of a heathen 
people living under a dispensation, a moral economy and reason distinct from uurs ; 
but whose noblest virtues being built on incorrect views and erroneous motives, alien 
from the truth, the models on which they formed themselves have long since crumbled 
to the dust or been scattered to the winds." 

Summary of ROMAN POTTEWs IMPRESSES discovered at EXETER, 
OF. CO^ciflO, Workshop,) M. fJ!fan»J F. CPeeit.J 
SILVANl F. OF. PRIMI (tivi ) 

SILVAN. ajJORAM (MarcriUus impressed back- 

OF. SEVER! (VE monogram or ligature.) wards.) M and A monogram. 
OF. MASCVI (Masculini.) CIFN. M. 

OF.MVRRAN. IflQA.. . .j(Aquitanus) 

OF. CRESTIO. .... ERF. and OF. . . .RAN. 

OF. NIGRI. .ORA. : and . . VR, (fragments.) 

OP. BASSI. ARBO. . .. (Plate 10, No. 5J 

O. DIO. (officina Dionysii ?) REGVIVES. 

OF. MODESTI. -NEhO. FEC. 

OF. AQV. (Aquitani.) L. VARIV. 

OF. NOV. M. VINIl. 

OF. CELA ADVOCIS.F. 

OF. MO(desti) MOD. DIAIXLIMV (Divixtuli ManU, M and V 

SVORNTED. OF. (NTE monogram.) monogram.) One of his found at Albury, 

REG INI. M. Surrey. 

RVTHENl. M. NAMILIA (Cath. Yard. A & M monogram . 

S. ENNIVS. F. METO.... (E, T, and O, monogram or 

MAR.. ligature.) 

NICEPH (orus.) DIOCHV. 

IIXVHM(Qy. IIXLegioSva. V Vietrix. IVIII (or perhaps IVLLI.) 

H HUpanica.) AVSTRI. OF. 

MARCELLI.VHI. LIIF. M. 



138 ANTIQUITIES 

Initial Names of Potters, on handles of Amphorce, of coarse gritty composition. 
L. FO. Qy. Lucius Fonteius, or Fontanus ? 

L. SL. P. (if any where but on a Vase, these sepulchral characters imply Locum sibi 
libertis posieris,) 

P. AV.R. (A and V. ligature. Qy. Publius Aurelius Rufus ? 
On the flat handle or rim of a coarse Vase, S. VERIVS. VERANIVS. 

The name of Veranius was borne by greater persons than mere potters. In Tacit. 
Ann. 14, we find a proprsetor of Britain of that name, in the reign of Nero, two years 
previous to the great revolt under Boadicea. He warred with the Silures of Hereford- 
shire, rather unsuccessfully, and governed this province two years — another is ncticed 
Ann. lib, 3, as opposing Piso. Verius and Verrius were most probably the same ; 
one of that name was tutor to the grandchildren of Augustus. The present instance is 
however only the name of an artist, probably a Roman British citizen, and the vessel 
was of that manufacture, of a light brovsnor tawny colour, often found. A large 
fragment lay about the rubbish of the Lower Market, and was only preserved from 
oblivion by its being thus inscribed. It was most likely an Urceus or Pitcher for water, 
if not a culinary vessel. 

Curious Signet, or Seal of Severius Pompeyus, discovered in the Gardens 6c- 
tween the end of Musgrave's Alley and the Castle Walls. Plate 7, No. 4. 

This antique Seal was a handsome Cornelian, which came into the possession of 
Mr, Hind, formerly proprietor of the house and grounds now belonging to Mr. Luke, 
Solicitor, through whose kind attention we are enabled to give the annexed plate, from 
a cast which was taken from an impression in wax, now in the collection of Mr. Ellis, 
Silversmith, of this city. The ancients were exceedingly superstitious about engraved 
Seals, attributing many virtues to them, particularly the amethyst, which Pliny tells 
us, if graven with the name of the Sun and Moon, and hung round the neck with the 
hair of the Cynocephalus, or the swallow's feathers, was an antidote to poison. His- 
tory is silent respecting this scion of the house of the great Pompey : he was probably 
a grandson or descendant of the noble conqueror of Mithridates, and vanquished cham- 
pion of Rome, on the bloody plains of Pharsalia. The Seal bears an elderly laureated 
bust to the left, and over the right shoulder is an anchor, which stamps the affinity to 
the family. It was a plebeian one and among its branches were recorded the Rufi, 
Magni and Fostuli. Tacitus notices Longinus^ Propinquus and Urbicus, of this race. 
There are 33 varieties of coins known of this family. (V. Akerman Des. Cat. vol. I, 
p. 74) in gold, silver, and brass. Maritime emblems abound on many of these; on the 
reverse of one of silver, is a sceptre between an eagle and a dolphin, MAGN. PRO, 
COS. On a second, the prow of a vessel, and on another of Pompey is Neptune, be- 
tween the two brothers of Catana " his right foot resting on the prow of a vessel, the 
figure head or acrostolium in his right hand," PRAEF. ORAE. MARIT. ET. CLAS. 
S. C. Severus and Seveiianus were ordinary names among the Romans. Sextos 
Pompeius, the gallant son of the unsuccessful rival of Caesar, is noted in history for 
the stand he made after his father's death, against the victorious triumviri, with his 
powerful fleet, but being at last overpowered by the combined forces of those great 
Rulers of the ancient world, in a naval tction, it appears very soon after, that an end 
vtras put to his prospects and his life. The JBmerald was thought by the Egyptians 



OF EXETER. ^ 139 

as well as the Amethyst, to be of service in interviews with sovereigns, and to avert 
hail stooes &c. if engraved with the figure of an eagle, searabiEus, or beetle !• Among 
the people of Cyrene, these seals bore a great price, and the figure of a man graven on one 
of them, was thought to be more valuable than the man himself; Aelian, Pliny, lib. 37. 
If the proprietor of this curious relic in the Roman days of Isca, was an officer of 
rank, preetor or proconsul, bearing the name here inscribed and recorded, we have 
much to bewail the ravages of time, which have left his bones to dust, " his grave a 
blank," hit nation to be sure, but as for his station, generation, &c. as Byron observes, 
it is " A thing or nothing," although a scrap like this, '' survives himself, his tomb 
and all that's his." 

Ancient Roman Therm.!: or Bath, and tesselated Pavement, discovered in 
South Street, 24th August, 1833. 

The spot behind the Deanery Walls in South Street, at the rear of the late prembei 
of Mr. Godolphin, upholsterer, which attracted public attention from its displaying 
an elegant encaustic pavement, adorned with crosses, arabesques, fishes, Cthe vesica pis- 
ei$) and escutcheons, is now indisputably proved to hare been an ancient Bath, and the 
square flat ornamented tiles, of which this is composed, are clearl y of Flemish origin, 
and imported perhaps about the year 1250, (the period of the 5th Crusade) when the 
Bath may have been repaired afresh, by individuals seated near this spot, if not by 
the adjoining college of Vicars, established in 1338; 

The flue which heated these Thertna was in the wall, to the left, proceeding no 
doubt originally from an Hypocaust, stove or furnace outside, and close to it, directly 
under the wall, and on a level with the pavement, was found a small coin of the Low- 
er Empire, supposed of one of the usurpers (Rad. ^nd Aug.) in the days of Qallienus, 
but in very indiflFerent preservation, probably placed there to mark the original date 
of the walls, which are partly of the Heavitree breccia or red friable stone, and partly 
of brick. It is more than probable that the Monks, brought here by Athelstan, who 
once inhabited some old buildings near the Cathedral, following the footsteps of the 
Romans in their Therm*, may have appropriated this bath to their own use in days 
long prior to the dissolution of religious houses and even their own removal to West- 
minster. I submit therefore that these Tkernue were at first of pure Roman origin, as 
Roman tetserce were found in great numbers on the same spot, indicating the existence 
of a lesselated or chequered pavement, probably in the same apartment. A large 
pavement of plain tessera^ black and white, embedded in fine coacrete was uncover- 
ed close by ; also fragments of Roman sepulchral Urns of black sun-baked clay, in- 
termixed with bones, cinders, and pieces of red or Samian ware ; on one of which 
was the inscriptioo REGINI. M. already noticed. On further researches being made 
great quantities of Roman Pottery and Glass were brought tolight, but very little in a 
perfect state: of the former was an entire Vase , oc which was depicted the green figure of 
a bird, evidently painted on its exterior, and of British workmanship, clearly. If 
used for religious purposes, it may have referred to the Auspex or soothsayer, who 
took his auguries from the chattering, singing, or playing of birds. Two pitchers and 
an earthen pan, with a circular bole in it, of rude workmanship, and the iron part of 

* A ston* reaembUnj[ the Sardonyx, found on Mt. Drimyllus, near Euphrates, was an antidote to 
dimness of sight, and worn in the diadems of Princes. Pint. 

2l 



140 . ANTIQUITIES 

some instrument, probably a large axe or hammer, were also dug up. These vessels 
were, it is most likely, the original concomitants of the Bath, for we read that it was 
customary, after using the Slrigilesj or scrapers, which were a sort of smooth curry combs 
and flesh brushes, made of gold, brass, ebony, and other materials (with which the atten- 
dant slaves skilfully shampooed their custodiers,) for the Bathers to be washedfrom head 
, to foot by pails or vases of water poured over them. The Labuum was a great basin or 
round vase, into which the hot water bubbled through a pipe, in its centre, and served 
for the partial ablutions of those who took the Vapour Bath, and glass pots containing 
perfumes and odoriferous unguents, or balsams of various sorts, were used to anoint the 
bathers on emerging from the Bath, which was generally performed by Slaves appoint- 
ed for that purpose, these vessels being kept in a chamber called El^eothesium. The 
Hypocaust was in general a furnace under ground, the bottom forming an inclined 
plane, and according to Vitruvius, the internal side sloped gradually to that part of it, 
or prcefurnium, where the fuel was inserted, and the flues all proceeded from the 
back or roof of the hypocaust^ which was supported by a series of pillars, of brick or 
stone, two feet high, A quantity of bones, evidently belonging to birds, was found, 
a sort of compromise between paganism and Christianity, if we are to suppose burials 
took place among the chaos of matters found combined with the Bath. On referring to 
Saubert de sacrificiis (p. 526, Lugd. Bat. 1699) we find that cocks were offered to 
Mars, being a combative bird, and to Mercury, for vigilance; also to the Sun, and to 
Night, to the Lares, and to Aesculapius. We find on the fragment of an inscription, 
PRO. GALLO. HOLOCAVSTO. X.I.Lo (LuciiConlibertus?)* Also hens, to Aes- 
culapius, as good for renovating invalids, and those which had yellow legs and beaks 
were always rejected. Of othei- birds, sparrows by leprous persons, storks to Concord, 
crows, swans, and a sort of hawk called Perdicoteros to Apollo. Quails were offered 
to Hercules by the Phoenicians, Flamingos, bustards, guinea hens, pheasants, were 
also sacrificed, and the partridge was sacred to the goddess Pudor^ or chastity, as a 
bird of retiring habits. 

A Jews harp, which was a very ancient instrument, (probably a sort ofsistrum) and 
sometimes met with in Urns, (v. Sir T. Browne's Hydrotaphia) was also found 
among the debris. The large Roman Pavement had been covered, strange to say, with 
a lime and sand floor ! ! which stuck pretty tightly to its superficies. Polwhele thinks 
that bathing was fashionable in this island, probably before the advent of the Romans, 
and that the warm baths of Britain attracted the notice of these conquerors as early as 
the 18th year after their first wintering in it, as noticed by Dio. He also asserts that 
the vdara Oepfia of Ptolemy, Thermce of Richard, the monk of Cirencester, and Aquce 
Solis of Richard and Antoninus, all at Bath, were indisputably British before the Ro- 
mans visited our shores. The nine hot springs of Buxton, in Derbyshire, also greatly 
engaged their attention, and Camden thinks they were easily known, from the adjoining 
Roman Causeway, called Bath Gate, extending to the village of Burgh. (V. p. 494, 
Gibs;) It is well known that this luxurious nation devoted a great deal of its time 
to the voluptuous enjoyment of the Bath. An excellent account of Roman Baths is to 
be found in the treatise or App.of FulviusUrsinus, ad Ciacconium de Triclinio, Amster- 
dam, 12mo, 1664. At Lavatrce (Bowes) in Yorkshire, it appears by an inscription pre- 
served in Camden (page 767 Gibson.) that Virius Lupus, propraetor of Britain, res- 
* X. I, means one D^mus, or 7jd., sacrificial expences for cocks ! ! 



OF EXETER. 141 

lorod the Balneum or Bath for the benefit of the 1st Cohort of tlio lliraciaus, in gar- 
rison there, after being bi.rnt ; vi ignis exustum. 

Sepulchral Urn, 1885. 

Adsint 

Plebeii parvse funeris exequiee, — Propert. 
A Roman Sepulchral Urn was found, with two others broken, under the house 
of the gallant veteiau Mr. Peter Lisson, of the Acland Arms, in St. Sidwells.* It is 
formed of coarse black cluy, baked In the usual manner, and contained a considerable 
quantity of burnt bones nnU ashes, deposited in it evidently after the process of cre- 
mation. In appearance it was similar to many before found in this city, and among 
the bones, there were some of the vcrtehree of the spine, and other osseous fragments, 
quite perfect. From the rudeness of the workmanship of this urn, and as well in res- 
pect of matter as fashion, we might suspect it to be rather Barbarian than Roman, 
although it has been well observed, that we cannot well define how unskilful some ar- 
tists among the Romans might have been, especially in this more remote part of the 
province, where probably few jof them besides military persons may have settled at 
the period of the description of Uin burial, similar to the one now discussed. In the 
times of Paganism, the rites and customs in religion must have been disseminated from 
one country to another, and therefore there is as great a probability of this urn being 
British, as of its being that of a Roman or Foreign auxiliary soldier. Burning is 
well known to have been a common and ordinary practice among the Romans, as well 
as interring, at Exeter. There are here no indications of pomp or useless expenditure 
'^ of wines and unguents in a golden vase," such as were used at the funerals of the 
great and opulent. — The heathen who was interred under the jovial hearth of Peter 
Lisson, the temporary grave of many, not defunct exactly, although perhaps potation 
dead for a time, realizes the veracity of a Young — (Night Thoughts) 
O'er desolation we blind revels keep, 
Whole buried towns support the dancer's heel — 
It was a funus vulgare — the '■'minus molestiarum funus taciturn" of Seneca (de 
Tranq. Anim.,^ like those buried outside the Esquilian gate at Rome ; the funeral 
garment was in this instance, if a soldier, his military cloak ; if a civilian, the toga he 
wore when allied to the living; he was carried to the tomb outside the walls of ancient 
IscA, according to the law of the Decemvirs, perhaps deposited in a spot then belong- 
ing to a private family, and buried in some part of a field or garden which lay contigu- 
ous to the public road. The Urns were always placed near these roads, and the Ro- 
mans kept up the same custom at Isca, as their countrymen did on the Flaminian, 
Latin, and Appian Way at home, when they thus buried their comrade ; namely, to 
remind the passengers of ihoix ultima domus^ and to preserve the most servipeable 
portion of the land intact. Here then the corpus inane rogoy was consigned to the 
flames by the hands of pious friends, who afterwards gathered up the bones and[ashes 
with careful hands ; here the funeral oration was pronounced over the dead, who has 
now reposed upwards of 1600 years, unpitied and unknown, to be at last exhumed, 

• Mr. Lisson, who b«lo2igs to th« 5th Regiment of foot, was at the storming of Badajoa, and in most 
of the other distinguished actions in the Peninsula.— His house is famous for the " Queen's Ale. 8t, 
Sidwelis Is au extensive suburb to Exeter, so named from Sativoia, a British Lady ofgrcat piety, 
(and a martyr) who owned part of its lands. 



142 ANTIQUITIES 



we say, uader "a beer bairel ?" The tomb of the departed heathen is marked by 
no commeraorating stone; no coin to pay his ferry over the gloomy Styx, to the "choirs 
of infernal inhabitants," accompanies his ashes. We regret not to have been able to 
tell his name. 

May, 1836. RoraanSepulchral Vault at Exeter, being an ancient Forwia: or -4n<rMm 
concameratum. A Roman family Sepulchral Vault, seven foot square, arched over, and 
containing five coarse strongly baked cinerary Urns, arranged in niches round its in- 
terior, was discovered behind the Threa Tuns Inn, High Street. These the finders 
ignorantly broke, supposing them to contain hidden treasure, but like the goose that 
laid the golden eggs, in the fable, the Urns yielded nothing, or simply bones and ashes, 
vacua et inania^ nothing to assuage the living with Sir John Barleycorn, from the 
dead, for the ancient undertakers had even forgotten old Charons' Fee— a skull, empty 
also of its contents, if ever it had any, was found at some distance from the Urns. 
The Urns were evidently those of a family burying place, and were arranged in colum- 
baria or niches. The ancient Roman Houses in this part of the Ikenild, (now High 
and Fore Streets) were evidently quarters in the vicinity of the Via Quintana, with 
gardens, &c. and family sepulchres. On the adjoining site of the Post Office Inn, the frag- 
ment of Samian Ware, with panther, &c. was found, and an unguent vase. I also picked 
up a bronze Jibula there. Nothing can match the Vandalic spirit, which prompted the 
wanton destruction of the Urns at the Three Tuns, a loss not to be repaired again, I 
fear, in our ancient Isca ; prompted by gross indiscretion on the one hand, and the vilest 
cupidity on the other. Borlase (Cornwall, p. 307) records a vault 8 feet long, and 6 
high, atKerris, in the parish of Paul, the floor paved with stone, and the roof arched, 
containing an Urn of fine red clay, full of earth or ashes. Also at Golvadnek, in 
opening a Barrow of stones, another vault and a chequered pavement, which together 
with the Urn, were broken to pieces by the workmen. In both were coins. In 1733, 
(page 234t,) he notices 60 Urns found at Chikarn (St. Just,) in removing a barrow, 
probably a family sepulchre, surrounding a central one finely carved, which alone, be- 
cause it was neater than the rest, was preserved, and the others thrown away and 
broke, as of no consequence. 

1840. Roman Urn. (V. Plate 8., No. 1.) An Urn of coarse black clay, 
was dug up at the depth of six feet in front of Palmer's almshouses, Magdalene 
Street. It was of small dimensions, like that found near Bath (v. Musgrave, p. 
192,) and holding exactly an English pint, (the Roman sextary nearly,* and sixth pan 
of the ancient congius or Gallon) could only have contained the ashes of a child of 
tender years, the corpse of which consisting chiefly of fluid and evaporating on the fu- 
neral pyre, would simply leave a small deposit of ashes or cinerary matter, with the 

• The Roman Sextarius was rather more than our Pint, in liquid or wine measure; the Greek 
Sextaryor Cotyle, Hebrew Log, or Roman Hemina, was three quarters of a pint. The Hebrew measure 
of capacity, in scripture KAB, explained by Josephus as Sic-rvig Sextary, does not appear till the reign 
of Jehoram, King of Israel, (2 Kings 6, 25) about 890 B C, anvl then as a dry corn or fruit measure at 
Samaria, and about two pints and 5-6 English. The Log (Lev. 14,10) properly signifies that small 
measure of oil, offered by Lepers for their cure at the temple, and was, (says R. Kimchi, and other 
Jewish writers) of the quantity of six eggs. In liquid measure, the KAB being the sixth part ofa mo- 
dius or measure, and eighteenth of the Ephah, contained three pints and one third English. The Ro" 
man Hemina, singular enough, was marked with a character the same as the Hebrew Lamed, and 
each of their measures had a distiogu/shing symbol. 



OP EXETER. 143 

exception of what was derived from its bones. Tlie three found under Mr. P. Lisson's, 
St. Sidwell, were those of grown persons, and evidently of the lower order, as little 
expence or taste was lavished on such funerals by ancient frugality. That these urns 
as well as the one lately found, were those of Romans, so close to a Roman garrison, 
is no obscure conjecture. The HoUoway without South gate, is iraagioed to be Ro- 
man, and the old South gate itself contained a circular arch of the Portland or Beer 
stone, supposed long anterior to the Saxon times. From Izacke we learn (page 144) 
that the deep way between Wynard's Hospital and St. Mary Magdalen's " without " 
this gate, was filled up and paved inl599, and Holloway repaired and levelled in 1606, 
(8rd James I,) 

December, 1836, Westgate Quarter.— A small Bronze Figure, supposed of 
Julius Csesar, about three inches in height, was found in removing some old walls. It 
is unique in its kind ; and was evidently modelled from some ancient statue of note. 
The countenance bears a young resemblance to the Divus Julius, and a laurel en- 
circles its bald head ; it is covered with the paludamentum, (a rich military gar- 
ment or robe of purple or scarlet interweaved with gold and rich studs,) or Imperial 
Robe, and wears the military vest or tunic, and a sort oicaligce on the feet ; the right 
arm curved upwards, has the globe or orb, the emblem of power, and the other grace- 
fully holds what I should call the perizonium or martial baton, thrown back over the 
left shoulder. — Mr. G. Carter was possessed of this little /core of the perpetual Dictator, 
and it is now in the British Museum. 

These images were no doubt prized in later times, when the painted Britons were 
civilized by Roman conquest, and left their woods and tangling brakes, to cultivate 
the arts of peace, and enjoy the municipal rights of Roman citizens. The one here 
noticed was found in company with the Greek coin of Amphipolis and that of Severus 
of Beryius, elsewhere described, I believe this to be the only bronze of note found 
here, besides the Dagger Hilt and the Penates or little Gods at Broadgate, in 1778, 
described by Dean Milles, Archseolog. vol, vi. It may have adorned a standard. 

A Roman vessel of the class ^mpwWa oxGuttus, used in baths by the ancients, 
was dug up in Market Street. It is of Roman British manufacture, and of baked 
white clay, the same material as the fragments of Roman Amphora, the Mortarium 
for preparing corn, &c., found here. It is of a bulbous or turnip shape, and had, 
when entire, a narrow neck, that the oil might drop out guttatim, or drop by drop, 
as Varro informs us — ■*' Ad ungenda corpora post lavationem in balneis." V. A. Cell, 
17, c.8. Libatory vessels of this shape were used in sacrifices to moisten the entrails 
while burning, with oil. They were also appointed to anoint the corpses of the de- 
parted , and hence the frequency of these small unguent vases in the sejmlchres of the 
deceased Romans, with lachrymatories or tear bottles, &c. This was no doubt se- 
pulchral, and had attended the obsequies as an utensil of mourning. 

The Hilt of the Dagger of Mefitus, the Frisian, (a Roman Pugiunculus or Par- 
azonium) was dug up under the foundation of the house of Mr.Downe, Plumber, South 
Street, in 1833.* This bronze relic was handsomely worked, belonging to a corps of 
■German Auxiliary Troops from the Rhine, as will be seen by the name of the military 
Tribune who owned it, and who ccmmanded, it would appear,a body of Frisian Horse 

• V. Fronilsplece, No. 5. 

2 M 



144 ANTIQUITIES 

in those days. On the under part of it is Ihe iuscription tolerably plain, g . MEFIti* 
T. EQ. FRIs. [EQ. thus Et7.] Servii or Marcii Mefiti Tribuni Equiium Frisiorura. 
The dagger or poignard (sica) was worn on the left side, the legionary sword on the 
right, that it might not be in the way of the shield.* It is here rather singular to see 
the Greek Sigma used for S, (unless an M transposed, which I think it is) but we have 
evidence from the *'alphabetumBoM<eror£i" (eruditissirai) that it often appears in that 
way as well as in 9 different other shapes on ancient coins. There were ten tribunes 
in every Legion.j The Frisones% above mentioned who now inhabit Fiiesland, and 
were a hardy race of soldiers, were the ancestors of the present inhabitants of that 
part of Holland and Westphalia, They are recorded in inscriptions, but not in the 
Notitia, and their 4th cohort of foot (quarta Frisonum) has left memorials in Britain.|l 
The ancient dagger known by the name of sica, and called £y%£ipi^iov J)y ihe Greeks, 
was the original of the bayonet of modern days, and that weapon, now in use about 
150 years, was at first a short sword or d'nk without a socket, and the handle was 
fixed into the muzzle of the firelock. The dagger of this tribune was probably his 
Parazoniwm, peculiar to his rank, and buried with him in his quarters in South Street. 
In Tacitus this nation is called trans Rhenanus Populus and trans Rhenana gens, 
and very often mentioned, particularly respecting their frequent rebellions against 
the Roman power. It would far exceed these limits to go into their general history, 
or even what he says of them in his Germania. 

Butler in Hudibras has so humourously touched off the dagger, that we cannot but 
subjoin a few verses, v. 375. 

This sword a dagger had, his page, 

That was but little for his age ; 

And therefore waited on him so, 

As dwarfs upon Knights Errant do. 

It was a serviceable dudgeon, 

Either for fighting or for drudging ; 

Toast cheese or bacon, thougli it were. 

To bait a mousetrap twould not care. 

It had been 'prentice to a brewer, 

"When this and more it did endure. 
This weapon, of which the iron blade was destroyed, was of the class called Trapafit}' 
piafUrmaJ'emoralia, et gladioli in femore penduli (Julian), 7rapa/A»/pioi/pugionem ver- 

• But In Alexander ab Alexandre, Gen. Dier. VI. Etiara Sica Romanis frequens et pecuUarig 
fuit : quippe Roman! Milites vfroque latere ferebant sicas, destrS breviorem. Sinistra Longiorem. 
The sword was t.TO feet long, and nsed to thrust only, puneftm. 

t This officer is denominated in Amm. Marc. EquUum turtrue tribunut, The IHsii appear on a 
manumission plate, authenticated from the Temple at Rome, where the original was fixed, " in muro 

Pa. Templum Divi Ro minis," found on the Rivilin near Sheffield, as discharged legionaries 

who settled there, part of Hadrian's army. I. FRISIA. M. VETI. SALIN. The plate gives the Em- 
perors' titles, the names of the soldiers, their commanders and services, also the privileges granted, 
and names of persons soliciting the favour. 

I COHO. I. FRISIN o(centuria)MA8AVONlSP XXIII. 

II The l8t. cohort of Frisians was at Mancunium or Manchester in the Castle Field. V, Camden, 
Lancashire, p. 7S7, Mancunium supp. Alpark. 



OP EXETER. 145 

tUPauDns in IIi<t. Miscellan. /ioroxovrirt ( V. Guthcri. dc off. Domii>, ib. 3, 

Lips. l'»72 ) Thf Spaiharia or nianufactuiiug jrlaces fur sword cutlciy ci ih? Ro- 
mans, were at Lucca in Italy, and at Rheims, and Amiens in Gaul, (p (y'.2, idi I )• It 
was customary at the funerals of the ancients, to throw the helmet, sw(ud, swkI spetr 
of the deceased soldier into the funeral pyre, as in other cases the ornaments o» ihw de- 
ceased, with lamns, lacrymatories, &c. If the body was not burnt, the s.vcrd which 
was laid under the head would be found entire. V. Borlase Cornwall, p. 23S, of Urn 
Burial. Ilddebrand Antiq. Rom. 1713, says, minorem gladium LalinQ.voco puyionem 
Grseci parazonium vocabant. The Parazonium was the badge of the Triounes.t 
The Dirk was a weapon used by the ancient Caledonians, as we learn from Dion 
Cassias, speaking of the expedition of Severus against that people. V. Xiphilin Epit. 
Dionis. 72. The Mattucashlash was the arm-pit dagge.- used by the Highlanders, 
besides a pistol stuck in the belt. V, Pennant's Scotland. 

Keys. Two ancient bronze keys, of curious mechanism, accompanied the Roman 
relics in the Western Market : they no doubt answered to very intricate locks, which, 
could they be now found, would puzzle Braham*s patent to unriddle. These probably 
secured the sacred treasures or mysteries fro.u the gaze of profane and uninitiated per- 
sons — that is if we are to imagine that a temple stood there. Such keys have been 
however found in burial places, belonging to chests containing Urns. — ^V, Archeeoi. 
(Frontispiece, No. 3, and Plate 9, No. v,) 
♦ FabriccQses Armorum, U run SrXwv J>vuioofyo», Cedreno. Tcxwrot t^ S»Xw. Isidor. lib. 1, c. 13. 
t MilitisB dccus hoc, et grat! nomen konoris, 
Arma Iribunicium cingere digna latus. — Martial. Apoph., 30. 

An inscription occurs at tke ancient city of the Volsci.^n^ino, (noted for its Cyclopean remains.) 
to the Goddess Mephitis, who preside.l over sulphureous odours, damps, and exhalations, MEFITI. 
D. D. (V, J^ionj*^ Viagii nel Lazio.) She is alluded to by Virgil, Pliny, and by Tacitus, (Lib. 8, 
Hist) at Creniona, where she had a temple, and also on the Sulphureous Lake. Amsanctus, near 
Capua. Our hero, moat likely, was named after her. 



^eatherstone, Printer, Exeter. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS 

P. 1, note, for " Dumnonium," read Dunmonium. 

P. V, line 2 from bottom, for " lales," read latest. 

P. VI, line Sofnote, for"Ccetera" read Caetera. After Chiselboro read " near N. Pelherton, So- 
merset." 

P, XII, line 15 from the bottom, " in or near," read imagined in or near. 

P. XIV, line 16, " most southerly," read most important southerly, 

P. XV, line 25, "the Foss^vay" read S. line of Fossway. Line 26, " S prefix," read S, prefix. 

P. XVII, after 8th line, insert " at the Tuik's Head Inn it is very conspicuous." 

P. XVIII, line 10, for " 11," read all. 

P. 25, note, for " signyfying," read signifying. Ditto for " Trsjan"read Trajan. 

P. 30, 2nd line from bottom. Add " the Roman Aureus v aried at different times from £1. 4s. 3id» to 
16s. IJd. worth within 3d. of the English guinea at first." 

P. 32, line 17, for " a Hydraulic,'' read an Hydraulic. 

P. 49. Lkather Money. For wheel money and coins of Marseilles (Massilia) V. Alierman, 
Manual, p. 217. Guillim (Heraldry) gives the coat armour of Sir Payne Rouet, Knt. of Hainault, 
father-in-law of the great GeofFry Chaucer, and of John of Gaunt, D. of Lancaster, 3rd son of Ed- 
ward 3rd. Gules, 3 wheels. Or. 

P. 61, line 26, for" QtJiNARius," read Dkkarius. 

P. 74, for " iEtoUa." read ^Etolla. 

P. 79, line 2, for " the autonomous," read the autonomous and Imperial. Note 2nd, 1st. line, after 
Apamea, add " by some now called Famiah" 

P. 80, line 6of note, for " Bithyma," read Bithynia. 

P. 85, line 8 from bottom, add after study, " it is Indeed recorded that Am?hibilus, who was 
Bishop of Anglesey, and suffered martyrdom about 291, A. D. under Dioclesian, was a native of 
Exeter. He studied at Rome, and was a zealous propagator of the faith among the Caledonians as 
well as Britons." 

P. 89, line 10 from bottom, after Tetradrachmon Stater, add " in intrinsic value worth 2s. 7d. 
of our money, the drachma being 7|d, and didrachmon Is. Sjd.** 

P. 92, line 8, for "Flood," read Floud. In note, 2nd line from bottom, for " drsssing " read dressing. 

P. 93, line 19, dele " B. C." after 84. 

P. 94, line 4, for " sons," read son of Osiris. Line 16. add •' also," after Provkice. line 18, for 
" Emesse," read Emesa. Line 38, dele " afterwards." 

P. 95, line 8 from bottom, add " Anubis appears on coins of Julian the Apostate." 

P. 98, line 12 from bottom, for " witiiin o," read within the wreath. — Line 11 from do., after No. 7,. 
( Amisus) add ' • 3rd Brass." 

P. 99, line 18, Sidon, for Bust to the " right," read left. 

P. 100, line 13, for " sitting," read sitting. 

TC I XC 

P. 101, line 5, i — L_r add " these are the characters on the leavened loaf used at the Eucharist of 
Nl I KA 

the Greek Church." 

101, line 2 from bottom, add " Pindar has celebrated the feats of Midas, a flute player of Agrigentum, 
and also its chariot racers. V. Num. Chron., Oct. 1840, p. 78. 

P. 102, last line, for " A, epoch of reign," read A, mark of niintmaster. 

P. 103, line 19, after Bezants, add " Gttillim, in his Heraldry, remarks that these coins were borner 
onabordure, by Richard Plantagenet, King of the Romans and Earl of Cornwall, son to King John, 
and brother to Henry III. Or, abordure Sable, charged with Entoyrt of 8 Bezants. So also. Gules, 
3 bezants, borne by John de Lylde, 18th Bishop of Ely. 

P. 108, for E, in lines 3 and 4 from bottom , read " 6 " Add " V. Achill. Tatium, p. 257, £d. 1640." 
last line in note. 

P. 113, line 21, for " anciVte," read ancilla. 

P. 121, line 15, after dark blue clay, add " V. Plate 10, No. 7." In note, after Comastorum, read 
" feasts of Bacchus, or coetus Baccho ministrantium."' For such orgies V. Alex, ab Alex. lib. VI. 
Gen. Dier. 

P. 137. line 22 for " POTTJEB't Impresses," read POTTERS' Impresses. 



CONTENTS. 

Preliminary DissEETATiON, Page iii. Ancl^ .: Exeter In the Roman times, x. 
Roman Stations in Devon and Cornwall, and their connexion with the great Roman 
Roads or Military ways, called the Ikenild or Ikening Street and the Fosseway, 
xiv-xviii. Additional Remarks, Roman Camp of Isca, with plate and reference. 
Roman Coins found in 1832, pl9. Adlocutio,ofDomitian,p20, Constantino, minted 
nt Alexandria, p 21. Trajan, with Quadriga, p 24. Cuneus of brass, p 25. Delmatius 
and AUectus, p 27. Constantine, with Rev. of Sun, supposed Horus, p28. Coins 
found in 1834, p 29. Quinarii of Goidian3rd, and Maximus, p 29. Coins found 
in 1935, p 30, Aurei of Nero, Adloculio of Ditto, p 31. Claudius, with Civic Crown, 
p 33. Constantine— Terminaliafesta, &c. p 34-35. Decursio of Nero, p 36. Gra- 
lian— Minting Offices, &c. p 88-39. Coins found in 1836, p 41. Valentinian— and 
notice of Lyons Mint mark, p 42-43. Constantine 2nd — Notice of Aries' mint, p 46. 
Macellum of Nero, p 47. Notice of Samian Ware, p 48. Coins found in 1837, p 52. 
Annona of Nero, p 52-53. Roman bread and biscuits, p 53. Supposed communica- 
tion from Isca, with Ide, &c. p 53-54. Constantine— Mithraic woiship, p 56, Roman 
Fibula, 57. Carausius, unpublished coin of, p 59. Constantine, veiled head and 
Quadriga, p 59-60. Licinius, p61, Probus, p 62, Sabina, p 63, Coins found in 
1938, p 61. Dupondius of Nero, p 65. Theodora, unpublished coin of, p 67. 
Coins found in 1839, p 68. Julian, leaden Quinarius of, p 68-69. Nuraerianus, 
p 70, Carausius, unpublished coin of, p 72, Licinius, Quirinalia, p 73. Gallienus, 
Quinarius of, p 74-75. Coins found in 1840, p 75. Severus 2nd, p 76-76. Mint- 
masters of the Roman sra, p 76-77; AUectus, p 78, 

Greek Coins, &c. found in Exeter and its neighbourhood, p 79. Remote Antiquity 
of Exeter considered, p. 79. Roman Auxiliary Greek Corps in Britain, from Sy- 
ria and other remote provinces — Strong corroboration of Greek intercourse, p 80, 
Ancient trade of Dunmonium — Phoenician trade, p 81. British tin extensively used 
by the ancients— Discoveries of Sir W. Bethara, on the Etruscan and Irish Celtic 
languages, p 92. Sun worship, or Tsabaism of Phoenicians and Druids— Ca6iri, or 
sacred Blacksmiths' Lodge, p 83. Ancient trade in the Egyptian and Roman times 
with India, p 84. Working of the Cornish mines by the Romans, p 85. Coins of 
SidoD, p 86. Trade and commerce of Britons under the Emperors— Probability ot 
Clausentum being then a sea port of eminence — Tin mines of Dunmonium — The 
Greek merchants superseded the Phoenicians, p 87. Ancient Stream Works in Devon, 
p88. Greek coins in Mr. Jenkins' collection, p 93. Ptolemies of Egypt — God Anubis, 
05. Imperial Greek and Colonial coins, 95-101. Greek coin of Agrigentum, p 101. 
Coins found in taking down Broadgate, 1923, p 102. In South Street, in Mr. Gard's col- 
lection, p 102-3. Greek coins found in 1834, (in Mr. Carter's collection,) p 104-5, 
Egyptian and Greek coins found near Poltimore. p 105 8. (In Mr. J. Campbell's collec- 
tion.) Aurelian of Alexandria, and trade of that ancient city,p 108. Note on Oasis of 
Ammon, 109. 

FiGULiNE Anticuities, or the Roman Pottery and Samian Ware of Exeter, p 1 10. 
Great and important use of fictile vessels among most ancient nations — Generic terra of 
Samian— Urns and Urn burial — The IslandofSamos, how celebrated — Discoveries of 
this ware in London — Great value of crystal and myrrhiue vessels— Sacrificial pateree, 
simpula, &c. — Simplicity of earthen vessels pleasing to the Heathen deities— Used by 
the Gain or Priests of Cybele— Patera of Silvanus found at Exeter in 1833 p 114. 



CO^TENTS. 

Potter's Impresses, Reginusm\(!i Ruthenus, \\4>-\5. Lotus of Egypt, &c. — Sepul- 
chral Urns dug up in Newer upper Market, p 116. Great discoveries of Samian 
Ware in W. Market— Cookery of the Romans, p 117-18, Lachrymatories and am- 
phorae — Large Patera of Niger, a potter, p 119. Elegant Calix or cup, and Scyphus 
or bowl of Samian ware, the workmanship of Modestus, p 119. Roman terra-cotta 
Sepulchral Lamps, found in Lower Market— Use of these relics in funeral rites, p 120. 
Eternal Lamps of the ancients, found burning in sepulchres — Sacred ceremonies and 
Elusinian mysteries, how connected with the use of Lamps, p 121-2. The Bronze 
Lamp found on St. David's Hill, 1757— Unguent Vase and fibula, found near 
the Post Office Inn, p 122. Mortarium found in Western Market — Fragments 
of patertFy recording Aquitanus and Masculinus, potters — Roman glass found 
with Samian Ware, p 123. Potter's marks of Aduocis, Deiochus, and Marcellus, 
p 124. Roman Lagena, Obba, or wine vase— Impress of Nicephorus ; Gladiators, 
Orpheus, Fauns, Diana, Mercury, &c. on Samian ware, p 125-29. Auster, a 
potter — Notice of a fragment commemorating the public sports at the Amphi- 
theatres—Flowers, birds, &c. on ancient ware — British pottery, p 130. Bronze 
prcefericulum or lustral vase, p 131. Rim of an ancient vessel deccrated with lotus 
leaves — Digression an the Theocracy of Egypt — Ilonouis paid to the lotus — worship 
of the universal deity, Isis, p 131-33. Prcefei iculuMy how used in sacred ceremonies 
—Probability of the sacred Triad or Triangle mystery being understood by the an- 
cients, p 134-5.- Great deposit of Samian ware at Coffin's estate. High Street — 
Handles or ansee of amphorcB, p 135, Salii or priests of Mars, Apollo, Cabirus, 
Discobolus, Faun, &c. on Samian ware, p 135-6. Bacchanalian figure on Sa- 
mian Ware, Northernhay, p 136. Upper part of a Roman British vessel— De- 
scription of different sacred vessels and Summary or list of 40 Roman potters' 
impresses, found at Exeter, p 137, Seal or Signet of S. Pompeyus— Roman 
TAer»i« or Bath,and tesselated pavement. South Street, p 138-41, Sepulchral Urn, 
found in St. Sidwells, 141 , Vault with 6 Urns, at the Three Tuns, 142, Roman Urn, Mag- 
dalen Street, p 142-43. Bronze icon or image of Julius Caesar — Ampulla of Ronaan 
British workmanship— Hilt of the Dagger of MeJUus, the Frisian Tribune— Roman 
Keys in Western market, p 143-7. 



List of Subscribers. 

Abbot, A Esq. Exeter Bidgood, — Esq. Rockbeare Court 

Abraham, R T Esq. Heavitree Bluhm, Mrs, Brighton 

Acland, Sir T D Bart, m. p. 2 Copies Bloxham, M Holbeche, Esq. Rugby . 

Akerraan, J Y Esq. F. S. A., London Blunt, Mrs. Wonford Hill 

Alexander, Mrs. Midway Terrace, Heavi- Blunt, the Misses, 3 Copies 

fee Blunt, R Esq. 

Atherley, Rev A, Heavitree 2 Copies Bond, Rev J. Stoke Canon 

Balle, Mr T. High Street Bowring, Mr J. St. Thomas, Exeter 

Barnes, Rev Dr. Exeter Boyd, P Esq. Baring Crescent 

Bartholomew, Rev J. Morchard Bishop Boyne, R Esq. 

Baylee, Capt G. Southampton Bradfield, W B Esq. Winchester 

Beesley , A Esq. Banbury Brandreth, H Jun. F. S. A. London 2 Copic 

Bellew, Miss, Colleton Crescent Bristol Institution 

Bellew, Miss Caroline Browne, Rev C. Whitstone 

Bidwiii, J G Esq, St. Thomas, Exeter Browne, W H Esq. Lewisham 

Bird, C Esq, Dix's Field Brown, S Cowper Esq. Alphington 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Buckland, Rev Dr. C CC. Oxon 

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Butt, Miss M.Heavitree 

Barnes, T Esq. M. D. Carlisle 

Cann, W Esq. Exeter 

Campbell, John Esq. St. Sidwells 

Carter, Mr Q. High Street 

Chadwick, Miss R. Littleton, Tipperary 

Chadwick, J C Esq. Alphington 

Charles, Sainl Esq. Trinity College, 
Cambridge 

Charles, T Esq. Chillinglon House 

Clark, Mr Jas. Paris Street 

Clench, Mr J. Exeter 

Cleeve, Rev J K, D D. Eneter 

Cockram, Mr G. Exeter 

Collyns, W Esq. Kenton 

Congdon, Mr J. Royal Subscription 
Rooms 

Conybeare, Rev W. Axniinsler 

Cooke, Jos. Esq, Brislington, Bristol 

Cooper, P B Esq. Henley on Thames 

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Croker J. Crofton, Esq. F. S. A, London 

Cross, Mr. fore Street 

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Crooks, Hon. James, Flaiaborough, Up- 
per Canada 

Crooks, R Pilkington, Esq. Colonial Club, 
St. James' Square, London 

Davidson, J Esq Secktor House, Ax- 
minster 

Daw, — Esq. Bank, Plymouth 

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Dennis, J Esq. B. A. St. Mary's Hall, 
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Dennis. Saml Esq. Trinity College, 
Cambridge 

Dennett, J Esq. Newport, Isle of Wight 

Delaraain, Mrs. Mount Radford Terrace 

Diamond, W Hugh Esq. F. S. A. King 
Street, Soho, London 

Divett, Mrs. Claremont Grove, Mount 
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Bank, Exeter 

Dewdney, J S Esq. Western Luminary 
Office 

Elliott, W H Esq. M. D. Mt Rtdford 

Evans, W. M D. Tipperary 



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near Bristol 
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Penzance 
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Greenwich 
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Kent 
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H — Miss, Ilfracombe 
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LIST OP SUBSCRIBERS. 



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Radford 
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Place 
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tree 
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W aimer 
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