Skip to main content

Full text of "Sylva sylvarum; or, A natural history, in ten centuries. Whereunto is newly added the History natural and experimental of life and death, or of the prolongation of life"

See other formats




Treasure "Room 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2010 with funding from 
Duke University Libraries 

S Y L V A 


O R, 

A Natural Hiftory , 


Whcrcunto is newly added. 

The Hi flop !J\(jtHral and Experimental o^" L I E E 

and DEATH, or of the Prolongation of LI FE. 

Publiflicdafrer the Authors Death. 

Sjy William Raw ley, T>ocIoy in T)iVinity , 

One of His Majcrtics Chaplains. 

Whcrcunto is added <tArticlei ofEnfdry, touch- 
ing Mct.thindMiKertlf. And the Nett Atlantis. As alfo the LIFE 
ot tlic Righc Honorable franas 'Bti.on, never added to this Book before. 

"Written by th c Right Honorable 

F R A N C I S 

Lord Vcmlam, Vifcounc St. <iAlban. 

The J\(jntb and Lajl Edition, 
With an JlphakticalTahle of thcTrincipalThims 

Contained in the Ten Cettturies. 


Printed by J. R. for lyUlUm Lee, and arc to be fold by Qctrfe &p»l>ridg, 

Francis Tjton, Thomas :itlltAms, John Mttrtin, Thomas p-ere, %xndoiph Tayhr^ 

Henry "Broom, EdwardTromas, ThomusPMjJ'enger, 'lS(jvil Sjmntans, Robty. 

CU-vel, miltam Crcolf, inAJanusMagnes; and other Booifeilcrs in 

London ind ejlmtnjfer. 1670 


T^j^ Swi'T Siiiv' TM?/r H\^&r H\*i^^ 

T O T H E 




By the Grace of G o d ;, 
K I N G of Great "Britain, France^ and Ireland, 

■' -r \ ' 

Defender of the Faith, drc, : ;>' : 

(.Mty it plc/tje Tour Moji Ex cedent Mtjifty.^ ' . - -- 

He whole Body of the NkWaj 
Hiftory, either defigned or vvrit- 
ten, hy the late Lord Vifcount 
S. Alban, was dedicated to Your 
Majefty, in his Book De Ventis, about 
Four years pafl, when YourMajefty vvas 
Prince : So as there needed no new Dedica- 
tion of this Work, butonely in all humble- 
nefs, to let Your Majefty know, it is Yours. 
It is truci if that Lord had lived. Your Ma- 
jefty, ere long had been invoked to the Pro- 
tection of -anodier Hiftory, whereof, not 
Natures Kingdom, as in this ; but thefe of 

A ? Your 

Ihe EpiJJle T>cdicatoyy. 

Your Mcijcfties, (during the time and Reign 
of King Henry the Eighth; had been the (ub- 
)ci\y which fince, it died under theDefig- 
nation meerly : There is nothing left, but 
YourMajefties Princely goodnefs, gi'acioufly 
to accept of the undertakers Heart and In- 
tentions ,- who was willing to have parted 
for a while with his darling Philofophy, that 
he might have attended Your Royal Com- 
ma ndment in that other Work. Thus much 
I have been bold, inalllowlinefi toreprefent 
unto Your Majefty, as one that was trufbed 
with his Lordships Writings, even to the 
laft. And as this Work affefteth the Stamp 
of Your Majefties Royal Protection, to make 
it more currant to the World ; fo under the 
proteilion of this Work, I prefome in all 
humblenefi to approach YourMajefties pre- 
fence, and to offer it up into Your Sacred 

Tour tSMajeflies mojl Loyal ^ 

and!De voted Servant 

W. Rawleit; 

T O T H E 


AVing load the Honor to he continually ivith 
my Lord, in compiling of this ff^orJ{j^ and 
to he employed thereiny I ha'^e thought it not 
amip^ [ivith his Lord/hips good leave and 
liking) fi^ ^^^^ hetterfatisfamon of thofe that 
JIu/I read it ^ to mak^ kriowi [omewhat of his Lordfhips inten^ 
tionSj touching the ordering and publijhing ofthejame. I 
haye heard his Lordfloip often fay , That if hcfliould have 
fcrved the olory of his own !J\Qtme, he had heen better not to 
/;.r.^p//6////7^^//;/.f Natural Hiftory ; for it may feem an 
indtgcfled heap of Tarticulars , and camtot have that htflrc 
nhich ^ooJ^ cajl into Methods, have : ^ut that he refohcd 
to prefer the good of (t^Aden , and that tphich mioht heHfecure 
it, before any thing that might have relation to hinfclf. (t/f?id, 
he knew )vel/, that there tvas no other toay open to unloofe Mens 
mindes, being bound ; and [as it ^^ere) i5A4aleficiate, by the 
charms of deceiving ^AQ)tions and 'Theories 5 and thereby 
made impotent for feneration oflf^or^s : 'But onely ?jo where 
to dep.irtfrom the Senfe and clear experience , hut to keep clofe 
to it, e'j^ecially in the beginning. Befides, //;/V Natural 
Y{\^0}:y V[ns aT)eht of his, being defigned and fet down for 
a third Tart of the In ft auration . / ha^c alfo heard his 
Lord/hip difcowfe, Thatz5\<[en {no doubt) willthinl^inany 
of the Experiments contained in this ColleHion, to be P^iil- 

^ ^ _^ 

To the Reader. 

gar and Trivia! , mean and fordid, curiomand jruitlef^', 
and therefore he vpifheth, that they muld hsve perpetually be- i 
fore their eyes, yi>hat is now in doin<y j and the difference l?etv;cen 
this Natural Hiftory, andothers^ Forthofc Natural \ 
Hifl:ories7y/>/V/; are extant y beinz ?athered for deli^ht^ 
aiid ufe, are full of pleafant Defcriptions and TiFlures ; and ; 
a0eB andfeek^after Admiration, parities, and Secrets, ^ut \ 
contrariippifeythefcofe, ipphich his Lord(l)ipintendeth^ is to "write j 
fucb a Natural Hiftory, as may befimdanmitalto the' 
ereHing and building of a true Thilofophy : For the illurni'] 
nation of the ^Underfla^jding ; the extracting of (Axioms, 
and the producing of many noble ^orJ{s and E feels, For he j 
hopeth by this means, to acquit himfelf of phat^ for tphichhe\ 
tal^thhimfelfinafortbomid 5 and that iSy the adva?jcement ! 
0/ Learning and Sciences. For laying, inthisprefe?it Worh^^ I 
CoHeBedthe materials for the building » andi/i his Novum i 
P r ganujii (ofyohich his Lordfh if is yet to pidyiiflo a Second • 
f^art) fet cloi»n the Itillruments and DireFlions for the 
VVork^ ] Men fhall no'ro be toanting to themf elves, if they 1 
raife not knonpledge to thatperfeUion, lohereof the ^^^ture qFi 
Adortal Men is capable, ajind in this behalf I have heard \ 
his Lordjhip f^eaJ^comp/ainingfy, That his Lordfhip {ypho ! 
thinl^eth, that he deferyieth to be an ^rchiteU in this 'Build- ! 
ing)fl,)ould be forced to be a FForh^miy and a Laborer ; and 
to dig the (^Iciy, and burn the^rich^ ; and more then that,} 
(^according to the hard condition of the Ifraelites, at the lap-^ 
terend) to gather the Stray^ and Stubble, overall the Fields, 
$0 burn the BricJ^ 'withal. For he J^i omth, that except he do 
it, nothing Kvill be done j Men are fo fet to dejfifc the means 
vf their omigood^ Jndasfor the bafenefl of many of the 
hxperime.nts , as long as they be ^ods FForks , they are\ 
honorable enough : And for the vu/gartiejl of them, true 
ii^ixioms mtijl be dratnn from plain experience , and not from 
. doubtful 5 and his JL ordfhips courfe is to mah^ FFondersplaii^y 


To the Reader. 

a 7ici not flam things F bonders • mid that expericfjce liJ^A .- - - ^ 

"Wi^c mufi be broken and grinded ^ and ?iot liihole^ OT'cm it'\' 

growth J and for V^e , his Lord/h/p hih often In his \ 

i5MoHthy the tm kjfides o/Experiment^, Experi- | 

mcntaFriidifera, and Experimcnta Lucifcrao 

Experiments of Ufe, and Experiments of 

Light : ^nd he reporteth/mifcif, yjpheth^r he ivere not 

a ftrange Mau^ thatfhould thinly, that Light hath no Vfe, 

becaufc it hath no Matter, Further his Lord/hip thought 

oood a/fo, to add unto many of the Experiments them- 

felves , fomc glofi of the CaufeS;, that in the fucceedino 

vpork^of Interpreting Nature, a?jd Framing Axi- 

cms, all things may be in more readinefi. ^nd for the 

(fatifes herein by him a/Iigned ; his Lordfliip perfwadcth 

him fef they arc far more certain, thanthofe that are ren^ 

dred by Qthers j ?iot for any excellency of his own tpit, f as 

his LordJJiip is "WOfit to fay ) but in rejfeU of his continual 

. convcffation tvi th Natui'c W Experience. He did 

'confider liketvife , That by this (^Addition of CauCeSy 

i5\4cns mindes (n?hich nuikefo much hajle to finde out the 

caufes of things j ) t»ould not thinly themfelves utterly loft 

in a ya(l Wood of Experience , butjlay upon tbefe 

Caufes Cfuch as they are ) a little y till true KxiUms 

may be more fully difcoyered. I have heard his Lor df hip 

fay a If 0, 1 hat one great re afon, tvhy helvould not putthefe 

Particulars into any exact Method y [though he, thatlook^ 

eth attentively into them , fl?all finde, that they hay>e a fe- 

cret order] tvas, 'Becaufe he conceilped that other ?nen would 

flow thinly that they could do the like; and fo go on with a 

further (^ olleBion , which, if the Method had been exact, 

^nany would halee de/paired to attain by Imitation, ajs 

for hisLordfhips lo^ve of Order, lean refer any Man to 

\hi4 LordlJ)ips Latin "Book^ , De Augmcntis Scien- 

itiaruni; which^ if my judgment be any thing, is written in 

J 2? the 

The Epiftle 
it the fame I 
that Ihould 
have been 
prefixed to 
this Book, if 
his Loiddiip 
had lifcd- 

To the Reader. 

the exaBell order, that I k^ato any witing to be, I tp'tll 
conclude^ toith a ufual Speech of his Lordpjips. That this 
^e?r^o/^/?« Natural Hiftory, isthe\Noi\iy /wGod 
made it, and not as Men have made it j for that it hath 
nothing, if Imagination^ 


The Table. 

A 1 A B L E 


8 X T S % I M E :j\(^r s. 

Century L 

OT StrMinlng or PercoUtloH, Outward and ttnPtird, Ixp:riment8, 
Of iMotitn upon Prrjftre, Exp. 5 
of Separtitions of Bodies LtjHtd hytfelgbt. Exp. 3 
OF Infxfons i« IVa'.tr And t/fir. Exp. 7 
Of the j^ppeie of Continuation in Litjulds, Exp. I 
of Artificial Sprinj^s. Exp. I 
of the yenemotis ^ality of Mans Flefh. Exp. i 
OfTHTnlng Air into ivater, Exp. I 
Of helping or Altering the Shape of the Body. Exp. I 
o'^ condenfing of Air to yield Weighty or N»nrifhmtntt Exp. I , 
of Flame and Air commixed. £xp. I 
Of the fecret tmture of Flamr, E\p. i 
O"" ¥Lme in the midff-and on the sides, Exp. 1 
of Motion of (jravity. Exp, 1 

of C»ittr:iclion of Bodies in Bulk. Exp, I » -" 

of m^k^ittg yines morefruiifttl. Exp, I ■ ^v 

of the feveral operations of Turging Medicines. E)cp. 9' • ' 

Of Meats and Drir{( moj} Nourifhing. Exp. I J ..•;^.. 

of Mediciaet applied i» O'der, E;tp,l 
OfCurehyCuftome. Exp, I 
Of Cure hj Ex-cefs. £xp. i 
Of Cure by Motion of Confent. E P. I 
Of Cure of Difeafes ontrary to Predifpofltion. 
Of '-preparation before andafter Purging. Exp. I 
of Stanching Blood. Exp. I ■' 

O^ change uf Aliments and Medicines. Exp, i 
O^ Diets. Exp. I 

Of- Produflion of Cold. E(p.7 •■* 

O- turning Atr into irarer. Ex 3. 7 
O* Itiduratio/i of Bodies. Exp. 6 
Of Preying cf t/4ir upon Water . Exp, I 
O'^ the force of Vtion. I xp. 1 

C*^ i>ig Feathers and H fs of divers colours, Txp. I 
O'^ >fourifhnie/;t of young Creatures in the Egge tr tfomh, Exp^l 
of Sympathy and Antipathy. Ex •. 5 
0~ the Spirits or Pneumaticals in Bidies. Ex:), i 
O' the fower of He^t. Exp. i 
Of Impe/fibility of Annihilation. Exp.i 

Century 11. 

O'^ ClUIck. Exp. 14 
0'' the Nullity and Entity of Sounds, Exp. 4 
Of Fradu^ion, Confervation^ and Delation of Sounds, Exp. 14 
Uf itagn.tude. Exility, and Damps of Sounds. Exp. 25 
Of L>udnef,, Uid Softnefs, of Sound, Eip. 3 

B i 

page I 

pag. 5 





pag. 10 



pa,"; 1 7 







pag. 19(5 

pag. 20 

pjg. 22 

pig. 1 24 













pag. 41 


Of C'-jmmurilcation of Sounds. Exp. 3 

Of Eijuality and faeatiality of Sounds, Exp. 9 

Of more Treble and Bife Touts. l-X^.^. 

Of proportion of Tr^kil Mi^a^e. \^^. 4 / i' 

of Exteriour^ Ir.teriour Sounds, Exp. 4 

Of Articulation of Sounds. Exp. 9. ' ■ ' • 

; "p •>v/r • ^^ Vf, \ — tVJ . , > r - 

Century IIL 

OF the Lines in which Sounds. n^evtl Y^p's ^\ .', .) 
Of the Litjiingor Pen[hlng of Sounds. Exp.S 
Of thi P^Jj'jj^e in Interception of Souifis, I ^p. 5 ^ 
Of thf Medium of Sounds. Exp. 4 [' 

Of the Figures of Bodies yielding Spttndsm Expi J 
Of Ali.xtnre of Sounds. 1 xp. 5. 
C^ Melioration of Sounds, Exp. 7 
of Imitation of Sounds. Exp. 6 
of mfiexion of Sounds. Exp. I 3 

Of Confent and Difent hetweeu Atidihlei, and yifihlfs, Exp. 2J 
Of Symf.txhj and Atfti^.xthj of Sanndsi Exp. J , . "^ > • 
Ofi hindring or Helfing of NfAr»»^..^.i^..Jsp^ 4 
Of the Spiritual and Fine Nature of Sounds. Exp. 4, 
Of Orient Colours inliifjolutions of Metals. Exp. I 
Of prolongation of L'fe. Exp. 1 ;. -"I 

of ihcfippetite of Union in Bodies. Exp. 1 ' 1 

Of th' tikj Operations of Heat „nd Time. Exp. i, ^,'|jj 4^ 
Of the Difering operations of Fire and Time. Et^mi. '' 
of Motions by Imitation. Exp. In .",3 ./'■.■"*■•:»'. • ' 
of Jnfe^lioHi "Difeafes. Exp. i * : '[..>. 

of the Incorporations of PovfderSy and Liquors. E<p, i],;! 
of;E!ftrcife of the iody, and the Eenefits or Evils thereof, ^Ti. 1 
of. Meats fomc Glutting^ or not Glutting. Exp, i 

',\!'b5^''\ h ; •'. . (.1 

Century I'V. 


pag. 4<S 

pas- 49 

OF Clarification of L'tjacrsy and the Accleratingthertof. Exp. i i 
of Maturattoa^and the Accelerating thereof ; and of the Mat fir dri ok 
'and Pruits, Exp. 15. \" . :. • 

Of ;,fji^i»g gold. Exp. I 

Ofth^ Stvertil Natures of (J old. Ex,p. I 

Of Inducing andAcceferiiting I'utrefaCiion. Exp. I2 

Of Prohibiting and Preventing Putrifadion. Exp. i. 

Of Rohen fyood lhinin£. "EKp.l ■ 
1 of Acceleration of Birth. EvD. i 
' of deceleration ofCroivthand Stature. Exp. 1 
. O/" Bo'dlrs Sulphureous and Mercurial. Exp. 5 
\of the'Ch-imeleon. Exp. I 
[of Sjibterrany Fires. Exp. I 
\0f Nitrous ii'ater. £x,i. 1 

iQ'^ Coxaealingof Air. Exp. i :^ 

fOfCoxgealifrg «f^fVater into Cry/tali !£xp. 1 
lO/.'^referving the Smell n»d Colour in Rofe-Leaves. Exp. I 
[Of the LaftiKg of Flame. E.\p. 10 ., . 

.of Infufions or Burials of divers Bodies in Earth, Exp. 5 
■of the^feBs of Mens Bodies from f'veral Winds. Exp. I 

Of /»';'«rfr and Sinsmer sickneffes. Exp. i 



of Drinkj, 

pag. 69 

pag. 7) 





pa». {>o 




pa:'. Si 


poo. 83 


C A^B %f^ 

,0f PejldeHtial Tears. Exp. i 

Q'f Bfidtmlcal Difeajes. Exp. i ^ 

'*0f Prcfirvatlon of liquors in Wells or faults, Exp. I 
Of Stntting. Exp. I i 

Of (iveet Smells. Exp. 4 . .- • , ;.; A .^6\..•.• 

0f theGoodfiffsaKd Chiieeof inters. Exp..?; .,. ,; 
9f temperate Heats under the x^quinodiat. Exo. T 
Of the CohrAtion of Black and T^prne-; Moors, ^xp. I , 
of Motion after the inTtant ef ttenth. £xp. i 

'•.;V'-.\^Vt'i i«i. I. 


, ibid. 

Century V. 

OV Accelerstlng or'Haf{eninf!^9r-i*ttrd GermiHatio-^. £.Np.i2 
0^ Retarding or futting back Germination, ixp, 9 
C CMeliorating^ or making better. Fruits 4^niFia»Hs. E:i^,^S- 
O'' Comyound Frrits, and Flowers. £xp. 55 ; 

of S^mf.thj and Antipathy of Plants. £xp. 19 
of making Herbs and Fruits Medlcinable. £xp. 1 

pag. 89 
pag. 92 

pag. 93 
pag. .100 


P4g. 104 

Century VI. 


F Citriojicies about Frstlts a^td Pl^tftr. Miy'.-Xf'' _ pag. lo^ 

Oj^ the Degexer.itingof Plants \ and of their Tranfmutatioad/it into attfther. £xp.i^ 
: ; ; • •■--•• ^-^ pig, no 

qf the Trocerity ard Lownefs of Plants ; and of Artificial dwarfing t}jem. Exp. 5. pag.t ; 8 
OftheR:uiiments of Plants ; and of the Excrefctnctsof P'Ufifii tifftifer.Plants. £xp. 56 

•• ■', ■ ' ibiJ. 

of Producing perftH Plains without Seed. -Exp.!! . . - . P'g.Uy 

Of-Forr^in I'lantr. £xp. ; P^g- X18 

of the Seafons of ftveral Plants. Exp,6 pag. 1 19 

I Of the Lifting of -pLints. £xp. 5 Pd- I -Q 

of fever al F I figures of Plants. £xp. ? " pa^. I2t 

ef fome Principal dffcrences in Plants, fx'p.4 ibid. 

of all Manner of Compofts and Helps for 0round. Ex^,6 pag. 122 

Century VII. 

C\^ the A^Ktties and Differences between Plants y and Stdies Inanimate. £xp.6. 

■ . . . . . P3g.ii5 

,0/ A ff nines and niferences betiveen Plants, and Living CreatHres; And of the Cotfintrs 

axd P.irticlpUs of BAh. £xp. 3 pjg. 125. 

Of T>Unts E.vperitMCfits 'Promifcuaus. £xp. Cj • ■' pag. 1 27 

^Of Healinf of no: »ls. £ip. I , p3g.l39 

^f J-ffufed in Flefh. Exp. 1 ibid. 

Of Ripening Drinks fpeedlly. fxp.l ."ibid. 

of Pitofvj and riumage. fxD. I. . ' -ibid. 

pf th* ^^ii\ncfs of Motion in Birds. £xp.I j , -•» ■ ' Jbld. 

Of the Clenrnefs of tktSea., theNorthwind bUmng. tr.o,\ ibid. 

Of the A fferent heats of Fire and bojling wa!(r, £xp. i ', ?^Z'''-i' 

0'^ the QjtallficuioH of heat bj Moifinre. £xp. i ibid. 

Vft-tivning. £x\ I ibid. 

\i)f the Hiccauchs. £xp. t ibid. 

'',. Of 


Thi T A B L Ei 

of Steinia^. fxp. i ibid* 

0[ the! cnderncfs of the Teeth, fxp. I P*g-I4^ 

C the ToHguc, Exp. I iDidl 

of the MoHihoHt of Tjfle. £xp. i ibid. 

Of fome fr9jrMoftii{i of Penitent i.,l Setifons. JExp. 1 ibid, 

O'^fpecial Simples for Medidnes, Exp. i ibid. 

Of ^enus. E<p. ^ ~ 141 

of the infecU, or Creatures hred of PutrefaClion. fxp.l pac-i-^^ 

0'' Leaping. Sx.i pig. 145 

of the Pleafntts Mnd rifplea/uret of Hearings and of the other Sef/is. Exp. i ibid. 

Century VIII. 

Of Ve'tm of E.irtb Medlclntill. £xp. I 
of Sponges. £x). i 
Or !ie,i.filh in frefh iruters. £xf>. r 
of Attrufliou tj fimilitude of fuhflance. ixp. I 
of certain Drini(s t» THrkej, £xp. I 
of Sn-cat. £xp. (5 
O*" the Glovporm. £xp. r 

Of the imprejfion< upon the B odj'^ front fevtr at Pajftons tf thttJUlnd, £xp. 
of DrHikennejs. £.p.4 

of the Hurt, or He/p of vine t.,{eH moderateij. £xp. i 
OF Catterpitler.. £xp. 1 
Of the Flies Cantharides, Exp. I 
0'' Lijfttsede, E\p. 2 

Of carting the Skjjt and Shell infomt Creatures. Exp. i 
of the Poftures of the Body. Exp. 3 
Ofl'eflilential year . Evp. i 
Of fume Prognofiickj of ht*rd fvlnters. Eur. i 
of I eitusn Aiedicines that condenfe and relieve the Spirits. Exp. I 
OF i'Hintings of the Hody. Exp. i 
Of the ufe of S^ihing and yinolnting. £xp. 1 
Of Ch^molletting uf •■Jpaper. £xp. i 
of C little- fnl^. J x,\ I 
Of £ irth increafi-ig in weight. Exp. I 
Of Sleep. EaP.3 

Of Teeth ahdFlardfuhflances in theSadies of LivingCreatures. Exp. Il 
of the Gener^t-ion^ /tnd Bearing of living Creatures in the womb. Exp. J 
of Ifecies yifthle. E<p. z 
of impulfion and Percujsion. Exp. 3 
of Titilacion. E\|}. 1 
Of fcarcity of Raininty£gypt. Exp. i 
Of ClarificatioM. Exp. i 
of Plants syithout leaves. Exp. I 
Qi^ the materials of Glafs. Exp. i 

Qf Prohibit ton of PutrtfiEiion, and the long Ctnfervatien »f Bidies. Exp, I 
0'^ Ahundanceof Nitre in certaiKSe.'^ores. txp. I 
of B dies horn up bj lyattr. Exp. I 
of c he tip Fnel. £xp. I 

Of G'thering of wind for Frefljnefs. Sxp. t 
of Trills of .ilires. Exp. I 
Of Evcreafing Mil^in Milch-Beafls^ Exp. I 
0^ Sand of the Nature of Glafs. Exp. I 
of the C/rotptb of C.o'TaI, Exp. i 
O^the Gathering of Manns. £x'\ i 

P»?- M7 






I ibid. 






. ibid. 









pig. 159 
pag. 100 


pag. 162 

i )id. 





pat;. 164 





pag. \6s 




TJ^ T Abx^I*. 

•f CorreRing of mnts. £xp. i 

Of Bttnmen one ef the MAterials of rvUi-fire. £xp.,I 

Of P/aifier nrowiiigai b/ird as Mari/e. Exp. I 

Of the Cure of fome ulcers and Hurts. Ek^'. \ . . 

Of the Healthfnlntfs or Vnhealthfulnefs tffhrStuthern wlni. Ex{-» t 

Of tftundsmude with Brafs or with /row, Exp. i 

Of Mntifcatlen by Cold. Exp. l 

Of tr eight, £xp. i 

of fufer-I^Atation of Bodies. £xp. r 

of the ^ lying of unequnl todies In the j4ir. £xp. I 

Ofyyater that It maybe the M:dlum of Sounds. JIxp. t ' 

Of the Flight of the Sfirlts upon odious objeEls. Exp. i 

of the fuper-K' flexion of Sccho's , £xp, i 

of the force of Im^glnatioH Imitating that tf the Senft. Exp. t 

Of Prtfervation of Bodies, Exp. i 

of the Growth or Afuttipljing of {JMetalls. Evp. i 

of the dro'Vnlngthemore hafe Metallln the more prethmi Exp. I 

Of Fixation of Bodies. Exp. I 

of the rejllefs Nature of things in themfelvesy And their deftre to change. 



pag. 166 





pag. 167 



pag. 168 




pag. 169 

Exp. I ibid. 

Century IX. 

Op Perception la Btdles infeajibie, tending to natural Dhinatlcn 
a/s. Exp. 30 
Of the Caufes of Appetite in the Stomach. Exp. t 
of ftfeetntfi 0' odour from the R^ii.bow, Exp. l 
Of fweet Smels. Hxp. I 
Of the CorforcAl fubflAnce of Smels. Exp. I 
Of Petide and Fragrant Odours. Exp. i 
Of I hi Ceufei of'^'Htrtfa^tor. Exp. I 
Of todies HMperfeBly t»lxt. Exp. i 
Of C'nccHion and CruditJ- Exp. I 
of Alterations which maj be called Majors, E\p. I 
Of Bidles L'^uefble, andnot Ltqnefible. Exp. i 
O' B'dies Fragile and Tough. Exp. I 
Of 'ht twt {Inds of Pneumatlcalls in Sidles. Exp. I 
Or'tincretionanddifJolHtionof Bsdies. Exp. i 
0' Bjiies hard t^nd f,ft. £xp. I 
Of l.t^dies duEiile axd tenflle. Exp. I 

of fever: I pafslon< of Matter ^ and charaHers of Bodies, £xb. i 
of irtiu'-titlon by fimpathj. ^xp, I 
C Hour J and Sugar. £xp, I 
0^ the finer fort of baft Metal'. £xp. i 
pftrrtAin Cemct and Qnarries. JExp. I 
0.^ :hf Alterirg rf ctlours in Hairs and Feathers, ixp. l 
Of '.he i'.fftrt'Ctof Living Crtdrurej^ Male and Female, tip, i 
Of rht Con>,flve Magmtudetf LivlngCreatures. E%p i 
Of Producing Fruit withont Qoaror Stone. Exo, 1 
of the Melioration of Tobr.cco. £xp. T 
0'' (evtral Heat! wording the fame Sffetls. *xp. I 
of Spelling and UlLitatioMin Boiling. Mxf. I 
0'' fheDitlciratioH of Fruits. £n. i 
Uf Flefh Edible, and not Edible,' «xp. I 
C^the S-tlamander, fxp. I 

Of the cjttrary operations of Tlmty MftH Fruits aud H^ittrt. txp- I 
OF blows and bruifei, £xn, I 
OftheO'ris Ret:, fxp. i 

and fn^tlt tri- 

pag. 1 76 

P»g- 177 

pSg. I78 



pag. 180 




pag. i8t 

pag. 183 













The T A^tt. 

^f tht eomprejfitnof LitjMors. Evp. I ibid, 

^f the n'ork.'Kgof water Mf9it Air COHttgHOtu. tip; I ibid. 

^f the nature of Air. Exp. i pa?. 1^8 

^f the ijes Atii Sight. Exp. 7 jbid. 

Of the colonr »f the Sea^ or o:her water. Exp. I psg. i 89 

Ofshell.Fijh. Evp. I S ibid. 

Of the Right fide and the Left. Exp. i pag. 190 

Of F'iclitHs. Exp. I ibid. 

of Cj lobes appearing fitt at diflance. Eip. I ibid. 

of Shadows. Exp. 1 «' ibid. 

Of the Rjiv/ing and hreakjng of t%t Se4'. Evp. I ibid. 

O'' the Du/cor^tion of Salt-water. Exp. J ibid 

of the return of faltnefs ia pits bj the Sea-(hore, Exp. t par. 191 

OfAttran^ioHbyfmilitudeofffib^tiiee.Ex^.i ' ibid. 

of tAttratlitn. Exp. I ibid. 

Of Heat under earth. Exp. I ibi«?. 

of T lying in the tAftr. I xp. t ibi-J. 

Of the Scarlet Dy. Fxp. I ibid. 

of Malifitiating. Exp. I pag. I*' 

Of r^f /f;/f of Lisjttors or Touders^ bj mcMus »f jtdmf. Exp. t ibid. 

of the itfimnces of the Moon. Exp. i ibid. 

of l-'tnegar. Exp. i pag. 194 

of Creatures that fltep all winter. Exp.t ibid. 

Of the Generating of Creatures by CepHUti»Hy etnihypHtrtfailion. Exp.i ibid. 

Century X, 

OF the Tranfmiffion and Itfiux of Immateriate Virtues and the Porte of ImaginatloH'i 
whereof there he Experiments Monitory, three inall. Exp. 1 1 pag. 197 

of £ rtiiJfiDn of spirits in l^apour.^ or Exhalation., odour likj. i xp. 26 pag. 101' 

Of Emiffiot of jpiritual Species which tfiEl the Senfes, Exp. i pag. 1C4 

4 of Emijfion of Immateriate yertues. from the Minds^ and the Spirits of Men, by AfeJi. 
OHS., Itnagmation, or other Imprejfioas . Exp. 11 ibid; 

Of the fecretvertue of Sympathy, and Anlipmhy. Exp. ?{) p»o_206 

Of feeret Vert nes and Properties. Erp. ' pj". 214 

of the General Sympathy of mens Spirits, Exp. i pag. jj j- 






Ifrancis bacon 

Baron of V e r u l a m, Vifcount St. Alba n. 

B Y 


His LordftipsfirftandlaftGhaplain, and oflatchis 
Afajeftics Chaplain in Ordinary. 

/- o A" r> o A\ 

Pr'nteJ by .T. G. 5c.B G\ tor n',lliam Ue, and arc to be fold at the fieri, 
ofthc Tarks-Hcid in f/^r; /Fr^-.'f, over againft f m^r.z:««f, 1670.° 

i i i i 



5. ' ! 

J ja V Hu^^^Ohi 

VI o 


■ . -Yi h 

a . /: 

1 a I 









Right Honourable 


Baron of Verulam, Vircount St. Atban. 

^^t-1^.^■«»RANCIS BACON the giory ^ of his 
^ P ^ Age <a«^ Nation; n^ A dorner,^»iOrna- 

'♦'»^*4'^«^ '''* York-Place, rwri;^ Strand, On the iitb, 
Day 0/ January j in the Yezr of our Lord,\^6o 
His Yii\iti was that famous CoiinccUor to Queen Elizabeth} 
Thefeconi Prop of the Kingdom in his Tim^ Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, Knight, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of Eng- 
land j a Lord of known Trudence, Sufficiency ^ Moderation, 
and Integrity, His Mother yvas Ann> one of the Daugh- 
lets of Sir Anthony Cookj unto whom the Erudition, of 
King Edward the Sixth; hU been committed : A choyee 
Lady, and Eminent j or Piety, Vertue, and Learning; ''Being 
exquifiiely skilled, for a Wom.^n, in the Greek, and Latine^, 
Tongues. Ihefe beingthe Parents, joh may 'eaffly imagine, 

"^ 1 what 

The Life ot the Right Honorable 

-V>hat the I flue , -Tpas like to be j Ha<vin^ had "H hatfoel^er ^i 
tate or Btctding could put into him. 

Hisfirli and childif/j years Tiere not fpithout fome Mark of 
Fminency- Jit "fohich time be was indued with Tregnancy^ 
and Towardimefs^ ofmt ; Js they liere Prefagcs , of that 
Deep, fiK^Univcrfal Apprchenfion, which yeas manifejiin 
him afterward ' Andcaufei him to be taken notice of^ , b)fe^c- 
r^i/Perfonsso/" Worth^w^ 'Place j ^nd rfpecial/y^bythe 
Queen j ft>ko (as I hay>e been informed) deligl ted much ^then^ 
to Confer yoith him ; ^nd to prove bim-^ith Queftions ^ un- 
to whom, hedelireredHimfelf mchthapGnv ay, and Matu- 
rity, ii^oli>e his years ; Xbdt Her Majcfty would often term 
him J the young Lord Keeper, "^eing asked by the Queen 
how old he was ? He anfweredmthmucb dijcretion, being 
then but a Boy; That he was two years younger than her 
Majefties happy Reign j '9i'ith which anfa>erthe Queen y^as 
much taken. 

At the ofdinary y£atiy ofRipeneJs^ for the univcrfity . or 
rather ^fomething earlier i hewas fenthy his Father, fj Tri- 
nity €olledge,?« Cambridge j To be educated, and bred u-^. 
der the Xuition of DoCtox John Whice-Gifc, ?/;<?» Maftcr 
o/fi^^ C^tilledgfe J ^fierwardsthe reno'n>ned Arch Bifhop cf 
Canterbory j a TreUteof the fird M^gnkudeofSanAity 
Learnings Patience^ And Htmilfty ; TJnder whom, Hs ^i^as ob- 
fer'Ved^ to hai>e been morci than an Ordinary Proficient^ in 
theje'i/sral Arts and Sciences. IVhilft he T^'.?j commorant, in 
the Vniverfity, about \6yearsof age, (rfi7;/VLordfliip hatb 
been pUdfci to impart untd fny felf ; ) be fir ft fell into 
the DiflikCj of the Philofophy of Ariftotlc; Not for the 
Worth lefTenefs of the Author, to yehom ke would e^er afcribe 
allH'i^ Attributes,- But for the V nfmizfulniiSi oft he \\3iy. 
Being a Philofophy, ( as his Lordfliip ufedtofay) only 
fhongifor Difputations ^ and (Contentions -, But Barren of 
the produdlion o/Works for the Benefit of the Life c/Man. 
In which Mind h^ continued to his Vying Day. 

After he bad paljed, f^^ Circle o/?/;^ Liberal Arts'j His 
Father thought fit ^ to frame ^ and mould him for the Arcs of 
Scare J and^ for that end jfent him o<ver into France^ ip/V^ 


Francis Lord Bacon. 


sir Aniyas Pauler, then Employed Ambaffadoiir Lieger, | 
into France ; By "Si^bom^ he wast after awhile ^ held fit to be en- 
trufiedi'^ith /ow^ MeflTagCj or ^d\eiu(ement^ to the 
Queen j'ichicb baring performed Tvith ^rcat /Approbation^ he 
returned back into France again ■ witjj intentiffu to continue ^ 
for fonne years, there. In his abjence, in France, his Father, 
the Lord Keeper* died j Haying collcBsd^ {as I haDe heard, 
of Knowing PctCons) a confiderable f urn of Money, which 
be bad feparated, "With Intention, to baDemade a competent 
Purciiafe o/Land > for the Lilpelybood of this hii youngeft 
Son; ( who yp its onely unpro^vided for ; and though /;? was 
theyoungefi inyearsi yctbeTras aoitbe lowefli in /'/.f Fathers 
affeiiion '^) But the faid PuichzCe, being unaccomplifjjcd, at 
his fathers Deaths there came no greater (bare tobim-> than bis 
fngle Part, and Portion, of the Money , di<-vidable among ft 
/-T^^ Brethren J '^By which means, heli'ved, in fome ftreits, 
and Neceffities, in his younger years. For as for that pleajant 
Sc!ce,i?«i^ Manner o/Gorhambury, became not toit^ till 
many years after, by the Death, o//?/j Dearcft Brother, Mr. 
Anthony Bacon i a Gentleman, equaltohim, in Height of 
Wit j Though infer iour to bim^ in the Endowments 0/ Lear- 
ning and Knowledge -, T^nto whom be was, mo(l nearly con- 
]oynedin ajfeEiion-, Theytyto being the/ole M3.\e-i(iuc ofafe- 
cond Venter. 

Being returned from Travail , be applied himjelf, to the 
^udy oj the Common-Law ; y^hich he took upon him to be 
hii Trofefion. In yobich, be obtained to great Excellency , 
Though he made that, { as bimfelf [aid ) but as an accejjfary, 
and not as his Principal fludy. He yirote fey>eralTt2£t3.teSj 
upon that Subje^. therein, though jome great Maftcrs, 
o///;tf Law did out-go himin Bulk, ^«^ Particularities of 
\ Cafes i )et, inth^ Science,eftbe Grounds, and Myftcries, 
of the Law, he yeas exceeded, by none. In this way, he was af- 
ter awhile, jworn^ of the Queens Counlel Learned, Ex- 
traordinary J agrace, {if I err e not) fcarce known before. 
He jeatedhimfelf for the commodity of his ftudies, and^Tra- 
^ije; amofigfl tbs Honourable Society, o/Greycs-Inn 
Ofvfhich Houle - be 'H'as a Member -, rthere he Ere^ed, 


The Life ot the Right Honorable 

that Elegant Pilcj or Scrudture, commonly known by the Name 
oftheLord Bacons Lodgings j -vhich hi Inhabited by Turns ^ 
the mofi part of his Lifey { jome few years onsly excepted^) 
unto his Dying Day. In ypbicb Houiche carried himfelf, 
with Such SxoeetnejSi Comity^ and Generofity .^ That he "^as 
much re<vered^andbeloy>6dj i^f/;^ Readers and Gentlemen 
of the Houlc. 

Notsotthjlanding^ that he prof ejfed the L(W for his Li^vely- 
hoodj and Suh0ence j yet his Heart and Ajfedion ttas more 
carried aft -sr the ^^3l\xs and Places o/£ftare • for -wbicbj if 
the Majcfty Royal then, had been pleafed^ he ■)»as moUfit. In 
his younger yeirs^ hcfiudieithe Ser^i/ice, 'and Fortunes, ( as 
they call them^ ) of that Noble, but unfortunate Earl, //;tf 
Eail of Eflex j unto whom he was, in a port ^ a Private and free 
Counleller, and game him Safe and Honour able .A dijiceitidy 
intbe end^ the Earl inclined too much, to the 'vident and preci- 
tate Connfell of others^ his Mherents^ and FolloyperS' ychich 
was hk Fate^Mflf Ruine. 

His Birth and other Capacities qualified him, aboye o- 
thers c//;f> jProfcffionj tohaipc ordinary accejfes at Court- 
and toccmefreqnently into the Queens Eye i wboft^ouldcf- 
ten grace him with private and frei Communication ; 
Not one ly about Matters of his Profeffion, or Bufinels in 
Law • ButalfOj about the arduous Affairs ofE^ztc ; From 
yphompje received ^ from time to time, great Sat is f Mi on . Ne- 
rverthelefs thou'J} [be cheered him viuch , with the Bounty of 
her Countenance ; yet flje nelper cheered him with the 
fiounty of her Wand -.Having ne<ver conferred upon him, a- 
«)) Ordinary Place or Means c/H(7«o»r or Profit, Sa've 
onely one dry Keverfion of the Regifiers Office, in the Star- 
Chambcr ; worth about 1600 1. per Annum ; For tpbicb be 
waited in ExpeEiation, either fully or near twenty years i Of 
which his Lordfhip wouldfay, in Queen Elizabeths Time; 
That it was like another mans Ground, buttalling upon 
hisHoufc; which might mend his Profpe^fl, but it did 
not fill his flarn. ( Neyertbelefs in the time o/King James , 
it fell unto him. Which might be imputed ; not fo much to 
her Majeftics averfenefs and Difaffc-(5tion , towards him; 


F RAN CI is Lord B A c b N, 

as the Arts and VoYicy of aGrc^ Statefman-, tben-^ fpho la- 
boured bf all induflrious J andfecret Cleans, to fupprefs^ 
and keep him down ; /<?/?, if be had riJerPj he might have oif cur- 
ed his Qlory; .;f t':. • 

Butthouzh- he flood long at a fiay^ intheDayes of his Mi- 
ftrefs Queen Elizabeth J Yet^ aftey the change, and Coming 
in of his New Mider^ King JameS) he made a great pro- 
grejs I by whom be yeas much comforted j in Places of Truft> 
Honour, and Revenue> 1 ha^e feen^ a Letter of bis Lord- 
fhips, ro King lames, "whereiahe makes ^cknoibledgement -^ 
That he was that Maftcr to him, that had raifcd and ad- 
vanced him nine times ; Thrice in Dignity , and Six 
times in OfTicc, Hts Offices ( as I conceire ) ip^r^ Counlcl 
learned extraordinary, to his Majefty, as he bad been ^ to 
Queen Elizabeth j Kings Solliciter General j His Maje 
ities Atturney General 3 Counfellor of Eftate , being yet 
but Atturney j Lord Keeper cfthe Great Seal of England, 
L<j/?/y, Lord Chancellor '.'•whichf^o lafl T laces ^though they 
betbejaffie, in yiuthority and Power -^ yetthsy differ tn Pa- 
tentjHcight, and^2.\o\\x:ofthe Prince. Since ivhofe time ^ 
none of bis Succeflbrs, until this prelent Hononrable Lord- 
did ever bear the Title of Lord Chancellor. His Digni. 
tics li^erefirfl Knight, then 5aron o/Verularaj Lajlly^ 
Vifcount 5aint Alban : Be^des other goodGiks and Boun- 
tics of the Hind, "fohich his MajeUy ga<ve him ^ Both out of 
theBxo^d-Sczitwdoutofthe ^^leniation- Office, To the T>a- 
luc^ in both of eighteen hundred pounds per annum .• •9phicb 
^ith hisMannour o/Gorhambury^ and other Lands and 
'Poflclfions, near thereunto adjoyning^ amounting to a third 
part more^ he retained to his T>ying Day- 

To'O'iirds his Rifing yearSi not before^ he entered intoa mar- 
riedEflate^ and took to Wife ^ ^lice, (?»(? o/f^^ Daughters 
and Co heirs q/'Senedid Ziarnham, Efquiic^ and Alder - 
man 0/ London, ■vpithwhomhe received^ afufficientl^ am. 
pUy andliberal Portion, in Marriage. Children he had 
^none .• "^btcb^tijough they be the means to perpetuate our 
I Names, after our ~D athsi yet he bad oth^r {{ Psrpe- 
' tuafe bis Hame . The [flues of his Brain . in -Ttfbidj be t^as c- 


The Life of the Right [honorable 

rver happy J and admired ; ^s Jupiter vas^ m the produ^ion 
o/Pallas. Neither did the yeant o/ChiWren ., dara^l from ' 
his good ujage of bis Con(on ^ during the I lacr marriage ;' 
iphom he projecutedy with much Conjugal Love, and Re- J 
(peSi \ ftithm.wy 1{icbGiks, <i«^ Endowments j Befides'.' 
a Robe of Honourj which he in<'vejledher ycithal- which fbe\ 
yoore untill her Dying Day • being twenty years and morct af- 
ter his Veath. 

The Li(} files ')t2.x.s of his Life, being with drawn from Q\- 
vil affaires, and from an Adtive Life, he employed wholly 
in Contemplation and Studies, xf thing , *v hereof his 
Loi d{h']p would often Jpeaky ditriNg his yi£ti\c Life j as if 
he a^cBedtodyinthe shadow, and not tn the Lighzi which 
alfo may be found m fe<veral Pajjages of his Works. In 
which time-he comt'ofed^ the greateU part of his fiooks, and 
Writings; "'Both in Englifh<f«^Latine; Which 1 mil enu- 
merate, (as near as 1 can) in thejuji order^ wherein they were 
Ti>ritten. The Hiftory of the i^efgn of King Henry i/;^ .Se- 
venth j Abcedarium Naturae ,• or 3i Mctaphyfical piece- 
which is lofi ; Hiftoria Ventorum j Hiftoria Vit^ & Mor- 
tis j Hiftoria Dcnfi & Ran, not yet printed ; fliftoria Gra- 
vis &: Levisi which is alfolofl .^ A Difcourfeo/^i War with 
Spain; A Dialogue, fo»c/?i«^u» Holy War. The l^^hXcof 
the New Atlantis, a i^refare toaDigeft o/r/;^ Lawes 
0/ England. T/;(? Beginning, o/r/;^ Hiftory o/?/;<f Reign 
of King Henry the Eighth. De Augmentis ^dentiarura, 
Or the 'Advancement o/'Learning, put into Latin> with 
federal Enrichments and Enlargements. Counlels Civil, 
and Moral. Or his Book o/^EOTaycSj likewije Enriched 
^»(!^ Enlarged. The Converfion of certain /"falms, into 
Englifh Verfc. 7/?<? Tranflation /«ro Latin ; of the Hi- 
doxy of King^ Henry the Seventh. Of the Counfcls Qvi\ 
dw^Moral. Of the Dialogue 0/ the Holy War. Of the 
.fable o/?i^^. New r\tlantis^, For the '^Bcnefit of other 1>^2l- 
ftions. His Re^ifng ef his Book, 'De >apicntia Vete- 
I rum- Inquifitio ^«? MagnetCj TopicaInqui(itionis,<i^ 
I Lucefic Lumine; ''Boththeje notyet frinted^ Laftly, Jyi- 
va 5ylvarum, or the Natural Hiftory. Tbeje were the 
' Fruits,' 

Francis Lord Bacon. 

Fruics and Pi o6u£tions J ofhulaji fi^e years. His Lord- 
diipaljodefivned upon the Motion and Jn<vitation qfhifhtc 
Majefty j To have yoritten the (^^eign o/King Henry the 
Eighth j But that \(/ oik Peri/hed in the Defignacion meer" 
/y J God not lending him Life ^to proceed further upon it ^then 
only in one ..^orningi Work'- Tfhereof there 15 Extant^ An, 
I:x iinguc Lconcm, already Printed^in his Lorddiips A/if- 
cellany Works. 

Ti^crc u a Commemoration duei ^s ypell^ to his Abilities^ 
and Vermes^ as to the Courfe of his Life. Jhoje Abilities 
nhich (cmmonlygofngk in other SMen, though of prime ^ and 
Ol'jer'veable^ ""fares, mre all conjoynedy and met in Him. 
Thoje are-, Sharpnefs ofWitj Memory, judgment, and 
I Elocution. For the Former Three ^ hit Books do abun- 
dintlyjpeakthem'^ il>hi{kjypithwbatSu^ckncy he wrote let 
the World judge -^ ^But "^uth what Celerity he "^rote them 
Icanbejitefiijie. 'But for the Fourth 3 his Elocution • lwi(l 
onlyfet doxpn^what I heard Sir Walter Ra-wlsighy once f peak of 
him J by'(i;ay of Comparijon ; ( whofe Judgment may Ttell be 
trufled-^ ) That the Earl oi" Salifbury', was an excellent 
Speaker, but no good Pen-man jThat the Earl oiNortb- 
amtton J (the Lord Henry HoycardJ was an excellent 
Pen-maui but no good speaker j But that Sir Francis 
fidfowjwas Eminent in both. 

J lf::<^e been enduced to think j That if there yceret a 
'^Beam of Knowledge deri^ved from God upon any 
M;in, /» f/j^y^ Modern Times ^ it was upon Him. For 
though he ytoj a great Header 0/ Books ; yet he ha.i 
not hu Knoyfled^e from Books » But from fome Grounds, 
and Notions from within Himfelf. Which notwitb- 
ftanding J be Rented witb^reat Caution and Circum- 
fpedion. His Book, of Jnftauration Magna, ( yt^bichj 
in his o^'» Account ^ was the cbiefefl of his Works,) wot no 
Slight Imagination, arVzucy^of his brain -^ but a setled> 
and Conco&cd Notion , The Produd:ion 0/ many years ^ 
Labour, and Travel. I my Self^ haye feen^ at the lesl) 
TwetXe Coppies, of the Inftauration j Reyifed, year by 
year ione after another -^ Jndetsryyear alt ered^and amended A 

'B /»' 


The Life ot the Right Honorable 

in the Frame thereof'^ Tillj atlaji^ it canetovijut Model, in 
xp/mhif^pas ccmmittedto the Preis; <'*5 wrt«> Living Crea- 
iurcSjdo lick their young ones, ti// th.y king tbtm , to their 
ftrength o/Lirtjbs, 

In the Compofing of his Books, he d'd rather drinje at ^ 
Mafcttline and clear Ex^Ki^^'ion^thdn at any Finenefs, or Af- 
fectation o/Phra(css and frould often aski if the Meaning 
were eXprejJedph\n\y enough .• (U being one that accounted 
words ?(j /'£?/>;<? fubfcivenc, or Miniftenal, toMatcer ; and 
not the principal. Awrf if his Scilc "^ere Police, ff "Vpai be-, 
caufe he could do no other'Veife. Neither bs given^ to any 
Light Conceits ; Or Defcanting n^o» Words ; "But did 
ey>erjpiirPoJelyiandinduf}riouJlyy a^oidthem ; For he held 
/«cj;ThingSj to be /-tf^DigrclsionSjOr Diverfions,/ro;?jr6ff 
Scopcintended -^ and to derogate, fromthe^t\^i ^«</ Dig- 
nity o/t/;^ Stile. 

He "Voas no i^lodder upon Books;Thoughhe read much and 
that tiHth great judgement and RejeBion of Impertinences ^ 
incident to many l^athoTs ; For he "^ould eDer interlace a 
Moderate Relaxation of His Minde "Svhh his Studies . 
Ax Walking, Or Taking f^^ Air abroad in his Co^c\\ j or 
fome other befitting Recreation j andyet^ he would\oo{c no 
Time, In as much ^cu «/)o»feFirft,^»^ Immediate Return, 
he would fall to Rca.ding again, andjofuffer no /Woment of 
Time to Slip from him wthout fome prefent Jmpfove- 

Bis Mealcs "^pere Refedions of the Eare as tpell as of 
tbeStom^ck: Like the ^o£tes Attics; or Convivia Deip- 
no-Sophiftarum ; Wherein a Man might be refreJJjed inhis 
Mind and undcrftanding, no lefs then inhisBody. And 
1 hanje kno'^nfome, of no mean Parts'^ tbatha^e profeffed to 
make ufe of their Note-Books , "^hen they haye rifen from 
his Tabic. Inivhicb Converfations , and otherwi/ey he 
^pas no Dajhing Man^ as fome men are • "'But eruer a Coun- 
|tenancer,<2«^Fofl:erer, of another Mans Pans. Neither ypas < 
^«o»^,f^i?ritj«/f^ appropriate ^/;^S|)eech, wholyto Himfelf;] 
or aeligbt to oKt-lpie others j *lB«f lealpe a tibertyj to the\ 
\ Co- AffefTours, to take their Turns. Wherein ht ypould draw \ 

4 Man' 

Francis Lord Bacon. 

<f Man on, and allure him, to /peak upon jucb a jub]e6i as 
therein he "^as -peculiarly Skilful, and ■n>ould delight to fpeah 
^ndj for Himfelf^ he contemned no JMans Obfervations 
but would light hisToxch. ateyerymans Candle. 

His Opinions dwi Aficrtions were^ forthe mofl party Bin- 
ding, an^ not contradicted by any -, Rather like Oracles, than 
Dilcourles . Which may be imputed, either to the yeell -Weigh- 
ing of his '^c^Menct, by the Skales 0/ Truth, and Jieafon j 
Orelfe to the Reverence and £ftimation> Ti>herein he was 
commonly had^ that no Man would conteft with him : So 
that there was no ^r2,ViTazntmoT\^ or ^ to and Qon { as they 
term it) at bis Table : Or if there chanced to be any it was 
carried with much Submifiion and Moderation. 

Ibalpe often obfer'-ved J and /o ha^e other S^en of great 
account y That if he had occafion to repeat another Mans Words 
after himy he hadanufe and faculty to drefs them in better 
Veftmencs,4»^ Apparel than they hai before: So that the 
Amhom jhjuld find his own ^peech much amended -^ and 
ya the [ubiliace of it fii II rcigimcd : ^sifitbad been^i- 
tural/tf him to ufe good Forms j As Ovid fpake of his Fa- 
culty ()/Veififying. 

Et quod tentabam fcribere, Verlus erat, 

When his Office called him, as be was of the Kings Coun- 
(cl Learned, rocW|^<;<«»y Offenders, either in Criminals, 
or Capitals ; Hewasnei:>erofan\niuk'wg^or Domineering 
'Silicic o-^er them ; But alwayes tender Hearted^ and carry- 
ing bimfelfdeeently towards the Parties ,• ( Though it was his 
Duty J to charge them home' ) ^utyet^asone^ that looked up- 
on the Exam^ld with the Eye o/Severity, But upon the Pet- 
fon, tfiththe Eye 0/ Titty, ^wiCompaflion. And in Civil 
Bufinefs, a^ he was Counlellor o/Eftate, he had the befl 
w^^o/advifing; Not engaging /;»Mafl:er; in <3»y Precipi- 
tate or grievous Qonrjes > but in Moderate and Fair 
Proceedings : The King, whom hi ferved^ gi^^*^g '•'^wi this 
Tcftimony; That he ey>er dealt ^ in '^ufinejfe^ Suaribus 
^ 2 S^odisj 


The Life ot the Right Honorable 

yhodis ; Which was the way that was moft according 
CO his own heart. 

Neither yt>asHe in hii time lefje gracious with the Subjcd 
than mth hit 5ovcraign. He was ei^er acceptable to the Houfe 
oFCommons, when he ypi^a Member thereof, ^eing the 
Kings Atturney, andchofento aplace in Parhament; he ypas 
allomd and difpenfed -^itb to ft in the Houlcj -^hichyoat 
not permitted to other Atcurncys . 

Andcu he ^easa good Servant to hU Mafter ; 'Bein^neyer-, 
in n'meteen years pryice ( as he himfelf averred ^ ) rebuked hy 
theKmg for any Thing r elating to hit Majcdy • So he -^di 
4^oc<^ Mailer to his Servants , And reieardei their long2i- 
ccndance with good Places, freely Tphen they fell into bis 
Poycer. Which ^j'Ht the Canfe that fo manyjomg Gentle- 
men of Blood and Quality , fought to liU themfehes in 
hif Retinur. And if he-^pere ahujed by any of them in'their 
Pkces , It \Mi onelythe Errour. of the Goodnefs,o//;w Na- 
ttrre; bu^ the Badges of their Indifcretions, and Intempe- 

^hi9 Lord was Religious ; For though the World be apt 
toftifpcBy and prejudice^ Great Wits, and Politicks to hay>e 
fomewhat of the ki\\z\^ -^ Tethewas conlperfant with God 
AS appearethjy [eyer^l fajjages, throughout the whole Cur- 
rent of his Writings. Otherwije be /hould ha<zie croffed 
his own Principles J which were , That a little /"hilofb- 
phy, maketh Men apt to forget Godj As attributing 
too much tofecond Caufes; But Depth of Philofbphy, 
bringeth Men back to God again. ISJo'iP I am fure there 
it no Man that ypill deny hira^ or account other'SfiJe of him, 
but to hare him been a deep Philiijlbphek'. Jndnot onlyfo^ 
'^w^ ^^ was able torendera Reafon of the Hope which 
wasinhim, Whichtbat'^nimoof his ^ of the Confeffion 
of theFmhj doth abundantly teUifis. He repaired frequent- 
Jyt when his Health Tfould permit him, to the Service of the 
/church, ro6<?^r5ermons, To the Adminiftration of the 
Sacrament of f/^^BIelTedBGdy and Bloud o/Chriftj And 
\died in the true Faith epabli/bed in the Church 0/ Eng- 
' ■■ •• This 

Francis Lord Bacon. 

1 fm is mofl true '^ He ^yxu free from Malice j which ^((U he 
{aid Himjelf, ) He never bred nor feci He ypoj no Reven- 
ger o/lnjurics J -vphicbj/he hadmifidtd Jje had both Ojpoot- 
tunicy (W^ Place High ^wow^/;, to hanjs done it. He-%(U 
no Heaver of iSMen out of their V laces , wj delighting in their 
Rninc and undoing* He "^ns no a'cfftur of any Man to 
bu Prince. One Day ^ "nhen a great St.ues- Man w(U neVp- 
lyDeadj ThathadnotheenhisViicml; The King a^ked him 
What he thought ofthat Lord, which was gone ? Heam- 
/'8?^rtfi,That he would never have m.ide his Majefties 
Ellatc better ; But he was fVe he would iiave kept it 
from being worfe. IVhich mas the toorf^, be fcoi/ld/ay of 
him. Which 1 reckon, not among his Morii\jl^uthifChri(ii3Ln 

. His Fimc it greater, and founds louder z^ Forraign Parts 
abroad, than at home in his o'^n Nation. Thereby r^erify. 
/»^ f/;4f Divine Sentence , A Prophet is not without ho- 
nour, favcinhis own Country, and in his own houfe. 
Concerning yvbich J -if ill gil>eyou a Tafle onely, out of a Let* 
ter^ yprrttenfrom Italy ( Tif'^ Store- houfe of Refined Wits) 
to the late Earl of Devonfbire , Thin, the Lord fandifh. 
I will expert the Ne-^p Bjfayes of my Lord (Chancellor 
'Bacon ^ as alfo UisHiJhryj with a great deal ofDe- 
fire, and whacfbever elle he fliall compolc, But in 
Particular of his Hifiory^ f promile my felfa thing per- 
fc<5l and Singular ; elpecial'.y in Henry the Seventh ; Wherg 
henitiy cxercife the Talent of his Divine underftand- 
ing. This Lord is more and more known ^ and his 
Books here, more and more del'ghted in ^ And thole 
Men that have more than^ ordinary /Cnowledge in 
Humane affairs, eftccm him one of the moft capable 
Spiritsof this Agcj and heistruely fuch. JSowhis Fame 
doth not decree -^ith Dayes Jince, but rnher increafe. Di- 
yers of his \k' oiks\em\y^ andyet lately, rM«- 
ftiited into other Tongues , both Learned and 3fodern, 
by Forraign Pens. Several Perfons of §}naUty, during his 
Lordfhips Life ^crojjed the Seas on purpofe to gain an Oppor- 
tunity of feeing him, ana Difcourfing 'St'ith him .- rvhere rfone, 




The Life ot the Right Honorable 

cArried bis Loxdih\i^$?\6ii\i€^ from Head to Foot ^ over yptthl 
him into ?t2Lncci as a Thing iibichj heJoreja-w>^ "^euld be 
nmcbdefiYed there ; That Jo they might enjo), the Image o/" 
bis Peifon; as "H^e II oj the Imsigcs of his Biain, i^is Books, 
^mongfl tbe reft. Marquis tiat; a French-Nobleraan j 
ycho came Ambaflador into England j in the beginning of 
Queen Mfiryj Wife to King Charles, Tvas taken with an 
extraordinary Defire of Seeing him : For "^chicb ^ he made 
I^Af ^-.<i Friend : And when he came to him ^ being therty 
tii^ifnghxpcaknefs^ confined to bis Bed; The Marquis /4/»f^</ 
hmyfith this High-Expresfion j That his Lordfhip, had 
been ever to Him, like the Angels j of whom he had o(- 
tcn heard, and read much of them m Books j But he ne- 
ver favv them, ^fter which they contracted an intimate Ac- 
quaintance; And the Marquis did Jo much icYCtc him .^ that 
befides bis Frequent rifits ; they wrote Letters, one to the a- 
therj under the Titles <«»</ Appellations, o/Father4»(/Soni 
'^sfor his many Salutations, by Letters from Forraign Wor- 
thies, ^^vof^d^o Learning; I forbear to mention them; Bg' 
caufethat is aThingcommon to other Meno/ Learning,, or 
Note together with him- 

Butyetj in this JMatter of his Fame, Ifpeak, in the Com- 
parative, onelyy and not in the Exdufive. For his Reputati- 
on is great, in his ofpn Nation^ a!Jo ; Bjpecially amongft thoje^ 
that are of a more ^cute ^ andfij.irptr Judgement : Which 
I -will exemplifici bttt Tvith f wo Tcl^imonies , and no more. 
The Former i When bis Hiftory cf King Henry the Se- 
venth "^Oi to come forth ; It was delivered to the old Lord 
Brook, to be perufed by him i fibo, yphen be bad dijpatched 
it, returned it to the Author, with this Eulogy : Com 
mend me to my Lord ; and bid him take care, to get 
good Paper and Inkc, for the Work is incomparable. The 
other /hall be that^ of Vofior Samuel Collins, late Provoft, 
<?/Kings Colledge,/« Cambridge, ^ Man of no Vulgar Wit, 
^"^bo affirmed unto >w^,That when he had read, the Book of 
the Advancement of Learning, He found himfcif in a calc 
to begin his Studies a new, and that he had loft all the 
Time qf his ftudying before. 


Francis Lord Bag OM. i^ 

JtVTih ken deftred.^ That jomething Jhould be fignifisd^ 
touching his Dietj ^nd the Kegimcnc o/7;/j Health: 0/j 
•^hicb'jn regard :y of H^ Univerral In light into Natures he 
may ( perhaps, ) be to fome, an Example. For bis Diet^ 
h wcu rather a plentiful, and liberal, Diet, oj his Sto- 
m2Q\i'^ouldbearit^ then a Rcftrained • Which he aljo com- 
mended in his Book of the Hiftory of Life and Death. In 
hisjotiyjger years y be was wiuch giyentothe Finer and Light- 
ter Joi t of Mats, ."is of Fowlcs; and ftich like : ""But after- 
ward whenhe^reiP more Judicious i He preferred the firon- 
^^r A feats; fuch as the Shimhks afforded s ^sthofeMcsLis^ 
Tubicb bred the mre Rrm and fubftantial Juyces of the Bo- 
dy, and lef Diffipable : upon yohich , be would often make 
his Meal • Though he had other Meats, upon the Table. Tou 
may be fure - He would not negleSl tkit Himfelf^ which He fo 
much extolled in bit Writings ; Jnd that was the ^)fe 0/ Ni- 
tcr ; Whereof he took in the ^antitj of about three Graiust 
in thin -^arm Broath^ enfery Morning , for thirty years toge- 
ther next before hit Death, ^nd for PljyfickM did^ indeed^ 
lire Phyfically , but not miferably ; For be took only a 
Mveration of Rhubarb ; Infufed into a Dizught o/White 
Wine, d«<i Beer, mingled together , for the Space of half an 
Hour-^ Once in fx or feyen 'Dayes ; Immediately before his 
J^cal, ( -whether inner ^ or Supper^ ) that it might dry , the 
Body, leljei TobichfOJ he faid^) did carry away frequently, the 
Groffer Humou;s ofthe'^ody , and not diminifh,or car ry 
aypayj any cf the S^uizs^ai Sweating doth, --^nd this^vOi no 
GrieyoiuJbing to take. As for other Phyfck, in an ordinary 
way^fyfhatfoeip'er hath been fvulgarlyfpokeni ) he took not. His 
Beceit , for the Gouz ^ which did, conUantlyj eafe him of his 
Pain^ "Within f%'o Hours ^ Is already fet do-^n in the Bnd^oftbe 
Natural Hiftory. 

It mayfecmjbe Moon , had fome Principal ?hce^intbe 
Fignrc cf his Nativity. For the Moon, -scasnerverin ffer 
Pafsion or Ecltpfed^ but he wUJjurpri^edj-^ith afudden F it,o/ 
Fainting ■ And th.n, though he obferyed not^ nor took anypre- 
roioiu ^noyp ledge ^ of the EcVi^Cc thereof -^ and ajfoon OJ the 
Eclipfe ceafed^^ he yras reflored^ to bit former (irength again. 



The Life oi the Right Honorable 

He die d^ on the ^^^^' Day 0/ April, inthe year 1626; In 
the early J^orning, of the Day then celebrated /crciHr Savi- 
ours i^efurreiSlion , In the 66''*- year of bu Age ; at the 
Earle o/Arundells Hoiife in High-gate, ne^ir London ; 
To which place ^ he cafually repaired^ about a week before ^ 
God fo ordaining , that he jljould dye there , Of a Qentle f ca- 
ver, accidentally accompanied ^ tfith a great Cold ; ^whereby 
the Dc^iM^ion of Rhtume^ fell fo plentifully u'f'on his Breaft, 
that he died by Suffocziion : And '^pasbtmed^ m Saint Mi- 
chaels Church, at Saint Albans j Being the Place, defigned 
for his /iurial, by hishU Will, and Teftamentj Both be- 
cauje the Body of his Mother tpoj interred there; Jind 
becaufe, it ytas the only Church , then remaining, "ii^ithin the 
Precinfts of old Verolam .- Where he hath a Monument, 
ere^edfor him 0/ White Marble j ( By ihe Care, and Gra- 
titude, of Sir Thomas Mcautys , Knig):\t , formerly his 
LordQiips Secretary ; After'Vards Clark of the Kings Ho- 
nourable Privy Goun{cl,«»^^r two Kings : } 'knprefenting 
hiffull Pourtraiture in the Pofture off}ud)ing i with an 
Infcription compofed by that Accomplijht Gentleman^ and 
Rare Wit, Sir Henry Wotton. 

But howfoelper his Body -^oas Mortal 3 yet no doubt h'is 
Memory and Works "ivill live ,• Jnd Tt>ill in all probability^ 
kU as long as r^^ World lafleth. In order toyphich^ I hare 
endeavoured^ {after my poor ability,) to do this Honour to his 
Lordfhip by Toay, ofendudng to the fame. ^ 




A Work unfinished. 

Written by the Right Honorable; 


Lord Ferulam, Vifcount St. aJIhans, 



His Fable my Lord devifed, to the 
end that hemight exhibit therein 
a SModei or Defmption of a Co/Ieoe, 
inftituted for the Interpreting of 
^ature, and the producing of 
great and marvellous JFork^ for the berefit of 
Men^ under the name of 5'o/o;wowHoufe, or, 7 he 
C oliege of the Six days fForks, And even fo far his 
Lordship hath proceeded as to finish that Part. 
Certainly, the Model is more vaft and hicrh, 
than can pofTibly be imitated in all things, not- 
withdanding moft things therein are within 
Mens power to efFed. His Lordship thought 
alfo in this prefent Fable to have compofed a 
Frame of Laws, or of the bed State or Mould 
o^ \x Common-wealth ', but fore -feeing it would be a 
long Work, his defire of Colleding the J^atural 
Hiftory diverted him, which he preferred many 
degrees before it. 

This Work of the ^eyv Atlantis (as much as 
concerncth the6^;;^//V^ Ediiion) his Lordship de- 
fined for this place, in regard it hathfonear 
affinity ("in one part of it) with the precedincr 
:^(atHral Bi(forj. ^ 

A 2 NEW 



E failed from Peru ^ where \vc had continued by the 
fpace of one whole year ) for ChltiA and Jdfan bv the 
Suuih Sea, taking with us Vidua! s for Twelve Moncths 
and had good Winds from the Eaft, though foft and 
weak, for Five Moneths fpace and more; but then the 
Wind came about, and fctled in the Weft for many 
daysi fo as wc could make little or no way, and were 
fometioies in purpofe to turn back .- But then again, 
there arofe ftronjr and great Winds from theSouth'> with aPoint Hafl, 
which carried us up (for all that we could do) cowards the North ; by which 
time our V, duals failed us though wc had made good (pare of them : So 
that finding our felves in the midftcf the greateft Wildernefs of Waters in 
the World, without Vidua), we gave our felves for loft men, and prepared 
for death. Ytt we did lift up our hearts and voices to God above , iVho 
fjjeweth kisTnoriders in the deep; bcfecching him of his mercy, That as in the 
Begmmng he difcovered the T*ce of the deep, and biought forth dryland; fo he 
W-'uld now difcoverLand to us, that we might not pcrifli. And it came to 
pafs, that the next day about Evening, wcfiw within a Kenning before us, 
towards the North, as it were thicker Clouds, which did put us in fome 
hope of Land ; knowing how that part of the South-Sea was utterly un- 
known and might have Iflands or Continents that hitherto were not come 
to lighr. Wherefore we bent our coutfc thither, where we faw the ap- 
pearance of Land all that night v and in the dawning of the next day, we 
mightplainly difcern thatit was a Land flat to our fight, and fuUof Bofcagc, 
which made it fliew the more dark ; and after an hour and a halfs failing, 
we cntrcd into a good Haven, being the Port of a fair Citv, not great in- 
deed, but Well built, and that gave a pleafant view from the Sea: And wc 
thinking every minute long, till we were on Land, came clofcto the Shore 
and offered to land ; but ftraight-ways wc faw divers of the people with 
I Biftons in their hands, (as it were) forbidding us to land, yet without any 
I cries or ficrccncfs , but onely as warning us off by figns that they made. 
I Whereupon being not a little difcomforted , wc were advifing with our 
I f Ives, what we (hould do. During which time, theremade forth to us a 
i Imall Bo-Jtwith about eight perfons in it. whereof one of them had in his 
hand aT.p^.taff of a Yellow Cane, tipped at both ends with Blew, who 
made aboard our Snip without any fliew of diftruft at all ; And when he 
faw one of our number prefent himfclf (omewhat afore the reft, he drew 
forth a little Scroalof Parchment (fomcvvhat yellower then our Parchment, 

A a and 


^cup Atlantis. 

ind fliining like the Leaves of Writing-Tables, but ochci wile lott and iKxi 
bit) and delivered it to our foremoft man. In which Scroul were wricien 
in ancient HehrtTtf, and in anLJcnt Greek, and in good Ldiine of the School, 
and in i';''«'»iy7;'j ihclcwordj, •' Landyc nor, noncof you, aiid provide to be 
" gone horn rhis Coall within fixtccn day, except you iiavc tur:hcr t:me 
''givcnyou: Meanwhile, if you want Frtfh-watcror Viftual, or help for 
"your Sick, or that your Ship needcth repair, wiite down your \vani«, and 
"you fhall have that which belongcth toMcrcy. ThisScroul was (igntd 
with a (tamp of Cheruhhns Vkmis, not fprcd, but hanging downwards, ar.i 
by them a Crof. This being dehvercd, the Officer returned, and left oncly 
a Servant with us to receive outan(wer. Confulting hereupon amongft cur 
fclves, we were much perplexed. The denial of Landing, and hatty warn- 
ing us away, troubled us much. On thcothcr fide, to hndc that the peo- 
ple had Languages, and were fo full ot Humanity, did comfort us not a 
little i and above all, the Sign of the Crof to that Inlbumcnt, was to us a 
great rcjoycing. and, as it were, a certain prcfagc ot good. Our anfwer was 
in the Sfamfh Tongue, " That for our Ship it was well, for we had rather 
" met with Calms and contrary Winds then any Tempcfts. Tor our Sick, 
"they were many, and in very ill cafe; fo that if they were not permitted to 
" land, they ran in danger of their lives. Our other wants we i« down in 
particular, adding, "That we had fonie little ftore cf Merchandize, which 
"if it pleafcd them to deal for, it might fupply out wants without being 
"chargeable unto them. We oftered fome reward in Pilfolcts unto the 
Servant , and a piece of Crimfon Velvet to be prefcnted to the Officer ; 
but the Servant took them not, nor would fcarce look upon thcni, and 
(o left us, and went back in another little Boat which was fent for 

About three hours after we had difpatchtd our Anfwer, there cnrac to- 
wards usapctfon (as itfecmed) of place : He had on him a Gown with 
wide Sleeves of a kinde of Watcr-Chamolet, of an excellent Azure colour, 
fat more gloffic then ours; hisundcr apparel was green, and fo was his Har, 
beirg in the form of a Turbaht, daintily made , and not io huge as the 
lurkifb Turbants; and the Locks of his Hair came down below thebrims 
of it: ARevc;cnd Man washe to behold. He came in a Boat gilt in fome 
part of ir, with four pcrfons moreonely in that Boat, and was followed by 
another Boat wherein were fome twenty. When he was come within a 
flight- fhot of our Ship, ligns were made to us, that we fliould fend forth 
fome to meet him upon the Water ; which we prefently did in our Ship- 
boar, fcndingthe principal Man amongd us fave one, andfourof ournum- 
ber with him. When we were come within fix yards of their Boar, they 
called tons to flay, and not to approach futther; which we did: And there- 
upon the Man whom I before dcferibed flood up, and with a loud voice in 
SpaniP?, iikcd, i^^re ye ChriJ^ians? Wc anfwer ed, TTeynere; fearing t he lefs, 
becaufecf the Cr»/? we had fecn in the Subfcription. At which anfwer, the 
fjid perfon lift up his right hand towards Heaven, and drew it foftly tohis 
motith, (which is the gcfluic they ufevvhen they thank G«(i) and thenfaid, 
" If ydu vvillfwear (all of you) by the Merits of the J'rfvioHr ihatyeareno 
"Pirates, nor have /hcd blood , lawfully nor unlawfully, within forty 
" days paft, you may have Licerife to come on Land. f-Fe ftid, "We were 
"all ready to take that Oath. Whereupon oneofthofe that were wirh 
him, being (as itfecmed) a T^taij/, made an Entry of this Ad. Which 
done, another of the attendants of the Great Perfon, which was with 


J\Q)V /Atlantis. 

him in the fame Boat, alter his Lord had (pokcn a little tohirr, ("aid aloud, 
«'Mv Lord, would have you know, that it is not oi Pridcor Cjicacncfs ihu i 
"he comcth not aboard your ihip ; but for that, in your Aniwer, you de- i 
•• clarc. That vou have many fick amongft you, he was Warned bv the Con- 
"fervAtorofHctlthoi theCity, that heHiuiild keepadiliance. VVc bowed 
outfelves towards him, and aniwercd, «'VVc were his humble Servants, 
"and accounted for great Honor and fiiigular Humanity towards us, that 
"which was already done ; but hoped well, that thenaturcof thelkknefs 
''of our Men veas not infeftiouf. So he returned, and a while after came 
ihcNottry to us aboard out Ship, holding in his hand a Fruit of chat Coun- 
trcy like an Orenge, but of colour between Orenge.uifnj and Scarlei, which caft 
a moft excellent Odor : Heufcd it (as it fcemcch; tor a Prcli:rvative againll 
InfcQion. H; gave us our Oath, By the Name of J efta, and hit Merits-, and 
after told us, that the next day by fix of the clock in the morning we fhould 
befcnttu, and brought lo t^c Stranger s Htufe, (fo he called it) where we 
fhoulJ be accommodated of things both tor our whole and for our fick. 
Sjhcleftusj and when we offered him fomePiflolets, hefmiling, laid, 
Hemufinotbe tfvice faid for one labor , meaning {as I take it) that he had falary 
lufficicntot the State for his fcrvicc ; for (as I after learned) chcy call an 
Officer that taketh reward?, Twice paid. 

Tnencxtmorning early, there came to us the fame Officer that eame to 
usatfirft With his Cane, and told u5, '"^He came toconduftustothc ^/rasf^"* 
" Honfe, and that he had prevented the hour.becaufe wc might have the -whole 
"day before us for out bufinefs: For { fat J he) \{ you will follow my ad- 
" vice, there fhall firft go with mcfomc few of you, and fee the place, and 
" how ic may be made convenient for you ; and then you may fend for your 
" fick, .ind the re(f of your number which yc willbringon Land. Wethanked 
him, and faid, *' That this care which he took of defolatc Strangers, Gid 
" would reward. And fo fix of us went on Land with him ; and when 
we were on Land, he went before U5, and turned to us, and faid. He ^as 
but our Servant, and our Guide. He led us through three fair Streets, and all 
cne way wc went there were gathered fbme people on both fides, (landing 
in a row, but in fo civil a failiion, as if it had been not to wonder at us, 
but to welcome us ; and divers of them, as wepafTed by them, putthcir 
.irmsalictle abro-id, which is their geflure when they bid any welcome, 
rhc rrr.m^fr/ f/oH/ir is a fair and fpacious Houfe, built of Brick, of fome- 
svh.K ablucrcolourthcn our Brick, and with handfomc Windows, fomc 
of Glafs, fomeof akindc of Cambrick oiled. He brought us firll into a 
fair Parlor abovc-ftairs , and then asked us , " What number of pcrfoas 
' •nc were, and how many fick. Ffe anfitcred, " Wevrcrc in all (fick and 
"wh,)Ic) One and fifty perfons, ^»'he^cof our fick were fcventeen. He 
dcllred us to have patience a little, and to ffay till he came back to us, 
vr hich was about an hour after ; and then lie led us to fee the Chambers 
which were provided for us, bcingin BumbcrNinetecn. They having cafl 
it (as it fccmcth) thatfourof thofe Chambers, Tvhich were better then 
the roiK might receive four ot the principal men of our company, and 
lodge them alone by thcmfclvcs ; and the other fifteen Chambers were to 
lodge us, two and two together ; the Chambers were h.indfomc and 
chcarful Chamber;, and furnilhed cir illy. Then he led us to a long Gal- 
lery, like a Dorturc, where he Ihcvvcd us all along the one fide (for the 
other fide was but Wall and Window) fcventeen Cells, very neatoncs, 
having Partitions of Ccdar-vvood. Wnich Gallery and Cells, being in 


D\(eti) Atlantis. 

all forty, (many more then \vc needed) w ere inftitutcd as aninfirmary for 
fick pcrlons. And he fold us that as any of oiir lick waxed well, 
he mioht be removed from his Cell to a Chamber i tor which purpc.fc, 
there "were let forth ten fparc Chambers, beiides the number wc fpakc of 
befjre. This done, he brought us back to the Parlor, and lifting uphis 
Cane a little (as they do when they give any charge or command, faid to 
us, "Yc arc to know, that the Cultom ot the Land requircth, thatafcerchis 
" day andtomorro'w (which we give you tor removing your People fr'm 
"vour Ship) you arc lo keep within doors ior three days : But let it not 
"trouble you, nor do not think your lelvesreltrained, but rather left to 
" your Rcll and Eafe. You fiiall want nothing, and there are fix of our 
" people appointed to attend you for any bufinefs you mav have abroad. 
"We gave him thanks with all affe(f^ion and reipcci, and fai^, God furtly « 
manifeftedtnthu Land. We offered him alfo twenty FilUlets j but he fmiled, 
and oncly faid, VVfi'it, tfe'icep.Hd ? and io he lefc us. Soon after our Dinner 
was ferved in, which was right good Viands, both for Bread and Meat, 
better then any Collegiate Diet, that I have known in Europe. VVc had 
alfo drink of three forts, all wholefome and good ; Wine of the Grape , 
a Drink of Grain, fuch as is with us our Ale, but more clear; andakinde 
ofSider made of a Fruit of that Countrey, a wonderful pleafing and re- 
frcfhing drink. Befides, there were brought into usgreatftore ot thole 
Scarlet Orcnges for our fick. which (they laid) were an alfurcd remedy 
for licknefs taken at Sea. There v^-as given us alfo aBox of fmall gray or 
whitilh Pills, which they wifiicd our fick (liould cnkc, one of the Pills 
evcrv niglit before fleep, which (they faid) would haften their recovery. 
The next day, after that our trouble of carriage and removing of our 
Men and Goods out of ourShip, Vfasfomcwhatfetled and quiet, I thought 
good CO call our company together, and when they were aflembled, faid 
unto them, "My dear Friends, let us kno'*' our felvcs, andhowit flandcth 
"with us. We arc Men call on Land, as Jonas was out of the -Whales 
''Belly, when we were as buried in the deep; and now we are on Land, 
"we are but between Death and Life, for vve are beyond both the Old 
*' VVorid and the New, and whether ever we (hall fee Europe, God onely 
"knoweth: Itis akindcof miracle hath brought us hither, anditmuftbe 
" little Ids that fhall bring us hence. Therefore in regard of ourdeliver- 
"ancepaft, and our danger prefcnt and to come, let us look up to God, 
"and every man reform his own ways. Eclides, wc are come here amongft 
''a Chrifiian People, full of Piety and Humanity ; let us not bring that con. 
"fufion of face upon our fclves, as tofiicw our vices or unworthinefs be- 
" fore them. Yet there is more ,- for they have by commandment (though 
" in form of courteiie) cloiftered us within thefe Walls for three days; 
" vvho knovveth whether it be not to take fome taftc of our manners and 
'• conditions J andif thev finde them bad, tobanilhus ffraight-vvays ; if 
"good, to give us further time? Forthcle men that they have given us for 
" attctidance, may withal have an eye upon us. Therefore for Gnds love 
'•and as vve love the weal of our iouls and Bodies, let us fo behave our 
"iclvcs as vve maybe at peace with God, and may findc grace in the eyes 
" of this people. Our Company with one voice thanked me for my good 
admonition, and promifed me to live foberly and civilly, and vvit'iout 
giving any the lealt occafion of ofFcnce. So vve fpent our three days 
joyfully and without care, in expectation what would be done with us 
when they were expired; During which time, vve had every hour jpy 
- of 

J^)!^ Mantis, 

of t ic amendment ot our lick, ihoughc tncmlelvcs call into Omc di- 
vine T^ool of Htiilmg, tiicy mended lb kindly and fo fatt. 

ihc morrow after our three days were palt, there came tousancwMan 
thu we had not fcen before, cloathcd in blew asthcfotmer was, five that 
his Turbant was white with a (mall Red Crofs on the top > he had alfo a 
Tippet of fine Linnen. At his coming in he did bend tous a little, and put 
his arms abroad. We of our parts laiuted him in a very lowly andl"ubm;lVivc 
manner, as looking, that from him we fliouid receive (entence of Lite or 
Death. He dcfircd tofpcak with fomc lew oi us ; whereupon fix cfus 
oncly ftaid, and the reft avoided thcroom. He faid, " I am by ofticc Go- 
• vcrnor of tiiis Hotife of S'trangers , and by Vocation 1 am a Chnftian Prieji j 
"and therctoream come to you to offer you myftrvice, both as Strangers, 
" andthicfly as OmJiUns. Some things I may tell you, which Ithinkyou 
"Will not be unwilling to hear. The btatc hath given you licence to Itay on 
♦'Land forthe (pace of fix weeks ; and let it not trouble yon, if your occa* 
" fions ask further time, for the Law in this Point is not prccife; and I do 
"iiotdoubr, but my (ell fhall be able toobcain foryou Inch (urrhcr time as 
'•fhall be convenient. Ye fliall allounderftanc', that the Strangers Hoiife is at 
''this time rich and much aforehand, for it hath laid up Revenue thcfc Tair- 
'• ly Icven years; tor (b longitisfinceany Stranger arrived in this part : And 
" therefore take yc no care, the Srate W'H defray you all the time you lUy, 
'' neither fliall you (lay one day Icis for that. As for any Merchandize you 
'•have brought, ye fliall be well uled, and have yourReturn, either inMcr* 
■'chandizc, or in Goldand Silver ; fortousitis all one, .And if you have 
• ' any other rcqucd to make, hide it not, for yt (li ill finde \i^c will not make 
" your countenance tofall by thearfwer ye fhjll receive. Oiioly this Imuft 
" tell you, that none ot you nui(\ go above a Ktcran {that is T^ith them <t mile and 
t^4tthuf) from the Walls of the City without (pi tial leave. "Weanlwered, 
after we had looked awhile upon one another, admiring this gracious and 
parent-like ufagc, "I hat we could not teli what to fay, for wc wanted 
" words to exprefs our thanks, and his noble free offers left us nothing to 
"ask. It feemcdtou!, that we had before us aPidure of our Sahationln 
" Heaven \ for sv- Were a while fince in the Jawsof D.ath, were now 
•' brought into a place where we found nothing burConlolacions. Forthe 
'• Commandment laid upon us, we would not fail to obey it, though it 
" was impolTiblc but our hearts fliould be inflamed to tread farther upon 
" this happy and holv Ground, ff^e added, "That our Tongues flaculd firlt 
"Cleave to the Roots of Our Mouths, ere we fliould forget either this Re- 
"verend Pcrfon , or this whole Nauon, in our Prayers. We alio mo[\ 
humbly befought him to accept of usashistiuc Servants, by as jufta right 
as ever Men on Eanh were bounden, laying and prefenting both our per- 
fons and all wc had at his feet. He faid. He Jeas a frieji, and lotkjdfera Fnejis 
reTtard, Ttbiik ytiu cur Brciherlj lave, ar.d the good »f our Souls cJidBedtes, So he 
went from US, not without tears of tcndcincfs in his eyes; and left usalfo 
confuffd with joy and kindnefs, faying amorgft curfelves, 1 hat yyc were 
(*Me into a Land of j^nge'.s, vthtch did apoear to MS daily, and frtyent tn Tifitit (omftw 
Itbuhiteil'oHgf'tnot of, jnuch lejl exf tiled. 

, , Tfie next day about ten of the clock the Governor came to us again, 
and altcrfaiutations, faidfamiliarly, That luyvits cemctoviftui, and called for 
a Chair, and late him down; and we bcirg <cmcten of us ^'thertfl wereof 
the meaner forr, or elCe gone abroad) Lrc acwn with him : And when wc 
were f:-, he began thus, '■ Wc of this Ifland of Benf.iUm (Jir fo they call it in 


" thtir LAit^ua^t .'^ have thi?, Tnatby means of our folitary fuuitior, and of 
"ihe Luvs of Secrecy which we hive for our Tiavclicrs , sntl our rare 
" admilVion ot Grangers. \vc know well moll parrot the Hibitable World, 
"andare oiir lelvts unki own. 'Ihercfore, bccaulc he that knowcih Icaft, 
♦'isfittell toa^kQueftions, it is more rcaibr, forihecnrerrainmcnr of chc 
"time, ihatyeaskme Qtiettions, than that 1 askyou. fVe anfwered, T.iat 
" we humbly thanked him, that he would give us leave fo to do, and that 
«' we conceived by the tafte we had already, there was no worldly thing 
'•on Earth, more worrhy to be known, then thcftaieof that happy Land. 
"But above all (vv? f'''^') fincc that vve vvctc met from the feveral Ends cf 
''the World, and hoped affurcdly, that vvc fhould meet one day in the 
•' Kingdom of Heaven, (for that we were botii parts Chn/ltAns) vvc defircd 
" to know (inrel'pett that Land was io remote, and lo divided by va(t and 
" unknown Seas, from the Land where our ^azioHr walked on Earth) 
" who was the Apoftle of thut Nation, and howit wis converted to the 
" Faith. It appeared in his face, that lie took great ctntentmentm thisour ^efiioa. He 
faid , " Ye knit my hcarr to you by askii^g this Qucftion in the hrit [lice, 
^^io:\l[hcvveththatyoufirJifeek.theKin^domofHe,tveti; and I fhjll gladly and 
" briefly fatisfic your demand. 

*' About twenty years after the Afcenfion of our Saviour, it came to 
" pafs, that there was fecn by the people of Renfufa (a City upon the 
"Eadern Coaft of our Ifland ) within night (the night was tlou-^y and 
"calm) asit might be fomc mile in theSea, zgrcnTillarof Li^bt, notfhirp, 
"butinformof a Column or Cylinder, rifing from the i>ea a great way up 
" towards Heaven, and on the top of it was fcen a large Croyfo/ Lights more 
"bright and refplendent then the Body of the Pillar : Upon which (o 
''ftrange a fped-Cle the people of the City gathered apace together upon 
" the Sands to wonder, and fo after put themfelves into a number of fmall 
"Boats to go nearer to this marvellous fight. But when the Boats were 
"come within (about; fixty yards of the Pillar, they found themfelves all 
"bound, and could go no further, yet fo as they might move to go about, 
<< but might not approach nearer; io as the Boats ftood all as in a Theatre, 
"beholding this Light as an Heavenly Sign. It fofell our, that there wis in 
"oneof the Boats, one of the wife Men of the Society o{ Sglomsns Houfe, 
"(which HQufe or CoUege (my good Brethren) is the very Eye of this King- 
'<dom) who having a while attentively and devoutly viojfed and conrem- 
<* pi iCed this Pillar and Crofs, fell down upon his face, and then raifcd him- 
c<- fclf upon his knees, and lifting up his hands t<j) Heaven made his Prayers 
('in this manner. 

LOrd God of Heaven and Earth, thou ha ft youch- 
fafed of thy ^race to tbofe of our Order, to knoia? thy 
lVorJ{s of Creation, and true Secrets of them, a?jd to 
difccrn [as far as appertaineth to the fenerations of Men) 
Ihetn^cen Divine Miracles, FTorJis oj !]\(ature, F Forks 
of Art, andlmpoflures and lUufions of^ all forts. I do here 
' ackrio-wledge and tefife before jhisTeople, that the Thing 


J\(j'iv Allaniis. 

tve tWiV fee before oureyes n ^^y Finger, and a true Nil- 
ra c 1 c . And forafmiicb as we learn in oar 'Booi{i , tkn thou 
?jeyerworl^/i t^liracles hut to aT>iVine and excellent End, 
{for the Laivs of ^J\(ature, are thine oivnLaivr, andthoa 
excecdefl them not but upon good caufe) m mo ^l humbly he- 
feech thee to pro/her this great Sign, and to (^ive us the Inter- 
pretation, and ufeof itin?nercy, ivhich thou doflinfome fart 
fecret/ypromifey byfendifig it unto m. 

" When he had miJc his Prayer, he prcfently found the Boat he was 
''in, moveable and unbound, whereas ali the reft remained (bll fift -, and 
"taking that for an aHliiancc of leave to approach, he caufcd thcBoat tobe 
'Moftly, and With filcnce, row^d towards ihcPiUar-y but ere he came near it, 
" the Pillar and Crofi of Light brake up, and calt it felt" abroad, as it were, into 
" a Firmament of many Scars; which alio vanifiiedfoon after, and there was 
''nothing left ro be fecn but a ( nail tyfrk or C/jeJi of Cehr, dry, and not wet 
« at all With Water, though it (vvam ; and in the fore end of ic, which was 
<< towjrdshim, grew a fmall green Branch of Palm. And when the Wiie- 
" man hid taken it with all reverence into his Boar, it opened of it felt, and 
" t.ierc was found in it a 5r;ff/' and a Letter, both written in fine Parchment, 
■■' and Wrapped in iindons of Linnen. The Boo^' contained all the Ctnonicd 
^<^ Bjokj of the Old And Nextf TeflAtnent, according as you have them, (tot we 
"know Well what the Chnrches with you receive;) and the i^pouljffe'ukM, 
" and fomc other Books of the New 7cflament , which were not at that time 
« written, W\.Te nevcrthelcfsin ihc^oo^. And for the i^m^r, itwasinthcfc 
" words. 

I'Bartholomcyv, a Servant of the Higheft, and 
\pDmeoi\fSSVS CH%JST, waswariv 
ed by an Angel that appeared to me in a 
Vifion of Glory, that I should commit this 
<jy/r^ to the Flouds of the Sea. Therefore I 
do teftificanddeclare unto that People, where 
(jOT) shall ordain this Ark^io come to Land;, 
that in the fame day is come unto them Salva- 
tion , and Peace, and Good Will from the 
f4THE%, and from the £0^2) fSSVS. 

I ** There was alio in both thefc Writings , as well the B»oi 3i the 
'^Ltuer, wrought a great Miracle, conform to that of the Aptpies in the 
" Originil Gift*/ Tongues. For there being at that time in this L,aod Htbrews, 
*'Perfi^s, a.\SindiiHSj bcfiJcs the Narivcs, every one read upon the 5a#i 


I I 



J\(eiv Atlantis. 

^^ind Letter, as if they had been written in his own Language. And thus 
"was this Land faved from Infidclicy(is the Remain of chc old World 
" was from Water) by an Ark, through the Aportolicnl and Miraculous* 
" Hvangclilm of S. Bart/jolomew. And here he paufed , and a McfTenger 
came and called him lortli from us. So this was all that paflld in that 

The next day the fame Governor came again to us immediately after Dln- 
ncr.arid excufed himfelf, faying, " Thatithc day before he was called from us 
" fomewhat abruptly, but now he would make us amend?, and fpcnd time 
"with us, if wc held his Company and Conference agreeable. fVeauf^ered, 
'^ That we held it fo agreeable and pleafing to us, ^s wc forgot both dangers 
"pafl and fears to come, for the time we heard him fpeak, and that we 
^' thought an hour fpent with him, w^s worth years of our former life. He 
hovved htm/elf Alttile to ui, and after we were fet agam, hefaid, '' Well, the Q_uefti- 
" onsareon yourpart. One of ournumber faid , after a little pAufe, "That there 
" was a matter wc were no Icfs defirous to know then tearful to ask, left we 
"^ might prefume too far 3 but encourng:d by his rare Humanity towards us, 
'' (thatcould fcarce think our felves ftrangerf, being his vowed and profr fr;,'d 
" Scrvan's) we would take thchardinefsco propound it ; Humbly befeech- 
"inghim, if bethought it not fir to be anfwered, that he would pardon it, 
"^' tboi'gh he rejcded it. VVt futd, We well obfcrved thofe his words 
''which he formerly (pake, Thatthishappy Ifland where we now flood 
"was known to few, and yet knew moll of the Nations of the World; 
" which we found to be true , confidering they had the Languages of 
" Europe, and knew much of ourftate andbufinefs; and yet we in Euroft 
"(notwichftandingall the remote Difcovcrics and Navigations of thislafl 
" Age) never heard any of the Icafl inkling or glimpfe of this IflaBd. This 
" we found wonderful ftrange, for that all Natioas have interknovvledgc 
«'onc of another , either by Voyage into Forein Parts, or by Strangers 
« that come to them : And though the Traveller into a Fotein Gountrcy, 
w« doth commonly know mote by the Eye, then he that ftaid at home can 
« by relation of the Traveller ; yet both ways fuffice to make a mutual 
" knowledge in fome degree on both parts : But for this Ifland, we never 
"heard tell cf any Ship of theirs that had been fcen to arrive upon any 
« fhore of Europe, no nor of cither the Eafi or J-Tefl-jndies, nor yet of any 
"Ship of any other part of the World that had made return for them. And 
«■ yet the marvel rcfled not in this ; for the fituation of it (as his Lord/hip 
''faid) in the fcerct Conclave of fuch a vzflSea might caufeit : But then, 
<' chat they fhould have knowledge of the Languages, Books , Affairs of 
« thofe that lie fuch a diftance from them, it was a thing wc could not tell 
" what to make of i for that it feemed to us a condition and propriety of 
"Divine Powers and Beings, to be hidden and unfcen toothers, and yet 
"^^ to have others open, and as in a light to them. At this Speech the Go- 
vernor g^ve a gracious fmilc, and (aid, " That wc did well to ask pardon 
" for this Quedion we now asked , for that it imported as if we thought 
*' this Land, a Land of Magicians, that fcnt forth Spirits of the Air into all 
<« parts to bring them news, and intelligence of other Countrcys. It was 
anfwered by us all, in all poflible humblencfs , but yet with a countenance 
taking knowledge, that wcknew, that he fpake itbutmernly, "Tnatwc 
"were apt enough to think, there was fomewhat fupetnatural if) this 
" Ifland, but yet rather as Angelical then Magical. But to let his Loid- 
"flijp know truly what it was that made us tender and doubtful ro ask this 

*■ Q^ieflion. 

J\(jTi> Atlantis, 

" Qiicllion ; it was not any I'uch oonccic, but becaufe w e remcnibrcd he 
" had "ivcn n touch in his former Speech, that this Land ha. I Laws of Sc- 
" crccy, touching Strangers. Tj thu he faid, "You remember icriqh:; and 
" therefore in that, 1 (hall Liy to you, J mullrcfcrve (ome parcicuhrs w hich 
"it is not lawful forme to reveal, but there will be enough left to gneyou 

"You (lull undcrftand (that which perhaps you vtilHcarcc think crc- 
" dible) thataboiicTnreclhoufand years ago. or lomewhat more, thcNa- 
'• vig tion of the World (fpcciallv for remote Voyages) was greater then 
"at this day. Do not think uith yourkLcs, that 1 knownothowmuch 
'' it is incrcalcd with you within thefethrccfcore years, J know it well j and 
'* yet 1 lay, greater then then now. Whether it (t'as, that the example of 
" the Ark thatfaved the remnant of Men from the Univcrial Deluge gave 
" men conriJencc to adventure upon the Waters, or what it was, but liich 
■• is the truth. 1 he thanicUns, and Ipccially the Tjriant, had great Fleets ; 
" fo had the Ctrth^ginuns their Colony, which is yet further V Vert : To- 
" ward the Eaft, the Shipping of Egjpt and vt Palejlina was likewite great ; 
' ChiifA alia, and the Gre*t AtUnta (tHat you call (.^jH^nVrf) which have now 
"but [unks andCanoacs, abounded then in tall Ships. Ihis Jiland (as 
" appearcth by faichiul Rcgift^rs of thofc times) had then Fifteen hundred 
"ftrong Ships ot great content.Of all this, there is with you (paring memory 
"or none, but we have large kno a ledge thereof. 

" Ac chat time this Land was known, and frequented by the Ships and 
' Velfels of all the Nations betorcnamcd, and fas itcomcth topais) they 
"hidmany times Men of other Countreys that were no Sailers, thac came 
"vfich them , as Ferfuns, Chaldeans, Arabuns ; fo as almoft all Nations of 
" might and famcrelorted hither, of whom we havcfonve Stirps and little 
' Tribes with us aC this day. And for our own Ships, they went lundry 
" Voyages, as well to your Ureigbts, which you call the "FiUdrs #/ Hercu'es, 
'^ as to oiiicr pins inihey/tl4ntick^3LndMedttterranean Seal ; as to reguin (which 
" is the fame with Cxmbilu) and Quinfty upon the Onentd S'c.u, as far as to 
*' the Borders of the Eajl /*rurj. 

" At the fame time, and an Age after or more, the Inhabitants of the 
" Gre4t yftlumu did flourilh. For though the Narration and Dclcription 
" which is made by a great Man with you, of the Dcfcendents of Nefmne 
" planted there, and of the magniTcent Temple, Palace. City, and Hill, 
"and the manifold ilrcamsot goodly Navigable Rivers, which (as f> many 
" Chains) invir .ned the fame Sire and Temple, and the leveral degrees of 
"afcent, v^ hereby men did climb up to the fame, as if it had been 2 ScuU 
"Cocli, be all Poetical and Fabulous j yet o much is true That the faid 
" Countrey oi tyltUniit, as well that of /'frw then called C->yi. as that of 
'' C^lexico then named lyr4mbel\ were mighty and proud Kin^r 'oms in 
" Arms, Shipping, and Riches; fo mighty, as at one time (or a lea(t \\ irh 
"inthcfpace of ten years) they both made two great expeditions, t'lcyof 
" Tjrdmbel through the AtUntuk to the AleditarrAne^n S'tJ, an^ thcv of C»yj 
" through the South-fea upon this our Idand. And for the former of thcfc, 
" which ^as into £Kr»/>?, thefame Author amongft you (as it Iecmcth)had 
" fomc relation from ihc Egipuan Prieji >whom heciteth, foralTuredly fuch 
•• a thing there was. But w hether it were the ancient i^thtnum that ha 1 
'' the glory of the repulfc and refiftince of thofc Forces, I can fav nothing ; 
"but certain it is, there never came backeitiierShipor Man from that Voy- 
"age. Ncithcrhad the other Voyage of thofc of Coy*, upon us, had better 
B ' fortune. 

^J^QiOf Jtlantis. 

" forcunc, if they had not met with cntmics of greater clemency. For the 
"King of thisliiand (by name tyiliabm) a wile Man, and a great "Warrior, 
"knowing well both his own flrcrgth, and that of his enemies, handled the 
"matter fo, as he cut oif their Land forces from their ihips, and cntoilcd 
" both their Navy and their Camp, with a greater puwcr than theirs , both 
"by J>ea and Land, and compelled them to render ihemfdvcs without 
"Ibikingftrokc; andaftcr they were at his mercy, contenting himfclf one- 
"ly with their Oath, that they fhould no more bear Arms againft him, dif- 
" milled them all in fafety. But the Divine revenge overtook not long 
" atter thofc proud cncerpriies ; for within iefs then the (pace of One hun- 
"dred years the Great yHtUntu was uiterly loll anddeftroyed, not by a great 
"Earthquake, as yourt^/^n faith, (for that whole Traft islittJe fubjed to 
'' Earthquakes) but by a particular Deluge or Inundation, thole Countreys 
" having at this day fat greater Rivers , and far higher Mountains ro pour 
"down Waters, than any part of the Old World. But it is true, that the 
" fame Inundation was not deep, not pall forty foot in mole places from 
" che ground -, fo that although it dcftroycd Man and Beaif generally , 
" yci fomc few wilde Inhabitants ot the Wood elcapcd : Birds alfo were 
"i'avcd by flying tothc high Trees and Woods. ForastorMcn, a'though 
" they had Buildings in many places higher then the depth of the Water ; 
"yet that Inundation, though it were fhallow , had along continuance, 
" whereby they of the Vale, that were not drowned, pcriflied for want of 
"food, and other things necelTiry. So as marvel younoc at thcthinPopu- 
" lation of America, nor at the Kudcnefs and Ignorance of the People ; for 
"you muft account your Inhabitants of t^merua z% a ycung People, 
" younger a thoufand years at the Icaft than the reft of the World , for 
'< that there was l9.much time between the Univcrfal Flood, and their par- 
' ticular Inundation. For the poor remnant of Humane Seed which re. 
"maincdin their Mountains peopled the Countrey again flowly, by little 
" rnd little : And beingfimple and a favage people cnot like Noah and his 
" Sons, which was the chief Family of the Earth) they were not able to 
"leave Letters, Arts, and Civility to their Poifcrity. And having likewife 
"in iheir Mountainous Habitations been ufcd (in rcfpcft of the extream 
" Cold of thofe Regions) to cloath themfelvcs with the skins oi Tigers, 
"Bears, and great Hairy GoatSy that they have in thofc parts; when after 
" they came down into the Valley, and found the intolerable Heats which 
" arc there, and knew no means of lighter Apparel, they were forced to 
"btgin the cuftom of going naked, which continuethat this day; onely 
" they take great pride and delight in the Feathers of Birds ; And this alfo 
" they took from thofe their Anccftors of the Mountains, who were in- 
'■' vited unto it by the infinite flight of Birds that came up to the high 
" Grounds , while the Waters Itood belovr. So you fee by this main 
'•accident of time, we loft our Ttaffick with the jfmericans, with whom, 
"of all others, in regard they lay nearcft to us, we had moft commerced 
"As ior the other parts of the World, it is moft manifeft, that in the 
" Ages following (whether it were in refpeft of Wars, or by a Natural 
" revolution of time) Navigation did every where greatly decay, and 
" cfpccially far voyages (the rather by thcufc ofGallies, and Cuch VcfTels 
*' as could hardly biook the Ocean; were altogether left and omitted. 
•'So then, that part of cntcrcoutfc which could be from other Nations 
" to fail to us, you fee how it hath long fince ccafed, except it were by 
" fomc rare accident, as this of yours. But now of thcccfTation of that 

" other 

" ui.)Ct part ot cntcrcouric, which ini^ it be by onr (ailing to other Nition?; 
" 1 mull yield vou Come other cau'^c : for I cannot fay (it 1 nioiild lay tni!) } 
" bufoufffiippin^torntunber, llrcngtri, Mariners, P.loi-, and all^hm^s that 
"appcriain to Navigation, is as great as ever; and thcrciorc ^'hy wcllioiilJ 
" lit at homc.l fliall now givcyou an Account by it f-lf',and it willdraWiicarcr 
«' to give you latistadion to your principal Quertion. 

"Tt^crc rciancd inthislfland about One ihoufand nine hundred< 
"ago, a King. Wiiolc memory of all others uc molladorc.notluperflitioLifly, 
** but as a Divine Jnlfrumcntithongh a Mortal Man ; his name was y/j/e>«e«rf, 
*' ind vvc cfteem him as the Law-givc r of our Nation. Tins King had aUig? 
"hcjrtinfcrutablc for good, and was wholly bent to make his Kingdom aid 
" People happy : He therefore taking into ccnfuieracion, how fulHcient and 
"fubftantive this Land was rom^iinrain itfvlf wuhcut any aid (at all; of ihc 
*' l-crcigncr, being Five thoufand V\y. hundred miles in circuit, and of rare 
"fcfiihiyof foil in the groatell partrhcrcof i and finding alio the Clipping of 
"this Councrey might be plentifully fct on work, boihby Fifliing, -mo by 
''Tranfportations from Port to Port, and likcwifc by failing unto (onle fmall 
''Jflands that are not far from us, and arc under the CroWn and Lav,^soi this 
"State ; aid recall. rg into his memory ibc happy and flourilliingj cftatc 
'' wherein this Land then was , fo as it might be a thoufand ways altered to 
*'ihe wcrfe, but fcarcc anyone way tothe better; thought nothing wanted 
"to his Noble and Hcroical Intentions, but oncly (as far as Humane forc- 
'< fight m'ght reach) to give perpetuity tothat which wasin his tioic fotjappily 
"cftablifhed; therefore amongfl his other Fundamental Lawsof thisKmg- 
" dom, he did ordain the Interdicts and Prohibitions which we have touch- 
•< ing entrance of fttangcrs, which at that time (though it was after the cala- 
"mity o^jimcriu) was frequent, doubting novelties and commixture of 
''naanncrs. It istruc, thelikeLawagainft the admifTlon of flranger?, with- 
"out licence, is an ancient Law intheKingdomof Cbim, and yetcontinued 
''inufc; but there it is a poor thing, and hath made them a curious, igno- 
*< rant, fearful, foolifli Nation. But our Law-giver made his Law of another 
" temper. For firft, he hath prefcrved all points of humanity, in taking or- 
"derand making provifion forthe relief of ftrargersdiflreired, whereof you 
"havctafted. y/r Ithub Speech (tts re*f»n "Wm) Tft dUrofeup aviba'tted ourfehes 
H* Tifent m. "That King alio I\ill defiring to joyn Humanity and Policy to- 
" gcther, and thinking it againft Humanity to detain Strangers here .igain(t 
"their Wills, and againft Policy, that they ftiould remrn and difcover their 
<* knowledge of this itate, he cook this coutfc. He did ordain, that of the 
" Strangers that fbould be permitted to Land, as many (at all times; might 
"depart as would, but as many as would ftay, fliould have very good con- 
editions and means to live from the State. Wherein hefawlofar, that 
•'now in fo many Ages, fincc the Prohibition, wehavememorynotofone 
« Ship that ever returned, and but of thirteen pcrfons onely at fcveral timer 
«• that cho(c to return in out Bottoms. What thofc few that returned, may 
" have reported abroad, 1 know not j but you mnft think, whatfocvcr they 
^'havcfaid, could be taken where they came, but for adream. Now for 
"our travelling from hence into parts abroad, out Lawgiver thought fit al. 
" together to rcftrain it. So is it not in ChitiA, for the Ckmefis fail where they 
" will, Or can j which fhcweth, that their Law of keeping our Scrangexs, is 
a Law of pufillanimity and fear. But this redraint of ours hath one onely 
exception, which is admirable, preferving the good uhrch comcth by 
communicating with fttangers, and avoiding the hurt ; and I will now 
. . Bi "open 

'5 / 


!J\(eyi} /ItUntii, 

" open it to you. And here 1 (liall iccm a licrlc to digrcfs, biic you will by 
" and by findc it pertinent. Ye fliall underftand ( my dear Friends) thac 
" amongft the excellent acf^s King, one above all hath the prcemi- 
"nence: It wasthe eredion and inlHturion of an Order or Society which' 
" wc call SelamoHs Houfc, the nobleft Foundntiofi (as \vc think) that ever 
" was upon the Earth, and the Lanthorn of this Kingdom. It is dedicated 
"to the (tudyot the Works and Creatures of (7(»(<. iomc think it beareth 
*" the Founders name a little corrupted, as if it fliould be S'thmins Houlc ; 
*' but the Records write it as it is i'pokcn , fo as 1 take it to be dcnomi- 
" natc of the King of the Hebrews, which is famous with vou, and no ftrangcr 
" to us ; for v e have fomc parts of his Works which ^\x.\\ you are lofl, 
" namely, that Natural Hifiorj/ which he wrote of all Plants, from the Cedar 
" of LibMiu to the C^/ff/ thut gravveth out of the fVdU, and of all things that h ve 
"Life and Motion. This maketh mc think chat our King finding himfelf lO 
" fymbolize in many things with that King of the Hebrews (which lived 
" many years before him) honored him with the Title of this Foundation. 
" And I am the rachcr induced to be of this opinion, for that I finde in an- 
" cicnt Records this Order or Society is fomctimes called Ja/omsMj Hou'c, 
" and fomctimes IheCollcdgeoftheSixiaysVVorkfy whereby 1 am fatisficd, 
"that our txrellent King had Icarnrd from tne Hebrews, that Corf had 
" created the World, and allrhat herein is within Six days i and therefore 
"he irtftitutiiig that Houfc for the finding out of the tiue Nature of all 
" things (whereby God mig'^t have the more glory in the vvorkmanfliipof 
*' them, and Men the more Fruit in thcirufe of them) cid give icallo that 
''fccondnamc. Butnovx to comctoourprefentpurpofe. 

" When the King had forbidden to all his I cop e Navigation in any 
" part thatwasnot under his Crown, he made neverthelcfs this Ordinance, 
" ihaC every twelve years there fliould be fet forth out of this Kingdom 
" two Ships appointed to feveral Voyages ; that in either of thefe :>hips, 
" there fhould be aMifTion of three of the Fellows or Brethren of Solomons 
" Floufe, whofe errand wasoncly togiveus knowledge of the affairs and 
" ftateofthofc Countreys,to which they were defigncdjandelpccially of the 
" Sciences, Arts, Manufailures and Inventions ofall the World; and withal 
" to bring unto us Books, Inftruments, and Patterns in every kinde. That 
*' the Ships after they had landed the Brethren fhou'd return, and that the 
" Brethren fhould flay abroad till the new Million. 1 he Ships are not othcr- 
*' wife fraught than with flore of Vi»5tual5, and good quantity of Treafure, 
*' to remain with the Brethren for the buying of fuch thing •, and rewarding 
" of fuch perlons as they fliouU think fit. Now for me to tell you how the 
" vulgar lort of Marineri arc contiiincd from being difcovered at Land, 
*' and how they thatmufl be put on fhorc for any time colour themfelves , 
" under the names of other Nations, an J to what plact s thele Voyages have 
*« been dcfigned, and what f laces of Ren .'ezvous are appo ntcd for the new 
*' Miffions,and the like circumflanccs of the pradick.I may not do it, neithejc 
«' is itmuchtoyourdcflre. But thus you fee we maintain a Trade, not foe 
"Gold, Silver, or jewel-, nor for Silks, norforSpices, nor any other com* 
*'modity of Matter, butoner forG#rfi firft Creature, whi-hvvasLlgt; to 
'< have Light (I fay) ofc'.c growth of all parts of the World. And when he 
had faid this.he was filent,and lo were we aj ; for indeed.we were all aflqnifh- 
cdto hear foftrange things fo probably told. And he perceiving, thacvve 
Were williigtofay fomewhat, but had it not readv, in (great courtcfiep 
took us off, anddcfccndcdEo ask us Queflions of our Voyage and Fortunes,- 


J^sQw Jtlantis, 

and in chc t\\i concluded , that we might do wcH'to think With mir 
felvcs svhac time of flay \vc would demand* j ind bad us 
hot to fcdnt bur fclvcs, for iK-would'procure fuch^ihic as w^i de/ired. 
r Whereupon', we nil role up and prefcntcd our fclve^ W skils the skirt of 
|.tus Tippet -, but he would not (uiicv ns, "and fo took Hii- leave. " Biit when 
'It camconce,dmonwn:ourpcoplc, thtittheSt.ite ufed to offer eorxlivions to 
Itr.nngers tliat would {lay, we had work enough to g'etr any of oiir men to 
look to our Ship, and to keep cliem from going prefinftly to the Governor 
to crave cortdicionsi but W'^th mudjado^ we refrained them tilhtv^e might 
.agree what cour/c to take. "^ "' - " '■" ■ 

Wc took our fclves riow for Freemeri, fccingthc-c was rlo danger of 
our utter perdition, and lived men: joyfully, going- abroad* alid I'ueing 
>Khat was to bcr;;en in the City and places adjacent \vith»n 6nt Tedier, and 
obtaining acquaintance With many of the City, libt of thic mcaneft qua- 
lity, at whole hands we found luch huiTianiry , arfdfueh a freedom anj 
dciirc to take flrangcrs , as it wcrcTntii their bofcrti-.f as was enough to 
m.ike ns fdrgcC all that was dear to us in our o-wn Cmintreyi,' and con- 
tinuall/ we mcc with many things right worthy of obfcrvacioft and rela- 
tion : As ipdecd, if t'lere be a Mirror in the World, worthy to hold mens 
eyes, it is that Cbuntrey. ' One day there were two of outf companv 
bidden to a feaft of the EiitiUy, as they call it; ai*, pioas and 
rcverciidcuftom it is, Ihewifig that Nation to be compounded of all good- 
ncr<;. I his is the manner of it. It is granted to'any'rmri.that-Siall live to 
fee thirtypctioUsJcfcendcti of his bodyalivctogether, and all-above three 
vcars old, to make this Feall , which is done ac^tfte coft of the i^tatc. 
Vhc FAther ot' the F.vinlj, whom they call the 1 if fan, two days befOtie the 
Vc.\^ takcth to him three of fuch Friends as he likt^Uto chufc, and is 
alliitcd alfo by the Governor of the City or place \^here the Feaft is cele- 
brated ; and all the Perfons of the Fanulj of troth Sexes arcfummbncd to 
attend him. Thtfc two days thcT/r/Tm fitteth ir^ Vdnfjicarion conccrn- 
ingthc goodcftue ofthcFamily ; there, if thcreTjcany Difcord or Suits 
b'jcwecn any ot the Family, ^hcy are compounded and appeafed; there, 
if any of the Family be dithofled ot dccaved j order is taken for their re- 
lict and competent means to live; there, if any be (ubje£t to Vice or take 
ill courfes, they are reproved and cenlurcd. So likcwilc , dirc<ftion is 
g vcn toucning Mirriagcs, and the coutfcs of life which any of them 
lliould take, wich divers ochcr the like orders and advices. The Go- 
vernor adV^cth to t'le end; ta put in execution by his publick Aiitho- 
ri:y, the Decrees and Orders of the Tirfm , if they fhoul-i be difobeyed, 
chough that I'eldom nccdeth ; luch reverence and obedience ihcy give 
to the order of Na'ure. 'fhe 7ir/jo dorh alfo then ever chufe one man 
trom ambn^ll bN S ms to live in Houfc with him , who is called ever 
after the Son of the Vine 5 the realbn will hereafter appear. On theFcaft- 
day, the Ttther or T;r/w» comtth forth after Divine Service into a large 
Room where the I'ca.t is ceU'bratcd ; whic'i Room hath an Half- 
picc at the upper end. Agamft the Wall , in the middle of the Half- 
pace , is a Cnair placed for him. with a Table and Cup^c before it : 
Over the Chair is a State made round or oval,- and it is of Ivy ; antvv 
fonitwhat whiter then ours, l:ke the Leaf of. a Silver A'r, but more (hi- 
. ning, for it ii Green all Winter. And the State is curiouily wrought with 
j S Ivcr and Silk of divers colours, broiding or binding in the Ivys and is 
I ever of the v-'ork of (ome of the Daoglucrs of the Family, aiirf veiled 
I . - , , - - B 3 over 



J\(ci[i) Alantis, 

over at the top with a fine Nee of 6ilk and Silver : But the lubllancc of it 
is true Ivy. whereof, alter it is taken down, thcrricnds ofthcFjmily are 
deflrous to have feme Leaf or Sprig to keep. The Tirftn cometh fori h with 
all his Generation or Lineage, the Males befure him , and the Females foi. 
lowing him. And if there be a Mother, trom whofe body the whole Li- f 
ncagcisdcfccndcd. there is a Traverfe placed inaLofcabovc on the right 
hand of the Chair, with a Privy Door, and a carved Window of GlaCs, 
leaded with Gold and Blew, where flie Htteth, but is not fcen. When 
the TirfoH is come forth, he fitteth down in the Chair, and all the Li- 
neage place thcmfclves againft the "Walt, both at his back, and upon the 
return of the Half-pace, in order of their years, Wicliouc difference of 
Sex, and (land upon their Feet. When he is fee, the room being always 
full of company, but well kept, and without diforder, after fome panic 
there cometh in from the lower end of the room a Tdratan, (which is as 
much 35 an HerxuU) and on either fide of him two young Lads, where- 
of onccarricth a Scroul of their fhining yellow Parchmcnr, and ih; other 
a clutter of Grapes of Gold, with a long foot or ftalk ; The Herauld 
and Children arc clothed with Mantles ot Sea- water green Sattin, but the 
Heraulds Mantle is ftreamed with Gold, and hath a Train. Then the 
Herauld, with three Courtefies, or rather Inclinations cometh up as far 
as the Half pace, and there firft takcth into his hand the Scroul. This 
Seoul is the Kings Chatter , containing Gift of Revenue, and many Pri- 
viledges, Exemptions, and Points of Honor granted to the Father of 
the Family ; and it is ever ftilcd and direfted, Ti fuck an ency Our »r/- 
belaved Friend and Creditor, which is a Title proper onely to this cafe : For 
they fay, the King is Debtor to no Man, but for propagation of hisSub- 
jcds. The Seal fet to the Kings Charter, is the Kings Image imboQedor 
moulded in Gold. And though fuch Charters be expedited of couifr, 
and as of right, yet they are varied by difcretion, according to the num- 
ber and dignity of ih^ Family. This Charter the Herauld rcadeth aloud ; 
and while it is read, the Fathgr or Tirftn ftandeih up, (upportcd by iwo 
of his Sons, Inch as he chufeih. Then the Herauld mounteth the Half- 
pace, and delivcrcth the Charter into his band, and with tint there is an ac- 
clamation by all that arc prefcnt in their Language, which is thus much, 
Hafpy are the Feafle of Benfalem. Then the Herauld taketh into his hand 
from the other ChilJe the duftcr of Grapes, which is of Gold, both the 
S:alk and the Grapes; but the Grapes are daintily enamelled: And if the 
Males of the Family be the greater number, the Grapes are enamelled 
Purple, with a little Sun fet on the top ; if the Female?, then they are 
enamelled into a grcenifh yellow, with a Crcfcent on the top. The ^ 
Grapes ate in number as many as there arc Dcfccndants of the Family. , 
This Golden Cu-ller the Herauld dclivcreth alio to the Tir/iw, who pre- j 
(ently delivereth it over to that Son that he had formerly cholcn to be in! 
houle With him ; who beareih it before his Father a* an Enfign of Honor | 
when he goeth in publick ever after, and is thereupon called The Sm of\ 
the Vine. After this Ceremony ended, the Father or Tirfun rctireth, and 
after lomc time cometh forth again to Dinner, where he fitteth alone 
under the State as before; and none of his Defcendants fit with him ; of! 
what degree or dignity Ibever, except he hap to be oi Solomons Houfe. j 
He is Served onely by his own Children , fuch as are Male , who perform 
untahim all fer vice of the Table upcnthe knee; snd the Women onely* 
fland about him^ leaning againft the Wall. The Room below his Half pace j 


J\(e)p /Atlantis. 

J 9 

hath Tables on the fides tor the Guclts that arc biddcti, who are (erVcd 

with great and comely order ; and- toward the end of Dinner (which in 

the grcatcft Fealls '.vith them, laftcth never above an hour and a half; 

there is an Hym/t lung, varied according to the Invention ot him that com- 

pofcd it, (for they have excellent Poehe ;; but the fubjcft of ic is (always) 

the praifcs of o/f</-«m, Sind Noab, and i^ha/jum; whereof the formertwo 

peopled the World, andthelalt was the fdther of the Faithful ; concluaing 

ever with a Thankfgiving for the Nativity of" our Saviour, in whofe Biitn 

thcBirths of aJareoncly Bleffed. Dinner being done, the Tir/jn r^tireth 

again, and having withdrawn himfclf alone into a place, where hcmaketh 

lomc private Prayerf, he cometh forth the third time to give the Bkiling . 

with all Ills Defcendantf, who (land about him as at the firif. Then ne 

callcth them forth, by one and by one, by name, as he pleafcth, though 

llldomthe order of age be invettcd. The perlon that is called (the Table 

being before removed) knccleth down before the Chair, and the i^<«f/j^r lay 

eih his hand upon his hC'id, or her head, and g.vethiheBIeflirgin thefe 

words ; Son o/Bcnfaicm (or Daughter of Benfaltm) thj Father faith it, the 

C^an by If ham then hafi breath anditfejpeaketh theypord: Jhe B/e/ing ef the Erer- 

Ufliiig father, the 'Prince of Teace, and tie Holy *Dtve he upon thee, fifii juake the 

days ofthj Pilgrim.igegood and many. 1 his he fui'.h to evcry of them ; and that 

donc> it" there be aiy of his bons of eminenr Mcrir and VettuCj (fo they 

be not above two) he callcth for them agair, and faith, hyinghisarmovcr 

cheir (houldcrf> they ftandinf, Sons, it ittteiljouare born ; give Godtheprjife, 

And ferfertre tt the end. And Withal dclivereth to richer of them a Jewel, 

made in the hgure of an Ear of Wheat, which they ever afcer wear in the 

front of their Tutbant or Hat. This done, they fall to Mufick and Dances 

andothctRccteationsafrer ihcirmanner forthercftof theday. This is the 

full order of that FealL 

By that time fix or fcven days^wcte fpcnt, I was fain int« ftrarght ac* 

quaintancc with a Merchant of thatCir)', whofe name was yoji/n; he was 

a 7'*i and circumcifed : For they have fomc few ftirps of "jetts vet re- 

mairing among thim, w'aom they leave to their own Religion ; which 

they may the better do, bccaule they ate of a far differing difpofition from 

chcJr«Jin other parts. For whereas t 'cy hate the Name of CHRIST, 

and have a I'ecrct inbred rancor againlf the people, among whom they 

live; Thefe (contrariwii'O givcuntoour SAVIOUR many high Attri- 

bufe<, and love the Nat on of Benfalem cxtreamly. Stirelv this Man, of 

whom 1 rpcak, would evi r acknowledge that CHRIST was born of a 

Virgin, and that he was more then a Man; and he would cell how GOD 

made him Ruler of the Scraphims which auard his Throne i and they 

call him j1;o the C\ttlken taj , and the Eliah of the ^lefiah , and many 

other hghN imes i which mongh they b: inferior to his 'Divine Majejij, 

vet they arelactroin the Language cf other Jen'S. And for the Coun-.rey 

of Benfalem , this Man wcu d make no end of commending it, de. 

fuous, by Tradition aiiioi g the 'je>vs there, to have ic believed, that the 

people thereof were ot tiic Generations of tyibrahatti by another Son, 

whom they c.ill Nachoran; an! thv Mjfes by a fecret Cahala ordained the 

Laws of Benfalem, which they now ule ; :nd that when tie Mejfish fhould 

come and fit in his Throne ar Jemfalem, the Kng of Benfalem fhould fir 

j at his Feet, whereas other fvings fliould keep agrcat duUncc. But vet 

.\ fetiing afidc thefe Jcwifh Dream?, the Man was a wife man and learned, 

j and of great policy, and excellently feen in the Laws andCuflomsof that 

' ___^ Nation. 

-r ■ ■■' ' . , 

( 2t> 

.jyVlp /klantisi 

Nation. Amongft other difcourfes , one day I told Iiirti j I was mucll 
afFcdcd with the Relation 1 had from lomc of the company, of thcit 
jCuftom in holding the Feaft of the Tamily, for that (me thought) 1 had 
never heard of a Solemnity wherein Nature did i"o muchprefidc. And 
bccaufc Propagation of Familicsprocccdcthfrom thcNuptiaJ Giipu^ation, 
'l defired to know of him what Liws and Cufloms they l)tidconfcrnrng 
,Marriiage, and v^'bcAcr they kept Marriage well, and whether they werfe 
(tied to one Wife: For that where Population is fo much-affc(?^ed aitd 
fuch as with them it fcemed to^bc. there is commonly permillion of^l'lu- 
rnlicy of Wives. To this he laid, " You have rcaion tor to comm.nd 
"that excellent Inftitution of the Feaft of the Familv 5 and indeed we 
"have experience, that thofe Families that are partakers of the blclHrigs 
" of that Feail do fJourifh and profpcr ever tiftcr in an excraordinarv riian- 
"■ net. But hear me now, and I will tell you what 1 know. You (hall iin- 
" derftand, that there Is not under the Heavens, fo chafle a Nation as this 
"of Beiifalem, not fo free from all pollutioh orfoulnefs; it is the Virgin 
" of the World, l remember 1 have read in one of your European Books 
''of an holy Hermit amongfl: you, thatdefired to lee ihz Spirit of Foruictuen, 
"and there appeared to him a little foul ugly c.y£thiopf : T,u: if he had 
^' deflrcdto fee the Spirit of Chafiity of Benftlem, it would have appeared to 
"him in the likenefs of'a fair beautiful Cherubin ; forthcrc isnothing 
" amongft Mortal Men more fair and adriiirable, then thechafte Mindcs 
•' of this People. Know therefore, that with them there are no bte^s, 
"nodilFolute^Houfes, no Courtefans, nor any thing of that kiiide j nay 
"they wonder (with detcftation) at you in Europe which permit fuch 
« things. They fay you have put Marriage out'of office ; for Marriage 
"is ordained a remedy for unlawful concupifcence, and natural concu- 
" pifcencc feemcth as a fpur to Marriage : But when Men have at hand 
" a rcntiedy more agreeable to their corrupt will, Marriage is almoft ex- 
" pulfed. And tf':ercfore, there arc with you Isen infinite Men thatmar- 
"rynot, but chafe rathct a Libertine, and impure fingle life, tiien to be 
" voakedin Marriage ; and many that do marry, marry hzv, when the 
"prime and flrcngth of their years is part ; and when they do nnar|ry , 
" what is Marriage to them, but ^ very Bargain, wherein is fought Alii- 
"ancc, or Portion, or Reputation, with (ome deflre (almon: indifferent) 
" of ilTue, and not the faithful Nuptial Union of Man and Wife that w*as 
"firft inftituted ? Neither is it polUble, that thofe that have cafl away fo 
"bafely fo much of their flrength, fhould greatly eftecm Children (bc- 
" ing of the lame matter) as chaft Men do. ^o likcuiic during Marriage, 
"is the cafe much amended, as it ought to be, if thofe things were tole- 
" rated oncly for nccefliry ? No. but they remain flill as a very affront to 
«■ Marriage; thchuntingof tholediifolutc places, or retort to Courtefans, 
"are no more punifhcd in Married men. then in Batchclors ,: And the dc- 
" praved<;uftom of change , and the dcliii.t in meretricious embrace- 
"ments^ (\*'here Sin is turned into Art) maketh Marriage a dull thing, and 
«z kinde'of Impolition or Tax. They hcar'you defend thefc things as 
"done to avoid greater evils , as Advowtries, Deflouring of Virgins, 
"Unnatural Luff, and the like: But they fay this is a prepoftcrous'Wif 
<«dom; and they call it Lets offer, Vfho to fave his Guefls fromabufing 
" offered his Daughters : Nay, they lay further, that there is little gained 
"in this, forthnrthcfame Vices and Appetites do ffill remain and abound, 
" Unliwful Luft being like a Furnace, that if you flop the Flames alto- 

J\(c)v /Atlantis, 

"gci.nci, u wil. qutuLft but it you it any vciic, irwiUrage. As for 
"Alal.ulinc Love, t;,cyhavc no toucii ot irj and yet there arcnotfo faith- 
''ful and inviolate. Friendfii ps in the World jgain as arc there ; and ro ■' 
"Ipcak generally (as 1 faid before) I have not read of any fuc.i Chaliicy in ! 
"my Peoplcas theirs, j^nd then ufiul fAjia^ u, That wholofver ii unchallc, ! 
** cannot reverence himfelf. yf«rf thej/ fay, That the reverence of a Mans ieU 
"i-,ncxtRcligion, thechiefelt Briolcot all Vices. And when he had faid 
t'lis, the good Jfvv paufcd a little. Whereupon, I far more willing tu heir 
hm fpeakon, thantolpeak mylcH; yet thinking ic dcccnr, that upon his 
paufcof Speech I fliould not be altogether fiicnt, (aid oncly this. '< That 1 
'' would fay to him, as the Widow of S.trepi.i faid to Eliu, That he was 
" come to being to memory our fms ; and thatl confefs iherightcoufnefi of 
" BenfsUm. was greater than thcrighteoufnefs of Europe. At vvhid) Speech, he 
bowed bk Hedd, And went an in thkmmner. "^Thcy have alfo many wife and 
" excellcntLawstouching Marjiage; they allow no Polygamy; thcv have 
" ordained, that none do intermarty or contract until a moneth be pift from 
" their firft interview. Marriage without confent of Parents, rhey do not 
''make void, but they mul£l it in the Inheritors; for the Children of fuch 
"Marriages arc not admitted to inherit above a third part of their Parents 
"Inheritance. 1 have read in a Book of one of your Men, of a Feigned 
*' Commonwealth , where the married couple are permitted before they 
" contract to fee one another naked. This they diflike, fortheyihink it a 
" icorn to give arcfulal after folamiliat knowledge ; but becaufc of many 
'* liddcn dcfi-tts in Men and WomCns Bodies, they have a more civil way ; 
«:ot they have near every Town, a couple of Pools (which they call 
" K^d^m and Eves Pools) where it is perrxiittcd to one of the Friends of the 
«' Man, and anothct of the Friends of the Womaii, to fee thciii fevcrally 
« bathe naked. 

And as we were thiis in Conference, there came one that fcemed to be 
a Mcffengcr , in a rich Huke. thit fpake with the '^ew ,• whereupon he 
turned to me, and faid, Ton w\Jl pAtdon me, fori tm lommanded Away in hujle. 
The nexc morning he came to me again, joyful, as it feemcd, and laid, 
"There ir- word come to the Governor of the City, that one of the Fathers 
" of Jo/jmsH/Houfe will be here this day feven-night ; we have fccn none of 
*'thcm this dozen years. His coming is in ihtc, but rhecaufe of his coming 
"isfecrcr. I will provide you and your Fellows of a good (landing to fee 
,<' his entry. ' 1 thanked him, and told bim, Iit.nveJi^Udef thenervs. The 
day being come, he made his entry. He was * Man of middle ftature and 
age, comely of pcrfon , and had an alpctl as if he pitied men : He was 
cloathcd in a lobe of tine black Cloth, vrith wide Sleeves, and a Cape; 
his under Garment was of excellent white Linnen down to the Foot , 
girt with a Girdle of the fame, and a Sindon or Tippet of the fame about 
his Neck ; he had Gloves that were curious, and fct with Stone, and Shoocs 
of Peach-coloured Velvet ; his Neck was bare to the Shoiilders; his Hat 
"was like a Helmet or Sf^mpj Monierx, and his Locks curled below it de- 
cently, ihcy were of colour brown ; his Beard was cut round, and of the 
fame colour With bis Hair , fomewhat lighter. He was carried in a rich 
Chariot without Wheels, Litter wife , with two Horfcs at either end, 
richly trapped in blew Velvet embroidered, and two Footmen on each 
fide in the like attire. The Chariot Was all of Cedar , gilt and adorned 
withCryftal, fave that the fore. end had Pannels of Saphiresfct in borders 
of Gold, and the hinder-end the like of Emeralds of the Ttru colour. 
" -- . There 


j\j?l2? /JtLvjtij. 

There 'ocas alio a Sun of Gold, radiant iipjn the top in the midfl ; andoo 
the top before a fmall Cherub of Gold , with Wings difplaycd. The 
Chariot was covered with Cloih of Gold liflued upon blew. He had 
before him fitly attendants, young men all , in white Sittcn Ijofe Coats, 
I up to the mid-leg. and Stockinsot white Silk, andJ>hoocsof blew Velvet, 
and Hats of blewVelvcr, with fine Plumes ot divers colours fct round hkc 
Hatbands. Next before the Chariot, went two men bareheaded, in 
Linncn Garments down to the Foot, girr, and Shooes of blew Velvetj 
who carried, the one a Crofier, the other a Palloral Staff like a Sheep- 
hook, neither of them of Metal , but the Crofier of Balm- wood , the 
Paftoral Staff of Cedar. Hoilemcn he hadnonc, neither before, nor be- 
hindc his Chariot, as it fccmeth , to avoid ail tumult and trouble. Bc- 
hindc his Chariot went all the Officers and Principals of the Companies 
of the City. He fate alone upon Cufliions, of akindc of excellent Plufh, 
blew, and under his Foot curious Carpets of Silk of divers colours, like 
the ^Perfun, but far finer. He held up his barchand as he wcnr, as blc(s- 
ing the People, but in filcncc. The Street was wonderfully well kept, 
fo that there was never any Army had their Men ftand in better battel- 
array, then the people flood. The Windows likcwifc were not croudcd, 
but every one flood in them, as if they had been placed. When the 
fliow waspalt, the Jew faid to mc, "I ftiall not be able to attend yon as I 
" would , in regard of fome charge the City hath laid upon me for the cn- 
'' tcrtaining of thisgrcat iedon. Three t/itp after tht ]c>n came ttme a^4in,and fuid, 
" Ye are happy men, for the Father of J"o/om«w Houfcrakcth knowledge of 
"your being here, and commanded mc to tell you, that he will admit all 
"your company to his prefence, and have private conference with one of 
"you that ye fhall chufe ; and for this, hath appointed the next day after to 
'• morrow. And bccaufe he meaneth to give you his Blcfling, he hath 
"appointed it in the forenoon. , Wc came at our day and hour, and I 
was chofen by my fellows for the private accefs, Wc found him in a fair 
Chamber richly hanged, and carpeted under Foot, without any degrees to 
theState : He was fet upon alow Throne, richly adorned, andarich Cloth 
of State over his head of blew Sattin embroidered. He was alone, fave 
that he had two Pages of Honor on cither hand one , finely attired in 
white. His under Garments were the like, that we faw him wear in the 
Chariot; butinfieadof his Gown, he had on him a Mantle with a Cape 
of the fame fine Black, faftncd about him. Whenwe camein, as wc were 
taught, we bowed low at our firft entrance j and when we were coait 
near his Chair , he flood up , holding forth his hand ungloved , and in 
pofturcof Bicffing; and wc every one of us flooped down andkiflcd the 
liem of his Tippet. Thatdone.thereft departed, and I remaned. Then 
he warned the Pages forth of the Room, and caufed mc to Qt down bedde 
him, tnd fpake to me thus in the Sfmjh Tongue. 


J\(^ia) Atlantis. 



OD Blefsthcc, my Son, I will give thcc the gteatcrt Jewel I 
havci for I will impart unto thee, for the love ot GodanJMcni 
a Relation of the true lUte of Solomons Huule. Son, to m.ikc 
vou know the true ftateot" J'o/tfwawJ Huu(e, 1 will keep this order. 
"Firft, I will fet forth unto you the End of out Foundation. Secondly, 
'«Thc Preparations and Inlhuincnts wc have for our Works. Thirdly, 
'« The feveral Employments and Fun£tions whereto out Fellows -arc aflign- 
"cd: And fourthly, The Ordinances and Rites which we obfcrvc. 

'■' The End of our Foundation, is the Knowledge of Cau fes and Secret 
"Motions of things, and the enlarging of the Bounds of Humane Empire, 
•" to the cffcaing of all things pofTible. 

" The Preparations and Infttumcnts, arc thefc. Wc have large and 

"deep Caves of feveral depths; the dcepcll ate funk Six hundred fathom, 

" and fome of them are digged and made under great Hills and Mountains ; 

'^fothatif you reckon together the depth of the HJl, and the depth of the 

"Cave, they are (fomeof them) above three miles deep : For wefindcthat 

" the depth of an Hill, and the depth of a Cave from the Flat, is the fame 

" thing, both remote alike from the Sun and Heavens Beams, andfromthe 

"open Air. Thcfe Caves wc call the Lower Region, and weufethcmfor 

"all Coagulations, Indurations, Refrigerations, and Confcrvations of 

" Bodies. We ufc them likcwife for the Imitation of Natural Mines, and 

" the producing alfo of new Artificial Metals, by Compofitions and Mate- 

• "rials which we ufe and lay there for many years. We ufe them aUo fome- 

" times (which may fcem ftrangc) for curing of fome Difeafes, and for pro- 

" longation of life in fome Hermits that chule to live there, well accommo- 

" dated of all things necefTary, and indeed live very long i by whom alfo we 

"learn many things. 

'^ We have Burials in feveral Earths, where we put divers Cements 
" as the Omtfes do their Porcellanc ; but we have them in greater variety 
" and fome of them more fine. Wc alfo have great variety of Compofts 
" and Soils for themaking of thcEarth fruitlul. 

'^ We have liigh Towers, the higheft about half amile in height, and 
"fomeof them likcwife fet upon high Mountains, fo that the vantage of the 
" Hill with the Tower, is in the higheft of them, three miles at Icaft. And 
"thcfe places we call the Upper Region, accounting the Air between the 
" high places, and the Low as a'Middle Region. Wc ufc thcfe Towers, 
"according to their feveral heights and fituationf, for Infolation, Refiigc- 
" ration, Confervation, and for the view of divers Meteors, as Winds, Rain. 
" Snow, Hail, and fome of the Fiery Meteors alfo. And upon them, in fome 
"places', are dwellings of Hermits, whomwc vifitfomctimc!, and inflrud 
''whaitoobOrrve. , 

" We have great Lakes, both fait and frelh, whereof we have ule tot 
"the F,fh and Fowl. We ufe them alfo for Burials of fome Natural Bodies 5 
" for we finde a differencein things buried in Earth, or in Ait below the Earth, 
"and thingsburied in Water. Wc have alio Pools of which fome do Ittain 
^'FrcfhWateroutof Salt, andothersby Art dotura Frefli Watcnnto bUt. 
" Wc have alfo fome Rocks in the midft of the Sera, and fome Bays upon 
" the Shore for fome Works, wherein is required the Air and Vapor ot the 
"Sea. Wchavc like wife violent ftrcams and cataraas, which fctvc us tor 
"many Motions; and likewife Engins for multiplying and enforcing of 
'Wmds, tofct alfo on going divers Motions. 


^eiv Mantis, 

"Wc have alfo a number of artificial Weils and Fountai;)s, made in 
"imitation of the Natural Sources andBjths; as tindcdupon V.triol, Sul- 
"phur, Steel, Brafsj Lead, Nitre, and other Minerals. And agiin wchave 
"little Wells for Infufions of many thing?, where the Waters take the vir- 
" tuc quicker and better then in Vcffels or Bafins ; And amongft them we have 
"^a Water which \vc call ^4tf re/ *p4rrfrfi/(r, being by that wc do to it, made 
" very fovcreign for Health, and Prolongation of Life. 

" We alio great and fpacious Houfcs where wc imitate and demori- 
*' ftrate Meteors ; as Snow, Hail, Rain , fome Artificial Rains of Bodie?, and 
" not of Water. Thunders, Lightnings ; alfo Generations of Bodies in Air, 
" as Frog<;, Flic?, and divers others. 

" We have alfo certain Chambers which we call Chambers of Healthy 
"where wcqualifie the Air, as we think good and proper for the cure of di- 
" vers Dtfcales, and prefervanon of Health. 

<' We have alfo fair and large Baths of (everal mixtures, for the cure of 
"Direafes, and the reftoring of Mans Body from Arefadion ; and other, fot 
" the confirming of it in (kength of Sinews, Vital Parts, and the very Juice 
" and Siibft mce of the Body. 

"Wchave alfo large and various Orchards and Gardens, wherein wc 
" do not fo much refpcd Beauty, as variety of ground and foyl, proper tor 
"divert Trees and Herbs; and lome very fpacious.whereTrces and Berries 
" arc fcr, whereof we make divers kindesof Drinks, bffidcs the Vineyards, 
"In thefc we praftifelikewife aliconclufionsof Grafting and Inoculating, as 
<■' well of Wild-trees a? Fruit-trees, which produceth many effeds. And we 
"make (by Art) in the fame Orchards and Gardens, Trees and Fiowers to 
«'come earlier or liter then their fcafons, and to come up and bear more 
" fpcedily then by thcr natural courfe they do.Wc make them alfo ^by Art) 
'••much greater then their nature, and their Fruit greater and fwceter, andot 
" differing tafte, rmcU.colcur and figure from their nature ; and many of them 
" we fo order, that they become cf Medicinal ufe. 

"We have alfo means to make divers Plants rife, by mixtures of 
" Earths without Seeds, and likevvife to make clivers new Plants differing 
' from the Vulgar, and tomake one Treeor Mantturn into another. 

." VVehave alfoParks and Enclofures of alHorts of Beafts and Birds ; 
" which we ufe not ondy for view or rarenefs, but likcwifefor DifTedtions 
" and fryals, that thereby we may take light, what may be wrought upon 
" the Body of Man, wherein wc hnde many ffrange efFedts ; as continuing 
"life in them, though divers parts, which you account vital, be periflied 
'and taken forth ; Refufcitating of fome that feem dead in appearance, 
" and the like. We try alfo all poyfons and other medicines upon them, 
" as well of Chirurgery asPhyfick. By Art likcwife we make them greater 
" or taller then their kind is, and contrariwifcdvfarf them, and ftay their 
"growth: We make them more fruitful and bearing, then their kind 
"is, and contrariw ifc barren, and not generative. Alfo vfc make them 
" differ in colour, fhape, adtivity, many ways. VVefinde means to make 
"commixtures and copulations of divers kinds, which have pro.^uccd 
" many new kinds, and them not barren, as the general opinion is. We 
" m.ike a number of kindes of Serpents, Worms, Flies, 1 ifhcs, of Putrc- 
" fadion; whereof fome are advanced (in efFcd) to beperfcd Creatures,. 
" like Benfls or Birds, and have Sexes,, and do propagate. Neither do wc 
'• this by chance, but we know beforehand of wha|matter and commixture 
">»'hatkindof thofc Creatures will arife. 



J\(jl^ Mantis, 


" W^ehavcallo particuJar Pools w here \vc make tryaJs upon Filhcs, 
'* aswc have faid before ot i^eafts and Birds. 

" We have alio places for Breed and Generation of thole Kinds of 
"Worms and Flics which are oi ipccial iiie, kich as are widiyou, \ our 
" Silk-worms and ikes. 

<' 1 will not hold you Jong with recounting of our Brcvvlioufcs. Bakc- 
•' houlcs and Kitchins, w here are made divers Drink<;. Breads, an.l Mcits, 
"rare and ot fpccial eifeds. Wines we have of Grapes, and Drirks of 
"other Juice, of Fruits, of Grains and ot Roots; and of mixtures with 
" Honey, ^ugar, Manna, and Fruits dried and decoded ; alfo of the Tears 
" orWoundingsof Trees, andofihe Pulp of Canes ; andthcfc Drinks arc 
*' of levcral Ages, fome to the age or lad of forty years. We have Drinks 
" alfo brewed with fevcral Herbs, and Roots, and !>pices> yea, with fcveral 
* Flefhes.and White-meats ; whereof lome of the Drinks arc llichasthcy 
' arc in efFc*^ Meat and Drink bothj lo that divers, cfpccially in Age, do 
" dcfirc to live vrith them \^ ith little orno Meat or Bre.'.d. And aboveall, we 

• ilrivc to have Drinks of extream chin parts, to inlinuate into the Body, 
"and yet without ail biting, Iharpnels or frcttinor ; infomuch, asfomcof 
«' them put upon the back of your hand, NfilJ, with a little rtay,pa(s through 
*' to the palm, and yet tafte B|Jde to the mouth. We have dfo VVaters 
" which we ripen in that fallliP) as they become nourifhing^ Jo that they 
'■ are indeed excellent Drink, and many will ulc no other. Breads we haic 
'' of icvcral Grains. Roots and Kernels , yea, and fome of Tlefh and Fifli 
" dried, with divers kinds of Levenings and .Seafonings , fo that fome do 

• extr«amly move Appetites ; fomedonourifli fo, as divers do live of them 
'• without mv other Meac, who live very long. So for Meats, wc have fome 
'• of them lo beaten, and made tender and mortified, yet without all cor- 
rupting, as a weak heat of the Stomach will turn them into good C/!»;/f«, 

"as well as affrongheat would mcatotherwife prepared. We have fome 

• Meats alfo, and Breads, and Drinks, which t:.ken by men, enable them to 
'' f.ifl long after ; and fome other that ufed, make the very flcfh of Mens 
" Bodies fenfibly more hard andi tough, and their llrength far greater then 
' ' othcrwile it would be. 

' We have Difpcnf^uories or Shops of Medicines, wherein you may 
" cafily think, if we have fuch variety of Plants and Living Creatures, more 
" then youhavein Europe, (forwe know whatyou have)the Simplcs,Drugs, 
" and Ingredients of Medicines, muft hkewile be in fomuch thegeater 
•'variety. We have them likcwife of divers Ag«s, and long lermcnta- 
" tions. And for their Preparations, wc have not onely all manner of cx- 
" quifit Diftillations and Separations, and cfpeciallv by gentle Heats, and 
" Percolations throughdivers Strainers, yea and Subitances ; but alfo exact 
" Forms of Compofition, whereby they incorporate almoftas they were 
"Natural Simplts. 

"We hare alfo divers Mechanical Arts , which you have not, and 
" Stuffs made by them; asP.ipers, Linnen, Silks. Tilfues. dainty works of 
" Feathers of wonderful luftre, excellent Dies,and many others ; and Shops 
" hkcwife as well for luch as arc not brought into vulgar ufc amonglt us, 
" as for thofc that arc. For you muft know, that of the things before re- 
" cited, many are grown into ufc throughout the Kingdom ; but yet. if 
*' they did flow from our Invention, we have of them alio for Patterns and 
•* Principals. 

C " Wc 


^etp Mantis. 

'* VV^c have alfo Furnaces of great diverfitics. and that keep ercat di- 
"vctiityot heats, Hcrcc and quick, ftron^ and conltanr, lot: and milde; 
•• blown, quiet, dry, nnoirt, and the like. But above all we have hunrs, in 
•• imitation of thcSiins and Heavenly Bodies heats, thatpafs divers Incqiia- 
" litics, and (^asitucrc) Orbs. FroorclJes and Returns , whereby xvcmay 
"produce admirable cftcfts Befidcs, we have heats of Dungs, andof Bel- 
''lies and Maws of Living Creatures, andof their Bloods and Bodies; and 
<' of Hays and Herbs laidiipmoift ; of Lime unquenchcd, and I'uch like. 
" Inflruments alfo vv hich generate heat onely by motion ,• and further, places 
"forftronglnfolacions i and again, places unc'cr the Earth, which by Na- 
"turcorArtyieldHeat. Thtfedivcrs heats wcufc, as thenaturcof thcopc- 
'' ration which wc intend, requireth. 

"We hare alfo Pcrfpctflive Houfcs "where we make Demonftration 
" of all Lights and Radiations, and of all Colours ; and out of things un- 
" coloured and tranfparent, wc can rcprefent unto you all fcvcral colours, 
" not in Rainbows (as it is in Gems and Prifms) but of themfelvcs finglc. 
" We reprefcnt alfo all Multiplications of Light, which Nfe carry to great 
''diflance.andmakc fofharpastodifcern fhnall Points and Lines ; alio all 
" colourations of Light, all dclufionsanddcccits oftheiig'it, in Figures, 
•' Magnitudes, Motions, Colours •, all dcroMiftrations of Shadows. We 
" findc alfo divers means yet unknown to yWbf producing of Light origi- 
"nallv from divers Bodies. We procure means of feeing objefts afar off, 
"as in the Heaven, and remote places; and reprefcnt things near as afaroflF, 
"and things afar off as near, making feigned diffanccs. VVc have alio helps 
'« for the^ight, far above SpeAacles and Glaffcs in ufc. We have alfo 
" Glaffes and Means to fee fmall and minute Bodies perfedly and diftinftly, 
'* as the fhapes and colours of fmall Flies and Worms, grains and flaws in 
" Gems, which cannototherwife befeen, obferrations in Urine and Blood, 
• not othcrwife to be feen. We make Artificial Rainbows, Halo's, and 
*' Circles about Light. We reprelent alio all manner of Reflexions, Rc- 
" fra^ions.and Multiplication of Vifual Beams of ObjcAs. 

" We have alfo Precious Stones ofallkindes, many of them of great 
" beauty, and to you unknown j Cryftals likcwife, and Glaffcs of divers 
'« kindest and amongfl them fome of Metals vitrificatcd, and other Materi- 
" als, befidc thofe of which you make Glafs : Alio a number of Fofliles 
" and imperfcdMincrals,which you have not,- likewifc Loadftones of pro- 
" digious virtue, and other rare Stones, both Natural and Artificial. 

" We have alfo Sound-houfes, where vre pradife and demonflrate all 
" Sounds and their Generation. Wc have Harmonies which you have not, 
"of Quarter-founds, and Icffer Slides of Sounds ; divers Inflruments of 
«' Muficklikewiletoyou unknown, fome fwcetcr then any you have, ^<'ith 
"Bells and Rings that are dainty and fwecE. We reprefcnt fmall Sounds as 
''great and deep, likcwife great Sounds extenuate and fharp. We make 
"divers tremblings andwarblings of Sounds, which in their original arc 
" entire. We rcprefent and imitate all articulate Sounds and Letters, and 
" the Voices and Notes of Bcafls and Birds. We have certain hclps,which 
" fctto the Ear, do further thehearinggrcatly. We have alfo divers flrange 
" and artificial Echo's refleding the voice manytimes,andas it were tolling 
" it i and fome that give back ( he voice louder then it came, fome fhriller, 
" and fome deeper, yea, jome rendring che voice differing in the Letters or 
" articulate Sound from that they receive. Wc have all means to convey 
" Sounds in Trunks and Pipes in llrange lines and diflanccs. 


J\(j)y> Alantis. 

*■' Wc have alio Pt^rlumc-noulcf, wherewith we joyn alloprad'ces ot 
"T-iftc ; we multiply Smeils, which may fccin (trange; wc imitacc Smells, 
''making all Smells tobreathoutof other mixtures then chofe that give chcm. 
" Wcoiake divers imitations of Talle likcwilc, fornat they willatceivcar.y 
••'Mans talk. And inthis Houfc wecciuain aifj aConfiiire houl •, whcic 
" vvc make all Sweec-mcats, dry and moift, and divers picdiuit Wine.sMilk^, 
♦'Broths, and Sailers, far in greater variety chetiyou have. 

"WchavcalfoHnginc-houfes, where arc prepared Erg;ine$ andlnftru 
''mcnts for all forts oi motions. There we iniicarc and praOifc to make 
" fwifter motions then any you have, cither out of your Mu.^kets or any fc n- 
"gine that you have; and to make them, and multiply them more eadly.and 
" with fmall force, by wheels and other means; and lo make them ftrongcr 
"and more violent thcnyours arc, exceeding yourgreatcft Cannors and 
" Bafilisks. We represent alio Ordnance andlnfcrumi:ntsof War, andHn- 
'■<^ gines of all kindes; and likewife new mixtures andcompofitions of Gun- 
" powder, Wildefires burning in Warcr and unquenchable j alfo l^"irework« 
"of all variety, both forpleaiure and ulc. We imitatealfo flights of Birds v 
" we have fomc degrees of flying in the Air ; ve have Ships and Bjats for 
''going under Water, and brooking of Seas ; alfo Swimming-girdles and 
"Supporters. We have divers curious Clocks, and other like motions of 
"Return, and fome perpetual motions. Wc imitate alfo motions of Living 
" Crcaturesby Images ot Men, Bcal\?, Birds, Fifhes, and Serpents; we have 
'-alfo a great number of other various motions, fttange for quality, fincncf> 
"and lubtilty. 

" Wc havcalfoaMathcmatical-houfe, where arercprcfented ail Inftru- 
'<mcnts, as well ot Geometry as Aftronomy, cxquifitelymade. 

"We have alfoHoufcs of Deceits of the Senfes, where we reprefent 
<' all manner of fcatsof Jugling, falfe Apparitions, Impofturcsandlllufions, 
"and their Fallacies. Andfurely, you will eafily believe that wc that have fo 
*' many things truly Natural, which induce admiration, could in a world of 
''particulars deceive the Senfes, if wc would difguifethofe things and labor 
«« to make them more miraculous : But we do hate all Impaflurcs and Lies 
" infomuch, as we have fcverely forbidden it to all our Fellows, under pain 
"of Ignominy and Fines, that they do not fhew any natural work ot thing, 
"adorned or fwcliing, but oncly pure as icis, and without all atTec^ation of 

" Fhefe are (my Son) the riches of S'olomons Houfc. 

" For the feveral employments and offices of our Fellows j we have 
" twelve that fail into Foreign Countrcys under the names of other Njtions, 
" (for our own we conceal) who bring us the Books, and Ablka£\s, and Par- 
" terns of Experiments of all other Parts. Thcfc wc call (JMerchAnts of 
«* Light. 

" Wc have three that colled the Experiments, which arc in all Books. 
"Thcfe we call Defreddtirs. 

" We have three that collect the Experiments of all Mechanical Arts, 
'' and alfo of Liberal Sciences, and alfo of Pradices which arc not brought 
•' into Arts. Thcfe wc call iV>^y?e7-mf». 

"We have three that try new Experiments, fuch asthcmfclvcs think 
" good, Thefc we call Pioneers or Miners. 

'• Wc have three that draw the Experiments of the former four into 
•* Titles and Tables, to give the better light for the drawing of Obfeivations 
" and Axioms out of them. Thcfc we call Compilers. 

C i "We 

2 8 j ^c^ Mantis. 

' " Wc hivcthitc ti;a; bt nd cliemklvc, into the iixpcrimenrs 

" o{ rhcir I ilicW-S aid c=lit Eb,.iit how todraw ou- of them th.ngs cf ufc 
; " and p tor M.ii,s life and kr.owcJge, as weli for Wctk', as tor plain 
' ''<i<.iiiOii!tiat;on of Cuiej, mcarib of Natural Di/inatiors, and the cafie 
" j!^d clcjr diLovcry ot tic V.rtucs and Pjr.s of Bodies, ihtfc Wc call 
. '' Do^v rymcn or B.-nctadors. 

" Ihcn iftcr d.vers Meetings anlCcn'uIts of our whole number, to 
I " coiliJifr of lie loimcr Labors and CoHcclions, we have three that take 
I ''i.aie uutof thttn to dircd new Experiments of a higher Lighr, morcpcnc- 
"tracrg nto Nature ihen the toriricr, Thtfjwc call Lamps. 

" VVe have three others that do execute the Experiment fodircftcd, 
" and report ihem. Tncfc we call Inoculatorf. 

"Lai^U*,, VVc have three that raifethe Jormcr Dircoverics byExpcrl- 
" mcntsJnto greater Obfcivaiionf, AxioDU, and Aphoritms. Thefe we call 
"LitcrrTftasot Nature. 

"VVe have alfc, as you muO think, Novicesand Apprcnticef, that 
" i he (uccilh on of the former employed Men do not fail } bt fides a great 
"niuv.bcr of Servants and Attendants, Menard Women. Ardthiswedo 
" aifo, VVe haveConfultations which cf the Invcntjons 2nd Experiences > 
" which we have difcovcrcd fl:all be publiflied, and which not ; and tike all 
"ar.Ojth of St.crccy for the concealing ct thofe whichwcthii kmeet tok(ep 
"lecrct; though lome of thole we do reveal lomctime to the State, and 
"fomc not. 

"For our Ordinances and Rite?; wc have two very long and fair Gal- 
" Icries. In one of thefe wc place Patterns and Samples of all manner of the 
" more rare and excellent Inventions ; in ti.eother weplace the Settles cf 
" all principal Inventors. There wc have tliebtaiue ot your Columitu, that 
" difcovercd ihc fVejl-Indies , alio the Inventor of Ships; your Monk that 
'f was the Inventor ot Ordnance , and of Gur-pcwder ,* the Inventor of 
"•Mufick; the Inventorcf Letters; thclnventor of Printing; the Inventor 
«■ of Oblcrvationsof Aftronomy j tlie Inventor of Works in Metal; the 
" Inventor of Glafs ; the Inventor of Silk of thcWorm j the Inventor of 
" Winci tl e Inventor of Corn and Bread; the Inventor of Srgors : And 
"nil thefe by mcrecertain Iraditiorpthen ycuhave. Then we have divers | 
" Inventors of our own of excellent Works which finccyou have not feen, i 
<'itwere tcolorg tomake Dvfcripiionscf ihcm ; and bcfidcs, inthe right I 
"undcrilandingof ihofe Dcfcriptionsycu might cafily err. For upon every 
<' Invention of value we ereft a Statue to the Inventor, and give him a libe- ^ 
" raland honorable reward. 1 hcfcStMues arcfomeof Brafs, itmeof Marble j 
"and Tcuch-ffone.fome of Cedar, and other fpecial Woods gilt ^nd adorn- / 
" cd, I'omeof Iron, feme of Silver, (bmc of Gold. 

"We have certain Hymns and Set vices which wcfay daily, of Z((«^and 
" and Thanks loGod for his marvellous Works,- and Forms of Prayers, im- 
"ploring lis aid and bkfllng for the Illumination of our Labors^ and the 
" turoingthcm into good and holy nlcs. 

"Lftftly, We have Circuits or Vifits of divers principal Cities of the 
"Kingdom, whcr", is itcomeih topafs, wc do publifh fuch new profitable 
"Inventions, as wethinkgood. And wedo aUodcclare Natural Divinati- 
" onsof Diieafes Pligues, Swaims of hurtful Creatures, Scarcity, TempcfV, 
<' Ear h qnnkes, great Inundations Comets, Tcmperatureof the Year, and 
<« divers other things J and we giveccun!el ihcreupcPj whatthePeopIeCiall 
< do lor ihe prevention and remedy of them. 


^Yjw Jtlantu. 

And when he had laid tins, lie llood up: And I, asihaa bc(.n caugl.r, 
kneeled down , and l.c laid his nght hand upon my \.Ci<ii, and laic', God 
bleftbee, mi Sen, and Ced ble^ ihw RtUtioo "Vfhicb lliAve made : I girttheelciveto 
puhlifi it for the gcod of cihir iSiautns^ for Tte here are in Gods Bofcme, a Land un- 
knonn. Andfo he left me, having afTgncd a value of abouc Two tlioufand 
Ducats for a Bounty tome, and my Fellows ; for they give great largcflTcs 
where they come upon all occafions. 


The reft was not perfected. 




0^'W JtLnutis. 


Magnalia NaturcX prcxcipue quoad 
ufus Humanos. 

{Trolongation of Life. 

T\%efiitution offonth infome degree. 
He < "^tardatton of <iJge. 

I C^wigofT>i[eafes, counted Incurable, 
[tsSMitioation of Tain. 
(i5More eafaandlefs loathfomeTurgings. 
n?jcreajifjg of Strength andMivity. 
increafmg of Ability , tofujfer "Torture or Tain, 
alterim of C omplexiom, andfatnefs, andLean?ief. 
] altering of Statures, 
altering of Features. 

,tncreafin<j and exalting of the Iniellechal Tarts, 
VerfionofBodies into other "Bodies^ 
a^Makj^ng ofneyo Species. 
Tranf^lanting of one Species into another. 
Injlruments of T>e(lruclion^ as of War and Tojfon. 
Exhilaration of the Spirits, and putting them ingooddi^o- 

Force of the Imagination, either upon another "Body, or upon 

; the'Bodyitfelf I 

[Time in Maturations, 

Time in Clarificatiofjs. 

(tAcceleration ofiTutrefaSion. 



5MaKtng rich Compojlsfor the Earth. 

Im" ! 

!J\('c]r Jtkntis, 


Imprefionsofthe ^lh\ andraijino of Tempefts. 
Great alteration, as in Induration, Enwilition, &^c. 
Turning Crt^de and fVatry Suhjhncei into Oyly and Vnclu- 

Vrawino of new Foods out of Suh fiances not tw^iP in ufc. 
MahlntnewThreds for Apparel, and ncvp Stuffs, [uchas 

0\(atural T>ivinatiom. 
"Deceptions of iheSenfes. 
Greater Tleafuresof the Senfes, 
'^rtifcial tSMinerals and Cements, 




Century I. 

^)lg a Pit upon the Sca-fhore, fomewhat above the 
High-water Mark, and fink it as deep as the Low- 
water iMark ; And as the Tide cometh in, it willfiU 
wichWateri Frcfh and Potable. This is common- 
Iv pradifed upon the Co^d of Barbarj, where other 
Frelh \S(7atcr is wanting. And Ctfar knew this well, 
when he was bcricgcd m Alexandrit ; for by digging 
of Pits in the Sea-(horc, he did truflratc the labori- 
ous Works of the Enemies , which had turned the 
Sc.i-water upon the Wells of yilexAi.dua, and fo favcd his Army, being 
then inDcfperation. But O/jrmiftook thccaufe; for he thought that all 
Sea-lands had Natural Springsof Frcfh-vater. But it is plain, that it is the 
Sea-water, becaufc the Pic fillet i according to the Meafurc of the Tide ; 
And the Sea-vf-uer paflintj or ftraininff through, the Sands, leavcth the 

I remember to have read, that Tryal hath been made of Salt-water 
palled through E.irch ; through ten V^cll'els, one -within another, and yet it 
l)ath not loft his Saltncfj, as to become potable: But tlic fame Man faith, that 
(bv the relation of anorhcr Salt-water drained through t\Venty Vefl'elj, 
hath become frcfii. This Experiment feemeth to croli that other of Pits, 
made by the Sea-lide ; and yet but in pare, if it be true, that twenty Repeti- 
tions do the efTcft. But it is worth the note, how poorthelmitations of 
Nature are, in common courle oi Experiments, except they be led by great 
Judgment, and fomc good Light of >^xwms. For firif, there is no fmall 
difference bctvvcena Pallage of Water through twentv IrnallVeflels. and 
througli fuch adillance, as between the Low-uMter and High-water Mark. 
Secondly, there isa grcatdifFerence between Earthand'^and ; for all Earth 
hath in it akin'e of Nitrous Salt , from which, band is more free: And 
brtides. Earth doth not ftrainthe Water lb finely as Sand doth. But there 
is a third point, that I fufpcft as much, or more than the other two; and 
that is, in the Experiment of Trj«/"w»i/f;fln of the Sea-waterintothe Pits, 
the Water rileth jbutinthc Experiment of Trjw/"/yn«" of the Warer.through 
the VelTels, ictalleth : Now certain it iJ, that the Salter parr of Water (once 

B faltcJ 

in Confoic, 
touchirg 'he 
Straining ma 
Pafiing of Bi- 
diei one tlnrnm 
anotheri wbtth 
ihry cnU Vet- 

J^tural Hiflory ; 

in Conloit, 
Motion of 
their Pre/jure. 

faltcd throughout) gocth to the bottom. And therefore no marvel if tlie 
draining of \i^atcr by dclccnt. doth make it frcfli: Bcfides, Idolbmcwhar 
doubt, that the very dafhing of the Water that cometh from the Sea, is 
■ore proper to ftrike off the fait part, than where the Water Oidcth of her 
own motion. 

Itfeemcth Percolation or Tranfmifiion ("Ahichij commonly called S'lT'^in- 
i»?) is a f'ood kinde of S'eptiratm , not oncly of thick from thin, and grofs 
from hnc, but of more fubtile Natures ; and varieth according to the Bo ^ y, 
through which the Trtnfmlfion is made. As if through a Woollen-bag, ihe 
liquor leivcththe fatnefis ; if through Sand, the faltncfs, &c. I hey fpcak of 
fevering Wine irom Water, palling it through Ivy-wood, or through other 
the like porous body, but Non confia:. 

The Gum of Trees (which we fee to be commonly fljining and clear) 
is but a fine palfagc, or (training of the Juice of the Tree, through the 
Wood and Bark. And in like manner, Cornish 'Diamonds, tinA Rock^ Rubies , 
(which arc yet more rcfplendeut than Gums ) are the fine Exudations of 

K^ri^otk gwtith. thecaufc vainlv, Why the Fetthers of 'Q'lr As arc of more 
lively colours than the Hairs of Beads; fornoBcafthathanyfine Azure, or 
Carnation, or Green Hair. He faith it is, becaufe Birds are more in the 
Beams of the Sun than Bcails, but that is manifcftly untrue ; for Cattle arc 
more in the iun than Birds, that live commonly in the Woodj, orinfome 
Covert. 1 he true caufe is,that the excremcntitious moifture of living Crea- 
tures, which maketh as well the Feathers in Birds as theHair in Bealts, pafs- 
eth in Birds through a finer and more delicate Strainer, than it doth in Bcafts : 
For Feathers pais through Qu)ll$, and Hair through Skin. 

The CUriffmg of Liquors by Adheiion, is an inward !Perco/4f;ow, and is 
cffeded, when Ibme cleaving Body is mixed and agitated with the Liquors ; 
whereby the groifer part of the Liquor flicks to that cleaving Body ; and fo 
the finer parts are freed from the groffer. So the apothecaries clarifie their 
Syrups by Whites of Egg?, beaten with the Juices which they would clarifie j 
which whites of Eggs, gather all the dregs and grolTer parts of the Juice to 
them; and after the Syrup being fet on the fire, the whites of Eggsthem- 
felvcs harden, and are taken forth. So IppocraJ? is clarified by mixing with 
Milk, and flirring ic about, and then pafling it through a Woollen-bag, 
which they cMHippocratts Sleeve ; andthecleavingNatureof thcMiikjdraw- 
cththePowdcrof theSpices, and groflcr parts of the Liquor to it, and in 
the palfage they flick upon the Woollen-bng. 

1 he clarifying of Water, is an experiment tending to Health, befidcs 
thepleafurc of the Eve, when Water isCryflaline. It iseffcAed by cafting 
in, and placing Pebbles at the head of a Current, that the Water may ftrain 
through them. 

It may be 'P*rfo/<<ti(>»dothnot oncly caufe clearnefs andfplcndor, but 
fwectncls of favor i for that alfo foUovrcth, as well as clearnefs, when the 
finer parts are fevered from the groilcr. So it is found, that the fweats of 
men thathave much heat, andexercilf much, and have clean Bcdics and 
fine Skins, do fmcll fvrcet, as was faid of uilexander ; and wc fee commonlyj- 
that Gums have fwcct odors. 

TAkcaGlals, and put Water into it, and wet yourfinger, and draw it 
round about the lip of the Glafs, prefling it fomewhat hard ; and 
after youhavc drawn it fome few times about, it will make the Water frisk 


Century /. 

Ana Iprinklc up in a fine Dew. This inllanccdoth excellently dcmonfttatc 
the tcrcc oC Comprefim in a (olid BoJy. For w hcnfocvef a I'olid Bodv (as 
Wood, Stone, Metal, &c.) is prcircd, there is an inward tumult in the parts 
thereof, fcckint^ todcliverthcmfclves from the Comprcflion: And this is 
the caufe of all P'loleut Motion. Wherein it if ftrungc in the higheil degree, 
that thisMo:ion hath never been obicrvcd, nor enquired ; it being of ail 
Motions, the moll: common, and the chief root of ^W^lecbdnical Operations. 
This Motion workcth in round at fird, bywayof Proof andScarch, vhich 
May to deliver it I'elF. and then workcth inProgrcfs, wliere it findcth the 
deliverance eafieft. In Lff/.'/orx this Motion is viflble; for all Liquors ftrurk- 
en, make round circles, and withal dnfh, bntin To/i^/^ (which break not) itis 
fo fubtile, as it is inviiiblc ,* but nevcrthclefs bsvcraycth it fclf by many 
cffci.'ls, as in this infl: incc whereof wc Ipcak. For tlic Treffure of the Finirtr 
furthered by the wetting (bccaufc it fiickcth fo much the better unto the 
Lipof thcGlafsj afteriome continuance, puttcth all the fmall parts uf the 
Glafs into work, that they flnkc the Water fiiarply ; from which 'Ftrcufion 
that fprinklingcometh. 

if you ftiikc or pierce a ^oM Bodj that is brittle, as Glaf? or Sugar, it 
brcakcthn.)tonely where the immediate force is, but breakcrh all about 
into fhivcrs and fiters ; the Motion upon the Prellurc fcarching all ways, ' 
and breaking where it findcth the Body weakcft. 

The Powder in Shot being dilated into fucha Flame, as endureth not 
ComprelTion, moveth likcwife in round (the Flame being in thcnaturc of 
a Lijuid Body) ibmctimes rccoyling, Ibmctimes breaking the Pcccc, but 
generally difch.u-ging the Bullet., bccaule there it findcth eaiieft deliver- 

This Motion upon PrefTurc, and the Reciprocal thereof, which is Mo- 
tion upon Tcnfurc ; weufetoc.ill (by onccommon name) Motion of Liher- 
tj ; \\ hich is, when any Body being forced to a Fretern.itt' Extent or Di- 
mcnlion, dclivcrcthand rciloieth itlcU to thcnatural : As when a blown 
Bladder (prcffed) rifeth again ; or when Lexthcr or Cloth tcntured, fpring 
back. Tlicfe two Motions (of which there be infinite inftanccs) wc iliali 
handle indue place. 

Tliis Motion upon *Frfi[r«r^ is excellently alfo demonftratcd in Tounds -. 
As whencncchimcth upnnaBclI, itfoundcth ; but as foon as he layethhis 
hand I'pon it, the J'i»n>/'i ccafeth .- And fo, theloundot a ^ir^m.:/ .fr.-in^, as 
foi>nasthc Qiiill of the Jack falleth from it, ftoppcth. For thcfe founds arc 
produced by the fubtile PercufTionof the Minute parts of the Bell or String 
upon the Air; All one, as the /Ktr^r is caused toleapby thclubtile Pcrculh- 
ont)f the Minute parts of the Glnls upon the //^ufr, whereof ^'c Ipikc a lit- 
tle before in the Nmtb Experment. For you mult not take it to be the local 
fhakingof the Bell or String that doth if. As we (hall fully declare when 
we come l.ercaftcr to handle Seundi. 

TAke a GLf with a BelU. and a long Neh, fill the TtUj ( in part ) with 
Wdter: Takealfo another C/.*/, whcreinto H^int .\nd fVutrr 
mingled. Rcverfe the firft Gbfs, w'ith the Belly upwards , Itopping the 
Neb with your Finger, then dip the mouth of it within the fccond Glafs, 
and remove your Finger. Continue it in that pollurc for a time, and it 
willunminqlc thc^'ine from the Water; t'le Wincafcending andfctlingin 
the top of the upper Glafs, and the Water defcending and fetling in the 
bottom ot t le lower Glafj. The pafTigc is apparent to the Eye ; for 
Bi ycu 


in Confotr, 
touching St- 
ptTttunt if 
Btditt tji 

J\(jttural Hijlory ; 




in Conlott, 
touching lu- 
Jitintis and 
^cctiraic In- 
fufions, both 
in Z;jnon,aiid 



youniallfcethc Wine, as it were, inai'mall vein, riling through the Water. 
For handiomncfs fake ( bccaule the working rcquircth ibmc I'mall time) 
it were po ud you hang chi; upper C/afupon a Nail. But as loon as there 
is eathcrcdlomiicli pure and unmixed Water in the bottom ot the lower 
G/^jT, as that the Mouth ot the upper C/.r/l' dippcth into it, the Motion 

Let the upper (7/4/i' be Wine, and the lower Water; there followtt'i no 
Motion at all. Let the upper Giaf be Water purc,thc lower Water coloured, 
or contrariwile there tbllowcth no Motion at all. But it hath been trycd, 
that though the mixture of Wine and Water, in the lower (7/-^y?, be three 
parts Water, andbutone Wine ; yet it doth not dead the M^,tion. This re- 
paration of Water and Wineappeareth to be made by weight ; for it muft 
beof^(3^/w of unequal weight, or elfe it workcth not ; and the heavier 
BOisly niuftcver be in the upper G/aJs. But then note "w'ithaL that the vratcr 
being madepeniiblc, and there bcingagreat weight of Water in the Belly 
of the Glajy, fuftaincd by a fmall Pillar of Water in the neck of the C/.if^ ; it 
is that svhichi'ctteth the Motion on work: For Water and Wine in one Glafj 
w ich long ftanding.w ill hardly lever. 

I his Experiment would be extended from mixtures of feveral Liquors 
X.0 Simple Bodies, which conlillof feveralfimiliar parts : Try it therefore 
\i\i\\Broynox. Salt-'vi\'itcr'3iwdL. Fresh-water^ placing the Salt-water (which 
is the heavier) m the upper Glaji\ and fee whetr.crthcfrefla will come above. 
Try it alio Mfith Water thick Sugrcd, and pure Water ; and fee whether 
the Water which Cometh above, will lofc his fvx eetncis -. For which pur- 
pofc, it were good there were a little Cock made in the Belly of the upper 

IN Bodies cxjntainine/z/r Spirits, which do cailly diffipatc when you make 
infufions ; the Rule is, A fliort flay cf the Bodji in the Liquor receivech the 
Spirit, and a longer ftay confoundeth it ; becaufe it drawcth forth the 
Earthy part withal, which cmbafcth the finer. And therefore it is an Er- 
ror in Phy/itians, to reft fimply upon the length of ftay for cncreafing the 
vertuc. But if you will have the I»fuJio» Hvonfr, in tholekindeof .5tf<^/Vj-, 
which have //fie Spirits, your way is not to give longer time, but to repeat 
the Infnjion of the Body oftncr. Take Violets, and infufe a good Pugil of 
them in a Qjjart of Vinegar, let them ftav three quarter: of an hour, and 
take them forth, and refrefii the Infufion with like quantity of new Violets 
fcvcn times, and it will make a finegar lb frcfli of the ¥loz-'ver, as if a Twelve- 
moncrh after it be brought you in a Saucer, you fiialifmellit before it come 
at you. Note, that it fmellcth more pecledly of the FloWcragood while 
after, then atlirft. 

This Rule which we havcgivcn, is of lingular ufc for the preparations 
oi Medicines, zndi other Infufions. As forexampic, thcLeaf of ^//''^'^^f hath 
an excellent Spirit, to reprefs the fuliginous vapor of Dusky Melancholy, 
and lb to cure Madncfs : But ncvcrthelcfs, it the Leaf be infufei long, it 
ycildethforthbutarawfubftance of no vertue: Therefore Ifuppofe, that 
it in the Mull of Wine or WortofBccr,whilc it workcth before it be Tunned, 
! the Burrage ftav a fmall time, and be often changed with f rclh, it will make 
a fovcraign Drink for /J4!r/i»w/'^^ Papons. Andthe like I conceive of Orange 

Rubarb hath manifeftly in it Parts of contrary Operations : Parts that 
purge, and parts that binde the Body; and the fti-ftlay loolcr, and the latter lay 


Century I. 

deeper,- So that }f you intulc 7?«i.iri toran hour, and crufliic v ell. itvrill 
purge better, and bin Je the BoJy Icfs after the purging, than ifitftood 
Twenty lour hours •• This istriei.^, butl conceive likcwifc, that bv repcat- 
j ing the Infufionof l!ul'.irb, icveral times (as was faid of Violets) Icttimr 
each iVay in but aimall time , you may make it as (Irong a Purging Medi- 
cine, as S'cafimony. And it is not a fmall tiling won in Pfrjfuli, it you can 
make Ru'ur!>, and other Medicines that arc Benedict, asftrong 
thofc that are not \\ ithout fome mah'giiity. 

'Purg'mg Medicines, for the moll part, have their 'PitrgttiveVertue in a fine 
Spirit, as appeareth by that thcv indurc not boiling, ■withjurmuch lolsof 
vcrtuc. AnJthercforcitis cf goodulc inPhjftcl^At vou can retain the Pur- 
ging of ^'^crtuc, and takeaway the unplcafant taftc of the Purijer ; which 
itishkcyoumay do, by this courfcof infufing r. ft with little itay. Fur it is 
probable, that the horrible and odious taile is in the grolVer pare 

Generally, the working by /«//(^ff)» is grols and blind, except you firft 
try the illiiing of thcfcveral parts of the Body, which Oi them iHuc more 
fpecdily, and u hich more flowly ; and lo by apportioning the time, can 
take and leave that quality which you dciire. i his to know, there be two 
ways; the one tjtry whatlong flay, and what fliorc flay workcch, as hath 
been faid ; the other to trv, in order, the fucceeding/H/«^on;, of one and 
the fame Body, fucccHivcly, in fcveral Liquors. As for example, Take 
Oianrc- Pills, 01- Bofenunj, otCiiw.mon, or n hatyou will ; and let them in- 
fufc half an hour in Water j then take them out, and infufethcm again in 
other Water; and io the third time; anl then talle and confidcr the firfl 
Water, the fccond, and the third, and you will finde them difFering, notonc- 
ly in flrcngchanJ wcakncfs, but ot crwifc in taile, orodor ; for itmav be 
thcfirll V.'atcr will have more ofthefent, as hiorc fragrant; and the fccond 
more of the tadc, as more bitter or biting, &c. 

Ltftifiouf in Atr (tor fo wc may call Orfon) have the fame diverfiries with 
/nfuftons in /f^ufer ; in that the fcveral Odors ("w.iich are in one Flower, or 
other Body^ illuc at fcveral times, fomc earlier, fome later: So wefJnde, 
that /'^/<;/a;, JVoodbtnes, Stnyfbaries, yield a pleaiing lent, that Cometh fjrth 
firfl ; but fvonatccran ill fcnt quite diffsiring from the former. Which is 
caufeJ not f"j much by moUoAing, as by the late ilFuing of the grolFcr 

As we mav dcflre to excrad the fincft Spirits in feme cafes ; {o we may 
dclirealfo to dilchargo them (as hurtful) in ibmc other. So Wine burncbv 
rcafonof the evaporating of the finer Spirit, inflamcth lefs, and is bell in 
Agues : Opium Icclcth Ibmc of his po'fonous qualit;, if icbe vapored out, 
mingled wirh Spirit of Wine, orthc like : Scun Icefeth fomewhat of his 
wiudinclsb<5fing; and (generally) fubtile or windy Spirits arc taken 
cfT by Incenlion, or Evaporation. And even in Infufi -ns in things that are 
of too high a Ipirit, rou were better pour ofl the fidl Infufion. after aimall 
time, and ufe the latter. 

Ubblcs arc in the form of an Hemiiphcrc •, Ah within, and a little Skin 
of Water without : And it feemcth fomcv\hat ftrangc, that the Air 
fliould rife l")lwiftly, while it is in the Water; and when it comcth to the 
top, fhould be flaid by fo weak acovcr, as that of thcBubblcis. But as 
for the Iwiftafccntof the ^^ir, while it is under the Water;, that is a 
motion cfPcrculTion from the Water, which it telf defcending^driveth 
up the ^yitr ; and no motion of Ltviti in the tyiir 

^ ^ . .^ > 



Soiiiiiy , 
^f.piiiit of 
in LiouUj. 

An J this 'Democritw I 

!J\(atuYal Hijlory-^ 

Soliraiy . 
touching the 
making of 

touchinw the 

qiiilhy of 
Mam FUjh. 

called Mow Phgt. In this common Experiment, the caufc of the cnclolurc 
of the Bubble is for that the Appetite to rcfift Separation, or Difcontinu- 
ancc (which in folid 5»rf»« is ftrong) is alio in Liquors, thougli f-iinctr and 
weaker ■• As we fee in this of the Bubble ; wx.fec it alio in little Glafles of 
Spittle that Children make of Rufhes ; and in Caftles of Bubbles, which 
they make by blowing into JV.uer, having obtained a little degree of 
Tenacity by mixture of Soap: Wcfce it alfo in the S'tiUictdes of ff^aier, 
which, if there be [Vater enough to follow, will draw thcmfelves into a 
fmallTbi'cd, bccaufe they will difcontinue ; but if there be no remedy, 
then they call themfclves into round Drops ; which is the Figure, that 
favcth the Body mofl: from Discontinuance : The famcrcafon is of the 
Roundnefs of the Bubble, as well for the Skin oiJKiter, as for the yltr with- 
in : For the -^^rlikcwiieavoideth ^Difiontlnnance ; and therefore caflcth it 
ftlfinto a round Figure. And for the flop and arrcftof the yf«r a little 
while, .it flicweth, that the t^tr of it Icif hath little, or no Appetite of 

THeRe)C(3ion, which 1 continually ufc, of Experiments (chough it ap- 
pcarcch not) is infinite ; but yet if s.n Experiment be probable in the 
Work, and of great ufc, I receive it, but delivcrit as doubtful. Jt was 
reported by a fober man, th^t an j^rtificUl J/)r;«^ may be made thus: Findc 
outahanging Ground, where there is a good quickFallof Rain-w.iter. Lay 
a Half-Trcughof Stone, of a good length, three or tour foot dicp with- 
in the fame Ground ; with one end upon the high Ground, the other upon 
the low. Cover the Trough with Brakes a good thicknefs, and caft Sand 
upon the top of the Brakes : You fliallfee (faith he) that after lome fhowres 
are paft, the lower end of the Trough will be like a Spring of Hater ; which 
is no marvel, if it hold, while the Rain-water laftethi but he Tiid it would 
continue long time after the Rain is paft : As if the Water did multiply it 
felfupon the Air, by the help of the Coldnefs and Condenfation of the 
Earth, and the Confort of the firft Water. 

THc French (which put off the name of the French 'Difeafe, unto the name 
of the Difeafe of iV4/)/fO tio report. That atthe fiegeof iV/«/'/«, there 
were certain wicked Merchants that barrelled up Mans Flesh (of fome that 
had been lately (lain in Barb.nj) and fold it for Tunnej ; and that, upon 
that foul and highNourifliment, was the Original of that T>ife.tfe. Which 
may well be ; For that it is certain, that the Cambals, in the Weft-Indies, eat 
^UnsLlesh ; and the VP'efl-indiei were full of thfc Pox when they were fiift 
difcovercd : And at this day the Mortnleft pojfons, pradifed by the Ffeft-Indi- 
Atts, have fome mixture of the Blood, orFat, or Flcfli of Man. And divers 
Witches, and SorcereflTcs, as well amongft the Heathen, as amongft the 
C hrift/.(ns, have fed upon Mansflefli, to aid (as it feemeth) their Imagination, 
with high and foul Vapors. 

IT fecmcth that there be thefe ways (in likelihood) of yerfion of Fapors 
ov tylir, into Water and Moifture. I he firft is Co/rf, which doth mani- 
tcftly Condenfc ; as we fee in thecontraftingof the jitr intheWcacher- 
Glafs ; whereby it is a degree nearer to Water. We fee it alfo in the Gene^ 
ration of S'prinjrs, which the x^ticients thought (very probably) to be made by 
the h-rfion of y^ir into Ffater, holpen by the Refi, which the t^ir hath in 
thofc parts, whereby it cannot diflipatc And by the coldnefs of Bockj ; fat 


Century I. 

there S'pTtnp arc chicHy venerated. We fecit alio in the Effcds of rhc Cold 
of the Middle Region (as they call it) of the Ah ,• which produccth ''Deyvs 
and Rdtns. And the Experiment of turninfr Water into Ice, by Snow, Ni- 
tre, and Salt ^whereof \vc fhall {[jc^k hereafter) would be transferred to the 
turning of Air into Water. The fccoud way is by Comprepton ; as in StilU' 
miff, u here the Vapor is turned back, upon ic fclf, by the Encounter of 
the Sides of the SttUaierjf ; and in the 'Derv upon the Covers of Beiling Tats ; 
and in the 'Dew towards Sum, upon Marble, and FfAinfcot. But this is like to 
do no great cffeft ; except it be upon Vapors, and grofs ylir, that arc al- 
ready very near in Degree to Water. Ihc third is that, which may be 
fearched into, but doth not yet appear ; which is, by Minglingof moift 
Vapors with Air; and trying if they ^ ill not bring a Return of more Wa- 
ter, than the Water was at firlf : For it fo, 1 hat Increale is a Verfton of the 
Air: iherefore put Water into the bottom of 3i StilUmj, with the Neb 
(lopped J weigh the Water firft; hang in the Middle ot the StiUjtqrj a large 
Spunge ,• and lee m hat quantity of V\^ttcryou can crufli out of it; and v hat 
itis, more, orlcfs, compared with the VVater Ipenr j for youmurt undcr- 
ftand, that if any Vcrfion can be wrought, it will beeaiilydone infmall 
Pores : And that is the reafon why sve prefcribe a S'punge. The fourth way 
is probable alfo, though not appearing ; which is, by receiving the A it into 
the fmall ^Pores of t,odics ; For (as hath been f^id) everything in fmall quan- 
tity is more cafie for /'^rr/ion ; and Tangible Bodies have no plcalureinthe 
confort of Air, butendcavor tofubad it into a more 'Z)?))/^ Bodj: But in 
Entire chccV.cA ; becauie, if thcy//r fhould Condcnfe, there is no- 
thing to fuccccd : Therefore it muil be in loofc Bodies, as Sand, and Pow- 
der, which wcfccif they lie clofe. of themfelves gather Moifture. 

IT is reported by fomeofthe y/»i:(<'M;j,ThatWhclps,or other Creatures, 
if they bcputyoung into fucha Cage, or Box, as they cannot rife to their 
Stature, but may increafc in breadth or length, will grow accordingly, as 
they can get room j which, if it be true, and fealible, and that the young 
Creature lo prcfTcd.and l^reightncd, doth not thereupon die ; ic is a means 
to produce 'D-tctirf Creatures, and in a very llrangc Figure. This is certain, 
and noted long fincc, 1 hat the Preflure, or Forming of Parts of Creatures, 
when they are very young, doth alter the lliape not a little : As the ftroak- 
ingof the Heads of Infants, between the Hands, was noted of old, to make 
AUcrjcephati; which fliape of the Head, at that time, was ellcemed. And 
the railing gently of the Bridge of the ^'olc, doth prevent the Deformity 
of aSaddlcNofe. W'hich oblcrvation well weighed, may teach a means, 
to make the Pcrfons of i\4en and Women, in many kindes. morecomely 
and better featured, than otherwife they would be ; by the Forming and 
Shaping of them in their Infancy : As by Stroaking up the Calves of the 
Legs, to keep them from falling down too low ; and by Stroaking up the 
Forehead, to keep them from Being low Forcheaded. And itis a common 
pradicc to i\vathe Infants, that they may grow more ftraight, and better 
ihapcd ; and we fee young Women, by wearing llraight Bodies, keep thcm- 
Iclvcsfrom being Grofs and Corpulent, 

ONions, as they hang, will many of them fliootforrh ; and fo will Pennj- 
f»yal; and fo will an Herb called Orpin; with which they ufe, in the 
Countrcy , to trim their Houfcs , binding ic to a Lath,: or Stick, and 
ictcing itagainft aWall. VVe fee itiikcwife. more cfpccially, in t .e greater 
__^ Temper- 


touching the 
Hetpi to- 
watds the 

BtMuty inA 
gold FtatHTtl 
of Ptrftm. 


(OUkhirg the 
Condin nf of 
^/r in luch 
fott aiit m»j 
put on 
t*'eigl,t. and 
yield ;V(wri/i- 

JSQiturd Hijlory ; 

Semper-vtve, which will piKout Brandies, two or three years : But it is true, 
that commonly they wrap the Root in a cloth bclmearcd with Oyl ; and 
renew it once in a half year. The like is reported by ibmc ot the An- 
cients of the Italics o( Lillm. The caule is, foe that theic TUnn Iiavc a 
ftron? denfc, and lucculent moifturc, which isnotaptto cxhaJe ; and fo 
is able, from thcoldilorc, without drawing hc!p from the Earth, to liitiice 
thcfproutingof the/"/.!*!; : And this Iprouting ischicfly in the late Spring, 
or early Summer ; which arc the times of putting forth. Wc Ice alio, 
that llumps of Trees, lying out of the Ground, will put forth Sprouts for 
a time. But It is a noble tryal, and of very great confequence, to try 
whether thelc things, in the fprouting. doencreafc weight , which muft be 
tryed, by weighing them before thev be hanged up ; and afterwards again, 
whcnthcv arefproutcd. For if they incrcaic not in weight, then it is no 
more but this, That what thc\' fend forth in the fprout, they leefc in Ibme 
otherpart; but if they gather weight, then iz is C^fagnale Naturx : Forit 
flicweth, that tyi/»r may be made fotobecondenfcd, as to be converted in- 
to adenfe Body ; whcrcasthc race and period of all things, here above the 
E.irth, is to extenuate and turn things to be more pneumatical, and rare ; 
and not to be retrograde, from pneumatical to that which isdenl'e. It 
Hiewethalfo, tiiat y:/<rcan nourifli ; which is another great matter of con- 
fequence. Note, that to try this, thcExpcrimcntot the yeinper-vive, mull 
be m.nde withoutoylingthe cloth; for clfe, it may be, the PJant receivcth 
nourifhment from the Oyl, 

FLame and y^ir do not mingle, except it be in an inftant ; or in the P'ital 
S'pirits of vegetables, and living Creatures. In Gunpo%\der, the force of 
it hath been afcribed to rarcfadion of the earthly fubflancc into PUtKe. 
And thus far itis true; and then (forfooth) it is become another Element j 
the form whereof occupieth more place; andfo, of Neccffity, foUowech 
a Dilatation : And therefore , left two Bodies (hould be in one place, 
there muft needs alio follow an Expulfion of the Pellet, or blowing up 
of the Mine. But thcfcare crude and ignorant fpcculations : Vor fUme, 
if there were nothing elie, except it were in a very grcnt quantitv, will be 
fiiflocatc with any hard body, fuch as a Pellet is, orthc Banelof a Gun ; 
lb as the flame would not expel the hard body , but the hard bodj would kill 
the flime, and norfuff'cr it to kindle, or fprcd. But the caufe of this fo po- 
tent a motion is the Nhre (which we call otherwife S'alt-reur) which 
having in it a notable crude andwindy Spirit, firft by thehcat of the Fjr; 
fuddenly dilateth it felf j (and we know that (Implc Air, being prcterna- 
turally attenuated by heat, will make itfelfroom, and break, and blow 
up that which refiftethit.) And fccondly, when the N'me hathdilated it 
(elf, it bio weth abroad the ^4i«<f asan inward Bellows. And therefore we 
lee that Brimflone , 'Pitch, Camphire, H ildfire, and divers other inflamable 
matters ; though they burn crucllv, and are hard to quench, yet they make 
no fuch fiery wind, as Cunpoyider doth : And on the other fide, wefeethat 
Quiik^filver ( V hich is a moil crude and watryBody) heated, and pent in, 
hath the like force with Gunpo-^der. As for living Creatures, it is certain, 
their Vttd Spirits :\re a fubftance compounded of an airy and f^amv mat- 
ter; and though Air and Flame, being free, v ill not well mingle; yet 
bound in by a Body that hath jbmc fixing.they will. For that you may beft fee 
in thofc two Bodies (which are their Aliments) fFater and Oj!; forthe^ 
likewife will not well mingle of themfelves, but in the Bodies of Plants, 


Century I. 

;ind Lifi?!^ Creatures, chcywill. Itis no miirvcl therefore, that a fmall^w«- 
tity of Spirits, in the Cells oFchc Brain, and Cannals of the Sinews, arc able 
to move i whole Body (which is oi fo great mafj) boch with fo great force, 
as inWreftling, Leaping; and with fo great Iwifcnels, as in playing Divifi- 
on upon the Lute : Such is tiic force of thcfc two T^jttires, Air and blmie 
v\ hen they incorporate. 

TAkca '^mAMVax-C.indk, and put it in a Socket of Brafs or Iron, then 
fct it upright in a Porringer tuUof Spirit of Wine, hcatcJ ; then fet 
boch the Candle, and Spirit of Wincon lire, and you (hallfcc the flame of 
the Candle open it felf, and become four or five times bigger then odicr- 
wifc it would have been, and appear in figure ClobuLir, and not in Ihrnmis. 
You fliall fee alfo, that the inward flame ot the Candle keepethcolow, and 
doth not vrax any uhitblew towards thccolour of the outward flame of 
the SpiriccfWinc. This is anoblcinllancc, wherein two things are moft 
remarkable; the one, that one flame within another quencheth not, but is 
a '[wzdiBedy, an J continuech as Air ot Ff'ater do; and thercf.irc flame would 
ffill alccnd upwards in one greacncfs, ifit were not quenched on the fiJcs ; 
and the greater the flame is atthcbottom.thc higher is the rife. The other, 
that Flame doth not mingle with Flame, as Air dothwith Air, or Water 
with Water, but oncly remaineth contiguous ; as it comcth to paG be- 
twixt Confifiing Bodies. Jt nppcarcth alfo, that the form of a Pyr.imis in 
Flame, which wcufually fee, is mecrL bv accident, and that the Air about, 
bv quenching the /ides of the Flame, cruflicth it, and cxtcnuatcth it into 
that form ; tor of it Iclf, it would be round : And therefore Smoak is in 
the figureof J. Pymmis rev cried ; for the Air qucncheth the Flame, and rc- 
ccivctiuhe Smoak. Note alio, t!utclic flame of the Candle, wicliinthc 
flamcof the Spirit of Wine, is troubled, anddoth notonclv open and move 
upwards, but movcch waving, and to and fro : As if Flame of his own Na- 
ture (if it were not quenched) would roul and turn as well as move up- 
wards. By all which it fhould fecm, cliat the Celejiid Bodies (moff of them) 
are true Fires or Flames, as the Stoicks\\z\d ; more fine (perhaps) and ra ri- 
fled, thanour flame is. For they are all C/tfW.zr and Betern.ite, they have 
Rotation, and they have the colour andfplendor of Flume : So that Flame 
above, is durable and conliftcnt, and in his natural place; buOAithus, it 
is a flrangcr, and mcmentany and impure, like /«/f.z/z that halted with his 

TAkc an /frroT'T', and hold it in Flame for the fpace of ten Pulfcsj and 
when itcomctiiforch, you flLiUfinde thofc parts of the Arrow which 
■wcrconethcoutfidcsof the Flame, more burned, blacked, and turned al- 
moftinto aCoal ; whereas that in the midft oftheflame, will beasif the 
fire had Icarce touched it. This isaninftanccof grcatconfcqucncc for the 
difcovcry of the nature of Flame, .nnd llTewccIi manifclHy, that Flame burn- 
cth more violently towards the fides, then inthcmidlt: And, which is 
more, x\\\lHcat orfireis not violentor furiou , but whereitis chcckcdand 
pent. And therefore the PeripateticLs (howioevcr their opinion o" an Ele- 
ment of Fire, above the Air, is jullly exploded > in that point they acquit 
thcmfclvcs well : For being oppofcd, that if there were a Ipherc of Fire, 
that incompaifed the Earth lb near hand, it ^»crc impoflibic, but aJl tilings 
fhould be burnt iip ; they anfwer, that the pure Elemcfitd Firej in his own 
place, andnotirritate, is bur of a moderateheat. 



touching the 
Sttrtt Naiuri 
of Flame, 


touching the 
af FUmtinthi 
midll, and en 
ih( fidti. 



; touching the 
Occretijt of the 
Naiunl Ma 
titn of Gtavl 
ty in great 
diHnnce from 
the Birth ; or 
within fome 
dtpth of the 


Conti-xciian of 
boiliti in in/j^. 
by the mixture 
nf the more 
Li^i ii Jiody, 
with th: more 


touching the 
iM..klngl' inti 
more fruitful . 

in Contort, 
Titrging Ate- 

^Yjitural Hillory ; 

IT is afliimcJ conllintly by many, as an ufual Experiment, Tliata Iiimpof 
Fre, in the bottom of a Mine, will be tumbled andftirred by t vo Mens 
ftrcngth ; vfliich it you bring it to the top of the liaith, will ask fix Mens 
ftrcn^th atthc Icall: to ftir it. It is a noble inftancc, and is fit to be trycd to 
the tiill : For it is very probable, that the Moiion of Gravity workcth Weakly, 
both far from the Earth, and alio within the Earth; The former, bccaufc the 
appetite of Union ot Dcnfe Bodies with the Earth, in rcfpcdot thediftancc 
is more dull. The latter, bccaufc the Body hath in part attained his nature, 
when it is fomc depth in the Earth. For as for the moving to a pointer place 
(which was the opinion jof the .^nttents) it is a mcer vanity. 

IT is (trangc, how the t^ntlents tookvip Experiments upon credit, and yet did 
build great Matters upon them. The obfcrvation of f jmc of the bell: ot 
them, delivered confidently, is, 1 hat a Veflelhllcd\Y'ithy///r«, will receive 
the like quantity of Water, that itwould have done if ithaJbecn empty-But 
this is utterly untrue, for the Water will not go in by a fifth part; and Ifup- 
pol'c, that that fifth part is the difference of the lying clofe, or open of the 
Afhcs ; as wc {ce, that Aflics alone, if they bchari.! prefled, will lie in Icfs 
room ; and fo the Aflies with Air between, lieloofcr, and with Wafer 
clofer. For I have not vet found certainly, that the Water icfelf bymix- 
tureof Allies orDuft.willftrinkordraw intolcfs room. 

IT is reported oF credit , That if you lay goodftoreof Kernels of Grapes- 
about the Boot of a Vine, it will make the Vine come earlier, and profper 
better. It may be tried with other AVrwf/^, laid about thei?oc/of a 'jP/.fwr of 
thcfamekinde,- iiS Figs, Kernels of Apples, &c. Ihecaufcmaybc, forthatthe 
Kernels draw out of the Earth juice fittonourifli the Tree, asthofethat 
would be Trees of themfelvcs, though there were no Root ; but the Root 
Ikeing of greater ftrcngth, robbeth and devourech the nourilhmcnt, when 
they have drawn it; asgrcatFifhes devour little. 

T He operation of T urging Medicines, and the caulcs thereof, have been 
thought to be a great Secret ; and fo according to the flothful manner 
of Men, it is referred to a Hidden Proprietj, a Specifical T'ertue, and a Fourth • 
Quality , and the like fhifts of Ignorance. The Caufes of Purging, are 
divers, All plain andpcrfpicuous, and throughly maintained by experience. 
Thcfirftis, That whatfoever cannot be overcome and digcrtcd by the 
Stomack, is bv the Stomack, cither put up by Fomit, or putdown to the 
Guts i and by that Motion of Expulfion in the Stomack and Guts, other 
Parts of the Body (as the Or»j5f« of the Veins, and the like) are moved to ex- 
pel by Conibnc : For nothing is more frequent then Motion of Confent in the 
Bodjof u^^atl. This Surcharge of the Stomack, is caufed either by the 
Quality of the Medicine, or by the Quantity. The Qualities are three, 
Extream Bitter, zs, in Aloes, Coloquimida,&c. LoAthfome, and of horrible tafbe, 
as in t^itrikj Bl.tck.Hellebore, &c. And oi fecret (Jlfalignitji, and difagree- 
mcnt towards C^Lou Body , many times not appearing much in the tafte, 
as in Scamnony, (J^facboacham, Antimony, &c. And note well, that if there 
be any Medicine that rurgeth , and hath neither of the firft two C^Ianifeft 
^julities , istobchfldfufpeded asa kindc of Poyfon ; Forthat it worketh 
cither by Corrofton , or by a fecret Malignity , and Enmity to Nature ; and 
thcre'orefuch Medicines arc wanly to be prepared an J ufcd. The quantity 
of that which is taken, doth alfo caufe Purging , as we fee in a great quan- 
tity of new Milk from the Cow, yea, and a great quantity of Meat : For 

Century I. 

?urftits many cimcs turn to 'Furgei . both upwards and downwards. There- 
fore we fee generally, that the working of Turging Medicines comcthtwo 
or three hours a^tczthcMedimes taken : For that the Jww-tf^firfl: makcth a 
proof, whctherit can concoft them. And thelikc happeOeth after Surfeits. 
or Milk in too great quantity. 

A fecoad caufc is OHordicatioH of the Orifices of the Parts, cfpccially of 
the miefeiitery Jems ; as it isfccn, that bait, or any fuch thing that is Hiarp and 
biting, put into the Fundament, doth provoke the part to expel, and Mufiurd 
provokcthfncczing ; andanyfliarpthingto the eyes provokcth tears. And 
therefore \vc ice, that almofl: all Turgers hivc akindcof twitching and vcl- 
lication, befidcs the griping which cometh of wind. And if this (Jf'lordi- 
catton be in an over-high ilcgree, it is little better than tlic Corofwn of l^ojfon , 
and it cometh to pafs fomctimes in Jmmonj , cfpecially if it be given to 
Bodies not replcat with humors ; for where humors abound, the humors 
favc the parts. 

The third caufc is tv^rrM^iort : For I do not deny, h\it thai Purging Me. 
didnes havcin them adircdforcc of ^«r.J(Sw» ,• as Drawing-Plaifters have 
inS'urgery. And we fee S'>>ge, or Sittonj bruifed, SneeT^ug'potitder, ^ndothci: Ponh- 
ders or Liquors (w.iich thcThyfuUns call Errhines) put into the Nufe , draw 
Flcgm and Water from the Head ; and fo it is in ^popblegjitatifms and Gar- 
gxnfms that draw the Rhcumc down by the Palat. And by this vcitue, no 
doubt, fume TKrjm draw more one humor, and fome another, according to 
the opinion received: As T^/it/uMraweth Cholcr, i"f<t» Melancholy, ^g^ 
r4f/^Flegm,&c. but yet (more or lefs) they draw promiicuoufly. And note 
alfo, that befidcs Sympathy between the Purger and thz Humor, there is alfo 
another caufc, why fome ./l/f(/;(rj»« draw fome humor more than another; 
and it is, forthatfomc C^Iedicines work quicker than others ; and they that 
draw quick, draw onely the lighter, and more fluid humors ; t icy rhatdraw 
flow, work upon the more tough, and vilcuous humors. And therefore, 
men muft beware how they take Rnh.irb, and the like, alone, familiarly •. for 
ic taketh onely the lightefl: part of the humor away, and leaveth the Mafs 
of Humors more obftinatc. Andthclikcmay bcfaidof/farw-Tiwerf, which 
it fo much magnified. 

The fourth caufc is F/4ttf»/Ir;: For wind flirted, movcth to expel; and 
we findc that (incftcd) all Furgers have in them a raw Spirit or If^md, which 
is the principal caufc of Tortion in the Stomack and Belly. And therefore 
'PK/;?<rriiccfermoftof them) thevirtue, by dccodion upon the fire j andbr 
that caufe are chiefly given inlnfufion, Juycc, or Powder. 

The fifth caufc isComprefiion or Crufhtng: Aswhcn Water is cruflied 
out of a Spungc : So we fee that taking cold movcth loofncfi by contradion 
of the Skin, and outward parts ; and lo doth Cold likc^x■jfe caui'e Rheums 
andDefluaions fromtheHcad, and fome oZ-^i^ri^^m /'/.ii/?*ncrufli out pu- 
rulent Matter. This kinde of operation is not found inm^ny Mcduines : 
CMirthoUnes have it, and it may be the Bxrkio'i Fetches ; for tliis vcrtuc re- 
quitcth an Jfinatcn, but fuch inJftncTon, as is notgratetul to the Body 
(for apleafing tyljlrul ion doth rather bindc in the humors, than ex- 
pel them : ) And therefore fuch Jfinmon is found in things of an laarrifh 

The fixth caufc \% Lnhreftilion and RiUx.uion : As we fee m Meisctts 
Emollient, fuch as are C^lilk., Hoiiej , MMIot^s, Lettuce, Menurul, Pc'Mfrjof 
the JVaH, and others. There is alfo a fccret vcrtuc of f^eUxMion of Cold ; tor 
the ho«t of the Body bindcth the Parts and Humors together, which 






j\(atural Hijlory ; 



in Confoitj 
Aicati and 
Drir.l^t that 
art moji nou- 

Cold, relaxeth : As it is leen in ferine. Blood, Tottage, or the like ; -vi-liich, if chcy 
be cold, break and diirolvc. Andby thiskinde of /?f/.«x4rio», Fcnr loolncth 
theBclly; bccaui'ctheheatrctiring inwards towards the Heart, the Guts, 
and other parts arc relaxed ; in the fame manner as Fear alio caiifcth trem- 
bling in the Sinews. And of this kinde of Turgors arc fomc OMedumfs made 
ot Mercurj. 

Thefcventhcaufcis K^bjlerfion, which is plainly a /lOHrin^ojf, or 'luifitn' 
of the more vifcuoiu humors, and making the Awwar^ more fluid, and cutting' 
between them, and the part ; as is found in iV/frow /^ir^r, which fcourcth 
Linncn-Cloth (fpecdily) from the foulncfs. But this Inct^on muft be by a; 
S/>arpnef,\\Hhont^flrictton; which we findc in ^alt, fVormfi^ood, Oxytnel, and' 
the like. 

There be Medicines that move S'tools, andnot ferine ; feme other Frine, 
and not .Troff/^. Thofe that *P«r^* ij- Jroo/, are fuch as enter not at all, orlittlc 
into the C^lefentery Veins ; but cither at the hrft, are not digeftible by the 
^tomack, and therefore move immediately downwards to the Guts; or cli'c 
arc afterwards rejedcd bv the UWefmterj/ Veins, and fo turn likewifc down- 
wards to the Guts ; andofthcfetwokindcs, aremoftPurgcrs. But thofc that 
move Vrine, arefuchas are well digcfted of the Stomack, and well received 
alfo of the Mefenterj Veins ; fo they corneas far as the Liver, which Ibndcth 
Vrine X.0 the Bladder, as the fVhej/ of Blood: And thofc Cj^/f(fu ;;;<•;, being open- 
ing and piercing, do fortific the operation of the Liver, in fending down 
the Wheycy part oi the Blood to the Rews. Tor Medicines Urinative do not 
work by rcjcdion and indigeftion, a Solutire do. 

There be divers Medicines, which in greater quantity move Stool, and 
in fmaller. Urine ; andfo contrariwife, ibme thatin greater quantity move 
Urine, and in fmallcr Stool. Of the former fortisi?«^.<rt, and fome others. 
The caufc is, £ov thit Rtibarb is a.Medicine, which the Stomack in a fmall 
quantity doth digeft, and overcome (being notFlatuous norLoathfome.) 
.indfo fendethit to the Me f enter y Veins ; andfo being opening.ithclpcth down 
Urine : But in agreatcr quantity, the Stomack cannot overcome it, and 
fo itgocth to the Guts. Pepper, by fomc of the u^ncients, is noted to be of the 
fccondfort ; which being in fmall quantity, moveth vvind in the Stomack 
or Guts and fo expelled by Stool ; but being in greater quantity, diffipateth 
the wind, and it felf gcttcth to the Mefenterj Feins, and fo to the Liver and 
'Reins ; where, by Heating and Opening, it fendcth down Urine more 

WE have (poken of Evacuating of the Body , vvc will now (peak feme- 
thing of the filling of it by Reftoratives in Confimptiens and Emaciating 
*Difeafes. In Vctegablcs, there is one part that is morenourifhing than 
another ; as Grains and Roots nouriHi more than the Leaves, infomuch as 
the Order of the Foliatans was put down by thcTope, as finding Leaves un- 
able to nourifli Mans Body. Whether there be that difference in the 
Flefh of Living Creatures, is not well enquired ; as whether Z/rfrr, and 
other Evtrails, be not more nourifliing than the outward Flefli. Wcfinde 
that amongfl: the Romans, a Coofes Liver was a great delicacy ; infomuch, 
as they had artificial means to make it fair, and great y but whether it were 
more nourifliing, appeareth not. It is certain, that ^'laTroXv is more 
n urilhing than fat. And I conceive, that fomc decodion of Bthes and 
SineTvs, ftampedahdwcllftrained, would be a very nourifhing Broth : We 
find'e alfo, that S'eoteh J'^^nc;^ (which is a Pottage of flrong nourifliment)-is 


Century I. 

madewich the Knees and Sinews of Beef, butlorig bailed ; Jelly alfo, which 
thev ufcfor aRcrtorative, is thicfly made of Knuckles of Veal. The Pulp, 
that is within the Crafifh or Crab, which they (pice and butter, is more 
rourifliing then the flcfli of the Crab, orCrafifli. The Yolks of Hggsarc 
clearly more nour;fliij^ than the Whites. So that it fliould Icem, that the 
parts of Living Creatures thK lie more inwards, ncurifh more than the out* 
wardflcfh; except it be the Brain, which the Spirits prey too much upon, to 
leave it any great vertue of noutifhing. It (cemethforthe nourilhingof aged 
Men, or Men in Conlumptions, feme fuchthingfhoulci bedeviled, asflaould 
be halt C/;;/w, before it be put into the ftomach. 

Take two large Capons, perboil them upon a foft fire, by thcfpace of 
anhouror more, tillineftlet all the Blood begone. Add in the decodion 
thePillof a Sweet-Lemraon, or agood partof thePill of aCitron, and a 
little Mace. Cutoff the i>hanks, and throw them away; then with agood 
ftrongCnopping-knife, mince the twoCapons, Bones and all, asfmallas 
ordinary minced Meat; put them into a large neat Boulter, then take a Kil- 
derkin, iweer, and well feafoned, of four Gallons of Beer of Eight fhillings 
ftrcpgth, new as it Cometh from the Tunning; makcin theKilderkin agrcat 
Bung-hole of purpofe, then thrult into it, the Boulter (in which the Capons 
are; drawn out in length ; leticlkepin it three days and three nights, the 
Bung-hole open to work, then clofe the Bung hole, and fo let it continue a 
day and a half, then draw it into Bottles, and you may drink it well after 
threedays Bottling, and it will latl fix weeks ('approved). It drinketh frefh, 
flowreth, and mantlcrh exceedingly, it drinketh not newifli at all, it is an 
excellent drink iora Confumption tobedrunk cither alone, or carded with 
fome other Beer. It quencheth thirft, and hathno whitof windincis. Note, 
that it is notpofliblc, that Meat and Bread, eiiher in Broths, or taken with 
Drink, as is ufcd, fliould get fortn into the Veiiis, and outward Parts, fb 
finely, and eafily, as when it is thus incorporate, and made almoll a Chjliis 

Tryal would be made of the like Brew with Tot.tdo-Roots, or Bur-Roots, 
or the Pith of «_x^m<:/>a;j/7, which arc nourifhing Meats.- It may bctryed al- 
fo, with other flefli ; as Phefant, P4trnige,Toiing Tori, Pig, Venifotij cfpecially of 
Tiung 'Deer, &c. 

\CMfrtrefmiAc with the Brxivn of Capons, ftimped, andnrained,and 
mingled (alter it is made) with like quantity, at the leaft, of jilmond Butter, is 
an excellent Meat to nourifh thole that ar^ weak, better than Batk-M^nger 
or Jelly : Andfo is theC'H///tf ot Co(ki, boiledthickwith thelikemixture ot 
Almond Butter: Forthe Mortrcfs orCullice of itleir, is more lavory and 
Itrong, and not lb fit for nour.fliing of weakBodie-^, but the Almonds that 
arc not of fo high arafteasflefli, do excellently qualiheir. M.tiz hath (ot certain) an excellent Spirit of N'ourifhmens but ic 
muft be throughly boiled, and made in:oaMaiz-Crcam like a Bulcy-Cream. 
1 judge the fame ot Rice, m.ade into a Cream ; forKice i^i.i Turky, and other 
Couotreys of the Eart, moft fed upon, but it muft be throughly boiled in re- 
fpcftof thehardnefsof it; and alfo, bccaufc othcrwifc it bindcth the Body 
too much. 

Piftachoes, fo they be good and not mufty, joyned with Almonds in 
Almond Milk, or made into a Milk of themfclves, hkc unto Almond Milk, 
but more green, are in excellent nourifhcr. But you fhall do well, to 
add a little Ginger fctapcd, becaule they are not without fomc fubtilwindi- 

C Milk, 







J\(jitural H'tjlory ; 

(JMtlk. warm from tlie Co\*, is lound tc be- a great nounfhcr, and a good 
remedy in Confumptions : But then you muft putincoir, when you Milk 
the Cow, two little Bags; the one ot ^^eT»der ef Almt, the other of /'«Wfr 
of RedRofes] for they keep thcMilk fomewhat from turning, or crudjmg 
inthci)tomack; and put in Sugar alio for the fame caufe, and partly tor the 
taltes (iike : But you muft drink a good draught, that it may Itay Itfs tmv; 
in the Stomack, Jell: it cruddlc: And let the Cup, into which you milk the 
Cow, befet in a greater Cup of hot Water, that you may take it warm. 
And Col* -mi/iLth us prepared, I judge to be better tor aConfumption, thati 
{^yiJi-mUi , whicli (it is true) turncth not fo cafily . but it is at little hatlh.- 
Marry it is more proper for fharpncls of Urine , and Exulceration of the 
Bladder, and all manner of Lcnifyings. IVemens-mtlk hkcwileis prefcribccl, 
whemllfail; but 1 commend it nor, as being a little too near the Juycc of 
Mans Body, tobcagoodnouriiher ; except it be in Infants, to whom it is 

Ojl of fiveet Jllmonds newly drawn, with Sugarand a little Spice, fprcd 
upon Bread tolled, is an excellent nourifiier ; but then to keep the Oyl from 
frying in the Stomack, youmulldtink agooddraught of Milde-Bcer after 
it J and to keep it from relaxing the Stomack too much, you mull put in a 
little Ttltder of Cinnamon. 

1 he Tolki of tggs are of thcmfelves fo well prepared by NAture (or nou- 
rifliment , as (fo they be Potched, or Rear boy led) they need no other pre- 
paration or mixture ; yet they may be taken alio raw, when they are new 
laid, with C^Ialm fey oi Sneet J'f^ine .Y ou Hull do well to put in fomcfew fliccs 
of ETinglum Rottt, and a little %^mber greect : For by this means, befidesthc 
immediate taculty of nourifhment, luch drink will ftrcngthen the Back, fo 
that it will not draw down the Urine toofaft. For too much Urine doth al- 
ways hinder nourifhment. 

(JUincing of Ment, as in *P»« , and Butter ti minced Meat, favcth the grind- 
ing of the Teeth ; and therefore (no doubt) it is more nouriftiing, efpecially 
in Age , or to them that have weak Teeth ; but the Butter is not fo proper 
tor weak Bodies, and therefore it were good to moiften it with a little 
Claret Wine, Pill of Lemmonot Orenge cut (mall, iugar, and a very lirtlc 
Cinnamon, or Nutmeg. As for c/;Kfrj, which are likewilc Minccd-mcat; 
inltcadof Butter, and were good to moiften them, partly with Cream, 
or Almond, or Piftachomilk, or Barley, orMaiz Cream ; adding a little Co- 
nander-fccd, and CarraWayTced, and a very little Saffron. The mote lull 
handling of Alimentation, wcrelerve ro the due place. 

fVe have hitherto handled the particular/, "Xthich yield tieft, tndeafiefi, and plentifulleft, 
Nourishtnent j and nolv Jte y»iUJpeak of the befi Means ef conveying, and convert- 
ing the Nourishment. 

The hrltMeans isto procure, that thcNourifhment may notbe robbed 
and drawn away i wherein that which we have already laid, is very mate- 
rial, to provide, thattheReins draw not too flrongly an over-great part 
of the Blood into Urine. Tothis add that Precept of -^ri/?«/f. That Wine 
be torborn in all Confumptions ; for that the Spirits of the Wine do prey 
upon the Rofcidejuyce of the Body, andinter-common with the Spirits of 
the Body, and fo deceive and rob them of their Nourifliment. And therefore 
if the Confumption, growing trom the weaknels of the Stomack, do force 
you to ufc Winc; let it always be burnt, that the quicker Spirits may cvapo- 
rate, or (at the leaft) quenched with two little Wedges of Gold, fix or (even 
times repeated. Add alfo this Provifion, that there be not too much expence 


(^entmy I. 

of the nouridimcnt, by Exhaling and Sweating : And therefore if tlic Piticnt 
be apt to fxvcat, itmuftbcgcmly rcftraincd. Btic'chiefly /i/z/iocrj/^ Rule is to 
bcfollowed, whoadvilcth quite contrary to that which is in ufc : Naniclv, 
That the Linnen or Garment next the Flelh, be in Winter dry and Oic 
changed; and in Summer I'eldom changed, and fmearc J over ^^ithOyI.• 
For certain it is, that anyfubllancc that is fat, doth a little fill the Pores of 
the Body and (tay S\veat in fome degree. But the more cleanly way is to 
have the Linnen fmeared lightly over withOylof fvveet Almonds, and not 
toforbcarfhiftingasoftas is fit. 

The fecond Means is to fend forth the nouriniment into the parts more 
ftrongly, for which, thcworking muftbe byftrengthning of the Stoaiack ; 
and in this, bccaufc the Stomack is chiefly comforted by Wine and hot 
things, which other vxifc hurt, it isgoodto refbrt to outward applications to 
the Stomack: Wherein it hath becntryc I, that the Quilts of Rofcs, Spices, 
M.illick. "W^'orm'w'ood, Mint, &c. are not fo helpful, as to take a Cake of 
New Bread, and to bedew it with a little r<tti^ or <J^/ff<»«r, andtodryit, and 
after it be dryed alicdc bctorc the Fire, to put it within a clean Napkin, 
and to lay it to the Stomack: For it is certain, that all Flower hath a po- 
tent Vertue of ylftncfion , infomnch, as it hardneth a piece of Flelh, or a 
Flower that is laid in ir. And therefore a Bag quilted with Bran, islikcvvifc 
verv good, butitdrycthlomcwhat toomuch, and therefore itmuflnot lie 

The third Means (which may be a branch of thcformcr^i is to fend 
forth thcnourilhmcnt the better by flecp. For vrcfee, that Bears and other 
Creatures that flccp in the Winter, was exceeding tat : And certain itis, (as 
it is commonly believed) that Sleep doth nourilh much, bcth for that the 
Spirits do lelsfpcnd the nourilhment in Sleep, thanwhcn living Creatures 
areawiikc: And becaulc (thatwhichis to theprefcntpurpofc) ithelpcth 
tothruft out thenourifliment into the parts. Therefore in aged-meri. and 
weakBodics, andiuchas abound not with Choler, afhortflcepafter dinner 
doth help to nouridi; forinfuch Bodies there is no fear of an over-haffcv 
digcftion, ■which is the inconvenience otToJl-ttieridun S'ltfps. Sleep alfo in 
the morning, atter the taking of fomewhatof eaficdigeftion ; a$ Milk from 
tlij Cow, nourifhing Broth, or the like, doth further nouriftimcnt : But this 
would be done litting upright, that the Milk orBroth may pafs the more 
fpcedilv to the bottom of the Stomack. 

Tlicfourth Meansis toprovide.thatthc parts thcmfelvctmay draw to 
them the nourilhment ftroncrly. There is an excellcntobfcrvationof yfri- 
flotle, chat a ^reat reafon why Plants (fome of them) are of greater age than 
Living Creatures is, for that they yearly put forth new Leaves and Boughs ; 
whereas Living Creatures put forth (after their period of growth) nothing 
that is young, butHair anaNails. which are Excrements, and no Parts. 
And itis molt certain, that uh.itfoever is younjj, doth draw nourishment 
better, than that which is old ; and then (that which is the myftcry of 
that obfcrvation) young Boughs and Leaves, calling tlic Sap up to them, 
the fimcnourilliethiheBodyin thcpaiVage. And this we fee notably pro- 
ved alio, in that the oft cutting or polling of //fii'^d-/, Trees, and Herh, doth 
conduce much to their lafting. 1 ransfer therefore this obfcrvation to the 
helping of nourilhment in Living Creatures : The Nobklt and Principal 
Uic whcrcof.ij, for the Prolongation of Life ; Reftauration of fome de- 
gree of Youdi, and Inteneration of the Parts: For certain it is, that there 
arc in Living Creatures Parts that nourilli and repair cafily , and part* that 

C i nourifli 




Filum Aitii- 

O^tural Hi [lory ; 

nourilh and repair hardly i andyoii mull rcfrcfli, anJ; renew cholc chacarc 
calic tonourilli, that the other may be re rcflicd, an.l (asit were) drink in 
nourilhment in the pallagc. Now \vc Ice that 'DraugkiOxen ^ninxio ^uod 
Parturc, recover the FJcJh of young Beet ; and iVlen atcer longcmaci:iting 
Diets, wax plump and fat, and almolt new : S« that you ma . iurcly conclude, 
that the trcqucntand wife ufc of thoi'c emaciating l^icf;, and of Purgings; 
and perhaps of feme kinde of Bleeding, is a principal means of prolonga- 
tion pt life, and rertoring iomedcgrce of Youth : For aswc have oftciilaid, 
'Death cunicth upon Living Creatures like the Torment of Mez^eimw, 
(JUortuA HHmetumjungebat corpon vn'«, 
Component M^ntbiifjue Manus, 4tqueorihis»ra. 
For the parts in Mans body cafily repairable (as Spirits, Blood, and Fleih) 
die in th&embracement of the parts hardly repairable as Bones, Nerves, 
and Membranes) and likcwifc lomc Entrails (which they tetkon amongll 
the Spcrmatical Parts) arc hard to repair : Though that di\ illon ot Sper- 
matical and Alcnftcual Parts, be but a conceit. And this lame oblcrv uion 
alfb may be drawn to the prcfcnt purpofeof nourilhing emaciated Bodies : 
And therefore Gemle Frttatwn draweth forth the nouriihmcnt, by making 
the parts a little hungry and heating them, whereby thc\' call forth nouriili- 
ment the better. This Frtcatton I \cifii to be done in the morning. It is 
alfo bell done by the Hjnd, or apiece of Scarlet-Wool, wet a little with 
O) 1 of Almonds, mingled with a fmall quantity of Bay-Salt, or Saflron : We 
fee that the very Currying of Horfes doth make them fat, and in good 

i he fifth means is, to further the very i& of t_/ffnni!.uion of Nourish- 
tnent; which is done by lomc outward f»j»//!r«M , that make the parts more 
apt to Aflimilate. For w hich I have compounded an ointment of excellent 
odor, which I call Rm(t» ointment, vide the Reccit. The ufc of it would be 
betvfccpflccps ; forin the latter llccp,thc parts aflimulate chiefly. 

THerc be many (JHedkines, which by thcmfelvcs would do no cure, but 
perhaps hurt, but being applicdin a certain order, one alter another, 
do great cures. I have tried (my (eU) a Remedy for the Gout, which bath 
fcliJom failed, but driven it away in Twenty four hours inacc : It is firfl to 
Apply a Piiltitf, of which, v/rf? the Reccit, and then aBarh or Fomentation, 
of which, v/rff thcRcccit , and then aPlaiftcr, n^/^ the Receit. Ihc'TultaJi 
relaxed the Pores, and makcth thehvmiorapt to exhale. The Fomentation 
calleth forth the Humor by Vapors ; but yet in regard of the way made by 
the Tultaf, draweth gently ; and therefore draweth the Humors out, and 
doth notdraw morctoit: For itis aGentlc Fomentation, andhath withal 
a mixture (though very little^ of fome ftupcfadive. Ihe Plailler is a 
moderate Aftringent Plaiflcr , which repcUeth new humor from filling. 
The /"«//.«/ alone would make thepart more foft and weak, andaptcrto rake 
the dci^uxion and impreffion of thcHumor. The Fomentation alone, if it 
were too'w'eak, without way made by the Pultaf, would draw forth litde; 
if too ftrong, it would draw to thepart, as well as draw from it. The Phiilcr 
alone would pen the Humor already contained in the part, and fo exafpev 
rate it, as well as forbid new Humor ; therefore they mud be all taken iri 
order, as isfaid: The PiiUaj^ i$ to bo laid to for two or three hours; the' 
Fomentation fora quarter of an hour, orfomewhat better, being ufcd hot, 
and fcven or eight times repeated ; thcPlaiftcr to continue on ftill, tilltho 
part be well confirmed. ; i: .. ; . 

.' ') There 

"'■-'-■" ■« ' 



Curt Lj Cu- 

(^entury /. I ' 7 

THerc is a fccrct way of Cure , unpradifcd by ylffuetudc of that which 
inicfelr hurtcth. Pojfonshx\-c been made by fomcFamihar, as hach 
been laid. Ordinary Keepers of the lick ot ths FU^ne, arc fclJoin infc<flcd. 
Enduring of Tortures, by cultom hath been made more calic : Thebrook- 
ingofenormousquantity of Meats, and loot Wine, or ftrongdrink, hath 
been by cullom made to be without Surfeit or Drunkcnnels. And generally 
Pilcalcs that arc Chronical, as Coughs^ 'PbiJ/tftekj, fomc kinde ofTalfus, 
Lunacies, &c. are moll dangerous at thcfirft : I hcrcforc a wile Thyfitian w ill 
conlidcr, v\ hcther a Dilcafe be incurable, or whether thcjuft cure of'it be 
not full of peril; and if he iindc it tobcfuch, let nim rcfort to Tallunon, 
and alltviarc the Symptom without bufying himlelf to j much with the 
pcrtcd cuic : And many times (if the Patient be indeed patient) that couric 
will exceed all cxpC(^ation. Likewile the Patient himlclf may ifrive, by 
little and little to overcome the Symptom in the Exacerbation, and lb by 
time turn luffcring into Nature. 

Divers Difcafes, cfpecially Chronical, (Cuch :is Quartm jigues) are Ibmc- 
timcscure ! by Surfeitund Exiejfes j as excels of Meat, excels of Drink, 
extraordinary Falting, extraordinary llirring, or Laffitudc, and the like. 
The caule is, for that Dilcates of continuance, act an adventitious ftrength 
from Cultom, bclidcs their material caule from the Humors : So that the 
breaking of the Cullom doth leave them onely to their firllcaul!: ; which, 
if it be any thing weak, will tall off. Bclides.luchExcclIesd) excite and fpur 
Nature, whichthereupon rilechmorc forcibly againll thcDilcalc. 

THerc is in the Body of Man, agrcatconfcnt in the Motion of the fcvcral 
parts : Wclccit isChildrcns Iport, to prove whether they can rub up- 
on their Brefl with one hand, nndpatupon their Forehead with another; 
andllraight ways they lliall lometimcs rub with both hands, or pat with 
bothhands. \Vc Ice, that when the Spirits that come to the Nollriis, ex- 
pel a bad fcnt, the Scomack is ready to expel by vomit. We t.ndethat in 
Ctnfiimptions of the Lungs, whcn Nature cannotcxpcl by Cough, Men fall into 
J-iuxei of the Belly, and then thcv die. So in 'PefliUnt 'Dijeufes . if they can- 
no: be expelled bv T-vv/jr, they fall likewifc into Leofnef, And that is common- 
ly Mortal. Therefore pl/^fittuns (liould ingcnioufly contrive, how by Mo- 
tions that are in their power, they may excite inward Motions t'nat are not 
in thcrirpouer, by conltnt ; asby the ilench of Feathers, orthelike, they 
cure the riling ot the Mother. i 

Hippocrates yipberifm, in Morbu A/itiw, is a good profound K^fhojifm. It im- 6^. 
portcta, that Difealcs con:rary to the Complexion, Age, Sex, >ealbnof Etpciimtnt 
the year. Diet, &c. ;irc more dangerous than thofe tiiat arc concurrent. A | f.^uchi^i; 
Man would think ic ll.ould be otherwilc ; For that vchcn the Accident of I cmt of df 
Sicknefs, and the Natural difpolition , do fecond the one the other; the \'/^!'r'^'" 
Dilcafclliouldbemore forcible. And (fo nodoubt it is, if \ou fuppolelikc ^ rridifj»fii!on. 
quantity of Matter. But that u hich maketh good the ,^yphoTifm,ii, bccaule I 
fuch Difealcs do fhcw a greater collcdion of Matrer, by that they arc able : 
to overcome thofe Natural inclinations tothccontrary. And therefore in 
Dilcalei of that kinde, let the / /n/u»jn apply himlelt morcto iurgatitn, than 
to tyJ Iteration ; becaulc the otfcoce is in the quantity, and the qualities arc 
rcif^ificdof themfclvcs. 
^ C } rhjfituns 


Curt bj Ex- 


So itary. 
Cur* by A/o 
■.'nn nft'tnftnl. 



btfort Purg. 
inr I and fit 
ling of the 
Botly *ficr- 

^h(atural Hijlory ; 


Stitmhing of 

PJF/y/irM«^ do wifely prcfcribc, thatthercbcPreparacivej iilcd before Juft 
^Purgations ; for certain it is, ihit'Futgers^o many times grcnt hurt, if 
the Body be not accommodated, both before an J attcr the I'urging. 'I he 
hurt that they do, toe want of Trcparation before Turging-, is by the ftif k- 
ing of the Humors, and their not coming fair av ay ,• u htch caiilcth in tht 
Body great perturbations, and ill accidents, during thcPiirging ; and alfp 
thcdiminilhing and dulling of the working ot the Mcdicincit Itlf, that it 
purgeth not lurticiently : Thcrctorc the work of Trtfurationx^doxxhlc , to 
make the Humors tiuide and mature, and to nuke the palL-.gcs more open j 
For thofe both help to make the Humors pals readily : And for the former 
of theic,yyr"i'*'^re mofl profitable j andfortlie latter, yi^o-^unn or Frep-tr-nn 
Broths ; C///?fwallbhelp left the OyndkmeiXop in the Guts, and workgripn : 
ly. But it is true, that Bodies abounding vrich Humors, and fat Bodies, 
and open Weather, urc ^Preparatives in themlelves ; becaufcthcy make the 
Humors more fluid : But let a Fhjficun beware how he purge after hard 
Froftv Weather, and in a lean body, without t'repArauon. For the hurt 
that they may do after lurgin^, it is cauicd by the lodging of feme Humors 
in ill places ; for it is certain, that there be Humors which Ibmcwhcrc 
placed in the Body, are quiet, and do little hurt; in other places (cipecially^ 
FairaCTCs) do much mifchief. Therefore it is good after Purging, toufc 
ty^poz-tinis and Broths, not fo much opening as thofc uied before Purging, 
but Abrturfive and MundifyingClylfcrs alio arc good to conclude with, to 
draw away therelicks of the Humors thatmay have dcfcended to the lower 
region of the Body. 

BLeod is ftanchcd divers ways : Firft, by Aflringents and Repcrcuflive 
(Jl'ledii.ines. Sccondlv, by drawing of the Spirits and BIcod inwards, 
which is done by cold ; as \ron or a Stone hid to the Neck doth llanch the 
Bice iincT of the Nofc ; alio it hath been trici', that the Tf/zc/a being put 
into (harp Vinegar, hath made a iuddcn recefs of the Spirits, and ftanchcd 
Blood. Thirdly, by the Receis of the Blood by Sympathy,- lo it hath been 
tried, that the part that bleedcth, being thruft into the body of a Capon, 
Sheep, new riptani bleeding. hath flLUiched Blood ; the Blood, asicfeem- 
cth, fucking and drawing up, by fimilitudeot lubftance, the Blood it mect- 
cth with, and lo it fclf going back. Fourthly, by Cuflom and Time; fo the 
Prince of Anrange, inhistirfthurt by the Spani(]iBoy,cOulHfin.^e no means 
to ftanch the Blood, cither by (JHedicine or Ligament , but was fain to have 
the Orifice of the Wound flopped by Mens Thumbs, fucceedincj one an- 
other for the fpacc at the Icafl of two days ; and atthclaft the Blood by 
cuftom onely retired. There is a fifth way alfo in ul'e, to let Blood in an ad- 
verle part for a Rcvulfion. 

IT hclpcth, both in Medicine and jil'ment, to change and not to continnc 
the fame '\:edicine and Aliment ftill. The caufc is, for that Nature by con- 
tinual ule of any thing, growethto a fatietyand dulnefs, either of Appetite 
changelf >i-''Qr Working. And" we fee that Afructudc of things hurtful, doth make 
''"""" "'"^ I them leele their force to hurt; As Poj/ffw, which with ufefome have brought 
thcmlclves to brook. And therefore it is no marvel, though things help- 
ful by cuftom, leefe their force to help, I count intermillion almoft the 
fame thing with change; for that, that hath been intermitted, is after aibrt 

new- I 








Century I, 

IT is Found by Experience , that in Diets ot Gnucum, Sarzu, and the like, 
(elpccially, if they be flriA) ,thc PatieKt is more troubled in the beginning 
than a tcr continuance ; vfhich hath madclbmc oF the more dchcatc fort 
of Pacicnts, give them over in the midit ; Suppoling, that if thofe Diets 
trouble them lo much atfirll, they fiiall not be able to endure them to the 
end. But the caufc is, for that all tholeDiets, to dry u^ Humor r, Rheums. 
and the like ; and they cannot dry up until they have drfh attenuated : And 
while the Htitnor is attenuated, it is more fluid, than it was before, and 
troublcth the Body a great deal more, until it be dry ed up, and confumed. 
And therefore Tjumtsmud exped aduc:time, and not theck at them at 
the hrft. 

THe producing ol Cold is a thing very worthy the Inquificion, both for 
ufc and dilcloliire of caulcs. For t/eat and Cold are Natures two hands, 
whereby file chicfl\ workcth; and Heut wc haveinrcadincls, in refped ot 
thcHre: ButforCoW, SVC mull Itay till it cometh, or feek it in deep Caves, 
or high Mountains ; and when all is done, we cannot obtain it in anygrcat 
degree : For Furnaces of Fire are far hotter than a Summers Sun> but 
Vaults or Hills are not much colder than a Winters Froft. 

Thcnrilmcr.ns of producing Co/(i, is that which iV^fwrfprcfentcth us 
withal; namely, the cxpiringql: Co/(< out of the inward parts ot the Earth 
in (f 'niter , when the Sun hath no power toovercomc it ,- the Earth being 
(ashathbcenn^edby Ibmc {Prtmura brtgiium.) Thishath been alicrted, as 
well by Ancici^, as by Modern 'Phdafofbers : It was the tenet of I'armentdfs it 
was the opinionof the Author oftheDiicourlein Plutarch, ((or I take it, that 
Book was not l''tutArihs own) *De pnmoFrtgido. It was the opinion of Tele- 
fitis, who hath renewed the Philcfophy ot *Parmentdes, and is the bcft of the 

Thefecondcaufc of Cold'n, the contadof cold Bodies ; for Cold is 
Active and Tranfitive into Bodies adjacent, as well as Heat; which is feen 
in thole things thatare touched with Snow or cold Water. AnJ therefore, 
M holocverwill be an £n</«ir*r into A^<«rKi^ let him reiort toaConlcrvatory 
of Sno A' and Ice ; fuch asthcv ufe of delicacy, to cool Wine in Summer : 
Which is a poor and contemptible ufe, inrclpedofother uics thatmay be 
madeof fuch Conlervatories. 

Tlic third caufe is the Primary Nature of all Tangible Bodies ; for it 
is well to be noted, That all things whatfoever ( Tangible are of thcmfelvcs) 
Cold ; except they have an acccflbrv heat bv Fire, Life, or Motion : For 
even the '•piritof Wine, orChymical Oyls, which are lb iiot in operation, 
aie CO the hrll: touch, Cold; and Air it felt comprefled, and condcnfcd a 
little b s- blowing, is Cold. 

i he fourth caufe is, the Dcnfity of the Bodv ; for alldenfe Bodies are 
colder than moll other Bodies , as Alett.ilsy Stone, Citap', and they arc longer 
in hcatinc; than latter Bodies. And it is certain. that^.«rf/;, T)enfe,'Tangiiblt, 
hold alluf the Nature of Cold : The caulc is, tor that all MuiterfTangtblt 
bcinc^ Cold, it mull needs follow, that where the Matter is m.fl congregate 
the CoUl is the greater. 

\ he tith caufe o' Cold, or rather of increafc and vehcmency of CWt/, is 
Aquicl; Spiriciuclofcdinacold Body; as will appear to any Mat fliallattcn- 
civcly cmlldcr of Nature in many inflances. We Ice Nine (which hath 
a.].iirk Spirit) is Cold , morccold tothe Tongue than aStone: fo Water 



JsQitural Hijlory ; 



in Confotri 
touching the 
ytrfitn and 
of the yfit in 
to Ifgitr. 



is colder than Oy], bccaulc ir hath a quicker Spirit ; for all Oyl, though it 
hath the tangible parts better digertcd than Water, yet hathitaduiicr Spirit • 
So S'ho-s» is colder than Water, becaulc it hath more Spirit v ithin it : So 
wc fee that 5*4/; put to Ue (as in thcproducingoFthe yirtifiudl ue) cncrea- 
fcth ttic adivity of cold : So iomc Infeclx svnich have Spirit of Life, as 
Snakts 2in^^ilkyforms, are to the touch, Cold. So Qjiick^.filver is the coL.cftot 
Metals, bccaufcitis fullcftot Spirit. 

The fixth caufc of Cold is, the chaffing and driving away of Spirits, 
fuch as have fomc degree of Heat ; for the banilhins; of the Heat miift 
nee -sliaveany Body cold. This weiircin the operacion oi Opium, and S'ttt- 
pefaiiivei upon thc Spirits of Living Creatures j and it were notamii's to try 
Opium by la,ing it upon the top ot a IFeAther-Guf, to fee whether ic will 
contrad the Air ; butldoubt itwillnot fucccd : For belidcs that, thc vcr- 
tuc of 0/>»Hm will hardly penetrate thorowfuch abody as GUIs, 1 conceive 
that Opium, and the like, make thc Spirits Hie rather by Malignity, than by 

Seventhly, the fame effcft muft follow upon the exhaling or drawing 
out of the warm Spirits, that doth upon thc flight ot the Spirits. There is 
an opinion, thatthcMoonisMagncticalof Heat, as thc Sun is of Cold and 
Moillurc : It were not amifs therefore to try it with w arm waters ; the one 
expofed to the Beams of thc Moon , the other with fome skreen betwixt 
the Beams of the Moon and thc Water : As we ufetothe Sunfor flDade, 
and to ice whether thc former will cool fooner. And it were alfogood 
to enquire, what other means there may be, to draw forth the Exile heat 
which is in the Air 5 tor that may be a fecrct of great power to produce 
cold Weather. 

WE have formerly fct down the Means of turning Air into Water, in 
thc Exfe>mmti.-j. But becaufc icis <J\-ugiule Nature, and tcndeth to 
the iubduing of a very great effcA, and is alfu of manif^jld ufc: We will 
adde tome inftances in Conlort thatgivc light thereunto. 

It is teported by fime of the Ancients, that Sailers have ufed every 
night, to hang Fleeces of V^ool onthe fides of their ships ^ thc Wool to- 
wards the Water ; and that they have cruflicd frcfh water out ot them, in 
thc M rning, tot their ufc. And thus much v c have tried, that a quantity 
of Wool tied lootc together , being let down into a deep Well 5 and 
hanging in the middle, fomc three Fathom from the Water for a night, in 
the Winter time, incrcalcd in weight, ( as I now remember) to a fifth 

It is reported by one of thc Ancients, that in Ljdu^ nt^t V ergamiu , 
there were certain Workmen in time of Wars, f^cd into Caves ; and the 
Mouth of the Caves being flopped by thc Enemies, they wercfaminicd. 
But long time after, thc dead Bodies were found, and fomc Vclfcls which 
they had carried with them, and the Vclfjls full of Water; and that Wa- 
ter thicker, and more towards Ice, than common Water,- which is anotable 
inftancc of Condenfation and /nduration hy Burial under Earth (in Caves) for 
long time ; and of Verfioit alfo (as ic fhould icem) of the Air into Water j 
if any of thofeVcllels wcreemptv. Try thcreforea fmall Bladder hung in 
J"»fl>, and the like in A^urf, and thc like in Qu^ick-filver : And if you findc 
the Bladders fain or Ihrunk, you mavbe fure the Air iscondenfed bythc 
Cold of thofe Bodies, as ic would be in a Cave under Earth. 


It is rcpoitcd ot vcrv good credit, tli.icjn the Eafi-Lidies i£ \,oi\ j^t- a 
Tub of Water open in alloom where cloves arc kept, it will be Jrawn dry 
ill Twenty four hours, though it /land at ibmc; dilbnt from the Chvas. 
In the Countrcy, tlicy ulc man v times in deceit, vvjb?n their Wooll is new 
Hiorn, to let feme Pails of Water by in the Tapic Room , to cncrcalb 
the weight of the "Vi'^ooll : But it may be, that the Heat of tlic Wool re- 
maining from ti'c Body of the Sheep, or the hcac gathered by thclyina 
clofe of the Wool, hclpctluo draw the watry vapor i'i but |iwc is npthin'^^ t© 

Itisrcportcdalfo credibly, thatWool new fhorn, being laid caluallv 
iiponaVcflelof /-^fr/w'cf; alter fome time hath drunk up agrc-at parcof the 
Vcrjuue, though the Vcilcl wcrewh Ic without any fiaw, and hadnotthe 
Bung-hole open. In this inlhnce there is (uptm the by to be noted, the 
Tfrcol.ition or Suing ot the feijuutt thorow the Wood ; for reijuue of ii fdf 
would never have pniled through the Wood: So, asit fccmeth.itmullbe 
hritinakinJc ot^ v.ipor before itpafs. 

Jt iscfpcciallyto be noted, that the caufe that doth f^icilitatc the Ver- 
sion of Air into Water, Mhcn the Air is not in grofs, but iiibtilly mingle.i 
vvith.tnngible Bodies, is, (at hath been partly touched before) for that tan- 
gible Bodies have an antipathy with Air; and if they finde any Liquid Body 
th.u is more denfc nearthcm, they will draw it ; and after they have drawn 
jr, they wiUcondenleitmorc, and in effc<ft incorporate ic : For v c lee that 
aSpungc, orWoolljOrSugar, or a Woollen-cloth, being put but in part, in 
"^'atcror Wine, w ill draw the Liquorhighcr, andbcyond cheplace, whcie 
the Water or U'inc comcth. Wc Icc alfo, that ff'ood, l^iite-pmgs, and the like, 
Jo fwcll in. moift Icalons ; as appcarcth by the breaking f f the llrincri;, the 
hard turning of the Pegs, and the hard drawing forth of Boxes, and opening 
of Wainlcor doors, wliich is akindcof infulion ; and is much like toanin- 
fuiion inW.itcr.uhich will make Wood to fvvell; as we fee in the idlinc-ot 
the Chops of Bowls by laying them in VVatcr. But for that part of thele 
Expaiiiuiitt, which concerncth-<'/n»jcV;ff;;;vc will referve into the proper Title 
ot yitiraciien. 

ThercisalfoaVcrfi in of Airinto Watcr.fccingin thcfwcatingofiV.<r- 
i.'«, an i other Srovei; and ot VVainfcot before, and in moi/lvfeathcr. This 
mult be, eitiier by jbme moiflurc the Body yieldcth, oc clfc by Cue moill Air 
th;cknedagainlt the hard Body. Bucitis plain, that it is tlic latter; fur tliat 
wc fee Wood painted with Oyl-colour, will fooncrgathcr drops in a moill 
night, than Wood alone ; which iscaufcd by thelmoothncfs and clolcncfs, 
which lettcth in nopart of the vapor, and fu turncth itbatkand thickneth 
i: into Dew, We fee alio, tliat breathing uponaGlals, or Imooth Body, 
givcth a Dew ;. and inFrolly mornings ( Inch as wc call Rmte fro/Is) you 
Hull fiude drops of Dew upon tlicinlidcof Glaf -windows : AndtlicFrolf 
it folf upon tfie ground, i$ but a \'erhon orCondenfafionoi the moifl va- 
pors ot tiicnjght,inc#a watryUibllancc : Dews likcwiicjund Rain, arc but 
the returns of nioill vapors condcnfed • the Dew, by the cQi4,onL-Iyot 
the Sun departure, which is the gentler cold; Riins, by the cold oftluf 
^'hich ihey:,calJ the cJlltdilit Region of ihc Aii", wluch is the more violent 

It is very probable (as hath been touched) that that uhich will turn 
\\ at::- into Ke, will likcwife turn Air fbme degree nearer umo Water. 
Ihtrctorc try the £.\i/>fKwrni (^t the Artificial turning "^^'atcr- into Icc 
( whereof >xc /hall ipeak in anotlicr place) svithAir inplaccof Wat<:r, and 



0\Qatural Hiflory ; 

the Ice about it. And although it be a greater n Iteration to turn Air into 
Water, than Water into Ice i yet there is this tiopc, that by continuing the 
Air longer time, the cfFcA "will follow ; for that artificial convcrfion of 
Water into Ice, is the work of a few hours ; and this of Air may be tried by 
a moneths fpacc. or the Vikc. 

IMdurdt'ton or LafidifiistioH of Subflancci more foft, is likcu ife another de- 
gree of Condenfation, and ij a great alteration in Nature. The etfcd- 
ing and accelerating thereof, is very worthy to be enquired it is cfFededby 
three means. 

The fir ft is by Cold, whofe property is tocondenfe, and conftipate, as 

Thefecondisby Heat, which is not proper butbyconfequencc j for 
the hcatdoth attenuate, and by attenuation doth fend forth the Spirit, and 
moifterpartof aBody ; andupon that, the more grofs of the tangibleparts 
do contraft and fervc themlelvcs together; both to avoid F'tcuum (as they 
call it) and alfo tomunitc themfelves againft the force of the Fire, which 
they have fuffered. 

AndthcthirdisbyAIIlmilation, whenahard Body aflimilatcthafoft, 
being contiguous to it. 

"^ The examples of Induration taking them promifcuoudy, are many : A$ 
the Generation of Tmm" within the Earth, which atthefirft arc but Rude 
Earth or Clay ; and fo of C^Iinerals, which come (no doubt) at firft of 
Juyces Concrete, which afterward indurate: And fo of Tor cell ane, which is 
an Artificial Cement, buried in the Earth a long time ; and fo the making 
of Brick^znd Tile ; alfo the making of Glaf, of a certain Sand and Brake-Roots, 
and feme other matters ; alfo the Exudationt of Rock^ diamonds :\nd Chrjfftal, 
which harden with time ; alfo the Induration oi Bead-jimber, which at firftis a 
foft fubftance, as appeareth bv thci='//«and Spiders, which arc found in it, 
and many more. But wc willfpcakof them diftinftly. 

For Indurations hy Cold, there be few Trials of it ,• for we have no flrong 
orintenfe cold here on the furface of the Earth, fo near the Beams of the 
Sun and the Heavens, the likelieft tryal is by Snow and Icej for as Snow 
and Iccj cfpecially being holpcn , and their cold adfivated by Nitre or 
Salt, will turn Water into Ice, and that in a few hours : So it maybe it 
will turn WoodorftifF Clay into Stone in longer time. Put therefore into 
a Confe;ving Pit of Sn©w and Ice, (adding fome quantity of Salt and 
Nitre) apieceof Wood, or apicceof toughClay, andlct itlieamoncth 
or more. 

Anothcrtryalisby CMetallineVf^aters, which have virtual Cold in them. 
Puttherefore Wood or Clay into Smiths water, or other (J^ietallme t»ater, and 
try whether it will not harden in fome reafbnable time. But 1 underftand 
it of iMetallint y»aterSy that come by walhing or quenching, and not of Strong 
Waters that come bydiflblution ; for they are too Corrofive to confo- 

1 1 is already found, that there are fome Natural Spring- waters that will 
inlapidate Woodi fo as you fhall fee one piece of Wood, \s hereof the part 
above the Water fliall continue Wood ; and the part under the Water, fhall 
beturncd intoakinde of Gravelly Stone. It is likely thofe Waters are of 
fome Metalline Mixture ; but there would be more particular inquiry made 
of them. Itisccrtain, that an Egg was found, having lain many years in the 


(^entury L 

boftom of a Moar, where the t:arth had fomcwhat overgrown it : And 
this £gg was come to the hardness ofaftoHC, and had rhecolours of the 
White and Volk perfcd ; and the Shell fhining in fmall Grains, liicc Sugar 
or Alublalcr. 

Another Experience tlicre is of /«rf«M/«»»/^ CoW, which is already found, 
which is. That Mculs thcmfclvcs are hardned by often heating, and quench- 
ing in Ccld-water : For Cold ever workcih moft potently upon Heat pre- 

For Induration by Heat, it muft be confidered. That Heat, bythcexha 
ling of the moilkr parts, doth either harden the Body; as in Bricks, Tiles, 
<5cc. Or if the Heat be more fierce, niaketh the grolTer partof itfclf, run and 
melt; as in the making of ordinary Glafs, and in the Vitrification of f:anh, 
(as wc fee in the inner p;irt3ot Turnaces) and in the Vitrification of B:ick, 
and of Metals. And in the former of thele , which is the hardning by 
Baking, without Melting , the Heat hath thefc degrees : Firit, It Indu- 
cateth, andthcnmakcth Fragile; and lailiy, Ic doth Incinerate and Calci- 

But if youdcfircto make an Induration "with ToughneJ?, and lefs Fragility, 
a middle way would be taken , which is that which tyiri/iotle hatii well 
ootfd, but would be throughly verified. Itis, to decocliJodics in Water 
tor two or three days; but they murt be fuch Bodie< , into which the 
Water will not enter ; as Stone and M.i-l. For if they be Bodies, into 
uhi(.h the Water will enter, then long leething will rather foften than in 
durate them, as hath been tried in Eggs, ice. Therefore, fofter Bodice 
n.ul\ be put into Bottles, and the Bottles hung into Water Teething, with 
the Mouths open above the Wate^-, that no Water may gft in : For by this 
Means the Virtual Heat of the Water will enter; andiuch aH.'ir, asvrill 
not make the Bodv aduft or fragile .- But the Subflanccof the Water Will 
befhurout. This E.xperimcnt wc made, and it forted thus , It was trycd 
with a piece of brec-ftonc, and with Pewter, put into the Water at large ; the 
Frec-itonc we found received inlbmeWatcr ; forit was fofter and cjlicr to 
fcrapc, thana pieceof the fame Ifone kept dry. But the Pewter, into which 
D') Water could enter, became more white, and likerto Silver, and kfj flexi- 
ble by much. There were alfo put into an Earthen Bottle, placed as bLfore, a 
good pellet of Clay, apiece of Chccfc, apiece of Chalk, and a pieceof l-rce- 
lione. The Clay came forth almofl of the hardnefs of Stone : The Checfe 
likewife very hard, and not well tobecut : The Chalk and the Free ftone 
muchhardcr then they were. 1 he colour of the Cliy inclined not awhit to 
the colour of Brick, but rather to white, as in ordinary drying by the Sun. 
Note, thatallt e former tryals wereniadt by aboylinf^upon a good hot fire, 
rcnewingtht. Wateras itconfumed, with other hot Water ; but the boyling 
was but ior I wclve hours oncly ; And it is like, that tl.e Experiment would 
have been more i ifedual, if the boyling bad been for two or three day?, as 
wcprefcribid before. 

As touching ^fimilation (for there is a degree of yffiimilation, even in Inani- 
mire Bodies) we lec cx.implesof it in fonie Stones in Clay grounds lying 
near to the top of the Earth where Pebble is ; in which you may m^nifeftly 
fee divers Pebbles gatiiered together, and a criifl of Cement or Stone be 
twecn them, as hard as the Pcbbks themfelves. And it were good to make a 
tryal ot purpole, by takingClay, and purtingin it divers Pebbk-ffoncs, thick 
let, to lee whether in continuance of time, it will norbehardcr than o'hcr 
Clay of the fame lump, in which no Pebbles arc fcr. Wc fee alfo in Ruins 





Solitary , 
couching the 
ttr into yflr. 

touching the 
Forctof Kni- 


touching the 
Producing of 
Fiathni and 
Hairt of di- 
vm Ctlmrtl 

J^Qitural hillory ; 

of oldWalh-, efpeciallv cowards the bottom, the Mortcr will become as 
h^rd as the Brick : We fee alio, that the Wood on thefidtsof VtfTcls of 
Wine, gatherctha ciullot Tarm harder than the Wood it lelf; and Scales 
likcwifc grow to the Tcctb, harder than the Teeth thcmfelvcf. 

Mort of all, Jiuliiration hj JfimUmQn appcarcthin the bodies of Trees, 
md Living Creatures: l-or no nounfhnienr that the Tree rcceivcth, or that 
the Living Creature rcecivcth. is lo hard as Wood, Bone, orHcrn,&c. but 
is indurated after by Affimilation. 

THcEyeofthcUnderilanding, is like the Eye of the Senfe: Forasycu 
may He great objeds through rmallCrmief. or Levels; foyou may fee 
great Axioms of Natuic, through fmaJI and contemptible inftanccs. The 
fpccdy depredation of Air upun watry moiflure, and veifionof the feme in- 
to Air, appeueth in nothing niorcvifible than in the fudden difcharge. or 
vanifhing of a little Cloud of Breath, or Vapor, from Glafs or thcBladc of 
a Sword, or any (ueli pohflied Body ; Inch as doih not at all detain or im- 
bibe the moifturc : l;or the miltinel's fcattcreth iird btejkcth up fuddenly. 
But the hke Cloud, it it were oily or tatty, will nor difch argc ,• not becaufc it 
ftickcth fatter, but bccuiicAir pieytth upon Water, and Flame, and Fire, 
upon Oyl ; and therefore, to take outa fpotof Greafc, they ufea Coal upon 
brown Paper, becauic fire worketh upon Greafeor Oyl, as Air doth upon 
Water. And wc fee Paper oiled, or Wood oiled, or the like, lafl lon<^ 
moift ; but wet with Water, dry or putnfie fooner. The ciuk is, for tha't 
Air meddleth little with the moillure of oyl, 

THere is an admirable demonftration in the fame triflmginftanceof the 
little Cloud upon Glafs, or Gems, or Blades of Swords of the force of 
Union, even in theleaftquantiiies, and wcakeft Bodies, how muchitcon- 
duceth to prefervationof the prefent form, and the refiding of a new. For 
mark well the difcharge of that Cloud, and you fhall (ee it ever break up, firft 
in the skirts, and laflii* the midfl. We fee like wife, that much Water draw- 
eth forth the Juyce of the Body infuied, but little Water is imbibed by the 
Body : And this is a principal caufc, why , in operation upon Bodies, for their 
Verfionor Alteration, the tryal in great quantities doth noranfwer the tiyal 
in fmall, and fodeceiveth many ; for that (I fjy) the greater Body rcfiftcth 
more any alteration of Form, and requireth far greater If rength in the Active 
Body that (houldfubdueir. 

WE havefpoken before in the Fifth Inflance, of the caufe of OnVnr 
Colours \vi Birds; which is by the finenefs of the Strainer, we will 
now endeavor to reduce the fame Axiom to a Work. For this Writing 
of our Sjlvit Sjlvarum, is (to fpeak properly) not Natural Htflory , but a 
high kinde oi Natural Magick. For it is not a difcription onely of Na- 
ture, but a breaking of Nature, into great and ftrange Works. Try there- 
fore the anointing over of Pigeons, or other Birds, when they are but in 
their Down, orot Whelps, cutting their Hair as fliortas may be, or of 
fome other Beaft ; With fomc oyntment, that is not hurtful to the fief]7, 
and that will harden and flick very clofe, and fee whether it will not alter 
the colours of the Feathers, or Hair. It is received, that the pulling off 
the firfl: Feathers of Birds clean, will make the new come forth White: And 
it is certain, that White is a penurious colour, and where moifture is fcanr. 
So Blew Violets, and other Flowers, if theybeftarved, turn pale and white. 
________„_ Birdf, 

Century L 

Birds;. and Horfcs , by age or fears, turn white 5 and the hoar H^irs of 

Wt-'i. comcby the lame rcafon. And therefore in Birds, it is very likely 

that the Feathers that come fird, will be many times of divers colours,' 

j according to the nature of the Birds ; for that the skin is more porous, 

, but when the skin is more (hut and clofe, the Feathers will come white, i 

j This is a good FxpcrimcnC , not oncly for the producing of Birds and I 

I Bcalts of Itrange colours, 'but alfo , for the dilclofure of the nature of I 

I colours themielves; which of them require a finer porofity, and which a' 


IT is a work of providence that hath been truly obfervcdby fjmc; that 
the Yolk of the Egg conduccth little to the Generation ofthcBird, but 
oncly to the nonriflimcntot the lame: For if a Chicken be opened when 
i: is new hatched, s ou fliall hnde much ofthc Yolk remaining. And it is 
needful, that Birds that are fhaped without the Females Womb, have inthc 
Egg, as well matter o; nouriflimcnt, as matter of generation for the Body. 
For after the Egg i« laid, and fevered from the body of the Hen, it hath no 
more nouriflim nt from the Hen, but onely a quickning heat when Hie 
iitteth. But Bcai's and Men need not the matter of nourifhment within 
themielves, bccaufe they are fliapcd withinthc Womb of the Female, and 
arc nourilhed continujUy from hec body. 



touching the 

of Lhing 
Creatures bt- 
fore tbef be 
brought fonh. 


in Confoit, 

IT is an inveterate and received opinion, That Ctn/i^r/Jw applied to any 
part cf the Body, touch the Bladder, and cxulceratc it, if they flay on 
long. Itis likcA iic received, that akindc of Vtor.e, which they bringout cf itouching 
the iVip- Indies, hath a peculiar force to move Gravel, and to ilillblvc the |-*>'"/'.'='''-^ ""'' 
Stone ; inloiv.uch, as laid but tothc U'rcft , it hath lb forcibly fcnt down for"nudicinat 
Gravel, as Men have been glad to remove it, it was fo violent. \»f'. 

It is received and confirmed bvdailv experience, tha' thcSoais of the 
Feet, have great affinity with the Head, and the Mouth of the Sromack: 
As we fee, Gcingwetfiiod, to thofethat uie it not, affc(f^cth both; Applic.i- 
\ tions of hot Powders to the Feet, attenuate firfl:,ani after drv theRncume. 
I And therefore a Phylician that would bem\ftica!, prefcribcth for the cure 
; ofthc Rheume, That a Man fliould Nvalk continually upon aCamomil- 
I Alley, meaning, thathefliouldputCamomil withinhis Socks. Likewife, 
i Pigeons bleeding, applied to the Soals ofthc Feet, cafe the Head ; and So- 
poriferous Medicines applied unto them, provoke flcep. 

It Icemeth, that as the Feet have a fympatiiy svith the Head ; fothe 
Wreftsano Hinds havcaiympathy with the Heart. We fee thcaffe<ffs and 
Pallions of the Heart, and Spirits, arc notably difclofed by -he Pulfc : And 
it is often tr;cd. that juyccs of S!ock^-^ii!y-flo-\\ers, Jxofe-uimpion, G.trink^, and 
other things, applied to the Wrcfts, and renewed, have cured long Agues. 
And I conceive, that wafliingwirhccrtain Liquors the Palms ofthc Hands, 
dothmuchgood : Andthey do w ell in Heats of Agues tohuld in the Hands, j 
Eggs of Alablalicr, and B.nllsof Crvlfal. 

Of t'tefc t'r.'^is -wesh.'.'.'. Ipc.ikmore, --X'heH we huitdlt the 7:r/4'o/ Sympathy and 
Antipathy, ;« the proper pLice. 



T He knowledge of Man (hitherto) hath been determined by the view sXa™ 
orlishc; fo that whatfoevcr isinvifible, either in rcipe<S of the fine- touching ,hel 
j ncLof the Body itfclf.or the Imallnefs of t'c Parts.or of thcfubtiltv of the -^ \'"' Pr,c4,i\ 

D Motion.,'^'''"""- I 


J^Qitural hiflory ; 

Motion, iJ little inquired. And yet thefc be ihc things that govern Naiurc 
prinLipally, and without vhich, you cannot make any tiuc c/^R<«/;jix and 
Jndutttens'oi the proceedings of Naiurc. 'J he Spirits or l^ncumaticals 
that arc in all Tangible Bodicf, arc fcirce known: SometinKi, thty take 
them for Vacuum, whereas they are the moft adivc of Bodies : icmt- 
times thev take them for Air, from which they differ exceedingly, as 
much as Wine Irom "Water, and as Wood item Earth : Sometimes 
they Will have them to be Natural Heat, or a I'ortion of the Ekmenr of 
Fire, whereas fome of ihcm are trude and eo!d: And fcmetimes tlicy will 
have thtm to be the Venues and Qualities^ of the Tangible Parts which 
they ice, whereas they arc things by thcmfeives: And then, when they 
come to Plants and Living Creatures , they call them Souls. And fuch 
fuperficial fpeculations they have ; likeProlpcclivcs that fhcw things in- 
ward, when they are but Paintings. Neither is this a quelUon of words, i 
but infinitely material in Nature : lor Spirits are nothing clfe but aNa- 1 
tural Body, rarified to a Proportion, and included in the Tangible Pairs 
of Bodies, as in an Integument : And they be no IcTs differingonefrom 
the other, then the Denle or Tangible Parts: And ihcy aic in all Tangible 
Bodies whatsoever, more or lefs, andihcy are never ('almoft) at refl: And 
frcmthem, and their Motions, principally proceed e/irf/iiSfon, CoUiquatien, 
CtmoHion, Mdtuntmn, ^utrefaitm, fivification, and moft of the effects of 2^<«- 
ture. For, as we have figured them in our Sapientia f'eteruni, inthcFableof 
^roferpuu, you fliall in the Infernal Regiment hear little doings ot *Pluto, 
but moft of Troferf'mx : For Tangible Parts in Bodies, are ftupid things, 
and the Spirits do (in efFcft; all. As for the differences of Tangible Parts 
in Bodies, the induflry of the Chpiips hath given fome light in dilcerning 
by their fcparations, the Oily, Crude, *Pure, Impure. Fine , Grof, Farts of Bodies, 
and the like. And the rhyptiatis are content to acknowledge, that Herbs and 
©rw^fhave divers parts; as that Opiumhzih a ftupefaftirgparr, and a heat- 
ing part; the one moving Sleep, the other a Sweat following ; and that 
Rtihurb hath Purging parts, and Aftringing parts, &c. But this whole In- 
quiftm is weakly and negligently handled. Andfor themore (ubtil differ- 
enccs of the Minute pans, and the pcilure of them in the Body, (which 
alfo hath great cffeds) they are not at all touched ; As for the Motions of 
the Minute Parts of Bodies, which dofo great effects, they have rot been 
obfcrvedat all j becaufe they «re invifible, and incur not to the eye; but 
yet they arc to bedeprehended by experience. As 'Demoiritus (i\d well, 
when they charged him to hold, that the World was made of fuch little 
Moar.s as were feen in the Sun. \^tonm {{zithhc) necefttaie Ratitnis &Ex' 
ferienm efft cottvincitur : t^tomnm tntm nemo tnmquam vidtt. And therefore 
rhe tumult in the parts ot lolid Bodies, when they arc compreffed, which 
is the caufe of all flights of Bodies thorow the Air, and of other Mechanical 
Motions , (as hath been partly touched before, and fhall be throughly 
handled in due place,) is not fccn at all, but neverthelefs, if you know it 
! nor, or inquire it nor attentively and diligently, you ftall never be able to 
j difcern, and muchlefs to ptoduce, a number of Mechanical Motions. 
I Again, as to the Motions Corporal, within the Enclofures of Bodies, 
\ whenby theeflbds (which were mentioned before) pafs between the Spi 
rits and the Tangible parts (which are ^refaclioti, CoUiquation, Cencoilion, 
' C^laturation, &c.) thev are not at all handled; fut they arc put off by the 
names of ^^fm/«, and Natures, and yfilions, 3nd faf ions, anddichotheiLogieal 
I It 

(^entury I, 

IT is certain , that of all Towrs in Nature, Heat is the chief ; both in the 
Frame of N>iture, and in the Works of c/^rr. Certain it is likcwilc, that 
thccfFcftsufHcatj arc moil: advanced, when icworkethuponaBody with- 
out lofs or diflipation of the matter, for tliatevcr betrayed the account. 
And therefore it is true, that the power of Heat is bell perceived in Diflil- 
lations, w hich are performed in dole Vcflels and Receptacles. But yet 
there is a higher decree ; Forhowrocvcr Diftillationsdokcep the Body in 
Cells and Cloyllcrs, without going abroad, yctthcy givcfpaceunto Bodies 
to turn into Vapor, to rctiiin into Liquor, andtolcparatc one part from 
another. So as A^rffwrf doth expatiate , although it liath not full liberty ; 
whereby the true and ultimc operations of Heat, are not attained : But 
it" Bodies may be altered by Heat, and yet no fuch Reciprocation o( Rare- 
fadlion, and of Condenfation, and of Separation, admitted ; then it is like 
that this Proteut of Matter, being held by the Sleeves, will turn and change 
into many Metamorpholcs. Take therefore a Iquare Vellcl of form 
of aCubc. andlct it have good thick and ftrong fides i put it into a Cube of 
Wood, that may fill it as clofc as maybe, and let it have a cover of Iron as 
Ifrong (at Icafl:) as the fides, and let it be well Luted, after the manner of 
the Chjm'ijls ; then place the VeiVclwithin burning Coals kcptquick kindl ed, 
for fome few huursfpacc ,- then take the Vcflcl from the Fire, and take oft 
the Cover, andlcewhatisbccomeof the Wood, 1 conceive, that fincc all 
Inflamation and Evaporation are utterly prohibited, and the Bodv iFill turn- 
ed upon it lllf, thatoncof chcle two Eftcds will follow. Either that the 
Body of the Wood will be turned into a kindc of ^^, (as the <?/>;- 
wiyPycall ir,> or, that thcfincr part will be turned into Air , and thcwrolfcr 
flick as it Nvcre baked, and incruilatc upon the fides of the VclTcl, being 
become of a dcnfer matter, than the Wood it lelf, crude. And for another 
trya!, take alfo Water, and put it in the like Vcllcl, flopped as before; but 
ufc a gentler Heat, and remove thcVeflel iometimes from the fire; and 
again, after fomc fmall time, when it is cold, renew the heating of it, and 
repeat tl-. is alteration fome few times ; and if you can once bring to pafj, 
thatthc Water which ii one of the fimplcit of Bodies, bcchanged in Co- 
lour, Odor, or Tallc, atter the manner of Compound Bodies, you may 
be lure that there is agreatwork wrought in Nature, and a notable entrance 
Biade in fhrange changes of Bodies , and produdions ; and alfo a way 
made to do that by Fire, in fmall time, which the Sun and t_/ige do in 
long time. But if the admirable eilcdsof this 'DijiiU.ttitn in clofe, (for 
fo we call it) which is like die Wombs and Matrices of Living Creatures, 
where nothing expircth nor llparatcth : We will ipcak fully, in the due 
place. Not that ■^c aim at the making of Terdcetfm Pigmcys, or any fuch 
prodigious folliei • but thot we know the effe^s of Heat will be fuch, as 
will Icarcc fall under the conceit of Man, it the force of it be altogether 
kept in. 

THcrc is nothing more certain in Nature, than that it is impofTlblc for 
any Body to be utterly annihilated ; but that as it was the work of the 
Omnipotcncy ot God, to make Somey»hdt ot T^thmg: So it requireth the 
like omnipotcncy, to turn S'owexehjt into Noibm^^. Andthcrctbrc it is well 
faid by anobfcure Writer of the Sedof the Chjmfis, That there is no fuch 
way to cfFcift the flrange Tr.mJmutMti9ns of Bodies, as to endeavor and Urge 
bv all means, the reducing of them to Ntthm^. And herein is contained al- 

D 2, fo 


lO J. 
touching the 
Imp s/jii/ff jjr 
»f ^fnnihilA- 


J^tura! Hiliory ; 

fo a great fecrct of Prclervation of Bodies from change ; for if you can 
prohibit, thatthcy neither turn into y/ir. bccaufc no /itr comcthco them , 
nor go into the hodtes AdJActnt, bccaufc they arc utterly Hetcrcgeneal, nor 
make a round and circulation uithin thcmfclvcs ; they will never change, 
though they be in thcirNature never fo pcrifhableor mutable. We fee how 
/■/i« and 5'/'«(/w, and the like, otx.3.StfuUhre'\nxyimbe>, more durable than 
1 the CUtnumcnt and EmhAlming of the Btdj of any King. And Iconceivc the 
like will be of Bodies put into Quickrftlver. Butthcn they muft be but thin, as 
a leaf Of apceccof Paper or Parchment ; for if they have agreatcrcralVt- 
tudc, they will alter in their o-wn Body, though they ipcnd not. Butof thir, 
we fliallfpcak more when wc handle the Title of Confen.mon of Bodies. 



_ _ _ ikfe^^fe??'^^^ 



Century II, 

^Ulick in the PraAicc, hath been well purfucd, and in 
good Variety j bui in the Theory, and cfpccially in 
the yielding of the Caufei of the Pradick, very weak- 
ly -■> being reduced into certain Myftical i'ubtilties , 
and not much trutli. We fliall therefore, after our 
manner , joyn the ContemfUti've and Afltvc Part 
]J together. 

All Sounds arc cither A/i^(r4/5'<?ff»<3'/, which we call 7i»w.f ; whereunto 
there may be an Kirmony, which Sounds are ever equal : As Sihging, the 
Sounds ut Stringed, and Wind-Inllruments. the Ringing of Bells, &c. or 
Immufical Sounds, which arc ever unequal: Such as are the Voice in Speak- 
ing, all Whiiperings, all Voices of Bealls andBirds (except they be Sing- 
ing Birds;) all Percullions, of Stones, Wood, Parchment, Skins, (as in 
Drums} and infinite others. 

Tlie Sounds that produce Tones, arc ever from fuch Bodies ai are in 
their Parts anJ Pores equal; as well as the Sounds themlclves are equal: 
And fuch are the PcrcuiUons of Metal, ai in Bells \ of C/.r/s as in the hllip- 
ping of a Drinking GUfi; of Air, as in Akns f'otces whilcft tlicy iiog, in Pipes, 
ninftUs, Org.vis, Stringed Inffruments, ^"c. And of Water, as in the ?^/jf/»- 
gjls Pipes of Bcg.rls, ot Organs, ond other HydrMthcis , which the Ancients 
had, and iYfr^ did lomuchcltccm, but arc now loll. And if any Man think, 
that the String of the Baxr, and the i'/r/«g of the f ?.»/, arc neither of them 
equal Bodies, andyet produceTones ; he is in anerror. For the Sound is 
not created between the Bexi- or PlecJrnni, and the String; but between the 
String md thcy*> ; no more than it is between the Finger or Quill, and the 
String in other Inftrumcnts. So there are (incrtcft^butt iree Pcrcuftons that 

D ,' create 




1 05- 



!]\Qitnral hijlory ; 

create Tones ; Percuflion of Metals (comprehending C//«/, and the like) 
Pcrcuflionsof Air, andPcrcuflionsof Water. 

The 'Dupafoti or ti^ht in -JMujiik^y is the fweeteft Concord ; in omuch, 
aj it is in cffci^ an Vntfon ; as \vc f;jc in Lutes that are ftrung in the bafc firings 
with two ftrings, one an £i^A//^ above another, svhiclimakc but as one found ; 
and every Eighth Note in Alccnt, (asfrom Eight to Fifteen, fromFiftecn 
to Twenty two, and fo tn infinitum) a,rc but Scdes ofDtapa fori. Thccaufc 
is dark, and hath not been rcndred by any, and therefore would be better 
c intcmpKitcd. It fecmeth that Air ( which is the iubjcd of Sounds ) in 
Sounds that are not Tones (w hich arc all unequal as hath been faid) ad- 
mittcth much variety; as we fee in the Voices oi Living Creatures, and 
likcwifc in the Voices of fcveral Men ; for wc are capable to difcern fcve- 
ral Men by theit Voices) and in the Conjugation of Letters, whence yfr- 
ticiiUte J(j««rfj proceed ; which of all others, are moft various. But in the 
Sounds which wc call Tones (x. at are ever equal) the Air is not able to 
cafl it felf into any fuch variety ; but is forced to recur into one and the 
fame P fturc or Figure, onely differing in grcatnefs and imallnefs. So 
wc fee Figures mav be made of Lines, cro ked and flraight, in infinite 
variety, where there is inequality ; but Circles or Squares, or Triangles 
Equilateral, (which are all Figures of equal Lines) can differ but in greater 
or Icifer. 

It is to be noted 'the rather, IcffcanyManlhould think that there i5 any 
thing in this number of Eight, to create the IDiapafon) that this computa- 
tion of Ei^ht, is a thing rather received than anv true computation. For 
a true computation ought ever to be, by diflribution into equal Por- 
tions. Now there be intervenient in the rife of £aght (in Tones) two 
Bcemols or Half-Notes j fo as if you divide the Tones equally , the 
Eighth i$ but Seven whole and equal Notes : And if you fubdividc that 
into Half-Notes, ( as it is in the flops of a Lutt) it makcth the number of 

Yet this is true. That in the ordinary Rifcs and Falls of the Voice of 
Man (not meafuring the Tone by whole Notes and Half Notes, which is 
the cqualMeafurc) there fall out tobetwo Beemols (as hath bcenfaidj be- 
tween the Fntfon and the Diapafon; and this varying is natural. For if a 
Man would endeavor to raifc or fall his Voice flill by Half-Notes, like the 
flops of a Lute, or by wholeNotcs alone, without Halfs as far as an Eighth ; 
he \^ill notbeable to frame his Voice unto it, which fhcweth that after c- 
vcry three whole Notes. ^<<f«r<rrequireth, for all Harmonica] ufc,onc Half- 
Note to beinterpofcd. 

It is to be confidcred, That whatfoever vcrtue is in Numbers, for con- 
ducing to concent of Notes, is rathertobcafcribcdto thcy/«/f-n«wifr, than 
to the Entire-number ; as namely, that the Sound rcturneth after Six, or after 
Twelve : So that the Sevci th or the 1 hirteenth is not the Matter, but the 
Sixth, or the Twelfth ; and the Seventh and the Thirteenth, are but the 
Limits and Boundaries of the Return. 

The Concords in Mufick which are Perfed, or S'emiperfed, between the 
Fnifon and the 'Diapafon, arc the Fifth, which is the moil Perfen; the Third 
next, and the Sixth which is more harfh : Andas thc^«fi«w cfleemed, and 
fo do my felf, and fome other yet, the Fourth which they call Diatepron ; as 
forthc Tenth,Twclfth,Thirtccnth,andfo/»i»/»/f«w,they be but Recurrences 
of the former ; y»s:. of the Third, the Fifth, and the Sixth, being an Eighth 
rcfpcdivcly from them. 



Century 1 1. 

For T)ifc9rds, the Second and the Seventh, arc of all others, the moft odi- 
ous in Hurmtnj to the ^xnf ; whereof, the one is next above the fmf.n, the 
other next under the 'Duptfort; which may fliew, that Hurmonj rcquireth a 
competent dilbnce of Norcs. 

In Harmonj, if (hccchc\->ot2 'Difcord to ihc Bafc, itdorh notdiilurb the 
Hamtnj, though there be z*Difcird, to the higher pares ; fj the 'Dtfcord be- 
not of the Two are odious : And therefore the ordinary Concent of 
Four parts confUk'ch of an Eighth, a F.f.h, and a Third to the B^fe ; but 
thatFifch isa Fourth tothc Trebble, and the Third isaSixth. Andthccaufe 
Is.forthattheBafLftrikingmort A r, doih overcome and drown the Trcbbic 
( unlefs the Dilcord be very odious) and fo hideth ^ Tmall impcrfcftion 
For we fee, that in one of the lower llrings of a Lute, there foundeth 
not the found of the Trcbbic, nor any mixt (bund, but oncly theloundof 
the Bafr. 

\Vc have no C^fuftck. of Quarter' Notes, and it may be they are not cap- 
leof HArmonj; forweli:ethc/:/!«//-iVo/« thcmf^'lves do burinterpcC fjmc' 
ncs. Ncvcrtfielifi, wc havefomc Slides or Feltfhes oi the Voice or Strings, 
as it were, continued without Notes, from one Tone to anothjer^ riling or 
talhng.which are delightful. 

1 he caufcs (jf that which Is Fleafwg or ingr^tc to the Htirin^, may 
receive light by chat which is ^P.eafmg or ingratc to the Vigbt. I here 
be two things picafing to the light ^ leaViPg Figures and Shapes afide , 
which arc but Secondary Objeds , and plcafe or difpleale but in Me 
mory ; ; thcfj two arc Colours and Or^icr, The picafing of Colour 
fymbolizcrh with, the rl itfwg ot any Smgte Tone to the Ear ; but the 
picafing of Order doth (ymbolize wirh Harmony. And therefore we fee 
in Ctrden-kjiets , and the Frets of Houfes , and all equal and well anfwer- 
\n^ Figures, (as Globes, Tjamides, Cones, Cj/linders,&cJ J[\o\v they plcifc} 
whereas unequal Figures are but Deformities. Aid bith thele plea- 
furcs, that of the Eye, and that of the Ear, are but the efFc:cls of equa- 
lity , good proportion , or correfpondence : So that out of qneftion ) 
Equality and Correfpondence are the cau'es of Harmony. But to hnde the 
Proportions of thatCorrefpondence, is moreab fruf- ; whereof, notwich- 
I ftanding we fliall fpcak fomewhat (when we handle Tones, in the g'neral j 
' enquiry of Sounds. I 

Tones ire not fo apt altogether to procure ^/ff^, as fome other founds: 
AstheWind. the Putlingof Water, Humming otBecs, a fweet Voiceof 
one that readeth,&c. The caufc whereof is, (ot thit Tones, bccaufethey are I 
■equal and Aide not, domotetbikeand crcttthcSenfe, than the otncr. And 
overmuch attention huvkreth deep. 

There be in A/ti^fi^ ccrtnn Figures otTrofes, almo't agreeing with the 
Hgures of Rhetoruk^, and with the jlJeH tons of the Minde, and other Senfei. 
Firlt. The Divifwi and Quavermg, winch pieafe fo much iatJ^uftik^. have an ' 
agreement with the G'ltteringot Lgit ; A$ the C^loon- Beams playirg upon 
a Wave. Agiin, the Falling i\om a Dtfcord to i Concord, which maket.h great ; 
I fwcctnefs it\Muffck^. huh amgreemcnt with the ^.feclions, which are ccinte- 
: grated to the better, af'erfime diilikes' it agreech jlfo with thctalle, which , 
is Ijongluttedwiththat whith is Iwect alone. The flid 'g f'-om thcClofe 
or Cadence, hath an agreement with the /"i^wrf in /?l!)«flrKi^, wbichthey call 
frster rx^liatum; for there i a pleaiurr, even inbeinii dcce vcd. The Re- 
ports and Fuges have an aereement yv}{h (he Figures tn Rhetortck.<''i Rfpetition ^ 
and Tradudion, The Tripla's and Cbangingof limet. have an agreement wth ' 





1 10. 






j\(jtHral Hijlory ; 


the changes of Motions ; as when Galliard time, and Mcifurc time, arc in 
thcMedly ot one Dance. 

! Ithach b;en anciently held, and obferved, 1 hat the 5'f«/f of Hearing, tnd 

the Kindes of yufick, have moit operation upon Mamtrs ■■, as to incouragc 
Men, and make them vfarlike ; to make tlicm Ibftand cH^cminatc ; to make 
them grave ; to make them light ; to make them gentle and inclined to 
pity, &c. The caufe is, for that the Senft of Hearing (Irikcth the Spirits 
more immediately^ tiian the other Senja, and more incorporcally than 
i\\c ^meU'iug: Yovt\\cS'tgi)t, T.tJ}e, and feeling, have their Organs, notoffo 
prefcnt and immediate acccis to the Spirits, as the Hearing hath. And 
as for the Smelling Iwhich indeed workcth alfo immediately upon the Spi- 
rits, and is forcible vrhilc the objccl rcmaincth) ic is with a communica- 
tion of the Breath or Vapor ot thcobjcd odcrate : But Harmony entring 
eafily, and mingling not nt all, and coming wich a manifcft^motion ; doth 
by cuflom of often afTcfting the Spirits, and putting them into one kindc 
ofpofture, alter not a little the nature ct the Spirits, even when the ob- 
jcdis removed. And therefore we lee, thatTuncs and Airs, even in their 
own natur.e, have in thcmfclvcs fomc athnity w irh the Affedions : As 
there be Merry Tunes, Doleful Tunes, Solemn Tunes j Tunes inclining 
Mens mindes to Pity, Warlike Tunei,&c. So as it is no marvel, if they 
altcrthc Spirits, confidcringthat Tunes have apredilpolition to the Moti- 
on of the Spirits in themfclves. But yet ithachbccnnoted, that though 
thii variety of Tunes, doth difpofe the Spirits to variety of Pallions, con- 
form unto them ; yctgenerally, (L^nfuk tccJcth that dilpofitjonof the Spi- 
rits which it findcth. Wefccalib;, that IcvcralAirs and Tunes, do pleafc 
feveral Nations, and Pccfons according to the iympathy they have with their 

PFrfpeHive hath been with fomc diligence inquired 3 and fo hath the Na- 
ture of Sounds, in fomc fort, as far as conccrncth/i/a/u^, bul the Na- 
ture of Sounds in general, hath been fuperficially obfcrved. It is one of 
the fubtillcft pieces of Nature. And bcfiJes, 1 pratf^ifc, as I do advifc; 
Which is after long inquiry of things, immerfc in matter, to entcrporcfomc 
fubjedl whichis immateriateorlcfsmateriatc-, fuch as this of Sounds: To 
the end, that the intellcft may be rcdificd, and become not partial. 

It is firfltobeconfidercd , what great motions there are in Nature 
which pafs without foiind or noifc. 1 he Heavens turn about in a mofr rapide 
motion, without noife to us perceived, though in fome dreams they have 
beenfaid to make an txccllent Alufick. So the motions of the Comers, and 
Fiery Meteors as StelU Cideiis, c^-c.) yield nonoifc. And if it be thought, that 
itisthcgreatnefs of diftancc from us, whereby the found cannot, be heard ,• 
wc fee that Lightnings and Corulcacions, which arc ncarnthand, yicldno 
found neither i and yet inall thefe, there is apcrcullion anddivilsionof the 
Air. 'he Winos in the Upper Region (which move the Clouds above 
(which we call the Rack ^ andarcnotpcrccivcdbclow> pals withoutnoiic. 
The lower Winds in a Plain, except they be ftrong, make no noife ; but a- 
mongft Trees, thenoifcof fuch Winds willbepcrceivcd. And the Winds 
(generally) when they make a noife,docver make ituncqually,rifingarid fall- 
ing, and fometimcs (when they are vehement) trembling at the height of 
thcirblaft. Rain or Hail falling, though vehement! •, yieldcthnonoife, in 
pafsing through the Air, till it fall upon the Ground, Water, Houfes, or the 
like. Water in a River (though a fwift ftream, is not heard in the Channel, 


(^entury II, 

but lUiinetti m (ilencc , ir it t)c wf any depth ; but the very Stream upon Snal • 
lows, otGravcl, or Pebble, will be heard. And Waters, vv hen they bcarup- 
on the Snore, Or are ftraimcd, fas in the falls of Bridges; orarcdaflied againit 
[hcmfelves by Winds, give a roaring iioife. Any pecce of rirribcr, or hard 
Body, being tijtuit fotw uJs by anotncr Body continguous, U'lthout knock- 
inggivcth no nolle. And lo£i;rf«« in weighing, one upon another, though 
the upper Body ptefs the lower Body down, make no noili.-, Su the motion 
of the Minute parts of any (olid Body, ^^vvh^ch is the piincipal caufc of violent 
Motion, though uuobfcrvcd J palVeth without found : For that found, that is 
heard fomctimcs, is produced onely by the breaking of the Air, and not by 
(he impulfion of the parts, ^o it is manifcit, that where the anterior Body 
givcrh way asfaft as thcporterior comcih on, it maketh no noiie, be the 
motion never fo great or fwift. 

ty/iro^n and at large, maketh no noifc, cxceptitbe fhifpiy pcrcuQed j 
as in the (oundof a ftring, whcreAir ispurcufledby a hard and ibflf Body, and 
wifhafliarploolc : For it the ftring be not llraincd, it maketh no noilc; but 
where the Air is pent and itraiincd, there breath or other blowing cwhich 
carry but a gentle percuirion) faftice to create found ; as in Pipes aod Wind 
jfnftrumcnrs. But then you nuit note, that in /?«»r(/fr/ which go with a 
gentle breath, the Concave of the Pipe Cwcre it not for the Fipple chac lirait- 
ncth the Air much more then the fimplc Concave) would yield no found. 
For, as for other Wind-I;i(irumcnts, they require a forcible breath, as Trum- 
pe:s, Cotr.cts, Hunters, Horns, &c. Which appcarcth by the blown Checks o 
him that winJcth them. Organs alio are blown with a Itrong wind by the 
Bellow^. A'ld note again, thatfomckindc of Wind-Inftramcnts arc biown 
at a Imal! hole in the fide, which ftraincth the breath at thoririt entrance; 
the rather, in rcfpcct of their travcrfe, and ftop above the hole which per- 
formeth the Fipplcs part ; as it is Icon in FUitts and Ftfcs, which will not 
loiand by a blaft at the end, as Rectrders do, iScc. Likcwife in all WhiiUing. 
you contrafttiieMouth ; and to make it more fhjrp, Men fometiinci u(e their 

BiM in open Air, if you throw a Stone or a Dart, they give no found : 
No nioic do Bullets, cxceptthcy kappen to be alittle hollowed inthccaft 
ing ,- which hoUownefs pcnncth the Air : Nor yet Arrows, except they be 
rurtkd in their Feathers, whidi likewile penneththc Air As for (mall Whi 
tiles or Shepherds Oaten Pipes, they give a found, becaufcof chcir txcrcam 
llen.ierncfs, whereby the Air is more (^cntthanin a wider Pipe. Again, the 
Voices of Men and Living Crcaiures, pafsthrough the Throat, which pen, 
neth the breath. Asfor the jtfw-H.<r^, it isafliarp percufllon.andbcfideshath 
thevanttgeof penning the Au in the Mouth. 

Solid Bodtts. if they be very loftly pcrcuffcd, give no Ibund ; as when a 
Man treadeth very loftly upon Board?. SoChc(\s or Doors in fair weather, 
whtnthev opcncalily, give no found. And Cait- wheels fqucek not when 
they are liquored. 

The flame of Tdpers or Candles, though it be a fwift motion and breaketh 
thcAir, yetpjllcth without found. Air in Ovens, though (no doubtUt doth 
(is It Were, boil, and dilate it Iclf, and is repetcullcd, vet it is without noiFr. 

ftame percujfed bj Air, giveth 1 noifc ; Asin blowing of the Fitc bf Bel. 
lowi. urcatcr thanif the Bellows Ihouid blow upon the Air it Iclf. Andfo 
'kc« if: Flange pcrcuiFing the Air tUongly (as when llanicfuddcnly takcth 
a.ijopeneth^ giveth x noif; : So great Flames, winles thconcimpclleththc 
other, gwc a bellowing fouud. 


J^Qttural Hijlory ; 

i here IS a conceit runneth abroad, that there (hould bj a Wii:te l^owdL-r, 
which will difchargc a piece without noifo, which is a daiigorous cxpcru 
mcnt, if it fliould be true : For it may caufc Iccret Miuthcrs, but u fcenuth 
to me unpolllbic j forif the Air pent, be dnvcn forth andftrikc the Airopcn, 
it will ccitJinly make a noile. As for the White Powder , ( it any luch 
thing be that may cxtirguifh or dead the noilc) it is like to be a mixture 
of Pctre and Sulphurc, withoutCoal. For Pctrc alone Will not take Fire. 
And if any Man think, that the found may be cxtinguifhcd or dcadcd, by 
difchatging the pent Air, before it comcth to the Mouth ot the Fcccc, and 
tothcopen Air, that is not probable; tor it will make more divided (ounds : 
As if you fhould make a Crols-barrel hollow, thorow the Battel of i 
Pcecc , it may be it would give fcveral founds , both at theNofe and the 
fides. But 1 conceive, that if it were poffiblc to bring to pals, that there 
Chould be no Air pent at thcMou.h ot the Pcece, the Btrtift might flic 
with imall or no noifc. For firfl ir is certain, there is no noifc i.i thcPcr- 
cuHionof the Flame upon the iiullct. Next tlie liuller, in piercing tho- 
row the Air, makech no noifc, as hath been laid; and then, if there be no 
pent Air, thatrtriketh upon open Air, there isno caufe ot noill*, and yet the 
flying of the Bullet will not be ttaid. For that motion (as hath been oft 
(aid) is in the parts of the Bullet, and nor in the Air. So as tryal muft be 
made by taking fomefmall Concavcof CMind, no more than you mean to 
hll with Powder* and laying the Bullet in the Mouth of it halt out in the 
open Air. 

I heard it affirmed by aManthatwas a great dealer in Secrets, but he 
was but vaifl ; That there was a Confp'iracj (which himfeU hindred) to have 
killed Qiieen Mf^. S\[\tiio Qnzen Eitz.tibeth, hy a Burning-Glaj?, whcnGie 
walked in St. JametViik,\tom rhe Leads of the Houfc. But thus much, no 
doubt, is true, i nat if Bmning-Guffes could be brought to agreat Itrength, 
(as they talk generally of Burnm^-Glffes, that arc able to burn a Navy) the 
PcrcufTion of the Air alone, by fueh a Burning-Glaji' , would make no 
noife ; no more than is found in Corrufcathns , and Lightnings without 
Ihuuders, •' ' 

I fuppofc that/w^rf/jowof the Air with Jowjrfr, asketh a time to be con- 
vcighcd CO the Senfe, as well as the /mprefion of S'fenesv'tjible, or elfe they will 
not be heard. And therefore, as the Bullet moveth lo Iwift, that ir isinvifibic, 
fo the fame fwiftncfsof motion makcth it inaudible ; tor wc fee that the ap- 
prchenfionof the Eye, is quicker then that of the Ear. 

All Eruptions of Air, though fmall and flight, give an entity of found, 
which we call Crackling, Vtfjing, S'piiing, &c. As in l>ay ialr, and Bay-leaves 
cafl into the tire ; fo in Chefnun, when they leap forth of the Afhcs, foin 
green wood laid upon the hre, cfpecially Roots; (o in Candles that fpit 
flamc.if they bewetf foinRalping, Sneezing, &c. Soin a Rofe leaf gather- 
ed together into the fafliion of a Purfc, and broken upon the Forehead, or 
Back of the Hand, as Children ufo. 

THe caufe given of Sound, that it ftiould be an EliJ/en of thet^ir (where- 
by, if they mean any thing, they mean Cutting or Dividing, or elfe an 
Attenuating of the Air) is but a term of Ignorance ; and the motion is 
but a catch of the Wit upon a few Inftanccs, as the manner is in thf 
Thilofophj recc'wed. And it iscommon withMcn, thatif they have gotten 
a pretty cxprcffion by a word «f ./frr, tharexprcflion goeth currant, though 
it be empty of matter. This conceit ot £/«/iew, appeareth moil manifeftly 

Century II. 

3 5 

to be fili'c, in chat the Sound of aB^ll ftring, or the like, continucdi mclring, 

lomctimc after the PcrcunTion ; but cealeth ftraighc-wavs, if the Bell or 

'Stringbe touched and Ibycd; wncreas, if itwerc ihc Elifton of thcyfir, tlrat 

made the Sound, it could not be that the touch of the Bell or String, fliould 

cxtinguifli (o fuddcnly thatmotion, caufcd by the Lltfion of the Air. This 

i appearcth yet more maiiifcftly, by Chiming with a Hammer upon the cuc- 

fide of a Bell; for the Sound will be according to the inward Concave 

of the Bell : Wncreas the Elifion or t^ttenuation of the i^ir cmnot be, 

but onely between the Hammer, and the ouffideof the Bell. So again, 

ifit were an £/;yio>;, a broad Hammer, and a Bodkin, ftruck upon Metal, 

would give a divtife Tone, as well as a diveilc Loudnefs ; Buc they do not 

: fo 5 for though the Sound of the onebe louder, andof the ocherfoftcr, yet 

I the Tone isihcfame, Befides, inEc^ho's (^whereof fomcareasloud as the 

: Original Voice; there is no new f/jyiun, butaKepetcufTion onely. But that, 

which convinccthitmol\of all, is. That Sounds are generated, where there 

I is no Air at all. But thefe, and the like conceits, when Men have cleated 

i ihcir Underilanding, by the light of lixperience, willfcatter and break up 

i hkeaMill. 

j It is certain, that Sounds is not produced at the firlf, but with fome 

' Local Motion of the Ait or Flame, or fomeoCher AfirrfJHwj nor yet without 
fomerefiitince, eithzr in the Air, or the Body pjrcuifed. For if therebea 
mccr yicldii g or ccirxon, it producethno Sound, is hath been fiid. And 
therein Sounds dif^'cr from Light or Colours which paf. through the Air, 
or other Bodies, without any Local Motion of the Air, cither at the firft, or 
attcr. But you mull attentively diftinguifli between the Local Motion of 
the Air {\vh\ch\s bnxyehlculutncAufx, A C*Trier of the Sounds ') anothcSounds 
thcmfclvcsconvcighedinthcAir. Fora^^ to the former, wcfemanifeltly, 
that no Sound is produced (no not by Air it Iclf againlt other Air, as in 
Orgjns, &cj but with a percepublc Blaft ot the Air, and with fome rc- 
fiflanceot the Air ftrucken. For, even all Speech, (which is one of the 
gcntlclf Motions of Air,) is with cxpuUion of a little Breath. And all Pipes well asaSound. Wc feealfomanifeftly, that Soiinds arc car- 
ried with Wind : And therefore Sounds will be hard further with the Wind, i!ie Wind ; and likewife, do rile and tall with th. intenfion or 
rcmiflionof the Wind : But fortiic imptcffion ot the Sound, it is quite an- 
other tiling, and is utterly without Local Motion of the Air, perceptible,- 
and intliatrcfcmbleth the fpecies vdiblc: For after a Man hath lured, or a 
Bcllisruni;, we cannotdiicern any Perceptible Motion (at all) in the Air, as 
long IS thcloundgoeth, butoncly at the ticlh Neither doih the Wind (as fac 
as u carriciii a Voice) with the Motion thereof, confound any of the deli- 
cate, and ArnculatcFiguraiions ot theAir, in variety ot Words. And it a 
Manfpeakagood loudncis againft the flime ot a Candle, it will not make it 
tremble muc. 5 though moft, when thofc Letters arc pronounced, which 
contracl the mouth, as F^ S, V, and fome otiicrs. But gentle breathing, or 
blowing without fpcaking, will move thcGandlc farmorc. And it ib the 
more probable, that Sound is without any Local Motion of the Air, becaulc 
asitditfcrcthtrom the fight, in that it necdeth a Local Motion ot the Air at 
fitft : So it parallclcth in fo many crher things with the fight, and radiation of 
things invifible, which (without all qucltion) induce no Local Motion in 
' ibc Air, as hath been faid. 

j Nevcrthclcfs it is ttue, that upon the noifc of Thunder, and great Ord 

I nance, Glafs Windows will fhake, and Fiflics are thought to be frayed with 
' . the 










J^Qitural hijlory ; 

the Motion, cniifcd by nolle upon tlic Water. Bitthelc cftcds arcfrcm 
thclocal motion of the Air, which is a concomitant of the Sound (as hath 
been faid) and not from the Sound. 

It hath been anciently reported, andi^ ftill received, that cxtrcam ap- 
plaufes, and fhoiiting of people, aflcmblcd ingreatmultitudcs. l.avcforari- 
fied, and broken the Air, that Birds flying over, have fain dovn, the Airbe- 
ingnot ablcto liippoittiicm. And it is believed by iome, that great Ring- 
ing of Bells in populous Cities, hath chafed iVfay Thunder ; and alio dijl 
fipatcd pcftilent Air: All which may be alio from the concul]]on ot the Air, 
and not from the Sound. 

A very great found near hand, hath flruc ken many deaf; and at the 
inftantthcy havefound, as it were, the breaking of aSkinot Parchmcntin 
their Ear : And myfclf, (landing near one that lured loud and fhrill, had 
fudc'cnly an offence, as if fomewhat had broken, or bccndiflocarcd in my 
Ear, and immediately after a loud Ringing; (not an ordinary ringing, or 
Hiffing, but far louder, and differing ; lb - s 1 feared fomc Deafnels. But 
after fomc half quarter of an hour, it vaniflxd. Thiscf^cft may be truly 
referred unto the Sound ; for (as is commonly received) an ovcrpotent 
Objcftdoth dcflroy the Scnfe j and Spiritual Species, (both ViiibJe and 
Audible,) will work upon the fcnlorics, though they move not any other 

In DeLtiion of founds, the enclofurc of them ptefervcth tbem, and 
caufcth them to be heard further. And we hndcin Rowlsof Tarchmcnt, or 
Truncks, the Mouthbeinglaid tothe one end of the Rcsvl of Parchment, 
or Trunck, and the Ear to the other, the Sound is heard much further then 
in the open Air. Thecaufcij, for that the Sound fpendcth, andisdiflipated 
in the open Air ; but in fuch Concaves, it is conlcrved and contraiffcd. So 
alfo in aPieceof Ordnance, if youfpcakintbc Touch-hole, and another 
lay his Ear to the Mouth of the Piece, the Sound pafleth, and is far better 
heard than in the open Air. 

It is further to be confidered, hosv it proveth and worketh when the 
Sound is not enclofcd, all the length of his way, but paffsth partly through 
open Air ; as where you fpeak fome diflance from a Trunck, or where the 
Ear is fome diflance from the Trunck, at the other end ; or m here both 
Mouth and Ear are diftant from the Trunck. And it is trye H , that in a long 
Trunck of fome Eight or ten foot, the found isholpen, both the 
Mouth, and the Ear be ahandfulormore, from the ends of the Trunck-, and 
fomewhatmorc holpcn, when the Ear of the Hearer isnear, than when the ; 
Mouth of the Speaker. And it is certain, that the Voice is better heard in a 
1 Chamber from abroad, than abroad from \vi: bin the Clumber. 

As the En do fur e\\\iit is round about and entircprefei veth the Sound ; fb | 
doth a Semi-concave, though inalcfsdegree. And therefore, if you divide 
a Trunck, or a Cane into two, and^onc fpeak at the one end, and vou lay 
your Ear at the will carry the Voice furthcr.than in the Ait at large. 
Nay further, if it be not a full Semi-concave i but if you do the like upon the 
Maftof aShip, or .tlong Pole, or a Piece of Ordnance (though one fpeak 
upon Surface of the Ordnance, and not at any of the Bores) the Voice will 
be heard further then in the Air at large. 

It would be tryed, how, and with what proportion of difadvantage, 
the Voice will be carried in an Horn, which is a Line Arched; or in a 
Trumpet, which is a Line Retorted 5 or in Ibmc Pipe that were Si- 


century II, 

Itis certain, ^howlbcvcr iccrofs the rcccivcdopiiiion) that Sound;, may 
be created without Air , tlioiigii Air he the nioit favorable diftl'renc of 
Sounds. Tnkc a \ci\z\ ot Water, and knap a pair ot Tongs ibmc depth 
^x■ichin the Water, and you (hall hear the Suund ot tlie Tongs well, andnot 
much diminithed, and \ ct rlicrc is no Airat all pccfcnt. 

Takconc Vellciof Silvcr.and another of Wood, and fi'I each of them 
hillofsvatenand thenkilap the Tongs together as before, about an handful 
from the bottom , and you fhall findc the Sound much more reloundino- 
from the Veird of Silver, than from that of Wood; andyet if tlicrc be no 
Water in the V'eflcJ, ib thac you knap the Tongs in the Air, you (hall findc 
no diftcrence between the Silver, and the Wooden Vclfel, vv hereby bclide 
the main poincof, creating found without Air, you may colled tsvo things ; 
the one, that the found communicateth with the bottom of thcVcflei; the 
other, that I'uch a communication pallcth far better thorow Water than 

Strike any hard Bodies together in thcmidftof aiSame, andyoufliall 
hcarthc found ^'ich little difference, from chc found in the Air. 

The Tnen7nAttial purt, u hich is in all Tangible Bodies , and hath fome 
iiiinity with the Air, pciformcihin feme degree, the parts of the Air j as 
when you knock upon an empty iarrcl, the iound is (in part) created by the 
Air on theoutfide, and (in part) by the Air intheinlide ; for the found will 
be greater or Iclkr, as the I'arrcl is more empty, ormorcfuli; but yctthe 
found participatcth alio with the Spirit in the Wood, thorow which it pafs- 
cth from the outiidc to the inlidc ; and lo it cometh to pals in the chiming 
o; Bells on the outiidc, where alio the fpund palleth totheinfice; and a 
number of other like inftances, whereof we Ihall ipcgk more whsn \vc 
lundlc the Communication of Sounds. 

It were cxtream grofncfs to think (as we have partly touched before) 
that the found in Strings is made, or produced between the Hand and the 
String, or the Quill and the String, or the Bow and the String : For thofc 
arc but f'ehtail.t moitu palliges lo the Creation of the found, the found being 
produced between the String and the Air; and thatnot by anyimpoWionof 
the Air, Irom the h ft Motion of the String ; but by the return or rclult of 
the String, which was ftrained by the touch to his former place ; which 
Morion of Rcfult is quick and Iharp , whcrea> the £n\ Motion is foft and 
dull. So the Bow tortureth the String continually, andthcrcby holdcth it 
in a continual Trepidation. 

TA'<caTrunk, andletonc whiftle atthc one end, and hold youc cat at 
the other and youfliall hndethcibund ftrikcfofliarp, as youcanfcarcc 
endure it. The caufc is, for that found diftufeth it fclfin round, apdfo 
fpcndcthitlch : iii.t it the found, whic'n would Icattci inopcn Ait,b«madc 
tu go all into a Cinj/o; it muft needs give greater force lo the found. And 
lo you may note, that inclolurcs do not oncly prcfcrvc found, butt alfo cn- 

A Hunters Horn, being greater at one end, at the other, doth ca- 
crcalcthcfmnd more, ihan if the Horn were all of an equal bore. The 
caufc is. tor that the Air and Sound, being hrft contraded at the Iclfer end. 
and afrcrwards having more room tolprcdat the greater end. do dilaoe 
thrmfelvcs , and in. coming out, ftrikc more Air,' whereby chc loaod is 
ihegrcater, and bafcr. Arid even Hunters Horns, which jre lomctimcs |; 
E made 


ia Conlotc, 

and £iiiny, 
and Dampi if 

3 8 

J\(jitural Hi/iory ; 









midcllraiohc, and no: obluk, are ever greater at ihc lower rnd. It would 
be rrycd alfo in Pipes, being made far larger at tlie lcwc>- end, or being 
made with a Belly towardi the lower end, and then ifluirg into a ftraight con 
cave again. 

There is in S\ Jitmtfes Tields, a Conduit of Brick, unto v hieh joynctli 
a low Vault ; and at the end of that, a round Houfe c{ Store ; and in the 
Bcick Conduit there is a Window, and in the round Houfe a Slit or Rift of 
fome little breadth ; if you cry out iniheUift, it will make a fearful roaring 
at thfr Window. The caufe is the fame with ihe foimcr: For that all Con. 
caves that proceed from more narrow to more broad, doamplific tkcScund 
at thecomingout. ... 

•Hdtvkj Bellt ihathsvchoks in the fides, give a greatctrilig, than if the 
Pellet did rtrikc upon Brsfs in the open Air. The caufe is the fame with 
the hfit inltancc of the Trunck : Namely, for that tlic Sound, enclofcd 
with the fides of the Bell , cometh forth at the holes unfpcnt and mote 
ftrong. ■;■ i ''i, - . 

In "Drttms , the clofcnefs round abcur, that prefervcth the Sound 
frftm difperfing, maketh the noife come forth at the Dinm-hole , far 
more Joud and ftronii, than if you /hculd llrike upon the like ^ kin, ex- 
tended in the open Air. The caufe is the fame with the two prece- 

J»Hnrf/ are better heard, and further off in an Evcniug, cr in the Night, 
than at the Noon or in the Day, The caufe is, for that in the Day, when the 
Air is more thin ^no doubt) the Sound picrccth better ; but when the Air is 
more thick fas in the Night) the Sound ipendeth and fpredeth abroad iefs j 
and fo it is a degree of Enclofure. As for the night, it is true alfo, that the 
general filcncehelpeth. 

There be twokindesof RtfleBionsof Sounds ; the one at Diftance, which 
is the Eccho , wherein the original is heard diitindly, and the Reflexion 
alfo diftinftly ; of which, we fliallfpeak hereafter. Ihe other in Concur- 
rence; when rhc Sound reflefting (the Reflexion being near at hand) rc- 
turneth immediately upon the original, and fo iterateth it not, but am* 
plifieth it. Therefore we fee, that Mufick upon the Water foundcth 
more ; and fo likewifc, Mufick is better in Chambers Wainfcotted than 

The Strings of a Z-«W, or Fiol, or F'trgmnU, do give a far greater Sound, 
by reafonof the Knot, and Board, and Concave underneath, than if there 
were nothing but onely the Flat of a Board, wichput that tiollow and Knot, 
to let in the upper Air into the lower. The caulc is, the Communication of 
the upper Air with the lower, and penning of both Ironuxpence ordilper- 

An Ir'tfh Harf hath open Air on both fides of the Strings ; and it hath 
the Concave or Belly, not a long the String?, but at the end of theStrings, 
It maketh a more rcfounding Sound, than a Bandora, Orphamn, or Qttem , 
which have likewifc Wire-ftrings. 1 judge the caufe to be, for that open Air 
on both fides helpeth, fo that there be a Concave ; which is therefore heft 
placed at the end. 

Inz. Virginal, when the Lid is down, it maketh a more exile Sound than 
when the Lid is open. The caufe is, for that allfhuttmg in of Air, where 
there is no competent Vent, dampeth the Sound; whicii maintaineth like- 
wife the fotmecinftance : For the Belly of the Lute, or Viol, doth pen the 

There I 


Century I L 

There is a Church at G/(»ff/??r, (and as I have heard, the liksisinfomc 

other places) where if you f;icaka(»ainfi; a Wall foftly, another (hall hear 

your voice better a good vray off, than near hand. Inquire more panicu- 

j larlyof the fame ot" that place. I fiippofc there is fomc Vault, or Hollow, 

orlfle, behindc the Wall, and fomc pallageto ic, towards the further end of 

! that Wall againll which you fpcak : So as the voice of liim that fpcaketh 

i flidcth along the Wall, and then cntrcth at fomcpaflage, and communi- 

caxcth with the Air of the Hollow ; for it is prclcrved fomcwhat by the 

j plain Wall •, but that is too weak co give a Sound audible, till it hath com- 

I niunicated vvith the backAir. 

I Strike upon a Bow-ftring, and lay the Horn of the Bow near your Ear, 

I and itNvillincrcafc thcSound, and make adcgrec of a Tone. Thccaul'cis 

' for that the Icnlory, by reafon of the clofe holding ispercufl'cd, before the 

I Airdifpcrlcth. Thclike is, if you hold the Horn betwixt your Teeth. But 

that is a plain ^Dilation of the Smnd, from the Teeth to the inflrument of Hur- 

ing-y forthcreis agreatenccrcourfe bct\Y'ccn thole two parts, as appearcth 

by this, that a har(h grating Tunefettcth the Teeth one edge. The like 

fallcthoutjif the Horn of the BowbcputupontheTcmplcs; but that is but 

the Aid- of the Sound from diencc to the ear. I 

If you t.'.kea Rod ot Iron orBrafs, and hold the one end to your car 
and ftrike upon tlic other, itmakctha far greater Sound, ihan thclike ftrokc 
upon the Rod, not made fo contiguous to the Ear. By which, and by fome 
other inftanccs rhatliavc been partly touched, it fliould appear ; that Sounds 
do not oncly (lidc upon diefurfaceof afmootliBody, but do alfo commu- 
nicate with the Spirits that arc in the Pores of the Body. 

1 remember in Tunny-CoUedge inCambridge, there w^s an upper Cham- 
ber, which being thought weak in the Roof of it, was fupportcdbyaPillar 
of Ircn, ot thcbignclsof ones arm, in the mid If of the Chamber, which, 
if youhadllruck, itwould make a little flatnoilc in the Room where it was 
ftruck; but it would make a great bomb in the Chamber beneath. 

The found which is made by Buckets in a Well, when they touch upon 
the Water, or when they ftrikc upon the fide of the Well, or when two 
Buc'.-.cts dafli the one againfl: the other. Thefe Sounds are deeper and fuller, 
than if the like PcrcuH'ion were made in the open Air. 'The cauie is the 
penning and cnclofure of the Air in the Concave of the Well, 

Barrels placed in a Room under the Floor of aChambcr, makcall 
noifcsia the lame Chamber more fuUand rclounding. 

So that there be five ways (in general) of cJ7/.«/or,«(ff»o/ Sounds, Endoftire 
Smplc, t nclofiire iiitl't'DiUt/ttioti, CommunicAtwi, Rejlex'ton, Concurrent:) ind Jtp- , 
froach tothe Senfory, \ 

For Exility of the Voice, or other Sounds: It is certain, that the Voice ' 
doth pa(s thorowlolid and hard Bodies, if they be not too thick ; and thorow ] 
W.atcr, which is likewife a very clofcBody, and fuchanoneas Icttethnoc 
in Air. But then the V^oice or other Sound is reduced, by fuch pafligctoa j 
great wciknefj or exility. If therefore you flop the Holes of jl FlaTti's BeU, 
it will make no riuij;, but ncife or rattle. And fodoth the c^nties or 
±j^gUs Stone, which hath a little ftone within it. I 

AndasforWatcr. itis accrtainTryal: Lctamangointo aBath, and, 
Cake a Pail and turn the bottom upward, and carry the mouth of it 
(even') down to the level of the Water , and fo prcfs ic down under the 
Water fomc handful and an half, flill keeping it even, that itmaynot tilt 
oncitiicrlide, andibthc Airgctout: Then 1st him that is in the Bath, dive 

E a with 










J\(jiUiral Hijiorj ; 

with his head To far under Water, as he may put his head into thcPail, and 
there will come as much Air bubbling forth , as will make room for his 
head. 'Ihcnlct him fpeak, and any that fhall ftmd without, fhallhcarhis 
voice plainly , but yet made cxtream fliarp and exile, like rlie voice of 
Puppets: But yet the Articulate Sounds of the words will not be confound- 
ed. Note, that it may bo much more handfomly done, if the Pail be put 
over the N4ans head above Water, and then lie cowre down, and rhe 
Pail be preflcd down with him. Note, that a man muft kneel or fir, 'that 
he may be lower than the Water. A man would think, that the Sici- 
lian Poet had knowledge of this Experiment; for he faith, that Hercules's 
Page H|>'/(MWent with a Water-pot, to fill it at a pleafant Fountain that was 
near thefhore, and that the Nymphs of the Fountain fell in love with the 
Boy, aad pulled him under the Water, keeping him alive ; and chat /y^r- 
cults miffing his Page, called him by his name aloud, that all the fliore rang 
of it ; and ihM H)lits from within the Water anfvvered his Mailer ; but (that 
which is to the prclent purpofe) with fo fmall and exile a voice, as Hercules 
thought he had been three miles off, when the Fountain (indeed) was 
fait by. 

In Lutes and Inftruments of Strings, if youllopaftring high, where- 
by it hath lelsfcope to tremble, the Sound is more Trebblc, but yet more 

Take two Sawcers, andftrike the edge of the one againfV the bottom 
of thcother, within a Pail of Water, and you fhall findc that as you put 
the Sawcers lower and lower, the Sound groweth mote flat, even while 
part of the Savvcer is above the Water; but that flatnefs of Sound is joyned 
withahatfhnefsot Sound, which, no doubt, is canfed by the inequality of 
the Sound, which comethfromthepartof the Sawcer under the Water, and 
from the part above. But when the Sawcer is wholly under the Water, the 
found becometh more clear, but far more low, and as if the found came 
from a fat off. 

A foft body dampcth the found, much more than a hard ; and if a Bell 
hath cjoch or filk wrapped about it, it deadeth the found more than if it were 
Wood. And therefore in Clencttls, the Key es are lined, and in Colledges they 
ufe CO line the Table-men. 

Tryal was made in a /?r«r(/fr after thefefeveral manners. The bottom 
ofit wasfetagainft thePalmof the Hand, flopped with Wax round about, 
fet againft a Damask Cufliion, thrull into Sand, into Afhes, into Water, 
(half an inch under the Water) clofe to the bottom of a Silver Bafin, 
and ftill the Tone remained : But the bottom of it was fet agamft 
a Woollen Carpet, a Lining of Plufli, a Lock of Wool, (.hough loofly 
put in j) againft Snow , and the found of it was quite deaded , and but 

Iron hot produccth not fo full a found, as when it is cold ; for while it is 
hot, it appeareth tobemorcfofr,andlefsrefoanding. Solikewife warm Wa- 
ter, when it faileth makethnot fo full a found as cold; and 1 conceive it is 
fofter, and nearer the nature of Oyl j foritismore flippery, as may be per- 
ceived, in thatit fcowreth better. 

Let there be a Recorder xnzdt^kh two Fipples at each end one ; the 
Trunck of it of thelengthof two Recorders, and the holes anfwcrable to- 
wards each end, and let two play the fame Lcflon upon it, at an Unifon ; 
and let it be noted , whether the found be confounded, or amplified, or 
dulled. So likewife let a Crofs be made of two Truncks (thorowout) 

hollow ,' 

Qentury //. 

hollow ; and kt two ipcak or fing, the one long ways the other travtric. 
And let two hear at the oppoiitc ends 5 and note, whctiicr the Sound be 
confoanded, amplified, or dulled. Which twoinltances will alio g.vcl.ght 
to the mixture of Sounds, whereof wc fhall fpeak hcrealter. 

A Belloyct, blown into the hole ot a Drum, and the Drum then ft.ucken, 
■makcth the .Sound a little flatter, but no other apparent alttracion. 
The caufe is'cft; partly for that it hindreth the ill'uc of the Sound; 
and partly for that it makcth the Air being blown together. Ids morV 

THe Loudncfs and Sofincls of Sounds is q thing diflindfrom the Mag- 
nitude and Exility of Sounds ; for a Bafe-Jlrtng, though loftly ftruckcn, 
giveth the greater Sound ; but a Trehble- firing, it hard ilrucken , will be 
heard much further otV. And the caufe is, for that the Bafe-flnng (Irikcih 
more Air; andthe TVcW/? lefs Air, but withafliarpcrpcrcuflion. 

It is therefore tlic ft rength of the Percuffion, that Is a principal cdufc 
of the loudncrs or ibftnefs of Sounds : As in knocking, harder or fofccr ; 
Windirg of a Horn, Wronger or weaker ; Ringing of an Hand bell, harder 
or (otter. &c. And the ftrcngthof this Pcrcuflion confiftetb, as much or 
more, in the hardnefs of the Body perculled , as in the force of the J3ody 
pctciiiHn? : 1 or it you Ifrikc againlt a Cloth, it will give a lefs found ; if 
ogu;?itV/ood, a greater J if againft a Metal, yetagreatct; and in Metals, 
it you ftrikc againit Gold, ( which is the more plian: ) it giveth the flatter 
lound; if ag.iinft Silver or Brais, themorc ringingfound. As for Air, where 
It is llrongly pent, it matchcth a hard Body. And therefore we fecindif- 
charging of a piece, what a great noife it makcth. Wc (ceaUo, that the 
Charge with Bullet, or with Paper wet, and hard flopped ; or with Pow- 
der alone rammed in hard, makcth no great diflfcrencc in theloudnefs of the 

The fTiarpncfs or quitknefs of the PercufTion, is a great caufe of the 
loudncf-, as well as the Ifrength : ,As in a Wnip or W^nd, if you llnke 
the At With it. the fharpcr and quicker you ftrike if, the louder found it 
giveth. And in playing upon the Lute 01 Virginals, the quick ftroke or 
fcuch is a great life to the Sound. The caufe is, for that the quick Ilrik- 
ing cuftcth tne Air Ipccdily , whereas the foft f\riking, doth rather beat 
than lu:. 

THc CommunicAUon of bounds (as in Bellies o{ Lutes, empty Veflcis &c.) 
hath bci.n touched obiter, in the Afajoratim of Sounds : But it is fitalfo to 
make a liilcof it apitt. 

The Experiment, for gteatcft Dcmonftration of Communication of 
Sounds , is the Chiming of Bells ; where, if you Ifrikc with a Hammar 
upon the upper part, and then upon the midif, and then upon the lower, 
y^iu (hall finder'ic found to be more Trcbbic, and more Bafe, according 
un:o the Concave on the infidc, though the PercufTion be one ly on the 

When the Sound is created between the Blaf!; of the Mouth, and the Ait 
of the Pipe, It hathnevcfthelefsfomccommunication with the matter of the 
(idcs of fhc Pipe, and the fpirits in them contained : For in a Pipe or Trum- 
pet of M"ood ind Rraf?, the found will be divcrfe; fo if the Pipe be covered 
_ H 3 With 




in Contoit. 
touching ihc 
Loudntfi or 
Sofineji of 
SounJi, and 
their Carriage 
at ioager or 
Jhorterdl fiance. 




in Confort, 
on of SoMnit, 





E xpetimenw 
in Confoit, 
In ifUAliiyof 







!J\Qiturd Hijlory ; 

with Cloth or Silk, it will give a diverfc Sound from that ic would d > of it 
felf ; fo if the Pipe bcantclc wet on the infidc, it will make a oiUcrig 
Sound, from the fame Pipe dry. 

rhatSoundmadcwithin Watcr,doth communicate better with a hard 
Bodythorow Watcr.thanmidcinAir, itdothwitli Air. f ide Expenmentum, 


WEhavcfpokcn before (in the Inquifition touching cji/w/Ff;?;^) of Mu- 
ficAl^^outids, V hereunto there may be a Concord orDiicordin two 
Parts; which founds we call Tones, anJiikewifc of Immtifual Sounds j and 
have given the caufc, that the Tone procccdeth of Equality, and the other 
of Inequality. And we have alio cxprcflcd there, what arc the Equal 
;-.odies that give Tones, and what arc the Unequal that give none. Butnow 
we flialllpcak of fuch Inequality of Sounds, as procccdcchnotfrom the 
Nature of the Bodies themfelves, but is accidental, Either from the Rough- 
ncfsor Obliquit\ of the Pall'age, or from the Doubling uf the Pcrcuticnt, 
or from the Trepidation of the Motion. 

A Bell if it have a Rift in it, whercbythc found hath not a clear pafTage, 
givcth a hoatfc and jarring found ; fo the Voice of Man, when by cold 
taken, the Wcfil growcth rugged, and (as vvccall it) furred, becomcth 
hoarie. And in thefe two inftances, the Sounds arc ingrate, becaufc ihcy 
arc meerlv unequal ; but if they be unequal inequality, then the Sound is 
Grateful, but Purling. 

All /n/?r«f«e«/Mhat have either Returns, as Trumpets 5 orFlexions, as 
Cornets; oraredravvnup,andputfrom.asSackbuts,havc aPurling Sound ; 
But the Recorder orFlute thathave none of thefe Inequalities, givcaclcar 
Sound. Ncverthelefs, the Rccordcritfclf or Pipe, moiftenedalittleinthc 
infide, foundcthmorefolcmnly, and with a little Purling or Hifling. Again, 
a Wreathed String, fuch as are in the Bafe Strings of Bandoraes, givcth alfo 
aPurling Sound. 

LutaLute -firing, if it bemeccly unequal in his parts, givcth a harfh 
and untuneable Sound, which firings we call falfc^ being bigger in one 
place, than in another j and therefore Wire-firings arc never falfc. We fee 
alfo, that when vcc try a falfe Lute-ftring, weufe to extend ic hard between 
the Fingers, and to fillip it ; and if it gi veth a double fpccics, it is true i but 
if it givcth a trebbleormorc, it is falfe. 

Waters, in thcnoifc they make as they run> reprefent to the Ear a 
trembhng noife ; and in Regals (uhere tbey have a Pipe, they call the 
Ntghtingale-Vtpe , which containeth Water) the Sound hath a continual 
trembling. And Children have alfo little things they call Cocks, which 
have water in them ; and when they blow, or whillle in them, they yield 
a trembling noife; which Tremblingof Water, hath an affinity with the 
Letter L. All which Inequalities of T repidation, are rather plcafant, than 
other wife. 

All Bafe Notes, or very Trebble Notes, give an Afpcr Sound ; for that 
the Bafe flriketh more Air, than it can well fli ike equally ; and the T rebt^lc 
cutteth the Air fo fharp , as it returneth too fvvifc, to make the Sound equal ; 
and therefore a Mean orTcnoris the fwcctefl part. 

We know nothing, that can atpleafure make 2iMufual or Inmnftcal 
Sound, by voluntary Motion, but the Voice of Man and Birds. Thccaufcis 
(no doubt) in the Wcfil or Wind-Pipe, (which we call JjperU Jrterht,) 


■(^entury //. 

which being well extended , gathered equality ; as a Bladder that is 
wrincklcd, if it be extended, bccometh linooth. The cxtcnlion is alw ays, 
more in Tones, than in Speech ; therefore the inward voice or whifpcr, 
can never give a Tone. And in Hnging, there is (manifcftly ) a greater 
working and labor of the Throat, than in Ipeaking; as appcarcth in the 
t.irufting out, or drawing in of the Chin, when we fing. 

Tlie Humming of Beci is an unequal buzzing, and is conceived bv Tome 
of the Ancients, not to come forth at their Mouth, but to bean inward 
Sound; but (it maybe) it is neither, but from the motion ot their Wings ; 
for it is not heard, but when they ftir. 

All Metals qucnchedinWatcr.givealibillationorhilTing found (^hich 
hath an aHinity with the LctccrZ.) notwithltanding the Sound be created 
between the Water or Vapor, and the Air. Seethingalfo, ifthcrebcbut 
fmnll ftorc of Water in a VelTel, givcth a hilling found; but boylingin a 
fuUVcflel, givcth a bubbling found, drawing fome what near to the Cocks 
ufed by Children. 

fryal woulJ be made, whether the Jnfqualltjf, or interchangr of the 
A.editint, will not produce an Inequality of Sound ; as if three Bells were 
made one within another, and Air betwixt each; an-i then the outermofl: 
Fell were chimed with a Hammer, ho u the Sound would dift'ec from a 
flmplc Bell. So likcsviletakeaPlatcof Brais, and a Plank of Wood, and 
jovnchcm dole together, andknockupononc of them, and fee if they do 
not give an unequal Sound. So make two or three Partitions of Wood in 
.-» Hogihead, wit. holes or knots in them j and mark the difference of their 
Ibund, from the found of an Hogffiead, without fuchpartitions. 

IT is evident, that the Percuffion of thegrcater quantity of Air, caufcth 
the bafcr Sound; and the Icfs quantity, themore trebble Sound. The 
Pcrcuflion of the greater quantity of Air, is produced by thegreatnefsof 
the Body pcrcufling; by the Latitude of the Concave, by whicli the Sound 
pallsch, and by the Longitude of the fame Concave. Therefore we rec,that 
a Bafc-iliing is greater tliana Trebble, aBalc-pipchath agrcater borcthan 
a Trebble : And in Pipes, and the like, the lower the Note holes be, and the 
further off from the Mouth of the Pipe, themore Bafe found they yield ; 
and the nearer the Mouth, the more Trebble. Nay more, if you llrike an 
entire Body, asan Andiron of Brafs, at thetop itmakcth a more Trebble 
lound, and at the bottom a Bafer. 

It is alfo evident, that the fliarperorquickcr Pcrcuflion of Air, caufcth 
thcmorcTrcbblc lound ; and the llower or heavier, the more Bafe found. 
Sowclce inStrings, themore they arcwoundup and flrained (andthercby 
give a more quick li art back) he more Trebble is the lound ; and the (lacker 
they are. or lefs wound up, the Baler is the found. And therefore a bigger 
Scring more llrained, and a lellcr String lets flrained, may fall into the fame 


Children, Women, Eunucht, have morc fmall and flirill Voices than Men. 

Ihe rcafon is, not for that Alen have greater heat, which may make the 
voice lf;rongcr,(for thc(\rength of aVoiceor Sound, doth makcadiffcrencc 
in the loudncls orfotcnefs, butnot'in the Tone) but from the dilatation of 
the Organ, which (it is true) is likewifc caufed byheat ; butthe caufe of 
changing the voice at the years of puberty, is moR oblcure. It feemeth to be 
for that, when much of the moifture of the Body, which did before irregate 







in Confort, 
more Trtbbte, 
And thim^rt 
M.'ftctl - 










!]\(juural Hijlory ; 

in Confotfj 
touching tlic 
Ptoporiitm of 
TrebbU and 
Safe Ttntu 

the Parts , is drawn down to rhc Spcrmatical Vcflels, it leavctii the Body 
more hot than it was ; whence comcth the dilaution of the Pipes : For we 
fee plainly allcffcfts of Heat do then come on; asPilofuy, more rough- 
ntlsof tbeskin.hardncfsof thcflerh,&c. 

' ' The induftry of rae CMu[nUu, hath produced two other means of StrAin- 
\ing, or Intenjion of Strings, hzMcsihnxjFiniingup. The one is the Stopping of 
the Siring with the Finger-, as in the Necks of Lutes, Viols, &c. The 
;Otheris:ne SlmtnejS^oi thcS'tring\ asin Harps, Virginals, &c. Both thele 
thave one and the fame reafon, for they caufc the Jrriwj to give a quicker 

In theflrainingof a String, the further it isftrained, thelcfs fuperftrain- 
ing gocth to a Note : Foritrcquircth good winding of a Bering, before it 
will make any Note at all. And m the ftops of Lutes, 5cc. the higher they 
go, the Icfs diltance is between the Frets. 

If you fill a 'Drinking Glaf with Water, (efpecially one (harp below, 
and wide above) and fillip upon the Brim, or oucfidc ; and after, empty 
part of the Water, and fo more and more, and ftili try the Tone by fillip- 
jng; youfhallfinde the Tone fall, and be more Bafc as the Glafsis more 

THc juft and meafurcd Proportion of the Air percuffcd , towards the 
Pafenefsor Trcbbleacfs of Tonds, isoneofthe greatell fecrets in the 
Contemplation of Sounds. For it-difcovereth the true Coincidence of 
Tones intoDiapafons, which is the return of the fame Sound. And fo of 
the Concords and Difcords, between the Unifon and Diapafon ; which we 
have touched before in the Experiments of Mufuk, but think fit to refume it 
here as a principal part of our Inquiry, touching the A^rfwrfjo/Jownrf;. Itmay 
befound outinthe Proportionof the Winding of Strings, in thePropottion 
of the Diftance of Frets, and in the Proportion of the Concave of Pipes.&c. 
But moll commodicufly in the laft of thefe. 

Try therefore the Winding of a Scring once abou% as foon as it is 
brought to that cxtenfion as will give a Tone, and then of twice about, and 
thrice about. &c. And mark the Icale or difference of the Rice of the Tone, 
whereby you fhall difcovcr in one, two cflfcdls,- boththe proportion of the 
Sound towards the Dimenfion of the Win ding . and the proportion likewilc 
of the Sound towards the String, as it ismorcorlefsftrained. But note that 
tomeafurethis, the way will be to take the length in aright line of the String, 
upon any Winding about of the Peg. 

As for the Stops, you are to take the number of Frets, and principally 
the length of the Line, from the firft ftop of the String, unto fuch altop as 
fiiall produce a ^M/)/j/ow to the former ftop, upon the fameString. 

Bucitwillbcft (as it isfiid) appear in the Bores of ffwd-lnprumenui and 
therefore caufe fome half dozen Pipes to be made in length, and all things 
elfcalike, with a fingle double, and fo one toafextupleBore; andfomark 
what fill of Tone every onegiveth. Butflill in thefe three laft inftances 
you muft diligently obferve. what length of String, or diftance of Stop, or 
concave of Air, makcth what rife of Sound. As in the laft of thefe (which, 
as we faid, is thatwhich givcth thcaptefldemonflration) youmuft fct down 
what increafe of Concave goeth to the making of a Note higher, and what 
of two Notes, and what of three Notes, and foupto the Diapafon: For 
then the great fecret of Numbers and Proportions will appear. It is not 


(^cntury Ih 

onlikch , that thofc tint make Recorders, 5cc. know this already; for 
chat they ni'ke them in Scf;. And likcwifc Bell-Founders in fittirg the 
tunc of their Bells : So that enquiry may favc tryal. Surely, it hath ben 
obfetvcd by one of t'nc Ancients, that ancmpty Barrel knocked uponwi h 
the finger, givctli a Diapafon to the Sound of the like Barrel full : But ho\v 
rhatfliouldbc, I do not well underftand, for that the knocking of a Barrel 
full or empty, doth fcarct- give any Tone. 

There is required fome fcnfible difference in thcProportionof crcat- 
in* a Note towards the Sound it feJf, which is the Pallive ; and that it 
be not too near, but at a dilbncc : For in a Recorder, the three uppcr- 
moft holes yield one Tone, which is a Note lower than the Tone of the 
fir 1 three. And the like ('no doubt) is required in the winding or flopping 

THcrc is another difference of Sounds, which we will call fxtfrior and 
Interior. It is not Soft nor Loud ; nor it is not Bale, not Trebble ; nor 
CIS not Mnftail, nor Immiiftul. Though it be true, thqt there can be no 
lone in znhttenor Sound- but en the Other fide, m in Exterior S'oiiiid, there 
may be both Mujicai and hnmufcul. We fhall therefore enumerate them, 
rjthcr than predclydiftingulfli thcni; though to make fome adumbration 
of (that wc mean) the Interior, is rather an Impulfion or Contufion of 
the Air, than an Eljifen or Scclioa ot rhefamc; fo as thePcrcuflion of the 
one towards the other, differcth asaBlowdiffereth from a Cut. 

Li Spcec'.i of Min, the V/hifperIng, (which they call ^"/"rrw in La- 
tip.) whether it belouder orfotter, is an Interior Sound; but the Speak- 
ing our, is an Exterior Sound : And therefore you can never make a Tone, 
nor fingin Whifpcring; but in Speech you may. So Breathing, or Blow- 
ing by the Mouth. Bellows, or Wind (chough loud) is an Interior Sound ; 
but the blowing thorow a Pipe, or Concave (though foft) is an Exterior. 
So likewife, the grcatcft Winds, if they havcnocoarftation. or blow not 
hollow, give any Interior Sound; thewhiftling or hollow Wind, yieldeth 
a Tinging , or Exterior Sound ; the former being pent by fome other 
Body, the latter being pent in by his own Dcnfity : And therefore wc f jc, 
Ihat when the Windblowcth hollow, itisafignof Rain; the flame, as it 
movcch withinitfcif, or is blown by a Bellows, givcth a murmur or Interior 

There Is no hard Body, but flruck againft another hard Body.will yield 
an Exterior Sound, greater or leffer ; infomuch, as if the Percuffion be ovcr- 
fofr, itmay induce a nullity of found, but never an Interior Sound; as when 
onctrcadcthfofofcly, that he is not heard. 

Where the Air is the Percuticnt, pent ornotpcnt, againfta hard Body, 
it never g.vcth an Exterior Sound ; as if you blow ftrongly with a Bellows 
againft a Wall. 

Sounds {both Exterior and Interior) may be made as well by Sudion, as 
by cmidion ot the Breath ; as in Whi[ihug,or Breaching. 

IT is evident, and it is one of the ftrangeft fccrcts in Sounds ; that the 
wiiole Sound is not in the whole Air onely , but the whole Sound is 
ilfo in every I'mall part of the Air. So that all the curious divcrfity of Art:- 




in Confolt, 
Exterior ctti 




in Confoit, 
tf Stunii. 






J^atural hi/lory • 




culatc Counds of the voice of Man or Birds, will enter into a fmall crany. 

The unequal agitation ofthclVinds, and ihc like, though they be ma- 
terial to the carriage of the Sounds, further or Icfs way ; yet they do noc 
confound the Articulation of them at all, vithin thatdiftancc that they can 
be heard, though it may be, they nuke them to be heard Icfswav, than in 
a ftill, as hach been partly touched. 

Over-great diftance confoundcth the Articulation of Sounds, as we 
fee, that you may hear the found ot a Preachers voice, or the like, wlicn 
you cannot diftinguifh what he faith. And one Articulate found will con- 
found another, as when many fpeak at once. 

In the Experiment offpcaking under Water, when the voice is re- 
duced to fuch an cxrream cxhility, yet the Articulate founds (which are the 
words) arc not confounded, as hath been (aid. 

1 conceive that an extream fmall, or an cxtream great lound, can- 
not be Articulate , but that the Articulation rcquireth a mediocrity of 
found •• For that the extream Imall found confoundeth the Articulation 
by contrading, and the great found by difperfmg ; and although 
( as was formerly faid) a Sound Articulate, already created, will be con- 
traded into a fmall crany j yet the firft Articulation requireth more di- 

It hath been obferved , that in a Room, or in a Chappcl, Vaulted 
below, and Vaulted likewise in the Roof, a Preacher cannot be heard fb 
well, as in the like places not fo Vaulted. The caufc is, for that thcfub- 
fcqucnt words come on, before the precedent words vanifh; and there- 
fore the Articulate Sounds »rc more confufed.though the grofs of the Sound 
be greater. 

The motions of the Tongue, Lip', Thrtat, FaUte, &c. which go to the 
making of the feveral yllphabeuc.xl Letters are worthy inquiry, and perti- 
nent to the prcfent Inquifition of Sounds : But bccaufe tney are fubtil and 
long to defcribc, we will refer them over, and place them amongft the 
Experiments of Speech. The Hehefi's have been diligent in it, and have 
afligned v hich Letters arc Lubid, which TDentd, which Guttural, &c. As 
for the Lutins and Grecians , they have diffinguifhcd between ^emi-va-\\els 
znA Mutes ; and inC^utes, between iV/«r<e Lenues, Mcdu Sini j^JpiratJt, not 
amifs , but yet not diligently enough. For the fpecial ftrokej and moti- 
tions that create thofe Sounds, they have little enquired ; aj that the 
Letters, B. P.p. M. are not expreflcd, but with the concrading, or (hut- 
ting of the Mouth; that the Letters N. andB. cannot be pronounced, but 
that the Letter N. will turn into M. as HecatenLt will he Hecatimba. That 
M. and T- cannot be pronounced together, but P. will come between ; 
as Emttts, is pronounced Emptus, anaa number of the like : So that if 
you enquire to the full, you will finde, that to the making of the whole 
Alphabet, there will be fewer fimplc Motions required, than there arc 

The Lungs arc the mod fpong:y part of thcBody, and therefore ablcft 
tocontraft and dilate itfelf; and where it contra<Scth itfclf, itexpcllcth 
the Air, which thorow the jfrtire. Throat, and Mouth, maketh the Voice : 
But yet ArctcuUtion is not made, but with the help of t\\cToHgut,p*Jlm,^v\d the 
reft of thofe they call Inftruments of p'tice. __ 

i There 

(^cfitury II, 

There is Found a Similitude between the Sound that is made by Auni- 
niAte Bodies, or by yfmm.ire Bodtrs , that have no Voice Articulate , and di- 
vers Letters of Articulate Voices ; and commonly Men have given liich 
names tothole Sounds as do allude unto the Articulate Letters- As frem- 
bitng of J/utcr hath rclcmblancc with the Letter L. ^encbwgef Hot A^eult 
with theLctterZ. ynarlmir ofDo^s v^khthc LcttcrK. The T^oife of S'critcl,. 
Oil/Is with the Letters Sh. f'oice of Cau with the Dipthong JEu, yotee of 
Chuch f with tlic Dipthong Ou. Sounds of Strings with the Letters Ng, So 
thatif aMan (for curiolity or ftrangencfs fake) would make a Puppet, or 
otherdcad Body;, to pronounce a word : Lcthimconfidcr on the one part, 
the Motion of the hjiruments of Voice ; and on the Other part, the like Sounds 
made in LuHiwate Bodies ; and what Conformity there is, thatcaufcth the 
Similitude of ^mnds ; and by that he may miniftcr ligkt tothatcffcft. 




asa/iti^ J-WV UJW JTiw Ifii/. i.G>.>£31iJ>aV ifr U iiZV ir.jji J>£rv itt,/. i,r7V i4iV l.i7V >.' .i*GV iOi 



Century III, 


U.S'ounds (whitlocveO move round, thatistofay, On 
alliides, Upwavds, Downwards, Fore wards, and Back- 
wards : This appeareth in all Inllances. .. 

Jcwik/j do not require to hcconvcighed tothfi Senfe 
ina right Line, as f^ifil^les do, but naay be arched, though 
it be true they move ftrongcft in aright Line ; vfhich 
neVcrtheleis is notcauled bythcrightncfsof the Line, 
but by the Ihortncisot the diftancc .Linearedejirez'tjii- 
otj. And tliercforc, wc fee if a Wallbe between, and you fpeak on the one 
fide, \ ouhcariiontheother; whjchisnotb-caufe the found paflcth thorow 
the ^''all, but arched over the Wall. 

It tlic Sound be flopped and rcpercuflcd, it comcth about on the other 
fide, in nnpblick Line : So, if intCoach, oncfideot thcBont bcdown, and 
thcothcru^. and a Bcgger beg on thcclofcfide, you would think that he 
Were on rhc open fide. So like wile, if a Bell or Clock, be (for example) 
on the Nortli-fide of a Chamber, and the WindavB of that Chamber be 
upon the booth ; he thaci$iiuhcChambcr,willtiMnk the lound came from 
the South. 

Sounds, though they fprcd round, fo that (there is an orb, orfphcrical 
<^*Moi thz Sound) yet they move ftrongcft, and go furthell: in the Fore- 
Lines, from the fir. t Local Impulfion of the Air. And thcreroro in Preach- 
ing, you ihall hear tJie Preachers voice better before thcfulpit thanbe- 
hinJcir, oron the fides, though it Hand open, bo i Harjaebuz orOrdnjuce 
villbc tuither heard forvrards, from the mouth of the Piece, than back- 
wards, oi on tliciidcs. A ' 

h may be doubted, that Sounds do move better doM'nwardJ, than up- 
wards, yuipiu arc placed high above the people : And when the yinaent 

F Generdlt 



in Confoit, 
Aiotlini of 
Soundly in 
trbit Lints 
they are Cir- 
cular, Obliikf 
Straight, Kf' 
toardi, Down- 
v>ardi, For- 
nardi, Btck^ 









in ConfotCi 
touching the 
Lafiing and 
Perilhing of 
Sounds i and 
touching till 
timt they rt- 
tjuirt to the 
GtntriititH or 


[h(atHMl Hi/lory; 


Generals fpakc to their Armies, they had ever a Mount ofTurffcaft up, 
wi.erc upon they flood. But this may be- imputed tothcftopsand obllaclcs 
which the voice mccteih with, when one Ipeskcth upon the level. 15nt 
there fcemcth to be mote in it ; for it may be, that Spiritual Specie?, both of 
things vifible. and Sounds, do move better downwards than upwards. It is 
a ftrangc thing, that to Men (landing below on the ground, thole that be on 
the top of Fault, fcemmuch Icfsthan they are, and cannot be known ; But 
to Men above thofc below, fcem nothing fo much leflfcncd, and may be 
known ; yetitisttuc, That all things to them above, feem alfo ("omcwhat 
contracted and better colledted into figure ; as Knots in Gardens fhcw beft 
from an upper Window or Tatras. 

But to make an cxafttryal of it, let a Man ftand in a Chamber not 
much above the Ground, andlpcakcuc at the Windowthorow aTrunck, to 
one (landing on the Ground as lofcly as he can, the other laying his Ear clofe 
to the Trunck : Then I'uverfa, let the other fpeak below keeping the fame 
proportion of foftnefs; and let him in the Chamber lay his Ear to the Trunck. 
And this may betheaptell means to make a Judgment, whether Sounds 
dcfcend or afccnd better. 

AFter that J»«»rf is created ^whieh is in amomentl wefinde it continucth 
fome (mall time, melting by little and little. In this there is a wonder- 
ful enor amongflMen, who take this to be a continuance of the fitft Sound; 
whereas (in truth) it is a Renovation, and not a Continuance: For the Body 
petcufTed, hath by reafon of the PercufTion, a Tripidation wrought in the mi' 
nute parts, and forenewcth the Percuffion of the Air. This appcareth 
manifedly, becaufethat thcMeUingfoundof a Bell, or of a firing ftrucken, 
which is thought to be a Continuance, ceafeth asfoon as the Bell or firing are 
touched. As ioa Virginal, asfoon as ever thcjackfalleth, andtouchcththe 
firing, the found ceafeth ; and inaBeil.afteryouhave chimed upon it, if you 
touch the Bell, the found ceafeth. And in this you mufl dillinguifh, that there 
are two Trepidations , The one Manifcfl and Local ; as of the Bel', when it 
isPenfile; the other Secret, of the Minute parts, fuchasisdefcribcd in the 
ninth Inllancc. But it is true, that the Local hclpeth the Secret greatly. We 
(ce likewife, that in Pipes, andother Wind Inflruments, the found lafteth no 
longer than the breath bloweth. It is true, that in Organs there is a confufcd 
muimur fora while, after youhaveplaycd, but that is but while the Bellows 
are in falling. 

Itiscertain, thatin the noifc of great Ordnance, where many are (hot 
off together, the found will be carried (at the leaft; twenty miles upon the 
Land, and much further upon the Water, butthenit will cometo the Ear; 
not in thcinftantof the (hooting off, but it will come an hour, or more later: 
This muft needs be a Continuance of the firft Sound; for there is no Trepi- 
dation which fhould renew it. And the touching of the Ordnance would 
not extinguifh rhc found the fooncr : So that in great Sounds, the Continu- 
ance is more than Momentany. 

To rry cxadly the time wherein Sound is delated, Let a Man dand in a 
•*^teeple, and hive with him a Taper , and let fome Veil be put before the 
Taper, and ler another Maniland intheField amileofF; then let him in the 
Steeple ftrike the Bell, and in the fame inflant withdraw the Veil, and fo let 
him intheField tell by hisPulfe, what diftancc of time there is between the 
Light feen, and the Sound heard : For it is certain , That the Delation of 


(^entury III. 

% I 

Li£;hc is in an inftant. This may be tried in far greater diitanccs, allowing 
greater Lights and Sounds. 

it is generally known and oblcrvcd, that Light and the objcftof^ight, 
move fwifccrthan Jjound ; for we fee the flalh of a piece is Jccn fooncr, 
than the noi/eishcard. And in hewing Wood, ifonc Ibmedillanccoif, hc- 
fliall fee the Arm lifted up for a fccond flrokc, before he hear the noilc of the 
firft ; and the greater the diftanccthe greater is the prevention : As wc fee i:i 
T bunder, which is faroft,whcrcthc /J^/n«i«^precederh the crack a good fi.iace. 

Colours, vhcn they rcprcfentthcmlclves to the F.ycfadc not nor melt 
not by degrees, butappear ftill in the famcftrength ; but Sounds melt, and 
vanilh, by little and little. 1 he caulc is, for that Colours participate nothing 
with thcmotion of the Air, but Sounds do. Anditisa plain.irguTcnt thar 
Sound participatcth of fomc Local Morionof the Air, (as acaiifc Sine qua 
non) in it pcriflicth fo fuddenly : For in every Sc^^ion, or Impuliion of 
the Air, the Air doth fuddenly rcliore and reunite it leU, which theW'arer 
alfo doth, but nothing (o iVi(cly. 

IN the Tryals cf the Palfage, or not Padagc of Sound?, you miift take heed 
you miftakcnotthc paffingby the ^idesot a Body, for the palling thorow 
a Body; ad therefore you mull make the Intercepting Body very clofcj 
for Sound will pafs tliorow afmallchinck. 

Where S mnd paHcth thorow a hard, or clofc Body (as thorow Water, 
thorow a Wall, thorow Metal, as in Hawks Bells ftoppcd, &c.) the hard 
orclofe Body.muftbc butthin andfmall; forelfc itdeadcthandextingaifh- 
cth the Sound utterly. And therefore, in the h xpcriirent of Speaking in 
Air under Water, the voice muft not be very deep within the Watcr.for then 
the Sound picrccth not. So if you fpcak on the further fide of a clofc Wall, 
if the Wall bevcry chic' Ihallnot behe.ird ; and ifthere were an Hogs- 
head empty, whereof the fides were fome two foot thick, andthcBung- 
hole flopped. I conceive, the refotinding foundby theCommunicatiotiof 
the outward Air with the Atr within, would belittle or none, but oncly you 
fliali hear the noife of the outward knock, as if th:; Vclfel were full. 

l:is ccrtain.that in the palfigc of Sounds thorow hardBoJics, the Spirit 
or Pneumatical part ofthchard Body it fclf doth co-operate ; butmuch 
better, when thclides of that hard Bodv arc 11 ruck, than when the percufli- 
on isonil within, wichouttouch of thefides. Take therefore aHavrks-Bcll, 
the holes flopped up, andhang it by athred withina Bottle-Glafs, and flop 
the Mou:h t f cheGlafs very clofc with Wax, and then fhakethcGlafs.and fee 
whcthcrtlie l;cllgivcanyfoundataIl,or how weak? But notcthat vou muft 
inllcadof Thrcdtakea Wire, orclfc let the Qlais havcagrcat Belly, left 
when you fluke the Bell, it dafh upon the fides of the Glafs. 

It is plain that a very long and down right arch for the Sound to pafs, 

will cxriniriiiih the Sound quite, fo that that .Sound, which would beheard 

ovcraWa!!, ■will not be heard overaChurch; nor that . Sound, which will 

bo heard, il you Ifand fomc diflance from the Wall, will be heard if you 

and dole under the Wall. 

^o tan f ForaminousBoJies inthcfirft creation of the Sound, will dead 
it ; for the flrikingagainfl Cloth or Fur.will make little found, as ha h been 
laiJ : But in the palfage of the found, they will admit itbcttcrthan harder 
Bodies, as Wc fee, that Curtains and Hangings will not (fay the foundmuch. 
but Gkil; windoY.-5, if thcv be very clofe, w ill check a found more, than the 
Iik« thickiiefs of Cloth. VVc fee alfo in the rumbling of the Belly, how 
cafily t he .Soundpadcth thorow the Guts and Skin. 

F 2 It 


21 r. 

in Cotllorr, 
lr.uchi:)g ;!»•: 

of Soundt. 





J\(atural hijlory • 



It is worthy the inquiry, whether great Sounds ( as of Ordnance or 
Bells) become not more Weak and Exile, when ihcy pal'i tiiorow (mjil 
Cranics. lor the Subtilties of Articulate Sounds, (it may be) may pais 
thorow (mall Cranics, not confufcd } but the magnitude of the Sound (per- 
haps) not fo well. 

T He cJ7/frf»«mx 0/ Sounds, are Air, foft and porous Bodies ; alfo Water, 
and hard Bodies rclufc not altogether to be Metiiumstf Sounds, but all 
01 them arc dull and unapt different?, except the Air. 

In Air, the thinner or drier Air, carricrh not the Sound fo well, as the 
more denfe ; as nppcareth in Night Sounds, and Evenmg Soands, and 
Sounds in moift WcJthcr, and Southern Winds. Ihe rcafon is already 
mentioned in the Title of miajoration of SoHuds -, being, for that thin Air is 
better pierced, but thick Air prcfcrvcth the Souno bcrtrer from waftc: Let 
further Tryal be made by hollowing inMifts, and gentle Showers j for (it 
may be) that will fomcwhat dead the Sound. 

How far forth Flmie may be a Medium of founds, ( cfpeclally of fuch 
Sounds as arc created by Air, and not betwixt hard Bodies) let it bctii:d 
in ipcaking, where a Bonefirc is between ; but then you mult allow Icr iomc 
dirturbance, the noife that tlic I'lamcit felt maketh. 

Wncther any other Liquors being made OHediums, caufcadivcrfity of 
Sound from Water, it may be tryed : As by the knapping of the Tongs, or 
finking the bottom of a VefTcl filled either with Milk or with Oyl ; 
which though they be more light, yet arc they more unequal Bodies than 


of the Nkturcs of the Mediums, i^e have no'^f^ok(n\ as for the Diipofi- 
non of the faidyiz^mxns, it doth cenfi/} in thePemiing, ornet Penrung 
of the Air ; of-^hich, yte havejpokcn before in theZtkefUchdon of 
Sounds. // confijieth alfo in the Figure </>/»* Concave, through^hich 
it pajpth. Of -U'hichj ti^e t>ill{Jieak next. 

HOw xht Figures of Ftp es Qt Concaves, through which S'ou»dsp3(s, or ot 
other Bodies different ; conduce to the variety and alteration of the 
Sounds, either in refped of the greater quantity , or lefs quantity of Air, 
which the Co»f<<v« receive; or in refpcdl of the carrying of Soundslorger 
.or fhorter way ; or in refped of many other Circumflances,thcv have been 
touched, as falling into other Titles. But thofe Ftgures which we now are 
totpeak of, we intend to be, as they concern the Lines, through which 
Sound paffeih : As Strdi^ht, Crtokei^An^uUr, CircuUr, 6"c, 

TheFigureof aBcUparrakcth of the /"/rjwM, but yet coming off, and 
dilating more fuddcnly. The Figure of a Hmttrs Horn, and Comet, is oblii.k, yet 
they have likcwifc ftraight Horns ; vrhich if ihcy be of the fame bore with 
thcoblick, differ little in Sound, favc that the Ikaight require fomewhat a 
(Ironger blart. The Figure of Recorders, and Flutes, and Pipes, arc ff taight ; 
but the i?<fcor(/fr hath a lefs bore, and a greater, above and below. The Trww/'n 
hath the Figure o{\\\Q Letter S. which maketh that Purling Sound. &c. Gene- 
rally, the ft raight Line hath the cleaned and toundcft Sound, and the crooked 
the more Hoatfc, and Jarring. 

Of a Sinuous Pipe that may have fomc four Flexions, tryal would be 
mad^. Likewife of a Pipe made like aCrofs, open in the midft ; and fo 


Century III. 

likcwKc ot an jinguUr Tipe ; and fee what will be the efFcft- ut thcfc n.vcral 
Sounds. And lo agiin of a Circular Tipe : As if you tike a Pipe pcrfed 
round, andm.ikc a hole whcrcinto youfh.ill blow, and another hole not 
far from thru; but with a travcrlv: (»r ftop bctwt^cn them : So that your 
; breath may go the Round of the Circle, and come forth at the fccond hole. 
i You may try likcwifc PercufTuns of folid Bodies of levcral I-igurcs : As, 
I GUtes, Flats, Cttbes. Crowes, Triangles, &c. And their Combinations ; as Flat 
I againftF/xr, and Co«v« againll Cospfx-, and Convexzg:i\t\[\Eat,&c. And mark 
! well thedivcrtiticsof thcSounds. Try alfo the diftetencein found of feve- 
' ral Craflitudes of hard Bodies percuffed, and rake knowledge of the diver- 
fitics of the founds. 1 my fclf have tried, That a Belltf Gold yieldeth an ex- 
cellent (ound, not inferior xoihnoi Silver ot Braf, but rather better. Yet 
wc fee that a piece of money of Gold, four.deth far more flat thaa a piece of 
monev o^ Silver. 

The Harp h.nhthc concave, notalongthc ftrlngs.butacrofs the firings; 
and no Injlrument hath the found fo melting and prolonged, as thclri/h Harp. 
i>o as I Tiippofe, that if a Virginal were made with a double Concive ,• the 
one all the length as the^'if^m.// hath, the other at the end of they?n»^/, as 
the Harp haih ; it muinecdsmakc the found perfedlcr, and not foihallow, 
and jarring. You may try it without any Soundboard along, but onely 
Hirp Wife, at one cndof the ftripgs; or laftly, witli a double concave, at 
each end of thcftrings one. 


THcrc is an apparent divctfity between the Species Plfibie and Audible, In 
this. That the Vifd'le doth not mingle in the CMedium, but the i^udtble 
doth. For ifwc look abrbad, we fee Heaven, a number of Stars, Trees, 
Hills, Mcn.Bcaitr, at once ; and the Species of the one, doth not confound 
the other : Bu; it fo many Sounds come from fcvcral parts, one of them 
would utterly confound the other. So wc (cc. That Voices or Conforts of 
C^/*i/»V^do mikeaharmonv by mixture, wnich Colours do not. It is true 
ncvettliclefs, that a great light drowncth almallcr, that it cannot bcfcen; 
as tiie Sun that of a Gloworm, as well as a great found drowncth a IcfTer. 
And 1 fuppofv- likcwile, that if there were two Lanthorns of Glafs , the 
one a Cnnilin, and the other an Azure, and a Candle within either of 
them, ihofe coloured ii;;hts, would mingle and call upon a White Paper, a 
Purple colour. And even in colours, they yield a faint and weak mixture; 
for Wnitc Walls make rooms more lightlomc, than Black, &c. But the 
caufc of the Confufion in Sounds, andthclnconfufionin Species Vifible, is. 
Pot that the Siglit wo:kcthinrightLincs, and maketh feveralCones j and 
lo there can be no Coincidence in the HycorVifual Point: But Sounds that 
move inoblick and arcuitcLincs, muft needs encounter, anddillurbtheonc 
the other. 

The fwcctcit aiid bcfl Hirmony is, when every Part or Inftrumentis 
I not heard by it felt , but a conflation of them all , which rcquireth to fland 
fomcdiftanccoff. Even as it is in the mixture of perfumes, or the takingof 
thcfmclls of fcvcral Flowers in the Air. 

Thcdifpolitioa of the Air, in other qualities, except it be joyncd with 
Sound, hath no great operation upon Sounds .- Itjr whether thcAir be 
lightlomc or dark, hot or cold, quiet or Ifirring, (except it be withnoife) 
Iwcci fniclhng, orl\inkir.g,orthc likc; itimpotteth not much. Somcpctty 
alteration or difference it may make. 

F 3 But 


in Confoit, 
Mixturt if 






J\^mral Hijiory ; 

in Con(ott. 

I Sounds. . 




■II ■ 


ButJiouiids dodilturbandalccr the one the other: Scjmetimes the one 
drowning the other, and making it not heard; fometimes the one jarringnnd 
difcording with the othcr.and making a confufion ; fumctimcs the one ming- 
ling and compounding witn the otner, and making an harmony. 

Two Voicesof hke loudncG, will not be heard twice as tar, asoncof 
them alone; and two Candles of like light, will not make things fccm twice 
as far off. as one. Thecaufe is profound, but itlcemcth, that the Imprcffi- 
ons from the obje£ts of the Scales, do mingle refpcdively, every one with 
his kindc • but not in proportion, as is before dcmonllratcd : And the reafon 
maybe, becaufe thehrft imprcflion, which is from Privative to Adive, (as 
from Silence to Noifc, or from Darkntfito Light,) is a greater degree, than 
from Icfs noifc, to more noife, or from lefs light, to more light. And the 
realon of that again may be, For that the Air, after it hath received a charge, 
doth not receive a furcharge, or greater charge, with like appetite, as it 
doth the firft charge. Asfor theincreafe ot Vcttue generally, what propot- 
tion it beareth to the incrcafc of the Matter, it is a large Field, and to be 
handled by it felf. 

A LL Reflexions Concurrent, do make Sounds greater ; but if the Body 
^/\ that crcatetb, either the original Sound, or the Rellexion, be clean and 
fmoothit makcth themfwcetcr. Tryalmay be made of aI/tt/eorFM/,with 
'/ theBclly ofpolifhedBrafsinlfcad of Wood. We lee, that even in the open 
Air, the JVire- firing is fweeter than i\\eftnng of Guts. And we fee, that for R(- 
fltxien,ff^aterfixcdlcth} asini^«^tinearthe Water, otmEccho's. 

It hath beentrycd, that a *P»/e, a little moiftned on the infide, but yet 
fo as there be no drops left, maketh a more iblcmn found, than if the Pipe 
were dry; but yet with z fwcci degree o( SiHUtiM ot Purling, as we touched 
it before in the Title of Equnlitj. The caufe is, for that all things porous, be- 
(ingfupcrficialiy wer, and (as it were) between dry and wet, become a little 
more even and fmooth ; but the Purling (which muft needs proceed of In- 
equality) I take to be bred between the fmoothnefs of the inwardSurfacc 
of the Pipe which is wet, andthcreftof the Woodof the Pipe, unto which 
the wet Cometh not.but it remaineth dry. 

In Frofty weather, cJ^/«^<:)^within doors foundeth better ; which may 
be, by tcafonnotof thedilpofitionof the Air, but of the Wood or String of 
the Inlfrumetit, whichismade more crifp, and lo more porous and hollow; 
and we fee that 0/(/Z/Kr« found better than iVeft*, for the fame reafon ; Andfo 
', do Lute-firings that have been kept long. 

Sound is likewife meliorated by the mingling of open Air with pent Air : 
Therefore tryal may be made of a Lute oiVi*l with a double Belly, making 
i another Belly with a knot over the firing ; yet fo, as there be room enough 
for the llring?, and room enough to play below that Belly. Tryal m.iy be 
alio made ot an Irish Harp, with a concave on both fides, whereas it ufeth to 
have it but on one fide. The doubt may be , left it fliould make too much re- 
lounding, whereby one Note would overtake another. 

If you fing in the hole of a TDrum, it maketh the finging more (wect. 
And fa I conceive itwould.if it were a Song in Parts lung into fcveral ^rums ; 
and for handfomnefs and ftrangcnefs fake, it would not be amifs to have a 
Curtain between theplace where the Dramx are, and the hearers. 

When a found is created in the fVind-lnftrument, between the Breath and 
j Air, yet if the found be communicate with a more equal Body of the Pipe 


Qentury III, 

ii inelioratcth rlic lound. For (no dobut) there would be a differing found 
in a Trumpet orPipeof Wood, and again, in a Trumpet or Pipe of ikafs, 
It were good to try Reorders jnd Hunters Horns oi Braf , what the found 
would be. . _ . 

S'ounds arc meliorated by thclntenfioh of the Scnfe,whcrethecommt)n 
Sunie is collcftcd moft to the particular Scnfe of Hearing, and the Sight fu(- 
pcnded: And therefore Sounds are tweeter, as well as greater, in the Night 
than in the Djy ; and ] fuppofe, they are fwcetcr to blinde men, than to 
others : And it is niimteit, that between fleeping and waking, ^whcn all the 
Scnfes ate bound and Tufpended) (J?/«/ici^isfarfweeter than when one is fully 

IT is a thing (hange in Nature, when it is attentively confidcred , How 
Children and fomc Birds learn to imitate Speech. They tike nomarkat 
all ot the Motion of the Mouth of him that fpeaketh , for Birds arc as well 
taught in the dark, as by light. The founds of Speech are very curious and 
exquifue ; fo one Would think it were a Leflon hard to learn. It is erne, 
that it is done With time, and by little and little, and with many ciFjys and 
proffe-rs : But all thisdifchargetli not the wonder. It would make aMan 
think (though this, which vvc (hill fiy, may fecoi exceeding ftrange) that 
there is fome tranimiflion of Spirits , and that the Spirit of the Teacher put 
in motion, fhould work with the Spirits of the Learner, a predifpofitlon to 
offer to imitate, and fo to pcrfed the imitation by degrees. But touching 
Operations by Tranlmiflions of Spirits (which isonco! rhchighcftfccrctsin 
Nature) we fhall fpcak in due place, chiefly when we come to inquire of 
Imagination. But as for Imitation, it is certain, That chcre is in Mer, and 
other Creatures, a predifpoluion to imitate.. We fee how ready Apes and 
Monkics arc to imitate all motions of Man : And in the catching of Dot- 
trels, wc fee how thcfoolifli Bird playeth the Ape in gcftures : And no Man 
(m effect) doth accompany with others , but he Icatneth (ere he is awate^ 
fome Gefture, or Voice,or F^fhionof the other. 

In Imitation of S'ounds, that Man fliould be the Teacher, isnopirt of the 
matt^ : For Birds will learn one of another, and there is no reward by feed- 
ing, or the like, given them for the imitation: Andbefidcs, youftall have 
Parrets that will not onely imitate Voices, but Laughing, Knocking, Squeak 
ingof aDoor upon the Hinges, or of a Cartwheel, and(ineffe£t)any other 
nolle they hear. 

No Beaft can imitate the Speech ofMan^ but Birds onely: For the Ape 
it kh, that is fo ready to imitate othcrwife, attaincth not any degree of imi- 
tation of Speech. It is true, that I have kr.owna Dog, that if one howled 
inhis ear, iie would fall a howling a great w^iile. What fhould be the aptnefs 
of Birds, n comparifon of Beafts, to imitate the Speech of Man, may be fur- 
ther inquired. We fee that Beafls have thofc parts, which they count the 
Inpuments ; . Sptech, (as Lips, Teeth, &c.') liker unto Man than Buds. As for 
t!ie Neck by which the ihroAt paflcth , we fee many Bcalh have it for the 
len^ti , as much as Birds. What better gorge or attire Birds have, mav^ be 
further inquired, fhe Birds that are knowntobefpeakers, a:c^aTTefs,il^j/es, 
Jxp, DdXfs, and Ravens ; Of which, Tdrrets have an adunck Bill, bii^^tJI^qi 
reit lior. 

Bit Iconcckfc, thattheaptnefiof Birds is not lomuch in the confor- 
mity oi the Organs of Speech, as in their Attention. ForSpcccnmul\ con^Ci 
by Hearing and Learning ; and Birds give more heed, and mark Sounds i 


55? I) 


in Confott, 
touching the 
Imitaiien of 






S\(amral hi/lorj ; 



in Confort, 
touching (he 
Hiflexim of 





more than Bcafls ; bccaufc naturally they are more delighted ttitfithcm, 
and pra£tKc them more, as appearcth in their Singing. Wciecallb, that 
thofe that teach Birds to fing . do keep them waking, to incrcalc tncir 
attention. Wc fee alio, that Cock-Birds, amongfl: .Singing-Birds, arc ever 
the better fingers, which may be, becaulc they arc more hvcly, andlillcn 


Ltbor and Intention to imitate f'oices, doth conduce much to imitation: 
And therefore vvc fee, that there be certain 'P^wrowjmj, thatw iJI repreicnt 
the Voices ofFUyers of Interludes, fo to hfc, fis iF you fee them not, you 
would think they were thole Flajers themfclves, ancllothc Voices of other 
men thac they hear. 

There have been fomcthat could counterfeit the di(l;incc of Voices, 
(which is a fccondary obfcdt of Hearing) in fuch lort ; as wlicn they liand 
fafl by you, you would think the Speech came from afar off, in a fearful 
manner. How this isdonc,may befurthercnquired ; but I fee no great ufc 
of it, butforlmpofture, in counterfeiting ghoils or fpirits. 

THerc be three kindes of Reflexions of ^otmds; a Reflexion Concurrent, a Re- 
flexion Iterant, which wecall £fc^o, •a.nda Sitper-refiexion, or an fit/;o of an 
Eccho, whereof the firft hath been handled in the liclc of C^fu^nitude of 
Sounds. The latter two sve wiU now fpeakof. 

The Reflexion ofS'pecies Vifblch^ tJMtrrtrs, you may command, becaufc 
paffing it Right Lines, they may be guided to any point : But the if^^^xjon 
of Sounds, ishardtomafler; becaufc the found filling great fpaces in arched 
Lines, cannot be fo guided. And therefore, wc fee there hath not been 
praflifed any means to make Artificial Eccho's. And no Eccho already 
known, returncth in a very narrow room. 

The Natural Eccho's arc made upon Walls, Woods, Rocks, Hill«, and 
Banks : As for Waters being near, they make a Concurrent Eccho ; but 
being further off, (as uponalarge River) they make an Interant Eccho: 
For there is no difference between the Concurrent Eccho, and the Iterant, 
but the quicknefs or flownefs of the return. But there is no doubt, but Wa- 
ter doth help the Delation of Eccho, as well as ithelpeth the Delation of 
Original Sounds. 

It is certain (as hath been formerly touched,) that if you fpcak thorow 
aTrunck, ftopped at the further end, you fhall finde ablafl return upon your 
mouth, but no found at all. The caufe is, for that the clofenefs, which prc- 
ferveth the original, is notable to prefcrve the rcflcdcd found ; befidcs that, 
Eccho's arc feldom created, but by loud Sounds. And therefore there is 
Icfs hope of Artificial Eccho's in Air, pentin a narrow concave. Neverthe- 
lefs it hath been tryed, thatone leaning ovcra Wcj,lof Twenty fivefathom 
deep, and fpcaking, though but foftly, (yet not fofbft asawhifber) the 
Water returned a good audible Eccho. It would be tryed, whether fpcaking 
in Caves, where there is noifl'ue.fave where you fpcak, willnotyicldEccho's 
at Wells do. 

The Eccho comcth as the Original Sounddoth in a round orb of Air ; 
It were good to try the creating of the Eccho, where the Body repcrcufling 
maketh an Angle: As .-^gainll: the Return of aWall, &c. Alfo vvc fee that 
in Mirrors., there is the like Angle of Incidence, from the Objeft to the 
Glafi, and from the Glafs to the Eye. Andif you flrikcaBalllide-long, not 
full upon the Surface, the rebound will be as much the contrary way ; whe- 

Century III. 


thcr there be any fuch rchlience iiiEccho's ('that is, Whether a Man fliall 
hear better, ifheftandafide the Body rcpcrcuding. than if he ftand where 
helpeakethi or any where in a right Line between) m^ybetried; TryilUke- 
wifc would be made, by Ihmding nearer the place of rcpercufiing, than he 
thatfpcaketh; and again, by ftandingfuither off", than lie that fpwketh, and 
lo knowledge would be taken, whether Eccho's, as well as Original Souadi, 
be notftronged near hand. 

There be many places, where you fliall hear a number of Eccho's one 
after another ; and it is, when there is variety of Hilh oifVeods, fbme nearer, 
fome furtheroft": Sothat the return from the further, being lalt created, will 
be likewife lall heard. 

As the Voice goeth round, as well towards the back, as towards the 
front of him thatfpcaketh ,- fo likewife doth the Eccho , for you have many 
Bick-cccho^ to the plate where you ftand. 

To ni.ike an Hccho that will report three, or four, or five words 
dinftindly, it is requifitc, that the Body reperGuflfing be a good diiUnce 
off : For if it bo near, and yet not fo near, as to make a Concurrent 
, hccho, it choppcth with you upon the fudden. It is requifitc likewife, 
that the Ait be not much pent: For Air, atgre^t diftance, pent, wotk- 
cth the fimc tffcd with Ait at large , in a fmall diftance. And there- 
fore in the Tryal of Speaking in the Well, though the Well was deep, 
the Voice came back fuddcnly , and would bear the report but of two 

From Eccho's upon Eccho's, there is a rare iiiftance thereof in a 
place, which I will now exadly defcribe. It is fome Tnrcc or four 
Miles from ^''aris , near a Town called 'Pont-dremoH ; and fome Bird- 
bolt /hot or more frc«n the River ot Scah. Tac Room is a Chappel, 
or fmall Church ,• the Walls ail ftanding, both at the fides, and at the 
ends ; two rows of Pillars after the manner of llles of Churches , alfo 
ftanding ; the Roof all open , not fo much as any Embowment near 
any of the Walls left. There was againfl every Pillar, a fl^ack of Bil- 
lets above a Mans height, wliicli the Watermen, that bring Wood 
down the Sexn , in Stacks, and net in Boats , laid tlicre (as it lecmeih ) 
for their eafe. Speaking at the one end, I did hear it return the Voice 
Thirteen ft veral times ; and I have heard of others, that ic would re- 
turn Sixteen times ; for I was there about three of the Clock in the A^'tcr- 
noon ; and it is beft, (as all other Eccho's are) in the Evening. It is 
manifetl, tliat it is not Eccho's from fevcral places, but a tofluig of the 
Voice, as a Ball too and fro ; like to Reflexions in Lookirg-Glaflcs ; where 
if you place oneGfifs before, and another bebinde, you Ihall fee tlie Glafs 
behinde with the Image, wiihin the Gbfs before j and again, the Glafs 
before in tiiac : And divers fu.h Super-Rcfiexions, till the Sfecies Jpeciei \t 
lalt die : For it is every return weaker, and more fliady. In like manner, 
the Voice in that Chappel, crcateth S'ptcitm jpeciei, and makcth (ucceeding 
Super-Reflexions ; for it mcltcth by degrees, and every Reflexion is 
weaker than the former : So that, if youfpeak three words, it will (per- 
haps) feme three times report you the whole three words ; and then the 
two latter words for Sometimes, and then the laft word alone for fomc- 
times , ft. 11 tading and growing weaker. And whereas in Eccho's of 
one return , it is much to hear Four or five words. In this Eccho of 
fo many Returns, upon the matter, you hear above Twenty words for 






15 2. 



in Confoic, 
touching the 
Ctnfent and 
DilJent Af- 
tirctn y'ifiblis 
and ^iitdiblts. 




JSQitural Hijlory ; 

The like Eccho upon Eccho, but onely wich two rcporcs, hath been 
obfcrved to be, if you Itand between a Houfe and a Hill, and lure towards 
the Hill ; for the Houfe will give a Back Eccho : One taking ic tronn the 
other, and the latter the weaker. 

1 here arc certain Lttters, that an Eccho will hardly exprcfs ; As S for 
one, cfpecially being principal in a word. I remember well, that when 
I went to the Eccho at '/"'onr-Crfr^wron, there was an old 'Fartfun that took it 
to be the Work of Spirits, and of good Spirits. For (faid he) call J'.tMw, 
and the Eccho will not deliver backthe ^Devils name : But v\ ill lay, yat'en, 
which is as mwch. in Fnnch, im^pa^e,or ^void. And thereby I did hap to 
finde, that an Eccho would not return S,beingbut a Hilling and an Interior 

Eccho's arc fome more fuddcn, andchapagain asfoon as theA^oiceis 
delivered, aj hath been partly faid; others are more deliberate, that is, give 
more fpace between the Voice and the Eccho, which is cauled by the Local 
nearnefs or diftance : Somewill report a longer train of words, and fome 
afliorter: Some more loud (full as loud as the Original, andlomctimes 
more loud) and fome weaker and fainter. 

Where Eccho's come from feveral the fame diftance they mud 
needs make (as it were) a Quire of hccho's,and Co make the Reportgrcater, 
and even a continued Hccho; which youfliallfinde in fome Hills thatftand 
encompafTcd, Theatre-like. 

It doth not yet appear, that there is Refrallion in Sounds, as well as in 
S'pecifs Vifible. Fot I do notthink, that if a Sound fhould pafs through di- 
vers Mediums, as tylir. Cloth, ff^ood, it would deliver the Sound in a differing 
place, from that unto which it is deferred ; which is the proper cffcd of 
Rcfraflion. But C^tjordtion, which is alfo the Work of Refraction, appear- 
cth plainly in Sounds, (as hath been handled at full) but itis not by diverlity 
of Mtdiums. 

WE have Oliter, for Dcmonftrations fake, ufcd in divers fnJlAnces, the 
Examples of the Sight , and Things Vtfibley to illuftrate the Nature of 
Sounds. But wc think good now to profccutc that Comparifon more 

Confent of Vifibles and Audibles. 

BOch of them fpred thcmfelves in Round, and fill a whole Flore or Orb 
untocertainLimits; and are carried a great way, and do languifli and 
lefTcn by degrees, according to the Diftance of the Objeds Irom the 

Both of them have the whole Species in every faiall portion of the 
xyiir or Medium, foas the Species do pais through fmall Cranies, without 
confufion: As wc fee ordinarily in Levels, astotheEye; and in Cranies, 
or Chinks, as to the Sound. 

Both of them are of a fudden and call c Generation and Delation, and 
likewile periQi fwif tly and fuddenly ; as if you remove the Light, or touch 
the Bodies that give the So und. 


(?entury I IL 

Both of them do receive and carry cxquifitcand accurate dift'crcnccs ; 
asot Colours, Figures, Motions. DilUnces, in yif^bles ; and of Articulate 
Voices, Tones, Songs, and Quavcrings. in Auiibles. 

Bot 1 of them in their Vcrtue and notappcar to emit any 
Corporal Subftance into their i,W««>«/, or the Orb of their Vcrtue; neither 
a^ain to rife or ftir any evident Local Motion in their ^^</<«m; as they pals, 
butoncly to carry certain Spiritual Species. The pcrfcd knowledge of the 
caufe whereof, being hitherto fcarccly attained, wenialUearch and handle 

in due place. l or r,. xt 

hoth of them fecm not to generate or produce any other cftcet in Na- 
ture, but luch as appcrtaineth to their proper Objcds and Senfes, and ire 
othcrwifc barren. 

But both of them in their own proper aaion, do work three manitelt 
cffcds. 1 he firft, in that the flronger pieces drowneth the IciTcr : As the 
liahtoftheSun, thelightofaGloworm, the report of an Ordnance, the 
Voice. The fecond, in that an Objeft of furchargc or excels, delroycth the 
Senfc • Asthclightof the Sunthcevc, a violentfound (near the Ear) the 
Hearinjr. I he third, in that both of them wiUbe reverberate : As in Mir- 
rors, and in Eccho's. r u i i 
Neither of them doth deftroy orhindcr the Species of thcotlier, al- 
though they encounter in the fame Meiium: As Light or Colour hinder not 

found, note contra. . . ,i/^i- n. r 

Bothof them aflfca the Senfc in Living Creatures, and yield Objcasot 
Pleafure and Diflike ; yec ncvcrthelcfs, the Objcds of them do alfo (if it 
bc\vellobfervcd)affca and work upon dead things; namelyfuch, as have 
fome conformity with the Organs of the two Scnfes ; As V^fiblts work up- 
on a Lo,king-gUf, which is like the Pupil of the Eye ; and JndMes upon the 
^\zcc%oi Eccho. which referable, in lomc fort, the cavern *nd ftrudurc of 

the Ear. , ^■ n 

Both of them do diverfly work, as they have their c?J/?(i<«wdiverlly 
difpofed. So iTrembling Medium (as fmoak) makcththeobjeaicremto trem- 
ble ; and Rifing or FMtng Meiium (as Winds) makcth the Sounds to rile or 

To both, the L^fedium, which is the moft propitious and conducibic, is 
Air ; For Glafs or Water, &c. arc notcompairablc. 

In both of them, where the objca is fine and accurate, itconduccth 
much to have the Senfc intentive, and crcA ; infomuch, asyoucontrad 
yourcyc. when you would fee fliarplv, and ered your car, when you would 
hear attentively ; which in Beafti that have cars moveable, is moft 

1 he Beams of Light, when they are multiplied and conglomerate, 
generate heat ; which is a different adion. from the aftion of Sight: And 
the Multiplication and Conglomeration of Sounds, doth generate anex- 
trcam Raretadionof the Air ; which is an adion materiate, differing from 
thcadionof Sound. If it be true (which is anciently reported) that Birds, 
with great fliouts, have fain down. 









= 54. 









^hQitural fiiflory,- 

Diflent of Vifibles and Audibles. 

THc Species of ^'tfiblet, fecm to be Enuftoth tf Beams from the Objeci ken, 
almolt like Odors, fave char they arc more incorporeal ; bu: tiu- ypeiies 
of f^udtbUs., lecm to participate more wii h LocaI Mouon, like Ptrcufimm or Im- 
^rf/ioHi made upon the c/^tr. So chat whereas all Bodies dofeem to work in 
two manners , Either by the Cominmictmn of their 7{jtures, or by the/w; 
preplans and S'ign.ttures ot their CHiottotts. The Diffuiion of Species Vtf\bte , 
(cemeth to participate more of the former 0/>arftio», and the Species Audtlile 
of the Utter. 

The Species of Audiblesfccm to be carried more nmnifcfllythorow the 
Air, than the Species of Vifibles : For (I conceive) that a contrary Urong 
Wind will ibc much hinder the fight of Vifiblcf, as it Will cjo the hearing- of 

T here is one difference above all others.bctwecn Vifibles and Audiblcs, 
that is the moft remarkable ; as that whereupon many (mailer differences 
do di'pend; Namely .that Vifibles (except Lights) arc carried in Ri^ht Lines, 
and Aud.bles in Actuate Lines. Hence it comcth to pafs, that Vifibles do 
not intermingle and coniound one another , as hath been faid before, but 
Sounds do. Hence it cometh, that the folidJty of Bodies doth not much 
hinder the fight, fothat the Bodies be clear, and the Pores in a Right Line, 
as in Glafs, Cryfl:al, Diamonds, Water, &c. But a thin Scarf or Handker- 
chief, thoughthey be JBodies nothing fiDfolid, hinder the fight : Whereas 
(contrariwtie) thefe Porous Bodies do not much hinder the Hearing, but 
fohd Bodies do almoftflopit, ot at leaft attenuate if. Hence alfo it 
cometh, that to the Reflexion of Vifibles, fraallGlaffes fijffice, buttorhe 
Reverberation of AudibicSjarexdquired greacBi: JTpaces, as h^h tikcwife-been 
faidbeforc. ■ ■,■>',; ,:ijn ,~';1 ■^\^^'.^l ' ■■■T-v;<.('^ ■ '- ,:i-' 

Vifibles arc feen'further off, than Soundsare he^rd ; albwlhg ncvertht'»- 
lefs the rate of their bignefs : For otherwifc, a great Sound will be heard 
further off, than a fmall Body feen. ■'■■' 

Vifibles require (generally) lome diftance between tlie objeft, and t\ii 
Eye to be better feen ; whereas in Audibles, the nearer the approach of the 
Sound ti to the Scnfcihe better j but in this, there may be a double error. 
Theone,becaufe to Seeing there is required Light,andany thing that touch- 
eth the Pupil of the Eye (jII over) excludeth the Light. For i have heard 
of a petfon very credible, (who himfelf was cured of a Catara£f in one of 
his Eyes) that whilethe Silvcr-needle did work upon the fight of his Eye, to 
remove the Film of the Cataraft, he never law any thing more clear or pcr- 
feft, than that white Needle : Which (no doubt) was, becaufc the Needle 
wasleffer than the Pupil of theEyej and fotook not the light from it. The 
other error may be. For that theobjeft of Sight doth ftrike opon the Pupil 
of the Eye, diredly without any interception ; whereas tbeCave of the Ear 
doth hold off the Sound a little from the Organ : And (dneverchelefs there 
is fome di(\ance required in both. 

Vifibles are (wifter carried to the Senfe, than Audibles; as appeareth in 
Thunder and Lightning ; Flame, and Report of a Piece ; Motion of the 
Air, in hewing of Wood. All which have been fee down heretofore, but 
arc proper for this Title. 


Century IIL ! 6i 

1 conceive alfo, that the 5V«»"<'/'^«<'''^'"><lo'^3ng longer in the Air than , 274« 
thofe of ;«/iW« ; For althoue,hcventhorc of Vifiblcs dohang fomc time, 
' as wc iec in /?»»^jiurned, that flicw likefphcres. In Lute-pings filiipped,a Ftre- 
*' brand carried a long, which leavcth a train of light behinde ir, and in the Twi 
j light, and the like: Yet 1 conceive that Sounds, ftay longer becaufc they are 
' carried up and down with the Wind 3 and bccaule of the diftancc of the 
■ time in Ordnana difchargcd, and heard twenty miles oft' | 

j In ^/li/fuhere arc not found Objedsfoodiousandingtate tothe i'c«/f, I 275, 

I 2iS\n Andibles . For foul %A/y do rather difpleafc,in that they excite the memory 
I of foul things, than in the immediate Objeds. And therefore in //iffMw.thofe 
j foul Sights do not much offend ; but in Audlbles, thegratingof a Saw when 
I it isfliarpncd,dothoft"cnd(bmuch, as it fctteththcTceth on edge ; and any 
j of thchatfli 2)»/«riii«oi^«^<:i^x, the Ear doth ftraightwaysrcfule. 

In Fiftliles, after great light, if you come fuddeniy intothcdark, orcon- 
trariwlfc out of the dark into a glating Light. The eye is dazlcd for a time, 
andthe J(^/;rconfufcd ,• but whether any luch efFeft be after gxczt Sattnds, or 
after a deeper filcnce may be better enquired. It is an old Tradition, that 
thofe that dwell near the Cacarads of 2\^<//«, are flrucken deaf : But wetimie 
no fuch effeft in Cannoniers, nor Millers, nor thofe that dwell upon Bridges. 
Itfcemcth.that the Imprejs ion ef Colouris fo weak, as it workcth not, but 
by a Concof direftBeams, or right Lines, whereof the B^fis isin the Objed 
and the Vertical point in the Eye : So as there is a corradiation and conjunfti- 
on of Beams; and thole Beams fo fcnt forth, yet arc not of any force to beget 
the like borrowed or lecond Beams, except it be by Reflexion, whereof we 
fpeaknct. For the Beams pafs and give little tindure to that Air which is ad- 
jacent; whichif they did, we ftiould fee Colours out of a right line. But as 
this in Colours, fo otherwife it is in thc^o^;' o/Z.i^/'r.' For when there is a 
skrcen between the Candle and the Eye, yet the light pafifeth to the Paper 
whereonone writeth, fo that the light is feen where the body of the flame 
is not feen ; and where any Colour (if it were placed where the body of the 
flame is) would not be feen. I judge that 5tftt»rf is of this latter nature: For 
when two are placed on both fides of a Wall, and the voice is heard, I judge 
it is notonely the original found, which palfeth in an Arched line ; but ihc found, 
which paffcth above the Wall in a Right line, bcgetteth thelike Motion round 
about u, as the firft did, though more weak. 

A LI Concerds and Difiords of Mufuk (no doubt) Sympathies and Antipathies of 27%. 
Sounds, and fo (likewife) in that Afii^f;^, which we call 5ro/vM/i/tt^c;(:., or ixperimenti 
Confort Mufick, i fome Confartsof ;n/?r«mrafj are fwecter than others, (a thing [^^hm°"hc 
not futficiently yet obferved ;) as the Irtsb- Harp and Bafe. yial agree well ; the sympathy ,r 
Recorder and Stringed MuM agree well ; Ore<«»^ and i\\QVo't(e ;igrce well, &c. '^"'''p"h<>f 
But the Vngtnals and the Lute, or the fyelsh-Harp and Irish-Harp, or the f^otce aiih xntthr- 
and Pipes alone, agree not fo well ; but tor the CMelioration of Muftckj there is 
yet much left (in this Point of Exquifite Conforts) to «y and enquire. 

There is a common obfervation, ThatifaZ«/f or f»-</ belaid upon the 
backwithafmallftraw upon oncfideof thcy?r«»^j, and another Z,«rf or Tuibe 
laid by it ; and in the other Lute or ^ial the Fnifon to that/Iring be (\rucken, it 
will nuke they?rinf move i wliich will appear both to the hyc, and by the 
ftraws falling off. The like will bc\( the D tap a fon or Eight to thaty?ri«^bcftruck- 
cn,citl.erin thcfameLuffor ^'m/, or in others lying by : Bnt in noneofthcfc 
there is any tcport of Sound that can be difccrned, but onely Motion. 

G It 



J\(jitt4ral Hijlory; 



in Confott, 
ffindring or 
He/ ping ofthi 




Z&7. i 
Expeiiinents I 
in Confoit, } 
touihing the! 

Sfirilual *nd\ 
Fine NatMrt I 
of Scunds, 

Itwasdcviied, Thata Vial Ihould havca Lay of Wirc-ftrings below, 
asclofe cothe belly asa£«tc, and then the Strirgs of Cjiits mounted upon 
a Bridge, as in ordinary Vt^ls ; to the end, that by this means, the upper 
Strings fttucken.fhouldmakcihe lower re Ibund by Sympathy, and lo make 
the Mufick the better-, which, it it bote purpolc, thanbymparhy workcth as 
well by report ot Sound, as by Motion. But this device, 1 conceive, to be 
ot noufe, becaulc the upper Strings which arertopped in great variety, can- 
not maintain a *D'tif4<'noi a Vnlfon with the lower, whichare never flopped. 
But if it fliould be ot ufc at all, it muftbein Intttuments which have no ftops, 
as yirginals andH^rps ; wherein tryal may be made of two rows of Strings, 
diftant the one from the other. 

The Experimentof Sympathy may be transferred (perhaps) from In- 
flruments of Strings, toother Infttuments of Sound. As to try, if there were 
inone Stcepletwo Bells of Unifon, whether the rtrikingot the one would 
move the other, mote than if it were another accord : Ardfo in P»/)fy, it they 
be of cqu^l bore and found,; whether a little Straw or Teather would move 
in the one *Pipi, when the other is blown at an fnifon. 

It fecm'eth both in £<tr and £^e. the lnf\rument of 5*«»/<?batha Sympathy 
or Similitude with that which givcch the Reflexion (is hath been touched be- 
fore.) rorasthefightof the Eye islikeaChryUal, orGlafs, or Water; ibis 
the Ear a finuous Cave with a hard Bone, toftop and reverberate the Sound: 
Which is like to the places that report t echo's. 

WHen a Man yawneth, he cannot hear fo well. The caufe is , for that the 
Membrane of the Ear is extended; andfo rather calkth off theSound, 
than dtaweth it to. 

We hear bctterwhcn we hold our Breath, than contrary, infomuch, as 
in all hftening to attain a Sound a far off, Men hold their Breath. The caufe 
is, for that in all Expiration, themotion is outwards , and therefore rather 
drivcth away the voice than dtaweth it : And bcfides, wc fee that in all labor 
to do things with any ftrength, wc'bold the Breath ; and Hftening after any 
Sound that is heard with difficulty, is a kinde of labor. 

Letitbctryed, forthehelp of the Hearing, (and I conceive it likely to 
fucceed) to make an Inlfrument like a Tunnel ,• the narrow part whereof 
maybeof thebignefs of the hold of the Ear j and the broader end much 
larger; likeaBellat thcskirts, and the length half a foot or more. And let 
the narrow end of it be fet clofe to the Ear. And mark whether any Sound 
abroad in the open Air, will not be heard diftindly, from fiuihcr dilhncc, 
than without that Inftrument; being (as it were) an Far ^edude. And I have 
heard there is in Spain, an Inftrument in ufe to be let to the Ear, that helpeth 
fomewhat thole that are Thick of Hearing. 

If the Mouth be fhut clofe, neverthelefs thercis yielded bytheRoof 
of the Mouth. aMurmur; fuchaSisufedbyDiimb men: Butjf theNoflrils 
be hkewifc flopped, no fuch Murmur can be made, except it be in the bottom 
of the Pallatc towards the Throat. Whereby it appeareth manifcftly, that a 
Sound in the.Mouth , except fuch as aforcfaid, if the Mouth be ftoppcd, 
pafTcth from thePallace through tdic Nollrils. ' ^ r..:''." ;■'' •.; ijc^^ ^ ; • ^r " 

THc RtpeicHftm of Sounds, (which We call Bccho) is a gt'cat Argument 
of the Spiritual Ejftnce of Stunds, For if it were Corporeal-, the Reper- 
ciiUlnglhould be created iB the fame m»nner, and byhke Inilruments, with 


Century III. 

chc original Sound : But \vc (ce what a number of cxquifuc Inftruments 
muft concur in rpeaking of word.s whereof there is no luch matter inche 
remrning of them, but onely a plain Hop, and rcpcrcuHlon. 

The cxquifite Differences of Articulate Sounds, carried along in the 
Air, flicw that they cannot be Signatures or Inipreflions in the Air, as hath 
been well refuted by the Ancients. For it isCrue, rhit Seals make excellent 
Impreffions ; and fo irmay bethought of Sounds in their tirll generation : 
But then chc Delation and Continuance of them , withcuc any new fealing, 
flicw apparently they cannot be Imprcfllons. 

All Ji'ounds are fudJenly made, and dofuJdenly perifli; but neither char, 
nor the cxquifite Differences of them, is matter otlo great admiration: For 
the Quavcrings, and Warblmgs of Lutes, and Pipes are as Iwitr ; and the 
Tongue (which IS no very fine Inftrumcnt) doth infpeech, make no fewer 
motions, ttian there be letters in all the words which arc uttered. But that 
Sounds (hould not onely be fo fpeedily generated, but carried fo far every 
way, in luch a momcntany time, defcrveth more admiration. As for ex- 
ample. It a man ftand in chc middle of a Field, and fpeak aloud, he (hall be 
heard a Furlong in round , and that fiiall be in articulate Sounds, and thofe 
(hall be entire in every little portion of the Ait ; and this fli.ill be done inche 
(pace of Icfsthana minute. 

The fuddcn Gcncracion and Perifiiing of Sounds muftbe one of thcfc 
two ways: Either, that the Air fuffcrethibmc force bySound, and thenrc- 
Itoreth it .fas Water doth; which being divided, maketh manycircles, 
tillitreftoreit lelf tochc Natural confilfence ; orotherwUe, that the Air doth 
Willingly imbibe the Sound as grateful, but cannot maintain it ; fcrthatihe 
Air hath ^as it fhould fccm) a fecret and hidden Appcticeof receiving the 
Sound at the firll: •, but then other grof> and more maceriate qualities of the 
Air ffraight ways fulVocate it , like unto Flame which is generated with 
alacrity, but flraight quenchea by the enmity of the Air, or other Ambient 

There be thefe differences (in general^ by which Sounis are divided: 

1. Mufuitl, Immufic-tl. 

2. TreHile, Safe. 
5. Flat, Sharp. 

4. Soft, Loud. 

5. Exterior, Interior. 

6. Cledn,Harfh,oiVurl't»g. 

7. j^rticulate, InarttcuLite. 

We hive labored (is may appear) in this /n^Hf/if/onq/Towwrfr diligently j 
both becaule J'ottw^ is oneot the molf hidden portions of Nature, (as 
wcf-iid in the beginning; and bccaufe it is a /Vrtuf which may be called and Imtriaterute, whereof there be in Nature but few. Bc- 
fidc s, we were willing (now in thelc our fir(\ Centitries)io make a pattern 
orprcfident of an Exacl Inqutfuton', and wcflialldo the like hereafter in 
fome other fubjeds which require ic. For we dcfire that Men Hiould 
learn and perceive how fcvcre a thing the true Inqui/it'ion of Katurti% ; 
and fhould accuftom themlclves bv the light of particulars, to enlarge 
their mindes to tiicamplicude of the World i and noc to reduce the 
Wotld to the narrownefs of their Mindes. 

G a Metals 






U\(jitural Hiflory ; 

■xqi. m ijEtals give orient and fine Colours in Difloliirion; asGoldgivcthan 
Experiinfnt XVl cxccllcnt Ycllow . Qj-iick-lllvct an excellent Green , 1 ingivcthan 
So'i'^'y^ , excellent Azure. Likcwifc inchcirPurrctadiens, or Rufts i as Vermilion. 
^o^,tntC<,ifiri I Vcrdcgrcaie, Bifc, Cirrus. &c. And likewise in their Vitrifications. The 
in Dijfoiuthn | ^.j^y^j jj, for that by their ftrcni;th of Body, they are able to endure the Fire, 
of Men I. QpSffoi:ig_^vater$,and tobe pctintoancqualpolture, and again, to retain 
! part of their principal Spirit ; Which two things (equal pollurc, and quick 
I Spirits) arc required chiefly, to make Colours lightlomc. 

IT conduccth unto long Life, and to the more placidc Motion of the Spi- 
rits, which thereby do Icfs prey and confumc the Juycc of the Body : 
either that Alens aiitonsbefree andvoluntary, that nothing be done mvita minerv*, 
hni fecundtim gemtim J or, on the other lidc, thdXthc j4ciions»f A fen be full of Re- 
guUtion, and conmands nitlnn themfclvts : tot then the viclory and pcrforminor 
of the command, givcth a good difpolition to the Spirits , cipecially if 
there be a proceeding from degree to degree, for tlien thcfcnlc of viftory 
is the greater. An example of the former of ihcfc, is in a Countrcy life ; 
and of the latter, in (J^Ionh and PhUofofheri. andfuch as do continually enjoya 

IT is certain, that in all Bodies, there is an t^ppeute of fntort, and Evitation 
of Solution of Continuity : And of this Appetite there be many degrees, 
but the moft remarkable, and fit to be diftinguifhcd, are three. The firft 
in Liquors, the fccond in hardBodies, and the third in Bodies cleaving 
or tenacious. In Liquors this Appetite is weak j \vc fee in Liquors, the 
Thrcding of them in Stillicidcs (as hath been laid) the falling of them in 
round drops (which is the form of Union) and the Haying of them for a lit- 
tle time in Bubbles and Froth. Inthcfecond degree or kinde. this Appetite 
is ftrong; as in Iron, in Stone, in Wood,&c. In the third, this Appctiteis in 
a Medium between the other two: For fuch Bodies do partly follow the 
touch of another Body, and partly flick and continue to themfelves ; and 
therefore they ropt anddraw thcmlelves in threds , as wc fee in Fitch, G/fiv, 
Birdl'me,&c. Butnote, that all folid Bodies are cleaving more or Icfs ; and 
that they love better the touch of fbmc what that is tangible, than of Air. 
For Water in fmall quantity cleavethto any thing that is lolid, and fo would 
Metal too, if the weight drew it not off. And therefore Gold Foliate, or 
any Metal Foliate, cleaveth : But thole Bodies which arc noted to be 
clammy.and cleaving.are fuch as have a more indifferent Appetite (at once) 
to follow another Body, and to hold to themlelvcs. And therefore they are 
con\mov\y Bidiej ill mixed, and which take more plealure in^FtrtignBadj, 
that in prcfcrving there own confiftencc,and which have little predominance 
in brought or Mstfture. 

394. I 

touching the 
llli^ Opetationi 
of Heat and 

Time and Heat arc fellows in many effects. Heat drieth Bodits that do 
eafily expire ; as Parchment, Leaves. Roots, Clay, &c. And fo 
doth Ttme or ^^ge arefic ; as in the fame Bodies, &c. Heat dilfolvcth and 
melteth Bodies that keep in their Spirits, as in divers Liquefailims ; and fo 
doth Time, in fome Bodies of aloftcr confiftence : As is manifeftin Honey, 
wliich by u/^ge waxcth more liquid, and the like in Sugar; and fo in old 
OyJ, which is ever more clear and more hot in medicinable ufc. Heat 
caulcth the Spirits to fcarch fome ilfue out of the Bedj, as in the f'tl'ttilit) 


I Century III, I 65 

jofMetals; and fo doth Time, as in the Ruft of Metals. But generally Hc^t 
doth that in fmall time, whichAgcdoth in long. 

SOme things which pafs the Fire, are foftcft at firft, and by Time grow 295. 
hard, as the Crumot Bread. Some arc harder when they come from the Expcumcnt 
I Fire, and afterwards give again, and grow foft as the Cru.'l of Bread, Bi'ker, ff°'"hmg,i,c 
I Sweet-Meaty, Salt, &c. The caufe is, torthatin thofe things which wax DifiringOfi 
j hard with Time , the work of the Fire isa kinde of melting ; and in thofc ["^"^'^f'"' 
.'that wax foft with Time, (contrariwife) the work of the Fire isakinde 
of Baking ; and whitfocvcr the Fire baketh , Time doth infomedegree 

Motions pafs from one Man to another, not fo much by exciting Inia- ^gt. 
gination as by Invitation, cfpecially if there bean Aptncfs or Incli- I Expctimcnt 
nation before. Therefore Gaping, or Yawning, and Stretching, do pafs solitary, 
from M^n to Man 5 for that that caufcch Gaping or Stretching is, whenthe i^X'olj^/. 
Spirits are a little Heavy, by any Vapor, or the like. For then they Itrivccas 
it were) to wring out, and expel that which loadeih them. SoMcndrowzy 
and dcfirous to fleep ; or before the fit of an Ague, do ufe to yawn and 
ftretch, and dolikewife yield a Voice or Sound , which is an Interjedion 
of Expulfion : So that it another be apt and prepared to do the like, he 
followeth by the fight of another. So the Laughing of another makcth to 

THerc be Tome known Difcafes that arc Infeftious, and others that are 2,97. 
not. Thofe that are infeaious, are fitlf. Such as are chiefly in theSpi- Isoii"!"""' 
rits, andnotfomuchinthe Humors, and therefore pafs eafily fromBodyto 'touching in 
Body; fuch are Peftilcn€csLippitudes, and fuch like. Secondly, fuch as taint f'^''o>u dif. 
the breath, which we fee paffcth manifeflly from Man to Man, andnot in- 
vifible as the afteds of the Spirits do j fuch are Confumptions of the Lungs, 
&c. Thirdly, Such as come forth to the skin, and therefore taint the Air, 
or the Body adjacent j efpecially, if they confift in an unftuous fublf ance, 
notapttodiflipate; fuch are Scabs, and Leprofie. Fourthly, fuch as are 
mecily in the Humors, and not in the Spirits, Breath, or Exhalations : And 
therefore they never infeft, but by touch onely ; and fuch a touch alfo, as 
Cometh within the Epidermis, as the venomeof the French "Poxtind the biting 


.. Oft Powders grow more clofe and coherent by mixture of Water, than 29!. 
'X l^y mixiure of Oyl, though Oyl be the thicker Body; 2sMe/il, &c. Expeiiment 
ereafonis theCongruity of Bodies, which if it be more, maketh ipcr- fo°'"hi7<>' ^ 

Therealoms theConeruity _. . ^.. O } L-i- ,^T%i , tOUdiingmc 

icaer imbibition, and incorporation i which in moft Powders is more be- ■ incofponiion 

»f Pou 

•v\.ll.l lillulUlllVJII, dllU lllV.«JipUl.lUUll } WIULll 111 1I1«J11 i'U WUCIS 13 IIIULC UC- 

twccn them and Water, than between them and Oyl: But Painters colours 'f ''<""^'" 
ground, and aflics, do better incorporatcwith Oyl. 



MUch Motion and Exercifc is good for fomc Bodies, and fitting and 
icfs motion, for others. If the Body be hot, and void of fuperfiuous 
Moiftures, too much Motion hurteth ; and it is an error in Fhyktuns , to s°''"'y' 

11 i_ -r- r r ••/-•» » t 1 '11 touching «- 

can too much upon Exerciie. Likewife, Men ought to beware, thatthey im»/i<>/«fc« 
ufenotBxerciie, anda fparediet, both; butif muchHxercifc, then a plcnti- l^"'/- 
ful diet i and if fparingdiet, then little Hxercitc. The Benefits that come of 
Exercifc arc. Firft, thatit Icndeth nourishment into the parts more forcibly. 
^ G 3 Secondly, | 


^J\(jiti4ral Hijlory ; 

Secondly, That it helpetli to cxcern by Sweat, and lo makcch thcparts 
aflimilare the more perfcdly. T hirdly, that it maketh the lublance of riic 
Body more (olid and compad ; and fo lels apt to be confumed and dcprc- 
datedbytlic Spirits. The Hvils thit come ofHxcrcile, are, Iirlhrhatit 
maketh the Spirits more hot and predatory. Secondly, That it doth abforbc 
likcwifc, andaitenuatcioomuchthcmoinureot theBody. Thirdly, Thar 
it maketh too great Concuflion, (efpecially, if it be violent) of the inward 
parts. Nvliich delight more in reft. Butgeneraily hxcrcife, ifit bemucb, is 
no friend to prolongation of life ; which is one caufe , Why Women live 
longer then Men, becaufcthtyftirlefs. 

SOme Food we may ufe long, and much, without glutting; as Bread, Flcfli 
that is not Far, or Rank,&c, Some other (though pleafant) glutteth 
looncr, as Sweet-Meats, Fat-Meats, &c. Thccaufeis, forthat Appetite con- 
filteth inthe emptinefs of theMouth, of the Stomach, orpoffeffingitwith 
fomcvvhat thatis aftringent; and therefore, cold and dry: But things that 
arc (wect and fat, are more filling, and dofwim and hang more about the 
Mouth of the Stomach, and go not down (o fpeedily ; and again turn fooner 
to Choler, which is hot, and ever abateth the appecice, Wefeealfo, that 
another caufe of Satiety, is an Ovcr-culfom ; and of Appetite, is Novelty. 
And therefore Meats, if the fame be continually taken, induce Loathing. To 
give the reafon of the diftaftc of Satiety, and of the pleafurc in Novelty, and 
to diftinguifh not onelyin Meats and Drinks, but alio in Motions, Loves, 
Company, Delight, Studies, what they be thatCuftom maketh more grate- 
ful; and vvhatmorc tedious, were a large Field. But for Meats, thecaufc 
is Attraftion, which is quicker, and more excited towards that which is 
new, than towards that whereof there rcmaineth a relifh by former ufe. 
And (genctallyj it is a rule, That whatfocver is fomcwhat ingrate at firft, is 
made grateful by Cuftom j but whatfocver is too pleafing at firft, growcth 
quickly to Satiate. 






Century IV. 

CceltTAtion of Time , in fFarks of Nature , may well be 
cftccmcd Inter Mugutlu Nature. And even in T)ivine 
MiT*cles AccelixAting of the Time, is next CO the Creating 
of the Matter. Wc will now therefore proceed to the 
enquiry of it ; ind {ox t^tceleration ef Germination, we 
will refer it over unto the place, where we ftiall handle 
the S'ubje^ of PUnts, generally ; and will now begin with 
other t^ccelerdtiont. 

Liquors are (many of ihem) atthefirll, thick and troubled ; As Muji. 
ff^ort, Jujce of fruits, or Herbs cxptcffcd. See. AndbyTiwf, they fettle and 
clarifie. But to make them clear, before thcTiw^ is a great work ; for it is a 
Spur to Ndture, and puttcth her out of her pace : And befidcs, it is of good 
ufe for making Drinks, and Sauces , Potable, and bcrviceabie, fpcedily. 
But toknow the Means of Accelerating Clarihcation, wc muft firll know 
the caufes of Clarification. The {irft caufc is, by the Separation of the 
groflcr parts of the Liquor, from the finer. Thefccond, by the equal diftri- 
butionof the Spirits of the Liquor, with the tangible parts; for that ever rc- 
prefcnteth Bodies clear and untroubled. The third, by the refining the 
Spirit it felf, which thereby giveth to the Liquor more fplcndor, and more 

Firft, For Separation : It is wrought bv weight ; as in rheordinary 
rcfidcncc or (ettlement of Liquors. Bv Heat, by Motion, by Precipitation, or 
Sublimation, (that is, a calling of chcfcvcral parts, cither up or down, which 
isakindeof Attraaion,) by Adhefion ; as when a Body, more viicous, is 
mirglcd and agitated with the Liquor ; which vifcous Body (afterwards fe- 










jyatural hi/lory ; 

vcrcd)drawcthwUhitthegroircrpartsof the Liquor: And laflly, bylPerco- 
lation or PafTagc. 

Secondly, lor the even Diftribution of the Spirits, it is wrought by 
gendeheat, and by Agitation of Motion ; (tor ot Time wefpeak not, be- 
caufe it is that wc would anticipate and reprclcnt ;) And it is wrought alfo, 
by mixture of feme other Body, which hath a vertue to open the Liquor, and 
to make the Spirits the better pafs thorovv. 

Thirdly, For the refining of the Spirit, it is wrought likewifc by Hear, 
by motion, and by mixture of fome Body which hathvcrtuc to attenuate. 
So therefore (having (hewed the caules) for the accelerating of Clarification 
in general, and the cndueingof it; takcthcfe Inffanccs and Tryal?. 

]tis in common praftice, to draw WineorBeer, from the Lees, (which 
wc call Backing ) wheieby it will clarifie much thcfooner : Tor the Lees, 
though they keep the drink in heart , and make it lading ; yet withal 
they cafl up feme fpiflitude ; and this Inftance is to be referred toSepara* 

Ootheotherfide, it were good to try, what, the adding to the Liquor, 
more Lees than his own, will woik •> for though the Lees do make the Liquor 
turbide, yet they refine the Spirits. Take therefore a Veffel of new Beer, and 
take another Vcflel of new Beer, and rack the one Veffel from the Lees, and 
pour the Lees of the racked Veffel into the unrackcd Veffel, and fee the effeft. 
This Inftancc is referred to the Refining of theSpirits. 

Take new Beer, and put in fomc quantity of ftale Beer into it, and fee 
whether it will not accelerate theClarification, by opening the Body of the 
Beer, and cutting the grofler parts, whereby they may fall down into Lees. 
And this Inftance again is referred to SepAration. 

The longer Molt or Htrbs, or the like, arc infufcd in Luinor, the more 
thick and troubled the Z/i^«»r is; but the longer they be decofted in the JLi^wr, 
the clearer it is. The reafon is plain, bccaufe in InfuCon, thelongerit is, the 
greater is the part of thegtofs Body that gocth into the Liquor: But in De- 
coQion, though more gocth forth, yet it cither purgeth at the top, or fcttleth 
at the bottom. And therefore t"hemoft exaft way to clarifie is, fitfV, toln- 
fufc, and thcnto take ofFthe Liquor and dccoait; as they doin Beer, which 
hath Molt firflinfufed in the Liquor, and is afterwards boiled with the Hop. 
Thisalfo is referred to S'eparajien. 

Take hot Embers, and putthem about a Bottle filled with new Beer, al 
mofitothc very neck ; let the Bottle be well flopped, left it flic out: And 
continue it, renewing the Embers every day by the (pace cf ten day^,C!nd chen 
compare it with another Bottle of the fame Beer fet by. Takcalfo Lime, 
both quenched and urquenthed, and fet the Bottles inthtm nr/ft/r*. This 
Inftance is referred, both to the even Diftribution, and alio to the Refining 
cf the Sp'tr'tts by Hedt. 

Take Bottles and fwing them, or carry them in a Wheel-Barrow upon 

rough Ground, twice in a day : But then you may not fill the Bottles iull, 

but leave lome Air; for if the Liquor come clcfeto theftopple, it cannot 

play nor flower: /nd when you have ftiaken them well either way, pour 

the Drink in another Bottle, ftopped clofe after the ufual manner ; for if it 

ftav With much Air in it, the Drink will pall, neither will it (ettlefoper- 

fedly in all thcparts. Let it ftand fonie Twenty lour hcur.s then take it, and 

; put it again into a Bottle with Air, utfupra; andthenceintoaBottleftopped, 

utfupra ; and forepeat the fame operation for fevcn days. Note, that in the 

I emptying of one Bottle into another, you rr.uft doit fwiftly, IcftrheDririk 

i pall. 

I (^entury IF, 

pall. It wcregood alio to cry ic in a Buttle with a litdc air below the Neck 
without emptying. This Inltancc is referred to the even IDtftribution and 
Rtfiti'ngoi x\\^Sfirttsb^ CMttion. 

As for Percolation, inward, and outward (which bclongeth to ,S'^/>.(m- 
tion,) Tryal would be made of Clarifying by Adhefion, with Milk put into 
new iker, and ftirrcd with it: Foric maybe, that the groflcr pare of the 
Beer will cleave to ihtCHilk; the doubt is whether the Milk will fever 
well again, which is Icon tried. And it is ufual in clarifying /;'/'«tr<t/(r to 
put in Milk , which alter fcvereth and carrieth with it the grolfer parts 
of the jppocYitf, as hath been faid elfwhcre. Alfo for the better Cianhca- 
tion by Percolation ; when they Tun new Beer , they ufe to let it pafs 
through a Strainer, and it is like the finer. the Strainer is, the clearer it 
Will be. 

THe iyiccelerMtng ef C^fatHTAtisH, We will now enquire of , and of Ma- 
fHM/iffrt it, fell. It is of three natures, the UUdturMion of Fruits, the Ma- 
turat'iotf of 1)rinks, x\6.i\\t. A^aturation »f Impojllmmes Andy hers. This Ja!l we 
refer to another place, where we fliall handle Experiments OMrdiciml. There 
be alfoother Maturations, as of Metals, &c. whereof wefpcak as.occafion 
fervcth. But we will begin withthatof Drinks, becaufc it hath fuch affinity 
with the Clarification of Liquors. 

For the Maturation of Drinks, it is wrought by the Congregation of 
the Spirits together, whereby they digcft more perfectly the groffer parts,- 
and it is eftcded, partly by the fame means that Clarification is ('whereof 
\\c fpake before :) But then note, that an cxtrcam Clarification doth fprcd 
the Spirits fo fmooch, as they become dull, and the drink dead, which 
ought to have a little flowring, And therefore all your clear jimber drinks 
is Hat. 

Wc(ct the degrees of Maturation of Drinks, InMuft, in Wine, as it is 
drunk, andi'^^megar. Whereof Muft hath not the Spirits well congrega- 
ted , Wine lain th'em well united, fo as they make the parts fomewhat 
moreOyly. Vinegar hath them congregated, but more Jejune, and in 
Imallcr quantity ; the greatcft and hneft Spirit and part being exhaled: For 
we fee Vinegar is made by fctting the Veflel of Wine againft thebotSun. 
And therefore Vinegar will not burn, for that much of the finer pan is ex- 

Thcrefrcfhina; and quickningof Drink palled or dead, is by enforcing 
the motion of the Spirit. So we fee that open weather relaxeth the Spirit, 
and makcth it more lively in Motion. We fee alfo Boctellingof Beer or 
Ale, while It is new and lull of Spirit, (fo that it fpirteth whentheflopple 
is taken forth) makcth the Drink more quick and windy. A Pan of Coals 
in the Cellar, doth likewifc good, and makcth the Dtinkwotk again. New 
Drink put to Drink that is dead, provokethit to wotkagain : Nay, which 
is more (as fomc affirm) a Brewing of new Beer, fet by old Beer, maketh 
it work again : It were good alfo to enforce the Spirits by fomc mixtures, 
that may excite and quicken them, as by the putting into the Bottles, Nitre 
C.slk, Lime,&c. We (ce Cream is matured, and made to rife morcfpeedi- 
Iv bv putting in cold Water ; which , as it fcemcch, gettcth down the 

It is trycd, that the burying of Bottles of Drink well flopped, cither in 
dry Ejr:h, agood depth, orinthcbottom of a Well within Waterj and belt 




in Confotc, 
andlhe ^cce- 
Itrating there' 
of. ^nd 
firft t6U(.bing 
the Ataturati- 
on and /^luhk- 
ning ofdr'mk^, 
and next 
Maturation cf 





3 16. 

3 17. 



3 3*. 




D^atUrd hijlory ; 

of .ill, the hanging ot them in a deep Well fomeu hat above the Water, for 
Ibmc fortnights (^^cc. is an excellent means of m.iking Drink frelh and 
quick : For the cold doth not caulc any exhaling of the Spirits at all, as heac 
doth, though itrarifieththc rell that remain : But cold makcch the Spirits 
vigorous, and irritateth them, •whereby they incorporate ihc parts of th« 
Liquor perfectly. 

As tor the Mdiurttien of Fruits , it is wrought by the calling forth of 
the Spirits otthc Body outward , and lo Iprcading them more Imoothly; 
and likcwnfe by digcfting, in fc^me degree , the grollcr parts : And 
this is efFcdcd by Heat, Motion, Attrad^ion, and by a Rudiment of 
Putrcfaftion .- For the Inception of Putrctadion hath in it a ^laie- 

There were taken Apples, and laid in Straw, in Hav, in Flower, in 
Chalk, in Lime, covered over with Onions, covered over with Crabs, 
clofcd up in Wax, fhut in a Box, &c. There wasalfo an Apple hanged up 
in lmo.ak. Of all which the Experiment forted in this manner. 

After a moncths fpace, the Apple, enclolcd in Wax, wis as Green 
andfreflias at the firfl: putting in, and the Kernels continued W^hirc. The 
caufc is, for that allexclufion of open Air, (which is ever predatory) main- 
taineth the Body inhis firftfrefhnei's and moilture ; butthc inconvenience 
is, that ic taflethalictlcof the Wax, vrhich, 1 fuppoiejn a Pomegranate, or 
fonie luch thick coated fruit, it would not do. 

1 he Apple hanged in the fmoak, turned like an old Mellow-Apple 
wrinkled, dry, lofr, iVcet, yellow within. The caufe is, for that fuch 
3. degree of heat, which doth neither melt nor fcorch ( for we fee that 
in a greater heat, a roail: Apple foftncth and melteth , and Pigs fcec 
made of quarters of Wardens, fcortch and have a skin of coal) doth 
Mellow, and not adurc ; The Imoak alfo makcth the Apple (as it were) 
fprinklcd with i>oot, which helpeth to mature. Wefcc, that in drying of 
Pears and Prunes, in the Oven, and removing of them often as they begin 
to fwcat, there is alike operation : but that is with a far more intenle de- 
gree of heat. 

The Apples covered in the Lime and Afhes, were well matured as ap- 
pc.ired bothin their ycllowncfs and fwcetncfs. The caufe is, forthatthat 
Degrce-of Heat, which is in Lime and Aflies, (being a fmoothe ring heat) is 
of all the reft: molf proper ; for it doth neither Liquefie nor Arefic, and that 
is true Maturation. Note, that the taffc of thoic Apples was good, and 
therefore it is the Experiment fitteft for ufc. 

'1 he Apples coveredwith Crabs and Onions, were likewifc well matu- 
red. The caufc is not any heat, but for thatthc Crabs and the Onions draw 
forth the Spirits of the Apple, andfprcd them equally thorowoutrhe Body ; 
which taketh away hardncis. So we ice one Apple ripeneth againftanothcr. 
And therefore in making of Cider, they turn the Apples firfl upon a heap,- 
fo oneCluflcrof Grapes, thattoucheth another whilefl it grow cth, ripen- 
eth f after. Botrtu contrA Botrtim citius maturefctt- 

The Apples in Hav and the Straw, ripened apparently, though notfo 
much as the other, but the Apple in the Straw, more. The caufe is, for that 
the Hay and Straw have a very low degree of Heat, but yet dole and 
Imoothcring, and which dr^cth not. 

The Apple in the clofe Box was ripened alfo. The caufe is, for that 
all Air kept clofc, hath a degree of warmth ; as We fee in Wool, Fur, 


(^entury IF. 

Note, That all thcfe acre compared ffitb another Apple of the fame k^nde thiit Lj $f 
itfelf; and tn cotnparifonof that, Trere more ftveet, and more jeUolv, andh 
ap feared to kt more ripe 
I Takcan Apple, or Fear, or other like Fruit, and roul it upon 2. Tabic 
hard: Wc fee in common experience, that the roulingdoth ibften anj 
fwcctcn the Fruit prclcntly, which is nothing but thcfmooth diftribution 
of the Spirits into theparts,' for the unequal diftribucion of the Spirits 
maketh the harrilhncfs : But chij hard rouling is between Concodion, 
and a fimple Maturation ; therefore, if you fliould roul them but gentlv 
perhaps twice a day, and continue it fomcfevcn da\ s, it is like they would 
Maturemorc hncly, and likcuntoihcNatural Alaturation. 

Take an Apple, and cut out a piece of the top and cover it , to fee 
whether that ro/«/;o" of Conttimitj/mll not haften a Maturation. Wc fee that 
where zl^f^ajp, or a/"//, ot^fVorm, hath bitten in a Grape ot any Fruit, it will 
fwcctcn halHly. 

Take an Apple, &c. and prick it with a Pin full of Holes, not deep, 
and fnicar it a little with Sack, or Cinnamon Water, or Spirit of Wine, 
every day for ten days, to fee if the P'irtud Heat of the Wine, or Stronor- 
Watcrs, will not Mature if. 

Jn thefe Trjals alfo as teat uftd in the firji, fet another of the fame Fruits by, to compare 
them, andtrj/ them by their Tello'\tneJs, and by their S-^eeineJS'. 

THc World hath been much tbufed by the opinion of Making of Gold. 
The Workitfclf, I judge to be poiliblc; buttheN4cans (hithcrtopro- 
pounded) to effeft it . are in the Pradicc full of Error and Impofturc ; 
and in the Theory, full of unfound Imagiuations. lor to fay, th\t Nature 
hach anin'cntion tomakcall JVletals Gold ; and that if flic were delivered 
from Impediments, fhc would perform her own work ; and that, if tiie 
Crudities, Impuritic?^ and Leprolies of Metal were cured, thev would 
become Gold, and that a little quantity of the Medicine in the Work of 
Frojedion, will turn a Sea of the bail r Metal into Gold by multiplying. 
All thefe are but dreams, and fo are r^iany other Grounds of tylkbymj. 
And to help the matter, the t^lchymifls call in likewifc many ranicics, 
out oi i_/i frolo^j , Natural Magic k , Supcrfticious Interpretations of Scri 
pturcs. Auricular Traditions, Feigned Tcflimonies of Ancient Aiuhors, 
and the like. It is true, on the other fide, they have brought to light not a 
few profitable Experiments, and thereby made the* World fome amends: 
But we, when wc fhall come to handle the Verfion and Tranfmuiation of 
Bodies, and the Experiments concerning Metals and' Minerals; will Jay 
open the true Ways and PaCTagcs of Nature, which may lead to this great 
cffcd. And we commc: d the wit of the Omefes, who defpairo: making 
of Gold, buta'c mad upon the making of Silver. For certain it is. That 
it is more difficult to make Gold, (which is the moft ponderous and ma- 
ccriate am ongH Metals ) of other MctaJs:, lefs ponderous and Icfs mate- 
riatc, than (Ku versa) co make Silver of Lead, or Quick-filvcr ; both 
wliichare more ponderous than Silver : So tliatihey need rathcra further 
degree of f;.v4/je)i, t\\^n ^ny Condenfation. In the mean time, bv occafionof 
handling the yixioms touching cJWkjttrjjios, wc 'will direct a tryal touching 
the Maturmg of Metals, and thereby turning fome of them into Gold j for 
we conceive indeed. That a pcrfcd good ^Concocinn, or 'Difgeflwn, or A£t- 
turation ofionic LMet.ils will produce Gold. And here we call to mindc, 
th;t we knew a TDutcbman had wrought himfejf into the belief of a 




touching the 
Mcrltjng of 


3 27. 

0\Qimral hiftory ; 

greatpeifon, by undertaking, that hccould make Gold : ' Whofe difcourd 
\va«, 1 hat Gold might be made, but that the y^/<:/);m;/?< ovcr-fiied the work : 
For (he laid) the making of Gold did require avcry temperate Heat, asbc- 
ing in iVrfrwre a (ubtcrrany woik, wlicre little Heat ccmcth ; but yet more 
to the making of Gold, than of any other Metal : And theretorc, that he 
would do it with a great Lamp , that fliould carry a temperate and equal 
Heat, andthatit was the work of many Moncrhs. Thedevi/cof the Lamp 
was folly, but theovctfiring now ufcd, and the equal Heat tobe required, 
and the making it a work of feme good time, arc no ill difcourfes. 

We rcfott therefore to our ^xwrnx of Af<i»«r/i/io», in cfFcft touched be- 

Thefirftis, That there be ufcd a Temperate Heat ; for they arc ever 
Temperate Heats that Difgefts, and Mature ; wherein we mean Temperate, 
according to the Nature of the Subjcd : For that may be Temperate to 
Fruits and Liquors, which will not work at all upon Metals. 

The fceond is, That the Spirit of the Metal be quickned, and the 
Tangible Parts opened: For without thofe two operations, theSpiritof the 
Metal, wrought upon, will not be able to dlfgeft the Part?. 

The third is. That the Spirits do fprcd thcmfelvcs even, and move not 
fubfultorily, for that will make the parts clofe and pliant. And this requirctii 
a Heat that doth not rife and fall, butcontinue as equal as may be. 

The fourth is. That no part of the Spirit be emitted but detained; 
For if there be Emiflion of Spirit , the Body of the Metal will be hard and 
churlifh. And this will be performed, partly by the temper of the Fire, and 
partly by the dofenels of the Veflel. 

. The fifth is, That there be choice made of the likelieft and beft pre- 
pared Metal for the Verfion ; for that will facilitate the Work. 

Thefixthis, That you give time enough for the Work, notto prolong 
hopes (as the uiUbjmip do, but indeed to give iV4/«r< a convenient Ipace to 
work in. 

Thefe principles moft certain and true, we will now derive a direftion 
of Tryal out of them, which may (perhaps) by further Meditation be 

Let there be a fmall Furnace made of a Temperate Heat ; let the heat be 
fuch as may keep the Metal perpetually moltcn,and no more ; for that ^bovc 
all, importeth to the Work : For the Material, take Silver, which is the 
Metal, that in Nature, fymbolizeth moft with Gold ; put in alio, with thcSil- 
vet a tenth part of Quick-filvet , and a twelfth part of Nitre by weight : 
Both thefe to quicken and open the Body of the Metal; andfolct the Work 
be continued by the fpacc of Six Moncths, zt the leaft. I wifti alio. That 
therebeasfometimes an Injeftionof fome Oyled Subftance; fuch as they 
ufe in the recovering of Gold, which by vexing with Separations hath 
been made churlifh ; And this is, to lay the parts more clofc and fmooth, 
which is the main work. For Gold (as we fee) is the elofeft (and there- 
fore the heavieft; of Metals; andishkewi/e themoft flexible and tenfible. 
Note, That to think to make Gold of Quick-filver becaufeitis theheaviefl:, 
is a thing not to be hoped ; for Quiek-filver will not endure the mannagc 
of the Fire : Next to Silver , I think Copper were fitteft to be the Ma- 


Century IF. 



The Means to enducc and accelerate Pufrefaftion, are, Tirf}, By add- 
ing fome crude or watry moifture ; as in Wetting of any Fkfh, Fruit, 
Wood, with Water, Sec. For contrariwife, Unftuous and Oyiy Subftanccs 
I The fecond is, By Invitation or Excitation ; as whenarctrcn Apple 

jjicth clofe to another Apple that is found ; or when Dung (which is afub- 
I ftancc already putriticd; isaddcd to other Bodies. And this isalfo notably 
fecn in Church-yards, where they buryniuch ; whfrc the Harth will con- 
fume theCorps in farrtiorter rime than other Earth will. 

The third i:?, By CloCcncfs and Stopping, which dctaineth the Spirits 
in Prifon, more then they would, and thereby irritateth thcn:i tofcckilTuc; 
as in Corn and Cloaths which wax muJlv ; and therefore open Air (which 
j they call K_Aer ferjlAbilii) doth prclcrve : And this doth appear more evident- 
ly in Agues, which come (moft of them) of obftruftions and penning the 
■ Humors, which thereupon Putrific. 

The fourth is. By Solution of Continuity; as we fee an Apple will rot 
fooner, if it be cut or pierced, and lb will Wood, 5cc. And fotbc I'lefli of 
Creatures alive, whcrcthey have received any wound. 

ThcHfthiy, Eitherby the Exhaling, or by thedrivingback of thcprin- 
cipal Spirits, which prelcrvc the confidence of the Body; fo that when chcii 
Giovernmcntisdiirolved every partrcturneth tohis Nature, or Homogcny. 
And this appcarcth in Urine and Blood, when they cool and thereby 
break. It appeirccii alio in the Gangreen or Mortitication of Fle(h , 
either by Opiatci, ot bv Intcrfe Cold^. I conceive alio, the fame cf:l'£t 

H .1 

of 1' litre faSii- 

GOld hath thefe Natures : Grearoefs of Weight, tlofcncfs of Parts, 328. 
Fixation, Pliantnefs or Softnefs Immunity trom Ruft , Colour or Experiment 
Tni£ture of Yellow. Therefore the lure way ( though moft about ) to ' ^°''"7' , 
make Gold, is to know the caules of thcievcral Natures bclorerehorlcd, \NatMt of 
and the Axioms concerning the fame. For if a Man can make a Metal '^o'<^- 
that hath all thefe Properties, let Men dilputc, whether it be Gold, 
orno ? 

THe Enducing and Accelerating of Putrefaftion, is a fubjeft of a very Experiments 
Univcrfal Enquiry. For Corruption is a Reciprocal to Generation; '"Confott, 

. L vT • -T- D J • 11^. r r touching the 

and they two are as Natures to Terms or Boundaries; and the Guides to Life inducing and 
and Death, Putrefadlion is the Woik ot the Spirits of Bodies, which ever I ■^'"'"""'"i?. 
arc unquiet to ger forth and congregate with the Air , and to enjoy the 
Sun-Bcams. The getting forth, or fpreding of the Spirus , (which is a 
degree of getting forth) have five dificiing operations. If the Spirits be 
detained within the Body, and move more violently, thercfolloweth Colli- 
quation ; as in Metals, &c. If moremildcly, there followcthDigcftibn or 
Maturation ; as in Drinks and Fruits. II the Spirits be not meetly detained* 
but Protrude a little, and that Motion be confufed, and inordinate, there 
followeth Putrefaction ; which ever diFalveth the Confiftence of the Body 
into much inequility ; as in Flefli, Rotten Fruits, Shining Wood, &c. 
and alfo in the Ruft of Metals. But if that Motion be in a certain order, 
there followeth Vivification and Figuration ; as both in Living Creatures 
j bred of Putrefaftiouj and in Living Creatures pcrfed. But it the Spirits 
i ifluc out of the Body, there followeth Deficcation, Induration, Confump- 
tion,&c. As in Brick, evaporation of Bodies Liquid, &c. 











in Confoitj 

I and Prevent- 
ing Puirt- 

J^QitHral Hijlory ; 

's inPcltilences, tor that the malignity of the infcftingvjpor, aauincth the 
principal Spirits , and maketh them flic, and leave tiicir Rcgimert; and 
then the Humors, Flcfli, and Secondary Spirits, do difl'olve and break, as in 
an Anuchy. 

The fixth is, VVhen a Forreign Spirit, ftronger and more eager than 
the Spirit of the Body, cntrcth the Body, as in the Itingingot Serpent?. And 
tliis is the caufc (generally) that upon all Poyfons followctti Swelling; and we 
fee Swelling folio wethalfo, when the Spirits of the Body it felf congregate 
too much J as upon blows and bruifcs, or when rhcy are pent in too much, 
as, in Swelling upon Cold. And we fee alfo, that the Spirits coming ot Pu- 
trefadion of Humors in Agues, &c. which may be counted a*^ Foreign Spi- 
rits, though they be bred within the Body, docxtinguifh andluffocatethe 
Natural (pirics and heat. 

The feventh is. By fuch a weak degree of hear, as fctteth the Spirits in 
a little Motion, but is not able either todigcftthepartf, or to if^ue the Spirits, 
as is feen in Fltfhkcpc inaroom that is not cool; in a cool and wet 
Larder it will keep longer. And we fee, thatV^vificat'on (whereof Putre- 
fadion isthcBaftard Brother; is effeded by fuch fofi heats ; as the hatching 
of Eggs, the heatof the Womb, &c. 

Theeighthis, By the relcafing of the Spirits which before wcrcclofe 
kept by thclolidnefs of their coverture, and thereby their appeiie ot ifTuing 
checked i asintheartificialru;ts induced by Srrorg waters in Iron, Lead, &c. 
And therefore wettir^ghaflnethRuft orPutrefaftionof any thing, becaufeit 
foftneththeCruIl:, for the Spirits to come forth. 

Theninthis, Byiheentcrchange of heat andcold, orW£tanddry; as 
wc Lein theMouldring of Earth in Frofts, and Sun; andinthemorehafty 
rottingcf Wood, that is fometimcswer, fomeiimes dry. 

The tenth is, By time, and the work, and procedure of the Spirits them- 
f'elvcs, which cannot keep their llatlon ; tfpeciallv, if they belcfr to th^m- 
fclves, and thcrebe not. Agitation or Local Motion. As wcfee mCornnot 
rtirred, and Mens Bodies not exprcircd. 

All Moulds are Inceptions of Putrefaction ; as thcMouldsof Pycs and 
Fkfh the Moulds of Orengesand Lemmons, which Moulds afterwards turn 
into VVorm<, or mots odious Putrefadions : And therefore (commoni)^ 
prove to be of ill odor. And if the Body be liquid, and nor apt to putrjfie to- 
tally, it willcift upaMothcr in the top, as theMothers of D ftdled waters. 
Mofs is a kindeof Mold of the Earth and Trees : But it may be better 
fortedas a Rudiment of Geritiination, to which wc refer ic. 

IT IS an Enquiry of excellent ufc to enquire of the Means of Preventing or 
Staying of Putrefaftion i for therein confifteth the Means of Confervation 
of Bodies : Fot Bodies have twokindcs of DifTolutions. the one by Con- 
fumpcion and Dificcation, the other by Purrefadion. But as for the Putre- 
factions of the Bodies of Men and Living Creatures (as in Agues Worms 
'Confumptions of the Lung«, Impofthums and Ulcers, both inwards and out- 

i wards) they are a great part of Phyfick and Surgery : And therefore we will 
refetve the Enquiry of them to the properplace, where we (hall handle Me- 
dicinal Experiments of all forts. Of therelf, we will nowenter into an En- 
quiry, wherein much light miy betikcn from that which hath been faid of 
the Means to enducc or accelerate Pucrefadion: For the removing that which 
cauredPutrefaftion,dotlj prevent and avoid Putrefaction. 


(^hitury IF, 

I ^' 

1 he firlt Means ot prohibiting or checking Pucrctadiun is cold ; for fo 
tt'c fee that Meat and Drink will lalt longer, unputrificd, or Unlowrcd, in 
Winter, than in Summer : And we fee mat Flowers, and Fruits ; put in 
conlervatoricf of Sno\V, keep frcfli. And this U-orketh by the Detention of 
the SpiritSj and conibpation of the Tangible parts. 

The Iccond is Aftriftion : For Allrictlon prohiBitcth DifToIution ; as \y<: 
fee (generally) in Medicines, wiieteof fuch as are Aftringents do inhibit Putre- 
faftion : And by the lame rcafbn of Alhingcncy, Tome (mall quantity of Oyl 
of Vitriol, will keepfrcfh water long from pucrifying. And this Aftridion 
IS in a fubftance that hatha Virtual cold, and it workcth (partly) by the fame 
means that cold doth. 

The third if. The excluding of the Ait ; and again, the cxpofing to the 
Air : For thefe contraries, (as it cometh often to pafs) work the fimc 
effcft, according to the nature of the Subjeftmatter. So we fee, that 
Beer or Wine in Bottles clofe ftopped, lalt long 5 that the Garners under 
Ground keep Corn longer , than cl^ofc above Ground ; and that Fruit 
clofed in Wax, kecpcth frcfli : And likewife, Bodies put m Honey, and 
Flower, keep more trefli : And Liquors, Drinks, and Juyces, with a httle 
Oyl calf onthetop, keep frefii. Contrariwife, wefce that Cloath and Ap- 
parel, not aitcd, do breed Moaths and Mould •, and the DiVerHty is, that 
in Bodies that need Detention of Spirits, the Exclufjon of the Air doth 
good ,• as in Drinks, and Corn : But in Bodies that need Hmifllon of Spirits, 
todifchargefome of thcfuperfluousmoiftuFC, itdotl>hutt, tor they requite 

The fourth is Motion, and Stirring; for Putrefa£lionaskcth Reft: For 
the fubiil Motion which Putrcfadion requircth, is diffurbed by any Agi 
tation, and all Local Motion keepcth Bodies integral, and their parts 
together: As wc lee, that turning over of Corn in a Garner, or Let- 
ting it run like an Hour-Gla(s, from an upper Room into a lower, doth 
keep it fwect : And tunning Waters putnfic not j and in Mens Bodies, 
cxercife hindreth Putrefaftion i and contrary wife Reft, and want of Mo- 
tion or ftoppings ( whereby the running of Humors, or the Motion of 
Perfpiration, is ftayed) further Putrefaction » as we partly touched a little 

Tbc fifth is, The Breathing forth of the Adventitious Moirture in 
Bodies , for as wetting doth haften Putrefadion ; lo convenient drying 
(whereby the more Radical Moifture is onely kept in) putteth back Putre- 
focfion: So we fee that Herbs and Flowers, if they be dried in the fiiadc, or 
dried in the ho: Sun, fur a Imall time keep beft. For the Emiffion of the 
loofeand adventitious Moilturc, doth betray the Radical Moifture, andcar- 
rycth it out for company. 

Thclixth is. The ftrcngthrting of the Spirits of Bodies ; foras agreat 
heat keepeth Bodies from Purrcfadion ; but a tcpldeheat cnclineth them to 
Putrcfadlion : So a ittong Spirit likewife preferveth, and a weak or faint 
Spirit diipofeth to corruption. So wc finde, that Saltwater corruptcth not 
(o foon as frefhj and faking of Oyfters, and powdring of Meat, kecpcth 
them from Putrefadion. Jc would be ttycd alfo, whetherChalk, putin- 
to Water, or Drink, doth not prcferve it from Puctifying, or (pccdy Sour- 
ing. So wc fee that Strong-Boer will lalflonger than fmall, and all things, that 
arc hot help to preferve Liquors, or Powders, &c. which 
they do. as well by ftrengthning the Spirits, as by foaking out tbcloofe 

H 2 The 


3 47. 



3 30. 


J\Qtttiral hiftory ; 

353. ! 


! Wmd Shining 
• in the Durk^ 

The fevcnth is, Septration of the cruder parts, and thereby making the 
Body more equal ; for all unpcrfed mixture is apt to putrific, and V/atry 
fubftanccs arc more apt to putrifie, than oily. So, w c Ice diftillcd Waters 
V'ili laft longer than raw Waters , and things that have piillcd the Fire, 
do laft longer than thofe that have not palled the Fire ; as dried Pearl, 

Sec. ' '1 

The eighth is, The draT»'ing forth eontinuAllj of that part, yvhere the Tutre- 
fdHion heginneth : Which is (commonly) the looje amlTtany moifiure ; notonely 
for the rcaion before given, that it provokcch the radical moiftureto come 
forth. with it •, but becaule being detained in the Body, the Putrcfadion 
taking hold of it, infedeththereli : As we fee in the Embalming of Dead 
Bodies. And the lamereafon is.of prefcrving Flerbs, or Fruits, or Flowers, 
in Bran or Meal. 

The ninth is. The commixture of any thing that is more oyly or ftaeet : For fuch 
BoJics are Icaftapt to putrifie, the Air working little upon them, and they 
not putrifying preferve the reft. And thcretbre'we fee Syrrups and Oynt- 
ments will laft longer than juyces. 

The tenth is , The commixture of fame whit that u drj ; for Putrcfadlion 
bc^inneth tirft from the Spirits, and then from the moifture ; and that 
that is dry, is unapt to putrifie. And therefore Imoak prefervethflefti; 
as we fee in Bacon, andNeats-Tongucs, Atid LMirtlemm- Beef, &c. 

The opinion of fomc of the Ancients , That blown Airs do prefervc 
Bodies longer than ottier Airs , feemcth to me probable ; for that the 
blown Airs, being over-charged and comprelTed , will hardly receive the 
exhaling of any thing, but rather repulfe it. It was trycd in a blown 
Bladder, vphereinto flcfti was put, and likewifcaFIower, anditfortcdnot : 
For dry Bladders will not blow, and new Bladders rather further Putrefadi- 
on. The way were therefore, to blow ftrongly with a pair of Bellows, into 
a Hogfhead, putting into the Hogfhead (before) that which yoil would 
have preferved 5 and in the inftant that you withdraw the Bellows, ftopthc 
hole clofc. 

T He Experiment of Woodthat ftiincth in thedark, we have diligently 
driven and purlucd : The rather, for that of all things that give light 
here below, it is the moft durable, and hath leaft apparent motion. Fire 
and Flame are in continual expence 5 Sugar fhining onely whileitisinfcra- 
ping; and Salt-water while itis indafliing j Gloworms have theirihining 
; while they live, orahttlc after; onely Scales of Fifties (putrified; feemto 
I be of the fame nature with fhining Wood. And itis true, that all Putre- 
j fadionJiathwithitaninwardmotion, aswell aspire or Light. The tryal 

fortcd thus. 
j I. Ihcfliining isinfome pieces more bright, in fomc more dim ; 

; but the moft bright of all doth not attain to the light of a Gloworm. 
1 2. The Woods that have been tryed to fhine, are chiefly Sallow and Wil- 
i low ; alfo, the Afti and Halle, ic m.iy be, it holdeth in others. 5. Both 
' Roots, and Bodies do fhine. but the Roots better. 4 1 he colour of the 
' ftiinirig part, by day-light, is in fome pieces white, in fomc pieces inclining 
Uorcd^; which in the Country they callthe White and Red Garret, j. The 
1 part that fhineth, is (for the moft part; lomewhat foft, and moift to feel 
I to ; but fome was found to be firm and hard ; (o as it might be figured into 
a Crofs, or into Beads, Sec. But you muft not look to have an Image, or 
the like, in any thins that is Lightfom ; for even a Face in Iron red hot, 


Century IF, 

will not be feen, the light confounding the fmall differences of Jightfomc 

and darkfomc, which fliew the figure. 6. Tnere was the filming part 
I pared off, till you came to that, that did not fliinc ; but within two days, the 
: part comiguous began alfo to (hine, being laid abroad in the Dew i fo as it 

leemeth the putrefaction fpredeth. 7. Ttiere was other dead Wood of 
, iij^c kindc that was laid abroad, which fliined not at the firft 5 but after a 
: nights lying abroad, begin tofiiine. 8. There was other Wood that did 
} firlt fliine , and being Kiid dry in the Houfe, within five or fix days loft 
: the fliining ,- and laid abroad again, recovered the fliining. 9. Shining 
i Woods being I lid in a dry room, within a feven night loft their fliining; but 
_ being laid in a Cellar, or dark room, kept the finning. 10. The boring of 
i holes in that kinde of Wood, and then laying it abroad, feemeth to conduce 

to make it fliinc ; thecmfeis, forthat all folution of continuity, doth help 
[ on putrefaction, as was touched before. 11. No Wood hath been yet 
• iryed toft)ine that was cut down alive, but fuch aswas rooted both in Stock 
; and Root while it grew. 1 2. Part of the Wood that Aimed, was (tecped 
' in Oyl and retained the fhining a fortnight, 13, Tne like fuccecded in 
j fomefteepcdin W^tcr, and much better. 14. How long the fliining will 
■ continue, if the Wood belaid abroad every night, and taken in and fprinklcd 
i with Water in theday, is not yet tryed. 16. Try al was made ot laying it 
! abroad in frofty weather, which hutt it nor, \6. There was a great piece 
I ofatloot, which did fliine, and the fhining part wascutoff, till no more 
I filmed ; yet after two nights, though it were kept, in a dry Room, it got a 
! (hining. 



touching the 
of Birth. 

j ♦T^Ho bringing forth of Living Creatures niay be accelerated in two re- 

j X 'pt'fts ; The one , if the Erabryon ripeneth and petfefteth looncr s 

the other, if there be fomc caufe from the Mothers Body of £xpulfion 

: or putting it down: Whereof the former is good, and argucth Ifrength; 

1 the latter is ill, and cometh by accident or dilcafe. And therefore the 

I Ancient oblervaiion is true, that the CAiWc tarn in the Seventh CMoncth, doth 

commonly well ; but Bom in the Eighth O^netb, doth (for the mofl part) 

die. But the caufe alllgncd is fabulous, wiiich is. That in the Eighth 

Moneth fliould be the return of the reign of the Planet SAturn, which 

( as they fay ) is a Planet malign ; whereas in the Sevcntk is the reign 

of the mioan , which is a Planet propitious. But the true caufe is, for 

that where there is fo great a prevention of the ordinary time, it is the 

luftinefs of the Childe; but when it is Ids, it is fome indirpofmonof the 


TO Accelerate Growth or Statute , it mufl proceed; Either from the | 354. 
Plenty ci the Nouiifliment , or from the Nature of the Nouriflimenr, Experiment 
or from the Qiiickning and Exciting of the Natural heat. For the tirft, Exccfs toucbiTe «he 
of Nouriflimcnt, ishuitful; font maketh the Childe corpulent, and grow- j>r«»/er«ion 
ing in breadth, rather than in height. And you may take an Experiment ^{^^''""^ 
fromPljius, which if they fpred much, are fcldom tall. As for the Nature 
of the Nouriflimcnt ; Pirlt, it may not be too dry, and therefore Children 
in Dairy Countrcys do wax more tall , than where they feed more upon 
Bread andPUfh. There isalfoa received tale, that boylingof Dific-Roots 
in Milk ( which it is certain arc great dryers) will make Dogs little. 
But fo much is true. That an over-dry Nourifliment in Childhood 
putteth back Stature. Secondly, The Nourifliment muft be of an opening 

H 3 Nature; | { 


^I^^turai Hijlory 

Sulphure tni 

IAUnury, two 
af Patacclfus 



Nature ; tar that attcnuatech the Juyce, and furthcrcth the Motionof the 
^pirits upwards. Neither is it without caufc, that Xenofban in the Nouriturc 
of the Terfitn Chtldreu, doth fo much commend their feeding upon CArdamon, 
which (he faith) made them grow better, and be of a more adive habit. 
Card,tmon is in Latin, iVrf/wrrrKw, and with us Wuter-creffes; which, it is cer- 
tain, is an Herb, that tthihtit is young, is friendly to Life. As far the 
fluickning of Natural Heat, it muft be done chiefly with cxerrilc; and 
therefore (no doubt) much going to School, where they iic f j much, 
hindcrcrh the growth of Children ; vhcreas Countrey-Pcoplc. that go 
not to J>chool, are commonly of better ftature. And again. Men mull 
beware how they give Children any thing that is cold in operation ; 
even long fucking doth hinder both Wit and Stature. This hatu been 
trytd, that a Whelp that hath been fed with Nttre in unuk, hsth be- 
come Very little, but extrcam lively : For the Spirit ot Nitre is cold. 
And though it be an excellent Medicine in ftrength of years for Pro- 
longation of Life ; yet it is in Cliildren and young CrcAturcs an enemy 
to growth; and all for the 'amc realon, For Heat is requiiltc to Growth. 
But after a Man is come to his mic^dle age, Heat confumcth the Spirits; 
which the coidnefs of the Spirit of Nitre doth help to condence and 

THerc be two great Families of Thingf , you may term them by 
(cveral names, Sulfhureou* ^nd C^lercurtal , which arc the OjjmiHs 
words : (For as for their Sdt. which is their third Principle, it is a Com- 
pound of the other two,)>Uy iUii Not Inflamalile i ^'lature and Crude, 
Oilj and IVatrj : For wc fee that in Subterranies there are , as the Fathers of 
their Iribej, Brimftonc and Mercury j In Vegetables and Living Crea- 
tures, there is Water and Oyl ; in the Inferior order of Pneumaticals , 
there is Air and Flame ; and in the Superior , there is the Body of the 
Star, and the Pure Skey. And thcfe Pairs, though they be unlike in the 
Primitive Differences of Matter, yet they fcem to have many conlencs ; 
for Mercury and Sulphurc arc principal materials of Metals-, Water and 
Oyl are principal materials of Vegetables and Animals, and feem to differ 
but in Maturation or Concodion. Flame (in Vulgar Opinion) is but 
Air inccnfed, and they both have quickncfs of Motion, and facility of 
Ceffion, much alike: And the Interftellar ^kcy, (though the opinion be 
vain, I hat the Star is the Dcnfcr Part of his Orb,) hathnotwithflanding 
fo much artinity with the Star, that there is a rotation of that, a$ vf. 11 as 
of the Star. Therefore, it is one of the greatefl MtignMU N-uarx, to turn 
Water or Watry Juyce into Oyl or Oyly Juyce: Greater in Nature, than 
to turn Silver or Quick-filvcr into Gold. 

The Inflanccjwehavc wherein Crude and Watry Subllance, turneth 
■ into Fat and Oyly, are of four kindcs. FirfV, In the Mixture of Earth and 
Water, which mingled by the help of the Sun, gathered a Nitrous Fat- , 
nef?, more than either of them have feverally; Aswcfee, inthatthcyput 
forth Plants, which need both Juyccs. 

Thef'ccondisinthc Aflimilationof Nourifhment, made in the Bodies 
of Plants, and Living Creatures ; whereof Plants turn the Juyce of meec 
Water and Earth, into a great deal of Oyly matter •• Living Creatures, 
though much of their Fat, and Flcfli, arc out of Oyly Aliments, (as Meat, 
and Bread,) yet they aflimilate alfo in a meafurc thcic Drink of Water, 

(^entury IF. 

&c. But thefc two ways of Vcrliou wt Water into Oyl, ( namely, by 
Mixture and by Afltmilation) arc by many Palla^rcs, and Pcrcolacions, and 
by continuance of foft Heats, and by circuits ot 1 jme. 

The third is in the Inception of Putrcfa^iiion ; as in Water corrupted, 
nJ the Mothers of Waters diftilled, both which have a kindeof Fatnels 

or Oyl 

The fourtli is in the Dulcoration of fome Metals ; as S'actharum Sd- 
tam, &c. 

The Intenfionof Verfion of Water into amorcOyly fubftancc isby 
Digcftion : For Oyl is almofl nothing elfe but Water digcfled and this 
Digcflion is principally by Heat ; which Heat muft be cither outward or 
inward. Again, It maybe by Provocation or Excitation, which is caufcd 
by the mingling of Bodies already Oyly or Digc.'ted, for they vvillfomc- 
what communicate their Nature with the reft. Digcftion alio is ftrongly 
cffeded bydiredAflimilation of Bodies Crude into Bodies digefted ; as in 
Plants and Living Creatures, whofc nouriftiment is far more Crude than 
theirBodies. Butthis Digcftion is by a gteat compafs ashathbeen faid. As 
fortheraore full handling of thefc two principles, whereof this is but a 
tade; (the enquiry of which, is one of the profoundeft enquiries of Na- 
ture,) we leave it to the tide of Verfion of Bodies; and like wife to the title 
of the Firft Congregations of Matter, which like a General AlFemblyof 
Eftates,doch give Law to all Bodies. 

AChamelion is a Creature about the bigncfs of an ordinary Z,fj.<irrf , his iinproportionably big, his eycj great ; he moveth hii Head 
without the writhingof his Neck uvhich is inflexible) as a Ho^ doth : His 
Back crooked, his Skin fpottcd with little Tumors, Icfs eminent nearer 
the Belly, his Tail {lender and long ; on each Foot he hath five Fingers ; 
three on the outlidc, and two onthcinflde; his Tongue of a marvellous 
length, in rcfpcd of his Bodv , and hollow at the end, which he will 
lanch out to prey upon Fiies. Of colour Green, and of a dusky Yal- 
low , brighter and whiter towards the Belly, yet fpotted with Blew, 
White, and Red. If he be laid upon Green, the Green predominateth; 
if upon Yellow, the Yellow ; notfb, if he be laid upon Blew, or Red, or 
White, oncly the Green fputs receive a more orient luftrc ; laid upon 
Black, he looketh all Black, though notwithoutamixtureof Green. He 
fcedethnotoncly upon Air, (though that be his principal fuftenance,) for 
lometimcs he takcth Flies, as was laid ; yet fome that have kept Chdwelions 
a whole year together, could never perceive that ever they fed upon any 
thing clfc but Air, and might obfcrve their Bellies to fwell after they had 
cxhaufted the Air, and clofcd their jaws, which they open commonly 
againftthc Raycsof the Sun. Ihcy Have a foolifh Tradition in Magick, 
that xizCbAmtlton bebumtupon thctopof an Houfc, itwill raife a Tcmpcft, 
fuppofing ,' according to their vain Dreams of Sympathies) bccaufe he nou- 
rifhcth with Air, his Body fhould have great vCrtuc to make impreffion 
upon the Air. 

IT is reported by one of the Anticnts, that in part of Medit., there are c- 
ruptionsof Flames out of Plains, and that thofc Flames arc clear, and 
caft not forth Inch fmonk, andlaftics, and pumice, as Mountain Flamcsdo. 
Ti.ercafon^no doubt) i^, bccaufe the FJame isnotpcnt, as it isinMoun- 
tains, and Eardiquakcs which caft Flame. There be alfo fome blindc Fifes, 

urdcf 1 

















Congeding 0/ 

^SQitural hijlory ; 


Congealing of 
Wtucr into 


Prtftrving of 
J^o/e Leavtst 
ioth in Colonr 
mi Smtli. 

under Stone, vfhich flame not out, but Oyl being poured upon them, they 
riimcout. The caufe whereof is, for that itfcemcth the Fire isfochoakcd, 
as not able to remove the Stone, it is heat rather than flame, which ncver- 
thclefsis iufficicntto enflamc the Oyl. 

IT is reported, thit in fomc Lakes the Water is fo Nitrous as if foul 
Cloaths be put into it, it fcourcth them of it Iclf : And il: they ftay any 
^v hit long tlicy moulder away. And the fcouring Vertuc ot Nitre is the 
more to be noted, becaufe it is a Body cold ; and wc(ee warm Water 
fcoureth bettei than cold. But thecaul'e is, for that it hath a fubtil Spirit, 
vhich fevercth and dividcth any thing that is foul> and vifcous, and ftickcth 
upon a Body. 

TAke a Bladder, the greateftyou canget; full it full of Wind, and tyc 
it about the Neck with a Silk thred waxed ; and upon that likewifc 
Wax very clofc; fo that whenthcNeckof theBladderdrieth, noAirmay 
pofllblygctinnorout. Then bury it three or tour toot under the Earth, in 
a Vault, crina.Confcrvatory of Snjw,the Snow being maJc hollow about 
thcBladdcr,- and after fome fortnights diliancc, lee whether the Bladder 
bcflirunk : For if it be, then it is plain, that tte coldnefsof the Earth or 
Snow, hath condentcd the Air, and brought it a degree nearer to Water : 
\i^'hich is an Experiment of great confequcnce. 

IT is a report of fome good credit, that in deep Caves there arc Penfile 
Chryftal, and degrees of Chryfl:al that drop from above, and in 
fomc ccher (though more rarely) that rile from below. Which though 
ic be chiefly the work of cold, yet it may be, that Water that palfcth 
ihorow the Earth, gathereth aP^^ature more clammy, and fitter to con- 
geal, and become folid than Water o[ it felf. Therefore tryal would be 
made to lay » heap of Earth in great Frofls, upon a hollow Vellcl, put- 
ting a Canvalc between, that itfalletii not in ; .ind pour Water upon it, 
in fuch quantity as will be furc to foak thorow , and fee whether it 
will not make an harder Ice in the bottom of the Vcllel, and lefs apt to 
diflblve than ordinarily. I fuppofe alfo, that if you make the Earth nar- 
rower at the bottom at the top, in fafhion of Sugar Loaf reverfedn 
it will help the Experiment. Fqr it will make the Ice , where it 
iffueth, lefs in bulk ; and evermore fmallnels of quantity is a help to 

TAke Damask Rofes and pull them , then dry them upon the top of 
an Houle, upon a Lead or Tarras in the hot Sun, in a clear day. 
between the hours (oncly) of Twelve and two oc thereabouts. Then 
put them into a fwce't dry Earthen Bottle or a Glafs with narrow 
mouths, fluffing them dole together, but without bruiling : Stop the 
Bottle or Glals clofe, and thcfe Rofcj will retain, not oncly their fmell 
perfc(J^, but their colour [refli for a year at Icaft. Note, that lOthing doth 
Ibmuchdeflroy any Plant, or other Body, cither by Tutrefa^ion, or Are- 
fA^lioH , as the x^dvenuuo'if cMoiflurey which hangcth loofe in the Body, 
if it be not drawn out. For it bctrayeth and tulleth forth the Innate and 
Radicall Moiflure along with it when it felf gocth forth. And therefore 
in Living Creatures , moderate fweat doth preferve the Juyce of the Body- 
Note, that thcfe Rofes when you fake chcm from tlw drying, have lictk 

Century IF, 


, or no fmcil j fb that the fmcli is a fccond fmcll that iflucth oiit of the Flower 
! afterwards. I 

T He continuance of Flame, accordinguntothc diverficyof thcBodyen- 
flamcd, and other cicumlbnccs, is worthy the enquiry ; chicfiv, for 
that though Flame be (almo(t) of a momenrany lading, yccit rcceivcththc 
More, and tUcLcfs: Wc willfirftchcrcfore Ip-ak (at large) of Bodies en- 
Hamcd, wholly, andimmediately.withoitany Wick to help the Inflamma- 
tion. Afpoonful of Spirit of Wine, a little heated, was taken, and it burnt 
as long as came to ii^ Fulfcs. 1 lie lame quantity of Spirit of Wine, mixed 
with the fixth part of a fpoonful ot Nitre, burnt but to the fpacc of P4 
Pullcs. Mixed witluhc like quantity of Bay-Sale 85 Pulfes. Mixed with the 
like quantity of Gun-powder, v hich dilTolved into a Black-vi-ater no 
: Pulfcs. A Cube or Pellet of Yellow Wax, wasta'cen, as much as hah the 
' Spirit of Wine, and fct in the midft. and itburntoncly tothcf ^acc cf 87 

■ Piilfcs;. Mixed with the fixth part of a Ipoonful oi Milk, it burnt to the 
fpacc of 100 Pulfes ; andthc Milk wascrudled. Mixed wiJith" fixrh part 

■ of afpoonful of Water, it burnt to the fpacc of 8(J Pulfcs ; with an cqunl 
^ quantity of Water, oncly to the fpace of four Pulfcs- A imall Pebble 
: vas laid in the midd, and the Spirit of Wine burnt Co the fpace of 94 
' Pulfcs. A piece of Woo J of thcbigncfsof an Arrow, and about a Fingers 
i length, vp-as let up in the midft, and the Spirit of Wine burnt to the fpace 

of 94 Pulfcs. Sothatthc Spirit of Wine Simple, endureth the lon:;cft, and 
the Spirit of Wine with thcBay-falt.and the equal quantity of Water, were 
the ftiortcft. 
I Confidcr well, whether the more fpeedy going forth of the Flame, be 

caufcdbythcgreatcrvigor of the Flame in burning; or by thcrciiftance of 
the Body mixed, and the av. r;lon thereof to take Flame : Wriich will appear 
by the quantity of the Spirit of W ine, that rcmaineth nftcr the gcing out of 
the Flame. A d it fccmcth clearly to be the latter, for that the mixture of 
things Icaft apt to bugi . is die fpccdieft in going out, and note by the 

■ way, that Spirit of Wincburncd, till it go out of it fclf, will burn no more, 
, and tafteth nothing (o hot in the mouth as it did ; no nor yet four, (it 
i if it were a degree towards Vinegar) which burnt Wine doth, but flat and 
I dead. 

Note, that in the Experiment of Wax aforcfaid, the Wax dilToIved in 
j the burning, an J yet didnot incorporate it fclf witlithcipirit of Wine, co 
I produce one Flame; but whercfocver the Wax floated, the Flame forfook 
it; lillat lartic I'pred.nllovcr and put the Flame quite out. 
j The Expcrimcntsof the Mixtures of thcSpiritof Wine cnflamed, arc 

. thingsof difcoverv, and notof ulc : But now wc wilHpeak of thccontinu 
ancc of Flames, fuch a$ arc ufcd for Candles, Lamps; or Tapers, confilirg 
of Infl-imable Matters, and of a Wick that provokcta InHamacion. And this 
impoileth n t oncl ; difcovcry, but alfo ufc and profit ; for it is a great 
faring in all hich Lights, if they can be made as fair and right as others, and 
yetUftlontjer. WaxpurC made into a Candle, and Wax mixed ievcrally 
into Candle- liufF with the particulars that follo^, (Fiz. /Vatcr, 'q'tA-riu, 
t^inky tAj-falty Oil, Butter, .\itre, Brimfltnc, SaMp du/i,) every of thcic bear- 
ing 3 fixth part to the Wax ; and every of thcfe Caindlcs mixed, being 
; of the fame wcinht and wick , with the Wax pure, proved thus in the 
I burning, and lafting. The i\vif:clt in confuming was that witn Saw- 
I duft, N^iiichfirft burned fair till fomc part of the Candle was confumcd, 
j and 


in Confort, i 
touching the 
0/ tUmt. 





3 73- 

S\(jjtimi( Hijlory ; 

and die dull gathered about tlic fnaftc , but rhcn ic made the Ihalicbig, 
and long, and to burn duskid ly, .ind the Candle vvaltcdinhalt' tiic time of 
the Wax pure, "ihc next in i'witcncfs. were the Oyl and Butter, which 
confumtd by a fifth part iwifctr than the pure Wnx. Then tollowcd in 
fwifcncfs the clear Wax ir Iclt ; then the Bay-lalt, which laftcd about 
an eight part longer than the clear Wax ; then followed the t^<;«4-viu, 
which lafled about a fifth part longer than the clear Wax ; then follow 
the Milk and Water, v^ith little difference from the ty^qua-viu, but the 
Water floweft- And in thclc lour lalt, tlic VViek would Ipit forth little 
fparks : For the Nitre , it wouKl not hoU lighted above fbmc twelve 
Pulfes : But all the while it would ipit out portions of Flame, which 
afterwards would go outinto a vapor. For the Brimftone, ic would hold 
lighted much about the lame with the Nitre ; but then after a little while, 
it would harden and cake about the fnafte : So that the mixture of Bay-falt 
with Wax, will win an eghth part of the time of lading, andthcVVatcr 
a fifth. 

After the fcvcral materials were tryed, Tryal waj likewife made of 
feveral VVieks ; as of ordinary ( cfffw, J" o"»;«^T/irr(/, /?«/??, S'ilk., Strayv, and 
ff^ood. ThcSilk, Straw, and Wood, would flarnc a little!, till they came to 
the Wax, and thengoout; of the other three, the Thred confumed fafter 
than the Gotten, byafixth part of time ; the Gotten next,- thentheRufli 
confumed flower than the Cotton, by at leafl a third part of time. For the 
bignefs of the Flame, the Cotton, and Thred, caft a Flitne much alike, and 
the Rufh much Icfs and dimmer. ^£re, m hethcr Wood and Wicks 
both, as in Torches confumc faflcr, than the Wieks Simple? 

We have fpoken of the feveral Materials, and the feveral VVieks ; but 
totheiaflingof theTlame, it importeth alio, not onely, v^'hat the material 
is, but in the fame materia], whether it be hard, fbft, old, new, &c. Good 
Houfwives to make their Candles burn the longer, ufeto lay them (one by 
one) inBranorFlowcr, which make them harder, and fothcv confurac the 
flovf er. Infomuch. as by this means they will out-laft other Candles of the 
fame ftufF, almoft half in half. For Bran and Flower have a vcrtue to 
harden, fo that both age, and lying in the Bran doth help to thelafting. 
And we fee that Wax Candles laft longer then TalloNr-Candles, becaufe 
Wax is more firm and hard. 

The lailing of flame alfo dependech upon the eaHc dra'^'ing of the 
Nouriflimenf, as wefcein thcComt oi ingUnd, there is afcrvice which they 
call jlll'Night ; which is (as it were) a great Cake of Wax, with the Wick 
in the midfl; whereby itcometh to pafs, that the Wick fetcheth the Nou- 
rifhment further oft^. Wefcc alio, that Lamps laft longer, becaufe the VcfTel 
is fat broader than the breadth of a Taper or Candle. 

Take a Turreted Lamp of Tin made in the fotm of a Square ; the 
height of the Tutrer, being thrice as much as the length of the lower part, 
wheteupontheLampflandeth 5 make onely onehole in it, at thcendof the 
tetnrn furthcft from the Turret. Rcvcrfe ir, and fill it fuUol Oyi,' by that 
hole ; and then fet it upright again, and put a Wiek in at the hole, and 
lighten it : You fhall find^ that it Will burn flow, and a long time : Which 
iscauled (as was faid la(l before) for that the Flame fercheththeNoutifh 
mcnt a far off. You fhjll finde alfo, thar as the Oyl wafteth and defcend. 
cth, fo the top of the Turret, by little and little filleth with Air; which 
is caufed by the Rarefaflion of the Oyl by the heat It were worthy 
the obfervation tomakeahole, in the top of theTurret, andtotry, when 


(^cntury IF, 


the Oyl is almoft confumcd •, whether the Air made n\ rhe Oy], if vou put 
toicaflamcofaCandle, in the kttingoHt Forth, \nll enHnmc. It were good 
alfo to have the Lamp made, not ot Tin, but of Glafs j that you may lee 
how the Vapor or Air gathcreth by degrees in the t:)p. 

A fourth poinr, that importcth the laiting of the Flame, is the clofc- 
ncfs of the Air, wherein the Flame burncch. Wei'ce, that if Wind blow- 
eth upon a Candle, it waftcth apace,- we fee alfo, it laftcth longer in aLan- 
thorn, thanat large. And there areTraditionsot Lamps and Candles, that 
havcburnt a very long time in Caves and Tombs. 

A fifth point, that importeth thclafling of the Flame, is the Natufc 
of the Air where the Flame burncth ; whether it be hot or cold, moift or 
dry. The Air, if it be vet)' cold, irritateth the Flame, and mnkcch it burn 
more fiercely, (at Fire fcor.heth in Frolfy weather) and fofurthereth the 
Confumption. The Air once heated, (\ conceive) makcththe Flame burn 
moremildly, anJ fo hclpcth the continuance. The Air, if it be dryjs in- 
different ; the Air, if it be moiil, doth in a degree quench the Flame, (^s we 
fee Lights w ill go out in the Damps ( f Mines ;; and howloever makerh it 
burn more dully, and io hclpcth the continuance. 

BUrials in Earth fervc fur Prcfcrvation, and for Condcnfation, and for 
Induration of Bodies. And if you intend Condcnfation or Induration, 
you may bury the Bodies fo, as Earth may touch them; as if you would 
make Artificial Proccllane, 5cc. And the like you may do for Confcrva- 
tion, if the Bodies behard and folid, as Clav, Wood, &c. But if \ou 
intend Prcfcrvation ot B dies, more foft and tender, then you muft do 
one of thefc two : i" ithcryou muftputthem in cafes, vhercby they may 
not touch the Karth ; or elfc you mull Vault the Earth, whereby it 
may hang over them, and not touch them : For if the Earth touch them, 
it will do more hurt by the moifture, caufing them to putri "e, than good 
by the virtual cold, to conferve them, except the Earth be very dry and 

AnOrenge.) Levmoti, and '^p pie, wrapt in a Linning Cloth, being buried 
for a fortnignts fpace four toot deep within the Harth, though it were in a 
moift place, and a rainy time ; yet came forth no ways mouldy or rotten, 
but were become a little harder than they were . othcrwife frefli in their 
colour, buttheir juycelomewhat flatted. But with the Burial of a fortnight 
more, they become putrified. 

A Bottle ot Beer buried in like manner as before, became more 
lively, better tafted, and clearer than it was : And a Bottle of Wine, 
in like manner. A Bottlcof Vinegar (o buried, came forth more lively 
and more odoriferous, fmelling almoft like a Violet. And after the whole 
Moncths Burial, afi the three came forth as frcfh and lively, if not better 
than before. 

It "were a profitable Fxperiment, to prcfervc Oreriges, Lemmons, 
and Pomgranatcs , till Summer ; for then their price will be mightily 
cncrcafed. This may be done, if you put tliem in a Pof or Vcird well 
covered that the moirturc of the Earth come not at them ; or cUe by put- 
ting them in a Confcrvatorv of Snow- And generally, wholbever will make 
Experiments of Cold, let him be provided of three things, a Conferva tory 
of Snovr, a good large Vaulti twenty foot at Icalf under the Ground, and 





in Conforr, 
Kurlal, \r In- 
Fufioni of di- 
vtri Bodiet i 






J\Qitural hijlory ; 

touching the 

ffftEls in 
Mtni Boditt 
from ftvtrat 

I Experiment 

I touching 
• IVinttr and 

Summtri Sk\- 


3 8 J. 

I Experiment 
' touching-^" 
1 Ermr r'ceived 
'• about Epidt- 
. mieal Vifeaf"- 

\ 3S5. 
, Expeiiment 


1 touching the 
. '• alteration or 

1 Prefcrvation 
of L'tijito-tt In 
jreils, or dtep 

There hath been a Tradition, (hat Pearl, and Coral, Surchois-Stonc, 
that have loft their Colours, may be recovered by burying in the Earth-, 
which is a thing of gre^t profit, if it would fort : But upon tryal of fix 
weeks B^irial, there tollowcd no effLft. It were good to try it in a deep 
Well, or in a Confervatory of Snow, where the cold may be more con- 
(hingcnt > and fomake the Body more united, and thereby more refplcn- 

MEns Bodiii arc heavier and kfs difpofed to Motion when Southern 
Windsblow, then whenNorthcrn. The caufc Is, for that when the 
Southern Winds blow, the Humors do (in fome degree) melt, and wax 
fluidc, and fo flow into the parts ; asitisfeen in Wood, and other Bodies, 
which when the Southern Winds blow, dofwell, Befides the Motion and 
Activity of the Body confUkth chiefly in thefinews, which, when the 
Southern Wind bloweth, are more relax. 

IT is commonly fcen, that more are Gck in the Summer, and moredyc in 
the Winter i except it be in PeftilentDifeafes, which commonly reign in 
Summer or Autumn. The reafonis, becaufe Difeafes are bred (indeed) 
chieflyby Heat j burthen they arc cured moft by Sweat and Purge, which 
intheSummer cometh on, or is provoked more eafily ; As forPeftilent 
Difeafes, the Reafon why moft dye of theminSummer, is becaufethey are 
bred moft in the Summer 3 for otherwile, thofe that arc touched are in moft 
danger in the Winter. 

T He general opinion is, That Years hot and moift, are moft Peftilentj 
upon the fuperficial Ground, that Heat and Moifturc caufe Putrcfadi- 
on. In EngUni it is found not true; for, many times, there have been great 
Plagues in dry years. Whereof the caufc may be, for that drought in the 
Bodies of Iflanders, habituate to moift Airs, doth exafperate the Humors, 
and maketh them more apt to Putrifie or Enflame; befides, ittainteththe 
Waters (commonly) and maketh them lefs whoifome. And again in 
BArbary, the Plagues break up in the Summer- Moneths, when the Weather 
;s hot and dry. 

MAny Dfeafes, (both Epidemical and others) break forth at particular 
times. And the caufe isfalfly imputed to the conftitution of the Air, 
at that time, when they break forth or reign; whereas it proccedeth (indeed) 
frotp a Precedent Sequence, and Series of the Seafons of theYear : And 
thcteioic HippocYAtes, jnhis Prognofticks, doth make good obfervations of 
the Difeafes, that enfue upon the Nature of the precedent four Seafons of 
the Year. 

T rival hath been made with Earthen Bottles, well ftopped, hanged in a 
Well of Twenty Fathom deep, attheleaft; and lome of the Bottles 
have been let down into the Water, fome others have hanged above, with- 
in about a Fathom of the Water ; and the Liquors fo tryed have been. Beer, 
(not new, but ready for drinkifg) and Wine, and Milk. The proof hath 
been, that both the Beer, and the Wine, (as well within Water, as above) 
h^vc not been palled or deadcd at all j but as good, or fomewhat better 
than Bottles of the fame Drinks and ftalenefs, kept in a Ceiler, But thofe 
which did hang above Water, were apparently the beft ; and thai Beer did 


(^entury V» 

Bower a little } whereas that under Water did nor, chough it were frefli. 
The Milk fourcd, and began toputrilie. Nevcrcheiefs itis cl:ue,thlt^h>:rc is a 
Village ViZixBlois, where in deep Caves they do thicken Milk, in fuch forr, 
that it becometh veiy pleafant i which was lome caufe of this tryal of hang- 
ing Milk in the Well : Butour proof was naught, neither do 1 know, whe- 
ther that Milk in thoic Caves be firlt boy led. It were good therefore to try 
it with Milk fodder, and with Cream ,• for that Milk of it felf.isfutha Com- 
pound Body of Cream, Cruds, and Whey, asitiscafily turned and diflblvcd. 
It were good alfo to try the Beer, when it is in Wort, that it may be (een, 
whether the hanging in the Well, will accelerate the ripening and clarifying 
of it. 

Dlvcrr, we fee, doStut. The caufe may be (in moftj the Refrigeration of 
the Tongue, whereby it islcfs apt to move ; and therefore wcTce, 
that Naturals do generally Stut: And we fee, that in thofe that Stut , if they 
drink Wine moderately, they ii'tut lefs, becaufe it heateth : And fo wefee, 
that they that Stut, do Stut more in the firi.t offer to fpeak,than in continuance; 
becaufe the Tongue is, by motion, fomewJiat heated. In fome alio, it may 
be (though rarely) the drynels of the Tongue, wliich likcwifc riiakethu 
Icfsaptto move as well as cold; for it is an afflft 1*^.1 comcth to fome wife 
andgrcatMcn, aiit did untoMofcs, who was Z/i«^«<*Pr<c/)frf;rx; And many 
Stutters (we tindc) are very Cholerick Men, Cholercnducingadryncfs in 
the Tongue. 

SMells, and other Odors, arc fwccter in tlic Air, at fome diftancc, than near 
the Nofc; as hath been partly touched heretofore. The canfe is double, 
Hrft, Tne tiiicr mixture, or incorporation of the Smell. Forwefee, that in 
Sounds likcwifc, they are fwceteft. when we cannot hear every part by it felf. 
Tne ether re jfon is, lor that all fweet Smells have joyncd With them fome 
tarthyor Crude Odors ; and at fome diftancethc Sweet, which is the more 
fpiritual, is perceived ; and the Harthy rcacheth not fo far, 

^■\ftet J)nf//j are mo(t forcible in dry Subflanccs, when they are broken ; 
and fo like Wile in Orengti ot Letmiwis , the nipping off their Rinde, giveth out 
their fmcU more : Andgeneraliy, whenBodiesare moved ODf\irrcd, though 
not broken, they fmell more, asa Sweet-Bag waved. The caufe isdoublc; 
the one, for that there is a gcater ertiifl'ion of the Spirir, when way is made : 
And this holdeti in the Breaking, Nipping, orCrufliing; it holdeth alfo, 
(in fome degree) in the Moving. But in this lart, there is a concurrence of 
the fecond caufe, which is the Ipripulfion of the Air, that biingeth the fent 
fafler upon us. 

The dainticft fmclls of Flowers, arc out of thofe Plants whofe Leaves 
fmcllnot; as JiaUti. Rofes, Waa-floTters, GiUj-floTVers, Piiuki, JVood-bme, Vint. 
floTnert, /iffU-lloomt, Ltmetreeilooms, Be,m-blooms, &c. The caufe is, for that 
where there is heat and ftrcngth enough in the Plant tomakc the Leaves 
odorarc, there the fmell of the Flower is rather evanide and weaker, than 
that of the Leaves; iskis In Rofemarj-flo1)fers, LAVcnder-fioT^ers, iud STteet-Britr 
Rofes: But where thcfc is lefs heat, there the Spirit cf the Plant is digefted 
and refined, and fevered from the groDTcr Juyce in the Efflorcfcence, andnot 


Mo ft 






in Confott. 
(ouching the 





J\Qtmral hi/lory -, 

in Confoit, 
<G*odntfi and 
Choice of 







Mioft Odots fmcll beft, broken, or hath bten (lid ,• but Flowers 
prcffed or beaten, do lofe the freftinefs and (wcctncis of their Odor. The 
caufe is , for that when they arc crufiied, the groffcr and more earthy Spirit 
Cometh out with the Finer, and troubleihit ; whereas in ftrorger Odor* there 
arc no fuch degrees of the ilTuc of the fmcll. 

IT is athfngof verygoodufe, to difcovcr the goodnefs of "Waters. The 
tafte to thofc that drink "Water onely doth fomewhat: But other Expe- 
riments are more fure. FirfV, try Waters by weight , wherein you may 
finde fome difference, though not much : And the lighter, you may account 
the better. 

Secondly, Try them by boiling upon an equal fire ; and that which con- 
fumeth away fafteft, you may account the befl. 

Thirdly, Try them in fcveral Bottles or open VcfTels, matches in every' 
thingelfe, and feq which of them laftlongeft without Rench or corruption ; 
and that which holdeth unputrified longeft, you may likewifc account the 

Fourthly, Try them by making Diinky, Wronger or fmalier, with the 
fame quantity of Malt ; and you may conclude, that that Water, which 
maketh the (Wronger Drink, isthemore concoded andnourifhing i though 
perhaps it be not fo good for Medicinal ufc. And fuch Water (commonly) 
is the "Water of large and navigable Rivers j and likewife in large and clean 
Ponds of flanding VVat er : For upon both them, the Sun hath more power 
than upon Fountains, or fmall Rivers. And I conceive, that Chalk- water is 
next them the bcfV, for going furthcft in Drink. For thatalfohelpethcon- 
coftion, foit be out of a deep "V Veil j for thenitciireth therawnefs of the 
Water; but Chalky. water towards the top of the Earth, is too fretting, 
as it appeareth in Laundry of Cloaths, which wear out apace, if you ule fuch 

Fifthly, The Houfwivcs do finde a difference in Waters, forthebear- 
ing or not beating of Soap ; and it is likely, that the more fat water will 
bear Soap beft , for the hungry water doth kill the unftuous nature of the 

Sixthly, You may make a judgment of Waters according to the place, 
whence they fpring or come. The Rain-water is by the Phy fitians efteemed 
the fined and the beft ; but yet it is faid to putrifie fooncfl, which is 
likely, becaufe of the fincnefl of the Spirit ; and in Conlcrvatories of 
Rain-water , ( fuch as they have in Fenice, &c ) they are found not lo 
choice Waters ; (the worfe perhaps) becaufe they arc covered aloft, 
and kept from the Sun. Snow-water is held unwholefome, infomuch, as 
the people that dwell at the Foot of the Snow Mountains, or otherwife 
upon the afcent, (efpecially rhe Women) by drinking of Snow water, 
have great bags hanging under their Throats. '"V"Vell VVater, except it be 
upon Chalk, or a very plentiful SpriiigmakethMeat red, which is an ill fign. 
Springs on the tops of high Hills are the befl ; for both they feem to have 
a Lightncfs and Appetite of Mounting; andbefides, they are moft pure and 
unmingied : And again are more percolated through a great fpaceof Earth. 
For Waters in Valleys, joyn in effeft underground with all "V'Vatcrs of the 
fimc Level ; whereas Springs on the tops of Hill?, pafs through a great deal 
of pure Earth with iels mixture of other V"Vaters. 

Seventhly, Judgment may be made of ff^aters by the Soyl whereupon 
the Water runneth, as Pebble is the cleaneft and beft tafted; and next tothat 


(^cntury I V, 

Clav-WMtcr; and chirdl), Water upon Chalk ; Fourthly, that upon .Sand ; 
andwoift of all, upon Mud. Neither may you trufl Watcn that taiie iVcct, 
forthcv aiccommonly found in RifJng-grcundsof gr.-at Cities, which mull: 
needs take in a great deal of filth. 

IN Tf n/, and divers parts of the /^<r/?-/»rf;r/, though under the Line, the 
Heats arc not lo intolerable, as they be in Barbarj, and the Skirts of the 
Torrid Zone. The caufcsare, firft, the great Brizcs which tlie motion of the 
Airin great Circles (fuchas arc under the Girdle of the World) produccth, 
which do refrigerate ; ar.d thcrctore in thofe parts, Noon is nothing lb hot 
when the Brizes aregreat, as about nine or ten ofthcclock in the Fore- 
noon. Another cauie is, for that the length of the Night, and the Dews 
thereof, do compcnccthcHcatof the day. A third caulcis, thcftay of the 
i>un ; not in re pcdof day and night (for that vvc fpake of before) but in 
refpeft oi the Scalon : For under the Line, the Sun crofleth the Line, and 
makcth two Summers and two Winters ,■ but in the skirts of the Torrid 
Zone, it doublcth and goeth back again, and fo maketh one long 

THeheatof the Sun maketliJVlen black in fome Countrcys> as inc. ':^- 
thtop'x and Guhmj, &c Fire doth it not as we fee in Glafs-Mcn, that arc 
continually about the Fire. 1 he realon may be, bccaufe Fire doth lick up 
the Spirits and Blood of the Body, fo as they exhale ; fo that it eVcr makcth 
Mcnlook Pale and Sallow ,• but the Sun which is agcntlcr heat, doth but 
draw the Blood to the outwardparts, and rather concodethit, then fo.iketh 
it: And therefore, we Ice that all o^r/;«o/'a are ficflily, plump, and have 
great Lips. All which betoken moilturc retained, andnot drawn out. We 
feenlfo, that the Sc^roes are bred in Coun rcys that have plenty of Water, 
by Rivers orothcrwifc : For CMero, which was the Metropolis o[ c_y£ih,(}pi.i, 
was upon a great Lake ; and Congo, where thcNegroes are, is full of Rivers. 
And the confines of the River Niger , where the Negroes alfo are , are 
well watered ; and the Region about Cipo Ferde is likewifc moifl:, info- 
much, asitispcrtilcnt through moiflure: But the Countreys <:i x\\<: yihf- 
faia, ind ,andTeru, wherethcy arcTawncy. andOlivader, andPale, 
are generally more fandy and dry. As for the ^tbiopcs, as they are plump 
and Hcflily, io (it may be) they arc Sanguine and Ruddy coloured, if tlieir 
Black Skin would fuffcr it to be fecn. 

SOme Creatures do move a good while after their head is off, as Birds. 
Some a very little time, as Men and all Beads. Some move, though cut 
in Icveral pieces, as Snakes, Eels, Worms, Flies, &c. Firfl", therefore it is 
certain, thatthc immediate caufe of Death, istherefolution orextinguifh- 
ment of the Spirits; and that the deflrudion or corruption of the Organs, 

:. 1 I J- /- T>... r / ■» r ._ ■! iT 

in>-rc IS an interim or a imaii cime. it is rcporcca oy one or me /A.ncicn:s, or 
crcdit.That a S icrificcd Beall: hath lowed after the Heart hath been (cvcrcd ; 
and it is a report alio of credit, That thcHcadof a Pig huh been opened, 
and the Brain put into the Palm of a Mans Hand, trcmbhiig, without 
breaking anv part of ir, or fevering it from thcMarrovrot the Back-bone : 
during wjiich time, the Pig h.;th bees in all appearance, Ifark dead, and 
wirliout motion : And after a Imall time the lirain hjth been replaced. 

I t and 



foufhing ihe 
Heat under 
I he j^yui- 


touchi.:g the 
CrlotatUn of 
Blacky and 
Tunny M»'.ri. 


fllotim after 
the Jnfitntof 


J\Qitural Hijlory ; 

and the Skull of the Pig doled, and the Pig hath alittle after gone about. 
And certain it. IS, that an Eye upon Revenge, hach been thruft forth, fo asit 
hangcdaprccty diftanceby the Vifuil Nerve; and during thattim<', the Eye 
hath been without any power of Sight ; and yet after (being replaced; re. 
covered Sight. Now the Sf'mts are chiefly in the Head, and Cells of the 
Brain, which in Men and Beads are large; and therefore, when the Head is 
off, thev move little or nothing : But Birds have fmall Heads and there- 
fore the Spiriti are a little more diiperfed in the Sinc-ws , whereby Motion re- 
maincth in them a little longer ; infomuch, as it is cxtantinftory, that an 
Emperor of Rome, to (hew the certainty of his hand, did flioot a great Forked 
Arrow atanf^rifA, as (he ran fwiftly upon the Stage, and (troke ofFhet 
Hca'^ ; and yet (he continued the race a little way with her Head off. As 
for Worms, andFlies, and Eels, l)^c Spirits are diffufed almoft all over ; and 
therefore they move in their feveral fieces. 





Century V, 

E will now enquire of ^Unu or VegetahUs ; and wc Ihail 
(jo ir With diligence. They arc the principal part of 
the TbirAdjjsfVork -^ they are the fitlt Troducat, which 
is the word of tyininut'ton, tor the other words are but 
the words of hflencc ; and they arc of excellent and 
general uf J, For Food, CMeduine, and a number of Medi 
cinal Arts. 

There were Town in a Bed, Turnif feed, Raddi/h-feed . fVheat, Cucumtevfeed, 
and Pf j/f. TheBcd we callaHor-bcd, and the manner of it is this. There 
was taken Horfe-dung, old, and well rotted j this was laid upon a Bank 
halt a foot high, and fupporccd round about with Planks ; and upon the 
top was caft fitted Earth, lome two lingers deep; and then the Seed 
Iprinkled upon ir. having been ftecped all night in Water mixed With Cow- 
dung. Tne Turr.lp-feed, ani>eAt, came up half an inch above ground, 
Within two days after, without any watering ; the red the third day. The 
Experiment made in 0<.?oArr, and (it may be) inihcSpring, the Accele- 
rating Would have been the ipecdier. This is ^ noble Experiment; for, 
without this help, they wouidiiave been four times as long in coming up. 
But there doth not occur to mc, at this prelent. any ule thereof, for pro- 
fir, except it fhould be tor Sowing of Feafe , whici have their price very 
much inercafed bv the earlv coming. It may be trvcd alio with Cher- 
ries, Strawberries, and other Fruit which arc dcareft , when they come 

There was Wheat fteeped in Water mixed with Cow dung, other in 
Water mised With Horfe-cung, other in Water mixed withPigeon-dung, 
._^ I 3 other 

in Confoir. 
touching ihe 
of Ctrminati- 






D\Qilural hiftory ; 

other in Urine of Man, othcrin Water mixed with Chalkpowdrcd, other 
in Water mixed w ith Soct , other in Water mixed v ith Allies , other in 
Water mixcdwithBay-Salt, other in Claret Wine, other in Malmfty, other 
in Spirit of Wine. The proportion ot the mixture was, ati/urth part ot 
theinarcdients to the Water, iavc that there was not of the Salt above ah 
eight iitrt. The Urine, and Winds, and Spirit of Wine, were fimplc without 
mixture of Wat>.r •, the time of fleeping was twelve hours; the time of the 
year Oliobet J^htvc was alio other Wheat Ibwn unftccped.but watred twice a 
day with warm Water •> there was alfo other Wheat fown fimple, to com- 
pare it with the reft. The event was, that thofc that were in the mixture ot 
Dung, and Urine, Soot, Chalk, Aflies, and ^alt, came up within fix days ; 
and thofe that afterwards proved thehighcft, thickcft.and moft lufty, were, 
firftthcUnnc, and then the Dungs 5 next the Chalk, next the Soot, next 
the Aflies, next the Salt, next the Wheat limplc of it felf unOccpcd and 
unwatered, next the watered twice a day with warm Water next the Claret 
Wine. So that thefe three lafl were flower than the ordinary Wheat of it 
fcif; and this Culture did rather retard than advance. As for thofe that 
were ftcepcd in Maimfey, and Spi, it of Wine, they came not up at all. This 
is a rich Experiment for profit ,• for the moft of theftcepings are cheap 
thingsp and the goodnefs of the crop is a great matter of gain ; if the 
CToodnels of the crop anfwer thccarlinefs of the coming up, as it is like it 
will, both being from the vigor of the Seed ; which alio partly appeared 
irfthc former Experiment, as hath been faid. This Experiment would be 
tryed in other Grains, Seeds, and Kernels j for it may be fome ftccping will 
jgrccbcftwithfomc Seeds. It would be alfb tryed with Roots fteeped as 
before, but for longer time ; it would be tryed allb in feveral leafonsof the 
Year, elpecially in the Spring. 

Strtiitberries Watered now and then (as^onccin three days") with Water, 
wherein hath been fteeped Sheeps-dung, or Pigeons-dung, will prevent and 
come early. And it is like the fame clfcd would follow in other 5frri«,//fr^;, 
FloTfers.Graim .ciTrees ; and therefore it is an Experiment, though vulgar in 
StT/i-9f berries, yet not brought into ufe generally : lorit isufual to help the 
Ground with Muck, and like wife to recomfort itfometimeswith Muckput 
to the Roots, but to water it with Muck-waicr, which is like to be more 
forcibic, is not praftifcd. 

'Dung, or Ch/ilk., or BlooA, applied in fubHance (feafonably) to the Roots 
of Trees, doth fet them forwards. B^t todo it unto Herbs, without mixture 
of Water or Ir.arth, it may be thefe helps arc too hot. 

The former means of helping Germination, are either by the goodnefs 
and ftrength of the Nouriflimenf, or by the comforting and exciting the 
Spiritsindie Plant, to drawtheNourifhmcntbetter. And of this latterkinde 
concerning the conjfotting of the Spirits of the Plant, arc alfo the experi- 
ments that follow •> though they be not applications to the Root or Seed. 
The plantingof frees warm upon a Wall, againft the South orSouth-Eait 
Sun, doth haften their coming on and ripening; and the SouthEaft 
is found to be better than the South-Weft, though the Souih-Wefl be the 
hotter Coaft. But the caufe is chiefly , for that the heat of the morning 
fucceet^cth the cold of the night j and partly, becauie (many times) the 
1 Soufh-Wcft Sun is too parching. So likewife planting of them upon the 
! Back of a Chimney where a fire is kept, dotbhailen thcic coming on, and 
• ripening : Nay more, the drawing of the Boughs into the infide of a 
I room, where a Fire is continually kept, worketh the fame effeft $ which 
I hath 

Century V. 91 

hach been try cd with Grapes; infomuch, as they will come a Monech earlier, i 
then ih; Grapes abroad. { 

BefidestlietwoMeansof AcccleratingGermination.fortnerly defcribcd; 4°^« 
that is to ("ay, the mendiog of thcNoutiflimenc, comforting of thcSpiritot 
the Plant; there is a third, which is the making way for the eafie coming to \ 
the Nourifliment, and drawing it. And therefore gentle digging and loolning ! 
of the Earth about the Roots of Trees, and the removing Herbs and Flowers 
into new Earth, once in two years (which is the fame thing, for the new Earth I 
is ever loofei) doth greatly further the profpering and earlincfs of Plants, I 

But the moftaJmirable Acceleration by facilitating the Nourifliment, is ! 407. 
that of Water. For a Standard of a 2)*»m<«it^i>/tf with the Root on, was fet 
in a Chamber , where no Fire was, upright in an Earthen Pan, full of fjir 
Water, without any mixture, half a foot under the Water, the Sfandard be- 
ing more than two foot high above the Water. Within, in the fpaje of ten 
days, the Standard did put forth a fair green Leaf, and fome other little 
Buds, which flood at a Itay without any (hew of decay or withering, more 
then feven days. But afterwards that Leaf faded, but the young Buds did 
fprouton, which afterward opened into fair Leaves, in the fpacc of three 
Moneths, and continued fo a While after, till uponremoval welcftthetryal. 
But note, that the Leaves were fomewhat paler, and light-coloured then the 
Leaves u(e to be abroad. Note, that the fiift Buds were in the cad of Oclol/er, 
and it is likely, that if it had been in the Spring time, it would have put forth 
with greater ftrcngth, and (it may) be to havegtown on to bcarF owers. 
By this means, you may have (as it feemeth; Roles fstin thcmiJ(\ of a Pool, 
being fupportcd with (ome ftay ; which is matter of rarencfs and plcafure, 
though ot fmall ufe. This is the more ftrange, for that the like Rofe Stand- 
ard wa? put at the ftmc time, into Water mixed withHorfc-dunt', theHorfe- 
dung about the fourtli part to the Water, and in four Moneths fpace (while it 
wasoblcrvcd) put not forth any Leaf, though divers Buds atthefirit, asthe 

l^ 'Dutch FloT^-enhithndiBulbons Root, was likcwife put atthcfame time 4°^- 
all under W^ater, fome two or three fingers deep ; and Within feven days 
fprouted, andcontinued long after further growing. There were alfoput in, 
a Beet-root, a Borrage-root, and a iUM'ub-root, which had all their Leaves cut al- 
moft clofe to the Roots 3 and within fix weeks had fair Leaves, and fo con- 
tinued till the end of iVov^wAfr. • 

Note, that if Roots, or Peafe, or Flowers may be accelerated in their 4®9' 
comingardripcning, there is a double profit j the one in the high price that 
thofe things bear when they come early ; theorherin the (wiftnefs of their 
returns .• For in fome Grounds which ate fliall have a Raddifh ,&c. 
come in amoneth, that in o:hcr Grounds will not come in two. and fo make 
double returns. 

Wncat alfo was put into the Water, and came not forthat all; fo as it 410. 
feemeth there muft be fomeftrength and bulk in the Bjdy,put into the Wa 
ter, asitisin Roorsi for Grams, orSeed.sthecoldot the Water w.Umorti- 
fie. But cafuailv fjinc Wncat lay underthePan, which was (omcwhacmoi- 
ftcned by the (uing of the Pan, whi:h in fix weeks (^s aforcfaid) looked 
mouldy to the eye, but it was (proutcd forth halt a fingers lengcli. 

It feemeth by thclelnihnccs ot Water, that for noiirinimcnt t'leWjtct ; 41 1 - 
isalmoitalhnall. and that the Earth doth but keep the Pi.nit upright, and 
lave it from over-heat, and over-cold > and therefore is a comfortable ; 
Experiment for good Drinkers. It provcth a'.fo that our former opinion, taat ; 





in Confottj 
Putting back^ 
or l{ttiirdation 
of Cem.inx- 








J\Qitural hiflory ; 

Drink incorporate withFlefli or Roots (»s 'ii\C4p9n-Beer,&(.) will nourifh 
more eafily than Meat and Drink taken fevcrally. 

The Houfingof Plants (I conceive) will both Accelerate Germination, 
ind bring forth I'lowers and Plants in the colder Seafons : And as vsc Hou(c- 
hoc Countrey Plants, ^sLemmofn, Orenges, Myrtles, to Uwc them ; (o we may 
Houfe ciu own Country Plants to forward them, and make them come in 
the cold Scalons, in fuch fort, that you may have Fiolets, Stra-stbemes, I'e.'.fe, 
all Winter : So that you fow or remove them at fit times. This Hxpcriuunr 
is to be referred unto the comforting of the J/jrir oftiH-Plant bywarmrh as 
well as Houfing their Boughs, ice. So then the means to Accelerate Germi- 
nation, arc in particular eight, in general three. 

TO make Rofes orothcr Floyvers come late, it is an Experiment of Pleafurc. 
For the Ancients elieemed much of RofA Sera, and indeed t\\Q7^ovtmber 
Rofe is the fweetell, having been lefs exhaled by the Sun. The Mca^s arc 
thefe, Pirif, The cutting oft' their tops immediately after they havv done bear- 
ing, and then they will come again the lame year about iVorfmi/r; but they 
Will not come juft on the tops where they were tur, but outot thole Shoots 
which were (as it were) Water-boughs. The cauie is, for thatt.ieSap, 
which otherwjfe would have fed the top, (though after bearing) will, by 
the difcharge of that, divert unto the SioeTprouts, and they will come to 
bear, but later. 

The fecond is the TuUitig if the Buds of the Rofe, when they are newly 
knotted, for then the fide Branches will bear. The eaufe is ihe ftme with the 
former: For cmtwgo^ the Tops, and puBing off the Buds, work the fjme cfTecV, in 
Retenfionof thcSapfor a time, andDiverfionof it to the Sprouts that were 
not fo forward. 

The third is the cutting off fome few of the Top-boughs in the Spring 
time but fuft'cring the lower Boughs to grow on. The cauieis, for that the 
Boughs do help to draw up the Sap more ftrongty ; and we fee thac in 
Pouling of Trees, many do ufe to leave a Bough or two op the top to 
help to draw up the Sap. And it is repotted alio, That if you graft upon 
the Bough of a Tree, and cut oflYome of the old Boughs, the new Cion* 
will perifh. 

The fourth is by laying the Roots bare about Chrifimas fomc days. The 
caufe is plain, forrhatit doth arrefttheSap from going upwards foratimij 
which arreft, is afterwards releafcd by the covering of the Root again with 
Earth, and then the Sap gtttcth up, bur later. 

The fifth is thercmoving of the Tree fome Moncth before it Buddeth. 
The caufe is, for that fome time will be required after the Remove, for the 
Refetling, bctore itean draw the Juycei and that time being loft, the bloflom 
mullneeds come forth later, 

The fixth is the Grafting of Ro.fcS in Maf, which commonly Gardiners 
do not till July, and then they bear not till the next year -, but if you graft 
them in M.ij, they will bear the fame year, but late. 

Thcfcventh is the Girding of the Body of rhe Tree about with fbmc 
Packthred ; for thataifo in a degree reftrainechihe Sap, and maketh it come 
up more late, and motc llow!y. 

The eighth is the Planting of them in a Shade ot in a Hedge, The caufe 
is, partly the keeping out of the Sun, which haftneth the Sap totife, and 
partly the. robbing of them of Nourifliment by the fluff in the Hedge i 


(^entury V, 

thefc means may be pradiied upon other, boch Trees, and Flowers, Mum'u 

Men have entertained a conceit chat (lie weth prettily, namely. That if 
you graft a Late- comir g- Fruir, upon a Stock of a Fruit-tree that cometh ear- 
IVi theGraftwiilbcar F(uitearly, as aPcachupon a Cl.crry : AndconcrAn- 
wifc, if an Early coming-lruit upon a Stock of a Fru.t-trcc thatcomeih lato, 
the Graft will be ir F.uir lite ; as a Cherry upon a Peach, But thefc arcbut 
imaginations, and untrue. Thccaufc is> tor that the Cionsovcr-ruleth the 
Stock quite, and the Stock is but Paffive oncly, and givcth Aliment, but no 
Motion to the Graft. 

E will fpeak now, how to make Fruits, FloTners, and Rotts larger, in 
more plenty and fleeter than they uletobc; and how to make the 
Trees themfelves more tall, morefpred, and more hafty and fuddcii, than 
they ufe to be. Wherein there is no doubr, but the former Experiments 
of %yi(Celeratton will ferve much to chcfe purpofes. And again, riut thclc 
Expiriments'f/Wxcn wefliallnowlet down, doierve alfofor c/f ffWcr^/io,;, b:- 
caufc both Effects proceeds from the encreafe of Vigor in the Tree ; but yet 
to avoid confufion. Andbccaufefome of the Means arc more proper for the 
one effect, and (ome for the other. We wili;iandie them apart. 

It is an aflured Experience, That an heap of Flint or Stone, laid about the 
bottom of a wilde Tree, (as in Oak, Elm, Afh,&c.) upon the firit planting, 
doth make it profper double as much as without ir. ihccau;'cis, for that 
itrctaineththemoifturc which falleth at any time upon the Tree, andfufF,;r- 
eth it not to be exhaled by the Sun. Again, it kecpcth the Tree warm from 
cold Blalh and Froft?, as it wereinanHoule. It may bealfo,thcrcisromc- 
what in the keeping o^it Iteady at the firft . ^-er?, if laying of Straw fomc 
height about the Body of a Tree, will not make the Tree forwards : For 
thoughthc Root givcth the Sap, yetitistheBodythat tlraweth it. But you 
mu[f note, that If you lay Stones about the Stalk of Lettuce, or other Plants 
that are more fofr, it will ovet-moilkn the Roots, fo as the Worms will cat 

A Tree at thefirA fetting, fhouldnotbeihaken, until it hath taken Root 
fully ; And therefore fomc have put too little Forks about the bottom of 
their Trees, to keep them uptight ; but after a years rooting, then fluking 
doth thcTtcsrgoodby loofnmg of the Earth, and f perhaps) by cxercifing 
(as it were) and ftirring the Sip of the Tree. 

Generally, thecutting away of Boughs and Suckers atthcRoot and 
Body, doth make Trees grow higir, indcontrariwifc, the Polirg and Cut. 
ting of the top , makcth them grow, fpred, and bufhy ; aswc fee in Pol- 
lords, &c. 

It is reported, That to make haft/ growing Coppice wood, the way is, 
to take Willow, Sallow, Popler, Alder, of fjmelcven years growth ; and 
to fct them, not upright, but a-flope, a rcafonabic depth under the Ground ; 
and then inltcad of one Root they w 11 put forth many, and fo carry more 
Hi JotsuponaStcm. 

When you would have many new Roots of Frui-Trees, take alow 
Tree, and bow ir, and lay all his Branches a flat upon the ground, and call 
Earth upon them, and every twig wiiltjkc Root. AnJthisis a very profitable 
Experiment lot coftly Trees ; (for the Bough; will mike Stocks without 
charge) futh as arc t^prictts, Peaches, Almonds, Curneluns, Mulberries, Fi^, 


9 3 


in Confort, 
touiliing the 
of Fruit TrciJi 
and Ftanii, 




4: J. 





42 8. 





^I\Qitural Hijlory ; 


5fc. The like is continually pradifcd with Vines, Rofcs. Musk-Rofcs, 


From Afdi to lulj you may take off the Barkot any Bough, being; of 
the biencls ci Three or four Inches, and cover the bare place, lomcwhat 
above and below \cith Loam, well tempered with Horlc-dung, binding it 
faft dow n. T hen cut off the Bough about yllholUmide in the bare place, and 
fet it in Ground, and it will grow to be a fair Tree in one year. Thccaufc 
may be, for that the Bearing from the Bark, kccpcth the Sap from dele end- 
ing towards Winter, and foholdethitintheBough; and it may be alio, that 
Loam and Horfc-dung applied tothe bare place, do moiften it and chcrifli 
it, and make it more apt to put forth the Root. Note, thatthis may be a 
gcneralmeansforkccpinguptheSapof Trees in their Boughs, which may 
fcrve toother elleds. 

It hath been pradifcd in Trees that fhcw fair and bear not, to bore a 
hole thorowthc Heart of the Tree, and thereupon it will bear. Which may 
be, for that the Tree before hath too much Repletion, and was opprclfed 
with his own Sapi for Repletion is an enemy toGeneration. 

It hath been praftifcd in frees that do not bear, to cleave two or three 
of the chief Roots, and to put into the Cleft a fmall Pebble which may 
keep it open, and than it will bear. The caufc may be, for that a Root of 
a Tree may be ("as it were) hide bound, no left then the Body of the Tree ; 
but it will not keep open without fomewhat put into it. 

It is ufuallypradifed to fet Trees that require much Sun, upon "Walls 
againft the South ,• ^%i^fruoti, Reaches, Plumbs, Vints, figs, indihcWkc It 
hath a double commodity j the one, the heat of the Wall by reflexion ; the 
other, the taking away of the fhade : For when a Tree growcth round, the 
upper Boughs over fhaddow the lower, but when it it Ipred upon a Wall, 
the Sun comcth alike upon the upper and lower Branches, 

It hath alfo been praftifed cby fomc) to pull fomc Leaves from the 
Trees fo fpred, that the Sun may come upon the Bough and Fruit the bet- 
ter. There hath bccnpradifed alfo a curiofity, to fet a Tree upon the North 
fide of a Wall, and at a little height, to draw him through the Wall, and 
fprcd him upon the South fide ; conceiving, that the Root and lower part 
of the Stock fhould enjoy the frcfhncfs of the fhade, and the upper Boughs 
.ind Fruit, thccomfortof the Sun; but itfortednor. The caufe is, for that 
the Root requircth fbme comfort from the Sun, though under Earth, as well 
as the Body ; and the lower pare of the Body more than the^pper, as wc 
fee in compaffing aTree below with flraw- 

1 helownefs of the Bough, where the Fruit cometh,maketh the Fruit 
greater, and to ripen better; for you fhall ever fee in Apricotes, peaches, or 
C^lelo-Comes upon a Wall, the grcateft Fruits towards the bottom. And in 
FruHce the Grapes that make the Wine, grow upon the low Vines, bound to 
fmall Stakes ; and ,the railed Vines in Arbors, make but Verjuyce. It is 
true, that in /w/)-, and other Countreys where thc\ have hotter Sun, they 
raifc them upon Elms and Trees : But I conceive, that if the French man- 
ner of Planting low, were brought inufe, their Wines would bcftronger 
and fu ceter : But it is more chargeable in refpeft of the Props. It were 
good to try whether a Tree grafted fomewhat near the ground, and the 
lo'vcr Roughs onely maintained, and the higher continually proyned off, 
would notmake a larger Fruit. 

To have Fruit in greater Plenty, the way is to graft, not onely upon 
young Stocks, but upon divers Boughs of an old Tree ; for they will bear 


Century V. 

great numbers of Fruit ,* whereas if you graft but upon one Stock,the Tree 
can bear but few. 

Tiie digging yearly about the Roots of Trees, which is agreat rrieans, 
both to the Acceleration and Melioration of Fruits, is praftifed. m nothing 
but in Vines ; which, if it were transferred unto other Trees and Shtubf, (as 
Rofey, &c.) I conceive, would advance them likewife. 

It hath been known, that a Fruit-tree hath been blown up (alnipft) by 
the Roots, and fet up again, and the next year bare exceedingly. The 
eaufeof this wasnothingbuttheloofeningof the Earthy which comforterh 
any Tree, and is fit to be praftifed more than it is in Fruit-trees : For 
Trees cannot be fo fitly removed into new Grounds, as Flowers and Herbs 

To revive an old Tree, the digging of it about the Roots, and applying 
new Mould to the Roots, is the way. We fee alio that Draughi-Oxcn put 
into frcfh Palture, gather new and tender llefli j and in all things, better 
nouriflimcnt than hath been ufed, doth help to lenew, efpecially, if it be 
not onely better but changed, and differing from the former. 

If an Herb be cut off from the Roots in the beginning of Winter, and 
then the Earth be trodden and beaten down hard with the Foot and Spade, 
the Roots willbecome of very great magnitude in Summer. The reafon is, 
for that the moifturc being forbidden to come up in the Plant, ftayeth longer 
in the Root, and fo dilateih it. And Gardiners ui'e to tread down any loofc 
Ground after they have fown Onions, orlurnips, 3cc. 

If T/inicum be laid below, and about the bottom of a Root, it will caufe 
the Root to grow to an exccflivc bigncfs. The caufe is, for that being it 
fclf ot afpungy fubftjnce, it draweth the moilfuteof the Earth toir, andfo 
feedeth the Root. This is of gtcateft ufe for Ontont, Turnifs, Parfnips, and 

The fiiifting of Ground is a means to better the Tree and Fruit j but 
with this Caution, That all things do profper bell, when they are advanced 
to the better. Your Nurfery of Stocks ought tobc in a more barren Ground, 
than the Ground is wrcreunto you remove them. So all Grafiers prefer their 
Cattle from meaner Paftures to better. We fee alfo, thatharducfs in youth 
lengthneth lite, bccaufe it leaveth a chenfiiing to the better of the Body in 
Age : Nay, in exercifes it is good to begin with the hardcft, as Dancing in 
thick Shoocs, <Scc. 

It hath been oblerved that hacking of Trees in their Bark, both down- 
right, and acrofs, fo as you make them rather in llices, than incontinucd 
Hacks, doth great good to Trees, and efpecially delivereth them from being 
Hidebound, and killeth cheirMols, 

Shadeto feme Plants conduceth to make them large and prolperous 
more than Sun-, as in Strawberries, and Bay?, &c Therefore amongft Straw- 
befties.iow hercand there (omcBorrage-Sced> and you (hallfindeihe Straw- 
berries under thble Leaves, far more large than their fellows. And Bays you 
muft plant to the North, or defend them from the Sun byaHedg Row j and 
when you fow the Berries, weed not the Borders for the firft half year ,• for 
the Weed giveth them Siiade. 

Toincreafethe Crops of Plants, there would be confidercd, not onely 
thcincreafingtheLuft of the Earth, or of the Plant, but the laving alfo of 
that which is ("pile. So they have lately made a tryal to fet Wheat ; which 
nevcrthelcfs hath been left off, becaufc of the trouble and pains; yec fo 
much is true, that there is much favcd by the Setting, in comparifon of 













J\(jitural Hijiory ; 

that which is Sown > both by keeping it from being picked up by Birds, and 
by avoiding the fliallow lying of it, whereby much that is fown, taketh no 

Itisprcfcribcdbyfomcof the Ancients, that you take fmall frees, upon 
which Figs or other Fruit grow, being yet Unripe, and cover the Trees in 
the middle of Autumn with Dung until thc^^pring, and then take them 
up in a warm day, and replant them in good Ground; and by chat means, 
the fotmcr years Tree will be ripe, as by a new Birch, when other Trees of 
the lame kinde do but bloflbm. But this feemetli to hive no gteat pro- 

It isrcported. That if you take Nitre, and mingle it with Water, to 
the thicknefs of Honey, and therewith anoint theBud, after the Vine is cut, 
it will fprout forth within eight days. The caufe is like (if the 
txpcrimenc be true ) the opening of the Bud, and of the parts contigu- 
ous, by the Spirit of the Nitre ; for Nitre is (asitwerc) the life of Vege- 

Take Seed or Kernels of tyipples, *Petiri, Orenges', ox^^eAth, or a Tlumb- 
Stone &c. And put them into zSqtitU, (which is like a great On»o») and they 
will come up much earlier than in the Earth it felf. This 1 conceive to be as 
a kinde of Graftingin the Root ; foi as the Stock of a Graftyieldeth better 
prepared nourifhmcnt to tiie Graft, than the Crude Earth, fo thcSquill doth 
the like to the Seed ; and, I fuppofe, the fame would be done, by putting 
Kernels into a Turnip, or the like, fave that the Squill is more vigorous 
and hot. It may be tryed alfo, with putting Onion-Seed into an Onion 
Head , which thereby (perhaps) will bring forth a larger and earlier 

The pricking of a Fruit in fcveral places, when it is almofl at his big 
ncfs, and before it ripenech. hath been praOiled with fuccefs, to ripen the 
Fruit more faddenly. Wc fee the example of the biting of Wafps or Worms 
upon Fruit (whereby it manifeflly) ripeneth the fooncr. 

It isrcported, That tyllga Marine (Sed-iteed) put under the Roots of 
Cohvorts, and (perhaps) of other Plants, will further their growth. The 
ver:ue(no doubt) haih relation to Salt, which is a great help to Fer- 

It hath been prafVifed to cut off the Stalks of Cucumbers, immediately 
aftct their bearing clofe by the Earth ; and then to call a pretty quantity of 
Earth upon the Plant that rcmaineth, and they will bear the next year Fruit 
long before the ordinary time. The caufe may be, for that the Sap goeth 
down the fooner, and is not fpent in the Stalk or Leaf, which remaiticth 
after the Fruit. Where note, that the Dying in the Winter, oftheRoocsor 
Plants that are Annual, lecmcth to be partly caufed by theover-expence ol 
the Sap into Stalk and Leaves ; which being prevented, they will fupcr aifnu- 
ate, if they ftand warm. 

The pulling off many of the Bloffomsfrom a Fruit-tree, doth make the 
Fruit fairer. The caufe is manifeft, for thatthcSap hath the lefs tonourifli. 
And it is a common experience. That if you do not pull off fome Blofloras, 
the firft time a TreebloomethjitwillblofTomitfelf to death. 

It were good to try what would be theeffeft, if all the Blofroms were 
pulled from a Fruit-tree, or the Acorns and Chefnur.buds.&c. fromawilde 
Free, for two years together. I fuppofe. that the Tree will either put forth 
the third year bigger, and more plentiful Ftuit ) or elfc, the fame years, larger 
Leaves, becaufeot theSapftored up. 


Century V» 

It bath been generally received, that a Plant watred,with warm Water, 
will come up (ooner and better, than with cold Water, or with Showers. 
But the Experiment of watering Wheat with warm Water (as bath been 
faid) fuccecded not; which may be, becaufc the tryal was too late in 
the Year, vtz.. in the end of Odoker. For the Cold then coming upon the 
Seed, after it was made more tender by the warm Water, might 
check it. 

There is no doubt, but that Grafting (for the moft part) doth meliorate 
the Fruit. The caufe is manifeft, forthat the nourifhmcnt is better prepared j 
in the Stock, than in theCrude Earth: But yet note wcll,that there be fomc 
Trees that arc faid to come up mote happily from the Kernel, than from the 
Graft; as the Peach, 3nd CHelecotane. The eaufc, I fuppofeto be, forthat 
thofe Plants require a nourifhment of great moifturc ; and though the nou- 
rifliment of the Stock be finer, and better prepared, yet it is not lo moift and 
plentiful, as the nourifhment of the Earth. And indeed we fee thofe Ftuits 
are very cold Fruits in their Nature. 

It hath been received, that a fmaller Pear grafted upon a Stock that 
bearctb a greater Pear, will become great. Butl think it is as true, as that of 
the Prime- Fruit upon the late Stock, and e Cmtroverfo , which we rejeded 
before; for the Cions will govern. Nevcrthelefs, it is probable enough, 
that if you can get a Cions to grow upon a Stock of another kinde, that is 
much moiftcr than his own Stock, it may make the Fruit greater, becaufe it 
will yield more plentiful nouriflimenr, though it is like it will make the Fruit 
bafer. But generally the grafting is upon a dryer Stock j as the Apple upon 
a Crab, the Pear upon a Tbprn, &c. Yet it is repotted, that in the LeTi>' 
Coutitrejs thcy will grift an AppleTCions upon the Stock of a Colewort, and 
it will bear a great flaggy Apple ; the Kernel of which, if itbefer, will be a 
Coicworr, and not an Apple. It were good totry, whether an Apple-Cions 
Willprofper,if it be grafted upon a Sallow or upon aPoplar,oruponan Alder, 
or upon an Elm, or upon an Horle Plum, which are the moiffefi of Trees. I 
have heard that it hath beeiitryed upon an Elm, and (uccceded. 

It is manifeft by experience , That Flowers removed, wax greater, be- 
caufe the nouiifhment is mote eafily come by in the loofc Earth. It may be, 
thu oft rcgrafting of the fame Cions, may likcwifc make Fiuit greater; asif 
you take aCions, ^nd graft it upon a Stock the firfl year; and then cut it off, 
and graft it upon another Stock the fccond year, and fo for a third, or fourth 
year, and then Ice it reft, it will yield afterward, when it beareth, the greater 

Cf Grafting, there are matij Experiments tiforth thenotinr, ht thofe D^e referve 
to a proper place. 

It maketh Figs better, if a Fig-tree, when it beginneth to put forth 
Leaves, have his top cut off. The caufe is plain, for that tne Sap hath the Icfs 
to feed, and the lcf> way to mount : But it may be the Fig will come fomc- 
what later, as was formerly touched. The fame may be tried likcwifc in other 

It is reported. That Mulbwrics will be fairer, and the Tree more fruit- 
ful, if you bore the Trunk of the Tree thorow in feveral places, and thruft 
info the places bored,' Wedgcsof fome hot Trees •, as Turpentine, Mdfiuk-trit, 
Quaiacum, Juniptr, &c. The caufe may be, for that Adventive heat doth cheat 
up the Native Juyceof the Tree. 

It isrcportcd. That Trees will grow greater and bear bettctFruir, if 

jou put Salt, or Lees of VfrncOr Blood to the Root.Thc caufe may be the en- 

■ . K ^^ creafing 



[ 98 







D\Qitural htflory 5 

crcafing the Luft or Spirit of the Root : 1 hcfc things being more forcible 
than ordinary compolts. 

It is reported by one of the Ancients, that Artichoaks will be lefs prick- 
ly, and more tender, if the Seeds have their tops dulled or grated off upon 
a Scone. 

Heyhi will be tenderer, and fairer, if you take them out of Beds when 
they arenewly come up, and remove them into Pots wich better Earth. The 
remove from Bed to Bed was fpokcn of before ; but that vas in fevcral 
^vears, this isupon thcludden. Ihecaufeis the fame with other removes, 
formerly mentioned. 

ColeT>'orts are reported by one of the Ancients, to prolper exceedingly, 
and to be better tafled, if ibey be f. mrtimcs watred with ^alt-water, and 
much more wich Water mixed with Nitre; the Spirit of which islefsAdu- 
rent than Salt. 

It is reported, That O/cHwirn will prove more tender and dainty, if 
their Seedsbeftceped (litde) inMilkj the caufcmay be, for chat the ieed 
being mollified with the Milk, will be coo weak to draw thegroifcrjuyce of 
the Earth, but oncly the finer. The fame Experiment may be made in Arti- 
choaks, and other Seeds , w hen you would take away, either their Flafhi- 
nefs or Bitternefs. They fpeak alfo, that the like cffed followeth of flccp- 
ing in Water mixed with Honey ; but chat fccmeth to me not fo probable, 
bccaufe Honey hath too quick a Spirit. 

It is reported. That Cucumbers will be lefs Watry, and more Melon- 
like, if in the Pit where you fee them, you fill it (halfway up) with Chaff, or 
fmall Sticks, and then power Earth upon thenY; for Cucumliers, asitfeemeth, 
do extreamly affeft moiflure, and over-drink themfelves ; which this Chaff, 
or Chips forbiddeth. Nay it is further rcpolrted, That if when a Cucumber 
is grown, you fet a Pot of Water about five or fix inches diflance from ir, 
it -will in Four and twenty hours fhoot fo much out as to touch the Pot ; 
which if it be true, itis an Experiment of anhig'ner nature than belongeth 
to this ' itle : Foritdifcovercth Perception in Plants to move towards that 
which fliould help and comfortthcm.thoughitbe atadiftancc. The ancient 
Tradition of the Vine is far more fl:range : It is, thatif ycu fet a flake, or 
prop, fomed'ffancc from it, it will grow that way, vv hichis far flranger (as 
is f aid) than the other: For that Water may work by a Sympathy cfAt- 
tradlion : But this of the Stake fcemeth to be a rcafonftble dii'courle. 

It hath been touched bcforc,rhatTcrebrationOtTrecsdoch. make them 
profper better. But it is found alfo, that it makcth the Fruit f\veeCer, and 
better- Thecaufeis, for that notwithflandingthc Tcrebration, they may 
receive Aliment fufHcient , and vctno more than they can well turn, and 
difgcfb; and withal do Iweatoutthe courfeft andunpofitablefl juycc, even 
as it is in Living Creatures; which, by moderate feeding, and excrcifc, and 
fweac, attain the found cfl habit of Body. 

As Tcrebration dothmcliorace i ruit, fo, upon che like reafon, doth 
Letting of Pljincs Blood ; as Pricking Vines, or ochcr Trees, a''cer chcy be of 
fomegrowch, an.i chcrcby letting forthGum or Tears, though thisbenotto 
c intiinie, as it is inTercbration, butatfjtme Seafons. And it is reported, 
thatb • this artifice, Sitter j^lmondshzvc been turned into fwcet. 

The Ancients for the Dulcorating of Fruit, do commend Swines dung 

above all other Dung, w hich may be, becaufc of the moiftureof thatBeafl, 

whereby the Excrcmcnr hath lefs Acrimony , for w c fee Swines and Pigs 

Flcfhisthemoiftcltof fleflies. 

/ .:_ ± It 

(^emury V, 

ids obfervedby fomc, that all Herbs wax Iwcecer, both in (mcll and 
ta'lc, if after they be grown up fomc realonable time, chcy be cue, and fo 
ycu rake the latter Sprout. The cauicmaybc-, for that the longer the J uycc 
fliyeth in the lloot and Stalk, the better it concofteth. Tor one of the chief 
caufes, why Grains, Seeds, and truits, arc morenourifliing than Leaves, is 
the length ot time, in which they grow to Maturation. It werenotamifsto 
keep back the Sap of Herbs, or the like, by fome fit means till the end of 
Summer, whereby (it maybe) they will be more nourifliing. 

As Grafting doth generally advance and Meliorate Fruits, above that 
which they would be, if they where let of Kernels or Stones, in regard the 
noutifhmentis better concodied. So ^no doubt) even in Grafting,for the (ame 
caufc the choice of the Stock doth much; always provided, that it be fomc- 
what inferior to the Cions. For otherwifc it dullethit. They commend 
much the Gtafting of Pears, or Apples, upon a Quince. r» 

Befides the Means of Melioration ot Fruits before-menfioned, it is fet 
down as frycd,that a mixture of Bran andSwines DungorChaft'and Swines- 
Dung (dpecially laid up together for a moneth to rot) is a very great nour. fli- 
er and comforter toaFruit-trce. 

It is delivered, that Or.ions wax greater if they be taken out of the Earth, 
and laid a drying twenty days, and then fct again; and yet mote, if the outer- 
moll Pill be taken otf all over. 

It is delivered byfomr, that if one take the Bough of a low Fruit-tree, 
newly budded, and draw it gently, without hurting ir, into an Earthen pot 
pertorare at the bottom to let in the Plant, and then cover the Pot with Earth, 
It Will yield a very hrge Fiuit within the Ground. Which Experiment is no- 
thing but potting of Plant?, without removing and leaving theFruit in the 
Eatth. I'he like (they fiy) will be cfFcded by an empty Pot without Earth in 
V, put over 3 Fruit.being propped up With a ftakc as it hangeth upon the Ttee, 
and the better, if fome few PertufionsbcmadeinthcPor. VVhcrein, befides 
the defending of the Fruit from extremity of Sun or Weather, (omcgivca 
reafon, tnat theFruit loving and coveting the open Air and Sun, is invited 
by thePcnufions to fpred and apptoachasnear theopen Airasit can, and fo 
inlargcth in Magnitude. 

AllTrecsnihigh and Sandy Grounds, ate to be fet deep j and in Watry 
Grotjnds morcfliallow. And in all Trees when they be removed (efpecially 
FruK-trces) care oiig'it to betaken, that the lides of the Trees bccoalled, 
(Nofth and Soutli&c.) as they flood before. Thefame is faid alloot Stone 
outot rlicQiurry, to make it more durable, though that feemcth to have 
lels rcai'on j becuifc the Stone lycth not fo near the Sun, as the Trcegrow- 

Timber frees in a Coppice- wood, do grow better than in an open Field; 
both, bccaule they offer not tolprcd fo much, butfhoot up ftill in height, 
and chicfly,i)ccaure they arc defended from too much Sun and Wind, which 
do check the growth of all Fruit; and fo (no doubt) Fiuit-trces, or Vines, 
fjt upon a Wall, againft theSun, bctwcch Elbows and Buinfrcsof Stone, 
ripen mote than upon a plain Wall. 

lusfaid, that \i *Poi4do Jiaotf befct inaPotfilled withHarth, and then 
ihe Pot with Eatth be fetlikewile withm the Ground, fame two or thtee 
inches, theRoots will grow greater than ordmary. The caufe maybe, for 
ths: h.Tvmg Earth enough within the Pot to noutifli them ; and then being 
lloppcd by the bottom ot the Pot from putting lltings downward, they 
mult needs grow greater m breadth and thickncfs. And it may be 
^ K 2 that 






in Confoit) 
Fruitt and 


UsQaural Hijlory ; 

that all Seeds, Roots, potted^ and lb Ice inco the Eartii, u ill prolper the 

The cutting off the Leaves of Raddifli.orothcr Roots,in the beginning 
of Winter before they wither; and covering again the Ko. t, lonicthing 
high with Earth, wiH prcfervc the Root all Winter, and make ic bigger in 
the Spring following, as hath been partly touched before. So there is 
tdoublculeof tl is cutting oft theLeavcs: lor in Planes, where the Root is 
the Efculent , as Raddifh, and Parlnips, it w ill make the Root the greater i 
anJfo icvrilldoto th e Heads uf Onions, and where the Fruit is the ^Iculent, 
byftrcngthning theRoot,it\villmakcthe Fruit alio the greater. 

It is an Experiment of great plcalure to mak e the Leaves of fhaddy 
Trees, Lirger than ordinarf . Jt hath been tryed ,'for ccrcain^ that a Cions 
of a Wccch Elm, grafted upon the ftockof anordinarv Elm will puttorrh 
Leaves, almoftai broad as the brim of ones Hat. And it is very likely, 
that as in Fruit-Trecs, the Graft maketh a greater Fruit ; lo in Trees that 
bear no Fruit, it will make the greater Leaves. It would bctrcd therefore 
in Trees of that kindc chief]y ; as Bnch, Afh., iVdlo-^, and eipccially the 
Shining fViIlotv, which they all SyvaUotf-Ztil , bccaufe of the pleaiure of the 

The Barrennefi of Tree> by accident (bciiJes the weakncfs of the 
Soil Seed, orK-o6t, and the injury of thcWcatner) coming cither of their 
overgrowing with Mofs, or tlieir being hide bound, or their planting too 
deep, orby iffuingo' the Sap too much into the Leaves : Forallthefc three 
are remedies mentioned before. 

WE fee that in Living Creatures that have Male and Female, there is 
copulation of feveral kindes, and fo Compound C reatures ; as the 
CMhU , chat is generated betwixt the H or fe and t^f; and feme other 
Compounds w hich we call Monllers . though more rare : And it is held, 
that that Troverb, t^ySfrica femper Altqu'td Monftri parit , Cometh, for that the 
Fountains of Waters there being rare, divers forts of Bcafts come from 
feveral parts to drink, and fo being rcfVefhcd fall to couple, and many 
timts with feveral kindes. Ihc compounding or mixture of Kindes in 
Plants is not found out ; which ncverthclcfs, if it be poflible is more at 
command than that of Living Creatures, for that their luftrequireth a 
voluntary motion; wherefore it were one of the moft notable Experiments 
toucliing Plants, tofindeitout, for lb you may have great variety of new 
Fruits, and flowers yet unknown. Grafting doth it not, that mendcth the 
Fruit, or doublcth the Flowers, &cc. But it hath not the power to make a 
new Kind. Forthc Cions ever over-ruleth the Stock. 

It hath been fet dovrn by one of the Ancient, That if you take two 
Twigs of feveral Fruit Trees, and flat them on the fides, and then binde 
them clofe together, and fct them in the ground, they will come up in one 
Stock ; but yet they will putforth intheir feveralFruits withoutany com- 
mixture in the Fruit. Wherein note (by the way) that Unity of Continu- 
ance, is cafier to procure, than Unitv of Species. Jt is reported alfo, That 
Vines of Red and White Grapes, being fet in the Ground, and the upper 
parts being flatted, and bound cloic together, will put forth Grapes of the 
feveral colours, upon the fame Branch ; and Grape^flones of ievcral co- 
lours ■within thefame Grape: Butthemorc, after a year or two, the unity 
(as it fecmeth) growing more perfed. And this will likewifehclp, if from 


(^entury F, 

the firft uniting, they be often watrcd ; for all moifturc hclpeth to Union: 
And it is prefcribed alfo tobindc the Bud, as loon as it comcth forth,as well 
as the Stock, at thcleaftforatimc. 

They report, that divers bccds put into a Clout, and laid in Earth veil 
dunged, will put up /'//w/jcontiguous; which (afterwards) beingbound in, 
their Shoots will incorporate. The like is faid of Kernels put into 3. Bottle, 
with anarrow mouth, tilled with Harth. : .1 

It is reported, thatyounaTrccsof leveralkindcs fct contiguous W'irli- 
outany binding, and very often watred in a fruitful ground, witi the very 
luxuryof the Trees, will incorporate and grow together. Which ieenieth 
tome the likclicft means that hath been propounded ; for that the binding 
doth hinder the natural fwclling of thcTrce, which, while it is in motion, 
doth better unite. 

THcre are many ancient and received Traditions and Obfervations, 
touching the Sjwputhj and t^ntipnthj o( Tlanis ; for that feme will 
thrive befl growing ncarothcrs, which thcV impute to J)w:/»;»r/{7; and fome 
worfe which they impute to y^«ri/>.<r/;;'. But thefe are idle and ignorant con- 
ceits, and f orfake the true indication of the caufes ; as the mortpart of Ex- 
per'mems, that concern Sj/mpathies and Antipaihies do. For as to Plants, neither 
is there any fuch Iccrcc Fricndfliip , or Hatred, as they imagine. And 
if we fhould be content to call it Sympathy and y^ntipathj ,\us utterly miftak en ; 
for their SjmpAthj is an (^/ntiputhy, and their j^ntipathy is a Sjmpat'n ; For it is 
thus, wlierefuever one Titnt drawcth fuch a particular juvce out of the 
Earth, as itquahlieth the Earth, fo as that Juycc which remaineth is fit for 
the other T/.»u, there the Neighborhood doth good, bccaufc thcnourifn- 
ments are contrary, or levcral : But where two TUnts draw (much) the 
famcjuyce, there the Neighborhood hurtcth 5 for the one deceivcth the 


Fitfl:, therefore, nWTUnts that do dravr much nourifliment from the 
Earth, andfo foakthc Earth, and exhauft it, hurt all things that grow by 
them J as great Trees, (efpecially Afkes) and fuch Trees, aslprcd their 
Roots near the top of the ground. So the Q/^'ft'or/ij not an enemy (though 
that were anciently received) to the ^jnfonely; but it is an enemy to any 
ether PUnt , becaufc it draweth ftrongly the fatteil Juycc of the f arth'. 
And if it be true, that the yme, when it crcepeth near the co/f ri-orr, will turn 
away : J Iris may be, bccaufe there ic tindcth worfe nourifhment ,• for 
though the Root be >rhcre it was, yet (I doubt) the Plant will bend as it 

Where TUmsztc of feveral Natures, and drawfevcral Juyces out of 
the Earth, there ^ as hath beenfaid) the oncfetby the other helpeth •■ As it 
is let do^n bv divers of the Ancients, that BeTv doth profpcr much, and be- | 
Cometh ftrongcr, if it bcfct bya jf^^-Trff ; Which (we conceive) is caufcd j 
not by rcafonof Friendfhip, but by Extradion of contrary Juvces; the 
one drawing j uvce fit to relult Kveet, the other bitter. So they have fet down 
likc^vi(c,that a. j^dfc iciby G^riul'ts (■-icccicr ; which likcwifc may be,bccaulc I 
the mere Fctidc juycc of the Earth gocth into the G^r/jcyt, and the more 
oderarc into the /iofe. I 

This wc lee manifclHy. That there be certain Cjrw-i7fl»;rJ vfhichcftmc 
feldom or never in other places , unlefs they be let , but onely amongft 

K 3 , . . . Corn: i 




in Confoir. 
Sympathy and 
S^ntlpathy of 











S^turd hillcry ; 

Corn: As the blew Bottle a kindc of yellow Miry-Gold. Wtlde Poppey, 
and Fumitory. Ncichci car. this be by realbn of tlie culture ol tlicGround, 
by Ploughing or I'urrowing, as (omc Herbs and Flowers tviU grow but in 
Ditches new caft , for it the ground lye fallow and un(own, they will not 
come: Soasit fhouldfecmtobc thcCorn thuqualifieth the Earth, andpre- 
pareCh it tor their growth. 

Thisobfcrvationif it holdeth (as ic is very probable) is of great u(c,for 
the meliorating of taftC in Fruits, and Hfculcnt Herbs, and of the (cnt of 
Ftowers. For I do not doubt, but if the Fig-cree do make tlie Rcw more 
ftrong and bitter, (as the Ancients have noted) good Hore of Rew planted 
aboutthe Fig-trce, will make the Fig more fweec. Now thetaftes thatdo 
mod offend in Ftuits.and Herbs, and Roots, are bitcer.harfii , ibur^ and watrifti ^ 
or fiafliy. Ir were good therefore to make the Tryals following. 

Take Wormwood orRcw, and let it near Lettuce/ or Coleflory, ot 
Artichoak j and fee whether the Lettucci or the Coleftory, 5cc. become not 
the fwecter. 

Take a Service-tree, or aCornelian»trce, or an Elder-tree, which we 
know have Fruits of harfli and binding Juyce, and fct them near a Vine ot 
Fig- tree, and fee whether the Grapes or Figs will not be the fwcetcr. 

Take Cucumbers or Pumpions, and fet them (here and there) amongfl 
Musk-Melons,and fee whether the Melons will not be more winy, and better 
tafted. Set Cucumbers (like wife) amongft Raddifh, and fee whether the 
Raddifh will not be made the more biting. 

Take Sorrel and fet it amongft Rafps, and fee whether the Rafps will not 
be the fweeter. 

Take Common Bryar, and fet it amongft Violets ot Wall-flowers, and 
fee whether it will not make the Violets or Wall-flowers fweeter, and lefs 
earthy in their fmell. So fet Lettuce or Cucumbers, amongft Rofemary or 
Bays, and fee whether the Rofeni'ary or Bays, will not bethcmoreoderate ot 

Contrariwife.y ou muft take heed how you fet Herbs together that draw 
much the like ]uyce. And therefore I think Rofemary willleefein fweetnefs, 
if it be fet with Lavender or Bays> or the like. But y er, if you will corred the 
ftrcngthof an Herb, you fhall do well to fet other hke Herbs by him, to'take 
him down 5 and if you would fct T^nfey by Angelica, itmay be the Ange- 
lica would be the weaker and titter for mixture in perfume. And if you 
fhould/et Rew by Common Wormwood , it maybe, the Wotmwood 
would torn to be liker Roman Wormwood. 

This Axiom is of large extent; and therefore would be fevered, and re- 
fined by Tryal. Neither muft you expeft to have a grofs difference by this 
kinde of Culture, butoncly further Perfcftion. 

Tryai would be alfo made in Herbs, Poyfonous, and Purgative, whofe 
ill qtjality (perhaps) may be difchargcd or attempted, by fetting ftrongcr 
Poylons or Purgatives by them. 

It is reported. That the Shrub called Our Ladies Seal, ( which is a kinde 
of Briony) aiiii Coleworts, fct near together, one or both will die. The 
cau(e is, for that they be both great Depredators of the Earth, and one of 
them ftatveth the other. Thelikeis faid of Reed, and a Brake, both which 
are fucculcnt j and therefore the oi^deceiveth the other. And the like of 
Hemlock and Rew, both which draw ftrong Juyccs. 

Some of the Ancients, and like wife divers of the Modern Writers, that 
have labored iiT Natural Magick, have noted a Sympathy between the Sun, 


Century F, 

Moon, and fomc principal Stars, andccrtain Herbs, and Plants, And fo 
they have denominated fomc Herbs Solar, and (ome Lunar, and fuch like 
toys put into great words. It is manifcft, that there are feme F'owcrs chat 
havcrefped tothe Sun in twokindesi the one by opening and fhutting» and 
the other by bowing and inclining the Head. Per Marygolds, Tulippas, Pinfj- 
pcrnel, and indeed moft flowers do open or fprcd their Leaves abroad, when 
the Sun fhineth ("crenc and fair: And again, (in (bme part; clofe them, or 
gather them inward, cither toward niglit, or when the Sky is overcaft. Of 
this, there needeth no luchfolemnReaion tobcaffigned, astofiy, That they 
rejoyccatthe prcfencc of the Sun, and mourn a: theabfcncc thereof. For 
it is nothing elle, but a little loading of the Leaves, and fwellingthcmatthe 
bottom, with the moifture of the Air ; whereasthc dry Air doth extend them. 
And theymakeit apiece of the wonder, That Garden Claver willhi<fe the 
Stalk, when the Sun fheweth bright, which isnothing butafull expanfion 
of the Leaves; for the bowing and inclining the Head, it isfoiindin the 
great Flower of the Sun, in Marygolds, Wartworr, Mallow flowers, and 
others. The caufc is fomewhat more obfcure than the former : But 1 take 
it to be no other, but that the parr, againft which the Sun beatcth, waxeih 
more faint and flaccide in the Stalk, and thereby lefs able to fupport the 

What a little Moifture willdo in Vegetables,even though they be dead, 
and fevered from the Earth, appearcth well in the Experiment of Juglers. 
They take the Beard of an Oat, which (if you mark it well; is wreathed at 
the bottom, and one fmooth entire Itraw at the top. They take onely the 
part t lat is wreathed , and cut ofFthe other , leaving the Beard half the 
brcdthof a finger in length. Then they makcalittleCrofsof aQuilllong- 
ways, of that part of the Qtiill which hath the Pith; and Grofs- ways of 
that pieceof the Quill without Pith, the whole Crofs being the brcdthof a 
finger high ; Then they prick the bottom where the Pith is, and thereinto 
they put the 04tM-5f<frrf, leavin^halfof it fticking forth of theQuill: Then 
theytakea little white Box of Wood to deceive men, as if fomewhat in the 
Box did work the feat ; in which, with a Pin, they make a little hole, enough 
to takeBcard, but not tolct the Crofsfink down, but to flick : Then like- 
wife, by way oflmpofture, they make aqueflion: As, whois the fairell 
Woman in the company ? or who hath a Glove or Card ? and caufe an- 
other to namedivers pcrfons; and upon every naming, they flick the Crofs 
in theBox, having firfl put it towards their Mouth, as if they charmed it, 
and the Grofs flirreth not : But when they come to the perfon that they 
would take, as they hold the Ciofs to their Mouth, they touch the Beard 
with the tip of their Tongue, and wet it, and foftick the Crofs in the Box, 
and then you fliall fee it turn finely and foftly, three or four turns, which is 
cauled by the untwining of the Beard by the moifiute. You may fee it 
more evidently if you flick the Crofs between your fingers, inilcad of thi 
Box : And therefore you may lee, that this Motion, which is effeclcd by 
fo little wet, is llronger than theclofing or bending of the Head of a Mary- 

It is reported by fome , That the Herb called Rof,uSolis (whereof they 
m.ikc StTong--9edters) will at the Noon-dav, when the Sun fhineth hot and 
bright, have a great Dew upon it. And therefore, that ths right name is 
R0S S'olis ; which they impute to a delight andfympathy that it hath with 
the Sun. Men favor wonders. It were good firfl to be furc, That the 
Dew that is found upon it, be not the Dew of the Morning prcfecved , 









^J\Qitural Hiflory ; 


in Confoit, 
louchJDg the 
Making lierbi 
and fruiti 

u hen the Dew of other Herbs is breathed awav : For it hath a imooth add 
thick Leaf that doth notdifchargc the Dew fofoon asotlicr Herbs, that arc 
more Spungy and Porous. And itmay be Furjlune, or ibme other Herb doth 
the like, and is not marked. Butifitbclb, that it hath more Dew at Noon 
than in the Morning, thcnfureit fccmcth to be an exudation of the //cr/' it 
fclf. As Plums fweat when they are let into the Oven : For you will not (I 
hope) think, that it is like Gideons Fleece of WooH, that the Dew (ho u Id fill 
upon that, and no where elle. 

It is certain, that the Hon)-f/^"»; are found more upon Oak Leaves, than 
upon /^i/j, or/^^ff^, or the like: But whether any caufc be from chc Leaf it 
felf, to concoftthe Dew, or whether it be oncly, that the Lcat is clofcand 
Imooth (and therefore drinkcth not in the Dew, but prefcrvcth it) maybe 
doubted. It would be well inquired, whether Manua the 'Drug, doth fall 
but upon certain Herbs or Leaves oncly. Floit/ers ihath:i\c deep Sock^etsi do 
father in the bottom, a kindc ot Honey; as Honej-S'uckles (both the IVoodbme, 
and the TnfoM) Lillies, and the like. And in them certaitily the Flowr bcareth 
part w ith the 'De'Sf, 

The Experience is, That the Froth, which they call U'oodfure, (being 
like a kinde of Spittle; is found but upon certain Herbs, and tliole hot ones ; 
i% Lavender, Lavender-cotton, Sage, Hyjfofe , &c. Oi ihc caulc of this enquire 
further, for it kemeth afecret. Iherc fallcth alfo Af//</f> upon Com, and 
fmuttcthit: 13ut itmay be, that the fame fallcthplfo upon other Herbs, and 
is not obferved. 

It were goody Tryal were made, whether the great confcnt between 
Plants and Water, which isaprincipalnourifhmcntof them, willmakean 
Actradionor Dilfcance, and not at touch oncly. Therefore take a VclTel, 
and in the middle of itmakc a falfc bottom of courfe Canvas ,- fill it with 
Earth above the Canvas, and let not the Earth be watred , then fow fomc 
good Seeds in that Earth : But under the Canvas, fomc half a foot in 
the bottom of the Veflel,lay a great Spunge, thorowlv wet in Water , and 
let it lie fomc ten days ; and fee whether the Seeds will fprout.and the Eartli 
become more moift, and the Spunge more dry. TheHxpcrimentformerly 
mentioned of the Cucumber, creeping to the Pot of Water, is far flrangcr 
than this. 

THe altering of the Sent, Colour, or Taftc of Fruit, by Infufing, Mixing, 
or Letting into the Bark, or Root of theTrec, Herb, or Flower, any 
Coloured, Aromatical, orMedicinal Subftance, are but fancies. The caule 
is, for that thofe things have palled their period, and nourilh not; and alf 
alteration of Vegetables, in thofe qualities, muftbcbyfonacwhat that is apt 
to gointo thcnourifhmentof thePlant. But this is true, thatwhercKine 
feed upon Wilde Garlick.their Milk tafled plainly of theGarlick. And the 
Flcfli of Muttons is better tafled where theShecp feed upon Wilde Thyme, 
and other w holfomc Herbs. Galtn alfo i'peakcth of the curing of the Scirrus 
of the Z/iv^r, by Milk of a Cow, that fcedcth upon certain Herbs; and Honey 
in Spain fmelleth (apparently) of the Rofemary, or Orenge, from w hence the 
Beegatheric: And there is an old Tradition of a Maiden that was fed with 
Napelltt.', (which is counted the ftrongcfl poyfonof all Vegetables) which 
with ufc, did not hurt the Maid, but poyfoned fome thathad carnal com- 
pany vrith her. So it is obferved by fome, that there is a vcrtuous BeT^ar, 
and another without vertue, which appear to the fhew alike ; but the vcr- 
tuous is taken from the Beaft, that feedeth upon the Mountains, where 


(^entury V, 

chercarc Iheriaccl Herbs ; and that wicliouc vcrtuc, tiom thole that (cd in 
chcVallevs, where no fuch Herbs arc. Ihus tar lam of opinion, tliat as 
llccped Wines and Beers arc very Medici al, and li-cwiTc Bread tempered 
w ich divers powders ; f o of o^J/r/tr alio, (as Eesh, Fish, (Jif!li',ind Eggs) that 
chcymny be made ot great ufc for Medicine and Diet, it thd^eafi, Foiifl, 
or Fish, be fed v\ ith a IpciSflfffndcot fo- d, fitforthc difcalc. It wcreadan- 
oerous thing alfo for fccret cmpoyionmcnts. But whether icmaybcap- 
pHcd unto iMants, and Herbs, J doubt more, becaufc the nourilhmentof 
them is a more common Juycc ; which is hardly capable of any fpccial 
quality until the I'lant do aflimilate it. 

But left our increduJity may prejudice any profitable operations in 
this kinde (cfpccially fincemany of the Ancients havefct them down) wc 
think £Tood briefly to p opound the four Means, which thev have dcvifcd of 
makincr Plants Medicinablc. Thcfirft is by Hitting of thcRoot, andinfufing 
into it the Medicine, as Hellebore, Ofium, Scammomj, Triucle 6~c. and then 
binding it up again. Ihisfecmcth tome thcleaf1:probable,becaufcthc Root 
dr.-iwcth immediately from the Earth, andlo the nourifliment isthcmore 
common and Icfs qualified ; andbeiidcs, it is a long time in going up, ere 
it come to the Fruit. The fecond way is, to perforate the Body of the Tree, 
and there to infulc the Medicine, ithaththelcfs way, and the Icfstimctogo 
up. The third is, the fteeping of the Seed or Kernel in fome Liquor 
wherein the MeJicinc is infuled ; which I have little opinion of, becaufc 
the Seed (I d >iibt) will not draw the parts of the matter which have the 
propriety ; but it will be far the more likely, it you mingle ths Me licine 
with Dung, for tint the Seed, naturally drauingchc moiflurc of the Dung, 
m.^y call in withal lomc of the propriety. Thefourthis, the Watcringof 
the Plant oft, wiih an infuiion of the Medicine. This, in one refpcot may 
have more force than the reft, becaufc the Medication is oft renewed , 
whereas the ret are applied, but at onetime; and therefore the vcrtue may 
thcfooncr vanifli. Butftillldoubt, that the Root is fomcwhattoo flubborn 
to receive thofc fnc Impreffions ; andbcfldes (as I have faidbeforc' they 
have a great Hill to go up. 1 judge therefore the likelielt way to be the 
pctf iration of the Body of the Tree, in fevcral places, one above the other^ 
and the filling of the Holes with Dung mingled with the Medicine. And 
the W.itring of thofe Lumps of Dung, with Squirts of an Infuiion of the 
Medicine in dunged Water, onceinthrecor fourdays. 









Century VI, 

Ur Experiments we take care to be (as we have often 
faid,) either Expertmentit FruHifera, or Lucifera; eichcr 
of Ufc , or of Difcovery : For we hate Impofture , 
and dcliaife Curiofitiex. Yet becaufe we mufl: apply 
our felvcsfome what to others, wc will ict down fomc 
Curiofitics touching Plants. 

I It is a Curiofity to have fcveral Fruits upon one Tree j and the more, 

I when fomc of: them come early, andfome come late: So that you may 

' have, upon the fame Tree, ripe Fruits all Summer. This is eafily done by 

Grafting ot fevcral Cions upon (everal Boughs of a Stockjin a good ground , 

plentifully fed. Soyou may havcall kindcs of Cherries, anj allkindcs of 

rlumbs, and Peaches, and Apricots upon one Tree : Bat, I conceive the 

Divcrfity of Fruics muft be luch, as Nvill graft upon the fame Stocks. And 

therefore, I doubt, whether you can have Apples, or Pears, or Orengcs, 

j upon the fame Sc'jck, upon which you graft Plumbs. 

It is a Curiofity to have Fruits of divers Shapes and Figures. 'I h's is 

cafily performed by Moulding them, when the Fruit is young, with Moulds 

j of Earth or Wood. So you may have Cucumbers, Sec. as long as a 

j Cane, or as round as a Sphere, or formed like a Crofs. You may have 

{ alfo Apples in the form of Pears or Lemmons. You mav have alfo Fruit 

' in more accurate Figures ; as we faidof Men, Beafh, orBirdi, accon-iing 

; as \ou make the Moulds, wherein you muft underftand, that you make 

the Mould big enough to contain the v hole Fruit, wien it is groT\n to the 

grcatefl: ; for tlfc you will choak the fprcding of the Fruit , which other- 

I wife would fprcd icfclf, and fill the Concave, and lobe turned intor :efhape 

idciircd ; as ic is in Mould-worksof Liquid thing's. Some doubtmay becon- 


in Confoit, 
about FrMUi 
and I'ttnti. 










Cf\Qitural hi/lory ; 


ccivcd, that the k ccping of tlic Sun from the Fruit, may hurt it : But there 
isordinary experience of Fruit thatgrowcth covered. Jlu^realio, whether 
fomcfmall holes may not be made in the "Wood, to let intiie Sun. And note, 
that it Were beft to make the Moulds partible, glued, or cemented together, 
that you may open them when you takeout the Fruit. 

It is a curiofity to have Jnfcriptitns or Engrxvings, in Fruit or Trees. This 
is cafily pctformed, by writing with a Needle, or Bedhjn, or Kntfc, or the like, 
when the Fruit or Trees arc young -, for as they grow, fo the Letters will 
grow more large, and graphical. 

Tenerifque mecs incidere Amores 

tyirboribui., crefcint ilia, crefietis Amorts. 
You may have Trees apparelled with Flowers or Merbs by boring holes 
in the Bodies of them, and putting into them Earth holpcn with Muck,and 
fettlng Seeds or Slipj, of Violets, SerxTfbernes, JVilde Tnnr, C^imQiml, andfuch 
like in die Earth, wherein they do butgrowin thcTrcc, as they do in Pots, 
though (perhaps) with fome feeding from the Trees- As it would be tryed 
alfo with Shoots of ^<««, and ROots of j/^f^i-^o/f; ; foritmaybe. they being 
of a more Ligneous Nature, will incorporate with the Tree it felf. 

It is an ordinary curiofity to form Trees and Shrubs (as RofeniArj, 'Juni- 
per, and the like) into fundry fhapcs ; which is done by moulding them 
within, and cutting them without. But they are but lame things, being 
too fmall to keep Figure ; great Caftles made of Trees upon Frames of 
Timber, with Turrets and Arches, were anciently matters of magnifi- 

Amongft curiofitics, I fhall place Colouration, though it be fomcwhat 
better ; for Beauty in Flowers is their pre-eminence. It is obicrved by fome, 
that Gillf-FleWrs, STmeet-WUliamsy Violets^ that arc coloured, it theybcneg- 
leftcd, and neither Watered, nor new Moulded, nor Tranfplanted, will 
turn White. And it is probable, thatthc White, with much culture, may 
turn coloured > for this is certain. That the white colour cometh of fcarcity 
of Nourishment; except in Flowers that arc oncly white, and admit no 
other colours. 

It is good therefore to fee what Natures do accompany what colours ; 
for by that you (hall have light, how to induce colours , by producing 
thofc Natures. Whites are more inodoratc (for the mofl part) than Flowers 
of the fame kindc coloured ; as is found in fingle White Violets, White 
Rofes, White Gilly-Flovvers, White StockGilly-Flowcrs, &c. We findc al- 
fo, that Blolfoms of Trees that are White, are commonly inodoratc ; as 
Cherries, Pears, Plums, whereas thofe of Apples, Crabs, Almonds, and 
Peaches, are blufliy, and fmell fwect. ihecaufeis, for that thefubftancc 
that maketh the Flower, is of thcthinneflandfinclt of the Plant ,• which alfo 
maketh Flowers to be of fo dainty Colours. And if it be too fparing and 
thin, it attaincth no flrcngth of odor, except it be in fuch Plants as arc 
very fucculent ; whereby they need rather to be fcanted in their nourift- 
mcnt,than repleniftied, to have them fwect. As we fee in White Sacyrion, 
which is of a dainty fmell ; and in Bcan-fiowers, &c. And again, if the 
Plant be of Nature to put forth White Flowers onely, and thofc not thin or 
dry, they are commonly of rank and fulfome fmell j as May-Flowers and 
White LiUics. 

Contrariwife, in Berries, the White is commonly more delicate and 
fwect in tafte, than the Coloured ; as wcfce in white Grapes, in white 
Raipes^ in white Strawberries, in white Currans, &c. The caufc is for that 


Century VI. 

the colaured arc more juyccd, and courier juyccd ; and therefore not fo 
well and equally concodcd, but the white ate better proportioned to the 
diigcftion of the yUm. 

Butin Fums the white commonly is meaner, as in Fe.xr-flumhs, lyama^ 
fins, &c. and the choiceft Plumbs arc black; the Mulberry, (>»'hich thouoh 
they call it il Berry, is a Fruit) is better the Black, than the White. The 
Hurveji Whitc-PIumb, is a bafe Plumb, and the ^frrfotdo and White Date- 
Plumb, are no very good Plumbs. The caufc is, for that they are all 
over-vvatry : Whereas an higher Conco<^ion is required for fwcetncis, or 
pleafure of tafte ; and therefore all your dainty Plumbs, are ajittic dry, 
and come from the Stone ; as the C^lwkle-eiumb, the 'Ddtntfin-yiumb, the 
Teaih, the tyipruot, &(■ Yet fomc Fruiti which grow not to be Black, 
arc of theNtture of Berries^ fwcctcftfuch aj are paler, as the Gr«r-CAfm, 
which inclincth more to White, is fwceter than the Red i but the £^^ne; is 
more lowrc. 

Take Gillifio^'ers Seed, of one kinde of CJil//^fl>*ry (as of the Chve-Gilli- 
fia'^er which is the moft common ; and fow it , and there will come up 
Gilliflottcrs. fomc of one colour, and Ibme of another, cafually, as the 
-eed mectcth with nouriflimcnt in the Earth : SothattheGardinersfinde, 
that they may have tvvoorthrce Roots amongfl: an hundred that arc rare, 
and ol great price, as Purple Ctrnation of feveral ftripcs. The caufe is (no 
doubt) that in Earth, though it be contiguous, and in one Bed there are very 
levcral Juycesi andat the Seed doth cafually meet with them, fo it comcth 
forth. And it is noted efpecially, that thole which do come up Purple, do 
alwavscomcupfinglc; the |uycc, as itfeemcth, notbeingable to lutficc a 
fucculent colour, and a double Leaf Ihis^srf^rjwfnt of feveral colours, 
coming up trom one Seed, would be trycd alfo in Larh.foot, Monkshood, 
*Poppj, and HoUioAk. 

Few Fruits are Coloured Red within ; the ^leen-JIpfleis, and another 
Apple.callcd the Rofe- Apple ; CMulberriedikcvi^cind (7f<*/>«, though molt to- 
u-ardthc skin. There is a y^^t/; alfo, that hath a circle of Red towards the 
ftone ; and the tgriot- Cherry is fomcwhat Red within: But no fwr, nor 
fVarden, nor Plumb, nor i_y3pruot, although they have (many times) Red 
fides, are coloured Red within. The caufe may be enquired. 

The general colour of /'/<««;/ is Green, which is a colour thatno/7e'»rr 
is of There is a grccnilh Trme-Kofe, but it is pale, and fcarcc agreen ; tlie 
Leaves of (ome Trees turn a little Murrey or Reddifh, and they be com- 
monly young Leaves that do lo i as it is in Odkj and Vines. And Htfie- 
Leuves rot into a VtUow; and feme Hollies had part of their Leaves Yellow, 
that are (to all iccniing) as frcHi and Ihining as the Green. 1 fuppofe aifo, 
that Yellow is n icfs fucculent colour than Green, and a degree nearer 
White, for it hath been noted, tha: thofc Yellow Leaves of Ho//;, ftand 
cvertoward the North or North-Eaft. Some Roots arc Yellow, as Ctrr#w; 
and (ome lUnts, Blood-red, Stalk and Leaf, and all; as ^^mdranthuu Some 
Hetbs'xncWnc to Purple andRcd; as akindc of ^4?^ doth, and a kinde of 
oT/(«if, and Rofi ^oUs,&c. And (ome have White Leaves, as another kinde 
of i'j?^ and .mother kiude cf o^ini ; But tyiT^re and a fair furple ;irc 
never found in Lcives. Th«s fticwcth, that flatters arc made of a refined 
Juyce of the Earth, and fo are Fruits, but Leaves of a more eourfc aod 

It is a curiolity alio to make FloMeers double, which is cfFciied by often 
removing them into new Earth j as on the contrary part, double /'/•»m, 
L by 













£ xpcrimcnts 
in G6nfort> 
of Planti^and 
oftht Tranf- 
mutation of 
them, one into 

^atural hi/iory 5 



by ncglc£ling,and not removing .prove finglc. And the way tado it fpecdily, 
is to tow or (tt Seeds, or Slips ot Flowers', and is foon as chcy tonne up, to 
removctheonintoncwgrcund that is good : Enquire al(o, whether inocu- 
lating of Flowers, (asitock-Gilliflowers, Roies, Mubk-Kor.s.&c.) duth 
not make them double. ThereisaChcrry-Tree that liach double iSlcfloms, 
but that Treebearcth noFruit; and, it may be, c lat the fime means which 
.applied to the TreCj doth cxircamly accelerate the Sap to rife and break 
forth, would nuke the Tree (pend it (elf in Flowers, and thofc to become 
double, which wercagrcat pleafuretofee, efpecially in Applc-trccs, Peach- 
trees, and Almond-trees, that have Bloffoms Blulh coloured. 

The making of Fruits without Core or Stone^ isLkcwjle acuriofiiy, 
and forhewhat bcttei:; becaufc wh^itlocver makcththemlb, is like to make 
them rhorc tender and delicate. If a Cions or Shoot fit to be Tec in the 
Ground, have the Pith finely taken forth ('and not altogether, but feme of it 
left, the better tofave the life) it will bear a Fruit with little or no Core or 
Stohe.And the like is laid to be of dividing a quick Tree down to the Ground, 
and takingout the Pith, and then binding it up again. 

It is reported alfoj thataCttron grafted uponaQaince will havcfmall 
or no Sf ods ; and it is very probibic, that any fowre Fruit grafted upon a 
Stock that becireth a fweeter Fruit, msy both make the Fruit Tweeter, and 
more void of the harfh matter of Kernels or Seeds. 

Itisrcpoitcd, that not onely the taking out of the Pith, buttheftopping 
ofthe Juyceof the Pith from rifingin the midft, andtutning it to rife on the 
outfidc, will make the Fruit withou' Core ot Sionc; as if you ftiould borea 
Tree clean thorow, and put a wedge in. It is true, there is fome affinity be- 
tween the Pith and the Kernel, becaufe they are both of a hatfh fubikncc, 
and both placed in the midft. 

It is reported, that Trees watered perpetually with warm Water, will 
make a Fruit with little orno Core or Scone. And the rule is general, That 
whitfoever will make awilde Tree, a Garden Tree,will make a Garden Tree 
to have lefs Core or Stone. 

TH; Rule is certain. That Plints for want of Culture, degenerate to be 
baler in the fame kinde ; and (ometimcs fu far, as to change into another . 
kindt. 1. The rtanding long, and not being removed, makcihtliem dege- 
nerate. 2. Drought, unlefs the Farth of it felf be moilf, doththelike. 3. So 
doth irelfi'ioving into worfe Earth, orforbearing tocompoft the Eatth j aswe 
fee, that ^XTatet-Mintturncth into Field Mint, and the Colcwoit into Rape by 
ncgletf J &c. 

Whatfoever Fruit ufeth to be fet upon a Root, or a Slip, if it be fown. 
Will degenerate ; Grapes fown. Fig , Almondf, Pomegranate Kernels fowr, 
make the Fruits degenerate, and become wilde. Andagain,moft of thole 
Fruits that ufe to be grafted, if they be fet of Kernels, or Stones degenerate. 
It is true, thit Peaches (as hath been touched before) do better upon Stones 
(cty than upon grafting : And ihe rule of Exception fhould feemtobethis. 
That wharloever Plant requireth much moifture, profpereth better upon the 
Stone or Kernel, than upon the Graft. For the Stock, though it givsth a finer 
nourifhmenr, yet itgivcth a fcantcr, than the Earth at large. 

Secdf, if they be very old,qnd yet have If rength enough to brin^ forth a 
Plant;, make the Plant degenerate. Aad therefore skilful Gardiners 
of thcSccds, before they buy thcm^ whether they be good or no, by putting 

\ , them 

(^entury V L 


cheoi in Water gently boiled ; and it they be good, they will fprout within haJf 
an hour. ' • 

Itisftrangc- which is reported, ThuB.tftl too much cxpofed to the Sun, 
doth turn into ff^ilde Tune : Although thole two Hctbs fcem tohave Imall 
Affinity; butBafilis almoft thconcly hot Herb that hnthfat andfucculcnt 
Leaves; which Oyliiiefs if it be drawnforth by tbeSun, it is like it will make 
1 very great change. 

Thereis an old Tradition, that Boughs of Oak put into the Earth, wiliput 
forth fVilde Fines ; which if it be true, (no doubt) it is not the Orf/^that turncth 
intoafin^, but the C'4;^-t«7«^AputrJfying, qualifieth the Earth to put forth a 
Fine of it (elf. 

It is notimpoffiblc, and I have heard it verified, that upon cutting down 
of an old Timber-Tree, the Stub hath put out fometimes a Tree of another 
kindc; as that Beech hath put forth Birch : Which ifitbe tructhecaufe may 
be, forthat the old Siub is too fcantof Juyceto put forth the former Tree; 
and therefore putteth forth a Tree of fmaller kindc, that ncedeth lefs Nou- 

There is an opinion in the Countrey , That if the fame Ground be oft 
fown with the Grain that grew upon it, it \vill, in the end, grow to be of a 
bafcr kinde. 

It is Gcrtaini that in Sterile Years, Corn fown will grow to an other 

GtMd'u fipe quibui mandavimm Hordea Sulcitf 
Infalix Ltltum, &Jleriles dominatur Aven£. 

And generally it is a Rule, thatPlants that are brought forth by Culture, 
as Corn, will fooner change into other Spccies.than thofe that comcof thcm- 
felvcs : For thatCulture givcth but an Adventitious Nature, which is more 
eafily put off. 

This work of the Tranfmutdtionoi Plants, one into another, is inter Mag- 
HAlUlfaturd: Icot ihcTranfmutatioHif Species is, in the vulgar Philofophy, pro- 
nounced impoflible : And certainly, it is a thing of difficulty, and requireth 
deepfearchintoNature : But feeing there appe« fomemanifcftinftancesof 
ir, the opinion of impoflibility is to be rejcfted, and the means thereof to 
be found out. We fee that in Lif »«f Creatures, that come of Putrcfaftion, 
there is much Tranfmutation of one into another. AsCaterpillersturn into 
Flies, &c. And it fhould fecm probable, thatwhatfocvcrGreature having 
life, is generated without Seed , that Creature will change out of one Spe- 
cies into another; for it is the Seed, and the Nature of it, which locketh 
and boundcth in the Creature, that it doth not expatiate. So as we may 
well conclude, that feeing the Earth of it felf, doth put forth Plants with- 
out Seed ; therefore Plants may well have a Ttanfmigration of Species. 
Wherefore wanting Inftances, which do occur, wefhallgiveDircftionsof 
the mofthkely tryals : And generally, we would not have thofe that read 
this work of Sylv* Sjlvarunty account itftrange, or think that it is an over- 
haftc, thatwehavelet down particulars untried : For contrariwifc, in our 
own cftimation, we account fuch particulars more worthy than thofe that 
are already tryed and known. For thcfe latter mult be taken as you 
finde them, but the other do level point blank at the inventing of caufes 
and Axioms. 

L 1 


1 I 1 

5 30. 


J\Qttural fii/lory ; 

Firft, therefore you muft make account, thit if you will have one Plant 
change into another, you muft have the Nouriflimcnt over rule the Seed : 
And therefore you arc toprafliie it by Nourifbments as contrary as may be, 
to the Nature of thcHcib; loneverihclels as the Heib biay gtovv, and like- 
wife with Seeds that are of the weakeft forr, anJ havcleaft vgor. You fhall 
do well therefore to take Marfli Herbs, and plant them upon tops of Hills 
and Champaigns; and fuch Plants as require much muillure, upon Sandy 
and very dry grounds. As for example, Marfh-Mallows, and Sedge upon 
Hills, Cucumber and Lettuce Seeds, and Colcworts upon a Sandy Plat; To 
contrariwife plant Bufhes, Heath, Ling, and Bcakesupon a Wet or Marfli 
Ground. This Iconceivcalfo.that ailEftulent andGardenHerbs.lctupon 
the tops of Hills, will prove mote Medicinal, though lels Hfculent, than they 
were before. And it may be likewife, (ome Wilde Herbs you may make 
Salet Herbs. This is the firft Rulefor Tranfmutation of Plants. 

The fecond Rule fliould be to bury (ome few Seeds of i he Herb you 
would change amonglf other Seeds ; and then youfhallfec whetherthe juyce 
of thole other Seeds do rot fo qualifie the Earth, as it will alter the Seed 
whereupon you work. As forexample.Put Parfly-lecd amongttOnion-leed, 
CI Lctttace-feedamongft Partly feed, or Bafil-feed amongft Thymc-fced, 
and fee the change of taftc or otherwife. But you fhall do well to put the- 
Seed you would change into a little Linnen Cloth, that it mingle not with 

the Foreign Seed. ... re u 

The third Rule fhall be the making of foraemedly, or mixture ot tarth, 
withfomcothctPlantsbruifed.orfhaved, either in Leaf or Root: As for ex- 
ample make Earth, withamixture of Colewort Leaves damped, and fct m 
it Artichoaks, ot Patfnips : So take Earth made with CMajorm, or OngAnnum, 
or Wilde 7hme, bruifed, or ttamped, and fet in it Fennel-feed, &c. In whicfi 
operation, the Proces of Nature (lill will be, (as I conceive,; not that the Herb 
YOU work upon, fhould draw the Juyce of the Foreign Herb; (for that 
opinion we have formerly rejcacd ) but there will be a new conkaion 
of mould, which perhaps will alter theSced, and yet not to the kinde of the 

former Herb. t- l j r i 

The fourth Rule fhall be to mark what Herbs fome Earths do put forth 
of themfclves, and to take that Earth, and toPotir.ortoVcfTel it ; and into 
that, fct rhe Seed you would change •• As for Example, take from under 
Walls or thelike; where Nettles put foith in abundance, the Earth which 
voufliall there finde, without any String or Root of the Nettles; and pot 
that Earth, and fet in it Stock-GiUv-flowers, or Wall- flowers, &c. Or low 
in the Seeds of them, and fee what the event will be ; or rake Earth, that you 
have prepared to put forth C^lufhrotms of it felf, (whereof you fhall hndc 
fbme inl\ances following ,) and fow it in Purflane-feed, or Lettuce- feed ; for 
in thefe Experiments, it islikely enough, thatthe Earth being accuflomed to 
(end forth one kinde of Nourifliment, will alter the new Seed. 

The fifth Rule fhall be,tomaketheHcrbgrow contrary to his nature, as 
to make Ground Herbs rife in height •• As for example. Carry Camomile, or 
W ildc Thyme, or the Green Strawberry, upon fticks, as you do Hops upon 
Poles, and (ec what theevent will be. 

The fixth Rule fhall be to make Plants grow outot the Sun, or open 

Air; for that is a great mutation in Nature, and may incuce a change in the 

Seed • As barrel up Earth, and fow (ome Seed in it. and put inihc bottom 

of a Pond, or put it in (ome great hollow Tree ; try alfo the fowing 

' or 

Centnry V I. 

of Seeds in the bottoms of Caves ; and Pors with Seeds (own , hanged 
up in Wells , fomc diftancc from the Water , and lee whdt the tvent 
will be. 


IT is certain, that Timber-Trees \n Coppice JVoods , grow more upright, and 
more free from under Boughs, than thofe thatltand in the l-jelda. The 
caufe whereof is, for that PUnts have a natural motion to get to the 
Sun ; and bcfiJc?, rhey are not glutted with too much nounfliment ; 
for that the Coppice ftiarcth with them, and Repletion ever hindrcth Lon-ne/i^ «nrf 
itaturc. Liftly, they arc kept warm, and that ever in Plants hclpeth '^Ztf^nlof 

Expciinicntt ; 
in Confoit. i 
touching tbc ; 
Vyoicyiiy, and I 

Trees that arc of thernfclvcs full of Heat, ( which heatap[icarethby 
their icflamable Gums) as Firrs, and Pines, mount of themlelves in hcigl.tli 
without Side-boughs, till they come towards the top. The caufc is partly 
heat, and paitly tenuity of Juyce; bothwhichfend theiap upwards. As for 
Juniper.itisbut aShrub, and groweth not big enough in Body touiaintain a 
call Tree. 

It is reported, that a good ftrong Canvas, fpred over a Tree graft- 
ed low. foon after it puttcth forth , will dwarf it, and make it iprcd. 
The caufe is plain ; for that all things that grow, will grow astheyfindc 

Trees arc generally fet oi Rton or Kernels; but if you fet them of Slips, 
(as of (ome Jrccs von may, by name the C^lulLerry) iomt of the Slips wiU 
take 5 and thole that take, (as is reported) will be 1)jtiarf'trees The caufe 
is, for thataf/'/' draweih nourishment more weakly, than either a /?por or 

fii\lFUnts that put forth their Sap haftily, have their Bodies not propor- 
tionable to their length, and thetefore they are Winders and Creepers ; as 
Ivjf, Briony, Hops, IVoodbine : Whereas Dwarfing requireth a flow putting 
forth, and lefsvigorof mounting. 





PUrftSy And of 
tbt Jixcrifcm- 
(i: of PUntt, 
or SuftT- 

THe Sctipturc faith. That Solomon Wrote a Natural Hiitory, from the lExperiments 
Ceddr ot Lihnus, to the cj^fo/Tgrowing upon the Wall ; for fo thebeft 1'" Confott, 
i Trunjldtions have it. And it is true, ihatMofiis but the RudtHient of aP/unt, and f°„"<«J,m! tf 
! (as ii were) the Afould of Edrt/f or B<tr/'. 

m/o/ growcth chiefly upon Ridges of Houfcs, tiled or thatched , and 
upon the Crcfts of Walls , and that Mols is of a lightfome and pieafant | *''""" 
Green. The growing upon Slopes is caufcd for tnat Mofs , as on the 537. 
one fide it comcth of Moiiiurc and Water , fo on the other fide the 
Water mult but flidc, and not Itand or pool. And the growing upon 
Tiles, or Walls, &c. is ciufed, for that thofc dried Eart.s, having nor 
moiiiurc fufticient to put fortfi zFUnt, do practice Geimination by put- 
ting forth Mofs ; though when by age, or otherwife, t\-\cv grow to re- 
lent and refolvc , they fomefimcs put forth Plants , as Wallflowers. 
And almofl: all Mofs hath HvTC and there little Stalks , bcfides the low 

cJJ/i?/ growctii upon Alleys, cfpecially fuch.tslvecold, anduponthc 
North; as in divers Tarralcs. And again, if they b.- much trodden 1 orif i 
they were nt the fifll gravelled: For whercfoevcr Flants arc kept down, the j 
Earth putteth forth Mofs. 
. L^j Old } 


114 1 





^J\Qitural Hillory ; 

Old Ground, rhac hath been long unbroken up, gatiiercth Mo(s > and 
therefore Husbandmen ufc to cure their Paftuce-fitounds, when they grow 
to Mofs, by Tilling them for a year, or two: Which alfo de{)endcih upon 
the fame caufe ; for thic the more fparing andltarving Juycc oi the Earth, 
inlufficicnt for Plants doth breed Mofs. 

Old Trees arc more Moffie, (fjr) than young ; for th^t the S.ip is not 
fo frank a* to rilo all to the Boughs, but ticeth by the way. anJ puuccli out 

\ /••Kurxiw have ^3/ growing upon the Ground about them; 

f'l-j,.: CHufcoft Pontes 

Thccaufeis, for that the /="o«nMmJ drain the Water from the Ground adja- 
cent, and leave but fufficicnt moilture to breed iV/o/; and bclidcs, checold- 
nefsof the Water conduccthto thefacnc. 

ThcMofoi Trees, IS a kindeof Hlir ; for it is the juyce of the Tree, that 
is cxcerncd, and doth not aflimilatc, and upon great Trees the Mols gather- 
er h a Hgurc, like a Leaf. 

The naoifturc fort of Trees yield little Mofs, as we fee in t^Jps, TopUrs, 
IP'^tUoTts, Beeches, &c. Which is partly caufed for the reafon that hath been 
given of the frank putting up of the Sip into the Boughs j and partly, for 
tint the Barks of thofc Trees are more clofe andfmooth, than thofe of 
Oaks, and Aflies, whereby the Mofs can the hardlicr ill'ue out. 

In Clay Grounds, all Fruit Trees grow full of Mo(s, both upon Body 
and Boughs; which is caufed, partly by the coldnefs of the Ground, whereby 
the Plants nouriflilcfs » and partly by thetoughnefs of the Earth, whereby 
the Sap is fliut in, and cannot get up , to fpred fo frankly as it fliould 

Wc have faid heretofore, that if Trees be hide-bound, they wax le(s 
fruitful and gather Mofi ; and that they are holpen by hacking, (Sec. And 
therefore by the reafon of contraries, if Trees be bound in wich Cords or 
fotrc outward Bands, they will put forth more Mofs : Wliich (I think) 
hapneth to Trees that ftand bleak, and upon the cold Wind?. Ic would 
alio be tried, whether, if you cover a Tree , feme what thick upon the 
top, after his powiing, it will not gather more Mofs. I think alio, the 
Watring of Trees with cold Fountain Water will make them grow full of 

There is a Mofs tht'Perfuviers have, which comcth out ot Apple-Trecs, 
that hath an excellent fent. Ou^re, particularly for the manner of the 
growth, and the nature of ir. And for this Experiments fake, being aching 
of price, I have fet down the lad: Experiments, how to multiply and call on 

Next unto Mof , I will fpeak of CMushreoies , which ate likewife an 
unperfcft Plant. Tne Mufhtomcs have two ftrange properties; the one, 
that they yield fo delicious aMeat; theother, that they come upfohaflily, 
as in a night, and yet they arc unfown. And therefore fuch as arc Upftarts 
in State, they call in reproach, A^tushromes. It mull needs be therefore, that 
they be made of much moif^ure; and that moifture fit, grofs, and yet 
fomewhat coneoded. And (indeed) we findc , that Mushromes caufc the 
accident, which we call /ncz/iw, or the C^/rfr*- in the Stomach. And there- 
fore the Surfeit of them may (uflfocate and empoyfon. And this fheweth, 
that they are windy ; and that windinefs is grofs , and fwelling , not 
ftarp or griping. And upon the fame reafon Mmhromes are a venercous 


(^entury V l. 

It isreporced, cljac the Bark ot wliireor i\ed Poplar, (whicn areoftlie 
moifteft of Trees) cut fmall, and caft into Furrows well dunged, will caufc 
the ground to put forth Mushromei, at all (ealbnsof the year fit tobceatcn , 
Ibme add to the mixture Leaven of Bread, rcfolved in Water. 

It is reported, thnt if a Hilly-field, where the ftubble is ft^nding, be fet on 
fire, in theftiowry (c.Kon, it will put forth great Itore of Mmhromes. 

It is reported, that jF/jw-f/or» fliaken, or in rmall pieces, mixed with watred, putteth up Mmhromes. And we know that Haw-Horn is 
of a tat nad clammy fubftance : And it may be 0?:-Horn would do the 

It hath been reported, though it be fcarce credible.that Ivy hath grown 
out of iStags^Horn; which they (uppofe did rather come from a confrica 
tion of the Horn upon the Ivy, than from the Horn it fclf. There is not 
known any fubftance, but Earth, and the Procedeurs of Earth , (as Tile- 
Stone, &c.) chat yicldethanyMo(s,otHerby fubltancc. There may betryal 
madeof (bme ^eeds, asthat Fcnnel-Sced, Mu(iard-Seed, and Rape-Seed, 
put intofomeiirtle holes made in theHornsof Stag?, or Oxen, to fee if they 
will grow. 

There is alfo another unperfed Planr,that (in fliew; is like a great Mufli 
rome : And it is fometimes as broad as ones Hat, which they call a Toads- 
flool; but it is not Hfculent, and it growcth (commonly) by a dead Stub of 
a Tree, and likcwifc about the Roots of rotten Trees; and therefore fcemeth 
totakchis juytcfrom Wood putnhcd. Wnich fliewcch by the way, that 
Wood puirificd vieldetha frank moirture. 

TncreisaC^ke that gtoweth upon the fide of a dead Tree, thathath 
gotten no name, but it is large and of a Chcfaut colour, and hard and pithy ; 
whereby it fhouldfccm, that even dcadTrces forget not their purtingfotth, 
no more than the Carcaffes of Mens Bodies that put forth Hair andNails for 
a time. 

There is aCodoc Bag that groweth commonly in the Fields ; that at 
fitft is hard like a Tennis-Bali, and white; and after growth of a Mufhromc 
colour, and full of light duft upon the breaking ; and is thought to be dan- 
gerous for the eyes, if the Powocr get into them, and to be good for Kibes. 
Belike it hath aCorrofive, and fretting Nature. 

There is an Herb called y«w-£<jr, that groweth uponthcRoots, and 
lower parts of the Bodies of Trces,cfpecially of Elders, and fometimes Afhcs. 
Ic hatha ftrange propriety ; for in warm Water, it fwelleth, and opencthex- 
treamly. It is not green, but of a dusky brown colour. And it is ufed for 
fquinancie.s and inllamations in the Thtoat, whereby it feemeth to have a 
mollifving, andlenifvingvertue. 

There is a kinde of Spongy excrefcence, which groweth chiefly upon 
theRootsof theLafcr-Trce, aad fometimes upon Cedar, and other Trees. 
Itisvciy white, and light, and (ryablc; which we czWu^garuk^. It is famous in 
Pnyfickfor the purging of tougli Fkgm. And it is alio an excellent opcm t 
for the Liver , but oftlnfivc lo the Stomach j and in tafte it is, at thetiift 
fwcct and bitter. 

We finde no Siiper-Plant, that is a formed Plant, hu^ A fijfdioe. They 
have an idle Tradicion, that there is a Bird called a Ulftjfei-Bird, rhat fecdeth 
upon a Seed, which many tmies flie cannot difgeft, and lo cxpclleth it 
whole With her Excrement •, which falling upon a Bough of a Tree, that 
hath lomc rite, piufcth fotth Miffeltoe. But this is a Fable ; for u is no: 
probable, that Buds fliould Iced upon that they cannot difgclt. Bat allow 






5 57- 




^atUral hi/lory ; 

that, yet it cannot be for other R^eafons : For firft, it is found but upon 
certain Trees} and thole Trees bcarnofuch Fruit, as may allure thatB td to 
fit andfccd upon them. It may be, that Bird feedeth upon the MilVelcoc- 
B -Tries, and fo is often found there ; which may have given occafion to the 
talc. But that which makcth an endof thcqueftion is, that Mifleltoe hath 
been found to put forth under the Boughs.andnot (oiiely)abovcthcBuugh>; 
foitcannot be anything that filleth upon the Bough. M fldtoc growcth 
chiefly upon Crab trees, Apples tret s, fomctimcs uponH tl.s, and rarely 
uponO-ks i the Milfeltoe whereof is counted \ary Medicinal. ]i js ever 
green. Winter and Summer, and bciteth a white gliftcring Berry -, and it is a 
Plant, utterly differing from the Plant, upon which it growcth. Two things 
thetctorc may be certainly fct down : Firft, that Supcrfxtacion murtbcby 
abundance of Sap, in the Bough that puttcth it forth. Secondly, that that 
Sap muft be fuch as the Tree doth cxcern, and cannot aQimihtc, tot eifc it 
wouidgo into a Bough; and feemeth tobcmoref3tandun£\uous, 
than the ordinary S-ip of the Tree ; both by the Berry which is clammy, and 
by that it continucth green Winter and Summer < which the Tree doth 

Th'iS Expefim^trttf Mffcltoe m^y gwc light toother praftices; therefore 
tryal would be made, by ripping of the Bough of a Crab-tree in the Baik , and 
watering of the Wound every day, with warm water dunged , to fee if it 
"A'ould bring forth Miflcltoe, or any fuch like thing. But it were yet more 
likely, to try it with fome other watering or anointing, that were not fonatu- 
ral tothe Trceas Watcris; as Oyl, or Barm of Drink, &c. So they be fuch 
things askillnotthc Bough. 

It were good to try, what 'Plaius would put forth, if they be forbidden 
to putfortb their natural Boughs : Powl therefore a Tree, and cover ir, (cmc 
thicknefs with Clay on the top, and fee what it will put forth. I luppolc it 
will put forth Roots ; for fo will a Cionr, being turned down into Clay. 
Therefore in this Experimentalfo, the Tree would be clofed withfomcwhat 
that is not fo natural to the Plant as Clay is ; try it with Leather, or Cloth, or 
Painting, lo it be not hurtful to the Tree. And it is certain, that a B. ake h.ith 
been known to grow out of a Pollard. 

AMan may count thcPrickcsof Treestobeakinde of Excrcfccnce.for 
they will never bcBoughs, nor bear Leaves. The Plants that have Prickles, 
are Thorns, Black and White ; Bryer, Rofe. Lcmmon-trecf, Crab-trcc5, 
Goosbcrry, Berberry 5 thefe have it in the Bough. The Plants that have 
Prickles in the Leaf arc, Holly, Juniper, Whin bufli, Ih'llle ; Nettles alfo 
have a fmallvenemous Prickle ; (ohathBorrage, but harmlefs. The caufc 
muft be, haftv putting forth, wantof moifture.and thcclolcnefs of the Batk: 
For the hafte of the Spirit to put forth, and the want of nourifliment toput 
forth a Bough, andthe clofencfsof theBark, caufe Prickles in Boughs; and 
therefore thev ate ever like a Tjramis, for that the moiliure fpendeth after a lit. 
tie putting forth. And for Prickles in Leaves, they come aKoof putting forth 
more Juyce intothe Leaf, th^t can fprcd in the Leaf fmooh; andtherefore 
the Leaves otherwife arc rough,is Burrage and Nettles are. As for the Leaves 
of Holly, they arcfmooth, but never plain, but asitwere wichfolds for the 

fame caufe. 

There be ^\{oTu%ts. that though they have no Prickles yet they have a 
kindc of Downey or Velvet Rine upon their Leafes; as Etfr Campion Stocks 
GiU'tfloTters, Co/r*-/m ; which DoWn orNapcometh ofafubnle Spirir, in a 
foft or tat lubftancc. For it is certain, that both St9ck.'Gi!lifloT»ers, and Rofe- 


Century V I. 


I CdmpioHt, ftampcd, have been applied ( witli fuccefs ) bo the Wrcflis of 
j thoic that have had 'Tertun or Qturttn /Igues ; and the Vapor or Colts-foot 
'have a (anative vcrtuc towards the Lungs, and the Leaf aho is healing in 

\ Another kindc of Fxcrcfccncc is an Exudation of Plants, joyncd with 

i Putrcfadion , as wcfecin Oak-Applcs, which 4rc found chiefly upon the 
I Leaves of Oaks, and the like upon Willows : And Countrcy peoplfc hare a 
kinde of Predidion, that if the Oak- Apple, broken, be full of Worms, it is 
afignof apcflilentycar ; vchichis a likely thing, becaufc they grow of cor- 

There fs alfo upon .S"i(»*«, or other Brjer, a fine Tuft, or Brafliof Mofs 
of divers colours ; which if youcuCj you rtiallever findc full of little w hitc 

I Tis certain, that f^r/A taken out of the Foundations of f'^ults and Houfes 
andbottomsof fVelh, and then put into Pots, will put forth fundry kinde 
of Herbs : Butlbme time if required tor the Germination ; for if it be taken 
but from a Fathom deep, it will put forth the firfl: year, if much deeper, not 
till after a year or two. 

The nature of the Tldtits growing out of the Fartb fo taken up, doth fol- 
low the nature of the Mould it felf, as if the Mould be ioft and hne, it put- 
tetli forth foit Herbs ; as GrA/T, 'PlaHtine, and the like : If the Earth be 
harder and courfer, it puttoth forth Herbs more rough, as Tbljilis, Firs, 

It is common Experience, that where c/^tf*^/ arc clofc gravelled, the 
Earth puttcth forth the firft year Knot Graf, and after SfireGraf. The caufc 
is, for that the hard Gravel or Pebble at the firft laying, will not fuffcr the 
Graf to come forth upright, but turncth it tofindc his way where it can ; 
but after that the Earth is fomewhat loofened at the top, the ordinaty Grafs 
Cometh up. 

It is reported, thatFarthbeing taken out of fliady and watry Woods, 
feme depth, and potted, will put forth Herbs of a fat and juycy fubftance; 
as Pennyteort, Fur (lane, Houfleek, Tenny Rtyal, &t. 

The Water alio doth fend forth Plants that have no Roots fixed in the 
bottom; but they arc lefspcrfed Plants being almoft but Leaves, and thole 
fmallones: Such is that wcaWT) tick Treed, whi<?h hatha Leaf no bigger 
then a Thyme Leaf, but of a frcfher Green , and puttcth furth a little 
firing into the Water, far from the bottom. As for the Water-Lillv, it hath 
a Root in the Ground; and fo have anumbcr of other Herbs that grow in 
It is reported by fome of the y^«n>H/x, andfome o^j</fr>» Teflimony like- 
wife, that there be fome Plants, that grow upon the top of the Sea; being 
fuppofed to grow of fomc concretion of Slime from the Water, ^x'hcre the 
Jiwi heateth hot, and where the y*<iftirrcth little. As for the t^ Ig a Olt anna, 
I (Sea-lteed) 2nd ErtHgtum {Sea'ThiffW) berth the Rooti ; but have Sea-Tteed un- 
der the Water, the Sea Tlnftle but upon the Shore. 

j The i^naenis have noted, that there arc fome Herbs that grow out of 

Sno-k, laid up dole together, and putritied ; and that they arc all bitcer, and 
'. they name one efpecially, Flunus, which we caWuHoth-AMtta. It is certain, 
j that Worms are found in ShoTv commonly, like Earth-worms •, and there- 
fore it is not unlike, that it may likcwife putforth Plants. 




in Confort, 
touching (he ! 
frod'Hinq of [ 
ferleli Hlantt 
nithout Seedi, ■ 









5 7i. 


574. . 

in Confoit, 



!h(jttural Hi/lory 

The Ancients have affirmed, that there arc fome Hirbs that grow out 
of Stone, which may be, for thatitisccrta ii, that Toads liavc been found 
in the middle of a 1-reeftone. We fee alio, that Flints lying above ground 
gather Mufs; and Wall-flowers, and (ome other Flowers grow upon Walls. 
But whether upon the main Bnckor Stone, or whether out of the Lime, or 
Chinks, is not well obfervcd. For Elders and Aflies have been ftcn to grow 
out of Steeples-, but they manifeftly grow out of Clefts, infomuch as, when 
they grow big, they will disjoyn the i)tonc. is doubtful, whe- 
ther the Mortar it fclf putteth it forth, or whether fome Seeds be not let 
fall by Birds. There be likewife Rock- Herbs, but I fuppofc thofe arc , 
where there is fome Mould or Earth. It hath likewife been found, that 
great Trees, growing upon Quarries, have put down their Root into the 

In feme Mines in Gem/iny, as is reported, there grow in the bottom 
Vegetables; and the Workfolks ufcto fay, Tney have 0^rf^»f4/ Fertue, and 
will not (uffer men together them. 

The Sea-fands feldom bear Plants. Whereof the caufc is yielded by 
fome of the Ancients, for that the Sunexhaleththe Moifture, before it can 
incorporate with the Earth, and yield a Noutifliraentfot the Plant. And it is 
affirmed alfo, that Sand hath (always) his Root in Clay ; and that there be 
no Veins of ^and, atiy great depth within the Earth . 

It is certain, that fome Plants put forth for a time of their own ftorc, 
without any Nouriflimem from Earth. Water.Stonc, &c. Of v/hkh,videtht 
Experiment 2^. 

IT is reported. That Earth that was brought out of the 7»(/i«, and other 
remote Countreys fotBallaftfor Ships, call upon fome Grounds in Jtalj,did 
put forth Foreign Herbs, tons in £«repe not known ; and, that which is more, 
that of their Roots, Barks, and Seeds, contufed together, and mingled with 
other Earth, and well watred with warm Water, there came forth Herbs 
much like rhe other. 

Plants, brought out of hot Gouiitrcys, will endeavor toput forth at the 
fame time, that they do ufually do in their own dimatc j and therefore to 
preferve them, there is no more required than to keep them from the injury 
of putting back by Cold. It is reported alfo, that Grain out of the hotter 
Countreys tranflated into the Colder, will be more foreward than the ordi. 
nary Grain of the cold Countrey. ,, It is likely, that this will prove better in 
Grains, than in Trees j for that Grains are but Annual, andfothc vertucof 
the Seed is not worn out j whereas in a Tree, it is embafed by the Ground, to 
which it is removed. 

Many Plants, which grow in the hotter Countreys,being fet in the colder, 
will neverthelcfs, even in thofe cold Countreys , being fown of Seeds 
late in the Spring come up and abide mofl part of the Summer ; as wc 
finde it in Orengc, and Lemmon Seeds, Sec. The Seeds whereof, fown 
in the end of K^pril. will bring forth excellent Sallets, mingled with other 
Herbs. And I doubt not , but the Seeds of Clove- Trees, and Pepper- 
Seeds &c. If they cowldconie hither Green enough to be fown, would 
do the like. 


Century V I. 


T Here be fomc f/oli-erf, Blofims, Grdtns, and Fruits, which come mot<i 577. 
cariy , and others which come more lace in the year. The Flowers Experiments 
that come early with us, arc, Frime-Rafes, Fislets, t^nemmes, fVater'*Daffa '"Confoit, 

<fjC/«, Cr$(H4 Virnm, and fome early Tultppa's. 


A J -- touching the 

. , .- /^nd they arc all cold Plants, se^ 

which therefore (as itfiioald fccm) hive a quicker Perception ot the heat '''''''>'''""' 
of the Sun increafing, than the hot Herbs have, as a cold hand wjU (ooncr 
finde a little warmth, than a hot. And thole th:itcome next after, arc Wall- 
Flowcrs, Gowllipf, Hyacinths, Rofemary-flowcrs, (Sec. And after them 
Pinks, Rofcs, Flowerdeluccs, &c. And the latcll are, Gillv-flowers, Holly- 
Oaks, Larks-Foot, &c. Thcearlieft Bloffomsarc, the Blciromsof Pca^.^es, 
Almonds, Gjrnelians.Mczerions, &c. And they are of luch Trees, as have 
much moifture, either Watery, or Oyly. And therefore Cr^cwrfrww alfo, 
being an fjcrb that hath an Oyly Juyce, puttcch forth early. For thole alfo* 
finde the Sun Iboncr than the dryct Trees. The Grains are, firft Rvc and 
Wheat, then Oats and Barley, then Pcafe and Beans; for though Green 
Peafc and Beans be eaten fooner, yet the dry ones thatareufed fotHorfc- 
ment, are ripe laft ; and it feemeth, that the fatter Grain comethfirlf. The 
carlieft Fruits are, Strawberries, Cherries, Goofeberries, Corrans ; and 
after them early Apples, early Pears, Apricots, Rafps ; and after them, Da- 
, mofins, ind moll kuide of Plumbs,Peaches,(5cc. And the lateft are, Apples, 
Wardens, Grapes, Nuts, Quinces, Almonds, Sloes, Bricf-berries, Heps, 
Medlars, Servicer, Cornelians, «Scc. 

Ic is to be noted. That (commonly) Trecjs that ripen lateft. blofTom 
fooncrt J as Peaches Cornelrans, Sloes, Almonds, &c. And'it fcemcth to be 
a work of providence that they bloflbm fo foon, for otherwifc they could 
not have the ^un long enough to ripen; 

There be Frwits (but rarely) that come twice a year; asfomc Pears, 
Strawberries, &c. And it fcemcth, they are fuch as abound with oourifli- 
ment, whereby after one period, before the Sun waxeth too weak, they 
can endure another. The P'lolet alfo, amongft Flowers, cometh twice a 
year, efpecially the double White j and that alfo is a Plant full of moi- 
fture. ^o/w come twice, but it is not without cuttii>g, as hath been formcrlv 

In CMttfcovid, though the Corn come not up tilUate Spring, y« their 
Harvell is as early as ours. Tiie caufc is, for that theftrengthof the Ground 
is kept in with the Snow ; and we fee with us, that if it boa long Winter, it 
is commonly a more plentiful year: Andafterthofe kiode of Winters likc- 
wifc, the Flowers and Corn which are earlier and later, do come com- 
monly at once, and at the fame time ; which troublcch the Husbandman 
many times : For you null have Red-Rofes and Damask-Rofcs comctogc- 
thcr, and likewile the Harvell of Wheat and Barley. But this hapneth 
ever, for that the earlier ftayeth the later, and not that tire larcr cometh 

There be divers Fruit Trees, in the hot Countreys, which have Blof- 
foms, and young fruit, and ripe fruit, almoft all the year , lucceeding one 
another. And it is faid, the Orenge hath the like with us, for a great part of 
Summer, and fo alfo hach the Fig. And no doubt, the Natural Motion of 
Bhiits is to have fo: But that eithetthcy want juycetofpend, or they meet 
with the cold of the Winter. And therefore tfaisCirdtof ripening cannot 
be, but in fuccnlent Plants, and hot Conntrcys. j'LauI il. 


J\Qitural hi/lory ; 


in Con(oit, 
Ltfling of 
Httbt and 





Some Herbs are butt/annual, and die Root and all once a year ; as Bot- 
rage, Lemce, Cucumliers, Almk: Melons, Bafil, Tobacco, Mu^/dritfeed, andall kinccs 
of Corn ; fomc continue many years, ^^Hyffope, Cermander, Lavender, Fennel, 
&c. The caule of" the Dying is double ; the firft is, the tcndcrncls and 
weakness of the Seed, which maketh the period in alrrall time, as it is in 
Borrage. Lettuce, Cucumbers, Corn, &c. And therefore none of thcic arc hot. 
The other caufe is, for that fome Herbs can worlc endure cold, is Safil, 
Tobacco, Muftard feed ; and thclc have (all) much heat. 

THe lafting of Plants, is moft in thofc that arc largeft of Bodv, as Oaks, 
Elm.Chefnut.thc Loat~tTee,&c. And this holdeth in Trees, but in Herbs 
it is often contrary ; for Borrage, Coleworts, Pompions. svhich are Herbs 
of thclargeft fize, are of fmall durance; whereas Hjjfopc, li^tnter-Savorj, 
Germander, Time, Sage, will laft long. The caufe is, for tlut Trees hft ac- 
cording tp the ftrength, and quantity of rficir Sap and Juvce, being 
well munitcd by their Bark, againft the injuries of the Air : But Herbs 
draw a weak juycc, and have a loft Stalk ; and therefore thofe a- 
mongft them which laft longcft, are Herbs of ftrong fmcll, and with a 
fticky ftalk. 

Trees that bear Mali and Nuts, are commonlv more lafting thnn thofc 
that bear Fruits, efpeciallythemoifter Fruits; as Oaks, Beeches. Chcfnuts, 
Walnuts, Almonds, Pine trees, ice. laftlonger thanApples, Pears, Plumbs, 
dec. Thecaufcis.thefatnefs, andoylinefs oftheSapj which ever wafteth 
lefs, than the more Watry. 

Trees that bring forth their Leaves late in the year, and caft them like- 
wife late, arc more lafting than thofc that fprout their Leaves early^, orfhcd 
them betimes. The caufe is, forthatthclatccoming fortb, fl^eweth a moi- 
fture more fixed > and the other loofc, and more calily relolved. And the 
fame caufe is, that wildc Trees laft longer than Garden-trees ; and in the 
fame kinde, thofc whofe Fruit is acide more than thofe whofc Fruit is 

Nothing procureth the laftingof Trees, Bufhci, and Herbs, fo much 
as often cutti.ig ; for every cutting caufeth a renovation of the Ju\cc 
of the Plant; that it neither goeth lb far, nor rifcth fo faintly, as when 
the Plant is not cut : Infomuch, as tyinnual 'Plants, if you cut them fca- 
fonably, and will fpare the ulc of them . and fuffer them to come Up ftill 
young, V'ill laft more years than one, as hath been partly touched ; fuch 
as is Lettuce, Purflane, Cucumber, and the like. And for great Trees, 
we fee almoft all overgrovrn Trees in Church-yards, or near ancient 
Building, and the like, are Pollards or Dottards, and not Trees ac their 
full height. 

Some Experiment would be made, how by Art to make Plants more 
laftinw than their ordinary peri d; as to make a Stalk of Wheat, &c. laft a 
whole year. You mufteverprefuppcfe, thatyou handle it fo, as the Winter 
killethitnot; for we (peak oncly of prolonging the Natural Period. I con- 
ceive, that the Rule will hold.That whatfoevcr maketh the Herb come later, 
than at his time will make it laft longer time : It were good to trv it in a Stalk 
of Wheat, &c. fctin thefliadc, and encompalfed withacafcof Wood, not 
touching the Stra^ryto keep out open Air. 

As for thePrelervation of Fruits, as well upon the Tree or Stalk, as 
gathered ,we ftiall handle it under the Title of Confervation of Bodies. 


(^cntury V L 


He Particular Figures of T/^Hrnvc leave to their dtfcripcions, butfbmc 5^8 
^ few things in general, \vc will oblcr/c. Trees and Herbs, in the grow- ' ^"i"'""'^''" 
ing forth ot cV.eir Boughs. ind Branches, arc not figured, and keep no order. ' io^hma'th; 
The caufc is, for chat tnc Sap, being rcflraincd in the Rinde and Bark.break- j \'---trai °fi- 
ethnot forth at all, (as in the Bodies of Trees, and Stalks of Herbs,) till I |"^,7./^ 
they begin to branch, nnd then, when they make an eruption, they break | 
forth calually, where they Fnde beij way in the Bark or Rinde. It is true, ' 
thatfome Trees arc more fcattcred in their Boughs-. ^% Sullo-^ trees, PFurden- 
trees, Quince-trees, Aledlar-trces, Lemmon trees, &c. Some arc more in the 
form of a Tpamis, and come almoftto tod j as the Pear-trees (which the C i- 
ru/'/ will have to borrow his name of wtTj Fire) Orenge-trees, Fir-trees, Service 
trees, Lime-trees, &c. And fome arc more fpred and broad, as Beeches, Horn- 
beAm,&c. The rcfl arc more indifferent. The caufc of fcatterihg the Coughs 
is, the haffy brc.iking forthof thcSap j and therefore thofc Trees rife not 
in a B< -dy of my height, but Branch near the Ground. The caufc of the 
Tyrawisis, the keeping in of the Sap long before it branch, and the fpend- 
ingof it, whcnic bcginneth to branch, by equal degrees : The fprcding is 
canfed, by the carrying up of the Sap plentifully, without expencc, and then 
puttingit forth fpeedily, and at once. 

There be divers Herbs, but no Trees, that may be faid to have fome 5 ^'-^• 
kinde of order, in the putting forth of their Leaves : For they have joynts, 
or Knuckles, as it were ftopsin their Germination; as have Gilliflo-^ers, Pinks, 
Fennel, Corn, Reeds, and Canes. The caufc whereof is, for that the Sap afcend- 
cth unequally, and doth (as it were) tire and flop by the way. And it fcem- 
cth, they have fome clofcnels and hardnefs in their Stalk, which hindereth 
the Sap from going up, until it hath gathered into a knot, and foil more urfTed 
to put forth. And therefore, they arc mcflof them hollow, when the Stalk 
is dry J ^s Fennel Stalkj, Stubble, andC<ene.r. 

Flowers have (allj cxquifite Figures, and the Flower numbers arc 590. 
(chiefly) five and four; i$ in Trime-Rofes, Brjfer-Mofes.fwgle (JHtuk:JRofes, fingle 
Pinks, and CiHifls'Ti?ers,&c. which have five Leaves j Lillies, Florter-de-/itces, 
Borage, Bitglofi &c. w hich have four Leaves. But fomeputforth Leaves not 
numbrcd, but they are ever fmall ones ; as Marigalds, Trifole, &c. We fee 
alio, that the Sockets, and Supporters of Flowers, arc Figured ; as in the 
five Brethren of the IRofe, Sockets of GiUiflo'^ers,&c. Leaves alio are all fi^Lired, 
(ome round, fome long, none fquare, and many jagged on the (Ides ; which 
Leaves of Ftoteers fcldom arc. For, I account, the jagging of rink.s, and Gil- 
hjioTiers, to belike the incqualityof Oak.leaves, of Ftne'leaves,otthc like ; but 
they fcldom or nsver have any fmall Purls. 

OF rUnts fome few put forth their Bloffoms before their Leaves ; as 
t^lmomis, reaches^ Cornelians, BUck-Thtrn,&c. But mofl put forth fome 
Leaves before their Blolfoms ; as (Apples, Pejrs, Plumbs, Cherry, fVlute-'thorn, 
U'c The caufc is for thatthofe thaCput forth their BlofTomsfirft.have either 
an acute and fiiarp fpirit ; (and there!orc commonly they all put forth early 
in the 5";rm^, and ripen very late, as mofl of the particulars before mention- 
ed) orellcan oyly Juyce, which is aptcr to put out Flowers than Leaves. 

Ot P/j«rj fome arc Green all Winter, othcrscall their Leaves. There 
areGrccn all "W'intcr, Holly, hy, Bo.v, Firr. Hugh, Cyprei?, Juniper, ^ays, Rofe- 
»>.i)K &i. The caufc of the holding Green, U theclofe andcompaa fub- 
' M rtance 


in Confoit, 
S',mt principal 
iiifferencti ;'■ 

5 9 2-. 





J\(atHral hijlory ; 

ftancc of their Leavc«,and the Pedicles of them. And the diifc of chat again, 
is, cither the tough and vifcous Juycc of the Plant, or the ilrci gih and heat 
thereof. Of the firft fort, is HoUj\ which isof To vifcou> a luyce, as they 
make Birdlime of the Bark of it. TheSiaikof /f; is tough, and not fragile, 
as wc fee it in other fmall Twigs dry. Fm yieldeth I'icch. Box is a iati and heavy 
"Wood, as we fee it in Bowls. Eugh is a flroiig and tough Wood, as we fee it 
in Bows. Of the fccond fort,is7«»>/'*r, whichisa Wood odoratc, andmaketh 
a hot Fire. Bujs is likowife a hot and aroojarical Wood, and fo if RofemAtj for 
a Shrub. As tor the Leave?, their dcnfity appeareih in that, cither they are 
Imoothand fhining, asin^rf^J, HoJlj, Ivj-,Box, &c. or in that they are hard and 
fpirv, as in the reft. And tryal would be made of Grafting of .ffoyeHwr;', and 
^4^;, and Box, upon a Ho//; Stoek,becaufc they are Plants that come all Winter. 
It were good to try it alio with Grafts of other Trees, either Froit trees, or 
Wild-trees, to fee whether ihey will not yield their Fruit, or bear their Leaves 
later, and longer in the Winter j bccauli? t!ie Sap of the Hollj puctethfotth 
molt in the Winter. It may be alfo a Mezerion-trec grafted upon a Holly, will 
prove both an earlier, and a greater Tiee. 

There be fome Plants that bear no Flower, and yet bear Fruit ; there be 
fome that bear Flowers, and no Fruit ■■> there be fome that bear neither 
Flowers nor Fruit. Moft of the great Timber.trecs, (as Oaks, Becches,&c.; 
bearno apparent Flowers ; fome few (likcwi(c) of the Fruit-trees, as Mul- 
berry, Walnuts, &c. And fome Shrubs, (as Juniper. Holly, &c.) bear no 
Flowers. Divers Heibs alfo bear ^eeds, (which is as the Fruic,) and yet bear 
noFlowerf, asPurllant',&c. Thofe that bear Flowers, and noFmit, are few, 
as the double Cherry, theSallow, &c. But for the Cherry, it is doubtful, 
whether it be not by Art or Culture j for if it be by Art, then tryal would be 
made,whether Apples and other Fruits Bloflbms may not be doubled. There 
are fome few, that bearneither Fruit, nor Flower; as the Elm, tine Poplars, 
Box, Braks,&c. 

There be fome Plants that fhoot ftill upwards, and can fupportjhcm. 
felves, as the greateft part of Trees and Plants: There be fome other, that 
creep along the Ground, or wind about other Trees, or props, and cannot 
fupport thcmfelves ; as Vines, Ivy, Bryar, Briony,' Wood-bines, Hops, 
Climatis, Camomil. &c. The caufe is, (as hath been partly touched) for that 
all Plants, (naturally) moveupwardsj but if the Sap put up toofaft.itmakcth 
a flendcr Stalk, which will not fupport the weight ; and therefore thefe latter 
fort are allfwift and hafty comers. 

THc hrrt and moft ordinary help is Stercoration. ThtSheeps-inng isoneof 
the bcft; and next, the 'Dung oi Kitie; and thirdly, that of Horfes, 
which is held to be fomewhat too hot, unlefs it be mingled ; that of ^Pigeons 
for a Garden, as a fmall quantity of Ground, excelleth. The ordering of 
Pungis, ifthc Ground be Arabic, to Ipred it immediately before the Plough- 
ing and Sowing, and fo to Plough it in : For if you fpred it long before, the 
Sunwilldrawoutmuchof the fatnefs of the Dung; If the Ground be Grazing 
Ground, to fprcd it fomewhat late towards Winter, that the Sun msy have 
thclcis power to dry it up. Asfor fpecial CompoHs for Gardens (as a Hot Bed,&c.) 
we have handled them before. 

Tiicfcond kindeofCompoftiSjihefpreding of divers kindes of Earth j 

as mitrl, CLtll^, Sea Saml, Earth vipon Earth, Pond- Earth, and the mixtures of 

them. Olf,trl is thought to be tlic bcfl, as having moft fatnefs. And not 



(Jcntury V^ L 

heating the Ground too much. The next is Sea-fuHH^ which (no doubt) 
obtained a fpccial vertuc bv the Salt; for Saltisthc firll rudimenc ot lite. 
Chalk ovcr-ncatcth the Ground a little; and therefore is belt upon cold 
Clay Grounds, or moift Grounds : Butlheard a great //wtW lay, thatitwas 
a common error to think that Chalk helpeth Airable Grounds, but hclpcth 
not Grazing Grounds, whereas (.indeed) it hrlpcch Grafs as well as Corn. 
But that which brccdcth the error is, bccaufe after the chalking of the 
Ground, they wear it out with many Crops, without reft ; and then (indeed) 
afterwards it will bear little Grafs; bccaufe the Ground is tired out. Ic were 
good to try the laying of Chalk upon Airable Grounds, a little while before 
Ploughing, and to Plough it in, as they do the Dung ; bucthenirmuftbc' 
Friable firft, by Rain or L\ ing : A'J for Earth it compaffeth ic Iclf j for I 
knew a, grcA.t Garden, that had a Field (m amannerJ poured upon k, ahdit 
did bear Fruit excellently the firft year of the Planting; for the Surface of 
the f/rr/jis ever the fruitfullcll:: And farth lo prepared hath a double Sur- 
face. But it is true, as I conceive, that fuch^jr;/; as huth S" Alt-Peter brtdin it, 
it you can procure it without too much charge, doth excel. The way to 
haflcn the breeding of S'alt-reter, is to forbid the Sun, and the growth of 
Vegetables. And therefore, if you make a large Hovel, thatched, over fome 
quantity of Ground ; nay, if youdo but planck the Ground over, ic will 
breed Salt-Peter. As (otTond-earth or River-earth, it is a Very goodcompoft, 
cfpccially, if the 'Powfi have been long uncleanfed, and fo the Water be not 
too hungry j and I judge it will be yet better, if there be Itfflie mix-ture, of 

The third help of Ground is, by fomc other Subftances that have ver- 
tuc to make Ground Fertile, though they be not meerly Earth, wherein Afhcs 
excel ; infomuch as the Coimtreys about c/iCrw^ and /^t'/wviw have akindeof 
amerds made them, for the milchief the eruptions (many times) do, by 
the exceeding fruitfulncfs of the IbyL caufed bv thcAftcs fcattcrcd about. 
Soot alfo, though thin, fprcd in a/vVW or Garden, istrycdto be a very good 
compoft. For Salt it is too coftly ; butitistryed, that mingled with Sccd- 
corn, and fown together, it doch good: And I am of opinion, that Chalk in 
/■oWtr, mingled with Sccd-corn,woulddogood; perhaps asmuch as Chalk- 
ing the Ground all over. As for the ftccping of the Seeds in fevcral mixtures 
with Water, togive them vigor, or watring GrounJs withCompoft-watcr, 
wc have fpokenof them before. 

The tourth help of Ground is, the fufFcring of Vegetables to die into 
the Ground, and fo to fatten it ; as the Stubble of Corn, efpccially Peafe. 
Brakes cart upon the Ground in the beginning of Winter, will make it very 
fruitful. It were good {alfo)totry whether Leaves of Trees fwept together, 
Vvith tome ( halk and Dung mixed, togive them more heart, would not 
-make a good Corrpoft : For there is nothing loft, fomuch as Leaves of 
Trees, and as they lie Icattercd, and without mixture, they rather make the 
Ground four, thanothervxifc. 

The fch help ot Ground is, Heat and Warmth. It hath been arcicntly 
pra(f^ifcd to burn Heath, and Ltng and Sedge, with the vantage of the Wind, 
upontheGrounJ. We fee, that Witmth of Walls and Inclofurcj, mendcth 
Ground; wc fee alfo, that lyjng open ro the .?<;«»/;, mcndeth Ground ; we fee 
again that the Foldings of ihecphelp Gound as well by their warmth, as by 
their compoft: And it may be doubted, whether the covering of the Ground 
with Br.ikfs, in the beginning of the Winter (whereof we fpakc in the laft 
Experiment) hclpcth it not, by reafon of the Warmth. Nay, fomc very good 
M 2. Husbandi J 




!J\Qitural Hiftory ; 

Husbands do fufped, thatthc gathering up of Flints in Flinty Ground, and 
laying them on heaps (uhich is muchuled) is no good Husbandry forthat 
they would keep the Ground warm. 

The fixth help of Ground is, by Watring and Irrigation, which it in 
two manners ; The one by Letting in, and iihutting out Waters, at fcafon- 
ablc times \ for Water, at lome fealbns, and with rcafonablc ftay, doth good ; 
but at fomc other fealbns, and with too long Iby, doth hurt. And this 
fcrveth oncly for Meadows, which are along lome River. The other way 
is to bring Water from fome hanging Groundt, where there arc Springs 
into the lower Grounds, carrying ic in fome long Furrows ; and from thole 
Furrows, drawing it traverfe to fprcd the Water : And this makcth an excel- 
lent improvement, both for Corn and Grafs. It is the richer, if thofe hang- 
ing Grounds, be fruitful, becaufe it walheih oft fomc of tlic fatnefs of the 
Earthj but howfoever it profitcth much. Generallywherc there arc great 
overflows in Fens, or the like, the drowning of them in the Winter, makcth 
the !>ummer following more fruitful: Thecaufemaybefor, that it kccpeth 
the Ground warm, and nourifheth it. But the Fen men hold,that the Sewers 
muft be keptfo, as the Water may not ftay too long in the Spring , till the 
Weeds and Sedge be grown up ; for then the Ground vfill belike a Wood 
which kecpeth out the Sun, and focontinucth the wet ; whereby it will 
never graze (to purpolc) that year. Thus much for Irrigation ; but for 
Avoidances, and Drainings of Water, where there is too much, and the 
helps of Ground in that kinde, wc (hall (peak of tk«m in another place. 


',■*■. - 

iiCA^ i^ixi ^' 'V ic_iiS i'V.V mj-- •J't-'J^ :i;^U/;i>ia9» JCVtiiHiSK if^T Oi.'Oi» JC,-^ vu_'^ *i;«J <«.'.y j?,' .iJ*iiVi4IW 



Century VII, 

He differences between ylmmate and Inanmate Bodies, wc 
fliall handle fully under the Title ot Lift, and Zipjw/ 
Spirits, and 'Po-wers. We fhall therefore make but a brief 
mention of them in this place. The main differences 
are two. All Bodies htve Spirits, and Pneumatical parts 
within them ; but the main differences between Ani- 
mate and Inm'mate are two. The firft is, that the Spirits 
of things animate, are all contined with themfelvcs, 
andarebranched in Veins, and fecretSanales, as Blood is: And in Living 
Creatures, the Spirits have not oncly Branches, but certain Sells or Scats, 
whcrethe principal Spirits do refide, and wheceuntothcreftdo refort ; But 
the Spirits in things Inanimate are fhut in, and cut offby the Tangible pnrtfe'; 
and are not pervious one to another, as Air is in Snow. The fecond main 
dificrencc is, that the Spirits of Animate Bodies are all in fome degree (more 
or Icfs) kindled and inflamed;, and have a fine commixture of Flame, and 
an iErial fublfance : But Inanimate Bodies have their Spirits no whitin- 
flamed or kindled. And this difference confiffeth not in the Heat or Cool- 
ncfs of Spirits ; for Cltvcs and other Spices, Nupthu and ^Petroleum, have ex- 
ceeding hot Spirits (hotter a great deal than Oy/, PViix, or T-iUo^v, &i.) but 
not inflamed- And when any of thofe weak and temperate Bodies come to 
be inllamed, thanthcy gather amuch greater heat, than others have unin- 
flamcd, bcfides their light and motion, &c. 

The differences which are fecondary, and proceed from tlicfe two ra- 
dical differences are, firft, 'Plants arc all Hguratc and determinate, which 
inanimate Bodies arc not; for look how far the Spirit is able tofpred and 
continue it felf, lo fargocth the fhapc or figure, and then is determined. 
Secondly, pl4l^s do nourifh, inanimate Bodies do not ; chcy have an Accre- 
tion, but no Alimentation. Thirdly, P/4«tJ have a period of life, which in- 
animate Bodies have not. Fourthly, they have afucccflion aiid propagation 
of their kinuc, which is not in Bodies inanimate. 

M :; The 



in Coofoit, 
touching the 
affinities and 
hetueen Plants 
and I nanimate 





3\Qitural hifiory • 



i Experiments 
in Con(6it> 
^fjinilici and 
I IJiffertmei of 

Pttcnti, and 
I Liiiw^Crei- 

the Confinet 
and I'arl'tciples 
1 of them. 


1 he dilVcrcncfs between />/.««». and 3/a.iA. or Fofiles bcfidcsthofc four 
bcforcmcntioncd, (tor^^M// I bold inanimate) arc thdc : Firft, Cl/etals 
are more durable than Tims : Sccondlv, they arc more lolid and hard : 
-1 hirdly, dicv arc wholly lubtcrrany, whcrcns J'Ums :irc part above Jrauh, 

and part iindfr £(i:r/;. r t -kt r j 

' There be very few Crr^r^rf^ that participate ot the Nature ot Ilanis, and 

Metals both; Cor^iiscnc of the ncarefl of bothkindcs, another is Fitriol, 

forthatisaptclltolproutwithmoifture. .,, , cd r . 

'■ Another Ipccial Affinity is between rims and Mould, or tutrefM.ton: 

! ForallFutrcfaaion, (if it diifolTe notih Atcfaftion) will in thecndifTiicin- 

i to/'^»;»orL.v/«if C.<''«r»mbredofPutrefaaion. 1 account (L;^^/, andA////^- 

romes and J'rauck, and other of thole kindcs, to be but Moulds of the GrouDd, 

' Walls andf rcct.and the like. As for Flcsb. and/,;/;, and UUms thcmielvcs, 

and a number oi other things, after a ol/oz-W/^f/, ox Roucmcji, ot Corru^ttng. 

they will fall to breed JVorms. Thefc Putrefadions, which have Jffimty v^ith 

/^/4»rJ. have this difference from them; that they have no lucceffionorpro- 

pagation, though they nourifh, and have a period ot Lite, and have Jlkc^»'iic 

fume Figure. , ,. r .1 c 

Ileftoncc bv chance, aCirroHCUt in a cloicroom, for three bummer- 
moncths. that i was abfent ; and at my return, there ycre gro^^ n forthout 
of the Pith cur. T«/f^ot Hatrs,zn inchlong, withlittlc black Heads as it they 

would have been fome Herk 

ri-»Hc"Atfinitics and Differences between •P/rf«r^ andZJvi>j? Cremresy arc 
I tUcfc that follow. They have both of them Jfirif; continued and 
branched and alfo inflamed. But lirl^ in Ltymg Creatures the Sfmts have a Cei 
or Seat, which Plants have not, as was alfo formerly laid. And fecondly, the 
SpnUsoiUvmg Creatures hold more of Flame, than the Spiritsoi Plants 60 i 
and thcfe two are the Radical differences. For the Secondary differences, 
thev arc as follow. Firfl, Plants arc all fixed to the Earth ; whereas all Living 
Creatures arc fevered, and of themfelvei. Secondly. Living Creatures have 
Local Motion. Plants have not. Thirdly, Living Creatures nounni from 
their upper parts by the Mouth chiefly •, Plants nourifh from below, namely 
fnom the Roots. Fourthlv, PlantshavcthcirSecd and Seminal parts upper- 
mol^ Livincr Creatures have them lowcrmoft ", and therefore it was laid, 
not lilc'^inth alone, butPhilofophically: Horns eft Plants inverfa . ^fanishh 
a Planttwud .,pi>^ards ; For the Root in Plant;, isas the Head in Living Crea- 
tures ri;thly, LtvitKT Creaturesh:xvc a more exaa Figure than Plants. Sixthly, 
' Uvinc'^ rcatureshaVc more diverhtyof Organs within their Bodies and (as 
' it were; inward Figures than Plants have. Scventhly.Living Creatures have 
! ^cnlcwhich Plant^havenot. Eigiitly, Living Creatures have Voluntary 
I Motion^ which Plants have not. 

For thediflcrcnccof Sexes inTlants, they arc oftentimes bv namediflin- 
' cruifllcd j as A^ale-Pioiiy, Female- Fiony ; O^ale Rofeinary, Female-Rofemarj ; Hr- 
' Holly,' She-Holly, &<. But Generation by Copulation (certainly) cxtendeth 

hot to Plants. The ncareft approach of it, is between theHe-Palm. and the 
; 8bc-P.ilm, which (.IS they report) if they grow near, incline the one to the 
i othcrv, (that which is more flrange; they doubt not to report, 
•: that to keep the Trees upright from bending, theytye Ropes or Lines trom 
' tliconeto the other, ;that the contad might be enjoyncdby the contadtot a 

middle iiody. But this may be feigned, or at leafl: amplified. Neverthdcls, 1 

Century V 1 1. 


I am apt cnungh to think, that this fame Biiuiriiim of a flrongcr aad a weaker, 
I like unto JMafcuUnc and Fnnivim', dotli hol.i in all Living Bodies. It is con- 
founded (omciimcs ■., as in fome Creatures of I'utrebcliun, wherein no mark? 
. of diftindion appear ; and it is doubled lomctimcs, asinHcrnuiphrpditcs: 
• but ffcncrally there is a dcgrceof ftrength inmoftS'pccies. 

. ' The Participles or Confincrs between Flants and Living Creatures, are 
fuchchiefly as are fixed, and have not Local Motion of remove ,- thougia 
diey have a Motion in their parts, luciias arc Oyfters, Cockles, andfuch like, 
Thercis atabuIousNarration, Thatinthc NorthernCouninys there fliouldbe 
an Herb that growethin the likenefs of a L.niib, and feedcth upon the Grafs, 
infuch fort, as it will bear thcGrais round about. But, I i'uppofe, that the 
Figure makcth the Fable 5 for lo wcfce there beBcG-flovvcrs, &c. And as 
for the Grafs, it fccmcth the Plant, having a great ft.ilk and top, doth prey 
upon the Grafs a good way about , by dra\ving the Juycc ui the £rfr//; 
from it. j 


THcIndiAit f/g bowcth his Roots dosvnfolov^'in one year, asof itfelfit 
raketh Root again ; and lb multiplieth from Root to Root, making ol 
: one Tree a kindcof Wood. Tiiecaufeis, the plenty of the Sap, and the 
j foftnclsof theftalk, which maketh the Bough, being over-loaien, andnot 
l.ftiffly upheld, weigh down. It hath Leaves as broad as a little Target, but 
I the Fruitno bigger than Beans. The caufe is, for that the continual fhade in- 
crealcththeLeavcs, and abateth the Fruit; which neverthclcfs is of a plea- 
fant tafte. And that tno doubt) is caufed, by the fupplcnefsandgcntlcnefs 
of the juycc of that Plant, being that vrhich maketh the Boughs alfo fo 

It is reported by one of the t^ttcknts^ that there is a certain Indian Tree, 

ha ring few, but very great Leaves, three cubits long, and two broad ,• and 

that the Fruit being of good tafte, growethoucof thcBark. It may be. there 

be Plants thatpour out the .Sap Id faft, as they haveno leifure, cither to divide 

j into many Leaves, or to put forth St dks to the Fruit. With us Trees genc- 

1 rally have Imall Leaves in comparifon. The /''j^ hath the greatcft, and next 

it the Pirtf, Mulberry, Sind Sycamore, andthe leaftare thofeof thc/^/ffoTi^, Birch, 

, and Umn. But there be found Herbs with fargrcater Leaves ihan any Tree ; 

as the Bnr, Gourd, Cucumbe", and Colexvort. The caufc is, (like to that of thtJn- 

dian %) the hafty and plentiful putting forth of the Sap. 

There be three things in ufc for iVcctnefs, Su^ar, Honey, Mmna. For 

i Sugar, to the indents it Was fcarcc known, and little ufed. It is found in 

j Cane J ; Qu^re, whether to the firft Knuckle, or further up? and whether the 

very Bark of the Cane ic fclf do yield Sugar, or no ? Yov Honey, the See 

; makedi it, or gathereth it ; but I have heard from one, that was induftrious 

j in Husbandrv, thatthelabor of the Bee is about the Wax, and that he hath 

I known in the beginning of ;!</:«/, Honey-Combs empty of Honey, and within 

a fortnight, when the iwect Dews fall, filled like a Cellar. It is reported by 

fome of the t_/incients ,t\^Oit there is a Tree called Ofc/j(M, in the Valleys o; Hyr- 

cania, that diftilleth Honey in the Mornings. It is not unlike, that the Sap 

and Fears of fome Trees maybe fweet. Itmaybealfo,thatl"omcl"vveet juy- 

ces, fit for many ufcs, may bcconco(Scd out of Fruits, to the thickncfs of 

Honey, or perhaps of Sugar ; the likelicfl are Rafins of the Sun, Figs, and 

Corrans : The Means may be enquired. 

Thz^incientt report of a Tree, h'^tht PerfianSeA, upon the Shorc-fands, 


6 let. 





62 1. 


^7\(att4ral Hijlory ; 

which is iiourifhcdwiththc^alt-watcr ; and \\ hcntnc Tide cbbcth, you Ihall 
(ccfhe Roots, as it were, bue without Bark (being, asicfecmetli, corroded by 
the Salt) and gralping tliu Sands like a Crab , which ncvcrtheicis bcarcth a 
Fniir. It wcrcgoodto try fomc hard Trees, asg -Sctvicc-Trccor Fir-Tree, 
by fetting tnem within the Sands. 

Thtrcbc of Plants which they ulc for Garments, chcl; that follow, 
Hemp, Flax, Cotton, Nettles, (whereof they make Nettle Cloth) Sericum, which 
isa growing Silk; they make alfo C4W« of ihc B/irk^oi Lnne-Trees. Itisthc 
5f4/;^ihat makcfh the FtUtceom matter commonly, and fomctmics the^o-an 
that grovveih above. 

Tney have in fomc Countreys, a Plant af a Rofe-colour, which fhurteth 
in the Night, openeih in the Morning, and opcnech wioc at Noon ; which the 
Inhabitinisof tholc Countreys fay, is a Plant that flecpcth. 1 here be Slecp- 
crsenough then; for almofl all blowers do the like. 

Some Plants there arc, but rare, chat Iiavea Moflle or Downy. Root, and 
likewife that haveai, umber ct Threds like Beards, s^UMandral-es; whereofi 
Witches z\\6lmpofti)rs make an Ugly Image, giving itthcformot a face at the j 
top of the Root, and leave thofe firings to make a broad Beard down to the I 
foot. Alio there is a kmdcof A'^zriim Creet (being a kinde of Thu) thathatii ' 
a Root hairv. hke a Rough-footed Dovc?^ toot, So as you may fee, there are 
of Roots, BnlbtiK Roots , I'tbrou^ Roots, and Hirfute Roots. And, 1 take it, in the 
BHtbous, the Sapivilluetb moltto the Air and ^un : hMhc Fibrotis, the de» 
lighfcth more in tht Earth, and therefore puttcth downward ; and the Hir- 
fute hi m\M\f.:bct^cii\ both, that befides the puttmgforth upwards and 
downwards, puttcth fortn in round. 

ThtitZKciomtT ears oi Trees which are kcmbcd fiom the Beards o^ 
Goats; for when theGo/ifJ bite and crop them, dpecially in the Mornmgs, 
the Dew beir g on, the Teat cooicth forth, and hangeth upon taeir Beards ; 
Of this fort islome kinde ot XrfrfjwKwl 

The irrigation of the Plane-tree by Wine,: rs reported by die t^ticients, 
to make it fiuitful. It wouldbe trycd likcwifeti'ithKoots; for upon Seeds 
it worketh no grcatifFeO:, 

The way to carry Foreign Roots-, a long way. is to v<flcl themclofe in 
Earthen vefTels ; but if tlie Vtflllsbenot very great, you mud make fome 
holes in the bottom, to give fomc rcfrcfiiment to the Roots; which other- 
wife (.IS it feemeth) will decay, an'd lutlbcate. 

The ancient Omamm, was, of all other Plants, while it grew, the diycfl ; 
and thofe things which arc known to comtort other Plants , d-id make 
that more flcril ; for in fhovvcrs it profpcred Wuril : It grew alio amongft 
Bufhcs of other kindts, where commonly Plantsco rot thrive, neither did 
it love the Sun. There might be one caule of all thofe effcds , namely, 
j the fparing nourifhmcnt, which that Plant required. ^, how fir 
! CVr/fw, which is now the lubflitute of Cinnavtott, doth participate of thefe 
t'hings. ■ 

j ' itisrcpbrted by oneof thcc/^«"Wf,ihati74/»i«, when itisgathered, is 

put into the Skins of Beads newly fleyed ,• and that the Skins corrupting, 

I and breeding Worms, ifie Worms do devour the Pith and Marrow of it, 

and fo mafec it hollo w> bai nveddle not-'with the Bark, bccaulie to them it is 

bvtt-er. ..'■-■'•■■'. 

j There were in anciient.time, f^iaes of far greater Bodies, then we know 

i any ; tot there have been Cups made of them, and an Image of Jupiter. But 

! ifislike ihcy were witde Vines,- for the Vines that they ulefor Wine, are Co 

' o!tcn 

Century VIL 

often cut; and fotnuchdiggcd and dreffcd, that their Sap fpendethinto the 
I Grapes, and fo the iitalk cannot increafc much in buJk. 1 he Wood of Vines 
.j is very durable, without rotting. And that which is ftrange, though no Tree 
hath the Twigs, while they arc green, fo brittle, yet the Wood dried is cx- 
( trcam tough, and was ulM by the Captains of Armies amorgllthc Romans 
j for their Cudgels. 

It is reported, That in fome places. Vines arefuffcred to grow like 

Herbs fpreJing upon the Ground, and that the Grapes of thofc Vines arc 

I very great. It were good to mnketryal, whether Plants that ufe to be born 

up by props, will put forth greater Leaves, and greater Fruits if they belaid 

along the Ground ; as Hofs,Irji, IVoodb'me, &c. 

^iiuesotjlpptfs &c. if you will keep them long, drown them in Hme^ ; 
but becaufc Honey (perhaps) will give them a taftc over-lufhious, it were 
good to make tryal in Powder of Sugar, or in Syrrup of Wine oncly boiled 
to height. Both thcfe would likewife be tried in Orenges, Lemmons, and 
Pomegranates; for the Powder of Sugar, andSyrrupof Wine, willfcrve 
for times more than once. 

The Confervation of Frnit would be alfo tried in Veflels, filled vrith fine 
Sand, or with Powder of Chalk, or in Meal and Flower, otinDuftof 
Oak-wood, or in Mill. 

. Such Fruits 3s you appoint for long keeping, you muftgather before 
thev be full ripe, and in a fair and dry day, towards Noon > and when the 
Wind bloweth not South, and when the Moon is under the Earth, and in 
I Take Grapes, and hang them in an empty VcfTel, well flopped ; and fct 

j the Veflcl not in a Cellar, but in fome dry place, and it in faid, they will laft 
long. But it is reported by fome, they will keep better in a VcfTel half full 
of Wine, fo that the Grapes touchnotdhe Wine. 
I It is reported, that the preferving of tlie^talk. hclpcth to preferve the 

j Grape-, cfpccially, if the Stalk be put into the Pith of Elder, the Elder not 
' touching the Fruit. 

! It is reported by fome of the c/Zufi^w/y, that Fruit put into Bottles,' and 
I'thc Bottles let down into Wells under water, will keep long. 
! Of Herbs and Plants, Ibme are good to eatRaw ; as Lettuce, Endive, 
Purflanc, TarragonjCrelfes, Cucumbers,Musk-Melons, Radifh.&c. Others 
onclv after they are^boiled, or have pafl'ed the Fire; as Parfley, Clary, Sage, 
Parfhips, Turnips, Afparagus, Artichoaks, ^though they alfo beingyouhg 
are eat^n raw.) Butanumber of Herbs are not efculent at all ; as Worm- 
wood, Grafs, Green-Corn, Ccntory, HyfTupc, Lavender, Balm, &c. The 
caufes arc, for that the Herbs that arc not cfculent, do want the two tafles, 
in which nourifhmcncrcflcth ; which arc fat and fweet, and have (contrari- 
wifc) bitter and ovcr-ffcrong taflcs, or ajuycelo crude, as cannot be ripened 
to the degree of Nourifhmcnt, Herbs, and Plants, that arc Elculcnt raw, have 
fatnefs, or f\veetnefs (as allEfculent Fruits.) fuch are Onions, Lettuce, &c. But 
thenitmufl be fuch a fatnefs (for as for fweet things, they arc in efTed al- 
ways cfculent) as is not over-grofs,as loading of theStomack ; for Parfnips 
and Leeks have fatnefs ; but it is too grofs and heaxy wichout boiling, IC 
muff be alfo in a fubftancc fomcwhat tender; for we fee Whcat,Barlev, Arti- 
choaks, arcnogoodNourifhment, till they have pafTcd the Fire ,• but the 
Fire c*oth ripen, and makcth them foft and tender, and fothey become 
efculcnt. AsforRaddifli, and Tarragon, and the like, they are forCondi- 
ments, and not tor Nourifiiment ; and even fome of thofe Herbs, which arc 















0\(atural H'tflory ; 

notcfculent, xrc notwidirtandinjr poculcnt j us Hops, Broom, &c. ^/uj-f, what 
Herbs are good for Drink, bcfides the two aforenamed ; for tliac it may 
(perhaps) cafe the charge of Brewing, if they make Beer to require id's Malt, 
or make it lafl longer. 

Parts fit forthe nourifhment of LManin Tlants, arc Seeds, Rosts, and 
Fruits; but chiiBy Seeds and Boots. For Leaves,thcy give no nouriOimentatali, 
or very little ; no more do Flo-^ers, or Blojfoms, or Stdlkj. The reafon is, for 
that Roots, and Seeds, and Frutti, (in asmuch as all Vl.tnis conlift of an Oyly, 
and Watry fubftance commixed) have more of the 0>lv ilibflancc, and 
Leaves, EoTiers,&c. of the Watry. And fccondly, they are more concodcd. 
for the Root, •which continueth ever in the E.irth, is flill conceded by the 
Earth; and /"rtt/M and G'' <»/«»( We fee) are half a year, or more in conceding ; 
whereas Leaves are out, and pcrfed in a Moneth. 

I'Unts (for the moft part) are more flrong, both in taftc nnd fmell in the 
Seed, than in the jLf<«/ and iZoo/. Thecaulcis, for tliatin / lantsthn arc not 
of a fierce and eager fpirit, the vcrtuc isincrcaled by Concodion and Ma- 
turation, which is ever moft in the Seed ; but in I'Unts that arc of a fierce and 
eager fpirit, they are ftronger whileft the fpirit is incloled in the Root ; and 
the fpirits do but weaken and diflipate, when they come to the yfinnd Sun ; 
as v('c fee in Onmis, Garlkk., *DrAgon &c. Nay, there be Plants that h*ve their 
Roots very hot and aromatical, and their Seeds rather infipidcas Gtn^er. I he 
caufcis (as was touched before) for that the heat of thofe f/^wf^ is very difli- 
pable; which undcrthe£4«/j is contained and held in, but whenit cometh 
tothc Air.itcxhalcth. 

The J uy cc J of /r«irJ, are either Watry or OyJy. I reckon amongft the 
Watry, all thc/VK/«, outof whichj Drink is cxpteircd; atthcGrapt, mcjif- 
fie, the Peer, the Cherry, the Pomegranati, &c. And there arclome others, whi.h 
thouoh they be not in ufe for Drink, yet they appear to be of the fame nature ; 
as Plums, Services Mtilherr its, Rajps, Qrenges, Lemmons, &c. And for thofe Juycej 
that arcfbfiefhv, as they cannot make Drink by Expreflion, yet perhaps) 
they may make Drink by mixture of Water. 

TocuUqtte Aimijlii imitantur vitea Sorb is- 

Anditm.iy hcHeps iud Brier- Btrries would do thclike. Thofe that have Oyly 
Juycei, arc Olives. Jlmonds, Nuts of all forts. Pme-Jpples, &c. and their Juyces 
arc alj infiamablc. And you muft obfcrvc alfo,that ibme of the Watry j uycss, 
after they have gathered fpirit, will burn and enflame, as Wine, There is a 
third kinde of frK/tthat is Iwcet, without cither fharpnefs or oylinefs ; fuch 
as is the Tig and the l^ate. 

It hath been noted, that mofl Trces.and efpccially thofe that bear Af^/, 
arc fruitful but once in two years. The caufe, no doubt, is the expence ot 
Sap i for many Oithiiri, Trees well cultured , will bear divers years toge- 

There is no Tree, which bcfldes the Natural Fruit, dothbear lomany 
Baflard Fruits as the Oal^ doth ; for bcfides the c/f«r», it beare^h GaUs, 
Oak^ Apples, and certain Oak^^Nuts, which are infiamablc ; and certain 
OA'. Berries (ticking clofc to the Body of the Tree without Stalk. It beareth 
alfo Mifeltee, though nrcly. The caufcofall thefe may be. the clofencfs, 
and fohdnefs of the Wood, and Pithc of thcO.«^; which makcth fcvcral 
juyces finde fcvcral Eruptions. Arid therefore, if you will dcvifc to make 
any Super-Plants , you mufl ever givc che Sap plentiful rifing, and hard 


Cemury V IL ! 13 i 

There are two Excrefcenccs which grow upon Trees, both of them ' ci6, 
in the nature of cJ^w/jroww, the one the i?o>»x»J called 5ff/««f, which grow- ! 
j cth upon the Roots of Oiks, and w;is one of the dainties of chcir T.ible: 
1 The other is Md'imul, that is called ^fgartck (wheto^jf we have fpoken 
before) which giowech upon the tops of Oaks ■> though it be affirmed 
by fome, that it groweth alio at the Roots. I do conceive, that many Ex- i 
ctefcences of Trees gtow chiefly, where the Tree is dead or faded ; for j 
that the Natural Sap oi the Tree, cortupteth into fome Prenacural fub- j 
ftancc, ! 

The greater part of Trees bear mofV, and bcft on the lower Boughs ) ^17- 
as Oaks, Figs, W*l*iuts, Tears, &(. But fome bear beft on the top Boughs, as 
Crabs, &c. Thofe that bear beli below, are fuch, as fliade doth more good to 
than hurt : For generally all Fruits bear bcflloweft, becaufc the Sipitrcth, 
not having butafhorc way. And therefore in Fruits Iprcd upon Walls, the 
lowed; arethegrcateft, as was formely faid ; So it is, the fhade that hindveth 
the lower Boughs, except it be in fuch Trees as delight in fliade, or at kail 
bear it well. And therefore they are either (Vrong Trees, as the Oak, or clfe 
they have large Leaves, as the Walnut and Fig, or elfe they grow inPyramis 
as the Pear. But if they require very much Sun, they beat beft on the top; 
as it is Crabs, Apples, Plumbi,&c. 

Tnere be Trees that bear befl when they begin to be old ; as Almonds, 6^ 8. 
Pears, Vines, and all Trees that giveMaft. Thecaulcis,for that all Trees that 
bear Maft have an oyly Fruit ; and young Trees have a more watry Juyce,3nd 
lels concofted ; and of the lame kinde alfo is the Almond. The Pear like wife 
thowgh ic be not oyly, yet itrequirethmuch,Sap, and well concodcdj for 
we fee it is a heavy Fruit and folid, much more than Apples, Plumbs, &c. As 
for the Vine, it is noted that if beareth more Grapes when it is young j but 
Grapes that make better Wine whcnitisold, for that the Juyce is the better 
conco£led : And we fee, that Wine is inflamable, fo as it hath a kinde of oy li- 
nefs. But the mod part of Trees, amongft which arc Apples, Plumbs, &c. 
bear bcft when they are young. 

There be Plants that have a Milk in them when they are cut j as Figs, 539, 
Old Lettuce, Sow-thiftles, Spurge, &c. The caufe may be an Inception of 
Pucrefadion : Fort hole NFilks have all an Acrimony, though one would think 
they fhould be Lenitive. For if you write uponPapct with the MUk of thj 
Fig, the Letters will not be feen, until you hold the Paper before the fire, 
and then they wax brown ; which fhewerh, that it is a (harp or fretting 
juyce. Letmce is thought poyfonous, when itis fo old as to have Milk : 
Spurge is a kinde of poyfbn in it fclf j and as for Sow-thiftles, though Coneys 
eat them, yet Sheep and Cattel will nottouch them ; and befides, the Milk 
of them, rubbed upon Warts, in fhort time weareth them away .- Which 
fheweth the Milk of them to be Corrowfive. We ice alio, that Wheat and 
i other Cocnfown, if you take them forth of theGround, before they fprout, 
arc full of Milk ; and the beginning of Germination is ever a kinde of Pu- 
trefadionof the Seed. Euphorhum alio hath a Milk, though not very white, 
whichis of a great Acrimony. And S.-il.tdine hath a yellow Milk, wl.ich hath 
likewile much Acrimony, tor it clcanfcth the f^yes ; it is good alio for 

Musbrovies are reported to grow, as well upon the Bodies of Trees, as | 6^0. 
upon their Roots, or uponthc harth, and efpccially upon the Oak. The 
caufe is, for that ftrong Trees arc towards fuch Excrefcenccs in the nature 
of Earth, and therefore put forth Mof, Mtshromes, and the like. 



J\(jU{ra! Hijhry 







There is hardly found a lUnt thatyicldccha red Jnyccinthe Blade or 
Ear, except it be the Tree that bcarcth Stnguu ^Dracom; which gfweth 
chiefly in the Ifland fioquotr^ : i he Herb >^ramantlm (indeed) i$ red all 
over -, and hrafil is red in the Wood, and io is Red Sanders. The Tree ot 
SaHguu DrAioH.i growtth in the form of a Sugar-Loaf" ; it is like the Sap of 
that Ham concodcth in the Body of the 1 rec. For we fee, that Grnpcs 
and Pomegranates are red in thejuy cc, but arc Green in the Tear. And this 
makcth the ' rec of StnguU^DraconU IcfTcr towards the top, becaufe the Juycc 
haflnethnot upj and beiidcs, it is very Aftringcnt, and therefore of flow 

It is reported, that Sweet Mofs, bcfides that upon the Apple-trees, 
growcth likewiic (fometimcs) upon Poplars, and yet (generally) the Poplar 
is aiinoot'". Tree of Bark, an ' hath little Mofs. ThcMolsof theLarix-tree 
burnethalfolweet, and fparkleth in the burning, ^ire, of the Moffes of 
Odorate Trees; as Cedar, lypreji, Lignum Aloes &c. 

The Death that is moft without pain, hath been nc ted to be upon the 
t^kingof the Pc tion ot Hemloik, which in Humanity was the form of exe- 
cutionof capital offenders in Athens. The Povftn of thcAfpe, that Cleopatra 
ufedjhath fomc atiinitv with if. The caufeis, for that the torments of Death 
arc chiefs > raifed by thclirifc of the Spirits ; and thcfe Vapors quench the 
Spirits by degrees ; like to the death of an cxtrcam old Man. I con- 
ceive it is lefs painful then Opium, becaulc Opium hath parts of heat 

There be Frttif/ that arc fwcet before they ripen, as L^Iirahlanes -, Co 
Fennel-feeds arc fweet before they ripen, and after grow^ fpicv ; and Ibmc 
never ripen to be fweet ; as Tamarinds, Barberries, Crabs, Slees, ^(. The caufe 
is, for that the former kindc have much and fubtilc hear, which caufeth early 
fwcctncfs," the latter have a cold and acide Juyce, which no heat of the 
Sun can fwceten. But as for the Mirab^lane, it hath parts of contrary natures, 
for it is fweet and aftringent. 

There be few Herbs that have a Salttafte ; and contrariwifc, all Blood 
of Living Creatures hath afaltnefs -, the caufe may be, for that Salt, though 
it be the Rudiment of Life, yet in Plants the original tafte remaineth not; 
for you fhall have them bitter, fovvre, fweet biting, but leldom fait : Butin 
Living Creatures, allthofe high taftes may happen to be (fometimes in the 
humors, but are ieldom intheflcfh, or fubftance; becanieitisof a more 
oyly Nature, which is not very fufccptible of thofe taftes ; and the faltnefs 
itfelf of Blood, is but a light and fecret faltncls : And even among Plants, 
fomc do participate of i'altnefs, as t^lga Alarina. S.mpbire, Scurvy Graf, (jrc. 
And they report ch re isinfome of the/«rfw« J?/«, a Swiming Plant, which 
they ci\\, Ipredingoverthc Sea, in fort, as one would think it were 
a Meadow. It is certain, that out of the Afhes of all Plants, they extrad a 
Salt whichtheyufc in Medicines. 

It is reported by one of the ty^nclents, that there is an Herb, growing in 
the Water, called /.;»«/?», which is full of Prickles: This Herb putteth forth 
another fmnll Herb out of the Leaf, which is imputed to fome moifturc, that 
is gathered between the Prickles, which putrified by the Sun, germinateth. 
But I remember alfo, 1 have feen, for a great rarity, one Rofe grow out of 
anothcr.likc Honey Suckles, that they call Top and Top-gallants. 

B.irlej (as appeareth in the Malting) being frecped in Water three days, 
and afterwards the Water drained from it, andthe Barley turned upon a drv 
Floar, will fprout half an inch long, at leaft : And if it be kt alone, and 

Century V IL 

njt turned, much more, until the heart be out. will do:hcl'.;mC ; 
try it alfo with Fcafc and Beany. This Experiment is not like that of the 
Orpin and .S'fw/'tv-viv'ir ; for there it is of the old ftorc, tor no Water is added, 
but here it is nourilhcd from the Water. The \ xpcrimcnt would bc further 
driven ; for it appcareth already, by that whidi liath been laid, that Hart i 
is notneccilary to the lirlirproutintrcf PlJnts> and we lee. that Role-lSuds 
let in Water, will blow : Therefore try whether the Sprouts of fuch Grains 
may h jt be railed to a further degree, asto an Herb or Flower, with Water 
onely, or lome imall commixture of Earth : For if they will, it (houldiccni 
by the Experiments before, both of the Malt, and of the Roles, that they 
will come far farter on in Water then in Earch; for the nourifliment is eafi- 
lier drawnoutof VVaterthcnout of Earth. Itmaygive fomc lij^litaUb that 
Drink infuied with Flefh, as that With the Capon. &c. will nourifh falter 
and cafilicr, then Meat and Drink together- Try the fame txperimcnt with 
Roots, as well as w itli Grains. As for example, take a Turnip andftecpit a 
wbile, and then dry it, and fee whether it will fprout. -^ 

C^Lltin the Drenching willfwcll, and that in fuch a manner, as after 
the putting forth in fprouts.and the drying upon the Kiln, there will be gain- 
ed, at lealf, aBufliclin eight, and yet the fprouts are rubbed off, and there 
willbc a Bufliel of Dull befidcs the Malt ; which Ifuppofeto bc, notoncly 
by the loofc and open laying of the Parts, but by fome addition of lubllasscc 
drawn from the Water, in whichitwas ftccped. 

cJli'j/tgathcrcth a iwectnefs tothc taftc, which appeareth yet more in 
the Wort. The Dulcoration of things is worthy to bctryed to thcfull ; for 
that Dulcoration importeth a degree to nourifhmcnt. And the making of 
things inalimcntal to become alimental, may bc an Experiment cf great 
proht for making new vidua]. ^ 

Moft "^eedsin the growing, leave their Husk or Rind about the Root ; 
but the Onion will carry it up, that it will belike a cap upon the top of 
the young Onion. The caufe maybe, for that the Skin or Husk is norealie 
to break i as v\c Ice by the pillingof Onions, wliat a holding fubftance the 
Skin is. t 

TImis that hive curled Leaves, do all abound with moifture , which 
comcth fo fart on, as they cannot fprcd themlelves plain, but mull: needs 
gather together. 1 he wcakert kindc of curling is roughnefs, as in Clary and 
jBur. Thelecond is, curling onthc fides j asin Lettuce and young Cabbage. 
And the third is, folding into an Head, as in Cabbage full grown, and Cab- 
bage Lettuce. 

It is reported, that Firraud Pine, efpccially if they bc old and putrefied, 
though they i\^ inc not as fomc rotten Woods do, yet in the fuddcn breaking 
they will fparklelikc hard Sugar. 

The Roots of Trees do (fomc of them"! put downwards deep into the 
.Ground; as t!;e Oai-, Pme, Fur, &c. Some Ipred more towards theSurtacc 
of the Earth; as the lyhh, Cyprefi-tree, Olive, &c. The caufe of this latter 
may be, for that liich Trees as love the Sun, do not willingly dcTcend 
far into the Harth; and therefore they are (commonly) Trees that flioot 
up muchi for in their Body their defire of approach to the Sun maketh" 
them fprcd the Icis. And the fame reafon, under Ground, to avoid recefs 
fron^ the 'iun, maketh them fprcd tlie more, Andwcfccic comcth to 
pals in fome Trees which have been planted to deep in the Ground, that 
tor love of approach to the Sun, they forfake their tirrt Root, and put 
out another more towards the top of thcEirth. And wc fee alio, that 

N the 



^J\(atural Hljlorj ^ 


tf5 5. 



the Olive is full of Oily Juycc, and Afli makcth the bcft Fite , and 
Cyprcfs is an hot Tree. As for the Oak, which is of the former forr, it 
lovcth the Earth, and therefore gtowcth flowly. And for the Pino, "and 
Firrlikcwifc, they have \o much heat in thcmfelvev-, as they need ids the 
heat of the Sun. There be Herbs alfu, that have the fame difference; as 
the Herb they call (JHorfm'Dial/oti, which putteth the Root down fo low. as 
youcanuot pull it up without breaking; which gave occafion to the name 
and fable, for that it was (aid it was fo wholefome a Root, That the Devil 
Ttben it Ttas ^uthered, bit it for envy. And fomc ot the t_/4ncieHts do report, 
that there was a goodly Tirr ( which they defired to remove whole ) 
thn had a Root under ground eight cubits deep , and lothe Root came up 

It hath been ob(erved, that a Branch of aTrcc beingunbarked fomc 
fpacc at the bottom, and fo fet into the Ground , hath grown even of inch 
frees, as if the Branch were fet With the Bark on, thev would not growj yet 
contrariwife we fee, that a Tree pared round in the Body above Ground will 
die. The caufe may be, for that the wnbarkt part draweth the noutiihment 
beft, but the Bark continueth it oncly. 

Crapis will continue trcfh and moifl all Winter long, if you hang them 
clulUrbycluflcrintheRoof of awarm Roon^, erpecially, if whenyouga- 
thcrthe clufter, you take off with the clufterfomeof theftock. 

The Reed or Cane is a watry PJanr.and growerh not but in the Witer. 
It hath thefe properties. That it is hollow, that it is knuckled, both Scalk 
and Root, that being dry it is more hard and fragile then other "Wood, that 
it putteth forth no Boughs, though many Stalks out ot oneRoor. Itdiffcr- 
ethmuchin greatntf?, the fmallelf being fit for thatching of Hoiifes, and 
topping the chinks of Ships better then Glew or Pitch. The fecond bigncfs 
is uled for Angle rods and Staves, and in ChirtA for beating of offenders upon 
the Thigns. The differing kindes of them are, the common Reed, the 
Cafiia BfuU, and the Sugar-Reed. Of all Plants it boweth the eafieff, and 
rifeth again. Itfeemcth, that amongfl Plants which arenourifhed with 
mixture of Earth and Water, it draweth moftnounfhment from Water; 
which maketh it the fmoothcftof all others in Bark, and the hollowcft in 


The Sap of Trees, when they are let Blood, is of differing Natures. Some 
more watry and clear, as that ot Vines of Beeches, of Pears; fomc thick, 
asApples; fome Gummy, as Ctierries; fomefrothy.asElms; fomemilky, 
as Figs. In Mulberries, the Sap fcemeth to be (almoft) towards the Bark 
onely ; for if you cut the Trrt a little into the Bark with a Stone, it will come 
forth, if youpierce itdeeper with a tool, itwillbedry. The Trees which 
havethemoiftcft|uycesintheirFruit, have commonly themoifteftSap in 
their Body ; for the Vines and Pears are very moifV , Apples fomewhat 
more fpongy : the Milk of the Fig hath the quality of the Rennet, to ga- 
ther Cheefe , and fo have certain four Herbs wherewith they make Cheefe 
in Lent. 

The "Timber and fVeod are in feme Trees more fome moi e knotty ; 
and it is a good tryal , to try it by fpeaking at one end, and laying the 
Ear at the other: For if it be knotty, the voice will not pafs well. Some 
have the Veins more varied and Chamloted ; as Oafr, whereof "Wainfcot 
is made ; Maple, whereof Trenchers are made : Some more fmooth , as 
Firr and ^Etlnuti fome do more eafily breed Worms and Spiders ; fome 
more hardly , as it is faid oi Iri/h Trees. Befides, there be a number of| 


Century Flh '/'■ 

(iiffcrcnccs that concern their ufe : As Oak, Cedar, and ChclFnur, are 

the bc'ft builders. Some ate bell tor Plough- timber, as AHi; fomc for Peers 

that are fomctimes wet and fometimcs dry, as him ; fome for Plancher^, as 

Deal; ("omefor Table?, Cupboards and Deskf, as Walnuts; fometorShip. 

timber, as Oaks that grow in moift Grounds for that maketh the Timber 

! tough, and not apt to rift with Ordnance, wherein Hnglifli and Irifti Timber 

j arc thought to excel) (omc for Madsof Ships, as Firr and Pine, bccaufeof 

j their length, rtraightnefs, and lightnefs ; fome for Pale* as Oak > fome for 

I Fuel, as Afli : And lb ot tlie relt, 

! The coming of Trees and Plants in certain Region.s and not in others, 

! is fometimcs caluii ; for many have been tranllatcd, and have profpcrcd 
• well ; as T)amAik^Rofes, that have not been known in EngUnd above anj 
j hundred years, and now are To common. But the liking of Plants in; 
j certain Soyls mote then in others, is mcerly Natural • as the Firr and 
Pine love the Mountains ; the Poplar, "Willow, Sallow, and Alder, love 
j Rivers and moiil places; the Aflilovcth Coppices, but is befl in Standards 
j alone; Juniper lovcth Ghalk, and fo do moll Fruit-trees ; Satnpirc 
< gtowerh but upon Rocks 5 Reeds and Oficrs grow where they are waflicd 
j with Winter ; the Vine loveth fides of Hills turning upon the Somh-Eaft 
Sun, &c. 

The putting forth of ceitain Herbs, difcovereth of what nature the 

Ground where they put forth is ; as wilde Thyme fhevvetb good Feeding 

Ground for Cattel , Bcttonyand Strawberries flicw Grounds fit for Wood; 

Camomile fhewcth mellow Grounds fit for Wheat; Mulkrd-feed growing 

! after the Plough, fhewcth a good If rong Ground alfo for Wheat,- Burnet 

I (hewech good Meadow, and the like. 

There arc found in divers Counttcys, fome other Plants that grovout 
I of Trees and Plants, befidcs Miffeltoe: As in SyrU there is an Herb called 
t CijfpM, that growcth out of tall Trees, and windeth it fclf about the fan^c 
Tree where it groweth, and fometimes about Thorns. There is a kinclc 
\ of Polypodc that groweth oucof TrccF, though it windeth nor. So like- 
wife an HerU called FAtmos upon the Wilde Olive • and an Herb called Hip- 
fopbifioH upon the Fullers Thorn, which, they fay, is good for the Falling - 
i ficknefs. 

It hath been obferved by fome of the tyfHcients , that howfoevcrcold 
and tadcrly winds are thought to be great enemies to Fruit, vet neverthe- 
lefs South-winds are alfo found to do hurt, efpecially in the Blofloming 
i time , and ihc more, if fhowcrs follow. It (eemeth thcv call forth the 
moiiturc toofaih The Weft winds are the bclf. It hath been obferved alio, 
that green and open Winters do hurt Trees, infomuch, as if twoor three 
luch Winters come together, Almoad. Trees, and fome other Trees will die. 
The caufc is the fame with the former, becaufe the Lufl of the Earthovcr- 
fpendeth ic fclf ; howloever fome other of the ^tuientfhive commended 
warm Winters. 

Smits lyin? long caufc a fruitful year. For firft,they keep in thcflrcngth 

of the Earth .- Secondly, they water the, Earth better then Rain ; tor in 

Snow the Earth doth (as it were) fuck tlie Water asout of the Tear: Thiid- 

ly, the moillure of Snow is the fincit q^oifture, for it is the Froth of the 

' Cloudy Waters. 

, Sho^en, it they come a little before the ripcningof Fruits^ do good td 

:, all fucculcnt and moift Fruits, a Fmes, olives , T»mcj^ranMes\ yctitis rather 
fforplenty then for goodnefs, for the bcft Wines at«' in the dryeft Vintages. 

N z Small 








!J\(atural Hifiory ; 

Small (hovvers are likcwilc good for Corn , to as parcbini hca'S come 
not upon them, Gcner^illy, Nighffhowers arc better then Day flluwcrs; 
for that the Sun follow eih not lo fait upon ihcm : And we fee, even 
in watering by the Hand, it is belt in Summer time to water in rhc 

The differences ol Earths , .ind the tryalb of them, arc worthy to be 
diligently enquired. The Earth that with fhowcrsdoihcafilyfoftcn, is com- 
mended i and yet fomcHatth of that kindc will be very dry and hard before 
fhe ftiower5. The Earth that calteth up from the Plough a great clod, iS nor 
fo good .IS that which cafteth up a (mailer clod. Tne Earth that purteth forth 
Ml r eafiiy, and may be called Mouldy, is not good. The Earth that fmel- 
krh well upon the Digging, or Ploughing, is commended j as containing 
thcjuyceof Vcgecables almoft already prepared. It is thought by fome. that 
the ends of low Riin-bows fall more upon one kindc of batch then upon 
another: As it may well be, for that Earthis molt tofcidcj and thetefore it 
is commended for a fign of a good Earth. Thepoornefsof the Herbs (it is 
piair) ftieweth thepooruefsof the Earth, and efpeci;lly, if they be in colour 
more dark : But if the Herbs ftiew withered or bia!ted"at the top, it fhewcth 
the Earth to be very cold ; and fo doth the Moflirefs of Trees. The Earth 
whereof the Grafs is foon parched with the Sun and toafted, is commonly 
forced Earth, and barren in his own nature. The tender, cht {Torn, and mellow 
Larth is the beft j being meer Mould, between the two extreams of Clay 
tnd Sjnd, cfpecially, it itbe not Loamy and Binding. The Earth that after 
Rain will fcatce be Ploughed, is commonly fruiilul; for it is cleaving, and 
fuUcf Juycc. L , 

1. is ftrange, which is obferved by fome of the t^nciems, that Duft 
helpcuh the ftuiifulnefs of Trees, and of Vines, by name ; infbmucb, as they 
calf Dull upon them of purpofe. It fliculdfe'em that that pcwdrirg, when 
i fhowcr cometbj makcth a kindc of loylirg to the Tree, bving Earth and 
Water finelyilaid on. Andtheynotr, that L^cuntreys where thcFieldsand 
Ways arc dufty, bear the befl Vines. 

It is commended by t[cj4ttcients for ancixcellenthelp toTrecs to lay 
iheStaiks and Leave* of Lupives about the.Roots, or to Plough them into 
•he Groun J, where you will low Corn. The burning alio of the cuttings of 
V.nes, and cafling thi m upon Land, doih much gocd. And it was general- 
ly received of old, that dunging ot Grounds when the Weil-wind blowcth, 
andinthedecreafcof the Moon, doth greatly help; the Earth ^asitfeemeth) 
being tiicn more thirfly, and open to receive the Dung. 

TheGraffipgcf Vines upon Vines (as Itake it) is notnowinufe. The 
i^ncietits had it , and that three ways ; the firft wa^ lnfm«n, which is the 
ordinary manner of Graffing : The (econd was TereltAtton , through the 
middle of the Stock, and putting in theCions there: And the third was 
Paring of twoVines that grow together to the Marrow, and binding them 

. The Difeafes and ill Accidents of Corn, arc worthy to be enquired, and 
Wroulii he. more worthy to beenquitjcd , if it were in Mens power to help 
them i whertas many of them are not to be remedied. The Mildew isone 
of the greareft, which ( out of qutltion ) comtth by clofenefs of Air 5 
nd therefore in Hills, or Iirge Champain Grounds , it leldom comcth, 
fuch as is with us Tork's Woald, This cannot be remedied, otherwifc 
then that in CountreyS of fmall enelofure the Grounds be turned into 
hrgcr F.ctds : Which I have known to do good in fome Farms, j 

Another | 

(^entury V IL 


.uiother DiLalcis rhe puccm^ torch ot WiMcOats, vvnereintoCorn otccn- 
cimes ( efpecially Barley) Jotli dcgcncrace. Ir hapneth cHicily from the 
weakncfsof the Grain that is Town 5 for if it be either too old or mouldy, 
It will bring forth vvilde Oats. Another difeafe is the faticty of the 
Ground ; for if you fow one Ground IHll with the fame Corn (1 mean not 
the fame Corn that grew upon the fame Ground, but the fame kinde ot 
Grain, as Wheat, Barley, &c. ) it will profpet but poorly ; therefore be 
fides thereft'Hgot theGround, you muft vary iheSecd. Another ill A.ccident 
is from the Winds, which hurt at two times > at the flowring by fhaking off 
the Flowers, and at the full ripening by fhaking out the Corn. Another ill 
Accident is Drought at the fpindling of the Corn , which with us is rare, but 
in hotter Countreys common , infomuch as the word Calamitas was firft 
derived from Cdlamm, when the Corn could not get out of the (talk. 
Another ill Accident is Over-wet at fowing time, which with us breedeth 
much Dearth, infomuch as the Corn oever cometh up ; and (many times) 
they arc forced to re-fovv Summer-Corr, where they fowcd Winter-Corn. 
Another ill Accident is bitter Frolfs, continued without Snow, efpecially In 
the beginning of the Winter, after the Seed is new fown. Another Difeafe 
is Worms, which fometimes breed in the Root, and happen upon hot Suns 
and fliowers immediately after the fowing; and another Worm breedeth in 
the Ear it felf, efpecially when hot Suns break often out of Clouds. An- 
other Difeafe is Weeds j and they are fuch, as either choak and over- fhadow 
theCorr, and bear itdown, or ftarve the Corn, and deceive it of nourifh- 
racnr. Another Difeafe is, over-ranknefs of the Corn, which they ufe to 
remedy by Mowing it after it is come up, ot putting Sheep into it. An- 
other ill Accident is, laying of Corn with great Rains near or in Harvcft. 
Another ill Accident is, if the Seed happen to have touched Oyl, or any 
thing chat is (az ; for thcfc lubftanceshave an antipathy with nourifliment of 

The remedies of the Difcafcs of Corn have been obfcrved as folio wcth. 
The Steeping of the Grain before Sowing, a little time in Wine, is thought a 
prefei vative ; the Mingling of Seed-Corn with Afhes, is thought to be good; 
the Sowing at the wane of the Moon, is thought to make the Corn found. 
Ithathnoc been praftifed, but it is thought to be of ufe to make fome MifTel- 
lane in Corn ; as if you (ow afewBcanswith Wheat, your Wheat will be the 
better. It hath been obferved, that the fowing of Corn with Houfleek doth 
good. Though Grain that toucheth Oyl or Fat rcceiveth hurt, yet the 
fkepingof it in the Dregs of Oyl, when itbeginncthtoputrefic, (which they 
czW jlmurcA] is tlioug^t toaffureic againll Worms. It i> reported alfo, that 
if Corn bo moved, icwiU make the Grain longer, but emptier, and having 
mote of tne Husk. 

It bath been noted, that Seed of a year old is the beft, and of two or 
three years is worfe; and that which is more old is quite barren, though 
(no doubt) bme Seed and Grain la(t better then others. The Corn 
which in the Vanning licthlowcftis the beft; and the Corn which broken 
or bitten, retaineth a little ycUownefs , is better then that which is very 

It hith been obfcrved, that of all Roots of Herbs, the Root of Sorrel 
gocth the furtheft into the hiarthjinfomuch asithath been known to go three 
cubits deep ; and that it is the Root that continueth fit (longeft) to be fee 
again, of any Root that groweth. It is a cold and acideHerb, tnac (asitfeem- 
cth) lovcth theHarth,andisnotmuch drawn by the Sun. 

. N 3 It 







0\Qitural hiftory 5 

It hath been obfcrved, that fomc Herbs like bcft being watered with 
Salt-water ; as Radi{h, Beet, Rue, Penny rojal. This tryal would be cxrc-ndcJ 
to fomc other Herbs; elpccuUy fiKti as arc Ilrong, as TtrrAgoa, LMuJiard- 
feed,Jiociei, zndlhe hke. 

It IS itrangc, that it is generally received, how fomc poyronous Beafts 
atFeftodorate and wholfomc Herbs j as, that the Jn^/^e lovcth Fennel, that 
the 7().id\v't\\bc much under Sage, thati='ro^JWillbein Cinqucfoil. It may be 
it is rather the Shade, or other Coverture, that they take liking in, then the 
virtue ot the H.rb. 

It were a matter of great profit, ( five that I doubt it is tooconjedural 
to venture upon) if one could dUeern what Corn, Herbs, or Fruits, are like 
to be in Plenty or Scarcity, by fomc Signs and Prognofticks inthebegm- 
nii g of the year : For as for thofe that are like to be in Plenty, they may be 
bargained for upon the Ground ; as the old relation wasot Thales, who to 
fhevv how eafie it was for a Philofophcr to be rich, whcnheforclawagreat 
plenty of Olives, made a Monopoly of them. And for Scarcity, Men may 
make profit in keeping better the old ftore. Long continuance of Snow is 
believed to make a fruitful year of Corn ; an early Winter, pr a very late 
Winter, a barren year ot Gorn> an open and ferene Winter, an ill year of 
Fruit. Thelewe have partly touched before} but other Prognofticks of like 
nature are diligently to be enquired. 

Tnere leem to be in fome Plants fingularitiCF, wherein they differ from 
all other. The Ohve hath the oylypart onely on theoutfide, whereas all 
other Ftuits have it in the Nut or Kernel. TheFirrhath (ineffcft) noStone, 
Nut, nor Kernel j except you will count the little Grains, Kernels. The 
Pomegranate and Pine-Apple have onely, amongft Fruits, Grains, diftinft in 
Icveral Cells. No Hcibs have curled Leaves, but Cabbage and Cabbage- 
Lettuce. None have double Leave?, one belonging to the Stalk, another to 
thcFruitorSeed, but the Artichoak. No Flower hath rhatkindeof fprcd 
that the Woodbinehath. Tbismay be a large Field of Contemplation; for 
it fhcwcth, that in the Frame of Nature there is, in the producing of fome 
Species, a compofuion of, Matter, which hapnethoft, and may be much 
diverfitied; in ofhers, fuch as hapneth rarely, and admitteth little variety. 
For fo it is likewiCe in Beafts ; Dogs have a refcmblancc with Wolves and 
Foxes, Horfes with Affes, Kinewich Buflcs, Hares with ConcyF, See. And 
loin Birds J Kites and Keftrels have a refcmblancc with Huvks ; Common 
Doves with lling. Doves andT-urtles 3 Black-Birds with Thruflies and Ma- 
viffcs ; Crows with Ravens, Daws, and Choughs, &c. But tlephantsand 
Swine amongft Beafts, and thcBird ofParadife, and the Peacock amongft 
Birds, and fome few others, have fcarce any other Species that have affinity 
with them. 

We leave the Dcfcription of TUms and their Virtues to Herhals, and 
other like Books of Ndtuial Hi(iory . wherein Mens diligence hath been 
great, even to Curiofity. For out Experiments are onely fueh, as do ever 
afcend a degree to the detiving ofCaufesiand extrading of Axioms,whieh 
we ate not ignorant, but that fomc, both of ihe./f»«r«/ a^d Modern V^riters 
havealfo labored; but their Caufes and Axioms are fo full of Imaginati<jn, 
and foinfcded with the old received Theories, 3j they are mcer Inquinati- 
ons of Experience, and concoct it not. 


Centttry V IL 

IT hath been obferved by fomeof the t^ticims , that Skins cfpccially of 
J?^>«/ newly pulled off, acd applied to the Wounds of Stripes, do keep 
them from fwelling and cxuLcraiing , and likewifc heal them , ard dole 
thena up; and chat the Whites ot bggs do the fame. Thecauleis, a tem- 
perate Conglutination j for both Bodies are clammy and vifcous, and do 
bridle the Deflux of Humors to the hurts, without penning them in too 

YOu may turn (almoft) all Flefh into a fatty fubftance ,~ if you take Flcfh 
and cut it into pieces , and put the pieces into a Glafs covered with 
Parchment, and fo let the Glafs i-tand fix or feven hours in boyling Water. It 
I may be an experiment of profit, for making of Fat or Greafe for many ufes : 
But then it muft be of fuch Flefh as is not edible j as Horfes, Dogs, Bears, Foxes, 
[ Badgers, &i. 

IT is reported by one of the tyindents, that new Wine put into Veffels 
well ftoppcd, and the Veffels let down into the Sea, will accelerate very 
much the making of them ripe and potable; the fame would betrycd in 

B Hafts are more Hairy then Men j and Savage Men more then Civil i and 
rhe Plumage of Birdscxccedcth thcPilofity of Beafts. Thecaufeof the 
fmoothnefsinMcn, is notany abundance of Heat and Moifture, though that 
indeed caufcihPilofity; buttherc isrcquifuetoPilofity, not fo much Heat 
and Moifture, as Excromcntitious Heat and Moifture; (for whatfoever aflfi- 
milateth goech not into the Hait) and Excrementitious Moiftureaboundeth 
moft in Beafts, and Men that are more favage. Much the fame Reafon is 
there of the Plumage of Birds ; for Birds affimilate lef<, and cxcern more 
then Beafts, for their Excrements are ever aliquid, and their Flcfh (generally) 
more dry ; b^fide, they have not Inftruments for Urine, and foall the Excre- 
mentitious Moifture goeth into the Feathers : And therefore it is no mar- 
vel though Birds becommonly better Meat then Beafts, becaufe their flefh 
doth aftmiilate more finely, and fc-cerneth more fubtilly. Again, the Head 
of Man hath Hair upon the firftBitrh, which no other part of the Body hath. 
The caufe may be want of Perfpiration -, for much of the matter of Hair, in 
the other parts of the Body goeth forth by infenfible Perfpiration. And be- 
fides, theS'kull bcin^of amorc folid fubitance, noutifhethandallimilateth 
lefs, and cxcerncth moce; and fo likcwife doth theGhin. Wefeealfo that 
Hair Cometh not upon the Palms of the Hands, nor Soalsof the Feet, which 
at'e parts mote perlpirablc. And Children hkewifc are not Hairy, for that 
their Skins are moreperfpitablc. 



fJciling of 





Fat dijj'tiftdin 



Hiptnlng of 
the time, 

Pilnftty and 




Irds ate of fwifter motion then Beafts ; for the flight of many Birds is 
(wiftcr then the race of any Beafts. The caufe ij, for that the Spirits in SoiiwI^, 
B rds ate in greater proportion, in comparifon of the bulk of their Body, touching the i 
then in Beafts. For as for thercafou that fomc give, that chey arc partly car- ^l\^"„i„ 
ricd, wheteas Beafts go, chat is nothing ; for by that reafon.fwimming fhould Biris. 
be fwifter then tunning : And that kinde of carriage alfo, is not without labor 
of the Wing. 




touching the 

cltitrncji of the 

Heats ef Fire 

hd BoUiug 

[l\Qitural Hijlory ; 


touching the 

^a/ip nation 
of ffejt by 




THc Sea is clearer when thcNorth-vvindbloweth, then wlunthcSouth- 
vvind. Thccauleis, forthat Sdf^Ater hath a htileOylincfb in the Surface 
thereof, as appeareth in very hot days : And again, for that the Southern- 
wind rclixcch the Water fomewhat ; as no Water boyling, is fo (.Icar as cold 

F Zr<r burneth A^#9<f, making it firft Luminous, then black and brittle, and 
lallly, broken and incinerate; fcalding Water doth none of thefc. The 
caufe is, for that by Fire the J>pirit of the Body is firft refined, and then cmit- 
tcJ ; whereof the refining or attenuation caufeth thehghc, and theemiflion; 
lirrtthc fragility, and after the diflblution intoAfhes, neither doth any other 
Bod V enter. But in Water, the Spirit of the Body is not refined fo much ; 
and befides, part of the Water entreth, which dothincreafe the Spirit, and 
in a degree extinguifli it ; therefore we fee that hot Water will quench Fire. 
And again, we fee that in Bodies wherein the Water doth rot much enter, 
but onely the heat pafleth, hot Water workcth the cffeds of Fire: As in 
Eggs boiled and roaited, (into which the Water entreth not at all) there is 
fcarce difference to be difcetned ; but in Fruit and Fkfti, whereinto the Wa 
tct entreth in fomcpart, there is much more difference. 

THe bottom of a VelTcl of boyling Water (as hath been obfcrved) is not 
very much heated, fo as men may put their hand under the Vcflel, and 
remove ir. The caafc is, forthat the moifture of Water, as it quencheth 
Coals where it entreth, fo it doth allay heat where it toucheth. And thctc- 
fore note well, that moirturc, although it doth not pafs through Bodies with- 
out Communication of fome fubftance (as heat and cold do) yet it worketh 
manifeft cffedts ; not by entrance of the Body, but by qualifying of the heat 
and cold, as we fee in this inftancc. And wcfee like wife, that the water of 
things diftilled in water, ^which they call the Bath) differeth not much from 
the water of things didilled by Fire. We fee aho, that Pewter-Difhes with 
Water in them will not melt eafily, but without it they will. Nay , we fee 
more, that Butter or Oyl, which in themlelves are infiamable, yet by the vir- 
tue of their moifture will do the like. 

IT hath been noted by the yincUnts, that it is dangerous to pick ones Ear 
whileft he Yawncth. The caufe i.% for that in Yawning, the inntr Parch- 
ment of the Ear is extended by the drawing in of the Spirit and Bieath ; for 
in Yawning and Sighing both, the Spirit is firft ftrongly drawn in, and then 
ftiongly expelled. 


T hath been obfcrved by the jfncitms, that Sneezing doth ceafc the Hic- 
cough. The cauie if, forthat the Motion of the Hiccough is aliftingup of 
ihcStomach ; which Sneezing doth fomewhat deprefs, and divert the moti- 
on another way. Forfitft, we fee that the Hiccough cometh of fulnefs of 
Meat, (efpecially in Children) which caufeth an cxtenfion of the Stomach : 
Wc lee alio, it is caufed by acide Meats or Drinks, which is by the pricking 
oi the Stomach. And this motion is ceafed, either by Diverfion.or by Deten- 
tion of theSpirits: Diverfion, as in Sneezing; Detention, as we fee holding 
of the Breath doth help fomewhat toceafe the Hiccough, and putting a Man 
into an catne.l; fludy doth the like, as is commonly ufcd : And Vinegar put to 
theNoftrils crGargarizeddothitalfo; forth=ititisAftringent,and inhibiteth 
the motion of the Spirit. 


(^cntury V IL 


Ookinga^ninnrthc.Siin doth indiice Sn'etzing; ' T^e cS'iiTe IsT.ilot tlic 
_ , hencing of tlic Noftrils; fcrtlicn the holdingiipof the Nollri's again't 
the Sun, til: ugh one wink, would do it, but the drawing down of fhc moi- 
fturcof the Brain : For it will make the Eyis run U'ith W'atch andrhcdraw- 
ingof moifture to the Eyes, doth draw it to the NoftHIs by Motion ofCon- 
fcnt, and lo tollowcth J5ncczing. As contrariwilc, the TickliH* of the 
Noftriis uitl^.in doth draw the moifture to the Noftrijc, and to the Eyes by 
confent, for they alio vriH water. But yet it hath been obfcrvcd,' thacif one 
be about to fncezc, the rubbing of the Eyes till they run w ith uairer, ^ill 
prevent it. Whereof the caufe is, forthat tlKliumor which wascfcfctddine 
cothcNoftrilsJsdivcrted tothc < yes. i./"l?u :;>. . : 

THg Teeth arc moreby cold diink, or the like, affcded, thenthc other 
parts. The caufe is double ; the one, for that tile rcfiftance of Bone td 
cnlJ, is greater then of Flefli ,• for that the Flefli fhrinkcth, but the B tnecc- 
flftcth, u hereby the Coldbecometh more eager. The other is, forrharthc 
Teeth are parts without J-Joid, whereas Blood hclpeth toqu.ili c the cold. 
And therefore we fee, that the Sinews arc much affedcd with Cold^ for that 
they are parts without Blood. So the Bones in fliarp Colds wax brittle ; jind 
therefore it hath been {ctxi, that all contufions of Bones in hard \VeatHcr,'lre 
more difficult to cure. '" . - ! . .i... 

^G ; J7uilirtfn lo ?3:; n 

IT hath been noted, that the Tongue rccciveth mor^G eafif^-ftik'e^'o'f 
Difcafcs then the other parts ; as of heats within, which appear m jft 
in the blackncfs of the Tongue. Again, Pied Cattcl are fpottqd irf their 
Tongue^, &:c. The caufe is (no doubt) the tendcrncfs of the parp, whicH 
thereby receiveth more eafily all alterations then anir other parts' df til fc' 
Flcfli. ' , .' . ,. ^•"■^' .-'■•■i-p^-''-''-'-^ 

WHen the MouthiVoutoY t'fle;'iVma1<kht!imgs''elifcf4fe^"m^^^^^ 
chiefly bitter, and fometimcs loathfomc but never fwect,"The 
caufe is, the corrupting of ihe moifturc about the Tongue, which miny 
times turncth bitter, nnd fait, and loathfome, but fwect never ; for tbcVCll: 
arc degrees of corruption. "'no " riijov; 

:} \int. zilciR 

TTwas obferved in the Gredt VUgue of the lafl vcar, that there were fcen in 
A divers Ditches, nn.l low Grounds about /LWwi, mai y To.ids tH^t hdd 
Tails two or three inches long at the leal , whereas Tcx?ds (ufuallyj'h'av'^ /lO 
Tails at all ; v hich argueth a great difpofition to putrcfadian \\\ t^hc Soil 
and Air. It is reported hkcwifc, that Roots (fuch as. CirrotJ and rtrfnip/) are 
n)(i)re fwcct.and lufcious in inftdious ycafs then in o'ttier .fiJirs. ' ' 

W'.fc Thjffuuns [hould with all diligence inquit^twhatSimplcsNjturc 
yieldcch, that have cxcream fiabtilc parts without any Mordication 
or Acrimony ; fcr they undermine that which is hard,thcy open that w hich ' 
is Itoppcd and /hut, and they rxpel that which is offenfivcgcntl > , w ithbut ' 
too much perturbation. Of this kind^- arc Eldtr-floTtns, which therefore 
are proper for the Stone ,- of this kinde is the 'Dycavf-pme, which is 
proper for the Jaundics ; cfthis kin.^c is Ihrtstmn ^ which is propci 
or Agues and Infeftionsi of thiskindeis Titny, which is proper forStop- 
pings in the Head ; of th skindc is Fumitory which is prr j^crfor the Spleen ,' 
•' •" • and 



S mixing. 


E.vpf rirat'nt 
Tcndcrncfi «/ 
ifce Teith. , 

<?8 9. 

toufhing ihc 
T or.gut. 


louching the 

Somi Progno- 
fli\ii>f Ftfli- 
lintiat Sia- 

Sftiiil Sim- 
pUiforAttd!- I 
tint I, 




in Confoit, 

! touching 



iH V .At?, 


J\(aturd hi/iory ; 

and J number of others. Generally, divers Creatures bred of Putrcfaillon, 
though tlicy be lomewhat loathfome to take, are of this kindc ; as Edrth- 
■norms, Tmhcr-foTfs, Stmts, &c. And I conceive, the '7rot/)«/"« oi Vipcu 
(whicharcfo muchmagniKeJ) and the iicfiiof Snakes fjmc ways conuited 
and corrc(5lcd (which of late are grown into fomc credit) arc of the fame 
nature So the parti of Bcafts putrefied [as Cajloreim and aW-, uhich have 
cxtreiam fubtil parts) *rc to be placed amonglt them, ^z Ice aho, that 
putr.tfatlion of Plants {as ^g>tricle^ and 'JeMs-tar) arc of greatcft vertue. 
TKe»:aufe is, for that putrefaction is the i'ubtileftof all motions in the parts 
of Eodi(:s, Andfince vvc cannot take down the lives of Living Creatures 
(w hich fome of the 'PrfJ'/i«//i'»n-f fay, if they could be taken down, would 
make us Immortal,) the next is, for fubtilty of operation to take Bodies 
putrehed.fuchas may be fafely taken. 

IT hath been obferVcd by the Mc'ients, that muchufc of f'enus doth dim the 
fight, and yet Eumdn, which arc unable to generate, are (neverthelefs; 
alio diip-fightcd- The caufc of dimnefs of fight in the former, is the ex 
pence cf Spirits •, in thp latter, the over-moifture of the Brain ,- for the ovcr- 
moiflurci of the Ik.ain doth thicken the Spirits vifual, andobflrudeththe^r 
paftigGj , as we fee by the decay in the fight m Age , where alfo the dimi- 
nutipnof tJhc Spirits concurreth as another caufe. We fee alio, thatblind- 
ncfs cometh by Rheums andCatarad^s Now in Eunuchs there are all the 
notes of moifture ; as the fwdling of their Thighs, the loofncfs of their 
B^liy,- thefnipothne|s,pf iheir skjnj &c. 

, * . V.tTieiakafur^iip. t)be Ad of Vemu, is the greatcft: of the plcafures of the 
^,<n^5';' ,t|he pnatchin^bf itvrith Itch is imptoper, though that alfo beple«- 
fingtqtke touch, but the caufcs are profound. Firfl, all the Organs of the 
Senfcs qiialif^c the motions of the Spirits, and makefo many fcveral fpeqes 
of motions, and plcafures or difpleafures thereupon, as there be diverfities 
of Organs. The Jn.ftruments of Svght, Hearing, TaJ?e, and Stnetl,ire of teyera^ 
frame, and fo ar^.the parts for Generation -, thersfore Jr-j/i^fr doth well to 
oiaK.q.thc' pjc,ifuj:e 9^ Generation a fixth Senfe. And if there were any other 
dijfef|ng Organs^ gild Qualified Perforations for the Spirits to pafs, there 
would beWore then the rive Senfes .Neither do we wcllknow,whetherfomc 
Beafts and Birds have not SenfiS thxt we know not, and the very Sent of 
Dogs is almofl a fcnfe by itfelf. Secondly, the Pleafures of the Touch, are 
erepter and deeper then thofe of the other Jwi/fj, as wcfecin/i^rfrwineup- 
QXi Cold, or Reft igeTAtionVi^ox} Bat: For as the Pains of theToucharc greater 
tiie^ tHe offences of other Senfcs, fo likewifc arc the Pleafurei. It is ;rue, 
tjj.^t t^e^ffeifiing of the Spirits immediately, and (as it were) without an 
Organ,^' is^of tiiegrcatcfipleafure J which, is but in two things, Sneetfrnells 
and^'jwf. andthelike^S'^m vdpars. For Smells, we fee their great and fudden 
effpft jn fi;tc;hing N^cn^again when they fvvown ; for Drink, it is certain, iJbai; 
tj^e'pjlcafure of Drijnk'cnnef? isnext thepleafurc of /^twtf; and great Joy^s 
(fecwit^' j make thc^ '.Spirits moVjC and touch themfclves ,• and the plcafiire 
(jir^VNfw'is fonriewhat of the fame: kinde. 

..'!'". 1 It hathi been always obfefved, that Men are more inclined to ^«»^in 
tjie.V? inter, an<i Women in the Summer. The caufe is.for that the Spirits in 
acotl'ymore hotanddry, ^as the Spirits of Men are) by the Summer arc 
mote' coaled andUiffipated, and in the Winter more condenfcd and kept 
entice ; but in Bodies that are cold and moifl, (as Womens are) the Sumnner 
:"'"""~' '■ ■ ' ■- -^ ' '■ •' doth 




Century F I J. 

doth cherifti the Spirits ^nd calleth them forth, the Winter doth dull them. 
Furthermore, the Abftincncc orlnrermiflion or the nicoi yenm, in moill and 
well habituate Bodie<,brccdcth a number of Dil'cafes ; and eipecially danger- 
cusimpolthumations. The rcafon is evident, forthat itisa prmcipiltvaeua- 
lion, efpeciilly ot theSpirits ; for of the Spirits, there is fcarce any cvacua. 
tion, but in ^«j/^ and excrcife. And therefore the omifllon of cither of them ' 
breedeth ail difeafes ol Repletion. 

THe nature of Vivification is very worthy the enquiry ; and as the Nature Expe.imcnts 
ot things is commonly better perceived infmall then ingrcar, and in '" Confort. 
unperfea then in pcrfed, and in parts then in whole ; fo theNatureof Vi- /°/Sr.'"''" 
Vitieation is bcft enquired in Creatures bred of Putrefaaion. The contem- ' 
plation whereof hach many excellent Fruits. Firft, in difclofing the original 
ot Vivification. Secondly,in difelofing the original of Figuration. Thirdly, 1 
in difclofing many things in the nature of pcrfcft Creatures, which in them ' 
lie more hidden. And fourthly, in traducing by way of operation, fomc 
cbfervations inthe/«/"f<?x, to wotkcffeas upon pcrfcft Creatures. Note, that 
the word Infeaa agreerh not with the matter , but wc ever ufe it for brevities 
fake, intending by it Creatures bred of Putrefadion. 

Tiic Infea^ave found to breed out of feveral matters : Some breed of 
Mud or Dung 5 aj the EArth-ttoms , Eels, Snakes, &c. For they are both 
Putrefaftions : ForWaterinMuddo notabletopreferveit felf ; 
and for Dung, all Excrements are the rcfufe and putrefadions of nourifh- 
ment. Some breed in Wood, both growing and cut down. ^utre. in what 
Woodsmoft, and atwhat feafons. We fcethat the Wormswith many feet, 
which round thcmfelves into Balls j are bred chiefly under Logs of Timber, 
but not in the Timber, and they arefaid to be found alfo (many times) in 
Gardens where no Logs are. But it feemeth their Generation requireth a 
coverture bothfrom Sun, and Rain ot Dew, as the r.wi«?r is,- and therefore 
they are not venemous, but (contrariwife) ate held by the Phyfitiansto 
clarific the Blood. It is obfetved, that C»m;«/ are found in the holes of Bed- 
fides. Some breed in the Hair of Living Creatures 5 as Lice and likjs, which 
are bred by the fwcat clofe kept, and fomcwhat airified by the Hair. The 
Excrements of Living Creatures do not onely breed hfellx when they are 
cxccrned, but alfo while they arein the Body; as in Worms, whereto Chil- 
dren are moft fubjctt, and are chiefly in the Guts. And it hath been lately 
obferved by Phyfitians, that in many TefiUem Tttfeafes there are Worms 
found in the uppet parts of the Body, where Excrcmentsare not, but onely 
humors putrefied. Fleas breed principally of Straw or Mats.where there hath 
been a little moifture, or the Chamber and Bed-ftraw kept clofc, and not 
aircd.ltis rcceived,thattheyarekilled by ftrewing Wormwood in theRooms. 
And it is truly obferved, that bitter things are apt rather to kill then en- 
gender Putrefaaion, and they be things that arc fat or fvveet that are aptdt 
to putrefie. Tnere is a Worm that breedeth in Meal of the fliape of a large 
white Maggot, which is given as a great dainty to Nightingale?. The Moth 
breedeth upon Cloth, and other Lanifices, elpecially it they be laid up dankifli 
and wet. Itdelighteth tobc about the flamcot a Candle. Theteisa Worm a ITeni bred under Ground, and that fccdeth upon Roots, as Parfoips, 
Garrots.&c. Some breed in Waters, cfpeciallv fhaded, but thev mulf beby 
ftanding Waters; as tie Waiter- Spider that hath fix Legs. The Fly called the 
Grfrf/;^ breedeth of lomewhat that fwimeth upon the top of the Water, and 



J^tural Hiflory ; 



is moft about Ponds. There is a Worm that breeocih of the Dregs oJ Wine 
! dccavc.',\\hichafccrwards (asisobfervetlbyfome of thcy/na^uj-) tiirneih in- 
; to a (Jv.iit. It hath been cbl'crved by the Ainients, that there is a Worm that 
, breedcth in old Snow, and is of colour redd. fli, and dull of motion, ind dieth 
(oon after itcomethout otbnow % which fliouldfliew thatinovv hath in it a 
Iccret warmth, for elfc it could hardly vivitic. And thereafon ot the dying 
of the Worm may be the hidden exhaling ot that little Spirit , asfoonasit 
comcthoutof the cold, whichhad fiiutitin. Tor as Butter llies quickui with 
hear, which were benummcd with cold ,• fo Spirits may exhale with heat, 
which were preferved in cold, Itisaftitmcd, both by the /.vcknt znA Modern 
obfctvation,thatin Furnaces of Copper and Brafs, where Chalcites is (which 
is Vitriol) often caft in tomend the working.thererifcthfuddcrly a Fly wliich 
fometimes movcth, as if it took bold on the Walls of the Furnace ; feme- 
times is (ecn moving in the fire below, anddieth prefently asfoonasit isoiit 
of the Furnace. Which is a nobleinftaace, and worthy to be weighed i forit 
fiicweth that as well violent heat ot fire, as the gentle heat of Lwing Crea- 
tures will vivifie, if it have matter proportionable. Now the great axiom 
of Vivification is, that there mulf be heat to dilate the Spirit of the Bod \v an 
Active Spirit to be dilated, matter vifcous or tenacious to hold in the Spiiir, 
and that matter to be put forth and figured. Now a Spirit dilated by fo ardent 
a fire as that of the (oon as ever it cooleth never (o little, congeal- 
eth prefently. And (no doubt) this action is furthered by the Cbalcite5,which 
hath a Spirit that will put forth and germinate, asv/efee inGhyniicalTryals- 
Briefly, molt things putrefied bring foith//»/f^<«ot fcvcral names, but we will 
I'iOt take upon us now to enumerate them all. 

The /«/f(7<<have been noted by the Ancients to feed little: But this hath 
not been diligently obferved 5 for Grafhoppers eat up the Green ot whole 
Countreys, and Silk- worms devour Leaves iwiftly.and Ants make great pro- 
vifion. It is true, that Creatures that fleep and reft much, eat little, as Dor- 
mice and Bats, &c. they arc all without Blood i which may be, for thac the 
Juyceof their Bodies isalmoft all one ^ not Blood, andFlefh, andSkin, and 
Bone, as in perfect Creatures ; The integral parrs have extream variety , but 
thcfimilar parts little. It is true, that they have (fome of them) Diaphragm, 
and anintefline; and they have all Skins, which in moif of ihe/nfea.i, ate 
caft often. They are not rgcneially) of longlifc; yet Bees have been known 
to live feven years; andSn^ikesare thought, the rather for the calling of their 
fpoil, to live till they be old; and Eels, which many times breed of pucre- 
fa£tion,will live and grow very long;.9tld thofethatenterchange from Worms 
to Flies in the Summer, and from Flics to Worms in the Winter, have been 
kept in Boxes four yearsat iheleaft ; yet there arecertainFliesthat are called 
Ephemera that live but a day. The caufe is, the exility of the Spirit, or per- 
haps theabfenceof the Sun 5 for that if they were brought in, or kept clofe, 
they might live longer. Many of the Infe^a (as Butter-flies and other Flies) 
revive eafiJy, when they fcem dead, being brought to the Sun or Fire. The 
caufe whereof iy,.thediffufion ofthe Vital Spirit, and the eafie dilatingof it 
by alittle hear. They ftiragood while after their heads are off,ortbat they be 
cut in pieces ,• which is eaufcd alfo, for thac their Vital Spirits are more dif- 
fufed throughout all their parts, and lefs confined to Organs then in perfeft 

The Infeila have voluntary Motion, and therefore imagin^ition. And 
whereas fome of the yf>u/w.f have [aid, that their Motion is indeterminate,3nd 
theix imagination indefinite, it is negligently obferved.i for Ants go right 


Century FII. 


forwards to their Hills ; and Bees do (admirablv) know the way from a 
Floury Heath, two or three miles off to Hives. It may be Gnats and 
Flies have their Imagination more mutable and giddy, as (mall Birds likc- 
wil'ehave. It is faidby (bme of the Ancients, that they haveonely the Senfe 
of Fetling, which ismanifeftly untrue ; for it they go forth right to a place, 
they mull needs have Sight: Befides, they delight more in owe Flower or 
Herb, then in another, and therefore have talle. And Bees are called with 
found upon Brals, and therefore they have hearing. Which fheweth like- 
wife, that though their Spirits be diffufed, yet there is a Seat o{ their Senfcs in 
their Head. 

Other obferyAtions concerning f/;f Infeda, together ivith the Enumeration of them^ 
•»•? refer to that pLtceynhereJte mean to handle the Title of Animals iff ^rn#M/. 

A Man Icapeth better with weights in his hands, then without. The caufe 
is, for that the weight (if it be proportionable; ftrcngthncth the Si- 
news, by contradingthcm; for orherwife, where no contradion is needful, 
weight hindrcth. As we fee m Horfe Races, Men ate curious to iorcfee that 
thercbenot the leaft weight upon thconeHorfe more then upon theother. 
In Leaping With Wcights,thc Arms are firftcaft backward',and then forward?, 
with fo mi-ch the greater force ; for the hands go backward before they 
take their raile, Qiure, if the contrary motion of the Spirits, immediately 
before the Motion we intend, doth not caufe the Spirits as it were to break 
forth with more force j as Brfeath alfo drawn, and kept in, cometh forth more 
forcibly : And in cafting of any thing, the Arms, to make a greater fwing, are 
firft catt backward. 

OF Muftctl Tones and unequal Sounds, we have fpoken before, but touch- 
chc plealureanddifplealureot the Senfes not fo fully. Haifli founds, as 
ot a J^TJ'whcnitisfharpned, Grindingof one Stone againft another, fqucak- 
ng orlcricchingnoifcs, make a fli;veringor horrorin the Body, and fet the 
Teeth on edge. Tnc caufe is, for that thcobjedsof the do afFcft the 
Spirits (immediately) moft with pleafure and offence. We fee there is no 
colour tnat affedeth the Eye much with difplcafure. There be fights that 
are horrible, bccaufe they excite the memory of things that are odious or 
featful; but the famcthings painted, do little affeft. tKs (ot ^m ells, T aft es. 2nd 
7 ouches, they be things that do affcd by a Participation or Impuifion of the 
body of the Object. Soitis Jo«nrf alone that doth immediately and incorpo- 
re3llvaff(.cf ino'h This is molt manifeftin Mk/ic/^ and Concords, zndTDifcords 
in L^luftck^: VoiaW Sounds, whether they be fharp or flat, if theybefweer. 
havearoundiielsand equality j and if they be harfli, are unequal : For zDif 
cord it (elf, is but a harfhnels of divers founds meeting. It is true, that in- 
equality, not Itaid upon, but paffing, is rather an increafe of I'wcetnefs ; as 
m thePurlingof a Wreathed String, and in theraucity of ^Trumpet, and 
in the 7^ighting.tle-^ipe of a Regal, and in a 1)tfcord (traight falling upon a 
Cncord : Bu: it you ftay upon it, it is offenfivc. And therefore thetc be thcfc 
three degrees of plcafing and dilpleafipg in Sounds ; Street founds, 'Difcords, 
and Harfh founds, which we call by divers names, as Scriechwg, or Crating, fuch 
as we now Ipeakof. Asforthe fettingof the Teeth on edge, we plainly lie 
what an imcrcourfc there is bet ween the Teeth, and the Organ of the Hearing, 
by thctakingof the end of a Bow between the Teeth, and fttiking upon the 




touching «he 
of the Stnfttt 
e(ptciaUy of 





NAT d R A L 


Ceniury Fill. 

Wh rt i 

(Here be CMinerAh and Fof'tles in gtckt fariety , biii of I 

Veins oi Earth Medicinal but fcw- The chief arc. Terra 

Lemnii , Terra. SigiHat* ctmmunis , aild Boltu Arnuntis ; 

whcfcof TertA LemnU is the chief. The Vcrtues of 

them are for Curing of fVourtdt, .StanchinjT of Bj9od , 

Stoppins; of Ftttxes ind Rbeumt, and Arrefting the Sprcd- 

ingof Veji fan, Infidion, and Putrefaclitn : And they have of 

all other Simples the pcrfcdlelt and pureft quality of 

, 'Drvm"', with little or nu mixture of any other quality. Yctit is true, that 

tho^Bole yirminiii! is the nioftcoldot ticm, and that 7#rrrf Lemnii is the moil: 

'hot; for '«'hichcaufc the lOand Lemnos where it is djf»^cd, ^as in'the oid 


Vtinlif Nit-- 
dkinxl F.irtf:. 

Fal>n!custy^"es confccratcd to Vulcan. 

1 o^ij,-)» ] .;; JCililoilf I 

1 ' A Bout the Bottom of the Serei^rhtt arc gathered grcittjuaHtiti'cs ofS^hgts^ 

V^^vVhich arc gathered from the fiJcs ot Roth, bcirtg as it were a lirgc, 

' but tough o1f^,(i. It is the more to be noted, becaufc'thJit there be but few* 

' Subllancc J, Plant-like, that grow deep within the^ca for they arc gaclicrcd 

ibmitrrtie Fifteen fathom deep ; And when they arc hid on Shore, they feirh 

to b<»df great Bulk 5 but crullidd togcthdr, will be tcanlported in a-vcr^ 

ImaUTbom. ; n iiv'.npiiuxi 1 "ibniM iciii ' ?'- .no:* 

IT f<ftmeth That F/jfc that ire ufcd to tlic Salt-water, doncvcrthclcrs de- 
lightmorein tPcHi. Wc fee thati"-</>no«rand5'>"f/j/lovctogetintoRiTcrs, 
though it be agdinft the Stream- At the Haven of Cun/iantrntflexoM fliall 
I have great quantiries of Fish that come from thd Euxtnt Se^, that when they 
j come into the Frefh-watcr, do inebriate and turn up rneit Bellies, foasyou 
jmajrfftke them With your h*nd. Idoubttherc hathnotbccnfulHcicnt Ex- 


Croanh if 

Sta F'lfb put 
in Frtlh tr.x 

O 2 




!J\(atural Hi/lory; 






Similitude 0/ 


Solid 17. 
Certain drink^t 
in Turkfyt 

in Con(ott, 


pcrimcntmadcot putting Jm y/jfr into Frcfh-watcr, Ponds, and Pools. Itis 
a thing oi great ulc and pleafurc j for io you may liavc them new at fomc 
good diltancc from the Sea : And bciidcs, it may be the Filh will eat the 
plcafantcr, and may fall to breed. And it is laid, that CaUheJler 0)lters. 
which arc put into Pits, where the Sea goeth «nd comcth, (but yet \o that 
there is a Frcfli-watcr coining alio to them "when the Sea voidcth) become 
by that means fatter, and more grown. 

THc Turkish ^(»> givctli a very forcible Shoot, infomuch asit hath been 
known, that the t^rrtip hath pierced a Steel Target, or apiece of Brals 
of two Inches thick : But that which is more ftrangc. the <<<frroTi-, if it be 
headed w ith Wood, hath been known to pierce through a piece of W ood of 
eight Inches thick. And it is certain, that wc had in ulc at one time, for Sea- 
fighc, ihovt ^rr»Tn, which they called J/iri;g/;r/, v jthoiit any other Heads, 
five Wood /harpncd ; w hich were difcharged out of Muskets, and would 
pierce through the fides of Ships, where a Bullet would not pierce. But 
this depcndeth upon one of the greatcft fecretsin all Nature j v hich is, that 
S'imil'nude of Sub^/drict'ifiU caulcAttradion, where the Eody is wholly freed 
from the Motion of Gravity : Forif that were taken away, Lead would draw 
Lead, and Ge/rf would draw Gold, and iron would draw /row without the help 
of the Load-// ON f. But this f.ime Motion of Wcightor Gravity (which is 
a meet Motion of Matter, and hath noaliinity with the Form or Kinde) 
doth kill the other Motion, except it fclf be killed by s violcntMotion ; and 
in thefe inflanccs of Arrows, for then the Motion of Attra^ion by Simili- 
tudeof oubflancebcginncthtoflicwitlcll. But Wc fhall handle thispcint 
of Ntiiure fully in due place. 

THcy have in Turi^t and the Fnft, certain ConfeHitvs, vhich they call 
Servcts, \fhich arc like to Candid Ccnftrves , and are made of Sugar srd 
Ltmmetis, or Sugar and Citrttis, or Sugar ard Violets, aed feme other Flowers j 
and fomc mixture of c/^witr for the more delicate perfons: And thole they 
difTolvc in "W ater, and thereof make their Dririk,becaure th ey are f oi bidden 
Wire by their Law. Butl do much marvel, that no 1 ngl/slmAn,cr'Dut(lrti^ti, 
otCetwan, doth fet up Brewing in ConjlAntwofle, cc rlidcritig they have luch 
quantity of Barley. For as lor the general Icrt cf Men, frugality maybe the 
caufe of Drinking Water ; for that it is no fmall laving to pay nothing for 
ones drink : But the beitcrfort might well be at the cofl. And yet 1 vender 
thelcfsatit, becaufc ] (cc France jialy, or Spain, have not taken into ufcBccr 
or Ale ; which ^perhaps) if they did, would better both their Healths and 
their Complexions. It is likely it Would be matter of great gain to any that 
fhould begin it in THrkfj. 

IN Bathing in hot water, fweat rnevcrthclefs) ccmcth not in the parts un- 
der the Water. The caufe is, firfl, for that fweat is a kinde of Colliqua- 
tion. And that kinde of Colliquation is not made either by an over-dry 
Heat, oranover-moiftHcat. For ovcr-moiflure doth lomewhatcxtinguifh 
the Heat; as we fee, that cvenhot water quencheth Fire, and over-dry Heat 
fhuttcfh ihcPorcs^ And therefore Men will fooner fweat covered before 
the Sun or Fire, then if they ftood naked : And Earthen Bottles filled 
^r ith hot water, do provoke in Bed a Sweat more daintily then Brick-bats 
hot. Secondly, Hot- water doth caufe Evaporation from the Skin > Co as 
it fpendeth the matter in thofc parts under the Water, before itifTucth in 


Century F I II. 

Sweat. Again, Sweat comethmbrc plentifully, if the Heat beincrcalcd bv 
degrees, then if it be grcn.tcfl; atfirft, or cqiinl. Thecaufc is, for that the 
Pores are better opened by a gentle Heat, then by a more violent; and by 
their opening the Sweat, iilueth more abundantly. And therefore Phyftdant 
may do well, when they prorokcSxveat inBed by Dottles, with a Decodion' 
of Sudorifui' Herbs in Hot Hater, tomakc two degrees oi' Hciit in the Bottles, 
and to lay in the Bed the Icls-heatcd firft, and atccc half an hour the morc- 

5nf.«risffllt intafte. Thecaufc is, tor that tiiat pact of the Nourifliment 
which isfrelh and fweet, turneth into Blood and Flefii ; and the Sweat is 
onely that part which is feparate and cxcerned. Blood alio raw, hath fome 
faltnefs more then Flelli ; becaule the Aflimilation into Flefh.isnot without 
a little and fubtile excretion from the Blood. 

SM'eat Cometh forth more out of the upper parts of the Body then the 
lower. The reafon is, bccaufc thofc parts arc more rcpleniflie-i w ith Spirits, 
and the Spirits arc they that put forth Sweat; befidcs, they arc lels ilefhy, 
and Sweat iffucth (chiefly) out of the parts that arclefs fiefhy and more dry, 
as the Forehead and Breft. 

Men fweat more in fleep then waking, and yet flccp doth rather flay 
other Fluxions, then caufc them; as Rheumt, Loofnef of the Bodj, &c. 'I he 
caufeis, for that in Slctp the Heat andSpiritsdo naturally move inwards, 
and there reft. But when they arecoUcded once within,the Heatbccomcth 
more violent and irritate, and thereby cxpelleth S'wut. 

Cold STueats arc (many times) Mortal mdnco.t'Dejth, and always ill and 
fufpefted; as in great /"f^r/, Hypocbondruul *Pafions.&c. The caufeis, for 
that CoW5»'f.</i^ come by a relaxation or forfaking of the i'/iirir^, whereby the 
M oifturc of the Body, which Heat did keep firm in the parts, fcvcreth and 
ifllieth out. 

In thofe ©i/f-t/w which cannot be difcharged by Syteat, S^cAt is ill, and 
rather to be flayed •, as in T>ifcafes of the Lungs, and Fluxes of the Belljf, but 
in thofc Z)«/<r<</« which arc expelled by Sfoent, it cafeth and lightneth ; as in 
K^gues, Peji'ilences, &c. The caufc ii, for that Ssveat in the latter fort is partly 
Critical, and fcndcth forth the Mttter that ofFendcth : But in the former, 
it cither proccedeth from the Labor of the Spirits, which fhewcth them 
oppreitcd ; or from Motion of Confent, when Nature noz:xh\c to expel the 
'Dtfeafe wherc itisfcatci, movcth to an Expullion indifferent overall chc 

THe Nature of the Glotiorm is hitherto not well obferved. Thus much 
we fee, thatthey breed chiefly in the hotted Moncths oi SMmmer ; and 
thatthey breed not in Cbamp.tign, but in Bushes and Hedges. Whereby it may 
be conceived, that the Spirit of them is very fine, and not to be refined but 
by Summer heats. And again, that by reafon of the hnenefs, it doth eafily ex- 
hale. In /ta!j, &nd the Hotter Countrcys, there is a File they call L«aJo/^, 
that fhincth as the Glo-^orm doth, and itmay bcisthe/'/f»n?-G/aTJ:or>« -. but 
that Flic is chiefly upon Fens xniiCMarishes. Butyctthe two former obfcrva- 
Cionshold, for they arc not fccn but in the heat of Summer; and Sedgt, or 
other Green of the rr«f give asgood IhadeasBurties. It maybe the C7 /«"»;»;»;; 
of chc Cold Countreys ripen not fo far as to be winged. 

THe Paflions of the CMmde work upon the Body the impreflionv fol- 
lowing. Fwr, caufeth Taltnef.JremLimg, the S'tunding of the H^-r up- 
O } li.jht, 







Experiment • 
touchincthc ' 
G'.iJmrm. , 

in Conforc, 

Itouthing (he 
rvWiMthe Pjf- 

, I'lons of tin 
AlinJt mjl^e 
Mfnniht B'idj. 





3\Qitural hi/lory j 

righr, Starting, and Scfieching. The PalcncTs is caufcd, for that the Blood 
lunncth inward to fuccor the Heart. The Trcitibling is cau(ed, for that 
through iheihghc of thcSpirits inward, the outward pares are denitutcd,and 
notfuftained. Standing upright of the Hair is caufcd, for that byfhutting 
of the Pores of theSkin, the Hair that lyeth afloap muft needs rife. Starting 
is both an apprchenfion of the thing feared, (and in that kinde it is a motion 
of (hrinking 5) and likcwife an Inquifuion in the beginning what the matter 
fhould be , ( and in that kinde it is a motion of Eredion ;) and therefore 
when a Man would liften fuddenly to any thing, heftartcth; for the Part- 
ing is an Hredion of the Spirits to attend. Scrieching is an appetite of ex- 
pelling that which fuddenly ftrikcth the Spirits. For it muft be noted, that 
many Motions, though they be unprofitable to cxpei that which hurrcth, 
yet they are Oflfcrs of Nature, and caufc Motions by Confent j as in Groan, 
ing.or Crying upon Pain. 

Grief and Pain, caufe Sighing,Sobbing, Groaning,Screaming,and Ro^r 
ing, Tears, Diftoriing of the Face, Grinding of the Teeth, Sweating. Sighing 
is caufcd by the drawing in of a greater quantity of Breath to refrefli the 
Heart thatlaboreth; like a great draught when one is thirfty. Sobbing is 
the fame thing Ihonger. Groaning, and Screaming, and Roaring, are caufcd 
by an appetite of Expulfion, as hath been faid ; for when the Spirits cannot 
expel the thing that huiteth in their ftr;fc to do ir, by Motion of Confent 
rhev expel the Voice. And this is when the Spirits yield, and give over to 
refift; for if one do conflantly refill Pain, he will not groan. Tears arccaulcd 
by a Contradion of the Spirits of the Brain ; which Gontraftion by confc- 
qucncc aftringcththc Moifture of the Brain, and thereby fendcth Tears into 
the Eyes. And this Contraftion or Comptefllon eauleth alfo Wringing of 
the Hands; for Wringing is a Gefturc of Expreffion of Moifture. ThcDif- 
torting of the Face is cauled by a Contention, fitft, to bear and r efift.and then 
toexpel; which makeththePartsknitfirft, and afterwards open. Grinding 
of the Teeth is caufed (likewife) by a Gathering and Scrring of the Spirits 
together to refift ; which maketh the Teeth alio to fet hard one againlt an- 
other. Sweating is aUo a Compound Motion by the Labor of the Spirits,firft 
to refift, and then to expel. 

Joy caufeth aChearfulnefsand Vigor in the Eycs.Singing, Leaping, Dan- 
cing, and fometimes Tears. All thefc arc theelfedsof the Dilatation and 
coming forth of the Spirits into the outward parts , which maketh them 
more lively andftirring. We know it hath been feen, that Exccfllve fud- 
dcn Joy hath caufcd prefent Death, while the Spirits did (pred fo much as 
they could not retire agiin. As for Tears, they are the effeds of Comprcf- 
fionof the Moifture of the Brain, upon Dilatation of the Spirits. For Com- 
prcflionof the Spirits worketh an Exprcftionot theMoifture of the Brain by 
confcnr, as hath been faid in Grief : But then in Joy it worketh it diverfly, 
rii.By Propulfionof the Moifture, when the Spirits dilate, and occupy mote 

Anger caufeth Palcnefs in fome.and the going and coming of the colour 
in others ; alfo Trembling in fomc. Swelling, Foaming at the Mouth, Stamp- 
ing, Bending of the Fift. Palcucis, and Going, and Coming of the Colour, 
are cauted by the Burning of the Spirits about the Heart ,- which to refrefh 
themfelvcsi call in more Spirits from the outward parts. And if the Palencfs 
be alone, without (ending forth the colour again, it is commonly joyncd 
with fome feat ; But in many there it no Palcnefs at all, but eontrariwifc 
Redncfs about the Checks and Gils } which is by the fending forth of the 


Century ^ lit. 


Spirits, in an appetite fo Revenge. Trcmblingin Anger is llkcWire by »cali 
ing in of the Spirit?) and is commonly when Anger is joy ned with Fear. Svk'iel- 
ling is caulcd borli by a Dilatation of the Spirits by ovcr-hcariiig, and by a 
j Liquefadtion or Boiling ot the Humors thereupon. Foaming at the Mouth 
I isirom thel'amecaufe, being an Ebullition. J>tamping and Bending of the Fift 
arc cauled by an Imagination of the Ad of Revenge. 

Light Difpleafurc or Diflike caulcth lliaking of the Head,Frowning,and 
I Knitting of the Brows. Thefc cffcds arifo from the fame caufc that Ticm- 
bling and Horror do s namely, from the Retiring of the Spirits, but in a kU 
degree. FortheShakingof the Head, is but aflow and definite Trembling ; 
and is a Gefture of flight refufal : And we fee alfo, that a diflike cau(cth often 
that Gefture ot the Hand, which we ufc when we refufe a thing, or warn ic 
away. The Frowning and Knitting of the BtovvJ, isaGarhering orScrring 
of the Spirit-s torefift in fome meafurc. And wc fee alfo, this Knitting of the 
Brows will followuponearneftStudyingjOr Cogitation of any thing, though 
it be without diflike, 

ShamecaufethBlufhingjand caftingdoWnoftheEyes. Biufliingis the 
Refort of Blood to the Face, whichinthePaflionof Shame, is the part that 
laboreth moft. And although the Blufhing will be fcen in the whole BrcfV, 
if it be naked , yet that is but in paflagc to the Face. As for thccclfting 
down of the Eyc5, it proceedcth of the Reverence a Man beareth toother 
Men, whereby ,when he is afhamed, he cannot endure to look firmly upon 
others : And we lee, that Blufliing and the Calling down of the Eyes both, 
are more when we come before many j Ore PtrnpenquidmelHtu ? NHtiquamnon 
coram plicribus erubutt ; and likcwifc, when we come before Grtit or Reverend 
Per fens. 

Pity caufeth fomctimcs Tears, and a Flexion or Caft of the Eye afide. 
Tears come from the caufc, that they do in Grief : For Pity is but Grief in 
anothers behalf. The Caft of the Eye, is a Gcflurc of Averfion or Loihnefs 
to behold the objcft of Pity. 

Wonder caufeth Aftonifhmertt, or an Immovable Pofture of the Body, 
Calling up of the Eyes to Heaven, and Lifting up of the Hands. For Aftonilh- 
menr, itiscaufedby thePixingof theMindc upon one object of Cogitation, 
whctebv it doth not fpatiatc and tranfcur asitufeth: For in Wonder the 
Spirits flie not, as in Fear,- but onely fettle, and are made Icfsapc to move. 
As forthc Calling up of the Eyes, and Lifting up of the Hands, itisakindc 
of Appeal to the Deity, which is the Auchor, by Power and Providence of 
ftrangc Wonders. 

Laughing caufeth a Dilatation of the Mouth and Lips ; a continued Ex- 
pulfion of the Breath, with the loudNoife, waich makcth the Interjedion 
of Laughing ; ihaking of the Brell and Sides; Running of the Eyes with 
Water, if it be violent and continued. Wherein firft it is tobe underftood, 
that Laughing is fcarce (properly) aPafTion, but hath his Source from the In- 
icllcft; for in Laughing, there ever preccdcth a conceit of fomcwhat ridicu- 
lous. And therefore it IS proper to Man. Secondly, that the caufe of Laugh- 
ing, is but a light touch of the Spirits, and not fo deep an ImprcfTion as in 
other PafTions. And therefore fthat which hath no Affinity with the Pafli- 
ons of the Minde") it is moved> and that in great vehenicncy, oncly by Tick- 
lingfomc parts of the Body. And wefce, that Men even ina grieved ilarcof 
Minde. yet cannot lomctimesforbear Laughing. Thirdly, it iscvcr joyned 
withlomcdcgreecf Delight: And therefore Exhilaration hath fomc Affinity 
With Joy, though it be much LightcrMotion. RtsfeverA eji rerumGn-ihum. 
^__ Fourrhlv/ 





72 I. 



in Confofti 


72-5 ■ 

S\(atural hi/lor) ; 

Fourthly , That the objc£l of it is Deformity, yibfurdtiy, SbreTt d rwrHy.and the like. 
Nowtofpeakof thecauics of the clfcdts betorcmcntioned.whcrcuntothcic 
general Note^ give feme light. For the Dilatation of the CMouth and Ltps, 
continued Expulfion of &x Breath and p^'ouc, and Shaking ol ihc Brejls and 
Sides, they proceed (all^ from the Dilaracion of i\\tSi>trns, cipecially beirg 
fudden. So likevvile the /?«»»»;/ of the £;« with Water, (as hath been for- 
tnerly touched, where we (pake of the7*^nof Jo^indCrief) is an cfFed of 
Dilatation of the Spirits. And for Suddennefi, it is a groat part of the Matter : 
For we (cc that any Sbretad turn that lightctli upon another, or any 'Deformity, 
&c. movcth Z4«j/j/frin theinllanr, which after a little lionc it doth not. So 
we cannot Laugh at any thing after it is ilalc, but whilcfl it is new. And even 
in 7«)^/«n^,if you tickle the tides, and give warning, or give a hard or con. 
tinued touch, it dotli not iwovc Laughter fo much. 

Lufi caufeth a tUgrancy in the Ejs, and Frtapifm. The caufc cf both 
thcfe is, for that in Lufl the Sight and the Touch, arc the things defited; and 
therefore the Spirits refort to thofe parts which are moll affeded. And note 
well in general, (for that great u(e may be made of the obfcrvation) that 
(evermore) the Spirits in all Papons refort mofl to thepaits that labor molf, or 
ate moft affedcd. As in the laff, which hath been mentioned, they refort to 
the Ejes and Vtnereous parts ; in Fear and Mgcr to the Heart', in Shame to the 
Face ; and in Light diflikes to the Head. 

IT hath becnobferved by the t^Anciems, and is yet believed, That the -S>?m 
of Drunkeit'Tnen is unfruitful. The caufc is, for that it isover-moiftned, and 
wantcth Spiflitudc. And wc havf a merry faying, 71m they that go drtmk to Bed, 

git ^Daughters, 

'Drunken-intn are taken with a plain Defed or Deftitution in Volunt4ry 
Motitm they reel, they tremble, they cannot ftand, nor fpeak ftrongly. The 
caufc if, for that the Spirits of the V^ine opprefs the Spirits Animal, and oc 
cupatepattof the place where they are, and fo make them weak to move; 
and therefore 'Dj'««jiLf)»-»jf» arc apt tofaliaflccp. And Opiates zudStupefaBives 
(as ^oppf, Henbane, Hemltck' &(.) induce a kaide of Drmkennejihy the grofsncfs 
oi thtxi Fapor , as Wine doth by the quantity of thtVapor. Bcfideji, they rob 
the Spirits Animal of their Mxwr whereby they arenourifhed ; for the Spirits 
of the Wine, prey upon itas well as they, and fothey make the Spirits lefs 
lupple and apt to move. 

'Druttkett-men imagine every thing turncch round ; they im?gine alfo, 
that things come upon them; thiy fee not well things afar off; thofe things 
that they fee near hand, they fee out of their place ; and (fooietimes) they 
fee things double. The caufe of the imagination that things turn round is, 
foe that the Spirits thcmfelvestutn, being comprcflcd by the Vapor of the 
Wine ;(for any Liquid Body upon Comprcflionturneth,as we fee in Water:) 
And it is all one to the fight , whether the hfual Spirits move, or the Objcft 
moveth, or the Medium moveth ; and we fee, that long turning round breed, 
eth the fame imagination. The caufe of the imagination that things come 
upon them ir,for that the Spirits Vifual themfelves draw back, which maketh 
the Objeft feem to come on ; and befides, when they fee things turn 
round and move, Fear maketh them think they come upon them. The 
caufe that they cannot fee things afar off, istheweaknefsof the Spirits; for 
in every (Jliegrim or Vertigo, there is an Obtcnebration joyned with a fern- 
blance of Turnin? round, which we fee alfo in the lighter fort of S-^oonirtgs. 


(^entury Vlll. 


Thccau(cof feeing things oiuoF their place, is the rtfradion o[ tlie ipiritj 
vifual ; for the vapor is as an unequal i^/ff/iww, audit is as the (ighr of cin-os 
our of place in Water. The caufjof Iccing things double, isthciwift and 
unquiet motion of the Spirits (being oppi-elieti) to and fro; for (as vVas laid 
before) the motion of the Spirits Vifual, and the morion of the objcdniake 
the fame appearances ; and tor the fwitt motion of the objcft, tt-e fee that if 
you fillij) a Lwt ftring, it fllcweth double or trcbble. 

Men -ire (oonct DrUnk with (mall draughts then ^iih great. Arid again, 
Wine fugired, inebriatcth lefsthcn Wine pure. Thecaufe of the former is, 
for that tne Wine defccndcth not lo fait to the Bottom of the Stomack, but 
maketh lotigcr ftay in the upper part Of the Scomackj and fcndeth Vapors 
fallet to the Head, and therefore inebriatethfooncr. And for the fariic rcafon. 
Sops in Wine (quantity tor quantity) inebriate more then Wine of it felf 
Thecaufe Of theUtter i.s, for that the iiugardoth inrpifTitc theSpiri;s of the 
Wine, and maketh them not foeafie to refojve into Vapor. Nay Ihrrher, it 
is thought tobcfome remedy again(\ inebriating, it Wine fug itcd betaken 
after Wine pure. And the lame etfcdli5Vvroughr>eithet by Oylor Milk taken 
upon much Drinking. 

THcufeof Winein dry and confiiihed Bodies is hurtfiil, in nioirt' arid full 
Bodies 11 is good. Thecaufe is, tor that the Spirits of the Wincdopiey 
upon ttie Dew or radical moifture (is they term it) of the Body. and To deceive 
the Animal Spirits. But where thereismoiftUrc enough, or fupertkious.thcfe 
Wine helpeth to digcd and dcficcatc the moiftilrc. 

THe CuterpiUer Is one Of the mbft general of Woirms, and brcedctR of 
Dcw and Leaves 5 for ^t fee infinite number of Cditerpillers which breed 
upon Trees and Hedges, by >^hich the Leaves of the Trees or H .-dgcs are in 
great pare corfumcd; as well by their breeding out of the Leaf, aS by tliCir 
feeding upon the Leaf. Thcybteed in the Spring chieflv, becaufc then there 
is both Dew and Leaf. And they breed commonly when the Eait Winds 
havcmuch blown : The caufc Whereof is, the drynefs of that Wind; forto 
ail Vivjtication upon Putrefiftion, it is requifite the matter be nor too rhoif^ : 
And therefore Wc fee they have CohTvfhs abotit them, which is q fign of a 
flimy dryncfs ; as we fee upon the Ground, Whereuf)on by Dew .ind Sun 
CibTtftlts breed all over. We fcealfo the Green Catterpilitr breedeth in the in- 
ward parts of Rofes, efpecially not blown where the Dew ftitkcth .• But 
cfpccially CatttrpiUerS , both the greateft and the moft, breed upon CuLbages, 
which have a fat Leaf, and apt to pUtritie. The CuterpiUer toward the end of 
Summer >V3xeth volatile, ind turnech toaB«/rfr^;V, or perhaps fomc other 
Flie. ThcrcisaC4»fr/i//#r that hatha fur or Down upon him, andfcemcth to 
have affinity with the Silk Tttrm. 

THc Fltes Cdntharidei, ire bred of a fp^erm or Catterpiller , but peculiar iti 
certain Fruit'trees ; as are the Fig-tree, the Pine-tree, and thcWildc 
Bryar; all which bear (weet Fruit, and Fruit thathathakindeof fccrct biting 
or fharpnefs. For the Fig hath a Milk in it that is fwect and corrofivei 
the Pine-Apple liath aKernel that is Ikong and ablferlive ; the Fruit of the 
Bryar is faid jomakcChildren, or ihofe that eat them, fcabbcd. And there- 
tore no marvel though Cmtharides hive (uch a Cortofivc and Cauteri- 
zing quality j for there is not one other of the Infeilu , but is bred of a 
duller matter. ThcBody of thcCantharidcsis bright coloured; dnditmjy 


73 «j. 


touching ih< | 
fr/elp or hurt 
of Wint J. 
thvugh A/ode 
nttly ufid. 


touching the 
Fliti C*mha~ 



' in Confoit. 

i Lijiitudt. 

1 - -' t '.• 

3^atHrd hijhr^ ; 



I Experiment 
I touching the 

I C J fling of the 

\ Skf" «"^ •£'»'' 
in{omt Crtx- 


in Confott, 
touching the 


73 y 

bc) that the delicate coloured Dragon Flics mrv have likevvirc fomc Cor- 

rolivc quality. 

Lylfttudi- is remedied by Bathing or An; inting with Oyl and warm Wa- 
ter. The cjiukii, ior thuiM Lafnudi' is akindcof Contufion and Com- 
f)rcilionot the Parts ; andBathing and Anointinij give a RtrJaxion or Emol- 
ition : And the mixture of Oyl and Water is better then cicliet of them a- 
lone, becaulcWatcrentrclh better into the Fores, and Oyl after entry foft- 
ncth better. It is found alio, that the taking of Tahacio doth help and diichargc 
Ljjiiittde. The reafon whereof is partly, becaufc by chcaring orcomforc- 
ing of the Spirits, it opcncch the Parts c omprcllcd or contulcd : And chiefly, 
becaufc It rcfrcflicth the Spirits by the Opiate Vcrtuc thereof, and fo dil- 
chargcih Wcarincfs, as Sleep hkewilc doth. 

Jngoingup a HilltheAnef^vvillbe moflweary ; ingoing downaHill, 
Hughs. The caufc is, for that in the Lift of die Feet, when a man goeth up 
the Hill, the weight of the Body bcareth moll upon the knees ; andin going 
down the Hill, upon the Thighs. 

THc calling of the, is bv the Ancients compared to the breaking of 
the Secundme or Call, but not rightly ; for that were to make every call- 
ing of the Skin a new Bii-th : And.bflidcs, the Secuudine is but a general 
Cover, notfhapcd according to the Parts ■■, butthcSkin is fhaped according 
to the Parts. The Creatures th^tcaft their Skin arc, the 5n<i^e, the Viper, 
the Grushoppcr, the L'tz.ard, the Silk-y»otm, &e. Thole that cail their .'-hell are, 
the Lohjler, the Crab, the Cr/i-fish, the Hodvundod or ', the Tortoife, &c. 
The old Skins arc found, buttheold ^hellsncver : So as itislikcthcy fcalc 
off, and crumble away by degrees. And they are known by the extream 
tcndernels and iofcncfs of the new Shell; andlomcwhatby the frcfhnefs of 
the colour of it. The caufc of the calling and Skin and Shell fhould ieem 
tobethe great quantity of matter in thole Creatures, that is fit to make 
Skin or Shell : And again, the ioofnefs of the Skin or Shell, that ftickcth 
not clofc to the rlefli. For it is certain, that it is the ncvrSkin or^hcU 
that piitterh oflF the old. Jo we Ice that in *Deer, it is theyoung Horn that 
putccth off thcold. Andin Birds, the young Feathers put oflF the old ; and 
lo Birds that have much matter for their Beak, call their Beaks, the new 
Beak putting off the old- , ,. ') 

I 2"i><f riot Fred but Hollow, which is inthcmakingof the Bed, or wiiih 
^ the ^f^-s gathered up, whichis inthcpoilureof thcBodv, is the more 
wholcfome, ihcreafonis thcBettcrcomtortingof theStomack, whichis 
by rhatlefspenfile ; and we fee, that in weakStomacks, theJayingupof the 
Legs high, andthc Knees almoll to the Mouth, liclpeth andcomforteth. 
^e fee alio, that Gally-jUves, notwithllanding their mifery otherw iie, arc 
commonly fat and flefny j and tJxe j eafon is. bccaule thcScomackisfCfp'- 
ported fomtwhatin fitting, andis peqlile in Handing or goingi And there- 
fore for Prolongation of Life, itisgood to chufethofe Izxercifcs where the 
I Limbs move more then the Stona,acK;ta.dBeUyi; as. in Rowing and in Saw-- 
ing, being fct. , : •■ .: .. ' 

C^legr'iiHS and Q\ddinefi arc rather v hen wey?i/^„ .after long fitting, then 
while we fir. The caufc it, for that the Vapor^ •which were gathered by 
fitting, by the ludden il/^fjosfiie more upintothc M'<«rf. 

Lunmg upon any Part makcth it Num , a'tid, as we call it , tylfleip'. 


Century Fill. I 155 

The caufcis, for that the ComprciGon of the Parts fufTercth not the Spirits j 
to have free accefs ; andthcreiorc, when we come out cf ir, we feclalting- { 
ing or pricking, which is the re-entrance of the Spirits. I 

IT hath been noted, Thatthofe Years are peftilential andunwholfomc, _.g 
when there arc great numbers of Frogs, Flies, Locufts, &c. The caufe is Exptiiment 
plain; for that thole Creatures being ingendrcd of Putrefaction, when they Solitary, 
abound, ftiew a general difpofition of the Year, and conrtitutionof theAir '^^S,/ 
to Dilcales of Putrcfadion. And the fame Prognollick (as hath been faid TtAn. 
before) holdeth, if you finde Worms in Oak-Apples. For the Conrtitution i 
of the Air appearcth more fubtilly in any of ihefe things, then to the fcnfe of I 
Man. j 

IT is an obfervatlonamongft Country people, that Years of (lore of f/**/ 1 737. 
and Hefs, do commonly portend cold Winters; and they alcnbe it to ^"P*""*" 
Gods Providence, that (as the Scripture faith) reacheth even to the falling of a 'wuSgthc 
Spirrow; and much more is like to reach Co thePrefervation of Birds in fuch PT»gn„puktof 
Seafons. The Natural caule alfomay be the want of Hear, and abundance of ^"<^^'"^'^'- 
Moiilure in the Summer precedenr, which putteth forth thole Fruits, and 
murt needs leave great quantity of cold Vapors not diffipa^e, which caufeth 
the cold of the Winter following. 

THey have in Tttri7 a Drink called Cojfet, made of a Berry of the fame 
name, as black as Soor, andof alfrongfent, butnotaromatical, which 
they take, beaten into powder, in Water as hot as they can drink it .- And 
they take it, and fit at it in their Ctfee-Honfet, which are like our Taverns. 
This Drink comforteth the Brain and Heart, and heipcth Digeftion, Cer- 
tainly this Berry Coffee, the Root and Leaf Bent, the Leaf Tobacco, and the 
Teare oiVopfy, (Of»«wi) of which, theJHr/vare great takers ((uppofing it 
expelleth all fear ; do all condence the Spirits, and make them ffrong and 
aleger. But it feemeth they are taken after (everal manners ; for Coffee and 
OpiHtH are taken down, Tobticco but in Smoak, and Betel\% but champed in 
theMou'h withalittleLime. It is like, there are more ottiem, it they were 
well found out, and well corrc£ted, ^tre, oi Henbane-feed, of dUndrah, 
of Sdffron, Root and Flower, of Folium Indum, of t^mbergreece, of the Af- 
fjr'un t^momum, if it may be had ; and oi the Scarlet 'Polcdcr which they 
call Kermez. 5 and (generally) of all fuch things as do inebriate and provoke 
flccp. Note, that Tobacco is not taken in Root or Seed, which arc more forci- 
ble ever then Leaves. 

THe Turkt have a black Powder made of a Mineral called t^Uebtle, which 
with a fine long Pencil they lay under their Eyelids, which doth colour 
thcnr. black, whereby the White of the Eye is fct off more white. With 
the fame Powder they colour alfo the Hairs of their Eye-liis, and of their 
F^ye-brows, whichthcy draw into embowed Arches. You fhallhndc that 
j^'(r»o/»ft(>« maketh mention, that the CMedes ufed to paint their byes. The 
Txr^jufe with the fame Tindure to colour the Hair of their Heads and Beards 
black : And divers with us that are gtown Gray, and yet would appear young, 
findc means to make their Hiir black, by combing it (astliey fay) wuh a 
Ledcn Comb, or the like. As for theC/;i»f/"",whoarc of an ill Complexion, 
(being Olnajler) they pilnc their Cheeks Sculet , cfpecially their King and 
Grandees. Generally, Barbarous People that go naked, do not oncly paint 
,— . them- 


Solicaij, I 
Atedicinti thtt 
Condcnctand , 
Keliev* tht 

Pttntinii tf 
iht Sad^: 


yft ef Bath- 
ing and ^n- 


if Paper. 




Encreafe .of 
freight in 


in Confottj 

[hQitural Hijlory ; 


themfclvcs but they pouoce and rafe their skin, that the Painting may no( 
be taken forth.and make it into Works : So do the Wefi-lndtans ■■, andfo did 
the ancient yiiStj znd Britons , So that itfcemcth Men would have the colours 
ot" Birds Festhers, if they could tell how,oi at lead they will have gay bkms in 
ftcadof gay Cioaths. 

T is ftrange that the ufe of Bathing as a part of *Diet is left. With the A*- 
^ntAns and the Grecidns it was as u(ual as Eating or i^leeping ; and loisit 
amongd the Turks at this day ; whereas, with usjtremaineth but as a parr ot 
Phyfick. 1 am of opinion, that the ufe of it as it was with the Ramans, was 
hurtful tohealth ; for that it made the Body foft and eafie to wafle. tor the 
Turk^ it is more proper, becaufe their drinking Water, and feeding upon 
Rice, and other Food of fmall nourifhment, makcth their Bodies lofolid 
and hard, as you need not fear ihzt Bathing fhould make them frothy. Be- 
fidef, the T«r;^^are great fitter?, and fcldom walk ; whereby they fwcat lefs, 
and need Bathing more. But yet certain it is, that Bathing, and cfpccially Ah' 
ointingy may be fo ufed, as it may be a great help to Health, and prolongation 
of Life. But hereof we fliall /peak in due place, when we come to handle 
Experiments Medicinal. 

THe Turis have a pretty Art of Chamoletting of *Paftr, which is not with 
us in ufe. They take divers Oyled Colours, and put them feveraliy (in 
drops) upon Water, and iBr the Water lightly, and then wet their Paper 
(being of lome thicknefs) with it ; and the Paper will be waved and veined 
like Chamalet or CMArile. 

IT is fomcwhat ftrange, that the Blood of all Birds, and Beads, and Fifhe?, 
flioiildbeof a Red colour, and onely the Blood of the Cuttle ftiould be 
as black as Ink. A man would think that the caufe fhould be the high Con- 
codion of that Blood ; for we fee inordinary PuddingSj that the Boyling 
turncih tiie Blood to be black ; and the Cuttle is accounted a delicate Meat, 
and is much in rcqueft. 

IT is reported of credit. That if you take Earth from Land adjoynlng to the 
River of iVj/f, andpreferve it in that manner, thatit neithjsr come to be 
wet nor wafted, and weigh it daily, it will not alter weight until the Se- 
venteenth of Jtme , which is the day when the River beginneth to rile, 
and then it will grow more and more ponderous till the River cometh to 
his height. Which if it be true, it cannot be caufed but by the Air , 
which then beginneth to condenfe ; and fo turncth within that fmall 
Mould into a degree of N^oifture, which produceth weight. Soil hath 
been obfcrved , that Tobacco cut and weighed , and then dryed by the 
Fire , lofeth weight ; and after being laid in the open Air , recovcreth 
weight again. And it fhould fcem, that as foon as ever the River beginneth 
to increafe, the whole Body of the Air thereabouts fulFereth a change : For 
(that which is more ftrangcj it is credibly affirmed, that upon that very 
day , when the River firft rifech , great Plagues in Cairo ule (uddenly to 
break up. 

THofe that are very cold , and efpecially in their Feet, cannot get to Sleep. 
The caufcmay be, for that in Sleep is required a free refpiraKon, which 
cold doth fliut in and hinder: For we fee, that in great Colds, onecanfcarce 


Century V II L 


draw his Breath. Anorhcrcaiifo mny be, for time Cold callcch the Spiritsto 
fnccor , and therefore thcv cannot fo well clofc, ;ind go tcgctlier in the 
Hcjd, which is ever rcquilltc to Sleep And fortliclamc caule. Pain and 
noifc hinder Occp, anddarkncfs (contrariwilc)fLirthcrcth flccp. 

-Some noifcs f whereof vvc ipakc in the T12 f.v/;t7i?«t7;/) help Sleep ; as 
the blowing ot the Wind, the trickling of Water, humming of Bees, fofc 
linging, reading, &c. Thccniilcis, forthat theymovc inthe Spirits a gen- 
tle attention ; and whatlocver moveth attentio'i. without too much labor, 
ftilleth the natural ani difcurlivc motions of the Spirits. 

Sleep noui-i(hcth, or at leaft preferAech, Bodies a long time, without 
other nourifhmcnf. Beal^s that lleep in Winter, (as it is noted of \rilde 
Bears) during their flccp wax very fat, though they eat nothing. Bats 
have been found in Ovens, and other hollow clofc places, matted one 
upon another •■, and therefore it is likely that they fleep in the VVinccr 
time, and eat nothing. Q^slu whether Bees do not fleep all Winter, and 
{pare their Honey. Buttcr-llies, and other Flics, do not oncly flccp, but 
lie as dead dl Winter; and yet with a little heat of Sun or Fire revive .igain. 
A Dormoufe, both Winter and Summer will fleep fome days totrethcr, 
and eat nothing. 

TO reftore Teeth in Age, were CMagmk Ndttir£ , it may be thought 
of; but howfoever, the nature of the Teeth dcfcrvcth to be enquired 
of, as well as the other parts of Living Creatures Bodies. 

There be five parts in the Bodies of Living Creatures that arc of hard Tub- 
ftanccs ; the Skjill, the Teeth, the Boues, the fj(orns, and the Nuils. Thcgrcatcfl 
quantity of hard fubftance coilttnued, istoUlirds the Head ; for there is the 
Skullcf one entircBonc, there are the Teeth, there are Maxillary Bones, 
there is the hard Bone that is the Inftrumcnt of Hearing, and thenccifTuc 
the Horns. So that the building of Living Creatures Bodies is like the build- 
ing of aTimber-houfc, "where the VValls and other parts have Columns 
and Beams ; but the Roof is in the better fort of Houfcs, all Tile, or Lead, 
or Stone. As for5(rrf^,they have three other hard fubftanccs proper to them ; 
the Bill, which is of the likemattcrwith thcTecth.forno Birdshavc Teeth; 
the Shcfl of the Egg, and their Quills ; for as for their Spur, it is but a 
Nail. ButnoZ-h'(«^CrMfKrrJ that have Shells very hard (as Oyfteri, Cockles, 
Aliijlles, Shalops, Crabs, Lobjlers, Ctat» fish, Shrimps, 2nd cipcchlly the Torioifej 
have 5o»« within them, but onely little Grj/?/f.f. 

Bones, after full growth, continue at a flay, and fo doth the Skull. Horns, 
infomc Creatures, arc caft and renewed: Teeth ftand at aftay, except their 
wearing. As (ot Nails, they grow continually, and Bills 3ind Beaks will over- 
grow, nnd lomctimcs be caft, as in Eajes and Parrots. 

Moll of the hard fubllances flic to the cxtreams of the Body ; as Skull, 
Horns, Teeth, Nails, and Beaks ; oncly the Bones arc more inward, and clad 
with Flefh. As for the Entrails, they arc all without Bones, favc that a Bone 
is lomctimes found in the Heart of a Stag, and it may be in fome other 

The ^kii^hzth Brains, as a kinde oi Marrotv within it. The Back-bone 
h.uh one kinde of Marrow, which hath art affinity with the Brain ; and 
odier Bones of the Body have another. The y.<Ti--ioi;n have no //.<rre> fe- 
vered, but a little Tulp of Almolv difTufed. Teeth likewifc arc thought to 
have a kinde of Mirre-^ diffuied, which caufeththc Scnfe and Pain : But it 




in Confott, 
Teeth and 
hard Subfian ■ 
eei in the 
Bodies of Li- 
ving Cteat 






^7\(atural Hijiory 

Is ruber Sine*.v 3 (or Marrow hach no Scnle, no more then iilood. Horn is 
alike throiigliouc, and io is thcNsil. 

None oihcr cf tiie hard fublianccs have Scnfe, buc the Teeth ; and the 
Tccrh have Senlr,not onelyof Pain, but ot Cold. 

But \vc Will leave the Enquiries ot other Hard Snbjlmits unco their fcve- 
ral pi ice;, and now enquire oncly of ihc7m/;. 

Tic Tctth are in Men of three kindcs, Sharf, as the Fore-ieetb j Brond, as 
the Buck-teeth, which wc call the Cj?/fl/<*r-ff«*, or Gnwirn; ind Pointed-teeth, 
or CAmr.e, wliich arc between both. But there have been (omcMcn that 
have had their Teeth undivided, as of one whole Bone , witii fome little 
maik in the place of the Divifior, as 'Pyrrhm had. Some Creatures have 
over-long or cut growing Teeth , which we call Fangs or Titsks; as Boars, 
Pikes, SdlmoKS, and T)ogs, though Icfs. Some Living Creatures have Teeth 
againft Teeth, as Men and Horfes <■. and (ome have teeth, efpecially their Af4/?fr- 
teeth indented one within another like SaMfs, as Liens \ and fo again have 
Dogs. Some Ftshesh^xt divers Rows of Teeth \n the Rtofs of xhcix Moutht; 
IS ^ikes, Salmons, Trouts, &c. and many more in Salt- waters. Snakes ^v^dt other 
Serpents have vcncmous Teeth , which are Ibmetimes milbken for their 

No Bead thit hath Horns hath uppertecth ; and no Bealt that hath Teeth 
above, wanteth them below. But yetif they be of the fame kinde, it follow- 
eth not, that if the hard matter goeth not into upper-teeth, it will go into 
Horns ; nor yet e cinverfo , for ^oes that have no Htrns, have no upper- 

Horfes have, at three years old, a Tooth put forth which they call the 
Colts-tooth; and atfour years old, there comcth the ^jr^-re^/J, which hath 
a hole fo big as you may lay a Pcafc within it ; and that wearcth fliortet 
and (hotter every year, till that at eight years old the Tooth is fmooth , 
and the hole gone j and then they fay, ^)^3X the tut of the Horfes 

The Teeth of Men breed firft ,• when theChildc is about a year and 
half old, and then they caft them, and new come about feven years old. But 
divers have Backward-teeth come forth at twenty, yea, fome at thirty, and 
forty, ^/rtf of the manner of the coming of them forth. They tellatale 
of the old Countefs of 1)efmond, who lived till fhe was SevenCcore years 
old, that flic did Dentire twice or thrice, cafting her old Teeth, and others 
coming in their place. 

Teeth are much hurt by Sweet-meats, and by Painting with ,i^er(«ry, 
and by things over-hot, and by things over- cold, and by Rheums. And tne 
pain of thcTeetbjisoncof the (harped of pains. 

Concerning Teeth, thefe thingsarctobeconfidercd. i.Thc preferving 
of them. 2. The keeping of them white. 3. The drawing of them with 
Icafl pain. 4. The (laying and eafing of the Tooth-ach. 5. The binding in 
of Artificial Teeth, where Teeth have been ftruckcn cut. 5. And laft of 
all, that great one, of reftoring Teeth in Age. The inftances that give any 
likelihood of reftoring Teeth in Age, are, The late coming of Teeth in 
fome, and the renewing of the Beaks in Bird?, which are commaterial with 
Teeth, ^uare therefore more particularly howthat comcth. And again, 
the renewing of Horns. But yet that hath not been known to have been 
provoked by Art ; therefore let tryal be made, whether Horns may be pro- 
cured to grow in Beads that are not horned, and how; and whether they 
may be prccured to come larger then ufual, as to make an Ox or a Deer 


Century Fill, 

have a greater Head ol" Horns; and wheihcrThe Head of aDm~diac bv , 
age IS more fpitccd. may be brought agV.n to be more brandi'cd For! 
thefc tryals and thclike will Hiew. Whc.hcr by art fuch h,ird matter can! 
be called and provoked. Ic maybe try cd alio, whether Birds may not have ^ 
fomethmgdonc to them when chcy are ycung, whereby they may be made i 
tohavegrcaier or longer Bills, or gre.rer and longer Talons : And whc- , 
ther Children may not have fome W.fli . or lomething to make their ' 
Teeth betccr and ftronger. Cord is in ufe as an help to the Teeth of! 
Children. i 


qOme Living Creatures gcTierate but at certain feafons of the year; as 

OT)cer, Sheep JVtlde Coneys, &c. and moft forts of 5irrf. and F»/;,/- Ot'iers 

at any tmie of ^^e year as a^r,, . ,,^ ,„ Domcftick Creatures , as Horf.s. 

H.^.^©.^.,C.r..c^.. Thecauleof Generation atallfeafons^fcemet^ 

rulnels; tor Generation ,s from Redundance. This Fulnefs anfeth from two 

caufe.s Either from theNaturc of the Creature, if it be Hot, and Moift. and 

Singume. or from Plenty of Food. For the firft, Mer,, Horfa T>o^, ^c 

i which breed at a! (ea ons. are full of Heat and Moifture; W« ^rethe 'full-' 

eft of Heat and Moillure amongft Ends, and therefore breed often the 

r.m.'Dov.almoft continually. But'D^.r are a Mdancholick dry Crea'mre 

as appcareth by their learfulnefs. and the hardnelsof their Fl^fli sheep are l 

cold Creature as appeareth by their mildnefs. and for that they .eldom 

dnnk. Moft lorts ot Ends are of a dry fubftince in companfon of ^.X- 

i^a/;..3rccold. Forthe econd caule, Fulnefs of Food. Cilen. K,ne, sij 

Vogs, 6^. feed full And we fee. that thofc Creatures which, being W.Ide 

generate feldom, being tame, generate often ; which is from warmth and 

iulncfsof food Wehndethat the time of going to/f,« of T^eelTsZTet 

wnher, for that they need the whole Summers Feed and Grafs to make them 

fit for Gen^erat.on 3 and if Rain come early about the middle of Septcnbn 

thcygotoautfomewhatthefooner; if Drought, fomewhat the later sJ 

5heep mrefpeaoltheirfmallheat. generatea'Loutthefametimc.or/jme^ 
what before. But for the molt part. Creatures chat generate at cmaio Tea- 
fons generate in the Spring; as Birds and Fifhes : For that the end of the 
Winter, and the heat and comfort of the Spring prepareth them. There is 
alio another reafon why fome Creatures generate at certain fealons, and h 
IS the Relation of their timeof Bearing to thctime of Generation ; for no 
Creature gocth to generate whilclt the Female is full, nor wh.lelt flieisbufie 
mhceing or rearing hcryoung; and therefore it is found by experience that 
if you take thchggs or Young-ones out of theNeftsot Birds they will fall 
to generate again three or four times one after another. 

Of Living Cteatures, fome are longer time in the Womb, and fome 
Ihortcr. Wonien go commonly nineMoneths. the Cow and the H we about 
hx Moncths. Doesgo about nine Moneths. Mares eleven Moncth?. Bitches 
mne Weeks ; tlephants are faid to go two years, for the received Tra- 
dition often years is fabulous. For Birds there is double enquiry; the di- 
ftance between the treading or coupling, and the laying of the Hag , and 
agam between the hgg laid, and the difclofing or hatching. And amongft 
Birds there isles djverfity of time then amongrt other Creatures, yet fome 
hctcMs; for.theHcn futeth but three weeks, the Tutky-hen .^ Goofe 
a^d DiKk, a moneth. ^«,,, of others. The caufe of the great difference 
of times among^l L.ving Creatures is, cither frotn the oatureof theK.nd! 
P 2 


in Confott, 
touching the 
and Beating 
of Living 
Creatures in 
the lV,mb. 

7 '^9. 

160 i 

J\Qitural hi/lory ; 



SptcUi vifibU. 



Ex(if liments 

! in Confoit, 

' touching the 

Jmfu!f">n and 


orfromiheconditutionof the Womb. For thcfjrmcr, thofcthat arc longer 
in coming to their maturity orgrovvtb,arc longer in the Womb , as is chiefly 
iceninMcn; and (o Hicphanis, which arc long in the Womb, ire long time 
incfvmingro their lull growth. But in moft other Kinds the con!iitiuion of 
tiieWomb (that is, the hardnefs or drynels thereof) is concurrtiu W'th the 
former (.nule. ForthcColt hath about four ycarsot growth, and io the Fawn, 
^nd to the Calf; butWiiclps, which come to their «. rowch (Cominonly) with- 
in three quarters of a year, arc but nine weeks in the Womb. As for Bird?, as 
there is lels diverfity amongft them in the time of their bringing forth, lb 
there is k(s diverlity in the time ol their growth, moll of them coming to 
their growth within a twelvc-monetl) . 

Some Creatures bring forth manyyoungoiies at a Burthen; as Bitches, 
Hares, Coneys, &c. fome (ordinarily) butone; as Women, Lioncflcs.&c. 
i' may be caufed, either by the quantity of Sperm required to the pro- 
ducing one of that Kind ; whichiflels be required, may admit greater num- 
ber •> if more, fewer: Or by the Partitions andCells of the Womb, which 
mayl'tver the Sperm. 

THcre is no doubt but Light by Refra£iion will fliew greater, as well as 
things coloured; tor like asafliilling in the bottom ot the Water will 
fliew greater, fo will a Candle in a Lanthorn in the bottom of the V/atcr. I 
have heard of apradlice. that Glo worms in GlaCTes were put in the Water to 
maketheFifh come. But I am not yet informed, whether when z'Divtr 
divctb, having his eyes open, and (wimmeth upon his back, whether (I fay) 
he feeth things in the Air, greater or lefs. For itismanifeft, that when the 
eye ftandeth m the finer medium, and theobjett is in the gtofllr, things fliew 
greater) but contrariwife, when the eye is placed inihcs^wH'ct medium, and 
theobjeftinthe^ner, howit vvorketh I know not. 

It would bewellboulted our, whether great Refra£tions may not be 
made upon Reflexions, as well as upon dired beams. For example, we fee, 
that take an empty Bafon, pur an C/^ngel of Gold, or what you will into it ; 
then go (o far fiom the Bafon till you cannot fee the Angel, becaufe it is not 
in a right Line > then fill the B ifon with Water, and you (hall fee it out of 
his place, becau(e of the Reflexion. To proceed therefore, put a Looking- 
glafs into a Ba(on of Water ; 1 fuppofc you fhall not fee the Image in a right 
Line, or at equal Angles, butafidc. Iknownot whether this f-v/mwrar may 
not be extended fo, as you might fee the Image, and not the Glafs ; which 
for beauty and ftrangenefs were afine proof, for then you fhall fee the Image 
like a Spirit in the Air. As forexamplc, if there be a Cilkrn or Pool of Water, 
youflidll place over againlt ita pidureof the Devil, or what you will, foas 
youdo notfee the Water, thenputa Looking glafs in the Water: Now if 
vou can fee the Devils pifture afide, not feeing the Water, it will look like a 
Devil indeed. They have an old tale in Oxford, That Fryer Bxcon walked be- 
tween two Steeples^ which was thought to be doae by Glalles, when he 
walked upon the Ground. 

A Weighty Body put into Motion , is naorecafily impelled thenatfirft 
vvrien it rellcth. The caufe is, partly becaufe Motion doth dilcufs the 
) orpout of folid Bodies, which befide their Motion of Gravity,haveinthem 
a Natural Appetite not to move at all ; and partly, becaufe a Body that reft- 
cth doth get, by the refinance of the Body upon which itrefteth, a ftronger 


Century Fill, 

comprcflion of parts then it hath of it felf, and therefore nccdeth more force 
to be put in motion. For if a weighty Body be pcnfile, and hare, but by a, 
thred, thepercuflion will make an impulfion very near ascafily asil i. were 
already in motion. 

A Body over-great or ovcr-fmall, will not be thrown fofjr asa Body of 
amiddlefize; io that r't fccmeth) there muit be accmmcnfuration or pro- 
portion between the Body moved, and the force, to make it move well. The 
c^ufc is, bccaufc to the Impulfion there is requifitcthe force of the Bo dy 
that moveth , and the refilhnce of the Body that is moved ; and if th« 
Body be too great, it yieldcth too little ; and if it be too Imall, it rcfifteth 
too little, ' 

It is common experience, that no weight will prefsorcutfo ftrong be- 
ing laid upon a Body, as falling or ftrucken from above. It maybetheAir 
hath feme part in furthering the pcrcufllon : But the chief caufe I take to be, 
for thai tiK parts of the Body moved, have by impulfion, ot by thcmotion 
of gravity continues, acomprefiioninthcmas well they have 
when they are thrown or fhot tnrough the Air forwards. 1 conceive alfo, 
thatthequivkloofeof that motion preventeth thercpltance of the Body be- 
low; and priority of the force (always) is of great efficacy, as appcareth in 
infinite inftances. 

Tlckjing is mcft in the Soles of the /"w, and under the tylrm-holes, and 
oni^cSides. Thecaufcis, thethmncfs of theSkin Inthofi'parisjoyned 
wnh the rarenefs of being touched there ; for all Tickling is a light mo ion j 
of the Spirits, which the tl.innefsot tie Skin, and fuddehncfs and rarenefs 
of touch do further : For vvc Re a Feather or a K'ufh' drawn alongthe Lip 
or Cheek, doth tickle ; .whereas a thing more obtufe, or a touch more 
hard,dothnor. And for luddennefs, we Ice no man canticklehimfelf: We 
fee alfo, that the Palm of the H<)nd. tiicugh it hath as thin a Skin as the othej: 
parts mentioned, ycrisnot tlckl.fh, bccaufiiTis accuffomed to be touched. 
Tukling alfo caufcth Laughter. The cau(e may be the emiffion of the Spirits, 
and lb of the B eath, by a flight from TitiUatitn ; for upon Tickling , we 
fee there is ever afti cing or fhrmking away of the parr to avoid it ; and 
we fee alfo, that if you tickle tnc Noflrils with a Feather or Srraw; it 
procurcth SneeT^ng , w hich is a fu.^den em.fllon of the Spirits, that do 
hkewiie expel tnc moifturc. And Tukling is ever painful, and not well 
endured. -jitioj 

1 M r. 

ITisftrangp, thatthe River of .^i/«^ overflowing, as it doth theCountrey 
of Fgjpt, there fliould bcncvcrthclefs little or no Ram in that Countrey. 
The cauie mud be, cither in the Nature of the Water, or in the Nature 
of the Ar, or or both. In the Water, it may be afcribed cither unto 
the long race of the Wa-^er; for fwift. running' Waters vapor not To much 
as (landing Waters, ortife [othecr>ncodiOn of the Water; for Waters well 
concoftcd, vapor not fo much as Waters raw, no more then Waters iipoll 
the fire do vapor fo much, after fome time of boyling, as at the firfV. 
And it is true, thit fhc Water of A'i'w is fwceter then other Waters in tafVc; 
and it is excellent good for the Sme , and Hypochondriacal Melancholy, 
which fhcweth it is lenifying ; and it runneth through a Countrey of a 
hot Climate, and flat, without fhade either of Woods or H lis, whereby 
the Sun muft needs have great power to concodl ir,. As for the Air (frona 
whence I conceive this want of Showers comcth chief?-,) the caufe mufl be, 

P 3 ' for 






touching the 
Sanity of 
R4//1 in 



Solitaiy , 


PUnti with- 
out Letvts. 

touching the 
Aiatctials of 


Prohibition of 
and the long 
of Boditi. 

U\(aUiral Hijhry ; 

for that the Air is ot it Iclf thin and thirity, and iU iuon ascvcr it gctttcli 
any moifture from the ^J/atcr, it imbibcth, and cln"i[id:cth jt in the vi'holc 
Body ot the Air, and lufferttii it not to ctmain in Vapor, whereby ic migiu 
breed Rain. 

IT hath been touched in the Title- of Perlocations, (namely, fuchas arc in- 
wards) that the Whites of Eggs and Milk do clarifie; and it is certain, 
that in Egypt they prepare and clarific the Water ot T^^ile, by putting it into 
.great Jars of S rone, and itirringit about with afewftamped Almond* , where- 
with they alfo bcfmear the Mouth ot the Veffel ; and lb draw it off, after it 
hath rcik'd fomctime. It were good to try this Clarifying with Almonds in 
newBccror Muill, tohaikn and perfed the Clarifying. 

THerc be fcarcc to be found any Vegetables that have Branches and no 
Leaves, except you allow Coral for one. But there is alfo in thcDefarts 
ot S.A£tcario in Egjfpt, a Plant which is long, Leaflefi.brownof colour, and 
branched like Coral, favethat itclofeth at the top. This being fct inWatcr 
within Houfe, fpredeth anddifplaycthftrangely ; and the people thereabout 
have a fuperftitious belief, that in the Labor of Wonieiiit hclpeth 10 the cafie 

THe Cryfialline Vtmce-GuJ? is reported to be a mixture, in equal portion?, 
of Stones brought from /'rfvj-c, by the River TJfinww, and the Afhesof a 
Weed called by iht tyirabs. Kail, which is gathered inaDcfart between 
x^lexandria 2nd Jltfettai and is by the £^j;pfJ4«f ulcdfirfl for Fuel, and then 
they crufli thcAfliesinto lumps like a Stone, aadfofellthem to the ytnetians 
for their Glals-works. 

IT is ftrange, and well to be noted, how long Carcaflcs have continued 
uncorrupt, and in theit former Dimenfions j as appeatcth in the Mummks 
of Eg)pt, having lafted, as is conceived ( fome of them) three tl.oufand 
years. It is true, they findc means to draw forth the Brain,', and to tjke 
forth the Entrails, which are the parts apceft to corrupt. But that is no- 
thing to the wonder; for we fee what a foft and corruptible fubftance the 
Ficfh of all the other parts of the Body is. Butitfhould feem, that accord- 
ing to our obfervation and axiom, in our hundredth Experimentt, 'Putre- 
failion, which we conceive to be fo natural a Period of Bodies, is but an 
accident, and that Matter maketh not that haftc to Corruption that is 
conceived j and therefore Bodies in (hining Amber, in Quick-filver, in 
Balms, c whereof we now fpeak) in Wax, in Honey, inGumsj and (it 
may be) in Corfervatories of Snow, &c. are prefetved very long. It need 
not go for repetition, if we refume again that which wefaid in the afore- 
faid Experiments concerning t^nnihiUtion, namely. That if you provide 
againft three caulcs of *Putrefa(lion , Bodies will not corrupt'. The firft is, 
that the Air be excluded ; for that undcrmincth the Body, and confpireth 
with the Spirit of theBody todifTolveit, Thelecondis, that the Body a^dja- 
cent and ambient be not Commaterial, but meerly Heterogencal towards 
the Body that is to be prefervcd ; for if nothing can be received by the 
one, nothing can ifTue from the other ; fuch are Quick-filver and White Am- 
bcr to Herbs andFhes, and furch Bodies. The third is, that the Body to be 
prcfcrved. be nor of thatgrofs that it may corrupt within it fclf, although no 
part of it ifTue into theBody adjacent ; and therefore ic muft be rather thin 


and ImiUl lie, lot Bulk. Tnerc is a fourrh Remedy aUcj, whiciiis, Ihat if 
thcBodyto be prelcrvcd, be of bulk, as a Corps us tlien the Body thac in- 
clofeih It muft have a virtue co draw forih and Jry the nioiitureof the in- 
ward Body i for ell'c the Putrefaftion vv ill play within, tfiough nothing ilTuc 
forth. I remember jLJv^ doth relate, that there were found at a time two 
Cotfins of Lead in a lomb, whereof the one contained the Body of King 
iV«;H4, it being fomc Four hundred years ahcr his death > and the other, his 
ijooks of Sacred Rites and Ceremonies, and the Difcipiine of the Pontiffs : 
And that in thcCofTin that had the Body, there wasncthing (at all) to be Ren 
but a Uitle light Cinders about the fides ; but in the Coffin that had the 
Books they were found as frcfh as if they had been but newly written, being 
written in Parchment, and covered over with Watch-candles of Wax three 
or four fold. By this it feemeth, that the Romans in iV«ni.;'stimc were not 
fo good Embalmcrs as the Egyptians were ; which was the caufc that the 
Body was utterly confumed. But I hnde in Plutarch indoihcxs, that when 
t^ugu(]us C^f^r vifucd the Sepulchre of Alexander the Great in y^lexandrta, 
befouiid the Body to kccphisDimcnfion 5 but wuhal, that notwithltanding 
all the Embalmingf'which no doubt was of thebeff) the Body wasfotender, 
as C<£/!ir touching but the Nofe of it, defaced it. Which maketh mefindc it 
vcrv Ilrange, thjt the f-gyptian Mummies fhould be reported to be as hard 
as Sronc-pitch : For I hnde no difference but one, which indeed may be 
very material > namely, that the ancient Egyptian Mummies were flirowded 
in a number of folds of Linnen, befmeared with Gums, in manner of 
Sear.cloth ; which it doth not appear, was pradifcd upon the Body ot 

NEar the Caftic of Catie, .ind by the Wells Ajfan, in the Land of Idumta, 
a great part of the way, sou would think the Sea were near hand, 
though it be a gooddilfancc of: And it is nothing, butthcfhining of the 
Nitre upon the Sea-fands ; fuch abundance of Nitre the Shores there do put 

THc T)ead^Sea , which vomiteth Up Bitumen , is of that Cr.^lTitude, as 
Living Bodies, bound hand and foot, and caft intoit, have been borne 
up and not luiik : Which fhewcth, that all (inking into Water, is but an over* 
weight of the Body put into the Water, in refpedt of the Water; (b rhit 
vcu may make Water follrong and heavy of j^icl-flver, ( perhaps) or the 
like, as may bear up Iron i ot which I fee no ufc, but Impolfurc. We 
fee alfo, that all Metals, except Gold, for the fame reafon fwim upon 
Quick filver. 

IT is reported, that at the Foot of a Hill near the tJ^.ire mortuum, there is a 
Black Srone(whcreof Pii^riw; make Fires) which burneih like a Coal and 
diminifhcth not, but oncly waxcth brighter and whiter. Tnat it fhould do 
To, is not tfrangc ; for we fee Iron red hot burneth arvd confumcth not. 
But the flrangcn(fs is, rhat it fhould continue any time fo ; for Iron, as 
foon as ic is out of the Fire, deadeth (fraight-wavs. Certainly, it were a 
thing of great ufeand profit, if you could tinde out Fuel that would burn 
hot, and yet U(t long : Neither am I altogether incredulous, but there 
may be fuch Candles as(thcyfay) are made of Salamanders Wool, being a 
kinde of Mineral w hich wriitencch alfo in the butnini. . and confumcth not. 
ThcQu-ition is ihi:.F.amemu:f be midcof Ibmewhat •, and commonly ic 



touching (he 
of Kit re in 
certain Sea. 

/lodies that 
are br,rne up 
by loiter. 


Fuel thai con- 
fumeth liisle or 


JJ\Catural hli/lorj ; 






Expi iinicnt 
touching 'he 
Gathering of 
I find for 


touihing the 
TrytU of 

77^ ■ 

Imreajing of 

fltuk <■» 


Sand of ihe 
JVettire of 

is made of fome tangible Body which hath weight ; but ic is not importible, 
perhaps tlucic fliouldbcmadc ot Spirit or Vapor in iBoilx, (which Spirit 
or Vapor hath no weijrhi) luchas is chcmaticrot I^nn futuiu. JUic then you 
will fay, thatthat Vapor alio can lallbut a fliorttimc. Tocha'^ it maybcan- 
Iwered, That by the help ot Oyl and Wax, and other Candledult, the flame 
may continue, and the wick not burnt. 

SEa-coal laft longer then Char-coal ; and Char-coal of £oots , being coaled 
into great picce-S laft longer then ordinary Charcoal. Turf, and Teat, 
and CoT}?-/Z;e;<rflff are cheap Fewels, and laft long. Small. coal or Char-coal pour- 
ed upon f/z/tr-co^/ make them laft longer. Sedge is 3 cheap Fcwcl to Brew 
or Bake with, the rather, bccaufe it is good for notiiinjr elfe. Tryal would 
be made of fome mixture oi Sea-coal with Earth, or Chalk^; fonf that mix- 
ture be, as the Sea-coal-men n\t it privily , to make the Bulk cf the Coal 
greater, it is deceit; but if it be uled purpofely, and be made known, iris 

IT is at this day inufe 'mGaz.a, to couch Pot-sherds or Veffels of Earth in their 
li^aUs, togither the Wind from the np, and topofs it down in Spouts 
into Rooms. It ii a device tor frefhnefs in great Heats. And it is faid, there 
are fome Rooms m/w/yand J/^d/n torfrcfhnefb', and gathering the Wuids and 
Airintiie Heais ot Summer ; but they be but Pennings ot the Winds jnJ 
enlarging them again, and making them, reverberate, and go round in Cir- 
cles, rather then this device of Spouts in the Wall. 

THere would be ufed much diligence in the choice of fome Bodies and 
Places (as it were) for the tailing of Ait, to difcover the wholefomcnefs 
or unwholeibmnefsaswell of Seafons, as of the Seats of Dwellings. Itis 
certain, that there be fome Houfci wherein Confitures and Pics, will gather 
Mould more then in others; and 1 am per.fwaded, that apiece of raw FU Hi 
or Fifh, will fooner corrupt in fome Airs then in others. They benoblc 
Experiments that can make this difcovery ; for they ferve for a Natural 
Divination of Scafons, better then the Allronomers can by their Figures; 
and again, they teach men where to chuie their dwelling for their better 

THere is a kinde oi Stone about Bethlehem which they grinde to powder, 
and put into Water, whereof Cattel drink, which makech them give 
more Milk. Surely, there would be fome bct'er Tryals made of Mixtures 
of Water n Ponds for Cattel, to make them more Milch, or to faitcn them, 
or to keep them from zJHimain. It may be, Chalk, ind Nitre are of the 

IT is reported, that inthe Valley near the Mountain Carmel injudea, ihcie 
isai>and, which of all other, hath mod affiniiy with Glal^, inlomuch, as 
other Minerals laid in it, turn to a glafTie fubftance without the fire ; and 
again, Glafs put into it, turneth into the Moiher-fand- The thing is very 
ftrangc, if it be true 3 and itis likelicft tobecaufed by fome natural Furnace 
of Heat in t he Hart h, and yet they do not fpeak of any Eruption of Flames 
It were good to try in Glafs works, whether the crude Materials of Glafs 
mingled with Glafs, already made and rcmouUen,do not facilitate the making 
of Glafs withiefs heat. 


Ccntnry V I Ih 



; 7S0- 

rouihing the 
Orojrth if 


Gathering cf 

N theSca, npon i.\\Q South-JVeJi of SicUy, much Coral is found. Ir is 1 ^ub- 
^ niiriuc Plant, it hath no leaves, it branchcth oncly when ic is under Wj- 
tcr; it is fofr, and green of colour; but being brought into the A:r, it bc- 
comerh hard, and Ihining red, as wc fee. It is faid alfj to have a whirc 
B.-rry, but wcfinde it not brought over with the Coral: Belike it is call; away 
as nothing Worth. Idquirc better of ir, (or ihe dif.ovcry of the Nature of 

THec;j/^«»i.«ofC<</.>Wjisthe bcfl-, and in mof^ plenty. Tiicygnher it 
from the Leaf of the LPlitilbeTry-tree ; but not ot flich (iyllidberrj- trees as 
grow in the Vallevs : And Manna tjileth upon the Leaves by mghr, as other 
, Dews do. li fliould feem, that before thof : DwWs come upon Trees in the 
1 Valleys, theydiffipate and cannot hold our. Itfhould feem al(o, rlicMul- 
bcrry-kaf it fcU hath fomc coagulating virtue, which infpiQTateth the Dew, 
for (hat it is not found upon other Trees : And we fee by the bilk worm, 
which feedeth upon that LcaG what a dainty fmooth luice it hath ; and the 
Leaves alfo cefpecially of the Black Mulberry) arefomcwhac bri(\ly, which 
may help topreferve the Dew. Certainly, it were not amifstoobferve a lit- 
tle better the Dews that fall upon Trees or Herbs growing on Mnmums ; for 
it may be, many Dews fall that fpcnd before they come to the Valleys. And 
I fuppofc, that he that would gather the bclf M^y Dew for Medicine, fliould 
gather it from the Hills. 

IT is faid, they have a manner to prepare thcit Greeks fVines, to keep them 
from Fuming and Inebriating, by adding fome Sulphnr 01 lylllum ; whereof '51 ,3, 
the one is Uncluousj and the other is Aftringent. And certain it is. that 'wuciii g the 
thofe two Natures do rcprefs the Fumes. This Experment would be tranf- S""(i'^i «[ 
fcrted unto other Wine and Strong-Beer, by putting in fomc likeSub'lanccs 1 
while they work; which may make them bothtoFumciels, and to inflame 




T is conceived by fome, (not improbably) that the reafon why Wild- j ^s?. 
fires f whereof the principalingredient is Bitumen) do not quench with Expiiiment 
Water, is, tor that the fir(\ concretion of Bitumen, is a mixture of a fiery and f°yjh,'^' ,[,e 
I watry fubilance; fois noiSulfbur. This appeareth, for thjr in the place near AUtcrhu <./ 
I Tutetlt, which they call the Court of yulcan, you (hall hear under the /^''#'-'. 
r Earth a horrible thundring of Fire and Water confliding together ; and 
1 there break torrh alfo Spouts of boiling Water. Now that place yield- 
cth great quantities of ^ir«fHe»; whereas o^^Etna, and Fefuvius, andtlielike, 
which confift upon Sulphur, fhoot forth Smoak, and Afhcs, and Pumice, 
but no Water. It is reported alfo, that bitumen mingled with Lime, and put 
under Water,willmake,as itweie,an artificial Rock, the fublfance bccometh 

'Here is aCcment compounded of Flower, Whites of Eggs, and Stone 


powdrcd, that bccometh hard as Marble, wherewith 'P»/<ri"4 Ji»Mt</*f, 501^"""^"' 


near Cuma, is fiid to have the Walls plaiftcrcd. And it is cercain, and tried, touching 
that the Powder of Load-Hone and Flint, by theaddition of Whites of Eggs f„'^f ^/J"^ | 
and Gum- dragon, made into Paftc, WiU in a few days harden to the hatdncfs AUrbic j 
of a Stone. j ' 



lud'iment of 
ihe Cure in 
fume I 'Let I 
and Hutu. 

Natural fii/lory 5 


I Experiment 

I Solitary, 

; louching the 
or l^rthiaitb- 
fulrtefi of the 


by Cold. 

IT hath been noted by the tylnttems, that in full or impure Bodies, U'ccrs 
or Huns in the Legs are hard to cure, and in the H'^dd morecafio. The 
[ caufc is, tor rhat Ulcers or Hurts in the Legs require Dcficcation, which by 
■ thedcliuxion of Humors to the lower parts is hir.dred, whereas Hurts and 

Ulcers hi the Head require it nut; bus contrariwir.-, Dry neis malccrh them 
, more apt to Confolidate. And in Modern ob(ervation, the hkc dift'crcnce 
! hath been found between French men and F.nghfli men ; whereof the oneg 
< Conftii ution is more dry, and the others more moilt : And therefore a Hurt 

o\ thcHe^dis harder to cutcinaFrcnch-man, and of the Leg in an hnglilL. 


IT hath been noted by the ty^nuents, that Southern Winds blowing much 
without Rain, docauTc a levorous Dijpo/iuon ot the Tear ; but Withaain, 
nor. Thecaufeis, for that Southern fVmds do of themfelvcs qualifie the Air 
to be apt to caufc fevers ; but when Showers arc joyncd, they do refrigerate 
in part^ and check the foultry Heat of the Southern Wind. Therefore this 
holdcth not in the Sca-coafts, becaufe the vapor of the Sea without Sliowcrs 
doth refcefli. 


i Expeiiment 
I Solitary, 


touching the 
Sifetnatiin of 


T hath been noted by the yincients, that Wounds which ate made with 
Brafs heal more eafily chen Wounds made with Iron. The caufe iy, for 
that Brafs hath in it felf a Sanative virtue, and fo in the very inftant helpeth 
fomewhat ; but Iron is Corrollve, and not Sanative. And therefore it were 
good that the Inftruments which ate ufcd by Ghiturglons about Wounds 
were rather of Brafs then Iron. 

N the cold Countreys, when Mens Nofcs and Ears are mortified, and (as 
it were) Gangrened with cold, if they come to a Fire, they rot off prc- 
fently. The caufe is, for that the few Spirits that remain in thofe parts are 
fuddenly drawn forth, and fo Putrefaction is madccotwpleat. But Snow put 
upon them helpeth. forthat itprefetveth thofe Spirits that remain till they 
can revive ; and befidcs. Snow hath in it a fecret warmth ; as the Ol€fnii 
proved out of the Text, ^tii dat Nivemficut Lanam, Celii ficut Cineres Jpargit > 
whereby he did infer, that Snow did warm like Wool, and Froft did fret like 
Afhes. Warm Water alfo doth good, becaufe bylittle and little it opcneth 
the pores, without any fudden working upon the Spirits. This Experiment 
may be transferred unto the cure of Gangrenes, cither coming of themfclves, 
or induced by too much applying of Opiates ; wherein you muft beware of 
dry Hear, and refort to things that are Refrigerant, with an inward warmth 
and virtue oi chcrifhing. 

1 "^ 7 High Iron and Aqua-fonts fevcrally, then diflblve the Iron in the Aqua- 
V V fortis, and weigh the DilTolution j andyoufhallfindeit to bear as good 
weight as the Bodies did feverally, notwithftanding agooddeal of wafte 
by a thick vapor that iflTueth during the working i which fheweth, that the 
openingof a Body doth increafe the weight. Tbis was tryed once or twice, 
but I know not wliethet there were any Error in the Tryal. 

TAkc of Aqtta-fortis two Ounces, of ^ick-fiiver two Drachms, cfor that 
charge the f^ qua fortis will beat) the Diifolution will not bear a Flint 
as big as a Nutmeg ; yet ( no doubt ) the increafing of the weight of 


Century Fill. 

Vi/atcr Will incrcale his power of bearing; as we fee Broyn, when it is (.ilr 
enough, will bear an Egg. And 1 remember well a Piiyfirian, that ufjd to 
give lome Mncral Baths for the dout &c. And the Body when it w,is put 
into the Bun, could not cct down fj eafily as inordinary Water. Biuit fjcm- 
cth, the weight of thcQnickfilver, more then tiic weight of a Stone, dotli 
not compenf^; the weight of a Stone, more then the weight oi the Aqua-foni/. 

LEt there be a Body of unequal weight, (as of Wood and Lead, or Bone 
and Lead;) it yoiithrowitfrom you with thelight end forward, it will 
turn, and thcweightierend will recover to be forwards, unlcfs theBody be 
over-long. 1 he taufe is, for that the more Denfe Body hath a more violent 
prclFurc of the parts from the firft impulfion ; which is the cauf: (thcut^h 
heretofore not found out, as hath been often fiid) of ill Violent Motions : 
And when the hinder parr moveth fwifter (for that it k f. endureih prcfTure of 
parts) then the forward pare can make way for ir, itmuft needs be that the 
Body turn over; for (turned) it can more eafily draw forward the lighter parr. 
C74/i//<tf notcthit well, That if an open Trough, wherein Water is, be driven 
ialter then the Water can follow, the Water gathcrcth upon an heap to- 
wardsthe hinder end, where the motion began j which he fuppofeth (hold- 
ing confidently the motion of the Eatth) to be the caufe of the Ebbing and 
Flowing of the Ocean, becauf.-theEarth over-runneth the Water. Which 
Theory tiiough it be falfe, yet the firft Experiment is true ; as for the incqua- 
i^v of the picflTure of parts, itappearcth manifcltly in this. That if you take 
aLiodyof Stone or Iron, and another of Wood, of the famemagniiude and 
fliape, and throw them with equal force, you cannot poffibly throw the 
Wood io faras the Stone orlron. 


Y r IS certain (as it hath been formerly in part touched) that Water maybe 
1 ^ he c^f^</ittOT of Sounds. If you dafii a Stone againft aStone in the bottom 
of the Water, it makes a Sound ; fo a long Pole ftruck upon Gravel, in the 
bottom of the Water, maketh a Sound. Nay, if you fhould think that the 
Sound Cometh iipby the Pole, and not by the Water, you (hall findethat an 
Anchor let down by a Rope maketh aSonnd; and yet the Rope is no folid 
Body, whereby the Sound can alcend. 

A LI objefts of the Senfes which are very ofFenfive, do caufc the Spirits 
to retire ; and upon their flight, the parts are rin fomc degree) deflitute, 
and lb there is induced in them a trepidation and horror. For Sounds, we 
fee, that the grating of a Saw. or any veryharfli noife, willfet the Teeth on 
edge, and make all the Body fhiver. ForTafles, we lee, that in the taking of 
a Potion, or Pills, the Head and the Neck fliake. For odious fmells, the like 
cfFed followeth, which is lefs perceived, becaufe there is a remedy at hand, 
by flopping of the Nofc. But in Horfes, that can ufe no fuch help, we lee 
thefmell of aCatrion, efpecially of a dead Horfe, maketh them flic away, 
andtakeonalmoft, as if they were mad. For Feeling, if you comeout of the 
Sun fuddcnly into a fliadc, there followeth a chilncfsorfhivcring in allthc 
Body. A d even in Sight, which hath (in cfFcd) no odious objed, coming in 
tofudden datkncfs, induccthanoflfcrto fhivcr. 

THere is in the City of Tictnum in luly, a Church that hath Windows 
onely from above; it is in Length an hundred Feet, in Bredth twenty 
Feet, and in ^Height near fifty, having a Door in the midft. Itreporteth, 

. the 


touchln" the 
cijual Bodiit 
in the ^ir. 


U^aitr, ihsi i 
may he the 
Medium of 

Solitary , 
of ihe Fiighi 
of the Spirits 
upon odiout 

touching the 
on c/ Echoei. 


SJ\(jitiiral Hiflorj ; 

the voice cwclvc or thirteen times. If you Hand by tlie dole n-nd-waJl over 
a(niiiiftthe Door, the Echo flidcth anddiechby little and little, as the Eclio 
ac 'Puin-ClhireiitoiidotU, and the voice loundah as it itcametrom nbove the 
Door •, and if voulknd at the lower end. or on either ilJe of the Door, the 
hch ) holdcthi' but if yourtand in the Door,orin the midlljiilt ovcragainft 
the Door, not. Note, that all Echoes jound better againft old U'alls then 
ncw,bccaulc they arc more dry and hollow. 

THolc cffeds which are wrought by thcperciiflion of the Senfe, and by 
things in lad, areproduccd likewise in fome degree by the imagina- 
tion : Ihereforc if a man fee another eat four or acide things, which ict the 
Teeth on edge, thisobjed taintcth the Imagination ; lb that he that feeth 
thethingdoncby another, hath his ovrn Teeth alio fet on edge. So if a man 
fee another turn fwiftly and long, or if he look upon Wheels that turn, him- 
iclf waxeth Turn lick, ^o if a man be upon a high place, without Rails, or 
good hold, except he be uled to it, he is ready to fall ; for imagining a falh 
itputtethhis fpirits into the very adionof afall. Romany upon the feeing 
of others Bleed, or Strangled, or Tortured, thcmlclves are ready to faint, 
as if they bled, or were in ftrife. 

TAkc a StocksGillifiiTter, and tie it gently upon a flick, and put them both 
both into a Stoop-glafs full of Quick-lilvcr , fo that the Fluwcr be 
covered -, then lay a little weight upon the top of the Glafs, that may keep 
the flick down ; and look upon them after four or five days, andyoufliall 
findc the Flower frefh, and the Stalk harder andlefs flexible then itwas. 
If you compare it with another Flower, gathered at the lame time, it will 
be the more manifefl. This fheweth, that Bodies do preferve excellently in 
Ouickrf'iv'r ; and not preferve oncly, but by thecoldncfs of the QuUk-filver, 
imiurate. For the frelhnefs of the Flower may bcmecrly Conlcrvation, 
(which is the more tQbeobferved,becaufethe.QHi(^-/t/r/rprcireth the Fto-iver) 
but the ftifnefs of theSralk cannot be without Induration from the cold (as 
it iecmeth) of the Qulik filver. 


DrcT^ning of 
the more Safe 
Metal, in the 
more yncliiM, 

IT is reported by fome of the t-/^«cjf«r/, Thatin(r7/)r«tfthereisakii 
Iron, that being cut into little pieces, and put into the ground, if itl 

inde of 

„^i,^.w..w...w~ pieces, and put into the ground, it it be well 

watered, will encreafc into greater pieces. This is certain, and known of old, 
that Lead will multiply and encrcale 5 as hath been Icen in old S'tatues of 
Stone, which have been put in Cellars, the Feet of them being bound with 
Leden bands ; where (after a time) there appeared, that the Lead did fvvell, 
infbmuch, as it hanged upon the Stonelike Warts. 

I Call that drowning of Metals, when the bafer Metal isfoincorpor.itc 
with the more rich, as it can by nomeansbefeparaced again; which is a 
kindcof Verfion, though falfe ; as ii Stiver fhould be infcparably incorpo- 
rated withGo/<i. ot Copper ^nA Led with S'ilver. The Ancient EUartm had 
,in it a fifthof^i/vfr to the GoW, and made a Compound Metal, as fit for 
Vnofl ufcs as Geld, and more refplendent, and more qu.ahficd in fome 
t)ther properties 5 but then that was eafilv feparatcd. This to do privily, 
or to maketheCompoundpals for the rich Metal fimple, is an adulteration 
or counterfeiting ; but if it be done avowedly and without dilguifing, it 
may be a great faving of the richer Metal. I remember to have heard of 
a man skilful in Metals, that a fifteenth part oisiher incorporate with 


(^cntury Fill. 

Gold is tlic onely Suhft.incc which harh nnrhing in ic Volatile, and ycc 
mclccth widioutmiich dirficulc . . The Mclcino^ fiicWcth, chat ic is not 
jcjiinr orfcarcc in Spirit, "'o thatte fixingof ic is nocw.ihcofipirit to flic 
out, but the equal fprcding of the Tangible parts, and the clofe coacerva- 
tion of (hem ; whcrcbythcy havcthclLb appetite, and no means (at all) to 
ilUic forth. It were good therefore to try '.vhcthcr GlalsRc-inoltcn, do lofe 
an \'U' eight •> for the parts in Glals arc evenly fpred, but they arc not ib clofe 
as in Gold ,■ as we lee by the ealie admiilion of Light Heat, and Cold, and 
bv the fmalncls of the weight. There be other Bodies fixed, which have lit- 
tle or no pirit,l"o as there is nothingtof^ie out; as we fee in the SciifF,\vhcrc- 
of Coppcharcmade.which they put into Furnaces, upon which Firework- 
ethnot. So that there arc three caufcs of Fixation -, tlic £vf ?;-j^>-fr/»;^ both 
o( the Spirits and TAngible parts ; the Clnfenef oi the Tangible pans ; and the 7f- 
jiinmieji or txtrexm Comminution oi^ spirits ; Ot which three, the twofitft may 
be joyncd wicha Nature Liqucfiiihk, chclaft not- 

IT is a profound Contemplation in Nature, to confiderof thcEmptinefs (as wc 
may call it) or Infatisfadion of fcvcral Bodics.and of their appetite to take 
in others. Air takcth in Lights, and Sounds, and Smells, and Vapors : And 
it is moftmanifcft, that it doth it with a kindc of Thirfl, asnotfatisficd with 
hisowntormer Confidence ; forclfe icwould never receive them in fofud- 
denly and cafily. fVattr and all Z-ii/Mon do hallily receive dry and more ler- 
rcftrial Bodies proportionable; andDry Bodies, on the other fide, drink in 
Waters and Liquors : So that (as it was well fiid by one of the yincientt, of 
Earthy and Watry Subftanccs) one is a Glue to another. Ttirciments.^hns, 
Cloth, &c. drink in Liquors ; though themfelvcs be entire Bodies, and not 
comminuted, as Sand and jlfhes, nor apparently porous. UUeials thcmfcl ves 
do receive in readily Strong tvaters, and S'trong-Tt>aters\ikc\vi(cdo readily pierce 
into Afetals a.nd Atones; snA t\\MStrong-T»4ter will touch upon CTo/ii, that will 
not touch upon Silver, and e converfo. And Gold, \»'hich feemeth by the weight 
tobct-hcclofffi: and moflfolid Body, doth grcedilydrinkin^i<i(.-/i/v^r. And 
it fccmcth, chat this Reception of othcrBodiesisnotviolent; for it is (many 
times; reciprocal,' and, a<- it were, with confent. Of the caiifc of this, and to 
wliat Axiom it may be referred, confider attentively; for as for the pretty 
afl'ertion, T hat CAUtter is like a Common Strumpet that defireth all Forms, it is 
but a WandringNotion. Onely Flame doth not content ic fclf to take in any 
other Body; butcither to overcome, and turn another Body into ic fclf. as 
by vidory, or itfelf to die and go out. 



, 799- 

Fixation O; 

S 00. 

Experiment I 
Solitary, I 

touching the 1 
f^cliUft Na- j 
tii/eof Thingii 
in ihtmftlxitii ! 
and their De- 
firc to Cbtnge. 





Century IX, 

^^■^^^^^^T is certain, Th^it all Bodies ^hztfocvcr, though they 
0^/]^ t-'^V^ have no Scnlc, yet they have Perception : For when 
one 504? is applied to another, there is a kindc of Eledi- 
on, to embrace that which is agreeable, and to exclude 
or expel that which is ingrate : And whether the Body 
be alterant or altercd,cvermore a Perception precedcth 
Operation ; for clfc all Bodies would be alike one to an- 
other. And fomctimes this Perception in fome kinde 
of Bodies is far more fubtil then the Scnfc ; fo that the Senfeis but a dull thing 
in compirifon of it. We fee a IFeather-gUf will findc the Icaft difference of 
the Weather in Heat or Cold, vrhen Men findc it not. And this Perception 
alloislbmccimcs atdiftancc, as well as upon the touch; as when the Lm</- 
//(?nf drawcth Iron, or Flame fireth iVa/>/;f/;4 of Babyltn a greatdilianccofT. 
It is therefore a fubjc<f^of a very Noble Enquiry, to enquire of the move fubtil 
Terceptions ; for it is another Key to open Nature, as well as the Stnfct and 
fomctimes better : And befidcs, it is a principal means of Natural 'Divination ; 
for that which in thelc Perceptions appcareth early , in the great cfieds 
cometh long after. It is true alfo, that it ferveth to difcover that which is 
hid, as well as to forctcl ihatwhich is to come, asitisin vazny fubtil TrjaU : 
As to try w hcther Seeds bcoldornsw, the Senfe cannot inform ; but if you 
boil them in Water, the new Seeds will fprout fooner. And fo of Water, 
the taftc will notdifcover the bcft Water ; but the fpecdy confuming of it, 
and many orh r means which We have heretofore fet down, willdifcover it. 
So in :ill Tlnfio^^mmy. ihc /-i"f."»fnr/of the ^cf/; will difcovcrtiiofc Natural 
Inclinations of the Nlinde, which Diflimulation will conceal, orDilciplinc 
will fuppnfs. We fhall therefore now handle oncly tlufe twoTerceptions 
which pertain to T^AturM 'Dtytnitian and T>ifcgverjf, leaving the handling of 1 
Q^^ Ftreeptton \ 


in Confoito 
Ptrctftittn in 
Budits Inftn- 
ftble, lending 
to Naturai 
Divination or 
Subtil Tryali. 


80 1, 





J\(jttural hiflory ; 

Terctpiion in other things to be difpofcd clfifthcre. Novr it is true, that 'Di- 
vm.uion is attained by other weans ; as if you know the caufcs, if you know 
the ConcomttAuts, youmay judge of the cffcft to follow ; and the like may be 
(aid of Difcovery. But vvc tye our lelvcs here to that 'Dhitiution and T)iJcovery 
chiefly, which is caufedby ancarly or lubtil Peneption. 

The aptnefs or propcniion ot Air or Water to corrupt orputrefic, 
(no doubt) is to be found before it break forth into manitcft cfTcds ct Dil- 
cafes.Blafting, orthelike. Wc will therefore let down romePrognolficks 
of Pellilcntial and unwholfome years. 

The Wind blowing mgch from the South without Rain, and Worms 
in the Qjk-Applc, have been Ipoken of before. Alio the plenty of Frogs, 
Grafhoppcrs, Flies, and the like Crc^iturcs bred of Putrcfadion.doth portend 
Pcftilential years. 

Great and early Heats in the Spring, (and namely in (JJfaj) without 
Winds, portend the fame. And generally (o do years with little Wind or 

Great Droughts in Summer, laffing till towards the end of t^u^usl, 
and fome gentle Ihowers upon them, and then fomc dry weather again, do 
portend a Peitilent Summer the year following : For about the end of 
Auguji, all the fwcctnefs of the Earth which goeth into VUms or Irca is 
exhaled ■-, (and much more if the Augufl be dry } fo that nothing then 
can breath forth of the Earth but a grofs vapor, which is apt to corrupt 
the Air; and that vapor by the hrfl: Ihowers, if they begentle, is releafeJ, 
and Cometh forth abundantly. Therefore they that come abroad foon 
after thofefliowcrs are commonly taken vrith ficknefs. And in Afnck no 
Body will flir out of doors after the firflfliowcrs. But if the firll fho\rers 
come vehemently , then they rather wafh and fill the Earth, then give 
it leave to breath forth prclently. But if dry weather come again, then 
itfixeth and continueth the corruption of the Air upon the firil: fhowers 
begun, and maketh it of ill influence even to the next Summer, ex- 
cept a very Frofty Winter difcharge it, which feldom fuccecdeth luch 

ThelcfTerlnfedionsof the^fH-i/Z-fov, Purple FcAvers, y^^«« in the Sum- 
mer precedent, and hovering all Winter, do portend a great Pejitlence 
in the Summer following : For Putrcfadion dothnot rife to its height at 

It were good to lay a piece of raw Flefli or Filh in the open Air ; 
and if it putrcfie quickly, it is a fign of a dilpoiition in the Air to Pu- 
trefadion. And becaule you cannot be informed, whtherthc Putrefadi- 
on be quick or late, except you compare this Experiment with the 
like Experiment in another year ; it were not amifs in the lame year, 
and at the lame time, to lay one piece of Flefli or Fifli in the open Air, 
and another of the fame kinde and bignefs within doors : For I judge, 
that if a general di pofition be in the Air to putrefie, the Flefli or Fifh 
"will fooner putrcfie abroad, where the Air hath more power then in the 
Houfe, where it hath Icis, being many ways corrected. And this Experi- 
ment would be made about the end of c^/:<rf A ; for that fealon is likeft to 
difcovcr what the Winter hath done, and what the Summer following will 
do upon theAir. Andbccaufcthe Air (nodoubt) receivcth greattindurel 
and infufion from the Earth , ic were good to try charexpofuig. of Flefli I 


I (^entury 1 X, 

or FiHi bochupona Jjtakeot Wood , (ome height above the Harth, and 
upon the flat of the Earth. 

Take cJI/i/ Dew, -and fee whether it putrcfic quickly, orno; for that 
likewifemay tiiiclole the quahtyof thsAir, and vapor oi the Earth, more 
or Icfs corrupted. 

A dry AUrch, and a 6iy M*j, portend a wholefume Summer, if there be 
a fhowring Apnl between j but othcrwifeit is a fign of a TsJliltnudytAx, 

As the dilcovery ol thcdifpofitionof the Air i? good for tiie trogno^iiki 
of wholclomc and unwholcfome years ; fo it is of much more ulc tor the 
choiceof placesto dwell in; at cheleart for Lodges andRetiring-placcs for 
Health, (for ManfionHouf.s ri-ipca provifions as well ashcaltii) wherein 
ihe Exferiments above mentioned may lervc. 

Bur for the choice cf Places or Scats, it is good to make tryal, notonely 
of aptncfs of Air to corrupt, but alio of the moifture and drynefs of the 
Air.and the temper of it in heat or cold ; for that may concern health diverily. 
Wc rv;cthatthcfebcfome Houf:swaerein^ar«^M/j will relent, and B4ks<i 
.W^'jf/ will mould, more then in others; zn<i fVainfcots will alfj fwcat more, f> 
that they Willalmoftiun with Water: Af. whicii(no doubt) are ciufcd chief- 
ly by the moiftnefs of the AirintliofcSeacs. But bcciufi it is better to know 
it before a Mm buildcth his Hour.-, then tofinde it after, take the Exferimeuis 

Lay Wool, or a Sponge, or Bread in the place you would try," comparing 
it with fomc other places, and f:e whether it doth not moiften. and make 
the Wool or Sponge, iScc. mote ponderous then the other : And if it do, you 
may judge of that place, asfituatcinagrcfs andmoiltAir. 

Becaufj it is certain thit in fome place',eithcr by theNauirc of the Earth, 
or by the firuation ol Woods and Hills, the Air i$ more unequal then in 
others; and inequality of Air is ever an enemy to health : Itweregood to 
take two Weathcr.Glifles, matches in all things, and tof:t them for the fame 
hours of onedav infcveral places where nolhadeis norenclolutcs j and to 
mark wiien you fee them, how far the Water cometh ; ^nd to compare them 
when you comeagain, how the Watcrllandeth then. And if you findc them 
unequal, you miy befure, that the place where the Water is lowcft is in the 
warmer Air, and the otherin the Colder. And the greater the inequality is 
of the aLent or def.cnt of the Water, the greater is the inequality ot the 
temper of the Air. 

Ihc Prcdtcliojis likewifv: of cold and long Winters, and hot and dry 
Summers, arc good to be known, as well for thedifcovety of the caufcs, 
as for divers Provifions. That of Tlentyof Huyts, and Heps, and Bryar-Berries^ 
hath been fpokcn of before. If li'amfcot ot St$ne, that have uf.^d to fwear, be 
more dry in the beginning of Winter, or the drops of theEavs of Houfes 
come more llowly down then they ui\, it portcndeth ahard and frofty Win» 
ter. The caufe is.forthatitfliewech an inclinationof the Ait to dry Weather, 
which in Winter isevcr)oyned With Froft- 

Generally a moiif anda cool Summer, portcndeth a hard Winter. The 
caufe is, for that the vapors cf theHatth arc noj diflipaccd in the Summer by 
the Sun J and fo they rebound upon the Winter. 

A hot and dry Summer and Autumn, and cfjecially jf the heat and 
drought extend fir into ?(ftembeT, portcndeth an open beginning o' Winter, 
and colds to fucceed toward the latter part of the Winter, and tac beginning 
of the Spring. For till then the former heat and drought bear the Iway, and 
the vapors arc not fufficicntly multiplied. 
9^ An 











J\(jitural hillory ; 

An open and warm Winter portcndcth a hot and dry Summer : Fpr che 
Vapors dilpcrfc into the Winter ftiowers ; whereas Cold and Froftketp- 
ecn them in, and tranlporttth them into the late Spring and Summer fol- 
lowing. ' 

Birds that u(e to change Countrcvs at certain Seafons if flicy come 
earlier, do fliew the temperature of Weather according 10 that Countrcy 
whence they came: As the Winter Birds, (namely, /^'o»rftofJ;^r, Fddefures C^o 
if they come earlier, and out oi KhcT^orthtmCountreySy wuh us Ihcw cold 
Winters. And if it be inthe fame Countrey, then they flicw atemperiture 
of Seafon, like unto that Seafon in which they come ; as SD'aHotis Buts 
Cucktes,6-c. that come towards Summer, if they come early, Ihcw a i.oc 
Summer to follow. 

The Trognofiuks more immediate of Weather to follow foon a'':er, are 
more certain then thofeof Seafons: The Refoundmgof the Sea upon the 
Shore, and the Murmurol Winds inthe Woods, without apparent Wmc', 
fliew Wind to follow. Tot (uch Winds, breathing chiefly cut of the Harth, 
are not at the fitft perceived, except they be pent by Water or Wood. And 
thereforc-a Murmur out of Caves likewifc portendeth as much. 

The Upper Regions of the Air, perceive the Colleftion of the mitrer of 
Tempefl and Winds before the Air here below. And therefore the obfcuring 
of thefmallerStars, isafignof Tcmpel^s following. And of this kinde you 
fliall findc a number of inltanccs in our Inquifuion de Ventis. 

Great Mountains have a Perception of the dilpofition of the Air to Tern- 
pefts fooncr.then the Valleysor Plains below. And therefore ihcy fay in yfAlcs^ 
Vf'hen certain Hills hAvt tbeir Night-caps on, thej me :.n mfdief. The c^ufc i«, for that 
Tempers which are for the moft part bred above in the Middle Region, (as 
they call it) arcfoonefl perceived locoUed in thcplacesnextit. 

The Air and Fire have fubtil Perceptions of Wind rifingbefotcMen 
finde ir. We fee the trembling of a Candle will difcover a Wind, that other- 
wife we do not feel; and the Flexious burning of Flames dothflicw the Air 
beginneth to be unquiet j and fo do Coals of fire, by calling of!" the afhes 
more then they ufe. The caufe is, for that no Wind at the hnt, till it hath 
ftruck and driven the Air, is apparent to the Senfe $ but fljme iscafier to 
move then Air. And for the Afhes, itis no marvel though Wini unperceived 
fli jke them off ; for we ufually try which way the Wind bloweth, by cafling 
up Grafs or Chaff, or fuch light things int;o the Air. 

When Wind cxpireth from under the Sea, as itcaufeth feme refound 
ings of the Water, cwhereof wefpake before) fo iccaufeth feme light mo- 
tions of Bubbles, and white Circles of Froth, The caufe is, for ihatthe 
Wind cannot be perceived by the Senfe, until there be an Kruptionof agreat 
quantity from under the Water, and fo itgettethintoaBody, wiiereasiuthe 
firft putting up, itcometh in little portions. 

Wtfpakeof theAfhes thatCoalscait off, and of Grafs and Chaff car- 
ried by the Wind ; fo any light thing that moveth when we find no Wind, 
fhewcthaWindat hand: As when Feathers or Down of Thilllcsflie to and 

For ProgHi^icksoi VVeatherfrom Living Creatures, it is to be noted. That 

Gueatn'res that live in the open Air {fubdio) mult needs have a quicker 

impreffion from the Air, then Men that live moft within doors ; and cfpe- 

. cially Birds who live in the Ait frceft and clcareft, and are apteft by their 

voice to tell talcs what ihcy findc, and likewile by the motion of their 

flight to exprefs the fame. 


Qntpirj IX. . I 

VyAter-fo-Vfls (at Set-Gulls, C^Ioir-Henf, &c.) when they flock and file ' 
together from the bca cowards (hci>horcs ; and contrariwifcLaiid Birds, (as I 
CroTn SwulloTts, &c. when thev flie (ronithc Land to the Waters, and beat I 
the VVitcrs with their Wings, doforcfhew Rain and Wind. The caufc 15,' 
Pkai'ure that both kindcs take in the moiflnefs and dcnfuy of the Air,' 
and fo defite to be in motion, and upon the Wing) whither-foever they 
would othctwifc go : For it is no marvel chat Water fowl do joy molt 
in that Air which is hkeft Waters ; and Land Birds alfo (many of them) 
delight in B ithir.g and moilt Air. For the fame rcafon alto, many Birds do 
pranc their Feiihers, and Geeie do gaggle, and Crows fecm to call upon' 
Rain. All w hich is but the comfort they fecm to receive in the relenting of ; 
the Air. 

The Hifrow when fhcfoateth high, (foasfotnctimes file is fecn to pafs I 
over a Cloud) fhcweth VV^inds : But Kitet flying alofr, fhew fjir and dry 
weather. Thecaullmay be, for that they both mountmoft into tlic Air of 
that temper wherein they delight. And the Heron, bemg 3 Waterfowl, 
taketh pleafurc in the Air that is condenfcd ; and belides, beingbuc heavy 
of Wing, ncedcth the help of chegruiVerAir. But the ATrrtr afledeth not 
fo much the groffiuf. of the Air, as the cold and (cefhnefs thereof j for be- 
ing a ^ir;/ 0/ /'rr/ , and therefore hot, Ihc delightcth in the frefli Air, and 
(many times) Hicth againll: theVVind; as Trouti ai\d Salmons fwim againft 
the dream. A",d yet it is true alfo, that all Birds firldcaneafeinthc depth 
of theAir, as Swimmers do in a deep Water. And therefore when they arc 
alfo, they can uphold themfclves with their Wings fpred, fcarce moving 

Fi/lces when they play towards the top of the Water, docommonly 
foretcl Ram. The caufc is, for that a Fifh tiating the dry, will not approach 
the Air till it groweth moilt ; and when it is dry will fl.c it, and fwim 

^^■j/?/ do take comfort ^generally) inamoift A,r, and it makechthcm 
cat their Meat better ; and therefore Skep will get up betimes in the 
moinngto feed againft Rain -, and Cattle, and Deer, and Coneys will feed 
hard before Rain ,- and z Heifer will put up his Nofe. and fnatf in the Air 
again '^ Rain. 

Ttie Trifiil againft Rain, fwclleth in the Scalk, and fo ftandcth more 
uprigu ; for by wet, Stalks do creft, and Leaves btrW down. Tnereisa 
fnall Red Flower in the J^tubble-fields, which Couuitey people call the 
^Vnuoplpt J which, it it open in the Morning, you may be fureof a fair day 
to follow. 

Even in cJl/fg. y^fi«, znAHuns, and Corns, do engrievc cither towards 
Rair, or towards Froft • for theonemaketh the Humors more to abouad, 
and I he other makcth them fliarpcr. So we f^c both extrcams bring- the 

fVonm, Verwuie, &c. do forcfhcw (likewi(c) RJin j for Edrth-ltorms 
will come forth, and <J]{ol(S will calt up more, and Fleat bite more againlV 

Solid Bodies likcwife forcfhcw Rain : As Stones and Wainfcot when 
they Iwear, and Boxes and Pegs of Wood When they draw and wind hard ; 
rhough the former be but from an outward caufe, fortha:the Stone or 
Wainfcor torneth and bcatcth bacR the Air agiind it felf ; but the latter is ati 
'inward iwcllmg of the Body of the Wood it felf. 






touching the 
Niturt of 
^ppeiitt in 
tht Slomick^ 





STvettnifi of 
Odor from the 

J\(atural Hijlory ; 


ISv/tct Smelts, 


A appetite is moved chiefly by things that are cold and dry. The caufe is, 
for that Cold isakindeot indjgcnceof Naturc.atHlcallcthuponfuppiv, 
andlo is Dryncls : And therefore all lour things (as FlntgAr, Juymf Lemmons, 
Oil of Vuriol, &c.) provukc Appetite. And the Dilealc wnich they call 
i^ppetnut CAmnus, confiileth iathe Matter of an AciJe andGlafliePhlLgm 
in the Mouth ot theStomack. y^/)/)ffj/f is alio moved by lour things, tor 
that four things induce a contraftion in the Nirves, placed in the Mciuh ot 
the Stomack, which is a great caufeof Appetite. As for thecaufe wny Om- 
ens, and Salt, and Pepper in Baked Meats move Appetite, it is by Vcilicarion 
of thofc Nerve: > forMotion whettcth. Ab for fVortmatod, Olivet, Capers, and 
others of thatkindc, which participate of Bitternefs they move Appetite 
by Abfterfion. So as there be four principal caufcs of Appetite ; the iic fri 
gcration of the S:omack joyned with fotne Drynef?, Contradion, Vcllicati- 
on, and Abfterfion; bcfides Hunger, which is an cmptincfs; and yet over- 
falling doth (many times) caufc the Appetite to ccafc; for that want of Meat 
maketh theStomack draw Humorr, and fuch Humors as are light and Cho- 
Icrick, which quench Appetite moll, 

IT hath been obfervcd by the i_Anc'tents, that where a Ra'mhott fecmcth to 
hang over, or to touch, there breathcth foich a fweet fmcU. The caufe is, 
for that this happeneth but in certain matters which ha^^e in themfclves lome 
Sweetnefs, which the gentle Dew of the RainboTif doth draw forth j and the 
like do foft Showers, for they aUo make the Ground fweet: But noncarcfo 
delicate as the Dew of i)\cRA'mho-^ where it fallcth. It may bcalfo, that the 
Water itfelf hath fomc Swcctncfs,- for the RAtnbo'\ifcov\i\&cih of a Glomera- 
tion of Imall drops , which cannot poffibly fall but from the Air that is 
very low , and therefore may hold the very SweetneJs of the Hetbs and 
Flowers as aDiftillcd Water : For Rain and other Dew that tall from high 
cannot prefcrve the fmell, being dillipated in thedrawingup; neichcrdowe 
know, whether fome Water it lelf may not havefome degree of Swectnefs. 
It is true, that we finde it fcnfibly in no Pool, River, nor Fountain ; butgood 
Earth newly turned up, hath a frcfhnefsand good fcnt ; which Water, il it be 
not too equal, (for equal objefts never move the Scnfc) may alfo have. Cer- 
tain it is, that Bay fait, which is but a kindc of Water congealed, will fome- 
times fmcU hke Ftolets. 

TO fweet Smells, heat isrequifitc toconcoftthe Matter, and fomc Moy- 
fture to fpred the Breath of them: Forheat, wefeethat Woods and Spi- 
ces-arc more odoratc in the Hot Counttey s, then in the Cold. For Moifturc, 
wc fee that things too much dryed lole their Sweetncfs ; and Flowers grow- 
ing fmell better in a Morning or Evening, then at Noon. Some fweet (mells 
are deftroyed by approach to the Fire ; as F'loletsJVaU-floTtiers, GilUfloTters. Pinks. 
and generally all Flowers that have cool and delicate Spirits. Some continue 
both on the lire, and from the fire, as Rofe-T»ater, &c. Some do £arcc come 
forth, oratlcaft not fopleafantly, asby means of thefire; sls Juniper, S-^eet 
Gums, &c. and all fmells that are cnclofed in a faft Body ; but (gcnetally) 
thofe Imells arc the molt grateful where the degree of heat is finall, or whci^c 
the fkength of the fmell is allayed ; for thefe things do rather wo chg-S.cnfe, 
then fatiate ir. And therefore the fmell of holets and Rofes exceedeth in fweei- 
ncfsthat of Spices ; and Gums, and the ftrongefl fort of fmells, arc belt in a 
weft afar off. 






ITisccrtiin, thatnofmcU ifTueth but with cmifllon of fomc corporeal Tub- 8J4-. ; 
ftcincc-, nocasitisin LiG-hr, andColomsandSoiinds: Far wclcc plainly Expc""!"!' ■ 
thatfmcll doth fprednoihiiig that didancc that thcoihet do. it is true, that .outhmg ihe 
Tome Woods of Orenges, and Henths of Rofenury, will liiiell a grta: way into corportai 
the Sea, perhaps twenty M Icb ; but what is that, fiiice a peal of. Ordnance j^^f'"^' "' 
vriUdoas much, which nioveth in a (tnallcompals, whereas t'lofe Woods i 
and Heaths are of vail (paces ? Bcfides, we fee that fmclls do adhere to hard 
Bodies ; as in perfuming of Gloves, c^f. which flieweththcm (.orporeai; and I 
do laif a orreat while, which Sounds and Light do not. 

THe Excrements o'i mofl Creatures fmcll ill, chiefly to the fame Creature 
that voideth them : For we fee, bcfides that of Man, that Pigeons and 
Hoilosthrivebeft, if their Houfcs andSrables bckept fweet, and fo of Cage- 
Birds ; and the Cat burieth that which fhe voideth. And it holdcth chiefly in 
thof'c Beafts whichfccd uponricfli. Dogs (almoft) onely of Beafts delight in 
fetide odors ; which flieweth there is fomewhat in their fcnfc of fmell differ- 
ing from the fmells of other Beafts. But the caufc why Excrements fmell ill is 
manifelf, for that the Body it fclf rejcdeththcm, much more theSpirits: 
Andwefce,thatthofe£.vaf»»e>.'/Jthatarcof the fitffdigeftion fmell the worlf, 
as ihcExcremems from ihcBclly j thofe thatarefrom the fccond digelfion, lefs 
\\],zsFrtne; and thofe that are from the third, yet lefs; forSwcarisnot fo 
bad.asthc other two, efpecially of fome perfons that are full of hc^t. Like- 
wife mofl Putreficlions are of an odious fmell, for they fmcll either fertile or 
mouldy. The caufemaybc, for that Putrefadion doth bring forth fucha 
confilfcnce as ismoft contrary to the confiflicnce of the Body whilcft it is 
found, for it isameerdiirolutionof that form. Befidcs, there is another rea- 
fon, which is profound: Anditis, That the objeds that plealeanv of the 
fenfcs, have (sll) fome equality, and cas it were) order in their compofition, 
but where thofe arc wanting theobjeftiseveringrate. So mixture of many 
difagreeing colours is never unplcafant to the Eye ; Mixture of difcordant 
Soundsisunplcafant tothe Ear; mixture or hotch-potch of many taftes is 
ui^pleafant to the tatfe 3 harflincfs and ruggedncfsof Bodies is unpleafantto 
the touch. Nowitisccrtain, thatallPutrefadion, being adifTolution of the 
firlHorm, isameerconfufion, and unformed mixture of th^' part. Kcver- 
thelefs, it isftrangc, andfcemcthtocrofstheformer obfervation, that fome 
Putrcfaftions and Excrements do yield cxccllcntOdors j as Qvii and ^/i«j<^,ind, 
as fome tW\uV., ^mbtr-greece , for divers takcit (though unprobably) to come 
from tb.e Sperm ot F.lh ; and the Mofswe fpakeoi from yff pie-trees \s litrie 
better then an Excretion. The reafon may be, for that there paifeth in tlic 
Exctcments, and rcmainethinthcPutrefadions.lomegoodfpirits, efpcciaUy 
j where they proceed from Creatures that are very hot. But it may be alfo 
j joyned wichatutthcrcaufe, which is more fubril; and it 15, that the Scnfes 
\ love not to be over-plcafed, but to have a commixture of (omewhatthat is 
I initfclf ingratc. Certainly, we fee how Dilcords inMufick, falling upon 
' Concords, make the fweeteftflrains : And we fee again what If range taftcs 
delight the laile ; as Red-herrings, Caviare, P/irmefM, &c. And it may be the 
fame holdcth in fiiiells. For thofe kindcof fmells that we have mentioned 
j arc all ftrong, anddopuU and vcllicate the Sciife. And wefiridealfo, that 
j places where men Urine commonly have fome fmell of Vtokts. *And Urine, 
■ if one hath catcu Mucmcg, hath fb too. 

I The : 




Feiide and 





0\(jitiiral H'tjlory ; 

S3 5. 

touching the 
Caufcs of Ph- 

S'3 7. 
Bodies unpcr- 
ftSltj' milt. 


ConcoHion and 

The ilothful. general, and indefinite Contemplations and Notions of 
the Elements, and their Conjugations ct" the Influences of Hedvtn, of Hot. 
Cold, OVloifiiire, T^rou^ht, ^dittes jiclive, 'Tafive and the like, have (v\allow- 
cd up the true Parages, and trocejfa, .ind j1}[ec\s, and Confijlenaes of M-tter, and 
Ndtural Bodies. Therefore they are to be let alidc, being but notional, and ill 
limited ; and definite axioms arc to be drawn out ot mcalured inllances, 
and lb aflent to be made to the more general axioms by Scale. And of thefc 
kindes of I'rocejfes of Nature, and Charaiters of AiAtter, we will now fet down 
fomc inflanccs. 

A LI Putrcfiid:ions come chiefly from the inward Spirits of the Body, 
and partly alfo from the tyimbiemBody, be it Air, Liquor, or what- 
ibevcrclfc. And this lafl:, by two means; cither by Ingrefs of the fubftancc 
of the Ambient Body into the Body putrefied, or by excitation and folici- 
tationof the Body putrefied, and the parts thereof, by the Body Ambient. 
As for the received opinion, that Putrcfadicniscanlcd cither by Cold, or 
Peregrine and Preternatural Hi at, icisbutnugation : For Cold in things 
inanimate, is the greateft enemy that is to Putrefadion, though it extin- 
guiflieth Vivi' cation, which ever Gon^ftcth in Spirits attenuate, which the 
Cold doth congeal and coagulate. And as for the leregrme l/e^d, it is thus 
far true That it the proportion of the c//'(i>'<rMr«r^/'frf/, be greatly predomi- 
nant to the Natur,tl heat, and J'/'»r»y 0/ 1/^^ ^ur//, it tendeth to difTolution, or 
notable alteration. But this is wrought by tmiflion, or Suppreflionj or 
Suft^bcation of the Native Spirits, and alio by the Diiurdination and Dif- 
compofure of the Tangible parts, and other pallkges of Nature, and not 
by aconfiid of Heats. 

IN verfions or main Alterations of Bodies, there is a Medium betw cen the 
Body, a» it is at firft, and the Body refulting j v hich Medium is Corptu im- 
perfecle Mtfttivt, and Is traniitory, andnot durable; ^.sC^Iifts Smoaks faporSy 
ChjUis in the Stomack,, Living Creatures in\.\\tf[rfk Fivi^cdtion ; and the middle 
aftion which product th fuch hnperfeil Bodies, is fitly called (bylomeof the 
K_ylncients) Inquination or Incontsclion, which is a kinde of Futrefailion 5 for the 
parts are in tonfuiion till they fettle one way or other. 

T He word Concoction or 'Digejlion, is chiefly taken into ufe from Living 
Creatures, and their Organs, and from thence extended to Liquors 
and Fruit5;,&c. Therefore they fpeak of Meat concoded. Urine andExcre- 
mcnts concodcd; and the Four Digcff ions tin the Stomack, in theLiver,in 
the Arteries and Nerves, and in chefevcral parts of the Body) are likcwifc 
called Co»«Sifl«^. andthcy areallmade tobe the works of //e jr. All which 
notions are but ignorant catches of a few things , which are moft obvious 
to Mens obfervations- 7 he conflanteft notion of CowcoSwb is,thaticftould 
fignifie the degrees of alteration of one Body into another, from Crudity to 
t erf eel Concoclion, which is the ultimity of thatadion orprocefs. And while 
the Body to be converted and altered is too ffrong for the efficient that 
flioul J convert or alter it, (whereby it rcfifleth. and holdeth fail in fbme 
degree the firfl: Form or Confiftence) it is ( all that while) Crude and 
Inconcodl, and the Procefs is to be called Cnidtty and In concoclion. It is true, 
chat Conco«ftion is in great part the work oitieat; but Hqc the work of Heat 
alone : For all things that further the Converfmi or t^ Iteration (as Reft, 
Mixture of a Body already concocted, Sec.) arc allb means to ConcoHion. And 

there ' 

Cf^ntury IX. 

there nre ot Concodtion twu FeriuiJs ; the one Airinulation, or ablblutc 
Convetfion ilndSubadion 5 the other Mnuration : Whereof, the former is 
motlconlpicuous in the Bodies of /.iv<"j Crcunres^w. which there is an jibfolute 
Converfion and t^ftmiittion of the T^our'tshment intothcBody, and likcwile in 
thei3odies of Plaat.s; and agiin. in Mctils, where there is a full Tranfmu- 
cation. The other (which is Maturation) is fccn in Liquors and Fruit? ; 
wherein there is not defircd, nor pretended, an utter Converfion, but onely 
an Alteration to that Form whicn is mo'i^ fought for Mans ufej as in Clari- 
fying of Drinks Ripeningof Fruit', &c. Butnote, that there be two kindes 
of tyibfoltiieCmverJions. The one is when a Bjdy ijconvertcd into another 
Body which was before; as when Nourifhment is turned into Flefli : That is 
it w.iich we call i^fftiniUtion. The ocheri?, when the Converfion is into a Body 
mccrly new, and which was not before ; .is if Silver (h juld be turned to 
Gold, or Iron zoCjpper. \nd ih'is Converfion is better called, bydiftindion fake, 

T Here are alfo divers other great attentions of Matter and Bodies, be- 
fides hoe that tend loCjmodion and C^f-tturmon ; for whatfoever doth 
To altera Bod7, asit returncth nocagiin to that it was, may be called o^//r- 
rang Mijor : As waen M. -at is Boiled, or Rofted, or Fried, Sec. or when 
Bread and Meatare Baked ; or whenCheefc is made of Curds, or Butter 
of Cream, or Coals of Wood, or Bricks cf Earth ; and a number of others. 
But lo 3pp\y Notions Phtloftjph'ual to pUbeianlerms\ or to fay, where the A'o- 
tions cannot fitly be reconciled, that there wantech a Term or NtmencUture for 
It, (asthe ^^/((f/j/jufed) tliey be but fliifts of ZgHflr.iHfr : For KnoTtrled^e \\'\\\ 
be ever a Wandnngand lndige!l:ed thirg, if ir be but acommixfure of a few 
iVofionj that arc at hand, qfnd occur, and not excited Irom fufficicnt number 
of instances, and thole well collated. 

The Confiftencies of Bodies are very divers i Denfe, Rare, Tangible, Tneu^ 
m.iticd \ VoUtile, Ftxid ; ^Determinate, not 'Determinate; Hard, Soft; Cleaving, 
not Cleaving i CongeUble, not Congelable i Liqtttfiuble, not Luiuefiable ; Fragile, 
Tough 5 Flexible, Inflexible ; Tradile, or to be drawn forth in lengh, IntraHile -, 
Foroiis, i'ilide; Equal and Smooth, Vntqual ; Fenttts and Fibrous, and with (7r4W, 
Entire, and divers others. All which to refer to //f;ir and CoW, and Mo iff are 
and Drought, i<; a Compendious and Inutile Jz-ffn/^rro/i. Butof chefe fecprin- 
cipally onx Abe cedar ium Naturt, and otlierwife j^^r/H;» in this Our SyWaSyl. 
varum. Nevcrthclei>, in lome good parr, we fliall handle divers of them 
now preicnily. 

L/qucfi.ible and nor Liqutfiahle proceed from thcfccaufcs. Liquefailion is ever 
caufed by the Detention t f the Spirits, which play wiihin the Body, 
andopcn it Therefote fuch Bodies as arc more lurgid of Spirit, or that 
havetheir Spirits moreftrcij^htlv imprifoncd, or agiin, that hold them bcr- 
tfrpleafcd and content, jiTc Lijuefiable : For thcic three 'DtfPofmoHs of Bodies 
oo arreit the HmiflTion of the Spirits. Aneximplcof the lirli two Properties 
IS in M'tals, and ol thela:t inGreale, Pitch, Sulphur, Butter, Wax, &c. The 
n ipolirion n6t to Liqucfie , procecdcih from the cafie Emffion of the 
Sp rir?, whcrcbv the E^rolfer parts contract •- and therefore Bjdies^r/«n< of 
Spirir*;, or^'hichpart with their Spirits more willirgly, 2Ti- not Liquefiable ; 
asWood, Cliv, Frecifone, &c. Butyct even many of thole Bodicsthat will 
not melt, orwillhardlv melr, will notwichftandir g folten ; as Iron in the 
' Forgo, 


S3 9- 

which may be 
tilled Atipri. 

Huditt Lijue 
fjabit, tnd not 



touching the 
Boditt I- ragUe 
>id T$ugh, 


touching the 
Tito l{indei 0, 
in Badiu. 

Ccncrt tiott and 
Diffolutiun of 

J\(atwal Hijlory; 

ForcTc, and a Stick bathcJ in hot Aflics, which thereby bcconnech more 
Flexible. MoreovxT, there arc ibmc Bodies which do Ltqnejie or dillblvc by 
Fires as Affuls, Ik'dx^ &c. and other Bodies which diirolvc in Water, as 
Salt, SugdT, &c. The caule oi the former procecdcth from the Dilatation ot 
thcSpirits bv Heat: The caufc of the latter procecdeth from the opening 
of the Tangible Parts, which dcilrc to receive the Liquor. Again, there arc 
fomc Bodies thatdiffolvc with both; as Gum, &c. And thofc be fuchBodiei 
as on the one lide have good florc of Spirit, and on the c ther fide have the 
Tangiulc parts indigent of Moifturc; forchc former hclpcthto thedilating 
of the Spirits by the Fire, and the latter ftimulateth theparts to receive the 


F Bodies fomc are Fragile, andfomearc ToUgh and not Fragile j and 
in tic breaking, fomc Fragile Bodies break but where the force is, lomc 
flia rter and ilic in many pieces. Of Fragility, thecaufeis an impotency to 
be extended ; and therefore Stone is more Fragile then Metal; andfo Fidile 
Earth is more Fragile then Crude Earth, and Dry Wood then Green. And 
thecaufeofthisunaptncfsto I xtenfion, is the fmall quantity of Spirits(forit 
is the Spirit that furthcreth the Extcnfion or Dilatation of Bodies ;) and it 
is ever concomitant with Forofity, and with Drincls in the Tangible parts. 
Contrariwife, Tough Bodies have more Spirits , and fewer Fores , and 
Moifler langibic parts : Therefore we Ice, that Parchment or Lea- 
ther will ftrctch , Paper will not ; Woollen-Cloth will tenter , Linncn 

ALL folid Bodies confifl of Parts of two leveral Ndturts ; Ttieumaikal, 
and Tangible : And it is well to be noted, that the Tneuntdtical Sublfance 
is in fome Bodies, the Native Spirit of the Body ; and in fome other^ 
plain Air that is gotten in; as in Bodies dcficcatc, by Heat, or Age: For 
in them, when the Native Spirit goeth forth, and thcMoilturc with it, the 
Air with time gt ttcth into the Pores . And thole Bodies are ever the more 
Fragile , for the Native Spirit is more Yielding and Extenfive (efpccial- 
ly to follow the Parts) than Air. The Native Spirits alfo admit great 
divcrficy , as Hot, Cold. Adlivc, Dull, &c. Whence proceed mofl of 
theVertucs, and Qualities (as we call them) of Bodies : But the Air in- 
tcrmixc, is without Vertuesj andmakcth things infipid, and without any 
extimula ion. 

THc Concmion »f Sodies is r^commonly) folved by the contrary; ias Ice, 
which is congealed by Cold, is diflblved by Heat ; Salt and Sugar, 
which are cxcoiSed by Heat, arc difTolvcd by Cold and Moifture. The 
caufc is, for thatthcfc operations arc rarher returns to their former Nature, 
than alterations j fo that the contrary cureth. As for Oyl, it doth neither 
eaiily congeal with Cold,northickenwith Heat. The caufe of both Effedi, 
though they be produced by contrary efficients, fccmeth to be the fame j and 
that is, bccaufe the Spirit of the Oyl, by either means, exhalcth little •• For 
theColdkecpcthit in, and the Heat (except it be vehement) dothnotcall 
it forth. As for Cold, though it take holdot the Tangible Parts.yct as to the 
Spirits it doth rather make them fwcll, than congeal them : As when Ice 
is congealed in a Cup. the Ice will fwcH inftead of contracting, andfome- 
times rift. 


Qcmury IX, 

OF Bodier.fome (\vcfec)are hard, and fome foftt The hardnefsis'caufcd 
(chiefly) by the Jcjunenifs of the !)JJirits ; and their impariiy with the 
Tangible pans : Boch which, if they be in a greater degree, makcth them 
notoncly hard, but fragile, and Icis enduring ot preflurcJ is yteel. Stone GUjT, 
"Drj jVoii,&c. Softnels tomcih (contruuviff) by t le greater quantity 6t 
Spirit*, (which ever hilpcth to induce yielding and CelFionj) and by the 
more equal fpreding of the Tangible parts, wh cli thereby are mure Aiding, 
and following; as inGo/rf, Leti, fVax, &c. But note, that lottB^>dics (as We 
ufe the word) arc of two kjndes ; the one, chit eafily giveth place to an- 
other Body, but altcrcih not Bulk by rifmgin other places i and thcretore wc 
fee that Wax, if you put any thing into ir, doth nor rife in Bulk, bur oncly 
giveth place : For you may not thinJr, that in Print. ftg of Wax. the Wax rifeih 
upatall •> but onely the de prcifcd part giVeth place, and the othcrrcmaineth 
as it was. The other that akcrcth Bulk in the Ccfllon, as Water, or other 
Liquors, if you put a Stone, or any tning into tiicm. they give place (in- 
deed) eafily, but then they rile all dverj which is a falfe Ceffion, foritisih 
place, and not in Body. .; 

. <ii c-d Y .'• 

A LI Bodies Duclile, and Tenftlf, (as Metals) tha't willbe drawn ir.toV^ires ; 
Woo', and Tow that will be drawn into Yarn or Thred j have in them 
tne Ajpi-fitc of Not difcontinuirg, flrong ; w.iich maketh them follow the 
force thatpnlcih them our ; anu vr; fo, as not difjontmuc or forfakc their 
own Body. Vilcous Bodies (likcwilO^s Pi/f*, PT^x, Birdlimt, Chrfe to3l\cd. 
Will draw forth .nJ roap. Bat the difference between Bodies fibrous, and 
Bodies vif^-ous, is plain V Forail Wooll, and Tow, qnd Cotton, and Silk 
(cfpccially raw Silk) have, bcfidcs their dtfi.e of continuance, in regard of 
the tcnu ly of their Tiired , a grcedincfs of Moiflurc, and by Moifliirc to 
joyn and incorporate with other Thred, efpecially, if thcrcbea little Wreath- 
ing, as appearctii byriic twifting oi Thred , and the pradice of Twirling 
about of >ipindles. And wcfee alfo, that Gold and Silver Thred cannot be 
made without Twifting. 

THediflfcrences of imprcfTibV, and riot impreflible ; figurable. arid not 
hgutable; mouldable, andnot mouldable ; feiflible, and not fciflible; 
and many other Paillons of Matter, arc Plebeian Notions, applied unro the 
Inftruments and Uf:s which Men ordinarily pradile; but they arc all bur the 
effcftsof fomcofthcfecaulcs tollowirg, which we wiltenumcratc without 
applying f hem, becauic that would be too long. Tficfirlt isthcOflTon, or 
not CeHion ot Bodief, into a (mailer (pice, or room, keeping theoutWard 
Bulk, and not flying up. The fecond n,, the Itrongcr or weaker Appetite, in 
Bodies, to continuity, and to fliedifcontinuity. Ihc third is.thc dii'pofition 
ofBodies, to conrrad.orrot contract? and again, toextcnd. ornot extend. 
The fourth i.c, the f.nall quantity, or great c^uanCity of the Pncumatical m 
Bodies. Tne fifth is, the nature of the PncuQuiical. whether it be Native 
Spirit of tne Body, or common Air. The fixth is, theNature of the Native 
Spirits in the Bo<dy, whether they be AdtiVe, affd Eager, or Dull, and Gentle. 
The feventh is, the cmilUon or detenfion of the Spirits in Bodies. The eighth 
is. the c'iiaration or contrition of the Spirits in Bodies wbile they arc de- 
tainee. Tneninethis, thecoUocation of the Spirits in Bodies, whcfhcrthc 
collocation be equal or unequal ; and again, whether the Spirits be coacer- 
vatcor dirtufjii. The tenth is, thedenfity ot rantv of the Tangible part^ 

K The 



fJard and 
Soft Rodit'. 

Bod'm DuUilt 
tnd Ttnfilt. 


OthtT Pt(li- 
,ni tf AUtitr, 

of Boditi, 


JSQuufd Hijlory ; 


touching ' 
tndHtJiion bj 



Hontf end 


touching the 
\ Finer fort of 
\ Baft Metals. 

the ckvcnth is the Equality or Inequality of the Tangible pairs T thcj 
twelfth is the Difgcftion br Crudity ot the Tangible pirts ; the thirtcciuli! 
is the Nature o( the Matter, whccherSulphurcous, or Mercurial, or Watr^,; 
orOily, Dry, and Tcrreftrial, or Moid andLiquid ; which Natures of; 
Sulphureous and Mercurial, feem to be Natures Radical and Principal ; chcj 
fourteenth is the placingof the Tangibleparts, in Length or Tranlver{c(asl 
it is in the Warp, and the Woot cvf Textiles;) more inNvard or more out -| 
ward, &:«. The fifteenth is the Poroficy or Jmporofity betwixt the Tanciblcl 
pares, andthcgreatnefsorlmallncfsof the Pores ; the llxt^cnthis thcCoK! 
location and poftureoi the Fores. There may be more caufcs, but thcfe dq 
occur for the prefent.. ( ! 

TAkcLeadandtncItit, andinthemidl^ of it, vfhcnit boginncth cocon-^ 
geal, make a little dint or hole, and put Quick-fiIVk.r wrapped in a| 
pieceof Linncn into that hole, and the Quick-lilver will fix, and runnel 
more, and endure the Hammer, is anoble inltance of Indiir.nian, 
by confent of one Body with another, and Motion of Excitation to imitate ; 
for to afcribe it onely to the vapor of the Lead, is Icfs probable. Ou4re, 
whether the fixing may be in fuch a degree, as it will be figured like orhcr 
Metals ? For if lo, you may make Works of it for fomcpurpofcs, fo tbey 
come not near the Fire. 

SUgar hath put down the ufc of Honey, inlbmuch, as we have loft thofc 
obferVJ.tions and preparations of Honey, which the lyinciems had, when 
it « as.morc inprice. Firft.itfcemeth, thatthcre Nvas inoldtimeTrec-honey, 
as well as Bee-honey, which was the Year or Blood iifiiing from the Tree 5 
infomuch, as one of the Ancients rclateth, that in 7 ubefond, there was Honey 
iffuing from theBox trees, which made Men mad. Again, inancicnt time, 
there was a kinde of Honey, which either of the own Nature, or by Art, 
would grow as hard as Sugar, and was not lo lufhious as ours ; they had 
alio a Wine of Honey, which they made thus. They cruflied the Honey in- 
to ar great quantity of W atcr, and then ftrained the liquor , after they boil- 
ed it in a Copper to the half ; then they poured it into Earthen VclRls for 
a fmall time, and after turned it into VelTcls of Wood, and kept it for many 
years. -Iheyhavealfo, at this day in iItt/J;4, and thofe Northern Countrevs, 
C^iifli Simple, which (well made and feafoncd) is a good wholefom 
Drink, and very clear. They life alfo in JVales, a Compound Drink of 
Meud,)i/iih. Herbs and Spices. But nK-an while it were gooJ, in recompcncc 
of th?t we have loft in Honey, there were brought in ufc a Sugar-M.-Ad (for 
io we may call it) though without any mixture at all of Honey ; and to 
brew it, and keep '\% itale, as they ufe Meud j for certainly, though it would 
not be fo abfterfive, and opening, and folutive a Drink as Mead ; yet it will ' 
be more grateful to the Stomack, and more lenitive, and fit to be ufed in 
fliarp Difeafes : For we fee, that the ufe of Sugar in Beer and Ale.hath good 
cffe»3;s^infuch cafes. . , 

IT \% reported by the c_^nf»f«w, that there is a kinde o(S'teel, in fome places, 
which would polifh almoft as white and bright as Silver. And that 
there was in J«ii4 a kinde of Brafs, which (being polKTicd] could fcarce be , 
difccrned from Gold- This was in the Natural Ore, but I am doubtful, 
whether Men have fufficiently refined Metals, which wc count Bale : As, 
whethei: Iron, Brafs, and Tia, bcieiincd to the height ? But when they 
• come 




! CcnUiry IX. 1B3 

■ come to fuch a fincncfs, as fcrvcth the drdinary iifcr'tficy try nd ' 
(further. ' ' 

THerC have ocen found certain Cements under Farth, that arc verj- Toft, 850. 
and yet taken forth in o the Sun, harden as liard as Marble: There arc- 
alio ordinary Quarries in S'ommcrfet-shirc, which in the C^iny cur loft to 
any bigntis, andin thcBuildin^proveflrm, and hard. 

Living Creatnr a (generally) do change tlicr Hair wth Age, turning rb 8^;. 
be Gray and White; as is fcen in UVrn, thougli (omt earlier, lome ^ 'fi'^'""'^'it 
later; in Wor/Vjc, that are Dapple J and turn White ; in Old Squtrrtlt, that turn tou'jimii.iie 
Grilly, and many others. So do (omc Birds \ as Cy^neis troni Gray turn -^i-iTi>.^'i 
White; H*'*kl from Brown turn more White: And fomc S/rrfj there be, '^X'.'lnd"' 
that upon their Moulting, do turn Colour ; as Robin- Redbrep^ attcr their i-uihtn; 
Moulting grow to be Red again by degrees ; fo do Gold-Fmchcs upon the j 
Head. The caufe is, for that Moifture doth (chiefly) colour Hair and Fca- ' 
thers ; and Dryncfs turneth them Gray and White; now Hair in Agesvax- 
cth Dryer, fo do Feathers. As for Feathers, after Moulting, thcv arc young 
Feathers, and io all one as the Feathers of young Birds. So the Bear J is 
youngerthanthcHairof the Head, and doth (for the moft part) wax hoary ' 
later. Out of this ground, a Man may devife the Means of altering the co- i 
lour of BirM,mi the Retardation of Hoary- Hairs. But of this Ice the Fifib 

THc difference between M>ile and Female, in fome Creatures, is not to be 
dilccrncJ, other wife than in the parts of Generation ; as in//cr/r/and '^"i 
(Jl^nres, T)ogs and Bitches, T)eveshc and fhe, and others. But fomc differ in 


magnitude, and that divcrfly ; Forinmoftthe A/«/<?ischcgrc3tcr, asin.^4H, ^Diff,r,mei.f 

Theafants, Peacocks, Turkjes, and the like j and infdmc feu', asin//,nv^/, the f^^'^i"^,'/"" 

/vwrf/<r. Some differ in the Hair and Feathers, both in the quantity.crifpation, and f»»,4.>. 

and colours of them ; as Hc'Ltons arc Hirfuitc, and have great Mains ; the I 

She's are fmooth like C^;/. BuUs are rriorccrifpupon the Forehead than Cotf/; 

the Pe'^cock, and Phefunt-cockjind Goldfinch-cock^, havcglorious and fine colours ; 

the Heni have nor. Generally, the he's in Birds have the fiireft Fcathcrs.Some 

differ in divers features ; 2% Bkckjbzvc Horns, r»« none ; ifjm; have more 

Wreathed Horns than £vvs ; Cockj have great Combs and ipurs, Hens lirtlc 

ornone; ^o^rj have great fangs, 5ovfy mucli Icfs i the Twrj^f^-fof;!^ harh great 

and fwellingGills the //rnhathlefs ; ^^nhavcgenerally deeper and rtrrngcr 

voices than f'Umen. Some difter in faculty, as the Co£/;_amongfl Sin^in^ Birds, 

are the bcft fingers. The chief caufc of all thefe (ho djubt)is, for that the 

.<*^*.Vjhave more ilrcngth of hear than the FenuU'si which appearcth mani- 

fcftlv in this, that all young Creatures yJ/^/fj are like Ffw.tV;, and foarcfu- 

nHcht, and6'f//rr^4ftf)f^of allkindcs. likcr FemMes. Now heat caufeth grcat- 

ncfs of growth, generally, where there ismoillurc enough to work upon : 

But if there be found in any Credturt (u hich is fccn rirely) an over great 

heat in proportion to the moifture , in them the Femule is the greater ; as 

iuHdyvkjind S'pMro\'\'S. And if the heat be ballanced with the moifturs, 

then there is no difference to be fcen between ov/j/r and f^m^/f ; as in the 

jnftances of Horfes^nd T)o-s. We fee alfo, that the Horrisof Oxenzni Qovvs, 

for the moff parr, arelargcr than the B«.'//. which is c.iLifd by abundance 

of moirture, which in the Horns of the B«/r tailctH, Again, Hcatcauf-th 

Pilofity, and Crjfpation 3 and folikcwifc B-arJs in rJ]Un. It alio cxo Jlwth 

R 2 bner , 


0\(atural Hiflory ; 


touching the 
Compataii'M ■ 
fltx<<nitini* of 
Living Crta-. 





Eiofjtion of 


touching the 
McUomtian of 

tiller moil^Urc, which want of heat canno: expel $ and that is the- caufc of 
t!ie beauty and variety of Feathers: Again, Heat doth put forth manyEx- 
crefcenccs, and mucii fohdmattcr, which want of Heat cannot do. And this 
is the caufc of Horns, and oi the greatnefs of them ; andof tlic greatncis of 
the CotnbF, andipurs ot Cocks, Gills of TurkeyCocks, and Fangs of Boars. 
Heat alio dilatcih the Pipes and Organs which c3u(eth cne detpncfvof tiit 
Voice. Again, Heatrctincth the Spims, and that CdUkihthc Cotk lir.ijing 
Bird to excel the Hen. 

THerc be Filhcs greater than any Beafis ; as the Whale is far greater than 
the ElcpLtnt. And Beaftsare (generally) grc-iicr than linds. For Filhcs 
the caulemay be, that becaufc they live not in the Air, they have not their 
moifture drawn, and loakcd by the Air, andiiun-Bcams. Alfo they reft al- 
ways, in a manner, and are fupported by the Water j whereas Motion and 
Labor do confume. As for the greatnefs of Bealls, more than of Birds, it is 
caufcd, for that Bealts ftay longer time in the Woiiib than Birds, and there 
nourifli, and grow ; whereas in Birds, after the Egg laid, there is no further 
growth, or nounfhmeni from the Female ; for the luting do«h vivifie, and 
not ncmrifli. 

WE have partly touched before the Means of producing Fruits, with- 
out Coarsj or Stones. And this we add further, that the caufe muft 
be abundance of moifture; for that the Coar, and Stone, are made of a dry 
Sap : And we fee,thatitispofIibie to make a Tree put forth oneiy in BIofTcm 
Without Fiuit ; asinC/;fwa with double Flowers, much more in Fruit with- 
out Stones, or Coats, It is reported, that a Cions of an Apple, grafted 
upon a Colewort-ftalk, fendeth forth a great Apple without a Coar. It is not 
unlikely, that if the inward Pith of a Tree were taken our, lothatthejuyce 
cameonely by the Bark, it would work the cffed. For it haihbcen oblerved, 
that in Pollards, if the Water get in on the top, and they become hollow, 
they put forth the more. We add alfo, that it is delivered for certain by f ome, 
that if the Cions be grafted, the fmall ends downwards, it will make Fruit 
have little 6i no Coats, and Stones. 

TOhccd-is a thing of great price, if it be in requcft. For an Acre of it 
will be worth (as is affirmed) Two hundred pourds by the year to- 
wards charge. The charge of making the Ground, and othctwifc, is great, 
but nothing to the profit. But the En^iish Tobacco hath Imall credit, as be- 
ing too dull and earthy : Nay, the ftr^infan Tobacco , though that be in a 
hotter climate, can get no credit for the fame eaulc. So that a tryal to 
make Ttf/'xae mote Aromatical, and better conceded herein England, were 
a thing of great profit. Some have gore about to do it, by drenching the 
English Tobacco, in a Dccoftion or Inftlfion o( Indian Tobacco. Butthofeare 
but fophiilications andtoyesj for nothing that is once perfect, and hath 
run his race, can receive much amendment j you muft ever rcf jrt to the 
beginnings of things for Melioration. The way of Mituration of Tobacco 
mult (xs in other Plants) be from the Hear, either of the Earth, or of the 
Sun. We fee feme leading of this in Musk-Melons, which arc fown 
upon a hot Bed, dunged below, upon a Bank turned upon the South Sun, 
to give Heat by Refleftioni laid upon Tiles, which increafeth the Heat; 
and covered with Straw, to keep thcmfromCold ; they remove them alio, 
which addcth fome Life: And by thefe helps they bccooie as good fh 


(^enlury IX. 

EngUnd, as in itnly, or 'Provence. Ihclc and the like means mav be tried in 
Tobacco. Enquire alio of rhc'ftccping ot Roo:s, in (omc (uch Liquor, a^ may 
give tiicm Vigor to put forth ftrong, 

H Fat of theSun, for the Miturition of Fruits; yea, and the hearot Vi. 
vification of Living Creatures, are both reprcfcnccd and fiipplicdby cbc 
heat of Fire; and likewife, the heats of ih- Sun, and life, arc rvprdvnted 
one by the other. Trees, fct upon the Backs of Chimneys, do ripen Fmit 
tooncr. hnes, that have been druvn in at the Window of alvitchin, have 
fcnt forth Grapes, ripe a moneth (at ieaft) before others. Stoves, at tjc Back 
of Wallf, bring forth Orf«»fy here with us. Eggs, as is reported by fotne, have 
becnhatchcdin the warmth of an Ovf». It is reported by ihc Ancients , that 
the E^hUh Uycch her Eggs under Sand, where the heat of the Sun difclcf Jth 

BArley in the Boyling fwcUetlinot much ; ^A<r4/ fwcllcihmore, RiT^cx- 
treamly. infomuch, as aquarttrof a Pint nmboiled) will arife to a l-'int 
boiled. Thecaufe (no doubt) is, for that the more clofe and compaclthe 
Body is, the more ic will dilate. Now Barley is the moit hollow, ff^ 
more foUd than thar, and 7?;ce moftfolid of all. It miv be alio, th.K (cm.- 
Bodies have a kinde of Lentor, and more depertibic nature than others ; as 
we fee it evident in colouration ; for a (mill quantity of Saffron, willtind 
more, than a very great quantity oi Breftl, o:Wine. 

F/?tti/growcthfweet by Rowling orPrcfling them gently with the Hind j 
a Rortling Pears,'Danufins,&c. By Rottennef; 3$ C^edUrs, Services, Sloes, 
Heps,&c. By 7fme ; as tipples, ff^anlens, Ttmtgnttites, &c. By certain 
(^QZ\-\\ Maturations i as by l-iying them in Hay, SiraTi>,(^c. And by Fire; as 
\n Roajlmg, SteTving, Baking. &c. The cauJc of the fwcctnf fs byRowhng, 
atiri Prcffi:igis, Emollitioii, which they properly cnduce; as in beating of, flesh, &c. By RottenntJ? is, fur thar the spirits of the Fi uit, by Putre- 
fad;or), gather hear, and thereby difgeft the harder part : rorinallPuirtfadti- 
ons there is a degree of heat. By Tmezr\<i Keeping \$, bccaufe the Spirits of 
rhe Body, do ever feed upon the tangible parts, and attenuate them. By 
feveral Maturations is, by fomedegrec of hear. And by Fircis, bccaufe it is 
the proper work of Heat to reHne, and to incorporate j and all fourr.efi 
confifteth in fomcgrofsncfsof the Body: And all incorporation doth make 
themixcurcof the Body, more equal, in all the parrs, which cvcrcnduccth 
a milder tade, 

OF Fleshes, fome arc edible; foinc, except it be in Famine, not. As 
thofc that arc not edible, the caufe is, for that they have (commonly) 
too much bitterncfs of tafte i and therefore thofe Creatures, which are 
fierce and cholcrick. arc not edible; 3S Lions. ITolyes, Squirrels, 'Dogs, Foxes, 
Horfes, &c. As for Kine, Sheep, Goats, T^eer, STfme, Conniys, Hares, &(. 
Wc fee they arc mildc, and fearful. Yet it is true, ihii Horfes which arc 
Beaftsofcourasc, have been and arc eaten by feme Nations; zsiht^cythuni 
were cnllcd Hippopbagi ; and the Cbinefes cat Horf-fieih at this day ; and 
fbmc Gluttons have uf?d to have Colts -flefli baked. In Birds, fuch as are 
Carniyora, and Birds of Prcy, arc commonly no good Meat ; but therca- 
fon if, rather the Cholcritk Nature of thole Birds than tlieir Feeding up- 
on Flcfh; for Tuits, Galls, Sbovelers.Buckj, do fccd upon Flcfh, and yet arc 
- R 3 good 


St-jtril Htats 
worljm tht 

Solitary, ' 
SwtUing and 
ni!at:iiii.n in 


DuUotetMH of 





flijh Edlb/t, 
and n»i Edi- 


Natural hi/lory ; 


touching the 
! Sglarftandcr. 


touching the 
Cir.trary off 
Time, upon 

j Fruits and 

I Liqtieri, 

j 862. 

I Soiitaty, 



good Meat. And vrc fee, that thofc Birds \xhich arc cf Prey, or tied 
upon Flcih, arc good Meat, when they.nrcveiy Young; as l!a\ ks^.Roots , 
out of the Ncft, (J-^ls. Miinsflelhisnot eaten. The Rcafcns arc three. 

Firll. Lkcaule Men in Hum.mity do abhor ir. 

Secondly, Becauie no Living Creature, that dicth of itfclf, is good to 
eat; and therefore the Ci«'jit/-f (ihemlelvcs) eat no Mans ficfli , ol thofe 
that die of thcmfch'es, but of fuch as are (lain. 

The tiiirdis.Bccaule there mult be generally) fomedifparity bctu'cen 
the Nouri(hmcnt, and the Body nourifiicd; and they mull nc tbeovcrnear, 
or like: Yetwefce, that in great vveaknclfes andConlumptions, Men have 
been (uftained with Womans Milk. And Pinnw fondly (as 1 conceive) ad- 
vifeth, for the Prolongation of Life, that a Vein be opened in the Armcf 
fome wholfome young man, and the blood to be fucked. It is faid, that 
Witches do greedily eat Mans flefh, which if it be true, befides adtvillifli 
Appetite in them, it is likely to proceed ; for that Mans Hefh mav fend up 
high and plcaling Vapors, vrhich may {fir the Imagination , and Witches 
fehcity is chiefly in imagination, ashath been faid. 

THcre is an ancient received Tradition of the SMmmder, that it liveth 
in the Fire, andh.irh force alfo to extinguifh the fire. It muft have two 
things, if it betrue, to this operation, iheone, a verv clofeskin, whereby 
flame, which in the midfl is not fo hot, cannot enter : For we lee, that it the 
Palm of the Hand be anointed thickwithWhiteof Eggs, and then r:quaviu 
be poured upon it, and cnflamcd, yet one may endure the flame a pretty 
while. The other is fomc extream cold and quenching vertue, in the Body 
of that Creature wlxich choakcth the fire. We fee that Milk qucnchech 
Wildfire better than Water, becaufe it cntreth better. 

Time doth change Fruit (as tipples, Pears, ''Pomegranates, &c.) from more 
four to more fweec ; but contrari wife. Liquors (even thofe that are of 
the juyce of Fruit) from more fwcet to more four; as, /f'^ori, Ot^iifi, Aext 
Verjuyce, &c. The caufe is, the Congregation of the Spirits together i for 
in both kindes, the Spirit is attenuated by Time •> but in thefirftkinde, itis 
more diffuicd, andmoremafleredbythe grofTcr parts, which the Spirits do 
butdigel^: But in Drinks the Spirits do reign, and finding lefsoppofition 
of the parts, become themfclves more ftrong, which cauleth alio more 
ftrcngth in the Liquor ; fuch, as if the Spirits be of the hotter fort, the Li- 
quor bccometh apt to burn ; but in time, it caufeth likewifc, when the higher 
Spirits arc evaporated more fournefs. 

IThathbecnobfervedbytheyf«««r»w, that Plates of Metal, and cfpecially 
of Brafs, applied prefcntJy to a blow, will keep it down from fwelling. 
The caufe is Repercuflion, without Humedf ition, or entrance of any Body ; 
For the Plate hath oncly a virtual cold, which doth not fearch into the hurt j 
whereas all Plaifters and Oynmentsdo enter. Surely, thecauf : that blows 
and bruifcs induce fvvellings is, for that the Spirits reforting to fuccor the 
part that laboreth, draw alfo the humors wit h them : For we lee, that it is 
not the repulfe, and the return oftKc humor in the part ftruckcn that caufeth 
it; forthatGouts,-andTooch^chs caufe fwelling, where there is no Per- 
cuflfionataiL ,. , . , _,.,,. 



Century IX. 


lomliMig the I 
Oriii Knot, I 


louduiv^ I he 

THc nntiirc cf t! c Orris Roof, is alniofi flngiilar , for thctc be few odo. "^ J- . 
rik-rousRooiN-, and in thofc th.i!: nrc in .my degree iWccr, ic is bnc the Soi,^!',""*"' 
T.mic fvvcccncis v^ ich the Wood or Le.if : Bac the Orrw is notlWccC in the 
Leaf, nciclicr is the i lower any thing lb (vvcecas the- Root. The Rootfccm- 
jCthtohavc a tender dainty heat, which when it comctii above ground to 
j the Sun, and the Air, vanilhcth > For it is a get at MoUiticr, and hath a Icriell 
likea Viokt. 

i IT hath been obfcrvcd by t\\z Avdenis tliatagreat VefTel full, drawn info 
-* poetics; and then the Liquor putagiin into the VclTel, will not fill the 

I Vcfll-1 again, lo full as ic w as, but chat it may take in more Liquor ; and that 
this holdcch more in Wine, than in Water. The caufc may be trivi.d, name- 
ly, by the expcncc of the Liquor, in regard lome may ftick to the lidcs of 
the Bottles : But there may be a cauie more lubtil, which is, that the Liquor 
in the Vefl'eL is not io muchcompreffed, as in the Bottle; bccaufe in the 
VeH'cl, the Liquor mcctcth with Liquor chicHy i but in the Bottles, a (mall 
quantityof Liquor meetctii with the iiJcs of the Bottles, whiehcomprcfs it 
lb, that it doth not open again. 

W\tcr being contiguous with Air coolethit, but moifteneth it not, 8(^5 
cxcjpt it Vapor. The caufi- is, lor tha HcatandCold have a Virtual Expcnmfnt 
Trandtion, wiihout Communication of lublLuicc, but nioifturc not ; and ^°'"k'J,1 ,hc 
to all madefadion there is required an imbibition: But where theBodics ^n^ori^r,g'i 
are of I'uchleveral Levity, and G avicy, as they mingle not.they can follow j^-""".*.""^ 
no iiv.bibition. And therefore, Oyl likcwife. lieth at the top ot the Water, '^,'.'"""^"' 
witliout commixture : And adropof :Watcr running iViftly over a Straw 
or Imocth Bod , , w ecteth not. 

couching ill? 

Siarligbt N{(^h!S, yea, and bright LMjtnslme Ntghis, are colder thartC/awi// 
Nights. [ hecaulc it, the drincfs and Fincncfs of the Air, which thereby 
becomcth more piercing and Iharp ; and tnercforc great Continents arc 
colder than Illands. And as for the Moon, though it fclf inclineth the Air to 
moilVare, yet when it (hincth bright, it argueth the Air is dry. Alio .clofc 
Air is warmer than open Air, vf hich (it may be) is, for that the true caufc of 
cold, is an expiration from the Globe ot tli,c Earth, which in opcnplaces is 
ibongjr. And again. Air it felf, if it be not altered by that expiration, is 
nocHithoutlbrae Iccrctdcgrecot heat; as it is not likcwife without fomc 
fecret degree of Light : 1 or otherwiic Cms, and O^is, could not lee in the 
Night; but that Air hath a little Light, proportionable to the ViluaJ Spirits 
of thole Creatures. 

THc Eves do move one and the fame way ; f jr when one Eye moveth 8(^7. 

to the Nortril, the other moveth from the N jf^ril. The caufc is Motion ^"P*"™*"" 

ot Confcnt w hicn in the Spirits and ftrong. But yet ufewiU touchingthe 

induce the conCruy ; for fome can iquint when they will. r\od the common ^/" *"^ 

Tra.ition is, that if Children be let upon a Tabic with a Candle bchinuc ^^'^'"' 
fhcm, bothEyeswill move outwards, as atlcding to Tee the Light, and fo 
induce J quinting. 

We fee more exqu ifitelv with one Eye Hiut, than wi:hboth open. The 
[ciufe is.for ihatthc Spirit^ Vilual unite thcmfclves more, and lo become 









J\(jtuyal Hiflory ; 

Ikongcr. For you may kc, by looking in a Glais, that when you Ihuc one 
Eye,thcPiipilof thcothcrhye, thacisopen, dilaceth. 

TneEycs, if the fight meet not in one Angle, fee things double. The 
caufe is, for that feeing two things and feeing one thingtwice, wotkch the 
fame cffea : And therefore a little Pellet, htld between two Fingers, laid a 
crofs,feemcth double. 

Porcblind Men, fee beft in the dimnrrcr light ; and Ukcwifc have their 
fight tlronger near hand, thin thofe that are not Porcblind, and can read 
and write Imallcr Letters. Thccaufcis, for that the Spirits Vifual, in thofe 
that are Porcblind, arc thinner and rarer, than inothers > and therefore the 
greater light difperfeth them. Fur the fame caufe they need conrradingj 
but being contr3aed,are moreihongthan the Vifual Spirits ot ordinary tyci 
arc J as when we fee thorow a Level, the fight is the ftrorger: And fo is it, 
when you gather the Eye-lids forriewhat clofe : And it is commonly fcen in 
thofe that are Porcblind, that they do much gather the eye-lids together. 
Butold Men, when they would fee to read, put the Paper fomewhat afar oft. 
The caulc is, for that old Mens Spirits Vifual, contrary to thole of Pore- 
blind Men unite not, but when the objc£l is at fomc good diltance from theic 


Men fee better when their Eyes are ovcragainfl the Sun or a Candle, if 
they put their Hand a little before their Eye. The Reafonis, for that the 
Glaring of the Sun, or the Candle, doth weaken the Eye ; whereas the Light 
circumfufcd is enough for the Perception. Por we fee, that anover-light 
maketh the Eyes dazel, infomuch as perpetual looking againft the Sun, 
would caufe Blindnefs. Again, if Men come out of a great light, into a 
dark room; and contrariwiff, if they come cut of a darkroom into a light 
room, they fcem to have a Mift before their Eyes, and fee worfe than they 
(hall do after they have ftaid a little while, either in the light, or in the dark. 
The caufeis, forthat the Spirits Vifual, are upon a fuddcn change difturbed, 
and put cut of order; and till they be recollected, do not perform their 
Funaionwell. For when they are much dilated by light, they cannot con- 
traft fuddenly ; and when they are much contraded by darknefs, they cannot 
dilate fuddenly. And excefs of boththefe, (that is, of the Dilatation, and 
Contraaion of the Spirits Vifual) if if be long, deftroyeth the Eye. For as 
long looking againft theSurt, orFlr^;'hurteth the Eye by Dilatation, fo curi- 
ous painting in fmall Volumes, anci reading of fmall Letters, do hurt the Eye 
by contraftion. 

It hath been obfcrved, that in Anger the Eyes wax red ; and inBlufh- 
ing, not the Eyes, bucrhc Ears, and the parts behind them. The caafe is , for 
that in Anger, the Spirits alcend and wax eager; which is moft eafily fcen in 
the Eyes, becaufc they ate tranflucide, though withal it maketh both the 
Checks and the Gils red; butinBlufhing, it is true, the Spirits alcend like- 
wife to fuccor, both the Eyes and the Face, which are the parts that labor: 
But when they are rcpulfed by the Eyes, for that the Eyes, in fhame do put 
back the Spirits that afccnd to them, as unwiUing to look abroad; Forno 
Mm, inthatpafflon, doth look ftrongly, butdejeaedly , and that repulfion 
from the Eyes, divcttcth the Spirits and heat mote tothe Ears, and the pares 
by them. 

The cbjcfts of the Sight, may caufe a great plcafure and delight in the 
Spirits, butnopamorgreatoflfence; except it be by Memory, as hath been 
faid. The Glimpfes and Beams of Diamonds that ftrike the Eye, Iniun Fea- 
thers, that have glorious colours, the coming into a fair Garden, the coming 


I century IX, 

intoafair Room richly furmnied ; a btauriful pcrfon, and the like, do de- 
light and exhilarate the Spirits much. The reafon, why it hoidcth not in 
the oflence i?, for th^t the Sight is moft fpiritual of the Sciifcs, whereby it 
hath no objed grofs enough to offend ir. But the caufe ('chiefly) is, for 
that there be no aftivcobjeds to offend the Eye. ForHirmonicalSoundr, 
and Difcordant Sounds, are both Adive and Pofitive; foare fweet fmells, 
andftinks; fo are bitter, and fweets, in taftes ; fo are over-hot, and over- 
cold, in touch ; but blacknefs, and darknefs, are indeed but privativcs ; and 
therefore have Httlc or noAftivity. Somewhat they docontriftatc, but very 

WAter of the ^ea, or otherwife, looketh blacker when it is moved, and 
whiter when it rcfteth. Thccaufeis, for that by means of the Moti- 
on, the Beams of Light pafs not ftraight, and therefore muftbe datkncd; 
whereas when it rei'kth, the Beams do pafs flraight. Befidcs, fplcndor hath a 
dcgreeof whitcncfs, efpccially, if there be alittle repercuflioni foraLook- 
ing-Glaf*; with the Sccel behindc, looketh whiter than Glafs fimple. This 
Experiment deferveth to be driven further, in trying by what means Motion 
may hinder i)ight. 

SHett-fish have been by fome of the t_/^ncients , compared and fottcd with 
the LtfeciAj but I fee no reafon why they fhould, for they have Male, 
and Female, as othef Fifh have > neither are they bred of Putrefaftion, cfpe- 
cially fuch as do mote. Nevcrthclefs it is certain, that Oyfter?, and Cockles, 
and MulTcls which move nor, have not difcriminate Sex. ^Are, in what 
time, and how they arc bred > It fecmeth, that Shells of Oyiters are btcd 
where none were before ; and it is tryed, that the great Horfe-Mufle.with the 
tine fliell, that brcedeth in Pond?, hath bred within thirty years : But then, 
which is ftrangc, it hath been trycd, that they do not onely gape and fliat as 
the Oyftcrs do, bu: remove from one place to another. 

THe Senfes arealike (Irongjboth on thcright fide, and on the left ; but the 
Limbs on the right fide are ftrongcr. The caufe may be, forthatthc 
Brain, which is the Inftrumcnt of Senle, is alike on both fides ; but Motion, 
and habilities of moving, ate fomewhat holpcn ftom the Liver, which lieth 
on the right fide. Itmaybeslib, for t'latthcSenfcs areputincxcrcife, in- 
differently on bothfides from the time of our Birth ; but the Limbs are ufed 
moft on the right fide, whereby cuftom hcipeth : For we fee, that fomcarc 
left-handed, which arc luch asiiave u(cd the left-hand molt. 

F/?iiit;«aj make the parts more flefliy, andfull: As we fee both in Men, and 
intheCurrxing of Horfesj&c. Thccaufeis, for that they draw greater 
quantity of Spirits and Blood to the parts j and again, bccaufc they draw the 
Aliment more forcibly from within; and again, bccaufe they relax the Pores, 
and fo make better paflage for the Spirit?, Blood, and Aliment : Laftly, bc- 
caufe they difllpatc, and difgclt any Inutile, or Excrementitious moifture, 
which licth in the Fl fli ; all which help AfTimulation. Friclms alio do, 
more fill and impinguate the Body, than Exercife. The caufe is, for that in 
Frisians, tiic inward parts are ac reft ; which in exercife are beaten (many 
times) roomuch: Andforthe fame reafon (as we have noted heretofore) 
Galliflavcs arc fat and flefhy, bccaufc they ftir the Limbs more, and the in- 
ward parts lefs. 




Colour of iht 
Sea, oc olhtr 




touching the 
Right-Jidt and [ 
the Left. 




J\(atip'al hijlofjki 


! F.xpciiment 

' Solitsi^. 

I touching 
Ctottt nf- 
f taring Fldt 
at aijixnci. 



[ouching the 
Hpialiltg and 
BttaKlnl of 
tht Sttt, 


I fouthmg the 
[ Dnlcoration t,f 
I Salt WMltr. 

A L\ Globes a. iaeofi, appcarfiac. 

I S82. 

I Expciittient 
, Soliraiy. 
lOHclling (be 
I jRjiuTn of 
' S»ltnc(i In 
i fiiittptmiht 
' ie.yLou. 

i Eypeiiment 
iSoliiaiy. 1 

j ^ttr.xcfinn by 
] SiinilUude if 
; Sut>JlAni.t, 

. 884. 

• Experiment 

1 he caufc is, for ihardiitancc, being % 
^ ^ fecundary objcdl ol iighc, is not othcrwilc difccrncd, than by more or 
Icls light 1 which difparity, when itcannoc be difccrncd, all iccnicth one: 
Asicis(gcncrally)inobjcdsnoc diftindly dilccrned ; fcrfo Letters, i. they 
bcfofaroif, as they cannot be dilcerncd, Ihcw but as duskilh Paper; and 
all Engravings and Emboflings (a far off) appearp'ain. 

THc uttcrmoft parts of JW«>j, fecm ever to tremble Tl.ccaufc is, for 
that the little Moats vhichwc fccintheSun, docverflir, though there 
be no Wind ; and therefore thofc moving, in the meeting of the Light and 
ttic Shadow, from the Light to the Shadow, and from the Shadow to the 
Light, do fticw the fliadow to move, bccaulethc /i/<r(<;«OTmoYcth. 

SHalloTv and N^rroip Seat, break more than deep and large. The caufc ij, 
forthatthc ImpuUion being the fame in both ; where there isagreater 
quantity of Water, and likewifc fpacc enough, there the Water roulcth , 
and movcth, both more flowly, and with afloper rife and fall: But where 
there is lefs V/ater, and lefs fpacc, and the V^atcrdafheih more againftthe 
bottom ; there it moveth more f^f iftly, and more in Precipice : 1 or in the 
breaking ot the Waves, there is ever a Precipice. 

IT hath been oblervcd by iha^ncitnts , that Salt-ttaterhoAcd, or boiled 
and cooleJ again, is more potable, than of itfclf raw ; and.yctthe tafle 
of Salty in Diflillations by Fire, rifcth not : For ihc DiftiHed Water will be 
frefh. The eaufc may be, for that the iait part of the Water, doth partly 
rife into a kinde of Scum on the top, and partly goeth into a Sediment in 
the bottom ; and To is rather a feparation, than an evaporation. But it is too 
grofs to rife into a vaf)or ; and fo is a bitter tafte likewifc : For fimplcdiftil- 
led Waters of /'forwRcflJ, and thclike> are not bitter. 

IT bath been fctdown before, that *Pits upon the Sea^shoret iMtn into frefh 
Water, by Percolation of the Salt through the Sani: But it is further 
noted, by fomc of the jincitnts, that in fbme places of ^^frltk, after atime, 
the Water in fuch Pits vill become brakifh again. The caulc is, for that 
after a time, the very Sands, thorcw which the J^/z-^xr^r pafTeth, become 
i) alt i and f b the Strainer it fclf is tindlcd with i>alt. The remedy therefore is 
to dig flill new Pits, when the old wax brackifh j at if you would change 
your Strainer. 

IT hath been obfcrvcd by the Anams, that J^/r-^^f? r will difTolvc J^/r put 
into tt, in lefs time , than Frefh Water will dilfolve it. The caufe may 
be, for that the Salt in the precedent Watcr.doth by fimihtude of Subflance, 
draw the Sale new put in, unto it ; whereby it diffufeth in the Liquor more 
fpcedily. This is a noble Experiment, if it be true; for it fhcweth means of 
more quickandeafic Icifufions and it is likcsvifeagoodinflanceof Atrradi- 
on bv Similitude of Subftancc. fry it with Sugar put into Water, formerly 
fug; cd, and into Other Water unfugred. 

lUc J"tt^rfr into /Fm^ part of it above, part under the /F«f ; andvoufhall 
^ f:nde ; that which may fcem ftrange) that the ?ugar above the Fyirte, will 
fofccn anddtffolvefooner than that within the Wine. The caufe is. for that 


\ Century IX* 

the Wine cntrcrh that part of the Sugar which isundcr the Wine, by fim-« I 
pic Infufion or Spreding ; but that part above the Wine' is likewifc torccd I 
by Sucking: For all ipongy Bodies expel the (-\ir, and draw in Liquor, if ' 
it be contiguous; as wclce it alloin sponges, put part above the Water. It i 
is worthy the inquiry, to kc how you may m. ike more accurJtcInfulions, ! 
byhclpof Attradion. ' j 

j.TVTAtcr in Wells is warmer in Winter than in Summer ; and Co Air in 
.; VV Caves. The cauleis, lor that inthc hiohcr parts, under tliictarth, 
'. there is a degree of fome heat (as appcareth in lulphureous Veins, &c.) 
i which fhutclofc in (as in Winter) is the more ; but if it pcrlpire (as It doth 
' inSummcr) it is the Ids. '" _• 





tf uchiiig 



T is reported, that amongftthc Leiicadians, in ancienttime, upon a fuper-j 
flition, they did ufc to precipitate a Man from ahigh Cliff into the Sea i I ^^F"""*^"' 
cyingabout him with itrings, at tome dirtancc, many great lowls ; ind fix- ',ouch[ng 
ing unto hisBody divers Feathers fprcd, to break the tall. Certainly many ^(k^s imhi 
Birds of good Wing (asKttes, and the like) would bear up a good weight ^"^' 
as they flie ; and Ipreding of Feathers thin audcloie, and in great brcdtli, j 
will likewile bear up a weight, being even laid without tilting upon 
the fides. I he furtner extcnfion of this Experiment for Flying, m.ay 6c 
thought upon. 

THerc is in fome places (namely, in Cephahnlit) a little Shrub, which gg-, 

they c.\]l Ho 'y Oa\, or'D^arf Oah. Upon the Leaves whereof diere Erpetimcnt 

rifetha Tumor, like aBliftcr; which they g-ather, and rub out of it, acer- Solitary, 

tain red dull;, thatconverteth (after a while) into Worms, which they ki I '"""^ '""' "^ 
with Wine, (as is reported) wiidli they begin to quicken: With this Dufl 
they Die Scarlet. ' . 

IN Zant, it is verv ordinary, to rhakc Men impotent, to accompany with 
their Wives. The like is pradifed in Grf/con;', where it is called A'ov^r /' 
tj^uHleie. It is pradiied always upon the Wedding dav. And in Z^or, the 
Mothers themfelves do it by vvjv of prevention, bccaufe thereby they hinder At-tUficMng 
other Chirms, and can undo their own. Itis a thing the CVvi/ Z.<t» taketh 
knowledge of, and therefore is of no light regard. 

IT is a common Experiment, but the caufc is miftaken. Take a Pot, (or •^g^ 
better a Glafs, bccaufe therein you may fee the Motion) and lit a Candle Experiment 
lighted in thcBottom of a Bafon of "Water; and turn the Mouth of the Pot Solitary, 

j OrGlafsover theCandlc,anditvvill malteihc Waterrife. They afcribeit R"y>o/-"^j„r 

! to the drawing o[ heat, rvhich is not true : For it appcareth plainly to be byMtamof 
but a Motion of A'fxi? vvhichthey call A'fr/«ttrv4fK«ww, and icproceedcth ^''""'• 

j thus J 1 he Flame of the C.Uidlc as foon, as it is covered, being lufFocatcd 
bythcclotc Air, lelVcncth by little and little; During which time, thcreif 
fome little afcenf of Water, but notmuch; for tic iTame occupying Icfs 
and lefs room, as itlcflcneti, the Water fuccecdcti. Butuponthc inflant 
of tic Candles going out, thcreisafudden rifeof agrcatdealof Water; for 
thntciatthc BoJy of the Flame ffllcth no more place . and lo the Air and 

AVntcr fucceed. It vvorketh thcfamc cfi-e6{,if inllcnd of Water, you put 
Flower or Nand, into the Bafon : Wnicli {hcvvcth.thatit is not the Flames 
drawing t.e Liquor. asNouriflimcnt, as it is iuppolcd , for all Bodies arc 
^ — ^ - alike [ 

Dyt of Scar- 




J\(atural Hijlory ; 

touching tic 
InflucHcei if 
tht Attmt 






Alike uato ir, as ir is ever in motion of Next i inlomutb, as i have ken the 
Glafs, being held by the hand j hath lifted up the Bifon, andall : Tne motion 
of ?(exedid fo ciafp thc bottonl of the Bafor. Ihat Experiment, when the 
Bafon was lifted up, was made with Oyi, and not w-rh Wattr, Niverdiclcfb 
this this is true, that atthe very firflfctungof rhc Mouihcf iheGlals upon 
the bottom ot the Bafjn.itdraweth uptlic Watcra littk, and thcnitandetb 
at a Ih'iy, almo(t till the Candles going ou', as w,is faid. This ma) <hc\v fome 
Auradtionat firfl j but of this wc Will fpcak more, wheft wc handle Aitradti- 

F the Power of the CeUftial Bodies , and what more fecrct influences 
^ they hdvc, bcfides the two manifcft influences of Heat and Lighr, we 
(h Ufpeak, when wc handle fx/ffriwru// touching ihe CeleJIul Bodies : Mean 
while we Will give fomc Diredlions for more certain Tryals ot the VLrtUc 
and Jpflucnces of the Moon, which is outneareft Neighbor, 

The Influences of iheMoon (molt cbfeived) arc four ; the drawing 
forth ot Heat; the Inducing of Putrcfadionj thcintre.lcofMoifturc v the 
exciting ot the Motions of Spirits. 

For the drawing forth of Hear, we have formerly prefer. bed to take 
Water warm, and to fctpirc of it againft thc Moonbeams, and part ot it 
with aJikrecn between; and tofccwlicthcr that which Itandethexpofid to 
the Beams will not cool fooncr. But becaufc this is but a fmiU interpoficior, 
(though inthcSun wefecafmall fhadedothmuch; it were good to try it 
when the Moon flinctb, and when the Moon fhmeth not at all; and with 
Water Warm in a Glafs- bottle as well asinaDifb, and wiih Cinders, and 
with Iron rcd-hor, &c. 

For the inducing of Putrefadion, itMi'erc good totryitwithFlefh or 
Fifh expofed tothcMoon-beams and again cxpofed to the Ait wlien the 
Moon fhneth nor, for the like time, to fee whether will corriipr (ooi<jr; 
and try it alfo with Capon, or fomc other fowl laid abroad, to ^ee whether it 
will mottific and bccometcndtrfooner. Try it alfo with dead Flics or dcjd 
Worms hiving a little Witer dft upon them, to fee whether will putrctie 
fooner. Try it alfo with an Apple or Orcngc having holes made in ihcir 
top?, to fee whether will rot or mould looner. Try it afo with Hottand 
Chcefc, having Wine put into it , whether it will breed Mites fooncr or 

Fortheincreafeof Moidure, the opinion received is, that Seeds will 
grow fooncft, and Hair, and Nails, and Hedges, and Herbs, cue, &c. will 
grow foonefV, if they be fetor cut in theincrealeof thc Moon: Alio, that 
Brains in Rabiis, Wood-cocks, Calves, &c. are fullelt in thc Full ot the 
Moon ; and fo of Marrow in the Bones, and fo of Oyftcrs and Cockles ; 
which of all the reft are thc eaficft tried, if you have them in Pits. 

Takefome Seeds ot Roots (asOnionj.&c.) and (afome of thcmim- 
mediately after thc Change, and others of thc fame kindc immediately after 
the Full : Let them be as like as can be, the Earth alio the fame as near as 
maybe, and therefore be ft in Pots : Let thc Pots alfo ftand where no Rain 
or Sun may come to them, left thc difference of the Weather confound the 
ExperiMent. And then fee in what time the Seeds fef, in the increaTc of the 
Moon, come to a certain height, and hoW they differ from thofe that are fcr, 
in the decreafc of thc Moon. 


Centrtry IX, 

It is like, that the Brain of Manw.ixeih mbiftcr and fuller upon the Full 
of the Moon; and therefore ir were good for thofc that have moJlHirains 
and are great Drinkers, to r.ikc fume of Lignum Jloes, R,fmAry, fr.mkimenft 
&c. about the Full of the Moon. It is like alio, that the Humors in Mens 
Bodies incrcafc and dccreale, as the Moon doth ; and therefore it wcregood 
to purge (omc day or two after the Full, for that then the Humors will not 
teplenilh fo foon again. 

As for the exciting of the motion of the Spirit?, you muft note, that the 
growth of Hedges Hjrbs, Hair, &c. is caufed from the exciting of I 
the Spiricf, as well as by incrcafe of the moillure. But for Spirits in particiilaf, 
the great int\ani;cisin Lunictes. 

There may be other f^crct cffefts of the influence of the Moon, which ! 
arc not yet bro'ight into obfervation. It may be, that if it fu fall our, 'that the 
Wind be North orNorth-Ealt, in theFullof the Moon, it incceafcth Cold ; 
andit South ot South-Weft, itd.fpofeth thcAitfofa good while to warmth 
and rain ; which would be obfcrved. 

It may be that Children and young Cartel that are brought forth in the 
Fullof theMoon, areifronger and larger then thofc that are brought forth 
in the Wane; and thofe alfo which are begotten intheFuilof the^Moon ; 
So that it might be good Husbandry, to put Rams and Bulls to their Fcmiles 
fomewhat before tnc Full of the Moon. It may be alfo , that the Fogs 
laid in the Fullof the Moon, breed thcbcttcr Bird ; andar.umbcr of the 
like effca>, which xx\iy be brought into obfcrvation. ^ure ilfo, whe- 
ther great Thunders and tarth-quakes be not molt in the Full of the 




rHc turning of Wine to Vineg-ir, is a kindc Of Putrcfa(!^ion ; and in 
making of Vinegar , they ufe to let Veffels of Wine over aaaioft the 
Noon Sun. which callcthoutthc more Oily Spirits, and Icavcthth^c Liquor 
more four and hard. We feea'fo. that Burnt.>J^ine is more hard and aftrin- 
gent thcnWmcunburnt, Itisfaid. that Grfrr in Navigations under the Line 
ripeneth, when /f'jn^or ^«r(oureth. Ic wcregood to fcta Famdlet of /^^r- 
JHice over againft the Sun in Summer, as they do Vinegar, to fee whether it 
Will ripen andfwectcn. 

Tf^erc be divers Creatures that Hcep all Winter -, as ihzBur, the Htd^- 
hog, ihc Bxt, iheBee,&c. Thcle all wax fat when they flcep, and egdf 
ror. The caufe of their fattening, during their fleeping time , may be the 
want of alTimilating ; for whatfoever aflimilatcth not to Ficfli, turncth cither 
to fwcat or far. Tliefc Creatures, for part of their f>ccping tfmeyhavc been ^^"^ '"^^'"^ 
obfervcdnottoniratall; and fortheother parr, to ftir, but not to remove '"" 
and they get warm and clofc places to flcep in. When the Fli^mmings wintred 
in Nova ZembU, the ^ themiddlcof ;\?flrfmi?r went to ffeep ; and 
then the Aatw began tocomcforth, which dutft not before. Itis noted by 
fome of the (^ncieHtf, that the She Bcjrbrecdcth, and licth in with her 
voung during that time of Reft, andthataBearbig with young, hath fddom 
been (cen. '^ 





Crmurij ihtt 

C Omc L.ving Cre^mef are procreated by Gopnlation between Male and 
1^ t-.-nule, (ome by Putrefadion ; andof thofc w lich come bv Puttcfaftion 
man V do (ncverthckfO afterwards procreateby Copulation.' For the caufe 
6. both venerations : F,rft, it is molf certain, that the caufe ofallVivi- 
"'''^='— — - — — :? fitaiion. 


touching the 
Cintrit'nn af 
CrtJIurti bjf 
and by Putrc- 


^^>(atural Hifiory ; 

fication is a gentle and proportionable hear, working upon agiuttinous and 
yielding fubftancc ; for the heat doth bring forth Spirit in that lubftancc, 
and the lubitancc being gluttincus, produccth two cftcds ; the one, That 
the Spirit is detained, and cannot break, forth ; the other, That the mattci 
being gentle and yielding, is driven forwards by the motion of the Spirits, 
after Ionic (welling into fliapc and members. Therefore ail Sperm, all Men- 
(Irucus fubllancc, all matter whereof Creatures are produced by I'uiretatti 
on, have evermore a Clofcncfy, Lcntor.and Scquaclcy. It fecmcth therefore 
that the Generation by Sperm onely, and by Putrcfadior, have two diti'c 
rent caufe?. The firtl is, for that Creatures which have a definite and txid 
fhipe (as thofi? have which are procreated by Copulation) cannot be produ- 
ced by a weak and cafual heat ; nor out of matter, which is not cxaff ly pre- 
pared according to the Species, The fccond is, for that there is a greater 
time required tor Maturation of perfect Creatures ; for if the timercqnircd 
in Vivification be of any length, then the Spirit will cxhjle before the Crea- 
ture be mature ; except it beinclofedin aplacc whereit may have continu- 
ance of the hear, accefsof fome nourifhmcnt to maintain ir, andclof^ncfs 
that may keep it from exhaling ; and fuch places, or the Wombs and Matri- 
ces of the Females : And therefore all Creatures made of Putrefadion, arc 
of more uncertain ftiape, and are made in fhorter time, and need not fo per- 
fect an enclofure, though fome clofencfs be commonly required. As for 
ihc Heathen opinion, which wa?, That upon great mutations of the World, 
perfeO Creatures were firft ingendrcd of Concretion, as well as Frogs, and 
W^orm?, and Flies, and fuch like, are now ; we know it to be vain: But if 
anyfuch thing fliould be admitted, difcourfing according to fcnfe, it cannot 
be, except you admit of aC^Jw firft, and commixture of Heaven and Earth; 
for the Ftame of the Woild once in order, cannot cfifc^ it by any excels ct 





Century X. 

■ ^ -- — ^^ ' - ■ - ' - ' -A ' 1 1 'He Philofophy of 'P/r('.f?or.« (which was fullof SupCf- 
iVition) did firi plane a Monftrous Imagination, wnich 
atccrwards was, by the i)chool of Tuto, and others, 
vr.itrcd and nouriflicd. It was, That theff^or/d ttrxs one 
ifTXlt] -^vLm fiitiTf perfect Livhi^^ Creature i inibmucb, ^s t^Jpolloniits yi^ 
rf..3^'v A^^'ip^i '^)'-*"-^' a /'vrkf^ocrjw Prophet, affirmed, 1 hat the hbb- 
ing and Ft )wing of the ^ea was the Rcfpiration of the 
World, drawing in Water aj Breath, and puttina ic 
forth again They went on, and inferred, That if the World were a Living 
Creature, it had a Soul and Spirit ; which alio they licld, calling icJ/xn/w 
Mundi, the Spirit or Soul oft le World; by which, they did not intend Gorf, 
(for they did admit of a GDt-iry bcfidcs) butonelyt ic boul,ur r IfentialForni 
of thcUnii'erlc. This /'o«nrf4M»n being laid, they might build upon it whaC 
they would ; for in a Z.mwh;'- Cre.tiure, thougn never logre.u (as for example, 
in a great Whale) the Scnie and the Affcd s of any one part of the Body 
i/iftancly make a Tranicurfion throughout the whole Body : So t. at by this 
they did infinuate, that no diftan.e of place, nor want orindilpolI:ionof 
Matter, could hinder Magical Operations ; but that (tor example) wc 
might herein Europe have Senle and Feeling of that which was done in 
Chttijt; and likc\vile,wc might work aiiyelKct without and againil Matter ; 
And this not holden by the co-operation of Angels or Spirits but < )nely by 
the Unity and Fiarmonv of Nature. There were lome alfo that If.iid noC 
here, but went further, and held, That if the Spirit of Mnn (whom they 
c a 1 the (JMicrotofm) do give a fit touch to the Spirit of the \\"orld,by flronz 
Imaginations and Keliets, it might command Nature ; iot P*>.iie;f,u, and 
foraedarklomey/wfwer.f of Magick, do afcribe to Imagination exalted the 
Powerot Miracle-working Faith, ^"ich th.fe vail aivJ bociomlcfs Follies ' 
i Men have been Qin part) entertained. i 

S 1 Bet 

\a ConlorCi 
arfl ftiflux if 
I if nut, an J 

I TK.t^injtiitn. 


Natural hi/lory ; 


I Expciimcnts 
1 in Confoit 

i rfiiiching • 
' of Sf/ir'tti, una 
' iht Firce I'f 


90 j. 

Butwc, thatholJ firm tothc Works of God, and totlic ^cni:^, which 
is Gods Lnmp, (lucrii.t 'Dfi SpnACHlum Hominit) v\ ill enquire wicli all So- 
briety and Severity,- whether there be to be found in the 1-oot-fUps.oi Na- 
ture any llich Tr.infmiflion nnd Inlliix of Immatcriate Virtues ; and v. hat 1 
the forte of" Imagination i-S cither upon tlie Body imaginanr, or upoil 
another Body : Whcrcinit will be like thatlabor of Venules in piir^in'^ the 
Stable of i/du^ct!, to leparate [rom Supcrffitious and Majrical Arts'and Ob- 
fcrvations, any thing that is clean and pure Natural, and not to be cither 
contemned or condemned. And although we fliall have occafion to 
Ipeak of this in more places t'-cn one, yet we will now make Ibmc entrance 

MFnare tobcadmoniflicd, that they do not withdraw credit from the 
Operations by TranfmiHion of Spirits and Force of Imagination, 
bccaufe the cft"e(3s fail fometimes. Foe as in Infedion and Contagion from 
Body to Body, (asthe Plague, and the likc^ it is moll certain, thattheln- 
fc<^iun is received (many times) by the Body Paflive , but yet is by the 
iirength and good dilpofition thereof rcpulled, and wrought out, before it 
be formed into a Difcafe i fo much more in Jmprellions from Mindc to 
Mindc, or from Spirit to Spirit, thelmprcflion taketh, but is encountred 
and overcome by the Mindc and Spirit,, which is Paflivc, before itw ork any 
manit'cfl cfTcd : And therefore they work mofl: upon weak Mindcs and 
Spirits-; astholcof Women, Sick Pcrlbns, Supcriiitious and fearful Pcr- 
Ibns, Children, and young Creatures. 

Nefcio quk teneros ocultu mibi fitfc'tnat Agms : 
Tlie Teet fpeakcthnotof Sheep, butof Lambs. As for the weaknefs of the 
Fower of them upon Kings andMagiftratcs, it may be afcribed (befides the 
main, which is the Protedlion of God over thofe that execute his place) to 
the weaknefs of the Imagination of the Imaginant ; for it is hard for a 
Witch or a Sorcerer to put on a belief, that they can hurt fuch pcrfons. 

Men arc tobe admoniflied on the other fide, that they do not cafily give 
placeand crcditto thcfe operations, becaufe they fuccecd many times: For 
thccaufe of this fuccefsis (oft) to be truly afcribed unto the force of Affedi- 
onand Imagination upon thcBody Agent, and then by a fecondary means it 
may work upon adiverfeBody. As for example, Ifa man carry a Planets Std 
or a Rmg, oribmepart of a Be.ift., believing ftrongly that it will help him to 
obtain his ^evf, or to keep him from danger of hurt in ivj^;, or to prevail in 
:!iS'ute,&c. it may make him more acffivc andinduflrious; andagain, more 
conHdentand pet lifting, then othcrwife he would be. Now the great eff'cds 
that may come of Induiiry and Perfevcrancc (clpccially in civil bufinefs) who 
knowethnot ? For we fee audacity doth almoftbinde and mate the weaker 
fort of Mindcs; and theffateof Flumane Adionsis lb variable, thattotry 
things oft, and never to give over, doth wonders : Therefore it were a meer 
fallacy andn.iltaking toalcribe that to the Force of Imagination upon an- 
other Body, whichis butthcForce of Imagination upon the proper Body; 
for there is no doubt but that Imagination and vehement Affedion work 
greatly upon theBody of thelmaginant, aswcfliall flievv in due place* 

IVIcnaretobeadmonifhed, that asthey are not tomiftake thccaufesof 

thcfc Operations, lb much Icfs they arc to miftake the Fad or EflPed, 

and ra fill',' to fke that for done which is notdonc. And therefore, asdi- 

vers wife Judges have prefcribed and cau-tioncd. Men may not too rafhly 

M believe 

(^entury X, 

bclu've thcCoiitenion ot Witcncs, nor yet the evidence agaiiilt them : Fjr 
ihe Witches themfelves arc- Imaginarivc, andbelicvcoltiimcs ihy do laat 
I which tiicy do nor ,* and people are credulous in that pointi and ready ro 
impure Accidents .nd Natural opcra:ions to Witchcratr. It is worthy the 
oblcrving, that borh in ancient snd late times, (as in the fhe0iitn Witciics, 
and the meetings of "Witches thu liave been recorded by lo many JatcCon- 
f.:(rioni) the great Wonders which they tell of carrying in rhc Air, trans- 
terming themf.Ivcs into other Bodies, &c. arc Ihll reported to bs wrought, 
not by Incantation or Ceremonies, but by Ointments a:id Anointing thcm- 
lelves all over. Thismay jutUy move a Man to think, that thefel-ables arc 
the eftet^sot Imagination; for it is certain, that Ointments do all .'it they be 
laid on any thing thick) by (topping of the Pores (hut in the V-ipor-, and 
lend them to the h^ad extreamly. And for the particular Ingredients of 
thofe Magical Ointments, it is like they are opia-te and foporiferou;. For 
Anointing of the Forehead, Neck, Fcer, Back-bone, we know is ufed for 
procuring dead deeps. And if any Mar, fay, that this effcd would be bet- 
ter done by inward potions ; anfwer may be made,that the Medicines which 
go to the Ointments are Co rtrong, that it they were ufed inwards, they would 
kill thofe that ufe them 3 and therefore they work potently, though out- 

We will divide the fcveral kindes of the operations by tranfmifllonof 
Spirits and Imigiaation , which will give no fmall light to :hc Experiments 
that follow. A 1 operations by tranfmilllon of Spirits and Imagination have 
thi?, that they work at diltance, and nocac touch ; and they aicthcfc being 

T le fitft is, The Tranfmiffion or Emiflion of the thinner and more 
airy parts of Bodies, as in Odors and Infections; and this is, of all the 
reft, the mofl corporeal. But you mu;\ ren^ember withal , that there 
be a number of cholc KmifTion'} both unwholeforac and wbolefome, that 
g;ve no imell at all : For the Plague many times when it is taken givcth 
no-fent at all, and there be m my good arid healthful Airs, as they appear 
by Hibitaiion, and other proofs, that differ not in Smell from other Airs. 
And under this head you may place all Imbibitions of Air, where thefub- 
rtancc is material, odor-like, whereof fonic ncverthclefs are ftrange, and 
very fuddenly diffufcd ; as the alteration which the Air receivcth in E^^pt al- 
moin immediately upon thenfing of the River o^Nilm, whereof wc have 

Tne (ccond is, the Tranfmiflion or EmifTion of thofcthings that wecall 
Spiritual Species, as Vifiblcs and Sounds; the one whereof we have hand- 
led, and theother we fhill liaadlciii dueplace. Thefe move fwiftly and at 
great diltance, but then they require a CMedium well difpofcd,and their Tranf- 
miffion is cafilyrtopped. 

The third is the timiflions which caufe Attraction of certain Bodies at 
diflance; wherein though the Loadftone be commonly placed in the firft 
rank, yet we think good to except it, and refer it to another Head; But 
the drawing of t^lmhcr, and Jet, and other Eleduck^ Bodies , and the At- 
trafton inGoMofthc Spirit oi Qtfici-fther at diftancc, and the Attradion 
of Heat at diftancc , and that ot tire to T^dp/^Jju, and that of fomc Herbs 
to Water, though atdiftance, and divers others , we fhall handle ; but 
yet not under this ptclent tide , but under the title of Attradion in 
i ^S 5 The 


0\(jitiiral Hijlory i 

The fourth is, the Hrmirion of Spirits, iind, Immarcriace Powers and thoTc things which work by the univerlil conriguratioii .ind Sym- 
pathy of the World ; not by Forms, or Ccleltial Influxes, (.as is vainly taughi 
•ind received ) but by the Primitive Nature of Matter, and the loeds of 
things. Of thiskiiideis (as we yet (uppoie) the wotking of the Loadilonc, 
which isby conlcnr with thcGIobcof the Banh; of thiskindc is tiiemotion 
of Cjravitv, which is by confcntofdcnic Bodies with the Globe of the Hatch; 
Of this kinde is feme difpofition of Bodies to Rotation, and paiticularly 
from Eaft to "Well; of whichkinde, wcconceive the Maui i'loat and Refloat 
of the Sea if, Vfhich is by conlent of the Univcrle, as part of i^'DiumAl 
Motion. Thele hnmateriate Virtues have this property diftering from others, 
that the diverfity of thc/l/"f««m hindreththemnot, but they pafs through all 
Mediums, yet at determinate diftances. And of thele we (hall fpcak, as they 
arc incident to (cveral Titles. 

The fifth is, the EmiU'ion of Spirits ; and this is the principal in out in- 
tention to handle now in this place, namely, the operation of the Spirits of 
the mindc of Man upon other Spirits; andthis is of a double nature; the 
operation of the Affeftions, if they be vehement 5 and the operation of the 
Imagination, if it beftrong. But ihcfe two are (o coupled, as we flidlhanidle 
them together ; for when an envious or amorous afpeftdoth infc£l the Spi- 
rits of another, there is joyncd both Affedion and Imagination. 

Thcfixth if, the influxes of :he Heavenly Bodies, befidcsthofe twomani- 
feftones of Heat andLighr. Butihefewe will handle, where we handle the 
Celeftid Bodies and Motions. 

Thcievcnth is, the operations of Sympathy, which the Writers o^ Na- 
tural CMagick. have brought into an t^rt or Trecept j and it is this, That if 
you dcfire to fuper-induce any Virtue or Difpofition upon a Perfon, you 
fliould take the Z/ivJ»fCrM»«rf, in which that Virtue is moft eminent and in 
perfc£^ion ; of that Creature you muff take the parts wherein that Virtue 
chiefly is collocate. Again, you muft take the parts in the time, and a£l 
when that Virtue is moft in exercife, and then you niulf apply it to that part 
of Man, wherein that Virtue chiefly confifteth. As if you would fuper- 
induce Courage Md Fortitude, take a Lion, Or a Cock; and take the Heart, looth, 
01 Pa-^oi the Lion '>.ori):it Heart, 01 Spur oixhc Cock : Take thofe parts im- 
mediately aftet the Z/Jo» or the Cet^" have been in fight, and let them be worn 
upon a Mans heart or wrift. Of thefe and fuch like Sympathies we fliall fpeak 
under this prefent Title. 

The eighth and laft is, an Emiffion of Immaceriate Virtues, fuch as we 
.ue a little doubtful to propound it is fo prodigious , but that it is fo con- 
ftantly avouched by many: And wehavefet it downasaLaw toourfelves, 
toexamine things to the bottom; and not to receive upon credit, orrejed 
upon improbabilities, until there hath paCfed a due examination. This is the 
Sympathy of Individuals-, for as there is a Sympathy of Species, (o (it may be) there 
is a Sympathy oi Individuals; that is, that in things, or the partsof things that 
liave been once contiguous or entire, there (hould remain a tranfmilTicmof 
Virtue from the one to the other, as between the Weapon and the Wound. 
Wnereupon is blazed abroad the operation of Fhguentum Teli , and fo of a 
piece of Lard, or ftick of i:lder,&c. That if part of it be confumed or pu- 
trefied, it will work upon the other parts fevered. Now we willputfuc the 


tu e iiia d m t^ -t* mMJM ' 

(^cntury X. 

THe Tla^ue is many times taken without manifcfl fenfc, as hath been 
laid ; and they report, that where it is found it hath a fcnt of ihc imeli 
ot a MtUow Aj,>ple, and (as fome (ay) of May'flowers : And it ib aho re 
ccived, that fracils c f Flowfrs that are Mellow and Lufliious, arc ill tor the 
Tla^ut; as jyhite Lilies, Covrjlips , and Hfttctntbs. 

The Tligueis not eatily received by fuch ascontinually arcaboutthcm 
that have the f/rffK^, zs Keepers o( zhc Sick, and Phydciaiis ; noragaiiiby 
fuch as take ^B/irf»/^/, either inward (as Ulfithridute, "Juniper-bfrries, Rue, Leaf, 
^{\d^eed,&c.) or outward (as Angelkii, Zedoary, and the like in the. Mouth ; 
7xr, Ga/banutn, and the like in Pctfume -J Nor again, by old people, and luch 
a.sareuf a dry and cold complexion. On the other fide, the PUgue ( 
Tooncft hold of thole that come out of atrcfli Air, andof thofc that ate tali- 
ing, and of Children j and it is likewife noted to go in a Blood more then 

Tnemofl: pernicious Infeftion, next the P/rff«f, is the (mell of the Goal, 
when Prifoners have been long, and clofe, and nalHly kept; whereof wc 
have had in our time, experience twice orthricc, when both thcjudges ihii 
fat upon the Goal, and numbers of thofethat attended the bufineis,orwcrc 
preient, fickncd uponit, and died. Therefore itweregood wildom, that in 
fuch cafes the Goal were aired before theybebiought forth. 

Olu of que(\ion, if fuch foul fmells be made by Art, and by the Kami, 
thcyconfift cnicfly of Mins flefh, orfweat, putrefied; for they are not thole 
(tinks which the Noftrils Itraight abhor and expel, that are moft peri.icious, 
but fuch Airs as have fome fimilitude with Mans body, andfoinfinuace them- 
lelvcsand betray the Spirits. There may be great danger inufing fuch Com 
pufuions in great Meetings of People within Houfes; as in churchet, at^/fr 
raignments, at FUys and Solemnities, and thelike : Forpoyfoning of Air is no 
kisdan. erous.ihenpoyfoningoi Water, which hath been ufed by rhc ?«//•/ 
m the Wars, and was ulcd by Emanuel Comnenut towards the Chriftian?, when 
they pjflcd through his Countrey lo tne Htly Lund. And thcfccmposfjn- 
mcnts of Air are the more dangerous in Meetings of People, bccaulc the 
much breath of People doth further the reception of thclnfedion. And 
tncrefore when any luch thing is feared, it wcregood thofepublickplaces 
were perfumed hdo: e the yfjfemblies. 

Ihcempoylonment of pjrticular perfons by Odors, hath been reported 
tobeinpcriumedGlovcs, or the like. And it is like they mingle the po\fon 
tnat is deadly with fome fmcHs that arc fweet , which a!fo maketh it 
ihe looner received. Plagues alfo have been railed by Anointings of the 
Chinksof Doors, and the like; not fo much by the touch, asforthat it is 
common for men, when they findc any thing wet upon their fingers, to 
put them lothcir Nofe j which men therefore fhould take heed how they 
do. The beft is, that thcfc Compofitions of Infeftious Airs cannot be made 
wichout dangers ot death to them that make them i but then again, they 
mAyliive iomc ^^midetes to fave thcmlclves ; fo thatmen ouglu not tobe 
Iccurcof it. 

There have been in divers Countrcys great f/4j-K« by tlie putrefaction of 
great Iwarms of Grasboppers and LqiuJIs, when they have been dead and calf 
upon heaps. 

It hapncth oft in CMnes, that there arc Damps which kill either by 
Suffocation, or by the poyfonous nature of the (Mineral; and thofc that 


2 01 

Ex, crinicni; 
in C>nlort, 
£mif>i"n of 
'if hit, ;„ A'*- 
pirnr Exh-t- 
laiioH OdoT- 








[J\[atural Hi (lory ; 

deal much in Kcfining, or oiher works abour Metals and Minerals, have 
their Brains hurt and itupeficd by the Metalline Vapor- . Among(t which, it 
is noted, that the Spirits ot Qo^ick-Iilvcr ever flic tottic Skull, Teeth, or 
Bones •> iriomuch, as Cilders ulc to have apiece of Gold intlicir Mouth to 
draw the Spirits ot Qiiick-filvcr ; which Gold aftecwards they finde tobe 
whitncd. Tticreare alio certain Lakes and Pits, fuchasthat oi Averuus, that 
poylon Birds (as is faid) which ilie over them, or Men that Itay too long 
about them. 

The Vapor ofChar-ccal or Sea-coal in a clofc rocmi hath killed 
many \ and it is the more dangerous, bccaufcit ccmeth Without any ill I'mcll, 
but ftcaleth on bv little and little, inducing oncly faininefs , without any 
manikft (Irangling. When the Dutchmen wintrcd at Ntva, ZcmbU , and 
that they could gatiier no more (licks, tlicyfcU to make fire of fome Sea- 
coal they had, whercwich (at firft) they were much rcfrefhed ; but a little 
after they had fat about the fire, thercgrcw a general filence and lothncf. 
to rpeak amongft them 5 and immediately after, one of the wcakcl\ of 
the Company fell down in a fwoon : Whereupon, they doubting what it 
was* opened their door to let in Air, and fo laved themfelves. Thecffcd 
( no doubt) is wrought by the infpifTicion of the Air, and (o of the 
Breath and iipirits. Tnc like cnfueth in Rooms newly Plaiftred, if a fire 
be made in them ; whereof no Icfs Mm then the Emperor "Jayiniamu 

Vde the Experiment 805. Touching the InfeSioits Nattire of the Air upon 
the firftiihowers after long Drought. 

It hath come to pals that fome iyipothecAues. upon ftaoipingof Colo- 
qum'd*, have been put inro a great Scouring by the Vapor oncly. 

It hath been a pradlcc to burn a Peffer they call Guimy. Pepper, which 
nath iuch ailrong Spirit, that it provokcth acontinual Snte%vigiti thofe that 
ate in the Room. 

I( is an Ancient Tradition, that Blear Ejes infed Sound Ejet ; and that a 
MertpHona iVeman looking in a Glafs doth ruft it : Nay, they have an opinion, 
whici feemcth fabulous. That Men/iruoiti f'f^omen going over zFieldot Garden, 
do Carn and Herh good by killing the Worms. 

1 he Tradition is nolefsancicnr, that the^tfJJ/^killethby afpefti and 
that the Woolf, if hefceth a AXiJi ficft,by afpedltriketh aMrf»hoarfe. 

P^r/ttrnw convenient do dry and ftrengf hen the Brain, and ftay Rheums 
and Dcfluxions; as we finde in Fume of Rofemary dried, and Lignum Aloes, 
and Calamtu taken at the Mouth and Noftrils. And no doubt, there be other 
Perfumes that do moiff en and refrefh.and ate fit to be ufed in Burning Agues, 
Conlumptions, and too much wakefulnefs j (ach n$ zr e Roft-Tit^ter, hnegar, 
Lemmn-piUs, Violets, the Leaves of Vmes fprinklcd with a little Rtfe-y^Mter , 

Thcydoufcin fuddenFaintingsandSwooning?, to puta Handkerchief 
with Rofe- water, ora little Vinegar to the Nofe, which gathereth together 
again the Spirits, which are upon point to rcfolve and fall away. 

Jptrfffo comfortcth the Spirit*, and difchatgeth wearinefs > which it 
worketh, partly by opening, but chiefly by the opiate virtue, which con- 
denfeth the Spirits. It were good therefore to try the taking of Fumes by 
Pipes(astheydo inTof<«ffo) of other things, as well to dry and comfort, as 
for other intentions, i wifh tryal be made of the drying Fume of Rofemary 
and Lignum Alots, before mentioned in Pipe; and fo of iVrnw^^* and f «/»«« 
:»dum, &c. 


j Ccntiiry X. 

' The following of the Plough hath b.-cn approved for rch-cfluncchc 

Spirits, and procuring Appetite; but co do it in the Plouirhingt'or Wluac 
or Rye is nocfo good, bccaufcthc Earth h.ith Iperitheriwcctbreath in Vege- 
tables put forth in Summer. It is better therctore co do it when you low 
lEarlev. But bccaufc Ploughing is tied to Scalons, it is bcil to take the Air 
of the Earth nc^ turned up by digging with the Spade, or Ifanding by him 
that diggcth. Gmn/ewmen may dothemfelves muchgooJ by kneeling upon 
a Cudiion.and Weeding. And cheftf things you may practilc in the bcft Sea- 
ions ; which is ever the early Spring, bctore the Earth putteth forth the 
Vegetables, and in tiicfweetcii: Earth youcanchuie. It would be done alfo 
when the Dew is a little oft the Ground, left the Vapor be too moiit. I knew 
a great Man that lived lung, who had a clean Clod ot Earth brought to 
him every morning as he late in his Bed ; and he would hold his head 
over it a good preety while. 1 commend alfo fometimcs in digging of 
new Earth, to pour in fome Malmfey or Greek Wine, that the Vapor of 
the Earth and \Vine together may comfort the Spirits the more ; pro- 
vided always it be not taken for a Heathen Sacrihre or Libation to the 

1 hey have in Thyfuk ufe of Pomanders, andknots of Powders fordrying 
of Rheums, comforting of the Heart, provoking of Sleep, &c. for though 
thofe things be not fo ftrong as Perfumes, yet you may hayc them continu- 
ally in yourhand, whereas Perfumes you can take but at times; and bc- 
fidcs, there be divers things that breath better of thcmfelves then when 
they come to the fire; iS Ni^cUa Romuna, the Seed of OHdamhium, Amo- 
mum, c^f . 

There be two things which (inwardly ufed) do cool and condenfe 
the Spirits ; and I wifh the lame to be tried outwardly in V^apors. The one 
h Nitre ■, which I would have diffolved in Malmfey, or Greek Wine, and fo 
thefmcll of t ic Wine taken,- or, if you would have it more forcible, pour 
of it upon a Fire-pan well heated, t!ist\\c^ Ao Rofe-itater znAVinegtr. The 
other is, the diftillcd Water cf Wilde Poppcy; which I wifh to be mingled 
at hnlfwith^j/f-mj/jT, and fo taken vfith Ibmc mixture of aifcxr C/ovffina 
Perfumingspan. Thclikc would be done with the diftillcd Water of Saffron- 

bmcllsof Cjl/w^. andt_//mt;r, and Cn'if, are thought to further Venc- 
reous Appetite ; which they may do by the rcfrcfhing and calling forthof 
the Spirits. 

Inccnfe andNiderous fmells (fuch as^ereof J'4fnjJf«) were thought to 
intoxicate t e Brain, and to dilpofe men to devotion ; which they may do 
bv a kinde offadnels and contriftation of the Spirits, andpartly alio by 
Heating and Exalting them. We fcc that amongft the jews, the principal 
perfume ot the Sanduary was forbidden all common ufcs. 

There be fome Perfumes prefcribed by the Writers o( Natural Mtgicky 
which procure plcalant Dreams i and lome others (as they fay) that procure 
Prophetical Dreams, as the Seeds cf Fl.tx, Eex^ort, &c. 

It is certain that Odors do in a fmall degree, nourifh, efpecial'y the 
Odor of Wine ; and wc fee Men an hungred do love to fmeli hot Bread. 
Itisr.l.ucd, that TDcmocnm when he lay a dying, heard a Woman in the 
Houfc complain,that fhe fhould be kept froni being at a Feail and Solemni- 
ty (which ftic much dclired to fee) becauie there would be a Corps in the 
Houle : W hereupon he caufc d Loaves of new Bread to be fent for.and open- 
ed them, and poured a little Wine into them, and fo kept himfelt alive with 
._ the 

20j I 




93 7' 


touching the 

Emi(^ioni of 
Sphitnal Spt- 
citi> n/hiih 

3\(aturd Hiftory ; 


in Confott, 

Emifim of 
j yirtHti from 
\:Ut Atindti 
end Spiriti of 
JHenyihhtr by 

by Imaginati 
nntxor by other 

i 9+0- 

Che Odor of them till the Feafl waspaft. 1 knew a Gentleman that would | 
faft (fomctimcs) three or Four, yea, five days, vvithoiic Meat, Bread, or ' 
Drink; but the lame Man ultd ta have continuallv agrcat ^''ilpotllcrbs 
that hcfmclicdon, and amongltthoi'c Herbs lomeckulcnt Herbs ofitrong . 
lent, as Onions, Garlicky, Leekj, and the like. 

1 hey do life for the Accidentot the Afoiher tohiirn Featlicrs, and other 
t' lings of ill Odor 5 and by thofe ill iinells the riling of the Mother is put 

There be Airs which the Phyficians advife their Patients to remove 
unto in Confumptions, or upon recovery of long licknefles, which (common- 
ly) are plain Champaigns, butGrafing, and not over- grown with Heath, 
or the like, or elle Timbcr-fnadc s, as in Forcfts, and the like. It is noted al- 
io, that Groves ot Bays do forbid Peftilcnt Airs ; which was accounted a 
great caufcof thcwholefome Air of tyintiocbu. There be alfolbmc Soy Is 
that put forth Odorate Herbs of thcmfelvcs,as/^^/Wf Thyme, Ff'ildeAi.irjoram, 
fennj-royai, Camowiie j and in ^vhich, the Brjar-Jlofes imcll almoil likc/WiwX'- 
Xofs; which (no doubt) arc figns that dodilcover an excellent Air. 

It were good for men to think of having healthful Air in their Houfes ; 
which will never be, if the Rooms below-roofed, or full of Windows and 
Doors ; for theone maketh the Air clofe, an.i not frefh ; and the other, 
maketh it exceeding unequal, which is a great enemy to health. The Win- 
dows alio fhould not be high up to the Roof (which is in ufe tor Beauty and 
Magnificence) but low. Alio Stone-walls arenot wholciome ; but Timber is 
morewholcfome, and elpecially Brick; nay, it hath been u{edl)y fome 
•with gjeatfuccefs, to make their Walls thick, aed to put a Lay of Chalk 
between the Bricks to take away all dampKhnefs. 

THefe Emiflions (as we faid before) arc handled, and ought to be hand-, 
led by thcmlelvrs, under their proper Titles ; that is, Viiibles, and 
Audibles, each apart: In this place, itfliallfuffice to give fbme general Ob- 
fcrvaiions common to both. Firft, they fecm to be Incorporeal. Secondly, 
they vork fwiftly. Thirdly, they work at large dillances. Fourthly, in 
curious varieties. Fifthly, they are not effedive of anything, nor leave any 
work behinde thcm,'Bware energies mccrly ; for their working upon mir- 
rors and placfSs of Echo doth not alter any thing in thole Bodies ; but it is 
the f^ime Action with tiie Original, onely repercu fled. And as for the fhaking 
of Windows, or rarifying the Air by great noifes, and the Heat caufed by 
Burning GlalFcs, they are rather Concomitants of the Audible and Viflble 
Species, then the efi'cds of them. Sixthly, they feem to be of fo tender and 
weak a Nature, as they afled onely futhaRare and Attenuate Subflance 
as is the Spirit of Living Creatures. 

IT is mentioned in fome Stories, that where Children have been<xpofed 
or taken away young from their Parents, and that afterward they have 
approached to their Parents prefcnce, the Parents (though they have not 
known them) have hadalccrct Joy, or other Alteration thereupon. 

There was an E^jpt'un S'oothfayer that made t^nteniut beheve, that his 
genitu (which otherwile was brave and confident) was, intheprcfenceof 
Ocl,iviMti$ CdfdT, poor and cowardjy ; and therefore, he advifedhim toabfent 
himfch (as much as he could) and remove far from him. The Sooth fay erK^rOiS 
thought to be fuborned by Cleopatra, to make him live in Egypt, and other 


(^entary X. 

remote places trom Rome. Howlocver, the conceit ot a predominant or 
maftenng Spirit of one Man over another is ancient, and received (till, even 
in vulgar opinion. 

There are conceit?, that fome Men that are of an ill and mclancholly 
nature, do incline the company into which they come, to be fid and ill dji- 
pofed; andcontrariwile, that others that are of a jovial nature do difpcf": 
the company to be merry and chearful : And again, that (omc Men arc lu(.ky 
to be kept company with, and employed, and others unlucky. Certainly it 
is agreeable to reafon, that there arc at theleaft fome light effluxions from 
Spirit to ;>pirit when Men are in prcfence one with another, as wcJl as from 
Bjdy toBody. 

It hath been obfervcd, that old Men have loved young compiny, a, id 
been coavcifint continually with them, have beenof longlifc ; their Splits 
^as it fecmeth) being recreated by fuch company. Such were the Ancient 
Sophiftsand Rhetoricians which ever hadyourg Auditors and Di;ciplc ; 
is Gorg'tM, ProugotM, ifocrAtes, &c. who lived till they were an hundred years 
old ; and fo likewifc did many of the Gr^mmariins and S'chnol-mafters : Such as 
was Orbilii/'f, &c. 

Audacity and confidence doth, in civil bufineffe*, fogreat efftfl^, as a 
Man may (reafonably) doubt, that bcfides the very daring, and carnefintf^> 
and pctfifting, and importunity, there fliouldbe fome fecrcc binding and 
(looping of other Mensfpirits tof^ichpcrions. 

Tne Afft ftions (no doubt; do make the Spirits more powetful and adjve, 
and cfpeciallythofe AfFcdions which draw the Spirits into the Eyes ; which 
are two, Love and Envy, wnich is called Ocuhu Mdus, As for Love, the 
P/4fMi/?/(fomcof them)go (o far, as to hold, That the Spirit of the Lover 
doth pafs into the Spirits of the pcrfon loved, which caufcth the dvfireof 
return into the Body whence it was emitted, whereupon followcth that ap 
petite of contraifl and conjunction which is in Lovers. And this is obferved 
likewifc, that the Afpcds that procure Love, are not gazings, butfudden 
glances and dartings of the Eye. As for Envy, that emutcth fome malign 
and poifonous Spirits, which take hold of theSpiritof another ; and is like- 
wife of greatcft force, when the Caitof the Eyeis obliqu:. It hath been no 
ted alfo. That it is moft dangcroos, where the envious Eyciscaft uponpcr- 
fons in glory, and triumph, and joy. The reafon whereof i', for that at fuch 
times the Spirits come forth moft into the outward parts, and fo meet the 
percufl'ion of the envious eye more at hand ; and therefore it hath been no- 
ted, Thataftcr great triumph"", Men have b^en ill difpofed for fome days 
following. We fee ihv.* opinion of Fafv-ination is ancient for both cffcfts o{ 
procuring Love, andfiLkncfi caufed by Envy; and Fafcination is ever by 
theEyc. Butyet if there bj any fuch infe*^lon from Spirit to Spirit, there 
is no doubr, but that it worketh by prefence, and nor by the Eye alone, yet 
mofl forcibly by the Eye. 

F^-ar and Shame are likewifc infeOive : For we fee that the ftarting of one, 
will make another ready toftur, and when one man is out of countenance 
in acompany, others do likewifc bliifli in his behalf. 

Now wc will fpcak of ihcForceof ImaginAiion upon OthcT Bodies, aOjd 
of the means to exalt and Ikengthen it. Imagination, in this place, I under- 
(tand lobc the teprefeniation of an Individual Thought. Imagination is of 
three kindes j the firiV joyned with Sr/^/ of that which is to come; thcfc- 
cond, joyned with ^/^wurjr of that wh'ch is paft; and the thirdis, oilhingt 
frefent , or as if they were prcfent : For I comprehend inthis.Imagnati n 








3\Qimral hi/lory j 


feigned, and at pleafurc : As if one fhould imagine fuch aMjnto bcinche 
Vcilmemsof a i'o/>f,ortohave"WIngs. I fingleout fortliis time that Wiiich 
is with pAitfj or Beliff of that which is to come. Tiic Inquifitioii of this 
Subjedl in our way (which is by Indudion) is wonderful hard, for the things 
that arc reported arc fu'l of Fables ; and new Experiments can hardly be 
made but with cxtteam Caution, fortheRcafon which we will alter de- 

The rowr of'tnituon is in three k'odcs. T ;cfirft, upon the Bod v of 
the imaginanr, indudirg likcwife the Childc in the Mothers Womb. The 
f::ccndis, th.powerofit upondead bodies, as Plants Wuod, Stone, Maal, 
&c. T:)e third is, the power of it upon the Spirits ol Men and Living Crea- 
tures. And with this lalt wewillonely meddle. 

T ie ProUeme therefore Is, Whether a Man contantly and Ihonglybc- 
licving that luch a thing fliall be, (as that fuch an one will love him, or that 
i.uch an one will grant him his requeft, or thatfuch an one fliall recover a 
^Rkne^^, or the like) it doth help any thing to ihc effecting of the thing it 
fe f . And here again we muft Warily dilUrguifli j for it is not meant ^as 
hatli been partly faid before) thatit fliould help by making a man more (\our, 
or more iiiduftrious ; (in which kinde, conlUnt belief dorh much) but 
mecrly by a fecret opei aCior, or binding, or changing the Spirit of another. 
And in this it is hard (as we began tofiy) to make any new experiment ; for 
1 cannot command my felf to believe what I will, and fono tryalcan be 
made. Nay it is worf-, for whatfoevcr aManimaginerh duiibtingly.orwith 
fear, muft needs do hurt, if Imagination have any power atalU foraMan 
reprefcnteth that oftner that he fcareth, then the contrary. 

Tiie help thercfjre is, for alii in to work by another, in whom he 
may create belief, and not by bimfelf, until himfelf have found by experi- 
ence, that Imagination doth prevail ; for then experience worketh in himfelf 
Belief, if the Belief that fueh a thing fliall be joyned with a B;licf, that his 
] magination may procure ir. 

For example, I related one time to a Man that was curious and vain 
enough in thefe things, That I <t kjndeef 'Jngltr hAda Tuir of Cards, uni 
would tell 4 man what Card he thought. 1 his pretended Lexrned Mun told me, it 
W'as a miftaking in mc. For (faid he) itwM nn the k^iowledge of the Mans thought 
(for that is proper to God) but it was the inf arcing of a thought upon him, and binding his 
Jmaginationbj ajironger-, that he could tbink no other Card. And thereupon he asked 
me aQ^ellionor two, which I thonghche did but cunningly, knowing be- 
fore what ufed to be the feats of the Jughr. Sir, (laid he) da you remember whe- 
ther ht toldthe Card the Man thought himfelf, or bad another to teU it ? 1 anfvvered, 
^as WAS tcue) That he bad another tell it. Whereunto he fiid, Sotthought: For 
(faid he) himfelf could not have put oh fojirong an Imagination., but by telling the other 
the Card (who bflieved, that the jugler was fame ftrange man, and could do fir ange things) 
that^tthn man caught a firong Imagination. I heaikned unto him, tlunkingfora 
vanity he fpake prettily, rhcn he asked me another Q^ellion : Saith he, Bo 
yau remember whether he bad the Man think the drdfirfi, and afterwards told the other . 
C^an ill hisEarTi>hat he should think ; orelfe, tbnhedd tvhifperfirjl in the Mans Ear 
thatflpoiild teU the Card, telling, That fuch a OlUn P^ould think fuih a Card, and after 
bad the'Mtn think a Card ? 1 told him, (as was true) 7 hat he did firji Ivhij^ertnt 
Man in the Ear, thatfuch a cjllan f^'ould think fuch 4 Curd. Upon this, the Learned 
i/l/.«»>d;id^rnu^i>cxult and plcafe himfelf. faying, Lo, you may fee that my opinion 
u righ: For tf the Manhad thouglotfirji, hit thought had been fixed; but fheother imagi- 
hir^^rfjoundhts thought, Wnich though ;k did lomewhat fink With mc, yet I 
- .■ . ~ - made 

Century X, 

made it lighter then I thought, and faid, / thought it "Wks confederacy betf*een tie 
Jugler, and the tffo Servant s^ though (indeed) 1 had no reafon lb tothink. lor 
they were both my Fathers fcrvancs, and he had never plaid in the Houfc 
before. The Jugler alfo did caufe a Garter to be held up, and took upon 
him to know that (uch an one fhouldpointin fucha place of the Garter, as 
it Ihould be near fo many Inches to the longer end, and fo many to the (hott- 
er; and ftill he did it by firll telling the imaginer, and after bidding the adot 
think. •• 

Having told this Relation, not for the weight thereof, butbecaufe it 
doth handlomly open the nature of the Qnelbon, I return to that I (aid, 
That Ex^erimenti of Imagination muft bepra£tilcd by others, and not by a Mans 
felf. For there be three means to fortific Belief 5 the firft is Experience, the 
feCond is Reafon, and the third is Authority. And that of thefe which is 
far the mod potent, is Authority : For Belief upon Reafon or Experience 
will rtagger. 

For Authotity, it isof two kindes : Belief in an Art, and Belief in a 
Man. And for things of Belief in an Art, a Man may exercifc them by him- 
felf; but for Belief in a Man, it muft be by another. Therefore if a Man be- 
licveinAftroIogy, and findc a figure prolpcrous; or believe in Natural Ma- 
gick, and thata Ring withfucha Stone, orfuchapiece of a LivingCreacUcc 
carried, willdogood, itmay help his Imagination; but the Belief in a Mm 
is far the hiore aftivc. But howfocver all Authority muft be our of a Mans 
f If, ti;racd (as was faiJ) either upon an Art, or upon a Man ; and where 
Authority is from one Man to another, there thcfecond muft be Ignorant, 
and not learned, or full of thoughts : And fuch are (for themoftpart) all 
Witches and lupctftirious pcrfons, whofe'belicfs, tied to their Teachers and 
Traditions, are no whit controlled cither by Reafon orExperience: And 
upon tlieftme reafon, ioMagick thev ufe (for the moftpatt) Boys and young 
People, whole fpirits cafilieft take Belief and Imagination. 

Now to fortific Imagination, there be f uec ways : The Authority 
Whence the Belief is derived,- Means to quicken and corroborate the Imagi- 
nation ; and Means to repeat it and refrcfh it. 

For the Authotity we have already (poken. Asfor thcfecond, namely, 
the Means to qucicen and corroborate the Imaginacion>wc fee what hath been 
ufcd in Magick > (il there be in thofe pradices anything that is purely Na- 
tural^ asVcllmcnts, Charaftcfs, Words, Seals, fomeparts of Plants, or Li- 
ving Creatures, Scones, choice ot the Hour, Gcfturcs and Motions ; alfo In- 
cenles and Odorfj choice of Society, which increafcth Imagination, Diets 
and Preparations lor feme time befjre. And for Words, there have been 
ever uled, either barbarous words of no fcnfc, left they fhould difturb the 
Ihiiginaiijn 5 or words of fimilitudc, that may fccond and feed the Imagi- 
nation: And this wis ever as well in Heathen Charms, as in Charms of later 
limey. ThcrearcuCd alfo Scripture words, lor that the Belief that Religious 
Texts and Words havepowcr, may ftrengthen thclmagination. And for the 
fame reafon He brew words (which amongft us is counted the holy Tongue, 
and f he words more m\ftical) areoftcnufed. 

For the reficfliing of the Imagination (which was the third Means of 
Exalting it) we feethcpraftices of Magick ; as in Images of Wix, and the 
like, that fliould melt by little and little, o: fomc other things buried in 
Muck, that fhould putrefie by little and little, orthelikc: For fo oftasthc 
Imag nantdoth thinkof thole things, fo oft doth he rcprcfcnt to his Imagina- 
tion tiic cffcftof thathedefirctb. 

T ^ If 





206 I 

J\(jitural Hiflory i 






If there be any power in Imagination, it is le(s credible that it (hould 
be fo incorporeal and mimateriatc a Virtue, as to workac great dillanccs, or 
througliall Mediums, ot upon all Bodies; but that thediilance n^-u.t beco^^ 
petcnt , the Medium not adveife , and the Body apt and proportionate. 
Therefore it there be any operation upon Bodies inabfcnce bv Nature, it 
is like to be conveyed frpm Man toMan, as /'rfw/^ is.* Asiiif'f^itch by imagi- 
nation fhould hurt any afar off, it cannot be naturally, but by woi king upon 
the Spirit of fome that cometh to the fV'ttch^ and from that patty upon the 
Imagination cf another, and fo upon another, tillit come toone that hath 
relort to the party intended j and (o by him, to the party intended himiclf. 
And although they fpeak, that it (ufficeth to rake a l^oinr, or a piece of the 
Garment, or the Name of the party, or the like ; yet thete is Itli credit to 
be given to thofe thing?, except it be by working of evil fpirits. 

The Experiments which may certainly demonftrate the power of Imagi- 
nation upon other Bodies, ate few or none; for the Experiments of JVttchcrAft 
are no clear proofs, for that they may be by a taciteoperacion of mal gn 
Spirits ; we fliall therefore be forced in this Inquiry, to refort to ncwi:A:- 
periments, wherein wc can give onely DircQions ot Tryals, and not any roft- 
tive Experhiients. And if any man think that We ought to havet\jid till we 
had made Experiment of fome of them our felve^, (as we do commonly in 
other Titles) the truth is, that thefe Eflfefts of Imagination upon other Bodies, 
havefo little credit with us, as we fliall try themat Icifute: But inlhc mean 
timcwe willleadotl}ersthe way. 

When you work by the Imagination of isneccflary that he by 
whom you work have aptecedent opinion of you that you can do ftrange 
things, or that you are a Man of Art, as they call it ; for elfe the fimple affir- 
mation to another, that this or that fliall be, can work but a weak impreffion 
in his Imagination. 

It were good, becaufc youcaunot difccrn fully of theftrcngthof Ima- 
gination in one Man, more thenanothcr, that you did ule the Imagination 
of more then one, that fo you may light upon a (^rong one. As if a Phyfician 
fliould tell three or four of his Patients ietvants that their Mafter fhall furcly 

The Imagination of one that you fliall ufe (fuch is the variety of Mens 
mindcs) cannot be always alike conftant and (hong ; and if the (uccefs follow 
not fpcedily, it willfaintandlofellrength. Toremedy this, you multpretend 
to him whofe Imagination you ule feveral degrees of Means by which to 
operate; As to prcfcnbehim, that every three days, if he finde not the flic- 
cefs apparent, he do ufe another Root,orparr ofaBeafl, or Ring^&c. as be- 
ing of more force ; and if that fail, another; and if that, another, till fevcn 
times. Alfoyou mullprefcribeagood large time for the ctfid you promife j 
as if you fliould tell a lervant of a fick man, that his Mafter flull recover, but 
it will be fourteen days ere he findeth it apparently. &c. All this to entertain 
the Imagination, that it waver Icfs. 

It IS certain, that potions or things taken into the Body, Incenfcs and 
Perfumes taken at the Noffrils, and oyntmentsof fome parts, do(naturally) 
work upon the Imagination of him that taketh them. And therefore it muir 
needs greatly cooperate with the Imagination of him whom you ufe, if you 
ptefcriise him, before hedoufe thcKeceit tor the Work which he defireth, 
that he do take fuch a Pill, orafpoonful of Liquor, or bum fuehan Iiiccnf', 
or anoint his Temples, or the Soles of his Feet, with fuchanOyntment or 
Oyl : And you muft chufe for the Compofnionof luch Pill, Perfume, or 


Century X, 

207 I 

Oyntment, fuch Ingredients as do make the Spirits a little more gtofs or ! 
muddy, whereby the Imagination will fix the better. j 

The Body Paffivc, and to be wrought upon, (I mean not of the Ima- ' 
giniut) is better wtoug'it upon (js hath been partly touciiedj at (omc times' 
then at others v As if you fhould prcfcribe a fervant abour a fickpeifon, ' 
(whom you have pofTdFod that his Malter fhall recpvcr) when fais Mifter is ] 
faftaflecpj to ufe fuch a Root, or luchaRoor. For Imagination is Ijkc to 
workbetter upon fleepingmcn, then men awake; as wcfliillfhcw when we 
handle Dreams. 1 

We findein the j^rt of Memory, that I»ugesnfible work better then other ' 
conceits ; As if you would remetubcr the word Phtlofopby, you fluU more i 
furely do it by imagining that fuch a Man (for Men are belt places) is read- i 
ing wpon Artfiotles Phylicks, then if you (hould imaginehim tofay, linU 
go fiudj Phllofophy. And therefore this obfervation would be tranflated to the 
fubjeft we now fpeak of ; for the more luftrous the Imagination is, it filleth 
and fixeth the better. And therefore I conceive, that you fliall in that Experts 
mm (whereof we fpake before) of binding of thoughts, lefs fail, if you tell 
one that fuch an one /hall name one of twenty men, then if it were one of 
twenty Cards. The Experiment of binding of thoughts would be divcifified 
and tried to the full: And youare to note, whether it hit for thcmoft put, 
though not always. 

It is good toconfider upon what things Imagination hath mofl: force : 
And the rule (as I conceive) is, that it hath molUorcc upon things that have 
the lighteft and cafieft motions ; and therefore above all upon the Spirits of 
Men, and in them upon fuch affedions as move lightcfl ; As upon procuting 
of Love, binding of Lull, which is ever with Itnagination upon Men in 
fear, or Men in irrefolution, and the like : Whatfoever is of this kinde 
would be throughly enquired. Tryalslikewife would be made upon Plants, 
and that diligently : As if you Ihoald tell a man that fuch a Tree would die 
this year, and will him at thefe and thefe times to go unto it, to fee how it 
thriveth. As for inanimate things, it is true, that the motions of fhuffling 
of Cards, or calling of Dice, are very light motions ; and there is a folly 
very ufeful , That Gameftets imagine, that fome that ftand by them, bting 
them lU luck. There would be try al alfo made, of holding a Ring by a 
thred in a Glafs, and tellinghim that holdeth it before, that itflialllfrike (o 
many times againft the fide of the Glafs , and no more ; or of holding a Key j 
between two Mens fingers without a charm •, and to tell chofcthat hold it, j 
that at fuch a name it fhall go off their fingers. For thefe two arc cxtream • 
light motions. And howi'oever, I have no opinion of thefe thing--, yet fu 
much I conceive to be true. That Itrong Imagination hath morcforceupon 
things living, or that have been living, then things mecrly inanimate; and 
moieforce Ukewifc upon light and fabtil motions, then upon motions vehe- 
ment or ponderous. 

Itis anufualobfervation,That ifthcBody of oneraurthcred be brought 
before the Muttherer, the wounds will bleed afrcfh. Some do affirm, That 
the dead Body, upon theprefcnceof the Muttherer hathopcnedtheeyesi 
and that there have been fuch like motions as well where the puty oaurthered 
hathbecnrtrangled or drowned, as where they have been kUlcd by wounds. 
It may be that this participateth of a miracle, by Gois juft judgment, who 
ufually brings murthets to light. But if it be Natural, itmuft be referred to 

The tying of the point upon the day of Marriage, to make Men impo- 
*_ ^.^ T 2 tent 



95 7- 




!J\(jitural Hi (lory ; 

in Con(o[t 
couching the 
Stent yirtut 
of SympAtbjr 
and yintl- 




tent tow.uids their Wivis, wnicli (.as we have tcim.rly touched) is lolre- 
qucnt in Z/«"f m^CafcoHy, if it be Naiural, nuift b;.- rctcncd to the Imagi- 
nation of him tbat tieth tin rou.t. i conctivc it to have the Icfsattinuy 
with Witchcrafc, bccaulc iiotpcculiarpcrlonsonely, (mch ab Witi-hcsare) 
but any Body may do »i. 

THerc be many things that work upon the Spirits of Men by Secret Sjmpa- 
thj and Antifnthy. fhc virtues ot Frecioiu Stones worn, iiave been an- 
ciently and generally received, andcuiioufly afligned toworkleveral cfflds. 
So much is true, that Stories have in them fine Spirits, as appcareth by t leir 
rplcndor : And therefore they may work by content upon the Spirits of Men. 
CO comfort and exhilarate them. T.iofc that arc the bell for that tft'eft, are the 
T>iaMond, the EmerM, l\\c Jacynih Oriental, and the Gotd-ftone, which is the 
lelliTv Topaz.. As for their particular Proprieties, there is no credit tobe gi- 
ven to them. Butitismamfeft, that Light above all things excelleth in com- 
forcing the 5>JmJ of .M'/;; andit is very probable, that Light varied doth the 
fame cffeft with mote novelcy. And this is one of the caufcs why Preciotu 
Stones coinfort. And ihcreforc it were good to have Tincled Lmtborns, or 
United S'kr^^"' of GU/ coloured into Green, Blue, Carnation, Crimfon, 'Purple, 
&c. ana to ufc them with Candles in the night. So hkevvifeto have round 
Glafffs, notoncly of G/j/coIoured through, but with Colours laid between 
Cryjids, with handles to hold in ones hand. Trifms are alfo comfortable 
tilings. They have of i>4W-i*9r^,£<>9^'<«5G/j/f^, bordered withbroad Borders 
of fmallCr/^rf/, and great counterfeit frecioiu S' tones of all Colours, t lat arc 
moft glorious and pleaCant to behold, efpecially in the night. The Tidures 
of Indian Feathers are likcwife comfortable and pleafant to behold. So alfo 
fair and clear *PoflA do greatly comfort the Ejes Spirits; efpecially when the 
Sua isnot glaring but overcaft, ot when the c^toon ililneth. 

There be divers forts of Bracelets fit to comfort the Spirits; and they be 
of three Iiuentions v Refrigerant, Corrohrant, znJi j^ferient. Fot Refrigerant I 
W'fli them to be oi Piarl, or of Coral, as is ufed. And it hath been noted 
tha; Coral, if the party that wearcthicbe ill dilpofed, will wax pale; which 
I believe to be true, becaufe otherwife diftempcr of heat will make Coral 
lofe colour. I commend alfo Beads or little Plates of LapU LtyLuli, and Beads 
of Nitre, either aloiie.or with (ome Cordial mixture. 

For Corroboration and Comfortation, take fuch Bodies as are of Aflringcnt 
quality without m^iiifeft cold. 1 commend Bead-t^^mher, which is full of A- 
liridion, but yet isunduous, and not cold, and is conceived toimpingnate 
thofe that wear fuch Beads. I commend alfo Beads of Harts-Horn and Ivory, 
which are of the like nature ; alfo Orenge-Beads, alfo Beads of Lignum Aloes, 
macerated firft in Rofe-t»ater and dried. 

For opening, I commend Beads, or pieces of the Roots of Cardtm 
BenediilM ; alfo of the Roots o[ Peony thcCMale, and of Orrof, itldoi Calamut 
K^rematicut, and of Reffi. 

The Cramp (no doubt) cometh of contcaftion of Sinews ; which is 
manifeft in that it cometh either by cold ordrinefs. as after Confumptiom and 
long Agues ; for Cold and Drinefs do (both of them) contrad and cor- 
rugate. We fee alfo, that chafing a little above the place in pain, cafeth 
the Cramp ; which is wrought by the Dilatation of the contracted Sinews 
by heat. There arc in ufe for the prevention of the Cramp, two things : 
The one, Rings oi Sea-Horfe Teeth worn upon the Fingers ; the other, Batdt 


(^entury X. 

of Green TerXfuniU (the Herb) tied about ihc Calf of clic Leg , or the 
Thif^h, &.C. where the Cramp ul'cch to come. I do hndc this the more 
ftrancrc, becauie neither of thcle hive any Relaxing Virtue, but r^^thcr the 
contrary. I judge therefore th.u their working is rather upon the Spirits 
■within the Nerves to make them itrive lei's, then upon thcBouily llb/tancc 
of the Nervet. 

I would havctryal made of two other kindes of Bracelets for com- 
forting the Heart and Spirits. The one oftheTroc/n/c/yof/^i/ifr/ made into 
little pieces of Beads ; for fince they do great good inwards (cfpccially for 
Ptjlilent Jlgues) it is like they will be effectual outwards, where they may be 
applied in greater quantity. There would be Tichifchs likcwilc made of 
Snakes, whofe flcfii dried is thought to have a very opening and Cordial 
Virtue The other is of Beads made of theScarlct Powder, which they call 
Kermes, which is the principal Ingredient in their Ciritd-ConfeHian Alkermtn. 
The Beads would be made upv^-ithyfm^fr-Gnfir.andfomc "Fowjniir. 

It hath been long received, and confirmed by divers tryals, that the 
Root of the (Jllale-Peanjf dried, tied to the Neck, dotb help the Fallin^- 
ficknefi; and likc^»'i^e the /ncw^w^, which we call the i^rir. Thccauleof both 
thefe *Dtfeafes, and efpecially of the FpUeffie from the Stomack, i% thegrofs- 
nefs of the Vapors which rife and ent«r into the Cells of the Brain : And 
therefore the working is by cxtream and, lubtil Attenuation, which that 
Simple hath. I judgcthclikc to be in CAJioreum, OHnsky jRen-Stei, t^gnus 
Cijltu S'eed, &c. 

There is a Stone which they call the iS^oi- Tww^ which thought 
to be good for them that bleed at the Nofe; which (no doubt) isbyaftrifti- 
on and cooling of the Spirits, ^tre, if the Stone taken out of the lands 
Head, be not of the like virtue, for the Joti lovcth Shade and Coolncfs. 

Light may be taken from the ExperimeMt of the Htrfe-tooih Ring, and the 
GarUni of PerTninckJe, how that thofc things which afTwage theftrifc of the 
Spirits, do help difcafes, contrary to the Intention defired i for in th • curing 
ofthcCrimp, the Intention is to relax the Sinews } but the contraction of 
theSpirits, that they ftrivclefs, is the bcfthelp: So to procure cafic Tra- 
vails of Women, the Intention is to bring down the Childe ; but the help is, 
to ftav the coming down too faft ; ^hereunto they fay tlic Tadd-Ji$nc\iV>C' 
wife helpcrh. So in Pe^lilem Fevers, the Intention is to expel the J nfeftion by 
Sweat and Evaporation ; but the beft means to doit, is by Nitre, Diafctrdtum, 
and other cool things, which do for a time arrcftthcExpulfion, till Nature 
can do it more quietly. For as one fiith prettily, /» the quenching tf ihefi^me 
■ of a Pefliltnt jigue, T^ature is like People cenie to quench the Fire of an Haufe • 
"Which are fobiifs, astneefthemlettethauother. Surely it is an excellent Axiomc 
and of manifold ufe , that whaifocvcr appcafcth the contention of Spirits 
furthercth their aiflion. 

The Writers of Nturd Maglck commend the wearing of the fpoil of 
a Snake, for prcferving of Health. I doubt it is but a conceit -, for that the 
Snake is thought to renew her youth by carting her fpoil. '1 hey might as 
well take the Beak of an Eagle, or a piece of a Harts-horn, becaufc" thofc 

It hath been anciently received, (for PericUs the <^thenUn ufcd it^ and 
it is yet in ufe, to wear little Bladders of Quick-filvcr. or Tabictsof Arfc- 
nick, as prcfcrvativcs again t the Plague : Nut, as they conceive, for any 
comfort they yield tothe Spirits,- but tbr that being poyfons thcmfclvcs, 
thcv draw the venomeiothem from the Spirits. 

' T } Vid, 


973- ' 





J\QitUrd hiflory ; 





fide the Experiwenti -)^ , 9<J, and p^. touching the Icvcral i/m^rff/nVj and 
tyfniipathtrs for MfdUiHai itfe. 

it is laid, that the Guts orSkin of a Woolf being; applied to the Belly 
docurc thetolick. It is true, that tiif "Woolf is a Beaf\ of great Edacity and 
Digcllion ; and fo it may be the parts of h.m comfort the Bowels. 

Wc (ec ScArecrons are fct up to keep Birds from Corn and Fruit. It is 
reported by feme, thit the Head Of a Wool', whole, dried and hanged upin 
3i hove-hoiifey will fcare away Vermin, fuch as are f^frfji/^, Pole-cats, and the 
like. It may be the Head of a Dog willdoasmuch; for thofe Vermin with 
us, know Dogs better then Wolv^es. 

ThcBramsot fome Creatures, (when their Heads arc roftcd) taken in 
Wine, are faid to flrengthcn the Memory ,• as the Brains of Hares, Brains of 
Hens, Brains of Deer, &c. And itfeemeth to be incident to the Brains of 
thofe Crcatitres that are fearful. 

The Oyntment that Witches ufe, is reported to be made of the Fat of 
Children digged out of their Graves ; of the Juices of Small: ge, Woolf- 
banc, and Cinqucfoil, mingled with the Meal of Fine Wiiear. But I fuppofe, 
that the Soporiferous Medicines arelikeihodo it ; which arc Henbane, Hem- 
lock, Mandrake, Mo.onfliade, Tobacco,Opium.J)affron, Poplar leaves, &c. 

It is reported by fome, that thcaffeftions of Bcafts when they are in 
flrength , do add fome virtue unto inanimate things : As that the Skin of a 
Sheep devoured by a Woolf moveth itching j that allone bitten by aDogin 
anger, being thrown at him, drunk in Powder provoketh Choler. 

It hath been obfervcd, that the diet of Women with Childe, doth work 
much Dpon the Infaht. .As if the Mother eat Quinces much, and Coriander- 
feed cthe nature of both which, is to rcpre(s and ftay vapors thacafcendto 
the Brain) it will make the Childe ingenious: And on the contrary fide, if 
the Mother cat (much) Onions or Beans, or fuch vaporous food, or drink 
Wine or fltong drink immoderately, or fafl much, or be given to mireh 
muling, (all which fend or draw vapors to the Head) it indangcreth the 
Childe to become Lunatick, or of imperfe^ memory : And I make the fame 
judgment of Tobacco often taken by the Mother. 

The Writers of iVrfmr/f/ /l/rffii^ report, that the Heart of an Ape worn 
near the Heart, comforteth the Heart, and increafcth audacity. It is true, that 
the Ape is a merry and bold BealK And that the fame Heart likewife of an Ape 
applied to the Neck or Head, helpeth the Wit, and is good for the Falling 
fickncfs. The Ape alfo is a witty Beaff, and hath a dry Brain ; which may 
be feme caufe of attenuation of Vapors in the Head. Yet it is faid to move 
Dreams alfo. It may be the Heart of a Man would do more, but that it is 
more againft Mens mindes to ufe it ; except it be iu inch as wear the Rcliques 
of Saints. 

The Fiefh of a Hedghog drcfTcdand eaten, is faid to be a great dryer. 
It is true, that the Juice of a Hedghog muft needs beharfiianddry, bccaufc 
it putteth forth fo many Prickles: For Plants alfo that are full of Prickles are 
generally dry ; as Bryars, Thorns, Barberries. And therefore theafliesof a 
Hedghog arc faid to be a great deficcative of Fiftula'5. 
I Mummy hath great force in ffanehing of Blood; which as it may be 
•afcribcd to the mixture of Balms that are Glutenous , foit may alfo partake 
of a fccret propriety, in that the Blood drawcth Minsflcfli. And it is ap- 
proved, that the Mofs which groweih upon the SeuU of a Dead Man unburied 
will flaneh Blood potently. And fo do the dregs or powder of Blood,fevered 
from the Water and dried. 

. _ -. - It 

Century X, 

!/ i'itx 

It hath beenpraifti(cdtomakc^/'(/f J'"B>^i7rf>.'-, by anointing of the Fggs 

With Oyl. Which cftccl may be produced by the (topping of the Pores ot 

the ihell, ind making the Juice that puttcth forth ihcFeathcis afterwards 

' more penurious, And it may be, theanointing of the Eggs vviil be as cffcflu- 

al as theanointingof the Body. Of which, P'dethe Experiment ^i . 

It is reported, that the White of an Egg or Blood mingled with Salt- 
water, doth gather thefaltnefs, and makcth the water fwecter. This may be 
by Adhefion J asinthe JwA Experiment oi Clarification. Itmaybealfo, that 
Blood, and the White of an Egg, (which is the matter of a Living Creature) 
have feme Sympathy with Salt ; for all Life, hath a Sympathy with Salt. 
We fee that Salt laid to a cut finger, healet i it ; fo, as it feemcth, Salt drav/- 
eth Blood, as well as Blood drawcth Salt. 

It hath been anciently received, that the Sea-Hare hath an antipathy 
with the Lungs, (if it Cometh ncarthe Body) and crodeth them. Whereof 
the caufe is conceived to be a quality it hath of heating the Breath and Spi- 
I rits; zs CdHtl/arides have upon the watry parts of the Body, as Urine andHj'- 
dropical Water. And it is a good rule, Thatwhatfoevcr hath an operation 
upon certain kindcsof Matters, that in Mans Body worketh moll upon 
thofe parts wherein that kinde of matter aboundeth. 

Generally that which is Dead, or Corrupted, or Excerned, hath antipa- 
thy with the fame thing when it is alive, and when it is found, and with thofe 
parts which do excetn: AsaCarcafsof Man is moflinfcdtious and odious to 
Man, a Carrionof an Horfe to anHorfe, &c. Purulent matter of Wounds 
and Ulcers, Carbuncles, Pox, Scab<;, Lcprofic, to found Flcfli; and the Ex- 
crements of every Species to that Creature that excetneth ihcm. But the 
Excrements are lefs pernicious then the corruptions. 

It is a commonexpeiicncc, That Dogs know the Dog-killer^ when as 
In times of Int'eftion fomc pety fellow isfent out to kill the Dogs ; and that 
though they have never feen him before, yet they will all come forth, and 
bark, and flie at him. 

The ReUtions touching the Force of Imagination, and the Secret Inftinfts 
of Nature, are fo uncertain, as they require a great deal of Examination ere 
we conclude upon them. I ;would have it firft throughly inquired, whether 
there be any fccret paflagcs of Sympathy between Perfons of near Blood ; as 
Tartnts, Children, Brothers, Sifters, Nurfe-chtldren, Hwbands, fVives, d'c. There 
bemanyreports \nHt/iorj, that upon the death of Perfons of fuch ncarnefs. 
Men have had an inward feeling of ir. I my fclf remember, tliat being in 
'pAriSy and nay Father dying in Lo/irfon, twoor three days before my Fathers 
death, I had a dream, which 1 told to divers Enilifl) Gentlemen, that my Fa- 
thers Houfe in the Countrcy was Plaiftered all over with Black Mortar. There 
is an opinion abroad, (whether idle, or no I cannot fay) That loving and 
kinde Hu.-tfands nave a fcnfc of their Wives breeding Childe by fome acci 
dent in their own Body. 

Next to thofe that are near in Blood, there may be the likepafTigc and 
inftin^ts of Nature between great Friends and Enemies. And foraetimes the 
revealing is unco another perlon, and not to the party himfeU- I remember 
Pbilippus Comineut (a grave Writer) reporteth, Tnat the Archbifliopof /'j«n.< 
(a Reverend Prelat) (aid (one day) after Mafs to King Le-^is the Elcventli of 
France, Sir, Tour Mortal Enemj u dead; what time, Charles TDuk? o\ Burgundy 
was flain at the Battel of Granfon againft the ^-^ttz-ers. Some try al alfo would 
be made, whether Pad or Agreement do any thng ; as if two Friends fhould I 
agree , Tnat fuch a day in every Week, they being in fat diftaiK places, | 














J\(jitural Hiflory ; 

fhould pray one for another, or fhould put on a Rf-.^r or Tubirt one foran- 
others fake ; whether, if one of them fliould break their Vow and Promilc, 
the other fhould have any feeling of it in ablcncc. 

If there be any force in Imaginations and AffcAions of iingular Pcr- 
fons, it is probable the force is much more in the Joynt-lmnginations and 
Affedions of Multitudes ; as if avi<^ory flioulj be won or loll in remo" 

parts, Whether is there not fomeienfc thereof in the people who 
cerncth, becaule of the great joy orgrief that many men are polle 

m it con- 

are polfellcd with 

tnen Hearing 01 v^auics in mc v^oiiuuury, ura^cwn luuucmy, anuiaia to 
thofc about him, It itnoy* mare tbtn imt "kt fhould give thankj to ( od for thegreat 
y\[itry he hath gramei Its Ag/imfitbe Turks, llistruc, that Vidloryhada Sympa- 
thy with his Spirit, for itw^s meerly his workt'iconcludc the League ; c 
may be tha^t Rev eUtion >ra» ^Divine, ^ut what fhall w e fay then to a number 
of bxamples aniongft the Gredans and Rtmans , \f'here the People being in 
Theatres at Plays, have had news of Vidorics and Oecrthrows lome few 
days, before any Meflcnger could come \ 

It is true, that that may hold in thcfe things which is the general Root 
of Supcrftition; namely, thatmenobfcrvc when things hit, and not when 
ti cy mifs, and commit to Memory the one, and forget andpafs over the 
other. But touching 1)ivin4tion and the mifgiving of Mindes, we fhall 
fpeak more when we nandlc in general the Nutureof Mwdes, and S'ouls, and 

We having given formerly fome /?«/« of ImtgmAtton , and couching 
the fortifying ot the fame ; we have fee down alfo lome few Inftances and 
DireAions of the force of Imagination upon Btafls, Birds, &c. upon pUnts, 
sai^n^oti Inanimate Bodies : Whercinyoumuft ftill obferve, that your Tryals 
be upon Subtil and Light Motions, and not the contrary; for you will 
foonerby Imagination bind a Bird from i>ingingthcn from Eating or Flying; 
and 1 leave it to every man to chufc Experiments which himfelf thinketh 
moft commodious, giving now but a few Examples of every of the three 

Ufe fomc Imaginanc ( obfcrving the Rules formerly prefcribed ) for 
binding of a Bird from finging, and the like of a Dog from barking. Try 
alfo the ] magination of fomc, whom you fhall accommodate with things to 
fortific it in Cock-Fghts, to make one Cock more hardy, aod the other 
morccowardly. It would be triedalfoin flying of Hawks, orincourfing 
of a Deer or Hart with Grey-hounds, or in Horfe-races, and the like com- 
parative Motions; for you may foonerby Imagination, quicken or flack a 
motion, then raifcorceafcitj as it is eafiertomake a Doggo flower, then 
CO make him ftand ftill, that he may not run. • 

In /"/-inff alfo you may try the force of Imagination upon the lighter 
fort of Motions ; as upon the fudden fading or lively coming up of Herbs 5 
or upon their bending one way or other, or upon their clofingand open- 
ing, &c. 

For Inanimate things.youmay try the force of Imagination upxon flay- 
ing the working of Beer, when the Barm is put in ; or upon the coming of 
Butter or Checfe, after the Churning, or the Rennet be put in. 

It is an ancient Trrfrfmstt, every where allcaged, for example of fecret 
Proprieties and Influxes, That the 7orpedo Mirma, if it be touched w ith a 
long flick. dothftupeHc thehand of him that couchethic. It is one degree of 


(^entury X, 

Working at di'.tancc, to work by thccontiiuiancc ot a fie Medium ; as Sound 
will be conveyed to chc Ear by ftrikinguponaBow-llhng, if the Hum ot the 
Bow be held to the i'.ar. 

The Writers o{ NAturd l^a^'ic/^ do am'ihutcmiuh to the Virtues that 
comcfrom the parts ot Livi;ig Creatures, foas they betaken from tnem, the 
Creatures reimining ftiUaiivc; as it the Creature ttill living did infufel'omc 
immateriate Virtue and Vigor into the part levered, Somuch may betrue, 
that any part taken from a Living Creature newly fliin, in.iy be ot greater 
force, then if it were taken from the like Creature dying o: itl:lf; bccaufj 
it is fuller of Spirit. 

Tryal would be made of the like puts of Individuals in Plants and 
Living Creatures ; astocut cfVa Stock of a Tree, and to lay that wtieh you 
cut oft" to putrcfic, to fee whether it will decay the rclt of thei>[ock; or it 
you fliould cut oft" part of the Tail, or Leg of a Dog> or a Cat, and lay it to 
putretic, to fee whether it wili fcfter, or keep from liealing, the part which 

It is received, that it helpcth to continue love, if one wear a Rirg or 
a Bracelet of the Hair of the party beloved. Butthatmay bcby the exciting 
of the Imagination J and perhaps a Glove, or other like Favor, may as well 

The Sympathy of Individuals that have been entire; or have touched, 
is of all others, the moft incredible ; yctaccording unto our faitlifulmaniier 
of Examination of Nature, wc will make fomc little tucntion of ic. The taking 
away of Warts, by rubbing them with lomewha: that afterwards is put to 
waftc and confumc, is a common Experiment ; and I do apprehend it the 
rather, bccaufeof mine own experience. I had from my Childhood a Wart 
upon one of my Fingers ; afterwards, when I was about fixtecn years old, 
being then at Trfrw, tliercgtewupon both my hands anumbcr of Warts (at 
leart an hundred) ina moneths fpacc. The Englip AmhAjfidQrs L^d^, who 
wasaWomanfarfrom SuperlUcion, told me one day fhe would help me a- 
way withmy Warts. Whereupon (begot a picccof Lard with the skin on, 
and rubbed the Warts all over with thefatlide, andamongft the rcit that 
Wart which I had from my Childhood i then fhe nailed the piece of Lard, 
With thefjt towards thcSun, uponapoft of herChambcr-window, which 
was tothc South. Thefuccefs was, that within live weeks ("pace all the Warts 
w^cnt quite away, and that Wart which I had fo long endured, for company. 
But at the reltl did little marvcl,bccau(e they came in a|hort timc.and might 
go away in a fliott time again ; but the going of that which had ftaid fo long 
doth yet ftick with me. They fay the like is done by rubbing of Warts with 
a green Eldcr-ilick, and then burying thellick torotinmuck. It would be 
tried with Corns and Wens, and fuch other Excrcfccnces : I would have it 
alfo tried with fomc parts of LivingCrcatures that are neareft the nature of 
Hxcrefcences ; as thcCombsof Cocks, the Spurs of Cocks, ihcHornsof 
B:afts,&c, ard I would have it tried both ways; both by rubbing thofe parts 
with Lard or Elder as before; and by cutting oft' lome piece ot thofc parts, 
and laying it toconfume, to fee whether it will work any cft'cft towards the 
Confumptionof that part which was once joy ned with it. 

It is conltantly received and avouched, that the anointing of the Wca- 
ponthatmakcth the Wound, will heal the Wound it fclt.In thu Experiment, 
upon the relation of men ot credit, (though my felf, as yrr, am r,ot fully 
inclined to believe it) you fliall note the I'oints following. Firft, the Oynt- 
mcnt wherewith this is done, is nude of u:vcrs Ingredients ; whereof the 









J\Qituyal Hijlory ; 

ftrangcft and hardcftto ccoie by, arc the Mofs upon ihe Skull of a dead Man 
unbuticd, and ihc F ^ts of a Boa', and a Bear killed in ihe aft of generation. 
Thcfc twolaftl could eafily iufptft to be prcfctibcd as aftartling hole, that 
if the Experiment proved not, it might be pretended, that the Bcalfs were not 
killed in the due time ; for as for the Mofs it is ctrtain thtreis great quan- 
tity of it in heUni, upon flain Bodies hid on heaps unbutied. The other In- 
gredients are the Blood-ftonc in Powder, andfot^ic other things which fccm 
to have avirtue to Itanch blood, as alfo the Mofs hath. And thedclcnption 
of the whole Oy ntment is to be found in the Chjmcal Dijpenfdmy of CroUii/s. 
Secondly, The fame kinde of Oynmcnt applied to ihehutt iilclf", wot^eth 
nottheeflfeft, butoncly applied tothe weapon. Thirdly, cwhichl like well) 
they do not obferve the confefting of the Oyntment under any certain Con- 
ftcllation ; which commonly is the excufe of Magical Medicines when they 
fail, that they were not made under a fit 6gureot Heaven. Fourthly, it may 
be applied tothe Weapon^ though the party hurt be at great diftance. Fifth- 
ly, it leemeth the Imagination of the party to be cured is not needful to con- 
cur, for it may be done without the knowledge of the party wounded: 
And thus much hath been tried, that the Oyntment (for Experitnenis fake) 
hath bccawipcd off the Weapon without the knowledge of the party hurt, 
and prcfently the party hurt hath been in great rage of pain, till the weapon 
wasrcanointed. Sixthly, it is affirmed. That if you cannot get the weapon, 
yet if you put an Inftrument of Iron or Wood, relembling the weapon 
into the Wound, whereby it blecdeth, the anointing of that Inltrument will 
(crve and work the effeft. This I doubt fhould be a device to keep this 
lltange form of Cure in rcqucft and ufe, bccaufe many times you cannot 
comcby the Weapon it felf. Seventhly, the Woundmuftbe atfirft waflied 
clean with Whitc-winc, ot the parties own Water, and then bound up clofe 
infineLinnen, and no mote drcfling renewed till it be whole. Eighthly, the 
Sword it felf muft be wrapped up clofe as far as the Oyntment goeth, that it 
take no wind. Ninthly, the Oyntment, if you wipe it off from the Sword 
and keepit.wil ferve again, and rather increafc in vertue then diminifh.Tcnch- 
ly, it will cure in fat fliorter time, then Oyntmcnts of Wounds commonly do. 
Laflly , it will cure a Beaft as well as a Man ; which I like beft of all the reft, 
becaufe it fubjcfteth the matter to an eafic tryal. 

I Would have Men know, that though I reprehend the eafie paflVng oyer of 
the caufes of things, by afcribing them to fccret and hidden virtues and 
proprieties (for this hath arrefted and laidaflecp all true Inquiry and Indica- 
tions;; yetldonotunderftand, butthatinthepraftical pqrt of knowledge 
much will be left to Experience and Probation, whercunto Indication cannot 
fo fully reach ; and this is not onely in S'pecie, but in Indhidut, So in Phy Tick, 
if you will cure ihtjdundies, it is notenoijgh to fay, that the Medicine muft 
not be cooling, fotthat willhinder the opening which the difeaferequirethi 
that it muft not be hor, for that will cxafpcrate Cholerj that it muft go to 
the Gall, for there is the obftiu^ion which c^ufeth the difcafc, &c. But you 
muft receive from Experience, that Powder of ChAtntpjtUy or the like, drunk 
in Beer, is good for the Jumdief. So again, a wife Phyfician doth not continue 
ftill the fame Medicine to a Patient, but he will vary, if the firft Medicine 
doth not apparently fuccecd; for of thofe Remedies that are good for the 
Jaundies, Stone, K^gnes, ire, that will do good in one Body, which will not 
do good in another, according to thecorrcfpondcnce the Medicine hath to 
the Individual Body. 


(^entury X, 

T He delight which Men have in 'Fo^«/rfr«fy, Fume, Honor, Submifion, and 
SubjeUm of oihct Mens Mindes, U'lUs, or Affe^tons (^although theic things 
niay be defired for o;her end.O I'cctncthto beathing init (cl', without con- 
templation ot corfjquence, grateful, and agreeable to the Nature of Mar. 
This thing (fureiy) is not without fomc fignification, as if all Spirits and 
iouls of Men came forth our of one divine Limbiis ; cUj, why be Men (o 
much affcded with that which others think or fiy ? The be(t temper of 
Mindes, defueth good Name and true Honor ; the lighter, Popularity and 
Applaufej the more depraved, Subjection and Tyranny; as is (een in great 
Conquerors and Troublcrs of the World, and yet more in Arch- Hcrcucks 
for the introducing of new Dodrines, islikcwifc anaftli^ation of lytanny 
over the Underftandings and Beliefs of Men. 


touching the 
Gtr.tni iym. 
fatUy of fllcni 

A T A B L E 

Of the chief Matters contained in the 



Acceleration of time in IVorkj 
of Nature^ 6j, In CUrlfi. 
c.'.tiott of Liqmr, 6 8. In fe- 
ver *l>uiitnfy 69. ^s 
of Frultt, ibid. Of Drir-kSy \V\.\. 
Impo/lhHmes and Ulcers , ibid. Of 
AfetalSy\b\<^- Of Clarificatioa in ifine, 
165, Acceleration of Pntrefiiilion y 
75. Acceleratiia of Birth, 78. Of 
Growth or StatHre^ ibid. Three means 
of it ibid. 

t/feceleration of GermmatioM, Sg. Bj 
three mtanSy viz. Mending the NoH- 
ri(hmlnt, go. Comforting the Spirits 
»f the Plant , ibid- Eafie coming to 
the N«Mri(hmentj gi. Several injlances 
thereof is 9, 90, 91 

Aches in Mens Bodies fere{he«f> rain, i j6 
Egypt fc-jrce hath aKj rain, 16 I. Sglfti. 
an canfer-ving of bodies, itfj. Their 
C^Hmmies it id. 

Equinoilial more tolerable for heat, then 
the Zones, 87. Three canfes thereof 

/Etbiopcs 87 

^ na 165 

Affeilation »f Tyranny over t^iens ttn- 
derfiandings and beliefs 2 1 5 

yifftQians of Be^fis i'/iptejfed upon in.ini- 
mate things 2 1 4 

Agarick H<5, i ;?l 

tAttr tHrneiinto }y,tter/i. By four feve- 
ralw.tySf i')id. lKjt.incet tending there- 
to, 20, 21. Converted into a Jenfe 
^ody, a rarity in'^ainre, -. Hath an 
at.tifatbj with tangible bodies, 21. 
Converted into w^ter bj repercH^ion 
frombaribodies, ibid. Air turned into 
water by the fame means that Ice, ibid. 
Congealing of air. So. Air condenfeii 
into weight i ^ 5 


Air pent the caufe of Sounds, 3 ^ > 3 3 > 3+. 
Eruptions thereof, caufe Sounds, ibid. 
Air not itliv.ijs neceff^ry to Sounds , 

. . ^^ 
tyiir excluded in fome Bodies, prohihiteth 

pHtrefaElion, 75. In fome caufeth it, 

7 6 . The caufe s of each, ibi<1. Air com- 

freffed .md blown, prohibiteth putre- 

fu[lion 77 

Airs wholefome, how found out, 1 ^4. The 

pntrefA^ion of air , to bt difcerned a- 

forehand,iJ 3 . ^irs good to recover Con- 

Jumptioas, 204. Air hitilthfttl within 

doors, how procured ibid. 

Air and Fire, forelhewwindt 274 

Air, 2 1 . The caufes of heat, and cold in itf 

ibid. Hath fome degree of light in it, 


Air pojfo ned b) art 2 o i 

Alchymijls 7 1 

Alexanders Body preferved till Ccfais time, 


Aliments changed good 18 

Alleys clofe gravelled , what they hring 

forth 1 1 7 

AH Night 85 

Almond Butter for nourifhing jic{ bodies 

better then Cullices 1 3 

Alter.itionsof bodies ]jg 

Altering the colours of Hairs and feathers 


Amber fmell 20; 

An^er, 150. The imprefion thereof, 151. 
Caufeth the eyes to lool^ red, 1 S9. The 
CAitfe ibid. 

Animate and inMKimate,wherein they differ, 

Annihil.:tion, not pofsible in Nature 28 
Anointing of the Weapon 2 i 3 

Annual Herts I 2o 

Anconius hi*geni»u wenk^btfort Auguftus, 


Antipathy and Sympathy, 25. Of Plants, 

101, 102, 103, I04» 105. Inftances of 

V An. 

ATablcofthcchief Matters 

Ant'ip^thjf in other kjmifs, 209, 2lo, 
211,212,21;. Antipathy hetwcea ene- 
mies In ahfcKce 'I'. 
Appetite of coKtinU'ttion in l!iju:d bodies 

Jppst'te inthe flam^ch, lj6. nhatcjua/i- 
ties provikt it, ibid. Ffur caafes thereof 
'^ ibd. 

A^pU inclofed i n Wax forfpeedy npenirjr , 
70,71. Hanged injmtak,, \bid. Covered 
in Lime and Afhes, ibic!. fovtred wiih 
Crabi ard Onions, ib. Apple in Haj and 
Straw, i. id. in a clo^e box, ibid. -^//^^ 
yolUd, lb. Apple inp,.rt cut, heln.eartd 
jvithf-.ik '^'''''• 

Afple-cions grafted on the fockof a ^fle. 
tvort 97 

Applf-treet , feme of them bring forth a 
fiveec Afofs ^ ^4 

Atjin.^rtis d'-ffelvingiron _ \C6 

iArchhifhip of Vurja lis revelation to 
Lewis the Eleventh ;m 

ArroiVi tvith wooden. heads .(harpr.edy pierce 
wood fooner, the mfith ircti he^Js I4S 
Artichokjs made lifs prick l) 98 

Art of tKOttiry _ 27 

Allies in n Vfjjel, rv'ill not cdmit eejtial quan- 
til J of water, Oi in the viffel impty xo 
A^es an excellent comp ofi 1^3 

A!p caufeth eaft de^th l 3^ 

AJJimilation in bodies inanimate, 24. /« 
vegetables ib. ',9^ '^19 

AflriUion prih'ibiteth pktrefaBion 7S 

Attr.M'ion by jmilitude of fttbjiar.ce T4S, 

Audtbles mingle in the incdiirr, which vif. 

hlesdonot, "^l. 1 he catife thereof . ibid. 

Several Coi'fer.ts cf audibles ar.d vfibles, 

■;8,SC. Several D'ffer.ts of thim,6^ ,ti . 

Aiidibles at.dr fihles _ _ 204 

'Authority jirengthneth Imagination Z06 


B^g growing in the fields 1 1 5 

Barrtl empty k.nock.ed, faid to give a 

Di<^pitfonio the fame Barrel full 45 
is.,rrennefs of Trees^thecaufe 100 

Bafil turned into rf^ildeThjme 11 1 

Rafilisk 20- 

Bathing the body, i<;6. VTould net he 

healthful for tu , if it rvere in »/>, ibid. 

/ or the Ty.wV.sgood ib. 

Bearing in the womb , in fomt creatures 

longer, i»fome jhorier 159 

Be aft s do not imitate Mnns jpeech Oi'B'.rdt 
■ dt,')'^. Ihe caufe^\h\('. "Beajls commt*- 

nicatii-^ in fpecies with one another,! 38, 

Likswife fomt Birds,\\:\6, Betfts in their 

{indes, lifjer then F fles^ i ^4. Greater 
then B'rds, the caufe ibi<'. 

Bi'^ifls that yield the i,fle cr virtue tf the 
the Herb they feed on IC4 

B.-Jls forifJ:ew R.-iin 1 7 r 

Cifon., how made, I ". A very nourifk- 
ing drink ibii). 

Sees humming an unecjnal foittld 4; 

Birds have another manterin their cjuick- 
ning, then Men or "B.'^fls, 25. Bird 
communicating in fpec'ies with one m. 
other^\ 3b'. Swifter in motion then Be.Jl', 
ibid. The caufe, ibid. In their kjndes 
t'pr then Br.'fis or F'fhes, 184. The 
C''ufe,\{\ii. Imitate Mans fpeechy which 
Br/ fl-< do not, <^'). Thecauje ilid. 

B nh of living creatures -yg 

Ulack, the bejl colour in Plumbs IC9 

"Ble.i.tyes infe^liCHS 2o" 

Bleeding ef the body, at the approach if the 
murtherer 2C7 

"B'ood five means of Ranching it if 

"Blood draweth fait 21 1 I 

Bleed of the Cuttle-fifh 1 56 \ 

Blood- Hone 210 

Blows and bmifes induct frvtUiti£^ itf. The 
I c»ufe ibid. 

Blufiing caufeth rednej? in the ear/, not in 
I I theeyes, as arger doth, ifp. J he caufe 
of each ibid. 

"Boaring an he/t through a Tree, he/pet hit 


Bedy brittle flruchjn, ^. Bodies natural 

mt'fl tf them an appetite of 

titg others into them, J 69. Except fl. me, 

ibid. B cities uhperf I Stiy mixt I78 

Bodies in nature th^t give r.o founds, and 

th,.t give founds 32,33,^4 

Bodies, to wh ch, Wir.e is hurtful, and to 

vh:ch,gOod 153 

' Bodies coKfoved a long lime 162, 1^=3 

hotdnefs urdindif.ry, the fewer of them in 

civil hufrefs I9C, 2C 3 

Boletus it 3 1 

Bolus Aimenus r^j 

Bones, 141,1^7. The mefi fenfhlt of cold'i 

141. m rt hat F:fhes none, z^j. One in 

the Heart of a Stag ib. 

£71 ting caufeth Grains ttfwell in difference 

Bracelets worn which ccmfcrt the ffirits, 

'19. 'I heir three fiveral operations,ib\d. 

Brains of feme Be.fisflrengthenthe memory, 

Erain increafed in the Full Moon I93 

nrafsf.intttive of wouids lC6 

B-i>f -plates tffi» agefwelling 1 87 

Breath held^helpeth hearing, 6?. The caffe 


contained in thefc Centuries. 

BrjcK ^.'.'/^ 117 

BriKi^ing forth many at a btrthy and but one, 
1 6c. Tht caufe of each ibid. 

i-4rn'ing-qhffes rare ;?4 

Burning fame VegttahUs upin the ground, 
enricheth it 12Z 

Borage, leaf infufei 4 

Calamitas 1^7 

Candles of fever al mixtures fiz. Of fever aI 
'"'V^/, S?. Laid in Bran for Liflittg ihid. 
Can.haridcs, wberefoever applied, affeU the 
Bladder, 25,211. The Flies Cantha- 
rides, 153. Of what ft*bfl.ince they ,jre 
bred ibid. 

Carrying of fey tign Rootsf>.fe 128 

Caffia ibid, 

Cafiing of the skin or (hell, 154. The crea. 
tares that cafl either ibid. 

Caterpillars 153 

Cements that groiv hard 183 

Chalky, a good compojl^ 122, 12?. Good for 
P.flure, M t^ell as for Arable ibid. 

Cbameletns, "io. Their nonrifhrnent, ibid. 
A fond Tradition of them ibid. 

Chtmelotted I'.per 156 

Change in Medicines Ailments food, 
i8. The caufe why ibid. 

Charcoal vapor in <• clofe room, mortal 202 
Ch.irms aoy 

cheap fuel 1 64 

.Children born in the feventh moneth, vital, 
in the eighth, not, 'j^. The caufe rvhy, 
ibid. Over-much nourifhment, ill for 
children, ibid. Dry nourifhment, hurt- 
ful, ibid. Nourifhment of an opening 
nature^goodfor them,\b\i\. Sitting much, 
hurtful for them, ibid. Cold things, 
hitrtfstlj ibid. Long fuck'ngy hurtful, 


Ch»<efes 71 

C"^ -iover. rule the Stock, 93. tJMuft be 

["P^'rior to it,i)0. Cions regr.ifted 97 

t "»»'«'/;(!«, 128, The Proprieties of that 

Trc., jbid. 

Citron g-rafted on a ^^Inee 1 1 o 

C lummy Bodies <54, <55 

Clarifjit,gof Liqaort bj Adhefion, a. Of 

tyater running ibid. 

Clarification of Liquors, 67. Three ca-fes 

thereof, '\0\d. be. Clarifcation of them 

h Separation^ ibid. By even diflrlbutlon 

of the Spirits, ibid. B; Ke fining the Sfi' 

rit, ibid. Several in(fances of Clartfica. 

r«»»,ibid. 68. fLrification of Drst-k*, 

Of Wine 



ibid. 69, 

Cloves, aitr.iillve of ly.iter 
Coafling of Plants 99 

Cffce, a Berry mahjng Drink^ in Turky 

'55, ProduBion »f it , a very noble 

rvor{, ib:d. Seven means to produce ir^ 

ibid. 20, pnnium l-ri^iduin, the Sarrh, 

19. Tr.infinve into Bodies adiacent, as 

rvcll oi Heat, ibid. All tangible bodies 

of themfelves,cold, ibid. Den/lry^c.iufe 

of cold, ibid. ^t4'ick.lpirit in a cold body, 

increafethcold, ibid. ic. {'hafingaway 

of the warm jpirits,increafe of cold, ib. 

Exhaling of the warm jplrlts, doth the 

llkj, ibid. Cold prohibiteth Putrefafli~ 

on, 7 5. lrrit.!teth Flame S 3 

Cold having mortified any part, how to help 
it ^ 166 

Colexforts furthered in their growth by Sea 
weed, 96. 3/ being watered with Salt- 
water, 9S. Hurt Neighbor Plants ici 

Colicky cured by application of woolfs-guis 


(^olli equation 73 

ColocjUintida 2C1 

Cchration of Flowers, loS. Colours of 
Flowers diferent from the fame Seed , 
1 09. Colours of Herbs ibid. 

Colours vanifh not by degrees, at Sounds do, 
51. 7 he caiifes thereof, ib\d. Coloursof 
Metal Orient in their dljfolutiont, 6.^. 
7 he caufes ibid. 

Comforting of the Spirits of Men by fever al 
things 2C9 

Compofts to iurich ground, T22, 123, 124. 
The ordering of them for fever al grounds, 
222. Slxkjndes of them ibid. 

Compound fruits, i co. How they may he 
made ibid. 

Compreffion in f olid bodies, z. Caufe of all 
violent motion, 1. 7(ot hitherto inejuired, 
ibid, tforkjth fir fi in round, then inpro- 
grefi, ibid. E/ifilydlfcernable in Liquor :, 
in (olid bodies not, ibid. Comtrtffion in a 
brittle body, ibid. In Powder, in Shjt, 
ibid. To a preternatural extent, 16, In 
Sounds, ib. Comprefjlon of Liquors I 9y 

CoBCoUion, I -9. The word lefs rijf rained 
then formerly, ibitl. Not the wtrh^ of 
Heat alone, ibid* The two periods tf it 


Concords in Afufic^ 3° 

Corfretion of Bodies, iSi. "H'ffilved bythe 

coKtrary ibid, 

Condenfing Medicines to relieve the Spirits 


Conienfing of ^ir into weight 1 56 

K Z Cot!- 

ATablcof the chief Matters 

Congenllngof Air So 

ConferVAtloHof lioA'ies longt'ime, 162, 16;. 
The caufes and hffps thereof ibid. 

Confervat'ion of Bodies in ^nickj/ilver 1 68 
Confiflenceof hodies 180 

ConftimptioKs in what Airs recovered 204 
Conti^notu things their operations 201 
Ceppice-ivoods hf/leed 93 

Coral 126, 165 

No (^ore in Fruits 1 1 

C^rn changed hy [owing often in the fame 
ground. III. Changed into a hafer kjnde 
I; the fterility of the year, ibid. The 
Difeafes thereof, I 36. The remedy of 
the Difeafesy ibid. 137. Choice of the 
he^Corn ibid. 

Corruptions 7 3 

Court of Vulcarij near Puteoli 165 

Cramp, 2 11,212. Two cures of it ibjd. 
Cretitures moving after the fevering of the 
head, 88. The caufes thereof ibid. 

Crudity 179 in Caves, 81. liefignationof atryal 
for r>)^t(ing of it ibid. 

Cucumbers made to grow fooner, 96. To 
hear two years, ibid. By ftefpifg their 
Seeds in M'.l\, prove more dait.ty, 9'?^. 
^iiide more delicate by throwing in chi-ff 
when they are fet, ibid. They exaedlr.gly 
affeU moiJfurej[h'id. FFHi grtw toW(,rds 
apot of water, ibid. 

Cure hy chjiom, i-j. Caution io he ufed its 
difeofes counted incurable, ibid. Cure by 
ex:efi,\\>\t. The caufe of it,\h\6. (fure 
hy motion of confent, ibid. Thyftians^ 
how to make nfeof thts motion ibid. 

Curiosities touching Plants, 107, 108,109, 

I 10 

Curled leaves in flattts 133 

cuttingTrees often, saufeth their long lafl~ 

ing 120 

Cuttles hloai 156 


Dy^mps from Mines and Minerals ici 
Day fhoivers, not fo good for Fruits as 

tight, fhowers J 35 

"D'sath without pain 232 

DecoSion muk^eth Liquors clearer, Infufion 

thicker, 68. The caufe ibid. 

■^'^'',159. Their generating ibid. 

Degenerating of Plants, lie, ill. The fe- 

veralcaufes thereof ibid. 

Democritus 203 

Deficcation 74 

DevpuvoiiHllls^better then up9»Falltys\6') 
Diamonds Cornifh 2, 

Diapafon, the ftveeteft of Sounds, 30. The 

Dinpafen or r.yniber of Light, rather a 
thing received, then atrue computation, 
ibid, half T^otes of JVecifiiy ietween 
the Vnifon ar.d Diapofon ibid. 

1>.etdiu.kj, 19. Mcfl trsuhleftme at firfi 

Diferences cf Plants 121,122 

Diferencts of feveral pflfsions in matter 182 
Digging if the £ar I h healthful 2c 3 

Difcordsin Mjick^ 3^,31 

D if ef'fes contrary to prediSpoft'ion, 17. pyhat 
tie Hyf.cii n i< to do m fuch Ci^fes,]h\d. 
Difeajes infi fil<tts,6^. Dijeafes epide- 
mical 85 
D'Jp/cfures and flci^fftrcs cf theferfes I45 
ttifplenjure light, 151. The imprrfsions 
thereof ibjd. 
Diffotution cf Iron ir. Aiji a-fotlis \66 
Divination N,t!.ral I'jz 
Togshiow th Dog-killer ' 211 
Dtuble flowers 101, lie 
Down fpoH tie leaves of Vh.nts, 117. Iht 
virtue of ftiih Ui.ves ibid. 
Dreans pteafant and prophetical procured 
lyfcmefmells 2C4 
Drinks, 6q. The maturation of t htm, ibid. 
How it u wrought, ibic^. Vyhetein it 
differethfrcmcL,rification,\h\d. Degrees 
cj i^latkration in fiveral Liquors, ibid. 
/Maturation hy tnforcitig the motions of 
the Spirit s,ih\d, ^uick»i*>g of driakthat 
ii dead ibid. 
Drowning of Metals 168, 169 
Drunken men,i 5 2, Their Sperm unfruiiful, 
153. T hey are unapt for volunti, ry moti- 
on, ibid. Imagine falfe things as to the 
eye, ibid. Dtflemperedfoonerwithfmall 
draughts, then with great ibid, 
Dryinf the adventitious moifiure, prohihi- 
teth putrefaHion, ^6. fiixture of dry 
things prohibits it ' ibid. 
DkUi hie Bodies 181,182 
Dalcor^tion cf things, 133. 0/v?/rt<r// -79. 
Of iriiits hy ftveral ways, l8d. 'he 
cfitifes of them ] '^A. 
Dunq^s pf Beafts to inrich grcutids^ ^2k. 
VVhichof themthehtfi \ ibi*. 
I>nfl makethTrees fruitful '' 13< 
Dw.-i7fing of Trees /* ^'3 

£.- ^. 

EAr danger eta te he pitkfd i^ /^witfg 
■tar ly Flowers and Platits Up 

£arth and Sand differ, I . Tarth Primum 
Irigidum, 19. Infpfions inEarth,'b'i„ The 
tffeEls thereof, il id. Cautions to he ufed 
thfretn,\\}\d. Siverclirjlances thereof, 


contained in thcfe Centuries. 

ir.ul. Earth t. kj« out of the t^^uits wttl 
pat forth Herhs, 117. The nettHte of 
thole Herbs, ii'id. ivhat Er,rth t.kjn 
out of fhidy ^r.d Tvatry wsods will put 
forthyVSi'i. E-irth upon Eat th , a good 
Compoft, 1 2;. Earths good and b^id, 
J 56. Eirtbs Aiedlcim I, i^'. Earth 
takjn r.ear the Tijver Niln^, 1 S^- E-irth 
psre, thr healthf::lliji (mell of all Zc^ 
Elfl>i>!(r <^^ d FloKiniT of thi S:.t -2' O 

EcchoeSy s6. Artificial Ecchoes not kjiown, 
iiid. Natural Ecchoes v>herefcnt)tty\b\i. 
The d'jfrrences betwien the Concurrent 
Sccho aKd Iterant, \h\d. No Ecchofrom 
tiTruKck^^ [topped at one end, ibiii. The 
c./ije,\hi(.\. Fccho frim within .1 J^'ell, 
ibid. H'hether Ecchoes move in the fame 
an^'e with the original SiwJs , ibid. 
'Plurality of Ecchoes in, ibid. 
Backrccchoes, ilid. Ecchots returning 
many words, s*^. Ecche upot: Eccho, 167, 
16K. The l-k^e betwixt ^ta Houje^ axdau 
H,ll,^y. Eccho rvili not return the Let- 
ter S,\\x^., Dlffcence of Ecthoes, ih\('. 
Mixture of Ecchoes ibid. 

Ed' tie flefh, and not Edible^ i %6. The caiifes 
of each ibuf. 

Eq^ji^s, the yo'kjof thcw great K0Hri(hers,\jf_ 
How to be i^fed, ibid. 'iol'i conduceih 
m^re to the ncurifl'ment. it hue to the 
generation of the Bird. 25 

f'^ht, thr f-.veeteft Concord in Mufi {• ;o 
Elder fluk. put to Confume y t.ikjth aw.ij 
warts 213 

E!fdii.'m 168 

E/eHrieti Bodies ibid. 

E'mgr.tfrcd Ico 

Enforcino ,t thought upon another, ZOA, In- 
flarc: thereof, \» n Juglers trit^, ibid. 
Three r»>e.:ni by which it mujlke wrought 

20<i C5 

EngitfhmAn hurt in the Leg, h.:rd to cure 


E^.VJ 2C;,2 0.1 

Epidemical D'.feafet 85 

^fculent PUnti, 119. Efculent raw, ibid, 

UAVingp jfed the fire y iJJ. '\ot Efcu- 

lentatall \\<\iK 

Eunuchs 1 4'i 

R L-r Tiwents pf livixg creatures f/>:ell ill, 177. 

I hi canfe, lyij. Some (mellwtlU ibid. 

The c.uile,\\i\:'. il'fi odioM to <i cre.itHT! 

of the j.ime Ignite 
ExcrefceK{i, of Tlaists,\ i;, 1 1-^, &:. Two 

fy-tls for Exc'-ifceices,\ i6.£\crefcences 

ji^yrd with 'Putref^^ion 1 1 7 

F-'!-c:fe,66. I'l what Bodies hwtfuly ibid, 

T^"! tobe ufedwithaJpArediety ibid. Be. 

ii:fi-.of ex.rcifey ibid. Evils of extr- 

cife, Kiic^. txercife impinguattth not J" 
mi.'ch as friHions, I'.yo. t he c»ufe ibid. 

Eye of the Underflantltngy tit^e the Eje of 
S^nfe 24. 

TheEjes,\ ?8. Bnb move one wr.y^ ibid. See 
better one ey fKHt, ibid. Thecv.fe, ibid. 
ithy fame fee oue thin^ double, ibid, 
Pore-hitnde men fee befi ne,ir.h.iKd, ibul. 
The caiije, ibid. Old men At fume dift-t'.ce 


Tyes are offended bjr 0ver-gre.1t Lght ,it9. 
By CKtercb ,nge of Li^ht and ly-ir kr.efi on 
the fudden, loui. Uy fttAll Prints, iri.l. 
H'ax red in An^er, ir, Bhifhit,^ not^ 'ti.'il. 
The caufc of e.'.ch, ijid. Eye re-p/,;ctd, 
huth recovered fight b'fe 

F Able of Htrc\]^e> rnd l^yhs 40 

FalUng-Jickjiejs, how helped 2 1 c 

t\ijCination re 

Fat (xtra^edout of flrfh i ;;v 

Feary 149, icfi The imprefslotis thereof 
14.;, t5o 
Feathersof "Birds, why oF fuchfine colour-.^ 
2. How the colour of them my be cha>.- 
ged, 24, 25. .^ge ch.if^eih ihtm i 0; 
Fcmhers burnt Jupprefs the Alother 2C4 
Feii.ale and M.ile in Plcints,l26. The dijfer- 
ences of and M-.ite in fever. I li. 
ving crCiituresy J^~* 7 he caufet therecf 

Fetid fmells 177,178 

Fibrows Bodies tiJ'^lSi 

Figs in the Spring, t)^. Indian Fig 1 27 

Figur.^blf, ^I'd r.ot Figurable i'8 2'" 

Figures of V(ants 1 2 I 

F i^tire or 7 ropes inMu/ick^, hsve an agrte. 
mentwith thr Figure- of Rhetoricl^ ;l 
Fire Tanneth not M i h: Snudoth .<j^ SS 

Fire and hot w.-itcr, hc-it diferent'y, 140. 
Fires fubtcrr^mr ?0 

Fire and -/4ir forefhew winds I 74 

Fifh cf:heSt.j,put into frefh water 147,148 
Fi(hesfore( 17T 

Fifhes greater then any Be fls, 184. The t 

Ciufe i « '. 

Fixation of Bidies li 'J 

FUmf and ylir mix not, 8 . Except in the 
Soirits ofl''egetables,iAii. Andcf l:vit:g 
creatures, ibid, 1'heir wonderful rfetls 
mixed, 9. Form of FUme would be Glo- 
bular, and not Prr.imid^l, il id. ir.uld 
be a hjling rodr, if not ext mgnifhtd hy 
^ir, ibid. Afixethnot with F!ur,te,w\d. 
Burns (Ironger on the fides, thm in the 
midfiy ibid. // irritated by the yiir am. 
bi«ity\\.\d, Opir.ioM of the Peripxteticki 
V 3 */ 

A Table of the chief Matters 

of the Element of Fire^ ibid. Prejeth 
upon Oll^oi Air upon yVater^Zi^, T.tkjth 
in no ether body Into it, hutconvertelh ICy 
i6g. flame «•'«"»? trater to rife, igz, 
I lame, 8i. Thecontinutnce of it accord- 
ing to Bodia, ibid. Objervation 
abo/it goin^ont of Fl,,me, ibid. '02. Lajl- 
ing thereof, tti Candles of fever al mix- 
tnret, ibid. Of feveral Vyickj, H id. 8 5. 
/« C-"<^l'i hidi» Br.:r, ibid, in Linpi, 
ibid. Vl'''hereit drarveththe nonrifhment 
far, ibid. /* a 7 arretted Limp, ibid. 
yyhere it ii k^ept clofe from Air^'ii . Ac. 
cording to the temper of the Air, ibid. 8^'. 
frritnted by cold ibid. 

Flefh diplved into f ., r, 1 3 9. Flefh edible and 
not edible, i8(?. 1 he carfes of ^.cA,ibid. 
Uorfts flefh fometimes e,:ten, ibic). Mans 
fl^fh likeivije,\b. Eaten byyyitehes ib. 
Plies inixcep, fi<Tn of a Pe^iUtttial jear^ 
15^, Thecttufe ibid. 

Flights of Birds, thefrvlften- mot'ion, T59. 
The c.f^fe thereof ibid. 

Flint laid at the bottim of i*Tree,hath helf- 
edthe groxpth, Os- The c.iufe ibid. 

Flowers fmellbefi irhofc- Liavcs fmell not,?i6. 
Flo'.vers growing tmjo/igfi the Corn, and no 
whe-telfe, 10b. To hmve Flowers grow 
upon Trees, 102. To induce colour into 
Flowers, \]:)\6. Flowers double, lO). To 
make them fo in fruitful Trees, ibid. 
Flowers, \z\. All exqitifitely figured , 
ibid. T^umbers of their Leaves ibid. 
flying in the Air of a B)dy unequnl, l6-j. 
of aBidj fiipported with Feathers ipi 
Firming of parts inyoung Creatures 7 

■<fjreign Plants 118, 119 

Fowls, yyuter-fowtsfarefhew Rain 175 

Fragile Sodies^i'io. Thecanfeof their fr a- 
giliiy ibid. 

French-matt hurt iu the head, h.ird to cure 


Fryer Bacons Illulon 1 6c 

FriElton, a fiirthirer of navrifhrnent, \6. 

Makjththeparts moreftefhiy, 19c. The 

caufr, ibid. Imp'iKgiiateth more then 

Exerctfe, ]b\(i. The caufe ibid. 

Frogs in excej?, a fgn of a pejlilentiat year, 

I ^5. The caufe ibid. 

Fruits, their maturation, 70. The caufes 

thereof, ibid. Several inliances thereof, 

ibid. 71. Thf dnlcoratit» thereof, bj> 

other means, 1 8 ^. The caufes il . 

Fruit prii\eii as it groweth,ripensfoo.>:er, g6. 

Fruit-tree gr,fted upon a wild tree, 97. 

Fruit dulcorated , by applying cf Swines 

dur.g,g?-. The c a uje, [['id. AlfobyChf 

and Sivines dung miBgi'ed,\hid. Enlarged 

by being covered with a Pat as itgrowttb. 

ibid. Fruits cornpound, lOO, lOl. Fruits 
of divers kjndes upon one rree,\ 07. Fruits 
if divers fhfpes a>-d figures , ibid, ic8. 
Fruits with infcriptions upon them, ibid. 
Fruits areted within, IC9. Frmti 
ccming twice a year, 1 19. F uitj made 
without Core or fione, 110. Fruits that it:jces fit for drin\, I %C. Unft,\b\d. 
Thec'iufe of ^^cA ibid. Fruits fweet before 
they beripe,l ~.,z.tihich never fweet en, \S\A. 
Fruit bljf'Jiing,hu*t by S'Htk-winds i 55 

Fuel KOt confuming, iC^T,, 164. Fuel con- 
fuffjtng f,i/f,ib d. F. el cheap ibid. 

Full of the M ion, 1 9 :; . Several ejfeiis of it, 
ibid. Tryals for farther oifervutitts 194 

Fumes taken in Pipes 202 

GA!ils;is his opinion cf the El'birtr and 
Flowing of the Sea 16"] 

Gaping a motion of Imit alien 65 

Garment s,cf what plants they may he made 

Gathering of wind for frefhnej? 1 64 

Generation, oppofed to corruption 7 3 

Generating of jome Creatures at fet times 
onely, of fome ,:t all times, 159, The eaufe 
of CAch ibid. 1 60 

Genius over-maftering 204 

Cjermination accelerated by feveral means, 
90,91,9:'. Ketarded hj feveral means gz 
Gu'inny-Pepper caufeth fne(\fg 202 

Gta(s,the materialsthereof in Venice t6i 
Glafs outof S.ind, i6-\. Glafi, whether re- 
moult en, it k.tepeth weight 1 69 
Globes at dijiance appearing flat 1 90 
Gloworm 149 
Gotdyit. 7 he making of it, \hid. Awo}\ 
piffible, but not rightly purfued, ibid. 
Difcourfe of a Stranger, touching the 
muring of it,']i.D reElions for the maimg 
of it, loid. 75. DlreElion of a Try^l, ibid. 
S-veral properties of Gold, ibi<). Gold 
hath in it the le.iH volatile of any Metal 

Gout, order in curing it 16 

Grafting, gz. A late-comlngfruit upon an 
e trly Fruit- 1> ee, 9 3. Grafts in freat plen- 
ty, <-j'. (grafting meliorateih the Fruit, 
97. Grafting of Trees that bear no Fruit, 
enl.irgeth the Leaves, ico. Grafting of 
feveral l^indes , m.k'th not Cor/fpouud 
fruits ibid. 

Graft ing yine upon Vine 136 

Grapes, howthey m.iybe kjpt long,i2p, Al- 
fo byprefervingofthefidlk^ ibid. 

GrfiVttj, lO. Jlinion of Gravity ^\\^.. i^ %. 


containe J in thefe Centuries. 

Opinion ef moving to the Ceuiie, av-tnitjf 

Cre.tfiefs, comfarative of Itv'iKg CreatHVcs 

GrtfnKtfs in fome Flants all wi/iter^ I2i, 

1:2. The caufe ibid. 

Grii*^ and p iln, 15 c. The imprejfions there- 

ef ibid. 

Growing (f certain Triiits and Her hs^ after 

tkej areg.^thcred,-;,'^. The caitfe^ ibiii. 

Try.d^n-hetber thij iKcreifein rveight ib. 
Grotfing or multiplying of 168 

(jtim of Trees 2 

(jur-powder^'^. The CAufeofthigreatnoife 

it jietdethy ibid, irhite givith no found 


Airs of Beafls^ not of Jo frefh colours 
M li'-dife.,thers,'2, Horv the colour of 
them m.iy l>e changed, 24,15. Hair on 
t e Hei-.d of Children netv iorn, 139. 
Hulr chatigtig colour, 1S3. H.iir of the 
p.-irtj^'). Beloved worn, exciteth love 

"I ; 

Hands have a fjmp^hj with the head and 
other p.nts 2j, i6 

H--irdfubjis>nces in the "Sidies of living crea~ 
tHTe!,isi. Mofi about th: head,\\)\^. 
Sime of them fiand at afiaj, fome con- 
tinually grov^^ ibid. All of them without 
Senfe, but the Head 1 5 S 

H4rd Bodies, iS i . The Catife v\i. 

Heart of an Ape voorn, increafeth audacity 


HavDsxnd Heps inflorei portend cold H^tnters 

Head cut fff" in fome creatures le.weth 4 

lit'le jpAce of motioB^^. ' heciufe, itsiJ. 

Healthful Airs ofc times withoMt fent i.^p, 

Hearing h thmne operation upon the ,1'f tu- 
ners and Spirit ( of Men^then cth'.r Senfes, 
31, 5:. Hinderances of Hea'iKg, 62. 
t^earivg kindred iy Tarvning, i; id. The 
c-ufe, iHd. Helped bj holding the breath, 
ibid. The caufe/o:A. fnflruments to help 
the Hearing, ibid, llfedin^pin \b\J. 
' f thechiefeSl p>wer in /^.it re 2j 

■V to mk^etryjlof the hghefl operationof 
;f,(i id. and time work^the likeefeBi, 
(^T. Their dfferent operation in many 
thirgt, ibid. Heat beifg ^talifrd by 
AfoiJlnrr, theefeff, 14C. caufelh 
thf differences of (J^4le andFemale,iS^. 
Aifj m.iny other differences thereupon, 
imK The f.;me tempered veith miifture, 
ibid. Tbefeverat effects of Heat., in the 

Sun, Fire, and Living Creatures, ibid* 
Heat within the Eirth, 191. of 
drawing itforthby the Moon-beams 103 

Heats under th: /Ejuino^tial, lejs then under 
the T.,rrid zones, 87. Three caufes thereof 


Heathen opinion touching the Generation of 
Creatures, perfeU by Concretion, refeli'd 

Heavenly Bodies., true Fires 19^ 

Hedg-hogsjlijh, a gnoddryer ii; 

H.liorrrpia, i r- . l he caufeiof their ope/.~ 

ing andfhutting, or bending loivards the 

S:4n \'c\ . 

Hemlock^ caufith eafie death 1 ^ z 

Herb) removed fromB.'ds into Pots, prosfir 
better, 9?. Grow fweeter i-y cutting ojj' 
the fir/} Sprout, 99. The caufe thereof, 
ibid. Inquiry, whether they be made Mc 
dictnable, .nnd ho:v^ 105, Four d'Jignati- 
onsofit,\b\(i. Thtir ordinary colours, 109. 
Herbs grooving out of the water without 
Ti^ots, 117. Growing out of the top of 
the Searrithout Rtots, ibid. 118. Grow, 
ing out of Snow, ibid. Growing out of 
S one, ibid. Growing in the bottoms of 
Mt>ie:,\h\A. J^onegrowitg o:tt »f Sea- 
fands, ibid. Herbs dying ye.. r/y,\bui . 
la ft many years,ibid. t he largefl Uf},not 
longefi, as the large sl Trees do, ib:d. The 
caufe, ibid. H:rb inlikjnefs of a Lamb, 
127. The Fable of it, ibid. Herbs will 
(hew the nature of the ground, i ^5. Herbs 
which likj to be watered with Salt-water, 
l:,J. Beib' forefheip rain 176 

Hiccotgh,i^'. Thecaufe of it,i\}id. Cleans 
toc-afeit ibid. 

Honey, 127, 183. Several ways how it is 
fifed :bid. 

Honey-dews upon certain Leaves and Flowers 


Ujrnr, 157. Horn'd Beafts have no upper 
T:eth 15s 

Hjrfes flefh eaten, 186. HorfeyTooth the mark, 
of their age, 158. Horft-tooth Ri»g,good 
for th: Cramp 1 1 1, 112 

Hit Bread nourifhing in the odort thereof 


Humors ill lodged, very daugerotu i S 


\ Aol,amo(iperniciotafmeB 20 1 

/ fews-ear H 5 

Image, whether it might be feenwitbout fee- 
ing the Glafs \(>0 
j^aginAt ion exalted, 198. Force of it,ihid. 
199. three Cautions about the jf^me; 
Vorkjth] mofl f.fin weak^ pff't^', iji"-'' 


A Table of the chief Matters 

lrna(_ln»tio»^zo( 4 Th( k^nties of iV, ibid. 
The ford of it uporj a»Jihfr Efdy, ibid. 
207. S-.veral iitftances of ;>, ibid. & :n 
ftq. ^» i»p.:HCe thereof ty a Pair of 
Cards, ibid. Three means to ir^fofe a 
Thought, 2c6,:i07, Difignationfor tryal 
of theoptr.ttians in this \inde, i>!d. 207. 
T} worli hj one I hit h.ithagooi opinion 
of ymi , ibid. 7'a worl^ by xtjiny, ibid. 
CMiatis to preferve Irnxgination m the 
j}ret7gth, ibid. It workjih mire at fome 
tirr.esy then others, ibid. It h^th moft 
force upon the h'lq^hefl motio»s,\b\d. 20t-, 
2 0y, 2 1 c. sfe^s of the Senfe 168 

Inu^Q^i'iitions imitating the imltAUoni of 
Nature, I. Injttation in Men^tind other 
Cre-stures, 55. 9^^ thing to he wondred 
^t, ibid. Several motions /« Men ef imi- 
tation 65 

imprcjfihle, i'.ndnotimpreffihle 1S2 

Imp'ljio't andpetcufston of B dies^\6c^ ;6i. 
Irfspu/fio!3 of a S idy unequal i6j 

Inammate and A-jimate, nheiein theyd'ff.r 

l-icenfe, thouoht to tiiffofe to devotion by the 
operation of the fn.ell 204 

lr\c>bus, how he/pfd 21® 

Indian L.trth brought over , hath produced 
Indian PlantSy 118. Indian Fig 1 27 

Indian Tree with Leaves of great largenefs, 
and Fruit without flalkj ibid. 

ihdnration of Bidies, 22. Three means to 
ejfe£l it, ibii'. Examples thereof, i- id. 13. 
Indurations by Snorp or Ice, ibid. By Me- 
talline waters, ibid. In fome y.tttural 
Spring-waters, ibid. Of Metals by heat- 
ing and c]:e>ichii7g, ib (^. By fire, ib.d. 
Sj Decotiionstfithin water, thewaternot 
touching, ibid. 24. induration by Sym- 
p-ithy 182 

/-!/.!«? in the yFamh ^fnfferingfrom the Mo. 
t her J diet 113 

InfefliofM Dijeafes 6", 

Itjfltuncesof the Moon,l9-.y l^'j IP4- ^" 
number four ibid. 

Irfl txes of the heavenly Bodies. 200 

Infafion in Liquors, /. A fhort jlay bejl, 
ibid. Infusions to be iterated, \bd. Vfe- 
ful for Medicinal 9perations,\h\d. Trydl 
which parts iffne fooneff, which flowefl, 5 . 
Evaporations of the finer Spirits, fome- 
times ufeful ibid, 

Infufion maketh Liijuors thicks, put Decofli- 
on clearer^ 68. The caufe ibid. 

Infufionsin Air,'). The feveral odors ijf.':e 
at feveral times ibid. 

Infufion in Sarth, 83, 84. The effiBs of it, 
ibid. Cautions to be ufed in It, ibid. Se-. 
veral injiances thtreof ibid. 

Inquination or Incor.coHioit I79 

Itfcriptions upon Fruits 1 C^ 

I ilic.a, 143. communicatedto ,ill 
Creatures, bred of PmrefaSiion , iiid. 
The difference of thent according to ihe 
fcvtral matters they are bred vf , 143, 
li^^, 145. ih: ( numeration of m-tiy of 
them,\ho. Several properties in them. 
ibif. Thry voiuntury motion, ibid. 
Other Serf es, befideTaJle ibi.'. 

tnv.fiblei in Bjdics ou^ht to be better inqui- 
red 26 
Joviri.inus f/;f f/wffftfr 202 
joy,i')0. The tmfrr/j'ifS thereof ibid. 
j'ynts in fome Plants, ■21. The caufe there- 
of ibui. 
fppocrafs clarified 2 
Iron Infiruments, hurtful for wounds \66 
Ifl inders Bodies b'5 
Ivygrotving out of a St.igs Horn 1 1 s 
fuices of Fruit f.t for 'I)rit:kj, 10. 
for ihem,ib\d. The caufe of each ibic'. 


LAiinnum 128 

L.irdput to wajle,taketh away Wttrts 313 
LAjJltude 15^ 

La/ling Trees and fferbs, 'izo. Defignattos 
to ma\e Tlants more laBixgthen ordina- 
ry ibid. 
Late Flowers and P Lints 1 1 9 
L.^ughing,!^!, 1^2. The impreJftoKS there- 
of ibid. 
Leaning lorg upon any part 1 54, 1 5 5 
Leaping, 145. Helped by weights in the 
h.inds ib.d. 
Leaves nourifh not, 12. The caufe 130. 
Leaves of Trees and Herbs, I 27. Plant 
without Leaves 191 
Left-fidejnd R ght, T90. Senfes aH\',flrong 
on each fide, Limbsflrongefi on the Rght, 
ibid. The caufe of each ibid. 
Life,by what courfes prolonged 64. 
L'ghts over- ar eat 'ffsnd the eyes 1 8F, I '^g 
light comfoiteih the Spirits, zii. ESpcci. 
ally Light varied and. 
I.incodis 1:52 
Li'jurfi ible, and not LiqHefiable,^ 80. Bodies 
that Vquefe by Fire, ibid. O'hers that 
bf water, iind. Some that by both ibid. 
Liquors, their Clarification, 67. Three 
caafes thereof ,\h\d. 68. Prefervation of 
Lqiiors in fVells or F'aults,^^. Lqnors 
C/mpreffed, 1 87. Tiseir incorforatioM with 
Powders 6") 
Livif:^ Creatures that g^enerate at certain 
feafons onely, i 59. Others that at 4II 
feafons, ibid. The caufe of each, ibid- 


contained in thefe Centuries. 

Their fcveral times of bearing i» the 

yi^omb, \-\S. i6c. The caufcs thereof, 

ibid. The fever al numbers which they 

bring forth at a Bnrthe»^\h\A. The cetttfes, 

ibid. Living creatures w'lll be tremf- 

mutei into another (feciesy III. Living 

creatures fortfhen>rpe*ther 175 

Love 303 

Lucciole in Italy 149 

Lupines 1 3 ^ 

Lfifl, 152. The imprefsions thereef ibid. 

Ljfing, in what kjnde of foflnre healthful 

M. operations 128, 200, 204 
Mai^ I ^ 

(Jl'tale and Female^ the differ et.ct of them 
IK fever.ll living creatures^ S4. The 
ciufes thereof, ib. i S^. Male and Fem.ile 
in Pl.ints, 126. Male-peonjf, ^»od for 
the Falling- fickjiefs <)«</ Incubus 209 

LMaleficiating, 1^2. PraHifed in G«f- 
cony ibid. 

mi.ilt, 12;. The fuelling thereof y ibid. 
The fweetnefs thereof ibid. 

tJKans-fltfh eaten, 6. Breedeth the French 
Difeafeyib'id. Caufeth high imaginati- 
««/, ibid. Not in it f elf edible, 186. 
The caufe^xVxA. Hoiv eaten by Cannibals, 
ibid, vyherefore bjVi^itches ibid.^ra{es 1 2 S 

Manna l6j 

March, towards the end, the hefl difcoverer 
of Simmer fickji'ffis ly^ 

Marl,a goodComfoJl 122, 12; 

Mir row 157,158 

Maturation, 179. Of Drinkj-,6g,qa>. Of 
Fruits, ibid. Maturation of Di^eSiion , 

Meats indiicinlfatietj 66 

Medicines changed helpful, 1?. Medicines 
which fffcH: the Bladder, 25. Medicines 
condenfsng, which relieve the Spirits, i 55. 
Medicinal Herbs I c^, 105 

Megrims come upon rifng, not during the 
fit ting 154 

Melancholly perfons difpofe the company to 
the like 26 

Melioration of Fruits, Trees, and Tlants, 
93,94. !^>i 9^97, 98,99, \^° 

Melc-cotonts grow befl without grafting, 
97. The caufe thereof ibid. 

Memory the Art, 207. Mer.y better places 
then words, iHd. Memory ftrengthnedby 
the Brains of fame ures 2 1 

UenFlrutm women 202 

Mercurial and Sulphur om 7 8 

tJMetals .ind 1' I ants wherein they difer,ll6. 
Growing of metals, 168. Drowning of 
metals, ibid. 169. Kefming of met.ils, 
I S5. Metalline Vapors hurtful to the 
Brain, 202. Metals give orient colours 
in their difjolutions , 64. The caufes 

Milk^ warm from the Cow,a uourifh- 
er, 14. How to be ufed, ibid. Cows Mill^ 
better then J} ffes Milk, or then w omens 
Milk., ibid. Milk, in Beaflst how to be in- 
creafed, i (54. Milk^ufedfor Clarification 
of L iijao rs, 6 9. (Jood to fleep divers Suds 
in,o'i. Treferving of Milk, 85. ^Hk 
in Plants 131 

Mildew 104, 156 

Minced meat} a great tieurifher, 14. How to 
be ufei ibid. 

Mifletoe 1 1 6 

Mi.vture of Earth attiwattr in Plants 79 
MoiflAir, how difcovered 173 

Moiflfire adventitioHi, caujeof putrefaSiion, 
6?. Moiflure qualifying he at, theeffeEl, 
140. Moiflure increafed by the Moon, 
193. Tryal of ttinSeeds,\h\d. In mens 
bodies, ibid. Force of it in (Vegetables 
CUoejlers 1 00 

Moon attrafliveof heat eut of "Bodies 20 
Moones iifluences, J 91, tg'i, 19.^. In num- 
ber f««r, ibid. It insreafethmoifiure ibid, 
.MorfuiDiaboli,<»« H<T^ 134 

Mortifed parts by cold, \66. Mufl not ap. 
proach the fire, \b\d. Cured, by applying 
Snow, ibid, Orwarmrfater ibid. 

JUof?, 75, 113. lyhere it groweth mofi , 
ibid. The caufe of it, \h\d. n hat it is, 
i6id. CMofsfveet,t\.it. in Apple. trees 
fweet, ibid, infome other Trees 132 
Mother fuppr iff ed by burning Feathers 204 
Mtthers diet afecletb the Infant in the 
womb 210 

Motion hindreth putref anions 7 5 

Motion of Bjdiet, 161. .Motion of Liberty 3 
Motion of Nexe, 192. Motion of Confent in 
mans body, 10, i"?. Motion of Attrailion 
would prevail if C\Iotion of Gravity hin- 
dred not 1 4 8 

Motions in men by imitation 65 

Moulding of Fruits I o 8 

Moulds 7S 

Mountains great forefhew Tempejit tarly 

Mouth out of tafle, 14I. »hat tafies tt wilt 
not have >bid. 

C\liilberry-!eaf l6l 

Mummy (laKcheththed 210 

Murthtred body,blfedfg at the approach of 
the murtherer 207 


A Table of thechief Matters 

Mufcovia hath » late Sfrittgyanditrlj H^r- 
^'f/?, 119. Thecaufe ibid. 

Mnfhroams, 115. Their froprieties, ibid. 
Sever nl froduElions of them^ \Qidjyhere 
they grorvmoU Iji 

Afi*fck_,y 29. Ainfcal and Immuftcal founds^ 
ibid. Sidles producing founds ^ 
\W. 50. Dl«p!tfon the fweetejl of founds , 
ibid. Fall of HJf-notes necejjary in 
AIiitfu{, ibid, Confent of Notes tobea- 
fcribed to the Ante-notes , not Entire 
J^oteSy 50. Concords PerfeEl, and Semi- 
pe>fe[l, which thfy are, \\\d. The mofi 
odioHS 'Difcords of all other, ibid. Di/- 
cords of the B fe ^ mofl dijlurheth the 
Affi/ickj, ibid. 3 I . No Quarter-notes la 
Afuick^, \bi6. T/ea/lng of fingle Tones, 
anfmereth to the pleafing of Colour t and 
of Harmony to theple,ifing ofOrder^ ibid. 
figures er Tropes in Mujick huve an agree- 
ment vfiththe Figures in Rhetorlck,\\:>\d. 
Mufick^ (threat operation upon the 
manners and fpirits of CMea,\\i^. 31,32, 
Concords and Dif cords in A-iuficI^, are 
Sympnth'ies ai:d Antipathies of Sounds, 
61. Infiruments that agree heji in Con- 
fore, ibid, injlruments with a double 
Lay of Strings', VFlre , and L:tte-firlngs 



NAtHre, 63. Achice for the true In- 
tjuifitlon thereof itid. 64 

Natural Divination 17 Z 

7J eg roes 88 

Night-fhowres better for Trmt, then Day 
(horvres 135, I 36 

Nights Star-light y or Moon-fhlne , colder 
then cloudy 188 

Nili:s, the vlrtttes thereof, i6\, HiVf to cla- 
rifie tbervater ef it ibid. 

Nitre, good for men grown. III for children, 
7^'. Nitro::s yoAttr, 8c. Sceureth of it 
felf, ibid. Kitre mingled with water, 
m>:k'th J^lnes Sprout, <)6. Nitre upon the 
Se.t-fands 16^ 

Nourifhing Meats andDrinkj H, 13 

Nourifhlng parts in Plants l/|, i 30 

Nourl(hir.enl, 14, Five fever al Means to 
help it ibid, IJ, !<? 

Nourlihment mended, a great help 95 

\^\[\)z'stwo CoMfns i<?3 



-i\ leaves r^nthtr Honey detvt 104 

Oak^boughs put into the Earth, bring 

forth wttdef^ives. 1 1'i. Oal^-upples i\~ 
Oak^ bears 1 he mofl fruit among Trees, 157 

!■;?. Thecaufe ibid 

OhjeEls of the fighr, caufe great delight In 

the Spirits, but m great offence, 1 to. The 

caufe ibid. 

Occhu5, a Tree in H/rcania 127 

Odious ob]tlls,c«ufe the fpirits to file 167 
Odors in fonie degree, no::rifh 204 

Qyntmeut ufed by VVitches z i e 

Old Trees bearing better then the fame new 

Old men converfing with young comp.inj^ 
livelong 205 

Oiions made to wax greater, ^y. In grow- 
ing, carry the feeds to the top 1 9*3 
Operations of fympathj 20c 
Opium 2o 
Order incurlrgof difea/es 16, 17 
Orenge-fiowers infufed, 4, Orenge-feed 
fowB /» April, will bring forth an excel- 
lent SiHct. herb 1 19 
Orris-root 187 
Ox-horn brlngeth forth ivy 115 
Oyly ftthjiances and waxry,~j6' Commix- 
ture of oyly fubftances , prohlblteth 
pHtreft^^ion, ibid. Turning of watry 
ffthJiuKces into oylf,'j9. A great work 
in Nature^ ibid. Some injiances thereof 


Ojl of Sweet-Almondsy a great nourifher, 

14. Howtobeufei ibid. 


PAlUatloninDifeafes 17 

Pain and grief, 150. Tht imfrej sIohs 
thereof ibid. 

Paintings of the Body, 155. 'B^rbaroHs peo- 
ple much given to it 15(5, ibid. 
Panicum 95 
Pantomimi 56 
Paper chamoletted J 56 
PaiacclfusV Principles i^-,19 
Parents finding an alteration upon the ap- 
proach of their children, though unknown 
to them 204 
Parts l» living creatures eafily reparable, 
and parts hardly reparable, 1 6. Parts of 
living creatures fevered,2i6. Their vir- 
tues in Natural Maglck, ibid. 
Ptif^lons of the mlnde, 15c, 151,152 .Their 
feveral imprefsions ibid. 
Teaches prove befl without grafting, 97. 
The caufe thereof ibid, no 
Tcarl, faid to recover the colour hjburid 
in the Earth 84 


contained in thcfe Centuries. 

I Ptrcrptionin alii fi fSy I7], A'iore fnbtil 
then the fenfe,\.\<\. It workjith aljo at 
i'ldar.ce, ibit!. The h-fl meant of frog- 
tioflicatir.g ibid. 172 

Percolnt'iany intrard akH outward I, ; 

Percvjftan and iwjiulior. of hodte; i d O, i (5 i 

Verfume; Dryer , <t>>d Perfumes A'foi(lners 
of the Bra'ui^ 2 0,. Perfumes procure 
ple.:fant ard propheticai Dreams 204 

Perfons near in hloid, or other Relations^ 
have manj fecret p'^pges of fjmpnthy 


Ptfltleittlal years, S5. Their progntfili{t 

135. 17-. '7.^ 
Philofopl-y received 1 y 8 

Pilofty in Men and Be.i/ls, I 59. The cafes 
thtreif ibid. 

Piflachoes 1 3 

Pit upon the Se.t~fhore, T . Filled with water 
pot able, \V'\<i, TraElifed /'» Alexandria, 
ibid. j^ndhjQdix, ibi"'. it ho tr.iflook^ 
the ciufe^ it i(i. l» time will become S.ilt 
again 19( 

Pity,i'\i. Theirnprejfionsthereof ibid. 
Pius QuintUi hi^ revelation, touchingthe 
ziElory atLi^iUio 2l2 

Plague traKfmittedwithoHt fent, 2CO, 201. 
The fuppofed fent cf it, ibid. Perfons 
leaf} apt to tai[e it, and perfons moji, ibid. 
Plagues catiled ty great futrefaHlons ^ 
202. 'Prefervatives.-gaif^fi it 209 

Plane-tree watered with tfir.e I 28 

^plants , why of greater age then li- 
ving creatures, i<^, \6. Dignity of 
Plants, Sc), Acceleration cf thtir Ger- 
mination, ibid. 90,91,93. Retarding 
of their Germination, ibid. 7 he Afelio^ 
ration of them divers w.ys, 9;, 94, 95, 
96, 97, 9^1 90, icc. Caufe why fame 
die in H^inttr,(^6. Sympathy and yinti- 
pathy of PUits, in, iC2, 1C5, 104. 
'Plants drawing the fame jrycrs out of 
the earth, thrive not together, 101. 
Drawers of much nouriff-ment , hurl 
their neighbor- Blants, ibid. Drawing 
feveral juyces, thrive well together,-i07. 
Several inflances of each, ibiJ. "Dejig- 
nations of further tryals hereof, ibid. 
Trjalt »* He) bi, voyfonom or p-irgative, 
103. Plants that die pl.iced together, 
ibid. Try J nherher Plants will attract 
ffater at fame di/lar.ce, IC4. Curio fities 
ttuching "Plants, IC7, ic'i, Ic9, lie. 
Plants will degenerate, iiCy iri. The 
feveral caufes thereof, ibid. Tr.mfmu- 
Ution of 'Plants, ibid. Six dcugnatlons 
thereof, W id. 1 1 2, 117. Their feveral 
excrefcenceSyU-:, ii.j, 115,116,117. 

i'rnkjfsof free-, \\6. I'. '.irt's f rowing 
w thout feed, 117, ] irt. G'oipiit^out of 
Jtone, ibid. Plants foreign, ll^u•. riij. 
Kemoved ant of hot Ca.-mtrrjs willl-jep 
their feafonj, \W\f^, Set in the Sumner 
fe.ifons will profptr in colder Count refs, 
ibid. Seafons of feveral Plants, ibid. 
Plants bearing ihffcmt, isnd younir fruit, 
and ripe fruits together, 119, 120.' 
'Plants with jojnts or tniic^les tn the ' 
ftall^^f, 121. The ca:-/es thereof^ ibid. 
"Dferences af Plants, i.i\(^. 1:2, Same 
pHiting forth hlofftms before leaves, 12 1. 
Others, leaves before hhffoms,\h\i\. The 
c.tife of each, ibid. Plmts green all 
winter, 121, J22. The ( iufe,iWu'.. Plants 
not fiipportingthemfelves, ib. Thecaufe 
of theirflcndernef, ibid. Plants and in- 
animate bodiesdiff'rr info-^r things, \ 25, 
126, Plants end Metals in three, ibid. 
Plants and Moulds, or P utrtf.IiioKS, 
■wherein they dij'er, i^id. Plants and li- 
ving Creatures their dijferences, \z6, 
I -"• CMale and Fern ale in Plant s,VMd. 
Plants n hereof Garments are made, 128. 
Plant flteping, ihid. Plants with bearded 
Koots, ibn). Plants e feu lent, 129, 130. 
Efculent raw, ibid. Having ptjfed the 
fire,\h\A. Tarts in Plants that are n» irifh- 
ing, ibd. Seeds in PLnts, more [Irong 
then either Leaf or Root^\h\6. Thecaufe, 
ibid. In fame not, ibid. Plants with 
Milk, in them,{ 151. Plants with red 
jnyce, 152. No Plants have a fait tafle, 
ibid. Plants with curled Leaves, I;^. 
Plants may be traxjlated into other Regi- 
ons, I 5 ^ . Tet they l:{fft>me foils, more 
then other, \h\6. Sever.d inflat.ces thtie. 
cf, ibid. Plant Without leaves, 162. Sin. 
gularities in feveral Plants 1 ; S 

Pl.jler hardued likj: Marble 1 6 5 

Pltijiered room green, dangerem 702 

P laces of Metals affwage fwellitg 187 

Pleafures and diJpleJfnres tf the Senfej 

Phugh followed, healthful 1 03 

Pliimoftyin Birds, I:; 9. The cauft thereof 

Plums of what colour the ie/f, icp. The 

dryer, the better fort ibid. 

Pneumaticals in todies 181 

'Pomanders la, 

Pon:-Charcnton, theScrho there 57 

Pore-blinde men fee befi hMnd^ 188. 

Thecaufe jbid. 

'Pot ado roots potted, grow greater 9^ 

Powder in Shot -^ 

Piwders and Liquors, their luctrptration 


'i I 

A Table of thechief Matters 

Puyfoningof dlr 101 

PojijoKing b) ImcUs, i6id. zoi. Caution 

touching pojfontng lb. 

PoyfoaoM (^rcAtuTts lave to lie tinier Odo- 

rate Herhs 13^ 

Trec'iofti ftones comfort thefptrits -08 

Prefervation of bodies from corruption 2S 

Trefervation of Fruits in Sirrups, I29' 

yi/(t in powders, ibid, ivhen to gather 

fruits for prefervation, ibid. Atfo in 

Bottles in a ]yeU,\h. Preferving CJrapes 

long, lb. Another way thereof 134 

Trickles of 7 rees 116,117 

Procreations by copulation, and by putrt> 

faUion, 194. The caufe of each ibid. 

Prognoflickjforflentyorfcarcity, x?8. Of 
pefliler.tiat years, 14 1» 155,1"^, 17^. 
Of cold and long winters, ly^. Sji Brds, 
!-/<). Of an hot and dryf!immer,\[\ By 
the Birds a/fo,\b. of winds, ib. Of great 
tempefls,ih. Of rain,\b. From living 
creatures, ibid. From water fowls and 
land fowls, 176. From fifhes,\b\6. From 
beajfs, ib. From herds, ibid. From aches 
tit mens bodies, ibid, Ftom worms, ibid. 
From the fweating of folid bodies ibid. 
'Proprieties fecret 117, 214 

Purgfng Medicines, '^. Have their virtue 
in afine fplrit. Endure not boiling, ibid. 
Talf^ingaway their unfleafant tajle, ibid. 
Several ways of the operations of purg- 
ing Medicines, 10,11, 12. "they work, 
upon their prefer Humors, II. Medi- 
cines that purge by fiool, and that purge 
by urine, i-. Their fever al cnufcs ,\hni, 
iyork_ in thefe ways at they are given in 
tjuantifj-y ib. Preparations before purg^ 
tng, ii. ii'ant of preparatives , what 
hurt it doth, both in purging, ibid, and 
after pnrgir,g ibid. 

Piftyefa^tion,y-.. ^Acceleration of it, ibid. 
The caufe of patrefaffion, ibid. Putre- 
f.Ulio)-, whence, 74. Ten means of in- 
ducing p'ltrefiiLiions, i'oid. Prohibiting 
of putrefaBion, ';'y. Ten means of pro- 
hibitinf^it, ibid. 76. Inceptions of pu- 
tnfaflion, 71. P- tref.El'ionf for the 
mpji part fmell ill, vni. The caufe, ibid. 
PutnfaCiion from caufcs it Com- 
eth, 17S, Pmrcfacl'ion- induced by the 
Mooa-he.ims 19- of I'viKg cro-tures , have 
caufed Pl.igues 1C2 

P:'.trif.ed bodies moji odious to a creature of 
the fame kjnde ibid . 

P i 1 1 hu ■ /; J(/ hts Teeth undivided 1 5 8 

l>yclia»oias his Phllojtphy 197 

QZiArr'it! th(>t grow hard 18^ 

£!^tiikr^lver will conferve Bodies 
^uickrfilver fixed to the harinefs of Lead 



R-Ackjng of y/in e or Seer 6 g 

Kain in Egypt fcarce, 161. The caufe 
thereof, ibid. Several progieofUcks ofR^in 
Rainbow fatd to bring fweetnefs of edor to 
Plants under it 176, 177 

%ams skins good to be applied to wounds 

Red within fome few fruits 1 09 

Red juyce in Plants 1 52 

Reeds I ^ 

Refining of Metals 1 Sj; 

T^frafiion caufeth the fpccies vifible to 

appear bigger ,160. Other ebfervations 

about RefraUions ibid. 

Repletion hindreth Generation ^1 

Reji caufeth Putrefaflion 7 5 

Retardation of Germination 92 

Rew helpeth the Fig-tree 102 

%heumes, how caufei 1 1 

Rice a nourifiji ng meat 1 5 

Right ^fide and left, 1 g ©. Senfes alikjfirong 

on both fides , Limbs flrongefl on the 

Right, \b\d. The caufe of eSh ibid. 

Rooms built for health 20 

Roots of fruit trees multiplied , 93, 94. 

Root made gr eat, c)^. By apt tying Pani- 

cum about it, ibid. Roots potted, grow 

greater, 99, 100, Koots preferved all 

winter, ibid. Roots of Ctrtes that defcend 

defp, 13^,134. Others fpredmore^ 

ibid. The caufe of each, ibid. Roots of 

Plants of three forts, Bulbitts^ Fibrous, 

Hirfute 128 

Rol'a Solis the Herb ■ 1 c^ 

Rofes Damask^how tonferved 81 

Rubarbinfufed,^, T. For a fhort time befl, 

ibid. Repeated may be asfirong asSc-tm- 

momy, ibid. A isnedifl Medicine, 5. 

C.intioit in the taking thereof \ i 

RuJlefMeuls 74 

SAtiety in Meats 66 

Salamander, 1 85, 1 S7. The caufe that 
it endureth the fire ib- 

Salt a giod Cornpofi^i :; 3 . Suit in Plants,!^ 2 . 


contained in thefc Centuries. 

S:tlt hnih ^/jmpjihy with Biood^z \i. It 
ii an bfaler, ibid, tc nfeth not in Difii/- 
/ittiotts 1^0, 191 

S^it-petre, hi>w it may be bred 1 2 ^ 

Sult'W»ter p'jfed through Earth, becomes 
frt/hyt . Four differences betireen the p^fs- 
tHg it i» i'tffeh .indiH Pits, 2. Siii-'-wattr 
goad for to ivjiterfomt Hfrbs, i ^7, i ;8.. 
Salt-W4ter boiled, becimeth more pot able, 
190, IQI, S-Ut-water fooner diffolvitf 
Stiltf then Frejh-water, ibid. The caufe 


Sand turning Minerals into a Glaffy fub. 

fiance \ 64 

Sanguis DraCJnis, the Tree be.ns it 

1 ji 

Sep of TreeSy 154. The differing nature 

thereof in feveral Trees ibid. 

S:arlet.dye 1 91, 191 

Sciglble, and not fcifflble 1 8 2 

Sea clearer the JVorth-tvmd blaming, tbeti 

the South, I ^9. Sea, by t be bubbles fore-- 

Pjepfeth wind, 175. Sea. water lookjth 

Hack,, moved; white, relH>,g,i^g. The 

caufe, ibid, seas (hallow and narrow , 

l>reak^more then deep and large 1 90 put into Frefh-waters I47 

Sea.hare coming ntar the Bedj, burteth the 

i- <ings 211 

Sea-fand a goad Compoft, 123. Sea-fands 

produce no Plant 1 1 S 

Siafons of "Plants 1 1 9 

Secret proprieties 2 14,2 1 5 

Secundine 154 

Seeds in Plant!, more firongthen either Leaf 

or Root, 1 :o. The caufe, ibid. In fome 

not, ihd. Seedty their choice, i if .Plants 

growing rvith^ut Seeds 117, 118 

Senfe , their pleafures and dlfpleafures, 1 4 J. 

Thei'- inn-rumtntt have a fimilitude with 

that vfhich givelhtherefltxtonof the ob- 

jeEl 6Z 

Separation of feveral Natnres by flr.xining, 

2. Of Ltejitors hy weight, 7,. And 

if the fame \\ndeof Liquors thitk^ed, 4. 

Of M:rali i69 

Separation of the cruder parts prohibiteth 

PutrefaJion jf^ 

Servets ufed in Tutky 148 

Setting of li'heat 95 1 9^ 

Setting of Trees, higher or lower 99 

Several Fruit i upon out Tret 

shade helpith fome Plants 

shadows feeming ever to tremble 

shame, 151, zo6. The impreffuns thereof 


Shell-fifh h.ive no Boneswithin is7, 1 S9,19J 

Shiftiug fnf the better, helptth Plants and 

Living Creatures 95 

I — 




ShiKinf wood 77>7'^ 

Showres good for fruit s,\'i,^. Tor ftate not, 

ibid, "^ight-jhowres better then Day. 

(howres i ;6 

shoures after a long drought, caufe fickj.iffes 

if they be gentle^ 174. // great ,. not 

sick,ntffes of the Summer and the mat cr ?4 \ 
[ Sight the oljcit thereof, (Quicker then of 
I He.t)i-,g,'^o,'j\. sight, I'tify i^r. Ob- 
jeHs thereof, caufe great delight in the 
Spirits, but no great nffer.ce, ibid. The 
caufe ibid. 

Silver moreeafily made then Gold 7', 7- 
Simples jpecialfar A'ledicines, 141 , 1 12. S:ich 
Oi have fubtile parts without Acrimony, 
ibid. tJMany creatures bred of Pu're. 
faHion, arefo, ibid. Alfo PutrefuUions 
of Plants ibid. 

singularities in feveral PUifs 158 

sln^'Kgof Bodies, 16^. The caufe ibid. 
sit ting healthful 154 

Skjill 157 

Sleep agreat nourifher, 15. sleep,i')6,l^y. 
Hindred ty cold in the Feet, ibid. Fur. 
thered by fame l^inde of »oifes,<.b'id- Niu- 
rifhtth iti many Beafl-s aud Birds, ibid. 
Sleeping creatures all ivinter 1 94 

sleeping Plants 128 

Smells and Odors, ?6. B-fi at fome difl.^nce, 
ibid. B'M where the Btdyiscru(hed,\bid. 
Not fo in Flowers crufhed, ibid. BeSt in 
Flowers, whtfe Leaves (mell not, ibid. 
Smells fwett,\-]-]. Hive all a corporeal 
fubflance, ibid. Smells fetide, ibid. 178. 
Smell of the Jaol mofl pernicioM, 2O1, 
Smells that are mofldangerou* ibid. 

Snakj.skjn worn leg 

Snee^'tig ceafeththe Hiccough,Jc^, induced 
bylookjng againfl the Sui^ ibid. The caufe 
thereof ibi('. 

Siiow-WAter,^-j, Sn»ws caufe fruitful nefs, 
ibid, Th'-ee eanfes$hereof,\b\d. Stowgood 
to be applied t » a mortified part, 1 66. The 
caufe thereof, \h\d. Snow bringing forth 
Herbs li^ 

Soals of thePeet, btve afjmpathywiththe 
Head 2 5 

Soft E»dies,iii. The caufe, ib\d. They are 
of two forts ibid. 

Solid Bidiei fwcAtingforefhcw %*ih 176 
Stot a goad Cempojl ' - \ 

Sorel,i'-.y. The Riot thereof ibid. 

Soulof theh^orld 197>I98 

Sounds Muical and Immuftcal 2 9 

Siundsmtre aft to procure (Itep thentonei, 
;i. Thec.tHfe,ib\d. Nature of S*unds, 
not fuffciently inquired , ;i. Motion: 
great in Nature without Sounds, ibid. 
X Nkllitj 

A Table ofthe chief Matters 

T^uUitjf and Snthy nf Sounds^ ibid. ;55, 
:?-;. Stvlftnefs of Motion , may make 
S^UKdi in,iudibte^\\)\d. Sounds not an £- 
liQon of the y^/r,ibld. "i ht rthfons there- 
of^ ^5. Sound not frodHcedrvlth)Ht (ome 
local motion of the Medium, ibid. Tet 
d'tfi'ir.Bton tobem^iAe betxvixt the motion 
of the yiir, and the Sounds themfelvef, 
ibid. ;6. Great Sounds, caufe great mo. 
t'loMi in the Air, and other B)dus^ ibid. 
Haverarrfiid the Air much, ib\d. HAve 
car^fed De.<ifn(js,\h'\i!i.EKclofure of Sounds 
C}nferveththem,i3\A. Sounds jiartlrtn- 
clofed, andp.nflj in open Air, ibid. "Bet- 
ter he^rd from wtthout^thenfromrvitkin, 
ibid, yl Semi-c.ive will convey Smtid, 
tetttr then open ^-i(V,ibid, u4ny long Pole 
will do the //^.', ibid. Trynlto he made in 
a crookjd Concave, ibid. Sounds may he 
created without Air, 37. DifercKce of 
Sounds in d'iff'trent yejf els filled with water, 
ibid. Siund within a Flame, ibid. Sound 
upon a Barrel emptier or fnller^ ibid. 
Sound not created hetwixt the Bow and 
the String , hut betwixt the String and 
the tyiir ibid. 

Magnitude of Sound, 45. In a rr««f ;^,ibid. 
The caufe thereof, ibid. In an Hunters 
Born biggtr at the lower end, 3 b'. The 
caufe thereof, \h\d. In a Vault under the 
EArth, ibid. The caufe thereof, ibid, in 
H.nvkj Bells, rather then upon a piece of 
Brajs inthe open zyilr, ibid. In a Drum, 
ibid. Fu>thcr he/rd by night, then by 
d^y, ibid. The caufe thereof, ibid. /«. 
creaffd bj the concurrent r (flexion, ibid. 
Increi^fed by the Sound-board in Injlru- 
ments,\b\t.\. In <*n Irifh ffarp, '\b\d. 7 he 
c.iufe of the loud found thereof, ibu]. In 
a Virginal the Lid (hut, ibir. fnaCen- 
cave Ttithina wall, ibid. ^8, ';9. In a 
Bm-jlring, the Horn of the row l.:id to 
the ear, ibid. 39. The like in a T^^od of 
li'on or Brafs, \b\d. The likj conveyed i>y a 
Pillar of lVood,from iin tapper Chamber 
to A loiver, ibit'. The like from the bottom 
of a n ell, ibid. Vive ways »f M/ijoration 
of Sounds ibid. 

Exility of Sound* through any porous Bodies, 
ibid. 39.^ hrough irateryWid.^c. Strings 
[loppedfhort ibid. 

Damping, of Sounds, ibid, ii'ith a foft Body, 
ibid. Iron hot , nor fo founding as cold, \b. 
H aicr Wiir m, not fo founding in the fall as 
cold ' ibid. 

Los^dntfs and foft nefs of Sounds, dijfer from 
ALtgnitude and Exility, 41. \Loudnefs of 
Sounds, ibid. ^Hicknefs of 'J'ete.'ijfion, 
caufe of the Ion dnefs ibid. 

Communication of Sounds 4i 

Ine^nality of Sounds, ^1. Unecjual Souriis 
ingrate, ibid. GrMcful, ibio. Uliu/iC'tl 
and Immt'fical S}Hnds,aC pleafure ovelj in 
CSlen and Birds, ibid. Humming of Bees 
an unecj'tal Sjund,^^. Metals quenched 
give an hijfing Sound i bi d . 

Bifeand Treble Sounds, ibid. Two caufes of 
Treble in Strlng<f\b\d. Proportion of the 
Air perc'jfed in Treble and it^fe, 53. 
Tryal hereof to be made in the winding up 
of a String, ibid. 44. Inthe diflances of 
Frets, ibid. In the Bjret of ffind-Inftrw 
ments ibid. 

Interior and Exterior Sounds,^';. Their dif- 
ference, \b\d. Stveral k.indes of each ibid. 

Articulation of Sounds, 41?. Articulate 
Sounds in every part of the Air, ibid. 
VFindi hinder not the Articulati»n,\\i\d. 
"Diflance hindrtth, ibid, speaking under 
water hindret hit not, \b\d. ^rticulatioB 
reqn'ireth a Mediocrity of Sound, ibid. 
Ccnfoftnded in a Room over an arched 
Fault, ibid. Motions of the instruments 
of speech, towards the forming of the Let- 
ters, ih. irjlruments of Voice, which they 
are,ib\d. 4(5,47. Inarticulate Voices and 
Inaimate Sounds hutve a fimilitude with 
divers Letters ibid. 

CMotions of Sounds, 49. They move in 
round,\b\d. May move in an arched Line, 
ibid. Suppofed that Sounds move better 
downwards then upwards, ibid. 50. Tryal 
of tt ibid. 

L t:fling of Sounds, i bi d. Sounds continp. enot, 
but renew, ibid. Great Sounds heard at 
far dijlanee, ibid. 7<(ot in theinjiantof 
the Sound, but long after, ibid, ohje^ of 
Sight, tjuicker then Sound, 5c, ')i. Sounds 
v.ini(h by degrees , which the OhjeSs of 
fight dt not, ibid. The caufe thereof ibid, 

P^jJ^ge of Sounds, 51. 
The Body inter cept ihg , mufl not be very 
thicks, ibid. The spirits of the Body inter- 
cepting , jthether thejto-operate in the 
Sound, ibid. Sound net heard In a long 
dowf.-right Arch, ibid, P^jfeth eafilj 
through F oraminoHs Bodies, ibid. Whe, 
ther dimini/hed in the faff age through 
fmall Crannies 5 2 

C^ledium of Sounds, ibid. Air the befl Me. 
dium, ibid. Thin Air not fo good m thit\ 
Air, ibid. Whether Flame be a fit Me- 
dium,\bid, whether other Liquors h. 
fide water ibid. 

Figures of the diferents of Sounds, 52. Se. 
veral try^ls of them ibid. 

Mixtures of Sounds, "^T,. Audibles mingle 
inthe M('li»f'i^'hich njihles do »ef jibid. 


contained in thefe Centuries. 

The caufe thereof ^\bi(i. Mixture rvithntc 
disfiniiten, r»^l{es the beP- Hxrmo "s^,: ;:i(' . 
^■tal'ities inthe Air^ have no operations 
upon SouKiii, ibid. Soui:di in the ^y4ir 
alter one another, ^.]. T.vo Sounds of likj: 
toudnef, will not be heard as far again *s 
one,\b)d. T'.iecitnfe thereof ibid. 

rJMeiioratian of So;{>tdt,^). Poltfhed Bodiet, 
created SottnHs meliorate them, ibid, irec 
»n the infideof a Pipe doth the iikj, ibid. 
Froffjf rveather caiifeth the fame, ibid, 
ain^^/'in^ of open Air vfith pent Air, doth 
the fume, ibid. Front a Bidy equal, found 
better, 5 5 . Uitenfiin of the S:nfe of Hear- 
ing, met lor.iteth them ibid. 
Imitation of Sounds, ibid. The wander there- 
of in children and Birds ibid, 
/f flexion of Sounds, 5 C. The fever al kjndes , 
)bid,iV« refraSioH tn Soundsobferved,^S. 
Sympathy and ant hy of S'unds, (-j, 
C'KCordi and Difcords inM:i(ic\.,are fjm- 
pathies and anripathies of Sounds, ibid. 
S-r'tn^f ihit best agree in Confort, ibid. 
Strings tuned to .mUnifon or a Diapafon, 
(hea> .1 Sympathj,6 : . Sympathy conceived, 
to caufe no report, ibid, experiment of 
Sympathy to be transferred to fVind.Inflru. 
ments ibid, 
'Eff;n:e of Siunis Spir'tnl, 6"^. Sounds not . 
Impreffions inthe Atr ibid. 
Caufes of the fxdden Generation and Perifh- 
ifg of Sounds ibid. 
CoBctu'iantouching Sounds 63 
Soumefs it Fruits and Liquors, T S7. The 
ca-tfeof facA,ibid. Souring of Liquors 
in the Sun ibid. 
SjHth wind; difpofe Afem Bidies to heavi- 
neft, 64. South~ivi»ds hurtful to Fruit 
bloffommg, i^i;. Siuth-vftnds T»ithosit 
Rain, b^eed I'eflilence, with Ram not, 
I 166. The caufes, ibid. On the Sea-coafls 

II not fo ibid. 

SiUth-Eaff, Sui l>:ttfr then the S^uth-weft 
firripeniigFrmt ibid. 

I Sp.-.rkjingwoods l',T, 

Species V'^'nle l6o 

Spirits in Bodi-t, frarce l^norvn,-:6. Seve- 
ral opinions of rhfm, ibid. Ther are T^n- 
tural Bdies ran fed, ibid. Caufes of 
fttof} of the rffrfli in Mature, ibid. Thfy 
havepl/e d Ifrir^ 'p-ratnrs, 7;. Spirits 
inSiditi,^ Z S. f-foivther differ inanimate 
andinanimte, ibid. How inTlants and 
Living Creatures I z6 

^gain of Spirits in Rodier, i8t. They are 
ef two forts, ibid. Motion of the .'•'pirits 
excited by the Moony 10?. The (frength- 
"'"£ "f 'I"''** prohib^tch Putrefanlon 


Spirits of Men/lte upj" odta.m oi-jUt,, lOy 

The Tranfniijfim »'' Spirits, I9S. & n 

f(qicnc;b. Tf.if.fmijffion of them from: ht 

mmdei of Mm, :c3,2:4,.2 0'., 1 7, zcS, 

20(,i. Such thtr^gs a4 comfort tite Spirits 

by fympathy, ;o S, 2 c 9, Thejlnfe of the 

Spirits, bejl helped by arrcfiing them for a 

time i i J. 

Sponges lay 

Springs of wjter m.xde by an 6 

Spring-water 87 

Sprouting of Plants with water or.ely 1 3 3 

Squill, good tofet Kernels or Plumb-fianes 

in 96 

Stags Hart tfith a Bsneinit 157 

Stanchers rf Blood 1 1 o 

Stars Irffer tbfcured , a fgn of Tempeflt 

Sterility of the ycar^ changethCorn tnta an- 
other kjnde 1 1 1 
Stomach, the appetite thereof, \"6. The 
qualities that provoke appettte^'ib'id. The 
four caufes of appetite ibid. 
Stone wanting in Plumbs 1 1 
Stretching, a motion of imitation 6 5 
Stub old, putting forth a Tree of a better 
kjude 1 1 1 
Stutting, 85. 1 wo caufes thertof ibid, 
Subterrany Fires 7B 
Suckjng long, ill for Children ibid. 
Sugar, 127, 183, The ufe of it, ibid. 
Draweth Liquor, higher then the Liquor 
Cometh 21 
Sulphureotu and Mircurial 7^ > 79 
Summer and winter fickne^tt,%a^. ThtVrog. 
no/ficki of a dry Summer 1 74 
Sun Tanneth, which Fire doth not ^ 87, i:'8. 
The cattfe ibid. 
SuperfetatioH,thecatife of it 1 16 
Super-Plants befide Mifletoe 1 3 5 
Supporting Tl-mts of themfelveSy 4ttd not 
fupporters I i - 
Sw.ilUw! made syhite, by Mnointing the Eggs 
withOyl -II 
S.veat, 148. farts under the vater, though 
hotfweat not, ibid. Salt iu tajle, ii:iJ, 
Cometh more from the upper parts then 
from the lower, ibid. More in flrep then 
wakjng, ibid. Cold fweat commonly mor- 
tal, i.iid. T49. Sweat, in what dtfeafts 
good, in whin bad, ibid. /« fome men 
have, been fweet - 
Street Mof~, 1 14, i ^l. Sweetnefs of oior 
from the Rainbow, 176. Sweetnefs tf 
odor, whether not in fome water, ibid. In 
r.arth found, ifeid. Sweet fmelli, 177. 
Several properties of them, ibid. They 
h.,ve aCorporeal futfiancet. Jbid. 
Sweetnefs in Fruitsand Liquors, l?y. The 
X z artfe 

A Table of thcchief Matters 

caufe of frtfA,ihid. Swett thlngscommix- 
ed^ prohific PutrefaBtoit 76 

Svnellihg^ how CAufed in thcBoiy^ 7^. How 
it may be k eft down, 1 87 . i'hj it follorv- 
eth upon Blowt and Brulfes ibid. 

SiveUinf of Graini upon Boiitngy t8s. The 
Cdufe of the different frvelling them ibid. 
Srvimmingof Bodies^ 163,166,167. The 
cnufe 1^3 

Swines Ditng dulcorAteth Fruit, 98, The 
CAH/e ibid. 

Svinffing of Bottles,6?. Theufeof it ibid, 
Sivoundings 205 

Syiva ^\/\\iTU\v,theintentienof it 24, 15 
Sympathy and u4t!tlpathj,z%, Symp.tthj tn 
Plants, 98. Sympathy and Antipathy of 
Plants 1 CI, ib2, 105,104 

Sympathy, fi\. hJlAnces /A^rfo/",ibiJ.2c8, 
109. Sympathy, (ecret between Perfons, 
nejtrin blood^zic. Between great frter.di 
in tibfence, ibid. Sympathy betwixt Mul- 
titudes, luid. Sympathy of Individuals 




Ears of Trees 128 

TVffA, 141, 157. rftf/V teudernefs, 128. 

Teeth fet on edge by hir/h founds, 145, 

3V!)<' fa«/ir,ibid. Sinews tnthem, thecanfe 

(f theirpain, not theMnrrow, 158, 159. 

Thetr feverali(jnde!, ibid, difference in 

feveral Creatures, ibid. "Horned BeaFls 

have no upper teeth^\h\d. Tooth,themark^ 

of Horfes .:ge, ibid, ^t what age they 

come forth in Men, ibid. VVhat things 

hurt thtm^\\)\A. ^hiefeft cot.pderations 

about the Tiethy^S X. Restitution of Teeth 

in age,iJid. Vl^heth^r it moy be done or 

no ibid. 

Tempejls, t heir frediUioMS 1 74 

TtKjile Bodies 181,182 

Terra Lcmnia 147 

Tctra Sigillata comn.unis ibid. 

Thalcs 138 

Th'tjUe-down flyi>-g intbe jiir, fortfheweth 

■wind 175 

Timber, 134. 1 he feveral natures thereof ^ 

ib:fl. The feveral ufes according to the 

nature of th: Trees 1 3 5 

Time dnd heat work^ the li{e effefis,6'). Their 

different operations in many things ibid. 

Tit itUtion, 1 6 1 . The caufe ef tt, ibid. /«- 

duceth laughing, ibid. Of the T^^ftrils, 

caufeih fnet-^jug ibid. 

Tojtd-flool 1 1 5 

Tobacco, x'^^yzo-^. Englilli 7«t(Jffe» how 

It may be mended 1 85 

Torti, 29. Ltfs apt to procure jletp , then 
Sounds ,31. The ciufe why ih'uK 

Tongue (heweth readily inwurdHifeiifes 141 

Torpedo Marina 112 

Tough Bodies, I 8c, 181. Tkecaufe il i-'. 

Tranfmiffton of Spirits, i(y'^.lL\vi ffq. Eigh 
kjndes of trarf/Tiifsion ef fpirits, 1^9, 
20c, 2CI. ^1 of the airy parts cf bodies, 
1' iJ. Of fpiritual {fecies,\h\d. Of fpi- 
rits caufing Attr^Uian, ibid. Of f^'rits 
vol ^:ngby the Primitive Nature of il.i:- 
ter, ibid. Of the fpirits ef the M-nde cf 
Man, ibid. Of the t'fl-xes cf the Hea- 
venly bodies, itid. in cptrations <f Sym 
pathy, \b\d. hy fjmpathy ef individu/L 


Trees planted warm, 90. Hopfing ef them, 
92. Heap cf Flint laid at the bottom, 
helpeththegrcwth, 93. Shakjng hhrteih 
the young Tree, a grown Tree not, ibid. 
Cutting (i-way of buc^-rs, helpeih the^r, 
ibid. Hjw toplant a Tree ihn mi^y grew 
fair in one year, 94. Helped iy boring a 
hole through the heart of the Stcik^, ibid. 
By fitting the Boots, ibid. By !preding 
upon a wall, ibid. By pluckjng iff fame 
Leaves, '\h\d. By digging yearly aboutthe 
Boot,9'y. By applying new Afould', V ii'. 
Syremofingto better Earth.ibld. T p. 
cing their Bark.,\h\d. In fame ijades by 
fhade, ibid. By fetting the Kernels or 
Stones in a ScjhiI growing, ibid. 96. By 
fulling (fffome Birffams, ibid. By cutting 
if the top, when they begin to bud, 97. By 
boaring them through theTrunck^, and 
putting in IP edges ef hot ff^oods, ibid. By 
feveral applications to the Roots,\h\d. By 
Terebrat ion iigain. .; 8. The caufe t hereof, 
ibid. By letting them blood, ibid. Grow 
befi fenced from Sun andrfind,gc}. Caufes 
cf their Barrenuefs, ibid. Helps to makj 
Tt CIS fruitful, 1 00. Tree blown up by the 
Roots, andreplaced, proved fruitful, 95, 
Tryal of watering a Tree with n'arm rva- 
ter,gi.Trees that grow befi without graft- 
ing, ibid. Fruit-tree griffted upon amoi- 
fier fiock^, wilt grow larger, 97. Trees re^ 
moved to be 1.0/ifled as before, ibid. Lower 
Bj.ghs bring thebigger ibid. 

"trees apparelled with Flowers, icS. Form~ 
ing cf Trets into feveral (herpes ibid. 

TranfmutatioH of Trees knd ^plants., no. 
six d(fignations thereof ibid, ii^jirj 

Trees inCcpice-woodsgrow more firaight, 
1 1 3. The caufe thereof ibid. 

Trees fullaf heat, grow tall,ih\d. Thecaufe^ 
ibid. How to Dwarf Trees ibid. 

Trees that are Venders ^ 113, The caufe 
thereof ibid. 


contained in thefe Centuries. 

1 Tries m»lji:rj\cU lejs J/«/J, 1 14. The c*n[c 
j iliiJ. 

I T'tet in CUy-froHnds ape ngAthcr Mof;^ 
I ibid, the caufe i5id. 

j Trees Hide-bound hr'iKV^ forth Mof; ibid. 

Treesthat thfnUtefi blcjfjmearllefl 1 19 
Trees tht l.ij} longed, 12C. vi-^. The large/} 
6f hd^,\b\d. SMh asbring Majl or\HtSy 
loid. ShcI) m br'iK^ forth L:.ives late^ 
tind^ei them late^ ibid. S.ith m are oft en 
cut ibid. 

Trees rvith fcMtered heitgh'^ 1 2 1 . with up- 
right boHghi, ibid. Th: c.iufe of each 


Tret\-\^hT\ Tfitb Lf.ives of great largcmfs, 

and Fthi! mthont ftallfj \iy 

Tree in Perfu nounp^ed with S^li-water 

ibd. 12S 

Trees commoHljf fruitful y but each other 

year I ;c 

Trffs bearing beji on the loner btHghs^ 1 ;i. 

others o» the higher boughs., ind. The 

cttufe of eachy ibid. Such m bear be ft nh-'» 

they are old, III. Others whtu they are 

yon-.g, '\ id. The caufe of each ioid. 

Trembling in IhidoTfs jpo 

Trj^ls for vrholefome Airs 164 

Tuft of Mofs on a Briitr-bufh 1 1 7 

'Xnxk'i gre.n fitter Sy 156. To them^ BjtthiKg 

gofd ibid. 

Ttpice. a year Fi-uirt 1 ig 

Tying of the Point '92,193 

Tyranny over Mens Underjtar.dlngs and Be. 

liefs much affe Hei 215 


Vj^por f Char I coal, or of Sea- eoal^ or of 
a Koom neir fhfiredy t»»rtal 202 

y^'.pers which tx^en eutwaraly, would con- 
denft the Spirits 20 5 

ytget/tblis rotting upon the ground^ a good 
Ccmpofty 225. Several injlaixes thereof 


yenotu tidies 180 

Vtnu-, 142. l-excffs dimet h the fight y\h'u]. 

The Act of It. tJMen more inclined in 

tvi^'ter, women ir. S^mmtr » 14][ 

Vtrmine frighted with the Head of a yt^oolf 

Vefuvius 16? 

yines made fruitful by applying the li'rnels 
of Gr.ipes to theJi^ott, ic The caufe 
thereof y ibid. t^l.ide to fprou'. fudienly 
with Nitre, 96. Love not the Colewort, 
J 10. yive-T.'ees, 128, i^f. Anciently 
of great bedieSyib'id. A tough wood dry, 
ibid, ytnej in fame places, ho: propptd 



t-'ine gr. ftcd upon Tine 

yinegitr iy4 

i'lolet.fine^ar 4 

Vi/ibles hitherto, the ftibjeH of i^-ow.'tlge, 
■2^'. CMingle not in the Mfdium ai /ia- 
dibles do, %-, 'ihe caufe thereo^,\.n\. ie- 
veral confents of ^'fibles and Audible,, 
^f'. Several DiJJ'cnt, of y fibles and A»- 
diblety 6c, 6 1 . ri/ible Species, 16. Fi- 
fibtes and Audibles, 2c^. Tjio Lights of 
the fame bignefs, will not makj things be 
feen ai far again as one, 54. The can ft 
thereof -^ iuiri. 

y'fu^l Spirits infe [ling izl, 303 

yitrial I zn 

yiV'(ication,y^, 74. The feveral things re- 
quired to y/vfiation, 14^. 1 he Procffs 
of tt ibid. 194,195 

ZJ cert in the L'?, harder to cure then mthe 
H-,d,-i6C. The caufe, ib. D fference of 
cu'ing them in a French-man ^ and an 
Etglijh man i.^id. 

Unb^'.rkt Branch of a Tree being fet, hath 
grown, 17^. BAikj will not ib. 

Ufiouentuin Tcli 2C0 

VnioK, the force thereof in Natur.-A Bodies, 
24. Appetite of Vxion in Natural Bidic, 
64. Appeareth in three kjndes of Bidiej 

Foice, the (hrilnefs thereof, 4';. In whom 
efpecially,'tb\<i. yyhy changed at years of 
F liberty, ibid. L-tbor and Intention, con- 
ducethmtch to imitate yoices, 56. /»»/. 
tation of yoice<,»sif thejwere at dij}.,>ice 


Tjrine inijaantity, a great hinderer of Nou- 

rifhment 1 4 


WArmtk , a fpecial mtans to m.\; 
ground fruitful \Zi,,\-!a, 

Warts ta{en .xwaj by L*rd or an l-lderftii\ 
cot fuming 115 

water thickened in a {" , ;o. Changed 
fuddenly into ^ir, 24 Choiceof waters, 
$(. By weight, \b\(i. By boiling, ibid. By 
loKgesl lafting, imputrefied , ibid. By Drinkj ftronger,\b,i.\. :y bearing 
So/fp,\b\A. By the places where they are 
conirefaled,^j. By the Siil, \b\(i. wa 
fers fweet, not to be ir:!sled, ibid. nelf. 
w.iter^ ibid, water putteih forth Herbs 
without Roots, 117. tiAter .Ime will 
f.ufe Plants to fproiit, ibid, iitll-wtttr 
warmer in winter then la Summer, 1 91. 
Water rising in a B if on by means of Flames 


tvater hot, and Fire, htat difertnt/y, IC4. 

A Table of the chief Matters 

ff-iiter cooleth Air, and mtifltHeth it not 


H'ater may he the \'cdium of Sound', \(-~. 

n'Jtry moiflwe endaceth Putrefdnio»,y<-\: 

Titrning watry fttl'fiances into tiij, 79- ^ 

great xror}^ In NatHre,Vou\. Fourinft^n- 

ces thtieof;\b\d. 8c. ff rough t l>ji Digtfti- 

«>», ibui. ivatering of (j rounds, * great 

he If to frHitfttliefs, 1 2 :; , t 14. Cautions 

therein,\b'\ii. Means towater tbem ibid. 

water-Crejfss 78 

tf'eaputt anointed 2 I ^ 

freight of the r'Jfoltttlon of Iron In Aqiu- 

toftis 166 

ifheatfet 9'),96 

ii'hite^a penxrloM colow^i/^., 25. In Flerv- 

ers, Tc8, Commonly more inodorate then 

other colours, ibid. The caufe,'ib\<'- Jf'hite 

more delicate in Berries, ibp. The cattfe , 

t hereof, \b\d. Not fo commonly In Fruits, 

ibid. The caufe thereof ibid. 

white Gunpowder 4-> 4!! 

iihlffomeleatSytf^. Trjxlfor thtm,\^l. 

Moifl Air, KOt good, ibid. JneejHallty of 

^ir, naught ibid. 

if'ildc-fi-eiy vnhy witter rvill not quench them 

wltde Uerhs fhew the nature of the Ground 

tt-inds Southern, diffiofe Mens bodies to hea. 
vinefs,'c^i. irlnds S out hernvflthoMt Rain 
fevorifh 166 

winds gathered for frefhnefsy 164. Prog- 
tioftickj of winds 174 

fVtnding Trees 1 1 3 

wine burnt, 5. wlne how tobeufei m Con' 
fiimptlonsy i^'. Wlne^ for what Bodies 
good, for vfhat hurtful, 153. H'lne cor- 
rected, that It may not fume 165 
trine new, prefent/y made potable i 59 
fVlne and water, fep:ir.ited by weight, 3,4. 
Trjal hereof in two GiaJfeSy ibid. When 

It Witt operate^ aid whrn not,ib d. Spirit 
of ii'ine bi.-rnt, V 2. Mitgled with wax, 
the oprratlciH nf it ibid. 

IVinter and Summer j'. /• ffes, ?4, Signs of 
a co{,i winter, 155, 1 7+. fflnter Sleepers 


H'ltcke', 19?, top. rrork^mon by Imagi- 
nation and, ibid. 203. fVltches 
Oyntment zic 

ffoo/f.gutf fipplied to the beltj, cure the 
Colllc{, ibid. Hfad hanged up frlghleth 
yermin ibid. 

// o-:der, 151. The Imprffflons thereof ibid. 

H'ood fhinitg in the d^rk, lit 78 

Wood' fear 104 

iVeol attraUlve of Water, ro,Z'), Though 
a Vc^el ibid. 

Jf'orld, fuppofed by fame to be a Living Crea- 
ture 197, 198 

vorms foretfl'^nn lj6 

Wounds, fame /■pplic.rtions to them, 139 
nounds made with Ji^.ifs^ eafter to cure 
then thofemde with Iron 166 

H-rlfls hme a fymp-ithy with the Head, and 
ether parts 25 


Y Awning hlndereth Hearing, 62~. The 
caufe, ibid. It ii a motion of Imitation, 
65. In yawning^ dangerotu to ple^the 
Ear 1 40 

Tears fierll, caHfe Corn to degenerate in 
r-How colour In Herbs 1 09 

Tvttfig Trees J which bear befi 131 


ZOne Torrid, lef? tolerable for Heats then 
the ty£tj»ltto£ila/y 87 ' 


Three canfes 


His LorJjhips u[ual "B^ceipl for the Gout [to tohich, the 
Sixtieth Expemie?jt hath reference) Wsthis. 

To be taken in this order. 

I. The Poultice. 

jjd. Of Manchet, about three Ounces, the Crum oncly, thin cut; let it be boiled 
in Milk, till it grow to a Pulp ; add in the cud, a Dram and a half ot' the Powder 
of KedKofcs. 
Of Saffron ten Grains. 
Of Oyl of Rofes an Ounce. 

Let it be fpred upon a Linnen Cloth, and applied !uke- warm, and continued 
for three hours fpace. 

2. 7he "Bath or Foment At io», 
m. Of Sage-Leaves, half an handful. 
Of the Root of Hemlock fliced, fix Drams. 
Of Briony Roots, half an Ounce. 
Of the Leaves of Red Rofcs, two Pueils. 

Let them be boiled in a Pottle of Water wherein Steel hath been quenched, 

till the Liquor come to a Quart ; after the ftraining.put in half an handful 

of Bay. Salt. 

Let it be ufcd with Scarlet- Cloth, or Scarlet- Wool, dipped in the Liquor 

hot, and fo renewed feven times ; all in the fpace of a quarter of an hour 

or little more. 

I 5. The Vlaijfer. 

Hi, Emplaflrhm Diacaicitheos , as much as is fufficient for the part you mean to 
cover; let it be diflblved with Oyl of Rofes in fucha confiftcncc as will 
flick, and fprcduponapicceof Holland, and applied. 



O F 

E N Q_U I R Y 



Written by the Right Honorable, 


Vifcount St.(L//^^«. 

Thought fit to be added, to this Work 

Newly put forth in the Year, \66\. 
By the former PubHsher. 


Printed for FFilliamLee2.l the Turks-head 
in Flectpreet. 1669. 


O F 

E N Q_U I R Y 

T O II C H I N' G 


He firfl: Letter of the Alphabet is , the Compounding, 

Incorporating, or Union, ot Metals or Minerals. 

With whit Mctalj, Gold will incorporate, bv Sim- 
ple Colliqucfad^ions, and with what not ? Andin what 
quantity it will incorporate J and vrhat kindcof Body 
the Compound makes ? 

Gold with Silver, which was the ancient £/«7rHm. 

Gold with Quick-filvcr. 

Gold with Lead. 

Gold with Copper. * 

Gold with Brafs. 

Gold with Iron. 

Gold with Tin. 

Tfl Itkettiff of Silvrr. 

Silver with Quick lilvcr. 
Silver with Lead. 
Silver with Copper. 
Sivcrwith Iron. 
Silrer with Tin. 

. St 


Articles ofS^iquiry, 

So likf^ift »f Qnick-filvtr. 
Quick-filvcr with Lead. 
Quick-filver with Copper. 
Quick-filvcrvvith Brais. 
Quick-iilvcrwith lion- 
Quick-filver with Tin. 

r<7 of Lad. 

Lead with Copper. 
Lead svith Brais. 
Lead with Iron. 
Lead with Tin. 

S'oof ( opper. 

Copper with Brafj, 
Copper with Jron. 
Copper with Tin. 

So of Braji. 

Brafs with Iron. 
Brafswith Fin. 

So of Iron. 

Iron with Tin. 

What arc the Compound Metals, which arc common, and known ? 
Andwhat are the Proportions of their mixtures? As 

Lattin of Brafs, and the Calaminar-ilone. 

Bell-metal of, &c. 

The counterfeit Plate, which they call Alchumy. 

The Decompofites of three Mccals,ormore, are too long to enquire, 
except there befome Compofitionsof them already obferved. 

It is alfb to be obferved , Whether any two Metals which will not 
mingle of thei»felves, will mingle with the help of another j and 
what ? 

What Compounds will be made of Metal, with Stone, and other 
Fofliles ? As Lattin is made with Brafs , and the Calaminar-ftone. As 
all the Mettals with Vitriol: All with Iron poudered. All with Flint, 

Somtfetfof tfiefe feould be enquired of, t9 Aifclofe the Naturf 
of the rejl. 

WHethcr Metals, or other Fofliles, will incorporate with Molten 
Glafs ? And what Body it makes ? 
The quantity in the mixture would we well confidered : For fome 
fmall quantity, perhaps, would incorporate ; as in the Allays of Gold» 
and Silver Co\ n. 

Upon the Compound Body, three things are chiefly to be obferved. 
Tl'ie Colour, the Fragility or Pliantnefs, the Volatility or Taxation, com- 
pared with the Simple Bodies. 

Forprefent ule or profit, this is the Rule. Confiderthe price of the 
two Simple Bodies ; con/ider again the Dignity of the one above the 


ToHchifi'T Mi'LiIs and Miner ah. 

other, in uic. Then fee, it you mukc a compound that will five more 
in the price, then it will loic in the dignity of the ufc. As forexamplc, 
Confider the price of Bral's Ordnance ; confidcr again the price of Iron 
Ordnance; and coniider, wherein the BrafsOrdnancedothcxccl the Iron 
Ordnance in ufc. Then ii: you can make a Compound of Brafs and Iron 
Ordnance, that will be near as good in ufc, ancl much cheaper in price, 
there is proHt both to the private and to the O)mmonwcalth. 

So of Goldand Silver, the price is double ot T^vclvc. The dignity 
of Gold above Silver is, not much ; the l()lcndor isalikc, andmorcplca- 
flngto {jme eye , As in Cloth of Silver, Silver Lace, filvered Rapiers* 
&c. ihcmaindignity is, thatGold bears the Fire, which Silver doth noti 
but that IS an excellency in Nature, but it is nothing at all in ufe. For any 
drgnityin ule, I know none, but that Silvering will iully and canker more 
then Gilding ; which, ifitmav be corrected, wicha little mixture ot Gold, 
there is profit : And I do fomewhatmarvel, that the later ages have loft 
the ancient hleclrum, which was a mixture ot Silver with Gold ; whereof, 
I conceive, there mav be muchufe b.jth inCoyn.Flatc, and Gilding. 

It is to be noted, that there is in the Verfion of Metals, impoflibility, 
or at Icartgreat difficulty ; as in making ot' Gold, Silver, Copper .- On the 
other fide, in the adulterating or counterfeiting of Metals there ij de- 
ceit and villainy J but it fliould fcem there is a middle way, and that is, 
by ncNv compounds , if thewaysof incorp -Stating were well known- 

What Incorporation orlmbibitior, Metals will receive from Veget- 
ables, without being diflblvcd mightbc inquire J. As when the Armorers 
make their Steel more tough and plvan:, bvthe afperlion ot Water, or 
fuycc of Herbs : WhenGold being grown fomewhat churlifhby recover- 
ing, IJ made more plyanc by throwing in fhrcds of Tanned Leather, or 
by Leather oyled. 

Note, tliatinthcfe, andthclike fliewsof Imbibition, it were good to 
try by the weight, whether the weight be increafed, or no ? For if it be not, 
it is to be doubted, that there is no Imbibition of Subftance; butoncly, 
that the Application of the other Body, dcth difpofe and invite the Metal 
toanother pofturc of partsthenof itfclf, it would have taken. 

After the Incorporation of Metals, by fimple Colliqucfadion, for the 
better difcovery of the Nature : AndConfcntsanJ Dillcnts of Metals by 
incorporating of their Diflblutions, it would be enquired. 

W hat Atetals being dillolved by Strong-waters, will incorporate Well 
together, and what not ? which is to be inquired particularly, as it was in 

There is to be obfcrvcd inthofe DiUolutions, which will not incor- 
porate what the ctFcds arc ; As the Ebullition, the Precipitation to the 
bottom, the Ejaculation tovardj the top, the Sufpcnhon in the midfl, and 
tlic like. 

Note , that the Diifcnts of the M^nftrua , or Strong-waters , may 
hinder the Incorporation, as well as the DilTcnts of the Metals thcmfclves : 
Therefore where the Menitrua are the fame , and vet the Incorporation 
foUoweth not, you may conclude, the DilTcnt is in the Mctah, but where 
the Mcnftrua arcfcveral. not fo certain. 



Articles of Siiquiry, 

THc Second Letter of the Crofs Row, is the Separation of Metals, 
and Minerals. Separation is of three Ibrts; thcfirllis, 1 he icparating 
of the pure Metal from the Urc or Drofs, which we call Refining. The 
fecond is, The drawing one Metal orMincral outof another, vichich we 
may call Extrading. The third , The feparating of any Metal into his 
Original or Elements, or call them >»rhat you will) which work wecall 

For Rehning, we are to enquire of it according to the Metals; 
As Gold, Silver, &c. Incidcntly, we are to enquire of the firft Stone, or 
Ure , or Spar , or Marcalite of Metals fcverally ■> and what kinde of 
Bodies they are ; and of the degrees of Richnefs. 

Alfo, wc are to enquire of the Means of feparating, whether by Fire, 
parting Waters, or othcrvrile. 

Alfo, for the manner ot Refining, you are to fee how you can multi- 
ply the Heat, or haften the Opening ; and to lave charge, in the 

The means of this is in three manners ; that is to fay, In the Blaft 
of the Fire : In the manner of the Furnace to multiply Heat, by Union and 
Reflexion: And by fome Additamcnt or Medicines, which will help the 
Bodies to open them the fooner: 

Note, thequickningof thcBIaft, and the multiplyingof theHcat in 
the Furnace, maybethefamc forallMetais ; but the Additaments nuillbe 
feveral according to the natures of the Metals. 

Note again, That if you think the multiplying of the Additnment in 
the fame Proportion that you multiply the Urc, the work will follow, 
you may be deceived : For quantity in the Paflive will add more rcfiftancc, 
then the fame quantity in the Adive will add force. 

For Extrading, you are to enquire what Metals contain others, and 
likewifc what nofi .> As Lead Silver, Copper Silver, &c. 

Note, although the charge of Extradion fhould exceed the worth, 
yet that is not the matter ; For, atlealt, it will difcover Nature and Polfi- 
bility, the other may be thought on afrerwards. 

Wc are likewite to enquire, what the differences are of thofe Metals, 
which contain more orlcfs, other Metals ; and how that agrees \»'iththe 
poornefs or richnefs of the Metals, or Ure, in thcmfclves: As the Lead, 
that contains moft Silver, is accounted to be more brittle ; and yet other- 
wife poorer in itfclf. 

For Principiation, I cannot affirm, whether there be any fuch thing, 
or no. An^.I think, the Chymifts make too much ado about it. But how- 
foever it be, whether Solution orExtradion, or a kinde of Converflon 
by the Fire, it is diligently to be enquired. What Salts, Sulphur, Vitriol, 
Mercurv, or the like Simple Bodies are to be found in the feveral Metals j 
and in what quantity. 




Touching Metals and Minerals, 


THc third Letter of the Crofs-Row, is the variation of Metals into 
fcvcral Shapes, Bodies, or Naturei ; the particulars wljcrcof fol- 


Turning to Ruft^ 




Amalgamatizing. or turning into a foft Body. 


Opening or Diflolving into Liquor. 

Sprouting, or Branching, nr Arborefccncc. 

Induration and Mollification, 

Making tough or brittle. 

Volatility and Fixation. 

Tranfmutation or Verfion. 

ForTinfture, it is to be enquired how Mctalj maybe tinfted, through 
and through; an d with what, and into what colours-- As Timfiing-Silver 
yellow. Tin(Sing-Coppcr white, and Tinding red, green, blew, ci'pccial- 
ly with keeping the lufire. 

J^crn, TinaurcofGlafs. 

^^m, Tindure of Marble, Flint, or Other Stone. 

For turning to Rufi:, two things are chiefly to be enquired: By what 
Corrofivcsit isdonc, and into what colours it tarns : As Lead into vrhitc, 
which thcv call Sents ; Iron into yellow, which they call Crecus AfarfU: 
Quick-filver into Vermilion, Brafs into green, which they cull f^erde^zAf, 

For Calcination, to enquire how every Metal is calcined ? And 
into what kindcofBody 5 And what is tlic cxquifitcft way of Calcina- 
tion ? 

For Sublimation, to enquire the manner of Subliming 5 and what 
Metals endure Subliming i and u hat Body the i>ublimacc makes ? 

For Precipitation likewifc. By what ftr )ng Waters every Metal will 
precipitate ? or with what .'^dditaments? and in Nf hat time > and into what 
Body ? 

So for Amalg.ima, what Metals will endure it ? What are the means 
to do it? Andwhat is the manner of the Body? 

For Vitrification likewifc , what Metals will endure it ? what arc 
the means to doit? intowhat colour it turns ? and further, where the whole 



Articles of Snquiry, 

Metal is turned into Gbfs ? and when the Metal doth but hang in the Glal- 
fic part? alio what weight the vitrified Body bears, compared with tkc 
crude Body ? AKo bccaufe Vitriticatic n is accounted, a kindc of death ct 
Metals, what Vitrification will admit , of turning back again, and v hat 
not ? 

For Diflolution into Liquor, we arc to enquire, what is the proper 
C^lenjlriuim todiflolve any Metal? And in the Negative, what will touch 
upon the one, and not upon the other ? And what ieveral c^fenjlrua tvijl 
diflolve any Metal? And which moft exa(^ly ? Iteiit, theprocefs or motion 
of the Diflolution ? 1 he manner of Rifing, Boiling, Vaporing ? More 
violent or more gentle ? Caufing much heat, or lefs? Jtem, the quan- 
tity or charge the Strong-Water will bear, and then give ever ? /tern, 
the colour into which the Liquor will turn ? Above all, it is to be enquired, 
Vfhethcr there be any Affn)?r««w,todifrolve any Metal that is not fretting and 
corroding; but opcncth the Body by fympathy, andnotby mordacity or 
violent penetration ? 

Sprouting or Branching, though it be a thing but tranficory, and 
>f tovor pleafure ; yetthercis amore fcriousufc of it: Forthatit 


a kindeof tovor plealure ; yet ... 

difcovcrs the delicate motions of fpirits, when they put forth, and cannot 
get forth, like unto that which is in vegetables. 

For Induration or Mollification, it is to be enquired, what will make 
Metals harder and harder, and what will make them foftcr andfoftcr ? And 
this Enquiry tendeth to two ends ; 

Firft, forUfe ; As to make Iron foft by the Fire, makes it malle- 

Secondly, Becaufe Induration is a degree towards Fixation ; and 
Mollification towards Volatihty: And thcicforethe Inquiry of them, will 
give light toward^.tUc other. _ 

y^djflvi:!..- .a-:-; • / oiui • 

For tough and brittle , they arc much of the fame kinde with the 
two former, but yet worthy of an Inquiry apart ; Efpccially to joyn 
Hardnefs to Foughnefs ; as making Glafs malleable, &c. And 
making Blades , ftrong to rclift, and pierce, and yet not cafie to 

For Volatility and Fixation , it is a principal Branch to be en- 
quired. The utmoft degree of Fixation is. That whereupon no Fire 
will work, nor Strong-water joyned with Fire, if there be any luch 
Fixation pofliblc : The next is, when Fire fimply will not work with- 
out Strong-waters : The next is, when it will endure Fire not blown, 
or i'uch a ftrcngth of Fire ■• The next is, when it will not endure Fire, 
but yet ismallcable : The next is, when it is notmalleable, but yet it 
is not fluent, but ftupified. So of Volatility, the utmoft degree is, 
when it will flee away without returning : The next is, when it will 
flee up, but with eailc return : The next, when it will flee upwards, 
over the Flclm , bv a kinde of Exufflation, without Vaporing; 


Ankles ofSfiquiry^O^c, 


The ncKC is. vf'hcnit will mclc.cliOLioh not rife ; Andthcncxc. vhcnit viU 
Jottcn, though not mclr. Of nil thcle, dilijrcnt inquiry is to be made" in 
icvcral Meult ; clpccially of: the more cxtrcam degrees. 

ForTranfmutation or Vcrfion, if ic be real and true, itisthc furthcfl: 

pointo Artj anJ 'would bcvvcll dillinguifhedfrom Extradion, from Re 

ilitution. and from Adulteration. I hear muchoi turnimr Iron inco C jp 

per; Ihcaralloof thcgrovvth of Lead in ^rcicrht . which cannot be with- 

, out a Convcriion of iomcB ^dy into Lead : But whatlbever is of rhis kinde 

f and v\ ell approved, is diligently to be inquired, and let down. 

THe fourth Letter of the Crofs Row, is Reftitution. Firft therefore 
It 1$ to be enquired in the Negative ; vhat Bodies will never return! 
cither by rcafon of their extream fixing, as in fome Vitnficacions, or bv 
cxtrc.nm Volatility. 

If'saifotobccnquiredofthetwoA^eansofRcdudion; and tirftby 
, the hire, which is but by Cortgregaticn of HomogencaJ parts. 

The fccond is, by dra^ring tbem down, bv fome Body, chat \ruzh con- 
lent w,th them: As Iron draweth down Copper in Water, G lidrawcrh 
C^ick- iilverin vapor j whatfocvcr is of this kinde, is verydilicrcndv to be 
enquired. ^ 

Alfo it is to be enquired, what Time or Age will reduce without the 
hclpof Fire or Body ? 

Alfo it is to be enquired, what gives Impediment to Union or Rcfti- 
tution. which II lometimcs called Mortification ; as when QuicJc-filvcr is 
mortihed with Turpentine, Spittle, or Butter. 

Laftly, it is to be enquired how the Metal reftored, diffcrcfh in any 
thing from the Metal raw or crude ? As whether it bccomethnot morechur- 
lim, altered in colour, or the like ? 


T H E 




A> I 

Received fome.LMoneths Jince theje AnuAcs ot Enquiry, touchhigl 
^ Metals and Minerals^ from the hands of the Reverend Dr. Rawleyj 
•^4)0 hath published jei<eral of the Lord Vcrulams Works fince his\ 
Death (he having hten his Lordships Chaplain) and-^hd hath been careful to 
Correct at the Prcf? this tittle Piece (an Addition to the Natural Hlftoiy) 
according to the Original Copy, remaining amongji his Lordships Mxnufcripts -. 
Amongjl yvhich there is nothing more of that fnhjeci to be found, fo as no more 
Additions cKiiieexpeih^i - ' « 

W. Lcc. 



Natural and Experimental 

o F 


Of the Prolongation of L I F E. 

Written in Latin by the Right Honorable 

Francis Lord Verulam , 

Vifcoiint Si.(iAJhans. 


Printed for Ff^illiam Lee ;ii the Turks-head 
in Flectjlrcet. 1669. 




r'n-^^/' vA'^'J"^ 



Am to give Advertifcment, that 
there came forth of hte ^.Trafi/I^uion 
of ihis'BookJjY an unknown Terfon, 
who though he wished well to the 
propagating of his Lordfhi^s ff^orks^ 
yet he was altogether unacquainted with his 
Lordjhipi Giile and manner of Expreflions , and 
fo published a TranJJation lame and defedive in 
the whole. Whereupon I thought fit to re- 
commend the fame to betranflatcd anew by a 
more dihgentandzealous Pen,which hath fince 
travelled in it ; andthough it dill comes short 
of that lively and incomparable Spirit and Ex- 
preflion, which lived and died with the A^W, 
yet I dare avouch it to bemuch more warrant- 
able and agreeable then the former. It is true, 
this "Book^w^ks not intended to have been pub- 
lished m Englilh ; but feeing it hath been already 
made free of that Languaoe, whatfoevcr benefit 
or deHght may redound from it, I commend the 
fame to the Courteoiu and fud'tcioiis 'Reader, 


A ^ 


To the prefent Age and Pofterit>^, 


Lthough I had ranked the Hi (lory of 
Life and Deaih as the lajlamongjl my 
SixMonethlyDefignations; yet I 
haye thought fit, in refficB oj the [rime ufe 

^ thereof, [in "which the leajl lo/^ of time ouoht 

to he ejleemed preciom) to invert that order ^ and to fetid it 
forth in the [econd place. For I have hope, andivifh, that it 
may conduce to a common good ; and that the J\(j)hlerfort of 
Phyficians wll advance their thoughts, and not employ their 
times wholly in the fordidnefi of C iires , neither he honored 
for N ece ffity onely , but that they "will become C oad j u- 
tors WInftrmTientso/"^/?(? Divine Omnipocence 
.^;/^CIeme;ncy /V2 Prolonging ^«^ Renewing the 
Lite -p f M an ; ejpecially feehig /'prefcrihe it to be done by 
japyand convenient, and ciyiltoays, though hitherto unaffayed. 
For ihoHoh w Chriftians do continually ajpire and pant 
aft'er'the Land' of Promife 5 yet ifwill be a token of 
Gods favor ^toivards us, in our jour?ieyings through this 
Worlds Wildernefs , to have our Shoes^WGar- 
merLts (I riieanthofc of out fr^H Bodies) lkik.,porn or 
impairea. ^^^^^ ^^^^ba^v^^ hn5; wo^l^^^ srij on 

Fr. St. Alb AN s. 


r A 


■ ' ■* ! (■»> 




> Life and Death. 

The Treface. 

T is an ancient laying and complaint, Tl-at Life is 
fhort and jln long; wi crcforc it behoveth us, wt.o 
make it our chiefcft aim to perfc(fl y/w, to take up- 
on us the confidcration ot 'Frolovpn^ Mans Life , 
G 0'7) , the tyluihor of all 'Triitb and Life, prolpcr- 
ing our Kndc.u'ors. lor thougli t: e Life oi AUn be 
nothing ellc but a ma(? and accumulation of (ins and 
forrows, and thcv that look for an Eternal Life icf but 
light by a Temporary : Yctthccontinuation of VV^orks ot Charitvouphc 
not to be contemned, even b " us Chnnuus. Bcfidcs, the beloved 'JJifuple 
o our Lord liirvivcd the other '7)»/n/>/<'j ; and manv o' the Fatherso the 
C'hurck , cipecially of the holv Monks and Hermits, *erc long-lived . 
^'Vhichrhews, that this blcfsing of long life, fo often promifed in the Old 
Law, had lefs abatement after our ^JtioKr/ days then other earthly blcfs- 
ings had ; but to cfteem of this as the chictcft good, we are but too 
prone. Onely the cnquirv i-; difficult how to attain the lame ; and lb 
much the ratiicr, bccaul'c it is corrupted with fille opinions and vain re- 
ports : For both thofc things w ich the vulvar Thfuums talk o', F*dH4l 
Moijlure and Nuiurul Heat , are but nicer Fiftions ; andrhc immodcr.itc 
^ r> prailcs 

l^be Treface, 

praifcsot' ChjmuAl CMeduows, firlt purt up wic'.i vain l.opci, and chcn fail 
their admirers. 

And aj for rhat De:ith which is caulcd by Suffocation, Putrcfatf^ion, and 
fcvcral Difcafes> ^^'cfpcak not of it now, for that pertains to an Ihjlory ot 
Thfiik. i but onelv ot that 'Death vchic h comes bv a total dccav of the 
Bo(iy , and the Inconco(?<ion of old Age. Nevettielcfs mc hft aft ot 
1)fdih, and the verv cxtinguifliing of Life it fclf , which ma- io many 
wavs be vroui^ht outwardly »nd inwardly (which notwichftanding have, 
as it were, onecommon PorchbcCorcit comes tothc pointot death) v^ill 
bepcrtincnt to beinquired of in this Trcatifc; but wc rcfervc that for the 
lalt place. 

1 hat which mav be repaired by r'cgrces, v ithcut a tctal v\ allc of the 
firft ftock, is potentially eternal, as the Fejial fire. Therefore whcnT*;- 
(tc'uns and Thihfophers faw that living Creatures werenouriflicd and their 
Bodies repaired, but rhat this did laft oncly for a time , and afterwards 
came old age, and in the enddilTulutiun ; thev foughtDeath infomewlut 
which could net properly be repaired, luppofing a Radical C^foijlure in- 
capable of folid reparation, and which, from the firft infancy , received 
a (purious addition, but no true reparation, v\ hereby it grew cailv worfe 
and vxcrfe, and, in the end, brougm the bad tonone at all. This con- 
ceit cf theirs was both ignorant and vain; f r all things itv living Crea- 
tures are in their youtli repaired entirely ; nay, they are for a time in- 
creafed in quantity, bettered in quality, f > as the Matter of Reparation 
might be eternal, if the Manner o-f rcpiration did n t fail, i ut this is 
the truth of it. There is in the declining of age an unequal reparation ; 
fome parts arc repaired eilily, others with diiiicultv ani. to their lofs j fj 
as from that time the Bodies of Men begin to endure the torments of Me- 
z.eiims , That the living die in the embrAfts tf the dead ; and the parts caliL' repair- 
able, through their conjundion with the parts hardly repairable, do de- 
cay : For the S'pirits, Blosd., Flesh, and Fat arc, even after the decline of 
years , cafily repaired ; but the drier and more porous parts (, as the 
Ul-femhraties , all the Fmitles , the S'ive-\\s, Arteries, Veins, Bones, Cartilages , 
moft of the Beyi%'ls, in a word, almoft all the Orgamcal ^Pans) are hardly 
repairable, and to their lofs. Now thcfe hardly-repairable parts, when they 
come to their office of repairing the other which arc eafily repairable, 
finding thcmlelves deprived of their wonted ability andftrcngch, ceafe 
to perform any longer their proper Fundions : By uhich means it comes 
to pafs, that in proccfs of time the svhole tends to diflblution j and even 
thole very parts which in their ow n nature are with much eaie repair- 
able, yet through the decay of tie Organs of reparation can no more re- 
ceive reparation, but decline, and in the end utterly fail. And the caufe of 
the termination of Life is this , for that the spnm, like a gentle Hamc, 
continually preying; upon Bodies, confpiring w iththe outward Air, which 
is ever fucking and drying of them, do, in time, deftroy the whole Fa- 
brick of the Body, as alfo the particular Engines and Organs thereof, 
and make them unable for the w ork of Reparation. Thcfe are the true 
ways of Natural "Death, \\ cU and faithfully to be revolved in our mindcs ; 
for he that knows not the ways of iVdf«rf, how can he fuccor her, or turn 
licr about ? 

Therefore the Inquifttion ought to be twofold ; the one touching the 
Confumption or Depredation of the Body of Man ; the other touching the 
Reparation 3ind Renovmion o£ tkt hme : To the end, that the former may, 


The Treface. 

as much as is polfibic, be forbidden and rcftraincd , and thcJattcr com- 
forted. The former of thcfc pcrcains, cfpccially to the Spiuti and outward 
jitr> by which the Depredation and Wa[tc is committed ; the latter to the 
whole race of t^'Jlnneni.tuon or Nourishwcnt , whereby the Renovation or 
Rcllitution is made. And as for the tormerpart touching Coufumption , 
thishath many things common with lodm Luniiihtte, or without life. For 
fiich things as the N-itne spirit ('whicli is in all tangible Bodies, whether 
living or without life) and the ambient or external Air worketh upon 
Bodies Inanimate, the fame it attcmptcth upon Animatcor Living Bodies; 
although the yiul spirit fupcraddcd, doth partly break and bridle thofc 
operations, partly exalt and advance them wonderfully. For it is moft 
manifcfl: that Inanimate Bodies (moft of them) will endure a long time 
without any Reparation ; but Bodies Animate without Food and Repara- 
tion fuddcnly fall and are CKtinguifhcd, as the Fire is. So then, our Liqutfinon 
fliall bedoublc. Firfl:,'wevvillconfidcr thcBodyot Man as Inanimart:, and 
not rcpaire i by Nourishment : Secondly, as j^mnute and repaired by Nourish 
ment. Thus having Prefaced thcfc things, we come now to the TcpK^placcs 
of /njuiftticn. 




Particular Topick Places ; 





Irft, inquire of TS^turt dttrahk,zxiSi Not durable, in Bodies Inani- 
mate or without Life, asalfo in Vegetables ; but that not ui a 
large or juft Treatife, but as in a Brief or Summary oncly. 

Alio inquire diligently of Drjiccitto??, ArefucHon, and Cov- 
[Htnftton o'l Bodies htMumate, znA oi rtgctables ; and of the 
ways and proccfl'cs, by which they arc done ; and further, of 
Inhibiting and Delaying oi Deficcation, Arefa^wn, and Con- 
fnmption, and of the Confcrvtitton of Bodies, in their proper ftate ; 
and aoiin, of the Intenerattoti, EmolhtioH, and Recovery of bodies to their former frelli- 
ncls, aftir they be once drycd and withered. 

Neither need the hijui/inon touching thcfc things, to be fiill or cxaft, fcein" they 
pertain rather to their proper Title of /Mature durable ; feeing alio, they arc not Princi- 
pals in tills hrjarfition, but fcrve oncly to give light to thcTrolonoatioH and Ins'ciuratton 
ot Life in Livim^ Creatures. In which (as was fai J before) the fame things come to pafs, 
butiila particular manner. So from iho. In^utfition touching Bodies Inanimate and Fe<Je- 
tables, letthc/«^«f/'/r/«i7pa(son toother Living Qremnres belldcs A'tati, 

Inquire touching the length »ni jhortnefs of Life in Livaio CreAtnrcs, with the due 
circumdanccs whicJim.ike moll for their long or ihort lives. 

But became the Dnratian of / odies is twofold , One in Identity, or the fclf.famc 
fubltancc, the other by a RcmvMion or RcpAration ; whereof the former hath place onely 
in Bodies Inanimate, the latter in Fegctables and Living Creatures, and is pcrfc6led by 
v^limcntaiion or Ncririjhment ; therefore it will be fit to in']uireof Alimentation, and 
of thewdvsandprogrcfTes thereof; yet this notcxartly, <bccaulc it pertaitw properly 
to the Titles of AfJlmilatiomivA Alimentation^ but, as the reft, in progrefs oncly. 

From the itirjuiftion touching Living Cnamres, and Tiadia repaired hy NoHrijh- 
ment, pafs onto the /nqut/it'ton touching Aian. And now being come to the principal 
lubjeft of Inquifition, the Inquijition ought to bc in all points more prccifc and accu- 

Inquire touching the length nnd /hortnefi of Lifc'mMen, according to the .^'W of 
the ^/ orld, the fcveral Regions, (/tm.ites, and Pljces of their Nativity d^nA Habitation. 

Inquire touching the length and p^ortnefs of Life in tJMen, according to their Races 
.and Families, as if it were a thing hereditary ; alio according to their Ctmf>lextoMs, Con- 
ftitntions,3.nd Habits oi I', ody, xhcir <ta:ures,t\\c manner 3n<^ time oi their growth, in4 
the making and compofition of their Members. 

Inquire touching the length z.t\A jhortnefs of Life \r\ Aiett, accordinp to the timcsof 
their Nativity -, but fo, as you omit for the prelent all tyfjlrological obfervations, and the 
Figures at Heaven, under which they were born ; oncly infift upon the vulgar and 

C manifcft 

The Hi [lory of Life and Death. 



To the firfl 

nianifeflObfervations ; as whether they were bom in the Seventh, tiglith, Ninth, or 
Tenth Moneth ; alfo, whether by Night or by Day, and in what Moneth of the Year. 

Inquire touching the Length and Shortnefsof Ltfe in Men, according tothcir Fare, 
1)1(1, Government oi ihc'ir Life, Exenijes, and the hkc. For as for the y^/r, in which 
Men Hve and make their abode, wc account that proper to be inquired of in the above- 
faid Article, tduchingthc places of their Habitation. 

Inquire Jtouchingthe Lc/t^ifj^nd Slortnejs of Ltfe in Men, according to their ^/«- 
dies, thciv kverol Courfes of Life, ihc ^feSfionsofthcMnde, and divers Wui/^tw; befal- 

Inquire apart touching thofc '■J^edicines which are thought to prolong Life. 
Inquire touching the 5«^«-f and Pro^OTi?/c/'j of long andjhoii'.ife; not thofc which 
betoken Death at hand, (for they belong to an Hilary of Phyfick^) butthofe which arc 
fcen and may be obfervcd e venin Health, whether they be Phyfiognoniical figus, or any 

Hitherto have been propounded Inejuifitions touching Length and Sbortnefs of Life, 
befidcs the Tijtles of ^rt, and in aconfufcdmanncr ; now we think to add foiiic, which 
iTiall be more A,t-ltke, and tending to praftice, under the name of Intentions. Tiiofe 
Intentions are generally three ; As for the particular Dirtributions of them, wc will pro- 
pound them when wc come to the IncjHifition it felf. The three general Intentions arC, 
the Forhtddtngef ffafte and (/mfumption, the Perfe^ing of Reparation, and the Renewing 
of Oldnefs. 

Inquire touching thofe things which conferve and exempt the Body of Manfrom 
ArcfuUion and confamption, at leallwhich putoff andprotraftthe inclination thereunto. 
Inquire touching thofe things which pertain to the whole proccfs of Alimentation, 
(hy which the Body of Man is repaired) that it may be good, and with the beft im- 
provement. ^ ^ 

Inquire touching thofe things which purge out the<»W./^i?//f/-,andrupply with new; 
aj alfo which do Intenerateand Moiften thofe parts which are already dried andhardned. 
But becaufe it will be hard to know the Ways of Death, unlels we fearch out and 
difcover xh(^Seat,' ov Hottfe, or rather i>f« of Death, it will be convenient to make In- 
quifition of this thing ; yCt not of every kinde of Death, but of thofe Deaths which 
are caufed by want and indigence of NourilTiment, not by violence ; for they are thofe 
Deaths ontl'f which pertain to a decay of Nature, and meer old Age. 

Inquire touchmg the Point of Death, and the Porches of Death, leading thereun- 
to from all parts, fo as that Deathbe caufed by a decay of Nature, and not by Vio- 

Laftly, becaufcit is behovefultoknowtheCharafterand Form of Old Age, which 
will then beft be done, if you make a CUeRion of all the "Differences, both in the State 
andPunftionsof theBody, betwixt Youth and Old Age, that by them you may obfcrve 
what it is that produccth fuch manifold Effeiis; let not this Inquifition be omitted. 

Inquire diligently touching the "Differences in the State ol the Body and Faculties of 
the ■suinAe in routbmdOld/ige; and whether there be any that remain the iamc with- 
out alteration or abatement in Old Age. 

V\(atHre Dumbiej and notT>ur able. 

The HiBorjr. 

•Etals are of that long lafting , that Men cannot trace the beginnings of 
them , and when they do decay, they decay through Rtt^, not through per- 
foration into Air ; yet Go/^ decays neither way. 
-> " ,jm^ Qfiickcfilver, though it be an humid and fluid Body, and eahly made 

volatile by Fire; yet (as far as we have obferyed; by Age alone, without Fire, it neither 
wafleth norpathcreth Ruft. ^. ! 

Stones, efpeciallv the harder fort of them, and many other Fofliles, are oMong j 


The hiftory of Life and Death. 

I ing, and that though tncy be cxpofcd to the open air; much more if they be buried 
[ in the earth. Notwithfbiiding Stones gather a kind of Nitre, which is to them inftcad 
oi Rufl. Precious stones and Cryfljls exceed /I^«4//f in long lal ting ; but then they 
grow dimmer and Icfs Oricnc,it they be very old. 

It is obferved, that Stones lying towards the North do fooncr decay with age than 
thofe that he toward the South ; and that appc.irs manifeftly in I'yramidsanA Churches, 
and other ancient Bittldmqs : contrariwil'c, in Iron, that cxpofed to the South, gathers 
Ruji fooncr, and that to the North laterj as may be fccn in the //w/.^4rjof wuidows. 
And no marvel, feeing in ail putrcfaftion (as'^«/?is) Moifturehaftcns Dilfolutions; 
in all fimpic A refaction, DrincG. 

In ^cgetAbles, ( wc Ipcak oi fuch as are fell'd, not growing ) the Stocks or Bodies of 
harder Trees, and the Timber made of them, laft divers ages. But then there is diffe- 
rence in the bodies of Trees: fomc Trees arc in amanner fpongy,as the EU:r,m v\hich 
the pith in themidli is foft, and the outward part harder ; but in Timber- trees, as ihc 
Oak^, the inner part ( which they call /^f^rr o/O.i^) laltcth longer. 

Ihc Leaves, and Flowers, and Stalkj ofrUnts are but of iJiort laiting, but diflolvc into 
duft, unlefs they putrcfie : the Roots arc more durable. 

The Bones of living Creatures laft long, as we may fee it of mens bones in Charncl- 
houfcs .- Horns iMo laft very long; fo do ieeth, as it is fccn in Ivory, and the Sea.korfe 

«»</« alfo and S{ins endure very long, as is evident in old Farcbment-hoois : T^per 
likcwifc will laft many ages,though not fo long asT^rchment. 

Such things as have pajfed the Fire laft long, as G/afs and Brickj; likcwifc FUpjind 
Fruits that have piffed the Ftrt laft longer than Kaw : and that not oncly bccaufe the 
Baking iiuhc Fire torbids putrefaction; but alfo bccaufe the watry humour bein" drawn 
forth, the oily humour fupports it felt the longer. 

ffater of all Liquors is looneft drunk up by .:!ir, contrariwifc 0/7latcft ; which wc 
may fee not oncly in the Liquors themlclves, but in the Liquors mixt with other Bodies : 
for P.ipcr wet with vvater, and fo getting fomc degree of tranfparcncy, will foon after 
wax white, and lofe the tranfparcncy again,thevvatry vapour exhaling ; but oiled P^iper 
will keep the tranfparcncy long, the C/7not being apt to ctnalc ; And '.hereforc they 
that counterfeit mens hands, will lay the oiled paper upon the wriiiu^ thcy mean to 
counterfeit, and then aflay to draw the lines. 

Cf urns Ai oi them Ldvery long ; the like do a ax and Honeji, 

hutiheecjualoT H>iC'j:iali\ic ot things conduceth no lefs to long lafting or fhort lad- 
ing, than the things thcmftlvcs ; for limber, and Sto»ts,ind othiir Bodies, ftanding con- 
tinually in the r>ater, or continually in the air, laft longer than it thcy were fometimcs 
wet, fometimcs dry : and fo 5'/c«ff continue longer, if thcy be laid towards the fame 
coalt of Heaven in the Buildinj^ that they lay in the .Mine. The fame is oi PUnts ic- 
moveii,ifthcy becoafted juft as thcy were before. 


LEt this he laid for a Fouii(iation, vhich is mofffnre, Th/tt there it in every Tangible 
body a Spirit , or body Pncuniatical, enclofed and covered with the TangibU parrs ; 
^nd that from this Spirit is the beginning of all Diffolutson and Co"fumptitii, fo as 
the Antidote aaaihft them is the detaining of this Spirit 

rf)fadedtrto ways : either if the Spirit it felf be not too miveable or eager todepart ; 
if the external Air importune it not too much to come forth' So then, t:90 forts of 
■bjlances are durable. Hard Subftanccs, and Oily ; Hard Subftancc binds m tie 

Spirits clofe; Oi\\ partly entueth the Spirh to ^■i)', partly is of th 
not importuned by Air; for A\r is toWdtcr, andVl 

partly is of that nature that it is 
"^lainc roOil. yind 

...^.. — .., .,, — , , -J---J - — -_< 

teitching Nature Durable and not Durable in Bodies Inlninute, thus mMch. 


The Hijlorj. 

Erbs of the colder fort die yearly both in Root and Stalk; asLettice, Tur/lane; 
alfo P^yheat and all kind oi C'rn : yet there are fomc cold Herbs which will laft 

C 1 three 

T/^e Hi (lory of Life and T)eath. 





tl.rcc or four years ; as the FtoUt, StrAp>-birry, Burnet, Prim-rofi, :[nd Sorrel. ButSor*?* I 
and Euqlof, \\ hich fccm fo alike when they arc alive, differ in their deaths; for Boriue \ 
will Ijft but one year, Buglofs will laft more. 

But many lot itabs Iiear their age and years better; JHyj^op, Thyme, Savor j. Pot-mar^, Balm, tvormwood. Germander, Sage, and the like. Fennel dies yearly in the ftalk, 
buds again from the root .■ but / tdfe and Stveet-marjaram can better endure age than 
winter ; for being fet in a very warm place and wcl-tcnccdj they will live more than 
one year. It is known, thataknotof H^JJop twice a year (horn hath continued forty 

Eifjiesiud fhrHbs\\\e threcfcorc years, and fome double as much. A ftne may at- 
tain tj thrccfcore years, and continue fruitful in the old age. Rofc-mAry ucli placed 
will come alio to thrcefcorc years ; but white Thorn and ivy endure above an hundred 
years. As for the Bramble, tiic age thereof i^ not certainly known, bcc.infc bowin" 
the head to the ground it gets new roots, fo as you cannot diftinguilh the old from 
the new. 

Amongfl: great Trees the longcfl: livers arc the Oii.\, the Holm, ll'tld afy, the Elm, 
the Beech tree, ihc Chef-nut, the 'Tlar,e tree, FicHS Ruminnlis, the Lote tree, the nild- 
olive, the ralm-tree and the tj^ulberry tree. Of thcfc, fome have come to theaocof 
eight hundred years j but the leaft livers of them do attain to two hundred. 

But trees t derate, or that have fvveet woods, and Trees Rozennie, laft longer in their 
^"oods or Timber than thofe above- faid, but they arc not fo long-liv'd ; as the Cyprefs- 
tree,-J^tapk,Ftne,Box,Juniper, The Cedur beingborn out by the vaftnefs of his body, 
lives well- near as long as the former. 

The^jh, fertile and forward in bearing, reacheth to an hundred years and fomewhat 
better ; which alfo the Birch, (JMaple, and Sirvice.tree fomctimes do : but the 
Poplar, Lime-tree, nillow, and that vvhich they call the Sjcomere, and 11 alnut-tree, live 
not folonq. 

The nipple- tree, Pear-tree, Flam-tree, Pomegranate-tree, Cttron-trei, Medlr-tree, 
hlack^cherry- tree. Cherry-tree, may attain to Hfty or fixty years ; cfpecially if they be 
deanfedfrom the Mofs wherewith fome of them are doathed. 

Generally, grcatnefs of body in trees, if othcrthings be equal, hath fome congruity 
with length of hfe ; fo hath hardnefs of fubfiance : and trees bearing Maft or Nuts are 
commonly longer Hirers than trees bearing Fruit ov Serries: like wile trees putting forth 
their leaves late, and ihedding them late again, live longer than thofe that are early 
either in leaves or fruit ; thelikc is of ntld-trcesmcom^^rifon of Orch^irdtrees And 
laftly, in the fMnc kind, trees that bear a fowr fruit out-live thofe that bear a fireet 

%_y^H Obfervaiion. 

ARiftotle noted vtell the differenc